450 MODERN GERMAN LITERATURE (in intention) prove that the anti-poetical absurd pierces to Being in itself; 'things' are not merely sense-appearances but far more dream-appearances and mind-apperceptions; or in other words the poet's theme is the ultimate those > not the evanescent chose vue. One aspect or phase of Surrealism which is very much to the fore today, especially in the novel, is simultaneity (Doppelbodigkeit}. Man is made up of two entities: (i) his visible body, which makes contact with the world in space through the medium of his senses, and (2) an invisible mind which has no contact with space but is conscious of time. Actually the pedigree of Doppelbodigkeit flings back to Joyce's Ulysses. It is really a question of creation on two planes of consciousness (Gestaltung attf %tm Ebenen}. Man is con- scious of time past, present, and future; and in this sense of time the novelists here concerned nestle in varying degrees of close- ness to Proust.1 But the lighter variants take over the technique of Virginia Woolf as well as of Thomas Wolfe, Thornton Wilder, and Ernest Hemingway. There may be an existential contradiction between what is said and what is thought, and thus we have the two phases of Sagen und Meinen. There may also be an existential contradiction between what one does and what one feels (Tun und Empfinden}. What is essential is to reach the inner nature of the speaking character; the accepted term is er-mnern. The gospel text is Kierkegaard's: 'Die "Bemgung der TELntwicklunggeht nach innen, nicht nach aussen; die S^ene ist inmn^ nicht aussen^ ist erne Geisters^ene? One essential feature of this Doppelbodigkeit is das Diskontinuum\ the stoty or the poem is not built up systematically from A to Z, but leaps from phase to phase> as in Joyce's Ulysses, or follows Proust's principle of the flash-back to a previous phase (RJtckerinnerung), so that there is no continuity but instead there are chunks of life, so to speak, which the reader must piece together. In the lyric this often leads to what reads like an enumeration of glimpses of some- thing or other or a concatenation of jolted ejaculations (Funken- sprunge) leaping from the thing to the idea of the thing. There is no middle and (may be) no ending; all is in flux - as life is. We have Kierkegaard's Geisters^ene in the writings of FRANZ KAFKA (1883-1924). Historically - that is, by period and contacts - he belongs to expressionism. But, judged by content, he is close to Sartre and closer still to Kierkegaard, and it is mote fitting to 1 'I see the Past, Present and Future existing all at once before me/— Thomas Blake.