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DE'.ICO IMC 38-2931 

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UaA (LUCulc, 


History of 

West Virginia 

{In Two J'ohi??ies) 


c ,2 


On page 401, vol. II, under title of "Little Kanawha 
River", second line should read, "and flow s through Gilmer, 
Calhoun, Wirt and Wood". 


To the Public : 

It was the original intention to bind the history 
in one volume, but because of additional new matter 
the work grew to such proportions that it made a 
cumbersome, unwieldly book, inconvenient to han- 
dle, which is the reason for binding in two volumes, 
of which this is volume two. 

Yerv respectfully, 


Xew Martinsville. \V. \'a.. August 1st, 191-1. 



When and from What Formed; from Whom or What Named; 
Area and Seat of Justice; Magisterial Districts; Popu- 
lation 1910, Miles of Public Roads and Average 
Annual Cost Per Mile for Maintenance, 
and the Principal Products of 
Each County. 

BARBOUR, formed in 1843, from parts uf Lewis, Harri- 
son and Randolph : named from James Barbour, a Governor 
of Virginia in 1812; area, 360 square miles; seat of justice. 
Philippi ; magisterial districts, Barker, Cove, Elk, Glade, Phil- 
ippi, Pleasant. Union and Valley: population, 15,858; miles of 
public roads. 636: average cost of maintenance, $19 per mile; 
principal products: coal, coke, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, rye. 
buckwheat, hay, cowpeas, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, 
peaches, beef cattle, sheep, poultry, hogs and brick. 

BERKELEY, formed in 1772, from Frederick County, 
and named from Xorbornc Berkeley, Baron Dc Botetourt, 
Governor under King George III. in 176S: area. 306 square 
miles; seat - of justice, Martinsburg: magisterial districts, 
Hedgesvillc, Mill Creek, Gerrardstown, Arden, Falling Waters 
and Opequon : population, 21.999: miles of public roads, 420, 
and 36 miles of toll roads: average cost of maintenance of 
roads, $154 per mile; principal products, cement, corn, wheat, 
oats, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, melons, 
dairy products, beef cattle, sheep, poultry, hrick, lime and 
limestone flux. 

BOOXE, formed in 1847. from parts of Kanawha, Cabell 
and Logan and named from Daniel Boone, the founder of Ken- 
tucky ; area. 520 square miles: seat of justice. Madison ; mag- 
isterial districts, Scott, Pcytona. Sherman, Crook and Wash- 

History of West Virginia 

ington ; population, 10,331 ; miles of public roads, 281 ; average 
cost of maintenance, $23.80 per mile; principal products, natu- 
ral gas, lumber, corn, potatoes, garden vegetables, dairy prod- 
ucts, beef cattle and poultry. 

BRAXTON, formed in 1836, from parts of Lewis, Kana- 
wha and Nicholas, and named from Carter Braxton, one of 
Virginia's signers of the Declaration of Independence ; area, 
620 square miles ; seat of justice, Sutton ; magisterial districts, 
Holly, Salt Lick, Otter and Kanawha; population, 23,023; 
miles of public roads, 780; cost of maintenance of roads, $11.75 
per mile; principal products, natural gas, lumber, corn, wheat, 
oats, hay and potatoes. 

BROOKE, formed in 1797, from Ohio County, and named 
from Robert Brooke, a Governor of Virginia in 1794; area. 80 
square miles, the smallest county in the State; seat of justice, 
Wellsburg; magisterial districts, Buffalo, Cross Creek and 
Wellsburg; population in 1910, 11,098; miles of public roads, 
180; average annual cost of maintenance of roads per mile, 
$85.83; principal products, coal, petroleum, natural gas, corn, 
wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, 
dairy products, sheep, poultry, tin plate. 

CABELL, formed in 1809, from Kanawha, and named 
from William H. Cabell, a Governor of Virginia, in 1805 ; area, 
300 square miles; seat of justice, Huntington; magisterial dis- 
tricts, Guyandotte, Barboursville, Union, Grant and Mc- 
Comas ; population, 46,685 ; miles of public roads, 300; average 
cost of roads per mile for maintenance, $48.58; principal prod- 
ucts, petroleum, natural gas, corn, wheat, oats, millet, hay. 
potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, melons, dairy 
products, beef cattle, sheep, poultry, tobacco, berries, brick, 
china pottery, roofing tile. 

CALHOUN, formed in 1855. from Gilmer, and named 
from Tohn C. Calhoun, an American statesman; area, 260 
square miles; seat of justice, Grantsville: magisterial districts, 
Sheridan, Center. Sherman, Lee and Washington; population, 
11,258; miles of public roads, 500 (estimated) ; average annual 
cost of maintenance per year per mile, $10.12; principal prod- 
ucts, petroleum, natural gas, carbon black, lumber, corn, 
wheat, oats, hay, garden vegetables, apples, potatoes, dairy 
products, beef cattle, poultry. 

History of West Virginia 3 

CLAY, formed in 185o, from parts of Braxton and .Nicho- 
las, and named from Henry Clay, an American statesman . 
area, 390 square miles; seat of justice, Clay; magisterial dis- 
tricts, Union, Tleasaiu, Henry, Buffalo and Otter; population, 
10,233; miles of public roads, 375; average annual cost of 
maintenance of roads per mile, $6.95 ; principal products, coal, 
lumber, corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, 
apples, peaches, dairy products, beef cattle, sheep, poultry and 

DODDRIDGE, formed in 1845, from parts of Harrison, 
Tyler. Ritchie and Lewis, and named from Philip Doddridge, 
a member of Congress from Virginia ; area. 300 square miles; 
seat of justice, West Union; magisterial districts. Central, 
Grant. Greenbrier, McClellan, Xew Milton, Southwest, West 
Union and Cove; population, 12,072; miles of public roads, 
600; average annual cost of maintenance of roads per mile, 
$41.22; principal products, petroleum, natural gas, corn, 
wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, 
beef cattle, sheep, poultry. 

FAYETTE, formed in 1831, from parts of Kanawha, 
Greenbrier, Nicholas and Logan, and named from General 
Lafayette ; area, 730 square miles ; seat of justice. Fayettcville ; 
magisterial districts, Fayettcville, Falls, Kanawha, Mt. Cove, 
Xuttall, Ouinnimont and Sewell Mt. ; population, 51,903; miles 
of public roads. 933; average annual cost of maintenance of 
roads per mile, $43.15; principal products, coal, coke, lumber, 
corn, wheat, oats, buckwheat, potatoes, garden vegetables, ap- 
ples, poultry. 

GILMER, formed in 1845. from parts of Lewis and Ka- 
nawha, and named from Thomas Walker Gilmer, a Secretary 
of the Xavv, who was killed on board the steamer Princeton, 
at Mount Vernon, in 1844; area, 360 square miles ; seat of jus- 
tice. Glenville; magisterial districts. Troy. DeKalb, Center 
and Glenville: population. 11.379; miles of public roads. 575; 
average annual cost of maintenance of roads per mile, $11.85; 
principal products, petroleum, natural gas, lumber, corn, 
wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, 
melons, dairy products, beef cattle, sheep, poultry and swine. 

GRAXT. formed in 1866. from Hardy, and named from 

History of West Virginia 

General U. S. Grant; area, 510 square miles; seat of justice, 
Petersburg; magisterial districts, Milroy, Grant and Union; 
population, 7,838; miles of public roads, 311; average annual 
cost of maintenance of roads per mile, $44.33 ; principal prod- 
ucts, coal, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, rye, hay, apples, peaches, 
melons, dairy products, sheep, poultry, swine. 

GREENBRIER, formed in 1777, from Montgomery and 
Botetourt Counties, and named from its principal river; area, 
1,000 square miles; seat of justice, Lewisburg; magisterial dis- 
tricts, Meadow Bluff, Lewisburg, Irish Corner, Fort Spring, 
Williamsburg, White Sulphur, Blue Sulphur and Falling. 
Spring; population, 24,833; miles of public roads, 827; average 
annual cost of maintenance of roads per mile, $32.40; principal 
products, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, apples, 
dairy products, beef cattle and sheep. 

HAMPSHIRE, formed in 1754, from Frederick and Au- 
gusta Counties, and named from Hampshire, England, the 
oldest county in the State; area, 620 square miles; seat of jus- 
tice, Romncy : magisterial districts, Sherman, Capon, Mill 
Creek, Springfield, Romney, Gore and Bloomery ; population, 
11,694; miles of public roads, 950; average cost of mainten- 
ance of roads per mile. $13.75; principal products, corn, wheat, 
rye, buckwheat, hay, apples, peaches, beef cattle, sheep and 

HANCOCK, formed in 1848, from Brooke, and named 
from John Hancock, President of the Continental Congress; 
area, 100 square miles ; seat of justice. New Cumberland ; mag- 
isterial districts. Grant, Poe, Clay and Butler; population, 
10,465; miles of public roads. 184; average annual cost per 
mile for maintenance, $70; principal products, coal, petroleum, 
natural gas, corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vege- 
tables, apples, peaches, dairy products, sheep, poultry, brick, 
china, pottery, tin plate. 

HARDY, formed in 1786. from Hampshire, and named 
from Samuel Hardy, an early member of Congress from Vir- 
ginia ; area, 450 square miles ; seat of justice, Moorefield : mag- 
isterial districts. Capon, Lost River, Moorefield and South 
Fork; population, 9,163; miles of public roads, 500; cost of 
maintenance of roads per mile per year, $18 : principal prod- 

History of West Virginia 5 

nets, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, buckwheat, hay, apples, 
peaches, beef cattle, sheep ami swine. 

HARRISON, formed in 1784, from Monongalia, ami 
named from Benjamin Harrison, a Governor of Virginia in 
1 781. and one of the signers of the Declaration of Independ- 
ence; area, 450 square miles; seat of justice, Clarksburg; mag- 
isterial districts, Clark, Coal, Clay, Eagle, Elk, Grant, Sardis, 
Simpson, Ten Mile and Union; population, 48,381; miles of 
public roads. 7o0; average cost of roads for maintenance per 
mile per year, $S0. 22; principal products, coal, coke, petroleum, 
natural gas, carbon black, glass, corn, wheat, oats, hay, beef 
cattle, sheep, poultry, brick, china pottery, stoneware and tin 

JACKSON, formed in 1831. from parts of Mason, Kana- 
wha and Wood, and named from Andrew Jackson, President 
of the United States; area. 400 square miles; seat of justice, 
Ripley; magisterial districts. Grant. Ripley, Ravcnswood, 
Union and Washington; population, 20,956: miles of public 
roads. 1.200 (estimated): average cost of roads per mile for 
maintenance. $14.17; principal products, corn, wheat, oats. 
hay. potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, melons, beef 
cattle, sheep, poultry and brick. 

JEFFERSON, formed in 1S01, from Berkeley, and named 
from Thomas Jefferson, a Governor of Virginia and President 
of the United States; area. 250 square miles; seat of justice, 
Charles Town; magisterial districts. Kablestown. Middleway, 
Charles Town and Ronsas ; population, 15,889: miles of public 
roads, 315; average annual cost for maintenance of roads per 
mile, $76.15: principal products, cement, lime, limestone flux, 
corn, wheat, rye, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, 
peaches, melons, dairy products, beef cattle, sheep, poultry, 
barley and iron ore. 

KANAWHA, formed in 1789. from parts of Greenbrier 
and Montgomery, and named from its chief river; area, 980 
square miles; seat of government, Charleston : magisterial dis- 
tricts. Cabin Creek, Big Sandy. Charleston. Elk. Jefferson, 
Louden, Maiden, Poca, Union and Washington; population. 
SI ,437 ; miles of public roads. 815 : average annual cost of main- 
tenance of roads per mile, S19: principal products, coal, coke, 

6 History of West Virginia 

natural gas, oil, lumber, corn, .wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, gar- 
den vegetables, apples, beef cattle, poultry and brick. 

LEWIS, formed in 1816, from Harrison, and named from 
Colonel Charles Lewis, who was killed at the battle of Point 
Pleasant in 1774; area, 400 square miles; seat of justice, Wes- 
ton; magisterial districts, Hacker's Creek, Freeman's Creek, 
Court House, Skin Creek and Collins Settlement; population, 
18,281; miles of public roads, 650; average annual cost of 
maintenance of roads per mile, $25.85; principal products, pe- 
troleum, natural gas, corn, oats, wheat, hay, potatoes, apples, 
peaches, beef cattle, sheep, poultry and brick. 

LINCOLN, formed in 1867, from parts of Cabell, Putnam, 
Kanawha and Boone; named from Abraham Lincoln, Presi- 
dent of the United States; area, 430 square miles; seat of gov- 
ernment, Hamlin ; magisterial districts, Carroll, Duval, Harts 
Creek, Jefferson, Laurel Hill, Sheridan, Union and Washing- 
ton ; population, 20,491; miles of public roads, 665; average 
annual cost for maintenance of roads per mile, $16.46; princi- 
pal products, coal, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, ha}', potatoes, 
garden vegetables, apples, peaches, poultry, tobacco. 

LOGAN, formed in 1824, from parts of Giles, Tazewell, 
Cabell and Kanawha, and named from Logan, an Indian chief- 
tain of the Mingo tribe ; area, 443 square miles ; seat of govern- 
ment, Logan; magisterial districts, Chapmansville, Logan and 
Triadelphia; population, 14,476; miles of public roads, 200; 
average annual cost of maintenance of roads per mile, $19.75; 
principal products, coal, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, buckwheat, 
hay, potatoes, apples, peaches, sheep and poultry. 

MARION, formed in 1842, from parts of Monongalia and 
Harrison, and named from General Francis Marion of the 
Revolution; area, 300 square miles; seat of justice, Fairmont; 
magisterial districts, Lincoln, Mannington, Paw Paw, Fair- 
view, Fairmont, Grant, Union and Winfield; population. 
42,794; miles of public roads, 766; average annual cost of 
maintenance of roads per mile, $52.47; principal products, coal, 
coke, petroleum, natural gas, glass, corn, wheat, oats, hay, po- 
tatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, dairy products, beef 
cattle, sheep, poultry, brick and china pottery. 

MARSHALL, formed in 1835, from Ohio County, and 

History of West Virginia 7 

named from John Marshall. Chief Justice of the United States; 
area, 240 square miles; seat of justice, .Moundsville ; magis- 
terial districts, Union, Webster, Sand Hill, Washington, Cam- 
eron, Clay, Franklin, Liberty and Meade; population, 32.3S8 ; 
miles of public roads, 0/S; average annual cost of maintenance 
of roads per mile, $49.55; principal products, coal, petroleum, 
natural gas, glass, corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, poultry, 
brick, china pottery. 

MASON, formed in 1804, from Kanawha, and named from 
Stevens Thompson Mason, a distinguished patriot, long a 
member of the General Assembly of Virginia and United 
States Senator from 1/94 to 1803; area, 432 square miles; seat 
of justice, Point Pleasant; magisterial districts, Harmon, Rob- 
inson, Waggener, Lewis, Union, Arbucklc, Clendennin. Co- 
logne, Cooper and Graham; population, 23,019; miles of pub- 
lic roads, 900; average annual cost of maintenance of roads 
per mile, $12.92; principal products, coal, corn, wheat, hay, 
alfalfa, potatoes, apples, peaches, melons, beef cattle, poultry, 
cowpeas and brick. 

MERCER, formed in 1837, from parts of Giles and Taze- 
well Counties, and named from General Hugh Mercer of the 
Revolution; area. 400 square miles; seat of justice. Princeton ; 
magisterial districts, East River, Beaver Pond, Jumping 
Branch and Plymouth Rock; population, 3S,371 ; miles of 
public roads, 375; average annual cost of maintenance of pub- 
lic roads per mile, $35.30; principal products, coal, coke, corn, 
oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, beef cattle, 
sheep and poultry. 

MINERAL, formed in 1866, from Hampshire, and named 
from the abundance of its minerals; area, 300 square miles; 
seat of justice. Keyser : magisterial districts. Cabin Run, Elk, 
Frankfort, New Creek, Piedmont and Welton ; population, 
16.674: miles of public roads. 300; average cost of maintenance 
of roads per mile per year, $43.70; principal products, coal, 
lumber, corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, 
apples, peaches, beef cattle, sheep, poultry, brick and cement. 

MINGO, formed in 1895. from Logan, and named from a 
tribe of Indians of that name, of which Logan was a famous 
chieftain: area, 406^4 square miles: seat of justice, William- 

8 History of West Virginia 

son; magisterial districts, Harvey, Warfield, Harden, Lee, 
Williamson, Magnolia and Stafford; population, 19,431; miles 
of public roads, 350; average annual cost of maintenance of 
roads per mile, $15.80; principal products, coal, natural gas, 
lumber, corn, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, 
peaches, melons, sheep, poultry and brick. 

MONONGALIA, formed in 1776, from the "District of 
West Augusta," and named from its principal river (though 
spelled different) ; area, 360 square miles; seat of justice, Mor- 
gantown ; magisterial districts, Grant, Clinton, Cass, Union, 
Clay. Battelle and Morgan; population, 24,334; miles of public 
roads, about 800; average cost of maintenance of roads per 
mile per vear, $3<\44 : principal products, coal, coke, petroleum, 
natural gas, lumber, glass, corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, 
garden vegetables, apples, dairy products, beef cattle, sheep, 
poultry, brick and tin plate. 

MONROE, formed in 1799, from Greenbrier, and named 
from James Monroe, a Governor of Virginia, and President of 
the United States; area, 460 square miles; seat of justice, 
Union ; magisterial districts, Union, Second Creek, Sweet 
Springs, Red Sulphur, Springfield and Wolf Creek; popula- 
tion, 13,055; miles of public roads, about 700: average cost of 
maintenance per mile per year, $22.40; principal products, 
corn, wheat, oats, hay. potatoes, beef cattle, sheep, poultry. 

MORGAN, formed in 1820, from parts of Hampshire and 
Berkeley, and named from General Daniel Morgan of the Rev- 
olution ; area. 300 square miles; seat of justice, Berkeley 
Springs; magisterial districts, Allen. Bath, Cacapon and Rock- 
Gap; population, 7,848; miles of public roads, 300; average 
annual cost of maintenance per mile, $23.19; principal prod- 
ucts, corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, hay, potatoes, apples, 
peaches, sheep and poultry. 

McDOWELL, formed in 1858, from Tazewell, and named 
from James McDowell, a Governor of Virginia in 1843; area, 
840 square miles; seat of justice, Welch; magisterial districts, 
Adkin, Elkhorn, North Fork, Brown's Creek, Big Creek and 
Sandy River; population. 47,856; miles of public roads, 200, 
in addition to about 100 miles not much used by vehicles: 
average annual cost of maintenance of roads per mile, $88.11 ; 

History of West Virginia 

principal products, coal, coke, lumber, corn, oats, hay, pota- 
toes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, sheep and poultry. 

NICHOLAS, formed in 1818, from (Greenbrier, and named 
from Wilson Cary Nicholas, a dovernor of Virginia in 1814; 
area, 720 square miles; seat of justice, Summersville ; magis- 
terial districts, Hamilton, Summersville, Kentucky, Jefferson, 
Beaver, Wilderness and Grant; population, 17,099; miles of 
public roads, 510; average annual cost of maintenance of roads 
per mile, $22; principal products, coal, lumber, corn, oats, 
buckwheat, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, 
dairy products, beef cattle, sheep and poultry. 

OHIO, formed in 17/0, from the "District of West Au- 
gusta." and named from the river of that name; area, 120 
square miles; seat of justice, Wheeling: magisterial districts, 
Washington, Fulton. Clay, Madison, Union, Center, Webster, 
Ritchie, Triadelphia, Richland and Liberty : population, 57,572 ; 
miles of public roads. 200; average annual cost of maintenance 
of roads per mile, $189.98; principal products, coal, glass, corn, 
wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, dairy 
products, sheep, poultry, china pottery, steel and iron. 

PEXDLETOX, formed in 1787, from parts of Augusta. 
Hardy and Rockingham Counties, and named from Edmund 
Pendleton. President of the Virginia Court of Appeals; area. 
650 square miles; seat of justice, Franklin; magisterial dis- 
tricts, Franklin, Mill Brook, Sugar Grove, Bethel, Circleville 
and Union ; population, 9.349; miles of public roads. 417; aver- 
age cost of maintenance of roads per mile per year, $17.58: 
principal products, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, hay, barley, po- 
tatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, beef cattle, sheep 
and poultry. 

PLEASANTS, formed in 1S51, from parts of Wood, Ty- 
ler and Ritchie, and named from James Pleasants. Jr.. a Gov- 
ernor of Virginia in 1822; area. 150 square miles: seat of jus- 
tice, St. Marys: magisterial districts, Grant, Jefferson, La- 
fayette and McKim; population, 8,074; miles of public roads, 
285; average annual cost of maintenance of roads per mile, 
$46.92: principal products, petroleum, apples, natural gas, 
corn, wheat, oats, hay. potatoes, garden vegetables, peaches, 
beef cattle, sheep, poultry and hematite. 

10 History of West Virginia 

POCAHONTAS, formd in 1821, from parts of Bath, Pen- 
dleton and Randolph, and named from the Indian Princess of 
that name; area, 820 square miles; seat of justice, Marlinton; 
magisterial districts. Green Bank, Edray, Huntersville and 
Little Levels; population, 14,740; miles of public roads, about 
500; average annual cost of road maintenance per mile, $36.80; 
principal products, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, 
hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, beef cattle, 
sheep, poultry and hematite. 

PRESTON, formed in 1818, from Monongalia, and named 
from James P. Preston, a Governor of Virginia in 1816; area, 
650 square miles; seat of justice, Kingwood ; magisterial dis- 
tricts, Union, Portland, Pleasant, Grant, Kingwood, Valley, 
Lyon and Reno ; population, 26,341 ; miles of public roads, 
about 1,200; average annual cost of road maintenance per mile, 
$17.86; principal products, coal, coke, lumber, cement, corn, 
wheat, oats, buckwheat, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, ap- 
ples, peaches, beef cattle, sheep and poultry. 

PUTNAM, formed in 1848, from parts of Kanawha, Ma- 
son and Cabell, and named from General Israel Putnam of the 
Revolution ; area, 320 square miles ; seat of justice, Winfield 
magisterial districts, Buffalo, Curry, Poca, Scott, Hays Valley 
and Union; population, 18,587; miles of public roads, 525 
average cost of road maintenance per mile per year, $19.25 
principal products, coal, natural gas, corn, wheat, oats, hay, 
potatoes, apples, peaches, beef cattle, sheep, poultry and 

RALEIGH, formed in 1850, from Fayette, and named 
from Sir Walter Raleigh; area, 680 square miles; seat of jus- 
tice, Beckley; magisterial districts, Clear Fork, Slab Fork, 
Marsh Fork, Trap Hill, Richmond and Shad}-' Springs; popu- 
lation, 25,633; miles of public roads, about 600; average an- 
nual cost of road maintenance per mile, $35.83 ; principal 
products, coal, coke, lumber, corn, oats, buckwheat, hay, po- 
tatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, melons, dairy 
products, beef cattle, sheep and poultry. 

RANDOLPH, formed in 1787, from Harrison, and named 
from Edmund Randolph, a Governor of Virginia in 1787, and 
afterwards an Attorney-General of the United States ; area, 

History of West Virginia 11 

1,080 square miles — the largest count}- in the State; seal of 
justice, Elkins; magisterial districts, Beverly, Dry Fork, Ilut- 
tonsville, Leadsville, Middle Fork, Mingo, New Interest, Roar 
ing Creek and Valley Bend; population, 2o,028; miles of public 
roads, about 1,000; average annual cost of road maintenance 
per mile, $11.00; principal products, coal, coke, lumber, corn, 
wheat, oats, buckwheat, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, 
dairy products, beef cattle, sheep, poultry and brick. 

RITCHIE, formed in 1S43, from parts of Wood, Flarrison 
and Lewis, and named from Thomas Ritchie, a distinguished 
Virginia journalist; area, 400 square miles; scat of justice, 
Ilarrisville; magisterial districts. Clay, Union, Grant and Mur- 
phy; population, 17,875; miles of public roads, 7S3 ; average 
cost of road maintenance per mile per year, $35.83; principal 
products, petroleum, natural gas, corn, wheat, oats, hay, po- 
tatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, beef cattle, sheep 
and poultry. 

ROANE, formed in 1S56. from parts of Kanawha, Jack- 
son and Gilmer, and named from Spencer Roane, a Judge of 
the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia ; area, 350 square 
miles; seat of justice, Spencer; magisterial districts, Curtis, 
Geary, Harper, Reedy, Smithfield, Spencer and Walton ; popu- 
lation, 21,543; miles of public roads, about 700; average an- 
nual cost of road maintenance per mile, $18.24; principal 
products, petroleum, natural gas, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, 
rye, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, peaches, beef 
cattle, sheep and poultry. 

SUMMERS, formed in 1871, from parts of Monroe, Mer- 
cer, Greenbrier and Fayette, and named from George W. Sum- 
mers, a member of Congress from Virginia in 1S41 ; area, 400 
square miles; seat of justice, Flinton ; magisterial districts, 
Forest Hill, Greenbrier, Green Sulphur, Jumping Branch, 
Pipestem and Falcott; population, 18.420; miles of public 
roads, 4S5 ; average annual cost of road maintenance per mile, 
$13.22; principal products, corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, 
garden vegetables, apples, peaches and beef cattle. 

TAYLOR, formed in 1844, from parts of Harrison, Bar- 
bour and Marion, and named from General Zachary Taylor 
of the Indian Wars, the Mexican War, and afterward Prcsi- 

12 History of West Virginia 

dent of the United States, in 1S49; area, 150 square miles; seat 
of justice, Grafton; magisterial districts, Fetterman, Knotts- 
ville, Booths Creek, Court House and Flemington ; population, 
16,554 ; miles of public roads, 363 ; average annual cost of 
maintenance of roads per mile, $22.30; principal products, coal, 
corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, 
dairy products, beef cattle, sheep, poultry and brick. 

TUCKER, formed in 1856, from Randolph, and named 
from St. George Tucker, an eminent Virginia jurist; area, 340 
square miles; seat of justice, Parsons; magisterial districts, 
Licking, Clover, St. George, Black Fork, Fairfax, Davis and 
Dry Fork; population, 18,675; miles of public roads, 915; aver- 
age annual cost of road maintenance per mile, $11.18; princi- 
pal products, coal, coke, lumber, corn, wheat, oats, buckwheat, 
hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, dairy products, beef 
cattle, sheep, poultry and lime. 

TYLER, formed in 1814, from Ohio Count}-, and named 
from John Tyler, a Governor of A irginia in 1808, and father 
of the President of the United States of that name; area. 300 
square miles; scat of justice, Middlebourne ; magisterial dis- 
tricts, Centerville, Ellsworth, Lincoln, Meade, McElroy and 
Union; population, 16,211 ; miles of public roads, 510; average 
annual cost of road maintenance per mile, $24.97; principal 
products, petroleum, natural gas, glass, corn, wheat, oats, hay, 
potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, beef cattle, sheep and 

UPSHUR, formed in 1851, from parts of Randolph, Bar- 
bour and Lewis, and named from Abel P. Upshur, killed on 
board United States steamer Princeton at Mt. Vernon in 
1844, while serving as United States Secretary of State; area, 
350 square miles ; seat of justice, Buckhannon ; magisterial dis- 
tricts, Union, Washington, Warren, Meade, Buckhannon and 
Banks; population, 16,629; miles of public roads, about 300; 
average annual cost of road maintenance per mile, $13.85; 
principal products, lumber, leather, corn, wheat, oats, buck- 
wheat, ha}', garden vegetables, apples, peaches, dairy products, 
beef cattle, sheep, poultry and brick. 

WAYNE, formed in 1842, from Cabell, named from Gen- 
eral Anthony Wavne of the Revolution; area. 440 square 

History of West Virginia 13 

miles; scat of justice, Wayne: magisterial districts. Ccrcdo, 
Union. Lincoln, Grant and Stonewall; population, 2-1,081; 
miles of public roads, about 800: average annual cost of road 
maintenance per mile, $19.20; principal products, corn, wheat, 
oats, hay, potatoes, garden vegetables, apples, melons, beef 
cattle, slice]) and poultry. 

WEBSTER, formed in I860, from Nicholas, Braxton and 
Randolph, and named from Daniel Webster, a distinguished 
American statesman: area. 450 square miles; seat of justice. 
Webster Springs; magisterial districts, Ford lick, Glade, Holly 
and Hacker Valley; population, 9,680; miles of public roads; 
338: average annual cost of road maintenance per mile, $18.72; 
principal products, lumber, oats, rye, hay, potatoes, apples, 
beef cattle. 

WETZEL, formed in 1846, from Tyler, and named from 
Lewis Wetzel, a distinguished frontiersman and Indian scout; 
area, 440 square miles ; seat of justice, Xew .Martinsville ; mag- 
isterial districts, Magnolia. Proctor, Green, Grant, Center, 
Clay and Church: population, 23,855; miles of public roads, 
656; average annual cost of road maintenance per mile, $(>3.03 ; 
principal products, petroleum, natural gas. lumber, glass, corn, 
wheat, oats. hay. potatoes, apples, peaches, plums, cherries, 
grapes, garden vegetables, sheep, poultry, tomatoes, melons, 
swine, beef cattle. 

WIRT, formed in 1848. from parts of Wood and Jackson, 
and named from William Wirt, a distinguished Virginia 
jurist; area. 290 square miles; seat of justice, Elizabeth; mag- 
isterial districts, Burning Springs. Clay. Elizabeth, Newark, 
Reedy, Spring Creek and Tucker; population, 9,047: miles of 
public roads. 413; average annual cost of road maintenance per 
mile, $6.57; principal products, petroleum, natural gas, lumber, 
corn, wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, hay. potatoes, garden vege- 
tables, apples, peaches, melons, dairy products, beef cattle, 
sheep and poultry. 

WOOD, formed in 1799. from Harrison, and named from 
James Wood, Governor of Virginia in 1796; area, 375 square 
miles; seat of justice, Parkersburg; magisterial districts, Park- 
crsburg. Lubeck, Steele, Slate, Tygart. Clay, Union. Walker, 
Williams and Harris; population, 38.001: miles of public 

14 History of West Virginia 

roads, about 1,140; average annual cost of road maintenance 
per mile, $21.03; principal products, petroleum, natural gas, 
glass, corn, wheat, oats, hay, potatoes, apples, peaches, melons, 
poultry, brick, stoneware, steel, iron and roofing tile. 

WYOMING, formed in 1850, from Logan, and named 
from an Indian term signifying a plain ; area, 660 square miles ; 
seat of justice, Pincville; magisterial districts, Baileysville, 
Barkers Ridge, Clear Fork, Center, Huffs Creek, Oceano and 
Slab Fork ; population, 10,392 ; miles of public roads, about 
500; average annual cost of road maintenance per mile, $27.80; 
principal products, lumber, corn, oats, rye, hay, potatoes, gar- 
den vegetables, apples, peaches, sheep and poultry. 



West Virginia ranks fortieth in land area and twenty- 
eighth in population among the States and Territories of con- 
tinental United States. 

Within the eastern counties of the State are to be found 
several broad limestone valleys whose soils constitute the 
most fertile agricultural lands of the State. 

From the northeast corner of the State, extending south 
and southwest to the Big Sandy River, is a belt of mountains, 
interspersed with narrow valleys. The mountain soils are 
better adapted to forestry than agriculture. Clay soil is found 
in limited areas in the higher portions of this region, while 
the "stream and upland alluviums" are found on the gentler 
slopes and in the valleys. The sandy soil which prevails in 
the extreme northeastern part is the least productive of the 
soils of this belt. West of the mountains is a large area of 
broad, flat hills, better fitted for grazing than for cultivation, 
but among the hills arc many streams that enrich the naturally 
fertile soil. The remainder of the State has a gently rolling 
surface extending to the Ohio River. The soil is rich, con- 
sisting of clay and sand loams, mingled with humus and vege- 
table matter and enriched by disintegrated limestone. 

Almost two-thirds of the State's entire area is in farms, 
and most of the counties in the northern half of the State have 
three-fifths or more of their land in farms. Much of the 
southern half of the State has less than three-fifths of its land 
in farms. 

The average value per acre of farm land for the whole 
State is $20.65. Ohio and Jefferson County farms have a val- 
uation ranging from $50 to $75 per acre: Hancock. Brooke, 
Marshall, Monongalia. Marion. Harrison. Taylor. Lewis. I.o- 

16 History of West Virginia 

gan, Raleigh, Wyoming McDowell and Berkeley from $25 to 
$50; Wayne and Hampshire an average valuation of less than 
$10; the remaining thirty-eight counties, $10 to $25 per acre. 

The foregoing valuations are taken from the federal cen- 
sus for 1910. The figures given are only averages. No doubt 
there are thousands of farms in West Virginia, covering a 
wide range of territory, whose values exceed the highest rate 

The following summary of population and land area, the 
number, value and acreage of farms and the value of all other 
farm property in 1910 and 1900 may be of interest to many 
readers : 


1910 1900 Increase 

April 15 Tune 1 Amt. Per Ct. 

Population 1,221,119 958,800 262,319 27.4 

Number of all farms 96,685 92,874 3,811 4.1 

Approximate land area of 

the State, acres 15,374,080 15,374,080 

Land in farms, acres.... 10,026,442 10,654,513 *628,071 +5.9 
Improved land in farms, 

acres 5,521,757 5,498,981 22,776 0.4 

Average acres in farms.. 103.7 114.7 *11.0 *9.6 


Value of Farm Property. 

Land $207,075,759 $134,269,110 $72,806,649 54.2 

Buildings 57,315,195 34,026,560 23,288,635 68.4 

Implements and ma- 
chinery 7,011,513 5,040,420 1,971,093 39.1 

Domestic anira als, 

poultry and bees 43,336,073 30,571,259 12,764,814 41.8 

Total $314,738,540 $203,907,349 $110,831,101 54.4 

Average _ value of 

p r o p e r ty per 

farm $3,255 $2,196 $1,059 48.2 

Average value of 

land per acre.. 20.65 12.60 8.05 63.? 

A very good indication of the prosperity of the West Vir- 
ginia farmers is the fact that during the period from 1S90 to 
to 1910 the average debt of mortgaged farms increased but 6.9 
per cent., while the average value of such farms increased 32.8 
per cent., the owner's equity increasing 45.1 per cent. As a 

History of West Virginia 17 

result of the greater increase in farm value than in farm debt 
the mortgage indebtedness, which was 32.2 per cent, of the 
value of the mortgaged farms in 1890, has decreased to 26 per 
cent, of the value in 1910. 


Of all West Virginia farmers, 9S.-I per cent, are native 
whites, 0.9 per cent, foreign-born whites, and 0.7 per cent, 
negroes and other non-whites. Out of 708 non-white farmers, 
707 are negroes and one is an Indian. 


1910 1900 Increase. 

April 15 June 1 

Kind. Value. Value. Amount. Per Cent. 

Cattle $15,860,764 $1-4,058,427 $1,802,337 12.8 

Horses and colts.. 18,583,381 10,376,550 8,206,831 79.1 

Mules 1,339,760 725,134 614,626 81.8 

Asses and burros.. 25,556 15,234 10,322 67.3 

Swine 2,087,392 1 ,389,808 697,584 50.2 

Sheep and lambs.. 3,400,901 2,664,556 736,345 27.6 

Goats and kids.... 20,682 2,123 18,559 874.6 

Poultry 1,628,700 063,805 664.895 69.0 

Bees .' 388,937 375,622 13,315 3.5 

Total $43,336,073 $30,571,259 $12,764,814 41.8 


Farms Acres Quantity. 

Crop. Reporting. Harvested. Bushels. Value. 

Corn 83,028 676,311 17,119,097 $11,907,261 

Oats 22,412 103,758 1,728,806 912,388 

Wheat 22,347 209,315 2,575,996 2.697,14! 

Emmor and spell 20 111 1,558 1.515 

Barlev 119 408 8,407 5,640 

Buckwheat 9,028 33,323 533,670 351,171 

Rye 2,774 15,679 148,676 122,258 

Kaffir corn and milo 

maize 16 26 467 326 

Total 1,038,931 22,116,677 $15,997,700 

Other Grains and Seeds. 

Farms Quantity. 

Crop. Reporting. Bushels. Value. 

Flaxseed " 28 $ 55 

Clover seed 65 602 5,149 

Millet seed 1 2 5 

18 History of West Virginia 

Timothy 201 993 2,252 

Other tame grass seed 99 1,048 1,320 

Ginseng seed 1 225 

Sunflower seed 1 41 50 

Dry edible beans 8,626 39,794 81,049 

Dry peas 93 1,490 3,312 

Peanuts 21 64 168 


Total $93,592 

Farms Acres Quantity. 

Crop. Reporting. Harvested. Tons. Value. 

Timothy alone 29,682 308,814 278,074 $3,404,456 

Timothy and clover mixed. 24,327 281,794 249,986 3,001,535 

Clover alone 1,217 6,661 6,514 75,863 

Alfalfa 179 696 1,406 17,932 

Millet 2,580 7,758 8,906 110,749 

Other tame or cultivated 

grasses 7,242 82,607 66,994 707,627 

Wild, salt or prairie grass.. 538 5,495 4,051 36,690 

Grains cut green 830 4,191 6,837 63,493 

Coarse forage 1,864 10,876 16,269 73,671 

Root forage 24 8 67 731 

Total 61,864 703,900 639,104 $7,492,747 

Potatoes 81,297 42,621 4,077,066t 2,278,638 

Sweet potatoes and yams. .. 15,632 2,079 215,5S2t 170,086 

Tobacco 9,299 17,928 14,356,400* 1,923,180 

CoHon 2 75* 14 

Hops '27 257* 52 

Broom corn 397 45 30,456* 3,229 

Gingseng 5 87* 460 

Total $4,375,659 

tBushels. *Pounds. 


Kind Number. Value. 

Dairy cows 239,539 $ 7,563,400 

Other cows 63,740 1,544,213 

Heifers 75,503 1,123,158 

Calves 59,518 422,136 

Steers 181,988 5,207,857 

Total : 620,288 $15,8/50,764 

Horses 159,557 $17,419,881 

Colts 20,434 1,163,500 

Total 179,991 $18,583,381 

Mules and colts 11,717 $ ] - 33 9.760 

Asses and burros 160 25,556 

History of West Virginia 19 

Hogs 211,463 1,779,050 

Pigs 116,725 308,342 

Total 32S.188 $ 2,087,392 

Sheep 566,952 $2,724,651 

Lambs 343,408 676,250 

Total 910,360 $ 3,400,901 

Goats and kids 5,748 20,682 

Referring to table of domestic animals, poultry, etc., we 
find that the total valuation of all fowls reported for 1910 was 
$1,62S,700. This does not include the fowls in towns, villages 
and cities, which were not enumerated. 

Following- is classification of fowls making up the above 
valuation : 

Kind Number of Fowls. Value. 

Chickens' 3,106,907 $1,435,969 

Turkeys 72,752 124,550 

Ducks 35,576 16,8d4 

Geese 72,972 43,802 

Guinea fowls 14,148 5,325 

Pigeons 7,698 1,965 

Peafowls 102 23s 

Total 3,310,155 $1,628,700 

One would scarcely expect to get much poetry out of an 
egg, but the following, entitled ".More Eggs," by Arthur De- 
Vrees Burke, '12, in High School Record, is worth repeating: 

More Eggs. 

"So many people ask me 

The same question every day, 
Namely, how I raise my chickens 

And how I make them pay. 

"That I've come to this conclusion. 

The best thing now to do 
Is to write a little story 

In every detail true. 

20 History of West Virginia 

"So I'll just commence my story, 

Make it simple as 1 can, 
Then all will understand it, 

Each and every poultry man. 

"To these facts may you hearken, 
For they're plain as the}' can be; 

To the art of raising poultry 
They're just common A, B, C. 

"Another thing I tell you; 

Every fact contains good sense, 
Not taken from a book at all, 

But from experience. 

"So now, kind folks, please listen, 
For I'm sure that you will say 

That you now know more of poultry 
Than you did on yesterday. 

"Well, first you get some lumber, 
And then you build the coop, 

But seal up every crevice 

So the fowls won't get the roup. 

"For this disease arises 

From the slightest draughts of air, 
So have your houses draughtless, 

And roup won't enter there. 

"My hearers, pay attention ; 

Do the right thing from the start ; 
Build a house that's warm and cheery, 

And your fowls will do their part. 

"The house must be substantial, 
Not one you'll have to mend; 

Just fix things right when starting, 
And vou'll save time to the end. 

History of West Virginia 

"Make large and room}' runways, 
Where the hens can go and stay. 

If you follow these instructions, 
I am sure your hens will pay. 

"I've planned the house sufficient, 
And I've told you what to do, 

But where to get your chickens, 
Why, folks, that's up to you. 

"One thing about your poultry : 

Spend some money, get some good, 

For you cannot raise winners 

From a common hen and brood. 

"But when you get your chickens, 
I suppose you'll come and say 

The same old statement over, 

That you cannot make them lay. 

"In this you are mistaken. 

If your hens arc good at all, 
You can make them lay in winter, 

Summer, spring and fall. 

"So, I'll just repeat the answer 
To the question that you speak ; 

If you follow these instructions, 
They will lay in just a week. 

"If they are not too aged ; 

If they've moulted and arc well, 
I repeat again, my hearers. 

That you'll soon have eggs to sell. 

"Just go and get some charcoal. 

Get some oyster shell and grit. 
Feed green bone, wheat and barley : 

Make everything seem fit. 

22 History of West Virginia 

"Have water cool in summer, 

Have it warm in weather raw, 
And make them scratch for middlin's 

In a litter made of straw. 

"Feed warm mash in the morning, 
But at evening give them grain, 

Keep the nests all clean and cosy, 
And keep everything the same. 

"You say of these directions, 

Though they seem to be quite fine, 

To put them into practice 

Would consume a lot of time. 

"In all things you must labor; 

Some, of course, more than the rest. 
If you want to be successful. 

You must strive to do your best. 

"Get out, my friends, be lively, 

Don't be lazy like a jay; 
If your poultry house needs cleaning, 

Clean it now; don't wait a day. 

"Now, I've told this little story, 
Which I hope you'll all attend. 

If you shirk things when beginning, 
You'll regret it in the end. 

"And now I must be going. 

Of success I wish you lots ; 
So here's to my good chickens, 

The Proud Partridge Wyandottes." 

The following graphic description by George Byrne, in 
Manufacturers Record, October, 1912, concerning West Vir- 
ginia's resources is well worth repeating here : 

History of West Virginia 2?> 


(Special Correspondence Manufacturers Record.) 

Pittsburgh, Pa., October 16. 

"The big land show that opened in Duquesne Garden in 
this city on last Thursday night to a crowd said to number 
10.000 people is an impressive affair and is stirring up a lot 
of interest in the "back-lo-the-farm" movement. From ocean 
to ocean the sections are represented, though not all the states 
have shows. California. Idaho, Oregon, Wyoming, Texas, 
North Carolina, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio — these and 
others have exhibits that attract the eye and appeal to the 
fancy. Northwest Canada, the Alberta country, has represen- 
tatives on hand telling of the cheap lands and illustrating their 
productiveness by samples of grains and fruits grown there 
and striking pictures of the great horse and cattle ranches. 
Nebraska has sent the stuffed and mounted skins of two mon- 
ster steers that weighed 3,740 and 3,776 pounds, respectively, 
and a hog that at three years weighed 1,337 pounds. Son' 
of these exhibits are highly trimmed and decorated, and it can 
be easily told from their crating and the manner in which they 
are unpacked and put in place that they are the accumulations 
of time, money and continued effort, and that they arc han- 
dled and exhibited by experts who have made a trade of the 
exhibition business. Yet with all these against it, and lacking 
in all professional touches they show — probably strengthened 
by the lack — the most striking and impressive. exhibit at the 
show is that from West Virginia. 

"From the live black bear at one end of the 85-foot space 
allotted to this Stale to the highly ornamental glass at the 
other, the whole thing is illustrative of the present conditions 
in West Virginia — from wildness almost primitive in one sec- 
tion to the last word in one of the most advanced arts in an- 
other. And lying between the time of the wilderness, with 
its wild beasts, and that of the great plant that from the sands 
on the earth's face works out the glass of simple but mar- 
velous beauty, a story is told of richness and variety of soil 
products that strikes deep into the mind of every beholder 
who knows how to interpret the sign language. This exhibit. 

24 History of West Virginia 

which thus stands naked to the eye, with nothing of ornamen- 
tation to distract the attention of the visitor from its utilitarian 
appeal, was gathered and installed by the State Agricultural 
Experiment Station at Morgantown, under the direction of 
Prof. James H. Stewart, resident director and actual manager, 
and while it is the first attempt of the kind the institution has 
made, it shows a full understanding of the effect which a direct 
presentation of the State's resources of soil will have. 

"In high glass jars are shown the various soils from dif- 
ferent sections of West Virginia — that adapted to the culture 
of wheat and corn ; others that produce the best celery, cab- 
bage and onions ; still others that bring great crops of alfalfa ; 
those in which timothy best nourishes — soils adapted to ap- 
ples and tomatoes, and those where peaches and apples both 
do well. But most interesting, perhaps, because of the strik- 
ing illustrations of their products presented with them, are 
those soils that are marked 'Apple' and 'Peach,' respectively, 
uncoupled with any other product. It must not be thought 
because nothing else is mentioned as growing in them that 
these soils will produce nothing but apples or peaches, as the 
case may be, for even the 'chert' of the Hampshire Mountain 
sides, though it looks like nothing but broken shale, brings 
excellent wheat and good corn, but they are so distinctively 
adapted to apple and peach culture that their other uses are 
not much dwelt upon. 

"Illustrating the productiveness of these soils are sam- 
ples of corn — great ears a foot in length, big, deep-grained 
and sound from rim to pith — wheat, rye, oats, German millet, 
buckwheat, in grain and flour; potatoes, unrivaled in size and 
perfection of quality; stock beets, great fellows weighing 8 or 
10 pounds each, and growing 30 tons to the acre; pears, 
quinces, grapes — yes, and cranberries; also the finest, filmiest, 
laciest looking wool that ever came from back of sheep, and 
then the 'big show,' so far as this exhibit is concerned, the 
peaches and apples, and more especially the latter, for the 
former do not lend themselves so readily and so adaptably to 
the exhibition business. Nevertheless, the exhibit of peaches 
is sufficient to give an idea of what the State can do in the 
matter of quality, while the question of quantity must be left 

History of West Virginia 25 

to the telling of those in charge, and of the literature with 
which the}' are armed. 

"West Virginia has for man}' years and in all sections 
produced peaches of superb quality and in quantity sufficient 
to supply the local markets, but it is only of recent years that 
their culture for the big markets has been taken up as a trade, 
and then in what elsewhere in the State would have seemed 
the most unlikely places, the eastern slope of the mountains 
that sentinel the counties of the 'Eastern Panhandle,' and in 
the 'chert' lands thereof, the soil of which was yesterwhile 
thought to be so unproductive that you couldn't 'raise a dis- 
turbance' on it, as the local vernacular hath it. Under the 
veneer of 'chert,' however, lies a bed of humus, accumulated 
from the debris of the centuries, and this furnishes the crop 
potentiality, while the harder surface prevents at once, the too 
ready evaporation of the moisture and the washing of the soil. 

"The valleys overlooked by these hills were settled before 
the birth of the republic, and have richly repaid proper culti- 
vation for a century and a half. There, as elsewhere, each 
farm had its orchard of peach and apple trees, the former of 
which usually bore with uncertainty for a few seasons, and 
then died away. The housewives dried, canned and preserved 
what they wanted of the fruit, and the remainder was given 
to those who came and asked or fell to the hogs. Xonc, in 
the old days, ever thought of it as a commercial quantity. 

"I do not know the accurate genesis of the commercial 
peach business of Eastern West Virginia, or through what 
accidental circumstance it was discovered that the neglected 
mountain tops of Hampshire. Hardy, Grant and Mineral coun- 
ties were ideal for the culture of this most luscious fruit, but 
the discovery was made some 15 or 20 years ago, since which 
thousands of formerly unproductive acres have been set with 
millions of trees and a great industry built up that brings 
hundreds of thousand of dollars annually into each of these 
counties. Hampshire County stands at the head of the list 
in peach production, and Romncy, its county-seat, is the point 
of chief concentration in the shipping season. Here the fruit 
is gathered and sent out by the train load, that delivered at 
car-side one day being in the markets of Washington. Haiti- 

26 History of West Virginia 

more, Philadelphia and New York the next. The advantage 
which market propinquity gives these orchards is readily ap- 
parent to those who consider the matter. The peach, to be at 
its best, must ripen on the tree, and after it becomes full ripe 
it rapidly deteriorates from either time or shipment and hand- 
ling. This advantage finds expression in a few cents per 
basket advance in price over rivals that arrive over the long 
haul, and a few cents extra per basket make a fine profit in the 
peach business. 

"The profits from these orchards arc immense, running 
from 20 to 40 per cent, as a usual thing, and as high as 120 
per cent, in one well authenticated case, while in another in- 
stance a dividend of 110 per cent, was declared in one year. 
Think of an investment that yields back purchase price, main- 
tenance and marketing all in one year, and leaves the property 
in good condition for future years. One thing about these 
orchards is that there are seldom any crop failures. They lie 
above the frost line, and properly cared for will yield a profit 
each year. The peach trees are of quick growth and short life, 
and in many instances the orchardists alternate them with 
apple trees, which reach maturity about the time the peach 
trees give out. 

"But to return to the land show. The biggest part of 
the West Virginia exhibit, and, indeed, the biggest thing in 
the whole affair, is the exhibit of apples made by that State. 
The different varieties of apples, with their rich colorings, 
make a very showy exhibit, with very little handling, and those 
from West Virginia could easily be worked into a mosaic of 
great beauty. Think what artist fingers could do with 'Grimes 
Goldcns,' shading from almost white to a rich yellow; 'North- 
western Greenings' in all the tints of green; 'Black Twigs,' 
with palest greens and reds that go almost to black; 'Arkan- 
sas Blacks,' that are in reality not black, but deep red and 
reddish purple; 'York Imperials,' running from scarlet through 
pink to green; 'Baldwins,' pink and green; 'Stayman Wine- 
saps,' red and green ; 'Paradise,' pink and green ; 'Jonathans,' 
rich red, and so on through the various tints to be found in 
the 'Northern Spy,' 'Willow Twig,' 'Twenty-Ounce,' 'Aiken 
Red.' 'Black Ben Davis,' 'Ben Davis' and 'Wolfe River,' these 

History of West Virginia 

being the principal varieties shown. The apples come from 
many counties, including Hancock, Brooke, Wood, Lewis, 
Berkeley, Jefferson, Preston, Mineral, Pocahontas and Mon- 
ongalia, each of which has its peculiar merits. Berkeley 
County, however, heads the list in the matter of successful 
apple culture, not because of any surpassing excellence of soil, 
perhaps, but because 'of longer experience in the business as a 
business and of the greater acreage. And the story is almost 
romantic in its interest and unexpectedness. 

"Fifty years or more ago \Y. S. Miller, a farmer of that 
county, established a nursery for apple trees and acquired' a 
business of considerable extent in furnishing young trees to 
the farmers throughout that general section. Meantime, prob- 
ably to show his faith in his own wares, he put out a few 
trees each year until he had an orchard of thirty-five acres. 
Along about the middle seventies, when it was in full bearing, 
a Xew York buyer heard about it and made Mr. Miller a visit. 
The result was that he purchased the entire crop, -paying for 
it something like $17,000, which was 'quite some' money for 
a farmer of that time and place. That was the starting point 
for commercial orcharding in West Virginia on an extensive 
scale. Soon Mr. Miller's neighbors began putting out trees, 
and from that time on there has been a steady growth in the 

"The most conspicuous success in the matter of money 
ha- been achieved by John Miller, a son of W. S. Miller. He 
was quite a young man at the time of his father's first big 
sale; in fact, he had just about rounded into his majority, but 
he did what so few very young men are willing to do — went 
into a business for the first returns from which he had to wait 
8 or 10 years. In 187S he set out 36 acres of trees, and 12 years 
later he put out 23 acres more. Then in 1S97 he increased his 
acreage by 133 acres, so that now he has 182 acres in trees, 
ranging from 14 to 33 years of age. Last year he sold 25,000 
barrels of apples and this year he will sell 20,000 barrels, this 
being the 'off' year. Xext year he will have at least 30,000 
barrels, as the largest part of his trees are just reaching their 
fun bearing period. It is said that $500,000 is a conservative 
estimate of his wealth, accumulated principally from 50 acres 

28 History of West Virginia 

of apples. Others have done as well proportionately with 
smaller orchards. 

"About 10 years ago the first orchard company in Berke 
ley County was formed. It is known as the Mt. Vernon 
Orchard Company, and has 7,000 trees eight and nine years 
old. It is now putting out 100 acres additional, or about 3,600 
trees. This is probably the largest of the companies, of which 
there are now about twenty-five in the county. 

"The best of the apple territory in Berkeley County is on 
what is known as 'Apple Pie Ridge,' a sort of double-backed 
ridge that runs through the county from north to south, from 
the Potomac River to Frederick County, Virginia. This ridge 
took its name from the fact that early in the last century 
there were many apples raised on it which the owners dried 
in large quantities and which the people from far and near 
came to buy for pies. 

"The favorite soil for apples is a combination of lime- 
stone, soapstone and sandstone, though in one part of the 
county success is being had in a red shale formation. 

"On my way here last week I visited the orchard of the 
J. N. Thatcher Company on 'Apple Pie Ridge,' a few miles out 
from Martinsburg. This company has 13 acres of trees 15 
years old that two years ago produced a crop which brought 
$b,500 cash, and last year one that sold for $4,500. This year 
it will probably beat the 1909 mark. This company also has 
20 acres of younger trees. 

"There are many fortunes yet to be made in apples in 
these West Virginia counties. Ex-en along the Ohio River 
old orchards are being bought up, trimmed, cultivated and 
cared for, only to yield undreamed of returns to those wdio 
show their faith by their works. This is notably true of some 
of the fine old bottom farms in Wood and other counties be- 
low Wheeling. 

"One fine thing about this fruit business is that it is not 
weaning the farmer away from other crops. Too often the 
lure of an easy-money crop causes the farmer to turn his at- 
tention to it exclusively, going to town for his simplest sup- 
plies, and thus subtracting the potentiality of his acres from 
the jreneral sum. The West Virginia orchardist is not doing 

History of West Virginia 

this. When he puts a few acres in fruit trees he realizes the 
fact that lie must work his other acres all the harder during 
the time his orchard is progressing to its bearing period, and 
the consequence is that by the time his orchard is ready to 
bring returns he has his other land in better condition than 
ever before, finds it yielding more richly because of new 
methods picked up as he studies orchard culture, and he is in 
no mood to abandon its cultivation. As a rule the best 
orchards are found on the best cultivated farms, and the ten- 
dency is to increase the yield of other products as the orchard 
yield increases. The money from their orchards will be clear 
to most of the owners, who have learned to 'live at home' the 
while their trees were growing. Ami that is the real basis of 
good farming — to make the farm support itself, so that the 
'money crop' will be clear gain. 

"The showing of potatoes, while not so large by far as 
that of apples, is a most notable one. From Preston County 
come sample tubers of such size that one would make a lull 
meal for an ordinary family. They are smooth, white and 
sound as a dollar. Bake one, and when the skin is broken out 
falls a plateful of snowy substance, rich, dry and delightful. 
Potatoes equally fine in quality, though not so large, are also 
shown in Pocahontas County. These things arc full of sug- 
gestion for profitable farming, and there is no reason why 
thousands of bags of potatoes should not go from West Vir- 
ginia into the big markets each year. Instead of this thou- 
sands of bags go into West Virginia each year from other 
States to supply the local demand. Look at this contrast: 

"West Virginia has very little home market for its great 
coal production, and almost every ton it sends to other mar- 
kets must pass through some other coal field on its way, yet 
her people are digging 60,000.000 tons of coal a year. 

"West Virginia has hundreds of thousands of acres of 
soil unsurpassed for the production of potatoes, yet the 
products of the Michigan and Minnesota fields — far inferior 
in quality — travel hundreds of miles to reach West Virginia 
markets, or to pass through her boundaries on their way to 
markets farther east. 

"Fortunes await those who apply approved methods of 

30 History of West Virginia 

potato culture to the lands of Preston, Tucker, Randolph, 
Pocahontas and a full dozen other West Virginia counties. 

"The land show is making a number of these things stand 
out like the famous 'handwriting on the wall." 

Mr. Byrne could perhaps with equal truth have included 
the whole Ohio Valley and all its tributaries as being adapted 
to potatoes. 

In Wetzel County the writer knows from personal obser- 
vation potatoes do well. He has seen them growing from the 
very river's edge to the top of the highest hill, and where 
properly cultivated yielded an abundant harvest. As for sweet 
potatoes, there is probably no place on earth better adapted 
to their successful growth than the Ohio River bottoms. 




The first recorded account of the discovery of coal in the 
United States is contained in Hennepen's narrative of his ex- 
plorations in the West, between 1673 and lbSO, when he saw 
the coal outcrop in the bluffs of the Illinois River, not far from 
Ottawa and LaSalle. 

In Xew Mexico and Arizona there are silver mines which 
were operated by the Toltccs and Aztecs years before the 
Spanish invasion. So there are copper mines in the Lake- 
Superior region in which the tools and mining' marks of the 
ancient miners of prehistoric times were found by the pioneers 
of the present American mining companies. In 1608 the colo- 
nists of Virginia shipped a quantity of iron ore from James- 
town, which yielded seventeen tons of metal — the first pig 
iron ever made from American ore. In Xorth and South Caro- 
lina and Georgia there are diggings, now overgrown with for- 
ests, which are supposed to have been excavated by the fol- 
lowers of De Sota and his immediate successors between 1539 
and 1600. 

The oldest mining enterprise of the United States, still 
active, is generally conceded to be the mine La Motte, in the 
lead district of Eastern Missouri, which was opened abo'it 
1720 under Renault of Law's notorious Mississippi Company. 
It was named after La Motte. the mineralogist of the expedi- 
tion, and has been worked at intervals ever since it was 

West Virrp'nia T T -,,v cr c T -, v t ;v, 


32 History of West Virginia 


The coal field of .West Virginia embraces about 15,000 
square miles, of which about 1 1,000 is of commercial thickness. 

"The shape of the field," says State Geologist White, "'is 
that of a rude canoe, the two prows of which lie in Pennsylva- 
nia and Alabama, respectively, while the broadest portion of 
its bod}' is found in West Virginia." 

The distance traveled through the field by the following 
railroads will afford some idea of the coal area in the State : 

B. & O. Railroad, Piedmont to Benwood 162 miles 

C. & O. Railroad, Hiuton to Huntington 147 miles 

N. & W. Railroad, Bluestone Junction to Keuova. . 194 miles 
XV. Va. C. and Little Kanawha Railroads, Western- 
port to Parkersburg 245 miles 

The actual distance across the coal field from the eastern 

edge to the Ohio River is about 100 miles. This is known as 
the Appalachian field, and embraces all or a part of 45 out of 
the 55 counties in the State. 



In 1911, 819 mines, embracing 33 counties, produced 
54,033,186 gross tons of coal, the value of which at the mines 
was $52,954,522.28. 

The value of the coal that was loaded onto the railroad 
cars and shipped from the mines was $46,870,788.30 

Owing to the market conditions, there was a heavy fall- 
ing off in coke production, the net tonnage for 1911 being 
2,694,047, as compared with 4,217,381 the preceding year. 

Manufacturing coke at the mines in this state is gradually 
being discontinued, as the various by-product plants through- 
out the country can manufacture coke, even after shipping 
the coal from the mines to the by-product plants much 
cheaper than it can be produced at the mine§, in consequence 
of which the manufacturing of coke at the mines is gradually 
being dispensed with. The coke manufactured at the West 
Virginia mines in 1911 was valued at $5,037,867.89. 

History of West Virginia 33 

The following table shows the number of mines operated 
and the amount of coal produced in the several counties 
named, during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1911 ; also num- 
ber of accidents: — 

County .Mines 

McDowell 98 

Fayette 117 

Kanawha 107 

Marion 30 

Harrison 65 

Raleigh 42 

Logan 26 

Mercer 20 

Mingo 28 

Tucker 16 

Preston 17 

Barbour 13 

Randolph 13 

Tavlor 9 

Mineral 18 

Brooke 5 

Putnam 6 

Marshall 7 

Monongalia 8 

Ohio 7 

Grant 3 

Mason 5 

Braxton 3 

Nicholas 7 

Clay 7 

Boone 4 

Hancock 2 

Lincoln 3 

Upshur 3 

Greenbrier 1 

Gilmer 1 

Wayne 1 

Lewis 1 

Totals 693 

Coal Produced, 


































11 • 












t 1 











































Note: There arc several small mines in the state which 
do not come under the mining laws. It was estimated that 
these mines produced, all told, about 300.000 gross tons in 
1911. This amount is included in the above of 54,033,168 tons. 

34 History of West Virginia 


The life of an oil well varies with the location and the 
quantity produced from a good pay streak — a seam or stratum 
of rock containing oil — in West Virginia, it is figured, will 
yield about one gallon to the cubic foot of rock, or "sand", as 
it is called in oil language. Therefore, when the area of a 
field and the thickness of the oil rock or "sand" is known a 
tolerably correct estimate may be had of the amount of oil 
a given area will produce. 

It is said the "pay'' streak seldom exceeds five feet in 
thickness. Using these figures as a basis an acre of oil rock 
will produce about 5,000 barrels of forty-two gallons each. If 
the rock is dense in structure it will yield less; if very porous, 
it will exceed the average. 

In the early days of oil production in West Virginia 
crude oil was sometimes shipped in barrels, the same as refined 
oil is now shipped to the retail trade. 

Where production happened to be close to a railroad, 'oil 
was piped to a side track and loaded into large iron tanks built 
on flat cars for that purpose, similar to those now in use for 
refined oil. 

The largest producing oil wells in West Virginia arc- 
found in deej) sand — usually from 2,000 to 3,000 feet, the aver- 
age depth being, perhaps, 2,500 feet. 

In shallow sand territory, where the production is usually 
light, producing wells are usually found at a depth of from 
400 to 1,500 feet, depending upon the elevation of the ground 
where well is located — as, for instance, the "Cow Run" sand 
between Williamstown and Sistersville, along the Ohio River. 

Perhaps the depest producing oil well in the world was 
drilled two miles from Amos, Monongalia County, the depth 
being 3,631 feet, and producing twenty barrels of oil a day. 

In 1908 a well was drilled near Pittsburgh, Pa., to a depth 
of 5,575 feet, where the cable broke and the tools were lost 
beyond recovery. It was a dry well and is supposed to be the 
deepest hole ever drilled in the country. 

The amount of oil produced in West Virginia from 1859 
to 1903, inclusive, is estimated to have been 144,601,296 barrels, 

History of West Virginia 

of which 13,<>03,135 were produced in 1903. We have not been 
able to procure even approximate figures on amount of oil 
production in West Virginia since 1903, but it is safe to say 
the amount of oil produced in 1913 exceeded that of 1903, 
since a number of new fields have developed during the last 
ten years which would probably more than offset the decline 
in production in the oil fields. 

The most important discovery of oil in West Virginia in 
recent years was at Blue Creek, in Kanawha County. Some 
large producing wells were also recently drilled in near 
Shinnston, Harrison County. 

Oil, or gas, or both have been found in practically every 
county in the state west of the Alleghany Mountains. 

The assessed valuation of pipe lines in West Virginia for 
1912 was SS9.530,311. 

As strange as it may seem, it is a historical fact that prac- 
tically all of the modern drilling tools, jars, casing and oil well 
machinery in present use were invented by David and Joseph 
Ruffner, more than one hundred years ago, while boring for 
salt at Buffalo Lick, near Charleston, in the Great Kanawha 
Valley. They began their operation in 1S06, and succeeded 
in their efforts on January 15th. 1808. 


West Virginia is the banner state in the production of 
natural gas, and has maintained its lead for the past four 
years in the quantity produced for consumption. 

According to David T. Day of the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey, this production could be greatly increased, as many wells 
are closed for future use. 

The total quantity of natural gas produced in West Vir- 
ginia in 1912 is estimated at 239.088,068,000 cubic feet, valued 
at S33.349.021. 

The quantity of gas piped out of West Virginia in 1912 
to supply customers in other states amounted to 120,382,779,- 
000 cubic feet, valued at S22.063.637.000. Of the total quantity 
of gas exported from the state in 1912, about fifty billion cubic 
feet was piped to Pennsylvania. 

36 History of West Virginia 

At the present time (1913J Wetzel County probably pro- 
duces more natural gas than any other count)' in the state. 
The Hope Natural Gas Company's pump stations at Hastings, 
on the West Virginia Short Line, is said to be the largest of 
its kind in the world. 


The glass sands of West Virginia are noted for their 
exceptional purity and adaptability to the manufacture of the 
finest grade of products. 

In 1909 the output from its glass sand deposits was 
the amount of production, it was second in value of output 
thus bearing out the claims made for its purity. 

The report of the West Virginia Geological Survey says : 
"West Virginia, on account of its natural gas fuel, has become 
one of the leading glass manufacturing states, and these plants 
are scattered all through its natural gas districts. 

"In the state is found one of the purest limestones in the 
country, which is especially crushed at Martinsburg to supply 
this trade. This state also, at a number of places, has almost 
inexhaustable deposits of pure glass sands." 


There are 15,771,616 acres of land in West Virginia, of 
which 1,574,295 acres arc in virgin forests; 2,882,030, cut-over 
forests; 5,087,013, farmers' wood-lots, and 6,228,278, cleared 

It is estimated that there is about 150,000,000,000 feet of 
standing timber. In 1910, 1,069 saw mills cut 1,376,737,000 
feet of lumber, board measure. At the above rate of cutting, 
the entire timber supply will be exhausted in twenty-two 

Following table gives acreage of forests and cleared lands, 
as estimated by A. B. Brooks, of the West Virginia Geological 
Survey, in 1910: 

History of West Virginia 

County Area 

Barbour 251,550 

Berkeley lt>4,4S0 

Boone ' 327,680 

Braxton 346,2-40 

Brooke 62,0S0 

Cabell 167,040 

Calhoun 179.32S 

Clav 222,720 

Doddridge .... 220,160 

Fayette 496,000 

Gilmer 234,880 

Grant 309,120 

Greenbrier .... 672,640 

Hampshire .... 423,680 

Hancock 55,040 

Hardy 380,160 

Harrison 266,355 

Jackson 300,985 

Jefferson 136,320 

Kanawha 558,080 

Lewis 264,960 

Lincoln 282,240 

Logan 316,160 

McDowell 430,720 

Marion 201,882 

Marshall 201,766 

Mason 287,533 

Mercer 279,680 

Mineral 212,480 

Mingo 271,360 

Monongalia ... 234,573 

Monroe 296,960 

Morgan 150,400 

Nicholas 442,240 

Ohio 71,040 

Pendleton 452,480 

Pleasants 90,880 

Pocahontas ... 549,120 

Preston 429,440 

Putnam 227,392 

Raleigh 359,400 

Randolph 6"5,040 

Ritchie 292,480 

Roane 311,168 

Summers 235,520 

Tavlor 84,480 

Tucker 281,600 

Tyler 166,477 

Upshur 208,640 

Wavne 348,800 

Webster 377,600 

Wetzel 230,701 

Wirt 147,776 











(Acres) Cl'r'd 















4'), 152 




























































































































































1 1 7,600 




























































38 History of West Virginia 

Virgin Cut-over Farmers' 

Count}- Area Forests Forests woodlots P'c't Cleared 

(.Acres) (Acres) (Acres) (Acres) Cl'r'd Land 

Wood 228,480 1,000 90,392 60 137,088 

Wyoming 336,640 44,150 192,490 40,000 18 60,000 

Total 15,771,616 1,574,295 2,882,030 5,087,013 39 6,228,278 

In addition to the above, the forests of the state yielded 
large numbers of railroad eross ties, telephone and telegraph 
poles, and enormous quantities of pulpwood, tanbark and plas- 
terers' lath. 

Following table shows kind of wood and number of feet 
of lumber sawed of each in 1910: 

Kind of Wood Feet Board Aleasure 

Oak 420,870,000 

Hemlock 265,881,000 

Red spruce 221,146,000 

Yellow poplar 151,132,000 

Chestnut 117,570,000 

Maples 54,809,000 

Beech 29,1 13,000 

Basswood 28,936,000 

White pine 21,147,000 

Yellow pines 21,513,000 

Hickories 13,376,000 

Birches 10,932,000 

Ash 7,183,000 

Black walnut 1,849,000 

Red gum 1,815,000 

Sycamore • 793,000 

White and Slippery elms 546,000 

Red cedar 319,000 

Black gum 142,000 

Cottonwood 85,000 

Frazer fir 34,000 

All others 7,546,000 

Total cut by 1,069 mills 1,376,737,000 feet 

History of West Virginia 


— 3 
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?24 bc- s 

Barbour 636 360 

Berkeley 456 3(16 

Boone 281 520 

Brooke 180 80 

Braxton 780 620 

Cabell 300 300 

Calhoun 500 260 

Clav 375 300 

Doddridge 600 300 

Fayette 033 730 

Gilmer 575 360 

Grant 311 510 

Greenbrier 827 1,000 

Hampshire 050 620 

Hancock 184 100 

Hardy 500 450 

Harrison 760 450 

TefTerson 315 250 

Jackson 1,200 40(1 

Kanawha 815 OS0 

Lewis 650 400 

Logan 200 443 

Lincoln 665 430 

Marion 766 300 

Marshall 678 240 

Mason 000 432 

Mercer 375 400 

Mineral 300 300 

Mingo 350 407 

Monongalia 800 360 

Monroe 700 460 

Morgan 300 300 

McDowell 300 840 

Nicholas 516 720 

Ohio 200 120 

Pendleton -117 650 

Pleasants 285 150 

Pocahontas 500 S20 

Preston 1.200 650 

Putnam 525 320 

Raleigh 600 680 

Randolph 1.000 1,080 

Ritchie 783 400 

Roane 700 350 

Summers 485 400 

15,858 9,483 .56 25 15.01 

21,090 5,811 .67 50 12.74 

10,331 9,235 1.86 37 32.87 

11,008 14,830 .44 62 82.40 

23,033 5,285 .80 30 6.78 

46,685 6,501 1.00 156 21.67 

11,258 12,165 .52 23 24.33 

10,233 2,665 1.04 27 7.10 

12,672 29,150 .50 21 48.6(1 

51,003 61,828 .78 56 66.27 

11,375 12,236 .63 23 21.30 

7.83S 10,125 1.64 25 32.55 

24,^33 30,791 1.21 30 37.23 

11,694 12,114 .65 12 12.75 

11,465 7,727 .54 57 42.00 

0,163 8,329 .90 IS 16.66 

48,381 59,534 .60 64 78.33 

15,885 16,724 .80 50 53.00 

20,056 17,715 .33 18 14.76 

81,457 13,000 1.20 100 17.06 

18,281 18,608 .61 28 28.76 

14,476 7,323 2.22 72 36.62 

20,401 13,775 .65 31 20.72 

42,701 42,813 .40 56 55.80 

32,388 31,212 .36 48 46.04 

23,030 13,427 .50 26 14.02 

38,371 7,228 1.07 102 10.28 

16,674 10,660 1.00 56 35 53 

10,431 2,162 1.17 55 6.18 

24,334 43,933 .45 30 54.01 

13,055 10,754 .66 10 15.86 

7,848 7,547 1.00 26 25.16 

47,856 30,474 2.80 150 101.58 

17,600 10,652 1.40 34 20.64 

57,572 * 60 288 

0,340 7,30') 1.60 22 17.53 

8,074 22,316 .53 20 78.30 

14,740 23,053 1.64 30 47.01 

26,341 12,645 .54 22 10.54 

18,587 10,730 .60 36 20.44 

25,o33 16,642 1.13 43 27.74 

26,028 12,117 1.08 26 12.1? 

17,875 35,7^)2 .51 23 45.71 

21,543 14,626 .=0 31 20.80 

18,420 7,060 .83 38 14.55 


History of West Virginia 


<*i <n *— _^ '^Z 






Taylor 363 

Tucker 915 

Tyler 510 

Upshur 800 

Wayne 800 

Webster 33S 

Wetzel 656 

Wirt 413 

Wood 1,140 

Wyoming 500 

Totals 32,108 

County average... 584 

*Ohio County laid no 


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district road levy. 



The educational progress of Virginia began with the es- 
tablishment of a college "for the education of Indians" at 
Henrico, on James River, in lol9. "The King of England." 
says Holmes' Annals of America, "having formerly issued his 
letters patent to the several bishops of the Kingdom for col- 
lecting money to erect a college in Virginia for the education 
of Indian children, nearly £1,500 had been already paid to- 
ward this benevolent and pious design, and Henrico had been 
selected as a suitable place for the seminary. The Virginia 
Company, on the recommendation of Sir Edwin Sandys, its 
treasurer, now granted 10,000 acres of land, to be laid off for 
the University of Henrico. This donation, while it embraced 
the original object, was intended also for the foundation of a 
seminary of learning for the English. 

The next school was established at Charles City in 1621. 
but the following year the Indians killed the Superintendent 
and seventeen of his pupils. The University at Henrico was 
also destroyed by the savages about the same time. 

The next schools of importance were Elizabeth City, 
1643; Pcaslev Free School, 1673: William and Mary College. 

In 1634 Benjamin Synims devised two hundred acres of 
land on the Pocoson River, "with the milk and increase of 
eight milch cows, for the maintenance of a learned, honest 
man to keep upon the said ground a free school for the educa- 
tion and instruction of the children of the parishes of Eliza- 
beth and Kiquoton from Mary's Mount downward to the 
Pocoson River." This grant was confirmed by the House of 
Burgesses in 1642, and the school opened up in the following 

42 History of West Virginia 

year; but, for some reason unknown at this time, the school 
was soon discontinued and the property neglected until ISCb, 
when an act was passed providing for the appointment of 
trustees to take charge of the property. 

The William and Mary College was the only one char- 
tered in the colonies by any of the English rulers. Thomas 
Jefferson, James Monroe, Chief Justice Marshall, John Tyler, 
YYiniield Scott and other distinguished men were graduates 
of this school. "For over a century it continued to be th. 
training school of statesmen, and the intellectual head of the 

After the Revolution several charity schools were formed 
and later followed by private or select schools. Perhaps the 
first regular school that was organized within the present 
limits of West Virginia was at" Ronmey, in Hampshire 
County, in 1753. 

One thing which some regard as remarkable concerning 
the Constitution of Virginia as it was first written and adopted 
was that it contained no provisions whatever for education, 
and it was not until twenty years later that a law was en- 
acted concerning this most important matter. To those, how- 
ever, who are familiar with the early social conditions that 
existed in the region of Virginia known as the Piedmont and 
Tide-water section, it is not strange that an educational pro 
vision in Virginians Constitution was not considered essential 
to the prosperity and happiness of her people. They were 
largely of the cavalier element, who brought with them 1o 
the New World many of the aristocratic notions of England. 
The large landed estates were held by a few, and negro slavery 
prevailed over the entire region, and but comparatively few- 
white families of the middle class were to be found. These 
planters, as a rule, were not "strong on" education. A pri- 
mary education was generally considered sufficient, and fr>" 
this purpose private teachers were employed, and in a few 
cases the more ambitious parents gave their children a classic 
education in some college. For the poorer class who coui'i 
not afford these educational advantages, the "higher ups" were 
not greatly concerned; the latter were in political power, with 
reference to State and local affairs. Therefore, when A ir- 

History of West Virginia 13 

ginia's Constitution was written and adopted, the majority 
party was careful to avoid any obligation that might, in their 
estimation, bring about needless taxation, llence, the omis- 
sion of a Constitutional provision for the raising of money 
for educational purposes. From our viewpoint this was self- 
ishness, pure and simple. 

After a time some of these more wealthy planters took 
up large sections of land west of the Alleghenies and located 
on their property, but the larger proportion of the population 
west of the mountains was composed of people from Dela- 
ware, Xew Jersey, Connecticut and eastern Pennsylvania. A 
large number of these were of Scotch-Irish descent, who 
formed the hardy set of people noted in American history. 
The ancestors of many of these pioneers had left England and 
Scotland on account of religious persecution. They were im- 
bued with the spirit of freedom, which was increased by the 
almost unlimited expanse of the wilderness surrounding their 
homes, far removed from the enforcement of unjust laws and 
the social restraints and petty aristocratic notions of a so- 
called civilized country. 

Of course this voluntary isolation from the outer world 
brought with it many hardships and privations, and for many 
years there was not much advancement along educational 
lines in what is now West Virginia. 

Returning to Virginia history, we find that twenty years 
after the adoption of the Constitution of that State a law was 
passed which gave the people the right to elect three alder- 
men for a district. These officials hired the teacher, and the 
latter was required to collect pro rata only on children or 
pupils sent to him for instruction. It was really a sj stem of 
"subscription" schools. 

The first real law on education, having for its purpose the 
affording of a common free school education, was passed in 
1809. which provided that all forfeited or escheated lands were 
to be sold and the proceeds to be placed to the credit of a 
School Fund, the money so derived being loaned to the Na- 
tional Government and the interest applied to the fund. 

In 1817 the Legislature enacted a law establishing a cor 
mon primarv school, with the provision that children could 

44 History of West Virginia 

attend for three years without any charge whatever, and also 
appropriated $45,000 annually for the support of the schools. 
But this money was entirely inadequate to carry out the pur- 
pose for which it was intended, and a greater portion of the 
funds was raised by private donations and tuition fees. Of 
this class of schools three were established in what is now 
West Virginia before the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
namely, the Academy at Shepherdstown, Jefferson County, in 
1784; the Randolph Academy, at Clarksburg, in 1787; the 
Charles Town Academy, at Charles Town, Jefferson County, 
in 1795. These institutions, scattered throughout the State in 
the centers of population, as they were, contributed much 
toward the advancement of education in these sections. Col- 
leges sprang up from some of these academies. Hampden and 
Sidney College grew out of Augusta Academy; Washington 
and Lee University out of Liberty Hall Academy. These — 
the real pioneer schools of Virginia — contributed largely to- 
ward the foundation of the succeeding educational institutions. 

However much these institutions advanced the cause of 
education, there was still a great lack of schools throughout 
the country now comprising West Virginia. The opportuni- 
ties of the masses for elementary primary education were 
meager indeed. Schools of this class were "few and far be- 
tween," and these were generally supported by private sub- 
scription. In some sections teachers were employed in the 
wealthier families, and in some cases two or more families 
wotdd unite in establishing private schools, where frequently 
the children of neighboring families were admitted. In many 
other cases large families of children grew up with no educa- 
tional advantages whatever. 

The few schools in those pioneer days varied in their 
character and quality of instruction with their surrounding 

Some of the larger towns were provided with fairly com- 
fortable quarters for the students, though of a rude character 
as compared with the most ordinary school house of today ; 
and in some cases very competent teachers were in charge of 
the schools. In the frontier settlements, however, conditions 
were quite different. The school house was invariably made 

History of West Virginia 45 

of unhewn logs, covered with clapboard* held in place !>> 
heavy* poles. The window on one side of the house consisted 
of greased papvr fastened between two logs in the wall. The 
floor \va> made of hewn slabs or "puncheons." The chimney 
was usually constructed of common field rock piled up about 
five or six feet high and topped out with sticks and mud. 
The fireplace would accommodate a log five to eight feet in 
length. The furniture corresponded with the building in 
workmanship, the seats being made of rails or narrow slabs 
supported by four legs fitted in auger holes and without backs. 
The writing desk was made of a smoothly hewn slab about 
two feet wide placed in a slanting position near to or against 
the wall beneath the window. 

The curriculum consisted of what has been designated 
the "3 R's," or "Rule of Three," meaning 'Readin', 'ritin', 'rith- 
metic." Except in rare instances, the teacher's qualifications 
were limited to the above mentioned studies and his pow^r 
to wield the "gad" among the mischievous lads and lassies 
who were often prone to play pranks on the "master." The 
teacher generally "boarded around," dividing the time among 
the pupils. 

The foregoing description of a country school comes with- 
in the memory of the writer, and this, too, as late as 1867, 
when he attended his first school, and he assures the reade- 
that the picture has not been overdrawn in the least. At that 
time, out of 702 school houses in the State. 332 of them wen: 
built of logs. In 1912 there were 6,791 school houses in the 
State, of which 6.468 were frame and 323 brick, no schools 
having been reported as being held in log houses since 190f>, 
at which time there were 95 log school houses still in use. 

So far as architectural style of rural school buildings is 
concerned those constructed in the early sixties were prac- 
tically the same as those constructed much earlier. But there 
was quite a change in their number. We are not informed 
as to the number of school houses in West Virginia previous 
to 1865. but in that year there were 133 school houses and 43' 
schools in the State. One year later this number had in- 
creased to 412 school houses and 935 schools. Further altmi 
we shall give some very interesting statistics along this lim 

46 History of West Virginia 

Following is a list of academics established in what is 
now West Virginia previous to the civil war: 

1. The Academy of Shepherdstown, at Shepherdstown, in 
Jefferson County, incorporated in 1784, 

2. The Randolph Academy, at Clarksburg, in Harrison 
County, incorporated December 11, 1797. 

3. The Charles Town Academy, at Charles Town, in Jeffer- 
son County, incorporated December 25, 1797. 

4. The Brooke Academy, at Wellsburg, in Brooke Count}-, 
incorporated January 10, 1797. 

5. The Mount Carmel School, at West Union, in Preston 
County ("then Monongalia),- established in 1801. 

6. The Lewisburg Academy, at Lewisburg, in Greenbrier 
County, incorporated in 1812. 

7. The Shepherdstown Academy, at Shepherdstown, in Jef- 
ferson County, incorporated January 3, 1814. 

8. The Romney Academy, at Romney, in Hampshire- 
County, incorporated February 11, 1814. 

9. The Lancastrian Academy, at Wheeling, in Ohio Count' , 
incorporated October 10, 1814. 

10. The Monongalia Academy, at Morgantown, in Mononga- 
lia County, incorporated November 29, 1814. 

11. The Mercer Academy, in Charleston, Kanawha County, 
incorporated November 29, 1818. 

12. The Union Academy, at Union, in Monroe County, in- 
corporated January 27, 1820. 

13. The Martinsburg Academy, at Martinsburg, in Berkele- 
County, incorporated January 28, 1822. 

14. The Romney Classical Institute, at Romney, in Hamp- 
shire County, established in 1824. 

15. The Tyler Academy, at Middlebourne, in Tyler County, 
incorporated January 20, 1827. 

16. The Wheeling Academy, at Wheeling, in Ohio County, 
incorporated February 21, 1827. 

17. The Romney Academy, at Romney, in Hampshire Coin.- 
tv. incorporated March 25. 1829. 

18. The Morgantown Female Seminary, at Morgantown. in 
Monongalia County, incorporated March 23, 1831. 

History of West Virginia 47 

19. The Se\ mour Academy, at Moorcneld, in Hardy County, 
incorporated February 1<>, 1832. 

20. The Bolivar Academy, at Bolhar, in Jefferson County, 
incorporated February lu, 1832. 

21. The Red Sulphur Seminary, at Red Sulphur Springs, in 
.Monroe County, opened April 15, 1832. 

21. The Charles Town Female Academy, at Charles Town, 
in Jefferson County, incorporated March 15. 183<>. 

23. The Brickhead and Wells Academy, at Sistersville, in Ty- 
ler County, incorporated January 18. 1837. 

24. The West Liberty Academy, at West Liberty, in Ohio 
County, incorporated .March 20. 1837. 

25. The Marshall Academy, at Guyandotte (now Hunting- 
ton), Cabell County, incorporated March 13, 1838. 

2d. The Western Virginia Education Society, at I 'runty town, 
in Taylor county (then Harrison), incorporated March 
28, 1838. 

27. The Parkersburg Academy Association, at Parkersburg, 
in Wood County, incorporated April 5, 183S. 

28. The Morgantown Female Academy, at Morgantown, in 
Monongalia County, incorporated January 30, lS3 r >. 

29. The Cove Academy, at Holiday's Cove, in Hancock 
County (then Brooke), incorporated April 6, 1839. 

30. The Bethany College, at Bethany, in Brooke County, in- 
corporated in the autumn of 1840. 

31. The Preston Academy, at Kingwood, in Preston County, 
incorporated January 2, 1841. 

32. The Huntersville Academy, at Huntersville, in Pocahon- 
tas County, incorporated January IS, 1842. 

33. The Asbury Academy, at Parkersburg, in Wood County, 
incorporated February 8, 1842. 

34. The Little Levels Academy, at Hillsboro, in Pocahontas 
County, incorporated February 14, 1842. 

35. The Rector College, at Painty town, in Taylor Count/, 
incorporated February 14. 1842. 

36. The Grecnbank Academy, at Greenbank. in Pocahontas 
County, incorporated March 26, 1842. 

37. The Northwestern Academy, at Clarksburg, in Harris- 
County, incorporated March 26, 1842. 

48 History of West Virginia 

38. The Brandon Academy, at Brandonville, in Preston 
County, incorporated March 27, 1843. 

39. The Weston Academy, at Weston, in Lewis tounty, in- 
corporated January 18, 1844. 

40. The Potomac Seminar}', at Romney, in Hampshire Coun- 
ty, incorporated December 12, 1846. 

41. The Male and Female Academy, at Buckhannon, in Up- 
shur County (then Lewis), incorporated February 1, 1847. 

42. The Lewis County Seminary, at Weston, in Lewis 
County, incorporated March 20, 1847. 

43. The Marshall Academy, at Moundsville, in Marshall 
County, incorporated March 19, 1847. 

44. The Wheeling Female Seminary, at Wheeling, in Ohio 
County, incorporated January 24, 1848. 

45. The Buffalo Academy, at Buffalo, in Putnam County, in- 
corporated March 16, 1S49. 

46. The Academy of the Visitation, at Wheeling, in Ohio 
Lounty, incorporated March 14, 1850. 

47. The Jane Lew Academy, at Jane Lew, in Lewis County, 
incorporated March 16, 1850. 

48. The Wellsburg Female Academy, at Wcllsburg, in 
Brooke County, incorporated March 17, 1851. 

49. The Meade Collegiate Institute, at or near Parkersburg, 
incorporated March 21, 1851. 

50. The South Branch Academical Institute, at Moorefield, 
in Hardy County, incorporated March 31, 1851. 

51. The Fairmont Academy, at Fairmont, in Marion County, 
incorporated February 17, 1852. 

52. The Wheeling Female Seminary, at Wheeling, in Ohio 
County, incorporated January 10, 1853. 

53. The West Union Academy, at West Union, in Doddridge 
County, incorporated April 16, 1852. 

54. The Morgan Academy, at Berkeley Springs, in Morgan 
County, incorporated January 10, 1853. 
The Logan Institute, at Logan Court House, in Logan 
County, incorporated February 21, 1853. 
The Ashton Academy, at Mercer's Bottom, in Mason 
Countv, incorporated January 7, 1856. 



History of West Virginia 49 

57. The Point Pleasant Academy, at Point Pleasant, in .Ma- 
son County, incorporated February 26, 1S56. 

^8. The Polytechnic College, at Aracoma, in Logan Count/, 
incorporated February 28, 1856. 

59. The Fairmont Male and Female Seminary, at Fairmont, 
in Marion County, incorporated March 12, 1856. 

60. The Harpers Ferry Female Institute, at Harpers Ferry, 
in Jefferson County, incorporated March 18, 1856. 

61. The Woodburn Female Seminary, at Morgantown, in 
Monongalia County, incorporated January 4, 1858. 

62. The Lewisburg Female Institute, at Lewisburg, in Green- 
brier County, incorporated April 7, 1858. 

63. The Levelton Male and Female College, at Hillsboro, in 
Pocahontas County, incorporated February 27. 1860. 

64. The Union College, at Union, in Monroe County, incor- 
porated March 28, 1860. 

65. The Parkcrsburg Classical and Scientific Institute, at 
Parkersburg, in Wood Countv, incorporated March 18. 

The initial step to the inauguration of the free school 
system within the present limits of West Virginia was taken 
November 27th, 1861, when Hon. John Hall, of Mason County, 
president of the first State Constitutional Convention, sitting 
at Wheeling, named a committee on education consisting of 
Gordon Battcllc, of Ohio County; William F. Stevenson, of 
Wood County; Robert Hager, of Boone County; Thomas 
Trainer, of Marshall County; James W. Parsons, of Tucker 
County; William Walker, of Wyoming County, and George 
Sheetz, of Hampshire County. The first named was made 
chairman of the committee. He was a Methodist minister 
and had been principal of the old Northwestern Academy at 
^.arksburg for twelve years. William E. Stevenson, another 
of the committee, was afterward Governor of West Virginia. 

On January 22, 1862, the committee made its report. \n 
amended report followed the 4th of the ensuing month. These 
reports were incorporated in the first constitution of the State. 

West Virginia was admitted into the Union June 20. 1863. 
and the Legislature convened on that date. Four days lat'-r 
the president of the Senate, John M. Phelps, of Mason County, 


History of West Virginia 

appointed the following named gentlemen a committee on 
education: John E. Atkinson, of Hancock County: Thomas 
K. McCann, of Greenbrier County; John B. Bowen, of Wayne 
County; Chester D. Hubbard, of Ohio County, and William 
E. Stevenson, of Wood County. A similar committee was ap- 
pointed by Spicer Patrick, of Kanawha County, speaker of the 
House of Delegates, composed of A. E. Ross, of Ohio Countv; 
S. K. Dawson, of Ritchie County: George C. Bowyer, of Put- 
nam County : Daniel Sweeny, of Tyler County, and Thomas 
Copley, of Wayne County. This joint committee formulated 
the first West Virginia school law. which was passed Decem- 
ber 10, 1863. This law, entitled "An Act providing for the 
Establishment of a System of Free Schools," authorized the 
election of a State Superintendent of Free Schools by the joint 
vote of both branches 'of the Legislature; and on June 1, 1S64, 
William Ryland White, an able educator, was elected for a 
term of two years. 

Thus was inaugurated the free school system of West 
Virginia. Little progress, however, was made along educa- 
tional lines until the civil war was ended. But after that — 
Let the following tables, taken from the official records, tell 
the tale : 

Number of School Houses. 






Number of Schools. 







2,035 1 



























































































History of West Virginia 


Number of School Houses. 

1SS0 2,142 

1881 2,260 

1SS2 2,3o2 

1SS3 2,506 

188-1 2,648 

1885 2.S19 

1886 2,933 

1887 3,162 

1S88 3,209 

1889 r 3,510 

1890 3,680 

1S91 3,849 

1892 4,022 

1893 4,2o6 

1894 4,456 

1S95 4,606 

1896 4,750 

1897 4,949 

1898 5,059 

1S99 5,224 

1900 5.3S7 

1901 5,510 

1902 5,598 

1903 5.707 

1904 5,819 

1905 5,920 

1906 5,983 

1907 6,058 

1908 ' 6,158 

1909 6,235 

1910 ; 6,314 

1911 6,375 

1912 6,468 

93 1,316 3.5S7 

94 1,344 3,704 
93 l,37o 3,830 

110 1,329 3,945 

113 1,330 4,097 
128 1,212 4,159 

114 1,214 4,260 
122 1,181 4,4<o 
116 | 1,152 . 4,567 
124 1,021 4,655 
127 1,007 4,814 
124 92d 4,809 
140 S36 5,004 
140 792 5,192 
140 706 5,302 
140 643 5.3S9 
148 577 5,475 
150 4S6 ; 5,524 
172 4(>3 5,675 
152 408 5,68" 
184 | 345 5,916 
176 309 5,995 
1S6 287 6,021 
188 217 6,112 
198 1S3 d,200 
206 152 6,278 
232 127 6,342 
237 116 6,434 
260 95 6,490 

27d 6,615 

312 6,674 

312 6,687 

323 6,7') 1 

Number of Schools. 




45 ' 









5/) 17 
6,8 18 

The following tabic shows the number of pupils attain- 
ing school each year: the number of teachers employed and 
their average monthly salary : the average number of months 
each term, and the total cost of education for each year from 
1865 to 1912: 

52 History of West Virginia 

U >1 O u, 

^ • < " ° S c c 

C 3 pi) <■> hn rt hk^ rt n ='° 

>h £ £ H < H 

1865 84,418 387 $ 2.70 $ 7,722 

1866 118,617 973 31.44 3.12 172,734 

1867 115,340 1,222 36.00 3.00 324,517 

186S 127,861 1,810 37.66 3.50 520,852 

1869 152,369 2,283 34.11 3.55 575,623 

1870 157,788 2,405 34.25 4.12 470,129 

1871 162,337 2,46S 33.50 3.S4 577,719 

1872 163,916 2,645 31.01 4.04 536,736 

1873 171,793 3,082 31.46 3.86 606,991 

1874 170,107 3,342 32.62 4.12 704.76S 

1875 179,805 3,461 32.90 4.20 763,812 

1876 184,760 3,693 31.52 4.32 786,118 

1877 192,606 3,789 31.86 4.13 773,658 

1878 201,237 3,747 28.97 4.38 681,818 

1879 206,123 4,131 26.64 4.34 709,071 

1880 210,113 4,134 28.19 4.50 707,553 

1881 213,191 4,287 2S.22 4.45 758,475 

1882 216,605 4,360 28.77 4.50 865,878 

18S3 221,517 4,455 30.22 4.43 947,371 

1884 228,185 4,543 30.39 4.55 997,431 

1885 236,145 4,811 31.70 4.34 1,043,269 

1886 242,752 4,925 30.71 4.64 1,036,020 

1887 249,177 5,089 31.52 4.95 1,087,745 

1888 256,360 5,238 33.00 5.10 1,240,650 

1889 25S,934 5,341 31.3S 4.80 1,313,701 

1890 266,326 5,491 31.20 4.85 1,293,165 

1891 276,332 5,600 31.54 4.95 1,360,694 

1892 276,452 5,747 32.28 5.89 1,436,063 

1893 279,586 5,937 33.63 4.90 1,592,188 

1894 2S2,770 6,115 34.10 5.00 1,616,944 

1895 289,274 6,299 34.70 5.00 1,664,452 

1896 296,517 6,454 35.87 5.55 1,817,666 

1897 300,529 6,652 31.66 5.65 1,897,777 

1898 302,351 6.80S 31.33 5.60 1,960,416 

1899 306,154 6,881 31.74 5.40 1,914,733 

1900 307,581 7,067 32.39 5.30 2,019,165 

1901 312,124 7,233 30.41 S.S0 2,128,612 

1902 315,810 7,306 32.04 5.90 2,197,133 

1903 319,729 7,362 32.99 6.15 2,393,555 

1904 326,240 7,597 33.56 6.15 2,589,203 

1905 332,862 7,636 34.58 6.15 2,744,877 

1906 342,060 7,830 36.70 6.25 2,970,455 

1907 347,402 8,061 36.30 6.38 3,406,047 

1908 351,966 8,282 37.66 6.75 3,925,754 

1909 346,265 8,499 39.84 6.78 4,341,972 

1910 352,016 8,782 39.90 6.70 4,542,612 

1911 376,710 9,070 46.75 6.75 4,652,174 

1912 382,938 9,312 46.66 6.85 5,081,603 

Per cent, male attendance, .51; per cent, male teachers, .46; year, 
1912; per cent, female attendance, .49; per cent, female teachers, .54; 
year, 1912. 

History of West Virginia 


In 1912 there were 125 high schools in West Virginia, as 

follows : 

First class high schools 41 

Second class high schools 30 

Third class high schools 39 

Not classified 15 

Total 125 

High School Enrollment, 1911-12. 


Four-year schools 325 

Three-year schools 66 

Two-year schools.. 58 

Graduates, 1911 270 

Graduates, 1911, going to college 123 

Pupils completing eighth grade, 1911 948 

Pupils completing eighth grade, 1911, who 

entered high school fall of 1911 799 


X.umbcr teachers employed, 1911-12 210 

Increase over 1910-11 20 























Certificates Issued Under 

County Ones 

Barbour 17 

Berkeley 3 

Boone 3 

Braxton 13 

Brooke 2 

Cabell 7 

Calhoun 7 

Clay 5 

Doddridge 5 

Fayette 17 

Gilmer 11 

Grant 3 

Greenbrier 19 


Hancock 2 

Hardy 7 

Harrison 4 

Jackson 27 

Jefferson 3 

Kanawha 22 

Lewis 6 

Lincoln 9 

Logan *> 

Marion 8 

Marshall 8 

Mason 17 

the Uniform System, 1912. 








Total ( 
































































































































54 History of West Virginia 





County Ones Twos Threes Renewals Total Graduation 

Mercer 6 84 74 8 172 11 

Mineral 14 45 26 5 90 1 

Mingo 7 64 59 5 135 1 

Monongalia .... 13 73 65 10 161 7 

Monroe 5 51 63 1 120 7 

.Morgan 9 27 24 2 62 

McDowell S 43 42 7 100 7 

Nicholas 29 154 108 10 301 1 

Ohio 7 56 63 1 127 19 

Pendleton 7 80 60 6 153 3 

Pleasants 8 53 38 2 101 

Pocahontas 7 44 44 1 96 1 

Preston 25 132 79 2 238 2 

Putnam 23 117 83 4 227 2 

Raleigh 10 81 73 5 169 5 

Randolph 2 45 58 5 110 3 

Ritchie ' 24 112 74 4 214 9 

Roane 7 153 126 9 295 2 

Summers 4 67 72 1 144 5 

Tavlor 3 37 30 6 76 7 

Tucker 6 47 48 4 105 2 

Tvler 8 59 53 6 126 11 

Upshur 9 88 102 3 202 19 

Wayne 8 119 103 3 233 2 

Webster 9 48 64 3 124 

Wetzel 15 90 9S 2 205 3 

Wirt 9 64 45 4 122 1 

Wood 18 116 80 7 221 5 

Wyoming 1 48 43 8 100 1 

Totals 549 4,441 4,069 246 9,305 370 

During the year 1912, 36 primary and 13 high school cer- 
tificates and 2,936 elementary and 391 graded diplomas were 

Enrollment of Pupils in West Virginia Schools, 1912. 

Total Total Grand 

Countv Whites Colored Total 

Barbour . .' 3,427 153 3,580 

Berkeley 2,689 187 2,876 

Boone'.. 2,859 59 2,918 

Braxton 52518 22 5,540 

Brooke 2,119 16 2,135 

Cabell 4,471 45 4,516 

Calhoun 3,012 29 3,041 

Clay 2,344 .... 2,344 

Doddridge 3,200 3,200 

Fayette 10,243 1,900 12,143 

Gilmer 2,811 5 2,816 

r , rant; 1,961 60 2,021 

Greenbrier':::::::::::: 5,sos ^ 6,2% 

Hampshire 2 692 55 2 747 

Hancock 2,346 2,346 

History of West Virginia 


County Whites 

Hardy 2,100 

Harrison C ',96S 

Jackson 5,-182 

Jefferson 2,012 

Kanawha 13,285 

Lewis -4,522 

Lincoln 5,021 

Logan 3,804 

Marion 9,651 

Marshall -4,827 

Mason 6,135 

Mercer 8,446 

Mineral 3,468 

Mingo 5,141 

Monongalia 6,120 

Monroe 3,204 

Morgan 1 ,937 

McDowell 6,244 

Nicholas ■ 4,381 

Ohio 2,805 

Pendleton 2,395 

Pleasants 1,916 

Pocahontas 2,750 

Preston 6,467 

Putnam 4,649 

Raleigh 5,971 

Randolph 5,997 

Ritchie 4,735 

Roane S^Z 

Summers 1,692 

Taylor 1,917 

Tucker 4,095 

Tyler 3,944 

Upshur 4,267 

Wayne 6,522 

Webster 2,725 

Wetzel 6,419 

Wirt 2,374 

Wood 4,437 

Wyoming 2,804 

Ceredo ( Wayne) 795 

Cnarleston ( Kanawha) 4,625 

Grafton (Taylor) 1,434 

Huntington (Cabell) 5,074 

Martinsburg (Berkeley) 1,399 

Moundsville (Marshall) 1,759 

Parkersburg (Wood) 4,103 

Wheeling (Ohio) 5,427 

Total 273,097 11,660 284,757 

School Libraries. 

The school library has become very popular in 'West Vir- 
ginia. In 1S97 there were 8.026 volumes in all the schools r f 




























































































History of West Virginia 

the State. In 1912 there were 314,430 volumes, distributed 
among 3,873 schools, as follows : 

Barbour 128 10,927 

Berkeley 85 3,658 

Boone 42 2,127 

Braxton 127 6,442 

Bfooke 45 4,854 

Cabell 88 12,926 

Calhoun 43 1,972 

Clay 28 1,756 

Doddridge 113 6,666 

Fayette 7S 4,874 

Gilmer 59 2,477 

Grant 43 3,952 

Greenbrier 121 6,036 

Hampshire 57 1,152 

Hancock- 64 4.7S8 

Hardy 57 1,686 

Harrison 168 15,225 

Jackson 70 3,551 

Jefferson 37 3,490 

Kanawha 99 7,918 

Lewis 61 7,294 

Lincoln 37 2,174 

Logan 14 901 

Marion 195 41,346 

Marshall 179 11,516 

Mason 81 3,791 

Mercer 54 2,255 

Mineral 86 5,875 


Mingo 32 1,787 

Monongalia 70 6,597 

Monroe 71 2,736 

Morgan 23 1,704 

McDowell 76 4,218 

Nicholas 4S 2,243 

Ohio 83 7,376 

Pendleton 43 2,183 

Pleasants 54 2,935 

Pocahontas 75 3,858 

Preston 49 4,984 

Putnam 32 1,154 

Raleigh 90 3,974 

Randolph 91 4,911 

Ritchie 47 3,493 

Roane 59 2,619 

Summers 48 2.S92 

Taylor 47 5,719 

Tucker 46 4,887 

Tyler 83 7,308 

Upshur 61 4,844 

Wayne 66 3,913 

Webster 52 3,546 

Wetzel 139 11,991 

Wirt 21 1,005 

Wood 106 27,005 

Wyoming 8 220 

3,873 314,430 


Number of school houses in West Virginia 6,791 

Number of rented houses used for schools 267 

Average number of school houses built each year 175 

Total number of rooms used for schools 9,276 

Total number of rooms with apparatus 5,969 

Total number of rooms with libraries 3,912 

Total number of volumes in libraries 314,430 

Total enrollment— White pupils 273,097 

Colored pupils 11,660 

Total white and colored 284,757 

Total certificates issued teachers 9,675 

Total number of teachers 9,312 

Number of pupils graduated: 

Color Male Female Total 

White 1,848 2,136 3,984 

Colored 36 60 96 

Total 1,884 

Average length of school term 


137 days 

History of West Virg : nia 57 

Valuation of School Property. 

Houses $7,708,476 

Lands 1 ,703,375 

Furniture 707,306 

Apparatus 150,157 

Libraries 273,1 74 

Total valuation $10,542,488 

Total salary paid teachers of all grades 2,977,712 

Average monthly salary of teachers: 

First grade certificates $48.26 

Second grade certificates 40.35 

Third grade certificates 32.87 

Total cost of education for 1912 $5,081,603 

Assessed valuation of all taxable property $1,16S,012,65S 

For further school data see Historv of Cities and Towns, Chapter 



Of all things that make for civilization and the general 
improvement and upbuilding of a country, the railroad has 
been and probably will always be, the most active agent 
through which it is possible to obtain the- greatest degree of 
success; and there are few States in this Union more liberally 
blessed with this civilizing, Christianizing and commercializ- 
ing agency than is our own Little Mountain State — West Vir- 
ginia. In fact there are roads under construction somewhere 
within the State all the time, and it is difficult for one not in 
close touch with railroad affairs to keep track of these im- 
provements. However, the last account the writer had there 
were about sixty-six steam roads completed and in operation 
in the State, exclusive of the numerous electric lines, with ap- 
proximately 3,700 miles of main line track, and from one to 
six of these enter into, or extend through, each of the fifty-five 
counties, excepting only four. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, with its 1,124 miles of 
track, enters thirty-two counties in the State; the Chesapeake 
& Ohio, with 527 miles. 16 counties; Norfolk & Western, 380 
miles, 7 counties; Coal & Coke, 195V; miles, 7 counties; West- 
ern Maryland, 179 miles, 6 counties; Kanawha & Michigan, 94 
miles, 4 counties; the Virginian, 136 miles, 4 counties; P., C. 
& St. L., 55 miles. 3 counties; Little Kanawha, 30Va miles, 2 
counties; Dry Fork. 36 miles, 2 counties; Clarksburg North- 
ern, 14 miles. 2 counties; Kanawha & West Virginia, 39 miles, 
1 county; Pickens & Hodom, 21 miles, 1 county; West Vir- 
ginia Midland, 67 miles, 1 county; Alexander & Eastern, 18 
miles, 1 county: Cairo & Kanawha, 17 miles, 1 county, etc. 

The total assessed valuation of steam roads in the State 
for the year 1912 was $182,624,100, as follows: 

History of West Virginia 

Railroad. Valuation. Railroad. Valuation. 

Alexander & Eastern.. $ 25,000 Kelly's Creek & X. \\ .$ 60,000 

Big Samlv & Cumbd . . . 2,000 Kanawha Central 30,000 

Kenwood & Whg. Con. 60,000 Kanawha & Eastern... 3,000 

Buffalo Creek & Gaulev 100,000 Kanawha & Michigan . . 4,750,000 

Reaver Creek '. 15,000 Keller's Creek Imp 36,000 

Be ling ton & Northern. 30,000 Little Kanawha 200,000 

Baltimore & Ohio 77,650,000 Lorania 55,000 

Cranberry 50,000 Lew'burg & Roncvt. E. 37,500 

Cairo & Kanawha 60,000 Lonsdale Iron Co 16,050 

Cumberland \ "alley & Loop & Lookout 35,000 

Martinsburg '. 900,000 Marlinton & Camden.. 78,000 

Coal & Coke 4,900,000 Meadville & Summery. 20,000 

Cinnbd. & Pennsylvania 18,000 Morcantown & King- 
Chesapeake & Ohio .... 35,000,000 wood 1 ,000,000 

Campbell's Creek 135,000 Norfolk & Western .... 32,500,000 

Dry Eork 500,000 Pickens & Hacker V. . . 45,000 

Elk & Little Kanawha. 250,000 Preston 30,000 

Elk & Gaulev Pocahontas 20,000 

Erbacon & Summersv.. 20,000 Pinev River & P.. O... 125,000 

Glenrav & Richwood.. 40,000 Pickens & Addison.... 45,000 

Gu van," Big Uglv & C. R. 40,000 Pgh., Whg. & Ky 2,000,000 

Gladv & Alpena 80,000 P., C. C. & St. L 2,000,000 

Hampshire & Southern 425,000 Panther 5,000 

Island Creek 425,000 Raleigh & Po 100,000 

Iron Mountain & G 50,000 Rowlesburg & Southern 20,000 

Kanawha & West Va.. 550,000 Stroud's Creek & M... 80,000 

Kanawha & Glen Jean Sewell Valley 125,000 

& Eastern 300,000 Valley River 45,000 

Railroad. Valuation. 

Virginian Railway $ 5,500,000 

Winding Gulf. . . '. 2,500 

Walkersville & Ireland 15,000 

White Oak 225,000 

Wabash, Pittsburgh Terminal 550,000 

West Virginia Southern 40,000 

West Virginia Northern 110,000 

Wheeling Terminal 800,000 

Winifrede 150,000 

Western M arvland 10,000,000 

West Virginia Midland 140,000 

Morgantown & Dunkard Valley 

Total $182,624,100 

Valuation of all property assessed by Board of Public 
Works for 1912 was as follows: 

Steam railroads $182,624,100 

Bridges and ferries 1,940,000 

Street Railways 11,690,000 

Water, light and power companies 3,212,992 

Oil and gas companies 89,^30,311 

Private car lines 3/0,288 

Telephone and telegraph lines 4,853,856 

Express companies 616,500 

Total $2"5,038,047 

60 History of West Virginia 

The Baltimore & Ohio is the pioneer of the country's large 
railroad systems, having been organized in 1S27 and its first 
stretch of track placed in operation in 1830. From a small 
beginning it has gradually extended its tracks until today its 
system of 5,470 miles covers ten states, reaches 1,000 cities 
and towns, and its territory includes a population of twenty 
million people. It reaches out to the Mississippi River and 
the Great Lakes on the one hand and the Atlantic Seaboard 
on the other, bringing into direct communication the most 
active industrial and business centers. 

While each railroad in West Virginia, be it a trunk line 
or local, has contributed to the development of the section in 
which it operates, the Baltimore & Ohio, by reason of its early 
construction, its numerous diverging and far reaching lines, 
and the extraordinary transportation facilities it offers to ship- 
pers to the great eastern and western markets, has contributed 
more than all other roads in developing the natural resources 
of the State. 

The Chesapeake & Ohio, the Norfolk & Western, the 
Western Maryland, the Coal & Coke, the Kanawha & Michi- 
gan, the Virginian and the numerous other small lines, have 
each contributed their share to the State's development. 

In addition to the great advantages afforded by the rail- 
roads in West Virginia, they contribute largely toward the 
support of the county and State governments. The total val- 
uation of all public service corporations, assessed by the Board 
of Public Works and made subject to taxes in 1912, was 
^-^5,038,047. Practically two-thirds of the total valuation of 
public service corporations in the State is made up by the rail- 
roads, and considerably more than two-thirds of the latter 
classification belongs to the Baltimore & Ohio, the valuation 
of which was $77,650,000, an increase of $150,000 over the pre- 
vious year. 

History of West Virginia ol 


On September 5th, lyil, there appeared in the Wheeling 
Intelligencer a very interesting story of the early histor_\ ot 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, written by that very wort]., 
gentleman and able railroad man, Mr. U. B. Williams, who 
is now General Superintendent of the great trunk line system 
of which he wrote. 

It is with much pleasure we reproduce the greater por- 
tion of the article here : 

"* * * * Though scarcely more than a village 
boat landing, Wheeling from early Revolutionary days was 
regarded as the gateway of commerce through which the prin- 
cipal business between the East and West was carried on. 

"The village, for indeed at that time the city was a vil- 
lage in every sense of the word, occupied a geographical ad- 
vantage because of its location on the river, and this led to a 
centering of business at Wheeling for transportation across 
the mountains to the East and for shipment to the West by 
way of the Ohio River. Rivers and canals provided the chief 
means of commercial intercourse at that time. 

"The eastern states relied entirely upon water routes 
for their share of the western commerce. Many of the eastern 
states subscribed liberally to such enterprises from the funds 
of the commonwealths. The keenest rivalry for commercial 
supremacy in the East, however, was between New York, 
Pennsylvania and Maryland. Maryland, in the furtherance of 
its interest, had projected the Chesapeake and Ohio Ca- 
nal, and it was the realization in Maryland that, even with 
this, the states to the north were encroaching upon its western 
commerce, which crystalizcd the sentiment in favor of the 
railroad as a quicker mode of transportation as against the 

Wheeling was on the National Pike, over which long 
trains of Conestoga wagons wended their way across the Allc- 
ghenv Mountains to Baltimore. The tonnage that these trains 
of wagons hauled was small, the journey consumed weeks and 
the rate of freight was high because of the difficulties encoun- 
tered in crossing the mountains in teams. 

History of West Virginia 

Tales of Eldorado. 

