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Full text of "Musical Instruments"

Laser Harp 



Makej Projects 



Laser Harp 

Written By: Stephen Hobley 



TOOLS: 


PARTS: 


Alligator test leads (1) 


Arduino microcontroller (1) 


Computer (1) 


Laser pointer (6) 


Drill (1) 


DC power source, switched, 8V - 12V, 2 


Hack saw M) 


- 3 amps (1) 


Insulated wire (1) 


Adjustable voltaae requlator (1) 


MIDI utility software (1) 


7805 Voltaae Reaulator (1) 


Multimeter (1) 


LM324 quad op-amp chips (2) 


Software synthesizer (1) 


LED. Red (6) 


Solderinq Iron and rosin core solder. (1) 


Resistors. 1/4-watt: 220Q. 1.5kQ. 3.9kQ. 


• USB-MIDI interfaced) 
Vise and clamps (1) 
Wire cutters and strippers M) 


68kQ. 1MQ(6) 
Capacitors: 0.1 F (3) 
Capacitors: 300 F tantalum (6) 
Photocell. 100mW(6) 




• SharpGP2D12orGP2D120IRranqe 




sensors (6) 




* Tumbled rocks, translucent (6) 




Potentiometer. 100kQ (1) 




5-pin DIN (MIDI) connector (1) 




Blank circuit boards, dual mini and 



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Laser Harp 

medium (1) 

24-gauge hookup wire various colors (1) 

Heat-shrink tubing (1) 

8-pin headers (optional) (5) 

Aluminum tubes. 1/2" x 36" (2) 

Wood and screws 1/2" fiberboard (1) 

Black paint (1) 



SUMMARY 

One of my most vivid concert memories is seeing Jean Michel Jarre perform in 1986 at the 
city of Houston's 150th birthday celebration. He played music by breaking laser beams with 
his hands. The beams came out of the stage and went off into space, and for a long time I 
thought it was a fake — I couldn't understand how this instrument could work without any 
sensors above. That started me researching and tinkering, and 22 years later, I figured it all 
out and built my own. 

Now I have several versions of the laser harp. The one I perform with uses a powerful laser 
and a scanning mirror system, designed for professional lighting effects, that splits one 
beam into multiple beams that can fan out and move dramatically. This article describes a 
simpler harp I designed more recently, which uses inexpensive laser pointers and doesn't 
need the scanner. 

The harp works as a MIDI controller, so it doesn't make sound itself, but generates a stream 
of MIDI data to drive an audio synthesizer. Each beam strikes a photocell, and when the 
player's hand interrupts it, the sensor prompts an Arduino microcontroller to send a MIDI 
"Note On" message. Additionally, a range sensor reads the position of the hand, which 
spawns MIDI controller messages that change the sound's qualities. 

First I'll show how to make a single-beam laser theremin, which changes pitch with the 
position of your hand. Then we'll replicate the circuit and reprogram the Arduino to produce a 
multi-string harp, with each beam corresponding to a different note. The Arduino has 6 
analog inputs, so this harp is limited to 6 beams, but at the end of the article I'll suggest 
ways to expand it. 



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Laser Harp 



Step 1 — Build the Pieces 




• We'll build the main electronic 
components first and then put them 
together. We'll start with the 
common power supply, light 
detector circuit board, and MIDI 
output jack. Then we'll add 
photocells, range sensors, and 
lasers — 1 of each for the 
theremin, and 6 of each for the 
harp. 



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Laser Harp 

Step 2 — Power Supply 




• I built the power supply on a mini 
circuit board following the 
schematic . 

• A 7805 regulator steps down the 
8.5V from my camcorder charger 
to 5V for the range sensors. An 
adjustable voltage regulator lets 
you tune the power to the lasers to 
just above the detection threshold. 

• The Arduino gets 8.5V directly, 
since it has its own onboard 
voltage regulator. To suck up any 
power spikes, I added a 0.1 F 
"bypass cap" across each of the 3 
output voltages: 5V, variable, and 
8.5V. These capacitors are 
optional. 

• Finally, to neaten the connections 
out, I used two 8-pin headers for 
the outputs to the lasers and range 
sensors. 



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Laser Harp 



Step 3 — Detector Circuits 




• The photocells (aka light-dependent 
resistors or LDRs) are on their own 
little boards, across from the 
lasers. But I assembled the rest of 
the detector circuitry onto the 
larger circuit board. 

