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h^H-/.,/ //^ /yfj .^-/// j/..-^'-^ .'/'*/j', . * ^ 


O F T H E 





Variations for the Harp, Piano-Forte, Violin, or Flute. 


i^enmUion, anli €ngIpnion, 





?|ittorp of tJ)c 3um, anti IBntiDs^ 




MuHcal IiistiTHUcnts of the Aboriginal Britons, 





fN^ivc nf EEcnM.ii, ] .bn-l Jc^v J, Mni: iontthfl-.irc.) .^^ 




'' TVtt-v V 7Jc/jr/r/ ^*J*'*> Ddy^^ Slrik..^ ihf^ Kairpp wlaofc cchoc-n (hnSl 

PicrcL^ai^tl JhalLi: iKl' dLtLint LllLI ; 
V'ar along tliC wiiitling v;i\c 
Si' II J llie fiHunJ^^H tin cvc*-)'Rale 
^'\on^ Lhcbri^^ht Knirmfniic firirg 
Maaby atone ^fcf rftpCMtt brinfn 

All liour of t Line fu] f ?L L^f y L 

Lc]jlkIu ^^ AiJiaTLLuni: AnuL 

I.ONHON r TriKti^Ll Tiji- tlLL^ AuTSiOK. 9t il l ! Qffi 1 1 lii^tpfciiiFiiii^M J i'i n i ' i Pn i af 


L^^j^^r miL i f- ^ M [jm i T Tiii Mff U ii L JM i n ji eu- Mu l iiL 111 V^u iii> rt ii thrill tij n f j^ , . , xj ,^ 

^ Tl'J.H....\|uNo- 133^ i.iiJG<jLri,r>JN<;p'^^^tiCo. Wc;. it 7. in New IS^.r^J St^^^t = AtPxiaTOHi MuJa^ 

Shfu, No. UT, ill Uic iiiraniJ ; hp^lL ut CirtMtNTip anii Co. N^r 23^ i« (J(LCi[Hii<lL'- 




£^.f/' f//^ru^f/- ^^f/f/rf/^f.^ f/^Jt' ///2/ i7^//y4 ^^^^'>^ ' i^/^^'^>^^^ 

ff/X'/'fAivA ff ,iArrAr.j f^A Af/,r///'f/, //t //r/'f/^/ a//^A ///,fA///r//f*^/ _ 

' ^*>//vv //-^.y^/ //y/^r, ^^-/./^ //^ //'////yj ^/ /h^A:i rAfmfyA,a.iMr/r^ 

/^rrp./yr/A/<^',/<>/^r.,uA .^/ // Cmr//'/^.) ry a/u: .jJ^^/rd^rrHfA M^^f^fU' 

fA /fW /^/fArn'//^//^^/ /Ar// -^Af/Ar^ff /^'^/.'^u/^f /if /f^f*,H-n Mf>^r /r^fff/rAi Wf/fA /rr/^r 
tA^r/rr/ /f fHfrf/'A/i /A^f/ /ff/ff'r/' .^/Arfff///A/. fjA^- /iamf i'/ Mf ^ Aiffr<} //M> ^-v- 

-f^f^^ Ay^yLf/f^A/y //.,,A //ff/A Mr ^/^^yV.v ^//^ ->////// VaJ Q^r^jr^^^c^f 

-////// A' //^ //r/?/r Y' /Ar ' Ar///rr. /f^frA^A/^iA/Ai/y /^' A^ rc/n'/i^m 

t.JA^fMU €*/ Mr /f'AAf/r/M// ^r^//f/u.^iAf^A.t AmH^ ^/Am^ /Tr.^f^ff ^uArr , /// Mr 
fAn/ r//flAr,M.Mrrffr/A Mr A//a//^ r/' //rur M//A^/r//>f/^ /A^rr/Arrr/^u'r,.: ^W 
f'>/..W.v;.//././///////^-/// A/,y,,/ : A//^/y/,^.j zrMA^.rA .^rmr ff^/rj^r.fAz/i 
mArA/f^ /r AfMAAr /^AAArr, /r/irrA A/y.^ rrrrA/^r/^'j/^ Ar^f^urrMAr /f ^if/tc^trH, yhf^ 
H'AAAfAru/W A /'f^AM/ yr^M urur ff/./frrA^^/Ao/f Mr.^r rr.irraAA /vv/v^/>/>^ ^ 
jAuy/n/f// ,//f/oAiW?y/^ MAAr/ Aur/zrA A' f/r/i ji^ j^<^ur /^r/Y/AAA^r^ /v/^A 

" .Jlr/arMAjf /r/A/ rr/^AM ^^f'ifr- '7/fAyr// J/^r//^ ^^r/^ ArAsrff.u/r- 
^.srruMy A' 4rrr',^M Mr fArrA^r.,/ //AArlf ^^r^AA, r.^ ^r //rM/r ///y^f/ '^ -'' 
r//rA,/ ,f//frr/j,/rr^A A' Mr .iHAerr.^Aj rj///MMr ArAr/'r^A/rrr, rr/zM a ^r/rr> 
- fMA A / V ; i a^/r // /A/ y/rA//rr r/z/M^/^ / v/^ // ^^ ^^^ A // r^// rr . 

AJA/zA'i'rr Ar AAr ,;,,rn^.: ^ /Ar.'^ .///.v././ A^ .v../v//V^// rAAruv^ 
M^ ^r,/f,fA/^A/ff/ rr,^Au/rj f/ Mr Y/LrM^. M r/^MA .^rrrr /aj r/ ^yfrz/uy^r/Ap/ 
Mr. y.Mrr/j /^e,/r/wA<m r/.M/MAr.'rr r/^/r,'AfA/. /rr yr>frr ^A/^W^ 
/frL^H /ur ,uAAr/r/'ArrArff r//Ar. AA, f/AAAr .fA/rrr MA Arrtr^y^^' AA Ar. 

^ ._.M..A£A^'rrA/AMr..^M 

t^/Arw/iy^rrAMt Arrr/t/M 



r>/ ffr/ 

C u/// //////^v/^*>^ 






[ — ^9 

^AT^t^A/Y, the Bard — 

Of Eht BzLtk of /A^/4^ /Jvtj^^ff, byTrtllefin, 

^^^^Mv AT^t-dUmi or his Poffia c^Hcd ttic Orchird, *+— ^S 

Ktnjr ^r^iiM-^j Tomh difcotcrcJ rrnm u Dird's Soil^i — 36 

Cirutc? of Kin^ j&fiur t*^ itic Umverncy tf CambrLdgc, 37 

The thrct chLff PaTices of Kin^ ArthiiTj — 17 — Bo 

The Knljiirlll-CtiunrdEnr^ of Arihiir'B Cnurtp — 

Tile ff^cn^tnngucd Kni^laLs fif ActJuir'nCourrp 

The ihrefi undaunted Chiefs of liin^ Anhur'i Court, 

Thciliircc Free Gueftsof Kinjr A^rth^u'^s Courts — 

Tbc thpxt Coaapccrsnf Kang Aath^ir's Cuurt* ^- 

Of Arthur, anj two of his Knigks, ^--* — 

O} the two Bruilh Conquerors of France^ -*^ 

^Adfir^ the HypcHiorian^defrrLhcd ; yrho ii Tiiti to Jiiiise 

tjuj^hc Fyi fia^^i>r^,s the do^rinc pf fi'iinl'migrnuoiij 
jtmi'^ua ^rd <lif£0TC7cJ by MoJ^^ii&O^^ G^^t^Ji/^ 
The Afl:-of itic BriLJfh Prince 5^ — — 

^rmcfvl ^tt^jiw uTcd bj- [he jncirnt Bricons from the 

IlmigntLon of iht BritoUE to ..VjM*'j£d, — 

Anttquit^ o/tEhc HjLr,p^ ^ —^ n^^gi 

A l^rint <if two jiriar^JI^it Bn^dgcfi or Pjlzei of Hoaotir, — - 8g 
dCfiAitf^/HHrf^p — — — to<> 

^o/^j King pf tJie Ifitj^^ difguifcd ai a >finllrc]j procured 

adjniLt^UCCJata Kiug Athclllan^S C^mp^ — 9^ — ^j 

TLc ^rjTff^^oJr and thffir dclijFjit hi MuSScf — 97 

Anecdote of ^ir Ro^er it^iifhsr^r, hiiJ MjrJha] Bir^fr, r tj 

A curions Anecdote Ot yfrnjcjJZJtfjTr-r/j :i 'J'rDubjdyurj 52 

Tbe Lhrcc AniLnali w^hofc foot i-& as v^EumbEe -a\ tiwir 

whole Bod;^^ — ^^ — So 

^r j^-tr^ u£hat or Armt^ruaj — — 1 


.BilfEyvryL^, King of BriEainpcaElcJ ihcGi^d of MndCj 1 — ^Ch 
A Lift of the qncicnt Baids itnj HlftorijJir, fltcir WoiIze, ^nd 

'when they rJourifhdlj J3 — ^4— 15 — 16 — ^9 to 53 — S7 — SB 
The Court Bu-d or LatircaEn the dgiilhiOLTictrurLtitK-ing^ 27 
Of the Pffi^^tLi C^idJi or Chief B^rd cif AprovitKCp — 37 
The Fide for'jn Injury done to a Bard^iuthcrcigiiofHou'cEj ijj 
Xdici of Birdifin^ ^ --^ cj^^O^Si 

Lawi to reform AKafet ^naock^ the I!:irJ5, ^^ — i^"? ■ 

Tht Bardic Prof^ffioo divided into three Grand Orders* 23 
Heroic A£|;3oa» uEehrated by tbe D;^rds m\d ac&ompi^ 

nifld on the H^rp* — — 3 — j^ 

PrivilegCE of tlic Auecent B:irdSp — 27 — 18— ElJ 

After [he Di^oliiitioih of iEbc PrEnccly GHvernm-tnt of 

W^lkff tiae JJ^rd* were reditccj to tn]|j|^y their fiACn:d 

Art in Obfc^ritrand Sr^rrowj — 59 — 59—10^ 

The B^rd^ before And af^ir GittEc^ pcrfc^rmcd on hi» 

Harp the MMOrciui S^n^ *f /iriimtSf — 3"'! 

A BiirJ obuined hi»prr^jiaiiacj!hGc iiy MgHtd AndFoeti- I 

cal Coatcflij .« «. ^- ^T~~jl 

Rcquif^ui Lo iTtfcomc agT.idi]^tcd B^dj ETCh^ir Bard, 30— J I 
Vinoui ^)rderj of Bardi iutha time DiGn^JJ^it C^t^mt 3.9 — y 
kv^cLueft, fl]^ Uf^nationi iifthe Bj^djp ,-^ tj — $1! 

A Bard re^^dlved :& trebJc Kcwaj^d^ ^^ ji 

ThcInHlmtvttof the B^rdk^ -^ *« sl^ &c 

Of iJuiiicnt ilArdvi ftndfrluiri'CL^nii -^ — 37'3^ 

Tbc CoudLitutioiul flr^^^n ^f qhc Birdf bfcamc 4m^^ 

««bBd i^ fiJu »ig4 «f £li;C4hcLk ^ 4 

£l/ffM%-^fi, or C-nngrefs oF the Eardi» m ite retjjn of 

Cadw^lndcr, ftCi ^^^ ^ s5^tt 

B^rds^ MuHcaansj aud other Votvici of the Druidlea^ 

Ce rem nni'CS, wore wreathe of 0.<Ec^ — S'-^^'? 

jThc Eirdic Regjiia, or the Silver Harp, Lc, ^^^4*j_p^_s^ 
'The Chjraflerof a Drucdtc Baril, — j_jB— 3a— jii 
C=E?fli:iUlliaefc or the colour of tiie Bardie Aohe, 9**t> 

Oi the Bardi, lifter lofin^ their fjeerdot.i] eh^fiillflri — 9 
TJK ihrec Pn?f:i^iw /nj^ui^tit^jf i^t B^rdt of Qni^m^ — jj 

The three PriftcipaE Bitrds of BritaJn^ — 10 

Thi: three blcM^Lty-fpear'd BjrJtof BritaiHf - lo 

Of Che three Eufign B^irJi, .i-, _ gj 

Of the three prjvilegcd Perfons who frequented Pataoea, fla 

The three Duciea of a Bard* — n 2i 

The thate MernQri^l^ of the Bards^ ^^ 56—8 E 

The Etymolojiy of fldP^i/^ — ^^ ^-»US 

The Mair_-Lcre of [ht Bards^ — ^g 

^fu Ileal iinJPuecirjI Contracts of the fiords, iG - 17— i^-j^^ 

MiJfi!, or thi Service Book of Bart^orj — ^^ 

Kjpj/j^flj on the Grsiic BcJl lat Chnft Church, OLfoni, 77 

Oftlie fatter Mcctlngaofthff Biirdsj 5ic. 6a 

Bevem^ei of the Aiirlent Britonsp i^^ ^ ji 

Coins of _Z7fid.//H^/^H Bt^ftuJ, &c. ->i— g 

-BjjTfcfr *'j 6'flfJ Unjrcttiiyfoiindlcd hy King Luiiyf^ ■ 

i^fii jUflrraTp rinc ^sf the pEdcft ^iltoricLit Fr^^ment} 

refpe^iing liiaTh ^^ .» ' 5 

Kinj* -Bf/tjft iJtftriifltiV Hjrp* — .^^ m 

TJie l^eiS Hjirp, ^ ^h^. j^^ 

^/fjA^fri oi Cjjiv/a eft;,-ih;i(!L^diiCode of L^'Wi^ *— - 2S 

Siig^fi-pei uicd by the Britaais at a very e;trJyperLodf ] 16 — ttj 
fT^rYj SotH/ff or BugEe HorOp — ^ ^ 27^117 

The BLlgTe Horn aiacirnt[y an ecjunl ci^fraataOllp both 

to esCBTC Jrieroifm, auJ as a tA^.ai Cup^ [iS - Jtl 

The E^nrn of tJie ESngEe, tipt with fi] vert uftfJ for 

drinkinjT ^imongthe Ciatdsr — ^ Jij 

Bj':iv:en-hori3bfOLii)d itl Ire tan J, -^ ^^ j^ | 

I'he ^r^/w^p a Coromant^tf Mufac:!! I]][lrurT^enrr ij^ 

BiirE^aVlUcOde on SthCe^^iha's -L^ay, which ■dmirabEy 

jtd;hp[cdtu t]]C er^aEkinttch oJd Bn^Eith anltnirnents \ vj£» 

the ^a[i^bo:C| JiiWi-JijirpH Marrow-lones and Cleavers , 

tlac HtirdyGtirdy^ Sic- "^^ ic? — ifc, 

A/ffli fiT-ft builC the Tower of London, and Belh/^ gate, — i 
E'he B. It tie of (JwmjifrJiiTijerci'ibcdl by Tjliefin, — ao 

The timt ol d^ra ol the Biird^^ or Muticil Clrcmt^ 13—57—^6 
TEie variDUS Degrees nf Burdsp and Miifidjin& iuthc latter 

ccncuricsi — ' ' — — 8j^B4— 8; 

BiJJ Cit^farff or tht Gruve of KlUhartf — 75 



— * 

The C^mryy ar Wc](h, dcfccndauti of G^mr^ 

Co^u uf Arm) \a uic amt^iag th« Btitoiii from the 

renj^Jtc'l pcrlodj ^ -^ IQ^^ 

yu^riuj CrV/di' ti^bic^rcpuUeJ from firitaint «» 4f 

Khji^ Cif^^i2iii/^''i B^^nquctj — , ^^ 6 

Ot Carailasiiif CjtiViijfWf Cdnittr^^ BfaJuJt fiCu — t 

KiEi£ Cdf/Wd.^r prelldcd iri thq Coiigrcifk ot die B.Ltdj* J|6 

Amrk:dotc OE y/*rj;i ^/^vj^aT ^>qtp0«/j *- f> 

Cua^^rcii of ^df-^^ Jield ta L'iif rw/f in ^he ei^liTi af £Uubfltli» ^4 
£rdj-d^4^i ^ LlAU4:»4rv44 ci^le£t*d the AcVh k/l UicBtitnlh Pnn^eit 1^ 




Ci™ f»n,.«=jtatl.= ch,.f York br King Anhur. 9 , Ej^^dM ^ C.^r^fi sf .U B^d. h.lj trl™ui 1, ,J'P 

0?uf 2; ftr^rPCcJ C^.&. or R=bect. - "(S fi^.-^-^.^-n,. .«. wh.r. held. *c. ^ ^, ^^^ 

C:^^^. m.d (-W-J^a- «kbr.«d H.rp.r.. and C^mpoftri E]L..!, 7. ^ . T t. ^ ^ T +^6 

V Wtirti Mullc. - - ^5-48 A burrmnns ft^r an ^i^.^o/, tf» all Profeffor, of Penl^ 

tr.urr.n«int, or harmony k«owt. to the Ancient Bnton* and Munc by th. -Lithorit^ nf King Het.rj the vm^i, ^, 

brmrtoCijld-. - =9 .^-jJ^ifi-lOJ ^-/^fliW j^r ilff/, nr ^rcmporc iJunz^i an the K,ghliny4f. 

ti.c t.rm C.M, (or ion^ ?n pirtv,) =ipp«irs inthc, Siith ^-.h w.rc the Jn.iL of a PacilcJ Conteft. 

TheXTp^rpcE..! Choir, of Brii.S«, -^ nl Of th« three Enfrgn B.rd^ 

CWr, or CJrcuk Sr^ngftcr, :itid hU r,cc«pHEion, :JJ-Bl ^^ Ele^y iticOni.....r.oraLio« of Oi,^ and Twenty Muficiac, 

<7.>™o»tl.e B^irds. or Mufitil Circuit; - afi-3J-86 and Poet*, and foretelling the decline of Mufic at»I 

Q^aV or the Butt of the CUr. -. , ^*i ^"'''^ '" ^*'"' ~ 

A Lornini t5onfr , P^is, Ac ; ihe CornJfh be^W to tdfe Th^: Enent Bc^ifc of Nflrth Walct, 

tficir C>lt[c din!cft irt [hf rcfg" of Elf? ibeih, — ^9 J-Jj/h^ the PiTipUec. thoLi^ht Mufic neccffiry to nciie him 

C^ i't^n^t — — 37— 117 CO a fii difi^fition for rcMiTing the impreffion of the 

Tht Ciirtnr.*5 SonfT t" Miivio^yA^. — ■ ^7 ^P"J^ ff God, 




Cro/f^ PtFjjt^'sa Me.-Jmicthfhlrc. defcrfhed, ^ 

7B i£'fl^{]'fi/<iw^ or Poctjcrtl BIchToiijb, .ind Staiiias, 

Claidfus Phirfj>F. the H^riicr ; hi^ l:f.i[a]>h by Dr. Jntnfon, To Epijrjm en tlic Ten ComTnandmmti, 


A ChmerBr:ifired ta the Kin}» f^f the Mh^rett, — 
The Cfiargc to rhc Min^refs. which w:is delivered [31 the 
Mufie Court nf the H mi our [^1 Pttb^fiy, 109— ; lO - I II— Ji» 

7< 7S-7C-7?JI 
- fit 


A beauLifu! -Ert^/j?fl upon a. WojnAn'i Kifa, 

A rcmjrt;,d>lc Engiyji on chc fdEhfuJ Greyhound of Pn'flce 

The tlirtf Ttrrefitlibk Chiefs of Rrit-i^n, — 

The three Undaunted Chiefs of Kinj; Arthur's Cuurtj 
Three thing* bctcm^lng to Compfifitlon* — 

Britifh Co[ni»aEiid Iron Rln^^ of aeertJiii welj^ht, pnnrto 

ihci'-mterenrirrc witli [fiB Romsms. (And, Jce fai'thcr 

in Birlofr't tiSijuillfi of Cofa-waUf ChiiphXlL p 3j8p 

Stc- undpfatf XXJH f^'cond cJition ?. 
CJtrlLli:Lnir;]r iiitroduced trery early among the Aboriginal 

BritnilS, ■ *— ^ Jl— 79- 

BrJtilh Ci^r(rv Hiln by EtlieliTcdp — 

Of the Horn given by Kmg C;iniite to tlie Pvfy f mify. 

] J 
1 1 


E.nn Mallanj HLirpcf t a Queen Anne, and Pcrfbrmer 

on tht; H.irp, in the tholrof WeHniinflcr Abbey, — .- 
The Seven Excellences whfch a nuji ought to polTefs, — 8* 
ETTteinporc Effnfidns, or PfusWan, — _ 60—^1 

King il'waril'i IlLirpcr faved his life from :ijr,iiffinitionj — «! 
Edw;ird Lhc FIj It fill J in h-iTc deflroyed the WelOi Bards, 3} 

8 Oj the Father cfEngllfh Poetrjp 16— ico 

rhe Krrors of tht Prcfs at the bott«Tm of page — itt 

Extcmport conipLtficioiu of the Birdi for the Ciuiri 76— 4J 

^ F 

= 1 The three HtinOiirablc Feifls of BritiiiJ^ 



A Sc>ML:ii;enq ol M^l^^n tolivoi.r the Poets ar ^ Coj.uft, 16 ;. j | he Fine for rtrli^ing a flard. or Hirper, 

D OlTreckJed taccs, — ^ 

Tombof the Eard /3irfly/A/ /?j/fl (ff//;>fli^/ii^, fcicinL' page rfi ■^'i'lc iE;r*'e Fiimily Beniutlesj — - 

The three Order* of tii;: Dmlds^ —> 

Druidic^ Verfes, ' — 

Dmldlcal Miiinis i Laws, Ttmplesj &c, 5_fi j ^ „ 

Druids and Bards, the Fahers oE Si;ieuce, s^^—ft 

Druldelfcsj — — _ ^__^ 

Druidlfnn orifjinated in Brir jin^ -^ 

Bruids and B4rds fuppofed to be the firft FramtrsofLr 

inBriubu _ _ r,KM7^ 

The Et> mology of /Jjruufi/^, or DrtilJ, ic. 
Dtfclples of the Druids (bdied tiwcnty years, 
TranfiTiifiration of the SouJ^ « 'rcnet of the Dmids 
The Dcefsofthe Druads, ^ _ 

Druids and Sards rcfume their Funflions, «, - 

The Druids look refuge in Ireland, flar^ffeyj the Ifle 
ofMan, tfz, — 

The Eards and Druidi had ,n eiiraordinary veneration 
lur the nitn](jer Ibret, — 

- to 



3- St 


— ' 10; 


iJjiBP^ira/ JlWfflirJ, t[ie flr:l Monarch whr. conftituted ijtws 
infiiritain, — 

Thedifferent dctjrees of P^rfoni among the Andent Britcris, r, 
St. ^T^jJoii, accomplifhed in M^fit : Hi. lUrp w*,ald 
without ihe interpofition of any Tif.hlckand. pour out 
tile mnMirmodDui Soujidj, _ . 

TheDrudT - ^ _ 

Of D^^yU ^ Gmyiffm, iht B«rd, _ . ,_ ' ' ^,ddaUO«ll,.-<c.^^^^^^ 

Of the Dut-kitg {.luurj at l^tlgtUsu, _ \_ 

Gm.^//f}^ah Li'iVfljitijt Or Galgicus Res, — ^ | 

Gt'/aij iir ^'>e Grf.iL ihi- holy botle^mn of Le^ciadtj ^ — If 
CBralJie^ CLasi^brcnfLs's account of Wi.]lli Mq(1c> aod 

Miificiiiii^^ — ■ -"^ |4 — ^35"^ 

Sir Join Gotwi-j of Glamor BHnAirCi tic Father of 

En-glith Poetry, * i6— m 

The tMiJdcih ri^c of Welfb Pnftry, ^ 'I^JJ-^J* 

The t]irec pnns irv rcrjuiiLt^s of G^n^ftp — il 

CJiT^'iJi/ t^i Co^aWf crtuteJ l^^w^ to rcfi>fm AbuTes jmrag 

di(^ Ij^rdsp — - --^^ aft— 19-«|| 

)oD:itbnsi :mil PrivHfges iippomted b]r tKe ftucute nf 

PrFuct Gri^Jii ^ t'^i^D to bcgivtQ to all the Bn/di 

smd MitfacaiiSi »— — fl 

The Fnor and twenty ancieni Gjinti of ite Welflii — jt 
[he HorDof ^ir AVm Cr¥^JJf of P^nrhjiu ^ I5— !*• 
The Gcdt^iimf iin U^tok Fu«jjji by AiLcurin ^ 'T 


'TiflnricaK or Antiqu;Lriaii B^rili, — lo— ^j-tj i* 
\ic^ri DiL\ LdWAi ' ■ ' -^ ' f 

in Aficichi Heroic Focfu* — ^ ■7^'**' 

The H,iirp» ilic moa Ancrfnt (ifal! Mdfical Pniimnwiiu. flo- 9i 
r^e H-irji louUy Jiffficut from ^he Gflcijiu Af^ ~ *'!>"9* 
rhi: ten UiiMs^eJ Hirp nf Dtvid ^j^% piMdt of ^«44rp f 

A-ncicthtly jmoaig Lhc W^llK^h^ ''^ P wjij ttnc ol ihi 
iuJkfiviifiiblf iictiiNhi^liihiihtiii^ fi>r .< Gi^iAtl<rn>Ui "^ ^ 






Thf iTirtc L.BTi. fi.l Hir[it fl^ the WcTth, . '^ g^ 

*fht: PrivilcgfH nf fl Bjnij "'■r Harp^f^ .-- 3^ — 38—94 

FtttiilIc HcrfVirniennn r]\c Hji-p ^imonj tlic Aniicot Wc](h^ Of 

Tiic H irp (f Holy JVi^fJjrEi'/, _* ^5 

Pancgyri. f nn tbc H.ij-p by SjicrcJ WrEtcj Bj Sardf^ 

smd Pfrft^^ ' -' — 99— EoD-^r^l 

A lif! nrPcwinE writTrn tofoE'tic ;i Hitrp^, -™ i^i 

Of tKc hair-ilniaj|i, and Pi><;m on tfic Le^tlncrn I 

Harp, 1 . 29 — 33 — iDi 

Piogiririfc TniprfiTrfncntSp flTlJ CC^^rpafs of t^e Wl-iIIi 
Harp^H \'ix. ihc H^trp w-ici> » fingic rnw^F El d^-iiblc 
to\?i and ;i Erippl^ ^ovr^ nf ri^riii^a^ ^^_ 10^^I'^4 

HintiiMlyinalf probnibilirywa* fir ft played rMii tljc H^irp, ■^^--loj 
T^c Harpfirhord firt^ (iraj>lnatcid from the Hjrpi 97—1^4 

The H.irp the Armc^tiji] Ellfi^n nl Ireland^ — grt 

AnckriEly the Jc.iJk^insfhad not the Knirpt » m 

When ihc Harp was tiril int^^'idLtced Nlto Ita1y> it 
contained three O^iivcFp ntnd aT-erwards ^ccjuircd 
tv.-o rows offtrin^r^ ^ 

Tfit H.irp fninner]^ in nfc among the Seo^^p where 
thci-e ii la Bardic VcAi^'c TliJE rrrriainmj[, 

7^m rtS: /pflcrffl^j arCQ«nC of tlac Harpj 

Zi i/i^ iff /** //tfj^H ■ 

The ^Cyiric-Jnjry ij-f 7> J^, ot M^rp* 
The PfJ^^l f/arfi, 

T3k ^f'^.TJfl H,Erpp 

Of c]]i: iiffhn Hitrpj — 

The SclJ H.irpi 

— SS-9f^ 
















The ].iw\ Marpj trronCDuOy termed Jcw's-Hirp^ 

H IJ rd Y G ■'^it Til V , -" ^ ' — 

Heiiry ilni t'liili't Cr^md CoronMEEOHi ~— 

Tic S its Hifi^F J probably H liilil tlr^t iKr Hatpi mCir IcLbcrSj 

prior iti iheir arri^'sl iii. Br5ht5n, — 7—8—10* 

HirLu, xhQ \>rh)kiny, Horn nf Owcjn CyT<:i>iQ3^ ■ — iiiE^&;c 
Three bocinl titirns alloLiedfot the life of the King,. — ■ 1 ij 

Tht Hr>rn of Si. PjtmW ^ J 11 

The Bn£!c Horn,^ ' — Izo 

A new ^^,1 of UriliHl H:.LriTinny^ — — ;j 

A rem:irk:cHc Account ni /fj^fA Lkv^d Cyi^a^Ij Lhc P-iKt 

and W.jFiir-r, — — » ^^ — ^ 7S 

A Huntfr'i Hur]] fuppol^d t J hnivc l>mi ;jivsn by Jnlin 

of Craunc:^ Dokc of LsncaH^rp lO lElu Edd^C^itor an J 

Coroaitrof ihc Hc-n^p^^tif Tlibiiryj 121 

According; ^^> ihe v\J Wtlldi Mimtinj; Law5p every pcrfcifl 

that carried ?i Horal U';i%Hirdigcd to tnnw tlic Nine ChAfet, S |8 
StanziS on J Pjt^k of tlotinJsj — 74^77 

Ot^lhc /ri/ffr HcTFli — ' ' in 

The chfr-r Onldcn-rnbcd HcriiSdsof Dntafrt, — 10 

The three War-ronabed JIlTOCS of BntitUi, |3 

The privilege of nmndinn the Trumpet among the 

f^ebrcwA W4& Tcferved to the Piicfls unEyj — ■* ISI»&c. 

The Hjrp lo^alLjr Jjil'erellil frthjiitbc CrfCJiirj Lyra, — - gn- 

iiiifi'^ hr^^'iribr nnd Tf- Jtdre fVf'J', fuppofcd to bnvc b«ii 

DniiiJip ^^ ~* "" 

Tbc Holv McTi uf tj'cl^Lfii ii3u:k:nJ]r aniu&d thcnif^'LyCi III 

pL^ingon the H.fcipp ^ 

1^ Jjui-u Stu^rLf &i<^^ ^' ScoiluDd^ icbe Hi ft nf tbAt nii^m^p) 

cinlifcd [he SciOlcli niiitian* luhd Wits fta mdniirable 
t ^•nfictiiiii idEid perfodni'Cr on Uw Hup* ^'- 




^ UieitPtjtioji ojj tJj4 Mij^eiU IttOfumcuu of tbj 

Alicngmtil&^iJiai^or WiUhp — - flri^i tft III 

IiDfT.vj4tL«i»itid DuuiJbLi U till Biixdij i7'iS-^3j"i<i- lb 


A Prmr, cirTrxspbj, oTf^m^c of chc W«.][h Mufieal lnf!ni- 
mCLilrs a ^c the Trifift Jfatf, the tV^jfi^ ch^ Cr^flf Tri- 
tA^. the ^/ijflrn, the lti»,:le Horti, ^^nJ the Tabret* or 
Diumi ^fth iomr ^pecitn^n* of the Andent Mufical 
NciUrLnifi of the WeJJb, at th- b^.trnm nf p^ip* _ ^^ 

The W^lth furtnerlj- hid ^iK tmdi of M.iiie -t Inftrumencsj m» 
VtufiLal laJlnittienta nt IrePan:! in th* year uSS — 9;— ^p7 
The "rifli fl^i-m-rly ulcJ the B.Lfrpip^g as an incentive to W-ki* oft 
Of the ^^^l^le.d infl^timents of cht Adcient Bricuhij ejt- 

rra^*J from the W^Hh Laws^ — -^ 114 r 

The tbr-ce tndifpenGblcj fur an [nftmrncDtiid Mufieiaa* 81 


Tn[7 ihniie GoUcn-^-QniKneft Kn^ghft of King ^rthur^t Courti lo 

Thcthr^'c KiLi!;^FLi-Conn!cJlor* oj King Arthur'* Courts — J* 
J lie [iifaEi.ible Kilicr^ ^ ^ ^ ^^^^e 

An admirdbJc Poem on a Itifs — — ^^ 


£.uvji//| tlte firfL Chnfldnq King of Britatn, — 8—11 

Tht chr^C Hcilj: Lineaj^es of BritLiin* — — So- 

L/kwiir^^ Wd?ri. lhc CiinibiM.m Pnii -v atid a noted B.trd, Ji- 31 

Ihe I'-ltl^cntatiDn^ of Lfyof.irri If^rt^ ^ ^^13: 

Uj^r-L^^L tf ff^r^^r^ > a Manufcriptp — — iti 

Of the Jjruj T^JluJ^, Htxrhii&H^ A'tfijrjp Piffrmjjf*^ or CiifjMt 

fee Mntt 1 1, in p^tp^c? — ^'^ ya — gr 

OfAiaciu-an Urictlh Lctter&p 7^ — 8—56 — 7^ 

Th-T three liititers of Lore, — -— ^- tti 

M.S. Records uf Lh^ittx^j and of ^jfnfer, Ltill cXT^Dtj ifi -87 

The three M-^morlih of Bntajn^ *^ 

The Mend Sftngp by Tu.Vr^tfffp — 
Mir.iJj liiMf^fi^t-Ct Ale. Ci.jry-wincj ic- 
Afjrjfitfm^t Mornfrrxt. the Card, 
AJyfJifitA £f}iryi, the M.Lgici!an^ * 

Of the [Wi>[iLirc]iiil Song ij[ BiiT-iini 

A/w^i^jjWj P1[<^, —^ ^ 

^lufbci JDiid Pcft?irf w^re infvpnrabiy \EniLed in the f^tne 

perfoaj in the Tcigil *jf /■/flw^/p ^-^ ^ 28 

TJie names of thtf/i-wj^flifr/ Jl'tii'.'.^fJf Jl/^iTr^j dI' WclJh pLie;rv> J^ -53 
I'be n:unESof zh^Jhur-riaii-fiA^f/riy Mmftirci ^^f Wcllh Mulic, ^^ 
An Ancient Welfh Mulli.-iLL tvLinufcEipE written iiiJTi Lin- 

coinntc^]] NiJcacBOfl ^ — ^ ^ aS 

A ferie? of celebr.ncil Mufiei-in^j and when they flou* 

riihedi _ _ — jj.^ ^8^^8_^c^_jg 

OJ'ibc iSatiotia] Mtlodicfp or Bardic Tune^ of tJie ^relent 

Biitiinss — — — 19— j3— JJ — IJJ 

Mufirjl jnd poetical Circuits of the Bard^p ^-* i|— S6 

OfAncitnt Ifcf/l Alunb/crij^a, 1—9—15—111^79 -87— ate^ 
MuHd.Ln^t aaiii oth^rVoxancs of Lhe DruJdical Ceremo- 

nicsj Were wt'c^sthcJ ^iih Ojikp '^^ ■" | 

Ot ilie Minitftoe, „^ _ — — 4 

OTjI/rfi/iK- rfA 0«<^^ Gif^flft£/p who fiiTl difcovered Amierid^SLk 37 
Of Muffccd ,u]d P4ictiLvd L't.nTdl5» 16 17-^1-34-46 47 so-jS-Sf 
T;,ic ihree chief nf the I[(,ind of BiUrimi — 79 
The thte^: g^radua[«J SurtgderSp or Munt:ijn4* — 8j— Hj 
The clir^e ind^rpcnfflblch for an itsRirumental Muficl^ulj Bj 

The thrcT HLuiouFiof j, Muffcci«tni ^ ^ tt 

JIk three Eti:^clkmcs of a MinElrelp -* — 8| 

J he three pi incipJl kimU of WrIEh Metre*^ ^ H 

The vari^iui dei^reei of MuflicUiis — 4A S|— &b 

Memorandiiii^i refiveftioi^ fome of ihe Baidt -ind HiLUirlaiiii 

with Ari Accrjyut ut ihcir Workii ij— 14-15— ifl—*T—ftt 
Tk« ^i^fih Ql l^ ^Jiiom^ <» 

■^ It— 1]ft 

^ a$ 

— sd 

*- lot— ftc» 





*n.e choice ThrcffffifM'fli *^ ^t n. -^ Hi— iH 

Ch„«r gr.m^ I*, the King of ti.. ^/I^A^^. - 

JifteriT DMttrty in noEs ten* ~* 

Th^: Mufic It the . orotititioa rf Henrj the Fifth, — 
The Mufical the We]'\ ch^raacnfti.: ^f i»Onff.B, SJ— " 

or rhe Detlnialon of Welfli ManufcripCi, ^ 

Jfei&-, rhe Bnnl» — — " 'f^fiS 

A Hong, jnd in Epigram upM Mcai, * 

Abrut thF btginnmg "f thf ilth Centurj. Mufic and 

Potcry «(re in their wialih of perfcAion in Wal«, — jH 

iTnLccnfed, or inferior fnri of Mufici:."*, or L^imtrds, ^4-85 

The Ancknt Modcof McafMnng amon^i the Pnwni, s6-S7 

n.rr.rijnnn i^rthc MuficJ InUrumcn" of the W*Jlh, po-&c. 

I CtfthcA^^j'™'MjjJicjfltteujneDfD:iv.d,indSolDinun, 9t, ^c, 

TieWcJili MyJic, — ^ Ja+— &c, 

The Ofchard, :i ^nsm, by MjrJdi'm, -, — 14 

In ihe rclfiii of Heory the IVth, the Wclfh Murj rcv[vcJ, 

EC telebnte tht Heroic exploits of O^a Gl^ad-wr, j^j— &c. 
The Scfl! of Ohwb G/ytiitiur Llefcribci^ — — +* 

OJc 10 Mw^iidt cil from a Poem of DavytLii^ Gwj^jsh^ 
I Jshn OwPt the notrd Ei3i£rswnniaLift» im^ t*oct LMiureit 

to Qiicen ElizilMth. ^ — — 6i 

The Oiit hfid in Tencration. — "- 4~S 

DefcHptionof icclchraicd 0.ifc tree [□ MerioflctWhifCi 7* 

The Colour of art ■0*j.'^// Cinnci^l* -" "^ 9 

AFo^mby- Ov/ea Cyniries, Prince of FowiSj -" iiS-4c. 

P ' 

Patriarch?^ or Druidical L^i^j, p. 6, tnd note 31 
Atcnunt of St, PiCrick, ■«■ — II — [4 — ^*t 

i^MtjMcn, Poetical BluffymSj Eptgr^mma'tic Sun^^ij Song&r 

and Paft&mis, _ ^ _ 6j,t07fi 

Eng^ih Stjnzai in a Qmiltf ftyle to the Ftnniiii<Mf, — 74 

Powcl, the HjTper, — — ^ 5a 

John Parry, the liarp^r, — — 50 — 101 

Fro^ollicition upon the Colour of nhe New Moon, &c, 77 

The three Amnrous Princes (if tJri ain, — — 12 

The three G^jdi^lions^ in Poeticil Compolltionsj — Sa 

Of PrjfffJJ, or Metrical Bard, — — ^i—H 

The Fi^gcntf or Horn pipe* — " — ncf 

The Aifflf i, — ^- — ^117 

The PUattf or FipeSj ufed Ly the Wel& lon^ pridr to the 

IrlQi^ and JicotTi ^ ^ q: — 114 — 116 

R ' 

H^erie tTie Great, Tt^Tcd the WdJh Laws, &c. ' — i6 

Jiodrn£t King of idL Walcs» divided his Daminion into three 

Priticipaliiies, — — > — 4 1 

Pfinct i?AfT'/ EDtcrtatnment confined of Mufical anti 

Pnctlc^l CoCLtcft). Deeds of Arms, and other Showj, 34 
A Ridf'le on a Bee-hire^ ^« — _ 4, 

KcTeDues of the BAriih, ^ ^^ ^ 33— Bfi 

Account of Dr, J, DavjJJ Hifit ^ — » g^ 

Anecdott of Sir R^^tr It^uiiamt, and ^fa^j!tlll flrrjH, »_ n- 
AccfiUDC of yoU RickurJi of UanrmJ, the famoui Hafp- 

MakeTj and li[| Predcttfror* in that Art, — loc 

lUaniph BtmHn beCcijcd At RktuUiam by /"WKr Miw/^ii, 1 1 ^ 

foTences originiltd with the Bards. DruiJi, an.l Ovidei. 3.7 9, 
. A S*ritt flf b w Jii i&4 1« w Uoia thejr w ci c Biirti j tD» 1 j , ftc^ »? >'»« 

Of the I^amaflas of Wafej * — _ ^*n 

Qdeto theSun, iriii(l"tcdfi?om»Pofm<trZ)dwjj'<^,^(; ;, I 
i.:onody on 5iVfl £ftr, the cEkbrated Harper. _» ^'tl 
AlEem^te isinging with tic Harp, 
Son^ on 1 Bird. 




^'ffl Tlu/ktV MfOligvft to his ^wceihesLrtp 

Tiie three principieiofSong, 

The thrtc primaLiries of ^ong^, 

V^e ihree in^tntion^ of So]i£» 

I he three lov\% of Son^ftcUp -- — ■ _ 

The cbree cETen.{:es^ of voc^ Songi i>^~« 

The ffOt^a Liberal ii^cicQcei^ - — . ^^_ 

The Tf^!&^r. or Tainiljr SoGgfter, and his profcQion, 

The tlircc branches c^t" vflcaJ Son^, ^^^ 

The three eJifyiiig Sungller^i 

The three inferior iongQers^or ATisi^nk^ 

3mfJJ Saini, and jlilN^n V Saintt MSh 

l^uficjl hhllnimeat^ of StocUnJ mcaidonfid. 

Of the Tr-aidkloELLd Sanga of the Bxrdsj — 

KefDhc Snngi efficacinijs en War, Note^ m pagt -^ 

Ttf fisig lit turf^ at fcifts ;ippean to h:ive been cunomiry 

amoog the ^uojis. as well 2S to play on the HArp^ j^ 

StanLa^p juid^angscQ TLirious fubjei^ ~*. 63-Wh^ 

T ' 

The Anc]CTkt Triads of il^t l/laAd^/ Sriiam^ 9--to-'ii-»ji-7i i* 
Twelve tfuc wordsj *" — ■ — _ | 

Of Trees ajsd plants mentSnjied in Draidjcil Tcrfeij — j-^ 
The iivc Royal Tribes of rt^alct, a4id ij Special Trlbcit tiki's 

Td%/rai, the celebr^iced Bard^ — j3— Sec; 

^aJlIei of fome Artcient Tuoesj 26 — 37«io^je 

The ^cceCljoQ of ll Ti,:do^ to die throiie was the hilppy 

?ni deftioed to rec^l the tilled Am of WaJei^ — 46— eja 




7<t7H fittfj^. the celebrated Harptr* -^ 

Ol Tenures ol L^iaJs* — > 

Three Things proper for a m:an to have la his houTe^ — 
The three prinaLiry Trl;nl of Tcm, —^ — ■ 

The ihrec Tt^itigs commend iiible In. ^ lAant^ ■ 

iTalf^rJJn or Tubrett ■ * ' " 

The Jc/id#', or Trumpet j Cod gave dlrcftion CD Mofet 

for Hi^km^ that Inftriimenti ^ -■ " ^ 

Golden T^gyff 3 h^dge of BrJtilt uolrtlity, 

The B^rdi ind Urujds had aji extraordinary vcucnuLon 

for the number 74™, — ^ lo^— t&s 

C^^ «£ Cj^Tvarch, King of Heged^ 
The three Uiiivcri^lJLies of the W^rldj 

I pi 

U^idtf^ PjpjcAwvj tb£ MoixarchaJ Song of Briuin^ 

\ V 

The Hallfiiuj*h ViSorj gaiaed by the Bricoai, — W 

Afltiemly the IJV^ inhabited all the TflanJ of Britatiii 69-111 
Roderick diTidetl W^lei into Uirec Principilitiesi — . S* 

Of the Mufn; of the Welfii^ jS— H^ Jf^^" 

Tiie Welh languajjc formerlr common toall BfiUin* fij-'i^ 

The fieautieiof the WelSh Lauguiyge, ^^ J3~^ 

I he three liiwful Wenpom, — ^"^ 

The thrte fouQdationihof Wifdoni» ■ 

I he Hofpitaiky, .md LiberalTt/ of the WslUi defcribei tfS 

tr«ti, or aercttadei j fee the 8ih Note in i^^fic '*J 

W*Er. 1 1 C Lip of the A pcilLe J, tc* -^^^ "^ ' 

I he Horn of this Bailiwick of WWrot Fartji^ ' 

r ha Welih formeriy h*d Sit kinJi of Miifwid Inflrunwnt*^*** 
1 he f 4*qiJi i w ftyle of M u fic of tbe Wb111i» — ' » ' 



C I ] 








Y the Romaa mnfion^and the more barbarou! excuTfions of the Saxons, the Danes, and the Normans, 
and the emigration of the Britons to Attnorica 'j by the frequent deftru^ion of M3S \ and the malTi- 
cres of the Clergy ' and the Bards ^, the Poetry and Mufic of Wales have faffered a lofa, that has 
thrown a da:k cloud over the hiftory of thofe native arts, and for a longtime threatened their total extinc- 
tion. Yet frotn the memorials Ml ejctanfj and the poetical aod mufical compofiiions which time has fparedt 
wc are enabled often w produce unqueflionable evcdence, and always to form a probable conjecture, con- 
cerning their rife and progrtrfs among us ; fince there is no Hying nsiion that can produce work* of fo lemote 
antiquity, and at the fame time of fuch unimpeached authority as the WelJh *. • 

Bicgywryd ab Self^llr, the 56th fupreme King of Britain, who reigned 28 yea.rSj and died loSg yearg 
after the Deluge, or about 190 before Chrifl, of lA'honi k is recordedj that he excelled all before him in 
the Science of Mufic ^ was called, for his extraordinary H^ill in Voeal and InllrumentaJ Melody, T^^ Cfid of 
Mufsc^* Le Brut d* /ingktcrre^ or Metrical Hiftory of Brutus, reprefents Gabbett or Blc^ywryd^ a& the 
iQolt able muficianof his tunej and fpccilics fix initrumencs upon which that monarch could peif^tm* 

■ Littk^BriEiinj no* Sr^a^n^i in Frmuti \c<:a$ca[]cJ inCs(^-ir*b 1 
tlmtp Ar ^'T^^F uiim^f i.e. on cllc upjDcr kScj. ajlii Lihe^r^Mr^!^ 
lohiibBtcd by Britonsp. ^tboutihc jrcmr o£ Chrjn ^84. A hundred 
t?iouffind Britons, befidc^ ^ nujn^rrnus ^LTriiy of ti>ldLcrst v-cut 
imt of ihli [nninJ under the cnmmnnd nt' U^^an^ L^rJ d/ M^ 
rioi/af* nc^w Diziibi^hldntlt la the lid of Ai^fitoui tha1ynt[ic« 
^^^i.nCl |hc ^m/ri-gr Gr^Aum^f^ »nJ tonqiicrcd the faiJ couciLrv 
ot Arjtm^- ^i^lf^- Fi^r tills I^rvli^e Jifiixi^nt ^rjatcd I'fh Ccpjutji iijid 
hif follctVrcrs A^mori^haj where the Brtl^Otis drove out the 
ihmaer inhablujit.4, ft-aced themftlvej* and crcflcd a Kin;j;doiiu 
wliich llflcd in-iny vcilts. unjcr Jcvct'aI KijlgE^ und vr'icrc their 
rucceiToTJ to this il^y fpcik the Wc\1h h-ngn^j^rz, bcin^ the third 
rcTthna.nL of the Ancia^^iit Briioih^. Thi'^ Coji^mof Mrri^dr^c:, 
tt';l? Nephew tis End-it" King of Biitain- iicc Dryt&y P^ij 
Oef?£jJ, hy Tticfi^isM E^Ntnt. C^^rathc^s Nijf- tf /^d/r/, by 

Tjie Cjmrvi fiv WclLli, are . dcJcT-nicied Oom G^m.'r tie t^lJofl 
Jun of JaphcUi* Ibsi of Na:ih 1 -ix'hotc cttsjit-iii|r wcrt the origiji 
of Ddiian^r ^nd ^^^ divided on the ^wnh alter the Eood* Ct^tt 

^ The W^^lih uobJc^i who Vrcrt fiipcivea. itilht Towcrof Lon- 
don,, (formerly called liae White rower » p.irt nf whieli is thU 
Lnoovn by that namcp] [:ib'..:ii3ied p^rmilJifjii ihut ih« cotttcnts ot 
theirribrjirics ihtriild be ii^nt th«ijj Irom Wales^ lo ^inmlciJa^m 
in thirir {bllt^idis and coDfinemtnt- Tkii wjei ^l frcqu^Jit pruilicc, 
fit th^L in proccri^jftirue the Tuwei" bec^inhe the pinmipid rti)0' 
fit)ory of WtKh Jitcr^turc' Unfoittmat'jl/ for our hfdciry ^^tid 
poeiry^ atl the M^ii. thtit {^dk^ed ^^cre burm by the vdhc;^' 
of oiie ScoE^n^ of whom tvaxhm^ more i^ Liiawn+ C^i^^r C{jn^ 
3n eminent B^rd^ who floLti'iflked in the J4lh century, hj.^ in 
£j^ EjfhU ptiLnat the followuj^ pjtlT'Lgc i 

The books of tVwrf and tliclr ^(^nLains 

Wient ttj the WlobLc FoM'i:!^! wJiej'c they ^cre bidi 

LiLlirDiAirig tluju ialwifip into cht; fr^- 

fL^fanJr^jti that A7a|' /fj'^^p the Ion oF Dy^jfn^afj built the 
ToiACrof Lyndon. About 45Q ye^^rs before UhnLl. y^rmmiii 
.i\io records, that when &/^4 diedp his boiJj^ wa,5 buret and put: 
ijjto J goJdcu uTr\f tEpr^n the top of :i toiler tha.c he had buMti 
M'hich was aftcrwarJ^ eaJted by his name Bi^HnU Gai^ j and 
from which isdcnved EiUtngftAte^ He alJb buiJt Ca^r-wy^f now 
C;dEed Carr-IieonfOtiih^ river Ulk. SfCt&*iSijr^[?ffi^Gri^a^Bfii[nift.} 
l)uL'j|]g the iiifurrcAii^n of C^uvo G/j/^^si^rt uhi; M^^^ ijLc;r& 
extant or the *ucient British learning and poetry were fo (eat- 
tLTed and dL'ftroycdi ** that th^re cJcjpcd not one> (1^ fFilSam 
^ji^vry n^liitf^) thiic wufi nut LueiintbEy maimed, ^nd irrecu* 
yncrably tn-m iijad uun^led."* Set Evan'i SfxamtfAi ofi&4 tf^^ 
I'oftryj 1^- 160. 

C7i/ii?dLr^ the moR ancient Briiiili Auihor^ who flGUnlhed about 
A. Dr 58=1 bemoan) the lofs t:f records m irhefe wordi i *'The 
mnnuments af (jur coLmtryi or wrii^n^ appear not^ as eidier 
bnrnt hy the fire of cnemcc^p or tra^vfported far off ty our 
b^Lu-Jhed country men r'^ Gi/il^^'j £^//£. 

^ ^< The nnlvcrfity of /Jailer h-C^d^ foui^ded by LutM^ 
king of trir;iin> was ren^ark-ible for its valuable library- It 
iroBittnucd 359 ye^rs^ find produced many learned men. Con- 
f^eluii a holy matij who deed ApI}h ^^o, ch^nj^ed the univer^ 
tityinto^ moijaltcry, containing Hoo Monti- AttheiFifli" 
g:it]on of j1u/fi^ the McM^k^ ^df^red^ king of Northumbrrland^ 
maJl^tcred twelve hundred of the UritjQi Jerg-y of tbis mitq^'* 
tery J nFne hundredi w!ibi Gfe:Lp<:d^ were afierwiirds fl.^in by 
pirates- TJ]l& hdpptiiicjd in the yr;^r 603. iiee Uum/br^y IJtj^jd^t 

firUajn. Folio, p* 107. And iSKt-iusuf-r MoMAnii^u^^ id edi- 
tion, pr iia, ^nd 151- 

* iaec GutlrU^tHijhrk^Gr^mmar^ andthefeciUelofthBihiClory- 

* There h a Cat^ilo^ue of iomi; of the mojl^ aneienc Welfh 
m^aiiufcripta 3n /-q^" ^ja/forf* fol- nfter the preface- And ia 
Ei- Lhuyd'* ^rihs^t^i*! Sriiamicay fol. p. 1^4, &c; and !n 
Dp aijp Alfo in the Jrlail^ian Ubniry, ;md m aiaay pmate 
Libraries in WaiciF 

* " jtcyn (■/ Jf^i>> iiu/i Blcawryd fM/r^sM, at mh4 f/j*** 

«dW ^ypi^ftW 4^A^ ?o69 i^Jynjiitt^Jj:^ l^fliU^** bnuih 

f HlH^rji. 


Si/at iis toute chunicrk^ . 

Mdtfat dc iais, mlifit d& mtst, &c. 

Be vkki/st £t de rof^. 

Be Barpefot ct dccborumj^ 

Be lire, ct de pfaitcrium * 

For £e qii'iUi de (hitnt ulfeftr^ 

Difiknt h geTit en fin tctfn, 

^le d cji dkiix dt^s j&ti^lioursj 

Et dicu^ dc iQits kj ibsftteours^ &c* 

Ev'ry inftrurticnt couU phy^ 
And in fweeiell manner fing j 

Chanting furth each kind of lay* 
To the found of pipe or firing, 

He lo pfaltryj viol, fote, 

llurp, Crwth, and Lyre could fing ; 
And fo fweet was ev'ry note. 

When he tauchM the trcmblmg ftring. 
That with love and ^eal inflamM, 

All who joined the lift'ning throng. 
Him with ecftafy procbtm'd, 
God of Minftrds, God of Song \ 

Before I enrer on the account of the DrLiLd5j k is requlfitc to give a derivation of the n^cnes of the 
different clafTes, by wliich tbtiy were forcnerly known. The Burdd, Derivydd^ and Ofydd ; or, as the 
Enclirti reader will beuer recognize them, the liarJ, Druid, and Ovadej have been treated with greit 
\ti\Uy by etymologilh J for they huve been changed to ahnoft every things in order to prop a tottering 
fyttem> OT to h^fen the conception of a fanciful reverie* After making this remark, it will be neceffiry 
to avoid incurring cenfurt,and tailing into the like error ; which I hope to do, by givinf^ thecJtad meaning 
of [htfe words, Jlrictly as they are found in Britifh wrifmgs for twelve centuries palt, and without torturing 
ihcm by altering a fingle letter j a plan that fliould always be adhered to in a language tike the Wellh, that 
fprinp;s and expands from a regular ftt of pricniuve roots j otherwife ic ends in mere coujefture ; and m 
[hat cafe a fruitful brain m^iy guofs a very plaufible idea, and yet be far enough from the truth, 

Barddf Signifies primarily wliat makes confpicuous, or what elucidates j and fecondarily, a perfon of 
fcicnce and knowledge, or a philofopher, and teacher. It is derived from B^^r, atop, or fuinniit, which U 
alio the root of ^^rew. Judgment ^ j Barvj^i. beard ; and other words. 

Denvyddf implies abflradedly what is piefent with, or has cognizance ; and in its common acceptatiot\ it 
denotes a prieil ; and is the orijjin of the term Dndd in other languages. It h derived from Dart the 
abllract meming of uhich is, what expands ou[ ; and it is the term for an 0«i% in common with itainfieflad 
dcrlvaLue Dtr-w. I'he word Dtrivydd may therefore be compounded two ways, agreeing in a general 
acceptation ; that h to fay, D^r-wjddt and Der-^uydd: 1 rather adopt the firll, becaufe Ctityddon, or 
knowingones, is very frequently found in old writings in the fame acceptation as Di^rwyddon^ or Druids'. 

[t isevidentjfroni our ancient Chronicles, that the Bards were ihc original, or initiated fyftera, from whicb 
the Dem^ddj and Ofydd\ or prieft, and artifl: branci^ed out. No one could ofljclate as a prieft, or Druidj 
bot fuch as belonged to the Bardic order \ neither were any permitted to follow what the HritoDs called 
Cehyddyd Rydd, or Liberal Art, but the Ovyddkn. So (hat the order of the BarJs bore an exaQ analo^jy 
to the Levih'j under the Mofaic dil'penfation ; for according to the law of M^hi the functions oif the prieif- 
hood belonged exclufjvdy (o the LevueSj in the fatuc manner as the Bards were the conlUtuiioiul origia 
of the Druidical hieiarchy^ , 

Hlftnry, MS* FabE^EH :i\{a. fpe^tkin^ of Bir^vtryd, Q;iTn{^^ him. 
•' acupniLt^ mufici.Ln, called Ly the firii^^na bW a/Cinmra.*' 
Chrmt. r ;?.ed Ijj^. A!lu Lcwii'i Hilfcury. p 67. i;U, jtnitv, 
B^vryfi v^-aaCuciiicdcd lu tNc t.rowsi ot UrjiiMiii by Kis linithcr 
ArtLm^I Bltiv/rfd'^^iAW^hitt /t^a/ia, iiMriitd Dar^iij. Kiii^ o( 
iicDtl:ijn[tf, yEjoui ihe yejr uf ihc worldi H64 i Awd ln>in her ihc 
rirGctfdNJK rjte <*\ Sai[il|h Khi^ii ;ir« dckcJidcJ. 6Vw?r Oiw*i 


r i* 

■ Uurqey'k HiiL t>i Mulk* Vol. 11, p. jtjn 

The inoli AmitnL order uf pmpJt U Untam are juJily 

It Biifi^. uikI theic wci-c before ilic UriLidi, KlEhoujfK 

111 tunc the Unci ^in Lhc It.trl ni ihc ofJii^r iq ureu flUerm.'* 


cmeiE t 

iiammn Bntti^Bui, \>. <^, The Djr*i*. and Dr ui,A were kliu ih« 

judi;.:* vl ihc tuiisifjrJlmiUr lu (Jic UvlU«HikJ i'mlti , Dim 

trronomj, chAp. I J. v. 8, lud 9,— Sec nwire in ihc tatn^iiAtm 
i>r the ^d vol.ofthii wtifk, pagff Hit. xu- auJ p-igtk I, », U4 
6, of the Teit. 

■ Ai LbniJtui, in AngTefey, fnrmerW iiih ^'jiicJ Kf th« Dri!Ml% 
Icul ciiiiiVcihLLiil Jocietteh Wf .it ihik Jiy rtnii veilt>ic»t>' *"'^" 
iJ^_rM',aie Aitti Druid"* nMufiuJi ; /i»JJ>4Jji, the «boJ* « 
Ihe iiifcriur uii*«i :iiid iicu thcni H^d^u^x^, ihe 4tk>dc ^■'' (** 
OvLtic^ f and Trt-r Sariii, tUj; HunLc ut tlif 8.irJ\- Mm^ 
Jaliqaj. ij^c 65, Jjfij itud ti^. AE.^, ii«r f itlauiArdt i" 
i'ciiihruketiiircj iUvv< ii ^ pLt4,o cjJted Jj>*m» l^/^^t *»r toi 
Wdl ul Olydi, 

MjiuiiiJctnedlii m : ' ^ ' ij Mr, WiUi*p 0* 

3.-1 _ _ 

;.itt«»; mndbi'ft^** 



Mr, Mafon, in his CaraflacuJ, hax adopted the ancient difttnflbn of thr« orders of DtuiJi, 
decant aod defcripuve a manner^ that I am induced here to quote the piUiigei 

On the left 

ia r& 

Thy footfttps prefs on confccratcd ground • 
Thelc mlghTy pile* of magic -planted lock. 
Thus lang'J iu my{ilc order, maik the place 
Where but at times of holiest feltiviL 
The Druid leads his tialo. 

In yonder fhaggy cave, dwells the Seer i 

_ . _ — ^ His bruihethood 

PofTcfs ihc licighb'ring clifia. 

ReUde the Sages fkilt'd inNatutc^s lore ; 
The changeful unlverfci it& numbers, [xiweraij 
5uidio\iA they meafure, ti\t wbcnmet^itation 
Gives place to holy riles : iben in the grove 
Each haih his rank and funtliuns*— Yonder gror* 
Ate tenanted by BardSj whonEghRy ihence, 
Rob'd tn tlicir flowinf^vetta oFcdcflial blue, 
UifccnJ, with harps that glhier to the mnon, 
li)mnbg immortal 11 rain J* 

Of the Bards, however, and of their poetry and mufic, at thofe remote peHoJa, little more than a faint 
fradiiiun is prcferved. and thai lUile we either derive from the ppctical remains of the Briillh annals, or 
clean wl^.ie-cv.r U is fcattcrcd over the ^iJer fi.Id of Roman history. There h no account indesd of 
Brir,ttn in any \^rilcr preceding Caifjr. But m it is incredible that its anctcnE arts fprung up under the 
opprtCion of the Roman yoke, imd as It liat^ ncm been pretended th^t any pari of iWm was borrowed 
from ihc conquerors, whatever memion of ihein i^ UnJ in the Greek and Romati authors, who fucceeded . 
jhc nrfl invafton, may fairly be produced as in fomc mt-afure dcfcrtpiive of their Ihte before it. 

Thofe njrJons could nut furely be rude In ihc conftrufljyn of their poetry and mufic, among v^hom, as 
Tilar declares '% the foprcmacy and omiLipotence of the gods was acknowledged, the immortaliry and 
tranfmigration of tbe foul was btllevcJ ", opinions were forni.d concerning the motion of the planets and 
the dimLrnfiansof the world, and whofe youth was inftruacd in the nature and pbilofopliy of ihmgs. 

In all tlie CeUk nations we difcover a rcm^tkable uniformity of manners and inCliiutes. It wai the CuQom 
of tb. ancient German., vihen ihey marched to battle, to animate then.felvel. with finging verfes proplieEic 
of their foccef., which thev called Barditu. -. It v^as the honourable office of the Bards of to fing 
,0 th. harp, at the nuptials and funeral obfequie., their games and other and, at ihe head of 
their armU the praifes of thofe .ho had ftgnali.ed thcmfete by ..r.uous and heroLC adions ^ Th« 
entertalnmetit mad. a deep Unpreflion on the yo.n, warriors, elevated fome .0 Win. ^^J^ P--P j 
virtue In every breaft. Among the Ceh.. f.y. Diodcru. S.cdus '^ are compofm of melodie., caHed 
, B d who ffng to ioftruments'like lyre., panegyrical, or inve^ive ftralns : and in fuch reverence ar. ihejr 
hdd ^t V h n^vo armies, prepared for battle, have caa their datrs. and drawn thetr fword., on h« 
l;;!;; 'L and in.erpofi.ion they Immediately def:fl. Thus, even an^ong the rude barb.- 

nans, wr^tli gives place towifdom. and Mars [o the Mufes ■^ ^ 

C.^ ho k has the fol owing , " Fhe Celt, always carry to b.ttle with them people whom thej 
mantalna Parafites. Thefe companions of the table celebrate their praxes e.h.r ^ ore the crowd 
Xch Ts ak. bl d together, or hire any Individual who n.y be i.ter.fled .n ^^..fe Lulog.«. Ihear 
I'n;rs^d^^^^^ Bard.! ^hat i. to fay, Toets, .ho publ.^ the pralfes of Eminent Men w.h Songs - 

wwtTiy men, cotnporcd in ^cralC verfc Hut tin OvaJtt. ftarch- 
in^ into ihe Kiuhca aJLLtwJ^s uf N.,uirc'i «-ork, TiiLicavoiirtd w 
l^if oTKn anJ declare the fanic Among thefe, itic DruMlj of aa 
hiherwlt »cid cociccEuaccr-r^in^- .lithe auiKfimy nl /*j(irtjnw 
decreed, bcii^E tied Lnio focictits itid fe5lii*(hip&, were iidiliiied 
wholly into queftions of deep and hidden pointa, and they, 
defi-lfing ull hll.naci tilings. pr.iiiH„jnceJ th^l men s fouj! wcni 

Book, and Chiip-iif- . , 

(p,jJi.t. H . S [eph. edit. KS y ■ P ■ » j 3" , . 
Ditnlonii filcolu (, Boolt j- and i. hup . the id . 
" DiionjB Siculusdc Geft. K^buJoi- Antid. 1. vi, bee alio 

" a; the men of iliii place iverc i^^^n by Ifrtle .nd Jitth to ] ihe noK.op ihc ^^^^^l*, S^L^.^:!S°"1%^S'°1,W Jhp 
IvUhie.. the [l.di« <:>*■■ Umc felente. begun by the M.rJ. - Ti il Tr'^^ S^.V ^^ait ap^H^^-^^ 

Dvnifrr, iHiil Drmfi, migfuUy llourilhcd here- And lEte ^^r^ U^^.h^i ^.fT ytii tf^aut )^yn*r„ itfUOOBJU* apuu n. 
luug Lijiio ilic Ivkfici mulk yf Uic Hurpj the TslwroUi deed* oH jlb, 6. 

^ A fragmeat 

^ Dc BJlo G^ll'^- ''■ ■ 

■' Tliricc h^ppy ihey beneaih tlitir northern Jkies, 
Who ihut worit icAr, Lhe iCLir of JeTith^ dcfpircj 
Hcnt* ihcyno c:ircs from thii irai] beinn tee], 
iJi]E rullt undjttiiicd pn t!ie pointed fteeU 
Provoke ap]irOiiclun)i,f^le,;-.nJbiiivel>- fi^nrO, 
To fpjre [hiLi life whUh mud iv foon jeEurn^ ^ 

" Tacitus dc niofibus Gerraicvonim. — 

*' RttrejUd !:■! fitentvalUy, Hngi 

With notci .jn^fliciii to nuiiyjii limrp* 
Their own licroj'c dccdsj ajitl h^ijlcls fill 
By doom nf bittlc 





A r ..m.nt flf p0/!Jfimm, preferved ia AthcD^s =% enable us to exhibk the only rpscimen of ihegenlu, 

Ln™ ^^^^^^^ ^e^'^^-- -^^^^'' ^^^^^ =^^^'^^^"' of popuh. favour, he frequent ywa. bcnie over .h« 
pl^ in . chariot, «ng gold .nd filv.r among ^y-d. of th. C.Us who fallowed h.m O. a day ,f 
tZu^K and fcftivky, when he wUh abundance of choice prov.fions and a profufion of coftly 
Lots, liis innumerable attendants, apoet of the Barbarians, anmng long after the «J» greeted hini 
wkh fmsing the praife of his unrivalled bounty and exalted virtut s, buc lamented his oiva bad fortun. i, 
fo late an arrival, lufrniuj, charmed with his fong, called for a purfe of gold, and threwjt to the Bard; 
who, aQimateii with gratitude, renewed the cncomiam, and proclahnsd, ifja^ the track i^Jhn chanot v>kdt 
upanifje earth vjai prodtidlivc If-iLtaltb and bkffingi tc maTtScintl, 

AN0PnrtOl£ *EPEL ' "..■-- 

The dirciples of the Druidical Bards, daring a noviciate of cwenry years, learnt an immenfe number of 
Tcrfes '\ in which they preferved the principles of thdr religious and civil polity by uninterrupted iradltioa 
for many centuries. Though the ufe of letters was hmUiar to them, they did not deem it lawful to 
commit their vcrfes to writing, for the fiike of ftrengthening their intellectual faculties, and of keeping 
their myflerious knowledge from thecontemplaiioii of the vulgar. 

The metre in which thefe oracular inflrudtons were communicated to the people, was caUed Ejtgijn 
Mihur, or the Warrior's Song; and h a kind of Triplet Scan^sa* To give the Engiifli reader an adequate 
idea of their condniftion, 1 have caufed them to be verfificJ into the fame number of lines as the original^ 
and have endeavoured to prefervc the fenfeai near as the confined limits of the metre would allow. The two 
firft lines of each flanza do not feem to have much connection with the la(t ; boweveij there appears to 
have been no fmall degree of art employed in their compofition* In the fit ft lines, the Druid defcribet 
either anions that are familiar to every one, or the appearance of vifible obje^s ; he then concludes with a 
precept of morality, or a proverbial fentcnce ; and by annexing it to und&ttbicd fa^, artfully implies, aad 
engages the mind to receive the truth of the moral masiai, as etjually clear and well eftabUfhed as dw 
Identity of material ob]CNfts '** * • 


A dyn fy tihrsed o 'ivanas — * 

Nac add(^fdy lin i Was, 

Beneathe the Birch tree's holy tear. 
The Celtic race have nought to fear — " 
Breathe mt thy Bscret ^n a mfurmnCs ear / 


'■ Seethe Hcv. Mr. EvaiM*s Speciment of Wtllh Poeirjj iii 

^ Csdar Jc Hello Gallico, 1, ti. 

^ iicc K'jwIanJ'h Mana Aniiqua. p, 353. ami Lhv.'yd's At* 

'■ Toe Droids, wlioiwerc lie PirjJt&io^iJ?j nswcll as Pr'ujii, 
fcem4ltbii> hiii'c liccii j^j-iiflfi/Zj, and /ftrF'i'o///?/j Ijy cbcit ttm- 
rneraiiiig fuch h number of 't'recs^ and PUnts in ihcir verfcs j 
and it dhppt;jrs Utcy vci]«i'.i<tcd thole things accorden;; lu their 
bcuut]f, viitiics, mid vici clicy made of them. 

*' HulMiidlowMartks! 
Hiil, Briufh-harn ! yf\in, kil of Dncilh rrt«, 
Hold jiiiir priniEcval rights by NiiEurc^s ciiarier." 

Ma^/f't CuraSaeat, 

The (igTisI oale \vhkhthe DruIJft made choice of, wa* fuch a 
oncj oil U'liich Mldcto did s;raw j by vi-hich totcciit they caw- 
ceived [hat G(id niarkci:) it out, at of^fovcrcjon virtue. Under 
this tree, on the fiilh d.iy ftf the moon^ (vrhcrcin they bcj;an 
»heir year], they invMatcil their Deity, with many other cere- 
tnonlcS' Wlicn the end of the year approached, ihey marched 
With gireat fatcimiLty to gather the Mifleco, m order to prc&nt it 
toOodiinvitinEall the world m alfiil at the ceremony in thcfe 
words; Tht ifnv Ttar it at Itwd^ gatiifr tht Mi^tto. The 
facribcei being ready^ the pricft afcended the OaJc^ Hid with a 
KDldi^ci hutik cut o€the MiLleio» which was retcived in a white 
phuenc fpre»d for that furpole. This part of the ceremony 
bsmg eudedt th« tiftimi, two whke bulls ibat never had bsan 
yokcdt were hrouj^ht fyuh and oStred up to the Deity, with 
prayfri tUiU kt woiJd ^.r^fper thofc to whom bi bad fiiTcn fo 


precious abi>on- Of chcMifslero, thus guthjsrcd, ihpy made a 
iintiun, which they Lidntiiiiiitered as ^n antidote to all pC'ilons; 
and lii'td it at a fi:nitd^ to prevent barrenncfs, (probably the 
bcmci.J , And from thli, tJie old cidtora of fAlnting the girl* 
under tike MHVL't^K hulh iL ChrilitmaFit originsiied^ 
** At MytiftQ tiJt, conia the Nt'iV'^sar*! Brli^y 

Infonic p;irts of Watts, the Mineio i^ called Oil-tflti, All- 
heal L Pren J'S/yr-t the Cclctiiid iri^e j ind Uiheivisdd, the lofty 
Shrub, BdlJci iht; Miflcto^ the Druidi riiually ^uilicred tlic 
Selafio, t>r /•Irr dui^mtfft y and the SLtmotusi Of R^wid-itnti 
fVattr J'imjumat; both v^hich dlcy ^ppli?d to medicinal pur- 
poles. I'^Hj*r i\at Hijf. XVI. C. ^ — Aad Evcijn'i Sjiva^ 
with notes hv Dr. ffioiltr* 

Sir Joha CoHaiih^ u Phyrttlun, haft piibliflied a curiotis Diflcr- 
tLiiIon on the Efficacy of iht- MiHeto \ in ihi: ycir \'}i%^ O&AVOt 
6\.\\ edition. LikcwHie, Dr. Marx, Um publilhed a booJr ofl tic 
Virtues ofAeorn Co^«e. ^ee the mode of m^kiag it, in the 
Annuil Rcgiflcr for 17791 p. Jja. ot the id p^rt. Printed hf 

" The TeepiD? Brich 'hvas formerly In great eltimatioA 
4moU)(ft the B^rdsj a» aiij^cars by the pinniber of Poems ftiU 
ettim that arewTittcn in ittprAife : it is faid chat the cekbr^itM 
Bard, DdvyJd a& Gvifyiw, who ilourifh^id abwut thff jttf 
IJ50, uied to wear a wiCithcd chajjlet ituide of Birch twigs, 
eiuwined with lllver HugKiand u Jonied with fenihersof vArLotui ^ 
coLoura. The Birch tvus prnh.ibly che Lnurel of the B^rli* 
Hi well aathe OA* A M-ty-pde bkcwifc is uJbilly n^Je of 
the Birch J and the Ilm«ll brandfei are Hill ufcd b^ the School 
ni^a<.rs 10 correct tlicir diforJcrly SehuJar* with i a(k>* i" 
W;ll!i formerly ufcd ui tjip thas trc& tv mute Birch-wiitf o*- 



' t •• 

A dynrt/y nhrced & gud-wya — 
Nac addcf dy rin i Forwyn. 

M^rchwiaU dcTW dt'diar ; 

J dynnfy nhroed o garcbar-^ 

Nac addef dy rin i Lafer. 

Eiry Rtyrydd, gwynt ei taivl ; 

OUyd d^n diriaid dihawL 

Eiry Tiiynydd^ gv^yjipSb tjt 
Cynne^n bnin a cfjttnu — 
Ni ddaw da o dra diy%u, 

■ Eiry mynydd^ ^Myn brig ^rj^/g ; 
Gachwihaft gvjynt yn nfjcrfyf^ :^ ■ 
Trcch Tydd anUn, nag addyfg. 

. Eiry uiynydd p<fg yn rhjd ; 
Cynhid nr-UJ ^uigrwni £%ofnciyd^ 
Hkaelh am farw ni Vtrryd» 

Eirymynydd, hydd ym mron i 
Gochvjiifun ^"veynt nziih biacn onn—- 
' Ttydydd troed i Ken ei iTon* 

lAry mynydd, gldi ^^ydd/yd ; 

X^aitiriaetb pwwb at diiyd : — ' 

Ki bydiJ ddoeib yn hlr mcwji Ilidi 


* .** 

The JlroHfj, and nayllic Wand I wield , 
Iq the dark Grove^ that dims the fidd-^ 
^^£1/ to the ibaughthfi Maid ihy Secret yield ! 

The prefence or the monarch tree. 
Will awe thy (leps from infamy — " 
VeiJ front tbe bsbler t vril thy cic/e decree f ' 

The winds ruOi o^er the mountam-fnow -, 

The fuU-mDan fliines \ the green docki blow'-^s 

Cmteal thy thought fro^n the deceitful f^ \! 

Snow J 1 robe o'er haiiilfta flings ; 

In the wood, the raven fings — ■, ■' 

Too muchjiecp no prcft brifigt, ' .^. .^ 

See tJic foreft white wlih fnows ! • . ' • 
H^rk 1 the llorm of mnter bbwa— ^ 
Niittire beyond learning gees. 

When tbd mouniatn fliow h fprcad, 

Stags lovg funny vales to tread : — ^ ' 

Vain ijforroio/or the dead. 

Fleet the {lag on mountair^ Tnow; ■- " 

Winds through aQien branches blow*^ ' 
Afiafi the prop of age beioza '* 

TVtid the fnow green woodbines rife ; 
AH are bound by nature's-tiei — 
Anger dweih fiet -ii^ith tbs 'o^ife* 

t I 

In the three firft of thcfe tTJamblcs, the Druids fecm to invocate their groves, and fee forth their facer- 
dotal privileg^:s and exemptions. In the others, th^y apoftropliize the mountain Kryri, or Snowdon, the 
ParnalfLis of Wales. We learn from Gildas, that the ancleat Biitons had an extracrdloary veneration for 
mount^os, groves*, and riverj* ... "^^y 

wife informed thit ihe prcJidins IVafid^'t King Hv^dtht G^. 
LiiWK'^=^ of the Wflllh. st^oui A. D. 940. was jS kct Icuig, 
■' Perhaps 1 he linildkal-gnsvc wnt; inKicntly iin fHylunit 
*r ptace nf rsfu>;c, lm»lsT i" the Mofiic rice, and 10 ourc^rly 
Church 1 meutioncd m D^urfr*^«».ch;tp. IV. vcrfc .>!, .<nd+^j 

T*ifl*fJ.rh.n. XX. J ftr,«if^,, cbip. XXV. V. 6. AruHn 

iVfM Wdtki. p^fic iiS. AccorJm^ to ihe V^-^^ of King 

/«. theprmWe of tli= Tcjnplc k ttiu? «corJ<:d j -' Ifiny 
one gmliy of a capitnJ crime (hill rake retiiac sii H Cliurcluhc 
ftiall fii^e ht5 Ufcj Jntl niab* recompense ai:CL>rdilig to |UJlicc 
andttimtyi If one dcfcrviug ftripea tiiLcs fanfluirj-, he (h^ll 
hiTe ilw ftripcst for^ven hiiis." Ttie cuftQin of »ER>rdLiis faiw;^ 
tuirytc, dclmqu[:!m> criEtcd even till ihe reign of Jame* 1. 

• VVe aTE informed hy t]« TnoJ«ll Nh« nru] 1 Els, what was 
long known toihe Drutis i ihat etc refulgent moon pronioKs 

^ t I am indebted 10 the obEI^EnR difpofitmn of Mr. Jerninj^- 
ham. for hi^ f^ihtdi VerJlrtiaiion ^if the firft^four of the Drm- 
dic.Ll ftanzai t ^"<^ toihc late Mr. Saniwell^ fat the Vcrfion of 
the )i*C Urt. 
' LiwriUy» the third foacto the aged is liu ftaft*— — 
' The Oj.k WHS held in vceeration among the aneif^ic Britons 

Hibfh at hi I topmofl boughfl to Heaven ilcend. 

Bo krtV hil roots to hcll'l Jominlons lenJ. — Crtrfj. II* 

ThetnDn:irch Oat, tic pitTLHTch of the Erees, 

fihouiT rlfirtg iip» und J^reidi by flow deffnrei : 

Thr^e tttirwticL he ^jrowi, and Lhree he ILajra 

eupreiM ia %-a\^ \ andmihrce laMC decays, -.- Dry^- 

Tlie Druidical ahari ■were often eoclofedwith Oakf, ftrcwed 
wiih their leaves, aiLd eneirdeJ with thetr branches : thcyaJfa 
fcrvcd far wfCALhs to deckthe hcadi of the iriurLcians, Jljjfars, 
,L]]d JancctSjanJ other vOtafi^n that bore a pai't in their lacrci 
fcLtih-a.U and fokmaities. C^ruU H'^j. Vol- L p. +3. * 

A n O akc n, g:t f Intjid to he worn oti fe iti v Ji]s» amo nj? the Romans^ 
Was the rccOnkiKrife ofonewlio had faved ihe hfe of a citizen i4 
batik. I.ikcwite,iJie leaves of O^k were ufcd ia token of vlaory. 

The Pruids and Bards were eicufcJ from pcrfanal atieuJauce 
inwiir, nor did Elie/- p,bvlai&s> snJ had iin immunitjf of JI 
things : the Prleft* and Levitcs among the Hebrews, enjoyed 
the fame privlkg^H. ^%TAi f- 14. . 

We find reruajin of Druidicai Monumcnii m many parttoF 
Britain ; fome in erovca., others on therups of harebitJii wtiit]i 
hear a (Irong fimibtnde with the cuilonw of the carl;,- pairiiircJlSj( 
iiicnticnaed in Sicrcd Killory- 

*' And Mofes wrote all the wfkrdj of [he Lord, and rofe up 
early in iht: □lorainrp and bailded an aliar idDder the hill, jcul 
twelve pillart accof diri^f to the twolvc tribes of Ifrjel." £**Ai/, 

"And Abrihsffl pTanccd a ffrove in Beer.nieba, and falUJ 
t^icre on the name of the Lord, lie evcrla£linj{ God." C*^. 

** And Mofti fiid yoio the Lord, the people cannot comt up 
to mount iiiiiai i for thou lihirgGlt ui* faying* f« bounds idKiDC 
the iticunt, and fanftify ii.*' fjttf^.-rkr/ 'j.^ir. ij. 

" And Jofhua wrote tiefe wardi in the Uo^ik oi the ijw ot 
God, and took a great ttone^ and fet it up thi« imder an Oak* 
that wtf^ by itc Cmfluary ^ the Lord." ^jfli-, fA^ >+■ 
rtr. a6i _^ 

t 9^ 





They acknowld^d oBfi fupremc God. - ., , ^ - . 

The arcaua of the rcienCM were nor commlttcK! to wnung, but to ihc memory. 

Great care was taken in tbc education of children. 

None were inftruftcd but In the facrctl grovts, 

Sonia were deemed immortal ; and tranfmigrated into other bodies after death* 

if the world was deflroyed, it would be by, fire. 

He that came laft to the alTeinbly of the States, was liable to be pumfhcd with death. 

The difobedient was excluded from attcnJing at the facrifices j deprived of the benefit of the law j rtiii 
deted incapable of any employ, and his fociety avoided by all. 

Murderer-a* robbers, or thofe that committed heinous crimes, were cither flaln on the altar*, or burnt 
alive enclofed in wIckcTi as a facrifice to the iD&ky. 

Nothing but the life of man, could atone for the life of another. 

Abftinence from women, until a certain period of age, they highly commended j imagminff that nothmg 
comribuletl fo much to flatnre, ftren^nh, and vigour of body : but to have any commerce of chat kind be- 
fore the age of twenty, was accounted ignomtmous in the higheft degree. . _. ^ 

They derived the origin of all things from htaven '. — -^ 

Thefc ariiclcs may ferve to give a fpecimen of ihe principles and religion of the Druids, who flourilhed a long 
while InBritainjIrelandjCiaul, kc. There were Drui Jeflcs, as well as Druids. It was a female Druid of Tcn- 
griat according to Voptfcusjthat foretold to Dioclefiaih (when a private foldler in Gaul,) that after he killed a 
wildboarj he Giould be emperor of Rome *J which U the origin of Fletcher^ play, called the Prophete/s, 

The following fragment was adJrelTed to Bi:l{ Mnwr *, or King Beli the Great, Father of Cqfwalion (or 
CaJfivckumtSiJ the celebrated oppofer of JsiUus C^Jlir : and is, perhaps, the oldeft hiflorical poetry of the 
Britons. , ' 

Draig affigy^rffU odd wh Hon Ucfirau Uadyj 
Lhd yn turgyrriy ciirgyrn yn Uaw, Haw yn yigl, 
^sgi yn tncdrydqf: 
Ffur iti hlnf 
Btid^iig Fdi ab Monvg^n ; 


TlienolilcflilDniiJiicaJ fln^flurcs m thi* i{l^nd> is the Tcmpk- 

tif 5^DF?f frffl^j tjn SEiliftxiry Plains aind rhc Temple t)f Atiibrfj 
or -rfviflrp, neAr SillnLiryT in WilrtJi-r-j. ^^c Si^hhjt Hi^. 

Tht;rc rirc ni^ny vc(l^^^c5 in Wnks^wdich rtiN rcl.iin the name 
of the Jj^rutds \ viz. Ll^n y Drrtvjddon, the viU^^e <]f tilC OrtliJ^i 
nr:ir ^u David'^ in Fenibrokelhirc Cxur DrtiA^yn^ tiac iK^nnd* or 
co^vn of the Dfuidii on tKc hiJI fippotitc Loiwcn ; niid, /Jr^w 
f^f tht grove Cif the Dniidsfc i]L the pHriHi of LSaiitldcivcJi 

In early lutieathe Driiuts awA lliinji^ri were uiQ mily k^Iil^^ 
torfij dnd their courts of judicature were cnUed G<?rffdd^Uy 
^p^icK were fatuutet! *in Uic mc^it confpicLiona eminencci iu tJie 
fipcn aif { \vhcrc icuLi/cs wcri^triedj ^inJ jiadjreinent prcinurnicedi 
One of Ehorc pLiccsi Itikl ret^iins the name* -A/w?/j ^arir^ ops ihc 
hlH ofjudgrncm^ which istlibhEf^h mountain iibuvc Mnh 
vern Wella^ in Worteftcrft»irc- Sec more In the iiUruUu^iun 
of the ind Vulumeof this work) pR^e XlV( the Notef« 

A JUtic aftet Cmfar't tiniCp the Druids ccttfcd in Giiul j «t ii] 
Britain they Hourilhed long aftef. PRnj^ Lib. JO- e- i. 

it PS recordedi that the Drijida were cruelly perfecuccd by 
TtbcriiuN Cliiudii4fi. And afterwardi in the reign of Nero, by 
juliui AfFricola, id»ut A^ D^ €o. 

40^ -ftjMw? j/ff^/yjw-— Likcwijfitk* feveih Pum^irclud L.twEpaJre 
laid tnrcUteto thsJollijwmg Aabjcftfii Of nvoiJing IJidatrvi 
OrLliifpheiniLHf the Deity t Of the Ihtddbag o( JilchKl y Of not 
l^veahtiH apcrlou'tnatcdncfB ( Of A^imw ;mtl llielt ( Of 
JuJgmeHE* t Of not ti4liug liiiy pait of an ^i^iiniiii tthilft alive. 

5^'i*^?'V^^'"'*'t ^t-^P*^" ^«* '!J*«i 'I. "* »JP Mi*^- 
And the folkiwiaig i» Uic DruicUcaL Oath, wjiieli they Jdnii. 

nj Acred to Uhcii dififii^ioif -' Bj dw ^igk iind ^ i^f ^t^fj,^ 
' Uiti, tJw Um uiMmogvi, refilled Kiitg over JI Briu[ji, 

JBcIi, like :i Drngon fups, 
lIofiE^d drink from glitt'ring cupj. 
Joy the golden horns afford, * - 

Joy to Britain's warhke lord, 
HtinJs that hft the fparkling tnead, 
Slaughter through the ten t« hate fpread I 
Fame and honour he has won, '"*•■ \ 
Great Mona^an^^^ gallant Ton. 

about Sj; ycirs hcffrrt the ChrlLlian sn ; he had E!ir« fom, 
LluJJ, Cafivnllfin:, Luid N>n[air. CaJWailon oppnfed Carfar 
iiljout J5 ycAFS hciurt.' ChrHt, We art bfcirmeJ by Suthnivt 
thjt the Uriiona pul C-efar lo flight* fDiaatarm Cmfartm n^ 
!ifr«t ) A^dBali, ill ins Hlftory, faji, * C^mbelm rcpulfftd 
CLii'ir Ewire frr.m Bfitsiin hy h>rce of amis." See Xcwk*/ 
Hi^erj of Great Briiaiiii fol. p. 7(Sh and 8o. 

" King LVwAlkm Irtinj; tlcviitcd with joy for this fecoiul 
viflory, over i people vho ftitcd llicinfelves jnalltrs of the 
worldn he commniided the diEcf Herald to m^ke la procJimi- 
rion> and lo fend Jeitcra lo lummon all ite nobiliiy of Britain 
wtih their wives lo Lonttuii, in order to pnrtaie ut fcftlvlryaad 
mirth. Aecordiu^ly ihcy all reidiiy ^ipiicarcd ; and there wm 
[MX[iared a variety ui ratirificeB* And it u i^nid, there v^a* killed 
for tii;it great banqijei, (Ufeo, fifty ihonlauJ iheep, And 
alfo fowls flf dltferent iinct) without jmoiber^ bclldcs ihiiFt/ 
[huufa^tJ wild bcaO* of Viirious ihrts, 

" " 7'nfiirw a iiit fiMi fu'f <atfJ4** 

As foon ai they h^iid pertonned thciV liiSciiin hoDDUrftlO ihftr 
Gcid, they fcLiftcd [hcRilelvcK tui the rtiiii^icinicrr a* ivaj wiUalU 
facrifitfcji^andfjieiit iJic relt ot [he diiy aud nt^bt ill Txriw* 
r»l:iyii, Bjsd fporttJ' Thit id culled, one oftlic tlircehojwiij^l* 
rtwiU oJ liritHin t n.imdy^ The Vtail of CtfwiU«| t^ 
"I tie VcM tit Arciiits AmbroAui ( uld 
TJii; PemccuU lead ol Kinff Arthur 

The r*f r./j*iiwH */(«;, ,>^, la ttJchnud #t *>*.«-, ^<,d t. to- 
ijoiwdby 7a«^iii; iiUmhtf chief fr^t if C»rto4UouJbHi»tiltlij 
wa» near !»i, Album, iij HerEf*ri\KhJre. 

' M^iiuoLiii, fitiher fd ]kUMawr»WH» Kiiiff t)*" Bntiln •Ixiut 
tjo ycAii heUdt Lhrll^ Then, ii 4 toin • I M^m^m Rm. ti- 
trilicd Liiijoii|F ihc |<s of i.ot«i J ilit ^KitM Jlriuft S^n^u 
^'UUiUicd )iy 4Jf. Klukelev* 


TnysfilFeih " Darling Ton of viaory. 

Teithia^ ofdd iddL Chieft, like him who guard the landi 

Well der^^Tve fupreipc commoj^ 

When the Roman legions^ aflet the mnafion of Britain, and the ccmqucft of the, Gallic proviaces, were 
rtcallfid to oppofe the Powet of Pompey in Italy, the exultation of the Bards and Drmds, at recovering 
thefecurepofTeffionand esercife of their ancient poetical and mylUcal fLm£ticjn. is defctihed lu a very 

animated manner b; Lucan : ^ ' 

You too* ye Bards / \rhom facred raptures firej 
To chant y OUT heroes to youT coamry^s lyre J , , , 
•; ' ^ ... Who consecrate, iti your immorial ftrain, 

^- ' '■ Brave patriot fouls in righteous battle flain J * ' .... ^ 

• ^ , Securely now the tuneful talk renew, 

.. ''^ And nobleft ihctnci in deathlefs fongs purfue. 

' • • The Driikis no^, ^hile arms are heard no more; 

bid myfleries and barb'rous rirea reftore; 
* ;* ' A tribe who fmgubr religion love, " ' * . ■ 

' •■ * • ' ' And haunt the lonely coverts of the grove. " , • 

To thefe, and thefe of all mankind aluni;, • * ; %• 

;'' The Qiids are fure reveaird, or fare unknown ^, 

Such was the tiew but imperfe£lly difcovercd fcene which the great Cajfar's ambition opened in Britain, 
Nor are thefe accounts only imperftdi they are alfo partially delivered, as fotne bold fptritSj even among 
the Romansj bave hintcid '. ' . ■ - ^^ 

T Deriiyddo/tt or Druid Bards, were the fathers of Literature j as is manifdl by tiic following exiratli 
from the works of the Biirdsj and others, >/, 

Denrjdditn dijdhur^ Ye fapicnt DruiJs, . ^^ ." . 

Barogaiwch i Atihur. Prophcfy fo Aithtir, ' 

Tal'icfin's Poem of the Cnittlc of Goddau. 

Jfjj ^^r namyn DiiWt a devvtmn iyd^ tlidden but from God, the magi of rfie world; 
J Diwyd Ddsrwyddon. — »— Cj-nddclw* and in vcaigaring Druids, 

.' . -. •-■,:-. ^ ' ■• 

Dywawd Dcrwyddoit Druids celebrate the re-appcarmg 

Dadem biielion^ ■• ^ of the liberal rulers, -.^ 

" , itii eryrm ' . pofterity of the wairiors , •' 

O^ryW, &C, '■ '' i^fjdydJyMoth. Of Snowdon**— 

?mp. Mela de fdit crbis, I/i.3. and Tacitus, calleth the Druids (Sapieftiia Md^i^ri,) the Mailers of 
"Wifdom. We are alfo Informed by Crefar, that their order and difciplifie originated in Britain, and was 
from thence conveyed into Caul ; and thofe, who deriredto be psrfeilly inftrufted in the dofhine of che 
Druids, came over into Britain to be taught ". 

Ammianus Marcellinus tells us, "In thefe places, among the rude unpoliftied people, gtew up the 
knowledge of aits and fclences, begun and fet up by Bards, Ovades, and Druids '^" Likewiffi, Diogenes 


' Rowc'1: Lufan, t. I. T- 79c, tc 
'Buctgiiii VitHT" Lucan'a FliarfLiitiai ■ , 

* C^/dr, ind Qthcrsf cnmpr«b«nd ^ill the three Of otrsof Bar' 
difm under itie gencrnL n^tme of Drtiid). Crefar's CEJTninentJi' 
rJGt, Bouk Vl- cli»p< 1 J. and C^rEc'» Hifl- of Hni' l^iiidj Vu), L 

"• J/nmi/tHUi Mwret^Tsnut, Lib, X^. ^yay. 9. M«na Jrtd^na, 
AUb, tVfiii'an^u* La^ivit tupau ells rcpnrt of Martflfiuui) ilc- 
cbretlir t^jt Lhe Grccl^ \cn.sri wcfit tir^^ lirO'U^ht tQ AritcoA by 
T'tfiaiiBti, truii] Ehe Uruidi. The Scrljnure inrDMiu us* tlmt 
Aibblofj viiU Hebrew \dizii were iuvtatcd by Stlij aftd 

Til* ffjlUjwjrig^obfervaii(jiii 1^ tlic l-nc Lcwik Murru, Efi]. f* 
tMt curba« ic (inikj tbcfcfurg ,t Wkllj^Lve it Ittjrc iii bii own 
vdcda. - 

" The TJfittiH htttk arc tft b« fcea oti tlie fomb ftone of Cid- 
van, King of Norffv Wdcs. in t|te ClmrLh of Ll;in.^'adwjJadiir; 
in An^lc^y." Aidu fee A^nufija^s jT/mj .Aoj^mj, y- 15^- 

", For doLbiKiiCiefarciprefgly fey. ihaL iJw Dmnifi [vho 
tooktliirir firjl inftruAion frort^ Unt^in) liiJ thinn^crs to wma 
ilicir piiviTf ulTuirs iiw Cf^^i* futm uiuKtur, C^l^u de BelN 
GiilULih. VI. thflp. rj.— And there wa^ a Ictici- Kvmn Mi-. 
Wniiam Maynce of Cewt y BraliLt to Mr. Kobcrt VhIUiiIub 
Lhe aniiciuary, Ki*ifg an aecouni <>f;i UritHh coin Cmcnit'tLigij 
m L'aniJcn'fc flritinnVa) of BltidJyd, Ut^JuJ. yrBlaios, a Kiug 
of Britain fome liuuJiads uf yean twlbrc Uic coiBiin| of tJio 
Romaiu i the coin is now in the CuttfiEti^n Libfiiry 1 but Caai- 
Jtn owiicJ h« ^uidJ luJk'j iioLkujf uf it" 


. I 


U^ilm rays of thm, " that they uughv obfcurely and GnFgmatically thdr poinw of phibfophy." , i^fi,, 
piiichi that in borrowing the words of Mihon, wc m^iy fay, 

»f Thai rather Greece frtnn us thete ahs deriVed ''J* 
the DniJds and Bards ^erc the divines, phllofophers, phyficians, Icgiflator^, ptophets, u^ tnurid«» 
Of the ancienr Brkons and Gaub. in the ime of Faganirm. They compofed hymn, for the ufc of the temple,^ 
,^d ftjng and accompanied them ^th their harps : (not unHke the fingers and muficians among ^he J.^ifl, 
LevitesO they fang the eflence and immortality of the foulj the works of nature; thecourfe of celefliaf bodiei j 
the order and harmony of the fpheres ; the encomiums on the virtues of eminent men -, In later peHodf, 
the Bards kept an account of the defcent of famiHes, emblazoned their arms, and wrote fongs on the 
valiant aflions of illufbrious warriors in heroic verfe, which they chanted to their harps ; and confequently 
were the national hiftorians. And from them our ancient hiaory hath been colkaed ; and not only ouri, 
but an ancient bUiories of other nations, (except perhaps the Jews,) have beencoUeaed from the fame kind 

of Materials. .- , ', ■, ■,■ n • 

Ye facrcd Barda, that to your harps melodious ftrings, 

Sungih* ancient heroes deed$^ (the monuments of kings ".) 

The orator Himerius, particularly defcrlhes the drefs of AbarJs, an Hyperborian, or a Britifli SigCj 
who travelled into Greece, and fays, ** Abaris came to Athens not clad in fklna like a Scythian, but with 
a bow in his handj a quiver hanging on his fhoulders, a plaid wrapped about his body, a gilded b«k 
encircled his loins, and trowfers reaching from the waift down to thefoles of his feet ".*' 

The Druids, and the other orders of liardifm, wore their hair Ihott, and their beards very long ; they atTo 
wore long robrs : but the Druids had on white furpLices, whenever they reJigioufly ofHciated'^ Tht 
habit of a Druidj taken from an ancient ClaTue^ is to be found in McTia Aniiqua ; and Druids and DruideRb 
are delineated in Frkki^f Cummentatio is Druidh ; and fee page IV, of the Iniroduflion to the 2d Vol, of 
this work* . ' ' 

This Bh^ii^i tlie Ton of Rliun, •vn% tfie foiindicT of Bnth. 
Some mcnlioncf !iiini& n^aJe tn Pcntitiu f^tmnim,iia^ ia John 
Utile's HLft^iry. 

Some jcAi-s ago, thtrt viwi ■ intdnl of our Saiinnr, with 
J^cbrew chrtm^Tfcri on iht rcvtrfe Tide of itj found ;«. Bryn 
Givj'n, OF Trthunil IcaE pl"" the Druids, in Acij^leJey j whith 
19 uow m the AOimote;!]! MLifcum, Oxl'ord. See Ji-Utta jimi- 
jwj, p. 9 J. of the 2 J cJition, 

CrefLir*ii ComTTcnurics, Book Vr chap, ro- ftys t " The 
BritoDj ufed brals. inoncy, juid iron rings of a certain w^cighi,'* 

There ftill rcnjilr many very aiicit:nt flrjtilh coins. Dr. 
Siukeley has f ivourtd the world wiih twcuity-thiee places of 
mipr«nion)j from ihe ancient coins of the We][h kings. And 
among them a coin of Bftidtfy^y Eljios, of BladnJ, King^oC 
Brit ail], aboiiE 900 years before Chrift^ Coins of Mtiai?£an Rix. 
T.'ho rei^ined about 150 yenrs bcfiirc the CliriillEJiLt cia ; of 
€ysvfiyn, or Canderia^ Klnj^ of the Callivclautvi^ (whofe royal 
feat ^Tas at. Cser-Mrguaid, nr Mulden, in Ei&x 1) In his ritgn 
oar Saviour was bom, Msurl^, ot Mariuj Rex, and hfs i\m 
Coel RtM, who Rourllkd about A, D. 137. Utt a& CotI, or 
Ltuhrt Rex ; In. whofe rcigdihe Britons embraced ihc Chrltlian 
faith, about A. l>. 179. Tojatfuauj Rtx^ i\>n of Cvbi^t^ji, 
Ain^of Gloueefterihire and Osiordthlrc, tlourilhcd A. a ^o- 
Caradogj or CaraSaaa Rtx, King of North Walts, And 
Pr^M'^ «'*-' King of Cambridfielhi™. Norfolk^ and 
^HftolJti who both rei^EicJ A* D, jo. Brnlfug, or BtuitTKU 
/ff^fM, A. p. 53. GwriFydtf. or jfnirajfiu Rtx, A. U, 6j. 
Otoij% at Ltmamg, or CiiigKut Rex, Ciillcd one of the Lhn:c 
Worthies of Biitiiin. ^ho ovcreaii.c the Romat^s in baitie, 
abouL fifty yean before the Chriftian erj. CantvtH, or C^hm- 
Jfttf, Emperor o( Britain, who was born at St, Uavid's, ^nct 
where hi* moneif wa* (track, about A. D. iHo i fee one of !.;& 
taiuinMoaaAnNqua. ^te ihc «ih, which was found in 

North WalH» der^Te thnr namen. iiome of thrfe heroes arc 

Ihc UBCttni Mni\ih char^iaert, whi^:h now 


pIM the |J»iijji kitcrii sirc^ill id l,c foLind ou HUi.. nn 

wtifi h^i fuHy e^f^tnined c^rery record eiLitit oathnt fubje^^ 
]iD]lcn:ly sillowii ]il hi« Hiftory" of l^C Ei^gltJ}! LaJigtl:igCf theifi 
^vorJs: "' Tiie Sji^tci^s^ lirll entered B:ii:;iiFi ^ifjoict ihc year 
jjo- Tli<?y feem to have bren a pcopk without ieanung^ aiiA 
very pr<>hably without an atphiibct-'' 

LiKc^^-irc Mr* Robert V^uglla!l ihe antiquary* in a letter 
Eo Ar^hbiLhc^p l^fbcrriliyi i ^* The IrlQi* and Saxon cbftradcii 
were the old Britift " 

Accorditij^ 10 Silmon** Cbronolo^ ^ in the early part of 
Alfred^Si rer^n^ there was hardty n laym^D ia Eiiglin^t^ 
CQLild re:td bngLifht ora pricLl that uilidcrL^Qad Latjni^ 

lu the time of KSlh^ Henry the VII Uhi there ^^s F&undit 
Amhrcfburyi 5n Wikihirt* a tnibk of mclili which ftppe^red to 
be tjn and k:id comn^l^A^ infcrlbed with itiniiiy tcttersi but u% 
fo (longe a chara^ccj that neither Slit Thuni^ts til^oc. nor Mr- 
Ldy, Scht>yl-im[tcr of St, r;njl'ii could rc^i,d it^ asii therefore 
xie^tc^cd it- Hid it been prefer vcdi probably it might Live 
ici tQ {otnt difcovcryt Sec GH/ca^t N^^ on CamdtM, 

If tlu! reader Tivilhei for u furlhcr iHnftration of the wtient 

Bricitb ieticrii I rel'cr him to Mr. Eiivtird Lt^vyJ'j i^amtl Pft- 

/ace, which is tranllitcJ Into Engldh i^ Lttvis^^ Hj/hrw t^^Srt^ 

Brii^Mi foLp. ^9. of the Lntroduiflion, A\iot Linvy^tArtU* 

ologuz firlia^^mca, pd ±2^f ice, nad p^ 25^. 

Ur- Hcrli^ his prekrvi^J ;a Icrks of BriLlfh coifti befort 
their tntcrcourlc with the Romani \, Sees B^rfafi't Am^jmitktwf 
Carjjwd//j chap^XlI, p. 259,1 ^^'^ ^^^ plaL^ MXtLl^ of iJlc lii^ 

" MiJton'i^ Paradile Renamed. And SelJenln hli Tr^tt, p^ 

16. fuys ; ** It ippCLir^ pljiidy* th*c the Druids wcr* LheHjlde« 

lUndinig among the t^hilufijphfri of the Gentlki^ jn^ Uia i»io4 

ancient itnioui^^ their Guardi^ui of l^iwi/' 

' ■ DruJhH 4? f^ffirJili^ a r^wK ' I'hc con nngvoui of t hjt Birdi* 

AV* dr^gOM Mjpjft Jrai^m t^tf^r. Cclebrntc na chiwfi bi^i ll«""*** 

Alfii, PJiuy, Tj.itni, Moiia Antenna, -ind Simaw'i BiiUtte*^ 

" Drwytoa^j Pu^iiplbion* iltSoanf. 

'' atmbti.Oat, AyuJ Pbitium ui BiWiothn p. iijj' IJ* 
Cartel HiHorf of Er^^tAjid, Vol. 1. p. 6g. .Ihriif tatSte'V 
/J^ATdf Uic do^iiuc of ti joliihi^iMLio* uj"^ ^uuk- C^tftri Mp- 
p. fii- tuid 64. And L#«r^'i ^, p, 7. 

"' TqhnlS NSaory uf the Dpuidt, p. ai. UauA AmthM* 
P^4f-I iLEidiSdtnmi^^ BHt^ u- i^i^ 




*rhc DruifKcal 5^rJj Kkewife wore an ecclefmftical ornament during the ccIebraEioQ of their riles, called 
Bardd ptxtvll, which was an azure garment with a cowl ro it : " The fey-worn robes of ten'reft Wue." 
Thtfe«rrc afterwards warn by the lay monks of Bardfey Ifland, in (he beginning of Chrmianity, and were 
then called C-iO^Jau Dmit or Black CowJs : (at which place MyrxJdin the Bird fludied, ended Isis days, and 
was buried.) The Gaufjr, who borrowed this cuftom from the Bards, wore the Cacaltus remarkably iongj 
whence it obtained, on its being n^ Ic ufe of at Rome, the name a^ Bards atculhs \ or the Bard's Cowl, or 
Hood ; which h M\ worn by the Capuchin Friars^ _ . . 

The Qvyddit^n, a thl,-d dafs of Druids, wore green garments ; the fynibol of Youth, Learning, and Lov«. 

.' • ' *' Peace o'er the world her olive-waml extends, 
' ■ ■ • " Arid whi[e-rob'd innocence from Heav'n defcends." 

■ The Saccrd[j!al OilIlt of DruUs wore white ; as an emblem of Truth, and Piety* The Bards, who 

*'erethe Ruiijis^ Oidtr, wore uni colour blue roBes ; the fymbol of Heaven, Pgace, and Fidelity. Thtfc 

colours are ftill worn by eccltffiaflkal perfons. Blue was the favourite colour among the Brituns, from \ht 

earlielt time. — An old WcSIh provtrb occurs to niE, which is as follows i 

- . » .* 

Tgivtr ids, at chylt mo'i lint, — The true blue keeps its hue. 