"Teamsters employed on the National Pike, as they con- 
gregated in the taverns at night, narrated wonderful tales of 
the Eldorado beyond the Alleghenies, as pictured to their 
fancy by the stage drivers from the western slope of the 
mountains. In time these stories reached the ears of leading 
business men of Baltimore, and, like the tales of gold and 
precious spices that impelled the great Columbus to attempt 
the journey across unfathomed waters into unexplored lands, 
the Baltimoreans determined to join the Chesapeake with the 
Ohio by means of an all-rail line across the mountains, though, 
strange to relate, so far as can be learned, not one of them had 
ever been as far west as the Alleghenies. 

This was the inception of the first railroad in the world, 
the Baltimore & Ohio, which was devised to girdle the moun- 
tains and establish a western terminus on the banks of the 
Ohio River at Wheeling. 

B. & O. Company Organized. 

"On the evening of February 12, 1827, a meeting was held 
by a number of bankers and business men at the residence of 
George Brown in Baltimore to discuss the matter of building 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad from Baltimore to Wheeling. 
As a result of the meeting the Maryland Legislature was peti- 
tioned to charter the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company, 
the capita] stock of which was to be $5,000,000. ('Note.— It is 
interesting to here note that for the year 1912 the assessed 
valuation of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad for taxation pur- 
poses in West Virginia alone was $77,050,000. — Authoi.) 

"The charter was granted on February 27, and on April 
23, 1827, the organization meeting was held, which resulted 
in the election of Philip Thomas to the presidency of the com- 
pany and the selection of a board of directors. President 
Thomas had been chairman of the committee of Baltimoreans 
that petitioned the Maryland Legislature to charter the com- 

"Within a week following the action of the Maryland 
Legislature in granting the charter the Virginia Legislature 

History of West Virginia <o 

confirmed it, granting the company permission to lay it^ rail- 
in that State. Construction was begun immediately, and on 
July 4, 1S2S, the birthday of the railroad was commemorated 
by the laying of the corner-stone by Charles Carroll of Cai 
rollton, the last surviving signer of the Declaration of lml ■- 

"The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad reached Elliott's Mills, 
Maryland, in 1S30. and from Elliott's Mills the line was ex- 
tended to Frederick, Md., in 1831. 

Canal Securities Fail. 

"When the practicability of a railway line was demon- 
strated, State and municipal investments in canals were in a 
bad way. and every possible barrier was placed in the wake 
of the railroad, through injunctions, adverse legislation, etc.. 
coupled with litigation, offering dire discouragement. 

At Point of Rocks. Md., progress was retarded by the 
difficulties experienced in negotiating with the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Canal Company. Here the Baltimore & Ohio was 
compelled by the canal company to erect a board fence '. 
order that the passing locomotives and trains should not 
frighten the mules used on the towpaths of the canal. 

"The contention between the canal and the priority of 
right of way was most acute, and concerned in the case were 
Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney, Daniel Webster and 
Reverdy Johnson as attorneys for the railroad. At Point of 
Rocks construction was delayed almost a year by legal com- 
plications, but Harper's Ferry was reached by January I, 1834. 

Wheeling Subscribes $500,000. 

"In 1835 the City of Wheeling subscribed $500,000 to- 
wards building a line from Wheeling to Pittsburgh, this be- 
ing followed two years later by a subscription from the Vir- 
ginia Legislature to the Baltimore & Ohio of something over 

"The railroad was extended westward from Harper's 
Ferry to Cumberland. Md.. 172 miles west of Baltimore, in 
November. 1842. There it remained for several years, until 
the fall of 1848. when Thomas Swanii of Baltimore became 

64 History of West Virginia 

president of the company. Upon his election he immediately 
set about to push the railroad west from Cumberland, where 
it had been halted, and on June 5, 1851, the line was opened 
for business to Piedmont. Mile by mile the construction was 
pushed west to Grafton. 

"President Swann then promised the investors in Balti- 
more & Ohio securities and the citizens of Baltimore and 
Wheeling that the connecting line would be completed and 
through railroad connection established by January 1, 1853, 
and that no time might be lost gangs of men were put to work 
building the line eastward from Wheeling towards Fairmont 
to meet the forces building westward. 

"This of itself was a gigantic undertaking, from the fact 
that the rails laid were rolled at Mount Savage, Md., and had 
to be transported into the unbroken country to the new line. 
President Swann's promise was kept, however, and the golden 
spike marking the completion of the first American trunk line 
railway system was driven at Roseby's Rock on December 
24th, 1852. Roseby's Rock derives its name from Roseby 
Carr, the man in charge of the construction gangs — 'the 
miners and sappers,' as referred to in the chronicles of that 
time — and at the banquet which was tendered in Wheeling 
it was facetiously said that Roseby Carr 'had acted as the 
parson at the nuptials of the Ohio and the Chesapeake, and his 
men assisted at the courtship.' 

The First Train. 

"The first train to pass over the new trunk line left Balti- 
more January 10th, 1853, having on board President Swann, 
the directors of the Baltimore & Ohio and a delegation of 
prominent eastern men of affairs on their way to Wheeling 
to attend the memorable banquet at the McLure House in 
this city, which took place on January 12th, 1853. 

"It was a gala holiday season that marked the comple- 
tion of the Baltimore & Ohio's construction at Roseby's Rock 
on Christmas Eve, 1852. The people of the western portion of 
Virginia, and particularly here in Wheeling, were in a high 
state of glee. An immediate decision was reached to fittingly 
celebrate the occasion by a public demonstration in this city. 

History of West Virginia <>5 

A committee of the city extended invitations to President 
Swann, his board of directors of the Baltimore & Ohio, as 
well as to other prominent eastern men to participate in the 
celebration on the banks of the Ohio. 

A Public Demonstration. 

"A large public demonstration was planned for New 
Year's Day, 1853, but the date was postponed to January 12th. 
The Baltimore & Ohio officers entered into the celebration 
with much enthusiasm. The Maryland Legislature, then in 
session at Annapolis, adjourned from January 8th to 17th, in 
order that the members of that body might take part in the 
festivities at Wheeling. President Swann and party of some 
400 distinguished men of the east left Camden Station, Balti- 
more, on Monday morning. January 10th, in special trains for 
Wheeling, this being the first through journey to be made 
over the new trunk line. On the special trains, besides Presi- 
dent Swann and his directors of the railroad, were the gover- 
nors of Maryland and Virginia, the entire Legislatures of both 
states and such prominent men as George Brown, the first 
treasurer of the company; Benjamin IL Latrobe, the chief 
engineer who built the road; John II. B. Latrobe, his brother, 
and the first general counsel ; also a number of prominent 
stockholders of the company. Bands from the east accom- 
panied the party to enliven the journey. 

Special Reaches Wheeling. 

"The special trains reached Wheeling on January 12th, 
1853, amidst great hilarity in the city, the town being deco- 
rated with bunting, streamers and flags of the Union and of 
Maryland and Virginia. The reception committee escorted 
the party from the trains direct to the Mcl.ure House, where 
a procession was formed under command of Col. J. S. Wheat, 
chief marshal. The procession then moved to the court house, 
where the visitors were met by the mayor and city council of 
Wheeling, who extended a welcome on behalf of the city. The 
demonstration then took the form of a public meeting, at 
which addresses were delivered by Hon. Xelson Morgan. 

66 History of West Virginia 

mayor; President Swarm, Governor Johnson of Virginia, Gov- 
ernor Lowe of Maryland and several others. 

"That evening the distinguished visitors were tendered a 
banquet by the citizens of Wheeling, which in elegance has 
seldom been equalled. The banquet took place in the historic 
old Washington Hall, at the corner of Market and Monroe 
streets, Mayor Nelson being the toastmaster. 

"The addresses of George Brown, the first treasurer, who 
told of the early plans of forming the company ; President 
Swann, who pointed out the difficulties of pushing the line 
across the mountains; Chief Engineer Latrobe, who reviewed 
the engineering problems encountered; Governor Johnson of 
Virginia and Governor Lee of Maryland, who predicted the 
benefits that have since been derived from the new avenue of 
trade, were all of the highest order and truly characteristic of 
the optimism of the men of that time. 

Era of Expansion. 

"As soon as the line was opened for business the city 
entered upon an era of healthy expansion and made rapid 
strides in advancement. It was but natural that the stimulus , 
to business would be far reaching in its effect, but the ex- 
pectations of even the most sanguine tradesmen were ex- 

"Raw materials and products of the west and southwest 
were routed to Wheeling via the Ohio River for transporta- 
tion by rail to the eastern markets and far greater quantity. 
Eastern manufacturers shipped the products of their factories 
by the same routes, through Wheeling, and the addition of 
larger boats soon became an urgent necessity. * 

History of West Virginia (>7 




(From one of the Wheeling papers of June 21, 1913.) 
"Under their own steam, with great tooting of whistles 
and clanging of bells, a novel parade moved ont Seventeenth 
street at 1 :15 o'clock this afternoon. It consisted of all the 
engines in the B. & O. exhibit at Ilempficld yards, ancient and 
modern, traveling under their own steam. At the throttles 
were veteran engineers of the road, who had donned for the 
occasion overalls and jumpers and steered the quaint pioneers 
of the steam railroad engine up and down the track before the 
moving picture men, and a great crowd of wondering specta- 
tors, while overhea,d there whirred the twentieth century's 
contribution to travel — an airship. The contrast of nineteenth 
and twentieth centuries was most interesting. 

"Early this morning the veterans of the B. & O. began 
to come in. Discarding citizen's garb for the blue jumpers, 
thev soon were busv about their engines. Soon smoke issued 
from their stacks, then steam began to rise in the several an- 
tiquated and modern boilers, and at 1 1 o'clock the old 'Pioneer' 
was the first engine to get under way. She ran up and down 
the switch, and later other engines were put in motion, and 
the exhibition was most interesting. Over on the west track 
the old white horse patiently plodded up and down, towing 
the old horse car, a part of the exhibit, while down to the 
south puffed the giant Mallctt, the latest thing in locomotives. 

Those in Charge. 

"John Spurried. formerly superintendent and now on the 
general manager's staff, is here in charge of the movement of 
cars, and is assisted by Superintendent Z. T. Brantncr of the 
Martinsburg shops, who has rounded out fifty years of service 
on the road. 

"The assignment of crews to the various engines follows: 
"CAMEL — W. R. Fleming. 44 years in service, and C. 
Schwartz (traveling fireman). 

08 History of West Virginia 

"DRAGON — E. Province, 43 years in service, and A. En- 
gles, 53 years in service. 

"PIONEER — Michael Kirby, 58 years in service, and J. 


"MISSISSIPPI— R. A. Hutchinson and Z. T. Brantner, 
50 years in service. 

"THOS. JEFFERSON— J. M. Spurrier, 50 years in ser- 
vice, and \V, F. Stauch. 

"ATLANTIC — J. J. Brady, 50 years in service, and M. 

"MALLETT— J. E. Daugherty and J. S. Little. 

"The Mississippi was the only engine which refused to 
move. She bucked and had to be shoved out of the yard. 
The big Mallett headed the parade, with the others falling in 
line in point of age. 

Two Old Engineers. 

"The delegation of old engineers, when they arrived here, 
were welcomed at the depot by a band and a delegation headed 
by the Hon. Henry Gassaway Davis, himself an old railroader. 
Accompanying the party were Major Panghorn, representative 
of the B. & O. ; Vice-President Galloway and other officials. 

"Of the old employees here today, J. T. Mercer was a 
brakeman for 46 years ; Michael Dee, a conductor for 50 years ; 
W. T. Johnson, a conductor for 50 years; J. C. Engle, a con- 
ductor for 50 years; J. H. Fosnat, a conductor for 50 years; 
James Mahoney, a yard brakeman for 39 years. Among the 
old timers was 'Daddy' John Smith, bearing a happy smile and 
his 91 years with ease. He was much photographed during 
the day and seemed to enjoy himself as he rode up and down 
the track in the old horse car. Daddy Smith worked for the 
road 58 vears, and is the man who transferred. President Lin- 
coln through Washington on the way to the first inauguration. 
He came in with the other officials from the East. The ex- 
hibit of engines has attracted thousands, and today the Hemp- 
field yard was thronged, while an equally large crowd occu- 
pied Seventeenth street this afternoon when the parade oc- 

History of West Virginia <>'> 

curred. The old Cumberland Valley passenger ear was alsu 
thrown open to the public today, and thousands passed 
through it, viewing the collection of old railroad relics." 


By Harry F. Smith. 

(From Railroad Man's Magazine.. 
See that train of cars out yonder. 

And that battleship on wheels? 
Don't it fill yer mind wid wonder. 

Till yer brain jist fairly reels? 
"Royal Blue." they used to call them. 

But they've changed the color now ; 
Still they did not change the splendor. 

So they're "royal," anyhow. 

When I first came to this country 

(Brother Mike was here before). 
And he'd written home to tell me 

I could get a job — and more. 
"Pack yer trunk." said Brother Michael. 

"Bid farewell to dear ould Cork. 
Make your way across the ocean 

To the harbor of Xew York. 

"When yer free from custom harpies. 

Heed the cry of 'Western llo!' 
Strike as fast as legs will take you. 

Straight unto the B. & O. 
Come direct to old St. Louis: 

Here there'-s work and wages, too. 
Give me love to all relations. 

From your brother, Mike McGruc." 

Well. I carried out correctly 

All these things from Brother Mike: 

Took the P.. & O. directly. 
And I never saw the like. 

ri_ History of West Virginia 

Cities, towns and plains and prairie 
Passed in wondrous beauty show; 

Mountains, rivers, lakes and valleys, 
All along that B. & O. 

I had seen our own Ki Harney 

Spread along her lakes and strand ; 
Saw where Nature painted grandly, 

Guided by the great God-hand, 
But in all me life I'd never 

Seen such wondrous beauty show, 
As I saw at Harper's Ferry, 

Riding on the B. &: O. 

Years have wrought some might}' changes 

Since I took that long joy-ride ; 
Brother Michael's gone to heaven, 

And his sweet wife's by his side. 
See that lad who swings the lantern, 

In his bright Prince Albert blue? 
He's conductor, my son Michael — 

The boys call him "Mack McGrue." 

Sure, I'm proud of my son Michael. 

There he waves his hand, you see ! 
Good-by, Mack, may God protect you 

And bring you safely back to me. 
Yes, I've seen some mighty changes, 

Time has wrought them, too. I know. 
But it cannot change my feelings 

For the famous B. &: O. 

The Norfolk & Western Railroa'd Adopting the Electric 


According to a dispatch from Bluefield, under date of 
February 8th, 1915, the Norfolk & Western Railroad has re- 
cently installed on its Elkhorn Division two massive locomo- 
tives, each weighing 270 tons. They are both used on one- 
train, one pulling, the other pushing. They arc operated by 

History of West Virginia 71 

an electric current from a single-phase alternating system o\ er 
a single wire no thicker than a lead pencil, at 13,000 volts, a 
pressure twenty times greater than that used in New York 
Subway. The energy is generated by steam turbines in a 
special power-house built by the railroad company to operate 
this division. The plant is located near the mines at Bluefield, 
from which coal can be economically procured. 

The electrified zone of the Norfolk & Western, one of the 
heaviest coal carriers in the world, consists of nearly 100 miles 
of track. This is said to be the heaviest and most extensive 
electrified railroad system in the world. 

These two electric locomotives take the place of three 
giant, up-to-date Mallet locomotives, hauling the same ton- 
nage at double the speed over the heavy mountain grades. 
These powerful engines are so satisfactorily demonstrating 
their superiority over steam locomotives, both in capacity and 
from an economical standpoint, that it is supposed that other 
roads will soon adopt the electric system. 


Brief History of Cameron, Charleston, Clarksburg, Charles 
Town, Elizabeth, Elkins, Fairmont, Grafton, Harrisville, 
Huntington, Kingwood, Logan, Madison, Mannington, 
Martinsburg, Marlinton, Huntersville, Middlebourne, 
Moundsville, Morgantown, New Martinsville, New Cum- 
berland, Parkersburg, Pennsboro, Philippi, Point Pleas- 
ant, Pineville, Towns in Putnam County, St. Marys, Sut- 
ton, Wheeling, West Union, Weston, Welch, Williamson. 


Cameron is situated on Grave's Creek and the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad, 17 miles from Moundsville, the county seat, 
and 28 miles from Wheeling. The Wheeling and the Grafton 
ends of the B. & O. were tied at Roseby's Rock, 9 miles west 
of Cameron, on Christmas eve, 1852. At that time the land 
on which Cameron now stands was part of a farm owned by 
William MeConnahue, who shortly afterward conveyed the 
farm to Robert Crawford. 

Between Glover Gap and Cameron there are several 
heavy grades, and in order to facilitate the handling of freight 
traffic the railroad company put on a number of helping en- 
gines between those points. It therefore became necessary to 
construct Y's, sand-houses, fuel depots and bunk-houses at 
each "helper" terminal. Soon afterward villages sprang up at 
each end of these grades, the east side being named "Glover's 
Gap," after the tunnel by that name, three miles west, and the 
west side terminal was called Cameron. 

The early settlers of Cameron were mostly railroad men, 
and for many years the great majority of the population of 
the town were railroad employees and their families, the en- 
gineers, firemen and brakemen witli the "helpers" having their 
homes there. 

History of West Virginia 73 

Of the early settlers at Cameron, there were the W'ill- 
iamses, the Cogleys, the Williards, the Sloanes, the Lcmmons, 
the Cues, the Crawford*, the Burle\s, the Smiths, the McCus- 
keys, the Reeses, the Duuleveys and many others whose names 
the writer does not now recall. 

"Daddy" Lemmon and "Uncle" Ilughey Williams were 
perhaps among the first to locate at Cameron. Both ran 
"camel-back" engines between the "Gap" and Cameron for 
many years. "Daddy" Lemmon 's engine blew up at Glover's 
Gap tunnel over forty years ago, killing him instantly. 
"Uncle - ' Ilughey continued in the service many years, and he. 
too, finally died at his post. 

U. B. Williams, now General Superintendent of the east- 
ern division of the B. & O. Railroad Company, was a son of 
Ilughey Williams. U. 11., or "Bub" Williams, as the railroad 
fraternity called him, was at one time station agent and tele- 
graph operator at Cameron. At that time the writer was 
"night owl" at Littleton on the same wire. But "Bub" 
Williams was too good a railroad man to pin down to a life 
job of telegraphing, and no one understood this better than 
did Superintendent Charles Dunlap and W. II. Clements, 
Master of Transportation, and soon "Bub" Williams was 
Chief Train Dispatcher at Cameron — the headquarters of that 
office being removed from Fairmont to Cameron as an extra 
inducement for Mr. Williams to accept the proffered position. 
This was about the year 1880. A few years later the dis- 
patcher's office was removed to Grafton and Mr. Williams was 
promoted to trainmaster. Since that time, through a series of 
rapid promotions, Mr. Williams has risen to his present high 
position, and is now in line for promotion to General Manager 
of the B. & O. system. 

Bruce E. McCuskey. assistant cashier of the Cameron 
Bank, is an old-time telegrapher, and also served several years 
as train dispatcher. TTis father before him was among the 
earlv railroaders to settle at Cameron, and later on opened up 
a hardware store at that place. 

The town records were destroyed by fire June °. 18''?. 
Owing to this fact we are unable to ascertain from that source 

History of West Virginia 

the date of the incorporation of Cameron, but it was probably 
in the spring of 18/9. 

The population of Cameron in 1900 was 964; in 1910 it 
was 1,600, and on January 1st, 1914, it was about 2,200. 

Cameron is fortunate in being in the midst of a great gas 
field. It is perhaps the best favored town in the State in the 
way of cheap gas for fuel and lights, the rate for domestic use 
being only ten cents per thousand cubic feet, and five and six 
cents to factories, these rates being much lower than is usually 
charged elsewhere in the State. 

Cameron has one large pottery, employing 250 people; a 
large window glass factory, employing 75 people; 2 machine 
shops, 1 roller flouring mill, 1 auto repair shop, 3 large livery 
barns, 4 blacksmith shops, 2 buggy emporiums, 2 auto gar- 
ages, 2 furniture stores, 3 hotels, 4 drug stores, 3 large depart- 
ment dry goods stores, 4 large clothing stores, 1 shoe store, 
2 general stores, 12 groceries, 3 meat shops, 4 restaurants, sev- 
eral boarding houses, 1 large feed store, 2 bakeries, a fine city 
building and an up-to-date fire department. 

The Star Tribune, published and edited by Van Parriott, 
and a job printing office run by that old-time newspaper man, 
Oliver Cook, are not the least important of Cameron enter- 

Cameron has two prosperous banking institutions, the 
First National Bank, William Norvel, president, and Harry 
Elbin, cashier, and The Cameron Bank, T. C. Pipes, president, 
and W. C. Loper, cashier. 

Cameron has a fine water system — Mr. William Kincaid 
says "the best in the State" — and costs the citizens only 62*4 
cents per 1,000 gallons. The plant is owned by the town. 

Of churches, there are four — Cumberland Presbyterian, 
Methodist, Christian and Catholic — all having large congrega- 
tions and able preceptors. There are several doctors and one 
lawyer in town, but not much use for either profession. 

The writer is informed by Mr. Kincaid that what will 
probably be the largest green house in the State is now being 
constructed at Cameron, and that the growing of flowers will 
be a special feature of the plant, one building being now com- 

History of West Virginia 75 

pleted in which there have already been planted 35,000 

The city government is composed of the following offi- 
cials: Thomas Smith, mayor; Jerry Fish, recorder; II. 1 liner- 
man, chief of police; councihnen, William Phillips, Lon Lowe, 
Vernon Monroe, Roll Stimmel and F. II. Fish. The mayor 
is an out and out Socialist, but ilr. Smith's election docs not 
indicate a political victor}-, as the town elections arc non-par- 
tisan. Mr. Fish is now serving his sixteenth consecutive term 
as city recorder, which is proof of his popularity with the 
people of his town. 

The following named gentlemen are only a few of the 
"live wires" of Cameron: Win. M. Kineaid, William Xorvel. 
Van Parriott, Harry Elbin, Oliver Cook, Thomas C. Pipes, 
W. C. Loper. B. \i. McCuskey, L. L. Howard, C. G. Fish. 
Porter Williard, Thomas Smith, Jerry Fish, Lon Lowe, Ver- 
non Monroe, Roll Stimmel, F. IT. Fish, S. E. Davis, H. Hiner- 
man, Wiley McCardle, Warren Wilson and many others. 

Cameron High and Graded Schools. 

J. S. Bonar, superintendent; J. W. Cole, principal; Mary 
A. Alexander, Grace A. Yeakcl and Margaret Hurt, assistants. 

CENTRAL SCHOOL— E. R. Moats, principal; T. J. 
Faust, Alice Cook, Kathryn Bonar, Grace McCleary, Sue 
Waddle, Wilda Bradley, Nellie Byard, Myrtle Hileman, Anna 
Fitzgerald, Virginia Morgan and Mrs. Ehvina Sample, 

GLEN EASTON SCHOOL^David Bonar, principal, 
and Elsie Hubbs, assistant. 

LOUDEXVILLE SCIIOOL^Anna Dowler, principal, 
and Jessie Cook, assistant. 

School term — High school. 9 months; graded schools, S 
months. Total enrollment for 1913-14, 703. 

76 History of West Virginia 


This indenture, made this twenty-eighth day of Decem- 
ber, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and 
eighty-seven — 

Between Cuthbert Bullitt of the County of Prince William 
and Helen, his wife, of the first part, and George Clendenin of 
Greenbrier of the other part, witnesseth, that the said Cuth- 
bert Bullitt, and Helen, his wife, for and in consideration 
of the sum of five shillings lawful money of Virginia, to them 
in hand paid by the said George Clendenin, the receipt where- 
of the}' do hereby acknowledge, have granted, bargained, sold, 
aliened, enfeofed and confirmed to the said George Clendenin 
and his heirs forever a certain tract or parcel of land bearing 
date the twentieth of November, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand seven hundred and seventy-nine, and is bounded as 
followeth, being situated on the East side of the great 
Kenaway and South side of Elk River in the forks of said 
river and beginning at a sugartree and poplar on Elk River 
and down the several courses of the same three hundred and 
sixty poles to a large sycamore on the point marked T. B. and 
up the several courses of' the Great Kanaway nine hundred 
and twenty-eight poles to a white walnut and leaving the 
river North — to a Spanish oak and a white oak at the foot of 
the hill North West six hundred and seventy poles to the Be- 
ginning with all the houses, Wood Ways Waters and other 
appurtenances thereunto Belonging or in any wise appertain- 

To have and to hold the said tract or parcel of land with 
the appurtenances to the said George Clendenin and his heirs 
forever to the only proper use and behoof of him the said 
George Clendenin and his heirs forever. 

And the said Cuthbert Bullitt doth for himself his heirs 
Executors and Administrators covenant and agree to and with 
the said George Clendenin his heirs and assigns forever 
that the said Cuthbert Bullitt at the time of the sealing and 
delivery of this Indenture is seized of sure and indefeasible 
Estate of inheritance in fee simple of and in the Tract or 
parcel of land hereby conveyed and every part thereof and 

History of West Virginia 

that the same now is and forever hereafter shall remain free 
and clear of and from all incumbrancer or charges of what 
nature or kind so ever made done or suffered by him or am 
person claiming under him. And the said Cuthbert Bullitt 
and his heirs will forever warrant and defend the said tract 
or parcel of land hereby conveyed and every part thereof to 
the said George Clendenin his heirs and assigns forever against 
the claim or demand of any person or persons whatever. 

In Testimony whereof the said Cuthbcrt Bullitt and 
Helen, his wife, have hereunto put their hands and affixed 
their seals the day and year first above written. 


Sealed and delivered in the presence of 
Henry Banks 
Andw Moore 
Andw. Donally 

At a court for Greenbrier County April 29th 1788 
This Indenture Deed of Bargain and sale from Cnth. Bul- 
litt to George Clendenin proved in Court by Henry and Andw 
Banks and Andw Donally two of the witnesses thereto and 
to lie for further proof. 

Teste : 


GreenBrier County Court 
January Term 

This Deed was presented in Court and the Court being 
satisfied that Andw Moore a third subscribing witness thereto 
had departed this life and it being proved to the satisfaction 
of the Court that the signature of Andrew Moore to the same 
is his proper handwriting therefore on the motion of Daniel 
Ruffner It is ordered the same to be recorded here and also 
certified to the Clerk of Kenaway there to be also recorded 
where the land lyeth. 

"A copy Teste : 

TXO. S. CRAWFORD. Clerk." 

78 History of West Virginia 

Any person familiar with the lay of the land at the 
mouth of Elk River would recognize the fact that Charleston 
occupies a portion of the land conveyed by the foregoing de- 
scribed deed. 

Cuthbert Bullitt was a Major in Braddock's arm)-, and as 
an expression of his appreciation for valuable services ren- 
dered Lord Dunmore granted him a large tract of land lying 
between the mouth of Tyler Creek and a point about two miles 
above the mouth of Elk River, including that portion con- 
veyed to Clendenih. 

Much of the following information is taken from Atkin- 
son's History of Kanawha County : 

Immediately following his purchase, Mr. Clendenin 
erected a fort on the river bank near Brook's landing, to which 
he shortly afterward moved his family. This is said to have 
been the first settlement in Charleston. The fort was a two- 
story structure, built out of hewn logs. It was forty feet 
long by thirty feet wide, and stood nearly a hundred years, 
when in 1874 it was torn down by Charles C. Lewis, "in order 
to make room for the elegant brick mansion in which he now 
resides," on the corner of Kanawha and Brook streets. 

Six other log cabins were built in Charleston shortly after 
the erecting of the fort. At least two of these buildings stood 
on the corner of Kanawha and Truslow streets, and were in 
later years occupied by John and Levi Welch. Another— 
"large, two-story mansion" — stood on the upper corner of 
Court and Kanawha streets, known then as Buster's Tavern, 
and for years was a popular stopping place between Richmond 
and the Ohio River. 

A two-story double log building stood on the site later 
occupied by the drug store of Dr. James H. Rogers on Kana- 
wha street in 1876. Another two-story, hewn log building 
stood on the corner of Summers and Kanawha streets. "This 
building," says Atkinson, "is supposed to have been the origi- 
nal Charleston Hotel." 

A two-storv log dwelling stood on Kanawha street on the 
present site of the Kanawha Presbyterian Church, and a simi- 
lar building stood on the corner of Kanawha and Hales streets. 
"Here." savs Atkinson, "Norris S. Whittaker was born, being 

History of West Virginia 70 

the first white child born within the present corporate limits 
of Charleston." 

About the same time Xehemiali Woods built a large log 
dwelling on the square where the Kanawha Valley Bank was 
since constructed. 

The ground now occupied by the W'ehrle block, on corner 
of Kanawha and Alderson streets, marks the site of the old 
Central House, which was destroyed by the big fire of Decem- 
ber 12, 1S74, a portion of which had been erected over a hun- 
dred years ago. 

Charleston was first incorporated December 19. 1794, in 
the name of "Charlestown," providing : 

"That forty acres of land, the property of George Clen- 
denin, at the mouth of Elk River, in the County of Kanawha, 
as the same are already laid off into lots and streets, shall be 
established a town by the name of CHARLESTOWN. And 
Reuben Slaughter. Andrew Donally, Sr., William Clendenin, 
John Morris, Sr., Leonard Morris, George Alderson, Abraham 
Baker, John Voung and William Morris, gentlemen, are ap- 
pointed trustees." 

Following is a copy of what purports to be the original 
plan of the town of Charleston, taken from Atkinson's History 
of Kanawha Countv : 

Lots 7 and 8 sold to John Edwards; and 10 to Francis Watkins; 
11 and 12 to Alex. Welch; 13 and 14 to fosiah Harrison; lo and 16 to 
Shad Harmon; 17 and 18 to Charles VcClung; 19 and 20 to Francis 
Watkins; 21 and 22 to same, and 23 and 24 to Josiah Harrison. 

History of West Virginia 81 

Lots 7 and S sold to John I'M wards ; 9 and 10 to Francis 
Watkins; 11 and 12 to Alex. Welch: 13 and 14 to Josiah Har- 
rison: 15 and 16 to Shad Harmon; 17 and IS to Charles Mc- 
Clung: 19 and 20 to Francis Watkins: 21 and 22 to same, and 
2.i and 24 to Josiah Harrison. 

First County Court and Public Buildings at Charleston. 

On the 5th day of October. A. 1). 1789, the first County 
Court for the then new county of Kanawha was held. The 
following "gentlemen justices" were severally sworn in and 
qualified as members of said Court : Thomas Lewis. Robert 
Clendennin, David Robinson, George Alderson, Francis Wat- 
kins. Charles McClung, Benjamin Strother, William Clen- 
dennin, Leonard Morris and James Van Bibber. 

Thomas Lewis, being the oldest member of the Court. 
was, by the laws of Virginia, entitled to the Sheriffalty of the 
county, and was accordingly commissioned as such by the 
Governor of the Commonwealth, and took the oath required 
by law. Mr. Lewis thereupon appointed John Lewis his 

William H. Cavendish was appointed Clerk of the Court, 
and was introduced and took the oath of office. 

Reuben Slaughter was appointed County Surveyor and 
Benjamin Strothcr. David Robinson and John Van Bibber 
were appointed Commissioners of Revenue for the county. 

At the first sitting of the Court the following order was 
passed : 

"Ordered, that the public buildings for the use of this 
countv be erected on the land* of George Clendennin, at the 
mouth of Flk River, or as near thereto as the situation will 
admit, and until the erection of said buildings Court be held 
at the mansion house of George Clendennin." 

A County Prison. 

The Court held February 0, 1792, passed the following 
order in relation to the construction of a county jail : "Ordered, 
that the Clerk of this county do advertise letting the building 
of a prison in said county agreeable to a plan to be then pro- 
duced, which will be on the site 1st day of March Court, to 

82 History of West Virginia 

be held for this county. Ordered, that the bounds of said 
prison (which is to be built on the front of the lot between 
John Young's and Lewis Tackett's) be extended so as to in- 
clude the garrison and house wherein George Clendennin now 
lives, for the safety of the prisoners from the hostile invasion 
of the Indian enemy." 

It is proper to explain that the "bounds" of the prison 
above alluded to refer to a statute of Virginia specifying a 
certain number of feet or yards from a prison, beyond which 
prisoners were not allowed to go, under the penalty of forfeit- 
ing their bonds, or in some cases, of death itself. This peculiar 
statute was repealed by the adoption of the Code of 1S49. 

The March term of the Court for the same year contains 
the following order, which is given, as were the others also, 
verbatim: "Ordered, that the Sheriff do let to the lowest bid- 
der the building of a prison for the County of Kanawha, twelve 
feet square, with two floors, one of earth in the bank of the hill 
facing the Kanawha, and the other laid over with logs as close 
as possible; the house to be between floors seven feet, covered 
cabin fashion. The bolts, bars and locks upon as economical 
a plan as possible; and the Clerk on behalf of the Court of 
this county give his bond to the undertaker or undertakers for 
the payment of the sum the said building is undertaken for; 
and that he also take bond and security of the undertaker or 
undertakers, on or before the 1st of July next, to have the 
same completed." 

The prison was built on, or rather in, the river bank, in 
the vicinity of the present residence of C. C. Lewis, Esq., on 
Kanawha street, within a few hundred feet of the Clendennin 
garrison or block-house; and while I have not found a record 
in the County Clerk's office showing the fact, still it is gener- 
ally understood that Lewis Tackett, the proprietor of Tack- 
ett's Fort, at Coalsmouth, was the contractor and builder. 

I find that on the 4th day of November, 1795, while the 
work of constructing the jail was going on, the following pro- 
test entered on the Court record: "George Alderson, gentle- 
man Sheriff of Kanawha County, entered his dissent against 
the jail as being insufficient." Upon seven other occasions 
the same entry is made of the protest of Sheriff Alderson 

History of West Virginia 83 

against the construction of the jail according to the plans and 
specifications before referred to. lie was right. It was both 
unreasonable and, to say the least, inhuman to construct a 
prison under ground, when there was such a vast quantity of 
level land unoccupied and timber of the largest and best quali- 
ties for such purposes standing within a few rods of the site 
of the underground prison pen. The jail was, however, con- 
structed according to the order of the Court, and was used 
for prison purposes of the county for a number of years. 

The next county jail was built by David Fuqua, a few 
years before the present ragged court house was constructed, 
for which he received £150. Colonel Joel Ruffner, who is ex- 
cellent authority for early Kanawha history, thus speaks of 
the jail: "It stood on the upper portion of the lot, rather in 
front of the present circuit court clerk's office as it now stands 
on the court house lot, and quite- near Kanawha street. It 
was built of large, square hewed logs, lined inside with planks 
lour inches thick and from eight to twelve inches wide, sawed 
out of oak timber with whip-saws. These planks were spiked 
against the walls of the building with large wrought iron 
spikes. Xo one ever escaped from the jail, - ' says the Colonel, 
"except by means of the doorway, and it was on several occa- 
sions pretty well filled with violators of the laws." 

The First Court House. 

The first County Court Clerk's office was built on the lot 
precisely where the Hale House now stands. It was con- 
structed out of rough stone, was one story high, and was quite 
a respectable building for those days. With the exception of 
the roof, which was of clap-boards, it was fireproof. The rea- 
son whv it was separated from the other public buildings, 
however, was to keep it out of the reach of fire. 

From the County Court proceedings of April 16, 1802. I 
make the following extract in relation to the County Clerk's 

"Whereas. John Reynolds has this day undertaken to 
build an office for the use of the present and future clerk of 
this county, on the lot whereon John Reynolds, the present 
clerk, now lives, and the said Reynolds to convey unto the 

84 History of West Virginia 

Justices of Kenawha County, in fee simple., title in and to 
forty feet square of land, part of said lot, whereon to erect the 
said office. The said office is to be built of stone or brick; 
if of stone, the outside thereof is to be stuccoed, and the in- 
side plastered. The height to be eleven feet between the 
floors ; the lower floor to be laid with good oak or pine plank. 
Two windows, of eighteen lights each ; the roof to be laid with 
jointed shingles, well pitched; the door, windows and shut- 
ters to be handsomely painted, and the whole to be finished 
in a good, sufficient and workmanlike manner. And the said 
Reynolds is authorized to call upon the Sheriff, who is directed 
to pay the said Reynolds the sum of two hundred dollars for 
the purpose of erecting the same : and the said Reynolds and 
Joseph Ruffner, Jun'r, his security, are to give bond to the 
Justices of this Court in the sum of $400 for the due perform- 
ance of said agreement." 

In 1803 the population of Charleston was about 150. 

Front street, on the Kanawha River bank, was about one- 
half mile in length and 60 feet wide. About two-thirds of the 
houses of the town were located on one side of this street, 
while on the river side there were no houses at all. Running 
parallel with Front street and about four hundred feet back 
of it was another street, partially opened, along which there 
were a few scattered houses. The remainder lay upon cross 
streets, flanking the public square. There were a few frame 
buildings along Front street, but the great majority of the 
houses along this street were of hewn logs, the buildings in 
the back-ground being mostly small round log cabins. Such 
a thing as a painted house was unthought of in Charleston at 
that time; and if an itinerant painter had made his appearance 
in the town he would probably have been arrested as a sus- 
picious character. 

The making of streets was a very simple operation. All 
they- had to do was to cut a road through the woods and dump 
the brush over the Kanawha River bank, using the logs to 
build houses with or for fuel. The sloping bank of the river 
in front of the village was still covered with large sycamore 
trees and pawpaw bushes. A dense forest of large and lofty 

History of West Virginia . s "» 

beech, sugar, ash and poplar timber, with thickets of pawpaw, 
covered the ground in the rear of the village. 

The public square occupied a position near the center of 
town and extended from Front to Second street. The court 
house was a small, unpainted, one-story frame building, stand- 
ing back about forty feet from Front street. Every magistrate 
in the county was a Judge, and for their benefit a bench upon 
a platform, four feet high, extended across one entire end of 
the court house. The jail, which was a log building, con- 
tained two Cells — one for debtors, the other for criminals. 

The whipping post, pillory and stocks were located in 
front of the jail, near the south end of the court house, and 
ranging with the front thereof, in full view from the street and 
the adjacent dwellings; the object in placing these instru- 
ments of torture in that conspicuous position being, it is sup- 
posed, for the purpose of affording the greatest possible van- 
tage ground to the gaze of the curious public. — Atkinson. 

Another relic of barbarism sometimes called into action 
at Charleston at that time was the "wind-stopper" — a gallows 
used for the purpose of strangling the life out of unfortunates 
who were sentenced to capital punishment. It was a crude 
affair, similar to the contrivance used by farmers for hanging 
up hogs in butchering times — a stout pole being placed in the 
forks of two trees or similar device, about twelve feet from 
the ground. The victim was then placed upon a wagon or 
other vehicle and driven under the horizontal pole. The sheriff 
secured one end of a rope to the pole and the other around the 
victim's neck. Then "get up. Dan!" Down goes Rill to tread 
the air. and — there you are. "A very simple, very inexpensive 
and very effective operation." you say. Yes, but the barbar- 
ousness of it ! I'm times have changed since then. Xow. 
instead of taking a fellow out in the woods and hanging him 
like a dog. he is taken to Moundsville on a first-class ticket 
and hanged like a gentleman, and. when cut down, he will be 
just as dead as the fellow who treaded air under a tree. Vet 
we boast of being a civilized people! Capital punishment i< 
wrong from any point of view. It has absolutely nothing to 

86 History of West Virginia 

recommend it, but everything to condemn it. It is but legal- 
ized murder; repugnant to the moral senses; a relic of barbar- 
ism and a disgrace to any country that practices it. 

We have taken some time and space in picturing Charles- 
ton as she was a hundred years ago. We will now attempt 
to present a bird's eye view of the Capital City as she is today. 
To undertake to give anything like a complete description of 
Charleston's multitudinous industries would require a good 
sized volume in itself. 

Up to 1900 the population grew very slowly, there being 
only 11,099 at the end of that year. During the next ten years 
these figures were more than doubled, and now, January 1st, 
1914, the population of Charleston is about 35,000. The city 
has an area of 5j/> square miles, is 602 feet above sea level and 
has a mean temperature of 60 degrees. 

The following summary of the city's business for the year 
1912 will give some sort of an idea of what the people of 
Charleston were doing at that time, but within the last year 
the increase over these figures must be enormous : 

Postal receipts $ 150,000 

Number of banks 10 

Stock and surplus 3.481,586 

Total resources 12,41 1,743 

Increase in deposits in 10 years 85^ 

Increase in capital stock in 10 years 375^r 

Manufacturing 5,165,000 

Retailing .' 19,400,000 

Jobbing 24,560,000 

Assessed valuation of property 29,856,022 

Actual valuation of property 49 N 760,000 

Annual wages 816,000 

Capita] invested 6.000,000 

Persons employed 3,679 

Railroad passenger receipts 776,441 

Freight receipts 2,176,000 

Charleston possesses many advantages which contribute 
to her upbuilding as a manufacturing center, the more im- 
portant of which is the abundance of cheap fuel and raw ma- 

History of West Virginia N7 

terial and transportation facilities, Cas fur manufacturing on 
torpriscs may be had as low as live cents per 1.000 cubic feet 
and coal for 05 cents a ton. l-'ire. building- and terra cotta clay 
are found on every hand. The Kanawha River, the K. iK: M., 
the Coal & Coke, the K. & W. \ a. and the C. cc O. railroads, 
reaching north, south, east and west, afford transportation 
facilities unexcelled am where. The Coal & Coke traversing a 
country famous for its immense supplies of hard and soft 
wood, consisting of poplar, basswood, oak and hemlock, makes 
Charleston the headquarters for building material. 

The city has 30 miles of street railway track, which, to- 
gether with equipment, represents a capital investment of 
$1,500,000, giving employment to over 100 people at an aver- 
age monthly salary of $50 each, while the public is given lirst- 
class service at a five-cent fare. These lines load not only to 
the business marts of the city and the suburban homes ami 
factories, but to Edgewood, Clenwood and Capital Parks, 
where may be found a haven of rest from toil and business 
cares. Here are winding paths amid stately trees or mossy 
dells spanned by rustic bridges some leading to lively places 
of amusement, while others wend their way to quiet, seques- 
tered nooks that offer a delightful trysting place for loving 
twain or dreaming muse. 

Charleston has most excellent fire protection, by reason 
of which the loss by conflagration is kept to a low minimum, 
the loss by fire in 1912 being only $20,000. This department 
consists of 27 men. one volunteer company, three steamers, 
three plain hose wagons, three combination hose wagons, two 
ladder trucks, one supply wagon and one chemical engine. 
The city has S3 miles of streets. 26 miles of which are paved 
or macadamed ; 75 miles of paved sidewalk. The sanitary con- 
ditions, except in a few isolated cases, are good, there being 
over 3S miles of public and private sewers, while the streets 
and alleys are kept clear of garbage and offensive odors. 

Charleston is noted for her many fine buildings. The 
State capitol and annex: the new Federal government build- 
ing; the handsome business blocks and hundreds of beautiful 
homes present quite a metropolitan appearance. The V. M. 
C. A. building, costing S100.000. is said to be one of the largest 

88 History of West Virginia 

and best equipped of the kind in the United States. Charles- 
ton lias two daily newspapers — the Mail and the Gazette — 
with a combined circulation of 15,000 copies daily ; 4 first-class 
hotels and 10 others, with a total of more than iOO rooms and 
a daily capacity of 1,000 guests; 38 churches — all denomina- 
tions; 3 hospitals and several institutions for the homeless and 

Owing to the rapid business expansion in Charleston some 
of the old residence districts are being gradually absorbed by 
business blocks. This has necessarily forced the development 
of outlying property for residence purposes, and farms that 
were a few years ago considered isolated sections are now 
built up with beautiful homes, paved streets, served by trolley 
lines and enjoying all the advantages of city life without any 
of its disadvantages. Take, for instance, the section bordering 
the street car line running out to Edgewood Park. Alongside 
of this line, starting from the paved streets of AYest Charles- 
ton and ending on the crest of the hills, a short distance from 
the Park, is a macadamized road which wends its way, wind- 
ing gracefully, turns up the mountain side and leads into the 
grounds of the Edgewood Country Club House and golf links. 
This building, for architectural beaut}-, is something to be 
admired. Between the club house and West Charleston, scat- 
tered along at short intervals, are many beautiful country 
homes, some of which are truly mansions. 

Electric light and power are supplied by the Kanawha 
Water and Light Company. A domestic rate as low as eight 
cents per kilowatt hour, good service and ample facilities for 
growth to supply increased demand characterize the policy of 
this corporation. The same company supplies the city with 
its water from the Elk River, and careful analyses show 
Charleston's water supply is purer than that of the average 

Of all classes of people, perhaps none deserve more credit 
for the upbuilding of a country than do the public school 
teachers. They are, in a large measure, the moulders and 
builders of the characters that will rule the next generation. 

Following; are the names of those comprising the high 

History of West Virginia <'' 

and graded school faculty of Charleston for the school term 
oi 1913-14: 

SUPERINTENDENT— George S. Laidley. 

SPECIAL — Mary 11. Fontaine, assistant superintendent 
and superintendent of English; J. FI. Francis, music in high 
school; Nine M, Owen, music in grades; Myrtle X. Stalnaker. 
penmanship; 11. .Madeline Keely, drawing in grades; A. \V. 
Croft, drawing in high school: Mrs. Ilallie I'. Corsett, domes- 
tic science: Marie Warwick, sewing; J. H. Bowen, manual 
training; Mrs. II. C. Lounsberry, sanitary inspector, and 
Nellie E. Mason, secretary. 

I1IC.I1 SCHOOL— W. C. McKee. principal: Mary R. ile 
Ciwigan. Bettie K. Starke. Minnie L. Goff, Mary E. Reber, 
Helen F. Stark, Elizabeth P. Gray. Leila H. Bitner. Anna F. 
Lederer, K. J. Gorman, ]. P. Tcmplemau, Cecile DeBuys, J. M. 
Bragg, teachers. 

KANAWHA SCHOOL Minnie S. McWhorter, princi- 
pal: Olive M. Wildman. Ruth Dyer, Lila Y. Bittrolff, Lydia 
Ruffner, Stella Francis, Grace ( ■. Fultz, Minnie G. Slack. Alice 
J. McChesney, Thelma F. Wallen. A. Belle Dashiell. Frances 
Canterbury, Grace D. LeMaster, Eunice P. W'ithrow, Florence 
E. Dick. Marion E. Jenks. Georgia Hubbs, Eleanor Hopper, 

MERCER SCHOOL— Harriet M. Wilson, principal: Ella 
J. Spradling. Yirginia Littleton, Sybil M. Ball. Erna B. Young, 
Lucv B. Saunders. Ella Smoot. Frances Irwin, Olive FI. \\ hit 
ting. Marv S. Fravel, Katherinc Blackwood, Emile Beckett. 
Daisy Foster. M. Ella Craig. Mabel F. Gibbons, teachers. 

UNION SCHOOL Ettie S. Walker, principal ; Eliza- 
beth C. Keely, Lulu Gwinn. Josie S. Millan, Eloise Peebles. 
Jessie W. McEnery, Mamie S. Whatley, Grace Telford, Irene 
C. Hoffman, Nellie G. DeWees, Forest Settle, Martha Day, 
Kizzie Walters, Elsie Rippelton, Carrie Holt, Lucie G. Lewis. 
M. Alice Martin. Eva Echols, V. Rosa Shelton, Elizabeth 
Whiteside. F. M. McKinley. Jennie W. Hutchinson, teacher-.. 

LINCOLN SCHOOL— Mattie A. Rust, E. Belle Cun- 
ningham. Kate T. Farley. Marion I.. Board. F.loisc C. Ni.-bet. 
Stella M. Young, Olive M. Young. Olive Y. Robertson. Vera 
Flopkins, Pearl R. McGee. Bessie M. Grose, Anna Popp. Kate 

90 History of West Virginia 

S. West. Helen E. Given der, Ethel Jackson, Edith K. Phillips, 
Mary E. Hagerty, Daisy B. LeMasters, Katherine F. Joachim, 
Gertrude M. Reynolds, Alary Jackson, teachers. 

BIGLEY SCHOOL— Maggie P. Leet, principal, and 
Ruth Grose, assistant at Bigley and Elk; Margaret L. Kerr, 
Sarah C. Barber, Sallie Humphreys, Eunice H. Plunkett, Mary 
L. Branch, Eva L. Meeks, Leonora Hardway, teachers. 

ELK SCHOOL— Muriel L. Porter, principal; Hallie M. 
Hall, Minnie M. Morris, Mary Farley, Bessie Jordan, Lida F. 
Drennen. Kate X. Bower, Mary E. Drennen, teachers. 

TISKELWAH SCHOOL— H. C. Robertson, principal; 
Annie C. Thornhill. Ella Orth, Nellie Hastings, Lucy Barbef, 
Nellie M. Hard, Christina Orth, Nette R. Jackson, Delsie M. 
Spriegel, Garnette B. Stafford, Monica B. Critcher, Maude E. 
Harmon, Yernie M. Chase, Pernae E. Stout, Cornelia L. 
Critcher, teachers. 

BEECH HILL SCHOOL— Lucy J. Javins. principal, and 
Edith A. Savage, assistant. 

COLORED SCHOOLS— C. \Y. Boyd, supervisor and 

GARNETT HIGH SCHOOL and Seventh and Eighth 
Grades (departmental work) — J. F. J. Clark, principal, mathe- 
matics and Latin ; Rhoda A. Wilson, history and geography ; 
L. C. Farrar, civics, zoology and algebra; Carrie R. Dellaven. 

SPECIAL — Nina H. Clinton, English, music and pen- 
manship; Flora M. Webster, commercial branches: W. T. C. 
Cheek, manual training; Gertrude N. Ewing, domestic science. 

GARXETT — Annie E. Simpson, Estella James. Maude S. 
Yiney, Hattie E. Tetcrs. C. C. Lewis. Amelia R. Wilchcr, 
Esther Fulks, Naola M. Farrar, teachers. 

WASHINGTON— Lizzie C. Hopkins. Beatrice Calhoun, 
Irene Jackson, Ammie Hutchinson. Blanche J. Tyler, teachers. 

ISLAND — I. C. Cabell, first, second and third grades. 

Term. 9 months. Total enrollment, 5.270. 

History of West Virginia ''1 


(,Xote. — -Much of the following information is taken from 
Raymond's History of Harrison County. J 

John Simpson, a trapper, who in 17(>4 located his camp on 
the West Fork, opposite the mouth of Elk Creek, was the first 
white man known to have visited the present site of Clarks 
burg. Ten years later David, Obadiah and Amaziah Davis- 
son, Thomas, John and Matthew X utter, Samuel and Andrew 
Cottrill. Sotha Hickman, Samuel Beard, the Shinn family and 
others located on or near the present site of Harrison's county 
seat; and by 1778 there appear to have been several log cabins 
in the village. At one of their meetings about this time some- 
one proposed that the place be dignified by giving it a name, 
whereupon a Mr. Shinn suggested the name of Clarksburg, in 
honor of George Rogers Clark, a noted general of the Indian 
and Revolutionary wars. In 1784 the village consisted of two 
rows of cabins extending from a point near the site of the 
present court house to a point just east of the intersection of 
Maple avenue, on the north side of Main street, where, at that 
time, stood Jackson's house, which had formerly been used as 
a fort. 

Clarksburg was officially established as a town in Octo- 
ber, 1783. by an act of the General Assembly of Virginia in 
the following words: 

"I. Whereas, a considerable number of lots have been 
laid off and houses built thereon by the proprietors of the place 
fixed for the erection of the court house and other public build- 
ings in the County of Harrison and application being made to 
this Assembly that the same may be established a town ; 

"II. Be it therefore enacted : That the said lots so laid off, 
or hereafter to be laid off by the trustees, shall be and the same 
are hereby established a town by the name of Clarksburg, and 
that William llaymond, Nicholas Carpenter, John Myers. John 
McAllv and John Davisson, gentlemen, are hereby appointed 
trustees of the said town, who. or any three of them, shall 
have power from time to time to settle and determine all dis- 
putes concerning the bounds of the said lots, and in case of 
the death, resignation or removal out of the county of any 

( J2 History of West Virginia 

one or more of the said trustees it shall be lawful for the free- 
holders of the said town to elect and choose others in their 
stead, and those so chosen shall have the same power and 
authority as any one particularly named in this act. 

"III. Provided, always, and be it further enacted: That 
half an acre of ground, or so much thereof as may be thought 
necessary either in one entire or two separate parcels, shall be- 
laid off by the said trustees in the most convenient part of the 
said town and appropriated for the purpose of erecting there- 
on the court house and other public buildings, and that the 
said trustees have full power to lay off as many lots, streets 
and alleys as to them shall seem convenient for the benefit of 
the said town, and that the possessors of any lot or lots in the 
said town shall, before the first day of January, one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety, build thereon a dwelling house, 
with a stone or brick chimney, and upon failure thereof shall 
forfeit their lots to the said trustees to be further disposed of 
as they think proper for the benefit of the said town." 

The first county court of Harrison County was held at the 
house of George Jackson, near where Buckhannon now stands, 
July 24, 1784, at which time and place Clarksburg was selected 
as the county seat of the new count)', lots numbered 7 and 8 — 
donated by Daniel Davisson and Joseph Hastings — being 
designated as the location where the public buildings should 
be erected. The next meeting of the court was held in Clarks- 
burg, at the residence of Hczekiah Davisson. 

"The first court house, which was built in 1787, stood on 
what is now the northeast corner of Second and Main streets, 
and the jail stood on the opposite side of Main street, near 
where the Presbyterian Church now stands." 

In 1797 there were about forty houses in Clarksburg, and 
perhaps 200 people. 

Webb and Davisson owned the first mill in Clarksburg. 
It was built about 1776, at the entrance to the narrows, tin 
Elk Creek. The mill house on the east side of the creek shortly 
followed. Another mill in Clarksburg was erected by George 
Jackson in 1784, and later on followed the Point mills on the 
river below the mouth of Elk Creek, one mile from the court 

History of West Virginia 93 

Pursuant to an act passed by the General Assembly, Jan- 
uary 16. 1828, Thomas Haymond, Joseph Johnson and John 
Reynolds were appointed by the count} court on June loth 
following to lay oft Clarksburg into streets and alle\s. Papers 
of incorporation were granted the town by the General As- 
sembly .March 15, 1849, the boundaries being fixed as follows: 
"Beginning at the mouth of Elk Creek, thence running up 
the same to the_ mouth of a small drain a few rods below the 
Northwestern Turnpike bridge on theJand of James M. Jack- 
son, thence due east one hundred rods to a stake; thence due 
south to Elk Creek; thence down the same to a point in said 
creek, lying due west from a certain spring known as the 
Monticelio Spring, on the land of John Steaky; thence due 
west to the West Fork of the Monongahela River, and thence 
down the same to the mouth of Elk Creek to the beginninLT." 
Between 1S49 and 1897 there were several changes in the 
laws incorporating the town as the increase in population re- 
quired. On February 26, 1S97, a general revision of ail the 
acts was made and that charter is still in eitect. 

The earliest town records to be found are those of 1832. 
During the interval between that year and 1870 each of the 
following named persons served a term or more in the follow- 
ing capacities : 

President of Board of Trustees — John Siealev, Charles 
Lewis, Luther Haymond, A. J. Smith. Aaron Criss. Nathan 
Cioff, James P. Bartlett. Enoch Tensman, Daniel Kincheloe. 
William P. Cooper. Thomas S. Spates. L. D. Ferguson and 
R. S. Northcott. 

Clerks— A. J. Smith, Richard W. Moore, James P. Bart- 
lett. E. L. Stealey. Robert L. Criss. Burton Despard and Lu- 
ther Ilaymond. 

The following is a very interesting comparison of condi- 
tions at Clarksburg in 1S10 with those of a century later: 

Assessed Number 

Year. Population. Valuation. Ann. Taxes. Taxpayers. 

1810 350 S 84.115 S 84 31 

1910 0,201 14.290.48r, 153.613 1.840 

94 History of West Virginia 

As wc have shown in Chapter XV, entitled "Indian Wars 
and Indian Massacres," Clarksburg did not escape Indian in- 
vasions. Haymond's History of Harrison Count)' quotes the 
following article, taken from the June number, 1892, of the 
Southern Historical Magazine: 

"Clarksburg was a small village much exposed, and the 
children were kept within very narrow limits, lest the savages 
should chance to fall upon them. The little urchins, however, 
then as now, sometimes- broke their bounds. 

"One evening, when a squad of them had wandered too 
far, they discovered an Indian who was creeping up to sur- 
prise them. They set off for home at full speed, and the 
Indian, finding himself discovered, pursued them fiercely with 
his tomahawk. 

"The larger children were ahead, but one little fellow, 
though he ran his best, fell into the rear, and the savage was 
gaining on him. At last the boy got so far that his pursuer 
stopped, poised his tomahawk and threw it at him, but missed, 
on which the child, looking back, exclaimed: 'Aha, you missed 
me though, you Red Devil.' " 

In 1845 Clarksburg had improved considerably, there be- 
ing at that time "7 mercantile stores, 2 newspaper printing 
offices, 2 fine classical academies, 1 Methodist and 1 Presby- 
terian church and a population of about 1,100." The forego- 
ing figures, taken from Howe's History of Virginia, were per- 
haps excessive as to population, as, according to The Harrison 
Republican of August 15, 1845, there were only 806 people in 
the town proper on that date, including 140 colored people. 
Possibly, however, Mr. Howe included those on the "Point" 
and other settlements near by, which may have brought the 
number up to near 1,100. 

The professional class of Clarksburg's early accessions 
came mostly from Eastern Virginia, bringing with them the 
traditions and social customs which had been introduced in 
the colonies nearly two and a half centuries before. 

These held themselves somewhat aloof from the common 
herd in all social functions, and were designated as the "upper 
crust" of backwoods society. In this respect Clarksburg dif- 
fered from most other settlements west of the Alleghanies. 

History of West Virginia '»5 

As a rule the people of other settlement", were of a homoge- 
neous character. No one was concerned in his neighbor's 
family pedigree. He did not care a continental whether his 
great-great-grandmother's great-great-grandfather was a third 
cousin to some King's Guard's wife's sister's child, or whether 
he was just plain John Smith, with no more pedigree than a 
whippoorwill or the night owl that hooted on his cabin roof 
just so long as he was honest and industrious and attended 
strictly to his own business. 

In those days in Clarksburg, as in Virginia, family pedi- 
gree — rather than personal worth was one's passport to so- 
ciety. Xow. it is WHAT you are, not WHO \ou are, that 
counts. This change in social conditions may, in some degree 
at least, be explained in this way : 

As life goes, the men and women of today arc but grown- 
up children of yesterday. Human character and social condi- 
tions are, to a greater extent than some of us may imagine, 
governed by environment. 

Clarksburg was situated in a wild country, remote from 
other habitations. The population was small, and for the sake 
of mutual protection the families of different degrees of social 
standing were, more or less, thrown together: and, while the 
aristocratically inclined separated themselves from the others 
in most of the social functions, their children were less af- 
fected by their parents' peculiar notions of social strata for 
children, after all, are very much the same the world over. 
Thev are alwavs eager for children's sports, and the "rag tags" 
of the workman and the better clothed urchins of the genteel 
recognized no social barriers in their plays and pastimes. 
These promiscuous associations in youth tended to broaden 
the mind along social lines in after years. And today it would 
be difficult to distinguish one's past history by his present as- 
sociations, for a person is now valued America over — accord- 
ing to his personal merits rather than by ancestral pedigree. 
The free school svstem has helped to improve social condi- 
tions. This process of social equalization has not sacrificed 
anv traits of character worth retaining. Xarrow vanity and 
excessive self-pride arc supplanted by common sense, more 
liberal views and greater respect for the rights of others. 

96 History of West Virginia 

While, on the other hand, the rude mannerisms and coarse 
customs of the "under dog" have gradually given way to the 
finer and more elevating influences of the other. Thus an as- 
similation of virtues and eradication of faults have produced 
a citizenship in Clarksburg unsurpassed for excellence of char- 
acter anywhere in the land. She has produced many able law- 
yers, doctors, ministers and statesmen, and people of all the 
useful walks of life, and when it comes down to real, shrewd 
business men — well, we will just give you an illustration of 
the reputation abroad of the business acumen of the Clarks- 
burgers as told by Mr. Raymond: 

"A wholesale grocer of Parkersburg was asked what he 
intended to do with his oldest son, then coming of age. The 
reply was, 'I intend to set him up in business at Clarksburg 
with a thousand dollars, and if he can keep that for three 
months I will entrust him with all I have.' " 

The writer does not wish to be understood to say that 
our foreparents who settled in Clarksburg were not desirable 
citizens. On the contrary, they were representative citizens 
of the mother State. They were brave, honorable, courteous, 
educated people, but they had been brought up in a social 
atmosphere repugnant to the democratic simplicity that gener- 
ally prevails throughout West Virginia today. From what- 
ever angle we may view the lives of the old Castellan stock 
who dared the perils of a life in the wilderness, their many 
noble traits of character more than off-set their few short- 

The following reminders of old times in Clarksburg are 
so vividly and interestingly told by Mr. Haymond that we 
reproduce them verbatim : 

"In the early days the neighborhood of Clarksburg was 
a good boy's country. 

"In the Spring was the fishing season by hooks, trot lines, 
brush seines, gigging and nets. A little later came mulberries, 
dewberries, wild plums, blackberries and raspberries. In the 
Fall there were wild grapes, persimmons, cherries, pawpaws, 
chestnuts, beechnuts, butter nuts, hickory and hazel nuts. 
The nuts were gathered and stored away for Winter use. 
Later in the Fall came the season for trapping snow birds, 

History of West Virginia '>/ 

snaring rabbits, trapping nuiskrats, and 'coon and 'possum 
hunt? at night. The Point mill dam in the West Fork was 
famous as a fishing place lor ba>s, as was the Tislipot' in the 
bend below the dam. The mill dam in Elk Creek — called the 
'Town dam' — was another fishing - resort. 

"The swimming holes were for the town boys; the .Mill 
pond was in Elk called 'Saint Denis'; another was just below 
the Fourth Street bridge — called the Pike Hole; the next was 
at the bend of the creek below Broaddus College— called the 
Deep Hole. 

"Then there was the old Ferry in the ri\er at the foot of 
Ferry street, which was famous as a swimming place, mostly 
for men and big boys. It was too dee]) and broad for the 
little fellows. 

"There was a ferry conducted at this for many 
years by 'Daddy Eib' and hence its name. 

" 'Despard's corner,' at Third and Main streets, was a 
famous gathering place for boys of evenings, around the old 
horseblock which stood out in front of the store room. Many 
expeditions for the purpose of fishing, gathering nuts, tramps 
through the woods, &c, were arranged there. 

"The amusements were games of marbles, shooting at a 
mark with bow and arrows, town ball, pitching quoits, tag, 
Anthony-over, hunt-the-hare, jumping, wrestling and foot 
races and sliding on the ice, coasting and snow-balling. 

"As the conditions of the country changed the boys' 
occupations and amusements changed also. As the woods 
were cleared out, with them went the nuts, fruits and wild 
game animals. 

"During the existence of the militia laws each regiment 
of militia was compelled to assemble for drill once each year, 
generally in the Spring. The Eleventh Regiment assembled 
in Clarksburg, and the day was called 'Big Muster', and the 
boys looked forward to it with the greatest pleasure and in- 
terest. Xobody was in uniform. Here and there an officer 
would have a white and red plume in his hat or a sash or 
sword belted around him. and it was sometimes the case that 
a newly-elected officer would mount a pair of epaulettes. 
Great crowds would collect around the fife and drum corps 

98 History of West Virginia 

on the streets. A cavalry company, rather a party of men on 
horseback, with nothing military about them, would occasion- 
ally dash through the streets headed by a bugler, who would 
sound his bugle, which, with the dogs and shouts of the offi- 
cers, with clouds of dust and the delighted howls of the young 
population, created pandemonium and an amusing and excit- 
ing scene, one never to be forgotten. Alas, Big Muster is a 
thing of the past. The Civil War broke up the militia system 
and no one had a taste for military display after four years of 
actual conflict. 

"On Big Muster day, as on all other public occasions, 
Mrs. Cline had her stand set up in the Court House yard, 
where she did a heavy traffic in ginger-bread and spruce beer. 
The author can cheerfully testify that in all his subsequent 
application to confection, beer and 'drinks of like nature', he 
has never yet encountered anything to equal Mrs. Cline's 
products, and all the old stagers of Clarksburg, he candidly 
believes, will verify this experience. 

"The coming of a circus and menagerie was an event 
among the young population of the greatest moment, and 
nothing else was talked about for days before the perform- 
ance. At that time the whole outfit of the show travelled by 
wagons, as there was no railroad, and it was the custom for 
every boy in town to go out to meet the caravan, sometimes 
two or three miles out. 

"The shows were held on Alain street, east of the Presby- 
terian Church, between Tike and Main, on the Jackson place. 

"In a Clarksburg paper published in 1847 appears an ad- 
vertisement that 'Robinson & Eldred's Great National Circus, 
composed of 100 men and horses, will exhibit in Clarksburg 
on August 21'. 

"Occasionally small traveling troops would visit Clarks- 
burg and amuse the people by performances consisting of 
theatricals, dialogues, sleight-of-hand tricks, interspersed with 
music and song. Sometimes local thespian societies would 
give an entertainment. The Court House was always med 
for these amusements. 

"The earliest menagerie or animal show of which there is 

History of West Virginia 

any account was one that held forth in a house on .Main 
street, between Third and Fourth streets, in the early twen- 

Early Newspapers. 

The first newspapers published in Clarksburg' appear to 
have been The Bystander, in 1815, followed by The Western 
Virginian, in 1S10; The Republican Compiler, in 1817; The 
Independent Virginian, in 1819; The Clarksburg Gazette and 
The Rattlesnake, in 1822; The Clarksburg Intelligencer, in 
1823; The Clarksburg Enquirer, in 1829; The Western 
Enquirer, in 1832; The Countryman, in 1835; The Clarksburg 
Democrat and The Clarksburg Whig, in 1840; The Scion of 
Democracy, in 1844; The Harrison Republican, in 1845; The 
Age of Progress, in 1855; The Clarksburg Register, in 1850: 
The Western Virginian Guard, in 18(>1, and The Telegram, in 
1862. Since that time a number of other papers have come 
and gone. Clarksburg now has The Telegram, Xews and 
Herald, each with a weekly and daily edition. 

On November 18, 1824. wheal was quoted in Clarksburg 
at $1.00; rye. 50 cents: oats, 25 cents, and corn, 50 cents per 
bushel: butter, bacon, hams and cheese, 12' S cents per pound, 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad from Grafton to Parkers- 
burg was completed to Clarksburg about 1854-55. 

The population of Clarksburg in 1S61 was about 1500. 
At that time there were five churches in town. 

The highest number of slaves ever owned in Harrison 
County was 582, in 1860. 

The first banking institution of Clarksburg was organized 
in 1812 under the name of Saline Bank of Virginia, with 
Benjamin Wilson, Jr., as president, and John Webster, cashier. 
This bank became insolvent and closed its doors the latter 
part of December. 1827, or the early part of January, 1828. 
Xo more banks were opened in Clarksburg until 1860. when 
the Merchants and Mechanics Bank was organized, being a 
branch of the Wheeling bank of the same name. Its first 
board of directors consisted of Nathan Go!!, Aaron Cri^s. 
Cvrus Ross, Burton Despard and John Davis: Nathan Golt 

100 History of West Virginia 

being chosen president and Luther Raymond cashier. In 1865 
it entered into the national banking system as the Merchants 
National Bank and is now located on the corner of Third and 
Alain streets. The Bank of West Virginia was organized in 
1869. Thomas S. Spates, president, and John C. Vance, cashier. 
Following the above banking institutions came the Traders, 
Peoples, Farmers, Lowndes Savings Bank, Home Savings 
Bank and Empire Bank. The Traders and the Peoples banks 
consolidated and are now called the Union Bank. 

Post Masters at Clarksburg. 

Following is a list of persons who have served as post 
masters at Clarksburg: 

John Webster, 1798; Joseph Newelle, 1808; William 
Williams, 1815; John W. Williams, 1820; William Williams, 
1828; Hamilton G. Johnson, 1839; Elias Bruen, Benjamin F. 
Griffin, Cyrus Vance, Richard Fowkes, John H. Shuttleworth, 
William F. Richards, Lloyd Reed, Daniel W. Boughner, Lee 
H. Vance, Lloyd Reed, Stuart F. Rccd (now Secretary of 
State of West Virginia), Sherman C. Denham and Carl 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad entered Clarksburg about 
1854; the Monongahela River Railroad, in 1889; the Short 
Line Railroad, 1901. and the West Virginia & Pittsburgh, in 

Clarksburg in 1914. 

Although Clarksburg is over a century and a quarter old, 
practically the whole of the city as it now stands has been 
built within the last twenty-five years. Sixty years ago 
Clarksburg's only outlet to the world was by wagon or horse- 
back over the Northwestern Turnpike. Her population at 
the beginning of the Civil War was about 1500, and it took 
nearly thirty years to double, the number of inhabitants in 
iS90 being only 3008. In 1900 the population was 4050; in 
1910 it was 9201, and on January 1st, 1914. it was about 

The financial strength of Clarksburg is evidenced by its 

History of West Virginia 101 

eight banks — three national, four slate and one foreign ex- 
change bank, ranging in age from eight to fifty-three years. 
On June 30, 1910, the combined reports of these banks showed 
the following: 


Loan* and discounts $4,S10,428.9S 

Real estate, furniture and fixtures 372,20-1.08 

U. S. bonds and premiums 715,450.00 

Other bonds and securities 1,120,040.97 

Cash on hand and due from banks 1,485,197.43 

Due from U. S. treaMirer 2S.250.00 


Capital $ 993,200.00 

Surplus and undivided profits 369,854.1)2 

Circulation 645,850.00 

Deposits 6,439,470.00 

Dividends unpaid 18,107.00 

Bonds borrowed 65,000.0(1 


At a cost of about $270,000.00. Clarksburg installed a fine 
water system, with a capacity sufficient to supply 35,000 

Clarksburg's transportation facilities are first class. In 
addition to the main line of the Baltimore & Ohio, running 
from Xew York to St. Louis via Baltimore and Washington, 
that system has three branch lines entering the city. This, 
together with cheap fuel and raw material at hand, is rapidly 
pushing' Clarksburg to the front rank as a manufacturing 
centre. It is said that this city has the cheapest gas rates of 
any town or city in the State, the rate for domestic purposes 
being only ten cents and for manufacturing purposes four 
cents per 1,000 cu. ft.; and as to coal -well, it is coal, coal on 
every hand — the city is in the very mid-t of the "black- 
diamond" field. Vet Clarksburg is not a typical mining town 
— such as are usually found in mining districts — the greater 
portion of the mine openings being in the suburbs, where the 
hill sides and valleys are dotted with miners' homes. It is 
due to this fact that Clarksburg's population is not greater. 

102 History of West Virginia 

Following is a partial list of Clarksburg's manufacturing 
establishments : 

The Phillips Sheet and Tin Plate Company, organized 
in 1904; employs 1.000 people; annual pay-roll, $650,000. 

LaFayette Window Glass Co-Operative Co., organized in 
1899; employs 125 men; weekly pay-roll. $3,000. 

Peerless Window Glass Company, organized in 1905; 
employs 125 men; weekly pay-roll, $2,000. 

Lange & Crist Box & Lumber Co., established in 1909; 
employs 20 men. 

West Fork Glass Company, established in 1903; employs 
15 people; annual pay-roll. $95,000. 

Clarksburg Lumber & Flaning Mill Company, organized 
in June, 1909; employs 26 men. 

Clarksburg Casket Company, established in 1906; em- 
ploys several people. 

Parr Lumber & Planing Mill Company; employs 32 
people; annual pay-roll $25,000 to $30,000. 

Clarksburg Foundry & Casting Company, established in 
1907; employs 20 men; annual pay-roll, $12,000. 

Tuna Glass Company, established in 1907; employs 235 
men; annual pay-roll. $148,000. 

Travis Glass Company, established in 1908; employs 175 
people: monthly pay-roll, $12,000. 

The A. Radford Pottery Company, established in 1903 ; 
employs 43 people; monthly pay-roll, $2,500. 

Southern Pine Lumber Company, employs 25 men ; 
monthly pay-roll, $1,200. 

Star Rig, Reel & Supply Company, established in 1900; 
employs 33 people; annual pay-roll, $35,000. 

The Hazel-Atlas Glass Company, established in 1900; 
annual pay-roll. $125,675. 

The Grasselli Chemical Company, established in 1903 ; 
employs about 1,000 men. 

The Clarksburg Light &r Heat Company and the Monon- 
gahela Gas Company are owned and operated by local people. 
The present domestic gas rate is 10 cents per thousand feet, 
and for manufacturing purposes 4 cents. 

History of West Virginia 103 

General Information. 

Clarksburg has 7 miles of paved streets; 8 glass factories 
employing 1400 people, with an annual pay-roll of $1,000,000; 
2 zinc spelter plants, employing 500; 1 tin plate mill, employ- 
ing 1.000 people, with an annual pay-roll of $o50,000; u whole- 
sale houses; 12 department stores; 70 relail stores; 1<> lead- 
ing office buildings; 20 churches; 13 hotels; 4 daily news- 
papers, and 2 bo>pitals. 

The city and interurban street car service is high class 
in every particular. In addition to lines that are laid through 
the principal streets of the city, electric trains and large inter- 
urban cars are run to the neighboring towns, north, south, 
east and west. 

Clarksburg has many fine buildings. The Empire 
.National Bank building, the Colt building, the Hotel Waldo 
building arc splendid structures and would do credit to a 
much larger city. 


The first school building in Clarksburg was known as the 
Randolph .Academy and was erected by David 11 ewes, con- 
tractor, in 1795 for the sum of one hundred and seventy- 
nine pounds. George Jackson. John Powers, Joseph Hastings, 
H. Davisson, John Prunty, John McCally, Daniel Davisson, 
.Maxwell Armstrong. George Arnold. William Robinson and 
Benjamin Coplin being the trustees, and Rev. George Towers, 
instructor. Rev. Towers was a Presbyterian minister, a 
native of England and graduate of Oxford University. 

The Northwestern Virginia Academy followed the Ran- 
dolph Academy, in 1843. and after the establishment of the 
public school system was used for that purpose until the con 
struction of the High School building, in 1894. on the same 
site. The institution was incorporated by an act ol tin- 
Virginia Legislature in the year 1842. the following persons 
being named as trustees: 

Edwin S. Duncan, John J. Allen. Samuel P. Hayes. 
William A. Harrison. Waldo P. Goff. Charles Lewis. George 
Prichard. John W. Coffman. Augustine J. Smith. Richard W. 

104 History of West Virginia 

Moore, Walter Ebert, Nathan Goff, Gideon D. Camden, John 
Stealey, John Talbott, Solomon Parsons, Joshua Smith, Adam 
Carper and John J. Swayze. 

The building was a two-story brick, 71 by 44 feet. Rev. 
Gordon Battelle was the first principal and remained in 
charge of the institution about twelve years, when he was 
succeeded by Rev. Alexander Martin. 

The Broaddus Female College of Winchester, conducted 
by the Rev. Edward J. Willis, a Baptist minister, was re- 
moved to Clarksburg in 187<>, and for a time occupied the old 
Bartlett Hotel building, the site of which now belongs to 
the Court House l'ark. which stood on Alain and Third 
streets, having been purchased by the county court from 
Lloyd Lowndes. In 1878 a large brick building was con- 
structed in Raymond's grove and the school moved into it. 
The building was enlarged and did excellent work for many 
years. In 190S the property was sold and the institution was 
removed to Thilippi in 1909. 

Clarksburg's High and Graded Schools. 

Faculty — F. L. Burdette, supt. : Helen F. Boardman, 
supr. Music; Bessie Boggess, asst. supr. Music; and Xettie M. 
Nutter, supr. Drawing. 

HIGH SCHOOL — Orie McConkey, principal: Frank 
Cutright, Frank F. Arnett, Z. R. Knotts,. James E. Kennedy, 
Mildred A. F. Dunn, Lucy H. Norvell, Flossie Snodgrass, 
Willa Brand, Helen DeBerry, Joan Berry, Neonetta lams, Ida 
M. Spahr, and C. E. Rile, teachers. 

CENTRAL SCHOOL— Ida M. Higley and Alice Good- 
win, teachers. 

GOFF AND BROADDUS— Lucy A. Robinson, princi- 
pal ; Icie Williams, Lela Whetzel, Marguerite Israel, Angeline 
Flora, Grace I. Duthie, Florence A. Soder, Gladys Doney, 
Nannie R. Lowe, Gladys. Gage, and Blanche Steel, teachers. 

CARLILE SCHOOL— C. Guy Musser, principal; Ro- 
manna Rowley, Emily Freeman, Aladine Jackson, Yerna Kid- 
well, Fannie Hughes, Mabel Lee, Mildred J. Snider, Gonlie E. 
Martz, Blanche Beer and Elizabeth Gordon, teach< rs. 

History of West Virginia 105 

PIERPOXT SCHOOL J. F. Tracy, principal; Maleta 
Davis, Mayme Lcathcrman, Eftie ( J. Brown, liikla Gwinn, 
Pearl Long, Genevieve Brake. Josephine Sheets. Mvra Bart- 
lett, Lena Wains ley and Elizabeth Carter, teachers. 

KELLKY SCHOOL Frank Soil', principal: Xeva 11. 
West, Mabel Paugh and Blanche Chalfant, teachers. 

ALTA VISTA SCHOOL— Ira L. Swigcr, principal; 
Addie Young, Blanche Crummitt, Ella Cook. Ethel Pearey, 
-Mrs. W. B. Davis, Lucy K. Dawson, Ora Gibson, Late 
Davisson and Charlie Cassell, teachers. 

verton, principal : Grace Wilson, Eunice Stealey. Flo Griffin, 
Isola Shinn, Eva M. Dodge, Willa Righter, Hariet Long and 
Lula A. Floyd, teachers. 

MOXTICELLO SCHOOL- Stella Paugh and Lucy C. 
Thomas, teachers. 

WATER STREET SCHOOL (Colored)— L. R. Jordon. 
principal; D. II. Kyle, Willa Lee, Estelle Walker. Hannah 
Meade. Florence Ruffin. Lilly D. \llen and Marie O. Wash- 
ington, teachers. 

Enrollment. 3.000. School term. 9 months. Year 1913-14. 


Concerning the early history of Charles Town, the writer 
is indebted to Hon. Charles A. Johnson. Clerk of the County 
Court of Jefferson County, for the following: 

"Charles Town is rich in Colonial and Revolutionary 
associations. It was a point on Braddock's march to Fort 
Duquesne, and the well which the soldiers dug one mile west 
of town gives refreshing drink to the thirsty of today. During 
the late war it was the scene of frequent conflicts, and it is 
conspicuous in the world's history as the place where John 
Brown was tried, sentenced and hanged. The records of the 
trial are in the clerk's office at the Court House. The scaffold 
on which John Brown was executed stood at the point of 
intersection of a line drawn from the eastern wall of the 
Baptist Church with another drawn from the northern side of 
the late Tohn McCurdy's residence. The town was estab- 

100 History of West Virginia 

lishcd in I7S6, fifteen years before the formation of the county, 
and received the christian name of its first proprietor, Col. 
Charles Washington, a brother of the illustrious George 
Washington. It was originally laid off into eighty lots, with 
streets and alleys, and the following named gentlemen were 
appointed trustees: John Augustine Washington, William 
Darke, Robert Rutherford, James Crane, Cato Moore, Magnus 
Tate, Benjamin Rankin, Thornton Washington, William 
Little, Alexander White and Richard Ranson. Col. Charles 
Washington's residence was a small log house which stood 
a short distance from the town, and its location is marked by 
a fine spring. The whole of the land upon which the town is 
located, and much that is in the vicinity, was owned by 
Charles, Samuel and Augustine Washington. Charles settled 
at Charles Town, and Samuel (the eldest full brother of 
General George located at what is known as 'Harewood', a 
fine old place located about three miles west of town. Here, 
about the year 1752, he erected a house, which one of his 
descendants, John A. Washington, now owns. Col. Charles 
Washington was the founder of the town, and when it was 
laid out the land at the intersection of the two main streets 
was donated by the founder as a public square, the corners 
of which are now occupied by the court house, market house, 
jail and Farmers' and Merchants' Deposit Co. The first 
house erected in the town was known as 'Cherry Tavern', a 
log building occupied by Captain Cherry, who gave it the 
name, and served as captain of a company in the Revolution- 
ary War." 

In 1910 Charles Town had a population of 2,662. The 
town, though beautifully situated in a rich agricultural com- 
munity, has been of slow growth, there having been an in- 
crease of only 375 people during the preceding twenty years. 

Charles Town has three prosperous banking institutions. 
The National Citizens Bank has a capital of $50,000.00 and 
surplus of $25,000.00. Braxton D. Gibson is president ; 13. F. 
Langdon, vice president; Girard D. Moore, cashier; A. M. S. 
Morgan, assistant cashier; Adrian G. Wynkoop, Jr., book- 
■ The Bank of Charles Town, established in April, 1871. has 

History of West Virginia 


Court House, Charles Town, \\ . \ a., 
Where John Brown Trial Was Held. 

The picture here shown represents the Court House at 
Charles Town as it appeared at the time of the trial of John 
Brown and his men in 1859. About three years ago an anne 
costing about S20.000.00. was built to this structure, which 
has materially changed its appearance. 

10S History of West Virginia 

a capital of $50,000.00 and $32,000.00 surplus. S. \Y. Wash- 
ington is president; D. S. Hughes, vice president; John I-'or- 
terfield, cashier, and J. Frank Turner, assistant cashier. 

The Farmers' and Merchants' Deposit Co. has a capital of 
$50,000.00 and surplus of $45,000.00. R. L. Withers is presi- 
dent ; W. F. Alexander, vice president ; S. Lee Phillips, cashier, 
and Louis Albin, assistant cashier. 

The Virginia Free Press, edited by Air. William Camp- 
bell, is the oldest newspaper in West Virginia, having been 
established in 1811 — one hundred and four years ago. 

Rev. H. M. Moffett is pastor of the Presbyterian Church ; 
Rev. J. S. Alfriend, rector of the Zion P. E. Church ; Rev. J. C. 
Hawk, pastor M. E. Church, South ; Rev. W. R. Flannagan, 
pastor of the Baptist Church, and Rev. Father Lynch, rector 
of the Roman Catholic Church. There are also five other 

The town is well supplied with stores of all kinds, hotels, 
places of entertainment, etc., but not many industrial estab- 
lishments, being principally noted as an agricultural center. 


Charles Town has three schools: The Stephenson Semi- 
nary, a High School and a school for the colored. 

The school faculty is as follows : 

STEPHENSON 'SEMINARY (Presbyterian )— Mrs. C. 
N. Campbell, principal ; Laura W. Campbell. A.B., co-princi- 
pal, Mathematics ami French; Helen Martin, A.B., Latin, 
English and German ; Janet Young, History, Elocution and 
Gymnasium; Lena Payne, Science; Mamie Rider, Primary 
Department ; Marguerite Sehriefer, Music, Voice, Piano and 
Harmony; Pattie Willes, Art, and Mary Sheerer, Stenograph}. 

Enrollment, Fall Term 1913, 60. 

HIGH SCHOOL— Wright Denny, superintendent; John 
McGavock, Jr., Lallie E. Craighill, and Mary E. Campbell, 

GRADES — Bee LaRoyteaux, James Polk Gammon, Nan- 
nie E. Young, Fannie Lee Brown, Mary T. Howell. Mrs. L. R. 

History of West Virginia ](r> 

Milbournc, Lizzie Kercheval, Bellie J. Bcllcr, Katie Leslie 
;i"d Lillian O. Mump. 

EAGLE AYKXL'E (Colored) l'liilip Jackson, principal : 
L. L. Page, E. L. Braxton and Elizabeth \V. G. Moore, 

School Term 1913-14, 9 months. Total enrollment, 527. 

ELIZABETH, the county seat of Win. is located on the 
Kanawha River, thirty-two miles from Parkersburg. William 
Beauchamp was its first settler, having located and erected 
his cabin here in 1799, followed not long afterward by 
Ezekiel McFarland and Charles Rockhold. Four years later 
Mr. Beauchamp erected a grist mill, and from this circum- 
stance the place was named Beauchamp's Mills. In 1817 the 
name was changed to Elizabeth, in honor of Elizabeth Wood- 
yard, wife of David Beauchamp. 

Burning Springs, a short distance above Elizabeth, was, 
perhaps, the scene of the first oil and gas development within 
the State, though oil was discovered on Flint Run, in Ritchie- 
County, in 1844, by George S. Lemon, while drilling for salt. 
In I860 oil and gas were found at Burning Spring's, and it is 
said that the excitement caused by this discovery transformed 
the small village of a dozen or so inhabitants to a city of 6.000 
people within a period of six months. But. after a lapse of 
seven years, the gas supply became exhausted, and gradually 
the population dwindled down to that of a small village. 

Wirt County was formed January 19, 1848, from parts .f 
Wood and Jackson Counties. On April 4th of that year the 
first circuit court was held at the house of Alfred Beauchamp. 
Judge David McComas presiding, and the following attorneys 
were admitted to practice law in this county: John G. 
Stringer, Jacob B. Blair. Peter G. Van Winkle, Arthur T. 
Boreman, John J. Jackson, Clermont E. Thaw. John E. Hays, 
John O. Lockhart. John F. Snodgrass and James M. Stephen- 
son. Several of this number afterward were classed among 
the most prominent characters of the State. 

The population of Elizabeth in 1890 was 710; in 1900, 
657: and in 1910. 674. a decrease in population of 36 in twenty 

110 History of West Virginia 


Presbyterian, Rev. E. A. Black, pastor. 
Baptist, Rev. J. S. Young, pastor. 
M. E. Church South, Rev. C. T. Barton, pastor. 
M. E. Church, Rev. J. M. Sutton, pastor. 


Wirt County Journal, J. F. Haverty, editor. 
Elizabeth Messenger, H. H. Holmes, editor. 
Kanawha News, S. II. Mitchell, editor. 


Wirt County Bank, G. T. Trout, President; G. \Y. Rob- 
erts, Cashier, and Paul Roberts, Assistant Cashier; Joseph 
Gray, W. P. McClung, S. \Y. Cain and H. C. Griffin, Directors. 

Town Officials. 

S. H. Mitchell, Mayor; George Huffman, Sergeant; Wal- 
ter Huffman, Clerk; Dr. J. M. Carney, C. E. Summers and 
P. L. Meredith, Councilmen. 

The Kanawha and The Raleigh arc the principal hotels. 
The town has twelve stores and shops, and Bodger Brothers 
run the 011I5- manufacturing establishment. Gas supplies the 
town with heat and light. . As yet the streets are not paved. 

School Faculty. 

C. H. Snodgrass, principal high school and eighth grade; 
assistants, Mabel Huberts, Maude Rogers, Laura Feree, May 
Rogers and Bonna Snyder. 


Elkins, the present county scat of Randolph County, was 
established in 1889, the vear of the completion of the West 

History of West Virginia 1 1 1 

Virginia Central & Pittsburgh Railway to that point. ex-Sena- 
tor Henry G. Davis ami the late Senator Stephen B. Flkins 
being its founders. At the time of the completion of the rail- 
road the present site of Flkins was used for farming pur- 
poses, there being only a country store and blacksmith shop, 
and for many years the place had been designated as Leads- 
ville. During the civil war ,the site of the town was well 
known by the presence there of the old "round barn,'" which 
had been used by bands of Confederate soldiers as a stopping 
place when traveling to and fro between Fairmont and Vir- 
ginia. The picture of the Round Barn is from a photograph 
taken a few years ago. 

The town was incorporated in February, 1K90. and in 
April the first town election was held, Dr. J. C. Irons being 
chosen mayor: James S. l'osten. city recorder; and Dr. A. M. 
Fredlock. \V. H. Head, D. P. Harper, Emri Hunt and .M. M. 
Smith, council. 

Although Elkins has been in existence only about twenty- 
four years, she had in 1910 a population of 5,200, which has 
since increased to over 6,000. 

On Februarv 7, 1901. the legislature passed the charter of 
the present City of F.lkins, consolidating the towns of Flkins 
and South F.lkins with five wards. The city owns its own 
water system, which is valued at about $150,000, and is among 
the finest in the State. The fire department is up-to-date. 
The West Virginia Gas Company furnishes the city with an 
abundance of gas at reasonable rates, offering special induce- 
ments to manufacturing enterprises. 

Among the industries already located here, all of which 
arc prosperous and growing, are the car and machine shops ot 
the West Virginia Central & Pittsburgh Railway Company, 
employing about 250 men. and the capacity is gradually in- 
creasing as the demands require; the Flkins Machine and 
Foundry Company, employing about 20 men ; the F.lkins Tan- 
ning Company, employing about 100 men; the Flkins Pail and 
Lumber Company, 75 men : the Flkins Fixture and Refrigera- 
tor Company. 50 men: the Flkins Planing Mill. Dalton's 
Boiler Works, the Elkins Handle Factory, and other-. 

The Trust Company of West Virginia, the Elkins Xa- 

112 History of West Virginia 

tional Bank and the People's National Bank afford the city 
excellent banking facilities. 

The Davis and Elkins College is a progressive, up-to-date 
institution, founded by the men whose names it bears. This, 
in connection with the graded schools, affords most excellent 
educational facilities. 

Through the efforts of Howard Sutherland, now a mem- 
ber of Congress, the Board of Trade of Elkins was organized 
in 1903, Capt. \Y. H. Cobb being selected president; Arthur 
Lee, first vice president; J. H. Fout, second vice president; 
Howard Sutherland, secretary; H. G. Johnson, recording sec- 
retary, and X. G. Keim, treasurer. 

The first church at Leadsville — now Elkins — was erected 
by the Presbyterians in 1858, and was known as the "Old 
White Church." Owing to its being occupied by Federal 
troops, no religious services were held in the building during 
the civil war. 

The first M. E. church in the vicinity of Elkins was 
erected in 1851, Rev. Thomas B. Curtis being its first pastor. 

Todav the following religious denominations have church 
buildings in Elkins: Davis Memorial Presbyterian Church, 
First M. E. Church, M. P. Church, First Baptist Church, 
Episcopal Church, Christian Church and St. Brenden's Catho- 
lic Church. 

Some of the finest homes in West Virginia are to be found 
at Elkins, among which are Halliqhurst, the residence of the 
late Senator Elkins; Graceland, the home of ex-Senator H. G. 
Davis; the residence of Hon. C. H. Scott and the summer 
home of Hon. R. C. Kerens. 

The Odd Fellows' Home, erected at Elkins in 1910, is a 

fine structure, as are also the county court house, the opera 

house, the public school buildings, the Davis Memorial Hos- 

_ pital, the financial institutions and many business houses. 

The Randolph, The Star and The Gassaway are popular 

hotels in the city. 

The Davis Memorial Hospital is a standing monument 
to the memory of its founder. Mrs. H. G. Davis, being a "tangi- 
ble and beautiful expression of an altruistic Christian charac- 
ter, who was ever alert to relieve the sufferings and ameliorate 

History of West Virginia 1 13 

the condition of the sick and unfortunate," as was feelin^h 
expressed by a friend shortly after her demise. It is doubtful 
that there is another town of equal size in West Virginia 
whose buildings, as a whole, excel those of Elkins in archi- 
tectural beamy, and it is equally certain no town of its size 
surpasses it in business and manufacturing enterprises. It is 
the "cross roads" point of railroads running north, south, east 
and west, and her transportation facilities are unlimited. This. 
in connection with an almost inexhaustible supply of mineral 
and timber wealth that border its man}- diverging lines, in- 
sures for Elkins a prosperous future. 

Faculty of Elkins High and Graded Schools. 

Otis G. Wilson, superintendent, and Delia MacFarland, 

HIGH SCHOOL- C. \V. Jackson, principal; Minna M. 
Keyser, Lois E. Frazee, Inez 15. Dicker son, Emily J. Wilmoth, 
Minnie M. Andrews and Nellie M. Ross, teachers. 

THIRD WARD SCHOOL- Minnie C. Riegner, princi- 
pal ; Minerva Lawson. Mabel Cunningham. Ethel Switzer, 
Margaret Bird, Gillette LaRarre, Winifred Fenton, Louise 
Sigler, Pearl McCaffry, Irene Foley and Inez McNeill. 

FIRST WARD SCHOOL— C. W. Jackson, principal; 
Gertrude Keister, Mona Phillips. Phyllis Frashurc and Eliza- 
beth Taylor, teachers. 

CENTRAL BUILDING— Mrs. C. II. llamill. Frankic 
Garber, Verna Jefferson and Verna Rouchey, teachers. 

SC.OTT BUILDING- Katie Maxwell, Grace Miller, 
Willa A. Leonard and Valery Freeman, teachers. 

RTVERS1DE— Eva Steele and Florence Licklider, teach- 

HARPER ADDITION — Inez Gross fall grades). 

COLORED SCHOOL C. V. Harris, teacher. 

Term. 9 months. Total enrollment, 1,350. 


History of West Virginia 


History of West Virginia ' 115 


Middletown mow Fairmont was established and laid 
out in lSly, on the farm of Boaz Fleming. It was built on a 
hill overlooking the Monongahela River. It has been said that 
when the early citizens of that community were looking about 
for a town site the place on which Fairmont now stands was 
selected because it "was considered by them the roughest 
and poorest and least adapted to farming purposes and having 
little idea that the new town would ever be more than a small 
hamlet." It was called Middletown from the circumstance of 
its being midway between Clarksburg and Morgantown, and 
served as a stopping place for travelers going to and fro be- 
tween those two points. "At that time," says Dunuington's 
History of Marion County, "much of Middletown was a laurel 
thicket, the only house being a log cabin occupied by Mr. 
Fleming which stood near the corner of Jefferson street and 
Decatur alley. The first house built after the laying - oft' of 
the town was bv Mr. Samuel Jackson, father of Oliver and 
Tames R. Jackson. The first child born in Middletown was 
E. M. Conaway.'" 

Marion County was formed in 1S42. Middletown was 
made the county seat, and shortly afterwards the name was 
changed to Fairmont. 

Concerning the first county court, Dunnington says: "On 
the 4th of April following (1843) the first county court was 
held at the house of William Kerr, which stood on the corner 
of Main and Jefferson streets. John S. Barnes, Sr., Thomas 
S. Haymond, Thomas Watson and William Swearingen, jus- 
tices of the peace, composed the court. John Xuzum, William 
J. Willev. Mathew L. Fleming, Isaac Means, Leonard Lamb, 
George Dawson. Leander S. Laid ley, Elias Blackshire, David 
Cunningham. Abraham Hess. John S. Chisler, Absalom 
Knotts, Benjamin J. Brice. Albert Morgan. David Musgrave, 
Hillerv Boggess, William T. Morgan. John Clayton, Thomas 
Rhea, William Cochran, John S. Smith. John Musgrave, 
William B. Snodgrass, William Bradley, Thomas A. Little. 
Jesse Sturm, John S. Barnes. Sr., and Henry Boggess were 
the justices of the peace in the county. 

lib History of West Virginia 

Zebulen Musgrave was appointed crier of the court, and 
the following attorneys were permitted to practice in court : 
Gideon Camden, William C. Haymond, Burton Despanl, Chas. 
A. Harper, James M, Jackson, John J. Moore, George H. Lee, 
Waitman T. Willey, Moses A. Harper and Eusebius Lowman. 
The court adjourned to meet in the M. E. Church (afterward 
razed about 1879), where future sessions of the court were 
held until the court house was built. Thomas L. Boggess 
was elected the first clerk of the county court. William C. 
Haymond was the first prosecuting attorney and Benjamin J. 
Brice the first sheriff of the county. 

The jail was a one-story log house, fashioned after an 
Indian fort, and was situated on Washington street, where the 
residence of Wm. E. Hough was afterwards built. F. H. Pier- 
point, attorney, qualified at the May term of court, and Dan- 
iel M. Thompson was awarded the contract for building the 
court house for the sum of $3,150.75, which were the principal 
items of business transacted at that term. The court house 
was considered a fine building when it was completed. Later 
011 — about 1877 — improvements were added at a cost of about 
$8,000, but since that time the old court house has given away 
to a new and up-to-date stone structures, whose architectural 
beauty is perhaps unsurpassed by any building of the kind in 
the State. 

Thomas S. Haymond and John S. Clayton were the first 
representatives of the county in the House of Delegates and 
William G. Willey in the Senate. Monongalia, Preston, Ran- 
dolph and Marion composed the senatorial district, Mr. Wil- 
ley, the senator, being a resident of Marion County. 

It is related of Mr. Willey that on one occasion he at- 
tended the Legislature at Richmond dressed in blue linsey 
breeches and brown linsey hunting shirt. 

Palatine, which is now a part of Fairmont, was established 
in 1838. It was located upon land purchased from Wm. Hay- 
mond and John S. Barnes, who had jointly purchased it from 
Daniel and John Paulsley, the sons of Jacob Paulsley, who had 
moved upon the land in 1793. 

The completion of the B. & O. Railroad to Fairmont, June 
23, 1852, was an important epoch in the history of the town. 

History of West Virginia 117 

and the occasion was ilul\ celebrated, the President and direc- 
tors of the company, together with a large number of gentle- 
men from Baltimore, Cumberland, Wheeling, .Martinsburg, 
etc., and a large number of .Marion County citizens being 

During the same year the suspension bridge across the 
Monongahcla River, connecting Fairmont and Palatine, was 
completed at a cost of about $30,000. 

The first church organization in what is now .Marion 
County took place in the year 1815. in a barn on the farm ot 
Asa Hall, near P>arnesville, under the direction of a Presby- 
terian minister. Seven years later the same organization 
erected a frame church on Jefferson street. Fairmont, oppo- 
site the old Mountain City House. Then followed a Methodist 
Protestant church on Ouincy street in 1834, and the M. F. 
church on Main street, and now nearly all the principal church 
denominations are represented in Fairmont. 

The first steamboat to ascend the Monongahela River as 
far as Fairmont was the "Globe", on February II, 1850. At 
various times since that date and previous to the building of 
the dam and locks, the Globe, the Thomas P. Ray and other 
small boats occasionally reached Fairmont, but their arrivals 
were dependent upon temporary rises in the river, and no pre- 
tense of a schedule could be maintained, as long periods of 
low water stage prevented the boats from making more than 
a few trips in a season. 


The First National Bank of Fairmont, organized October, 
1853. .The Mountain City Bank began business August 1st, 
1874. The Farmers Bank of Fairmont opened in 1875. 

In January, 1914, the following banking institutions were 
in operation in Fairmont : National Bank of Fairmont, First 
National Bank. Peoples National Bank. Home Savings Bank, 
Citizens Dollar Savings Bank, and Tru<t Company Bank. 

Tn addition to the Fairmont Normal and Fairmont High 
School and the Union Business College, there are nine public 
schools in Fairmont, one being exclusively for Catholics and 
another for colored students. 

118 History of West Virginia 

Following is the school faculty of Fairmont High and 
Graded Schools for term lyl3-I4: 

HIGH SCHOOL — Joseph Risier, superintendent; Emma 
J. Oderbolz, Laura E. Briggs, Ensel Hawkins, Hazel Frey and 
L. C. Minor, supervisors; Perry C. McBee, principal, and Paul 
R. Morrow, assistant; T. C. Moore, Virginia Vockrodt, Mary 
L. Oldham, Wilhelmina D. Cockayne, Viola A. Wolfe, M. 
Mae Xeptune, Dora L. Newman, Eva M. Fling, Harriet C. 
Steele, Merlin J. Kilbury, Bessie J- Reed, Eleanor Cowen, 
John M. Toothmau, Edith M. Dean, Caroline Brand, and Isa 
M. Neel, teachers. 

SECOND WARD— O. A. Watson, principal; Jessie Sni- 
der, Blanche Henry, Marie Boehm, Ivy Hustead, Dena Knight, 
Bessie Rice, Caroline Barnes, Laura Dunnington, Eva Brand, 
Florence Jack, Esta Crowl, Elizabeth Conaway, and Mattie 
Taylor, teachers. 

FOURTH WARD— W. E. Buckey, principal; Maude 
Hull, AHrginia Gaskill. Evelyn Prickett. Gertrude Creel, Jennie 
Harshbarger, Susan Foiren. Agnes Erwin, and Inez Brook- 
field, teachers. 

FIFTH WARD-N. G. Matthew, principal; Minnie 
Fleming. Florence Hall, Helen Tuttle, Myrtle McKinney, 
Helen Fleming, Ethel Hibbs. Ida Orr, Florence Wilfong, and 
Vinna Boydstou, teachers. 

UNION SCHOOL— Independent— District T— William 
A. Hustead. superintendent, and A. W. Martin, teacher. 

FIRST WARD— Sara Meredith. Mary D.' McCulloh. 
Pearl Linn Scott. Bculah E. Garner. Pauline Frey. Sadie E. 
Lloyd, Virginia Barnes, Louise Lloyd, Martha Duncan, Rose 
McKinney, and Katherinc Donham, teachers. 

EAST PARK SCHOOL— Lena G. Parks, Viola McEl- 
fresh. Blanche Satterfield, and Stella E. Brown, teachers. 

STATE STREET SCHOOL— Nelle G. Wilson and Ivy 
Raye Larew. 

VIRGINIA AVENUE— W. A. Crowl, principal; Beryl 
Morgan, Effie Knapp, Margaret Farrell, Nell Manley, Bessie 
Bower, Mattie Bentel, and Florence Cavender, teachers. 

BARNESTOWN— Frank S. White, principal; Maud 
Snodgrass. Mary Nuzum. Elsie Rees and Kate Curry, teachers. 

History of West Virginia 1 VJ 

JACKSOX AUDITION Eunice Byer, principal, and 
Norinne Johnson, assistant. 

COLORED SCHOOL \V. U. Armstrong, principal; 
Ethel Burkhead, intermediate, and Florence Cobb, primary. 

Term of school, 9 months. Total enrollment, 2751. 


The first newspaper issued in Marion County was pub- 
lished at Fairmont and called the Marion County Pioneer, 
Lindsey Boggess. editor and proprietor, and afterwards R. 
Fulton Cooper took charge of it. It was issued about the 
year 1S40. 

This was followed by the Baptist Recorder, of which Dr. 
\V. D. Eyster was publisher and proprietor. Joseph Walker, 
editor, and Daniel S. Morris, printer. Then came the Demo- 
cratic Banner, edited and published by Morris, which com- 
menced publication in March. 1850. One year later A. J. O. 
Bannon became owner and changed the name of the paper to 
The True Virginian and Trans-Alleghany Adventure, but later 
on the last part of the name was dropped. Following a few- 
changes of ownership the paper ceased to exist in 1861. ]t 
was a Democratic paper. 

In 1853 the Fairmont Republican was issued by J. M. 
Scrogin and edited by Dr. \Y. W. Grange, during the follow- 
ing year. Xext the Methodist Protestant Sentinel made its 
appearance, conducted by Dr. D. B. Darsey. then by Rev. 
Samuel Young. In JS(>2 Col. A. F. Ritchie launched upon the 
sea of journalism the Fairmont National, whose corps of 
editors comprised J. T. Ben-Cough. J. X. Boyd, and Timothy 
B. Taylor. Then followed, in 18nO. the Vedette, a Republican 
paper, edited and published by J. X". Boyd and Timothy B. 
Taylor, in turn, who disposed of the paper to J. Dillon, who 
changed the name to The West Virginian, and it was after- 
wards purchased by Henry \V. Book and Charles M. Shinn. 
In 1873 Mr. Shinn assumed entire control of the journal, and 
in 1875 sold it to A. II. Fleming and Lamar C. Powell. The 
West Virginian is a Republican paper. 

After the suspension of the True Virginian in 1S61, the 

120 History of West Virginia 

Democratic party of Marion County had no paper again until 
1870, when the Liberalist was started by Fountain Smith & 
Son, who in a few weeks disposed of it to J. R. Grove. James 
Morrow, Jr., then became its editor and YYm. S. Haymond 
its local editor. The Liberalist lived barely through the Presi- 
dential campaign in 1872. In February, 1874, Major \Y. P. 
Cooper commenced the publication of the Fairmont Index, 
which has since been the organ of the Marion County Democ- 
racy. In April, 1876, the lire which destroyed the West Vir- 
ginia office likewise almost totally destroyed the Index 
National. The little that was saved from the flames, together 
with the books of the office and the good will of the business, 
were purchased by Clarence L. Smith and Geo. A. Dunning- 
ton, who continued the publication of the sheet, with soni .• 
improvements. In 1877 the paper was sold to Wm. A. Ohley 
and A.J. Dick. 

The Fairmont Times and the Fairmont West Virginian 
(dailies) and Fairmont Free Press (weekly) are the news- 
papers now being printed at Fairmont. 

On September 21st, 22nd and 23rd, 1870, was held the 
first annual fair of the Marion County Agricultural, Mechan- 
ical and Mineral Association upon their grounds near Fair- 

A memorable event in the history of Fairmont is the big 
fire on Sunday morning, the 2nd day of April, 1876, which 
destroyed the principal business portion of Fairmont and ren- 
dered homeless many families. 

In October, 1878, a grand military reunion and sham 
battle were held on the Marion County Fair Grounds under 
the auspices of the Davis Guards, at which time the military 
from Wheeling, Burton and Mannington, and the University 
Cadets and battery from Morgantown were present and par- 
ticipated. The writer, then a youth of seventeen years, was 
one of several thousand spectators present on this interesting 
occasion, and here saw for the first time a baloon ascension. 
A young woman did the aeronautic stunt, standing in a basket- 
shaped contrivance suspended from a huge gas bag which 
soared skvward until it appeared no larger than a nail keg. 

History of West Virginia 121 

Then it began to slowly descend and as it reared the earth it 
shied away down the hillside as if to escape the noisy demon 
stratum of the big crowd below, and finally landed in the mill 
dam. where the aeronaut was rescued by a man in a skiff. 

To-day Fairmont, with a population of about 10,000, is 
one of the leading industrial cities of West Virginia. It has 
factories and plants of all kinds, in which lies the great wealth 
of the city. Plants are located here which none can excel in 
efficiency or capacity. The Fairmont Window Class Com- 
pany, the Owens Bottle Works, the Monongah Class Com- 
pany, the Fairmont Mining Machine Company, and the Con- 
solidated Coal Company are the largest and most important 
industries of the city. 

The Fairmont Mining .Machine Company, organized 1905, 
is capitalized at $500,000.00 and employs 250 people. Inclu- 
sive of the jobbing business, it has an annual output of about 

The Monongah Class Company, organized in 1903. is 
doing a large business. The Owens Bottling Works is per- 
haps the largest factory of its kind in the State, having a 
capacity of 360.000 bottles per day. and employing about 
300 men. 

In spite of the great disadvantages under which the people 
of Fairmont are laboring by reason of the rough, hilly surface 
on which to build, they are bravely pushing ahead and arc 
literally carving out a beautiful city on the mountain side and 
hill tops overlooking the historic Monongahela. and what may 
appear a disadvantage in some ways is really a great advan- 
tage in others. Nature has furnished a natural drainage, which 
together with the elevated position, makes Fairmont one of the 
most sanitary and most healthful locations possessed by any 
city in the State. 

Though located in the heart of a great coal field, the city 
is set apart from the mine openings and thus escapes the 
smoke and dust incident to mining operations, and there is 
nothing about the town to indicate their near presence other 
than the business that accompanies such operations. 

Active coal mining operations began at Fairmont about 

122 History of West Virginia 

GRAFTON, the county seat of Taylor County, was in- 
corporated as a town 51 arch 15, 1856. It is located on the 
Tygart's Valley River, about 100 miles from Wheeling and 
Parkersburg and 294 miles from Baltimore. The place is not 
favorably situated for the making of a great city, the country 
being hilly and very steep on the east side of the river where 
the business part of the town is located. The population in 
1890 was 3159; in 1900, 5650; in 1910, 7503. 

The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad shops and round-house 
are located here and have for many years been the principal 
industry of the town. On the west side is located the beautiful 
National Cemetery, where on the 30th of every June thousands 
of people from miles around gather to do honor to the hun- 
dreds of soldiers whose remains here make up the Silent City 
on the beautifully terraced hillside. 

The narrow strip of bottom land on the east side of the 
river and north side of Three Fork Creek that empties into it 
at this point is wholly taken up by the railroad tracks and 
railroad buildings, so that citizens have been forced to terrace 
the hillside for buildings and streets. The many handsome 
business blocks, residences and sky-scraping church steeple^ 
clinging to the mountain side, in tiers, overlooking the net- 
work of railroad tracks and moving traffic below, present to 
the visitor a sight both novel and picturesque in the extreme. 
Although somewhat handicapped by these cramped condi- 
tions, the people of Grafton possess about all the conveniences 
usually enjoyed by the people of other cities of its size, and on 
the whole they seem to be fairly prosperous and happy. 

Grafton School Faculty. 

L. \V. Burns. Superintendent ; Margaret F. Clary, Art 
Supv. ; Bertha 51. Mills, Music; Dorotha A'. Morgan. Office 

HIGH SCHOOL— Geo. H. Colebank. principal: John 
Nuzum, Nyna Forman, Elizabeth Rich, Pearl Hodges. Bertha 
Flick, 51. Ward Lanham, G. Minnettc Watkins. Wm. 51. 
Jones, Bertha 51. Nutting, and Kathryn Kumler. assistants. 

FIRST WARD SCHOOL— E. W. S. Kennedy, Harriet 

History of West Virginia 123 

Schrocder, Hattie Forman, Juanita Shiugleton, and Louise 

CENTRAL SCHOOL— George li. Colcbank, principal. 
.Grace White. .Mrs. .Myrtle Xuzum, Ada M. White, Man 
Cowherd, Helen Carroll, lna Warder, .Mattie Jaco, Amanda 

EAST GRAFTON SCHOOL- Hugh Iliggins, Florence 
Hamilton, Nina Gaskin, .Mrs. Edna Furbee. 

'SOUTH GRAFTON SCHOOL — .Mrs. Mary Iloldcn, 
Perie Aver, Mrs. Almonta Borror, Minnie Byers. 

WEST GRAFTON SCHOOL — Bruce Borror, Hariet 
Evans, Lila Clare Rector, Blanche W'atkins, Rosaline Ken- 
nedy, Hazel Zinn, Ethel Bartlett, Marie Cole, Cleo Morgan. 

GARRISON SCHOOL (Colored)— C. W. Florence and 
Sadie Mays. 

School Term. 1913-14. 9 months. Enrollment, 1,358. 

IIARR1SVILLE, the seat of justice of Ritchie County, 
is located on the Lorama Railroad — a narrow gauge — nine 
miles from Pennsboro, where the road connects with the 
Grafton and Tarkersburg branch of the B. & O. The town is 
situated on a hill, from which a splendid view be had of 
the surrounding country. It was laid out by Thomas Harris, 
and established as a town January 2, 1S22. but was not incor- 
porated until February '26, 1869. 

The population of Harrisville in 1890 was 361 ; in 1900, 
472; in 1910, 60S. and in 1914, about 700. 

Names of City Officials. 

W.-H. Westfall. Mayor; I. W. Woods. Recorder. 

Churches and Pastors. 

Methodist Episcopal Church. William N. Frasure. pastor. 
Methodist Protestant. L. S. Weese. pastor. 
United Brethren, P. S. Exlinc. pastor. 
Baptist. I. A. Young, pastor. 

124 History of West Virginia 

Banking Institutions. 

First National, B. B. W'cstfall, cashier; A. O. Wilson, 

The Peoples Bank, J. H. Lininger, cashier; \\". R. Meser- 
vie, president. 


The Gazette and The Ritchie Standard, Robert .Morris, 
editor of both. 

Manufacturing Establishments. 

