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Full text of "كتاب نماذج من الكفاح الجزائري القديم ضد الهيمنة الرومانية"

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(1) Sallustius, Bellum lugurthinum, V, IX : 3 . 

(2) Ibid., VI: 1 -3. 

VI. 1 : 

Sed multo maxume ingenio validus, non 
se luxu neque inertiae corrumpendum dedit, 
sed, ut mos gentis illius est, equitare, 
iaculari, cursu cum aequalibus certare, et 
cum omnis gloria anteriet, omnibus tamen 
cams esse; ad hoc pleraque tempora in 
venando agere, leonem atque alias feras 
primus aut in primis ferire, plurumum facere 
et minumum ipse de se loqui. 

VI. 3 

and hoc studia Numidarum in Jugurtham 
accensa, ex quibus si talem virum dolis 
interfecisset, ne qua sedition aut bellum 
oriretur anxius erat. 

(3) Ibid., VII. 4-7 : 



ut nostris vehementer cams, 
Numantinis maxumo terrori esset. Ac sane, 
quod diffillumum in primis est, et proelio 
sternuus erat et bonus consilio, quorum 
alterum ex providentia timorem, alterum ex 
audacia temeritatem afferre plerumque 
solet. 

(4) Ibid., IX. 1-2. 

XI. 1 : >it oiij-JI 

(5) Ibid., XII -XIII, XX -XXVI. 

(6) Ibid., XLI - XLII. 

_ cjjjI ^^1 j SJoill (>J ^ (^jiill <J] JjS di3l£ (j ill ^^LJI J " 

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-.,".-: ,i lta L qgod; m<: advorsis rebus optaverant 
QtHim r ^postquam : adepti stints- asperius 
iacerbiusque ftiit. Namqtte coepere nbbilitas 
dignitatem, populus- Jiberatem in- lubidinem 
vortere, sibi quisque ducere, trahere, rapere. 
Ita omina in duas partis abstracta sunt, res 
publica, quae media fuerat, dilacerata. 
(XLI - 4-5 .) 

(7) VHI . 1 " Romae omnia venalia esse " . 

A XI L_ij_^jj (Jitft nil (j-f^ Sj-4 I j^ i<iail 1>1A ,_J ej_« jj^* j5-^ 

q—Hj 4 JJJ A < \U4l) -; ■■•'*'; diaLi if^ jjlijuJI (j--« e j_uuijI (J-jjj.xaaII 

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j^J (j-aJl *fl (j-« Ja.1 J3j jaIj villi* j » f ♦ (J Ml iiui jjUYl ji»J 

(XXXV. lOjUjj^jiyi^ 



IT 



VIII . 2 " ut potius publice quam privatim 
amicitiam populi Romani coleret neu quibus 
largiri insuesceret ; periculose a paucis emi, 
quod multorum esse u 

(8) XIII. 6: 

Itaque paucis diebus cum auro et argento 
multo Romam legatos mittit, quis praecipit, 
primum uti veteres amicos muneribus 
expleant, deinde novos adquirant, postremo 
quae cumque possint largiundo parare ne 
cunctentur. 

(9) XVI . 1 - 2 : 

Vicit tamen in senatu pars ilia, quae vero 
pretium aut gratiam anteferebat . Decretum 
fit uti decern legati regnum, quod Micipsa 
optinuerat, inter lugurtham et Adherbalem 
dividerent. 

(10) Ibid. 3-5. 
(11)XX-XXVI. 



ir 



(12) XXVII. 

(13) XV. 4: 

Aemilius Scaurus, homo nobilis, impiger, 

factiosus, avidus potentiae, honoris, 

divitarum, ceterum vitia sua callide 
occultans. 

^^Jc. Sa£3* Sj.iiu o^lj t SjJLllj «UJI j AiaLJI ^J »$jll «JLLull j 

frlAJj sjl^xj AjjLxsj 4JJJ& eliaJ 

XXVII. 5 : 

Nam in consule nostro muitae bonaeqaue 
artes animi et corporis erant, quas omnis 
avaritia praepediebat : patiens laborum , acri 
ingenio, satis providens, belli haud ignarus, 
firmissumus contra pericula et insidias. 

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(14) XXIX. 

(15) Ibid. (XXIX). 1 : 

Sed ubi lugurtha per legatos pecunia 
temptare bellique quod administrabat 
asperitatem ostendere coepit, animus aeger 
avaritia facile convorsus est. 

JLajI J^jIj _ 4jj_y*j-a (Jjla. jj-a _ t_j^su ^jl u jj^-ji Jj^a* La-He jjSJ j 
«— cjj jc-"' •"tO"**^ ^-i^"^^J ^*" »*"" 4_ J Ttj^ajlj ( 'jimj (J ■ — "'»" ,-lc- I 

• 4J Art ' " * 

- 29. 2 - 3 : 

Scaurus, qui tametsi a principio, plerisque 
ex factione eius corruptis, acerrume regem 
impugnaverat, tamen magnitudine pecuniae 
a bono honestoque in pravom abstractus est. 

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2 U.^iW j^, J"j_^ ^Ja <Uja. JLa.j 4-uic-l pljX-Vlj .iL-uill JLL <ji 

- 29 . 5 : 



16 



reliqua cum Bestia et Scauro secreta 
transigit. 

(16) XXX- XXXII. 1. 

(17) XXXIII ; 2 : 

... , C. Baebium tribunum plebis magna 
mercede parat, cuius impudentia contraius et 
iniurlas omnis munitus foret. 

0" - * (3 ****,! is**" ^ "^ '*** 'J^^W ^*Ll]I (J_«JJj2 QUJ11MJ jjjijjl^ (JLsiail j 

(18) XXXIII -XXXIV. 

