EXISTENTIALISM AND SURREALISM 485 a farmer of gentry class who comes into close contact with both James II and Monmouth. His estate is by name Jewel; and the assumption may be that with his sterling qualities he represents 'this precious stone set in the silver sea . . ., this England5. A king must have his queen; and there is a wealth of poetry dreamt into the depiction of Jane, whom Flint, after an incredible opening with a display of Fensterln in the Bavarian style, marries with yet more ancient English ceremonial, which is entertaining because it is on the face of it apocryphal. But woman is congenitally prone to give way physically to the gilt and glamour of royalty; Jane remains faithful, but there is throughout the thrill of the sensation that no woman, however devoted to her husband she may be, can refuse a king. In the later stages of the novel the Mermaid Tavern fills the scene; it is the favourite haunt of James II, a brothel to which he brings Monmouth when the rebellion has failed. From a window Tower Hill is seen; and Kneller, who has his abode in the tavern, is ordered to paint for the delectation of the king a portrait of Monmouth after the severed head has been stitched on to the trunk. Here, too, Daniel Defoe functions dangerously as court fool, and represents an intrusion of sound sense and poetic pathos into the filth and folly of the closing scenes. In the epilogue there is a reference to the present Earl of Dalkeith as the direct descendant of Monmouth, with the assumption that he narrowly missed the royal rights to which Monmouth was legitimately en- titled. There is still more of a welter of allegory in Bekner's last novel Der Safranfresser (1953); the background is the earthquake of Messina in December 1908. Hermann Hesse's utopistic Glasperlenspiel, Josef Winckler's Der Mliastische PUger^ug, Alfons Paquet's Die Prophesyiungen, and Franz WerfePs Stern der Ungeborenen are followed by Ernst Jiinger's Hdio- polis, the archtype of a series of novels which have for their pur- pose to interpret in symbol the events of our own time; they show as logically possible the existence of States which are the direct contrary of what we have experienced in the outcome of Wilhel- minismus and the nightmare of Nazism. If instead of such an ideal State they give, still in symbol, a close depiction of what we have experienced (as Stefan Andres does in Die Sintfluf) we may call them Utopias reversed. The Utopia proper generally follows the normal pattern of the genre by projecting its period into the far future (Zukunfts- und Staatsrowari) while the Utopia reversed, in-.