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Full text of "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition : during the years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842"

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UNITED STATES 



EXPLOKING EXPEDITION. 





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v. 1 


NARRATIVE 

OF THE 



UNITED STATES 

EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 

DURING THE YEARS 

1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. 

BY 

CHARLES' WILKES, U. S. N., 

COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION, 

MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, ETC. 

IN FIVE VOLUMES, AND AN ATLAS. 

VOL. I. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

LEA & BLANCHARD. 

1845. 






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NARRATIVE 



OF THE 



UNITED STATES 



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EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 






DURING THE YEARS 



1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842. 



BY 



CHARLES WILKES, U. S. N, 

COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION, 

MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY, ETC. 



IN FIVE VOLUMES, AND AN ATLAS. 



VOL. I. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

LEA & BLANCHARD. 

1845. 




(CJUN20 1908 ) 



X^afik 



ENTERED, ACCORDING TO THE ACT OF CONGRESS, IN THE YEAR 1844, 

BY CHARLES WILKES, IT. S. N., 

IN THE CLERK'S OFFICE OF THE DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



C. SHERMAN, PRINTER, 
19 ST. JAMES STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 



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Us? 

V.I 



CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 



CHAPTER I. 

DEPARTURE FROM THE UNITED STATES-VOYAGE TO MADEIRA— ARRIVAL AT FUNCHAL 
—APPEARANCE OF MADEIRA FROM THE SEA-LANDING AT FUNCHAL— VISIT TO THE 
CIVIL AND MILITARY GOVERNORS— STREETS, AND MODE OF TRANSPORTATION— CRIMI- 
NALS AND PRISONS-VILLA OF CARVALHAL-CONVENT— RIDES IN MADEIRA— CURRAL — 
VISIT OF SCIENTIFIC GENTLEMEN TO SAN VINCENTE-EXCURSION TOWARDS THE EAST 
END OF THE ISLAND— STORY OF ITS DISCOVERY— POPULATION OF MADEIRA — WINE- 
GOVERNMENT— CHARACTER OF THE INHABITANTS — DRESS — DWELLINGS — MODE OF 
TRAVELLING — EMPLOYMENTS OF THE PEOPLE — WINE-MAKING — LOWER CLASSES - 
ASCENr OF PICO RUIVO — NATURAL HISTORY — QUINT A OF MR. BEAN— SCHOONER STAR 
SAVED FROM WRECK— DEPARTURE FROM MADEIRA 3—26 



CHAPTER II. 

SQUADRON SAILS FROM MADEIRA -CURRENTS -SEARCH FOR SHOALS AND VIGIAS- 
ARRIVAL AT ST. J AGO- APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND-TOWN OF PORTO PRAYA-ITS 
POPULATION — LANGUAGE— VISIT TO THE GOVERNOR — PUBLIC FOUNTAIN — MARKET- 
DRILL OF RECRUITS— DROUGHTS— CLIMATE— SLAVES— DRESS— DEPARTURE FROM PORTO 
PRAYA— FURTHER SEARCH FOR SHOALS, ETC.— ARRIVAL AT RIO JANEIRO 29-44 

VOL. I. B 



y - CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER III. 

CITY OF SAN SALVADOR-ITS IMPROVEMENT-ITS PRESENT CONDITION-CHURCHES— 
THE MISERICORDIA - FUNERALS - EMPERORS BIRTHDAY - AQUEDUCTS - GEOLOGICAL 
CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY — PUBLIC GARDEN- MUSEUM -BAY AND HARBOUR — 
VEGETATION-BOTANIC GARDEN-SLAVE POPULATION-COFFEE-CA RRIERS-RESE ARCHES 
INTO THE NATIONS OF AFRICA-TREATMENT OF SLAVES - STREETS OF THE CITY- 
SOCIETY— WHITE-JACKET BALL — ARRIVAL OF THE RELIEF — ASCENT OF THE SUGAR 
LOAF— SURVEYS— DEFECTS IN THE EQUIPMENT OF THE SQUADRON— TRIP TO THE 
ORGAN MOUNTAINS— JAUNT TO PIEDADE-CONCLUSION OF THE SURVEYS AND OBSER- 
VATIONS—ASCENT OF THE CORCOVADO 47—78 



CHAPTER IV. 

CHARACTER OF THE BRAZILIANS-CONSTITUTION OF THE EMPIRE— RULING PARTY- 
ELECTIVE REGENCY — ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE— ELECTIVE FRANCHISE— ARMY — 
NAVY— SCHOOLS— SLAVERY— FEELING TOWARDS FOREIGNERS— POPULATION— NATIONAL 
DEBT, REVENUE AND EXPENDITURES — COMMERCE — EVENTS IN THE SQUADRON — 
DEPARTURE FROM RIO 81—92 



CHAPTER V. 

PASSAGE TO RIO NEGRO- ARRIVAL THERE -GUACHOS- EXCURSION OF THE NATU- 
RALISTS—SALT AND SALT LAKES— GOVERNMENT AND POPULATION— PRODUCTIONS — 
TARIFF-INDIANS-WANT OF ENTERPRISE-DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY-RIVER AND 
TIDES-CLIMATE-VEGETATION -TRADE -HARBOUR -SQUADRON DRIVEN TO SEA - 
DANGERS IN SURVEYING -CONVICT SETTLEMENT _ COMMUNICATION WITH BUENOS 
AYRES- DEPARTURE FROM RIO NEGRO -STATEN LAND - STRAITS OF LE MAIRE - 
APPEARANCE OF TERRA DEL FUEGO-ITS HARBOUR-PARHELION-MIRAGE-MEETING 
WITH THE REUEF-HER DEPARTURE FROM RIO-CURRENT-RIO PLATA-CAPE RAZA- 
CAPE ST. JOSEPH-CAPE THREE POINTS -DREDGING -BELLACO ROCKS-CAPE ST. DIEGO 
-GOOD SUCCESS BAY -CAPTAIN KING'S SAILING DIRECTIONS - NATIVES - INTER- 
COURSE WITH THEM-BOTANY-GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION-NEW ISLAND-ITS POSITION 
-ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR-EMPLOYMENTS 95 _ I20 



CONTENTS. vii 



CHAPTER VI. 

ORANGE HARBOUR — PLAN OF THE SQUADRON'S OPERATIONS — NATIVES — THEIR 
APPEARANCE — THEIR HUTS— ARRIVAL OF MORE NATIVES — THEIR TALENT FOR 
MIMICKRY — VISIT TO THEIR HUTS— THErR FOOD — SOIL NEAR ORANGE HARBOUR— 
TIDES-WHALES 123-133 



CHAPTER VII. 

DEPARTURE OF PORPOISE— WHALE SHIP— HEIGHT OF WAVES— KING GEORGE'S ISLAND- 
O'BRIEN'S AND ASPLANDS ISLANDS— PALMER'S LAND— ADVENTURE ISLETS— GALE— SEA- 
GULL ORDERED TO RETURN — RETURN OF THE PORPOISE — ELEPHANT ISLAND — GOOD 
SUCCESS BAY — BOAT DETAINED — ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE — ACCIDENT — LIEUTENANT 
HARTSTEIN — GALE — FURTHER ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE THE PARTY — PORPOISE COM- 
PELLED TO PUT TO SEA— CAPE ST. DIEGO — ANCHOR OFF IT— RETURN TO GOOD SUCCESS 
BAY-PARTY JOIN— THEIR TRANSACTIONS— LEAVE GOOD SUCCESS BAY— NASSAU BAY — 
DARK NIGHT — FIND OURSELVES AMONG KELP— ANCHOR— NATIVES — REACH ORANGE 
HARBOUR — ALL WELL — SEA-GULL— DECEPTION ISLAND — PENGUINS — SEA LEOPARD- 
TEMPERATURE— VISIT TO CRATER — FORCE OF WIND — CAPTAIN SMILEY— DEPARTURE- 
ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR— SENT IN SEARCH OF LAUNCH-LOSS OF THAT BOAT- 
RETURN OF SEA-GULL — AGAIN SAILS FOR WOLLASTON'S ISLAND — BAILY ISLAND— SEA- 
GULL HARBOUR-ARRIVAL OF FLYINGFISH. 137—150 



CHAPTER VIII. 

DEPARTURE OF PEACOCK AND FLYING-FISH — GALE — RETURN TO ANCHOR — FINAL 
DEPARTURE— DIEGO RAMIERES— GALE— SEPARATION— DEFECTIVE OUTFITS OF PEACOCK- 
CURRENT— GALE— ACCIDENT TO WILLIAM STEWART— HIS RESCUE— DEATH— FIRST ICE- 
BERG—DIP OBSERVATIONS— WEATHER-ICEBERGS AND SNOW— GALE— SITUATION OF 
PEACOCK— BIRDS— AURORA AUSTRALIS— DEEP SEA SOUNDING— FOG— PETRELS — BREAK- 
ING ASUNDER OF ICEBERGS— DENSE FOG— DANGERS— SNOW-STORM — OBSERVATIONS— 
FLYING-FISH REJOINS — LIEUTENANT WALKER'S REPORT — SITUATION OF VESSELS- 
COUNCIL OF OFFICERS-CAPTAIN HUDSON RESOLVES TO RETURN-WEATHER-AURORA— 
GALE — SHIP ON FIRE — FLYING-FISH DESPATCHED FOR ORANGE HARBOUR — GALE— 



... CONTENTS. 

ACCIDENT TO ROYAL HOPE-PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SEA -WHALE SHIP-ARRIVAL OF 
PEACOCK AT VALPARAISO- FIND THE RELIEF- LIEUTENANT-COMMANDANT LONG'S 
INSTRUCTIONS-DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED-GALE-TOWER ROCKS- ANCHOR UNDER 
NOIR ISLAND-DANGEROUS POSITION-LOSS OF ANCHORS-AWFUL NIGHT-PART CABLES 
—NARROW ESCAPE-CONDUCT OF COMMANDANT AND OFFICERS-COUNCIL-DETERMLNA- 
TION OF IT-PROCEED TO VALPARAISO-ARRIVAL OFF THE PORT-COMMANDANT LOCKE, 
H. B. M. SHIP FLY-RELIEF ANCHORS-ARRIVAL OF FLYING-FISH AT ORANGE HARBOUR- 
PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE -WINDS -TEMPERATURE -BAROMETRICAL RANGE- 
CLIMATE-ANIMALS-WOLF -BIRDS-ORANGE HARBOUR-VINCENNES AND PORPOISE TAKE 
THEIR DEPARTURE— SEA-GULL AND FLYING-FISH TO AWAIT THE RELIEF— ANCHOR IN 
SCAPENHAM BAY-GALE-ORANGE BAY— FINAL DEPARTURE— VINCENNES AND PORPOISE 
PART COMPANY— ALBATROSS — DYSENTERY— ISLAND OF MOCHA— TRADE WINDS— VIN- 
CENNES' ARRIVAL AT VALPARAISO— ARRIVAL OF PORPOISE AND FLYING-FISH— HEAVY 
GALE— SEA-GULL LAST SEEN— WHALER 153-166 



CHAPTER IX. 

APPROACH THE COAST— CORDILLERAS— VISIT TO AUTHORITIES OF VALPARAISO— LAND- 
ING OF INSTRUMENTS — CUSTOM-HOUSE OFFICERS — MR. COOD — OBSERVATORY — G. 
G. HOBSON, ESQ. — NORTHERS — PERCEPTIBLE CHANGE IN THE BAY— VALPARAISO — 
DESCRIPTION OF IT— ITS ORDER AND GOVERNMENT — TRAIT OF CHILIANS — POLICE — 
THEIR SIGNAL— SHOPS — AMUSEMENTS — CHINGANO — DANCES — SAMACUECA — HIGHER 
CLASSES— DRESS — TASTE FOR MUSIC — FONDNESS FOR FLOWERS — GENERAL PRIETO 
—HONOURS PAID HIM— BALL— DESCRIPTION OF IT 169—177 



CHAPTER X. 

JOURNEY INTO THE INTERIOR-BILOCHES-TRAVELLING-CASA BLANCA - GEOLOGICAL 
FORMATION-CURACOVI-HEATH ABOVE THE SEA-CUESTA DE ZAPATA -CUESTA DEL 
PRADA-ROADS-TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS-BEGGARS-PLAIN OF MAYPO-CORDILLE- 
RAS-ST. JAGO - MINT - LIBRARY - AMUSEMENTS - FASHIONS - MARKET - CLIMATE - 
EXCURSION TO THE CORDILLERAS-MOUNTAIN SCENERY-SNOW-GUANACOES-HEAT- 
RETURN TO ST. JAGO-M A YPOCHO- JOURNEY TO SAN FELIPE-QUILLOTA-TUPONGATI 
PEAK- DIKES -EVANGELISTO CELIDONO - FARM-HOUSE - CATCHING WILD HORSES- 
RANCHO-ENTERTAINMENT-ARRIVAL AT SAN FELIPE DE ACONCAGUA-MR. NEWMAN'S- 
MR. CHASE-TOWN OF SAN FELIPE-CHICHA AND AGUARDIENTE-THEIR MANUFACTURE 
-AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS-VISIT THE COPPER MINES-MODES OF WORKING THEM- 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



THEIR SITUATION— TRANSPORTATION OF ORES— WAGES-TEMPERANCE REGULATIONS- 
LAKE ON THE HIGH CORDILLERAS— COPPER ORES-RETURN TO SAN FELIPE-KINDNESS 
OF MR. NEWMAN AND LADY— CELIDONO— QUILLOTA— RETURN TO VALPARAISO-EARTH- 
QUAKES—PROTESTANT CHURCH— LIBERALITY OF PRIESTHOOD— ORACION— COMMERCE- 
EXPORTS— IMPORTS— FOREIGN VESSELS— POPULATION— COLLEGES— CONGRESS— IMPROVE- 
MENTS IN PROGRESS-REVENUE— NATIONAL DEBT— CLIMATE— FRUITS-ADMINISTRATION 
— EXECUTIVE — SENATE — HOUSE OF DEPUTIES— MILITIA— ARMY— NAVY— G. G. HOBSON. 
ESQ., U. S. CONSUL -LIEUTENANT CRAVEN — HIS GALLANT CONDUCT— CAPTAIN ISAAC 
M'KEEVER— U. S. SHIP FALMOUTH— FLYING-FISH— GALE— SEAGULL LAST SEEN— HER LOSS 
—PASSED MIDSHIPMAN JAMES W. E. REID— PASSED MIDSHIPMAN FREDERICK A. BACON- 
ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT OF CHILI 181—214 



CHAPTER XL 

WANT OF CORRECT HISTORICAL RECORDS-O'HIGGINS DECLARED SUPREME DICTATOR- 
RESIGNS IN 1823— COUNCIL OF STATE APPOINTED-GENERAL FREYRE LANDS AT VALPA- 
RAISO—ARREST OF O'HIGGINS-HIS RELEASE — GENERAL RAMON FREYRE ASSUMES 
THE GOVERNMENT— RETIRES TO PRIVATE LIFE— ADMIRAL BLANCO PRESIDENT— BLANCO 
RESIGNS— SUCCEEDED BY VICE-PRESIDENT— HIS RESIGNATION— FREYRE AGAIN CHOSEN 
PRESIDENT— FREYRE RESIGNS— PRIETO BECOMES PRESIDENT— RESIGNS— PRESIDENT OF 
THE SENATE ACTS— ELECTION HELD— PRIETO ELECTED-REFUSES TO SERVE— VICUNEA 
PRESIDENT OF SENATE — TROUBLES — JUNTA APPOINTED— CIVIL WAR— ABANDONMENT 
OF THE CAPITAL— FREYRE CALLED IN— JOINS THE PRESIDENT'S PARTY — BATTLE OF 
LIRCAI, APRIL, 1830— DEFEAT OF FREYRE— HIS BANISHMENT TO PERU— NEW ELECTION- 
DON FRANCISCO TAGLE RETURNED AS PRESIDENT— OVALLE AS VICE-PRESIDENT— BOTH 
RESIGN — PRESIDENT OF SENATE AGAIN ACTS — NEW ELECTION — GENERAL PRIETO 
ELECTED, JULY, 1831— STATE OF THE COUNTRY— HIS ADMINISTRATION— DIEGO PORTALES 
—SYSTEM OF REFORM— MILITIA SYSTEM— ESTABLISHES PUBLIC CREDIT— CIVIL RULE- 
TRANSACTIONS WITH PERU— RATIFICATION OF TREATY, AND RECEPTION OF MINISTER 
— CrVIL WAR IN PERU— DEFEAT OF SALAVERRY— NEW ORGANIZATION OF PERUVIAN 
GOVERNMENT — RUPTURE BETWEEN CHILI AND PERU — SECRET EXPEDITION UNDER 
GENERAL FREYRE— INTELLIGENCE OF IT RECEIVED IN CHILI— ACTIVITY OF GOVERN- 
MENT-CAPTURE OF FREYRE — HIS SECOND BANISHMENT — POPULARITY OF THE 
ADMINISTRATION — SEIZURE OF PERUVIAN VESSELS — SUSPENSION OF HOSTILITIES — 
CONVENTION-CHILI REFUSES TO RATIFY THE PROCEEDINGS-CHILI SENDS HER FLEET 
—CHILI DECLARES WAR — EXPEDITION ORGANIZED— DECREE OF PRESIDENT PRIETO— 
EXPEDITION FITTED OUT UNDER ADMIRAL BLANCO— TROOPS QUARTERED AT QUILLOTA 
—PORTALES' INSPECTION OF TROOPS — HIS ARREST — VIDAURRE'S MUTINY— ACTA OF 
OFFICERS — NEWS REACHES VALPARAISO — CONSTERNATION — CONDUCT OF MILITIA— 
VIDAURRE'S DEMANDS-PORTALES' NOBLE CONDUCT— VIDAURRE'S ATTACK ON VALPA- 
VOL. I. 



CONTENTS. 



RAISO-HIS DEFEAT AND FLIGHT - PORTALES' DEATH- VIDAURRE CAPTURED AND 
BROUGHT TO VALPARAISO-TRIAL AND EXECUTION-EXPEDITION SAILS TO PERU-ITS 
FAILURE-TREATY OF PAUCARPATA-EXPEDITION RETURNS-BLANCO DEPRIVED OF HIS 
COMMAND-BULNES-NEW EXPEDITION-ITS DEPARTURE 217-232 



CHAPTER XII. 

PORPOISE SAILS— ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS-DIFFICULTIES OF LEAVING THE BAY 
-REGULATIONS OF PORT BADLY OBSERVED-CONDUCT OF THE CAPTAIN OF HAMBURG 
VESSEL- DEPARTURE -PART COMPANY WITH PEACOCK AND TENDER - EVENTS ON 
PASSAGE TO CALLAO-ZODIACAL LIGHTS-MAKE THE COAST OF PERU-TEMPERATURE 
OF WATER— ENTER BOUQUERON PASSAGE— ANCHOR AT SAN LORENZO — GEOLOGICAL 
STRUCTURE OF ISLAND - BURYING - GROUND - ARRIVAL OF FALMOUTH - CAPTAIN 
M'KEEVER-HIS KINDNESS-DESERTERS-CONDUCT OF CREW OF RELIEF-PUNISHMENT 
-EFFECTUAL SUPPRESSION OF SUCH CONDUCT -COURT-MARTIAL — JUSTIFICATION - 
CHANGE OF ANCHORAGE TO CALLAO-HEIGHT OF LIMA— MOLE-CALLAO- VESSELS IN 
PORT-CASTLE-DESCRIPTION OF HOUSES-RELIGIOUS PRACTICES — MARKET— REVIEW 
OF TROOPS-OLD CALLAO-EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE-VAULTS FOR DEPOSITING THE 
DEAD— POPULATION OF CALLAO— FOURTH OF JULY— ROAD TO LIMA — DEVASTATIONS- 
BELLA VISTA — APPROACH TO LIMA — ENTRANCE AND APPEARANCE — ITS PLAN — 
AMUSEMENTS — SAYA AND MANTA — ITS PRIVILEGES -DESCRIPTION OF IT— HOUSES— 
PORTALES OR ARCADES— PALACE— FOUNTAIN— CATHEDRAL— CRYPT— NOVEL HEARSE- 
MARKET— CONVENT OF SAN FRANCISCO— LIBRARY— SIGNATURE OF PIZARRO— FOUNDING 
OF LIMA — THEATRE — NAVAL SCHOOL — CLASSES OF NATIVES -POPULATION — NEWS- 
PA PERS-HAND-BILLS— FESTIVAL— CORPUS CHRISTI— MR. MATHEWS— MANUFACTORIES- 
FESTIVAL OF ST. JOHN'S— AMANCAES — CELEBRATION— EARTHQUAKES— EFFECTS PRO- 
DUCED—GATEWAY, NAVAL SCHOOL— CLIMATE— RAIN— MEAN TEMPERATURE— HEALTH— 
RIMAC— IRRIGATION— HARVEST— CHILIAN ARMY— STATE OF THE COUNTRY— MANNER OF 
RECRUITING THE ARMY — TREATMENT OF SLAVES-DEATH OF BENJAMIN HOLDEN — 
SMALL-POX-PRECAUTIONS ADOPTED 235—258 



CHAPTER XIII. 

A PARTY FOR THE INTERIOR- PREPARATIONS FOR THE JOURNEY- PASSPORTS- MR. 
BIGGS -DEPARTURE -EFFECT OF OFFICIAL PAPERS-FACE OF COUNTRY -RUINS OF 
INCA TOWNS -PONCHORUA-CABALLEROS- CONVOY OF SILVER- ACCOMMODATIONS - 
EARTHQUAKE- ROUTE UP THE VALLEY OF CAXAVILLO-FACE OF COUNTRY-ST. ROSA 



CONTENTS. x j 

DE QUIVI— YASO— OBRAJILLO— DIFFICULTIES IN PROCURING MULES-BEAUTY OF SITUA- 
TION—LLAMAS-RIOTERS—PLUNDERING OF INHABITANTS — CULNAI — LA VINDA — 
VEGETATION— MULETEERS ENCOUNTERED-REACH THE CREST OF THE CORDILLERAS— 
CASA CANCHA— ITS ACCOMMODATIONS-COOKING RANGE-SICKNESS OF PARTY-SNOW- 
STORM— ALPAMARCA— COMPANY OF PERUVIANS — THEIR ATTENTIONS— PROCESS OF 
AMALGAMATION OF ORE— MR. BEVAN— VISIT TO THE MINE— FACE OF THE MOUNTAIN- 
ROAD— B A NOS— HOT SPRING— BEAUTY OF VALLEY— VEGETATION— THREATENED ATTACK 
OF A CONDOR— PORTRAIT — INCIDENTS RELATING TO IT— DESCRIPTION OF BANOS— ITS 
HABITATIONS— STATE OF HORSES— RETURN TO CASA CANCHA— CHILIAN CONVOY FROM 
PASCO— PASCO— MINES— VEINS OF ORE— NUMBER OF MINES IN OPERATION— LAWS IN 
RELATION TO SILVER MINED-DUTIES-HILL OF RACO— NEW SPECULATIONS IN 1840— 
DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING MINES - THE POLITICAL STATE OF THE COUNTRY 
ADVERSE TO THIS BUSINESS — TEMPERATURE — BEAUTY OF SITUATION OF CASA 
CANCHA— THEIR DEPARTURE ON THEIR RETURN — LINE OF PERPETUAL SNOW- 
AMMONITE — CH1CRINE — TRAVELLING PARTIES — FRENCHMAN — HIS COMPLIMENTS — 
CULNAI — CULTIVATION — HOSPITALITY — OBRAJILLO — ACCOMMODATIONS — WANT OF 
GALLANTRY — GUIDES — SETTLEMENT — BRDDAL PARTY — YASO — ROBBERY — YANG A — 
HOSTESS— ANGELITA— CABALLEROS— RETURN TO LIMA— BOTANICAL REVIEW— GEOLOGI- 
CAL CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY— FLYING-FISH SENT TO PACHACAMAC— LANDING- 
TEMPLE— TOWN— TOMBS— THEIR CONTENTS— EMBARKATION-RETURN TO CALLAO. 

261—291 



CHAPTER XIV. 

SELF-AGGRANDIZEMENT THE OBJECT OF RULERS — END OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR — 
GENERAL BOLIVAR DICTATOR— HIS AUTHORITY CEASES— GENERAL LA MAR ELECTED— 
GAMARRA'S TREACHERY— LA MAR ARRESTED AND BANISHED— GAMARRA AND LAFUENTE 
ELECTED— ATTEMPfS TO SEIZE LAFUENTE-HIS ESCAPE— EXECUTION OF MAJOR ROSEL— 
CONVENTION CONVOKED — GAMARRA RESIGNS — ORBEJOSO ELECTED — REVOLUTION BY 
BERMUDEZ AND GAMARRA— BERMUDEZ CAPTURED— ORBEJOSO'S AUTHORITY RESTORED 
— SALAVERRY REVOLTS — DECLARES HIMSELF SUPREME DICTATOR — UNITES WITH 
GAMARRA— GAMARRA DEFEATED— ARRESTED BY SALAVERRY AND BANISHED — SALA- 
VERRY MARCHES AGAINST SANTA CRUZ — BATTLE OF SOCABAYA — SALAVERRY 
DEFEATED — TAKEN PRISONER — TRIED AND SHOT — ORBEJOSO REINSTATED— TREATY 
WITH CHILI NULLIFIED — SANTA CRUZ'S INTRIGUES — DISMEMBERMENT OF PERU — 
ASSEMBLY OF SICUAN1— SANTA CRUZ NAMED SUPREME PROTECTOR— CONVENTION OF 
HUARA — GENERAL FREYRE FITS OUT AN EXPEDITION — CHILIAN CONSUL-GENERAL 
EVADES THE EMBARGO— SEIZURE OF PERUVIAN VESSELS— NEGOTIATION— CESSATION OF 
HOSTILITIES — INVASION OF ALTA PERU — DISASTROUS CAMPAIGN— TREATY OF PEACE- 
RETURN OF CHILIAN ARMY— CHILIAN GOVERNMENT REFUSES TO RATIFY THE TREATY 
-LEGION OF HONOUR — DISCONTENT AT SANTA CRUZ'S POLICY — WAR AGAIN COM- 



.. CONTENTS. 

Xll 

MENCED- EXPEDITION FROM CHILI - INVASION OF PERU -BATTLE OF LIMA -LIMA 
TAKEN -ORBEJOSO ESCAPES- GAMARRA NAMED PRESIDENT -SANTA CRUZ MARCHES 
UPON LIMA-CHILIANS EMBARK-LAND AT HUARA-PURSUED BY SANTA CRUZ-BATTLE 
OF YUNGAI- SANTA CRUZ TOTALLY DEFEATED - ESCAPES TO LIMA -THENCE TO 
AREQUIPA-SEEKS REFUGE ON BOARD A BRITISH SHIP OF WAR-BULNES SAILS AGAIN 
FOR CALLAO- DISEMBARKS HIS TROOPS -TAKES POSSESSION OF LIMA - CONGRESS 
CONVOKED-GAMARRA ELECTED PRESIDENT-RESULTS OF BATTLE OF YUNGAI-BULNES 
WITH HIS ARMY RETURNS TO CHILI -GAMARRA GOES TO AID BOLIVIA-HIS FORCES 
ROUTED, AND HIMSELF KILLED — CHARACTER OF BOLIVAR -LA MAR -GAMARRA — 
LAFUENTE-ORBEJOSO-SALAVERRY-SANTA CRUZ-HIS ACTS-COMMERCE— PERU AND 
CHILI-IMPORTS-EXPORTS-TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES 295-315 



CHAPTER XV. 

STORE-SHIP RELIEF— EDWIN BARTLETT, ESQ. — EDWARD M'CALL, ESQ. — DEPARTURE- 
CAPTAIN M'KEEVER-PERUVIAN BRIG— SMALL-POX-GENERAL ORDER— PROPOSED ROUTE 

— CURRENTS — EXPERIMENTS — TEMPERATURE — ALEXANDER OGLE — CLERMONT , DE 
TONNERRE— APPEARANCE OF IT— SURVEY— NATIVES— JOHN SAC — DIFFICULTIES WITH 
THE NATIVES — LANDING — SERLE ISLAND — HONDEN — SURVEYS — CORAL ISLANDS — 
VEGETATION — BIRDS, ETC.— DISAPPOINTMENT ISLANDS — INHABITANTS — WYTOOHEE- 
OTOOHO-TAIARO — RARAKA— LANDING-ONE-HANDED CHIEF— HIS VISIT TO THE SHIP— 
INHABITANTS-CATCHING FISH-LEAVE-TAKING-GALE-NARROW ESCAPE OF PEACOCK- 
PORPOISE DESPATCHED— VINCENNES ISLAND— CRITICAL POSITION OF TENDER— LANDING 

— ARATICA ISLAND— COMMUNICATION WITH ITS INHABITANTS — LANDING — VILLAGE- 
DESCRIPTION OF ISLAND — FRESH WATER — FOOD — TENDER DESPATCHED TO KING 
GEORGE'S GROUP-VINCENNES AND PEACOCK DISCOVER MANHII AND AHH ISLAND- 
SURVEY - LANDING - OBSERVATIONS - NATIVES - DESERTER- ECLIPSE — PEACOCK DE- 
SPATCHED TO RURICK ISLAND - VINCENNES PASSES TO NAIRSA — INHABITANTS — 
KRUSENSTERN'S ISLAND - METIA ISLAND-ITS APPEARANCE -SURVEY- LANDING- 
NATIVES- MISSIONARIES' KINDNESS-COSTUMES-ASCEND THE ISLAND-VEGETATION - 
APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND-DEPARTURE-ARRIVAL AT TAHITI-ANCHOR IN MATA- 
VAI BAY-OBSERVATIONS ON POINT VENUS-PROCEEDINGS OF PORPOISE-PROCEEDINGS 
OF PEACOCK- ARUTUA -SURVEY -NAIRSA OR DEAN'S ISLAND-CORAL BLOCKS-METIA 
1SLAND-OBSERVATIONS-TETUAROA-FLYING-FISH-TIOKEA AND OURA-HISTORY OF 
PAUMOTU GROUP-CHARACTER OF ITS INHABITANTS-POPULATION 319-359 



INTRODUCTION. 



The Expedition, a narrative of the operations of which is now laid 
before the public, was the first, and is still the only one fitted out by 
national munificence for scientific objects, that has ever left our shores. 
It would, therefore, appear proper that a more minute account of its 
outfit should be given, than could be expected of one despatched by 
an older nation. This is more particularly the case, as a great part of 
the difficulties it had to encounter, occurred previously to its sailing. 
I would not, however, have the reader to believe that I intend to enter 
into details of transactions of which, perhaps, no one knows the origin, 
or to speculate on the causes that operated to prevent its sailing within 
a reasonable time after the passage of the Act of Congress directing 
it to be undertaken. 

The command of the Exploring Expedition devolved upon me, by 
orders from the Hon. Mahlon Dickerson, then Secretary of the Navy, 
on the 20th March, 1838. At that time, great confusion existed in its 
organization. It is unnecessary, and would be out of place here, to 
enter into its previous history. It is sufficient to refer to the fact, 
that it had already been denounced as an entire and complete failure, 
and that I was instructed to organize it anew. 

Whatever others are disposed to think, I am inclined to believe, 
that the originating, getting up, and getting off" a first National Expe- 



xiv INTRODUCTION. 

dition, is a work of no small difficulty, and this is much increased 
by the public thinking, talking of, and interfering too much with 
it. I felt this myself, although it did not cause me much diffi- 
culty. The successive resignations of the different officers who 
had been appointed to the command, led every body to look upon it 
with disgust, and, in consequence, my road was clear, or comparatively 
unembarrassed. The very state of things that brought the Expedition 
into general disrepute, was of great advantage to me, for I was left 
to perform my duties unmolested. One of the difficulties I had to 
encounter, was to make a selection from the numerous articles pro- 
vided, and this was a work of no ordinary kind. They may have 
been all useful, and perhaps necessary for a larger Squadron ; but if 
all had been embarked, every vessel of the Squadron would have been 
filled. Every expense that could be lavished on its equipment had 
been incurred. One rule of action soon brought me to dispose of the 
whole : this was the capacity to stow them ; and parts of each were 
accordingly selected for the new order of things. 

On the 20th of April, I was informed that the vessels appointed for 
this service were the sloops of war Vincennes and Peacock, the brig 
Porpoise, and store-ship Relief. The tenders Sea-Gull and Flying- 
Fish were subsequently added. 

The Relief was the only one of the vessels that had belonged to the 
original Squadron. 

On this reduction of force, it became necessary to change the 
organization, not only in point of numbers, but also to bring the 
officers into more intimate connexion with the scientific duties. 

This was done by placing all those departments that in any way 
appertained or belonged to our profession under my direction, with 
officers of the navy for assistants. The size and accommodation of 
the vessels naturally led to the reduction of those departments that 
were placed under the corps of civilians, including naturalists as well 
as artists. As many of these were taken as could be accommodated. 
The selection was made with much deliberation, and with great 
impartiality. Reference was had to the departments in which results 
were most to be expected, and most desired by the country. The 



INTRODUCTION. xv 

only new one added was the Horticulturist and Assistant-Botanist, 
Mr. Brackenridge. 

After the 20th of April, every exertion was made to forward the 
various outfits. By the 7th July, the Vincennes and Peacock were 
taken charge of, and dropped down between the forts at Norfolk, 
and it was determined that the Squadron should rendezvous in Hamp- 
ton Roads. On the following day, the seamen were transferred from 
the Macedonian, which had been the flag-ship under the original 
organization. I felt some solicitude about the crews. They had been 
a long time shipped, and had manifested their discontent in a letter 
addressed to the Secretary of the Navy, in which they objected to 
being transferred to a younger and new set of officers. The plan I 
adopted was at once to send them on shore on liberty, and thus show 
entire confidence in them. To my great surprise, they returned, to a 
man, showing that no disposition adverse to the service existed among 
them, and that the bad feeling was nothing more than what might 
naturally be expected to result from a long confinement on board of a 
ship, in sight of their homes, and the constant disappointment they 
had met with in a delayed departure. From this circumstance, and 
the prospect of no further detention, their spirits revived, and great 
activity prevailed in all the departments to forward the preparations. 
All the instruments had been brought from New York in the Mace- 
donian, under care of Lieutenant Carr. Part of them, including the 
Chronometers, had been landed at the Naval Asylum, where a 
Portable Transit had been put up, for rating them. The instruments 
appertaining to Magnetism and the Pendulums were carried to Wash- 
ington, to make the necessary experiments. 

The depot of charts and instruments on Capitol Hill, was selected 
to make the series of observations at. These occupied my own time 
until sailing. 

On the 26th of July, Martin Van Buren, the President of the United 
States, accompanied by Mr. Paulding, Secretary of the Navy, and 
Mr. Poinsett, Secretary of War, did us the honour to visit the Vin- 
cennes. On this occasion, and the only one during the continuance of 
my command, a salute was fired, (none of the instruments had then 



xv j INTRODUCTION. 

been embarked,) by all the vessels, and the yards were manned. This 
produced a good effect on all, for it showed us that a watchful eye was 
kept over us, and that much interest was felt in the undertaking. 
This visit formed an epoch to which I often heard reference made 
during the cruise. Few are able to estimate the feelings of satisfac- 
tion that such acts occasion to those engaged in undertakings like this. 

I shall now proceed to give a description of the vessels that com- 
posed the Squadron. 

The Vincennes was a sloop of war, of seven hundred and eighty 
tons, originally single-decked, but in consequence of the intended 
cruise, a light deck was put on her for the protection of the men, and 
to afford more room. The accommodations thus became those of a 
small frigate. 

The Peacock was of smaller size, a sloop of war of six hundred and 
fifty tons, originally built for this service in 1828, with a deck like that 
of the Vincennes. She had made two cruises previous to her sailing 
in 1838. 

