(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
See other formats

Full text of "ModernGermanLiterature18801950"

442                  MODERN   GERMAN  LITERATURE

Niebfs.9 Weininger has glitter of style and dazzling paradoxes
(Geschkcht tmd Charakter, 1903; tfer die kt^ten Dinge, 1903).

The Freudian doctrine was countered by the philosophy of the
vitalists (die Vitali$ten\ Vitaliswttf—ljebenspbilosophie), whose sys-
tem, with its stressing of intuition as against experimental science,
arrives at much the same results as Bergson: their Lebensschmng-
kraft and Bergson's elan vital come to much the same thing. With
them there is a revival of metaphysics, although the leaders -

HERMANN COHEN (1842-1918), PAUL NATORP (1854-1924), EKNST

CASSIRER (1874-1945) - are keen mathematicians. GEORG SIMMEL
(1858-1918) stands out among the Gescbichfspbilosopben, and touches
literature closely by his contacts with Stefan George and Rilke;
his Berlin lectures on Stefan George in 1900 are historically im-
portant. Another bridge from philosophy to literature is provided
by the Gegenstandstheork of ALEXIUS VON MEINONG (1853-1921) and
fatphanowenoloffsche Methods of Max Scheler and Edmund Husserl.
MAX SCHELER (1875-1928) is no table for his revaluation of values:
he puts these in stages, with religious values above intellectual
values; for Rtdtur he substitutes 3!tildwig> and for him this means
character and 'integral humanism9* Very close to literature again is
WILHELM DILTHEY (1833-1911), the apostle of Geisteswissenscbaftw.
his Das Erlebnis und die Dichtmg (1906), with its interpretation of
poetry by the personal experience of the poet, has provided aca-
demic critics with a safe historical means of approach, while the
Freudian method has been applied more by brilliant journalists as
justification for their feats of intuition. Intuition is justified, too,
by EDMUND HUSSERL'S (*859-i938) method of 'phanomenohgische
"Rjeduktiori* by *reine Schtw*: what matters is not the 'hie etnunc Dasein
der Gegenstande* or their existmtia but their essential that is, not
Dasein but Wesen matters; this is the source of the 'wesenbaftel&nsf
of the expressionists and explains their iteration of the old mystic
exhortation: Menschy werde msmtluh! (p, 472). Expressionism and
New SaMichkeit are influenced by LEOPOLD £IEGLER?S (1881-)
Florentmische Introduktion %u timr Philosophic der Architektur und der
bildenden Kanste, in which the nature of space is interpreted, and by
WILHELM WORRINGER'S (1881- ) Abstraktion mdEinfuhlung (1908),
in which spiritual reality supplants impressionistic reality. The
modern conflict of spiritual values with the mechanisation of life
is the theme of WALTHER RATHENATJ (1867-1921); he protests
against the overlordship of machinerv. hut a wni>c that- fV>A tnorlii'tifi