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480                   MODERN   GERMAN   LITERATURE

they are intellectuals, are poor creatures who need women as God
intended them to. This aspect, really, is what is new and daring
in these novels of Luisc Rinscr, which are not to be judged super-
ficially by their glaringly best-selling qualities.

Harrowing experiences of World War I come into the fiction of
EDGAR MA AS (1896- ); *Vcrdun-Maas* as he is known to distin-
guish him from his brother Joachim, Both were born in Hamburg
as sons of a merchant engaged in the export trade. Edgar, after
serving on the west front during the war, emigrated to America,
where he worked as manager of chemical factories in New York
and elsewhere. He won fame with his novel Vtrdun (1936), which
questions the time-worn ideology of Clod and Fatherland, Im Nebel
(kr Zett (1933), the theme of which is the after-war chaos, is a
sequel His brother JOACHIM MAAS (1901- } also emigrated in 1938
to America, where he was a university reader in German literature
before returning to Germany in 1951, He followed up his dramatic
poem johann Christian GSnther (1925) with his novel EohSme ohm
Mimi (1930), which handles the life of Bohemian circles in Berlin.
Der Widersacber (1932) is a novel of the after-the-war slump in
quarters round the docks in a northern port ~~ Hamburg is indi-
cated. Two of his works are devoted to the experiences of child-
hood; in the short story Korhe (1934) a schoolboy is thrashed by
his teacher,, while the novel Die twwwderbrinj!/iche Zelt (193 5) is built
up from the story of the author's own childhood in Hamburg. Em
Testament (1939) is a novel of family life which in Dostoieffsky's
way probes into the problems of good and evil In Das magische
Jahr (1945) too a lonely emigrant in America is filled with nostalgic
recollections of his youth in Hamburg as it was in happier days;
the reverse of the idyll is that once again there is a teacher who
thrashes his pupils. Sturmmher Morffn (1937) chronicles the life of
another Hamburg boy,, Fricdrich Ludwig Schroder (1744-1816),
who rose to be one of the great actors of his time, Der unermudliche
RdW/(i948) is the life-story of Carl Schurz, one of the revolution-
aries of 1848 who found asylum in America, rose to be a major-
general in the Civil War, and helped his friend Abraham Lincoln
to prepare his plans. Der Pall Gouffi (195 5) is a first-class Kriminal-
roman. Don Pedro undder Tmfel(i^4) & & lightly written romance
of a Spanish nobleman who flees from the inquisition and fights
with Ptearro in his campaign against the Incas*
Their experiences in World War II have been used by quite a