The Porpoise, a gun-brig of two hundred and thirty tons. The 
experience I had had in this vessel induced me to ask for an altera- 
tion, which was made, and added much to her safety, as well as 
increased her accommodations. This was to build a poop-cabin and 
a forecastle on her deck. 

The tenders Sea-Gull and Flying-Fish were New York pilot- 
boats. The former had been known as the New Jersey, of one hun- 
dred and ten tons ; the latter as the Independence, of ninety-six tons. 
They were purchased on the 3d of August. Their masts, sails, &c, 
were reduced, and their outfits completed in the short space of three 
days, by those enterprising shipwrights, Messrs. Webb and Allen of 
New York, to whom much credit is due. They joined the Squadron 
on the 12th of August, in Hampton Roads. 

The Relief was a new vessel, originally intended for a store-ship for 
the Navy, but had been transferred to the Expedition on being 
launched. She was built for carrying, and her slow rate of sailing 
made her ill adapted for the cruise. 

The Expedition is much indebted to Commodore Ridgely and the 



INTRODUCTION. xy {[ 

officers of the Brooklyn Navy- Yard. To Commodore Dowries and 
Captain Percival, of the Navy- Yard, Boston, we are also under great 
obligations. The boats prepared under the direction of the last named 
officers, were found to be well adapted for the service. They were all 
clinker-built with the exception of the launches, and of the description 
used by whalers and sealers. 

After the Peacock's return in 1837, she had undergone little or no 
repairs. Her bottom was indeed sound, being built of live-oak, but 
her upper-works were worn and much decayed, as the sequel proved. 
After this vessel left the Navy- Yard at Norfolk, her fore and cross- 
jackyards were found by her commander to be rotten. On its being 
reported to the commandant of the yard, they were ordered to be 
replaced, and all the other defects partially remedied. 

The carpenter of the Washington Navy-Yard, Mr. J. H. Smoot, 
built for me, under order of the Commissioners of the Navy, a very 
convenient portable pendulum-house and observatory, which answered 
every purpose for which it was intended. 

The organization of this Expedition has frequently been a subject 
of remark. I have therefore obtained all the papers that passed 
between the government and Captain Hudson, in relation to it, prior 
to his accepting the position he occupied. They form, with a few 
remarks, the first pages of the Appendix to this volume, and will place 
the whole in its true light. 

The Narrative will fully show the part he has taken in carrying out 
the instructions of the Department, and I must acknowledge and 
return my thanks to him for the aid he afforded me in the arduous 
duties that devolved upon me. 

To Lieutenant Cadwalader Ringgold, the commander of the Por- 
poise, I am indebted, for his hearty co-operation in the duties that 
devolved upon the Expedition. The efficient manner in which he at 
all times held his command, and the promptness with which he 
carried out the duties assigned him, merit my warmest acknowledg- 
ments and thanks. 

The best encomium I can bestow on the united efforts of the 
officers and men, is to refer the reader to the Hydrographical Atlas, 



xviii INTRODUCTION. 

and the details in the Narrative of the duties which have been per- 
formed. 

In the observatory duties and pendulum observations, I was princi- 
pally assisted by Lieutenant Carr, Passed Midshipmen Eld and Blunt, 
and Mr. Howison. I deem it my duty to speak of the devotedness of 
Assistant-Surgeons Fox and Holmes, who, besides attending to their 
engrossing medical duties and meteorological observations, manifested 
the utmost zeal in collecting and making researches in the various 
departments of natural history. They also frequently assisted in the 
surveys, and I found them ever ready to engage in any thing that 
could promote the success of the Expedition. 

It gives me great pleasure to acknowledge the credit that is due, 
and the obligations I feel under to Mr. R. R. Waldron and Mr. Wil- 
liam Spieden, Pursers attached to the Expedition, for their promptness 
in procuring the supplies, and at all times forwarding the business of 
the Expedition; none of the departments of the service were more 
efficient than that over which they had control. 

Since our return, Lieutenants Carr, Budd, Totten, and Eld, with 
Mr. F. D. Stuart, who were attached to the Expedition, have been 
engaged under my direction in recalculating and revising our nume- 
rous surveys, previous to their being engraved. 

To Messrs. Drayton and Agate, the artists of the Expedition, I feel 
it due to make known how constantly and faithfully they have per- 
formed their duties. The illustrations of these volumes will bear 
ample testimony to the amount of their labours, and the accuracy 
with which they have been executed. 

Mr. Drayton has had the management of the whole engraving 
department assigned him by the Committee of the Library, and has 
accomplished what very few believed could be done in this country. 
The distribution of the work among the engravers has given general 
satisfaction, not only to the Committee, but to the artists themselves, 
and has afforded a national encouragement to this description of art, 
the benefit of which it will long continue to feel. 

To Mr. Drayton I owe many acknowledgments for his constant and 
untiring zeal in all the departments of the Expedition, not only during 



INTRODUCTION. x j x 

the continuance of the Expedition, but since its return, while acting 
in concert with me in preparing the illustrations of the Narrative for 
the press. I cannot but congratulate myself, that we should have been 
so fortunate in having one attached to the Expedition so well adapted 
to encounter, and from his former experience to overcome, the difficul- 
ties we have had to contend with in the progress of the publication. 

The country is particularly indebted to the Joint Committees of two 
successive Congresses* who have had the execution of the law for the 
publication of the results of the Exploring Expedition entrusted to 
them. They have afforded me all the assistance I could desire ; and 
through the facilities obtained, I have been enabled to bring the Nar- 
rative to completion at a much earlier day than I at first anticipated. 

To the Hon. Benjamin Tappan especially, I feel under obligations 
for the great interest he has ever taken in the Expedition. The law 
for the publication was originally reported by him; he was at an 
early day appointed the agent of the Committee to superintend the 
whole work in its progress; and it has afforded me great pleasure, as 
well as satisfaction, to co-operate with one so competent to the task. 

I am aware that some dissatisfaction was occasionally felt at the 
outset by a few of the naturalists, because they were not allowed all 
the opportunities they desired of making investigations. It was not 

* Members of the Joint Committee on the Library of Congress, at the Second Session 
of the Twenty-seventh Congress : 

SENATORS. REPRESENTATIVES. 

Hon. William C. Preston, Chairman, Hon. Joseph L. Tillinghast, 

Benjamin Tappan, John B. Aycrigg, 

Rufus Choate. Thomas D. Sumter. 

At the Third Session of the Twenty-seventh Congress : 

SENATORS. REPRESENTATIVES. 

Hon. William Woodbridge, Chairman, Hon. Joseph L. Tillinghast, 
Benjamin Tappan, John B. Aycrigg, 

Rufus Choate. Thomas D. Sumter. 

At the First Session of the Twenty-eighth Congress : 

SENATORS. REPRESENTATIVES. 

Hon. Rufus Choate, Chairman, Hon. Edmund Burke, 

Benjamin Tappan, George P. Marsh, 

John M. Berrien. William B. Maclay. 



xx INTRODUCTION. 

to be supposed, from the many interests, and their inexperience in 
naval duties, that all could agree that the particular objects of their 
several departments received the proper consideration. Each would 
naturally look upon his own as the most important. They were not 
aware of my instructions, and of the duties that were enjoined upon 
me ; and I think did not take into consideration the loss of time I 
had met with from various causes, and that my intentions were at 
times unexpectedly frustrated. Besides, it was my duty to look to the 
essential objects of the Expedition, which were entirely unknown to 
them. They are now, after the cruise has passed, I believe fully 
satisfied that it was not possible, without sacrificing the greater 
interests, to give more attention than I did to subordinate parts. 

I cannot avoid bearing testimony to their perseverance, industry, 
zeal, and strict conformity to the rules and regulations laid down for 
the government of us all. The result of their labours will shortly be 
before the public, and will show the manner in which they have per- 
formed their duties. They messed with the ward-room officers, 
and received all the privileges, respect, and attention due to that 
rank. 

In the following Narrative, it may perhaps be necessary to state, 
that although our time was limited to a few days at some of the places 
we visited, yet the number of officers and gentlemen engaged under 
rny command, enabled me to have every thing worthy of notice 
examined. The result of our observations, I am satisfied, will give a 
faithful representation of the countries and islands, during the period 
of our visit. 

I received every facility for obtaining information from our consuls, 
as well as from missionaries and American residents abroad. Some 
of them furnished me with interesting documents, connected with the 
past and present state of the countries where they reside, and procured 
from the different governments many valuable official papers. Indeed, 
the facilities met with have evinced a desire in all to further the under- 
taking with which I was charged. 

To the Governor of New South Wales, Sir George Gipps, my 
acknowledgments are particularly due, for his generous liberality in 
ordering me to be furnished by the Colonial Secretary, E. Deas 



INTRODUCTION. xx [ 

Thompson, Esq., with all the documents published, not only at the 
time of our visit, but since. The latter have been kindly forwarded 
by our Consul, J. H. Williams, Esq., to whom the Expedition is also 
greatly indebted. From all these documents I have been enabled to 
draw much valuable information, which I hope will be interesting to 
the general reader, as well as useful to our interests abroad. 

The reader who shall look to this Narrative for my version of the 
developements which were elicited by the proceedings of the courts- 
martial, will be disappointed, as I shall make no allusions that I can 
possibly avoid, to any of the subjects of a personal character that came 
before those tribunals, that occurred after the return of the Expedi- 
tion ; nor will the following Narrative embrace any personal matters or 
difficulties that may have taken place with the officers, for the reason 
that I do not regard such details as relevant or interesting to the general 
reader. The attempts to throw impediments in my way were unsuc- 
cessful, and I fully believe, that from whatever motive they may have 
arisen, those who caused them are now desirous that they should be 
forgotten. My countrymen will see that my duties were sufficiently 
arduous without having other difficulties to contend with, and I have 
the gratification of feeling that those duties have been performed, and 
the results fairly obtained. 

The performance of these duties is the best refutation that can be 
given to the many misstatements that have been circulated to the 
prejudice of the Expedition, but which, I trust, will now be set at 
rest. I have never had any personal feeling in the matter, except 
that which naturally arises from the wish to overcome all impedi- 
ments, of whatever nature they might be. I can, therefore, have no 
desire but to give the true version of every circumstance of a public 
nature that may concern the Expedition, and I hope that I shall be 
able to do it with impartiality and justice, touching as lightly as pos- 
sible on the faults of individuals, and bestowing praise wherever it is 
justly due. 

The objects intended to be accomplished by the Expedition, were 
such as to require not merely the usual obedience to the orders of its 
commander, but demanded, in addition, a zeal, that could only be 



xxii INTRODUCTION. 

inspired by a strong interest in its success, and intelligence of a 
higher character than is called into action in the ordinary routine of 
the duty of an officer. Deficiency in either quality, was to oppose an 
obstacle to the success of the enterprise; in a word, we were placed in 
circumstances, in which it became necessary for us to perform more 
than our ordinary duties. Those who felt and appreciated our situation, 
are entitled to the highest praise; while some apology may be made 
for others, who, perhaps, were unconscious of any failure in discipline, 
or actual dereliction of duty, and may have thought that they had 
cause to be aggrieved, when they found that I was not satisfied with 
the maimer in which their services were rendered ; yet, it was as 
incumbent on me to see that our work was not retarded by their 
want of zeal and knowledge, as to shorten sail on the approach of the 
tempest. 

The instruments I was supplied with, were procured by myself in 
Europe ; they were made by the best English, French, and German 
artists. A description of these will be given in the volume on 
Physics. 

The longitudes of our principal stations have been determined by 
series of moon culminating stars, and meridian distances have been 
measured from them to other points by chronometers. 

The latitudes of the important places were obtained by a number 
of sets of circum-meridian observations of sun and stars. 

The chronometers used were by the best English makers, and most 
of them performed very satisfactorily. But two out of the twenty- 
nine became defective, and stopped ; these will be more particularly 
noticed hereafter, in the volume pertaining to this subject. To it I 
must also refer for the manner in which our surveys were executed. 

The magnetical instruments were by both English and French 
makers. Results have been had throughout the cruise, and will 
serve to give a magnetic chart of the world ; these will be published 
in the volume on Physics. Those observations of more immediate 
interest in the high southern latitudes, will be embraced in these 
volumes. 

In the Appendix will be found all the official documents relating to 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

the operations of the Squadron. These I have thought it necessary to 
lay before the public, in order that it may have a full view of the 
whole of the operations in which the Squadron was employed, and 
may be able to examine and compare the orders under which we acted, 
with the duties which have been performed. The Narrative will 
embody all those which we executed, and will thus enable all to judge 
how the work was conducted. I have a strong desire also that the 
whole should appear, in order that the Expedition may stand before 
the country and the world, in its true merits. When they become 
aware of all the facts, they will be able to see the injustice that has 
been done it, — will wonder at the extraordinary reception that awaited 
its return, and the persecutions I met with, as the reward of the 
arduous labours of four years. These I cannot but feel were unjust, 
particularly as they were carried on without any hearing whatever, 
and even without any examination of the results, or any inquiry rela- 
tive to the extent of the duties, or the manner in which they had been 
performed. This, however, is not the place to speak of these things. 

I had, at an early day after my appointment, assigned the 10th of 
August as the time for our departure, and had assured the President 
that at that time I should be ready, and would sail ; but that it was 
entirely impossible for me to fix an earlier day. I feel much satisfac- 
tion in reflecting on the confidence the President and Secretary placed 
in me. It was fully appreciated. The exertions of all were bent to 
fulfil this pledge, although almost all those connected with the enter- 
prise doubted the possibility of getting off so soon. Every thing, 
however, was completed, and I left Washington on the 10th of 
August. 

On my arrival at Norfolk, I found every thing in a state of forward- 
ness, and the Squadron in Hampton Roads, whither they had dropped 
down on the 8th of August. The names of the pilot-boats were now 
changed to the Sea-Gull and Flying-Fish, as had been agreed upon 
with Mr. Paulding; and they were placed under command of Passed 
Midshipmen Reid and Knox. 

I was well aware, from my own observations and the reports made 
to me, that we were any thing but well equipped for such a cruise. 



xx | v INTRODUCTION. 

But whatever our defects were, it was now entirely too late to remedy 
them. The great anxiety of the government to have us get to sea, 
after the vexatious delays that had before occurred in the sailing of 
the Expedition, disappointing the honest expectations of the whole 
country, and particularly the depressing effect any further delay 
would produce on the spirits and ardour of the officers and men, 
made me come to the resolution to put to sea at all hazards, and 
endeavour to remedy the defects as much as possible within our own 
means, or on our arrival at places where it could be done effectually. 

Before sailing from Hampton Roads, the internal rules and regula- 
tions for the government of the Squadron were issued, in order to 
make the terms of duties more uniform, and that in case of transfer of 
men and officers during the cruise, from one vessel to another, no one 
could be at a loss to know the duties he had to perform. These con- 
tinued without any material change to be rigidly enforced throughout 
the cruise. Signal-books were also arranged to supply the defective 
ones that are furnished the navy. 

I was called upon, in a few cases, to exercise the means in my pos- 
session to punish aggressions. Yet my aim has been throughout the 
cruise, so to conduct the duties devolving upon the Squadron, that it 
would carry with it the force of moral principle. All the regulations 
and operations were made to tend to this end. I considered this as 
one of my first duties, and in it I have been well supported by Captain 
Hudson and Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, and by most of the 
officers of the Expedition. I feel great satisfaction in having received 
testimonials from the different missionaries, that my course has been 
fully appreciated by them. Indeed, I have reason to rejoice that I 
have been enabled to carry the moral influence of our country to every 
quarter of the globe where our flag has waved, and I trust that the 
Expedition will compare advantageously with any other that has pre- 
ceded it, in its moral and correct deportment. 

CHARLES WILKES. 

Washington City, 

November, 1844. 



. INSTRUCTIONS. 



Navy Department, 

August 11th, 1838. 

Sir, 

The Congress of the United States, having in view the important 
interests of our commerce embarked in the whale-fisheries, and other 
adventures in the great Southern Ocean, by an Act of the 18th of 
May, 1836, authorized an Expedition to be fitted out for the purpose 
of exploring and surveying that sea, as well to determine the existence 
of all doubtful islands and shoals, as to discover and accurately fix 
the position of those which lie in or near the track of our vessels in 
that quarter, and may have escaped the observation of scientific navi- 
gators. Liberal appropriations have been made for the attainment of 
these objects, and the President, reposing great confidence in your 
courage, capacity, and zeal, has appointed you to the command of the 
Expedition, requiring you to proceed to the performance of the duties 
of that station with the vessels placed under your orders, consisting of 
the sloops of war Vincennes and Peacock, the ship Relief, the brig 
Porpoise, and tenders Sea-Gull and Flying-Fish. 

As soon as these vessels are in every respect ready, you will accord- 
ingly take your departure from Norfolk, and shape your course to Rio 
Janeiro, crossing the line between longitude 18° and 22° W., and 
keeping within those meridians to about latitude 10° S., with a view 
to determine the existence of certain vigias or shoals laid down in the 
charts as doubtful, and whose position, should they be found to exist, 
it is deemed useful to the interests of our commerce to ascertain. 



xxv j INSTRUCTIONS. 



At Rio Janeiro, where you will replenish your supplies, taking 
special care to furnish yourself with a sufficiency of all those articles 
which are considered the best preventives and remedies for the 
scurvy. You will determine the longitude of that place, as well as of 
Cape Frio ; after which, you will either detach a vessel, or proceed 
with your whole squadron, to make a particular examination of Rio 
Negro, which falls into the South Atlantic about latitude 41° S., with 
a view to ascertain its resources and facilities for trade. 

Having completed this survey, you will proceed to a safe port or 
ports in Terra del Fuego, where the members of the scientific corps 
may have favourable opportunities of prosecuting their researches. 
Leaving the larger vessels securely moored, and the officers and crews 
occupied in their respective duties, you will proceed with the brig 
Porpoise, and the tenders, to explore the southern Antarctic, to the 
southward of Powell's Group, and between it and Sandwich Land, 
following the track of Weddell as closely as practicable, and endea- 
vouring to reach a high southern latitude ; taking care, however, not 
to be obliged to pass the winter there, and to rejoin the other vessels 
between the middle of February and beginning of March. The 
attention of the officers left at Terra del Fuego, will, in the mean time, 
be specially directed to making such accurate and particular exami- 
nation and surveys of the bays, ports, inlets, and sounds, in that 
region, as may verify or extend those of Captain King, and be ser- 
viceable in future to vessels engaged in the whale-fisheries, in their 
outward and homeward-bound passages. 

You will then, on rejoining the vessels at Terra del Fuego, with 
all your squadron, stretch towards the southward and westward as far 
as the Ne Plus Ultra of Cook, or longitude 105 W., and return north- 
ward to Valparaiso, where a store-ship will meet you in the month of 
March, 1839. Proceeding once more from that port, you will direct 
your course to the Navigator's Group, keeping to the southward of 
the place of departure, in order to verify, if possible, the existence of 
certain islands and shoals, laid down in the charts as doubtful, and if 
they exist, to determine their precise position, as well as that of all 
others which may be discovered in this unfrequented track. When 
you arrive in those latitudes where discoveries may be reasonably 
anticipated, you will so dispose your vessels as that they shall sweep 
the broadest expanse of the ocean that may be practicable, without 
danger of parting company, laying-to at night in order to avoid the 
chance of passing any small island or shoal without detection. 



INSTRUCTIONS. xxv ii 

It is presumed you will reach the Navigator's Group some time in 
June, 1839. You will survey this group, and its harbours, with all 
due care and attention. If time will permit, it will be w T ell to visit 
the Society Islands, and examine Eimeo, which, it is stated, pos- 
sesses a convenient harbour. 

From the Navigator's Group, you will proceed to the Feejee 
Islands, which you will examine with particular attention, with the 
view to the selection of a safe harbour, easy of access, and in every 
respect adapted to the reception of vessels of the United States 
engaged in the whale-fishery, and the general commerce of these 
seas; it being the intention of the government to keep one of the 
squadron of the Pacific cruising near these islands in future. 

After selecting the island and harbour best adapted to the purposes 
in view, you will use your endeavours to make such arrangements 
as will insure a supply of fruits, vegetables, and fresh provisions, to 
vessels visiting it hereafter, teaching the natives the modes of culti- 
vation, and encouraging them to raise hogs in greater abundance. 

These objects will, it is presumed, occupy you until the latter end 
of October ; and when attained as far as may be possible, you will 
proceed to the port of Sydney, where adequate supplies may be 
obtained. From thence you will make a second attempt to penetrate 
within the Antarctic region, south of Van Diemen's Land, and as far 
west as longitude 45° E., or to Enderby's Land, making your ren- 
dezvous on your return at Kerguelen's Land, or the Isle of Desolation, 
as it is now usually denominated, and where you will probably arrive 
by the latter end of March, 1840. 

From the Isle of Desolation you will proceed to the Sandwich 
Islands, by such route as you may judge best, from the information 
you may acquire from such sources as fall in your way. 

A store-ship from the United States will meet you here, with a 
supply of provisions, in the month of April, 1840. 

Thence you will direct your course to the northwest coast of 
America, making such surveys and examinations, first of the territory 
of the United States on the sea-board, and of the Columbia river, and 
afterwards along the coast of Calefornia, with special reference to the 
Bay of St. Francisco, as you can accomplish by the month of October 
following your arrival. 

You will then proceed to the coast of Japan, taking in your route 
as many doubtful islands as possible ; and you have permission to 



xxv iii INSTRUCTIONS. 

pass through the Straits of Sangar into the Sea of Japan, where you 
may spend as much time as is compatible with your arrival at the 
proper season in the Sea of Sooloo or Mindoro. 

Of this sea you will make a particular examination, with a view 
to ascertain whether there is any safe route through it, which will 
shorten the passage of our vessels to and from China. 

It is enjoined on you to pay very particular attention to this object, 
in order that you may be enabled to furnish sailing instructions to 
navigators. It may be also advisable to ascertain the disposition of 
the inhabitants of the islands of this archipelago for commerce, their 
productions and resources. 

Having completed this survey, you will proceed to the Straits of 
Sunda, pass through the Straits of Billiton, which you will examine, 
and thence to the port of Singapore, where it is probable you may 
arrive about the beginning of April, 1841, and where you will meet 
a store-ship from the United States. 

Having completed this service, it is presumed the objects of your 
enterprise will be accomplished, and you will accordingly, after re- 
ceiving your supplies at Singapore, return to the United States by 
the Cape of Good Hope, taking such a course as may be most likely 
to further the great purposes of the Expedition. 

During your stay in the southern latitudes, should the dysentery 
or any other fatal epidemic make its appearance among your crews, 
you have leave to proceed to the northward, until the disease shall 
either disappear, or be so mitigated, as to admit of the resumption of 
your surveys. 

The Department does not feel the necessity of giving any special 
directions for preserving the health of those under your command, 
confiding in your own experience, the care and precautions of the 
able surgeons with whom you are provided, and in the conviction 
you must feel, that on the health of your crews must depend the suc- 
cess of the enterprise. 

In the prosecution of these long and devious voyages, you will 
necessarily be placed in situations which cannot be anticipated, and 
in which, sometimes your own judgment and discretion, at others, 
necessity, must be your guide. Among savage nations, unacquainted 
with, or possessing but vague ideas of the rights of property, the most 
common cause of collision with civilized visiters, is the offence and 
the punishment of theft. You will therefore adopt every possible 



INSTRUCTIONS. xx [ x 

precaution against this practice, and in the recovery of the stolen 
property, as well as in punishing the offender, use all due moderation 
and forbearance. 

You will permit no trade to be carried on by the squadron, with 
the countries you may visit, either civilized or savage, except for 
necessaries or curiosities, and that under express regulations esta- 
blished by yourself, in which the rights of the natives must be 
scrupulously respected and carefully guarded. 

You will neither interfere, nor permit any wanton interference with 
the customs, habits, manners, or prejudices, of the natives of such 
countries or islands as you may visit ; nor take part in their disputes, 
except as a mediator, nor commit any act of hostility, unless in self- 
defence, or to protect or secure the property of those under your 
command, or whom circumstances may have placed within reach of 
your protection. 

You will carefully inculcate on all the officers and men under your 
command, that courtesy and kindness towards the natives, which is 
understood and felt by all classes of mankind; to display neither 
arrogance nor contempt, and to appeal to their good-will, rather than 
their fears, until it shall become apparent that they can only be 
restrained from violence by fear or force. 

You will, on all occasions, avoid risking the officers and men unne- 
cessarily on shore, at the mercy of the natives. Treachery is one of 
the invariable characteristics of savages and barbarians ; and very 
many of the fatal disasters which have befallen preceding navigators, 
have arisen from too great a reliance on savage professions of friend- 
ship, or overweening confidence in themselves. 

Much of the character of our future intercourse with the natives 
of the lands you may visit, will depend on the impressions made on 
their minds by their first intercourse with your vessels. 

It is the nature of the savage, long to remember benefits, and never 
to forget injuries ; and you will use your best endeavours wherever 
you may go, to leave behind a favourable impression of your country 
and countrymen. The Expedition is not for conquest, but discovery. 
Its objects are all peaceful ; they are to extend the empire of com- 
merce and science; to diminish the hazards of the ocean, and point 
out to future navigators a course by which they may avoid dangers 
and find safety. 

An Expedition so constituted, and for such purposes, armed for 
defence, not conquest, and engaged in pursuits in which all en- 



xxx INSTRUCTIONS. 

lightened nations are equally interested, has a right to expect the 
good-will and good offices of the whole civilized world. Should our 
country, therefore, be unhappily involved in war during your absence, 
you will refrain from all acts of hostility whatever, as it is confidently 
believed none will be committed against you. So far from this being 
the case, it is not to be doubted that even hostile nations will respect 
your purposes, and afford every facility to their accomplishment. 

Finally, you will recollect, that though you may frequently be 
carried beyond the sphere of social life, and the restraints of law, 
yet that the obligations of justice and humanity are always and every 
where equally imperative in our intercourse with men, and most 
especially savages ; that we seek them, not they us ; and that if we 
expect to derive advantages from the intercourse, we should endea- 
vour to confer benefits in return. 

Although the primary object of the Expedition is the promotion of 
the great interests of commerce and navigation, yet you will take all 
occasions, not incompatible with the great purposes of your under- 
taking, to extend the bounds of science, and promote the acquisition 
of knowledge. For the more successful attainment of these, a corps 
of scientific gentlemen, consisting of the following persons, will 
accompany the Expedition, and are placed under your direction. 

Mr. Hale, Philologist. 

Mr. Pickering, 7 Naturalists 

J.YJ.K. Jr.hA.L.h, j 

Mr. Couthouy, Conchologist. 

Mr. Dana, Mineralogist. 

Mr. Rich, Botanist. 

Mr. Drayton, 7 -n i,* 

,„. . ' S- Draughtsmen. 

Mr. Agate, 3 & 

Mr. Brackenridge, Horticulturist. 

The hydrography and geography of the various seas and coun- 
tries you may visit in the route pointed out to you in the preceding 
instructions, will occupy your special attention; and all the researches 
connected with them, as well as with astronomy, terrestrial magnet- 
ism, and meteorology, are confided exclusively to the officers of the 
navy, on whose zeal and talents the Department confidently relies 
for such results as will enable future navigators to pass over the track 
traversed by your vessels, without fear and without danger. 



INSTRUCTIONS. xxx j 

No special directions are thought necessary in regard to the mode 
of conducting the scientific researches and experiments which you 
are enjoined to prosecute, nor is it intended to limit the members of 
the corps each to his own particular service. All are expected to 
co-operate harmoniously in those kindred pursuits, whose equal 
dignity and usefulness should insure equal ardour and industry in 
extending their bounds and verifying their principles. 

As guides to yourself and to the scientific corps, the Department 
would, however, direct your particular attention to the learned and 
comprehensive Reports of a committee of the American Philosophical 
Society of Philadelphia, the Report of a Committee of the East India 
Marine Society, of Salem, Massachusetts ; and to a communication 
from the Naval Lyceum of New York, which accompany, and are 
to be regarded as forming a part of these instructions, so far as they 
may accord with the primary objects of the Expedition, and its 
present organization. You will, therefore, allow the gentlemen of 
the scientific corps the free perusal of these valuable documents, and 
permit them to copy such portions as they may think proper. 

The Russian Vice-Admiral Krusenstern, has transmitted to the 
Department memorandums relating to the objects of this Expedition, 
together with the most improved charts of his atlas of the Pacific 
Ocean, with explanations, in three volumes. These are also confided 
to your care ; and it is not doubted that the friendly contributions of 
this distinguished navigator will essentially contribute to the success 
of an enterprise in which he takes so deep an interest. 

You will prohibit all those under your command from furnishing 
any persons not belonging to the Expedition, with copies of any 
journal, charts, plan, memorandum, specimen, drawing, painting, 
or information of any kind, which has reference to the objects or 
proceedings of the Expedition. 

It being considered highly important that no journal of these 
voyages, either partial or complete, should be published, without the 
authority and under the supervision of the government of the United 
States, at whose expense this Expedition is undertaken, you will, 
before you reach the waters of the United States, require from every 
person under your command the surrender of all journals, memo- 
randums, remarks, writings, drawings, sketches, and paintings, as 
well as all specimens of every kind, collected or prepared during 
your absence from the United States. 

After causing correct inventories of these to be made and signed 



Xxxii INSTRUCTIONS. 

by two commissioned officers, and by the parties by whom they were 
collected or prepared, you will cause them to be carefully sealed by 
the said officers, and reserved for such disposition as the Department 
may direct. 

You will adopt the most effectual measures to prepare and preserve 
all specimens of natural history that may be collected, and should 
any opportunities occur for sending home by a vessel of war of the 
United States, copies of information, or duplicates of specimens, or 
any other material you may deem it important to preserve from the 
reach of future accident, you will avail yourself of the occasion, 
forwarding as frequently as may be done with safety, details of 
your voyage and its most material events, at the same time strictly 
prohibiting all communications except to this Department, from any 
person attached to the Expedition, referring to discoveries, or any 
circumstances connected with the progress of your enterprise. 

It is believed that the officers under your command require no 
special advice or direction from this Department. Bearing in mind, 
as they no doubt will, that the undertaking which they are about 
assisting to accomplish, is one that necessarily attracts the attention 
of the civilized world, and that the honour and interests of their 
country are equally involved in its results, it is not for a moment 
doubted that in this, as on all other occasions, they will so conduct 
themselves, as to add to the reputation our navy has so justly acquired 
at home and abroad. 

With the best wishes for the success of the Expedition, and the 
safe return of yourself and your companions, 

I am, very respectfully, 

(Signed) J. K. Paulding. 

To Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding the Exploring and Surveying Expedition, j-c. 

P. S. The accompanying printed list of English words, drawn up 
by Mr. Gallatin, and received from the War Department since these 
instructions were prepared, are intended for Indian vocabularies, 
which can be filled up as circumstances permit, taking care that the 
same words be used in all of them. 

(Signed) J. K. Paulding. 



LIST OF OFFICEES AND MEN 



ATTACHED TO 



THE UNITED STATES EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 



UNITED STATES SHIP VINCENNES. 



Charles Wilkes, Esq., Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

Left at Valparaiso June 6th, 1839, to take 
command of the Sea-Gull. 



Thomas T. Craven, 
Overton Carr, 
Robert E. Johnson, 

James Alden, 

William L. Maury, 

James H. North, 
Edward Gilchrist, 
R. R. Waldron, 
I. L. Elliott, 

J. L. Fox, 

J. Q. Whittle, 

George M. Totten, 



Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant. 



Took command of brig Oregon, at San 

Francisco, October, 1841. 
Commanded Sea-Gull on her Southern 
Cruise, detached at Honolulu, Novem- 
ber, 1841. 

Lieutenant. Joined brig Porpoise at San Francisco, 

October, 1841. 

Lieutenant. Joined Peacock at Orange Bay, and Por- 

poise at Callao. 

Acting Master. Joined Porpoise at Callao. 

Acting Surgeon. Detached at Sydney, March, 1840. 

Purser. 

Chaplain. Detached at San Francisco, October, 

1841. 

Assistant Surg. Joined Porpoise at San Francisco, Octo- 
ber, 1841. 

Assistant Surg. Joined Peacock at Honolulu, and Vin- 
cennes again at San Francisco. 

Passed Mid. Joined Porpoise at Callao, and Vincennes 

at Honolulu. 
i 



XXXIV 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



William Reynolds, 



William May, 



Joseph P. Sandford, 



George W. Clark, 



Passed Mid. Joined Peacock, 1839, and Flying- Fish at 

Honolulu, 1840, and Porpoise at Singa- 
pore. 

Passed Mid. Joined Flying-Fish on a cruise south, 

1839-'40, and Vincennes again, May, 
1840. 

Passed Mid. Joined Porpoise at Tahiti, Schooner Fly- 

ing-Fish at San Francisco, and Porpoise 
at Singapore. 

Midshipman. Joined Peacock at Tahiti, and Vincennes 

again at San Francisco. 



Samuel Elliott, Midshipman. 

William Smith, Boatswain. 

Washington Bright, Gunner. 

William M. Laighton, Carpenter. 

Samuel N. Hawkins, Sailmaker. 

Benj. Vanderford, Pilot. 

R. P. Robinson, Purser's Steward. 

John G. Williamson, Gunner. 



Joined Relief at Callao. 
Joined Relief at Callao. 

Died, April, 1842. 



Charles Pickering, 
Joseph Drayton, 
J. D. Brackenridge, 
John G. Brown, 
John W. W. Dyes, 
Joseph P. Couthouy, 



SCIENTIFIC CORPS. 

Naturalist. 
Artist. 

Assistant Botanist. 
Mathematical Instrument Maker. 
Assistant Taxidermist. 

Naturalist. Left at Sydney, and detached at Hono- 

lulu, November, 1840. 



UNITED STATES SHIP PEACOCK. 



WRECKED JULY 18TH, 1841. 

William L. Hudson, Esq., Commanding. Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 

Samuel P. Lee, Lieutenant. Detached at Orange Bay, Feb. 1839. 

W. M. Walker, Lieutenant. Commanded Flying-Fish first cruise, 

joined Porpoise at Columbia river, and 
Vincennes at San Francisco. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



XXXV 



George F. Emmons, 
O. H. Perry, 
Thomas A. Budd, 
J. F. Sickles, 
William Spieden, 
Silas Holmes, 

James B. Lewis, 

Henry Gansevoort, 

Henry Eld, 

George W. Harrison, 



Wilkes Henry, 

William H. Hudson, 
Frederick D. Stuart, 

Thomas G. Bell, 

John D. Anderson, 
Jonas Dibble, 
J. D. Freeman, 
William H. Insley, 



Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant. 
Acting Master. 
Surgeon. 
Purser. 
Assistant Surg. 

Passed Mid. 

Passed Mid. 
Passed Mid. 
Passed Mid. 



Midshipman. 

Midshipman. 
Captain's Clerk. 

Boatswain. 

Gunner. 
Carpenter. 
Sailmaker. 
Purser's Steward 



Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 

Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 

Joined Vincennes at Feejee. 

Joined Relief at Callao. 

Joined Oregon at Columbia River. 

Joined Porpoise at Sydney, and Oregon 
at San Francisco. 

Joined Flying-Fish at Feejee, returned 
home from Oahu sick. 

Detached at Callao, 1839. 

Joined Vincennes at Feejee. 

Joined Flying-Fish on cruise south, Pea- 
cock at Feejee, and Oregon at Colum- 
bia river. 

Joined Vincennes at Callao, killed, July 
24th, 1840, at Malolo. 

Joined Vincennes at Columbia river. 

Joined Porpoise at Columbia river, and 
Vincennes at San Francisco. 

Joined Porpoise at Columbia river, and 
Oregon at San Francisco. 