(19) XXXV. 

(20) XXXVI - XXXIX . 

(21) XXXVIII. 3: 

Interea per homines callidos diu noctuque 
exercitum temptabat, centuriones ducesque 
turmarum partim uti transfugerent 



11 



corrumpere, alii signo dato locum uti 
desererent . 

(22) XXXI. 12 - 13 ; XXXII . 4 ; XLIII. 5. 

At qui sunt ei , qui rem publicam 
occupavere ? Homines sceleratissumi, 
cruentis manibus, immani avaritia, 
nocentissumi et eidem superbissumi, quibus 
fides, decus, pietas, postremo honesta 
atque inhonesta omnia quaestui sunt. 
(XXXI. 12-13). 

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. " i |.„<H jAjuAA jA 

- tanta vis avaritiae in animos eorum veluti tabes 
invaserat 



■\v 



et avaritia magistratuum ante id tempus in 
Nomidia nostrae opes contusae hostiumque auctae 
erant. 

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X^a Lajj JUS *l*ul 4jjjj3yi (ji^ll t^ia-J <jS JLLLVl jJa-w 'L-alaJI 

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* L)*JJir 4xLuij ^]plaJl ' . 'J. " 

(24) XI. 3 : 

Sed Hiempsal , qui minumus ex illis erat, 
natura ferox et iam antea igonbilitatem 



ia 



lugurthae, quia materno genere imparerat, 
despiciens. 

( XI . 5 - 9 .iUJS jkil ) . <1 ijj jji ^1 iV 

(25) XII. 

(26) XIV. 18: 

Postremo Masinissa nos ita instituit patres 
conscripti, nequem coleremus nisi populum 
Romanum, ne societates, ne foedera nova 
acciperemus : abunde magna praesidia nobis 
in vostra amicitia fore ; si huic imperio fortuna 
mutaretur, una occidundum nobis esse. 

(27) Ibid. 1 : 

" Patres conscripti, Micipsa pater meus 
moriens mihi praecepit, ut regni Numidiae 
tantum modo procurationem existumarem 
meam, ceterum ius et imperium eius penes 
vos esse ; simul eniterer domi militiaeque 
quam maxumo usui esse populo Romano, 



IS 



vos mihi cognatorum, vos adfinium loco 
ducerem : si ea fecissem, in vostra amicitia 
exercitum, divitias, munimenta regni me 
habiturum. 

(28) Ibid., 25 : 

nolite pati regnum Numidiae, quod 
vostrum est, per scelus et sanguinem 
familiae nostrae tabescere. 

(29) XLIX. 2 : 

monet atque obtestatur uti memores 
pristinae virtutis et victoriae sese 
regnumque suum ab Romanorum 
avaritia defendant. 

(30) LXXXI . 1 : 

Romanos iniutos, profunda avaritia 
communis omnium hostis esse ; eandem 
illos causam belli cum Boccho habere, 



quam secum et cum aliis gentibus, lubidinem 
imperitandi, quis omnia regna advorsa sint. 
Turn sese, paulo ante Carthaginiensis, item 
regem Persen, post uti quisque 
opulentissumus videatur, ita Romanis 
hostem fore. 

Sj Vij mi l »_$$_>£ J-A j V' c£ J^V) f-»Vl (^C-J S-O 3 ^ { ^JJ^Ji ) A ^ c ' 

(31) XV. 1 : 

legati lugurthae paucis respondent. 

Hiempsalem ob sasvitiam suam ab Numidis 
interfectum, Adherbalem ultro bellum 
inferentem.postquam superatus sit, queri 
quod iniuriam facere nequivisset ; lugurtham 
ab senatu petere ne se aiium putarent ac 



v^ 



Numantiae cognitus esset, neu verba inimici 
ante facta sua poneret. 

(32) Ibid . 2 - 3 : 

Fautores legatorum, praetera senatus 
magna pars gratia depravata Adherbalis dicta 
contamnere, lugurthae virtutem extollere 
laudibus ; gratia, voce, denique omnibus 
modis alieno scelere et flagitio sua quasi pro 
gloria nitebantur. 

(33) XXII. 2 - 5 : 

Quorum lugurtha accepta oratione 
respondit sibi neque maius quicquam neque 
carius auctoritate senatus esse ; ab 
adulescentia ita se enisum ut ab optumo 
quoque probaretur ; virtute, non malitia P. 
Scipioni summo viro placuisse ; ob easdem 
artis a Micipsa, non penuria liberorum in 
regnum adoptatum esse. Ceterum quo plura 
bene atque strenue fecisset, eo animum 
suum iniuriam minus tolerare .Adherbalem 



VY 



dolis vitae suae insidiatum ; quod ubi 
comperisset, sceleri eius obviam isse. 
Populum Romanum neque recte neque pro 
bono facturum, si ab iure gentium sese 
prohibuerit. Postermo de omnibus rebus 
legatos Romam brevi missurum. Ita utrique 
digrediuntur. Adherbalis appeilandi copia non 
fuit. 

(34) XXIII - XXVI. 

(35) XXXIII . 1 : 

Igitur lugurtha contra decus regium cultu 
quam maxume miserabili cum Cassio 
Romam venit. 

(36) XXXVI . 2 : 

At contra lugurtha trahere omnia et alias 
deinde alias morae causas facere, polliceri 
deditionem ac deinde metum simulare, 
cedere instanti et paulo post, ne sui 
diffiderent, instare; ita belli modo, modo 
pads mora consulem ludificare. 



vr 



(37) XXXVII - XXXVIII : 

At lugurtha, cognita vanitate atque 
imperitia legati, subdole eius augere 
amentiam, missitare supplicantis legatos, 
ipse quasi vitabundus per saltuosa loca et 
tramites exercitum ductare. Denique Aulum 
spe pactionis perpulit, uti relicto Suthuie in 
abditas regiones sese veluti cedentem 
insequeretur. ( 38. 1 - 2 ) 

Intempesta nocte de improviso multitudine 
Numidarum Auli castra circumvenit 

Vis magna Hostium, caelum nocte atque 
nubibus obscuratum, periculum anceps, 
postremo fugere an manere tutius foret ; in 
incerto erat. 