There are ftveral fcattered relics of the Bardic proli:flir>n, which fljll may be traced in this Ifiiind m 
the names of places; fuch as Ala^v^r Bdrdd^ the portion of the Bards, In the parifh of Llanvachreth 1 
Lhni'ihsn^ei isc'r BafM,-tht habitation of the Bards, in tlie parifh of St, Michael ; and Ah^rveirddt or 
ihe Bird's Rivcrj in Anglefey. Ma^ny JIardd, tlie B;ud's Stone, or Tomb, near Bwkh y Dd^uvaent in th« 
parifl] of LJati^luninj Caemarvonfliirii : atid iSryri y Hart ^he hilluf the Bardi, near Tal y Cavn : Fmtre'r 
jStirdd^ tiie vij],ige cif the Bardsjin the parilh of Ci^gjdva, Montgnmerjrhirc, Qurt Brynn y Siirdd, the 
Court-hill of the Barkis, near Llandetio vaivr, Caermarihtrkdiire. And Crocs y Bdr^ the Crofs of the 
Bdrds, in the p-trifir of I'gUvys Han, Clatnorgariihirt f* 

From the Welfli word Barddt is derived the Englifh word Bird, and the Latin Bardus; the plural \% 
Beirddt Bjrds, or Bard I ; And, Barddm, Burdch'nJ, and B^irddoniaciht is Poetry, Htlbry, or Philofophy. 
We are informed by Smtho, that Pottiy was the firft rhibfi^phy ihar ever was taught* 

Tie Druids, txpdied from Britain by Cajfar's legions, took rcfuj;e in Ireland^ Bardfey, the Tfle of Man, 
the Illj of /Jh, or Lma, and other places, which th^* R nnan fword could not theti reach. The theory of i]i« 
Briufli Mufic moved with their, and ftitkd in thofe regions, which from ihat period were fjr many ages the 
feaiji of learning and philofophy, till wars atid dilTej^riotis buried almofl every trace of them in oblivion** - 

IheBirda, hivin; riov lotl their facrtd Dniidica! chara^sr, began to appear in an honourable, though 
Icfs dib^nificd capacity at the courts of the Br^tiih kings. The 0*ik MUfelto * was deprived of its ancient 
authority, an J the fword prevailed in its place* The MuQc as well the Poetry of Britain, no doubt, 
recefverl a lin^urcfrom the mariUl fplrit of the times: and the Birds, who once had dedicated their pro- 
feffion 'e the worfhip of ihcgods in iheir fylvan templeSi the celebration of public folemniiies, and the 
prailc of all the arts of peace, and who had repreft the fury of armies preparing to rufli upon each other's 

Ipears : now . — . With other echn taught ihe fhadcs 

To aijlwer, and relound far other fong*. 
If, while BiiintLn re^maiiied a Roman province, the defukory wars produced any compofiEionfi that deferved 
to live, they were dcllroyej by the calatnity that occafioiied ihein* 

1 have extrafted what related to the Bards frotn an ancient manufcript, called fTrkeda Tnys Frydam, 
(The 1 riaii* of the Hit of Britain :) fuppoled to have betn De^un about the third, or fourth century*. Thit 
it a brief Chronii^Le of the molt remarkable occurrencesj or tradiilotu of former times } andappeusta 
bave, been coniinut;d to the feventh century, which is the laEcft period noticed in that memorial* Tho 

' Marlial j'aiid Siinmc^fc Br3tatiiir;a, p, irfi^ Intie Monallcry 
of St. I>[»vid'i* nl-Niui tht b<'j|iDmn| of ibe ii*yh century; th,tf>- 
Vi-fc LiHiiilllcd witli jTHrntfliti iiJ iUiat, And in I hi: MdUllflcry 
eJ Chm^jt k\w \\*^\l mI: chi: MLiiiikj i4Mi> R orr^t truck witb II 
bUck ItiXidi over R wEmlc j^ki'Tiiciui, Gnkiui iJ^jtmiifimivit'i Mj/i, 
9j MtMi^ai Qrdirt, 

\ IVtmcrlj. ihorp wjii b faiTiil^ uT iha w^tat. of B^tdi ibAt 
lived -ii KiJti.-jtKiri]i]|rbr ^ijiJ ii» vlitun^uoi of Cufcri^aJilr 

* An Aci^nuncof tlie Brjtini or CintbriiiiL Mufic, by Mr. 
Lcwii Morriih Hid. CiU^j apusl Gj.I:c5 Scripiarei, Vu). J* 
[1. ifi. aiuJ LcwLii'i Hiftorjf uf BrU. p. ia8. 

^ Ad Vifivih Druidi, Druiih ctudnftJaUktitt* Ovii4* .Au4 
Mim-i Antiqii-ir 
^ Milioji's PiiraJife Loft, 

* Urj pruki1jJ;^muLh74rJicr> , 




u. ^.nt tk«ftfore k curious, as it gives an idea of the manner m which the Brkons commemorated ctcMi. 
T^^^h^f obfea obr.rv=d m its conQruftion, is the wrangement of three fimibr incident,,, ,t 
LbkaiTti each Triad : only thof. fcem :a be felefted that were deemed the moft important of dfccnt 
cbffes ; and are happily contrived to allift the memory. 

Jrjr Eufgryd Tny: Fryddin, 
Cafwathfi mab Bsfi^ pan aetb i getfiQ ^iar 

byd yrt Rhitfain j ' 

M&m-j^ikn nmb Lljr, pan fa hyd &r Bdyfed J 

A Unv LiawM^J, p^^ fuefa G-K^dian, 
fn^ceift9 benw, ac Arfm^ y gsn Risrst y Fram. 

TriMnrchg Aardavodh^ yn Llji Jribur, 

■ G^nkbmai mat Gzi-yar j 

- Dryd-ujsi mab I'ryphin ; ' . ' 

Ac Eitwl$d nialf Mads^ ah Vthr. 
Gwvr d&iihhn Qffddynt^ ac m$r dig a llaryaiddt 
4ic mar hyawdl a hyna'wj yn si /iymadraddisn, az y 

The Three golden-robed Heralds of the Ifland ofBrltalo: 
Cafwallon fon of BelJ *, when he went as far ai Rome 
forFlur, (his Queen;) 

Manawydan fon of Llyr, when he went to Pem- 
brokeihire j 

And Llew Llawgyffes, when he went whh GwdioQj 
to follch a Name, and Arms^ of Rhiarot y Vram; 
(a celebriired King at Arms.) — — 

* Cofvteilon rci^ccd about 55 Tcarg before Chrilt, 

The Three golden-tongued Knights, of the Court of 
King Arthur : 

Gwjikhmai §3 Ton of Cwyar ; 
Drydwait fon of Tryphin \ \ 

And Eliwlod fon of Madog ab Uthr ; 
Thefe three heroes were fo candid, gentle, and elo- 
quent, pofleDing fuch foftnefs of language, that 

hyddauanbav^ddl 7icbbaiiu iddytit o*r Tse^efauageifyni. \^ feemed impoffible for any one to deny their 

requefts. ■ 

§ G val chirt,"it was nc phew Eo Art hiir, and lord c f Pcmbrokefhare* 

Triphi/Fardd Tnys Brydm* 

Mirddyn Emryt ; 
Merddyn mah Morfryn ; 
A Thalieftfi pen Biirdd. 

Tri Givayurttdd Bslrdd Tnys Frydabu 

TriJ/ijrdd, Bdrdd Uriert ; 

Dfji^ ynel-Wf Bardd Ownin ; 

Ac A/an Ferddig, Bardd Cad-U/vIkn ab dtdfan^ 

Tri Ofir.fekdd Tnys Ptydain* 
Bretihm Arthur ; 
CadwaUon mab Cad/an ; , 
A Rhyhswd sit MorganU 

Tair An/ad Fwyellawd Tttyt Pryddin, 
Btaytthnvd Etddyn ym mktn Anfurin / 

A'r Fwyclioiid Liaw^ad irwm barga'ivd Eiddyn 

ym mBin A/sscumaii Talkfin ; 

A*r Fwyiiii^'d ym mkfa Gt/Iyddatt Far^ 

The Three principal Bards o^ the IflanJ of Britain, 

Merlin Ambrofius j 

Merlin the fon cf Morvryn ; 

And T^LlieHn^ the Chief of Bards. — — 

Hi: :iE^';LiircJ iliis title^ from having Gjng The Silm:t e/t&i 

BarJsy Ifi the pretence t>f 33. of ihz trJcr, ^ the tJaurt laf 
Prinijt Maclgwn J ;iiid tl^nt w;ii probaUlj' at a MliIicliI anJ, 
Poet'CLi] Coiitcft -f ufLcr 1(11^1 tJim;, Iiciy^uciilJcdTji^icliiij Hi^id 
uf the Birds. . • • 

The Three Bloody fpear Bards of the Ifle of Britain, 

Tfiftvardh, Trince Urien's Bard j 
Dygynelw^ PrmcL' Owen*s Bird j 
And Avlion VerJhijj, King Cadwallon'i Bard, — 
They flourifhed about A, D, ^90, 

The Three unqualified Bards of the lOe of Britain : 

(that is, who were Poel«j but not brought upr^ulirljr 

in the order of Bards %) or, the Three Tricing ?u£ts : 

King Arthur tt 

King Cadwallon, fon of Cadvan ; 

And Rhyh;iwd fon of Morgan, ^_^ 

f Thcr^ Aill rcin;ua fume vcrl'ci cuukpofcd by Ariliuri anJ 


The Three hemoua battlc>axc bbwt of Britain: 

The flroke of Eiddin, on the head of AneuHa 

the Bard i 

The flroke of LlawgaJ irwm bargawd Fiddy[i» 

on the head of Avaon^ fon of L'iilicfiu ; 

And ihit uii the head of Go^ydhju thg BatJ. o**^ 



Slmur mab Cudair ; fCadtijr.J 
Cynhafni atab Jrgad i » 

jffaen fmb Taikftn. 
Tri miib Beirdd neJdynt, 


The Three SrrtGfKbl* Chiefs of the lOaadof Briuin! 

Elmur^ fon of Cidalr ; / . 

CyfthaviU Ton of Argad ^ ^ 

And Avion, Eoq of TiliefiiU , . 

They were Bardi* and fcn* of Birdi. ^^ 

^ y cani AriAitr Engljn idilynt rtyj ani^^ : 


The Three urtdaunfed Cl]icfe,a,nii kiughts of bittlc 
of K ng Anhur'a Cuurt, ihat never owned a comp- 
tTDtlcr over ihem i and to whom, Arthur fgng the 
folloviing flmzJL : 

TtKfe arc my three knigbfs of battle, 

Alaelf and Lfddd did in armour ; 

aiitl the pillar of Cambria, Curadctr. ^^ 




£7ij ^ddyi2 ynyi /If/ilk^b ; 

^r trydydtiym A/jji^or /j j^ c&rd~ 

T*mb(^ un cr iri ilf lymy^ J> c^dJ i+oO fl w^r 
crffyifdol^ a£ ff> r^ J/ /^^^^ I oo cy/fi^ru^idioi i^ ^^r 
p> 34^11 y dydd a'r n^i^ yn par/j.^u mcwn gzvi^ddiau a 
^u^/anufth i Ddsr^ yn dJidr^ic ddwrj^fruys /^ tL 

Call^ ma& DyJ^y/eddawg ; 
V^tdel^ mab Dyf^yfidJ^^u^ ; 
jig 7/gwHet/^ ffw* Dy/^ yfiddazv^.. 
5>i BcirdJ^ a miib Bjrdd i^'dJyf^f* 

Tri tl^r'^ddi^'diiws i/'j vfrj^rr* 
jS Hdfdd Cy^df'z^yrt' 

* ClFJ:i's reports, thut JfHcph of Arim:ithc,i w:ta fcziK tyj 
FhtlL^j the A|icjLLLe to ihis illni^l in the dntys nt" G^i^ify^ifOr 

Arvingill Itrngnl' Brit-^ijli A, I), to- |]e injjni.^t*:*! the Brj- 
tontisillieC^sraJti^ni fLlichpici tli<!ill^^cf/Vv[iioaiaHorOJ.iHi:^nVLLrj'j 
wJwTi; he LuiLl u churcha ivlsicli w:u .iJ'tcrwsLrJs cajivcrl^J il^lQ 
ail iibbcyj, t]fcc llLtrpe-is derived i'vom nzyaSoj%^ or jpp[c Ltc-j*. 
CiraliJu^ fiHyipit ^hnund^d fonii^r]}' with [ipplcs. :irJ nrch^LrJs. 
and \v:ls fu rpyuci^JcHJ wjrh Av:itCn iicc J/ifi^™^'/ Gjj/{j2f^i^rj. 

'' iij.]\ihur/t ^T Lhc old S^irbi^jdLEjmjiir was :i cicy t^i great ;Ui- 
lu^uity in Lhc time of ih? llrLEons. But it bciii^ eJie fcit ot 
W;ir> rcj^Jercd i'. m\&l fnr ftuJf und CDntrmplihtioiSr The pre> 
fcnt 4:lLy ofSjIifburyi ciillcd N^^v ^.iriun^ wa^ r^i^r^J oui ufthe 
ruins of the old, ivOiich tt^xid u|iC]i :i hillh ^nii hiiict ha epifc-op;!! 
tCj ^ildc^thedr^l- ifiolihiduraiins, derive iiai-um ffOtn JtfrJTW> 
ihe fun uf ikfLr^bu, vho reigned pvcr ihc CcL[i bib;;itt irUc ye>ir 
of chc wodj 3D4^»^!:Ldp to rcrLLrjimhe ^ercejitiTh-or hh pcopkp 
jaaAjtukJ puLlk I'lzJinoli, Fcric^LLauf C;4iu$,^ m hU Anii^jjuitii^t of 
Cambridge. Taysp tlut<J:ir[^Jifl Lh4j third kin^bf the Bn^uiitimJ 
CcHep Icvcd IcnrHin^i iUiJ wai lIil firCl who ffjundcJ public 
DUiiielp or fcimiadritj yf jL;iL'ni.tii;3 LLinoOig lhc Dritotis orC«ki<i 
whence pncCti jnil pl&licprupJiurs \^^vc ndilti Sarronldgt wliic^ 
Were the r,jiniicu-ith ihc Dini^!^- 

TTic three perpetual choirs of the Iflaod of BriMto ; 
One was In the IHe of Jvjbnia \ in Somcrfet&iire ; 
the fecond ^t Sahjlury^^ in Wihftiirei and ihe third 
ai ^tJfljfiJr-jj-fctfc/'j in fJintfhire* 

In each of thele tbrcc abbeys there were two thou- 
find four hundred rcrligioui pcrf^na; one hundred 
bcin^ appninced io attend the choir for eacli hour ; 
fo [h^K chty chanced in mTUcSon without mteriitiflion i 
B[id, VA the cnuffi: of ih^ day, and Jiightj the whole 
perfoTincd their duty, that the fcrvice of God migh* 
be without ccafing* ^ 

The Three Soverdgni of Dcira^ and Bermcia : 
Gall* lhc bn of Dyrgyvc^dhug j 
Dyvcdcl* the foil ot Dyf^yvcdhog; 
And Yfgwncll, ihe fun of Dyf^^vvedho^ ; 
ThefL' werLT Baids, and fonj ot a Bard ; and Courilh- 
cd about A. D- 5^0, — ^ 

The Three Free guefts of King Arthur's Court ; 

Prince Llywatch Hen ; 
Llunihunig ah M^on j 
And Ikkdd Gyndrwryn : 
(Theyalfo were Bards.) 

I Cara^3<:Li^ i^ho made himfclf fnmoui abont A. D- fot The 
! im\u jLliJi mLnudturjr oi Ambrtfturyp neiir SLUilbury, _ wcni 
■. tbianJcdhy Auruliu^ AmbroLiU*! Jihiiuc A. D, 4S0; whOp in the 
' dertcaiJiun of the H.^im:iBi Hmpirc^ aiTiimed the ^OvcnlJiiejlt of 
BritL^LSk, and \^-\\h thc^iniitaai^c ol'tJie vAliautAnhurf^pelkddJL 
ibreicn inviiders. 

* LiKitiSp fon qf GocI, cnJltd Uj th* Bmansi LUt a'r if^v^t 
no-jw^, (L-jiiius with thejjrcia ipSciiLlor oE li^hi^j who wm< ihc 
lliLt ChrjLliaii King flf Briwinp aj-d reigned itbout A.. D. j Bo. 
ThJi Lucius, I'tjr itie L]]*:rcHtfc fjf Iciming sind prctcl vitfJQ oC the 
Chpiittan la:th in hii rc4ilcnp founded Lhefetnifla-ry of Daflgor-ii- 
coed, &i;ai- \V^^:lh^m, Ni>r^h WJes , which {;oataLaed a iralua- 
bleiibriiry, iindcontinta^iisjo je^irs- HnvLnjj broughc upinanj^ 
learned mcii [ '^t larti Cynwjt^ Of Ccmgelds, cuavcfted [t iVona 
MnuplvcrCitjr into nn abbcyp iod wu himfelf che tirll abtrtC 
ch^^re^iifih iibQUt^A. D-iJo. 

It :i recorded, thjc this cekbrnted monaJlery extended near 
a mik, iVoni P^r$i C/tu, to i^^i^i //wjjd* ; names of two of in 
ir:iici, imt of th* Jli poriefi orchard ui' thiC kibbey. The river 
LJcc now runi between where th( two diLtant jfAtci flood." 

Likcwif^^ CuMiMi LI fiiid to have buUc a temeic at thii 
liangor. ;,tboLii Hoo year* hcfort ClkhA* Tj^/m', Srii- i/# 

t I 





« < 


J • 


' \ 

- ^ 



Tri Aerfcdda-Jjg Tnp Prjdatn. . 
Selg mah Cy7ian Garwyn t 

Afaon mab Tallcfm I 

J G'waih'wg mab Llecna'Wg. 

Scfachwdus y gd'Wid incyntyn Acrfcddogion, 

wrib ddlal cu cam ''oc cu Bcdd* 

* I^^ 


Tri Gcgyfurdd Ltjs Arthur. 

Rhyhawd all Mcrgant ; * ' " ■ 

A Dalidafm! Cynm ; 

'A Tbrjflm ah Tall-wch. ... 





\ * 




' ... Tri Chyngljonad Fa'-chcg Lljs Arthur, 

Cynon ab Clydno Eiddyn ; 

Araivn ab Cynjarch ; 

A Llywrach Hin^ mab Eiidyr Lydanzvyn, 

W . 1 

Tri Serchog Tnys Prydahu 
Cafwallaiun mab BcU am FJIur,firch Fugnach Gor ; 


Try [fan mab failivch am EJfyllt^ferch March 
ab Meirchiawnj ei Ezvytbr ; 
A Chynon mab Clydno Eiddyn am forfaJd^ 
ferch Urien. ' 

Tair ffymn g^juybodacih : 
C r chivy Uy yjiyriaeth ; a dyfgeidiaeibm". 

Tair Unbgnn Gerddi ' 

-• • • 

Tw'Prydu. . ::. ' .'_. " ,i ■ " 

CanUyTelyn; '' " ■:..^':.\^._,. 

A Chyfariuyddyd. '■•■ ^ - ^- • •* ' ' '"'■: 

Gcraint, mu'r Bar^dGlds o*r Gadal^^ a aeth yn 
Fardd Teiyn i Aelfryd, Brenbin Llundain. 

" * 

' . 1 

« » 

% ^ 


The Three War- tombed Heroes of the Ifle of Briuin ; 
Selyv, the fon of Cynan Garwyn \^ 
Avaon, the fon of Taliefin ; 

And Gwallog, (Galgacus,) the fon of Lleenpg. 
The reafon they were called War- tombed Hertfes, 
was becaufe the wrongs done them, were avenged oa 
their graves. — 

Galgacus Rex flouriflied about 50 ycurs before Chrift. 

■ ■•• • •. 

The Three Com peers of King Arthur's Court ; 

Rhyhawd, the fonof Morgan ; 
Dalldav^ the fon of Cynon j 
And Tryftan the fon of Tallwch. 

This Try (Ian was an cromcntBard as well :i% a Warrior. It 
nppeiirs, by an ancient dialogue poem, which I have In my pof- 
feliion, that he had abfenccJ himfch"from Arthur^ Court three 
yearsi on account of fomc umbrage which he had conceived. 
Arthur dilpatched twenty-eight of his knights at different timeS| 
to fetch him ; but none could prevail by fair means, norVy 
force J 'till Gwnlchmai, the Golden tongued Bardic Hero; 
fuoiiic J him to return- 


% --m. 


1 t 

'■* -w * 

The Three Knisht-counfellors of Arthur's Court: 


Cynon, the fon of Qydno Eiddyn j '' ,; 

Aron, the fon of Cynvarch ; - '■ - 

And Llywarch Hen, the fon of Eiidyr Lydanwyn. 

Prince Llywarch H^n, Hke Cxfar, wrote the Hlftor^r of his 
Wars : fo did Prince Howe I ab Owuin Gwynedd defcribe his 
own battles, in a very poetic, elegant, and in a modcft manncn 
like wife, Owain CyfelIo;j, Prince of Powys^ did the fame. 



Y^ Vi 

. -^*^ 


The Three amorous Princes of the Ifle of Britain : 

Cafvvallon fon of Bell, in love with Flur, daughter' 
of Mugnach Gor; _ 
Try (tan fon of Tallwch, in love with Eflyllt, daughter 
of March ab Meirchion, his Uncle ; ' '^ 
And Cynon, fon of Clydno Eiddyn, (or Clyno of 
Edinburgh,) ifl love with Morvudd, daughter q{ 
Urien. • _, ' •'; 

The Three fountains of Knowledge : 
Invention J ftudy ;' and experience. 

The Three Principles of Song ; 

Is to compoiePoerryj.,, ,,^ ^ 

To play the Harp 5 ^' 
Ajid Erudition. -^ • 


* ■ 

fc - . 

Geraintj or the Blue-robed Bard of the Chair, wa* 
fent for by King Alfred j who made him his Chief 
Bard of the Harp, 

Probably, this Glas y Gadair is the fame perfbn that is ccb" 
brated by Chaucer, under the name of Giis-cicion, 

Taliefin f in a Poem called his Wanderings, fays : 
** 1 am Etphin's chief Bard." 

** I have been at Gwynvryn, the Palace of Cyavclyn.* 
*« 1 have been chief Bard of the Harp, to Leon Kifl|^«» 

; Norway.** 

" Ihad 

_ a vein of poetry from Gridwen the aged.** 
'* I kaow t^ L^^uijig a^ud Poccvy of uil Ui« world-'' 





At the comm«iccm*^t of the f:xth century, wc find the Bards refuined the Hirp w!th aflufdil fcol JneTlj 
lo animate their country's lad fuccftfaful ftruggle with the Saxons : forjudging from the wmaiiis prefeiTedj 
thdr poeik.1 effufions fpreid very gmeral about thai peii^l* But from the mnth to ihc ekvenlb ^ury, 
thdr^^«* or mufc, fcems to have received a check, if wejudgfi from the fcardty of p^ecfii in that 
MriL>d ; Lhouj^h lo decide from foct a clrcurnawice may be dduforf, when it li confidercd what dcvafll- 
lion pcrfccutions, and wars, brought over their country j involving in the confequence a great deftruaiort 
of manufcriprs, Such a lofs fiemsvery evident; for iu the eidlfihtened, and in fomi: degree the tranqml 
rdjrn of Hvu^lD^^. poetry muR have been highly ch.rifhed ; yet not a fmgle piece is pteferv^], to i cer- 
tainty of theproduainnsof that reign. The hiatus cominuestill the time of Prince Gn^udd^b Cjrrt^«,wheii 
ve are charmed *kh the nervous Mufe of Meilir, ^ho was the father of a noble fuceeflion of Bards, that 
brought the Poetry and Language of Wales to the higheft perfedion j bot that C,l4^n Ag, of mjh Pcetrf 
experienced an awful clofe in tlie ihiriftHtit century, on the death of t^^H th* Uft Prmce of Wale*. 

The Names of fome of t]ie moft Ancient 
and the Time wherein they flourifhcd. 

PIcnnydd. and Orcin*; Bards who fioatifhed before 
Chrift. (Recorded by Buie: ^ndm Le-^ii'i J rtd^^t 
Ht/icry r/Britmn, p. 9O Th(:fc^ Bards.and fiic others 
of ihe tiiTlieR. are mentioned by I^dEiiund Prys, 
Archdeacon of l^leirionydd, (wlio wrote about the 
y[;ar ijSoj) in the :Gth of the contending Poems 
betweiii hliii and Wiiiiam Cynwal; a coiemporary 
Bard, En the following interrogating lines. 
*^ M.^c PlE:Iinydd, inab b;^ laivniuaitb t 
** Mj^ Oron, ^lt ffjawr kn kith ^ 

Mae iin Rhuvin, min rhyveJdf 

Mff£ gtt^^in'tKi Mcugant, •i^dmidd? 

MLlgin^ a Mcvin ^J^'fjfr, 

Madog, iJ Chadog iach w'r ; 

Trhiun Bcddyfit rhinwcddmifU 
«* Me-u,m doi'thdir, m-ieynder a tnawl ." 
"* Briveirdd htb '■^ara-vufi ; 
" Jr NiJdJwa'wd baravjd b6b un. Edmund Frjt. 


Where i$ PkvydJ, whofe verfe wa& bold and rich ? 

Where is Oron, thai great Prince of our Langua^^e ? 

Where is R/mvln, of the wonderful lip? 

Where is the authoritative Meugunt, whof^; fong was 

like the fparkling mead ? 

Where is Af^/fw? \V here is Mcvin the fludioua t? 

• With Mado^, and Cado^ ; celebrated names ? 

• Thele were tamed for thdc virtuea^ 






and Eminent Biitifh Bards, and Hiftoriam . /. oO 

Were reno^svned for wifJom and benevolence j 
Wert Primitive Bards, whofc fupetior meriti 
are univerfally allowed ; 
All ikilled in the fclence of poVifhed vetfe* 

Tri Cbyntevi^ion Bdrdd Gorfeddsg Tnys Prjdain ; 

P/enttyddi Afjuftt, a Gwren, 

The Three primitive Legiflitive Bards of the llland o£ 

Britain ; were Pknnyddy AlaivRf and Gvrrun : 

They Go uri died about 430 years before^ Chri ft ; See 

the »d V oL of thii workj tbcBardk Mt^eunu p- 3 , S > ^'' ' 

GUdiU Cimhriuj.Bitd to Ar^iraftUB, King of ^ , 
Britain, who flourillaed about A. D. 60 } he ia 
commended for his Poetry, and Learning, by 
John Bale> m his Scri^i^res Anglki; and by 
Lillius GiralduSj who fays he wrote the annals of 
the Britifli Hlftory, and tranllated Dyvnwal 
Moelmtid's Laws inEo Latin ; which were after- 
wards tranCited into Saxon by King Alfred*. 

Gwdion ab Don, Lord of Arvon ; an eminent 
Philofopher and AQronomer, about the year 45" 
" Giifdiifi jnab DSHf ar Gemayf 
" Hudlatb til bu a'ifaibfiuy" D. Gwajtd* 

Catf-piidm, (the milky-way in the Heaven*,) 
U fo called from him. 

Bachariua, a learned Briton, and difciple of St* 
Patiic'j (called by Bak, Melgan Vatcs-) He 

I fludicd 

SIrW. Glyn- 


+ McJin, a l*L«t niKl PfHjnuct, who iloLirifhcd \u ihc tlihe 
Gwrthcvfn, «r Voni^crti, King of Britiip, ubout A J>. 450. 

■ Jt. X*.iLrickt ihe Ajjollle of IrelanJ, who wai toru IQ tiie 
Vale of Kh*-, m Pcnibrokelhirt, about the year 57 j, U C*iuJ,^ 
teiicfopd Cal]3liunytti and tench a. but accor*iii]* » in* 

pediRrttH whj;h 1 h»ve ^^^ in a^i nM manufcripT, aB J another 
Tbivc itcn "1 ihc Britllh Mufcum.wKich luni lIij* 1 ■* /"^^j 
St ai Ahryti, "h Gt'ifi^y, o W^riddami jn jitveni th^t it, 
St F*, Itif] cif ALvrydn fon "I iiron^y, n| W-trcddawg, m 

^(K^jf, or Pairkk*6 Ciufewaj-i al/t^ Ik buHt H Church ia 
AiirkleT, c^cti /./sniMfri/ t and there are meadow* called 
It6£i SaJri^' Hii ori£ti3al Welfti o;mw; was 4fj™«K>'n, and hii 
ecckriAilicibl ns.mcaiFatriAiii wa* given him by IV.pc Ctlc^inc, 
when he ccrni* crated him ^ liilliDp,and ftnthnn a iiiL^uer tnta 
Irclindi to cuavcrt the Irillit "i ihe year 43 j. When P,itr^^lt 
hndcd near Wicklowj the inhjbitanLi Were t-ej.dy to Uottc him, 
for atterApEing an inuovaiton in the rtligicmot' their anc^ftoR' 
HerequctU*! lo be he4i4.d{ a3ni explained nnia ihcm, ih;it^ GhhI 
IS an oil] tii potent, facrisd SpiHr^who created Heaven, anJE-irihi 
and tttaL ihc Triutiy ii cout*iae4 ifl the Unity i biu ihej- «rt 
relua-jptto give c«dit to bit worii. Si. Pairict ibcTctor* 
pIwciciiaTrtfoil&ooi;bfl t^uad, aad ufviiaUed wtthth* 





ftidi^ at the Untrerfity of Cacrlleon, and wat 

X Pott, MafbetnatTdati, and Hiftorian, about 440 

rjkud^^chj t^e Bard of Cyftcnnyn fon of 
CtjitoTi King of Briiain, about the beginning of 
the fifth ceacary 

Meugant, a celebrated Bard, Philofoptier, 

46 c» 




— JOS 

— 500 

and MathemaricUn, of Caerlleon femiaary % 

Mcrddin YAtw^^yEarddGtUTthc^rn.QT Philo- 
fopber aiid CounfeUor to King Votiigern, aad 
a Prince of Weft Walea, — — — 

G*ion Bich, tnab Cwreang o Lanvair 
j'Nghacrcinion, yn Mhowysi a Bard, about, 47° 

Cywryd, Bard to Dunawd, the fonof Pabo 
port Prydain, _ _ ^ ^ 43o 

Gwyddno Giranhlr, a Bardi and a Prince of 
Camrt:*r Gwadod, \^ Mclrionyddlhire^ which 
was ATallowtd up by thefea, about A. D 
' Coll, fon of Ctjllvrtwy, principal Kmg &t 
Arms, in Arthui's rdgnj about A.D. 
for it appears in the Triails, that Coll gave the 
Eaj^k to Brynach, the Gwyddetian (or Irifh- 
man;) and the Wolf to Menwaed of Arllech- 
wedd« Thi» fhews the great antiqtiity of arnto- 
rial bearings amcngtlie Britons, 
Dyvrigj or Dubriiius, Mras a Bard, and Bifliop, joo 
Cadatr^a Biird; ai^d Father of ElmurtheBard^ 500 
AneurinGwawdryddj MychJcyrn BcirdJ, or 
King of Bards, and Chief of the Gododiniansj 510 

GwtiEchniai niab Cwyar, nanied the goltlea- 
tongued warrior, a Bard ^-^ —^ 

KLiwiodj ab Madogj ab Uthtir ; a Bard, and 
£.nighc to Kitig Anhur ^— -^ 

Tiuftan niab Tillv-ch, a difciple of Merddin, 
and one of the chief warriors of Arthur's 

G w ro n ab C y nvarch a Bard , a nd King bef. Chrifl, 45 o 

Dcwi Sant, a Bard, Giraidus wrote his life, 530 

LiywarchHcn, a Cumbrian Prince, and Bard, 530 

Talhaiarn TaJ Awen, or Talhaiariii Father 

pf theMufCj and domeftie chaplain to Ambrofius, 540 

Hibernians: ti U mt at Je4Me for i&e Fai&er, Sm, and Hofy 
Ci>o/l,aif6r thtfe ihree /m-wj, ihui to grow upon ^ jta^Ie Mi. 
Ihcn the Ii'ilk ivcrc imtHEilUiely ccmvlaccd oi'iJicir trror^ aad 
*crc IbltjnnJT biptlzcd by St. Patrick. 

Tills BriLifh SiiLjiE buHi rfivcr:ilCharcbe5 andftminflriesin Irt* 
land i thjt of S^iaU-PaJhris^ orPiirick'i Grange Domn^ch-mor 
i'fl^™*, Gf P-iCnck's grt^t Lhurcb j :ind the Myniltei j ot^r»n(iyi 
owed lis fouiidatiDu to him, and wai the printit;;*! fcJiuol of 
IreUud '. in Jhort he tiiight the Ic'A letters. Ntnnim's Hl^ry 
faysi ^' Patrick, the AjHiiHc at tli« Ij-jih, ^vrote j6j booki 



-^ J20 

nf A, B, and ys[ founded J65 Churches j confecnitcd t6e 
Jidh^sp*; oidiiiicditoo Prc%tcn > converted and bapiiicd 

i2,05Q men, tu the region of L'min^ught i auJ L.jptl,ed fevea 

ofMom>tE[>,andobu»jed three petition, f^m Htaveu for 
rhe l>.]ieifjng Ir.fh/' (One of ihnft petitioiu was; Uiat fi^ 
venomous crri-ij^resfliouMfver infjd Iwbnd i another prob^i, 
bly ^i«^ftat they, who bdievpj in his duaiiiit, Oioujj be 


Taliefn Pea Beirdd, Bard to Prince Elphin, 
to King Maelg wyn, and to Prince Utien Regedj e^J 
Ciaia, Vaen Gwyngwn, a Bard, ^ 
Y Bardd LlwycJ, Bard to Urien Reged, _ 
Trillvardd, Bard to Urien Reged, ^^ 
Ugnach ab Mydno, a Bard, — 

Gildas ab Cawj or Glldas Badontus, a B^rd, 
and Author of the EpiftU, (a Hi^cry B/Bntaint) 550 

Myrddin ab Morvrynj or Merlin of Caledo- 
nia; adilcipleof Taliefiu, and Bard to Lord 
GwTnddolau ab Ceidiaw, ^ ^^^ 

Dygynnelw, Bard to Prince O^^ain ab Urien, 570 
AvaoQ or Av^gddu, fon of Taliefiiu His 
father, in one of his poems, fajs, he poffeffed 
grcafer abilities than himfclf, ^m, 

Culvardd, or Hdnyn Vardd, ^ 

Afaph, a Britilh Hiftorlan, and Bi[hop, 
Dyvedel mab DyfgyvcdcJogj a Bard, 
KLttth, a Brifd, -^ _ 

Niniaw, or Nennius, Abbot of Bangor ts j 
Coed, in Flintftiire ; and a difciple of Elvod, 
He wrote theHiltory and Antiquities of Britain 
in Latin, ■ — -« «- ' 

Twrog-, the writer- of Tiboeth, a monadic 
record belonging to St, Beuno, which was for- 
merly at Clyncg Church, in Caernarvonfhire, 
Alfo, Turog is faid to have written a Britifh 
Chronicle -, , ^- — ^ 

Elvod, who wrote a Latin fllllory of the 
Britons, and was a Bilhop of North Wales m 
[he reign of Cadvan, — ™ -Ij "^" 

Llywarch Hir, Bard to Brochwel Yfgitbrog^ 
Prince of Powis, — ^- 

Tyffilio, a Blfhop^ and Author of Brut y 
Br^/tbifiacdi!, or The Hiflory of the Britifli 
Kings, — -^ 

Samuel, Beuhn^ a learned Briton, who 
added certain annotations to Nsnnitis*s Hj/iory ; 
he flourifeed under Cad van about the year, 
Avan Verddig, Bard to King Cadwallon ab 
Cadvan, about — ^ ^ 



*- ^ao 



fived fram pijr|iiory : for ilie third* I muft leave to the Iri4 
tn Knd out,; bt. Pjtrickii faid to h,ivt tived to the ace of ijd^ 
Hig hfcvas written by- T^^fWiw^ hyEwtit And MwiW, 

MojuJd Stira, i>t the Nobte Dcfcciit of Bridih Saints, dit 
Foundi:n of Churcliea and Religious Houfes. wouJd be aa 
inelVimable work, if tranfliited and piibhlhed j as it would thrmr 
much iF^ht on ancient hiftorf, us -well as un Britilh writers* 

' Alfi3t Fallidtus Prifcus, Bithop of IjDuaun> wai a !i;4iimJ 
HiflLorian, .A. D. 420* 

U^wMi. and ATrodiits, f^s Vicentlus fa]fs) were Britlih writm 

iind abbots, about the lime of Arihiir, A. D. 4I11* 

Confjellus* Abbot of Btngof I|yc4icd (iia O^Jc fj works, and tiuurithed ^ibum 530. 

M*chuiu». or M lelgonius^ S^mtufl, Eclibiriut, and Vigiw- 

fjyh) wrott 






Arovan, Bard to Selpab Cynan, — 

Mciganf , B»rd to King Cadwallon ab Cad- 
tan, abotn t^c year — p^ 

LicToid WyncbgbwT, a Batd, -^ 

Gpiyddan, Bard to King Cadwaladr, 

John Erif^ina, or Pitriclus, boni at Sc David's, 
1 very learned Latin Hiftorianj and thief Pre- 
ceptor to King Alfred, '^^ *^^ 

Affer Mcnevqnfis, aBrklfh Hi[lonan,and Tu- 
tor 10 KinfT Alfred, and to his chi^dtcn. Me was 
(he firEt ProftlTor of Oxford, and Amhor of 
the hfeof Alfred, -^ — 

Geraint, y Bardd Glasor Gadair, — 

M^ Cr^g, a Bflrd, — — 

Blegwryd, or Dlcj^ibredus, aBmilli HiElorian, 914 

loDufi Myiiyw, a Bird, — — 9^^ 

8 So 

Mdlir Brydyddj Bard to Fiinca GruGydd ab 
Cynan, about — — — iico 

Ccllan BencerdJ, chief Bard of the Harp to 
Pflnce GmfTydd ab Cynui, — 10S6 

Llewelynj and Gwrncnh, two PowliEan 
CramniaTlans and Toeis, 103° 

Blcddyn Ddi was y C.^'d, a Po^t, — 1090 

Y Bcrganji o Vaelor, in Dcnbighfliire, a 

Pott, sibout — — >^9^ 

R(^btn Duke of Nomundy, brother to WlU 
liamRutusi who, nbaut the year ito(j, was 
confined by King Henry the Flrft 3 5 years 
m Cardiff Caille ; during that period he is faid 
10 have acquired a perfc^ knowledge of the 
Welfh hinguagc and poetry, and to have been 
admkted a Wdfii Bard. This HngLilar cirrum- 
fiance is recorded m an old Wctfh hiftary of 
the Lords of Gbtnorganj from kftiti ab 
Gwrgant, downto Jifper Duke of Bedford. 

Bishop Urban, writer of Libcr Landavcflfis, 1119 
Gwrjtant ab Rhys, a celebrated Bard, 1130 

CaradocofLbnc^van, aBritilh iMorian, ujo 
Jcffcry of Monmogihj a flriiifli liiliorian, 
and Bifhopof St. Afaph, — 1 H^ 

Howel, the fon of Owain Gwynedd, a Bard, 
and a Piince, — — ^^4^' 

Peryv ab Cadivor, a Poctj ^- i '4*2 

Elidir Sals, an eminent Poet, — 1 1?^ 

Gwalchinal, the fon of Mt:iUr,BaTd to Prince 

Often Gv;yjiedd, »«*^ — 1^5° 

Cynddclw Brydydd Mawr, Bard to Prince 
Oweu Gwynedd J to Madog ab Meredydd, 
PHnceof Powis j and to Priflci; Davydd ab 
Owcj) Cwyncd(f, -• -- "i^^ 

T Llyvr Dll a Gaer-Vyrdditi^u e. The bladt 
Book of Caermarthen, which is in Hengwtt 
Library, Melrlonyddlhire* fuppofed to bo ono 
of the oldeil Wellh manufcript now extant : it 'a 
a quarto fize, confiRing of loS j:ages, and 
contains the works of the Barda of the fixtb 
ccjiiiiry. The firft part oJ it is very ancient j 
ihe writer unknown j and the latter part of it is 
thought to be tranfcribcd from othet old manu- 
fcripts by Cynndiklw Brydydd ftunsr, L c* 
Cyndddw the celebrated Batd, about A.D. 1150 
Qwain Cyveillog, Prince of Powis, a Bard, i \ 6(? 
Gwynvardd Brycheiiliog, Bard to Pnncs 
RhyaabGroEfydd, -* — I'So 

DvRynnclw, fon of Cynddelw, a Bard, — 1 170 
draUus Catnbrenfis, a learned BritlDi Hlf- * "- 
tonan, — — — — ^S^ 

Llywarch Brydydd y Moch, Bard to Prince 
Llywtlyn ab loru'trth, — — laoo 

Morris Morgannwg, a Rhfttorician and Poet, laao 
Etnlon, the fon of Gwakhmai of Treveilir, 
Bard to Llcucjyn ab iorwerihj or Prince 
Llewelyn the Great, — ' 1*3° 

Daniel ab Llofgwrn Mew, a Bard, — UOQ 
Hen Gyrys o laU Bach Buddogrej or 
Cwyddvardi Gyv^nvydd: a celebrated coileftor 
of \ Velfh prove rbs , ab ni t the y ear — 1 2 1 ^ 

Meddygon Myddval, who wrote a BilliHi 
book on Phyfic and Hurgery, by order of 
Pfincc Rhys Cryg, about the year — 133^ 

Yfludvach, a Poet, and Warrior, who is often 
cdt:brated by the Bards for his hofpitality; 
alio, a colledor of Wtlfii proverbs ; of whom . 
Davydd ab Gwilyni fays : 

" Gwir a ddywaii^d Tjludvacbj 
■ "^ G)-da'i/i'irJdyn cyfeddacL'* 

Einion Wan, a Bard, ' — ^ iM^ 

Adda Vras, a Poet and pretended prophet, ■' 
of Is-Conwy,in North Wales, about — 1240 
Phylip Brydydd, a Cardigatiihire Bard, 1150 

Einion ab Gwgan, a Bard* — 1230 

Bleddyn Vardd, Bard to Llywelyn ab Gru- 
fFudd, the laft Prince of Wales — ii6o 

Uavydd Benvras, Batd to the faid Llywelyn, 
who was betrayed at Buellt in the year ii8a, ^ 
Thij Bard enumerates twenty battles that hts 
prince fought. I'lourlJhcd about — iz6o 

MeilirabGwalcbniai, Bard to Llywdynthfi laft,! 160 
Cafnodyn Vardd — " i^Go 

Gwilym Ryvel, a Poef, and Warrior, — ia6o 
Grudydd ab yr Tnad Cucb, Bard to the lafl 

Pjinw Llywelyn, — — "7^ 

^ ^ Edcym. 


1 1 







A, a 


I^M--Cw^ (which la ftill In Jefua College Li- 
brary, Oxford,) from a Tcty ancient manufcrip^ 
called Lfjvr Herg(^ •■ 5 : f^.,; 

Davydd ab Edniwnd, yr Awdiir ariandlyfog, 
or chief Biird, — ^ 14^4 

Cutto o> Glyn, Bard to LlanEgwelll, or Vale 
_Cru CIS Abbey, in Dcnbighfiiire, — 1^^^ 

GuTtyn Owain, a Herald Bard, and Hiftorian ; 
reiidcd chitfly at Yftrad Fflur MonaRery m 
Cardi^nfliire, ^ ^ ^ t ' 

Cynvrig ab Groins, a Poet and Genealogift, 
who flounfhed about 1450. This Baid^ and 
Syr Meredudd ab Rhjs, who flouriflied in 14^^ *] 
mcnLons ihc difcovery of America, by Madoc, 
fon of Owen Gwynedd* 

Davydd Nanmoij an emhient Bard of Md* 
rioneththire, * — ^ ^14^0 

lorwenh Vynglwyd, Bard to Margam Abbey 
in Clainorganfliirtj -^ -^ 1460 

lonvcTth Cyriog, a chair'd Bard, ^ tifi? 
Llywarch Bentwrch, a Poet, -^ 1460 

Sir Jolin Ldaf, a Herald Bard, — 1480 

GruiTydd ab Llewelyn ab Evan Fychanji 
Herald Bard, — — H^J ^ 

Inco Brydydd, — — — 148* 

levan Ll*yd Brydydd^ "- 146* 

Rhys Nanmorj Bard to King Henry VIL t^to 
I'udur Aledj of Dyffryn Aled, in Denbigh- 
fijire, a celebrated Bard, — 149* 

Lewis Morganv?^, pencerdd y fair taliith^ or 
hkf Bard of the Prjodpelity of Wak^; and 
domcRic Bard to Neath Abbey ^ ijio 

Sy r Hu w P entiant, Olfeiriad , and Bard , i j la 

GrufFydd of Hiraethog, (in Denbighfcire) an 
excellent Bard, that flourished about the year, ajjo 
He was the preceptor of four eminent poets at one 
time ; and being alked, whi^h of his pupiU had the 
brjghteft genius ; he returned the following anfwer : 
" Dv/gidig Shn Tudur. The learning of Shon Tudur j 
GiViiks S^mwfit Vy<baa» The diligence of Simwiit 

Vychaa ; 
Awenyddawi William Cytmai. The prolific geaiiu of 

William Cynwal ; 
Otidi nid cffs dim cudSedig But nothing Js unkno^ffl 
rb&g William Uyn,** >o William Ll^n. 

For the lift of the fucceeding Bjfds, 1 mud r«fer 
my readers to the end of Dr. jfel^n Davif/t Antique 
Lingua BritannUa. And to Mr. Eikvard LbuyiTi Ca« 
talogue of atidcm Britifh Manufcripts, and Wdih wri- 
ters, inhia AnlsaUgia Britanrtic^^ P» ^'5* ^S^* ^^' 


• Til* MSRecnrdgfLlinJ^iffifflinrttantfCommDiiIj called tilt Bwilt of Su Teib, or EjlimJ* ihi ficend BUlK-pof tl>^ 
ftti *l»fit,uiiUwd \a, Uic nifin yf Kuig Aniiii- j wd of whitlij I hire a 'IVaafcriiit. 

tdeymDafrwl Aor,aBard and Grammarian. U 70 
Minwyn, a Gra^nmarian and Poet, «— 
tlygad Gwr, a Bird, -* 

fidnyved Vychan, a Bard, — 

Einion Oirdtiad, Wjnedd ; a Rhetorician 
find Poet, i— • — -^ 

Sel fyl I Bry f wrch, a Bard, — 

Lly welyn Vardd ab tywryd, — ' 

• Y Prydydd Bychan, Ddeheubarth, — 
Cadwgan ab Cynvrig, a Poet, — 

Gwllym ddfl o Arvoti, Bard 10 Pr. Llywdyn 13^0 
Dr. Davydd Dl'iI, o Hiraddug, in Flinirhire ; 
a Bard and Grammarian t from his knowledge 
In Chemirtry and natural philofophy, he got the 
name of a magician j he lived about the year 1340 

Traliaearn Brydydd Mawr, or Trahacarn the 
noted Bjrd, — "— — '37o 

Davydd ab Gwilym, or Davydd Morganwg ; 
Bard to Ivor H;ic], (Lord of Maefaleg, m Mon- 
tnouthfliirc,) and to ihe monaftery of Strata 
Florida — — — ^37° 

M abctiv a p LI > warch » a Bard, — 1 3 7 * 

Howd Yiloryn, a Poet, - — ijBo 

Yr Yttus Llwyd, > Poet, ' — 13S0 

Sir John Gov^er, a native of GT%5'r, or Gower* 
land, in Gfomorganlhire ; the fiffl Englilh 
Poer, and L;iureat to King Richard IL to whom 
hcdeilicated his works, about the year — •- 13^0 
Dr. Johnfun, in his Hifiory of our Eiiglifli 
Language, faysj " The firft of our authors, 
wfho can be properly laid to have wrhten Enj;- 
lilh, was Sir John Cower \ who^ 111 hi^ Csn/ef- 
Jtm of a. Lever ^ calls Chaucer his diiclplcj and 
ttiay therefore be confidered as the Father of 
Englilh Poetry/' 
. IJywelyn Moel y P-intri, a Bard, *— 1400 

Syr Gruffydd Lhwyd, ab Davydd ab Einion, 
chief Bard to Owen Glyndwr, the laft Wdfli 
Chieftain, ^ ^ ' *^— 1400 

Llywdyn Goch^ab Meurig htn, Nannau, 1401:1 
lolo C6ch, Lofd of Llechryd, in Denbigh- 
shire, a Bard, _ ^« -^ 1400 
IthelDd£i, Vro Veilir, in Anglefey, called 
Dryu/rCcrdd, i*c. The Druid of Song, 1400 
' Rhys Goch o Eryri, of Havod Garregog, 
' near Snowdon, a Bard, - ^ J430 
Liywelyn, or Lewis Gtyn.Cothij a Bard, and 
an officer under Jalpcr, Earl of Pembroke, 1450 
Ihi* iJard tranfuibed moft of the old Welfti 
pt^ms and iccurds, in a folio volume, called 



t^ -u^^St/t^ft^^/./^-/ ^^J?y ^^/ jj^yiWtfJl^^VJ ' ^J^f4}^'4 h^^^w^M^r^ 

j^^d^ Ai-.^wh..Q»^JWr* 


' i^i/ m-Hrrnt /i^ Jui^ 

MJ i^'ir' ^'^ llt&uwr if/'oti' .i/^.^i4rf^.'j!t|.^Fi- *J^' l#*f^^j /'lii^ n^^T'*'"- *■ -^V JWr /■■V^r^-r 

JlUAfJif^J/ii'^.' . i^h^ tfi'f ^M (Ar fmmM- ( 


jV'j-*-" " Jb^> rfk«c Ji-^ A^jbw 



Jrs^vrh Cw^rtutft^fA mydd^yrn BcinfJ^ that is, jifi^iH?t with the flowing Mufe, King of the Berdj j 
(brorher to CUdas A&anwr, die Bridfh hiftorian,) who laved under the patronage of Mynyddaw^ 
ci Edinhrs^^^ a prince of the North; whofe EurdorcL^krij pr warriqrs wearing the golden Tt^rquifj 
363 iBi T^tinibcri were all flain; cxcq>t ATieurin and two others, irt a battle with the Saxons at 
Caftra^it^ on the caftern coaft of Torkjhire. His C^t^Jin^ an Heroic Poem, written on that ercntj 13 
pKthsps the oldeft, and nobkft produftion nf that age. Being compofEd in a northern dialfift, that of 
the iiien of JJWrj^and Bcrmci^i ^ it h at prefent in many plicea. difficult and obfcure §► The follawing 
pEifl^jge, verfiSed by Mr- Gray, from Mr* Evan's fpecimetis, willj though a fragment, give an ampU 
proof of thegciiitis of Ancuriti ** 

- . " * D fi 

' , SeteQed from the Godddln; 

Divp d^'h'^ yn jdJ ymkJdjn £!£!r^%on^ 

j^/^c/cvz/rf Brynalch ^r iV/^ ^^r^afivrt^ 

Difku, dyn y^fr^ Wi^J" gad^'^i^/i^ 
Cji/iid/i d ^tJAiijj diji.iis ocddu^n^ 
RJjugl y^i y^^i'^rtfyryn^ r/^yn rAWw^^j- 

M^thany Qhr\ ^/dc^ Gwyngwn. 
Pf^jj^y^jj GiiTitdawg i^^/, 
Ajfj^it ^rf*^vAJ ci?^^/, /ryriu'fl, iryr/^i^dj 
Tarw IfyJJin yn rtf^rh gyfjimy-^iad^ 

^rdtfy/idiiwg c^tiiiy ^ymm^ino/H^ 

Guryi/ i:dikn-I;£i:v^ f}mrchawg viyf^i 

Rhudd Fi^dtt rby/d ^ dddiini- 

Cur g^ui^cdd^ di/uddiau^y dyg yntmyni ft^gha^^ 

Cwyr ^ ecth Ganraetb /?wjn/ enwa'wd^ 

Bliiyddyn yn ^rhjn urddyn dd^/awd^ 

Try w r X3P tf^riiJ^ijifst d i/jrkbant curdoraha^dt 

O rjliiirl yt gryjiijfint urib pi^r^Xiini wrswd^ 

/^^if ddit^gi^i namyit th & UT/jydri ^u/^wd^ 

Duii^iiigi Acron, a Ghynuii da^ar^^d^ 

A Tmnnau ^m gw^iaf^rati gTveri/j/y ngwcfnv^Kvd* 

Hid I but the torrent*s might. 

With headlong rage* and wild affright^ 

Upon i^tf/rdV fquadrons hdtl^d, 

To ru(h, and fweep them from the world 1 

Too, too reciireiin youthful pride 
By them my friend, my Hsf/* died. 
Great JCijn'j fon j of M^idoc old 
lie aik'd no heapj of hoarded gold ; 
j\lonc in nature's wealth arrayed. 
He alk'd, and had the lovely m^d# 
Have ye fecn the tufky bo^r 
Or the bull, with fiillenroarj 
On furtounding fucs advance? 
So Qir^d^c bore his lance. 

rW*./*j name, my lay, rehearfc, 
BuilJ to hitn the lofty verfe^ 
Sacred tribute of the Bard^ 
Vcrfe, the heroes fole reward* 
As the flLime^a devouring force, ' ' 
As the ^hirEu'Ind in its courfc. 
As the thtmder'^ fiery (Itoke^ 
Glancing on the OiiverM oak ; ^ * 
Did the fword of i^^dfl mow 
Thecrliufon harveft of the foe. 

To Caitraet/j^i vale, in glittering row 
Twice two hundred warriors go j 
Ev"ry warrioj's manly neck 
Chains of regal honour dock^ 
WreathM in many a goldcd link ; 
From the golden cup they drink 
Nc^^r that th« bees produce. 
Or the grajjc's cxtatic juice^ 



' t 


' Amt^m Mf4i> OIK 0^ ihc innJt cckbrjtcii iVATnik iA his tinw» 
^cd cihiclijin tfTni>ikg lIr Of^mijn Uiituiik : he Uoul'iIIii:lJ iiluut 

^ U LttG liwti Qfihc Aiiticnt BriiDDi, and iatlie mfAi^cj n^ Flufh'd with mirih^ and hope, they bum) 
U-c ^^^on 61-v«rmntur. the kinRUcmi ^f Bdra, ii.di^JtJ Hi 3^^ ^^^^ f^^^ Cattra^ljb's valt return^ 

Cf>iiEUici lit Yurhtlirr:. DurJiani^ LuilCjthirci WcEllTi*>rcUnd, ainl 
CtimljcrL'nd ; ^mi Jim^ia, G£tciLile4 I rum Uic Tync^ i\^ the 

* li df>pc4Jft| tihAi ^fikiitriM biid IvbrrithcTb »nd 4 ftl^en \ vilF 

Save A^ron biavct and Conon llrong, 
(Burning thro* the bloody throng), 
Andl^ IhemcaneHofthemftll, 
€wm Umi^J/. -- l>>nnic» ^rijdJ. Ufie. t^ iL.ijiL. Lflv. A- That Hvc to wcep, and fing ihdrf^L -** ^ *p* 

LirtTkiL-' uM^^iiLit^in- bjPii|^ijon- Bji:ij{4r Cyh^lirii. Gij^nl KurlJ. 

(^iM-iw. A^JdriJi' l^iliR't. l->yTiiw^.(r^idJidcw. Avi<.uuCri4j.ii>< Amunglt thcfc* it fctmi thic tn nf Eh^m were cvUbrittA 


- ,. , u -n nn= of hii ooems Rwe. an honout.ble Icftlmsny to the fame of Arieurin % y,u like hirt» 

fff i.;^S C rlr KlC Bard. He lived in the rei.u .nd enjoyed .ho favour of Af.,^ 

calkJ A'^''''^A ■ ' ''f ' ^Ls He wa. found, whw an i«fant, eitpofed iu a wear, which C^^« 

^"^1? ..'e^ ':f ILYc— Jgl J a> a maintenance .o P.Lne. ./,/.» hi. fon. .,>... 

Si'A-S .ualine., wa. extravagant ; and, having li-.l. fucceft a. the .car gro. d,r=o,ne„,.U .^ 

1 „To V At thl iunaure TalUfin ^'aB found by the filhermeu of the pnncc, by whofe .omm.nd he 
:: ca Sly fl iind .ibe.% icated. At a proper age the a.o^piifhed Bard .a. introd.e. ^ 
H pr.el/p.tron at the caurt of hi, f.,her G^y^., to whom he prefemed on ,h« "^-^-.^P^m 
Sled VLW",or TaiiOin's Hiftory , and at the f.n,. time another to the pr.nce, called Dyhud,^^ 
^!ll . the conri ion of Elphln. which the Bard aJdren-.> to him .n the perfon and charafter ofa„ 
SSd'i f nt r./,VA» lived recon^penfe tho kbdnef, of hi. bencf.aor : by the tnag.c cl .. Song, he 

^Uh five new metm. a.d ha. tr.nfmictcd In hi. poe.m fuch vcltige. .s throw new light on th. hiibty, 
CLge. and inanners of th. ^nci.nt Britons, and thdr JJraids, much of whofc myfbc.l learnmg be 

'""Sf iirft poem ^hicK I have chofen far a fpectmen of r^/i.>^ manner, is his defcriprion of the battle 
of Argc^d Liwyvain. \^ CumberhrA fought about the y..r 54S, by Gcddeu.^KXn^ ot North Bma.n, spd 
• ^ W..W^, King of Cumbria, againfl r(!a.dd.p. a Saxon gcner.i, luppofed to be M. the firrt c 
■ Northumberhnd 1 .m indebted to the late Mr, Whitehead, Foet L.ure.t, f.r the following faithful 
and animated verfification of this valuable antique ' 

T bore ddy^/iid-wrn^ cddfawr ufa, 
0*r pan ddivyre haul, h)dpitngpiu^ 

Dygrjfivs Fflamddwyn yn hcdwarUum 
Goddeu, a Reged, i ymddylhu 
Byho Argoed hyd .-Vrfynydd, 
J^r cbefynt finiset ^Jyd yr mdydd! 

/fcrefv^ii Fflamddwyn, /flU'/' drybf/iaivdt 
A ddodytit gyttgw^im^ a ynt paratifd f 
Tr atiebwyi Owain, ddwyrainffeffawdf 
Ki ddmiytii iddyntf md ym parawd ; 
jf Chcnau, mab Coel, byddai gymiuyitv^ i£W, 
Cytty taiai q leyjil mbawd! 

' TiilWIfl, tn hi I pociD cjdlcd Jfttrltg Um«t lu» thd twt; fol- 

j/t mmtsMu HaH'^ii # j^h J'fyn Utifiettjaa, 
] tnciiv Lhi i^m^ tA Lhc luli^urcd tfcuiLu* Ajicuiifl Ow^iwdiydJ* 

' Sec tliup(witijnillj]iltirill, 4iiJ u.utll.itcU ijiRviinaMjtr>LHiJciii. 
Bet fiinhf r ui T^Af/in, m (hi i4* uf tJitt WMfi' 
•1 jbkj^ Mt^nm, p. 1^. 


The Battle of Argocd LI*yvain/, 

Morning Tofe 1 the ifluing fua 
Saw the dreadful 5ght begun: 
And that fun's defc ending ray 
Cloi'd the battle, clos'd the day, 

rjlamddwyn pourM bia rapid bands, 
Legions four, o'er Regcd^i lands. 
The numerous holl: from fide to Hde, 
Spread de{truflion wild and wide, 
From Argocd's ' fammils, foreil-crown^d. 
To lleep Jnynydd^j * utmofl bdund* 
Short their triumph, fiiort their fway. 
Born and tended with the day 1 

FlufliM with conqueft, FfiamddioyJt fatd, 
Boaflful at his army's head \ 
** Strive not to oppofc the ftream. 
Redeem your lands, your lives Tcdcem* 
Give me pledges?" hJlimddwyH ciini* 

' « Nc¥cr*\ VrktCt fot» replied, 

* Oixfen\ of the mighty flroke | 
Kindling, as the hero fpoku, 

• Thii ii one of ihc 11 jfrcil UiiUi t*£ Ufim ^J^*J/^ 
hrAted b^Talifrm, in t-^itii ugw ciudI, Set *-•* '/^'UI 

jiiAliuii rBlrtliwjt u* the ^mivat UnUin. 1— -.4 

' A Minil "I tuMibcil Mut, tJi* cumiEfjf H »'rta« 4.ff^ 
/jV*. tiiiiM iaIkuig hs W4J Jnincu Uf ill* *•*"■" 




AtGirhiit TTrien, yddyr eSzaydJa 
bydd yjighyfarfid am garennydtL 
Dyrchaficn cidxd odau^h mpydd, 

Ai y.bsribwn wyneb ^ddudi eniyJ^ 
Ji liyr hafwn bekidr t^/dducb Un S'^iyr, 
ji chyrth'wn Ffli^inddwyn yn ci /Hyddj 

CcnaUt CoiFs blooming heii* 
Caught the Bame, and grafp^d the fpeati 
** Shall CoeFs iJTue pledges give 
To the infulijiig ioc, and live ? 
Never fucU be Briton's ffiamej 
Never, *till ihis mangled frame. 
Like fomc vanquiih'd lion, lie 
Drcnch'J in blood, and bleeding die V' 

- Day advancM : and ere the fun 
Reach d the radiant point of poonj 
^- • Uricii came with frtflj fgpplies, 

'* Rife, ye (am g( Cambria, litt. 
Spread your banners to the foe. 
Spread them on the mountain's brow ; 
Lift yotir lances high in air, 
Friends and brothers of (lie war; 
Rufh like torrents down ihefteepj 
Thro* the vales in myriads fwccp ; 
/|/?jwjf/f/Tri'n never ciin fijftain 
Ttig force of ogt liniEed traia,*' * * 


Many a carcaft; flrew^t the j^roimtl ; 
Ravens drank the purple flood ; ' 

Jiavtrn plumes were dy'd in bload ; . \ 

Frighte-1 crowds from place to phce^ - " 

Kaj^crj luirrying, brcachlefsj pale^ 
Spread the news of ihdr dzfgrace, ' ■ 

Trcinbiing as rhey told the taici 

Tliefe are Tit!kfm*s rhinieSj • ' 

Thefe fiiall li^e to diJlAcit [imes. 

And the Bard's prophetic rage * . ■ \ ' * \ 

Artluiaic a future age, tt' **- ' 

Child of forrowj child of pam. 
Never may I fniile again ^ * * 

If, ^tiiUlUfuhduing dcaih .•^: 

Clofe thufe eyes, and ftop this breatbj 
■' Kver I forget to raife 

My grateful fongs to UrUn^s pralfe I 

* About the bcj^mtiing of the fixth cenrufy, Urt'cny fonof Cjnvarch ab Meirchion^ King of Reged, (s4 
territory in Cakdonia, bordering on the YjlradcIwyU Britons ^ to the fouth,) was bred in King Arthur** 
Court, and waa one of his knights ; he had great experience in war, and greut poivcr in the country 
by the lirgenefs of his dominion, and the number gt h»s valTiisj he was Hill greater by his reputation 
ind wifdoai ; and by hla valour in defending his country againll the encroaching Saxons^ After 
fcveral tngagemenis, with various faccefs, heat lad prevailed fo far againll ^Leedstif^ fon of Ida, as to 
force him to fly into the Holy tlland for fafcty* Ufim^ the plory olliis country, who had braved death fo 
often m the field, and fought it in vain among the thickdt of hiet enemies, fell at hik in the midjl of hu 
own men, in the year ^60, by the treachery of Msrgant, brother to Jihyddcrch^ Jroin mere envy, on 

* Cmtu led m idc adilTunrt of Urka Iit:gtJf the forcrt nf hi* Litvir't Ifi^wry tf Sritaim, p. lOi. and C^fii't Ni^wj 0/ Enii-mJ. 
f;i.ihcr L'ott iJud&tifi, kiiijj u( ft iiunliern Uftfl* culled ^-ji^» " The mrdit du'tilBriUMi wha-iihcil ii\t \ftii ^^t Kii ^i^t^ 
yrithiliy inhiibitcd lay the Uodmi itf Pt[]lt!iiij'. Owen Mfi UrifM l^nd i :iijtl uie Cumhriav dwelt from *Mi v-vdl fouiliwiWd aiTat 
Mjiiii CtiMitatt CWmgk ia tkt tiuiuUruf Artuur^Kiii^ttit. 5gc .t» iht Ribbic, in L.kUL>iLWe. 

9 ICCUunt 

j# rba^ g'waifh Argoed Llwyfaiuj 

Bu lla-iv^r telaia : 

Rbtidd&i frain^ 

Rbu^ rbyjd g^'. yr ! 

A gur^ifi afrylfii}yi gJii ei mzvydJ^ 

ArinaJ y biwyddyn nad -iajf iynnydd. 

Ac yn *ifab*-ivy/b£Hf 

Tm dygn ajigau ait^cn ; 
Ai! byddif ymdyrtt^in j 
Nii mohifVrhtxl 


. F hh funetlor m=nt. The namea of the two afTaflins, faborned to commit this «(crabk deed, 

r l^ir;,tnd .r. J^d«i i. the r.W.. wh«e thU « reckoned to be o.e of the ttre. *,,^ 
Itdcrs commuted ^n Britain, .nd which contributed moft to it. ru.^. Unen is » fo cdebtated, b iht 
Trrads as .«. ^ftbe three Bulls of War. T.Hefm dedicated to him upwards of twe ve poems, m which 
he defcribea moft of hisi battles ; and he likcwlfe wrote an Elegy on his Death. Alfo, Prmce U<mirch 
H/rt compofed a Lamentation, on the lofs of thisdiaingulQicd Hero. 

Jr-u.yre j^-jA-r Catrraetli x^n ddydd; 
Am Wkdig g'-^aith fuddi^ sy^i^rthcgydJ, 

Urien hwn anzvawd « na^ydd ; 

Cyfiddeiiy Teyrnedd^ at go/yn rhyfilgar^ 

Rini>yfg an-war r-ufyf bedydd, 

Gwyr Prydsin adwythainyn ihydd^ 

GwenyftraJ yfiadi cad fytfiygydd ,- 

J\7 ddsii^J rtd mad tia ch^^cdydd tud schks^ 

Diormfi pita cdyfydd^ 

Mai tcjiriawr t0ji cig'icaivr frcs elfyddf 

CweUh "wyr givycbr yn lluydd* 

A ^Jjcdi bareg^d hriivgig ^ 
Cwehis i d-ufrf ieurfiin tranccdig^ 
G'u;aed g$h$yzv ga/iimn gor^ljchid, 
Tn amwyn Gurn^rad y gv/clid ^ifivr, 
Ri}^ iifigwyr ihior Ikddedlg : 
Tn nrws rbyd givflais l ^yr Ikdruddicn^ 
Eirfdiir^Tig rhag bh-ivr gofidon ; 
XJnynt tanc gun aeiLirit gcUuddion ; 
Cyfeddiifynt y ^nrbsin gwyndo^t 
Gwaneun'-^r gdiychyjst ra'ivn y c^ffon ; 
- Gwelais i wyr g^fp^tthig gc/pylliadf 
A gwyar afaglai ar ddilladt 
A dulUaiii dinfym dwys 'wrth gady 
Cadguvrt/jOf ni buffo pan bwjlkd. 

Glyiv Ringed, rhyfidda/panfetddiadf 
■ Giiidau i ran rtediggan Urien, 

Pan atTTjfjib ft idon yn Llechweu Galyllen ; 

Ei 'wythiant oedd ilafn aefawr ^Wjr, 
. Gobcribid wrth angen. 

A-vjydd eid a dyffo Euronwy, • 

Ac yn yfailwyji biny ' -^ - - . 

, Tm dygyn Angau angken^ ^ ■ ' >. 

fit byddyfyn dinven , 

Na m^ltpySfi UrIen, — Taliefin. 

f he Battle of Gwenyftrad. 

txtol the wartiorsj who on Catiraetf/s lawn. 
Went forth to battle with the nfing dawn.— . 
X^iftorious Urkt^i praifcj the Bard nest fin^t 
The QrCl of heroes I and ihe fliicld of Kbgi \ 

TheBritifh hoft, impatient for the fraf» 
RepairM lo Cweny/lrad in firm array ; 
As when the Ocean with tremendous roat. 
By tempers driven, overwhehns the fliorc ;— 
So furious k their onfet thro' the field ; 
Nor vales nor woods, the fpoilers flieUer yield. 

But neat the Fort the confli^ft fiercer raged. 
For heroes at the pafs, the foe engaged : 
There horror ftalk'd in hideous forms around, 
While blood in purple flreams deluged the ground: 
And ere the long difputed Fort they gain. 
What numbers lifeler& flrew th' enfanguin'd plain! 
Chiefs i that rulh*d on the hoftile rank as faft. 
As thaiFia whirl'd before the northern blaft. 
Sec mangled lie ;— ne'er when the battle *s ceas'd 
Shall they again among their kindred feaft I 
Bacterid their arms ! their garments dyed in gore. 
And defolation marks thdr path no more "* " 

Sec R^ged's dautitlefs ChriHian Chief appear T 
And conftemation feize the Saxon rear, ^ 
At LUch^n-Gat^en^ on Urien'i brow, 
Deftruftjon as terrific, frown'd a& now ; 
His fword with flaughter'd foes o*erfpread ihefiflldJ 
And proved his arm, his people's (irongeft ftiield. 
For war, Eurcnwy^ may thy bofom glow. 
And till death bids my numbers ceafc to flow : 
May Fcace to me, her balmy fwccts ne'er bring, 
If 1 can XJrienU praife, forget to fmg* — - 

t Tbouah tJwj were fuc«fifuJ, it may be fiiid in the words of Siialiefpcarej to have been amtmg iliof* vi^oric*, 

♦f f^ ii/hUltthi iwi§mr»ri mWfm'd,/* truitijfj'tiiJ* 





TtlE MEAD SONG, ^ Talk/n* 

j( appcLifs, that Prince Elphtii had brcn" LrtviTcit hy kh anc1e» KTne Maelfiw^n, to Veep hta Chriflni:!.^ at hh CtK-rt* it iht 
Caflln: nf U"^amtf>V in tTa-erJlHiVOhfhirt; wkcrt foifn* rftfjutte artfinc tctwccn ihcm abouT Rcli^iHiUp or PoULictn (prubnbl If wheal 
hc^irtd *iih M?n-l|} EJl^liin wuitliniwtl intn pr5f>Ei»:ind rcmairiea confiucJj unlil his Bard 7^Stfin oht7un«d hl^ rckdilCj hy the 
^Uawm^ celcbriLcd SoaJEh addrcfR^ to M;te3giiryn j to which 1 have Subjoined m En^lEfh vtrnoup 

G"Wr J %uftfictA y dw/y i tawb yn dda^ 
jfi f^dd^ortt^ ewyn gwcrlyn gzvpiLa^ 

Midd&idlaid^ mobfd^ T^iohcd i hb tra^ 
Lkaivi crcadur ^/% Jfrr^s ; 
vf w^m^r/j JPiTUJ i ddn^r fi rt*/ ddi^nf^d^ 
Rhai drtid^ rAnimiidf i/ai r7s&}'?sba^ 
Rifaiguyflfy r/jui dS/y D^/ydd iii s^fta 
7'n */j% j^d^ffA y^^ ddill^dydd d ; 
Zh/wyd^ynddi^wd^ hyd/rawd yd if^rba* 

Ccfyibafi wl^dig pendc^^ givlnd //i^dd^ 
Iddi/I'u;n^ Tlp/jin o alliudcdd -* 
Tg^r am r/^i?ddcf y gi^'f^y dV f^yr:^/, sr Tjscdd, 
A'r T^itir£f>^ wu'-jT m^-^^ur mirah^ cii^'udd*^ 
A'm r/^otJjwy f ^J;d m^tl dr^edd^ 
Trwy/^dd DwM y rhdd ir^iuy £nrl^ydi'dd 
P(fm pt^ifrWDt £ahn ynghafuan haid ; 
Elpbma'w^/dreba'w^ m^dd-^ h^cyr Jy c^hdd / - 

To bini (hut rules fupreme j-— our Sovereign Lordi 
Creation^s Chit f , by all tliat lives adcr'd- 

Who madeihe waters, and Fuilains the Ikies ; 

Who givei,and profpCTS all that^s good and wife.'— 

Td him HI pray^ that M^dg^n ne'er may Deed, 
Exhaurtkrs Etotes of fparkling, tiefl'rousj mead; 
Such as with mirth our hours has often crown*d, 
Whenftomhi&homatlicfoaniingdraughr went round. 

'Delicious Mead ! Man*a folacc and his pride. 
Who finJs lEi ihee his evVy want fupplEH : 
Thi* B«, wbofe toils produce rhec, never (ipa » 
Thy juice, ordaln'd by Heav'n for huiiwn lips- 


Oh, Power Supreme 1 Prince of theRcBLtmof Peace J 
Let ^/j-^/i/VjbonJage. I beleech thee ceafe, 
Whoj In thi; beauteous (leeilsj giv'ji heretofore^ 
Aod Wini", and Ale, aaid Mejd, would givtr me more. 
He; tn the patlis of pijacc, if H^av'n lb wiUj ^ 
My]ods ol Feaftj, ftall j^ive with hofiour fliEK 
Elphi^^idn Kni^fjt of Mead / Jlirj; ij tby/uiih. 

Lly^-ar^fi H^/2,0T LlywiJrch the aged, a Cunibrian pnnce, is the third noted Bard of tbe Bridih annals. 
He paired his younger days at the Couit of King Arthur, with the honourable; dilUnaion of a free s^efl:- 
Whcn thi^Britifh powijr was weakened by thcdL^tli oFArtbur, Z^^yaart:^ was called m the aid ofhisKiBifman 
Urkn R^ged^ Kbg oUCuml^na.^ud (lie defence of hi^ own principality, againft the irruptions of she Sixons, 

This princely lijrd hiid four and twenty Tons, all invdled with the golden ^or^Mi^j^ which appears to have 
been the ancient bid^c of Brittftinobihty '- Many of them wtre ftihi in the Cumbrian wars^and the Saxons 
at length prev^iilLd- Th.: unfortunate IJy-S'.trc/j, witli his few furviving fons, fled iiiEo Ptti^J, there ru revive , 
ih« uiKqual and unfuccefsful conreIf> uEidcr i^\c aufpices of ihe Prince of P^wyjy Cynddyl^^t. H^iviEig loft, 
in the iflue of thcfe war^, all his fons, and (Vicrndi, be reilri^d to a hut at Absr Chg\ In North Waks, to 
footh with hl« harp the remembrance of misfortune^ and vent wtth dtrglac numbers theforrows of old age 
i]i diflrcfi. Hid poems are in fume pbce^ rather unintelligible : not becaufc they waoE lituplicity, which 

Somh Wale* is Ofai^ for any kind of Isci^ar thjt is EnaJe cfF ttic 
jtiict ut'lruii, liLi:h .Li L">*Ji:r^ Pcrrj^ Ksifbcrrf-wiLfc*!! ^Drrant- 
wine, UDofehKrfry'wihCi^i^i^flp-WTni:, tldcr-wiibc Scivkc wine* 
Blrch-wmc, Mulberry-winci Cl^ry wiuej ftmJ £itj"cwwi which ij 
tn:iLte t:!" --ki Ale. aaiJ Eldfli-'A^'lne* . ., ^ 

\Vc EIilJ i^lJo* in Uic &v^^k ot Aifw^r^p C&^. ii\i- w- SO- 

that chicUnniin-iiaJej'tAvtjrc chuin^ oi ^ iJd- 

■ Nou .i^o/ Gidf . ns^r .V&f&yniUiit, iuMc.nti;om^rym-rc. T hci« 
Liy^anh 4ied»ucar ihc iijjd pf ISO* i.bnot the y^ .r ^^4^/* '"^ 

whtrc in the -^v^ll A^inJ^JW ol liie (ImrcJ-i U ^ lt"Me uiih la 
iiiTcrituosir hut not nowf Itgiht?. L/j«fJrt* ^^,^1^4 lUe di>kb ^ i 

* TdUi/ih ^hkcwifc wTflLc CdHu J Cfl^i-Wh or The A]c fonff- 
Prot^crlLlil S^yi]]£v in WaJc^r < 

Mc th*t would Ijt iTiErry — drihk Vfi^t \ 
lie ihal WOliW l^c ,'Strnn;i"*drinL Ale ! 
H« th^iL wiJuJiJ lie Hh^idfthy - driiih Miidd 1 
Tilt fbllov^iJiL; wcr7 tiic cuILomHTf bcvcj:a^i:ti of ihc ancient 
Sfiinm to aueiL4.Jli a^md. 

' , 




U their charafleriflJc beauty, but from the antiqutty of the language, which is partly the Veneaottan, aj^i 
partly ihcCumbriaii dialea, and ftom fcaatincfe of inforniation concerning the fatls. The compontitm, 
oFIAwtf^* arc pure nature, unmixed with that learning and contrivance which appears Sn the writing 
oiraiiefm : he did not, like that great Bard, extend the bonnds of Bntifli poetry, but fallowed implEciHy 
the works of the Druids, clofing many of his ftanza^ with their venerable maxims. He wrote in fuch » 
fimple. undifguifed, pathetic manner, that it 15 impoffible to fufped him of mirreprefentation i he hai no 
fiaions, no cmhaiifliments, no difplay of art ; but gives an affeainf^ narrative of events, and circumftanca. 
Sitice 1 publifhed ilic firll Edition of this Book, Mr. Francis Percival Eliot, of Shenftone Moft nca; 
Utchfield, has favoured me with the following verfion of feveral flanzas in the firft, and fecond of the 
poems, QlLlpnsrch Hini which I with pleafure prcfentmy readers, (inflead of the former profe tTanfl*. 
lion,) a^ an elegant, and animated fpccimen of the poetry of that princely Bard \ 


' ' * The Lamentations of Prince Llywarch Hen* 

Hark ! the cuckow's plaintive note^ 
Da[h thro' the wild vaL- fadly float j 
As from the rsu'nous hawk's purfuit, 
In dog refti ht-r weary foot i 
And tliere wiih mournful founds and low. 
Echoes my harp'^refporifive woe. 

Keturning fprlng, like opening day 
That makes all n:kturc glad and gay, 
Prepares Andate*,^ fiery car^ 
To roufe the bteihrcn of the war ; 
When, as each youthful hero's breall 
Gloweih for the glorious t<^[>, 
Rufhing down the rocky ftecp, 
Sec the Cambriin legions fwecp, 
Like meteors on liie boundldsdeep. 

Old Moftii fiTiiles ' ' 

]\ioii:trch of an hundred iflcs. 

And SnGivd^n from his awful heigh t> 

His boat head waves propitious to tiie fight. 

But I— no more in youthful pride. 
Can dstte the fteep Tock*s haughty fj Je ; 
For icU difeafe, my finews rends, 
My arm unnerves, my ftotit heart bends 3 
And raven locks, now fdver-grty. 
Keeps me far from the field away» 


Hark ! how the fongftcrs of the vale. 
Spring's glad return with carols hail ; 
Hweet li their fong — and loud the cry, 
When the Itrong-fcented hound, doth fly 
Where the gaunt wolf 's flep La trac'd 
0*et,ibe defart's dreary wafte» 
Agatti they fing ; again th^y cry ; 
But low in grief my foul doth lye. 

( Yet once again, ye tuneful choar 
Sing^ but me, no joyt infptre ^ 
The babbling brook that murmurs by. 
The fiiver moon that £binc( on high. 
Sees me tremble, hears me figh ; 
How cold the midnight hour appears I 
How droops my heart with lingering cared 

Andhcar'ft thou not yon wild wave's roatj 

Dafiiing on the rocky Ihore? 

And the hollow midnight bUft, 

Loft fenfation binding f aft. 

In the adamantine chain 

Of Terror?— Hark ! it howls again* 

And lo I what fcenes invaJemy fight, 
Fear-form'd Jhadows of the ni^ht i — 
See great Urkns princely fhadc, 
Cumbria'i monarch, flioots the ghde i 
Gory drops his locks diflil. 
Ever flows the fanEjuiuerilL 
Yet^ feated Hill as it was \vont> 
VhIout crowns his awful front. — 
Next Cynddyian trciids the plain, 
Raife, my harp, to him the {^rain \ 
Pffuiyi' prince, and Uyivanb's hoft, 
LHv$n*s pride, and Morkt* boaft i 
Great as Caradcc in war ; 
Swift as Uffu;el*t fuythed carj 
Still the Saxom fecm to fear 
Cyaddyiaji* s arm, and think hint near*.'^ 
Next a warlike train advance, 
Skiird to poize the pondrous lance \ 
Goldeti chains their breafls adorn j 
Sure for conqueft they w<;re born» — 




' Thftfe wLo msijf bo ineiieJ to a fuitlici' jicquafntaLce with the beauties of Pjincc IfyvfortA litm.mnf nr^w baTc *««fl 
la mm m na oaavo tJition af all hiii worki cuant, with ii profe tranlUiioj], mid notes ^ puWUhcd by Mr. William Owcfl, 





t'our and iwice ten fons were mmf, 
UsM in the batiks froQi to Diinc;^ 
But, low in duft my Ions are laid, 
Nor one Tcmains his fire to aid. 
Ghalllj locks, oh FyH\ thy wound, 
Streammgon the bkod-ftamed ground} 
As the yellow Hnines, ihy might 
Blaz'd around the field of fight ; 
Or when the fieiy fleed thou ptefa'd. 
How jf>}''ti thy bndy confort^s breaft ! 
But now no more thy might they dr^ad, 
Nor joys the partcierof ihy bed j 
For low in duit thy honours lye. 
And quick hertianfLem pleafurcs Cy, 

But fee!— he comes all drenthM in blood, 
Gtiiin f^teat, and Gweti good ; 
Bravtin, nobWn, wonhiclt ftjn. 
Rich with n^any a conqueft won j 
Gtt'f^T, in thine anger, great. 

Where the msghty rivers end^ 

And their courfe to oceat^i bend. 

There, with the e^Lglc's rapid flight, 

How wouldft thou brave the thickeft fight \ 

Oh fatal day ! oh ruthlr (i deed I 

When the fifters cut thy thread. — 

Ccafcs ye waves, your troubled roar ^ 

Nor fljw,ye incjjhty rivers more; 

For Gtir/rt greaij and Gv^hi good, \ 

BtiJathkfs licsj and drenchM in blood I 

Four and twice ten Tons wer« mine, 
Ui'd in battle's front to fliioc j 
But— low in duil my fons are laid. 
Nor one reniains Ins fife to aid. 

Hold, oh hold, tny Brain thy feat j 
How doth my boj'om's monarch beat ! 
Ceafe thy throbs^ perturbed heart \ 
Whither would thy aretch'd ftrings flart \ 
From frenzy dire, and wild affright, 
Rlcjj my fences thro' this night- 


Strong thine arm^ ihy frown like fate : 

The Brittfh I ^nguago, in whkh rhyme \% as old as poerry StfLif, h^d in the fisith cenltiry, artained fuct 
copioufrtcfs and mufical refinetiicni, that the Bards commonly cosnpofL-d in uTiiryLhm fljnza^oF mmy Imes, 
The rhymes of modern Iialy are as famous for their number, as iij language U adm^ed fcr its pliability 
in yielding to all the inlltaions of the voice. Yet [he Itdian poet^artr conftrained to change the rhyme 
more than once in a flan^a, without prodadag ciny other effect than cnufyfton from the diverHty, The oli 
performances of the Bards were therefore mod happily caLcot^ied for accompanying the harp. 

For this quality none of the remains of this remote period are more ramarkable than the works of Myr- 
Mn ^p mrvrvn, often railed Merlin ihtWild; M.of. reput.tton -,sa Bard i. not inferior to the prophetic 
and luadcal fame of his great predec.ffor, Myrddm Emrp\ He was born at Ca.r^rth^^sn, near the fordt 
oi'CdM., or D.nkd^, in Scotl^.d ; where h. a ete. which he Lft in ti.e war of m* Lord 
Cw^fUh^^^ ^P C^^dh and A,dJ,. Vradog againtt Rb'jdJcrch Had. His a>istortut)es m Scot and dr >ve 
him to Wales ■ a , J tliere is now e^t^nt a poedcal dialogue between him and his preceptor Tahjjtn. He 
was nrefent at the battle ^.iCamhn, m the year s^^^ where, fi.^utng ^^der the banner oi Ki^^A ihur, h« 
Lidentelly flew his owtt nephew, th. fort of his litt.r G^^cnddydd ^ I., confequenee of thu cala.mty, he w^ 
l^^uh nradnels, which a^M.d him every other hour ■. He ll.d back to Scotland, and cot^ceded 
liif i he woods of that country, where, in .n interval of recolledion, he cotup.led the follo^ng 
Sm which has many bcautic., and is llrongly .injured with the enthnfiafm of fren.y. Afterward, h 
rCned to North Wale., and wa. buried in th. llle of £./. '. or Bradf.y, whet. thcr. wa. a college of 
Blick cowled Munk$t 

_ _ M.: n! b3 n A nilirWc, ( he prophet ^n J re - 

pmr'i'm ,, Hi4P., U.n. « C-i^....Vi., W.M th= li.» ot :. Vfetm 

U,mT lit « .* B-JcV„,g »f Wdl W.k*by f^urt^£^rni vrho^ N A W ,lfi. ivhcl. hcv'CLiI i-kljrury lumhM M Latr. 

About AD. 47^- h^* praphefi« cMcenuM the fstiife ll»te 

c,f B,h^,=i ^.crc vati^a in pmtV.L,>,J ^r= f-li to bc^ni,^fed 
, . n ■ . . *'_... i „ T h rn J i-Lili oi StJJvtftrt . near i Mwt^. whieh 

JUcwikV Hiklury i>t' BHu^a, 

i; i^'.77:;.^^i/iii The piri,h oi ^tJJ^^f^t.^c^r i'«w*«. ^^ 
wc« aiLcrw-ira* tri4istl.ite4 inw L^tui, JuJ>H.hlJKabj 0*9l*^ 

of MoKiw'j.'i' 
■ DHrcrwuode Dirdii, i?. ??- 

It, lofi. 

Uwj" tlcujL^thjd ^- D JfW' H: in ad ti» 
phHleJ iiiiiir thin^i iiMKctrulj. Aiulmof* iti-iiiLl>, r.AMi JWr* 

S4,* luuffi in ihe iui Vyluiue ^t lUi^ work. 






r r&rf ««t/aJ J« « Ar^yid Gwenddrfaii, ;ib CcldiV Which was glTen to A^f.'^ byLord GwtnddoUa. Ion &f Cddk 


vf rocd i Ferddin tyn not b^naiai ; . »' 
Saith afailm berfn Mfaiih ugaint, 
Tngyfied^ gyfifincK gyh^-, gymmtunU 
Trwyfrdn Teyrncdd y tyfedihint, ^ ^ . 
Un dd^lsdi ucbed^ ni gorthoaint ; 
Unforwyn bengreth at gsrcbedwaintt 
Gloy wcdd ei b^nwt ghywyn d Daiui. * 

AfiUsn beren bren yfyddfdd, 

Nid bycban dy iwyth/ydd ffi^^yth armdy 

A mirtnau vivftj/mw^ amg^tla^^g am datiadj 

Rhjg dyfod y coed it/yr-goed/ynimynad, 

I gladdu dy v^raidda iiygru dy b^d. 

Fat tta tbyfo bytb afal nrtiud. 

A m'mnau *ujyf '^yiltaf ertbrychiad, 

Fm cathryd tythrudd ni'm cudd dillad, , 

f^€u^m rbcddes Gwenddolau gsrtblyfaityn rbad, 

Acyntau liddy^/ahia buad, 

J^^efi b^TPJi br^n addfdnut^ 
G-wafgadJQd ghdjirjjr budifawr hrydui ; 
Cyd •wnant Benaetbatt gaa gy e/gujf 
A mynakb gta^^i^g htaydiawg gwydusj 

A p-udjionaifi ffraeth bid arjastbu:^ 
Tdfyddant ^vyr rbamant rhidd r-wyfamtit 


Afalkn bersn bren bydwfglds 
Furfiiwr ei cbangen Cvjchnin isanat^ 
Canpid t^nin arwd yn udjryd gorlat 
Cyn bt'r*^ bryd cynimra^'ft^kvyr alajuu 
A mi ddtfgogiinsf cad am dm^ 
Pengwern cyfsddgrud nedd eu hsddat* 

• T* 

Af alien beren brena dyfyn Lhnntnh, 
Jngerdda'i barge! rhug rbiau Rhyddcrch, 
An^fatheryn ei ton mdon yn H chykb^ 
Otddiulauiddynt ddulk^dd dihefeirsht 
Mi m*mear Gwenddydd sc ni*m f jenny rth * 
^yfgits gast wafawg pvae/tif Rhydd^:fc^l, 
Rf'y n^iniait ei/ab e/a'i/irch. 

Was ever given to man fo acceptable a gift ^ 
that beflowed on Myrddin, ere age had ovettakea 
himf a Eiir orchard, feven fcore and feven f^^^ 
apple trees, all equal in age, height, and migoU 
lude: they poflelfcd the flope of a majeftlc hi|i 
branching high and wide, crowned with lovely 
foliage: a lovely nymph, whofe hair flowed i^ 

beauteous ringlets, guarded them j her naOie Gloy. 

wcddt with the pearly teeth, 

Sweetj and excellent apple-tree ] thy branches ire 
loaded with delicious fruit. I am full of care, uid 
trouble for thy fafety, left the dcftjuSiTe wood» 
man fhould dig thee up by the roots, or other, 
wife fo injure thy prolific nature, that apples would 
ro more grow on thy branches. For this I am wild 
with grief, torn with anxiety ; anguifti pierces me to 
the heart. I fu Her nij garment to cover tny body. 
Thefe trees were the inestimable gifts oi Gw^nddokut 
he who is now, as if he was noE. 

Sweet apple-tree, of tall, and ftately growth ! how 
adtnired thy jhade and Ihelter, tby proRr, aod 
beauty ! Often will mighty lordSj and princes forn 
a tliourand pretences for frequenting thy recefsj dot 
Icfs eaf^er the faife and luxurious monks j and equally 
intent are the itMe talkative youths ; all hatikeriiig 
after thy apples j they all pretend to prophefy the 
warlike exploits of their prince* 

Sweet apple tree, vigorous in growth, verdant ia 
foliage ! large are thy branches, beautiful thy form I 
Ere the depredations of flaughtering war caufed my 
thoughts to bull with grief, how beautiful was the 
fight of thy robe of vivid green I yet fhall my pr^ 
phetic fong announce the day, when a mighty legioa 
fliall revenge my wrongs: the valorous annits of 
Pengwenij fierce in bittle, animated by mighiy 

Sweet apple-tree i growing in the lonely gl4"5e' 
fervent valour fhall Hill keep thee Secure from th< 
ftern lords of Rhyddercb. Bare is the ground about 
thee, trodden by mighty warriors i their heroic 
forms ftrike their foes with terror! AUl? Guy* 
ddydd[o\a me not, Ihc greets me not: I am bitcd 
by the chid* of RbydMtih i 1 have ruioftd his l^a 



VtlE ORCHAttD, A' P6eM. 


Jtf^aii d dduspavjhf>a r^g tta'tnji' cyfeircb f 
A gti^edi Gwcnddolau neb rbiau tii'm psireh, 
Ni'm gogavfn gwarw)ff tii'm gof-^y gsfddynb, 
Atfng-waith ArtkTydd oedd sur fyjigatthyrcht 
Cyd bwff seku fjaddiw ^an tUiw ddrch* 

Ahllcn hfrfn hren bhdau efpiydd * 
A dy/yri arge! yn (trgotdydd ; 
C/rjJffdfiitt a gigku yft nefhreuddfdd^ 
Ryjbrig-ii;af(m^ g^^ctefii/Mai^vrYf^d 

DTxrfwasih^ a thclrgtuottf^f pedcirgtvmtb yn undydd, 

Am^lyuj om da^gsn tyn haul natvnnydd i 

Och Jffu ! na ddyfttfy mhcnyddt 

Cyn dffod iirfy Hazu Uaitb tmb GwenddyJiI. 



Afijihi hircn brai all wyddfn 

Civn cmi £ykb d guiraidd dywaigifif^f 
A mi ddy/gi-gii}i^/ dydd.iiu eiwA 
Medr.ivvdi flf Arthur, modar iyrfa, 
Canddn ddiirmcrlhaii diUjiau ynii 
NiJfJ^yn fiiJtb ni ddyrrahb ffV gymmanfa 
Edryched Gwenhwyrar a'ft/x ei ikruba, 

C'ivadb imi a dJt^tfydd hib efg&rfa. 

Jfidkn bcrcn hrafci bscmif 
J dyfyn argi'! yn aigscd Ctlyd Jon ; 
Cydgdjser oftrfydd bcrwydd d baddojii 
Tuy ddd Cadttiiladyr igymufd! rbyd Rhcon 
fyranjn qSuynyi} erbyu y i^aefon, 
Cyiiiiy ■u-^fidydd ftiiti or/ydd en dragmt 
Capini a ddibi ba-u^b Ih-zuoiji BryLhon, 
Cetnisr fyrn eivjcb €atbl hidd-mch a binon. 

WyTddin wylli it*i cam 

and his daughter. Death rdicrea all, why does he 
not Yifit mc ? for after Cwendddau no prince ho- 
nauTs me i lam notfoc^hed whh divCTfion, I am no 
Longer vifited by the fair : yet m ihe battle of 
Arderydd 1 wore the golden torq^ues, though I atd 
now derpifed by her who is fair m the fnowy fwan, 

SweeE apple-tree, covered wiEh deUcat« bloom, 
growing unfeen in tiie rcqueAered woods I early 
with the dawn have I beard ihat the high-cotnmif- 
fioned chief of Meuwydd was ofiended wLtU me; 
twice, three times, alas I four times in the fame 
day have I heard this j it rung in my years ere the 
fun had niark<;d thy hour of noon, O Jcfus ! why 
wan I not taken away by deftruQion, ere ic wag the 
fad fate of my hand lo kill the fon of Gwi^nddydd ? 

Sweet apple-Erec, appearing to the eye a large and 
fair grove of ftately trees ? monarch of the furround- 
ing woods ; fhad[n^ all, thyfelf unfhaded ! yet fhall 
my fi.>ng of prophecy announce the coming again of 
Aicdrt^d* ; and of Aribtir, monarch of the warlike 
hort : again fhall they rufh to the battle of Cam/iinf ; 
two days will the coiilliit lail, and only fcven efcape 
from the ilaugliter* Then let G-wenbicyvar remember 
the crimes fl^e has bctti guilty ofj whtrn Cadrsfabdr § rc- 
polfciles ------ when an ecderiailical hero leads 

the watriota to battle. Alas I fat more lamentable iif 
my defliny, and hope alfords no refuge The fon of 
G'j;t!iddyJJ it dcad^ flahi by my accurfcd hand ! 

Siveet apple^ree, loaJed with the fweeieft fruit, 
growing ici the lontty wilds ol the woods of Ce!y- 
ddi/n! all feck thee for the fake of thy produce, but 
in vain ; until Cud'-xnUdr comes to the conference 
of the fgrdof ii/ji'J^j; and Cynatt advances to oppofe 
the Sax&m in their career. Then fh.iU the BHtr.ns he 
-again vitlorious, led by (iinr graceful and majedic 
chief* Then fhall be rcflored to every one his own. 
Then fhall the founder of the horn of gladnefs 
proclaim the fon- of peace, tbs jhsne days of Imppi^ 

r Trait/ltitJ h Atr. £Jiv. ffHItjfMj^ 

Hi',' ' J -f 

Theft were the poetical lurnJnatKs of the finth ceiiiury. _ 

r^cy.and emhtifinfm ; ^nd d« honour to the ..a.itm Hu. pr"J"«J <l>«'". Foragr.«» «ho 
Ube obhgtdto foften fomc of ihofe d.rk «Iour. b whkh th.y have u ually pa,mtd 

Their wurks aie pregnant with feclmg, with 

who fhaU read ihcrm 
our ancc{lori# 

Th* r,y> of gcciu. tha (hone f.r.h in the Britons, a^id the gloom of the dark ag.s, ,rc more it. 
■hVo/ol reafon.aoJ contribute more .0 .l>cir gbry, .h.t, all .l>e bloody .hey eredcd Bu how 
Ian. herpoctty produce .hU .ITei.. if .heir .etnaih. umotelUgiblc.-.f no o.e « ,.l .t>niU« It 
bto the other laiaguigea of Luxupe ' i 

* fWJ- In flljmnrBinlbiVr, fijinldc* Toft, icudcf, JclitAlf, 
*c I ^u^d^tJJiM, verr uiLittjuiitjUv, a pi|ipiii, 
m jiffJr^J, wu [be Ion of U^v* *^ Cynvwch 



« » 


Tlic writTnea of fh=fr anc'=ftt Birds defer^c to be explored and publifheJ, not merdy a« fourc« of poetical 
and DhilofapM<^a" ple^riiTes, but ^s rtorea of hiftorical information. Their origm » not doubtful. Uke ih^ ^f 
fome venciTibk works which, wc have reafon to fear, were drawn together from fabuJous records, or vague ira^ 
dition- thefe v«e compofcd on recent eJcploits, and copied immediately froni theit fubjefts, and fent abro^ 
imong'nations that had atted, or feen'them. From ^ diligent inveftigition and accurate edition* of them by 
Jearned Wcllhmen, many important advantages may be promifed to liie Bntifti hiftary, which, fupptled md 
improved fr^m thefe curious fountains, would no longer difgufl with incredible fables of giants and itiag{, 
ciana, but engage by a defcriptton of real events, a^d true heroes. For eirly poetry has iti all countries be«a 
knorn to give the fulleft. and moft exaft ptfture of life and manners. 

TheDruids, in their emigration to Ireland, Scotland, &c. had not left Britain entirely dcfliiute of J[, 
mufic, which, though no longer communfcated by the precepts of that learned order, was perpetuated by 
praaice. ^It ianguifhed indeed for a lime, but afceiwards grew and flpurifhed in Wales with the other fut. 

viving arts of Britain. 

" Jc feems to have been a prerogative peculiar to the ancient Kings of Britain, to prefide in the Elfhedd^ 
otCm^re/t of tbt Bardie Accordingly we find a curious circumftance mentioned in Dr, John David Rhjs'i 
Grammar, which happened about the middle of the fcvenih century x King Cad-wnkdr fat in an Ej^eddvadf 
aflemblcd for the purpofe of regulating the B^rds, taking into conlideration their productions and perform- 
ance, and giving new laws EO Mufic, and Poetry K A Bard who played on the harp in the prefence of thk 
illuftrious alfembly in the Ji-gyzijalr^nr y Br^f^^ml DamiaUf (in the low-key, on the Chromatic Strings,) Tjvhidi 
'4 dlfpteafcd them much, and was cenfured for the inharmonSous ell'eifl he produced, becaufe that was of the 
found of Piifiiu Msrvydd, (L e. " Cftniad Pihsu Mcn^yddjfydd ar y Brtj^od gywair ;*' the fong of Morvydh'i 
• pipes, is in the minor key.) U was then ordered, under great penalties, whenever he came before p^fons 
* . fkllful in the art, to adopt that o^ Ahijuca Cwyncdd, or the pleafing melody of North Wales ; which the royal 
aObciates firftgave out, and preferred. They even decreed, that none could fing with fuch true harmony, 
as with that of MwynCTi GwyucdiJ ; becaufe it was in a key which confifled of notes that form melodious 
■ ■ concordsj and the other was of a compound nature : of which fuperiortty we have examples in the following 
luties ; Caniad Cfffylkor, Camad o Vaivt-ii/^rtbiaJt, Caniad kmn ab y G6v, Caniad Anrhcg Dcwiy Cantai 
Vydw^i, Canjad Enhn Ddytilwri Caniad Crycb ar y Carfi^ and iHiiny others," 

To this period may be referred, not without probability, thofc great but obfcure chara^ers m Welrti . 
muHc, Ifhd, fofurrffj, andjr Jibr;f Vt'dd\ and the Ktys^ and Chromatic Nshsby them inventedj and Ilill 
diflingmlhed by their names in ancicut BritiQi luanufcripts. 

About the middle of the jiifn/j century, Roderic the Great, King of all Wales, revifed fome of the okJ 
, firitifh laws, and appointed new ^. He ordained that all iirong holds, caftles, and eitadeU, Ihould be for* 
tificd and kept in repair i that the Churches, and Religious Houfes (hoLild be re-edified and adorned ; atii 
that in all ages, thelliClory of Britain (being faithfully regiftered) fliould be kept therein*. » ' 

Caradoc of Llancarvan colMed the A^s and SuccelTions of the Britifh Princes from Cadwalader to the 
year 1156. Of his collcclions there were feveral copies kept h\ the Abbies of Cou'way in Caernarvonfhlre, 
and at Strata-Fhrida^ or ^Stratflur in Cafdlganfhire ; which receded additions as things fell out, when the 
Bards belonging to thofe Abbies went their ordinary vifitation (called Cl^rj,) from the one to the other. 
They contained in them, befides, fuch other occurrences that happened within the Ifle of Britain as were 
thought worthy of recording. This cuurfe conunned in ihofe Abbies until the year ia;o^ which was a 
little before the death of the lall Prince Llewelyn, who was llaiji at Eueilt 

' Ca,inbro-BriEannicit Cymr[ici:K Lin^u* fnflitHtJoiicsJ^y Dr. 
7*i« DaviA Rhyt, p^ ^03. AlJn Urammaiif^ Cymrtifg^ By 7ahit 
Rhydderth. lamo^ piiat^d at SJirtwJburj', I73i*{, p. 177, ^ 

From King CiJwiLiJadr^i time the dd HritllL butiU, -ciilkd 
Brttt y Sai/oa, itnd Brvi y Tywyfogion, begin ih^ir ;bccou[it ; 
aftcrwiirJii comiii^iEuled Hi he cinntiKLtcd and ^iitiJcrvcd in rno- 
DCLllcnoby PriHce Kodcric tlie Gftac, 

* Mr- Lewis Murrii, In one of hlji MSS. whkh [ have fecii, 
fuppOkG (jiat ditjr were Druid 8. 

* King RoJeric'i |iaJacfl was at Cofr Sfimtt^ ur Sej^trt, near 
Caernarvon* Alfo,ihcj-c wii ^ttiWncLtJltiJ Ctitr-i>it,tt, which Hood 
fy,i ihe cop of a hill, north of Ccmway, Thit wbuIu; k.vlufCwtM 
CorjtdJ, wl^ere MMi£ti,„ {oT.^soihtu (Uy. his fkthti (WmhiIUJ 
wcm tojudift Ween the poeti mm\ iHufiLLm. %U Itycd m 
Dtgaaiayt III Rhti^^r CrtmddfH. and tau/cdthepycEi and luriicn 
Ujf^miihtnv^r^ouK^. The harpcrimilrHmemn were liii-ilcdi 
UttfKiaic the ^lUdL*! frLuIc tuvU cukUil nut Ic d^m^ijcj, L*rj icd 

the day. Tsr<anrth Befit U tht Bi/bop o/B,mxor. A, D. 1240^ 
* A Ocrcrlplinn oE' Walt*, Uy Sir JaiiH i^iifi, |illHilhcJ bf 
Thftmai £!rut with Mr. /ioltri i^nt/^Liti of Hrit^-ivri*t iwitim 
printed Ah D. 1663, ^m. p. 41. Uniy lid p^^exucKC puLihlM 
ol it : it i& the bcU lilElory of \V,i]ci cxt^nL^ Ui. hvr a^ il goci- Stt 
A\{Ot lt'iirringiOH'i//i/it!ry it/iVtlfil, p. 134, I'cCDdd edit. qtiiJ^lf ■ 
AnJ» Entttfly'i Jii^, a/tf'iiki.y. 374, 

' The Herald B,Ard, Giitiyn Uwch, wha l]<>iiiinied iboui ths 
yc-ir ^Ho. wtole \hu kit und mai\ pertect nyviof ih,il newrJ. 

BlttUyn rji Cynvjitt iinje diligent k-urcli .ilUN the Avm<h evM^ta* 
imd j>edl£nreii ot thcJL' aiKeitiiii, ihti iLcbility uai Kuifi uf 
Britam [ winit ihey Jilkovertil by thtrii- i^iikon an; uajKi'tini 
rccUi'tlk, vi\Lia arEciwjirdk dl|[<;ltcU b^ thi: U^^id*, and put i^o 
IxKikH. And the)' Drdiiiied ^Bayji it4t*t (thvK bciuj[ iJ4ii/ J 
bclbrc) ro wLh>iii ihrir ponerity to liiu da]r win lnw« ilw* 


From the rcraof Cprfwj^/j^fr* biftoty is profoundly fil'.:it concerning the Welfl) Mufic till abouE the year 
Q+a J a period jlluminated by the laws of King Hpwf/** Inthtfe laws we do not findthemufical, or poetical 
cHablifbtncnt of che national Cards \ but they contain fucb iEijutictlun« refp^ding the CoarL BarJ^ and the 
thi^/Bard of Wales, a$ m Tome measure contpcnfate for tbai dcltift of Lnfonnutlon. 'Lhe BarJs were in 
the hagheft repute, and were fuppofed to be cndoAVcd with powtira equal to infpiration, I cannot give a 
ftronger idea of the efteem they were in, than by citing from the Wdfli laws iheaccoucit of iheir ratik in the 
Prince's Courts the various privileges, rewards* and fees they were entitled to^and the fevcre penalties that 
were enabled to pttrfcrvc chdr pcrfon^P 

3^ Bardd Tiufu^ the Cuurt Bard, or Laureat Bard, who tvaa m rauk the eighth officer of the King's 
boufehold, received at his appointment a barp» a whale-bone chefs -boayd from the king, ind a gold^ring 
from the queen. On the fame occafion he prefent^ a guld-ring to the judge of the palace. He held hia 
Und free* The king furnifhed him with a horfej and fuch wearing apparti as were of woollen j and the 
queen with linen- On the three great fcflivals of C/jr^^^iJjj £^f ^ and IVhif/untuUt hefacat the prince's table 
De-tl to the comptroller of the houfliold j and pub!it:ly rcct=tvcd from the bands of that ofhcer the harp on 
which he performed : and waa entitled at thofe fefiivals to have the Dijhhi^ or comptroller of the houJhold's 
garment for his fee, ffthe Bjrd defired any favour of the kin^rjie was to play one of his owncompofiiions; 
if of a nobleman, three j if of a plebeian, *till he fooihM hhn to fleep. Whoever flightly injured the Bard^ was 
fined fi^ cows and CXX pence* The murderer of a Biirdj was fined CXX.VI cows* His heriot money was 
one pounds (i- e- morniary for the dead.) Cs^r Mird'^ or the marriage fine of his daughter, was C^X pence- 
Her CiTu^ylK or nuptial prefcnt, wa$ one pound and CXX pence^ Her F.g^^^fddi^ or dowry, vras three 
pounds. When he wentwuh osber Bard$ upon hts Cicra, or mufic^l peregrination, he wasentided toadouble 
f«* If the queen dcfircd lo have muriCj when flje retired from the hall^ he was to accompany his harp in 
three fongs, but in a low voecc, that the court mi^ht noL be diverted from their avocations- He Kcompanied 
the army wh^ri tt marched inio an enemy 'a country ; and while It was preparing for battle:, or dividing the 

fpolls, he performed an ancient fong, called U^il^aiia^^tb Prydah \ thi; Monari:hal Song of Britain 

^' TIk Bard who firll adorn'd our native lohguu, 
Tun'd to his Biitifh harp, this ancient fong — " 
and for thU fervlcej when the prince had received his flian; of the fpoiSs, was rewarded with the moft 
valuable bcaft that reinaint:d ^ 

* 2" Panaerdtl^ or chief Bard of the Dirtrift, waa the ten<h officer In rank. When he appeared at the 
Court of the WeCli princes, he fat next to the judj^c of the palace : none but himfclf and the Court Barti 
^a5 allowed to perform in the prefence ot the prince- AVlieii the prince deHred to hear mufic, the chief 
Bard fangio his harp two poems y one iu praifc of the AEnil^hty, and the other concerning kings and their 
heroic exploits ; after which a third poem was performed by the Court Bard- He obtained liii; pre-eminence 
by a mufacal and poeiical comeft, which was decided by the judge oi tlie palace, uho received on this occa-- 
lion from the fuccelsful candidate^ as an honorary fec» a bugle-horn, a. gold-ring, and a culhion for his chair 
of dij^nity- His inufical rights and authority were not fubjeft to the control of the prince, and his 
privilege of proteilioa UCted from the begiiming of the firll fong in the hall of the palace, ee> the coaciu* 

CLilEy.ff North W.ilts are for the mift p^irc JcftcncfcJ- And an t S-iinn eaavaders-^ When tftey^ nvaj^d the Ea^EiJli bgrd^rsp they 
oar biwVs wc have inenLiO]i of the 7>i*s "t' tlic M^^rttit^, Sc- dlj^^Jiiikd cJicir jnctirriojis^wich the pKteja ol rccovtirlnff ihcir 
l>eflJc% Hnll^L' Tritfi calkd (l^ifhtfyf/j .niJ C^d^fi^tifja^i." IhUJ^ 

Ill liaebLgmningcifthercignftf Edward Uat: Thirds the Welfti 
Mcnxs were removed lo Rrkj^hlK Attblcsij bj3l1 rcjihiced bj Eiig- 

• &CC S'Jat Tiiyhr, Qn t;rj-tif/-j£jn'J'p p^ 971. 

