SHOP ARRANGEMENTS AND ORGANIZATION 173 the more specialized the firm's manufacture becomes, the greater is the scope for the introduction of separation of tasks within the great subdivisions. Thus, different sets of men will be engaged on the making of large and of small cylinders, on pulleys, gear wheels, railway chairs, or any other articles that are produced regularly in large quantities. This becomes amplified in some machine work where the production of a complete mould is the combined result of the labours of several men, none of whom are moulders in the sense of being craftsmen. And while in the general class of foundries the work is mostly done by the day, in all specialized tasks payment by the piece is adopted. One foreman, with an assistant and a clerk, suffices for the supervision of all the departments, but each has generally a leading hand, who, by virtue of his experience and reliability, is placed in charge of it, directing the routine, while he himself is engaged in the general work of the department.