• The board needs to have 1 circuit 
for the theremin, or 6 circuits in 
parallel for the harp. Each of the 
two LM324 op-amp chips supports 
4 detector circuits, and I went 
ahead and created 8 circuits, even 
though the harp only needs 6. The 
68K and 100K resistors create a 
shared reference voltage, so we 
only need 1 of each. See the 
schematic online. 



Step 4— MIDI Jack 




• Wire the MIDI output jack by 
connecting pin 5 to the TX pin on 
the Arduino, pin 2 to circuit ground, 
and pin 4 through a 220Q resistor 
to +5V. (MIDI jack pins are 
numbered 3, 5, 2, 4, 1 , from left to 
right, facing the pins.) 

• The outermost pins, 1 and 3, are 
not used for MIDI. 



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Laser Harp 



Step 5 — Lasers and Photocells 




• The lasers connect in parallel to 
the variable voltage on one side 
and to ground on the other. I 
soldered the photocells to small 
pieces of pert board for easier 
mounting. 

• They connect in parallel to +5V on 
one side and to the + input pins of 
the op-amps on the other. 



Step 6 — Range Sensors 

• Anyone who has played with a touchless D-Beam control on a Roland synthesizer will 
recognize these sensors immediately. The GP2D12/GP2D120 range sensors fire a pulse 
of IR light and measure distance by triangulating on the reflection. 

• For musical applications, I've found that the output from these sensors can be noisy, due 
to the constantly flashing IR drawing a lot of current every 40ms. You can smooth the 
output by connecting a capacitor between voltage (pin 3) and ground (pin 2); I used some 
300 F tantalum caps. 

• You can also filter the signal with a dedicated filter circuit (see schematic online), or in the 
software, by averaging consecutive readings and using the average value. 



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Laser Harp 

Step 7 

• Before connecting the range sensors, I removed them from their plastic housings. They 
connect in parallel to +5V power, ground, and the Arduino's analog input pins 0-5. 

• The output from the range sensors is nonlinear, so the software converts output voltage 
into centimeters of distance using a simple equation, courtesy of Acroname Robotics . 

• For the GP2D12 sensor: Range [cm] = (6787 / (Voltage - 3)) - 4 

• And for the GP2D120: R = (2914 / (V + 5)) - 1 



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Laser Harp 



Step 8 — Laser Theremin 




• Here's an optical version of a 
theremin, with 1 laser beam 
controlling both Note On/Off and 
pitch. 

• Download the Arduino programming 
software from 

http://www.arduino.ee . Upload the 
program "MAKE_MIDI_TEST.pde" 
to your Arduino. (Included in this 
zip file .) This program lets the 
Arduino generate test MIDI 
messages. Set the baud rate of the 
Arduino to 31250. 

• Connect the MIDI jack to your 
computer with a USB-MIDI 
interface. Launch MIDI-OX (or 
equivalent software) and open that 
port. You should see Note On and 
Note Off messages in the MIDI 
inspector. If not, then test the +5V, 
ground, and TX pins for 
connectivity. 

• If the MIDI test is OK, upload the 
laser theremin program 
MAKE_THEREMIN.pde to the 
Arduino (also included in the zip file 
above). 



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• Take one of your laser pointers 
apart and measure the battery 
voltage. Adjust the variable 
regulator on your power supply 
board until its output matches this 
voltage. This lets you run the laser 
from your power supply board. One 
neat way to connect it is with 
alligator clips. 

• Now make the physical frame. I cut 
a long piece of scrap wood into 3 
pieces: to make a base, a laser 
holder, and a detector holder. Drill 
the laser holder piece for the laser 
to fit through horizontally, and drill 
a smaller perpendicular hole for a 
screw to hold down its power 
button. 

• Drill a hole through the detector 
holder where the laser will shine, 
tape the photosensor board to the 
outside with the sensor facing in, 
and glue a translucent tumbled 
rock over the hole in front. The 
rock diffuses the light, which helps 
the sensor see it. 



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Laser Harp 



Step 10 





"s^X * A. 1 1 



• Next, attach the range sensor to the laser. I found that it worked better mounted vertically 
than when it was horizontal. I think the IR beam was reflecting off the laser pointer's barrel 
and causing misreadings. Having a rangefinder too close to a wall can also diminish 
accuracy. 

• Connect the photosensor circuit's output from the op-amp to pin 2 on the Arduino and 
connect the rangefinder's output to Analog In 0. Connect your computer back to the MIDI 
out and run MIDI-OX. Switch everything on. 