■ Sec Cyfrnibi^ Hjm^ Dda at iVflWj or Lf^i /f tf^/p«p tniuf- 
iy,ted m Lmijci by Dr. Wottun and Mf. Moki WLlJLLimi. s and 
publilheft with a learned preface by l?r. Ll^ke. Fl:Jlic^- Lon- 
den* 1730, p 3;* ficc- And, Pcnnim'if Tonr in Ww^lefli, VoL I. 

» ■■ Dr- WDElOxig the Jcarned editor uf H'^^d't L^ftrft in a 
Mic OH LhaK puI^K^i p- ?6 3 cnnjc^urca that thclitle :ind lijbjcft 
(jiilTwerc prefcrihcd, »nd tl^ul ihe choice und corttj>Ql~ttii3n of the 
fticfLrf AVuvUfriothc BatJ- The Wcllh, fiythe. silw^iy^ pre- 
f«rvea a XrAilhu^Uy that the whole iflHincl h^d once been p->f rpfltiil 
ky dtkiir 4uu:«l^r^> w^ii w«re dLivCU lutu ii eoincr ol it by their 



htrtdiT:iry rights- I'ficirB-irpIs LlicrrfLircentertiLiiicd them Avkh 
Ji;lerLptL[>i]b Lind prnil<;^ of ,c]]e rf^lcndoriiaid Lt^ur^igc wiih^vhicJfc 
tUu iP3f»Li^irc]iy ui Bj'kjLii w^ii nhLiiuiLiLiit^d hy [ts ancient heroes^ 
\md iiafiUL-cd ihc^m witli an iirdouroleniuhLiinr tlicirgloriou-itix* 
^inple* I^ jny tfilngciiii be addedio ihe i:onj[:^urcs ot Ib^Jifeeriv^ 
iiig a ci'3clc ;is Uf. Woiton- it Ut that pn.Hh:ib[y in, catcelfcut oil 
potin*'cid!cd l/j^h^niatfif Prjiiaiiiy was L:ciulbinEy rceiicd in the 
ii4:ld| iLnil 4iccf]nip^nicd by a tunc uf the fjnic mtliquity^ tilij bf 
II long iciic:rv:it uf peuce, or frjme othcf nH^-ciJeiaEp Elicy were boih 
tOL'ijytlunpAlld dmLiitLLrKJrdah the lJ4i'i^U Jn|hp9icd wh^L hjii I>^(mi 
ioH frnm their own inA-entioni," TriJ^M^d SfiMmcm t^ tVr^i 

P<ftiry^ LiL t!fii;''''"^c3'l=* i?"^^*!^ 31' 

£ui ^'Wp jc Bar Jit /Mf/of iit^^n of ^Jit 

IVii^/c iirtif tiai£n^ M^r* mi, u$r ^'Aitj'rMi^J 






., I J f 1 „^-fr-P E»srv Tounff mufician within the diflrifV, whsn he laij iQde f,f, 

T^/j^r^^". °' h»ir.Ilring=d harp, and ''"''^^ '/ ,„i ,. The cn«mg<: fine of hi, daughter ,„ 
Ev=.y «««..« «po" h- ruft marriage p.^ ^ '^J^'^' f ,„,^p.„„ for .,1 affr.nt given hi™, ^J^ 

of ihis dignlfit^d perfoa. . ^j-iennkl circuk of the Barda, aa we 

fiad th« . van-.l by ^h^P"^ 7;^^^"^^^^;^"' fl„;."nd .n bonaurable rank m focl.ty ■^ Nmhhgon 

hi> lord, 0. Py-* Xl 1^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^-^^ ^"j^^^^ ^^ '^'^ ^"'^ P"'^'' ^'^^ *- 

difplay mere forcibly the =ft~^^ by ccc.fional poem«. This caftom they afterward, 

,en..Tk.bk pr.rogat,.= of P;^;'-«'^S ^^ ,' JcTnClaatly paid their reqaeft., that in dte time of Grufudd «fi 
carried . a. e.cef. jn ^-^ ^f^^^^ ^l;,,, ,,, J,, .,,,, from .fking for th. pnnc., 

gr;~c:;S ^ ^..^pricorrh. .a. par.cuhr.y.l^ 

tXfoZll or could not be replaced. Many poems of the facceedtng centuries are no^ exunt, wrm^ 
toobtamahorfe,.buU,afword,achef.board,ah.rp.ar3chfi.rmem .^c. ^ 

Lppm. rha! MnGc and Poetry .ere i.fep.rably "-te^ i. the Jam. perfon m the ofH.^. 
nor hkdear at what period ihey were divided, till ih^ liin^ o^ G.f.dd abCyna,. Mdton, elegantly fay> : 

Bicft pair of Syrens, pledges of Heaven's joy, . .. ^ 

J» Sphere-born harmonious fifters, voice and verfe^ . . 

Wed your divine founds, and mix'd pow*r employ I 
Abont the year 1070, Bkddyn ab Cynvyn, Prince of North Wales, the author, of another code of Welth 
Laws, eftablilhed fome regulations refpeflinE the mufjcal B^ir^J "\ und revifcid and enforced thofe which 
were already made. 

About the year iioo, the great Prince GrufudJ ab Cynan in^ted to Wal^^a fome of the beEl 
muficians of Ireland -j and bdug partial to the mufic of that iQand, where he was born, acd 
obferyinjx mtb difpleafure the diforder* and abufes of the Wclfh Bards, created a body of mftitutes for 
the amendment of their manner., .nd ihe correction of their art, and praaice -. Accordingly I find m tn 
old MS of Welih Mufic '\ in the library of the WelQi fchool, a cunoUs account of fo remarkiible a 


" Ltgti iVaiHtM, or Huwcl's Laws, p. 63, ixc W had the 

fiiT5cn:i(Mi^^t pa;(i 10 the mulkbns>in other toiiiUiutiofti, '' Wln)- 

fvcr (JiatJ Elrike aAflr/4-r, whn c*n huriJ in :l public ;i(remb]y ,fh,il] 

c[t"i|JOUi;iJ with him by a. compfnlalitm offvar timet mert thnin 

• for iLU otlier ni:in of llic fmie conUkio"" % Riptiarfcrim 

16 J 3 Tit. %. J iiii, 
*' Huwrr* L;iws, p, 57- S t'- "• 
« Hotel's L:iws, p. 307. 31II friaJ* 
. ■ *• Hcrw«l's Laws* p. 37. ^ 11* 

£fc«f^'j Bard hnd iuch 4 liigh opihion of hii prjocc's gCM- 

*' Were I to a(k my prince a boon, 

*' Even if It were the full-orb'tl me:iOll> 

** He *d jijive It— prince of generous foul t 


" Hfi M fji^c hisfiithful Hard the whole '" 
^ i?!'. Rkjl*J GranirfUtSkat InJtitiilF/ of tht l^rfjh Lunfudge, 

■* Dr. Poweli in his noteEon Caradott inform* Ui* thateitlicr 
aurMuriccame hither with PrinctCr^J^j Inflimuficiwwior 
W»i compofed by them .ifccrwurd!s, Mr. Wyiiae, i he other 
pditorof Canidoc*s HiHuryriiLiL^^Llti"^ thia paJfage in Dr. Powel, 
»ud not diELingullhE^ig inltrunicutAl imi Tic from muHcal iiiilm 
jfunii, hu^ niiHtd hit rcudcn by AJTi^Jiinu: that the H^rji unJ 
Growth frriiti trdand. Set lVyant*i Ifi^aty of tVaUt, edit 
1774 P' *iy- t'ni'tlieriuformjtiuniUikjrbcittii JEi Ulc ftcxtpsge. 

Jc ii rccordcdi in the Lilb of Frince QruffuJJtit Cjnattw 
'CiUvi§ Prmtrdd Tiijn^ his chief iTigl itiion of tlie harp» fell in a 
%4itU«UicJi w;iji loLiithi XM Auglctcy beiwecuUic invitUtn^ AW. 

wdftT ^ind StfAiofl^ agimft CrufiJJ a* G^trt* W« mi^ht pertart 
hiivc been convinced of Cf//Wj great abilities in the ie-li, hjd 
he lived, andrtlfoof the beiac/of his eloq^ienccj iis he coutd 
h^ive defcribed the bra^c cjploits and Wiirlikc JmhicveniejiU 
af his Prince, for which his T^niie wa;; fignatiacd in Wil«, ^ 
land, the Danith Ifl uids, n][d among other natiom. A MS- 
fjijgry of PrtMt GruJlitU ah Cyn^n- 

■^ Ibid. Alfo Pnwtrt Nijoryof If^jietl p. iii and 191. Clartc'* 
Preface to the \^^cl(b Laws, p. 35. iiid MyMu&'t WM Grm^ 
miir, p. 177* iS(G. 

■* " Some p^irt of this MS. according to u memoraodna 
which 1 Un\nd in it, was trLiiifcribcd m the time of ^'h 'rSei as 
Firfl, hy RoiKft ap Huw 0/ Bo.'i-utista, in the ifle of AMgte/tjtfrim 
iVUnam PitiUfn^t book" Dr. Burney^Hiftory of Mulk -, Vul \U 
p. 1 10.. l^aiiamPfanyn is recorded imong the fLRCiftinUjuA- 
datcK urn the hiirp, ^t an EtStddwrd^t Caw^j't^n ijfla.whtrt « 
wiis clCiSedonc of the chiet Bards und Te*ehcra ot mftrunaflnijl 
[bug. Pennant's Toiir 10 North Waiei, printed i778>P-43*- 
This MS. Dr. Buincy [nfvrms me." contjiiutiicccftt-jr the harp 
that arc in fuli harmony, or cuuntcrpoint : thsy are wfitttffl fli 
1 peculiar uutitEion, and fnppofcd to be as old ja the y«r 1 io» 
at icatt. ^uch ii the known amSt|uitf of siiany ot the lufl»» 
rricntioncd u\ ilie colJedion." Hilloi-f of MuLus ibid. 

Tk 14 nMrfAi-f* itfMuk ire here annetcd froiuihc M3. latM 
orifiiual W(;!lh, for the purpofe of aililltnj£ lutuic *^i'i^^^'"^**J*^ 
niewinfr,by the variety of tis tcchnli^al Lcrum* *t-it uirl*aii« 
Lhe arc h,id iWmeiiy aLijiiired. A* they h**c iK«r ««"!-" 
pJained, Iforbtarnttcmptin^atiaiirtiii^Jii* irom jppre&toi»» 
Df lULll JtCj Aud uililf ,tdij)g UM rea Jcr. 

t ^ 



rcvobtbn, beginning wiih thc^e words ^.— Hire foli^ the Fctir'aHd^fuKmy M^^fara of Mnmsntal Mu/ic, 
all ct>nfcrmsbh U ibe tawi ^hamony, dj ih^ -uosrefcUkd in a Cmzrefi by rmny ProfipTi^pifiH in tltut fdeacs, 
Welp, and Irijh, in the rtign t/Crvfudd sb Cymn, and written in boGki by ord^r efbaibparticiy pnruidy, tmd ^ 

Tbis grand refoTmation of the Bards was efFtfted by aividlnj; them into cbCTes, and amgning to each 
cbft a diftinft pTofdTion and employment. We have hitherto viewed ilicm ifl a very vaTiousandcjLtenfive 
fphere. It was theiT ofRccto applaud the li^inj^ ;iiid record tbe d;nd : tbey were required to iJoiTcla learn- 
ing and genms, a fkill in pedigrees, an acquaintance iviih the laws and metres of poetry, a knowledge ot 
harmony, a fine vofce, and ibc command of an inftiumedN This divctfity of cbaradct la well cxprctTed 
by Draytettt in ibc fixiti fong of bis Polyolbion ; 

, '■ " ^fu^IcJan, Herald, Bard, thrice may* ft thou be renown'd, 
" And with three fever al wreaths immortiilly be crown J 1*' 
Sucb variety of excellence was anaitainable by human capacity* The Bards were now therefore diftributea. 
into three grand orders, of Ptf^/J, Hir&!ds. and Mufidam ; ea^h of ^hich again branched into fubordinate 

diilin£tlons, — - .»,,.* u j u 

Neither of thef^ orders or dmin^ions was any longer compatible \vlEh thofe with which it bad becti - 

coaneaed, or with any cither profeflion. . ' 

" One fcience only will one genlua fit; 

" So vaft 1$ art, fo narrow liuiuan wit ; ' ■ ". . . . 

^ ■ *' Not only bounded to p<;culia: arts, 

'= But oft in thofe confinM lo ttngle parts Pi^pt. 

According to a more minure arrangement, there were of regular Bards, proceeding to degrees In the 
EiJieddvGd, fix claffes i three of l>oets, and three of Muficlans. 

The firft dafa of the Pom confiUcU of hidorical, or antiquarian Bards \ who fometimcs ntlxed prophecy 
with tbeJT iufpiiaciun : tlw7 were alio criiiCi and teachers : and lo them belonged the pralfe of virtue, and 
the cenfure of vice. It was their duty to celebrate the gift=3 of fancy and poetry. Ot ihetii it was rtqoireJ 
to addrJs married wonien without the air of -allauiry, acid the clergy in a ferioai ibain fuitably to their 
fuutllon, to falirife without indecency, and without bnipooniugto anfwerand overthrow the lauipoons of 

the inferior Bards* 

The fecond clafs was formed of dome[tic, or parenettc B^itds \ who lived in the houfes of the great, to 
celebrate their exploit., and aimable quatiiles : they fuog the pralfes of geucronty, contentment, domefltc 


" Llyma V Pedwar M^fur ar httgam cerdd Dant^ 

t&r Mdatt. 

Car li'r'jojr 

Mii£ y OfatH ijur. 

■Jrzt'f^Tf/ Afitiifr. 

fliitijf f}i'igir 

Tr Julian f/^vnUii. 

Coiiiia lyliiih* 

In Use fame M-S. arc preftrvea l!il f^vc K.sys of WaOi 
MuTm:, cftabl^fhcd by tlit ittnn iiuLliL^iny. 
// gfvioir^ che Low Key, or Key ot C» 

IJfiidv ^vinirt the oblique Flat Key* or I-. 
CQ^y^iiir, lh.C thiid above UlC K<y-n<>Li: ib HaI* 
SfuicoJ Ef-^^/'i ^i*^ Mist, of Minor Kty,— - 
AiiJ.^fu-pi, l-.5o.LEirg to Sir W^^^in ^^^'l{iL'«f W^^^ 

cQflijin^ lunifi curious iiiforanatton rcrpc^^mtf lJic WUih bUht, 

wLitb I have gi«n !■<:«* liiA--aijr tncfl-itcd, 

(liat li to fay^thc Hmrfi. Au^C^ni, withiiitli<rtlirc^ uriCLO|i:LJititi 

Udif-: ^J invfii-m-ij ol 1 Ur^^^T nfMiiiiCp nflirtedLf fourduei 
truJiOurt of the J74Jf/, »uaCW/A^ unJ thfl aoo4 wiil ^^ 

.\.\ii\ky of t:ichtciiij; cunrLiaaaiit to one ^inoLh^r low-irJiformljig 
dkt iLinsi L" pK-^rvc it liL iiiciiaor}> u> pcrtorm, an J lo e^pliitit 

it wkti tfirrtctiitil* The n-tmcs^jf tfbfi fnur chtcf iimficijns 

e7u^^£f/kiiH *nJ vJijL' ih^ Soj^gfir. The aiiaiicncc ^ai^ He^y 

/JH^jfi, £7crr/^ /.^itf Mir/rr, ^]iJ cniinjr others, nffiitins T*-itii their 
.^dvici: ^nd i'tieLiLiL'tt kutiwIiJu^e, An J bv Llie c^ounJu;! of tJioie 
jciiriicd tiiiraij icLie dtill ofih* Dii>clor uf Muile, :inii the four pro- 
ic(tori of I he 51 re p undby thcUHLlLliniO^i^ -igrtrtMllcnt ot alfp-werc 
mnLk ihff f^f^ij-fevr mh/urfj ; aTiito give Lbbilky to chofe* iAj 
t--j^r},y pur t'afaoflj w<;re iormied- They wltc jiuJc for thrca 
rciifuiiB^ the fiHU im- *ompu(ing a pkcc; cJi« fccond» foe 
kcicnvingtlse merits of ic ^ LinJ die thiid, for prc[emn^ li In 
mcniury E " tlitjf n-im^^ futlow further otit in the WciLh -iiul 
Hilwrni^n linjEuiiJ^C' And Jf/i:rrfi-iB iTif Cciy^ Jiif/iiK wiiLi^Lurd 
of Irx^LiuJ SLHli*fcL UmcE by wlirimThpy ^^eac confirmcU iriLi 
pt:Lce catkJ GJ^fn/tMarlt ihmitjjh liii power ^uJ office^h [ :lllJ 
he fifcithei: Jccrtedp thai every p«rfonibrt|i|Kl fuLliftu^n ihcail." 
T]ut w:is ulic^uc the ytfjr icr^s svhcil Grt^Mtii C>flJJip aiad 

Lmclin iithd of the Uk of Aii]j]cfe)r. 

■ PryJyrU, or Fof^^fJ^L 

When ihe kin^ mdc out <J^'h'< ciftlflp his lAtteiidjutu were ?6 
mens ilut i* to la^r ihc 14 ^.ihcrrs, iiid i i j-uciK IjtflUe* hU 
tinidy, biSiicutlcniiiUi nmd fu:i ttiirJ:*- /-rs^-/ IVu^s^ p. ii, 

" Wc ^ai the Kiou huJ^ilwiija,* Livd juJ^iti tu iLtk;ud liim. 



h.i.i,Jh.f. and all the focbl virtues : knd thu^ .mmently conirlbuud to enliven the leifare of their parang, 
It JL Ilfc rhdr pravrnce to requell prefet^t. in . f^.nUar vda, w.hout -Portumt^ 

The thlrJ clafs. though kfl, was probably not i^ft m elteem, wa^ the Jr^yddvardd, which confifted 
ofHfir3iaiiatds% who were the national chroniders. were alfo well verfed in pedigrees and bli^omy 
of arms.and the works of the primary B^rd,, fuch as T^He/tn Fen Bdrdd, Myrddm Emrp, and Myrddhi 
abMt>r^oryn. According to the account of them which Ginddus' has (^iven in the fuccecding century, 
they were admirably qualified for Poetry, if invention be one of m principal requifiles : for he affirms ihac 
they douid trace back the defcenis of their princes and nobles, not only to Roderic, but to Bdi, Sjhius, 
Mneas, and even to Adam himfelf. But their Poetry was of an humbler kind : h was ufually confined to 
fubjefts of jocubriiy, mimickry, invective, and reproach. 

Oflhe muficalJJ^r^j, the fird clafs ^vas appropriated to the performers on the H^r^. Athra'w, ^ 
Doflor, or Mailer of Mufic IhouM know the 3 excellent MtvcM^^ which were deemed equal to 4 Cdt^n ; 
and each Ctf/^n was equivalent to 10 Cwlyif^i^ The 3 new AfTtr/j^/were ranked et;uai to the 4 Cadatr; ^nd 
the 4 Cadair were 5 Cil'/w/h each *. Concerning the muficiiTHi, the reader may collect further mformation iq 
pages 33 St 84 of this hiflory,andfromanaccnonEof the Wdfh mufical inftrumenis further on in this ^olurtiCi 

The fccond contained performers on the fix-ftringed Crcvt^ ; concerning whom alfo 1 refer the reader 
10 the fame places for information. - * . 

The third confided of lingers, whofe employntpi wt^ to fing to the harps of others, the compofitionsof 
ihe poetic Bards ; but from whom a variety of other qualifications were expefled, " A finger, faid the 
Laws,fhould know how to runeaIIarp,or Cr:ithtZnd taplay feveral cffaysand embellifliments, iwo preluder^ 
a civlwmj a camud, and ihe 13 priEicipal tunes w[[h all their flits and Iharps. He (hotdd underltand likewife 
the 13 principal Hyles of cxprefhon, and to execute ihem with his voice, &c. in feveral foiigs ; he (hould know 
the 24 meiics of Poetry, ?irtd the 24 nieafures of Mufic, and be capable of compofiiig in twoof the£'/?^.ln 
metres ' and in one of the Cr^^f/t/ metres. He fhould reLvd Wcllii with propriety, and write it with exaanefSj 
and befliilful in corre^ing and reEloring uny old poem or fong thiiE has been corrupted by tranfcribers." 


And onf of the c^iicTlorJi to crnfmlc ^^ith upon nUcmcrjjrn- 
clea. He Ii.hJ -a JinrJuy cclL-hnuli^ the pp-alfLi^ i-\\' lii^ imccLVf'"^ J 
a Chr<?tikfcr to rc|;[ltcr \\\^ :u^Hoiu 5 u Phj/xdiin ici Cite 
Cnirc ijf hi^ Iie-iltlij :LJ'tt[ ;i Afiifium Sn cilCcrCnUll IlLTil. TJi^le 
Vffire oHitjFCil 10 be uJw-ij^s prelent^ and lo nctcttd the Kaiag 
whhherfocvfr ht wcni. Befjdcs theJ^]| tlicr-c were 11 ceft.Liai 
n camber of heroic mtn c:j![eJ Afi/^^yr^ who iiticntled him, 
wh^n he went on his prnj^ruf^, fir iT]LLri:hieJ oim wiih hts Ltrjn^f 
ynJ wcit i^lulvizJ LO JtiLiul hy hh^}^ tvcn ;\l t]Lcc?f3>ciic:c oi (Kc^r 

^ Cl/r'^t^rj Arwydii-^jiinit! t iLuit^r^tiaior Ctriiuit buirtii orHeralJ. 

* Thefe lethflLCLil terni^ oi \Vclill] mufic arc very oUfi;ijre>nTi.d 
^TTC CC115 iLninr^lli^able to ^idmlt of li pofafive trAnll^LtJoL^. J^ I 
Ihoutd hereafter be ahJc I" di^r^-phcr Oic noMtion cf the aiicit;ni 
Bud very cutioui MS, wlilcli I Hillvc quoted beforci much laght 

wfni!(l be tlarfivnon th*i TntraeTite fijbjcfl* TjH that dcfirLhU: 
ntijcift i> Hiccomplillaed^ihcCianJIU reside rivili accept ibe follow* 
inj^ imperlcck iittcmpt to cxplaiii it- 

C^urkvPtf a melodious air, or fcrng v.-nh wards- 

C^lfjVfX^ iLiLiuameait^l fubjc^iOr p^ut of a ptcce of mufLC- 

CYtfgrtiUf hLiranony, mufic hi piirt^^or acq4JTnpacitnie]icSE. 

Cadnfr^ a nt^iflirrly picec of naufm, I c<'lijc;ctiire^ by the per- 
fyrniancc of which f he i^uHeal liards roie to the lupedor di- 
grcest and to the ciatr y whenee.U probably took its iiumc. 

Cani^^t 3. tLlclC^ Of iong. _ * 

Go/ii'^t a prcl^dcp Or uveitute. 1 

D^ivr, a diverting air, or dLvertifcracnt- Queryp Mlaeiiicf 
this wasaTpcck^ of NL±ciari^Mt:Wyi lb called iman theecLinCj 
of BuihLim i 

Mwcir-jvi^ this fcicntific piece of muHc* ic fecnis* wu ac* 
quired ouly by ^p^iic^dJ^ oi" Doflor of Muiic of tte Harp^ 


' 2^ Fedw^r Mcfur ar hugain Cerdd Davi^d* 

Clofe M^trc. 


Cyljxlttiil tJfT 

CyfyyftafJ A» 
Iff/p^yni ii'ir 

CxiJiAfyn vyr 

(Jynh ti ^hwftu 


Lyric McLk. 


T!ie 34 Metrts of Poetry j or of Vocal Soag* 

r Uniryclim direct. 
Unirythni recurrent, 
Uaiirychm irtveartedr 
The vowel-vaaied rhyme* 
AltcrnnUe rhyiaiC4 

Long dillich recitative* 
Short dilltSeh axcitutjve- 
Tiiihd^or Saphie^ 
Miahirythm pentamctric* \ 

Long aatd mchingi 

ShorEaiid Kietting. p 

Short trocli^ttc^ 
him^ and of etju;il ext^oC- 
Kiiiii lyJIiiblcd Iambic. 
Uanjj Brutit- 
Slia^a t Hrunt. 

LoTJg Hcroicp or Parcnetic. 
Khoit Heiw»^ r^eiieiic* 
Sh^irt chLiiaai 

Suit CiMU'utcLviEed Jaiturfive- 
Uaictia live wala li IlilIc t^ikl. 
trrcuuUir Ibaait^^ 
. NULUt^ pifrLti uf ihc Bardi. 




At tlitTHiptbls bf the prince, or any ortlieprincel)' l.lood, tli= ringer Dttended on the Jllunrlous Bride, and 
at Ihbft entertainments was espefted to carve dextfoiifly ei-ery kind of fowl that miEht come before h.m. 

Such and fo vsrious, were the regular Bards, ■.^lio by a no.iciale and probation of m app-i.nted term ot 
vears and the performance nf paeiiol and mnrical exercifes, acqui.ed degrees in the Eiffc^d-ncd. As that 
veneiblL. afTembly cxirted long tiefore the period I am defcribing. a dcfcription of .t oug\,t, perhaps, to 
have been already exhibited : but I chofc .0 wait till, under the a.rpiees of a prince to whom our Poetry 
and Mufic are lor ever obliged, I am enabled to difpl.iy it to the eyes of the cur.ous m .ts molV perfeft f.rai. 

• Th, Ei/leJJv^d V... a rti.nnial affembly of the„ (ufudly b.ld at Al,.rfr^\ the royal feat of the 
Princes of Norih IV^t,:, formerly filnated in Anghf^y ; likcwifc Di«^'->'..r, the roy» ctllle ot the Prmees of 
&«/A rr^/«. i" Cac,mr,hc.M' ; =""1 M«/A.«™./, theroyal p.Iace of theP.tnces of P.»r, tn M,„/^«.0'- 
J!,lr.J far ,he regulation of Poetry, and Mufic, for the p«rpofe of conferrm^ d^g^^s. '"d f -dvancmg 
I0 th ehairof A^EipdJv^, by the ded&.n of a pocic.l, and tnuhcal eo.t.ll, fome of the nval candtdatesj 

cxtraflj faithfully 

When the c^ngrcfs hath .jfmhlaU ^<^^rdx.l '^ n.ik. ..d^in^ns prr^uji^ if^ed at 1L.^ pk.capp.^nt.d 
ihcynmlid^uf. a. umpire. .uW^^;.../...^/^-//^ //^^ Wdfh Long..R.. I^o.^ry, Mufic. W Heraldry ; ^^i. 
Ju^veiot!>eV,..^^<^MMaioMup^n,inan^ of ih. .4meU..; A./ «.i ^;i m.^te ..r.A, .ranyfucb 
friJkus cmp^fukm. The w.pira Jhali fic th.t the .u.dLht,, d, mt dcficnd to fiur,. ^r pcrfm^i ^n- 

^'cmc andfoalUlk-:,' to ea,b ufugidaU int.Tvaifir fOfnp^M ^^^"^ ^'»&^Y"^ <^' ^V^^^^^' ^^^'^^^^^" ''^''' ''^ff 
ibf, ihallallkn* Theyjhd! fmnover take d^-n the mma / the fe^-iral Birds prcfint intendir;g U cMit,^ 
^/J mrvt. r,>.y be called by his ^ame. in .rder, to the .Lair t^ perform his e.mpoftio.. The urfueeefifd 
,andHhteUh.n 'acknou-kdge in ^^rithz that ihey are e'^ereonic. ami Pali deliver their aeknr^kdgmeM to the 

■ chkfBard. that is, to himi^^hoPall oLtatn the h.mur of the ehait: andihey allf^nll drink health t, the ./././Bard, 
und all pad pay htm fees : and h,JhaU ^.-vern them till he i^ overcome ia a future 1- tCleddvnd ". 

From thi. hijuiidion ii appears, tlut the Jusics whkh upon this occafioD, m ihe rc^a of Hr^^./, be- 
longed to tht juilgG of [he pabce, v-'trc af[erwmiis held in ccni^mifiioti, 
. What fervcd greatly .o hciftbtcn the cmubfton of the R^rds, if they minted any addition^ mc.icmcnt, 
vi^, the prcfence of the prbc., who ufu^ny prcfided in ihefe contefEs. Thdr compoJitioUi Jdivered upon 
thcfe occafions are frequently upon hiftonc.! fubjed., and .te v.Iy.ble for ihcif uuthenuc.ty ; for it «as the . 
bufintf. of iUt Eifn'dck^d, not ot^Iy to give hw. to P../r^ at^d AJ^i/Tr, bat lo cxt.ngu.ih falfehood^^ and 
£ftabh(h certainty, in the r.biion of events. " A cuito.u lo good (fays i>.o/^«) that, had K been judu 
" eioufiy obfemd, truth of flory had noE been Tl. ; for there was, we fuppofe, a corre^ioa of 
<* what was fauhy iti form, or matter, or at kafl a c^nfure of tUe hearers upon whai ^s^^ recited. Of whicK 
" courfs foci^e kive wlHted a reconrmLsance. that either amendment of opmloD, or change of purpofe b 
*' publiftiing, might prevent blazoned errors "" 

Beiore any perfon could be enrolled in the Eijleddvod, the permlfCon of the prhicc , or lord, within whofe 
jurifditlion he lived, was nece^ary. If he defired co proceed to decrees in Poetry, he was obliged at hia 
prefentation to expbintlie ^^wc Englyfi Metres, and to fing thctn in luch a manner, that one of the principal 
Bar^s vould declare upon his coukience that he was competent to be admitted. He then became the pupil 

or ill thcfc M.rrc^ fpcclmen? nre cJtliibEred of Hr. J^^jj* T^i^ 
Rtfitterch. anU the K-.;v. Mr. GrBaw 0-wt/i, (fee UiirdJ M^n, I y 

HudIi Jonci, jBthu. LniiJmi, 17O3 ;illb iit tlic cosilUcutioua 
i}Vt\icSi>cinjo/Cymmrotkn('ii,rc^cmi.t.ii 177S, Tticrc arfe "tlier 

Qf F,fstya Miiivr,t]n:'W-'irrim'!t^<''i']^i Mrt^iy o'r hrn gaaistiit 

th* kim^ i^i tiki-' ArcSent Slntin j />^/v« ^flr.i^r, the Suii^^ nt 
the Long 'rjiigb J £«fi>Ji I'tidwrn, tbt biJiJji; til the Cliiichi.J 

'fhi' 2.4 Afctrtf v,xrc probably antecedent lothc i/^vifafumo/ 
AJv^tf (l)] Lht Lutcf keiii lo have been oJjpEcd lo, -j-nd JuUud- 

cd u]wni them* 

" The CaathfO'Brtiyh Miife haih^ ai ihu tnflHtncc orlier vo- 
tiin**, CuudcftcnUtili l*i psit tjji vnrinu? Oilier y;i4rL!L ^vht^rcill illC 
Ihiih inupetircii duI. only nc»t unsisecflili bu.1 evenwiUi fonie de- 
gree </ di^'riiiy ifiiiL c.iJc 1 yci the robci nii: Junli cvci ^luried "ij 
uic lJic 7^tnsy fmif ctiellurtitd dwffjrf ZfFHJ/t AUtrfs, nukniJW" u» 
•V'liry Mule Ulidcsy luuJ wkerein die Jiulh jlt^^ifs Ihuiie v^itJa 

tmrivalicd luftrc." ^rd/if<fr'/ Dl^tri. en lJ^r JJ'r^ Langvagt, 

'' Roiiersc iht Grfot, King of :il] Wales and the Iflc of M,tnj 
cfmnx^cJ tlie royid leFjdcncc fn^m Caer St^cnii'm tlacrii.irvoii- 
[lilrc, Ett Mtrji-a™, \n Angli;Jc>-, ;4bniiE ilit; yeiir ti^O. He di- 
vjikd his dunmiiun inio three prindp.iJkiae, whUh be k'lr Eo 

hi-; chiTcC fons. OwytJtdd^ VeiiedouJ, or North \V:lilcs j D<rhfv- . 
harih, Demcth, oi intnitli WjiEcs e und Maihr&vai, or i'awU j 

w]ikh»(ietorc the ?53> tht roj:4t refidencc was ki.}H_i:c 

PfngVJtnt P^n*iJt or Khtcwftmry. Alicrw;:irils there wei'e five 

Koyil! TrilMTS of Wttlei i Prim:/ Gri^thah Cymiat \.->i' Ahrr^ra^, 
in AlUfUtcyi A. L>. lOSOj /"Wni* Hhvi ah -iutiur, i'\. /JiflrrjTOf, 

Ci^ertMnnhesilhire, lOhO^ Ptitt^f l^lniiiyn ah CyTi\yn,<,\ ALuhra- 
val, lit Mtmt^oiTiciylhirci 107a ; J^fxfl'if GhiiraJj^iit' Mitrt jvtd. 

WatWrfhirc, Prhiec ot ihc Mur^JiiJii j wnd frwi- /^ji 0A 

C^ritmifKi' Dimiryvah Cliimor^Fmilhire, loya, 

^"'Nute* till the FowrLb Bon^ ul ttic fi?^##Mi. 

' t. 







offomconeoftheprinctpalBiTdsj whom tie itfas obliged to attend annually m Lent> without ithofe 
approbation he could make no compofiiitlni public ; and during three years, that k, tHL the next EiHeddvod. 
remained a non-graJuaie, and was called Difyl^ll^fpiii esrdddavodi a probationary Itudent of Poetry, 
' At the neJtt FJ/l^dd'Uod^ three years having expired, Dif^yOl 7)]nrs was examined For the degree of Difnj^ 
J}ifgybhidd^ or Bachelor of the Art of Poetry, and was required to be verfed in the five Engiyn Metres, the 
four CfMyJd Metres, and three Aivdl Metres ; and to produce, in a fcholar^ike manner, compofitions of 
his own, free from the 15 common errors, — After the fame interval, the Bard took the degree Q^ DifryU 
^enceirddiaidd, or Mafterof the Art of Poetry, for which he was required to underftand the rules of Gram- 
mar and Rhetoric, and analize and explain the alliterative concatenations of the [anguage ; to cfcapeaii 
Ihe errors; and to fmg mdodioully, in parts, ai of the metres. 

To the PcjKtrdd, or ProfelTor of Poetry, who obtained his degree at the end of the fame period, belotigcd 
the whole myftery of the art. He knew tofing In harmony, or concord, and was well verfed In tranfpofej 
alliteration. Among his qualifications arc enumerated, fertility in poetical fuhje£ts, a ftore of matter aiitl 
invention, authority of dtcifion, and a facility in compofing in praife of the great, what would be hcardj or 
read with moll ddight, and longeft retained in memory. 

If a Dijgyb/f or difciple of any degree, was difcovered in taverns or fecfet places playing for money at diet 
or any other game, any perfon was authorifed to take frotu him whatever hioney was found in his piirte. 
For mockery and derifion, and the invention or propagation of falfehood, the difcrples were alfo puniflied 
with fines, and imprlfonment. For, fay the laws, the Ikrds flull be eafy and peaceful in their mannCTs 
friendly in their difpofiiions, and huinblij in their ftrvices to the prince and his adherii^nts* 

Thufc Ji^rds :x\one wlio had acquired the degree of Pcnccrdd were authorifed to teach ; nor were more 
than a fingle pupil allowed lo each Pcmcrdd, 'iW pupiU were exprefsly enjoined to refrain from ridiculing 
their teachers, for that abfcnce and inattention which is natural to a contemplative mind. But the moft 
1?aIuc(I privilege of the Pancirddiaidd was their exclufive right to the chair of the Eijtcddvitd-. AU thofe 
among ihem who atpired to the honour of prcfiding over the Baids^ came forward (as the Itaiute prefcribe*) 
at the tHctini:ilairembIy, and contefted it wick each o;her, and with the Chief Bard who already poffeiTed 
It, The fuccefiful candidate wa^i feated in a magnificent chair, and was hence called Bardd Cadeirid-w^, the 
Chair-Bard, He was at the fame tiiuc inverted with a little fdver, or gold chair, which he wore on his breaft 
a$ the badge of his ofnce» As his rank was high, his emoluments were confiderable 1 they arofe from the 
DifgyhUon^ or (ludents, when they laid afule tliehair-llrung liatp, at the expiration of three years JluiJy, and 
were jsJmittcd to the praclice of their art; from brides on their nuptials; and the marriage-fine of ^ 
daughters of all ihc BarJs within his jurifdiftlon, ^"c. 

Whoever defired U) proceed to degrees in Mujic, was prefented to the Ei^eddvod by amiifical Pcn^trdd, 
who vouched for his capacity, Durhrg his tt^-kiah' c/ l/jtec yearu he was calEed Dfybl IJpth bib rddd^ 
a probationary ftudent of Mufic without a degree : and, if he learnt to play the harp, was only fullered to 
ufe that Inftiumeni flrung with horfe-hair, that he might not (as I conjecture) by his rude attempt at har- 
mony, tortnent the ears of the principality, and might purfue his ftudics with greater diligencct incited by 
the hope ofrelinquifliing it for one furnijlied with Arings of a more audible and pleafing found. 

His next ftep, aflcrfhrce yean fiudy^ was to the degree of Di/i^7i/TJ5*^rfj ^ri^t/^e/, a graduate probationary 
ftudent of Mufic, ior w^ich he was obliged to know ten cu/ftJi^Mj one ^aio^fti five cu'kvm tyd^erdd^ on<: fadairt 
and eight f^nindt or Songs. ' , 

His i'econd dcgreCj after JIx years Jludy, was Difgybl Dj/gyblaiddj or Bachelor of Mufic, but wai previ- 

ouily required to be mader of twenty cwlwm^ two caiovn^ ten cuulwrn aydgerddj two caJatr, fiittcen ^iittiaJt 

and the twenty-four meafures of Mufic ; and to play them with facility and correfluefs. 

^t the expiraihn of nine years he became BifgyU Pe}t(cirddimddy or Mailer of Mufic, a degree which irapKett 

a prepjiraiory knowkdge of thirty cwkom, three fo/t^fl, fifteen cwlwm (ydg^rdd^ three ^addir^ tweniy-foui 

«kW, and lour^o//^; and fkill in defining them properly, and diitintUy. 

Thefiuith degnc^ he wag admitted Perccrdd^ jithraiv^ or Do^or of Mufic*, Ilkd w:is obliged to know fofty 
cwliem^ four «/^h, twenty c^l-wm rydgtrdd^ four cadiiir^ thiriy-two caniadau^ and four ^^k^ ; to under- 
Jlajjd ail th« lawi> ajid modificatioi^b ofhannony, efpecitUly ilic iweuty-four Mcafnrcs of Muilci itui 

* AtEordijig to mju!th«r mwiufciripMi i'mtrr4d nhighi thiilknge my othti' tt? pcrfiWm, or lu liiig for ihe iK-iie, uttw |>»"'C 
H year ■ndi tiay'i iioiitf li Jie Jufcc^rdcd, he tarried ft rif 1 il mit, helull hit dcjirw \ mid ll|« riiXw ic|Ji ihc |iriM iwli^W 
kfl£ wki ubratJ lOiJiwJMcc il Uicjiiii^lly .it \\\k EifitdJvsJt k»i CoiiKrcriuf lliu l^M^u 


kh «p]ain them tt tlncy were wnwcn m the book of muflcaL divifinn ' i to compote a lefibn, pronooriceci 
ftultlefitbytbc proficient Bards, and to Ou^wdlits propertiess its (^Ivifions^and rubdiririon&, its IScenfe&and 
rcfts# the diatonic noTEit all the fiats, and Oiarps^ and every change of moTemem through the feveril ktjt'^ 
If the P/^ni:rrdd waa a Harper, he was required to know the three famous Mw^Mvl^ which were equal to 
the four ro/ffvwy and the thr« new M^si/cbwl vfac equal to the four cadair. AH thts he waa obliged to 
IcjiDw and perform in a maHerly manner^ to that the Dof^ra of Mufic (hou]d declare htm competent to 
be an author, and a teacher of his art. • 

■ The Efy^i'dJv&d uas a rij^id fchooL The poetical, or the murical diPciple* who at the expirarion of hia 
triennial term cottld not obcam a higher degree, wa? condemin*J to iofe that which he already ponefTed- 

Every chief Bard, or JJdr^i/ C-3^ifj>jffTt;f J '*ho had acquired the honours of the chair, wore a goldp or filvcr 
chair, pendent on his bread, as a badge of his fuperiur dignity j but after the lime of Prince Grci^4d ab 
Cyn^nj the mu/tcal Barkis wore a fepatate order. See page 89 ; where there is an engraving of the filver 
Harps ^hich is in the poifefl'ton of Sir Thomas Moftyiij inFiintlhire* and has been from time immemortal 
in th^ gift of his anecltors, tu bcftow on the rbk/of t/ji fj^^J^y *- This badge of honour is about fix inches 
and a half long* and furnifhtd wish ftrings equal to the number of the Mufes, and was worn by the 
chief MuHcian, as (he filver chatr was by the chief Pos?*, or the golden tongue by th& chief Sioger- 

The revenues of the Burd- arofc from prefents at princely and other nuptialSj and from feeii in their an- 
nual qircuiliat Ci/^mwjr. £^ir, and IV/jfit/untUry and in their triennial CUra, or grand circuits Tbctr feei 
and prefentswere pegulatcd withproporrion to their degrees: and thenumbet of vifitantji to the condition - 
of the pcrft n [hdt received thccm IJkewife, in order to encourage the df^'w.r to kei^p up the language 
and tht memory of the exploits^ and pedigrees of [buBaitonsj they were alluwed a certain fgm out of e%'ery 
plough-land, and in proportion out of every half plou^h-hmd of their diiTirigt^ A month before each f^fti-* 
val» the pupits cuqujred of chctr teaclicr5 what routs they fliould take in their approaching cbcuitj kfttod 
many fhould refort to [he fhme part oHhe country^ A P^ncirdd ^~is not licettfcd rr> vifit theeommonalty 
unlef5 he chofc to accepr a fee he;ii'ach iii^j lUtion and di!:;niBy : nor o^uid any JWd of an inferior degree 
appeiir before the gentry^ and nuhlcs. The Bards were not fuffered to requcft prefents beyoT d a cerraca 
value, under penahy of being de;^rived uf their inufhat inflrunietit?, and praftiee for three years; when 
this happened^ the prt^fent ille;;;a]]y iLquefled became forfeit to the prince- 

The Ei^t'ddvcd was followed by the grind triiurnial CltTa^ \ihiLh wa^ not limited, as the circuits of the 
feAivaU^ to ^ommt/ts^ and c^jfiirt'ds, but esuH-ndL-d through alt Waies. Such was the benev-jlenceof the Wtlfh 
infti^uTi-^ns, that Bardi iiflhclcd with blhisSnefs, or any fuch naturnl defeft, were indulged with ihe privilege 
of C/ffjJ, as well as the four poetlealj and the five mufieal gradu;ile&. Ae a wake or fellSval, a circuiting 
Bard was not futkrcd^ dunog its cominunincej to i^tepiirt from the houfc he had firft vtfited, without ihs 
conlentof the innikr of the houlc, or i n vita t tun given him by another. It he rambled from houfeto houfe 
or became tntoxii^LLicd, he was deprived of his Cl:rra leeK, whtcb were applied to the ufe of the church. If 
he offered auy indecency to miitrk^f^j^ or maid, he was^ ficLed and imprifoned, and forfeited his C/c-tj for 
feven years- 

Hvery art Las its fubordinate profen'or^s. B_TidL*s the four claiT^s of regular, or graduated Bard^ I h:ive 
recoumedj there wetL- four other cUiTes oi inferior and unlicenfed Songlters, which were called C//r y^tjw 
or ihe meanerj and more uuikdiul itincraut niuficianSj and poets " j alfo, they vVere called i^oWy Gk'r, or the 
loweft cUfs ; but property termed in Fmglirti, Mhi/inisr Thcfe were Pipers, Players on the three-ftringed 
Cr'Jribj Taborerfc, and huiloons- t)f the pipe, the three-firing Cr^i/;^ artd the tabor, the reader will find 
feme mention ne:ir the trophy of the muficalinrtrumcnts uf the VVl-IAi. The performers who ufed them 
were looked upon amon^; Bards^as wteds amon^ ilowers ; they hud no comie<^ion wirh the Ei/Uddvcd ' 
and their etlimadon and profits weie equally mconfiderable. One of their number, the D^ic^iniaJ Pr^ 
J^aJwfJt was a miniltd who rehcarfed otily^ and played no mfirumenu on oecafions of felliviry ha 
AooJ in the middle of Ehe hall where the couipsiny were alTumhled, und beating time with his flalF funi? a 
po«ittothe found- When any of the legular Bards were prefcnt^ he attended thecn ^^ a fervaiit anJ 
did not prefumeto fingt uuLelJi they fignified (heir allcnr. 

' Thi* Mil- tjlkd /Mr Dr/f^tri^ 1 fear 'n mx nnyf cithfie * Of iTic B*rdi,^^ nt iVuiJJe luftirtitinji memJoned in 

di Dipiii^i^ Smf^«t^ ^ A'r«i, tb^i III ^ lifUijnkiei ^Jilt Mart^nj t^f AV-wj, the 1 6th pttnli^r h^»ntnir -infici^J m ji cceusi in 
tMc wi*riii„ *^Tlic DiJ[.M^J -^ tilt Sit^fif^f Ld, ..g* 10 thii U-u.jjy, ^ it ui die M^ifciku* yf ihcPrint^r.mJaiai h\ the A^tai 
*" of tbc Irirdp i* d>cldvcri:iJ 10 I|jm MoaaiiLtEr/ ui Si. Dc^g^^U CU l>c ttjit.'" 

* The hu^Mh word UiiAp^lcf^Jt dcirivci Iroiji U^-j^GUn .inj prfdi;uUlf ilic Yixuch itrin 7^!imr, A 4 ftrtupiwa 

K Thf 




" *ft«f hetwwn the 5jr^> and the !dver order, or ^fIn/^reh, we dGfccvTrr in the 
T^ only co>.n»^^ *<;>►«■»«- ^^.^ ^^ ^ „ „^ p,,r,„ „r ,™ed,-...ra£lior.. A yo, ^d , 

appoinrmcni oF6:^Cff^ i "^ Ptnt^dd, m Doaor of the Arc, to prepare 

btmfelf » r-PP"" ""'.^'"f ": „T,d hir Ld ..ucked h^, ^i.h :h«r ridicule. 1. .heft!l« 

,h>i. in .h. n,idft cf .hccn. .nd f.ta ly f"^^*^ *';";;' ^,^ , .^fij J=.ble f«. The n=« day he .ppe,.. 

.d .g^ii. io =he hdl, and ^f""?'^' " j^; ;f: .„^ ,„<„,;„g .« .hdr tiJicule «pon .hemfelve. •. 
who w=« prefer., ^^^ '■■P<'''°S '>-"'" f J ^^„^^^^ p,i„„ ^f &«** »W„, g«e . m.gniScnt ent„, 
A, Chrian,... .. .he y=.r ""' ^* Votf^ hi> n=« cM. .i Ai.^^ei.l, .0. gr«. number 

,^™e„. *Uh deed. -^^ ^^^^^^^^"^^^ ^ «hi.h h.d bee. .Wea a ve.. .nd a d,y before, by p.^.U. 
of LUunnou. a^.ves, ind f°™S"" ' "^^ , , ^ j^ „f Nor.h WJes, and Sou.h Wul«, who hjd 

b«„ "F-^f^'f;^ j, °; ;;'^™ 'hall of .he Anim..eJ wUh .heir ufu.l emuh.ion the p>ef..« 
ceremony .a .he .n.ddle ol "^^ ^ ^f^j ,„ ,^^ ,;^ct„„, ,„,y p,,f„,<i ,„ , ^,,^ 

of.h«.noble.ud„ac^ nJe^^^^^^^ P-i-, ^^e pre-eauaeace^- Poe.ry 

St^LT.; 7 p:«^ii. of .W n'.U. ; and ia mnOc .. .he d.™e«ic A.„>.. of P.^ R,^ 
being adjoogcu iwi i ,_ ,„j ^;,f.^ rhe WetOi Dunce f^s Lord Lyitclton Tem:irkam hii 

. M r ■.; The iembled together, did undo^jb.edly much e^ccl *h« Ho>ry could e=.h,b.. .a .he ti-ne 
' f '^ Id .olC c he SoV Wale., .hen he then, ia hi. royal odle of 0./.../.. 

,het S iila.u.e.. They were .Ifo recompeafed .i.hfees. fetded by prefa.p.oa, =md propo...on.d 
tf, rl,e order of iheir piofefDoa, and the degree they h»d obtained la it '. . , - . 

Solh .Lage J/^V «- ">- P-P'^^ '" ""= "-=<'■ ^^ """"' '"' '^'''T T'T^^ ^f 
.he „Z f the pocry =nd nrufic, for .hich .hey were fo highly v.beJ. if .hey had no. foaad m C,™««, 
CrW.-^r. ha.ri n worthy of their f.nte. He w.. a native of .he eouatry, and travelled n. .t .a 
f h of a'forma.ion with fuch an induflriou, »d phibfop^.Ic.l fpirt. of L^raed ca.r.aty, .. very r.rel, 
cei L IhSly ti."- The nraancr ia «hich .he fuh.ea of Welfl, Mufic i. .reated. ... the followtng 
nuota.ion from his Dcfaiption of Wales, wiU fufiiciently jgflify i.s length. . . , ^ . ,. 

' "b "l rweetnef. of their mufical inftru.nent. they footh and debght me ear : they are raptd, yet del. 
cate in th i taodnia.ioa ; a«J by titc alloniihiag execution of .heir fingers, aad thetr w.ft .ranr..,on. roa, 
« o oneord, produce the .La pleafng harmony. This canrtot be better than by what I 

SSaaU theihane of performance they never forge, time and pr.port.oa; and ruch.the.r 
« Ihat 1 th .11 their infle£i;oa of tone., the varie.y of their iaftru.nett.., and the .atr.cacy of the,, h.- 
™n7 he a, tai. the perfeftion of confonance attd melody, by a f^eet velocity, an equable d.rp.r..y. .ad . 
^^0 d a c CO d, .s'if the (Iting. founded together fourths, or fifth. -. they .l»ay. beg.n w.h B Qat, aal 
: f t"^a etura . it, .hat the whole may be contple.ed under the fweetnefs ol a grand aad Pl-Gn^ ™"J 
The, n er into a n.ovemen,, aad concbde i. in fo delicate a manner, aad play the U.tle notes fo ip.^ 
Ider the bl..ter foutid of the bafc ftrh.g=. ealivealng with wanton levity, or -iommun.ea.rng a deeper 
imerml fenfation of pleafure. that the perfeftbn of their art appears in .he coneealmeo t ol ,t. For, 


Art profiia when conceard, 
Difgraces when reveal*d*'* 

. Cvf aV. i. tli= Butt ^U\. air ; .nd Cfir, .reMi-Hci^n.. J P^C^ ^^"""^ / .X^""' ^' *''^' ^' ^' ^' ^^'''' 
P«U»or MinllrcU- From the Ucklc CUr. c;.me C/.rjia», tn «^# P«ucJ Grjmmr, p. »96. ofsii^oblcFk- 

a ClcT-^ynirtCi 111 Irulii 

J Dt- i^Aj^'j luftltuEeB of the Welfii Lingiia^, p- »9&r ^c 
Rhjdiifrd'tGtriatuiiAT,^. 179, &c. and Caridoc'i HiUory of 
Wj,]i;&^ iugn"4;riwtl by Wynne, p. 105. 

* HJftory «l /f**P)f li. 4to- vol. 111. p. ^oi. 

i CinEcrburr> bto VV-a^s, to preach tht t rjifadc. H *ro« 
wiis buried it i^ IJdvy'/, ^Iwut die ,i»|fe «f 7^" jj 


Her* I cannot tefrarQ from interTUpting this curioua rurtaiive a? Giraldnttht tbepurpofe of introducing, 
from one o( Phiiiftf'i paflorals, fome lioes which arc bauiifullydefcriptiveof thofc effeaa wUkli the iwp 
ti peculiarly capable of pToducing, and for which it is uruvctf^y admired ; 

'« Now Iig;htly ftiinming o'er the firings thej piftj 
" Like winfii tba: gently brufh ihc plying grafs, ' 

• *• And melting airs arife at thdr command t 

** And now, laborious, with a weighty hand, 

" They Bnk into the chords with folemn pace* . 

** And give the fwelHng tones a manly grace/' 
« From this caufe, thofe very Urains which afford deep and finfpeakable mental delight to tbofe who have 
looked far, and (kilfully penetrated into the myflcrics of the art, fatigue rather ih:in gratify the em of 
others, who, though tlicy fee, do not perceive, and, though they hear, do not underftand. By fachth* 
fineft Mufic isedeenieJ no better than a cotifufed and diforderly n^ilte.and mill be heard with unwillingnefa 
and dif[;ufl. The Wdfh have three kinds nf mufical Inltruments, the Eirp, the Crwtb, and the Pipes \. 

They-do not fmg m unifon, like the inhabitants of other ctmntriesj bui in many different pans. So that 
in a company of fingers, which one frequently meets with iH; Walcf^ as many dilFerent parts and voices arc 
heard, as there are performers j who all at length unite, with organic mclotly, in one confonance, and the 

fofl fueetnefs ofBllaN '^ 

In the northern pans of Britain, beyond the HumBer, and on the borders ofTsrkJkire, the inhabitants 
ufe in fmsingthc fame kind of fymphonious harmony; but with Icfs variety, Itndng rmly in two p;irts,onE 
murmuring in dieb^fc, ihe other warbling in the acute or treble- N [thcr of the two nations has acquired 
this peculiar property by art, but by long habit, which has rendtrt:d it f^iniliLir and natural : and the 
nraaice is now fo firnity rooted in them, that it is unufual lo hear a fimple anJ fmgle mel dy wcllfung, 
AnJj which is Hill more wonderful, their children, from their infancy, frng in the hme manner V 

After the account that ha^ been given of the mufical conrtitutiimsof tht WMlh, ihetefthnony oiGitaMuj 
was not wanted to prove that they highly eReemed and cuhivated mufic.and that harmony mitfl hnveexilted 
among them in confiderable perfc^ion. But, from the p.ifl'iges 1 luvc quoted conizLrning their art, we 
may collet, from the faireft prefumpiion of certair^ty, that i bey pofTeflVd an improvement of it, the fir Ei 
invention of which has always been attributed to Gukh\ They either were acquainted with counterpoint, 
and the method of fmging in parts, or Giraidtii himfelf mull haic invented it, and given them the nierit of 
tiisdif^rovery, 1 cannot, whbout feeling a repugnance, contradift the opinion of fo diligent an hiftorian, 
and fo Ingenious a crhic as Dr Burney ''^j but I am perfuadcd, that if he had previoully enquired into the 
mufical lludies of ihe Banh, and their public eflablifiimen^, in the preceding centuries, he would not have 
fuffered his unfavourable opinion of C;r.?A/tf*'/ veracity to prL:vail againit the (trong light ol his evidence- 
If that the Bards undeiflood counterpoint reqaires further prooF,iE is to be found in(/jt^ Four andTwefity 
<tvtkntGama cflhcWdJh " j of which OmuCywydd psd-^ aamt ; Sinsing a Son^ in f^ur parti, wit/j 
afcenisthm, is among the number: and in ihe MS. to which I haverelerted in p. aS^aiid at^; which con- 
tains feveral Welfh tunes in full harmony, that maybe afcribcd with certainty to fo early a date as the 
clevendi century, and fome of them to much r^smotcr jjcrioda. Alfo, fee a paTage from S^^^af: and 
of ne Three Men'i Songs J. * ^^«» 

' Camlrv Bffcrifiiio, ch. li. 

* ihid.cK. a and 15, 

'■■" It U Well knnivEi r^wt Giiidsi''t new iTivcnttn ■cf^iirwrpflint 
«-jf ciprcffifd in long -aciici co proirj'ft md Iciipilicn mt-t ht"* 
haTffinnk»ui fdund? ^ and ihait Ka moveircnt* wei-c ftown But 
Cireidui Camirenft, tili qonteiTipoi iry, (i^iTcs Tis an arna^ing 
ktcDurit "t \\it ccVrliy, rjpidlrj', ci;rt[iiion» and corraitncfii 
^rith v.'li'ich the tlritunb played in p^i is their intric^ie and coiti'- 
plici^Eed miJficoM ibcir harps. If Guldo^a invention liaJ ihc» 
reached Wales. UNuldthcy have been fo ctpctt fo foon m the 
praAicc or it i or would tjiey have vritteji their mulic in itic 
rudcp trlJ r^nLtr>ned manner uf Uie MS. you allude VHt when u. 
mueh belter mtihod had been found c^ul i li may thcrcftjrc 
be iEkferrcd th»[ tlic biiifuii perfurmed mufic barmi^ni4>uny in 
u*rn» bcffi* iht Ititlians. 

** Theeharaacr* in the Wdfh MS- were prob^ihly chants 
ivncitHlivei, uki\ in LandEvf luulit^concei-ti.fjfmphoniesjaTid 
cbwiil^iin grc^i Jik)aitir or iierb^^i m JivJae w^rlliip. We 

read of AV^/iJJf, Kar Atdam JCor Elvy^, Kar Ffinwr, S^c* 

which fiisnifvcs a body^ im uittiiber of vokes, aatl iultfLiiiienEa 

joliici in hirnjonyj" 

jt Later from tin Rf^t. Afr. l.vaat,af LsaiiymyTiich:,wiik 

AlfniHc u;iinc nf the ancient Lijid famous mnnjltcrrnf 
Bandar, in Nurih Waks. iccai5 to he derived Irtim S^an-jgir, ar 

finmuu* chnii". See pn I *. 

Likewile^ we tmnd ai Ada jf/^ipitt The Chtnt of Afaph. Tfii* 
3t. Afaph iUci A. D, 596 i iLiid the eathed at if laincd ifrer 
liim 10 thii day. See BrovMi WUiisU Survtj sf St. J/t^fi, 

p. I JT. 

■" HitlofT fiF Mafic, voK IL p. loS, 4:c. 

" 1 aiinei; an aLcutJtecopyi and tv.T,nfl.(ticm nf ihefe crle- 
hrated Xiimrt, fBfifJiitf of tv^ty^ftatr kmdt ef tniriiltM. m/iJ tf ti* 
amiem Utittmr, :ii tJiey .nc iirinteJ in Dr. iHvit*! WcIIIh Lmhu 
,tnd L.Aiiii and WcMh Uiiiit'Uiirij fuiioj Loiidini* \6^m. 


fc , ,w, J,v Off uniwght native harpeis, «ho "= '"f^Hy unacquainted with modtm rnuRc. rctiJrt , 
r ^7 If h«Ml of^hifh th. Bard>™=r= f,n,oa,. For, like .h«r g«.t pr^dec.dor., fr.™ «ho™ 
r"h « ,«t^ their .nn.. by tr.di.iot>, .h<y perf-nn, however rudely, m concert ; they .ccon,p,„, 
they hf" ««;;'!* ^Ji^, i„ ,„i„ion., «nd without deviation fro™, fubj.a. mdulge .h, 
the vo.c= vrith harpepos, tnty ue t j.^^ ^^,. -^ ,. j 

The miry, as weu as m ,ecordinR event, to poRerity, he has trmf.nitted to ui j me. 

„d of it. adherence .o .ruth, ""'l ." "fe m jor ^ ^J^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ extraordinary 

.or,ble example. In "^'^ "^;'l^ l^^^y^l^, , „a>Ud to the chureh-yard of G^..^, in fearch 
dUiovery ,o t ejvotld. ^'"'^ ;^ ^°'^' ;? . , ^J,,Ur>g th. manner of his death, and the place of hi. 

one ol his beautiful apHrophies / " . 

i' To F*fm£rc*f call'd before ihe Engllfh king, . 

And to ihy po^eTful harp commaaJett there to fing j , 

Of famous yfr/^wrtold^ft, and where he wa^mterrM, 

^ In *hich ihofe^reckkft trmcs had long an J blmdly m d, 
. ' And ignorance had brought the world to fach a pafa 
As now, -whkh fcarce believes that Arthur ever was. 
* ' But when Kh^z Htnry fcnt th* reported place to view. 

He found that man of men : and Nvhat thou faidft was true ■\ 

T Fedoir faitt^ ar ijugaift, - - - - 

- '.J 

The Four and Twenty games. 

6 r-jf Car^h- 



\ //Ja<rj«j^r£. 

WreLlIiag. . 

nItchinE ihcbarpOr^lart^cLlonci throwing ihofl^^^^ 
t Ar:]icry>thrn^ingihtj^Lv-el]», ind to hurl wtthiflmg. 
4 Excrcires of J Fencing wild x Iword unJ buckler- 

6 Tf ati of 



4 Goj^"^/^*'" 

ral fpiirts- 

7 Dr^menic 

iinJ liUTi:irj' 

|. Inferior 

■ > 

vo c.^are ijrai, fome acnt^, ^nd foi^ir bct^^c.n t»t].. Women . 

X .r?adJ<^d 10 .ncn's. «i.d -IlL lh.f. flute, ar. mKf- 

Sint^ulfhabk. 1 fpesil: of th. .bora, wb^h vas kucwi. 

blL th.nth=n= wire fanp.rly ^^P^^^^"r^,j'^^'i^.^"?!tl!°;, 
atl thcparTaEcS are filled ^uh frngcrSjand lhcinfidcofthcpUc« 
i. lined M trump=t=r> . ibe upper p^^rt of the ftific r^focuds 
X<hh every kind ol flutes, and orgniiSi iuid idrmopj w tm*/? /ff flrj/> 

You ccicii ijie how j^rsive and acute voices art brought into 
sjFrccmcni. and how A^ffo"/ procecdi from llnngs which rcn- 
der uneciiial loundi, ' Srtuici, Epi^. H"^ — 

t Ammijs ikcir pAftmiM foroictly m i,umwal[, jt appears 
tUer b^dfon« in tlircepiirts, 

faniijprth» n^t/' Litiew'* Hitl. ol LotuwaU, p* ^a- i«ynd 

h jj 

Alfo the old Ballad, called the TsumtriM «f Tattintam, 
Fhidi ii laid to bare bMttwriUwibeluis ih? reign ^ *iiJfi 

t'enciiig wltb the twoMnded fw*jJfd. 
Pl^iyln;; witJi die quarter ftuf. 


'iViary* ' ' 

l^bj-ing the Harp. 

Reading Wclfti. ^ „ . 

SiiiLnno :i fttrg with the Harp, orCrwtb- ^ 
Sitii^Snfl an ode in four p:inJ, with accentiEioDj- 

3 DniiBghts, and SbufB.;-board. 
1 D lector ^rtirA G-mrfffffl' 

Edward the Tliird^bas the followicfr potTnge : 

*' At thAt fe:dl were thcy fcr^-ed in ncfi aray, 
Eycrv fivQ and fivt had a cokcncT ^ 
Audio they n*t in jollity ^11 th-: ong day, 
Tyb atnigbi, I tro^i bad a fiiTiplc aray : 
Mlckle mirth Wits them among ; ( * 5J*--«^/«f >l i. 
I. =v«r «r.c. of ^. haufc I --r^-;-.^^ 
Was melody delicious, j ^^^^ pJirj.Uilf 

1' or to hear precious ' *,... .^..^ 

Of Air men*s lone* "- 

Ot liir men's lone h -* jj m „ i,r. 

^.w, w. .o ite .«e. th.t ^'i^;;';^^- v^S^iviX :^ 

ifi rliriic Diirts. Sec more ct)Tifimi:iiion m iJr. i rfM/ffl/ tetter lu 

.W^Xo^p II. II- AiidiiilJt.iWVx//*^-*^.^Jcd.p.3*. 

:: Dtt^u". P^Jyolblcm, the «th Song- ^= jlto the i^JJi 

die: calUe ut Wiidiur. It. Aidi»ir died ^ Lh= ^ *it ot Mi^ ui 



This is notfi£tion* The fucccFs of the Invenjgatioa was not iingnieful to the monarch's poetic feith : md 
Henry hud ihe fatiafa£tioft to view the ftupendous remains, and to count the glorious wounds, of thehft of 

Britons '. . , r 

To rhfife incidents Mr* Warton fwith his ufuil fkiil and Infjenuity,) has given a nc* and poetical fottri, 

in an Ode catletl TU Graves/ A nhur, which poffelTes mmy beauties. 

«■ J fmd 1L curions circumftaHce mentioned in End£rbie's Hi/bo oflVaki, of ^ pi^^f'^ £bartir of privileges 
and immunEiIcs i/ KtRg Jnhur, to tb<! Scbooiand Umverftiy af CanibriJgi *, where among other memorable 
thiogn he declarethihat his Chriftian prcdeceJTora, Kings of Brirain, had been inftrufted there in learning 
and religion, and in parricular, fpeaking there o^ King Ludus, what immunities he granted to that tini- 
vcrfity, and tliat this our firft Chriftian king did receive the faith of Chrift, by the preaching of the learned 
fcholars of Cambridge, ibis ch^irtet was dated at Lomkn, the 7th day of April, in the year of Chria 531 '- 

The three principal palace?, or Courts of King Anhiir, were at Caer-'Jesiiy on the river Uik \ in Mon- 

monthfliire i Csirfwtg, in Cornwall; and Fcnrbyn Rbionedd, \ix Cumberland. BritiJIj Triads.No^ 57. 

" Jci/jai beh Dant, a ChantaiLr, Had it not been for Mufic, and Poetry, 

« Ar go/I, hmei Arthur gn'-j^r^ - Even the feats of Arthur would have been inevitably loft. 

The ufe of OUT poetry in prefening the memory of evetits, and the aid it ha? lent to proved 
by another eKampie; vi^. of the celebrated Mad<,g ab Ojjcn G^yncdd, and his difcovcry of America, 
abont the year 1170'^ This we gatticr frocn the poems of Cynvrsg ab Cron-u/, and Sir Mercdudd ab Rhys, 
and the more esprcfs decUraiion of that learned herald bard, Guityn 0-^nin ; who all preceded the espe- 
diiion of Ct^himbcis, and rdate, or allude to ihe expedition of Madog, as an event ^ell known and univerfally 
believed, that had happened three hundred years before. ^ ! ' 

U Geffrey of Mcnrjmith, whcm he tranflited Tyfdio, had known the wofks of raliefm, and Uywarch Ikm 
he might have found in tEicm :ibnndance of hiflorical pafi^i-es that would have fcrvcd better to enlarge and 
etnbellilh that venerable, and authentic hlftory, ihan thofc prophciitk tales he has adopted, Juvai 

inff^roi acadt-re f&nUs '. 1 1 - , 1 1 l 

iut left the purity of thefe genuine fources yet unexplored fliould be doubtud, let it be rememUred that 
the defcendanls nf the Cdfj could never be brought to think with the Gmij, and Rmm^, on the fubject ot 
heroic Poetry, ^vhlch was held in fuch reverence by that primitive nation and iis pofterhy, that fable and 
invention (the eflencc of the ctaflical epopee) were never fufTered to make any part of it. From thi$ caufc 
neither the Btitons, the Irijh, the Erji, the Condjh, nor the Anmrie^ms, have ever to this day produced 1 
poem fimihr in its ftrutlure to thq I/ittd, or Jinrid ; though moft other nations have fiiowiran inglorious 
pride in imitating them. What in one country is calkd an heroic poem, and the grandcil performance of hu- 
man art, ie defpifcd in another as a fabulous empty fong, calculated to ple^Tca vain ani bo:iftful people, who 
have no atkions of their own virtue and courage to be recorded, but are conftrained to have recoutf^j to 
fictitious gods, fiaiiious heroes, fidhious banks, and fuch aiiachronifms as a grave Bricifh writer would have 
bluflied to own. Hlftorlans, w!io are acquainted only with the compofuions of this charader, may well 
regard Poetry with the contempt they have ufually teaificd, as a vain art, that draws its materials more from 
fancy than from nature, and delightti^in ficlion rather than truth. But widely different, h the Poetry of the 
Britilh Bi/ds, which has ever been from thefirit of times, the facred repoHtory of the aOions of great men. 
The txrriod vv hich inrerfyred between the reign of Grnfydd ab Cymm, and that of the \Ji prince, Llei^dyn^ 
It the brightcft in our annals. It abounds with perhaps the uobleft monuments of genius, as well as valour 
of which ihe Wulih nation can hoait. It will be fLilTieiefit for me to mention a few Uluftrious names, who 
with veneration derived from their great predecelTors the Arts of Poetry, and Mufic, and tranftuitied theui 
ifciih augmented honours* to their i>oaerily. I wilh thd limits of thi^ effay would fuffer mc to give more 
tlian theit natncsj or that my learned countrymen would Ihew fome of that enterprifmg fparit, for which their 
anccflors were famtd, and publifh their remains to the world* Ihc poetns q£ Meiiir, ihe liard of Gtigydda^ 
Cjnan ; CyndM-u^ Ufydydd Mu-wfi Owen Cyvedit^, l^rincc oiPowyt} Cwakhmai ai M^Uir; Gwrg^fitiib Rfyi 

• CimbrlJjfc W.I* fird buiLl by Gturiaai yttrvJr'OKht (.kboUt 
J 7 5 rtj.ri li<f ^i^c CJ] hH . ) ,in J wiii, cdkJ tropi hi tia ( tur-jcunegMi, 
■» w(Ublhcr'vcrC4t]eJ l'^illt. tlenid« tbtllDWIl Illnrc^.iJ lic^t, 
iiuJ (ii did hii (ta t^w/^i^L* jtticJf Uim. Ltwii'i litj. *y Sri^» 

lCatf*itr Wj/i» W IrluiXlK'Ulhlijin, WU OtUe the in|itl«fdlil 
itfaU VV*lck, iuili lurUAUtr Jmilciieuti ilutlurd uijr lu Sri- 

ui^i. Ajiij /rfrfAtff fuiitiLUJ there la Uulverfity, whkh con- 
l.tilttd ao^jIc4riitJ Fhilufoi^lwri .liilI ALWtumieFm ^J tklcrt 
he iiaHtiutEillhiittcleljfilcJ urJsr vi Kw^kU^d, Lftuit't ifi0^ 
sf liritJitit P" 51. A>^. 

' Kur i iutdij Kuuuirf inioihU fuUieit, Tc* Lord Wn>Uoa*> 
jtotatuii ilic (diWiillii. H'jl y Htno il- S^^^^T^t 


\ ; M ihe BitA of L/^^-^//" the Gr«t j Einion sbGwnkhmni ; and Gru^ddabyr Tnad C£ch ; are nn^ 

. .nd afcribed with C^^uincy to their authorsS The moft diftingmfhed itiftrumenul compoferg wer« 

cC^rdomeflic MuQci^D to Priace Maelgwn. aw,. .* C.«.. C.r/^^^ ..uM B.rd to H^n^.. 

\1 .Tj.^.. . Iir.«.^^. and C'.iit^nV ^.^ffr^^; who all flouftfi^ed abr>m the cetiTur^-^Th^foU 

lowing ten flonnfhed .boot the year moo: ^/*^™ ^A Cjrmm y ^^^^W. f^./ i ^/.^^ G.r^^^^^^ c.rji 

[owinfi «n flourifhed aboot the year i , <-^ r ; / r> ; - -jt r 

Mrir; C.//^«B^..r^; G^^rgan , talsrycb ; Ivan ,b yC5. ; V^vdyn Dclyntcr;^.^^^^^ 
And ihe following flourifhed about the iwelfih century : Davydd Gam, Deiynt^r ^ Em,t>n Deiynwr , Q^^ 
Bihdd^ GnSfddVarddj Alban Bndr ; T PibyddM^eL CybdynVardJ ab Gwyrt-vardd^i Cadw^an: i^^ 
CrafFfdd ab Adda ^ D^ydd, Prydydd a TMnhr, flourifhed about 139°- All thefe were celebrated 
Muficians- we have a few rcrnatn! of their compnf.ibns in an old manofcripts and only the nameaof 
other, arc preferved. by fome flight nienrion in the pages of fucceeding poet. 

" Since Wf iiing and praaical MuHc have become fcparate profeflions, the criebriEy of the poor Mufitiaa 
baa died with the vlbiaibn of hii ftrlngs* The voice of acchmation, and thunder of appbufc, pafa awiy 
like vapours; and thofe hands that were moft aclive in leftifjrlnp; temporary approbation, fuffcrthc hmt of 
thofe who charmed away their cares and forrows in the glowing hour of innocent delight, to remain unre- 
corded ' " Some of the mufical produdlons of ihii period are to be found in the prcfeni colkaion i and 
fome fat^ more ancient. I decline the taik of pointing them out by any decifive opinion, becaufc the orU 
ginal titles have often been changed, or loft, and they are now known by other names, fuhftituted by later , 
Birds in complinient to later patrons. This remark is minute, but necelTary j for without it, the ageoi 
fomc of the bed remains of Wellh Mufic might injdvertently be miftaken. 

Early in the twelfth century, Mufic and Poetry had approached their utmoft degree of perfeaitm in 
Wales. Nor, by the common fate of the ^Vris in other countries, did they fuddenly fall from the eminence 
they had attained* If in the progrefsj of the fuccecding a-e they fiiowed any lymptoms of decay, remedy 
was fo diligently applied by the fkill of the Eijledd-vodro the declining part, that they preferved their former 
vigour, and perhaps acquired new graces. And had not the fatal accident, overwhelmed, in the hour of its 
profperity, the hereditary princedom of Wales, which involved in the fame ruin ita Poetry and Mufic, out 
country might have retained to this day its ancient government, and its native arts, in thebofom of thoic 
mountains which protefted ihcm for ages. The Poets of thefe memorable times added energy to a nervoaa 
language ; and the Muficiana called forth from the harp its loudelt and grandeft tones, to re-animate the 
ancient Rruggle of their brave countrymen for freedom, and the pofkilion of their parent foil. What was 
ihe fucccfs of their virtuous and noble pnrpofe, the hiftory of the ceras when they flourifliedj can belt explain. 
It is no flight proof of their inlluencej that when tlie brave, but unfortunate prince LkivHyn the lad, after 
thefunenderof his rights, and the fycrifice of his patriotifm to his lovc% was treacherouGy flain at Bueiit^ 
Edward I- did not think himfelf fecure in his triumph, till he added cruelty to injuflice, and gave the final 
blow to Welfli liberty in the malfacre of the Bards "\ In this eiiecrable deed, Edward imitated the policy 
of Philip (f Maccdon, who demanded from the Jtbcmam^ as a condition of amity, the furrender of thdr 
orators, ThemaiTacrc was general ; and, as fome of our molt eminent Bards muft have perifhed, it is 
probable that many of their works, and nf the remains of their predeceifors, were alfo deftroyed, and are for 
tverlolh This lamentable event has given birth to one of the nobleft Lyric compofitions in theEngliU 
language 1 a poem of fuch fire and beauty as to remove^ as a late writer has thought ", our regret of the 
occafion, and to compenfate in fome degree for the lofs. But in heightening our regrec confifts the great 
merit of this ^mirable ode: and without beflowing on ic any extravagant praife, I may boldly afEnn, 

' Thff works fiffcioft of the early Sards are to bft foQtid in 
tht Nyvyriati. Arihnii^i^ of f^ii^ft, hxc\j coKfi'flcij from ll+e 
OJdifift WcUit MSS. CKtjnt, sml publlChctt in ihrcc iLirgc o£i,T.vti 
roliimcs^ wliich contaiii Jiioll: of the jineimt Wtijh Poani, Chm- 
latUit i rovtfiri,&. c ► of t|] C Aijciem Brlion if bti iig sJic moiiiJ uicnEs 
ol Axicicm Uriulh Hiftt'ry, ibmu^h chefpiLeof abqjut noo 
Tuartj whith is an inviJiMhle work^ Kippily refcucd Iron ob- 
JivloD, Ly the praife- worth y^ and liber J iLdt^of Mr. Q'^tn Jgnet, 
!m<:rchant, of ThaJnci-ftr^it, and a great adjnirer vfhi^ native 

) Ch^atr Cy\lt\jia btvrdJyn Idik, Cbwi^arUigl, f&tift'' laanaeb. 

^ Dr. Duriuy^t Hl'Hott' of MnfiCi vol. Il- p. 70* 

• &ee Wywae'M HiHitry dI W^tei, eJic. 1^17+^ p. tSj. 

'■ EeEsdi/j^rHMItAcukvlGrunini^T' Crfrif'/ Hifturj of ^njj- 

laikdp vot' II- Pl i^d- And £vdA'j E^ptGLmeai of AncicuL WelQi 


" King Edward the Firflj aliout tlie year 11 ji, a fhorttlme 
licfure he afccndcd the Ehronc, took hSs Harper '^ith hipi to Eb« 
Hdl/ Land ; a,od Lhi> muficinn mutl have l^cn a clyfc ind cUB- 
lU"! aiLcndant oa hii mafter j far when £dwaj*d was woLitnk*i 
with a ptiifnned knife at Ftokmmty the Hdrfttt hcirisig the ftmif- 
dtt tulhed into the royil ^p^itniciiE, and ktUcd tbe alL^it 
Tilts fignal fcrvice from his Biu-J^ dtd not howover incline eIk 
monarch afterwards 10 f|>arehi3 brethren in Wiil^s.*^ 

*■ Ruin feiitc thee, nithler^ ^"Qg '* Gray*! OJr. 

Barney I //^. vol, II. and -^Wjtr'j lit^ory o/tUNitiy f*'ar,hQQk. 
IV. dial*, ig. 

There Is an aft of Edward the FtrEl, and another of HtoiJ 
the IVdM to prohibit ail B^rds and luuficlmi from puriiiim 
I heir prufi^flint! within the jiriacipatities of WjJci* iiw Xg*f 
Wadi^M, p. 54|, 5iTi ao^J H*** <Ji the Jp^tb^. 

" ^K the Huu, JOtii/ui B-jtringlM*/ MUci:Il.mici. 

P Hi 





l^at the PMhhrt tfD'ayfsfi '\ jind th« Bard ^Oray, have contributed no left to the repuratiflfi of their 
autWa than to the glory of Wales, and are the only modern produaion* worthy to alkviatc ihe lofi wp 
ruftained in f'> immcnfca wafte of literary tre^irutcs, and foch irreparable ruin of genlas. 

After thfidilTolution of the princely government of Wales, fuch waa the tyranny wcrcifed by theEng- 
li(h nver the conquered nation, that the Bards, who were born « fmce Cambria's fatal day/' might be faid 
,c rife under themflaence of a balefal and mahgnant ftar. They were reduced to employ their facred art 
in ohfeurity and formw, and conftrained to fuppref. the indignation thpt would butll forth in the moft 
animared flrain. agamrt their nnj^enerous and cruel oppreffors. Yet thejr were not filent, or inaftwe. That 
their poetry might breathe with Impunity the fplrit of their patrbtifin, they became dark,, and 
oracuhr. A* the Monks of the Wel(h Church, in their con.roverfy with Rome, had written, to countenance 
their doarin.., feveral rellgiou. poems which they feigned to be the work of M.>, the Bards now af- 
cribe J many of iheir poetical writing, to the fan.e venerable author, and produced many others as the pro- 
phefiC. of Che elder M.rddyn. Hence much uncertainty prevails concerning the genuine remams of the fixth 
century, ^e.t part of which has defcended to us mutilated and depraved : and hence that myHenou. a.r 
which pervades all the Poetry of the later period. I am now defcribing. The forgery of thofe poem., ^htch 
are entirely fpurious, though ihey may have part un^uertioncd even by fuch critics as Dr. Davies, and Dr. 
7. D. /e^T, may, I think, be prefently detected. They were written to ferve a popular and a temporary 
purpofe.^nd were not contrived with fuch fagacity and care as to hide from the eye of a judjaous anden- 
lirhteiled fcholar their hift.rical iniflaU'S, their novelty of language, and their other niarks of impoflute, 

While the Bards were thus crimped in their poetical department, they had greater fcope and leifure for the 
fludy of heraldry, and their other domeQic duties. Every fireat man had under hii roof and patronage fome 
eminent B.rd, uho, at his death, compofed. on thefubj.a of hi. defcent, his dignities and the anions of 
his Itfe, a funeral poem, which wa^ folemnly recited by a DaU6niad\x. the prefence of his furviving rela- 
tions ^K Hence it has happened that pedigtecs are fo well preferved in Wales. 

By the infurreaion, howcer. in the rdgn of UmnlW the martial fpirit of the A^^cn, or Welfii Mufe 
was revived, to celebrate the heroic enierprifes of the brave O^cn Clpdwr ". Like him, the Bards of hii 
lime were - irrcgubr and wild :" nnd as the taper gliintiierlng in its fockel gives a fudden blaze before it is 
cxtinguinied, fo did Ihey make one bright effort of [heir original and daring genms, which was then loft 
and bulled for ever with their hero in the grave. Yet though l^oetry Haurilhed, Learmng fuffered: for fuch 
was .the ondiftinguiOiiog fury of tliat celebrated pariifan, and his cnetnies, againft the monafterica that 
^^ithftcod thcin, that not only their cells, but alfo their libraries and MSS. were deftroyed ' . 

The following Ode to 0-u,-mn G!yndn/r, by his bvourlte Hard, Sir Gnrg'ydd IJwyd, happily transfufed 
into Englim verfe by Mr. nWmms, of Frc^ ^^ clahns a dillinguiCicd place in this hlftory, for the genius of 
the author, aad the fkill of the traunitor. . , 

O DE. .'' ' 

ARWYRATN O-uj^fi CfynduT '' t 

Lhvyd aif Dniydd ab Einisn a'i cant'. A* D* 1400. 

the Fraifi ^/Owaui Glyndwr* 



Eryr digrh JirKfi/, 
Owiinj hi^lfn gtiin, had amgidf 
EuFVdb ( J ^r a srvsd) 
Grut^dd Vychan gidii ei ^Md j 

Cambria's princely caglcj hail! 

QiGrujfydd VycharCt nohle blood 1 
Tby hifih icnown fhalL never fail, 

O'tuam ClyndiLr^ great wid good I 

•' Mii^r DrajtwH, br dw cnramnBicaiuMn of hi* friend. Ut. \ Tmir In WhiIci, Vol, 1. p, 3! J. s|o» 
Bri/di^i, jnij Lluir inflLiiUUKntt 1 iuul hit ^ccuiAte LjL4ii.vka|,c i& 

convened lU ibf Pcly^pRiflrin in l)vc mndL tle^jnl »nJ fpiHtcd 
Li'«-iif. 1 liud l>] hit Tiii'iiumcM \h Wcii miu it cr Abbey* tbiiL 

*' O^fw'i \Atuu*u*i^i Ounvit C^tidwr,jiao. L«nd. t^^s^ nnd 

Lli.iii tiff ihiii dLruik L^icf lire rtkbrAiciJl lin ihr moik d,uiiii«ic>iJ 
tt'ui'i b^r ik^i J&RPuui juul lrAri44d Bofd* hit Gitk. 


" O^^ia Qhmlvn-, JtfceoJcd frotB ihfl iuU4«at rare of 
^ - lid HtuTt IV, ia 

llrU iip|iCArcit ta aruu na^n 

BiitLlLL prince 

the vciir I40O. . . 

hi* ciicmj' Lt.rJ tJrry. »inJ inmKdiLiicljf iei:o*(«d »t*i ht 
iijJ iiiinilllr btcn dUpolTditd yt'by liimi iuid fwift Jtttr cjiuleJ 
biiTHi-n infic prdcLinwJ PrJiKfl of Wiki. HU tkitf ttu^, 
GttiffyJJ i imriJ ^cj|,nctCinM I>l> -llMcntrc, ^h^uta bit ymit, ±a4, 
iNftJiit* tht lueceli ut tttc wif in * l/^jM ur IWe. w*kll 
It ckflitudT mii^d liuw ilic ^VvUL by Uw Htw. Wb. WiUkm* 


Aer f Olyn. tf>n^ rhdJfyft tbyddt 
I>yTTdwy ^vKsr, (ftt^r di'oerydd. 
Liavar ymnvjm mfx^aith 
Qeddivfi wrib gpxdd Mtdd rmith^ 
fy nrhrair i'ih ami geUweiriaw 

ftb fyj, ii^ ^tf^f^ "'"» ^"''^ ^^'^' 
Medd vjnny nntfy oedd v'anwer^ 
A ^waeth drai vy mmb 17 wotu 



^fr mawiair navf rym mihst^ 
J^ag, ar vynad, arnad o^r, 
TV awr i'r actboji ar arftb 
I Btydaia darpar adufyth^ 
J3u djw f hirffcth gastb gad 
A'm fhvyn i laruj ntn dattadi 
Nid ^^tb dy gQ"^ dra/'ov draw^ 


Lord of Dw^itt^F^i fertile vatc, 
WarlikC) high-born Oi£^i;i, hail I 
jywnkoyj whofe wi Je- fpTeadUig ftreamt, 
Rcfle^ing Cyntlua't midaight bcami, 

VTbilom led me to thy bower ] 

ALat I in an unguarded hour I 
For high in blood> with BritiOi beverage hot. 
My iv?fuL didaace I forgot t 

But foon Tuy generous chief forgive 

The rude prefuroption of his flavc. 

But leav^ mt not, lUuflrious lord L 

The peaceful bow'r, and hofpitable board. 

Arc ill exchang*d for fcencs of war> 

Thuugh Henry calls thee from afar. 
My prayers, n^y icars were vain ; 
He flew like lightning to the hollile plain. 

While with remorfcj regretf OBd woe^ 

I faw thegod-Uke hero go I 

I faw, with aching heart. 

The golden beam depart* 
His glorious image in my mind, 
IVaa all that (hasifi left bdund. 

IVild with defpair^ and woe^begone, 

I'hy faithful Bard is left alone. 

To f]ghj to weep, to ^roan 1 


t . 


Ba^au drej vy ngrudd dygrych, 
Dyvry gwlaiv val dinvr a'i gwlycbf 
Pan oedd dryttuiv ^y nbrava^l 
Am danadi maby iadh^U 
Ciywais ben rhyw genmd^ 
Cei rds Duw, rywir yjiad ! 
Cuflynyr aer, lalan m^dd, 
Ob&nodfvawrglod'it^ Arglwydd! 


The fweet remembrance, ever dear, 

ITiy name, flill ufher'd by a tear. 

My inward anguilh fpeak^ 
How couldft thou, cruel Owah, go. 
And leave the bicter flreams to flow 
. Down Gntffydd*i fur row *d cheek ? 
I heard, (who has not heard thy fame?) 
With extafy I heard thy name^ 
Loud echo'd by the trump of war. 
Which fpoke thee brave, and void of fear | 
Yet of a gentle heart poffefs'd. 
That bled within thy generous bfeaft> 
Wide o'er the fanguine plain Co fee 
The havock of hoflility* 

Daroganawdd drytnla^d drOf 
Dtnva dytifO doidymj 
JT enaidj uweh Dyvrdwy Vacfiawr, 
fy i^h ffwrw Uawer r'l Ua^r* 
DevfiJii tt mi *r dytvawd, 
. Van ynm gyvrwyddav g^awdm 

Still with good omens may* ft thou fight j 
And do thy injur'd country right 1 
Like great F^isdragon'' fhalt thoii foar. 
Who bad the din of battle roar. 
What time his vengeful fteel he dre* 
Hii brother's grandeur to renew, 

'* Theortien alluJed lo was a (lor* and fiery dragon j whlcbtaecDrJbn to die IntcrprtUtiMi of AJirJ^^"^ \^rtihBi^ 
of Utiiyrt ■Ahtiv,:\yt\^ luj-naincJ PmJr^erit from Imvitig caufcd iwo g^tiaen Dri^ooi to U ulihU < .n^ vi w\n^Ui^^ 1 1^ 
die tiiihcUi.iJ ul JVmif>,Jitt, []ic -hLher iic tarrkd nlonir wuh liiitk hi hm wAti 1 iv, wJwi i» nunc JiUlj, wvic ii t>y ^-^i 

[h# nif* 





Uthr Bendr^con, ddwyvnn dd^ } 
Ei vriTcw/j <2^ *""{y^* ^''" vrwydr ev* 

Pdji o^rf^ vaa^f ymwJXTiWr^ 

D^toici^dJ wrtb ymdaraxp 
A ph^n draig ar ei^cn dr3^ * 
C'U'yr '^mani cr Hwyddiarfi l/n^ 
C'u^dd dd^^vnttr/h ^^wyr ddartiti^ 
T^tbau Oft^n^ faith ewybr^ 
Scarry ^wfui^d dravrj lavn'was'd kvy^r^ 
jj'ih hyrddwano rudd^ cyrhrudd fantf 

Srawd unv^ii/jred i^tb cdir^ 
Barn hdff^ i vab Urien hir. 
Cw^fss 6awb drs^ o'ifj /j^ Idn^ 
Cwiwi^awJdiiilh^ ^aew ^avj^fJan^ 
Pan o(dd drjniiiv dy lavurj 
Draw^ yn ymwriaw ar mur^ 
T'&rrcj dy onnctt gennydj 
^irhn grair^ t^er yn y gryd :• 
Df^r^hri^ diir o^dd ^i ph^f^, 
Dr&i ^arr yn dair l/gyrcn^ 

HyJ ddydd brawd mfdd dy wuwdyJd^ 
llam^d Q i^ikh^ Ajflctf tyjji, 
Dy iavnghvys dau vinhggiaifs ; 
Iff/ /frwydfj da hwyJi Br y Jain ; 
Witb d^rrs hnjg ^ib wifg wc^^ 
J'tb raibr i'r matt^ a'tb rftbrex* 
Ffrai^ %y aav ^*ib lavar 


And vindicate hU wrofigs I 
Hit gallant anions ttill are told 
hy youthful B^rds* by Dtuidi olA^ 

And grateful Cambria's fongs* 

On Tea, on land, thou ftill didfl braytf 
The dangerouB cliff and rapid wave j 
Like Uricn^ who fubdu'd iheknightp 
And (he felt dragon put to Bight, 

Yon mofs-gTown founts befide; 
The griiiij black warrior of the Bood^ 
The dragon^ g^^ff*^ ^i^h human bloody 

The wafers' fcaly ptide. 
Before hisfword the mighty flc<f: 
But now he 's numberM with the dead. 
Oh ! may his great example fire 
My noble patron to afpirc 
Tn deeds like his I Lmpetuoua Sjr, 
And bid the SaxQn fquadrons die ; 
So fhall thy laureKd bard rehearfe 
Thy praife in never-dyinj^ verfe ; 
Shall fmg the prowefs of ihy fword^ 
Beloved and vidortous Lord* 

In future times thy honour'J nisme 
Sliall emulaic brave UHcji'm fame! 
SiirrDundt^d by the num'rqus foe, 
Wtll dijrt thou di;al ih" unequal biovf* 

How icrrible thy aften fpear, 

Which fliaok the braved heart wuh feat t 
Toti hollile cowers beneath J 
More horrid than the lightning^ gbnce, 
Fiulh^d [he red meteors from thy laJice^ 

The harbinger of di::ath. 
Dire, and more dirCj the conflid grew; 
Thoufands before thy prefence Bew^ 
Whib borne m thy triumphal car, 
MajcHic as the god of war, 
Midft charging hofts i*iimov*d you fttwdj 
Or waded thru' a Tea of blood. ,v^ 

Immortal fame fliall be th^ meej^ 
Due to every glorious deijti ; 
Which Latelt annals fhil) r«coi-J, . 
BebvetJi uid vifluriouK Ijiird T 
^Tictj Wifdocn, Vi^lour^ i\\ ue tWiac, 
Ov^ain Gtyttihvriiwy dtvu]« ) 
M«et cmbictii of a (wa-rdg'J fword, 
Dreaded ui war^ in pcicc ulor d 1 
bEccr ihf Iwifi fliipK tu Ji^<^iii colII 
Pri^^utitU wtUi ihy mAruiL hull. 

Thy lobet ire white » dtiten ftkavr^ 
Aud Virius (nulet upon ihjr bt^w : 






\. r 


But terrible In war thou art. 
And fwift and ccirtaia is the dart. 
Thou hurlcft ac a Sax^n'j heajtu 

Cfyvpjhm ddinam ddaimt^ 

H^t t£g, gi^n herod i U ; 

Gjrrsifi /m, ^wri daniffgt 

T i/iif gyrriad ycbtn Hog ; 

Bifb ddaUi hob dri rb'tv rbyvawn 

A'r dorv oU oV dytaa siawr : 

DrjUiaiJ}, duiiai/i ar dalwm 

Dy ddart bydym mrm dy ddwrn ; 

nsrth ac artal cahijy 

A braich at y/^f^ ^ ^''O^- 

Cwycb ^d ddinr/wyd ddurjiampt 
A cblodi Gymro arganipi 
jf^wawr drijl c'r garw drOf ' 
Brydnawnar Brydamj/iflp 
A^rgair i Gyrary by lywyh 
Wrth arcbali brwydr o'tb onbwyJt 
A'rg^i-w rwyfg, a'rgorcfgyft, 
A'rgkd fr Marchog o'r Glyfl 3- 

' 1 

Loud Fame lias tdd rhy gallant dee^s, 
la every word a Sax^ft bleeds; 
Terror, and ilJj^ht, together came, 
Ob^ien: to thy mighty name : 
Death, in fhe van, with ample ftrid^ 
Hew'd thee a pafTige deep and wide. 
Stubborn a^ fteel, ihy nervous cheft 
With more than motiarftrengthpoffe&'d: 
And tvery excdlence belougi 
Ta the brigh[ fubjeds of our fongt. 

StT ike then your harps, ^^ Cambrian Bardi j 
The fgng of tTiuEnph beft rewards 
An hero's toils. Let Hffiry v/sep; 
His warriot 's wrapE in everlafling Deep: 

Succefs, and victory are thine, 

OwuinGiyadwrdwy divine! 
Dominion, honour, pleafure, praifc. 
Attend upon thy vijijorous dayst 
And, when thy evSiing fun Is fet, 
Miy grateful Camfrnant*tr forget 
Thy noon-tide blaze ; but on thy tomb 
Never-fading bureli bloom 

4 F 


* Tlic ftjl ofOwflin G/fiAvf, JLi defcnbcd in a MS. wu, 
tlic efllgy of Owflifl fittEag in a cliair of (late, balding a fcepter 
in hi» right hand, and a atobe in his left y and by hW (jdewcrs 
three lions, two and erne ; on die other fide, he ia reprefented 
on horfebacfc.' 

' DavydJai Gwifyniy flonrilhed about the year 1370, All 
thii bard*t poems are pnhlilhed in an oflivo volume, with an 
Mcoimt of his life, in EnEllfh. The tiitc ii, Barddoaineih 
JJoiyiU aif Gwitjm I and lold by WilliiOii*, SooLfsUcr, ip the 

' The Ode of tht ThatjJer it In p. *o- of D^jfdd a^ Gwf- 
lim't Warh^ Tor the ri>ilt>H tj^ff remarks I am obl^g^d E(jpth<it 
cic€lki3t Wctlh critic, the liie Mr* UwU Morrit' ** Mr. F^, 
laha F«fi*« tflthe lli.idf eniinicrHih^ Homer' i ti.^ellenciei, 
D««t i& hit bviiQiilcfi inventigo p^cci hht io^Liutivc i^utidt^ and 

Craft EUg. 

raaJces them peculiar to him, and ^^f'^i and faysj that oo odier 

pocc tver reached thi* point flt art* , 

«■ ZJav>f^ff*CWvfl,if Imiftikenot.h^siiroaftronEdatTtt 

to this cicclSency. Vou mull eitbcr Lillow at ibc aioi]i«ei!po<j 
lofopby i or th.1T, C(]pymg nature by its own liihi. he inicadcJ 
hi< Cjvttddf D^ran fEouId found what tc reiJly i» -adcrcnp- 
don ot'ttiunder ^tid lljttuning, though in bis love p«m*. an^i 
utherffifc ftihjc.ns (oJ which I Wxvt now by nie u"f *■ °-^^ 
dred), he is ;ia Iniootb, md gliJcs;U tx^j^ *■ ^a 'taban long. 
" Letthofe who arcnotover to the fchool lanaitajEft. 



i Are pro[icr jiiJacs of our*, comp;t« iM» P«™ J'^'^^ 
,ids, and [be folLintli of iti mctaphoft. with tht heft («*- 

fiige. of this kind in chc nbo^^ aiithari , «nd ^J^^^', ^Jj;^^ 

i:h *r4ftci bs c ¥ Ef fo i-N-i U. ■■ %^" ''■-^"' '^y*'"' 


Though herojc Poetry was afccr wards no more attempted In Wales, a long ferics of Bards fucceeded^ 
who by their ekgicsand odes have made thtir names memorable to ages. Among thefe Drtify^/aiGia/ifjmV 
the \Veini Ovid, polTefles a deferred pre^emineoce. He ofcen adds the rubilnic to the beautiful % of vbtch 
hts Cywyddy Daran ^ or Ode of ibe Thunder, is a noble proof. It Is the picture of a weU-chofen fccac, 
admirably varied ; It opens with pUcid itleas, and rural images ; a lovely maiden, and a delightful profpeft : 
then fucceeds a fudden and tremendous change of the elements; the beauties of nature overlhadowed ani 
concealed ; the terror of animals, and the ihrieks of the fair-one. A ihoufand inftances of fimilar excel- 
lence might be produced from the wrhings of this elegant Bard, and his contemporaries. Let tbofc who 
complain, that by the prefeni fcarciiy of works of genius , ihcy are reditced 10 beftow on Horace, Pindar, ani 
C™j,a tenth pemfal, explore the buried ircafares of Welfti Poetry, and th^lr fcarch will, be rewarded with 
newfourccs of pleafure, and new beauties of language and fancy. ■ ' ; . 

Full many a gem of purclt ray fcrene^ 
» The dark unfathomM caves of Ocean bear : 

Full many a Flower is hm to bluOi unfeen, 
• •" And wafte its fweetnefs on the defer t air. 



ODE TO THE SUN', by Da^ydd ah C-mlytn^ 

Tran Gated into Englilip \yf Mr. D^vid SamvnU. 

acccmnt 01 ft urie laiQ Uff --• - - . r i u i, i. 

ficirlzcd la itifci-^ parti of hit worfc* under the name fif B'wai'aity gr the litOc tl^iiniliMcJt* 

• * 

'* /SifV ^i, cyd bych rh6d y lis," &c» 

While Summer reigna, delightful Sun I • 
For iTiE with happy tidings run. 
O'er G'ivyncdh'j *tow'riiig bills fublime, 
To fair Morgujrwfs * difkaru clime. 
The kUtii planet thou, ihat llks 
By God'^ command along the ikki ^ 
Immenfe and powerful is ihy flacne, , _ 
Thou to the Sabbath giv'it thy name ; 
From thy lit ft rifmg in the Eaft, 
How great thy journey to the Wefl: ! 
And though zt night we fee thee Uve 
Thy iheeny locks in Ocean's cave, 
Th' enfuing mofn thy fteps we fpy 
Advancing up the callern ftiy, 

O thoaf wirh radiant glory crown 'd, 
Whofe beams are fcatter'd wide around, 
*Ti& from thy ample orb fo brig lit 
The moon receives her filvcr lighc: 
Great ruler of the Hiy, thy force 
ControuU the planets in their courfe ; 
Fair gem, in the empyrean fet, 
Fountain of lights and fource of heat. 

Before all planets thee I prize, 
Bright ornament of fummcr Ikies I 
Ohl deign with influence divhic 
On fair Morgan-u^g's plains to ftiine ; 
"Where thy alUfeelng eye may trace 
A manly and a generous race, 
FroinG-j'fJif% for valiant men renown 'd. 
To Nf^tfj \ with royal forefta crowned* 
Oh ! for my fake, my gift of fong. 
Thy bleffrngs to (his land prolong 5 
Guard all her hills and verdunt plains 
From whitluinds and o trfiowitig ralna ; 
Nor froft, nor long-cominucd fnow, 
Let fwcei Mor^mi'wg ever know j 
JJoblij^hishcr aui'jum fiultt annoy. 
No April Oiower* her bees dedroy ; 

• fifih^, fiuJy Ci^i il'C Sun> '* The eje and foul of i\m 
* ' bcc the WclOi uf ±n pottOt in the worki of Uav^Jdi^ 

Bu( o*er her green vales through the day, 

Th' eETulgenceof thy light difplay ; 

And court her flUU in modeft pridej 

With gentler beams nt even-tide. 

Return, and in thy fpbndor drcEl, 

Agjin illume the rofy £aft i 

Again* my iove a hundred tlmei . . 

B:jar to Morgiinwg*i pleafam climea : 

Gree: al! her fons with happy days, 

And gild their wlnte-dotues with thy rays- 

Their high woods, waving to the gales, 

Their orchards, and their fertile vales, ,. 

- * 


Qteat San ! how wide thy glory ft reams I 
Through Esther dan thy genial beatns j 
Mike induftry with weabU be crown'd, ,^'^ 

Let honey and tht vine abound, ■ 

Through A\ Morgan-^^i happy vales, 
Fann'd by the health infplring gales ; ' ■ < 

Thofevalcsj for ancient chieftains h\ni\lj ' . 
And commons, virtuous, and uniam'd ; 
Tliofc vales fo eminently bleft, 
Whofe fons arc brave, whofe daughters chafte; 
Where fun pie, hofpi table fare 
Difplkiys th' induftrious houfewife's care, , 

"Ws^cre ofr, by love and fricndftiip borne, 

Wiih wine, yud mead, I fdl my horn, ' 

A nacne immortal fiiall belong 

To ihufe bright vales in G^'i/ym'f fong: 

Where ftiir Marganwg (hall be feen 

Of every country's pceritfi queen* 
Were hofpitaMty denied 

And fpurnM by all the world befide. 

Still there, in every fplendid dome, 

The lovely gueft vould find a home. 

And fliould the Bard, of lofty lays, 

Perchance have fall'n on evil days i 

Mfrganwgt toother ot his pama, 

Would chciifh his immortal ftraina, — ■ 





ODE TO MORVYDH, bj Davydd ab Gwiiym^ 
■lW{I.tcd into ^ngm by Mr. Da^^ S^^. . 
" Prydyddi Vsrvydd, v'eutvenb, ^^ 

Dear Mervydh cJalms my firft regard. 
And 1 am Morvydh'j faithful Bard j 
Soft as the moon- Ugh ton the main 
Is Jhe, to whom 1 breathe my ftraln ; ^ 
From youth*s gay prime, the cruel fair 
Hath been fole objeft of my care : 
At length her pride and high difdairi 
Have turn'd her love-fick poet's brjiiu* 

Full ofrj when Night her mantle fprea J, 
To meet myfair^one have I fped. 
To offer in the filent grove 
My ardent vows of cndlefs love- 
I know her by her footdep's found. 
Among a thoufand maidens round j 
1 know her fliadow on the heath, 
1 know her by her fragrant breath j 

Her voice 1 know t!ie groves anvong. 
Sweeter than Philomela's fong, 

Ab nt from her, ! ftnd no re El", 
My Mufe is filent, and dcpreft ; 
Againft defpaiT in vain I drive. 
The moft unpleafant Bard alive. 
With every fpark of reafon flown. 
My fpirit and remembrance gone* 

At her approach my forrows fly^ 
My heart exults whh ecftafy ; 
The faithful Mufe renews herftraln. 
Poetic vifions fire my brainy 
Sound judgement leads my Heps along. 
And flowing language crowns my fong j 
But not one happy hour have I, 
If lovely Mor'uydh be not nigh^- — — 

A MonmSy on » £A, or>A« th N.^ki^^^'l^. fo called from to celebrity o^ the H.rp.for Mch b. 
iJnoZJ. H. wa. fentenccd to die for t.a..fl.ughLer : hi. weigh, .n gold was offered for b. ,^.^ , 

BrkiGi01ympics,aboiit A.D. 145^. , 

Dnvi I ft^b a drig yn 6iy 
CtecJ^ ojii m, g'leas dymuna! t 

0*r drwg Ueiat) o*r drygi^/aitb^ 
Tgorauy meddy ^yr mnitL 

ivyr I ban na hat oraUj 
O ikddid urtf tta ikdd dau ? 
Lhayn un geiynivacd <i v^nsew ; 
Diai uiiy dau elyntaeth ! 
Oedd ocr ladd y ddcuwr id ft 
Heb achoiy ond un bychan ; 
Tr oedd viawr ddiffyg ar rmV 
Am adiadd juswnjia'wm fiicd/ai- 

Tmryfon atn yr cefattt 
Tw'ring a dtiaeth rwmng y ddau, 
Er hriiuc^r givr^ heb air gwdd^ 
A*if^TWi ni bueifwriad^ 
O ddyn f a Uaddy miiiv/r 
A'i ddiai, Uaddy ddeuwr! 

T corpJh dret y terph a eaid 
Tri^^^t oedd well yr enaidl 

A man puniflied for an a6:ion in his own defence ! 
Let misforTune attend fuch that faileth* 
Of evils, the leQcr the better* 

O then ! had it not been better, finc« oi« felt* 
not to facrifice the other through mere revenge? 
Avenged for (bedding the crimfon gore of an inve- 
terate foe i one flain, the other puniflied \ two eiu 
mities \ An enormous failing, that fentence of dcattl 
fliould be the ilTLie of a chancemedUy. 

Life for life they laid j the death of one wa* the 
dirt efleft > and that avenged ; then, both felL 

Is the (bul of the flam mad^ hapt«er, or his ghoU 
appcafeJ, by baving life far life a» -m atonement f 

* Sec tfit nrli^inql of this pocQ h DavfM ah Cw'ik/m*t Worlcj, avo« p. 493. Dmy^itdak G«^4BAirnt uih in onAfil 
itcirist that tae attdaeflcd hi* bcbved MorvyJd wiih iin icfs ihan u luhndrcLl ai\A fortj-jcvcw f y^yito n^ vliich \\ iunrt «nn 

dijLjry ihjJii!i;ii: ni Prttarch to J-'aura; brtJiiiH; e^in^h i-t JJavjJJ a^ G'wihm^* Udo i^rc lu long *t Itive oi- to. ni Pttttuvt'^t 9o(uKt^ 
The worka ad lIu^ \ija4, Itill cn^iU ft'UtiU oTfiCkir |oo i^^^Uii* iic Jied iibuut tk« y«u i^'^^i ^^ vim bujicd al Ijh^f^t 
111 Ciirdigttililiifc, , . ^^ . . 