Nostri foeda fuga, plerique abiectis armis, 
proxomum collem occupaverunt. Nox atque 
praeda castroum hostis quo minus victoria 
uterentur remorata sunt. ( 38 . 4 - 8 ) 



vt 



Tametsi ipsum cum exercitu fame et ferro 
clausum teneret, tamen se memorem 
humanarum rerum, si secum foedus faceret, 
incolumis omnis sub iugum missurum. 
Praeterea uti diebus decern Numidia 
decederet. Quae quamquam gravia et flagiti 
plena erant, tamen quia mortis metu 
mutabantur, sicuti regi lubuerat pax 
convenit. (38.9-10) 

(38)XLIII .1,3-4: 

Metelloque Numidia evenerat, acri viro et 
quamquam advorso populi partium, fama 
tamen aequabili et inviolata. 

« '"'1fl ;-"^ jjjS LajJl LIijlS 4j*ami ^jli ^j» tall t_J jail 

denique omnia, quae in bello vario et 
multarum rerum egenti usui esse solent. 
Ceterum ad ea patranda senatus auctoritate, 
socii nomenque Latinum et reges ultra 



Ve 



auxilia mittundo, postremo omnis civitas 
summo studio adnitebatur. 

tj| — Ja Cjli UJJ^J A.unillj <_£J^ li el j La (_JS .!£-! ^Ii jL-aikljj 

ojjl jjLLuJ! ^jLi tlJk ,—JI AiLjayLjj ♦ SjJjS llll-il-laV fllaJjj JJ*Jjo 

dil 4 (jiL-^aJ -i-i-4 J-">jIj liljlallj A./nSUI <j.l-»ll oAJt-u. La£ 4jkLu 

(39) XLVI . 8 : 

Nam in lugurtha tantus dolus tantaque 
peritia locorum et militiae erat, ut absens an 
praesens, pacem an bellum gerens 
perniciosior esset, in incerto haberetur. 

(40) XL VIII - L. 

XLIX.2 - 4 

L 3 - 5 . : jlii! ^IjVi 

Dein repente signo dato hostis invadit. 
Numidae alii postremos caedere, pars a 
sinistra ac dextra temptare, infensi adesse 



vn 



atque instare, omnibus locis Romanorum 
ordines conturbare. 

L_ij_L-all 5_sl£ ^^j lilLjjjVI IjjLjli tjLjjj Sjlj ini - ^j^ ij Ui.^j 

ante iam docti ab lugurtha equites, ubi 
Romanorum turma insequi coeperat, non 
confertim neque in unum sese recipiebant, 
sed alius alio quam maume divorsi. 

uliil£ tjja. (jjjjj<»_jili (jLui^ill jjls jJjS jj<» *$J ujj^jj >fi' <sjU"i tjuit j 

(41) LI . 1 : 

Ceterum fades totius negoti varia, incerta, 
foeda atque miserabilis. Dispersi a suis pars 
cedere, alii insequi, neque signa neque 
ordines observare, ubi quemque periculum 
ceperat ibi resistere ac propulsare, arma 
tela, equi viri, hostes atque cives permixti, 



vv 



nihil consilio neque imperio agi, fors omnia 
regere. 

«A.l_Aj jLj^VI a fl io»l /5-JjJ M^^-*J (j- (J^» »J" (jj- 4 *^ ■}) ' LijuLj 

fr !o_tVlj ^LiL Jj-^Ul «'i Ufa I L_*£ <^ ,„SH ^i-iJSil 1L£aj 

(42) LIV . 1 : 

hortatur ad cetera, quae levia sunt, parem 
animum gerant ; pro victoria satis iam 
pugnatum, reliquos labores pro praeda fore. 

i4jjL$j J] J*-aj j£ j*aI3I JaJ £)* f$-^ U'J ^JiilaS L$J^^ SjauJ! 

(43) Ibid . 5 - 6 . 

(44) Ibid. 9-10 



VA 



ipse cum delectis equitibus Metellum 
sequitur, nocturnis et aviis itineribus 
ignoratus Romanos palantis repente 
aggreditur. Eorum plerique inermes cadunt, 
multi capiuntur, nemo omnium intactum 
profugit, et Numidae, prius quam ex castris 
subveniretur, sicuti iussi erant, in proxumos 
collis discedunt. 

' t ' *-** <JLui j& qa aUVlo ijL^a xj> f u j_^ jj J <juiilj jA »IS jSj 
L-IjjJ ^)J-C- CH^^ pLul 4_J*J (jj»^ > n"i a II (jL«jjl .iLaJl ^?^J U"J^JU* 
(*") l<j jJj (JJjjjS J^i^J tjj* t ''"' a Ji'-' f*J iM'" J^ i-»l mi ^Ijjxa JJ& 

(45) LV. 4 : 

neque post insidias lugurthae effuso 
exercitu praedari ; ubi frumento aut pabulo 
opus erat, cohortes cum omni equitatu 
praesidium agitabant; exercitus partem ipse, 
reliquos Marius ducebat. 