Imperial Oil & Gas Products Co., carbon factory, J. H. 
.Mann, manager. 

The town is heated and lighted by gas. 

The White Hall and Fryes are the principal hotels of 
the town. 

School Faculty. 

M. M. Powell. Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL— M. M. Powell, History and Science; 
Blanche Southard and Carl Hayhurst. 

GRADES — C. H. Harrison, Wayne Gibson. Ocea Wilson, 
Winifrede Wass. Agnes Hamilton, and Lila M. Cokelv. 


In 1870 the ground on which Huntington now stands 
was a wide expanse of river bottom land planted with corn. 

When Collis P. Huntington first beheld the broad and 
fertile valley, whose ample acres now are studded with sub- 
stantial residences and imposing business structures, and 
crossed by broad streets and avenues for which Huntington 
is noted, no doubt he paused in mute admiration at the pros- 
pect : then, with that indomitable energy which made him the 
commanding figure of a railroad world, set about founding 
the city which now bears his name — a city whose population 

History of West Virginia 125 

at this writing (January, P']4> is ahum 40.000; in ]"M0 it \\a- 
31.101 — a gain of 19.238 o\ er 1900. In 1910 the assessed valu- 
ation of property, for taxation purposes, was: 

Real estate $1(>.78S,7(>0.00 

Personal property o,8l .8.9 1 0.00 

Public utilities 3.448.072.00 

Total $27,105,742.00; 

the annual increase over the two preceding years being about 
$5,000,000. On this basis, the assessed valuation of taxable 
property must be over $42,000,000. 

Huntington's latest charter took effect in June. 1909. It 
was moulded after the commission plan of government (sim- 
ilar to that voted down in Wheeling last summer), but so 
modified and improved as to be especially suited to local con- 
ditions. Under this form of government, partisan politics is 
eliminated from elections and personal fitness of candidates 
for office only is considered. Elections occur every three 
years, and though four commissioners may be voted for, the 
elector can find only three nominees upon his own ticket, only 
two of whom can be elected. Thus there is the centralization 
of responsibility in four commissioners, not more than two of 
whom may be of the same political faith, and the elector is 
encouraged to vote a mixed ticket. 

In these four commissioners is vested the executive power 
of government, but there is also a Citizens' P>oard of sixty-four 
members, sixteen elected from each ward, not more than one- 
half of whom may be of any one party. This P.oanl, which is 
designed as a check upon any wrongful actions of the com- 
missioners.' is in the nature of a Referendum Board. Xo action 
of the Citizens' Board is required to make an ordinance effect- 
ive, but any harmful action of the commissioners may be by 
it vetoed. Thus the commissioners may administer the city'* 
affairs smoothly and unhampered without imposing onerous 
supervisory duties upon members of the Citizens' Board, yet 
harmful legislation may instantly be stopped by that body. 
Ordinances and franchises become effective unless vetoed by 

120 History of West Virginia 

the Citizens' Board, the membership of which is purposely 
made large that it may remain beyond the probability of being 
corrupted. The placing of the fire and police departments 
under civil service removes much of the inducement for anv 
part}- to secure control of the city government. 

In looking about for a site for a large manufacturing estab- 
lishment, there are several things to consider: transportation 
facilities, transportation rates, cost of fuel and raw material 
and cost of labor. When capital is seeking an investment of 
this nature and finds these conditions all satisfactory, erection 
of the plant is assured. Yet. all these advantages would mean 
but little if men of means were ignorant of their existence. 
Hence the necessity for a Board of Trade. Huntington is 
fortunate in having one of the best organizations of this kind 
in the State, to the president and secretary of which the 
writer is indebted for much valuable information. 

The Huntington Board of Trade, in May, 1911, consisted 
of the following "live wires" : F. H. Richardson, president ; 
William Burkheimer, secretary ; L. J. Ashworth, treasurer, 
and the following directors: J. A. Plymale, president; Wil- 
liam Stcvers, Amos Trainer, Miles Bevans, C. A. Thompson, 
Thomas Dunfee, and H. M. Bloss. 

As a result of the efforts of these gentlemen in advertising 
to the world the natural and acquired advantages they had to 
offer manufacturing enterprises, much of Huntington's prog- 
ress is due. In number of factories and mills, perhaps Hunt- 
ington leads all other cities in the State. 

The Board of Trade let it be known that, aside from its 
important location with reference to raw material and mar- 
kets, the city is situated in close proximity to two of tfr 
State's greatest gas fields (Wetzel County excepted, of 
course), the producing centers of which are within twenty-five 
to fifty miles ; that this gas is piped into Huntington through 
lines extending into the very heart of the Roane and Lincoln 
County fields, supplying the domestic trade at a cost of 
twenty-five cents per thousand feet, net, and to manufacturers 
at an exceedingly low rate ; that cheap electric power is fur- 
nished by three modernly equipped power companies, which 
vie with each other in rendering satisfactory service to their 

History of West Virginia \27 

patrons; that electric power can be obtained b\ contract a> 
low as three and one-half cents per thousand watts, being 
cheaper than that produced by the Niagara Falls Water Gene- 
rating plant; that for transportation facilities Huntington is 
uncxcelled; that steamboats from Pittsburgh to Xcw Orleans, 
the B. & O.. the C. & O. and the X. & \V. Railroads, radiating 
with nearly all points of the compass, offer transportation to 
passenger and freight so low that one cannot but wonder how 
they can do it; that Huntington has no perplexing labor ques 
tions to settle; that, owing to its unequalled advantages as a 
home location, the city is steadily and rapidly growing in 
population ; that the man of family — the substantial citizen — 
in medium circumstances or otherwise, seeks employment and 
a home here because of educational advantages; that because 
of its strategic commercial location, new manufacturing and 
business concerns are constantly being added to the already 
long list of those located here, so that the balance between 
employed and means of employment is admirably maintained 
without bringing about a dearth of labor or the means of earn- 
ing a livelihood: that this healthy condition is the means of 
inducing competent, skilled labor to seek employment here, 
and. as the best possible feeling exists between the employer 
and the employed, the retaining of a competent labor supply 
is a small problem; that wages are at that desirable medium 
which affords a good living for the artisan without being ex- 
acting upon the employer, and the advantage of each is 
thereby conserved. It is the constant exposition of these 
truths before the business world that is making Huntington 
the leading city of the State. 

We have said that Huntington is noted for her large 
number of manufacturing concerns. Some of these are of 
gigantic proportions. For instance, it is estimated that if the 
number of cars made by the Ensign plant of the American 
Car and Foundry Company were coupled together in one train 
it would reach, unbroken, a distance of 440 miles, or twice the 
distance from Kenova to Wheeling. 

The Ohio Valley Electric Railway Company operates 34 
miles of urban railway in Huntington, and its interurban 
lines connect Huntinqton with the cities of Guyandotte. 

128 History of West Virginia 

Ceredo, and Kcnova, West Virginia, and Ashland, Kentucky; 
Colegrove, Iron ton, and Hanging Rock, Ohio. 

hi May, 1911, Huntington had eight banks, with a capital 
and surplus totalling $2,011,^91.00. The combined deposits 
of these institutions on December 31, 1910, ' amounted to 
$4,197,530.22. At that time a new bank, with a capital of 
$300,000, was being organized, making nine banks in all in 
the city. This, in itself, is a very good indication of the city's 

The fire and police departments are up-to-date. 

The people of Huntington are church-goers, as evidenced 
by the twenty-four church edifices which rear their lofty 
spires heavenward along the city's beautiful avenues and 
scattered through the city, at points of vantage, among which 
are numbered five of the Baptist denomination, seven Method- 
ist, two Presbyterian, one Congregational, one Lutheran, two 
Christian, one Episcopal, two United Brethren, one Roman 
Catholic, one Jewish congregation. Of these, one Methodist 
and two Baptist congregations are composed of colored peo- 
ple. A Christian Science Church was also lately organized in 
the city. An active corps of the Salvation Army contributes 
effectually to the welfare of the city. 

There is no lack of amusement facilities in Huntington. 
Opera houses, picture shows and summer parks are there in 

Sanitary conditions in Huntington are excellent, and epi- 
demics are conspicuous only for their absence.. This is due 
partly to natural causes and partly to human effort. The 
city is situated upon a wide plateau, high above the Ohio 
River, affording an easy, natural drainage. With a perfect 
sewerage system and the operation of an active street depart- 
ment, the general health of the people is conserved. 

Following is a list of some of the principal industries 
located at Huntington: C. & O. Railroad shops, American 
Car and Foundry Company, Nicholson-Kendle Furniture Co., 
Newberry Shoe Co.. Huntington Handle Co., The Jarvis 
Machinery and Supply Co., Empire Furniture Co., Huntington' 
Chair Co., The Specialty Mattress Co., Huntington Tobacco 
Warehouse, Alpha Flour C.winn Brothers & Co., D. E. Abbott 

History of West Virginia 12' 1 

& Co., Leiitral \ cneer Co., West Virginia Paving & Pressed 
Brick Co.. Penn Tabic Co.. II. R. Wyllie China Co., Hunt 
ington Tile Roof Co., Slider Prothcrs Planing .Mill, Haun 
Bending Co., Locke Manufacturing Co., Huntington Red 
Brick Co., Huntington Stove & Foundry Co., Thornburg 
Manufacturing Co.. .Morris Machinery Co., Huntington Spring 
Bed Co., Huntington Milling Co., West Virginia Rail Co.. 
Beader Box Manufacturing Co.. Huntington Tumbler Co.. 
xAckcnnan Lumber and Manufacturing Co. 

The Frederick and The Florentine are the principal 
hotels, but there are many other popular inns in the city. 

The Court House, the Carnegie Library, the Post Office, 
the West Virginia Asylum of Male Patients, ;he West Vir- 
ginia Asylum for Female Patients, the Public Schools, all are 
splendid and imposing structures and a credit to the city. 

The educational advantages are most excellent. .Marshall 
College is a State normal and academic school, offering the 
following courses of study: Normal, Science, Classic, and 
Modern Languages, 4 years' courses each ; Expression course, 
3 years; Piano course. 5 years; Voice course, 3 years; Art 
course, 2 years; also a Violin course. The school was founded 
in 1837 as a private academy, became a private college in 1S57, 
and a State school in 18o7. 

The free school system is well organized and conducted, 
consisting of a superintendent, four supervisors, seventeen 
principals and 141 teachers, presiding over twenty schools, as 
follows : 

Wilson M. Foulk, superintendent : Sarah E. Galloway, 
C. E. Miller, Otto A. flyers and Lucile Eifort, supervisors. 

HIGH SCHOOL— C. L. Wright, principal, and J. G. 
Graham, assistant; Anna E. Harris, M. Virginia Foulk, Vir- 
ginia B. Xcal. Charlotte P. Goodrich. Jessie B. Thompson, 
C. E. Miller, Florence A. Tullis, Bertie A. Backus, Julia F. 
Alexander, J. F. Paxton, Ruth Daniel, J. L. Patterson, Alice 
Xcalc, Louise B. Hill, and Maude Vest, teachers. 

JOHN A. JOXES SCHOOL— Otto A. Myers, princi- 
pal; Maude Carter, Leila M. Graves. Minnie Chalfield, 
W. Norman Mitchell, Emma McClintock. Jessie Hayslip, 
Mabel Jones, and Anna Lewis, teachers 

130 History of West Virginia 

OLEY SCHOOL— Otto A. Myers, principal; Nannie 
McCroskey, Leora A. McKee, Janic Workman, Blanche 
Rogers, Hazel Smith, Carrie Rees, Marion Wyatt, Clara A. 
Eisenmann, and Erna Wells, teachers. 

BUFF1NGTON SCHOOL— Sarah M. Peyton, principal, 
and Columbia Lovett, assistant; Nellie Howes, Alva Mallory, 
Bertha Shafer, Pearl Clement, Besse Foley, Mary C. Staton, 
Sallie Beazley, Jane Gotshall, Cora A. Day, Edith Dcfoor, 
Elizabeth G. Johnston, and Ruth Farrer, teachers. 

HOLDERBY SCHOOL— Margaret B. Wyatt, principal; 
Marguerite McClelland, Gertrude Fritz, Emma Peters, Eliza- 
beth Gardner, Tomma Robertson, Maude Fielder, Elizabeth 
Custer, Blanche Shafer, Roma Thompson, Lillian Erskine, 
Mary Temple, Nelle Carter, Marie Beckner, Gladys Wigner, 
Addie Wash, and Ann Cundiff, teachers. 

ENSIGN SCHOOL — Blanche Enslow, principal, and 
Eva Pringle, assistant; Mary Matthews, Kathryn Kerr, Myrtie 
Bowen, In a Beckner, Edna L. Hines, Margaret Robison, Julia 
Wilcoxen, and Lucy Hern, teachers. 

SIMMS SCHOOL— Cora Tally, principal ; Ota F. Morris, 
Esther Cundiff, Beatrice Reed, Isabellc T. Gordon, Will 
Richardson, Dora W. Scarft, and Mary Reed, teachers. 

EMMONS SCHOOL— Alice Freeman, principal ; Blanche 
Miller, Ruby Ferris, Matie Baber, and Eva Wheeler, teachers. 

COTTAGE GROVE SCHOOL— William H. Leonhart. 
principal; Agnes Branch, Lulia LcRoy, Anna Love, Mabel 
Humphreys, Eria Dillon, Maynie Ware, and Mamie Spangler, 

WASHINGTON SCHOOL— Earl C. Moore, principal; 
Isabel Kerr, Edna B. Preston, Ivy L. Myers, Marguerite Kerr, 
and Iva Lemley, teachers. 

CABELL SCFIOOL— Emma Childress, principal; Goldie 
Gibson, Uldene Alley, Anna Chambers, Lottie Taylor, Mabel 
Clark, Harriet McClung, Lennie Taylor. Nelle Senscney. and 
Lillian Beinkampen, teachers. 

* V 'J0HNST0N SCHOOL— Helen Zimmerman, Ruth Mc- 
Cullagh, Bertha L. Nash, and Jennie A. Wood, teachers. 

JEFFERSON SCHOOL— Bcsse Gibson, principal; Ruby 
Querry, Dulcie Shelton, and Etta Barbour, teachers. 

History of West Virginia l.M 

GALLAHERYILLL" SCHOOL- Lib M. Dulaney, prin- 
cipal: Georgia Wood and Ella Hunter, teachers. 

CROSS ROADS SCHOOL Sallic Spurlock and Marx- 
Ada Wentz, teachers. 

HIGH SCHOOL— Lillian B. Wright. 

THIRD STREET SCHOOL .Marguerite Marple, Julia 
.Merritt, Maude Wilson, and llattie (iardner, teachers. 

RICHMOND STREET SCHOOL— Grace Wilson, prin- 
cipal : Jessie Merritt, Russie Harris, and Anna Raker, teachers. 

DOUGLASS SCHOOL (Colored) — ). W. Scott, princi- 
pal; Joshua Hatchett, Lavina Norman. Effie B. Carter. G. E. 
Ferguson. Edward R. Harvey. Mary Dickinson, Lula James. 
Flore. ice Hurd, and E. A. Viney, teachers. 

nett and Jessie Lindsey, teachers. 


Kingwood. the county scat of Preston, was established 
by an act of the General Assembly of Virginia, January 
23, 1811. Preston was formed from Monongalia January 19, 
1818. The first court convened at the house of William 
Price, in Kingwood, for a long time known as the "Herndon 
Hotel." The first county officials were: Eugene M. Wilson. 
Circuit Clerk: James McGee. Prosecuting Attorney: Joseph 
D. Suit, Sheriff: Charles Byrne, County Clerk. This was the 
birth-place of many persons who later became noted in the 
State and Nation, one of whom was Jonathan P. Dolliver. 
late senator from Iowa. 

Kingwood is located on the Morgantown & Kingwood 
and West Virginia Northern Railroads, 29 miles from Mor- 
gantown and 18 miles from Rowlesburg. 

Although located in a section reputed to possess the 
purest of water and the most healthful climate, surrounded 
by a country noted for its great mineral wealth and agricul- 
tural possibilities. Kingwood has been of extremely slow 
growth. Its population in 1900 was 700: in 1910. 800, and in 
1914, barely 1,000. This is certainly not a very favorable 
showing for a town which has been more than a century in 

132 History of West Virginia 

the building, and one, too, in a section abounding in al! the 
natural resources that, as expressed by the county clerk — .Mr. 
E. C. Everly — need only "pushers" to make of Preston Count}' 
seat "one of the best towns in West Virginia." 


Methodist Episcopal, Rev. A. D. Craig, pastor. 
Baptist, Rev. John W. Brown, pastor. 
Presbyterian, no pastor. 

United Brethren, Rev. H. L. Koontz, pastor. 
Methodist Episcopal (Col.), Rev. Peters, pastor. 


Preston County Journal, H. S. Whetsell, editor. 
The Preston News, M. L. Jackson, editor. 
West Virginia Argus, Wm. G. Lavclle, editor. 


The Bank of Kingwood, Win. G. Brown, president, and 
Felix Elliott, cashier. 

The Kingwood National, Davis Elkins, president, and 
Earl M. Lanyz. cashier. 

Town Officials. 

Charles Spindler, Mayor ; J. Fran Rodeheaver, Recorder ; 
Dr. D. J. Rudasill, G. B. Evick, P. J. Grogan. Frank Chidester, 
and William Haney, Councilmen. 

Manufacturing Establishments. 

Cement Plant, for making blocks, etc. 

Kingwood has about fifteen retail establishments. 

The Jenkins and The Raleigh are the principal hotels of 
the town. There are also two good restaurants, but more are 

History of West Virginia 

Kingwood School Faculty. 
J. Cochran Vance, Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL — J. Cochran Vance, principal, History; 
Ashcr T. Chihlers. Mathematics and Science: Ciadys M. 
Waters. Languages; ( i. II. Wilson, Commercial Subjects. 

GRADES— C. 11. Wilson, R. R. Kelly, lsa Monroe, Erma 
Rita Powell, Xellye Godwin, and Llcanor Copeman. 

School Term High. V months: Grades. 8 months. Kn- 
rollment, 253. 


Logan, the county seat of Logan County, is situated 
betw< en the mountains of the Guyan range, on the Guyan- 
dotte River. The first settlers were the three Dingcss 
brothers — 1'eter. James and John — and William Workman. 
Its original name was Arcoma, so called in honor of an Indian 
girl, supposed to have been a daughter of either Cornstalk or 
Logan — tradition differing as to her parentage. In 1824 the 
name of the town was changed to Logan, being incorporated 
in 1854. According to the Huntington Herald-Dispatch, the 
first court house stood where Ghiz Pros, are now conducting 
a mercantile establishment: in 1854 it was burned and court 
was held in a log house which was afterward sold to II. S. 
White, after the erection of a brick court house, which was 
subsequently torn down to make room for the present splen- 
did, fire-proof structure, built of native stone. 

The population of Logan in 1900 was 444: in 1910 it was 
l.o40. and on January 1. 1914, about 2.500. 

County Officials. 

John B. Wilkinson. Judge Seventh Judicial Circuit: John 
Chafin. Prosecuting Attorney: Scott Justice, Clerk Circuit 
Court, and J. Xeedie Bryan. Deputy: Don Chafin. Sheriff: 
L. E. Browning, County Superintendent of Free Schools: 
Charles G. Curry. County Surveyor: George Justice. County 
Assessor: W. F. Farley. J. K. Robinson and Alfred Cabell, 
Commissioners of County Court ; W. I. Campbell, Clerk 
Countv Court, and Charles Avis. Deputy. 

134 History of West Virginia 


Methodist Episcopal South, Methodist Episcopal, Mis- 
sionary Baptist, Christian and Presbyterian ; the Christian 
Church having the largest congregation, its membership in 
good standing being 200 strong. However, all the churches 
of the town are building up rapidly in membership and 
spiritual strength. 

Chief Industries. 

Logan and the section round about are common with 
other portions of Southern West Virginia. The}' have very 
flattering prospects in an industrial way. The coal business, 
the chief industry, is fast gaining large proportions. 

Banking Institutions. 

Logan has two prosperous banks — The Guyan Valley 
Bank and The First National Bank. 

General Information. 

The town is well equipped with water works and electric 
light and ice plants, machine shop, laundry, bottling works, 
two bakeries, a school furniture plant, two banks, three hotels, 
one wholesale grocery, one general supply store, one large 
hardware establishment, two furniture stores, two drug stores, 
a splendid hospital, public schools, five churches, two news- 
papers, paved streets, etc. In short, Logan's citizens possess 
nearly all the advantages offered by much larger towns. 

One of the leading citizens of Logan County was Major 
William Stratton. the father-in-law of Judge J. B. Wilkinson. 
The Major was born within two miles of Logan. He par- 
ticipated in the Civil War. A daughter of his married Major 
Nigbert, who served in the Civil War under General Butcher. 
Major Nigbert was twice married, his first wife being a Miss 
Lawson. His second wife, the widow Nigbert, owns a pala- 
tial country home, called Idlewood, near which stands an elm 

History of West Virginia 135 

tree whose wide branches cast their shadows over the Guyaii- 
dotte River. Here, it is said, Thomas Dunn English wrote 
the familiar poem : "U, don't you remember sweet Alice, Ben 
Bolt?" and "Rafting on the Guvandottc". The "Alice" men- 
tioned in the poem, it is said, referred to Alice Lawson, who 
afterwards became the wife of Major Xigbert, as above indi- 

Logan School Faculty. 

F. O. Woerner, Principal. 

HIGH SCHOOL— F. O. Woerner, Language and Mathe- 
matics; Maude B. Swartwood. Latin, German and History; 
J. A. McCauley. Sci. and Com. 

GRADES— Lucile Bradshaw, Lora D. Jackson, Wade II. 
Hill, Bertha Taylor, Kathryn Cottle, Lettie Halstcad, Grace 
Kinney, Mrs. Brooke Gilkeson. and Willa Belle Cole, teachers. 

Term 1913-14, High School, 9 months; Grades, 7 months. 
Total enrollment, 441. 


Madison, the seat of justice of Boone County, is located 
on Little Coal River, a tributary of the Great Kanawha. It 
is a small town, having a population of only 295 in 1910. This 
slowness in growth is due to the lack of transportation 

There are two church organizations in the town the 
Missionary Baptist, conducted by Rev. M. T. Miller, and the 
M. E. Church South, by Rev. Charles E. Morris, pastor. 

The Coal River Republican, J. 1). McXeely, editor, circu- 
lates the county news. 

The banking institutions are Boone County. Julian Hill, 
president, and O. C. Chambers, cashier, and Madison National 
Bank, with F. C. Leftwich, president, and C. A. Croft, cashier. 

The town officials are: R. F. McXeely. Mayor: O. C. 
Chambers. Recorder, and A. H. Sutphin. Chief of Police. 

The Martin and The McXeely are the principal hotels. 

There are several stores, but no manufacturing e-tabli-h- 

130 History of West Virginia 

ments. The town is fairly well equipped with side-walks, but 
as yet no streets have been paved. 

Aladison has a small school, the total enrollment being 
only 73 for the year 1913-14. The school term is 6 months. 
Luther R. Jones, principal, and W. W. Fulton and Lora Lilly 
make up the faculty. 


Mannington — the second city of Marion County in popu- 
lation and industrial enterprises — is located at the mouth of 
Tyle's Fork of Buffalo Creek, on the Grafton and Wheeling 
Division of the B. & O. Railroad. In addition to this road, it 
is also connected to Fairmont — the county seat — by an electric 
line. The town was incorporated March 4, 1856 — four years 
after the completion of the B. & O. Railroad. Until 1891 the 
town made slow growth, the population then being less than 
1,000, but in that year oil was struck near by and from that 
time on there has been a steady growth, the population in 1900 
being 1,681: in 1910, 2.672, and on January 1st, 1914, there 
were over 3,500 people within the corporate limits. 

Mannington has not only grown in population, but in all 
lines of progress, and to-day there are not many towns, of 
equal papulation, that possess so many and so varied manu- 
facturing establishments and business enterprises. 

As a rule, great industrial improvements are brought 
about by the infusion of new blood into a town, city or com- 
munity and the relegation of the old. Not so in Mannington's 
case. The early settlers were the Burts, the Tritchards, the 
Snodgrasses, the Milieus, the Furbees. the Bartletts, the 
Rymers. the Beatys, the Blackshires. the Wells, the Martins, 
the rhillips, the Free-lands, the Claytons, the Bassnetts and 
others, and these are the people who are still the bone and the 
sinew and the ruling spirit of the old town to-day. 

City Officials. 

The present city officials arc as follows: F. W. Vance. 
Mayor; J. H. Hellcm, Chief of Police: Guy Clayton, Recorder; 
Charles Faulkner, Collector. 

History of West Virginia 137 


Methodist, Key. E. E. Goodwin, pastor. 

Baptist, Rev. \Y. J. Stiff, pastor. 

Christian, Rev. Robert Houston, pastor. 

St. Andrew' Iipiscopal, Rev. A. H. Bevins, pastor. 

Roman Catholic, Rev. C. J. Kluser, pastor. 


First National Bank, E. C. Martin, president: \Y. S. 
Furbee. vice president, and G. S. Furbee, cashier. 

Exchange Bank. C. E. Wells, president; P. II. Pitzer. 

Bank of Mannington, C. A. Snodgrass. president; M. F. 
Hamilton, vice president cashie; . 


Evening Telegram, Marion Shaw, editor. 

Manufacturing Establishments. 

Bowers Pottery Co., Charles Phillips Tool Works, South 
Penn Oil Co. Tool Works. Mannington Art Class Co., A. 
Delisca Glass Co., Frank Hawkins Plumbing Establishment. 
Mannington Boiler Works. Mannington Planing Mill. J. S. 
Furbee Flour and Feed Mill. M. F. Frecland Flour and Feed 
Mill. Stewart Granite Works, T. W. Beall Carriage and Black- 
smith. I. S. Pitner Carriage and Blacksmith, P. H. Hess 
Harness Co.. Huey Munnell Boiler Mfg. Co., Eureka Pipe 
Line Shops. Hope Natural Gas Shops. 

The Bowers Pottery Company is reputed to be the largest 
of its kind in the world. 


The Bartlett and The Arlington are the principal hotels 
of the citv. 

138 History of West Virginia 

Retail Stores. 

H. R. and F. E. Furbee, clothing, shoes and furnishings; 
H. C. Anderson, general grocery ; T. L. Masters, meat market 
and groceries; Frank Cook, groceries: S. E. Phillips & Co., 
jewelry; H. B. Beaty, clothing; Tine Bros., clothing; A. Paul, 
groceries; E. C. Martin, ladies' goods; John Modi, grocery 
and meat market ; John Haskins, grocery and meat market ; 
Carl Busby, carpets, rugs and wallpaper; Burt Bros., gro- 
ceries; T. L. Sturm, general store; L. Snyder, hardware; 
Hamilton Furniture Co.,; Bassnett & Mockler, gents' furnish- 
ings; A. Modi, ladies' furnishings; Joe Modi, groceries; 
Furbee Furniture Co. and undertaking; E. F. Mellan, variety 
store ; Fred Barlow, news and confectionery ; Enoch & Dent, 
millinery; Humes & Morrison, millinery; Burt Sisters, mil- 
linery; Pritchard Supply Co., oil well supplies; Oil Well 
Supply Co., oil well supplies; National Supply Co.. oil well 
supplies; H. J. Mathews, drugs; A. L. Parrish, drugs; Pre- 
scription Pharmacy, drugs; Charles and James Phillips, auto- 
mobiles; William Michael, automobiles; Boor & Davis, flour 
and feed. 

Mannington School Faculty. 

David A. Ward, Superintendent. 

SPECIAL— Helen Barnes, Music; Don O. Pullin, Manual 
Training; Elva Stalnakcr, substitute; Bessie Mockler, libra- 

HIGH SCHOOL— C. L. Broadwater, principal, History; 
Edna J. Scott, Mathematics; Emily S. Milburn ; Hilda R. 
Bronson, English ; Clarence M. Finney. Phys. and Chem. ; 
Margaret Eleanor Mockler, Latin and German; Roy C. Con- 
over, Biology. 

CENTRAL RUILDTNG— Mrs. Mary F. Simmons, David 
M. Finney. Toeie Moore, Aeleta Van Tromp, Mary Gaughan : 
Frances Rose, Florence H. White. Effie Johnson. Adaline 
Johnson, Anna M. Faulkner, Alice Parker, Virginia Curry, 
Maude M. AVolfe, Julia Dotts, Sadie Gaughan, Charity John- 
son, teachers. 

History of West Virginia kVj 

JERICHO BUILDING— Athur L. Jones, Ada Wilson, 
Katherine Taggart. Elverta Groves, teachers. 

Total enrollment, l'.'13-l-l, 858. Term, 9 months. 


Martinsburg. the seat of justice of Berkeley County, is 
located in the center of the Eastern Panhandle of West 
Virginia, at an elevation of 650 feet above tide water. Tus- 
earora Creek flows through the town : near by is Opequon 
Creek, while seven miles to the east sweep the waters of the 
historic Potomac. Seventy-eight miles distant, on the south- 
east, is Washington; westward 228 miles is Petersburg; 100 
miles to the north is Harrisburg, and 115 miles east is Balti- 
more. The Xorth Mountain, a few miles west, affords pro- 
tection against the more violent storms from the west. The 
town was laid out by Gen. Adam Stephen, who gave it the 
name of Martinsburg in honor of Col. Thomas B. Martin, and 
was incorporated in October, 177S. 

The first market house was erected in 1793. The Mar- 
tinsburg Academy was established January, 1822. 

In '1910 the city of Martinsburg was granted a special 
charter by the State legislature. The city is divided into five 
wards, each represented in the central governing body, known 
as the common council, by one member duly elected by the 
people of that ward every two years. Another co-ordinate 
branch of the city government is the Board of Affairs, con- 
sisting of three members appointed by the Mayor, with the 
approval of the city council. All legislation for the city, im- 
provements, revenue measures, etc.. are initiated by the coun- 
cil, and passed upon by the Board of Affairs before becoming 
effective. Regular meetings of the two bodies are held, and 
the affairs of the municipality are conducted with care, thor- 
oughness and dispatch. 

The city officers are: 

Mayor — Peyton R. Harrison. 

Citv Coucil — First Ward. T. Frank Seibert ; Second Ward. 
Frank j. Zill : Third Ward. Daniel J. Ileiston: Fourth Ward. 
W. O. Shoap^tall : Fifth Ward. Robert L. Kerfoot. 

140 History of West Virginia 

Board of Affairs — Charles G. Cusha, president; L. H. 
Thompson and T. P. Licklider. City Recorder and r'olice 
Judge, P. \Y. Leiter. City Tax Collector, S. A. Westenhaver. 
City Attorney, C. M. Seibert. City Treasurer, A. M. Gilbert. 
City Auditor, Lee Siler. ■ City Engineer and Street Commis- 
sioner, Henry H. Hess. Superintendent Water System, 
George H. Shaffer. President of Board of Health, Dr. C. E. 
Clay. Chief of Police, P. M. Hollis. Chief of Fire Depart- 
ment, Martin Ouinn. 

The city has a fine water system, with a capacity of over 
four million gallons every 24 hours. For heating and lighting 
purposes gas and electricity are principally used. The streets 
are broad, well graded, and a system of paving witli vitrified 
brick is now in operation. A complete modern sewerage sys- 
tem is now beings provided for, and will soon be installed at an 
estimated cost of $300,000. The fire department is up-to-date. 
The population in 1900 was 7.564; in 1910 it was 10,698, and 
at the present time is nearly 12,500. 

With an ample supply of pure water, a fine sewerage sys- 
tem and an equable climate, Martinsburg is one among the 
most healthful cities in the State. 

Martinsburg is in the heart of a great agricultural and 
fruit-growing region, which, together with the limestone in- 
dustries, contributes largely to the city's progress. 

County Officials. 

Charles W. Thatcher, president county court ; George A. 
Whitmore and John C. Lloyd, commissioners ; Hon. John 
Mitchell Woods, judge circuit for Berkeley, Morgan, and 
Jefferson Counties; L. DeW. Gcrhardt, clerk circuit court; 
William W. Downey, prosecuting attorney, and E. L. Luttrell, 
assistant; Edward II. Tabler. sheriff; M. S. Miller, D. O. 
Bartles, Oscar Miller, Charles Miller and S. A. Sprinkle, depu- 
ties ; E. A. Hobbs, clerk county court, and Miss Hattie Snyder, 
deputy; John W. Dodd, assessor, and S. L. Dodd, Taylor 
Jefferson, L. C. Hoffman, deputies. 

County Board of Equalization and Review — J. T. Catrow, 
Jacob Sites and Tohn II. Lemen. 

History of West Virginia 1-11 

County Superintendent of Schools — E. X. Zeiler. 
County Road Engineer -George E. Showers; assistant, 
Joseph Miller. 

County Health Officer- Dr. \Y. T. Ilcnsbaw. 


The Citizens National Bank, Dr. James Whanii McSherry, 
president; Edward Dutledge, cashier, and Charles A. Young, 
assistant cashier. 

The Merchants and Farmers Bank, Dr. S. X. Myers, 
president, and John T. Xadenbousch, cashier. 

The Old National Bank of Martinsburg, established in 

The Bank of Martinsburg, C. A. Weaver, president ; M. L. 
Dorn, vice president; A. 1). Darby, cashier, and E. M. Amick, 
assistant cashier. 


The Martinsburg Evening Journal, Berkeley Republican, 
and Democratic Sentinel. 

Manufacturing Establishments. 

Interwoven Mills, employ 1,100 persons; Auburn Wagon 
Works, employ a large number of people; Berkeley Pants 
Company, 100 persons; Crawford Woolen Mills. 500; Perfec- 
tion Garment Company; Martinsburg Worsted and Cassimere 
Co., and others of less importance. 

Among the wholesale establishments are the National 
Commercial Company: John W. Bishop, wholesale grocer, 
and the C. A. Miller Grocery Company. The retail stores are 
very progressive and complete, and many of them carry stocks 
that would be a credit to like establishments in cities of much 
larger population. 

Martinsburg has some as fine building blocks and resi- 
dential buildings as are found anywhere in the State. 

' }Among the largest and most important institutions in the 
c'itv} is the Citv Hospital and Nurses' Training School. This 


142 History of West Virginia 

is a handsome, four-story building erected of concrete blocks, 
located at the corner of Burk street and Maple avenue. Sena- 
tor Gray Silver is its president ; Dr. C. \Y. Link, vice presi- 
dent ; Dr. T. K. Oates, superintendent and treasurer, and R. S. 
Bouic, secretary. 

The Baltimore & Ohio and the Cumberland Valley Rail- 
roads furnish excellent transportation facilities to and from 
points north, south, east and west. 


The First Baptist; the Second Baptist; Methodist Epis- 
copal; Trinity Methodist Episcopal South; Trinity Protestant 
Episcopal; St. Joseph's Catholic; Christ Reformed; St. John's 
Lutheran; Presbyterian; Christian; First United Brethren; 
Second United Brethren; Holiness; Bash Yonkey Synagogue; 
Dudley Free Will Baptist (colored) ; Mt. Zion Methodist 
Episcopal (colored) ; and the Dunkards. 

Out of 12,500 inhabitants of the city, over 9,000 are regu- 
larly affiliated with the churches and Bible schools. 


The public and private schools of Martinsburg are the 
particular pride of the city, the corporate limits composing an 
independent school district, under the present supervision of 
the following Board of Education : James W. Barrick, Harry 
Kuhn, M. G. Tabler, Edward H. Barton and Charles W. Siler, 
Mr. Barton being president and William A. Pitzer secretary. 
The following named persons compose the public school 
faculty : 

William C. Morton, superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL--M. L. Wachtel, principal, Science and 
Math. ; H. E. Hannis, Latin and Math. ; Lucetta S. Logan, 
Eng. ; M. Ella Aldridge, Ger. and Math.; Gloria R. Severencc. 
Com. Bn; William J. Flagg, Eng., French and Math.; Boyd 
H. Lamont, History. 

BURKE STREET SCHOOL— W .A. Pitzer. principal; 
Lula A*. Muth, Frances E. Hergesheimer, Lorena J. Mason, 

History of West Virginia 143 

Mollie E. Ryncal, Annie H. O'Xenl, Florence IST . Curtis, and 
Grace Bird. 

JOHN STREET SCI TOOL— Lee Siler, principal; Bcrta 
Sharft", Grace E. Lindsay, Frances L. Hcnshaw, Nancy Am- 
brose. Vannetta M. Chambers, Alice M. Bowers, Edna .May 
Siler, Dora E. Wolfensbcrger, Jennie M. Dutrow, and Maude 
G. Kuykendall. 

HIGH STREET SCHOOL — D. U. Dodd, principal; 
Lottie V. McKec, Laura Ilomrich. Nannie B. Small. Mildred 
Aler. Bessie K. Etchbciger. Sallic \". Aler, Ella E. Swartz. 

IIOOGE STREET SCHOOL— O. L. Snyder, principal: 
Clara Y. Cutting. Delia B. Hill. Josina T. Showers. Ada 
W'iebe. Louise S. Harrison. Mollie E. Martin, and Fern IT. 

SUMNER SCHOOL (Colored)— Fred R. Ramer. princi- 
pal ; Edena R. Roberts and Mattic E. Corsey. 

SPECIAL— Mary M. Betz, Drawing; Lillie D. -Mullen 
and Jessie B. Smith. 

Total enrollment for 191314 term. 1,561. School term, 
10 months. 


Pocahontas County was formed from parts of Bath. 
Pendleton and Randolph Counties by an act passed by the 
General Assembly of Yirginia. February 5, 1822. The first 
countv court was held the following month, at the home of 
John Bradshaw. one of the early settlers of the county, where 
Huntersvillc now stands. At the following May term of court. 
Levi .Moore. Jacob Mathews. William Cackley. George Poage. 
Abraham McXcel. and Benjamin Tallman were appointed 
commissioners by the court to let the contract for the con- 
struction of a brick court house and jail at Huntersvillc. and 
in the vear 1827 the buildings were completed, at a cost of 


The first court of Pocahontas County was composed of 
the following justices of the peace: John Jordon. William 
Poage, Jr.. James Tallman. Robert Gay. George Poage, Ben- 
jamin Tallman. John Baxter and George Burner. The last 

144 History of West Virginia 

named gentleman served as first clerk of the county, John 
Jordan was the first sheriff, Johnston Reynolds common- 
wealth attorney, and Sampson L. Mathews county surveyor. 

Concerning the early setlement of Huntcrsville and the 
heroic efforts of the clerk to preserve the county records 
through the Civil War, wc quote the following from "West 
Virginia and Its People", by Miller and Maxwell: 

"It was here that Bradshaw built his rude log cabin, and 
soon after the people of Bath County constructed a wagon 
road from the Warm Springs through the mountains to his 
house, and a man named John Harness began hauling goods 
from Staunton into these mountains for the purpose of trading 
with the settlers. lie made Bradshaw's house his headquar- 
ters, and here he was met by hunters and trappers who 
brought him their pelts, venison and other products of the 
forest, to exchange for goods. From this the place was 
eventually known as lluntersville. It was established as a 
town by the legislature, December IS, 1822. Among institu- 
tutions of learning was the Little Levels Academy, founded in 
1842, under State charter of Virginia. It was bought in 1865 
by the county, and later used for public school purposes. This 
was the first school of a high order within the county. 

"When the rebellion broke out, in 1861, William Curry 
was county and circuit clerk. Finding that the Federals were 
likely to invade the county, he took the records to a place of 
supposed safety — the residence of Joel Hill, on the Little 
Levels; here the}' remained until January, 1862, when Mr. 
Curry became alarmed lor their safety and removed the same 
to Covington, Virginia, where for a short time they were in 
the Allegheny County court house. From there they were 
taken to the storehouse of Capt. William Scott. In Septem- 
ber, 1863, General Averill's command reached Covington, and 
Mr. Curry again removed the records, first to the home of 
William Clark, then to a stack of buckwheat straw, in which 
they lay concealed for three weeks, and were then conveyed 
into the mountains and stored away in the house of a Baptist 
minister, where they remained until the surrender of Appo- 
mattox. The war having ended, Mr. Curry, in June, 1865, 
returned the records and deposited them at the house of Joel 

History of West Virginia I l.-> 

Hill. A month later they were taken lu a vacant house be- 
longing to Rev. Mitchell Dunlap. and there left until Septem- 
ber, 18<>5, when the first court after the war convened, Novem- 
ber, 18o5, in the .Methodist Church at llillsboro. From that 
time they were kept in the old Academy building until June. 
18o<>. when they were taken back to the county .seat and de- 
posited at the house of John 11. Carrey. More than five years 
had elapsed since their first removal for safety, and, strange 
to relate, through all these various changes, not a book or 
paper was missing save one record book which was of no 
value to the county.'" 

The land on which Marlinton now stands was purchased 
and laid off in town lots by John T. McGraw and J. \Y. 
Marshall in the year 18°d in anticipation of the coming of the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, which was built through the 
town seven years later. 

On October 0. 1891. a petition, signed by f>97 voters of the 
county, was presented to the court, asking that a vote be 
taken on the proposition of removing the county seat from 
Huntersville to Marlinton. In compliance with that petition 
an election was ordered held on December 8, 1891, which re- 
sulted in an overwhelming majority in favor of the removal. 
Thereupon the county court ordered that the people's will be 
carried out and directed the clerk to advertise for plans and 
specifications for a court house and jail. But, at an election 
held on May 16. 1893. on the question of a $20,000 bond issue 
for the purpose of raising funds with which to meet the cost 
of the proposed new buildings, the majority went against the 
bonds. However, the county court, on July 12. 1893. awarded 
the contract for the construction of the court house and jail 
to Manly Manufacturing Company. But before the buildings 
were completed, in compliance with a petition by the tax- 
payers of the county, the court ordered a vote to be taken on 
the question of changing the county scat back to Huntersville. 
This proposition, however, was voted down by a large ma- 
jority, and work on the court house was resumed and the 
building completed in 1S95 at a cost of $18.1 17. 2o, the amount 
being raised by direct taxation. 

The first term of circuit and superior court in Pocahontas 

140 History of West Virginia 

County was hold on the -3rd day of May, 1831, Hon. Allen 
Taylor being the judge; William Taylor, commonwealth at- 
torney, and Henry M. Moffett, clerk. 

The town of Marlinton was incorporated on the 4th of 
April, 1900, Andrew Price being the first major and F. H. 
Kincaid first recorder. 

Marlinton has four churches, namely: Presbyterian, A. S. 
Rashal, pastor; Methodist Episcopal South, J. Herbert Bean, 
pastor ; the Episcopal and Colored Baptist Churches, having 
no regular pastors. 

Banking Institutions. 

Bank of Marlinton — M. J. McNeel. president, and Hubert 
Echols, cashier. 

First National Bank of Marlinton — George P. Moore, 
president, and J. A. Sydenstricker, cashier. 

Stores, Shops, Etc. 

Marlinton has six dry goods stores, four groceries, two 
drug stores, two hardware and two furniture stores, two 
bakeries, two grain and two feed stores, one wholesale drug 
store, one news stand and one shop for mill supplies. 

Manufacturing and Other Plants. 

A tannery, a water and light plant, an ice plant, and two 
planing mills. 


Marlinton has three newspapers: The Pocahontas Times, 
C. W. Price, editor; The Republican News. Floyd Dilley, 
manager, and The Pocahontas Independent, R. A. Kramer, 

In addition to the above, there are four good hotels and 
several restaurants in the town ; also a city hospital and fine 
school buidilng. 

History of West Virginia 147 

The population of .Marlinton in 1900 was onlv 171 ; in 
1910 it was 1.045. and on January 1st, 1914, about 1,200. 

The town is located on the Greenbrier River and the 
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad. 190 miles from Charleston 
by rail. 

School Faculty 1913-14. 

HIGH SCHOOL— C. B. Cornwell. principal, Science and 
Mathematics; Elizabeth Roads, Latin. History and English. 

GRADES— L. J. .Moore. Virginia Shields. Anna Lee 
Irvine. Sallie \V. Wilson. Anna L. Sullivan, and Anna Wal- 
lace, teachers. 

Term. High School, 9 months; Grades, 8 months. Enroll- 
ment, 240. 


Mindlebournc was established January 27, 1813. on lands 
of Robert Gorrcll ; Abraham S. Brickhcad, William D. 
Delashmult. Daniel llaynes, Thomas Grigg, Joseph Archer, 
Joseph Martin and William Wells, Sr.. being the trustees: 
but it was not incorporated as a town until February 3rd. 1871. 

Tyler County was formed from Ohio County in 1814 and 
ever since that time Middlehourne has been the county seat. 
The present court house at that place was erectd in 1854. The 
town is most beautifully situated on a large plateau within 
and overlooking the picturesque semi-loop or ox-bow bend 
of Middle Island Creek. Middlebonrne, although the county 
seat for a full century, has been of extremely slow growth, 
the population in 1910 being only 54<">. This, perhaps, was 
due to the town's lack of transportation facilities. Sisters- 
ville — ten miles away — being the nearest railroad or river 
shipping point. This great draw-back, however, has been 
overcome, as Middlebonrne now has two railroads — an elec- 
tric line from Sistersville and the Clarksburg-Xorthern Kail- 
road from Xew Martinsville the former having been in oper- 
ation about one year, and the latter was completed and read,}' 
for traffic about the middle of February, 1914, which latter 
event was diilv celebrated at Middlebournc on Thursday, 

148 History of West Virginia 

February 19, 1914. On that day the first passenger train, 
consisting of Engine Xo. 1, combination baggage and passen- 
ger car No. I and passenger coach Xo. 2, in charge of Pete 
Moore, engineer, and Charley Walton, conductor, left New 
Martinsville at 10:30 a. m., having on board the following 
Xew Martinsville citizens enroute for Middlebourne : Joseph 
Fuccy, president of the Clarksburg-Northern; John F. Loehr, 
John Shiben, A. C. Chapman, J. W. Mclntire, John Stamm, 
J. B. Clark, \Y. Mac Snodgrass, S. R. Martin. VV.'e. Whorton, 
Edward Scalley. J. K. Denny, H. N. Pyles. E. A. Philblard, 
Ralph White. J. C. Close, Mr. Pates, Levi Berger, J. H. Sharp, 
ll. D. Potts, Walker Clark. 14. S. McClintock, W. M. Pyles, 
Dr. F. E. Fankhouser, John Heber, Thomas Burlingame, Jr., 
Charles W. Travis, Charles Boggs, George P. Umstead, 
Sylvester Myers, Ralph Miller, W. E. Roth, Dana Bartlctt. 
James A. Pyles. Guido Probst, S .G. Combs, Charles Higgin- 
botham, Daniel Ritchie, Clarence M. Stone, James A. Bowen. 
A. J. Ferrell, U. S. VanCamp, Cliarles J. Beck, C. S. Farmer, 
F. F. Pyles. John Widmer, C. W. Duerr, F. S. Duerr, Thomas 
Allen, J. E. Bartlett, C. M. Founds, James Bishop, John H. 
Dixon, ITeodore Hornbrook, William Culp, Rev. J. H. 
Jackson. J. W. Stone, J. XV. Schamp, J. K. Gorby, C. T. Gorby, 
Leo Herrick, Frank Berger, Rev. ?. ?. Bumgardener, W. S. 
Campbell, John Robinson, Lloyd V. Mclntire, A. C. Chapman, 
William Ankrom, Harry Winer, John F. Martin, W. J. Postle- 
thwait, F. C. Wells. Several persons were also picked up 
enroute, and when the train arrived at the "Old Toll House" — 
the present terminus of the new road — there were on board 
some eighty people. Here, "midst a heavy down-pouring of 
rain, were waiting what appeared to be about half of Middle- 
bourne's male population — both old and young — accompanied 
by a brass band, waiting to greet the visitors as they stepped 
off the train. Quickly forming in line, the large crowd, led by 
the band, marched to the court house, where the following 
address of welcome was given by Hon. Thomas P. Hill, on 
behalf of Mayor Thomas J. Sellers: 

Ladies and Gentlemen: This is surely a grand occasion. 
Middlebournc has been on the map as an incorporated town 
for more than a hundred years, and never before in it has a 

History of West Virginia 1 I' 1 

man, woman or child ever had the privilege of participating 
in an event of this kind. 

This is an event that will go down in the history of tin- 
interior of our county as the beginning of a new epoch that 
of the enjoyment of the opportunities and blessings afforded 
by the steam locomotive. 

The opening to-day of the Clarksburg-Xorthcrn Railroad 
between this place and the city of Xew .Martinsville is a reali- 
zation. Sirs, of the dreams of many years, and to us it seems 
loo good to be true. But when 1 say that it is a realization of 
dreams J would not have you get the idea that it is merely the 
work of chance, or that by some mere accident this occasion 
has been made possible, for such is not true. It has cost 
money, it has cost muscular effort, it has cost mental vitality, 
and I might further add, gentlemen, that it has cost the life 
of one of West Virginia's most highly respected and honored 
citizens. And may we not forget to-day to cast a rose upon 
his grave — that of Col. T. Moore Jackson. 

But, ray friends, there are others— those who' are still 
living — who should have their share of the flowers. And may 
God forbid that we should wait till they are dead before we 
ever say to any one that we appreciate the efforts of "Jack" 
Shore and "Ike" Underwood for their untiring efforts to get 
us out of the mud, and to give us the modern convenience of 
travel that we enjoy to-day. They have done even more than 
they had ever hoped to do. 

And in this they remind me of an experience when a boy. 
At that time I was somewhat of a Ximrod. and I had to my 
credit the honor of having killed almost every species ol 
game in the woods. But among the feathered tribe I had 
never killed an owl. But on this particular evening as I was 
coming home along a lonely path on the top of a ridge, to my 
great surprise, on a near-by tree there sat a large owl. This 
was my opportunity. Just a little nervous, but with plenty 
of confidence in my ability and the accuracy of my ritle, 1 drew 
up and fired: and to my great astonishment, when the gun 
cracked, there fell two owls! 

And since the smoke of the conflict ha- rolled away, these 
crentlemen can now clearly see that instead ol celling us one 

150 History of West Virginia 

railroad they have gotten us two, for all of which we are truly, 
truly thankful. 

1 would like to tell you about the Tyler County \ T ews, 
the Tyler County Journal, the Sweeneys, the Shepherds, the 
Furbees, the May-fields, and many others, but time forbids. 

But, gentlemen, these are not all ; over yonder on the 
river front, in the sister county of Wetzel, is as big-hearted 
and as unselfish a set of men as can be found this side of the 
pearly gates. 

When the promoters went to them and gave them their 
proposition and their plans, they came forward with a suH i 
front, and through their board of trade they said: "We wil' 
vote you $100,000 in bonds; leave the matter with us; we will 
take care of the election.'' 

Ah ! how we watched the result in old Magnolia, and how 
we rejoiced when the returns came in showing a complete 
victory for the bonds. 

We then turned to our own people back here in the mui, 
and said that Xew Martinsville, with the Ohio River, with 
the Short Line Railroad, with the Ohio River Railroad, and 
the electric railroad had expressed herself on the proposition 
and that she had sufficient confidence in it and its benefits to 
vote $100,000 in bonds, so we then implored our own people 
to help us out with a bond issue of $125,000. You can't im- 
agine, gentlemen, how much you helped us." 

We have now met to celebrate the opening of this road, 
and on behalf of the good, honest, and progressive citizens of 
Ellsworth District and my own town I hereby extend to you 
a most cordial welcome; as we are now bound together by 
oaken ties and bands of steel, may we ever be also bound to- 
gether by the ties of love and the bonds of friendship. (Ap- 

Rut much as we appreciate what was done to mold public 
sentiment and to vote the bonds as an expression of the faith 
we had in the enterprise, we fully realize that these things 
alone would not get us a railroad. For if an cnthusastic citi- 
zenship, newspaper articles and bonds could have brought 
an occasion of this kind we most certainly would have heard 
the sound of the locomotive whistle in Middlebourne vears 

History of West Virginia 151 

ago. But it remained for another to complete the work for 
lib. And in this work no one but himself knows the difficulties 
that he has had to overcome. As was stated recently by one 
of our leading citizens, "I suppose he lias had all the trouble 
there i> between Heaven and Hell, but despite it all lie has 
overcome them and completed the road to Middlebuourne." 

This man. the one whom we honor most to-day, is our 
good friend, Col. Joe Fuccy. 

To show our appreciation to you for this accomplishment 
wc desire to extend to you every privilege, every opportunity, 
and even - blessing that our town affords. To fully enjoy 
these things it is necessary that you have the key which I 
hold here in my hands. This key. I am told, is one hundred 
years old. It is the key to the Town of Middlebourne. It has 
been held in safe-keeping through all these years by the mayor 
of the town. It is large. It was made for a large town. It 
has been carefully preserved through all these years by large 
men. It is so large that we have never had an occasion large 
enough to -se it. But with one accord wc have directed our 
efficient mayor, Mr. T. J. Sellers, to give it to you on this 
occasion, and on his behalf, 1 take great pleasure in presenting 
to you this key to our town (the speaker here hands the key, 
a wooden one about two feet long, to Mr. Fuccy), assuring 
you that it will open our doors to you for all time, and urging 
that you use it freely to-day in helping to show these Xew 
Martinsville friends a good time. 

We sincerely trust that happiness and prosperity may 
ever be with you. and that the richest of Heaven's blessings 
may be abundantly showered upon you. 

Col. Joe Fuccy 's Reply. 

Gentlemen of Xew Martinsville and Middlebourne and of 
Wetzel County and Tyler County: I accept this key with the 
greatest of pleasure. I take it not only with my hands, but I 
reach out and take it with my heart. 

I will keep it until I unlock the door of Clarksburg, the 
countv seat of Harrison County. In the building of this road 
I have met with many difficulties and trying hours; many 

152 History of West Virginia 

nights I have not closed my eyes, but have turned from one 
side of my bed to the other in an effort to find a little rest 
from my worrying and thinking and figuring, but 1 found no 
rest on either side. After all, I put my trust in God., and from 
that time everything has gone well and we have the railroad. 

I will not only unlock the door of Middlebourne with this 
key, but with it I will unlock the doors of all the towns be- 
tween Midcllebourne and the city of Clarksburg, and after I 
have used it in unlocking the city of Clarksburg in the central 
part of this State, I will return it to you. 

I appreciate the good feeling toward the railroad and I 
hope it will continue so in the future. J shall try to do nothing 
on my part that will be cause to change this good feeling. 

Now, I thank all again for their kindness and good will 
toward the railroad. This is all I have to say at the present. 

Following Air. Fuccy, Mayor Jackson of New Martins- 
ville responded to the address of welcome in a hearty speech. 
Others followed Air. Jackson, and soon Mayor Sellers an- 
nounced that the banquet was spread and awaiting the visit- 
ors at the Ofld Fellows' Hall, to which place "all hands'" re- 
paired and did ample justice to the luxurious viands which 
Mrs. Swan, of the Avenue Hotel, had so enticingly and so 
abundantly prepared for the occasion. Many speeches, of a 
happy vein, followed the festivities, and later on the New 
Martinsville bunch, led by Joe Fuccy, proceeded to the High 
School building, but as the latch-string was hanging outside. 
Joe had no use for his big key. Professor Garrison, principal 
of the institution, met the visitors at the door and gave all a 
most gracious welcome. After being shown through the 
various departments of education by the very efficient and 
accommodating school officer, it was announced that the train 
would soon be due to start back on the return trip. So the 
New Martinsville boys "hiked out" for the Old Toll House — 
the present terminus of the C. N. R. R. — and in due time 
reached their respective homes, carrying with them a lasting 
friendship for their Middlebourne neighbors. 

Following the celebration at Tyler's county seat, the citi- 
zens of New Martinsville at once began preparations for 
another event of like character at Wetzel's seat of government, 

History of West Virginia 153 

ni which the citizens of Middlebourne were to l>e the honored 
guests. In order that the occasion might be more thoroughly 
celebrated. Mayor Jackson proclaimed Thursday, February 
2f>th, as a holiday in Xew Martinsville, to be known as 
"Middlebourne Day", and all business house-, were ordered 
closed from 10:00 a. in. till 2:00 p. m., that being the day set 
apart for the celebration. 

We take the following from the Wetzel Democrat: 

A special train bearing upwards of two hundred and fifty 
people was run from Middlebournc to this city, and long be- 
fore the arrival of the train bearing the guests of honor, over 
a thousand people, including about four hundred school chil- 
dren, had gathered at the railroad station to greet the visitors 
from the metropolis of Tyler County. The large crowd in- 
cluded the city and county officials, the Chamber of Com- 
merce, and nearly every business and professional man in the 
city and many from the country districts. 

The school children marched to the depot in a body, 
carrying flags and banners, and were a pretty sight, as those 
from each room, under the direction of their teachers, marcher* 
to the depot and lined up along the track. The train was de- 
layed, however, and it was necessary, after oxer an hour's 
wait, for the children to be returned to the school building 
before its arrival, greatly to the disappointment of the enter- 
tainment committee. 

The special arrived about 12:30, and visitors were escort- 
ed to the Court House, where an elaborate banquet, served by 
the Ladies' Aid Society of the Presbyterian Church, was given 
in the county court room and in the corridors on the first floor. 
So great was the crowd, which far exceeded expectations, that 
it was necessary for many to wait for second table. It is 
estimated that fully four hundred people participated in the 

After the menu was served, Mayor J. H. Jackson delivered 
an address of welcome to the Tyler County visitors and oi 
congratulation to Hon. Joseph Fuccy. the builder of the road, 
upon the successful accomplishment of the stupendous task- 
he undertook nearly three years ago. 

Mavor fackson's speech was followed by a number of 

154 History of West Virginia 

others, delivered by citizens of New Martinsville and Middle- 
bourne, in all of which there was predicted a new era of pros- 
perity to the two cities and adjacent country by reason of the 
building of the Clarksburg-Northern. 

Owing to the great crowd it was necessary to repair to 
the circuit court room, and even then there was barely stand- 
ing room. 

The visitors remained in the city until evening, exchang- 
ing sentiments of good will with the local people, and returned 
to Middlebourne, to all appearances a happy and well satisfied 

The reception given on Thursday by the people of New 
Martinsville and vicinity to those of Middlebourne and vicin- 
ity was probably one of the most important events in the his- 
tory of the city, in that there are now open to the people of 
both counties great possibilities for future advancement and 
expansion. The new railroad traverses and will serve one of 
the richest sections of country in the State. AH it has needed, 
up to this time, to bring it to the front was an outlet to the 
markets of the world, and the Clarksburg-Northern furnishes 
that outlet. 

The people of New Martinsville and Middlebourne and 
of the large expanse of country the road will serve will be 
brought into closer business and social relations, and the 
operation of the road, over which will travel the trade between 
them, will add an impetus to their business relations, and will, 
without doubt, bring about a great and lasting prosperity. 

Thev should congratulate themselves on the completion 
of the road ; and should at the same time not forget to extend 
their congratulations to the man whose enterprise and untir- 
ing energv brought the road to a successful completion, the 
Honorable Joseph Fuccy. 

County Officials of Tyler County. 

r. D. Morris, judge, Second Judicial Circuit: O. B. Con- 
away, Prosecuting Attorney; J. G. Mayfield, Clerk Circuit 
Court: J. W. Duty, Clerk County Court: Lloyd H. Morris, 
Sheriff; A. L. Gregg, County Superintendent of Schools; 

History of West Virginia 155 

Charles P. Clark, County Surveyor; John 11. Tippens, County 


Middlebourne lias two wide-awake weekly newspapers: 
The Tyler County News and The Tyler County Journal. 


The Bank of Middlebourne and the First National Bank 
are prosperous institutions. 

Stores and Shops. 

There are lew towns of the size of Middlebourne that 
have a greater number of stores and shops, and each estab- 
lishment seems to be receiving a fair amount of patronage. 


There are three churches in the town, each having a good 
sized congregation. Rev. A. A. Dye is pastor of the Baptist 
Church. Rev. \Y. E. Craig of the M. E. Church, and Rev 
Slaughter of the U. B. Church. 


The citizens of Tyler Count}' may well be proud of their 
High School building at Middlebourne. It may not be the 
very finest in the State, but it has but few superiors in archi 
tcctural beauty, and its beautiful location is not and could not 
be excelled anywhere. It has to be seen to be appreciated, <t» 
no words or picture could do it justice. 

Middlebourne's School Faculty. 

principal. History: H. D. Groves. Agr. and Sci. : L. C. Yeard- 
lev. Math.. Manual Training; Georgia Parry, Languages: 

156 History of West Virginia 

Alma Nichols, ling, and Dom. Sci. ; Lelia Stillman, Music and 

GRADED SCHOOL— T. P. Hill, principal; G. R. Moore, 
J. E. Fetty, C. V>. Hamilton, Hazel Traugh, Leona Parks, Mac 
Headley, Glenna Ferine, and Lelia C. Stillman, teachers. 

Term 1913-14, 8 months. Enrollment, 216. 


Moundsville, the county seat of Marshall County, was 
originally known as Elizabethtown — so called in honor of 
Elizabeth, wife of its founder, Joseph Tomlinson. A plat of 
ground consisting of forty-five acres was laid out in town lots 
in 1798, and the first lot was sold the following year for the 
sum of $8.00. James Xixon opened the first store in 1815. 
The next store was opened tip by John List, who was ap- 
pointed the first post master, the name of the post office being 
known as Grave Creek. Elizabethtown was incorporated in 
February, 1830, having at that time a population of about 300. 
In 1831 Simon Purdy purchased the Grave Creek Flats and 
laid the same nut in town lots, three houses being erected 
on the plat the same year. In 1832 Purdy erected a brick 
tavern, and the same year the village was incorporated in the 
name of Moundsville, which in 1865 absorbed Elizabethtown, 
the charter taking in all the boundaries formerly covered by 
the two. 

The first town officers after the consolidation were as fol- 
lows: Robert McConnell, Mayor; PI. \Y. blunter, Clerk and 

A jail was erected in 1836. It was a brick and gray sand- 
stone structure, 20 x 40 feet, with walls three feet thick and 
cells lined with sheet iron. The first court was held in this 
building in June, 1836. At this time a court house was Hear- 
ing completion. It was 50 x 50 feet, two stories high and cost 
$4,320. These buildings served the purposes for which th 
were intended until the year 1876, when they gave way to 
more up-to-date structures. 

The State penitentiary was established near the famous 
Mound in 1866. The site upon which the buildings are locat'-d 

History of West Virginia 1. 

contains ton acre;- of ground, fronting on Jefferson avenue, 
extending eastward between Kiglitli and Tenth streets to 
Washington avenue. (For a more complete description, see 
chapter on "Capitols and Other Public Buildings"). 

The population of Moundsville in 1X90 was 2,<>SX; in I'.'OO, 
5,3o2: in 1910, 8,918: in 1914, about 10,000. 

.Moundsville has never been a boomer town. She has 
been building slowly, but on a firm foundation, and a lasting, 
prosperous future is before her. There are scarcely any limits 
to her building ground ; she has four active coal mines of 
excellent steam coal; a main gas line runs through the city; 
her transportation facilities by rail and water are all that could 
be required ; she has an electric car line, four banks, a brick 
manufacturing plant, a large glass factory, enameling plant, 
garment factories and twenty other smaller factories. 

No body of men more fully realize the future possibilities 
of Moundsville than its Hoard of Trade, every member of 
which is a real "live wire". The board consists of \Y. \Y. 
Henderson, president; James A. Sigafoose. first vice presi- 
dent; J. A. Bloyd. second vice president; Alex Purdy, secre- 
tary, and J. £. Sivert, treasurer. 

County Directory. 

J. D. Parriott, prosecuting attorney: Victor E. Myers, 
clerk circuit court; John F. Chase, clerk county court; C. 1*1. 
Hutchinson, sheriff: Frank Howard, jailer; Fred McXinch 
and Elmer Resseger, deputies; \V. L. Xolte, assessor; H. \Y. 
McDowell, county superintendent free schools; K. C. Yoho, 
county surveyor; P.. McMechen, president, and J. Robinson 
and Friend YV. Eller, commissioners of the county court. 

City Officials. 

E. K. Blair, mayor; C. B. Bonar, clerk: Everett P. Moore, 
solicitor; Wiley Games, chief of police: Charles Ritner and 
Erastus Miller, policemen; Dr. J. A. Striebich, health officer; 
Thomas Shimp, F. T. Moore, Edward Bohr, Charles Kull, 
Evan G. Roberts, T. S. Riggs, Herman Hess and Harry 
Wilson, councilmcn. 

158 History of West Virginia 


Moundsville is an exceptionally moral town. The 
Christian people of nine churches have waged a relentless war 
on the liquor traffic and all places of disrepute, and it has been 
many years since a saloon or low dive of any character existed 
in the city. The following is a list of churches and officiating 
clergy : 

Denomination Pastor, Minister or Rector 

First M. E Rev. E. J. Knox 

Calvary M. E Rev. C. C. Lanham 

Christian Rev. I. B. Smith 

First Presbyterian Rev. J. F. Slagle 

United Presbyterian Rev. F. B. McClellan 

Catholic Rev. F. J. Flanagan 

Trinity Episcopal Rev. \Y. H. Meyers 

Lutheran Rev. Dr. McDaniels 

Baptist Rev. Marsteller 


There can be no better evidence of the degree of pros- 
perity of a city than is disclosed by the volume of business 
transacted by and through its banking institutions. Mounds- 
ville has five banks, with resources of over $2,2S5,000. These 
banks are : 

Marshall County Bank — Dr. G. \Y. Bruce, president; 
James A. Sigafoose, cashier, and Wylie M. Rogerson, assist- 
ant cashier. 

First National Bank — B. M. Spurr, president, and J. D. 
Burlcy, cashier. 

Mercantile Banking & Trust Co. — Y r . D. Alexander, pres- 
ident, and T. S. Riggs, secretary. 

Mound City Bank — J. C. Bardall, president ; S. T. Court- 
right, vice president: Ft. W. Hunter, cashier, and C. H. 
Hunter, assistant cashier. 

City and County Bank — J. W. Garvin, president, and J. L. 
Fish, cashier. 

History of West Virginia 15'' 


Moundsville Echo. J. D. Shaw, publisher, and Mounds- 
ville Journal, R. J. Smith, publisher. .Mr. Smith ("Bob", as 
he is known by his most intimate friends; was for a number 
of years editor and proprietor of the Wetzel Republican at 
Xew Martinsville. lie and Mr. Shaw are both able newspaper 
men, as any one can attest who reads the Kcho and the 


Following are some of the principal manufacturing estab- 
lishments at Moundsville: 

Fostoria Glass Co.. United States Stamping Co.. Subur- 
ban Brick Co., Mound City Cut Glass Works. 1. A. Schwab 
Grain Cradle Co.. J. C. Bardall Broom & Whip Co.. Joseph 
Kite's Sons Pants Co., National Bed Co., Gatts & Gray 
Lumber and Planing Mills. Herman lless Planing Mills. 
Wheeling Metal & Mfg. Co., Blankensop Mfg. Co. The Fos- 
toria Glass Co. employ 1,000 and the Stamping and Enamel 
Co. 800 people. 

The city is well supplied with stores, shops, hotels, res- 
taurants, places of amusement and everything that constitutes 
an up-to-date, "live wire" town, without any of the low dives 
that usually thrive in a manufacturing community. 

Moundsville has about six miles of paved streets, a fine 
water plant, good sewerage and electric light system. An 
electric line also connects the city with Wheeling and northern 
and Ohio towns. 

And last, but not least, are Moundsville's educational 
institutions. Her high and graded schools are second to none 
in the State. She has ten school buildings, employing 17 
teachers: has an enrollment of 1M4 students, and a nine 
months' term each year. 

School Faculty. 

H. V. Merrick. Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL— II. W. Cramblet. principal: W. L. 
Watson. Math.: Walter A. Cope, Latin: Onward Rodefer. 

1 00 History of West Virginia 

Science; Marie U. Faulley, History; Edna M. Grenan, Ger- 
man; Alice D. Root, Commercial, and Berdina M. Hale, 

CENTRAL SCHOOL— Xanon Hendershot. Ethel Wood- 
burn, Xellc MeFadden, Eula Yoho, Anna Ewing, Lena 
Founds. India Evans, Alary McCombs, Mabel Vance, Mar- 
garet Burge, William B. Wayt, and Alary E. Baldwin, 

TWELFTH STREET SCHOOL— Clara Schroeder and 
Lucille Leach, teachers. 

TENTH STREET SCHOOL — Elsie Jefferson and 
Sophia Hubbs, teachers. 

FIRST STREET SCHOOL — Alice Sanford, Bertha 
Bonar. Carrie Lutes, Ella Freed, Clara Turk, Gertrude Burge, 
Ethel Travis, Ellen Meeks, Lela Moore, Mattie Roberts, 
Francis XV. Clayton, Mrs. Fay Higgs, Charles Heath, Lillian 
Smith, Mrs. Nellie McDaniels, Alma Glassgow, Lloyd E. 
Moore, Henrietta Founds, teachers, and Susan J. Downey, 

ANNADALE SCHOOL— E. Bonar, teacher. 

CADET TEACHER— Naomi W. Lewis. 

THIRD STREET SCHOOL— Beardon Marsh, teacher. 

COLORED SCHOOL— Inez M. Johnson, teacher. 

The celebrated Moundsville "Camp Ground", with its 
scores of white cottages amid towering trees, is a literal forest 
city. Here many people spend the summer months. It is also 
a popular resort for chautauqua sessions and religious gather- 
ings, which are attended by thousands of people every season. 

Moundsville has many things to attract the visitor. 
Every foot of it has a history. The huge Mound is a wonder 
to behold and its history would fill a good sized volume in 
itself. The silent city of the dead, lying between the Camp 
Ground and the citv of the living, contains the ashes of many 
historical characters. In one place a sand-stone slab marks 
the resting place of Captain Foreman and his men, who lost 
their lives in an Indian ambuscade at the Narrows, just above 
Moundsville. In another spot may be found the graves of 
the Tomlinsons and other pioneer settlers who faced the 
dangers of the wilderness and paved the way for civilization. 

History of West Virginia 1 01 


In the year 1758 a .settlement was effected near the mouth 
of Decker's Creek by Thomas Decker and others, but in the 
following spring a party of Mingoes and Delaware's surprised 
and murdered them. Fourteen years later a small stockade 
fort was erected by the .Morgans on the site of the present 
city of Morgantown. 

In October, 1785. fifty acres of the farm of Zaekqucll 
Morgan were "vested in Samuel llanway, John Evans, David 
Scott, Michael Kcarnes and James Dougherty, gentlemen, 
trustees, to be by them, or any of them, laid off in lots of half 
an acre each, with convenient streets, which shall be, and the 
same are hereby established, a town by name of Morgantown." 

The population of Morgantown on January 1. 1914, was 
about 10.000; in 1910, it was 9,150, and in 1900. 1,895. 

Until 1900 Morgantown was noted only for her educa- 
tional institutions; since that time, however, she has been 
rapidly approaching the front ranks as an industrial town. 
Of manufacturing establishments she has: the American Sheet 
& Tin Plate Company, employing 800 men ; Seneca Glass Co.. 
Economy Tumbler Co.. Union Stopper Co., \Y. R. Jones 
Window Class Co.. Athens Class Co., Manila Window Class 
Co.. Mississippi Class Co.. Pressed Prism Glass Co., and 
Midland Motorcycle Manufacturing Co. 

Morgantown has six banking institutions: Bank of Mo- 
nongahela Valley, l'.ank of Morgantown, Second National 
Bank, Farmers and Merchants Bank, Citizens National Bank, 
and Federal Savings it Trust Company. 


The Morgantown Post-Chronicle and Morgantown New 

Dominion. TT . 


Hotel Madera. Hotel Peabody. White Hotel and Ridge- 
way Hotel are the principal inns of the town. 

Morgantown's educational institutions are unsurpassed 
by any other city in West Virginia. The West Virginia 
University is to West Virginia as Harvard University is to 


History of West Virginia 

West Virginia University. 

Enrollment for 1911-12 — Colleges. 









>— > 












Arts and Sciences 




























For special courses there were 30 candidates — 26 males and 4 

The Schools. 

Schools Males 

School of Music 6 

Preparatory Schools 48 

School of Fine Arts 1 

Agricultural & Home Economics 19 

Summer School 77 

Methods for Sunday School Workers 3 

Farmers' Course 40 

Winter Course — Home Economics 

Night Classes 12 

Total 206 

Entire enrollment at Morgantown 579 

Additional enrollment in Agricultural and Ex- 
tension Schools 2o5 

Grand total 844 

Females Total 


























On September 22, 1910, the State Board of Regents 
elected Thomas Edward Hughes president of the University, 
to succeed Daniel Boardman Purinton, Ph.D., LL.D., who 
formally resigned in June of that year, after having served a 
term of ten years. Dr. Hodges was inaugurated November 
3, 1911. The work of the University, following Dr. Hodges' 
installment into office, was divided as shown below: 

History of West Virginia lu3 


1. College of Arts and Sciences, Frank B. Trotter, Dean. 

2. College of Engineering. C. R. Jones, Dean. 

3. College of Agriculture, E. Dwight Sanderson, Dean. 

4. College of J, aw, Chas. E. Hogg, Dean. 

Schools and Departments. 

5. School of Medicine, John Nathan Simpson, Dean. 
<>. The Summer School. Waitman Barbee, Director. 

7. School of Music and Fine Arts. 

8. School of Agriculture and Home Economics. 

9. Division of Military Science and Military Tactics. 
10. The Library. 

The Preparatory Department in the University has been 
dispensed with, this work now being accomplished in the High 

Morgantown High and Graded Schools, 1913-14. 

R. C. Smith, acting superintendent; Virginia Mulvey. L. 
M. Ilolton and Anna P.oydston, supervisors. 

HIGH SCHOOL— A. T. West, acting principal; II. S. 
Tierce. Mae Sullivan, Jany Ilngue. Mora Atherton, Cilda 
Smith, Mary E. Lockwood. Marjorie Patterson. Jessie Trotter. 
Marion Tapp, Ella Simpson, and Pearl Taylor, teachers. 

CENTRAL BUILDING— E. J. Pylcs, principal; Belle 
L. Spahr, Mrs. Rernic Barnes, Mrs. Mary F. Moore, Margaret 
Black, Adah L. Trippett, Laura Dale Johnson, Isabel Stcmple, 
and Sara Chew, teachers. 

SECOND WARD SCHOOL— J. H. Patterson, principal : 
Lucy A. Bcltzhoover, Mrs. Minnie Sapp, Anna May Marshall, 
Dee Ross. Bess Liter, Mrs. Lstella Smith. Virginia Schley, 
Nell Steele. Bertha Jones, and Anna P.oydston, teachers. 

SENECA SCHOOL H. B. Bosley, principal; Elizabeth 
Hogue, Sallie F. Loudin, Elizabeth Cady, Delia Ferguson, 
and Marv P. Steele, teachers. 

104 History of West Virginia 

WILES HILL SCHOOL— Brison E. Kimble, princioa' • 
Leona Martin, Helen Russell, and Belle Darling, teachers 

WOODBURN SCHOOL— L. F, .Morrison, principil; 
Sara Shelby, Edith Scott Smith, and Ethel A. Green, teachers. 

FIRST WARD SCHOOL— Anna B. Shank, princii al • 
Hattie Simmons, Winfred Cox, and Ada Crumpton, teachers 

WESTOVER SCHOOL— L. T. Laurence, princioa 1 ; 
Lulu Fetty, Margaretta Gapen, and Ada Cobun, teachers. 

MARILLA SCHOOL— Nina Church, teacher. 

COLORED SCHOOL— Mattie Pronty and Roy John- 
ston, teachers. 

Morgantown is the county seat of Monongalia Gmr'y. 
It is located on the Monongahela River, 103 miles from Pitts- 
burgh and twenty-five miles from Fairmont. The city is well 
provided with churches, nearly all of the leading denomina- 
tions being located here. There are few towns in the State 
that excel Morgan town in stately public buildings and beau- 
tiful residences. 


The land on which New Martinsville stands was origi- 
nally owned by Edward Doolin, who, in the spring of 1785, 
was killed by the Indians at his log cabin home, which stood 
about where the residence of Mrs. Aggie Witten is now lo- 
cated, about one mile north of the court house. In 1810, 
Dqolin's widow conveyed the land to Presley Martin, who. in 
1813, erected a house on the present site of the old Point 
House, at the mouth of Big Fishing Creek, at the extreme 
southwestern corner of the present town of New Martinsville. 
The nails used in the house were made by a blacksmith at 
Morgantown, and carried in saddle pockets, on horseback, to 
New Martinsville, a distance of 125 miles. 

The first settler following Edward Doolin was, perhaps, 
Jeremiah Williams, who came to New Martinsville about the' 
year 1800, and settled on the land now owned by his heirs, 
just north of town. Remains of the chimney still mark the 
site of his first residence, on the bank of the Ohio River, oppo- 

History of West Virginia 

site the present home of K. A. Williams, un Alamo Heights 
Then came Abraham llano, who, in 1807, erected a house on 
the South Side, at the mouth of the creek, on the land now 
owned by Waller M. Myers, a son of the writer. Here Mr. 
1 lanes kept a hotel during the war of 1X12. 

Friend Cox. the father of David Hickman Cox. who re- 
sides on Main street, came to Xew Martinsville about 1820, 
where he purchased a farm and erected a house below the 
creek, opposite the Point House. 

Sampson Thistle settled on Gravel Bottom, between Xew 
Martinsville and Steelton, in 1805. 

A part of what is now the Point House, which is still in 
a fair state of preservation, was erected by Presley .. 
who came here in 1813. About the same time Mr. Martin 
planted an orchard of rive acres between Washington street 
and the creek: a few of the trees are still standing. 

In the year 1838. Presley Martin laid out a part of what 
is now Xew Martinsville, the boundaries of which were as 
follows : Xorth street on the north ; Union street on the east ; 
Washington street on the south, and the Ohio River on the 
west. "On March 28th of that year, - ' .-ays McEldowney. "an 
act establishing the town of 'Martinsville' in the county of 
Tyler, was passed by the Assembly of Virginia, and in the 
same act Henry McCabe, Samuel McKldowney, Lewis Wil- 
liams. John Buckhannon and -Benjamin F. Martin were ap- 
pointed trustees to administer the affairs of the town. The 
surveying and platting were done by Lewis Williams and three 
others. It extended from one lot below Washington street to 
Xorth street, and from Union street to the river. The streets 
included in these boundaries remain the same now as then, 
except Water street. This latter street was located on the 
river bank and was the widest and principal street in town, 
being 80 feet wide. It is evident that it was the purpose of 
the founders of this town to have a broad street on the river 
front, where they could have the benefit of the cool breezes 
from the west, and an open view of the river." 
In 1842 there were twelve houses in town. 

McEldowney relates an interesting incident that occurred 
in 1845, which we give here: 

100 History of West Virginia 

"A man presented himself to the community and re- 
mained a while -without any apparent means of support. Hav- 
ing no occupation, he was arrested under the vagrancy act, 
and to obtain his liberty was compelled to state his business 
to the town officers. Thereupon he showed papers from the 
French Government. By these it was ascertained that he was 
an accredited agent of that government, sent to this commu- 
nity to search for $S7,000 supposed to have been buried below 
the creek during the French and Indian war. It is thought 
that he did not find the money. Shortly after this incident." 
continues McEldowney, "another incident occurred in the 
same line. A Mr. Watkins of Monongalia County sold his 
farm there for 1,000 silver dollars, and came to this settle- 
ment; the silver was too heavy to carry about his person, so 
he set aside $40 for his immediate use, and buried the re- 
mainder at the foot of a pawpaw bush, sixty steps from the 
river bank, midway between the mouth of the creek and a 
point opposite Texas run ; when he returned for his money it 
could not be found." 

On March 13, 1848, the Assembly of Virginia passed an 
act prescribing the mode of electing trustees of New Martins- 
ville and investing them with certain corporate powers. 
Among other things, the trustees were to be elected annually 
by a vote of the people, one of the trustees to be chosen from 
that body to preside at their meetings; the subordinate officers 
being a Commissioner of Revenue, a Sergeant or Town Col- 
lector, and Police. About this time the corporate limits were 
extended so as to include the McClure Addition on High 
street, and that part lying between Washington street and the 
creek, the ground being surveyed and marked out by Thomas 
Tucker, a noted surveyor of the county, long since dead. 

Wetzel County was formed out of Tyler County, in 1846, 
and on the 6th of April of that year the first county court was 
held in the house then owned by Sampson Thistle, on the 
corner of Main and Jefferson streets, where Shiben Brothers' 
department store now stands : the old building which had been 
used as a court house until 1852 was torn down the early part 
of March, 1912. and the lumber moved to Taden City. 

The officers of the court were Joseph F. Fry. judge; 

History of West Virginia ]t>7 

Friend Cox, clerk of the circuit court : Presley Martin, clerk 
of the count}' court; pdward Moure, crier of the court; James 
Snodgrass, attorney for the commonwealth; Lewis Williams, 
surveyor. The justices were I'. M. Martin, Presley Martin, 
B. F. .Martin, William Anderson, 1'. Wit ten, 1". P. Williams, 
Owen Witien. Andrew .McKldowney, Samuel McKldowney. 
llezekiah Alley, R. \\ . Cox. James Padcn, Daniel Anderson, 
James Morgan, Henry Garner, J. V. Camp, William Sharp- 
neck and Stephen Carney. William Sharpneck, being the old- 
est justice, was made sheriff. At each term of the county 
court three justices acted as commissioners of the county 
court. The first to act were P>. P. Martin, P. M. Martin, Pres- 
ley Martin, with the last as president. The deputy sheriffs 
were Charles McCoy and Archibald Thistle. The commis- 
sioners of revenue were Thomas Snodgrass, Sampson Thistle, 
William Little, Fbenczcr Payne, James C>. West. Kbenezer 
Clark. Hezekiah Jolliffe. James Ruckman, Isaac P. Huskm- 
son, William Anderson. John Alley, John Klipstein and Jacob 

On April 7th. 184*., J. W. Stephens, C. W. Clark. W. J. 
Boreman, R. W. Lauck, J. R. Morris, V. W. McConaughy, 
1. W. Horner. James Snodgrass. C W. Thompson and Thomas 
Jones were permitted to practice law in the courts. On May 
4th of the same year Isaac Hoge. J. Morris and Abraham 
Samuels were also given permits to practice law before the 

In 1848 the ground now occupied by the court house was 
donated to the county by Sampson Thistle and Presley Martin, 
on which to build a new court house. The building was com- 
pleted in 1852 and was used as a court house for forty-eight 
vears, when, in 1900. it was torn down, and in 1902 the present 
splendid structure was completed and the county officials 
gathered up the records of their respective offices at variou- 
places over town and moved them to their new official homes. 
There is probably not a more handsome court house in We-t 
Virginia than the one which graces the town of Xew Martin — 
ville. although the structure, when completed and furnished, 
cost less than $175,000. 

The first grand jurv appointed by Sheriff Sharpneck was 

168 History of West Virginia 

composed of John M. Lacy, foreman; .Absalom Postlethwait, 
Francis Hindman, Achilles Morgan, Hiram J. Morgan, James 
Cochran, Caleb Headlee, J. M. Van Camp, Jeremiah Williams, 
Thomas Steel, Richard Postlethwait, Joseph Wood, Robert 
Leap, Zadoc L. Springer, Andrew Workman, John Roberts, 
Jacob Rice, Jacob McCloud and William Little. 

Officers of Wetzel County from its formation to the pres- 
ent time : 

Sheriffs — William Sharpneck, James G. West, Edwin 
Moore, William Anderson, Josephus Clark, Levi Shuman, A. 
P. Brookover, William Brookover, John Stender (two terms), 
P.. B. Postlethwait, J. X. Wyatt, James A. Pyles, Alex. Hart, 
Ingram Myers, Justus Kakin (died before term expired and 
was succeeded by his son, J. O. Eakin) and Clarence M. Stone. 

Clerks of the County Court — Presley Martin, J. W. New- 
man, Friend Cox, Z. S. Springer (two terms), H. E. Robinson, 
John C. McEldowney (26 years), Henry R. Thompson (two 
terms), Isaiah D. Morgan and Sylvester Myers. 

Clerks of the Circuit Court — Friend Cox, John C. McEl- 
downey, James W. Newman, John W. Kaufman and William 
1. Postlethwait, Air. Newman having served eighteen years, 
and Mr. Postlethwait now serving the last year of his second 

Prosecuting Attorneys — James Snodgrass, Leonard S. 
Hall, R. W. Lauck, William Guthrie, (ieorge Boyd, Leonard 
S. Hall (second term), M. R. Crouse, W. S. Wiley. Moses R. 
Morris. E. L. Robinson (two terms), G. W. Coffield and Glen 

The present County Court is composed of A. T. Morris, 
president, and William A. Morgan and J. Milt Benline, com- 
missioners; Sylvester Myers, clerk, and Walter Michael My- 
ers, deputy. 

Commissioners of Accounts are Edwin O. Keifer, S. 
Bruce Hall, John C. McEldowney and F. M. Kellar. 

Circuit Court — Presley D. Morris, judge ; Glen Snodgrass, 
prosecuting attorney: William J. Postlethwait, clerk, and 
Spencer E. Postlethwait, deputy clerk; Alva B. Moore, court 
stenographer; C. M. Stone, sheriff; A. T. Butler, J. William 
Stone and Burl F. Stone, deputies; James M. Cochran, county 

History of West Virginia ](>■> 

.surveyor; William Anknim. general receiver ; Thomas li. Cor- 
nett. commissioner ol school lands; Levi Oblingcr, janitor 
court house. 

Petit Jury Commissioners — J. 1*1. .Morris and .M. W. Bur- 

Commissioners in Chancery — F. Victor lams. M. II. Wil- 
lis. K. II. Vost and Moses R. Morris. 

Resilient Attorneys — J. B. Allison, Charles W. Barrick, 
G. W. Coffield. Thomas. II. Cornett, Alexander Campbell 
Chapman. Frank Wells Clark, Leo Carlin, S. Bruce Hall. 
Leonard S. Mall, Frank Victor lams, Thomas Ferry Jacobs, 
Charles L. Johnston. Fdwin O. Keifer, A. F. Larrick, D. V. 
Lemon, Harry F. Lentz, Moses R. Morris, James W. Mcln- 
tire. Lloyd V. Mclntire. Thayer M. Mclntire. Farl F. Mcln- 
tire, Mont Mclntire, James W. Xcwman, Mart Y. Ober, Fliel 
L. Robinson. John H. Robinson, Jr., II. H. Rose, (den Snod- 
grass. prosecuting attorney; J. F. Throckmorton, Theo. \ an 
Cam]). M. H. Willis. James F. Voting and Frvin II. Vost. 

Charles Kisleg, county superintendent schools. 

Friend W. Parsons, county road engineer. 

Assessor— David II. McMillen. 

Town Officials. 

Mayor — Rev. J. II. Jackson. 

Chief of Police— C. W. Travis. 

Tax Collector — George W. Stansberry. 

Street Commissioner — Isaac Goddard. 

Assessor ■ -W. R. Dayton. 

City Council- -David H. Cox, Alva B. Moore. Charles T. 
Corby, C. M. Founds and John F. Loehr. 

The first public road in Wetzel County was constructed 
bv David Prunty from Middlebourne, Tyler County, to 
Reader. Wetzel County, in 1X15. and is now known as the 
Fight Mile Ridge road. 

The first grist mill in Wetzel County was erected on Lit- 
tle Creek, near the old county poor farm, in Green District, in 

The first automobile was "discovered" by Jake Konnt ■ 

170 History of West Virginia 

1907- -at least the one he introduced in New Martinsville that 
year looked as though it might have been the first one ever 

The first mail route established in Wetzel County was 
from Fairmont to Xew Martinsville, in 1800. 

The brick church that once stood on Main street was 
built by the Methodists in 1854. 

A Presbyterian church was erected about the same time 
on the grounds now occupied by the Widow Standiford's fur- 
niture store, and was sold and used for a school house under 
the name of the New Martinsville Academy. When the free 
school system was adopted by the State, the building was 
used for a public school. 

After the amendment of the town charter by the Legisla- 
ture on February 13, 1871, the town seems to have awakened 
to a spirit of progressiveness ; the population soon began to 
increase more rapidly and consequently the demand for houses 
increased. The Pittsburgh Stave Company erected a plant at 
the mouth of the creek in 1873, and gave employment to a 
large number of men. A new school house was erected in 
1882, and two years later the M. E. Church South, Protestant 
Episcopal, Baptist and Catholic churches were built. Then 
came the Ohio River Railroad in 1SS4, the West Virginia 
Short Line Railroad in 1900, and the Wetzel and Tyler Street 
Railway — now the Union Traction Company — from Sisters- 
ville to the South Side in 1904, which was extended through 
New Martinsville to its present terminal, near the glass fac- 
tory, in 190 — 

torv, in 1905. Clarksburg-Northern — Xew Martinsville to 
Middlebourne — completed in 1913. 

Today, New Martinsville, including the South Side, has 
a population of over 3.000. While not the largest town along 
the Ohio River, it is undoubtedly the prettiest. It has, per- 
haps, fewer "shacks" and more handsome buildings, more 
street pavement, more shade trees and better sidewalks than 
any other town of like size between Pittsburgh and Hunting- 
ton, and that is covering some territory. 

However, New Martinsville is not what she should be in 
the way of industrial enterprises. There is perhaps no town 

History of West Virginia 171 

-nor city, for that matter — on God's green earth better suited, 
or that can offer greater inducements in the way of factory 
sites, than New Martinsville. Practically every acre of Wet- 
zel County is underlaid with two veins of merchantable coal, 
ranging from live to twelve feet in thickness, namely, the fa- 
mous Pittsburgh or River vein, and the Mapletown seam. 
The county also produces more gas than any other count) in 
the State, and probably more than is produced within the same 
boundary in any other State. A pipe line connecting Xew 
.Martinsville with this almost inexhaustible supply of gas was 
laid many years ago, and during all that time has been availa- 
ble for a hundred factories. Yet. with all these natural re- 
sources and extraordinary transportation facilities by both 
rail and water, our coal has not been touched with the miner's 
pick; our gas is being transported to other states by the bil- 
lions of cubic feet annually, while hundreds of acres of wide 
river bottom land about us, affording ideal locations for fac- 
tories, remain unsought and apparently ignored. Why is this 


Wetzel County Bank opened for business January 1, lS r,r >. 
President and Cashier, J. E. Bartlett : F.rvin Oher, \ ice-presi- 
dent ; G. M. Wood, assistant cashier; Robert Rist, bookkeeper, 
and C. E. McEldowney, teller. Capital, $25,000. 

Xew Martinsville Bank opened for business June 1. 1807. 
S. R. Martin, president; J. B. Clark, cashier: J. W. Schmied. 
assistant cashier; Xelson Oblinger, bookkeeper; E. K. I lead- 
lee, teller, and Miss Emma Heck, stenographer. Gapital. 
$60,000; surplus. $60,000; undivided profits. $50,000. 

First National Bank began business March 21, 1"00. K. 
L. Robinson, president; I. D. Morgan, vice-president: Henry 
Koontz, cashier; W. G. Founds, assistant cashier: A. E. Mc- 
Caskey. bookkeeper. Capital and surplus, $75,000. 

Manufacturing Establishments. 

New Martinsville Glass Manufacturing Company, Lentz's 
tannery. Koontz and Sons' Flaning Mills, Crescent Flouring 

172 History of West Virginia 

Mills, three cigar factories, Brooklyn Foundry, Brooklyn 
Brick Works. New Martinsville Marble & Granite Works and 
the Brooklyn Ice Plant. 

The New Martinsville Wholesale Grocery Company, the 
New Martinsville Oil Well Supply Company, the Burlingham 
Building Supply Company are each doing a prosperous busi- 
ness in their particular lines. 

B. B. Muhleman and W. E. Whorton are competing with 
each other in the furniture and undertaking business. 

Herrick Brothers and Frank Shuman, on the South Side; 
Williams and Ankrom, Josephus Clark estate, Mont Burrows 
and S. D. Huffman run up-to-date general stores. 

John F. Loehr, Francis & Ilarman and William Schafer 
make a specialty of gents' furnishing goods. 

Sheiben Brothers, Harry Winer and Ellis department 
stores carry large assortments of dry goods and cater to the 
ladies' trade. 

Duerr Brothers' jewelry department, in the magnificent 
Masonic Temple building, will compare favorably with the 
stock carried in some of the larger cities, and their clothing, 
dry goods and notions departments are above the average in 
quality' and quantity. 

II. C. McClintock, Gorby Brothers, Workman's Grocery, 
Widmer & Son, F. G. Stewart, A. G. Faugh, M. U. Murray 
and A. Hoyt carry all lines of fancy and staple groceries. 

The People's Hardware Company, F. C. Wells ec Son and 
Powell & Garner are headquarters for anything in the hard- 
ware line. 

Mr. Azar, Mr. Kammins, Airs. Harry and the Thomas 
Brothers have a fine display of fruits, candies and notions. 

Mrs. S. M. Snodgrass and Mrs. L. Pemberton attend to 
the wants of the ladies in the millinery line. 

The four up-to-date drug stores in town are owned by 
L. W. Oneacre, Percy D. Leap, Homer Richardson and Horn- 
brook Drug Co., respectively. 

George Grail, the tailor, needs no introduction in Wetzel 
and adjoining counties. 

The City Bakery and the Sweet Home Bakery arc kept 
busy supplying their heavy trade with bread, pies and cakes. 

History of West Virginia \7?> 

Leap's livery and Probst and Bowcn's livery are well 
equipped for the heavy demands upon them for teams and rigs. 

J. G. McCrorey's 5 and IO-ccnt store. Steel Brothers* news 
stand. Chapman's hook store, C. J. Beck and Fern II 5: Twy- 
man meat markets. M. B. Butts and Son's tin shop, C. M. 
Powers' and M. D. Bots and Co. plumbing shops are all doing 
a thriving business in their various lines. 

The Pastime and Princess theatres afford the principal 
places of amusement. 

Patrons of the tonsorial artists are carefully looked after 
by A. X. Swisher, Jake Koontz and Adolph Soland, Sidney 
Dunn, Curtis Priest, Matt Ober and John Gehring in Xew 
Martinsville and Mr. Froelich on the South Side, there being 
seven shops in all. 

The Federal Realty Company and M. L. Kendall are 
looking after the real estate business. 

\Y. R. Dayton, R. C. Leap and C. IB Wright represent 
standard lines of life insurance. 

Drs. Bridgemen, Koontz and Adams are old established 
dentists of the town. 

Kerr's Studio is up-to-date in every particular. Mr. Kerr 
being one of the best photographers in the State. 

Drs. J. D. Schmied. E. L. Boone, H. G. Morgan, A. F. 
Fankhouscr and Martin are well up in their profession, and 
are not members of the l ndertakers' Association. Schmied is 
manager of the Xew Martinsville Hospital, 

D. X. Mangold, on Main street, and J. C. McMunn. on 
South Side, run first-class harness and saddle making estab- 


The Brast-Eakin Annex Hotel, on river front, and the 
Elk Hotel, on Maple avenue, are the principal hotels of the 
town. The Court Square and The Henthorn restaurants are 
popular eating houses. There are also several boarding 

174 History of West Virginia 


The citizens of New Martinsville are church-going peo- 
ple, the church membership being divided between the Disci- 
ples or Christians, the Methodist Episcopal, the M. E. South, 
Presbyterian, Episcopal, Baptist and Roman Catholic 
churches, each denomination owning its own church home and 
each having a resident minister, sustained by its own mem- 

Fraternal Orders. 

Of the fraternal organizations, the Odd Fellows, Masons. 
Knights of Pythias and Modern Woodmen are thriving orders. 


The Magnolia Il'gh School building is one among the 
finest in the State. It has twenty-three teachers, including the 
superintendent and principal, all of whom are able and dili- 
gent workers in their profession. There were over 700 stu- 
dents enrolled for the term 1913-14. 

High School Faculty — John H. Gorby. superintendent 
(history) ; Anna N. Elliott, principal (mathematics) ; Etta F. 
Mowery (music and art), Vaughn McCaskey (penmanship), 
H. H. Shively (English). Arthur Morrow (science and his- 
tory), Edith Z. Mercer (Latin and German), Lulu Blair (com- 
mercial department). 

GRADES — Teresa Gibbons, eighth ; Elizabeth Ileinz- 
man, seventh ; Charles Young, sixth and seventh ; Lulu Sykes, 
sixth; Christa Yontz, fifth and sixth; Margaret Miskimins, 
fifth ; Hazel Kirke Dunlap, fourth ; Jessie Atkinson, fourth ; 
Dosie Mclntire, third; Lucile Williams, third; Mae Ruth, sec- 
ond and third; Leta Mason, second; Susie Ankrom, first and 
second ; Roma Kline, first and second ; Lottie Bruce, first. 

School term, 9 months. 

Following old timers still reside in New Martinsville: 

Tohn C. McEldowney, formerly county clerk for twenty- 
six years: S. R. Martin, aged S3 years, president New Martins- 
ville Bank, whose father, B. F. Martin, came to New Martins- 

History of West Virginia 175 

ville in 1SI3: George Grail, tailor and recent ci t\ recorder ; 
lames Amos, shoemaker; John S. Robinson, an old Federal 
soldier and retired merchant and resident of the county <>:■ 
years: Presley Martin, retired farmer, 75 years old; Sainuei 
I. Robinson, retired lumber manufacturer and ex-justice of 
the peace, 8S years old: Hon. Septimius Hall, who repre- 
sented Wetzel county at the Constitutional Convention at 
Wheeling, and who has since served a number of terms in the 
State Legislature: S. Lruce Hall, member of the Wetzel 
county bar and one of the leading attorneys: Thomas Perry 
Jacobs, ex-judge of the circuit court, and who was recently 
tendered the deanship of the law school at Morgantown Uni- 
versity: M. R. Morris, member of Wetzel county bar and "x- 
prosecuting attorney, and who fought for the Union in the 
Civil War: S. J. Elliott, retired business man and ex-cashier 
Wetzel County Bank: David Hickman Cox, oil operator and 
one of the principal stockholders in Xcw Martinsville Hank, 
and recently elected councilman for First ward; I. I). Morgan, 
oil operator and ex-county clerk: H. R. Thompson, retired 
business man and ex-county clerk: James W. Xcw man. mem- 
ber of Wetzel county bar and ex-clerk of the circuit court; 
Charles W. Rarrick, attorney-at-law and abstractor of land 
titles; R. II. Sayre, ex-commissioner of school lands and was 
a delegate to the first Wheeling Convention. May 13, I8<>1 : 
Levi Tucker, a retired business man : James A. Pyles, ex- 
sheriff, president Hoard of Education and member of Federal 
Realty Company; Dr. J. W. Yeater. retired physician and 
member of Federal Realty Company: Jacob Koontz, senior 
member of Koontz Lumber Company: Henry Koontz. cashier 
of First National Lank and former station agent for the Ohio 
River Railroad Company at Xcw Martinsville; J. L. Lartlett. 
president and cashier Wetzel County Lank; Frank Wells 
Clark, lawyer and manager of Josephus Clark estate: M . \ . 
Obcr. tonsorial artist, apothecary, auctioneer, elocutionist and 
member Wetzel county bar. Some people have been accused 
of being "jacks of all trades and masters of none :" not so with 
Mart. He is "right there with the goods." Adolph Soland. 
barber and ex-member of town council: Rev. J. II. Jackson, 
pastor Presbyterian Church and mayor of Xew Martinsville: 

I/O History of West Virginia 

Thomas, John and E. C. Burlingame, plasterers and contrac- 
tors; J. B. Clark, cashier New Martinsville" Bank; J. W. 
Schmied, assistant cashier New Martinsville Bank; John M. 
Xull, ex-deputy circuit clerk, ex-town recorder, cx-sehool 
teacher and now pension agent; Mack Snodgrass, justice of 
the peace; C. S. Farmer, justice of the peace; William H. 
Truex, constable Magnolia District; G. M. Founds, member 
of council and manager New Martinsville Grocery Company; 
Benjamin C. Bridgeman, retired farmer. 

Prehistoric Mounds and Relics. 

On the farm now owned by John G. McEldowney, within 
the corporate limits of New Martinsville, there once existed 
a mound of pre-historic origin. It was situated a short dis- 
tance below the fair, grounds, on a bit of ground detached, 
but not far from the river bank — a sort of "high-water" island, 
in that the ordinary stages of water did not isolate the mound 
from the .shore land. As late as 1850 the inhabitants of the 
town enjoyed the place as a kind of resort; and it was pointed 
out to visitors as one of New Martinsville's greatest wonders. 
Stone hatchets, spears, necklaces and arrow heads of peculiar 
designs were taken from the mound; but of all things un- 
earthed by searchers for relics an "image of an unknown god," 
moulded from pure gold, attracted the greatest attention and 
wonder. "It was about 10 inches high, having a base like an 
ornament. Possibly had the image been able to talk, it could 
have made clear the history of some of the prehistoric races. 
One thing is quite certain: The Indians of America, so far as 
known, were never worshippers of idols ; therefore, the 'god 
image' above referred to was not of their production. 

The writer is informed that the late Captain Robert Mc- 
Eldowney was the discoverer of the above mentioned relic, 
and that he loaned the curiosity to Willis Dellaas, an anti- 
quarian and agent for the Smithsonian Institute, who was 
then writing a history of the border wars of Western Virginia 
and who was authorized by the president of that institution 
to purchase it, but the owner refused to sell at any price. 
John C. McEldowney, Jr., in his History of Wetzel County, 

History of West Virginia 177 

says: "The imago was afterwards returned to .Mr. McKldow- 
ncv, who again loaned it to another party— a man by name 
Kenton McCabc — who soon left town, taking the valued relic 
with him, and it was never seen by the owner after that time." 

It is related that Mrs. George Martin found a copper relic 
near the same mound. It was in the shape of a half moon. 
Copper wrist-bands were found in a rock mound near the site 
of the old reservoir, on Martin hill, above this town, a few 
years since. 

Through the agencies of relic hunters and high waters 
the old river mound has long since disappeared and the Ohio 
River now Hows with an unbroken sweep over the place once 
sacred to the memory of plighted troth of lad and lassie whose 
bones now lie mouldering in silent tombs. Kor it is said that 
the old mound was a favorite trysting place for beaux and 
belles in the early days of Xew Martinsville. 

This old town now boasts of more single young men and 
women of marriageable age than any other town of its size in 
the Ohio Valley. Oh, what a pity the old mound is gone! 


The ground on which Xew Cumberland now stands was 
part of a tract taken up by George Chapman in 1783. The 
town was laid out by John Cuppy in 1839 and was given the 
name of Vernon, but subsequently changed to its present 

Xew Cumberland is the county seat of Hancock County, 
the extreme northwestern county in the State. The county 
was formed by an act of the General Assembly of Virginia, 
January 15, 1848. anil named in honor of the first signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. 

The first court was held at Xew Manchester (now Pair- 
view). at the home of Samuel G. Allison, the justices consti- 
tuting the court being John Pittinger. David Pugh, Andrew- 
Henderson, lohn Gardner. David Wylie. William II. Graft. >n 
and John Mayhew. Later on the seat of justice was removed 
to Xew Cumberland. 

The population of the town is now about 2.000, being 305 

178 History of West Virginia 

less than twenty years ago; 198 less than in 1900 and 193 more 
than in 1910. 

The town officials at present are: J. L. DeBolt, mayor; 
J, \Y. Chambers, recorder; E. A. Hart, solicitor, and Dr. F. P. 
Beaumont, president of the Board of Health. 


First Presbyterian, Rev. W. E. Allen, pastor. 
Methodist Protestant, Rev. A. II. Ackley, pastor. 
Christian, Rev. Stewart. 

Methodist Episcopal, Rev. Wellington, pastor. 
New Cumberland has one bank, the First National, with 
J. A. Campbell, president, and J. F. Brandon, Sr., cashier. 


Hancock County Independent. K. M. Brown, editor. 
Hancock County Courier, J. C. Phallenburg. editor. 

Manufacturing Establishments. 

Mack Manufacturing Company, American Sewer Pipe 
Company, Acme Clay Works and West Virginia Fire Clay 
Mfg. Company. 

The "Commercial" is the principal hotel of the town. 

There are about seventeen retail establishments in t':e 
town and three miles of paved streets. 

New Cumberland School Faculty — W. A. Hiscock, Supt. 

HIGH SCHOOL— Ethel Lillian Newton, principal. 
Grades — Flora Brandon, Estella Ivirker, Annie Cullen, Eleanor 
Petterson, Julia Turley, Elsie Campbell, Elizabeth William- 
son, Lena Cooper and Anne Shetter. 

Term, 9 months. Total enrollment, 395. 


(The writer is indebted to the Parkersburg State Journal 
of 1896 for much of the information contained in the following 
concerning the early history of Parkersburg.) 

There was a settlement at the mouth of the Little Kana- 

History of West Virginia 17'' 

wha as early as 1773. In that year Robert Thornton of Penn- 
sylvania obtained a settlement title to 400 acres of land at this 
point. In 1783 this was confirmed to him. In December of 
that year the lands were surveyed for Alexander Parker of 
Pennsylvania, assignee of Thornton, and in July. 1787, his 
title was confirmed by the State and a patent issued by Bev- 
erly Randolph, Governor of Virginia. Parker died in 1800. 
and the land descended to his daughter Mary, and the title 
being disputed, a suit followed, which continued until 1X09, 
when the Parker heirs gained possession, and on December 
11th. 1810, the town was laid out and named Parkersburg. 
in honor of Alexander Parker. It was incorporated by an act 
of the State Legislature January 22, 1820. 

The first court was held August 12. 1799, at the residence 
of Hugh Phelps. During that session the court fixuil the loca- 
tion for the court house at Xeal's Station. John Xeal and 
Peter Mistier were recommended to the governor as suitable- 
persons for coroner and Ilarman Blenncrhasset, John Xeale. 
Daniel Kincheloe. Jacob Beeson and Hezekiah Buckey for 
justices. John Stephenson was appointed commissioner at 
the November term, 1799. On October 13. 1800. the court 
ordered that necessary buildings be erected on the lands of 
Isaac Williams, on the Ohio, opposite the mouth of the Mus- 
kingum River, where Williamstown now stands, and that court 
be held at the house of Isaac Williams, llere, on November 
10. 1800. the next term of court was held, and the question of 
a location of the county seat again came up, and. being put t > 

a vote, the majority decided in favor of the house of Hugh 

I ■ 

Phelps, and the court adjourned to meet there the lollowing 

• lay. Court met at Phelps' residence on the 11th, pursuant t<> 
adjournment order of the previous day. and it was then a^d 
there agreed that the point above the mouth of the Little Ka- 
nawha River at the union of said Kanawha and Ohio Rivers, 
on land owned by John Stokey. was the proper place for the 
seat of justice, and it was accordingly ordered that the neces- 
sary buildings be erected thereon. The court adjourned to 
meet "at a point at the upper side of the Little Kanawha, 
where a block house has been built." 

Pursuant to an order passed by the court in February. 

ISO History of West Virginia 

1802, a jail, stocks and pillory were built on the grounds se- 
lected for that purpose by James G. Laidley, the contractor. 

From the time of the incorporation of the town in 1820 
until the fifties Parkersburg grew slowly and was one of the 
small river villages. 

In 1840 a branch of the Northwestern Bank of Virginia 
was established in Parkersburg, which flourished and pros- 
pered for twenty-five years, until it was merged into the Park- 
ersburg National Bank in 1865. The establishment of this 
bank in Parkersburg in 1S40, as a branch of the Wheeling 
bank, gave to this section banking facilities of a high order 
and added much to the trading importance of the place. The 
Ohio River was the main artery of trade, though the North- 
western and Staunton turnpikes did much passenger and 
freight and express business. The first steamboat that reach -d 
the town of Elizabeth was the Scioto Belle, in 1842, but, until 
slack-water was introduced, navigation on the Little Kanawha 
was mainly by barge and canoes. 

The first great development in the history of the town, 
which gave it a new impetus leading to its future greatness, 
was the building and completion of the railroad from Grafton 
to Parkersburg. It was commenced late in December, 1852, 
and opened to Parkersburg, May 1, 1857, giving Parkersburg 
a direct rail outlet to the east. It was not until the early sev- 
enties that the bridge across the Ohio River was built and a 
direct rail line, without transfer, had to Cincinnati. 

Another great event in the history of Parkersburg was the 
discovery of petroleum in Wirt County in the year 1860, and 
the wonderful influx of capital and people into this section 
during the next six months thereafter. The war breaking out 
checked, to a great extent, the growth of Parkersburg at that 
time; but with the return of peace and the development of the 
oil fields at Horse Neck, Volcano, Petroleum, Burning Springs 
and other points, the building of refineries, the pipe line of the 
West Virginia Transportation Company, and the location r d 
large manufacturing industries, Parkersburg commenced to gD 
steadily toward the front, and early in the seventies had at- 
tained a growth and standing in the State second onlv r,:> 

History of West Virginia 1 XI 

Parkersburg has since taken fourth place in population, 
Huntington now being second and Charleston third. This, 
however, does not mean that Parkersburg is. by an\ means, 
on the standstill. It only means that her progress is not >;> 
rapid as that of the others named. 

The history of the city from I8(>0 on has been one of con- 
tinual expansion, and the adoption of city improvements, the 
extension of its trade and commerce, until the building of the 
Ohio River Railroad in 1884, gave the town a still greater 
impulse and development. 

Parkersburg is 395 miles from Baltimore, 195 miles from 
Cincinnati and 190 miles from Pittsburgh. It lias most ex- 
cellent transportation facilities by both rail and water. 

The population of Parkersburg in 1910 was 17,842. ll is 
probably near the 20,000 mark now. 

Following are some of the principal industries ot Parkers- 
burg: Standard Oil Refineries. Parkersburg Chair Factory. 
Parkersburg Iron and Steel Company, Bcntly and tiering Fur- 
niture Factory, Baldwin Shovel Factory, Parkersburg Rig and 
Reel Company, Yitrolite Company. Standard Milk Bottle 
Manufacturing Company, United States Roofing and Tile 


First .National Bank, Second National Bank, Parkersburg 
National Bank, Farmers and Mechanics National Bank, Wood 
County Bank, Union Trust and Deposit Company. The Citi- 
zens Trust and Guaranty Company of West Virginia makes a 
specially of the bonding business. 


The Parkersburg Sentinel, the State Journal and the 
Parkersburg News are popular newspapers, having a wide cir- 


The Chancellor, the BlennerhasM-t and the Monroe are 
popular hotels in the city. 

182 History of West Virginia 

Tarkersburg is well provided with schools. In addition 
to the High School there are thirteen graded schools, as fol- 
lows: McKinley. Jefferson, Xash, Park, Garfield, Emerson, 
Thirteenth Street, Willard, Beechwood, Neale, Riverside, 
Kraft. Core and Sumner schools, aggregating T05 teachers. 

The High School faculty for 1913-14 is as follows: I. B. 
Bush, superintendent: F. M. Longanecker, principal; Oscar 
S. Guv. commercial; Dora Rogers. English; Xellie Merriman, 
Latin; Elizabeth Bailey, Mathematics; Laura B. Moore. Ger- 
man; James W. Fcrrell, Science; John L. Stewart, Bio. Sci- 
ence: Bonnie Kerr, French; Nellie Taylor, English; Howard 
M. Quick. Mathematics; Efne Spencer, History; G. W. Adams. 
Commercial; Gertrude Meerwein, German; R. R. Bloss, Man- 
ual Training: Luanna Carman, Domestic Science; F. M. 
Wray, History : Clara Lytic, English : Gertrude Humphrey, 
English and Latin; Bess Anderson, Hygiene and English; 
Mildred Core, principal's office. 

