EXISTENTIALISM AND SURREALISM 491 Spanish scene shifts in Die Kinder von Guernica (1939) to the Basque country at the time of the Civil War. The political satire Die ZwiHinge von Nurnberg (1946) serves for bringing out the light and the dark sides of life in the thirties. Die fremden Cotter (1949) switches the study of tyrannical power from State to family, and here too youth rebels. A Jewish emigre in Nice, a merchant from Frankfurt, is sent by the Nazis to a concentration camp in France, while his two daughters are brought up as Catholics in an Italian convent; the elder daughter is cast off by her father because she refuses to return to the Jewish faith, but - amor vincit omnia - she falls in love with a freethinking Jew and listens to reason. The theme gives Kesten full scope for the qualities that mark him as a writer - he is satirical, cynical, cold-blooded, witty; his romans a Mse are stripped of sentiment; all his effort is, not to move the reader's feelings, but to show how wickedness callously twists the truth. But the main result is a display of verbal pyrotechnics, brilliant, but in the long run so much of the same sort that there is a risk of monotony. Copernicus und seine Welt (1948) is a bio- graphy which takes into its scope the other protagonists of truth - Savonarola, Luther, Giordano Bruno, Kepler, Newton - and lashes out at those in the opposite camp - the Church, the Inquisi- tion, superstition. Casanova (1952) is also biographical. Another refugee, ANNETTE KOLB (i 875- ), went to Paris in 193 3, where she was congenitally at home; indeed she returned to live there after her return from New York, where she found asylum while the Germans were in France. This was natural, for she is bilingual and her culture is half French; she is the daughter of a French piano virtuosa and a Munich architect in the royal service. Heredity and upbringing are the deciding factors in her work with its fine distinction and gentle irony. Herself of royal descent, she moved in the circles of the high aristocracy which she so easefully describes, not only of Munich - in her autobiographically tinged novel Konig Ludwig der Zweite und "Richard Wagner (1947)* w^ *ts picture of the great composer sinking into loneliness with his coldly calculating wife Cosima to face - but also of London, where the heroine of her first novel Das Exemplar (1913), whose heart to all appearances is closed to love, goes to find the man, now mar- ried, whom she once loved. Rilke was fascinated by the story, and Thomas Mann's valuation of the authoress emerges from the fact that she is known to be the Jeannette Schierl of his DoktorFaustus.