Detached at Callao. 

Joined Oregon at Columbia river. 

Joined Porpoise at Columbia river. 

Detached at Callao. 



SCIENTIFIC CORPS. 



James D. Dana, 
T. R. Peale, 
Horatio Hale, 



F. L. Davenport, 



Mineralogist. 

Naturalist. 

Philologist. 



Interpreter. 



Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 

Joined Vincennes at San Francisco. 

Joined Vincennes at New Zealand, Pea- 
cock at Honolulu, and was left at 
Oregon to cross the country. 

Detached at Rio. 



XXXVI 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



UNITED STATES SHIP RELIEF. 



SENT HOME FROM CALLAO, BY WAY OF SANDWICH ISLANDS AND SYDNEY. 



A. K. Long, 

R. F. PlNKNEY, 



A. L. Case, 

Joseph A. Underwood, 

George T. Sinclair, 



J. C. Palmer, 



Alonzo B. Davis, 



Thomas W. Cummings, 
James L. Blair, 



James R. Howison, 
J. Black, 
Thomas Lewis, 



Lieutenant Commandant. 

Lieutenant. Joined Peacock at Orange Bay, Flying- 

Fish at Callao, and detached at Hono- 
lulu, 1840. 

Lieutenant. Joined Vincennes at Callao. 

Lieutenant. Joined Vincennes at Callao, and killed at 

Malolo, July 24th, 1840. 

Acting Master. Joined Porpoise at Callao ; Commander 
Flying-Fish at Feejee ; joined Porpoise 
again at Honolulu, November, 1840. 

Acting Surgeon. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Oregon at 
Columbia river, and Vincennes at San 
Francisco. 

Passed Mid. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Vincennes 

at Columbia river, and Oregon at San 
Francisco. 

Passed Mid. Left sick at Rio. 

Midshipman. Joined Peacock at Rio, Schooner Flying- 

Fish at Columbia river, and Vincennes 
at Honolulu. 

Captain's Clerk. Joined Vincennes at Callao. 

Boatswain. 

Gunner. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Oregon at 

Columbia river. 



SCIENTIFIC CORPS. 



William Rich, 
Alfred S. Agate, 



Botanist. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Vincennes 

at San Francisco. 
Artist. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Vincennes 

at San Francisco. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



XXXV11 



UNITED STATES BRIG PORPOISE. 



Cadwalader Ringgold, 
M. G. L. Claiborne, 
H. J. Hartstein, 
John B. Dale, 
A. S. Baldwin, 

C. F. B. Guillou, 



Lieutenant. 
Lieutenant. 
Acting Master. 



Simon F. Blunt, Passed Mid. 

Geo. W. Colvocoresis, Passed Mid. 



Thomas W. Waldron, 

O. Nelson, 
Amos Chick, 
John Joines, 
William H. Morse, 
John Frost, 



Lieutenant-Commandant. 

Lieutenant. Joined Relief at Orange Bay. 

Joined Relief at Callao. 
Joined Relief at Callao. 
Joined Peacock at Callao, and Oregon at 
Columbia river. 
Assist. Surgeon. Joined Peacock at Sydney, Flying-Fish 
at Columbia river, and detached at 
Honolulu, November, 1841. 
Joined Vincennes at Orange Bay, and 

left sick at Honolulu, in April, 1841. 

Joined Peacock at Rio, Vincennes at 

Feejee, and Oregon at San Francisco. 



Captain's Clerk. 

Boatswain. 

Carpenter. 

Sailmaker. 

Purser's Steward. 

Boatswain. 



Detached at Rio. 

Joined Vincennes at Callao. 

Detached at Callao ; joined Relief. 



TENDER SEA-GULL. 



LOST ABOUT MAY 1ST, 1839. 



James W. E. Reid, Passed Midshipman, Commandant. 

Frederick A. Bacon, Passed Midshipman. 

Isaac Percival, Pilot. Joined Relief at Callao. 



TENDER FLYING-FISH. 



SOLD AT SINGAPORE. 



Samuel R. Knox, 



Commandant. Commanding Schooner most of the cruise ; 
joined Vincennes at Singapore. 



XXXV111 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



George W. Hammersly, Midshipman. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Vincennes 

at Feejee. 
As. Master's Mate. Detached ; joined Relief at Rio. 
Midshipman. Joined the Vincennes at Rio ; detached at 

Callao. 
Midshipman. Joined Vincennes at Rio, Peacock at 

Feejee, and Vincennes again at Co- 
lumbia river. 
Master's Mate. Detached at Honolulu. 
Acting Master. Joined Vincennes at Callao, Peacock at 
Feejee, and Oregon at Columbia river. 
Purser's Steward. Joined Peacock at Callao, and Oregon at 

Columbia river. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned, ex- 

piration of cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; served to end of the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served to the end of the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Oahu 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Hawaii. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town ; served to the end 

of the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; died October 

30th, 1841. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 

Joined at Callao ; killed by the natives at 

Drummond Island. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined at Callao ; run at Sydney. 
Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 
ney. 



RlCHARD ELLICE, 

Clemson, 

Egbert Thompson, 



A. M. Cesney, 
E. H. De Haven, 

James S. Power, 

John Anderson, 

Joseph R. Atkins, 

Charles Allen, 

Stephen F. Angell, 
Joseph C. Allen, 
Jean Antonia, 

Joseph Allshouse, 



James Anderson, 


Ord'y Seai 


John Anderson, 


Seaman. 


James Allman, 


Private. 


Silas Atkins, 


Seaman. 


Peter Ackerman, 


Seaman. 


John Ayres, 


Landsman, 


Charles Adams, 


Cooper. 


John Brown, 1st, 


Seaman. 


Robert Boyle, 


Seaman. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 
Henry Buckett, 

John Brooks, 

Henry Batchelor, 



XXXIX 



Quarter Master. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Upolu, Nov. 10th, 

1839. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney, Dec. 31st, 

1839. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; discharged June 30th, 

1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; run at Callao, July 13th, 

1839. 
Officers' Steward. Joined at Valparaiso ; discharged at Cal- 
lao, June, 1839. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at New Zealand. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand; served the 

cruise. 
Qr. Gunner. Joined at New Zealand ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Oahu, Nov. 26th, 

1841. 
Landsman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Ebenezer Bartholomew, Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Derby Batchelor, Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; run at Oahu, Nov. 26th, 

1841. 
David Bateman, Private. Joined in the United States ; died at Fee- 

jee Islands, June 30th, 1840. 
Richard Brothers, Seaman. Joined in the United States ; sent home 

from Rio, sick. 



John Black, 

Henry Blackstone, 

Franklin Brown, 

David Banks, 

Peter Brown, 

Daviu Bartleit, 
John Brown, 2d, 

John L. Blake, 

John Bremot, 

John Buckley, 

Frederick Beale, 
Andrew A. Brown, 

Shelden Benedict, 

John Bartholomew, 

John A. Brown, 



xl 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



James Brown, 

Joseph Bass, 

James Berry, 
John Baptiste, 
John W. Boyson, 
John F. Brown, 
Robert C. Bernard, 
Alexander Bowman, 
Samuel Brown, 

William Brown, 2d, 
Alexander Barron, 

Peter Bo wen, 
W alston Bradley, 
William Bruce, 
Davy Beal, 

John Brookins, 
Artimeus W. Beals, 
William Bostwick, 

Theodore Beton, 
Robert Brown, 

William Brisco, 

Charles Berry, 

David Burns, 

John B. Brown, 

Joseph Brimblecomb, 

Patrick Boyle, 
Thomas Burke, 



Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at the Feejee Islands; run at Oahu. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Quarter Master. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Singapore. 

Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Valparaiso. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Callao. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 
Landsman. Joined at Callao ; left sick in charge of 

Consul at Sydney. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Hold. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 

Capt. Cook. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Armourer. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Mast. Arms. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; served the 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xli 



Philip Bahb, 

George Butter, 

David Blodget, 

Jacob Bolin, 

Francis Baker, 

Henry Bingham, 
Garret Cole, 

W. H. Chi mmings, 

Mason Crowell, 

John Cooper, 

James Cummings, 

Isaac Car me y, 

Charles J. Colson, 

Daniel Clute, 

Roswell Cann, 

James Corse, 
William Clark, 
Ezekiel Cooper, 
Jasper Cropsey. 
Tom Coffin, 
George Croker, 
David Cropsey, 
George Case, 
Ephraim Coffin, 
Joseph Clark, 



Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States ; died at Navi- 
gator's Islands, Nov. 6th, 1839. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Landsman. Joined in the LTnited States ; served the 

cruise. 
Armourer. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Hosp. Steward. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 
1 st Class Boy. Joined in the United States ; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; sent home in Relief. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; served out the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run, same place. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Hawaii. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Hawaii ; run at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; discharged at California. 
Corp'l Marines. Joined in the LTnited States ; served the 

cruise. 



x lii LIST OP OFFICERS AND MEN. 

Robert Campbell, Private. 

Lawrence Cavenaugh, Private. 
Joseph Clark, 



Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; served the 
cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Isaac Cook, Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 



John H. Cole, 

Charles Clifford, 

Paul Camell, 
Charles Chancy, 
James Cunningham, 
Richard Cooper, 
Levin Clark, 

Gaylord P. Churchill, 
Joshua Cary, 
James Crontu, 

Joseph Crozby, 

Alfred Cassedy, 
William Clegg, 

John Cook, 

William Carter, 

John Cook, 

Charles Chapman, 
James Coburn, 

George Cook, 

Valentine Dister, 



Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, 2d November, 1840. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, 2d November, 1840. 
Officers' Steward. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; run at Sydney. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; run at Tahiti. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu; run at Sydney. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at 

Sydney. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Callao. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand ; served the 

cruise. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Oahu ; discharged same place, 

November 19, 1841. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; transferred 

to Independence, at Rio. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xliii 



Jerome Davis, 

John Doughty, 

John Demock, 

John Dismond, 

James Dunn, 

Alexander Dunn, 

John W. Divin, 
Christian Dobleman, 

James Daniels, 
James Dowling, 1st, 
John N. Dean, 
John E. Day, 

John Davis, 1st, 
Harvey Dean, 
John Davis, 2d, 
James Dowling, 2d, 
Charles Duegen, 
John Disbrow, 

Addison Dunbar, 

William Dammon, 
George Daily, 
William Daily, 
Stephen W. Days, 



Solomon Disney, Sailmaker's Mate, 



Joseph Dolevar, 
Thomas Dewees, 

Thomas Derling, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Cockswain. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Rio, November 30th, 1838. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 
Master-at-Arms. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at New Zealand. 
Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at New Zealand. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 
Landsman. Joined at New Zealand ; served the 

cruise. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at New Zealand ; run at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Singapore. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Hawaii. 

Landsman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; returned in Relief. 

Private. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Hosp. Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 

Corporal. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Oahu. 



xliv LIST 

Samuel Dinsman, 

Joseph De Silva, 

Samuel Dinsman, 

David Dalton, 

Thomas Dickenson, 

William Dillon, 
James Derley, 
Charles Erskin, 

George Elliott, 
W. II. Eldridge, 
Henry Evans, 

Samuel Eastman, 

William Eastwood, 

James Elliotte, 

William Frazier, 

John Fenno, 

Henry A. Felson, 

William Forsdick, 

John Fisk, 
Thomas Ford, 
William Frazier, 2d, 
Edward Fox, 
Frederick Friends, 
Matthew Francisco, 
Alexander C. Fowler, 



OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

Relief. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; transferred to Falmouth at 

Callao. 
Corp'l Marines. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town ; served the cruise. 
Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States ; run at Fort 

George, Columbia river. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, October 31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at 

Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served out 

the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served out 

the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Oahu, 

Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; served out the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; served out the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; lost in the Sea-Gull. 
Officers' Steward. Joined at Sydney; discharged at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu; served out the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; discharged same place. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served out 

the cruise. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xlv 



Joiin Francis, 
James Fritz, 
Stephen Fosdick, 

Robert Fur-man, 

Theodore French, 

Kinnard Foreman, 

Isaac Frietus, 

Robert Fletcher, 

Vincent Frietvs, 
William Finney, 
Joseph Francis, 
Henry Gross, 
Lyman Gaylard, 

William Gill an, 

m atth e w g arrigan, 

James H. Gibson, 

James II. Grey, 
James Graham, 

John Griem, 

James Green, 

Barney Gibbons, 
Francis Garrison, 
Madison Green, 
Joseph M'Gomey, 

Henry Greenfield, 

vol. I. 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Qr. Gunner. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 

Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, 31st Oct. 1840. 
Ship's Cook. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

5th August, 1839. 
Sailmaker'sMate. Joined at Callao; returned to United States 

in the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Madeira; discharged March 

31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Rio; run at Valparaiso. 
Landsman. Joined at Callao; run at Oahu. 

Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; discharged at same place. 

Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States; run at Oahu. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Cockswain. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; transferred 

to the Independence. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Landsman. Joined at Rio; run at Valparaiso. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio; run, April 9th, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao; discharged at Oahu, 

Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

M 



xlvi LIST 

Daniel Green, 

Thomas Gkeen, 

Nathaniel Goodhue, 

John P. Griffen, 

Ludwig Graves, 
Robert Goodwin, 
Thomas Gorden, 
Griffith Griffith, 

Fergus Gallagher, 

John Gaunt, 

Domingo Gonzalez, 
John A. Gardner, 
Moses Galchell, 
John Gorden, 

John Gillin, 

Ezra Green, ' 

Joseph Gundy, 

John Green, 

William Goodman, 
John Glover, 
Manuel Guido, 

James Grey, 

Edwin Hubbard, 

Thomas Harden, 



OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Fore-top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States; run at Syd- 

ney. 
Cooper. Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home 

sick from Madeira. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; returned in the Relief. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao; run at Oahu. 
Seaman. Joined at Callao; run at Tahiti. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Yeoman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Capt. Top. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 

2d Class Boy. Joined at Madeira; returned to United 

States in the Relief. 
Pilot. Joined at Tongatabood; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 13, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Cook. Joined in the United States; served the 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xlvii 



Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Madeira. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Cooper. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter- Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at New Zealand. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home 

in the Relief. 
1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Landsman. Joined at Rio; run at Oahu. 

Landsman. Joined at Rio; run at Sydney. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio; run at Valparaiso. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; lost in the Sea-Gull. 
Antonio Hernandez, Officers' Steward. Joined at Callao; discharged at California. 
Wm. Hutchinson, Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Hawaii; served the cruise. 

Winslow F. Higgins, Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui; served the cruise. 
John Hall, Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town; served the cruise. 

John Hellender, Seaman. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 

George Husted, Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Jacob Harrid, Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Callao. 



James Harrison, 

John Harmon, 

John Harmon, 

William Hyde, 

Lewis Herron, 

James Henderson, 

Lyranus Hatch, 

Henry Hughes, 

Henry R. Meyer, 

Henry Hudson, 

Lawrence Hifford, 

James Haskins, 

James Haggerty, 

William H. Hicks, 

Royal Hope, 
John Harris, 
Chas. E. Horniston, 
David Haining, 



xlviii LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 

Samuel Hobsen, Armourer. 

Seaman. 



Edward Hill, 

Robinson Hicks, 
John Hughes, 
John Haggerty, 
John Harrison, 
Asa Hart, 

Emanuel Howard, 

John Harman, 

Arthur Hughes, 

Amos Howell, 

John C. Head, 

Wm. P. Hefferman, 

James G. Hanbury, 

Santo Hercules, 

Samuel B. Holt, 

James Hunt, 

Benjamin Holden, 

Alvin Harris, 

Nathaniel Harris, 

William Hayes, 

James Hayes, 



Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Sydney. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Callao; run at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Singapore. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Hold. Joined in the United States; sent home 

from Rio, sick. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Hosp. Steward. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

in New Zealand. 
Capt. Hold. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, October 31st, 1840. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; died at Cal- 

lao, July 8th, 1839. 
Sailmaker'sMate. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at New Zealand, 31st March, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 
cruise. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



xlix 



Henry Hammond, 

Lewis Hanson, 

Thomas Hinks, 
Francis G. Huggins, 

William Jarrett, 

William Johnson, 

Archibald Jackson, 

Francis Joseph, 

Thomas Jones, 

Francis Johnson, 
Robert Johnson, 
William Jones, 1st, 
John Joseph, 
William Jones, 
Charles Jorff, 
David Jones, 
William Jewell, 

William Jeffries, 
Samuel J. Jordon, 
A. Jacquinot, 
Warren Johnson, 

John Jones, 
Thomas Jefferson, 

Daniel Jefferson, 

Henry Johnson, 
Elijah King, 



Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao; discharged at Sydney, 

Dec. 16th, 1839. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Sandwich Islands; served the 

cruise. 
Master-at-Arms. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, October 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; sent home in the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio; lost in the Sea-Gull. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio; run at the same place. 

Capt.'s Steward. Joined at Valparaiso; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Rio. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney; run at same place. 
Ass't Sc. Corps. Joined at Rio; run at Callao. 
Officers' Steward. Joined at Oahu; run at Fort George, 

Oregon. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



Thomas Kennedy, 


Seaman. 


Stephen Knight, 


Ship's Cook. 


Charles Knoavles, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


Richard King, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


Wm. H. King, 


Corp. Marines. 


Charles Kingsland, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


Allen W. Kirby, 


Capt. Hold. 


John Kelltjm, 


Quarter-Master. 


Samuel Keenan, 


Seaman. 


John Kedd, 


Seaman. 


John King, 


Seaman. 


Joseph Limont, 


Seaman. 


Francis Linthicum, 


Cockswain. 


Godfrey Letourno, 


Seaman. 


Peter Lewis, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


John Latty, 


1st Class Boy. 


Wm. J. Lester, 


Seaman. 


Wm. Lawrence, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


David Leavitt, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


Charles Lear, 


Ord'y Seaman. 


Lawrence Littleyear, 


Private. 


Charles Lowe, 


Seaman. 


William Lloyd, 


Capt. Top. 


William Lowe, 


Seaman. 


John Lewis, 


Seaman. 



Joined at Rio ; run at the same place. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 
ney. 
Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 
Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 
Joined at Valparaiso; run at Sydney. 
Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined at Oahu; discharged same place. 
Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



lv 



George Parmilla, 
James Quin, 

Charles Ray, 

Wi. Roberts, 

Theodore Rameris, 

Joseph Reeves, 

William Robinson, 

William Robbin, 

Michael Ryan, 
William Robb, 
John Rivers, 
John Roach, 
Abraham Roberts, 

George Rocket, 

James Rock, 
John Radley, 
George Robinson, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand; run at Oahu. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 
Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 
cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States; served the 
cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Val- 
paraiso. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 
ney. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; returned in 
the Relief. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio; run at Sydney. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; lost in the Sea-Gull. 

Landsman. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand; served the 
cruise. 

Landsman. Joined at New Zealand; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at California. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 



Edgar A. Richardson, Private. 



Owen Roberts, 

George Rodgers, 

John Robinson, 

Humphrey Roberts, 
Matthias Roach, 
Morris Russel, 
Elias Russel, 



Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Armourer. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States; run at Rio. 

Ship's Cook. Joined in the United States ; run at 

Callao. 



lil 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



Wm, Miller, 1st, 

John Mattox, 
Alexander M'Donald, 

Wm. Miller, 2d, 
Justin Mandon, 
Andrew Murray, 
Joseph Medley, 
Edward M'Intire, 
James M'Kenzie, 

Samuel More, 

Peter M'Fee, 
John H. Myres, 
Thomas Mizir, 
Arthur M'Gill, 

Frank Mackey, 
Robert Munroe, 
John Munroe, 
Bernard M'Gee, 
Lewis Meaker, 

William Migley, 

John Meiney, 

George Mitchell, 
Theodore Mather, 
Edward Mott, 
Hugh M'Bride, 
John C. March, 

James M'Cormick, 

Michael Miller, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 

Landsman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; run at Callao. 
Captain's Cook. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Sydney; run at Oahu. 

Seaman. Joined at New Zealand; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 20th, 1841. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao; served the cruise. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Tahiti; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Upolu; discharged at Oahu, 

Nov. 20th, 1841. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 

Seaman. Joined at Callao; run at Sydney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; discharged at Oahu, 

25th Nov. 1840. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Master-at-Arms. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 
15th August, 1839. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



liii 



David Miller, 

James Marshall, 

William Moody, 

John More, 

Thomas Martin, 

John Mitchell, 
Stephen Morant, 
Earl Millikin, 
Jack Miller, 

James Nowland, 

William Norton, 



Edward Nichols, 


Ord'y Seai 


John Nebhut, 


Private. 


Horatio Nelson, 


Seaman. 


Nelson Norton, 


Capt. Top. 


William Noble, 


Seaman. 


Thomas Noble, 


Seaman. 


George Nichols, 


Ord'y Sea 


Joseph Neale, 


Officers' C 


Chas. H. Nicholson, 


Seaman. 



William Neill, 
Andrew Nordston, 
James Nurse, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter- Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 

Quarter- Gunner. Joined at Oahu; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Sandwich Islands; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 

ney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town; served the cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Joined in the United States ; run at Valpa- 
raiso. 
Joined at Rio; sent home in the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 
Officers' Cook. Joined at Caliao; run at Sydney. 

Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 25th, 1841. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Rio, Dec. 3d, 1838. 
o 



Uv LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 

Benjamin Norton, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 
cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Singapore, served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 
cruise. 

Corp. Marines. Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 
Aug. 12th, 1839. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 
cruise. 
Ambrose W. Olivar, Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Val- 

paraiso. 

Sailmaker's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 
cruise. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 
cruise. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 

March 3d, 1842. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 
ney. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio; run at Sydney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Oahu; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 

ney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Oahu. 

Private. Joined in the United States; run at Val- 

paraiso. 

Landsman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 

Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; served the 
cruise. 

Quarter- Gunner. Joined in the United States; served the 
cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 



Thomas Nisbet, 
William Orr, 

Alexander Ogle, 

John Orr, 



Daniel Osmand, 

David B. Park, 

Thomas Piner, 

George Porter, 

Benjamin Pulmar, 

Thomas Parker, 
William Pearson, 
Calvin Proctor, 
James Perry, 
George Parker, 

Thomas Penny, 
James M. Pottle, 

James Patterson, 

Samuel Pensyl, 

Robert Pully, 

John Polnell, 

James Potter, 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



lv 



George Parmilla, 
James Quin, 

Charles Ray, 

Wi. Roberts, 

Theodore Rameris, 

Joseph Reeves, 

William Robinson, 

William Robbin, 

Michael Ryan, 
William Robb, 
John Rivers, 
John Roach, 
Abraham Roberts, 

George Rocket, 

James Rock, 
John Radley, 
George Robinson, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand; run at Oahu. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 
Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 
cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States; served the 
cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Val- 
paraiso. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; run at Syd- 
ney. 

Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 

Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; returned in 
the Relief. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio; run at Sydney. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; lost in the Sea-Gull. 

Landsman. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at New Zealand; served the 
cruise. 

Landsman. Joined at New Zealand; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at California. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Maui ; served the cruise. 



Edgar A. Richardson, Private. 



Owen Roberts, 

George Rodgers, 

John Robinson, 

Humphrey Roberts, 
Matthias Roach, 
Morris Russel, 
Elias Russel, 



Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Armourer. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States; run at Rio. 

Ship's Cook. Joined in the United States ; run at 

Callao. 



lvi 

John Rye, 

John Riley, 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 
Seaman. 

Private. 



Wm. Richmond, 



Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States; served the 
cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 
cruise. 
John D. Richardson, Cooper. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 

Aug. 22d, 1839. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 

Seaman. Joined at Sandwich Islands ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Rio, Nov. 28th, 1838. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Sydney, 19th March, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Edward Southworth, Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Allen Simons, Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Val- 

paraiso. 
James Smith, 1st, Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Syd- 

ney. 
John Smith, 1st, Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 



Joseph Rebo, 
James G. Rowe, 

George Reynolds, 

Raymond Reed, 
Nelson Ransom, 

George Smith, 

William J. Smith, 

Thomas Sinclair, 

James Straham, 

John Sac, 

David Smith, 

James Sheaf, 

John W. Smith, 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



lvii 



John Smith, 2d, 

James Smith, 2d, 

John Small, 

William Soitle, 
Moses J. Smith, 
Wm. H. Spencer, 
Frederick Seymore, 
George Staunton, 
Peter Sweeny, 

James Scott, 
James Stover, 
Thomas Simmons, 
Joseph Silvey, 

Michael Spiney, 
William Smith, 2d, 

Simeon Stearns, 

William Smith, 
John II. Stevens, 
Charles C. Sherwood, 
Antonio Sylvester, 
William Steward, 

Peter Shaw, 
William Slater, 
Francis Salsbtjry, 

Frank Stith, 

Thomas Scott, 

Benjamin Stevens, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 
Baker. Joined at Rio; discharged at New Zea- 

land. 
Landsman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 
Seaman. Joined at New Zealand ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined at New Zealand ; run at Oahu. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Hawaii ; run at same place. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Maui; died at sea, April 19th, 

1842. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu; served the cruise. 

1st Class Boy. Joined at Oahu ; discharged at same 

place. 
Ord'y Sergeant. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; drowned at Feejee. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Tahiti ; run at Sydney. 
Seaman. Joined at Rio ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at same place. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; died at sea, 

11th March, 1839. 
Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Steward. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter- Master. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; returned in 

the Relief. 



lviii LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 

Hendrick Smith, 



Samuel Steward, 
John Smith, 
George Seabold, 
Robert Steward, 
James Spear, 
James Sweeny, 
John Smith, 

Simon Shepherd, 

James De Sauls, 
Benj. Somerndyke, 

John Smith, 

George Sharrock, 
Robert Spears, 

Samuel Sutton, 

John Strafford, 
George Smith, 

Thomas Sandford, 

William Smith, 

John Steward, 

Samuel Stretch, 

David M. Smith, 

Wm. Schenck, 

Thomas Scarpa, 
Henry Sayres, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Nov. 2d, 1840. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Sydney. 

Seaman. Joined at Rio ; run at Aurora Island. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio; run at Aurora Island. 
Armourer. Joined at Valparaiso ; run at Sydney. 

Seaman. Joined at Sydney ; run at Oahu. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Feejee Islands, discharged at 

same place. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States 5 served the 

cruise. 
Ship's Cook. Joined at Callao ; run at Astoria. 

Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined at Valparaiso ; served the cruise. 
Capt. Top. Joined in the United States ; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso; served the cruise. 

Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Yeoman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ship's Cook. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Armourer. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Carpenter's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Steward. Joined at Rio ; discharged at same place. 
Capt. Top. Joined at Callao; served the cruise. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 
Ord'y Seaman. 



lix 



James Stark, 

Henry Stephens, 
Thomas Shor, 

George Sudor, 

Richard Terry, 

Henry Turner, 

James Townsend, 

George Treble, 

Matthew Thompson, Capt. Top. 

Henry Tubor, Seaman. 

John Thompson, 1st, 

John Thompson, 3d, 
.Samuel Taber, 
John Track, 
Ashton Taylor, 

David Thomas, 
Abijah Traverse, 
Edward Townsend, 
Henry Thompson, 
Humphrey Thomas, 
John Thompson, 2d, 

Wm. W. Turner, 

Charles Thomas, 

Edwin Thene, 



Joined at Callao ; discharged at Sydney, 

Dec. 15th, 1839. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Sydney; run at New Zealand. 
Seaman. Joined at the Sandwich Islands; served 

the cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; sent home 

in the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; lost in the 

Sea-Gull. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Syd- 

ney. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Sydney; run at same place. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at Oahu; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; discharged same place. 

Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Officers' Cook. Joined at Feejee Islands ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States; run at Callao. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Upolu; run at Sydney. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter- Gunner. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Syd- 

ney. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 



lx LIST OP OFFICERS AND MEN. 

William Thompson, Seaman. 



William Teneycke, 

Chables Truelare, 

John Undietch, 

John Vancleck, 

Edward Verry, 

John Vanderveer, 

Antonia Vines, 
George Wesson, 

James Wilkinson, 

Samuel Williams, 

Daniel Wright, 

Edward Widdows, 

James C. Walfe, 

Benjamin Webb, 

Robert Willis, 

Thomas Wilson, 

Horace Wister, 

Henry Waltham, 

Mark Widden, 



Joined in the United States; served the 
cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; sent home 

in the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso; sent home in the 

Relief. 
Officers' Steward. Joined at Callao; sent home in the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Gunner's Mate. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Cockswain. Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; discharged at 

Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, Oct. 31st, 1840. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Sailmaker's Mate. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Oahu, March 31st, 1841. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



Ixi 



Philip Williams, 

Nicholas Wiiiteston, 
Josiah Weaver, 
Thomas Wilkins, 
Charles Willis, 
Zacchetjs Wheeler, 
John Weller, 
Michael Ward, 

James Williams, 

John A. Weaver, 
William White, 
Jedediah Wilber, 
John Williams, 
Thomas L. Williams, 
John White, 2d, 
Stephen Winks, 
William Wells, 
George Williams, 

James White, 

Kembal Whitney, 

John Wilson, 

Aaron Walmsley, 

Daniel Whitehorn, 

Noah Wyeth, 

Joseph Wilson, 
Peter Welsh, 

William Wilson, 



Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; returned in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Rio ; lost in the Sea-Gull. 
1st Class Boy. Joined at New Zealand; run at Oahu. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; run at Hawaii. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Oahu ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Cape Town; served the cruise. 
Private. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Landsman. Joined in the United States; sent home 

in the Relief. 
Seaman. Joined at Valparaiso; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Callao ; served the cruise. 
2d Class Boy. Joined at Sydney ; served the cruise. 
Seaman. Joined at Upolu ; served the cruise. 

Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Rio. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Rio. 
Yeoman. Joined at Valparaiso; served the cruise. 

Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Capt. Forecastle. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; run at Cali- 
fornia. 
Serg'nt Marines. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Gunner. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States; discharged 

at Rio, Dec. 31st, 1838. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; run at Rio. 
Seaman. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Quarter-Master. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 



lxii 



LIST OF OFFICERS AND MEN. 



Henry 0. Williams, Landsman. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
Michael Williams, Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Boatsn's Mate. Joined in the United States ; served the 

cruise. 
1st Class Boy. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; served the 

cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States ; sent home in 

the Relief. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined at Hawaii ; served the cruise. 
Ord'y Seaman. Joined in the United States; discharged at 

New Zealand. 



Francis Williams, 

Thomas Wallace, 

Jack Williams, 

William York, 

Henry Young, 1st, 
Henry Young, 2d, 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 
VOLUME I. 



PLATES. 



Portrait of Cosimander C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Painted by T. Sully. En- 



Estroza Pass. 
Heath Forest. 
Patagonian. 

Fuegian. 

Lima Gateway. 

La Vinda Mountain. 

Banos, Peru. 



graved by R. W. Dodson, title 

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by Jordan and Halpin, 3 
Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by Jordan and Halpin, 14 
Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by Rawdon, Wright 

and Hatch, 95 

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by Jordan and Halpin, 123 
Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by A. Halbert, 235 

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by Rawdon, Wright 

and Hatch, , 266 

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by Rawdon, Wright 

and Hatch, 272 



VIGNETTES. 

Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by W. E. Tucker, 13 

Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by W. H. 

Ellis, 31 

Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by Smillie 

and Hinchelwood, 68 

Sketched by J. B. Dale, U. S. N. Engraved by W. H. 

Dougal, 112 

Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by D. Kimberly, 124 
Fuegians and Canoe. Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by W. H. Dougal, 127 
Porpoise and Schooner. Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by Jordan 

and Halpin, 142 



CURRAL. 

Porto Praya. 
corcovado. 
Parhelion. 
Orange Harbour. 



lxiv 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Cordilleras. Drawn by J. Drayton. Engraved by V. Balch, 183 

Market-Place. Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. F. E. Prud- 

homme, 187 

Sketched by J. P. Couthouy. Engraved by M. Osborne, 193 
Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. N. Gimbrede, 252 
Cooking at Casa Cancha. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by E. G. Dunnel, 268 
Low Coral Island. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by W. H. Tappan, 323 
High Coral Island. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by M. Osborne, 351 

Dean's Island. Drawn by A. T. Agate. Engraved by W. H. Tappan, 356 



VlGA OF THE CONCON. 

Amancaes. 



Madeira Sledge. 

Peasant's House. 

Wine-Carriers. 

Wine-Press. 

Madeira Boat. 
Watering-Place. 

Coffee-Carriers. 

Music. 
Mina. 
Tattooings. 

ashantee. 
Tattooings. 

Mundjola. 
Tattooings. 

Benguelan. 

Congo Negro. 

Kasanji. 

Tattooing. 

Makuan. 

Takwani. 

Caffre Proper. 



WOOD -CUTS. 

Sketched by J. Drayton.* Engraved by F. E. Wor- 
cester, io 
Sketched by J. Drayton.* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 20 
Sketched by J. Drayton.* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 22 
Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N.* Engraved by F. E. 

Worcester, 33 

Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 26 
Sketched by J. B. Dale, U. S. N.f Engraved by R. H. 

Pease, 44 
Sketched by J. Drayton.* Engraved by F. E. Wor- 
cester, 55 
Sketched by J. Drayton, 55 
Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 57 
Sketched by J. Drayton and A. T. Agate. Engraved by 

B. F. Childs, 5 8 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 59 
Sketched by J. Drayton and A. T. Agate. Engraved 

by B. F. Childs, 59 

Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 61 
Sketched by J. Drayton and A. T. Agate. Engraved 

by B. F. Childs, 61 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 62 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 62 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 63 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 63 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 64 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 65 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 65 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



lxv 



Tattooings. 

Ny AM BAN A. 
MuDJANA. 

Slaves Sleeping. 
Palace. 
Estancia. 
Guacho. 

MlRAGE. 



65 
66 
66 
78 
92 
99 
105 



Mirage. 
Patagonians. 
Fuegian Paddles. 
Native Fuegian. 
Fuegian Hut. 

Music. 
Music. 
Native Hut. 

Height of Waves. 

Cape Horn. 



113 
113 



Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by B. F. Childs, 
Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 
Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 
Sketched by J. Drayton.* Engraved by R. H. Pease, 
Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. J. Butler, 
Sketched by J. Drayton.* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 
Sketched by J. Drayton.* Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 
Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by R. H. 

Pease, 
Sketched by T. R. Peale. Engraved by R. H. Pease, 
Sketched by A. T. Agate, f Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 118 
Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 119 
Sketched by J. Drayton.J Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 123 
Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by F. E. Wor- 
cester, 
Sketched by J. Drayton, 
Sketched by J. Drayton, 
Sketched by J. A. Underwood, U. S. N.| Engraved by 

J. H. Brightly, 
Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by B. F. 

Childs, 
Sketched by J. B. Dale, U. S. N. Engraved by R. H. 
Pease, 
Relief at Noir Island. Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. H. Pease, 
Music. Sketched by J. Drayton, 

Taking Grass to Market. Sketched by J. Drayton.j Engraved by R. H. 

Pease, 
Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by R. H. Pease, 
Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by R. H. Pease, 
Sketched by J. Drayton.f Engraved by R. H. Pease, 
Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N.f Engraved by J. H. 
Brightly, 
Pizarro's Autograph. Engraved by J. H. Manning, 

Gateway, Lima. Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by F. E. Wor- 

cester, 
Lima House. Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 

Plan of Pasco. Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 275 

Temple, Pachacamac. Sketched by J. A. Underwood, U. S. N. Engraved by 

B. F. Childs, 289 



Peasant's House. 

Ox-Cart. 

Stirrups, Spurs, &c. 

Hearse. 