McKINLEY SCHOOL— D. C. Tabler. principal: I. J. 
LeFevre, Manual Training: Lola Heldrick. Domestic Science; 
Mattie Smith. Minnie Rinewald, May Beckwith. Anna Crooks. 
Helen Tracewell, Mary Weidman, Maude Spencer, Mary 
Shetler. Lillian Kerr, Kate McKay. Ranie Heaton, Maude 
Mallorv and Beachia Rounds. Departmental: Frances Moore, 
2d; Ora Wells. 2d; Bonnie Heydenreich. 2d: Ada Weyer, 1st; 
Winifred Cox. 1st: Robin Smith. 1st: Ruth Bailey. Domestic 

JEFFERSON SCHOOL— R. A. McPherson. principal: 
Ely Petty, Lulu McIIenry, Edith Creel. Grace Warner, Anna 
Clouse, Dora Hutzler, Anna Harrigan, Julia Moore, Elvie 
Daly and Jeanette Baughman, teachers. 

NASH SCHOOL— I. F. Stewart, principal: Leona Trace- 
wall. Lucilc McCurdy, Sallie Adock. Lulu Gale. Georgia Bar- 
nett, Mattie Hursey. Isabella Anderson, Lulu Landon, Eva 
Wells, Valetta Henske, Gertrude Armstrong and Catherine 
Leonard, teachers. 

PARK SCHOOL— A. B. Cummins, principal; E. L. Hart- 
man, Linna Davis, Ivadelle Elliott. Anna Alexander, Cecil Mc- 
Pherson, Xancv Marsh. Virginia Pennybacker. Effie Johnson. 

History of West Virginia 1S.> 

Blanche Clinton. Clara Gillespie, Carrie Keever, Thirza Clin- 
ton and Mildred .Martin, teachers. 

GARFIELD SCHOOL- Emma J. Hoffman, principal; 
Lou Sleeth. Beulah Wagner. Mrs. Eva Roberts, Sarah Rubers. 
Lena Pfuderer and Marie MeKim, teachers. 

EMERSOX SCHOOL Thomas J. W'igal. principal ; 
Blanche Harper, Lyda Wilcox. Kinnia Hall, Bess Stephens, 
Chelle X'owery, (Jra Hupp, Mabel Stoetzer and Mildred 
Swearingen, teachers. 

principal : Muna Musgrave, Jessie Louther and Ethel Wand- 
ling, teachers. 

WILLARD SCHOOL— Mrs. Carrie Caldwell, principal, 
and Leona Wertenbaker, teacher. 

BEECH WOOD SCHOOL Thomas Powell, principal, 
and Vivian Beard, teacher. 

XEALE SCHOOL— F. B. Locke, principal ; Georgia Le- 
masters and Josephine Smith, teachers. 

RIVERSIDE SCHOOL- Dora Alleman. teacher. 

KRAFT SCHOOL— B. E Hants, teacher. 

CORE SCHOOL -J. G. Fankhauscr, teacher. 

SUMXER SCHOOL J. R. Jefferson, principal; 11. D. 
Hazlewood, Edgar 1'. Westmoreland and Eva S. Davis, 

GRADES — Esther Colston. Alberta McClung and Berna- 
dine Peyton. 

Supervisors Nannie Vinton, Evelyn S. Doodsell and 
Edith McCormick. 

Retired Substitutes- Elizabeth Hinkley and Mary 'Liv- 

Substitutes Xellie R. Bohn, stenographer, superintend- 
ent's office. 

School term, nine and one-half months. 


All of the leading religious denominations are represent! 1 
in Parkersbursr. most of whom have fine church home-. 

184 History of West Virginia 

PENNSBORO, the principal town in Ritchie County, is 
located on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, 42 miles from 
Parkersburg, 40 miles from Clarksburg and 62 miles from 
Grafton. It has a population of about 1.000. 

The Ritchie County Fair Ground is located about two 
miles below Pennsboro, on the Lorama Railroad. The annual 
fair of Ritchie County is always looked forward to as an im- 
portant event in that section. 

Town Officials. 

1. L. Fordyce. Mayor; Grant Fuzader, Recorder; W. H. 
Lantz, G. P. Sigler, \Y. M. Cowell, J. L. Foster and E. B. Hill, 


Methodist Protestant, Rev. Ft. P. McCulty, pastor. 
Methodist Episcopal, Rev. Stephen, pastor. 
United Brethren, C. B. Gruber, pastor. 
Presbyterian; Episcopalian; Catholic; without resident 

Saints, Mrs. Mary Dulin, pastor. 


Citizens National. A. r.roadwater, president; Lon 
Weekly, cashier. 

First National, Okey E. Nutter, president, and J. O. 
McDougal. cashier. 

Farmers and Merchants, Tom Strickling, president, and 
II. J. Scott, cashier. 


Pennsboro News, J. A. Warddell, editor. 

Manufacturing Establishments. 

Pennsboro Furniture Co.. Starr Lumber Co., Pennsboro 
Marble Co.. Cigar Factory. 

History of West Virginia 1S5 


Brown, Arlington, and Stone House are the principal 
hotels of the town. 

Wholesale and Retail Establishments. 

Fennsboru has one wholesale grocery store, eight general 
stores, one drug store, one meat shop, one fruit store, one 
grain and feed store, one fuel store, two restaurants, one 
jewelry store, three millinery stores. 

There were about 500 feet of pavement put down last fall 
and more to follow in the near future. 

The water system of IVnnsboro is first class. 

School Faculty, 
(loft 1). Ramsey, Principal. 

HIGH SCHOOL— Goff 1). Ramsey. Lnglish and Science; 
Thomas Lambert, Mathematics, Latin and History. 

CRADES — Ira Taylor, Ida Shannon. Maude Gabbert, 
Edith L'oltrill, Maude Richards, Sara A. Pew. and Ora 

School Term — High. 9 months: Grades, S months. l\n- 
rollment, 285. 

PH1LIPP1, the seal of justice of Barbour County, was 
established as a town February 14, 1814 the \ ear following 
the formation of the county. The town and county were both 
named in honor of the same person Philip P. Barbour, a 
former governor of Virginia. This town has the distinction of 
being the first battle ground of the Civil War in West Vir- 
ginia. Col. George A. Portcrfield had been sent to Graf'on 
to organize a sufficient number of troops to guard the Par- 
kcrsburg and Wheeling divisions of the Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad. Receiving information that Federal troop- were 
advancing on him from Thornton and Webster, he procc-dul 
to Philippi, where he made a halt. The Federals, marching 

1SG History of West Virginia 

from Webster, reached Philippi on June 3rd, 1861, and opened 
fire on the town, resulting in the flight of Colonel Porterfle'd's 
command in a disorderly rout. Another skirmish betwee . the 
Federal and Confederate forces was had at Philippi on _\i,-"\h 
20, 1862. 

Philippi is located on the east bank of the Tygart's 
Valley River, on the Grafton and Belington branch of flit 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. The road was formerly a narrow 
gauge, called the Grafton & Greenbrier, but the Baltimore ftr 
Ohio Company purchased it in 1891. about the time of the 
completion of the extension of the West Virginia Central 
from Elkins to Belington — the writer being the first, joint 
station agent for the two roads at the latter point. Shortly 
after the purchase of the narrow gauge' by the B. & O., that 
company converted the line into a standard gauge. Philippi 
is 24 miles from Grafton and 177 miles from Belington. 

The population of Philippi in 1890 was 328; in 1900, 665; 
in 1910, 1038, and at the present time (1914), about 1200. 

Philippi has five churches, namely: Baptist, Rev. W. B. 
Pimm, pastor; Methodist Episcopal, Rev. C. E. Bissell, pastor; 
Methodist Episcopal South, Rev. L. S. Auvil, pastor; United 
Brethren, Rev. G. S. Hanleiter, pastor; Presbyterian, unsup- 


Philippi Republican, George M. Kittle, editor. 
Barbour Democrat, A. S. Poling, editor. 


Citizens National Bank, Samuel A'. Woods, President; 
E. R. Dyer, Vice-President; R. E. Talbott, Cashier; J. E. 
Woodford, Assistant Cashier. 

First National Bank, E. H. Crim, President; W. T. lee, 
Jr., Vice-President : D. J. Taft, Cashier; A. S. Hawkins, 
Assistant Cashier. 

Peoples Bank, V. D. Riley, President; J. Hop. Woods, 
Vice-rresident; F. T. Willis, Cashier; J. Stanley Corder, 
Assistant Cashier. 

History of West Virginia 187 

Town Officials. 

William A. Mason, .Mayor; 1). G. Burner, City Clerk: 
W. D. Dadisman, A. S. Hawkins. \V. O. Davis, M. J. Bennett, 
and Edmont Whitehall", Councilmen. 


The Geneva and The Philippi are the principal hotels of 
the town. 

The town owns its own electric light plant. Gas is prin- 
cipally used lor heating purposes. 

There are about 1'' stores, including two drug stores. 

1'hilippi is lacking in manufacturing establishments. This 
condition exists more, perhaps, for the want of "push'* than 
for the lack of inducements. 


Broaddus College is located here, having been removed 
from Clarksburg in 1909. This institution was formerly con- 
ducted at Winchester. Ya., by Rev. Edward J. Willis, a 
Baptist minister, and in 1876 was removed to Clarksburg, and 
for a time occupied the old Bartlett Hotel building in that 
city, the site of which now belongs to the Court House Park. 
In 1878 a large brick building was constructed in Hav- 
moml's grove, and the school was moved into it. The property 
was sold in 1908, and, as above stated, the institution was 
removed to Philippi. where it is doing excellent work. The 
school has about 250 pupils this year. 

The following named persons compose the public school 
faculty of Philippi : 

O. J. Woodford, Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL O. J. Woodford. Science. Mathematics 
and History; Stella Wilson. Principal. Language and History. 

GRADES C. II.. Poling. Clyde Poling. F.rma Marsh. 
B. Mason. 1 Iarrietta Chrislip and Lillian Kemper. 

Enrollment. 2<>0. Term. High School. 9 months: Grades. 
8 months. 

18S History of West Virginia 

County Officials. 

Warren B. Kittle, Judge, Nineteenth Judicial Circuit; 
Albert C. Jenkins, Prosecuting Attorney; C. W. Brandon, 
Clerk Circuit Court ; S. F. Hoffman, Clerk County Court ; 
Arthur F. Bennett, Sheriff; Clerphas Marsch, County Superin- 
tendent Schools; Ellsworth Wilson, County Surveyor; E. E. 
Musick, Assessor. 


POIXT PLEASANT, the seat of justice of Mason 
County, is said to be the oldest English town on the Ohio 
River south of Pittsburgh. Christopher Gist, an Englishman 
employed as a surveyor for the Ohio Land Company, is sup- 
posed to have been the first white man to set foot upon the 
ground where Point Pleasant now stands. History records 
that "in 1749 he set forth on a tour of exploration north of the 
Ohio, and in 1750, on his return, reached the mouth of the 
Great Kanawha River, from whence he made a thorough 
exploration of the country north of the river.'' 

In another chapter we have recorded the adventures of 
Mary Engles, who was taken prisoner by the Indians, Jul}' 8, 
1755, at the Draper's Meadow massacre, at Blacksburg, 
Virginia, and on her way to captivity beyond the Ohio, she, 
with her captors, passed through where Point Pleasant now 
stands, returning by the same route four months later, after 
effecting her escape from the savages. Thus Mrs. Engles was 
the first white woman to look upon the spot which, 19 years 
later, marked the first real battle ground of the Revolution. 
Next to Wheeling, Point Pleasant is perhaps the most noted 
historic spot in West Virginia. Here, in 1774, Gen. Andrew 
Lewis, in command of 1100 provincials, was attacked by a 
large Indian army composed of Delaware's, Mingoes, Iroquois, 
Wyandottes and Shawanese, in command of the celebrated 
Shawanese chief, Cornstalk, assisted by the no less noted 
Mingo chief, Logan, in which battle the whites, after many 
hours' hard fighting, finally put the enemy to rout. The 
loss on both sides was heavy, that of the whites being 75 killed 

History of West Virginia IN' 

and 140 wounded. Colonels Charles Lewis ami John Field; 
Captains .Morrow, Huford. Ward. Murray. Cunditf, Wilson 
and MeClenaehan; Lieutenants Allen, Coldsln and Dillon 
were among the slain. The Indians' loss, though ver\ heavy, 
was never exactly known to the whites. This battle occurred 
uu Monday. October 10. 1774. 

Here, on November 10, 1777, were murdered Cornstalk, 
his son Ellinipsico. Red Hawk, a Delaware chief, and another 
Indian chief, in retaliation for the killing of a soldier by the 
name of Gilmore. These Indians were on a friendly mission 
to the garrison at Point rieasant, which was under eomman 1 
of Capt. Matthew Arbuckle. This was one of the most eru< 1 
and blood-thirsty murders ever perpetrated by the whites, 
save and excepting only the wholesale murder of the Logan 
familv and the Moravians. A monument in the court house 
yard marks the resting place of the celebrated chief. 

Saturday, October 0, ]0oy, marked an important event in 
the historv of Point Pleasant. On that day took place the 
unveiling and dedication of the great monument, erected at 
Tu-enda-wee Park, in memory of the soldiers who fought 
Cornstalk's army in 1774. In the spring of 1 77S Point Pleasant 
suffered a siege of a week's duration by the Indians, during 
which time the settlers of the village anil immediate com- 
munity were gathered in the fort, the garrison at that time 
being in command of Captain McKee. Excepting the loss of 
their cattle, the whites did not suffer any serious damage. 
However, a short time before this some Indians made their 
appearance near the fort and Lieutenant Moore, with a lew- 
men, was detailed to drive them off, but the whites were led 
into an ambuscade, and the lieutenant and three of his men 
were killed at the first fire, while the rest of the party made 
a hasty retreat to the the fort. 

Prior to 1794, 200 acres of land belonging to Thomas 
Lewis, at the mouth of the Kanawha River, was laid off into 
lots, streets and alleys, and by an act of the Virginia Assem- 
bly, dated Dec. 19th of that year, the town of Point Pleasant 
was established, but it was not incorporated until 1S33. 

On March 30. lSo3. while Captain Carter, with Company 
K of the 12th West Virginia Infantry, was encamped between 

190 History of West Virginia 

Alain and Viand streets, two blocks from the court house, a 
body of Confederate cavalry, under General Jenkins, came 
down the Kanawha River and attacked the Federals, who at 
once made for the court house, where they were besieged for 
four hours. The citizens fled to the opposite side of the river, 
where they spread the news and reinforcements soon arrived, 
including battery and artillery. Upon the approach of the 
Federal reinforcements, the Confederates withdrew across the 
Kanawha and proceeded to Tazewell County, Virginia. 
During the skirmish, Col. Andrew YVaggener, a veteran of 
the War of 1812, aged 84 years, was fatally shot by a fellow 
in Confederate uniform because he refused to give up the 
horse on which he was riding into town. 

The population of Point Pleasant in 1890 was 1853 ; in 
1900, 1934; in 1910, 2045; and in 1914, about 2500. 

The names of the present town officials are: Arthur 
Edwards, Mayor; W. C. Whaley, Clerk; J. B. Thomas, Mar- 
shal; G. \Y. Cossin, Assessor; L. C. Somerville, Solicitor; 
Enos Varian. Street Commissioner and Chief of Police. 


Presbyterian, M. E. South, Methodist Episcopal, Baptist, 
and Episcopal. 


Mason Republican, II. F. Liggett, editor; State Gazette. 
Musgrave and Blessing, editors; Point Pleasant Register. 
\Y. II. Xeedham, editor. 


Merchants National. J. McCulloch, President; C. C. 
Bowyer, Cashier. 

Point Pleasant National, J. Capehart. President: J. \Y. 
Windom, Cashier. 

History of West Virginia l'»l 

Principal Manufacturing Establishments. 

Malleable Iron Plant. Flour Mill, Kanawha Dock Co., 
Smith's Dry Docks, Point Pleasant Machine Shop. Ice Plant, 
Electric Light and Water Plants. 

Wholesale and Retail Establishments. 

Point Pleasant Wholesale Grocery Co.. Enterprise Whole- 
sale Grocery Co., |. Fredwin cc Co.. general merchandise ; J. C. 
Franklin Co.. retail merchants; The Don Ton. general store. 


The Spencer and The Phoenix are the principal hotels. 

The principal streets are paved. 

Point Pleasant is favorably located, and that she is not 
one of the leading cities of the Ohio Valley is. perhaps, due 
more to her former lack of civic pride, moral stamina and 
business push than to any other cause. For many, many 
years the town was notorious for its numerous booze joints ; 
and so long as the people of a town sit down with the expecta- 
tion that some time, some how, John Barleycorn is going to 
pave the streets, construct sewerage systems, open banks and 
factories and build a great city, so long will the people hope 
in vain. 'Tis true Point Pleasant has some paved streets, a 
few banks and a few manufacturing plants, but these came 
into existence, not through the instrumentality of (he saloon, 
but in spite of the saloon. And now that the booze joints have 
been banished from the town, Point Pleasant is beginning to 
make some headway toward the attainment of real prosperity, 
and with the vim and determination of an awakened people, 
there is no doubt the world will hear something worth while 
from the old town at the mouth of the (heat Kanawha in the 
near future. 

192 History of West Virginia 

Point Pleasant School Faculty. 
P.ismark G. Moore, Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL Bertha J. Steinbach and Marv Mc- 

GRADES — Florence Howard. Bculah L'.arr, Lillian Ashcr, 
Lcnora J. Summervilie, Lynda Whitten, Clara Mees, Virginia 
Behan, and Alary E. Howard. 

LANGSTON SCHOOL (Colored)— E. L. Morton and 
Alitl'ue C. Colston. 

Total enrollment. 343. School term, 9 months. School 
ye.,r 1913-14. 


PIXEV1LLE, the present county seat of Wyoming 
County, is located on the north bank of Gyandotte River. 
The former seat of justice was Oceana, on the Clear Fork of 
Guyandotte, the first court being held at the residence of John 
Cook, in 1850, Wyoming having been formed from Loga l 
January 26 of that year. A few years ago the county seat w:is 
removed to its present location. 

Although practically the whole of the count}" is under- 
laid with either the New River or Kanawha River veins of 
coal, of merchantable thickness, and the surface, in many 
places, is covered with some of the finest timber in the State, 
Wyoming is one of the five counties in the State not having 
a railroad." 

The population of Pineville in 1910 was 334 and at this 
time is about 400. The county offers a rich harvest to the 
capitalist interested in timber and coal, but of course no 
developments will materialize until the field is entered by a 
railroad. A railroad from Lincoln up the Gyandotte, through 
Logan and Wyoming to Pineville, thence up the head of 
Pinnacle Creek and over or through into Mercer, would un- 
doubtedly prove a paying investment to the builder and would 
be the means of developing and opening up to the world's 

History of West Virginia 1''3 

markets one of the richest sections of the Slate, that now lie-^ 
untouched and almost unknown. 

With all their present handicaps, the people .of I'iiie\ ilk- 
arc bravely holding on, knowing full well that there is a better 
day coming" — a day when the little village among the pine will 
be transformed into a city of the Guyandottc. 

Pineville has three churches, as follows: Methodist Fpis- 
copal South, Rev. I. \V. .Morris, pastor; Methodist Episcopal 
Xorth, Rev. Terr}-, pastor; and Baptist, with Rev. G. P. Goode. 

Robert L. Cook is editor of the Independent Herald, the 
only newspaper in the town. 

Although small in population. Pineville has two banks — 
The Citizens National and The First National, R. A. Keller 
being cashier of the former and I. II. Borne cashier ot the 

E. W. Worrell is mayor and C. F. Pyle, recorder. 

The four general stores of the town seem to be doing a 
good business. 

The town lacks manufacturing enterprises, but those will 
come with the railroad. 

The Lusk, Weaver, and Bvrd are the principal hotels. 

Yes, Pineville has an educational institution — a good one, 
loo. Following is the faculty: 

Bariy Wyatt, principal, ably assisted by John II. Tokr, 
Maggie Roach Shannon and Lake F. Wyatt. 

Enrollment 1913-14, 10S. School term, 9 months. 

County Officials. 

James Dameron, Twenty-second Judicial Circuit; J. 
Albert Toler. Prosecuting Attorney; E. M. Scutcr, Circuit 
Clerk; Will P. Cook. County Clerk; Charley Short, Sheriff; 
Chester II. Cook, County Superintendent Free Schools; L. 
R. Hash. County Surveyor: and \\ . B. Belcher, County 

194 History of West Virginia 


As all -the towns of Putnam County arc small — none 
having a population exceeding 800 — and as the diversified in- 
dustries of the whole county are not fairly well represented 
in any particular locality, the writer has deemed best to 
give a general view of the whole. For this information he is 
indebted to Lewis Barnhart, Esq., of Wiufield, W. Ya. 

"Putnam County, so named for General Putnam of 
Revolutionary fame, was organized in the year I84S, its terri- 
tory taken from the two adjoining counties of Mason and 
Kanawha ; the line between these two counties extending from 
a point in the Jackson County line at a point near the head of 
Dog Fork of Pocatalico River in a southwesterly direction, 
touching the Great Kanawha River near Red House Shoals, 
leaving the river about a mile below and extending south- 
westerly to the Cabell County line, — that part of the new 
county lying northwesterly from the line described being 
taken from Mason County and that southeasterly from the 
County of Kanawha. The county lies on both sides of the 
Great Kanawha River, its northerly line on the river being 
about eighteen miles above Point Pleasant and its southcrly 
line on the river being about fifteen miles below Charleston. 
The county lies between the 38th and 39th degrees of north 
latitude, its greatest length from north to south being about 
twenty-nine miles. The Great Kanawha River runs, in a 
general direction northwesterly, through the county, cutting 
the county into two parts very nearly equal. The county is 
divided into six districts, Buffalo, Union and Poca lying on 
the northeasterly side of the river, and Scott, Teays Valley, 
Currv and part of Buffalo on the southwesterly side. Eighteen 
Mile Creek, Big and Tittle Buffalo Creeks, Farley's Creek and 
Toca flow into the river from the northerly side, Big and 
Kittle Hurricane Creeks, Twenty-five Mile Creek, Bill's Creek, 
Scan- and some minor streams from the southeasterly side, 
while Trace Fork of Mud River flows east to west through 
the southern part of the county, taking in the smaller streams 
of Bridge Creek, Trace, Sycamore and some smaller streams 

History of West Virginia 1": 

from the north and Turkey Creek, Clymer and some others 
from t lie south. 

There are two railroads, the Chesapeake and Ohio enter- 
ing the county at its easterly corner on the river and crossing 
westerly and leaving it at Cuiloden. with the stations Scary, 
Scott. Tcays. and Hurricane; and the Kanawha and Michigan, 
part of the Ohio Central system, following the course of the 
Great Kanawha River through the county, with its stations 
Scary, Poca,. Raymond, Black Betsey, Plymouth, \\qi\ House. 
Winfield, Rumor, Buffalo and Robcrtsburg. 

The population of the county, about 5.000 at the time of 
its organization, has increased at a fair rate, being now 18,587. 
divided about equally among the several districts, the towns 
and villages being Winfield, the county scat, so named for 
Gen. Winfield Scott, at the time prominent in the .Mexican 
V ar, with a population of about 300: Buffalo, near 400; 
Hurricane, near 500; with the mining towns, Raymond City, 
with perhaps r,00 to 800; Black Betsey, 500, and Plymouth. 
400 or more. 

There are collieries at Raymond City. Black Betsey and 
Plvmouth, with outputs ranging from 1,000 to 2.000 tons 
daily, with other mines at Oak Forest and Big Hurricane with 
less output, but in a healthy condition. The plants at Ray- 
mond, Black Betsey and Plymouth are well equipped and the 
coal from these mines, being of the Pittsburgh seam, is in 
good demand. Oil and gas have been found on Turkey Creek 
and elsewhere in the southern part of the county, in paying 
quantities, with a showing in the northern part of the county. 

Winfield and Hurricane have, each, a bank and a tobacco 
warehouse, for the sale of leaf tobacco: the county is dotted 
with school houses: the churches have their edifices and the 
various mercantile business houses are well represented. 
There are lour newspapers — three at Winfield ami one at 

The surface is diversified, that along the river and creeks 
being level and well adapted to tillage: Teays Valley, a flat. 
le\el area from Scary westward across the county, which 
seems to have been, at one time, the bed of a river; the remain- 
der of the countv is hillv on the river front, becoming more 

196 History of West Virginia 

rolling and more adapted to tillage toward the heads of the 
streams. Off the streams about one-half the area is yet in 
unbroken forest, save that the valuable timber has been re- 
moved. The productions of the farms are corn, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, tobacco, fruit, cattle and hogs. The marketable 
staples seem to be cattle and tobacco. It is estimated that the 
crop of Burley tobacco grown in the year 1909 would, make, 
perhaps, four to five millions pounds. It is predicted that the 
most beneficial results could be obtained in this county by 
raising corn, wheat, potatoes, hogs, etc., sufficient for domes- 
tic use, with tobacco and fruit, such as apples, peaches and 
berries, as the market crop. There are already several large 
orchards which promise well for the future, one orchard alone 
having twenty-seven thousand young trees set. The northern 
and eastern coves and hillsides in our county, now in the 
"woods", would raise an excellent quality of apples, peaches 
and other fruits which could be disposed of to advantage by 
exchanging with our less fortunate neighbors of the fruitless 
regions of the northwest. 

The original settlers of what is now Putnam County were 
from the adjoining Virginia counties or from the eastern part 
of the State. Since the Civil War there have been many ac- 
cessions from Pennsylvania. Ohio and other northern States, 
as well as from the Virginias, and our present population is 
more cosmopolitan in character. Our count)' was on the border 
in the late Civil War and the contending armies had about an 
equal number of recruits from our citizens. There were two 
engagements within the bounds of Putnam County, which, in 
themselves and considered in the light of later experience, 
were neither sanguinary nor decisive, but were yet, in their 
time, considered strenuous: One at Scary, among the first, if 
not the first, skirmish of the war, between portions of Wise's 
forces of Confederates, under Colonel Patton, and an advance 
party of Cox's Federal troops, under Colonel Norton. Some 
two or three were killed in this engagement, a few wounded, 
and the Federal Colonel DcVilliers captured. ]\lany of our 
citizens were engaged in this skirmish, with all kinds of 
weapons hastilv provided. The other engagement was at 
Winfield, the county seat, a little later in the war, between a 

History of West Virginia \'>7 

small detachment of Federals under Capt. J « 3 1 1 n M. Ke\ nobis 
and about the same number of confederates under Lieutenant 
Philip Thurmond, the engagement lasting for some time, wit', 
no casualties except the death of Thurmond, who now lies 
buried here on the premises of the late Judge James \\ . 1 loge. 
Might or ten Confederates, under Col. James Xounen, boarded 
the steamer Men Levi at the \\u(\ Mouse landing and sur- 
prising and disarming the guards captured the boat and took 
her to Frazier's Mottom, five miles below, and burned her to 
the water's edge, taking her military escort as prisoners. 
'1 here were here and there some reprisals and surprises, but 
all these regrettable instances are fading from the memories 
of our people. 

Our people seem to be of a sturdy, industrious, civil, 
though independent, nature. They have built up in our 
county about one hundred and forty-five school houses; about 
all the churches are represented and have commodious edifices, 
the two branches of the Methodist Church, the Missionary 
Baptists, the Presbyterians and the Lnited Brethren being in 
the ascendency, although the Catholics have membership and 
chapels at Scary and Scott and elsewhere. In politics, like- 
wise, there seems to be independence and consideration. 
During the war and with the disfranchisement of the south- 
ern element, the Republicans Mere in the ascendency: with the 
adoption of the "Flick Amendment" conditions were reversed : 
again, with a fusion of "Creenbackcrs" and Republicans, the 
latter held sway, but lor many years our elections have been 
close, and both parties have representation on our roster of 
elective officers." 


St. Marys — the county seat of Pleasants County- was 
incorporated March 31, 1851, two days after the formation ot 
the county. The present court house was erected in ]!"o2. 
The town is at the mouth of Middle Island Creek. The 
business portion of the town is located near the Ohio River 
shore, while the court house, high school and the principal 

198 History of West Virginia 

residence section occupy a beautiful plateau overlooking the 
intervening valley below. 

St. Marys has* about 1,500 inhabitants. The population in 
1910 was 1,358, being a gain of 838 over 1890 and 533 over 

The present county officials are: Homer B. Woods, 
Judge Circuit Court; M. L. Barron. Prosecuting Attorney; 
S. Y. Riggs, Sheriff; YV. H. Myers, Assessor; W. R. Carson, 
Clerk Circuit Court; R. L. Griffin, Clerk County Court; J. R. 
Mason, President County Court, and Marion Hart and J. \Y. 
Grimm, Commissioners; G. C. McTaggart. Superintendent of 
Schools, and John Triplett, County Surveyor. 

Names of city officials: Oran C. Ogdin, Mayor; G. C. 
Strickling-, Recorder; \Y. H. Guth, C. P. Newell, R. W. 
Douglass, George W. Gatrell, J. H. Garrity, and G. R. Van 
Yaley, Council; Frank S. Clark, Sergeant; E. \Y. Riggs, 
Chief of Police; and John Hubaker, Street Commissioner. 


Pleasants County Leader (Republican), edited by Joe 

The St. Marys Oracle (Democrat), edited by R. L. Pem- 


Pleasants County Bank — A. S. Grimm, President; J. R. 
Shingleton. Vice-President; E. A. Sayre, Cashier; J. A. 
Schauwecker, Assistant Cashier. Directors: A. S. Grimm, 
George T. Gale, J. R. Shingleton, C. C. Schauwecker, John 
Schauwecker, R. N. Corbett, E. H. Morgan, Elroy Wagner 
and George Zipf. 

First National Bank — W. C. Dotson, President; L. P. 
Walker, Vice-President; D. W. Dillon, Cashier; B. A. Dotson, 
Assistant Cashier. Directors: J. D. Dinsmoor, Isaac Pethtel. 
F. F. Morgan. J. E. Cochran, Martin Riggs. J. R. McMahon, 
L. P. Walker, W. C. Dotson, and W. E. Clovis. 

History of West Virginia l'>'> 

Manufacturing Enterprises. 

St. Marys Pearl Lkiiton Cumpaii) , High Grade Petroleum 
Products Co.. High Grade Pipe Line Co., Russell .Machine 
Shops, St. Marys Milling Company, J. L. 1 lissom Lumber 


Howard Hotel and Exchange Hotel. Several restaurants. 

The town has eighteen retail stores and five shops, each 
apparently doing a thriving business. 

St. Marys has eight churches, each having a large congre- 
gation. They are as follows: Baptist, Rev. 1. E. Elliott, pas- 
tor : Church of Christ. Rev. C. E. Fogle : Episcopal, ; 

Methodist Episcopal, Rev. 1). S. Hammond; M. E. South. Rev. 
X. C. Cochran; Methodist Protestant, Rev. 1'. M. Mitchell: 
Presbyterian, Rev. G. 1. Wilson; Roman Catholic. Rev. Father 

St. Marys School Faculty. 

H. C. Humphreys. Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL 1). P.. Fleming. Principal. Bio. and 
Science; June Houston, Phys. and Math.; Helen Joan llult- 
man, English: Mary Phelps. Latin and German. 

GRADES— Effie Gorrell. Dollie Stanley. Florence Rife. 
Emma Veon, Georgia Smith. Grace Crumm, Lillian Cotton, 
Lucy Houseman, and Ethel Flesher, teachers. 

School term — High School, months: tirades, S months. 
Total enrollment 1913-14. 439. 


Sutton, the county seat of Braxton County, wa> estab- 
lished as a town under the name of Suttonville by an act <>l 
the General Assembly of Virginia, January 27. 1S2<">. The year 
following, the name wa< changed to Sutton, which place wa- 
incorporated February 20, 1860. 

^00 History of West Virginia 

During the first 64 years of the existence of the town the 
population reached only 2/6, but within the following decade, 
ending in 1900, the population reached 8o4; in 1'JlO it was 
1,121, and is now about 1200. 

City officials: \\\ F. Morrison, Jr., Mayor; M. B. James, 
Recorder; Robert Colebank, Sergeant; L. A. Holcomb, Night 


Episcopal, Rev. 1. Bayshaw, rector; Methodist Episcopal, 
Rev. C. G. Stater, pastor; M. E. Church South, Rev \. P. 
Keyser, pastor; Baptist, Rev. A. A. McQueen, pastor. 


Braxton Democrat, John A. Grose, editor; Braxton 
Central, James Dunn, editor. 


First National— A. M. Berry, President; D. E. Ca^t , 

Home National — Amos Bright, President, and A. L. 
Morrison, Cashier. 

The Elk, The Duffield and The J. T. Frame are the prin 
cipal hotels of the city. 

There are about twenty-eight retail establishments in 
Sutton. The town has about two miles of paved streets. 
Natural gas supplies the town with heat and light. 

School Faculty. 

T. PI. Hickman, Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL— D. C. Haines. Principal, Science. Alge- 
bra and English: Ruth L. Romig, Music, History. English. 
German: T. H. Hickman, English, Latin and Geometry. 

GRADES— Blanch Gibson, J. C. McNeill, Nolle Keyser. 

History of West Virginia 201 

Gertrude Berry. Alma MeCaulcy, Ida S. Given. 

BEE HILL SCHOOL Tracy Hoover. 


Term, High School, V months; Grades. S months. En- 
rollment, 393. 


Wheeling, the largest city in West Virginia, lias a popu- 
lation of 43,000: of this number about 8.000 reside in the 
Seventh Ward, known as Wheeling Island, the main business 
part of the city being on the east bank of the beautiful Ohio 
River. The city covers an area of 2050 acres. It was settled 
by Col. Ebenezer Zane about 1770. and the town grew up 
about Fort Henry at the top of what is now Main Street Hill, 
the site being marked by the State with a tablet bearing the 
following inscription : 

"By authority of the State of West Virginia 
to commemorate the siege of 
September 11. 1782, the last battle of the 
American Revolution, this tablet is placed. 
"T. M. Garvin. 
"\V. W. Jackson. 
"S. II. Grann, 

"G. W. Atkinson. Governor." 

The "monument" stands on the outer edge oi the side- 
walk, in front of the building now occupied t>y ' nc Great 
Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company, near the corner of Eleventh 
and Main streets. It is a very small affair to be dignified 
with the title of monument, considering the important event 
it is intended to commemorate, being a stone only Ci2 inches 
long, 12 inches wide at the base and In inches at lop. 20 
inches on the outer side and 8 inches on the side facing the 
walk, the top sloping inward. 

A description of battles fought with the Indians in and 

202 History of West Virginia 

about Wheeling, together with sketches of some of the prin- 
cipal characters who participated in these battles, will be 
found elsewhere in this book. 

Thirteen years after the battle above mentioned, Wheel- 
ing was established as a town, and incorporated in 1806. 
Since that time it has been the seat of Ohio County. 

In 1836 a city charter was granted, and the town became 
an important trading and manufacturing point on the National 
Road and the Ohio River. The State capitol was located here 
from the formation of the State in 1863 to 1S70, and again 
from 1875 to 1885, when the seat of government went to 
Charleston, where it has since remained. 

The manufacture of steel, iron, tin-plate, glass, pottery 
and tobacco products comprises the most important industries 
of the city; steel and iron having been manufactured here ever 
since 1849 and glass since 1821. 

Three trunk line railroads and the Ohio River furnish 
excellent transportation facilities, and these coupled with an 
abundance of coal and natural gas, contribute largely to suc- 
cessful manufacturing. 

The water works, gas plant, electric light works and city 
cremator}^ are owned by the city. 

Wheeling has 47 miles of streets ; 25 paved with brick and 
blocks, and the rest cobble, gravel or macadam. 

The former State capitol affords a home for the city gov- 
ernment at the corner of Sixteenth and Chapline streets, which 
is also used as a county hall. 

The total valuation of property in Wheeling is estimated 
at $62,000,000. 

Wheeling's Industries. 

Value of products $27,077,000 

Capital invested 19,297,000 

Cost of materials used 16,055,000 

Salaries and wages 5,503,000 

Average of wage earners 7,809 

Miscellaneous expenses 3,166,000 

Salaries officers and clerks 819 

Xumber of plants 176 

Value added bv manufacture.... 11,052,000 

History of West Virginia 20o 

The climate is generally considered healthful, there being 
few extremes of heat and cold, and the city being mostly on 
elevated ground. 

Wheeling lias seven grammar schools, which prepare for 
high school work; a high school, and a separate grade school 
and high school for colored children, all occupying twelve 
buildings. In addition to these are six parochial schools in 
the city and Linsly Institute, a collegiate preparatory school 
for boys, and Mount de Chantal Academy for girls a feu- 
miles cast of the city, in charge of the Sisters of the Visitation 

There are about forty churches; two public hospitals and 
several private ones; several orphanages, and many other 
charitable institutions. A new Y. M. C. A. building, costing 
$175,000. has recently been erected in the city. 

The McLure, Windsor, Stamm. Brunswick. Grand Cen- 
tral and Antler arc popular hotels. 

The Court Theatre, Virginia Theatre, Colonial Theatre, 
Rex Theatre and Victoria Theatre are popular places of 

Almost all of the fraternal organizations own their own 
buildings here. 

Wheeling has thirteen banks and trust companies: five 
daily newspapers and many other publications devoted to 
various interests. 

While Wheeling is not noted as a place for boat building, 
she has the honor of producing the first boat which plied on 
the upper Ohio, namely the Washington, which was built in 

The semi-centennial anniversary of the admission of West 
Virginia into the Union as a sovereign State was celebrated 
at Wheeling. June 20th. 1<J13. under the title of "Golden 
Jubilee of the State of West Virginia." 

Concerning the Semi-Centennial Celebration, the Wheel- 
ing Intelligencer of June 21. l r, 13. has this to say: 

"Parades, music, oratory, hippodrome features, aeroplane 
ascensions, the State banquet and the grand court ball were 
stellar attractions of the greatest day of West "Virginia's 
greatest celebration. From early morn Friday to the wee 
small hours that preceded the rising of Saturday's sun. the 

204 History of West Virginia 

West Virginia metropolis was thronged with pleasure-seeking 

"And the}- did not seek in vain, for pleasure was abroad 
without any disguise. There were so many things to see that 
it was simply a question of what sort of an attraction suited 
the individual. Today most of the visitors will leave for their 
homes, but Pa Wheeling will not fully recover from his spasm 
of joy for a week. 

"The first feature of the big day was the combined mili- 
tary, fraternal and civic parade, which started at 10 o'clock and 
proved one of the big features of the week. The distinguished 
visitors, the U. S. Regulars, W. V. U. Cadets, Boys' Brigade, 
Cathedral High School, West Liberty Normal and fraternal 
organizations parti eipated. 

Birthday Exercises. 

"In the afternoon, starting shortly after 2 o'clock, the 
official birthday ceremonies were held at City Hall Park, with 
West Virginia's grand old man, the Hon. Henry G. Davis, 
presiding, and with addresses by Governor Hatfield, Mayor 
Kirk, Judge Mason, Judge Jackson and others. 

"The fair ground proved the mecca of thousands at all 
hours of the day, and the exhibits were thronged with de- 
lighted visitors. The hippodrome features came in for a big 
share of attention, and of course the aeroplane flights were 
eagerly watched by every one who had a chance to sec them. 

"The evening program included the State banquet at the 
Scottish Rite Cathedral at 6:30, the grand parade at S :30. and 
then came the fitting climax of the week when the court ball 
was staged at the Auditorium at 10 o'clock. 

Visitors Pleased. 

"On every side were heard expressions of satisfaction and 
pleasure, and both visitors and home folks agreed that West- 
Virginia's" Golden Jubilee had been honored by a celebration 
worth while. 

"The weather was perfect. The day was a warm one. but 

History of West Virginia 205 

the heat was modified by a breeze that began before noun and 
Ia>tcd until evening. The throngs on the streets exceeded 
those of any previous day, but all were orderly and the regular 
and special police had vcr\ little to do except in regulating 

'"With Hon. Ilenn G. Davis, '87 years young', presiding. 
West Virginia's fiftieth birthday celebration was held in the 
presence of cheering thousands yesterday afternoon at City 
Hall Park. 

"The weather conditions were ideal. The shy was purest 
azure, and a breeze which at times became strong enough to 
make hearing difficult, tempered the rays of the bright sun. 

"Shortly after 2 o'clock tiovernor Henry D. Hatfield and 
Mayor H. L. Kirk stepped from the portal of the City Hall, 
while the combined band played 'Hail to the Chief.' Between 
the doorway and the speakers' platform were some of the aged 
survivors of the Wheeling conventions. As soon as Governor 
Hatfield observed these veterans of the formation of the State 
he stopped and held an informal hand-shaking, and it wan. 
pleasing to see how the eyes of the old fighters lighted up as 
they returned the cordial greetings of the Governor. 

The Speakers. 

"Seated in the speaker*" stand were Henry Gassaway 
Davis. of Klkins; Governor Henry D. Hatfield. Mayor H. L. 
Kirk. Secretary of State Stuart !■". Reed. Judge John W. 
Mason, of Fairmont : five of the six survivors of the \\ heeling 
conventions. John J. Davis, Alpheus Garrison. P. M. Hale. 
William T. Brown and George R. Latham; Col. John K. Day, 
of this city, who made the first public suggestion of a semi- 
centennial celebration, and J. R. Taylor, of Chicago, composer 
of the State ode. 

"The stand, the Paxton fountain, the surrounding build- 
ings and the park were all beautifully decorated in the national 
and state colors. 

"At the appointed time, to the strains of 'The Star Span- 
gled Banner.' the venerable James Shriver. who raided the first 
flag over a public building in the new State of West Virginia. 

206 History of West Virginia 

stepped forward and raised Old Glory to the breeze amid the 
cheers of the great audience. 

"The Rev. J. II. Littell, of the Second United Presby- 
terian Church, was then announced by Chairman Davis and 
delivered the opening prayer. 

Henry G. Davis Speaks. 

"Then came the opening address of the distinguished 
chairman. In spite of his eighty-seven years, Air. Davis spoke 
in a strong, clear voice and wi f h no trace of weakness of any 
sort. He received the undivided attention and unbounded 
admiration of the big crowd from the very first and was en- 
thusiastically applauded. 

"He said: 

" 'As chairman of the semi-centennial commission it be- 
comes my privilege and duty to preside at these exercises in 
commemoration of important events which occurred in this 
city fifty years ago. when there eame into existence a new 
sovereignty — a new member of the sisterhood of States that 
makes up this great and wonderful nation. That official notice 
should be taken of the fiftieth anniversary of the admission 
of the State was to be expected, and the governor appointed a 
commission, composed of fifteen prominent citizens, to formu- 
late plans and direct the preparations for a fitting celebration 
of the event, towards defraying the expense of which the 
legislature appropriated thirty thousand dollars. "While the 
patriotic spirit awakened would be felt by all the people of 
the State, it was recognized that there should be some place 
upon which to center the more important features of the cele- 

"Wheeling Selected. 

" 'The committee weighed carefully the considerations 
advanced in behalf of the different cities and selected Wheel- 
ing as being the most appropriate, practically all the steps in 
the formation of the State having been taken here and it hav- 
ing been the first capital. Her citizens were enthusiastic in 
their desire to show bv their works the appreciation of the 

History of West Virginia 207 

historic value lu the in of these early scenes, ami well have 
they done their part. They have ilevoteil their time and means 
and best talents in their untiring efforts, ami what we see here 
today is the best evidence of their complete success. That no 
mistake was made in the selection of Wheeling for the official 
ceremonies is patent to all. 

"Celebration State Wide. 

' 'The commission felt that the celebration should he- 
State wide, and while lending its aid in all particulars, it has 
encouraged as far as possible the holding of appropriate ser- 
vices in all parts of the State. To this end the day has been 
made a State holiday and so proclaimed by the governor. 
Financial assistance has been given by the commission to the 
county scats, national and State Hags have been sent to the 
8,000 and odd school houses in the State, and the people urged 
through boards of trade, chambers of commerce and other 
civic organizations to hold meetings with services appropriate 
to the day. The fraternal and benevolent orders have been 
asked to take proper action, railroads have been requested to 
recognize the anniversary by decorating their trains and sta- 
tions, and appeal has been made generally to all classes of 
citizens of the State in some way everywhere to make the day 

" 'The commission, through a committee from the State 
University, selected from a large number of contestants a 
song and music and a monograph composed especially lor 
the occasion, which have been printed and widely distributed 
and will be sung and read here and elsewhere throughout the 
State. Under the direction of the commission, a souvenir 
volume is being compiled, which will be published in due time 
and contain an accurate history of the State and its resources 
and development at the end of the first fifty years of its exist- 
ence. In a number of other ways the commission has sought 
to carry out the purposes for which it was created, and trusts 
that its labors have not been in vain. Tt believes that the peo- 
ple generally will appreciate the significance of the exercises 
here and elsewhere, that thev will serve to increase pride of 

208 History of West Virginia 

citizenship, awaken the spirit of patriotism and add to the 
mental and spiritual stature of all. And as we proceed with 
the observances of the day, let us for a moment look back to 
the beginning of the period we celebrate. 

"Foundation of State. 

" 'Momentous were the issues and tremendous the results 
of the Civil War, but the only change wrought in the map of 
the country was in the creation of West Virginia. The act 
establishing the State was approved by President Lincoln on 
June 20th, 1863, and Vest Virginia stood apart and alone from 
the old State. It was with saddened heart in times of stress 
that she saw her youngest daughter depart and go her way. 
A few years later she learned that the estrangement was only 
temporary and that with growing strength and vigor the off- 
spring by her side stood steadfast in its affection and pride for 
the mother State. The change was made during the days of 
heroic deeds and when the pages of history were being rapidly 
turned. The men whose faith and strength of purpose carried 
them forward to the formation of the State in times of great 
doubt and forboding, are those to whom we now pay homage. 

" 'We come not so much to recount our achievements and 
to enjoy the sense of satisfaction they impart, as to do defer- 
ence to the memory of those who made possible the occasion 
of our pride. They builded better than they knew by bringing 
into being a State, which, like themselves, lives on and gathers 
strength as the years multiply, and yet while they live has 
grown greater than they anticipated, richer than they prophe- 
sied, stronger than they imagined, and more than fulfilled their 
brightest and cherished hopes. 

" 'The physical features and natural riches of V est 
Virginia have always been attractive and elusive. The adven- 
turous spirits of colonial times found pleasure and excitement 
in the chase within her borders, and pioneers discovered in h-r 
woods and hills, her mountains and valleys and cncirclint." 
waters, the essential ingredients of future empire ; the pathway 
of progress was made through struggle and adversity, and 
her earlv settlers were impelled bv the obstacles they had to 

History of West Virginia 


overcome. IK- who laid tin.- foundation of the nation, the iin 
mortal Washington, in the days of his early manhood within 
her borders set courses and distance-, in engineering endeavor. 
The time is not now sufficient to bring before us the names, 
growing brighter by the polishing effects of time, of the ilhi-> 
trious men who have been her sons or patrons. They are 
entwined in her history and have given her strength in her 
infancy and prestige and power in her fuller life. It has been 
five decades since the star of West Virginia first appeared in 
the national emblem, and it is by these periods of time we are 
apt to compare our political life and growth. 

"Geographical Location. 

" 'At the time of her admission into the Union, she was 
and is now smaller than any of the States to the west of her, 
and, notwithstanding this, her irregular form enables her to 
reach well in between Ohio and Pennsylvania, to within 100 
miles of Lake Eric, while but fifty miles separate her from the 
capital of the nation and down to Kentucky her borders. She 
stretches forth her arms to the north and east, and in sisterly 
friendship unites the great northern and southern States, be 
tween which she lies. She has been described as the most 
northern of the southern States and the most southern of the 
northern States, and in this happy mean she derives the best 
qualities of both. 

" 'The peaks and pinnacles and terraced mountain sides 
divide and distribute her waters with impartial favor. They 
give birth to the Potomac, which broadens into service for 
the capital of the nation, and mingle in the Chesapeake with 
those which have gone down through the historic James: to 
the north by the Cheat and Monongahela they reach at Pitts- 
burgh the Ohio and soon join with the waters from the south- 
west of the Little Kanawha. Nature has furnished the lines 
of a great portion of the boundaries of the State in mountains 
and streams, the Ohio River alone serving her well for nearly 
three hundred miles along her border. The people of the State 
have inherited from its rugged nature a spirit of freedom and 
self-reliance. They have cared rather for the independence of 
its hills and valleys than the independence of cities and towns. 

210 History of West Virginia 


' 'In 18b0, about the time of the formation of the State, 
and the nearest figures thereto available, the population was 
370,t)S8, or about fifteen persons to eaeh square mile. In 1870 
it had grown to 420,014. and in 1910 it reached 1.221,119. or 
an average of 50 persons to each square mile. It had a little 
more than three times the population of fifty years ago. the 
actual increase being 324 per cent., and of 27b per cent, from 
1870. The per cent, of increase in the decade was greater than 
the average of the United States. 

" 'The population in 1800 was seventeen times and in 1910 
twenty-two times as much as it was in 17 ( '0. In 1 ( >10. com- 
pared with forty-six -per cent, for the entire country, only 19 
per cent, of the population of West Virginia lived in cities: 
nearly one million of its people living in the country, and, not- 
withstanding this, five of its cities increased in size over 100 
per cent, in ten years, from 1^00 to 1910. West Virginia's 
progress in numerical strength is largely within herself. 
Although her mining industries are uppermost, she has had 
little help from immigration. Of her total population but four 
and seven-tenths per cent, are foreign born, ninety-five and 
three-tenths per cent, being natives of the United States, and 
eighty per cent, saw the first light of day within her confines. 
Four out of five of her people, therefore, are native born, and 
but one in twenty came from foreign shores; ninety-four and 
seventy-nine one-hundredths per cent, are white and five and 
three-tenths per cent, are colored. 


" 'It might be said that our mineral deposits enlarged her 
area, as in many instances, with thousands of acres of valuable 
coal seams beneath, the surface is cultivated and fruitful. 
Two-thirds of the State is in farms; their number, acreage and 
value, compared with 1870, are as follows: 

History of West Virginia 211 

1.S70 1910 1'ct. Inc. 

X umber uf farms. ^''JTS 9o.( f S5 143 

Acres 2.580.254 5.521 , 7 57 1 1 1 

Value S9<>.714,1"0 $314,738,540 225 

" 'There are in round numbers one hundred thousand 
farms in the State, and they each have property worth over 


"'In 1910 there were 2.5A> manufacturing plants, nearly 
half of which were working in lumber and forest product*. 
Their capital was $150,923,000. not quite half the value of the 
farms. They employed 71.403 persons, and the value of their 
products was $P>1 .950.000. 


"'It is in mining that the State is making its most rapid 
industrial progress. In 1S(>3 it produced about 500.000 tons of 
coal, an average output now of about three days. At that 
time its oil and gas production was inconsiderable — now it is 
first in the production of natural gas, first grade oil. and hard- 
woods, and second in coal and coke, Pennsylvania alone sur- 
passing her. Her output of bituminous coal compared with 
that of Pennsylvania for several years past in net tons was: 

Year West Virginia Pennsylvania 

1905 24.570.82o 98.574.3o7 

1907 48.091.583 150,143.177 

1912 98.320.000 l59. f '22.14<> 

" 'For the five years following 1902 Wc-t Virginia"* per 
cent, of gain was nearly double, for the ten years since l f) 02 
it was nearly three times, and for the la*t five years six times, 
that of Pennsylvania. 

"'In 1902 Pennsylvania mined four times as much bitum- 
inous coal as West Virginia in l c »12 it was less than two and 
one-half times as much. 

•212 History of West Virginia 

' 'Y\ est Virginia has 82o separate mines, 59 of which arc 
each producing over 200,000 tons annually, and they all give 
employment to over 70,000 men. 

" 'Since coal mining began in the State, West Virginia 
has produced 046,448,201 tons, over one-tenth of winch was 
produced in the past year. In l l »12 West Virginia furnished 
about one-sixth and Pennsylvania about one-third of the en- 
tire production of the United States. West Virginia has a 
greater amount, remaining untouched, of available coal than 
Pennsylvania, the estimates by official source being 149,000,- 
000,000 tons for the former and 109,000,000,000 tons for the 


" 'Since about the time of the formation of the State, its 
total assessed value has grown nearly ten-fold, it being 
126.060.743 in 1867, and 1,114,000,000 in 1911. 

" 'Statistics of great variety could be produced to show 
the health and prosperity of West Virginia, her present high 
position, rapid advance in all the material and moral affairs of 
life, the happiness and ambitions of her people, but facts are 
for moments of greater care. Today we put aside the sterner 
realities of life and lend our thoughts and feelings to the spirit 
of the occasion. We join with our neighbors and friends In 
making merry, that we can with light hearts and cheerful 
mien fittingly observe the day we celebrate. The State was 
born in sentiment and in sentiment let's remember its birth. 
In our felicitations of West Virginia's fiftieth birthday, an oc- 
casion fraught with pride in the accomplishments of the past, 
let us take advantage of the golden opportunity and inaugu- 
rate to higher hopes and greater aims the second half century 
of the State's history.' " 


"flavor Kirk, of this city, was the first speaker after Mr. 
Davis's talk, and gave an eloquent address on the progress of 
West Virginia and of the things they have done and stood for 
in the past. He spoke with much feeling on the natural beau- 

History of West Virginia 


lies of Wot Virginia and the wonderful advantage- U> citi- 
zens enjoy in comparison with other State--: he also told of 
llie great wealth buried in its hills and \ alleys, and what 
progress West Virginians are making in it.-, development. In 
closing he welcomed every one present in the name of the 
State, city and every citizen. 

"He said: 'One can not but be impressed 1>\ ibis august 
presence and this splendid display. I count it indeed a high 
privilege upon an occasion so fraught with interest to be per- 
mitted to speak for a short time to this massive throng of my 
fellow-countrymen. Standing today in the dawn of the twen- 
tieth century, some of you may ask what we have done and 
what title we have to public favor. I answer, in. the ages when 
the blackness of paganism surrounded the world, when idols 
were set up for worship in the temples, when the advocates of 
religious rights were subject to cruel torture and many were 
compelled to bow the knee to Ilaal, then it was when thought- 
iui men assembled in secret council and resolved to be free 
and do for themselves, and they decided to worship a true and 
living God. -Ml along the centuries .they have stood out 
bravely and heroically proclaimed the doctrine of the lather- 
hood of GOD and the brotherhood of man. and by such acli<;;i 
they have made the world cleaner and sweeter, kinder ami 

" "My friends, mighty things have been worked out in this, 
one of the youngest States of the Inion. A point which was 
yesterday invisible is the goal of today and will be the start- 
ing point of tomorrow. We look into the future and hail the 
coming of the man. radiant when this beautiful world which 
we now inhabit will be ablaze with a radiant splendor of new 
discoverv. which would blind the eyes of those now living 
were they in their fullness to break in upon us. It seems to 
me, my friends, that more particularly today than any other 
period of the State's history are most manifest all instrumen- 
talities for the bettering of the human race. May the light- 
ning spare the walls of our glorious Slate and may peace like 
a ministering angel, and may like the shadows of the cen- 
turies continue to be upon our splendid ( >hio \ alley, the rich- 
est of all the great valleys of the earth. 

•214 History of West Virginia 

"Loves State and People. 

' 'I love our State of West Virginia. 1 love her people. 
1 love her magnificent mountains and charming vales. I love 
the majestic Ohio River as it sweeps past our homes on its 
meandering way to the sea, bearing upon its bosom the prod- 
ucts of our mills, our factories, our farms and our forges. 
Hemmed in on either side by God's grand hills, rock-ribbed 
and towering in the sunlight, which look down as unwavering 
sentinels upon our splendid achievements, our marvelous de- 
velopment and our magnificent destiny. 

" 'Could I do otherwise but admire such a river and such 
surroundings? My friends. God never made a richer and 
more beautiful valley than the charming and prosperous Val- 
ley of the Ohio. Talk as you may of the Rhine and the Rhone 
and the Seine and the Arbe and the Tiber and the Thames. 
These valleys are all large and beautiful and grand, but the 
Ohio, our own Ohio, with its salt, and its clay, and its iron, 
and its coal, and its oil, and its gas, and its stone, and- its cli- 
mate, and its soil, and its scenery excels them all. The possi- 
bilities of this valley are incalculable; its wealth, like that of 
Croesus, can not be estimated, and its inhabitants are among 
the noblest, manliest and bravest people today beneath God's 
sunshine. We are in the business of doing th'ings ourselves, 
we aren't by any means lying supinely on our backs up here 
in our West Virginia hills. We are digging coal at a mighty 
rate, the familiar click of the miner's pick is daily heard in 
many of our mountain sides as they bring forth the dusky 
diamonds which bring millions of dollars into our pockets 
every year. The hum of the mill saw lulls our mountaineers 
to sleep) and awakens them from their slumbers at the dawn- 
ing of the morn. 

"Have Everything Here. 

' 'We are pumping oil in sufficient quantities every 
day out of our West Virginia hills to grease all the axles on 
the earth and have enough left to lubricate the north pole, and 
oil the hinges of everv industry in the world. Moreover, we 

History of West Virginia 

have almost everything else ii|> lure, including the l>est people 
beneath the stars. We are just beginning to appreciate in its 
fullest the true grandeur of our Little .Mountain State, under 
whose flag all classes of men can walk erect in tin- digniu of 
unrestricted freedom. Thank tlod, in our great Slate no man 
owns another, and. better than all. labor is forever free. At 
last we have learned the lesson, though it was written in blood, 
that labor is of liorl, and that nothing is more sacred and more 
to be respected than honest, faithful toil. 

""Labor is wealth, and man needs no better passport to 
fame than that he earns his living by the .sweat of his brow. 
Free labor and free thought, my friends, have done more than 
all things else to elevate mankind. They have chained the 
lightning, conquered the steam, bridled the machinery, broken 
down caste and uplifted men. Any man who does not believe 
in free labor and free thought is an enemy to human progress, 
and an enemy to himself as well as to all mankind. 

" "We rejoice today that ours is the foremost State among 
all States. Here, under God's free sunlight : here, as our works 
are fanned by the air of liberty ; here, at one of the richest and 
most prosperous of all States in the republic: here, under the 
protection of the Stars and Stripes; here, on the banks of the 
great Ohio in the beginning of the twentieth century: here-. 
amid the hum and industry of every hand and beneath the 
shadow of majestic hills which have witnessed the storms of 
centuries; in the presence of this magnificent throng of our 
West Virginia people: we are here to commemorate the Iilti- 
eth anniversary of our State. 

""Hail to this massive gathering of freemen. Hail, all 
hail, to you as patriotic West Virginians; and better than all, 
I hail you as Americans. Today I rejoice not only because 
we are in the front ranks of the States of the I'liiou. but better 
than all. we are happily united under one Hag. one constitu 
tion. and are to remain, we hope, one State, one people, indi- 
visible and inseparable now and forevermore. The unnewil 
sentiment of American people today is one constitution, one 
flag, one destiny; and may it. my hearers, be thus torcver. 

"'In West Virginia we recched a wilderness, the savage, 
the elk and the buffalo, and we bequeathe the beginning of 

216 History of West Virginia 

the nineteenth century the largest area of territory that has 
thus far been developed upon terra firma. which is now pour- 
ing forth fabulous treasures into the lap of commerce; and, 
notwithstanding all the development, we are now standing at 
the threshold of still greater discoveries, and at the entrance 
of an era of dazzling splendor which can not fail to electrify 
the human race. All these and more we cheerfully hand over 
to the new century which has just dawned above the eastern 
horizon. Mighty things have been brought out during the 
past century, and still what our eyes now behold arc but the 
small things of the more glorious that are yet to follow. Well 
may we exclaim with him of old : "What has God not 
wrought ?" 

" 'We soon shall return from here, my fellow citizens, to 
our various vocations, the storms as they come and go will 
beat upon the walls and all about us. Let us hope, my friends, 
that the lightning shafts will spare this edifice of today, and 
may God's blessings be showered upon our State. May faith 
and peace and good will toward men shed their influence upon 
the officers who shall occupy its portal and sit beneath the 
dome of our State, and may the shadow of the centuries gently 
hover over the work we have done today. 

"Hopes for Enjoyment. 

" 'And now, my friends. 1 wish to say that this welcome 
will be felt by us and uttered by me in vain if you fail to realize 
its sincerity or fail in the relaxing periods of this assembly to 
enjoy every hour and every minute of your stay with us. And 
when you go hence we want you to carry the one thought 
with vou. if there is one place in the reign of your activities 
where the home sense, the sense of friendship, is abiding and 
sincere, that place is the city of Wheeling, for indeed and in 
truth you are our welcome guests. 

" '1 now welcome you in the name of the -great Mountain 
State. West Virginia, in the name of the most progressive 
city in the State. Wheeling, in the name of every citizen, 
great and small. 1 want to say to you that you are now and 
ever will be our welcome guests.' " 

History of West Virginia 


"Follow ing .Mayor Kirk's address, -Mr. Pa\U introduced 
Governor Hatfield. While introducing Him lie look advantage 
of the opportunity to compliment him for the great work he 
had done since entering office, and stated that the people 
expected still greater work of him in the future. 

"GOV. 11. D. H.V1T1KU) 

"When Governor Hatfield advanced to the front of the 
platform the entire assembly was impressed with his strong 
personality. Tall, broad shouldered, and with a strong, plead- 
ing countenance, he stood before them a typical specimen of 
manhood of the great .Mountain State he represents. His 
clear, powerful voice was audible from end to end of the grand 
land, despite the heavy wind, and time and again his talk 
was interrupted by the rounds of applause as he brought the 
audience to a high pitch of excitement by his eloquence. 

"He began by reminding his hearers of the great deb! 
they owe to the pioneers who made their present liberty and 
progress possible by their valiant struggles in behalf of liberty. 

"He then brought his talk right down to the State of 
West Virginia, and told his audience that their first duty was 
the welfare of their fellowmen. He recited in striking figures 
the great future that the State had before it and expressed the 
wi-h that all the citizens would 'join hands for a greater and 
more glorious commonwealth.' 

"During his talk he gave it to be understood that he was 
for the great masses of common people and their interests: 
that he would see that every man got his full rights; also, that 
he was in favor of woman suffrage. This, he said, would be 
his guide for the next four years he is governor. He ako 
asked for the co-operation in the furtherance of this duty, re- 
gardless of party. 

" 'We are assembled here today. - he said, 'to commem- 
orate the achievements of the fathers of two score and ten 
years ago. When the savagery of the lash, the barbarism of 
the classes, and the insanity of secession confronted the ci\ili- 
zation of our country, the question, 'Will the republic defend 
herself?' trembled on the lips of the lover of mankind. Onl\ 

218 History of West Virginia 

those who arc alive today and who participated in bringing 
about the accomplishments of fifty years ago, can really appre- 
ciate the hardships, the anxiety, the pioneers experienced 
which made possible the commonwealth that has blossomed 
like a rose, is unsurpassed by any others in a great many 
blessings, and commands a position among the States of Xorth 
America that go to make up the federal Union. 

" 'Xo words can adequately express the tribute we pay 
to the grand men who fostered the inspirations and dreams of 
a new star to the commonwealths of this Republic, and at a 
time in our nation's life when wreck and ruin threatened our 
own national existence from internal strife among the same 
citizenship, the same kin and kindred, who a few years pre- 
vious to that, had shouldered their arms to meet a foreign foe. 
always double and sometimes five times their number. These 
patriots, subjects then of foreign nations, were willing to give 
freely their service to make possible a republic of freedom, that 
was only limited to the citizenship of its domain in the way 
of equity and liberty by visionary space domed by heaven's 
blue, and their paths of light lit by the eternal stars. 

Enjoy Great State, 

" '1 thank the fathers of the Revolution for the magnifi- 
cent victory achieved over a foreign and powerful nation. I 
thank the fathers again for the great State we enjoy, sur- 
passed in natural wealth, beauty and glory by no other in the 
constellation of States. 

"'I would like to call each patriot's name that partici- 
pated in the formation of our State, but as that is a ph\ s 
impossibility, I shall be content with mentioning none, as all 
should be mentioned and due homage paid to each and even- 
one regardless of his position in life, just so he possessed 
within his manly bosom the inspiration of the stalwart 

" 'These men gave us an empire of natural wealth, which 
commonwealth could be aptly termed the supreme god . . . 
to discussing the cumulative energy in its crude form, indis- 
pcnsiblc to the toilers and delvers in the workhouse of \ ulcan. 

History of West Virginia 21" 

which makes possible the motion of the countless wheels of in 
dustry that support myriads of people in t\m \oealion of life, 

" 'The rhododendron was adopted as the State's flower. 
Our creed is to be true to the Stars and Stripes. Our motto 
is "Mountaineer^ are always free". This appropriate symbol 
was unquestionably the dream of the grand men who assem- 
bled here fifty years ago and formulated (he fabric of this com- 
monwealth ; whose lives were surrounded by nature, so deftly 
pictured in the budding trees, and the great forests with which 
they were so favorably blessed; the winding streamlets, with 
their interesting cataracts which went rapidly rushing in the 
direction of the fathomless deep. 

' 'In their day there was no thought of the confinement 
of these streams, as is now contemplated, which, as has long 
since been demonstrated, when properly harnessed, mean un- 
told volumes of energy, which can be conducted on the slender 
little lines; a small part of such force is now used to send the 
winged messenger to every part of the civilized world. The 
force that can be generated from these natural water powers 
within our domain, makes possible the busy hum of industry 
in every craft and trade. 

"'The pure air. unconlaminated : the warbling birds, the 
buzzing bees, the growing grass, and all the beauties of 
nature — no wonder the grand words which go to make up 
our State's motto were coined by those noble brains of nature. 

"State's Resources. 

" 'What if the fathers could come back and view the years 
past since their time, and see the wonderful developments in 
the way of railways, the magnificent coal breakers, with the 
oil and gas and all of those natural resources found in almost 
every section of West Virginia, surpassing in quality almost 
any other State in the Union; the glass factories, tin plate, 
iron and nail manufactories? I am sure they would be 
amazed at our accomplishment : but we would be criticized by 
them, and justly so. for the great waste we are permitting of 
these great and boundless gifts of nature. 

" 'Gentlemen, we are \\ est Virginians. I am for my State 

220 History of West Virginia 

and its citizenship. The welfare of our fellowmen is our first 
and most sacred charge. I want to see a more complete exem- 
plification of equal rights to all men, and that line of demark- 
ation which defines the right of men toward their neighbors. 
Those rights must not be abridged, and they shall not if I can 
prevent it. Human rights must not be sacrificed for property 
rights. The rights of men are most sacred. The transgres- 
sion of this principle makes a pitiful picture indeed, if we will 
follow it from the dark ages down to the present time. The 
one principle and the basic foundation upon which all super- 
structure rests in the compilation of this great republic of 
ours is that principle of human liberty and justice. 

'The pathetic picture to which f have just referred of 
suffering, envy, misery, torture, scandal, persecution and mis- 
representation of human acts and human rights, has been the 
cause of more wars, the sacrifice of more human lives, the 
filling of our jails and penitentiaries in the hope of the perse- 
cuted to free themselves from the chains of oppression. These 
oppressions are due largely and more especially to the acts of 
those who cherish ambitions for preferment, and are willing 
to misrepresent the position and character of any one who sup- 
plants them, and have a ready car for sensations and flash 
them upon the messenger wires which go to aid, comfort and 
more fully guarantee the purpose of the designers. Again, 
we have greed, avarice and the blind, unbridled, merciless, 
selfish ambition of those who are in search of riches. 

"Rather Live in a Hovel. 

" '1 would rather spend the rest of my life in a hovel, not 
unlike my past seventeen years as a professional man. giving 
what assistance f could to the comfort of the poor and to those 
who have not had the advantages most of us here present 
have had ; 1 would rather occupy this position, my fellow citi- 
zens, than to have at my command all that wealth could pro- 
cure, and occupv the position in life where I should deny my 
fellowmen the Cod-given right which is due the weak and 

" 'We have accomplished much in the last fifty years, it is 

History of West Virginia 221 


true, hut let u> (.-liter into a new compact as West Virginians 
and stand lor our commonwealth as no other generation o 
l>eoi>le have done. Let us indicate in a friendly manner and 
an economic way what will be mutually beneficial to the citi- 
zenship of our State and to the owners of our natural wealth, 
and call a halt to the transportation of these great natural re- 
sources to other States, where our raw material is now being 
conducted, there to be converted into energy which propels 
the numerous wheels of industry of the manufacturers of fin- 
ished products, some of which are returned to our own State 
and sold to our own citizens. 

" 'Whv not avail ourselves of these advantages and use 
our influence to bring about a unity of feeling and action, to 
induce the manufacturer to establish his business in our own 
commonwealth, which will guarantee to us a greater popu- 
lation and a wider influence.'' 

" 'Let us perpetuate this natural wealth for future genera- 
tions. Let us sav to the manufacturers, we welcome you to 
our midst with your industries. Let us join hands for a united 
effort of industry of the finished product class throughout the 
length and breadth of our State. Why should not this be 
done? Gentlemen, I am willing to contribute liberally to this 
cause, and to make any sacrifice necessary for a greater and 
more glorious commonwealth. 

■" 'Dedicated as she was to liberty and equity, let us not 
forget the le-son of the fathers. .\ concerted effort on our 
part will bring about an awakening, and relieve the unrest and 
smouldering condition which are both visible and audible in 
everv recess throughout our State. 

"Rights are Equal 

"'Everv human being, by divine teaching, is our brother; 
his rights by law arc equal to ours; the liberty and privileges 
of all men should be equal. Some of us. I am sorry to admit, 
have not conceded these principles, or adopted the teachings 
of the fathers as the basic fabric upon which we should stand 
towards our fellowman. It must be so in the future, if we 
are to realize the ambitions and perpetuate the good name that 

222 History of West Virginia 

was left for us by the fathers of fifty years ago. The rights 
of all men are equal ; no race or color, no previous condition 
of servitude can change the rights of men, if the Declaration 
of Independence, with its adopted amendments, is literally 
construed and carried out in letter and in spirit. 

' 'This century is greater than the last. Think of the 
wonderful developments in science and discoveries. The 
promises of the future under the principles of our government 
are indeed encouraging. The avenues of distinction are open 
to all alike. 

1 'There is no class of people that should stand more 
firmly united than the laboring people. 

" 'It is indeed a glorious privilege to have the opportunity 
to celebrate the courage, wisdom and accomplishment of the 
founders of our commonwealth; to intermingle and inculcate 
the spirit of brotherly love, and to impress the lesson of "1 am 
my brother's keeper." to join in the glad shouts of a free- 

Throw Off the Yoke. 

" 'Our ancestors threw off the yoke of oppression of a 
foreign foe from across the Atlantic, where slavery, degrada- 
tion, oppression and taxation without representation was the 
treatment accorded by the oppressors. But our ancestors soon 
forgot their oppressions and objection to slavery. They began 
to enslave others who were the representatives of a weaker 
race of people ; but again there came to the relief of the op- 
pressed a patriotic son of a secluded section of our nation, 
with a parentage and surrounding whose history is in keep- 
ing with the annals of the poor. Lowly and oppressed, his 
keen sense of perception of right and wrong made his ability, 
power and principles arise with such force as has not yet been 
paralleled by any other American. He appeared in the polit- 
ical arena when 'disaster threatened the accomplishments of 
the fathers like Washington, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison. 
Jay and others, and placed his hand upon the entangled condi- 
tion of an almost paralyzed nation, whose dreams of a new 
confederation were the ambitions of some who were selfish 
and full of e'reed. 

History of West Virginia 223 

" 'It was Lincoln who stilled the storm after a long, 
direful struggle between patriots who were always ready to 
shoulder their arms against a foreign foe. It was his fore 
sight and almost superhuman strategy that made possible a 
greater and stronger North American republic. A grand 
nation, commencing at the Atlantic and going to the 1'acilic, 
you will rind a continent of happy homes; 3,000.000 people 
have increased to 10.000.000. 

" "Liberty and labor have been the foundation stone- 
upon which all our accomplishments have been achieved. Let 
us go forward in the great work of the future, imbued witli 
the one principle thai all men have equal rights. 'I he man 
acts well his part who loves his fellowmen the best : who i> 
most willing to help others; who is truest to obligations; has 
the best heart, the most feeling, the deepest sympathy, and 
who freely gives to others the right that he claims for himself. 

" 'Let us join hands for a greater and more glorious com- 
monwealth, and use as our motto, "Liberty, fraternity and 
equity," the three grandest words of all. Liberty gives to 
every man the fruits of his own labor; fraternity, every man 
of right is my brother; equity, the rights of all are equal.' " 

The Banquet. 

An interesting event in connection with the semi-centen- 
nial was the banquet given on the evening of June 20th. It 
was a select affair, as a matter of necessity, from the fact that 
but comparatively few could be accommodated owing to lack 
of room. The arrangements for the event were made by a 
committee headed by Hon. Ceorge A. Laughlin as chairman : 
Ralson E. P.yrum, secretary, and L. I'.. Carney, manager. Tin- 
large hall was appropriately decorated for the occasion by 
Florist Langhans and presented a very pleasing appearance, 
and delightful music was rendered In Meister's orchestra 
Congressman Howard Sutherland, of Flkin-. acted as loa-t- 

Following i> a partial list of those present : 
SPEAKERS' TABLE State Auditor J. S. Dar-4 ; Sena- 
tor O. S. Marshall: Attorney General V \. Lilly: Senator 

~-4 History of West Virginia 

Julian G. Hearne; Rev. Jacob Brittingham ; Judge II. C. 
llervey; Hon. J. W. Dawson; Hon. William P. Hubbard; 
Dr. 1. C. White, State Geologist; Hon. Stuart F. Reed, Secre- 
tary of State; Hon. George M. Shriver, B. & O. R. R. Co.; 
Hon. Henry G. Davis; Hon. George A. Laughlin, chairman 
banquet committee; Hon. Howard O. Sutherland, toastmas- 
ter ; Governor Henry D. Hatfield ; Hon. John W. Mason ; Hon. 
William B. Irvine, president Wheeling Board of Trade; Hon. 
Samuel V. Woods, president State Senate; Mayor H. L. Kirk, 
of Wheeling; H. C. Ogden; Hon. John W. Davis; B. W. 
Peterson ; E. W. Oglebay; H. F. Behrens. 

GUESTS— Richard Robertson, H. S. Martin, Dr. E. A. 
Hildreth. M. L. Brown, J. A. Blum, J. J. Ilolloway, Joseph 
Holloway, W. W. Holloway, O. G. Beans, Harry Clayton, 
Harry C. Hervcv, Howard Sutherland, Washington, D. C. ; 
U. B. Williams. Supt. B. & O. R. R. Co. ; George A. Laughlin, 
Dr. J. M. Callahan, Morgantown ; William P. Hubbard, XV. A. 

B. Dalzell, Moundsville; Samuel V. Woods, H. W. Gee, Prof. 
H. M. Shocker, T. S. Riley, John A. Hess, J. XV. Dawson, 
Charleston ; W. E. Stone, Seaton Alexander, George W. 
Woods, W. B. Irvine, A. E. Schmidt. Russell Irvine, George 
W. Lutz, II. L. Kirk. Mayor; G. O. Nagle, Fred J. Fox, 
W. II. Colvig, W. S. Brady, Jas. W. Ewing, Alexander Glass, 
Randolph Stalnaker, F. L. Committee, Elm Grove: O. S. 
Marshall, New Cumberland; F. B. Xaylor, C. A. Robinson, 
George Heard, Pittsburgh ; A. S. Hare, J. G. Hearne, A. B. 
Paxton, A. F. Brady, John Coleman, George Baird, David 
Kraus. Henry X. Hess, J. C. Brady. J. E. Morgan, C. E. Peters, 

C. E. Lawler. C. X. Handier. D. G. Brown, II. E. Dunlay, 
Peter Bachman, Charles Rachman, Louis Bachman, A. T. 
Sweeney. William A. Hankey, George E. Stifel, H. S. Sands, 
XV. E. Rownd, S. C. Driehorst, A. T. Hupp, Hal Speidcl. R. M. 
Addleman. C. W. Bates, Arch Wilson. W. P. Wilson, J. B. 
Taney, Otto Schenk, C. H. Cop]), Rev. Jacob Brittingham, 
Dr. XV. S. Fulton, H. M. Russell. J. H. Vance, H. C. Franz- 
heim, Ben S. Baer, Eugene Bacr, Elmer Hough, Wellsburg; 
T. B. Sweeney, John II. Clark. A. G. Martin. Fairmont : F. F. 
Faris, George Grieg. Baird Mitchell, George E. House, A. W. 
Paull. Samuel W. Hartman. L. E. Sands. C. W. Jeffers. Robert 

History of West Virginia 225 

L. Boyd. Dr. J. L. Dickey, C. B. I";n Iur, 11. \Y. Peterson. S. 
Bruce Hall. Xew Martinsville : Frederick Gotlicb. Baltimore: 
H. G. Bills. .Maj. J. G. l'angborn. 11. !•". Bchrens. Jr., Kdgcrion 
Vance, A. I". L'lrich. W. K. Kcvscr, luhvin W. Spcare. LIo\d 
Eneix, II. X. Ogdcn, Capt, C. M. Leery. U. S. A. (2); A. C. 
Whilaker, R. A. Goshorn. Pittsburgh ; Dr. S. L. Jcpsoii, 
Robert llazlett. F. L. Ferguson. R. \i. Byrum, George W. 
Eckhart. Edward Wagner. W. G. Cramer (State Commis- 
sion 25). 

Short Talk by H. G. Davis. 

Flowing oratory followed the more than liberal menu, 
and all those present spent an enjoyable evening long to be 

The first speaker introduced by the toastmaster was the 
Hon. Henry G. Davis, who, as president of the Semi-Centen- 
nial Celebration, had made the opening address during the 
day. Mr. Davis spoke briefly, but in a happy, reminiscent 
mood. He paid a graceful compliment to the Wheeling people 
for the energetic part which the}- had taken in the consumma- 
tion of the successful celebration just closed, and on behalf of 
the State Semi-Centennial Commission he thanked the citizens 
for their efforts which had contributed so largely in success- 
full)- carrying out the celebration. The speaker also paid his 
respects to the toastmaster. Mr. Sutherland, and to Mr. 
Shriver, of the Baltimore ec Ohio Railroad. 

Governor Hatfield. 

Governor Hatfield was next called upon for a speech and 
responded by delivering a short but eloquent address. 

Judge Mason. 

Governor Hatfield was followed by Judge Mason, of 
Fairmont, a member of the State Semi-Centennial Commis- 
sion, whose remarks were brief and along a humorous vein. 
He spoke, in part, as follows: 

"Wheeling is a great city, and you'll have to admit it. 

226 History of West Virginia 

Air. Mayor. I have no respect for men who are continuously 
knocking their own State, city or county. I'll tell you my 
creed: I believe this is the best world in God's universe; I 
believe that this is the best hemisphere of the world ; I believe 
that America is the best part of this hemisphere; that North 
America is the best part of America, and that the United 
States is the best country in North America. I believe that 
West Virginia is the best State in the United States; I even 
go farther: I believe that Marion County is the best county 
in West Virginia; that Fairmont is the best city in Marion 
County, and that the First ward, where I live, is the best ward 
in Fairmont." 

Among those seated at a special table provided for rail- 
road officials of the Baltimore «S: Ohio Railroad Company 
were: George M. Shrivcr, second vice-president; Major J. G. 
Pahnborn, assistant to President Willard ; J. F. Campbell, 
O. C. Murray and \Y. E. Lowes, assistants to the president; 
Major Randolph Stalnaker, special agent, and U. B. Williams, 
general manager of the Wheeling Division. 

The next speaker introduced by the toastmaster was Mr. 
George M. Shriver, second vice-president of the B. & O. In 
his preliminary remarks Air. Shriver referred to the fact that 
this year also commemorates the sixtieth anniversary of the 
entering of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad into Wheeling, 
and quoted parts of addresses made by prominent railroad 
officials at a banquet held in Wheeling at that time to cele- 
brate the important occasion. Air. Shriver also exhibited the 
trowel which was used by Charles Carroll of Carrollton in the 
laying of the first stone of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad July 
4, 1828. Mr. Shriver's speech was, in part, as follows: 

"I rise with a mingled sense of regret and pleasure; re- 
gret that, because of important matters detaining him in the 
east, our president, Mr. Willard, has been denied the privilege 
of being with you ; and pleasure, because it has been my good 
fortune to participate in this most interesting occasion and to 
enjoy your hospitality, which has been of such warmth and 
character as to demonstrate the close affiliation of the cities 
of Wheeling and Baltimore — fostered, we like to believe, by 
the bands of steel which the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad com- 

History of West Virginia 117 

pletcd between them in 1853; and the current of traffic which 
then commenced lias continued and expanded, and we hope 
is yet only in its infancy. 

"While Wheeling has thus pleasantly engaged one's 
thoughts, it has not been to the exclusion of the feature of 
the memorable occasion — the semi-centennial of the great 
State of West Virginia, great not only in that nature ha* run 
riot in her almost unlimited gifts of timber, coal, ore and 
minerals of every description, but in that her citizens have 
undertaken the development and utilization of these vast 
natural gifts in such an intelligent and energetic manner that 
this State bids fair to be — indeed, is in the van of manufac- 
turing and commercial enterprise. 

"That the State and city are not unmindful of the fact 
that transportation has and must continue to play an impor- 
tant part in this development, coincident with the celebration 
of your State's semi-centennial, you celebrate an important 
event which occurred here ten years earlier — the entrance of 
the first train in your city over the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. 

"Possibly no one factor played a more important part, 
not onlv in the upbuilding of the city of Wheeling, but in the 
very founding of the State, than the control and facility of 
transportation in this section by navigable rivers as well as 
railroads, which assured the success of the undertaking of an 
independent State. 

"Wheeling a Center. 

"Today Wheeling is near the center of. and a radiating 
point for, the lines of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad system. 
which aggregate 5.400 miles: and the company's property 
investment account is over $512,000,000. Its equipment now 
consists of 2.35S locomotives, 1.359 passenger cars and over 
90.000 freight cars. 

"Surrounded as she is with a van body of excellent fuel — 
the surface of which is scarcely scratched — Wheeling has 
already demonstrated that manufacturing sagacity which, 
with her high commercial integrity, has secured her a notable 
position in the country's manufacturing communities, and the 

■28 History of West Virginia 

Baltimore & Ohio takes this occasion to assure you of its earn- 
est desire to co-operate in every way possible for the continued 
welfare and advancement of this city and State. 

"No less than sixty million dollars have been spent for 
this purpose in the last three years — a large portion of this 
sum on the lines and for equipment, particularly for the devel- 
opment of the traffic from West Virginia, which has been 
growing in leaps and bounds. 

"Large Coal Shipments. 

"The coal tonnage alone from this State in the past year 
via the Baltimore & Ohio lines exceeded twelve million tons. 

"How the railroads are to continue in the future to sup- 
ply the facilities for the constantly increasing demands of 
traffic, is the problem that confronts their managements and 
the shippers alike today. 

"Sufficient facilities can only be furnished by r large addi- 
tional expenditures; and, in face of the present lack of ade- 
quate return, it is going to be more and more difficult to se- 
cure the necessary means for expansion. 

"While it has been generally recognized that, through in- 
creased rates of pay, increased costs of material, legislation 
and taxation, inroads have been made upon the net return-3 of 
railroads, I doubt if even few realize how serious these inroads 
have been. 

"From 1907 to 1911 the property investment account of 
the railroads of the United States increased $2,044,000,000, at 
the same time the net operating income for 1911 showed a 
decrease of $8,787,000; while the net return on property in- 
vestment in 1907 was 5.83 per cent.; in 1911 it was only 4.97 
per cent. 

"Taking the figures of the Baltimore & Ohio between the 
years 1910 and 1913, this company spent for additions and 
betterments and equipment something over $51,000,000. Its 
gross earnings increased over $10,000,000. while the net earn- 
ings showed a decrease of $1,300,000. In other words, after 
adding $10,000,000 to the business: after spending $51,000,000 

History of West Virginia 


for additional plant, the company will have actual]} $1,31)0.000 
less return than it did before these expenditure- were made. 

"The public is demanding, and I belies e deserving, the 
higher class of transportation service, liven so. it is not all 
that the railroad managements would like to give; but more 
and better service can only be assured through reasonable re- 
turn for that performed, avoidance of imposition oi unneces- 
sarv expense, and by thorough co-operation between the rail- 
roads and the shippers to utilize to the best advantage the 
existing facilities. 

"That this mutuality of interest is becoming more and 
more appreciated is evidenced by the marked change in the 
attitude of the public as reflected through the press and other- 
wise, towards the railroad question. 

"In any event, it will be the aim and desire of the man- 
agement of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company to so 
proceed as to at all times justify the co-operation and support 
of the citizens of the city of Wheeling and of the State of \\ est 

Major Pahnborn, who has been connected with the B. & 
O. for about thirty-three years, followed Mr. Shriver with but 
a brief but interesting account of the early history of the road 
which he represents. 

The next speaker introduced was the Hon. John \\ . 
Davis, of Clarksburg, recent congressman from the First Dis- 
trict, but since appointed to the important position of Attorney 
Ceneral of the United States. . 

Mr. Davis" speech, though brief, measured up to his usual 
high standard of eloquence. He portrayed in his optimistic 
way the bright future in store for our Little Mountain State 
in such glowing terms that every West Virginian present 
could not be otherwise than glad that he was a citizen 

Hon. Samuel V. Woods, president of the State Senate, 
was profuse in his thanks to the people of Wheeling for their 
generous hospitality on this occasion and was glad of the 
privilege of being present to participate in the celebration. 
He prophesied that the time was not far distant when Wheel- 
in" Creek will be converted into a great -ewer by use of 

230 History of West Virginia 

material taken from the surrounding hills, thus reducing the 
latter and converting the former into a boulevard, ornamented 
with beautiful trees and parks. Mr. Woods' suggestion, if 
carried out, would not only improve sanitary conditions in 
Wheeling, but would add greatly to the nice appearance of 
the city. 

Mr. H. C. Ogden and the Hon. William P. Hubbard made 
the closing speeches in the order named, the remarks of each 
being very interesting as well as instructive. 

The writer regrets that lack of space prevents the record- 
ing here in full all that was said by the several able speakers 
on this memorable occasion. 


West Union, the seat of justice of Doddridge County, 
was incorporated in March, 1850. It is located on Middle 
Island Creek, on the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, fifty miles 
from Grafton and fifty-four miles from Parkersburg. The 
county was formed February 4, 1845, from parts of Harrison, 
Tyler, Ritchie and Lewis, and was named in honor of Philip 
Doddridge, a distinguished lawyer and once a member of 

The population of West Union in 1890 was 312; in 1900. 
623; in 1910, 779, and at the present time (1914) about 825. 

City Officials. 

George W. Howard, Mayor; J. L. McConnick, Recorder; 
J. E. Trainer, George W. Twiford, J. M. Martin, S. L. McClain 
and B. H. Maulsby, Councilmen. 


Methodist Episcopal, Rev. John T. Hickman, pastor. 
Baptist. Rev. J. D. Runkle, pastor. 
United Brethren, Rev. K. H. Mayers, pastor. 
Church of Christ. Rev. J. F. Belleville, pastor. 
Catholic, Rev. Father Kennedy, pastor. 

History of West Virginia 


West Union Record, Walter Stuart, editor. 
Doddridge Republican, II. II. Shinn, editor. 
West Union Herald. L. R. Charter, Jr., editor. 


Doddridge County Bank— J. M. Cribble, President; J. 1). 
Mc Reynolds, Vice-President; L. R. Charter. Jr., Cashier; Ira 
E. Smith, Asst. Cashier. 

West Union Bank— W. Brent Maxwell, President; W. S. 
Stewart. Vice-President: S. \V. l.angfitt, Cashier, J. A. I.ang- 
fitt, Asst. Cashier. 

First National — J. E. Trainer, President; W, J. Traugh, 
Vice-President; W. H. McElhanev, Cashier; J. A. Freeman, 
Asst. Cashier. 

West Union has two glass factories, four groceries, two 
clothing stores, one wholesale grocery and one wholesale 
hardware store, two general stores, one ladies' and gents' 
furnishing store, one fruit store, one confectionery, two drug 
stores, two millinery stores. 

On March 30. 1914. the people of West Union will vote 
on the question of a bond issue for the purpose of raising 
money with which to defray the expense of street paving and 
repairing water works and sewers. 

West Union Faculty. 

HIGH SCHOOL— Florence Charter. Principal; E. S. 
Cardozo. Language; L. W. Orcutt, History and Mathematics; 
Dolores Hickman. Music and Drawing. 

GRADES — jasper P. Bond, Dolores Cleavenger, Ague* 
Sevcrcn, Chcsna Iris Jones. Goldic Davis, Lillic Hammond. 

DOE RUN SCHOOL— Aubrey Hcflin. 

WABASH SCHOOL— Katherine Smith. 

232 History of West Virginia 


In 1817, when Lewis Count}- was carved out of Harrison, 
the place where Weston now stands was practically a wilder- 
ness. There were some cleared spots here and there in the 
vicinity, but settlements were few and far between. Henry 
Flesher owned the land on both sides of the river, and when 
a village commenced to form on the present site of Weston, 
it was called Flesherville. The first county court was held 
at West Field, five miles from Flesherville. A short time 
afterward Lewis Maxwell. Flias Lowther and John McCov 
were appointed commissioners by the county court to select 
a new site for the county seat, and Flesherville was selected, 
and the ground upon which the present court house and jail 
stands was purchased from Henry Flesher for the sum of 
$300.00. The name of the village was then changed to Pres- 
ton, in honor of James Preston, who was once governor of 
Virginia. Then, in 1835, the name of the place was changed 
to Weston, and on January 14, 1846, it became an incorporated 

The West Virginia State Hospital for the Insane was 
opened to patients in 1864. Dr. James A. Hill was appointed 
the first superintendent of the institution October 3. 1863. 
(For description of grounds and buildings see chapter on 
"Public Buildings.") 

Weston, having been somewhat isolated at the time of 
the Civil War, was not bothered much by army invasions. 
Brigadier General William S. Rosecrans. of the Union Army, 
passed through the town on his way to the Ohio River, but 
no one was seriously molested by his troops. 

Rev. Talbott organized the First Methodist Fpiscopal 
Church at Weston in 1830; the Episcopalians followed in 
1846; the Roman Catholics, under Father Grogan, in 1848; 
the Presbvterians in 1868, and the Methodists in 1880. 

The West Virginia ec Pittsburgh Railroad (now a part 
of the B. & O. system) reached Weston from Clarksburg 
about 18/0, and was extended on through to Richwood and 
Sutton, and another line was built to Buckhannon and 
Pickens. The Coal & Coke Railroad now runs from Flkins 

History of West Virginia 2.xi 

to Charleston. crossing the R. N O. at Orlando, 21 miles west 
of Weston, and placing the county seat of Lewis within I 2'> 
miles of the State capital. 

The population of Weston in 1S''0 wa- 2.1 to and in \')\0 
it was 2. 213 — an increase of only seventy in twenty \ears. 
But the next census will tell a different story, for the reason 
that that sleepy old town has awakened from its long Rip \ an 
Winkle repose and its people are "doing things." 

An electric road has been completed from Clark-burg 
to Weston. The city has a splendid system of paved streets, 
excellent sewerage, the best of lights both gas and electric— 
and no bonded indebtedness. 

Weston has three newspapers of general circulation. The 
Democrat, which is the oldest paper in the county, is edited 
and published by J. II. Edwards. The Record was succeeded 
by The Republican in January. 1907. It is edited by David 
Snider. The Independent, edited by R. Ad. Hall, was estab- 
lished in 1894. 

For want of space we cannot give much detailed informa- 
tion concerning the many business houses and the various 
things that go to make up a hustling little city. We will, 
therefore, simply say that Weston has a splendid high school, 
numerous churches, lour banks, several hotels and rcstau 
rants, large electric power and light plant, cheap gas and 
plenty of it. three planing mills, one flouring mill, stores of 
all kinds— wholesale and retail, opera house, foundry, steam 
laundry, ice plant and bottling works, two glass factories, 
beautiful homes, and a prosperous, sociable, happy people. 


Following is a list of names composing the school faculty 
of Weston : 

Frank R. Yoke. Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL Robert J. Kraus, principal: Robert K. 
Quirk. Hal ford Hoskins, Edna Arnold. Susan Smith. Helen 
Dalyrymple. and J. V. Everett, teachers. 

CENTRAL BUILDING W. B. Linger, principal: 

234 History of West Virginia 

Vesta Mick, James Kemper, George Harris, Mona Linger, 
Julia Whelan, Mary McCray, Florence Hale, Rose Troxell, 
Xora Gillooly, Phoebe Mitchell, May Atkins, Marguerite Hale, 
Anna Smith, Elizabeth Hays, Mamie Rombach, Mar)- Owens, 
and Mary Locke, teachers. 

POLK CREEK— Nellie Bailey and Nclle Arnold. 

KITTONYILLE— Mamie Ramsberg and Merrill. 

SHADYBROOK— Minor Hurst and Audra Beach. 

HALEVILLE- William Henry and Belle Lynch. 


School term, 8 months, 1913-14. Total enrollment, 1156. 


Welch, the county seat of McDowell County, is located 
on Tug River and the Norfolk & Western Railroad. It is a 
rapidly growing town, the population in 1900 being only 442, 
while in 1910 it had increased to 1,526, and is now about 2,000. 

The county was formed in 1S58 from part of Tazewell, 
the principal industry being coal mining, in which commodity 
it ranks among the first of the counties of the State. This in- 
dustry affords Welch's greatest source of revenue. In addi- 
tion to this, however, are several manufacturing establish- 
ments, the most important of which are the Welch Ice and 
Cold Storage Co., Welch Lumber Co. and Welch Bottling 


McDowell County National Bank — I. T. Mann, President, 
and 1. J. Rhodes, Cashier. 

First National Bank — D. J. F. Strother, President, and 
B. O. Swope, Cashier. 

The McDowell Recorder, edited by J. J. Swope, supplies 
the people of the county with the current news. 

There are about twenty-seven wholesale and retail estab- 
lishments in the town. 

"The Stag." "The Elkhorn" and "Tug River" are the lead- 
ins: hotels. 

History of West Virginia 

The streets arc being paved as last as the town's finance- 
will permit, there now being about one mile completed. 


Presbyterian, J. II. Visor, pastor. 
ZMclhodist, T. J. Hants, pastor. 

Town Officials. 

S. A. Daniels. Mayor; C. B. Early. Recorder: \V. C. 
Mitchell. Sergeant; J. H. Hunt. Chief of Police; I. Hunt, 
Policeman; B. X. Clay. \Y. I. Sperry, \Y. E. Eubanks. C. 1). 
Brewster, and M. O. Letz. Councilman. 

Welch School Faculty. 

HIGH SCHOOL G. E. Rhodes. Principal: H. J. Cross- 
man. Math, and Science: Nellie Cline. Eng. and llist.; Mahala 
Crummett, German and Latin. 

LINCOLN SCHOOL -Martha Edwards. Principal: 
Blanche Hutchinson, Miss Rhodes, Meria Cook. Margaret 
Johnson, Mollie Bowyer. and Anna Bibb, teachers. 

HEMPHILL SCHOOL— Giles Fink, McKcn- 

zie and Yaughan. teachers. 

COLORED SCHOOL — Nathaniel Wiley and Phoebe 
Grimes, teachers. 


Mingo County was detached from Logan Count} in 1S')5 
and Williamson became the county seat. That was practically 
the beginning of the town. The ground on which the town 
is located was owned by a family by name of Williamson 
the parents of Mr. Wallace J. Williamson, who is now the 
last surviving member of the family. Mr. Williamson is a 
man of extraordinary ability a- a business man and it is prin- 
cipally due to his untiring energy and foresight that Mingo'- 

230 History of West Virginia 

county seat is among the leading "live wire" towns of south- 
ern West Virginia. 

Williamson, in 1910, had a population of 3.561, and has 
now (January, 1914) about 4,000 people. 

The principal industry of the community is coal mining, 
there being about ten different companies operating within a 
radius of five miles of the town, having an aggregate capacity 
of about 5.000 tons of coal per day. Most of these mines were 
started since the panic in 1907. Just outside the five-mile 
radius are twenty other tipples, having an aggregate capacity 
of about 15,000 tons per day, all of which is assembled and 
shipped from the large Norfolk & Western Railroad yards at 
Williamson. These yards have over 100 miles of trackage. 
This was two years ago, and no doubt the coal business at 
that point has greatly increased since that time. 

East Williamson is the railroad section of the town. 
South Williamson is an extension of Williamson, on the Ken- 
tucky side of Tug River, the two sections being connected by 
a magnificent bridge. 

The Mingo County Bank and The First National Bank 
are prosperous institutions. 

The Mingo Lime & Lumber Company, the W. A. Harris 
Planing & Lumber Company, and the City Electric & Ice 
Plant are the principal manufacturing establishments. 

XV. M. Bronson, furniture dealer, The H. Beall Hardware 
Company, The Hurst Hardware Company, Williamson 
Wholesale Grocery Company. J. Levinc's Big Department 
Store; 1. Stecklor's Tailoring Display, L. S. Spaulding Jewelry 
Store, John E. Williams Grocen Co., Strosnider-Jenkins 
Drug Co., Oliver Music Store, Goff & Warnick, general mer- 
chandise, Randolph oc Mittendorf Jewelry Store, Lloyd Alley's 
Meat Market are all doing a nice business in their respect- 
ive lines. 

The city building is a neat two-story stone structure. 

The Williamson high school building is a splendid struc- 
ture and speaks well for the progressive spirit of the people 
of the town and district. 

The Williamson Enterprise and The West Virginian are 
wide-awake newspapers and deserve a liberal patronage. 

History of West Virginia 2.v 

One of the finest buildings in William-on is the Railroad 
Y. M. C. A. 

The Yaughan and The Stratton are the two principal 
hotels of the town. 

The members of Williamson's Board of Trade are all 
"live wires". If you are "from Missouri" go to Williamson 
and they will "show \ou". 

The Presbyterian, Baptist and M. L\ Church South arc 
line edifices and have large congregations. 

As a place of diversion from toil and business cares 
during the hot summer months, there is no place more enjoyed 
by the citizens of Williamson than is their beautiful River- 
view Park. 

Faculty Williamson's Schools. 

C. R. Murray, Superintendent. 

HIGH SCHOOL— A. C. Davis, principal: May Wise. 
Mauds Hansford. Minnie Garst. Bess E. Wilson, and Roy C. 
Garrett, teachers. 

MAIN" BUILDING— Mary Armstrong, Nannie Dixon, 
Vine Stratton, Daisy Robinson, Elva Ward, llattie Graham, 
Tennie Livingston, Ina Barnes, and Zula Da\isson. teachers. 

EAST WILLIAMSON— A. J. Peters, principal: Daisy 
Robinson and Agnes Roche, teachers. 

SPECIAL TEACHERS— Helen Anderson and Kath- 
erine Mason. 

COLORED SCHOOL— L. D. Lawson. teacher. 

School term 1913-14, 9 months. Total enrollment, S3S. 

238 History of West Virginia 




Speeches by John S. Carlisle and Chapman J. Stuart on a 
Division of the State, Delivered in the Second Convention 
of the People of Northwestern Virginia, at Wheeling, 
Virginia, August 8, 1861 — Third Day of the Adjourned 

Mr. Carlisle said : 

"Mr. President: — This convention will at least accord me 
sincerity of purpose and honesty of motive in advocating the 
adoption of these resolutions at this time. The Legislature, 
to whom I am greatly indebted, have conferred upon rac a 
position worthy the ambition of an}- man. I am secure in that 
position at least for four years to come if things continue here 
as they are. None but the body of which I am a member can 
deprive me of my place, except action such as I propose. 
If the convention shall adopt the resolutions, and a separate 
State shall be formed, the instant it is formed I cease to be a 
member of the Senate, and the representatives of the new 
State will select my successor. Therefore there can be no 
ambitions, personal or pecuniary influences, operating on my 
mind when I seek to obtain the object contemplated by the 
resolutions; but, sir, it has been the cherished object of my 
life; and I would be worse than ungrateful if I could at an 
hour like this, forget a people who have been engaged ever 
since my residence among them in showering upon me all the 
honors within their gift. 

"There are considerations weighing upon my mind, Mr. 
President, which induce me to believe that the time has 
arrived now when we shall act. If we were at peace, if our 
people were not engaged in a struggle to obtain the govern- 

History of West Virginia 2.V) 

ment of our fathers, the natural barriers that separate the 
people inhabiting the region of country embraced in the reso- 
lutions make it, in my opinion, to their interest that they 
should no longer continue a connection which has been 
nothing hut prejudicial to them ever since it began. The 
channels of trade, business and commercial relations of the 
counties named in the resolutions 1 ha\ e offered, have been 
everywhere else than with the rest and residue of the State- 
in which wc live. All the feelings that operate upon men — 
the kindest feelings of my nature — the love I have for home, 
the scenes of my childhood, the place of my nativity, have all 
struggled with my sense of duty in this matter. Sir. if we 
act as I propose, 1 shall be separated by line, an imaginary 
line it is true, but yet a State line, from the county of my 
nativity and the home of my birth. Hut the counties 1 have 
designated have no facilities, either of land or water, for any 
commercial or business intercourse with the rest of the State. 
We must seek an outlet for our products elsewhere. We must 
look for our markets in Maryland. Ohio. Pennsylvania and 
Kentucky. We never can— nature has fixed it and made it 
impossible— we never can have business relations with the 
rest of the State. The southwestern part has its railroads, 
turnpikes, and canals penetrating through its valleys and 
mountains and leading to the capital of the State. The centre 
of the valley, the county of Frederick, my native county, has 
its public improvements reaching to Alexandria and Rich- 
mond, affording to them an outlet. Hence, they are not inter- 
ested as we are, as are the counties mentioned, in commercial 
relations with other States, and they are not compelled by 
force of circumstances which cannot be overcome, as we are. 
to seek a market for their produce and a channel for their 
industrial interests in other neighboring States. Therefore, 
as a mere material question in time of peace, it is the interest 
of the people inhabiting these counties to separate themselves 
from the rest of the State, and organize a separate State 
government of their own. 

'"But then, sir. there are other considerations now. We 
have entered upon a war such as heaven and earth never saw 
before, and such as I trust in Cod never will be witnessed 

240 History of West Virginia 

again. What is to be its end nobody knows; no man can tell. 
And what, when peace shall at last come, with a tired and op- 
pressed people, ground down by taxation and oppression, 
legitimate and natural consequences of war — what considera- 
tion would they bestow, the 28,000,000 of people, when com- 
ing upon terms and ratifying and concluding a peace, upon 
the 308,000 people who inhabit the counties set forth in the 
resolution? Mow long would they let that people stand in 
the way of a settlement at the termination of this war? It is 
a question I throw out as a suggestion to be revolved by gen- 
tlemen in their minds when they rest upon their pillows. God 
grant that a separation of these States never may take place! 
I hope it never may; and as it depends on my action, it never 
shall. But, sir, 1 am but a grain of sand on the sea shore; 
and you are but a grain of sand, and we are all but grains of 
sand on the shore of our country's destiny. It is a duty we 
owe to the people who have confided all their interests to 
guard and protect them against every possible contingency; 
and while I admit with you that it is improbable that this war 
shall ever be terminated in any other way than by maintain- 
ing the integrity of the Union, and the supremacy of its laws, 
yet you must admit with me that there is a possibility of its 
terminating in some other mode. I, therefore, feel it incum- 
bent upon me as one of the representatives of a people who 
have ably sustained me upon any and all occasions to guard 
them against a possibility of injury. Looking at that possi- 
bility — and it is a possibility — where, in case of a settlement, 
if we remain inactive, would we go? Where would we be? 
Then if we act and that possibility does not take place, we 
are, where you and I and our people wish us to be — discon- 
nected from the rest of the State, the connection being an 
unnatural one, in contravention to the laws of nature. Ever 
since you and I have known anything of the workings of the 
connection it has been prejudicial and to our injury, under 
any circumstances, in any point of view, in which I have asked 
you to look at this question. My opinions, formed years ago, 
in a time of profound peace, have been strengthened by every 
day's experience. It will be remembered by the members of 
this convention that in our last meeting in |une, while I was 

History of West Virginia 2l! 

then behind some of my friends in this movement, and while 
] was pointed at as having abandoned what I had uttered be 
lore, in the former convention*, as the matured conviction* of 
my mind, I pledged gentlemen that if they would wait until 
their purpose really could be accomplished, that then we had 
no recognition, no Legislature known to the Federal authori- 
ties as such, that then we had no Legislature that could give 
us the assent provided for and required by the constitution 
to be given to a separation — but that the moment we had a 
Legislature, recognized as such, speaking in the name of the 
State, who*c assent should go to the Congress of the United 
States admits us as a new State? Surely not; surely not ! On 
lature. then 1 promised you, gentlemn, I would go with you 
at the earliest possible moment for this division. I am here 
to redeem that pledge today. 

"It is argued, Mr. President, by some that action of this 
kind will not be taken in favor by the Federal government : 
that it may embarrass it in its present operations. Will any 
gentleman tell me how? If it is regarded with disfavor by 
the Congress of the United States, the war-making power, the 
power that must supply the means to carry on this war, the 
power that must be used to assert the supremacy of the laws 
and maintain the integrity of the Union, they will refuse our 
admission into the Union, deny their consent : and there is an 
end of it. and we are no worse off for having made the effort. 

"It is said by some that we ought to aid the government 
in extending a loyal government over the rest and residue 
of the State. Does this interfere with this provisional gov- 
ernment we have inaugurated here, the government of the 
State of Virginia, as fast as the arms of the Union sweep se- 
cession before them, and when the Congress of the United 
States and be respected as the assent of a constitutional Legis- 
the contrary, it will have a most happy effect on the Fed- 
eral government, by showing to them the importance ol ex- 
tending their military operations in other parts of the Com- 
monwealth, whenever they are in a condition to do it. Hut 
is there a gentleman here that for one moment *upposcs that 
if the armies of the United States have not swept secession 
out of the State and relieved the loval citizen* of the State 

242 History of West Virginia 

by December next, will they ever do it? How long, gentle- 
men, do you propose to remain as you are? How long is the 
government to be employed in relieving from the evils of seces- 
sion, and the destruction that rebellion brings upon the coun- 
try, the people of this one State? If it takes a longer period 
than the meeting of next Congress in December to sweep 
rebellion out of our State, how long will it take to sweep it 
out of all the rebellious States? Sir, when is this war to end? 
We happen to know that the only hope of East Tennessee 
as to relieving her people is in their organizing a separate 
and independent State government for the loyal portion of 
that Commonwealth. And we do happen to know that the 
government does regard with favor the effort that is to be 
made there as soon as the advancing columns of the Federal 
army shall march into that region of country and enable its 
loyal citizens to perform this deed. 

"But, sir, it is said that our boundaries are not sufficiently 
large. I avoided, intentionally avoided, in drawing up these 
resolutions, including within the limits of this new State a 
single county which I do not believe, by a large majority of 
its people, would desire to be a part and parcel of it, except 
two. There are two counties named above in which I have the 
slightest doubt as to the sentiments of their people, and they 
are so situated that it is absolutely essential that they shall 
belong to us; and a necessity for their belonging to us justi- 
fies their being included within our limits. Their interests, 
like ours, are identified with those of other States and the 
State of Virginia. The great thoroughfare between this and 
the Atlantic passes through them, and we never can, we never 
ought, it would be unjust to them and to us, to allow that 
territory to be included within the limits of an}' other State. 

"Then it is said that we have friends from Fairfax and 
Alexandria who would like to go with us. One of the reso- 
lutions secures you the way. If Alexandria and Loudon 
desire, let their people speak, and an ordinance of this con- 
vention will provide for their admission. Rut, sir, there is a 
bill now introduced into the Senate of the United States, and 
for which I intend to vote unless otherwise instructed by the 
gentlemen who have honored me with a place there, declaring 

History of West Virginia 2ki 

the law ceding Alexandria County to the Mate of \ irginia 
unconstitutional and a nullity, and pnniding fur its return 
to the District of Columbia. This is but in compliance with 
my own views, expressed on the lloor of the Senate of Vir- 
ginia some years ago when the question of admission of a 
delegate in the House was determined favorably under the 
retrocession of Alexandria County. 1 introduced resolutions 
into the Senate then which would have excluded him, and 
denying the constitutionality of the act : but it was the first 
winter of my legislative experience, and I was prevailed upon 
to let the go-by be given to them. 1 have no doubt, and ha\e 
always believed, that this District was selected by the Father 
of His Country with a view to placing the capital beyond the 
reach of anv ordinary military assault; and the possession <>i 
Alexandria County is necessary today to put Washington in 
a state of proper military defense. 1 think the instant the 
territory was ceded by Maryland and Virginia, all the powers 
they had they conferred upon Congress, under the constitu- 
tion to exercise exclusive legislative jurisdiction to legislate 
for the people within the prescribed limit. 

"Thus it seems to me that the initiation of proceedings 
now by this convention, none of them being of binding 
effect, none of them affecting at all our political status, none 
of them affecting in the slightest degree our relation cither to 
the State or Union, until they have been assented to by the 
Legislature, which does not meet until December, and until 
our admission into the Union by Congress, which does not 
convene until December — none of them affecting at all our 
relations either to the rest of the State or of our own State, 
as a people — I cannot for the life of me see how the voice of 
the people, which comes up to us in tones not to be misunder- 
stood, dare be disregarded by members of this body : and why 
anv effort should be made to procrastinate and delay action 
in the face of the circumstances that surround us. where ny 
possibilitv procrastination may be death. Xo man is author- 
ized to sav what the Government of the United States will d<>. 
or will not do. We have nothing to do with any part of that 
government save the legislative department, when to Con- 
gress, and to Congress alone, is committed by the constitution 

244 History of West Virginia 

the right to determine whether we shall be admitted or not. 
1 care not what other departments of the government may 
think of this question. 

"But, then, we have been compelled to ask that the forces 
of the government be sent on here to protect ns, and they 
might take them away. Sir, how can they desert us, how dare 
they desert us, when the instant they desert us they desert 
the Union? Virginia is to be the battle field. This is to lie 
the battle ground. Here is where the question of supremacy 
of the laws is to be decided. Sweep out Unionism from this 
portion of Virginia, and secession has nothing to do but to 
march from the southwest corner of the State into East Ten- 
nessee, inaugurate rebellion in Kentucky, and the Southern 
Confederacy is a fixed fact. Then the administration dare not 
desert us in this hour; and we are powerless in our present 
condition to aid the administration. Y\ "here would we have 
been had it not been for the United States military force that 
was sent into our midst? So impressed was I and the rest 
of the members of the Central Committee, that there must 
be no delay, and the opinion that longer delay would find us 
in the power of the secessionists, that they started me on the 
23rd of May, to urge these facts upon the attention of the 
administration. On the next day after I arrived at Washing- 
ton, the telegraph bore the order to General McClellan to 
move. They cannot desert us, whatever thier opinions may 
be. Thev cannot leave us at this hour, as bondsmen of the 
field sold to those who have engaged in this effort to destroy 
our republican institutions. There is no just or well-founded 
apprehension of this that any member of this body can reason- 
ably entertain. 

