PHILOSOPHERS AND SOPHISTS 443 though subordinated to mind, must keep its power; his doctrine is essentially one of mechanical production under the control of conscious mind.1 Man as the slave and ultimately the victim of machinery is the subject of Der Mensch und die Technik (1931) by OSWALD SPENGLER (1880-1936), who in his famous book Der Untergangdes Abendlandes (1918-22) had argued that the victory of the city means the ultim- ate extinction of civilization; this, he says, is simply a cake of dead custom plastered over the vital urges of culture and stifling them. He - a mathematician - studies the morphology of cultures as Goethe studied the morphology of plants; he denies that one cul- ture springs organically from another - Rome from Greece, etc. (though a new culture may finish off its fa9ade with stones from the one it succeeds), but declares that it is an independent organ- ism, which grows, unfolds its blossom of civilization, and must then by the very nature of a blossoming plant wither and die. The only remedy Spengler can find (Preussentum und So^ialismus> 1920) is in the fusion of Prussianism and Socialism; hence the saying that Spengler held Hitler over the baptismal font. I&Jahre derEnt- scheidung (1933), however (written just after the accession to power of the Nazis), he rejects the worship of racial purity and argues that the Jews, by reason of their vitality, should be absorbed by and form part of the mighty Faustian race which some day must settle accounts with the black and yellow races." What is needed now is 'heroic pessimism", the first task of which is to crush the proletariat. Post-War pessimism encouraged the vogue both of theosophy and mysticism. The head of the ' Anthroposophetf was RUDOLF STEINER (1861-1925), who founded the Goetheanum. Christian Morgenstern ended his mystic meanderings in this shallow. Wal- demar Bonsels weaves theosophy into his animal symbolism, and it provides GRAF HERMANN KEYSERLING (1880-1946), the cousin of Eduard von Keyserling, with an illusion of depth and an air of authority for the pretentious personal style of his Das Reisetagebuch eines Philosophen (1918) and Schopferische Erkenntnis (1923). There is more depth and genuine brilliance of style in the mysticism of MARTIN BUBER (1878- ): a Jew, he dreams a modern mysticism into the dogmatic clearness of Jewish religion; not medieval Ger- 1 ZurKritikderZeit (1912); ZurMechanikdes &&/« (1913); Von kommenden Dingen (1917); Wirtscbaft, Stoat md Gesellschaft (yth ed. 1925).