404 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE respectable organ-builder in Hamburg, is that he is trying to pierce to the very roots of Freudian complexes; and if he is given credit for experimental psychiatry he at least deserves consideration by the side of Ernst Barlach. There is experimentation in his novel Perrudja (2 vols., 1929), a pioneer attempt in the manner of James Joyce's Ulysses., and still more in the trilogy of novels Fluss ohne Ufery written in the Danish island of Bornholm, where Jahnn had found asylum during the Hitler terror; he had a farm there, and bred horses. The outward structure is that of grand opera: Part i, Das Hofyschiff (1937) is the overture; Part II, Die Niederschrift des Gustav Anias Horn (Vol. I, 1949; Vol. II, 1950) is the body of the work; Part III, Epilog (1952) is the finale.1 The inner action runs on in themes, strophes, fugues, motifs, accords, rhythms. Music, Jahnn says, took its build-up from poetry; the novel is entitled to take back what music took. In Das Hofyschiffz three-master sails away on a mysterious voyage; the captain's daughter, Ellena, dis- appears mysteriously. All on board are in danger, for Unseen Powers are at the helm; this is life on the shoreless river. The crew mutiny; the ship is wrecked, and sinks into the deeps taking its mystery with it. These mysteries are revealed in Part II. Ellena has been murdered by one of the sailors, Tutein, who for twenty years is swept about the world in close intimacy with the girl's betrothed, Anias Horn. The narration of their experiences in the ports of South America, in the coast lands of Africa, and in the lovely regions of Norway wallows in atrocious perversions and vices, which rise continuously like islands from this shoreless river of life. But the magic of art and music begin to weave into the tale and in the Epilogue (the finale, a rondo, coro, minuetto) the sense and texture of the complex weft is disentangled, while prospects open out which reflect Jahnn's central vision as it pierces through the overhanging gloom to primeval causes, which, being in the blood, make evil urges innocent. Fluss ohne Ufer with its wide sweep must be ranged with those monumental novel trilogies of recent years which have opened out new vistas (pp. 308,355,369). The difficulty for the reader is that Jahnn's trio is fitted not merely to musical tech- nique but also to mathematical propositions. The physicist, Jahnn reminds us, proclaims that Time is an unknown dimension. What Time holds is Fate, and nothing is constant except Fate. And so Fate, being constant, cannot be changed by the Past into the 1 Jahnn's scheme may be based on Wagner's Ring.