102 PATTERN-MAKING The Lathes.—These take the first place in all shops, since all the turning is done by the pattern-maker, who alone is competent to estimate matters relating to taper, jointing, loose pieces, and moulder's requirements generally. Lathes of from 6 in. to 8 in. centres are for common use. It is desirable to have one with a set-over headstock for taper-turning. The lathe has the ordinary tee-rest. The heads and rest are usually mounted on a wooden bed, but iron beds are common. Lathes of higher centres, say iz in., and having long beds are necessary in shops where pipe and column work is done, and these frequently have a sliding rest. Large face work, as that of fly-wheels, gear wheels, &c., is done on one of the long bed lathes, fitted with a headstock spindle extended at the rear to carry a large face plate, and having a floor rest there. It is better to have a face lathe with a deep head- stock bolted to a floor plate, which may also carry a loose poppet, and having a sliding rest on a stand mounted on a floor plate at the front. The chucks used are simple and few, comprising the fork, the bell, and the face plates of various diameters. The sheet anchor of the pattern-turner is the large assortment of wooden chucks, made and used for a variety of patterns, attached directly or through the medium of blocks, screwed on and recessed to receive patterns for rechucking instead of cutting into the solid plates. The Saws.—The circular and the band saws should form part of the equipment of every shop. Suitable sizes of circular saws are from 14 in. to 18 in. diameter when new. The table must have a fence for cutting strips to uniform widths, and a canting movement to the table is desirable for sawing lags to a bevel without waste of material. A rising and falling table is of value for rebating and shouldering. The band-sawing machine is indispensable for cutting curves, and a tilting table permits of cutting bevelled edges. The Planing Machines.—Though a number of small shops do not include these in their equipment, they are great time-savers. There are three chief designs, the first machines one surface only, the second machines parallel surfaces, and the third, by adjustments of the lower table, imparts taper. So much of this kind of work has to be done in the pattern-shop that the fully equipped machine soon recoups its outlay. The procedure is to plane one face of the stuff over the top table, taking care not to exercise too much pressure on the board, especially when it is thin and liable to spring and produce a winding surface. The trued face is then placed on the lower table, and carried along by the feed rollers, while the upper face is planed with the revolving cutters. A fence is fitted to the top table for use when the edges of boards are being planed. The Wood Trimmer or Mitre Cutter.—This machine is hand-operated through a lever, and saves a good deal of time otherwise spent in planing ends of shorter pieces, held in the vice or laid on the shooting board. The fences, two in number, for right- and left-hand cutting can be set to anj* angle. Some of these go on a bench, others on floor-stands. The knives in machines of different dimensions will take a good range of work, from. 7 in. long by 4 in. thick in the smallest, to about 18 in. by 5 in. in the largest.