• Adjust the pot on the detector board so that the LED just comes on. At this point, breaking 
the laser beam with your hand should switch it off, and MIDI-OX should show you Note 
On, Note Off, and Pitch Bend messages as you move your hand in the beam. 

• That's it. Swap MIDI-OX for a soft-synth, or plug the MIDI jack into a hardware 
synthesizer, and you're playing! 



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Laser Harp 



Step 11 — Laser Harp 




• Now we'll expand on the theremin 
idea and create a 6-beam laser 
harp. 

• Build the frame. I made a wooden 
base to hold the lasers, 
rangefinders, and circuitry. Two 
metal tubes at either end support a 
top tube, which has 6 holes drilled 
through its underside to expose the 
photosensors. Space the lasers at 
least 4" apart, or else cross-talk 
between the range sensors can 
throw off their readings. 

• Wire the other lasers and 
photosensor/detector/ rangef i nder 
loops in parallel with the first ones; 
see the schematic online. For 
neatness on the detector board, I 
used 8-pin headers for the 
photosensor and Arduino 
connections. Also check that the 
variable regulator can handle the 
current drawn by the lasers: 
multiply the lasers' amperage by 6, 
and confirm that it's below the 
voltage regulator's rated max 
current. To make sure, you can 
also measure the current that 
comes into the regulator. 



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Laser Harp 
Step 12 



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Laser Harp 




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• Instead of messing with alligator 
clips, I made connector plugs for 
the laser pointers. I cut a slot in the 
back of each with a Dremel tool, 
made a wood plug to fit into the 
barrel, and thumbtacked a wire to 
each end. Insert the plug, pass the 
wires through the slot, and screw 
on the back. The case contact in 
back will be ground. To keep the 
lasers switched on if the screws 
slip, wrap the barrels with electrical 
tape. 

• Connect the detector outputs from 
the op-amps to Arduino pins 2-7 
and connect the range sensor 
outputs to the Arduino's analog 
input pins 0-5. Adjust the 
potentiometer until all 6 LEDs come 
on. You should now be able to turn 
them off individually by breaking 
the 6 beams. If ambient light 
becomes a problem, cut rings of 
narrow PVC pipe, paint them black, 
and attach one around each 
detector. If the lasers just miss the 
photosensor holes, glue on tumbled 
rocks as diff users. 

• Upload the program 
MAKE_HARP1_CTRL.PDE to the 
Arduino, and start playing (program 
available in zip file download in 
Step 8). The software assigns the 
MIDI note numbers 60, 62, 64, 65, 
67, and 69 to the beams, but you 
can change this by editing the 

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Laser Harp 



notearray[ ] structure. The 
controller messages from the range 
sensors are sent as note 74. 

• With my synthesizer, this changes 
the filter sweep and creates a 
funky, retro synth sound. 

• You can also try 
MAKE_HARP1_VELPDE, a 
modified version of the code that 
maps your hand position to MIDI 
velocity, to mimic how hard you 
would strike a key on a keyboard 
(program available in zip file 
download in Step 8). 



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Laser Harp 



Step 13 




• You're not limited to just playing notes. Ableton Live software allows you to MIDI-trigger 
drum loops, sequences, and other musical events. It's not free, but you can download a 
demo version at http://www.ableton.com . 

• If you want to go crazy and add more beams, you'll need to expand the digital and analog 
inputs of the Arduino using a multiplexer. There are a couple of neat, off-the-shelf ways to 
do this. I'll mention two here, and you can find more at the Arduino Playground . 

• One approach is to use an analog multiplexer like the R4 AIN MIDIbox module, which is 
based on the 4051 chip (kit available from AVI Showtech, avishowtech.com). This will 
support 32 inputs, for 32 harp strings. 

• With some clever programming, you should be able to bypass the detector board and read 
the laser harp through the analog multiplexer. To do this, connect the photocell array's 
outputs to the multiplexer's inputs, feed the multiplexed output to the Arduino, and detect 
which beams are broken in your software. 

• You can also use a digital multiplexer like the R5 DIN Module, another MIDIbox kit from 
AVI Show- tech, which is based on the 74HC165 chip. With these, you can chain modules 
together to support an unlimited number of inputs. 

• If you want to tackle a fullsized scanning laser harp, visit my website, 
http://www.stephenhobley.com . 



This project first appeared in MAKE Volume 15 . page 64. 



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