128 
129 
131 

133 

139 

150 
166 
173 

177 
184 
214 
232 

247 
249 

254 

258 



Ixvi 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Ground Plan of Pachacamac Sketched by J. A. Underwood, U. S. N. En- 
graved by B. F. Childs, 290 
Church at Banos. Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by O'Brien, 291 
Fountain, Lima. Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 315 
Section of Coral Island. Sketched by C. Wilkes, U. S. N. Engraved by 

J. H. Brightly, 329 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by O'Brien, 331 

Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by R. H. Pease, 332 
Sketched by J. Drayton.-}- Engraved by O'Brien, 334 

Sketched by A. T. Agate.f Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 336 
Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by R. H. Pease, 339 
Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. J. Butler, 340 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 342 
Native of Paumotu Group. Sketched by J. Drayton.f Engraved by J. H. 

Brightly, 346 

Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. H. Pease, 348 
Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by R. S. Gilbert, 353 
Sketched by A. T. Agate. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 359 
Sketched by J. Drayton. Engraved by J. H. Brightly, 452 



Canoe. 

Head of Native. 

Natives. 

Native Hut. 

Tattooing. 

Double Canoe. 

One-Handed Chief. 



Coral Blocks. 
Costume. 
Trading Canoe. 
Diagram of Survey. 



Paumotu Group. 



MAPS. 

Engraved by Smith, 



307 



Those marked with a *, were drawn on the wood by F. O. C. Darley ; those marked 
with a f, by J. H. Manning; those marked with a $, by W. G. Armstrong. Those not 
marked, by the Artists of the Expedition. 



NARRATIVE. 



CHAPTER I. 



CONTENTS. 

DEPARTURE FROM THE UNITED STATES— VOYAGE TO MADEIRA-ARRIVAL AT FUNCHAL 
—APPEARANCE OF MADEIRA FROM THE SEA— LANDING AT FUNCHAL— VISIT TO THE 
CIVIL AND MILITARY GOVERNORS-STREETS, AND MODE OF TRANSPORTATION-CRIMI- 
NALS AND PRISONS— VILLA OF CARVALHAL— CONVENT— RIDES IN MADEIRA— CURRAL— 
VISIT OF SCIENTIFIC GENTLEMEN TO SAN VINCENTE— EXCURSION TOWARDS THE EAST 
END OF THE ISLAND— STORY OF ITS DISCOVERY— POPULATION OF MADEIRA— WINE- 
GOVERNMENT— CHARACTER OF THE INHABITANTS — DRESS — DWELLINGS — MODE OF 
TRAVELLING — EMPLOYMENTS OF THE PEOPLE — WINE-MAKING — LOWER CLASSES — 
ASCENT OF PICO RUIVO— NATURAL HISTORY— QUINT A OF MR. BEAN— SCHOONER STAR 
SAVED FROM WRECK— DEPARTURE FROM MADEIRA. 









• 



- 

*; ?>*« 'i<^ s^C' *- ' -i ','.1 



.fr • ,. •' • 'i • • - 



NARRATIVE 



THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 



CHAPTER I. 

MADEIRA. 

18 38. 

On the 17th of August I received my sailing instructions, and 
final orders to put to sea the moment I was ready. The signal was 
accordingly made that the squadron was under sailing orders. 

At 3 o'clock p. m., on the 18th, the signal for sailing was made, 
and we got under weigh with an ebb tide, and a light air from 
southwest. At 5 p. m. we anchored at the Horseshoe, in consequence 
of its falling calm and of the tide making against us ; but at 9 p. m. 
the wind freshened, when we tripped and stood down the bay. At 4 
a. m. on the 19th, we passed Cape Henry Light; at 9 a. m. discharged 
our pilot and took our departure. 

At 11 a. m. all hands were called to muster, and divine service was 
performed. The day was beautiful, the sea smooth, the wind light, 
and the squadron around, with the land sinking from our view. I 
shall never forget the impressions that crowded on me during that 
day in the hours of service. It required all the hope I could muster 
to outweigh the intense feeling of responsibility that hung over me. 
I may compare it to that of one doomed to destruction. We were 
admonished in the discourse to repose confidence in the aid and 



MADEIRA. 



protection of Him whom all hands had been called to worship, and 
the admonition was well calculated to do us all good. 

Orders were now given to rendezvous, in case of separation, at 
Madeira. It was soon found, in the trial of the sailing qualities of 
the vessels, that the Relief was unsuited to act with the rest without 
great detention, and after four days I determined to part company 
with her, giving her orders to proceed to the Cape de Verdes. 

The novelty of our situation was quite enough to interest all ; free 
communications were had, and endeavours were made to excite a 
general interest in all the objects that were passing about us. It was 
amusing to see all entering into the novel occupation of dissecting 
the fish taken, and to hear scientific names bandied about between 
Jack and his shipmates. 

On the 25th I began the trial of the current with the current-log; 
and experiments by sinking a white object to ascertain the distance 
to which the solar light penetrates the sea. Our current-log was 
formed of two small kegs with a distance-line between them of five 
fathoms, and the log-line fastened to the middle of it. One keg is 
made heavy enough to sink another air-tight one just beneath the 
surface of the water, so that we get the current uninfluenced by 
wind, and all the other circumstances that would affect the ship and 
not the surface current. I adopted for the other experiments the 
usual sea anchor for a boat, viz., an iron pot, painting the bottom of 
it white. The depths were noted when it was lost sight of, and 
when it was again seen, and the mean of these depths was taken for 
the result. 

From our position in latitude 36° 08' N., longitude 71° 24' W., 
and the temperature of the water, we knew we were on the edge of 
the Gulf Stream; and we experienced what I presume has been 
called the eddy current. It was found setting to the west and 
northwest, but ought more properly to be termed an indraught to 
the Stream. I am little disposed to believe that a southerly current 
exists, as has been reported, like the inner one. We had a fine 
opportunity of examining the temperature of the Stream, as we 
crossed it at right angles to its course, and the thermometer was 
observed hourly while making little progress through the water : the 
maximum temperature of the water was found to be 83°, and width 
of the Stream about fifty-three miles; much information might be 
acquired by a series of experiments in the Gulf Stream, which would 
tend to perfect the navigation and shorten the passage between the 



MADEIRA. 5 

ports on our coast. It is to be hoped it will claim the attention of 
those engaged on the coast survey. 

On the 25th of August our winds became favourable, and we 
were enabled to lay our course towards Madeira. I continued to 
keep the direction of the Gulf Stream towards the Western Islands. 
We felt its influence until we reached the longitude of 48° W., and 
found it to set for the last few days to the northward of east. The 
temperature gradually decreased from 83° to 76°. The winds had 
been light, and the sea smooth, indicating no other impulse than the 
flow of the Stream. 

On the night of the 26th we parted company with the Peacock 
and Flying-Fish in a squall, and did not again meet them until we 
reached Madeira. 

On the 2d September we spoke a brig from Salem on a whaling 
voyage. 

On the 5th of September, being near the reported shoal of St. 
Anne, I determined to pass over its position. 

On the 6th we passed over it, the sea was smooth, the horizon 
clear, and the day beautiful. At 8 a. m. the look-out cried out 
" Rocks, or a wreck on the starboard bow," which at once created 
an excitement on board. We stood for it. It had at first every 
appearance of a rock, then that of a wreck with the masts gone. It 
proved, however, to be a large tree of cotton-wood, one hundred and 
twenty feet in length, and fourteen feet in circumference at the 
height of five feet above the roots. It had been a long time in the 
water, w T as full of barnacles, and much eaten by the teredo navalis. 
Great quantities of fish were about it, consisting of dolphins, sharks, 
&c. We did not, however, succeed in taking any. In rough 
weather it might easily have been mistaken for a rock, particularly 
if passed in the twilight, or at night. There is little doubt in my 
mind that many of the numerous vigias that appear on our charts 
have as little foundation. No current was experienced hereabouts, 
and I am led to the conclusion that a sort of eddy or still water is 
here found, wherein most of the wood carried by the Gulf Stream 
becomes deposited for a time. 

On the 8th, longitude 34° 08' W., latitude 37° 17' N., the current 
was found setting to the southward and westward. 

In consequence of the wind being from the southward and 
westward, I was compelled, after making the Peak of Pico, to go 
to the northward of St. Michael's. I am satisfied, however, it is 



MADEIRA. 



much better to keep to the southward, as the wind will be found 
more steady and stronger. Besides, the current, at that season of 
the year, sets to the westward. 

As we passed St. Michael's, we amused ourselves by a view, 
through our glasses, of its villas, groves, and cultivated fields. 

On the night of the 13th we laid by, just after passing the north 
end of St. Michael's, in order to examine the position of the Tullock 
Reef by daylight. We passed within a mile and a half of its 
reported position, but saw nothing of it, although the sea was 
running sufficiently high to have made a heavy break on it, if it 
did exist. 

On the 15th, as we were making sail, George Porter, one of our 
maintop-men, in loosing the top-gallant sail, was caught by the 
buntline, and dragged over the yard, where he was seen to hang, as 
it were quite lifeless, swinging to and fro by the neck. 

On the alarm being given, two men ran aloft to his assistance. It 
now became doubtful on deck whether they would not be all dragged 
over by the weight of his body, until several others gave assistance 
and relieved them. It caused a breathless anxiety to us all to see a 
fellow-being in the momentary expectation that he woidd be dashed 
to the deck. He was fortunately rescued and brought below yet 
living. Here he speedily came to his senses, and recollecting that 
the drum had rolled to grog just before his accident, he, sailor-like, 
asked for his portion of it. It was truly a providential escape. 
This young man died on our way home in the China Seas, of an 
inflammatory fever. 

On the 16th we made the island of Madeira, and having a strong 
westerly wind, I determined to pass to Funchal, on its southern 
side. This may be done at this season, but vessels bound to that 
port usually prefer going round the eastern point of the island. 
When off the western point of Madeira we experienced a very long 
heavy swell, which gave me an opportunity of trying the velocity of 
the waves, by noting the time the same wave was passing between 
the vessels. The result gave twenty-three miles per hour, but I 
was not altogether satisfied with it. It was difficult to measure the 
correct angle subtended by the Porpoise's masts for the distance, 
on account of the motion of both vessels. The measurement of 
the height of the waves I found still more difficult, and the results 
varied too much to place confidence in them, principally owing to 
each succeeding swell or wave being less than the preceding one. 



MADEIRA. 7 

The different observations gave from twenty-five to fourteen feet ; the 
width of the wave from the same causes was equally variable, and 
each successive result varied from that which preceded it. 

Before sunset, we cast anchor in company with the Porpoise and 
Sea-Gull, and were the next morning joined by the Peacock and 
Flying-Fish. 

Shortly after coming to anchor, we were boarded by the health 
officer, with the captain of the port, who, on being assured of our 
good health, gave us permission to land. The United States' Consul, 
Henry John Burden, Esq., also came on board, and kindly offered 
us all the attention that lay in his power. 

At night, there was a general illumination of the churches, and 
the constant ringing of the bells added much to the excitement of 
many on board, and told us we had reached foreign shores. 

The first appearance of Madeira did not come up to the idea we 
had formed of its beauties from the glowing description of travellers. 
It exhibited nothing to the distant view, but a bare and broken rock 
of huge dimensions, which, though grand and imposing, is peculiarly 
dark and gloomy, and it was not until we had made our way close 
under the land that we could discover the green patches which are 
every where scattered over its dark red soil, even to the tops of the 
highest peaks. 

The mountain verdure was afterwards discovered to be owing to 
groves of heath and broom, which grow to an extraordinary height, 
aspiring to the stature of forest trees. In addition to these groves, 
the terraced acclivities, covered with a luxuriant tropical vegetation, 
change on a closer approach its distant barren aspect into one of 
extreme beauty and fertility. 

The most striking peculiarity in the mountain scenery, is the 
jagged outline of the ridge, the rudely shaped towers, and sharp 
pyramids of rock, which appear elevated on the tops and sides of 
the highest peaks as well as on the lower elevations, and the deep 
precipitous gorges which cut through the highest mountains almost 
to their very base. 

The shores of the island are mostly lofty cliffs, occasionally facing 
the water with a perpendicular front one or two thousand feet in 
height. The cliffs are interrupted by a few small bays, where a 
richly cultivated valley approaches the water between abrupt preci- 
pices, or surrounded by an amphitheatre of rugged hills. These 
narrow bays are the sites of the villages of Madeira. 



MADEIRA. 



( 



As we sailed along from its western end, we occasionally saw in 
these quiet and peaceful situations, small white-walled villages; each 
with its little church at the outlet of the gorges. We were particu- 
larly struck with that of the Camera de Lobos, a few miles to the 
westward of Santa Cruz hill. This is the largest and is the most 
interesting of any, from its having been the first point settled by 
Europeans. The high precipices were new to us Americans; so 
different from what we are accustomed to in the United States. 
The scene was still more striking, and our attention was more 
forcibly arrested when passing under cliffs of some sixteen hundred 
feet above us. We were so near them that the sound of the surf 
was distinctly heard. The whole effect of the view was much 
heightened by a glowing sunset in one of the finest climates in the 
world. 

Off the eastern cape of the island, many isolated rocks were 
seen separated from the land, with bold, abrupt sides and broken 
outlines. The character of these rocks is remarkable: they stand 
quite detached from the adjoining cliffs, and some of them rise to 
a great height in a slender form, with extremely rugged surfaces, 
and broken edges. Through some, the waters have worn arched 
ways of large dimensions, which afford a passage for the breaking 
surf, and would seem to threaten ere long their destruction. 

Similar needle-form rocks are seen off the northern Deserta, an 
island lying some miles east of Madeira. One of them is often 
mistaken for a ship under sail, to which when first seen it has a 
considerable resemblance. It stands like a slender broken column, 
several hundred feet in height on a base scarcely larger than its 
summit. 

Funchal has a very pleasing appearance from the sea, and its 
situation in a kind of amphitheatre formed by the mountains, adds 
to its beauty. The contrast of the white buildings and villas with 
the green mountains, forms a picture which is much heightened 
by the bold quadrangular Loo Rock with its embattled summit 
commanding the harbour in the foreground. 

The island throughout is rough and mountainous, but the steeps 
are clothed with rich and luxuriant verdure. Terraces are visible 
on every side, and every spot that the ingenuity of man could make 
available has been apparently turned to advantage, and is diligently 
cultivated. These spots form an interesting scene, particularly 
when contrasted with the broken and wild background, with the 



MADEIRA. 



white cottages clustered at the sea-shore, and gradually extending 
themselves upwards until the eye rests on the highest and most 
striking building, that of the convent of Nostra Senora de Monte. 

Through the western half of the island runs a central ridge, 
above five thousand feet high, on which is an extensive plain, 
called Paul de Serra, which is mostly overgrown, and is used 
especially for breeding mules and horses. The eastern portion of 
the island, though quite elevated, is less so than the western. 

The valleys usually contain a strip of land of extreme fertility, 
through which winds the bed of a streamlet that becomes a mountain 
torrent in the rainy seasons, but is nearly or quite dry in summer. 

The landing at Funchal is on a stony beach, and is accompanied 
with some little difficulty, partly on account of the surf, but more 
from the noise, confusion and uproar made by the native boatmen 
in their efforts to drag the boat up on the beach. This operation 
they however understand, and are well accustomed to, and those 
who desire to land dry, will be wise to employ them. 

On the 17th, we paid our respects, with a large party of officers to 
the civil governor the Baron de Lordello, field-marshal in the army, 
and administrator-general of the Province of Madeira and Porto 
Santo ; and also to the military governor Jose Teixcera Rebello, 
colonel in the army, and commandant of the district. 

The civil and military governments were formerly united in the 
same person, but, since the restoration after the reign of Don Miguel, 
they have been divided. The military governor is now obliged to 
consult, and is under the control of the civil governor. I was 
informed that on the appointment of the military governor this was 
expressly intimated to him, and that the arrangement was made in 
order to avoid placing too much power in the hands of any one 



man. 



His Excellency Baron Lordello, resides in the government house 
or palace, which is a large quadrangular building, occupied in part 
as barracks. His suite of apartments fronts the bay, and enjoys a 
beautiful view of it; they also have the enjoyment of the inbat 
or sea-breeze. They are very large, and but meagerly furnished. 
Around the large anteroom are hung the portraits of all the civil, 
ecclesiastical and military governors, which form an imposing array 
of hard outline, stiff figures and faces, with a variety of amusing 
costume. Those of later years, which have been lately hung up, 



10 MADEIRA. 

are not calculated to give very exalted ideas of the standing of the 
present Portuguese school of portrait painting. 

His Excellency the Baron Lordello received us very courteously. 
Our audience, however, was extremely formal. The whole furniture 
and appearance of the room served to make it so. We all found 
it difficult to school ourselves to ceremonies, having been ushered as 
we were through dilapidated and impoverished courts and vestibules. 
His Excellency the Baron speaks English remarkably w^ell, which I 
understood he had acquired while acting as an interpreter to the 
British staff in Portugal, during the Peninsular War. He had been 
no more than a week in charge of the government, having just 
arrived from Portugal. After a few monosyllabic questions and 
answers we took our leave, and he did us the honour to see us 
through the anteroom to the hall of entrance, where we parted with 
many bows. 

Our next visit was to the military governor, Senor Rebello, who 
occupied a small apartment at the opposite end of the building. 
This was not large enough to accommodate us all, and chairs were 
wanting for many. The manner and ease of the occupant made 
full amends. Ceremony and form were laid aside; he seemed to 
enter warmly into our plans and pleasures, and evinced a great 
desire to do us service. 

Colonel Rebello was one of the proscribed during the reio-n of 
terror of Don Miguel, and was concealed for four years, all of which 
time our consular flag afforded him protection. During the whole 
time he did not leave the apartment he occupied, or even approach 
the window. 

The streets of the town are very narrow, without sidewalks, 
and to our view like alleys, but their narrowness produces no 
inconvenience. They are well paved, and wheel-carriages are 
unknown. The only vehicle, if so it may be called, is a sledge 
of some six feet in length, about twenty inches wide, and only six 
or eight inches high, on w^hich are transported the pipes of wine. 
Two strips of hard wood are fastened together for runners. 



MADEIRA. 11 

This sledge is dragged by two very small oxen, and slips easily 
on the pavement, which is occasionally wet with a cloth. It is no 
doubt the best mode of transportation in Funchal, for their wine, on 
account of the great steepness of their streets. Smaller burthens 
are transported on men's shoulders, or in hampers and baskets on 
the backs of donkeys. 

The middle gutters are now for the most part closed, and made 
subterranean, no longer the stranger's nuisance. Funchal may 
compare with most places for the cleanliness of its streets. Little 
improvement has as yet taken place in the cleanliness and discipline 
of its prisons. 

I was surprised to learn that all misdemeanours are referred for 
trial to Portugal, and that persons having committed small crimes 
are kept for years without any disposition being made of them by 
those in authority. They are maintained at the expense of the 
complainant, consequently crime is scarcely noticed or complained 
of. On the one hand it makes the punishment very severe, and on 
the other, persons are inclined to take the law into their own hands 
against petty thefts. It is impossible to avoid many painful sights 
in passing the prisons. Caps on sticks are thrust through the iron 
gratings, and requests are made for alms, first in beseeching tones, 
and afterwards, if nothing is given, one is pained with hearing cries 
of execration. The occupants are in keeping with the premises, 
and did not fail to excite both our commiseration and disgust. 

Among the lions of Madeira is a villa once belonging to Senor 
Jose de Carvalhal, a wealthy nobleman who died about a year 
before our visit. The gardens are well taken care of, and contain 
many trees and plants from various quarters of the globe. The 
grounds embrace extensive deer parks, but I was not much struck 
with the manner in which they were laid out. The present pro- 
prietor is the nephew of the late Count. 

The convent is also a place to which strangers resort, and the 
fair nuns of twenty years' standing, I will not dwell on, lest truth 
might compel me to destroy some of the reputation of those charms 
which former visiters have done honour to. Feather-flowers con- 
tinue to be sold here, and the nuns to jest with, and receive the 
homage of their guests. Since the overthrow of Don Miguel in 
1824,°monasteries have been abolished and liberty given to the nuns 
to return to the world, of which privilege some of them availed 
themselves. They do not now exceed eighty in number, and as 



12 MADEIRA. 



none have since been allowed to take the veil, they will soon 
decrease. 

The rides in Madeira are beautiful. The roads are well made, 
easily and safely travelled on a Madeira pony, with a pony-boy or 
burroquerro. One is at a loss to which to impute the most strength 
of mind and endurance, the pony or the boy. These boys keep 
constantly near the rider, at times holding on to the tail of the pony, 
then bestowing repeated blows with their long sticks, and ever and 
anon urging it on with their singular tones of voice, so that the rider 
is compelled to allow himself to be carried along, contented with 
passing safely over so novel and (to him) apparently so impassable a 
roadway. 

On proceeding out of Funchal, fruits, flowers, and vegetables 
seem crowding upon the sight; in the lower portions, groves of 
orange and lemon trees are mingled with the vineyards ; the trees 
are loaded with fruit; then, as one mounts higher, bananas, figs, 
pomegranates, &,c, are seen, and again still higher, the fruits of 
the tropics are interspersed with those of the temperate zone, viz., 
apples, currants, pears, and peaches, while the ground is covered 
with melons, tomatoes, egg-plant, &c. Farther beyond, the highest 
point of cultivation is reached, where the potatoe alone flourishes. 
The whole lower portion is spread before the eye. Vineyards, 
occupying every spot that is susceptible of improvement, and one 
rides through paths hedged in with geraniums, roses, myrtles, and 
hydrangeas. These plants, which we had been accustomed to con- 
sider as the inhabitants of our parlours and green-houses, are here 
met with in gigantic forms, and as different from our small, sickly 
specimens as can well be imagined. For those unacquainted with 
the luxuriance of the tropical vegetation, it would be diflicult to 
conceive an idea of this favoured spot. Many of the terraces on 
which the vines are grown, are cut on the sides of the hills, and the 
visiter cannot but admire the labour expended on the stone walls that 
support them. The road at times leads through small villages, the 
houses of which are built of blocks of lava, without plaster, about 
six feet high, with a thatched roof of broom brought up to a pole in 
the centre for its support, and of a moderate pitch. 

Every one who visits Madeira should see the Curral. It is a 
very remarkable spot, and it is difficult, if not impossible, to give 
an idea of its beauty and grandeur. This place is approached by 
the usual ascent from Funchal, through the narrow roads, or paths 



MADEIRA. 



13 




----- 



hedged with roses, &c., the view gradually extending beneath, 
over the terraced vineyards. Just before reaching it you mount a 
small ascent, you are then on the summit or edge of the Curral, 
and the whole scene suddenly bursts upon you. The eye descends 
to the depth of two thousand feet into the immense chasm below, 
and wanders over the ragged and broken outline of the many peaks 
that rise from its very bottom ; then upwards, following the gray 
precipitous rocks, till their summits are lost in the clouds, which 
are passing fitfully across it, occasionally permitting the sunbeams 
to glance to its very bottom. One feels surprised in gazing on this 
scene, that its character of wildness should become softened and 
its beauty increased, which is effected in part by the plants and 
shrubs which cling, or have fastened themselves into the fissures 
of the rocks. These the eye gradually makes out, and is led by 
the small and narrow strips of green on the ledges downwards, 
until it finally rests on the secluded church of Nostra Seflora de 



14 MADEIRA. 

Livre Monte, and the peasants' cabins embedded in the dark and 
luxuriant foliage beneath, whose peace and quietness is in such 
strong contrast with the wildness of nature above. The whole looks 
more like enchantment than reality. The shape of the Curral and 
its perpendicular sides give the idea rather of a gorge than of a 
crater. 

In the descent the road winds along the sides of the precipice, 
turning around sharp and jutting projections with a frightful gulf 
yawning below. A misstep of the horse would plunge the rider to 
destruction. At every turn new and striking views are brought 
out, almost surpassing in grandeur the first. The descent is so 
gradual, that one scarcely seems to advance downwards, and the 
length of time necessary to accomplish it (upwards of an hour) 
will give some idea of the vastness, and grandeur of the scene. 
Continuing on, the gorge opens to the south, where the streamlet 
of the Curral, joined by several lateral branches, forms the river 
Socorridos, which empties itself into the sea at the ancient town 
of Camera de Lobos. 

A party consisting of Messrs. Drayton, Pickering, Couthouy, and 
Brackenridge, visited San Vincente, on the north side of the island. 
They describe the road to it as passing over projecting ledges, of 
which those unacquainted with a volcanic country can form but little 
idea, The first night the party stopped at Santa Anna, where they 
were hospitably entertained by Senor A. Accraiolis, who afforded 
them every comfort in his power. They were exceedingly well 
accommodated. The next morning they set out on their way to Pico 
Ruivo. On their road they encountered the forest of arborescent 
Heaths, some of which were found thirty feet in height and four feet 
in girth at a height of two feet from the ground. These have by 
former travellers been reported as pines. Mr. Drayton's illustrative 
drawing of these remarkable trees is very characteristic. 

After a fatiguing day's ramble, in which they collected many 
specimens, they returned to Santa Anna, quite wet, it having 
rained most of the day on the mountain. The next day they set 
out for San Vincente, their kind host furnishing them with a letter 
to Padre Jacinto Neri. Passing along the north side over some of 
the most mountainous and broken parts of the island, though at 
the same time extremely beautiful, and in places well cultivated, 
they reached the pass at Estroza. This is particularly striking, 
winding around the precipitous cliff, almost overhanging the sea 



MADEIRA. 15 

several hundred feet below, and with its pinnacles reaching the 
clouds. The path around this bluff, which is only wide enough for 
one at a time, is a good specimen of the roads around the island. It 
has been worked with great labour, and made quite easy to travel 
by its zigzag direction. The feeling of insecurity to those who 
are unaccustomed to these mural precipices, with the extended 
ocean lying far beneath, serves to give additional interest to the 
scene. 

To the plate of this pass, facing page 1, the reader is referred for a 
correct representation of the same. 

They passed through several villages, all prettily situated, among 
which was Porto Delgada, and about sunset arrived at San Vincente. 
At Porto Delgada, their guides would not allow them to stop, as it 
was necessary to descend and pass along the rocky shore before the 
tide came in. They succeeded in passing safely, but were kept on 
the qui vive by the numerous stories detailed by their guides of the 
accidents that had occurred there. The road to this part of the 
island is little frequented by strangers, of whom only three are said 
to have visited San Vincente during four months. 

On their arrival they found Padre Jacinto engaged at prayers. 
After his duties were finished he received them kindly, and 
accommodated them for the night. San Vincente is but a small 
village of fifteen houses, a chapel, and a distillery, in which, during 
the season, they make between four and five hundred gallons of 
brandy a day. As Padre Jacinto could not speak a word of 
English, they had but little conversation with him. However, a 
little Spanish on both sides, with gesticulations, enabled them to 
pass the usual compliments, and to obtain the requisite directions 
for their proceeding back to Funchal on the next day. They were 
kindly and hospitably entertained by the Padre, and left him with 
many thanks for his kindness. Taking the road or rather path 
across to the Curral, they passed over a most beautiful country, 
meeting with the gigantic virgin forests of laurels, sixty feet high 
and four feet in diameter, and occasionally woods of arborescent 
heaths, of equally surprising size with those they had seen the day 
before, in their journey across the island, further to the eastward. 

No traces of distinct craters were found on any part of the island 
they visited ; the rocks were composed of volcanic breccia, and the 
surface of these was much decomposed. 

The mountain paths by which they crossed, are almost inaccessible 



16 MADEIRA. 

in some places. The Madeira ponies were obliged to leap from rock 
to rock, frequently at an angle of 45° with the horizon. The lover 
of the picturesque will be amply gratified by pursuing the same 
route. 

Another party, consisting of Messrs. Hale, Eld, Dana, and Holmes, 
went towards the east end of the island, as far as Canical, beyond 
Machico, to examine a bed of fossils, said to exist there. This proved 
to be a bed or deposit of coral, which will be spoken of in the 
Geological Report. 

Passing through Machico, they saw and visited the small church 
or chapel, said to have been erected over the graves of the lovers, 
Anna d'Arfet and Robert Machim, the story of whose love and 
sufferings has long since been placed among the fabulous, though 
still credited in Madeira. 

As their adventures are supposed to have led to the discovery of 
this island, it may be as well to give the history of them a place 
here, as recorded by Alcoforado. 

It is as follows : 

"In the reign of Edward the Third of England, Robert Machim, 
an English gentleman, became the lover of the beautiful Anna 
d'Arfet. It was long before their mutual attachment was known. 
When it became so, Machim's imprisonment was procured by the 
influence of her family for his presuming to aspire to the hand 
of one so much above his rank. During his confinement, Anna 
d'Arfet had been forced into a marriage with a nobleman, who 
confined her in his castle near Bristol. By the assistance of a 
friend, Machim escaped, and induced her to elope with him, to seek 
an asylum in France. They sailed during a storm, which pre- 
vented them from gaining their intended port, and after many days 
of anxiety and suffering, they found themselves in sight of land 
clothed with the richest vegetation, and wild flowers in the greatest 
profusion. They determined to disembark, and experienced a 
climate of surpassing beauty, with birds of the gayest plumage. 
Whilst wandering a few days about in this paradise, there came on 
a violent storm which drove the vessel from the island. This was 
too great a shock for poor Anna, and she died soon after of a broken 
heart. Robert did not long survive her and died, uttering as a last 
request that he might be laid in the same grave with his mistress, in 
a chapel which they had erected in commemoration of their deliver- 
ance from shipwreck. From the survivors, Alcoforado is said to have 



MADEIRA. 



17 



derived trie story, they having left the island, (after many adven- 
tures) returned to their native country, and gave accounts of the 
discovery of Madeira." 

The country along this route is much diversified in surface, and 
extremely beautiful. The road is quite good and much wider, 
enabling two to ride abreast. 

This party complained much of the inhospitality of the inhabi- 
tants. They could not get any accommodation whatever at Santa 
Cruz, although it contains three thousand inhabitants. They were 
told "that Santa Cruz was a very poor place," and that it would 
be better to ride on to Funchal. One of the inhabitants, of respec- 
table appearance, told them there was an empty house which they 
could occupy, with permission of the owner. His offer was cour- 
teously declined, and the party rode back through a dark night to 
Funchal. 

The islands of Madeira and Porto Santo, under the new consti- 
tution, promulgated in 1836, were included in one district, called 
"Districto-administrativo de Funchal." It contains ten councils, in 
which are forty-five parishes. The population, according to the 
census taken in 1836, is taken from the Cronica. 





PARISHES. 


FAMILIES. 


SOTILS. 


MALES. 


FEMALES. 


Funchal .... 


9 


5,975 


28,653 


13,444 


15,204 


Santa Cruz . 






4 


1,450 


7,287 


3,611 


3,676 


Machico . 






4 


1,030 


5,207 


2,655 


2,552 


Santa Anna . 






5 


3,972 


14,799 


7,572 


7,227 


San Vincente 






2 


1,972 


8,848 


4,425 


4,423 


Porto Moniz . 






4 


1,559 


7,333 


3,606 


3,727 


Calheta . . 






6 


2,731 


13,133 


6,341 


6,792 


Porto do Sol 






6 


3,288 


16,111 


7,852 


8,259 


Camara de Lobos 




4 


2,323 


12,458 


6,119 


6,339 


Porto Santo . . 




1 


374 


1,618 


883 


758 




45 


24,674 


115,447 


56,508 


58,957 



The English population amounted in 1836 to 108 families, num- 
bering 324 souls. 



VOL. 1. 



18 MADEIRA. 

PROGRESS OF POPULATION IN 1835. 

Legitimate births, male 1807 

Illegitimate " " 222 

2029 

Legitimate births, female 1868 

Illegitimate " " 205 

2073 

4102 

Deaths, male 1383 

" female 1368 

2751 

Excess of births , . . 1351 

Marriages .... 1065 

The revenue of the island is stated to be about $210,000 per 
annum. That portion which is derived from the customs, is about 
one half, or $110,000. The remainder is from taxes and tithes. The 
latter are now collected by the government, who pay salaries to the 
priesthood. The inhabitants are liable to pay tax for the mainte- 
nance of the small naval force kept on the station. The expenses of 
the government of Madeira, including the support of the military 
garrison, is about $150,000, leaving a surplus to the government of 
about $50,000 or $60,000. 

There are about five thousand proprietors of the soil, of whom no 
more than six hundred and fifty live on their rents; and there are 
about four hundred who receive government salaries. 

Mendicants are numerous, and one is much tormented with them 
from the very moment of landing. It is surprising to find them so 
importunate in so fine an island, and where the necessaries of life 
ought to abound. 

Wine is the staple commodity: the produce during the year 1837 
was 14,150 pipes. The export the year previous to our visit 
amounted to 8,435 pipes, of which about 3,800 pipes, valued at 
$793,000, went to the United States. The imports only amounted 
to $105,000, in staves, rice and oil. The 5,700 pipes that remain, 
include the home consumption, and what is stored for refining. 
Wine in Madeira is generally the engrossing topic, and the in- 
habitants are much alive and justly jealous of their reputation for 
it. An amusing excitement existed during our visit. A London 



MADEIRA. 19 

paper (the Times) had asserted that foreign wine had frequently been 
introduced into Madeira and afterwards exported as the genuine 
article, to the United States in particular, and what gave more force 
to the story, it was stated as a fact that seventy pipes had lately been 
entered at the expense of $1000, and remanufactured. Every body 
was up in arms. The commercial association of Funchal passed 
resolutions denouncing the publication in strong terms, as designed 
by certain interested persons to injure the reputation of the wine of 
Madeira, So strict are the laws to prevent frauds, that even genuine 
Madeira, after being once shipped, cannot be returned to the island. 
I heard, however, of an attempt, and but one, to smuggle in Teneriffe 
and Fayal wines, which was discovered. The casks were broken, 
the wine destroyed, the boats confiscated, and the smuggler con- 
demned to be transported to the coast of Africa. 

We were informed that the industry of the inhabitants had much 
increased within a few years, and since the new order of things : this 
is shown in the increased quantity of grain which is raised, viz. 
wheat, barley, rye, and Indian corn. Sugar and coffee are also 
raised, and of superior quality. All kinds of vegetables and fruits 
are in abundance, all of very fine kinds, and not only sufficient for 
their own wants, but to supply the shipping that touch there. 

There are some things relative to the organization of the present 
government, that seem to forebode any thing but harmony in its 
operations. It is too complicated for an ignorant community, that 
cannot value the elective franchise. The system is somewhat a 
caricature of our own, in the frequency of elections, and the 
numerous small magistrates who have for the most part little or 
no emolument. I was told that instances had occurred of their 
refusing to educate their children, in order that they might escape 
being elected to an office, which would bring them nothing but 
toil and vexation. As they become more enlightened this prejudice 
will pass away. 

The people are industrious, sober, and civil, and although ignorant, 
I should think happy. There is little, if any, mixed blood among 
them. They are of the old Arabian stock. Free negroes are seen. 
Dark hair, eyes, and complexion, are most common; but much 
diversity in form and feature, and in the colour of the hair, exists. 
The character of the features of the inhabitants, is usually rather a 
broad face, high cheek bones, and pointed nose, full lips, good teeth, 
and retreating chin. The men are very muscular, rather above the 



20 



MADEIRA. 



middle height, strongly built, and capable of enduring great fatigue. 
We all agreed that the women were particularly ugly, which is to be 
imputed in part to the hard labour required of them. The two sexes 
do not appear to belong to the same race. 

The men of the lower order are dressed in a kind of loose trousers 
(cuecas) descending as far as the knee, with a shirt or jacket of a 
gaudy colour. Both sexes wear a kind of cap (carapuca) of very 
small dimensions, tied under the chin. Its use is not readily 
conceived, as it is only a few inches in diameter at its base, and 
terminates in a conical top, like an inverted funnel. 

The women wear bodices with short petticoats of a variety of 
colours, generally in stripes. They have usually shoes and stockings, 
but they generally go barefooted, with these articles tied in a small 
bundle to be put on when they wish to appear fine. The children 
are poorly clad, have ;but one garment, and that dirty. 