Oedd wcdi addewidisn 
Ei iroivj o Auty €r byut S)6rl. 
SwTuis wrth gyvraith farrug, 
S^ddy Wmif^y Eos a dditg ; 
T^kayddf pap! tia roit danjil 
i*th Eos, ^p'tiiitfj Hywtf! I 
jir h^m, w£di (afl eV rhafn 
Wrtb lawndtr fyuraitb Lundaipg 
^i mynen am ei iimacj, 

* ~ . ' ■ 

T^r 6edd ddJ y gcrdJ dant, 

. V^iiddeg yri uti od aidJyn, 
Duw dcg ! ar vywytl y dytt. 
Wcdi Smu nid cfi/ynii'yr 
Da ^nygerdd, na dytt a*i pvyr, 

Tdre£ Irakh, twr o£s e hrig^ 
T^rcd msfur xrocd mhrftg .' 
T6rtdyJ^<?I fir dej'gsjtU 
Til wyJ dyfgfai idri tanL 

Qes pvw\ yh'wng^yi'^^ (i Monti, 

OV dyfg all i'r dtfgyblisn? 
lieintiHi, tit 's ^yr fi hu7ian^ 
Rani^rj er hytuiy egdn : 

. Ve aetb d gymmar yn vHd, 
Durtury d^lyn diirtttdf 

Jl/ydd yn ie^t a/Sii^ 
Te!yn aur tdymprion ! 

Bun dwyit diW hSb cwitt dant, 
Byfidd fkv ^jjr a hwyfant ; 
Myvyrdaiijd rhwng b^jwd a ^jj, 
M^tj n thn-blf m^jay na thribyi. 

Ocs dyn wcdi lio? dfg^ 
Gy/iai irgJn y go/kg ? 
Nj pbrovhd neu gamad giort 
Na cbiul'iifm, bron ucheiv^r. 
Pxt^*r awr hon mcvjn puroTtaCth^ 
JWer ddivair ^ witf^ * wnaeih ^ 
jic afgcit rti lonatit gv^gerdd, 
jEifiaug^tawd'Eoi y Gerdd.' 
Kid oedd ttug Angel na djn^ 
Ngd -wjit p^^ ganai deiyn / 

I ■ 

To aveH the fiilfc bf ^M his weight tn gold ^< 
bffercd as a tanfom» How ami enraged ! Indignaiioii 
fires my breaft, ihn the fevere Uwa of Chirk Diould 
depriff* mufic of its Nightingaif ! O thoa rfivengeiul 
rribunal I — thou bnbed court 1 why hadft thou not 
tried the warbHng chorifter, by the Impartial laws of 
Hifivfl^ Wlicn the court of Weftmintler adopted 
the rigid fenicnce, penance, nor any other punlDi- 
ment could moltfy, nor Interfere with ihyrefraaory 
verdi£l. The jury, with otie nnited voice (O Hea- 
vens [) confciited his death. 

Thou wert worthily called tl^e father of muflc j 
and during life, honoured with that appeJlauon. 
After thee, charming Nigltingafe, there la no har- 
mony in mufic, nor any mortal that is capable of 
rcfloring it, ■ ^ ' 

Mufic IS torn up, root and branch j lis pedeftals 
and ornfLtncnts ruined : genuine flLilliadiiTolved inatl 
Inftant, and harmony difcorded like the breaking of 
a firing. ' • -^ ' '"-"' 

U there any from Eu^j • to d[Ilant Mona^ that ate 
worthy of being called his difciples? Rfinaltt^ 
though his inferior in excellency of (kill, yet he 
prcfumedto be his competitor for the laurel* 

O^RemaUf! thy rival is dumb, the turtle of the 
triple-fttinged harp* ^ , . 

Alas 1 thou haft configned to filencc the golden 
harp of harpers. .,.,.. . ^. . 

A« each of thy fingers (truck the concordant 
firing, O ! how far the fonoroua melody furpaflfcd 
human defctiptton ! 

After the delighilul Nighthgalf, is there any 
that dares pretend to fuch univerfal ik'tll, and know- 
ledge in the elements of mufical concord? Or 
who can fflay, proceed, and conclude hit piece of 

> xnufic with fuch judgement and t^e as he did, in 
the prefence of his fupertors ? Who is his rival In 
harmony f who can attempt his performances? I find 
at pre lent no union in mufic, for want of the 
fublime theme which the Ntghtirtgak of genius war- 

. blcdj which caufed tranfportmg raptures in the feel- 
ings of his furrounding admirers* Neither the paf- 
fions of mui, nor the virtue of an angel could elcapd 
beinf? affefted by the melodious harmony of hit harp, 
which whirled the foul upon wings gfextafy. 


* BwiifU a diftrift tn Her(fQrdairt» on the Wfdcr* of BrcclifloAfliire. 

Alii I 



Wedi V varn ar awdur vn * 
Eu burn yn mbsrth Nev ni hydd, 
jiyr y iVaua ar awenydd : 
Am y Mf M a vu ^rw, 

Tr art fvani aniyn* a 1?P+ 

E've a giiiff ei vywyd, 

Otid a'u bat-n ncwidk byd ; 

Ac yn ol ti I'atvjolnstb, 

A*igdn i dduw gwyn, ydd astb. 

] ganu mawl didawl dks., 

Oeij Ni i Siun Eos i 

Alaa ^ bewaift, ye barpera, touch not ihe moumrul 
Airings ! O 1 how difagrecable the found to my grig^ 
ed earSj vhilft the temembrance of Nigbtinfaf/a 
unparalleled performance is Itill m my perplexed me. 
mory !— What have 1 faid ? — They deprived him of 
lifet— hehas life; their verdid only changed the 
fcene of mortalky, for that of im mortal ity.-^O^ the 
jury of Cbirkbnd \ defpifer? of genius ! their wilful 
judgement will have no efEcacy in that court of 
equity which is held at the gates of heaven, — The 
fatal fentence that he underwent, let them undergo 
«• the fame. — He fung— he excelled^ he novP after 

dcaih fings before the throne of Mercy, with an in. 
.*\ corruptible harp. His mortal life has funk into 

. , , eternal night ; but may he enjoy an everlafting one 

- , • ' With God 1 H 

Tfic acccflion of a Tadoriothc throne was the happy sera dellined to tecalhhe exiled arts of Wales; and 
Henry VIL wa> rcferved to be ihc patron, and rellorcr of the Cambro Brhifh Mufes. If during the former 
inaufpicEous reigns the EiJIeddvods had been difcontinued, they were now re-eftablijhed ; and the Bards we« 
employed in the honourable commtfTion of making out from their authentic records the pedigree of thetr 
king '. HfJiry VIll* the ftern and cruel fon of a mild father^ did not> however, refufe to the Bards hii 
aid, and favour \ 1 infert, as arv inflance, the following fummons to an EiJIeddvod by his authority- 

" Be it hi&wnio all pcr/onsybafh gentry and iammonaliy, that an Eifteddvod gJ the prGfeJbrs £/" Poetry 

«;j£fMt3fic win be beld in the totvn e/'Caerwys, in the county fi/Flmt, tbe 20th day tfJuiy^ 1523, andihe 

i^thyearof ihe reign of HenTj r/jf VIIl//j, king vf England^ under tU cmimifftm of ihe /aid kirig^ befsre 

Richard ab Howel ab Ivan Vaughan^ Ef^. by the cmfini of Sir WiiHani GriiBth, Knight^ end Chumberimn 

fir Norib Wakt, and Sir Roger SaKbri, Sljeriff for tbe county of Denbigh, and ihe adtiice ^TGrffith ab 

ivan abLlywelyn \yc\izn,and the Cimir-Bardy'V^xAxu Aled^audfeveral i^tber gentlemen and feholaru for the 

purpofe of injiituting erder^ and goijernment among tbe prof effort g^ Poetry j and Mufic, and regulating their art 

md profeffiony according ft tf^ eld /iatute of Grnffydd ab Cynan, Prince of Aberffraw K" 

After &. long interval of anarchy among the Bards, conjnnfri:incrs were appointed by Queen Elizabeth to 
affemble another Eijiedd^od at Caerufyf in 156S*. They were inftrutted to advance the ingenious and 
fltilfulto the accuaomed degrees, and reftore to the graduates their ancient exclufive privilege ofexercifing 
their profeffion. " The reft, not worthy** were by this commiflion commanded to betake themfelvea to 
fome honeft labour and livelihood^ on pain of being apprehended and punjfhed as vagabonds K 

In a private colleftion of MSS. I fortunately met with the following beautiful extempore verfes on the 
Nightingale, which were the fruit of ih^poetiiaUmefl of tbe Bards tf North Wales^ and South WaUs^ for the 
chair, in a pofterior Eijicddvodn Caer-wyi \ in the fame reign* They are a curious relick ; they (liow the 
poetry of our cotintry in its utmoft e^ieni sf ti/!iieraJive and ifittfica/ refinement ; and arc the only fpcdnieni 
of the kind that have ever been exliibitcd froni the pref^. ■ 

■ ■ B^jniie'j Uiftory of Wales, p. ja^* c3it. S774. 

* ttKc Ml'. £t>atu'4 alddrcri dfi _y Cjwtrj. Spccifueni -of WfilOi 
Poetrvip* 'ov 

' if^^d^«AV Welfli Crajnmurt p, il5. 

* " rbis Comiu'sfTLon," fays Mr. Ptjmtuit, ^ToHr, p. 433.) 
'* li die 1:ii[L III ilic kind which win Lji'imi'cd.*' tf Jicundcr- 
AHEidi) th^L thifi wat the lalt Ei&tddvMt he ia mtfiEirDrni^cd. Fur 
tlic ci>iitniltrLC]nt:r& hcrtr mtuuiULcJ, Juvluif in 15^8 caiaUitutcd 
S^mn^-vt VythffB Cldcf J^Ald ^iimtami cd ^nu t h c r ^iPetfJvoJ t D he 
KkM Iu 15^11/* the tcrLlliycar »t Q^kcCD £/maltit)'i icign* Utit 

EwMt^i fipctiment d WtJUii t«tf j» p, luu bdva Uk« pr^ (a^cn 

* ^i^jJJifr<-A'/ Wi'][3iGnmniiaj*p. 1B7. J'-p.m/'/ Spccimtra 
of 'VVtUh i;*tjcii y, |j. V. bctoFP the prdacc^ .*.ii4 ^ntitiM j Tom 
in W^lcs, []. 4H' ^^ ^^^^ ii/tftUiwi the nLiiubtf ut i^he ^wed- 
caX Bai'ds wai i^, and ni ilicir iiiulical breihccu 1^- 

Miitbritv^ii, h;id Ltcij EhetciEs tii £iJitJdi.tJi ; Ctfrivjtt I tcwa 
in Ffiiii/lire, rcccivciE in liitcr ttmettihai KunoujadW lillliiLaiua* 
It wuii clioleu f'l'i' K.\\h |,kiir[t>irciiiicciiiipli:jiii:c with ihc AiicicAC 

cuJldin <'f flu: WLHl»,bct.inL'eii lad bfcii the pritid^Ly i-chJcnec 
ui L!ywdyn Lhc I lit. FcmJoi't luui, p- +37. :jcc 4iui (i JJ» 
t\uu t. 

> * 


■ * 



^M arnrivaffl Brydyddiaa o Wjmdd a> DeBeudiryyn yr El/Uddwdyn Nbn Gaertfjt* 

•* T!kft rt»V/ frffbr htart lnnllh upon iii nriiij/*" — — Dr, jDhcJan. 

Clywais di^g euTllais weJi goxUwyn— nu*, 

I *maros a nwirwyn ; 

Ar lawes maes irlacs mwyn, 

Eoi glwyflaii ts glaflwyn- 

Jich bwen ydwyv ocUlywai^— ar Vcdw, 
Arvcdi pereiddlais; 
Kdn llwyd ad*aen y Ihis, 
Eos gcvuUwyd yrguvnUais. 

Miwfig mm coedwtg mewn ceuclawd — llwyn ; 

LIciwcnydJ hyd ddyddbrawd j 

Mae'r Eos veindios vwyndtawd 

O, Diewn gwydd yn niin wau gwawd, 

Mwynlan gloyw chwiban cloch aberth— y llwyn, 
Maci*n Uawenydd prydvcrth; 
Miwfig beb boen ymmyfg perth 
Minio glwyfbwiic me^n gUfberth 1 

Mefurol garol dan geur)'flld— glalbertlij 
Gogleitbwnc Uawenydd, 
Miwfig mwyn ymmyfg m;inwydd, 
Ebs byd y oos dan wjdd 1 

^ffj vwyn o*r llwyn darlleiinaia — y man 
Mynych i rhyveddais ; 
Lleied hon greulon groywiais, 
Mewn tor Uwyn a malnt y*'r llais \ 

Et liais tra hoffais iTaflFeTih— min adar^ 

A'u mwyn wawdydd dierth j 

£i« drwynbert k draenberth 

y w'r gw in bwnc, organ y berth I 

Nid cwavrbd crychkd crocliach— na'r organ, 
Ncu gowirgerdd d^gach, 
Nid manwl nodau mwyiiach, 
Nid yfbort ond Ess b^ch* 

Dyfgedjg vi^fig voefawl— gerdd £oj, 
Oradd Awcn ryfbtydawl, 

' Thefc elcfisurt Errgljinion\ fiulipecultar jnd fimplc bre- 
fUy ihat i iiAvc l6rt»ornc t*j tranfliic Uwm> left I ilnouM de- 
nrlJc litem bv ati ^niJcquatt rcprefentaiioci. TJie Ei/itdJvod 
whi(>iPT'>iiuccdt!iemwaslic[J 1 ctjnd tide, between the ytir 1569 

^ 1180 1 IN I lie B trJt who compofcd tlicni> HouriHied before 
or al tbii blcr ticriodH-^Somc tit ih« (ontenJinj? U^rds took 

or al tbii blcr ncriodH— Some ot ih*! tontenJinj? El^rOs tocjJi 

Defgaiit mwyn dwyi gnottiau mawU 
DcTgant t'l dyfg natutiawL 

Cly wais bare* glSs a bort, -. , 
Cyti nod dydd, nid caniad burt; 
Cyd eitio '(bone, cydlais bart, 
C^^s bwnc yr Ees bert \ 

•* ■ 1 i • • 



Cyvanlad ganiad gloyw pynnat— clodiraeth^ 
Clywch odiacth cloch adar, 
Caihl Ecs gwiw cethlius gwar ! 
Cyd tcilwng mevn coed talar I 

Call byncian yn amlhaa ym mhlkb— j pillgo«d, 
Pebillgerdd cyvedd wlith ; 
Cywir at ganol cae*r gwenith \ 
Chwibanogl aur u^ch ben gwlith \ 

Chwerthmiad ganiad genau— ya crychu 

Pwnc cTCchwen tt^lynau, 

Llawen yw cerdd y Mwyn cau 

Am £&s wir a'i raefuraa I . ^ . 

Daildai ddehuddal hoywddyfg^>ro diddaa 

Brydyddes y manwryfg, 

Sy* yn nyddu fain addyfg 

O'i lilCai dan folEo dyfg 1 * 

Cly wais, llawenais mewn lie— lach obaith 
Chwiban mil o byncte', :. 

O'r gwrych drain ar gyrch y dre' 

Eos wyt yn sio tanne' 1 • : ' ' _ 

• « 

Mwyndlos main E^s lawyn awydd^wyTOt 
Mewn nevawl Jeverydd : 
Mwyn odiaeth yw man wawdydd, 
Miniwn gwawd <i mwyaen gw Jdd I 

CjB*rj/, and ff*w L^n* commniccd J^rlAw Pt>>t^M^ 

' RkhardDJvit. D. D. Biiliop of 3t. pMid't, one of th* 
tr^nlliuiri of tKc t*tw TelUiwot inio W.llb, *co Loftdoo. 
t f 6t S« in H I (Liricil Account of the Welii. Trin(I,iLionii of 
(he Bible. Dt Ttafliai Llewfy*i LLD. Svo. Umdoci. i^M, 
Wc fccihatllie tj/ifiiJwui vm ftiti very rtiptctablc* wll« 
bilhopi did as* difdaiii w Iw corolied unuaB die au<ih 



' J 

Cmthiad gwir argiad croywgcTdd,— clau chwrban, 

Cloch aberth ^Iwyfgerdd J ^ 

Ciir organ clafar irgerdd, 

CiB, (natur gwych) caott ar gerdd I 

£bs vain wiwglos vwyn eglur,^vawl gynnyddj 
V£L ganiad pob merur ; 
O'thenau bach a'lh Awen bur, 
Mu^ gDQt:b miwiJg natiir ! 

Gjinnatur yn bur hcb werth— Eofgyw 
Y dyfgaift yn brydverch i * 

Duw mydTawr yw dy *madverth, ;^ . 

Can i Dduw pur, cynnydd perth. 

Defgan gloyw or^n eglurgctdd— oQbt . 
£of]ai5 drebl angerdd : 
Priv Ivyfgan per velyfgerdd, * ' 

FerogI faEn camp pries Vn cerdd ! 

Barthotamtw ysnci. 

Esi braint coednalnt cacadnerth— croywbwnc 
Da dripbwnc di draflerth ; 

CJati ctiwiban vtl doeh aberfli * 
£urg^ bwQc^ organ y berth. 

Pulpudvraig coedwr^g cauidros— glaQwyn 

GLwyflais per ddmeddnoa \ ' 

Awen a roed Vt E$i 

Chwibana *i phwnc uwch ben fF6s» 

Cerddgar dlos £w uwch faiWTurr Ccthnyn j 
TorcoedalU ag adaiLi 
Clywch gywydd doch y gwiait, 
Crechwen tad Awen ty dail \ 

Eiliad mawl gatiiad mil gwenyn-t-4awiiUvydil " 
Mai arianllais tdyn: 

Arian gloch aj enau glyn, * 

Is coedaLlt £oi Cedwjn / , . ^ 


DIaengar fwn claiar clywaiS'^gwin aveu^ 
Can Eos vclyflais j 
Bryd ofle* baradv;ynais, 
Berw go«d Lwyn btagod Iai$ 1 






Sec alfopaget 36. 29-35^ and 38* and p. 13, T4, 15, and i6"< 

Th' old Britilh Bards, upon their Harpa, 
For falling HaU, and rifing&arpsj 

That curioufly were ftrung ; 
To ftir tbeir Youth to warlike rage. 
Or their wild fury to aJluage, 

la iheir loofe numbers fung. — ^ *-*-- Drayism, 


Gitiakhmlah MeUir^ of Anglefey, a Harper and 
Poet. He went wiih Rkbard the Firjl to the Holy 
War, and fl on ri fhed ab ou t the year 1180. MS. 

Jtffrcyj Harper to the Benedidine Abbey of Hide 
near Winchefter, about the year 1 1 80, in the reign of 
Henry the Hd^ S&tMadB^^i Bijl, ofiht Ex^h. p. iji- 

Rkhardt Harper to King Henry the Third. It 
appears by ^ pipe-rotli ami. 36 of Henry IIL that 
Richard ihs Harper was allowed a pipe of wine, and 
alfo a pipe of wine for Beatrks Kv% wife* Hawkins's 
;*>?.vol, lV,p. 14. 

Rhys aif Tudar, a noted Harper of Anglefey^ about 
ij8o. Sec hi« Elegy iii DavyddabCwHyfii^t Works, 

p, 474- 

BakhfioSf a nott^d compofer of facred muHcp 
Mentioned ^y DavydJ ait Gimlynu « 

Tuduf C^cb, a celebrated Muficiati. Meniitmed 
by Daisydd ab Gwfiym. 

•HrimUtt Harper, of Dolgclly^ who contended for 
thtkureimth Sj^A£fj,abvutthcyeu J4J0. Scep>45. 

Owain Divn^ Bard, and Captain of a legitnentcf 
cavalry. He diftinguilhed himfelf when he was ia 
Ireland, about the year 1463 ; and is faid to hivC 
been Lord Lieutenant there afterwards. MS,. ■ 
A Ch^dpen //s^dten ylltSf 
Ea Tilyh au hard J teuiu, -^ 
William Mmrff, and Bernard de Ponff^ Harpert to 
King Edward the IVth, about A.D, i ^65, Haw* 
kim*s Hj/i. vol, IIL p, 480* 

Lewis aifHowflGwyn, Harper, about A.D. 14;*. 
. # Davyddt v6b Hawel divai, 
Oryihorai ragor ar rai, 
Lsv/it duliw Iwys dilyftf 

Apia g.f'r ab Hiwttl Guty/s 

Edward Chirkt B.ird of the Harp, who obliinei 

the jewel of thv-Briiilh Olympics^ about A. T\ J 48^' 

Dd'oyddab Qwdymt^cftcerdd Tfirn, Doilorcl 

Mufic, or chief profeflby of the Harp, ubout t^^c^, 

Dai Lltuydt of Cwm Byt^lian, m MeitiouyJdfhirifi 

U^rpcrj acid Warrbr, about 14^4^ lliera 11 ft cclft' 




\yUieA WeHS tunc, called TfarviH Dni Liwyd, 
v^hith was ccjti^pnfed on hi* deparmre from Wales, 
when hfi went with yafper Tudcr^ an J Owen Law^dch 
t0 the b^tEk of Bc^rwoTth Field. 

lei/an Detynkr, flourifhcd about 1480. 

Cxadpi Whifgm, a performer on the Cruith to the 
Abbot ol Uan EpBcJil Abbq, in Denbighfliire, about 
the year 1 500* 

Jiihn Gieytiedd, (of Noriii Wales,} a fecular prieft, 
Do£lor of Mufic, and compofer for the Church ; 
flourinied about 4530. 

khyddcrch DeuwaMt Harper of Coity, in Gla- 
morgan (li ire, 154O' 
Sh$n Tr£vor^0iTri-\} alyn. Harper, ab\ A.D* 1 560. 

The following perfons were graduate J profclTors, 
orehiei Muficians of the Harp, in ihe lelgn of 
^iieen Elizabeth, about the year 1568. 

^, * ^^ , .™ . fSionabRhysBeneerdd, 

ChiJ B.rd., .nd Teachers L^.,;.^,^ ^^ 

^f Inll r-iin-kanl-l! Ir-bTlJT • J ill* 

tfiwlcynLlwyo* — -* 

of inllru mental fong 

Pfobation^ryScu- ("Thomas Anvy], 

dents, (but not D^. Lhv>d ab SiOn tib Rhjs, 

teachers) of I Edward ab Evan, 


Robert ab Howel Llanvor, 
Humphrey Goch, 

And the foHowbg were the chief prof tflbrs of the 
CmMb i or 

Chief Bards and tcachets of f Slamas Eutyn, 
inllruiiienial fong : |Evan Penmon. 

i f Robert ab Rhya Guttyn, 

Bachelors of Mufic, (buf 1 houias Mon, 
HOE teachers of inltru- S16n Ednyved, 
mejital fong.) Thomas Gryihor, 


An En^lyn on Rljy Crythr^ of Hiraeihag^ who 
fiouriQicd about 1580, 



• ^* Tfic caEI purt of tht jvjriOi of Bi^^wrj^ in Flint(hire, 
dwcl]ctli Hi^^tij :i Kcntlciia^in. tlun by Ancient jiccuiloni was 
wont tn civc i[k tf^fs^ */ ^Af Jj^fr ti^rp lii die btit H^r^cr ^/ 
N^& if^ifj, aa by pr^vrltgc ol ]]i:^ iicsctllors. ITc l^^S iC /"/fl 
rijH, h:Hh »l(b a niiiiOuS iraJllCp culled CtrJIi^lt Tola, cjr £j*/*rp 

J See jLirthcr ^cyunl. of l\\\^ Ciiu^ac^ uf the itardi lai Pftt' 
iif*r'j Tflnrii H^^ftit vol. I- p 4^7^ fltc- 

^ ^Vtfirfu f^/iiflyj«(, a Luclfl ipt Lhcflcr^ and Aitlblbr of Kht 
£r(l Bcxjk oi ^OE.j^A ur Airfi„ of lour p^Uj. \S'k]l TilbUturc luf 
iLc OrphjrioD^ Bet- t'al- 1605- 

Dt'^itK comiKjfcr of Snuj<E fnr tliic Lute^ VioJ* and Vtucci 
fci]LDp i^M-^ t fiij^porcd 10 l>t ilic< Brother ofS^tuLJcL D^Aii^lp the 
p.rtTi Ljuicii MJid Hilli>mj)j ^ulJ ibc puhliflhcr 4>l" ti* worts in 

ifi^k fitftJHj Bichdpr of MuCiCp and Orgimift of Here- 
ford Cuilicdfdi cclcbrtiUd for Im* ikNl inCtmrcti Mufie^ jbi^ui 

1 wo£iixir'* in pra'fc a( H^ri JH&fffff^ tli* ii&tci Harper 

£r y Djdd 1 j-jtw?^; 
£r {:aei bfry Sirynjied, 

Os inch vid I/ai d/y£/}cd. ■ ■■— WW- SjnLi^aw^ } 
Epitaph on SjVjj Pbylip&emt^Jd^ o^M^tchtiis Mei* 

/Jy"'^ vcdd g^-rda o^ddgJi^ Sldn Phylip 
5f /^i fl pMkr Cymru i 
CuyniL^n ^yn^d aibrs i^nu^ 
fganhar^y ddafar ddu / 
Htijn/^br^ylVymj^ Hirfujr of Ynys jMacngwyn, 
Miirionethfhirc, 1580^ 

T/jcmas Ji^myl, Teiynhr^ 1580* 
In the eftablifliinem of Queen Elizabeth ^ ih^r* 
vere Eho Harpers, iwo LutiElsi b^ftdes Mm(tTeU* 
P/'^it'j Df/id^rata Cari^/h^ p. 225* 

At St- DDnat*a CiOle^ Cbninrgaiilliire, there is a 
pii^ure of Sir Edward Stradling*^ Jlar^cr^ "who iivcd 
in the reij^n of Elizibcrth. 

^owf/t Mul'iciaJi to Henry Prince of Wales, about 

y^/^n Cfffr^jrt/fjj, Vioiill and CompoTeT to King 
Charles the Firft, in i6jo* 

Ri^cri y&7f^t^ an eminent Compofet of MuQc^ 
antl performer on the Lute^ about 1 609, 

Wiiliiim Llivyd^ Pencadd^ of Llangedwyn. ■ 

7^/-^^ Dygon^ Bachelor of Mufic^ A> D- ijis* 
who \vas elected Abbot of St. Aullin^^^ in Canter- 
bury, about 1497* 

Efwy B^'firt^on^ of (he firfl compofers of Canoas* 
flouriftied in 163 1. 

F^i^r Pfjdiips^ (or Pietro PhillippI) compofer of 
Md&dia Olyt^^J>ifa^ &C- 1699* 

R^^hcrt Davicj ; ^nd Morgan CrUg; thefetwolalt 
compofcrs are mentioned by MorUy^ in his IntroduC 
tjon on Mufic> p* 51- 

Dkky Jmij^ a famous Mufic5ans and tutor to Mr. 
Fcfling, and leader at Drury* Lane TTieatrc, ab^i7jo, 

I For the inuficiaiis after this period, fee oote \ 


M.icldrjTfrLfr/BenrerJiJ Jjft^itftfr ^MJig 

JIj'upj'jij^m jarjf Dclyn hjJvJj 

iVffii il/iirij^ii^ Harper tftC^uetn AnnCp and irtiforuitr in tl]« 
Choir ^hf WeftmjEiftirr Abbcv, ^lLmihl i7s>6- 

CrrJ^& E'uan, Harper to Tiiom^ii I'owftU Efq^ of Mi^rf *«» 
CjjJigJiilkir^^wlitfri: hisportritt jlitlrciiLnns^ It is written upojl 
it, thuc In: pliij-cd fiyOhnftinjlFes it NanL-Aasp and 4i^ed 8oi 
Fkitrirticd abuiii A-b. 3700- 

iTAj £fiV ik fnoLea of by oU peo^ilc ai a wouderfiil p^rfonntr 
tun the WcHt n-irp- There i*rt LLiU vcrfet nsinenhUi^d uf hif ' 
lijvlrtg chkLrflieJ the queen wiih hit pUyiuj^j (protwbl) Q^pm 

Kkhard ES^r^ wKo cinne after £/r^ £lr» wu the oM p^Y^ 
cf Lu LllUEi 'LUi Mx J^iwi JiJ«-JJi ^vbu w^ a yoiiilige' pertlM*! 

O fur^ak^ 




AnElHv b commemoration of twcnty^one Moficians, and Poets ; and foreteUing the decline of Mafic, 
and Poet^ b Wales. Written by SiSn Tudur, of fK«y*>. '^ Dcnbighlhirc, who aQurilhcd about the j^ 

1580. * *J^** 

Perfrrmtrntm thi Harp. 

tcuan DcliniiWr. 

D;ii Mjicnin- 

Rdbcft t.l*-yd, 
(cuan Bcnllya. 

Mor^JJl CcNi* 

Siams Eutjn- 
Robert ab Icuan Ll^xd. 
Thomii Gtjn GwT; 
DiTrdd ab Ho«tI GriEor. 
RlHiurt ab iiitin- 


Robert ab Rbys. 

CmfiydJ H""aetliog, flo*. Ijio. 
Lc^^'ii aH EJw*r^!. 

Some of there Bards took thdr degree*, and contended for the Oak^wreath of Fa^ne, at the Seflioiiof the 

Eardi, held at C^^r^^ in the nbxth year of the i^ign of ^cn Eh^b^tL 

This difagreeable ftate, and verfatile unjverfe, we 

• . uncertaiiii variable, and deceitful. How fhort and 

• ^ traitfttoTy h ihia diffipaiing life, and trifling world [ 

*- ■ ■ I'his *oTld IS an tincftablifhcd encampmeriE, a dc» 

ceivcT on every trial ; a traitor thiit ftabs cTcry on^ 

wIm] truIU his e^ii^ence in him. 

I 1 

Tv/r hfifffd brutnt a'r bydbrith ; 

Bp£fjdta\x!dd pif'rbyddiddimy 

Byrrtdyvii heb barh^u dim, 

Str^yU tfrr btbyftfo/r byd^ 

S^ftftufr ar bob rbyw/ymmydf . [ 

Bratlnor ar bavjba rotb^ 

Ac Attgati drwj ing a droet^ 

furp-irtcd him, whi^h RL'harJ /Jmd^ took: fiT mlicli tofi-cartn *h,it 

E&i ii^MSMmait a frjgment of i^bich is i^s follcmi s 
•• " -fl/df E]fi SiAn 5E3ni;ij» 

Nil RLctimJ liJiAi C ht^fr^ * 

^/fj friSB Slam^it EifiimtiJas^ Hirptr of LLinv:Lchrcth fn Mci^ 
raancthniire-. Som^llay th^C hcwA? Harper td Queen Anne- He 
V3S fo mLich C4ji;ictt4tcdl ov^i: ?be comTn^n tuianciani'* th^c 
KoberL EdY^ntrd LcwJij i* UQt^d f «t o|" ht^ time, coahpoTfd the 

" There ^'crc l^^fll perfonsor thcnamc of/^owrff, father ind 
ftn, wLo playtd finely on the Harp- The tider vsts pitronked 
b}^ the duke of Portland, »nd ^hen [thit noblcmnn wa^ ap- 
pujited GovcnBor ^r Jamaica, went with him chitlicr. The 
yr^un^er flayed in ETi|;Eaiid ; and Mr- H.iBidcl belog defirous Lo 
i/n^ic hiTu kvtm'Tty zompt^ijid for ham 3 JelTontVvhkh h the ^'[h 
organ concerto of tbefirft fctp and intrgduced hiFn in three or 
four [>f hii oratonos» where tbere are ^ccompanimentit for the 
liarp, fee p. 51. Belldcsihe Fovvelsj iherewa^atLh^s fame time 
]& London :t perfonneron the Harp> who merits to be bad in 
rememhrance- His niumc va$ Jcines^, a Wclfhmaiii and bEind- 
Theo]dDutchcrs of MirU^oinu^ii would]ij:vercL,iinedhim wixh 
a penfLon : but he "hi^ould jigi endure ^onRiLemenfp and ika^ eia- 
ir^gedbToncEvanEy vhokept a home-brewed jJehoufe of^rent 
refort, the figni of ihe HcrculcH I^illarsi nppofite C]ifford'i-lnn 
PafajfCp in l'leet--Strcec» and p^rfomricd in the great room up* 
flairi during the u'Loter feafon- He played cit^nipore volun- 
Lanei^ the fugues ]i] the ronat^:^* and concertos of Coxtllr» Lt^alfo 
moll of hii fblosj and many ofMr. Hundel'j opera fongs, JuiiK 
cxqulfate ne^tncfi and el^^gitnce. lif akb played on the "violin ^ 
and on that inAmmtnt imitated fo e»dly the irrcettlarintona*^ 
tlon:h mixed with ft^bi iind paufesi. ofa Cj^nikcr*! lermoi^i tb-it 
E^nnc could bear him and refrain from imiDoderate laughter. 
Jonti died about the jxar 1738, and wa* buried in Lumbcrb 
Church-yard ^ and hli funeml, which waicetebrated vlth a 
dead marcbp was attended bj a ^reai number of the inufLcal 
people " Mittfi/jtr'j NiSifFy QjM^c. Till. V, p. 3^7. 

CtauJitu f h^fifif the Harper,. di«d about joycari ago, \ihofe 
faoK is recorded by Ur, J^^/om, in thefoIEowmg epititpk : 

l^&i//ifi f whuAt touch harmonJouk coulJ reiiioxc 
The paiagi of juilty iH)wer» orhaplcf^ love, 
Kcft here I opprcfi'cT by poverty iio more. 
Here find thjt c^^in thou giv'A fo ofi before : 

Wicktd Deathj that wily robber of iivcs^ ^'"O^ght 

dSftrefs upon us : tbe rutblefs churl fnarched ^wsiya 

Sleep nndiAnrbM witbin ihTa bumtT[! fiirme- 

'I'ill jifcgcli s^'aike thcc wntb ll note liUcc chijte 1 

^ tfarrj Pdrrj, of Cacmavoufhiret who lived about the bf^iei- 
^^ngoi" this century, wa* the rnoTL celebrated Harper ot' hit 
time. There l» an :inecdote tculd of him, when he w:i£ on a ma- 
fic-il ctcurfion at Livcj-pr-olp where h« was ejitremdy well 
received, and frum LlienE:^ Wiis gt^an^ to Maucheilery Uiat f ^nie 
Rerrtleman wrote a letter of recommendation to fend by Fiicui 
which Wji ill ihe^ following tiicanic manner : G^ ivih^ar himf 
j?«L7ji EJ^MmrJx^ of CrcigL:iU V SiWitfaflp wad a natnrfd 
genius* ::md a fwcet pUyer on the liiiqi- iTedied in juM 
■ 7661 and iji the jadycar oflit-iiiKC- Hisepitiph Ih^ive co- 
pied iVam his tomb in Ctrri^ D^xtJistJi ChixrcH yatdj Dec^biih- 
ihirei which is^ as follow ii : ^ ^^ 

H. Jij go^^ ^JJ £lrjfma fi^p ^an v^fuJJ 

jfm ^ofiliti mof Uwm jtoj pi0 , 

(jiin gri Jy ^y^ed i V gr'if . — ' ^ 

Dy xiwyfldSfr JjMfr tiiti^ui^j ^dwht 

Tmb&t cnyr a fihiriQn ceu." "^ 

Hii-^if £{u, ot Tr:i,wfvynyddi Iiad fome talent <Mt the Harp, 
and was eft:cmed one of the bel^ performers of the nation*! 
Wclltb times nf his time. He was buried in TcMinaCJiurcb-yanl 
Mctrionyddflilre, and the iiifctripticin ojl his lonut-Uone is ^i fot- 
lows; (^und f lid to hnre been written by WiJIiiim Naftne/ 
Wynav l^q< of Muies y Neuadd :) 

To the memory of //ijjA Efii^ Hiirpcr^ Vi^howas drOwnKl hi 
the Dify^^i Augufl jtlij 1774* Sn ihe floch year of his age- ' 
Thi: Mymphs of the fk>od were rutting, pljgxtc rot 'erU| 
With the Genius of Mufic when he went to the bottom j 
Thfirrnrg ^nd atcentlg^ wdulJ el(c hy,\e fiipported. 

The cbilJ of the Harp^ whom the Mvfci alt courted^ 

Mr. Jokfi P^rrjf of Rhiwabonp who died abnut iS years agOp 
was Harper to i]ie jatc Sir Watkyn WiJliamt Wynne, and to 
his fiither. There wa^i -i mutica] contelton the Harp^ bctwee^i 
Mr- Party, and Ht^^ S&4fA Pryt^ of Llanddervcl^ and F^mfi 
Jonrti the Trumpeter* was appointed to be the judge; in which 
Pi^rryfir^ViJ vii5lor. Parry ^nd i tWH^V^^-ifflJ tbi; liu j^r, joiutlj 
published ihc finl Boole t>f Wctlh tunes i bat theoriijinal melo- 
dies are very muLh mutililed. 

This K=^a H^itiiam$ aecompaiiied the pfalms on i;he Ifjrpi. 

:rB Lf fnblUtLue foraii organ, in Ibme fnaaliCliut'ch h Loiaduu^ 

TJlc rtH^'lldiUiiiguilhudperlHjrmersof the pnclcut djy, cijitb-e 

Tri^ y/j#/, or Wclih Harp, arc TAmnaj Jfwjp Eiq- bite "tf 

HiLbmuiid, ^nd native tJ'ir#rww», Mciuouydd ji acui ^Jfivt^' 

' Si^^ T^Jhf died in Aprils 




Dt^yr Art^au, dig lifr^ngyit, 
Dyiwyth hcirdd o'r ihlaiih byn. 
Cerddorim pSif cerdd ivrau)!, 
Cymdfitbhn mwynioii eu Jfm^/ ; 
Prydyddhtt parifd uddyfg, 
Piuceirddiaid nswytt bhid o'n my/^ ; 
Telynsrhn gw£{/ien gtty^ch, 
Crythorkn imyu^^wmth hir^ych. 
F'ki'ras ddwTi pikrau d'Jg, 
Piaidpcnceirddiaid ey^uirddyf^ ? 
£hvyn a w/uutb, drwy tih'Sib drwch, 
Du^iVy vaieredd an diwnvirh / 
I/wyr w€ithian am Hiraethawg, 

Camrau rkwydd dr-wy Cymru V batug ; 
Bu Grdd pur-iaith Barddpannvd, 

Brwynog yn ^y^brengwin givaiad ; 
A Lewis, j^/^y a-mhusffr^ctht 
Fab Edward -vzij ivybodasth. 
Tarr^i am RiHait lorwerrh, 

Od asih hicnt mas 'n adity/h hyn^ 

DitiiJy diin ttttcfo Dai Nanlclyn : 

Dug y gwr bu 'h dcg €( gdn ; 

Dyhi *ii icsr Dclyn ^irian. 

Dwya Icuan, hin Dslyniawr, 

T'dyivvwkhy atr adit^y I'aiur.^ 

Dai Maenan Du^^iJ a' mynodd, 

Fr Ni-Vy ar wyl^ hyn 'l-u rodd ; 

Sion ab Rh^E heb ci barhau^ 

Beiuerdd Nevwwl d byndau ; 

'Rhabmyii yg--- in ^ g^id^ 

Ab RtiniitJt, Nfv ^ "r sfsaid / 

fiiaiiisflV gr^J/jr v^i/fiems y grcgf 
^myn dutd, dyn godidog, 
Sion ar danU a/yr^or dyn^ 
Brai/gyficfddvab Rhys Gutiyn | 
iyi Lriddtntr' y J^mc breuddwyd ! 
Baroifd iln-nf Robert Llwyd! 
Swriif Ivan, ber avad^ 
Faun Uaiven hardd, TViillyn haeL 
SUin rby^Iiinfy/ihwyrd etdd, 
Ednyvcd, at^d i N^-veedd .' 
Rillariah Siod 6 V6n vawf, 
Bwyigroyw iaiib Hywcl Grjthawr- 
Davydd vab Hywel, divai, 
G rigor, a'i lagar ar rat. 
Lcwyfi ddwyr kbyi Ddyn^ 
Ajilagwr^ iib Hywel Gwyn; 
Cad a wmcdi 'wrib dn tae! ni^ 
Ce/MdmVorgiuiCellj % • 
A TbouJM, urddat barddwycb^ 

qjynCwy, oedd Crythor gldn sufji^i 
Roothn a ddibareimyd, 
IMxatiiU/gi »bUii*Q Llwyd j- 


lovely company from this country ; the perfonurtB 
on s}\ lively muiical indrumenti, and their com- 
radcB, the courteouA encomiaiU ; the (kilfgl poets, 
and (he harmonioua chief muficiana \ the fwcet 
handed Crowthtrs, and Haq>ers peifc^in their art. 

The pillars of [earning arc gofie ; 
A band of Mafters of Mafie ! 

God deprived tis in a lamentable mannet of out 
mod agreeable divcrfioji. 

Wales will mourn a long lime for Grijith Hiiaetb' 
awg : Bnvyncgt that prompt fopporicr of pure 
language and poetry. 

The finarr, eloquenr, and kaowmg L^^ij a^ 

The groffiiiE; funi of poetry h fallen by the dcatf^ 
of Ric/j£ird for'werfhM 

It h a prcat dillrefs fhal Djr Naniclyn is departed > 
God ttiuk aw^y a nieludiQUS ]iliiQci<in j indeed he de- 
fctved a fiherHarp. , "'■ 

The lofs of £^1^71 the Harper is a great breach : | « 

Dai Mufnan has his holiday's reward In heaven- . 

The Penccrdd John ab Rbyjy with his divine cho- 
rHlfes, is no more 1 

Sweet Rcbm ab Rdrndlt^ God have mercy upon hia 

foul 1 « - 

Like wife that eminent mufician James Eaion, with 

his chiniing Crccttb ; 

And that wife, and brave pro feifot of the Itring^ 
7fl/jfl ab iiijysGuttin, 

The inferment of the nimble -fingered Robert 
Llwyd left us in a trance* 

The fweet note^ of the harp, by that boon of 
plcafure Evan Penllyrtt are loft. 

The melodious and neat 7ifbn Ednyvfdf may he 

be in heaven I 

Rkbardub Short from famed An^lefcy, conimue|. 
of the charming founds of Howet Grylbawr t 

And the tolerably fkilful David ab Htwd Gri^ 


The pure ftraiDS of that proficient's Harp, LewU 

&b Heuwi Gwyn, 

Alfo, according to out belief, wc fuftain a loI» 

for Morgan Cdlh 

And the ef^cemcd, able Crowiher, Tbomas Giyn 

The aotedt and ne vef -falling Ri^rt ab £vait 


The JeirrvmE and worthy Rulftri ah Rhp qnJcb 
followed them To the bleffed habitation. He coZ 
Icniedly refigned this world with Tach wonhy cota^ 
panlons, quietly, righleoudy, Tpotlefs, and puw. 

It was God's pleafure to fend For thefe tuen^ ^ 
hold a fea[t with tilm in hea^ en* 

Adieu ikill ! no fuch men will be fetched again 
Jrom out country [ 

All people may lament \ the world is impovaillb 
ed, the an will now decline J 

Mufic and Poetry wilt fufier diminution ; the fcW 
enc^ will be negtci^edj and hairmoiiy ceafe I 

May their fouls tnjoy the heavenly manfionl peaa 
to their manei ! their Like i;^il1 never be feen again. 

They are gone to the celcftiul abode, let us quickly 
prepare to follow them. 

Rhobert ab Rhys «?r hyhsrth^ 

AftbPr Ncv yti gartreveft 

jN; vyjiai 'it hwy vpv 'tt m MI r 

Ev sf jfl hmiidd o*r win hon, 

Cydji mdtb gydy meiikiifjt \ 

Ta ilonydd a Haw i^rtijizim ; 

Tn lain n6d, acyi^Mn id^?i.— ^ 

DtiVf a'i^rchodd dtg sr^fjwyt, 

Gfdag £vf i gadw g^yL 

2b iacb orStJit m chyrfbir. 

Eu haih and byn. byth o*n tir* 

Galar i 6aw^* g'^afl ywf tyd^ 

J gwad vyddy Gckyddyd : 

L£ii*ii *r£erddyn Si tyy/J^* 
LeHai y ddy/g IwH a ddaw. 
iVrt/ tw ^Titidiau vwytJ adai! 
Nawdi Dduzu byn, ni dduiai'U b(id ; 
Aiibant i'w cartrcv Tovd : 

'TnQ af bynt envn ar eu hul. ■■■ 

'* Thereia a curious anecdote tecordcJ of ^MJH'^I'^w'H * Tn^ukidifur, who made a voyage iijlo Eq: 
gland about the year 1^40, where, in the Court of King Henry the Third, he met a Mwjinl, who chal^ 
Jenged him at diflicult rhymes. The challenge was accepted, and a confiderable wager was laid ; and the 
rival Minflrcis were fhut up In fcparate chambers of the palace* The king, who appears to have tnudi 
imererted himfelf in the difpute, allowed them ten days for compofing, and fiv\^ more for learning to fing ib«r 
lefpetlive pieces ; after which, each was to cKhiblc his performance in the prefcnce of his majefly. Tht 
third day the EiigUp jtf/;ij^r^/ announced that he was ready* The Tmuhadour declared he had norwrittai 
a line j but. that he had tried, and could not as yet put two words together. The following evening he ovct- 
teard the M'sfijircl praaifing his fong to himfelf. The next day he had the good fortune to hear the lame 
again, and learned the air and words* At ihe day appointed they both appeared before the Ling. Amaid 
dcfiredtoJlng firft. The A%iVtf/, in a fit of thegreatell furprize and aftonilhment, fuddenly cried out 
*rbls is myfini f The king faid it was jmpoffible. The Mhjircl flill infifted upon it ; and Arnaud, being 
cbfely preffed, bgenuouCy told the whole affair. The king was much entertained with this advcniute, or- 
dered the wager to be withdrawn, and loaded them with rich prcftnis* But he atterwards obliged Arnand 
to give a Chanfcn of his own conTiporition^." ■ 

About the end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, flourifl^ed TW* ^^M, (or Thomas Pritchard,) who was the 
Orpheus on the Harp at that time. He was born 3t Ctitty in Glamorganlhire ; died (A.D. 1 597) in London, 
fliid was buried In St. Sepulchrc*8 church* That Poetry fympathized with the fiftcr Art for the lofs, we 
may be convinced by the following bipartite £j7^//w, written upon bis death, the two firftline* by Hir|4 
Criffiibf the fequel by Rbyi Csin. 

Tn iacB t Thorn Bach, aeth Pr bedd j—bellacb 
E' baifcdd Cyftghanedd : 
T^i wn Piif ^/j y/t tin wsdd^ 
A Tvyr vt-iv/ig ar 'vyfsdd** 

Ahj fee I our laft^ bed harper goes: 
Sweet as his flraln be his repofe J 
E3ttin£l are all the tuneful fire?, 
And Mi^fic with Tijjm Bdcb expires * 
No finger now remains to bring 
The tone of r^ipture from the ftring. 

In the reign of Gfjrjtf U. P^^vd, a Wdfh Harper, who u fed to play before that MoAarth, drew fucfc 

lone& from his inll^rumenl, that the great Handcf was delighted with his performance, and compofed for 

turn feveral pieces of Mulic, fome of which are in the firfl fct of ! Undent CcncerWj particularly the leeonJ* 

and fixih, which are admirably well calculared for the Harp* He Aio introduced him as a performer inki* 

OratOfJoBj in which there are fome Ibnga, hhr^ ebligattt^ that were accompanied by Pb^I .* fuch u 

" Frai/e tb£ Lord <with cbtar/ui -uske," in t^hn : ** Hark I be Jlitku ikf f^s/ew *>«," in. Ak>i4Hd(f Sdut ^ 

and " /'/y, maikkuj fpirit '* in Saul^ fitc 

' Mii'dtt *«■ //. ^. <f^i. und fVtirieH't t^eH^ ^otfrj^f vnl 1 1 . tj, rj r. 
' A M j$. ul Lngfyaua in iJm libritf'jr uf jeWt CgiJc^c, i^^jl^J. 



Some account 6f the welsh poETRr, 5l 

tiaving Ji&*f condufted nearly to our own time the ihort hiftofy 1 intended j I make a little paufc before 
1 biinir itto it* condufiODi to cxamme fomcwhai more roinutely the cautes that conferred fuch pecuHi. , 
J-iry and excellency on the Poetry, and Mufic of Wales, The laws, mannert, and fortunes of nations have a 
torineipal influence in giving an original charade r to national arts. The firfl care of the WdQi laws was ^c 
freedom of the people. They were free, and their manners accordingly were at once generous a:] d trnpe. ^ 
luous J gentle, hofpiiable, and focial among tlielr friends, and full of refeniment and revenue agajnfc their 
enemies- They inhabited a country where they found, in the worts of nature, what they afterwards copied 
into their own^ the beautiful and fublime. They were equally addicted to love, and war; when they 
forfook the camp, they did not return to agricuhnre, commerce, of the mechanic arts ,%ut pail their lei_ 
ftire in hunting, and other manly fports, and games "n converfe with the fair ', and in recounfing theij. -. 
exploits, amidft libations of mead, at the tables of lords, and princes. Hence they leatni to write terfe and 
found the Harp* " Love firft invented verfe, and ferm'd the rhime, 

" The motion meafuiM, hirmoni^'d the chtmc*'* 

Another caufe, which operated with equal power on our poetry, wa* the ftrcngth and beauty of theUn- 
tuagein which it was conveyed j if it may not with grt^ter truth be faid, that by the Poetry thofe inherent 
properties of the langtjagc were called forth. I^e charaaer of W^l\h Poetry, and Irs dependence on the 
language, have been fo well difplayed in a diflertation on the fubjcft by the ReTerend Mr. Walterj," that I 
am unwilling to mate ufe of hia fentiments in any other words than his own. 

" The Wclfh language fhe obferves,) is poiTelTtid of native ornacnents and unbortowed trcafores. ft 
rivals the celebrated Greek in its aptitndc ro form the moll beautiful derivatives, as well as in the elegance, 
fecility, and expremvenefi, of an infinite variety of compounds, and defer vcs the praife which has been 
^iven it by an enemy ^, that, nsiwithjiandmg She T^iuhlpiidty t/guHur^h md ccnfinanu wtih -wbUb it akundi, 
it las the fojinds and harmony cftk liaiian, "^hh the m^j.Jly and ^xprcjim a/the Gr«A. " 
- » Of all the titTues ever wrought 

i.\^phrcv^h, danfin'aven, ' On the Parn.dian hill, 

Cwf mor gaeth ^V Gymracg -wen \ "Fair CambrU's web, in art and thought, . • 

Difplayii ihegteatefl fliilL 

" The glory of a langua^ is a copious rotundity, a vigorous tone, and a perfpicuous and exprellive 
brevity ^ of which a thoufand happy intlances might be produced fro^n the Can^bro-Bnafh MSS.' Thuf 
compafs reaches from th. fubUmity of the ode to the conclfencfs of the epigram. Whoever explores thefe 
ancient and genuine treafurcs will fmd in .hem the moll melodious numbers, the mofl poetical dtdion, the 
nioHneivoufi exprcfUon, and tht mod elevated feniiuients, to be met with m any language /* ' 

A language, however fortunate in its origi.^al conflrutlion, can never attam fuch perfeQion without a 
very hich de^ee of cultivation \ It is evident therefore that at fome remote period the Welfh thcmftlves were 
highly cultivated, and had n^ade great progrefs in learning, arts, and mantlets y fmce we difcover fuch 
ei™ contrivance, and philofophy, inthdr language. Some authors have attt;buted this refinement of 
ihe Cambro^Britifh dbieft to the Drnids. From thi. opinion I diffent j becaufe I obferve that Taliefin .nd 
hi. contemporaries, by whom they were followed and Imitated, do not aford fuch^* of pohfhed 
number* anVdEction a. the Bards ^ho lived under the ht.r princes have exhibited. Tne Erjledd..d wa. 
the fcht^lin which the Welfh language was gradually improved, and brought at laf! to .ts^^^^^^^^^ 
fcOtrn - TheBards, " fays the ingenious critib 1 have before quoted, " have been always confiJcred by 
Ihe Welfh a* the guardians of their language, and the conferv^tors of M% pnrity. : . ,. 

The metre of Welfh poetry is very artificial and alliierative ; potTeffing fuch peeulur mgenu.ty m th. 
feleftion and arrangement of words, as to produce a rhythmical concatenation of founds m every v^r.e. T^ 
«Q Englilh reader it may fectu a l^rtous way ol triQing : but every language has pecuhar lawi of harmony. 

* Lofd I-) Hehon from Q'traldut Camlrtisjii. HJfl. of Henry If- 



'' A l>iilcrtailflii (HI the Wi^lfli Ljugusge, Svo, CowbriJjj** 

Tilt auihor cf the Lftfcri frwin brmwatm. 
* EdmMtiJtryt, It , D-ArthtJeanin of McinDDjilh. 
» Bee 4Jlu CrwiBOifiy fffiriiJ, or tlie Scercd of the Pocti^ in 

ftmaufc ai tht WelftiJ>iii[ruji|tcoi[4 pectihurpropcrljf «* futy- 

' Dr JJevtrh'* iuKiTilouJiY refers ilie curiotii and cfelEcat# 

-'&: ■ ' ^- 

mulcintt itiuijefior in t>iis reipctt lo the MiirMi/y wikd iht Ut 
Htc Jl7iVincjJ aud CriiioiJ Rejanrki on tin iJritith I ougM, 
Bvu, London- 1769. p |Hp *c, Liktwlie Ami^ui Li^m 


-nu ■ , l.„™,Tes of Gr«ce i(nd Rome were not clogged wirh . ruperabundance of confonanis, md ^ 
^^'"tl™ iSbbic l.d. ,nd vocd t^n^manons. Their po.ts therefore m,d. rh«. „„,, 

* • 

^fthconfooams, andw^f.^edofmonofyllable., «hich .re mcomp.t.ble w„h quami^j ^d ,he fc^. 
Sd r L= !■ ■<> ""cord by no other means than by placmg at fuch m.ervah .« harlher confow^.. j^ 
s"ei"ing,h™whhvowei;, ^d fo adapting, and d.«du.g, the f-'"^ ™"^'. - '0 prod.„ 
"Liable effeft from their firnaure. Hence .he U»s of poe.^al comp<.r,.on m th., language at, fo 
Sd rigorous ■ of.he Bard, bttt that there „. m the language 

elf, . p.'[c.lar aptitude for th.t kind of alliterative tneWy, and . as effen.tat as harmony ™ MuK.. 
"hici^ conftitute. the great beauty of it= poetry. To .he ears of n.t.ves the Welfi. metre .» eitr^d, 
pl=afin^ and does not rubjea the Bard to more reftraint than the different forts of feet oceafioned w the 
rr^k^Jid Roman Poels'. There are .races of C;.«i*aWJ. or rhythm, m the poetical retnaim of ,1,= 
D uid. It was known to the BarJs of the fi^b cet>tar j, but they ufed it fparmgly. and were nor drcft.. 
faL by the rule., .hat were*ards adopted. From the N.rman conqueft to the death of i^^./,, 
^e laft thev were more flrift. From Lfpcclyn to EiU»!.eli> the laws ol alliteration were prefcribed and 
obferved with .he moft fcrupulous exaftnefe. A line not perfeSly alliterative was coi.dc.nned as much, bj 
the Wellh grammarians, as a falfe quan.Ity by the Greeks and Romans '■ 

The Bsrds, like o.hcr poets, were often.atious of .heir weil.h ; for, they had no fooner learnt the extent 
of their power than they began .o wander at will through all .he mazes of Gjnghanedd. 

They gave other relative pioofs of jm unrivalled profody. Not content with the mellifluence of to 
coupkt, written on a harp, 

Mae mH , hift^u m.hfin, ^^^'^^^^ '^^ ^^"^^^^ ^^''' ^"'"^ '' ^^"°^' 

Mfff n'M hsdym km ' : The magic fcak of foulenchanEing found t 

■ ihey fought after ^\^i^ liquid mcafurcs, and prodacefi fuch fpecimens as the following Enil'^n g^rchsjid i 
Br^.vSidm, or ikilful Epigram on the Silit-worm, compofcd entirdy of vowds, 
Q*fwi'Wdyi''t£ieTt£d, a^i •u^cjiatt 
OU wyau J ucu^ I " 1 P^f"^ ^"^ ^y ^'^' ^'^ "^'"^ ""^^ ^^''^ = 

A'i, 'Wiuau ruj kuau iJ ''. < . " 

In rraiideur the following diftich on Thunder ccuM not be furpntfed : 

T^n a d. r ynym'-^ria.v. The roaring thunder, dreadful m its .r., 

aVr taranau dragi^u dra-u^ ".-D.G. Is water warnng wtth aurial fire. 

But U U exceeded in difficulty by ihe fubfequetit E^^ilp, compofed emire:y of vowels and the confonant n . 

Vnwn enytiwn yn twuau—cin iCn^ 
' ■ * ' * ■' Tn vtjni'n invcnau ; 

Enn awn yn y liW^n tim^ 
Vniawn-u-'n ein anian^u ". L.Hcplhi^. 

SuclVfpecunens dcferve not to be read with ridicule or difguft i they were not defigned to difplay the ikiU 
of the poet^ but the powers of the language, 

Sotntthing now remains to be faiJ of the Welfli Mufic Though the fupematural power and erefls, fabii, 
louHy afcribcd to the Mufic of antiquity, are now held in juft derifion ; it is not dEfticulc to conceive, that 
(notwithftandlng its known fimpllcUy) by its afloclauon wiih poetry, which it rendered more anicalate and 
expreflite, it might operate with much greater fuccefs on the mind and aife^ionSj than the artificial tnelody, 
aud complicated harmony of modern times- The ancient fraj^menrs of melody and poetry are beautiful, 
bts:aufe they refemble the beauties of nature ; and nature will ever be beautiful while k lefembles thofc b«a^ 

ties of antiquity. 

'1 here ia a certain ftyle of melody peculiar to each mufical country, which the people of that couairy 

are apt to prefer, to every other kind. Some of the dignified old Wclfh Tunes convey to oi»r Jdeas, Ae 

Ifinioully anfwtrej in another, ccaupoitd in iht liLe m.innrruii' 
vowch bT the Re*. Mr. t^/M*'. Omxn \ DLUjMwifih Ttwimt iMt 
e^tihh Htlrdd JHim, Bvn, Lun<J(.»i, 1765 p, jj^ 

" /'r«M d AJjntf/iriftt 


' Nurtbcrn Amiqiuiics Svo, I^jnJoiij vol. I. p^40J>S[c. 
' Tht; Weklhi b.ij hi urTcvi^it d 1 lie ["cllC kiDdi oftlii^ caaiimjiat 
\iXi-itUiny. I'-iottintu. AjUJ^uini^^ii, vul. 11. p. 397^ Slq* 






Intient mamicr* and ccnviviiLityof cur anceftors. Thetcatc others that i-ecal back to out mmds, certain 
incideaEs whiclii lia^jpened in our youth, of love, rural fporls^ and other patiimes i they Itkewife excite id 
Us a longio^ dcJire of a repctiiio}! of thofe juvenile plcafures v and pefhaps il i& on account of thefe eHedi 
they produce^ that they are fo well Temtmb^Tcd, and continue to be fung with fuch dciight by the naiivti. 
The attachintnt To national tunes, when once eftablifhcdj inrtead of offending by repeiittoo, h always upon 
the incrcafe. The mufic, aa wril as the poetry, of Wales, derived its peculiar and originat ch»raQer frotn 
th« gefiius of the country : they boih fprang from the fatn* fourec; ira delighcful villcya gave birth to 
their (oh and tender lueafuTeSj and its wild moutitatnous fcenes to their bolder and more animated tones ^^ 
And \vhcre could ihe Mufcs have chofen a happier refidence ? Here the eye is delighted with woods and 
valleys at once wild and beautiful i in other pat[s> we axe aHoniHicd with a contmued iraft of dreaiy 

clou d<capt country, " hills whofi; heads touch htaven '* dark, tremendous, precipiccE rapid rivers 

roaring over disjointed rocks- gloomy caverns, and ruihing cataracts, Safvator Rcja's extravagant 

fancy never indulged itfelf in grander, ot more wild profpcflsl Nor has Ciaade Lorrsme't iniiuiuble pep^l 
. ever delineated fccnes that excelled fomc of the valleys of Wales! 

It is not to be wondered at, that the venerable Cambrian fauis poSTelTeid fuch inBuenc^ on the ttiindj cf 
'OUT anceftors, when we cnnfider thtlr beautiful, and various change of ftylc, and time ; ttinfitions abrupt 
as the rocky profpefts of tht; country, and fuddcii as the pafliofia of the ptople ; ... 

. ^ *^ Mankind it forcts to be gay, of grave, 

** Amorous, Relii^ious, EiTcminaiej or Brave/' 
The moft ancient flyle of Wellh mufic is tlie^rtfv;, and/o/#;Hn, which was confecrated to re^Egious pur- 
pofes '*. The next, diilind from the former, is Jhikiiigly martiji and mtgni^ifnt \ Another is plaintive^ 
and expffftve e/foru^', being appropriated to elegies, and the celebrauon of the dead ". Another h of the 
puPral kind, and of all, perhaps, the niofi agrtieabk ; coming ncareft to nature, and potTtfJing a pleafing 
melancholy and Toothing tranquillity, fuitablc to genial love '^ There are alfo, dancing Tunes, or>^/, 
vhich are extremely gay and infpirinj^ '* 

Of ihefe ancient melodies 1 have recovered fonie genutne remains; and iheireffefts arc not wholly loft 
or forgotten. A new era of Cambria-Britifli harmotiy im rilen in our limes, atid the wonderful ibiti^ 
related of it in former ages have been already reahfed* 

The trembling Airings about her fingers crowd, 

And tell their joy for every kifs aloud : ^ 

Small futcE there needs to make them (remble fo t ,^ 

Touched by that hand, who would not irccnble too ? JFJirr, 

The harp in the hands of the Britith fair '% has acquired new honours, and a more irrefiftible influence j 
and never produced fuch tranfport and enrhufiafsn when (truck by a C)'/jelyn, or a Cadu'^an^j aa it now 
excites. alTifted by the liquid voice, and diHingdihcd beauty of our modem female Bards, 


"" Whoever dcfirev to fcctljit 5 Jea puj-rLLcd to fomc [ength* 
maj find IE jn^cniciufly HnJ philofophic^illy dcvcitipcd, ^ith 
rtfcrcncc to the niitiic niuflc of Scoilandj in Dr- ^fume'i E(- 
fays on Poeirf itnd MuEac^ 

** The fine c(d F/ahwi, whicK arc chanttd in Icmc t^f cIjc 
diurchfi in H^nfzi^ purtSdrfchrlyln chofc where mo^krrt lin^hig 
h not kinxluc^d- Lskewlft^ ter-Aj/^rrj, f oV *JHiW/r. ^-i^-r- 
^^£^,C£r-Jl£hM^ Cif-F/^ii^r^ CSryio!^™^ C^r-Sihy^ Z/^- 

&7PEt, arecartfiillj difplaycd froisi un auciciit iiiiHUitiftript vn 
the original pnuliLal ntrtcik fupppfcd m be UrujdiciiU vvliich 
the reader witl fpccstiThen cneniTr-d tin ^ bo^ t^ ddickciicd 
ID tbc print, or trophy oftlac rnnhE:^] iiilLumcnts, lurihc^r on 


■s 7>i^0» or the Walt kor'i Souifi Trih^ Morjau<vg. Gor- 
rrti/yiirt iVj/^VV jJii tr<fi ^r Satriy ^^/j^ntiiflp Sj^r I/iAin Dti^, iiij/j 

lyarm^ffr^j V f'tifHw TfffnWj P^JJ^ iu*fyn (S^jM, ifWdU V 

C^Jiimmi Di^d^^f^'^A ^tpfjii^dlf Qa^Vd Cw^ir^^n Mr)iiaiA^ 
jimha^Jj ymM^^^/, //(irjjiM Af£«j AjHi.'rt Art J?f/p S'r Hfn X>Ai, 

'3 A^j C^idm. TimfCiifiojf DCr M^y^m CjB»>/p Iriffifrfda^ 

^fiTTHd^iu T^y^f 2^^trcK Jifigar^^ Pm Hi^^fft Afinira {jcwtf, £j- 
-Liii y G>r*iyN^ Lrtfdigajv Ci^ar-H^uUttf Mfi^ Bia, Cr^/t> V 

" H^fdd AfoJrj^ Alfl^gtJ^ t^^iy^ f^hv^X^' Gjrm V Syd 

'* - T]ic hurp la ihe favorite inflrtioiem cf th* fair fcKiaTid 
tioihin^lhoulJ ht rp;Arcd [D m^kc ii be^iJtifuUfox'* it JhouJd be 
:l priflcipal cibjcfl of mankind lu liLtbL^rhthejn by every ni?^nft 
to ]iJuij>L^p -M it i% EhciJiily andufemcnt TJh^titiAy le enjoyed to 
ciceffs. d[id [h>e heart 11113 rcin^iti vlrLuout ifndxuicoirupted.'* 
JDr. Humij'r fii/i^y ^Af^^^ toL I- 

^* Their bulLJicl^ Jtu-nlj be topraflife merely for the amvfc- 
mcnt of ihcmlclvctf theirown famUy, add p^ficukr fncadfi 
or ijuhcr fDrdomcftLccDiiiforr, whkh thcr^*ereb5ProvidBa^:e 
dcfigLicd to promoic i %fm^ To cEdni tht boilkrous paflaun— 
[0 rrJieve ihe ajiAiccieii aud carci of life— Eo inlpirc chearfLLl* 

U4.^fL coippc^^ (htncrvffKp,w}iCEi IrriiMicd with p^hup Qtikutftj 

fniabourol mindiirbixly— to Juoihc Jit |i«vtfbi:i*;l*ot iutrtutjp 
uiid old agH, — aod to t^kU't Lhc nnjnd lo a IcclLiig iind Iptc ot' 
order- She who ih^ improve the Daiur.U ul«m4» uiek 
whkh^rnnocn ire horn^of doinjf aiU theft LhiuyipVrill uLt havf 
mi* JpcUL her time bv ;*pply"Hi: a few ytsin io mullc.'' 

** Cyl^h^i-^v^ C'tfJijjfAfifPj, weic i:rkbb jLtd pcrEonhJcttuatiaft 


p CHsseviN ceNNOb, 





For thet I darf bjiJWI l&efaenJ Sfirh^, - ■ 

^fri/ Arii dt/Eitid h ^"^^ Salts fiti i 
Th. fc3Wt>s c^ncmi aimitt«,dcrcribingih= prfcdp.l r-f^Qi^t. of tbcJ-W^ ii c«r.fl=J fnim .ni.<.^.nt folio nmuftript 
wHcb *ii poLj ^1*1 to me id tb. £.^^ i;*-'?. O^f-J- l^y tl.cRcv.Mr.Fn«y m.rk=J KKK, a.^d p^,, 

^^ 7 djd no: think myfclf « liberty to mate any altcraiiflni in this traafchpti. fisrllicr ihan lo modcraue (te (Jd 

tincouth orihoffrtphy, fo ai 10 male it more Intelligible to the gcncr^ty of readers. 

THE ofEcc. or fnnaion of the Briufh or Cambrian Bjrdi, was to keep and prefer^e ;f r« Cbh^Tnyi Pry- 
,dain : that is, ihcl'hrte Records, or Memorials of Britain, otherwife called the BritiCh Antiquliici | 
which confift of three parts, and are called Tri CMv ^- for the prcfervatlon ^vhereof, when the Eards were 
pradi^atcd at their commencements, they were trebly rewarded j one reward for «ch Cdv, as the ancenc 
Bard Tudur Akd twites, and alfo his reivard fur tht fniie, at hij commencemenr, andsradaatmn at the 
Toyai T.=ddEng of £.vi« ^b D^jdd ah Ub^I Vyckjn, of Northop in Inglcfield, Flimfhire, which he, la 
the Cerdd Martlmd of the faid E-lwi ab D^vydJ ^ Uhd iychait, records thus ; 

Cyniav natadd i*m grdddwyd, - - The m Hall, i^'herem I ^v.s miiiated, 

Vu cror //.. ^' Eryr ll-^^'d ; Was the Court of the Grey Eagle; 

Am dri cbi-u rm dyrchai^dd, For by the Tri ChCv, I wa* elevateJ, 

Tn ndtblcr^Uyma V tair rL6dJ. In tht Nupilal Feaft : behold, the threeCfts. 

^hich fhfiwg that he .va. exahed, and graduated at that wedding for hi. knowledge m the faid Tri CMv, 
and was rewarded wL[h three fevcral rewards. - r n ■ * 

The fitit of the three C4v, is the hiftory of the notable aas of the Kings, and Princes of Br ]tam, and 

The'second of the three CJv. is the language of the Bntons, of which the Bards ^crc to give an 
account of every word, and fy liable therein, when demanded of them ; in order to preferve the ancient lan- 
guage, and to prevent its intermixture ^ iih any for^i^n tongue, or the introdudton of any foreign wordt 
in it, to the prejudke of their ov.o> whereby it might be corrupted or cstlrpated. 

The 1 hird CH^, confifted of the p^digrce^ or defcents of the nobility, their divifion of lands, and 
the blazoning uf arms ". 


■ Arms coot their origin frorn the eiamplc ftF cbe ?itri- 
trcbsi frtr, hnly itfritiutormi uip thai the n Tribes orifiMcl 
^■trc dilltiLiji;ij[(h*dby fif^nccs, Ste Exfidat^ehap. i^fOndcbap. 
39 ; htumUn, ehap. ^ i i'/aSm ^0 : and Daait!, flap. 6. 

Coats ai Arms were in uTe anitjug the OIJ B'tiom fmiti the 
remoteft period ; alEhoui^h untisiwerc not gener;iU]f tliffiifcd 
anscDf! different Tiiinkjjis uiiill the HtJly "Wars* 

l'hc*Cjffjirfh'"^DriLongjlirtd tbeirbodie* ^tndfliieJd? decorated 
■until various coSoui-s, nnim^ls, birdsi fi:c.'w[iicEi yt firlt Jt- 
Hoicd viiloLir, afterwnirds the nobility ci* tlie bearcrt iind in 
nrueefs iof times giivc "rlciii to arnianal ttifigtii. ^tzTacitm IV^ 
Cafir't drn'Mfnttwiti, hat A V. chap. lO j and Fim^rch'f 
Lilt of Mattm. Alfo it \\ rerordcJ ihsil K. Arttmr liorc (in 
hL& OhcIJ, ill tke luiik n^ CBtdCFlytl^on. the imaijc uf the Vir- 
gin M^ry> See I-tvit't jlaAtat tiifi. p, iHi i and pp* 7, JS, 
ui, ^nd lO, ff this wrjrk '„ ;<llii €vilijK''t Htraltiry. 

The ArmytSavarttii^ iLni\'n-bAvJi, ur Herild iit Armt: Lis 

duty v-rtsto dccUrt the j^ne^locy, md lo bUioTitbe arms of 
nnMcs rind princes, and to tKp the record i>f them ; imdM 
alter their ar n-s a cwrd in^ to their dignii j- an J Jcfcrts. \V bo 
wcK with the Itli^eB 'ind pricices \a ;i5l battles :.iid aijions. Ai 
for their gmucnii, i think, tl;cy were Inch a^ fhc Prj^ijM^ 
h:trf 1 thiit i^, « lony iipparel down to the t^lf of lh*fir Icgi, or 
fomcwhat lower, atid wer^ of divers coSmirs. Alfo, the braj 
of Vi£torv defci-il>es» that the AncicQt Chlcti wore divcnco* 

Accor^inX to the piHinitive U* of Vyinmal Afotit^tuJ ', iJie 
Ancient Britcnt divided this lind uccurdlng to tini inauiief? 
Tri h^fjironun ia^^. or ihrke the length ofortsbarlej -euro, 

111 ^. It th ii li^/w/^. «r inch ? ihree w^wi-/, ^ir mchei, wkeJt 
a jta/*, nr p^liti nf the hmnd t three ;*w, ^*r palii»*. "l-^t(tU t 
fri^f../^rf, or fmt i three teei, or tr^dvcJd, m^^f^ ^ J-*^ 

Li« M«/, or le^ipi^to the r^ t t2i*t ■> the hfc^dth Jt * bwt 

1 «o*fl%J(i.14. J^t liitTxJ ^l«iit 440 ^tjr* Iwrg™ the linft DtL'laicL i'.^iu^^ fVr«*.«iM I'*) ^ 'hi- i'r''"^;'' ^« ' .^VT L' ' I , 


thtafUUnf Bard, had a Etipcnd out of every plow-land in the country, for thtU mabtenance j and alfd 
ta l>crainbularion,or a vjfitanDn, to make once every ihrec ycari, to^hc hDufes of all thegenikmen in the 
country, which was called Cyi^h CUra, being for the prerervaiion of the faid Tri Cb6v „■ at which perambu- 
lation they colleaed all the memorable ihmgfl that were don* and fell out inevety country that concerned 
iheJr profeffion to take notice of, and wrote chem down ^ fo that they could not be ignorant of any tnemo- 
rableaas^thc death of any great perfon, his defcent, divifion or portion of lands, coat of arms^ and children, 
in any country within their diHrifl ', At thcfE perambulations^ the Bards received three rewards, being a 
fixed snd cenam ftipcjid, from every gentleman in whofe houfe they wire entertained ; and this reward 
^ajE called Ckra* 

C^rddV^Ha^tj ]3 a poeiii of laud, orpraifc, compofedin commendatioh of a gentleman, or lady, in has 
f>T berlife-time* 

Ctrdd Varwnndy k an elegiac poem, compofeJ to record the aflbns, and to lanient the deith of re- 
nowned perfons* 

Thofe metij that are termed above by the name of gentlemen, are called Ginj'r Bt^n/jfddi^ ^ ; and tbcre is 
no man by the law entitled to the appellation of G :i r Berib^ddi^^ but he that is paternaHy defcended from the 
Kmgij and Princes of Britain j for Bon/jcddig is equivalent to Ncbilis In Latin : and the paternal genealogy of 
«very gentleman muft afcend to Tome royal perfonagc, from whom he oiignally held hie land, and his arms. 
A gentlftnan, fudcfocnded by father, and mother, is Ctyled, or endtled by tlie ta^^, B^nht'ddi^ CY^ifjimn{2w7^ 
which figni fifth a perfect nobleman by father, and by morher. This titlc^ Bon/jeddi^^ is the highest thaj a 
man can have; and remaineth in h-a blood from hh birth to his death ; and cannm be conf^^rrcd by any 
man whatever, nor any, that hath it reiilly, be deprived of it- All other titles may be taken from man, may 
become extinifl by his death, or oihcrcafuahi-Sj but thjsremainethinhii blood to his pofterltyi fothat hecan- 
TEOt be fevered from it* Common perfonj of laic years have taken upon them the title of 5p?jWi, or Nuble ; 
butibey are nat really fo, tlaougli fo called by cojrtefy, by reafon of i heir i^^cahh, offices, or merit; tlaefe^ 
however, being only perfonal, and B&nbedd ht^in^ permanent* You mLiy undetlUnd hereby that the gentry 
of the cournry bad a fpecial imcrtft in the Tri CMv^ or the hillories where the afts and deeds of their 
anccftors and k-cnfmen, and the prcfervation of ibc language, arms^ dercetits, and dmfions of lands, were 
recorded J and therefore, the Qipend paid by themtotlna Biitds was not inltittited without good caufe ; nor 
their entertaimnciits in their perambulations allowed them without good reafon ; as all the hiflorics and 

oflandi or fir: and jnl/carihnfcffr, maVcth a frnffiir^ih-M is.i 
thDafand^jrp or li naile: Jtndtli^it wasiheir mcufure torK-ngtK 
wllkia Ilsis been ufcd Crrmnhnit ttmc to this d:iiy J :irLdy«Ct and 
for fupcrfici^l mci\£uTm;^, thcyniLnJc thr^e hyJ gr'^jtm%ijif!Jtor 
barleycorn length totiit j?jor/W-^A or inch ; tJ]itrc moJifediff or 
inthetj to thc/a^^p or's-brcLLtli i chrec^^-Jifv to the ^rorJ- 
viddp or fuOL ( foiisr ir^^J^^d^ vt feet* l^ the ^^riju, or chc (]Kirt 
jnkci dj^hc irj^dviddi or )«tf to tile miuiaut and twelve 
frc/^idil^ tir fcei in I lie ^ffi^iiiau t iin J HiLtccn irotflv^dd in lEic 
^rim; and apnicp or rotlfo longF ili4t \sp fLXUen feet long, U 
the breaJtli of an acre of land ^ LiaiJ 30 poks, nr roda of tli^ic 
length ii ihc ltnf;l]\ of hh trWf or acj c by tbc Uw i anJ four 
*rtu, or acrc^ m»teth AfifJdji^^ or meffliage 1 and fouroF cli4t 
tydJj^t or mcJTnagc^ makcUi a r^mSr ; hIhJ fnur of thofe r£>xin- 
§tircdd inAi.^\h ijawi'* Or t^netnentj 01^ houlJ ; antt ih^r giiwi 
iDaketh a fr™, or lownOiijaj ;md four ^^rt^ or towailhipip 
matcth -A fBOiKo/^ or mfW/ipr 1 and twelve mam^J or nhv^fr, ^ind 
JfAr^ ifrivi or iTVr'o townfticpgi iiialcetli a f-jt^fftW^nr C^fflo^; iinJ 
two£wnai>Jur Ctfntfl^ jjiakcth vifiiiTJ'rrtior fmlWj t("iLt 14, a hun- 
dred towTUf or townlhip? = iuJ by this Pcckoiungt every iyddjn 
coliL^inctb four triv i every r&^frJir contain<;Lh ftitcea] *r^ ^ 
imd every jffiiiVtonuincthfiiitjr-fouriPrw. Blvery lownor cnwn- 
fliipccmUinelKlwo hundred and (iftyfisjfWi or acres I thefc 
fi^ur/ bcJn^ fcnii'C irabk Undp and ncUKcr FLEaiuw> nor p.if- 
turcp nor woodk ^ fnr there wa* nothing mcafured hni fertile 
Arabic liind^ anJ iJl other* were termedwJifteB. Kvcry mamoi 
ffitiUintLh fom of theft towiifhipii uid every fii^mwJ con - 
tainetiti fifty csfEhcfc townJhips ^ and every mnir^Ji. ImnJiT^ii 
cf tlitfc Ufwnllfcjp^j vlicreDl it hnlh its ii-inieh And nil t]ic 
CminlrUi and lord\ Joufctuioni were divided by tMlrfd^. ur 
AW^rv t HJid tu evciy one of thcfc /oJirr^j fm^.'/, maenfrtu 
tDwaij f tfw/jTi wcf t; ni*eit fujiic prt^^r ujiiac*. And C^faJf ui 
CDUnirvi wn Uic d/nnanion of tiflc lord m priutc* whetlnrrihc 
CfuJ^i/werc one tMfrrJ^ or ivtit, nr thr«» or f^uii ui" mnrc ^ 
1^ tb^i wlicjfc I f-i/p he i» K^nc fruiPi/wWJ J^jW-J^ tli:il i^^, 
from country ioc^unirr> ii mc4At| itidllw it mtiu: IrtJUi unc 
Ictrd or priuiVk dojuiiiion lo iirioChtr prliiit'* dijJuiLLhm 1 41*^1 
(ui (XJiJipIt^, wli4^|j^nkj.ji tumiuittclll iiOLjJE^ncc itk (^^rjfnf^M 

4H Ai^rjifi yfg^iTp whwl^cvjiui^cth tea HNUaJx^ imiJ Iktth ui 

gocch tn ?«fjj, which Li the niirnc of lI3mllc^^ cmintry and 
prin^-e's doudnJon^ which conNmcth tea other f^M/^f>^. he ii 
gone from unc CO untryi' or dunsiiajoa^ to another^ aud the t^LvT 
cannot be erccitieJ upon him j for, he la grmc outoffho 
caiLntry. TVp fri^^ k a cnunlty^ Jnd e'-<41L^Fncth tiUt one f4n^ 
fr^ds nmd />j(^yji trZ-wyd Wiia £L country, niid dU conc^ln but 
one f^an/rf J. AsJ wben ;iny tllJ go froiTl T^f Jrtjt to iJj/^jPl 
Ct'U^yd, for to fly from the lnw^ he went out iroiai oiie_cOLinirf 
to Lin'Dthers and fo every prince or lord's tloniEnfon vn 
^ttflJJt or country nf thitt lord or prince ; fo rh^t G'&^fdJlt 
ZWuij in my judgment. Snrnctimes a wffinrJ doth lanticdi 
Lw^i fDPTTjrff, fomctimts thteci or tiiur^ or five j as tKe Cimir^fv 
of Glamorga^t or Mt^r^an^j, cont-iincth five firto//. And diter 
duit the NunTi:m> h:id svun fonie piittiof thccoiuatry, a^ one 
lord'sdomLnEoiipiL hereon Hit Liied 3ri thut fuTnt pliice a SeucJ^ii^ 
Of SuwHrdi and that WiU called in the DritlJh cflnguc J^-j- 
^IJog, that as, ahOfllLcrj^nd the lordllilp ihit he waa fleu^^rJ 
■ f^ was called S^jddf or Ofii«j and of tUefe ^wj^Mv 
were made fiilre*- And St^yddis aii Ofilce^ be it Brcjt, or 
IiUulII t and J^ujr^J^i ls lih Officer aJfo of all lUte^^sti a .^hcrifl' 
ifi a fwjrfA/oj, liifl Sbcriirilcji or Office, :md ihe Ihire whcL^eof 
hn; is ishciEli [^ called ^*ijr/i/: fu thM 5*y/fA/diiih coiit.sNi iii 
well ihe fhire ai the oilicc of Sherd); is aV^^^ -frf-ttjr^irV 
Ih ihc finre or office of the SteW4tdF SeD^cah or StiErld" of 
5hIo]i, Sic, 

■ See lip- 16. and |3, of iMs work- „ . «- . 

' ThcgrcaLell and Ui^fhcrt Jcfjrcc was JjvjiiWp or T-7J-tf|CTlat 
ESp a King ] iind neit ro him w^s 1 T^jff^^w or a iijk^ ^ -ind 
nest [o \iim w-i* a I^rlf, or an Eifl ; and lieit to bun witsan 
jir^I^ydJ, or:LLcHrd[-L3id"cXLtiihirrt %viii li/tffuifl.or [l.ifi.nii 

iieid aie t i^ ihul il thcifrtlfpOr Udft^r, ^-^kb ri, ly bc called 

LbcSouife^ u;.Btto(hih1.aCttff-*JBj- thati*^ Yeoman t ui4 
nciito tbsit ii au ^A*h// und ncit 10 that a C-ii^i, wMcU u * 
al.ivc- aud Ui-it U the meaneCl .iinonnftihcfe nine re«r*a dfl- 
arec*. And ihefe nine dci-t^^i hjd thretf ic^erJ loi^urefc of 
h*nd«, 11 Mi^^^^ U^hMir, Fni^hnHf. Thirt bt jlfi^ "ib^r 
tufnci ^nd dL'Krirs;* wliiLhkK jiMtLchby biith. by nffice, and Uf 
P^u L l^i*^ t^^^^ P iJJ.^andJWWi ritf^-« Cpw'J--^ 





%as of the kings and nobility were colleQed, and.all the battles recorded by them, and exprerdy remertN 
bercil m the Cerdd V&rsant of fuch noble perfons as had performed fervices in the field, and In thdr Cerdd 
Var^nad; fo that there could be no perverfion of truth, in compofing hifloriea from three yeats^ to ihiee 
ycari- There was,befideE, a fevere pqnifliment infliiled by the law, upon the Biirds^ <jf long Imprifontnent, 
lof* of place, and Jl^rnity, befides great difjjrace* if any of cheai Diould record, for truth, any thing but the 
truths in any hiftorical trcatife wharfoevcr. 

No man defcribed any battle but fuch as had been an eye-wltnsfa thereof j for, fome of the chief Bardi 
were marflials of all battles : they fat in council in the field* and were the king's, or generaPs intelligencert 
how the aflion went on ; fo that they could not be ignorant of any circumftance, or thing, done In the field- 
They did not write of battles by hearfay, nor of affairs by rdationj unlefs it were fome fudden, or unex. 
peftedfij^htor fltinuiflii for> m all battles of moment, they were prefent, as 1 fhall prove at large in 
another place. 

Our hiUories were not written by a fchooUmart^r, that travelled no farther for his knowledge thani 
child's journey from his breakfail: to his lefTon ; nor by any monk, that journeyed no farther than from 
m^U to meat ; nor by any apprentice, that had no other education than from fhop to market \ nor by any 
perfon of low birthj condition, or catling j but by Bards, nobly defcended, barons, and fellows to lor(k 
and princes, £ing Anhur, and two of his kniglifs. Sir Tryflim, and Sir iZ/Wfircij were Bards, as this 
verie te/lEfies i 

Arthur acfd'WJi a Thry/fah^ Arthur j-^\ih. broken Ihield^ and Tryjlan ' woo'd 

A Llrdi^rch ben qiarchfdft. The mufe ; but Lfywarrb was the moft belov'd. 

The Pinbardd^ or Biudd Tcidu, was of fo hiyh a vocation, that he fat at meals next to \\\q pen-teuk^ 
(who was called pr'mccp fat^Miay) and had fuch rcfpeft and honour done unto him, that it was the ofHce, 
tX ^\^ pm-Utiln^ who was the fourth perfon of the land, to prcfent the Harp to him, when he performed a 
fong, in the prefence of the king, at the principal fLftivats of the year, ChriUmaSj Eafter, and Whit iuntidc* 

The chief B^rdi were very often of the king*s council ; and, ths chief Bard in the land was bcfidej 
allowed a chair in tiic royal palace on fefllvals, when the king and hi& family fat in ftate» As a fymbol of 
this, at the commence tiient of the Bards, for their graduation, their chiefefl title was Pencerdd ; and the 
head Pcneardd had a jewel in form of a chair bellowed upon him at his creation, or graduation j which he 
wore fufpended from his ntrck by a ribband or chain. lie then was called Bardd Cadciriawgj which is a 
chaired Bard, and he fat in a chair in the king's ha^l, or any where elfe, by virtue of his dignity as fupreine 
Bard ; whkti it was not hwfu! for any other Bard to claim, but only the Bardd Cadelria^g, who bad won 
the chair upon difputation publicly before tljc king at commencement time, or at a royal wedding. 

When the Bardd Caddriaivgvf^i dead, that formerly enjoyed the faid jewel, it was fometimes yielded to 
the chief Bard of knowledge and worth by the others, without dlfputation, (if hiii fufljciency in his pro- 
feilion was known lo farpafs all the refl: ; and fo he had it pro confijhy) that he was the chief Bard ot know- 
ledge in that dominion. Bur, if aiiy Bard whatfoever challenged to difpute fof it, it could not be given 
him ( pro confcjfo } ) but liedifputed for it^and thereby accomplilhed the proverb, (tV-. win it, and wear it;) 
for, hv^ could not wear it, unlefs he won it by a ttial of fkill/or was yielded unto him by all the other Bards, 
upon cohvifl ion of his pre'eminence, and lingular knowledge and worth, above all the reft; for, thedlgniry 
of a Bar^fimongft tlie ancient Britons was very honourable. I'hc Bards were men of high defcent, often 
of the blood royal, and call;d their kings and princes by the title of coufms, and fellows, as Bleddyn Vardd 
called Llewelyn ab hrwcrtht (whom the Englilh llyle Leolinm Magnus ^ Prince of Cambriay his coufin|in 
thefe verfea ; 

Callms it ^erais o g^r, ac Arglwydd^ 
Erglyw cin iram^ydd^ irytfigwyn anwar ^ 
C$tiaii ib-iVf fi'yrn c^dyrn cydvar^ 
Cb'uje ICryr cedwyr cadr cit darpar ; 
Llcwtlyti a*i Itlant blamgttr — vrednriQUf 
A'i badUn "Syrian ; — oer cugalar / 

I have loft him 1 loved, my kindfman and lord; 
Pity our dire £all \ fad and violent is cur comptalnt * 
I have loll: fix mtghty chiefs, who were one in wratb« 
Six warring eagles, of irrefiltible onfet. 
For Liiwcfyn^ and his fons, a promifmg rsce, 

Aud tus generous grandfonsi direful \% our moinf 

That was iJe^dyn h;mr<:If, and Da^id, and Grttffyth, his fons; and Q^^in gdih, Llewelyn, and Awtf 

ihc three fons of GruJ/yth ab Lk^elyn. So did Cynddthe, tbs^rtai Bard, who calkd M^dtig ub J^ctedydd, 

'Blr Try^ wits^ Miwiitat a ner/orrrcr nn ihc ITirp'^ilMt he clurmed Lu B^ /M d4iigliLcr of ihcliii| gf IhUbJ. 5<« 




the Pnnce of Pcwjs his lord and fellow, or fcllow-loid, in his pom made in commendarlon of the faid 

Cp;archa^ i*M fhi rsd ohaitb 

Tn prsviprydit ? "^""iaitb-eurgerdd, 
Tm ar^fiS'jdil gydymaiih* 

-. 1 will greet my prmcc, hopeful in grace : 
A hundred times have I greeted him 

' In eflaying pocuc lore, in my language of golden fongi 
To my lord, and compinion. 

Andj in like manner, hh G6cb claims kindred with ftlrel alt R',lt£rfj oT CeeJ y Mynydd^ Tsgcngi, in hii 
poem made ro the fatd hbd^ wherein he writer as follows : 
Hjd ar unfra cky cMd^ Hightfl in the tctnple of Fatne 

Er un Uwyih o Rofizuy Lltuyd, h the great j^rcy- headed Grcnwj ; 

Poji dkvtydd^ pais dryvr-aryd ; A Haunch pillar, clad in the clofe-wovcnc^atofmail; 

jd'n hSn-'ueiJir g^ys yn hanvod; It is known, that we are of the fame tlock as our aged chief; 

Cydwerf^ C4v drjjeir^falmf Often have he andlfung together withthe voice ofgbdnefs/ 

Vum ae ev yn dvk-v daim. ' Sweet lo me is the reEuembraiice^ 

Thus, we find, that the ancient fiirds^in the time of the kings and princes, were their kiiiftnen ; and in 
the following age, after the princes, they were a-kin to the nohit,iiy of the country ; as hh Gdtrb to 
ll/jtl sb Robert, of Catdy Mynydd ; and L!ir,vclyn Goch ab Afeuri^ H^'rt to the rtoble fanitljr of Njnnau. 
Neither could any mean perfon, in thu ituit: of the Cambrian ktriL^:;, prcfumeto ftudy tlic IcarnEng^or pro» 
fclTioEi of a Bard ; but, when the princes were ext]]id> this licuitaiion ceafed alfo, and men of inferior 
birch, having good qualities, were admitted to rtuJy the fcii^nce of the Bj,rJs, and to proceed in theitf 
profeffion to their graduaiton ; but under the title luid vocaiion of Prydyddkn, or Poets. 

After the diRbluiion of the ancient government of Cambrm^ and the rcdgclion thereof under Edieard , 
the Firfl, monarch, not refpefting the hunour nor ^he dignity of the ancient Briiith laws, antiquities, 
or rigliia, endeavoured to the utmol^ of his power, (as did all his fucceffois, umti Henry the Seventh's 
time,) to deflroy and extinguifh both them, thtir fame, and amlqutii^s \ 

At [his time the nobility and barons of ir^da received fuch old Birda, afier the death of the princes^ u 
were then in beinp, into their protetlion ; and encouraged them to take fwipils that were fit and apt for' 
that profcflion, and gave them all (heir ilipend rigSus, privileTCS and enieriaicnTienis as fully as when the ' , 
law was in forced But now, alas ! the great knowledge of the Birds, their creJit and worth, are alto-^ 
geiher decayed, and worn out ; fo that they art; extinguiflied amongd us. 

The Prjdyddion, or Poets, at this time, llkewife are of no eflimation, for divers reafons ; neither did the 
B^rds continue their records, fiiice the law was extinguifiied by the death of the princes, whofe ads ihey 
were bound to preferve j fo that there is no hlflory written by tliiiiu fince the death of LL^wdyn abGrujfytb 
ab Uezvslyn, the laft Prince of Cumbria ; for, they had no princes of th«Ir own to fet forth their afts, and 
all ttic worthy aOs of the Wel!h, fince the death of their princes, and their anncitation to the crowi^ of - 
Enghfid. were ail aiTumed by the Englifli kings, under whom they ferved as fubjecis : thus all the aaiona 
and deeds of th- Cambrians were vailed over Vuh the Engbp title, and fhadowed by the Enghjh banner; 

aif7rpj7liiUhi , . , " 

* . '* Hss egs verjtcuksfittf iubi alter b^ncret ; 

" Sk iJCi Jisn I'obii^'* &c* 
As for the a^s of fome of our countrymen, fince the reign of our princes, I will (God willing !) anolhet 
time, and m another place, fet thetn forth. And, in refpeft to the language of the Britons, a* that is one 
of the Tri Cb^. and part of the antiquity of Briiain, I intend to write eoncerning; the fame, fo that it may 
be more eafdy read, and perfeftly underdood, 1 fiiall ±^ proceed lo the hiftory of the kings of ^.;/dm, 
and CaJfibria,^! have found it in fome of our ancient books j one whereof I have fet forth, at this time, 
aMhe foundation of .a greater work hereafter, i^hich mult have it. chief dependa nee (>nth.sbookj and 
therefore before I enter npon that of antiquity, which treiteth of the ^a, and deeds of the king., and 
Princes o Britain, and C^-/.r/., 1 will begin with the foundation of grammar and treat o the letter, and 
<Waacr« with their true and perfeft Cound, tone and accent thereof, .s they a^e nfed m our modern 
language ". 


* See p, iB of this worlt i ind fVarriHglWM Hifi.ojWafttr 

^. -^ %■« .< J" r ^ . . I 'b\ I bifal iihn 111 J Fa J^il '!■ iif nlJl tTSH 






• " 


. *- / SET, 


• . ■ THAT IS. . . 




*' Ob ihrm^s alftnaft now ihf J^int/ji^ retitt; 

THESE have been trarJmiaed to us by oral tradition from time immemorhlj and itlil are the domelGc 
and coMoquial Poetry of the natives of Wales ; a people uncommonly awake to all the impteflions of 
" Lovcj HopCj and Joy, fair Pleafurc^s rmiling train ; 
*' Hale, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain." J*^ ' 

The memorial verfes, which in the time of Cixfar^ were never committed to writing, and which ibc 
Druidical Dlfciples employed fo many years in learning, were P^imtHhn^ conveyed in that molt indent 
metre called Eu^Iyn Mil-wr. 

When the Bards had brought to a very artificial fyftem their numerous and favourite metres, thofe which 
they leje^led^ were left for the drefi of the Ruftic Mufe, the j^wen of the multitude. When Wales be- 
came an Englini province, Poetry had been generally difFufed among the lower claffes of the people. Froni 
that period they forgot their former favourite fubjefls of war and terror, and were confined to love, and 
(he paflions which are nearly allied t«j it, of pity, and of forrow ; fo thefe fort of P^nnUIkn were naturallj 
retained^ and admiredj on account of the tender beauLics contained in them. 

At length, towards the reign of Qneen Eii^ktb^ the conftitudonal fyftem of the B^rds became afmoft 
extinft in Wales '"* j and the only Poetry that furvlved was poured forth in unpremeditated Penni!Iw> 
around the hearihs of hulbandmen* and in the cots of fliepherds. What contributed to keep alive, under 
every difcouragcment of foreign opprefTionj the poetical vein of the Welfli peafantry, was their primitive 
fpirit of hofpitality " and focial mirth j which aflembled them to drink mead, and fing^ and dance^ around 
the harmony of the Harp, Crwth, and Pipes j and what has preferved from very diftanr times many of 

TTic word Pfflw/Hs derived froin /Vff^ ti Hcid s becitafc 
jliefe^s ftow<::J «lempore from^ :iiiJ iveri treLinared in 
t(ie Hcjdj wiihrmi being coiiinijcittt la p:ij>er. ^cBruti muy 

*SceC3far^Conim4;mirit&: he B-LltoCHillico, lib-Vf- c, 13 
*■ Y rtyai ly^ny ij iriyJJl Iff/Iun j> M^rJd i ^anu ^Ifff*, naill iii 
mnVA £ia^A'Fajnnp llfiodl anions Cy^yiiJf r^tu rj«y tin u'r p^ih^nr 
Jtfrf^r AT wjfia^ivi fl^ JiiJ mriiffi Dyff'j f tffW^ nm rjw war/ j^Ti/dS^ 

i^r^jdJ nnJ if^i ItifcvitiH ffffifjyf^ful iJJyttf.*' l^i^cuiil CTiiIfLSild 

^ C]rnail yM^hykh ciidw i^Jltcddvod. And Ice |]p. 2^. jc JO- 

Thu provcAtJuii FcjniiUiou were then frCL^uciiily coni^ulcd 

"^ Thtre luve been m^etitigi i>f the Bur^s hclj in dtfTtrem 
pa^ti uf W JiraifinccLlii^ Ptfi^jn o(£B^aAfth, ulchou^U pcrhnps, 
niijt by roysil ]jrDclait^<iLiun^ Ojlc i^r^WtivM^wji h\ild jlI LWr^ 
martlm aibuuL tbc yt^r n^o AnciUiur /^^j^jWdTv^^s hchl in 

tjpklrr ^hc .irhiUrily dI Sir KnlHirJ H^. Aaother Wuj inU 
ttt jWj^AjwWiBriip Ifl AfMt0vmMf2/lirr, 4lj4»iaEibc year 1700 1 luiJ 
An bi£couiit ut iiwui wrutcii hj JtijivaiD^wi. AnutLcr mcci- 

. Since tha^E time ii h\is.h^Ki% ^\mlini^tdA}unui\f 
i*^, uiid Ai i^itfii* There iiieetine^ h^ve liim 

yc^r j-^' ut\\]\-vr\\- CtmT\\-j] nfrTirhrr T- ^rftinfilil^ TuTrf. 
And* kboiit iiJveLirs a^o^ J revjvfj thii :ih4:icEa[ etinonloiiibe 
concrefft of the Birds ; t^vca iitedjl tothtUcIt -Pwrf"; ^medil 
^D tSc bcft f -ffj/r wf/i /Ac Mjj]fl; and iinotlicr for thi: bed ct>J^ 
lefli>]n of FinniiSofM ; ivliitrh meeting wlli held' at C^tti^irmy la 
AfpfsVoffj-f/^rtf. Since 
;iE diricicnl towns in 

^/jfAj Lidur^^, uiid at i^i^ii* 1 cie^e ineeting^ 

been judkiuully [>atroiu/;cd by chc £r^jrjuv/j7j«M f^'CAhf j inl 
hy fpinc few o» (he gentry of Wile* Ll^^wiftpWi? htHdm 
iit^rfiiiJn tbl[:inii-incctiLkL{^ oi' ^'iij>f^Nw Cv^^tft ^ lA^ itdrJi^ 

.•^fMAfjt lur thc&keof rccovcrsii^ fDniclbbnjrof the Umiili<^ 
1-.1J MychuNigy. 1111$ BurJic L^^bL-uUh];, Thii mecihi^ vt4* 
held OIL Primr^ litfw iteui^ /.iiuuAiflt S^ptcitib^r 3ii 17^ 

jJce fomc aiieotint u^' it m the G^wilfmm^i Afi^ftfiWk 
vol LXU. p. 4^$6. Sc? iiltii ^^^> j8. ^id 4f>, otibi\ w^rk^ 

" *^ AiBHi'iii; Ihit pcojilc thcna b4 uu bc^^'if tu bt Kiund^ ibf 
hnufci ot ;k1l ..ite u|k:i,i tor the wcl>cL>iue r4i.rpbODt4 4>tl coimcnu 
MunilJLrcua theyclleembg^ojid-JI vinuc* ; iiib»*j» 

hol|iitjtsCy ik lu %%LlUni.1uTft(:>^Klv lA-tt tK43 i.4>^iiL- i^k ^a i^int^ 



thefu Utile ronneis, h their fmgvilar merit, and the afTcaion with which they are reniembeted. Some of 
thtold Etif^lifli fongs* which hive been a ihouraiid thnca repeated, illM contlime lo pleafe j while tht 
lullaby of the day is echoed for a time, and Is ihcn confignedto evcTlalling oblivion. The metre of ihefe 
flanzasare variouftj a llan^a combining From three, to nine verfesj and a verrcconfiftingbfi certain number 
of fyltibles, frotn two, to eight. One of thefe metres k the Tri^an^ or Trtiikt j another the jI-^M iiywyiU, 
or liSti^smad^ The memorial OJc of tht ancient Ilrain ; another, what in EngUlh Poetry would be c.^tlcd 
the Anapaiftic. There arc feveral kihds of Pcnnill meircs, that may be adapted and fuijj; to mol} of t!ie 
foilowinj? tunes j and fome part of a tune being occafion^illy converted as a fymphony. One fet of wurda 
IS not, like nn LngliOi fi^ng, confined to one air^ but comnmnly adapted and fung to FevcrEiL* 

The fkill of the PcrUiiH fingers in this Is admirnble. AccorJinj^ to the metres of thuir penUikn, they 
flrikeinto tlietuncin the proper place, and condu^it with wonderful csaftncfs to tbcfymphony,pr ibeclnfa. 
While the Harp to which they /ing h perhaps wandetrngin Itule variations and embLJIifhrncnta, their finr^. 
ing 11 not embarraDedj but true to the fundamental tune. This account explains the thte of our Mnfic, and 
Poetry^ defcribcd by Girahtutt as they esifled in his lime i i»hen [he WtlOi were a nation of M^fitbr.:! and 
Poets ; whenCrfrV, or Mufical Bards^ were frequent among thcni j and when i.hi;lr thiEdfcn karnt from 
their infancy to ling in concert ^ ^ , . ' - - ■ r . 

In his time it was ufual for companies of youn^ men, who knew no profeffion hut that of arms, to enter 
without diilinftlon every houfc they came to. There they -enjoyed the free convetfaiion of the younj^ 
women, joined their voices to the harmony of the Harp, and confgmed the day in the mofl Lmimated 
feftivity*. ** Even at this day, fotne vein of the ancient minflrelfy furvlves ^mongfl our mountains. 
Numbers oFperfons of both fcxes alTcmbk and fit aruund tlie Harp, finging alternately PemtUliQUt or ftanzu, 
of aucieatcr modern comporitions." 

'* With charming fjmphony they iturnduce ' • 

" Thttr plcafmg fong, and walkcn riiptore$ htgh j ^. . 

** No voEct: cxemptn, no voice but well canjoia ^, 

" Mebtlioiis part." 

« The young pfiople ufually be^in the [ugfit with daticm^ \ andi when they are tired, ^iffume this Tpecla* 
irf relaxation. They altem.itely fing, dance, and drink, not by hours^but by days and weeks j and mca- 
fure time only by the continuance of their tuirth and pLafure. Often, like the modern Impn^vififtori of 
hulyi they fin^ extempore verfes ^ and a pcrfon, co:ivcrnintm this art, readily produces a PainiU opp-^fite 
CO the laft that wasfung/* Many have their memories ftored with fe^-eral hundreds, perhaps thoufandsj of 
Pftmillian \ fome of which they have always ready foranfwers to every fubjeft that can be proposed j otjif 
their recollet^ion fliouldcver fail them, they have Invention to eompofe d^tmethiOj^ pertlnrncaod prtp^r for 
the occafion. The fubjeds aftbrd a j^reac dc^l nf mirLh : fci:ne of ihefe are joculaTj ethers rafiricilj but m tfl 
of them amorouSj wEiich, from the na:nre of the fubjett, arc beft preferved. They eontlnue fiojrlni; with- 
out intermifllun, never repeating the fame Jlanza, (for^ that would forfeit the iionour of beinj^ held lirlt ofthe 
fong,) and, like idghdngales, fupport the conieft through the niglit. The auL^ience ul'ually call for ^he rune: 
fometimcs a few only Tmg to ir, and fomeilmcs the whole company^ But, when a party of capital fmi^eis 
afftmble, they rarely call for the tunc ; fur, it is indiircrent to them what tunc the Harper plays. FAriOiei 
are often oppofed to parifhes ; even counties contend with counties j and every hill is vocal with thechotus^ 

In thele rural ufages, which are betl preferved in the mountainous counties of Merianydb, and Cwr- 
uansn ; we have a diftant plcafing gliinpfc of ancient innocence, aad the maimers of a golden age, ctijoying 
thcmfelvc* with Metre, Mufic, and Mead. 

Mantiirid mw^n am win a vfiddi Places of joy, for Mead* and Wine, 

Tiiniuiu miiLfig iSn mafwcddt Soft tnaple-found, of ftringa Divine*, 

Whoever conlideri the unalFiided fenfe, and unadulterated pjlTiona conveyed in thcfe fine little pieces of 
antiquity — lyntmicnts which utL wtmid hope, but few are able, to imitate— together with the fweet iind 
foothing ;iir of ourmuftcal compofiiiona, which are moftty in the Lydian nieafurc, will not wonder that 

' L'amitfM De/ttifih, cap. la, uml i j, !ice dfu pp. a 9- an J 

' tKc LtrJ Ijiftlttn't FfiJ»fj tf fftwj IL wl. 11. p. fifl. 
■ Tti* fdllc^'iii j^j'i:.!*** S'l ii-'i"= li«" ^rry carlf t ■i*'' ii.iiTC J 
iiiU-'jry iolwijut u, (ii>4t *' lii<lviriuu'^ wifit^ni «ict||i;d kill \\m 

wlfdnm nf the Eift, &c. he fpcyke jaoo pr^verS* j jluI hi# 
^i)ngt were a lOv-J " ^itj Swi */ Kia^t, <Lip. 4, 

+ Set Ftmufi^t yturary ta StiffwJfn. 

* Tb? HAi'^i luid Ci wtli iic unully m.i.df uf ihe S^rc^miTC 


It „„, n.tbi«.! proverbs, .h=y ha«becn fo long prefcrved by tradition, that th< &m. ft.nzM ireretasm. 

[ r ,1 thecounties of Wale., »tid .hat .he native "= fo enamoured w..h thsm. a. t., be <i™ft„^ 

I -l Lm whenever they meet wkh a //-rr/, or Cr-j^/A. Nor wdl he blame my prefumplion, whea. 

■ f'rrir. of tender fimpiki.y, I pb« rhem m co.pcmlo. wUh the affeamg ,ale. «f the ^ 

B^ada, and the delicate *^i^^« of the Greek Epigrams. 

M From words fo fwect new grace ihc notes retei« i 
•* And Mufic borrows help, fiie tis'd lo give." 



