360 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE their own passionate heart into their matter and flood it with light; that at least is their intention. €Be ecstatic!' they cry; and the result is TLtzuschkunstJ* which expresses das rasende Leben, life in fevered haste to exhaust existence. Since, as Bergson teaches, only time that has lived has permanence, and since there is no life with sluggishness of heart,2 the expressionists live their life with a fiery heart full to overflowing; and their expression of this life is eem geballter Schrei\ a clenched cry of ecstasy, a spate of ideas too fierce and young for dignity, so rushing and rapid that they would be profaned by beauty of form - there can be no calm and patient shaping in the white heat of ecstasy. In short, the idea is to give the palpable essence of things, their qualities sharply intensified, not their appearance in reality. The expressionists cry for a more real reality; but to them reality is not the outer world, it is the inner world of thought and vision. Thought is real, for it exists. The momentary semblances of natur- alism are not real; what is real is not the image of time, but the very essence of it. The outer world presents itself through the eyes of the mind; but what the expressionists render is not reality as seen by eyes, but as seen, with the eyes as a gateway, by the mind. The expressionist creates his vision just as the composer creates his music: neither need be anything like anything ever heard or seen in nature; but they exist, for they are seen and heard. Art reproduces things seen, i.e. art is vision fixed on paper or in marble or in colours. But what is vision? The eye is an intermediary be- tween the outer world and the mind: the eye passively receives the vision of reality, but conveys this vision to the mind, which actively receives, i.e. transforms this reality - differently according to indi- viduality. There is an apparent distortion (the eye of the body cannot see all four sides of a cube at the same time, the eye of the mind can), but the image attempted - all representation in space of inner vision can only be approximate - is that of an instant- aneous conception inwardly visualized. In literature much of this expressionistic distortion might be traced back to the unanisme of Jules Remains, who (e.g.) visualized the morning debouchement at a city railway station 'as poured out of a bent full bottle's neck*, or said of a man and wife in bed (Parisian gourmands no doubt) that their bellies 'swell out towards each other like two clouds*. It is not far from this to Hanns Johst's description in Der Konig, 1 See pp. 94, 104, 307. 2 See p. 301.