V* 



-jjfc Uj_uiH CJjLS u£L&Vl jl '.'j ;^W ^1 <*LA\ CiSj ^j i aLLj 

(46) Ibid., 8 : 

Eo tempore lugurtha per collis sequi, 
tempus aut locum pugnae quaerere, qua 
venturum hostem audierat, pabulum et 
aquarum fontis, quorum penuria erat, 
corrumpere, modo se Metello, interdum 
Mario ostendere, postermos in agmine 
temptare ac statim in collis regredi, rursus 
aliis, post aliis minitari, neque proelium 
facere neque otium pati, tantum modo 
hostem ab incepto retinere. 

ftL-a]l (j^_j&j (_i^LcVI a.jo.iiu; ?jl*ij JtilJI <j^»j u^j ■ i i- ia >^ <— iSjAll 



(jlcl l*j] j Aa.1 jll ^j jli jA Vj A£j*x ^ i^lnnii j& ^i . tJJjiV! 

(47) LIV., 9 : 

Tamen ex copia quod optumum videbatur 
consilium capit, 

4_j-ajj]| Uiuo. (_UiuV Ul jj 3Jai. Jj^aJI t5 JfJj (jl£ ^li >iD3 *^aj 

(48) LVI. 1 - 3 : 

lugurtham laborantibus suis auxilio 
venturum ibique proelium fore. 

lilLJAj i> jTt*> A igi suit j S^feLumi jju uijuu Llj_ja.jJ (j!j " ♦ * ♦ • • 

Oppidanos hortatur moenia defendant... 
Praeterea pollicetur in tempore semet cum 
exercitu adfore. Ita compositis rebus, in loca 
quam maxume occulta discedit, 

aJi • * * • aA jlj_uil qX. C-LsJI t5 _lc 4 null Jjkl ( l_jjja«jj ) tiia.j 



A^ 



(49) LVII - LX. 

(50) LXI. 1 : 

Metellus postquam videt frustra inceptum, 
neque oppidum capi neque lugurtham nisi 
ex insidiis aut suo loco pugnam facere et 
iam aestatem exactam esse, ab Zama 
discedit... 

jLS <, 8 us\\\ (jl La£ I jA ftJJaJ ^ill *3jx]l (j-« I jA <jJb jl ^ylt (j* 

♦ LI j (j<« ^)i in'il t. (»jIjjVI ( _ s 1c. 

(51) LVIII. 1-3: 

Dum apud Zamam sic certatur, lugutha ex 
improviso castra hostium cum magna manu 
invadit, .... portam irrumpit. At nostri 
repentino metu perculsi sibi quisque pro 
moribus consulunt; alii fugere, alii arma 
capere, magna pars volnerati aut occisi. 
Ceterum ex omni multitudine non amplius 
quadraginta memores nominis Romani, 



AY 



(52) Ibid., 5 : 

Igitur equitatum omnem ad castra propere 
misit ac statim C. Marium cum cohortibus 
sociorum, eumque lacrumans per amicitiam 
perque rem publicam obsecrat nequam 
contumeliam remanere in exercitu victore 
neve hostis inultos abire sinat. 

(53) LIX : 

2 - Interim lugurtha ex occulto repente 
nostros invadit. Qui in proxumo locati 
fuerant, paulisper territi pertubantur, reliqui 
cito subveniunt. 

3- sed advorsis equis concurrere, 
implicare ac perturbare aciem; ita expeditis 
peditibus suis hostis paene victos dare. 

(54) LXVI - LXVII. 

(55) LXVIII - LXIX. 

(56) LXXV - LXXVI. 

(57) LXXX. 1 - 3 : 



Ar 



lugurtha postquam amisse Thala nihil 
satis firmum contra Metellum putat, per 
magnas solitudines cum paucis profectus, 
pervenit ad Gaetulos, genus hominum ferum 
incultumque et eo tempore ignarum nominis 
Romani . Eorum multitudinem in unum cogit 
ac paulatim consuefacit ordines habere, 
signa sequi, imperium observare, item alia 
militaria facere. Praeterea regis Bocchi 
proxumos magnis muneribus et maioribus 
promissis ad studium sui perducit, quis 
adiutoribus regem aggressus, impellit uti 
advorsus Romanos bellum incipiat. 

( _l a . At nil i*ll ^gj\ •% i nil ,-i <&1jj1 J^a <IS *-» jLuJ ^jlljijo **a.J /J 

.la.1 j jlfLa ^ j^jlli £*au l*J_^JJ flSj • l»jj f-L jjjaJI lillj jjia. 
ClLjlj t") tl frlj ih'lVlj UJj <><*! ^j al lVi'tYl (^j-ic- Lia^JJ^J a-AJjtj 
JLaloiilj i_LjyuSl «j ♦ (Jj^)[\ 4jj£amaJ1 *l^»ll Aj^Uj JaIjVI ACUaj 
(V-oj 4 avn£JI IjCjShj <Aaji!l Lt^jJL (jjjijj lillaJl ,_SjljtA ^JjSI 4-J1 



M 



L_S^ajl (ji (ju ftljtlj (ilLoJI (j-« k-Jj£l]l pLLoui! «j"'^ r -l ,„■> (J^li, 

(53) XCVII. 

4 - 5 : et priusquam exercitus aut instrui 
aut sarcinas colligere, denique antequam 
signum aut imperium ullum accipere quivit, 
equites Mauri atque Gaetuli, non acie neque 
ullo more proeli sed catervatim, uti quosque 
fors conglobaverat, in nostras, incurru.nt. 

Qui omnes trepidi improviso metu ac 
tamen virtutis memores aut arma capiebant. 

• a^laduil IjjjUjj .->gV-la»Ji IjjSjj villj «^»j 

(59)XCVIII-XCIX. 

98 . 6 : Dein, crebris ignibus factis, 
plerumque noctis barbari more suo laetari, 



A© 



exultare, strepere vocibus et ipsi ducos 
feroces, quia non fugerant, pro victoribus 
agere. 