The habitations of the lower order would be called huts in our 
country. They are composed of walls of stone about five or six 
feet high, with a roof rising on all sides to a central pole, are 
thatched with straw or broom, and contain only one room. The 
only aperture for light and smoke is the door. There is but little 
necessity for chimneys, as fire is seldom required. It is said that 
in the northern part of the island, some of the peasants make their 
habitation in caves or excavations on the hill side. 




peasant's cottage. 



In the town of Funchal, there are many elegant establishments, 
and much luxury among the higher classes, but the poorer classes 
are lodged miserably. The houses are generally of one story, of 
which the exterior is well kept, being neatly whitewashed. But 



MADEIRA. 21 

the interior is any thing but comfortable. They have but one 
entrance. The floors are paved with round stones, and the walls 
are of rough stone, presenting no better an appearance than our 
wood cellars. The furniture is scanty, and of the coarsest land. 
Those of the peasants are more characteristic to the island. The 
wood cut on the opposite page is a good representation of their 
habitations. 

Travelling is performed in sedan chairs. This mode is always 
considered the safest for ladies, particularly in crossing the moun- 
tains. Horses and mules are seldom used. On leaving Funchal 
for the country, it is one continued ascent between high stone 
walls, these forming abutments to the terraces, which are covered 
with vines, and afford protection from the sun. After reaching 
the hills, one enjoys a delightful view of the beautiful gardens. 
The roadsides are lined throughout with flowers, (to us, those of 
the green-house,) among them Fuchsias, Digitalis, Rose geraniums, 
Punica granata, Rosa indica coccinea, Hydrangea hortensis, mixed 
with box-trees, myrtles, &c. 

The valleys are covered with the Belladonna lily, and the mountain 
passes cannot be compared to any thing more appropriate than to a 
rich flower-garden left to grow wild. Added to all this, a climate 
which resembles our finest spring weather. 

Such of the peasantry as do not gain a subsistence in the vineyards, 
have usually a small patch of ground which they cultivate, raising 
grain, corn, potatoes, and the taro (Arum esculentum) in quantities 
barely sufficient to eke out a scanty living. The cultivation is 
commonly performed by hand, although a plough of very simple 
construction is sometimes used. Many of the peasantry are em- 
ployed as carriers, and one is much struck by their numbers when 
entering Funchal early in the morning, with sheepskins filled with 
wine on their shoulders, that look at a distance more like the live 
animal than a filled skin. These skins are preserved as entire as 
possible, even the legs of the animal being retained. They are 
generally kept steady by a band that passes over the forehead, which 
supports a great part of the weight. About twenty-five gallons, 
weighing more than two hundred pounds, is a load. They move 
rapidly, and carry this load five miles for a mere trifle. To us, one 
of the most remarkable features in the population, was to see a 
female not only thus employed, but a stout mountain lass trudging 



22 



MADEIRA. 



up a steep path with ease, under a load that would have staggered 
one of our labourers, even for a short distance. 




WINE-CARRIERS. 



The manner of expressing the juice I have no where seen particu- 
larly described, and although a description of it may not add a relish 
to the cup, yet it will show the manufacture as conducted according 
to the old custom, at the present day. A friend of our consul was 
obliging enough to show us his works, and the machinery for 
expressing the juice from the grape. It was in a rude sort of shed. 
On our approach we heard a sort of song, with a continued thump- 
ing, and on entering saw six men stamping violently in a vat of six 
feet square by two feet deep, three on each side of a huge lever beam, 
their legs bare up to their thighs. On our entrance they redoubled 
their exertions, until the perspiration fairly poured from them ; the 
vat had been filled with grapes, and by their exertions we were 
enabled to see the whole process. After the grapes had been suffi- 
ciently stamped, and the men's legs well scraped, the pulp was made 
into the shape of a large bee-hive, a rope made of the young twigs of 
the vine being wound around it. The lever was then used, which 
has a large stone or rock attached to it by a screw. Much time is 
lost in adjusting this, and much consultation and dispute had. The 
juice flows off, and is received in tubs. The produce of the press is 
on an average about fifty gallons daily. Each gallon requires about 
ten bushels of grapes. The taste is very much like sweet cider. 
The process is any thing but pleasing, and endeavours have been 



MADEIRA. 



23 



made by English residents to substitute machinery, but the preju- 
dices, vexations and difficulties experienced has caused them to give 
up the attempt. The general average is from one to three pipes of 
wine per acre annually. 




WJNE-rRESS. 



The south side of Madeira, as is well known, although not the 
most fertile, produces the finest wines. Every point which can 
be cultivated successfully is attended to, and earth is brought to 
increase the soil from other parts. The kinds of grapes are various, 
and the wines manufactured as numerous. The common Madeira 
is obtained from a mixture of Bual, Verdelho, and Negro Molle 
grapes; the Malmsey and Sercial from grapes of the same name, 
There is a great difference in the spots and peculiar exposure where 
the vine grows, and different kinds of wine are produced, according 
to the state of maturity to which the grape is allowed to arrive 
before being gathered. After being expressed, it is put into casks, 
undergoes the process of fermentation, is clarified with gypsum or 
isincdass, and a small portion of brandy is added, two or three 
gallons to the pipe. 

The deportment of the lower classes is a mixture of politeness and 
servility. They invariably noticed us in passing by taking off the 
cap, and on receiving any thing, kissed their hands, or made some 
other respectful salutation. 

The language spoken in Madeira is Portuguese, but with a rapid 
utterance, or rather, clipping or abbreviating of their words and 
expressions. 

The ignorance of the common people seems great. Few can 



24 MADEIRA. 

read, and still fewer write. It is said they are acquainted with no 
more than three coins, all of which are Spanish, namely, dollars, 
pistareens, and bits, and that many kinds of Portuguese coins 
current at Lisbon will not pass in Madeira. The want of a small 
description of money is much felt. 

I directed a party of officers to make an excursion to the top of 
Pico Ruivo, in order to ascertain its height, and that of the several 
points on their way up. They remained four hours on the summit, 
during which time simultaneous observations were made at the con- 
sul's house by Lieutenant Carr and myself. They ascended by the 
Santa Anna road, which is the only one now said to be practicable. 
Punta d'Empeno, the highest point of cultivation, was found to be 
four thousand one hundred feet above the sea. The heights of 
other points measured will be found in the tables. The results of the 
observations give for the height of the peak above the American 
Consulate, six thousand one hundred and eighty-one feet. The 
cistern of the barometer at the latter place above half tide, was found 
to be by levelling fifty-six feet. Total, six thousand two hundred and 
thirty-seven feet above half tide. 

The magnetical observations for dip and intensity were also 
made, and the longitude by chronometer was found to be, 16° 54' 
11" W. Latitude by observation, 32° 38' 11" N. 

The markets are well supplied with meat, poultry, fish, and all 
kinds of vegetables. 

The bat noticed by Bowdich was the only one of the mammalia 
seen in a wild state. Of birds, two species of hawks, the linnet, the 
canary, the goldfinch, the yellow wagtail and the swift, were all 
that were seen. Sea fish are abundant; but not a single trace 
of a fresh water fish was seen or found in the streams. Many 
specimens of Crustacea, insects, and mollusca were added to our 
collections. 

The ride to the Quinta of Mr. Bean at Comancha is one of the 
prettiest the island affords. It is towards the east end, and some 
eight or ten miles from the town of Funchal. For variety of 
scenery and the beauty of its grounds it is not exceeded by any on 
the island, and it gives a good idea of the effect of English taste 
when applied to the scenery and fine climate of Madeira. The road 
to it is the same that has been before described, passing through the 
gorges and around the different spurs, which gives great variety to 
it, and presents many fine views. Having a note of introduction 



MADEIRA. 25 

from our consul, we stopped at Mr. Bean's gate and sent the 
servant in, who returned, informing us that Mr. Bean was not at 
home, but a kind invitation to enter was sent to us from his lady. 
We did so, riding through hedges of Fuchsias and Myrtles twelve 
feet high, when a beautiful little cottage on a small level spot burst 
suddenly upon our view, with its verandahs embosomed in creeping 
vines, and from the notes of various kinds of birds, one could almost 
have fancied oneself in an aviary. All united to give the impression 
that it was the abode of contentment. Several small lakes were 
partially seen, their dimensions being ingeniously hid from view. 
On one of them was seen a tiny fleet safely moored, on another 
waterfalls, &c, &c. ; the banks of others were surrounded with 
aquatic plants, among which was the Calla Ethiopica in full bloom. 
Then again we were struck with the dahlias, geraniums, roses, and 
jasmines, and the varieties of trees and shrubs from the tropics, 
besides willows, oaks, elms, &c, that were familiar to us. A view 
through the trees down the gorge to the distant ocean was beautiful, 
bringing before us all the bold scenery of Madeira : truly it was an 
enchanting spot. The grounds are extensive, and laid out with 
great taste, and each spot appeared in keeping with the whole. 
The hill behind the house was found by the sympiesometer to be 
two thousand and ninety-eight feet above the level of the sea. The 
cottage had every thing to recommend it, in its library, &c, &c. 
All is enjoyed here that such a climate as that of Madeira, combined 
with taste and refinement, can give. 

After a stay of a week we had made all our repairs and arrange- 
ments which were necessary in consequence of our defective outfits, 
recruited the officers and men, and prepared for our departure. 

Lest it should be supposed at home that I had exaggerated the 
state of the ships, I forwarded from Madeira to the Honourable 
Secretary of the Navy, as an ocular proof how defective our outfit 
had been, the iron hoops that had rusted off the pumps, and were 
found in the well-room of the Peacock. Captain Hudson's report 
relative thereto will be found in Appendix XV. 

The diarrhoea made its appearance among the crews, but m 
dispensing with fruit it was soon stopped. 

During our stay, the English schooner Star was seen drifting 
rapidly upon the Brazen-head, and was only saved by the timely 
aid of our boats. She was found to be without an anchor, and had 
been upwards of eighty days at sea from the coast of Africa. The 

7 

VOL. I. ' 



26 



MADEIRA. 



garrison of Loo Rock, on seeing the boats proceeding to render 
assistance, fired several guns to prevent her being boarded. This 
would have effectually prevented her receiving any aid from the 
shore, but as our boats did not understand the signal, they went on, 
and succeeded in saving her from wreck, and supplying her necessary 
wants. 

With a favourable wind we took our departure, after experiencing 
many kindnesses and attentions from our worthy Vice Consul, Henry 
John Burden, Esq., whose house and time were entirely given up to 
us during our stay, and to whom I would beg to tender our warmest 
thanks. 




MADEIRA BOAT. 



CHAPTER II. 



CONTENTS. 

SQUADRON SAILS FROM MADEIRA — CURRENTS — SEARCH FOR SHOALS AND VIGIAS— 
ARRIVAL AT ST. JAGO— APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND— TOWN OF PORTO PRAYA— ITS 
POPULATION— LANGUAGE— VISIT TO THE GOVERNOR — PUBLIC FOUNTAIN — MARKET- 
DRILL OF RECRUITS— DROUGHTS— CLIMATE— SLAVES— DRESS— DEPARTURE FROM PORTO 
PRAYA— FURTHER SEARCH FOR SHOALS, ETC.— ARRIVAL AT RIO JANEIRO. 



CHAPTER II. 

PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA TO RIO JANEIRO. 

18 3 8. 

On the 25th of September, having completed all that was deemed 
necessary, we sailed from Madeira, and stood to the southward, 
intending to pass over the localities where shoals were supposed to 
exist. 

The morning after our departure from Madeira it was reported to 
me at daylight, that the squadron were not in sight; as we had 
been making rapid progress throughout the night, I concluded that 
we had outrun the squadron, and hove to for them to come up. 
About eight o'clock they were discovered. On joining, I was in- 
formed by Captain Hudson that they had been becalmed for several 
hours, although we were near each other when the breeze sprang 
up. These veins of wind are frequent in this part of the ocean. 

After passing the Canary Islands we experienced a current, setting 
northeast by east, of about one fourth of a mile an hour, until we 
reached the latitude of Bonavista, one of the Cape de Verde Islands. 
This somewhat surprised me, for I had formed the idea that the 
set of the current should have been in the direction of our course ; 
but many careful observations with the current-log, and the differ- 
ence between our astronomical observations and dead reckoning, gave 
the same results. 

It was my intention on leaving the United States to pass from 
Madeira through the Sargasso Sea, in order to ascertain something 
definite in relation to this unexplored and interesting locality, and to 
gain some information relative to the Fucus nutans, or gulf weed, the 
origin of which has remained so long in doubt. Deep soundings in 
this part of the ocean I deemed would be very interesting, and 

VOL. I. 8 



30 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

afford an opportunity of settling the origin of this plant, which is 
spread over the whole ocean; but my time did not permit me to 
make this deviation from our direct course, and I hoped on my 
return to have ample leisure for its exploration. 

On the 29th of September, we passed into discoloured water, as 
green in appearance as that of fifty fathoms depth. On entering it 
the thermometer fell one and a half to two degrees. The distance 
run in it was about four hundred and fifty miles. Repeated casts of 
the deep sea lead were had in from two to three hundred fathoms, 
but no bottom found. The water was particularly examined for 
animalculse, but none were detected. On leaving it a rise of tem- 
perature took place of two degrees ; and much phosphorescence was 
seen when we had passed out of it. 

The first shoal searched for was the Maria Rock, said to be in 
latitude 19° 45' N., and longitude 20° 50' W. In its neighbourhood 
our position was carefully ascertained. The vessels were then 
spread in open order, and a course sailed to pass directly over the 
spot. The surface of the ocean visible was not less than twenty 
miles in latitude, with every opportunity which clear weather could 
afford. Good look-outs were kept at the masthead, and there was a 
sufficient swell to cause breakers on any shoal within fifteen feet of 
the surface. We ran over the locality without perceiving any thing 
that indicated a shoal. 

The situation of the Bom Felix Shoal, laid down about ten leagues 
to the south of the above, was passed over in the same manner, 
sounding repeatedly for bottom with three hundred fathoms of line, 
but no appearance of a shoal was observed. 

The reported position of the Bonetta Rocks next claimed our 
attention, in latitude 16° 32' N., and longitude 20° 57' W. After 
this locality had been well examined, a course was steered over its 
supposed bearing from Bonavista, one of the Cape de Verde Islands. 
The vessels of the squadron sounding every half hour during the 
night, which was clear and bright moonlight.* 

* Since our examination, I have seen a letter from the American consul at Porto 
Praya, F. Gardiner, Esq., detailing the wreck of the British ship Charlotte in 1841, and 
placing this shoal in latitude 16° 17' N., longitude 22° 21' W., 84' in longitude and 15' 
in latitude from the position I searched for it in j whence it appears that it is the same 
reef on which the Magdelaine was lost. I have no kind of doubt but that they ought all 
to be referred to the Hartwell Reef. The same gentleman was confident at the°time I 
saw him that the Magdelaine had been lost on the reef of that name. 



TO RIO JANEIRO. 31 

On the night of the 6th of October, we hove to off the island of 
St. Jago. Seldom have we seen the sea exhibit so much phospho- 
rescence. Its brilliancy was so great, that it might truly be said to 
have the appearance of being on fire. We made some experiments 
to ascertain the depth to which these phosphorescent animalcule 
extended. After many trials they were not found below eighteen 
fathoms. The temperature of the water at that depth was 79°, at 
the surface 80°, and at one hundred fathoms depth 58°. The mean 
temperature of the air from Madeira until our arrival off this port, 
was found to have increased from 69° to 78°, while the difference in 
the water was from 71° to 81°. 

On the morning of the 7th, we anchored in Porto Pray a bay. 
The island of St. Jago presents a very different appearance from 
Madeira, particularly the southeastern portion of it, though its 
formation is known to be similar. There are many high peaks 
and mountains in its centre, which afford a fine background for the 
barren and uninteresting coast scenery. 







The time of our arrival was just after the rainy season, the island 
consequently presented a more verdant appearance than it does at 
other seasons of the year. 

Our consul, F. Gardiner, Esq., came on board and made us wel- 
come to all the island afforded. An officer was despatched to call 
upon his excellency the governor, to report our arrival, who proved 



32 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

to be a black man. Knowing that the regulations required permis- 
sion for vessels to depart, the request was made during the interview, 
which he readily granted at any hour we chose. 

The town of Porto Praya is prettily situated on an elevated piece 
of table land, and looked well from the anchorage. 

The bay is an open one, but is not exposed to the prevailing 
winds. There is generally a swell setting in, which makes the 
landing unpleasant and difficult. The only landing-place is a small 
rock, some distance from the town, and under a high bank, on which 
there is, or rather was, a fortification, for it is now entirely gone to 
decay. It commands the bay, and is situated about two hundred feet 
above the sea. The horizontal stratification of the red and yellow- 
coloured sandstone shows most conspicuously in this cliff, and forms 
one of the most remarkable objects on this part of the island. It is of 
tertiary formation, and contains many fossils. I regretted extremely 
that my time did not permit me to make a longer stay, as we left the 
island under the impression that there is much here to be found that 
is new in the various departments of natural history. Between this 
bluff and the town is an extensive valley, in which are many date- 
palms, cocoa-nuts, and a species of aloe. 

On landing, a stranger is immediately surrounded by numbers 
of the inhabitants, with fruit, vegetables, chickens, turkeys, and 
monkeys, all pressing him with bargains, and willing to take any 
thing for the purpose of obliging their customers. Many of them 
continue to follow until they meet with some new customer. 

The soil, rocks, and every thing around on the surface, show 
unequivocal marks of volcanic origin. The rock above the tertiary 
formation is a thick bed of cellular lava, with fragments of the same 
strewn in every direction over it. A thin and poor soil gives but 
little sustenance to a light herbage. Goats and asses are found in 
great numbers grazing upon it. 

The length of our visit did not permit us to make much exa- 
mination, yet the character of the vegetation was unequivocally 
African. 

The walk from the landing to the town is exceedingly fatiguing, 
and the road deep with sand. The first view of the town on 
entering it is any thing but striking, and all the ideas formed in its 
favour are soon dispelled. The houses are whitewashed, and in 
general appearance resemble those inhabited by the lower orders in 
Madeira, but they are much inferior even to them. The northeast 



TO RIO JANEIRO. 33 

part of the town is composed of rough stone houses, covered with 
palm leaves. The streets are wide, and in the centre is a large 
public square, the middle of which is occupied by a small wooden 
monument said to be emblematical of royalty ! A chapel, jail, and 
barracks constitute the principal public buildings. The fort, which 
flanks the town, is almost entirely in decay. This is the case with 
almost every thing we saw here : the place is indeed little better 
than an African town. The houses are of stone, one story high, 
partly thatched, and others tiled. Their interior presents only a 
few articles of absolute necessity. Of comfort and cleanliness, in 
our sense of the words, they have no idea. The houses and streets 
are filthy in the extreme, and in both of them, pigs, fowls, and 
monkeys appear to claim, and really possess, equal rights with the 
occupants and owner. 

The population is made up of an intermixture of descendants 
from the Portuguese, natives, and negroes from the adjacent coast. 
The Negro race seems to predominate, woolly hair, flat noses, and 
thick lips being most frequently met with. The number of inha- 
bitants in St. Jago is about thirty thousand. Porto Praya contains 
two thousand three hundred, of which number one hundred are 
native Portuguese. 

The language spoken, is a jargon formed by a mixture of the 
Portuguese and Negro dialects. Most of the blacks speak their 
native tongue. Mr. Hale, our philologist, obtained here a vocabu- 
lary of the Mandingo language, and found it to agree with that 
given by Mungo Park. 

The officers of this garrison were, like the governor, all black. 
The latter made a brilliant appearance, dressed in a military frock 
coat, red sash, two large silver epaulettes, and a military cross on 
his breast. He w 7 as quite good-looking, although extremely cor- 
pulent, and speaks both French and Spanish well. He was very 
civil and attentive. Fruit, bread, cheese, and wines were handed 
about. Some of the wine was made on the island of Fogo, and 
resembled the light Italian wines. The cheese also was made here 
from goats' milk, and resembled the Spanish cheese. After doing 
ample justice to his excellency's good fare, we proceeded to view 
the lions of the place. 

The first and greatest of these is the fountain, or common watering 
place of the town, above half a mile distant by the path, in a valley to 
the west of the town, and almost immediately under it. The fountain 



34 PASSAGEFROMMADEIRA 

is surrounded by a variety of tropical trees, consisting of dates, cocoa- 
nuts, bananas, papayas, sugar-cane, and tamarinds, with grapes, 
oranges, limes, &c. &c, and when brought into comparison with the 
surrounding lands, may be termed an enchanting spot; but what 
adds peculiarly to its effect on a stranger, is the novelty of the objects 
that are brought together. Over the spring is a thatched roof, and 
round about it a group of the most remarkable objects in human 
shape that can well be conceived. On one side blind beggars, dirty 
soldiers, and naked children ; on another, lepers, boys with monkeys, 
others with fowls, half-dressed women, asses not bigger than sheep, 
and hogs of a mammoth breed ; to say nothing of those with cutane- 
ous disorders, &c. &c, that were undergoing ablution. All conspired 
to form a scene peculiar, I should think, to this semi-African popu- 
lation. Here sailors watering and washing, chatting, talking, and 
laughing; there a group of "far nieiite" natives of all sizes, shapes, 
and colours, half clothed, with turbaned heads and handkerchiefs 
of many and gay colours, tied on after a different fashion from 
what we had been accustomed to, the shawls being reversed, their 
ends hanging down behind instead of before, completely covering the 
breast, and one fourth of the face. - What portion of this group had 
honoured the place in consequence of our visit, it would be difficult 
to conjecture, all were eager, however, to derive some benefit from 
the meeting, particularly the beggars, who are equally pertinacious 
with those found elsewhere, and are certainly great objects of 
commiseration. This fountain barely supplies the wants of the 
inhabitants and shipping, and they are now about building a reser- 
voir. The whole of the stone for it was prepared in Portugal, and 
made ready for putting up. It is to be of marble. The water for 
its supply is brought two miles in iron pipes. It is said that it will 
cost $130,000, and is the only improvement that has been undertaken 
by government for many a year. 

A market is held daily in the morning when any vessels are in 
port. The square in which it is held is quite a large one, with a 
cross in its centre. The market is not of much extent, but a great 
variety of tropical fruits, of the kinds before enumerated, are exposed 
for sale in small quantities, as well as vegetables. These consist of 
cabbage-leaves, beans, pumpkins, squashes, corn, potatoes, yams, 
mandioca, &c. All these were spread out on the large leaves of the 
cocoa-nut tree. No kind of meat was for sale. The only articles 
of this description were chickens four or five days old, tied up in 



TO RIO JANEIRO. 35 

bunches, and some eggs. In order to obtain beef, it is necessary to 
buy the cattle at the cattle-yard, where, on previous notice being 
given, you may choose those that suit for slaughter. They are in 
general of small size, and dark-coloured. Those we saw were from 
the interior of the island, where they are said to thrive well. 

The morning drill of the recruits which was witnessed, was 
amusing. They were cleanly dressed, but the rattan was freely 
used by the sergeant, and what seemed characteristic or in keeping 
with appearances around, the sergeant during the drill ordered one 
of his men from the ranks, to bring him some fire to light his 
cigar ! 

No trades were observed, and but one small carpenter's shop. A 
few shops were supplied with cotton, hardware, &c. There were like- 
wise a number of little wine shops, where they also sold fruit, which 
they usually have in great plenty, but all their crops depend much 
upon the rains, and the inhabitants have also become indifferent or 
careless about raising more than for their own supply, from the 
heavy exactions of government made upon every thing that is 
cultivated. The demand for shipping has of late years very much 
decreased. The improvement in the supplies and comforts on board 
of vessels on long voyages, now make it unnecessary to touch in port, 
as was formerly deemed unavoidable. 

Porto Praya is yet visited by whale ships for supplies. Although 
the soil is poor, and the crops very uncertain, yet the tropical fruits 
and some vegetables can always be obtained here. They are usually, 
if time is allowed, brought from the interior. The inhabitants have 
at times suffered almost the extremes of famine, in consequence of 
the droughts that prevail for successive years, and especially during 
the one that took place in 1832. It gave me pleasure to hear that 
the timely aid sent there during its prevalence from the United 
States was remembered with gratitude. 

The exports from these islands are salt, some ordinary wine, hides, 
goats' skins, and orchilla. The latter is a government monopoly. 
Ninety thousand milrees were paid by the company for the yearly 
crop, and it is said at that price to yield a handsome profit. 

The climate of these islands is said to be healthy, though 
exceedingly warm. It is subject to fevers, which generally take 
place during the rainy months of July and August. There is an 
indistinctness in the atmosphere that I have not experienced else- 
where, which causes every thing to be ill defined, although the 



36 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

day may be fair. The same appearance was observed after a shower 
of rain as before. The temperature of the air was found here to be 
75-7°, and of the water 81°. 

The seine was drawn for fish in one of the coves to the eastward 
of the anchorage, in what we understood was a place well adapted 
for the purpose, but it did not prove so. I should prefer the western 
beach as offering better luck, and being more advantageous. 

Bats were the only wild mammiferous animals seen here. For 
the short time we remained, our naturalists were actively employed, 
and many specimens were added to our collections in Ornithology, 
Botany, Shells, and Zoophytes, with some fossils from the bank 
already spoken of. 

Slaves are imported from the coast of Africa, and settlers or heads 
of families are not allowed to bring with them more than ten slaves. 
There was one at the consul's, recently imported from the Foolah 
district in Africa, who was purchased by him for one hundred and 
fifty dollars. 

The costumes are here so various that it can scarcely be said that 
any one of them is peculiar to the island. The men generally wear 
a white shirt and trousers, with a dark vest, principally the cast- 
off clothing of the whites. Others go quite naked, excepting a 
straw hat; others again are in loose shirts. The women have a 
shawl fastened around them, with occasionally another thrown over 
them, covering the mouth and bust, and crossing over behind. The 
children for the most part go naked. 

The Relief not having arrived, I deemed it an unnecessary 
detention to await her here. There was great necessity of reaching 
Rio de Janeiro as soon as possible, in order to complete our outfits, 
and put the vessels in a fit condition to meet the Antarctic cruising 
as soon as possible. I therefore determined to proceed thither forth- 
with. The store-ship did not reach Porto Pray a until the 18th, 
after a passage from Hampton Roads of sixty days. Nothing more 
truly illustrates the necessity of navigating in the prevailing winds, 
than this passage of the Relief compared with that of the squadron. 
We took the route by Madeira, over one thousand miles greater in 
distance, remained there a week, and yet we arrived at Porto Praya 
eleven days sooner. The Relief, pursuing the direct route, had 
light baffling winds during her whole passage. Although something 
is undoubtedly due to her dull sailing, yet the difference is too great 
to be entirely attributed to that cause. The winds were generally 



TO RIO JANEIRO. 37 

found by her from the northward and eastward, and southward and 
eastward, whilst we in a higher latitude, had them from the south- 
west, and the westward. 

On the 7th of October we left Porto Pray a, and stood for Patty's 
Overfalls, as laid down on the chart in latitude 11° N. and longitude 
24° 25' W. In the afternoon we spoke the Danish brig Lion, from 
Rio de Janeiro. She had crossed the line in longitude 27° W., and 
had brought the trades to 6° 30' N. We lost the trade winds the 
day after we left Porto Praya, the 8th of October, in latitude 12° N., 
and longitude 23° 30' W. The winds then became variable, and 
squalls of rain ensued. The upper clouds had still a quick motion 
to the westward. On the same day we spoke the Crusader, seventy- 
five days from Bombay, which vessel was in want of medical aid. 
I sent the surgeon on board, and administered to their wants every 
thing that was in our power. It afforded us no small pleasure 
to supply them with some fruit and vegetables, which were very 
acceptable to the numerous passengers. The Crusader had crossed 
the line in longitude 22° W., and lost the trades in latitude 7° 30' N. 

On the 9th we reached the supposed position of Patty's Overfalls, 
and were becalmed close in their proximity for forty-eight hours. 
Nothing was seen of them. We had passed through rips trending 
east and west, but no current was found on the trials which were 
made, nor did the reckoning show any. If any had existed, we 
must have been made aware of it during the time we were becalmed, 
for we remained nearly in the same position forty-eight hours. 
Thence we stood for Warley's Shoal. The weather had the same 
indistinctness that we had first observed at Porto Praya. It might 
be termed a dry haze. 

In this part of the ocean we passed through spaces of water, from 
ten to thirty miles in width, in which the temperature of the water 
frequently rose three or four degrees. This increase seemed to me 
to indicate the existence of currents. I was, therefore, very parti- 
cular in watching for them, and the only indication we had was of a 
very slight one to the southward and eastward. Our winds continued 
light and variable, and sailing in squadron, we had many opportu- 
nities of observing their different courses. On the 12th of October 
a remarkable one happened, in which all the squadron, while sailing 
with a brisk breeze from the southeast, were taken aback, and at 
one time all apparently had the wind from different quarters, 
although but a few cables' length distant from one another. The 

i7i-ir t. 1" 



38 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

Peacock and Porpoise were very near running into each other. 
The whirl was in the direction of the hands of a watch. On the 
night of the 16th we parted company with the Peacock, and on the 
17th spoke an English whaler, seventy days from New Zealand, by 
the way of Cape Horn, who reported he had lost the southeast 
trades in latitude 6° 55' N., longitude 21° 10' W. 

On the morning of the 18th thirty falling stars were seen in as 
many minutes, shooting in all directions from the constellations 
Gemini and Taurus. On board the Peacock, some sixty miles to 
the westward of us, they were much more brilliant and in greater 
numbers. 

On the 22d several land birds were seen about the vessels. They 
proved to be the common European swallow. 

The 24th we reached the position assigned to Warley's Shoal, in 
latitude 5° 4' N., longitude 21° 25' W. The vessels were spread 
as before described, in open order, covering as much space as 
possible. We passed over the supposed locality, but saw no 
appearance of shoal water, or danger of any kind. Here we 
experienced westerly winds, and took advantage of them to make 
easting. After we had lost the trades in latitude 12° N., I ob- 
served when the upper stratum of clouds could be seen, that they 
were passing from east-northeast, with rapidity to the westward. 

We now ran for the French Shoal, in latitude 4° 5' N., longitude 
20° 35' W. Here the wind inclined to the southward, and we pro- 
ceeded as far east as longitude 13° W., passing over the two positions 
laid down by the French and English hydrographers, but saw 
nothing of it. 

We now tacked to the southward, to cross the equator in lon- 
gitude 17° W. The weather had changed, the rains which we 
had experienced at night ceased, and the extremely indistinct 
atmosphere which at times had prevailed for the last fortnight, 
disappeared. It is difficult to describe the peculiar effect this hazi- 
ness produced. It seemed to me an effect the opposite of that of 
looming, apparently diminishing all objects. Although the horizon 
was seen, yet the sea and sky were so blended together that it was 
difficult for the eye to fix upon or define it at any moment. It was 
impossible to use the dip sector. At the same time it was perfectly 
clear over head, with a bright sun, and the upper cirrus clouds, 
when seen, were in rapid motion to the westward. 

The quantity of rain that fell between 9° 30' and 5° north lati- 



TO RIO JANEIRO. 39 

tude, was 6 15 inches during ten days. The greatest fall in 
twenty-four hours was 1*95 inches. The temperature of the rain 
on several trials varied from 69° to 72°, that of the air being at the 
time 77°. 

The nights were now beautiful until near morning, when it 
generally clouded over, and remained overcast with flying clouds 
until evening. The zodiacal light was once or twice observed, 
but the presence of these clouds for the most part prevented it from 
being seen. 

On the 29th, in latitude 3° 40' N., our observations gave a current 
of ten miles in twenty-four hours, to the north. Until the 3d of 
November we had light winds ; the upper stratum of clouds were 
now seen moving from the east. On the 4th we had a cry of 
breakers from the masthead. We immediately changed our course 
and ran for the appearance, but it proved on nearing it to have been 
one of the many optical illusions seen at sea, from the effect of light 
and shadow. 

On board the Peacock, on the 30th of October, in latitude 1° 30' 
N., longitude 18° W., they witnessed a remarkable appearance, 
resembling the aurora borealis, radiating from the northwest point of 
the horizon in different directions, and extending from southwest 
round by the north to the eastward, at an altitude of from 10° to 
50° ; afterwards reaching to the zenith, and passing over the moon's 
disk, encircling her with a faint halo of twenty degrees in diameter. 
It continued an hour, and although it was bright moonlight, the 
phenomenon was very distinct and beautiful. 

On the 5th, the winds drew to the south-southeast, and we crossed 
the line, as we had intended, in longitude 17° W., which enabled us 
to pass over and examine the supposed locality of the Triton Bank, in 
longitude 17° 46' W., latitude 00° 32' 00" S. The current was 
experienced this day to be setting to the northeast, fifteen miles in 
the last twenty-four hours. This night the sea was extremely 
brilliant, showing in large luminous patches. The light proved to 
be occasioned by a large species of Pyrosoma, some of which were 
ten inches in length, and two inches in diameter. Many other 
phosphorescent animalculse were taken, and some rips that were seen, 
exhibited long lines of brilliant phosphorescent light. Temperature 
of water 76-5°. Our diprJing needle on the equator gave 23° 30'. 
Hourly observations were made for forty-eight hours to ascertain 
the oscillations of the barometer under the equator, (for which see 



40 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

Appendix XVI.) The periods of oscillation were found to be as fol- 
lows : the maxima at nine a. m. and nine p. m., and the minima at 
three a. m. and three p. m. The variation was 1 of an inch, and was 
found to be very regular, from latitude 3° 30' N. to 4° S. 

We had now heavy deposits of dew on several fine and cloudless 
evenings. Indeed the sun had scarcely set before the ship was quite 
wet with it. One of the essential requisites supposed necessary by 
Dr. Wells for a deposit of dew, was certainly wanting in this case, 
viz., that " The temperature of the body on which it is deposited, 
should be considerably lower than the surrounding air." The tem- 
perature of the air and ship having remained the same for several 
days at about 78°; all objects, hammock-cloths, spars, sails, and 
ri ggi n g> so f" ar as could be ascertained, showed the same. And at 
the time when the dew was observed to be most copious, we had a 
fine breeze. It has generally been supposed that dew never falls off 
soundings. This at least is an old saying among seamen, but our 
observations are at variance with this notion, for as far as every 
indication went, both by sounding and blue water, we certainly had 
no bottom. 

The supposed position of the Triton Shoal was now passed over, 
and examined carefully in the same manner as heretofore described, 
sounding at the same time with two and three hundred fathoms 
of line. Nothing of the kind was perceived, nor was there any 
indication of soundings in the discoloration of the water, or any 
change in its temperature. 

We next sailed for a vigia laid down on the chart. 
On the 7th November at noon we were in longitude 18° 20' W., 
and latitude 3° 30' N. Here we first experienced the influence of the 
equatorial current, and found it setting west by north at the rate of 
half a mile per hour. This vigia was not seen. I then stood for 
Bouvet's Sandy Isle, or its reported position. We saw nothing of 
it whatever. I was very desirous of continuing my search farther 
to the west, from the report I had seen of various vessels having 
experienced shocks of earthquakes, and the belief having been en- 
tertained that shoals might have been formed by them. The equa- 
torial currents having been felt, I was aware that in getting farther 
to the west, I should lose the opportunity of examining the locality 
where that distinguished navigator, Admiral Krusenstern, supposed 
he saw a volcano. I therefore gave up proceeding farther to the 
westward in this latitude, and hauled up for its position. 



TO RIO JANEIRO. 41 

It was now the 9th of November ; we had delightful weather and 
moderate breezes from the south and east. 

