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546                   MODERN   GERMAN   LITERATURE

The general note of despair in his verse of the bomber years is
relieved by the upwelling thought: the mind still creates (Ich bin
genabrt. Ich Mr Gesan& At first glance the facture of Lehmann's
verse and stanzas is traditional, but the quickest reading brings
home to the reader that there is everywhere the new handling of
a radically new poet. Nor is there any change in form and texture
as new volumes appear - Der £rfm Co// (1942), Bnb$ckter Staub
(1946), Noch nlchtpfttnn (1950), ftberlelwidcr Tag (1954).

The most striking feature in the verse of KARL KROLOW (1915- )
is the poignancy in his pathos. The verse is for the most part so
smoothly fluent in its traditional cadences that at first contact he
gives the impression of running on in the old grooves, but closer
knowledge proves his ultra-modernity and - in some of his most
drastic poems on post-war aspects of today -- his rebellious rejec-
tion of time-consecrated lauds and soft emotional moods. He
acknowledges the influence on his work of Droste-Hulshoff; this
is less evident than that of Rilkc% Trakl, and Wilhelm Lehmann.
In the mass his verse is in the wake of Wilhelm Lehmann's cult of
the interrelation of man and nature, hut with surrealistic under-
tones and existential ideology. Thus S/cht finely features Dauer.
These existential ideas are by now commonplace, but in poetry
the idea is merely the starting-point; what mutters is the poem;
and in Krolow's handling the notion is the soul of the poem, not
its framework. Gtdicbte (2948) is a volume of selections with his
volumes Hocb&elQbttsgtttesijelMn (1945) and AttfErdm (1949) as the
staple. In lleimswhtmg (1949) there is sometimes a poignant per-
sonal note; SetbsthiMnis is Baudel&ircan - in the mesh of drunken
dream the flask in the poet's hand swells out to a vessel that sails
blessedly along under tropical heavens, on to Jamaica and the lips
of negresses at the rim of the Paradise beyond this world. There
is a ghostly thrill here and there; as in ''farsfflrtts Haas with its
daring images and its pectination of the coarsest possible words*
Such ultta-realism, howeverf is in stark contrast with the prevail-
ing feminine refinement and delicacy of image (an in Ffr mdnlKfai)*
Die Zeichen der Welt (1951) is confessedly coloured by KroloVs
contacts with Lorca, Supcrvidle, Kluard, and Auden.

FRIT& USINGBR (1895- ) began as a member of Dk Dathst$e,
a group of young revolutionary poets and artists grouped around
Joseph Wiirthj a master of hamtdpress printing m Darmstadt;
other members of the circle were Kasimir Edscbnidt and -