THE DRAMA OF EXPRESSIONISM 405 Future. The Present does not exist except as an integral of Time. What Fluss obne Ufer describes is the inversion of Time. The dramatic work of FERDINAND BRUCKNER (1891-1958) - like Wildgans and Arnolt Bronnen, Viennese by birth - marks the beginning of the new movement known as die Neue Sach- lichkeit (p. 422)1; the term denotes an intention to get back to things as they are and to pathology that a physician might recog- nize as at least problematically possible. The writers of this cNew Factuality' or 'New Functionalism' do indeed aim at atomistic exactitude, but the reality which their psychic probing seeks may be trammelled in the inmost depths of consciousness. Sexual crises and perversions form the staple of Bruckner's Krankheit der Jugend (1926); in Die Verbrecher (1928) he lights up the misery of a block of flats which symbolize God's house of many chambers. His ex- perimenting interested London audiences when his Elisabeth von England (1930) was produced at the Cambridge Theatre in 1931; the love element is weak (the Essex-Elizabeth motif discussed by Lessing still baffles all who attempt it), and the documentation is no doubt that of Strachey, but the doubling of the action - one side of a cathedral in London and the other in Spain, with the action alternating or synchronizing, Protestants and Catholics praying to one (? ironic) God - had at least the effect of novelty. Of Bruckner's later plays Timon (1932) is gloomed by the pessi- mism of Shakespeare's Timon of Athens; Die Marquise von O. drama- tizes Kleist's Novelle; in Napoleon I (i93 6) the Emperor philanders with women who are intellectually his superiors; in Heroische Komodie (1938) Madame de Stael fights for freedom in love and elsewhere. His Pyrrhus und Andromache (1952) weds the matter of Euripides to the form of Racine; Fruchte des Nichts (produced 1952), which shows forth the hopelessness of youth at the end of the Second World War, completes a series united in the volume Jugend %weier Kriege (1947); here Krankheit der Jugend and Die Verbrecher are followed by Die Rassen (1933), the theme of which is the mental conflict of a student who loves a Jewish girL In Der KampfmitdemEhgel(1942) and Der Todeiner Puppe (1956) a chorus is introduced and there is some approach to T. S. Eliot's verse technique. 1 The term was first used by Carl Sternheim as the sub-title of his comedy Die Schuk von U^nach oder Neue Sachlicbkeit, but whether in the sense of approval or satire is not clear.