An amusing circumstance occurred this night. In our course we 
passed very near a large sail, which from the night being dark, the 
officer of the deck of the Porpoise mistook for the Vincennes, although 
sailing on a different course. He immediately, agreeably to his 
orders, followed the vessel, and continued after her until morning, 
when, to their surprise, they discovered that it was a large Dutch 
ship. Fortunately, I had perceived the ship pass, and conjectured, 
when we found the Porpoise was not in sight at daylight, the nature 
of the mistake. I therefore retraced my steps, and in an hour or two 
we again came in sight of her, then tacked and proceeded on our 
course. On the next day, the time being very favourable, we hove to, 
to get a deep sea sounding with the wire line, and ran ont one thou- 
sand six hundred fathoms of it. On reeling it up, the wire parted, 
and we lost nine hundred and sixty fathoms of line, with our sound- 
ing apparatus, including one of Six's self-registering thermometers. 
The wire was badly prepared and ill adapted to the purpose. 

On the 11th we found ourselves near the location of Krusenstern's 
supposed shoal, ran over the position in parallel lines, and satisfied 
ourselves of its non-existence. 

Having now examined all the localities which were designated in 
my instructions, I made all sail for Rio de Janeiro. 

We now found ourselves in the equatorial current, setting us west 
twenty-five miles in twenty-four hours. 

On the nights of the 11th, 12th, and 13th, we kept a watch for the 
periodical showers of stars. About thirty were seen in the mid watch 
of the 13th, proceeding from the Pleiades, and shooting in a northerly 
direction. Our position was in latitude 6° 15' S., and longitude 24° 
25' W. The Peacock, whose situation was about forty miles to the 
westward of us at the time, saw a number shooting from the constel- 
lations Orion and Leo. The equatorial current was now strongest, 
setting thirty miles in a day to the westward ; the breeze had become 
very steady and strong ; the upper current was found to correspond 
with the direction of the lower. Every clay the wind was observed to 
freshen as the sun was coming to the meridian, and continued so until 
the afternoon, when it died away again, freshening after dark, and 
continuing until near daylight. 

On the 16th of November we passed the magnetic equator in 
latitude 13° 30' S., longitude 30° 18' W. The variation was found 

vol. h U 



42 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA 

by careful observations to be 10° 30' W. We continued to pursue 
our course rapidly, experiencing the current setting more to the 
southward, and upwards of twenty miles a day. 

On the 22d we made Cape Frio ; here we fell in with and boarded 
the ship Louisiana, in fifty days from New York, and were much 
gratified by getting letters and papers. 

The progressive temperature on the passage from the Cape de 
Verde Islands to Rio, was as follows: it rose until it reached its 
maximum in 9° 24' N., water 83-5°, whilst the air was at 81-6°, 
from thence to striking soundings, it decreased to 75°, and on sound- 
ings 69°. 

The soundings obtained off the Cape were in fifty fathoms ouze and 
shells, the water changing its colour to a deep green, and as we 
approached the harbour, to a dark olive. On the afternoon of the 
23d of November, we took a light wind from the southeast, and with 
all sail set stood in for the magnificent harbour of Rio Janeiro. Our 
attention was drawn first to the high, fantastic, and abrupt peaks of 
Gavia, the Sugar Loaf, and Corcovado, on our left; whilst on our 
right, we had the bold point of Santa Cruz ; then before us the city of 
San Salvador, and the towns of San Domingo, with Praya Grande 
opposite, and the islands and fleet that lay between them, decking 
this beautiful expanse of water. These objects, with the pinnacles of 
the Organ Mountains for a background, form such a scene that it 
would be difficult to point out in what manner it could be improved. 
The life and stir created by the number of vessels, boats, and steamers 
of various forms and of all sizes passing to and fro, give great anima- 
tion to the whole. 

The mountains present a very peculiar appearance. Their tops 
and sides have a rounded or worn surface destitute of verdure, with, 
the exception of here and there a yellowish patch, produced by the 
Tillandsias, which in places cover the rocks. The abruptness of the 
Sugar Loaf Mountain, and those immediately behind Santa Cruz, 
strikes the spectator very forcibly. 

The shipping do not form as in other places a dense forest of masts. 
There being no wharves, they are obliged to lie at anchor, exhibiting 
their proportions and symmetry to great advantage. They are usually 
seen grouped together, with their different flags flying, forming a 
picture that a painter would delight in. 

As we proceeded up the harbour, our own flag was seen to wave 
over that magnificent specimen of naval architecture, the Indepen- 



TO RIO JANEIRO. 43 

dence, and as we passed her our bosoms beat to the tune of Hail 
Columbia, played by the band. 

There is a feeling of security on entering the harbour of Rio, that 
I have seldom experienced elsewhere, not even in our own waters. 
The mountains seem as it were to afford complete protection from the 
winds and ocean. We anchored near Enxados or Hospital Island, 
and found the Peacock had arrived here three days before us, and 
that she was proceeding with her repairs rapidly. The vessels 
being altogether unfit for the southern cruise, it became necessary 
to effect the requisite repairs as speedily as possible. While I 
could not but deprecate the loss of time and the shortening of the 
season for our southern operations, I felt it an imperative duty that 
I owed to those who were engaged with me on this service, not to 
suffer them to go among the many dangers of a southern cruise badly 
provided with the means to secure them against ordinary accidents, 
and to encounter the weather we must anticipate. 

On our arrival I was told it was the beginning of the hot season, 
and that rains usually prevailed during the coming months. This 
was unpleasant news, particularly as I was desirous whilst making 
the necessary repairs on the vessels, to complete a set of astronomical 
observations, and to perform a series of experiments with the pendu- 
lums, &c. This information, however, I did not find to be correct, 
and from the examination of the meteorological tables (see Appendix 
XVII.) obligingly furnished me by John Gardner, Esq., an American 
gentleman residing at Rio, I am not disposed to credit this common 
saying. It therein appears that rain falls as often in other months 
as in December, and my experience during the time of our stay, 
corresponds with his tables. The first fortnight we had occasional 
rains, but before we left the harbour, our parties reported that the 
country was suffering from drought. 

Mr. Gardner has also obligingly favoured me with a table (see 
Appendix XVIII.) showing the monthly average of passages from 
the United States to Rio during eight years, from 1834 to 1841. 
The shortest passage occurred in the year 1835, and the longest in 
1840. The former by a very fast vessel in twenty-nine days; the 
latter by an ordinary merchant ship in ninety days. The Relief, 
our store ship, had one hundred days in 1838! but this includes 
touching three days at the Cape de Verdes. 

It will be seen that the average monthly passage does not vary 
but a few days throughout the whole eight years. The winter 



44 PASSAGE FROM MADEIRA TO RIO JANEIRO. 

months are the most favourable, in consequence of the strong westerly 
winds that prevail in the North Atlantic at that season, and also to 
the prevalence of the northeast monsoons on the coast of Brazil. 

Our observations would point out the necessity of dull sailing 
vessels not crossing the equator to the westward of 20° of west lon- 
gitude, where the equatorial current begins to be felt; but vessels 
that sail well, may cross it as far as 26° west, particularly when the 
northeast monsoons prevail in their full strength, and very much 
shorten their passage by such a course. 

During the repairs, I endeavoured to employ my time and that of 
the officers and scientific gentlemen in as advantageous a manner as 
possible. We are indebted to the Hon. William Hunter, our charge 
d'affaires, and our consul, William Slacum, Esq., for many kind- 
nesses and attention received during our stay. Through their inter- 
cession, I obtained the use of the small island of Enxados, which 
was well adapted to our purposes. The instruments and stores were 
allowed to be landed there free of inspection, and every assistance we 
could desire was afforded us by the government and its officers. How 
different a policy and treatment from that pursued towards Captain 
Cook some seventy years before, under an ignorant and jealous colo- 
nial government. 




WATERING PLACE, PORTO PRAVA. 



CHAPTER III. 



CONTENTS. 

CITY OF SAN SALVADOR— ITS LMPROVEMENT— ITS PRESENT CONDITION — CHURCHES — 
THE MISERICORDIA — FUNERALS— EMPEROR'S BIRTHDAY — AQUEDUCTS— GEOLOGICAL 
CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY- PUBLIC GARDEN — MUSEUM -BAY AND HARBOUR- 
VEGETATION— BOTANIC GARDEN— SLAVE POPULATION— COFFEE-CARRIERS— RESEARCHES 
INTO THE NATIONS OF AFRICA —TREATMENT OF SLAVES — STREETS OF THE CITY- 
SOCIETY— WHITE-JACKET BALL — ARRIVAL OF THE RELIEF — ASCENT OF THE SUGAR 
LOAF - SURVEYS — DEFECTS IN THE EQUIPMENT OF THE SQUADRON — TRIP TO THE 
ORGAN MOUNTAINS— JAUNT TO PIEDADE— CONCLUSION OF THE SURVEYS AND OBSER- 
VATIONS—ASCENT OF THE CORCOVADO. 



CHAPTER III. 

RIO JANEIRO. 

18 38. 

The city of San Salvador, better known as Rio de Janeiro, has 
been often described. At the time of our visit a great change 
appeared to have taken place within a few years, as well in its 
outward appearance as in its government and institutions, that gives 
to the whole a different aspect from what we read of. Under its 
former monarch, Don Pedro the First, it had all the aspect of a 
court residence : now it is the very reverse. I shall, therefore, give 
my impressions, and a picture of its state as we found it in the latter 
part of the year 1838. 

Republican forms, habits, and customs, are gradually creeping in 
under its new and reformed constitution. It is not to be denied that 
the people now appear to be much better off than formerly, and more 
at liberty to carry on their lawful pursuits. Commerce, and inter- 
course with foreigners, are every day making alterations for the 
better. Every one, on his first landing at Rio, will be struck with the 
indiscriminate mingling of all classes, in all places, all appearing on 
terms of the utmost equality. Officers, soldiers, and priests, both 
black and white, mixing and performing their respective duties, 
without regard to colour or appearance. The only distinction seems 
to be that of freedom and slavery. There are many wealthy free 
blacks, highly respectable, who amalgamate with the white families, 
and are apparently received on a perfect equality. The police, 
too, consisting of a national guard, has taken away those forms 
of military parade that formerly existed. An air of independence 
is creeping in even among the working classes. Any little ser- 
vice that is required, and for which they are well paid, they appear 



48 RIO JANEIRO. 



to consider as a favour done you. The mechanical arts are at least 
half a century behind those of our own country. The churches, 
which are numerous, are falling into decay, which gives a dila- 
pidated look to the city, its religious ceremonies are dispensed with, 
and to crown all, the steps of the churches are made a market- 
place for the sale of sheep, pigeons, fruit, &c. To judge from 
appearances, and the attendance on its services, there exists little 
religious feeling towards the Romish Church. It is true, the same 
constant ringing of bells occurs that is to be heard in all Catholic 
countries, and other outward signs are still kept up ; but the priest- 
hood are not held in such awe as they formerly were, and society 
seems to be breaking through the trammels that have so long 
enslaved the female portion of it. Religion is a mere name among 
the youth of Brazil. The aged are still observant of its ceremonies, 
but little or no attention is paid to the Sabbath. The stores do 
business, and the workshops are open the same as on other days. 
A few are seen going to worship in the morning of that day, but 
a greater number to the billiard-tables in the afternoon, and the 
theatres at night. There is an Episcopal church, and a missionary 
of the Methodist persuasion from the United States resident here. 

We saw Rio de Janeiro under its most favourable aspect, that of 
the holidays, when the church had put on all her finery and decora- 
tions, and every one, slave as well as master, seemed intent upon 
enjoying himself. The Christmas week or holidays give a respite 
from all labour, and various are the amusements. The churches 
are decked and the services extraordinary. 

The neglect of the public walks and roads shows a want of proper 
attention, and strikes the visiter as different from the usual order of 
things around a court. So far as cleanliness goes, Rio, I should 
think, is not much improved. Yet it has every advantage to make 
it a clean city, but the desire appears to be wanting. Neither do I 
intend to assert that its style of buildings is changed. Although the 
government is doing little, yet one sees the spirit of enterprise 
among the citizens. Many private dwellings are being erected, and 
I understood that many improvements were taking place. 

The houses of the city are strongly built of stone, cemented 
together with clay ; this is used in consequence of the scarcity of 
lime, which is only obtained by burning shells fished up from the 
bay. The houses are plastered on the outside, and have a pretty 
appearance and colour. The floors, beams, and roofs, are made of 



RIO JANEIRO. 49 

the hard wood of the country, of great size and strength, which are 
necessary from the great tile roof they have to bear. Very few of 
the houses have yards, cellars, or gardens, consequently they are 
still greatly incommoded from the want of water-closets, detrimental 
both to health and comfort, and not only an annoyance and incon 
venience to the inhabitants themselves, but is shared by the stranger 
in passing through the streets. 

We of course saw all that was to be seen in Rio. The churches 
claimed our first attention. They are richly decorated in the 
interior, with massive gold and silver ornaments, and at this time 
glittering with gems and precious stones. On some of the altars of 
the saints it is the practice to suspend the diseased parts of the body 
in wax, in honour of the cure supposed to have been effected by the 
saints' intercession. The sight of these is truly disgusting, although 
they are far from being well executed. The chapel of St. Cecilia 
was visited on the saint's day, 25th November. The music was 
very fine, from a large choir, consisting, besides the organ, of flutes, 
hautboys, horns, and basses of all kinds, with about ten vocalists, 
two of whom were eunuchs, about seventy years of age. The 
music consisted of selections from the best masters. The performers 
were about seventy in number. The steps of the church and the 
street were strewed on this occasion with orange leaves. A number 
of females present were seated on the floor of the church, dressed in 
black, with white lace shawls, and wreaths of flowers round their 
heads. Fireworks, as usual in such ceremonies, were set off in front 
of the church at the beginning and end of the service. 

The Misericordia has now become much out of repair, and I 
understood had fallen off in its charitable usefulness, but it still 
shows the remains of its former splendour. Few monks were seen 
about, and dead bodies were laid out in the Green House. At the 
time we visited it there were eight, the greater part of whom were 
negroes. A monk was seen saying a hasty prayer over the bodies, 
which were at once thrown into the trench, when they were 
sprinkled with lime, placing one layer over the other, until the 
hole, about six feet square and as many deep, is filled or level with 
the surface. After one of the trenches is filled, another is dug by 
the side of it. The crowded state of this place of interment is but 
too evident from the number of skulls and bones lying about, some 
still with portions of flesh adhering to them. 

On the same evening, whilst this scene was still fresh m our 

VOL. I. 13 



50 RIO JANEIRO. 

minds, and as if in strong contrast with it, we met the funeral of 
a person of distinction. A black hearse, ornamented with black 
plumes, was drawn by mules. The driver had a cocked hat and 
black plume. The coffin was covered with a scarlet pall ornamented 
with silver. About twenty altar-boys in their church dress, pre- 
ceded the hearse, which was surrounded by about the same number 
of black servants, in livery, all carrying lighted, wax candles. The 
body, on arrival at the Imperial Chapel, was removed into it, and all 
who entered the chapel were furnished with lighted tapers. Mass 
and the funeral service were performed by the priest, and some 
delightful music by a full choir. The body was then taken into 
the Campo Santo, a kind of amphitheatre, with high walls, a short 
distance from the church. About a thousand vaults are built in the 
wall. One of them was opened, the body interred, and the wall 
built up again. The centre of this sepulchre is laid out in a flower 
garden, and is about one hundred feet in diameter. 
^ December 2d was the birthday of the Emperor, Don Pedro the 
Second, who then was thirteen years old. It was celebrated with all 
due pomp. Great preparations had been making for many days. He 
was to pass into the city from St. Christoval, his usual residence, in 
procession, and to hold a levee at the city palace. The streets were 
strewn with orange and other leaves, a triumphal arch erected, &c. 
But a description of his progress will give a better idea of it. 

Having left St. Christoval, he entered the city about noon, preceded 
by a large troop of horse. He rode with his sisters, one sixteen, the 
other fourteen years of age, in a splendid English carriage, with 
bronze and gold mountings, drawn by eight cream-coloured horses, 
gaily caparisoned, with silver-mounted harness, the servants in rich 
liveries. Three carriages, drawn by six horses each, followed, con- 
taining officers of state and his household, the whole surrounded by 
the Emperor's guards, and above five thousand military following. 
Great crowds of people had assembled to witness this parade. As the 
carriages passed under the balconies, garlands of flowers were thrown 
upon them. They entered the principal street through a triumphal 
arch beautifully decorated with natural flowers, on which were placed' 
two little boys, dressed in blue and pink, with wings to represent 
angels, each holding a basket of flowers, which they threw on the 
young monarch as he passed. The houses in the streets through 
which the procession moved, were hung with satin damask draperies 
of the richest tints. These I understand are kept expressly for such 



RIO JANEIRO. 



51 



occasions. At short intervals national flags were suspended across 
the streets. On the custom-house the flags of every nation were seen, 
in the centre of which was the Brazilian, and next to it the " star- 
spangled banner." The Emperor moved on, receiving the same 
marks of affection from his subjects until he reached the great square 
and palace, where he alighted. The troops forming around the 
square soon came tp order, and a general pause ensued, until the 
firing of the feu de joie began, one of the most deafening I ever 
heard. He finished this public exhibition by showing himself to the 
multitude below, from the balconies of the city palace, and was 
received with many vivas. 

He then held his levee, which the Rev. Mr. "Walsh has so well 
described, and which closely resembled the one at which he was 
present, with this difference, that this was much more of a farce, 
in consequence of the boyhood of the Emperor. Nothing can be 
more ridiculous than to see all the dignitaries, and old men, the 
mitred bishop, the sage diplomatist, and the veteran soldier, ushered 
into the presence, and out again, without saying a word, or turning 
their backs on the young monarch. Mr. Walsh has, however, said 
nothing about the scene in the anteroom; to me it was the most 
ridiculous of all. The arranging the order of entrance to the pre- 
sence, with due form and etiquette ; the examination by each diplo- 
matist, that he has his due order of precedence; their anxiety to 
gather their suites around them not unlike a hen with her chickens, 
and to make the fullest show ; all this prepares one for the ridiculous 
scene that is to follow T . The oldest resident minister always takes the 
lead. At night the city was illuminated. 

Rio is now well supplied with water. Aqueducts have been 
finished within the last two years, which bring it from the Corcovado 
and Tejuca Mountains, a distance of six or seven miles. There are a 
number of public fountains in different parts of the city. All the 
water for the supply of families is transported by slaves, who are 
constantly seen about these fountains. Until the amount of toil and 
time occupied is seen, little idea can be formed of the saving of labour 
that hydrants and pipes, for the supply of this necessary article, 
effects. These fountains have numerous jets, and some have pretty 
edifices over them. During the day there are seldom less than fifty 
to one hundred, both male and female, water-carriers around them, 
filling their jars, with which they are seen moving about borne on 
their heads. Near the large fountain called Hafariz, in the square of 



52 RIO JANEIRO. 

Santa Anna, are two large basins, about fifty feet long and twenty- 
five wide. These are commonly filled with about two hundred neoro 
women, who daily assemble to wash. Numbers of them are half naked, 
standing up to their middle in the water, beating and thrashing the 
clothes against the stone wall, to the great destruction of buttons, &c, 
Few articles are transported in any other way than by slaves, 
and it is extremely rare to see a cart drawn by any beast of burden. 
Antique-looking carriages and two-wheeled calescas are generally 
seen. 

It is impossible to remain long at Rio without noticing the geolo- 
gical structure of the country. It is all granitic, and occurs in vast 
blocks. Dr. Pickering and Mr. Brackenridge, who visited the Organ 
Mountains, reported that the country was of the same general cha- 
racter, but on a much grander scale. 

The garden at the bay side is delightfully situated. From this 
point the bay offers amusement at all hours. I should think the 
people of Rio might be classed among the indolent, and that they 
are not fond of walking, for the garden appears to be but little 
frequented. 

The museum is open twice a week, and is quite creditable to the 
city, and well worth seeing. It appears to attract more attention 
from the inhabitants of Rio than I should have been led to expect. 
It is extremely rich in its native collections, and well taken care of. 

The theatres, of which there are three, are seldom open on week 
days, but always on Sunday. 

The sail up the bay is beautiful. The surrounding picturesque 
peaks, varying their outline with every change of position, give it 
great variety, and the objects are so interesting that one is never 
tired. The many islets that stud this bay add greatly to its beauty, 
and excite interest, covered as they are with tribes of tropical plants^ 
all new to the eye. Among these are seen tufts of Bromelias and 
Cactus, while Orchideae plants were abundant on the rocks and trees. 
This bay is usually covered with small boats, passing to and fro, 
felucca rigged, without decks, and generally about twelve tons' 
burden. These boats are rowed by blacks, who are seen toiling at 
their task. The oars are large, the men row in a standing posture, 
and thus add the weight of their bodies to their strength. At times,' 
the bay seems alive with the number of these vessels, and of small 
canoes, each made of a single trunk, which are occupied in fishing. 
Many of these vessels are also engaged in the coasting trade. 



RIO JANEIRO. 53 

Foreigners are usually employed to take charge of the latter, which 
sail under the Brazilian flag. Steamers are beginning to be used. 
One plies between Rio and Santos, and during our stay, another 
left the harbour for Montevideo. The greater part of the vessels in 
the bay are under foreign flags, and I was much surprised to observe, 
how few comparatively are English, and how many are from the 
north of Europe. 

The harbour of Rio may be considered as not extending farther 
than Enxados Island, above which few vessels lie. The front of the 
city is not well adapted for wharves, and none exist. There are 
some landing stairs ; but they are not well protected from the sea, 
which at times renders landing almost impossible. 

The environs of the city were visited by many of our naturalists 
and officers, and although this ground has been so often gone over by 
others, it was yet found to oifer many objects of interest, and we 
believe of novelty, particularly in the waters of this bay. 

In Rio, the vegetation seems to fix the attention above all other 
things, especially of those situated as we were in the harbour, having 
it continually before one's eyes, and I can well understand the 
deprivation Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Solander must have expe- 
rienced in their visit. Our naturalists remarked that although 
the productions are still American in character, the same families 
prevailing, often the same genera, yet that they were entirely distinct 
in species from those of other parts of the continent, As an example, 
the Furcrcea takes the place of the Mexican Agaves. The Furcrcea 
is a peculiar plant, and attracts attention by its bayonet-shaped leaves, 
branching up in every direction ; some of these are ten or twelve feet 
in height and ten inches in diameter. This plant, with the well- 
known Cecropia, with its candelabra branches, and the prevailing 
yellow blossoms of the trees, gives a peculiar and lively character to 
the landscape and woods, when compared with the dull sombre hue 
of our own forests. 

Here, as in all tropical climates, the truth of the remark made by 
a botanist "that every thing grows into shrubs and trees," is obvious. 
Herbaceous plants are rare, and annuals may be said to be almost 
wanting. The fruit trees were generally seen bearing fruit and 
flowers at the same time. This took place, as observed by one of 
our party, even in the cultivated apple on the Tejuca Mountains. 

The vegetation near the coast differs considerably from that of the 

VOL. I. 14 



54 RIO JANEIRO. 



inland country. Plants are more dense and succulent, species and 
tribes have little of a local nature ; yet particular kinds of palms and 
bamboos are found in separate groups on the top of the Organ 
Mountains, but this is only a slight exception to the general rule, 
which nature seems to have adopted in the distribution of plants 
oyer the country. This character strikes the observer forcibly in the 
Cecropias, Czesalpinia braziliensis, and several Melastomas, which are 
rarely seen in pairs. 

The Botanic Garden is in a flat situation, backed by a high ridge 
of mountainous land. In front, is a lake of brackish watelr, which 
forms a considerable bay, and communicates with the sea by a 
narrow inlet. The entrance to the garden has a mean appearance, 
and does not correspond with the broad promenades within, which 
are planted with trees on each side. The whole is laid out in the 
old Dutch style, seats, arbours, and houses are cut out of Arbor 
vita3 {Thuja orientalis). Terrestrial Orchidea? are cultivated in 
earthen vases placed in rows in the herbaceous ground, which 
appeared to have been once planted after the Jussieuean, or natural 
system, but is now somewhat out of order. In the centre of the 
garden was a small fountain, near which grew some fine specimens 
of the splendid Bougainvillea bracteatea, in full flower. There is 
also a fine collection of Orchide®, which are cultivated on decayed 
trunks of trees. The bread-fruit trees {Artocarpus incisa, and in- 
tegrifolia) succeed very well. There were some trees of both 
kinds forty feet high, and the fruit of the latter as large as an ordi- 
nary watermelon. The rows of trees along the sides of the walks 
were principally Apeiba hispida, Theobroma cacao, several kinds 
ol Lauraceae and Myrtacese, with a species of Casuarina, introduced 
from New South Wales. Several groups of bamboos had a good 
effect among the other trees, but their stems bore evidence of a 
propensity to the carving of names, as a memento of the dis- 
tinguished persons' visit. Among them I was glad to see the names 
of many Europeans, which serves to prove that this habit does not 
exist among Americans alone. Here an attempt was made some 
years since to introduce the tea-plant, with natives of China to 
cultivate it. The plantation appeared to our botanical gentlemen in 
a sickly state. 

The great and distinctive mark of Rio, is its slaves and slavery. 
It seems fairly branded with this evil, and the thoughts cannot 



RIO JANEIRO. 



55 



wander very far, before they are brought back to its reality, by some 
one of the many sights that obtrude themselves. 

The slave population is stated at five times the number of that 
of the whites, and notwithstanding the existing danger of capture, 
the supply still seems equal to the demand. Although many 
captures are made by the English cruisers, brought in and tried 
by the mixed commission, agreeably to treaty; yet they still find 
means to pass them in. Two slavers were lying in charge of the 
English squadron while we were there. On board of them, though 
quite small vessels, were two and three hundred negroes. It is 
difficult to imagine more emaciated, naked, and beastly-looking 
creatures, and it is not a little surprising that they should be kept 
thus confined by those who affect to establish their freedom and 
ameliorate their condition. These slavers it is understood had 
obtained their slaves on the eastern coast of Africa. 

Slaves are almost the only carriers of burdens. They go almost 
naked, and are exceedingly numerous. They appear to work with 
cheerfulness, and go together in gangs, with a leader who carries a 
rattle made of tin, and filled with stones, (similar to a child's rattle). 




COFFEK-C AR H IER S. 



With this he keeps time, causing them all to move on a dogtrot. 
Each one joins in the monotonous chorus, the notes seldom varying 
above a third from the key. The words they use are frequently 
relative to their own country ; sometimes to what they heard from 



56 



RIO JANEIRO. 



their master, as they started with their load, but the sound is the 



same. 



Rppeated several times. 



»'l"" 1111 scveiiii nines. ^ 



Ve na ea - a man - yan a a Par a can tar sen lior a. 



g^glpipi 





The coffee-carriers go along in large gangs of twenty or thirty, 
singing — 



Another. 



One half take the air, with one or two keeping up a kind of a hum 
on the common chord, and the remainder finish the bar. 

These slaves are required by their masters to obtain a certain sum, 
according to their ability, say from twenty-five to fifty cents a day, 
and to pay it every evening. The surplus belongs to themselves. 
In default of not gaining the required sum, castigation is always 
inflicted. It is said that the liberated negroes who own slaves are 
particularly severe and cruel. The usual load carried is about, 
two hundred pounds weight, 

Mr. Hale, our philologist, found here a field of some extent in 
his department, through the slave population, and it afforded more 
opportunities for its investigation than would at first appear probable. 
Vast numbers of slaves have been, and are still imported annually 
into this market; and as very many of the same nation or tribe 
associate together, they retain their own language, even after they 
have been in the country for some years. It may be seen by the 
most cursory examination that they are marked in such a manner 
as to serve to distinguish their different races. Some have little of 
the distinctive negro character, and others more of it than any 
human beings we had seen. Mr. Hale obtained from a gentleman 
of Rio the following information respecting them, with°their dis- 
tinctive marks; the accuracy of which we had an opportunity of 



RIO JANEIRO. 57 

verifying during our stay. The likenesses made of them by Mr. 
Agate are very characteristic. 

The negroes of Brazil who have been brought from North and 
South Africa, are divided into two distinct and very dissimilar 
classes. The natives of that portion of the continent known under 
the general name of Upper Guinea, including the countries in the 
interior as far as Timbuctoo and Bornou, being the whole of that 
region lately explored by the English expeditions. The slaves from 
this quarter, though of various nations and languages, have yet a 
general likeness, which stamps them as of one race. In Brazil they 
are known under the name of Minas. 




The Minas slaves are said to be distinguished from others by their 
bodily and mental qualities. They are generally above the middle 
height, and are well formed. The forehead is high, and the cheek 
bones prominent; the nose sometimes straight and sometimes de- 
pressed; the lips not very thick; teeth small and perpendicularly 
set; the hair is woolly, and the colour an umber or reddish brown, 
approaching to black. 

The look and bearing of the Mina blacks are expressive of intel- 
ligence and dignity, and they betray little of the levity usually 
ascribed to the negro race. 

In Brazil they occupy the highest position that slaves are allowed 
to attain, being employed as confidential servants, artisans, and small 
traders. They look down and refuse to have any connexion with, 
or participation in, the employment of the other negroes. Many 
of them write and read the Arabic, and all can repeat some sentences 
of it. The greatest number of slaves who purchase their freedom 
belong to this race. 

There is one singularity which seems to be common to the inhabi- 

vnr.. t. 15 



58 RIO JANEIRO. 



tants of both regions, and which may be compared with the practice 
of tattooing which prevails throughout the tribes of Polynesia, viz., 
the custom of cutting or branding certain marks upon the face and 
body, by which the individuals of one tribe may be distinguished 
from those of any other. This practice is general among all the 
Minas, and also prevails along the eastern or Mozambique coast of 
Southern Africa. Among the western or Congo tribes it does not 
appear to be universal. It will be readily understood that these 
marks are of great service to the slave-traders, and all that have much 
to do with native Africans soon learn to distinguish them, and the 
price of a slave is depressed or enhanced accordingly. Among the 
Mma nations, so called after a port on the Slave Coast in Upper 
Guinea, where these slaves are obtained, this practice is carried 
to its greatest extent. Each province or city of importance has a 
distinct brand or mark, which is invariable for all the inhabitants. 

Of the tribes speaking the Houssa language, the Goobere, or 
Guberi, from the kingdom of Bornou, have three or four marks on 
each side of the mouth, converging towards the corners. 



^s^P)^^ 



Those from the town of Kano, inhabited by a population of traders, 
have several perpendicular and parallel marks on each cheek. 



ww ^—^ mi 



The same mark prevails among the people of Kashua and Labbi, 
neighbours of the foregoing. 

The Soccatoos, or Sakatus, on a branch of the Quorra, have several 
fine oblique marks, converging towards the corners of the mouth. 



Dawwarra or Dawara : these have parallel oblique lines, drawn to 
the corners of the mouth, with shorter marks meeting or bordering 
them above and below. 

The men of the Nago or Yarribe nation, on the west bank of the 
Niger or Quorra, below the Houssa, have three or four longitudinal 
marks on each side of the mouth. 

LU . . III mi ,,,, 



RIO JANEIRO. 59 

Those of the women are more complicated. 






The Tacqua, otherwise called Nouffie or Nyffie, live on the eastern 
side of the Quorra, opposite the former, and have two or three oblique 
lines drawn to the corners of the mouth. 



The Fantees and Ashantees inhabit that part of the coast of 
Guinea, known as the Slave Coast, and the country in the interior. 
The former have no distinguishing mark ; the latter are characterized 
by scars produced by burns on the forehead and cheeks. 




ASHANTEE. 



The Calabars, on the Gulf of Benin, near the mouth of the Quorra, 
are marked with two lozenge-shaped brands on the breast and 
stomach. 

The Eboes live near the preceding, at the separation of the 
mouths of the Quorra. Their mark is an arrow on each 
temple. The town of Ebo is a great mart for the surrounding 
country. 



The Minas are held in much fear in Brazil. They are extremely 
numerous at Bahia, and it is understood, during a late insurrection, 
that they had fully organized themselves, and were determined to 
institute a regular system of government. They had gone so far as 
to circulate writings in Arabic, exhorting their fellows in bondage to 
make the attempt to recover their liberty. 

The nations to the south of the equator, have the usual form of 
the negro, agreeably to our ideas. Those of the slaves at Rio de 



60 RIO JANEIRO. 

Janeiro, are, in general, short, badly formed, or clumsy, with narrow 
foreheads, flat noses, protruding jaws and teeth, and prominent 
cheek bones, with the chin sloping backwards. They are indolent, 
thoughtless, and licentious. They may be seen in the streets 
at all hours, employed as carriers, earning the stipulated sum for 
their masters; and when this is gained, they are to be found 
stretched out on the sidewalk, under the porticoes, or on the steps 
of churches, enjoying themselves as mere animals, basking in the 
sun, or sleeping in the shade. They are not deficient in intelligence ; 
the defect is less in their intellectual powers, than in their character, 
which appears to want energy. 

Tattooing, or marking, does not prevail among the tribes of Lower 
Guinea to such an extent. The Kambindas, who border imme- 
diately upon the Minas, appear to have borrowed from them the 
custom, but employ it rather for the purpose of ornament, than as 
a mode of distinguishing their origin. The marks or figures with 
which they brand themselves are various, and sometimes ornamental. 
They are called in Brazil, Kambindas, after the town on the river 
Zaire or Congo, at which they are procured. 

Of the Sundi or Mayomba, who live immediately north of Loango, 
between latitude 3° and 4° S., some have a row or band of small 
cicatrices, coming from each shoulder to the centre of the breast, like 
the ends of a pelerine ; others have various arabesque ornaments. 






Those who come from Buali, the capital of the Loango district, 
m about latitude 4° 30' S, have marks like the preceding, on the 
breast, and others on the arms. 




Towards the south, tattooing is less common, and among the Goy 
or Angoya people (the Kambindas proper), few but women are so 



RIO JANEIRO. 



61 



ornamented, 
appended. 



Their marks are characterized in the three figures 






tf ft 



The Angoyans, however, file their teeth after a peculiar fashion, 
each tooth being cut down or filed in the centre, so that only the sides 
are left standing ; the contiguous sides of the teeth form a single saw- 
like tooth. 





The inhabitants of the town of Embomma, on the north bank of 
the river Congo, are distinguished by the teeth being filed so that 
each tooth forms a point. 

The Mundjola, a savage tribe, live in the interior, beyond the 
Loango district, with whose inhabitants they are constantly engaged 
in wars, made expressly to procure slaves. They are esteemed the 




MUNDJOLA. 



least valuable of all the blacks imported into Brazil, being stupid, 
ferocious, and intractable. In Africa they are stigmatized as man- 
eaters by the other negroes. The Mundjola have the usual negro 
features, with somewhat of a Tartar expression. Their cheeks are 
furrowed longitudinally by numerous parallel lines. 

Of the exact geographical position of the Mundjola, no definite 

VOL. I. 16 



62 RIO JANEIRO. 

information was known. The part of the continent which they are 
said to inhabit, is still unexplored ; the account which one of them 
gave Mr. Hale was, that he had been three days with his captors in 
canoes, from his native place, M'te, situated on the great river Muote, 
before reaching Loango, where he embarked. It is probable that 
M'te is in the interior, two or three hundred miles northeast of 
Loango, and that he was brought to the coast by the Zaire river ; 
but in this wild unexplored ground, all is yet conjecture. The next 
town or tribe to M'te he called Mudimbe. 

The extensive territory, bounded on the north by the river Coanza, 
in latitude 9° 20' S., on the west by the Atlantic, on the south by the 
Great Desert, which interposes between it and the country of the 
Hottentots, and reaching to an indefinite distance in the interior, is 
known under the name of Benguela, or as the natives pronounce it, 
Bengera. Over this extent of country, comprising at least half of 
Lower Guinea, the same general language is supposed to prevail, 
though subdivided into several dialects. 