Haeddm gl6d am v6d yn vu^b. 
Hi ydyiv ihuyn Ua'wenydd : 
Ve dds^r adar yn y ffiarif 
Idiwm dan d 'dcnydd/ 

BeaoEcous in form the Harp apprars. 
Its Tnufic charms our ravin^'d ears ^ 
Lefs varied ftraim awake ihe grovc,^ 
Fiird with the notes of fprinfj and love i 
Hiihcr I he Mufcs oft fhall throngs 
Infpire ihe themei and fwelL the fong I 

* ooooobooooocoocjooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

Ikrdd arVgrch yw Uyg^id diSy ' *Tis Man's to conquer, fierce in arnw, 

Bardd ^r Vdb yw b6d yn bf ; Woman prevails by gentle charm* ; 

liarddar iW^h yu^ pidrain lydan, Firm vigour marks the generous Steed, 

Harddar Vd^i fw jTiyn'd yn vn^vs / And lightning wings the Grey-hound's fpeed* 



A cherdded iair 

J charu Menh o fn-wer piivy, 

Sydd Grau ; 
Mas'n anbawdd Jfu,/; diruvnd^^j 

Tnrbyukl ' ' 

From wake to wake, from plain to plala^ 

The curious fwain may rove ; 
A perfccl Nymph he feeksin vain^ 

To meet his conftanl love: 
Frequent and fair, Hkc faplings tall^ 

Whole bevies throng around; 
BuE ah ! what fapiin^ of them all. 

Without a flaw is found ! 



Tn SirVoo y masfm tanmu% 
Til Nj^^n ClwyJ vids coed avafitti ; 
Tti .N/r Fflfnt maetdrt i 'ftuiwymnfj 
A lodii Undeg i'w chovletdi^ I 

In MoflflV ifle, melodious notes refound, 
In Cliiiyd't rich vale, neiTcareous fruits abound; 
Flint's verdant tTa£t conceals the ufefal ore. 
Much for its minerals fam'd,for lovely women mor^ 



• Every ImewaFC has Mculiar beauties. The thrtUgMi and \yord*of thefc Pinnilfi^n are fo uncojnmonljf fimpk and tipreffiTft 
that I do noE prefume to crfFcr the ^ncied ET^^ilih ftnn^jis as an LidequiUc Ef-inn^Ltion. but merely (for the fiLi; of tht Englili 
reader) H^^n impcr+cA {ketch, aiiJ iJea^jf clicm, M tJie ranwiime, 1 mtiftnot omit my grateful actnowlccl^-niMCMoUie K^t. 
Jjime^ Litiibertj and ihc Rev. R, WilH^mii, of Vtoiip for ihcir poetical ufllltMcc in fcsrir:!! ot the tallowiuj; Esiijliih vcri*i- 

R'v." (uve be*n fn K^pjiy in the coucife ftyle of writing as my couniryman Mr, JqU Owtn, of Pld/ Du^ X/iuumM, neaf 
r^i^LiU, CarmanQnJhir^.ibe P&itd Epigr-inimaiin:. and Foct LrtUrtaE to (i^acen EU^aUlIi j vho died A, D- ifiia. lud wJi 
bi^ricdiniSL. l^aiil's Uadicdralj London: he wrotizfcvcrji books of Latin Epigrauu^wliLuh ^t much admired lor their bi^Tiifi 
and ticrlin^ wiL» 

•* How dnc* tfce little Ef'^ram Jeli^hEp ^ 

". And chutm ui wkh \ia miiai^Lure -nf ^initl 

'* WhJlc tudiouH authors ^iv^ ihc reader paidp 

<4 Weary his thoughUp atitl make him tod in v^lta | 

*' When in ttfs volume* we luorc plcaJ'urc find i 

** Aiui what dlvcri^t Uill bed iufomu t[ic miud/' Tdiiilirih 





J g-^r^ndo ar g^cyn dy gariad f 
GifB n^d «/ un mJlf yn 'uyw^ 
Na/^rcha Ir^ dy }ygad! 

Turn, lovcty Gwcn^ be good and kind^ 
And iiften to tby lover's pray'r j 

Full wdl I know, there's none fo bfindi 
But muft adore my cbarming fair* 



*R ydix>yv y7na val y Jw^// , 

Oi tnciddi gyda w^i^^-t^Jjj, 
Di jjfi ran ?V ^vuiifcdd ibcmio ? 

D^rpirc me not for beinj^ poor, 
I am not very rich, 'tis true j 

But if thou canR my lot endure, 
I fhiill be rich enough an you ! 

oooQD oooo 00000 oa ooooooooooo oooooooooooo 

LMny Dt^Iyn^ fMn y tannau^ 
LMn Cywcirg^rn aur yn droiati ; 

Tan a vy/edd / rin v'af^i^ 

The Harp in H^':v^I's arms recIinM* 
Warbles refponfive to Ills mitid j 
Wha£ joys vvduU thriU this raviOi^d breaftj 
So Ep hb manly bofocn prefl ! 

qoooodoq oooocoocooooooooooo OOOOOOOOOOO 00 

Dy fiiOt dy /j/fl, 1^ f^Wy dy fyg^id^ 
Dy u'/i: dt'gi a'ib yfg^^'Of^ dro^diad ; 
Dy Ai/j Tfm^yfi itl/j b^rai^i fffwci^ 
j^tji J>£ry^!Gdd £im vy b$£di / 

Thy colour, fliapc, thine eye, thine hand, 
Thy nimble Hep, and witchtiig fnnlc j 

Sn^ccL voice, foft fpcech, my life commandji 
And nearly did my life bcguEle I 

.^l » . 

000000 DOU 000 C 00000 ooooooooooooooooooooo 

£/rt£fyrr/ji haul yri t wyi^^tiif^r g\;/^Gd^ 
j^ ^'£mtJjcn^ y rcjicthod* ^ 

My hv^\ the blortbniofihc year^ 
The futnmer monthBin her appear j 
The fticide enli^btvens as llie pLifRjSj 
She is the gem of charming laHes. 




D^d dy hrM otsd wydyn ^i3tf/;j, 
Dan 'vy tnrofij a gwiiia 'mriu^ ; 

S^'^ n y gahn v^cb yn larri/ 

If doubtful of my Irudi you ftand. 
Place on my breaft your lovely hand i 
Yet fitntly couch, nor aid the fmirt, 
That heaves my fond expiring heart! 

« - 


Ow / iy n^hahfij isrr, as U'ri^ 
Fahant yr dydyft iiyvni boali t 
Ac vn damad b6b *n y^^yd/^t 
Vat id ^idt sr kihwcdd ihshrig ! 

Obreak at once, my heart, in iw^n^ 
Not p:ne whb (low unceafing paiA; 
Nor thus \\li\i gradual woes dccay> 
As ice oil nioumains melts away. . 

.!• • 


^ .1 

Er mdyned g^allt ci fhin^ 
Cwybyddid Ov/KTi 

LMr ewyn ; 
Vod Uiruar gwrttddin ffrwenv *n \r urddf 
Ai ems I'iirdJ 

Viidftijft / 

What though the ringlets of her hair. 
May vr'uh the radiant gold comjuire^ 

The charming maid fliouIJ know j 
That many lovdy llow'rJi iha: rife, 
From bitter roots, and Itctit the ikicfj 

In many a garden gr^w I 




Cwyn e& BJdyr adar g-uPfUtkn 
Ht^£ii"i ^yn'd rr -van y vynnon ; 
Wciihisu Pr m^r^ sc wslthlau *V mynydd^ 
A dyv^ air^ ^h ddigcrydd* 

How happy la the wiM-fowrs Hate t 
To the fea, or mouniains flying j 

True aad conl!laat to iu mate. 
Free and Uappy, livrng, dying. 


EUn b6d beb, y blinder bwnma : 
Ortd or biindcrau, hiina blindery 
Cdr anivyry ceru yn aver / 

A mighty pain to love it is, 
And 'iia a pain, that pain to miTs i 
BuCj of all pains, the grcateft paiOj 
It is to loTCj and love In vain. 


Rha'sdi gybydd gadw ti gahan^ 
Rhsid i ieufTi^^id dorri ailnn ; 
HyJy* mSdd mae'n rhaid i minmu^ 
Canljtt mwymn dymmn dannau. 

In his lone cell the mifet flays ; 
The young man walks abroad, ancJ playsi 
And T, till death my paRport brings, 
Mufl found the harp*s extended flringg* % 


0000000000000000000 ooooooooooooooooooooo 



Aihvyd ftrth fydd rhwtjg ij nwyvntt, 
Tsnwydd csriad ydyu/r gahn ; 
A^r tdn Ifwnnw byth m ddcr^'ydd, 
Traparbm ddim pV tanwydd I 

My hcart*s the feat of fond defire j ^ 
Affdclion fans the gentle fire; 
And conElancy augments the fiame. 
That burns eternally the fame I 



Affyddhndcb yw V mcgman 
S)ddy}j dmfylhu V tan i gyiiitant 
A m&ini y gwrh nid rhyvedd g'wckdj 
Tdwr yn berwi, dros "vy Uygaid! 

What wondet then, my throbbmg breaft, 
1$ with fuch inward heat pi^cJVd ? 
Whence all the melting patBons rife, 
Andburtl in torrents from my eyes. 

00000000 000 000 oooooooo ooooooooooooooooo 

Jimxtddyw d'^utsdyddac^r Wyddva 
' . ^7^^ eir dro/li and yn ara* / 

Ha%vdd i'r idikj a vo *n ddiddolur ^ 
Ben*r ddv gymm^ryd (yffiir^ 

To fpeak of S!7owdifn*s hcadj fublim<^. 
Is far more eafy than to climb ; 
So he that's free from pain and cate. 
May bid the fick a fmile to wear. 

ooooooD ooooooooooo Doooo ooooooooooooooooo 

Tn HavodEIwy V C^g m cbdfj, 
Ond Ikh y lirdtt 

Sydd amia ; 
Pan vo hi dccca^ ym iMb tir. 
Mat hi yntf *n wir 

Tn sira* 



TvoiaJllwy far^the Cuckoo fings. 

And funs adorn the Iky j 
But there the Raven flaps his wingSj 

And fnows eternal He f 


WMka yn bruddj ag wtUbiau yn l/awettf 
W^Uhlau a golud^ wcitbiau ag angen / 
Wcithinu ag out, ac arian ddig$n ; 
Wtiibiau yn brm o ddtir yr 9Vfn / 

Sometimes grave, and romctimes merry ; 
Sometimes rich, and fometime:i needy | 
Sometimes lltor' J with gold, andfilver, 
Sometimes fcaut qI riv«f i^Att^n 




♦ r • 


'• ' I- . 

IMiddymtmah^ vil t> ttfei/fri^t^t - Mow oft, truifpartcdi havelfaid, 

F«/ vy mrm a n^drgt^kUj, Oh! tbat my brea[( of gtaf^ were made I 

Vai y gailai V Tiifl gaeigwckd Then might flie fccj angtlic fairp 

Pcd ygafon miwn ca^hi^ed^ The love, her charms hava kindLed there ; 

a. ^3* 

JVf ^ Trfri5 friar-:! _f j;i hned^ "there nevtr was a tnaid fo f^r, 

^ ^ Tffrf,& crimed ^an wynn^dj, There never was fuch Qiape ajid air ( 

^ iru ff-^i fl "v^rchffd <fynhn^ ' Tliere never was of womaa ki^dt 

AVj «ff h&n i dorri ^ffghah^u One half fo fuited to my miRdj 

booooooo^ooooooooOooootJOooooooooo " _ 

Tmpm riy V;5/TL'ffl, a i/jrumyw*t tfrng^ Sad, and heavy finks tbe Hone, 

Tromyu^ cahftp6b dyn unig ; . ,^ On the lake'$ fmooih furface thrown j 

Trymma fi^/h dart baul tf ll^ttad^ . Maa opprclTd hy forrow^s wdght 

Cjj3h'jj f^.6j ik ^yddg iariad / Sadty Hnks beneath his fate j 

But ^hffaddefl thing to tell^ 

Is to Love^ and bid farcwel 1 


GTijf/^^dfl g^rlyn yrt tff wf/j* ' Happy the mifer e'er will be, ' ^ ^. i 

Glyw^d/^n y in?^l/du'n nyddu / His weahh to Tee augmendpg Tound ; ^ • 

Cuy^b gan inn^iu Du-w G'drycJb^, Bttt that h gay which plcafeth me, . ^ _ 

Clyw£d/ii^n y tannau'n /iw-i/o / When notet agree with voicet crowned I 

000000000000000000000000000000000 ' • 

tVild o*er the mam the temped fli^, -• w\ 

The radiant fun defcrtsihe Ikies ; ,, | 

Gwynt ar vSr, a h^ul ar ^^wvJi, Grey (tones the naked heath deform. .^ 

Cenig ilwydim j« Ik cccdydd ; And bud and piteous ho^ls :h= ftorm j . .^^^ . 

jigdyi^nodyniledynkn, ShTill fcrcamt the hungry gulls between, ;. * 

Och / Daw pa voddfia thrraVitghah^j f ^ And dcfobtlon blafts the fcenc, .. 

What heart fuch terrors can enduft, } 

■ • Save in thy aid, my God, fecurel 

ooooooooooood-oooooooooooooooooooo . , 

M^c g^fi md^d yn yoanhiad. As oft tn the matket the fkin of the Lamb ''^ 

C„f ff yr Oen, ^ ^/^ref^i y Ddavad ; ' As ihc ikiti of the Exvc .s f^cn : / ' " 

>* Chan aT^d^dyn y Ikn, Nonnore co.ntnon in church-yards tobury ihedarae, 

a^lu'r Veich. d (r/./^dy«V Vatn ! Than her daughter of bloommg ftftcea, 



MyndFr^rddi dsrrip-wyfi, ^ ' For my breaft a nofegay chufiog, 

Cii^r^W iavani, gwrtbadun, Every fragrant flow'r refuHng j 

C^^r/W WjJ, a This c,d?m, • I P^fs-d the Ulies, and the rolea, 

A Di-^isr-nfi ' dd^nadl pc^thim / . * And of the nettle tuade my po&ei t 

^ , 000000000000000000000000000000000 • t 

Ctt^j^ ^'j ^ d, na v^v,'n Lr h^ppus, ' From pleafure's unlvcrfal ftorcs, ^ 

r;i . W, ^ ft^^/ T7 «^^.V, ' . Nor wc^Uh, nor pow<!r my heart implore ; 

JItfi ddeuiA^rt cfafn cy.^.etf., Bo: beauty's fair, mgenuous face, 

Ifi^idj^rd, a .buriad paS^iith / • * And faithful love'i fmccre embrace. 

r.i<»r„V.«rf /./«•«. </-«»; , AnJUai«purch»ld.«, 

Kf mr gicuiid ,nd ym,v}« ; B«. h.ppincli ih»t n« « w», bought 

ii,%J.^,d,r, mJ^^n Rr-^u^. Mua in One fiUr-one'. «m. be toushc. 

• AllmlJAfi to Kb« cl>t>'ce of Ji.wifi- Jt^rmflp 


Rhywunfydd / * Rftywuit etts ! Some FaJr there i8, Tome chofen Fair, 

At am Rywun*r w/it myvyrh ! Whofe chat me, my conflant thought aad ore, 

Panvitfyvdrymma^r nSsyn eyfsa, ' My fleepmg brraft too keenly move, 

Ve ddaw Rhyv/un^ Mc am drgry / And wake me from the dreams of loire. 

(KIDOOOOOO DO ooooooooooooocooooooo 

Os coUah i vy nghariadl^n^ Should I lofe my faireft lovc^ 

Mae bran i -vrin ^or a dove there's Hill a dove 

Tn rbywle ; ' Somewhere or other to be found ; 

Wrth ei bSddy bo hi bfaf, ' At hcart*s«eafe may flie ever be ! 

Jg* wilys Ditui ' What-ever heav'n dcfigns'for me, 

/ minn^ f May (he in peac* and joy abound I 


I NichM Cdgddim amfirgaua\ In wmiry months ibe Cuckoo v^ill not fing ; 

Nichdn Telyn heb ddim tanrusu ; *' Not will the Harp rcfound wkhout a ftring; 

Ni £bdn Calon hmjudd i\h" -wyhsd ^ ' • ' With one bright thought the bofom cannot glow, 

i^jrt vogaiar ar ei ^u^atM / " OpprefsM by grief, and overcome by wge* 


' Clywai't ddadwrddf dywats ddwndrhf Whifpcts I 've hcardj and harfh report^ 

Ciywaii rano*rbjdyn bm ; And half the world reprove the reft, 

Erioed ni chlywah nfb yn datgan, _ But none in all this vaft refort, 

V&wr Gi hyjiQd veiau « huuan / Who inuch of their own faults confjsft* 


Gzvtll ita 'rgTiffn yzif *r Midd ph hidkid^ On Mead, 

Dhd Bsirdd yr bin Vrutaniaid ; NeOar of bees, not Bacchus here behold, 

CwJn a bair ynvydrwydd cynnen^ , Which Britifh Bards were wont to quaff of old | 

Ondyn y Midd, mat dawn yr Awen ! " The berries of the grape with furies fwell, 

Butiathe honeycomb, the Mufes dwdl 1 

' . Stt aifo page 31, 


Til hf/i, ac yn huangCi yn gaU, ac yn_ff6lj The men. will be courting, tho' me they derpJJe^ 

T merchcd/y *n g^lraj a minnau ar yr 61 ^ . ' Young w^omen and old, both the fooUfhj and wife , 

Fam y mae 'r meibien i'm gyaehd mar wati^ Ah, why am I doom'd to efcap^ their fond view, 

A minnau gan taned a merchedf/n £aei? ' " When I am as fair, as the Nymphs they putfue I 


Mi dv odduym ?r Havod Lorn, . . . •. . What though the journey h long I trow, 

Er b6d yn drom I'yfwmai ; < Yet hence to Havod Urn I'll go t 

Mi gdv yno ganu caingc, . . ' There chanting many a tuneful fit 

Ac fl^t'ar ^amgcyftmtm j i ■ . . Safe in the chimney-corner fit, 

Ac ffndodid dyrja'r 'van^ - And^ haply, on chat happy iill, 

Tbyddav dan y bvrau. The mom's return fliall find me ftilL 

00 0000000000 00000000000 00 oooooooo 

Rbaid f bawh newidw byd^ . The ftage of life we all muft leave, ' . ' 

Ve ^yr pob ehud angatl ^ And death will yield us eafe ; 

Pa -wattb marw o gariadpUr, A» well may love our breath bereave, 

JVtf marw o dd^kr arail i As fomc more flow dlf^iafe. 


Chwl, raiy/gavn ar ercb trued. Ye, light of foot, who run for F«n*t 

T'ngrymmui oed eicb biodaui With manly bloom elate ; 

Ytmi^newcb igd, chwi 'gewcb 1^% Qut-flrip— you "11 gaiix a deathlcft nanifl^ 

Q dungwfb rhi m Aiiiau, 1 he winged (haft of Fulc* 




Catimdj Gig i Veirw7t^d*» 
Era nvtaii dany/ert 
O iawndsr^ glnv^r ^cdjfdJ ; 
giorv! ddy a ^jr /V drlit^ 
A g^vin anrin avsnydd : 
Ctreif b'tr, n g^rat invyd, 
A rnnwydi Ve^rionydd. 

Eidion dtt a dpm ei did, 
Ondcdid i ddyti dcdwydd^ 
Jdorri ei g^jt ^t dir £tc dr, 
Abracnar yny hr^nnydd ; 
G^rcu tynn, fei gwyr y idd^ • 

MiT'-jjynhn gujkd Meirionydd, 

Da ydyv/r gii/aitb, rbaid d^wcyd y paift 
Ar •vrymau Sir Veirionytid, 
Gchifg ccr o'r ^ae/a gditm ; 
Muc hi eltQ^n Uawn Ua-^mydd : 
Pwy ddifg'ivyUai' catia?r Geg, 
M^a:n nwwUGg yn y mynydd / 

Fwy/ydd !^n o bryd aguvdJ, 

Ond rbyvedd me%un pmtr<rvydd ? 
Fwyfyrnh^b hyfiifideth dda^ 
Tn gzpl'ojm gyd a V ^t/ydd ? 
Pv^yjy'n ymyl dit-yn ij ngho* ? 
Morwymn dro McirionydJ. ^ 

Gidny^j/r gkiftadyn y ilyjif 
Nidydyw byn ddim newydd ; 
Oihi yw*r •vromfrmtb yii d thjt 
T)nn danuii hadcnydd : 
Giiimuh y-jj, M d'wediii V ^/r, 
Mcnvymort tit Meirlanydd . 

Arfztyi yw x^n adar byd. 
En rhyddid hyd y ccedydd ; 

An-ajyi yiir' gn^ ^'nifan heth 
_Ei vamjfiiicib, <fditictb ddtdwydd. 
Oh f m dd-u,sd"jfn yn tjy my-jf. 
Mar afiuyl y^ Meirionydd, 

Muyn y^ Ti*iyn o viwn t^p 
hie iyddo Tadu dsd-wydd ; 
Pa'wb d*i bcnniilyn d pwrst 
Jiihfin am bwn y cybydd : 
M-u/yn y cdn o dd^utu V tan, 
M$r-^ynion gidn Mcirionydd . 

Er bsd vy ngharph mcwn bw^en b^ dg 
Ta rUdi^ bdy gifAdydd^ 
Tn cati piefir mir a ibir^ 
Ni cba^ yn wir m&r Uonydd ; 
idjned adre' i mi/y 'raid : 
Moc'r Enaid ym Meirionydd, 







The Cuckoo's Song to Meitionydtl 
What e'er IVe fceo beneath the {kvp 
To chcar the lieart, and chaTOi the eye. 
The fpTJghtly board, the rpafkling gbfa. 
While fwift and fvreet, the minutes pafe } 
AU ihefe, bei^de her riyen clear. 
Of dear Mttrimydd'j pLiim appear. 

To bteak the fods, and draw the chain. 
The (lurdy Ox will floucly ftrain % 
O'cT furrows (U7j and fallow dates. 
His ntrvoua vigor never fails : 
Far flronger chains to draw the heart, 
M^irsonydd^s malchlefs Maids impaif, 

Tho, dark and dreary, bleak and barcj 
Ma'rioTiydd'i rugged rocks appear j 
TEio" on her mountains nature frowns, 
Concentment ev'ry valley crowns. 
WKo could expeft the Cucks^'t fong, 
The tncutdTing mountain-heatbamopg 7 

How ^nely formM In O^ape, and face. 
The ruddy Nymp/js of rural race 1 ^ 

Where canfuch^indufltry bcfeen» 
As on the crowded vilbgc green t 
Ah I who alone all hearts can gain ? 
Meiri&nydd's bloonung village train. 

Fair in the Dee's delighTful ftreatm. 
The filver-fliioing Salmon feems j » 

Fair, the Thrup*! motiled bteart, 
■ Brooding o'er her" molTy neft, , 

But fjirer, lovelier, to my mind, 
Are dear Mdrionydd's Daiufcls kind- 

"Wild in the woodlands, blithe andfrcCj 
Dear to the bhd is liberty ; 
Dear to the Babe, to be carcCTd, 
And fondled on his Wurfe's breaCl: j 
But m my heart 1 hold more dear, 
Meirkfjydd's dufky deferts drear. 

Haw fweet the Harp's harmonious found. 
When the aitenmie Rhymes go round : 
' What for the Mifer*9 hoard care we. 
The happy fons of Harmony? 
Butfoftcr, fweeccr, every ftrain. 
Sung by Meirionydd' & tuneful Train. 

On fea, or fliote, where c'r 1 range, 
Tho* oft the hufy fcene 1 change. 
No tcft Ifind J but anxious roam, 
Ta fpend my h^ppiell hours at home, 
Msirisnyddt matchlefs Land, divine, 
My very heurt, aad foul are [hioe. 






.h= .™p=n.»a or.1,. I... %.L^-. M°"!' ■' '"-■:- *^pi=f";^^±f,"^'^ 

Tlijs fioiiff wai noaiD)' r the compoJuion oi ine laie Mr .i-^wi* »«uii.. ►» ^.-t-, ..^ - r - . .. ; 

vriib i new UiLi^lilh rtr 


9 t 


Gwna Havdy clymmedigf Now the twinin'g aibour rear 

At: adiiU goed%ifig; Kotv the verdant fea: prepare : 

A ibynygUtu ev;fg i £fywfd y Gc^, And woo thy fair and gentle lovej 

A newid ynffyddlmt ^ To hear the cuckoo !a the grove i 

Gufanau 'n gy/ofthn. Through the fmiling fearon range, 

• Tan dirhn coed srhn cadiirkg. And with faithful lips exchange 

Mutual kifles with the luaidj 

• Seated in the folding fhade*. 


01 v'arghvyddDdw^ cyvhn, pa b^thj/*n cich br)dj Ye Gods ! is it poffible you (hould intend, 

A'i dringo pob catt^en^ o*r b6n hydy brig t With courage undaunted this tree to afcend ? 

T brtgyn/ydd uchd a'r codwm Jydd vaixjr^ The branches are lofty, the falling is fore, 

Vt geir dch ewmpeinl^ pan ddtlnh i iawrf ' Your former acqualmance may fee you once more^ 

. . ' . oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

, , D* acav Lwyn ^ vcdio gUifwn, ' See where the verdant grove of birches grows, 

DWd^V Llwynf/n tern 'ngahn j - " That grove fo fatal to my heart's rcpofe : 

Nid am y Uwyn yr 'wy'n othnddio, . . • ' Yet not for that i figh in fuch defpair, 

Ofidam y Verch a -wehh ynddo ! . ,' • But for the maid I faw (enamour'd) there. 

•.. " * oooooooooooooootxjoooooooooooooooo 


Cndydyw hyn ryvcddod, ' . A woman's charms will pafs awaj^» 

Vod dannedd merch yn ddrvod j /Her eyes grow dim, her teeth decaf » 

5^ Ondtra b9yn ei ^euau cheyt/j^ But, while flie breathes the vital gale, 

. JSTt ddcrvydd byth mo'i tbavod. , , 'Tis Grange her tongue fhould never fail. 


PimiUar y D^g G^rchymmym. An Xpigram, on the Ten Commandmemt, 

Artjer o bump, rh aur henh^ tJfe well five, fly from feven ; . 

Tmogely faith msgi fwrth ; Keep well ten, and go to Heaven, 

Agiona^r D^'g yn ivr di-warth, 

Aaoi i JVt-LJ, dcwii mrth, R. Cairt> 

* *: • - . , 


• ■ 

A m'n rhodiQ hmnwent eglivys, :- -. ? ■ ^ Along the chgrch-yard aj I flray'd, H 

Lie V oedd mryuf gyrp/j yn gorpkwyi ; , Where many a mould'ring corpfe is hid f ^ 

Trawn vy nhrDsdv^rth v^dd^y *nwylyd^ * .^ - My confcious heart its pain confeft, 
Clywyn vy nghahnyn dymchwelyd / - As on toy love's green fod I preft. 

^ • ' <?ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

'• I. 

. Diavalydyw'r aderyn, ^ Blythe h the bird who wings the pUJp, 

Ni /^u, ni vid, un gnnynr Nor fowa, nor reaps, a fingle grainy 

Heb ddim govalyn y bjd, ondcanu bjdy viwyddyjtf Whofe only labour h to fing. 

Through Summer, Autumn, Winter, Spring. 

«■ .a, 

J^ vwytty tifwpperben^. At night his little meal he finds, 

Mr g;wyrym mh'U mas 'iglnh ; Nor heeds what fare may next betldc, 

Dyna'rmoddymaeVnbyw, agadaw i Ddtnv ariwys/ The change of feafons nought he minds. 

But for his wants, let a Heaven provide. 

J? '^f^' y ^''^^"^ Oft on the Branch he pcrchc. g*y. 

Can edrych ar n adm ; -^f i ^ ■ . ^ i u k 

tt I ' ^" unm» punted wing lu^« he, 

ii^bMHg<mtagynfig4d,yni!p,i,b4dy^ikv^ni And, pcunykl-. renew* h« Uy. 

Rcjotdng in uukiuudtd gl««^ 



Kin Kffmhf* 


Where are you i^oingj tny fair littk maid, 

Wiih your rofy cbeeka and your goUea hatr f 

] am going a milkms* Sir, Oie (kid : 

The ftrawbcrry^Jcavta mahc nia'iJens fair *, 

Shall I go wiih you, my ^r Utile maiJ, 

With yoar rofy checks arid your golden hair t 

With all my heart, kind Sir, ftiiiz fald, 
The flr:iw berry -leaves make malJenl fth-. 

- . ^" . . 

Where is the cow, my pretty Kttic masJ, 

With your rofy cheeks anJ your golden hair ? 

InParkcn-pSg, kitiJ Sir, fhc fiid. 

Where ftrawbefry-ieavtis make maiJens fiir * 

Pa U ereiff why moor. m6z itcan T&.6/r, 

Ctrt alaz tbeg hagaz bFm m^ijn ? 

Jlii a iTioai a ba Uath h&jirr a 'Utbif^ 

A delkis^fevi gura muzi teg / . * 

itj w mosK gan a why, mSz vean tith^gf 
Cfn i^^z thig baga^ 6fiu nvfyn ? 
Ctniil an cotlan strr a ^hig^ 
A deikkwj^i gura mi£il fig ! 

Pa h V «tf an Si^t mSz vean zt^heg^ 
Crn tf/tfi ih^^ haga^ b/la meJyn ? 
Fn p^rk an mmvl bujirr a wht'^^ 
A dd&i^w/f^ji gum mu^ t^^ / 

THE inhabitants of WaUj and ConKaal are the only Abcrigines'^ of ihts tfland no^r remaining ; botKof 
whichj as v-cM as iheir fratetDal tribe of Brefa^mFyin France, .lU fpeak the umkni UrUijh tang-ta^e ' ; alls'A- 
ing their dinLefls to be now greatly corrupted, owing to the length of time they have been feparaicd. The 
Wil/fi language was common to alt Britain^ prior to the Ssx^n invafion, "Vhe natives of Ccmwa!^ and part 
of De-vQuJhin , began to Irife their cid dltk diakcl in the reign of Klizsbeih, an<l it is now almolt extinct \ 
although the people of Cornwal ftiti retain many of iheir ancient cjftoms, and diverfions j fuch ati hunlin^, 
hawkingj archervj wreftUng', hurMng % and Tinging three m^jn's fongsj alfo, ihsy ufcd to perform whic 
they call Chware-mirkl^ miracle-play, or Cornilh Interludes*. At Re^rufh, thete were uU very hte(y,thc 
evident remains of an amphitheatre, and another, near the church of St. Juft, vulgarly denominated a 
round i and theufesof thofe rounds anciently were toacl reSigiou^j and other interludes. There li aCornith 
play, in MS. with an Englilh tratiflation, in the Harkian Library: and two other Cornifh M33. in the 
BodUkn Library t NE. B. 5, 3- which contain feveral interludes, or Qrdimi^i^ S-_e p, 97* of ihe advoL 

' T L Y S A U P E N N I L L I O N. ' ' " " . 

CkddiDchfi panfydd-wyffaru}^ 
Tny Coeds dan y D^ruf; 
Tna gweiir llangc-pcnfdyn^ 
Uwchfy mben yn canu *r Deljn, 

^Vhen death fhall calli do thon ray Love, 
Inter tne iniheoak:in grove; 
A gqUcn headed fwaia fltiU play, 

A ditf^e, to foothe my dormaiiit day r 

1 ■^ 

■f* , » 

Weithiau *n Llnndain, weitBtau Ynghaer, 
Ac wcithmu *n daer am dani ; 

WsUhiau 'n guta/gu V Fdn mewn tfU^ 
Ae weitbiau ymhiU addiwrthi; 

Mi gufanwn Jiodeu RMs^ 
Ft bourn yn agm atti. 

Trt y MSr > hyddo V Mjny^d^ 
Syddyn cuddio tir Fettionydd \ 
lia chmnn umeaith ohig arni^ 
Cyn im cabn dirm dorri { 

Sometimes in London, far I rove. 

Sometimes to Cheller town rcpatr s 
Sometimes carefntny dcarell Love, 

Or fondly dally with the tiur.: 
Her lUy-hand now 1 would kifd, 
;, .. And call her fmik an earthly blif* * I 

Low yc hiEk in Ocean lie. 
That hiding Mdrian tower fo h%hi 
One dillant view, O let me take^ 
Ere yet my lonj^lng heart fhill break- 

' A fimit^ cufbm flail pretaili in Walei s when *nnicn 
ha^e JfmrHcd fsicc*^ they frequently waJt tbemfclKi with 
Taufy ^nd buttermilk tn maU them fjir. 

' V*fiirU<f\t that the inl^d r^rts fif Bntain were jnTi:ilflCc*l 
bjr AliifiglMiof tJw fuiJ. BtU, Gaii V. 10, and Divditr^i 

* b« alCo ih« irU pigt t^f this Bwk, asd pa£f 3 J. 

* See .V(V rh&m»t Parlja't C^nifh iuf ^n^ltr jd EJujoii* 

* At a vlllji'c f:>ȴiJ tt. a^in, in C(nn%T:iK there -fc tAl 
rsmin* fy\ ^n jnclenl immutiU tU dilinf jilli-il bv the lume ul 

U.eH,irkr.t. S,^/(^'^;^,^«V;iir,fl/^jf^<.vi/ 

T f'd 



TVj Ira MSna M4r a'i detttu, 
Tra bs ddUr yn awn Gonwjf, 
Tra h& Vafl dan graig y Dibyn, 
Cadivav gaion biir i Rysifun. 

A\i ton ghctf ar y twyn ghvyi ', 
Au tyd-gaingi:, ytt gwau (Otdgfrdd^ 
Hyd y coedf yn hud^ Ctrdd* 

DJJ ah Cttf. 

0/ miir gjnnes vtynwfs Mern-wtn, 
! mar vwyn yw //wyn MfilUon^n ; 
/ mor iflifi yiv V Cufanau, 
Gyda Scrchf a mwyman tiriatt / 

P fjiiivyfyd fjedd dy dd^iii iygidyn, 
C'.vn mai iifian hyzu fydd yriddyn' \ 
T^n dy ben y maent yn chwariu 
Vslyjir ar nofwsith sleu! 

Bun ciiivat 'Vil c ^riihinu, 
witith Jiarad g^rmod ciriau ; 
Hi hti criofd tnor vath bcryghn, 
"u.'ait if Jiarad Udi tia digsu. 

Tcbygydyii/r Belyn dyntr, 
J Vercb wen a*i cbnawd m$lujhcr ; 
Wrth £1 theimlo ms^jm fyvrinach^ 
E ddaur honno vwynacb, 'vwynacb. 

Nidoes ymorc! iciur am fin: ft, 
Na (hwaiih ajn verch ttaturki ; 

T *mh6b He tnae crva gwan. 
Am arian yn ym&rol / : J 

Fan hajpo G^^r eiddtugain eed^ 
Er h6d val coed 

Tn deilio ; 
fe vydd/ivn garbdau'r Ei'ddf 
Tnperi i'uj ti^^dd 

Oyj 'u'aniuyiyd, rhed ar gait, 
1 wrando ar lais 
Tr adar, 
Vr ihiyn htdw tecca ertoedi 
Dan gyfgod lUngoed 

I''' Arglwydd Dduw, pa bstb yw /jyn, 
ffi vedra *ndfyn Veddylio ? 
Lie bi> mabyn vutya Ufircbt 
M I'yn tifi ver^h Mo k9M, 

While round old Mons roH the wav«. 
While Arvoffi bafe the Cajtiaay lavei ; 
While Marl\ remaini beneath yon fteep^ 
My conflant heart fbr oat^ Vll keep. 


Through all the grove the featherM race deveia ' 
To Heaven ;hc Song, and fwcU the varied throu. 
They bid the Mufe in tinifon rejoice. 
And join her dulcef notes :o Naturt** voice J, 

Oh I how lovely is my Love, 
Oh ! how happy coos the Dove, 
Oh ! hijw bldled are the blifles, 
' CrownM with love and mufual kilTes f 


Croefi V Cwanwyn towel cynnar ; 
Croefo V Gog a*i Uawen l/avat ; 
Croe/o V Tis i radio 'r ^einydd p 
A Gair Ihun ag awr Uawenydd. 

Os d jV €oed i dorri g^uialerty 
Medil'dii vSdyn gaU 17 machgen ; 
GwfJi f/ cbscli a myn*d i*w jiyddi/t 
G-xv/ "vcd Itazuer tin yn meibu. 

Tibygydyw McnvynJercBog, 

I Vacl?gen dr:^ g yn nbj cynmydsg ; 

A vynni vwyd ? na vyrinav mmo : 

Ac ctlo cr bynnji mar^ui am dano ! 

Mtt/yn a mnvynt a tbra mwyn yufmerchi 
A mwyn iawn, fkrbaddo eifircb; 
Lh rho mercb afer(b yn gynta\ 
Dyna gariad byih nid sera. 


Givae agaria vaicb agwrti/f 
Tn Si 'voi i vSd yn ^eddw ; 
Trymma batch yw fnvn or bskhiav^ 
Bakb ydytif & becbttdau *' 


Hiufi yw mamyeam^ d'r cdwydd, 
Mwrd-a/rt lledrad, cc ajdlddtwydd; 
Gwna'r criv yn wan^ a*r g^Oitn ) n wanttdih^ 
rpl ynffCi, a'rffifl yn pkib ! 


t A munftou tiouft in CfmdJy: 



AH ddwy aden jn amvyefeg ; 
Ac vf dd'tvftiiia me'r yfmaia, 
Mae hi 'n pfr, ije ddaw yn eira* 

Mae Ilinver Avai ar vrig Pnn^ 
A mdyn domum iddc ; 

2^ thai y JtrwydioR dan ei grsin^ 
Mo*r cym ^rydpo^n i'la ddringc * 

H^nnw <jydd tyn djwfdd Ha* 
De^yccay ajtwra ofuro. 

Mae 'r CQedyddyn glSfu^ 
Mae V tneiUhn o*m dfatUf 
Mae dad y briaiia^ 

2 n iyvu ym/joh tziyn / 
jfV adar diuhvcd, 
Tn tk'tjio gan vu*ymdj 
ha dywcdi as g^iriid 

M^wn g'wiiv-I'wyti. 

£. Moriit^ 

Maf *n y Bala i^la'wd ar -lucrih, 
Ma£ *ff Mawdd-wy berth i kchu ; 
Mae 'rt Liyn-tcgid dd.-. r a gr6^ 
Mas *n Umdciin 6 yn peddi : 
Ag 'n N^ajMl Dinas Bnhif 
Maiffynnon iln i *mokhii 

Blin _y^' dawn/t$ ar higati d^r 
A blin yia iur y gal&n ! 

Blin ch ydyw coUi V Vun 
A biihau d hun yn vodhn / 

Dfrvydd aur, a dcrvydd arjan, 
Dtrvydd melvcd^ dervydd ftdan ; 
X>ervyddpo'j dUitdyn heiasth^ 
Etto er hytii tii ddervydd hh'acih i 

jR/jfl/j ij/cfrh ar vii^dau V Dyfffyn^ 
A rh&es hiihau ei firch ar ryzctm ; 
Vt rboes hwfinw ci firch ar arall, 
Pi^r ttn Q*r iri fy* lyivyav aughalif 

5Vj? vj^fl iiy luynfby gwen fro *n ihian ; 
Gida yr goiwg, Gwen iro V gahn: 
A ihyda 'r ^^ktjy Gwen tro V 'tvyllytf 
J iacldu carcharor dwpfm^ 

Ni bydd tan bcb tarit ik by^do^ 
Ni bydd ddr heb %iiiybrv>ydd yndd4 1 
Ni bydd 'vaUtn dda btb 'valsu i 
Na byvi?id £ydd htb ddtaviU ffrwytbaU* 

2r tyy 'rt dy garu er yn Emtb, 
£r yn Varwynf er yn Vanmaith i 
Er yn Wraig ni vfdra *i beidioj 
Ni tana'i iaij na*th gartt etto- 

A Weifh farmer had been foMsing barley> anJ^oit 
his reium from the field, w^is afked, #h^t hehad 
bren doin^ I ti|>an which he returned ihefoUottiog 
fpfightly witlicifmi 

" Bitm yn daddu bin gydymmaith^ 
A gododd yn ^y mbsn i ganwaith } 
Ac yr 'wj*n ammcu, er ei briddo, 

T cyvyd yn 'uy mbtn i etic" 

0(h, na ba^'n i dra-iV *n y i<r&n ; 
Btiskh ynimraich a Gwen i bron' ^ 

Tn cyd ftiinio yn gyujir gakn', 

Bcdair brakb tan Bcdair bror,. 

Oi esUiik i vy ngbariad crau^ 
Colli i waeh V csed eu biodau ; 

Coin Ciin a wndo V adar, 
Dii"^ a gadufQ ffn.vytb y ddac^r. 


M^fitra Meinir t)r*d ar 'ljV/, 
Di ^d ragord Gariad;' 

Ni thynav arnad led y dkt 
Oud vjyt yn dewir Dywad I 

Mlnnaii glywais vsd yn rbpv-iiodd^ 
Pr Byd bu;n -wytb ran ymadrodd ; 
Ac ir Gwrag^dd an^blid iddynt^ 
Vynd a Jdlb eV •wydirsn rbyngdJynt! 

Pcd^oar pur mefur imvjj. 
Ar bitgabi fydd vfd/gwydd -urlg i 
Docdyd y gwyddydd eu pvau^ 
Ni wyddo/i man rhin<wcddau* 

Bitty bach anivyl fydd hdes btlrMn^ 
Ai rwyneb gwynn ^v/ridsg, a danncddmdn man ; 
Ai daii lygad gki/iotr a duy ad vei gviown, 
Vy ngbakn ai carai pt gvydJwfi y cavf/t. 

Ni chfywai n^h ag pJcv her, 
Ofid pabl Aber'yddm j 
T rhain a'u llais a ^dd-u> cu Sf. 
I ddiiyn tannau iynnion* 

^rflj y msr y nutt ^y n^hahn ; 
Iras y tn^r y ti'^t^ '^y cbnddiaa/ 
Trot y mor y tuae v'anwylyd^ 
Sj 'n vy Toeddwl i bsb mnnydf 


ji 4 



^ . 




Darter cam, darvu yr cerdded^ 
Darvu i*r Vftnir g^el hodlondeb; 
Bariju i minmu vwru/r gaUr^ 
Am b^if ffwrnai a mU yn ever. 

To the Tune of Morva Rhuddhn* 

Ladiej %ldn vawr a Bi^'n, 

Dynia gdn gynnes ; 

Cl6d i Vtin, hardd H tluny 

Liwdeg vtm hda :• — ' ; ■ . ^ 

Tnuyn a ge% U'g ei giVi'rit 
Elen angyki ; ' ' . 

' Liygad main, bbdau V draittt 
Taken brenhinct ,' 
Ki bu goes yn fin hecst 
Oi hath gun Saefnes ; 
JW bu 'rioed y vath drced^ 
Ar hdiii Gv^yddeks. 

Lk Morrttf 

^oes dy law, cd Uw am duni\ 
Moej dy gred^ €s'i gred os mynm ; 
Mm dy veddwl addwyn ffyddhn ; 
r* Us rbain^ est gorpb a ibalan ? 

Vanivylyd henna o ve-wn y b)dy 

J ddoi di gsd a myvi ; 
fi a gei vwynder yn dy vyut, 

Os ca-wn gan Ddu-w gyd-oejs? 

Main a chyjwwys val y vi'dwen^ 
Bertb et Hun va! hardd lediknen ; 
^eg ei g^irwr W bere bavddydd, 
H^n yio n6dt boU glSd y gwkdydd ! 

. ^crchsg ta-wn yw bhdau > meufydd, 
Serchog hevyd Can, a Chy^ydd: 
Ond yfircbffn d-wyn rbagoriaeth, 

' T'U) finhogrivydd mi^n cymdi^gmth ! 

1 ha b€thy byddai britdd, 

A ihrrA I/awenydd beibio ; 

^ra b'lA^y *fi Ivangc ac yn IwHf 

Rhav hwb ir gahn em : 

}iwb ir gahn deed a ddH 

Mas rhai na v^il mo'u digort^ 

JJji waetbpunty na cbant mewn cSd^ 

Oj medrir bod yn vodlon. 


Dyn a garo Grwtb, a Thelyn \ 
Sam Cynghanedd, C4n, ag Engiyn-^ 
A gar y pethau mwya tirhrt^ 
Sy*/f y Ne'v ynibtiih angylien. 


Tr un nl diaro Don^ a Cbaniad^ 
Ni ebair ynddo natvi o Gariad i 
Ve welir bvjn ira byth^ ^^w, ' 
Tin gds gan ddyn^ a chdt gan Bdvuf, 

Dagan $dar mdny coedyddy 
Da gad u'yn veillionog ddo!ydd\ 
Da gan i hrydyddu V ha'uddyddi 
Tn y iiwyn a b^d yn Hmydd! 

La-wer g^uahb y bu vy mwriad^ 
Gael Ttiynicr imnii 'n gariad ; 
Gan ^eiyfidfwn y tannau^ 
Gyd ar hivyr, a chyda V borau. 

C-wycb ydfiXJ *r dyffryn^ a gwenith ag yd, 
Mwyndd'd^ maenal ag ami k clydi 
L/inift ag Eos, ag adar a gan ; 
Nf cheir *n y mynydd ond rnawn^n a tbdn^ 


Btiiy vel iiU ber idn. 
Dynes Ua'wn dmau cyfurgan j 
*Loyw bearks bwyi biirlan, 
Dirion a mwyn, dajiedd-mdn. 


Cenetb a btonnau gwynnhn, 
Angyks yngQkifgy nieibicn ', 
Vy-Jighyiirly, 'vy-nghahn, 
Veindiu bardd, v'enaid yw hon* 

Pan itoferen yn rhagoriy 
Ve vydd pawb ai elwg ami ; 
Fan dda'jj imwaiib g'lx/mm'wl dn^Jli^ 
Ni bydd mwy o son am dani* 


Pan vo*r haul yn t'vfynnu *n ^re/hgt 
Tmae cweirio g^air meillionsg : 
2 n eicb bhdeu gwen Uiw *r iira, 
T mae 'n oreu i cbwitb^ "d'nu 

Mas nbw *n dwedyd hyd y Sift 
Aminnau 'n divyr wrandQ^ 

Nis gwyr undynyn y wladt 
Pwy ydy^ 'ngbariad etio ; 

Ac nit gufn i 'n dda vy hiin, 
Qet gennyv un a'i peidio* 

Cafig wimut (oejau gwynhn^ 
Grotn'Win dtinaUt gitrnau du^n J 
Caraau duitn, gro^mifen dftuitit 



Sh'n druan i>ynnj Am* ; 
SiJn beraidd LtU^ SiJn bdrtdd htyj^ 
Si^'n gymimvjj imi jmjf ommifl : 
Trj ^ uibflhcdiad br^n 

Sidn dwrWf/A-^Kw/ffl j 

Si^rt Irw^n yw k^n ; 

Sidn imi y^j^^ri^df 

Sian iana *n y rair-gwiad i 

Sian ^nvj^d^ Sidn dcn\id^ Sidn dfriM. //. 


Dy ddwy wf^tit Bt/t bJr 
Sydd iraidd dyn^r drrcn^ 
A£ mor veh^daidd gahi-w^dd ^i?, 
Vflg%£^unydd &!u dy dduyuron ' 
Ondy-iv ry^rdd i^g dy liw^ 
Mcrg^kdy^v dyg^Ur^ / 

Penml], to the Tune of Ar hyd y Nus- 

Nid ai i ^aru tJ^/A end fjynny^ — -^^r hyd y nSi ; 
jIm tydymmaifh fv^ myvi^ ar i^jdy «^j ■ 

Dyna V^TiWf/i" a ^u^'miitb £^ ndthiwr^—'arhyd y fl^/. 

Pennill, lo At hjd y Noj- 
Hen wrjiig ar vin y mynydd^—ar hyd y flrfj-, 
ji cbartthi Enftb ic^d^£i/j Unydd^arhydy nSs i 
Fwy d^i^yg^i^h ddaetb iw ci^aru^ 
Ckchydd Liang wm gwfdi mi:'dd^l^ 
NiJ'^n iga*dJ c vargen ganfhi ?— -^r hydy nSi. 

CdryCyl^yddg-i^'d ag Jri^jn ; 
A pbu^y fydd na cbdr ei ht/naf^ .' 
Myvijy 'n caru M^rtJj yn angba/l^ 
Agyn bycbanu pSbpfib arall 

l^fl y Baia mat hi Vj ^dio^ 
ji'i dwy vron vel cira *n lluchic ; 
Dygwn vy ng&r£byrrvfH a/U\ 
Miir^ed v2iyn aab h/an yd* f 


Sian/ydd vti^n^ a Sidn/ydd IJn^ 
jf Sidn/ydd gy^lawn ^vkidi 

Pecawn i Sidn rbumg e^ai^b j br^n^ 
Mi wa/gwfi /^flrt yngakd. 

Tvaii attocb gldi aV A ttygad^ 
Trwj b^rfircb^ a^ydd!cngariad% 
Tvwfb cbwitbau^ dvj ail wjuot^ 
Jtt f Jftxi^fl' i gJr eirb m/m* 

Nid #n i mi tnd dau dyrt^ 

Cwyn XTf m)d^ ^ tjddwn rbynlddjn ; 

Pan w Miinir yn vy mrfkbiau^ 

T'gciymm vyddy glimau / Pm^h, Wm. Wy^ 

0^ i^r fflcT* am vSd mor frvjiir, 
Och I V UnmiH am doviu rymmin / 
Oib Tr gcg na dJ^ i ganu^ 
Ar vtjn ttg wrth b<n BaUavntly '• 

* A plilcc lD Amglffif^ 


Lk Bo cariad vc ganm^ir^ 
Odid \^awr yr vu/y na ddylir ; 
Ond //if bS V iidd^gfdd £TfuIon^ 
Vc i^dd bfiau muy na djgcn^ 

Telyn Xvfn a ibannau mdii^ 
A fminui arian byd&l ; 

A bair i fatv^r mdb drwyjirtbt 
Gtff/ cwmni menb naiurix?L 

Awcl iachiJiJy ^n mbtn BerwyD, 
LItr I Txv/^f/ ihwcr dy^ryn ; 
Ac ^ni bi^^ y Rcnnig ddi^a^tb^ 
Cwelwn ^idd vy Tigfjicdiga^b^^ 

AfdfV Gig yn b^r ie^eryd<i^ 
A'i mw/ig yn y mfujydd^ 
A g^dJi^'nu y ff^f "r gweunyddj, 

DlJB dywydd birddydd bdv -■ 
Ar gcrdd yngba^rau gw^frddicni 
Ttir gan 'u^iUcb iaanGn^ 
Liawtnydd fryndau llawnim^ 

T d^n /jyvrydUn vrdv4 . 

• t • 

G'u^n ti brefij a g^en it brcnnau^ 
GwffnpSb man^ t^nd gwrld ei gruddiau ; 
GJeiJtQn fygaidj do^th ymadrodd^ 
GJendid bfn yn fi^yr tf/ri Haddcdd* 

Hzwdd'Vyd i ddydd yr Awcn^ 

A fbydM'r GSg jn camt 'h iwjbV 
Tngbyvor Ilwynyn ila'w^n. 

Englyn i Lyn Ttgid, ntar Bah^ Mtlrhnydd. 
Lynncr^^ywddiAtrJIynnghyW'ddwr, ilymgiwyt^ 

Llynn Tfgid, llynn at a^^d gymtt^s i 
Uynff cann^ a lit yn cynwy^, 

By/g^f<r ftfivm dy^rtdfr dwys, /* -foA^rf*. 

U On 

' r 



Oa a pack of Hoiindr 
this J c^^ ^ttf^n yn/€im6, 

Jetb ftt Uiv triifj V hsU h^ntrevydd^ 
Brjrtimt gwylUkUt hroraiaM g^IItj dd : 
Rbid eu miwfig *t h)dj meu/jfddy 
Sain m prcfgerdd fy 'n y pry/gwjfdd, 
I '<wihfytag;u^dd d'u Uaishygar^ 
Ci}'mib eu Uiv vil dych cu Ikvar f 


Mac kagadyn teuru^ 
Vy m6d i 'n eich cant^ 
A minnatt tf vdly 

Ni 'welat neb purach 
Fch cam ffyddhnsch^ 
Udlrgdath na murymch 

Nit minftau. 

Gidn vraiihj glan ddrnvrakb, gldn dd-^jt^rsn, 
Cldn efiaid, gitin anadl a cbalsn ; 
Urdd^dig gIdn vorddwydic/jf 
A gidn bjtb pi bai gh 'n^BSn. . *• 


Fair Oiwen has fuch wond'rous charms, 
*Ti9 Heav'n lo be wirhm her arms j 
And flie '& fo charitabLy given. 
She \vjfhes alJ majikind ul Heavea. 

TV h^n yhore gwyrdd-ids fjydd^ 
A gzitaiur o nswjdd amo j 

Ond pan y tGrrcr €v brydnhd'wn^ 
Tn vuan iawn mae *n gpxjywQ* 

Grafs m the mora is green and bright, ■ 

And of tht freflieft caft ; 
But, ah ! cut down before the night. 

Fades by a fudden blafl j". 



Efj^fyn iGd/an Mere/j, 
S}/fpias I'^dd^ gwi-iiwedd gy^hn^ go vafii;edd^ 

Duw a vwrkdd i/neri^^i^ 
AJel'gif'uyd^ /lyd dav^d boff / * 

• ^Q fvtct a ktfs the golden Sun givefi notj 
To tlrorc frcfti mnrniiiff drops upon tht rnfc f 
Nnr ftinci the filvcr Moon one hdlf fo brightf 
l'liroi3£]i d\c tranjfiurcnt bolom of the decp^ 

An Erigfyn upon a Woman's Kifs* 

From lips delicious in their bbom 

Rich mead I fipp^d that brcath'd f erfumej 

And kindling raptuf e drew I 
For Heaven hath on my Fair-one^s Lip 
(Which ev'n the bee might love to fip,) 

Dirtiird ambrofial dew ! 
(or thus;) 
Rich mead I flpp'd, my heart delighting. 
From lips delicioufly invkmg ; 
Ups^ that fuch honied fweeisdlRllf, 
1 ne'er can kifa, and fip my fiU 1— — 

*•* Tu gtvt tilt EngSifli reside r amort j (aft idea of the e!f- 
^anccj fimpEkhyi and brevity t*f theVt WcUh ^onnfts, [ iutc 
leleded i few ftnn^^as from t>ii; EnjfJlJ'h po^t^i which poflxfj 
that fimihricy of ftyfc and b<:aulyt -except the h,aLrmony of 
Cyn^ha^iU^ or coficatcnaccd ailitcr^itios], which is ptculUr EO 
the Wellh pociry- See aJfo pages jj, 54, ^ndfi?. • - , . 

Othfju hy Nature tanj^ht^ 

To brcitht her genuine thongfitp -^ 

In numtjers warmly pnre, and iwectly firong ; 
Who firJl fin mOLintiain* wildi 
In riflci, lovcliclichiMip 

Thy b^^j and ple^urc'sj nim'd the pnwcrs of fonpi 

By foreign handi her dyiug t^yes wtre closed i 

By forei|l^ handis her djin^ lin]bs t[]Hipc>**di 

By foreijfia butds her humbler K""i*vc ^dorn'di 

Hy ftrinucrihonQot^d.aDdby ilrwgcrB muuni'd I P&f^. 

- OcoTCJcfoftfiyceKft flieepi 
Thy balmy bJclTangs give t 
For dcatli if life with thccp 
Witii^iE thee 4c^h u iivt* j/H/iynuv/. 


Ml fi^kj^ of Heroes, and of Kings^ 
In mighty ti umbers, mEghty Uungfi j 
Begtn, my MtifCj — hue lo the ftrlpgs^ 
To my gresti fong* rebel I ions provt, ' 
The unag will fcinind — of npught but Lovei 


t The rofe ii fragrant, hut it fades in tiTTLci 
The vioJet fweet^ but qukkly paft the pfimc ; 
White lihes hang their he^d^. and foon decay ; 
Aiad whiter jTnoiv in niinutta mdts ^wiy. Urfdim' 

0& Worldly BUffiigi* 

Th* firfl of huin^n fcifti 11 Hcntthi 
The ncic on Ikiuty^A pawV ntr^Jidi 1 

Thfi tliird, palTeniiag w«ll-c»j^n"d Wealth* 
The fauctb I J Vaiithj enjoy 'd with Fncodi. 






EQg!yn upon tfae cel^ateii Greyhount) of Prince Lljwe^a^ hnfffrtB^ 
C/adJwyd Cilh^ry t rdvydd^ ymfyniad Tlie remains of fam'd Kiffbarf, fo faithfiit aflct gOOd# 

T'mlaenau Ejvjonydd ; The bo^ds oF the Cantred conceal i 

Par&dgini^ t"^ gynydd, ^ Whenerer the doe, or the flag he purfued^ 

PrrmV dydd, yr Mai Hyddf ' His maftcr waa furc of a meal* 

f There 19 ni^ntral tradition in North Walcij thsc a wolf ha^ cutcrEd ibt houie of prince L1pi>«l]rii. Soon after the pnacc 
returned hnmt, ancL goihj^ intothi; nttdcry, hcmctt^i^df^g A'i^/i^W^^ ^blood}"* and waK^inf; lui tulathim ; pnncc Llfwelyuj 
on entering the roomi {bitnd the cmdle where his child lay OTertumed. ^nd the floor (loving wHth btood i imagimnff iJi=^ thft 
rrc^hnund h^d trilled the chEldp he immediately drew hift fwoni and (l^ibbcd at j ch«ii^ turninfr up the cndie? founa under it 
the ehild ^rilive^ :ind ch« wolf dead, Thi^ fo grieved the prinre, that he crc^d a t04nb over hi i faithful ik^S f^r«: where 
afccfwardft the p^Lrilhchurcti ivaiihuiFtf ^n^J ^nei by thnt n^imct fitddG^i^rt^ Dr the gf^vc urKi1fhi.rtf in Crr^^^rvorjflnrwt Fronv 
this incident ti derived a ver;^ enmrnun We|[h proi^erb: '* Trivy 'n ^ifitfarH tymmain^ a^r G'urr a /aJJ^JJ/i yUti^*" L e.^' I repent 
as much as the man who Hew hi^grcyfmamd-'' Prince i/rwf/r« fl* /wt-ymi married j7*™f -* daughter of King John, hy j^a^A^ 
iJanghter of Robert F^rrcrsj eirl wf Derby ; and thia dog wii& i prefent to the prince, from hii father- in-lair^ abouc the jeai 


Cyda V^nJ/r, iV Gadiir G6ch, Wm- PhylJp, 

An £'frg'/jji vrltten on the Duekini; Chair, Ht Dolgelletl. 

Ye VJxen dames, yonr neighbour's peft, 
Uniefs your tongues in future reft, 
Know that (wkhali your faults) youi faie^* 
Is the red chair*s degrading fcat- 


y/ Diiwh/'g^rdd ddivfjn i 

C/w/zr-^c/orf/j vjdd cerdd o'fb 'v^n / 

Lh ho ^JrW, if)&d me^n hrm^ yn llffhit 

L/c^/j^j yr annfr^b.'^n, 
Vo dng ili{/ghd Ilygad //aff, 
Llivybr y g&^i^ /U Ao 'rgahnm ^ 

The Unlatiable KifT^r. 

DdhJiacca pi^ei ddau nawcanty 

Dn wyth milt dyro o*fh mj^^U ? J Da^j^ ai Cv^ilym- 

' l^^^glyn i Gu/aHw 

CyJyUfhdJf/>piad/wpp£rt Gov icfin 

Gwfvu/iiu^r m^/yjher ; v 

Tirh?7deb d'wyni:b a'm d^rnoddj da f/w,, 

Dy ofwg am dallodd^ 
T'ga/i^n Wfij gul iawii 'i/^dd^ 
Dy dt'g'wcb di &'i dyg^dd, 

McfT gu/an i'm rhan cr h^y^ mocs vli^ 

Mofs ddwy^vily moft ddeu VTjjy^ 
■Mflf-f ugcin'^Tjdl^ moes gan-77rwy ; 
JVf «j ymaj am v'cf j im vcf/, 

■A/wj gu/a/i am ei gsijii^^ wen imi 

Vsl byn m^s i'm ^Ubeno^ 
jSurgraitj moix riwdi V^rt?* - 

• •\ 



Gorcb^ion hynodol Hugh M&ryt* 

Bereidd lawn blygein-glxh / 
Wa^uKh t^i benghg chwiban-gioch^ 
Mdb Ur, rttawl cheat mal dScb ! 


Dy gufatt hyihan 4i beckod^ digrh^ 

Vat-dfigryn o wired / 
Mcdru/aidd mtdtt e/odf 
Ef m:yn Duw ar -ay mtn dM. 

Hi Mvf yr vjy^n g/dv & ghfyven^/y «*/■, 
L^ijlarad a^m Wcfivron | 
Nagyrrufir^h, na gsir iSn^ 
Nam pv/i ua o'm ^ciyni«n ! 

' ■ * * Vn arali & gyn^or, 
JBydd'vwyn ivrtlt vufyn o'tb vSddt 
Bydd amm/yn wrih atfuwyn o^th atmodd; 
Ua anvwyn^ tiid da n un^dd^ 

Na rhy liv^yn^ ond mewn rh/iif vsdd* 


A RiddJe on a Bee-hiv« 

Ttiy/i>g fcratiag cu riawfdJt ct/log 

Metvn fofhU yn gorwidd } 

A mli luei/ton ntfitfundJ^ 

Cyda hzi/a i gudio ift'dd. 

U^i^Lwd cF|li» jHijulnil i mad \illtijt twtniy-fbiir LLfruinjuit Tirt Turn idmI o4 k'iSmt ^mmbdttlt'it Ji,j i j. 






Th« (atcmporc Compofi[ioQ9 of the Poets of North 
Wales, a.iihc^^t£iJl£iUv!Kit or Birdie Cougrcfs, 
which wu held at Caernrys^ in FLmtihhe, &a tha 
jcar 1567. 

This is n Tcrjr twrious rtTicVnflHaE penO<I» and tjifpliys 
the altircrativf m?tnJyj ind r«ri.i3«mcnC» in grtu pcrfec- 
Tion, which i* th* very cTencc nf WelQi -pQctTy ; and now 
firlt exhibited from die prefn* 

Mawr-glod Esjicddfodt is dalL-^ac irwyddfi 

1 Gaerwys wych adail ; 

Mawr gyfa fydd mur g6l fail, 

Mor g^cad y ttiae *r gv^iaJl T Hoftc! Ccinctg 

Ceubrca frig Uflen onnen lys-liw — haul 

Ar heol eglurjiw : 

Caerau 'r hon, uwch-cwT y rhiw, • ' 

Csenvyi egliijlwys glacfliw. Hu^p LIjti. 

Yd ocd Z)(ra; /^, lawn /cV-^gwiw toddiad, 

T graddiwyd p6b Cerddor, 

Pymthcgcant, prif fTynlani p^r, 

Athrygain, a faith rhagot, HuwPinnant- 

Gofod Eyieddfudi gwafcl — dawn UiJ| 

Dan onnen ff ig uchel ; 

Gorau tref, hcb gwrt rhyfel, 

Gras Dmi^ \ Gaerwyt y del* ETan Tewr 

Twr llys i Ga^fvfyj, ag erioed— dwf, 

A dyfodd dros fan gcncd, 

Braifg onnen captcn y coed, 

Bron hengyfl" brenbin-goeJ. Wjiiam Llj-a- 

Cyfgod Eijicddfsd, nid oes dig— g^wiriachj 

I Cacrwyt urddedig j ^ . 

Cofio 'r braint, cyfa yw *t brig, 

Cwrt 'glwysfraint is cart glaefng. Slon Fhjlip 

Tan onnen loywlen liwiwys— naw cin 

Mac 'n cjTinal yn Nghai:niiys ; 

Danyi/ cawn dewni'n cynnwys, 

Ridd i bawb, herwydd ei bwys, Bcdo Hafhefb. 

Dan Onnen lafnen dyna Iwys naid— belrdd, 
Gyda barn penaerhiald ; 
DigSl Eifieddfidn, g^d. ■' - ,• n ^^. 

Tn Ngbasmjys drwy gynghotiaid SimwntVaugban 

Yn N^haerwyr cymhwys ac ammod— ydyw, 

Ni a adwyn y bennod ; - , * , 

Mae dyfyn a berthyn bod, 

was da wyddfa 'n Eineddfid, Siah Tudur. 

Ein graddau munau lawn-waneg— ydyw, 

Edwyn pawb cu ddammeg \ 

Yn thwyQr yna ar oIleg> 

Yn d wyn braint hir, dan bren Leg. Owen GwiucdiL 

CYWYDD Y CXJSAN i or Song of the KlSg, 

By Gruffydd Hiracthog, of Denbighfhirej Who 

dourifhed about A.D. 1521. 

Till* Pot mis ett^ccmcdoneDf the moft eTteint j-i 
ifterhr comimTiiioiu in the WcLflk Unj^uage, »iib rcrp«A 


to chs {kilful Jirran^emrat of itiiillitcr^Vlootandthe fw!c«! 
ncfsj anticilff fldw of JLft hlrmoniijus loundj, P<rh^pi ^q 
rpecin^cn can be fclcScd from the Eqfi, of jfcoMii SttnJ^ 
Nifa-a'iiu ! nnr frtJin OviJt thaKiccli this Sons, oa Lh» 
fubjcfl of Lov*, 

Cefais, un cofua Wenerj "^ 

Cyfa IS bwngc wefus ber, 

CyffcgTiad trftfiad trafcrch, 

Cyfltgr min, cus goreu merch. 

Cael hwn fydd calon hawihad, 

Cwrcis hirnych cariad : 

Cyd afacL byncio deuHn, 

Cimaffgwcllna'r can a gwin* ' 

CylFro enwog, h6ff rinwedd 

Cariad, mal cymmyrgiad m^dd ; 

Cain dlofwawdjcnawdliw iehn^ 

Cawn flas hcc, ncu filmt^y wta. 

Cym'fais win, cymmar ofai, 

Cla 'n iach o b6b cli^y' a wnai^ 

Corph lechyd fywyd heb far, 

Clywed ci hanadl claiar* 

Cyfiaeth min eur-frig haf-loer* 

Cynnes i fytiwei f'ai ocr j 

Cnoad manfu/yn cnawd mein-fcrch, 

Cnewyllyn o Awgr-win ferch. 

Cawn unrhodd, cu iawnanrheg^ 

Caru obr toEt cToywber teg ; 

Cwmin a fiwgr-wm, 63 iachj 

Cawn flaj anys fclyrach. 

Croyw orau f£dd Creirwy fta, • 

Cyfryiv in nis cai frenin ; 

Clyd ennaim, clau had annerch^ 

Cb cauad fafn, diccied ferch. " . 

Caknnig loyw eurfng loer, 

Carikd, trUgl cur tra*oer j 

Claf flyfiad, cariad cywraint, 

Cael hwrij a weryd cul haiat •* 

Cclfydtlyd rhag clwyfoddcff 

Cariad eimeLoi^^d u oef ! 

Cyfeddach, iiis<:aL fawddjrtti 

Caf oes hir, o cefais hyn, 

Clo min yn clymma einloes, 

CUiiQ ar hwAj cad iir/ a^ rhoes. 

Cyclkwynad t:u wych anmsrchi 

Cyfur clafii^i ocraf waith^ 
C^t\ Aixr dwblf caJrUd {^^kh. 
CywraiLht gvwchrg^^ra caru* 
Cwcirliiu f,n5 £i*r cfii' :i fus 
LfoywJcr aiibcpcor yilot-Jdr 
Cufi^dil^.c;ibd-feL MdJ. 
Ciiii \\\k'^i' 6J cciiTi lo*r ytlDeJ^» 
Cad turcJi rb^il cclu pxvy ocdd^ 






Ffon ^tmy hrt, linen Hihy 
Ddwysy I-u>yi-!im ^rJIiur ir Uatk j 
B'igo^y urii-Ao^, liecb&n vdihf 

Engfyn i ¥i!^i Metyn, 

J^^dyn, Ctmelyn cyniafau^ g-jiiia-kvyhr 

Geiyn //vdd bt^ych '[ninaa ; 
2^id fvni ytv na givynt yn ^^aUf 
2ild y%^f gitynt gyni nagynimi^ 

T Gog Imfig li-^ a/ur — iait/j gynnar 
3Vf ^drycjb iaag adr^ / 

Gorcii yr} y Sir'&cdJ j;;^0U''ir i/zivfi Sfftn^ 
Gi^m^yt Tain gaud gytfcs i^u^yn j^rina^n j 
Cariiid wfw fbn^dJ s<?rai dan w_vArfw, 

E/ig3rdd. Gwen h^rdd^privardd^i pr^j^^ 

Hon d ^aiol hyl^j^ w/ Hekn* 

jim ^yrri^dd m^^n tidi^jd^ 

Tnyrn^ a M£rtlj^d hevyd. 

William Cynwal's prognofticaiion upon tbc 
tolaur of the ntw Moon. ^^ 

Cwsiifd AiJt^j h& ^ujMd y £V/s 

T^I/ijiY Idif y flu'ZLT a 'u^Iyrb / 
Llatc^r ct'r g'u^yfit yzv V Liofr gc^b^ 

Li^r uvfl ydyw 'r/^r^n/yih / 

jfrwyddim I V Tywydd^ & ^u^aiib Dii^ydd Nanmor* 

T ihcf id J Iltfwer d ^/j^A ; 
I^/id agwyftt yw^r Lftaad gocb^ 
Ujt ivf/i/t yjy n anianfych. 

The fcJIowin^ EngfynU faid ta h^ve been an ex, 
tempore compuruidii oi D^ivydd^ Edm^nt^ at an 
£i//fdd%mih}i t^e irliitr : ' 

An^yfhrt NfVt pUfti £va ; " , 

Ow/iit, G-wdr, Uw iffy GwyM, N6i^ a Bydd da / ^ 

Cf^i^d i^rrug ar gnawd B^ru^yn^ 

Ca^I Tiljn wiw ddjf^ cfdd iaeh^ a pheTmiH 

A pf/ennu i:yvn7ia^h ; 
j4 man ^V Bjd miinir bd^b^ 
WJc^ a vjdd a ihyv^ddach^ 

Engfyn^ a Tbe!yn^ a Thdn / a CA&d^ft . 
Ag y chydig Arian ; 

T l^un iwysf dyna vyw ^tt Idn. D^ G- 

Engiyn i JValfi Mercb- 
Etirald/ad iawnbhidj^danbl^h^ mx^cb wn 

C'u^yib Baena ireiddbletb j 
D^iys glirbiaefi s di/gkirbiftb^ 
Cwmtfr ddifwm ynj^am £i pblSth^ D. £. 175!^ 

Td a pack of lloucitls* 
Ciy-^ais vawl argaii vcl organ^'—kiraidd 

T bofcu V eis a/Ian j "< " 

Ilydy Cstsd^ huaida'i can. — , 

Cyd/auy^^r ad/ah eri^d-^n ^weirhj 

CufgI pryv£j ^usin-dr^d ; 
Llaij nm^yn glan-gais m&it^n g!yn-g^y 
tdinc hydd c^'fn^ idn i^yu^ydd r w^* E. JIfwj/, 

Aff/tu/jVj cu adlaii fJt'n,— y ^^r^, 

Sy' b^raidd at 'ivynd'wn j 
ji Cbi:^rn£ dd yn cbwyrnu/dn 

27i ganiizdj — ns^rt i^c un^n / . • , 

Siun TtiduT yn gyrru cmadon at ci Gariad^ 
D^J^^r Clwyd di arfa;yd drdseir/a-cb^^^dy do?;n ; 

Di 'dtva^no/i b^b ilanercb ; 
D"^g arwydd^ d'-^g/adrwydd/^itb 
Dwg x\nn wen dt^ugain annercb^ 

LIzvyn<fg dau eirkg diriaid—iUi ymaith^ 

(Dajl&mmi Vyibfiaid) 
Lhi^ itnu^dd iawn rbwydd mat 'n rb^id^ 
Fni g^'awr Ann^ a^m gzvtr tnaid* 
T U^^nn^f wybrt^I obry^ h^d un%^aitb^ 

Di ^dwaer^i^ Ac?^/ Gymru j 
H^d ai Ana J rhaidit bynny^ 
Maf nytb it ymb^n ^i tby, 
T G'U/yni trows b^iynt troi b^Vydd^-^br^ii 

A bryjdau a geilfydd ; 
^^lenb Ann-wca^Jh-fn/ydd^ 
C^inftf^k^'ftf^n ci Pbrydydd^ 


* . 

£W;b J Tsm, CMiif jL^lwyt Cnjiyn Rhyd-y^httn, 
A i famy^ V Gi6ch dram a J^^ittfi tfrtfo/, '*< ^"^^ 

MiU 'n rhywyr pnaduw ; 
A dt^UQtt u,yr a u dt^Haw, 
Cj/t y tidi jn mnu ndw* ^- F^ni. t^ ^y^- 

% Ati Epitaph 




An Epitaph, on Lord Herbert of C&erbury'-, 

WrEticn Isy himrdT. Ob. 164S. 
The monument which thou beholdeft hew, 

Prefeni EJ'U^rd^ Lord Herbert to thy il^ht ; 
A man who was Jo free from ciihcr hope or fear. 

To have, or lofe thid ordinary light. 
That when to elements his body turneJ were, 

He knew that aa thofe elements would figbr. 
To his immortal foul (hould find above, 
With his Creator, peace, joy, truth, and Ioyc!" 

• He was one of the moft accomp-iftmi NobTemcn of hifl 
time ; both afchoUr, a poet, n nuiiiciani » ftatcTma-ii. and a 
tnic krityht of chivulry : lie a\Co wrote his ovvn life, when 
hr Wits p-Litl Tixtj-; which Wiis afterward* pubJiflici from Jili 
Diannrcrijit, hy eJic l^tc Lord OrfurJ, 




Craig y Derm, near Towyn McirionydJ, 
Iiotie of the moft bciiatifulanJ drili ingfc^itti re ^ nf the rock f 
moimTwmt of Wales 1 and iiCiiHcd CrtAg j Drrjti . orihe 
ftoel: of UirJ?* on nccounL of the hntiiLulc uuml>«;r of cor- 
mor^iFits, ruclt'pf£«aHS. crows, hawtn. and other fm^llcr 
birJsj **h<di tnhibii and hrecJ in that rock. The \mv Rev* 
E*<iJi ET^in^ hitii defcribcd it very elcEfiintlyr i^ well as the 
niclntJ}' of lis LirJj, hi Uic ii>LlDwlng En^l^niaai ubuut A. D. 

j^ Brpm yr Adsryn ar dboeddj uchd 
Lichdv Plan dan 'Ntvoi^ddi 
Cacr * gynt yn y creigiau ocdd^ 
J •vihvyr mcwn rhyvehcdJ. » 

ft. Masn' wi'Uhiart yma 'n rtythUf matt Adar 
Mwyn ydynt yn canu ; 
Clywir fais y claiar /w, 
3^ff diddan gyhydeddii ■ 

3. Mae V Vrdn^ a*r Ar^n^ sr Orori y ^raig 

T/i gf^yiif y» eu iymm^r ; 
' Ufinn' yn y gdn in* gor, 
Fcratdd yjf ihh p6b punr. 

4, Hedyddicn miiynion u-wch my/iydd,/t:iniiint 

Til gy£hfiawl beunydd \ ' * • 

Wi! o*rfaingaehaingehyddf «. - ■ . - Va 
Mwyfiyw y din ym min dydd, *' 

5* Cly^ch ddttbdjirwl vcfurau^ mwynydynt 
Mdn j^idar y Crdgiau ; 
Eu hacan vry n^u fsn vraUf 
Pencfrdd nii gufyr cu pyndttu, 

6. Miwjt^fydd ddiddig i ddyn, naturk! 
. T'^v CantQrion Tciyn ; , - . 

Me!jfii£kt rf/wyddach er byn^ 
Twd^aratth Graig AderynH 

A defcTiption of a cetebratcd Oik-Tree, igof 
lengih. which grew at GMii^yd, atar Doleelu ^ 
Mcinonethmire. ^ 


Deneen vtien-iikn^ijenwych^ Giffrnjn^c^ 

GaJtipufai i'w bedrych ; 
Coedsn rwyddwen iraddwyeht 
Voter t^ywiog-widdr vrigsg-wycb, 
Brenhmhren brith-Un y berib-Iwyd^ Mijhrea 

Dewhd?rq^ t'th roddwyd i 
Union tw' ^y^h pren tig wyd^ 
Trigain Hath, tiir y Ganllwyd, 
Pennillon the fame, 
Brenhinbren y Oanllwydj 
Qt'dd ditfon a d&r%vydy 
Mewn butiifetb ir 'i bturi-wyd, 
Q*r aehoyd Ue V oeddj 
Ve dfvodd yn gddpfn 
(M vijiodd un vefcn) 
Ar goedydd Glyn Eden, 
Gl&n ydoedd. 


Specimens of Englynicn in Latm* 

Englinici, feu Rythmi, Brittanico more concatecaii. 
Vellem a came vUi, qua premor 

Cum prim is difToJvi^ 
Cupio a te eapi 
Salvator amator mi. FJm, Ard,:^, Mtirn^ 

Pallium non dedl puellac (ut dkis,) 

Senex ego ftim fane. 
Tardus et rarusin re. 

Curdd lUt gardd dduiast gwyrdd ddeilhg ; Gia/^t 

Eglwyjyron dra 'wreiddiog ; 
Gwyrd^^sd enw^. g^rdd gadwynog^ 
Ghyw h y gfyf^ri; gUi d ^%, Difgy n w, Pmi^. 

Englyn i/aitb weithred Trugaredd* 
DcdViiyd, a Dkd par Dj—a DiUad^ 

Di-walia V Canhatdy ; 
Gwdia V CU'u yrtygteeiyt ' 

/ V Marwpar gaei daear dy, 

Tn Ffraincj^ ma? gwtft yn p^actb s yn Lluadain, 

Mae Hawnder cynnaiiaetb ; . 

Tn Holand 'menynhdaetb ; 

T* Nghymru, Llymnt a Llasth f. Hug^ft Unrjd Cjgytii. 

* Um^n Bn^tf Pmmflw, elof*:hy Lknvlh^tn^ti y T^r^fli. in ilic hundred of r^ir«^«r, fyrmcrl^ ftood Ci^tii TrivStri^ 
t The origin of th^ Isuglyn h too CLirkms tu p^is i]vcr. AT^jA Lk,,ydCyt>vad^y^l^ ^n cKcellGmiwer.iiiiLi lived ut CrW. m 
trJuii-Mj, M-Hmiethfliire, .thoui rhe year i6to. When ayunn- nian, he made a ftoflc bench 10 put at his door j b.s h.i^rj 
lau, Mr wife'. iUitr] ^vaslhe firft that fat on it. Jiy.ii>/faid be. yoU bivchad themmdcnhciid ofthts bench, in.fpu m^W 
pay rn4:ihrtcklfl-dsfof it. Tlie demand w:i5 n^iEified. Wc tlnie ^ftcr, hi* wife died, wherct^n he went to Loud^io i (tf.iv|ue 
tlsTifti:rin-inw, nci^r rtiNrricJ^ imJ iicr, [,i pofi-^ffion .f ihe b^iif.-. He cnit^^d into the^rmy ot OWCn«^ 
»heicin he b;iJ a cortiitiiff.™ ^ and was iji the Avmy^[ Gf^Hrot Af^l, at the reftoration of AT, Ch^rl^II. Aticr havrp|tieM 
Irtrni home a rrc:it mnay ye.irs, find grown "oltJ; he returned to his n-itive country 1 and^ going in hii own hQu^e, ""J* ^ 
Ji.mmtr'tev.ninff, he fiw hi. filler in-liw, her hiifband. .md rhlldrcii ^1" gruwu up,) fiLtii]>; on ihe llortt^b«nLJi, tjtmj 
ihuumcryand Milt, f Wiillicc, iJymraaiUih) ; he alkcd thm in Lnelilh if they wnuld bdff c him tbiini£ht( hut ncne oi tae^ 
Jijjew a iwoFdol tni-limi they, however, c.Hijc^tifJnf whut he wanted, Ihewcd Iiimn bed,tliebffll in the hoiii*,ind i<(***™^_ 




J. Lec 0& now prsiifc fatnoiu men, and our fjiiheri that l>cf!;«t u£« 

9. The LnrJ hath ^lTOU|^I;li^ great glory by them, through hi? great pover from thclxginniQ^. 

J. Surh ufc d;4 bi^ar rule in their ]^in£d<>m»j men rtno^tnbd far [Jieir powerpfriTing counfeL bythcirunJerllandiAgj anddcclir^ 

ing prop!bc£ii<Mr 

4. IrfToJ^rtol the ptople by their ecunfi^hr ad^J ^T ^1^='^ knowledge of l^ariiipgp m«i for the pcopltp wife and eloquent In 

thetr tnftmflinns* 

5- Such -Li luund out mLinciltiinenf and recited rerfei iil vriting- 

7« All theie wcr« honoured in their ^cncfnitoEis^ and were the glory of their timt^'—Efatifii2^Uui^ Chap. XLIV. 

'* For thee iny Eaneful accents will I raiit^ 

'' And treat of Rrts diftloa'd in ani^Lcnt days ; 

" Ocicc mnrc unlock for thee the fj*:rieJ fprlng-*' 

I HAVE here fclcfted fomc documents which t^nd fariJ^r to elucidate the occupation of the tarda, 
and muficiaJis, ihcir privilegesj maxims^ and adages j which are extracted fr©m the old Welfli laws *i from 
the Ancknt Brhifli Triads ofihc iilsind of Britain, and from other manufcript Triads. 

* The Dr^itds an t B:irdfi ^trc fuppofed to b* the firft fratncrs cf Laws En Britain- Tiiu firtk wrUtcn Uws ^re faid t& 
be thnft of iJrtwiv^j/ Af^muM fcing oJ Britauit iabnuL 440 ye^irs bctcirc ChriLh [called the Mo«lmutl^n kws-) After th:it» 
the lavvi oi A!iifiiii^ qutcn iisE liritiiin, [or the Mercian law), whith were iifterwards iranfl.iced imo S^ton by king Alfred* 
Then the Liws nf kinji Uo^eff iibouE A. L5. g^o* vhich concalm moft of the fn^rmer laws of Britain^ and arc trjnQ^ted by Dr^ 
WHt^nii, aud Mofe* Will] Jims, iind called C^r'r^iji^ No^w^I DJufac Emi/l; ih^ laws of Icinp: H-^^vtl the ei^odj nndoth^r^s ar, 
Lfg^i ti^nf/ii-nf And from ihofe ]aw& m^iny of ihefc Triads are cxLr.idtcd. Sec itlfo Ori^mi yuriJitiattf^ &j £}itgJait^ p, 5^- 
And Siias T^j^a^ft ^w (fra^^f-hnd^ 

Ttianbejy^^r Brerihm yrif : * The three mdifpenfibles of a King : 

Ei Ofciria^ '^rt/j vemlig^ ei iJwyd d c/janu ^crcn : His Chaplain lofaygraceat meat, and to chant prayers; 
J'i Ing^adl/yi 'izrth dd.^/f^ari/; fctLii^ pi:drus : The Judge of the court to intcftigaic dubious things : 

J'i Diuluw^tb d angb^nnu. Zy" iV^iiUar.p, 310. And his family ready to attend his neceOicies-' — - 

The three things indifpenfible for a Gentleman]^ 

Tri^/^gor Gwr^fa^ (aliai) Breyr ,- or a Baron ; . . i 

Ei Df/yn^ ^ J lyjifati^A'i Dau^IhzvrM L tv^ififi^io^ - His Harp, his Cloak, and hh chefs^board. 

Man who became freeman from Havesj when they 

Tri mei6 rhydd g^i^tb : * ^^^^ nf the three following profefSons : 

lyi^lhaig^ B^rdd, J Gov* L. fi^Jficat.p 364. ^ learned Scholar in languages^ a Bard, and a 

Smith* C^hyddjd ..i JJ)!y mb T^to^^ d dyf^u h,b Ihe three Arts which the fon of a Tenaiit ought 

, . A f jj not 10 follow, without the confent of hU Lord- 

7r£cIhcUM, ^ Burdd^niaab, a Q.vamacth i Cany, Literature,, aod a Scu.tb * frade: for if a 

, S^d^^^r Jrghvydd h dpun rodd.r i'r Tj^d- Urd fiiffered k until the fchobr w.s pnll.d, or ^itl ' 

5^i>, «^ vn .dy Cu.yn ei ^>ml. n.u Vunid wrih H t'*^ ^^^^ ^^^^V^^^^ - Song, or unt.l the f.r up a 

P,rdd.r/dHr.u.acthiw.^^^^dyh„.L.lV^.p^.,. Smithy, th.y could not be deprived of ihc.r fr«dotn .- 


Tri uiV lidd^ Lkdrilh r«p Pryd^in : The .hr« men who were Magkijns, and Enchan- 

ters of ihc lUe of Briiam : 
M w™ mab Tdrgwasdd, EiddiHg Cdr, a MM viab Menyw, the fon of TeirgwaedtJ, Eiddilig the dwarfr 
Mathm^y. Trl^Jd Uy, i'rj.kU 31. ant! Maih, the fon of M.ihonwy.— 

J The three chief Magicians of the Ific of Britain - 

Tn /r.v //.i ?.;j; i'r */^.« . ^^^ ^^^.^.^^ ^^ ^^^.^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ Mathonwy, *ho 

md MM imb MalUnwy, a ddyfpdd i 'Wydkn mab ^^^^^^ c wydion» the fon of Don ■ the Magician of 

mn; a Hud Utbur Pendm^^ft, 9 ddy/godd i y^^^^ ^cndragon f, who taught Mcnyw, the fon of 

VtnywMbTcir^aiddiu'rirydyddJIiidRhitddlum ^^^i^^^.^^^^ . atid the third was the Magiciiti of 

Qawrtaddyjl9ddiCitlim*bC9Uvrt.*ML TtmdJ^^. Rhbddlwtn Gawr |, s^ho taught Col^ the fon of 

.j; . Collvrcwi^, —* 

i Thi« Will mypJ*3'ri Ejoiti- J Cw^tlidin Cur^ A. D. ^fij. 

fki.i. , m i"n.c»i«* h- ■« c-IieJ MJJr^ ' h, bailt Xr ^J^T c,r l^^th. .nd i. tote tJ,. NimJ.r .4 the lu«. 



TriPriv L^dnthia-ui^ Tnys Prjdnin : 

a Dry ct, ^il Cibddar. Tri^Jd 3 j. 
T Tr'i Sijn^aidd tbtys Tttjfi Brydaiit : 

A Lhnjs CuTudda Wisdig ; 

A Llinys Bfichan BrycheinimL^^^ Tritzdd ^%t 

J)r-arj Loegr ha ilisr ^'tfy<jrtid, 
O Sjini Cjjwh 'n tuMfti V ^<?rdd, 
yfe ym Moa ac wtUck • MtlfJ^t 
rjis? J tiiir t raid d^j. L. G- 

Tn Tbizej Censdl^ ni ddylir tu rhannu eithr htr- 
wyM citffmjyihau : Metln^ Cored^ a PberUsn ^ - 
{A'r rhai kymiy m ddylir eu rbannu na* i cychwynnu 
nampi rhmnu cuffrwythaa. Pr nib a't dyiys ;) Sfv 
ficbos J gcitvir yn dri Tbhrn Csnedl-t 'n/rih sUci 
bswh a'r genedl v6d ytighyd am daayui^ 

•• , 

Legtt fViilitag, p. 416, 

The three chief EochantCTS oF ihc Ifie of Brit^a, 
Coll, the Ibn of CollvTewi 1 Meny w, fon of Trir 
gwacdd ; and Drych, the fucceffor of Cibddir \. 

The three Holy Lbcagei of the Ille of Brinln ; 
The Lineage of Jofeph of Arimaihea • j 
Tbc Lineage of Cunedda Wlejig f ; 
And the Lineage of Brychan Brychdniawg t, — ^ 

• Arrived in BriEiin, A. D. (5j> 
f Rel^ncd fibotjt A- D. ^%^ 
} RcigiiciJ aboaE A D. 440* 

The three Family Beauties : 
A Mill^ a Wearj and an Orchard ||, 
(Thefe things ought not to be fepataied, not i^, 
moTcd, becaufe their produce 13 to be divided 
aiT]ongft tho*e who hare ^n Intereil: in them) 1^ 
reafon they are called the three Family Beautiej i( 
becaufe all of the tribe can participate in them,-- 

Q Tlicre ia 2 lawful p net tin CTCrj appie-tree in an oreliaTd. 

r - 

Trs Anivail yfy^d cymniaint guertb £u Troed a*i 
henasd : 
March t Hfbog, a Mdgi* L, WairKat.p. 302, 

TV/ Arv /ryvreifhiol ' 
• CkddfJ^ a G^snyw^ a 3^ a d deuddigfaeth^ L. WaH^ 

Tair G<iilidd anrbydeddtn Tnys Frydain : ■ 
GtttlfddCefwai/onyn Sigjtru Iwkajfar o'r Tnys ht^ni 
Giolidd Emryt Wledig, ar ol Conh'ijygJi y Sa^/on ; 
'A Gu^'iedd Arthur Vreniny Tfighaer-Lkon ar W^^* 


There are three Animals whofe foot Is as valuaU^ 
as their whole body : 
A Horfc, a Hawk, and a Greyhound. 

The ihree lawful Weapons ; 
A Sword, a Spear, and a Bow with twelve arrows* 

The three honourable Feafta of the Ifle of Britain; 
The Banquet given by King Cafwallon, after repd^ 
ling Julius Ciefar from Britain ^j 
The Feall of Aureliui Ambroliusj after he had con- 
quered the Saxons *• ,- ' * 
And the Feall of King Arthur, after his conquers ff* 

fr Ca/miffaa. or CaflibsTan, m a pltch-dhrittU fItc Ck^xt n camptece overthrow, in which Cifar yuiile afpcedy recre^r,inil 

emLr4rkc4J i]i his (hListeretl fleet about miJnight for the ConEincntjlcivicifi all iiis ba^gagfl behind him. Lofon fayi, " TrtrLra 

obM^ib o^tnlit ter^a Brititmit }" i- <?* Hs faujjht chc Britons oui:, and thttt he fied^ And Prttpertkt fays, *' TV Tuami 'tnvl3iii 

JiariaiK nt^ris SriiartrtM i" i e. By Roman firce uncoTiquered yet. Sec .m^fconnc of the Binquet in paa:c 1^, note 5. fi\irlaat 

Ulrar^ Nu. 6zb'j., pp. "J-, ^lud 12. Dry eh ^ f'rn Oefiidii. Dia C^m,£it a C p. xSlit., Afid Sammri Briiamua, p 153, 

Juri.i]»4.'2fkr WAS very fead of jewels, and uli forL& of furionsE loyi} ivb[ch he frequently ^:iTe ca his faTDorite la,d[cs< Pevli 
were chcnthc qtcm tiH^ict ^nd there wis a tilliery uf them iej Briiain } partlj^on which account he is Tnid cd have vlHted tliit 
[Hand. He made a preicnt of one of tJtem to hi* bcli:iircd StrviS^t ViUued at no lefs thajij^, 5o>occ. Biaekv^tt J^nairt tftl^ 
Cmrt ofjfugufiat , V nl 1 1 1 . p« 3 7a. 

•■ £mryj WLtTs^. or Aurcliu& AmHrofiiiK, a warlike ifionarch oTer all Britain, about A. D. 487. After hii conqutftd^ 
Hcngiftjiindotlicr Suson chiefs, he funimoned nil the nohillty and clergy of Britain i;oM[)iint''Arnbri, in Wiltfhirc, to c;^fc<i]^it 
» {inind tcA^ cA Pcnteconj the friTcmniey wherfot' he continued che rhreetol lowing d'Jtfi- GUdat C^ 26, Tj^io^i fft^gryif 
£ri/t/l Ki/tti» B. a. C. 1 3. Btdit L- I.e. i6> And Lfoiii'i Hljl o/Bnt. p. 169. 

If Anhutt fbn of Uchyr Pendragon, after he ovcrcaine the Saxoasin 11 birttfea, wis made chief ToTereign over all BritaiOi 
and ircNmd. He took Nof*-ay, and pUced Ltsh or iMhus, on the throne j he then fct fail far Giuh toaOifthis n^phEw 
//fiiar^^agiiiift Froffo, whonn he flew m finale combiiE» after that took die city of Piris* Whea Arthur returned to Britain, be 
inEHtuted 7'iv Ord^ ^^ru^^'f^'j^ JSdtwJjaijIr f and ftirtlier^to celebrate his vL^arles> he gavf amagnlEceut Pcntecoft feaJito 
?n the noblei of Brtlatn, and diofe of other eoLiiitries where he had conqueredf which was heldac Catr X^*>oa the rinr 
Uilc» in Ml mm out h (hi re, about the year 530. See ntorc in p^ige n i and ia the 3nd VolLime nf this Work, page 3o, to if' 
Mrtay BrmlittadJ, Emlrrli^j Hyi. of Wskup- i^i- -Leiuit'^ Hjjt. o/Brtiamjp' iti6. Ajid ASw^'t Chi-cnUle. 

Tairpriv Lys Arthur : 
Ca^r-!kon ar Wyjg, y Nghymru * 
CfUi'wig, yn NyVfUJi'jttt n£u y Nghcrn/w \ 
'A Pbearbyn R/jtsnedJ, yn y CngUdJ. Truu 

Tti Djn a gyvannedda Uyi t 
Sardd Cjitf, BurddTant. a Bardd CrdtL 

TTie three chief paUces of King Arthur: 

Caerlleon, ofl the river Uflt, in South Walei j 

Celliwig, in Devonftiire, (or Corawal) i 

dlf 57 , * And Penrhy n Rhionedd, in i he Noi i h. 

There are three privileged perfons who f/equeat 

palaces ; 

The genealogical Bard ; the Bard of the Harp * 

and Lhe Bard of the Crwth, ^--- 



Tair drdJ raJdit/y/yi^J: 
Prydydd^ Tf/frnvr,ff Chryihar^ 

Tiiir ui^fti ggrdd yfydd .- 
J^duf Cariti Telyit, 9 dywcdyd Cfuarwyddyd* 

Tri cb)[fredhi hyd: 
Gteraigt a C^/a-utr'tawihufrdd, a Tbtiym 

Tri Chcv Bikdd Trtys Prydum ; 
Cdtj Oywt c6v Cdfty a cbSv Cuelbren* 

V/^ tri jfrifcnnig .* 
Digprenati Paradwyt ; 
Deg mnt Tefyn Da-uydd Bropbwyd ; 
A Deg gsir Deddv. 

'Tri phetb gwedJm inr eu Md yn ei Dy ; 
£i Wrai^ yn ddiwair ; 
jE/ Giujlog yn fi gadair ; 
i4i Ddyn yn ^ywiiir, 

Tri pheih yfydd ddavmtu i Ddjn : 
M^d-ivi yn dda^ a dyuedyd yn ddd, a g^utnfutbur 
yn ddd, 

Tri ph fib a ddylai dyn ypyrisd: 
bd liy dactb j yn mhd k y nu^ ; as i kd h yr a. 

There are three Graduated Son^fters,orMuQdaMt 

A Poctj a Harpiftj and a Crwthift* — 

There are three Prknaties of Soag : 
To compofe VerfeS} to petfok-oi on ibt Harp, and 
to recite Hidory. —— * 

The Ehree univetl^lktes of the world : 
A Wife, Chefs-board, and a Hafp, -^- — ■■ 

The theee Memorials of the Bar ds of the lUaiid of 
Britain ; McmariaU of Tradition, memoriils of 
Songi and memoriais of Letters, 

The three primary Triads of Teni : 
The Ten Trees of Paradife, (ot Edea) j 
The Ten Strings of David's Harp; 

And the Ten Commandments i 

Three things properfor a man to have ill hishoufe * 
A virtuous Wife; 
His cufhlon in hi^ Chair| 
And his Harp in Tune* — ^^ 

ITitee things commendable in a man: 
To think well, lo fpcak well, ami to a£l well. ^ 

Three things a man ought to confidar ; 
Whence he came i where he it ; and where he is 


5air hcndith ns addnt ddjn mewit newyn a noithni i 
Bendiih ei Berighr ; Bmditb Cerddor o !m Cerddj 
a Bsnditb d Jfghvydd priadawr, 

Trlphetby ddyki pawh ddiokh am dam ; 
Cwahodd^ Rbybydd^ ac AnnercL 
Tri ihds heth Doetlmn Rbavain : 

Three tilings that will fecure a man firom hunger 
and mkedncfs : The bleffing of his Paflor \ tKebiefs. 
ing of n Bard lineally dcfcended of Songfters ; and 
the bleilmg of his Lord proprietor. — — 

Three thingi for which every one ought to be 
thankful : Invitation j Warnings and Compliment* 

T he three hateful things of the wife men of Rome j 

Mil.ib.^n^'B^^daimiSriv; aCv^ratghagr A Dow Greyhound ; a Bard without pleafantry : 
^^ and an ugly wifiked Wife,— . . 

^ fL J „ n ^, The three Mighties of the world : 

^ , J J ry-^j n-^J-^ ALord,avaianE Hero, and Nonentity, (or Vacuum}. 

Arslwydd^ a BrUd.a Diddym. xx^^y^, > 

%- ■ ^ t n *f.\..t. The three Foundations of Wifdom: 

Tmr Sail Dostmneb : ^, - ■ n. n- j 

.,, ^-. it ji r ft- Youth to learn ; Memory to retain initruaion ; and ^ 

]cuer^aididdfgu;Ci^^iiadw*raddyfgiaSynhwy^ ^"^^ / ![ A , ., ^ 

Abilities to jlluftratc it. -™ 

The three primary requifites of Gcmtis : 
An Eye that can fee Nature ; a Heart that can feel 
Nature; and boldnefs that dares follow it *.*— 

The three duties of a Bard ; 
juft compofition, juft knowledge, and juft ctkicifni- 

The three hotlolira of a Mufician : 
Str^gth of imagination ; ptrofiindlty of learnbg % 
tind i]urity of morals, ■ ■ 

The ttirec excellencies of n Minftrel ; 
Profound drfcriminatlon of all things i complete il- 
lutlrationj and lutninoua compofition* - ^^ 

ntdd J ddalgan y dyfg 

Tripbrtv aahepgcr Awen i 
Llygad yn guffed aman ; Calon yn tesmiaw anidn ; 
aglewder d vaidd gyd'uyned ag anian, 

Tair dykdfioydd Bardd : .. _ ^j , .. 

lawn ganUi ia^n ddyfgu^ ac iawn varnUw 

Tair rhagargamp ar Gerddawr : . . 

Cpflawn ddynodiaat ar hob peth j cyvlwjir vanegiarti / 
a chyvhttyt ganiadueib. 

Tri dyUdcgrvfydd Csrddaitir : 
Crymufder atbrylttb i cyvtawnder dyfg\ a gkndid 

€t .gaj/ipaU' 
• P«Oc Tri^., b . Diff.rt.ti<in on DardifBi.p. Ut. «f the Pr.fa«i lo ^^ Uirm Ul^^ -/^Ji^hitJ Hi., by Mr. W. Ow,., 





Tfi dibtn Cffiid ^ 

a diddani^r medduL 

Triphi^i^ a buir rafdu Cerddawr x 
Cybydds^^th^ DjvH!ydrwyd(i,ap>X^nai^»HhndJ, 

Tpftfj^ hyn a ddyfy Cfrddor eitgxbsi: 
l^fynnut Patfeinia, a CMfrwria^tb, 

Tri artbep^er gtcr-^Jirth gtrddi 
Lidvf, a Tbrbed^ a Chlu^. 

Tair dXyfs^fftth Serch&g : 

Tair ymlidiad Serch : 
Cffwydd, Engtyn, a Lhtah 
Tri Ua^srwcb S^rcbo^ ; 
Jidvddydd ; Cej j o L/afai, 

Tri e^by^odiad/crth : •» ;• • 

jSrtttcrthi Cartt, a Chufsn* 

Tri wjr y cyn^anfircb tirnrni : 
G'd'r digriv dkifiadaiddf G^wr baeldfwri 
« Cwr bsnbiddig tig. 


The thi-ee intetHiona oF Song: 
To improve the Underftanding ; to con-c^ ^ 
tican i and to fooihe the Mind. ■ ' 

Three things that wlUcaHfeiMuliciantobehat^. 
CovctoUfnefs, SotiiRinefa* and to Slander good laeiL 

Thcfc thingi a MuficJaji ought to refraJn from: 
Drinking, Fornication, and Strolling, -■ — 

The three indifpcnfiblrt for an in ftru mental Mn- 
iiclan : —A Hand, a Fool^ and an Ear, - 

The three conductors to Love: 
Mirth, Liberality, and Elegance* — — 

The three procurers of I*ove^ 
A Poem, a &oug, and a Confidant, — ^ 

The Lover's three incitements to Eloquenoe : 
A Summer *a day ; the Cuctoo*£ tiote ; and a Met 
fcnger with Love-gifts., — ^- - 

The three exciters to Love* 
A Prefent^ a CourtOiip, and a Kits, ■ 

The three perfoas who fhall profper in Lore : 
A merry nun, void of ill manners ; a Oallaitt 
tiberal man i and a Handfome man cf noble btrth^ 

There were three cnHgn Bards, or Bards of th^ 
bandage t — The primitive, or chief Bard ; the lytici 
or modern Bard ; and the heraldic Ba.rd ** ' 

Tri Bardd Cj-jj y/ydd : 
Priv.varddi I'of-varddi <jc Arutydd-t^dd. 

♦ The fliprcme Bartljsnd herald Bard art trtba i tlie harp Bardj and Poetic Bjrdarc t^oft thiE remain- Seep. ^3, jj^ 

Tri rhptf gerddor yfydd s 
CUnvr ; Truluzt/r j a Fbrj^ydd, 


Trt phttb a krihyn ar Ckr^i^ : 
Csganu \ C'-j^nrtbruddio \ gc TmbiL 

Tripbctb a h^rthyn ar Dculitmr r 
naclmif Di^nvtvcbi a Dcrbyn M bcb yjf^iL 

Tair prJv i^r prydyddiaeib : _/fUj 
Ettglyn; C^wyddi ac j^wdyL 

«« *« I « *4--'r 

■^/r Enaid Cirdd DavawdJyJd *■ 
Synwyr ; M^ur ^ ^ C/yyn^bdneddm . 

TW pbfftb d bcrt/^yn ar vefuro : 
jTWd^Hjjx yn e^lur ; Cad^^ rljeoi At/jra^aan ; 
a it^d yn "uiarrant tr Di/^blKfU 

Tri hraint yfydd i benmll G^rj^dd: 
P^ncetrddjaidd I Ddji/gyblaJdd} acifilrdddj ntn 

Tri pbctb/ydd gyin/:noys 1 gyngh&r*wr : 
Celvyddyd', Dw^n twjUyi da i aRifjddidputdrodit 

There arc three forts of Songfters r 
The provincial drcuiier, or itinerant Songflerj the 
family Songder; and the hlfloric Poet* — - 

Three ihhigs belong to the circuit Songder; 
To lampoon ; to put one to thebluni jand tointr^t. 

Three things appertaining to a family Songfter; 
To promote Liberality; Pleafantry and Wk; and 
to receive Gifts becomingly- 

Three things requifite for a Poet : 
To celebrate J to deiight, and to overcome the fktir« 
of the itinerant rhapfodifts. ^ ■ ■■ 

The three principal kinds of Welfh Metrs : 
Uniryihm, or clofe Metre ; Parallel Metre j and the 
Ode, or Lytic-*— —Jw^j; 30, 53 : W^ 8, t/t^ =^ f^t 
* ITie three Efienccs of vocal Song : 
Senfe ; Metre ; Alliteration and confonancy. ^"- 

Three things belonging 10 Compolition : 
Cleamefs offtylci adherence to the rules of the 
Doaors of the Art) and to be a true ftandard for the 

Difciples* — ^ 

There areth ree gradations in poe tical Compofitions : 
That of the head Bard, or Matter ; that of the 
Difciple J and that of the loweft order, or Poetaller, 

Three things proper for a Co up let lor : 
Uainingi bearing good willj and fluency of fpeech. 


T^mmiT dJewtt heth^u Givr : nid amg£jtf 
jS'ai Vraiin yn ^yvimen, aijfrgiwyddyn hdefi 
A*i Varchyn imj/r^ a'i Viigi yn vuaH, 
jfi Hfbtfg yn chwattmg ; a'i Dfr yn diriottt 
A'i l^cbuin yn gryvian, tfi ddc^aid yn rby^iogf 
A'i VCchyTJ hirion : a'i V-wyd yn iachus^ 
Ai Ddiodyn 'usin, a'i Ddnyn &ieu, 
A'i.Ddiiiad yn gijdhn, a'i Dyyn ddiddoj, 
A'i Welyyn efrnwyih^ dV Wrai^yn ddtwair ; 
A'i Verwyn yn tanwaithj a'i Wds yn ddhvyd^ 
A*t Vdhyn ^yivir j a'i Gdr yn garsdig^ 
A*i Gymmydog yn ddidwyil ', d^i Vdin yn agsj^ 
A'i Eglixys ymhdl ; di Dad yfpryd&'wi yn gaily 
A*i Dd u w yn Drugarog, 

Saith Gi?!np a ddyiai 'vod Jr ttr - 
Bed yn Aihrarjj yn d Dy ; 
BSdyn Qai jw ci T/Li-vdl ; 
BSd yn Vardd ar et Vtorddi 
E6d yn Ddd yn ei E^huys ; 
B^dyn Ddoctbyn d ddsdi-^ 
BSdyn JJ^w yn y drtn \ 
B^dyn Vanh yn ei ^^dy, 

• Deudd^g Ciilr Gwir .* 

Lhwr y Ddiii^ar,/ydd gakta\ 
J)au cfgui Cu'FuigiJydd haredtn*. 
Ifri ch*n Ceiiitig fydd foretiO* '. 
Pedwar cQrmly Byd,fydd bdta\ 
Fupt* gord)eJi Crijifydd ddyfm^, 
C/jw£ Eidioii^du ufi(dd,/ydd u/uddn^- 

Saith $LTenJiriolifyddftri$Ia^w 

Wyth ddocth Tmadraddy hyd fydd ddostha\ 
N^'w Prcfi pirffyddbirdddia'* 
DSg Gordymyjit/ydd einuira\ 
Un Jngd at- dd^^fydd iana\ 
Dcudd€g Ap^Jld.Jydd henna.* 


Thcfe are the choice things of man : 
His Kingjurt, his Lord irbetal j 
His Horfe aftivc, his Greyhound fwifr, 
His Hawk full of defire ; his Land fertile, 
His Oxen ftrong, his Sheep of a good breed. 
His Swine long : his ViSuaU hcahhy, 
His Drink pure, his Fire bright. 
His Clothes comfortable* his Houfe dry. 
His Bed eafy, his Wife chafte ; 
His Maid notable, his Servant Indullrious, 
His Son faithful f his Kinfman afle^jonate^ 
His neighbour ^vithout guile \ his Mill near. 
His CfiEiTch at a diftance \ bis fpirltuai Father wife, 
i^nd his God mercifuL — -^^ 

The Seven E iccllendea which a man ought to poffcft. 
To be an Inflruftor in his Houfe \ 
To be a Lamb In his Chamber \ 
To be a Bard at his Tabic ; 
To be Devout In his Church \ 
To be Wife In Debate i 

To be a Lion in Battle ; ' , ' 

And Manly In his Bed. 

