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The influence of the philosophers on the successive schools
has been indicated. The general line of development is that
naturalism, while influenced mainly in its social creed by
Marx and in its doctrine of milieu by Darwin, Taine, and Zola
(whose conception of milieu corresponds to Herder's conception
of Klima\ is in agreement with the relative positivism (relativer
Positivismus) of ERNST MACH (1838-1916) and RICHARD AVENARIUS
(1843-96); the philosophers of this school reject metaphysics and
cthe absolute' and accept only experience and the exact data of
science. The most passionate of the positivists was the blind Berlin
thinker EUGEN DUHRING (p. 102): his teaching in certain respects -
contempt of Christianity as Jewish slave morality - runs parallel
with that of Nietzsche, who stands midway between the positivists
and the philosophers acknowledged as guides by the expression-
ists. These recklessly take over Freud's psycho-analysis, which
supplants the matter-of-fact psychology of WILHELM WUNDT (1832-
1920) and probes 'Jos Jenseits der Seele\ 'das I*arapsychische\ the
subconscious and the irrational, and transforms biography and
the most advanced phases of the novel To Sigmund Freud poets
themselves are bundles of complexes; the Zurich school of psycho-
analysts, on the other hand, following their leader CARL GUSTAV
JUNG (1875- ) have some respect for poets and admit that in the
unconscious impulses of action there is a spiritual Urprin^ip as
well as sexual urge. Another philosopher who based his universe
on sexuality was OTTO WEININGER (1880-1903), a Viennese Jew
who went over to Christianity; man, he teaches, can only win
through to spiritual salvation by liberating himself from woman,
'the priestess of life', and the woman within himself. (He shot
himself.) 'Der nine Mann\ he says, 'ist das EbenUld Gottes, As abso-
luten Etwas, das Weib, auch das Weib im Manne, ist das Symbol des