(^A La£ _ (Jill! aViia \yJai bll^C- (jjji^i. SjjI jjl (Jajli <j! -1>UJ 
• (JJj>o1*m11 i_ijA-aj Ijijj-aj jl^l (Jc I j^iaj J a^Jq/ ^Jilllj ^iill 

- Deinde, ubi lux adventabat, defessis iam 
hostibus ac paulo ante somno captis, de 
improviso vigiles, item cohortium, turmarum, 
legionum tubicines simul omnis signa 
canere, milites clamorem tollere atque portis 
erumpere iubet. (XCIX.1) 

*_Ajjl Ij^lij lji*.l frl-i&Vlj J^AjV' <i*-J jU^' '"rO^l ^JJA. >J 

(J1j_jVI IjajUj (jiil^pJI ajL (jl 4jA,lLa Sjjjuoj f <J JI Jij' -8 ) J -9 ' ?J^ 
jlj JLfr iljj-j-aj SjLiyi jl-L-ab Jjillj jjluijill IjI^J (.nl'ffll ^k 

- Denique omnes fusi fugatique arma et 
signa militaria pleraque capta, ( 99 - 3 ) 

f_5j JjJR ^Jc- Ijjj-sJj *\j& 4-*±3* 'j-O* ^'^c-Vl jli ljj-a.lj 

♦ AjJjaJI a^jLIjj A$i»J*ul (JA jjjS j^S t5 ic fr^JOuiVI 



At 



(60) CI . 6 - 7 : 

Dein Numida cognito Bocchi adventu clam 
cum paucis ad pedites convortit. Ibi Latine - 
nam apud Numantiam loqui didicerat - 
exclamat nostras frustra pugnare, pauio ante 
Marium sua manu interfectum. Simu! 
gladium sanguine oblitum ostendere, 

Quod ubi milites accepere, magis 

atrociatate rei quam fide nuntii terrentur, 
simulque barbari animos tollere et in 
perculsos Romanos acrius incedere. 

• ( (VUj-ijJ 1 liLLaJ! SI iii.a ftL^jU <X.Iai) jj_ A <i2 a^a i^ui 4±j jJa Aijl 

r fl^'""*' iiUJ Ljj_jji MA III (j-£kj » • « • » ^La^JU 1 )!>!-> /i liuil j^>j'j 

If. Sjl LjJa >i-SI L^» aaJk l^iJSj SjJi_)f3l CJUjl ^ - fl CmJjjl Aji J CliS^j) 



AV 



(61)XLVI.3-4: 

Sed Metello iam antea experiments 
cognitum erat genus Numidarum infidum, 
ingenio mobili, novarum rerum avidum esse. 
Itaque legatos alium ab alio divorsos 
aggreditur ac paulatim temptando, postquam 
opportunos sibi cognovit, multa pollicendo 
persuadet, uti lugurtham maxume vivom, sin 
id parum procedat, necatum sibi traderent. 

(62) LXI . 4 - 5 : 

quod ei per maxumam amicitiam maxuma 
copia fallundi erat, muitis pollicitationibus 
aggreditur. Ac primo efficit uti ad se 
colloquendi, gratia occultus veniat, deinde 
fide data, si lugurtham vivom aut necatum 
sibi tradidisset, fere ut illi senatus 
impunitatem et sua omnia concederet, facile 
Numidae persuadet cum ingenio infido turn 
metuenti ne, si pax cum Romanis fieret, ipse 
per condiciones ad supplicium traderetur. 



AA 



(63) LXX - LXX1 . 

(64) LXXII. 

1 - Bomilcare aliisque multis, quos socios 
insidiarum cognoverat, interfectis iram 
oppresserat, nequa ex eo negotio seditio 
oreretur. 

ij^\yl\ (jj ^4-i>jjJ £*-& qaa OiJi& OLP-'j J ] Q*Ji f^] ^J 

2 - Neque post id locorum lugurthae dies 
aut nox ulla quieta fuit; neque loco neque 
mortali cuiquam aut tempori satis credere, 
civis hostisque iuxta metuere, 
circumspectare omnia et omni strepitu 
pavescere, alio atq»ie alio loco saepe contra 
decus regium nocta requiescere, interdum 
somno excitus arreptis armis tumultum 
facere, ita formidine quasi vecordia exagitari. 

(65) LXXIV - LXXVI . 
(66) Cll. 



A* 



(67) CVIII - CIX. 

- Postquam sicuti voluerat congressi, dicit 
se missum a consule venisse qauaesitum 
ab eo pacem an bellum agitaturus foret. 
Turn rex, uti praeceptum fuerat, post diem 
decumum redire iubet : ac nihil etiam nunc 
decrevisse, sed illo die responsurum. 
Deinde ambo in sua castra digressi. Sed ubi 
pierumque noctis processit, Sulla a Boccho 
occulte accersitur ; ab utroque tantum modo 
fidi interpretes adhibentur. 

(68) CX. 

- dienique nihil me sciente frustra voles 

- gerite quod voltis cum lugurtha bellum. Ego 
flumen Muluccham, quod inter me et 
Micipsam fuit, non egrediar neque id intrare 
lugurtham sinam. 



* ' "* u S ^ 

(69) CXI : 

1 - Faciundum aiiquid, quod illorum 
magis quam sua retulisse videretur ; id adeo 
in promptu esse, quoniam copiam lugurthae 
haberet. Quem si Romanis tradidisset, fore 
ut illi plurumum deberetur ; amicitiam, 
foedus, Numidiae partem quam nunc 
peteret, turn uitro adventuram. 

2- Rex primo negitare; cognationem, 
affinitatem, praeterea foedus intervenisse. 