Twelve true Words s 


The terreflriai Earth, is the hardcft. ., . .< 

The two Escufes of a Woman, are the readJeft. 
The three Growings of the Cock, are the eatheft 
The four Corners of the World i are the fartheft. t 
The five Mir^Us of Ch rid, are the moft profound, \ 
Six docile black-Oxen, are the mofl teachable, 
ThefevenchearfulScats,(orPlanets,)arcthebnghteft, ; 
The eight Parts of Speechj or Dialeds of the World j 
are the wifcft t <" 

The nine protifick Trees, are the fwecieft, _ • 

The ten Commandments, are the trueft. 
The eleven Angels, are the moft beautiful. 
The twelve ApoflleSi are the fupretne Miffionarici* 


ACCORDING to the Wdlb. the Metrical Bards ^ere divided into lAr^ Cla^t \ aad the Subjcfla the/ 

- (, ' 

;ated of were a$ follows* , *.* ^ ., ^ \ ' 

" Two CVruyrufuaUy floodbefore 
the company, one to give in rhyme, ar 
'the other's Extempore, toeickemhth 
and Jaughtcr with tKcir wkty quibbles." 

The CUWr, or Circuit Vocal Song- 
ftcT* ; and hie Pofefficn comprehended 
the following ptrtlcuUrs ; 

To Satirize ; ' 

To Ridicule, or Taunt; 

To M i mickjOT Take ofFj 

ToSuefor, orlntreatf 

To Lampoon; 

[To Reproach* 

The Se^eB Libffral Sdencei. 
CratnmiP . Rhrtoric . Logk i Mullc : Arithmetic t GtomtEcy i 

• I U» l*irri.:*i Y^^rA jicn.r.h? u..iclicd upt-fl, and '='^^'^' '''3^4;^^?.;,'',^ U !> f^rt wily wciucn, but 1. ct.,i.p«fti "- 


The T^ufthtrff Family Songflcr, or Bard f" To dwell with, and to fglace his jJatrtsn j that is, la divert mj 
of DonjcHic Eloquence * ; whofc pro- J enliven the time by mirth and pleafaniry. To infufe liberalit 
union requir*rd the following btaDches : (_(o reed vc g^iellsj and to fohch, in a polite and becoming niannJ' 
* Tiie profincc nf the DomclUc Bard Is wit i he Mprcifcs, in tnoCl f.iciticsus «rfr> thofe ithU^t la panicular which sk*.' 
r^u^hLcr irtJ Jcli^^t bcyoiiJ eipd^latioa, by fnmc hu.ppy doul>lc eairndn. It is connnnqrilf calk-J Cmu Di^riv-nrdd a TV** 
wubTiLr /rt?j f?>ii"fli onrrtri^jf, ae ymJ-ijvsta ja dJi^rii g-^sMrj tra ^tv^rj ^ ihar ifp to comiKin; A.i[igioF mirth, to puR wi^ "JULTftTt 
^ir^rd^r and roclur*nacriM in diilcrgiwi. The poets of Cfa>$ cIaIs. cunipofetl aa well eitcmpoi^ei <u in writing. They illbf 
\ovc touf^itor Alfiiiary vcrfts. In circry kind of metre, with d=Li^c)r and clcK5incr, withi^ijt giving offence- fudi ai JijJfl 
urgumfntf. uE" oflovcn, ani m^irjcd fbilt*i and^irc tiUed Ccwi* Ca-JJ a lariadf at^Garddeezh lerJd j tha It, to TmK do^ 
tewUji to Gng of Jove, or to wooc^ * ^* 

*To Teach atjght t 

To Sing aright ; 

And to Judge property of thlngSi 

Hit three pfo Satirize without ribaldry "; 
Eacciiencss l To Commend a married woman \^'ithout obfcenity ; 
trjJjfdiiy a Bar^d', or a l^oet, -^f,^ ; (, And to Addrcfs a Clergyman fuitable to his calling, 

anJ Bard t \ whofe occupation ( ij^ was to commend a pleafant difpofiiion of mind j to praife tibcralitt* 

wai verfifying, &c- to which 
appertained the following bran- 
ches > viz. 


and to celebrate ihe Science of Mufic^^ and the Art of Poetry. 
To delight h] shearers ; to oppofe the bitter Inveftive of the Clerwjr^ 
and to avoid fi;Lciri2;mg any other perfon* To be obedient, liberal, chaAe^ 
and to make himfelf perfeflly beloved. 

He was to avoid (leadily the kvtn dendly firts ; ^hich arc, tjctortioiij 
Theft, Pride, Fornication, Gluttony, Indolence, and F-nvy; becaufe theft 
things deflroy the Genius, Memory, Imagination, atid fame of the BartJ. 

• ^rs/i^fJCjConfiftinjof vcrfcs thit forctct events, or fooihlUyin^; ;ind Jiif thoff whn. Conceiving itt thiit 
mindf divine impulfcs, ihlnlc tiitf forcfcc tJiinxi ihat will hippc^* called Pra^h-aijd-j/itiflitnr ^.ii^jdflH Sye| 

nrc the compofitlonsof thofe whom vie till MjrJi&a HyH't Mjrddis Emryt, Tufie/i/t, chief of the Burdt t , 

andthati ntncr T^ij^,'^^,, w:ii ilfo recited in every kind of Tcrfe, whitcTtr rcktes to God, and the knowledge of thing* 

divine This li termc^.^*""' ' Dduw d'i S^int, ai o OdMtiv,if as yn tr^t pnha-wd \ to Jing of Cifnl ;i[jd hi| 

1 Ciintst in pnifc of gtiod, and detellatiun of evil; ai are the Poenif of jaU Ctntt Cyaddtitv, Teikj Tttifffm, iic 

{ HyJory vfAi rechcd in all kinds of verfe; 3nd comprifid the iftions, togellnr with ihfi praife^ or tenfure of hsblc perfcni. 

Thelc poets are vufEndy calkd Pet-vtirtU^ i ^ g ., ji .1.1.L , l ^ 

/^fj-LiMc, whicUdefcnbes tlie pedi^^rees and genealogies ot aoblemcn and geatJemen, togctheri^ith cht arms and beanugi 
Uponiheirdrcirti andJljnJardsj vth^i different jilions thty h^Te thcmfelTct performid, andthequanerifigi. rtcclvcdtrotg 
nthcrs - that the rcwirdfi of their Tnerit», after the cuftoni of ihc anctentr, which were heaped npon them »» ornanietit^ of 
praife-indElcrv.t^r on aecount of their awn valour, or that of their anectlurs- ma? be known and ufcribeU to their rcfpeftivB 
owners The poets that record this Mm^t and beftow thei't rewards, arc called Wr^jdd-wirddy ur Hcriddic Bards; who fli&idi 
be well iltiJI.;d in the ecTiirJcgies of kings, and in the Kifiorlei of the three primitive Bards of the iiLind flf Britain. 

EiiiptuE tnournftl, or Songs of LaniertLiiion, or Sorrow.-, in whi:h the Wcllh, :i,t their f-jner.tls, lament the lofs of the di- 
ce^fcd. This is commonly called Ctrdd Marwnad, and Cyv/jdd, «* ^wJi M^rtunady nea Jtar-^trdJ^ Epii<tphk:d, \% ajtb placed 
on the monuments uf the dead, 10 commemorate, or as an encomium on them i and that is called Sedditrdd, or epitaph. 

Ethk, RndGnowohiUt in which not* few moral precepts, of lavs are written hy the iJards, in rhyming verfea. 

AUih^aiicai, in 'Which many things relating to Geometry, Muftc, Anttnietic, AUronomy, and AitroJ^igy, are celebratti 

by the WdLh Potts, andlijrds, . T,f in. . . f r . v l .r. :■ v r 

PMo^cshJ, in which difcourfcs are made of nature, in Welfh poetry: not a few of oyr ccruntrymcn bavt handled theb 
matitrt in tJ]cfr liativt tongEic, which arc commonly callt;d Ctrdd uniaaa-wf. 

GMTsUa!, ill which many nf our poets have treated of filhm^, huiiung* agnculture, Eogether tfitA the times, md fcafjfl* 
oi country piattei's j and of Methanidl cmploytncncs. ' 

Neither have there been wanring among the Welfli, ancient poets ifl the comic, trag1c> buffoon, and medical, line i maay 
ofwhofe works are ftih preferved by our coimtrymen in ancient jnanufcnpia. They have alfb written lanufflierabic worts ef 
Welit poetry not 10 be dcfpifcd, many of which ftlU rcmiiin among ul* 

By thefe thmgs, U appears, cChr-Jirheth, the calling of an Itinerant Mufician* 
that there were three branches J r^if/^i^nje/A, the calling of a Family Mufician, or Bard ofDomcftic tnanncrt* 
of Vodl Song ; which are, tPtydyddiaeth^ the calling of a Foetital Rhapfoditt. 

rPrydyddf a Poet j 
The three Edifying Songftera wcn,iBarddf a Bard j 

. l^Hajie/ydd, an Hiftorkn, 
Three things are the effeas of an ediiying fong ; it chciiDiea the mind j iDcreaJes the memory and afiee* 
tion; and fuppreflics evil thoughts*-— - 

There were three frivolous fCknvr^ the low Itinerant Minfttel : , 
Songfteri, P/eud& Barda, oTil^arddjBiawd^ the Meal MlnArel * 
Minftrels ; {Jludaisly the Juggler, or performer of Legetdeniain. 

And the confequence» of ihefe trifling Songfters, or Minltrels were \ thdr fonga being vulgiu^, and de- 
fc£Uf e of fcnfc, tended to corrupt morals md incrcafc fiiL^Tmnaated frvm i>r. J, D, Rtyi W*!^ ^Um Crtm. 

I . 0( 



( is ) 

There were 
eight orders 
of MuJlci- 
ans: ^iz. 

Of the Various Degrees of Bards, Muficiaiis, &c *- 

Priv'Varddi the PrTmitiTe order, Invennve, or Chief Bard \ 
P$s-vardd\ the Diplomatic, or Modern Bard : 
Arwftfd'vardJ I ihc Enfign, or Heraldic Bard, Whoe\fcr 
would be a herald Bard, fliould be well verfed in the HiC. 
tories and Genealogies of Kings, snd Priacet j and entirely 
acquaJnted with thecucellcncittof onr thre^ f?Hma*y Bards j 
fuch as> Myrddyn Emrp, Myrdd^n ah Morvtyn^vnd. Taiif/lit 
Pin Bftrddt amd m the fcience of Heraldic Bardirm, or per- 
fe& Oklll with refpeft to the enfigns^ armsj i^milies, and 
noble deeds of the princes, and aobilny of Wales. 

The four 
orders of 
fiards: v'tx. 

Prydyddt neu 
Bardd Caw '; a 
h-wtjvf 9 dri 
rbyw*j /ev 
Ttiynawr % 
CrjthffWT i 
Datceiniad : 
That is, 
The Poet, or 
Invcfted Bard ^ 
of which there 
were 3 kinds : 
viz-ihti Harp] ft j 
the Crwthift ; 

- — * 



and the Singer. 

And of the above, he that iscallef] Cad^ifvardd^ or Pf^i:£rddy (i- e^ Chaired 
Barda or Chief Bard,) h fuch as wL^ats on his brcaft the jiriandht^ti which is 
in the form of a chair df gold^ or. filver, or & jewel of a harp, (the reward of 
merits) as a token of dillinflion of his being a graduated Teacher, or a Doftot 
ci Mufic t > of which, fee a delineation of iwo of them in page Sg* ' 

The four 
Inferior or- 
der Sj Non- 
or MinHrels, 

The Piper; 

The Juggler ; 

The Crowder that phys on the three-ftrmged Crwthj 

And the Tabourer*— ^ — 



ft y 


And the fee of each of chefe four Minflrels was a pe^nVj and they were to 
perform flandijig^ . - 

,i._ . -.4 


» • * 


• •• 

+ Miilroii Drayitm, in Song the IVtb of hU Paly-oWttn, elegantly inJ fiiihfulJy ctcordi die various ptifoiva£C5 concctuffd m 
the Eijftddvwtf or Congrtfi o* the B,trds, where thty coiitcnJcdfci- the priie J 

., . - 'Mongll whom, foine SjfdVifitrc were, thatin their Lucrcd rage 

Reco rdcd I he D efccnts and Aft s r>i everj' ^ige. 
• * Some wUh iheir niniLlcr Joints that lUuck ihe warblluu String i 

r. . .' • In fincering l(>mc uclklirj, btSLoiity ui'J lo ling 

Unto uie otlicr's Harp ; of which you both might firnl 

Great pknty, and of both CiccHinp; in Uicir hidd, 

That at the *SndJva oltolitain'i :i Viftof'i J;Va5i>* 

Had vvon the ii/wr tfarp, ynd ^vora jfpoiio*i Bays : 

Wliofe \erfcs ihey deducM from thylc firfi golden times, 

Of fundfT fflrisof Feet, and fundry fmis of Rhimes. 

In Engiyii'i ibm* there ^-ere, that on their Suhjc^Tt fliiin j ^^ 

Some makeri that again affcft ihe Lolt5er Veiiii ■ ' * 

Rebcarfe their high eonceits in Ca^y^i j other-fonic , 

In Aiuifi't theirs eiprefs, as matter haps to come i 

So vary i ng ft iU t hei r Mood b , obfervi ng y et in aU , 

Their Quantliies, their Refts. their CeaAtres metrieal t 

For, to that Sacred Skill they moH thcmfekf s apply v 

Addlfted, from their Births, fo much to Patfy, 

Thar, in the Mountains, ihofeivho fcarcc have fcen mDoofc, 

Moft DtiUuU)^ will make, ^ though tmm Art they took. 

«,tbe above various Orders originated ^ whieh a£airt were cornipteJ» p^rticulirir 

.<:. _.£ 

. . J.\ , i).K> 

From the BriM, 5flrJi, and uvywoiw^ Liie bwh^ ,a*..^-- --l«-.- ...t^..~.^^, -- .■"., ^^ n.^ffn^nK MasiiiiLiiii. Loa* 
UDong the E»Kl^(ti. -^d branched into * variety of other f^rolcllionj i fuch as MinlUcli, j^ileri, floffooiu, Mj^nm^N <.** 

jttun, FwtujK icilcrt, aotl Wkchei. 





The following were the Ffiea, or Donations, appointed by the StatuU ^ Fringe Gruff^dJ ah Cynan aKrt» 
. A. D- 1 lOO, to be gi^cn to all the Bards, gmd Muficians, according to their diffcrcat degrees bv all h" 
Subjed* and Vaflals who poffefTed an eflate by tnherttance of Five-pounds a year, and upwards. In anoih 
MS* 1 fiflJ "' ^^* regulated, chat onty One fliould go to a pcrfon whofe domatn waa Ten-pounds a yea 
and Two to a Yeoniaiij who had Tweaty-pounds a year j and, according to chat proportion, to a petfo* 
of a higher rank. 

f ^ Mt neh of lU tbftt 

Pttif^JJt nfa yardd. rXL pcrtce* -and 
Hc^dB^rit, Chief BiinlxOr J ftmic Ri't fiitraor- 
PrefidingBardofUicdiilrift: tdioitry* 



XL HDce) and if 

appuantfd Cj^fCf^r XXIV [hence* 

hLs fet was dpubicd* 


Primary StnJcnCi tJr:t C:ill 
djdi^Le tor the degree of 


XL pence- 

XL peq«« 

DiJ^hi Dijn^^^^'^ f rXXlVpenccinno- XXIV nence 
ficcondary Siudentj f^r aJthcr MS. faji a6 or XXVI * 
Difciplc diJciplcd I £pcnE:e. 


XI] pencc- 

VI pence* 

Xlt pcACe^ 


LXXX pence ulnd 
One of Ihe Biidc- 
groom^ *- 

Xn pcnce^ h.\% 

C'Ura fec- 

Vni pence* 

VI pence- 

Ni7 fixed f^Jary^but 
the gDod wi!i of the 
doQcir.-^ — ■ 

If ht went With IT pence ; butJf he 
other BEird& upon a kiiei? chifi pedigree 
' ' ''on]/ 


if ft Teaciitr, he 
wqnoliaTe agai-, 
mont, t weapon, t 

"rr^ elft, 

LXXXI pcncG- 

XL pence far ^ 

mufic^d pcregmni- 
lEonp ht u'^is emi- 
tted to a double fef ; 
aecurding to If^w^ 
fp4 La^i. 

of on]/ one of 
thenia A penned and 
the bountjr of -the 

TCUrwyr^ the Provincial, or Itinerant Bardi, were to have a Penny* iof every plough ; that ?£, for 
every day's tilling ihat a layman did on his farm : and, where money could not be had, they were to 
recover by diftrefs of goods* 

Here follows^ a part of T/j£ Statute cf Frh^e CruffyJd ab Cynan f^ l?y the ionfint ifth£ fiverfi^ji c/i^ 
kiiigd^m^ U7/A full licc^i^j nnjfi^/y^ t&nt t/ji^r^ fi^uU he privUe^es fir the pr^/c^ton of Vccal Ssw^, and fir 
Injfrum^riiai Mi/Jic ofib^ Harp, and o/i/jt' Crwth, tt? ^ftfiy Fivefn^e acro^ u^bub are called Pump erwFjdd 
Beirdd a Cbaniurim. fBy erw^ here is not meant an acre of Und, &c- but the appropriated tJEne vi^hereia 
the Bards were to go about their Ckraj or Mufical Circuit, and Is called ^^^vr-rydd^ becaufe they were at 
liberty of fo doing within the limited time:) ^'"^^ \i[^ e^vr-rydd^froin Cbnjim^u dtiy to ihe Fmi/taaibn gf 
ib^ Virgin AUry: ^d^/rom Eq^et day to Jfi^n/ion*day : 3J, from Wbit/unday to S^l y Crfiriau^ ^r the 
Sunday o/Rsfi^kj t 4tby wbert a gentkman built ^ Mujfi/tofi-boiife^ he wm to givefies to ail the Bardf ^itbpt 
&u prcviiue^ aaQrdirtg to their degreei^ j but ibir buiUi/ig-fie wai a/ierua^dj aa lihJiateJ hy amfint of tbe 
^entry^ isrtd another^ at tbeir^ at^nudi Wabe^ conjfiiiited in its plafe\ ^th^ at Weddi/igf^ or thegifi^a Vsrgift; 
andj if /be married ^fifofid time^ tben tbe mujtaam r£cei^ed nofie/^ 

And of the three fciences above mentioned, namely. Vocal Song^ Harp Mufic^and Crwth Miific, there 
mrc three degrees in each j ihat is 10 fay, Graduated, or highefl order j the Difcipline; and theloweft^or 
Inferior Miuftrelfy--^^ 

• It vr\]\ be tieccffary to oUferf e>that the eompAi-ative value 
or a, jienaiy- ifl the vciir i fcoc, 'urii&etjuWihttniL Lu 10 peucc ritJW' 

+ It u'u& iucunibcnt on e^crjr Teacher to iiqvc a q^spy tjf 
ibis rejful.^tion, eontkiining ilie L^iws of the B^rds^ to jhcw 
tu hifi difcapJcs, when iltj came to rtcei^e hi& m[tru£lLmh hi 
Ltntt Stc* PruLce Grff04m<^& Cjt^an^ the Jaiv.giver and rt- 

fonncrof the abufL:b cjI ihc U-m dh, died A- Dr 1 137, (accord 
ing loCflfffdW c/Llftnfi^rvm''^ J/ijI^y^ iV^t,) nicer he had 
rcif^cd ahsj¥c fifty yt. rs. — 1 he ^iKsve e^itri^dls of ihe Statute 
^ J'rmic Gf^Jfyiiii t^ fJoEr^n^a-etr^ullHlcdtroni a p^iFLhnientrolE 
lij i\ui Al\mMtiku Miilnm- Oxford i ir^mi u ]T;iinti^cri|^t in 

^ud /^^^Jwjr, ji vtty nre booV, written hy Dr. ^qAm Davj^ 
Aijj, oi" LkftvaethlM^ in ^i»j/f/f_f, pilnttd in 1592, luid p^jjc 
^y^. He took his Da^ui-^ji decree .lc SiiM^^ but wa^ educ^atcd 
.a OiLford. He returned lu hii own couGtr^* where hcpnic- 
tijtd with prtat fiacccfj. At the requeft of hiv I^J^ard ^r^- 
/i/%g^ i^iSt- Di^ini^ h^ cunipofed Jilsl hoftk. He [i:1N ueh K« 
wrute [lie: lif LI pJTE M Mr- ATwjan jV^arTi.^dUV^ Jn ^di^iiv^fVJ 
the rrft Pt n pbcc of his own an BmifUMi^irt^ js he Uiii^nt 
ihe u^ ot'jijtcnt}-, and under the Ihudeot'^ hawthorn gnjve. 
/^fc/f hifi I'rciacct jnd ^fMUAJ'j Ttmr jii Wtikk — Sec limher 
p^itLtuku-:& oi' thfi reucjjui^ ijl liio JJjfiJ^p in ^ic |^k:c4ijm 

. Tbt 



*tlie fonowing curious and concifc meiTiDraDdtimi offcTcral of the Eardt, vid of whif they have writteo 
teere tranTcribed from a msaufctipi at Mr. Evan 'Bcwen of Pa yr AfB^ m the pirifc of Llaaidloa, MoQt- 
gDmer^fhire^^nd cow firfl ttAiiJilatcd mto Englilh. The origiuai appeui cq have beea writcciL by the cele- 
brated Htir^1<^ Bard« Rhji Cam^ about A*D. 1570* 

'* Rielf^rJ Bro^MiMj one of the connctl [i>r the Marchc* nf 
Wales- ATocc I'.ic Hirtory of iill Brit-iin ■ fcarckin^ ilie records 
in thi: Tower of Loradnn for^h^twai Intt j^Fiton^ftihic Birclj> 

Gi^f^O^Ni^fff^^'jy Lordcrf"Kciney*j tnPeinbn>teEh]re< (or 
Moiiti^^^mcr; Llii_c,J wrcJtc i* HiitDryoi Britain- Ha sib. 16^- 

7^ /irtvtfsfifq-. barrillfirat!aW|,iffrQt< the Hiilc^r^ofGrc^t: 
BnCLiin^frLJin tlic (irfl inhabEUtnti thcrcofp I ill the de^Lciicrf Ca/- 
4v«^d(fr f ailJ of iht tinpi of icmliund tci £[^tfw. Or Ow*, 
frc- U'hich ^Jrnrk w::i^ printed in ;t folio vili^mc in AM. M^i^ 

Ifwm Lh^Jv a* iJflfjiirfp oJ Sii^. cfq. Vl^Otc of all llril^. 

yifflitf. 7^''"i^^'^''^g^^""» wrote of Grc:it BritJiini- 

^fliii AiiHi^ ui Tri 'r Dclyo^ gcHt* wrote the Hiilory of -Jl 

Thomau ifli F.fjfm^tjn^ cfi /'Af'i of B*J*VirF^ DcDbl^hfbircp 
Vrotc tht: H (li>ry t;'[ all IlrSuin. 

J^uh^t 4^ lyilSaw ni jfobn^ ceut. of tb^ fiitic county^ wrote 
ttc Hjitory uf Brkai]!,— ^ 

Of Ehc couniy nf GliniorgarL i 

Sir £iiwxrJ Afimfil. kiilj^hu wrote the Htftory of tht IHjJid 
of Britiin, and other counlrhf)- 

Sir Ed^imrJ SfTQfltin^^y tn!;f^hi^ wrote (he HiHory of T^rcjit 
BraEiiin^ &Cii ubcui ^^Cjo i itnd 1 received iVi^m it much Infur-^ 

Rh^f A^irf^ryi, fifCott^^l, gfnt- wrote concemiflE dl Bn- 
Uiti i i]i5 tiupL i-one of the ftliirell jrd nwft btclJige:al 1*■0^k^ 
in W.Lli!i ; . [id he cnhitmuniciccd much to me- 

^n^ti^nj F^^i^l, of 'fir I.ulll. gcnt-T*Totc of ill Bricibttni-^ 
other phicts ; h^^ w.i'i a lcjrni:4 Poet, and a Chicl B^rd, 

-Wriw/^ftTF-fi/e-ffl/, M-Lltcruf Ansnand a chref of Song, wrorc 
the HilWy of the Three Principiliilc* uf W^lc*. frimi Ad^iiih 
to the (iHl kinj;, in a fjif Liitlu volnnac ; iSiJ tVom Ad tm t-' 
the rime oj king Edward the Is alfo, he wrote iiWc^fh Chrt;- 
Hitlefc which is now wkh Ow^ Cwymedd, Chief B^itd^ aod 
a teacher nf hi* fcicniCe^ 

Ix^ix ATor^sn^^, Chief D.ird. wrote the Hiftory &f the 
Three Pa-ovintzes of Watci, in a ItberAl mAtiacr^ Aaid y^rj^ 
DavjiiJi nnd J>*«i;^^ ^fffii^flp B.ird^, of Gluniorfiiii, hud h^ 
bi3(ak-s which were >MliKib].> :iiulwel] ws-iuen^ 

H^^ci D^'^j-iiii c/* AfiTj?? ^ /f^riK ^^i A. a Pi^cr, attd chief 
Bjrd^ wnitc the Hitlo] y of nil lirii^mi in Latin j und of the 
Three PrliLclpLititics of WJeSi in Wclfh 1 and hh books were 
wcl] written. ;md v^luiible- 

Itvan ab //y^wi S'^r^^'of. A M* wroift a r^Lirho>i>k m \\ clfh, 
nf ihc Three Prinei; alitks of Utiles fr^>ni iKc time <if C:iit- 
x-t-jladcr- to thiit of ViT\g Htnry the VL j anJ wa^ a Primi- 
tive Bi^rdi-f tranfLcndentmcMt. - 

loip GSih^ /^. M. Lin J Clkicf B^srd of North \V,l1 -1- wrnte of 
the Thtrf I'linL-ipicUuM^ 01 \V.Ucs. He wjs one of the moLl 
cdebrsti^d B^rds* ofthePflmilivc Ord4:r>th*t everw-H^ knowa- 

Gtf-'fj^ U*trt, Chief Bird, ot Maeln^Tp wn^te an aecountof 
the Three Principilitici 1 jnd ihofe njc ter)^ perfefl^ and 

ta.irly wnttcn- ■ 

/*H^j=5m*vj. nf Dishculorth, m &i>uth Wi]«p xrnote a wef!- 
anth^;ntltjted Hlrtfirv of the Three Provinces 1 ^;id hisboot^ 
1 h^ive feen with Hu^h ;tb D*vydd^ of Kidv.e!ly, gcnt^iinJ I 
reecivca iu ihem, froni th^n i^tntk-nunp a gxi-Ai deal of v-du^ 
ai-ld inforicatioiir May God blefb hina ! ^ . ^ « * 
Z?-WJtr* EJjrur^J, who w< ti the Bardie Chaarol bouth 
W.dcii in a Royat Longrtf^ uf BLirds s he a naiiy. 
HajiDier. and wnstc an ^k;couut of ibc Tha tc Prliieipalii 
as appciirs. b 

native of 

.y hisbn<ikf, 

C*J/fl V C^'B, Chtif Bird, 3ii>d one cFihe B-ird^ nf WiHiam 
Herbert, euri of Pembroke, wrote libcraJlyof dii^ Ihree Prm- 
cipalitic^j which w?ia well approved* 

i)Dtj^^^3 H^wcL ai H^fU^i fiMM ^ycAm, Chief Bardp 
wrt^ce uf the Thrtc j^nncipjlitics i und ht^ books are fair nnd 
*si]Lf;Lb!e- (Prubabty EtkU \^ai PryJ^^ld SrydciniQ^, whc flou 

riJWd ubout J4+0*) ^ ,> « ■ ■ jl- 

^otv^M Jj> j*/fli™p wrote 3 Hiftory ofall Br] Cam p aftd bia 

booki arc: to he ie-.n ^^iih nie* C-'^AtJ ^*"'" i J ^*^> ^^'^ *'^^* 
ViiJu^blc, :Miii ititdlifieiit. « u a 

Cr^ffyJlIir^f^^gf ch'cf B:trdp and JLputy Herald at Armi; 
for jII Wj]c>, iiaidcr Garter [ wrnii: ii Hit^ory nt ^11 Uniain, 
aiidO'JMf couiktries- Amt^ng hitdifdplci wcac- J^wft-V iy^I^m, 
chief Bard 1 fra^w /Jy«p chltf B^d | ii^i^i^ i^y^^K ^i"<H 
B^rd 1 LiiiJ ^*.6fl rhiSj,, dii^:f Bard* 1 liai«: Ju. Uouiip wineh 

7«i^, ^r^fl^jHLhki B^rdpof theiflec^f Anjlcicy. s^tote 
ilic History rtt 4hG Thjcc rricieipiiUEicM anJ i^"* ^J"* :*fp 
f j,£ uid pciHed* 

^sfcii ^^. AJ Gri^t oF Moni:|;oinery{hire, gent, wrote the 
Ht,l;or";f" ofillW !l = 4; ind hii b<H>l^i ^fctr ^ aa far is they vOy rood 
authorities to ^ I Wile J j l bare (t™ e of them th^t may be feea - 

FMn /*r4wr, or the G-^neilogiftp of North Wales, about 
A- L>. i6jCt wroce Qf ihe Three Trir*cipj.!itiei of Wilet ; he 
wsa a ^^?d recitative Poet, good vocal ^gOer. and weil 
sicrfcd \n Antient PcKtry. 

Aftryj a^ Jforyv. oi J^yj Trrwf^ of Bettwip in Cydewatu^ 
gene, wrote a Hittory of atl WiJes ; his b^KtJts stre in my po£- 
LeHJon^ to he feen at th'i day4" 

Rifj Cairn. C^tiira J^ikromwr, 

There art fL-vcral WeNh mjinnlcriptJ of Bc^n^ j Saintt fff 
Ac^M^r S^m£ Tajf PrjiiitiM.or :he noble defcetii and jene^^li giet 
Qi (he S^ia^s oi tbc Dritiih lti.-„who were she original foirndcr* 
of Charchei^ asd religious houfei in Brhiinp which i{]\\ ^ by 
clieir naDlel. There h -aKi} a Latin niaaufcript: of the Livii ^ 
rhe ^'elfti Salnt»» m the C^tm Li&r^^^ marked f^t^fisw^ A. 
XtV which U Ciid to be Writretli by Ajf^hmarc&f arebbjlhcip of 
St- Divid'$|the f^nn of billkopSkjSM, about the yrar 1090^ Ht 
wai J rtiJN of the greatcft piety^ wifdom* ind Icarriini^^ that 
h:Ld AotLrifhed a lon^ time Ia W^lefi eieeptiug hit fathfrj 
tinder whole tutelj^e he w^s educated ^>^ 

TCr'^^^ which iniplie* a Mijerll mir^ or a ColleftLon. St- 
tTreg<'^ryp and Otherli CalL it ^aifl Grifat, or 5^- Grrd/- Thil 
JWf Ce^^^M i^/I.f^tmdj. was an j-rii'lenc B<M>fcof divert Anec- 
!ote»» Or btoHe^f written In Wellh; which I have formerly 
iccn, [ffcir-i my author Lcwiir^lorri^,} ^t Mf^mn Lilr^^orjf in 
Af^ii^w^bjlirit very faicly written on vellum^ contaiuing eto 
^■^gti i]] 410. And there is another eo^^y of the fjme hook ia 
-Su- Roger NfoHLyn** Library- yiuitniiMi, inhb& Sf*c^- Hi/t, 
metLtioni the fame book ofhiftoriet, and fays it w^s called 
i^r'iat from a G>A£frword. {Werihj I fuppofe, Cra^fafUt or Gra^ 
duie^ fi^a3ifvm;[r a little diilii wherr fome chnire morfeJ wax 
put : ^nd th^kt at w^) not to be Jound in Latin » liuteomrngfi 
In Ci^'Jtf, Dr- i^avw/p in his Didiunaryp f4,yst C«d/ is a cer- 
tjtn Hi:llnrical B4JoL> eontaming vini^ui HiHiorhci} aindihic 
it VhU Very d^fheidt to h< fiot, beCaufe itw^ fo fcarrc* — " Otl 
hill the piarchn^cnti o1~ Emryt, room could ntK be found for alt 
[Jie intormattoLi of thji* man J his repom ^erc to ui iti /uVt 
like thofe n( the Orial, ic" L- Mr the Biird^ fayt this to 
Elj^ d* Gr. at Eimion. who v^'^t uncnminonly vcrfcJ in htA 
Cory.— Ij] Mr. £j^-Ard /J^yj^/ j/r^ ^'Wcjf ui Btii^rHftiiCat o. ?6}j 
3tis tilled T^tt'inf Saimi Grictif ; aibd in tJ^i; 1Sf^jE]| IriMJii Nhj^ 
61 /tT i^ c.iI!>lI Tyf^iaj G^r^. Tnai] ancicnc tj.ble9once beJor.g- 
inR tn C/j^&jfliirJ^yH thi^-vvork 11. quoted : ^e t^ttinJ^f JiiuuJftm ^amJ 
ffghirr iji £^frc Ji^o dicilur GraaL Jolcph jb Ari[iiathe;4, 6^c, 
UjhcrpyiMiMj p. if'i DuLjlin edition Cafi^^avf, i« the Life*sf 
Ji/ephi^t Anmnithea* ^uoUk a bot*k ; ^i fi^aSum Gr44ii o/- 

-rfffftfi^j. bifhnp of Bangor, about the year ti^Tj procured a 
commililnn from Ch?iit:cry- ca enquire into the teiiureiof the 
bilhoprick = which furrcy is called T^ Bi/i^f*^ Exf^t Bi^i, 
and is ilill mbciiig. He alfo dre^ up> ^1 1 judge by agrcc- 
ii]enLuf hi* ckr^y, {thiit fecming to have b^en p^rt o^" tiac 
jfti coT^ientcd to, :tiid detcrmine^E^t Ui^ ti^ff/i^kat^^n^d, held 
at i/fljrewifr Garth Bv^jnai:,) LI Mjf^!j t T P^T.ii/£jj ior the fcr- 
vke uf his church and djCKcfs 3 ^vhteh Afffa I la-tc to be one 
of thofe dtvcrfiticsor ufes in fmgfn^p hciciufore obferved and 
priifiifed in our thurch, and taken notice of in the Preface^or 
Pi'dvr- which fijllo^i the A&s of Uniformityi printed tw:fore 
our Uim^y, or Common Prayer book- T hii flfiffal wai bft 
in the troubles in Waleii in tlie reign of /itnry IVrh ; and 
agi^m In the time of the great Rebdiit'nj afiervtirds it was 
happily recovered, rvr^d reltnrcd tmhechurth- where it RtU 
rcm!i"ni. This P^ti/Uni, or lit^r Bmpr U a fjmall foliixof a 
moderate tliickntif^ and eoistaina 3J ^rt, aaid has abun- 
dance of Anthems, wEth mt^lical notes to them for fuijjinj,— 

The FcnerooB c^re iind indifcary of Sir William Gruffydd, 
or Penrhynp knight^ and chamberiain of Nonh Whiles, about 
the ycir I C«t who preferred the ajicicm i^eords hum pc- 
Tilhiiig, by colJeJtn^g as many ofThem as he could Btrieve 
fimn namb smd corj:ni.tion ; and theneaufed thofe Ic^itered 
ruIU aiid fragnit^nl* Co be fairly written by one ^niijn C^jn, 
iutwobruc vtilunif* of panhmenttp lor [he lUtL^rmatidu uT 
■miitritv- Cucwhircofj h ihsr h^w^k keut .liways in iht 

lit her he trnmniittird into the jiuMr^^ ^m 'it L^mJsm.^h^r^ 
it u prefervcd to tbi. Jay- Ah^, iir TU- (fy^* oJ <?*;>. 
bad li^riiKrly a copy cf Tirf iiJ^fft* ^f iVefi* if'^^f. Ji^ 7^ 

6 "»'''« 


The Names of fome of the early Birds^ Pacta, and Authors, which were omitieJ m pp. 13, 14, 15^ ^r^i k; 

^ 460 


Cdw a Bard, who Bourilhed about iht: year 450 
menibned by Cynddelw ^ Cathiau clan Ccnldau 
Caif' ( He was b J ot her to Antu nil ; fee a no t e 
IB page 1 70 . ^ 

Gwyddelyn.Gwyddiyl Gor, or EMdilig G6r, 
a noted Bard^ and magician to Rtiuddlwm 
Ciawr, about the year — 

Teibj ot TdilaWf j Dard, and the 2nJ Billiop 
of LandafT, (Teiia'M ab En/ych^ or Ettliuigt mdb 
Hudwn divTit") about the year — 

Ugnach ab Mydno, of Caer Seon^ near Con- 
way, acelebraced Bard,aboQt 54a. SeicvoL IL p. iG. 
Yfcolau, a Bard, about — 570 

Gwrnerthj a Bard, about -^ 6io 

AflcTj a famous writer, btffiop of Si, David'a 
and afterwards, of S:ilifijiiry , -^ 875 

Me/gin, Of Matlgyn, wrote a book," Ve 

jirfhttrii Mm/a Rotufida" 1 ^40 

. Gwgan BfyJydd, a Bard, about — 
GrufTydd ab Gwrgeoeu, a Bard, — 
Gtt'yddvarcK Gyv^rwydd, a Bard, 
Einton ab Madawg ab Rahiiwd — 

Gwilym Ryvcl, a Bard, and a wairlor 
FJidyr S;iig» a Pnct, — — . 

Hywei Voel ab GrSffri ab PwylE gwyddeJ, 
Cafnodyn Vardd, *^ ^-. 

lorwcth Bell, a Bard, — *— 
Llywelyn Ddii ab y Bafiardj a Poctj 
Gruffydd Gryg, a Poer, — 






Dr. SionCeiJt^oiGventi adivineaniiaBard,i3f)o 
LlywcJyn Lionel 1, a Poet, • , ^ 
Elor G6c!i, a Poer, — 

^ Robert Leiaf, a Herald Bard, — 
Davydd ab Edmund, a Poet, ' . ^^ 
Rhys Nanmor, a Poet, near S[. David's, 
Davydd Nau'mor, a Poet, of Nanhwynuji, 

laMeifionydd, — . 14 g^ 

Lewis Dwyn, a Poetj -~ _- ' j^^q 

Tgdor Pcnilyn, a MerionethOiIre Poer, J460 
leuan ab Todyr Penllyn, a Son, diuo, 1480 

Tudor A led, a Poef, who Jived at Garth- 

Gerin, in Chwiban, near Llaiifannan, 14^0 

Llywelyn ab Gyttyn, a Poet, and Crythwr 

Davydd LSwyd ab Llywelyn ab Gruiydd, 14S0 
Inco Brydydd, a Poer, — ,4^^^ 

Mcredydd ab Davydd Vychan, a Poer, 
Davydd Gorlech, sPoet, — 
Kvau Dyvi, a Mdrionyddfliire Poet, 
Khjit Brychan, a Poet, — _ 
Rhjs Gele, y Prydydd Jiilih. ^ 
RichJ* Davij, Bird, and BiJhop oi Sr. Afaph, 1560 


HiboUL A. I>_ 

1586 if 



J 500 
J 500 

X. ab Gr. ab H. y Gadair, uf Anglcfey, 1 ^S 
Btdw IJavhcfp, a Poei, about -^ i jg^ 

Rbji each, a Lyn Dy vrdwy, 1 Poet, J540 

Fcf the Ijfl of fuuccdiiig Uijdt. I rifcr ajy r^^id^n w lIw cuJ uf Di 

Evan Drwch y Daran, a Poet, 
Rhyj Cain, a Herald Bard, ^ 

Davydd Benwyn, Prydydd o Vorganwg, jX 
Capr, Wllltam Middleron, 3 Pbet, | 

William Saiilbaty, of Cae Du, in Llan- 
fannan, was very learned ; he tranflatcd the 
New Teftamcnt into Wdth; publtlheU an 
Englifh and Wellh Didlionary, in the year 

1547 J and a Grammatical Introduflion to the 
Bfiti(h,or WdJh Tongue, in the year — ipg_ 

Arthur Kclton, Hiftorian, -^ |-,j 

Dr. David Powel, of Rhiwabon, IMomn, ictq 

Humfrtjy Llwyd, of DenbighQiire, D. M» 
and Welfh Hiftorian, — . — ^..^ 

Dr. John D^, or Dee, of Nant-y-Groes, 
Radnorfhlre^ a famous Aftronomcr, — ir^^ 

Sir Jn, Pficcof Llanvyllin,Brltl(hHiftorian, i^-jx 

John Owen, of Plas Du, in Caernarvoiifhir^i, 
the famous Epigram mati ft, — i^^g 

Robin lachwr, a Herald Bard, — iGio 

James Howel, of Brin-Llangammarch, near 
Brecknock, iMoriographer, — rGjo 

Lord Herbert, of Cherbury, In Monr^ome- 
ryfliire, the famous knight-errant, arid Hiftor, 1634 

Hugh Llwyd, of Cynvael, a Poet, of Mei- 
rionethfliire, about 1610- Seep, 78^ 

Robert Vaughan, Efq. of Hengwrt, in Mei- 
rioneihlhire, Antiquarian, and Hifl'orian, \6\ 

Nicholas Lloyd, of Flintfhire, virotc Di^hna- 
rium Hijiarkumi ^ ^ i^dj 

John Gwilym, of Here ford [hi re, a Herald, )( 

and R^ugc Croix pur/uiva/sf ; he publirtied his 

celebrated work, entitled, " The Dlfplay of 
Heraldry," in folio, about" ^ i6io 

Myles Daviea, of Tre 'r abbat, in Fliutlhiref 
wrote Atbentz Bniaimka, or Critical Hiilory 
of the Oxford and Gflmbridge Writers, about 1690 

Dr. John Davies, Canon of St. Afaph, (was 
the fon of a weaver at Llanverres, in Denbigh- 
fhire 1) he was a famous linguifl, and author of 
Aniiqus LttiptiS Britannicsj a Wellhand Latin, 
and Latin and Welfli, Diftionary ; wh^ch he 
pubMedin the year 1632. He allifted alfu 
in tranflating the Bible into WeUh, which was 
corre^ly pubiifhed in the year — 1620 

Edmund Prys, of Trawfvynydd, orTyddyn 
Du, Reftor ot Efeftiniog and Maentwrog, and 
Archdeacon of Meirionydd j was interred under 
the Communion-table at Maentwrog, in the 
year 162 j. He was the mull celebrated Bard 
of his time, and one of the tranlUtors ot ih^; 
Bible into Welfh, and verfttier of the Plaliua. 
John Phylip, of Ltan-Euddwyu, ^ 1590 
UllliatnPhylip,of LUn-ddwywtf, Merioneth. lOfi*^ 
Rowland Vychan, ot LbnuwchJlyUt Mcrion- 
ethfhire, _ — . — iti6« 

Hu|jh Cadwaladr^ of Ltanuwchlyn, ^— i66f 
6Jun Davydd, La», ol Fenllyn, Bard to tbo 
NjtiiMu Eamily, ^ — 1691 


iv.n f 






■/^K jw-'jW^Vy*!*'' ■■'.V I ■!>■■» ijf, rmiiraplV.flii.l h*i^ jiil(Si|.< 


I'/'^i'- f/kiiM*-* I V ■■*>.r.H .fffujn/ j/" 1^ j^M,J>^t^ .,-r'fr/Af/ iV'j^t' 'J^mMMif\f rt /AwT 'Vj"^fl- ^y*^ 

^'^'**'Hfm/ it Ji^^ 


the m^ifical mltruments, aticlenily ufed in Wakj, ara as different frmn thofe.of other nations as theif 
mufic and poetry \— iTicfe inftiumemB arc fix in number, the Telya> or harp ; iht: Ci-wtb ; the Pibgom^ 
or Horn-pipe* j the Pihau^Sd^ or Fib^brakh ; ihat i«, the Bag^pipes, or the arm-pipe* ; the TtthwrdJ, 
Tabrct, OT Drum ; and the Cornbueiin Cornet, or Buj^le-hoin, Of thele an accurate reprefentation is 
attempted in the oppofite trophy* ^ .... 

The Harp, the principal ofthoFe I huve enumerated, wbkh appears to be the moft ancient, and indeed 
the qu«n of all niufical mflruments, derives its orij^in from the rcmotcR period. The S^^cnty \ as well aa 
ycjlybiis % have rendtred Ki^mr to be tlie fame as ihe Harp : and we fmd. in facred hiftoTy % that y^^b^I, • 
the feventh from Adam, is ftyled, Th^ Fntbcr uf^U fuf.h as hvulk ihe Kinnar, (or HarpO ^^ul ih Ih^^b, (of 
ancient Organ,) which mre before the flood ; and the orpin of sny invention cannot v^cU h. carried h.gher, 

7^, who lived acitongthe /J:/;;/r^«j, about 15^^ Y^^ts before Chrift, does not only fpeak o£ mufic and 
ilnging, but alfo gives ns the names of the mufical inftruments then in uf.*. E^ch^r ;md ^^^ai repre- 
fent rvr. as a city wholly given up to mufic. The antiquity of mnfic appenra alfo from the hiftory of 
y^r^i who, having ao!c away from hi. uncle I^i^.^« withoiit acqtiaimii.g him of \u^ defign, was purfued 
and ovett^Lken by him on the mount of Gik,^, where he upbraided him for what he had done, in th^ 
manner. Wherefore didji thoujlcc a^.c^yfificrcOy, ^nd/c^l ^'-.oayfrom mc ? and dfdji mt UU mc, ihat Imi^bt 
im^f fini thee away with mirth ami -wtth fangs y ivUh Tabrd, and -with Harp " ? ' 

It win be 4Jccefl-.ry to obferve, th.t the nmfical inflrumcnts of th. Greeh, and L.iin, came to the.n froiu 
,he Hebre*.. The Grech. a vain glorious boaftins people, pretended that ihe grc.teft pa« o their mufi- 
Ul inriruments were the invention of their Rod., or their ancient poet.. They feldom reptc^nted M^. 
«,ry, J^P^Ih, Orpheus, An.., or P^n, without fomc n^uftcal inflmmer^t in ihe.r hand. : but th=s hlfe pro- 
leion of theirs is fufliciently conlr.dided by the Holy Scriptures themfelve. Rehgton, the gods, muf.c or 

Cd Scnuous i they acknowledge they received their mufical inftru^nt. from the haft, 7^W fay.. 

Jampridim Syrui in Tyberlm defuxit Orbnies, • . 

Mt lingttam, f/ mortal, ci cum tibkine ch^rdm 

Obliqu3it nee mn ^entdia fympafiafeeum vcxii"* ' 

U h very extraordinary, that all authors who have treated ot» thk fubjeft. have not difcerned that the 
hL and the Grecian Lyra were two diftinS infttument. , and it Is evident, ih.t neither the Greeks nor 
the lL.ns ever had our Harp, nor i. n to be found on rheir coin., nor fculptures. Another proof may 
be educed from Vf.a.tius nnunatus. (the bilhop of Pointers, about A. D. 6.5O ^.ho fay., th.t bo.h the 
ikrp, and the Crwth, were inllrumcnts of the Barbarians, or Bntons. 

Rmanufitte iyrd '\ fkudat iihi, Barbarus '' Harpii, ' 

' Cracuj Mhidiacdt Crotta Biitannii caHat. Ftn^titu f*r/Ma(«, LH^ 7, Cjtw. S. 

'« Tliou God <>f Wit (fi-om ^*At/ fprung) 
" Whikby periU^ivc power ot tDngUc^ 
*' And araccEulcicrrlie, rcfiirii 
**■ The ihviig* Jitc vi luiiTiiii fciind \ 

** Aud atl ih' iauMiun^ jiowei> jhflv** 

" Sweet piirEiir ul iht Wndinji^"', 

*^ Til) |>r*ifc \\*\\ -dl ill lound* itif|Ji«i ^c^ 

' See ^iiMW'iw rariwJiaid*, lib 7. carm. 8- , , , , , 
' Ttw Jjiicci which arc crfllcd Jionipipcs, probahiy tlenvc 
ihcir iMnie irfiyii^ttr on w:«>unt of iheir bcu.g pb)M=a l.]>oii 

^'^ I'thZ'xU". v,4. XCIL V.,, XX3C, V. ..3* CXLIV. 
"^^I^&ttm^i Ainiuoliioofthe Jewi.WlVni chap. MJ B. 

^i'my fcii' forth their Ikdi tm*. Iik« t Mb "^^ l^^'^ 
thJJnO 4j*nic. Thtj' tJii« dt« tii,.Urcl *n*l l«-rp, duJ rejuicc 

*T-Ju ill Lfp» li" .iboMtibtcUr, ihoub-rkitihjitlwH 
^ f^J^/'j- « ^"'«>^ i-4 L «fr4i io*A. The 

" O hUftiift* (fiute th« Itiuenioufc ./-^m iim.e J reck* bjr 
*. Ul r.f.mul'*ilh fa^ i^b^., ."^riT ^'LtUh^ '"' 


/tf^«7 U t.lWd tb. «riat of th* ,rc.b™fir ^ 

L.„ .,kU •<. .4.- «- iW t.uJ u. ui^* H^^c y«fc fig*^ 

hJU»!r M U ib< *^h^ -f-ft«-. ** ^•■uaU'iit *»k^ *^- 


A * 

1 ^ 

^ + 


The antlquitX of V^^^ " iiKtther ^gument for that oFmufic j u they arc both fyppofed to be coevit 
With tazn. Namre iurfiifties art with all her mafcnals, and lays the foundation! of all her imptovementi^ 
A* Poetry and Mufic were inr^parable among the aiidcnts ', who knew no poet that was not at the lame 
tiin« a mufician, and vtho called making Tctfe/w^ff^, and yerktfingj. What has been faid of poetry, 
may Iikcvvife be applied to mufic. There is a nitural mufic which preceded, and gave birth to the artificial: 
both tend to the fame end* namely, to ejtprcfs the fcntimenfs of the poet in fnch founds and termSj at have 
a correfpondence to what he feels within himrcif, and would itifpire others with, 

David, the fecond King of Ifracl, was the greateCl mafter of the Harp of hk time, as ^ell as'a poet ; he 
<:oinpo*-.'d a great number oOhcpfalmj, or hymnsy both for voices and inftruments \ which he inftituted in 
the tabernacle of the Lord, to Infpire men's hearts, and to enliven their affetlione towards God \ (Thia 
accomplilnrd prince, may truly be called a ptieft, prophet, and Bard.J The prophet [Elipa, llkewife, 
thought m^CitL neceffary to excite hitn to a fu difpofition, for receiving the impTelTion of the fpirtt of God j 
and faid, -' i'ltt na^hr'mg mt a Minjlni; and ii a^pie is pafi^ '^htnihi Minftrel pia:^€d, thai ihn band Bftht 

Lard came upifi hi/n \ 

We have every reafrsn to believe that mufic was in a high degree of pcrfeQion JSiong the Hebrewj to^ 
wards the latter part of D.Ty/t/'s reign, and in (Eic time of King Saknmn, &c \ and, we arc informed that 
Afaph, Hcmafif and jeduihutt, were the princes, or prefidents, of all the temple- mufic, in tbofc reigns. 
Afuph had four fons, Jcduthun fix, and Hitman fourteen, Thefe four and twenty Le^itetf fons to the three 
iirand prefidenta of the mufic, were fet over four and twenty binds, ot companies of muficianBi Each of 
them had under him eleven oflicers of an inferior rank, who prefided over the oibcr fingers, and Mrtiaed 
them m their art* Thefe feveral companies feernto have been diftingui(hed from one another, by the inQm- 
ments on which they played % and iiy their placei in the tccnple- Thofe of the family o^ Kubat/j ftood in the 
middle J thofe of Merari, on the left j and thofe of Gerjhau, an the right hand ^ The fons of Jtdutbun 
played on the Kimtor^ or Harpj the fons oi Afaph^ on the Nebcin or Pfjltery ; and the fons of Hi^manon the 
I^Jeifdeibsimy a kind of tinkling bells^or Cymbals. " The number of them, ^Jfith their brethren that were 



^ Iei ode 33. i/wiife invotcs hii tjrif and Calh h JBafhi^&M, 

" widi you» we hiivc played any thing ih;it m^y live for tlus 
" y^^T and many ; come on, afllft mc with a lyric oJe in 
*» Ladnj my d*?af ^arfiiflr^,— firft curtcd i^ Gr4ti by the Lcf- 

/*yii iti b«»k II- OJtii, il3Jt-p*irfwfliiirs<* "^'t^ '1*= pjlJtfi p/fflru*! (in iiw 

fljtMWtkt wiihv^hiLhihcTfllracli tht rttinii ut rbc tfr^.J Likc^jfe, ^nbitlj 

of what flic fncvtr '\t be, having C2X ftrings j and the vlollnt 
whi^tlier it be th\^ ifcble, the tenorp the %'Lolojic«lio,ortlie fa;^^, 
h;ivin|r mijforfniy four- in fliottj ulLthc in'lrunieiiu of that 
genu&ure characterized by the appcllatLDn 'of the Ciiiara^ 
whether :i lutPt ^ fii^'tarp a viotj a hJdW, Or a kil- 

The EFij;ltnL mMte life of :it fimtlar loofe band vulvar term, 

wheathcy want 10 ejrprcfi anrmufica! inClrument which cher 

do nnt well knnw the naitie* by che ttriti harJj ^ur^^ j whica 

in fdil; u, an uid Eiicidh JnLLrumcikt that conljfU ol a blaidder 

"il^T^tttumcni c^ i' ?9 K-Bwd* fram jtibcinjCjpsirwJ wictjupon afticfci With illriiif; or two ftrctehedacrufs thrblacLder^ 

^^/ dcrtribej Di^'s feaEl ro jEji^j/i^ LiAJ- t- 7^4, St- 
In^hkh, the JUrcie inflrnmcLit 11 termed Cf/*rfrd. *■ The 
*" long liaired /(^/"^z founded on the gilded Ciihara what great 
** j//.W iiiid taught ; he fanfi ofihc ohaia^ing ino^n. and tbt 
** roiirfc of the fun j the orij^in of mankind and oiLher ani- 
^' msila \ th« natitvc of lIic elements^ the heavenly con flell^- 
'' Erojis, and the c^ufei wiaicfi oiwraie ihe change of (eaJ4>n^." 

Himrrt^]h the inRrumciat^ on which jf^biffri played^ the 

rl^rminx, wMtih impUci the fame as Teftuda, Hiad^ iasiiX.— 

The Orccki cj13 tlic L^fra j Ki^^ra ; Ifar&hi^i ; Piormmx ; 
aiid C*//K/t' The Romnina h:LVc nindc ufe of the f-ime termsp 
to wbii,h they have added Tf^i«*tf ; all of whieh imply ^ lor- 
tDife^ a lhtH« of iin inJtnimeEit made of that furin- (The back 
of the lute and the guitar are frequently carved iaihat {lupej. 
The ijra of Mtrf^j had at firft buc three itrings [ Orfhfwt 11 
1^4 tuhave *ddcd jfonrUt t =*Aid Fhdar mentiojishis tyre as 
hiving fcTTDi It Ft eVidenL from Af^calfrti^ that ilie iinopr^ 
fir iff^f 5fcnd the iithSra, or gulur, are nor the £anie> fincc tikey 
are mentioned lu ihe [ikwr its two different inHrumcntaH L 
Ma£tt^6^M IV. V. J4 J aiidXIII, v. 51.— NotwiLlfcHaiidingjAll 
the accoLnitb-p gjven by the Grcekj and RomaijSj it ii not im- 
probable but the cityra, or guitar* is derived from the Caihera 
tf Lhe Hebrews. ? {which accord] njj to Af^nennu^^ is a ktad 
4f Addle with fjiCJiriii^O^ See alfu Mdifft^rw, asbelore quoted, 
<— Cro^lpi ufc« tbet^rm ^rvfor ibe lutCj and other initiruitkcntb 
of lit^tcibji s but die true djllirk^lion between ibe viol '^nd she 
violii> rpeeici arifeifmm the diiTerence olla/.ri jiud the number 
^tliCirilrin£H^rd|ic£Uvcl>, thcviuij mcUiingLhatioreoncertij 

f^H iptiiftiQfift * Aiv ulkd Cj^Afrj «r 4 ft|ii, Aihlufli^it idif4 fJmm' 


which arc fallcned to each end of the flicfc^ nnd phiyed npon 
with abow- 

The rfif^i ifi a tbrCc-dJrinEed fidJJf. Thcmimihasfii 
flriTig? ; alfo^ a mnndofifiy or Si fiiud guEEar iphiyed with a qnill^ 
i« Ibmetimes cnilcd:i citfmt~ The A/« li eneetned to be 1 verf 
ani:ient inLtrumciUi as bcjng niciitloord in ly^im iti.xu &,c, it 
origln:illy bad fiiih^in^^ but now has a much greater number. 
The thti/r&at or ^rch'JuIct fometLmescLLliedfi/fcrm ajj^^a^ frota 
lcs ]i-Lvingtwri neeksi wiih a gre^t nnmher ^'^f Jtrtaigj: tie 
Sp^mjb h^^i iiod the jw^ar^ arc culled cixiara fiiJJi^Eica^ I he 
/Hf^ is ylw^yi, iirung wEtb gui* and played upon with the fin* 
gers- The crphafi^^r lonJ^rtf or jwror. .irc trenerally llrnngwiElt 
wirep and molUy played withu i|uUI- (-^'d^EiuMulfcrtSp that the 
inflrrumenu of the above cbd^s i^dte the name of/irfi-p fr^intlieir 
ij/miw,or boat -li kc fomi*) Tfaetrwih; the SddlGivio) d^amourj 
viol degambn v the buriton e ^^^ ^f^ all pUycd with abov-^ 

*^Cdjitr^ in his Ccmm^ariri , l>oci IV. iLip. 12, Age caJlj tba 
l^rUons^ barbarians t and 7iifi/H/ the fame.—' The appcUatloa 
of ^an^niW/ was K^vcn by the Crtti^ to aJl the world but 
thcmfelvcs ; ];]ie Itomatu ggircit Xo^l\ iht worKl but ibe GraJU' 

' T^jnrJg'^flui la) Vi thut n]u[iiC Was tJic [jiuLL ai^cicnt of all 
{liidieA 1 Z-eri^ HJtfi^ifri, of Cherburv, mi ^Xp /fL'^T/Mu t^ /^r Os- 
6^/ paifc aQ4* rfuiixrair^ liitfik Jc j1^u^>^i— (^lintd* Lib^ I. 

or ID, t- f jHt 

^ J ^fChrm^iiti r^l. XXV. v. 6 ind 7.— IL CA/inif^* 

f^^. XXIX. rW« V, V. It -Oftlic dr^i of the Levitui 

Acffec Eiodd^ dup XXVI II. di4^ XXXJX. uid^Mi. 

chaFi. rU- LC&nwkkj,cAjp XXtlt. v. 5. it a. 
4 jH J^ig«li/Xin£/^ch^[k. ill,*- 1$. 
I. Cir^ynkbit XXV. If |i 5i6 lU Cina* chtp. V. r. i). 

I. Ckr^wkk VL Ijf Mt 19^ 




infiru^eJ in the fongs of the Lord, even all that were cunning, was two hundred, fourfc^te and eight '."-^ 
** Moreover, four thourand praifcd the Lord with the instruments which t made, f/aid Da^id,) to 
praife tbere^mfh \'' 

Lefs perhaps js kjiown concerning the mufical infttUments of the ancient Hsbrfwt than any other part of ' 
the holy fcriptures. The writings of M^£s,\hc Pn/pheu, and the Chrmicks, mention eleven forts of mu- 
fical inftrurnents ; but, according to Cubm*! CriSJtM Dt^rtathttij they had futtcen '* And, as the Cymry, 
Ancient Briton^ or Welfli, are faiJ to be originally of the Trtbe of Gsmir*, the eldefl: fun of Jajrbeik ; 
therefore, their mufical inftrumcm*, prohably were thence detivt-d. 

The indrunieni upon which King David performed, was thenjD Kinn/jf^ or Harp ^ j which is lifcewiffi 
called the Hafur; that is, the tenth, or tcajirbiged InJtrHmcnt : Thii h ihc Inllrunient David played upon 
before Saul'. It was made of the woodoi ihc algum-tree'-^ a fpecies of fine ^edar. It waathe Harp that 
the Btibyhtiian captives hung upon i he willows, growing upon the banks of the ^f/^^i-j/^j', Alfo, {he 
Tvomen played upon this inftrument'. It was vtry common ax Tyre" i anri wis chiefly defigned for the 
eighth band of muficians belonging to thy iabernadi: in the titticof Djv/f/". This ancient Ksnmr, which 
jifo often mencioned in fcripture, and called by Damet^ Kifrss '% was according to all the fathers who 
have given us a dcfcription of it* an inHfuTn^iu of a triangular form, whofe flrin;^^ were f^retched from 
the top to the bottom, and whofe hollow part, whence the found proceeded, was at the bottom ; they 
played upon it at the top, wirh the fingers '^ The Kinnor ^* (or Harp) is rendered in the Septuagiat^ by 
Kinnyrai PfaUerhn^ and Cytbura '\ It was in ufe before the flood '", ^ 

The Nab!e, AVM, or Pfaherkn, was likewlfs a mufical intlrument of very near the fame fhape with the 
Harp i only, it had twelve ftrings '^ And, Ovid tell us, they played upon it with both hands, as we do 

on our Harp''; 

Bifcc ctiam dupUd gcnlttiia ^sblla palmd 

Fkderc ■ c^nvcn'mnt dukihui ilia inodii, 

Sopafcr, quoted in Jiboiaut, tell US '" : the Nahko^ihc ancients was a nrlnged inntument ; and called 
Sid'urdan, hecnufe the Fbantdans were fuppofed to be the inventors of it* Ihe/c/fifd^/w/, commonly tranf- 
htc NMby Pfi!icrkn^\ and that it was of the forrn of the letter delta '' A j it was made ufe of in the 
pompous ,)i>d folcmn ceremonies of religion. The Rahliaj fay, tliai [hey never made ufe of lefs than two 
J^chdi in the temple, nor more than fjx ". Tha Nabk, and the iiafur would fecm lo be the fame, were 
they not exprefsly diElinguiflied in Tfitm 2C1I, u^sn the Hafur, and u/m the Nable \ and by the diflina 
number of their firings, ., • 

The ancients fpeak llkewife of a 9 flrliigcd InClrument called Tris^no^ or triangular ; which, by the re- 
fembiance of its figure, appears, to be fomcthinj; like the 1 larp. Jitba fays it was invented by the Syrians ", 
others give K the epixhct of Phrygian, or Perfian^\ Dhgentj, the tragedian, quoted in Athm^ui, fay>, 
Ihat the Baart^:n md Phrygian damfcla worfhhipped thegodtiefs Diatm, in fhady groves, with the found of 

rn excel J wliich, aceorJinjrto CJftti^ fhould be, with harp* 
tyjiixfdc fiver the ShmtA or eghtb bandof lanficiuu. 

* Caimet^j Criikat Difrnaiion. < 

'^ St. yjrtifl, who wrote abmit the ytar 40o,f:iT5fthcri»APA, 

■ Th Chr^ithii thup.^ XXV. t» 7, 
' L ChrQukkii chiip-XXHl. \*%. 

' Coimi'i Cfttiiai Dt^rialwrjt On the Old and N*w TfVt.i- 
mtnu i**'"c into fe-fti;lllhi with addiliuiul note*, bj rtuda!. 

^ Ceittftj chap. X- 

^ ija.1.,: y.\\l\ . 4EXCn. V. ,;XXX.v..,^:CXUV- 
» ij/ An J y^/if^yi't jlMii<tiu^ui */ tht ><»/, boot V£I1, 

* 1 Sammi. thap, XVI. *, 1). 
And uj« frr*AutT *,r ihe //rj-flin, anil ih* fenranK ol ffa:*- 
■M, which hr*rin{ht sold C/fiif, Ijrouxht of^itmineit and 
t.T«Miu*ftww». AnJThf ki!.ifiiiJilc,of!]ic Jtf^"ro-t^MB*te^- 
'' ■ he /W, joJ to the tJuK » pj^iMc, and 

And there were 

rifci tEj T]fcC liNLfenfUte 
iM4f and fjitit^rut iff \tt\-/^er*. 

II iind II.— I. ir*wj. c. X ¥. M.-U. i;dmuil,t. VL*.S, 

• /^. ' xxxVil. » 

■ |t^. XXlIl. j£' 1. CArMfi/uj XV' ID. 
•«*jtuiM/ XXVI. It,— //wdii «« Injure oicd. 

" t:u:t.",xvi-, (V-vr .u.dxii.j(WEnj(hn. 

hill Mliring^ ind w.n rti*)f*'t opon with the aogen. 
" Crtrtf/, ch.ip, IV. V. J I* ,^ ^, . 

" 1. kW- X. 11, find n,ChTOf»dc., tX, ri. KklB. 

XCn, V. \. >^*Airi'/ i^MijyftfWv afthtytmii t>ook VJI. tMp, 
Xn-J PfiiinXXXIlJ, T. 1. 

*• Oi'j-/,lib. S- Jc Arte. , r. ,j i^ Pf i». 

" ^ji^^E^. lib. 4, cap. >5, p. 175^ "^'1 £iiM«u. *a fnilni 


" The FfitlifTy, m handed down to ui, i* » fl** Innrunrfnt- 
a |,„,d H J LiLil> imer ,i1 ;« u i#u|tul*r k^rm, 1 h-v^ Krtt <.the.* 

oJl|« U1.L,,I,L lMf», *hiH. h^d IIUI41£I«" U-ihGdciPl lJ»tll., 

tmt "* vhiuii w« hfougtiT Jrivm titrnuny. . 

** Vidf «uiid*iii, I- I4'« »V.P*1*- ^ . 

nr n 


tbc F£aU and Ferjan Trlpni^u A GTeck author, named Jtfipp^i \ %3, tbe Egyptian prlefls pUyed upon 
II on their fcftival diys. The rr/;^^^, or a kind of triangular Harp, \% repTcfcnted, m Viyage FkJurf^uede 
KiipUj \ from an ancient painting m ihc mnfeuni of the King of Naples ^ 

Havmg now invdligatcd the probable origin of rht: Harp aoinngfl the Hcbn-jti, It will be necclTiTy to 
endcavoufto trace ita fource, ufe, and progrefs, ^.mnng ih^ Aficieiil Brham, aj Wclflij and, what ^ 
crcatiy aflift to elucidate this fubjeS ia, that the Cjmr^, nr Aborigiml Britcm \ have retained iheif ptind. 
^« cuftoni. more pure than any other a-/^;V tribe. ^' Every nation has their peculiar tafte, geni^is, 
temper, and fancy, mddible by any resolution of lime, government, or education.'* 

C^far fays, that Dmidifm is fuppofed to have ortjjin.t^d in Brltibi K Thts rd.gious order was a briRch 
of ihe Bardic Syltcmj alfo, wcare informed, by Ammiafitu Marcelliniu, (and •nbers,) that, T/n: Ba^di 
/S«£ ^/'^^^ f:^//^i^J ^f^/^«^ yrocs, inflect Tuna, adapted t^ tht ni^Uing mta Mfih^ mMicu. Harp. Thet«Fote, 
the Harp ^ a Bardic inarnnvent, and waa pUycd by them, frocii the earlieft period, both at their facrwi 

ceremonies, md at their other celebrations*. „, .^ ^ i > c u ti . r' ^ / 

Di^,rw Sku!:^. who wrote about 45 y"^s before Chrtrt, fpeakmg of the Bntoiis. or C^/Tj, fayi. 
« Among them they have poets, that fing melodious fongs, whom they call Bardi ; who, to their mufical 
infiru^ienrs like untn Lyre*, chant forth the praifeJ of fome, and the c^nfures of oihers. There ate lib, 
wife among them phllofophers and divines, whom they call Druidi, and are held in great veitcTation ami 
cfteem. Prophets Jikewife, they have, whom they highly honour, who fur<;tel future events V 

D/odaruj Skuhs, out of Hecaifuu defcribea the Hypcrbsreant, (which ^re the Britons, according 
to Can£*s Hijiiry 0/ Ea^tjml, Eowiand's Muna jifiiiqita, and oihers,) and Tays, ** Thete k an illand icuhe 
ocean over againft Gaul, (as big as Skih^ ^^^^^ t^'^ ^rtif Pole, where the Hypcrl^nam inhabit, fo called 
becaufe they lie far north. That the foil there is very rich and fruitful j and the climate temperate, info, . 
much as that ihereare two crops in the year. They fay chat Latona was bom there, and therefore that thty 
worOiip Jpoih above all othef Gods 1 and, becaufe tiiey are daily faying fongs nx praifc of thiiGod, and 
afcribing to l-im the higheft honours, they fay that thefe inhabitants demean thcmfclves as \i they wetc 
Apaih's Priefts, who has there a ftately grove at.d renov-ned temple of a round form, beaucirted with many 
tich gifts* Tliat there >s a city likewife confecrated to thit Ood *, whofe citi^^ens are moft of them 
harpers, who playing on the Harpj chant facred hynms to Apolh in the temple, fcttmg forth his glorious 
ads, Tlic Hyperboretim ufe their owii natural language : but, of long and ancient time, have had a fpedal 
tiiidnefs for the Gm/anj ; and more efpecially fot the Atbineam and the Ddiam. And that fome of the 
Credam paflcd over to the Hyperbarcaniy and left behind them divers prefcnt^, (or things dedicated to the 
Gods,) infcribcU with Greek characters-, and that Abaris^ formerly travelled thence into Cr^fi:^, and 
Tcnewedthe ancient league of friendOiip with the Ddhm'\*' (To thcfe accounts are addedj/f£«w^ 0/ 
phihfttpberit which could be no other thim thofe of the Druids, Bards^ and Ovyddion ".) 

' Jtftppoit apod Thorn. Gallt, NoE- ad jfamblk. 

• Vujage Pittorefque dc HLiplca rt dc ^itilc pir Mr. Sunt 
NoQi tcin. 2J,p 4^ : ct p. 137. , .. „ . . , 

' *The Hebrw' Skufi/him la anol^t^ fort of mftrtiiTiieat, winch 
tTie Sivtiity tuve Mndcied by Cjmia^'a, and :itr Jirem by St^m. 
It is Tnciiuoncd hue once maJl ;scripturc*,and tJl^C ic Jsi" the 
itcfcrJptioJi of David'j iriumph after bis Tiaory over Goliah. 
Tlw women tumc OLfC to meet Sauf md Diivid^ fiivgiiig and 
dsmclnu, wfth /.iifriJ jnd with Shalifhiit). 1 his tern] it derived 
^romit rata liquifying ifirn; and ibercforcfbnie will have ic to be 
pn InftnimeDC ot tbtee ftrinfiS^ others an l&Llrument of ii iri- 
angular firm, which fetmi to be Uie raotl pfiibuble, Thofc, 
vhu uow play on tbt cymbal, were wont formerly to acconi- 
paciy it with the found of a triangular Inflrument^ made of a 
rod of fteeJ, on which were ringi, that rrovcd uo and down 
thetriangle, byineani of iiA iron rod, which they had in E]ii;ii* 
icft hiind, wliilil they held up the inflninient In tittr Fi|;Eit by 
1 ring, Eo giTc it a free matiDji. It is not unlikely but that the 
fcrlpturesj by the wordiifl/^rt^mcLuachiiaflCteniinftninientt. 

t C*imrft QvHe&ivn ni CniiEil Dil^TUtiW u lU OM ladlNcwTdli- 
iBtDt with tid^vl lutst bjr Tads}, f^ g ji $«.— Ani F'^itfUu if S4nftt 
p. SI. 

* Ci^Qft QmmtjaArUi^ Wsk V* cbap> tOi 

* Cafjr*j C^mnuatariii, book VI. chap, 13. But BerW^i 

Uiqtttiiet of Canfuai g\vii the fullcCt accuiint of the DniidJi* 
6cv p. 3. JnJ ^>' i-^ ,^ jtmmianui MartdUnat, bocl; XV, ch* 
g, (who lived in ^9&', Card's Nj/lerj 0/ Kwgiaofi, vuL i, p. 6t 
^nd p. 43,— ^r*fff*a/, Jib- Vl.—Siri^, lib. L Jib. IV.W/)™- 
dtnii Sicvfuit lib. V. chjp* z J and lib. 11. chap. 5* — Imm, 
lib. 1.4^7,— And Tdfffitf^ lib. IV. cap- ^jOiIj-XIVh 3o»3i» 
-^T^io'j Britj/h f/iJotj.'-Fa^nra't C&retsidc, p. Jl, fid, IJjj. 
— aiid LiVJif'f Hijhrj ofJfrifmo, c]]Jp. XXXV, lib- dl^ 

J Uj'edb™, tilt SieiSam, trAuU^ted by Booth, boot V. ch^ 
rLp. iS^. 

» /,f5«>'f Nijtiry ojBrii<an, p. 3j, fiys tlicrc wasa tempi* 
of ApvUo In London, 

* AbiTLi i& faidto have tiuj^iht Pjrthigons the doiH-iiie of 
iranfmigratlon of fouls, Cart/r Hijlarj o/Brit^t p . 6 1 to 69 j 
und Lcviii'j JMttat Hi^nFy^o. 7. iscE Ibnic .tc count of Aharii, 
the Bridlh Philotbpber, of Druid, in p, B of this wurit 

** Diotknu, iht Sitiinii, tr^Jbud by Booth, book LI. chipv 
IlL andp. 77, Stc. , , 

" Carie'i Hf^ry nj Engtutdt ^tA, 1. p. 61 . 6^ flu fi4> S^ "wl 
d?.— 5/r^»5ff, lib. IV.—Jmmliaut MarnlHam. lib. aV. chjp.j. 
—hiruMvi, Mb IV.— Pj/%arw,tkip. XiX.— And Aw* 



Bft^^ryd ^h SrifylU^ ^^ng of BritatHj about 160 years before ChriO, \i faiJ to bare befio a cekbrated 
inulician, and perfornier on the Harp, Therefore, he wai called the CW ^ Mufic '. Like wife, th« ancitju 
Wefjh Laws mcntioD the Harp^ as one of the indifpEaJible accomplithmeiitfi for a getUkmaa'i adid 
llicy enumerate three diliinft Harps, tbua \ 

Tair Tdyn gfirdthinwl yfydd : The three lawful Hirps ; 

I. Tetpi y Brenin ; i , The Harp of the King ; 

s, Teiyn P£n€£rdd\ s. The Hafp of a mafter of muRc % 

3. A Tbdyii GiLrda, 3' ^^^ ^^^ ^'^'^P °^ 3. gentleman, 
G'-d^erth y dd'^y ^ninv : ch'ui'etigaint a ddl Hb un ; The two firft were valued at 1 lo pence, each j 

aph^dair ar huguint ar £u Cy^^'drgorn. Tdyn Gwrda^ and the Tuning key, at -4, pence. The Harp of 

tritigalnt a Jdl^ a'i Chywisr^orn deuddeg ceiaiawg, a geatleman, (ot baton) was valued at 60 pence , 

Leget Wallicacjpp. 415* ^^^> ^^7^ and J07. and its Tuning key 13 pence ^ ^ 

Thererore, from all thefe various inftances, we may fairly infer, that the aboriginal Britons had the 

Harpa prior Ko any ol^■C^ nation*, except the Hebrew* ^^-' — ' ^ 

In fcjrnitT times, a profclTor of ihii favourice iutlrument, the Harp, had many privilege? j his lands wer* 
free, and hia perfon facred, by the hw \ It w&s the oRicc of the anciem Bird, 10 fing to his Harp before, 
andafiet battle, the oM font;, calkd Unbcmadb Pryduin, or the Monarchal Song of Britaiui which con- 
tained the exploits of the mofl worthy and dtftingotftied heroes, and to intpire otters to imitaw tlieir 
glorious tjcjuii^le '* ** But heed, ye Bards, that for the fign of onfet 

" Ye lound the ancienteft of all your rhymes, 
" Who fe birth tradition notes not, nor who fr am' d ' , 

*' Its lofty Etrains '." 

The famous UaUdujab vtflory defcrves to be mentioned j which was gained by the Britons, under the 
condua uV Gcrmamtf^ over the united forces of the Saxons and Fifts, about A. D* 447> at G^ydd-grug, (or 
Mold,) in Ftinclhire j where the place of battle is called to this day Maa Gamsn.L e. the field of Ger- 
rosm^ Likewiftr, the church of Lhnsrmsn is dedicated to St. German, and called after his name; and 
probibly the ima^e, which is Ilill to be ieen in the church-w^ll, was intended to reprefcntthat faint, 

When Cc-fgrin was befieged in the city of York, by king Arthur, in tht: fifth century, Baduif^^MmtA the 
charaaer of a Harper, and by that ftratagcm he gained admiflion to devife wi;h his brother", ting 
Alfred alfo made ufe of the Tame difguife, and by thai means he bad an opportunity to reconnoitre the . 
Daiiiib camp, which was then in SomerfeiJliire " ■ . . 

In ihfi beginning of the tenth century, Anhf, king of the Ifles, invaded the north of England with ^ 
prodiKEous army of Basics ; he was refolved to explore the fiiuation of the Engtificumy^ and the condition 
• of ar„iy. beft^te he en^^aged ; and difguifed himfelf like a mtnflrel, went into it as far as the king's teDf, 
whtfc he pla)cd upor. tEie Harp with fo much Ikill, that he waseifily admitted. Kingyf fi#an was then 
at dinner with hi& chief o(Iii:ers, who were all agreeably entertained with the mufic i but, the repaft being 
over !he uiuadan w^s difmUTcd with a bandfome reward ; which dIfJaining to carry off, he buried it in the 
Erdund A foldi.r ^.ho had formerly fcrved under him, obferving the aOion, was confirmed by it in ht« 
fufplcion that the difguiSea I larp^r was A.l.f. and gave notice of it to AthdjUn, who blamed the man for 
' nui dilcoverinii U fooncr, that he might have fd;=ed his enemy. However, in confequence of the informa- 

' See the ill and a "J p:*^* — Tf^H^'tBriii/t Bipfy-'Fa- 
iis„^ Cii-«i f U- cJ. liiJ.-AnJ^u'i/j lii;t. of Mrd^ p. 

• Imu WeiiitaM, iJuLnilied by Dr. Woiton, ami Mufti,— AuJ p. 5&*MJ7softliii hook- BtJtd*^^ 

JV, ch*p. 14- , , , , 

LiUwii*. ilkc Amenta Bntj^ TrUdt, la p. 73, So, 81, aj, as, 
i4, r<, jtL^t^, , ... 

' " 0*«r the C4ki nl^ud Sarin. 2 man fammu For liii 
l/i»*iuioB of «rlci» *nd wmric. AuJ Ctiut U)-m, '* ^"^ 
firiiutj* innfi<« (telle Cm/v,) Bhuiuua ^KperU* iimn Bifdo* 
olim ai«bjiii, -it^^i* wiiuc C*!iibH 4kuuIi a ilifdii qiiiMLiiti _ 

ttr ^.r......... t*E^. b.mU« ia.,m,one c^munum ^t "^uh.t. p. .J«;. j, ^ , ^^^ ^^^ 

* G*j»rtff^,cliiip l^'Tcrfc iir 

* Scfi pp. a7f iS, and 79.— Z^fW tr^^att p. J (.05, 50J, 

"""^ bfe^p. IT of tKl» boot, and J>1« /^^«*. P^ |fi."i?^- 
rm SkuL. lib: V, chap. J. fjy*. '* The Ciiri. in ;..m ot W4r, 
i[i irth, ubferviatf lime ^ad meafurc, .iud imjj ih« f*i-i, 
when I hey ^re juft rtadj to chirgfl the enemy. 

* CW* W=^ 4^*xi*»d, vol. 1 p, ill- GiWw. 4 Bno* 
auihur.whu * uLit« =i«='i.^«?tiir;.alliidcitorhi»y.^02 

obi^iwd by ibebkiL,.i{.oi G.^- *Lihouwu. h^^^^A^ 4» 

• ' . * 



tbn, Jfhcl/ian prcpafcJ himfclf for ibe danger, and proved viaorioui the following day. Thk happened 

at Waiinditni near Brumford, in Northumbeiland *, , 

CiraiJui Cmhr^ffs, who wrote a dercripilon of Cambria, about the year i\%%, fpcafes of thehofpL 
Mtv and libcfamy of the WelOiJn hi? time, as follows j " There is no beggar among thefc people - 
for Lir hofpiraliiy i* common to every body : generofity they prefer to erery other virtue. Ti^Yellcrj^ 
when they enter a houfe, deliver their arms to be laid by, and immediately arc h^rplt^bly entertained, 
beinff o(Fi:red water to walh theif feer, whEch is the manner of invitation wHh this nation. Their young 
men therefore, who arc devoted to arms, and hunting, roam from houfe to houfe, and make every place 
theJrhoEne,unkr. they are called out to defend their coi^ntry, Tho/e who come at eatly houjs ate 
enreJtalnea with the converfatlon of young Women, and with Tunes on the Harp, aU *long to the 
evening- for here every family hath irs damfeU, and Harps afligned for thi^ purpofe. 

Every fimily too ia here well liitled in all the knowledge of the Harp. In the evening, when {Irangett 
ve ctafed coming, an entcminment is prepared, according to the number and digoity of the guefts.and 
rdinfi to the abilities of the family ; when the kitchen is not loaded with divers diCies, -jnd with in- 
dtemei^ts to appetite; nor is the houfe adorned with tables, and lowcUj thcfe people ftudy nature mofe 
than ornament. They lay before the gucfts Urge dirties of herbs. Tlie matter and milltcrs of the feaft 
are carefully fctving their gucQs, nor do they ever eat themfelves before the company have been fatisfied j 
that, if there Should be deficiency^ it may fall lo their own fhare V 

"' /rfj'jflt/ makes ufe of only two inftruments, namely the Harp, and the Dram, S«;/*r>k/ has three, 
namelv the Harp, the Drum, and the Crwth, And Wala has the Harp, the Hpeg, and the Crwth, The 
Irifli too make ufe of firings of brafs, oFtener than thofe made of hide, or gut \*' 

C/rffA/tf^ lilicwil'c gives a curious account of the effe^ls of njufic, and fays, "The fweetnefs of mufic 
iiotonly delights with its haimonyj it has its advantages alfo. It not a little eihilirates dcjefted mindfii 
it clears the clouded countenance, and removes fupeTcilioufiiefs and auflerityj Harmony is a kind of food 
to'the mind. Whatever be our purfult, mufic afliUs application^ and quickens genius. It gives courage 
(0 the bra^e, and afiiUs the devotions of the pious. Hence it is, that the bilhops, abbots, and holy men, 
in Ireland are ufcd to have the Harp about them, and pioufly amufe themfelves with playing it; for 
which reafon, the Harp of holy Kejdnin* is held in fuchagreaEeftiniattonby theorlgmal inhabitants, Bc- 
Jidcs, the warhke trumpet fends forth a mufical confonance, when its clangor gives the fignal for the 
attack. Mufic has its ^ffefts on the vicious, as well as the virtuous. The floiy of Akxander is well known; 
fo is likevvifc that of DavUi driving the evil fpirit from Saul Mufic has a power to alter our very nature. 
Hence the Irifli, the Spanirti, and fome other nations, amidCl iheir funeral wailmgs, bring forth mtifical 
lamentations, cither to increafe, or dimimifli their grief, fjdsr liath faid, that without Mufvc no inftitution 
or difciplinc is perfect. The very world is faid to have been Harmonioufly created '." 

GalikoU in his Dialogue on .'\neient and Modern Mufic, written In the year 158a, has gWen a very 
imeiefling pafTage refpcfting the Harp, which Iflwllinrert here literally tranaated; ** Among the fHnged 
inliruments now uftd in Italy, we have, in the firft place, the Marp ; which is in fed nothing but the ancii;m 
Olbara, with a great number of firings, differing fomewhat in farm, but that chiefly owing to the tafle 
of [he artilh'of ihofe times, the number of firings, and their degree of tenfion j the extreme highefi and 
lowelt comprifiitg upwards of three oftaves. This very ancient inftrutnenL was brought to us from Ireland^ 
(as Dfffife ^ has recorded,) where they are excellently made» and In great number ; and the inhabitants of 
which ifland have pradifed on it fur many aiid many centuries; its being alfo the paiticular badge of the 
kingdom, and, as fuch, frequently painted and fculpturedon their public edifices and coins, the people at* 
ledgijig, aa the caufe of it, that they arc defcendcd from the Royal prophet David. The Hatps uled by 
them are much larger than ours, and they are ufually mounted with firings of brali, and fome ol lt«l, la 
the acute partjof the fame kind as the Clavichord, (or a kind of Spinnet.) The petformers upon them 

■ Corii'r ffspry */" E/t^kiiJt ?ol. 1. p. J 1 J. —And Mafmif- 
liiTji Lii;»- II. 

* CukMm Dtjiripikt Chiip. X.- For a further account of the 
mttiicoUhe Wcllhi Iccp. jj ofthii boot— i-jt/j^/w'/ Hijt, of 
^//w. /A iMiofc II p,68,4iu, 

' Liraitlui't T^i' n( li'c9i«nd, cli;ip. XL 

* PrC'bitbly thiiwiii St, L'ftiBgtii, An'iMri, or Cuiwiigfinat wliu 
flouriHiied iilxaui the httereiiJ ul ihc lil'lh ccntur; i Ithulai ol 
*f, /ri*¥fif tilt BrJtou, LtKiujicuui tuundcd Uic ^ikbratct^ ' ' Uant* Buurilhci about ih< ycir i Jpo^ 


ii]0!Kii(iery of G/endn'iat&t I'l the Cfiuniy of Jf*1fiiW.— Z^rw'c/ 

* Gifaitiur Camhm^it CJi.ip. XII* 

i^j^r ilit. ii^iio tJitimit ininicd tit Florence in 158 J, iwd Litter 
thuL ia i6crt, tioiiln vfj..i hh kiJinirAbl« pcrfornicr ac Ui« 




Mje worn to let th« nails of both thrir hands grow to a confiderabfe length, trimming them with great tare 
in the maniwr wc fee ihc quilU on the jacks of the Spinneta. The numbcT of ftrings arc 54, ffij and as 
far as Co i whereas we ^ead, that among ifac Jews ihe C'tthara^ or P/altfrhn of the Prophei, had only 10 
fljings. The diflribution of the firings of one of thcfe Harps, (which I obtained a few months ago, by 
means of a veiy obliging gemleman of IrclandO I found» on careful esamlnnion, 10 be the fame as that 
of tbe Harp with a dotibk raw cfjiringt^ which was a few years ago imroduced mto Icaly ; although fomc 
(wiihout a fhaciow of realon) iiHcrt, that ihcy have lately invented ir, endeavouring to peifuadc the vulgar, 
ihat Gone but theiiifclvcs can play upon it, ot unJerfland its temperament, which they hold in f«ch 
greai cftimauon, ih-4t they have ungratefully denied it to many ; in fpite of whonij however, 1 will here 
defcribc it, for the fake of thofc who may dclirc it ' : The ^'^ Jlrln^s^ wbiibare momited on the Harp^ coJUain 
fiur t^^crji^St and one t^ne ; noL major, or minor, as fome have Imagined, but of the meafurc which I have 
above faid to be comamcd in a key'd inflrumcnt. The loweft firing, iherefore, as well for a fharp as for 1^ 
flat, h double C ; and the highdi ftring isD in ait : when they are to be tuned for B fi^i^ the t6 lower 
Arings on iheltfE lide arc to be distributed according to the nature of the cocnmon diatonic^flnd the 14 
that are in ihcoppofiie row to thefe, that is on the right fidcj (leaving apart the unifon of D, and A,) 
muilgivf, as we may fay, the thtomiEic kind, agreeable in ita nature to the faid diatonics. Tim 15 that 
follipw ne:<t, afcending the fcaJe, are to be iempered diaEonically, according to [he mode of the 16 lower 
ones, on the lef[ fide. The 13, that follow ni?xt above the fit ft 16, ate tiow to do the office of the lower 
onea on the tit^ht, as may be fecn in the examples If tht:n you want to play in B natural, let the dati 
of cath diatonic be ahcrcd, and tuned in one or the other of the chroma dc, inftead of thcBflatj 
and let thtfc be arrauij' J in the place of th.ife in the diatonic, bnth on [hi^ t^ighr, and the left. This mode of 
proceeding was fo ordered by its author for ihe convenience and facility of ihe fingers of both hand^j 
particularly in nsaking diminutionsj and lenglhening founds. We find thus among the faid firings ; five 
[hues C, five Dj four K, four F, four G* four A, four B fiat, and four B natural. Four umfons of D, four 
Ltiirons of A. Four fharps off, four fharps of /, four fharps of j-, and the four flats off; which in all 
malce the numbct of 58 (Irings. But [here are wanting, for the perfedlon of the diverlity of harmony, 
the four fharps of i/, and the four fl^itsofjj for which, in thofe modes, or mclodieSi where thefe firings 
occur their unifons which arc among the chromatic firings, are accommodated to them; which unifons pro- 
duce a great l^ciluy in the diminutions, as appears manileflly in practice; which facilliy is the caufc that 
they are generally diflrlbuted in the manner I have mentioned." 

** The Harp is fo fmiilar to the Ep'tgomum and the Simkttm % tluit it may with reafon be faid to be one of 
them ' nordji think he would be much miftaken, who fhould maintain, that the firings were tuned in 
the fame manntT and proporrion in the one as in the other inflrument, feeing that thefe inflruments were 
not introduced till after they began to play in confonant purts ; and wh^t diftribution is befi adapted to 
ihis, has bei:n fully explained." Ste more of the double ftringed Harp, in page 99, , 

' C^hlto ccniinnes a< fnStdii'i i *' AaJ let al! nthcn tjf iob^d 
a Jifi.oJkltjn t-ciTiciiil>cr^ i.!iit if tljoic men JiftinfiU^ftied In di- 
Tcra iiublejimNflTfir.-, lud noL wiih fo niuchjjbour of thctr 
ovji, .LU J for i3]^.- bciitrn cl ptirttrliy,. Iti't bcSiUid lo m;my vc- 
Itinii^^ cciLsc^niL^^i; thtjic kim, liscy \touM now beperftftly i^- 
uaraisL tjf then-, Lind iW f-iinc of Ttiofc wouJd no'.^' he wholly 
obfciiJi^d, "Whercus fey nicam of i lie eitelleiiCfl ^.\ incif writ- 
liiFi.Llity li^e for ever jii our n;cmt)r>'. and cv^Ly one may 
ifbtrchv beroiiii: vcrj- IkilfuE, Uiid iH lUc um<t time (we may 
[ruty fiy) h:tp]>v ; if In fnil Ji^ppincfi m ihis wnrld ccmfdli in 
notEunubut to' k]iow nnd "MjfidcHhnd ih<s trutli o^ thingSH 
iVojniitcdby wliofecirampJc, thcnohJc and vircuoui mindioi 
our linscfi readilv like paiiii 10 3cifii the fcicn«s» for no other 
tiLirpotc but tu fjciliLiiu- iiiLd illi]ftrate them by their writings, 
uJihout ever ra'uliiiR^4>i" couccsJlng, iiny cKin^ they t[^ow,io 
itkCiiL who d*J lyt ^'»'iW 't^ *"d wilh 10 iciir:i it, Thofe un^ 
jjriin'ful iKrlLiits drj uot pertcivv, tlJat the titile they know, 
fhty huVHi learnt from Use fjite and the i>t]ii:r j who, if they 
hiid been^;us, or unwilling to impart, thefe miiH needs 

have been very ujduippy" ^ , ■ « j r -i_ i 

" 1 [i the p! Jte» (ir Icale ut the arm^t of ihn Harp, defcribed 
In C^diUfi, P* Ml. it 'iii^l »5 flrit^K*, m c^ch of the ^wo nms ! 
iluns, D, lit tup, *tid DD at byJ-tom. irtilLP nght*liand row ^ 
andCiit top,ii(ad CCiit bouom, inthe left -hind row. Itfeems 
AUy were tunedin differeiit key!,ai oecufioni required thtiKi; 
<nd par^ ^.f one rtiv. , iiuJ r*rt vi Utf oUwr, ffir/td for liie luci- 

dentiil fljti and (harps j the remaint^r were umfons 14 buth 
the town. 

' '* Tf> tell you briefly what I lliiot of the Epi^oiuam, and 
ihi SimKum, I hnld chat the miitier and form was t wooden 
frame, in both fomcwhai fiirailir to that of s Hirp, Howeverj 
I fubmit to the bct:er |ud;rmcnt f>f thofc wbo underEl^nd the 
muTtcr better th-Ail I do- I'itC-EjN^uniiim Wai invented by l/pi^ 
gtmiur Bj.4n^racUv the head of a Eair.DUK fe^, a little before, or 
afier, Sotrain, as wc are tnld by Fifrffiirivtj in hla tlatca upon 
the inLifte of i'/eJfflijr. Which jE/«/ottii« (gs isalfertedby ^ir^ji/ 
f^oflux] was thcfirlt who ufed to Urikcihe Irlugiwiih the fin- 
Rtrs, inltead nfthe plectrum 1 wiiicEi manner of touching ihc 
uringSs together with ibc number of [hem, nrgues Ettathe 
played jnconfonant parts i whieh manner was nifterwardi (a* 
vve'leirn from SiKton'tai TranqtiiUut) followed aUb by Nera t 
that author leltsus^thjit Neroj having onte appeared pubJiLkty 
in the theatrcp in the midJi of fevcral mtificiaLis, trll played a 
very pretty prelude with his fingersj and then be^an to ung." 
Gaiiifi?''i Dht^nia ca Mwficf p, 39. — As to the Sinutum^ fom» 
fay it was invented by i(>j(caj, aad that it had 35 iVitigi, tha£ 
is, 21 dtiiioiiic noiesj befides the unifontjand perlmps dirc^rna* 
ties. Probidity it niuEt have been ittventcd prior lo the Epi^ 
jMiain, which bad ^Xi ftrirtgi [ 30 of theni arc fiiidiohiivf 
been diaionics, and the rjthers were miifon^ ^lid thn>ma[icj.-- 
Grajmittai'i Mtifmt DiiJh^arj, p^ 1^9- And Gaiiittf, pp- i9 
111(140. ^ 




" RetuTiuJig now (o tbfi inTeniTon and ori^m of modern mflrumcnts j fay, ihat (on account of the agree, 
ment of the namc^ of the furm, and of th« number, difpofition and matter of the rtrings, although iti 
profelTors in Italy h)\ that tbcy have Snvented it j) frooi tbe Harp, moft probably the Harpficbord had its 
Mtifin i which inrtrument is nothing but a horizoriTal Harp : and, from it, may be derived the kcy'd infttu- 

ipenra of touch '." 

W(? have tikewirii another proof that the Italians had not the Harp ; Di^ny/tus of Halicamqfus^ (a writer 
In the reign of /^E/^L7/?f^iO fpeaking of Evander^^^^ Carmcnia^ Tays, among other inventions, they Intfo. 
duccd mto Italy the ufe ot the Lyr^^ tbe Trig^Uj and the Lydian Fij^cs^ when, beforei paftotal Rcedj 
formed the only mofical inftruments 'i— — — » 

The mofl; ancient Irifli Harp now remaining^ h that which is faid to have belonged to Brian ^Boinmb 

king (if Itdand, who was flain in bartle with the Danes at Ciontarf^ near Dublin, iV-D- 1014, HI? fon 

DiHiagh, having mprder^d hts brothEt Teige, in the year loij, and being deppfyd' by his nephew, retired 

to Rortic, and carried with hint the crown, the Harp, and other regalia of his father, which be prefented to 

(he Pope, in order to obtain abfolution, Adrian the iVth^ furnamcd Brcakfpear, alledged thia tircutiu 

ibnce aa one of the principal tides he claimed to this kingdom, in bis buU transferring it to Henry U^ 

Thtfe regjiia were depofued in the Vatican, till the Pope ftm the Harp to Henry VIIL with the title of 

l)^fjrHdi:r ^TM^ F^if^ ; but kept the crown, which was of tnaffive gold* Henry gave the Harp to the firrt 

earl of O^nritarJj In whnfe family it remained rill the beginning of this century ; when it came by a lady 

of tbe Dc llurp^h fastiily into that of Mac Mabon, of Clenagh, in the county of Clare, after whofe death 

|[ palled inio the poffelljon of commilTioner JMj.c Namara, of Limericks tn 1782 it was prefented to the 

light honourable William Conyngham^ who depofued it in Trinity Coliege Library^ Dublin ; where itftill 

remains. Thiii Eiarphad only one row of firings ; is 32 inches bighj and of extraordinary good workman- 

ihip; the foLind-boarJ is of oakj the pillar and comb, of red fallow ; the extremity of the uppermoftbar, 

pr comb, in part U cape with filver, extremely well wrought and chifitied* It contains a large cry/tal fet 

in iilver, and under it was another ftone, now loft. The buttons, or ornamental knobs, at the fides of the 

bar^ are of filver* On the front of the pillar, are the arms, chafed in iilver, of the O'Brien family j i. e, 

the bloody hand, fupported by lions* On the fides of the pillar within two circles, are two IriOi wolf-dogs 

curved in the wood. The flring-bolcs of the fouud-boardaTe neatly ornamented with cfcutcheons of brafs, 

carved and gilt j the found Ing-holes have been ornamentedj probably with filver, as they have been the 

obje-ft of theft- This Harp has 28 ftringfcrew^s, and the fame num^ber of firing-holes to anfwer theni, 

confequently there were aS firings \ The bottom, where it rcfts upon, is a Utile broken, and the wood 

tery rotten. The whole bears evidence of an expert artift \ ' \ 

^ Gatiltfi^pM l^^v&c^ Ktrclrr tikcwifc iin^iglncs that the 
Hjjp fini hLfnilhcJ the iJc^ "E'a HstrjUkhnrd. 
^ ^ £>iefl^tt/. Lib- I- p- i6, L-diiL, ijSfi ^Diofr. ;M Llh. 11. 
Carm^i^ wa,> a prOpt^^C^Es^ anJ muttiiCr of Kzaoi^r^ Jhc kft 
ArtiiiitJ^ ^ndcamc: tnto ItiHv^ v.ith her fon^ about A.M. i^f^o. 

Pof^tM^-r Lib JV_ Tp^aks at !argc conecrjiiog t[ic di.4L^hL oi" 
ihc jinaJii^^ in MuJict toa lie J;,ty5i *'' Thin icicitce l&uicJul 
ry ^x\[ men, but cvt^Ei ncttlT-Lrj' to ikc Arc^idiansj w]uj arc ac- 
ciiJ^OBJicd Lc^ ||E"tiii hardllaijjs* For, 4^ their countr]^ is tang]], 
[Jicir Iciilbns itbtltment, awd their palU^r^l w;ij ot JiJc hurJ, 
[Ltuykivc thiscnlj." wkyofrcndcLnneuNiureiniltl^ind tr^-ftabk^ 
ihcrcforcthty tr^in up their childrciijli-om thctr vc]'y mfjjieyp 
tlJl thcyurc ^oyLursQi agCjm Ijnj^in^^hynim in honour of Gckls 
^nd Hi^rDcs^ It i&isD dilgr;icc amoii^ ihem to be anacquaintd 
wiih oiht^r rdcnccsp but tu Ik ignoiujic of Mufic \i ;b grcuc re 
Ijrodch. Frnm thcic manners oi' the Ari:&diHih:$ -Axok th< 
hfUonof the Po^ta th^t P^rit the god ot' the Ar^adiaai^ iu' 
\cptcd the ppff and was ja lovc with the nymph Echu. Forj 
Arcadia, hth}^ niouiit^muus aild lui] of woodi, ahgundiwich 
echoes I whence not only themhiljjt3,iit£ oi that country^ bui 
ulin the niountaiiLSi nopd^j And trees, ^^rc faid to ling.^^ E)cu 
die Vtllih Eclofcfue o( Fir^iL ind the Xtb, ly^ 

Wc kpirn fjoiia /^jrfiilkfitud^ thrit tlie iuuud of the fjnjth^t 
hanimcrbj LiiLij^bt Fjt&t^&rai to invent the Mm^httn/^ in in- 
Ikrumcnt for leiciiduLinif tlii: nu^i^liiFes and pr&pcaruunt oi 
Juuaidi Kcomctric^liyi Thii pniiofnphari obr<;rviiij; thut the 

divcrfLty of founJ \rafi owin^ 10 the fisc rff the hanrmers, fuf- 
pendcd four cquJ ftrtJigs, luftaimng ^eights of ti^dvcniac* 
eight* and fix pounds ; thcn^ llribin^ alternately ihe llringt 
ujikh fullaincd the twelvej^nd fix pounds* he Tound that the 
diapa/i^n or ocluvc wsts fEirm^iJ Ly the proportioaof two tg am:, 
TJactwcivcand eight poundivciglits taught hi lii, that chc^j^jrf, 
or fifth* y.'ik^ in the proportion of three v^ two [ and the iwcke 
and Rtne pouiidi* that ihe ^id/^rwi, ar fourth, WiU as fourta 
Lhree+ 1 nmll refer the cunoiii. leader, for fuT-thci'l'^cisfa^ionv 
to the twenty -Hxth chapter of lam^kiuTf .^f yUn /%i>^mr«.— 
^ The Harp of Mr. Jonathan Hehirp of Limerick* whkk 
wjis made by John Kcily* in the year 1726, contahii thirty' . 
three (itrj3i|;s> is hvc-lett highp and fecms to bf made ut'fcd 
fi^liDv^. It docs not appear that the IriOi Harp had any more 
thanonerowof [Iringi, until RoUert Nugent, a Icfuit, intro- 
duced the li4rp wiiia Li dDuble row oi JUioga, in ihc lytk 
century- Grot. Luciu/^p, 37. Thimgh It Wis ntoiv pri>Mi- 
ble that the Irijh had 21 Ironi the Wcllh j becAuk, the Bvd, 
£>a^7^4i ifr/i^erjKri who llotirilhed =ibout the \cai ijtiQ, tnu- 
lioui hii H-irj3 hiLving iij lti:n];s^ 01 mon- /whitla pttjbahlf 
were iu two row**— And Mcrfinju*i Trrmyt cw ^i^^pubhlb^ 
cd iti thf yC'it it^tt dtiJi:iiL>es ^ lijr[i with thice jtdwi ot' 
tLrinu^ ^ and i uevci^ hc^d ot auy ^^uuatiy'i hAviu 1 iriplt 
Harp but the Wehh. 

^ Coi/^ikiAfj di re*uj Nittrniciu Number ij- £my^hf&Jm 
Srifawkiii priuRd at £dhnburj|^hi4tu. VJ. V]U, nn L 


How the Hsrp bripfnilly came [o be the armorial enfign of Ireland is a rnifter which has often been 1 
fubjca ofinveftigation among the curiom. According to TindatV Hiftory \ all the aodeni pennies tlut 
hjreihc head In a iraanglc were iTilh calm, which triangle ts fuppofcd to reprcfent the IrjOi Harp. Others 
think the triangle -illudes to the IViniiy, King Jshn, and his two fuecefTora, were the earlteft monarch'* 
who ufed the triangle conftantly oil their money. From this triangle, perhaps, proceeded the arms of 
Ireland. "Vherc Is a groat ofking Henry (he Vlllth, which has on one fide of it the armi of England^ on 
the reverfe a Harp crowned, and Franc. Dminus Hib^r. which is the firlt lime that the Harp appear* 
difttn^ly icprcftnccd on the coins, h was ftruck about the year 1530 ^ 

According to a paper which was delivered to the Royal Trill* Academy, Dublin, the following account 
]$ ^ivcn of the arms of Lcinttet * " In thc/mleof the firft Milcfian princes wetc a celebrated Bard, and 
s Harper, both in great favour ; on the partition of the country, Hcbsr wanted to rctala both ; this waj 
oppoled by his brother Hcrcmn, equal in power : to avoid difputes the choice was to be determined by lot, 
which fell n> Ihb^r, who chofe the mufician; and, as this conteft happened in Lsin/}^, to commemorate 
the event, as well as their love of mufic, the Harp was afllnned as the provincial arms." See ^Eirther in 
the preceding page» 

Therein a ctiin which fectns to have relation to Ireland, where a crowned king Isj or David playing on 
the Harp, over which is the crown of England and Flonat Rtx j on the reverfc, a mitred Bi^op, (or St^ 
Putrkk^ the Brhon, who reformed the Irilh %) holdtng a double crofa, and flanding between a church and 
a ferpent, 'i^hich he Teems to drive away. There h anothcr_of S^ Patrick preaching to the psoplcj with 1 
trefoil in his rl^]liJland^ 

tr appuara by SirWil/iam Sugar's M3S. In the Herald's Offlce, London', that he was prcFcnt when \t 
was titbattd belore iIie privy-cuancil, Eind the commiflioners for executing the oEce of earl-marlhal, on 
the acccllionof Jjm^stheFirftto the tiirone of England, what would be the proper mode of quartering th* 
Ruyalarnis; attd, it bting determined that the Harp for Ireland (ho uld be in the third quarter ; Henry 
lluWiifd, earl of Northampton, one of the council, who (as Sigar fays) fhewcd no affe£lion to fuffering 
(he fame, rofe up, and laid, *■ that the bcH: reafon he could obfcrvc for the bearing was, that it refcmbled 
the country, in being fuch an inrtiumenc, that it required more coit to keep it iti tune than it was worth/* * 

SiamhurJ}*s IliUory of Ireland ' relates, *' that, whiia the IriJh were at fupper, a Harper ufually attended, 
ivho was oiitn blind, and by no means lliilled in mufic, fo ihai he fometimca offended the accurate ears of a 
coniioiileur. Yet, by ftrikinfF the ftritjgF, he uniformly delighted the commonalty with his rude harmony*" 
Again he litys, '* there lives in our age (vi/.. about the year 1584) a man of the name of Cntpts, who^ 
accotding lo cvtrry one's opinion, is very eminent on the Harp. He very much abhors that confufed 
found which is produced from imrtreichcd llrings, atid are in thcmfclves difcotdant. On the other hand, 
he keeps fuchrulei with regard to \m meaiure, and agreement of melody, and obferves fo much concord 
in hi* muJic, that he woudcrfully delights his auditors, infomuch that they do not hcfitate to declare, that he 
i, raiher (lie only, than the grcateft Harper. Whence k may be deduced, that the Harp has not hitherto 
been w^i.ting to Muficians, but Muficians to the Harp. The Irilh alfo ufe the Bagpipes, whEch appear 
amongit them an incentive to warlike valour; for, as other foldi^rs with the found of Trumpets, ft» 
thefc, with the found of PipcB, arcinfpired wiih ardour for the fight'*'*— 

* ftrnJai'i Ni^^ft cf EnviattU. V(il. L P. iS 

tniial^i Hf^vry af lla^ianti, Va] 

* l«.|.l. p. ^H7. ^ , . 

