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49                    MOHKRN   Cil-.RMAN   LITHRATf'RE

(1937) is an attack on totalitarian tyranny; an innocent professor is
sent to a concentration camp, where he commits suicide. Dieewim
GefaSA/e (1919) and />/> Sfhurstmi UwdoM (1948) arc fiction on hack-
neyed lines, Brcntann counts also as a literary critic: Tagebuchmit
BSekrff (1945) and Sfwifolty (*947) fazl discursively with a wide
range of authors, German and foreign; in the first book there are
in particular excellent pen-pictures of Schopenhauer, Nietzsche,
Morikc, Stefan George, Kiikc, and Georg Heym, There is the same
imaginative interpretation in his August IF//&'//// Schhgel(i^} and
his Goethe tmd Mari&nm rm Wllkmr (1945). Sophie Charlotte und
Q&nckel#Mnn (^949) attempts history und centres round the rela-
tions with the queen of Danckcimann, the Chancellor of Frederickl
of Prussia, who is admirably and sympathetically portrayed while
literature and philosophy come in with Christian Thomasius and

Of the literary tmigrfa during the Hitler period quite a number
established themselves in the United States and published works
there; most of them eventually returned to the homeland, but
HERMANN KKSTEN (1900- } settled there and was naturalized. He
began with the nave! Josef suckt die \freiheit (1927) and the sequel
Br>/ aussthwifender Mgnscb (1929); in both he is already, what he
has been ever since, that fanatical fighter for morality in the good
old sense and for unvarnished truth which gives him a place in
his generation. The hero of Der Charlatan (1952:) is the type of
what he hates* Der Gtrechte (1954) with its version of the son-father
conflict was the first of his books to be written in America. The
first-fruits of his thorough-going studies of Spanish history were
Ferdinand md Isabella (1936), which brings in the discovery of
America, and M, derK$ni& (1950; first published 1937 as Philip II);
the latter lays bare the roots of that lust for unlimited power which
inevitably leads to pitiless tyranny- But the nearer purpose of the
book is to show the identity of this Spanish Staatmbsdutismus with
Wilhdminumus and Hitlerism and the utter contempt for humanity
of both, Kesten shows too that the stirrings of revolt are likely to
come to light in repressed youth; thus Philip comes into conflict
with his son Don Carlos, whom he hates. This blend of history
and fiction is one of quite a series of works which go to the great
epoch of Spanish history to make clear how fatal to ruler and ruled
this power erase is bound to be (pp. 496-7). These two novels
together with Um die 'Krone (1952) make up a Spanish trilogy. The