The Benguela blacks have a much higher character as slaves than 
the other nations of Lower Guinea. They are next in estimation to 
the Minas, being steady, industrious, and intelligent. They make 
excellent husbandmen. They are generally of good height, with 
features having less of the negro stamp than those of the Congo ; the 
forehead tolerably high, the nose not much depressed, and the lips 
moderately full. 





The extent of the Congo territory is now comprised between the 
Zaire and Dande rivers, or about two hundred miles of sea coast. 
These limits define with sufficient accuracy the extent within which 
the Congo language prevails. 

The Congoes file their teeth after the fashion of the Angoyas. 



RIO JANEIRO. 63 

Sometimes, though not often, they have a few marks on each 
temple. 




The Angola and the Kasanji are considered in Rio as of different 
nations, but their languages are the same, with hardly a dialectical 
difference, and is extremely soft in pronunciation. Some of the na- 
tives found great difficulty in enunciating sounds of the Portuguese, 
saying balaba for barba, cibali for cidade. Though the Angola and 
Kasanji spoke the same language, yet there was a considerable dif- 
ference between the dialects of two Angolas, the one from Loando on 
the coast, the other from M'baka, or Ambacca, about three hundred 
miles in the interior. 

From the best information, it is believed that the only distinction 
between them is, that the Angolas are under the domination of the 
Portuguese government, and the Kasanji are the free natives of the 
interior. 




The former inhabit a narrow province, from sixty to eighty miles 
in width, between the two rivers Dande and Coanza, and extending 
inland something more than one hundred leagues, or as far as the 
Portuguese power can make itself felt; the latter, commencing at this 
point, are spread over a large territory in the interior of the continent. 
One of the natives stated the time it took to go from Loando (the 
Portuguese seaport) to Kasanji to be three months, and to return, 
two ; the former journey, as far as it was made in boats, being against 
the stream. 

The eastern coast of Africa, from the equator to the Hottentots of 



64 RIO JANEIRO. 

the Cape, is occupied by two nations or races of people, which, though 
bearing marks of a common origin, are yet perfectly distinct. Each 
of them is subdivided into several minor tribes or clans. The first 
of these may be called the Mozambique or Makua, and the second 
the Caffre race. 

The Mozambique or Makua tribe, are the people who possess all 
the country inland of the Portuguese and Arab settlements, Melinda, 
Quilao, Mozambique, Quilimane, and Sofala. They occupy the 
country which was formerly comprised in the empire of Motapa, but 
is now divided between the Portuguese and several native provinces. 
The southern boundary of this people appears to be the river Inham- 
bane, which empties into the Indian Ocean, near Cape Corientes, 
under the southern tropic. The negroes who inhabit the country 
near the Portuguese settlement of Mozambique, are the Mozambique 
or Makuans: they differ little in their character or bodily conforma- 
tion from the Congo tribes on the opposite coast. They have the 
negro physiognomy and qualities in their full extent, and perhaps are. 
if any thing, rather lower in the grade of intellect than their brethren 
of the west. 




The custom of marking prevails among all the tribes of the eastern 
coast. The Mozambique people are distinguished by a scar like a 
horseshoe in the centre of the forehead, with others somewhat dif- 
ferent on each side. They have other marks of a similar nature on 
the chm and a large brand in the shape of the letter S covers the 
breast; their teeth are filed sharp, each tooth making a separate point. 

The lakwani dwell on the great river Zambezi, at whose mouth 
Quilimane is situated. This was formerly the line of division between 
the northern or barbarous Makuans and the territories of the Motapa 
Although this empire is extinct, the countries south of the river still 



RIO JANEIRO. 



65 



preserve some political connexion. All this region was formerly 
termed Mocacougua by the Portuguese. The Takwani, by way 
of marks, have several groups of dots or scars imprinted in various 
parts of the forehead, and also on the breast. 







Takwani is situated four days' journey up the river Zambezi. 

The natives of Mesena have also the same marks; they inhabit 
the country round the Portuguese fort Sena, on the Zambezi, and 
were formerly part of the great kingdom of Motapa. 





CAFFRE PROPER. 



The Caffres who are found as slaves, are generally slender and 
well made, with faces partaking slightly of the Moorish cast. Their 
colour is a yellowish brown, between that of a mulatto and true 
negro. The nose is not depressed, the lips are rather thick, the eyes 
large, black and bright, and the hair woolly. Two divisions of the 
Caffres have been described by the various authors who have written 
of them and their dialects. These tribes they have divided into the 
Caffres proper, to the east of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope, 
extending from the Great Fish River as far east as Delagoa Bay, in 
latitude 26° S. ; and the Bechuanas, to the north, inhabiting the 
interior as far as the tropics, and the country of the Wanketsi. 

The country between Delagoa Bay and Sofala, Mr. Hale, from his 
investigation, believes to be inhabited by another race of Caffres, 
which he designates by the name of Nyambana. He remarks that 
their language and physical traits belong to the same family with the 
Caffres proper and the Bechuanas. Their physiognomy is the same 

VOL. I. 17 



66 RIO JANEIRO. 

as that described as distinctive of the Caffres, and their language 
proved to be a sister dialect. 

The natives whom he met with, and from whom this information 
was derived, came from the town of Okankomatta, on the coast, 
between the Nyambara and Nyango rivers, in about latitude 24° S., 
and from Kamouanawankushion, the river of Nyampara, in the inte- 
rior. The distinctive personal mark of this tribe is the most extra- 
ordinary of any. It consists of a row of artificial pimples or warts, 
about the size of a pea, beginning in the middle of the upper part of 
the forehead, and descending to the tip of the nose. Of these they 
are very proud. The manner in which these singular elevations 
were produced we were not able to learn. The natives appeared to 
be averse to speaking of it. 




The Mudjana or Mutchana are one of a number of savage tribes 
who inhabit the country inland of Makua and Mocacougua, with 
whom they carry on a continual war, for the purpose of procuring 
slaves. The best known of these are the Mudjana, the Mananji. the 
Maravi and the Makonde. The Mudjana dwell about three hundred 
miles from the coast, and are among the ugliest of the African tribes. 
They are short and ill-formed, with the usual negro features in their 
most exaggerated forms. They have on the face and body cicatrices 
in the shape of a double cross or star, disposed without regularity. 
The incisions are made when they are children, and some kind of 
wood is rubbed upon them to give them a dark colour. 

The Mokonde, similarly located, have marks similar to those of the 
Mudjana. Their teeth are filed down in the centre, the sides of each 
tooth being left like those of the Angoyas. 



RIO JANEIRO. 67 

All these blacks are from different parts of the coast, and having 
been hostile tribes, retain much of their antipathy to each other. In 
general they are kindly treated, and become firmly attached to their 
masters ; more, however, from a clanish feeling than from gratitude, 
of which virtue they seem to possess little. They are baptized by 
their owners as soon as purchased, and in the cities attend mass regu- 
larly, and go to confession, but they are never thought to become 
entirely civilized. Those who receive their freedom in reward for 
faithful services, or purchase it, conduct themselves well ; their 
descendants are much superior in point of intelligence. Many of 
them own slaves, and prove much more severe masters than the 
whites. Male slaves are put to any trade or craft they may desire. 
Females are for the most part employed as mantua-makers, and 
almost all the finery worn by the higher circles at public fetes is 
made by slaves. Indeed, many masters and mistresses are dependent 
on the labour of their slaves for their daily support, There are some 
blacks who are priests, and others officers in the army; indeed, some 
of the deputies would not pass for white men elsewhere. 

Another remarkable circumstance that strikes the visiter is the 
absence of beggars. Many disgusting objects may be seen among 
the slave population, but I do not recollect having met with a beggar. 
I have understood that they are not suffered to appear in the streets. 
This is the law in almost all cities, but here it is observed. Chari- 
table institutions are extensively endowed, particularly that of the 
Misericordia. 

The streets of the city generally cross each other at right angles. 
Some few of them have sidewalks, but they are narrow and badly 
paved. The gutters are in the middle of the streets, with a stream 
of water which emits a smell by no means agreeable. Those most 
frequented are the Rua Direita and Ouvidor. The former, containing 
the palace and cathedral, is the broadest in the city. In the latter 
are the principal shops, and it is the gayest. The streets are paved 
with blocks of stone. The houses are for most part two stories in 
height, and notwithstanding the materials are strong, yet the red 
tiled roofs overhang in places fearfully. The interior of the houses 
will not bear inspection. Ceilings, walls, and floors, are all exceed- 
ingly rough. In those of the better kind, the walls and ceilings are 
plastered, and have ornamented designs painted in fresco. Silk 
hangings are much in vogue. I was much struck with the want of 
light and ventilation in the rooms and houses. The city in some 



68 



RIO JANEIRO. 



parts has a triste appearance, but in others there are few places 
which show so much stir and bustle, particularly when it is 
considered that wheeled vehicles are not used for transportation. 
What gives Rio its principal charm is its suburbs and the small 
quintas around it. Nothing can exceed the beauty of those around 
Gloria and Botofogo. These situations are generally occupied by 
foreigners who are established here in business. 



■:'■, 




The amusements of riding and fishing, with water excursions, are 
irequent, and of the most agreeable kind. It appears to be a climate 
and place that one would soon become attached to. There is much 
agreeable foreign society, composed of the diplomatic corps, many 
retired gentlemen, and generally the officers of the several men-of-war 
ol different nations. I had the pleasure of meeting some old friends 
and the time I could spare was very agreeably spent in their society. 

1 here appears to be but little intercourse between the Brazilians 
and the foreign society. The female sex particularly is still much 
restricted in this respect, and although great improvement has taken 
place yet they seldom mix in social intercourse with foreigners- I 
am told that even among themselves they are never seen except at 
ceremonious parties. They are very much as one would expect 
them to be, reserved, retiring, and wanting in education. They 



RIO JANEIRO. 69 

dress after the French fashion, and are usually covered with finery, 
often displaying splendid jewels, without taste. There is none of 
that ease and gaiety which exists where the fair sex is considered on 
an equality with the other, and there is a total absence of that tone 
which a consciousness of their value gives to society. Though there 
is a great advancement in their education, yet there is still much 
room for improvement. Formerly they were not allowed to be 
educated at all. Their usual place of resort during the afternoon 
and evening is the balconies of their houses; some of them are 
occasionally seen at church. It is said they soon lose their beauty, 
an early age being considered as their prime. 

It gives me pleasure to bear testimony that I witnessed an excep- 
tion to the above general rule. 

Among the many places to which we had the honour of an 
invitation, was the White-Jacket Ball, at Praya Grande, so called 
in consequence of a request being made on the card of invitation, 
that the gentlemen would come in white jackets, and the ladies 
appear without brilliants or other jewels. We gladly accepted the 
invitation. 

The row across the bay was. beautiful; the water, undisturbed by 
any breeze; the air cool and balmy; while thousands of lights along 
the shores, and the phosphorescence of the water, gave additional 
interest and brilliancy to the whole. The distance, though great, was 
not too much for so beautiful an evening. 

After being once or twice deceived, we at last found the landing, 
and walked a short distance from the beach. On reaching the 
anteroom, we were met by the committee of gentlemen or managers, 
and kindly greeted without ceremony, making us at once feel at our 
ease. We were shortly after ushered into one of the most splendid 
ball-rooms I ever saw ; it would contain over one thousand persons. 
There were upwards of three hundred present, all dressed in pure 
white, without any finery whatever. The room was brilliantly 
lighted. We were shown around and introduced to a great many 
persons of both sexes, who all seemed bent on amusement. It was 
truly a sans souci meeting. Seldom have I seen so much good taste 
as was displayed in the arrangements, or so good a tone of society. 
A good band of music, all Brazilians, played waltzes and marches 
alternately. I was told there were many distinguished persons, 
senators, representatives of the congress, &c, present. 

These balls take place monthly, and are really what they profess 

VOL. I. 18 



70 RIO JANEIRO. 

to be, for the pleasure of meeting, innocent amusement, and recrea- 
tion. All the expense that attends them is the music and lights; 
some few dulces were the only refreshments. 

The language generally spoken was Portuguese, though some few 
of the ladies, and many of the gentlemen, spoke French. I was not 
much struck with the beauty of the ladies, though many were quite 
pretty. The great charm thrown over the whole was the unaffected 
manners and naivete exhibited by the whole company. I left the 
ball at a late hour, exceedingly gratified with my visit, and the 
politeness and kindness that had been shown us. 

On the 27th of November the Relief arrived, after a passage of 
one hundred days from the United States, the longest ever made. 
On requisitions being made for her stores, I was greatly and 
vexatiously disappointed to receive a report that they required a 
survey, as all were considered defective, including even the bread 
and flour. This report, after a careful survey by seven officers, 
proved to be true. I had been informed before taking command of the 
squadron that these provisions had been inspected, and understood 
them to be in good order, and that they would last over a year. 

Although this did not delay us, for the repairs in progress could 
not have been completed before we would be able to replace them, 
yet coming as it did with other vexations and delays, it was rather 
trying to the patience, and made it necessary to redouble our 
exertions. 

The Relief was despatched at the earliest day possible, the 14th 
of December, in order to enable her to reach Orange Harbour, in 
Terra del Fuego, the place I had fixed upon as a rendezvous, 
supposing she would take at least fifteen days more than the other 
vessels to reach the place at the same time. The boats towed her 
down the harbour and gave her a fair start. 

Two of the officers of the squadron ascended the Sugar Loaf. 
Hearing the expression of my surprise that they should have per- 
formed such an undertaking without instruments, they immediately 
volunteered to make it again. Lieutenants Underwood and Dale 
were furnished with the requisite instruments, and the height was 
obtained by the sympiesometer, which agreed within a few feet 
of that obtained by triangulation. The results will be found in the 
table. 

Not having time to complete all they desired, some of the party 
remained over night to complete the interesting observations. 



RIO JANEIRO. 71 

Lieutenants Emmons and Underwood, on their first trip, obtained 
many interesting botanical specimens, among them Bromelias, Til- 
landsias, &c. 

On the 16th, the Peacock, with the two tenders, sailed for the 
purpose of measuring the distance between Cape Frio and Enxados 
observatory. I had first determined to measure the distance by 
rocket-signals, as the distance, lying nearly east and west, rendered 
this method very applicable ; but the duties I was engaged in, and 
the difficulties I might encounter from delays, prevented me from 
having recourse to it. I therefore adopted that by sound, wishing 
also to satisfy myself with what accuracy a length of this distance 
could be measured in this manner. 

Captain Hudson was also ordered to examine the St. Thomas 
Shoal, to the northward of the Cape. 

The manner of accomplishing the former duty was as follows. 
The three vessels were anchored in a triangle, with the light- 
house in sight, two vessels being in range with it, nearly east and 
west, towards the harbour of Rio. Each vessel firing four guns, the 
times of the flashes and reports of which w T ere noted in the others. 
The angles were simultaneously observed between the objects, and 
the astronomical bearings taken. This gave the data to connect the 
survey with the light-house. 

The vessels now changed their positions alternately, anchoring in 
range, and on astronomical bearings proceeding westward, until they 
reached the island of Enxados, where they again formed a triangle 
in connexion with the observatory. 

Our repairs in Rio were extensive, particularly those on the 
Peacock. Among other things, the head of the mizzen-mast had to 
be cut off eighteen inches, in consequence of a defect in it, which it 
appeared had been filled up with rope-yarns and putty, and painted 
over, at her outfit. The defects about the vessel were so glaring that 
in going to the high latitudes, it would have been impossible to have 
secured the crew from great suffering and exposure. Even in the 
state in which the squadron was now put, I had every apprehension 
of the greatest disasters. The Peacock, particularly, was wholly 
unseaworthy for such a cruise. 

My object in giving these details is not to impute blame to any 
one, however satisfied I may be of the great neglect in all the 
outfits, but to let the country know what were the difficulties we 
had to encounter. 



72 RIO JANEIRO. 

It is always difficult to calculate upon the delays that may occur 
in a foreign port, particularly when it is necessary to employ foreign 
workmen. Their hours, habits, and manner of working, are so 
different from our own, that great patience is required in those who 
employ them. The manner in which the calkers of Rio work, would 
draw crowds around them in one of our own cities ; to see many of 
them engaged on a single seam on the outside of the vessel, striking 
the mallet at a signal given by their leader or overseer with his 
whistle, is amusing. They are generally blacks, (probably slaves,) 
and the leader a white man. The impression made upon us all was, 
that they were an idle set, yet they are said to understand their 
business well. I cannot, however, bear testimony to their work 
myself; the calking of my ship was certainly badly done. 

The uncertainty of the length of time I should be detained, 
rendered it impossible for me to allow long absences from the ship. 
I was anxious to have made some measurements of the Organ 
Mountains, and that our parties should extend their researches 
beyond them to the Campos. 

Dr. Pickering and Mr. Brackenridge succeeded in making the 
trip to the Organ Mountains on a botanical excursion ; but the outfits 
and duties connected with the vessels and observations, made it 
impossible for me to spare any officers to make the measurement of 
their height, or to go myself. These gentlemen set out, having 
taken passage in the usual freight-boat, (felucca rigged,) for Estrella, 
embarking their horses and mules in another. These boats are not 
decked, and are of sufficient tonnage to make them safe and conve- 
nient freight-boats. They generally have four or five slaves with a 
padron to manage them. 

On leaving Rio they steered up the bay for the island of Gober- 
nador, round which it is necessary to pass, on their way towards the 
river Anhumirim, aided by a fair breeze and fine weather. They 
found the sail up the bay extremely beautiful, the islands offering a 
constant source of interest and novelty. The mouth of the Anhu- 
mirim river was reached in about three hours. It was found about 
forty yards wide and quite shallow. The banks are an extensive 
mangrove swamp. They passed up the river about eight miles, 
and reached the port of Estrella at midday, where they took their 
horses and pursued the main road to the mines, which crosses to the 
westward of the highest peak. The distance to the base of the 
mountain from Estrella, is about ten miles, due north. The country 



RIO JANEIRO. 73 

is flat, with occasional undulations. About two miles from Estrella 
they came to a guard-house, where they were stopped. Their guide 
not being at hand, and not understanding the language themselves, they 
supposed their passports were demanded, and believing the reports to 
be true that we had all heard so often of the jealousy of the Brazilians 
in relation to the admission of foreigners into the interior, they con- 
cluded they were now to experience it. But on the guide coming 
up, the matter was soon arranged by the payment of a small tax, 
which was the only passport they found necessary. The ascent of 
the pass is made by a well-paved zigzag road. They soon reached 
the house of Padre Luiz, where they were kindly and hospitably 
received, and supper was supplied them from his scanty larder. 

Padre Luiz's house was quite spacious : a long one-story building, 
containing under the same roof the stable and storehouse, as well as 
accommodations for travellers and the females of the family. The 
latter, agreeably to the custom of the country, were not seen, though 
known to exist. Cold and wet, our travellers were ushered into an 
apartment where there was neither floor nor fire, and in which there 
was a free circulation of air through the cracks and crevices in the 
walls. The roof, however, was tight, which was essential, as it was 
raining hard. A little further insight and experience into the cus- 
toms and comforts of the country made them think that the accom- 
modations had been excellent. After a most unreasonable delay, 
coffee, a fowl, and rice were set before them, with much parade and 
ceremony. During the night they heard what was supposed to be 
the howling monkey, but upon inquiry it turned out to be a Brazilian 
toad, called in Brazil "the blacksmith," whose croak is said to 
resemble very much the sound of hammering on an anvil. 

The next morning, understanding that they had been treated with 
luxuries and as persons of distinction, they told their host that they 
preferred the dish of the country "came seca" and "farinha," which, 
with the addition of a few eggs and a cup of coffee, made an excellent 
meal, and was quickly served. 

They rode this day about twenty miles beyond the Organ Moun- 
tains, the extent to which their jaunt reached. On their way they 
met vast numbers of mules heavily laden. The roads were generally 
good, and a very little expense would have made them excellent for 
carriages. 

At Padre Corneas', at the top of the pass, they found a native fig- 
tree, of enormous size, with numerous parasitical plants upon it. It 

VOL. I. 19 



74 RIO JANEIRO. 

was to them quite a novelty from its low branches, which extended 
horizontally and covered a space of one hundred and forty feet in 
diameter. 

After leaving the Estrella Pass the descent was very gradual, the 
route lying among the mountains. Crossing the river Paibanha, 
they reached a hamlet beautifully situated on the brow of a hill, and 
commanding an extensive view of the country. Here they found the 
place well suited to their employment of making collections of plants, 
and resolved to stop. Their host kept a small store, and had a 
German for salesman, who was greatly delighted at finding Mr. 
Brackenridge could speak his language. He paid them great atten- 
tion, and provided amply for their wants. 

They were gratified by the rich botanical field that was open to 
them. Among the plants, or trees, were Cupheas, with deep purple 
flowers, and others with lilac ; Lobelias fifteen feet high, with spikes 
of blue flowers three feet long ; and Acacias in full flower. Cyrtopo- 
dium Andersonii grew on the rocks in bunches, &c. Several trees 
of the Araucaria Braziliensis, from seventy to eighty feet high, were 
found in the valley, which Mr. Brackenridge succeeded in climbing, 
and obtained two handsome cones. The rivers were also searched 
for shells, but the water was too high to give any success. 

Returning at dark they found the German had provided supper, 
which was soon served. It consisted of bean soup, Indian bread, 
fried jerked beef, and sausages, which they had the satisfaction of 
eating on their knees, for there was no table, and but one spoon and 
only one knife for three persons. 

Having loaded themselves with specimens, they concluded to 
return, their ideas of life in tropical climates having undergone 
much change in this short time, from the erroneous belief they had 
entertained that industry was not necessary, that the inhabitants 
were surrounded by luxuries, having every delicacy imaginable, and 
that the only reason they were not advanced in agriculture and the 
arts was from the idleness engendered by the enervating influence of 
the climate. The fatigue and endurance necessary to overcome the 
actual state of things, was least of all expected, and such a thing as 
suffering from cold, even on elevated spots, was never dreamt of. 

The common food of the country was found to be ground manioc 
and jerked beef, which proved palatable after their fatigues. Their 
guide, however, who was a New Hampshire man, complained much 
of his privations. 



RIO JANEIRO. 75 

They had seen the Mato Virgen, or primeval forest, and instead of 
finding it, as had been represented, beset with difficulties in pene- 
trating it, they were surprised to find it more accessible than some 
of the forests in our Atlantic States. According to the accounts of 
intelligent residents, it is easily traversed in any direction. The 
accounts of difficulties have probably arisen from the second growth 
on spots that have once been cleared, where the bamboos are inter- 
twined so as to render the woods almost impassable, and this has no 
doubt been taken for the primeval forest. 

The nature of the Brazilian forest will account for so little being 
known of its botany. The trees are in fact inaccessible, the trunks 
being from seventy to one hundred feet high, before the branches 
appear, so that the latter can only be got at by felling. The view of 
the forest is truly remarkable. Trees of immense growth inter- 
mingled with others of less size, presenting to the eye the most 
singular and fantastic forms imaginable. The roots of climbing 
plants dangling between their straight trunks resembled the tackling 
of a ship. 

A little incident that occurred to these gentlemen will show the 
difficulties to be encountered in obtaining specimens. They had 
observed for a few days a beautiful yellow flowering tree that was 
very conspicuous in the forest. Believing that it could be easily come 
at, they made the attempt to reach it, but without success, finding it, 
instead of being low, a high and inaccessible tree. They then directed 
their steps to others, but were disappointed again. Determined not 
to be foiled in their pursuit, they again went off in search of others in 
sight ; these, to their surprise, were on the opposite side of a river. 
Nothing daunted, Mr. Brackenridge crossed it, though deep, and 
endeavoured to scale the tree. What had appeared near the ground 
now proved a tree of some sixty feet in height, with a smooth and 
slippery bark, and he returned to his companion empty-handed. Dr. 
Pickering next made the attempt. After crossing the stream with 
difficulty, he reached the desired object, and endeavoured to climb, 
but after reaching some forty feet, was obliged to acknowledge him- 
self vanquished. They continued their return, and when near Padre 
Luiz's house they found a small tree of the same kind they had 
been searching for, which proved to be a species of Caesalpinia. 

At Padre Luiz's they again passed the night, and the next day 
endeavours were made to reach one of the pointed peaks of the Organ 
Mountains. In this Dr. Pickering succeeded, though it did not prove 



76 RIO JANEIRO. 

the highest. On their way they found many interesting plants ; among 
them the Epiphytic Orchidese, slender Cecropias, rising to the height 
of one hundred feet without a limb, arborescent fern trees forty feet 
in height, and numerous parasitical plants hanging from the various 
trees in great profusion ; Bromelias, Bigonias, &c. On reaching the 
top he found trees stunted and gnarled of about thirty feet in height. 

A good idea will be given of the richness of the Brazilian Flora by 
the fact, that when mounted in the tree top, he collected specimens of 
three flowering trees not before seen, and three species of mistletoes. 

The same afternoon they reached Estrella, but found their guide 
had not procured any passage for them. They, however, succeeded 
after some difficulty in procuring one, set out before sunset, and 
reached Rio the next morning by three o'clock, having been greatly 
tormented by the musquitoes, and a minute fly, which was even more 
troublesome. 

Finding that the repairs had not proceeded so rapidly as I antici- 
pated, I readily gave permission for a second jaunt, which they 
undertook in the direction of Piedade. Piedade is on the eastern 
side of the bay, nearly opposite to Estrella. On landing, they 
proceeded to Trexal, at the foot of the mountain, sixteen miles from 
Piedade, where travellers may get good lodgings, &,c, for Brazil. 
The next day they took the route by the pass to Mr. March's. The 
summit of this pass commands a magnificent and extensive prospect, 
and is called Buena Vista. They reached the Fazenda of Mr. March 
about midday. It is situated in a beautiful valley, immediately 
behind the main ridge, and between two mountains. The houses 
were overflowing with visiters, who had assembled to pass the 
holidays. This estate is large, embracing some thirty miles square, 
but only a very small proportion of it is cultivated. A large number 
of negroes were about the establishment, and every thing is kept in 
perfect order. It is a place of fashionable resort for the inhabitants 
of Rio, especially the English. The houses were comfortable after 
the Brazilian style. The garden and grounds are laid out on the Eng- 
lish plan, and well stocked with very fine fruits, peaches, apples, pears, 
plums, gooseberries, all of which come to perfection. Of vegetables, 
they have potatoes, cabbage, turnips, carrots, beets, onions, parsnips, 
celery, and lettuce. Bananas will not ripen, the temperature being 
frequently as low as 40°. Mr. March said his houses were situated 
three thousand one hundred and fifty feet above the level of the sea, 
and the peaks in the vicinity are about one thousand feet higher. 



RIO JANEIRO. 77 

To the westward he pointed out a peak said to be eight thousand feet 
in altitude, and which is the highest of the range. So far as is 
known, no one has gained the summit, although Mr. Gardner, an 
English botanist, by following the tracks of the tapir, had reached 
within a few hundred yards of it, after two days' hard labour, and 
found that the vegetation resembled that of temperate climates. 
Time did not admit of our gentlemen making the attempt. All that 
could be done was to ascend the hill pointed out by Mr. March, in 
the vicinity of his house, as never having been ascended, and which 
is one thousand two hundred feet above it. This was accomplished, 
although with difficulty. On this trip they met with fallen timber, 
but the Brazilian woods, in general, were remarked as being much 
more free from it than our own. No change in the vegetation was 
observed. The route through this pass is much more difficult for 
travellers than that of Estrella, but to the admirer of nature more 
interesting. From the base to the summit of the mountains the 
virgin forest extends. The main chain here is much broken ; the 
peaks appear more in the form of columns or pipes, and are quite 
inaccessible, casting a dark shade upon the deep and wooded valleys 
beneath. After being hospitably entertained they came back, crossing 
over to the island of Pagueta, where they had an opportunity of 
examining the large shell heaps which are fished up out of the bay, 
for the purpose of burning for lime, and were not a little surprised at 
the numbers of different genera which composed them. 

The results of these two expeditions were the addition of a great 
number of very interesting plants to our collection. These will be 
treated of in the Botanical Report. 

A few days before our departure, we made a trip to the top of the 
Corcovado. The naturalists who were of our party, observed that 
almost a total change had taken place in the plants since their last 
visit, about a fortnight before. I took with me the necessary 
instruments to measure its height, and we all amused ourselves 
with collecting plants, insects, lizards, &c. We took the road that 
turns off near Gloria, and even before we began to emerge from the 
city, several novel kinds of ferns were observed growing on the 
house-tops and walls. We soon entered coffee plantations, groves of 
bananas, tamarinds, mangroves, and orange trees. A vast variety of 
plants were pointed out to me by Mr. Brackenridge, among them 
the beautiful Vochysia, with its splendid yellow blossoms, showing 
conspicuous among the rest. After a fatiguing walk we reached 

VOL. I. 20 



78 



RIO JANEIRO. 



the top. The last quarter of a mile, or the last rise to its summit, 
causes one to become somewhat breathless in a hot day. But when 
the top is gained, it is worth all the labour of climbing, and amply 
repays for the exertion. 

The whole of the magnificent harbour, the city and environs, lay 
beneath our feet. A bird's-eye view is had of every thing, grouped 
in the most pleasing variety ; and nothing strikes one so forcibly as 
the white sandy beaches of Botofogo and Praya Grande, with the 
beautiful blue of the sea washing on them. The many lakes, the 
castellated peaks, and the variously shaped craggy and broken hills, 
are all softened by the light and airy green vegetation, creeping up 
their sides so as to melt them almost into one. The harbour was 
covered with its busy and now tiny fleets, and many of its large 
islands looked as but specks on its flat surface. The day was 
beautifully clear, and the refreshing sea breeze just what we could 
desire. The tower and observatory have been destroyed. To have 
an idea of the beauty of Rio and its environs, it is necessary to 
mount to the top of the Corcovado, or some high peak in its 
neighbourhood. 

After finishing our observations, and fully satisfying ourselves 
with the beautiful scene, we descended to the Belle Rue, where we 
enjoyed a rest and lunch. We returned to the city by the way of 
the Aqueduct late in the afternoon, all greatly delighted with our 
day's jaunt, which, beside the amusement, we had made quite a 
profitable one in the way of collections. 




SLAVES SLEEPING. 



CHAPTER IV. 



CONTENTS. 

CHARACTER OB' THE BRAZIL! A NS- CONSTITUTION OF THE EMPIRE-RULING PARTY- 
ELECTIVE REGENCY -ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE -ELECTIVE FRANCHISE- ARMY- 
NAVY-SCHOOLS -SLAVERY-FEELING TOWARDS FOREIGNERS-POPULATION-NATIONAL 
DEBT, REVENUE AND EXPENDITURES -COMMERCE- EVENTS IN THE SQUADRON - 
DEPARTURE FROM RIO. 



CHAPTER IV. 

POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

18 3 8. 

During my stay at Rio, I had an opportunity of seeing several 
intelligent gentlemen, who had long been residents of the country, 
I am indebted to them for much information relative to the political 
state of this empire. Brazil, though quiet at the time of our visit, 
yet will long be destined to outbreaks and alarms, either from local 
oppression or some slight political movements. The people for the 
most part take very little interest in politics, or the general welfare 
of the state. As yet their habits make them averse to mental 
exertions, and they generally prefer their own ease, which precludes 
them from engaging in political excitement. They are not yet suffi- 
ciently advanced in civilization and education, among the mass of 
the population, to have risen from the mental degradation which the 
policy of the mother country entailed upon them. 

The Brazilians, from the character I have received of them, are 
very ceremonious and punctilious, susceptible of flattery, suspicious 
yet courteous, selfish, cunning ; assuming frankness and generosity, 
timid, unsteady in purpose, and without any large and compre- 
hensive views. What is claimed as a right in a bold and confident 
manner, is readily yielded, while often through their ignorance they 
become presumptuous. 

The people are farther advanced in morals and intelligence than 
their government, but as yet they are not sufficiently enlightened to 
know their power. They are slow to act, and appear very patient 
under oppression. Long endurance of despotism has made them so. 

Their new constitution was adopted in 1825. This secured the 

VOL. I. 21 



g2 POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL 

legislative power from further interruption, and achieved a complete 
victory over the bayonets and tyranny of Don Pedro, by forcing him, 
through the threats of the people and his fears, to grant a more 
liberal constitution. Political freedom seems to have made rapid 
advancement from this date, and the voice of liberty may be said to 
have been heard, although it was at first listened to with apprehen- 
sions, and its meaning imperfectly understood. Although many 
years have since passed, the people have scarcely more than began 
to feel that they have individual rights, and for the most part yield a 
blind obedience to the laws. This is true as respects the population 
of the seaports, but in the country, the population being sparse, 
communication of every kind is difficult, and social intercourse 
embarrassed by early habits and customs. The advantages of a 
free and frequent interchange of sentiments are in consequence 
almost entirely unknown. A long time will probably elapse before 
there will be any political struggle among them. They are pros- 
pering in their private concerns, and contented without any ambition 
to advance themselves in political knowledge, or to meddle with the 
concerns of the state, except in their local operation. The state of 
society in the interior is very much of this character, and consequently 
the affairs of the country have suffered little derangement from the 
difficulties which have occurred, and maladministration under the 
different sovereigns who have held rule for the last thirty years. 
Through part of this time a rapid decline was experienced in the 
national prosperity, which led to the abdication of the late Emperor 
Pedro I. 

The whole political machine by which the government is adminis- 
tered is uncouth and awkward, being composed of a mixture of feudal 
notions with the refinements of modern times. It is moved and 
sustained more by the habit of obeying the laws, than skill and 
judgment in administering them. There is an entire absence of all 
force, moral as well as physical, to sustain the government, yet to 
this in a great measure is to be ascribed, that the country has not 
been a prey to anarchy and confusion. Combined with the above 
causes, is the jealousy that exists among the parties who have been 
called to office, and which prevents self-aggrandizement. Pretensions 
have been at times asserted, dangerous to public tranquillity and 
threatening the subversion of the established order of things. These 
have been promoted by the disaffected and discontented, principally 
composed of or countenanced by those persons who, after the depar- 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 83 

ture of Don Pedro I., remained in the country, and who, having lost 
their importance with their offices, returned to private life, with their 
pride wounded, their fortunes and reputation impaired and injured, 
and themselves dissatisfied with their condition. These persons have 
sought every occasion to disturb the even current of events, and to 
array themselves against the power of the state, wielded as they deem 
it to be, by plebeian usurpation of the royal prerogative ; but hitherto 
they have failed. 

Causes of dissatisfaction are not wanting to produce discontent. 
They are indeed numerous, and among them are a total want of 
justice in the administration of the laws ; the neglect of all petitions 
for political reform and the remedy of abuses; the onerous and 
injurious regulations imposed by the government, and the haughty 
conduct and absolute power of those who hold office. Notwith- 
standing all these discouragements, well-informed residents perceive 
an improvement within the last few years, on the part of the govern- 
ment and of the people also. The establishment of a public press has 
had its effect in producing this change by enlightening the public 
mind, and will gradually exercise the same control here that it does 
elsewhere; and education is better attended to than it used to be, 
although as yet it is far in the background. 

According to the best information, the present government was 
established by, and is under the guidance of, a few leading men, a 
small party in Rio, who manage all the political concerns of the 
empire. They seem to act without any desire of personal aggran- 
dizement, and apparently without ambition to be distinguished 
beyond the circle of their party. From what has already been said 
of the interior and the character of its inhabitants, it will be seen 
that there is no great difficulty to manage the provinces by a few 
influential men, and thus the whole power seems concentrated within 
the city of Rio, where it is easy to direct things to the issue that they 
may desire. 

It was this party who overthrew or effected the reform in the 
constitution under Don Pedro I. in 1823, and established the new 
Congress, consisting of a senatorial body of fifty, who were chosen for 
life, and of one hundred deputies, for three years; the reformed 
constitution provided that the succession should devolve on the eldest 
son of Pedro I., during whose minority there should be three regents 
chosen for life. 