» ^imon't HPy 5J1 Irl/h C.^ki, ^t^j. And lVsi:f't jfjilioaitifi 
oflrtLnJ, VcJ. II. cluj), 5». it JceiJJt [ifobitik iLattlic H^rp 
w^x t.ui rn: 111 the iirnnofihc kings M' l-^njilHriJ prior i^ l-kury 
iSi; VlLlt]], l»t(aifcfc Coir, vilcouiJt EauiilkcJlcn, iritir* his dc' 
(ccni injin It^nry the lil, (tc, (Sir jnhn Cele wai crciicJ 
J. rU Rjucli^l p ■»'id the iircfcul JdVctfcJ^uL ii CAdf/?J Jtnu/i 
tikouiii yiMiKU^hi}-*nvi\Kr rtiilim ilhit f^vuufk tliiii opiiLiun ii 
ihtr tK.rc M£*iikn /larfwi&fhtrjfrin^i imheir tu^ii nf irniij 
which ib»lievci»thc(jjdy il.iiriilj'ih.ii hai ctji the Roysl 
Fimdy, ^iJ#li<:jH"tUj it| " iVtrJiuf G^tJ^Stntth fCtttji" I 
tj4*<iu)bB r<c<'flr^iuu of Ldivlii^ Iccu thic Uiir|> liL [Jic ■irmu- 
fi^lUjLrtiiiifti'f Henry [li« III«^'f the iVih, th^iu^h I tatiiiot 
be ujtuD, HliJ I "PtSf it-cn["J" thiip in thtt (oiiic;uJici- 

U4J MtfJxjiEic b-iiLi Hi kUi^dty. The tity of Dorobilbr «^ 
\ufi.** tki It^ti m II* U^u«|»iur *niiin(i £ii|jiiuul. Ukvma, 

jaftj, wKEch wii km to die preGJcntof the Roj-^it Ififti Aca- 
dcmv. Liublinjiii ]7ae. . «t * , 

« drtilJai Cam&rt^tt f^p^rafhia Htlrtnit, Cftjp. ifi : aoJ 

the nntfis litp- li ufLhis wqtL ^ ,,,,,. . tr s i 
' / ir/jN «« Mf^Uj, i>. iji- And /fjff / Atai^,oJSriiMdt 

' Vtil. HL 1*3*. In CoW. J*f«w- 
There ii ■± mdlt V^^^'^tK H^irp on Uie erdi-fcil of tmg Iinaet 
lite 1. wh<f WAX the htv^f uwiwr f>f three tiii|SdoTii« unJ^r 
t,nc htiJ, j:iJ zj\\*iAkCr*<tt Bru^l*\ ^nJ ihc liflL Jl ^ur 
monarch. lh*t uuirEercJ tUt ;«:e.» ul lI.hj1= ih«c Ln^iia^iH. u| 
ijiic IhKlJ, tir ihc MdJitioQ thereto ol ihc inHpLn^ut S.uM 
iuJ tr^la^l tH. which hii mL.110 ^i rWj ■• t/« J^i^icuM^ 
in hjvcfOnc.^. whieh t» Jfw lUniieJ^m hiicyia*. *4V*'' 
Gtmaiigiiat N'Jt^J P-. Hft' 

« u3oi«»cn JtUKJi ibAtthc lnlhh*JilK |w 

^X p^r«f «fUt(.i t/j M:> CV/41/V41, bC the Arn» of fr^. 


iKc the [neu4iJii[ l>-ii«tfJ" 






About the year 1400, the rcience of mufic had made fach pTOgrefs in Scotland, that one of iti princes, 
. V -j„ 5/„drf the firfl of that name, (who was educated while a prifoner in England, at the comtnand of 
H=nrv the FourthJ h rcpreftnred by the Scotch hiftoriajis as a prodigy of ervidition- He civlllied The 
Scotch nation Among other accoitiplilhments, he was an admirable mufician, and particuhrly Ikilled hx 
playine on the Harp S 7^/;^ Major mentions, that this Monarch's Cantiiena were commonly Tung hy the 
Scotch as fhe moft fevourite compofitions, and that he pbyd better on the Harp than the moft fkilfullriO,, 

Of Highland Harper '. ^ 

« The amufementsof the Highlanders by their fire-fides were, the telhng of tales, the wilde[t m moft 
eaitrsTagant imaginable: mtific was another : m former times the Harp was the favoiirite marumeat, 
covered with leather, and ftrung with wire S but at prefent, is quite loft there */' 

BucluiTtan, in his Hiftoryof Scotland, fpcaidngof the inhabitants of the Hebrides, fays, " Inftead of a 
Trumpet, they ufe the Bag-pipe. They delight very much in mufic, cfpecially in Harps of iheir own 
' * fort, fome of which are ftrung with wire, others with intemnes of animals ; they play on them either with 
a tl/truffi, or with their long naiU. Their only ambiLion feems to be to ornament their Hatpa ttith much 
. ' iilver, and prccioo.*^ ftones. The poorer fort deck theirs with chryflal, inllead of gems- They fmg vetfei 
0ot unrkilfulJy compoftd, which almoft always confift of the praifes of their men of valour, nor do 
their Bards treat of hardly any other frtbjcft K" Munr^'i Account of the Natives of the Weftern Iflands 
* • .. ■' of Scotland, faysi ** They delight in mufic, cfpecially in Harps or Ciairfi'chau decked with filver, after 

the manner of the Britons*." * 

* .Wjk ' ' ' It appears the Bar.!s were formerly in high eRimatton in Scotland, as well as in Wales, and Ireland, ind 

^^ were retained in the family of every great lord. I find there is fonie veftige of it (till remaining, that of 

^ulii-bardifiy in the county of Perth, whence the duke of Athol derives the Utle of marquis of Tulii-bardja. 

Likewife, »/ie late earl of ilglingtoun, informed me, that he had a portion of land amongft his eaate, 

.^ near Eglingtoun-caftle, in Scotland, called the liar^r^i la/id, which ufed to be allotted by his ancqft«i 

■ '-• ' 10 the Bard of the family \ 

.' - Urn infortned, that, about the dofe of the laft century, John Ghfs, and John NTacdonald, Bards by 
profeflion, who fefided, and were refpedted as fuch, in the houfes of two Highland Chiefs, travelled fifty 
miles, and met by appointment at Locbiiber^ to vindicate their own honouTj and chat of their refpe£tive 

Chit^fs, at a public meeting, in a poedc and mufical contcfl:* 

» . r ihall now quote a foreign author, as it tends to furnlfli farther information refpea:ingthe Harp, and 

; one who, I ihrjuJd imagine, was no bad judge of fuch matters, both as a theorlft and a pratliLioner. His 

I ■* ^ name h Thr^iii. de PheJo, who wrote notes upon Stcahanus de Urhihus^ in the year J678 j where he has 

infer ted a fliort Differtation on Mufic, in which are thefe words 1 " I was incited to give an account of 

mufical intervals, by the learned diifertadon of 'Jsan. Albert* Bttnnus ; in which he defires fome one will 

H^^- ■ giv^e anew conftitution of mufic, by placing hemitones between all the tones, fo that the art of mufic 

may be rendered cotnplcte, and lit to move the pafTions. I will gratify his define, which I am enabled to 
do by my ikill on tbs thrp wkb twit rows of Ji rings ^ the quesn of all mufical inftrumcnts; in which, ou 
' , account of the number of Its ftrings, vtz. 39, may be feen, as in a glafs, all the mufical intervals; and by 
■ft hofe fwcet harmony, arifiiig from the difcordant agreement of firings, ftruck with the fingers, infiead of 
apieclrum, 1 have long not only amufed myfelf, but have alfo relieved the mifery attending an undeferved 

banifhment from my native country V * 

For aconfidcr^ble length of time has the Harp contributed to keep alive the elegant pleafures of fevcral 
poliftied nations, but more particularly the courts of Britain ; and probably this inftrument was aflcrwardi 
acquired byother nations, when the Biitifti tribes fprcad themfelvesover the neighbouring iQes, and countries. 

' Lrp^y. dt Rth. GtJI. Scch Uh. VLI.pp. 157, 166,167. * EtKbanm'i Hipry 9f Si:oiia«J,^<.^\^ L (Written aboui the 
£Jit. j^7fi 4CO. 

' Mfijv,GtJ,Stct,\A\i, VT.capn 14, fnL. 155. Eil. i fit, 410, 
* biriingE cjt gold, or ftf Jjlvcr T^'irc in Har[n^ or HLirpll- 

chordii I xhSiA wniijil yitM it. found itlnioLt l^^ n^: .li Ltrcmg ai 
ihofe flif hr^'i, ^iiU ilioil- l^E' liccl \ rlic laiicr [ii mKjcf m .1 li'cqtiltrr 
IiiinkI thiLiL ih4»re ut \ir.\{i,t \^\\izi\i\r Im^lLi Iciif iK^vyaud Icl'i 
digil^lc tKitn koII^ 

< Mmr- Actd Pt^m^t Toar ta Stot/^J, p. 1 67 1 Sto. eJil. 
It uill be nCcctTtfy [O nbfcrve herfli th.Li the Jii;ot>(.ii hu|p-cti> 
fbch ii thing It! mi ^nci*Mi and j^hfmU Mtnu/inpt, l}ki%})j| 
lielrifh, IT th« WeHh ,<ri inilLircil itj. 'I'liulcwho wi(h Ibr 
M luriiii:!' iiri'^r.. i rst^c U' Uii. JuUnfijUa Mr* i*Lul(crtuiLi uiJ 

* jWiiar&'v Hs^ofj. Ami LewU't Amirm Hi/l§ry^GrMt- Sri- 
law, p. *J4»ft!'l* 

* Alfo, Cit^rtif ffarpaur hi\d l«ttiti la Chcflcrtoo, Vfu* 
wictlliire. af tlit Linjj, by gr4nU fcrftwwyi— ^^n*' T*mW| 
t>i Htik'suiih, p. I ji. 

riifl iiirJiaiinf 111 NMbfTp without UiHibc. firtl ctrijiOAtcd ham 
thuL proteiriolU A Hm\% WjU ftimitrlr >rt*rlli! hy lh« <W««^ 

III Lhe tomiiy ot Vork, by WillUm RyJcyi tSt* i>ftrr>^ 41 A«Wi 
.iIkiul A-D- 16^7. Gmlm'tHii^>it^. lul^ cJitiout £* •fl|» 
■ StffhMHf M Lfmrn i An., i ..n-ilu And l«4w 


To confirm w!iat T h^^t hid before, that the Harp was the mofl noble and fitvoutite inftnimettt Gf thfl 
CyiHry, or Ancidnt Britons and Gauls, I will cite fotne documents, whkh tend to elucidate its progreffive 
improvtmcnifij froui tht worka of the old Bards^ and from the bell Englifti and other writef* ; nor could 
aurboTi expreft tbcir opinbiia of it ftiongl^ enough, but by inculcating that k wu ufed in Hcav«n. In the 
fioofc of Rnfktkix of St, John, it is called ^* the Harp of God '/'— " And I heard thfe voice of HaLTper* 
burping with their Harps : And ihey fang as It were a new fong before the throneS'^"' 

** With faintly (bout, and folcmn jubilee, 
" Where the bright feraphim in burning row 
<* Their loud up-lifted angel -irumpeta blow, 
- • " And the cherubic hoft, in thoufand quires* 

" Touch their immortal Harps of golden wires ; 
•- *^ I* With thofejurt fpirits that wQt viftorioufi palms, 

« Hymns devout, and holy pfalms . - - , ^ 

** Singing everlalUngly."- — -J(/j//e4» And Rtvtlation, Chap. XV* 

. , ► " And the found, 

" Syiiiphoiiious, of ten-thoufand Ilirps, thit tun'd • ■ . . 

" AngcUc harmonics/*— — JHHi^n, ^ 

" Sing unto tlic Lord with ihankfgivinR, S\n^ praife upon the llirp unto our God."— r/aJ™ ni, t. 7. 
" Tike ihe Pfolm, bring hitiicr theTabtet, the tuctry llirp, witb the Lute." p/ata Si. v. i. 

Mi v,.my ng^jm,ry,. yn 11}, Cyn.e!y„ , ■ ' . - 1 have b«n =t .he court of Cynvdjii, on T™=r.hiU ; 
m v.m ^add Tel,, i Urn Uychly,,." I h.vebccn chi.f Bard of thellarp to L>^;""f L^'Win. . 

" D!m,n„im ilM V T.-lyn.rl,n, The Harpers «'=te not worth a halfp^ny ; 

.. Tdynhr iat » m^enydJ, 11>ls H.rpcr, bleft with lofty Mufc, 

» Trlyibiw bdrddm^^n tr^Ma«bydd."G. GW,,c The Bir<l= in br.ny Hoods ,n.bru«.-0». - D.^.^ry. 

" P.r ' *fr' / Kvt..,V .« cam:, mawr iWtmJ How fwe«, Jjb'^rr, is thy charnimg found, 

« Af.. «/..^l tW.™. ; ^Vhich tnake. theyouthful heart v,.,h,ranfport bound , 

« ^n.l . of^Jmctu,-i.lnc, . Thy vario.. note., me hfiuou. and ftrong 

.. Ir iL .rdd nr %t c,i>,c. Flow tuneful a. the golden p,p« of fong !— 

, ., ijthU Hiro. fuch as was formally ufed to pity on UoriUjAcl!, 
• Sa CLlUd fr^m i(>. ker ^Hicl, it was lun<:d m J on p-^HiapR. !i 1^1* Harp lacn as H„,fA iWl Jcrs 

iU bottom «f which h:fd tw. cvoi. f=cc. fomaf.i., like . ..n.i>Ito^l> tok«i> -t a^.djr .n th. h.rfe * ll^oaldcr.. 

My countrycnan, Sir C^cr, the fa^kr of EngUdt poetry, and preceptor to Chaucer, ha. the 

following pail'agc ; , ' , 

, _ Ijc tnttgtiv Ijtc till fljc \oa^ tfctfli'ite • 

ff)i: liarp, Citolc s anO of IS-luvc, /&/;.,» 

QiUtii inanp a tctiiuc, fltiU maiii? a note ^ c.«/#* ^flfl:.;.-si'r^^ .hunh^jrar i^ro.^^- i.». 

•* ■ At^ elegant Couplet which was written on a Harp : 

« Ma^ kiftau mdy^on, • Within the concave of its wombis found 

« Mil<^ l^dym The magic fcale of fouUenchantmg found- 

** Hifl w*>rd « more than the niiraculoua Harp**' shai^J^^tn'! Tm^Jt Aa IL fttnt i . 

*c The ofiice of a pliyfitian is (o put the curious Harp of a man^a body in tune;* 'B^»^ 

' itrwrtuKrii* Ch^i*, XIV* vcrlti * and 3 J and Chiip' ^^ 

We kmi* noi what they doabove, - "-- ^ - . - ; ■ , 

a-«, tl«i iJwy liHi, und ihit ihrj lovj, 1 i b« n^^i" >" ii4g?V0i*ma ji, ^^ ^^ 

t*r,^t /;ri«.t from Cijhi!^, ^ liu c .hciU ™7"^l«J,^„,t , 



'Thomfw't Sra/aiu. 

" For new to forrow muft I tuM my fong, 

*T A^a fct my Harp to notcH of faddeft woe.*'- — — 

^ «• Angelic Harps are in full cooccri heard, 
** And voices cbaunHng from tbe wood-cTOwii*d hill. 

** Yon vrhite-Tob'd Bards, fweeping their folemn Harps, 

" Shali lift ihdr choral warblings to the Odes," J»f?>i*/ Cjfo^^icui. 

'' Hark ! hU hand the Harp explore ; 

'* Bright^cyed fancy hovering o^er/' - — Cray* Ode- 

•* A golden Harp with filler llrings (be bore." CawJiy*j Ct,mpyMt, 

" A bevy of fair wfomen, richly gay 

" In gems and wMiton drcfs j to th' Harp ihey fang 

" Soft amorous difties, and in dance came on*" — — ■ 

Englyfthn Mohwdj D^fjn*" "" 

L/^is T^lyn a ddyibryn Di/w^/ / 


Tmai^Ti euro V Cclyn; 
B'SJi^rtu^ydo S^ui y/^ryd/yrj/is 

— Poetical BlofTdtns m praife of ;he Harp. 

^ ddaw di^^^'l i annedd djjt^ 
jft Zn-^tf/j lie bydda Tilyn ; 
VdJy Davydd i' h^r^uydd bjn^ a ^art^dd 
E ^i/hdd y g^lyn* 

Pan vs Twdd'u^I d^l m^wr^ djn—'ac y/hryd 

Dr'iAjg q/hri 'jj ei ddi/yjt / 
Dwykitj rtr diifinau V Dclyfiy 
A d^a 'L'an g^'U/iicthav gwjn^ 


For exprefljon,and varlctys the Harp has no rival, *bich will be acknowledged by all who know bow 
the heart is foothcd by its dcUcate and fofter foundsj as ^vell as animated by h& more powerful, and 
fprightly tones* This n elegantly exprefled by a Wellli Bard in the following ftanza : 

Bl'^^yru.ih, didfivch^ didrah^ tazvtiaidd, O Harp ! within thy magic cells 

Tw Tdyn hyurydkh ; Light, airy glee, and pleafure dwells 
Crf odlau.iywir adhts. And gentle rapture rings j 

^£iM}!aidd wi-w l^^aidd lah. While clear-voic'd echo fends around 

S.. more on ih^ f^we fubjcil In PF- ^*i 7'* ^^ 77 f ''"d The heavenly gale of tuneful found, 

. ^. .^ , . From all th* accordant ftrings* 

in the note below \ 

~ - • 

' The followinR i^ a lift of pMrns which were written by 
diffcnut li.irds [o Illicit a H^upn or iai lE^cuniimen^lL^ionii ic- 

CowyUd i ovyn Tclyaij a chvweirjrora Arintn drpsMr- SJun 
Trcv*jrp Drcv-^Jurt^ ^un Mr. Siiiicyn Gxvyii, q L^uiBdiQ^ ; o 
W-tilh IViIhm LiiyH i written abnut A. D. rjjd* 

Cowj-dii =1 b,uoddi^d«y^^-^diGwfi[3'W,bcnccrdd Tclyn^ (nid 
y B:irdJ o*r Dchcnidi]'*) ei wn-cuchur] ovynTcJyngan Edward 
^irb|pcncGrdJ»o DelynlorpO Wiiirh/^_}"iff/JI«flfl//^; iibout 34S0. 

Cowy-U i Di:3j^iQiorj o wiuth Ti^dur j^/tJ; iboitc 1490. 

Avi^dl 1 Effiob Dsujgar am cr^culufu Prydyddj h1 niLiwrliau 
Crwih irithant j w:iLth larw^rfl -fiirft-" ;il3out 1^4^' 

Cowydd i Dvyiu Telyji i Si^ii H.hi(iart Ogcvn CMpr, Jros 
Humparey Wyna o Ynya y MnKng^'yiii ii giiuddd SiVrf Plyiify; 

Cowydd i ii^ivj^n Ttlyn Ra^vn gan Ivan all D^vydd^ a £a- 
HoddGwcrvyt, vcrch Guityn^TavtirnwraigTiE-y-fari], 1560- 
Cowydd j5liii^j/,i/ Be^itfjsit " srcJii Telyn ftawn [ 1J84.— 
Cuwydd I (jvyiL Gordderchn-i Thclyn i Sjr Wit]bm Gruff- 

E'3* Siambrteti Gwycieddi t> waith Syr D^ivyJJ Tr^tt^rf^o 
n^nKOjymMcDi I4U0- 

Cowydd tuvyn Iclyn g^n Sii^n S^](Lri| o Luwenij □ waidi 

TioflTiM /''■jr/j o Bias ti-lyBs Kfc] 1 E5B0. 

Cowydd fii^'i Cjjiwnl^ i crchS TeWnn x68q. ■ ■ » ^* 

CcrJJ VDUwdi*r i>e3yUf Wiiith iJavyddJoatt^ 

Ctrdd J uvyn Ttlyii i iifiia Ptys, yamm al tmw Wlliiiin 
Llw^dj I^Lbni^Gdwyitt w^hUi Cml^'oL^jr K^riSi ■■ ■■■ m 



CTfTclybiadrhwyiiEMorviidd a,'rDJyQ|0 ^vnith A»pU 
fli 6'ui-i/pi£T. Sec pssg^ i£>6 uf his works. ■ 

Cowydd yn dniHgos pa eyvirwyddyd ^ ddyla v6d mc^tt 
I^ArJdi Q w;uHa /rtPiw m Lu^ Vyfttrnt '+70- 

Cfiwydd^u EitmunJ Fryi, where lie iiicntLant tbe ptimitim 
Bards* flscr ; No, afip tbc 7^1 and 8t!i poem* af ihli lJ=*nJ'» 
wofks^ 'm the Wellh fchout ; 1 6 jO- 
■^ A Dcuddcg u ErydydJmr, yn Jiibis d*g dllytlMn, 

Awdt GJcra^ o Will Els Rlfoi'm CfiJf^. 

MjirwTidd ttyddcrch Dauwacdd> Dctyiilor* o wsiStb i*^ 

M] fflvwaxs laM.'^er lawn ffln* 
Am iJt^w ^JArti Kiinffjch * I 
Mi aJwcji ifcwn pc 'd^ii ym Jlfut^^ 

Wrlhiaia ei cblJIkin t>d.]aL'h-^ ^ " 

■ It/^fjik Si Binir Cpirrij J Prii^ri*, IB th^Vl^jJlflt 

Gwfil vejil, a dit«dd ar dO-fli fiLa p^i^idi 

fl]^ffjior y l^lyiiorioni 



The Bard, D^ydd ^h CwUym, who flourifflicd about the end of the 14th cenrury. has given fuch droll 
and intercftfng particulars rcfpeftrng the Irifh Harp, as well as the Wclfh Harp of that |>eHod, that I ani 
unwilling (o omit any thing which may llirow light on the fubjefl ; therefore Oiall avail myfclf of it, by 
giving a li[eral trahfiation oF his Cawydd y Dcfjn Pscm on the Leathern Harp ; which is as follows : 
** Granr, bounteous God, that the bleflings may dawn of the mitthful manners of Waks in tiraeK of yore I 
The choJcfft fpoE ; a ^ir garden, for the enjoyment of life thou wert, whilft the time of C/fra continucdj 
and the learning of the good old Cymij ! Now, alae! colJ the news ; there h * noify ftrumming amongft 
us, of tlifmal crazy Tided Harps, or Leathern wickets. David had not one firing from dead fhecp ; lonrf 
profptr the faith. The Minftrels of the ferious prophet Da-vid, with all the cunnmg of their divination 
never formed one Harp eiquifitely pleaflng, but of flilny hair, yet pure the fong I Wife is the eafy and 
fpHghtly defcription of the Harp Qi ung whh glofly black hair,— The hair-flrung Harp, a wnrthy gift I bj 
the bounty of Hoaven which catnc complete to DaviJ^ and was, and henceforth fliall continue, from the 
bef^inninjT of ihe world : an ample thought ! till the day of doom ; awful contemplation l** 

*' Thtrfi is none who would wifh for life among us, fliould hi: be fkillcd in mufic j for there is noihing but 
the din of this LcT..i[\cm Harp ; (fie on thd office !) profperoiis it fhall not be, played with a homy nail of ua- 
pidifant form j only the gracelefs bears it. For a laarner, it will be lilScuk m a month to put \i in tune-^ 
the coppt:r tinted Jlruinpet ^ an ugly plague, like the naked curve of the rainbow^ a frightful form- It U 
the fF-urrnui" of young fprawling crows, a pleafing brood ajQc^ed by the tain. — Having an ardent thirflior 
perfuLliun, I iovciJ not its buLLon-covercd trough, nor its mufic ; nor Its intellines, foundtriig eventful 
difguft ; nor its yellowiih colour, nor its gaudinefsj nor its unconnedcd angle, nor its binding pdlar i il it 
the viic that lavts it, 1 nder the prtlTure of the eight fingers, ugly is the fv,A[ of Its body, witii its caiiTas 
fnicck : m Uunk^ an J its hoarfe found, were but formed for an aRe-worn Saxon, It 1* like the wild neigh- 
ing cr.d dif-n^il roar of fome bay mare after horfes. The unceafiog dm through the night is a perfect 
fifter to \\^\ frightful ydlcw ba^ DfRMj V 

'* It is the noife of a Liin!: goofe among the corn; a fquealing, fooliDij Irifh witch; it \% the rumbling 
of the mill-flream of crazy leap; and like the fhrieking, wry-necked hare. It is the Mrooden iickle of £ 
pmde of^yore, or the totteiiti^ fhin of an old woman.** 

** Let evcTV n ufical Profertbr, from iht; Englifh marches, as fat as Mon&'i Iflc, learn to play upon a fair 
Harp with (trjrigs of jetty hair ; and to impart inliru^ions, as was ufual in the time of our old forefathers i 
1 proclaim it ! As for the other; giftlefs, twanging one, let no dlfciple bear it hi the face of day *."^ --i 

According to the above poem, Davyddab Gwilym feems partial to the Harp flrung vi\th gloffy h^r^ 
uhich formerly was curioufly plaited ' : yet, it appears evident, from the ancient Welfti laws, that only 
the under graduates were obligated to ufe the hair-ftrung Harp until they took a degree \ It feems aifo, 
that the body of fome of the axicieiu Harps were covered with leather * ; (fomewhat fimilar, perhaps, t» 

• The yellow plaijuc^ in the fixth ctntory j figurtllvely de- 

feribed to Hic n Terrible fit-ry fi'vpcTit. 

• BarddQuiatth Davrdd ii& G-afHytn, p*1jT- 

Sold by Wtllflini Lithe Straad. 

T T-'tey/6^ i>tn hmint Dif&rdd \ 

Ar (ur-gtilii, taincjr aigi^jild- 

Prcim a Vixm by Rjfaft Cytf^aff to Toiicit a 
Harp»nihai>tA-D^ *fitt3» 
'I'Jic irannation. 
The HirpflrLlj-wclyn, I he prince moftlionoared through 
ages/wras onipl^tcly fiJicJ viiih hair ftringt, cufioufly hriiid- 

" ed* to hynin ipidzn priiffi" to the Loifd,- 

' ■' Eve a ddyly i gan bdb Ccrddorlon ieranc, pan ymada- 
tront a Thelyji nvn^ a mynmi b^d yn Gcrddiwr cyweitb^s ^ 
ac VII clrchiaJ ticd*if ar hugiiinL o ariant fn.e\ ohrWy4 — 
I^gf^ WMia«, tih. L p^ 69* Sei! alfo, pagei 18 and 3^ o^ 
thii BiTi'jk- . 

• Ltiddit lathr gavn ^j^ tf^'^" "«f"J 

/JsB £iika ehvtng brtM a traith 1 
9h a ivia t'r T^pnau/ydJ, 
Hid fr din btdviir drunyM 
I'rf», Cftitn, a liUwm, £it>t>i'ddavr» ffl, 

Vriui »^g*m vi 6«eu PJiylipr about A, D- 1 580, 

• » 

r f 

The tranflaiion of the famty 

TTie fveeE poIiAei truut, fitr and ]j(jhc the loxd, . 
the form of a hc^n, hctwetn the brcall md tie urn f 
a muc and found ihc ftrlngs ;iroduce ; 
To effect this tone, four things concur [ 
wMd,J]£ln, and hair, loTct/artJ complete tUc giltj 
which wltU hone niuii be ligUumcd,— 

AMmflr^!. cf nearly the fame period, l^^^^w^l^^!" * ^ 

fcrlption of hinifeJf and Harp, in the following woni* i 

** If I have my Hirp, 1 tart for no "no«, 

'* It fs mj ircaTurc, I keep it m Won! I 

'* Tot, my Harp U miide of ^ ffi^ ^^'^ ^^. 

" The ftrinES bt *>f Iwrfc^h^yr. n maketh iA«>*l d'^* 

" M y Si^ my voice, and my Ha^ d«i^ ^gr.^, 

*' MuchliVe the buitingof in humble bee i 

*' YeiinniT enuntry Ido mate paHimc. 

** iflUlUn/ of prophecy whichbenot m rbyme. 

rhtjirjl Boa »/tit iMrOihi&iott ^ Kat^k^ h 





the ancient Ont'S^* Coracle, or BrItiCi boils, winch were made of hoops, aod covered with horrej hidct, 
t» mcn[ionfd by Cs/ar, and Flmy.) I am informed by Mr. William Williams, that when ^ boy, he had 
an old leathern Harp, vhich he ufed to play upon. The body of it was hollowed, or fcoopcd^ out of ^ 
pEeccof wood, and covered otct with an ci's lltin, which was fe*cd ejctrcraely Tight at the back j and the 
pegs, which the ftrings were fcrewed with, wert: made of bonf, or of Irorj, 

Wiih regard to ihecompaf* of the ancient Weldi Harp, it is now difficult to afceminthii with precifion, 
as it receded various alitraiions. and imppTemtnts at diflerent periods) therefore, Jt u the fruit of d«p 
refcarches of divers fpeculativc lovers of mufic. The late Mr. Lewis MonU attribute! its rife and progreli 
to tht BardU Dmids, who had a great knowledge of mtific, when k was at the lowefl ebb with all th(j 
other European nationi \ There appears to have been a great deal of thought and art employed upoii 
the formation of ihiiuiftrumcn:, and that it was not a work of chance I It may be a queftion worthy , 
mathemaiician to aofwer, what curve the ftringa will form, to as to bear all an equal ftrefa, fuppoQng 
them to incTtfafc in thickricfs, from the Ihorteft Treble to the longeft Bafs firing, fo that none of them would 
be more liable to break than another, and yet be equally tight under the fingers, according to thdr length, 

when put in tune ? , . , * . 

On a farther iavellsgaiion, I find there are mnfical compofitions (lill m being, which ! have already 
mentioned in pages iS and 39, that decidedly point out the compafs of the Harp at a very early period; 
fome of tbofe melodies are faid to have been pbycd about the year 530 % and they extend from G, the 
firft line in the bids, to D in Ait ; (that 15, a5 diatonic notes.) There are alfo other pieces, in the fame 
Kianufcript, of about the year 1 icoj and fome later, which extend from double C in the bafs, to G in 
Alt. According to Mercainui\ the Citbara j^fl;^7i/J, or Ancient Harp, had but one row of ftringBi, 
which confillcd of twcnty-foar chords \ rit from G, the Ikft hue in the bais, to G, the fifth fpac* ia thft 


It appears by an addrefs, written to folicit a Harp, m the rcigo of Elizabethj that, f* twepry-mHc 
firings, or more,'' were then about the extent of the Harp*. I fawan old Harp, that formerly belonged 
to William ah Oweny ct Pen(rai$ Incoy in Ciiernarvcnpilre^ which is faid to have been tnade upwards of two 
bundred years ago, about th» feign of £/;KJif/*< it had one rowofftringg, conGfling of thirty-three. 
It was four feet nine inches high, and rflade of Prcn Mufurn, or Sicatnore wood, as all the Harps and 
Viols are Hill made of, except the found-board, which is made of deal, ^ary^ whether the/u^ C«kf 
would not be better for making ftringcJ inftrtiments ofj as King, and King Sslsmsn ruadc all their 
Harps, and Pfiilteries of J f^um trta^ or Cedar * ? 

In early tltne, ih^Jin^k Harp was fmall and portable, and rather confined in the number of firings, 
It was always obliged to be tuned when the key required to be changed; but, when any accidental ihaip 
was requifite in the middle of a tune, the performer ran up his hand cbfe to the comb, and flopped the 
ftrlt^ dexteroufly with his thumb, white he played it with his finger, Likewifc, fome of the fingle^row 
Harps had Gwrach'id\ which were, a kind of angular pegs ; the lon^jeft end of each, ferved as a pUij 
10 keep [ht bottom, or knot end of the firing fad in the found-board ; and the fliortelt angle of each of 
them ferved for thc^ ilring to vibrate ag:LLnIt, fo as to caufe a tremulous continuation of the found, noC 
very unlike the effect of a trumpet-marine. Sometimes thefe pegs were turned off the ftrings, about otw- 
fourth round J fgas not to produce the tremuluous lones* 

* Mr. Livrh Mofrii's letter to the Cymmrodnricn Ssiu/jt nn 
the ftrufliire of the Wclfli H:Lrp. Alfo* f/Ur IJumiu fays, 
<' ihit BriMiD hid twice the honour of inftruding Gauiby the 
^miiii *t and by Jtfttm f { \i'hlch kH wu of lingular fervkc 
to Charitmagatr in cfLabUlhing Uic UniveiTity at Fajis/' 

-f jSkmtjtttH'jfKdr* It/ iallir pATt "/'If tthtiafarjf, 

' Stt alTon PmiortfV Taitr in fValtJi VoJ^ Ii^ p. 4.^9, cf the 
fccCikd ellhtlo^4 

* Mcrrennui, Liber Primus, de Tullriuneiltli H^rnienicJEj 

yf Uuniniiiii yojy Maxvn a Jthhit f 

KaHf a*r hiasinj wtf 'ti rbafftr, 

Jt rhain rff jjw er't fwjyi, 

Tn bir iaiiia o'r rhov/n sf bjd^ thirjrJd Bom^i^ A, n, 15,14.' 

This poetical petition ^robahly w»3 written ^r an vitdcr* 
griduiatc. becaufc it rnenuoa* hiiip flrings 1 

* Set page 91 — TJie ftrft kind of «dJjr is the cediir of 
Lebanon, It is fomccimc& kept 111 the- f*ardens of the curioun 
the wood is of a rciJUilh cobur, rDinethin]; rclincMis^ *^i 1 tlroiif 
agreeable ffnell^ and it i^ fiid, Ic cever will Jccny. AJfo, itU 
uffld in phyficj us a fudoriBc- 

' The ingiiLir pees are called GwrdfW, probably rrom 

tUir beiui; eiookcJ^ itict aaold Hftf ■ 




In procefs of time, the Daubk Hdrp^ or Harp with two tows of ftrings, was iriTcnlcd, which fupplied 
the dcficiencj, and obviated the difficulty, in fomc degrccj of the fiats and ftiarps j though they had a 
method of producing them loflg before, which was by tumcigj and by judicioufly [lopping the firings j 
the latter they C3tccuted, with great fkill, whilft they were playing i but, query, whether the found of 
thote couU be fo clear as the other fbings I I have atready defcribed the Double Harp, iti the preceding 
pages of gi^andgg.- T . ,, ,: 

The next improTemeni was the Tr'tpk Harp., or Harp with three rows of (trLngs ; which probably was 
Invented in the fourteenth century ; though I have not been able to find any particuhrs refpeding it 
foonerthan about the year 1450, in a monody of the bardj Ss&n Eosj which contains the following 
j)afnige : • ■ f - - - ' 

Ve aeih dy ^fnmat yn-vdJ^ ' , O, £r/ffj//^/ tby rival is dumbj 

Duriur y Ddyn Deirtudl ' ^ The turtle of the triple -(Iringed Harp I 

- ' Ti /ydd yrt ien^i iJ J^TSf ' Alas I thou has conHgned to Hlence • ^ 

:< ^ Tclyn aur y Telynnri&n ! ' The golden Harp of Harpers,—*— 

PttvyiU jbEdmwnt* See p> jf^i ^c^ • ' . ' 

Another poem, or petition, to foHcit a Harp, has the following couplet : ** - • 

T di^ynn'ijjr' g'^u^etriwr gornji^ , The beft, and gentle harmonizer 

Tra pher dynukd Tri pbar dannatt. of fweetelt touch, with Three rows of (Irings* 

C;).J\'^a]jJyr Robert^. 


' Caldcot in the year 1582, dercTibmg the double Hiirp, mentions the number of firings m Harps of that 
period J vis. ** fifty-fout, fifty-fix, fifty-eijrht, and as far as >.v/j ' 1*' confcqucntly, it feems more than 
probable, that tlie latter was a triple Harp which he alludes to, as having fixty firings* Mar/ennux, likewifsj 
in the year 1633, has delineated the triple Harp j and fays, Ic extended four odaves, but confifled 
altof^ether o\ fevcnty-^'ve Jirings ** 

The prefent Tripk /iir^j extends to (he compafs of five oftaves, and one note \ The two outfide 
rows are the diafonics, ^vhich are both tuned in unifons, and in any key that the performer means to play 
in; the treble row of them confifts of twenty-feven firings , that is, froai A in ait down to C in 
the bafs } and the oppofite row, or unifons, (which are played with the bafs h^nd,) extends from 
A in alt as low as double G in the bafS| which is thirty^feven ftrings ; and the middle row, being the 
fiats and fharpp, extends from alts G fh:trp, down to double B natural, in the bafs j confiaSng of 34 firings. 
All the three rows tngethcr, amount to mmty-si^ht Jiringi. See this Harp delineated in the trophy of the 

Mufica^ Inflruments, in page 89. In playing upon the Welfh Harp, as well as the Irifli Harp, it has 

always bci:n cuflomary to incline it agaiufl the left fhoulder, and to play the treble with the left hand, and 
the bafi with the right hand. But, the contrary is now more ufual in performing on the Pedal Harp, 
which is, to reft it agaiull the right fhouhJer, fo as to play the treble with the right hand, and the baft 
wMh tl.e left. This recent cuaom originated, probably, for the fake of making It more uniform, and 
familiar to lltofe who play on the Piana-fortc. Though, at the fame time it is evident, that the HarpC^ 

chord firfl originated from the Harp *- ■ - r . u 

There is one idea ^-orthy of renrark, the Druldic Bnrd, had an extraordinary venerauoa for the tiumber 

* Hut. GJilto'i Dmfvioe en Atultnt sad Mudtra Mafct P' 

' Merfenniw, Liber Primtu, de inflrimwmis Harmonkis, 
Prot^iiitLh XLIU. p. 6i and 69. - ^ u 

* ijonic «t ill prcfeai appeudjfc* were the aJaEtimiJ of the 
Ijitcr cerattiriciK I taw a {MiatJ^iE^, of *fi old IHplclI.tfp* 
vhuh hadufily fifty ^fcven ftriiif*. Kowtht;!** arc i'unml n|>l»i 
Jl^ijji lEui K^ve :tbovc a Itundrcti ftriugt* iacla(3iii£ the three 
fowl U'gcliur. ,( .- r r 

U niJpe^iJ"*. ^f a Welfli ftiuixi, ih^t Da^jdd Momi, ai 
UWi^ip.iKM- UftAfW'^* whu lived fcbout 15* jfCiri jjjo, w*i 
» ciJiiEirtiC Harp tmkre an ih^t tiim^ Allcj ii keini ittji; e 
wJiii« LJ^p, tAvani^di or uuL.tjiltJUii;>l» waa ib«u n>^t wic 

i)id Mvtm, who livcJ In l-rjridon aUnU ili#b«ii(iiringot ilie 
Uj» .^ (jij tir JMhi: Oe'tO Ji fjlJUJiJ* l(4ri>-m4iLai nil" 

^; .. JmU HuimJif vt LUui vitU lu iui »rl. 

After him, 7o*b Rithardi, who dfed about aj yean ago^ 
wai tl« moll cckb]4teJ mAer of the Triple Hirpot his iiiue. 
la the latter niirt of hii life* he was retained a* a peniwacr 
attiiebie Mr. CwvunV of Glia-br^iu, (^ greii kj«r of 
muficilti CicrmarilicnUiirPi) darm^ ih*t penoJ, >A» JU*- 
ardimjidi him uj^arJ^ oi tvM, h,ir|^i j bciMc Mi. C-wyna 
h.iJ fuch fl hitrh opii^i^m of hi. Imlmco^tiu, ihii he Jefiaired 
<4 ever aiiaicmi^ a good ^ne, wh.n j.>bi Ri.harJi ^eJ. 

lUinviiei I., have b«e>i cuilllTua*.Hrm» the Kjrp AtleP- 

ti^J. or Firikai. becauft, itwu pUyUby Nun*. ■A^^ v. 
V*raiBi. Alter ihiE, itwiif«n.ctiiucit*rmcj ^ji'l*-.^ 

fcr — Wf^A""' '*• i*P****^ tfar-»-fc*., l*<b* L p.6|--ti*n- 





Three ' for inftoncc, their Trtada - ^ theiP triptrt ^aht ' ; thdt Harpi being friangdar, and i?itlr tuning 
key* having ihrec arms * ( likewifc. a lirdc n^ore than three ceQturies ago, the Harp received the addition 
of 3 triple ro^ of flririRtf. The H^rmunical Triadt or mufical toafonance (of a fifth, athLrdpand fundi- 

Diental note.) The Triple lime, or meafurc, In mufic : A Trio ; a CUnon^ ; Sec 

The n«ir improvement oti the Harp wai (he redjh, by which addliion this mftrument wa« 
again reduced nearly to its original fize, and former fitTiplicity of ^ fingle row of Urbg^ The P^Jal lijrp 
a tifually suned in the key of E flat ; and the ufe of the PeJaUi is to make the occafional fliarps, and 
to alter it inro the difftirettt keys without the iroublc of tuning ; therefore, by thefe mecbanical pedalt, 
kevadei thofe mconvcnieaces whkh are fubjefl to the Triple Harp> and i* rendered much lefi com- 
plicated, and commodious. At the fame time, I am rather an advocate for the Triple Hjirp, becaufe I 
admire Its venerable and ftately appearance i aiul p:iTiEcuUt!y the fwcetrc-echoingeffeaof it* unifons, which 
are pUyed with both bands, and arc peculiar tci that inarument. Notwithftanding, when it is cgmpared 
with the Pediil Harp, which has modern elegance, aa well as convcmences blended, confequcmly the 
preference is given in i^vour of the latter. The ufual compafs of the Pedal Harp i* from double G at 
bottom to double D malt, confiain^ of forty Qrings : alfo, there arc fome, that are of aill greater 
compafs. Sometime? the PeJil Harp u called the German Harp, becaufe its pedals arc faid to have been 
firll invented by a German- However, I fhill quote here what Dr, Burney fays on the fubjeftt 
« The Pedal Harp is very much iiradifed by the ladies at BrufcJs as well as at Paris : it is a fwcet 
and becoming inflrumem, and lefs cumbrous and unwcildy than our triple Welfli Harp, Thecompaft 
ii from double Bb ro F in altijimoj it is capable of great expreffion, and of eiecudng whatever can be 
played on the harpfichoTd ; there arc about thitty-ihree firings upon lu which ate the mere natural 
notes of the diatonic fcale j the tell arc made by the feet. This method, of pioducmg the half-tones 
on the Harp by pcd;ds, was invented at Bruifcis, (about fifty years ago,) by M. Simtn, who refidea 
inthatcrty- It is an ingenious and ufefu I contrivance, in more refpcQa than one: for, bj reducing 
the number of Rrlngs, the tones of ihofe ihat remain arc improved; as It La weU l^nowa that, the le& 
an inflrument is loaded, the more freely it vibrates V^- — 

** The Harp paRod f^r the moft majeftie of inftriimenfs j and, on this account, ihe French romanceri 
f>bccit in the hands of their greatefl heroes, as the ancient Greek-poets did the Lyre- It was ia fucU 
gcsicral favour, in the fourteenth century, that the old Poet, Machau^ bai made it the fubjeS of a poem, 
called L^ Di^ de h Kitj^c, (the Ditty, or Poem, upon the iJarpj) and praifea it as an inftrument too 
good to be profaned In taverns, or fUccs of debauchery, faying that ii Ihouid be ufed by Knights, 

Ii I* Ijnpoffiblcrbst tlie AncEesit BritlJli Ttards (hodld have 
been i^nurant of iiarmmj^ They certa,fuly knew It, ltin£bi> 
fore Gid4o^f time* la the firft p^j-ce, the Harp U th« earli^ii, 
inftrumcTLrv lq: hi\d the jjrc^lcil number nf ftruig^^ arnik was 
ihc iirii pUyed wiiIl tlii^ Hngers of both h.iud$. Tbcrefoni ii 
it piobablc, ih;it the Britoni Ihouldhave pcrformeii on tbc 
H^rp from time imnicmOTial; and been ol>li}TcJ to Itudy 
Cwclvcp or fifteen feiri before thc^ pnil tbcir decrees [ ;Lnd to 
ufe l>atEi hands, and ten fifjgcr^i aud jct io avoid f^illin^ rlltO' 
foirtcthing like tcuf^^rfimmi, Ot conipontians In p^kix^ f la h&w 
a third, -A fifiTipOi'a choL\l« jrc more r^fdy Untckcn the Hjrpi 
ihiui a fm»;le notc> becaufe ihe firings lie coi-jTi^aiiiiiEi, aud ^a-^ 
tur-il tbrihe hand. If an7Cine wiftcs for farther dluilritioQ 
□n tJiii headp f« pnigca a 9, :lj, 3^* of ihU w>tk^ Andproofi 
rr>^>m Ancient writer:! in Mr. StilhngflceL's FrincipUi of tho 
pQwcrpf liaiinonjpp. 132 aud 133.^ ■ > ^ 

' Sumfy^ freftniJJait 0/ Mi»/if in Cmnojiyp f^t^ihrrf^nJtf oJ 

UniuJ PrwiTf^^^y VoK L p. 59,iff>EiMi/fJr£iM, j^Oaiv^. Liketfilft 

Dr. Bjirwf mentions, that when he wat ^t Htm^, about 

thirty -two ycara fifice, " A/- Mirf, a gi^d perfgrmtrp pk^- 

«d a \iiece on the fingle Harpt %vlthouEpcduhp v^hich renJcti 

it a vciy dilficult iimruni^nt, m thf! pcLtorrner iJ obllj^cJ CO 

make the fenutonCi by baaft ringi with the left hand^ which, 

bchiig pUccd at the top uf cbc H^irpi ftre m^touiv h^nl c? gti 

at^ but Jira^r«iib3e lohrarpfroni the noifc* whkK bjr afLidJeft 

motion of Ui*: Ji-Lnd they oci;^iiou. The fccrit aifprojuclnf 

the icmtconea by ^cdalsp if not yet arrived tt Fifm4: uui 

the Doubk Harp ii umerly unknown there* This pliT**^! 

thrini^ti hlj^ldy clt«tnied, dtd ni^t fiiLdl all my ide^iv ui thfl 

pijwcr gl Uk4i ijkttiUJikCiLt^'' JW, Vol i.|>> 1^4. 

"' utrcf? 

■^ What tnyfl'try might be in the numl>i?r Tlr^fM amnnj; the 
Bi'Uon^p IA not calV ^>^ determine^ uulcJi it w^-erc in regard to 
iti pcrfc^^ioni as bcjn^ the BrR of odd numbers* and cuu-^ 
talning; m iti a begiifcUii^ff^ ainjditlL^ iind an end- tut this 
rc^fon it hi^a been laid, thattim wa-s ait- It h lUccivLfc called 
the holy iiuiTibcr^undwa^ thi>uglit the moft prt^jKr ^mJ lit for 
every thing that rtUtcd to reiijrion- There is how aatant a 
treitifs in rrlic^, inililedp Mi^Ua Nttrnfrcrnm Sf^JTi/fi-ftii^f^rht writ- 
ten by one Peifr B^npiit und publillit'dat lier^amc, in the j-'car 
i^^j ; ttiq foLe end of which h to unfold the niyilerieii and 

explain tht properties of certain numbers. 

* Stc the Triodjn in pngcd lo^ l£, |3 ; and In 79, S£c» 
■ S^e pa;?e ^ and ;* 

^ Abb, TfirTwrfiiifjj, or a Britifli war charEot^ had three 
horfi^Sj ^ tharioteer and tv^o attend^ntt. '* Afri Mxinb^ aguyt 
or G^cjjifift'*^ TAf TV^i was mx^eh reverenced^ and recount- 
ed the nufbandman's Almfmack, by re^iTmi, when it J]\utt(!th 
m the Ic&vc^^ it fortelicth rain- Their ancient feati arc alfo 
tbrcc-fontcd, qr tripod^p as well as their treYctn* kettles* wml 
oshcr implement^. And A/orjon Jajs, thatofoldp the IcU^r 
T (^flpj) wiii the HieroglypbSckof fccurity- 

^ /I CsHoRf or frin(Tj iu Ewo^^ ihrccp or mrnTj partSn It is 
Htr^Oiditinaif p tbmgh a fd^j th^itthe term Canon^ appears at 
farbai'k^s c]icfiithccntnrv*iii ^atrin^t poem on the Mciuths^ 
which rune tliu» 11 " Jifii Mt^ myJry flfAa;m/' 

In September comes the metrical Canctl^ 

A CiLnonLs.nj^;tin mentioned by aB^irdofUie t|LLJd]c agfSp 
in a pucm of tliank^for a bow t ^ 

^Jimcl D4f!^, 


-• i 




Ef<juir«, Clerics, peHbns of rank, and ladies with plump and beautiful hands j and that ite conrteotl* 
aiid gentle founds flinuld be heard only by the elegant and good, (At that periodO ic had twenty-five 
ihings J to each of which the poet gives an allegorical name : calling one HhcFaiHj, another wfahh, a third 
f&iitenffh a fourth puib, &c. applying all ihcTc qualities to his Miftrefs, and compafinir Lr to thr 
HirpV , , r 6 

Ie docs not appear that the Saxons had the Harp, nor letters', prior to their arrival in Britain, which 
was abouE the end of ihc fifth century, in the rcign of Gtt?r/^rn, or Vortigern, the Sad king of Bntaln* 

About the beginning of the eighth century, the Harp appears to have been in high eftiniation among the 

. SiKons, Vmcrahh B^de records, that at one of their foAs, fot the fake of conviviality, it was agreed that 

>1] the guefls (hould fing in their turn : as foon as Cadmsn faw the Harp approach near him, he rofe up, for 

{hame, from the table, and retired home \ About that period alfo, it was ufual to learn both to read and 

firg at fchools *, 

The manner of finging with the Harp, among the Brirotis, T have already mentioned, in pages 34, ;j5, 
60, and 61, of this work, S^jjl^^fjr alludes alfo to this cuftom of finging to ihc Harp, among{l the Englifh, 
in the time of Henry the Fourth \ 

The grand Corona 11 ^n of Henry the Fifth, held at Weftminflet in the year 141 j, is recorded by Elmbad^ 
from whom the following is Ittcrally tranflated, " What feftlval, I bcfeech you, can be deemed more im- 
portant than one which is honoured with the prcfence of fo many royal perfonages ; but fuch a muhitude of 
chiefs, and ladies j where the tumuhuoua founds of fo many trumpets compel the Heavens tore-echo 
with a noife like thunder. The harmony of the tlarpen, drawn from their inftrumenta, flruck with the 
rapidefl touch of the fingers, note againft note, and the foft angelic whifpering of their modulations, are 
cratifyirig to the ears of the guefls. The mufical concert alfo, of other mUrumcnts, which had leamt to 
be free from all fort of dilUbnance, invites to fimilar entertainment *." ^ 

St, Dun/Inn^ who lived in the tenth century, is reprefented by a writer of his life, that he could, like 
David, take the Pfaltery, handle the Organ, touch the Cymbal, and fltlke the Harp. And as Davids with 
his inftrument, calmed the difturbed fplrlt of 5/jw^, fo did Dunfian, by his mufic, eJthilaratc the heart of hi» 
Prince, after his being haraffed by worldly cares ■. This Saint'$ Harp wis indeed endued with a miracolou* 
power, which Da-^^sd's never poffefTcd ; for> when fufpcndeJ on the wall of Dufijians cell, it would, without 
the interpofiiion of any vifihle hand, pour out the moH harmonious rounds'. 

This reminds me of Jtu/i/jV Harp, Invented by Kirchcr, about the year 1649 ' J which is fimply a box 
with about 15 ftrings, or more, all runcd in unifon, or with an oflave : when this uiftrument is put in a 
window, the wind founds h, and fomctimes produces a wonderful effe^ of harmony, andfwelUng and 
diminilhing of founds. If It was poiliblc to add tune, and time to it, it would be the mofl pcrfe^ of all In- 
ftruments. The ^olian Harp is esquifilely dtfcribedj in a poem by Thomfon '% and by others. ^ 

' *« Bnnity'* Hillrory of Mafic," Vd. 11. p. afiz. And ^<r 
Mfdfi ifc Fo'tarsfjf'ar Mr. Mtuham —Oil Jn antLCjUC cwcrjiiiip 
up ncLir Sfifotti^ ii n rcprcfcnLiitioitt of fonic imsfician^;, i>iif of 
vhSfri is II ilAver oi; the liarp. I'hc chapel ofSf. Juluvt i^ts 
Menffrirrj, [KW-iTt-, was built In Ij^ I, by yaqvei Orart :ind 
Uaguei dt Idrra'sDi LWn of tJic Jonj/mr-f, or MinJtrcIs, oi Philip 
dc VaJois, imd oil ibc p^rtkool' whivharc loitit mintlrels dc- 
fcrtlc^!. ticc BuFRtfi Hijory of ^vfn. Vol. U. pnRC 364. 
LiLcnlf^il am ijiloriHcti^hcrc is amochcr churcji ac Paris, 
Cillcii St. John ^ti Mtmfritrt, aiid foiindird Lj- ihs MiiitlrcU, 

' Sec iJwyf/sFpcfacc to his j^iihMoIo^ia Brilanmt^t i At y 
Cyniry, " LcwL»*s Anctcut Hiftoryol Gjeat Britam,pa]^t 61, 
at tile JriEnidudlon-" Andnuie 10 in p'ffcs 7 xud S* and a& 
far as p-tfifi L6H£if iliis vnlmne of the B^irda* 

' HeJ/j J-tcIrfiaJitaUn/lor^, fdi. IF- tap. 14, Ainon^ the 
Greeks alfn*iiiLihc vij.icitcciiicda nc«jraiyaccomt)!illiineiitJ 
and an ieniirancc in tliii :trt vat rcgiirilcit :\% a capital dcfcQ.. 
Of ihis wc have an inflance, even in Tbfmijicnifi hiinrctlt yJi*i 
iwai upbraided wlili hiE iijnoraiice in mufsi.* Ciifre Tttfi liLu 
■^-Thtwhok (ouiitry ol iyrt£thi lalmurcJ imdcr a iluiiJar re- 
proach I diiiJ all I he enumious crinici ctnnmiitcd there 1 were 
attributed hyijic uel^hbuuring flaics^ to ihc ne^tc^ of Mtific \ 
which may Ire faid, in frjiue mcifuie tocomprchcnJ rcligiini, 
pi>liiy,auJ QdOialit) . jdttttut, Puljt'SHt, and j*rj^fli^,-'Whfn 
the lyre came more iuio uf** it Witi iiJii;iUnr*1l thnfe that 
wcK at their chicrtniflJiimti tn pliijr upttfl it ilwrnitely lilL ii 



Hifi*cd rcmnd the talk. Pktord fpajtr I t. p, i. Jihtn. Ditp- 
XI'. Pfafo, dfL^i. t. ^. 
* £fifa^ fik. V . tap- t. ' — Hk. II. (t^- 20* 

^ In the firft part fif Henry the IVth. Aaill. Sc- L 
Ovtm GljnJ*ir thus addr^dTca liotfpur : 

I can fpeak En^liOii Lord » as well asr'^u, 
For I was trained up in the En^lilh couct j 
Where, being youne^ I framed to the Harp 
Many an Eiigli(]j ditty. 

« Tioat* tit Lhaham y'tt- rf g?^. fietttj V^ E^t. Heartu, tap. 
Xli.p, 13. 

T ajhcrnui it *ifj Dtti^ajii, tt jin^l. Satr. V*l, II. p, 93, 94, 

Sumpft fiiuin IX more Cytharaiii /turn, 

^Hfa fattrni Litigua Htarpnin -Jocaimu. Cap. w. n. tl. 

■ Thorpe'* Antiqoiciet of Keni, p 9j and loJi Darwent 
C hiiTch , in Kent, is laid to U ave been tui] c about ihe ) eur 9+o^ 
and upon the font is ftul^urcd ihe ^urc of King David, 
pliijinc on the Harp, which probabijr was executed in the 

time orDun(Un-< ^^' P' 94> ^^^' 
» Kinber't Jtf^f/w," dud HawWa's Hift. of Muftc* Vol. 

" Dtti^iy't fornix VoL III. p. 4 ofthe Jtb edilioji ; VoJ. 
IV. p. 167. At\dThmfom'tCii/fyt/JnJt>(iMr,Cas&Bliiti9* 
^Ofjjid 41. 


E t 






Sbc* I have dcvjatcd a iUtlc from the fubjc£t, I will mcntioQ Hkcwlfe, the Bell Harp " j and the Jcwi. 
Harpt^hkh properly fliould be called yaws^HarpJrom its being played wUh ihc mouih *. 


■ The Be] I Harp "* fo called, pn&biblj'p from the pl^Te" 
f^Cim^it aboui, as tibtll nn ira bufs, fortlic f-ilcc of vuryhiif 
tbctonC' Ic i* a f'nal] flic inftrumeatp abhjat three f«l longi 
and ftninjj wich ftccL or hriirs ftnnp, which nre fiicd ;cl one 
ciid»3JiJHrct£heil ih]n|'thcfuuiiJ-WrtI,inJ A^rcwcJ at the 
ciiLhcrcEid ; ks compaft n about two oaaves. In perfbninin^ 

the tJiumbi^ ^hlch arcTwth equipped with a lUtle quil]| ior 
thaipLirfM^rc. Iwfhapc ii toTiNy diffcrcncfn>m ihc Harp, and 
rather marc of the Lyr* kind- But ihcrc is no r^jJbfl to fiippofc 
thai the Bdl Hacp i? antlent, a* I find no mciUiun rn^idc ol 

k pndtr thac namf* ■ ..... , . 

' The Wclfii name is^ T^jrmiBi^ and implies the mouch in 
motEon ; which removes all ±lonhu ch-iE Jews H^rp^is 3 cor- 
ruption of J'^wj V^ar^ or yaw/ Jrtrt*/; neither is JE to be 
foinJ in ilic pUc of Jcwifli mwficaS mJlntinfincs^ given torn 
by Cff/Mrf- The carlieJl me[iTtnn mf iE| that I Can find, ts in 
^a^dJaA G^ifrm^J Otff (Jn tlf -tt-irW, A^Tltten abniu the year 
laTOp thus ; '' J^jrmanf jr ^t^rmy^ii-" — Mr. P^aJ riant ifLfnrms 
uft [inhiiTotirtoSeotJ^EiJ* p. iy^.)th4i cmcot^^ik bnifi vji 
found in Nnrwnr, JefM^^fited \i\ an urn Mkeuiie'i there h a 
print of-l J.kwi. Hnirpj in l:ti/cinw"t Mu/ufgi^, p- ifl j publifhed 
in I jjtS- TljiercforCji from inll thcfc circumjEances^ it ^enis 

rathct ancient- 
There tia mod adnnr-ible Bs^rir/f^t OJe^ wnlteft in thejear 
in6|, whi-cK greatly lends tn ilJtiUr-Ltclhis inJ^rumcnt a£ wisN 
ai IcvtTuI [iihcrs of the Snfenor fin^lift Minftrel int^ninientf* 
that are now but little Lnown ; ttiereforer I :Lrn induced t^.^ 
quote itlierci ^ velU ^^^r ^^ account nf its poctk^l humour 

" Aw O&ii OH Saint C^ciha's Dat, adapted fn the an- 

jtfflfTPW -^Mff ^"^^'-f-^'^"! T(f^ I/tirJjf Our-Jj^t^fc. ^— With 
flji introiiiiiflioaii jj^'irig r^"*c account ol thtfc truly BrLtlfti 
Inftrujiieni-i * ty -ffwflf^' Tfr on^ion^ E/jairf. 

YSelJ^yifUH jfl Fj'idlfTip l"rtnchp l^iljinir, 
YicJdri V^^i'-' ri^^ir >ft'^ii — R^rtllii-il. 

YieU Jcj J HOwfifh IJron Jp fr^Erx 4^ 


Aft the Mv/tiat In?rtmfnSi^ lo which the foUoTTing D^is 
pecxdiar]^ ajiiptcilj hiivc [on account of thc/aj^f '«i^^ which 
has lon^pa'evailcil)£,rown intodalreputfi, and .i^c confcciuently 
very liitle known in the polite worlds it will be proper to 
give ionie accoutLtof them. 

T^ Judaic, tfr fa^ ic r/fswJWJ)T^ ^jrlir^J Jews Hiirp^^ffl^j i>j 

/ijf^i a^x^irnAly fiid/(ji£iit^ i)irf*ffl^jjiijr S&t^utfuj^jii Hfi^rrw foMgti^gt: 

fc^fiQtf^ itfi'/tifiav^J ffjfiifjit i/ cfljiy/^ifr/j, /ifl/ J<;ws HarpjV fltt^^ 
cprru^ri'N ^I'^V// mfhkf namf, Jiv,* Harp. 

/ dM ^^^' J ftf fr J'*f Hff CiT^Ai'^ fl.'^fi'i^ffr offhcji '^v# inicmfi^r^i!^ 
ij^n^min^^,(hiS2.]i-SoStM^f^ffli\m Stniin^ *r Hurdy-GurUy; 

'7V« ft'Ltrniw-BunHis dft'+ZClcuvers ^rf ufsJosiitini'iy s^j^ ffi^fl ^W- 
^ffNlfjOfit divd^ i/0 ^itit4^ fff ^^^ Mf^li^ frstiffM. Tlnt/i ^Dfrr ^ri^iHoiij 

^fUmiiS fifh tit af^aifitt G^ith,) cia^iN^ ii^ir ^tapj^t^s^ t^^ rrfd'Wy 
H rfffflfi^ ar j/ffl ;y ^A-^jw fjVivifl 'itv/A /i^f lyvp^ ijfJirWfUMfJt *» Tvirr-fr 
/^jj mtJ*!^ ^41/ /^ UrriAii f34 ^u/flrw. /ji^/^.j^nf^r* ri* ptmicioxu in 
/rflflW/ifl* ^jifr* flrB»x# ri* MLirrow*Boncs a*^ Cleavers ia^itf 
f fl^JiTfif ihji^rms ^' iMmnTtJ^ihir^ mJ art ii#w ffffl/w^^ #*fjrfjy jic 

^/*u QAp anJ tht fittfcrma^£4 pf it^ rwrniir^w rt /(^* *«r 
^fl^V /fl^-C iff aJmirrfig ital/oni^n jww/ir, ji«U y& jwjf.t iJir %«/irf| ii/^ 

Brj/'M an J P^ft j^Htf ^ir^ imMUf/iiU^J /«r r^rr 0^/J Hi f/. 

£Vxj/jd^j D^f ; Bu.' tif/t tAJtri ttnliifpity 4ijJaf^tJ i^i^ i^mm^M 

t^^mfMit nMti ijimrait^M ^M,-f fmi/t Im/ii ha^l it^tr^it^f4 j^mmj 

W. . / Wmir MP iMw^T ^^J" ^^^iT d/ip ^ii-hs Ji'Xiii it frt/tni tii fit ^r^ 

/i^mmi^^Mi fn^i 'JJ* fioMii^b^it tit t^nti t/ jnmtf iwr^/tf/ itnjt 

fir^Mtmi (tht SiUt*BoiC| ii# Jaws-Harp, ^*rf MrMTo^^Bonei 
a*^CIcavcri,«^/^ Hijrdy-Gurdy}^!/^ ^itt^ 'uxi^ftvtr^^^ 

/« li'tjr/i/i'^ 

Maj^Ot 1763- 


Be dumbi be diimbp yc inh;;irniontous foundii . 
And mufLCp iku th' a[loni[lhM e;Lr with dlfcprd wmin^s c 
No more let commcjn rhymes profjAe the day, 

Gr,3C*d v^■ith divine <7rff i/(riV name j 
Let folcmn hyinn^ this awiul tcaft pri^cialm, 
And heavenly notes confpire to r^tik the heav/niT Jay.^ 

The Tiler melody vt^e fcorn. 

Which meaner iuftrumcnu afford j 
ShrilE FEute, fharp Fiddles, bellovcing liom^ 
- RumbLing D-aJToon* or tin^lin^ H:Lrpf!ichord* 

la [Irains more ex:i]ted the Salt-BoE fhall joiUp 
And clattering;, itniii bacicrin^, and cliupplnf; cDmbinc j 
With a rkipi and a tap» ^biLe the hollow lidc ibundsi 
Up and down leaps tJie flapt and with r^itlliig rcbqufidid 

Strike^ (Irilce, thelblt Judaic Harp^ 

SofE and Iharpt 
!By teeth cocrctve in firm dirrance kepc^ 
Andiigbtljrby the volant fin^rcr fwept, x 

Buisting cwttngsthc Iron Lyre,. 

SliriJiy thrJLltSlp^^ 

TL"e]nb]in|;i irillingj 
Whizzing wJLh the WLir^rang wire* 

jtGr&nJ S'ywfAonjf ^^^w^UdrnfA Marrow -Bones 'Sc^Cleavcn^ 

Air. ,% 

Hiirk^ how the banging Marrow-Boncc 

Mate (Jlanginj; Clciivcrs rin^, 

Wkh adin|^ dong* ding doiig, 

Dingdongidmg dnnz* 
Djng dongp ding d^ng^ diug dongj. dlng- 

Riiife your uplifted &rms oai high ; 
In Ion ^r- prolonged copes 
Let Cle^ver^ ibund 
A rcacrry merry ronnd 
By b^ULging Marrow-'bones. 

Tfi ^ rtpt^ai^d m Ft; ll CH>Dii?i4 

Ceafehghter numbers ; hither bring 
The undulating ftring r^ 

btretch'd out, and to the tumii bladder 

In amity harmoniums bound ; 
Then deeper iWeli the iioces and fadder 
And Jet tbe ho^irfe b^iilt flowlylolcmn found. 
With dead* duilp doleful^ heavy htunit 
With mournluJ nioanij 
And grievous grtmiai 
The (obcr Hardy-Gurdy * thrams- 

* Thli IfiArunicnCj by ch« Jcaetwe^, ii rprr^tiiBci t.t1\^ l JTnr^iSpW 


ftmt rtikf, if 4w /wijtff^fBV^ /ri^ ft ^sfi.*^ ^Jw Ode i^?* 'w* 
^ffj ; *#f ilt paufi^ m fie ft^ormjn^f it inUMAd ft At wj 

Rfciiali<» Mt^mpomitd* 
With magic foutiUi. like chedf» did Orpheus^ LjFB 

MnMuur ienfcp mid Jifc. tnibire^ 

When* us he pJ^^'d. the lifl'niajj flo<id 

S[jli*d lis lui^uacEuu* WATeit atid iilent Itt^d t 

The t re^ii fwd t*boUJhdi l1](p d^uc'd with looJitn 'd blu iiipi> 

Ajud ElugjjiU) UuuGh Upcr'd Ul 4^lLivf junipt^ 



The Mifijrcit of the Saiom appear to have been fo fimllar ro (he latter Bards of the Wel(h, that there 
cannot be a doubt^ but tbey firft originated from ihem ■ ; about the tJmc when ihc inLneram Bards be^an 
to degenerate, and to branch into various occiipatbna, when they loflihc patronage aBbrdcd them at the 
death of their ownTrinccs ; indeed they were nearly uiaihUaied altogeihcrp by the favagc jMlicy of Ed- 
ward the FIrft, and by the cruel cdlfti of the HenTics * : and, what ftrcngihens this oplmon 11, their laws feem 
fo congenial I that ihey muft have been modcUcii fromthofe of the Bards j only vuh this difference^ that the 
courfc of difdplifie wiis hi Left firi£k among the Mlnftrelt, and that they took the liberty of imToducing 
Fable into their Songs j which wa* quite contrary to the lawiof the Bards \ It it rather extraordinary, that 
no good hiRory of the MinRrch has yet appeared, though many of their fongs have: nor it their pTofcffioa 
rtghdy undcrllood, for want of fome jtidicbus perfon to undertake to collefk and publifli their mftituiton. 
Jaws, occupations, tmmumtie?, paytdrcfip&c ^ and to give tbem, wfid/j#i, to the public : when that i& done, 
I atn convinced, that the true character of a Mmflrel ivtU be found different to what it hat generally been 
rcprefented \ But in order to convey fome idcsi of that profedjon, I Hiall exhibit here^ a copy from a 
curiout manurciipt, of the Steward's charge to the MinHrcU \ (which I was favourcJ ^Uh Irom Mr. Douce :) 

^ . " The 


The concert bor^ n i*ob in* 
Ami cv^ry bcecLng owl jtOLiitd \ 

Tht croaktny fmgSp 

TbegaiTitLni lajft^sp 
AlU aU L^anfpir'J Ln r^iL« ch' cnliv'nitig fnund^ 

Nnvr to ClEckli:i, hc^v"nly m^liJi 
Vour loud irnired voicci raifci 
Witd fotcinn Isynic-s tn'fc telchrjitc her pratfc^ 

E^ch luftniTiieTit ih.JI lend \i\ uid- 
TbeSa]t UoiwithcliiUcnnganJ cUpp5njrtialI foafld^ 

The Iron Lyre 

l^Lir/inj; iM-^mg wUh wsiv'ring wit^i 

With hcslVv hi3ill 

The fnlKr Hurdy-Gurdj ilirum^ 
And ihemtrry nicrry^ Marn^w Btmcs ring rouc^d- 

Surh Tn^ichleft llralni CKcilia knew, 
Whtn ^ngclj froiii their hciT^nlj- fpherv^ 

By liarnioiiy'& Hfong pnwVp llie drew^ 

\Vhi]llcv'ry S^^L^]L jUovc >nuld glmJly ftoop to 
hear*"- ■ 

I am Informed, thst the rumous Wr- Arne hiil formerly u 

'Benefit Lonccrc^ in the Litile Hsc^itrc, in the Haymiirkcit 

€n the t2il of November, 3n the y^rar ^745* where he iciTro- 

duced -ill thtfc itdUnmmu, iind alltitt^d catach of them a 

S(j]o pirt i anJ that iJiis was Uw Od^ E0 whItK he adapted them. 

enrr tlie 

' See f^^K^^ jl!' S4^ ^^^ 86, «nJ p rofnnote 4^ Ahdrnfire 

' King Edward the rirnp and hi» fuccdirnn un^il H 

Sixth'i tmie, «nj^d fpcdul Uw*f Uut WeUljii]n|iri IhL 

enjuy chetr iVimicr libfrii^^ft a4id cuAomi i aLthniu^'h iLcy und 
thetr poElerlry had Ivenfu liberal in gratniln^ priv lle^e^ tn the 
SaxotUf who tame intnihii itland. Ac:i:urdmj[ to vuiiout 
cdifti Jud decree*, dpcfljlly one of Heiiry the FQUfth^ th^ 
WelJUi w«rc kept imder the yoke <H &rviitLtde» and iheir uwn 
proper lawi abolilhedp^^mJ the Engliili law^ hrxsuj^ht in i pro- 
vidinff, by general commands iJ^at no ni«n (honld itfe the 
Welfh tonjEue in any court* or fcboot. Brruiary i!// jBniain, Ij 
NumjfhrrT li^J. Sec aKo paKe* jS and 5 J of thU work t wiJ 

J See p4);ca ji and ftt^ 

^ In ciiiV any pcrfon [hould undertaLe fueh a work, T \icg 
leave tu fuEgcIt a few nsore hirtCi, which maybe tdelnl in fkicli 
to in'teftieate ibe rclijjtcm* teremonte* in rnonaJllc rctorJs 
sphere Minftreli were employed^! of puhlte ceJehratinns i 
Gaisiei and Sport*' J Rcve3i % of dancinff^midkiiij^ and fe« 
rcn^tdes; fcfliTniU 4i Lhrblma*, EaLleri ajid Whitfunttdcs 
church fe^lU of flints; church-uJM^Whirfoii'Tdf^ *; Waltf**; 
Bfid-iti; ^riil Interludes * ( Anhallowi; feaJi *jf St- Erkeni- 
»ald i lead oF Purifieation of our Lady j Midlummer-D^ty, 
&Cr Of Jcftcr* or Fofilc*; Waha*= Mummeri*i Morris- 
dancers ^"^ t Merry-Andrews ; Ma^lclaii* " ; Juiiale"F 
&c- ' — - 

1 SeepJEC ■■ °^ lhli**flt.— IteJEi Ciiu":b Hlftfrij — J-'J^"W"S*iifl-i, 
BrLmi U th^ mail «kbr»tci B«]ua, £n|liflL, Siotti*^ m^ l^ifli SaIbEi, in 

' - - - ^ ' ■ ^hlfK irt fclJ IDQ K 11 TsU » 


f' 1 Sec ihP rfrKi(»f BrTi\AC^miu In piE^ s* ■ '"'^"^'* irtftiJ IDa b« ii 

I Smha ac-frrmnc Df cIle — ^.-. -, ^ ,- , 

|tlr^LlQnJ^tllLn'lJft^p»^-^^^pEi|fiEtfcin.lhfl^HenFT V | .— JJ*w Jj*i ■ MAflw^^J 
MaJc, Vol, IV, p. ^91, VdL U p, 1^1, r^T Tins Heuj, Vllhn hiJ 

A Brjnd'i P[>aiylJT AfiilqijLikci, p. i^j^ 

fi IntcriHifi iH tt^mmiJn Ip W*Ui» ind (hey ulW ce l« the Time In 

T Akl^«rb 1NC]1 ihinfln^tid In flij^//^^ j rnp^jfl J Ind inswUBiMlf * 
tncip^LfUiiflcr in ihi WcHh jntcrMri* Itflrlt ojifiirutc^p prntntly^ frflffl 

* Wiki, jif nii*fitiwL* of Ihe ]&*« ordeTp iih* con^Mr^ p«ffflrm vp^ 
T^fid ifiQiUHi^n^P, ift-i pl*)" IJ* frDll mirni, unArc ihe winJo-*! fiMUe ctucr 

■ tliTLftmo-bM. rr^mtiouftiiqhwfr. Tl>-J art hid to [*cn¥ClhEfcriUriri*Of 

.,*« Tr-r^ VU. iV p, w, m^ 7-7- Tliirt 11 - U.ldifli *t Nt«^^ll,"El*d 

Aw^EiMi, Jiii^. Vol. I. pm£^ ^, .^ - - - ^^ 

Q Li Ii cuftmtfy ift Hwih Witii, rtfiflt CliFjft*liiifr hr chi jfloflf famftlp 

^(Simdirtlu^ .nd tuffir.kin.i in riLiflciH TJiiy *r» crW f^wrwAiJi F«fl4-blj 
iV-^niiliiir *ilu-nin4j .hIj ch-iitJ^r*, itr *i ■*/*►■ TJiiy *& rtcii*ai «BUc "5i«i- 
ruMi, md diAMp And £14 h 1^ iiUkb ibiy |"' C^'"* *t^<'^' i ^^*'^' 'IF^"' *"^ 
BMA*- l4lM*iEi, ri« tflBTiy A B^wi pcrJ^£( lilM ^f 111* J^i^mM^ri i-i Euiya^. J 
Aa]J iBfair liAf* J fcMdliJ«nil rort qfikJDl^whkb ll atilitM in OtrurdlhiF^p 
iWirtUirirtraiij by dti Mil tArfiftm, 

ItiWDp rcAiTi^ fflikD fHEn brii<: filliBCi iJ1j 

F&E nx ind ibf biifc eiiinp*ny I 

IHfTeM:h« m^n^ That i3^a«s blJ fChU ftiaJ, 

Thtn mini t^^T tye, ca piii^ d*i blaw» 

And (bLcJJ j>?ur J~ri«Cp VTiJ HttTC -^b^ 

WHU^ lit r>^ -'^un^ r ' i^/-f^VlF 

l^aAar, Dijftfr, ^nmt htfi ini fte* '' 

fit. Gei^rg^ ik hvuundtd Ji^ ihu kiM 3 
DafloTp t"*aor, pliT w*^! !o^ P"* 
St. GlOil* ii W wJJld«l in EU lw«t I 


&. G§v^. 

And«ich rut n*nd I'll rt.>pltiBfci»i— 

1 cart COU*bJiD wtdij I'crfpi^ r^Uln 

Berth piLoi wictiliip PriJ ichi ^iruhuut 1 
I PiJlblwUilmlfiLhcihuiPhl 

M ^nd thiE yni^jn^f pLthBly iWi 





* ^ . 




' ** The Charge delivcted in the Miific Court of the Hanaur of Totbuiy, 

« I'be annual cuJlom and ufage of this hoooarabk and ancient Court, having now called ?qu tacrcther 
fbmethjng, I fupf^ofej ii expected ihould be laid of the ddJghiful Art :ind haFmotilous Science you pri^fcrt,'* 
** Gentlemen, The nature oT your Art confifts in raifmg, and fktlfullif reguliTing harmoninus found?, 
^]] founds (as the philofopher obierves,) arife from the quick and nimble elifion, or pcrcufljont of tbe ait- 
being either divided by the Lips, or reeds, of Pipes, Hautboys, Fluies, or oihet wind inflrumcntj, of dfe 
flruck and put into motion by ib* tremulous vibration of firings, yields an agreeable found lo rhe ear. 
Now, ir is your bufmef*, Genilcmen^ to reguUic^ compofe, aod exprefs, ihefe fouads, fo us to caufe ihc 
difl~e^rent tones, of notes, to agree in concord^ to make up one perfe£i concert and barmony. 

*■ As for the Antiquity of Mufic, it ^ill fufficc, that we read of }til»i/^ the fon of Lamecht the feventh 
from Jdam, (whom fome will have to be the ApaUs of the Heathens,) being the father of all Rich « 
handle the Harp and Organ, and probably, moft other forts of mufjc "*" '* After the Flood '*--.*,, 
._-'-_ ^ arc firfl faid to have had this Art \ and, about the time of the confufion of tongues, Afr/rdJAr 
the fon of //dm, ]E faid to hare carried this Art^ with its company, into Egypt, where it was fo much 
praftlfed and improved, that fuccecding generations, who knew not the writings of Mofet^ believed the 
• Egyptians were the: firfl inventors of mufic* Laban, the Syrian, expoHuUted with his fon-in-law, why he 
nvouM not let him fend him away with Mirth, and with Songs, w'lih Tabret and wiLh Harp. 

But the Heathen writers are much divided about the author, or firft inveni ion thereof: fome hyOrpbeuij 
fomc Lynns ; (both famous poets and MuGcians j) others Amphkn ; and the Egyptians aLcribcd the 
invention to Apoih ,- butj as I before obferved, the facred Hiflory puts an end to this conteft> by telling us, 
that Jubaiy the fon of Lamccbt and brotherof Naab^ v^i father of all fuch as handle the Harp and Qrj^aij j 
and, probably, many other kinds of mufic : for, what variety of inventions, as weEl as improvements, of 
mufical ijiflruments, might be expefled from fuch a genius, in the fpace of feven or eight hunJted 
years experience ? This yttha! (as I before faid) is by the learned thought to be the Apaih of ttie 
Heathens; but, as facred, and profane Hiftory make them coteniporary, vfc may rcafonably infer, that ilie 
Egyptians held ihk fcience in the highefl efteem, from their making Apollo (the God of Wifdoni; the 

god of it* ' . 

1 here is not the rmalleft orb we behold amidfl: the glorious canopy of the Heavens, nor the minuteft 
rpecies of the animal or vegetable creation throughout the terraqueous globe, as well in its make, moiioni 
and appendages^ but in its motions, compofition and otconomy , like an Angel fmgs. For, when we 
confider the exqulfitc Harmony that vjfibly appears through the whole creation, and the feathered race, as 
one heavenly chorus, continually warbling fortii their praife to the Great Creator ; I fay, when we permit 
fuch thoughts as thefc to have due influence upon us, wemufl conclude that the univerfal frame is derived 
from Harmony ; and that the eternal mind compoled all things by the laws of mufic ; and which gives 
plain and evincing hints to mankind, that as nothing but beauty, fycnmetry, and true Harmony are dif- 
covered through the creation, fo their duty to their Great Creator would be bed ejtprelTed by a chain of 
harmonious afkions^ agreeable to reafon and the dignity of their natures, and fuch as would really befpeak 
God's fervice to be the molt perfect freedom^ 

Thuaismufica reprefentation of the fweet content and harmony, which God, in hh wifdom, has made 
to appear throughout all his works. With what noble and fublimc conteniplations ought the meludion* 
fcience of mufiCj naturally to infpirc our minds ! ' ' 

Thus Holy Davids the Royal Pfalmift, well experienced the powerful effects of mufic. You feldom 
meet him without an inftrumeni in hii hand, and a pfalm in his mouth. Holy metres and pfalms he 

iAi tovrfh ^ 4rtd I pilm «f shEcu from in ftntitnE piiotfed v'l&dcHi*. Su ^C^, 

£i^iiLjifti* ^up bf MLfrLi-dpi.uHj 4t Lord Fnp^willijim'i Hi>ufr, LfTt Kkb- 

W« pijnui bf ^aAr«Aa>«p ibiilrf 4bB m§^ of ClUrJftl ibt FilA ( Ud llkLrc 
ti M. k^ print tplufl /tnQg, tc^ <B|rA*iJ bjf 'D<^r'<JFv So ^77^- ^*^^t 

tif§ il hu I'loiMbiT » JlJBdl ori^frfhiif Ell jfkiliiiri' diuui t l» eD* IwiuJ 

j B«, lti|fii^Ea1aiieb«ft4ttiilMfclyHiW*Jni"*idi"'-««^^'^^ 

]| $44 P 9D^>VC. 



detJicatea to the chief tnufidan Jcdmhuft, i6 cftmpofe mufic to tlicm j ht was one in whom the Spirit of 
God delighttJ (o dwetl ; no evil fpirii cm fubduc thai mimi where mufic, and haTmony arc lodged » Wheii 
Ddwrfpiajcd before S^tf/, the evil fpirir depiricd imiqciiiatelj'. The ufe of mufic wa» coDtinued ia the 
JrwiDi chutch until (he deftruflJon of the Temple, aad Nation by Titus \ and the ufe of ii began in the 
Chriflian church in the time of the Apoftlc*. The Chrirtian Emperors, Kings, aiid Princet, in all agei, 
arid tn all Nations ^ ta this day, have had this dmne rcience m great efteem and honour, as well for divine, ai 
ciril urei } not only Jews and Chrifliani, but mofl of the heathen pocrs and philof[>pher^ were rkilful 
muficiant, HonuTt who waA a fkilfut rnanef in thar fcience, introducef AshHUt quelling hii rage againft 
jigamt^mftifni by the help of mufic* And [he poet feigned ih^iOrpbftu drew ireesj ftonei, and floods ^ 
fmce nought, fa Hockifh hard and full of rage, but mufjc, for the tinie^ doth change its nature- Phtarth 
telU us of T^rf^riJir'j appeafing a fcditioui infurreflion in Laced^monii by hi» harmonious lays* Pjtba- 
wtirijs IS faiJ rohave foftened hcree Mirui ; Ajdtpuidis to have put a ftop to fcdition ; Damm to have 
reduced a dnjiilven man lo ibbncLv, and petulent men to a modefl behaviour \ and XeaocrJi^t to have 
brought madmen to Tliemfblvet, aiiLl all by the help of muficat founds. The evil fpirit wat removed front 
S-jit/iand he propbcfied, and this by the efficacy of niuHc. And £!i/ha, when he was confuhed by the 
three Kings ihai marched agaEnft Msa&t called for a Minrtrel; and, when the Mlnrtrel played, the hand 
of the Lord came upon him *. Mufic cxpeli poifon by rarifytng and exhilarating the fpirits. Pcrfons bit 
by the tarantula have been (as by good authors we are informed) cured by mufic. Aytfjhn wat fo great 
anoiator and mufician, thai by the power of hii oratory, and powerful touch of his muftcal Lute, the 
ftoncfi that built Thchcs, a cliy in E^ypr, danced after him to ihe place where they Diould be laid j and 
his moving oratory, fweet hirmony and mufical founds, did fo creep into the can, and fteal upon the 
hearts of a people, rods and uncivilised, ai engaged ihem to live p^ccably together at Thebea, where he 

vas King. * t n i*ir 

Mufical faciifice* and adorations chimed a place in the hwrs and cuftoms of the moa diflercnt nations, 
the Grecians, and Romany a& well as Jewn, and Chrl[liins,unammoufly agreed in this, as they difagreed 
m all other parts of rhdt ceremonies. The Greeks, md Romaiw had their coUege.or focictjr of muadam, 
whofc art they tho^dit ufeful to imroducr virtue, atid eicite courage. TuHj tells us, that the ancient 
Grecians (the poli[dt people: of the a^e) did not think a gcmEcman well-bred, urvlcf* he could perform 
his p^rt ai a concert of mullc, infomuch that Jhcmi^^io (though other*ife a great man,) was taxed for 
being dtfeaive m this accomplilhrnem* 

But to come nearer (o ourfelvcs, hiftory tells u?, that the ancient Briton* hid Bards, before they had 
Books ; and tlie Romans, by whom they were conquered, confefs the mighty power the Druids and Bard* 
had over the people, by recording in their Songsi the deeds of heroic fpirits, and teaching them boLh Laws, 

and reliEton in Rhymes and Tunes » 

And the long continuance of thin very Court of Mindrelfy ' is i teftimony of the aatiquay of Mufic, 

Thi,>d,rU, in an epilite to Boitim, fays, when ihii quesn rf the feafB come, forth in her gay drrfs. 
all other ihooRhts eii-e way. and the fonl t^lies its powers to receive the Dehght (he gives ; flve 
cheets the fcr.owful, foftens the furious and enrsg.d, f««tei» four tempers, giv« .check to It^fe .mpure, 
«amot, thoughts, and melts to pure and chafte defiles ; (he captivates the ftrayed faeubes, »nd mouJd, 
themiiitoafcrene, fober, andjuft.ceconomy. _ i, ,v -^a •, !„r„r™ 

I fay, Cnilcuen, the force of mufic is wonderful ; how does ,t awaken the mmd; t mfufcs 
im uneLeaed vigour, make, the imprefHon agreeable and fprightly, give, . new capacity as ^f^^ 
fealn /it rife., li U, and coumetchange, the paffion. ; it charm, ^d tntafpom. mffle,, ^d becaltn^. 
and .0 ertts witl> » almoft arbitrary power ; there i. ftately any ct^nilituua.. fo h^vy or reafon fo weU 
Z^.i. as t. be abfdute pruof againa it. I//#x. as tnuch a hero as he was. durll no truft h>nJelf 
with Sy en's voice. tJi..«., a Grecian. w.s fo gre.t a mafter of tnufic, th^ he could make a maa 
Zm Ld fwagger like a tentpeft ; and then, by altering his note, »d time, he would take htn, do™ 
ag^in attd Iwectc,. hi. temper in a trice. Otte tlu«. «hen ^/«.«fer w., « dmner. th. tn^ played a 1-^. 

ol their digoiiy. Mid wore Gii ins itiw toBtcinpt aai ncglea. S« ^nimtei 39 M •o"""''! "J i„ulij,w 

- » 



«ni «r the pHncc Immediatdy rLfcs, fnatchKup his launce, and puts himfdf In a pofture of f^ghtid^v 
^rttrUt was nt. fooncr foiinded by the change of notes, but his arms were EtoQtided, and hU fiie 
«tbia .nd he fat down as orderly as If come En from one of ^ri^^'^V leftures. 

^ vou, Gentlemen, never obferved a captain ^t the head of a troop or company, how much he h« 
heen aUered at the found of a Trumpet, or the beat of a Urum ; or ^.hal a vigorous monon, what an 
rreaed poftnre, ^hat an cnterprifing vlfag. ? all of . fuddeti hi. blood changes m hi. vem.^d his fpitit 
jump, like gun-powder, and f.em« Inpatient to attack the .nemy. Muiic .s ab e to exen us force, n^o.l, 
Ln the affeaion., but on the parts of the body, as from Mr, D.r^.™ s ftory of the G^^^^^^ that once had difobUged him ; and, to be even wuh him, caufed, at a feaft, a Bagpipe to be pby^d 
vhen he was hemmed In with the company, winch made the knight to be-p-s himfelf. to the great diver- 

fionof the company, * ^ t- ^ ^ ^^ ii^uj-u^* 

But farther, Gentlemen, not only mankind, but the very beafts of the fielJ, are dehghta wuh muac. 
The beafts of the plough, their toil is rendered eafy, and the long fatigue they daily undergo, is mftnfibly 
Ihortened by the rural Songs and cheering WhlClle of the drivers. Not only dngs and hnrfes, (ihofe dodle . 
and faradous snimalsO but even the rugged bears themfelvcs, dance to the found of pip^s, and fiddles. 

Do bur note a wild and wanton hard, or race of juvenile and unbacked cohs fetchmg mad bel- 
lo^vinff and neighing aloud, (the hot conditions of their blood,) if they pcrchsnce do hc^r a Trumpet found, 
or any mufic tuuch thdr ears, you fliall perceive them make a mutual fUnd, and their favage eyes turned 
toamodeftga^e, byihef^veetpowersofo^uric. ' ' . ■ r t, u- rif . ir 

The famous Mr. Jo/jh ?la^f(>rd tells us a runarkablc fiory to fKis purpof^^ j that hmifclf,oncc travelling 
near Roylton, met a herd of ftags, about 20 upon the road, following a Bagpipe and Violin : A^hen the 
mufic played they went forward, when it ceafed they all flood fUll ; and in this tnanner they were con- 
duced out of Yorkshire to the King*s palace at Humpton-court. 

But not only brute hearts, but even inanimate bodies, are affeaed with founds. Kircher mentions a 
large (lone that VrX>uld iremble at the found of one particular organ^pipe. Mcrjmnm alfo, among many 
relations, tells us of a particular part of a pavenwtit thai would ihake as if the earth would open when the 
orffan played j this is more probable than what he relates about antipathy, {y^ wit,) that the found of a 
Drum made of a wolf's fkln, would break another madcof a fheep^s fkin ; and that poultry would fly and 
cackled the found of a Harp-Uring made of a fox's gut- The Rreat B,^k alfo tells us, that he tried aa 
arch that would anf^er to C ^, and had done fo 100 years ; and that an experienced builder told him, any 
\telbbuilt vault would an fwerfome determinate note ; and Mr* Durham tells us, that one Bkhdoi Pettir, 
a Dutchman, could break round glalfi^s with the found of his voice* 

It is iJie common, or civil ufe of mufic that concerns you. Gentlemen, that owe fuit and fervice to ihii 
Court ; and in that, the world has not wanted examples, even of Emperors^ Princes, and the greatell and 
moft illuftrious perfons have not difUained, both to learn and pra^life your art* It is mufic, which gains 
you admittance and accceptance in courts, and pala«es. In (hort, Gentlemen, what feaft, what play,affemblr, 
or ball, what country-wakes, merrimenr, or entertainment, can be well held without fome of yourfociety. 
Our great dramatic poet fays, " The Man that hath not Mafic in his foul, 

" And is not mov'd with concord of fweet founds, 
' ■ '. • '* It fit for trcafons, fltatagems, and fpoils; 
** The motions of his fpirit are dnU as night, 
« And his afFe^ions dark as Erebus - 
*' Let no fuch man be tmfled,' ■ 

And now. Gentlemen, having fpoke a few words of the nature, antiquity, ufefnlnefs and wonderful 
tffe£ls of mufic, I fhall now proceed to inform you, that, as long as the ancient Earls, and Dukes of 
Lamaji^r, who were ever of the Blood Royal, had their abode, and kept a liberal liofpkaliiy at their Honor 
tyfTutbury, there could not but be a general concourfe of people from all parts, for whufedivcrfmns.all 
forts of mufician* were permitied like wife to come, to pay their ferviccs j amongR whom, fome ^umres 
and diforders now and then arifmg, it was found neceffary, after a while, that they ftiouU be brought 
under Rul«,and Law* j and that the end of your attendiiacc and fervice at this time. U the preLrvauoa ot 

wi/,.. tht Mii^ftrci ii f-;d to B«v.b=c,Mi.c(uHpcd;>inhat ^^^'^^^^^^*T^i^^\=f'^Y^l^'^;}'J^^^^ '']t 

U li/rdii, iiuuiher l-rcii.h MijilUcl munched w [he Coumicroii by vdmu he *« rcw*nleU wiii^ iH giU iJ uuw i 
Ck-utifttrihir*. Omr^t MU V a^tnttui tJtuFla E»ft^ fitrju ihe 


ilrt diffmtjr of this noble Science, and for putiing thofe Lawa into ejrecudon, by puntfhin:; all abufes and 
diforders happening by any of your (otkty wiihinthis Honor ; for which end you have a GorernoT appoim. 
ed you, by the name of a King, who has feveral officers under him, to fee the eiccutbn of the fevcrat Laws 
and cuHonu, belonging to tbij ancient commimify. 

la. Gentlemen^ you arc to inquire into the behaviour of the fcveral MmftreJs, Wiihln this Honor, fiacc 
the iart Courrt 

2d. Whether any of them haVe abufed, or difparaged their honourable profcffion, by drunkenncfs, pro- 
fane curfmv^and fivearinR, fniying lewd and obfcene Songs, playing to any company or Meeiings, on the 
Lord's dijy, or by any other vice, or immorality, or by intrudtn^ into any company, unfenc for, or by 
playing for any m^n or disgraceful reward ? *" • 

2d. \Wiether any of the Minltrels within this Honor, that flioulJ be the known mafters of concord 
and harmony, have been thcmfdvcs guilty of any brawls, quarrels, or diforders ? 

4ih. Whether the Minftrels within [his Honor have been decent in their appareUand Mful in their a'rf, 
and rcfpedlul to their fupremc, the King of the Minllrelly I Whether their laft year's oRicers of the 
MinRrdfy have well pcrlormed the duty of their refpcclive offices ? 
5th» Wlitther ativ Minftreiii, that owe Sbit and Service to thisCourt, have appeared, and done their Suit? 
6th. WIsetherauy Minitrels have exerctfcd thLir Art wirhin this Honor, not being allov^ed, and inrolled 
10 this Cuurt ? And If you find any MiiilLrels within this Honor, to have olfcndcd in any of thefe particulars, 
yoLi arc to prefcnt thetiu 

Audj in the VaW place. Gentlemen, it mull be recommended to you, that you chufe Skilful, and Good 
Men to be Oilicers of the MiuHreIfy for the enfump; year. The ICiag is to be chofcn out of the four 
Steward:^ of the preceding year, one year out of Stij^onl/hitr, another year out of Dcrbyjhlny inter- 
changeably ; and (he fotjr Stewards, two out of Statlordfhire, and two out of Derbyshire ; three of them 
to be chokn by you, and the fourth, by the Steward of this Court, and thcBitiliif to the Larl oi Devon V' 

Tilt original C/jd/*/fr granted at Tutbury, in Staffordfhire, to the King of the Min^rsh^ by yofjno^Gsmf^'' 
dtite oi LaimJlC} , ti dated the 2id of Angulf, 1380, in the fourth year of the reii^n of fwcct RkhardtJjt 
S£c0idf and iiuitledj Chutuk Rr,- .n AIifiiJrij/xjV.\ikh was written inold I^'rench j fee Ditgdak*t Monajlkon 
Jttgdcatium, T^iri 1, p, 355, and Tom 11. p. 873, 2d edition ; and partly tranflited in P/sfs Hiftory of 
Stdffurdfliire, Chapter the Sih, 6g, 70, &c- and in BhunVs Andenf Tenures^ by Beckwiii/, p. 303, &c, 
with a further account of the manner of electing t/jn King of the Minjirehi and his Officers, Likewife, in 
all probiability, there mufl be more information on t hie fubjeQ, to be fuund among i he ancient recorda, in 
the DiHihy Cmrt ofLancq/ier^ Lmi'hn-^ and in the pofieffionof the prefent Duke ofDevonfl/fre^ lord oi Tutbury^ 

1 muft not omit to mention a remarkable anecdote of the origin of the Minjlrei Jurifdidion, in Chelhire, 
whith happened about the year 1214; and perhaps, the carlielt inflance of ihe kind among the English* 
Ramtl/r/j Btiwtn Blaendatoil % or Dhindeville, the itsth earl of ChcEler, who is faid to have atchieved feverat 
miUtarv enicrprlfes agaiu^ IJewelyn ab lorwerth. Prince of Wales , but one time meeting with the faid 
Prince, and being fenftble of his inability to wiihftand him, was obliged to retire for refuge into the 
caftle of Rhuddhn, in Flintfbire, wherein Llewelyn befieged him t in confcquence of this, he fent exprcllcs 
vith the utmofl privacy to his General, R<jgeT Lacy, conflable of Chefter, and earnellly defiring his imme- 
diate relief. Thefe exprcffes found Lacy at Cheftcr, during the anniverfary of the Mtdfumnier Fair j and» 
as the occafion v^as critically urgent, from the imminent peril of the earl's life, the General immediately 
marched with a tumultuous croud of Pkyen^ Muficmns, and ail the perfons he could po/Dbly affemblei of 
whom greatnumbershadbeen tempted to Cheto, by the celebratian of this felbl anniverfary. Utweljn^ 

' The ftcward 'R ho ponded at the court of flie Mmftrcls lE dcm]^] chamber of that officer, ^n J,fii^ ^^^*IP ^L^^'^ufJ*^^% 
Tutbury, in Mn Blo"nt'&time, w.isthc DaAto/OrmBnA W 

Tli*^ ilJIIrlftH of ihe iloiior til T mbury', under (he fditjf a/ 
Ifre Miti/irtlit a»cicnlty comprelicnJcd iht cuutitka of Stjffwrd* 
l>erh>, Nouin^hiiinj Lcictlter, niid Warwick) and ull iJn^ 
Muficluiu Mitliili thoft counlics p lid tlicirfuil^ liml krmc to 
the Kn-4g (jf liic MiullrcliK thuni't ^mimi TmHra t/jLamii 
Sj ^tikwtlk, pp. Jtg, Jtl.fct:. cd. 1^84, — — 

In iIk rciun of Edward line FfiwriKu lerjemc d thekmg'j 
MiulLrii]» OEcUTf I iuii in u in4naer, whicli Ihcwi* tlic tuui^ 

Kl[i)f Lit all hours, and nd all occafions. IViirion't Hijfory sf 
fin^iifh PfidfryjVol. tL p]*. lOJ, IJ4, Ac 

frf Minllrcl mcetmaw.w dircojitinueiUn 1753 land 

Tut&ary in the je^r if}S. ShAff^art ADurllKid ulxtutdK 

!6|&+ wlioiitciilniciitioiieil in the ii^<a^t^Chiir^i la ih<t Mmjirdt 1 
thcrctoreiii mu{l have been ttdivtred fjinc itnie ^IterwHriit. 




« , • 


slarmed it tfic approach of this Taft multitude^ raifed the fieg« with prccifHtation j by this njeawnK* 
carl Ramiffib effected hta cfcape m iriumph j and the cffuGon* of hb gratitude formed his firft a£t8 of ftyfo. 
jd^tyjby rewarding Lacy with an fxdti/fveprer&gmi^ over ihofc paniclar fradci^ and m^^fHc^^ which had 
been excTcafed by thofc fortunate and Ggnal inftTUtnema of hi« royal preferTation, The conllable's fon 
John Lacy, referred bis ^xdu/ivi pri-i^ilt^e over fomc of thofc mechanic occupaiioni, byt grimed the Minffr^i 
pnngativfto Fiu^h Datii^n^ of DuUm ', and his hear? j thcfon of that Ralpf^ Dif//dJ7, whq is ruppofed to 
have particularly marched at the head of the band of Min/ircis, Thus confifjningihe rukandjurifdlQion 
over this MtFt/inl prQf^^itn to that family* v^hofe anceftor had fo TaJiantly commanded them, in the capa^ 
city of a body of iridtorious fotdicrs \ ■ 

It may be ncceflary to add one thing more on the fubjcfl, whkh t ought to have mentioned before* 
The Welfh term for the Harp is Telvn \ which ii not only of very high antiquity, but its etymology 
indicates, that it was applied to xhr ^rj^^ringid i^ruTvnt^ for* it means a thht^Jh'etchfd^ or en tbt^^rgtcb ^ 
anam« which could not^^ with any propricry^ be applied to any one particular indrument^ if there were i 
varietur of them when it was fo applktl- The root of Telvn is TVA i.e. what ir Jlraigbt^ eveHj qt 
^r^icm tig/^t i whence alfo Annei., ajirsfrb^ a tfrijion^ & ptpp^ a fpri^ge j and AHNiit^u, toJlr£ttb^ to l^end 
a h&ii*^ f& fa^^ aim. Hence it is very evident, that the name Telvn is coeval with the knowledge of a 
Armged inflrument amongft the CTMsar j and it followed^ as ^ matter of cQurfe, that all the varieties 
invented tn afrer-tfrne mutl hare fume other appropriate appelUtiun \ The antiquity of the word Tkltii 
h fingularly corroborated by the circumftance of the coiifl of Franccj where Tcahn is fitu^ted, being an- 
ciently called the promontory nf Citharijics \ and the toivn itTelf Teh Marfius^* 

The AnglD*Saxon name for Tclyn is peajipj or pJjipt which i^ ufcd through both the Teutonic and 
Roman dialefls' j and» I belieTe, the e^rlieft mention of it under that name is by Vefjanfia^^ about the 
vear 600 V Ii^ ^ mimufcript of about the feventh centuryi in the monastery of 8^ Blafjusj quoted by 
Crr&^rtujj prince Abbot of ihat monaftery % there is a reprcfentation of a Harp, intiiled Citbara An^tka^ 
which h prccifely the fame fhape a& the prefenc Harps, only more fimpie, and witb ^ fewer nurnberof 
ftrings- "We find Harps fculpinred, both in ftoneand in wood^ onleveral of the mod ancient Caihedrait 
in England and Wales '* j and drawn in old mifralg, and illutnmated manufcripts*— ^ 

' The manfinn anJ larddhip nf D*tfirm, inCh^fhSrfj are now 
the nfQ^erly f^t Mr^- Dtillock, wife nf juhn liijliJock> efq- oi 
!F;ilkb<>rnc h^l^ intl rcpKltntativc of the 1>omihgh of MjJ«1qiip 

In Mei- 

■ &?e more nn the fttb|ea in /Aftj^J Hj^^f ^/ /^afej, by 
UaT>d'J I^i^ih^diuon of 15^4^ p:i£« 396^ 373^ 2>irPecer 
J^eiceltcr's AntiquliifsofChHhirtt Part tl- t^kip. VL p. 141* 

tjrd,^;iTtll- p 19' — DnomlJiiy Boot, ISfsuf^JfrrJiirf, Utrdicw 
piVj, &a^t ill w/jtu fJ itf V f Jr. mi r£i^. Sec AnHis, 

Ord CiATX^ iJr 304^ J^/* /TffWf/ Siaiuin ai /ffr^f, 39 thz^ciii^ 
Ctijp* IV- fi ^-]0.— Ktat- 43 liHi. Lhap. IX,— but. 4 Hejirj 
Iv/Cap. XXVlL-STat. 1 Jjc* J. C«p. XXV, 10.— TpV-iimr 
HeminB'«ChrnnidcpChap-XXXV.p. cqi,— ILLwkim^ Hili. 


Di Miiiic, VoJ- [I- pp- 4^t 54' ^^f *4» ^o6, 290,136, ic- 
VoL III. p- 479. &c* Vol- JV, pp* 2651 ijjj 5:c,-Btirney'j 
Hiit. [31 Mufic^Vn]- IL pp-a(5&p 3Cj7^&c.— Stow'5 Snrvejr of 

LchnddnconLiniB^ii by StT7pc-— TJie^^c^wi/ y^rti ll;^f^^i^*i 

Warton'i Hift.ot Kn^hUi Pactry^ VdL II. p. 105. 

* ^f/jm IS mcniloned by TaJi^n aLout 540 ; ^ p. ii», — 
Atib, m Jtlfff i/ffw^/'i Xoi^J^ ^i early as the year 9C4, and 
profaabiy lEuch earlier, tbtcauft fcfiofelawawcreoij^ coltc^cd^ 
and part trritten ^ th:ic ptrlodp hy Blrg^luJjjiyh^ch flatnLcs 
sfLTt IJncc publilhcd unJtr tJicr tiLlc of i^« fyaiiic^ ^ [ip* ^Op 
162, aCi6p i67i and +15, of chiit boot j and pp, 94^ 5^7 ofthia 

Likewifci there is a townftitp in Montgomeryl^Lj^, called 
'Trt*rDf!jn-^]iT\d anollicr pbcenear Lt^nc^irfnoiijinGUj^or' 
gaoCbEFi:^ calJtd Car'r i>/^ja^ or i/jB Ct^^r JJf/yfl- ■ 

Two En^iynion to folick a Harp-keji 

J^y^rf^ ^Of^^rh ii/Jwrff coif-datitf ^h^ip i^ub'/f 
E^^wr ^crniiwr ijndunip 

C^/pIyfJ''*r€k rii^fd'&rfA iVd^i fir rvwJif/jprrA 

* I a,m mJeb^d to Mr. William Owen for hh adi^ance in 
I he iibove etymology ; w'hom alfo on other occafions t have 
I f[en cfitifulted onubrcurc palTagc^p^wiL^gio hU fingislarknow- 
cdpc in the Ancient Briiifh Lmguagci ltij3gL:nclcm4ii is author 

ot' Ciiriand^r Cjfimrafg a Sa^/Mt^r^ or Weldi und En^lalli 
DlftLon^r/; which v.'ork is now conip]ftcd| and publilhed 
by W^liiiinsj No. ] t, in the Strand.- — 

* Pfhy. — - Coajh** Uamden, VoL I. p- l5,Df thcaccodnt 
of the fini inhabit.mcsof Urit^Md 

* jini^nut. C^imdcn ihys* if yofl afk nor Britons what 

they call :i Harn^ they prcfciitty will anfwer you TV/jift. AnA 
if you tfiuld rajfc ao fincicitt Pnar^kianf aaid Luk hinij whataw 
frings plriycd on the Harp? he ^ouLd suilwcr you TVj^flff,— 
S^mTncb'* Britilh Hilioryt p* ^7. 

^ Johhfon^& DsaumiTf- 

^ y£fiani'ms F^j-iuraoiwj Lib. 7. Carm. S.^—Alfoj fct pp< "^Aj 
and 94, of this wtirl:. 