3- Denique saepius fatigatus lenitur et 
ex voluntate Sullae omnia se facturum 
promittit. 

Lj jj^jj al ui La I JLi • Ljj j^jj /j-lc- S^)rtj inli jjHl i»n 4-JV 



1) 



• (jVl Aal! jj > oj La jJbj uJaajj ^jx If. ja.j S^aIjlaSIj 

* 

AllSj ajLIjSj aJS^c <jLj 31515 j*Vl Jj ^ liO ^j jSj - V 

(ill J (jj^ U,^^ ( "JJ^Jd /*-• ) Aj^Abtx 

.1 j1n; -ic-jj jUjjj Anni^i (jt Ji .^■vll (y* j±& j.il -i»Jj I J£^J — ? 

• AjC.jj La (JS 

(70) CXII - CXIII. 

Deinde ubi dies advenit et ei nuntiatum 
est lugurtham haud procul abesse, cum 
paucis amicis et quaestore nostra quasi 
obvius honoris causa procedit in tumulum 
facillumum visu insidiantibus. Eodem 
Numida cum pierisque necessariis suis 
inermis, uti dictum erat, accedit ac statim 
signo dato undi que simul ex insidiis 
invaditur . Ceteri obtruncati, lugurtha Suilae 
vinctus traditur et ab eo ad Marium deductus 
est. 

^JJ^Ji U ! ( 0»J*Ji ^^ ) <4 ^ c ' d ^"J jU-^ lij 4 ^ OP^J 



w 



(71) LVI . 

3 - quod oppidum primum omnium post 
malam pugnam ab rege defecerat. 

5- Ac ni Marius signa inferre atque 
evadere oppido properavisset, profecto 
cuncti aut magna pars Siccensium fidem 
mutavissent; tanta mobilitate sese Numidae 
gerunt. 

(72) : JLUl J*— Jc Jj 
XLVI . 3 , 6 ; LXVI. 2; XC 1-7. 

Nam volgus , uti plerumque solet et 
maxume Numidarum, ingenio mobili 
seditiosum atque discordiosum erat, 



*r 



cupidum novarum rerum, quieti et odio 
advorsum. ( LXVI. 2 ) 

4jC-_)]Ij ,—iIajillj ^jajIIj 77I Ja]I (jW"i ^jjfc ^ji-^jil' alive Jllo >frig 

(73) LXVI. 2 - 4 . 

(74) LXII. 

(75) XXIX . 4 - 6 ; XXXVI 2 ; XLVI. 2 ; XLV1I . 3 . 

(76) Lll. 2,4: 

2 - Nam Metello virtus militum eart, locus 
advorsus, lugurthae alia omnia praeter 
milites opportuna. 

4 - Amisso loco Numidae fusi fugatique . 
Pauci interiere, plerosque velocitas et regio 
hostibus ignara tutata sunt. 

(77) (*.) pSjjjt.u j&i 



M 



(78) XCI. 7 : 

Id facinus contra ius belli non avaritia 
neque scelere consulis admissum, sed quia 
locus lugurthae opportunus, nobis aditu 
difficilis, genus hominum mobile, infidum , 
ante 



IV 



i— It (__^jjjL-« jl i i-ml ^j<» L4I& (JJ uutj AjL« ,_jl_^ ,. >r-»a Jlxj 

Ijoinj ^ ■«"'■"■«" Ljjxjj <£1ax ( Ac l£la u^Vi (jl^ ^ii ^j-^Jd *^-^j 

alj^ f - (JjLujjj tjjll ml *-Jjlj ( jjLajjU ajLtill l$JJ*JJj 1 g ill ->") %t- J 1 

JLjij l^jjiji UU j] *$i*jij jUjjU aIIjS ^ _ iLl j US _ <c jUaj 

LiA (Jaj ( ^jjUjjll UJuoIIj SjUII j <UuLol1 jjulijl j^It UaC-Lja Lu^jI£ 
>lii (_^J_j<»^j (^^ia>. (^_j*u (jSj pli jjuljjjliSlj L«l ♦ Ajj^-uij 4"hi«-i pi J 
p j_uij ^-»JiJI (j-* _>S f-> LC^^J^r' jSuutAil^-i a^fcl mall dlljlll (jairi 

4_jLjaVl »lj-nnl\ a__*klla AjjI^j JjUS j^lfr I^jIS Aj i_jjjclj tj^JJ^' 
• ij\-*Jjfl !■■ <a r'^L-uJI «__ SjJ ClI^J (Jl]l " jj^«V jjlujxII " (JjIjS ,, am"l 
(_^ia 1— C- <jl— J ' J— aC- j — ]■*** ■■■■« ^1 /jl >" — O J«^ SjL«S (J"Sjj 



LjLjjl " <jVj J-« Vt Jjl (jJ \jjia_yj p-JSJ ^ya-la iSj • IjSjjji 4-jVj j>» 1» j^ 



^A 



i <1 .,,11 j a j, >«j. ^.ui 4_uijIa4 jjk Ajj£iiit diljS (jij^ (j^ j_>j)LLjliSlj 

vJ.lJJ ? O^^JJ*^ J^ Lh 8 (J^^J^J^' LP4* **ii^<n L« jjlt^uij 

(j« j'N (jj.i* lull (j--* (JJ-^J IA^Aj • LjjjLa ^^-C-^j ^jL_S ^JAuljjjj^l 
jljC> ,-lc. j^ni* tt -J (jj*xSa-x (jjt.li no .lii. : jjaAXuiSj .J I .tm<*il AaJLc 
SjL-jS i'l •>' l_jjl_Sj j^aljVI 4-C.Uaj aL-Jaillj Ij^a^'j (j-^-^J^ k o\ll 

*_£ (Jjlji aAj _ * '(JjauLSjI jVjJJ .tiji'l) L»S « l-JjjL« S-iliS ■*'-»' jC-ill 
l_Jj»"i inrtll (j-a (jlS J j _ (Jj*jIS Wjli Vj* WU^ ^i^ J Lf* L3J^' LS^ 

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(1) Tacitus, Annales II. 52 : 

Eodem anno coeptum in Africa bellum, 
duce hostium Tacfarinate. Is natione 
Numida, in castris Romanis auxiliaria 
stipendia meritus, mox desertor vagos 
primum et latrociniis suetos ad praedam et 
raptus congregare, dein more militiae per 
vexilla et turmas componere, postremo non 
inconditae turbae sed Musulamiorum dux 
haberi. 

