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446                  MODERN  GERMAN   LITERATURE

able to repress, and will say that the finest eloquence of the Nazi
period is in the protesting pamphlets of the Protestant and Cath-
olic clergy. It is significant that religious scholars such as THEODOR
HAECKER (i 879-1945) found a market for books (Satire uadPokmik,
1914-20; Christentum undKultttr, 1927) which have the traditional
conception of culture. Haecker, a Protestant who turned Catholic,
used Virgil (Vergil,, Vater des Abendhndesy 1931), that anima natura-
liter Christiana, to show the very nature of culture. In Was ist der
Mensch? (1933) he justified the Catholic faith and in Schopfer und
Scbopfimg (1934) the ways of God to men. In Stbonheit: tin Versuch
(1939) he seeks the laws of beauty and love. His notes written
down during the Nazi terror were published posthumously as
Tag- und Nachtbitiher (1947). His cultural philosophy is based on
Kierkegaard, whom he translated and edited.

There are diverse currents in the Protestant existentialism of
KARL BARTH (i886- ), who, influenced by Kierkegaard, is very
influential as a theologian; in England too he ranks with ALBERT
SCHWEITZER (1875- ) as an exponent of philosophical concepts as
they touch Protestant or Unitarian religion (Verfall und Wieder-
aufbauderKultur^ 1923; Ktiltur mdEthik^ 1923). His autobiograph-
ical works Zwischen Wasser ttnd Unpaid (36th thousand, 1926), in
which he records his experiences as a Unitarian missionary in
Africa, and Aus meimr Kindheit und Jugend (aoth thousand, 1926),
have been immensely popular. Existentialism or Lehensphilosophie
(p. 448) as the literary movement that succeeds expressionism
had its forerunner in RUDOLF KASSNER (1873- ), He was born in
Moravia, lived till 1938 in Vienna, and then settled in Switzerland.
A facile label for him is Dichter-Denker*, and his wide knowledge
of languages and literatures is some justification for this: he has
translated Plato's dialogues, Gogol, Puschkin, Tolstoy, Sterne (of
whom he is very fond), Cardinal Newman, and Andr<5 Gide. One
of his first books was Die Mystik> die Kunstkr und das Leben (1900),
now better known by its second title Englische Dickter (1920).
Above all he is an iconoclast: he angrily topples over the cherished
ideas and ideals of centuries, because, he asserts, they lead up to
the nihilism of our own days, and he is so frightened by the rush
to ruin of materialism that he sees safety only in being a Con-
servative (^Aus miner Erschrocfanheit bin icb konservativ*}. What he
fights for is the primacy of mind (das Prmat der Idee des Geisies)
and for Treiheit, die Idee der Ideen\ He claims to be> not a philo-