"But there is another objection. It is said that the Legis- 
lature at its late session refused its assent to a separation. 
According to the constitution, sir, I think they had no right, 
or at least there was no necessity, for their giving their assent 
at this time. The assent of Congress to the admission of a 
State into the Union is never given until after the application 
has been made. I say never, as a general rule. When a 
Territory seeks admission into the Union as a new State, it 
seeks it after it has assembled its convention, framed a con- 

History of West Virginia 21? 

slitulion and elected officers under it. Then it presents its 
application, accompanied by its constitution, to the Congress 
ol" the United States, and then Congress acts on the applica- 
tion. Xo previous assent is necessary. Call to mind the 
action of the Senate of the United States upon the proposition 
urged with so much ability and zeal by the late lamented 
Senator from Illinois (Mr. Douglas) in relation to the Kansas 
question. He desired to introduce a rule that should operate 
on all future Territories asking admission into the Union, 
that the consent should not be had after the organization of 
the Territory into a State by the adoption of a constitution 
and the election of officers, but that Congress should, prior to 
any action taken by their people, pass what he was pleased 
to call an 'enabling act'. Hut, sir. the project fell still-born 
from the author. It has never been the practice of this gov- 
ernment before then or since, to act on the application of a 
State for admission, until the people of the proposed new 
Slate acted themselves, and transmitted to Congress with 
their application their constitution. Why? Because one of 
the requirements of the constitution is that the Slate to be 
admitted into the Union must have a republican form of gov- 
ernment. And how could Congress give its assent to the 
admission of a State without having before it the constitution 
of the State to enable the members to judge of the form of 
government proposed for the new State to see whether it 
is such a constitution and form of government as the consti- 
tution requires and demands it to lie.' 

"Thus the consent of Congress must come afterwards. 
There is. sir, the same propriety that the assent of the Legis- 
lature should come after the act of the people- the Legislature 
giving its assent to the organization of a government to be 
thereafter formed! The Legislature giving its assent to the 
separation of a people, from the State in which they have here- 
tofore lived, before an official sensr of that people has come 
up to them desiring a separation! There was an obvious 
propriety, in ray humble opinion, in the Legislature refusing 
at its last session this assent. While 1. if I had been a 
member of the body, might have voted for it. >'or the i ur- 
pose of hurrying this thing on. and while it micht have been 

246 History of West Virginia 

repealed at its very next session, after the vote of the people 
had been taken upon the constitution, and might have been 
held for naught, yet I say, entertaining the convictions that 
I do, that three-fourths of the people within this boundary 
desire a new State, I might have been the foremost of those 
who desired the Legislature to give its assent. Hut it would 
not have been worth that (a snap of the finger), liable to be 
repealed, taken back, at the very next meeting of the Legis- 
lature, and probably upon the formation of a form of govern- 
ment and of a return of the sense of the people, circumstances 
could have shown an obvious propriety in withholding the 

"What is the language of the constitution on this subject? 
Will my friend from Marion find in this constitution the 
language I desire to quote?" 

Mr. Smith — "With pleasure." 

Air. Carlisle — "Then, sir, there is another consideration. In 
times like these, when all the energies of the people are taxed 
for the great purpose of aiding the government in its efforts 
to crush rebellion, we should harass our people as little as 
possible with the expenses to be incurred any way. Now, sir, 
by the ordinances of this convention, passed during its session 
in June, organizing this government, every officer is limited 
in his turn to six months, or until his successor shall be 
elected and qualified. There will, therefore, have to be within 
or near the period of lime when we propose to call the people 
from their homes and ascertain their sense on this question, 
an election of some sort or other. 

"But here is the clause of the constitution in reference to 
the formation of new States : 

" 'New States may be admitted by Congress into this 
Union, but no new State shall be formed or erected within 
the jurisdiction of any other State, or any such State formed 
bv the junction of two States or parts of States, without the 
consent of the Legislatures of the States, as well as of the 

History of West Virginia ■> \7 

"Is there ain thing in that provision to limit the action of 
the convention in taking the initiatory steps to organize a 
separate Stale government, a» to time or the manner in 
which it is to be done? Surely not. Ascertain the sense oi 
the people in your proposed boundaries, lay before them the 
form of government you expect to extend o\er them, and with 
this before them, let them say whether they desire it or not; 
and if they do, their servants in the Legislature can give their 

"Sir, you will remember that this Legislature, if recog- 
nized at all. is recognized as the Legislature possessing all the 
powers that the Legislature of any State can exercise. That 
thing is fully, clearly decided by the Supreme Court in a case 
reported in Curtis' report, familiarly known as the case of 
Luther vs. liorden. The decision says that the admission of 
representatives in Congress upon the tloor of the Senate binds 
every other department of the -government, settles the ques- 
tion as to what is and who is the government of the State. 
This is the language of it. The question is settled. li \ oil 
are the Legislature, if \ ou do represent the State, and are 
recognized as such by the admission of Senators in Congress, 
then your legislative capacity can never be questioned by any 
department of the Federal government. 

"Xiuv, Mr. President, there is a just expectation in the 
country on the part of the people we represent here, that this 
action will be no longer delayed. They are looking for it. 
expecting and demanding it. And 1 cannot for the life of 
me — it may be owing to my obtusencss of intellect that I 
cannot understand the mystery and pierce the clouds that are 
around and about me — but I cannot see any reason wh\ \ mi 
should refuse to those you represent your masters, my mas- 
ters, the legitimate sovereigns, the people the right, in a 
form prescribed by you, to declare their wishes and will upon 
this subject. Why. sir, should it be withheld? What is 
driving from our borders many of our people within it^ limits - 
And what is preventing thousands upon thousands of others 
from coming amongst us? 1 What is wanted to develop the 
immense deposits of mineral wealth that fill our hills and with 
which our valleys teem? A separate and independent exi^t- 

248 History of West Virginia 

ence — a position that nature has designed us to occupy. I 
said here last spring that five years, aye, sir, I will say now 
that three years, will not roll around until our population will 
he quadrupled, and there will be more people in the limits of 
the proposed boundary of the new State than there are in the 
whole State of Virginia today. Our neighbors in Ohio and 
Pennsylvania and our friends in many other States of the 
Union arc all looking and anxious for it. I have lately re- 
ceived hundreds of letters making inquiry in regard to a sepa- 
ration. Everywhere loyal hearts are beating to come and 
share with us the destiny we ought to provide for ourselves 
and which nature has designed for us, if we have but the 
manliness and are equal to lift ourselves to the circumstances 
that surround us. 

"For centuries under the incubus of a false political 
philosophy, we have remained here, digging, almost in a 
primitive state, from the bowels of the earth the necessar' 
means of support, while nature has filled us to overflowing 
with all the elements of wealth, seeking nothing in the world 
but the hand of industry to develop them and bring them i.uc 
active use. Borne down by an eastern governmental ma'irrly, 
cut off from all connection or sympathy with a peo<>'<" with 
whom we have no commercial ties, we have endured the disas- 
trous results that ever must flow from an unnatural connec- 
tion. Cut the knot now! Apply the knife! You arc com- 
pJ : ed to wait at best for a realization of your hopes some four 
or five months, and by that time the advancing columns of the 
nation's army will have moved rebellion far beyond your bor- 
ders, or they will have been stayed forever in their march." 
( Loud applause.) 

Speech of Judge Chapman J. Stuart. 

"Air. President :- - 1 do not propose to discuss the merits 
of this question. I am sorry it is pressed upon the consider- 
ation of this body at this time. A bill on this subject will be 
reported at an early day by the Special Committee on a 
Division of the' State and the question will then come up in 
due form. And. sir, I do not want to see the hand of the com- 

History of West Virginia J I" 

mittce tied at this time by resolutions like these. I desire tins 
committee to be lree to discuss the measures proposed in 
these resolutions without having any embarrassment to con- 
tend with, or without having its hands tied by any proposition 
of this character. 

"It strikes me, sir. that the best way to, dispose of these 
resolutions would be to lay them on the table. Let this com- 
mittee report. I presume it will report advisedly when it 
does, having a member from each county represented on this 
floor. They are preparing a report; let us have it. 

"1 would like very much, if I had not determined in the 
outset that 1 would not go into the merits of this question, lo 
pay my respects to my friend from Harrison. T have been 
following him. sir. for a long time. He has assumed main 
positions. 1 wish to indicate to the convention that I w'.ll 
make a motion to lay on the table before 1 leave the lloor. i 
am not prepared at this time to discuss the merits of this 
question. I did not anticipate it would be forced upon hi'. 
bodv at this time. I supposed no one member would seek It) 
tie the hands of this committee by instruction, when the indi- 
cation has been thrown out that a bill for dividing the State 
is about to be reported. 

"But J have been following the gentleman for a long lime. 
I have been a member with him in several conventions and 
have supported him often, but 1 must be permitted to say 
here that if the gentleman in former conventions had inti- 
mated the same things he has in this, he would have found 
one minus, at least, at a certain time. 1 have heard him often 
before, but never did I hear him hold out a single doubt as to 
the ability of this government to sustain itself and put down 
the rebellion. This is the first intimation of this kind. And 
now, at a time when we should all be united, for our old 
stand-by and champion to come forward and intimate a doubt 
on this question"— 

Mr. Carlisle ".Mr. President, if the gentleman from 
Doddridge had attended to what I said with the <ame interest 
I listened to what he said, he would not have represented 
me as he has done. I said todav what f have always said 

250 History of West Virginia 

heretofore, that I believed this government would maintain 
the integrity of the Union; that I believed it would put down 
this rebellion; but 1 said, what he and all must know, if 1 had 
never said it, that there are things that take place sometimes 
that have not been anticipated in minds as feeble as mine; and 
I said there was a^ possibility — that the thing is possible — that 
the government may not do what we believe the}' will. I 
give it as my belief, and it is worth no more than the belief 
of any one else, that they will put down rebellion; but it is 
possible I may be mistaken. That was all I said; in other 
words, 1 granted it was possible that I might be mistaken." 

Air. Stuart — "I fully understand the gentleman, Air. 
President, and it is the first time that I ever heard him assert 
the possibility of anything of the kind. He has been the most 
uncompromising for putting down this rebellion, and never 
yet had a possible doubt on the question. Read his speeches, 
and you will never see a doubt expressed in the mind of the 
gentleman. Certain members of the convention now present 
know that the position occupied by the gentleman now is one 
formerly presented before a certain body by myself — that 
there was always doubt — that there might be a possibility, 
you know; but that doubt was expressed by me before any 
reverse in our arms had taken place, or was even anticipated. 
But at this stage of things, no man will ever find me express- 
ing a doubt. It is not a time to do so. It is a time to lift our- 
selves above all personal feelings and motives, and look only 
at the great issue involved before our country. We should 
not be looking solely at Western Virginia's interests. Our 
object should be to support the general government in putting 
down this rebellion, and never for one moment hold out a 
doubt that the government is to succeed. I suppose the doubt 
in the mind of the gentleman is the reason why he is pressing 
this matter prematurely, wanting to tie even the hands of the 
committee to prevent it from reporting the bill. A doubt! 
Sir, let us have no doubts, there are no doubts about it. 

"Whv, sir, the gentleman's resolutions propose to tie the 
hands of the committee, and instruct not only this committee, 
but the Committee on Business, to report a constitution and 

History of West Virginia 251 

form of government for this new State, sa\ing at the same 
time, that the State Legislature that was convened by act of 
this body repudiated action on this subject at this time, lie 
says this question should rise from the people. Well, who 
are the people? Was not the State Legislature the people? 
Is not this convention the people, or is it our constituents 
the gentleman appeals and refers to? If it is our constituents, 
gentlemen, 1 want you to point me to a solitary act that e\er 
authorized us to come here for the purpose of dividing the 
State and forming a constitution. If they have clone so, then, 
sir, 1 will be with the people. If not, then I am for referring 
this question to the people and letting them speak; and if they 
speak for a division, then, sir, I am willing for it. But I was 
not sent here for the purpose of dividing the State of Virginia, 
or making a constitution. The thing never was mooted be- 
fore my people, but just the reverse. I came here to aid the 
general government in putting down the rebellion, and if it 
was not for that. I do not know what 1 came here for at all. 

"I do not propose to go into the merits of the question 
raised by the gentleman from Harrison. I merely wish to 
indicate to you why I think hasty or premature action at this 
time would embarrass the general government in putting 
down this rebellion, and place us in a worse attitude even than 
we are at present. I simply rose for the purpose of moving to 
lav these resolutions upon the table. Let the committee that 
have this matter under consideration make their report, and 
do not tie their hands. I move to lay the resolutions upon 
the table." 

Speech by Hon. Waitman T. Willey. 

Following the adoption of the report of the Committee 
on State and Federal Relations at the Wheeling convention, 
on Wednesday. May 15, 1861. as recorded in chapter on the 
"Formation of West Virginia", several speeches were made, 
one of the most important of which was that delivered by 
Hon. Waitman T. Willey, which we here reproduce as re- 
ported by the Wheeling Intelligencer at that time: 

252 History of West Virginia 

"Mr. President and Fellow Citizens: 

"Whilst I appreciate with sentiments of heartfelt grati- 
tude the compliment you pay me in calling me out at this 
period, in the deliberations of our convention, I am sure you 
would be disposed to excuse me if you were aware of the 
pain and suffering under which I am constantly laboring. 
Ever since, yesterday morning at seven o'clock, when I was 
attacked, I assure you most sincerely that I have been in the 
most excruciating torture. Last night I slept scarcely one 
moment ; and nothing but the heartfelt and deep and absorb- 
ing interest that I have felt in the deliberations of this body 
has kept me on the floor until this time. But 1 tell you, fellow 
citizens, I have felt during all this struggle, from the time it 
began in the Virginia convention until now, something of the 
spirit of the noble Roman youth, who, cap a pie, mounted, 
armed and ecjuipped for the sacrifice, voluntarily rushed into 
the opening chasm of the forum, a voluntary victim to appease 
the gods of strife that were bringing desolation on his country. 
And I assure you tonight, if by laying down my humble life 
on the altar of my country I could bring back peace and har- 
mony, and reorganize and restore the glorious Union which 
our fathers formed for us, I would willingly as I ever sat 
down to partake of the dainties of life, render that sacrifice 
this day, and this hour. (Applause.) 

"And, fellow citizens, much as some of you have mis- 
apprehended my soundness on this question, in this good city 
of yours, feeble as I am in health, with a constitution broken 
by the anxiety of the struggle of the last two and a half 
months for the perpetuity of that very Union, for a want of 
fidelity to which I am suspected at this time, I am ready when 
the hour comes — I am ready when the constitution has been 
exhausted — 1 am read)' when it has been ascertained that the 
great legitimate agency of republican liberty is not sufficient 
to bring about the revolution that is to secure to us our just 
rights at the ballot box — when the law fails — when the con- 
stitution fails in securing these rights, I am ready to stand 
among the foremost of those who have been here today to 
suspect me. It is not because I do not love the Union that I 
have taken the conservative position on this occasion ; it is 

History of West Virginia 

nut because- I do not love m\ fellow citizens of Wheeling; 
not because 1 am not faithful and true to the common princi- 
ples to which you are engaged ; it is 'not because 1 love CnesT 
less. but because 1 love Rome more.' (Applause.) 

"1 have very little of this world's goods; hut I have herit- 
age enough — about the 27,000.000th part of the prestige and 
glory of him who can look upon the stars and stripes, and call 
it his country's llag (cheers), and who. with that infinitesimal 
particle of glory, is richer by far than he who. with the richci 
heritage that ever fell to the lot of man, did not have the name 
ami prestige of an American citizen. (Applause.) I do not 
intend to surrender it until I am compelled until 1 am sub- 
dued, heart, soul, fortune, and body. (Cheers.) 

"I do not despair of the republic, either. If we could have 
two weeks longer until the election. I verily believe, the dis- 
heartening anticipation of my friend from Harrison (Carlisle) 
to the contrary notwithstanding, to use a vulgar but express- 
ive phrase, which may be well applied to this ordinance of 
secession, we would "knock it into a cocked hat'. (Laughter.) 
Why. sir. I am credibly informed that these soldiers, of whom 
we have heard so much, and from whom we anticipate so much 
danger, and who are said to be quartered and posted all over 
the State for the purpose of public intimidation, have pledged 
their lives that their own blood shall crimson the streets, but 
they will cast their votes on the 23rd of this month against the 
ordinance of secession. (Applause.) 1 am informed of one 
company consisting of 'JO men of whom 80 are pledged to vote 
against the ordinance. You heard a voice today from old 
Berkeley. Cod bless her! (Applause.) And He will bless 
her. and all who think like her. God has blessed this country. 
God has blessed all the men who have loved this I "nion. His 
hand has been manifested in all our history, lie stood by 
Washington, its great Founder and Defender. He stood by 
our forefathers in the establishment of this government, and 
by working out our glorious destiny thu 5 ; far in the space of 
less than three-quarters of a century. God has made the 
American people the greatest on the earth : and I firmly be- 
lieve in the hidden councils of His mysterious providence, 
there is a sflorious destiny a united American pen- 

254 History of West Virginia 

pic still. (Applause. ) I take confidence in the cause as I 
look at the stripes and stars, and I remember the circum- 
stances that gave rise to the beautiful motto that is as appli- 
cable to us today as when in the moment of inspiration it was 
penned : 

" 'Triumph we must, for our cause it is just, 
And this be our motto, in God is our trust.' 

(Great applause.) 

"I was just trying to catch from my memory a couplet 
from a poem which I read the other day in regard to the ban- 
ner of our country, I think I can recall it in the sentiment if 
not in the language : 

" 'Forever float that standard sheet; 

Where breathes the foe but falls before us, 
With freedom's soil beneath our feet 

And freedom's banner streaming o'er us.' 

(Mr. W. pronounced these lines with great vehemence, and 
when he had ended there arose one universal, loud and thrill- 
ing cheer.) 

"Fellow citizens, it almost cures one's back-ache to hear 
you applaud the sentiment. (Laughter and applause.) Cut 
then the time for speaking is done. Let me exhort you 
never to forget the counsels my much esteemed friend, General 
Jackson, of Wood, delivered to us tonight. Never forget to 
act upon them. I think I sec yet sparkling in the old hero's 
eye something of the ardor which he thought if not prudent 
to express, yet that even he was ready at his country's call to 
lead his sons and the sons of his countrymen whenever it may 
be necessary — whenever our liberties cannot be secured to us 
otherwise — to lead us into the battle field ; — not to be carried 
to the polls to whisper his vote against this Ordinance of 
Secession, but to fall upon the field of battle, to wrap himself 
in his country's flag and pledge his gratitude to God that he 
was deemed worthy at last to end an honored life by falling 
in defense of his country. (Applause.) We have worth}' 

History of West Virginia 255 

sires, my young friends. Let us be sons worthy of those sires. 
Those sires were law-abiding, constitution-making', constitu- 
tion-keeping men. They well knew that republican libeity, 
that free institutions, could only be established upon the law, 
and preserved by keeping the law ; and that is the secret of the 
conservative position that we have taken in this convention. 
I believe Clod's blessing will rest upon our action, and if at 
last, in the language of the Declaration of Independence, 'we 
have remonstrated again and again, we have petitioned and 
adjured", and our prayers are all scoffed at and scouted — why, 
I think I see around me here tonight the men who know 
their duty — 

" 'Who know their rights, 
And knowing dare maintain.' 

"Fellow citizens, the first thing we have got to fight is 
the Ordinance of Secession. Let us kill it on the 23rd of this 
month. (Applause.) Let us bury it deep beneath the hills of 
Northwestern Virginia. Let us pile up our glorious hills on it : 
bury it dee]) so that it will never make its appearance among 
us again. Let us go back home and vote, even if we are beaten 
upon the final result, for the benefit of the moral influence of 
that vote. If we give something like a decided preponderating 
vote of a majority in the Northwest, that alone secures our 
rights. That alone, at least, secures an independent State if 
we desire it. 

"Fellow citizens, I am trespassing upon your patience." 
CGo on! go on!) "I am going up to Marion County to assist 
my friend Hall in canvassing that county. Monongalia is a 
fixed fact — like the handle of a jug, all on one side. ( Laugh- 
ter.) Not all on one side either: but on all sides, all over, and 
under, and in. and out. and through and everywhere. (Ap- 
plause and laughter.) Rut I want to help Hall a little. Want 
to take Frank Fierpont along over there, too. They have 
threatened to hang him out there, and I am sure if he gets 
strung up first he will break the rope and I will escape. 
(Laughter. ) 

256 History of West Virginia 

"We have to go tu work now. We must appeal to the 
people; appeal to their patriotism ; and let us defeat the Ordi- 
nance of Secession in Xorthwestern Virginia at least. My 
advices from the valley are, that where, some weeks since, a 
Union man dare not hold up his head, he has come out now, 
and is shaking his list at his adversary. They are getting bold 
and numerous; and I should not be surprised if the upper and 
lower valley, even Jefferson County, right under the shadow 
of — or rather casting its shadow upon — Harper's Ferry, and 
under the influence and intimidation of the soldiery there, and 
old Loudon, with Janney at its head, should all give majori- 
ties against this ordinance. They say even in Alexandria the 
old Union spirit is reviving. Let us hope then — 'hope on, 
hope ever.' Let us work in season and out of season. 

"And now, fellow citizens, good-bye till we meet again, 
with all our hopes realized, as I trust, under fairer auspices. 
May we meet each other with gratulation and congratulation, 
that our old and beloved Commonwealth, the mother of States 
and statesmen whose fame is wide as the earth — every inch 
of whose soil I love, her mountains and valleys, from the sea- 
board to the Ohio River — shall be restored to peace and pros- 
perity ; until all this land in all her waters shall reflect back 
peacefully the stars on the floating banner of our country, 
re-established as the ensign of universal liberty." 

Speech of Hon. John F. Lacy on the Occasion of the Reunion 
of the G. A. R. at Des Moines, Iowa, May 31, 1897. 

(Mr. Lacy was born and reared on the Williams farm, 
about one mile above New Martinsville, Wetzel County.) 

"Comrades and Fellow Citizens: — 

"I have come a long distance in compliance with the 
courteous invitation of my comrades of Kinsman and Crocker 
Posts to address you on this memorable day. Today is a 
flower festival for the dead designed by General Logan, when 
he was the Commander in Chief of the Grand Army of the 

History of West Virginia 2?7 

"Kinsman's and Crocker's names suggest memories of the 
past wliicli bring pride and pleasure to every citizen of 1 >e> 
Moines, and of our whole State as well. Kinsman fell in lint 
tie. leading the 2ord Iowa, hut Crocker, though he died \oung, 
still lived to see victory crown our national cause. 

"We meet on this day with no political purpose, but lay 
aside all partisanship and forget for the lime all matters of 
difference upon which we may he divided. 

"We assemble each year on this sad but pleasing memo- 
rial to pass the old story down the line to another generation, 
and to keep alive the spirit of fraternity, charity and loyalty. 

"The new corn comes out of the old fields, and new les- 
sons may always be learned by turning otir eyes again upon 
the past. Let us again revive 

" 'The memory of what has been 
But never more will be.' 

"Every institution is the lengthened shadow of some 
great man who ha-; passed away. Our people have been led 
to greatness by the hand of liberty. 

"The war was the penalty of a great wrong. Individuals 
sometimes escape punishment in this world, because death 
claims them before the day of retribution comes. But not so 
with nations — they cannot escape. The wrong of slavery re- 
quired atonement, and severe, indeed, was the punishment 
that was meted out. 

"The men who fought against us recognized their first 
allegiance as due to their States, and the soldier of the Union 
with a broader view felt that his country was the whole 
Union. The war destroyed slavery and again restored the old 
sentiment of Patrick Henry: 'I am no longer a mere Vir- 
ginian. I am an American.' 

"We could not partition this Union. We could not divide 
the Mississippi. Bunker Hill and Yorktown were the heritage 
of the whole people. 

"We could not divide Yankee Doodle, nor could we dis- 
tribute among the dismembered States the flag of our fore- 

25S History of West Virginia 

"When the war began in 1S01 we were twenty-six millions 
of freemen and four millions of slaves. In 1897 we are seventy 
millions, all freemen. 

"When the body of Jefferson Davis was disinterred and 
removed to Richmond, the funeral train was witnessed by 
thousands as it passed through many States upon its long 
and final journey, but no slave looked upon that procession. 

"As I glance over this splendid audience here today I 
cannot help but feel that a country filled with such people is 
worth fighting for. 

"Kinsman died thirty-four years ago, but his name lingers 
upon all our tongues. Crocker passed to the great beyond 
later, but his name is still upon our lips. The preservation of 
such a country is worth all that it cost in treasure, blood and 

"There must be an appearance of right in everything to 
keep wrong in countenance, and our brothers of the South 
fought for their opinions with a zeal and earnestness that no 
men could have shown had they not felt that their cause was 
just. It is today the most pleasing of dll things to hear one 
of these men say, 'I now see that the result was for the best. 
I am glad that slavery has disappeared.' 

"Even Jefferson Davis in his history attempts to prove 
that the cause of the war. was not slavery, but the tariff. The 
day of peace and reconciliation has come, and no heart today 
in all this throng beats with anything but love for all who live 
under our flag. It is not mere emotional and meaningless 
sentimentalism, but brotherly kindness between the sections 
that were. There are no sections now. 

"Two ships may sail in opposite directions, moved by the 
same wind. But the course of all our people has now been 
directed to the same common goal. We meet in an era of 
reconciliation. The Grand Army has no vindictiveness. I 
will recall the war today, but will not seek to revive any of 
its bitterness. We should not forget it, but we should seek 
to keep alive none of its animosities. 

"If I bring back any of its horrors it is to the end that 
we may better appreciatae peace. We renew the past to shun 
its errors. 

History of West Virginia 2?'> 

"The body of our great commander. Grant, has reccinh 
been enshrined in a new tomb erected by the free will offering 
of the people in the greatest city of our land, upon the beauti 
ful Riverside Drive on the banks of the Hudson. 

".\apoleon lies in state under the gilded dome of the 
Invalides and his mausoleum is full of the inscriptions of his 
victories from Lodi to .Marengo, from Austerlitz to l'ena and 
W'agram. and even the abominable carnage of Lssling is there 

"But the silent commander of the Union army has a more 
noble inscription than if the names of all his battles bad been 
there recorded. Over the door are his simple and touching 

'Let us have peace." 

"Grant's victories made peace not only possible, but per- 
manent upon the only sure basis of union. The Potomac joins 
friendlv States instead of separating hostile nations. It 
does not form a bloody boundary as the Tweed so long sepa- 
rated the land of our ancestors. 

"Grant should have been buried near Sheridan at Arling- 
ton with no sentinel but the stars, surrounded by the soldiers 
who had died under his command. Amid the stir and living 
bustle of the great metropolis his solitary grave seems lonely. 

"His example will live; obstinacy is the sister of con- 
stancy, and he never despaired of the republic. 

"On a day like this we all recall such names as Lincoln. 
Grant. Sherman and Sheridan, but these names often all em- 
brace our collective idea of the men whom they led. Their 
names typify their private soldiers. Thomas was the "Rock 
of Chickamauga', because he knew how to command men win. 
were brave enough to be led. 

"Buckner complained at Donaldson of the demand for 
'unconditional surrender' as ungenerous terms. But he found 
that no terms were needed in surrendering to so generous a 
foe. Grant was dangerous in fight, but he was kindness itself 
in victory. 

2g0 History of West Virginia 

"When Lincoln's dead face was covered by Stanton, the 
great war secretary said, 'He belongs to the ages.' So with 
all the dead whom we commemorate today. Time mitigates 
sorrow and adds to th glory of events. 

"Michael Angelo buried his Cupid so that it might pass 
for an antique. Xow a work of Michael Angelo is as precious 
as if made by Phidias himself. 

"The time of war is now sufficiently remote to be reviewed 
without prejudice. Who cares now for the assaults of Junius 
upon Lord Mansfield? Dennis made a burden of the life of 
Alexander Pope. All we know of him now is that he fretted 
Pope, and that his name was Dennis. 

"Who now heeds the abuse that was heaped upon the 
head of the mighty and patient Lincoln? 

"Rancor is dead with the dead, and malice does not go 
beyond the four edges of the grave. 

"We speak of these men because it is more interesting 
and profitable to study the example of an illustrious man than 
an abstract principle. 

"When Lord Xelson was signaled to retreat at Copen- 
hagen he turned the blind eye, that he lost at Calvi, towards 
the signal and said he was unable to make it out, and justified 
his disobedience by a great victory. 

"The people, young and old, are gracious to the soldiers 
of every war. Early in the present century a veteran who 
fought at Stony Point was indicted for some violation of law. 
I lis attorney succeeded in getting the fact in evidence that the 
defendant had distinguished himslf in that battle and made 
good use of it in his address to the jury. The verdict an- 
nounced that, 'We, the jury, find the defendant not guilty be- 
cause he fought at Stony Point.' The court refused to receive 
the verdict in such a form, and the jury again retired and 
brought in another verdict of simple acquittal. But as they 
were about to retire the foreman said to the court, 'Your 
honor, I am directed to say that it was lucky for the defendant 
that he fought at Stonv Point.' The same spirit has always 
actuated a free people. When .•Esehyhis was being tried and 
his life hung in the balance, his brother stepped forward and 
drew aside the prisoner's cloak and showed the stump of the 


History of West Virginia 2>>\ 

arm that he had lost in tin- defence of his country. The muu 
appeal was stronger than any spoken words, and the prisonei 
went free. 

"At this time the period we commemorate seems a-- re- 
mote to the new generation as the battle of ancient dreeee 
and Rome. \\c think of the men who fought in the Revolu- 
tion and the War of the Rebellion as old. It is hard to realize 
how young these men were. 

"I occasionally go into the museum of the dead letter 
office at Washington and look over the album of war photo- 
graphs which were taken from the unclaimed letters of that 
day. The young features of those soldier-- look out from the 
past as a revelation. The sight of the kind and boyish faces 
from the school and farm, the shop or the store, and the new 
ready-made, misfit uniforms in which they were clad carried 
me back to the days when as a boy 1 went to the front with 
comrades such as these. Two brothers sitting side by side ii 
their army clothing sent their picture to their friends, but in 

"A young sergeant standing by the side of his little sister 
is among these lost photographs, and the fresh young face and 
curls of the girl of thirty-live years ago would make us think 
that one of our own daughters had sat for the picture, were it 
not for the fact that she is clad in the fashions of another 

"Another young private and a lady who is evidently his 
wife look out from the dead past in this album in the museum : 
and for hours von mav gaze and find the youthful eyes of the 
bovs of lSdl again looking at you. I'm we glance in the glass 
as we pass out ami may well say : 

" 'Time has stolen a march on me. 
And made me old unawares." 

"We mav take an invoice of our gains and losses, but our 
years never decrease. 

"When invited by Kinsman and (rocker Posts to addrc-- 
vou on this occasion T was about to take a few days' journey 
through the battle fields of Virginia. These once horrid 

262 History of West Virginia 

scenes are now as placid as the prairies of our own loved and 
beautiful Iowa, save where the earthworks remain as monu- 
ments of the past. Peace covers over the field with living 
green, and seeks to obliterate even the memories of blood. 

"In all ages a lion and a mound have been thought to be 
proper memorial for one of these historical battle fields. 

"The (Ireeks at Cheronea twenty-two hundred years ago 
marked that fatal scene with a mound over the graves of their 
dead and surmounted it with a lion, the broken remains of 
which are there at this day. 

"Where Napoleon's old guard died at Waterloo is a 
gigantic mound two hundred feet high and surmounted by 
the great Belgian Hon, cast from captured cannon. 

"When I visited that spot a few years ago the straw of a 
dove's nest hung from the lips of the lion and peace had taken 
possession of the very symbol of war. At Cheronea a traveler 
says he found the honey of a wild bee in the mouth of the 
brokn statue, as Sampson found the honey in the carcass of a 
flead lion in days of old. 

"We are strong enough to preach and practice the gospel 
of peace and arbitration. Speed the day when the prophecy 
of Isaiah may be fulfilled : 

' 'The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard 
shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion 
and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. 

"'And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones 
shall lie down together; and the lion shall eat straw like 
the ox. 

" 'And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp ; 
and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice den. 
' 'They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy moun- 
tain ; for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the Lord 
as the waters cover the sea.' 

"So in the once hostile and bloody fields of Virginia all 
now is peace, but the scarred bosom of the earth still tells the 
story of 1861 to 1865. 

"Perhaps it would interest the young people as well as 
the old soldiers to hear some brief description of these well 
known scenes. 

History of West Virginia ioi 

"The soldier of the weM by Mich a \imI will better realize 
the heroism of his comrades in arms in llie eastern armies. 
Xo one can look over the scene of the conllicts in \ irginia 
without according to our comrades of that army the full mead 
of praise which brothers should always award to the achieve- 
ments of each other. As a crow Hies it is only 120 miles from 
Bull Run to Appomattox. .Measured in time it was a journey 
of nearly four years. .Measured in blood and tears it was a 
thousand years. 

"The journey was by various ami devious routes; through 
mud and mire, through sunshine and through storm, through 
summer heats and winter allows, through dangers by flood 
and lire, through dangers by stream and wood, through sick- 
ness and sorrow ; and by the wayside death always stalked 
grimly and claimed his own. 

"Twice did Bull Run witness the defeat of the cause of 
the National Union. It was indeed a fatal field to the Federal 
army. When we approached that historic spot from Manassas 
Junction we met a large number of negro children on the road 
in holiday attire going to the "breaking up of school'. 

"Had Appomattox not closed what Bull Run so disas- 
trously began there would have been no school for these col- 
ored bovs and girls. They were the living evidences of the 
changes that were brought about by the fearful journey which 
the Union troops traveled before the humiliation of Bull Run 
was atoned for by 'peace with honor' at Appomattox. The 
two hundred years of enforced ignorance must now be com- 
pensated by the privileges of education. 

"President Lincoln came into the nation's capital in the 
night to take the oath of his high office. 

"Sumter was the scene of the first encounter, but it was 
at Bull Run that the greatness of the contest upon which we 
had entered first was realized. 

"The Confederate^ gave this battle the more euphonious 
name of Manassas. It was their victory, ami they had a right 
to name it. but vet in history it will no doubt remain as Bull 
Run until the end of time. 

"In the open field at Henry's farm we were reminded of 
the struggle that here terminated in defeat to the national 

2o4 History of West Virginia 

cause. Here General Bee was killed, ami before he fell he 
pointed to General Jackson's brigade and said : 'There stands 
Jackson like a stone wall," and ever since the briyade was 
called by the name suggested, and its gallant commander was 
known as 'Stonewall Jackson.' 

"It is not tar to Chancellorsville, where two years later 
this Confederate fell upon the battle field, and as his life ebbed 
away, murmured, 'Let us cross oyer the river and rest under 
the shade of the trees.' The spot at Chancellorsville is marked 
with a granite monument, and the Confederate soldier, Cap- 
tain Taliaferro, who pointed it to me with tears in his eyes, 
said : T loved that man. I was wounded four times while I 
was under his command. I mourned his death then, but I see 
it all now. It is all for the best. If he had lived the Union 
could not have been restored. It is better as it is.' Whilst I 
do not believe that one man, however great, could have made 
the success of the rebellion sure, yet it is true, not excepting 
Lee himself, there was no man whose life was so vital to the 
rebel cause as that of Stonewall Jackson. 

"But to return to Bull Run battle field. Standing where 
Jackson was wounded, the Henry house is near by. An old 
lady, Airs. Henry, was in that house when the first battle be- 
gan. She was bed-ridden, and eighty-five years of age. No 
one thought th?re would be a battle there, but supposed it 
would be fought near the town of Alanassas. But the battle 
centered at that point, and the peaceful old woman was torn 
to pieces in her bed by an exploding shell. 

"A scene like this brings back again the horrors of war. 
.Men are too apt to remember its glories and heroism and 
forget its brutality and its misery. 

"But a few days before I saw the 'Stonewall Brigade 
Band' in the procession at the dedication of Grant's Tomb at 
Riverside, and they proved that the war was really over by 
marching under the stars and stripes and playing 'Hail, Co- 
lumbia' and 'Dixie'. Music brings minds into harmony in war 
or peace. 

"It was on the road from Bull Run to Appomattox in 
ISo.i, awav down at Yicksburg, one of the great way stations 
on that journey, that on one occasion we had a striking illus- 

History of West Virginia 2< >i 

tration of the harmoin produced b_\ the cuuciiui^e of sweet 
sounds. Jules and Frank Luml>ard. of Chicago. \isited some 
friends in the trenches. Slow tiring was going on here and 
there along the lines, and the scream of shell and whittle of 
minnie ball kept everyone in a state of eager attention. Some 
of the Lumbards' friends asked them to sing, and their clear 
voices rang out amid the roar of the guns. As the\ sang, the 
tiring slackened and nearly ceased, when a Confederate called 
out from the ride pits. 'Hello, Yanks. isn't that Jules and 
Frank Lumbard singing there?' The response was. 'Hello, 
Johnny! It is the Lumbard boys: keep still and you can 
hear them better.' And so the firing ceased and the Lumbards 
sang songs of love and war. songs that pleased the hearts be- 
neath both blue and grey, and the* they sang 'Home, home, 
sweet, sweet home.' and many a rough sleeve in either trench 
wiped away a tear, as the distant homes in the city and farms 
of the North and the plantations of the South were brought 
back in loving memory by the cadences of the song we love 
st> well. 

"But the music ceased and a shout rang out. 'Hello. 
Johnny, look out!' and an answer. 'Hello. Yank, take care!' 
went back, and the concert was over, and grim war resumed 
its sway. 

"But let us again return to Bull Run. As the field now 
lies, shining under the .-pringtime sun. and the Hull Run 
Mountains rise in the blue haze in the distance, it is hard to 
realize the two scenes that were enacted under McDowell and 
Pope, under Beauregard and Lee. 

"But the study of the battlefield with maps ami history 
shows that it was not after all so humiliating to our cause as 
we had long believed. 

"Xapoleon planned his battle at Waterloo, but Grouchy 
did not come and Blucher did, and rout and ruin befell the 
Kmperor of the French. 

"McDowell, too. planned wisely, and victory wa> well 
nigh won. but Johnston came and Patterson remained behind 
and history repeated it-elf. as it is always doing. 

"The battle encouraged the enemies of the Republic in 
e\erv land. Charles Francis Adams, represented our g >\ ern- 

266 History of West Virginia 

ment at the English Court at a reception when the news of 
the battle was still fresh. A courtier tauntingly said to him: 
'These Confederates fight well at any rate.' 'Yes,' said .Mr. 
Adams, drawing himself up proudly, 'of course they do. they 
are my countrymen.' 

"We have no one to fear now but ourselves. Battle is 
the final court of appeal, and its decisions are often wrong. 
Constancy goes so often with the right that we think that all 
wars should end right, but as the tyrant Philip overthrew the 
Greeks at Cherona, so the barbarian Turk of to-day has 
triumphed over the cause of civilization in the land where its 
sun first rose. 

"In all the sad journe}^ from 1861 to 1865 the women of 
the North and South exhibited a fortitude that showed them 
true descendants of the mothers of the Revolution. 

"In the Sanitary Commission and in the hospital they 
were ever ready with their tender ministrations to the sick 
and wounded. 7 Tic wives and sisters at home performed the 
work of the men in the field, and from day to day watched 
for the news from the front with an intensity of interest that 
no other events could produce. A battle 

" 'Is a glorious sight to see 

By one who has no friend or brother there.' 

"The mothers who prayed and .watched, the sisters and 
sweethearts who cheered the soldiers with their letters from 
home must never be forgotten when we remember the events 
of that sorrowful time. 

' 'Woman was last at the cross and first at the tomb in 
the days of the Redeemer.' So in the darkest hours their 
tender hands and loving hearts bring consolation. The sacred 
name of mother, sister, daughter or wife was a constant inspi- 

" 'A happy home is a suburb of heaven,' and ten thousand 
of these homes were rendered desolate by the war. Oh, chil- 
dren of this generation, thank God upon your bended knees 
that you have not been called upon to pass through this valley 
of the shadow of death ! 

History of West Virginia 2<~ 

"From Bull Run i<> Appomattox along the thousands of 
miles traveled to reach that goal lie many national cemeteries 
in which hosts of our Union dead lie huried. An old soldier 
is always in charge, ami from sunrise to -.unset the flag Hie-, 
over these silent cities. 

"And many a prison pen lay between the starling point 
and the end of the journey. Only a coward will mistreat a 
prisoner, and perhaps the darkest page cm that history is one 
that we should not dwell too much upon now. 

"1 was a prisoner once, and enemies with arms in their 
hands fresh from the front treated me with kindness. Insults 
or threats only came from the cowardly camp followers in 
the rear. 

"I will not describe in detail our journey from l'lill Run 
to Appomattox to-day, but it included Chancellorsyille and 
Fredericksburg, where so many lives were lost in vain. 

"There, too. was the Wilderness, where the earth has been 
scarred by the labor of both armies, and these works remain 
undisturbed so that all the positions can be traced as though 
these entrenchments had been intended as monuments to 
record the movements of the two giants, (irant and Lee. who 
here clutched in the final conflict, which for eleven months 
raged without ceasing. 

"It then first became evident that it was the Army of 
Northern Virginia that (Irani was after, and that Richmond 
was a mere incident to the contest in fact, so little did 'he 
silent commander care for Richmond that he did not even 
enter it in person when the Confederacy took its final (light. 

"From the Wilderness to Spottsylvania Court House we 
went, and there, too, the earthwork- are piled as a record ot 
the great anil final campaign. Let me stop her' 1 long enough 
to describe the Pdoody Angle, where our troops, under 
cock. Warren and Wright, fought with such gallantry. Tins 
spot was perhaps the bloodiest scene of all the war. 1 will 
not picture the ghastly details of dead and dyiny, but we ar-' 
told that the musket balls flew so thick and fast that they cut 
down an oak tree eighteen inches in diameter within the reh"l 
lines. This seems incredible, but in passing over T.andram's 
field, a hundred wards or more in front of the east side of the 

268 History of West Virginia 

'Angle', there we found the exploded gun caps of our men 
thickly sprinkled in the yellow soil. The field had been 
plowed twenty times or more since the war, and yet the old 
gun caps of thirty-three years ago were still so thick that in a 
space which I covered with my two hands I picked up eight 
upon the surface, and a large part of the field was equally 
marked in the same way. And though the Federal dead had 
been exhumed from the field so long ago, we found shreds of 
blue clothing here and there in the soft, fresh-plowed earth. 

"At Richmond the marks of war abound, and the ap- 
proaches and defences are still shown by trenches and 

"In all these Virginia battle-grounds the pits showing the 
empty graves of soldiers whose remains had been transferred 
to some national cemetery are to be seen on every hand as a 
horrid reminder of the past. 

"Petersburg, with its ten months' siege, invited our 
careful attention, and the remains of the ghastly crater where 
so man}' men, white and black, were slaughtered as they 
huddled together in the deep hole, from which they could 
neither advance nor retreat. 

"At Spottsylvania we met a party of Virginia school girls 
who had come twenty-five or thirty miles to see the famous 
region, and they were looking at the fine monument built' by 
the Sixth Corps to commemorate the death of Sedgwick, their 
commander general. We told them that we were going on to 
Appomattox, and they said they were glad the war was over, 
but that thev could not bear to think of looking at Appo- 

"Staying over night at a hospitable home near the Wilder- 
ness, we were entertained with accounts of dark days of the 
war. One lady told us with some of the old tone of remon- 
strance how the Yankees drove away her cattle against her 
indignant protest. 

"An old Confederate who joined in the conversation said 
their soldiers were much more considerate and honest, for 
when they went to Gettysburg they paid or offered to pay for 
everything — in Confederate money. 

"Rut let us hasten on to the end where peace spreads her 

History of West Virginia 2u'> 

wings again, w here ( irant gave hack to Lee's arm) their 
cavalry and artillery horses t<i use in plowing the neglected 
fields of the South, lie treated them as our countrymen and 
then and there laid dee]) the foundation of respect and confi- 
dence that, let u> fondly hope, will grow stronger and more 
cemented with the coming years. 

"Xow and then some discordant lira) is iieard in the 
general peace, and some one not particularly noted in the war 
seems ready to fight it all over again now after it has passed 
into history. But. fortunately, this sentiment is small ami 
growing less and less. 

"In the last Congress a fire-eating congressman wanted 
to try it on again, and announced that he was ready to renew 
the contest on a moment's notice, when one of my Confederate 
friends came over to me and, rolling up his sleeve, said : 'Do 
you see that saber cut?' Turning his face he then showed me 
a bullet scar near his ear and said : 'I have two more of these 
mementoes on my left leg, and 1 have got through with my 
part of it, and the gentleman now speaking may fight it oat 
alone next time, as he did not do much of it when he had 'he 

v 'The Appomattox field is marked with tablets, so that 
in a visit there you may know when you are standing upon 
the exact spot where one of the great events of that memor- 
able scene occurred. 

"Speculative vandalism has done its work and the Sur- 
render House has been torn down and the brick and lumber 
marked and piled up ready for removal to some other place, 
there to be again set up as a show house to be exhibited for 

"But the memories of Appomattox cannot thus be re- 
moved. The house at some distant city would be out of place. 
Appomattox Mountain could not be seen from its doors. 
Here a marker shows where Orant and Lee met ; there another 
where the famous apple tree once stood : another where drant 
set up his headquarters for the last time in the presence of an 
armed foe: here Lee read his last orders to his troop-, as they 
passed around him : and most interesting of all. here is marked 

270 History of West Virginia 

the place where the hostile arms were stacked to be used no 
more against brethren forever. 

"Best of all there is no great charnal house at Appomat- 
tox. Nineteen graves show that the Confederate armies 
gathered their dead together there, and in doing so they found 
one skeleton in blue that by oversight had not been removed 
to a distant national cemetery, and this Union soldier now lies 
buried side by side in the little cemetery of the Confederate 
dead, and his grave is annually decorated with those of the 
men with whom he died on this historic field. 

"As we turn from the scene where the curtain rang 
down thirty-two years ago upon the final act of the greatest 
drama the world has ever seen, the full moon rose and soon 

" 'The woods were asleep and the stars were awake,' 

and only the note of the whip-poor-will disturbed the solemn 

"In looking around to-day over this assembly we mourn 
more and more the friends of our youth. Where are our 
comrades of 1861 ? Where are those who broke ranks with us 
in 1865? We meet some of them here to-day, grizzled, and 
gray, and with young hearts yet, but alas, how many have 
fallen out by the way! 

"We miss and mourn them, 

" 'And the stately ships go on 

To their haven under the hill, 
But, O for the touch of a vanished hand, 

And the sound of a voice that is still. 
Break, break, break. 

At the foot of thy crags, O Sea — 
But the tender grace of a day that is dead 

Will never come back to me." ' 

Speech by Congressman Mansfield M. Neely of First Con- 
gressional District of West Virginia, at the Twenty- 
ninth Annual Lodge of Sorrow, Held at the Court 
Theatre by Wheeling Lodge No. 28, B. P. O. Elks, on 

History of West Virginia 271 

Evening of Sunday, December 7th, 1913, as Reported in 
Part by Wheeling Register. 


"Oh, lor a Muse of fire, that would ascend 
The brightest heaven of invention. 
A kingdom for a stage, princes to act 
And monarchs to behold the swelling scene." 

Then indeed should our departed friends be paid a tribute 

in keeping with our love for them, and we who mourn their 

loss should learn a lesson from this service here, the ennobling 

precept* of which would urge us on from humbler to higher 

things. We should, go forth with our strength renewed: to 

mount lip with wings as eagles; to run and not to weary; to 

walk and not to faint. 

****** * * 

On one day in every year we gather here to extol the 
virtues of our departed; to eulogize the characteristics ol 
charity, justice, brotherly love and fidelity as exemplified in 
the daily lives of our brothers who have gone before us to 
dwell in that great empire of the dead. 

As members of an order whose mission is one ot love, and 
whose object is to dispense charity to all mankind, we come 
together this day to testify that these brothers lhed up to the 
full measure of their fraternal obligations, both in spirit and 
in truth. They never closed their eyes to the miseries of the 
down-trodden or distressed: they never turned a dealened ear 
to the wailing cry of those in want and woe: they never, like 
the I.evite. passed by on the other side. 

Only a little while ago every brother whose name is 
written on that tablet was with us in the full strength of man- 
hood, endowed with joyous life and peace and sweet content, 
and thus, wealthier than seeptered sovereign; richer far than 
fancv ever feigned. Only yesterday they mingled with us on 
the streets and in the busy marts of trade, -it seems but an 
hour ago that their merry peals of laughter filled the air. and 
the melody of their voices thrilled our hearts like the wild. 

•272 History of West Virginia 

weird strains of seductive music, such as the Sirens once did 
sing. But now we call their names in vain. There is no 
answer to our cry. In the hush that pervades the sanctuary 
ot our dead, we realize that all these faithful friends have em- 
barked on that sad and solemn sea that separates the narrow 
shores of time from the boundless kingdom of eternity. They 
have passed beyond the limits of earthly vision. Their shad- 
owy forms cannot be seen through the telescopes of science or 
the tears of grief. 

Sometimes we are haunted by the demon of skepticism 
and despair, and we ask anew the world-old question, pro- 
pounded by the man of Uz: "If a man die, shall lie live 
again?" But unlike the afflicted patriarch, wc seek no refuge 
either in silence or submission. We simply turn from this 
perplexing question of the old testament to find it answered 
in the new, by him who came fifteen centuries after Job, and 
said. "Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give you a crown 
of life." 

In this moment of melancholy our hearts are filled with 
grief and our eyes are dimmed with tears; thoughts of the 
last bitter hour come like a blight over our spirits: but even 
now, when earthly help and sympathy seem vain, we look- 
beyond the cloud that hangs above us like a pall and there, 
through faith, we see the star of hope still shining on. In the 
lustrous light of that constant star, we read the assuring 
promise of the Savior of the world: "I am the resurrection 
and the life, whosoever liveth and believeth in Me shall never 
die." In this promise, the members of our order put their 
trust. In spite of perishing dogmas and crumbling creeds; 
in spite of the absurdities of atheism and the fallacies of infi- 
delity, we shall continue to lean upon the everlasting arm, 
believing that the twilight here is but the dawn of a grander 
day upon some other shore ; believing that the feeble flame 
that flickers here for a little while, will at last leap into a 
bright and shining light when the spirit of man has winged 
its flight back to Him that gave it birth, (lod pity the man 
who doubts the existence of another life in another land: 

History of West Virginia 


'Who hopeless lays his dead away, 
Xor looks to see the breaking day 
Across the mournful marble play: 
Who hath not learned in hours of faith 

The muh. to flesh and sense unknown, 
That life is ever lord of Death. 

And love can never lose its own." 

Fortunately for us an unbeliever such as this, if such 
there be, is precluded by the terms of our obligation from ever 
entering; into a lodge of Elks. 

It is possible that some uncharitable one is saying to him- 
self, I knew this one or that one in his lifetime. He did those 
things which he ought not to have done, and left undone those 
things which he ought to have done. On a certain day he 
yielded to a temptation, and on another day he trod the path 
of sin. To this, we answer that we do not know. We know 
nothing of another's sins. Hut, being made of the same base 
material and cast in the same imperfect mould as all the rest 
of the human race, we may well admit that all our brothers, 
past and present, are a part of that innumerable throng the 
.Master had in mind when he said: "There is none good but 
one, that is God." Xo doubt each one whose name is written 
there had his frailties and his faults. Xo doubt each one was 
scarred and seamed and rifted with the imperfections that go 
hand in hand with human life. 

Although this one or that one's sins may have been many; 
his transgressions many, and his offenses manifold, yet finite 
man is not called upon to make apologies for. or to pass judg- 
ment on, one who has stood trial before an infinite God. We 
simply trust that all of our departed ones have long since 
received the blessings of the promise: "Though your sins be 
as scarlet, they shall be as white as snow: though they be red 
like crimson, the\ shall be as wool." Aside from the lact ol 
their fate, whatever it may be. can you whose lips are full <>t 
life, presume to censure one whose lips are closed in death.' 
Will you dare disparage the name of one who has heroically 
passed the ordeal of death before which you stand trembling 
with fear, begging for the respite even of an hour!' "Thou 

274 History of West Virginia 

hypocrite, cast out first the beam out of thine own eye, and 
then shalt thou see clearly to pluck out the mote that is in 
thy brother's eye." 

No one knows, nor would it be well to know, what takes 
place between the great Creator and his insignificant creature 
in the last sad moment of life on earth. But we do know be- 
yond the peradventure of a doubt that the dying thief, while 
suffering on the cross, received absolution from his sins and 
was promised a triumphant entrance into paradise with the 
Savior of the world. We trust that the same unfailing 
mercy, the same loving kindness and the same boundless 
charity that gave to the malefactor a heritage in that house 
not made with hands, will extend to all the members of our 
order, and give them an abundant admission into the Kingdom 
of Heaven. Let us 

"No farther seek their merits to disclose, 
Nor draw their frailties from their dread abode. 
There they alike in trembling hope repose, 
The bosom of their Father, and their God." 

To-day let us, with sacred symbolism, strew the graves 
of our dead with flowers. Let us lay with loving hands, upon 
the bier of every friend, the imperishable amarynth, the fade- 
less emblem of immortality; let us wreathe the ivy, the floral 
metaphor of devoted friendship, the token of brotherly love, 
above the silent dust. And thus, so far as in our power lies, 
through sacred service, discharge our duty to our dead. 

From this memorial exercise, the living should learn 
anew a lesson that is as old as sacred history. The lesson is 
this: "It is better to go to the house of mourning, than to go 
to the house of feasting! for that is the end of all men; and 
the living will lay it to his heart." 

A sanctuary of sorrow is a crucible in which to purify the 
soul. May our coming to this service not have been in vain. 
May the fate of our departed be a constant reminder to us of 
the serious meaning of that irrevocable decree: "Alan is born 
to die." 

While we are busily engaged in weaving our names into 

History of West Virginia 27r< 

the tapestry of private fortune and public fame; and while 
we are eagerl\ endeavoring to lay up tor ourselves treasures 
upon earth, let us also make timely preparation for the coming 
of the inevitable hour in which every man must surrender his 
own soul, llaj we not be unmindful of the fact that death 
comes nearer to every one with every fleeting breath; that it 
comes indifferently as a thief in the dead of night or as a 
roy al guest at the blaze of noon. Let us bear this well in 
mind, not that our lives may be shrouded in gloom, or our 
hours consumed with impotent grief, but rather that we may 
be alive to the inspiration of the unixersal prayer: 

"God, give us men. 
The time demands strong minds, great hearts, true faith, and 

willing hands. 
Men whom the lust of office does not kill : 
Men whom the spoils of office cannot buy. 
Tall men. sun-crowned, who live above the fog 
In public duty and in private thinking; for while the rabble. 

with their thumb-worn creeds. 
Their large professions and their little deeds. 
Mingle in selfish strife: lo! freedom weeps; 
\\ rong rules the land and waiting justice sleeps ; 
I sav again, again. ( Jod give us men." 

Let our order heed this prayer, and let us strive to make its 
member a better citizen, a better man and a butter Christian, 
and thus contribute to the welfare of the world that which i- 
more valuable than the choicest siKer ami more desirable than 
the finest gold. 

With an abiding faith that everything in this universe 
was designed by an unerring architect for some ultimate good, 
with an abiding faith that all who seriously strhe shall 
e\cntuallv wear perfection's crown, let us go forth, with hope 
in our hearts and courage in our breasts, to tight the good 
light, to finish our course and unqualifiedly to keep the faith. 

"And when earth'- last picture i^ painted. 
And the tubes are twisted and dried. 

276 History of West Virginia 

And the oldest colors have faded, 

And the youngest critic has died, 
We shall rest, and faith we shall need it. 

Lie down for an aeon or two, 
Until the Master of all good painters 

Shall set us to work anew. 
And those who were good shall be happy, 

The}- shall sit in a golden chair, 
They shall splash at a ten league canvas 

With brushes of camel's hair, 
They shall have real saints to draw from, 

Magdalen, Peter and Paul. 
They shall paint for an age at a sitting, 

And never get tired of it all. 
And only the Master shall praise us, 

And only the Master shall blame, 
And no one shall work for money, 

And no one shall work for fame, 
But each for the joy of the doing, 

And each in his separate star 
Shall paint the thing as he sees it 

For the God of things as they are." 

Address of Governor A. B. Fleming at the Capitol, at 
Charleston, West Virginia, March 10, 1891, Presenting 
Sword to Lieutenant R. M. G. Brown, U. S. N. 

"It is my pleasant duty. Senators and Gentlemen of the 
House of Delegates, under a joint resolution of your respect- 
ive bodies, to formally present to a citizen of West Virginia 
this handsome and suitably inscribed sword as a testimonial 
of the State's recognition of gallant and heroic services. 

"I need not recount in detail the graphic story of the 
disaster at Samoa in March. 1889. The most violent and de- 
structive hurricane ever known in the South Pacific Ocean 
swept over that small group of islands, and a fleet of six war- 
ships were ground to pieces on the coral reefs in the Samoan 
Harbor or thrown on the beach fronting the little city of 
Apia, and one hundred and forty-two officers and men of the 

History of West Virginia .177 

AnU'rican ami German navies went down tu death, i lie 
I'nited States frigate Trenton, llagship of tin- Pacific squadruu, 
was among the stnrm-tossed vessels in the fateful harbor. 
Rudderless, saillcss and propcllcrless, in the height of the 
storm she was drifting on to her doom upon the reels. At this 
critical moment the nerve and read}' invention of one man, in 
rank only a lieutenant, but by virtue of superior ability in 
that time of danger the recognized leader and real commander 
of the Trenton, proved equal to the supreme occasion. Order- 
ing his crew of four hundred men into the rigging, he secured 
in the form of massed humanity just the requisite sail to drive 
his ship clear of the reefs and back into the open water, 
saving the Trenton from destruction and her four hundred and 
fifty souls from death, by a method as novel as it was daring. 

"In all the heroic and brilliant achievements that brighten 
the annals of our navy, there is none more resplendent than 
this clever and daring feat of seamanship. Hut it was not by 
this conspicuous performance alone that the navigating officer. 
R. M, l"i. Brown, of the Trenton, won distinction in the awful 
disaster at Samoa. After the Trenton struck the steamer 
Yandalia. he alone of all the officers of the Trenton, remained 
on the bridge during the height of the storm, giving orders 
that rescued the Vandalia's crew from the sunken steamer's 
masts. Indeed, throughout the whole of that terrible disaster 
the deeds of Lieutenant Brown were characterized by a hero 
ism and gallantry that added real glory to the American navy 
and challenge the plaudits of the nation. 

"It has been well said that the glory of a State is in its 
men. Xot in its broad acres, its fertile soils, its rich mines, 
but in its men. And in honoring a citizen whose conspicuous 
genius, courage and gallantry have achieved distinction, we 
simply pav tribute to our nobler manhood and renew our devo- 
tion to our common American pride our common American 

27S History of West Virginia 

Speech of Oliver Gallahue of Wetzel County at the Opera 
House, Fairmont, in 189?, 

Before proceeding to record the speech, we will here say 
that Air. Gallahue is a native of Wetzel County, having been 
born and reared on his father's farm, near Mobley l\ O., about 
1865, where he still resides, lie was a son of William 'I'. 
Gallahue, who, during' his lifetime, was one of Wetzel's lead- 
ing farmers and foremost citizens. 

When quite a young man, Oliver attended the Fairmont 
Normal School and later on studied law, in which profession 
he has since become quite proficient, but has no higher aspira- 
tions in the legal profession than that of practicing before 
justices' courts in the rural districts in the county, where he 
has been very successful, lie possesses a wonderfully re- 
tentive memory, and in speaking never uses notes, lie is by 
nature a rough and ready talker, but when occasion offers he 
can spill out sugar-coated words that charm the most fastidi- 
ous listener. lie has great command of "big words" and 
knows where and when to use them, and as an extemporaneous 
speaker he has but few equals. ' As to his personal appear- 
ance, he is very well described by the Fairmont West Vir- 
ginian, in which Mr. Gallahue's speech was reported. 

Concerning Mr. Gallahue's speech and the cause which 
brought it about, we quote from the West Virginian : 

Wetzel County isn't very far from any place in particular 
as to distance, but in many respects it is pretty remote. Its 
denizens, like all mountain and highland folks, arc strong on 
libertv of speech and freedom of action. "Montani semper 
Liberi — Pnci I lis descensus averni" — which by interpretation 
means "It is always easy to slide into hell from Montana or 
Libera, but not from West Virginia." 

The one particular gallant defender of the clan and 
stander-up for his native crags and peaks is "The Tall Wahoo 
of Wetzel," Oliver Gallaher, or Gallahue. according to local 
nomenclature. "Ol. Gallahue" by that token he is known 
throughout the length and breadth and height of Wetzel. 

lie is built somewhat on the specifications of Abraham 
Lincoln. That is. verticallv speaking, lie would be about 

History of West Virginia 27) 

neck and neck with that gentleman in length, hm now here 
near him in embonpoint ami pulchritude. 

lie is about 35 or -10, as \ cars go. hut age has nothing 
to do with it. As he himself says, he is "as old as all the 
sages of the ages, and as young as a chortling cherub laved in 
the Fountain of Perpetual Youth." 

lie owns a hillside farm up on Fishing Creek, hut that 
doesn't bother him much, lie also own- a lot of dogs and 
guns and is fond of hunting, so long as he doesn't find things 
and have to shoot them. But his hobby, sport and pastime 
is the law. And he is always read) and willing to argue any 
kind of a case in the local justice shops. And speechmaking 
well, name your subject -anything— and (>]. is there, full of 
sublime thoughts of his own and everybody else's; gets olf 
with a flying start and romps twice around the ring to any- 
body else's once. As "Devil John" W'illey says, "Ol. kin wrap 
bis tongue aroun' more words to the minute, an' eject 'cm 
faster'n any chap 'at ever come over the knob." lie is untu- 
tored, as far as schools are concerned, but has tutored him-clt 
to such purpose that he has the best things of the master 
minds pretty well corraled. 

Talking about schooling brings us around to the time 
several vears ago when he matriculated at the Fairmont Nor- 
mal School — and that's what I started to tell about. 

He lasted just three weeks there. Soon after he had de 
scende,d on that classic town and made it all his own. a "'lorn 
Show" (Uncle Tom's Cabin ) opened for a two-night stand at 
the Opera House. Several of the hot-boy students and staving 
voting blades of the burg had started in at the fust to striiiL; 
out .Mr. ( iallahue. just because he was from Wetzel and looked 
like a fresh and easv one. but they soon found that the) had 
guessed it wrong, for he was always there eleven to their one. 
So thev had cottoned up to him and proposed to sic him 
onto the unsuspecting, and then give the haw-haw when the 
latter got stung. So thev proposed to < 'I. that the) all take 
in the show, saying that they had the tickets for the fust row. 
Thev had bought one ticket for that row. and booked them 
selves far in the rear. 

It was a stormv night, and ( >1. showed up in a loii'i w t 

280 History of West Virginia 

rubber coat, high top boots, and hat with a foot wide brim. 
They had stopped along- the way for several sundries and 
things and entered the theater just at the time Topsy was 
handing out a well deserved bit of repartee to Mr. Marks, the 
attorney-at-law. The boys jiggled Ol. to the front of the pro- 
cession and fell back to their places whilst he, accoutred as he 
was, strode on after the usher to his place right down by the 
tiddlers. The burst of applause which the mimic show had 
just then elicited, was immediately recommenced, aided and 
abetted, augmented and aggravated by the enthusiastic friends 
of this spectacular entry. Most of the audience knew him, or 
thought the_\ did, and at once caught on and likewise trans- 
ferred their attention to the hero of Wetzel, and by the time 
he had shed his long slicker and thrown it into his seat with 
his big hat on top of it and glared around in search of his fol- 
lowers who hadn't followed, he found himself the recipient of 
an ovation that was a combination of a Chautauqua salute and 
a German student's hilee-hilo. 

Did lie rise to the occasion? lie did, and that show 
stopped right there: nor would the audience permit it to pro- 
ceed till their man had finished. 


With a low, sweeping and far-reaching bow, he sailed in: 

"Ladies and gentlemen, fellow citizens and fools, I 

thank you for your very vociferous applause and for your 

most cordial reception, which, to me, is as unsuspecting as it 

is flattering. 

"If asked where I hail from, my sole reply shall be, I hail 
not from Appomattox and its famous apple tree where the 
conquering hero wrestled the sword of victory from the van- 
quished foe. Nor did 1 with the embattled farmers stand and 
fire the shot heard round the world ; nor with Xapoleon, cross 
the bridge at Lodi and mingle the Eagles of France with the 
Magics of the crags, whilst forty centuries were looking down 
upon us. I hail not from the storied lands across the seas 
haloed by painter's brush and poet's song and moving tales 
■of daring to do when gallant knights rode forth with waving 

History of West Virginia 2S' 

liluinc and Hashing crest to light for ladies fair, < >r with lance 
in rest entered the lists to pluck the bubble of reputation from 
the cannon's mouth. I hail not from lamL of palm and south 
ern pine where close by the cottage door the sweet magnolia 
blooms, while through the duskv wildwood there throbs the 
mockbird's song, where the balmy jasmine-scented zephyrs 
gently waft across the perfumed fields, and wake to ecstasy 
the living lyre. 

"Xor yet from the bleak New England shores, where the 
breaking waves dashed high on a stern and rock bound coast, 
while the stern-faced fathers anchored safe the immortal bark, 
smoothed off the face of Plymouth Rock, and carved the Ten 
Commandments upon that everlasting cornerstone of the eter- 
nal tower of Liberty which lifts its shining turrets to the star 
spangled azure dome of the blue imperial heavens. 

"Xot from the vine-clad hills of La Belle Prance, nor 
storied castles on the Rhine, nor down among the English 
lanes where shepherds watch their Hocks by night, nor from 
heather clad hills of the Land o' Cakes, where Scottish chiefs, 
with claymore in one hand and pibroch in the other, charged 
down across the Culloden Moor and scoured these English 
hence across the Banks ami Braes o" Bonny Doon. 

"Xor did 1 spring like Phoenix from the ashes, or Minerva 
from the head of Jove, or Aphrodite from the ocean's wave— 
from dream of mystic poet, or vision of philosophic seer. 

"But — 1 do spring from the grand old count}' of Wetzel, 
where the soil is so fertile and so salubrious the clime, thai 
her teeming harvests leave no space for the upspringing ol 
that noxious weed. Ignorance (which, I perceive, Houri-dics 
hereabouts in great luxuriance). 

"1 hail from the cloud-kissed hills of Wetzel, whose snow- 
capped peaks lift up their shining fronts to greet the god ot 
dav whilst vet ye sluggards of the low land sleep, reclined on 
couches of inglorious ease. 

"1 hail from Wetzel, beneath whose towering hills and 
babbling brooks and bosky dells there lies a mineral and an 
oleaginous wealth that puts to shame the mines of Ophir or 
the Isles of lud. 

"Wetzel, from whose rugged slopes her sturdy sons fan-d 

282 History of West Virginia 

f^rth at duty's call to imbrue their arms in internecine and 
fraternal strife what time the dogs of war were loosed, and 
i. -n fared back again to rcassume the arts of peace and make 
of this the king-pin county of the warborn State. 

"Glorious old Wetzel ! whose sons are brave and daugh- 
ters fair, and which today produces gas enough to light the 
world, oil enough to lubricate it and brains enough to rule it." 



The compiler of this volume believes that il would be an 
impossibility for any single individual to collect and assemble 
data covering even the briefest mention of each and every 
person who has in any way contributed to the upbuilding <>f 
our commonwealth: for to do so would embrace practically 
every man and woman who has ever lived within these bor- 
ders. But if il were possible to do this, it would probably lax 
the capacity of the West Virginia Archives of History to hold 
such records. Therefore, the compiler has selected only a few 
for biographic subjects. A few of these have attained State- 
wide, if not world-wide, renown ; while a lew others are but 
little known outside of the locality wherein they have lived. 
Nevertheless, they have all contributed S( ).M KT1 1 IXl \ to 
ward the common good of their country. 

Arthur Ingraham Boreman. 

Arthur Ingraham More-man, the first Governor of the 
State of West Virginia, was one of the most striking figures 
of his time. He stood staunchly by the Union when the war 
clouds of ISfil began to gather and amid all the dangers and 
reviling- of former friend-- he adhered to his belief- with 1111 
flinching courage, lie was regarded as one of the bravest 
men of a time that developed all the latent courage in every 
man's soul. 

lie was born in Waynsburg, Pennsylvania. July 24. 1S2.\ 

\t the age of four \ ears he came with his parent- to T\ ler 

County. West Virginia, where he attended the school of that 

day. lie studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1S43, in 

which \ ear he located in Marker-burg, and began the practice 

284 History of West Virginia 

of his profession, in which he soon rose to prominence. He 
represented Wood County in the General Assembly of Vir- 
ginia, in 1855, and served until I860. He was president of the 
second convention at Wheeling, in 1S61, and which organized 
the Restored Government of Virginia and prepared the way 
for the formation of West Virginia. He was elected first 
Governor of West Virginia ; was inaugurated June 20, 1863. 
ami by successive elections served until 1869, when he was 
elected a member of the United States Senate, in which body 
he served six years. After that time he resumed the practice 
of law in Parkersburg, where he was later elected Judge of 
the Circuit Court, and served eight years, his term beginning 
January 1, 188y. He was a natural leader of men, and pos- 
sessed the confidence of all who knew him. He died at his 
home in Parkersburg on Sunday morning, April 19, 1896. 

Thomas Jonathan (Stonewall) Jackson. 

(From Third Biennial Report State Archives and History.) 

Among the passengers on board a ship lying at the wharf 
at London in 1748, but bound for America, was a young man, 
John Jackson, twenty-three years of age, whose home had 
been in one of the parishes near that city. In time he arrived 
in Maryland, and two years later, in Cecil Count}', that State, 
he wedded Flizabeth Cummins. Immediately thereafter, they 
sought and found a home near the site of the present town of 
Moorefield, now in Hardy Count}', West Virginia. From 
there the family crossed the Alleghany range and located 'i*t 
Buckhannon River, at what was long known as Jackson's 
Fort, on the site of the present town of Buckhannon, in 
Upshur County. Here they reared a family of eight children, 
and, late in life, removed to Clarksburg, in Harrison County, 
where the father died in 1801, in the eighty-sixth year of his 
age; his wife, having survived him until 1825, died at the age 
<•[ one hundred and live years. Their eldest son, George, Mas 
a -oldier in the Revolution, then a prominent lawyer in 
'darksburg; a member of the General Assembly of Virginia 
from Harrison Count}', from 1 780 to 1789, and again in the 

History of West Virginia 2S5 

year 1S00; after which hi.- was a member of tin- Fourth. Sixth 
and Seventh Congresses. After tine death of his father, lie- 
removed to Zanesvillc. Ohio, where he spent the remainder 
of his life. In Clarksburg he left his eldest son. John ('•., a 
prominent lawyer, who, as the successor of his lather, was a 
member of the Eighth. Ninth. Tenth, Klc\cnth. Thirteenth 
and Fourteenth Congresses: and the tirst Federal Judge ol 
the Western District of Virginia. His first wife was Miss 
Payne, a sister of pretty Dolly Madison, the much admired 
wife of President James Madison; his second wife was the 
onlv daughter of Governor Meigs of Ohio, lie died at Clarks- 
burg in 1845. aged forty-six years. 

Kdward, the second son of John and Elizabeth (Cum- 
mins) Jackson, fixed his home on the West Fork River, near 
the site of the present town of Weston, now in Lewis County; 
he was long a surveyor in that region, where he acquired a 
large estate, lie wedded lirst a Miss Madden, by whom in- 
had three sons — George, David and Jonathan — and three 
daughters, one of whom married a man by the name of White, 
while the others wedded brothers of the name of Brake. By 
a second marriage. Edward Jackson added to his family nine- 
more children, one of whom was Cummins Jackson, to be 
noticed hereafter. 

Jonathan Jackson, the third -on of Edward and Mrs. 
(Madden) Jackson, attended the old Male Academy at Par- 
kersburg and then read lav. with his cousin. Judge John ( t. 
lackson, at Clarksburg, by whom he was induced to locate 
for its practice in that town. Soon, thereafter, he wedded 
Julia Beckwith Xeale, a school-day acquaintance and the 
daughter of Thomas Xeale and Margaret (Winn) Xeale, a 
daughter of Minor Winn, who resided on the we-t side of 
Bull Run Mountain, Virginia. She was a close student and 
hecame the possessor of a good education : >he was rather a 
brunette, with dark brown hair, dark grey eyes, a handsome 
face, of medium height, and symmetrical form. Jonathan 
Jackson had reared a neat cottage of three rooms in Clarks- 
burg, to which he took his Parkersburg bride: and herein were 
born four children — Elizabeth. Warren. Thomas Jonathan, 
and Laura. The father. Jonathan, had inherited from his 

286 History of West Virginia 

father, Edward, a comfortable patrimony and had a promising 
future, but being of a generous nature, he became deeply in- 
volved by personal security for others, and when cut down 
in the meridian of life, every vestige of his property was swept 
away. He died of a malignant fever, contracted while nursing 
his eldest child, Elizabeth, who sank into the grave but two 
weeks before the father. 

Thomas Jonathan, the subject of this sketch, the third 
child of Jonathan and Julia (Neale) Jackson, who bore the 
name of his father and maternal grandfather, was born at 
Clarksburg, West Virginia, January 21st, 1824; and was in his 
third year at the time of his father's death, when his mother 
was left a widow with three helpless children, without a home 
or the means of support. But she was not without assistance, 
for the Masonic Fraternity, of which the father had been a 
faithful member, gave her a small house and in this humble 
abode, with her fatherless children, she spent the greater part 
of the few years of her widowhood. Here she taught a little 
school, and also added to her support by sewing. In 1830 she 
was married a second time. Captain Blake B. Woodson, of 
Cumberland Count}-. Virginia, becoming her husband. He 
was a lawyer of good education, and social and popular man- 
ners, but much her senior, and a widower without fortune. 
Soon after the marriage Captain Woodson removed to the 
new Count}' of Fayette, where he. in 1831, was appointed the 
first clerk of the county. Here, but a year after the removal, 
the wife sickened, died, and was buried in a lonely spot, amid 
towering mountains, at what is now the town of Ansted, in 
Fayette Count}-. Her grave was long neglected, but has been 
recently marked by a stone erected by Captain Thomas D. 
Ranson, of Staunton, a veteran of the famous "Stonewall 
Brigade." Before the removal to Fayette, the orphan children 
were separated : the mother took the youngest — Laura — to 
live with her; Warren was sent to live with his aunt, a Mrs. 
Brake; and Thomas Jonathan, our subject, found a home with 
his bachelor half-uncle, Cummins Jackson, a farmer and mill- 
owner on the West Fork River, about six miles below the 
town of Weston, in Lewis County, and distant eighteen miles 
from Clarksburg. Here he remained until he was eighteen 

History of West Virginia 2S" 

years of age. in the meantime performing the usual labor 
about the mill and on the farm, and in winter time attending 
the schools of the neighborhood. At the as;e of sixteen he- 
served as a constable in Lewis County, lie was ambitious, 
with an insatiable thirst for knowledge. Marly in 1S-12 a 
young man from the Congressional District in which young 
Jackson lived had received an appointment as Cadet to the 
Military Academy at West Point, but had found upon enter- 
ing that the discipline and hard study were too severe to suit 
his self-indulgent tastes, and resigned and returned home. 
Soon this was spoken of in the neighborhood; ami while 
Cummins Jackson was having a horse shod at a shop nearby, 
the blacksmith looked up and said: "Xow, here is a chance 
for Tom Jackson, as he is anxious to get an education." llis 
uncle caught the suggestion and, on going home, told the boy 
of the opportunity to get a Cadetship. This tired his heart 
and he began at once his efforts to secure the appointment. 
Armed with a letter signed by all his neighbors, addressed to 
Hon. Samuel Hays, then a member of Congress from that 
District, and dressed in a suit of homespun, he made his way 
to Washington City, where Mr. Hays introduced him to tin 
Secretary of War. lion. John C. Spencer, who was so much 
pleased with his appearance that he ordered a warrant for his 
appointment to be immediately made out. 

Young Jackson entered the Academy July 1st, 1S42. a 
at the expiration of four years was graduated with the rank 
of brevet Second Lieutenant, standing seventeenth in his class 
of fifty-nine members. Among his classmates were Generals 
George II. MeClellan. John G. Foster. Jesse L. Reno. 1). X. 
Couch, Truman Se_\ mour, M.D.. I.. Simpson, S. D. Sturgiss. 
George Stoneman. lnnis X. Palmer. Alfred Gibbs, George II. 
Gordon. Frederick Myers. Joseph X. G. Whistler, and Xelson 
H. Davis, of the United States Army; and Generals John A. 
Brown, John Adams. Dabney H. Maury. D. K. Jones. Cadmus 
M. Wilcox. Samuel B. Maxey, and (ieorge F. Pickett, of the 
Confederate Army. The Mexican War was in progress, and 
Lieutenant Jackson was at once ordered to join the First 
Regiment of Artillery, then at Xew Orleans. Complying, he 
entered Mexico with the armv of General Tas lor. under whom 

288 History of West Virginia 

he served until transferred to the command of General Scott. 
Mis military career was one of distinction and rapid promo- 
tion. He was engaged in the siege of Vera Cruz, and in the 
battles of Cerro Gordo, La Hoya, Oka Lake, Contreras, 
Cherubusco, Molino del Key, the storming of Chapultepec, 
and the capture of Mexico. In the conquered city, he received 
the rank of Major. Returning home with the army, he served 
in Fort Columbus, New York, in 1848; in Fort Hamilton, New 
York, in 1849, and was engaged in the Seminole War in 
I' lorida, in 1851. February 29, 1851, he resigned his commis- 
sion and returned to Virginia, where he was elected Professor 
of Natural and Experimental Philosophy and Instructor of 
Artillery Tactics in the Virginia Military Institute at Lexing- 
ton, which position he filled until the beginning of the Civil 
War. Immediately upon the secession of Virginia, Governor 
Letcher issued to Jackson a colonel's commission, and he took 
command of a small body of troops in the vicinity of Harper's 
Ferry. We can here make but a brief recapitulation of his 
subsequent career. Promoted to the rank of Brigadier General 
June 17, ISol, he, on the 2nd of July, checked for a time t' ■ 
advance of General Patterson at Falling Waters. He bore an 
important part in the battle of Hull Run, where, in the lan- 
guage of General Barnard F. Bee, of South Carolina, "He 
stood like a stone wall." October 7 he was commissioned a 
Major-General, and in January, 1862, marched into Western 
Virginia, striking Bath and Romney. March 23, he engaged 
General Shields at Kernstown, and early in May forced Banks 
to abandon Front Royal. Hastening his command to Rich- 
mond, he threw it against McClellan's rear and saved the for- 
tunes of the Confederate arms at Gaine's Mills. His achieve- 
ments of the next few days won for him the distinction of 
being one of the great commanders. He was engaged in the 
invasion of Maryland, and September 15 captured Harper's 
Ferry with more than 11,000 prisoners, then joined Lee in 
time to do the severest fighting at Antietam. October 11, 18(>2, 
he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General, and wit- 
nessed the battle at Fredericksburg in December. May the 
2nd, 18h3, he succeeded in turning Hooker's Hank at Chan- 
cellorsville, but in the darkness of the evening, as he was 

History of West Virginia 


returning with his stall to his own lines, lie was tired U|>on 
by mistake by his own men and received a wound from the 
effects of which he died May 10, ]X(o. 

The following is the inscription on the plinth of the west 
ern side of the monument :- - 








YVhv Thcv Called Him "Stonewall". 

At the first battle of Manassas, July 21, 1861, the first 
great battle of the Civil War, General Jackson's Brigade <>t 
Virginia Volunteers— twelve companies being from West 
Virginia saved the day for the Confederate arms. The Con- 
federates were falling back, General Barnard Bee's So ith 
Carolina Brigade was retreating. Jackson's Virginians wire 
standing under lire. Bee, in his effort to rally his own men. 

called out : "S 
Henceforth hi 

There stands Jackson like a stone-w all." 
irigade was known as the "Stone vail 

"Jackson stands there, like a stone wall," he said. 
As he pointed his sword across the battle-field; 
Thus the name — none prouder on spotless shield 
Than "Stonewall," the soubriquet to valor paid." 

John ( !. ( linings. 

290 History of West Virginia 


Early in January, 1862, Stonewall Jackson captured 
Roinncy. There was little opposition. General Lander K *t a 
lew hours before the Confederates arrived. Jackson was in 
command of this part of the State, and he regarded Ronmey 
as of considerable importance, and left General Loring to hold 
the town with a force deemed sufficient to resist successfully 
any Union troops in the vicinity. 1 laving established Loring 
in Komnev. Jackson returned to Winchester, and soon aftei 
this resigned from the army of the Confederacy. This is a 
point in history not generally known, and but imperfectly un- 
derstood. A true account of his resignation, and his reasons 
for that step, is properly given in detail in the history of 
Hampshire County ; for he was promoted to that action be- 
cause the secretary of war for the Southern Confederacy inter- 
fered with his plans at Ronmey, and undid his work. Follow- 
ing is a history of the matter: 

Jackson left Loring in Romncy and returned to Win- 
chester. Shortly afterward. January •'>!, IWi, J .P. Benjamin, 
secretary of war for the Southern Confederacy, ordered Jack- 
son to recall Loring and his troops from Romney to Win- 
chester, having taken this step without consulting Jackson or 
ascertaining what his plans were. This was resented by Jack- 
son, who, under date of January 'U, l.s(.;-2, wrote to the sec- 
retary of war as follows: 

"Your order requiring me to direct General Loring to re- 
turn with his command to Winchester immediately has been 
received and promptly complied with. With such interfer- 
ence with my command 1 cannot expect to be of much service 
in the field, and according!}' respectfully request to be ordered 
to report for duty to the superintendent of the Virginia Mili- 
tary Institute at Lexington, as has been done in the case of 
other professors. Should this application not be granted, 1 
respectfully request that the president will accept my resigna- 
tion from the army. 1 am, sir, very respectfully, your obedi- 
ent servant, T. J. Jackson." 

As soon as the secretary of war received Jackson's resig- 
nation he sent an officer to Governor Letcher to acquaint him 

History of West Virginia 2''\ 

with the tact, and the governor hastened to the war office and 
urged Mr. Benjamin not to take action in the matter until 
General Jackson could he heard from further. The secretary 
agreed to the governor's proposal, and the resignation was laid 
aside. Returning to his office. Governor Letcher wrote a long 
and earnest letter to General Jackson at Winchester, urging 
him to recall his letter. Scarcely was this letter finished when 
a letter from Jackson, written January 31. the date of his 
resignation, was delivered to Governor Letcher, saying: 

"Governor: This morning 1 received an order from the 
secretary of war to order General Loring and his command 
to fall back from Romney to Winchester immediately. The 
order was prompth complied with, hut, as the order was given 
without consulting me. and is abandoning; to the enemy what 
has cost much preparation, expense and exposure to secure, 
and is in direct conflict with my military plans, and implies a 
want of confidence in my capacity to judge when (ieneral 
Loring's troops should fall back, and is an attempt to control 
military operations in detail from the secretary's desk at a 
distance, 1 have, for the reason set forth in the accompanying 
paper, requested to be ordered back to the institute : and if this 
is denied me. then to have my resignation accepted. 1 ask 
as a special favor that you will have me ordered hack to the 
institute. As a single order like that of the secretary's may 
destroy the entire fruits of a campaign. I cannot reasonably 
expect, if my operations are thus to be interfered with, to be 
of much service in the field. A sense of duty brought me into 
the held and has thus far kepi me. It now appears to be m_\ 
duty to return to the institute, and 1 hope that \ ou will leave 
no stone unturned to get me there. If 1 have ever acquired, 
through the blessings of Providence, any influence over troops, 
this undoing of my work by the secretary may greatly di- 
minish my influence. 1 regard the recent expedition as a 
great success. I'.efore our troops left here, January I, there 
was not, so far as 1 have been able to ascertain, a single lo\ al 
man in Morgan Count}' who could remain at home in saletj. 
In four days that count}- was entirely evacuated by the cncim : 
Romney and the most valuable portion of Hampshire County 
were recovered without firing a gun. and before we had even 

292 History of West Virginia 

entered the county. 1 desire to say nothing against the 
secretary of war. I take it for granted that he has done what 
lie believed to be best, but I regard such a policy ruinous. 

T. J. Jackson." 
The letter which Governor Letcher wrote to General Jack- 
son was carried by Colonel Boteler, and he returned with Tack- 
son's reply, in which he consented to have his resignation 
withdrawn from the files of the war office. This was done. 
The resignation was entrusted to the keeping of Governor 
Letcher. When the Confederates retreated from Richmond 
this paper was forgotten, and would have been lost had not 
the governor's mother secured it, with other papers, and car- 
ried it to a place of safety. 

Skirmish at Peter Poland's. 

In April, 1862, a fight occurred near Grassy Lick, at the 
residence of Peter Poland, between a company of Federals and 
a dozen or more men who were preparing to enter the Con- 
federate srvice. At that time a man styling himself Captain 
Umbaugh was in that part of Hampshire County raising a 
ompany for the Confederate service. He claimed to have 
authority from Stonewall Jackson, but it was subsequently 
learned that he had no authority. He collected a dozen or 
more men and would perhaps have raised a company if his 
career had not been cut short. Colonel Downey of the Union 
army, went out from Romney with one company, on April 22, 
1862, looking for Captain Umbaugh's men, and any other Con- 
federates he might find. They came to the house of Peter 
Poland and took his son, Peter Poland, Jr., prisoner. The 
young man was a Confederate soldier and was visiting his 
father. Sometime after the Federals left, Captain Umbaugh, 
with a dozen of his men, came to Mr. Poland's to spend the 
night. About three o'clock in the morning the Federals re- 
turned and called upon the men to surrender. They refused 
to do so, and a fight immediately began. The Yankees fired 
through the doors and windows. The walls were so thick 
that the bullets would not come through. The members ol 
the family protected themselves the best they could from the 


History of West Virginia 2 n .i 

bullets, but one came through the door and -truck Peter Po 
land's arm. The same bullet wounded Isaiah \V. I'nwnall. 
lasper Pownall, who was in the house, was also wounded. 
Peter Poland's wound proved fatal two weeks later. \\ he 
davlight came the men in the house killed three Federals ami 
the others withdrew. Captain Cmbaugh took advantage ol 
the situation and retreated with his men. In a short time the 
Federals returned with reinforcements from Ronnie v. bring 
hlg artillerv with which to batter the house down. Troops 
arrived from Moo re field and Petersburg. Put there was no 
one in the house to oppose them, and the_\ notified Mrs Poland 
and her daughters to take their furniture out of the house. 
They said they would give her two hours to get the things out. 
She commenced removing the furniture, but in less than fifteen 
minutes the building was set on 'fire. The soldiers loaded the 
household goods on wagons and hauled them off. It is said 
there are persons in an adjoining county still sleeping on beds 
stolen from Mr. Poland's house. His property was destroyed 
or carried off. and the inmates were turned out of doors. Mr. 
Poland's family consisted of his sons. Richard. James C, Peter, 
William, Isaac. Jasper and Frank M. His daughters were: 
Flizabeth. who afterwards married John llaire. who was in 
the house at the time of the fight : Hannah, who married Isaiah 
Haire. and Mary C: who married Amos Koberson. 

Captain Umbaugh Killed. 

Captain L'mbaugh. whose fraudulent claim to being an 
officer in the Confederate service led to the death of Peter 
Poland and the burning of his house, continued to roam about 
Hampshire County until he met his death and caused the 
death of others. In May. 1So2. he was at the house of J. T. 
Wilson, where he was surprised by the Federals, lie was 
shot and killed. At the same time and place John W. Poland 
was killed and William II. Poland was wounded and taken 

The Grassy Lick Militia. 

When the Civil War began, the < ir;i«j I-ick militia was 
under Captain John 11. Piles. It v as the one hundred and 

294 History of West Virginia 

fourteenth regiment of Virginia militia. It served one year 
an<] was then disbanded, many of the members joining the 
regular Confederate army. 

Captain Pile's Company. 

When the Grassy Lick militia disbanded in the second 
year of the war, Capt. John II. Piles and a number of his men 
entered the regular army of the Confederacy as Company K., 
electing John II. Piles as captain. The company became a 
portion of Colonel George Imboden's regiment, and belonged 
to General John Imboden's cavalry brigade. 

McMackin's Militia. 

A company of militia, about eighty in number, was or- 
ganized early in the war under Thomas McMackin as captain, 
Joseph Rerry, lieutenant, and Conrad Wilbert, second lieu- 
tenant. This company was delegated to guard the district 
along North River, and was occupied with that work during 
the summer of 1801 and the early part of 1862. After about 
one year of service the company went to Winchester, where 
it disbanded. Some of the men joined other companies and 
some returned to their homes. 

A Sentinel's Mistake. 

Rising several hundred feet above the channel of North 
River is a rock jutting out from the summit of Ice Mountain. 
McMackin's militia company's cam]) was near the river at the 
base of the mountain. It was the custom to place a sentinel 
on that pinnacle, which was called Raven Rock, at daybreak 
and keep him there all day. It was his duty to watch the sur- 
rounding country for the approach of enemies. From the 
elevated station the region for miles around lies in full view; 
and a sentinel with a good glass could easily discover troops 
approaching and could give the alarm in time for the militia 
in' the cam]) below to prepare for action. The duty of stand- 
ing guard on the pinnacle usually devolved upon II. L. 

History of West Virginia 


Swisher; but on a certain da_\ , which the militia had occasion 
long to remember, an inexperienced man wnt placed on the 
rock\ watch tower, while the experienced sentinel, accom- 
panied liy William Sherwood, went hunting. The new man 
had not been long on his elevated post when he saw an nil 
usual object rising over an eminence where one of the country 
roads crossed the ridge in the direction of Springfield, lie 
had not long to wait before he satisfied himself that Yankee 
cavalry was approaching. Down from the rocks he went to 
give the alarm in the cam]) below, where the Rebels were whil- 
ing away the time, unsuspicious' of their danger. The start- 
ling intelligence produced the greatest consternation. The 
militia had been waiting a long time for a chance to fight the 
Yankees, but they did not care to rush into the jaws of death 
by meeting the advancing cavalry, which, as the sentinel de- 
clared, "made the road blue for miles." They accordingly 
rushed the other way. They broke camp double quick, aban- 
doning what they could not carry away, and up the road they 
went on a run. crossed the mountains and continued their 
retreat till they reached Sandy Ridge, several miles distant. 
.Major Devers, who resided at the foot of Ice Mountain, finally 
succeeded in rallying them, and they made a stand. But the 
Yankees never put in an appearance, and a battle was averted. 
The Yankees came suddenly upon William Sherwood and 
1 Ienr\ Swisher, who were absent when the retreat began, and 
look the former prisoner, but the latter made his escape, 
i ireat was the mortification of the Confederate militia when 
thev learned that the Federal cavalry which had "made the 
road blue for miles" consisted of only seven men. Bui these 
-even men had accomplished wonders. Thev hail dri\en 
eightv militia and had burned a number of houses about North 
River mills, and then retired unpursued. Maxwell cc Swish- 
er's History of Hampshire County. 

Francis Harrison Pierpont. 

Francis llarri-ou Pierpont wa- born lanuar\ 25. 1X1-4. in 
Monongalia Count}. Virginia, (now Marion <"ount\. \\ e-t 
Virginia), lie graduated at Mlegheiiy College. .\lcad\ilh-. 

290 History of West Virginia 

Pa., in J839. He then taught .school for a few years and after- 
wards became a successful lawyer and business man ; later, he 
was engaged in coal mining and the manufacture of brick. 

In politics, he was an Anti-Slavery Whig and was a 
presidential elector from Virginia in 1848. Me was a member 
of the Methodist Protestant church. 

On June 20, 1861, he was elected provisional governor of 
Virginia by the Wheeling convention. On the fourth Thurs- 
day of May, 1862, he was elected governor of Virginia, to fill 
out the unexpired term of John Letcher, who was declared to 
have vacated his office by having joined the Confederacy. 

On the fourth Thursday in May, 1863, he was elected for 
the full term of four years, beginning January 1, 1864, and re- 
moved the seat of government from Wheeling to Alexandria 
before the State of Virginia began its legal existence on June 
20, 1863. On May 25, 1865, he removed the seat of govern- 
ment to Richmond, and served until the end of his term, 
January 1, 1868, when Major-! ieneral Schofield, in command 
of the First Military District, appointed Henry W. Wells pro- 
visional governor. He then returned to his home in Fairmont. 

In 1869 he was elected to the House of Delegates and was 
later appointed Collector of Internal Revenue for West Vir- 
ginia by President Garfield. He died in Pittsburgh, at the 
home of his daughter, on March 24, 1899, and was buried at 

Daniel D. T. Farnsworth. 

Daniel Duane Tompkins Farnsworth was born on Staten 
Island, New York, December 23, 1819. In June. 1821, the 
family removed to Buckhannon, Upshur County. Jn early 
life he learned the trade of tailor with Charles Lewis, of 
Clarksburg. He afterwards went into business for himself 
and was a merchant for thirteen years. 

He was a member of the Wheeling convention and took 
a very active part in the proceedings, being one of the most 
ardent members of the Carlisle party. At the first Wheeling 
convention, he offered the first and only resolution providing 
for the formation of a new state. It was defeated 50 to 17, the 
delegates not being ready at that time for such a radical step. 

History of West Virginia 2'J7 

At the reconvening of the convention in August, lie was 
the chairman of tlie committee of six that presented the new 
state ordinance and is generally regarded as the author of that 
ordinance. lie was a member of the first House of Delegates 
of the new state and of the State Senate for seven years, l'.y 
virtue of his office as President of the Senate, lie became 
Governor to fill the unexpired term of Governor l'.oreman 
when the latter was elected to the United States Senate. 

Daniel Dye Johnson. 

Daniel Dye Johnson was born in this state, April 28, l83o. 
He received a good education, graduating' from Columbian 
University in June. 18<>0. From the galleries of congress he 
listened to the stirring debates on secession and returned home 
to work against it. He was a member of the Wheeling con- 
vention anil following the formation of the Restored Govern- 
ment he entered the Union army as Major of the Fourteenth 
West Virginia Infantry ; was promoted to be Colonel and in 
manv battles was called upon to serve as Brigade Commander. 

Honorable John H. Atkinson. 

Hon. John H. Atkinson, one of the leading citizens of 
Hancock County, was also a leading supporter of the Union. 
He was a member of the first Wheeling convention, and was 
the chairman of a committee from Hancock County which 
drew up a set of resolutions, one of which was somewhat 
similar to the restored government idea later adopted, lie 
was elected to the first state senate and was chairman of the 
committee on education for several years. 

James W. Paxton. 

lames W . Paxton. one of the most prominent residents ol 
Virginia at the time the civil strife began, also has the dis- 
tinction of having been one of the strongest defenders of the 
Union. His voice, influence and means were always at the 

298 History of West Virginia 

command of his country and his services were of the most 
valuable nature. 

He took a leading part in all the Wheeling conventions 
and his views as expressed on the floor were heard with great 
respect by all factions. At the first gubernatorial convention, 
his name was placed before the delegates without his consent 
and on the first ballot he received a very large vote. He then 
made known to his friends that he would not accept and on 
the second ballot, Francis H. Picrpont was named. 

When the statehood measure was before congress, Mr. 
Paxton headed the delegation that went to the national capital 
to work for its passage. He was afterwards urged to be a 
candidate for United States senator, but declined, having no 
desire for political position. PI is widow, Mrs. James XV. Pax- 
ton, still resides at the beautiful old colonial home at "Up- 
lands," Pleasant Valley. 

James G. West. 

James G. West was born at Morgantown, Virginia, (now- 
West Virginia), November 23, 1794. lie married Jemima 
Thorn about the year 1815. To this union were born the fol- 
lowing children: Sons, C. N.. P. G., J. G. Jr., S. M. and S. G. 
West; daughters, Rlmina J., Mary, Pucinda. Anna J. ?nd 
Martha, all of whom are now dead, except Captain P. G. West, 
of Mannington : S. G. West, of Humbolt, Kansas, and Martha 
Morgan, of Altizer, West Virginia. 

James G. West moved to what is now Wetzel County, 
West Virginia, in the year 1820, settling near the present town 
of Jacksonburg, where he lived until the spring of 1832, when 
he removed to and built the house where his great-grandson. 
'Squire S. |. Kilcoyne, now lives — just above the village of 
Moblev. Here he resided till the spring of 1867, when he 
located cm a farm near Mannington, Marion County, at which 
place he died October 20, 1872. 

He was the second sheriff of Wetzel County, having 
served in that capacity from January 1, 184°, to January 1, 
1851 : was a member of the House of Delegates in 1861, and 
was also a member of the Second Wheeling Convention, which 

History of West Virginia 


convened June 11, ISO] particulars of which arc given in an 
other chapter, entitled "Formation of West Virginia." lie 
was president of the county court of \\ ctzel County from ISoO 
to lXhl ; was a delegate to the State Nomination Convention 
held at Parkers-burg. May i>. ISfo; served as justice of the 
peace twenty vears. 

Mr. West was a large real estate holder, having at one 
time owned 7000 acres in tyrant District. Wetzel County. 

The writer does not know to what religious denomination, 
if any, Mr. West belonged; but, judging from his recorded 
actions, he possessed all the qualifications of a Christian gen 
tleman, and was a person of more than ordinary ability in the 
pursuit of worthy enterprises. His frequent elevation to po 
litical honors is sufficient evidence of the high esteem the 
people held for him. 

Hon. P. M. Hale. 

lion. P. M. Male was born near Morganlown on August 
2-<. 1820. In 184 ( >, following his marriage, he moved to Wes- 
ton and engaged in business. At the beginning of the war 
he promptly declared for the Union, and called a meeting ot 
the loyal citizens of Weston to meet at his store for the pur 
pose of mutual protection and the defense of the Union, lb- 
was chosen delegate from Lewis County to the Wheeling con- 
vention and took an active part. He was elected to the first 
legislature of West Virginia and was one of the active workers 
for the present free school system of the state. 

Chester D. Hubbard. 

Chester 1). Hubbard was born in llamden. Connecticut. 
November 25. 1814. The family removed to near Pittsburgh 
in the spring of 1815. and to Wheeling >" -March. 181 r ». ]], 
was associated with his father in the brick and lumber husi 
nes> for several years. He prepared for college and entered 
Weslevan University, at Middletown, Connecticut, in IS.Vp. 
graduating as valedictorian of the class of 1810. Prom that 
time until his retirement shortly before his death in 1801. he 

300 History of West Virginia 

was incessantly bus}'. He became one of the foremost leaders 
of the Union cause in West Virginia, and called the first 
Wheeling convention to order. He also took a leading part in 
all the events of all the Wheeling conventions. He is sur- 
vived by two sons, Hon. William P. Hubbard and C. R. Hub- 
bard, and one daughter, Mrs. J. C. Brady, all of this vicinity. 
Following is a brief chronology of his life: 
In the lumber business in Wheeling until the organization 
of Bank of Wheeling in 1S53, when he was elected its presi- 
dent, giving it his personal attention until 1865. 

1844, member of the city council of Wheeling; 1852, rep- 
resented Ohio County in the Virginia legislature ; 1853, re- 
elected to the same body ; 180l, a member of the Virginia con- 
vention at Richmond and voted and spoke against the Ordin- 
ance of Secession. Same year took a prominent part in the 
Wheeling conventions; 1863, a member of the West Virginia 
senate; 1864, delegate to the Baltimore convention that nom- 
inated Lincoln and Johnson ; 1865, president of the board of 
trustees. Wheeling' Female Academy; 1865 to I860, repre- 
sented Panhandle district in 39th and 40th Congresses; 1S71, 
secretary of the Wheeling Iron and Nail Co.; 1872, lay dele- 
gate to M. E. General Conference in Brooklyn, N. V. ; 1874, 
president of the Pittsburgh, Wheeling & Kentucky Railroad; 
1880, president of the German Bank of Wheeling; 1880, dele- 
gate to the Republican National Convention at Chicago. 

Campbell Tarr. 

The Tarr family is of Prussian origin. Peter Tarr, the 
American immigrant ancestor, came to Pennsylvania near the 
close of the Revolutionary War; about the year 1800 he re- 
moved and settled on King's Creek, then in Brooke, lint now 
Hancock County, West Virginia, where he established the 
first iron smelting establishment west of the Alleghanies. His 
oldest son, William, wedded Vary, a daughter of James Perry, 
veteran of the Revolution, and engaged in business, in Wells- 
burg. Brooke County, where on January 8, 1819, Campbell, 
the subject of this sketch, was born. He received his early 
trainimj from his mother, who was an educated, cultured ladv. 

History of West Virginia . ; 0I 

and obtained his business experience in the mercantile house 
of his father. A siiuk'iii of books, men and environment, he 
became a leader of public opinion, and when the crisis of ISoO 
came, the voters of llrookc County elected him to represent 
them in the Convention at Richmond in I80I, in which he 
opposed and voted against the Ordinance of Secession. 

lie was among the most ardent and consistent advocates 
of a new .state and his voice was heard in licrv debate in all 
the Wheeling conventions. lie served two years as treasurer 
of the Commonwealth under the restored Covcrnmcnt, and 
was then elected the treasurer of the new Stale of \\ est \ ir- 
ginia. In 18o5 he returned to private life, on his farm near 
Wellsburg, where he died December 22, 1879. leaving issue 
five children — one son and four daughters. 

John S. Carlisle. 

Hon. John S. Carlisle was born in Winchester, Virginia. 
December In, 1817. His mother was a woman of high culture 
and educated her son until he was fourteen years of age. He 
then entered a dry goods store as clerk and at the age ol 
seventeen went into business for himself, lie soon formed 
a taste for the legal profession, studied law and was admitted 
to the bar in 1840. lie began his law practice at Beverly. 
Randolph County. In 1847 he was elected to the Virginia 
Senate and served until 1851. lie was a man of untiring 
energy, a close student, a diligent legislator and a ready and 
forceful debater. He took a leading rank in the Senate and 
in 1850 was elected a delegate from Randolph County to revise 
the state constitution. In that body of distinguished men he- 
was soon found to be one of the most able. In 185? he was 
elected to Congress and served one term. 

To secure greater opportunities in the practice of law. he- 
re-moved to Clarksburg. Harrison County. He was employed 
in practically every important cax- in that section ol the state 
and achieved great distinction. 

In the troubles that immediately preceded the Civil War. 
Mr. Carlisle was a staunch supporter of the Union. He was 
a representative from his county at all the Wheeling conven- 

302 History of West Virginia 

tions, and to him, more than to any other one man, West Vir- 
ginia owes her existence as a separate state. Several times 
it seemed that arguments of those opposed to separate state- 
hood were unanswerable, but on all such occasions the fiery 
eloquence of Carlisle steadied the wavering delegates and fin- 
ally turned the tide. He was chosen one of the first two 
senators from the Restored Government of Virginia and 
served until 1865. lie died at his home in Clarksburg in 1878. 


Waitman T. Willey. 

This famous leader of the conservative element in the 
Vheeling conventions was born on Buffalo Creek, Monor- 
galia County, (now Marion County), October 18, 1811. He 
was born and reared on a farm. At the age of 17 he entered 
Madison College (now Allegheny College), from winch he 
graduated in June, 1831. 

In the spring of 1832 he began the study of law in Wells- 
burg under the distinguished rhilip Doddridge, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in September, 1833. He immediately took 
up the practice of law at Morgantown. 

In 1834 he was united in marriage to Miss Elizabeth Ray, 
who is now deceased. In 1840 he was an elector on the Har- 
rison-Tyler ticket; from 1841 to 1852 was clerk of the count}' 
ami circuit courts of law and chancery of Monongalia County; 
was a member of the Virginia constitutional convention in 
1850-51 : he was the Whig candidate for congress from his 
district in 1852 and Whig candidate for lieutenant governor 
in 1859; in I860 he was a delegate to the convention that nom- 
inated Bell and Everett for president and vice-president; was 
a member of the Virginia convention of 1861 and voted against 
the ordinance of secession. 

In the memorable Wheeling conventions, which ended 
with the formation of West Virginia, he was one of the most 
prominent actors. He was not opposed to the formation of 
a new state, but consistently advised slow and careful proce- 
dure. He and the fiery and eloquent John S. Carlisle were 
the two leaders of the convention. Both were in favor of 
practically the same action, but on the question of methods 

History of West Virginia 303 

they led two widch varying tactions. The ultimate result 
was a compromise in which the views of both leaders were 

Following the formation of the restored government of 
Virginia, he was selected as one of the two United States sen- 
ators, drawing the two-year term. In 18f>5 he was re-elected 
and served until the expiration of his term in 1871. 

For many years previous to the Civil War Senator Willey 
and Ceo. \V. Summers, of Kanawha County, were regarded as 
the leaders of the Whig party in Western Virginia, lie was 
always a man of almost limitless energy ami industry and in 
addition to his public career, wrote much for newspapers and 
periodicals on both religious and political subjects. 

Perhaps his greatest fame was as an orator and his plat- 
form triumphs were among the most numerous and conspicu- 
ous in an age when oratory was in flower. Together with his 
powers as an orator Mr. Willey combined those solid traits 
which go to make the real statesman. 

lie wa< a conspicuous member of the Methodist kpiscopal 
church for more than half a century, lie died May 2. 1900. 

Gibson Lamb Cranmer. 

(iibson Lamb Cranmer. the secretary of the statehood 
convention that met in Wheeling. June 11. ISM. was born in 
Cincinnati, Ohio. February 20, 182o. 

The family removed to Virginia and the son received the 
greater part of his early education in this state, lie became 
prominent in politics and was elected a member Irom Ohio 
County of the Ceneral Assembly of Virginia for the term of 

lie was an ardent supporter of the Cnion and gave his 
services unsparingly to aid the fight against secession. As 
secretary of the Wheeling convention, he rendered great ser- 
vice in the formation of the restored government ol \ irginia, 
and later of the formation of West Virginia. He was elected 
clerk of the House of Delegates under the restored govern- 

Following the war. he was president of the Antietam Xa- 

304 History of West Virginia 

tional Cemetery Association until it was presented to the na- 
tional government. For many years he was a leading lawyer 
and jurist of Wheeling and an elder of the First Presbyterian 
church. He also possessed great literary talent and did a 
great deal of historical and newspaper writing. Perhaps the 
best known of these is his "History and Biography of Ohio 

J. H. Diss De Bar. 

J. H. Diss De Bar was, in many respects, a remarkable 
man. He was a Frenchman, born in Alsace about 1817; re- 
ceived a classical and scientific education ; spoke and wrote the 
French. German, and English equally well; had a fair knowl- 
edge of Spanish and Italian, and readily translated the Latin 
and Greek. Likewise he was a genius in art; capable of pro- 
ducing a likeness portrait in a few swift lines in the briefest 
space of time. Having resolved to come to the United States, 
lie proceeded to Liverpool, where, on the 4th of January, 1842, 
he sailed in the Cunard Steamer "Britannia," having as a fel- 
low voyager the distinguished Charles Dickens. This Depart- 
ment has in its possession a small portrait of him (Dickens), 
made by Diss De Bar while at sea on that voyage. Landing 
in Boston Diss De Bar made his way to Cincinnati, where he 
was soon after wedded to Clara, the daughter of Eugene Lc- 
vassor, a Frenchman well connected in his own country. From 
there Diss De Bar removed to Parkersburg, and became in- 
terested in West Virginia lands, lie brought the Swiss col- 
ony to Doddridge Count}", naming it Santa Clara, in honor of 
his wife. When the Civil War came he was an ardent Mew 
States man, and it was while unsuccessfully contesting the 
seat of Ephraim Bee, of Doddridge County, that he designed 
the Coat-of-Arms and Seals of the State. January 3. 1864, 
Governor Boreman appointed Diss De Bar "State Commis- 
sioner of Immigration." He went actively to work and in a 
short time distributed 18,000 pamphlets, hand-bills and adver- 
tisements in Europe. In 1870 he published "The West Vir- 
ginia Hand-Book," a work which shows that he possessed a 
wide knowledge of the resources of the State. PI is wife died 
and is buried in the Catholic cemeterv at Parkersburg. He 

History of West Virginia 305 

left the State many years ago. and is now said to lie still living 
in Philadelphia. — XV. \'a. Arch. 

General David Hunter Strother. 

Horn at Berkeley County, West Virginia. 
September 26. 181 h; died at Charles Town, Jefferson County, 
was on the staff of (ieneral John Pope in 1S')2. Later, 
in 1865. he served as Adjutant-General under Governor 
picture was sketched from life by Joseph H. Diss Debar. 
Later, in 1865. he served as Adjutant-General under Governor 
Pierpont when the seal of the Restored Government was re- 
moved from Alexandria to Richmond. Formerly, he was ar- 
tistic and literary contributor to "Harper's Monthly" under 
the nom-de-plume of "Port Crayon." His literary fame is 
almost world-wide. 

Hon. John F. Lacy. 

(From McFJdowney's History of Wetzel County— 1901. ) 

"John F. Lacy, representative in Congress from Sixth 
Iowa district, was born May 30, 1841, on the Williams farm, 
just above New Martinsville. Va. (now W. Va.L In 1855 he 
moved to Iowa, and has made his home in Mahaska County 
ever since. At the beginning of the Civil War. in May. 1S61. 
he enlisted as a private in Company "H," Third Iowa Infantry : 
afterwards made a corporal, lie was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Blue Mills. Mo., in September. 1861. and was paroled 
with General Mulligan's command at Lexington. Mo., soon 
after. The President issued an order for the discharge of all 
paroled prisoners, not then deeming it proper to recognize the 
Confederates by exchange. Mr. Lacy was discharged under 
this order. In 1S<>2 an exchange of prisoners was agreed on. 
which released all discharged men from their parol, and Mr. 
Lacy at once re-enlisted as a private in Company "D." Thirty- 
third Iowa Infantry. He was soon promoted to the rank of 
sergeant-major of the regiment, and in May. 1863. was ap- 
pointed first lieutenant of Company "C." < "olonel Samuel \. 

306 History of West Virginia 

Rice, of the Thirty-third Iowa, was made a brigadier-general, 
and Mr. Lacy was appointed by President Lincoln as assistant 
adjutant-general of volunteers on his staff. General Rice was 
killed at the battle of Jenkins Ferry, Ark., and Mr. Lacy was 
then assigned to the same position on the staff of Maj. Gen. 
Frederick Steele, in which capacity he served until his muster- 
out in September, 1865. He participated in the following 
battles: Blue Mills, Helena, Little Rock, Terre Noir, Elkin's 
Ford, Prairie d'Anne, Poison Springs, Jenkins Ferry, Siege of 
Mobile and storming of Blakeley. He was struck with a 
minie ball in the battle of Jenkins Fern', but his poncho turned 
the ball aside and prevented any injury. His horse was killed 
under him by a shell in the battle of Prairie d'Anne. 

"Major Lacy's advancement was continuous, and although 
he was only twenty-four years old at his discharge, he had in 
nearly four years' service done duty as a private, corporal, 
sergeant-major, adjutant-general of a brigade, adjutant-gen- 
eral of his division, adjutant-general of a corps, adjutant-gen- 
eral of General Steele's command (15,000 strong) in the Mo- 
bile campaign, and finally as adjutant-general of Steele's Army 
of Observation (of 42,000 men) on the Rio Grande. 

"Mr. Lacy's education was obtained in the public schools 
and private academies. He was admitted to the bar in 1865, 
and has continually practiced law ever since, having enjoyed 
a very extensive practice in the State and Federal courts. He 
is the author of "Lacy's Railway Digest," which includes all 
the railway cases in the English language up to 1885; also 
author of "Lacy's Iowa Digest." He served in the Iowa 
Legislature in 1870, and afterwards as alderman and city so- 
licitor of Oskaloosa for a term each. 