(2) Ibid : 

Valida ea gens ( i.e. Musulamian) et 
solitudinibus Africa propinqua, nullo etiam 
turn urbium cultu, cepit arma Maurosque 
accolas in bellum traxit : dux et his, Mazippa 
. Divisusque exercitus ut Tacfarinas lectos 
viros et Romanorum in medum armatos 
castris attineret, disciplina et imperiis 



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compesceret , Mazippa levi cum copia, 
incendia et caedis et terrorem circumferret. 
Conpulerantque Cinithios, haud spemendam 
nationem, in eadem. 

(3) Ibid : 

Cum Furius Camillus pro consule Africae 
iegionem et quod sub signis sociorum in 
unum conductos ad hostem duxit, modicam 
manum, si multitudinem Numidarum atque 
Maurorm spectares; sed nihil aeque 
cavebatur quam ne bellum metu eluderent ; 
spe victoriae inducti sunt ut vincerentur. 
Igitur legio medio , leves cohortes duaeque 
alae in cornibus locantur. Nee Tecfarinas 
pugnam detrectavit. Fusi Numidae, 
multosque post annos Furio nomini patrum 
decus militiae 

Eo ( i.e. Camillus) pronior Tiberius res 
gestas apud senatum celebravit : et 



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decrevere patres triumphalia insignia, quod 
Camillo ob modestiam vitae impune fuit. 

(4) Ibid. III. 20 : 

Tacfarinas, quern priore aestate pulsum 

a Camillo memoravi, bellum in Africa 
renovat, vagis primum populationibus et ob 
pernicitatem inultis, dein vicos excindere, 
trahere gravis praedas. 

(5) Ibid : 

Postremo haud procui Pagyda flumine 
cohortem Romanam circumsedit. Praeerat 
castello Decrius impiger manu, exercitus 
militia et illan obsidionem flagitii ratus. Is, 
cohortatus milites, ut copiam pugnae in 
aperto faceret aciem pro castris instruit. 
Primoque impetu pulsa cohorte promptus 
inter tela occursat fugientibus intercepat 
signiferos quod inconditis aut desertoribus 
miles Romanus terga daret ; simul excepta 
vulnera et, quamquqm transfosso oculo, 



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adversum os in hostem intendit neque 
proelium omisit donee desertus suis caderet. 

(6) Ibid. Ill . 21 : 

Quae postquam L. Apronio ( nam Camillo 
successerat) comperta, magis dedecore 
suorum quam gloria hostis anxius, raro ea 
tempestate et e vetere memoria facinore 
decumum quemque ignominiosae cohortis 
sorte ductos fusti necat. 

(7) Ibid : 

Tantumque severitate profectum ut 
vexillum veteranorum, non amplius quingenti 
numero, easdem Tafarinatis copias 
praesidium cui Thala nomen adgressas 
fuderint. 

(8) Ibid : 

Sed Tacfarinas perculsis Numidis et 

obsidia aspernantibus spargit bellum Et 

dum ea ratio barbaro fuit, inritum fessumque 
Romanum impune ludificabatur ; postquam 



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deflexit ad maritimos locos, inligatus praeda 
stativis castris adhaerebat etc. 

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(9) Ibid., !!! . 32 : 

Neque multc post, missis ad senatum 
litteris Tiberius motam rursum Africam 
incursu Tacfarinas docuit iudicioque partrum 
deligendum pro consule gnarum militiae, 
corpore validum et bello suffecturum. 

(10) Ibid., II! 35: 

Proximo sanatus die, Tiberius per litteras, 
M. Lepidum et lunium Blaesum 
nominavit ex quis pro consule Africae 
legeretur. 



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avunculum esse Seiani Blaesum 
atque eo praevalidum respondit Blaesus 
specie recusantis sed neque eadem 
adseveratione et consensu adulantium 
adiutus est. 

(11) Ibid., III. 79 : 

Nam Tacfarinas, quamquam saepius 
depulsus, reparatis per intima Africae auxiliis 
hue adrogantiae venerat ut legatos ad 
Tiberium mitteret sedemque ultro sibi atque 
exercitui suo postularet aut bellum 
inexplicable minitaretur. 

(12) Ibid: 

Ne Spartaco quidem post tot consularium 
exercituum cladis inulatam Italiam urenti, 
quamquam Sertorii atque Mithridatis 
ingentibus bellis labaret res publica, datum 
ut pacto in fidem acciperetur nedum 
pulcherrimo populi Romani fastigio latro 



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Tacfarinas pace et concessione agrorum 
redimeretur. 

(13) Ibid: 

Dat negotium Blaeso : ceteros quidem ad 
spem proliceret arma sine noxa ponendi, 
ipsius autem ducis, quoquo modo poteretur. 
Et recepti ea venia plerique . Mox adversum 
artes Tacfarinatis, haud dissimili modo 
belligeratum. 

