PHILOSOPHERS AND SOPHISTS 447 sopher (he detests the term), but a Pbysiognomiker, and he classes his system as Physiognomik. The meaning is that he takes into his vision all the things of the world, including man but with flora and fauna and all else equally graded as parts of a whole; in their outer appearances and in all he sees an inner and mystic meaning. Physiognomy in this sense replaces doctrine (Lehre). Like his con- temporaries he sees German 'physiognomy' as distinctive and markedly diiFerent from that of other nations; it is 'ein Ausdruck der deutschen Einsamkeit oder, da dieser Einsamkeit nichts ^Lomantisches mehr anhaftet^ der deutschen All-Einheit. Strange to say, though he is not a Christian, he accepts Christianity as a positive value, but the one philosophical system which he acknowledges as valid is exis- tentialism, and this no doubt because he feels himself akin to Pascal and Kierkegaard. He has a vast variety of interests, enriched as much by his travels as his reading; although he was crippled and had to be wheeled about in a chair he saw much of England, travelled in North Africa and India, and in 1912 in Russia. His works which have most influenced his contemporaries are Die Moral der Musik, 1906 and 1922; Melancholia. Erne Trilogie des Geistes, 1908 and 1953; Zahlund Gesicht, 1919 and 1925; Die Grundlagen der Physiognomik,, 1922 (secondedition VonderSignaturderDinge, 1951); Die Verwandlung. Physiognomische Studien, 1925; Versuch einer Physio- gnomik der Ideen.> 1953; Der Gottmensch. Gesprdch und Gleichnis, 1938. A good way of approach to this most difficult writer is by way of his autobiographical works: Buch der Erinnerung, 1938 and 1945; Die syveite Fahrt, 1946; and Umgang der ]ahrey 1949, which includes his Erinnerungen an England.