"Notwithstanding his long service in Congress, he has 
retained his love for his profession, and kept up his connection 
with his law practice. He represented the Sixth Iowa district 
in the Fifty-first, Fifty-third, Fifty-fourth, Fifty-fifth and 
Fifty-sixth Congresses. He is now a member of the Fifty- 
ninth Congress. This district has long been a political battle 
ground, and Mr. Lacy has had a hard contest in each of the 
campaigns in which he has been engaged. His opponents 
were General Weaver, Mr. White, Mr. Taylor and Mr. Stock, 

History of West Virginia 3(J7 

u» these various campaigns. -Mr. Lacy has always prelcrrcd 
lo be known through his chosen prolession, rather than as a 

"An old and eminent member of the State bar and one of 
Mr. Lac_\ s most intimate professional associates, submits this 
estimate of his character: 

" 'As a lawyer, Mr. Lacy easily ranks among the leading 
lawyers of the State. His greatest success in life has been at 
the bar, and he still holds a good practice, although for ten 
years a member of Congress. His success has been attained 
largely by his indomitable energy and industry, lie is par- 
ticularly strong as a trial lawyer, being full of resources. 
When driven from one position lie will seize another so quick- 
ly and support it by such ready reference to authorities, that 
he frequently bewilders his opponents and wins out on a new- 
line, which seems lo come to him by intuition as the trial pro- 
gresses. As an advocate to the jury, he is not severely logical, 
not confining himself strictly to a mere reference to the evi- 
dence, but takes a wider range, and by illustrations drawn 
from literature or history, he retains the interest of the jury, 
while at the same time emphasizing some feature of the case.' 

"Major Lacy is one of the Wetzel County boys who went 
west to grow up with the country. His father, John M. Lacy, 
was one of the first settlers of Xcw Martinsville. He came to 
the town when it became the county scat and built the house 
now owned by Mr. McCaskey. immediately east of the court 
house. Major Lacy and Philip G. Bier both filled positions 
as assistant generals of volunteers. They were in the same 
class at school at Xcw Martinsville when little boys. 

"Mr. Lacv's mother was Eleanor Patten, daughter of 
Isaac Patten, of Captinc Creek. Belmont County. Ohio. She 
is held in pleasant memory by the old settlers. Major Lacv's 
parents both died in Towa. 

"Robert W. Lacv. an uncle of John F., formerly lived in 
Xew- Martinsville. He died in Pasadena. California, a few 
rears aero. His widow is the sister of Mrs. Dr. Young, of Xew 

308 History of West Virginia 

"Mr. Lacy, in 1865, married Miss Martha Newell, of Oska- 
loosa. They have two daughters living, Eleanor, who is the 
wife of James B. Brewster, of San Francisco, and Bernicc, who 
is now a young lady." 

Note: Mr. Lacy was re-elected to Congress from Iowa, 
in 1912, and died while serving the people in early 1 9 1 ;L 

Virgil Anson Lewis. 

The author is indebted to Mr. G. A. Bolden, State Ar- 
chivist, for the following article on the life of Hon. Virgil A. 
Lewis, deceased : 

Virgil Anson Lewis, who was one of West Virginia's dis- 
tinguished men of letters and occupied the honorable office 
of state archivist and historian for seven and a-half years, was 
born near West Columbia, Mason County, West Virginia, 
July 6, 1848, and died December 5, 1912. He was a son of 
George W. and Lucy (Edwards) Lewis. 

Liberally educated, Mr. Lewis received his A. M. degree 
in 1893, from the West Virginia LTniversity. earlier in life hav- 
ing prepared for the practice of law. being admitted to the bar 
in 1879. His tastes, however, led him into the wide field of 
literature and for many years his name has been a familiar 
and honorable one in educational and journalistic circles. 

In boyhood he worked in a printing office and his ambi- 
tion to own a paper of his own was partially satisfied when 
he became financially interested in the West Virginia Monitor. 

In 1892 he founded the Southern Historical Magazine, at 
Charleston, and from 1893-97 was the editor and publisher 
of the West Virginia School Journal, and during the same 
period was State Superintendent of Schools. Mr. Lewis has 
been honored by his section and State on many occasions, his 
learning and scholarship and his high standing as a man and 
citizen receiving generous recognition. In 1892 he was sent 
as a delegate to the Southern States Industrial Congress, held 
at Ashvillc, North Carolina; was a member of the State Board 
of Public Works in West Virginia from 1893 until 1897. and 
was a member and Secretary of the West Virginia Commis- 
sion to the Jamestown Exposition in 1907. In 1890 he organ- 

History of West Virginia 30 1 ' 

ized l In." West Virginia llistoricnl anil Antiouarian Society. 
aii<l he was a member of the Southern Educational Assoeia 
tion. the National Geographical Society, the .Mississippi Yal 
ley Historical Society and the Ohio Valley Historical Society. 

Recognizing the value of books as educational tooL, Mr. 
Lewis devoted a part of his time to the writing of volumes 
which are accurate historical annals and thev find a place not 
only in every complete library, but with the records of his- 
torical societies everywhere. In I88 1 ' he issued a History ol 
West Virginia ; in 1891, the Life and Times of Ann Bailey. 
the Pioneer Heroine of the Great Kanawha Valley: in 18%, 
a Graded Course of Study for Country and Village Schools: 
in I C K)3, the Story of the Louisiana Purchase; in 1 ( >04, Early 
Educators of West Virginia: in 1905. Civil Government in 
West Virginia; and in 1909. History of the P.attle of Point 

This list does not include a vast collection of valuable 
reports containing accurate data on historical matter pertain- 
ing to the United States, and in particular to West Virginia. 

On October 31st, 188o. Mr. Lewis was married to Miss 
Elizabeth Stone, lie was interested in the leading fraternal 
bodies, being a Mason, a Knight Templar, and a member of 
the Lodge of Perfection of the Scottish Rite: was a member 
of the Grand Lodge of Odd Fellows and a Past Grand Chan- 
cellor of the Knights of Pythias, lie was a member for two 
terms of the Board of Directors of the Knights of Pythias 
Orphans' Home. 

Robert McEIdowney: A Sketch of His Life and Public Service 

By Frank Wells Clark. Xew Martinsville. W . Va. 

Robert McEIdowney was born near Xew Martinsville. 
West Virginia. Xovember 6th. 1837. and died in his native 
town on the 27th day of August. 1°00. His boyhood days were 
passed in working upon the home farm and in attending the 
subscription schools of those days. He prepared for college 
at the Moundsvillc Academy, and was in the midst of his 
course at Marietta College at the beginning of the '"ivil War. 

310 History of West Virginia 

In my county traditions of those early days have been handed 
down, and one oft hears of the jolly good times in which 
young Bob McEldowney was a prominent figure; his unfailing 
good humor and overflowing vitality making him a leader then 
as always. 

Knowing with what eager interest and attention he has 
to the end watched every changing phase of the political 
kaleidoscope, we can imagine how the boy, already in even- 
thing giving promise of the coming man, followed the stirring 
events out of which grew the War of the Rebellion — those 
days when Douglas and Lincoln and Greeley and Brecken- 
ridge and Seward and other Titans filled the public eye. 
When the Mother of Presidents decided to follow her sister 
States of the South. Robert McEldowney left his books and 
went to the front with the Shriver Grays, a company organ- 
ized in the northwestern counties of Western Virginia, which 
subsequently became Company G of the 27th Virginia In- 
fantry Regiment, and a part of the immortal Stonewall 

Private McEldowney received his first promotion only a 
few months after enlistment, and was commissioned first lieu- 
tenant early in 1862, receiving his commission as captain in 
1863, when twenty-six years of age. Though he served in this 
capacity during the remainder of the war, yet he has not in- 
appropriately been called colonel, inasmuch as he frequently 
commanded his regiment on the field of battle during the last 
two years of the war. 

lie fought through the war, and no man saw more 
arduous service. He was with Jackson in the Bath-Romney 
expedition. He and his company were part of the famous 
foot cavalry of the Valley campaign, and were with the man 
of mystery and action at Kearnstown, McDowell, Front Royal, 
Winchester, and Tort Republic. Of the little company of 
West Virginians a letter written on the field after the opening 
battle of this extraordinary campaign says: "The Shriver 
Gravs, a gallant handful of exiles from Wheeling, only thirty 
strong, were thrown out as skirmishers to feel the enemy, 
and it took three regiments of Vankees to drive them back.'" 

Afterwards he was before Richmond, in the army oppos- 

History of West Virginia 311 

ing McClellan, at Gaines' .Mill, White Oak Swamp, and 
Malvern Hill, lie was at Cedar Mountain, and was severely 
wounded at the battle of Second Manassas. Wounded as he 
was, he led his company at Chantilly, but was lor a time 
thereafter entirely disabled ; rejoining his command in time 
to participate in the battle of Sharpsburg. lie fought under 
Jackson at Fredericksburg, and was on the field of Chancel- 
lorsville, where the right arm of the Confederacy was laid low 
by the bullets of his own men. Under Ewell he was at 
Winchester, and took part in the invasion of the Keystone 
State. On the bloody field of Gettysburg, where was decided 
the issue of the four years' contest, he was again wounded : 
but was again in service the fall of 1863 at Mine Run. In 
18f>4 he was in the army operating against Grant, being again 
slightly wounded in the battle of the Wilderness. After par- 
ticipating in the struggles at Spottsylvania Court House and 
Bethesda Church, he returned to the Valley, under Terry, and 
assisted in driving the Union forces from Lynchburg, and was 
a member of the Early expedition against Washington, which 
caused so much excitement at the Xational Capital. 

Again at Winchester, at Fisher's Hill, at Cedar Creek, 
and at Matcher's Run he was with his regiment, and was one 
of the band of heroes who attempted the capture of Fort 
Steadman, on March 25th, 1865. Here he was wounded in the 
leg. and was incapacitated for duty during the remaining days 
of the struggle. 

In June. 1865, he was paroled, and returned from the 
hospital at Richmond to his home on the banks of the Ohio. 
He must have been an ideal soldier, and we know that he 
returned to his home a strong, robust man, unharmed by the 
temptations of army life, to which - so many brilliant young 
men succumb. 

His next training was a business one. For three years he 
was in Philadelphia, employed as a bookkeeper by a promi- 
nent wholesale house. Returning to West Virginia, he offi- 
ciated as ticket agent of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Com- 
pany, at Wheeling, until 1872, when he again located in Ncw 
Martinsville, there to reside until his death. For a time he 
was employed by his brother. John C. McFldowney. who was 

312 History of West Virginia 

then clerk of both the circuit courts of Wetzel County, leav- 
ing this work in a short time to take up the practice of his 
chosen profession — the law. 

In 1874 he represented his county in the State Legislature. 
About 1879 he became the editor of the Wetzel Democrat. In 
1884 he was married to Miss Anna 1.. Smith, of Pittsburgh, 
Pa., his wife and Cleraldine, their only child, surviving him. 

He was a brave soldier to the last, for, surely, never did 
the King of Terrors vanquish a more heroic soul. With his 
tongue partly gone, unable to talk without great pain, able to 
take only liquid food — his indomitable spirit was yet uncon- 
quered; and every week, all over the commonwealth, men and 
women read his paragraphs and verses — read and wondered — 
read with tears in their eyes and a sharp pain piercing their 
hearts. All this, perhaps, comes home more to me than to 
some of you, for ever before me is a vivid picture of the cir- 
cumstances under which those lines were penned. How 
vivid, too, is the picture of those evenings when he received 
his friends, sitting in his arm chair, holding pencilled conver- 
sations with them : and of those nights of agony when he 
uncomplainingly struggled with the demon of pain during the 
long night watches, and the grateful pressure of the hand 
when morning came. Even during all this, as some one has 
well said, his writings were eloquent and cheerful — never 
more so. 

Robert McEUlowney was a many-sided man; one of the 
most remarkable of West Virginians. This extended to his 
personal appearance, as he was of commanding stature and 
magnificent carriage — the observed of all observers wherever 
he went. 

He was a man of wide information. He had read much, 
lie had traveled extensively over our own country and was 
ever a keen student of human nature. He was a master both 
of pathos and humor. 

lie was, at -best, an orator. He was, however, a purely 
extemporaneous speaker, and all things had to be propitious 
in order that he should do himself full justice. During his 
young days he was the beau ideal of the ladies, and in society 
he was always in demand. 

History of West Virginia 313 

lie was popular with the masses of the people, and mij^lit 
have achieved high political honors. It is the opinion of main 
politicians that he could easily ha\e seemed the Democratic 
nomination for Congressman in his district at any time during 
the last fifteen years; hut when approached on the subject he 
invariably discouraged the idea. 

As an attorney he had a most active practice, covering; all 
branches of the law. He was well grounded in the funda- 
mental principles of the law. Though cautious in counsel, 
he was pugnacious in fighting his cases when once his bear- 
ings had been taken. He did not love the grind and drudgery 
which are the cost of scaling to the heights of the legal pro- 
fession ; but he was faithful to his clients, and under the 
pressure of emergency, during the trial of cases, his work was 
at times brilliant. 

lie would, undoubtedly, have attained higher success in 
the law. had he not carried along with it the labor of another 
equally exacting profession. For twenty years he edited the 
Wetzel Democrat, and his brilliant, incisive, witty paragraphs 
made his name a household word throughout the State. It is 
not too much to say that he was the pride of the newspaper 
fraternity of West Virginia. Had he removed to a city his 
paragraphs would almost certainly have attracted national 

Permit me in conclusion to quote two poems of Colonel 
McF.ldowney's which. 1 believe, have never been published. 
The first, entitled "The Soldier's Rest," was written in 18(>4: 

"A soldier's rest! "lis a fancied thing: 
"lis a dreamful sleep on a fitful wing: 
A butterfly's touch on a faded tlower ; 
A moment of sighs in a weary hour: 
A rainbow in the morning sky. 
Which fades to tell of the storm that's nigh. 
A soldier's rest ! 'Tis a rest unknown. 
From the torrid clime to the frigid 7.011c. 

"A soldier's rest! When the strife is done, 
When the battle's lost and the victorx 's won. 

314 History of West Virginia 

His face upturned to the starless sky, 

And the light gone out from his staring eye, 

Look on that brow — late worn by care : 

No passion's soul is imaged there; 

For ah ! in death there's naught to prove 

Of hope or hate, or fear or love. 

"A sod no mourner's foot hath prest 
In a silent wood is the soldier's rest : 
A rest through the long and lonely years, 
In a spot unblest by a mother's tears; 
No sculptured stone there marks his bed, 
No sister's rose blooms o'er his head. 
He sleeps alone! alone is blest, 
Tis Heaven's to mark the soldier's rest." 

The following beautiful lines were written in 1SG0: 

"For thy love all da)' I'm sighing 

Like a child 
For some hidden treasure sighing; 

Far and wild 
Doth my wandering spirit rove. 

But to love 

Only thee 
All my soul in thus agreeing, 
Thou 'rt the most delightful being 
That the blessed sense of seeing 

Gives to me. 

"When the shades of night are round me, 

Dearest love ! 
When the spell of sleep hath bound me, 

Like a dove 
. Doth my winged spirit fly 

To the sky, 

Dearest love ! 
Where my soul's ideal dwells, 
Where the heavenly music swells. 
And where love's pure fountain wells, 

Far above ! 

History of West Virginia 315 

"There on angel wings to meet me 

With a kiss ! 
Thou dost come and fondly greet me. 

Oh, what bliss 
Doth ni} raptured spirit feel, 

As I kneel 

At thy feet ! 
Round me holy lights are gleaming, 
In this blest celestial seeming, 
Thus, if life were spent in dreaming, 

It were sweet !" 

Presley Martin. 

The subject of this sketch was born on Little Fishing 
Creek, about seven miles east of Xew Martinsville, Tyler 
County. Virginia, now Wetzel County, West Virginia, June 
22, 1838; was married to Miss Phoebe Clark, daughter of 
Fbenezer Clark, May 3rd, 1800. They had five children — 
three sons and two daughters — three of whom arc still living. 
His father, Benjamin Martin, was born at the mouth of Little 
Buffalo, on Middle Island Creek, in what is now Tyler County. 
W. Va., in the year 1802. but grew up in the neighborhood of 
the "Flats", on Grave Creek, in what is now Marshall County. 
About the year 1828 he was married to Miss Rebecca Jolliffe. 
who was born at the mouth of Little Paw Paw (in what is 
now Marion Count}), about the year I80f>. Miss Jolliffe's 
mother's maiden name was Prickett, she bein>* related to the 
Pricketts of Prickett's Fort fame, mention of which is made 
elsewhere in this book. Miss Martin's mother that is 
Preslev Martin's grandmother Prickett — was a cousin to 
Betsey Dragoo, who was captured by the Indians near 
Prickett's Fort, in Monongalia County, and killed by her 
savage captors at the mouth of what has since been called 
Betsey's Run. on the Xorth F"ork of Fishing Creek, in Grant 
District, Wetzel Count}". fSee story; of Dragoos.) 

Rebecca Jolliffe, when about ten years old. accompanied 
her parents. James and Drusilla Jolliffe. when they moved to 
the Xorth Fork of Fishing Creek. A few years later Benjamin 
Martin, while carrying the United State= mail from the mouth 
of Fishing Creek to Kingwood, became acquainted with Miss 

316 History of West Virginia 

Jolliffe and ere long they were married, as above stated. The 
house in which they were married still stands. 

Presley Martin's grandfather, John Martin, was born in 
New Jersey, and while a small lad, came with his parents to 
where Wheeling now stands. It is said that John Martin's 
father — Presley's great grandfather — was the first blacksmith 
to open shop in the town of Wheeling. 

The foregoing information is given the writer by Presley 
Martin in a letter dated January 19, 1913, which closes with 
the following narrative: 

"My grandfather, John Martin, while yet a very young 
man, took a scout with Pew Wetzel down the Ohio River — 
supposed to be just below the mouth of Proctor Creek. 
While Wetzel was making his circle — as he always did before 
striking cam]) — to see if there were any signs of 'Red Skins' 
(as they always called the Indians), and about the time 
Wetzel rounded into the center, a big 'coon jumped up against 
a tree and young Martin killed it. While they were feeling it 
and talking about how fat it was, and what a fine mess they 
would have. Wetzel sprang up, with gun in hand, as though 
he had been told, and said, 'Indians, Martin !', and took another 
circuit and found Indian tracks. "Wetzel said, 'Now what will 
we do — fight or go to the Fort?' (where Wheeling now is). 
After consultation, he thought best to make for the Fort, as 
he thought young Martin too young to risk a fight. When 
they came to what is supposed to be Proctor Creek, Wetzel 
took a run and cleared the creek — a jump of about twenty 
feet — while Martin had to swim. Grandfather said afterwards, 
in relating this incident, that he never before nor since had 
such a lively night's travel !" 

At this writing, Air. Presley Martin is a hale, hearty, 
well-preserved man of seventy-five. He is now residing with 
one of his daughters in New Martinsville. There is not a 
more highly respected or more widely known citizen in 
Wetzel County than our "Uncle" Presley. 

Politically, he is an uncompromising Democrat, but has 
never aspired to political honors, being satisfied to look after 
his agricultural interests, in which occupation he proved very 

History of West Virginia 317 

S. R. Martin. 

Upon the writer's request, Mr. .Martin has fawned the 
former with his autobiography. 

Mr. Samuel R. Martin is among the leading citizens of 
Wetzel County, as were his father and grandfather before him. 
The Martins were among the early pioneers of Monongalia 
and Wetzel Counties and were foremost in the development 
of this section of the State, and none have been more worthy 
of the high esteem in which they have been held. 

At the advanced age of 83 years. Mr. Martin is still a 
well-preserved man. with erect carriage and active step, pre- 
senting the appearance of one much younger. He is presi- 
dent of the Xew Martinsville Hank and helped to make that 
institution one of the leading concerns of its kind in the State. 

Mr. Martin's letter follows: 

"I was born on the 6th of October, 1830, near what is 
now Xew Martinsville, \\ . Ya. ; was married on October 5th, 
1 854, to Miss Caroline Riggs, of Moundsvillc. In the spring 
of 1855 moved to Pike County, Mo., where we remained until 
March. 1865. when we returned to West Virginia and have 
resided in Xew Martinsville until the present time. .My 
father, B. F. .Martin, was born on January 4th. 1805, near 
Morgantown. and mo\ ed with his father ( Presley Martin), 
when only eight years old, to the mouth of Fishing Creek, in 
the year 1813. My father grew up. married, lived and died 
on the farm lying immediately north of what is now known as 
Xorth Street in the town of Xew Martinsville. I lis death 
occurred on February 4th, 1882. 

"In the year 1838 Presley Martin laid out the town of 
Xew Martinsville, the boundaries of which were, at that time, 
Xorth Street, on the Xorth; Union Street, on the Fast: Wash- 
ington Street, on the South, and the Ohio River, on the West. 

"Presley Martin was the father of eleven children all 
now deceased. Their descendants are settled in many of the 
middle and far western States, but few remaining in West 

"Col. Charles Martin, my great-grandfather, was born in 
Fastern Virginia: his first wife was a daughter of Ford Fair- 

318 History of West Virginia 

fax, of Virginia fame. In 176S he was granted 400 acres of 
land in Monongalia County. Pie was in command of Fort 
Martin from 1773 until the close of the Revolutionary War. 
The Fort was built on his land near the mouth of Crooked 
Run. This Fort was attacked by the Indians in June, 1779, 
and two whites were captured and killed. In 1S74 the first 
M. E. Church was organized at Colonel Martin's hotise and 
services were conducted there for a long time. He was 
sheriff of Monongalia County at the time of his death. 

"My grandfather, Presley Martin, was the only child of 
Col. Charles Martin by his second wife. 

"S. R. Martin." 

Col. T. Moore Jackson. 

T. Moore Jackson was born in Clarksburg June 22, 1852. 
He married Miss Emma, daughter of Judge Charles L. Lewis, 
now dead. He was a son of James M. Jackson, whose mother 
was a daughter of Governor Meigs, of Ohio, afterwards post- 
master-general of the United States, and Colonel Jackson's 
grandfather, John G. Jackson, was the first federal judge of 
the Western District of Virginia. He died in 1S25, after many 
years as a federal judge, and after erecting furnace forges, 
mills, wood factories and salt works in Harrison County, all 
out of existence now. The grandfather made the first iron in 
that section. He projected digging a canal by which the 
Buckhannon River would be diverted into the West Fork, 
but did not get government consent. 

Colonel Jackson was schooled at Bethany College and 
Washington and Lee University, graduating in June, 1873, as 
a civil and mining engineer, and helped to build several rail- 
roads. As professor of civil and mining engineering he filled 
a chair in the West Virginia University until 1891, graduating 
the first civil engineering class from that institution. The 
Short Line Railroad from New Martinsville to Clarksburg 
was promoted and built by him, and he had the Clarksburg 
Northern Railroad from New Martinsville to Middlebourne 
under way, when, on February 3. 1912, after a short illness 
due to exposure while overseeing the construction work, he 

History of West Virginia 319 

died. The road which the Colonel commenced two years ago 
is now just entering Middlebourne, under the management of 
Joseph Fuccy, the original contractor, and trains will be in 
operation on the road within the next few class. 

Hon. Aaron Morgan, of Porter's Falls, W. Va. 

The subject of this sketcli is a son of Elijah Morgan; 
Elijah Morgan was a son of Pacly .Maud Morgan, and Pady 
Maud Morgan was a son of Morgan Morgan, who was a son 
of David Morgan, the noted Indian fighter of the Monongalia 

The Hon. Aaron Morgan's father, Elijah, was born in 
Marion County, Virginia (now W est Virginia), in 1801. and 
came with his parents to Wetzel County, settling where the 
subject of this sketch now resides, near Porter's Falls. 
Elijah early became a surveyor of land, which occupation he 
followed at interval* up to near the time of his demise, in 
lS7o. He was also a skilled millwright and all-round me- 
chanic : represented Wetzel County in the house of Delegates 
in 1872, and served as colonel of militia for about 50 years. 
At his death he was laid to rest by the Free Masons, of which 
fraternal organization he was a member of high rank. 

Aaron Morgan was born at Morgantown, in Tyler County, 
Virginia (now Porter's Falls, Wetzel County, West Virginia,), 
March 5, 1832. During his boyhood days, the facilities for 
education were extremely meager, in consequence of which 
his educational qualifications arc not of the best. Notwith- 
standing this, however, Mr. Morgan is a well informed man 
of good common sense, which is often more useful than a 
knowledge of the classics. He served four terms in the State 
Legislature and was often appointed to important committees. 

During the session of 1901, Mr. Morgan introduced a bill 
asking for an appropriation for the erection of a monument to 
be placed in the court house yard at Xew Martinsville, in 
memory of Levi Morgan, a noted Western Virginia pioneer 
and Indian scout. After strenuous efforts, "Uncle" Aaron 
succeeded in passing his bill, which resulted in the erection 
of the splendid monument that now adorns the court house 

320 History of West Virginia 

yard, on the corner of Washington and Main Streets, a 
picture of which accompanies this sketch. Touching on this 
achievement of Representative Morgan's, we quote from the 
Charleston Gazette, published about the time of the passage 
of the bill : 

"'We are proud of our representative. He has done what 
'could not have been done by any other member of the V est 
Virginia Legislature, Democrat or Republican ; he has stood 
up all the time and every time with his party. His manhood 
is of the kind that commands respect on every hand and on 
every side. 

"We are to have a statue of Capt. Levi Morgan erected 
at New Martinsville, Wetzel County's county seat. The 
Legislature has provided for it, the appropriation is $35,000, 
and the bill has been passed by the Legislature and signed by 
the Governor. Aaron Morgan did it through his ability and 
influence in the Legislature. There could not have been done 
any more or as much by any body else; he is a true Morgan. 
He made a speech in the House of Delegates which surprised 
many and opened the eyes of all and converted everybody who 
was against the bill. What he doesn't know about the early 
history of this part of the old State is not worth knowing. We 
quit as we began, we arc proud of our representative." 

We also quote an article from Governor MacCorkle to 
the Gazette : 

"The feature of legislation most talked about at this time 
is the triumph of Hon. Aaron Morgan in getting his bill 
through for the monument to Capt. Levi Morgan, at New 
Martinsville. There is no necessity for any one else claiming 
any interest in this political legislative achievement, it is due 
entirely to Mr. Morgan's skill, earnestness and popularity. 
When it was undertaken by him every one in the Legislature 
laughed at him and the bill was sent to the Legislative 
Burying Ground— that is to the Committee on Claims and 
Grievances; but the old gentleman, with his usual pertinacity 
and energy, never stopped work. If any one wanted a bill to 
go through and needed help, Hon. Aaron's good and wise 
judgment was always consulted. He was so true and ardent 
to his business as a legislative man that he never let up on a 

History of West Virginia 321 

good cause, and while he has the appearance of one just 
arrived from the country, it is very unwise to think that such 
is the case, lie is smart and sly and is the only man in this 
Legislature who has been able to get a bill through the House 
with an appropriation with any kind or class of help or as- 
sistance. They are having a great ileal of fun at the expense 
of Ex-Governor MacCorkle in reference to Hon. Aaron's bill. 
Mr. Morgan, being sick at the time his bill should come up, 
appealed to Kx-Governor MacCorkle to assist him on his bill 
and make a speech before the committee. The ex-Governor, 
being somewhat an antiquarian, went over and saw the 
committee and that body told him that they did not intend 
to report the bill favorably nor give Mr. Morgan one cent, 
and told the Governor that he would just simply make a 
spectacle of himself if he went before the committee and made 
a speech for the bill that would not get a single vote. So the 
Governor told the committee to make it right with lion. 
Aaron — that they had been great friends for years, and that 
he did not care about losing his friendship, and he asked the 
chairman of the committee to tell Mr. Morgan that it would 
be no use in making a speech before the committee. After 
this. Hon. Aaron, inconvenienced by sickness, went to work 
and put the bill through against the judgment of every man 
in the Legislature. There was a broad smile went around at 
the Governor for not being able to accomplish that which 
Hon. Aaron had no trouble in doing. It is the best piece of 
legislative work that has occurred at this session. Mr. 
Morgan is the most popular man with the Republican ma- 
jority and is today more able to get through legislative work 
than any other Democrat in cither House or the Senate. 

"The placing: of a monument at Xew Martinsville is un- 
precedented in its scope because West Virginia has not done 
this kind of work heretofore and when the Republicans are 
cutting in order to keep within the income. It was a splendid 
triumph of legislative work. Wetzel County is to be con- 
gratulated in having such a smart and energetic member of 
the Legislature, whose speech in defense of his monument 
bill captivated the entire legislative body." 

i22 History of West Virginia 

Another expression of the appreciation of the worth of 
"Uncle" Aaron Morgan is given below, taken from the Daily 
Legislator : 

"Charleston, \Y. Ya.. February 15. 1915. 

"True worth and merit should always be recognized. A 
free people seeking to perpetuate a republican form of gov- 
ernment are blind to their interests if the} - do not encourage 
those brave and true spirits who in public life forget self and 
look to the one guiding star of right and justice in the recent 
struggles of Democracy in electing a United States Senator 
and determining the results of the election in 1888 for Gov- 

"Many beautiful instances of that stern devotion to prin- 
ciple and love and fairness ma}' be found to interest the 
curious and impress the wise and prominent. Among these 
stands the representative from Wetzel County. Hon. Aaron 


"During both of these long struggles his body and brains 
never tired in the cause of duty. Ever at his post, always 
out-spoken and truthful, never at a loss to impress the eternal 
truth of his principles upon others, he was the pillar of 
Democracy in the party's greatest struggle. Wetzel knew 
the man she needed when she sent Morgan to the Legislature, 
and she would make no mistake to return him. 

"The following is the substance of Representative Mor- 
gan's speech before the joint assembly: 

"'Mr. President: In explanation of my vote. 1 desire to 
say that, although 1 am not a lawyer but a plain farmer, I 
have, nevertheless, taken a deep interest in the case before us. 
I have examined the evidence submitted by the majority and 
minority reports together with the depositions which are 
printed, and I am convinced that the contestant, Judge Flem- 
ing, was honestly and fairly elected Governor of our State. 
Legal and orderly elections are essentials to the perpetuity 
of the institutions of this country, and to countenance fraud 
in our elections, means to defeat the popular will of the people : 
for these reasons 1 cast my vote for Judge Fleming.' ' 

Mr. Morgan married Miss Elizabeth Allen, a member of 
a highly respected family. To this union were born three sons 


Erected in 1908 

Showing Levi Morgan"s Monument in Front. 

324 History of West Virginia 

and one daughter: William A., Other E., Leonard \Y. and 

, the last marrying a ZNIr. Shepherd, 

to which union was horn one daughter — Estella by name — 
who now resides at Middletown, Mo., where she is engaged 
in teaching school. The three sons have all taught school, 
Leonard still being so engaged. Other E. and William A. arc 
engaged in farming. William A. once served as justice of the 
peace in Greene District. Me is also now a member of the 
Count)' Court of Wetzel County. 

"Uncle" Aaron, as his friends in Wetzel County call him, 
is now in his 82d year, and he and his aged wife still reside 
at their old home place near Porter's Falls, cared for by their 
three sons, whose homes are near by. Airs. Morgan, a faithful 
wife and mother, is still able to perform her household duties, 
but "Uncle" Aaron, being blind and weakened by the infirmi- 
ties incident to old age, is confined to his room most of the 
time, and can only move by the assistance of others. Yet he 
is cheerful and is always delighted to have his old friends call 
upon him and talk over the political issues of the day — a 
subject of which lie never tires. He has a wonderfully reten- 
tive memory, and when in a reminiscent mood, reels off a 
regular panoramic picture of the past that is intensely inter- 

Hon. Lewis S. Newman. 

Lewis Stecnrod Newman was born at Cdendale, Marshall 
County. West Virginia, August 24, 1839. He was a direct 
descendant of John Newman, a cavalier emigrant of 1635, 
whos father, John Newman, of Lerwick House, Somersetshire, 
England, was a member of the London Company in 1608-9. 
Alexander Newman was a member of the Virginia House of 
Burgesses in 109 1, and Alexander 11th of that name and father 
of the subject of this sketch, was elected to Congress from 
what is now the First Congressional District, in 1848. 

In 1871, Lewis S. Newman was elected a member of the 
House of Delegates, and from 1878 to 1882, he represented his 
district in the State Senate. In 1888 he was one of the electors 
on the Democratic ticket, and was chosen to register the vote 

History of West Virginia 325 

of his Suite at Washington in that election, lie was uxtrcnieh 
affable, an entertaining conversationalist and able speaker. 
The many responsible positions with which the people hon- 
ored him during his earthly career are sufficient evidence of his 
great popularity. When quite a \oung man he selected a-- his 
life-companion Miss Clementine I'ickett, whose family was 
prominent among' the early settlers of Wheeling. To this 
union were born nine children, two of whom, l.illie and Birdie, 
died some years ago. The surviving children are Judge 
Charles C. Xewman and Lewis S.. Jr., of Wheeling; Fdwin 
A. and W. A., of Glendale; .Mrs. l.iila Lytic and .Mrs. Kdith 
Stead, of Glendale, and Miss Dora Lee, of the Fairmont llig'h 
School faculty. 

Lewis S. Newman's mother was a daughter of Joseph 
Tomlinson, one of the first settlers at .Mouiulsville, of whom 
mention is made elsewhere in this book. 

Mr. Xewman died at his home at Glendale on the evening 
of February 0, 1913, having survived his faithful and devoted 
wife but a few months. 

The many noble trails of character of this aged couple 
might well, indeed, be emulated by those who have at heart 
the good of their country. 

Reuben Harvey Sayre. 

Reuben Harvey Sayre was born November 23, 1837, in 
Greene County, Pa. He is the son of Mercer Sayre and 
Margaret Winget Sayre (nee Wingct). 

Mercer Sayre was the son of Samuel and Lydia Sayre, 
and was born in New Jersey, February 2o, 1791. At this 
birth were born triplets, who were named for three noted 
Revolutionarv Generals, Warren, Montgomery and Mercer, 
bv General George Washington, a personal friend of the 

R. 11. Savre's grandfather, Samuel Sayre. was born April 
15, I7(d, and died in 1813. lie married Lydia Simpson, who 
was born November 30. 17<>5, she being the daughter of 
Simeon Simpson and Mary Simpson (nee Mullord). Simeon 
Simpson was the son of Alexander and Elizabeth Simpson, 


One of the few surviving members of First Constitu- 
tional Convention held at Wheeling, West Virginia. 
(Photo taken in 1915.) 

History of West Virginia M7 

and was horn in Xew Jcrsc}, August 1 I, 1 74 >. Man Muli'ord. 
who was the daughter of K/ckie! and I'athinh Mulford, was 
horn January o, 1745. Simeon Simpson and Mar\ Mulford 
were married February 10, 17<>3. 

-Mary W ingct Sayre. the mother of k. 11. Sa\ re, was born 
October 23. 17'AS. and was married to Mercer Say re April. 
1817. To this union were born twelve children. Air. Sayre 
being the youngest. On Januan 18, 182°, were born to this 
union triplet daughters Martha Washington. Louisa Cath- 
erine Adams and Margaret Winget. who were named by Airs. 
Louisa Catherine Adams, the wife of John Ouincv Adams, 
the latter being then President of the United States. 

William Winget. the grandfather of Mr. Sayre on his 
mother's side, was born September 21, 17o ( J, and died October 
2o. 1M1. Nancy Winget ( nee Hampton), the wife of William 
Winget, was born August 24, I7<>8, and died April 13, 1844. 
She was a descendant of Lord Hampton of Kngland. .Mr. 
Sa\ re's foreparenls on both sides of the house were Knglish, 
those on his father's side ha\ing come oxer with the Pilgrims, 
llis grandfather, Samuel Sa} re, served throughout the Revolu- 
tionary War. When but a boy less than sixteen years of age- 
he was with Washington's troops when they re-crossed the 
Delaware, amid floating ice, on Christmas night. \77Ci, and 
marched on to Trenton in a furious snow storm and captured 
1.000 Hessian soldiers, without the loss of a man. He also 
passed the winter with Washington's army at Valley Forge. 

When the subject of our sketch was about two years old 
nis parents came to Tyler Count} . and one year later they re- 
moved to Wetzel Count}, settling in Xew Martinsville, where 
the parents died and where the son still resides, being a con- 
tinued resident of the city for 73 years. 

Mr. Sayre served in the Federal army during the Civil 
War and was discharged in June. ISO 5. lie also served as 
Post Master in Xew Martinsville, ha\ing taken charge of the 
office under President Lincoln June 1. ISlM. lie was also Kn- 
rolling Officer under the Government, for Wetzel County. ha\ 
ing charge of the enrollment of the Militia in anticipation of 
the government having to draft men to fill the depleted Union 
army. He was in the mercantile business in New Martinsville 

S2& History of West Virginia 

a number of years; and .subsequently be engaged in the timber 
and lumber business. He was Commissioner of School Lands 
from 1897 to 1905. On August 8, 1867, Mr. Sayre married 
Miss Martha Russell Hill, daughter of James and Sarah Craig 
Hill, formerly of Fayette County, Pennsylvania. To this 
union six children were born. Mr. James Hill's father was the 
founder of Hillsborough, Pa. 

Mr. Sayre was one of the eight members of the May Con- 
vention, in 1861, from Wetzel County. lie was a follower of 
the conservative element, led by Waitman T. Willey who bit- 
terly opposed the radical clement, led by John S. Carlisle, in 
the methods of procedure on the State Separation question. 

By request of a son of Mr. Willey and others for an ex- 
pression of his views concerning that memorable convention. 
Mr. Sayre wrote a very lengthy and interesting article, which 
appeared in The Bar, of October, 1913, in which he criticises, 
in very strong terms, the attitude taken by Air. Carlisle and 
his friends, and highly commends the course pursued by the 
* pposition. He also mildly criticises certain prominent gen- 
tlemen who took an active part in unveiling of the Pierpont 
monument in Statuary Hall, on April 30, 1910. We quote, in 
part, as follows : 

"I do not wish to detract from the great services of Gov- 
ernor Pierpont, neither do I wish to sec the greater service of 
the lion. Waitman T. Willey, which was rendered to the State 
during the eventful days of 1861, passed by in silence and con- 
tempt. I have read carefully the history of the unveiling of 
the Pierpont Statue, and I cannot understand why Governor 
Glasscock and Thomas C. Miller and others pervert historical 
facts in order to give Air. Pierpont a place to which he is not 
entitled, in so far as it relates to the Alay convention, the re- 
stored government, and the formation of the State of West 
Virginia, and pass by the great services that the Hon. Wait- 
man T. Willey rendered the State and Nation during the Mav 
convention. If other counsel Lhan that of his had prevailed, 
we would not have had a restored government or a West Vir- 
ginia; neither would there ever have been a Governor Pier- 

Politically, Afr. Sayre is a Republican, with progressive 

History of West Virginia M'> 

tendencies, realizing the fact that parties, like men, cannot 
move onward while "standing pat." lie and his wife are 
members of the Methodist Kpiscopal church. 

Mr. Savre exhibited to the writer a Bible published by 
order of King George, in 1775. which contains the family rec- 
ords of the Simpsons for more than 170 years back. 

A length} - eulogy of .Mr. Sayre and his family is un- 
necessary. Xo higher tribute could be paid than to say that 
they arc law abiding, respectable and respected citizens who 
"do unto others as they would that others should do unto 

Dr. T. M. Stone. 

The subject of our sketch was born in West Wheeling, 
Ohi'.. 'eptembcr 30, 1838. When quite young hi^ pare its re- 
moved to Wheeling, where they resided until 1855. at which 
time they loaded their goods onto a llat boat and 11 ■ated down 
the Ohio River as far as Xew Martinsville, from whence they 
were conveyed to their new home on Limestone Ridge, in 
Wetzel County. In 185 — he married Amanda, daughter of 
Thomas McOuown, who was formerly captain of the Sixth 
Virginia Infantry, stationed at Wheeling. In 1864 he and a 
couple other young fellows by name of Morgan formed a part- 
nership and opened up a general store at Porter's Falls. After 
remaining here about three years, Mr. Stone sold out his in- 
terest in the store and opened up a similar business on his own 
account in the village of Fine Grove, about twelve miles far- 
ther up Big Fishing Creek. About this time he took up the 
study of medicine and surgery, which profession he followed 
with much success for a period of about thirty years when, 
owing to the infirmities of old age, he retired from active ser- 
vice ; but still, up to his seventy-fifth year, he would occasion- 
ally consent to attend a consultation in some unusually im- 
portant case, where the experience of an older head was re- 
quired. Previous to his entering the mercantile business 
(about I860) the doctor fitted up a photographic outfit on a 
boat and took tin-types of hundreds of rustic youths and las- 
sies and some of the older ones as they assembled along the 

330 History of West Virginia 

banks of the Ohio. But the doctor's experience in the picture 
business was of short duration. The Blue and the Gray were 
soon engaged in deadly strife, and he laid aside the camera 
for the musket. He joined the Wheeling militia under Cam. 
Smith and took part in the famous Jones' raid. 

The doctor was a son of Adam Stone, who was born in 
Yorkshire. England, and came to this country when a young 
man and served in the Civil War. The doctor's mother, bi. 
fore marriage, was Sarah Hall, a daughter of William Hall. 
She was a native of New York state. 

The subject of our sketch was a member of the house of 
delegates from Wetzel County in 1872-73. Clarence M., a 
son, also represented this count}. - in the legislature two terms, 
and on November 4. 1912, was elected sheriff of Wetzel Cou - 
ty. Besides Clarence M., there are two sons and one daugh- 
ter, namely: J. William, Burl and Alice. William and B"il 
are acting deputies under their brother. The Stones a/c 
among the leading citizens of Wetzel County and highly es- 
teemed by all who know them. 

Colonel Archibald Woods — A West Virginian Who Voted to 
Ratify the Federal Constitution. 

Colonel Archibald Woods, who was one of the delegates 
from Ohio County to the federal convention at Richmond, :r, 
June, 1788, was born in Albemarle County, Virginia, Nov em- 
ber 14, 17b4; served under General Greene in his North Caro- 
lina campaign, in 1781 ; settled in Wheeling at the elos- oi rhe 
Revolution, when the whole of Northwestern Virginia was a 
frontier settlement, exposed to incursions of the Indians. He 
was for twenty years president of the Northwest '-i iJaiA of 
Virginia at Wheeling, organized in 1817, and the first banking 
institution in West Virginia. Died October 2d. 1846, aged 
82 years. Buried at the Stone meeting house on Wheeling 

History of West Virginia o.^l 

Henry Gassaway Davis. 

lkiin Gassaway Davis was horn in the little village of 
V'oodstock. Mil., on the sixteenth Jay of November, 182o. 

His fatlier was Caleb Davis, who, some years prior to 
Henry's birth, hail been a successful merchant of Baltimore, 
'»it in his late years business reverses had come upon him and 
he removed a few miles out into the country and bought a 
small farm where now is located the village of Woodstock. 

Caleb Davis had been a soldier in the war of 1S12, while 
h s wife, whose maiden name was Louisa Brown, sprang from 
Revolutionary stock. 

When llenry was a very small boy, still more business 
,-,. verses struck his father, and the little farm in Howard Coun- 
t\ was taken away from him, simultaneously some railroad 
contracts he had undertaken resulted disastrously and he died 
> cry shortly afterward, when llenry was in his early 'teens. 

It is to his mother, who was of Scotch-Irish blood, that 
Henry (i. Davis owes his greatest debt of gratitude. Sh. 
came frnn a remarkable family noted for the prominence that 
i:s . embers have attained, and the sound common sense that 
has always characterized them. 

Mrs. Davis' sister was the mother of the late Senator 
v rthur Pue Gorman and the two first cousins w er • :uwa\< 
intimate associates, both politically and socially, unn' icath 
separated them. 

Former Governor Howard, of Maryland, who lived in t' e 
same neighborhood with the Davises, realizing their povcr'v 
stricken condition upon the death of their father, gave them a 
home on his farm and furnished voung Ilenrv, who was then 
a robust youth of fifteen years, work on the farm at twentv 
five cents per day. 

The only education that the box had an opportunity to 
imbibe was at a three months' term -chool which he attended 
in the winters until the time he became the breadwinner for 
the family. 

lie then insisted upon his younger brother going to school 
and deprived himself of the continuance of his meagre cduca 
tional advantages that he might keep the younger boy in 

332 History of West Virginia 

school. However, lie studied some at random under the direc- 
tion of his mother, who was a woman of much refinement and 
many accomplishments, until the age of nineteen when a life- 
long friend of the family. Dr. Woodside, who was superin- 
tendent of the new railroad which the Baltimore & Ohio Com- 
pany had extended to Cumberland, gave him a position as 
freight brakemau. Young Davis took the position for two 
reasons: first, because he had always nourished a fascination 
for railroad work; second, because it paid more money and he 
could then be of more substantial aid to his mother and his 
3'ounger brothers, for Mrs. Davis had been sewing and doing 
other work since her husband's death that she might keep the 
little family together and maintain the home for them. 

Railroading in the early "forties'' -was indeed crude and 
attended with far more danger than characterizes the opera- 
tion of trains today. The modern self-coupler, the air brake, 
the almost countless safety appliances, were unknown luxuries 
in those days, but despite the obstacles that beset his way, 
young Davis soon realized that he had found his natural call- 
ing and made a fresh determination that through the means 
of railroad life he would pave his way to fame and fortune. 

Vigilant and careful in his duties he soon became known 
over his division, which then extended from Baltimore to Cum- 
berland, as "the energetic brakeman." His -work attracted the 
commendation of the division superintendent and after about a 
year's service as brakeman he was promoted to freight con- 

The same seriousness, energy and steadiness that attended 
him as brakeman characterized him as conductor. His busi- 
ness was attended to with dispatch and complaints filed against 
Conductor Davis were unknown. 

One morning, after he had been conductor but a few 
months, a derailment occurred near Piedmont. Wrecks in our 
days are tremendous obstacles to the transportation depart- 
ment, but we cannot realize the magnitude of their annoyance 
in the days when young Davis handled trains over what is 
now one of the Greatest trunk-lines. The wrecking equipment 
of today was then unknown and a wreck that would now inter- 
fere with traffic but a few hours would in those davs cause 

History of West Virginia .333 

delay for a week. It happened thai on ihe morning on which the 
derailment occurred. President Thomas Swarm, of the Haiti- 
more & Ohio, was following Davis' freight on a passenger 
train. There was additional confusion among the trainmen of 
the derailed freight, owing to the fact that their president was 
close at hand and would soon be upon the ground. l)a\is 
took charge of the work, accomplished it with so much pre 
cision and utilized such business-like methods that he had un- 
knowingly attracted the attention of President Swann and 
upon the hitter's arrival at Baltimore, Freight Conductor Da- 
vis received notice that he had been awarded a passenger run 
between Baltimore and Cumberland, hence afterwards he be- 
came known as "Captain" Davis. 

Voting Davis was learning well the lessons of experience : 
the poverty and deprivations of youth had, in a certain sense, 
moulded his character. His early hardships tended to make 
him business-like, to make him value the significance and true 
worth of the dollar. Mis early poverty was a school, it started 
him upon the career of success that afterwards attended him. 
His critics have said that Senator Davis was penurious, have 
said, to make use of the popular phrase, that he was "Close;" 
it must be remembered that the hardships, the battles for a 
living that attended him at the age that the majority of our 
boys are enjoying the advantages of an education provided by 
liberal parents, the subject of this sketch was learning the 
practical lessons of the dollar's value which were driven home 
by tutors personified by toil and poverty. 

Henry G. Davis owes a debt of gratitude to his career as 
passenger conductor, for it was during this period of his life 
that the interest in politics and the welfare of his country w is 
stimulated in him. by his being brought into direct contact 
with Henry Clay and other prominent men who traveled upon 
his train to and from Washington; Henry Clay and Mr. Da\is 
forming an intimate and life-long friendship at this tim ■ P e 
Kentucky commoner would travel by stage coach '"mm his 
blue grass home to Cumberland, at which point he would 
board Captain Davis' train and travel with the young con- 
ductor as far as Washington. 

When young Davis was twenty-four, Pre>;'dint .^wann. 

334 History of West Virginia 

who had been closely watching the energetic conductor's pro- 
gress, made him division superintendent of the sn,. r dnision 
in which he had served as brakeman and corn! i~*:or. This 
new position gave him the chance he had long desired, the 
opportunity to realize his executive ability, and by the use of 
his ability he rapidly gained distinction, and within a few years 
became known as the president's right hand man. which in 
those days, was a position similar to the present office of gen- 
eral manager. 

Heretofore the idea of running trains after night had been 
looked upon in the light of a vain possibility. Young Davis 
told President Swann that there was no reason why trains 
could not be operated at night equally as well as during day- 
light. The president laughingly told the aspiring young su- 
perintendent that if he didn't drop such notions he would be- 
come the laughing stock of the entire company. Davis, ignor- 
ing his chief's opinion, begged for the opportunity to try his 
ideas by practical tests. In order to satisfy him the president 
granted his permission to do so, and shortly afterwards the 
superintendent was running night trains on regular schedule 
over his entire division. 

But during all these vicissitudes of his railway career Mr. 
ivavis was not blind to the opportunities that presented them- 
selves through the medium of West Virginia's natural re- 
sources, which he gazed upon daily as his train wended its way 
from Cumberland to what is now known as Deer Park. Mary- 

At his own request, in 1853, he was given the position of 
agent at Piedmont, which was then the most responsible posi- 
tion on the line west of Baltimore. 

In Mr. Davis' choosing Piedmont as his home, we see 
the first concrete illustration of his far-sighted business sa- 
gacity that made him millions. Tie realized that Piedmont 
was the gateway to a country almost unbounded and un- 
limited in the extent and magnitude of its natural resources. 

In these years he was no doubt enjoying day dreams of 
what a man's industry could create in the broad and undevel- 
oped territory that met his eye as he gazed from Piedmont 
toward the Alleghanies, and which was destined to afterwards 

History of West Virginia 

become the garden spot and means of subsistence for an 1111 
born state. 

Shortly previous to this, Mr. Davis married Miss Kate, 
the daughter of Judge 'jidcon Hantz, of Frederick. .Maryland. 
Her death in 1 ' '02. after nearly tiftv years of happy, married 
life, was a verv severe shock to the senator. The Davis 
Memorial Hospital at hlKin> (see history of Klkins in this 
book), probably the most complete and modern institution of 
its kind in the state, is an appropriate monument to the mem- 
ory of Mrs. Davis and a tangible illustration of the regard he 
held for her. 

Mr. Davis' career as the Baltimore & Ohio agent at Pied- 
mont was >hort, alreadv having foreseen a development ot tin. 
man clou.-, natural resources southeast of him, he resigned as 
.-gent and left the I'allimore ft Ohio to enter the mere, 
lumber and coal business. 

lie established his brother. William R. Davis, in the 
business and the firm traded under the name of II. < \. Davis 
ft T.rother. 

A large portion of Mr. Davis' savings from his salary had 
been spent in liming up hundreds of acres of timber and coal 
lands lying in close proximity to the courses of Cheat River 
and its tributaries. These lands wei'e bought for trilling sums 
from their owners who did not realize the ultimate value that 
must some dav be attached to the properties. 

The prices of these lands often ranged from fifty and 
seventy-five cents to a dollar and a half per acre. 

Rapidly the Davis brothers built up a thriving trade, the 
outbreak of the Civil War helping them materially in a finan- 
cial way. Because of their accessible location they obtained 
large army contracts for supplying the soldiers with food 
stuffs and other supplies. Their business continued to prosper 
until it reached enormous proportions. 

An extensive wholesale as well as retail trade was estab 

ft is indeed an "ill wind that blows no one any g J." and 

",r ,;'- ■;-„ profiled directly and indirectly by the Civil 

330 History of West Virginia 

Every cent that they could possibly lay their hands upon, 
every cent of profit from a successful and extensive mercantile 
business was invested in the coal and timber lands of what is 
now Garrett County, Maryland, and Mineral, Grant, Tucker, 
Preston, and Randolph Counties, in West Virginia. 

The Baltimore & Ohio's line from Washington to Cum- 
berland suffered extensive damages to their bridges, stations, 
and other equipment during the four years of warfare. Young 
Davis had always made it his business to keep on most friend- 
ly terms with the company that had formerly been his em- 
ployer, and now the rewards of his far-sightedness began to 
show themselves. For several years his firm was kept busy 
in supplying the orders for timber and coal, principally the 
former, for the Baltimore & Ohio, who were now completely 
overhauling their entire system and repairing the damages 
to their lines that had been inflicted during the war. The 
romance of success was now well under way and the former 
B. & O. brakeman was reaping thousands from the road for 
which he had previously worked for the meagre sum of twenty- 
five dollars per month. 

At this juncture occurred the idea of laying out a summer 
resort and establishing a town upon the summit of the Allc- 
ghanies that might serve as a place of amusement and recrea- 
tion for the hordes of nature seekers from the city during the 
summer months. The result of his determination is in evi- 
dence today in Deer Park, Maryland, which town he laid out 
and where he built an elaborate summer home. 

Having accumulated sufficient wealth to insure his inde- 
pendence and position, his ambition turned to political chan- 
nels. His friendship with Henry Clay had made him a de- 
voted Whig and his first ballot was cast for the Kcntuckian. 

During the Civil War he had maintained very friendly 
relations with the Union, and owing to the fact that his army 
contracts were always extensive, he had been brought into 
close contact with the national authorities. 

Accordingly Mr. Davis' sympathies were naturally v. it'- 
the Republicans, and he would probably have acted in full 
accord with that party had it not been that some Republican 
opponents defeated him for the legislature by, in some manner, 

History of West Virginia ,i.v 

having his name stricken from the registry li>t, and an 1111 
registered voter could not hold office. This incident deter 
mined his career as a Democrat, and in I860 he was elected to 
the lower branch of the \\ est Virginia legislature. 

He served one year in the lower house and his career in 
that body was a noteworthy one and was largely occupied 
with legislation concerning the financial system of the new 
born state. 

Two years later he was elected to the state senate and 
took a still more prominent part in financial legislation. 

Again in 1870 he was a candidate to succeed himself in the 
upper house. His opponent this time was a foe worthy of his 
steel, the Hon. \V. II. 11. Flick, of Pendleton County, one of 
the new state's leading Republicans, making the fight against 
him. The campaign was a memorable one, the two candidate* 
traveling together and discussing the issues at joint debates in 
country stores and school houses. Mr. Davis won by a small 
majority, and because of his victory over so renowned a Re- 
publican as Mr. Flick, he became the leader of his party in the 
state senate; at the same lime serving as chairman of the 
finance committee. The importance of Senator Da\is" work 
in the two branches of the legislature is often underestimated. 

When he first took his seat the new state was scarcely 
three years old. he was a leader during the majority of his 
service and much of the credit for the firm and substantial 
foundation of the state government should be accorded him for 
he was largely a precedent maker during his six years of ser- 
vice in the state's legislative halls. 

Although during these busy years the senator's time was 
largelv occupied with political duties, he in no wise relin- 
quished his ideas and projected plans for the developing of tin- 
thousands of acres that he and his brother (for Thomas P.. 
had associated himself with the firm several years before this 
time) had acquired, and he utilized the advantages affor led 
him by being brought into contact with other capitalists in 
public life, to interest them in his investments and in his prn- 
i -ctcd development of the vast area already mention. !. Par- 
ticularly valuable in this respect were his twelve years siicnt 
in the national senate, a little later. Such service broiif,'" him 

338 History of West Virginia 

into contact with the leading financiers of the nation; they 
respected him for what "he had already wrought" and placed 
confidence in the plans of the West Virginian because they 
respected and admired his business foresight, examples of 
which he could already refer to them. Consequently he had 
little difficulty in winning their confidence and obtaining their 
capital and in this fashion his dreams were made practicable 
when, with their capital added to his own, he was able to span 
the almost insurmountable Alleghanies with the West Vir- 
ginia Central and Pittsburgh Railway and open for develop- 
ment an enormous territory whose resources were heretofore 
unknown and whose possibilities were considered impractica- 
ble and futile. 

His political career was simply an agent to the later 
career as a developer, in order to obtain the latter he must 
acquire prestige through means of the former. 

In 1870, when the duty of electing a successor to the Hon. 
Waitman T. Willey devolved upon the legislature, Mr, Davis, 
then the Democratic leader of the state senate, was chosen by 
an almost unanimous vote. Representatives of both parties 
voted for him over such distinguished men as Hon. Daniel 
Lamb and Lol. B. II. Smith, who were candidates. He was 
also elected to a second term, his twelve 3'ears of service in 
the national senate expiring March 4, 18S3. 

It has been told of him that he never held public office 
except by the votes of the opposite party and this rule is said 
to have held good throughout his political career. 

Mr. Davis could never be regarded in the light of a par- 
tisan. He was pre-eminently a conservative. His ideas were 
far from the political views entertained by leading Democrats 
today, and if Henry G. Davis were actively engaged in politics 
today, he could not be a leader of his party without changing 
his views ; he was always what might lie termed a "Protec- 
tion" Democrat. He believed in incidental protection. He 
was not a man who would be lined up behind reciprocity 
treaties or movements which have for their purpose the put- 
ting of coal, lumber and other natural resources upon the free 

History of West Virginia 3-Vj 

His antagonism toward the lamented William L. Wilson 
is well known by his intimates, and it is no secret that he pre- 
ferred Federal Judge Alston G. Dayton, an uncompromising 
Republican congressman from the "Old Second," to Wilson, 
whose tariff views were widely, at variance with those enter- 
tained by Senator Davis. 

Judge Dayton has often made the remark that Senator 
Davis was the maker of his career, Dayton being the man who 
fiiiaily reclaimed the district tor the Republicans in the mem- 
orable campaign of 1S94, when William L. Wilson, thought 
by many to be West Virginia's greatest Democrat, went down 
to defeat, only to become postmaster-general in President 
L teveland's cabinet. 

Senator Davis' twelve years work in the senate was large- 
ly occupied by the stud}' of transportation problems, monetary 
conditions, reforms in the business system in vogue in the 
treasury department and the work of the department of agri- 

The record of Senator Davis' twelve years service in the 
national senate is largely taken up by his work on the old 
transportation committee out of which has grown the present 
interstate commerce commission, the committee on appropria- 
tions, of which he was chairman during the two years that the 
Democrats controlled the senate, and his efforts toward raising 
the efficiency of the agricultural resources of the country and 
toward inaugurating a new and more practical system of book- 
keeping in the treasury department. 

• When Mr. Davis took his seat on the minority side of the 
senate in the spring of 1871, that body was composed of a 
notable and eminent array of brilliant statesmen, of whom 
each political party had a goodly share. Among the Republic- 
ans were Conkling, Harrison, Sherman, Blaine and Windom ; 
while among the Democrats could be found Bavard, Thiirman, 
and Morgan. Senator Davis quietly took his place amongst 
them as the junior senator from West Virginia, the late John- 
: in X. Camden being his colleague. He applied to his new- 
duties in the senate the same business-like precision, the same 
i 'd.fatigable energy that had characterized him as a business 
man. , 

340 History of West Virginia 

His becoming modesty and his desire for doing unosten- 
tatious work made him a power in the committee rooms. Jn 
f:.ct, Senator Davis' work of greatest usefulness was done in 
committee. He early acquired a place on the transportation 
committee, which was at that time one of the most important 
of the upper house committees. It was here that his vast and 
unlimited knowledge of transportation problems began to 
show itself and within a short while his colleagues on the com- 
mittee became accustomed to seek his advice and rely upon his 
judgment on every important question that arose. 

The committee was sent to Philadelphia, Chicago, New 
York and other cities to investigate the transportation facili- 
ties to the seaboard, afforded by the country's leading trunk 
lines and on these investigating trips, shippers and other busi- 
ness men soon found out that Air. Davis was the best posted 
man on common carriers' and shippers' problems, on the com- 
mittee, and he continued to be the moving spirit throughout 
his entire senatorial career. 

When the Democrats gained control of the senate, they 
selected Mr. Davis, as has been stated, for the chairmanship 
of the committee on appropriations, one of the most powerful 
of the big senate committees. Here again in the committee 
room was his next effective work accomplished. His careful 
judgment and almost unlimited store of knowledge upon trans- 
portation and monetary problems again found a field of use- 
fulness, and indirectly his chairmanship of this committee was 
a powerful agency toward promoting the prosperity and hap- 
piness of the people of his own state. 

The securing of many substantial appropriations for the 
improvement of the state's waterways and the system of dams 
and locks in the Great Kanawha, Monongahela and other 
rivers is largely the result of Air. Davis' efforts. 

In the second session of the forty-third congress, Mr. Da- 
vis was made a member of the committee on agriculture. 
Senator Davis' earliest work, it must be remembered, was 
done on the farm, and before he left the employ of former 
Governor Howard to take the position of brakeman on a rail- 
road, he had become superintendent of the farm on which he 
worked, and a lively interest in agriculture had remained with 

History of West Virginia 341 

him ever since. The committee: on agriculture, at the time 
.Mr. Davis joined it, was not regarded as very important or 
influential, but before the West Virginian's term of service 
upon it expired, he had made it become, in importance, one of 
the leading committees in the senate. 

Few are aware that our present national department of 
agriculture is largely indebted for its creation to .Mr. Davis' 
untiring work on the agricultural committee. Two of his 
best speeches, during his entire career in the senate, were 
devoted to the advantages that the people would reap from 
the maintenance of such a national department. 

During his first term Senator Davis had severely criti- 
cised the system of bookkeeping in vogue in the national 
treasury, lie did not charge defalcation or misappropriation 
of funds, but claimed that through the red tape and old fash- 
ioned methods in vogue in the department that the people were 
kept in ignorance of the real financial condition of the country. 
So long as the Republicans were in power little heed had been 
given to his utterances on the subject, but when the Demo- 
crats finally obtained control of the senate, Mr. Davis was 
made chairman of a special committee to investigate the condi- 
tions of the treasury. His allegations were sustained and the 
reforms recommended by him were adopted, many of them 
later becoming laws which now govern the conduct of our 
financial policy and business. 

As a young man at Piedmont, Mr. Davis had frequently 
made exploring and investigating trips southeastward across 
the Alleghany Mountains, and as before stated, no one realized 
better than he. the innumerable, undeveloped, natural re- 
sources of the region mentioned. His political career had 
made him friends of and brought him into direct contact with, 
the leading financiers of the nation. He was now able to in- 
terest them and to obtain their co-operation in the fulfillment 
of his desires, of his day dreams as a youth to some day span 
the region southeast of Piedmont with a railroad. 

lie had now been marketing coal for many years, having 
established houses at Baltimore ami other important eastern 
ports which he operated in conjunction with his Piedmont 

342 History of West Virginia 

stores, and still traded under the name of II. G. Davis & 

Two years before he left the senate, having associated 
with him, Bayard, Gorman, Schell, YVindom and other finan- 
ciers who were in the senate at the time he served, and several 
prominent capitalists from New York, this long projected rail- 
road had been commenced, and at his retirement from the 
senate in 1883 had reached a point near the Fairfax Stone on 
the summit of the Allcghanies. Some time after the death of 
President Garrett of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, Mr. 
Davis became convinced that the company was not treating 
him fairly, and as a means to obtain relief, commenced the 
construction of a road from Piedmont to Cumberland, a dis- 
tance of twenty-five miles; upon the completion of which he 
would have access to the Chesapeake and Ohio canal and the 
Pennsylvania lines as transporters of his coal. In spite of 
strong opposition on the part of the B. & O. Railroad Com- 
pany, the work of construction was rushed along and within 
one year trains were running over his connecting spur which 
made him then independent of the B. & O. The West Vir- 
ginia Central and Pittsburgh was then extended on to Elkins, 
and later on to Belington where the line connected with the 
Baltimore & Ohio. During the progress of the construction 
of this road Senator Davis was joined in the work by his son- 
in-law, the late Stephen B. Elkins. and the two together pro- 
ceeded to found the city of Elkins, which is now fast becoming 
one of the leading cities of the state. 

Upon the founding of the town, Senator Davis moved his 
home from riedmont to Elkins, and on a commanding hill, 
overlooking the town, he erected the most costly and palatial 
mansion in the state. Tn close proximity to his residence, the 
late Senator Elkins and Ambassador Kerens, both of whom 
were activclv associated with Mr. Davis in his development 
of the state, have since built handsome homes which adjoin 
his property. In addition to the spur from Elkins to Beling- 
ton. a line was built to Durban, on the C. & O.. and another 
to Huttonsville. 

Mr. Davis continued as president of the West Virginia 
Central until 1902 when an attractive offer for the road, made 

History of West Virginia 34.i 

by the Gould interests, was accepted, and the system then be- 
came an advantageous connecting link in the rapidly expand- 
ing Western Maryland lines. 

Then later on. principally out of his own funds, Senator 
Davis built the Coal and Coke railroad from Llkins to Charles- 
ton, a distance of 175 miles, the road being completed in l'>0>. 
This line has opened up for development the counties of Lewis, 
Braxton, Gilmer, Clay, and Kanawha. 

Notwithstanding Senator Davis' enormous industrial ac- 
tivities, he has always devoted considerable attention to poli- 
tics, and has held many important political positions outside 
of the state and national legislatures, having frequently been 
called upon to serve as a delegate to national conventions and 
other important gatherings. 

While not in sympathy with some of William Jennings 
Bryan's theories, he was always faithful to his party. 

In the city of St. Louis, in 1 ( >04, Senator Davis, then 80 
years old. was nominated for vice president of the United 
States, following the nomination of Judge Parker for presi- 
dent. This was done while the senator was on his wa\ home 
from the convention, and without his knowledge or consent. 
However, he accepted the honor forced upon him by his Dem- 
ocratic friends; but no active campaign was entered upon by 
him until the time for the election was drawing near, when he. 
accompanied by Senator Mill, of Xew York; Senator Daniels, 
of Virginia: Senator Bailey, of Texas; and ex-Governor \\ il- 
liam P. White, of .Maryland, made a tour of the state in a 
special car. 

Although the Democratic party suffered defeat at the 
polls. Mr. Davis was glad to be able to take up again, un- 
trammeled with political cares, the management of his busi- 
ness affairs which he had been forced to neglect during the 
progress of the campaign. 

Mr. Davis was one of the ten delegates representing the 
United States at the first international conference of the 
American republics held in Washington in 1SS0 Of). lie was 
also one of five members from the United States at the Pan- 
American conference held in the City of Mexico in the winter 
of l f »01-2. being chosen chairman of the I". S. delegates. 

344 History of West Virginia 

Undoubtedly Air. Davis has contributed more toward the 
development of West Virginia's natural resorces and the 
general improvement of the state than any half dozen other 
men in it. He has not only built several hundred miles of 
railroad which has been the means of opening up hundreds of 
mines and factories, but the existence of many flourishing 
towns and cities is .largely due to his efforts. 

Mr. Davis leads as a philanthropist in West Virginia. 
His contributions to worthy institutions have been most 
liberal. He donated to Piedmont the Davis Free School build- 
ing, erected at a cost of $23,000. He donated a brick school 
building to the people at Henry, a mining town on the West- 
ern Maryland railroad; contributed largely toward the hand- 
some high school building at Davis ; made a gift of a beautiful 
brick structure to the citizens of Gassaway to be used for 
school purposes. At Elkins, he and his brother, Thomas B„ 
gave to the Presbyterian congregation the beautiful building 
called the Davis Memorial church, in memory of their parents. 
This building cost about $25,000. He also built a church 
home for the colored people at Elkins. The Davis Memorial 
hospital was commenced by Mrs. Davis, but was not com- 
pleted until after her death. (For further particulars con- 
cerning this institution, see "History of Elkins" elsewhere in 
this book). 

The Davis Child Shelter at Charleston was a contribution 
of the senator's, to which institution he also contributes $100 
each month. 

The Davis-Elkins College, together with thirty acres of 
land, was donated by the gentlemen whose names it bears, 
and turned over to the Presbyterian church in 1904. Air. 
Davis contributes several thousand dollars annually in equip- 
ment and endowment of chairs. 

What Henry Gassaway Davis has done for West Virginia 
and her people will be a standing monument to his memory 
for centuries to come. 



History of West Virginia 347 

(By Ignatius Brennan in Wheeling' Register.) 

It seems to be so human-like to hold 

The praises due a fellow-man until 
His earthly task is finished, and the cold, 

Cold hand of death has bade the form "Be still!" 
But we've been taught "To whom a flower is due, 
Bequeath it while the flower is fresh and new ; 
The while the one to whom, it you'd present 
Can graciously acknowledge the intent." 

A page to West Virginia's "Grand ( 'Id Man" 

Is just a paltry jabber, when we know 
That volumes could be written — that, to scan 

The same would set each mind aglow 
With thoughts of what a mortal man can do 
When bland determination's kept in view, 
Xo other state can boast of such a peer, 
Hale, staunch and wholesome in his ninetieth year. 

He looms as a connecting link of time 

A link that starts when our domain was young. 
Then stretches 'cross the cycle, so sublime, 

And joins all with a clime of every tongue. 
Before the locomotive raced the rail; 
Before the harnessed lightning pierced the vale: 
Before a thousand things of wondrous make — 
lie lived, and gave his being for their sake. 

Hail! "Proudest Roman of them all!" Thrice hail! 

We greet you in no selfish state-proud wav, 
But as a man with no such word as "Fail" 

In his vocabulary. So. today 
Salute you as a country-builder fine 
Whose task is finished when the fight is won. 
We pray Old Time, who's been so kind to you 
May grant you lease 'till nineteen twenty-two. 

348 History of West Virginia 

Senator Stephen B. Elkins. 

In the presence of the members of his family, in their city 
home — Washington, D. C. — Senator Stephen B. Elkins de- 
parted this life on the night of January 3, 1911, after a linger- 
ing illness of several months" duration. At five o'clock p. m., 
January 6th, an impressive prayer by Rev. Dr. Wallace Rad- 
cliff was made at the Senator's late home, President Taft, 
A'ice President Sherman, Chief Justice White, members of 
the cabinet and supreme court, as well as man)- members of 
the diplomatic corps, the senate and the house being present. 
At ten o'clock that night, the body, accompanied by the mem- 
bers of the family and a large number of Washington friends, 
was taken to Elkins. The funeral party arrived at Elkins the 
following morning, where services were held at the Davis 
Memorial Presbyterian Church at ten o'clock, conducted by 
Rev. Dr. Frederick H. Barron, pastor of the church. The 
body was then laid to rest at Maplewood Cemetery, one mile 
from Elkins. 

Thus ended all that was mortal of one of the most promi- 
nent and most popular human characters of the United States ; 
but his works are a lasting monument to his memory, and 
the fruits of a well spent life will live on for ages 

The following sketch of the career of Senator Elkins is 
taken from the Wheeling Register : 

Stephen B. Elkins, for many years the leader of the 
Republican party in West Virginia, and a man of influence in 
national affairs, after whom the city of Elkins was named, 
was, like main' others who have risen to fame and wealth, the 
son of poor parents. He was born in Perry County, Ohio, on 
September 26, 1841, but while he was yet a child his family 
moved to Missouri, where he entered the public schools. In 
early life, by applying himself diligently to his studies, his 
promotion was rapid and at the age of nineteen he had gradu- 
ated with honors at the Missouri State University. 

After graduating from the University he studied law and 
was admitted to the practice of that profession in 1863. The 
Civil War was then at its height and young Elkins joined the 
Union army, serving on the Missouri frontier, rising to the 
rank of captain. 

History of West Virginia 31" 

Looking upon -Xew Mexico as a section of the country 
of much promise. Stephen II. Klkins located tliere in 180-I. 
As S])anish was largely the medium of conversation in that 
part of the country, the young attorney in Xew Mexico found 
it exceedingly difficult to get along without a knowledge of 
that tongue. Within a year he mastered that language and 
until the time of his death he maintained a fondness for it and 
became very proficient in speaking and writing the Spanish 

Within two years after locating in Xew Mexico he had 
built up a large and lucrative practice which brought him a 
good income and many friends among men of influence, so 
that it was natural that he should be chosen to the legislature 
of the new territory. In 1867 he was appointed attorney 
general of Xew Mexico by Trcsident Johnson and in the fol- 
lowing year he became the district attorney for Xew Mexico. 

It was during this period of his life that he laid the 
foundation for his fortune, increased in later years by wise 
investments. His early earnings were carefully invested in 
silver mines and valuable lands which yielded a profitable 
return, lie became the president of the First National Bank 
of Santa Fe in lfsT.O and held that position for thirteen years. 

Stephen B. Klkins' national career really began in 1873. 
when he was elected as a delegate to Congress from Xew 
Mexico. He was nominated and re-elected to that office in 
1875, and it was while serving in Congress that he met and 
married llallie Davis, a daughter of Henry C.assaway Davis, 
after whom his palatial home at Klkins was named "Ilallie- 

Mr. Elkins became a member of the Republican Xational 
Committee in 1875 and served as a member of that committee 
through three presidential campaigns. In 188-1 he was chosen 
as the chairman of the Executive Committee. He and James 
G. Blaine formed a warm attachment for each other, and it was 
due to him in a large measure that Blaine was nominated for 
the presidency in 188-1. The attachment thus formed for each 
other lasted until the death of Maine's " Tinmen* Knight". Mr. 
Klkins played a prominent part in the campaign of Benjamin 
Harrison in 1888 and 1892. and in recognition of his services 

350 History of West Virginia 

President Harrison made him Secretary of War on December 
17, 1891. 

West Virginia became his adopted home in 1S7S. United 
to Senator H. G. Davis by ties of marriage. Senator Elkins 
became associated with his father-in-law and others in the 
development of West Virginia coal and timber lands and one 
of the largest projects was the building of the West Virginia 
Central & Pittsburgh Railway from Cumberland to Elkins, 
now a part of the Western Maryland system, which forms a 
link to the Gould lines. 

As soon as the West Virginia Central Railroad was built 
into Elkins, he built on the crest of one of the hills overlook- 
ing the city of Elkins a home of magnificent proportions where 
during the summer months he and his charming wife and 
family entertained their friends from far and near. 

Stephen B. Elkins first became prominent in West Vir- 
ginia politics in 1892, when he received the complimentary 
vote of the Republicans in the Western Virginia Legislature. 
Two years later the political complexion of the State was 
changed and Stephen B. Elkins was elected to the United 
States Senate, taking his seat on March 4, 1895. He was re- 
elected in 1901 and again in 1907, and was a candidate for 
re-election in 1913, when death terminated his career. As a 
United States Senator Stephen B. Elkins was an ardent advo- 
cate of a merchant marine. As chairman of the Committee on 
Inter-State Commerce Senator Elkins wielded considerable 

Never relaxing" his attention to business affairs or to 
political affairs, Senator Elkins in the latter part of the first 
session of the 61st Congress over-taxed his strength and re- 
turned to his home at Elkins early in the summer of 1910 in 
shattered health. Devoting days and nights to the inter-state 
commerce bill, which he had charge of while it was pending 
in the Senate, he brought upon himself an illness from which 
he never recovered. He was under the care of physicians 
during the early part of the summer, and while not seriously 
ill during the summer months, he was able to devote little 
time to business, social or political affairs. He was permitted 
to drive out but was seldom seen on the streets of Elkins 

History of West Virginia 351 

Early in October his health began to fail still more rapidly 
and physicians prescribed absolute rest and complete seclu- 
sion. Thi> did not have the desired effect, and w lien l.i.; 
illness did not yield to the rest treatment numerous specialists 
were called in at various times, but his case seemed to battle 
them all. His real condition was carefully guarded from the 
public, but it became known in one way and another that he 
was seriously ill and that his recovery was a matter of doubt, 
although those closely connected with him put on a brave 
front until the very last. His condition was such that only 
the members of his own family were permitted to see him 
and then only at stated intervals. 

Feeling that perhaps a change might prove beneficial, 
Senator Elkins, accompanied by the members of his family, 
then at Elkins. was taken to his home in Washington on 
Wednesday, November 9. His departure was carefully 
guarded from the public for fear of curiosity seekers. 

With Senator Elkins at the helm, the Republican party 
in West Virginia had always been able to navigate the 
roughest passages and his inability to take hold during the 
1910 campaign left the party in sore straits. His finesse and 
diplomacy, which had always been factors in keeping the 
factions in the part}- together, were sadly missed. As the 
acknowledged leader of his party in West Virginia, without 
him the leaders seemed all at sea. 

Elkins' Business Acumen. 

Stephen B. Elkins was pre-eminently a successful business 
man, possessing power of discriminating between good and 
bad investments, and possessing a far-sighted judgment. His 
investments were not confined to West Virginia, but were 
scattered all over the Union, although his West Virginia 
properties claimed a large share of his attention. Until within 
a few years ago he was a director and an officer in many 
West Virginia banks, but withdrew because of the pressure 
of other business and duties. 

Several years ago he purchased the Morgantown & 
Kingwood road from George C. Sturgiss and developed that 

352 History of West Virginia 

line, extending the road to Rowlesburg and developing many 
mining properties along the line of the road. He was largely 
interested in the Union Utilities Company of Morgantown, 
which controls the street car franchise and other public utili- 
ties in that city. He was also at one time, if not at his death, 
interested in the Security Trust Company of Wheeling, and 
also a stockholder in the Elkins National Bank and the Davis 
Trust Company, at Elkins. 

With C. H. Livingstone he built the Great Falls Electric 
Railroad from Washington into Virginia and was a stock- 
holder in at least one national bank in Washington. He was 
interested in many other enterprises in the State, and perhaps 
no other one person in the State contributed more to the 
State's development than he. 

Elkins as a Party Leader. 

For almost a score of years Senator S. B. Elkins, the 
senior Senator from West Virginia, absolutely dominated his 
party in West Virginia and was looked upon as its leader. 
Three terms in the United States Senate, with the prospects 
of a fourth, gave him much prestige, which, together with his 
wealth, made him a power to be reckoned with in the councils 
of his party. In the early nineties he became a force to be 
reckoned with politically and from that time until his death 
he controlled the destinies of his party in this State. 

For the first time in many years the West Virginia 
Legislature became Republican in 1894 and at the session the 
following January Senator Elkins succeeded Senator Kenua. 
He was re-elected in 1901 and again six years later. 

He seemed to realize long before others of his party saw 
it that with the material development of the State there would 
be a large influx of people from other States, and principally 
from Pennsylvania, and with the same foresight that had been 
instrumental in making him a man of wealth he took hold 
of the affairs of his party and, instilling courage in tire breasts 
of the leaders, finally managed to ride into power on the wave 
that changed West Virginia from a Democratic to a Repub- 
lican State in 1894. 

History of West Virginia 353 

His home at "Halliehurst" in Elkins was the scene of 
frequent political gatherings ami during the summer month-; 
was the Mecca for many political visitors. He possessed the 
happy faculty of smoothing out difficulties and of harmonizing 
all the conflicting elements within his party. lie could proba- 
bly pour more oil on the troubled waters than any man in the 
State, and though there were those who reviled him and dc 
nounced him as a boss, they entertained a wholesome respect 
for his ability and astuteness. 

It was largely through his efforts that a compromise 
between the Scherr-Swisher factions was effected in 190S. 
The first step toward such a compromise was made at a con- 
ference held at his home in September, 190S, and within a 
few weeks a semblance of harmony at least had been restored 
within his party, and the governorship of the State saved. 

He might have done much toward restoring harmony in 
the recent campaign, but his illness prevented him from par- 
ticipating in party affairs, and the party leaders had to get 
along as best they could without the benefit of his advice or 
with him to steer them over the rough places. 

Senator Elkins was not an orator, but his speeches, 
whether delivered in the Senate or elsewhere, always com- 
manded respect and attention. He usually spoke from manu- 
script. His special hobby was merchant marine, although as 
chairman of the Committee on Inter-State Commerce the later 
years of his service in the Senate were devoted to the study 
of railroads and other forms of transportation, with which he 
was more or less conversant in a business way. 

Although a protectionist, Senator Elkins balked at the 
high-handed methods of Senator Aldrich, of Rhode Island, 
and on two occasions threatened to leave the reservation and 
join his fortunes with the insurgents. 

Elkins in Private Life. 

Unlike some men of wealth. Senator Elkins was much 
given to reading, and at Washington and Elkins had one of 
the finest libraries in the country. He frequently mingled his 
literature pursuits with his other work, fitting with a book 

354 History of West Virginia 

propped up in front of him, first working on his papers for a 
while and then reading a page or 'two. He was extremely 
fond of the poems of Lord Tennyson and on his shelves were 
many editions of that poet. 

The social life of the Capital had its attractions for both 
Senator and Mrs. Elkins, whose K Street home was the scene 
of many brilliant functions during the sessions of Congress. 
Both the Senator and his wife were fond of entertaining, and 
Mrs. Elkins, whether at Washington or Elkins, was always 
the charming hostess, invitations to whose dinners were 
always sought. 

Assiduous in his attention to public duties and with many 
business cares as well to interrupt his other activities, Senator 
Elkins found little time for recreation other than that derived 
from his entertaining. He was usually at his desk at his 
home or in the Senate by 9 o'clock and during the day never 
allowed himself any time for rest or pleasure. 

This practice he continued for years so that when his 
chairmanship of the Inter-State Commerce Committee en- 
tailed additional labors in managing the railroad bill in the 
Senate during the last session he overtaxed his vitality and 
never recovered from the strain upon his strength. 

In his contact with the public Senator Elkins was always 
courteous and considerate and always accessible, ever the 
genial gentleman, with a kind word and a warm handshake 
for all with whom he came in contact. Even those who were 
opposed to him politically and who criticised his methods, 
were forced to admire his personality and his large-hearted- 
ness and invariably succumbed to his warmth of greeting and 
the arm affectionately thrown around one's shoulder. 

Senator Elkins was devoted to his family and took 
especial pride in the accomplishments of his daughter, Kath- 
arine. When those functions which contributed to the social 
season were over, Senator and Mrs. Elkins always sat for a 
while enjoying each other's company. 

About twenty years ago, when the West Virginia Central 
& Pittsburg Railroad was extended from Elkins to Belington, 
the writer acted as joint station agent for that road and the 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company at Belington ; and while 

History of West Virginia 


I was stationed at that place, Senator Elkins occasionally 
passed through town, and now and then would drop in ami 
greet the office force with a friendly handshake or pleasant 
word. On one occasion, which I shall never forget, he came 
into my office and noticing one of my children — a little girl 
he took her up on his lap, and after gently stroking the child's 
curly locks as she trustingly nestled within his arms as if she 
had known him all her young life, he reached down into an 
ample pocket and brought forth a hand full of candy, which lu- 
placed in the child's' lap. That simple act of old-fashioned 
friendship for a child appealed to me far more than a raise in 
my salary could have done. 

356 History of West Virginia 

Col. Thomas S. Haymond, 

A son of William Haymond, Jr., and a grandson of William 
Haymond, Sr., one of the earliest settlers in Marion County, 
was born on his father's farm, near Fairmont, January 15, 
1794, and died in Richmond, Ya., in 1869. He was one of the 
most prominent characters of his day, and filled, with much 
credit to himself and his constituents, several important posi- 
tions in the county, state and national governments. 

Judge Alpheus F. Haymond. 

The late Judge Alpheus F, Haymond, son of Colonel 
Thomas S. and Harriet A. Haymond, and father of Circuit 
Judge, William S. Haymond, was born upon his father's farm, 
three miles from Fairmont, December 15, 1S23. After having 
attended the country schools until thirteen years old, he 
attended the Morgan town Academy two years, then spent 
nine months at college at Williamsburg, Virginia. Later on 
he served an apprenticeship in the law office of Fdgar E. 
Wilson, at Morgantown, and was admitted to the bar and 
commenced the practice of law at Fairmont in 1842. He 
served several years as prosecuting attorney of Marion 
County, and afterwards served two terms in the State Legis- 
lature. He was one of the 47 Western Virginia delegates to 
the Richmond convention in 1861, being chairman of Com- 
mittee on Elections when that body adopted the Ordinance 
of Secession, April 17th, 1861, an account of which is given 
elsewhere in this book. Afterwards he was elected Judge of 
the Circuit Courts, in which position he served with -distinc- 
tion for several years. He died on his birthday, 1893, aged 
70 years. Attorney A. F. Peddicord, of Fairmont, is a 
grandson of Judge Haymond. 

Hon. Benjamin F. Martin 

Was born near Farmington, in Marion County, October 2, 
1828, and departed this life January 20. 1895, aged 66 years. 
He was the son of Jesse Martin, of that place. Admitted to 

History of West Virginia 5?7 

the bar in 185t>, he removed to Pruntytown in November of 
that year. He took an active part in politics ami was fre- 
quently called upon to represent his county in national con- 
ventions, and also served two terms in Congress, lie was a 
Democrat of the old school, lie died January 20. 1 S'^5. aged 
66 years. 

Hon. A. Brooks Fleming 

Was born October 13, 1839, upon his father's farm, two miles 
west of Fairmont. He is the son of Benjamin F. and Khoda 
Fleming, the latter a daughter of Rev. Asa Brooks, a noted 
Presbyjerian minister from New England and who subse- 
quently settled at Clarksburg, where he died in 1836. 

Until he arrived at the age of 21, .Mr. Fleming alternately 
attended school and worked upon his father's farm. At the 
age of 21, he commenced the study of law at the University 
of Virginia, and commenced the practice of his chosen pro- 
fession at Fairmont in 1862, where he is still an active member 
of the Clarion County bar. He served as Prosecuting Attor- 
ney of Marion County from 1864 to 1868, and in 1872 was 
elected a member of the State Legislature on the Democratic 
ticket and re-elected to same office in 1875. Three years later 
the Governor appointed him Judge of the Second Judicial 
Circuit to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Judge 
Lewis, and at the next general election was elected by the 
people to complete the unexpired term ending January 1, 1881. 
He was married September 7, 1865, to Clara M., daughter of 
the late James O. Watson. Through mining enterprises, 
farming and his law practice, the Judge is said to have 
accumulated quite a competency, lie has long since attained 
a high reputation as a jurist and a gentleman of fine literary 
and business attainments, while his political and private life 
are above reproach. 

John W. McCoy, Esq., 

Was born near Middlebourne. Tyler County, this State, Sep- 
tember 14. 1826; worked on his father's farm until he arrived 

358 History of West Virginia 

at the age of 21 during the summers and attended school in 
the winters ; commenced the practice of law at Middlebourne, 
where he resided until the spring of 1868, when he removed to 
Fairmont, at which place he remained until his death, January 
26, 1902. He served as Prosecuting Attorney of Marion 
County from 1870 to 1878, having previously served in the 
same capacity two terms in Tyler County from 1858 to 1866. 
As a lawyer and counsel, Mr. McCoy had but few equals. 

Hon. U. N. Arnett, 

Son of Jonathan and Elizabeth Arnett, was born near Rives- 
ville, Marion County, March 7, 1820. and died January 14, 
1880. Until he reached the age of 31, most of his life was 
spent upon the farm, where, previous to his arrival at the age 
of 21, he attended winter schools and assisted on the farm in 
summer. In 1851 he represented Marion County in the Vir- 
ginia Legislature, serving" in that capacity for a period of six 
years. He served as Justice of the Peace, State Senator and 
various other public positions from time to time, and was 
highly respected by those who knew him. He was a 

The Glover and Myers Families. 

About the year 1755 a young man by name of John Glover 
came over from England and settled at Wilmington, Dela- 
ware. Shortly after his arrival he married a New England 
girl. To this union were born several children, two of whom 
were named Amos and Nehemiah, respectively, the former 
being born in 1760 and the latter about 1772. Later on, about 
1781, the brothers left Delaware and came to Western Penn- 
sylvania, Amos locating' in Washington County and Nehemiah 
in Greene County. Shortly afterwards Nehemiah married 
Dorcas Kocn, a sister of Isaac Kocn, the father of Peter and 
James Koen, early pioneers who settled in Wetzel County, 
near Wileysville. Shortly after his marriage, young Glover 
brought his bride to the head of Dunkard Creek, in Monon- 
galia County, where the}- settled about two miles southeast of 

History of West Virginia 

Wadcstown, on what is known as the Wilson 11 aught farm. 
To this union were born thirteen children, namely: John, 
Margaret, Barbara, Samuel, Ephraim. William, Xehemiah. 
Mary, Isaac, Lucy, Amos, and Leonard, one having died in 

In 1797, Xehemiah Glover, Sr., took up a tract of un- 
broken forest land where Clover's Gap tunnel now is, on ihe 
Marion County side, where lie erected a log cabin and moved 
his family. The country in that section at that time was a 
perfect wilderness; wild beasts roamed the forests; the 
Indian's war cry had scarcely ceased on Buffalo Creek; a rail- 
road had not been thought of in the United States; settle- 
ments were few and far between ; Wheeling, a mere village, 
was the nearest market for gunpowder and salt ; there were 
no roads, except, perhaps, a bridle path between the Monon- 
gahela and Ohio Valleys, which had been more frequently 
used by the Indians than by the whites. Such were the con- 
ditions that surrounded the Glover family when they arrived 
at their new home at the "Low Gap", in 1797. 

After clearing a large scope of land, and raising his family 
up to an age when the children were able to look after them- 
selves. Xehemiah died about the year 18-15 and was buried on 
what is now called "Tunnell Hill", near his old cabin home. 
After the old man's death, the farm fell into the hands of his 
son, Leonard, who later sold the farm and moved to another 
near Silver Hill, in Center District, Wetzel County, and from 
there he later moved to Wood County, on the waters of Still- 
well. When Leonard left the Low Gap farm he took his 
mother with him. A few years later she died, but the writer 
has not been able to ascertain the date of her death or the 
place of her interment. 

John Glover, Xchcmiah's first son, married Catharine 
Bartrug. who died without issue. For his second wife, he 
married Sarah Pratt, and to them were born two sons and 
three daughters: Jerry. Leonard. Barbara, Lucy and Hetty. 
His first wife was buried at Cottontown. in Wetzel County, 
while he and his last wife were interred on Low (lap I fill, 
along side of his father. 

360 History of West Virginia 

Margaret married John Six, of Greene Count}*, Pa. The}' 
had five children: Nehemiah, Adam, Hannah, Jackson, and 
Abner. These arc all dead. 

Barbara married George Bartrug, and to them were born 
ten children : Peter, George, Moses, Samuel, Dorcas, Mar- 
garet, Mary, Elizabeth, Barbara, and Sarah. These are all 
dead except Moses, Samuel and Barbara. Those dead were 
buried at Cottontown, in Wetzel County. 

Samuel married Elizabeth Bartrug. To this union were 
born seventeen children. Three died in infancy. The others 
were Mary, Dorcas, Peter, Nehemiah, Stephen, John, Isaac, 
Elizabeth, George, Samuel, William, Anthony, Lamcch and 
A. Bennet. The mother died at the age of 67 years, and the 
father then married Christina Horner, and to them were born 
Norcissis, Lafayette and Ellen. Of the first family John, 
Anthony and Lamech and all of the last set are still living. 

Ephraim married Rachel Six. To them were born: Mary 
Anne, Isabcll, William, Lewis, Amos, Richard, Jackson, 
Dennis and James. The old people arc buried near Earnshaw, 
Wetzel County. Lewis, Amos and Jackson arc still living 
near where their parents are buried. 

William Glover married Elizabeth Pylcs. To them were 
born: Susannah, Isaac, John, William Riley, one child dying 
in infancy. Of these all are dead except Isaac, who is now- 
living near Alva, Tyler County. 

Nehemiah married Sarah Bartrug, and to this union wei e 
born: Samuel, Levi and Ebcnezcr. His first wife died and 
he married for his second a widow Ferguson. To them were 
born Harriet and Linda. His second wife having died, he 
again married, his third wife being Jane Koen. To this last 
union were born two sons and one or more daughters, whose 
names arc unknown to the writer. Samuel, Ebenczer and 
their father are dead. 

Isaac married Catharine Roberts. Their children were: 
Mary, Stephen, Dorcas, Henry, and Simon. The father and 
mother are dead. Mary, who is now dead, married George 
Bartrug. Stephen died while quite young. Henry is living at 
Wise, Monongalia County. Simon lives at lUirton, in Wetzel 

History of West Virginia 3<>1 

Mary married Samuel Byard. They had no children. 
Both are buried on the Glover's Gap tunnel hill, on the farm 
now owned by William J. Troy, being the same cemetery in 
which Mary's father, the first settler in that neighborhood, 
had been buried. 

Lucy Glover married Presley Metz, and to them were 
born: William. Martha, Jane, and Dorcas. Martha married 
Lantech Melz, Jane married Jacob Furbee, and Dorcas mar- 
ried George Rice. 

Amos Glover married Eva Hindgardncr. Their children 
were: Ely, Reuben, Jessie, Delila, Rhoda and Sylvania. Most 
of them are buried in the family cemetery, on Rush Run, 
near Hundred, in Wetzel County. 

Leonard married Minerva Alton. To this union were 
born several children, whose names we are unable to give. 
As was previously slated, he removed from the old home place 
at Low Gap, in Marion County, to a point near Silver Hill, in 
Wetzel County, thence to a farm on the waters of Slillwell, 
near Parkersburg, in Wood County, West Virginia. 

These comprise all the children of Xehemiah Glover, one 
of the first, if not the very first, settlers in the vicinity < f 
Glover's Gap. 

William, a son of Xehemiah, of whom we have heretofore 
made mention, was born at the Low Gap, in Marion County, 
about 1S10; married Elizabeth Pyles about 1831. To this 
union were born: Susannah, Isaac, John, William Riley, and 
one child who died in infancy. 

Isaac married Mary, daughter of Tazwell and Delilah 
(Horner) Myers; they raised a large family and are still liv- 
ing near Alva, Tyler County. 

John married of West Union, Dodd- 

ridge County; they had no children: he died and was buried 
near his late home, three miles below West Union. 

William Riley married Margaret Rice; they had four 
daughters, all living. Riley died a few years ago, and was 
buried near Glover's Gap tunnel. 

Susannah, the eldest child of William and Elizabeth 
(Pylesj Glover, was born on Dunkard's Creek. Monongalia 
County, September 16, 1833: married Xelson Myers, in 1S5'»: 

362 History of West Virginia 

died May 6, 1911, and was interred in Williams' Cemetery, near 
New Martinsville, \Y. Ya. Her husband was a son of TazweU 
and Delilah (Horner) Myers; he was born in Monongalia 
County, Ya.. April 18, 1839; died May 12, 1913, and was buried 
at Williams' Cemetery, along side of his wife. To this union 
were born one son and four daughters: Sylvester (the writer), 
born July 9, 1861 ; married Frances, daughter of Jacob and 
Sarah (Brumley) Carpenter, September 16, 1881, to which 
union were born eight children : Laura May, born August 14, 
1882, at Colfax, W. Va., married A. Lee Rhodes, November 5, 
1905, one child, Melvin. 

Clyde, born July 11, 1884. and died at Littleton, XV. Ya., 
September IS, 1884, buried in Glover's Cemetery, near Glover's 
Gap. W. Ya. 

William Cleveland, born November 1, 18S5, at Littleton; 
married Lizzie, daughter of William Smith, November 5, 1905; 
two children, Carl and William. 

Walter Michael, born March 10, 1888, at Pennsboro, W. 
Ya. ; married Claudie, only daughter of Dr. J. R. and Amanda 
(Brown) Sole. August 24, 1912; one child, Nell. 

Thurman Hugh, born at Littleton, Wetzel County, W. 
Ya., November 16. 1S90; married Olive E. Ward, of Cameron, 
Ohio, May 28. 1910; two children, Deward and Marshall. 

Bessie Vera, born at Pennsboro, W. Va., May 18, 1893; 
Edward Nelson, born at Smithfield, W. Ya., December 31, 
1895; Olive Cora, born at St. Marys. W. Ya.. April 16, 1898. 

As some of the readers of this book may not object to a 
short autobiographical sketch of the writer, he will presume 
on their patience enough to give the following: 

Sylvester Myers, the subject of this sketch, received a 
common (VERY common as you have perhaps already noted) 
school education in his native county of Marion, and at the 
age of sixteen was employed as clerk in a store at Glover's 
Gap, which position he held about one year. Leaving the 
store, lie served a fifteen months' apprenticeship in the rail- 
road station in his native town, under Jesse L. Courtright, 
after which he was given a position as night telegraph operator 
at Littleton, West Virginia, that very important epoch in the 
writer's history occurring December 19, 1880. While there 

History of West Virginia 3<o 

he heard the news Hashed over the wires announcing the 
shooting of President Garfield by Gittau. Shortly following 
this event, the subject of this sketch was transferred to Colfax, 
.Marion County, as station agent and operator, and while there, 
on September 16, 1881. was united in marriage to Frances 
Carpenter, for whom he hail formed an attachment while 
stationed at Littleton. Afterward he was promoted to the 
agency at Littleton, where he remained for several years. 
Later on he served as station agent and operator at Fleming- 
ton, Bclington, l'ennsboro, St. Marys, and Smithficld. lie also 
acted as relief agent and operator for a time, and while so 
engaged worked at practically all stations between Grafton 
and the Ohio River, on both Parkersburg and Wheeling divis- 
ions of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. 

In November, 1902, he resigned his position as station 
agent at Smithfield, on the West Virginia Short Line, to ac- 
cept the deputy clerkship under Capt. I. D. Morgan, clerk of 
the County Court of Wetzel County, and served in that 
capacity the full term of six years, from January 1st. 1903. 
In the summer of 1908 he entered the race for the nomination 
of County Clerk on the Democratic ticket. He won out, as 
did he also in the following general election, and is now serv- 
ing the last year of his present term, lie is an old member 
of the I. O. O. F., having joined that order more than twenty 
years ago. He does not make much pretense of being a 
Christian, but his name is being carried on the membership 
roll of the Christian Church, although formerly allied with the 

When the subject of this sketch left the telegraph service, 
he was regarded as one of the pioneer telegraphers, having, as 
previously stated, entered in active service in 1880, when 
"registers" or "paper mills" were still in use by a number oi 
operators. In fact, he learned on one of those machines, lie 
never used one. however, after serving his apprenticeship. 
These "paper mills" have long since been relegated to the 
scrap heap or curiosity shop, and it is very doubtful if erne 
telegrapher in ten of the ] present day has ever worked one of 
them, or, indeed, ever saw one in actual operation ; for the 

364 History of West Virginia 

great majority of the "old timers" have either -passed away 
or found other occupations. 

With this diversion, \vc will now go back to the Glover 

We stated that when Amos and Nehemiah Glover left 
Delaware, they came to western Pennsylvania, Nehemiah 
settling in Greene County and Amos in Washington County. 
We have traced Nehemiah's descendants through to the pres- 
ent day. We shall not undertake to give an extended history 
of Amos' family, as we have but little knowledge concerning 
him and his descendants. From a letter in my possession, it 
seems that Amos was married shortly after arriving in Wash- 
ington County, and became the father of five sons and two 
daughters: David, James, Thomas, Crawford and Samuel, 
Sarah and Nancy. In 1814, he removed to Belmont County, 
Ohio, and when more than SO years old, moved to Iowa with 
his youngest daughter and her family. Samuel died in 1863, 
while a son of his — John J. — was serving in the Union army. 
The latter, after his discharge, was given a position in the 
pension department at Washington, D. C, in which capacity 
he was still serving a few months ago. 







TION 1872. 




The Story of Blennerhasett's Island. 

Harman Blennerhassett was born in Hampshire, England, 
of Irish parentage. lie attended school at Westminster, and 
graduated at Trinity College. Dublin. lie subsequently 
served an apprenticeship in the study of law, and at the age 
of 25 years was admitted to the bar. In England lie married 
Adeline Agnew. a granddaughter of General Agnew. who was 
with Wolfe at Quebec. Shortly after his marriage he decided 

366 History of West Virginia 

to try his fortunes in the New World. After converting his 
property in Ireland into ready money he and his young bride 
sailed for America, arriving at New York August 1, 1796. 
The year following, the couple went to Philadelphia where 
they resided about one year, and then removed to Marietta, 
Ohio. While at that place Mr. Blennerhassett began to look 
about for a tract of land on which to establish a permanent 
home. His eyes soon feel upon an island in the Ohio River, 
about two miles below where rarkersburg now stands, which 
struck his fancy. This land was a part of a 200,000 acre tract, 
lying between the Little Kanawha and Big Sand}' Rivers, 
dedicated in 1769 to George Washington and other soldiers 
who had taken part in the French and Indian wars of 1754 
and 1765, the survey of which tract was made by General 
Washington himself. But it does not appear that Washington 
or his co-patriots ever actually came into possession of this 
land, as Patrick Henry, governor of Virginia, in 1786, con- 
veyed it to Alexander Nelson, of Richmond, Va., who in turn 
conveyed it to James Hcrron, who, in 1787, transferred it to 
Elijah Backers, a member of the famous Ohio Company, from 
whom Mr. Blennerhassett, for a consideration of $4,500, pur- 
chased 170 acres off the upper part of the island which has 
ever since been known as Blennerhassett's Island. He at 
once commenced the improvement of the property, and at an 
expense of about $30,000, erected a mansion house and office 
buildings, a picture of which is here given. 

These were in the form of a crescent, and stood near the 
upper end in the center of the island, upon a knoll, gradually 
rising on everv side from the river, and with the front facing 
up stream. The center, or main building, was 42 feet long, 
32 feet wide and two stories high. Porticos forty feet in 
length stretched out wing-shaped from either side. The whole 
structure was painted white, with green trimmings. In front 
was a large, fine circular, or fan-shaped lawn, inclosed by a 
hedge of ornamental shrubbery — the whole surrounded by a 
broad, smooth, gravelled drive-way. Vegetable gardens and 
fine orchards of fruit trees were planted in the rear of the 
mansion — the whole presenting an appearance that looked 
verv much out of place in that, then, wild country. 

History of West Virginia 3h7 

During the building' of the mansion, Mr. Blcnncrha^sett, 
his wife and child occupied a large block house, that had been 
erected on the island by Captain James and used as a retreat 
during the Indian wars. 

Mr. and Mrs. Blenncrhassetl were people of high literal v 
attainments and possessed of refined tastes and manrers. 
Their library was well supplied with choice and valuable 
works. Having ample means with which to gratify their 
wants so far as their somewhat isolated situation would per- 
mit, Mr. Blenncrhassctt and his wife succeeded in making their 
island home as lordly an estate as the limited area of their 
land would allow. Laborers to perform and experts to over- 
see the work of the farm, gardens, lawns, etc.. were employed. 
He also possessed himself of ten slaves to act as valets, host- 
lers and rowers of his boats. The interior fresco work of the 
mansion was elaborate and in keeping with the external sur- 
roundings, and the walls were tastefully adorned with paint- 
ings, some of the pictures being of great value ; but, it is said, 
few of the pictures were more skilfully executed than some 
of those drawn by the hand of Mrs. Blenncrhassctt. to whose 
tastes for the beautiful were mainly due the artistic designs 
that made their island home a sort of fairyland. She is also 
said to have been an accomplished musician, and often enter- 
tained their guests with both vocal and instrumental music. 

The Blennerhassetts. though observing the formalities 
usually practiced in an aristocratic home, were not unbending 
in their nature: They were distinguished without being os- 
tentatious, and familiar without being vulgar and absurd. 
They were, on the whole, a sociable, kind hearted people, who 
entertained for the mutual pleasure of themselves and their 
guests. They soon formed acquaintances with the settlers at 
the mouth of the Muskingum and Little Kanawha Rivers, and 
exchange of friendly calls was made with the growing demo- 
cratic simplicity that naturally follows an existence in the wil- 
derness. Thus lived a happy, contented family, until the year 
1S05. when a traitor to his country and the murderer of Alex- 
ander Hamilton, in the person of Aaron Burr, appeared upon 
the scene, which proved to be the beginning of the end of a 
happy home. 

36S History of West Virginia 

At that time Mexico was trying to throw off the yoke ot 
Spanish rule, and a war was also imminent between Spain and 
the United States; and Burr, who was an ambitious but un- 
scrupulous scoundrel, conceived the idea of organizing a>:d 
assembling a large force of armed men on the 'Wichita for the 
purpose of colonizing that region, with the ultimate object of 
conquering Mexico and establishing himself king or emperor, 
and then annexing to that usurped country all of the territory 
west of the Alleghanies! This was certainly a gigantic under 
taking, as foolish as it was bold. But that was not all : After 
having accomplished this much, it was then his purpose to 
march upon the capital of the United States, into the ha"s of 
congress, overthrow the American republic over which he iad 
recently served as vice president, and install himsek" as the 
central head of a great empire, extending from the Atlantic 
Ocean to the Rocky Mountains, and from the Great Lakes 
to the Gulf. But in order to carry out his designs, it was 
necessary to secure financial assistance. He knew that Blen- 
nerhassett was a person of considerable means, and decided 
to visit him. On his arrival at the island, Mr. Blenncrhassett 
was absent, but Mrs. Blennerhassett, with her characteristic 
hospitality, entertained their (to them then) distinguished 
guest and his companions of the voyage until her husband's 
return a few hours later. During his three days' stay on the 
island, Burr, through misrepresentations, succeeded in pro- 
curing from his unsuspecting friend a letter which, later on, 
proved the latter's undoing. Having effected this preliminary 
movement, Burr departed, only to return again in the fall of 

This designing schemer knew that Mr. Blenncrhassett 
was a person of considerable prestige, a gentleman of opulence 
and ease, of superior scientific attainments, who would prove 
a powerful aid in any purpose in which he might engage. 
Burr, himself, had been vice president of the United States — 
a position which would naturally carry with it the supposition 
that its bearer was a person to be trusted and whose good 
intentions could not be questioned. He represented to his 
host that he was merely carrying out the views and intentions 
of the United States government. He indicated the desir- 

History of West Virginia 


ability of colonizing the Spanish border with armed Americans 
who would be in a position to defend their country's interest 
and in return earn for themselves liberal concessions from the 
home government; and that in event America should take over 
Mexico through their active co-operation, political honors 
awaited them in that country. This all seemed very plausible 
and quite natural to Mr. Blcnnerhassett. .President Jefferson 
had, only three years before, purchased the whole of Louisiana, 
for fifteen millions of dollars, by which act he obtained the 
very heart of the American continent, reaching from the Miss- 
issippi to the Rock\- Mountains and more than doubling the 
area of the United States. This, of course, opened up for 
American colonization an immense area of country, rich in 
soil and minerals. Therefore, without any hopes or expecta- 
tion of political gain in Mexico, the inducements offered in the 
south were extremely attractive. Yet there is no doubt that 
had Mr. Blcnnerhassett and his wife not been led into the 
belief that he was on the way to a high political position by 
casting their fortune at the feet of one whom they believed 
to be a real friend, they would have spent their full allotment 
of years at their island home. However, such a contingency 
was not anticipated by Mr. Blcnnerhassett and he advanced 
large sums of money to Burr, who gave as his security his 
son-in-law, Joseph Alston, afterward governor of South Caro- 

For the remainder of this story, we will quote from Lewis' 
History of West Virginia : 

"The scheme progressed, and in the meantime, Blcnner- 
hassett had a flotilla of small boats, about twenty in number, 
built at Marietta, destined for use in the southern expedition. 
The peculiar form of the boats excited apprehension, but there 
was no interference and on a December evening in 1806, with 
supplies and thirty men on board, the fleet began the descent 
of the river. On the same day Colonel Hugh Phelps, com- 
mandant of the Wood County militia, received orders to arrest 
Blcnnerhassett and his associates. Late at night, with a body 
of militia, he proceeded to the island, but it was too late. 
Colonel Phelps at once began an overland journey to Point 
Pleasant, hoping to intercept the boats at that place, but they 

370 History of West Virginia 

had passed when he arrived. The troops were met by Mrs. 
Blennerhassett, who forbade them touching any not named in 
the warrant. But the mob spirit ran riot; the well stored 
cellars were assailed, the mansion sacked, balls fired into rich 
gilded ceilings, fences pulled down to light the sentinel fires, 
and the shrubbery trampled underfoot. By the aid of friends 
Airs. Blennerhassett was enabled a few days later to embark 
on a flat boat with her two children and black servants, and 
finally joined her husband at Louisville. Well might they 
look with grief, in after years, to the fair Eden from which 
they had been driven by their own indiscretion and the de- 
ception of Aaron Burr. 

"In 1812 the mansion was destroyed by lire; the garden 
with its beautiful shrubbery and rare plants was converted 
into a corn field ; the graveled avenue leading to the river was 
turned by the plowshare, and since that time nothing remains 
of the once beautiful home of TIarman Blennerhassett save 
the name. After the lapse of over a century since the once 
happy occupants left it, still the thousands of travelers who 
annually pass it by rail and river, eagerly inquire after and 
gaze with pathetic interest upon the island. 

"Burr and Blennerhassett were both arrested, taken to 
Richmond and confined to the penitentiary. Burr was ac- 
quitted, and the latter never brought to trial. Blennerhassett 
and his family afterward went to Europe, where he died on 
the Isle of Guernsey, at the age of 63 years. The widow after- 
ward returned to the United States and died in great poverty 
in New York, in 1842." 

The pictures herein given are from a drawing by Emil 
Korb, and reproduced in the Parkersburg State Journal In- 
dustrial Edition. 

History of West Virginia 





372 History of West Virginia 

Grafton National Cemetery. 

(By Nelson D. Adams, in Wheeling Intelligencer.) 

Along the clear valley so silently flowing, 
Its crystal-bright waters 'mid beauty aglow, 
Upon its green bank there are cypresses growing 
And patriots fallen arc slumbering low. 
The Stars and the Stripes still above them are flying 
As proudly as o'er them they waved in the fray, 
While softly around them the willows are sighing 
And gently the breezes in symphony play. 

They're silently sleeping! nor ever to glory 
Shall bugle tones call them from this their last rest ; 
Their conflicts are over; on battle fields gory 
They fell for that banner so dear to each breast. 
The lightnings may flash and the thunder may rattle, 
They heed them not — resting so free from all pain; 
The cannon may roar in the storm of the battle, 
But never can wake them to glory again ! 

And over the graves of the silently sleeping, 

While winter and summer incessantly fly ; 

The grave-stones of marble a vigil are keeping 

And marking each spot where the patriots lie. 

There often around them do silently wander 

Those blooming with youth and those drooping with 

While thoughtfully over the sleepers they ponder, 
Recalling some thought upon memory's page. 

The deeds of some brave are by monuments spoken — 
The battles they fought and the victories won, 
Their titles and ranks and their triumphs unbroken 
And bravery shown 'mid the charge of the gun. 
These monuments crumble, but lasting forever 
Are those that are built by the slumbering brave — 
While cvcles are gliding no conflict can sever 
The deeds of those dving their countrv to save. 

History of West Virginia $7$ 

Of others are epitaphs only revealing 
The names of the warriors now silent and cold. 
Their homes and their regiments in memory sealing; 
Their names from the Xorth and the South were en- 
Though laurels of glory may never have crowned them, 
Yet garlands arc woven more lasting and bright 
By those that were clinging so tenderly round them 
When bidding farewell as they passed from their sight. 

But man}' are resting with marble above them 

That' tells of no name nor the deeds that were done; 

Xo record is shown of the dear ones that loved them, 

But humbly is written the silent "unknown." 

Their names are forgotten ! yet loved ones at parting 

So tenderly clung in their final embrace, 

While tears in their sorrow and sadness were starting— 

What changes of time can such parting efface! 

All lonely they're sleeping! but glad was the waking 
Of bondmen from chains and from slavery's night, 
When brightly the morning of Freedom was breaking 
Resplendent with Liberty's glorious light. 
And long shall the frecdmen, relating the story, 
In thankfulness tell of these patriot dead, 
And long shall they cherish the honor and glory 
That hallow the laurels encircling each head. 

Their battles are over! their country in gladness 
Beholds yet the banner in splendor unfurled, 
Unsullied by conflicts, disaster and sadness 
And beaming with radiance over the world. 
They died for that banner! and long shall the Xation 
Enshrine them as victors for truth and for right. 
And long shall she rev'rence the sacred relation 
She bears her preservers of honor and might. 