(14) Ibid., III. 74 : 

Nam, quia ille robore exercitus impar, 
furandi melior, pluris per globos incursaret 
eluderetque et insidias simul temptaret, tres 
incessus, totidem agmina parantur. 

(15) Ibid. : 

Ex quis Cornelius Scipio legatus praefuit 
qua praedatio in Leptitanos et suffugia 
Garamantum ; alio latere, ne Cirtensium 
pagi impune traherentur, propriam manum 
Blaesus filius duxit ; medio cum delectis, 



ITT 



castella et munitiones idoneis locis 
imponens, c^ix ipse ana et infensa hostibus 
cur.cla fecerat, quia, que quo inclinarent, 
pa-s aiiqua miliiss Romani in ore , in latere et 
saepe a terco erat ; mdtique eo modo caesi 
3ut circumvent! . 

Tunc itipertitum exercitum pluris in manus 
dispergii praeponitque centuriones virtutis 
experta*. N^c, ui rnos f'.jerat, acta aestate 
retrahit ccpi-js aut in hibernaculis veteris 
provinciae componit 

(Y7) ibid: 

Sed aut in limine belli dispositis castellis 
per expedites et solitudinum gnaros 
mutantem mapalia Tacfarinatem 

proturbabat, donee fratre eius capto 
regressus est , properantius tamen quam ex 
utilitate sociourm, relictis per quos 
resurgeret bellum. 



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(18) Ibid: 

Sed Tiberius pro confecto interpretatus id 
quoque Blaeso tribuit ut imperator a 

legionibus salutaretur Concessit 

quibusdam et Augustus id vocabulum ac 
tunc Tiberius Blaeso postremum. 

(19) Ibid., IV. 23: 

Nam priores duces, ubi impetrando 
triumphalium insigni sufficere res suas 
crediderant, hostem omittebant ; iamque tres 
laureatae in urbe statuae, et adhuc raptabat 
Africam Tacfarinas. 

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(20) Ibid : 

auctus Maurorum auxiliis , qui Ptolemaeo 
lubae filio iuventa incurioso, libertos regios 
et servilia imperia bello mutaverant. Erat illi 



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praedarum receptor ac socius populandi rex 
Garamantum , non ut exercitu incederet, sed 
missis levibus copiis, quae ex longinquo in 
rnaius audiebantur ; ipsaque e provincia, ut 
quis fortuna inops, moribus turbidus, 
promptius ruebant, quia Caesar post res a 
Blaeso gestas, quasi nuliis iam in Africa 
hostibus, reportari nonam legionem iusserat, 
nee pro consule eius anni P. Dolabella 
retinere ausus erat, iussa principis magis 
quam incerta belli metuens. 

(21) Ibid., IV. 24 : 

Igitur Tacfarinas disperso rumore rem 
Romanam aliis quoque ab nationibus 
lacerari eoque paulatim Africa decedere, ac 
posse reliquos circumvenire, si cuncti, 
quibus libertas servitio potior, incubuissent, 
auget viris positis que castris Thubuscum 
oppidum circumsidet. 



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(22) Ibid. : 

At Dolabella contracto quod erat militum, 
terrore nominis Romani et quia Numidae 
peditum aciem ferre nequeunt, primo sui 
incessu solvit obsidium locorumque 
opportuna permunivit ; 

(23) Ibid . : 

Simul principes Musulamiorum defectionem 
coeptantes securi percutit . Dein quia 
pluribus adversum Tacfarinatem 

expeditionibus cognitum, non gravi nee uno 
incursu consectandum hostem vagum, 
excito cum popularibus rege Ptolemaeo 
quattuor agmina parat, quae legatis aut 
tribunes data ; et praedatorias manus delecti 
Maurorum duxere : ipse consultor aderat 
omnibus. 

(24) Ibid., IV. 25: 

Nee multo post adfertur Nomidas apud 
castellum semirutum, ab ipsis quondam 



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incensum, cui nomen Auzea , positis 
mapalibus consedisse, fisos loco, quia 
vastis circum saitibus claudebatur. 

(25) Ibid . : 

Turn expeditae cohortes alaeque, quam in 
partem ducerentur ignarae, cito agmine 
rapiuntur. Simulque coeptus dies et 
concentu tubarum ac truci clamore aderant 
semisomnos in barbaros, praepeditis 
Numidarum equis aut diversos pastus 
pererrantibus, Ab Romanis confertus pedes, 
dispositae turmae cuncta proelio provisa : 
hostibus contra omnium nesciis non arma, 
non ordo, non consilium, sed pecorum modo 
trahi, occidi, capi. 

(26) Ibid. : 

Infensus miles memoria laborum et 
adversum eludentis optatae totiens pugnae 
se quisque ultione et sanguine explebant. 
Differtur per manipulos , Tacfarinatem 



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omnes, notum tot proeliis, consectentur non 
nisi duce interfecto requiem belli fore. At ille 
deiectis circum stipatoribus, vinctoque iam 
filio et effusis undique Romanis, reundo in 
tela captivitatem haud inulta morte effugit 
isque fin t s armis impositus. 

(27) Ibid., IV. 26 : 

Dolabeilae petenti abnuit triumphalia 
Tiberius, Seiano tribuens, ne Biaesi 
avunculi, eius laus obsolesceret. 

(28) Ibid. : 

Sed neque Blaesus ideo inlustrior, et huic 
negatus honor gloriam intendit : quippe 
minore exercitu insignis captivos, caede 

ducis b3llique confecti famam deportat 

etc. 

(29) Ibid . : 

Cognitis dehinc Ptolemaei per id bellum 
studiis repititus ex vetusto more honos 
missusque e senatoribus, qui scipionem 
eburnum, togam pictam, antiqua patrum 
munera, daret regemque et socium atque 
amicum appellaret. 



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