^ Ctr6irtut^ D< M^££^ Sidf/di Tom;. IL in Cak^m^ 

** There H:^ Harp c^irvcd on the entrance into the Chapter- 
houfe fif H^fkftfi^fifr-jtlt^jt ; annther in the gmin ol the rcof] 
over OEie of the NariJi dijors i^i' the jiAlcy ; acid iinothcr in the 
EaJl elonfter, over the door of tbertctird-oflice^nfthc A6bfly- 
Anothcr gn one of the capites of the cnltimns in the French 
church at Cantcrhuiy, fuppofed to he ^ibout thcyear QcOj 
jtnliqwriM RtfiTlj^rj^ Vol. 1, p. 57. There are two ll^rp* 
ciirved oil the oatiide of the door ot the South tOe of^^ tht lute 
of kif €i^itJrtii, and on the undcr-p^fcrt of the f^ais of the choir 
oUh^E cathedml i whi*;h littiir was creiAcJ in the year i^jB- 
Andi on the front of Lii^h^U ioiisarx^f^ there h 4 llitue fif 
King David playing on tlit fW^. AJlc*, there afis ;^l fortt 
of llldeLLtmufjL:,d JLjlLrnniL^nti faichfulHydcHiiseatcd in Ciiritri 
fyaimiHi fl/^yVjiiT/rt* if*f//jfurf -VflJ Pm^if^^ WiipilKrs u^Jii 
jiVstc*— On the iitattoNiliiire CAmp ^r Aflckiu p<^rpjtu»l 
AJmHnack, thci-^ ai. liie j^.lyphka to "P^^^ ^^^^^ ^i'^"^™ 
dayai from the iiilUt March a idiirp-ilJae iTiliha^ U^cwai^ 
Lhe icult uf Sr, Davidp who iiftd to priife Ondoji thai fcnttrv- 
niem-— JV^'-r Jii/i<iry ^Jlii'if^rijfUf*, Lii^p. X* pp.43»i 4* 




„,1 mllrumct... 1 h, C™fi „ fo ciillod from i.> protuberam, or betlyias form. A=n« k i. ,Ifo a .=rm 
lor a box or u^unk ; .s C™,A A^/«, 1'. The found of .he Crw.h u very melodious, ,ad ww 
frequenily ufed as a tenor accompaniment to the Harp ; but U now become extremely rare In Wale,- 

Afwrallfhe moftdllipcnt invtftfEatiOn into GrrrV^ Roman, \Pii^ fr irj^yJJi ^ ^^tnt^M fc 
Stia olhcr iinti-pitn!s> xht only thiBff that CTcr I jntt wiih. r'*T H^rjf^ydd.'' Letrci \V 
which liJfl rti]y limiltiLideof torn] wtth our H,irpH(the KtWw 
ciccj>tciU wlni:li I hi^vc alrciiitf mcncJoncdj) ir^s in a ftilto 

faid to havo fievn diAwnlnMn nj-tnriE TurkDrti iigures,) tn- 
ffnived by MrH'^v L&rid i/t F!r^i}vrg^ printed ac TfamborK, 

" ivvery eft lef Bard, io ^Lmm the phncc (h-ll ermnt nn erf, 
hcc- ih^ pnnrt ni;ill pmvi^i: hnit an inHrumcnt t a Harp tt> 
*jne, a Lr^vth to unq^hcr, ac.A Pipes to tlie ihird i and wIieq 
they dftj the mitmmcnt^ oi!i(hi ui rttert lo ihe pHnee ** - 

female H=Lr}iirl delineated, pkying on a imd ^iJ Hirp; the [-irfMi Vx^fA^H t« -it ^ -.-^''^^*" - '7' ^'^ "'^ 

bodv nf vrhit:h MillnimeTit i* eX;ih!)ly th«: Diipicc^t nn tEkdajAca- """ 
iiotlcc-up iin-ciid, :md cnunniicd by a h^t^ i-hc3.rly in a hori* 
xontdl pujui^wi t^n uiie fide of the hoitoni of it t which both 

t'frri A*f jff r/i4 Hv v« *jftp/' 1^E^< 

tcgcihcr t'orm :Ln juj^te^ (foniewhat of the fipur^ f>f :i Daort- 
hrfjied ftytlie wtrh ki blade up^v^bl-JshJ nnd fiUcd wiih ftjjnjj? 
v]nch;uclVre^^"fid intoBhi^boicoiTiLir. Thcupnj^ht twKly, or 
tiCiL-lake cUi^'C of this mllruiticjLt, iiiufl hnve been made of 
vtry pibnt wotul, and pfrh:ip-* [he nwly J>^)lli^l]e way it ctmld 
^ave bctn fthniicd to fuilaiji the jjre.n tt[]fion oJ the llrinj^^ 
withoxit iipitJir* The fi^urcodhi^ ii.irp apj^ir^foeitremely 
fimplejthat nxkr is r^ithcr led lo believe there ix^^i fach nn in- 
flrniiientp aaid not at toj^cthei fancy- Likc\^<Lld, I have fee n 
am inuiniilitCcd E:h11-laidiadr<hxiingt where th:re w^t^an An^cl* 
vr 1 Cupids p].iyl]i^ Oil a InnH^t klndot Harpt formed funic ^ 
iphnf-nrtlic Jh.fcpc nt it It^ird- N^^twi^IiJtanLlsnji the polTibtc 
«iilcnce nf thi^ iiilb'unicntv iftcr all the daliijent cj^tjuirEe-i 
svhtch 1 h^i^c bc«n able to miakerefpe^in^ h, I jm infoiEnedn ^ 
frtsiiignod atithnrity, by G<ntkmen whn liave trav-ellcd o^er 
tlioft rnunttjcsi thai no fnch an inftntnieaiE is nciw ufcd cither 
ill Turkey. Pci-fiaj or India \ thi^rcibi-^. Imc^ it is nnt to be 
Ibitnd in tilL^fc t-fjjions atprticnLp li ni]t remain^ ;i doubt, 
whether itev^r Lihtrdp sinJ origrn^^icd flnlj hoin the Lmigi^ 
nations of tin; dr^^uj^htlfnen.— 

*l*\it Ccrom.Lntcc uc^^rerfi of the Fold coillt in Africa* play 
upon a mufical inrtvumeiit called the ^rrri^t^, v.rhich ij fome- 
lliinE ui the form of *ri archer"* bow, and itiad^ of n piece of 
toop r{ ithoui threc-<iuartiiri of a y»rd Jonjj, a^d ilry;^ vith 
two {Iringi- 

Refpc^iufi; ihc Tff^Ji Ihrpi which wa^ enTrtTminleated by 
Mr. Bruce to Dr. £nrn^yi ^ntt laid to have been dntwn Irom 
Ai^smtitiiit piintini; in one of the Icpulchral (;rottof olthe firft 
kings of Thebes : On this inftrumcnt Dr- Buirncy makes the 
following juJic!oiiiob(crvaiioiis : '* The number of ftringSj 
thefs7c:md form» and the c!cE;an« of its omamcqts* awaken 
nRediohib, -which lO indulf^Ci would iead ui too far from our 

urpole, and indeed out of oar depth. The mind is wholly 

ft in the iiiinvcnfc =intiquky of the patuiing in which it is 
rtpftieaitrd. Indeed th« time whtn it vases«utcd i$ fo re- 
iLtotc « to entourage a beliefs cEiat artij aJicr havtjig been 
brougk iQ jrreAt pcifctlioni vrert ajraiin h>rtj 3isd Higain in- 
venudt long 4;fter this ptriod.** If nnc m^f offer a ai-njcc- 
tuTCt ificr io judicious a Critic ai Dr- Burfiey, wt huvc grc^i 
reaibn to doubt the auithciiticily of the Thebafl Harp- In 
the firft placci its antiquity. Oriiamcnts^ and cScgancCp arc fuf- 
peflifd [ and particularly the Av,int of :i pill^ir to fup^OrC the 
comb of it, which couid flot eafily be conlriTed to VLthftand 
the tcnfionof the ftnnel^ even if it v-^a^ ynade of metllcp and 
■frith that llphtncfi wiEh which it is d^jfcribed- In the next 
pkce,iti* Jejincaltd as if it w^smadc to ft^tfld without fupport 
man cqultibiiuin mai^ncr^ \^hkh ccrtamly U a very recent 
bvtntion, e»tn fc Uie ai *hcn the pedals were addtd to the 
HAfp I that is si^i^t 40 ycur* aRO- 

l Wevcr, fiin-c 1 publdlicd the former cdiiicm of this vo- 
lumcj it has fmct been aftertained^that Mrn Bnice has taken 
W UDliccuced h^erty in f^-i iMnienlingp jfid alterfng the orfjii 
nd dd'iyn of rhtf faid Theloi^ Marfi ; ifrhich nowappcius 10 be 
radtp and (itnplef when cumpared with hiii dr^ffiog* fee 
ymr* f/jn in Hi^Jf f' A? Z'**^' ^^J'/'f . /*^ i-^cdnr />ni(™ j printed 
at Fjfi*, 1601 1 pliit*: i«- f^«^- *^^^9* 3^^i*i"J 3' ! alili"s*y 
be fern in ntlitr works^ publithed by our omi coMHtrjmeA- 


W^dlics, pp. 55. ij, 

*' The eighth nj^cer of the houf hold is the Taimly DanI, 
K^ho Oio^ild hate his Harp from the kin^, ^nd a ^otd nag 
from the qneen>whei> initiated into hilt nl^ce; ihe Hjrp hi? 
L^ not (op:irl'ni:h> neither by fAic*cr|;i|tjms]ong5^ he lives/' 
Andf Tee ;he preC-L^n^ P^^^ ^4. 

fr^ ^ <iiy^^^yiiA %J ^^f^yi drOiV, --j^t rw ft" Aw d /jr|i^-jf rJ 

u e- " The three ^ledEcn that flial] nm be parted with jt » 
H^irp* a Buwl^and Fr^iTicn. If a man (IiaU wiLfuNy fn^t 
ciLhtT of thtfe three to be eondbTionjI^ It Ihiill go Ul^c another 
pkdRc, but \mhpiitTedcmptin& i fqp, \x u he himfelfthat hu 
dif^Tiiicd hi% privilej^rc in plcdKing them ^'— G^j^.zj'^ Cmw- 

A/^-V. Vol III- ^^ 

I'hcre i^ a batTu re'icvo# of an anj;tl plajring onthe Crwth> 
carved nu the upper p.irtnf the Icat^ of the choirnf \Vorce(lef 
enithednil, lAhicli ^as huit: hy King 1^-Jgar fn the yciroc;. 
Sue C^ritf*! Sj>ctlmn% tf An^irnl S^iJfiiurf md P^flintingj No- 1%m 
Alfo, 1 am informed there iiilte h^ure of the CrwU) amon^ 
chc outfiJe ornamenla 0^" the ablrfy of Mclxufs^ in ScotUitdp 

wliiuh was hndt in the time of Edward the Second. -— 

" The CV>/ij or (^wfapvai invented by the Britons (for, 
by fomc ot the poct^ it is caflcJ Cr^a Erii^m^^) which it 
commnnJy termed violin- Croih^ cr Cr«'fA# by iJic Britnm^ 
IsgniAes theCaJf uf the lcg^the v.-£]inb or belly f a«aho by the 
5yria:i!i y^T\ i^^^^f) 't^J ^Y ^^c Grecians Kfi^^^v Iigriifici 
the w(?mthp {^ a water-Tcltel- It^xier^i Gfi^^mm ^fttiquif^f^m 

Briianj^iconrmf p- pt* Andj RicifdrJ^j We^ DidhnMTj*^ > 

J In praifu of the CrwfJ ; 

*' 6'^*'?r i-tuh ptttcrr^iii mediant ^ 

" Cry* aihryfiih Crei-J"^ /f ^/jflf " Afj^^j^frCd^'^^jVCH^AMfj. 

Alfoj ^y/GrrlJ^flT,vrhoflounthed about isSo^ watclli^3ii- 
cd a ^ood performer on this inHrumenlh And ^^f^/^ ^Urgan^ 
of WcTi'burghi in An];:Iefcy, who lived about the end ot the 
ladci^ncurj'a was one t:-^ thcl-ilt jocd performers um he Crwthh 
^ee Liteuilc pp. 3S?, +5p ifc. 

The t'rfflvi H corrupted to Crawd in Engtifh ; and a playcf 
upon it was called ? t-rowther^ or Crovrtfcrp and fo alfo 15 4 
common hddlcr to thi5 day j and hence^ nndnuhtedly* U de. 
rived the common furnamcofCrowther, orCrowdcr* Butler* 
with hij ufual humoiiri has chara^eriied a cogmmon fiddler 
and given him the name of Crowdero* in the following paflage| 

*^ Ip tb' head of all this warlike r^^bblei 
*t Crowdcr*s niarch'd, expert l^nd able, 
"^ Inftead of trumpet andofdrunii^ 
** Thiht makes the warrior's Ilomacbeomej 
" Wbofe noifc whets valour ftrongn*' &c*-^^ — — • 

Hmi^ Part /. Cflitip //- v. lOJ- 

Alfo, Dr. Johnfoiir in his Dis^ionaij^ derive^ the Uddlcfroia 
the CrvjiL 

*^ Hark» how t^e Minftrcls ^gin to Ihrill abud 

■* Their merry muiic that reibunJi ffoiu Uf j 
^ The Fipfi the Tmbor»iiid the tTeaihliibg Cmd^ 
'" That weU aereewiih out^n brcA^h ur iftr/' 

« His FiddlC] \% your proper niirchiirc, 
■^ Won in the Icrvitc of tne cbufchci i 
*' And hy your doom mtatl be allnwM 
*■ To bcp w be BO m^^rti a CrtW*** ^#.*^f< 

o g , i>y^- 


Pont a brdftt pattipv « brit ; 
A thalaith ar waiib dw^n, 
A'r bv.-a ar drava byrd dnjeyn^ 
Ac o'i gansi ma£ d^en^ 
A ^'sr bwn rtagis gzur ben / 
Ac ar £i vrfji gyvntir ^ngj 

Cbw^ yfp'S^ ^ ' f oifttJn, ■ 
A dynna bolt daimau /jttrn ; 
Cbv/f' thant agnpd o \-aifiaij, 
Ac yn y UiTof ya gan (bU ; 
Tdftt i bf'b hs yjhys ocdd, 
A duu-datH fr ^iiu^d ydtedd. 

A delmration oF the Crwth, by Ghiffydd -a^ 
Davydd ab Hotel ; (The original oppofite, is very, 
dcfcripiive, and feems lo be a produdlon of the i cih 

A fiir coffer, with a bow, a girdle, 

a finger-board, and a bridge ; its nLue ia a pound * 

it has a frontlet formed like a wheel, 

with the ftiort-noFcd bow acrofs ; , * 

in its centte arc the drcled found holcsj 

andthe bulging of hs back Uromeuhat hkeanold man ■ 

but on ITS b res [I hatmony reigns : 

from ih& fycanioTc melodious inuQc \^ obiimed. 

Sin pogs, if wc fcrew them, 

will tighten all it^ chords \ - 

Ha advantageous firings are found, 

which in a flillful hand produces a hundred founds ; 

a ^rin^ for every fmger is didin^ly feen, 

and alfo two flripgs for the thumb. 

The length of the Crwth is ^o| inches, its breadth at bottom 9 \ i Towards the top it tapers to S inches. 
Its thicknefs is i -^ and the finger board meaCures 10 inches in length. This inftrument is much more 
extenfive in its compafs than the violin, and capable of great perfe^ioni therefore, defia-ires lo be cob- 
fidercd* li has fix ftrings, viaj. 

1. T" £rdj-di2ntf 

2. a*ivyrdon, 

3. Byrdon y Ilervdantt 

4. T ihrv da/It. 

5. T Cywiiir-dantj 
6> a*iijrdaiu 


The acute, or [harp Hrlng^ 

and its burden* 

The accompaniment of the low itriug, 

The low f^rmg. 

The key note, (or gj) 


6. and its bafs , 


* • 

The firings of the Crwib explained, and the \i[uA meihod of tuning ihem " 

td) yh 4lH 3d id ill 


Then lune che ^ih 

♦ ■ ■ ." 

l4> lIlE fililr 

The id ftj'Lr^^ tp 
the ^ivKt 

And EH4 4th flEiDi{ 

E? Eli« 3d, 

The two lower firing* of the Cr^ih are oftea flruck wUh the thumb of the left hand, and ferre as a bafs 
accompaniment to ihe notes founded with the bow ; fomething in the manner of ihe Barit&n. The bridge 
of this inftrument differs from that of the VioHn, in being lefa of a convex at the top, acircumflance froia 
which it is to be infetred that two or three ft rings are to be founded at the fume time, fo as to afford a fiiccef- 
fion of concordat The bridge h not placed at right angles with the fides of the Crwthj but in an oblique 
ditetlion ; and, which h farther to be remarked^ one of the feet of the bridge fervea alfo for a found-pofti 
it goes through one of the found-holes, which are circular^ and rella on the infide of the back ^ the otl^er 
foot, which is proportionably fhorter, refls on the belly near the other found hoki which the reader wiH 
obferve, on cafling his eye on the delineation of it in the trophy, at bottom of page ^9. 

M<:Midsf>gi*>itivanfcript frymanpid Wtlllimariufcrip^ The fEjllnwing manner of tuning the Crwth was copkJ 

Sir John Scbrighi^ilibriirjj which nicntiuns nduc tb^Lt might frcm si ra:miifLnpt of ihc kteMr^ Lcwia Monib s 

hAd one to Kisd out ihe uncient notes of the Cr%M^l^ t k lelL *' T mr^dig^'Utirk Trw^A *■ * 

iii«p ** Eh=it 03H finger of ihc Crowdcr keeps 3 kejrsi vi/. " Tn ^ai^iv c^^s^ch y Cr*t/itjHi (i") tyvu^tv^b ^ y frifir htt 

i^vQfmr^ Crd/jfl^jirp iuid UfdJv sG%i^air? and ttiuthiiiiidlciiil n JorrryjrAaf^-zttihpr Cj-ntvir^/ (^4J ^irni^ u/^ iVj a fWiw^ 

linger Itcejn the G^o-jffttffljir, and ^foxW-fMViwr.'* Thji hiti.E j 64 wyfb nit yn u ajV CyUftirJu^i ; oiyit^^i&rMi akvyn 

uiij^ht htlp a iealoii&. invchij^^iLar of^uiti^^uit^ to unravel ihc ^^rdSn nru "jt 'u-Jj jJJj j rvti'rtVJwi-^ j^r ^UJmi (ad} -tt-jxi niiyn 

o^jLltry ; hut unfuritins^t^ly I have been deprived ul' stty ! « h^'^rynidv, jjf w vydJ y^ti^^ y/^ vjjeiw rV gra^sui j^ jt^jaW' 
anticnt 6>vii hy a lire, u^^elJ ju other irrcpdrjble lofiuf t-wi / WjiW td/tf U^j.itJw^ntiV j^ i'iM'r^ywirJm t /** 

irOiLUU^^l^Uj Ac*'— * Uff4iW^ V iior-vJatu {^^) wyth ti-^rjn Mvir^i ^ W^ w i>;r^J J* 

7 flCTC 





1 fort of Violin, or mote 
his iaftruTncnl were noi hdd 

Thtre was I ike wife the Cr^th Trkljanf^or Three-ftringfd Crrvth^ wbicl 
properly a Rebeck ; Tee the mufical trophy : the peTfarmen* or Minftretioi 
^ in the fiime eftimation and refpeftjSi the Bards of the Hdr/, and Cnvth ; becaufe the thrEe^flringcd Cn^ih 
did not admit of equal flcilL and harmony, and confec^uently lU power wai leli fcniiblj felt : fee more m tho 
preceding pages 33 and S5. 

'* When the merry bells tinp; round, 
" And the jocund Rebfihs found, 
f *' To many a youth and many a maid, 

. . ' ** Dancing in the checkered (hade,'* Mk^* 

The ftb-gurn \ or Hornpipe, is fo cathd, becaufe both exiremitle^ are made of-hsA, tn blowing, the' 
Vind pafTes through itj and founds the tongue of a reed concealed within. It has feven hbles, befidet 
the aperi Lire, and meafures about 19 itighes in lehi^th* 1t^ tone i< a medium between the 0ure and the 
cSarinet, atid i« remarkable for its melody* This inftrument of peace, or rural Pipe, is now peculiar to 
the lllii of Anglefcy, where it is played by the (hepberds, and tends greatly to enhance the innocent 
delight of paftoral iif^:, A fpecie* of a country dance* termed \ lompipe, oHglnallif derived ifs name from 
the bQrn^ipe, by being commonly danced to fhis inftrumcnt. Alfo, there h a fort of Pipe ufed in 
■ fonie parts of South Wales called ConiiQ'U^ (from Caymg^ a dimtntitive of Corn,) which has a concealed 
reed on the lame principle as the above, and the luomh- piece fcrews off in order to intmducc it j m other 
refpe£ls, this inftrun\ent is made like a common clarinet. 

The Fihaa^ or Baj^pipes, I have omitted to mention at the bcRmmng of this di{reriation, which evi- 
dently appears to have been a common inttrumtnt among the old Britons at a very early period, andii 
recorded in King Hou/eri Lams.^boiil ihe year 94*'= and Mcrvydd'i piprt are memioned a^ early as the 
fcventh century \ fee the preceding page 26. Likewife, according to GiraUus Camhrfn^s S in thej^ear r 18;^ 
it appears, that neither tbe irifti, nor their defcend mts the Scots, had the Pipes at that period ^ A praife- 
poem nn Ihe warrior. Sir liQwel y Vit/^aU, written b^ the B^rd^ lob Goch» about the year i4CO,.CoflE«iia 
the following coupler T , " ■ ^'a^^'as-* ' 

** A chc dd Chivibijtipg! & C/}6d, With the mu fie of the Bag- pi pes, 

" Gwn'^r bo^ftiis, o £ur hynod." ctilivenM by the prcfenceof a noted Her^ 

■ Afterwards, jt feems that the Irifh had the pipes, which they ufed 2^n incentivff to valour 1 fee p, ^B, 
The Bagpipe was formerly a paftoral tnllruracnt in England ; and Shmj^t^ar, who it faithful in national 
cuftoms,"^ mentions the drone of a Linnehfiire Eag^pipe ' : alfo, Speticer\^^ others, mention it. But, In the 

■ The Pthitn^ nr Hnmplpe, was formerly ^ common in- 
nniment in C.iri.w;il], ^^ wet] a^ in Whites, which li «idcut 
hj y he fbUttw 1 ng pilBi g^ ^ f ""on i Chmttr : 

'' Willi Hnrnpipci of Curnwajlc. 

" In yi-ilcs made he dlfcflfiJ.^ncc, 

* And in hi* mulick with mifchinte 

« He wruld feir.^." fltc , , a 

** Merry Michael, tJie CoruHli v^t pi^ iJitia upon h.s 
ojitm pipe for merry Eni:!imd." C*™*fc«^ 

TheiSufitJiiiftn-^enieuled by thcpherds were at firft 
iradc of nai mJ wlit^t Ib.lks ; rhen of r«ds, and ^ the elder- 
tree J aflrrwards of the lefibc^ne^ of cran«, ^^'i '^^^^ /"^ 
b»n» n^ anlmsils t and- "f 1^« y^^«* P'P^* ^"'^ !^"'=' *" 
dcavmcd of ihe boj-lree, plumb-tree, f "f ';^Hf'^^^ *=' . . , 

There i< afori ofHuie csUedLhe EnKlifl. a^te, F^tadnUu 
Uu ^^!Ua, or tUe be=,ked flute Merfennus f;iys. ^f^t foine of 
li.cie riutti were i pfefent from tn^itAnd to one of the kmg^ 
01 FrM«> llierefJre wer« .]fo cdJ.d f j^«J^/ rr^r", or roy^l 
The Rfcordcr feem< to have been the f.ime as the 
icku Fife, or Hckeiiiiii lliite *itti feven hules, mclua- 
fclo^lnp; aperture i likewifc. is * |3,pt wiih mljf 
iJ^W». ^Mch ii the iidpci^te crt' the T*b*>r. Merfcrtmi- 
inSt^ >i« ^/"'i who «4Ji a f*mou« pertomicf on thele 

ftcdic<di» »i>d 10 prefidc over turAi «ffAiri, H* li fold to 
miLfii*. m*W/ «iiU r«ds, to ftog ai iwcct at a^-fiht- 

injj^ale ^ *nd (.o wc^r the fpcitted Ikin of i Iffli;- PaaV ■Tj^rtouj 
WIS. compofedof fcteii recJs^h unetiuil in tcnEth, ofdl^crenc 
wacr., iind joined tojelher with wai, TUatriiiu indeed mca- 
Lioni ;i pipe ccinfiliins °f ^i"* reeds^ bye fi,-vcn was the ufnal 
Einmibtr, '* i^teU pMtu'taiiahniatrtvt^Li&tiitm " P^git, Ed II, 
■*i- *6. IHwlar Pjth* Oiii XlL—LmrH. JJhr *'.— And Te* 
theprecedinf; ^^sfi^l* wliich appc:%rs evident that ilie Ro- 
mans acqiiircd their muiieai iuiteunncnts from ihe GreeJES, 
and the Oieek hud theirs froib the Hebrews. 

* Ltfti WalUiMi p. 70 i and ihe pre^edinj page flj of chii 

hook; and Eiote I inp iM- - - , , , vr • j 

^ C^iraldus'^s Topog;riph,y of Ireland, caap« a\. — And 

prjpti jjand 95 of this wwfe. In the molt indent Account of 

or Pipes '.^Us** i^'^i^'c^*! P- 70- 'I'hercfbFCt we h^ve reifoa 
to believe ihat the firitoni blefr it with the mouth, inftcadaf 
thebclhwa. like the IriJhpipes ; (fet Staaitar^i Dvh&aim^tdi 
Rrhv* Hibrrtati Gtfiu, p. jS.att.) nor did ihey ule the drune at 
the icota do, until a Inter period. A poet of ti* fiftecntJi 
ccutary, iu wi M«£fy» on a pi«r deffriteyt thuJ 1 
" Garw laii cfyWfnj fl/rf Mil, I £fii>*l* 

* Sm 5Siiuid ih= noteiinp. 114. , * 1, ^ 

* TiTc tirft part of Henry the Fourth } *nd Ok McrcUr^ 

^ * ahJiiherd'j Ciilendar.^r-iirT Queen, Book VL Chup- 
10, &, li^AaJ ^Ydh*\ OW iiiJlads, V, I, No, |. '■- 





htw cefitUTics, the Pibracfj is Ertofe generally ufed in the hiijlilands of ScotUnd than in any part of EngUiiii 
or Ireland ; and it has a mod cxtraordmary influence, even at thU day, on the native hii^hlanderSj ia tht 
timcofaaiou. The viftory of Quebec, in 1760, b aanbutei by rhcm tcr the infinrins cS^a of the 
filiriKh '< The term'Fjbta'i^ in^plies the Arm-pip*, from its being blown with (he arm. 

ThcTdfrw^i-i/^jTabret, or Drum, was anciently an inftrument of mirth, ufed upon feftivals, public 
dancings, and at cetebraiions, to accompany other inftrumenta "'. Subfequently it was ufed in vrar, 10 
diTcG the foldiers in tlieir march, attack, retreat, &c. i for which purpofe a larger dnita wai ufed than 
the raboT. This inftrument is faid to be an Oriental invention. 

The old EngliOi march of tlie foot vf^ formerly in hi(;h eftiTtation as well abroad as with ua ; itj chi- 
raaerlftk Is dignity and gravity, in which rcfpea it diff>=r3 greatly from the French ; which, aa it h givoi 
by Mcrfc^nm, ts brifk and alert. Sir Rater mUlam, a galUnt WeKh foldier of queen E^izabeih^ time, 
(and who has therefore a place among the Worthies of L^^fd, and WinJiuHky:^ had once a converfatJoa on 
this fnbje£t with Marfhal Bitony a French general The Marflial obferved, that the Englifh march beatcu/ 
on the Drum waB flow, heavy, and flugs^KH; « that may be trutr," anfwercd Sir Roger,^' but, flow asltk 
k has traverfed your mafler'ft country from or»e end to the other \" / 

Tl>e laft, which perhaps fhould have been mentioned before, is the C^ni Buch'^, or Bngle-Hom. l^t 
inflrument'was nfually made in the form of a femi-circle, and received its general appdlat Ion ffom iti 
being the horn of the Bugle, Buffalo, or wild Ox, an animal formerly common in this illand. In the 
reign of King H^welf there were three principal Horns belonging to the Royal palaoc; the account of 
them I fiiail cxttaft literally from the ancient WclEh laws : . ■ 

« Tri Chfirn Cj^ithmyfyddi'r Brenin, . Three focial Horn^ are allotrcJ for the ufeoftheKIog, 

tffi a ddylant 'md yn Vudin : and ihofc llioylJ be of the BuIThIo i^;^. 

Ei Corn Cyvidd, s yv<f y Brmin bcnnw ; ^ift banqueting, or drinkn^ Horn j the War Horn 

a*i Corn Cycfrwyit, ^^^oyn ei gy-Mdthai yn i^aflad ; of his retinue, which w»ft always in y and 
g Chorn Heh yn tlaw y Faiqnydd : ^^^ Horn of the Chace, in the hands of hh chitt 

humfmBn : And the value of each of them wa» 

A phunt yw ^i^erth pub tm p hmwdJ* 

Ltgij iValBnttPp.'A^^.%ii^ apound, 

" OrdyFemynyddyn^irfjaith gm Detdu y Bremn^ ^^ »^^ ^^^^ ^^ the hounds went out on a foragifig 
^ ^an Lih caned fiG^rn pan vc ta^n iddo, adcwlf^d ^pe^^^^on* ^^th the family of the King,^or with hij 

Liift Wai&^ftp- +»■ ^°^ which fcrvice he wa* to choofe an ox from the 
.1 mHitary booty* * 

• « 

^ The Bajpif'f fccms to Jiave lop^lieeii in tift, aiiJ probably 
rnvtaitcdulmuEthtfiiue pcriixl aswiien clie hetl^ws Ai^usaddcJ 
to the Rt^o^t or the pipes of the Oiyan. Toward the ctnle of 
Hero's reign^ he vowed lie would bring on the il^jjf , u {Hydra- 
u/aiw, C^rau'ain, ami Iftniufttrium} i^cttr-Orgon, churui 0/ 
yhUtundHa^pipcs. — 5iiiiaifif TratimtiilitUih. \i. tJjtp' 54, — find 
Hi^hii'i TranJidlionoJ tkt/nine -' viJt ^trc. TJusis the Ca,rlJcllt 

mention tif any thiflgof tliis kindi that 1 can find. A\fo, ac- 

cqrdinf; to the Saf>p!^mcnt tn Moiti/auMH't Aofi^iiiejt tr^n^atK^i 

bv HuTrfhftyjt Vol. III. »oDk Vill. Ch:(p. I. wJiiJi fays, the 

Latin ftimt of ihc lVag-p(i>e ii Ti&ia UfFkuLmtt^iyAln. Grtcb 

r.fX**''^* ^^ fartljcr mcntiQiiiS i( ha^-rclicf of chji. luAriinicnE 

JEi the court of ibe pnlaee oF Pnacf SanHa Crotdt at Rome i 

and a fimiUr nnt undtrtlic Arms nf u lhq>hci-d, b the cabinet 

ef Cardwsl Aihrnta. One thing Tnore I fhall notice refpeftinji[ 

ihe Bag -pi []t I which in French is famciinics c^iltcd Mu/dtt 

C^Ua, and CormwHt/m Uountone 1 tite Uttei^ tcrnn cviJemlv 

ariE;in:iiC-cd iVomthe Weini ByrrdaUf ajid whence the Ei»gtilli 

vordSufdvii} or Drone 14 derived.- — ^^Whcnanjr [hingia got 

Into fftntiralcircnlatioDi thii otd proverb tt commoalj' up- 

jlicd to it : 

*' Ev vmik kymy ar GyrH,a PM^aa." 
f, e. *' That ii become the note pf the HotdAi and Pipe#,'^ip* 
' CW/ X3U11. V7— f »>^' XV. »o.->4'fi XI. 34 — 
pfaiM CXLIX. ).— Vii j|Li\ Ucurj^iu. Lib. IV^ <^4*-*Aad p* 

* U 


Hhfgain jffrnt rij-rt? jtt'Jl g&rmtlx 

" King jfriAijr \ or-d, Nrfiry ihc Fshf both cunqucrcd Franw * 

Tlfcc hiUivi: ^nndl i& rccoi'Jed 111 oae iif chO'^c entertuti^JiJjf 

litTlc hooks Written by tVaijyri, ucidcr the lih.^itiou^ n^mc ^T 

/Zj]<^i-/ /ifuffisif, entitled jfi/miraif/t Curi^iik^t i^rtftfj, iWiWV' 

Tfic ibUowing pnctit^pii cffutJOD uis the Druiiifc by SiM^ih To 
prstty^fiiitL Jcr<:rit^tivettb:Hlc;4,3i]i43i;i~crlKur LuttgiJucitiifiilvrc.^ 
^' I hate UluE Drucn's difbcTii^nt ^ounJ, 
F^irudiing round ib .ind round p, imd rcund ; 
To thnLi]{htJvr& youLh IE pl^jlur^: yi^iUh^ 
tAuit Unt^ from cUlls, aiid Irom ihld>t 
To fell their litrfrKv for L:harms 
Oftawdr)' ]h^c» iai]J ^HtturLikg ^nrij a 
And when juibicion^i^ voire coinnunjft 
To lu^rchi i^LiJ ligh£j| joii lUlk in Jtitvign lonJ* 
I hAK'G that. l>nini^iEUiiJ£t>rkknllbujiJ| «R.* 

Pur<iiliii|; roiuid^ ;;itiJ foi:mJi niiil roujiii ^ 
To Inc it lalk* of rtLV-i^j^J jiliitui* 
Anii hurcuiig towo'^p ii^iiiM jw.kiihfi 
Jtcid ni^Kig^eiL Limbii^ ^nd dying gmuur 
And Wiilitw** ttuni ^md Oqinjtn'i moiDti 
Aud ;il] thjt MifcryN h4iuJ ljcftt>wir 
T«fii^ iti^i^M^Eii^iii; uJ lii4Jtl«4 WM."' 





He Ukcwlfe' founded his fignal Horn in hunting, to aramaW the hnnten and the dogs, and to call the 
latter togeihft S The mafter of the royal hounds had the fame power of protection within the found of 
bis Horn, while he was hunting % as the Chief Bard pofTeffed while performing on his Harp K When hk 
oath was required in a court of juftice,he fwore by his Horn and his Leafhes *♦ By the old Welfti hunt- 
ing laws It was 4ecreedj that every peffdn carrying a Horn was obliged to kuow the Nine Chafe* ; and thae> 
if he could not. give a proper sccouftt conccmmg ihem, he fliould lofe his Horn *, 

This inftrumcnt had lids occafionally at the ends of it, and was the cup out of which our forefathers 
ruaffed mead, for which they valued it as much as for ita cheering and warlike found *, The merry Horn 
^pas fometimcs a fubjeft of the Cambrian Mufe* There h a charming fpiriEcd poem in the Rev. Mr* 
Evans's Specimens of the Welfh Poetry \ and verfificd by the Rev* Richard Williams', entiled Hirlat 
()^r}, ftom a large drinking Horn ufed at feafts in his psilace, and compofed by the Bard Owain Cyvdiiog^ 
prince of Powys, about the year t i6o, and Immediately after his g;reatvi£lo^y over the EngUfli at Maelor* 
which will give my Reader fonie idea* how our famed anceitors ufed to regale Uiemfelves after battle, in 
the days of Yore* , ' • . 

Hirlas ', or the drinking Horn of Owen Cyveiliog, Prince of Fowls. , 

tJP-ROSE (he ruddy dawn of day, 
The armies met in dread array 

On Misdor Drcvrcd s " field ; 
Loud the Britijh clarions found. 
The SaxQns^ gafpln^ou ihe ground. 

The bloody contelt yield. — ^ 
By Ovjcn*s arm the valiant bled ; 
Trom O'wcdi arm the coward fled 

A^liaftiAith wild affright ; 

' 'F«sni Chnftiflas until iht innnili flf FebniaiT»thcMiincrof 
tJiei^oHLiJiougluioljcwitti the King wIkti ^*er he thinks fit. 
Au J * i iTini t h c fi rit v^xr I: of the monl h of Feb ru arv, he nugJit 
(o uke hi^ t3o£5, his ht>ni, anJ his icafhes, to go ^i hunting of 
tbt ftocs durbfi the fprlntj i and tfum that time uniii the 
ieaft of it lohn..ic M Jiunimer, he oufilit w hunt the tms. 
From the nJnth .^y of O^ot-r ]t is right for h'^" Jo go cci 
bunt^heviWBnan, 'Si^ i^^m iLmc until the hril ol 
bJDvcmhfr JL/i«/*V£^. |iF4°*»"d4i. 

' Legts iVaHi*. p. 4^' 

' Sec tlie F"-' fcJin^ fugc ij- 

> See the Wtjlh Hiiu'lng laws at the end of Dr ZJjtwj, 

" Cons CoDu pifujQ ijMffi , ifiiygtiraawj adM i^g. ir^t ptj^- 
Ic. AchX^hu ffluiL.hng Horn ot «vcry d^iioiiiiiiaLion, 

w a value*! v\l tvo nciicc*- _ ^ -n ±^ r 

* In ihc loyjl piUace of the Ardent Britons, the Pfiirin "/ 

th, Fumy recllvcU ^ihort^lul nf the hcU llcjuor trom the hjnJ 
cf the kC aopthcr fro,n <h. Ql'"^;,^"^ the .turd from the 

l^irtWaituM.y^ i6uidi?. 

ef M.Wn^tvcry bjnciuet i Ui^i is. one from the KmB.^ino 
t^.uZ The L^^Z .nJ the ihir.l Frnm the Comp.rd:.i> o. 
the ISueiL ..f iJ^^ F^mily^ i.^" '*'-/Af'* P- J9' , ^.,„. 

Let then iheir haughty lords beware 
How Ow£n*s jull revenge they darc^ 
And tremble at his fight* — — ^ 

Fill the Hirlas Horn, my boy. 
Nor let the tuneful lips be dry 

That warble Oivcn'j praife; 
Whofe walls with warlike fpoil* are hung# 
And open wide his gates arc flung 

In Cambria*) peaceful days.^— 

out of ihe hcrtiE, and the howls^ He was alfo allowed a hnrnfol 
from the King, iinoiiicr from the Queen, ind he third from 
(he Mafter nf the HorSr, nut i)£ the wx^xA of the fnJfowers,^ 
which was ftyled Gts^iravfJjr E^jf<iyL or the /Fij^i/Cup gf 
the ^fco/y/«i whom ihtfy probaUly invoJaiJ at rhe trme of drink- 
jj,^ Leges tVaiiic^i pp-47 and 45- 

Tliiicudom TVit in frequent ufc m old timci. The D^nfi 
mvokeU ihe ^^►^hfit pitwers lo iiiUil the mii-hty draught: Hit/ 
GflTflW* Makia-— And the JflKBrt UtTMni, ^^hcu he con- 
vevtd ctrtnin landi to the chrtrch of Tori, quaffed off the 
honi, LlEofJ5^ A<™. UlphUE'j cuiioas horn ii lUll pre- 
lervcd In ihe taihcriil at York.— [Sec the JrsbMohjta, pub* 
lilhcd by the Autitjuarlan Society, Vol. ILL p. S) O^ Icfi 
Jerious occiifiorsfi, on fdUval days, the horn was emptied at 
oae lipi aAd then bly^^E to flic w thi»c there ^s ii^ Jccrit 

In former J^ys. Mead was ihc Ned^r ^il ihe A^deuc Bn, 
loni.and the Dnrd.Lififn «lebr^te Lt. Pr,ij« Lkwtrch Hin 
f;cy*, ifi one of his l^Mms. ■' T-r ifti^"- w^</ Trrn. 

L e The Hie J d of Til^h mx Je mc jovial. 

Bsfo^e t1ie fon ot 6>iidw w*s laid onder die lod, 

The rtj;lon ol P^i^vyy. ihc mother oi iiifiiid.* *; 

" Crajto^'tF^cnvvrdii, 

Pleifmgifttheruncmbraflce oi th« dear -Ic, smd flrunf 
awn (if Mead- ^s*? ih^ ""^^^ ^^^'^« hyj^fu/n, m p. 11. Alio, 

;Urc w^^W I lh« i», » moch - the v.ridt .h:.t fervcd 

The ,rj V«/,' h4d ^ s-ffcl ia Lhc h.]l Jor rtc^TvmG h 
*. thrU ,r.n*T»rliv-U. ui^ ChnU»...s. V U irfi^^i&l 



"Vcltb Pofflryi p- 7. 

«.i. Ul'». 

Iff I wd^^i'V 

^ gpcciineiis o^ WcKb Pofiry, p- T' 

^' -'mX"*! ?-« *'f ^""^ eoaali8.^D,ub^fc*BJ Fll«- 
icconluia to ihff modern divilltfU. 





^ I 

ThiJ hour we dedicate to joy; 
iTicn fill ibe Hirlns Mora, my boy, 

Tliat fliineth like the fca ; 
Whofe azure handles^ tipM with gold, 
lavites (he griTp of BrUtm bold. 

The Sons of Uberty*^— 

FiU h higher ftill, and higher, . . 

Mead with nobleft deeds infpire- 

tJow the bactle*s loIV, and won. 

Give the horn to Gr&mtffi fon } 

put it into Gugan'j hand. 

Bulwark of his native land, 

Ciiardiati of Sabrindi flood* 

Who oft has dyM his fpear in blooc!* 

When they hear their chieftain's voice. 

Then his gallant friends rejoice ; 

Bur, when to fight lie goes, no more 

The M\z\ fliout refounds ouScvcrn^s winding ftiorCi 

Fill the gold- lip 'd horn with fpeed, 

(We luufl drink, itis decreed.) 

liidge of honour, badge of mirth, 

ITiat calls the foul of mufic forth \ 

As iliou wiU thy life prolong* 

Fill it with MetbegUn Itrong, 

CnguddMi^h to Grtifiiddm^ 

Whole bloody i^uice is us'd to kill^ 

Matchlefsin the Bcld of ftrife. 

His glory ends not with his life \ 

Dragon-fon QiCyn^yn*t race, 

OwsrCs fhleld, Arwyjtirs ^ grace. 

To purchafe fame the warriors flew. 

Dire* and more dire, the confli£b grew j 

When flath'd with mead, they bravely fought. 

Like B^lin'i warlike foils, that Edwin*s downfall 

wrought, * ^ 

Fill the horn with foaming liquor, 
1^11 it up, my boy, be quicker ; 
Hence away, defpair and forrow I . . 
Time enough to figh to-morrow. 
Let the brimming goblet fmile. 
And Edftyvcd'i cares beguile ; 
Gallant youth, unus'd to fear. 
Mailer of the broken fpear, 
J^ud the arrow-pierced lliield. 
Brought With honour from the fieldi 
Like aa hurticane k He, 
Burfttng on ihe troubled fea. 

See their fpears diftainM with gotc ? 

Hear the din of battle roar ; 

Bucklers, fwords, together clafliing;. 

Sparkles from their helmets Eafhiug * 

Hear ye not theif loud alarms ? 

Hark I they [bout—to arms t to armi \ 

Thus were Gartbari'f ' pialns defended, 

Maehr fight began and ended. 

There two princes fought ', and there 

Was MeracbVervran\ feall exchanged for TOtit and fear. 

Fill the hom ; 'tis my delight. 

When my friends return from fight. 

Champions of their country's glory. 

To record each gallant ftory^^ 

To l^nyr^t comely offspring fill, 

Foremofl in the battle flill ; 

Two blooming youths, in counfel Cige, 

As heroes of maturer age ; 

In peace, and war, alike renown'd. 

Be theiT brows with garlands ciown'd; 

Decked with glory let them fhine. 

The ornament aud pride of Tnyr*s anciCtLt Hue !^* 

To Sdyv fill, of eagle- heart, 
Skiird to hurl the fatal dart ; 
With the wolf 'd impetuous force . 

He urgeth ov his headlong courfe. 
To Tudor next, great Madoc^s fon, 
They the race of honour run 
Together in the tented field. 
And both alike difdain to yield- 
Like a lion in the fray, ; 
Tudur darts upon his prey* 
Rivals in the feats of war. 
Where danger call*d, they rufK'd from i^j 
Till ftiatter'd by fomc hofl:ile ftrokc. 
With horrid clang their fields were broke i 
Loud as the foaming billows roar/ 
Or fierce eontendingwuidson7'ij/g'i3rMV*ftorroy fiior** 

Fill the horns wuh rofy wine, 

Br^ve Msreiddig claims it now. 
Chieftain of an ancient line. 

Daunt lefs heart, and open biow. 
To the warrior it belongs, 
Prince of battles, theme of fongs 1 
Pride of Pawys, Mo^httdat^s boift \ 
Guardian of his native coaft 1 

' JrnjfiHt ihe nmnc of oiw of the tutirrcdi of Pavrju 

■ CartbM, liifl jamc of a. fon or cAik, louic where Jieiir tht B«vtni. 

] Tedariif wmc MiitliyiUlJClii, m trfontgoipcryliiin. ^^ 




But, ah I Ilia ftort.livy triuitiph'a o*er. 

Brave M^relddig is no more [ 

To his penfiTC gholl wc'H girt 

Due remembrance, ^hile wc live^ 

And in f^^ry fi^ion drtft'd. 

Flowing haJr, and fable veft, 

*nie tragic Mufc (hall grace our fong^ 

'While brave Msreidd^'t name the mourLLful flrala 

ptoloPgS*"-" ' *. V s . ■ 

pour out the horn ^ (iho* he defire it not,) 
" And heave a figh on Mcrgan*i early grave ; 
Doom'd in his clay-cold tenemenE to rot. 
While we revere the memory of the brave* ■ ■ 

Fill agajn the Hirias Heritt 

On thac ever glorious morn. 

The Brit&nt and their foes between. 

What prodigies of might were fecn ! 

On G-w^yn'r plains the fight began ; 

But Gronwy fure was more than man I 

Him to refift, on Gu'£>^/«.r plain, 

A* hundred S^mem drove in vain. 

To fet the noble Meirig free, 

And change his bond& [y liberty. 

The warriors vow'd. The God of day 

Scarce darted his meridian ray^ 

When he beheld the conquerors fteep'd in gore, 

AndG 'ii)tJijiCi bloody fightjcre higheft noon was o*er. 

Now a due Hbation pour 

To the fpirits of the dcadj 
\Vho, that memorable hour. 

Made the hoflilc pl^n their bed. 
There the glitt' ring fteelwasfecn, 

There the twanging Bow was heard \ 
There the mighty prcfs'd the green, 

Recorded by the faithful Bard, 
jVfflc/cic there, and Meil'tr brave. 

Their drink waaMcad, their hearii were tttt^i 

And to the head ihcir ftiafts they drew ; 

But Owfn*! guardit in dread array, 

ReJirLIefs inarchalong,anduiaketheworldgiveway»^ 

Pour the fweet tranfparent Mead, 

(The fpear h ted in tinac of need,) 

And give to each departed fpirit 

The honour and reward nf merit* 

What carea furronnd the regal Hate, 

What anxious thoughts moled the great. 

None but a prince himfelf can know. 

And Heaven, that ruleth kings, and lay& the mighty loW« 


For Datiiil fill the horn fo green. 

Of haughty brow, and angry mien j 
While the lefs^ning tapers fhine, 
Fill it up with genVoua wine, • ■ 

He nor quarter takes , nor give?. 
But by ipoilb and rapine lives- 
Comely is the youth, and brave i 
But obdurate as the grave. 
Had ft thou feen, in MaiUr fight, 
How we put the foe to flight I '' i 

Had ft thou fecn the chiefs in arms. 
When the foea rufh'd on in fwarms I • 

Round about their prince they Hood, 
And ftain'd their fwords with hoftile blood. 
Glorious bulwarks ! To their praife 
The prince devotes his lateft lays^ 
Now, my boy, thy talk is o'er^ 
Thou fbalt Jill the horn no more. 
Long may the King of Kings protect. 
And crown with blifs, my friends de£t i 
Where Liberty and Truth refide. 
And Virtue, Truth's immortal bride \ 
There may we all together meet. 
And former rimes renew in heav'nlyc on vcrfe fweet! 

Bent many a SdKen to his grave, • ' ■ 

I was fortunate in meeting with one of thefe celehtated Horns at P^nrbyn, near Bafipr, in Caemarvon- 
ihire, formerly the fpot where R^d^rick Mdwpog. Prince of Wales's palace ftood, and afterwards the feai 
Of the Gnms's. By the Initials, and a creft on the Horn, I find that it belonged to S.r Rby. Gruffydd 
and fubf^quenHy to hi. gallant fon Sit Fkn Grug^dd. a dlftingullhed naval officer, who fliared m the 
honour of defeating the Span^h Armada, and other valiant aaiun*; he was living m 1398- Th« Horn 
wa* found many years ago in removing fomc rubbilh clofe to the tower of the old houfe ; ^^^fl^<^? 
of which, probably, it had been dropped or loft, becaufe every chief Lord of a d.ftrift formerly poOeired » 
fimilat Horn, which oceifionally w« blown from the higheft turret of his houfe, as a fign.l to call around 
bisvaffali in i cafe of danger. I made a correal drawing of it, wbch 1 have caufed to be cn^tav^l m 
the trophy of the mufical inftrumenti in p. 89, where the Header wiU fee it hangittg on the top of the 

■ TW prcf.«L ow.=r .i F^hf. i. .ow Lord P=«rh,n, «l.. n..rritd. dcfccnJ^ia of Ar.hbi.b..p Wllli^mi, »pd J>, *hkh 
"xX'^/w^'iJa fai7b.forc tbcE.,li(h .ric. of Ulfi, 1. ibc v<-r ,,., ^ ^^,^^^ 



triple Harp. The original is the moft elegant antique I CTer fawj it Utlpt with fculp^ured aiTer,aiid- 
decorateJ wiih ahcautiful filver chain \ 

III the rime of the princely Bard UjfWerth Wn, about the year 560, the BugteHorn W3s then ici equal 
^flimatioii, both tts cxciie heroifm, as well as for a mead eup, which appears by the following fragraents ; 
TCftmaUh rodde$ di UaiEM, Urien, loudly found the Horn that I gave thtt, y 

yPi anirA ^'"^ ^"^ ^^ '"' ^ith the golden rim about its brim ; ( 

Chwjibjuddauf oth ddaw angm. found It when thou art put to exlremiiy, . J 

, Fram L^'Bisnh Ititi't Eirjy an hii Snrut 

Anseth byddbriPmdjn fjnnuUt 
Am^rn huelys am dru/f, 
^bebydd vil^d Rfged duH ! 

Amsth bydd brav-d yn cpntijit 
Amgyrn bu^fyttt amuji 
Rhcbjdd vihd Rhes^dwyt. 

Hiindid Eurddji avld'uxti hmsctb, 

A Uuafydd 3m^€fit 

Tn Aber- Lieu lladd Urkn f ' 


It will be a cruel tafk for a broihcr lf> circulate the bugle.hojfl. 

It grieves mc to think of convivial banquetj^ 

fincc ihc lofd of Ringed') numetoua troops are flab^ 

'Tis unmeet to permii the circulation of lIic 

drinkinp horns! 'tis doubtful| 

whclhfir the nabic Chief waa implicated or not- 

Eurddyt IS foTfOwfulj and aged ; 

ftript of hct ornaments, deprived of a general 

that had no ri^al : at AherUeti was UrknUHn \ — ^ 

- St- Patrick, the Briton, who was educated at Glaftonbury Abbey, and being illuflrioua for has fanflitfi 
wa5 fi^nt to lichndt in the reJgn of L?opaire, fon of Nial the great, about A, D, 43^^ to convert the Irifh 
to Ch rid J unity, Cir/7/iht fiiiiher relates, " that St- Patrick had a Horn^ which was notof goM, hut of 
brafs ; that Horn was afterwards brought to Wales frnm Ireland j but^ what Ss remarttablc of that Hora ii 
this^ that, by applying the opening of the larger end to the ear> one may hear a fweet-founditig nolfe 
emitted through it, like the melody which is ufually fcnt forth by che naked Harp gently touched*/^ 

The Bugle Horn appears alfo at a very early period among the Gauls i for> Ca/ar^ in the account of his 
twars, fays, ** ihertis an animal in the Himyninn Fore^ called the Uri^ (or BufFaioJ and they who kill the 
greatcft number^ and produce ihdr hums in public as a proofj arc in high reputation with their country* 
men- The natives prcfcrve them with great care, tip their edges with Giver, and ufe them iafttad of 
cups on their moll fylrmn feElivals'-" 

The Udgorti^ or Trumpet ; God himfelf vouchfafed to give dire^bn to Mofes for the making of that 
rnflrument ; faying, *' Make t/;ee i-^i^ Trumpets <f/dver ; of a whh pUi^^ Jfjait tb^u make t/j^i j th^it tha 
pi^yejl fife ihfm/GT the (nUm^ o/tbir ijffmb/yj and for tb^ Journeying cfthe camps */' Among the Hebrews, 
ihe privilege of founding the Sopbar^ or Trumpet, In religtoua cereitionles, was referved to 

' The cllmenfions of thcHrim are llse folf-Jwiri;^ : the dia* 
meter of ilifi fL'tciL-4:L]>:k- 13 icithcs :iiiJ i- The ^lEiolc line ol 
the femi-cirLkit inches audi. The diameter of the drink- 
ing end 1 jnches and {• The dliineccr of the hlowiiiu end 
father above Ir And it tonraans about half a ptnt — 

* CiriiLdu^^&Top*]gr.^]jhy of irclandi Ch:ip. XVI. 

Amoitgft fomc i^uijcrsof ihc Ul^ Mr. Kdward L]wjrdp the 
fljatcqOiiryj dnrcj 1706^ [ timl the dr^awFiig of :i br^zei^ hnrn 
i^hidi W3H fmmd at BriHifi^'n ^^^^ Cariii-firjm^ itbout 10 
j^ars hefure j t\roothcra were found at Lhe fame time^ Thi^ 
tiorn was then in thecuftudy of Mfr Mak^fm of StffJimagmf at 
AntrimikJn Ireland sit refcmbleB a fow geldcr'a horn, but has 
no ;?iperttire in Ltiefmaltell eudj ajidprobabL7~ the cap iivasont 
aiihcrc PS a rtng at the point- It w&s two fceclong* and of 

In SialTordfhiK, fflrmerlyr tlwre was a white Nmin^j -fforn^ 
decorated ]q the mtddic ^md at eneh end with Elv^r^ gilt i to 
*haeh alfn ^as afliied a girdJeof iirfct black fdk| adamcd ^lUj 
buckles of lilverj Jia lite middle nf whEch is placed a caat of 
armsj fLip|]orcd u^ hcthiit of yD^nufCau^, dukcof L^n-t^tterj 
about the j'caf ^i^o. That hurri w^iathe EJillrumcntby'whfccU 
the j^/f firaJpr and C^onfrp through the whole hfniouf oi'Tuitkry^ 
in the couuty of Stfjff^rth and Lnc liiiiHwkk ol' /^oif> held hla 
ofRce. Mi'i Si^muwlT^^i^v^ of Sfawfyt hi Uwi/yJir/j now cnjoya^ 
the poil abovemcaitiomdj bv ttiii tenure* arid in virlxic nihil 
teijig in pf'rttilio]] ^jf the fiid Hitntcr^i Hqrn. The^iBlcescon* 
ttycd by the Ihtu wtre thole ul iwdii^7> 01 bLulifTiii icniL r 

flfr^^tftrj S/^tt',ff r,-^ of the two royal maun-ra of Tj^ auJ iFTrl 
I^f^itrt "iL A'cpyonjidnj/wrr, ^^^jj/pjTp Coroner* aa^l Cf»^f^ ^'ihi 
Mxir^tffi of the honour of Tuiffixrj; the fjccoitdof which officcHp 
mit,. /'Ji'I^^ioft is nnw in a manner obfjicte-" Bhu^ft j'hacid 

jiiiin Sjtvc^rii rccGtii'cd the BmH^mck of U^irrul jbr(^ by xha 
dclJT^erycif 4 tl&rn. Sec ChcftiErc, in Ctme&r^*^ Jiri(tfjpfliip 

The P^fij fiLTijitjr in Berklhire h^ve a Uu^lc tJorn which 
fL^rTm^ily w^& prefe^E^d to one of their aacej^on by ATij^ 
C^nuUp the DauEj atuut the year lOig; and by which inJtrtt- « 
nieot they fliill hold their hinds. Hicre is a prtotof that 
LuriouB Horn in the jtrdmokgiti^ piiblilhed hy the Anti^ua- 
riin Society^ Vnb III p. m } is well -4^ of the /rer;?j/ //*rii 
in p. I { and Lord j5^m*vA //Wji, In p. 14 of the ftme volume. 
Likewife* I lim informed^ there i& li Quale Horn belongiAK 
to the rh:ip)Ler or chitrch of Dtffhami and lADocher at 
Ct^rjw £^ri/?J Cclie^e, Camhii^u ^ee 4ilib the Gentlemaa't 
M^L^aiiiie lor Junniiry iJjJ^ 

'ihe I^^r ll^t/f^ or hunter's mnfic of RuflTiu* ufed hy the 
Ijrand M,ilUr ot the Hunt to \xi^ lTi]]ierial Majrfty, ii ili-idB 
of thin brafs and in form rtfcntbhug the T'wiltf ol the an* 
tit^ntSF thut ks» Ihiiight, cxceptiu;; a fita.dl pxit lit'the bluw- 
Lug end, which i^ bcaiC nearly lu a risht angle- ' 

AWcww iVfif/w fnys, [ke O-tiiJi hud Trumj^eu nlWthc iUr* 
bLiniu maimer), jji^uk Vi L'kip« IL 




ific priefts alone ' j and we find they performed ihia office m the war agTiinll the Midianiici'. 

** Sound an aJanrii your Tllvcr I'rumpttB faunsJ* 

*' And cail the brjiv*» and teeA^ Srifci jrouiKl."* 1— 

I have now concluded ihe account I imeiided of ihe Mufical Inftmments of the Ancient Britons, or 
Welfliji^'^-- ihe Uarp^ the Cryihau^ the Bagpipes^ the PibgBrnt (or CormqUt) the Rugh-Harn^ and the 
fffbrdt of Drum ; that is, S^s: in number; the two Cruttbr beiik^ the fain^ rpedesQHnd rumen t ; the 
Pf^fSTrt, and the Conikyil Iikewifc, fo fimU^r to each other, that 1 mcludeihem as one. Two of the above 
inilruments were unfortunately omkted in the niuficat trophy ^^ at the beginning of this DilTertation j that 
js the Bijgpfpp^, and [he Cormcyiii as they are now but r^irely to be feefi in ^Vatcs, and confequerLtty were 
forgot to be delineated, till after the en;;raving was executed. ► 

The following arc the National Melodies, or BardU Tun^i and Ssngt of the Aboriginal Sritoru, ^or Wclfb, 
^ho formerly mhabiied all ihl$ lElmd,) whidh have been handed down to us by tradition, and fome of them 
from very remote antiquity : Thefe have often refounded thioug^ ^^^ Camhrian haUs, in the diyaol fellival, 
wUhan unlimited harmony of HurpSt Cneths^^ipfir ^^d Voiifi. The original melodies ot the Airs are 
prcfervcd herewith the moft fcrupulous fidelity : the only licence I have taken, is the addition of new Baffct, 
and have given Variations to many of the Tunes ; bccaufc, fmce the regular Eijiiddv&daut or Birdk 
ConereneSj have been difcontmu^d, which were the confervaEors, and correclora of our Mufic, Poetry, and 
Hiftory, ibc performers on the Harp^ and Crwtb of the latter tigea had forgot, and mutilated the original 
harmony of thefe ruins of genius. Moft of them were never before comtiutted to writing, at leaCl not 
In modern notes. I have coUeaed thefe Bardic Songs, and lunes, with infinite piins, from hearing the 
old Muficians, or MEnftrels of Wales, play them on their inatumems, and from their being chaunted by 
ihePt-af^mtTy, as well as the P^nnUlhn, or Poetical BloiToms, which are ufualty fung to thefe Melodies, 
and v'ere retained in the fame oral manner ^ What is moft pleafmg to ihe generality of people, U that 
which is moa familiar and common, and this accounts^ in fome degree, for thefe venerable remains of 
MuHc, and Poetry, having folnng been prcfervcd by tradition. , , , i t n ^rt- 

Th Rriking merit of many of thefe native M Jodie., U that of their being fo extremely eh.r.aex.fbc 
of their origin . of th.u. probably .ere extempore compofuions of the Bards ^ ^^^^}^^^^ 

. L ■ t, n ^ j^.^.^pV fin the compound, or minor key,) which generally 

" SLich th. round., tb.L o'er the .rclJ.J pr.ic ^ ^l.htuUfomC m.tcb hU lonjj =.rray.- Gr,f. Barl 

*• Of the fira £iiw,ird fi^aUcr'J wdd ddmaj* .1 *^t ^^« vn,^A ^f r.11 

Oi the x.^ ,. f T% .; i; : -R.rH wi^ perhaps the moa revered, and accompl.lhed of all 

Iniheearlyage.,thecharaacrt>faDrmJi.B.dwa.per p i^hibfophy. Government, 

others 5 it appears alfo, that Mufic was fo mmed w^h Poetry, Mymoi gy, h^ ^ ^ ^ _ ^^^ 

Matiners, and Science in general, that an 

attainment of fo exalted a rank and ilatlon' 
' " Ami i!i<: I.cvlccs ftm^d ^vlih the InllrumcuEj of David, 

,. ,6. - And f.vcu pricrt.n..H b*>r. ^7^f/""' ^;^X 

^-' ^ It ia the ucw iiitH"i* ^^ i-hc um<i Hp- 


*— ■ EJow up the Tiuitipet 

[l^ fliLill liluv vUii tlbc Trum- 

univerfal knowledge ^as requifi^e to qualify a Bard for the 

iT.rrl The ^Vclfl! terms for aTrumpet are fZ-Zf^ra. Tot*™, or 
■j'.^ . * d rrruiapetcr h called fl^i.'W i.r^.r™, orihc L^ng 

4ilL XX. - ^ I. ^3. ^Anrf I aWfr^ XV. ..i .«J iB. 

II. /J«,/^««™j.ih:.p-XX v.i.-i.J>/-'^''^'"'Clup lll.v. 

- By ihc loud I'rtimpcL ,*ln.h nar c[»iri^E'= I^^J^' „ «, « ^ 
Tl.Jrr.rT,^t was a iliffereiit iilLriiniciil from the 1 rump". 

4 N Tbefc vcierablc ancient SoitgHind.Esn I 

hiVfi -lout* 



• The reloercc* in muHe f": /"=*/' 

\ 'yiJt tlxL't.]iUnJ*"ry it"I« lo li* 

Inciliaunibte i and Dr, Johafijfl^ 


1 yidt tix. c^rUnutory .Tot« lo ^. —;;;;„ :^^. &, And. 

( 113 > 



Crwt/i V ffWr-ffp 

ij^r riisJ jS; 

— T|7 


- Hi* 

— 171 

— iT5 

— *75 

r- >S4 

— 131 


— — ifit^-t^o— (71 


- 17B 

ChJ^ —*'"*" 

^^ _ 

ffa^Jii ^w/rjJ jVtfr/^p 


£Fjr«ff — ^ — ^ — 


^>/x' iifri, — 

FfiimFfi Eifvjxf^d fyi^^a^i 
lljdlc Faddl^, — 

Gii^/ j Tiff — 

Hohy Dfi'iiLiaiift —^ 





- J4« 



- js* 


- ^ I7J 

- >Sl 



- 176 

- 158 


- J43 

- TJl 


- 137 





j*frr.^i Mfjam^ — — — "^ liQ 

^iL//ii-drfj^ *^ — p ^ «^ —• *!? 





Str.i ffmJtl, 
Siieii or Sihjtf 

^r Hiirri fidu 

Triiam, — _ _ 
Tim J Cri5« di : «» Tiulw lUld Citbcrwv, 

Jj^i'ij^yfix, — — ' — — 

To.<tl jrl j?J Atfj^ij — — ^ ^— 

Tfi kamiur 'fiwt _ _ ^J. — 

7>£Aq J«r_fr Jfsr/dlUtC/, — 

Tfai ^ rmrrrgt ^^ ,-, — . — 

T^r-nady UyJdt • — — . — — 


— 'as 

— ifij 

— »ii 

— m 

z \% 

— 13B 


_ _ >n 

fVyra Ned Pegit — -; — , — llf 

Tigia Aatf ^ ^^ "^^ ^ ^39 

rri/fl ZJ^M, ^ — — — 141 

r Gaiax Dr^, — — ^ *^ I4J 

jTrrsiLutii M<wngt, — — ■ — — 16* 

TGtFM&tn^ — — , — — i6j 

TGJdijt: or, or Noble Race wM^iwiiMj tM, aniiS^ 

r^yw, . — — — — , 174 

rr £w i»f/| „ — — 181— iJl 

ERRORS, ^nd OMISSIONS, wldck the Rader b rt quelled tocomrd, dnd to add. Ajjfl|^ft 
In pigt ,^p tlw firft word of the verfe, laftcid of Bciie^lhep corrrcV, Jimtaih. Afid h imte 2 ij inftead of Brichj tmi!* .fi&v^- 

The following Tnad wn;:LoniiltedtD be Infencdf ^ the £rl: Triads i'^ f^£v io» 

*' THp lliirf? great njoJcTleri of the IflattJ of TSnt^in I C&fw 
V]th & {ad and a htlni;^ for the race of ihc Cymrj-. Mordii 

firll tailght the T^« of the Cymiy, ill* '*^ork of llonc, inJIimc , ,^ ».,.,. ,.„r^ „ - 

AndCaS, ihc fon of CyffiH, [thfi fon of C^r.ftf^wt, the fon of BrtiTtJ who firft made a mill with a whctl, Jbr the ra« of tw 
Cjmrj ■■ Artd th'jlV ihF^^ iTt're Bafda.'^ — *— Yr/^irf 91 , Atui, fee the ivord Brru^f^^ in Ri-ch^rd'^ DaCtiOtjar)". 

In page i =» lb* catch-word ml battotn^ irtUnd ef asj. rci^d^ d/. — -—In page 14^ the cjth line, toiteft Vortigcm-— ^In p"Kt 17' 
at the c^ of the li.rJlIiiie, iafLcad of Be'Td^;! read BarJi ; and ia note f, at thi^cadoF tLc ;id Huif, inftead uf th 1 read ji*- ■ 

III pa^^; 3j, the 6lli> and 14th lines of the tioIch, iallifad of KErmiws, corr^^ N^mt^j. — ^In page 2S> the text cacizh-'iv'ord ta bfi 

n^^/w^^sn ; and that of the Tiotca to be /Jjmn [ii paj^e 30, ihrt! firll wolJ uftleUTl hiie but two of the ootci fhfiuJdb^ 

I^iurfivf^ In pagi- ^q, at the end of n£Pte [ j write, |^^^ laie Sa^U^ili^ G^jm^ Efg* &/ Gla^rtijf. T„ ^.r«, rn tkr .ratch^word 

Ihould be Tl^/au,^-^^^iu pik^^r 77h tht la^ verfei cotre^r ^i^jotjrfivffi-^^t'n pa^ Ali the 1 ith line 


»In f age 59* the catch. W 

^-^-- rn of the idcolunan^ Trtd, w 

prim^^rj TWdJ fl/ ffjix : In page fl3, the fnlbmnj; note to be added to the loth Ucm:» of the tvrehc rnw iroriii i /« ^^^ 

cia/- /A ///- and the Mfvjffath^j th^p. XX/I- v- iL {of la furta offnut J^^lnpagc iij^ the catch-word llhonldbe, I» ■ — 
Piig:e nil lathe iflLhliEie, iofltadof CamLria, read Cumlfria" ' 

_^ q Gothofie^ 

Mirnhuh 9^ ^|4l1uiij, rrmtiri-^nctp j^os^ml 

G^Jw/jm Cn^rli^ch, —.fMe^/^.d.^d.../^k^ric./^ ' 


''' H^rltch Caftle, fjh Mi^r JDnHhfhirt^.wuv ftimieriy * cclcbrafr^ Furfrf^f?v,niift fn f^id Id havt> bc^n built by iKatY^'at, 
-11^4-' Priiactr, Miivlffw r^ Ci^^'nt-rtES abuut A-lJ.wS'3<l- lit th** bi^KLmLul^f of t>L*: .SixlhCt-^ntiiTy it "ftiii called Twr Bronwen 
y Brenhrnm^dd,frtjini Uruihnr^li, thi' U-illghtcr of Prrllce Ll-jr uf Harli-rhi who probably Ilv*^1 in th* Ciiftle;an(l1h*- 
hilfhHI TuTr*-T tif iT,tu this dJ>,K^"''=^ by the namt^ of Bron^i-i*^ Tower * T^J!% ForlroT^ was ri-buH+jUr r**paird tabqirt 
the Ytar fi77' by Cullwvn iibTan^fkLi-, ont- of th* fiftt^**^i» Trihi-i of Kurtb Whiles, zLihd Lord of Kvluiiydd^ Ardlidwy 
sni;] part lpT ll^yn ^ ahd frijm laiiiTi bT waii ciillvd Cper-Cull w J " , ^^r <r"il]HT ll* Ca^tloT Tbi» venerable Caftl? U ^^rhii{^ 
the dJd^rt rm'siiihE ol 3li the Brhnlh tVrt^ ; Disd tl ta^Jt fl^tfly StTurtxi rv df In vuln^J^A'ftl^ iftit^u|rih boHyb^Art ' 
andVatirr* ., \i^\.\\^ fituatt-d un a }vityHijrk whi^h <:oiiimiindA a fine B*y of th* S«ft p *nd tKo F^fMs:*^ &f entroncfr 
upon thar f-*>^^lf Ni^iuiiuA Brit: Hi(t: a nd ftom Andtnt M.S* / 

rh* (uu'.*» .' M*'n*i'.>»i-* "*^ »"*'" **^" ^-'"'■*' ^"' ^''•r'''^"^' 

(TV, iwtV HoiVlMtii? 



TribiZn n^t^Jri^t/€^, ^ Mrrmi} Jim^^^ 



^ jl^lT^liii III! 


t Hfti'QH^ "T <M 


* I 

6r€yera^/^. * 



4: > 

'^faMcd Jm^M-u. 

g— - I If tt5>i ^ the ^tlrtiiicmf cf Lfft-w^ltf^tjlfcHi t 

iM^yr^^ ^^^i^e^i^. 

*tow and 


. «Miri.Ji -.j iIli CsiTjI-ri™ 3mhkiiLl^ LitA w^p imris-htJ--' U\ l.\ m t]it hS^liH^, vtneriitt"!" nTnun^i Hit l^nlj^'i* 

■\ ■ 

Tl.^ h.T-.'r r, 

1 'trfrr ^^^57 = 

wH •— ! ■ ^ 1^^ 


b^ n 

-^y-A»i Jfiimi ettop 

^^jji gi*r- i:i-d<jiif 

,t -a ~ P -T ' - / -11 1 I ^ -l ^ ii JU L l >v L fm— rf- ^^ ,. d 

*i^ brwj^Jij du;--i* do- tr-r JlwyJi; 3Ji ^ ^^ _A% :m, S.'.ij3- Un Iwjn. 

f r l I r I ntf-fTi .rtff t^^=^ 

Iher<i is anoiht-r very Ancient Tune tlmt h^ars a fimiliir n;4me to tht abovel A Kha,iJr<j(Iy of it>at 
xormtTly uj;.(| ^\x)^ tiie CoivvHt! Pedwar» conr Uiiies each I'taniti a& follows. 

Naivdd MaLr a nawdd y >fr6jf ,- . ^ _ ^ - * , Ihc piot^^rtLnn qJ MurySc protertion ott»e( rnfs; 
Hui down iV Heri danno .'' ^ - - ^ - - - - - Tom** It t ij« hartcn tfi the O^iken-firrkvr . 
^hkhin ttir Imideriofin old SotiK^ of the iJrqids, fiMig- hy the Hard% and Vadps^to cult rhe ptoplo 
^* Jheir rtljkfjous afhi'inbJU'S in fh** Groves. Alfu. U K exutcnt that the old Enjflilh Ht«ii>f, 

»*Hlif down I dr^wn di'fry <ifiwn'.' 

AJfn» **\n ii.inbmer tinrif whi n fpavo*. ifrow jrioen^ 

an? fjormwfd frum ^\\a\ Wixwnv i^\ S^hthjr- - 


i- jW/y/^^/i' (*yNWift/.'^ ^ tJJic tyru/tn/y ry Ofpi/ry^ 


' , Lvn \fj^ W>a 9, man? Tlrime 

,an-l i:^!!^ ^ r1 in II wa» Trie naiTQi yf t^' (J 

UnuLft LiMirlj from "iphich the ViU«gfl rf <^iwy4 in 'HariniU'HifhiJn 

Rnderly hr^l ^t 1 S*a||iftT* If* Mfricijietlif^ireHiJ**" i* 4^^>Lria*iJ'NEa n-i-r-^liMhiiivMifc VjttMiiLi.*^ 

^Z£^f^''- - '^ ^^ V^ ^^^' <^ak 


- t li 







■ ■ A Songbf tKe wooin^f of Queen Catherine ^y Str Owen Tudor,' " \ f. 
: ' ' 'r- a \ouiig GeTitleman of Wales . ■ . . * • . ~ 

W^firt King HtHry V^wui v«rIVtmg hif cmLqiiFft ^n FrDMCf^, Churli-f VIl hFnt>iXe to refift h)i vIctorLQiil «Tr.ti«TRB to a treaty 
Wltli hiEzii lllinl i» thH year 14<^0jK.Jng Htnry waT Tnihrn^d tkP C^tFii^-tFifl^th* rlab^hter Qf Ctilrlei^b^ virtue af *lirth Ih*? 
latter jp)cnirtrlefl^r4 HuafT^Krgent of France t^^B^rJn^ hii LIf' tiEiiff j iinn) ifltr Mp ^cath nhrcnlutc ftaT«Tti™ Of thtt Vjil ir^^TinP 
Tht ffhriftm^a. fi-jJJ^^w^n^ >Liiig Heiirr brn^u^lct hii Q««ii uptt tP England, -^hert fhi ^ti crGvjir4 Off the 2* V>1,\ 14^1« 
Th« C^iJiChiii C^ t;tkiii^ tIh: ficM beinj^ oacnp> n^Ld the ][>iiulihin havliite levied £itTh forcei,Kxtip Hinry haftciid ei^tir to ftuiLc^j 
fvhJthcT hii Ctuei^n EQulri ii4:it :iccnTnptn^ hlnnj hciiLi^ it tih^t time v^th chLLlpflnd m the iS. cif l>tceinbFr fuUo^Gi^L^ fhv wii 
AeftTfEtd it'Witidfoj of PriiacE Henryj^ wlm fuccc^eiEcH, hiH Fathi^r - Th** A^teI ffiLE^iwIn^ flic v^^^^^ =*^^*'' *** Kune* witlj 

" large r^infordtindaU £oT her hMfhianift> " t he b^fng at tlmt .tti^r« tsj-j^ \ii o( tlif HTi«4i*i:rT jE>f vhich !\^ Uioifly aflu 
^j^d. ioulB aftcr><lLiecii C»thtrfi^« rtturii^l to En^JithuH* it Vki imvi^'l^L^l^ th^t 41 ynj^i^jj hjii4l^4jin« iriiloui Df her df|gr,^- 
^Uity cDuJ[li,(v« wlthuLitt number of jiri3r_ST* rtjsttd Lfk thfi f*>ttnw>ft riink. a]-Liuart[ ^ir Owm TntEtjP|0* Pii_-Myii j*1r[ Mun^ia ^ 
-o AQgi^rit:yj1rhA Wat ii jfrflceful ^nnl i^oft heAUtlfcc] li-crrL?]!^ and dt{c«fi fed from (be IncLent VBliJi FrJqtei.^TliJi O^IHfr^ia 
ttm of Mti^ftith ntnTiiduT &b litunw iib TmL^jr^nb <^rOTiW| all EdjifftH Vyciiin> btfcm of UrinfftiM^lf in. Dcabl^h-tauil j J.oni ^jf 
<;riC4:t]3^ und fo iliiBaiXj dvfcieiidtci fru.n Kiiig Kftil tha a"*^ * HU gt^qie^iJogr wmi ^rii*n out of thff cMonicI" f;f WJilfi.S^ 
.«dtr &f Sting Hcnfj- tbc Sertnthjund Ji tu be fi^Und in the a^^endiK of OrattoOl iiiftorj of Wmlfli,t>rfl li^ft Bd*tir,.Fi -} 
ilr O^^n Thdct^ir» an o£ficcr pf tte fueflUfl JbouftholflrAnrrbfm^ oumtHj md ACtivi'jlii "»*« dtfired torlaioCTr bHfrnr^- Ri 
Q^crev-tijAi4^ turn in<t beiifcf^ ^bJ* torecgvet himfVlf^ ftll litCo h^r lay^t^t fhe Tat ui^t** a l*Ule ftod *itli wnnj- of h« 
Iidj*i *bcjut Imr*. SDffliiift*rjlifl Mil hfcr Ifcttrt *nH aiTHi**! ■h«r;ind b^ Uia fh^ had thre* fomjo* whom Vdirumlth* 
;*Htft,>M i^uittA Elf I Pf Kichmondjittrt »*■ Father to King Htji^j th4 t*-^ ^ l"ht ftcOnH Icji, Vni Et^rl of l-^n hiud*. ^ 
Hiitfrn Cithertnc fiirvircd tAli Ufb*nd itEfu^wnd the* wtlrtfl (atit tli« KrfAty o* BermOTiHfffjF U tuiTj^wIlpTt ilj* «i^i i^ ^ 
,tht lV^T«» of tb« tffi^n of liEr ion «tarr thm VI* "."^.1 

j^'^^w'/li' / ^^\/^-'f^\t/m^tV/'/u^ f'WtH ,,XrtAv*^^^yft'*'^WV F 



or t 

->//'^/v- ti* ( f///ii r/fff / 

■t:i if»:irM[ Jfrom th- WilfH 


if but u ftrun3;vriyet iove hiith fuch puwtr. 
To U'lhI nte h<^n? kindly into the Quten's bowery 
Th I'll do not.fweet Frinrefii,my g-uod will iurfiikcj 
IrN heu nutuTe commands thee a. true love to take* 

^o n>>al orcailingr i^ud birth am I known* 
Thikt matrhing* tineq^ual,m>' fluted overthrown; 
My titU'K ofdilftiity thLTtby 1 Icfr, 
To wed me a-nd bedm**jmy t^i^ual ill chnfe. ! ^ 

\o honors art lolt .Uut^en) in ihnlinjf of me. 
For I um a ^Tentlcman bom by dt'jfrtej 
And favort of Prinres my i^ate may advancej 
lij [ii^Aking^ me nubJc sind tbrtunate chun^e* 

My robesof rirh honors moft brave to btholdj 
Are JiJi oW imbofied with filver and goldi , 
\tii therewith lidciro'dj ] loft? my renoi^n, ." 
With uJt the brHve titlui thut wiiit on a cixjwii* 

My coujitry,fweet |)rincefs»iiiore pleafiire nHbrds, 
i haJi can be ^iiprefned by ene hi'^rv in words i 
Such tindiy c<intcntinent» by nutur* there f>>rl»i^s, 
Ihat h^th bi'en wi'lj liked of (J.utenM^ afkin^^. 

■ Uueen ,:" 
,Mycc><;_rtl> atten^Umts are trains of delight, 
Like liars oT I'lir hca^vti ill fhming' To brits^^t: , 
And ( lofell'.a liveduitv Hsr-h pleufun'? tn ft-fp 
,Su[>polt; no flith \ rjmfort. in liOimtry ran bt,, 

111 W41hs we have foimtaina,nt) rrjft»Ll more clear, 
^Im-re mnrmtirinjr rannj: w?^ ditily rn^y hear^ , 
.^ith^sirdeos of pleafure^anrl fL>wtM*^ ^^y fweitj 

VVbtrt' \x\\^ lovi" yith true love muy iju ijiJ)^"**' . 

il.rt there is no tiltin>!: nor turnamerts bnld» 
Whtrh ^aHant yoUttif la^^ies deHra tobehoJdM 
\o maski¥,ni>r no revels, where favours arewom- 
\\\ Knivrbt%, li'arntis.without u-ny fcoiu. 

Tiid<-r , 

Our nijypole at Whittiintide niaketh jfood rprti 
'^IhIiIilov.v^ as fwi'i-t vlejiurt^v ab yiiti rs dii i»^*!"T'" 
.^h''Jl\"ti the {frt'^ii didM.inK" *»«* ^ail I'jd >md in'^ 
Mji.di'^jis m4ke paftiiiu- jnd fport'tor .n H'^iK. 

lUit when your br*ve youn^ menand maUWsil'^*' 
Whill'l lilver^ikenii'lcKU murmuring ^^^'^P'*;. 
Voui- mnfuk i*f cl<-wni*hand iouudeth not iWiti* 
t\\i^ t' V ki up your lii. Im lli hejvi'^ity n*'*'|W' 




iirir Karps,our Tdbur* ana Crwthi^Tweet humming!?* 

l^Lirmwrris muid-miniurts ciefire to fee 
^trim-J"^'* knot ti(?<Lbitweeti theo and me. 

Q itJfcHU ^ , 

\ii pU^ufure in cotititry by me can be feen, 
I'hat have buf 11 maintain'ct To lonj,'- here ii Qji^en^ 
Atia fea un the blersinB^H that tlitily were g-iven, 
liito ttiy brave palate, by ang-eU from heaven. 
r* Tudor ■ " ' . 

iiur grecn-leavSl tr/ea vill dunce i^ith the vjnd. 
Where birds fit rejt.iciny: accon'in^ to kihd; 
OLirftiL'ep with our lambs will fkip and rebound, 
Tq ft* thee come triii^Jing- along on rhe ground. 

What if a kind Prim efs fhould fo be cbnie'nt^ 
Uy meeknefs thus mf>ved to g^ive her confent^ 
AiidhumblL' her honorsjand bufo her degree, 
To tve her belt fortunestbrive 'rudor,to thee.^ 
■ ■ ■ ■ ' Tudor 

Ifto 11 ^^if^S*^""^ J born were bjrbirthj ■ * • 
And had at commandment all nations on earthpftet* 
Their crowns and thtfir fceptresi fhouldlyoat thy - 
Ai;d thuu be my Empr*ffs,my darlitig: (kt fwt?«t. 


^ ■ ,1 - 
■ 1 -,, % , 


'^ fear n'oi to fancy thy love temptinjt^ tnnjrutt,. 
For Cupid is coniin|f,hin bow very ftronjjfi 
Uueen %'eTin5 once miftrera of heart-wilhinif fleaJit 
W« over-kind, Vumen repent us at leifure. 

f Tudor " ™— 

Mayntivvr fair morning Hiow forth his bripd"^^!^'^ 
tut cover my falfh^ds with jpreat'eft extrenm*. 
IfnotastbfTurtle Ilyi? with my Dove^ . 
My g-entle kind Printufs^my Lady^ Diy lovff- 

ill* then into WiVs,ar.d our '^'f^d-Hnjif provtdf*i 
For thou art my hriHiej^rtium.aiid ;'] 1 by ihy bride, 
Get fi-loves an:l finy rilibons ^with hride laces fair, 
*0f Iilk. and of iilver for ladies to '»-eaT< 

Tudor - , *- ■- 

Withg'arliids of roies.our houfq-wifely wivet. 
To hiive them i^dorned nioft loviniCly ftrives; 
Tiieir bri:le'rakc«i be ready>our pibpirna do pliy*' 
Wbilft I rtand atttndiug to lead thee the way/ 


' #. 

A Du^t: Both together. 



fefe-e^ s 

••f'^T I ' i-f-f-fk ^^ 

. Thijnni.Lt^chott'theiKjtci^ of otir merrytown bdJ^,ourdi[ii;-donff of p ekftin:mr5ftchearftllytellh 

■ y ■ — 

ej'H'^JiJ'^^ i^ 

-rf * " Then dinj^-donf^ fair liidies 

'Higii dim 

fitir ladies 

and lo-Ter* all 'trfl^e, 

this ding^ongof pleafirremay 

fa-tiiJ-fy Jo«> 

and lo-verB all true. 

this ding-^onff of pltiifureTnay 

. .^ 



r ■ ./ 



'^ rt.ni1rffcPr tnn-yniier the ItlfusV-cfljij li A Bitfl thrt flnjfi verir fmety j 
^tirf cro CiHt Ac^crunt U vuiicd Ihf 1H4>i9lc -^ n hull t LiLif lie h bi)t «!h«thc!r 



(now > ft^y//tu. //i/rmu <^r »drr^. 


'klJiLlLh 1 


I i , nTP | .y j iinjJ j ian jiJ: 

J }//'f/fV/'2 * Owf/mt^</^._ t!//// tAl//j^^m^/'//icy/^Trj/-tff^4^//f4 


^ gfj^j 1 ^ J J I J- J J ', ^rr^ 




Haj I J 

f^^^y//////* Ah/ Hit tv' ^r// _ f_/Ac t/w// i'/t/h €>M ?min/^/i^/f^^ 

, AEJ^-J-f^^fe^ 

Mjt'ti ddi-dtbii-wrh ! myiwr i dd} oinjii * 

■M-f- r:.^H 



a^ - g^ife 

"^^r- 1 


|if.ii'.| 111 Cifi-L'.^ Mifhtr 

l^lLf; lii-^Li\ ni:EV tin 



, • , ■ 


% ' 

1r m 


I tMvi- in FrarO*';} ^who enfih^^rlhuS *ilh a CuluiLy of Viruiiiv^ ta .n-t L 
' With tbt Urttiflh ijj^ioni.'IVftltifJl in I'-Lit l*TOT'D£Bi tirit^iiinci^ ^^ 






If&fpM ' Jtj^am a6 Ijhn 





4,. i ,.,t :- ltff?^f i!^T^ 

. P ' 



31/6 f/ Tt/w/f/og. -— ^A£-^cnrr-^'' ^tt 

i * - \ 


T'^'Ii'"? Pi^^'"" Morgannwg, e^rTA^B'arS.^g \.Jth.Mrn oJGJumorgaft, *'*' 

and an - viV. '»oimdFiVa"tl 




from Chepstow's walls, at dawii of morn, 

V:is heard a- far th« bug-le-horn^ 

Andforth in handed pomp, and pride. 

Stout CUre,and fiery N*v ill ride- 

They swear their barkne rs brnad shnuld gleairij 

In crimson liffht on Ryinnys stream; 

Thev Towd Caerphdi's and should teel , 

The "Norman chargers Rpurning hteU ■ ^ 

And iiooththey S'WOr^-^he sun arose, 
And Ryinrty's w^vp with criinson j^Iowa; 
For Clares rrd banner, floating" wide j 
Kiiliadcmn the stream to Severn a Ride. 
And Roolh thry vow^d_the trampled ereen, 

In ev'rv sable hoof-tram sifted 

A Nurman horsemans curdling blood. 


Old Chepstow strides may mrae tbe toil 
That arm'd stont Clare foT Cambrians br 
Thflir orphans long tlie art may rue , 
ForKevihs war-horse forjjed the shoe I 
Nfi more the stamp of armed steed 
Shall dJntGlamctrg;an'fi velvet mead; 
I^oT trace he there in «ftrly spTiii>r, 
Save of the faiiii-s emerald nng 



33^//? K^^ur^ 








3.7^/)/ ' j^//'/ 


ijlLivtrd in fome bthf^r narts of Waks.^hich 
y ferve as a Vii nation tti the above. 

. % n ! J ^ ^ 




■ c 

Wolvi?fti that htar their ^oiintf onea cry, 
Taraor on the Spoilers fly: 
Harvt^ffia J to the n^iines a prey, 
FfrlfJi flower ftill thii.n \\\tiy . 

Thine, fwift Cymaii, tJiine tlie race 
liVht-T*; thf Warriors line we trailer 
Brave TYniJAtTnirtT,boart to own 
Hi'RLECH for tly braver Son* 

1 S*ifr tlie rapid Ka^k-\ ili^lit j 
. JJarting from h\^ aif^ hfi^ht: ^ ■ . 

'^\\*ix\ be bade the bittle bleed <; ■; -• .' 

■ * .'.. ■-'.'■.■ 

■ * 

Strong the Stream of 0<iw?:v deep 
ThnndVing down hii^ '^'"^g^ Sttepl 
Stroug^tr Hi hi.KCHw matihlt^fa m^j^ht, 
in^ flird the ranks of ti^ht. 



Wkimika's fnuws for aj^t;» tirlvn, 
Mclr lieiore the bolt* of Heav'n i 
HlaHt'd fo b^v Hi hli-chV V>e . j, , 
ilt'iirtii of Ueroeti mtrlt and die, 

briiii^ wHh terror flj' fhe doer^ . 
The Hirk* *Ud uproar burftln^ lU'aFt 
"So^bj HiJitj.i.tH*i voice difmajr^dt 
Hofu of H^Toet riirunk and.fte*!. 

Raife voitr Harpavyonr Voice* r'aifi?, 
Gratefttl e\;r in HuhlfCh^ pralff : 
Hi HI. ten gnard!« Gwyhi- ddia'* Plain, 
Hloodj ll!">jKY thirft* In Viiin : 

Louder ftrike^at^d loTider yet , 

Till the echoing Cavefl fep&at*, 

^Hi-KLPcn gtiarda GwYittDpiA** Plain, 

Blootly Hfuht ttirfts Iti vain, • 

J * ' ■ 
• • „ ■ 10 
Hence aloof, from Cthby far 

Kage.thoa Fiead of horrid Warj 

Cymry's Strength In HnKLiCKt Spear 

^ocks the Rage that threaCensi herel -: 

■ V-' 

l,ang too long, a Ruifian Band, 
Murd'roiift 5 Axons fpoUd the Land; 
HvHLECH rofc: the Waft e U er- 
MurdVous Saxoh* fpoil no more . 

, 1 , V " w - 

. . 

LLo>;tiF.R tio* Hiall feel In turn ■ 

CymBy's Vengeance too can bum ■■ 

' Thirft of llJoodv-s"^ Thlrft of SpuU, ^ 
On UieVlundW* Head* recoil. 


Fl^ the Doves when Kites pnrfue. 

Daftatd*J fo *e ruili on vou i 

Flight rh*Il fall, nor Force ^Irhfirtud, 

Death, and Horror fiU^onr Land, 


Erdclig'an trdr tant S^iVtilr .\/hin/ii'/f4t'//.i '/hufii-K 

rtobibly to llir* diMnuti'd, Wu*l< tin' WrUh V ..Jit' hotift^ ^'''^^^ *»*"« 


CiKlyii GM'yn.^ /////% forl\^ . 


Yr m^n Don _.>/r^ f YJ(jr//^/, 


iAS ^ 

Jt/( 7 7 n J\./iaddllUl .^^^^^//mU^A'^i/md/l 




AFoiminoTebeaiitfflusfliU itdoriril tin- fU>«clt (1vik>j noLtx's fit^tal ioriiiLLi- WEiTfia n Blood! 

■ For Hi." r in Aims opviofed^ 
tojuendui^ \\Liri'iors flvovf, 
"'T*as b ;iLiitj' iir\{ Tiioir Hearts 

On Moi:vA Khi iJjii.A>i"'s V\\\\\\ t]if KivhIb ftood. 
Till MoKVA Rni n^-l a>j^s FUl^i h:is drt'Uili'tl in Hlootl; 
Tsot all jnoud I T,Okt,KiOs iiiitflLi rould Ct^ihy qiK'U* 
Tin fflremcft oi hia iiitiiU >onn^ Ukivhth full. 

Ci^AhyniDi.i-iW fsiM him fall, 

Aiiitl"0 tiiL' Maldou fried; 

Could MaieU-n FiH^ert avnll 

Thou iiadft not diodl 
lliftracTLd to the Pliiu Gvvthuoi >t* flew, 
To biifht' litr Hero% V^onnda, lier laft A<Ik"n[ 
Faft cTtr Iht HtircTs Won n da, her Tears ilii" flii'd 
Hut Tears alasl are viLiii--lus Li^e i*as4leJ^^_ 


O tht-n for (iHiyhiTtfV Soti> 

Yf M!lid^' ol Cv^iHi mourn J 

For *eil the Virgins Tear 

liecomun .liit Irn.. 
^oT^ YobTjis^ foruid vonr Te^trs to flo* , 
For \\\y\ rjiail 1>ef> ndrcr;,, who fitl for Woe, 
Sweet rieeiJh x\\^ lovely ls\,M *e(jT hy the Br^ive 
for, uhl The died for him fli^ toiEld not favt 1 


ICufiLT U •itl artninffc 1|j ir.i li,pi,awl^ fulj ^.K. Our Mufjt ^tuli'Lil^v ictslMii 

DylfK fb|l<l> II P^ 1]l» Itjlilllliltt ■ 

Yuriation l4 


14 4- 



Var: 3 - 


• 1-ti 







NmLimiiu^^^^ ^^fe^ f 





Ffari*el F£ranres. 


t < 

Ffarwd A W/ I^iai ' , 

. Ply^ad y B^dol-fach tMchffdty/lf tt//{ Ar/HfrMrt 

m'tpV . 

Tri hanner Ton. ^r^ /i^/^Jmu^. 

>lUfr I,tt11(-|«TI)I> A^ UVKAX, *•<■ )£"H rfltr^iU »'"< f' 

liHuiiirin.i.l AXIUJH: 11:10. 


Jihyimn J]Ihr/^di/ ^ ffrnyJ/f:^Manf{ ■ 


Ad Libitum 




Merch Megan. ^^^i((if€?i,'> ±J'<uuiAt'( r. 


*, - • 

Tempo dl i ffi ' ^J- ' 

Gliui meTldwdod mw^n.^^-^/^f^^^^^^'^'^^^ 


% - 

B lodivu V Grug . ^£ytJie^i;frjrfi^ yu^A/. 





iVVhiit ih^i iio ^r^ints of flonors 

VtUh pompoiifl titles grace out blood! 

Well iliine iu more fubftantUl honor*. 
And to be Doble weTL be good. 

Our l^ame, while Vii'tue Tims we tender, 
\Mll fweotljf found Mher*!'e*er Yiu Tpokel 

And all the ^reat ouoa, tlie> lliall wonder 
How the^ refpect fuch little tblk. 



%littttho' from (ortimes lavifh botmtjr , 

No mighty trcarurea we poffer»> 
Wll find within our pittance plentj^^ 
And be content witbont eicefii . 

Still fhall each kind returning fearnn 

StiiFicient for OTir wifhes ^^ve,* V 

For we will live a IHe of reafon, 

And thata the onljF life to liv^*' , 

Through Yonth and Age In love eTtcelllng, 
We'll hand In hand together tread; - , 

Swtet-fmillng Peace fiiall crown owrdw.?inng 
And babes, f wee t-fmlling babes, our bed. 

How fhonld 1 love the prettj^ creatures, .■ 
While rovnd r^ knees thejy^ fondly clung; 

To foe them look their Mother*s feature*. 
To hear them llfp their Mother* tongne. 


And when with envy time tranfported. 
Shall think to rob as of our joy*; 

You 11 in your Girls, again be courted. 
And 111 go wooing in nv W"y«- 




,<..hnf u» 

^ bdd rbal vii tiitr -u \i gal-ed, 

Y'Aixx ^oUdfpmo ^i^li vo*; iK-rfu^k* nse', ^^^ ''■^■^ ' "^'^ Thut nijr faithful f^^liih^tlt-dTnei^; *?*< > 

.4 iiiiijM^ii .^iJ 


^iiijii liiiiJij 

^ ^ 





. t 

laeth It Tilt- rijine uf u fiifrrict of L*a&rl on thr Si .■ Sitor* (,ir AnWl^^T-y- "^^ "^ 

At lilt 

Ma jcrtic 

h'ri lUy 

. \ 

10 + 


,l„i jtril.h^i^t^ 'lLM,t,« h^ riH r.E/,1 fTi,.ul.l ^^v ^^^^.^^^^ ut h.t Fn„tr»,l. ^vW title* it hi.t iHttft call*-* hy hii 

and Slow 

till/ Fif'f/ale/i 

Z ^ ^ - 

froirr « flsnmetlvt 




i * 


I J^ 

{?{?//m^ yr lletujJ^ ^^^ Ju,^>f./ ^7 V/ic.^ x^./- 


\ .'t V • 


Mcgen a Gollocia ei ^ gardail* ^'';^A^''^/'^//^///i./^VA..j^, 


Dciris Mcinwen S^^^rm'^n^ ^M^cd 



Ah f^-don ^ -^/^ ^J4/v€^i^^A'nf/. 





CyrruV Bj d 6m blajen 


f/tf l^hffdbrfore m^. 



37^ Oa/^^//^ — ^'iu- j/carj, fu 

01?b,*flt' mjK-ir atitt i"t fap. t>: 1*1 *.c - -• Oh" bft- f*«1tftB£tCT^ i .l l.h.lWt..' f-I|* (ttr . . _ 4.<iij^ 



tfvni-4:it^ nUr 

^"^^ % ij^ 


tMl KLJifk-afc. fnl \n\ «r 





. ' '■*■■.■ 4tJ -n'l rri.' n < i ft.f u> '^i.! si- Um- '.AjjoiithJ V^i iifcfhi ''i* jM.ri_ , 




yh/fifinHfif ifnNf(/if('/ — ^(W/i te ^Cf/nrr/ 



^^^^ ^^ 




Ymdallh MT^tigc- i*^/ .^v^/^/i^t,.'^^'^4^ 



" "■'■' -t'Vr^fcp/.i(hlh*iriJfU7*r»;nxJnnf»tti*-iPi'"f^^"^i''* 

S^SH^e^sfe'^'"*'' '^ 


1*1 '! 

I • 






Ki ^'1!!' 

* fM^^S^rj^.^/-^... — ^^r;lJ'uOi--.rt.v-^.i.. 

hii H4Art^ 

• .■ V '\ 

^\ i 

^ A 'Mt,fnS "* *'"^- ^^'^ Goleuddydd .) * V^„t., r. G .c,;. ; 

f : f i~~f 

l!inU on cv rv 


^ pim^£^ ^ 

spmy ii.bovc, thp 


birfln on 

fv r 

P4 =^44VFH# 

Kpray a. bovt, tn 




vmj^hony F^ 

Bnt Ah[ Go^crKltlydd wUliouT tl^^^c, 

^11 lom^ly in ih** sttrtd shad«« 
All lonrly in the hf^crcd ^hadf^, 
I mourn thv ahsenre cliarmvii^ triHif! , 

O nofi an Ifive^ a?t honmir fair^ * ^ • J' • 

Srrcndy 'swvot ai; vi-rnal air ; 

Come to fny armnpfor you ulone, ^ , 

C*Hnp to my urm^^for yen a1on«, j ' - \ 

fan -tU thy abf^ence past atone. 

■ ■'•>' 

i- #^. 

X. *^^. 

Ah*w Salmon 

or iS^i A> wfl ?? s r. //y . 


Pni Jf/nr/r!^- 



w#* C:4.iir[joA:'l ahimr tilt? bt|i.iiLDUii cf the I^Uft^ciiitb l]«nfur^v j,Or mt Uuil iftC4|uUiHj ihh V^li^ i'M>i#i tiiiil« 

. ^''' 




* * 

Y Gerddineu ,^/iciP??^fi/i/m^<//*^A^:^f*f^'cx^'^^' 

ElodauV Drain .Vu /}kU^m ^//^rt/h^n*^* 

ffcti r k TiV«*,*^W» 

ii ikf1irik!i Willi li^rriMlulLihtlityiHUiJiIrr -«r W*Ui *gLtli*r tuin^kr IJinHi.rldvBM of^fCCBUvol.lrij-ki ■^bicJi ur(nB**Mi|n* v 

'Mm/ffCH ^mri_^Mf. SA,/y ^/iJ/cma.Mf^ ' 


.in >.iAl.n>, W.lCh, LL.t*»»ci"*M - N*hr.*. 


^ ^■^ ^ 1 ^ ' I t^ ^ji g^j ^a^^^^^.^ 

•J VflriaiS'. 



Thr fjimuiif rvKCKl 1. Bftmireil \W\ \VciCli Clxoiincl Tu diuch^th^t ha ImlUteil it la« CiitDl>i. 

r-. .V/^^ryi^;!."-; '^'^''\^-j ' --. 

g^ ^g 


m yariail/! 

*7tli -. 

Cheerful ^t7 ^-n ^^ -*t^vTTi--^-*--H 


d si«-. j a^i;, 1 ■, r r r ' ' '' J r ■ -^ 



Mo-^^d j\fo^n/6 ^^fiir^ed . c:^/ijtt>. J/a^r<7iY/^ ^ ^find 'w/rds^ 







;5feEfe^E ^^^ 





'5ni If \}\^ ^ifaJyto^ tinrh. 

rf ^' pilATi Serrh _ ^/w /itfr. v/^/" ^/^vr<. 

Syr llarri Ddu*^ ^B /ffcA^ ^ Jfr^ W^m/. 



Hticl V 

Bib ell — ^^^^ -^'V^^^/ /vv/// /// . ^ //-^ ^'^j'-^^- - 

/^ hluik fth HAFin\nT HV-HliY tSAl tbiBI FT, nt 1||P F»ii'il> PF I Uw^t^t^ bUofc ftrsnuwi^ii PiEI ^K"'^' " 

Y Fvyna'n fyw. _ Th. h,J;,,t ;.>„> .,//„,, 


fk'laV VSirvfurnog^. Ihtnthig the Hare 


7t/i'/*/p ^Jf/f// ///// f r/t// ,^( fi^*l i ^ff >/ </ f tf/r 

MnderiLtt K 






Jil^t/tfu'j' J)j///J-f/^. _ t ///l,L/Avt'e-j>;j ly f/ic Aiic. 


J * 

"• • ^ 

Wry nr>u 





Ti.»Ti-ne U ^.-.Ti.nJnlV Tting hy V^y pti fri,.., *hn rinf^.r ,»d m^Uy\ with *fcOh Qth«r i™ €xt.«.v"r*'r 

■Ihf^ilul -^ ^ Mae nhw'n d veti - tly<l 


fi'- I J J I 

hill fa - T*r 

gi - da g^wawr " 

la. cJiiii la - wr, j-i - u« 1^ -«-. - . 

'Jk4»- «V 


t ft Tt' \ _ 


rte tfinf rijjl>i"ll bi fiif4 -^ f]ni£t tlit faUrjiii'ETiii.^ ttsinBAi ;eKce|^t^**iii r*-'tia rt^^Pftrt b7tii^ foiniAr 

me- - d(bi rh^ii mue « hyn - ^I^^ *^' K"^^^ wti- - IhluBj" 

me- -» cltUi rniiii nijie « hyn - "J " 1^> ft^^^ 

' V 


Hd^etll iEin her-tM n 


Hhi duc-cv hi ■ 

hwi duc-cw lu« u 

hwi c!ac-f:iv hir linl E--- -neth! 

hwi djt-rw hi - 

J J j'l j ■ 

ben - - bU'tK. 

:/^7f Denm. 

^V/..-/.r-r/,/^^,y.j A r>r.Ufi..l Tn..: ..,.,^ISSB„ 

& 1^3 



iW//^// TiuwiJ^ ^^^Hyri/ Ca^/^<^ 


■ ■ 

iiJL:n« nf Hri^iiii-T^ GAftelJ^or CATrif- Kill. . ' . • 

, .».r^/>- . , f^ „^ r-^ , n 

A liK 


I ' - 




^'-^-^^^ ^F^Tfg 



The faint? it h irlii;i]fy pl;iyit| nuw in W^ilrs. 







■ f; .','■.. ^ffA'^'^:/ />r'/./. . _ ,7/u 'A,-^t,/,> '//>,- ,//,/.>, .,/,,; 


^X^^-,. - • -^^ _^/;^/. . /,..,/„ „,,„ .„,,.„,,.,^ ,. 

* • 

i^/>/ 7/ V / // V/ V/ >' /^// '//^ ,, . ^// , vy V /' ///J 7/,// // 


'Y G^ld -Tys. The armp of the Pa/ace. _ ot- Of.Vob/*' lUh^ n'.rs .^A^ti^.w,*^^ 

T)Xv word a ty T. l^rli J l\ S. A , 

Mnrc Ant lent tLcarte waft Prydbn^^ ^ i ^' ^TThnnghhr hsd date from 


Acdd tht^^r^-at^ who livcl beforeSaim My_cbn:ttimrgh he had d.iif from Afdd the ■jfreatj who 

Of Siijrdy rati! -Han Shenkin; 
Of Gallant ract was Shfiikui; 
Nor Nynniiiw was he hravt-r, 

Who j^aind the brand ;^ 

FroTn CiiPtiirfi hiHiid, 
Hln ri-ht'Ustl it Iskp a cUiivet;*^ 

'OFM%rlike race ta^s Sbenkin; 
Of Valiant race waif Shtnkinl 
Ah Arthur formidabk^; 

Though nft times h<^ 

Mad^'-the Swi^ms flee, - _. 
W hen ^he -took fnr n t-biphlhifcTable. 

Of Loyal race wan ShtnWin; 
or faititl^tl raii- i^nj. ShcnkinL 
Nt>t Pavid C;am ourmatiiH! him, 
. V ho BiLv'd from the knUe 
Kin^ lliiirys life, , 

W'ht'ii-hiR-foih TAOwU hint disijatchd-hini 

Of Nohk race ivan Shenkin^ 
Of Noble race vaH^benkinL 
M&re noble wan not Howel,'' 

Nor LlyTvarcli Heiij 

That prime of men, 
A^'ho drew his.dttcent from CftA? 

And ultll i>ie Tsce of Shtnkln; 
Aiid KTi!l the race of Shmkiii, 
^^!5houid fate ordiiin the trial,) 
Would shed their blood 
" For George the jfood, 
*LI Of-the-hiirs of hia blood-royal, 

„rA.!.i M.wr,.«o.. ortb. r^^'^'";T:::::';':n;;r;c .«<■«. 

f i^hon^ Bft^dic rrttnw>ri*U ■"- prrw^r^pd; 

*' ■■ Antnrourli ill' kStut 

o«rt.hoK.WinK ^>r BMt.ll.,n-^l .d>^«r 

ill thi-^ ■*«- 

*- r 



Ar h\d y Nos ^ The hveM^u-.^ .W^ A/. 



That my Inithful !n*jiinKa«n«lmPL ArhviJ y iio„^ 

5 ■ r^ 











^ ^^•^J J I J T7V^rHTi^r-^Jj|^J.i^,f 

Owr-n ^aid h-^ flb'j^r^rould lervf^m**^ Ar h^'d \ now; 1 »in rtiiiTehi/ll flot deceive mr; Ar hyd y noa; 

ul^-"rr r n 


.^Tt^i'^t^ ^ 



r * . 1 f 



VoT hislift'a^t whhlo^^ 914 s'M'elUn^^^ndhinhe^irt ifl< virtuf^^ db4'c?LlLii>(^Andhia1hpiirt m virlu^n fHieHin^r Ar hvd y n^ft. 



p^m . 

144- ^ h ^ 



Npvcr will ] fondly liiuE«f>ur^ p^r Kvd V noa ; 

t£:fc&ftrfitfE^3^^^Jj^lciJjincU l cu i i 


^ ^