Then sleep on. ye warriors, so free from all sorrow ; 
Your battles are ended, you've entered your rest; 

374 History of West Virginia 

Your country shall live through each fleeting tomorrow 
Enjoying the peace which your dying has blest. 
May light from the heavens in beauty descending 
Make hallowed your tombs while the ages shall flee, 
And Liberty's rays like the sunlight still blending 
Illumine each heart in this land of the free. 

Then scatter your flowers o'er the graves of the sleeping 
And tears to these heroes in thankfulness shed; 
Remember the pledges they gave to your keeping 
And cherish the freedom for which they have bled. 
Blow onward, ye breezes; as years are advancing 
Play softly through willows that droop o'er their graves 
And sweetly, ye birds, with your notes so entrancing 
Keep warbling your songs o'er the slumbering braves. 

Continue, loved banner, in grandeur still flying, 

While breezes thy folds shall unceasingly wave, 

To honor the warrior in cheerfulness dying 

Thy stars and thy stripes so unsullied to save. 

Flow onward, bright river, your clear waters laving. 

Long murmur so gladly your clear crystal stream ; 

And over, ye forests, in majesty waving, 

Make gentle your music while sweetly they dream. 

(Mr. Adams was born April 9, 1859, near the old Pleasant 
Valley Church, on Cheat River, in Preston County, W. Va. 
In his boyhood days he attended the public schools in winter 
and worked on the farm during the summer. In 1877, at the 
age of 18, he successfully passed the examination at St. George 
and taught his first school at Limestone Church, in Tucker 
County, and continued teaching until 1881, when he was ap- 
pointed a cadet in the West Virginia University, at which 
institution he remained one year, During the next two years 
he alternately taught school, worked on the farm and can- 
vassed for a book firm, and in 1884 returned to the University 
at Morgantown. Of his subsequent life we are not advised). 

History of West Virginia ?>75 

In the year 1858, George 1). Prentiss, the noted ]>oet. 
visited the home of Alexander Campbell, the founder, or 
rather the resurrector, of the Christian (Campbellitc) Church. 
On Mr. Prentiss' departure, the host, with his little daughter. 
Dccima, then 14 years old. by his side, was bidding him good 
bye. when the poet, being impressed with the rare beauty of 
the child, suddenly exclaimed, "If you will give me a kiss. I 
will write you a pretty poem." Glancing quickly 'at her 
father, and seeing approval in his smile, she vouchsafed the 
guest the asked for kiss. Shortly afterward, young Miss 
Campbell (now Mrs. Dccima Campbell Barclay, who still re- 
sides in sight of Bethany College) received the following 
poem : 

To Miss Decima C. 

1 know a fair young girl 

With a spirit wild and free 
As the birds that flit o'er the dimpled lake, 

Then away to the wildwood lice. 
And she moves in her fairy grace 

Through the shades of the summer bowers 
With a step too floatingly light to break 

The sleep of the dreaming flowers. 

ller eyes are bright and clear 

As the depths of a shaded spring, 
And Beauty, s seal on her brow is set 

On her cheek it's signet ring; 
And her tones are like the gush 

Of a fount 'mid the twilight leaves. 
Or a Peri's voice from a moonlight cloud. 

Through the dew of the summer eves. 

The blue veins ^o'er her brow 

With a softened beauty flow. 
Half seen, half hid. in their winding course. 

Like streams o'er a field of snow : 
And a beautiful tint of rose 

376 History of West Virginia 

On her young check seems to burn, 
Like a lovely radiance shining soft 
Through an alabaster urn. 

I saw her only once, 

And we parted very soon. 
But her sweet lips, ere they said farewell, 

Vouchsafed me a gentle boon. 
That boon — ah, 'twas lightly given, 

And she will remember it never, 
Yet 'twill linger and thrill like a thing of joy 

On my lip and heart forever. 

• — G. D. P. 

Betty Zane, the Heroine of Fort Henry. 

Women are timid, cower and shrink 
At show of danger, some folks think; 
Tho' men there are who for their lives 
Dare not so far asperse their wives ; 
We'll let that pass ; one thing is clear, 
Tho' little dangers women fear, 
When greater perils men environ 
Then women show a front of iron, 
And in a gentle manner, they 
Do bold things in a quiet way, 
And thus our wondering praise obtain, 
As on a time did Betty Zane. 

A century since out in the West 
A rude hut was by Girty pressed, 
Girty, the renegade, the dread 
Of all that border, fiercely led 
Five hundred Wyandots to gain 
Plunder and scalp-locks from the slain ; 
And in this hold. Fort Henry then, 
But Wheeling now, twelve boys and men 
Guarded with watchful ward and care, 
Women and prattling children there, 

History of West Virginia 

Against their rude and savage foes, 
And Betty Zane was one of those. 

There had been forty-two at first, 

When Girty on the border burst, 

But most of those who meant to stay 

And keep the Wyandots at bay, 

Outside by savage wiles were lured, 

And ball and tomahawk endured, 

Till few were left the place to hold, 

And some were young and some were old; 

But all could use the rifle well, 

And vainly from the Indians fell 

On puncheon roof and timber wall, 

The fitful shower of leaden ball. 

Xow Betty's brothers and her sire 

Were with her in this ring of fire, 

And she was ready in her way 

To aid their efforts day by day, 

In all a gentle maiden might; 

To mould the bullets for the fight, 

And quick to note and so report, 

Watch every act outside the fort; 

Or peeping from the loop-holes see 

Each act of savage strategy ; 

These were her tasks, and thus the maid 

The toil-worn garrison could aid. 

But wearily the fight went on 

Until a week was nearly gone. 

And then 'twas told, a whisper first. 

And then in loud alarm it burst, 

Their powder scarce was growing; they 

Knew where a keg unopened lay 

Outside the fort at Zanc's. What now? 

Their leader stood with anxious brow. 

It must be gained at any cost, 

Or toil and fort and lives were lost. 

378 History of West Virginia 

Some one must do that work of fear. 
What man of men would volunteer? 

Two offered, and so earnest they, 
Neither his purpose would give way, 
And Shepard, who commanded, dare 
Not pick or choose between the pair, 
But ere they settled on the one 
By whom the errand should be done, 
Young Betty interposed and said : 
"Let me essay the task instead, 
Small matter 'twere if Betty Zane, 
A useless woman, should be slain, 
But death if dealt on one of those, 
Gives too much 'vantage to our foes." 

Her father smiled with pleasure grim, 
Her pluck gave painful pride to him ; 
And while her brothers clamored, "No, 
He uttered, "Boys, let Betty go; 
She'll do it at less risk than you; 
But keep her steady in your view, 
And be your rifles shield for her; 
Should yonder foe make step or stir, 
Pick off each man who draws a bead, 
And thus you'll serve her in her need, 
Now I recover from surprise, 
I think our Betty's purpose wise.'' 

The gate was opened ; on she sped, 
The foe astonished, gazed, 'tis said, 
And wondered at her purpose, till 
She reached the log hut by the hill. 
And when, in apron wrapped, the cask 
She backward bore to close her task, 
The foemen saw her aim at last. 
And poured their fire upon her fast ; 
Bullet on bullet round her fell, 
While rana: the Indians' angrv veil, 

History of West Virginia 57'J 

But safely through that whirring rain, 
Powder in arms, came Hetty Zane. 

They rilled their horns, both hoys and men, 
And then began the fight again, 
Girty, who there so long had >tayed, 
By this new feat of feats dismayed, 
Fired houses round, and cattle slew, 
And moved away — the light wa> through ; 
Am! when the story round was told. 
How they maintained the leagured hold, 
While 'twas agreed that fame was due 
To all within the fight were true, 
The greatest meed of praise, 'twas plain, 
l'ell to the share of Betty Zane. 

A hundred years have passed since then. 

The savage never came again, 

Girty is dust. Alike arc dead 

Those who assailed, and those bestead. 

Upon those half-cleared rolling lands, 

A crowded city proudly stands, 

But of the many who reside 

By green Ohio's rushing tide. 

There is no prouder lineage than. 

Be he rich or poor, the man 

Who boasts that in his spotless strain 

Mingles the blood of Betty Zane. 

— Anonymous. 

380 History of West Virginia 


(Copyright applied for.) 

West Virginia. 

(By S. E. Riser.) 

There are lands of milk and honey, 

There are lands with ruins gray, 
There are lands where only money 

May command the right of way ; 
But beside a winding river 

There's a land where beauty reigns, 
And where manhood shall forever 

Have more worth than golden gains. 

Massachusetts, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware, 

Each may seem a fairyland to the people dwelling there ; 
But no country holds a candle 
To the state that has the handle — ■ 
* W— E— S— T Y— I— R— G— 

You can guess the rest, and so, all together, sing it, Oh, 
You grand old West Yirginia. 

There is one place of all places 

That upon the map are shown 
Where the girls claim all the graces 

And all glory as their own; 
Where at night time or in day time 

Honor wins a ringing cheer, 
Where the whole year is a playtime 
And where valor still is dear. 

Colorado, Minnesota, Maine, New York, Connecticut, 
Arkansas and North Dakota, all are very splendid — but 
There's no state that holds a candle 

History of West Virginia 3S1 

To the suite that has the handle — 

* \V— E— S— T V— I R G— 

\ ou can guess the rest, and so, ail together, sing it, Oh. 

Vou grand old W est Virginia. 


Oh, the Yankee, lean and lanky, 

May excel in many ways, 
And the plowboys and the cowboys 

Of the west may merit praise; 
I've a very high opinion 

Of the Dixie lass and lad, 
But the lucky West Virginian 

Has good reasons to be glad. 

California, Indiana, Texas, Utah, Tennessee, 
Oklahoma and Montana, each a splendid state may be, 
But no other holds a candle 
To the state that has a handle — 
* W— E— S— T V— I— R— G— 

You can guess the rest, and so, all together, sing it, Oh, 
You grand old West Virginia. 

*To be sung like college yell. 

Editor. Herald-Dispatch: 

Dear Sir — I see by your editorial that you do not seem 
to like the new state song. I am sending you a decomposition, 
which is not the same, but "just as good." You might try this 
on your linotype, and if you like the sound of it, we will sing 
this one instead of Riser's at the semi-centennial. Of course, 
most of the value of a song is in the music, which you will 
please furnish. I have tried it on a typewriter and it sounds 
very well.— O. U. M. 

382 History of West Virginia 

Oh, You West Virginia Song. 

(Copyright not needed) 

Words by Sung by 

O. U. Mutt. N. O. Body, 

There are songs of milk and honey, 
There are bales of straw and bay, 
As I really need the money 
I must make it rhyme some way. 
Now about that winding river 
I'll have something more to say. 
Bacon's very good with liver, 
And there's not much more to pay. 

REFRAIN — From swearing. 
State of .Maine, Augusta, on the 
Kennebec River; Delaware; Pennsylvania Lines west 

of Pittsburg; Old Virginia Cheroots; Kalamazoo 

direct to you ! 
But I cannot hold the candle. 
For it hasn't any handle! 
R — O — T — T — E — You can guess the rest. 
Oh, you brand new ragtime song. 

It is said there are some places 

On the map that are not shown, 

Where the women's pretty faces, 

And complexion are their own. 

Now, if ever)' day were play-day, 

Just you let me ask you here 

When would come that welcome pay-day 

Don't forget that grub is dear. 

REFRAIN — Your feelings. 
Colorado; North Dakota; South Dakota; Connecticut; 
Philippine Islands in geography no guessin ! 

History of West Virginia 383 

I would like to light the candle, 

But I haven't any matches. 

R — O — -T — -T— li — You can guess the X. 

Oh, you brand new ragtime song! 

Oh, you Yankee, lean and lanky, 
If you don't behave I'll spank you! 
Uh, you Wheeling check, I'll bank you. 
Pass the cream and sugar? Thank you. 
I would like to go to Dixie, 
1 might meet a Dixie lass. 
I would go to West Virginia 
1 f I only had a pass. 

UEMAIX— For the concert. 
Rhode Island; Kentucky; Panama 
Canal Zone; Republic of Mexico: West Second 
Street, West Huntington, West Virginia. 
My gas bill I could not handle, 
So I have to use a candle. 

G — A S R — 1 — L — L — S never give me any rest 
Oh ! you bum new West Virginia song. 

Huntington Herald-Dispatch 

Members of the Constitutional Convention 1872. 

On January 16, 1872, a convention met in Charleston to 
draft a new constitution for the state. The delegates were 
elected by senatorial districts, delegate districts, and by coun- 
ties. The members who were returned by senatorial districts 
were as follows: 

First — William K- Pendleton, A. J. Pannell. 

Second — Joseph W. Gallahcr, Alpheus F. Ilaymond. 

Third— Waitman T. Willey, A. II. Thayer. 

Fourth — Benjamin Wilson, Daniel D. Johnson. 

Fifth — Okey Johnson, David II. Leonard. 

Sixth — Blackwell Jackson, Samuel Woods. 

Seventh — Xicholas Fitzhugh, Alonzo Gushing. 

384 History of West Virginia 

Eighth — Evcrmont Ward, Isaiah Bee. 

Ninth — Samuel Price, William McCreery. 

Tenth — James D. Armstrong, John T. Pierce. 

Eleventh — Charles J. Faulkner, William H. Travers. 

The members of the convention who were elected by the 
nine delegate districts of the state were : 

Clay-Nicholas District — Benjamin Wilson Byrne. 

Cabell-Lincoln District — Thomas Thornburg. 

Gilmer-Calhoun District — Lemuel Stump. 

Greenbrier-Monroe-Summers District — Henry M. Math- 
ews, James M. Byrnside, William Haynes. 

Hardy-Grant District — Thomas Maslin. 

Pocahontas-Webster District — George H. Moffett. 

Raleigh- Wyoming-McDowell District — William Prince. 

Randolph-Tucker District — J. F. Harding. 

Wood-Pleasant District — James M. Jackson, W. G. H. 

The delegates who were elected by counties as a basis 
of representation were : 

Barbour, Joseph N. B. Crim ; Berkeley, Joseph M. Hoge 
and Andrew McCleary; Boone, William D. Pate; Braxton, 
Homer A. Holt; Brooke, Alexander Campbell; Doddridge, 
Jephtha F. Randolph ; Fayette, Hudson M. Dickinson ; Hamp- 
shire, Alexander Monroe; Hancock, John H. Atkinson; Har- 
rison, John Bassel and Beverly H. Lurty; Jackson, Thomas 
R. Park; Jefferson, Logan Osburn and William M. Morgan; 
Kanawha, John A. Warth and Edward B. Knight ; Logan, 
M. A. Staton; Marion, Fountain Smith and Ulysses N. Arnett ; 
Marshall, Hanson Criswell and James M. Pipes; Mason, 
Charles B. Wagener; Mercer, James Calfee; Mineral, John 
A. Robinson; Monongalia, John Marshall Hagaus and Joseph 
Snyder; Morgan, Lewis Allen; Ohio, James S. Wheat and 
George O. Davenport and W. W. Miller; Pendleton, Charles 
D. Boggs ; Preston, William G. Brown and Charles Kantner; 
Putnam, John T. Thompson; Ritchie, John P. Strickler; 
Roane, Thomas Ferrell; Taylor, Benjamin F. Martin; Tyler, 
David F. Pugh ; Upshur, Daniel D. T. Farnsworth ; Wayne, 
Charles W. Ferguson; Wetzel, Septimius Hall; Wirt. D. A. 

History of West Virginia 3N5 

Samuel Price, of Greenbrier, president ; Gibson J. Butclur, 
of Lewis County, secretary ; Harney J. Giiligan, of Ohio Coun- 
ty, first assistant secretary: John II. Woods, of Harbour Coun- 
ty, enrolling clerk; Jacob B. Cunningham, of Hardy County, 
scrgcant-at-arms. Xo record of debates. 

A Letter from General Washington to His Wife. 

(From the files of the Virginia Free Press of 1829.) 

Philadelphia, June ISth, 1775. 
My Dearest : 

I am now set down to write to you on a subject which 
fills me with inexpressible concern, and this concern is greatly 
aggravated and increased when I rctlcct upon the uneasiness 
1 know it will give you. It has been determined in Congress 
that the whole army raised for the defense of the American 
cause shall be put under my care, and that it is necessary for 
me to proceed immediately to Boston to take up the command 
of it. \ou may believe me, my dear Patsy, when I assure you 
in the most solemn manner, that, so far from seeking this 
appointment, I have used every endeavor in my power to avoid 
it, not only from my unwillingness to part with yon and the 
family, but from a consciousness of its being a trust too great 
for my capacity, and that 1 should enjoy more real happiness 
in one month with you at home, than I have the most distant 
prospect of finding abroad, if my stay was to be seven times 
seven years. But as it has been a kind of destiny that has 
thrown me upon this service, 1 shall hope that my undertaking 
of it is designed to answer some good purpose. You might, 
and I suppose did perceive, from the tenor of my letters that 
I was apprehensive I could not avoid this appointment, as I 
did not pretend to intimate when I should return. That was 
the case. It was utterly out of my power to refuse this 
appointment without exposing my character to such censure 
as would have reflected dishonor upon myself and given pain 
to my friends. This, I am sure, could not. and ought not, to be 
pleasing to you, and must have lessened me considerably in 
mv own esteem. I shall rely, therefore, confident in [hat 

386 History of West Virginia 

Providence who has heretofore preserved and been boun- 
toful to me, not doubting but that I shall return safe 
to you in the fall. I shall feel no pain from the toil or the 
danger of the campaign ; my unhappiness will flow from the 
uneasiness I know you will feel from being left alone. I 
therefore beg that you will summon your whole fortitude, and 
pass your time as agreeably as possible. Nothing will give 
me so much sincere satisfaction as to hear this, and hear it 
from your own pen. I\ly earnest and ardent desire is, that 
you would pursue any plan that is most likely to produce con- 
tent, and a tolerable degree of tranquillity ; as it must add 
greatly to my uneasy feelings, to hear that you are dissatisfied 
or complaining at what I really could not avoid. 

As life is always uncertain, and common prudence dic- 
tates to every man the necessity of settling his temporal con- 
cerns while in his power, and while the mind is calm and un- 
disturbed, I have, since I came to this place (for 1 had not 
time to do it before I left home), got Colonel Pendleton to 
draft a will for me by the directions which I gave him, which 
will I now disclose. The provision made for you iii case of 
my death will, I hope, be agreeable. I shall add nothing more, 
as I have several letters to write, but to desire you to remem- 
ber me to your friends, and to assure you that I am, with the 
most unfeigned regard, my dear Patsy, 
Yours affectionately, 




Following is a list of battles fought or skirmishes had on 
West Virginia soil, from 1756 to 1865, inclusive, as compiled 
by Archivist Lewis. (Sec Appendix V, Report Archives and 
History) : 

In the French and Indian War. 

1. Battle of Great Cacapon River, fought April IS, 1756, 
between a detachment of one hundred men of Colonel 
Washington's regiment, under Captain John Mercer, on 
one side, and a body of French and Indians on the other, 
in what is now Bloomcry District, Hampshire County. 

2. Battle of Lost River, in spring of 1756, between Virginia 

frontiersmen, under Captain Jeremiah Smith, and a body 
of fifty Indians, commanded by a French officer. Scene, 
now in Lost River District, Hardy County. 

3. Battle of the Trough, in 1756, between a body of seventy 
Indians, and the Garrison from Fort Pleasant. Scene, now 
in Moorefield District, Hardy County. 

4. Attack of and massacre at Fort Seybert, in 1758. Fort 
defended by pioneer < settlers. Attacked by Shawnee 
Indians under Chief Killbuck, twelve miles northeast of 
Franklin, now in Bethel District, Pendleton County, on 
the South Fork of South Branch of the Potomac. 

History of West Virginia 3S'J 

In Pontiac's War. 

I. Attack and massacre at Muddy Creek, in 1/03, by Shawnee 
Indians, commanded by Cornstalk. White settlements 
entirely cut off. Scene, Valley of Muddy Creek, now in 
Blue Sulphur District, Greenbrier County. 

In Lord Dunmore's War. 

1. Battle of Point Pleasant, fought October 10, 1774, between 
a Virginia army, commanded by General Andrew Lewis, 
and the warriors of the Confederated Indian nations, under 
Cornstalk, the celebrated Shawnee chief. Scene, the town 
of Point Pleasant, Mason County. 

In the Revolutionary War. 

1. First siege and attack at Fort Henry, August 31, 1777. 
Defended by a frontier garrison, commanded by David 
Shcppard, County Lieutenant of Ohio County; attacked 
by 350 Shawnee, Mingo and Wyandot warriors. Scene, 
present city of Wheeling. 

2. Defeat of Captain William Foreman, September 27, 1777. 
A company of Hampshire County troops from Fort Henry 

attacked and many killed by Indians, at the "Narrows", 
on the Ohio, near dividing line between Marshall and Ohio 

3. Engagement at the mouth of the Great Kanawha, now 
Point Pleasant, late in the fall of 1777. between a detach- 
ment from the garrison at Fort Randolph, under Lieuten- 
ant Moore, and a body of Shawnee Indians. 

4. Siege and attack at Fort Randolph, in May, 1778. Fort 
defended by a State garrison, commanded by Captain 
William McKee; attacked by a large body of Shawnee 
Indians. Scene, the town of Point Pleasant, now in Mason 

390 History of West Virginia 

5. Attack on Fort Donnally, in May, 1778. Defended by 
pioneer settlers; attacked by Shawnee Indians. Relief 
from Lewisburg, under Colonel John Stuart. Scene, ten 
miles north of Lewisburg, in Falling Springs District, 
Greenbrier County. 

6. Second siege and attack of Fort Henry. September 10, 1782 ; 
defended by frontier settlers, commanded by Colonel Silas 
Zanc ; attacked by Captain Pratt with a detachment of the 
Queen's Rangers from Detroit and 300 Indian warriors. 
Scene, the present city of Wheeling. 

In the Civil War. 

Place. County. Date. 

Philippi Barbour June 3, 1861 

New Creek Grant June 17, 1861 

Falling Waters Jefferson July 3, 1861 

Buckhannon Upshur July 6, 1861 

Belington Barbour July 8, 1861 

Laurel Hill Barbour July 8,1861 

Rich Mountain Randolph July 11, 1S6I 

Red House Putnam July 12,1861 

Beverly Randolph July 12, 1861 

Barboursville Cabell July 14,1861 

Carrick's Ford Tucker July 14, 1861 

Scarey Creek Putnam July 17, 1861 

Grafton Taylor Aug. 13,1861 

Hawk's Nest Fayette Aug. 20, 1861 

Laurel Fork Fayette Aug. 20, 1861 

Springfield Hampshire Aug. 23, 1861 

Piggott's Mills Fayette Aug. 25, 1861 

Summersville Nicholas Aug. 26, 1861 

Cross Lanes Nicholas Aug. 26, 1861 

Wayne Court House Wayne Aug. 27, 1S6I 

Poore's Hill Cabell Aug. 30,1861 

Blue Creek Mercer Sept. 1, 1861 

Boone Court House Boone Sept. I, 1861 

Beller's Mills Sept. 2,1861 

Worthington Marion Sept. 2, IS6I 

Rowell's Run Sept. 6, 1861 

Powell's Mountain Nicholas Sept. 8, 1861 

Shepherdstown Jefferson Sept. 9, 1861 

History of West Virginia 


Place. County. 1 

Cannifex Ferry Nicholas Sept. 

Elk Water Randolph Sept. 

Cheat Mountain Randolph Sept. 

Peytona Boone Sept. 

Princeton Mercer Sept. 

Hanging Rock Hampshire Sept. 

Cassville Wayne Sept. 

Chapmansville Logan Sept. 

Kanawha Logan Sept. 

Boone Court House Boone Sept. 

Greenbrier Bridge Pocahontas Oct. 

Cotton Hill Fayette Oct. 

Bolivar Heights Jefferson Oct. 

Gauley Bridge Fayette Oct. 

M onigomery's Ferry Fayette Oct. 

Greenbrier River Greenbrier Oct. 

Guyandotte Cabell \'ov. 

Miller's Ferry Fayette Nov. 

Blake's Farm Fayette Nov. 

Cotton Hill Fayette Nov. 

Laurel Creek Fayette Nov. 

Cassaday's Mill Fayette Nov. 

McCoy's Mill Fayette Nov. 

Fayetteville Fayette Nov. 

Elizabeth Wirt Nov. 

Cacapon River M organ Nov. 

Greenbrier River Pocahontas Dec. 

Camp Allegheny Pocahontas ... Dec. 

Spring Creek Roane Dec. 

Laurel Creek Webster k Dec. 

Cherry Run M organ Dec. 

Becklcy Raleigh Dec. 

Sutton Braxton Dec. 

Welch Glade Webster Dec. 

lluntersville Pocahontas Jan. 

Bath M organ Jan. 

Slane's Cross Roads Hampshire Jan. 

Cacapon Bridge Hampshire Jan. 

Sir John's Run Morgan Jan. 

Alpine Depot Jan. 

Blue's Gap Hampshire Jan. 

Dry Fork Randolph Jan. 

Blue Stone River Mercer Feb. 

Bloomery Hampshire Feb. 

Martinsburg Berkeley Mar. 

Elk Mountain Pocahontas Mar. 







































































, 1862 


, 1362 












1 862 








1 862 

392 History of West Virginia 

Place. County. Date. 

Philippi ....Barbour Mar. 20,1862 

Moorefield Hardy Apr. 3, 1862 

Holly River ....Webster Apr. 17, 1S62 

ChapmanvIIIe Logan Apr. 18, 1862 

Grass Lick Hampshire Apr. 22, 1S62 

Clarke's Hollow Mercer May 1, 1862 

Camp Creek Mercer May 1,1862 

Princeton Mercer May S, 1S62 

Franklin Pendleton May S, 1862 

Arnoldsburg Calhoun May 6, 1862 

Wardensville Hardy May 7, 1862 

Franklin Pendleton May 10, 1862 

Princeton Mercer May 11, 1S62 

Lewisburg Greenbrier May 12, 1862 

Reedy Creek Wirt , May 13, 1862 

Ravenswood Jackson May 15,1862 

Wolf Creek Monroe May 15,1862 

Princeton Mercer May 18, 1862 

Lewisburg Greenbrier May 23, 1862 

Franklin Pendleton May 26, 1862 

Charles Town Jefferson May 28, 1862 

Wardensville Hardy May 29, 1862 

Lewisburg Greenbrier May 30, 1862 

Shaver's River Randolph May 31, 1S62 

Big Bend Calhoun June 4, 1862 

Muddy Creek Greenbrier June 8, 1862 

West Fork Calhoun June 10, 1862 

Mingo Flats Randolph June 25, 1862 

Summersville Nicholas June 25,1862 

Flat Top Mountain Mercer June 25, 1862 

Moorefield Hardy June 29, 1862 

Buckhannon Upshur .' July 26, 1862 

Greenbrier River Greenbrier Aug. 3, 1862 

Oceana Wyoming Aug. 5,1862 

Beech Creek Logan Aug. 6, 1862 

Pack's Ferry Summers Aug. 6, 1862 

Blue Stone River Mercer Aug. 13, 1862 

Wire Bridge Hampshire Aug. 16, 1862 

Huttonsville Randolph Aug. 18, 1862 

Moorefield Hardy Aug. 23, 1862 

Shady Springs Raleigh Aug. 28, 1862 

Oceana Wyoming Aug.- 30, 1S62 

Weston Lewi.- Aug. 31, 1862 

Favetteville Fayette Sept. 10, 1862 

Cotton Hill Fayette Sept. 11, 1S62 

Charles Town Jefferson Sept. 12, 1S62 

History of West Virginia 3 f M 

Place County Date 

Elk River Bridge Kanawha .. .. . Sept. 13, 1S<>2 

Harper's Ferry Jefferson ... Sept. 15, 1862 

Harper's Ferry Jefferson ... Sept. 21, 1862 

Buffalo Putnam Sept. 27, 18o2 

Standing Stone Wirt Sept. 28, 1862 

Glenville Gilmer Sept. 30, 1862 

Shepherdstown JelTerson Oct. 1, 1S62 

Blue's Gap Hampshire Oct. 2, 1862 

Blue's Gap Hampshire Oct. 4, 1862 

Big Birch Nicholas Oct. 6,1862 

Hcdgesville Berkeley Oct. 20, 1S62 

Petersburg Grant Oct. 20,1862 

Martinsburg Berkeley Nov. 6, 1S62 

Moorefield Hardy Nov. 9, 1862 

Saint George ... Tucker Nov. ■ 9, 1S62 

South Fork ....Hardy Nov. 9, 1862 

Cove Gap Fayette Nov. 15. 1862 

Fayetteville Fayette Nov. 15, 1S62 

Harper's Ferry Jefferson Nov. 15, 1862 

Halltown Jefferson Nov. 22, 1862 

Cold Knob Mountain ...... Greenbrier Nov. 26, 1862 

Lewis' Mills Greenbrier Nov. 26, 1S62 

Romney Hampshire Dec. 1, 1862 

M oorefield Hardy Dec. 3, 1862 

Darkesville Berkeley Dec. 11,1862 

Wardensville Hardy Dec. 16, 1862 

Halltown Jefferson Dec. 20,1862 

Wardensville ....Hardy Dec. 22, 1862 

Gibson's Farm Pocahontas Dec. 22, 1862 

Moorefield Hardy Jan. 3, 1863 

Hurricane Bridge Putnam Mar. 28, 1863 

Point Pleasant Mason Mar. 30,1863 

Tuckwiler's Hill Greenbrier Apr. 1^, 1863 

Beverly Randolph Apr. 24, 1863 

Greenland Gap Grant Apr. 25, 1863 

Fairmont Marion Apr. 29, 1S63 

Fayetteville Fayette May 17,1863 

Lough Creek Braxton June 21, 1863 

Beverly . ( Randolph July 2,1863 

Shady Springs Raleigh July 14, 1S63 

Shepherdstown Jefferson July 16, 1863 

Dry Creek Greenbrier Aug. 26, 1S63 

Charles Town Jefferson Oct. 8,1863 

Charles Town Jefferson Oct. 18,1863 

Mill Point Pocahontas Nov. 5,1863 

Droop Mountain Pocahontas Nov. 6, 1S63 

394 History of West Virginia 

Place County Date 

Will Creek Valley Grant Nov. 13, 1863 

Sand Fork Lincoln Nov. 17,1863 

Walker's Ford Summers Dec. 2, 1S63 

Big Sewell Fayette Dec. 12, 1S63 

Meadow Bluff Greenbrier Dec. 12, 1863 

Petersburg Grant Jan. 8,1864 

Medley Grant Jan. 29, 1864 

New Creek Mineral Feb. 1,1864 

Moorefield Hardy Feb. 4, 1864 

Princeton Mercer May 6, 180f 

Lost River Gap Hardy May 10, 1864 

Peter's Mountain Mercer May 13, 1S64 

Greenbrier River Greenbrier May 20, 1864 

Curry's Farm Lincoln June 29, 1S64 

Panther Gap Mercer June 3, 1864 

Moorefield Hardy June 6, 1864 

Buffalo Gap Logan June 6, 1864 

Greenland Gap Grant June 10,1864 

Kabletown Jefferson June 16, 1864 

Spencer Roane June 19, 1S64 

Petersburg Grant July 2,1864 

Bolivar Heights Jefferson July 3,1864 

Hammack's Mills Jefferson July 4, 1864 

Frankford Mineral Aug. 4, 1864 

New Creek Greenbrier Aug. 6, 1S64 

Green Spring Depot Hampshire Aug. 7, 1S64 

Moorefield Hardy Aug. 25, 1S64 

Shepherdstown Jefferson Aug. 26, 1S64 

Wire Bridge Hampshire Aug. 26, 1S64 

Springfield Hampshire Aug. 29,1864 

Charles Town Jefferson Aug. 29, 1864 

Duffield's Station Jefferson Oct. 29, 1864 

Beverly Randolph Nov. 28, 1S64 

Fort Kelley 

Winfield Putnam Nov. 29, 1S64 

Beverly Randolph Jan. 11, 1S65 

The generals connected with operations in West Virginia 
were : 

Federal Army- —McClelland, Banks, Rosecrans, Sheridan, 
Cruok, Kelly, Cox, Milroy, Averill, Harris, Duvall, and Miles. 

Confederate Army — J^ee, Jackson, Johnson, Wise, Floyd, 
Heath, Loring, Echols, Inbodcn, Jones, Jenkins, and MeCaus- 




(From West Virginia Archives and History ) 

Big Sandy River. 

This river with its principal northern branch forms the 
boundary line between West Virginia and Kentucky, and if 
for no other reason than this, possesses historic interest. The 
Indians knew it as the To-tera or To-ter-as, or To-ter-oy and 
sometimes spelled Tatcroy, Chateroi, Chatarrawa. When 
Captain Thomas Hatts and party were on their western ex- 
ploring expedition, in September, 1671, they were hospitably 
entertained at a town of the To-te-ra or To-ter-as tribe of In- 
dians situated near Peter's Mountain. The Delaware Indians 
called it Si-ke-a, meaning: "River of Salt." The Miamis knew 
it as the We-pe-pe-co-ne, a name which may have signified 
"River of Sand-Bars." 

Bluestone River. 

This stream rises in Tazewell County. Virginia, flows 
across the state line and into West Virginia, and thence 
through Mercer County and into Summers, where it unites 
with New River. The Miami Indians called it Mec-cen-ne- 
ke-kc, while the Delaware's knew it as Mon-on-cas en-se-ka. 
It derives its present name from the vast masses of bluish 
stone along its course, and one of these Indian names may 
have signified this. 

396 History of West Virginia 

Buckhannon River. 

A small river retaining its Indian name of Buck-han-non, 
and having its source in the southern part of Upshur County, 
through which it flows, then passes into Barbour County, 
where it flows into Tygart's Valley River. 

Great Cacapon River. 

This stream rises in Hardy Count)-, its upper course being 
known as Lost River, and flows through the eastern part of 
Hampshire into Morgan, where it discharges its waters into 
the Potomac. It retains its Shawnee name, the present form 
being a contraction of Cape-cape-pc-hon, meaning "Medicine 
Water River." A smaller stream rising in Hampshire County 
and falling into the Potomac about twenty-five miles above 
the former, is called by way of distinction, "Little Cacapon 

Campbell's Creek. 

This is a northern tributary of the Great Kanawha River, 
flowing into it five miles above Charleston, the capital of the 
state. One of the Indian nations called it Nip-pi-pin-mah, 
meaning the "Salt Creek." It is in the very center of what 
was once the great salt producing region of the Great Kana- 
wha Valley. 

Cheat River. 

The Delaware Indians knew this stream as the Ach-sin- 
ha-nac, meaning "Stony River." This designation it lost after 
white men came to its valley. Various attempts have been 
made to account for the origin of its present name — Cheat 
River. Whence this name? We arc told that the origin 
thereof is to be found in the deceptive character of its waters — 
dark-stained as they are by the leaves of the hemlock and other 
evergreen trees — so that the depth is greater than it appears 
to the eye, and he who would wade into its waters is cheated 

History of West Virginia .>'>" 

as to this — hence it is a cheating stream- a Cheat Ki\er. But 
this theory is not believed to be founded on fact. The first 
settlers along this river found homes in the "llorse Shoe 
Bend." now in Tucker County. They came from the South 
Branch of the Potomac, where they had become familiar with 
the character of the productive land of that valle\. Then a 
popular belief was that wheat was transmuted into cheat- 
that is the broom-cress, Bromus secalinus of the botanists. 
The fact that this plant belongs to quite a distinct genus from 
wheat renders this impossible, but it was nevertheless believed 
by farmers who asserted that it was the product of degener- 
ated wheat. It is the most troublesome plant that ever in- 
fested the wheat fields of this country. When the early set- 
tlers came to the valley of Cheat River and sowed wheat upon 
the newly cleared lands it was, especially in the earlier years, 
killed by the severe freezing — winter-killed it was said and 
when the harvest time came, it was a disappointment, for on 
the fields where wheat had been sown, there were great crops 
of cheat. Here then, along this river, were the lands where 
the wheat — as these pioneers believed — was changed or trans- 
muted into cheat, hence a river valley — where cheat grew in 
place of wheat — drained by Cheat River. This seems far the 
more plausible explanation. 

Coal River. 

The largest southern tributary of the Great Kanawha ; it 
has its source in Raleigh County, and thence tlows through 
Boone and into Kanawha, where it unites with that river 
twelve miles below Charleston, the capital of the state. The 
Miami Indians called it W'al-en-dc-co-ni and the Delawarcs 
knew it as the Wal-hon-de, signifying "the Hill Creek." This 
stream lost its Indian name more than a hundred and seventy 
years ago. John Peter Sallcy, with John Howard and others, 
left the base of the Blue Ridge near the Natural Bridge, in 
Virginia, in 1742, and proceeding to Xcw River, descended 
that stream to Richmond Falls, crossed over the mountains of 
Fayette and Raleigh Counties to this river, which they de- 
scended and to which, because of the great quantity of coal 

398 History of West Virginia 

'thereon, they gave the name of C-o-a-1 River. There was a 
tradition long preserved to the effect that the time of the "Big 
Sandy Expedition," in 1756, one Samuel Cole, with some of his 
companions, reached the forks of this river, where he cut his 
name in the bark of a beech tree, and that this gave origin to 
the name of the river, which should therefore be spelled C-o-l-e. 
Such was the tradition which, as is so often the case, is shown 
to be an error, history producing evidence to show that Salley 
and his companions had bestowed upon it the name of C-o-a-1 
fourteen years before the date of the Big Sandy Expedition. 
Such is the verdict in the case of History vs. Tradition. 

Elk River. 

The Elk River rises in the highlands of the southern part 
of Randolph and Webster Counties and flows through Braxton 
and Clay into Kanawha, where it unites with the Great Kana- 
wha River at Charleston. It was known to the Miami Indians 
as Pe-quo-ni, meaning the "Walnut River." The Delawares 
called it To-que-man ; while it was the Tis-chil-waugh of the 
Shawnees, signifying "Plenty of Fat Elk," from which mean- 
ing the Virginians derived the name of Elk which they gave 
to the stream. 

Fishing Creek. 

This stream rises in Wetzel County and flows into the 
Ohio River at New Martinsville. When first known to white 
men it was called by the Delaware Indians Nee-mos-kee-sy, 
signifying "Place of Fish." From this meaning the Virgin- 
ians obtained the present name — that of Fishing Creek. 

Gauley River. 

Gauley River, a northern tributary of the Great Kanawha, 
has its source in the highlands of the southern part of Webster 
County, and flows through Nicholas into Fayette, where it 
falls into the Kanawha two miles above the Great Falls. It 
was the Chin-que-ta-na of the Miamis and the To-ke-bel-lo-ke 

History of West Virginia 3W 

of the Dclawarcs, the latter signifying "The Falls Creek." 
The present name, Gaulev — Gallia — is evidently of French 
origin — ihe "River of Gauls.' 1 

Great Kanawha River. 

This river derives its name from a small tribe of Indians 
which dwelt upon its sources long ago. They appear to have 
been scattered over the mountain highlands of the state about 
the sources of the Great Kanawha, the James, the Potomac, 
and the Monongahela Rivers, and were of the same people as 
the Xan-ti-cokes of the Algonquin- Lcnni-Lcnape-I Delaware 
stock. Their tribal name has been spelled many ways as Co- 
noys, Conois, Conoways, Conawawas, Conhaways, Conais, Ca- 
nawas, Canawesc, Kanhawas, Kanhaway, and Kanawhas, the 
last having been adopted by the Virginians. At the treaty of 
Lancaster in 1744, the Iroquois chief Tach-a-noon-oia, speak- 
ing for the Six Nations, said: "All the world knows we, the 
Iroquois, conquered the several nations living on the Susque- 
hanna, the Cohongoruta — South Branch of the Potomac— and 
on the back of the Great Mountains — Appalachians. In Vir- 
ginia Coh-no-was-sa-nau, (Coh-no-was — the Kanawha, and 
ra-nau-people — the Kanawha People) feel the effect of our 
conquest, now being a part of it." In 175S, Sir William John- 
son held a council with the chiefs of the Shawnee and Dela- 
ware nations. To this council the Coh-no-was sent a delega- 
tion, the members of which informed him that they then re- 
sided at Ot-si-nin-go, now Binghampton, X'cw Vork. The 
Conoys had been adopted into the Mingo or Iroquois Con- 
federacy. Thus it is that the river bears the name of the In- 
dians who dwelt upon its upper waters until conquered, 
merged into the Six Nations, and, about 1705, removed to Xcw 
York. Thus the statements frequently made that it signifies 
"River of the Woods," "River of Whirlpools," River of Fvil 
Spirits," are simply bits of fiction. The Great Falls were 
known to the Shawnecs as Lc-we-kc-o-mi. "The Place of 
Rushing Waters." The Miami Indians called the river Piquc- 
me-ta-nci, and the Delawares called it Ken-in-shc-ka, and one 
or the other of these terms may have had one of the above 

400 History of West Virginia 

significations. Captain de Celoron, commandant of the French 
expedition -which, in 1749, buried the leaden plates along the 
Ohio, spelled the name of the river Chinodachetha ; on the 
plate which he deposited at its mouth, it was spelled Chino- 
dashichetha, and Bonnecamps, the geographer of the expedi- 
tion, has it on his map, Chinodaichta. 

Greenbrier River. 

This is one of the prettiest mountain rivers in America. 
It has its source on the highlands in the northern part of Poca- 
hontas Count)', flows through it and Greenbrier into Summers, 
where, at Hinton, it unites with the New River. The Miami 
Indians knew it as the We-o-to-we and the Delawares called 
it O-ne-pa-ke. Whence comes the present name, that of 
Greenbrier? The French knew the stream as the Roncevcrte, 
(Ronce, brier, or bramble, and verte, or verd, green or verd- 
ant), the greenbrier. This the Virginians Saxonized and 
called the stream Greenbrier River. The old French name is 
preserved in that of the progressive town of Ronccverte, on its 
banks, in Greenbrier County. There has long been a tradition 
reciting that when in 1750 John Lewis, the father of General 
Andrew Lewis, came to the valley of this river to survey lands 
for the Greenbrier Land Company, he, on one occasion, be- 
came entangled in the greenbriers growing on its banks and he 
declared that henceforth he should call it Greenbrier River. 
This cannot be true, for the company for which he came to 
make the surveys bore the name of the Greenbrier Land Com- 
pany, and in its grant of one hundred thousand acres from the 
governor and council in 1749, it was provided that these lands 
should be located in the valley of Greenbrier River. Thus it 
was that the name of this stream was well known before John 
Lewis came to make surveys thereon and at which time he is 
said to have given the name to this river. 

Guyandotte River. 

The Guyandotte River rises in Wyoming County; flows 
through Logan, Lincoln, and Cabell, and falls into the Ohio 

History of West Virginia 101 

River at the town uf ( iuvandottc, three miles abo\e Hunting 
ton. in the last named count}. The Miami Indians called it 
La-kc-wc-ke-ton ; the Delaware's knew it as the Se co in . 
meaning' "Narrow Potlom Ki\er." ]'.\ some means, probabh 
through the Shawnces. it acquired the name of \Y\aiidotic. 
changed by the French to l \u\ andotte. 1 leckew elder say.-, tin 
French called the \\ yandottes, ( ",u\ andottes. Here then is to 
be found the origin of the name of this river. \\ ilh this 
change, it retains its Indian name. It is called Arlmcklc- 
River in an application of Patrick Henry and others for a grant 
of land on the Ohio below the Great Kanawha, in 17' f>. 

Little Kanawha River. 

This stream rises in the western part of Lewis and I'.rax 
ton Counties, and llows through Greenbrier, Wirt, and \\ ood, 
and unites with the Ohio River at rarkersburg. The .Miami 
Indians called it the 0-nim-go-how. The Delawares knew it 
as the Xau-mis-sip-pia (naumis — fish, and sipia — river — fish 
river). In an application by Colonel William Byrd, William 
Christian, James Walker, and Samuel Meredith, dated May S. 
1772. to the governor and council of Virginia, they pray for 
permission to take up and survey fourteen thousand acres of 
land at the mouth of the Little Kanawha, otherwise called Elk 

Middle Island Creek. 

A stream rising in Doddridge Count)', llowing through 
Tyler into Pleasant'- and llowing into the Ohio River at the 
town of St. Mary's. It is the IV van-so-- Creek of the Indians. 

Monongahela River. 

This river is formed in Marion County by the conlluence 
of the Tygart's Valley and the West Fork Rivers: it flow- 
thence through Marion and Monongalia and into we-tern 
Pennsylvania, where it unites with the Allegheny to form the 
Ohio. It retains its Indian name which appear- to be a con 

402 History of West Virginia 

traction of the Delaware Aleh-non-au-au-ge-hel-ak, originally 
confined to the point or peninsula formed by the union of the 
Youghioghcny with this river, to which it was extended. It 
is said to signify "Place of Caving or Falling Banks," not those 
of the river, but of the point or peninsula mentioned above. 
In the instructions of the Ohio Company, July 16, 1751, to 
Christopher Gist, the spelling of this name is Mo-hon-gey-c-Ia, 
but Gist himself spelled it Mo-hon-ga-ly. In early land grants 
it is spelled ilc-nan-gi-hiFli. The site of Pittsburg at its 
mouth was called De-un-da-ga, signifying the "Forks of the 

New River. 

This was the first West Virginia river known to white 
men. The Indians knew it as the Alon-don-ga-cha-te. Whence 
came the name of New River, which it now bears? Numerous 
theories have been advanced, none of them seeming to be 
founded on fact. The following is believed to be the true 
explanation of the origin and use of this name: 

Virginia, in the early years of her colonial existence, man- 
ifested through her house of burgesses a desire to have her 
western domain explored, and, to secure that end, numerous 
acts were passed to encourage exploration and settlement on 
her wilderness borders. One of these acts was passed in 
March, 1642 — 18th year of the reign of Charles I — and was as 
follows : 

ACT XXXVI. "Discovery of a new river S. W. of the 
Appo-mattox authorized." — "For as much as Walter Austin, 
Rice Hoe, Joseph Johnson and Walter Chiles, for themselves 
and such others as they shall think fitt to joyn with them, did 
petition in the Assembly in June, 1641, for leave and encour- 
agement to undertake the discovery of a new river or unknown 
land bearing west southerly from Appomattox River, Be it 
enacted and confirmed, That they and every (one) of them and 
whome they admitt shall enjoy and possess to them, their 
heirs, executors, or administrators or assigns, all profitt what- 
soever they in their particular adventure can make unto them- 
selves, by such discovery aforesaid, for fourteen years after 
the date of the said month of Tanuarv, 1641 — " 

History of West Virginia -103 

By this act the persons named therein were to discover 
"a new river west southerly of the Appomattox." It uas to 
be a new river, that is, one unknown to the Virginians, and it 
was to be west southerly from the Appomattox. Now. let the 
reader take a map of Virginia and draw a line west southerly 
from the Appomattox, say from Petersburg, on that river, and 
he will see that the said line, if extended, will reach a point on 
New River in what is now Montgomery County, Virginia, with 
no intervening river between the two points, so that if the par- 
tics named in the act had previously, or did after its passage, 
make the discovery as authorized, they reached the New Ki\er 
beyond a doubt, and were as certainly the first while men that 
looked upon it. But. had they not made the discovery pre- 
viously, and were they not seeking to avail themselves oi the 
benefits thereof, when the act was passed. - ' Notice the dales. 
The Act bears date. .March, 1<>42. but it i> retroactive, an ex 
post facto law, for by its conditions they were to receive the 
benefits of its provisions from the month of January. 1M1. 
fourteen months before its enactment. In the Act itself, it is 
spoken of as a new river. The people were then greatly in- 
terested in all discoveries made and reported from the vast 
untrodden wilderness, and how natural it would be for them 
to refer to the "New River" because of its recent discovery. 
Here, doubtless, is to be found the origin of the name of that 
river, and further that Walter Austin, Rice Hoe. Joseph John- 
son, and Walter Chiles were its discoverers, and that they saw- 
it in the year 16-41. and that the date in the Act was -ct back 
fourteen months to cover the date of discover}. 

North Branch of the Potomac River. 

This stream has long held a prominent place in history 
because of its connection with the Maryland-Virginia, now 
Marvland-Wcst Virginia, boundary disputes. The surveyors 
of Lord Fairfax arrived at it< first fountain or "head spring" 
on the 14th day of December. 173o, and at that place the fam- 
ous "Fairfax Stone" was erected. October 17, 1746. The In- 
dians — Shawnccs — knew this river as the Co-hon-go-ru-ta, the 
signification of which is unknown. 

404 History of West Virginia 

Ohio River. 

All the Indian nations and tribes of the Mississippi Valley 
and those to the northeastward thereof had names for the 
Ohio. The Miamis called it Cau-si-sip-i-on-e ; the Delaware's 
knew it as the O-h-i-o-ple, the "River of White Caps;"' the 
Shawnees bestowed upon it a name signifying "Eagle River;" 
the Wyandots knew it as the Ki-to-no. When La Salle dis- 
covered it in InoU, the Iroqnois nations called it the O-li-gen- 
si-pen, meaning the "Beautiful River." When the French 
came to behold it and to admire its enchanting vistas presented 
by the banks, as scene after scene opened up to view like 
scrolls of a beautiful panorama, they literally translated the 
Iroquois name and called it La Belle Riviere — the "Beautiful 
River," or "How Beautiful the Scene." The English con- 
tracted the Delaware name to "Oyo." now Ohio, by which this 
noble river is now known all over the world. The Allegheny 
River derived its name from the Allegens, the oldest Indian 
nation of which there is any tradition, and which dwelt upon 
its banks and far down along the Ohio. For that reason, the 
name Al-le-ghe-ny was in early days extended to the whole 
length of the Ohio. 


Opequon River. 

This is a pretty little river having its source in Frederick 
County, Virginia, thence flowing across the state line into 
Berkeley County, West Virginia, and through the eastern part 
of it to the Potomac, into which it discharges its waters. It 
retains its Indian name of O-pe-quon, the signification of 
which is thought to be unknown. 

Paint Creek. 

This creek is a southern tributary of the Great Kanawha, 
in Kanawha County. The Delaware Indians called it Ot-to- 
we, signifying the "Deer Creek." The Miamis knew it as the 
Mos-coos. The Virginians gave it its present name because 
the Indians found here an ocherous earth with which they 

History of West Virginia 

marked the trees along their trails over the hill*, bunk-ring on 
the Great Kanawha \ alley. 

Pocatalico River. 

A small river, a northern affluent of the tjreat Kanawha, 
having its source in Roane Count} and flowing through Kana- 
wha into Putnam, where it empties into that river. It retains 
its Indian name Po-ca-tal-i-co. signifying "River of Fat Doe."' 
The name as now used i- usually contracted to Poca. 

Pond Creek. 

Pond Creek has its source in Wirt County, and flowing 
thence through the southern part of Wood, falls into the Ohio 
River about twenty miles below Parkersburg. It is the Law- 
wel-la-a-con-in Creek of the Indians. 

Potomac River. 

Captain John Smith, the "Father of Virginia," when ex- 
ploring Chesapeake Bay. in ldOS. entered the mouth of tjiis 
great river and proceeded up it a short distance. lie. how- 
ever, evidently learned something from the Indians of its upper 
course, for on his map of Virginia published in London in P>12. 
the Xorth and South branches appear in rough and imperfect 
outline. That part of the river below, or east of the Blue 
Ridge, was known to the Indians as the Qui-o-riough. Its sig- 
nification is believed to be unknown. That portion of the 
river above or to the westward of the HI lie Ridge was called 
by the Indians Po-to-mac. signifying the "Place of the llurning 
Pine." Forest fires often swept the pine clad hills around it- 
upper tributaries: hence the name which it still bears. 

Sandy Creek. 

Sandy Creek has its source in the eastern part of Jackson 
County, through which it flows and enters the Ohio River at 
the town of Ravcnswood. It i- the Mol chu con ic kon of the 

406 History of West Virginia 

Shenandoah River. 

This river drains the beautiful and fertile Shenandoah 
Valley to which it gives a name, and, skirting the western base 
of the Blue Ridge, flows through Jefferson County, and unites 
with the Potomac at historic Harper's Ferry. From the sum- 
mit of the Blue Ridge Governor Spottswood and party, in 
1716, descended to its banks and bestowed upon it the name of 
Euphrates. But this was not to last. The Indian name was 
Shen-an-do-ah, meaning "River of the Stars." From the crest 
of the mountain barrier at whose base it flows, the Red Men 
looked down and in its transparent waters saw reflected the 
twinkling stars overhead. Hence the name 'with its pretty 
signification. It will be the Shenandoah as long as its waters 
continue to flow. 

South Branch of the Potomac. 

A beautiful river in the valley in which much -interesting 
pioneer history was made during the French and Indian War. 
Having its source in Highland Count}-, Virginia, it has a 
northeasterly course into West Virginia; thence through Pen- 
dleton, Grant, Hardy and Hampshire Counties, and then 
unites with the North Branch to form the Potomac River. It 
lost its Indian name — that of Wap-po-tom-i-ca, meaning the 
"River of Wild Geese" — more than a hundred years ago, and 
since then has been known to white men as the South Branch 
of the Potomac. 

Tug River. 

This river is the North Fork or branch of the Big Sandy 
River, and as such, in connection with that stream, bore the 
Indian name of To-te-ry or To-ter-as, but this it lost long ago. 
Being for many miles the boundary line between West \ ir- 
ginia and Kentucky, it is a stream of historic importance. 
Whence came the name of Tug River — that which it now 
bears? In 1756, the French and Indian War was in progress 
and the authorities of Virginia sent a body of troops against 

History of West Virginia -107 

the Shawnee towns on the Uhio, that nation being then in 
alliance with France. This movement was known as the 
"Sandy Creek Voyage," but usually referred to as the "Big 
Sandy Expedition." The troo|is participating therein, about 
three hundred and fifty, commanded l>\ Major Andrew Lewis, 
rendezvoused at Fort Frederick on the New River, and in mid 
winter, marched westward and reached the Tug River at the 
mouth of Dry Fork the site of the present Iaeger station on 
the .Norfolk & Western railroad, now in McDowell County. 
Here the supplies brought overland were placed in canoes pre- 
pared for the purpose, and the descent of the river begun. A 
short distance below, the canoes entered the rapids so long 
known as the "Roughs of Tug," and for three days the oars- 
men battled with the rushing icy waters. Here for three days 
they tugged at the oars; it was nothing but tug, tug, tug, all 
the while, until some of the tuggers who tugged so long and 
so faithfully, almost lost their lives, and did lose the canoes 
and all the army supplies. During these da_\ s of lugging at 
the oars, the troop- advanced but a short distance down the 
stream, and when they learned that all tin- pro\i*-iiuis and other 
supplies were lost they disbanded, marched oil by companies, 
and returned to their homes. Captain William Preston and 
Thomas Morton, both being on the expedition, kept journals 
of daily incidents. These have been preserved, and with 
Sparks' "Writings of Washington" and the "Uinwiddie Pa- 
pers." constitute the chief sources of the history of this ex- 
pedition. The men engaged therein ne\ er forgot the river 
where they tugged at the oars s ( , long, and it became Tug 

Seventy-three years thereafter, in 1S29, Hugh Paul Ta\ lor. 
without having access to any of the foregoing sources of in- 
formation, and when every man engaged on the expedition was 
dead, wrote an account of it. which was published in the Fin- 
castle (Ya.) Mirror, and copied into the Staunton Spectator. 
In this he staled that thi~ little army in that wilderness region 
continued its march to the Ohio Rher. and that on returning, 
when the troops were suffering from hunger, they cut into 
strips or tugs the hides of two buffaloes which they had killed 
going down, and roasted them in the flame of a burning spring 

408 History of West Virginia 

on Big Sandy River. Having done this, they ate them and 
called the stream Tug River. Unfortunately for this state- 
ment of Taylor*s. the army was never within a hundred miles 
of the Ohio River, nor was it within sixty miles of the so-called 
burning spring of which he wrote. 

Tuscarora Creek. 

This is a stream flowing through the town of Martinsburg, 
Berkeley County, and discharging its waters into the Potomac. 
It derives its name from the Tuscarora Indians, who dwelt 
along its hanks. Kercheval. the author of the "History of the 
Valley," p. 58, quotes the statement of Benjamin Beeson, a 
highly respectable Quaker, to the effect that when he first 
knew this region, the Tuscarora Indians were residing on this 

Wheeling Creek. 

Wheeling Creek Hows in through Ohio County and dis- 
charges its waters into the Ohio at the city of Wheeling. It 
retains its Delaware Indian name, in which we have "Weel," 
a human head, and "ting," a place, meaning literally the "Place 
of the Head." Some have it Wie, a head, and lung or lunk, a 
place, signifying the "Place of a Head." This is where a pris- 
oner was killed and his head placed upon a pole as a warning 
to other persons. Captain de Celoron, commandant of the 
French expedition which buried the leaden plates along the 
Ohio, in 1749. called this creek the Riviere Kanononara. 



As to what race of people first inhabited West Virginia, 
or any oilier part of Xorth America for that matter, it will 
probably never be known. That a more enlightened race pre- 
ceded the Indians, there can be no reasonable doubt : and it is 
equally certain that the Indian tribes who occupied the Xew 
World when Columbia discovered it in 1 192. were not near 
relatives, if indeed they were descendants at all. of the Mound 
Builders, who. many centuries ago. occupied a large portion 
of this continent, as is evidenced by the discover}- oi relics ot 
peculiar workmanship in numerous ruined structures and 
mounds at various places on this continent, from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific and from the Lakes to the Gulf. These ancient 
mounds are to be seen in nearly every county in West \ ir- 
ginia. an account of which is given in another chapter in this 

Another proof that these mounds were not the work ot 
Indians is the fact that a god image, or an idol, made of copper 
of miKt excellent workmanship, was found deeply buried in a 
mound within the present limits of Xew Martinsville. Wetzel 
County. This could not have been a product from the hand 
of a savage, nor were the savages worshippers ot idols; and -<o 
far as history shows, the Indians knew no more concerning 
the work of the mound-builders than we do. 

The Indians were divided into various tribes, each tribe 
having its distinctive name and its own simple, unwritten form 
of government, whose chief, in a manner, exercised the liine- 
tions of governor over his particular tribe, each holding 1>_\ 
treatv. force or otherwise a certain section of country for hunt 
in" srrounds and habitation. 

410 History of West Virginia 

At the time of the early settlements by the whites in this 
country, there were the Pequods and Narragansetts, in New 
England; the Six Nations, in Pennsylvania and New York; 
the Yamasees, Catawbas. Seminoles, Creeks, and Cherokees, 
in Tennessee; the Powhatans, in Virginia; the Miamis, Pota- 
wamies and numerous other tribes, known and unknown, at 
that time, west of the Ohio River. Of the tribes still living 
in the United States are the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, 
Creeks, Seminoles, Six Nations. Saint Regis, Sioux, Com- 
manches, Apaches, and a few others. 

The report of the United States Pureau of Indian Affairs 
shows the following Indian population by states for the year 

Arizona 40,189 North Carolina 1,430 

California 11,431 North Dakota 8.276 

Colorado 995 Oklahoma 13,926 

Florida 5/5 Oregon 4,063 

Idaho 3,557 South Dakota 19,212 

Indian Territory .... 80,265 Texas 290 

Iowa ." 385 Utah 2.1 15 

Kansas 1,211 Washington 9.827 

.Michigan 7,557 Wisconsin 10,726 

Minnesota 8,952 Wyoming 1,642 

Montana 10,076 Miscellaneous 849 

-Nebraska 3,854- 

New Mexico ",480 Total 270.544 

.Yew York 5.334 

In 1910 the Indians had increased in population in the 
United States, exclusive of Alaska, to about 305,000. 

Of the above, 98,199 wore citizen's dress and 32,846 wore 
a mixture of Indian and civilized clothing. 

Those who could read numbered 46,144, and 57,975 could 
carry on an ordinary conversation in English. 

The Indian population increased about 30,000 between 
1890 and 1900. 

The total Indian population of the United States, exclu- 
sive of Alaska, but including 32,567 counted in the general 
census, being the taxed or taxable Indians, numbers 251.355. 

The following table gives the division of the Indians in 
detail : 

History of West Virginia 

Indians on nervations or at school, under control ol , 

the Indian office (not taxed or taxable I _• 133.3N- 

lndians incidentally under the Indian office, and self- 
supporting : 

The five civilized tribes: 

Lherokees -_•- 

Chiekasaws ~- ls - 

Choctaws 14 - v,/ 

Creeks W'_.J2 

Seminoles -•-"" >' 

Total "•^' 1 { #&\ 

Pueblos ol" New .Mexico ■ • • • ■ • 

Six Nations. Saint Regis and other Indian-- o! New 

York ■ 

Knstcrn Cherokccs of North Carolina 

Indians taxed or taxable, and self-sustaining citizens. 

counted in the general census C'S percent not on 


Indians under control of the War Depart., prisoners 

of war ( Apaches at Mount Vernon Barracks) 

Indian^ in Stale or Territorial prison- 

2 S3 3 






It will be noticed from the foregoing that out of a popu- 
lation of 270.544 Indians 4..144. or approximately one out ol 
everv six. could read, while 57.975 could "carry on an ordinary 
conversation in English." This is certainly a splendid show- 
ing for a race of people who, but a little over one hundred years 
ago. were generally regarded as savages. 

An en t the much talked-of race suicide among the Indians. 
Captain J. McA. Webster, superintendent of Indian reserva- 
tions in Washington, has this to say : 

"Indian girls on the reservations in the State of Wash- 
ington are attractive in the exes of \ oung ranchmen, and many 
of them are joining in matrimony and in the fis, r ht against race 


•'Uncle Sam has placed a premium on Indian babies, and 
the result is there has been a large increase in the population 
on the reservations in Washington the last few years. The 
largest number of births is reported on the Colville reservation, 
north of Spokane, which contains 1.400.000 acres of land. 

412 History of West Virginia 

"Every Indian baby is entitled to 80 acres of agricultural 
land, or if the land in the reservation is not agricultural, he or 
she is entitled to 100 acres. This right can not be alienated 
after the child is registered, and in case of his death, even 
though only a few days old, the land which would be allotted 
to the child goes to the parents as the heirs. 

"One hundred and sixty acres of land is a substantial and 
attractive bounty for bringing a child into the world, and the 
Indians on the unallotted reservations are not slow in taking- 
advantage of it. 

"General Indian Question. 

"The government of the United States did not intend pri- 
marily to encourage the raising of children, but the situation 
has developed as the result of the general Indian question. 
The Indians are to receive their final allotments of land. In 
most reservations in the country these allotments have been 
made, but the work still has to be done on the Colville reser- 

"The law provides that every Indian, regardless of age, 
is entitled to a share of the land on the reservation to which 
he belongs. It is only necessary for the child to be born, and 
registered on the nation's books, to make sure of getting his 
share of land. 

"Before the land on the Spokane reservation was appor- 
tioned every Indian that had any claim to membership in the 
tribe moved his residence to the reserve, and secured his ap- 
portionment, and it was noticed at the time that births had 
increased at a tremendous rate. As soon as it was announced 
that the allotments were to be made on the Colville reserva- 
tion, the same conditions were observed. 

"There is this difference, however: The opening of the 
Colville reservation is to be delayed several years, and conse- 
quently hundreds of papooses will be brought into the world 
and each will be a land-owner in its own right. 

"If the land in the Colville reservation were apportioned 
at this time about 200,000 acres of the best would be given to 
natives. Registration of Indian children may go until such 
time as the allotments arc made, and with a continuation of the 
present birth rate not many years will pass before there will 

History of West Virginia 413 

be mi man; Indians that they will be able to take all the gum I 
lanil on the reservation, and the opening of the reservation 
will he of no particular value to white settlers." 

It has been estimated that the original Indian population 
east of the Mississippi Ki\ er was about 200,0'tO, but since the 
advent of the white man there has been a gradual decrease in 
pure Indian blood through the inter-marriages with the whites 
and other races, until today comparatively few of the so-called 
Indians of the United States arc full blood, and some of the 
early tribes that once occupied the country east of the Mississ- 
ippi have entirely disappeared. 

Lawson in 1701 crossed the Carolina* from Charleston to 
Albemarle Sound, meeting in his journey sixteen different 
tribes. Only two of these tribes have any representatives to- 
day, the Tuscarora and Catawba. At that time the Tuscarora 
were estimated at 1,200 warriors. Today all told they num- 
ber perhaps 700. and probably not one-fourth could make a 
valid claim to pure blood. 

About the time of the first settlement of Carolina the Ca- 
tawba had 1.500 warriors. They now number altogether hard- 
ly 100 soids. of whom not more than a dozen are of pure blood. 

Furthermore, the Catawba themselves in 1743 represented 
all that were left of more than twenty broken tribes. 

On the plains the decrease has been appalling. The Con- 
federated Mandau, Minitari and Ankara in 1804 numbered 
nearly 8.000 souls in eight villages. In l'»00 they were 110 in 
one village. The Osage and Kaw at the previous date were 
estimated on good authority at <>,300 and 1,300, respectively. 
In PXX) they numb ered 1.781 and 217, including all mixed 
bloods. In 1034 the Pawnee numbered 12.000; in 1'JOO, 050. 
and probably fewer today. 

The Tonkawa were estimated at 1.000 in 1805 and now 
number not over 50. Since 1890 the confederated Kiowa, 
Comanche and Apache have decreased over 10 per cent. All 
that remains of some twenty tribes of the Oregon coast arc 
now gathered upon Siletz reservation to the number of less 
than 500. 

The Aleuts on the Xorth Pacific coast have dwindled 
within a century from an estimated 25.000 to a present 2.000. 

414 History of West Virginia 

The celebrated Haida, with 39 villages and 7,000 souls in 1840, 
are now reduced to two villages, with a population of about 

Five Civilized Tribes. 

The five civilized tribes of the Indian Territory seem to 
form the exceptions proving the general rule of Indian exter- 
mination, their number now being apparently as great as at any 
previous era. It must not be overlooked, however, that these 
figures are somewhat deceptive, for the reason that the ma- 
jority of those now enrolled in these tribes are mixed bloods, 
sometimes with but an infinitesimal proportion of Indian 
biood. Thus in 1890 the so-called "Cherokee Nation" of 27,000 
should include 2,000 adopted whites, 3,000 adopted negroes 
and about 1,500 Indians of other tribes, while those of full 
Cherokee blood were estimated at not more than one-fifth of 
the remainder. 

Since then the rolls have been swelled by the compulsory 
admission of some 7,000 claimants repeatedly repudiated by 
the government. At the moment the Indian population of the 
Cnited States is about 305,000. 

Other reasons ascribed to the decline of pure blooded 
Indians in the United States are, that in mental capacity, 
physical strength and endurance, as well as in vital force to 
resist or overcome disease, the Indian is far below the white 
man. This condition is probably partially due to long indo- 
lent habits and unsanitary conditions on reservations. Of 
course there are some notable exceptions. Some of the most 
able men in the various occupations and professions in the 
United States are full-blooded Indians, mention of some of 
whom will be made further along. 

410 History of West Virginia 

An Ancient Rite in Modern Days. 

(From Leslie's Weekly.) 

"Chief Three Bears, of the Blackfeet Indians, holding a 
tribal council amid the most primitive surroundings near Lake 
McDermott, Glacier National Park. Civilization seems not 
to have displaced the primeval racial instincts, passions and 
customs of these rugged braves, and they are a never-ending 
source of interest and wonderment to the thousands of tour- 
ists annually visiting their camping grounds. The Blackfeet 
are a division of the Algonquins, and they formerly ranged 
from the Missouri River north to the Saskatchewan along the 
slopes of the Rocky Mountains. At one time they were very 
powerful and owned great herds of horses, but about 1840 
smallpox broke out among them and carried oft" so many that 
the tribe never afterward gave the Government any serious 
trouble. They now number about 0.000. While they lived 
upon buffalo anil their general culture was about the same as 
that of the Plains Indians, the}- practiced a highly developed 
ceremonial religion in which bundles of sacred objects with 
long rituals were a special feature. Upon their reser\ation in 
Montana they have, in addition to hunting and fishing, suc- 
cessfully engaged in stock raising, so the}' arc to an extent 
prepared for the transition to agricultural life. Many of them 
are wealthy and they are generally an industrious people. 
They are regarded as the highest type of Indians. Their in- 
tegritv, fortitude, chastity, and dignity place them above most, 
if not all, other tribes of savages. The Blackfoot is a frank, 
simple person, yet he is unusually cunning when the occasion 
demands. His sense of humor is keen. Some of his customs 
are comical. For example, a Blackfoot must never meet his 
mother-in-law. Should he ever happen to do so, the tribal 
customs demand that he shall make her a handsome gift. 
Naturally, therefore, the thrifty Blackfoot always endeavors 
to avoid his wife's mother. The last great dance of this people 
was a ceremony not soon to be forgotten." 

History of West Virginia 417 

Indian Rally at Columbus, October, 1912. 

A conference of the Society of American Indians was held 
at Columbu>, Ohio, from October 2nd to 7th. \'J\2. 

The society i> compo.-ed entirely of men and women of 
Indian blood, and thi> war- their second gathering. 

Their relation to American citizenship is now quite differ- 
ent from what it was when white men fir^t came to this coun- 
try. They have long since given up their nomadic life. .Many 
of them have abandoned their old communal ideas, and hold 
property as individuals instead of clans and tribes. 

The objects of the society which held this conference, as 
set forth in its call, are a^ follow >: 

"To promote the good citizenship of the Indians of this 
country, to help in all progressive movements to this end, and 
to emulate the sturdy characteristics of the North American 
Indian, especially his honesty and patriotism. To promote all 
efforts looking to the advancement of the Indian in enlighten- 
ment- which leave him free, as a man. to develop according to 
the natural laws of social evolution." 

"Manifestly,"' says Dr. Charles M. Harvey, in Leslie's 
Weekly, "a creed of this sort must be intended for a different 
order of being from that of which we used to read in Cooper, 
Emerson Bennett, Captain .Mayne Reid, Edward S. Ellis and 
the other writers who depicted the wild Indian of the forest, 
prairie and mountain. That sort of an Indian has become 
pretty nearly extinct. The Indians who met at Columbus 
preserve the physical and moral vigor of their race, supple- 
mented with an education and an intellectual and manual 
training which make them valuable members of the commu- 
nity. Among them are many graduates of Carlisle and other 
Indian schools, and also of white universities of the East and 
West. Their members represent practically all of the call- 
ings—law. literature, medicine, journalism, the ministry, 
banking, agriculture, pedagogy, mining, manufacturing, fruit 
and stock raising and the rest of the employments of a high 
civilization. The addresses delivered covered a wide range of 
topics of general interest. 

41S History of West Virginia 

"Men of Indian blood are prominent in most of the great 
fields of activity. Three men — Senator Owen of Oklahoma, 
Senator Curtis of Kansas, and Representative Carter of 
Oklahoma — are in Congress. Dr. Sherman Coolidge, a well- 
known Episcopalian clergyman, a full-blooded Araphoe, born 
in a buffalo-hide tepee in the Rocky Mountains, is president 
of the society, and among its other members are Dr. Charles 
A. Eastman, writer and Chautaqua lecturer, a Sioux; Dr. 
Carlos Montezuma, a Chicago physician, an Apache; Charles 
E. Dagnett, a Quapaw ; Miss Laura M. Cornelius, an Oneida. 
The Osages, of Oklahoma, are the richest people on the globe, 
with a per capita wealth of over $5,000, which is more than 
three times that of the average person of the 95,000,000 people 
of the United States. 

"Contrary to the general opinion, the Indian is not de- 
creasing in numbers' The full bloods are falling off some- 
what, but the aggregate of the Indian population is steadily 
rising. In the call for the conference at Columbus, Professor 
Arthur C. Parker, of Albany, N. Y.. archcologist and ethnolo- 
gist, secretary of the society, himself a descendant of the 
Iroquois of the State of New York, puts the number of Indians 
of the United States at 265,683. In reality the number is still 
greater. The Indian Office at Washington, from figures com- 
piled by superintendents of Indian schools and all other 
sources, places the Indian population of the United States, 
exclusive of Alaska, at 322,715, on June 30th, 1911. Some of 
them are found in almost every State. The States which have 
over 10,000 are: Oklahoma, 117.247; Arizona, 39.216; New 
Mexico. 21,121; South Dakota, 20,352; California, 16,371; 
Washington, 10,997; Montana, 10,814; Minnesota, 10,711; 
and Wisconsin, 10,360. There are 6,04o in the State of New 
York, chiefly of the old Six Nations, or Iroquois. Of the 
117,247 credited to Oklahoma, 101,287 belong to the Five 
Civilized Tribes (Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws. Chickasaws 
and Seminoles). These, however, include 23,345 freedmen, or 
survivors of the negro slaves of the old days and their de- 
scendants, and 2,582 intermarried whites. 

"The Indian has been figuring with some prominence in 
the sporting field in recent times. Bender, of the Athletics, 

History of West Virginia 41'' 

a rul Meyer, of the Giants, are close to the head of the list in 
the baseball profession. The football players of the Carlisle 
Indian School are the peers of the teams of the big white 
universities-. Thorpe, the Indian who won the penathlon and 
the decathlon at the recent Olympic games at Stockholm, was 
acclaimed the world's greatest all-round athlete. 

"In several States the red man as a voter would hold the 
balance between the great parlies.'" 

Chief Hollow Horn Hear of the Sioux Indian nation, 
whose picture appears on the new $5 bills issued by the L'nited 
States Treasury, died recently in Washington, where he had 
attended the inauguration of President Wilson and presented 
a pipe of peace to the "Ureal \\ hite Chief" from the Sinux 
tribes. Hollow Horn Bear's exact age is not known, but from 
1875 on. when the Sioux Indians were causing the government 
great trouble by their outbreaks. Hollow Horn Bear was recog- 
nized as one of the leading spirits, and to him were ascribed 
many of the uprisings among the Sioux. After the uprising nl 
188 c ) and I.S'lO. in which Sitting Bull and scores of other nota- 
ble Indians were killed at the battle of Wounded Knee, in 
South Dakota, Hollow Horn Bear became a good Indian and 
from that time forward was one of the leading influences for 
good and prosperity among his people on the Rosebud 
reservation. At his last visit to Washington he was presented 
with the gun he carried in many uprisings, having recognized 
the old weapon by some of his own windings on the stock. 

Hollow Horn Bear's death leaves Chief Red Shirt as the 
only great warrior chieftain among the Sioux Indians. 



History of West Virginia 121 

Last Man of the Tribe of Pocahontas and Powhatan. 

The subject of tliis illustration is \\ illiam T, Llradby, one 
of the Pamunkey Indians, the last of the great and powerful 
tribe that produced Powhatan and Pocahontas, the famous 
Indian princess of early Virginia fame. The most con- 
spicuous of the early American Indians were the Algonquin 
race of the Atlantic coast. From the Pilgrim Fathers of New 
Fngland to the Cavaliers of Virginia the contact of the whites 
was with this widely scattered people, and among the Algon- 
quins the most powerful confederacy was that of which Pow- 
liatan was chief. Captain John Smith has graphically written 
of them in his history of Virginia, and today there remain 
only a few of this once powerful race, yet clinging to the 
glorious traditions of their past. They reside on a strip of land 
extending into the Pamunkey River about 20 miles east of 
Richmond. There are only 120 left: they have their own laws 
and communal form of government and a distinct race pride 
allowing no intermarriage with those of another race. 


Red Jacket on the Religion of the White Man and the Red 

Man (1805). 

Sogoyewapha. nick-named "Red Jacket." from having 
worn an embroidered scarlet jacket presented to him by a 
British officer during the Revolution, was chief of a tribe of 
the Seneca Nation. His home was near < leneva. lie was 
born about 1752 and died in 1830. lie fought with the Ameri- 
cans in the War of 1812. 

The following speech was delivered by "Red Jacket" at a 
council of chiefs of the Six Xations in the summer of 1805 after 
a Mr. Cram, a missionary, had spoken of the work he proposed 
to do among them. 

"Friend and P.rother : It was the will of the Creat Spirit 
that we should meet together this day. He orders all things 
and has given us a fine day for our council, lie has taken His 
garment from before the sun and cau-ed it to shine with 

422 History of West Virginia 

brightness upon us. Our eyes arc opened that we see clearly ; 
our ears are unstopped that wc have been able to hear dis- 
tinctly the words you have spoken. For all these favors we 
thank the Great Spirit, and Him only. 

"Brother, this council lire was kindled by you. It was 
at your request that we came together at this time. We have 
listened with attention to what you have said. You requested 
us to speak our minds freely. This gives us great joy; for 
we now consider that we stand upright before you and can 
speak what wc think. All have heard your voice and all speak- 
to you now as one man. Our minds are agreed. 

"Brother, you say you want an answer to your talk before 
you leave this place. It is right you should have one, as you 
are a great distance from home and we do not wish to detain 
you. But first wc will look back a little and tell you what our 
fathers have heard from the white people. 

"Brother, listen to what we say. There was a time when 
our forefathers owned this great island. Their seats extended 
from the rising to the setting sun. The Great Spirit had made 
it for the use of Indians. He had created the buffalo, the deer, 
and other animals for food. He had made the bear and the 
beaver. Their skins served us for clothing. He had scattered 
them over the country and taught us how to take them. He 
had caused the earth to produce corn for bread. All this He 
had done for His children because He loved them. If wc had 
some disputes about our hunting ground they were generally 
settled without the shedding of much blood. 

"But an evil day came upon us. Your forefathers crossed 
the great water and landed on this island. Their numbers 
were small. They found friends and not enemies. They told 
us they had fled from their own country for fear of wicked 
men and had come here to enjoy their religion. They asked 
for a small seat. We took pity on them, granted their request, 
and they sat down among us. We gave them corn and meat; 
they gave us poison in return. 

"The white people, brother, had now found our country. 
Tidings were carried back and more came among us. Yet 
we did not fear them. We took them to be friends. They 
called us brothers. We believed them and eavt" them a larger 

History of West Virginia I2.-5 

seat. At length their numbers had greatly increased. I'hey 
wanted more lands; they wanted our country. Our eyes 
were opened and our minds became uncasv. Wars took place. 
Indians were hired to light against Indians. They also 
brought strong liquor anions u>. It was -trong and powerful, 
and has slain thousands. 

"Brother, our seats were once large and yours were small. 
You have now became a great people, and we have scarceh' a 
place left to spread our blankets. You have got our country, 
but are not satisfied; you want to force your religion upon us. 

"Brother, continue to listen. You say that you are sent 
to instruct us how to worship the Great Spirit agreeably to 
His mind; and, if we do not take hold of the religion which 
you white people teach, we shall be unhappy hereafter. You 
say that you are right and we are lost. How do we know this 
to be true!' \\ e understand that \ our religion is written in a 
book. If it was intended for us. as well as you. why has not 
the Great Spirit given it to us. and not only to us, but why 
did lie not give to our forefathers the knowledijc of that Book, 
with the means of understanding it rightly. We only know 
what you tell us about it. llow shall we know when to be- 
lieve, being so often deceived by the white people .' 

"Brother, you >ay there is but one way to worship and 
serve the Great Spirit. If there is but one religion, WHY D< > 
THE ROOK ? (The Indian'-- question was not answered 
then, nor has it been answered since. — Author.) 

"Brother, we do not understand these things. We arc- 
told that your religion was given to \ our forefathers and has 
been handed down from father to son. We also have a re 
ligion which was given to our forefathers, and has been handed 
down to us their children. W'e worship in that way. It 
teaches us to be thankful for all the favors we receive, to love 
each other, and to be united. We never quarrel about religion. 

"Brother, the Great Spirit has made Us all. but lie made 
a ijreat difference between His white and I lis red children, 
lie has given us different complexions and different customs. 
To von He has sji\'en the arts. To these IK- has not opened 

424 History of West Virginia 

our eyes. We know these tilings to be true. Since he lias 
made so great a difference between ns in other things, why 
may we not conclude that He has given us a different religion 
according to our understanding? The Great Spirit does right. 
He knows what is best for His children; we are satisfied. 

"Brother, we do not wish to destroy your religion or take 
it from you. We only want to enjoy our own. 

"Brother, you say you have not come to get our land or 
our money, but to enlighten our minds. I will now tell yon 
that I have been at your meetings and saw you COLLECT 
MONEY FROM THE MEETING. 1 can not tell what this 
money was intended for, but suppose that it was for your min- 
ister; and, if we should •■conform to your way YOL T MAY 

"Brother, we are told that you have been preaching to 
the white people in this place. These people are our neigh- 
bors. We are acquainted with them. We will wait a little 
while and see what effect your preaching has upon them. If 
we find it does them good, makes them honest, and LESS 
DISPOSED TCI CHEAT INDIANS, we will then consider 
again of what you have said. 

"Brother, you have now heard our answer to your talk, 
and this is all we have to say at present. As we are going to 
part, we will come and take you by the hand, and hope the 
Great Spirit will protect you on your journey and return you 
safe to your friends." 

Tecumseh to Governor Harrison at Vincennes (1810). 

Tecumseh was a chief of the Shawnee tribe and twin 
brother of Elskwatawa, who was defeated by Harrison at 
Tippecanoe. He fought with the British in the War of 1812; 
fought in several battles in Canada ; commanded the right 
wing of the allied Indian and British forces, who were defeated 
in the Battle of the Thames by General Harrison. He was 
born about I7f>8 and died in 1813. 

Tecumseh delivered the following address to Governor 
Harrison in council at Yincennes on August 12, 1810 — about 
three vears before his death. Large tracts of land on both 

History of West Virginia 


sides of the \\ abash River had been sold In the Indians 
during the absence of Teeumsch. 

"It is true I am a Shawnee. .My forefathers were war- 
riors. Their son is a warrior. From them 1 take only my 
existence; from my tribe 1 take nothing. 1 am the maker of 
my own fortune; and, oh! that I could make that of my red 
people, and of my country, as great as the conceptions of my 
mind, when I think of the Spirit that rules the universe. I 
would not then come to Governor Harrison to ask him to tear 
the treaty and to obliterate the landmark: but I would say- 
to him : 'Sir, you have liberty to return to your own country." 

"The being within, communing' with past ages, tells me 
that once, nor until lately, there was no white man on this 
continent ; that it then all belonged to red men, children of 
the same parents, placed on it by the Great Spirit that made 
them, to keep it, to traverse it, to enjoy its productions, and 
to till it with the same race, once a happy race, since made 
miserable by the white people, who arc never contented, but 
always encroaching. The way. and the only way, to check 
and to stop this evil, is for all the red men to unite in claiming 
a common and equal right in the land, a> it was at first, and 
should be yet ; for it never was divided, but belongs to all for 
the use of each. For no party has a right to sell, even to each 
other, much less to strangers — those who want all, and will 
not do with less. 

"The white people ha\ e no right to take the land from 
the Indians, because they had it first ; it is theirs. They may 
sell, but all must join. Any sale not made by all is not valid. 
The late sale is bad. It was made by a part only. Part do not 
know how to sell. It requires all to make a bargain for all. 
All red men have equal rights to the unoccupied land. The 
right of occupancy is as good in one place as in another. 
There can not be two occupations in the same place. The first 
excludes all others. It is not so in hunting or traveling; for 
there the same ground will serve many, as they may follow 
each other all day ; but the camp is stationary, and that is 
occupancy. It belongs to the first who sits down on his 
blanket or skins which he has thrown upon the ground : and 
till he leaves it no other has a rierht." 



One of the most serious financial situations that confronts 
West Virginia today is the much debated Virginia debt ques- 
tion. Without presuming to give any personal views on the 
matter, -we -will give to our readers a copy of the opinion of 
the Supreme Court of the United States as delivered by Mr. 
Justice Holmes, March 6, 1911: 

"This is a bill brought by the Commonwealth of Virginia 
to have the State of West Virginia's proportion of the public 
debt of Virginia as it stood before 1861 ascertained and satis- 
fied. The bill was set forth when the case was before this 
Court on demurrer, 206 U. S. 290. Nothing turns on the form 
or contents of it. The object has been stated. The bill alleges 
the existence of a debt contracted between 1S20 and 1861 in 
connection with internal improvements intended to develop 
the whole State, but with especial view to West Virginia, and 
carried through by the votes of the representatives of the West 
Virginia counties. It then sets forth the proceedings for t In- 
formation of a separate State and the material provisions of 
the ordinance adopted for that purpose at Wheeling on 
August 20, 1861, the passage of an act of Congress for the 
admission of the new State under a constitution that had been 
adopted, and the admission of West Virginia into the Union, 
all of which we shall show more fully a little further on. Then 
follows an averment of the transfer in 1863 to West Virginia 
of the property within her boundaries belonging to Virginia, 
to be accounted for in the settlement thereafter to be made 
with the last named State. As West Virginia gets the benefit 
of this property without an accounting, on the principles of 
this decision, it need not to be mentioned in more detail. A 

History of West Virginia 12/ 

further appropriation to West Virginia is alleged of $150,000. 
together with unappropriated balances, subject to accounting 
for the surplus on hand received from counties outside ol tin- 
new State. Then follows an argumentative averment of a 
contract in the Constitution of West Virginia to assume an 
equitable proportion of the above mentioned public debt, as 
hereinafter will be explained. Attempts between lSlo ami 
1872 to ascertain the two States' proportion of the debt and 
their failure are averred, and the subsequent legislation and 
action of Virginia in arranging with the bondholders, that 
will be explained hereafter so far as needs be. Substantially 
all the bonds outstanding in 1801 have been taken up. It is 
stated that both in area of territory and in population \\ est 
Virginia was equal to about one-third of Virginia, that being 
the proportion that Virginia asserts to be the proper one for 
the division of the debt, ami this claim is based upon the divis- 
ion of the State, upon the above-mentioned \\ heeling ordi- 
nance and the Constitution of the new State, upon the recog- 
nition of the liability by statute and resolution, and upon the 
receipt of property as has been stated above. Alter slating 
further efforts to bring about an adjustment and their failure, 
the bill prays for an accounting to ascertain the balance due 
to Virginia in her own right and as trustee for bondholders 
and an adjudication in accord with this result. 

"The answer admits a debt of about $33,000,000, but avers 
that the main object of the internal improvement in connec- 
tion with which it was contracted was to afford outlets to tin- 
Ohio River on the west and to the seaboard on the east for 
the products of the eastern part of the State, and to develop 
the resources of that part, not those of what is now West 
Virginia. In aid of this conclusion it goes into some elabora- 
tion of details. It admits the proceedings for the separation ol 
the State and refers to an act of May, lSi.2, consenting to the 
same, to which also wc shall refer. It denies that it received 
property of more than a little value from Virginia or that 
West Virginia received more than belonged to her in the way 
of surplus revenue on hand when she was admitted to the 
Union and denies that any liability for these items was as- 
sumed bv her Constitution. It sets forth in detail the pro- 

428 History of West Virginia 

ceedings looking to a settlement, but as they have no bearing 
upon our decision we do not dwell upon them. It admits the 
transactions of Virginia -with the bondholders and sets up that 
they discharged the Commonwealth from one-third of its debt 
and that what may have been done as to two-thirds does not 
concern the defendant, since Virginia admits that her share 
was not less than that. If the bonds outstanding in 1861 have 
been taken up it is only by the issue of new bonds for two- 
thirds and certificates to be paid by West Virginia alone for 
the other third. Liability for an} - payments by Virginia is 
denied and accountability, if an}', is averred to be only on the 
principle of Sec. 9 of the Wheeling ordinance, to be stated. It 
is set up further that under the Constitution of West Virginia 
her equitable proportion can be established by her Legislature 
alone, that the liquidation can be only in that way provided by 
that instrument, and hence that this suit cannot be maintained. 
The settlement by Virginia with her creditors also is pleaded 
as a bar, and that she brings this suit solely as trustee for 

"The grounds of the claim are matters of public history. 
After the Virginia ordinance of secession, citizens of the State 
who dissented from that ordinance organized a government 
that was recognized as the State of Virginia by the government 
of the United States. Forthwith a convention of the restored 
State, as it was called, held at Wheeling, proceeded to carry 
nut a long entertained wish of many West Virginians by 
adopting an ordinance for the formation of a new State out 
of the western portion of the old Commonwealth. A part of 
Section 9 of the ordinance was as follows: 

" 'The new State shall take upon itself a just proportion 
of the public debt of the Commonwealth of Virginia prior t" 
the first dav of January, W>\, to be ascertained by charging to 
it all State expenditures within the limits thereof, and a just 
proportion of the ordinary expenses of the State government, 
since any part of said debt was contracted; and deducting 
therefrom the monies paid into the treasury of the Common- 
wealth from the counties included within the said new State 
during the same period.' 

History of West Virginia 

4 •'* 

"Having prc\ iou.-dv jiro\ iileil for a popular vole, a con- 
stitutional convention, &c, the ordinance in Section 10 or- 
dained that when the General Assembly should {jive its con 
sent to the formation of such new State, it should forward t < ► 
the Congress of the United States such consent, together with 
an official copy of such constitution, with the request that the 
new Slate might be admitted into the union of States. 

"A constitution was framed for the new State b\ a con- 
stitutional convention, as provided in the ordinance, on No- 
vember 20. 1 SO 1 . and was adopted. I'.y Article 8, Section 8. 
'An equitable proportion of the public debt of the Common- 
wealth of Virginia, prior to the first of January in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, shall be assumed 
by this State; and the Legislature shall ascertain the same as 
soon as may be practicable, and provide for the liquidation 
thereof, by a sinking fund sufficient to pay the accruing inter- 
est, and redeem the principal within thirty-four years.' An 
act of the Legislature of the restored State of Virginia, passed 
May 13. 18o2, gave the consent of that Legislature to the erec- 
tion of the new State 'under the provisions set forth in the 
constitution for the said State of West Virginia.' 

"Finally Congress gave its sanction by an act of Decem- 
ber 31. !8o2, c.f>, 12 Stat. d33. which recited the framing and 
adoption of the West Virginia constitution and the consent 
given by the Legislature of Virginia through the last men- 
tioned act. as well as the request of the West Virginia conven- 
tion and of the Virginia Legislature, as the grounds for its 
consent. There was a provision for the adoption of an emanci- 
pation clause before the act of Congress should take effect, 
and for a proclamation by the President, stating the fact, when 
the desired amendment was made. Accordingly, after the 
amendment and a proclamation by President Lincoln, West 
Virginia became a State on June 20, 1863. 

"It was held in 1870 that the foregoing constituted an 
agreement between the old State and the new. VIRGINIA Y. 
VIRGINIA, II Wall. 39, and so much may be taken practically 
to have been decided again upon the demurrer in this case, 
although the demurrer was overruled without prejudice to any 
question. Indeed, so much is almost if not quite admitted in 

430 History of West Virginia 

the answer. After the answer had been filed the cause was 
referred to a master by a decree made on May 4, 1908, 209 
U. S. 514, 534, which provided for the ascertainment of the 
facts made the basis of apportionment by the original Wheel- 
ing ordinance, and also of other facts that would furnish an 
alternative method if that prescribed in the Wheeling ordi- 
nance should not be followed; this again without prejudice to 
any question in the cause. The master has reported, the ease 
has been heard upon the merits, and now is submitted to the 
decision of the Court. 

"The case is to be considered in the untechnical spirit 
proper for dealing with a quasi-international controversy, re- 
membering that there is no municipal code governing the 
the matter, and that this Court may be called on to adjust 
differences that cannot be dealt -with by Congress or disposed 
of by the Legislature of either State alone. MISSOURI Y. 
ILLINOIS, 200 U. S. 496, 519, 520; KANSAS V. COLO- 
RADO, 206 U. S. 46, 82-84. Therefore we shall spend no 
time on objections as to multifariousness, laches and the like, 
except so far as they affect the merits, with which we pro- 
ceed to deal. See RHODE ISLAND V. MASS., 14 Peters, 
210, 257; UNITED STATES V, BEEBE, 127 U. S. 338. 

''The amount of the debt January 1, 1861, that we have to 
apportion no longer is in dispute. The master's finding was 
accepted by West Virginia and at the argument we under- 
stood Virginia not to press her exception that it should be 
enlarged by a disputed item. It was $33,897,073.82, the sum 
being represented mainly by interest-bearing bonds. The 
first thing to be decided is what the final agreement was that 
was made between the two States. Here again we are not to 
be bound by technical form. A State is superior to the forms 
that it may require of its citizens. But there would be no 
technical difficulty in making a contract by a constitutive ordi- 
nance if followed by the creation of the contemplated State. 
WEDDING V. MEYLER, 192 U. S. 573, 583. And, on the 
other hand, there is equally little difficulty in making a con- 
tract by the constitution of the new State, if it be apparent 
that the instrument is not addressed solely to those who arc 
to be subject to its provisions, but is intended to be under- 

History of West Virginia 4.^1 

stood by the parent State and by Congress as embodying a 
just term which conditions the parent's consent. There can 
be question that such was the case with \\ est Virginia. As 
has been shown, the consent of the Legislature of the restored 
State was a consent to the admission of West Virginia under 
the provisions set forth in the constitution for the would be 
State, and Congress gave it^ sanction only on the footing of 
the same constitution and the consent of Virginia in the last- 
mentioned act. These three documents would establish a 
contract without more. We may add, with reference to an 
agreement to which we attach little weight, that they establish 
a contract of West Virginia with Virginia. There is no refer- 
ence to the form of the debt or as to its holders, and it is 
obvious that Virginia had an interest that it was most impor- 
tant that she should be able to protect. Therefore, West 
Virginia must be taken to have promised to Virginia to pay 
• er share, whoever might be the persons to whom ultimately 
the payment was to be made. 

"We are of opinion that the contract established as we 
have said is not modified or affected in any practical way by 
the preliminary suggestions of the Wheeling ordinance. 
Neither the ordinance nor the special mode of ascertaining a 
just proportion of the debt that it puts forward is mentioned 
in the constitution of West Virginia, or in the act of Virginia 
giving her consent, or in the act of Congress by which West 
Virginia became a State. The ordinance required that a copy 
of the new constitution should be laid before Congress, but 
said nothing about the ordinance itself. It is enough to refer 
to the circumstances in which the separation took place to 
show that Virginia is entitled to the benefit of any doubt so 
far as the construction of the contract is concerned. See 
opinion of Attorney-General Bates to President Lincoln, 10 
Op. Att. Gen. 42o. The mode of the Wheeling ordinance 
wouhl not throw on West Virginia a proportion of the debt 
that would be just, as the ordinance requires, or equitable, ac- 
cording to the promise of the Constitution, unlos upon the as- 
sumption that interest on the public debt should be considered 
as part of the ordinary expenses referred to in its terms. That 
we believe would put upon West Virginia a larger obligation 

432 History of West Virginia 

than the mode that we adopt, but we are of opinion that her 
share would be ascertained in a different way. All the modes, 
however, consistent with the plain contract of West Virginia, 
whether under the Wheeling ordinance or the Constitution of 
that State, come out with surprisingly similar results. 

"It was argued, to be sure, that the debt of Virginia was 
incurred for local improvements and that in such case, even 
apart from the ordinance, it should be divided according to the 
territory in which the money was expended. We see no suffi- 
cient reason for the application of such a principle to this case. 
In form the aid was 'an investment. It generally took the 
shape of a. subscription for stock in a corporation. To make 
the investment a safe one the precaution was taken to require 
as a condition precedent that two-fifths of the stock should 
have been subscribed for by solvent persons fully able to pay, 
and that one-fourth of the subscriptions should have been paid 
up into the hands of the treasurer. From this point of view 
the venture was on behalf of the whole State. 

"The parties interested in the investment were the same, 
wherever the sphere of corporate action might be. The whole 
State would have got the gain and the whole State must bear 
the loss, as it does not appear that there arc any stocks of value 
on hand. If we should attempt to look farther, many of the 
corporations concerned were engaged in improvements that 
had West Virginia for their objective point, and we should bL- 
lost in futile detail if we should try to unravel in each instance 
the ultimate scope of the scheme. It would be unjust, how- 
ever, to stop with the place where the first steps were taken 
and not to consider the purpose with which the enterprise was 
begun. All the expenditures had the ultimate good of the 
whole State in view. Therefore we adhere to our conclusion 
that West Virginia's share of the debt must be ascertained in 
a different way. In coming to it we do but apply against 
West Virginia the argument pressed on her behalf to exekuk' 
her liability under the Wheeling ordinance in like cases. C_v 
the ordinance West Virginia was to be charged with all State 
expenditures within the limits thereof. But she vigorously 
protested against being charged with any sum expended in vhe 
form of a purchase of stocks. 

History of West Virginia 133 

"I'm again, it was argued that if this contract should be 
found to be what we h'avc said then the determination of a just 
proportion was left by the Constitution to the Legislature of 
West Virginia, and that irrespectively of the words of the in 
strument it was only by legislation that a just proportion could 
be fixed. These arguments do not impress us. The provision 
in the Constitution of the State of West Virginia that the 
Legislature shall ascertain the proportion as soon as may be 
practicable was not intended to undo the contract in the pre- 
cedings words by making the representative and mouthpiece of 
one of the parties the sole tribunal for its enforcement. Jt was 
simply an exhortation and command from supreme to subor- 
dinate authority to perform the promise as soon as might be 
and an indication of the way. Apart from the language used. 
what is just and equitable is a judicial question similar to many 
that arise in private litigation, and in no wise beyond the com 
petence of a tribunal to decide. 

"The ground now is clear, so far as the original contract 
between the two States is concerned. The effect of that is 
that West Virginia must bear her just and equitable propor- 
tion of the public debt as it was intimated in llartman v. 
Cireenhow, 102 U. S. n72, so long ago as 1880, that she should. 
It remains for us to consider such subsequent acts as may 
have affected the original liability or as may bear on the deter- 
mination of the amount to be paid. On March 30, 1871. Vir- 
ginia, assuming that the equitable share of West Virginia was 
about one-third, passed an act authorizing an exchange of the 
outstanding bonds, etc., and providing for the funding of two- 
thirds of the debt with interest accrued to July 1, 1871, by the 
issue of new bonds bearing the same rate of interest as the old, 
six per cent. There were in be issued at the same time lor 
the other one-third, certificates of same date, setting forth the 
amount of the old bond that was not funded, that payment 
thereof with interest at the rate prescribed in the old bond 
would be provided for in accordance with such settlement as 
should be had between Virginia and West Virginia in regard 
to the public debt, and that Virginia held the old bonds in trust 
for the holder or his assignees. There were further details 
that need not be mentioned. The coupons of the bonds were 

434 History of West Virginia 

receivable for ail taxes and demands due to the State. Hart- 
man v. Grcenhow, 102 U. S. 672. McGahey v. Virginia, 135 
U. S. 662. The certificates issued to the public under this 
statute and outstanding amount to $12,703451.79. 

"The burden under the statute of 1871 still being greater 
than \ irginia felt able to bear, a new refunding act was passed 
on March 28, 1879, reducing the interest and providing that 
Virginia would negotiate or aid in negotiating with West Vir- 
ginia for the settlement of the claims of certificate holders and 
that the acceptance of certificates 'for West Virginia's one- 
third' under this act should be an absolute release of Virginia 
from all liability on account of the same. Few of these certi- 
ficates were accepted. On February 14, 1882, another attempt 
was made, but without sufficient success to make it necessary 
to set forth the contents of the statute. The certificates for 
balances not represented by bonds, 'constituting West Vir- 
ginia's share of the old debt,' stated that the balance was 'to be 
accounted for by the state of West Virginia without recourse 
upon this commonwealth.' 

"On February 20, 1892, a statute was passed which led to 
a settlement, described in the bill as final and satisfactory. 
This provided for the issue of bonds for nineteen million dol- 
lars in exchange for twenty-eight millions outstanding, not 
funded, the new bonds bearing three per cent for ninety years ; 
and certificates in form similar to that just stated, in the act 
of 1S82. On March 6, 1S94, a joint resolution of the Senate 
and House of Delegates was passed, reciting the passage of the 
four above-mentioned statutes, the provisions for certificates, 
and the satisfactory adjustment of the liabilities assumed by 
Virginia on account of two-thirds of the debt, and appointing 
a committee to negotiate with West Virginia, when satisfied 
that a majority of the certificate holders desired it and would 
accept the amount to be paid by West Virginia in full settle- 
ment of the one-third that Virginia had riot assumed. The 
State was to be subjected to no expense. Finally an act of 
March 6, 1900, authorized the commission to receive and take 
on deposit the certificates, upon a contract that the certificate 
holders would accept the amount realized from West Virginia 
in full settlement of all their claims under the same. It also 

History of West Virginia 135 

authorized a suit if certain proportions of the certificates 
should be so deposited, as since then they have been — the 
State, as before, to be subjected to no expense. 

"On January 'J, l l) 0o, the commission reported that apart 
from certificates held by the State and not entering into this 
account, there were outstanding of the certificates of 1871 in 
the hands of the public $12,703,451 .7", as we have said, of 
which the commission held $10,851 ,2 r »4.0J, and of other certi- 
ficates there were in the hands of the public $2.778,259.S0, of 
which the commission held $2,322,141.32. 

"On the foregoing facts a technical argument is pressed 
that Virginia has discharged herself of all liability as to one- 
third of the debt; that, therefore, she is without interest in 
this suit, and cannot maintain it on her own behalf; that she 
cannot maintain it as trustee for the certificate holders, Xew 
Hampshire v. Louisiana, 108 L*. S. 7(> ; and that the bill is 
multifarious in attempting to unite claims made by the plain- 
tiff as such trustee with some others set up under the Wheel- 
ing ordinance, etc., which, in the view wc take, it has not been 
necessary to mention or discuss. We shall assume it to be 
true for the purposes of our decision, although it may be open 
to debate, Greenhow v. Yashon, 81 Ya. 336, 342, 343, that the 
certificate holders who have turned in their certificates, being 
much the greater number, as has been seen, by doing so, if not 
before, surrendered all claims under the original bonds or 
otherwise against Yirginia to the extent of one-third of the 
debt. Hut even on that concession the argument seems to us 

"The liability of West Yirginia is a deep-seated equity, 
not discharged by changes in the form of the debt, nor split up 
by the unilateral attempt of Virginia to apportion specific 
parts to the two States. If onnc-third of the debt were dis- 
charged in fact, to all intents, we perceive no reason, in what 
has happened, why West Virginia should not contribute her 
proportion of the remaining two-thirds. But wc are of opin- 
ion that no part of the debt is extinguished, and further, that 
nothing has happened to bring the rule of Xew Hampshire v. 
Louisiana into play. For even if Yirginia is not liable she 
has the contract of West Yirginia to bear an equitable share 

436 History of West Virginia 

of the whole debt, a contract in the performance of which the 
honor and credit of Virginia is concerned, and which she does 
not lose her right to insist upon by her creditors accenting 
from necessity the performance of her estimated duty as con- 
fining their claims for the residue to the party equitably bound. 
Her creditors never could have sued her if the supposed dis- 
charge had not been granted, and the discharge does not di- 
minish her interest .and right to have the whole debt paid by 
the help of the help of the defendant. The suit is in Virginia's 
own interest, none the less that she is to turn over the pro- 
ceeds. See United States v. Beebe, 127 U. S. 338, 342. United 
States v. Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Ry. Co., 118 U. 
S. 120, 126. ^Moreover, even in private litigation it has been 
held that a trustee may recover to the extent of the interest of 
his cestui que trust. Lloyd's v. Harper, 16 Ch. D. 290, 309, 
.515. Lamb v. Vice. 6 M. & W.. 4o7, 472. We may add that 
in all its aspects it is a suit on the contract, and it is most 
proper that the whole matter should be disposed of at once.^ 

"It remains true then, notwithstanding all the transactions 
between the old Commonwealth and the bondholders, that 
West Virginia must bear her equitable proportion of the whole 
debt. With a qualification which we shall mention in a mo- 
ment, we are of opinion that the nearest approach to justice 
we can make is to adopt a ratio determined by the master's 
estimated valuation of the real and personal property of the 
two States on the date of the separation, June 20, 1863. A 
ratio determined by population or land area would throw a 
larger share on West Virginia, but the relative resources of 
the debtor populations are generally recognized, we think, as 
affording a proper measure. It seems to us plain that slaves 
should be excluded from the valuation. The master's figures 
without them are, for Virginia, $300,887,367.74, and for West 
Virginia $92,4 16,02 1.65. These figures are criticised by Vir- 
ginia, but we see no sufficient reason for going behind them, 
or ground for thinking that we can get nearer to justice in any 
other way. It seems to us that Virginia cannot complain of 
the result. They would give the proportion in which the 
$33,897,073.82 was to be divided, but for a correction which 
Virginia has made necessary. Virginia with the consent of 

History of West Virginia -137 

her creditors has cut down her liability to not more than two- 
thirds of the debt, whereas at the ratio shown by the figures 
her share, subject to mathematical corrections, is about .7tol. 
If our figures are correct, the difference between Virginia's 
share, say $25,931,201.47, and the amount that the creditors 
were content to accept from her. say §11,5' '8,0 \ l J. 21 , is $3,333.- 
212.2o; subtracting the last sum from the debt leaves $30.5o3, 
Nd.5(> as 'he sum to be apportioned. Taking .235 as repre- 
senting the proportion of \\ est Virginia we have $7.1 S2.507.4o 
as her share of the principal debt. 

"We have given our decision with respect to the basis of 
liability and the share of the principal of the debt of Virginia 
that West Virginia assumed. In any event, before we could 
put our judgment in the form of a final decree there would be 
figures to be agreed upon or to be ascertained by reference to 
a master. Among other things there still remains the question 
of interest. Whether any interest is due. and if due from 
what time it should be allowed and at what rate it should be 
computed, are matters as to which there is a serious contro- 
versy in the record, and concerning which there is room for 
a wide divergence of opinion. There are many elements to 
be taken into account on the one side and on the other. The 
circumstances of the asserted default and the conditions sur- 
rounding the failure earlier to procure a determination of the 
principal sum payable, including the cpiestion of laches as to 
either party, would require to be considered. A long time has 
elapsed. Wherever the responsibility for the delay might 
ultimately be placed, or however it might be shared, it would 
be a severe result to capitalize charges for half a century — 
--uch a thing hardly could happen in a private case analogous 
to this. Statutes of limitation, if nothing else, would be likely 
to interpose a bar. As this is no ordinary commercial suit, 
but. as we have said, a quasi-international difference referred 
to this Court in reliance upon the honor and constitutional 
obligations of the Slates concerned rather than upon ordinary 
remedies. \vc think it best at this stage t<> go no farther, but 
to await the effect of a conference between the parlies, which, 
whatever the outcome, must take place. If the cause should 
be pressed continuously to the end, it would be referred to a 

438 History of West Virginia 

master to go over the figures that we have given provisionally, 
and to make such calculations as might become necessary. 
But this case is one that calls for forbearance upon both sides. 
Great States have a temper superior to that of private litigants, 
and it is to be hoped that enough has been decided for pat- 
riotism, the fraternity of the Union, and mutual consideration 
to bring it to an end." 

On February 21, 1913, the following preamble and resolu- 
tions were adopted by the Legislature: 

WHEREAS, The commonwealth of Virginia instituted 
a suit in the supreme court of the United States against the 
state of West Virginia, to have the state of West Virginia's 
proportion of the public debt of Virginia as it stood before one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, ascertained and satis- 
fied : and, 

WHEREAS. At the October term, one thousand nine 
hundred and ten, the supreme court of the United States made 
a finding that the share of the principal debt of the original 
commonwealth of Virginia to be borne by the state of West 
Virginia, was seven million one hundred and eighty-two 
thousand six hundred and seven dollars and forty-six cents; 

WHEREAS, Said court did not fully and final]}- decide 
the question involved, but suggested that such proceedings 
and negotiations should be had between the states upon all 
questions involved in said litigation, as might lead to a settle- 
ment of the same ; therefore, be it 

RESOLVED by the Senate of West Virginia, the House 
of Delegates concurring therein: 

That a commission of eleven members, known as the Vir- 
ginia debt commission, is hereby created. The members of 
said commission shall be appointed by the governor, two of 
whom shall be chosen from each congressional district of the 
state, and one at large, not more than six of whom shall be- 
long to any one political party, and all resignations or vacan- 
cies in the said commission as they occur shall be filled by the 
appointment of the governor. 

Said commission is authorized and directed to negotiate 
with the commonwealth of Virginia, or with any person or 

History of West Virginia -I.VI 

committee owing or holding any part of the said iiuleliteilness 
tor a settlement of \\ est Virginia's proportion of the debt of 
the original commonwealth of Virginia proper, to he borne by 
the state of West Virginia. 

The commission is hereby directed to ascertain and report 
upon and give the utmost publicity to all the facts in relation 
to the pending suit instituted against the state of West Vir- 
ginia by the commonwealth of Virginia and to ascertain and 
report upon and give like publicity to all of the facts and con- 
ditions under which the West Virginia certificates are held or 
owned, together with the names and residences of the persons 
having the legal or equitable right to receive from West \ ir- 
ginia whatever may be ascertained to be payable thereon. 

To ascertain ami report as to any part of the Virginia debt 
claimed against the state of West Virginia, which is owned or 
held or claimed to be due, at law or in equity, by the common- 
wealth of Virginia in her own right; and having made the 
investigation required hereby, said commission is authorized 
and directed to negotiate with the commonwealth of Virginia 
for a settlement of West Virginia's proportion of the debt of 
the original commonwealth of Virginia proper, to be borne by 
the state of West Virginia. 

A majority of said commission shall have authority to 
act. The commission shall choose its chairman and appoint 
its secretary and other necessary officers. 

The expense properly incurred by the commission and its 
individual members, including compensation of said members 
at the rate of ten dollars per day for the time actually cm- 
ployed, shall be paid by the state out of the moneys appro- 
priated for said purpose. 

The commission shall make a report to the governor as 
soon as practicable, and upon receipt of said report the gover- 
nor shall convene the legislature for the consideration of ike 

The commission is hereby authorized to sit within or with- 
out the stale and to send for papers and records ami to examine 
witnesses under oath. 

At the same session the Legislature appropriated $10,000 
"to pay the per diem, traveling expenses, clerk hire, and other 

440 History of West Virginia 

current and contingent expenses of the Virginia debt commis- 
sion, or so much thereof as may be necessary for such pur- 

In conformity with the above act, the Governor appointed 
the following gentlemen as members of the Virginia Debt 
Commission : 

First District. 

Hon. Henry Zilliken Wellsburg 

Hon. John \Y. Mason Fairmont 

Second District. 

Hon. J. A. Lenhart Kingwood 

Hon. William T. Ice, Jr Philippi 

Third District. 

Hon. IT. G. Young Buckhannon 

Hon. Joseph E. Chilton Charleston 

Fourth District. 

Hon. R. J. A. Boreman Parkersburg 

Hon. John M. Hamilton Grantsville 

Fifth District. 

Hon. Wm. D. Ord Landgraff 

Hon. John H. Holt Huntington 

lion. W. E. Wells Newell 

The above Commission at once proceeded to make a thor- 
ough investigation of matters involved in the Virginia Debt 
question, and finally, on February 27, 1914, met at Charleston, 
West Virginia, where certain preambles and resolutions were 
adopted, as hereinafter set forth, and adjourned to meet at 
Washington, D. C, on the 4th of the following March. 

Washington, D. C. March 4, 1914. 

The West Virginia Debt Commission met at II o'clock 
a. m., in the "Gridiron Room" at the New Willard Hotel, pur- 
suant to the last Charleston adjournment, and there were 
present : 

Messrs. Mason (Chairman I, Boreman. Hamilton, Zilliken, 
Ord, Lenhart. Ice. Young and Miller. Also. Attorney General 
A. A. Lilly, associate counsel Hogg, Holt and Archer, and the 

History of West Virginia 141 

Absent : Mes-r-. Chilton and Wells. 

At the same time the members of the Debt Commission 
of \ irginia were in session in Parlor 12S. at the New Willanl 

And, thereupon, the following correspondence was had 
between the two Commissions: 

Proposition Submitted by West Virginia. 

Commonwealth of Virginia 

The State of West Virginia. 

Washington, 1). C. March -4. 1"I4. 
Hon. John B. Moon, 

Chairman Virginia Debt Commission. 
Washington. D. C. 
Dear Sir : 

The West Virginia Commission has adopted preambles 
and resolutions embodying a proposition to the Virginia Com- 
mission for the settlement of West Virginia's equitable pro- 
portion of the Virginia debt, and has requested me to transmit 
the same to you. and. through you, to the Virginia Commis- 
sion, in the hope that it may receive early attention and a 
favorable reply. 

Your attention is called to the fact that a list and history 
of the credits referred to in the resolutions are attached to the 
copy thereof now presented you. 
With great respect. 1 remain. 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed) JOHN W. MASON, 

Chairman West Virginia Commission. 

Preambles and Resolutions of the West Virginia Debt Com- 
mission, Adopted at a Meeting Held in Charleston, 
West Virginia, on the 27th Day of February, 

WHEREAS, the Supreme Court of the United States, by 
its opinion rendered on the sixth day of March. 1911. in the 

442 History of West Virginia 

case of the Commonwealth of Virginia vs. State of West Vir- 
ginia, ascertained the gross indebtedness of the old Common- 
wealth of Virginia, to the payment of which the State of West 
Virginia should contribute an equitable proportion, to be $30,- 
563,861.56 (220 U. S. page 1) ; and, 

WHEREAS, in consequence of the relative resources of 
the two debtor populations, Virginia's portion of said debt 
was fixed at .7561 and West Virginia's at .235 ; and, 

WHEREAS, as the records of the case then stood, there 
appeared to be XO STOCKS OF VALUE OX HAXD that 
could be treated as assets, and a proper proportion thereof 
applied to the reduction of the claim against West Virginia, 
its equitable proportion of the principal of said debt (subject 
to the correction bf clerical errors) was fixed at $7,182,507.46; 

WHEREAS, since the announcement of the opinion afore- 
said, and since the joint conference of the Virginia and West 
Virginia Debt Commissions, held at Washington on the 25th 
day of July, 1913, this Commission lias discovered that, prior 
to the establishment of the State of West Virginia out of the 
territory of the Commonwealth of Virginia on the 20th day of 
June, 1863, the Commonwealth of Virginia purchased and be- 
came the owner of certain stocks, bonds, securities and other 
property, which were paid for out of the common funds of the 
two states — in fact were purchased mainly, if not altogether, 
out of the proceeds of the bonds that constitute the debt of the 
old Commonwealth of Virginia in question here — and was the 
owner and holder of said stocks, bonds, securities and other 
property on the 1st day of January, 1861, and after the 20th 
day of June, 18(>3, sold and disposed of many of said stocks, 
bonds and securities, and realized in cash therefor, and appro- 
priated to its own exclusive use many millions of dollars and 
gave away without the consent or knowledge of the State of 
West Virginia other portions of said assets and property which 
were of great value not only on the first day of January, 1861, 
but at the time they were so given away, and has retained and 
still retains other portions of said assets and property which 
not only have a present value, but were of great value on the 
first day of Tanuary, 1861, that is to say, of the aggregate 

History of West Virginia 


value a> of the first day of Januan, ISoI. of $20,810,357.''S ; 

WHEREAS, according to the apportionment of the debt 
made by the Supreme Court between the two states, West 
Virginia is entitled in equity, as a credit upon the part of said 
debt allotted to it, .235 of the aggregate value as of January 1, 
ISol, of said stocks, bonds, securities and other property 
whether the same had been sold, retained or given away by 
the State of Virginia : that is to say, to the sum of $4,855,312.18, 
including cash on hand as of that date, and the additional sum 
of $225,078.0<> collected by the Commonwealth of Virginia 
from West Virginia counties after June 20, 18o3, which, if 
deducted from its allotment of $7.1X2.507.4(>, would leave a 
balance of $2,327, 1 ''5.28 principal, to be paid by the State of 
West Virginia : and, 

WHEREAS, in consequence of the great lapse of time 
and the long delay on the part of Virginia to have its rights 
and the liability of West Virginia in the premises judicially 
determined : also in consequence of the fact that Virginia has 
received from time to time, in addition to the amounts hereto- 
fore set out, dividends upon the bonds, stocks and securities 
hereinbefore described to an amount equal to $5, 782. 240.0, 
and in consequence of the further fact that a part of said bonds 
has been mislaid, lost or destroyed and will never be presented 
for 'payment ; and many of the remaining bonds were pur- 
chased by the present holders thereof at nominal prices, ami in 
consequence of the fact that Virginia at the time of the separ- 
ation of the two states retained, without an accounting unto 
the State of West Virginia for any part thereof, all of the pub- 
lic buildings including the capitol at Richmond, the peniten- 
tiary in that city, the State asylum at Staunton, the university 
at Charlottesville, and various other public buildings and in 
slilutions that had been constructed and equipped out of the 
joint funds of the two states, as well as much personal prop- 
erty consisting of libraries, arms and munitions of war. etc.. 
and in consequence of the further fact that Virginia has largely- 
scaled her debt without West Virginia receiving her full pro- 
portionate benefit of such scaling, to say nothing of the legal 
reasons that might be presented in opposition to such a charge. 

444 History of West Virginia 

no interest should be charged upon West Virginia's allotted 
proportion of the principal of said debt; and, therefore, be it 

RESOLVED, as follows: I. That this Commission 
propose, and it docs here now propose to thp Virginia Com- 
mission that .235 of $20,810,357.98, or the sum of $4,890,434.12 
of the value of the stocks, bonds, securities and other property 
hereinbefore recited and described in the list hereto appended, 
be allowed by the Commonwealth of Virginia as a credit upon, 
and that the same be deducted from the sum of $7,182,507.46, 
ascertained, as aforesaid, to be the equitable proportion of the 
principal of the debt of Virginia assumed by the State of West 
Virginia, and that the balance so ascertained, that is to say, 
the sum of $2,327,195.28 be accepted by the Commonwealth 
of Virginia in full settlement, both principal and interest, of 
West Virginia's proportion of the Virginia debt. 

II. That in the event the Virginia Commonwealth con- 
sent to the foregoing proposition, then this Commission will 
at once make a report of the fact to the Governor of the State 
of West Virginia, accompanied with the recommendation that 
the State of West Virginia pa}- unto the Commonwealth of 
Virginia the sum of $2,327,195.28, in full settlement of the 
present controversy; and the Governor of West Virginia will 
at once, pursuant to the terms of the joint resolution of the 
houses of the West Virginia Legislature establishing this Com- 
mission, adopted on the twenty-first day of February, 1913, 
convene the Legislature of the State of West Virginia, for 
the purpose of adopting or rejecting the foregoing proposition 
of this Commission, and for the purpose, in the event of its 
adoption, of providing the funds without delay for the pay- 
ment of the amount so agreed upon. 

III. That this proposition is made by way of settlement 
of the present suit and shall in no way affect the rights, or 
influence the action of the State of West Virginia, in the event 
of its rejection and future ensuing litigation. Be it further 

RESOLVED, IV. That the Chairman of this Commis- 
sion at once transmit to the Virginia Commission a copy of 
this resolution, with the appendix thereto, with the request 
that the same be at once considered and acted upon at an 
early dav. 

History of West Virginia i 15 

(Signed; JOHN \Y. .MASON. 


u. t;. vouxc, 


W. T. 1CF. JR., 

West Virginia Debt Commission. 

Analysis of Report of Accountants, Classifying the Credits to 
Which the West Virginia Debt Commission Believes 
the State of West Virginia is Entitled, Divid- 
ing the Same Into Classes Marked 
A to G. Inclusive. 

Class A. — Cash. 

The credit assigned to Class A consists of cash on hand 
in the treasury of the State of Virginia on the first day of 
January. 180], amounting to $1.104.927.0h, which sum was 
allotted to the following funds in the following amounts: that 
is to say : 

In the Commonwealth Fund. $ 252.S47.67 

In the Literary Fund 26.876.08 

In the Hoard of Public Works Fund 5,958.28 

In the Sinking Fund 816.250.03 

Total $1,104,927.06 

Class B. 

Stocks purchased by the State of Virginia with the com- 
mon funds of the two states prior to January 1, 1S61, unsold, 
still owned and unaccounted for by the State of Virginia. 

The assets assigned in this class consist of 2,752 shares 
of stock in the Richmond. Fredericksburg and I'otomac Rail- 

446 History of West Virginia 

road Company, of the par value of $100 each. This stock was 
bought by the State of Virginia, under Acts of January 23, 
1835, page 87 of Accountant's Report, and March 23, 1836, 
page 95 of said report, for the cash price of $275,200.00, and 
has never been disposed of by her, but is still owned by the 
State of Virginia, and had a valuation as of the first day of 
January, 1S61, of at least $275,200.00. 

Total $275,200.00 

Class C. 

Proceeds of sales of securities purchased with common 
funds of the two states by the State of Virginia prior to the 
first daj- of January, 1861, and sold by the State of Virginia 
without the knowledge or consent of West Virginia, and with- 
out accounting therefor: 

1. Orange & Alexandria Railroad Co., stock 

and loan $1,156,210.98 

2. Richmond & Danville Railroad Co., 

stock and loan 1,653,423.04 

3. Richmond & Petersburg Railroad Co., 

stock 578,404.13 

4. Virginia Central Railroad Co., stock and 

loan 321,458.17 

5. Blue Ridge Railroad, built by State of 

Virginia 705,280.82 

6. Alexandria, Loudoun & Hampshire Rail- 

road Co., stock 68,044.51 

7. Winchester & Potomac Railroad Co., 

loan reduced by annuity 83,333.33 

S. Virginia & Tennessee Railroad Co., loan 992,030.32 

0. Southside Railroad Co., loan 91.S97.66 

10. Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad Co., loan 165,024.49 

11. Roanoke Navigation Co., stock 3.832.00 

12. Alexandria Canal Co., stock 816.00 

13. Upper Appomattox Co., stock 16,144.26 

14. Dismal Swamp Canal Co., stock 24,839.98 

15. Loan to Washington College 2,000.00 

16. Richmond Academy Bonds 400.00 

History of West Virginia 4 17 

17. Claim against United States Government 2 n 8,3(i9.74 

18. Claim against Seldcn- Withers Co 152.023.01 

Total $6,313,532.47 

Class D. 

Interest on loans and dividends on stock accrued prior to 
January 1, lSiil, upon common investments, and collected by 
the Stale of Virginia after January 1, 18ul, and still unac- 
counted for : 

1. Orange & Alexandria Railroad Co $ 18,144.29 

2. Richmond X: Danville Railroad Co 8,516.80 

3. Richmond & Petersburg Railroad Co... 43,048.00 

4. Virginia Central Railroad Co 182,436.36 

5. Winchester & Potomac Railroad Co.... 833.33 

6. Richmond, Fredericksburg <K; Potomac 

Railroad Co 1 57,662.07 

7. Virginia & Tennessee Railroad Co 211.891.82 

8. Southsidc Railroad Co 204/02.34 

9. Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad Co 45.900.00 

10. James River & Kanawha Company 250.00 

11. Loan to Washington College 60.00 

12. Richmond Academy bond 12.00 

13. Claim against United States Government 832.451.57 

14. The Farmers Bank of Virginia 33.091 .00 

15. Hank of Virginia 33.726.70 

1 6. Hank of the Valley 1 6.936.50 

17. Kxchangc Bank 30,(>42.50 

IS. Northwestern Bank 13.104.00 

19. Fairmont Bank 1.500.00 

Total $1 .835.409.28 

Class E. 

Bank stock purchased by Virginia with joint funds prior 
to January 1, 1861, and in her possession on that date: 

448 History of West Virginia 

1. Farmers Bank of Virginia $ 962,600.00 

2. Bank of Virginia 963,620.00 

3. Bank of the Valley 483,900.00 

4. Exchange Bank 875,500.00 

5. Xorthwestern Bank 374,400.00 

6. Fairmont Bank 50,000.00 

Total $3,710,020.00 

Class F. 

Railroad stock purchased by the State of Virginia out of 
the common funds of the two states in various railroads, prior 
to the first day of January, 1861, and sold by her subsequent to 
the 20th da}- of June, 1863, without the knowledge or consent 
of West Virginia, and for which she has never accounted : 

Prior to January 1, 1861, with common funds, bought 
stocks of and made loans to each of the following railroad 
companies : 

Virginia & Tennessee Railroad Co., Southside Railroad 
Co., Virginia & Kentucky Railroad Co., Norfolk & Petersburg 
Railroad Co., and from time to time sold portions of said stock 
until she had left on hand stock therein and residue of loans 
that cost her: 

Virginia & Tennessee Railroad Co., stock. . . .$2,300,000.00 

Southside Railroad Co., stock S03.500.00 

Southside Railroad Co., loan 708,102.34 

Virginia X: Kentucky Railroad Co., stock. . . . 82,000.61 
Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad Co., stock. . . 1.139,970.00 
Norfolk & Petersburg Railroad Co., loan 134,975.51 

Total $5,168,5-18.46 

Which residuary stocks she subsequently, that is to say, 
on the 20th day of December, 1870, sold to the Atlantic, Miss- 
issippi & Ohio Railroad Co., for the sum of $4,000,000.00, the 
purchase price to be paid in installments, and took a second 
mortgage upon the property of the said railroad company to 
secure the payment of the same. This sale was made and this 

History of West Virginia 1 1'» 

security taken without the knowledge and consent of the Stat 
of West Virginia ; and finally after the lapse of many years, the 
nrst mortgage upon said railroad company was foreclosed and 
the property covered thereby sold, but did not bring enough to 
satisfy the second mortgage and pay the $4,000,000.00 purchase 
price agreed to be paid to Virginia for these stocks. After this 
foreclosure sale, that is to say. on the 1st day of .March, 1882, 
the reorganization of the Atlantic. Mississippi & Ohio Kail- 
road Company paid unto the State of Virginia the sum of 
$500,000.00 for her second mortgage rights, whatever they may 
nave been. Virginia has never accounted to West Virginia, 
either for a proportionate part of the $4,000,000.00 original pur- 
chase price, or the $500,000.00 subsequently received. 

It will be seen that the value placed upon these stocks, 
both by the State of Virginia and by the railway company pur- 
chasing them, was $4,000,000.00; and this can be taken as their 
reasonable value as of January 1, 1861. 

Total " $4,000,000.00 

Class G. 

Securities purchased with joint funds by the State of Vir- 
ginia prior to January 1, 1861, and subsequently given away 
without the knowledge or consent of West Virginia, together 
with certain other railroad and canal securities appropriated 
by her in one way and another, but not hereinbefore recapi- 

1. James River and Kanawha Co., 104,000 

shares $10,400,000.00 

2. Residue of Securities: 

.Manassas Cap Railroad 2,105,000.00 

Roanoke Valley Railroad 307.402.00 

Fredericksburg cc Cordonsvillc Rail- 
road 132,399.00 

Richmond & York River Railroad 490,999.52 

Rappahannock Company 1 70,500.00 

Rivanna River . Navigation Company... 227,133.00 

Smiths River Navigation Company.... 4,083.12 

Slate River Company '. . . . 21,000.00 

450 History of West Virginia 

Kempsville Canal Company 13,050.00 

Hazel River Navigation Company.... 63,079.58 

Goose Creek and Little River Company 58,255.35 

Dragon Swamp Navigation Company 1,464.00 

Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Company.. 281,111.11 

Total $14,285,076.68 

The foregoing $10,400,000.00 attributed to the James River 
and Kanawha Company was the par value of its stock, and, 
although the State of Virginia by an act of its General As- 
sembly passed on the 23rd day of March. 1860, something less 
than ten months before January 1st, 1861, placed a value of 
par thereon and made purchases thereof at such valuation, yet 
so much time has elapsed and the evidence of the actual value 
of this stock of that date has become so obscure, that it has 
been thought best, out of a spirit of compromise, to place a 
value thereon of twenty-five per cent of its par value, or the 
sum of $2,600,000.00. 

The other securities embraced in this class (amounting to 
$3,885,076.68), have been treated in the same way for the same 
reason, and their value placed herein at twenty-five per cent of 
their par value, or the sum of $971,269.17. 

Total $3,571,269.17 

In addition to the foregoing the State of Virginia, after the 
division of the old Commonwealth into two states, June 20, 
1863, collected large amounts of money from several counties 
then and now located in the State of West Virginia, aggregat- 
ing the sum of $225,078.06. 


I lass A $ L104.927.06 

Class B 275,200.00 

Class C... 6,313,532.47 

Class D 1,835,409.28 

Class E 3.710,020.00 

Class F 4,000,000.00 

History of West Virginia -451 

„ssG 3,571,2<>9.17 

Total $20,810,357.9* 

West Virginia's equity .235 $4,890,434.12 

Less Northwestern Bank stock $210,200.00 

Fairmont Bank stock 50,000.00 2(,0,200.00 

Balance $4,630,234.12 

Collected from West Virginia counties 225,078.0<> 

Total net equity $4,855,312.18 


West Virginia's share of debt $7,lS2,507.4f> 

Less net equities, as above 4,855,312.18 

Balance $2,327,195.28 


History of West Virginia 

.\OTE. — Subsequent to the first of January, 1861, the 
Commonwealth of Virginia received as dividends and interest 
upon the securities and loans hereinbefore listed the sum of 
$3,782,240.09, as follows: 




c c 









Orange & Alexan- 
dria Railroad. . . . 

Richmond & Dan- 
ville Railroad. . . . 

Virginia Central 

Richmond & York 
River Railroad... 

Richmond, Freder- 
icksburg & Poto- 
mac R. R 

$ 113,459.00 

Virginia & Tennes- 
see R. R 

Norfolk & Peters- 
burg Railroad . . . 

Roanoke Navigation 

Upper Appomattox 

Richmond & Peters- 
1 urg Railroad.. . . 

Winchester & Poto- 
mac Railroad .... 

Southside R. R 

Washington College 

Richmond Academy 

U. S. Government.. 

Farmers Bank of Ya 

Bank of Virginia. . . 

Bank of the Valley. 

Exchange Bank.... 

Northwestern Bank. 

"Total 7 777.777. 


























$ 261,286.43 
91 1,425.' 8 





$5,782,240..' 9 

History of West Virginia 453 


Washington, D. C, -March 4, 1914. 
West Virginia. 
Hon. John W. Mason, 

Chairman West Virginia Commission, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: — 1 beg to hand you herewith the resolutions 
adopted by the Virginia Debt Commission in response to the 
proposition submitted to them this day by the West Virginia 

With great respeet I am, 

Very truly yours, 
(Signed ) JOHN B. MOOX, 

Chairman Virginia Debt Commission. 
West Virginia. 
Resolutions of the Virginia Debt Commission, adopted at 
a meeting held in Washington. D. C, at the New Willard 
Hotel, Wednesday, March 4, 1914. 

The Virginia Debt Commission having received the 
proposition submitted this day by the West Virginia Com- 
mission, which contains statements and conclusions to which 
this commission cannot assent and concerning which it is uv- 
willing to engage in any discussion, adopted the following 
resolutions : 

Whereas, the Supreme Court of the United States, in its 
opinion delivered at the October term, 1913 (November 10, 
1913), in the suit of Virginia vs. West Virginia, on motion of 
Virginia to proceed to a final hearing, said: 

"In March, 1911 (Virginia vs. West Virginia, 220 U. S. 1. 1, 
our decision was given 'with respect to the basis of liability 
and the share of the principal of the debt of Virginia that 
West Virginia assumed.' In view, however, of the nature ot 
the controversy, of the consideration due to the respective 
states and the hope that by agreement between them further 

454 History of West Virginia 

judicial action might be unnecessary, we postponed proceed- 
ing to a final decree and left open the question of what, if an_\ , 
interest was due and the rate thereof, as well as the right to 
suggest any mere clerical error which it was deemed, mignt 
have been committed in fixing the sum found to be due upon 
the basis of liability which was settled;" and 

Whereas, the matters left open and referred by the Covt 
to the respective states for consideration and adjustment "in 
the hope that by agreement between them further judicial 
action might be unnecessary," were specifically stated to be 

(1) "what, if any, interest was due and the rate thereof," and 

(2) "the right to suggest any clerical error which it was 
deemed might have been committed in fixing the sum found 
to be due upon the basis of liability which was settled ;" and 

Whereas, the proposition now submitted by the West 
Virginia Commission does not embrace either of said matters 
left open by the Court and referred to the parties litigant for 
adjustment between them, it is therefore 

Resolved, That the Virginia Debt Commission is unwill- 
ing to, and respectfully declines to, consider the said proposi- 
tion ; and it is further 

Resolved, That the Virginia Debt Commission hereby ex- 
presses its regret that the West Virginia Commission has not 
seen its way to respond to the opinion of the Court and sub- 
mit a proposition to adjust the question of interest. 

(Signed) JOHN B. MOON, Chairman. 
(Signed) J. P>. BUTTON, Secretary. 
Approved : 


Attorney General of Virginia. 


Washington, D. C, March 4, 1914. 
Hon. John B. Moon, 

Chairman Virginia Debt Commission, 

Washington, D. C. 
Dear Sir: — In response to your communication of this 
date declining the proposition of the West Virginia Commis- 

History of West Virginia -455 

sion made this da_\ looking to a settlement of the Virginia 
ueDt. we regret to be under the necessity of calling your at- 
tention to the fact that, although you deem the question of 
interest still open. \cl you have offered nothing in reply If) 
the reasons advanced in our proposition why no interest 
should be charged, and thus close the discussion upon the 
on!\ point considered 1>\ you still to he open. And, so far as 
the credits advanced by us are concerned, you express an vn- 
willingness even to discuss them, thus leaving us. in the ab- 
sence of errors therein pointed out by you, with the conviction 
that they are equitable, and under the necessity of adhering to 
the terms of a proposition made in an effort to do justice to ;J1. 
\Yc deem it unnecessary to indulge in any interpretation 
or construction of the opinion of the Supreme Court at this 
time further than to say that, in our opinion, the Court ascer- 
tained West Virginia's proportion of the principal of Vir- 
ginia's debt to be $/". 182.507.46, only because, as the record 
then stood, there appeared to be "no stocks of value on hand" 
to be applied to the reduction of the same. These stocks are 
now discovered and disclosed, and a portion of them at least 
were set forth in the proposition you ha\e declined. 

You have, therefore, closed the door to further negotia- 
tions, and it is with regret that we cease further effort along 
that line. 

Respectfully submitted. 









W T. ICE. Jr.. 

West Virginia Debt Commission. 

The Virginia Commission having refused to discuss '.he 

subject matter contained in West Virginia's preamble and 

resolution, the counsel for West Virginia gave notice to the 

Virginia representatives that a motion would be made to ['•■" 

456 History of West Virginia 

supreme court on March 23d for leave to file a supplemental 
answer on or before April 13th, the date set by the court to 
take up the Virginia debt case, in keeping with Chief Justice 
White's opinion handed down November 10, 1913, heretofore 
given in detail. 

The supplemental answer alleged, in brief, that the very 
debt — to the payment of which West Virginia was asked to 
contribute — had been created in the purchase of bank stocks, 
railroad securities and stocks in navigation and other trans- 
portation companies, and that, as had been held by the su- 
preme court, West Virginia was compelled to pay 2i l / 2 per 
cent, of the value of the stocks and securities purchased with 
the proceeds of the bonds creating the debt. 

The motion of West Virginia for leave to file the answer 
and of Virginia that the cause be proceeded with to final de- 
cree were argued together before the court on the 30th day 
of April, 1914. West Virginia was represented by Attorney 
General A. A. Lilly and his associate counsel, Charles E. Hogg, 
John H. Holt and V. B. Archer. The court entered a decree 
on the Sth of June, 1914, filing West Virginia's supplemental 
answer, and referring the cause again to Hon. Charles E. Lit- 
tleficld, Special Master, with direction to hear any evident e 
that might be offered by either state upon the subject. After 
conferring with representatives of both states the master fixed 
the tenth of August, 1914, as the time and the city of Rich- 
mond, Va., as the place, when and where he would begin his 
sittings in the execution of the decree of reference. Immedi- 
ately following this notice Governor Hatfield of West Virginia 
employed Mr. C. W. Hillman, an expert accountant, to pro- 
ceed to Richmond with his assistants and examine the archives, 
records and official documents of the State of Virginia relating 
to her public debt, and covering the period from 1823 down 
to the present time, reducing the information to tabulated form 
to be introduced as evidence upon the hearing. These instruc- 
tions were faithfully carried out. 

The Special Master began the hearings at the time and 
place indicated above. West Virginia produced evidence that 
Virginia was, on the first day of January, 1861, the owner of 
manv millions of stocks and other securities, and the va uc 

History of West Virginia 

thereof as of that date. While Virginia admitted this to be a 
fact, she contended the value >hould be lixed as of June 20ili, 
lSt>3, backing her contentions that upon that date, by reason 
of the ravages of war, the value of many of the stocks had 
been entirely destroyed, while others had been greatly depre- 
ciated, by virtue of which West Virginia's equity was of but 
little value. Virginia's theory was based upon the fact that 
West Virginia did not become a state until June 20, 1Su3 ; 
but West Virginia argued that since the debt against her had 
been fixed as of January 1st, ISol, her credits should be given 
as of the same dale. This hearing was completed on the 21st 
day of October, ly 14, and the case was argued before the 
Special Master on the 12th day of December, 1914, in the city 
of New York, by Attorney General Lilly of West Virginia 
and his associate counsel, Charles E. Hogg of Mason County 
and John H. Holt of Cabell County, West Virginia. 

On January 21, V)l?, Master Littlelield made his report, 
in substance, as follows: 

1. That the assets or investments held by the Common- 
wealth of Virginia January 1, 1861, were not submitted to him 
or considered by him in the former hearing for the purpose 
of determining their value and applying the value as a sct-< IT 
to reduce the gross debt of the Commonwealth of Virginia 
January 1, ISol. 

2. That under West Virginia's agreement, as evidenced 
by the provisions of article 8, section 8, constitution of West 
Virginia, "an equitable proportion of the public debt of the 
Commonwealth of Virginia, prior to the first day of January, 
1 SO 1 , shall be assumed by this State," required Virginia to 
apply the assets or investments on hand January 1, ISol. at 
their fair value on January 1. 1861, so that West Virginia 
could know when the assets were so applied the amount of 
the real debt remaining to which West Virginia would be 
obliged to contribute. 

3. That the liability of West Virginia for interest on 
her part of the net debt begins January 1. 1861. and runs at 
the rate provided for in the bonds that evidence that debt. 

4. That he does not have "power under this reference to 
determine the balance, if an v. that mav be due from We<t 


History of West Virginia 

Virginia, * * as interest can only accrue on that 

'proportion' which is ultimately found to be the balance 'iue 
from West Virginia to Virginia, there is no sum upon which 
interest can be computed, and I therefore make in this case 
no computation of interest." 

5. That the value of assets owned and held by the Com- 
monwealth of Virginia January 1, 1861, was $14,511,945.74, 
and if 2Z]/ 2 per cent, of $14,511,945.74, or $3,410,307.25, is to 
be credited to West Virginia in reduction of her liability upon 
her proportion of the "public debt," then there should be de- 
ducted from $3,410,307.25 the sum of $541,467.76, representing 
money and stocks received by West Virginia from the restored 
government of Virginia, leaving a net credit to West Virginia 
of $2,868,839.49. 

Governor Hatfield, in his special message to the Legisla- 
ture, February 5, 1915, on the Virginia debt, in referring to 
the above report, said, in part: 

"Applying the findings of Master Littlefield to the amount 
of the gross debt apportioned to West Virginia by the Su- 
preme Court of the United States under opinion dated March 
(>, 1911, and calculating interest from January 1, 1861, to the 
date the original bonds were redeemable and treating bonds 
redeemable at the pleasure of the general assembly as bearing 
interest until finally paid, is the method of computing interest 
according to the terms of bonds as contended for by Virginia. 
About one-half of the interest is on bonds redeemable at fhe 
pleasure of the general assembly. 

"The re'sult is as follows: 
Amount of principal of gross debt of Virginia 
January 1, 1861, apportioned to West Vir- 
ginia by the Supreme Court of the United 
States under opinion dated March 6, 191 1 . . .$7,182,507. \G 
Less Virginia's assets January 1, 1861, appor- 
tioned West Virginia by Special Master in 
reporl above 3,410,307.25 

Net amount $3,772.20021 

"This amount, plus $7,440,23(1.44 interest calculated to Oc- 
tober 1, 1914, according to terms of original bonds, by method 

History of West Virginia 45' > 

contended by Virginia, gives a total amount of §1 1 ,21 2,43o,i>5, 
which added to $541 ,4<>7.7<>, the amount of cash and value >i 
assets received by West Virginia from the restored govern- 
ment of Virginia, as found in Master Littlcheld's report, sho\.s 
a grand total of $11,753,904.41 apportioned to West Virginia. 

"liven if West Virginia is liable for interest according to 
the terms of bonds it seems to me a certainty that a bond is- 
sued prior to 1861 and payable at the pleasure of the 
assembly of Virginia would not bear interest against \Y -st 
Virginia when West Virginia had no 'pleasure of retiring lie 
bonds,' or that a bond payable at a fixed date would not bear 
'merest against West Virginia. All the bonds being nne'er 
'.he absolute control of Virginia, and \\ est Virginia having 
no means of knowing whether she owed 'nothing' or 'millions,' 
\\ est Virginia could not pay an unknown amount and st >p 

"Under the former hearing of the case the amount app. r- 
tioned to West Virginia by the Supreme Court of the United 
States under opinion dated .March 6, 1911, was. .$ 7.182.507 4o 

The amount of interest was left open to be 
Calculating interest by the same method as usptl 

above in the present finding, the interest 

would aggregate 1 4.1 74,42." .64 

Total $21,356,933.10 

Plus amount received by West Virginia from 
Virginia, or the restored government of Vir- 
ginia, as found by Master in former hearing 
in report dated March 17, 1910 n71.599.4o 

Grand total apportioned to West Virginia. . S22.02H.532 56 
."From the foregoing statement of facts it is readily so mi 
that under the present finding of the Master, reducing t'le 
gross debt by applying the assets as an off-set and calculaii ig 
interest by the same method in both instances the amount d ie 
from West Virginia has been reduced from $22,028,532.56 to 
$11,753,904.41. or $10,274,628.15. 

400 History of West Virginia 

"Dues not this one comparison prove .conclusively that 
the claims of Virginia as to the amount due from West Vir- 
ginia have been unfair and inaccurate, and Vest Virginia ' as 
been unable, at all times, 10 make settlement, the amount due, 
if anything, being indefinite and unknown? 

"We feel confident that it can be shown to the Supreme 
Court of the United Stales that West Virginia has not received 
in the Master's present findings full credit for the value of the 
assets January 1, 1801, and that the interest cannot in equity 
be charged against West Virginia until the actual amount due 
is determined. 

"The case will come on now finally to be heard before the 
supreme court upon the report of the Master, and, while 1 
deem the ascertainment and allowance by the Master of *'ie 
foregoing credits a great victory for the State of West Vir- 
ginia, 3'et there is much work still to be done in connection 
with this litigation, and there should be some person, com- 
mission or body vested with full power under the law to prop- 
erly carry it on and sufficient funds should be appropriated 
for that purpose." 

Acting upon the foregoing recommendation by the G > '- 
ernor, Delegate M. K. Duty of Ritchie County on Februan 
1'), 1915, introduced a bib in the West Virginia Legislature, 
entitled "House Bill No. 399," creating a new Virginia Debt 
Commission, defining its powers and duties, and providing 
for its compensation, and relieving the Virginia Debt Com- 
mission appointed pursuant to joint resolution of February 
21, 1913, from further duty. 

The bill, after two amendments, was passed on February 
20th, 1915, and reads as follows: 

"Whereas, by joint resolution of the senate of West Vir- 
ginia, the house of delegates concurring therein, adopted Feb- 
ruary twenty-one, one thousand nine hundred and thirteen, a 
commission of eleven members known as the "\ irginia Debt 
Commission,' was created, with the powers and duties in said 
resolution set forth ; and 

"Whereas, under and by virtue of the authority of said 
resolution, eleven representative citizens of the State of West 
Virginia were appointed by the Governor as members of said 

History of West Virginia 4<>1 

commission, who have, with credit to theiiT.clvc-. ami the 
State of West Virginia, discharged their duties as members 
of such commission; but 

"Whereas, the said commission heretofore created as 
aforesaid was not authorized to defend the suit of the Com- 
monwealth of Virginia against the State of West Virginia, 
then and now pending in the Supreme Court of the United 
States, but was only created with the power and authority 'o 
negotiate and make recommendations in relation to the c u- 
troversy between the two states involved in said suit; and 

"Whereas, the commission heretofore created has in an 
eminently satisfactory manner performed all the duties de- 
volving upon it by the resolution of its creation, and made its 
final report to the legislature, and ^nid suit still pends and re- 
quires defense; and 

"Whereas, it is deemed expedient to create a new commis- 
sion of a less and more convenient membership, and with full 
power not only to do any and everything necessary to the de- 
fense of said suit, but with the like power to negotiate a secue- 
ment thereof, if the opportunity should present 10 do so with 
advantage and profit to the State of West Virginia and her 
citizens; now. therefore. 


"Section I. That a commission of five members, known as 
the new 'Virginia Debt Commission,' be, and the same is here- 
by created, the members thereof to be selected as follow- : 
that is to say. the Governor of the State of West Virginia shdl 
be ex-officio a member and the chairman of said commissi., n, 
and he shall appoint the remaining four commissioners, two 
of whom shall be selected from the Republican party and two 
from the Democratic party. 

"Sec. 2. Said commission, in conjunction with the attor- 
ney general, is authorized and directed to defend the care of 
the Commonwealth of Virginia against the State of We-.t Vir- 
ginia, now pending in the Supreme Court of the United °. ns, 
as well as any other litigation that may spring ou" of -ai-1 con- 
troversy, and is now fully authorized and empov.ered to do 
any and everything which in its judgment or di eretion mav 

462 History of West Virginia 

be deemed necessary or best to that end; and it ii likewise 
authorized, in the event a proper opportunity shm.M present 
itself, to negotiate a settlement of said controversy, subject, 
however, to the ratification of the Legislature of the State of 
West Virginia. 

"Sec. 3. . Said commission, with the approval of the Board 
of Public Works, is empowered to employ attorneys and coun- 
sellors at law to assist the attorney general of the State In t'w 
conduct of said litigation, and to advise and assist the com- 
mission ; and the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be 
paid by the State out of moneys appropriated for such pur- 

"Sec. 4. A majority of the commission shall have author- 
ity to act, and is authorized to appoint a secretary from within 
or without its own membership. 

"Sec. 5. The expenses properly incurred by the commis- 
sion and its individual members, including compensation of 
said members at the rate of ten dollars per day for the time 
actually employed (excepting the governor, who shall only 
receive his expenses), shall be paid by the State out of mone\s 
appropriated for that purpose; and 

"Sec. 6. The Virginia Debt Commission heretofore cre- 
ated by the joint resolution adopted February twenty-one, 
one thousand nine hundred and thirteen, is hereby abolished, 
and its members hereby relieved from further duty in that 

"Sec. 7. The governor shall have power to fill any vacan- 
cies that may occur by reason of death, resignation or other- 
wise in the membership of such commission from time to time, 
as occasion may require, but in filling such vacancies the go\ 
ernor shall do so from the political party from which the com- 
missioner whose office becomes vacant was appointed. 

"Sec. (S. The governor shall make the appointment of the 
commissioners as provided in section one hereof and report 
the same to the present session of the legislature for confirma- 
tion or rejection. 

"Sec. 9. .All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith 
are hereby repealed." 

History of West Virginia 4o3 

On Monday, June 14, 1915, the Supreme Court ui i'ic 
United States, at Washington, D. C, through Judge llugl.< ■«>, 
handed down an opinion in the Virginia case, fixing the 
amount to be paid by \\ est Virginia at $12,393,929, with in- 
terest at 5 c /o until paid. 

As previously stated, the court in 1911 fixed the principal 
ot the debt at $7,182,507.40. In the above decision credits 
were allowed on that amount to the extent of $2,900,000, leav- 
ing the principal of the debt $4,215,000. On this amount in- 
terest is charged from January 1, 1801, at the rate of 4 er 
cent, up to January 1, 1891, from which time till the present 
the rate of interest was made 3 per cent., bringing the totil 
amount up to $12,393,929. 

The report of the late Charles E. Littlepage. as spear! 
master, was upheld in every particular, except as to Virginia's 
claim against the United States for Indian lands amounting to 
S100000. which was found to be erroneous. 


[This poem, read by the author on West Virginia Day 
at the Panama-Pacific Exposition, was written for the occa- 
sion by request of the State Board of Commissioners. — Fred 
Paul Grosscup, Chairman.] 

"Leave me but a banner to plant upon the mountains of 
West Augusta, and I will rally around me the men who will 
lift our bleeding country from the dust, and set her free.' - — 
General Washington. 

Since through the gates of Western day. 
The course of empire took its way. 
And Patriot's word in time of yore 
Set stamp on West Augusta's shore 
That marked her Freedom's citadel. 
Unwavering and impregnable. 
The sons of that enchanted land 
Where Alleghany's temples stand 
Have lived the part, and freely died 

464 History of West Virginia 

That naught of evil might betide 
The priceless gift through blood bequeathed 
From forebears, who the sword unsheathed 
That all the years to come might see 
That "Mountaineers are always free." 

Thou, West Virginia, art the land : — 
That Vest Augusta's pillared strand, 
Where Leader of the patriot band 
Saw Liberty make her final stand 

To stem the tyrant's tide; 
And on thy stern and rugged slope, 
With vision clear, he staked his hope, 
And there foresaw brave freemen cope 
With deadly foe, and dying, grope 

Through freedom's door thrown wide. 

Sprung from such unsullied line, 
The sacred memories that are thine, 

Will be a guiding star, 
To steady and direct thy course, 
And keep thee e'er a virile force — 

A light that shines afar. 

On thy mountain sides a race resides, 

Elsewhere ye may not find, 
Of sturdy men who till the glen, 

And strive to lift their kind 
Through years of trial and self-denial, 

To heights of heart and mind. 

Oh for the pride of the mountain side 
Where field and garden bloom, 

Where blood of the best that came in quest 
Of freedom, or a tomb, 

With impulse great has carved a state 
Out of the forest gloom. 

History of West Virginia Hi* 

Then here's lo the blood, that quenchless flood. 

Of strains from over the sea, 
That blended lo found a commonwealth sound, 

\\ hose stainless escutcheon shall be 
While her mountains stand and guard- the land - 

The i » ride of the noble free. 

And Ho! for the State with its columns great. 

These hardy frontiersmen founded ; 
Through all the days is thy meed of praise 

In paeans of ecstasy sounded. 
Bv sons that are proud to sing it aloud 

In songs of affection unbounded. 

Thy daughters are fair and winsome rare; 

Xo tribute from singer can do them 
What justice would claim in modesty's name ; 

So in toast of the wineless. Here's to them : 
May the fortune be mine — far better than wine — 

To know them and love them and woo them. 

So now for a cheer for the true pioneer. 
And the state that his sacrifice founded, 

A commonwealth free, thy mission shall be- 
To live what thy motto has sounded; 

Xo tyrant's rude heel thy bosom shall feel 
Thy sons are in liberty grounded. 

— Clvde Beecher Johnson. 




Hon. E. T. England President 

John T. Harris Clerk 

Homer Gray Chief Assistant 

Will E. Long Sergeant-at-Arms 

Jack Smith Doorkeeper 

State Senators. 

Name. Postoffice Address. Counties Represented. 

Oliver S. Marshall, R....New Cumberland... Hancock, Brooke, 
Ben L. Rosenbloom, R .. .Wheeling Ohio. 

A. E. McCuskey, D Pine Grove Marshall, Tyler, 

W. H. Carter, R Middlebourne Wetzel. 

Joseph Gray, D Elizabeth Pleasants, Ritchie, 

Robert L. Gregory, R . . . . l'arkersburg Wirt, Wood. 

R. A. Blessing, R Point Pleasant Jackson, Mason, 

Warren Miller, R Ripley Roane. 

R. Dennis Steed, R Hamlin Cabell, Lincoln, 

W. P. McAboy, R Huntington Putnam. 

Jas. A. Strother, R Welch McDowell, Mingo, 

Wells Goodykoontz, R . . . Williamson Wayne, Wyoming. 

C. C. Coaltcr, R Hinton Mercer, Monroe, 

\V. P. Hawley, R Biucrield Raleigh, Summers. 

E. T. England, R Logan Boone, Kanawha, 

Dr. M. V. Godbey, R Charleston Logan. 

Dr. James McClung, R . . . Richwood Clay, Fayette, 

Dr. Gory Hogg, D Prudence Greenbrier, Nicholas. 

Fred L. Fox, D Sutton Braxton, Calhoun, 

E. H. Morton, D Webster Springs.... Gilmer, Pocahontas, 


John L. Hatfield, D Morgantown Marion, Mononcalia, 

Scott C. Lowe, D Fairmont Taylor. 

George E. White, R Weston Doddridge, Harrison, 

Roy E. Parrish, R Clarksburg Lewis. 

History of West Virginia H>1 

Name. Postoffice Address. Counties Represented. 

X. G. Keim, R .... Kilting .' Barbour, Pendleton, 

Richard K. Talbotl, D ... I'liilippi Randolph, Cpshur. 

A. B. McCnim, R Kingwood Grant, Hardy, Miner- 

5. < l. Billings, R I 'arsons al, I 'rest on, Tucker. 

G. K. Kump, D Romne\ Berkeley, Hampshire, 

Frank Beckwith, D.... Charle-. Town JelTerson, Morgan. 

21 Republicans; '' Democrats. 

House of Delegates. 


Vernon E. Johnson, Speaker Morgan County 

John tiny l'richard, Clerk Marion County 

A. B. Moore, First Assistant Wetzel County 

George \V. Otto, Sergeant-at-Arms Ohio County 

A. W'. Davis, Doorkeeper Harrison County 


Name. Post Office. County Represented. 

Georee \l. Kittle, R I'liilippi Barbour 

S. S. Cline, R Bunker Hill Berkeley 

Charles Beard, R Martin.sburg Berkeley 

Lawson Garrison, D Peylona Boone 

John I. Bender, R Burnsville Braxton 

lames C. Boone, R Belfont Braxton 

\Y. \V. Pilchard, R Bethany Brooke 

J. L. Blackwood, D Milton' Cabell 

J. S. Shafer, D Huntington Cabell 

C. M. Layne, D Huntington Cabell 

Howard \\ aldo, D Grantsville Calhoun 

\Y. R. Bailes, R Cla\ Clay 

Ira E. Smith, R West Union Doddridge 

Dr. C. \S . Lemon, Fus Clareinont Fayette 

F. T. Burnham, Fus Dak Hill Fayette 

Henrv McGraw, Fus \nsted Favette 

C. W'. Marsh, D Glenville Gil'mer 

G. R. Harman, R Maysville Grant 

A. E. Huddleston. D Sulphur Spring> Greenbrier 

J. S. Thurmond, D Ablerson Greenbrier 

R. V. Monroe, D Barnes Mill Hampshire 

J. Ness I'orter, R Xewell Hancock 

G. \V. McCauley, 1^... . Moorefield Hardy 

Dr. J. 1 1. Rinehart, R Shinnslon Harrison 

F. B. Davisson, R Bridgeport Harrison 

J. L. W'olf, R Ripley lackson 

\\". H. Kelbaugh, R Sandy ville Jackson 

M. W'. Burr, D Bardine Jefferson 

A. E. Scherr, R Charleston Kanawha 

W". W. W'ertz, R Charleston Kanawha 

Garfield Barlow, R Charleston Kanawha 

G. G. Reynolds, R Elk View Kanawha 

\V. J. Sigmond, R Handley Kanawha 

4(iS History of West Virginia 

Name. Post Office. County Represented. 

F. F. Bailey, R Weston Lewis 

Jesse Courts, R West Hamlin Lincoln 

Robert Bland, D .• Logan Logan 

C. L. Shaver, D Fairmont Marion 

Ira Akins, D Fairmont . .• Marion 

E. O. Murray, D Manninglon Marion 

Martin Brown, R Moundsville Marshall 

E. M. Hinerman, R Moundsville Marshall 

W. D. Currv, R Point Pleasant Mason 

S. L. Parsons, R Beech Hill Mason 

P. T. Lily, R Bluefield Mercer 

\Y. B. Honaker, R Matoaka Mercer 

S. X. Moore, R Keyser Mineral 

lames Ireland, R Williamson : Mingo 

Dr. D. C. Clark, R Blacksville Monongalia 

J. R. Moreland, D Morgantown ■ Monongalia 

John T. Ballard, D Cloverdale Monroe 

Vernon E. Johnson, R Berkeley Springs Morgan 

C. E. Harman, R Ke\ stone McDowell 

W. \V. Hughes, R Welch McDowell 

S. C. Dotson, R Richwood Nicholas 

Win. T. Otto, R Wheeling Ohio 

H. A. Weiss, R Wheeling Ohio 

J. A. Bloch, R Wheeling Ohio 

Dr. J. T. Allen, R West Lihcrty Ohio 

G. A. Hiner, D Franklin Pendleton 

J. R. McCollum, R St. Marys Pleasants 

B. M. Ycager, D Marlinton Pocahontas 

C. C. Pierce, R Kingwood Preston 

W. H. Glover, R Terra Alta Preston 

W. W. Thomas, D Winfiekl Putnam 

V. E. Sullivan, R Raleigh Raleigh 

J. W. Weir, D Elkins Randolph 

M. K. Dutv, R Pennsboro Ritchie 

Dr. W. E. Talbott, R Harrisville Ritchie 

A. M. Hersman, R Spencer Roane 

M. T. Board, R Reedy Roane 

J. W. Alderson, D Bellepoint Summers 

Dr. C. A. Sinsel, R Grafton Taylor 

G. B. Thompson, R Davis Tucker 

H. W. Smith, R Middlebourne Tyler 

A. G. Swiger, R Sistersville Tyler 

L. F. Everhart, R Buckhannon Ujpshur 

B. J. Prichard, D Way, ne Wayne 

L. G. Sansom, D East Lynn Wayne 

W. T. Talbott, D Webster Springs Webster 

Septimius Hall, D New Martinsville Wetzel 

J. M. McKimmie, D Reader Wetzel 

J. A. Davis, R Elizabeth Wirt 

J. B. Yeager, R Walker Wood 

F. H. Markev, R Parkersburg Wood 

J. A. Smith, 'R Belleville Wood 

A. J. Mullens, R Mullens Wyoming 

55 Republicans; 28 Democrats; 3 Fusion. 



The history of the earh .settlements within tlie present limits of 
West Virginia does not indicate that our pioneer forcparent-. were 
over-zealous in religious matters as a whole. A large proportion ol 
them, perhaps, had a "leaning" toward some church denomination, but 
comparatively few were zealous advocates of church extension. Their 
minds were more occupied in the clearing of fields and protecting 
their homes from Indian depredations than in spiritual affairs. They 
found conditions in Western Virginia quite different from those that 
obtained in Massachusetts on the landing of the Puritans. Instead of 
a guileless, harmless set of natives of the forest greeting them with 
childish timidity, they were approached with the savage warwhoop and 
welcomed by the roar of musketry or the sickening thud of tomahawk 
and the circling Hash of the scalping knife. 

It is all well and proper for us to say that under these trying con- 
ditions the people were in the greater need of spiritual strength. Vet 
who will say that the untutored Indian had a less claim to divine bless- 
ings than his white brother? Can a real Christian take arms against 
his brother? Can a human being — made in the image of his Maker- 
look up and say, "O Jusl and Infinite Being, help me to slay my 
brother who is mine enemy. O Lord, in whose image all humanity 
was created, thou just and merciful God, help me drive out these Red 
Men who are opposing our entrance to their hunting grounds. Help, 
O Lord, to kill them off, and we do faithfully promise Thee that within 
an hundred years we will annihilate the savage beasts and the forests 
that now protect them; disembowel and rob mother earth of all her 
stores of mineral wealth; befoul the air we breathe with poisonous 
fumes and gases; contaminate the pure running waters with deathly 
acids thai shall utterly exterminate the finny tribe. These things, and 
more, O Lord, do we ask for the sake of commercialism and untold 
religionisms which we call civilization, and we shall ever do Thy bid- 
ding — so long, of course, as the same shall to us seem expedient for 
the furtherance of our worldly ambitions and earthly pleasure. Amen." 

If such were the prayers of our pioneer fathers, they surely have 
been answered, for all these "blessings" do we possess today. 

But these sturdy men were not hypocrites. They soon realized 
they were "up against it." They had to either back track or fight, and 
they chose to fight, notwithstanding the fact they were interlopers. 
They were not, as a whole, averse to the Indians hunting in the coun- 
try or even to live among them, so long as they were peaceful. But 
the savages had long >ince learned that there were some very bad 
white folks — men who had committed unpardonable wrongs upon their 
people. This made them suspicious of all the whites, and in time the 
latter were regarded as their natural enemy. 5o, when the Caucasians 
began to pour into what the Indians regarded as their own country, 
they very naturally /-esisted these encroachments and at once pro- 
ceeded accordingly. Their hostile demonstrations were met witli an 
equal feeling of hatred by many of the whiles, and it was war to the 
death, until the Indian foe was finally driven from the country. Dur- 
ing the long period of bloody warfare but little progress was made in 
religious matters. 

4"0 History of West Virginia 

The Episcopal Church. 

Probably the first church established in what is now West Vir- 
ginia was an Episcopal Church at Mill Creek, or Bunker Hill, in 
Berkeley County, about 1740. It was called Morgan's Chapel, in honor 
of Morgan Morgan, one of the first white settlers in the State. The 
next church appears to have been erected at Homney, in Hampshire 
County, by Rev. Norman Nash, an Episcopal minister, about the year 
1768. About the .year 1793 an Episcopal Church was built in Brooke 
County. Services were also held at Wheeling and West Liberty by 
Rev. Joseph Doddridge about the same time. Another church of the 
same denomination was established at the mouth of Coal River, on 
the Kanawha, in 1797. 

Rev. William F. Lee appears to have been the first Episcopal 
missionary sent to preach in Western Virginia. He held services at 
Clarksburg and Morgantown, but there was no church organized at 
the latter place until 1800. 

"The Episcopal Church," says Hu Maxwell, in "History of West 
Virginia and Its People," does not seem to have ever been a church 
for the rural and country districts, at least so far as West Virginia is 
concerned. It has prospered in towns and cities only. There is no 
apparent reason why this should be so, except that it has always been 
a church of culture, and for that reason some prejudice may have ex- 
isted against it among people who lived plainly and wdiose opportuni- 
ties to attain a high degree of culture were not great. They felt more 
in sympathy with other denominations, such as the Methodists, Bap- 
tists and Lutherans, who went about among the highways and hedges 
seeking wanderers and gathering them into the fold." 

No doubt another reason which contributed to the unpopularity 
of the Episcopal Church among the masses of the early settlers in 
Western Virginia was the fact of its having been the established 
church in England, and during the colonization of Virginia this insti- 
tution was given rights and preferences over all other church de- 
nominations. It was supported by taxation imposed upon all the peo- 
ple, regardless of their religious beliefs, while all other denominations 
were entirely dependent upon private subscriptions for the mainten- 
ance of their own institutions. This, of course, gave the Episcopal 
Church an unfair advantage over all others, and very naturally created 
a widespread bitter feeling toward that institution which, in later 
years, predominated in Western Virginia. 

However, this antipathetic feeling of other denominations toward 
this church is gradually dying out. But the doctrines and practices of 
the Episcopal Church are so radically different from other Protestant 
denominations that it is doubtful that this organization will ever join 
the others in the work for the attainment of Christian union. 

However, its members, as'a rule, are progressive in social, state 
and national affairs, and help to form our best citizenship. 

The membership of this bodv in West Virginia in 1890 was 2,906; 
1906 it had increased to 5,230. 

The Baptist Church. 

Perhaps the first Baptist preacher to hold services in Western 
Virginia was Rev. Shubal Stearns, who came from Massachusetts in 
11."j1 and located fur a short time in Berkeley County, where he found 
Baptists already established under the care of S. Ilennen. He after- 
wards moved on to North Carolina, and later, about 1755, came to 
Capon, in Hampshire County. 

History of West Virginia 

The Baptist preachers, as a rule, were zealous workers in the 
missionary field. Many of them traveled extcnMM.-1y-riili.iR con- 
stantly from settlement to settleiuenl, preaching wherever ll.ev con hi 
collect an au.l.encc. Rev. Jeremiah Moore, it is said, traveled near y 
50,000 miles on horsel.ack during his ministerial duties in the early 

tla> "ln 1770 the Baptists organized a church at Mill Creek. Berkeley 
County. In 17/5 they organized a church near Cheat River, in Mon- 
oncralia Count v. . , . , - 

The Baptists and Presbyterians were instrumental in bringing 
about religious' freedom in Virginia in 1785. This law placed all de- 
nominations on an equality. Notwithstanding this, however, the Bap- 
lists for long afterwards were not immune from persecution the 
vigorous manner of their ministers in expounding the gospel and their 
mode of worship were in such marked contrast to those followed l.v 
the •'Established" church that the former were ridiculed and not in- 
frequently suffered mob violence. "Some of the preachers were set 
upon bv 'ruffians an.l beaten; others were dragged by the hair; some 
were thrown into water and almost drowned; others had live snakes- 
and nests lull of hornets thrown on them when they attempted to 
preach. Many were arrested and thrown into jails where fleas and 
other vermin annoyed them; occasionally they were fed days at a tunc 
on bread and water while in prison. The law- officers and the courts 
prosecuted them, sometimes on the ground that they were preaching 
other than the doctrines of the established church, and at tunes on 
complaint of some citizen that they were disturbing the peace. 

"They generally endured the persecution without showing vin- 
dictive resentment.' When thrown into prison for preaching they 
would continue to preach through the prison bars to the crowds vvlucli 
assembled about the jails. Some of their greatest successes in pro- 
mulgating their doctrine and in making converts were when they e\- 
hortcd the crowds which surrounded the jails where they vvere con- 
fined On one occasion when three preachers were led down the 
street to the jail from the court room where they had been sentence.! 
'lor a year and a day' for preaching they sang as they went: 

'Broad is the road that leads to death 
And thousands walk together there, 

But wisdom shows a narrow path __ 
With here and there a traveler.'" 

The same writer, Maxwell, continues: . 

"Patrick Henry was a firm friend of the Baptists, though no in 
full sympathy with the doctrines they taught He recognized their 
right" "to expound their doctrines in a reasonable manner, and on one- 
occasion he volunteered to defend some preachers vvlio weie up for 
trial on a charge of disturbing the peace. He rode fifty miles to at- 
tend their trial, and though he arrived almost too late to be ol any 
service as their trial was in progress when he reached the court house, 
yet so vigorously did he attack the prosecution and so strontr was his. 
plea lor the men whose only offense was that they had preached, that 
he judge ordered the trial to stop short, and he discharged the «.e- 
fendants. It is worthy of note that the father of Henry Uay wa,. 
once imprisoned in Virginia as a Baptist preacher 

The following letter, written by John Blair, deputy governor, to 
the King's Attorney in Spottsylvania County, shows that the Baptists 
had other friends in Virginia who recognize, their right to worship 
God according to their religious belief. The letter reads: 

It'i History of West Virginia 

"1 lately received a letter, signed by a good number of worthy 
gentlemen, who are not here, complaining of the Baptists; the par- 
ticulars of their misbehavior are not told, any further than their run- 
ning into private houses and making dissensions. Mr. Craig and Air. 
Benjamin Waller are now with me and deny the charge. They tell 
me thej- are willing to take the oath as others have. 1 told them I 
had consulted the attorney general, who is of the opinion that the 
general court only have a right to grant licenses, and, therefore, 1 
referred them to that court. But on their application to the attorney 
general they brought me his letter, advising me to write you that their 
petition was a matter of right, and that you may not molest these 
conscientious people so long as they behave themselves in a manner 
becoming pious Christians, and in obedience to the laws, till the court, 
where they intend to apply for license, and where the gentlemen who 
complain may make their objections and be heard. The act of tolera- 
tion (it being found by experience that persecuting dissenters increases 
their number) has given them a right to apply in a proper manner 
for licensed houses for the worship of God according to their con- 
sciences; and 1 persuade myself the gentlemen will quietly overlook 
their meetings till the court. 1 am told they administer the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper near the manner we do, and differ in notlnu 
from our church but that of baptism, and their renewing the ancient 
discipline, by which they have reformed some sinners and brought 
them to be truly penitent. Nay, if a man of theirs is idle and neglects 
to labor and provide for his family as he ought, he incurs their cen- 
sures, which have had good effects. If this be their behavior, it were 
to be wished we had some of it among us." 

During the Revolutionary War the Baptists were to be found in 
the front ranks in upholding the cause of liberty. 

A Baptist Church was organized and located on North River, in 
Hampshire County in 1 787, under the pastorate of Rev. B. Stone, 
with twenty-six members. Another church, with forty-four members, 
was organized by the same minister on Crooked Run, in the sam<_ 
county, in 1790. 

In 1808 Dr. (Rev.) Monroe came from Fauquier County, Virginia, 
and with sixteen members established a church on Patterson's Creek 
in Mineral County. 

Near Stewartstown, a few miles northeast of Morgantown, Rev. 
John Corbly organized the "Forks of Cheat" Baptist Church on the 
evening of November 5, 1775, with twelve members. Mr. Corbh's 
family was soon after murdered by the Indians. This is supposed to 
have been the very first church of any denomination established west 
of the Alleghanies. 

The -oaptists were in evidence at Clarksburg, Harrison County 
as early as 1788. Rev. Ira Chase, in a letter written by him in 181S 
relative to the Baptists at Clarksburg, said in part: 

"A Baptist Church had once been constituted here, but many 
years ago the pastor went west. No successor was secured and the 
flock was scattered. Nothing but the graveyard appeared where the 
meeting house once stood." 

In 17^5 Rev. Simeon Harris built and ministered to a church near 
the present village of Meadowville, in Barbour County. The old chim- 
ney of this structure still partly stands, the fireplace of which would 
accommodate a log ten feet in length — an eloquent reminder of pio- 
neer architectural style. Another church in the same county, near 
1'hilippi, was organized by I'hineas Wells in 1817. 

In 18')U the Baptist membership in West Virginia was -12,854; in 
l')Oo, b7,OJ4, and in 1013, about 70,000, being almost equal to the com- 

History of West Virginia 4~.i 

I>me<l inctnl)Cr^liii> of all other Protestant churches in \\ est \ irginia, 
excepting the Methodists, whose combined membership in l'Kli) wa- 
ll. s,S_'5. 


The first Presbyterian Church west oi the lllue Ridge was erected 
in the lower Shenandoah \ alley by William Hone, who came from 
Pennsylvania in 1735 and located in the \ alley. It was known as the 
(Jpeckon Church. Three years prior to this — September }[>, 173S — the 
synod oi Philadelphia wrote Governor Gooch of Virginia the follow- 
ing letter: 

"We take leave to address you in behalf o; a considerable number 
of our brethren (Presbyterians) who are meditating a settlement in 
the remote parts of your government, and one of the same persuasion 
a? tile Church of Scotland. W e thought it our duty to acquaint your 
honor with this design and to ask your favor in allowing them the 
liberty of their consciences and in worshipping God in a way agree- 
able to the principles of their education. Your honor is sensible that 
those of our profession in Europe have been remarkable lor their at- 
tachment to the house of Hanover, and have upon all occasions mani- 
fested an unspotted fidelity to our gracious sovereign Kinc Georsre, 
and we doubt not these our brethren will carry the same loyal princi- 
ples to the most distant settlements where their lot may be cast, which 
will ever influence them to the most dutiful submission to the govern- 
ment which is placed over them. This, we trust, will recommend them 
to your honor's countenance and protection, and merit the enjoyment 
of their civil and religious liberties." 

To the foregoing letter the Ciovernor of Virginia replied as fol- 

"By the hand of Mr. Anderson 1 have received an address signed 
by you, in the name of your brethren of the synod of Philadelphia. 
And as 1 have been always inclined to favor the people who have- 
lately removed from other provinces to settle on the western side of 
our great mountains, so you may be assured that no interruption shall 
be given to any minister of your profession who shall come among 
them, so as they conform themselves to the rules prescribed by the 
act of toleration in England, by taking the oaths enjoined thereby, 
and beha\ c themselves peaceably toward the government. This yon 
may please communicate to the synod as an answer to theirs." 

It might be well to state here the fact that not all Presbyterians 
were Scotch-Irish, nor were all Scotch-Irish Presbyterians; neither 
were all the early settlers in W cstern Virginia active members in any 
church. On the contrary, a great many of them were not affiliated 
with any church, especially those who early settled west of the Alle- 
gnanics. The best reason for this latter condition was the fact that 
in many settlements there were no churches. Another reason, as ex- 
plained elsewhere, was that the people's time and attention were di- 
rected more to their clearings and fighting Indians than to their spirit- 
ual affairs. True, some of the heads of families had formerly been 
members of some church in the country from whence they came, ajid 
a few of these would sometimes get together and hoi 1 religious ser- 
vices. Occasionally, too, some itinerant preacher on horseback would 
find nis way to a settlement during a lull in Indian hostilities. These 
visits were generally regarded by the settlers as important events — 
by some for the spiritual edification they received from the Gospel 
message, by other- for the entertainment and diversion from the 
common, evcry-day grind of pioneer life. 

The Presbyterians were as persevering in fighting for religious 

4/4 History of West Virginia 

liberty in Virginia as were the Baptists, but they exercised more dis- 
cretion and diplomacy, and consequent^' suffered less persecution. 

Very few church houses were built by the Presbyterians in West- 
ern Virginia previous to the year 1820, but persons who had formerly 
been members of that organization were scattered pretty much all 
over the State. There were, however, quite a number of Presbj-terian 
preachers who traveled from settlement to settlement, preaching the 
gospel wherever they could assemble a few of the scattered flock. 

During the Revolutionary War the Presbyterians were better or- 
ganized as military than Christian soldiers. They took a firm stand 
against English tyranny and oppression. In the trouble and long 
controversies leading up to the actual beginning of armed resistance 
they were all on the one side in all parts of America inhabited by 

They were prominently identified with the revolutionary move- 
ment in Western Pennsylvania, where they passed resolutions; at the 
mouth of the Hocking River in Ohio when General Lewis's army 
was returning from chastising the Indians; and in North Carolina, 
where they took a leading part in the Mecklenburg declaration ui 
independence a year before the one proclaimed at Philadelphia, July 
4th, 1776. When actual warfare came on they were in the thick of 
the fray from beginning to end, the ministers themselves often serv- 
ing as chaplains, captains or common soldiers. 

After the war was over, in 1791 Rev. John Lyle, who had fought 
in the battle at Point Pleasant, was a missionary on the Greenbrier 
River, where there was a considerable number of Presbyterians. He 
visited other places west of the mountains, and in 1793 preached at 
Springfield, in Hampshire County. He was active in his ministerial 
duties until near the time of his death, which occurred at Springfield 
in 1807, at which place he was buried. 

It is recorded that a Presbyterian minister preached on the South 
Branch, in Hard}- County, in 1782, but he had no organized church in 
that community. Here he remained and held services near Moorefield 
until 17S7, when, owing to ill health due to unfavorable climatic con- 
ditions, he left the valley and moved on to Shepherdstown, in Jeffer- 
son County, where he relieved Rev. Moses Hoge. That left the entire 
South branch Valley and the surrounding country from North Moun- 
tain westward without a Presbyterian minister, as far as is known, 
except occasional visjts by missionaries. 

Rev. William Hall was stationed near Martinsburg, in Berkeley 
County, in 1792. 

About 1788 a few Presbyterians at Morgantown formed a religious 
society, and the first preacher who visited them was Rev. Joseph 
Patterson. The organization, however, did not prove a success, for 
after the lapse of eighteen years the membership dwindled down to 
four, and it was twenty-five years before another Presbyterian Church 
was organized in that vicinity. 

About 1786 a considerable number of Scotch-Irish settled in the 
Tygart's Valley, many of whom had been affiliated with or had a 
leaning toward the Presbyterian Church, but the earliest available 
census of this denomination in that region was in 1831, when it was 
ascertained the Presbyterians there numbered sixty. This flock was 
ministered to the first year of its arrival (1786) by Rev. Edward Craw- 
ford of the Shenandoah Valley. He preached two sermons that year, 
probably the first ever heard within fift\- miles of that locality. Not 
long afterwards Rev. William Wilson of the "Old Stone Church" of 
Augusta County preached two sermons, and in 1789 the people were 
favored with two sermons. It seems that for a few j'ears Rev. Moses 

History of West Virginia t/5 

llogc ami Rev. William Wilson alternately preached two annual ser- 
mons in Tygart's Valley. 

Some time prior to 1820 Rev. Asa Brooks, a Xew England mi-- 
sionary, visited the region, and later on made his home at Clarksburg, 
where, alter a few years' ministerial service with the Presbyterian 
flock, lie died in lSJo. 

In 182(1 Rev. Aretus Loomis, a Presbyterian minister, located in 
Tygart's Valley, Randolph County, where lie organized the first Pres- 
byterian Church and erected the house of worship at or near Huttons- 
villc. Here religious services were held until the Civil War, when 
the building was destroyed by Federai troops. A few years later 
another meeting house was erected near the head of the valley. 

Religious meetings were occasionally held at the home of Jacob 
Warwick, on the head of Greenbrier River, in Pocahontas County, in 
the early part of the century. 

There were a considerable number of Presbyterians at and in the 
vicinity of Clarksburg, in Harrison County, as early as ISO], but t hey 
had no church building at that place until 1829, when the Rev. Asa 
Brooks undertook this task, but died before its completion. 

The people of those days were very much like those of the present 
time with reference to the preacher's mode of delivery of sermons. 
They detested a "paper read" sermon, as evidenced in the diary of 
Rev. Philip B. Fithian, a Presbyterian preacher who visited the fron- 
tiers during the Revolutionary War. His notes, touching on this 
"peculiarity" of the people in this respect, read, in part, as follows: 

"1 am under the necessity of close study, as the people here do 
not allow of reading sermons. Preach without papers, seem earnest 
and serious, and you will be listened to with patience and wonder. 
Both your hands will be seized and almost shaken off as soon as you 
arc out of the church, and you will be claimed by half the society to 
honor them with your company. Read your sermons, and their backs 
will go up at once, their attention all gone, and their noses will grow- 
as red as their wigs, and you may get your dinner where you break- 

As a church organization the Presbyterians were opposed to sla- 
very in any form, and there was no serious division in that body on 
the subject of slavery in its early years in this country. It was so 
with the Methodists and Baptists; but in after years a number of the 
churches divided, the opposing factions taking their respective ways. 

In 1787 the synod of Xew York and Philadelphia officially ex- 
pressed sentiments on the subject as follows: 

"The synod of Xew York and Philadelphia do highly approve of 
the general principles in favor of universal liberty that prevail in 
..nicrica, and the interest \\hich many of the states have taken in pro- 
moting the abolition of slavery; yet, inasmuch as men, introduced 
f.on a service slate to a participation of all the privileges of civil so- 
ciety without a proper education, and without previous habits of in- 
dustry, may be in many respects dangerous to the community; there- 
fore, they earnestly recommend it to all the members belonging to 
their communion to give those persons who arc at present held in 
servitude such good education as to prepare them for the better en- 
joyment of freedom; and they moreover recommend that masters, 
whenever they find servants inclined to make a just improvement of 
the privilege, would give them a peculium, or grant them sufficient 
time and sufficient means of procuring their own liberty at a moderate 
rate, that thereby they may be brought into society with those habits 
of industry that may render them useful citizens; and finally, they 
recommend it to all their people to use the most prudent measures 


History of West Virginia 

consistent with the interests and the state of civil society, in the coun- 
tries where they live, to procure eventually the final abolition of sla- 
very in America." 

The foregoing plan of emancipation was never carried out, and 
seventy-six years later Uncle Samuel took a short cut and with a 
stroke of the pen declared that human slavery should forever cease 
in the United States of America, and that declaration was confirmed 
by the result of the Civil War in 1S65, when the South laid down its 

In West Virginia, in 1013, there were 71 churches of the denomi- 
nation called Presbyterians of the United States of America, with a 
membership of 10,214; and seven churches of the denomination called 
United Presbyterians, with a membership of 1,160, or a combined total 
of 78 churches and 11,374 members. 


Jefferson and Berkeley were the first counties west of the Blue Ridge 
en he occupied by members of the Lutheran Church. A majority of them 
were German immigrants from Pennsylvania and Maryland, who had 
crossed the Potomac at or near Harper's Ferry and wended their way 
up the Shenandoah Valley. 

This denomination, like the Episcopal Church, was never numerically 
strong in West Virginia, notwithstanding both were among the first in 
missionary work as well as participating in the early settlement of the 
country west of the Blue Ridse. Possibly the almost exclusive use of the 
German language in their devotional exercises had much to do in re- 
tarding the progress of the Lutherans as a religious body, as but a small 
per cent of the population in Western Virginia understood that language. 
The first Lutheran preacher to hold religious services in the Shen- 
andoah Valley is supposed to have been Rev. Ezra Keller, about the year 
] Triii. shortly following the first settlement of that region. 

The first church building erected by the Lutherans on West Virginia 
.-oil appears to have been in Kernstown, on a lot granted by Lord Fair- 
fax in lTo:!. but the structure was not completed until eleven years later. 
Many of the Germans located at or near Stephensburg. in Jefferson 

When the Revolutionary War broke out the German element was 
quite as patriotic as any other nationality, and their men fought valiantly 
for America's independence. 

Rev. Philip P.. Fithian, who visited Stephensburg in ITT.", where tin* 
population was mostly German, says in his diary: 

"The village is full of people, men busy mustering, women in the 
streets and at the doors looking on, all things festive. The drum beats 
and the inhabitants of this town muster each morning at five o'clock. 
Mars, the great god of battle, is honored in every part of this spacious 
colony, but here every presence is warlike, every sound is martial — 
drums beating, bag-pipes placing, and only sonorous tunes. Every man 
has a hunting shirt, which is the uniform of each company. Almost all 
have a cockade and a bull tail in their hats to represent that they arc 
hardy, resolute, and invincible natives of the woods of America. 

"Today for the first time, 1 went through the new exercise, gave the 
weird, and performed the action. One snipe of this town was backward 
this morning in his attendance with the company of Independents. A 
file was sent to bring him. He made resistance, but was compelled at 
length, and is now in great fear, and is very humble since he heard many 

History of West Virginia I, 7 

of hi.- io\\ii-.iii<.-ii talk of tar and leather- Mam nun ui note are warm 
in the cause, especially Colonel llite, a man of pn.pirn in the neigh- 

The people of German de-cent, whether they belonged to the Luth- 
eran Church or not, were never a -lave-holding cla--. They (jppo-ed 
slavery on moral grounds. 

In West Virginia, in 1MMI, the nieniher-hip of the Lutheran bodies 
numhered J.lTii; in lyiMi they numbered fi,j()ii. 

Disciples of Christ. 

The Di-ciples of Christ are a body of people pleading for Christian 
union. Early in the la-t century Thomas and Alexander Campbell. Bar- 
ton \Y. Stone. Walter Scott and others, came to realize that divisions in 
the Church of Christ are sinful, and began to urge all Christians to try 
to pet together ill the understanding of the Bible. They were guided in 
their thought by -the prayer of our Lord as recorded in the Seventeenth 
chapter of John. "Neither lor these only do I pray, but for them also 
that believe on me through their word: thai they may all be one; even 
as thou. Father, art in me, and 1 in thee: that they al-o may be in u-." 
In the Xew Testament they read of one flock and one shepherd; of one 
body and one Spirit. They -aw unity everywhere on the pages of the 
Book that all Christians claim to take as their sole and -uprcme rule of 
faith and practice. They learned that a hou-e or kingdom divided against 
itself cannot -tand. 

The union contemplated was to he effected by a return to the teach- 
ing of Chri-t and Hi- apo.-tle-. It wa> necessary. *o it was believed, to go 
back of the great reformer- of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, 
and hack of the Post-Xicene and Ante-Xicene Father- to the beginning 
and take up things as the apostle- left them. The one creed upon which 
all could unite was the creed of Caesarea-Philippi. The ordinances upon 
which all could unite were those which were observed by the church of the 
I rst century. The name upon which all could unite was one of the name< 
found in the Scriptures. The Campbells and Stone and Scott and their 
associates accepted the Word of God as their counsel: it- precepts were 
authoritative and final. They said, "Where the Scriptures speak, we 
speak, where the Scriptures are silent, we are silent." The end in view was 
the evangelization of the world. These men -aw -in regnant in high 
places and in low places. They saw that the greater pan of the world was 
without the Gospel. Darkness covered the lands and uros- darkness the 
people. The churche- were so weakened by division- and -ub-divisions 
that they could not address themselves in earne-t to the work of making 
Christ's saving grace and power known among men everywhere. It 
seemed to he self-evident that a divided church could not evangelize the 
world. The ta-k was too great. Only a united church could hope to do 
that in any rea-onable time, if at all. The union for which they prayed 
and pled was not for its own sake: it was not an end. hut a mean- to an 
end. The union for which our Lord prayed just before hi- passion was 
to the end that the world might Mieve that the Father had sent him, 
and that the Father loved them even as He loved His Son our Lord. And 
the union for which the Disciples of Christ have been praying and labor- 
ing for more than a hundred years was to the end that the kingdom of 
the world might become the kingdom of our Lord and hi- Christ, and 
that He might reign forever and ever. 

A century ago there \va- no body of people who-e mission it was 

478 History of West Virginia 

to plead for Christian union. With many it was regarded as heresy to say 
that divisions and sects were sinful. "He must he blind indeed who does 
not see that the movement for Christian unity has become the character- 
istic movement oi modern Christians. This is the one question that moves 
the whole church evangelical in both hemispheres. There is no corner of 
the Christian world, no outpost of Christian missions, to which it has not 
penetrated, and no grade of the ministry from the Pope himself down 
to the humblest evengelist, who has not voiced its Claims." 

It is believed now that if union could be effected on the mission fields, 
the effect would be as great as if the force were doubled. If union were 
effected at home, two-thirds of the men now filling pulpits could be re- 
leased for mission service, and the buildings in which they are preaching 
could be sold to defray the expense of their support and equipment. 

In the year 1811 the Disciples of Christ numbered thirty. Today 
they number 1,H7.j,0(M1. They have missions on all the continents and on 
the islands of the sea; institutions of learning that are doing good work: 
a respectable literature: benevolent institutions of growing power: a 
church extension fund of a million dollars: and evangelism and Sun- 
school School work of marvelous dimensions and efficiency. 

In West Virginia there are about one hundred and thirty-one Disci- 
ples of Christ churches, seventy-seven ministers, and 20.000 members. 


Perhaps the first Methodist sermon ever delivered in Virginia was 
made from the court house steps at Xorfolk by an Irishman named 
Robert Williams, about lTiio. 

Two years later, Bishop Francis Asbury came over from England 
and at once entered the missionary field. He traveled on horse back from 
Maine to Georgia, east of the Appalachian Mountains, and made long 
journeys westward and through the Indian-infested country west of the 
mountains, covering more ground than any other missionary the Metho- 
dist Church ever produced. 

There were but few Methodists in America until some time after 
the Declaration of Independence. The few that were here previous to 
that time kept on neutral ground for the reason that they had but recently 
arrived as loyal subjects of England, while, on the other hand, they were 
not willing to take up arms against their newly adopted country. 

On Monday, June 11, 1TS1, Bishop Ashury entered what is now West 
Virginia, passing Hanging Rock. On the evening of that day he preached 
to a gathering of about 300 people, at a point about four miles below 
Romney, in Hampshire county; "but," says the Bishop in his diary- "there 
were so many whiskey drinkers, who brought with them so much of the 
power of the devil, that I had but little satisfaction in preaching." 

On the following day he arose at five o'clock, crossed the South 
Branch, and proceeded to the Dutch settlement at Patterson's Creek, 
where he was hospitably entertained. From there he passed south into 
what is now Grant County, and preached to an assembly of about ninety 
Dutch people, with whom he was very favorably impressed. 

It seems that several other persons accompanied the Bishop on a part 
of this 'rip, for. writing at a place supposed to have been in Hardy 
County, he said : 

"We set out through the mountains. It was a very warm day and 
part of our company stopped after thirty miles, but William Partridge 
and myself kept on until night overtook us in the mountains among rocks 

History of West Virginia 47'J 

ami woods, ami dangers on all sides surrounding us. \\ c thought il 
most safe lo secure our horses and quietly await the return of ilav ; so 
we lav down and «Iej>t among the rocks, although much aunoved hv tin- 

We next liear of the I'.isliop ,,n Cheat River the fourth of the fol- 
lowing September, where. sa\ - he: "We had a mixed congregation of 
sinners, Presbyterians, Baptists, and it may lie. of saints." 

We do not hear anything more of Bishop Asbury until his return to 
West Virginia in July. 17a--. when, on the 7th of that month, he wrote: 
"Our trouble began, it being the (lay we set out for Clarksburg. 
Thirty miles brought ns to the Great Levels" (Greenbrier County). 

tin the '.ith of July he wrote: "We rode to the Cb ver Lick, a very 
remote and exposed house. Here we found good lodging, for the place. 
The former tenant had made a small estate by keeping cattle and horses 
on the range, which is fertile and extensive." 

From here he and his companion proceeded to the head of Tygarl's 
Valley at .Mingo Flats: from here they went to Clarksburg, and thence on 
to Fairmont and Morgantown. Concerning this trip the Bishop wrote 
as follows : 

"Our course lay over mountains and through valleys, and the mud 
and mire were such as might scarcely be expected in December. We 
came lo an old. forsaken habitation in Tygart's Valley. Here our horses 
grazed about while we boiled our meat. Midnight brought us up to Jones', 
after riding fortv or perhaps fifty miles. The old man, our host, was 
kind enough to wake u.s up at four in the morning. We journeyed on 
through devious, lonely wilds, where no food might be found except 
what grew in the woods, or was carried with u.s. We met two women 
who were going to see their friends and to attend the quarterly meeting 
at Clarksburg. Near midnight we stopped at a house whose owner hissed 
his dogs at us; but the women were determined to get lo the quarterly 
meeting, so we went in. Our supper was tea. Brothers Phoebus and 
Cook took to the woods, and the obi man gave up his bed to the women. 
1 lay along the floor on a few deerskins with fleas. That night our poor 
horses got no corn, and the next morning they had to swim the river 
(two miles below Philippic. After a ride of twenty miles we came to 
Clarksburg, and man and beast were so outdone that it took ns ten hours 
to accomplish it. I lodged with Colonel Jackson. Our meeting was held 
in a long, close room belonging to the Baptists. Our use of the house, 
it seems, cave offense. There attended about 7(H) people to whom 1 
preached with freedom. After administering the sacrament. 1 was well 
satisfied to take my leave. We rode 30 miles to Father llaymond's (at 
Fairmont) after three o'clock Sunday afternoon, and made it nealy eleven 
before we came in. About midnight we went to rest, and rose at five 
o'clock next morning. My mind has been severely tried under the great 
fatigue endured both by myself anil my horse. ( ). how glad 1 should be of 
a plain, clean plank to lie on. as preferable to most of the beds: and 
where the beds are in a bad state, the lloors are worse Thi- country will 
require much work to make it tolerable. The people are, many of them, 
of the boldest class of adventurers, and with some the decencies of civilized 
society are scarcely regarded, two instances of which 1 myself witnessed 
The great landlords who arc industrious will soon show the effects of the 
aristocracy of wealth, by lording il over their poorer neighbors, and by 
securing to themselves all the offices of profit and honor. On the one 
hand, savage warfare leaches them to be cruel, and on the other, the 
preaching of the Antinomians poisons them with error in doctrine. Good 

480 History of West Virginia 

moralists they arc not. and good Christians they cannot he unless they are 
hetter taught."' 

The foregoing comments of the Bishop on the character of the citi- 
zens in Randolph, Harbour. Harrison. Marion, and Monongalia counties, 
with whom he cajne ir. contact in and his pessimistic prophecies, 
were anything hut complimentary to the people of these counties. How- 
ever true his description of conditions then existing may have been, we 
can rejoice in the fact that the reverend gentleman proved to be a poor 
prophet, as present conditions in these same counties now amply testify. 
From Fairmont Bishop Asbtiry proceeded down the Monongahela 
River to Morgantown. of which place, he says: "1 had a lifeless, dis- 
orderly people to hear me at Morgantown to whom I preached. It was 
a matter of grief to behold the excesses, particularly in drinking, which 
abound here." 

We next hear from the Bishop in the Kanawha valley in May, 171)2. 
where his efforts to convince the people of the error of their ways did 
not seem to meet with much success. From the Kanawha valley he 
crossed over into Greenbrier County; thence through Pocahontas. Ran- 
dolph, Barbour, Taylor, Marion and Monongalia Counties, to Uniontown, 

His diary covering this trip consists mostly of bitter complaints of 
the rough country, rough treatment and rough people. Accepting his 
diary as authority. Bishop Asbury traveled more and accomplished less in 
West Virginia than any other Methodist missionary during the time of 
which we write. 

Shortly following the first appearance of Bishop Asbury in the 
Shenandoah valley. Rev. John Hagerty. another Methodist, began work 
in the same field, lie was more successful in missionary work in that 
field than Asbury had been, owing largely to the fact that he could 
speak both German and English — a qualification lacking in the Bishop. 
About the same time Rev. Henry Widener did some missionary work in 
Grant and Mineral Counties. 

In ITS!), Rev. J. J. Jacobs, one of whose sons by the same name was 
afterwards twice elected governor of West Virginia, was licensed to 
preach in Hampshire County, his residence being three miles from the 
mouth of the South Branch, wdiere the Greenspring railroad station is 
now located. He married the widow of Michael Cresap — the man whom 
the noted Indian Chief, Logan, accused of murdering his (Logan's.) fam- 
ily, at Yellow Creek, in 1774. 

In 17«4, Rev. John Cooper and Rev. Samuel Breeze organized a 
church at Morgantown and another at Martin's Fort. The latter place 
was the scene of the massacre by the Indians five years before in wdiieh 
Tames Stewart, James Smally and Peter C rouse were killed, and John 
"Shriver and his wife, two sons of Stewart, two sons of Smally and a son 
of Crouse were taken prisoners and carried into captivity. The fort was 
situated on the west side of the Monongahela River, in Cass District, 
Monongalia County and was erected about the year 177:!. l>v Charles 
Martin, who came' from Eastern Virginia. These were the first Metho- 
dist churches erected in that region. A year later Cooper and Breeze 
were relieved b\ Rev. Peter Moriarty. Rev. John Robert Avers, and 
Stephen Deakin. 

A Methodist Church was organized at Fairmont: one on Hackers 
Creek, in Lewis County and another in Upshur County, about 17S6; Rev. 
William Phoebus, who came on the Monongalia about that time, probably 
having charge of one or more of these churches. There was another con- 
gregation between Clarksburg and Fairmont: but it was many years after 

History of West Virginia IM 

this time bctore the Methodi»ts succeeded in establishing an e fit-clue and 
lasting urbanization at Clarksburg. Tin- saint »a> trnt in tin- Tvcart's 

Thi tirst permanent organization nf the Methodists in tin- Kanawha 
Valley was effected in IMi:», Rev. William Steel being tin- lirsi preacher 
His circuii cxUndcd from the present city of Parkersburg to tin month 
of Guyandot. near I lunti.igtoll, Caliell County. The circuit coven d a 
distance of over .".(Ml miles, and he made this trip mi horseback every 
niinith. The following year, he was •succeeded In Rev. Asa Shimi — 
afterwards the foundir of the Methodist Protestant Church. 

Asa Sliinn was a son of Jonathan Shimi. who was formerly a Quaker, 
hut later, in IT'.I'J. hecame a .Methodist, as did Asa at the same time. Their 
home was on a farm, ahout fifteen miles above Fairmont at or near the 
present town of Shinnston. In lsni Asa was licensed to preach although 
at that time "he had never seen a church, a pulpit or a clock — and had 
not even heard that clocks existed." and his education was perforce of 
circumstances very limited. 

A very typical case of the times may he found in the person of Rev. 
Gideon Martin, a Methodist preacher, who in lvt.l. rode his monthly cir- 
cuit of ".00 miles horseback and preached at Philippi. l'.elington. F.cverly. 
White Oak. St. George. Terra Aha. Va. (now \V. \'a. 1 and Oakland. 

The following, from the autobiography of Rev. Harry Smith, in re- 
lation to his ministerial duties in Monongalia. Marion. Harrison and 
Lewis Counties, about the year IT'.M. affords a very interesting account 
of the traits, habits and customs of the people in those counties at that 
time : 

"During the summer 1 saw a man. said to be IK', years old. ride to 
meeting on a horn- led hy his son. himself an old man., lie was a Ger- 
man known by the name of Daddy Ice through all that country, lie had 
been taken prisoner by the Indians and suffered incredible hardships. I 
visited him in his last sickness and found that his intellect hatl not failed 
as much as might he expected. I preached at his funeral, and it was a 
solemn time while 1 preached to his children, then old. gray-headed peo- 
ple, and his grandchildren and great-grandchildren. From this place I 
pushed ahead through Clarksburg and met my first appointment at Jos- 
eph Pennetl's house about fifteen miles above Clarksburg. The people 
came to this meeting from four or five miles around and among them 
Joseph Chivcront. quite a respectable local preacher. They were all back- 
woods people and came to the meeting in backwoods style, all on foot, a 
considerable congregation. I looked around and saw an old man who 
had shoes on Ins feet. The preacher wore Indian moccasins. Every man. 
woman, and child besides was barefooted. Two old women had on what 
we then called short gowns, and the rest had neither short nor long gowns. 
This was a novel sight for me for a Sunday congregation. Brother 
Chivcront. in his moccasins, could have preached all around me: but I 
was a stranger, and withal the circuit preacher, and must preach, of 
course. 1 did my best, and soon found if there were no shoes and line- 
dresses in the congregation, there were attentive hearers and feeling 
hearts. In meeting the class. 1 heard the same humble, loving re- 
ligious experience that I had often heard in the better dressed societies 
If this scene did not make a backwoodsman of me outright, it at least 
reconciled me to the people, and I felt happy among them. No doubt a 
great change has since taken place in that settlement : hut that was 
Methodism and the state of -ncietv as I found them. 

-4-Sg History of West Virginia 

"When I left Bennett's 1 went 25 or HO miles higher up the Monon- 
gahela and preached at the house of Brother Stortze. Within a short dis- 
tance of this house the Indians took a young woman prisoner and mur- 
dered and scalped her. A messenger came and injudiciously announced 
that her remains had been found, and threw the whole congregation into 
consternation. Here 1 saw the men coming to meeting with their rifles 
on their shoulders, guarding their families, then setting their guns in a 
corner of the house till after the meeting, and returning in the same order. 
In this settlement I met with a young man who had escaped from the 
Indians a few months lief ore. He had been a prisoner for some time. 
He traveled eighteen nights through the wilderness, for lie would lie 
concealed all day and travel by night. 

"From Stortze's we went to Edward West's, where we had a societv 
and preached regularly. The house was enclosed by strong and high 
pieces of timber set deep in the ground and close together. They had 
built a new house outside the enclosure; the doors and windows were cut 
out, and the lower floor laid with loose plank; but before 1 got to sleep 
the dogs raved at a terrible rate. I did not know that I was in any dan- 
ger; but the Indians having but a little while before been through the 
country and done mischief, and this being a frontier house, 1 did not feel 
myself secure in my exposed situation. 

"From West's we went to John Hacker's on Hacker's Creek, I be- 
lieve this man could read, but not write ; and yet he was a magistrate and 
a patriarch in the settlement, and gave name to the creek, having lived 
here more than twenty years. He raised a large family and lost but 
one by the Indians, and one scalped and left for dead; and every year 
when the Indians were troublesome, they were in danger. He was a man 
of good common sense, and 1 think an honest man, and a good Christian, 
and among the first that took in the Methodist preachers. His house had 
long been a preaching house and the preachers' home, and also a place 
of refuge in time of danger." 

On his next trip in that country. Rev. Smith wrote: 

"They were all glad to see me, but 1 was rather sorry, and somewhat 
alarmed to find the women alone, for there was not a man or even a gun 
about the place. The men were all in the woods, some hunting, others 
digging ginseng and snake-root, and did not come home that night: so I 
had to guard and comfort the poor women and children. The house was 
crowded. Toward sunset we all went into the house and barred the doors 
as well as we could. The next day tire men came home before preaching. 
In this place we had a pretty large society, and some very pious people. 
They lived, in the true sense of the word, in backwoods style. Their 
sugar they made out of the water of the sugar tree. Their tea they got out 
of the woods, or from their gardens. For coffee they had a substitute, 
namely, rye or chestnuts. Money they had hut little. They traded at 
Winchester and other places, with ginseng, snake-root, and skins, for 
salt, rilles, powder, lead, etc All their produce was carried to market 
on packhorses. Their wearing apparel and bedding were mostly of their 
own manufacture. Religion certainly did exert a happy influence on the 
morals of this uncultivated people, and I was often delighted with their 
artless simplicity. In their way they appeared to lie as happy and con- 
tented as it falls to the lot of most people to be. Taking all things into 
consideration, our congregations were good : for people made going to 
meeting a business, and trifles did not stop them. In the lower part of 
the circuit the people were more refined in their manners. 

"1 was in Morgantown on Christmas eve. when 1 saw the first In- 
dians, but they were prisoners. Captain Morgan had collected a small 

History of West Virginia IV. 

c.-nnpam .f uanruf --pirii ~ like him-clf and hail gone on an Indian limit. 
IK- cro--cd tin- Ohio and camo aero-- an Indian camp, where then- wore 
two Indians, three squaws, and two children. They -hot the nun and 
hroti.'h: m tin- women and children prisoner,, I -aw ilnin w lien the} came and 
\.cnt to tlu- house tin mxt day to -co tlnm My luart yeanud i\er them, 
when 1 looked up. hi an old mother and two daughter-, and two interest- 
ing grand-children, a ho\ and a iiirl. The old woman appeared to he 
cheerful aid talkalivi One of the companj spoke Indian quite lluently, 
having hem with the Indian-. She -aid that -he had lieen through all 
that country when it wa- quite a wilderness. The }oung women were 
-ad and re-erved. The> all appeared to l.e unea-v and -omewhat alarmed 
whin strangers came in. After the treaty thej were exchanged or re- 

"On Chn-tmas morning we had a meeting at fi\e o'clock in a private 
hon-e and we had a lull hoii-e. The noviltj of the thing brought out 
some of the mo-t re-pictable people of the town, and we had a very 
solemn and interesting meeting. We preached in the courthouse at eleven 
o'clock: for we ha 1 no meeting h. >n-e. neither wa- there any place of 
worship in the town. We had hut one half-lini-hed log ineetinc house in 
the whole circuit. We labored hard and -uffered not a little, and did not 
yet the half of sixty-four dollar- for support. We traveled through all 
weatlur- and danger-, over had road- and -lippiry hill-, and cro-sed deep 
waters, having the Monongahela to cros- -even time- every round, and 
few ferries. Our fare was plain enough. Sometime- we had veni-on and 
hear meat in abundance, and always served up in the be-t -t_\le It i- 
true my delicate appetite sometimes revolted and boggled, till 1 -uffered 
in the tlcsh. 1 then concluded to eat such things as were -et before me: 
lor oilier people ate them and enjoyed health, and why not 1? After 1 
had conquered my foolish prejudice. 1 got along much better. Our lodg- 
ings were often uncomfortable I was invited to have an appointment 
at a brother's house one night, .\fter the people were gone, 1 found 
there was but one small bed in the house. When bed time came, the good 
woman took her bed and spread it cro-swi-e before a tine log fire, and 1 
wa- requested to lie down on one end; anil it an-wered very well for me. 
the man and his wife, and two children. This indeed was very comfartahle 
to what 1 had sometimes. Most of my clothes l>\ this time became thread- 
bare, and some worn out. and I had no money to buy new one-. 1 had 
to put up one night with a strange famih. and 1 was obliged to keep 
on my overcoat to hide the rent- in my clothes. 

"On this circuit I learned -oine lessons in the school of adversity 
which have been of great service to me during my itineracy. Although 1 
was never in real danger from the Indians, yet I have often ridden fifteen 
or twenty miles through the wood- where no one lived, the people having 
lied from danger: and 1 rode alone, for I never had any guard but the 
angel-. The tale- of woe that were told me in almo-t every place where 
there was danger, the place- pointed out where murders had been com- 
mitted, sleeping in hou-e- where the people who were inured to the-e thing- 
were afraid to go out of door- after sunset: I -ay. riding, riding alone 
under these circum-tance- was far from agreeable. 1 wa-. however, often 
in real danger in cro--ing rivers, swimming creek-, etc. 1 found the 
people remarkably kind and social Many pleasant hour- we -pent to- 
gether by the -ide of large log tires in our log cabins, conversing on \ar- 
iou- s'ibject-. It i- true some of u- smoked the pipe with them, but we 
reallv thought there was no harm in that, for we had no anti-tobacco 
societies among u- then. 1 believe Jame- Fleming and myself were the 
la-t who traveled the Clarksburg circuit during the Indian wars" 

484 History of West Virginia 

Comparing Rev. Smith's description of these people in 1794 with 
that of Bishop Ashury's in 1T8S. one can not hut wonder at the great so- 
cial and material improvement within the short period of six years, or 
charge the discrepancies to the morbid conceptions of, a pessimist. 

The following lines indicate the early position of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church on the slavery question : 

"We declare that we are as much as ever convinced of the great evil 
of slavery ; therefore, no slave-holder shall he eligible to any official 
station in our church hereafter, where the laws of ihe state in which he 
lives will admit of emancipation, and permit the emancipated slaves 
to enjoy freedom. 

"Whenever any traveling preacher becomes an owner of a slave or 
slaves, by any means, he shall forfeit his ministerial character in our 
church, unless he execute, if it be practicable, a legal emancipation of 
such slaves, conformably to the laws of the state in which he lives. 

"All our preachers shall prudently enforce upon our members the nec- 
essity of teaching their slaves to read the word of God; and allow them 
time to attend upon the public worship of God on our regular days of di- 
vine service." 

In 1845. owing to the stand taken by the northern membership, the 
southern membership withdrew from the mother church and organized 
the Methodist Episcopal Church South, at Louisville. Kentucky. 

Since the sectional feeling has nearly disappeared, there is a ten- 
dency to re-unite these split organizations into one body, and it is prob- 
ably only a matter of time when that object will be attained. 

In West Virginia, in 1890. the total membership of all Methodist 
bodies numbered 85, 102, and in 19013 they numbered 115,825. hi 1913, 
there were 359 Methodist Episcopal churches in the state, with a total 
membership of 21,953. 

Roman Catholics. 

From the beginning of the first settlement in Virginia in 160T up to 
1785 the Episcopal Church was the established church under the English 
and Virginia laws: and while a few of the other Protestant denomina- 
tions were tolerated under certain cumbrous restrictions, the teaching of 
the Roman Catholic doctrine was prohibited in the state. A Catholic 
priest was not even permitted to visit the colony: to do so subjected him 
to arrest, fine and imprisonment. , 

A law was passed in Virginia in 1641 imposing a fine of one thousand 
pounds of tobacco against any Catholic who accepted any office of trust 
or profit. So severe was the treatment of the Catholics that when the 
law was repealed, placing all church denominations on an equality, there 
was but a mere handful of Catholics in the state. 

The following proclamation by Governor Gooch of Virginia in 1733 
illustrates the feeling toward the Catholics at that time: 

"WHEREAS. It has been represented to me in Council that several 
Roman Catholic priests are lately come from Maryland to Fairfax County 
in this colony, and are endeavoring by crafty insinuations to seduce his 
majesty's good subjects from their fidelity and loyalty to his majesty 
King George, and his royal house. I have, therefore, thought fit. with 
the advice of his majesty's council, to issue this proclamation, requiring 
all magistrates, sheriffs, and constables, and other of his majesty's liege 
people within this colony, to be diligent in apprehending and bringing to 
justice the said Romish priests, or any of them, so that they may be prose- 
cuted according to law." 

History of West Virginia t>"> 

Notwithstanding the repeal of the obnoxious law pertaining to 
church re— irictioiis iii Virginia, in 17*"), (he Catholic Church did not make 
much headway in Western Virginia until after (he Ci\ il War. As late 
a- 1>41 the only Catholic Church ill the -tate was located at Wheeling. 
Of course, there were considerable nunihers of that faith scattered 
through the country, some of whom were occasionally visited by priests. 

It is recorded thai priests ministered to their people in Monongalia, 
Mario.i. Preston. Hampshire, Kanawha ami other counties as early as 
1*22. A priest was stationed at Summcrsville, Nicholas County, in 
1"4.J. who looked alter his rlock in the Kanawha valley, hut no church was 
built at Summersville until lSj*. Two years previous to the construction 
of this church there were only live churches in the state, namely : Wheel- 
ing. Weston, Parkersburg. Wythcsvillc and Kingwood. 

The Catholic population was small west of the Allcghanies until after 
the opening up ot public works. The building of the Northwestern turn- 
pike from Winchester to Parkersburg, and the construction of the Bal- 
timore iS. Ohio railroad were largely performed by Irish Catholics, many 
of whom finally purchased land and located and reared large families 
along the rights of way of the improvements which they helped to make. 

The Catholics were loyal and fought hard for American independence. 
As people and as friends and neighbors, the Protestants and Catholics 
find no fault with each other. Hut the cardinal religious principles of 
the two sects are so widely at variance as to preclude the possibility of 
the two ever becoming wholly reconciled. 

Perhaps the paramount issue between these two great religious bodies 
is the public school question. Let alone, the Catholic laity are not op- 
posed to. but rather encourage, the public school system, for it has not 
only been the means of educating more than nine-tenths of the Catholic 
children, but gives employment to many of them as teachers. 

Hut so many of the leaders of that Church are seeking to sow seeds 
of discord that a division of the church itself is threatened. 

In HiOfi there were l<ii>.oii(i..->00 Protestants, and 

272.r>:ss,.~00 Roman Catholics in the world: 
fi4.-lsi.ono Protestants, and 
:;(i.G'.):t,ono Catholics in North America: 
2<jl..V.4 Protestants, and 
40.011 Catholics in West Virginia. 

In lftt3 the Protestant ir the state numbered about ami the 
Catholics- about .->.">,( >00. 

Christian Science. 

Christian Science, it is claimed, is no new discovcrey, but a Divine 
Principle, as .del as creation itself, notwithstanding there is no history of 
its general application to human and spiritual needs until Jesus' time. L hris- 
tian Science teaches: That Jesus was. himself the greatest demonstrator 
of the healing power that was ever known: that what lie performed were 
not miracles, but a simple demonstration of Divine power which has 
always exi-tcd and will always exist: that it is a power whose benefit" 
have never been rnr ever will hi. withheld from any person who under- 
stand- and accepts the Truth It teaches that God is the only Life, and 
that this Life i~ Truth and Love : that God is to be understood, adored, 
and demonstrated: that Divine Truth casts out suppositional error and 
heal" the sick: that error is a supposition that pleasure and pain. th.v 
inHlligencc. substance, life, are existent in matter: that error is neither Mind 
nor i ne of Mird's faculties; that error is the contradiction of Truth— a 

48 fi History of West Virginia 

belief without understanding: that error is unreal because untrue; that if 
error were truth, its truth would be error, and we should have a self- 
evident absurdity— namely, erroneous truth: that God makes all that is 
made, and that what lie makes is good and real; that what He has not 
made is unreal and is classed as error, therefore sin and sickness are 
classed as_ effects of error; that Christ came to destroy the belief of sin; 
that the God-principle is omnipresent and omnipotent ; that He is every- 
where, and nothing apart from Him is present or has power. That 
Christ is the ideal Truth that comes to heal sickness and sin through 
Christian Science, and attributes all power to God; that Jesus is the name 
of the man who, more than all other men, has presented Christ, the true 
idea of God. healing the sick and the sinning; that Jesus is the human 
man, and Christ is the Divine Idea; hence the duality of Jesus the Christ; 
that Jesus demonstrated what He taught; and that the Principle which 
heals the sick and casts out devils (error) is divine. Christian Science 
teaches: That there is nc life- truth, intelligence, in matter; that all is 
infinite Mind and its infinite manifestation, for God is All-in-all. That 
Spirit is immortal' Truth, atnd matter is mortal error. That Spirit is the real 
and eternal, while matter is the unreal and temporal. That Spirit is God, 
and man His image and likeness, and that therefore man is not material, 
but spiritual. That the only real substance is Spirit, the synonym of 
Mind, Soul or God. That intelligence is omniscience, omnipresence, and 
omnipotence: the primal and eternal quality of infinite Mind, of the 
triune Principle — Life, Truth and Love — named God. That Mind is God. 
That the exterminator of error is the great truth that God, good, is the 
ONLY MIND, and that the suppositions opposite of infinite Mind — called 
DEVIL or evil — is not Mind, is not Truth, but error, without intelligence 
or reality. That there can he but one Mind, because there is but one God; 
and that if mortals claimed no other Mind and accepted no other, sin 
would be unknown. That Life is divine Principle, Mind. Soul, Spirit. 
That life is without beginning and without end. That identity is the re- 
flection of Spirit.thc reflection in multifarious forms of the living Prin- 
ciple, Love. That Soul is the substance. Life- and intelligence of man, 
which is individualized, but not in matter. That Soul can never reflect 
anything inferior to Spirit. That man is the expression of Soul, and is 
co-existent with God. That brain does not think; that matter can not 
perform the functions of Mind, that matter can not see, feel, hear, f astc, 
nor smell. 

Christian Science, we are told, was re-discovered zy Mary Baker G. 
Eddy in the year lSCfi The text-book is called "Science and Health." 
with key to the Scriptures, by its author, supplemented by another book 
called "Miscellaneous Writings." 

The Christian Science Publishing House is at Oj Falmouth street, 
Boston, Mass., and here is published, besides the two books above men- 
tioned, other works by the same author. Also the Christian Science 
Monthly Journal, The Christian Science Weekly, and the Christian 
Science Bible Lessons. 

There are more than one hundred institutions which teach Christian 
Science, and upwards of 5.000 practitioners of Christian Science Healing. 
Churches have been organized in practically every country in the world, 
and in 1013 numbered 1.445. with a membership aggregating approxi- 
mately one-half million people. Of the above number of churches, 1,202 
of them are located in Continental United States. There are six Chris- 
tian Science churches in West Virginia, with a membership approximating 

The writer is not in a position to say when Christian Science was 
first introduced in West Virginia and embraced as a religious tenet, but 

History of West Virginia 

the name < l tin organization has been familiar id most of n- for many 
\iar-. Of all church societies ii is perhaps the most criticised and Ua-t 
limlcrMiiiiil. notwithstanding ii claims 10 be founded win illy ii|him the 
I'.ible. which is hi" rally quoted frmn Genesis to Kcvclali ms. Ilowcur 
reluctant Minir of us mas In- id subscribe I.i the Uaehings of Christian 
Sen. nee. all who are familiar wiih its followers must admit thai tht\ 
are most emphatically sincere, and consistently "practice what tiny 

Their services are uniform, consisting of two meetings on Sunday 
and one mi Wednesday evening. No ser\ices are preached Ivy a personal 
pastor, hut a sermon made up of selections from the l'.ihle and "Science 
and Health, with kc> to the Scriptures." is read liy two readers, called the 
first and second readers. The church is declared to he "emphatically a 
healing church, and many eases of restoration to health "have heen testi- 
fied during the past few years." 

In fact, it is said that the memlicrship of the Christian Science church 
is chiefly made up of those who were healed of some bodily infirmity, 
and members of their families. 

They deny that Christian Science is a mind cure, as that is popularly 
understood, because it recognizes but one Mind. God. 

That it is not faith cure, because it does not perform its wonderful 
works through blind faith in a personal Cod. hut through the under- 
standing of man's relation to Cod. 

That it is not mesmerism nor hypnotism, because it denies absolutely 
the power of the human mind and human will, and claims no will hut 

"That through recognizing the one mind and man as the rejection 
of thai mind, it forever establishes the brotherhood of man. That it is 
the perfect salvation from sin, sickness and death Christ Jesus came to 

Mrs. Eddy defines Christian Science "as the law of God. the law 
of good, interpreting and demonstrating the principle and rule of eternal 

The following is a conservative statement of membership of churches 
in West Virginia for the years ]Spo and ICIOi", : 

Membership Membership 
Denomination 1 Sill) 1900 

Baptist bodies 4-'.s:,i i;t.04 I 

Conuregationalists 1"»i 

Christian or Disciples ."; 13.32n 

German Evangelical Synod of Xorlh America 114 fl." 

Lutheran bodies L17i> <V,nr, 

Methodist bodies s.-,,]02 ll.V>2r. 

rrebvterian bodies lO.m I'.'.f.fis 

Protestant Episcopal 2.000 r,»?,» 

Reformed bodies ™4 v ^> 

United Brethren bodies 12.24-' 10.09:1 

Other Protectant bodies "v™" H. ftn '"' 

Latter Day Saints ■">''' US.'. 

Roman Catholics l"'- 11 ^ 4n - 01 ' 

All other bodies -"-> Mr, 

Total |s ^-'-" T ni,1 -' r '-' 

Non-Christians .".72.^77 774. Ml 

Total popnlatioiv- 

"iV.'.T'.tl l.il7n.40r> 

-AiSS History of West Virginia 

Of the total population of West Virginia in 1906, the Catholic mem- 
bership was 3.7% 

Protestant membership 24.1% 

Other denominations 0.2% 

Non-Christians 72.0% 

The membership of the Catholic Church is based upon the supposition 
that all the children of Catholic parents are members of that church; 
while the membership of other denominations is based upon actual en- 
rollment in the church records. It will, therefore, be seen that if we 
figure the Protestant population upon the same basis as the Catholic mem- 
bership is determined, about 96.3% instead of 24.1% of the entire popula- 
tion of West Virginia were Protestants, or 1,036.39:) Protestants, and 
40,011 Catholics. 

The increase in the Catholic membership in the 16 years preceding 
1906 was 39.1%. During the same period tile Protestant membership, 
including non church members of Protestant families, increased about 72%. 

Of the 301,565 church members reported for 1906, 173,098 were fe- 
males, and 128,467 were males. 

In 1906 there were 4,042 church homes 

of which 3,478 were church edifices 

and 564 were rented halls, etc. 

The church edifices had a seating capacity of about 950,000 and a 
valuation approximating $10,000,000. For the same year there were re- 
ported 659 parsonages, valued at $1,622,566. Estimating the reported 
and the unreported value of parsonages at $1,700,000 we have a total value 
in church property amounting to $11,700,000. 

Of 3.317 church organizations reporting, only 11% reuorted an in- 
debtedness, aggregating $512,412. This amount, together with unreported 
indebtedness, would probably not exceed $650,000. Deducting this amount 
from $11,700,000 we find the net wealth of all church property in West 
Virginia in 1906 was about $11,050,000. Assuming that the church mem- 
bership and organizations and church property values have maintained 
the same ratio of increase since 1906 as were made for a corresponding 
time previous, the figures for 1913 would be about as follows: 

Number of church organizations 5,000 

Number of church members 383,000 

Value of church property $15,000,000 

Sunday Schools. 

Number of Sunday Schools reporting for 1906 3,486 

Number of officers and teachers 2 "?'~lTi 

Number of scholars -212,577 

Of Continental United States. West Virginia takes twenty-ninth place 
m church membership and church property valuations, and thirtieth in 
church indebtedness. 

There are 217 different church organizations or denominations in 
Continental United States, the valuation of whose church property ag- 
gregated $1,257,575,867 in 1906. 



Counties of West Virginia — When and From What Formed; 
From Whom or What Named; Area, and Seat of Justice; 
Magisterial Districts; Population 1910; Miles of Public Road, 
and Average Annual Cost Per Mile for Maintenance; Prin- 
cipal Products of Each County 1 


Minerals and Mineral Products and Properly 15 


General Statistics — Covering Mileage of Public Roads; Area in 
Square Miles; Population in 1910; District Road and Bridge 
Funds; Average Area Per Square Mile of Road; Average 
Number Inhabitants Per Mile of Road; Average Amount 
Money Per Mile Road 31 


West Virginia Schools 41 


Railroads in West Virginia 58 

Brief History of Cameron, Charleston, Clarksburg, Charles Town, 
Elizabeth, Elkins, Fairmont, Grafton, Harrisville, Huntington, 
Kingwood, Logan, Madison, Mannington, Martinsburg, Mar- 
linton, Huntersville, Middlebourne, Moundsvillc, Morgantown, 
New Martinsville, New Cumberland, Parkersburg, Pennsboro, 
Philippi, Point Pleasant, Pineville, Towns in Putnam County, 
St. Marys, Sutton, Wheeling, West Union, Weston, Welch, 
Williamson 7- 

Notable Speeches by Notable Men of West Virginia — By John S. 
Carlisle, Chapman J. Stuart, Waitnian T. W'illey, John F. 
Lacy, Mansfield M. Xeely, A. D. Fleming, and our own Ol. 
Gallagher, of Wetzel 238 


Biographic Sketches — Arthur Ingram Boreman, Stonewall Jack- 
son, Francis Harrison Pierpont, Daniel D. T. Farnsworth, 
Daniel D. Johnson, John 11. Atkinson, James W. Paxton, 
James G. West, P. M. Male, Chester D. Hubbard, Campbell 
Tarr, John S. Carlisle, Waitman T. W'illey, Gibson Lamb 
Cranmer, J. H. Diss DeBarr, David, Hunter Strothcr, John F. 
Lacy, Virgil Anson Lewis, Robert McF.ldowney, Presley 
Martin, S. R. Martin, Col. T. Moore Jackson, Aaron Morgan, 
Lewis S. Newman, R. H. Sayre, Dr. T. M. Mone, Col. Archi- 
bald Woods, Henry G. Davis, S. B. Elkins, Thomas S. llay- 
mond, Alpheus F. Haymond, Benjamin F. Martin, A. B. Flem- 
ing, J. W. McCoy, U. X. Arnett, the Glover Family, the 
Myers Family, und dcr Schriststeller -S3 


Story of Blennerhassett Island; Poem, Entitled Grafton National 
Cemetery; Poem, Dedicated to Miss Decima Campbell (now 
Mrs. Barclay); Poem, in Memory of Betty Zane, the Heroine 
of Fort Henry; West Virginia's New Song, and a Side- 
splitting Parody on Same; List of Members of Constitutional 
Convention, 1872; A Letter from General Washington to His 
Wife; Washington's Alap 365 


Battles Fought in West Virginia 388 


Rivers of West Virginia and How They Were Named 39S 


The American Indian 409 


The Virginia Debt Question 426 


West Virginia Legislature, 1915 466 


History of Churches in West Virginia 470 


Frontispiece S. Myers 

"Plan of Town at Mouth of Elk" 80 

Court House, Charles Town, W. Va., where John Brown Trial 

Was Held 107 

Hon. S. B. jilkins 114 

Court House, New Martinsville, W. Va 322 

R. H. Sayre of New Martinsville, W. Va 326 

Hon. Henry G. Davis 345 

M rs. Henry G. Davis 346 

The Blennerhasset Mansion 371 

Mrs. Blennerhasset 371 

Mr. Blennerhasset 371 

Indian Scene 415 

Chief Hollow Horn Bear 420 

William T. Bradby 420