Things went on badly after the beginning of the new order of 



84 POLITICAL STATE OP BRAZIL. 

government, principally in consequence of the disastrous Banda 
Oriental war, which caused a great sacrifice of money and resources, 
deranged the currency, and involved the nation in debt. In 1831, 
Don Pedro abdicated the throne, and went to Europe ; the regency 
came into power, and this band of leading men formed themselves 
into an opposition to the government. They succeeded in making 
some important changes, setting aside the three regents for life, 
substituting one elected for four years, and introducing a federal 
system, which gives the provinces the right of local legislatures to 
regulate their provincial concerns, independently of the general 
government. 

The manner in which the reforms in the constitution were effected, 
will give some insight into the mode of conducting business, and 
exhibits the power of this party. The plans, after being long under 
discussion in the Chamber of Deputies, were referred to a committee 
of that body, who reported upon them, and they were finally passed, 
under a decision by the Chambers that the Senate and Regency had 
no right to vote, control, or even deliberate upon the question. They 
thus assumed to themselves the whole power of legislative action on 
so momentous a subject, totally disregarding the constitutional claims 
of the other co-ordinate and co-equal branches of the government, 
whose concurrence was necessary to legalize all their acts under the 
constitution, and whose authority was then in vigour, and could not be 
suspended, although it was susceptible of modification in the proper 
form. This subject was recommended to the attention of the people 
in 1833 with a view to party action on it, and new elections were 
ordered, for the purpose of deliberating upon a new constitution. 
But from some circumstances, the regents were not willing to accede 
to the measure, after it had passed the forms of legislation in the 
Chamber of Deputies ; they steadfastly adhered to the determination of 
withholding their sanction to the law, opposing all terms of compro- 
mise. For a long time the tranquillity, if not the destinies of the 
country, was in jeopardy. The regents were finally, it is supposed, 
and generally believed, brought over by pecuniary considerations. 
The Senate also ineffectually attempted to interpose a protest against 
the measure (the election of a regent to hold office for four years), not 
only to sustain their dignity but maintain their rights ; neither was it 
satisfactory to the people generally, nor to the national guard, who it 
was well known would have supported the regents in their opposition. 
All impediments, however, to the passage of this favourite and impor- 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. S5 

tant measure, were overcome by the power and management of this 
band of leading men, who contrived to unite with them the most 
opposite characters, and to neutralize personal animosity, as well as 
party strife, absorbing all other subjects, and enlisting them in 
support of this measure. They thus clearly showed their influence 
in being able to set aside constitutional restraints, overcoming the 
executive power, and controlling the senatorial aristocracy. 

The new constitution seems to operate satisfactorily under these 
leaders. There are, however, some features in it which give its 
warmest friends many fears respecting the stability of the govern- 
ment. One of these is the difficulty of making the provincial 
legislatures work harmoniously with the general government. Great 
stress is, however, laid upon the character of the Brazilians, who are 
disinclined to change, and upon their habits of obedience to the laws 
and constituted authority. This gives a well-grounded hope for the 
peaceful and onward march of the public prosperity under the new 
constitution. 

Every exertion is making to give the young Emperor a good 
education, and his talents are well spoken of. 

The regulation of the currency has continued to claim the atten- 
tion of the government, as involving the most important questions, 
and those likely to bring about difficulties. Some apprehensions 
are entertained that the local governments may apply a remedy 
themselves. In the Chamber of Deputies, all money bills originate, 
but the Senate may amend them. All laws must be sanctioned by 
the Emperor after having passed both branches of the legislature. 
In case of disagreement between the two houses, the members unite 
in the Senate chamber, and the question is decided by a majority of 
votes. There are no doubt many sources of discord, but they are 
not fully known by any, except the principal actors, and few are 
aware how the affairs of the kingdom are going on. At this time 
(1838 and 39) all those acquainted with the people and govern- 
ment considered the whole kingdom in a precarious state, the admi- 
nistration at Rio Janeiro was believed to be unpopular, while some 
of the provinces evinced a strong disposition to join with that of Rio 
Grande in revolution. But this cannot succeed. Rio, with its 
situation and commercial advantages, must and always will have the 
ascendency in one way or other, will control its resources, and must 
be the seat of government of this empire. 

The administration of justice is confided to two high tribunals 
vol. i. 22 



86 POLITICAL STATE OP BRAZIL. 

which are open to the public, and where causes are decided on 
appeal by a majority of the judges. 

These tribunals are, first, the Relacao, of which there are two 
branches, one at Rio and the other at Bahia, each composed of eight 
judges. Second, the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, of twelve judges. 
The inferior courts are those for the trial of civil and criminal cases, 
an Orphans' Court, and a Court and Judge of Findings and Losings, 
the last of which is not yet abolished, however obsolete it may have 
become. Great corruption exists in them all, and no class of people 
are so unpopular as the judges. It is generally believed, and the 
belief is acted upon, that to obtain justice, all classes, including 
priests and laymen, lawyer and client, legislators and people, regents 
and ministers, must submit to great imposition; that it is next to 
impossible to recover a debt by law if a debtor has money or 
patronage, and refuses to pay, except through bribery. It is difficult 
to obtain the payment even of an acknowledged note of hand, 
through the process of the law, and it generally takes years to 
accomplish. 

It is, however, greatly to the praise of the Brazilians, that it is not 
often necessary to have recourse to law for this purpose. The 
greatest injustice occurs in the Orphans' Court; but the Court of 
Findings and Losings is one of the most singular in this respect. It 
takes charge of all things lost and found, making it the duty of a 
person finding any thing to deposit it with the judge. The loser, to 
prove property, must have three witnesses to swear that they saw 
him lose it, and three others, that they saw the finder pick it up, 
otherwise it remains in deposit. To show the working of this 
system, a gentleman of Rio found a bank note of four hundred 
milrees (about $250). The owner went to him and claimed it, 
proving satisfactorily to the finder that the identical bank note was 
his, upon which the finder gave it up. The Judge of Findings and 
Losings heard of the circumstance,' sent for him, and asked a state- 
ment of the case, which the finder unsuspectingly related. The 
judge praised his honourable conduct, and was punctiliously polite. 
The next day, however, he issued an order for the deposit of the 
money found, and because it was disregarded, the finder, a respect- 
able foreign merchant, w^as arrested in the street, and sent to prison, 
to be confined with common criminals. The jailer, however, having 
private apartments for those who could pay for them, he became his 
guest, and was preserved from the disgust of being a close prisoner, 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 87 

and the companion of degraded and depraved wretches. Before he 
could regain his liberty, he had to pay the amount found, the 
decision being the forfeiture of a like sum, together with the jailer's 
fees, &c. 

The justices of the peace for each district are elected by the 
people, four at a time, to serve as many years by turns, substituting 
one for the other, when sickness or other circumstances prevent 
either from serving. They have final judgments in amounts not 
exceeding sixteen milrees. In cases of civil process, they act as 
mediators to effect a compromise and reconcile difficulties. Their 
political attributes are to preserve the peace in case of riot or disorder 
among the people, and they have a right to call on the national 
guard or military police to aid them, who must act under their 
direction. There is no civil police, and no imprisonment for debt. 
Trial by jury was at first limited to political offences and violations of 
the liberty of the press, but it is now extended to criminal cases, and 
in some instances to civil suits. Sixty persons compose the jury, and 
forty are necessary to try causes. Juiz de decrito (judge of law) 
sits with them in court, acts as president, and applies the law to the 
cases the jury may decide. Jurymen serve for one year, and are 
chosen in the following manner. In each district the vigairo (vicar), 
a justice of the peace and a member of the municipality, select from 
a list of male parishioners, those qualified in their judgment for jury- 
men, and submit the names to the municipality, who, assisted by the 
vigairo and justice of the peace, purge the list of such as may be 
considered improper persons. It is then officially communicated by 
the municipality to the justice of the peace, and posted up for public 
inspection in the office, and on the doors of the parish churches 
throughout the district. 

To entitle any one to vote at an election, he must have an income 
of two hundred milrees per annum from property, trade, labour or 
employment of any kind. The vigairo sits with the judges at 
elections to decide on the qualifications of voters. Friars or 
members of religious fraternities are not entitled to a vote. Free 
blacks have all the civil rights, and vote at elections the same as 
white men. 

The attorney-general of the nation is the accuser in all criminal 
cases. Criminals have the right of counsel. 

It may be said that there is no standing army in Brazil, for the few 
troops do not merit that name. A military staff on a large scale is 



88 POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

supported, with a large corps of military police, and a national guard. 
The national guard is organized by law, and in it all males from 
eighteen to forty-five years of age are enrolled. They are equipped 
at their own cost, the nation furnishing arms and ammunition only. 
Detachments of this guard are on duty daily at the palace and public 
offices. 

The navy is not effective; they want seamen, and are not likely to 
have any. A naval academy is established for the education of 
cadets or midshipmen. Here they enter at twelve years of age, 
receiving some of the first rudiments of education, and remain four 
years. After passing an examination they are sent to sea, serve 
there four years, and if found qualified are then promoted to second 
lieutenants. 

The military academy they enter later, remain seven years, passing 
through various courses of study, and if they are found competent, 
they are made lieutenants. From what I understood, the system of 
education is very imperfect. 

Schools for educating the people have been established, and the 
female sex is now allowed to be educated. 

Agriculture is extending, and the slave trade, since the treaty with 
England, has been prohibited ; but large numbers of slaves are still 
easily smuggled by the connivance of the authorities, and although 
many are captured by British cruisers, yet it is said that more than 
one half of the vessels escape, and smuggle the slaves into the small 
rivers and harbours, bribing the collectors, who permit them to be 
landed. After landing, the slaves are driven into the woods where 
they are secreted until they are sold to the planters in the interior 

The slaves do not increase, as procreation is prevented as much as 
possible. The two sexes are generally locked up at night in separate 
apartments. The number of slaves imported into Rio and Bahia 
previous to the prohibition of the slave trade in 1830, was about 
forty thousand a year for the former, and ten thousand for the latter 
as follows : ' 



RIO. 



BAHIA. 



1828 . . 41,913 . .- . 8j860 

1829 . . 40,015 . . . 12 ,808 

1830 half year, 29,777 . . . 8)588 

About one-third of these were lost by death, leaving two-thirds as 
an accession to the labour of the country. 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 89 

Under contraband since 1830, the number annually imported is 
estimated at seven to ten thousand. 

In speaking of the apprehension of a rise of the blacks in the pro- 
vinces, the well informed seemed to entertain no kind of fear of such 
an event. I was told that Bahia was the only point at which insur- 
rections w^ere ever likely to occur, and this was from the prevalence 
of the Mina slaves, who are very intelligent, and capable of forming 
organized bodies, which they occasionally have done. The slaves of 
the other provinces are of a mixed character, incapable of any organi- 
zation, and from having been taken from different tribes on the coast, 
they are more or less hostile to each other, and would be opposed to 
any such union. 

The Brazilians have great respect for foreigners who are not 
Portuguese. The latter are detested. They have a strong bias in 
favour of the United States and the American government generally. 
They think the time is approaching which will unite the people of 
this continent in a distinct national policy, in contra-distinction to 
that of Europe, and in rivalry to it, They are vain of their own 
country and its institutions, and firmly believe that a high destiny 
awaits Brazil. The government in its political relations with other 
countries is seemingly confiding and liberal. 

The population of the empire, taking the last returns of the 
members of the Chamber of Deputies as a guide, is estimated at five 
millions. No census has yet been taken, but it is thought to exceed 
this number. The scrutiny formerly exercised by the government 
into their domestic affairs it is said caused them to conceal the actual 
number of persons in their families. Of the above number about 
two millions are slaves. No estimate has been made of the proportion 
which free blacks, mulattoes, or Indians bear to the whites or to each 
other. The relative number of slaves varies much in the different 
provinces ; it is largest in Rio de Janeiro and the Minas Geraes. 
The population of Rio in 1810 was estimated at forty thousand, in 
1838 it was two hundred and fifty thousand. In Appendix XXI. 
will be found a statement of the population that may be considered 
semi-official. 

The national debt of Brazil amounts to one hundred million 
milrees, or sixty million dollars. The revenue was about sixteen 
millions of dollars for 1838. It is derived principally from exports 
and imports. A statement of the quantities of produce exported in 
the above year, will be found in Appendix XXII. I was not able to 

vor.. t. 23 



90 POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 

obtain those of the imports. The expenditures of the government are 
fixed by law at about the same sum. All appropriations are specific. 
The imports amounted to over twenty millions of dollars. The 
amount of exports is variously stated. Coffee is the great staple, and 
more than one hundred and twenty millions of pounds were exported 
in 1838. It is derived from the central provinces, and the exports of 
it have more than doubled within the last ten years. The exports of 
the southern provinces are mostly confined to hides and tallow, those 
of the northern to sugar, cotton, and tobacco. 

The trade with the United States has greatly increased. Within 
the last few years from one hundred and sixty to one hundred and 
seventy American vessels take and bring cargoes to and from the 
United States, and some foreign vessels are engaged in the same 
trade. The consumption of American flour in Rio and the neigh- 
bouring country, has been during the same year about one hundred 
and twenty thousand barrels. 

The state of this country and the southern republics, renders it 
highly necessary that a suitable naval force should be employed on 
this coast for the protection of our increasing trade. 

The currency of the country is in paper and copper. Gold and 
silver coins are articles of traffic, and fluctuate in value. Few or 
none are in circulation. The bank issues notes of milrees, which 
also fluctuate. The usual value of a milree is from sixty to seventy 
cents. One thousand five hundred ries are equal to a dollar. 

Books of all kinds may be printed and brought into the country. 
Those of foreign origin are not under censorship. 

The great drawback to the facility of business is the number of 
holidays on which the custom-house is closed, and all business 
suspended. These amount to about one hundred days in the year. 
This alone is a great alleviation to the work of the slave. 

Foreign merchants reside in the country, in the neighbourhood of 
the city. 

During our stay in Rio, George Smith, a seaman, while employed 
on board of one of the lighters in charge of Midshipman May, fell 
overboard and was accidentally struck with an oar ; on seeing it, Mid- 
shipman May, in a praiseworthy manner, jumped overboard to his 
relief, but did not succeed in saving him, for he sank immediately 
and was drowned. 

The delays in Rio had no effect upon the general health of the 
squadron, although I was fearful such might be the case, not only 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 91 

from the heat of the climate, but the copious draughts of aguardiente 
with which the foreigners supply the sailors. 

I found it necessary here to increase the crews of the ships, and 
applied to Commodore Nicolson, commander of the Brazil station, for 
that purpose. Thirty men were supplied the squadron. They were 
the most indifferent and worthless set, with two or three exceptions, 
we ever had on board. They were almost the only persons attached 
to the vessels on whom it became necessary to inflict punishment. 

The markets are abundantly supplied with fish, beef and poultry. 
Vegetables are to be had in abundance, and are all sold in the streets. 

On the 26th the Peacock and tenders returned, and brought their 
work up to the observatory at Enxados Island. Captain Hudson had 
not been able to examine the St. Thomas Shoal. Having lost five 
days in consequence of bad weather, it became impossible to accom- 
plish it within the given time.* During his progress he had lost an 
anchor, which, when hove up, was found to have been broken off at 
the shank. Application was immediately made to the government 
for one, which request was very obligingly and promptly replied to, 
by desiring us to select one of a suitable size from those in the 
dock-yard. 

By the last of December we had completed all our scientific 
duties. These consisted of a series of pendulum observations ; those 
for longitude by moon culminating stars; circummeridian observa- 
tions for latitude ; magnetic dip, intensity, and diurnal variation ; and 
others, including tides, and solar and terrestrial radiation. We now 
made every preparation for sea. 

On the 5th of January the Porpoise was ordered to drop down near 
a slaver, that it was reported some of our men had been smuggled on 
board of, to form a part of her crew. She was boarded, and though 
the captain denied that they were on board, after a search two were 
found. One of them was a black, who had himself been a slave, yet 
he had been induced to enter for the purpose of carrying on this 
nefarious traffic. This was the brig Fox, and though undoubtedly 

* The measurement of the whole distance by sound was reduced, and gave 
1° 08' 52" 8'" for the difference of meridians. Each distance between the vessels 
was the mean of about thirty observations. The longitude of Cape Frio, deduced from 
that of Enxados, which had been ascertained by moon culminating stars, to be in 
43° 09' 06" 67'" west of Greenwich, is, therefore, 42° 00' 13" 87'" W. For the 
particulars and a diagram of this work see Appendix XXIII. 



9-2 



POLITICAL STATE OF BRAZIL. 



fitted for a slaver, she sailed under English colours ; it was given out 
that she was bound for New Zealand. 

On the 6th of January, every thing being ready, we weighed 
anchor, and dropped down the harbour. On passing the Inde- 
pendence, we were saluted with six cheers, which were returned 
with enthusiasm. 

There is no difficulty in beating out of the harbour of Rio, with a 
ship of any class, although vessels sail generally in the morning, 
with the land breeze. The breeze failing, we anchored without the 
harbour, and I took this opportunity of sending back the Flying-Fish, 
in order to recover some of our men who had absented themselves! 
Lieutenant-Commanding Ringgold took charge of her, and effected 
the object without difficulty. During this time I employed the 
officers in measuring the height of the Sugar Loaf again for exercise. 

In the evening we weighed anchor, and stood to the southward on 
our course. 




CHAPTER V. 



CONTENTS. 

PASSAGE TO RIO NEGRO— ARRIVAL THERE — GUACHOS — EXCURSION OF THE NATU- 
RALISTS—SALT AND SALT LAKES— GOVERNMENT AND POPULATION— PRODUCTIONS — 
TARIFF— INDIANS— WANT OF ENTERPRISE— DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY— RIVER AND 
TIDES — CLIMATE — VEGETATION —TRADE — HARBOUR — SQUADRON DRIVEN TO SEA — 
DANGERS IN SURVEYING — CONVICT SETTLEMENT — COMMUNICATION WITH BUENOS 
AYRES — DEPARTURE FROM RIO NEGRO — STATEN LAND — STRAITS OF LE MAIRE — 
APPEARANCE OF TERRA DEL FUEGO— ITS HARBOUR— PARHELION— MIRAGE— MEETING 
WITH THE RELIEF— HER DEPARTURE FROM RIO— CURRENT— RIO PLATA— CAPE RAZA— 
CAPE ST. JOSEPH-CAPE THREE POINTS— DREDGING— BELLACO ROCKS— CAPE ST. DIEGO 
— GOOD SUCCESS BAY — CAPTAIN KING'S SAILING DIRECTIONS — NATIVES - INTER- 
COURSE WITH THEM— BOTANY— GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION— NEW ISLAND— ITS POSITION 
—ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR— EMPLOYMENTS. 



-. f 



• 









CHAPTER V. 

RIO NEGRO. 
18 3 9. 

The winds proved light and variable during our passage to Kio 
Negro, and we occasionally experienced a southwesterly current, of 
little strength. On the 18th January, when seventy-eight miles 
distant from the mouth of the Rio la Plata, we passed through the 
discoloured water of that river. Its temperature was 4° less than 
that of the surrounding sea. After getting to the southward of the 
river, the direction of the current changed, and it was found to be 
setting to the northward. 

Towards evening on the 19th, we met many discoloured patches 
in the water, and found they proceeded from a species of Salpse, 
which we had not before seen. When the night closed in, the sea 
became very luminous, the vessels in passing through the water 
leaving long bright trains behind them. Vivid lightning in the 
west showed a dark bank of clouds, betokening a storm. About 10 
o'clock p. m., a haze suddenly enveloped us; the temperature of both 
air and water fell from 67° to 57°, ten degrees, giving a cold clammy 
feeling to the air. The water became quite smooth, and the breeze 
died away ; all on deck seemed awakened to a sense of danger. We 
immediately shortened . sail and sounded, but found no bottom with 
one hundred and fifty fathoms line. The vessels of the squadron 
came up in close order, sailing as it were in a sea of silver, from the 
light of which their forms became visible. The effect was beautiful, 
and increased the mysterious and alarming sensation. Shortly after 
we had a change of wind to the southwest, followed by a dense fog, 
which lasted for a day, but the temperature of both air and water 



96 R I O N E G R O. 

remained six to eight degrees colder until the 23d, when it again rose 
to the height it had been before. 

I have little doubt but this remarkable change and fall of tempera- 
ture were caused by the near approach to icebergs, some of which 
have been at times seen nearly in this latitude, 38° 55' S., longitude 
54° 30' W. After this we had line pleasant weather until our arrival 
off Rio Negro, the temperature of the air and water having fallen 
10° during our progress from Rio. 

On the 22d we experienced a heavy dew. Our observations 
confirmed the remarks of Captain King, that it is accompanied by a 
northerly wind or change to that quarter. 

We next passed over the position assigned the Ariel Rocks on the 
charts, and sailed two degrees on their parallel, but saw no indication 
of them. 

In approaching the coast, the soundings were remarkably regular, 
decreasing about a fathom in three miles. After passing to the south 
of the river La Plata, they were composed of fine gray sand, with 
pebbles and shells, while to the north they were of blue mud. 
Soundings were had in fifty fathoms water, one hundred and fifty 
miles off the coast. 

On the 25th we discovered the coast, which is a line of low sand- 
hills, without trees, and it exhibits little appearance of vegetation. 
In the evening we anchored off the bar, in eight fathoms water, just 
after which we experienced one of the remarkable squalls of this 
coast, that rose from the southward and westward ; it was attended 
with much lightning and thunder; quantities of sand and insects 
were blown off from the land. But little rain fell. The barometer 
indicated this squall by a depression of two-tenths of an inch. The 
wind soon changed and brought fine weather, the thermometer falling 
6° during the chancre. 

Having been led to believe we should be boarded by pilots on our 
anchoring off the bar, I was a good deal surprised to find none, and 
no endeavour making to board us, although the sea was quite smooth. 
The only appearances of inhabitants which we could see with our 
telescopes, were a few horsemen, suspiciously reconnoitring us from 
the flag-staff on the top of the hill. I then concluded to despatch the 
Sea-Gull under Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold into the river, 
for the purpose of having communication with the town, directing 
him to take the channel leading to the northward and westward, 
as shown by the only chart we had, whilst I followed in the Flying- 



RIO NEGRO. 97 



Fish, with the scientific gentlemen ; it proved to be the wrong one, 
and on the tide falling the schooners both grounded. Our situation 
was not the most agreeable, for in the event of the sea rising, we 
should have been exposed to all the fury of the surf without any 
escape from the numerous sand-bars. It became necessary as the 
tide rose to make the river. The Sea-Gull having got oif, I put the 
scientific gentlemen on board of her, and ordered Lieutenant- Com- 
mandant Ringgold to proceed in, keeping in what the chart pointed 
out as the channel-way and deepest water. He finally succeeded in 
getting into the river, after thumping heavily over a sand-bar, with 
some fears on the part of the passengers, but without injury to the 
vessel, and anchored after dark about half a mile up the river. 

During this time an amusing occurrence took place in the roadstead. 
I had directed Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, in case of accident 
or requiring aid, to make signal, and that I would order boats at once 
to his assistance ; when the night closed in, the signal was seen, when 
the requisite signal was made from the Flying-Fish to the different 
vessels to send boats to assist. The commanding officer's mind being 
somewhat impressed with an idea of the hostility of those on shore, con- 
cluded the boats were required to repel an attack, and had them fully 
armed ; in this state they were met in a short time exerting themselves 
to their fullest strength at their oars to be in time to take part in the 
fray, and appeared greatly disappointed when it proved a false alarm, 
and that none was to take place. 

Shortly after the schooner anchored a voice was heard from the 
shore ordering a boat to be sent immediately, when a party landed, but 
no one was found to receive them. Seeing a light at a distance they 
proceeded towards it ; it proved to be the pilot's house, a long low 
barn-like building, but no inhabitants were visible, and none made 
their appearance until our party had taken a survey of the premises. 
The furniture was of a rude and scanty description, a table, bench, 
two or three bunks in one corner, and in another a number of arms, 
consisting of cutlasses, carbines, and pikes, in good order; in the 
others various accoutrements. The two pilots, one an Englishman 
and the other a Frenchman, with a negro, then made their appear- 
ance, and unravelled the mystery, by informing them that the vessels 
had been taken for the French squadron, and much alarm had been 
created by our visit ; they also said that the guard of about thirty 
Guachos were in ambush near where they landed, with the intention of 
cutting our party off, but hearing them speaking English, they found 



VOL. I. ^5 



98 RIO NEGRO. 

to their satisfaction that they were not French. They also stated 
that all the inhabitants living near the mouth of the river had fled to 
the town, and that most of the women and children in the town were 
hurrying off to the interior. They were likewise employed driving 
off the cattle, and preparing to fire the country, the usual mode of 
warfare, and were rejoiced to identify us as Americans. 

All this accounted for the reconnoitring that we had observed, and 
our not being able to obtain a pilot. What still more alarmed them 
was the different vessels firing whilst surveying, and our making the 
attempt to force the passage in the small vessels. 

The captain of the coast guard now afforded all facilities, and a 
pilot for the schooner was sent on board to take her up the river, and 
horses and guides for a party to visit the town were furnished. 

The next morning a detachment of lancers arrived from the 
governor, with orders not to allow our vessels to proceed up, and that 
the pilot should come on shore, which effectually put a stop to our 
plans : when Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold determined to go by 
land. 

It caused much alarm to the pilot, who entreated the officers to 
intercede with the governor in his behalf, and for that of the captain 
of the coast guard, stating that their lives would be forfeited for 
having attempted to pilot a vessel without the governor's orders. 
After some delay, a party proceeded to Carmen, under the escort of 
Guachos, to wait on the governor or commandant. On their way 
they met with a cordial welcome from all they passed, as the minds 
of all were now entirely relieved from fear, and great delight was 
expressed at seeing the North Americans. 

These Guachos are generally well made, tall and muscular, 
with swarthy complexions, black eyes, and long hair, very large 
mustachios and remarkably small feet. Their costume is a red 
striped shirt and white drawers, large, loose, and fringed at the 
bottom of the leg, called calzoncillas. Their trousers (chilipa) con- 
sist of two yards of scarlet cloth, which is sometimes ornamented at 
the corners; to form tins into any thing like a garment appeared 
strange enough, yet when it is on the wearer it has the appearance 
of a pair of Turkish trousers. The mode in which it is put on is to 
confine the ends round the waist by a girdle (tria?ido), the middle of 
the cloth passing down between the legs, while the ends faU over the 
girdle. On the head was worn a red conical cap surmounted by a 
tassel. 



RIO NEGRO. 



99 



Their riding boots or leggings are made of the hide from the leg of 
a horse. This is stripped off and put on the leg while yet green, 
where it is suffered to dry, and remain until worn out. They fit 
very closely to the foot like a stocking. The two largest toes of each 
foot were uncovered, for the convenience of putting them into the 
stirrup, which is only large enough to admit them. A long knife in 
the girdle completes the dress. 

During the time of our stay, the naturalists ranged the country in 
the vicinity, and the officers were engaged in making a survey of the 
roadstead and bar. 

The road to El Carmen is on the north bank of the river, over a 
range of downs, the south side being low. The river continues, 
about one-third of a mile wide, flowing in a broad, still current. 
There are no trees to be seen in the landscape. 

On their way they stopped at several estancias. These are 
houses built of adobes or unburnt brick, divided into two or three 
apartments, without floor, ceiling, or furniture, and with a few 




GOVERNOR S ESTANCIA. 



outhouses for the horses and slaves, and a coural for the cattle, formed 
of high poles, placed so near as to prevent the cattle from breaking 
through ; the poles are from four to six inches in diameter, and from 
twenty to thirty feet high. They were met on the way by the 
minister of finance or collector, whose interrogations were satisfac- 
torily answered, when they were allowed again to proceed. 

The next person whom they encountered was an American, Dr. 
Ducatel, who was especially despatched by the governor; he 
announced himself as a physician and a citizen of the United States. 
His appearance was unlike both. He was dressed in the chilipa and 
calzoncillas, in the full costume, and had the appearance, of the 
Guachos. His skill was much vaunted by his attendants. We 



100 RIO NEGRO. 

afterwards understood that the doctor, having picked up a smattering 

of physic, and wishing to acquire a fortune, had gone to Buenos 

Ayres to seek one. There he accidentally heard of the want of Rio 

Negro in that respect; he embarked for that place with an ample 

store of drugs, and established himself as apothecary, surgeon and 

physician. He is reported as having done well for some time, 

notwithstanding the healthiness of the climate and place, until the 

troubles at Buenos Ayres with the French, when the communication 

with the city being cut off, had prevented him from obtaining his 

usual supplies, and the troops from receiving their pay. With the 

former he had lost the means of curing his patients, and with the 

latter the remuneration that was due him. He had therefore, to use 

his own term, » retired from business," and lived several miles from 

the town, husbanding his estate, which consisted of an estancia, as 

above described, and his demands upon the government and soldiers. 

Under his escort they arrived at the pueblo, consisting of a few 

rows of mud and brick huts, scattered without any regularity over a 

sandy declivity by the side of the river. 

On the opposite slope was the fort, an enclosure of some extent, in 
which were seen the house of the governor and the barracks. ' A 
presentation to the Governor-General, Juan Jose Hernandez, now 
took place. He, on being informed of our character, and the object 
of our visit, received our officers in a most courteous and friendly 
manner. He is a native of Buenos Ayres, of dignified manners, 
polite and courteous, and clothed with great authority. They were 
invited to dine with him, and received his hospitality. 

The doctor now undertook to show them the lions of the place 
and carried them to the part of the town nearest the river, in which 
were the only two houses built of red brick. There they were 
introduced to an old Portuguese, who kept the only mercantile 
establishment m the place. It was a small store, said to have a verv 
promiscuous assortment of goods, though the stock had become 
somewhat reduced, as an evidence of which, a few of the inhabitants 
applied to be furnished with pairs of pantaloons from on board ship 
lor their own were worn out, and the only articles of dry o- 00 ds at 
present in the store, were three or four yards of calico. 

An American by the name of Adams, who was absent at the time 
of our visit, has engrossed all the trade and business of this place 
and no other vessels but those in which he is interested had traded 
with it for the last two years, with the exception of two whale ships 



RIO NEGRO. 101 

in 1837 and 1838 ; on them a duty of twelve and a half cents per ton 
was levied, although their sole object was to obtain fresh provisions. 
This, together with the difficult and changing bar, will always pre- 
vent their resorting to this port, 

The inducements for a merchant vessel to visit this port are few, for 
it would be difficult to dispose of even the most necessary articles, in 
consequence of the poverty of the place, and there is no possibility of 
obtaining any thing in return except salt. Of this there are several 
cargoes in stack along the banks of the river, which it is said could 
be delivered on board for twenty cents per bushel. It is obtained 
from the salt lakes, or salinas, on the Campos, and is transported to 
the river in ox carts. I regretted extremely that I had not time to 
spare to send a party to explore them, in order to have ascertained 
the extent of the staple commodity of this port. 

These salt lakes are known to be numerous throughout the 
Pampas, and within a few leagues of the town of El Carmen there 
are four, from two to three leagues in circumference, from which 
salt has been taken, besides many others of smaller dimensions. 
From the largest of these, the salt that is exported from the Rio 
Negro is mostly obtained. In dry weather it is said to form very 
rapidly, so much so that it may at times be gathered daily, and that 
it attains the thickness of two inches in twenty-four hours. How far 
this is true, I will not pretend to vouch. Still more wonderful stories 
are told of the larger lakes in the interior ; of their being ten leagues 
in circumference ; and they are described as appearing as if covered 
with a crust of dazzling whiteness, so strong that a horse and rider 
may pass over it without leaving an impression. In heavy rains 
these lakes are converted into morasses of black mud, which, as the 
water evaporates becomes encrusted with salt. The salt is beau- 
tifully white and finely crystallized, and requires no purification 
before carrying it to market. The specimens were thought to equal 
in purity those from our own springs. The general belief relative to 
these salt lakes is, that the salt is disseminated through the soil, no 
salt in a solid state having yet been found in any part of the country, 
and no satisfactory information could be obtained relative to their 
having become weaker, as the only person who w r as able to give this 
information was Mr. Adams, Avho, as I mentioned before, was absent, 

It appears that the policy of the present government of Buenos 
Ayres, has been to discourage the raising of cattle and the exportation 
of hides from this place, in order, it is said, to concentrate the trade 

vol. i. 26 



102 RIO NEGRO. 

at Buenos Ayres. The large herds that were formerly kept in this 
country are now reduced to comparatively few. 

None of the government officers have received any salaries for the 
last eighteen months. 

There are about two thousand inhabitants within a circuit of 
eighty miles, exclusive of a few roving Indians. The population of 
Carmen is about five hundred. There are five Americans residing 
here, who state that they enjoy all the protection that the government 
can give, and that they are well treated. 

The Rio Negro is navigable for boats to the village of Chichula, 
two hundred miles from its mouth. 

The distance across the country to Buenos Ayres is but five hun- 
dred miles, yet it requires fifteen days to communicate with it ; the 
governor had received no advices or information for the last two 
months from that place. The route is very uncertain, owing to the 
hordes of hostile Indians. 

Grain, fruit, and vegetables thrive well, and with proper industry 
every thing might be produced in abundance. 

The climate is delightful, and cold weather is seldom felt, although 
ice has occasionally been seen a quarter of an inch in thickness. 

Bullocks and horses are the principal articles of trade ; indeed they 
constitute the legal tender of the country. The former are worth 
from five to ten dollars, according to age ; wild horses two or three 
dollars, and if broken to the saddle, ten or fifteen. 

The tariff of duties is the same as at Buenos Ayres, but the late 
reduction of thirty-three per cent, during the blockade did not extend 
to this place. 

The Indians that are accustomed to visit this place (Carmen) for 
the purpose of war or trade are of four different tribes, viz., Pampas, 
Ancases, Tehuiliches or Teheulehes, and Chilenos. The two former 
occupy the territory to the north of the Rio Negro as far as the Rio 
Colorado. The Tehuiliches are from the mountains to the south, 
and the Chilenos from the southwest. 

During the infancy of the settlement, and until of late years, these 
Indians were extremely troublesome, making descents upon the place, 
and ravaging the outposts, waylaying all who were not on their 
guard, killing them, and retreating rapidly on their wild steeds, with 
their booty, to the pampas and mountains. The Spaniards frequently 
retaliated, and by the superiority of their arms and discipline, inflicted 
summary punishment on them. The last attack of the Indians was 



RIO NEGRO. 103 

made in 1832, when they met with such an overwhelming defeat, that 
they have not ventured to make another ; yet the garrison is always 
kept in anxiety for fear of attacks. 

The weapons usual in their warfare are a long lance and the 
hallos, such as is used in taking the ostrich and throwing cattle, which 
they use with great dexterity. This consists of a thong of hide four 
feet in length, with a leaden hall at each end, which the horseman 
grasps in the middle, and gives the balls a rotary motion by whirling 
them above his head, then dashing on to the attack, he throws it when 
within range with unerring aim, and seldom fails to disable his 
enemy. The Indians who are most feared are the Chilenos. The 
Tehuiliches, notwithstanding their immense size, are considered little 
better than cowards. 

All the information gained here tended to confirm the general 
impression that the Tehuiliches or Patagonians are above the 
ordinary height of men, generally above six feet ; and the minister 
asserted that he had often seen them above seven English feet, We 
had not any personal opportunity to verify this statement, the Indians 
being only in the habit of visiting this post once a year, to obtain 
supplies, viz., in the month of March, at which time a vessel usually 
visits the place. 

There are a few huts or toldos forming a small settlement of Indians 
on the opposite side of the river. They are converted, and are termed 
Indios Mansos, are a mixture of all the tribes, and so much changed 
in habits and dress from their former condition and mode of life, that 
an accurate idea could not be formed of their natural character. 
They were none of them above the middle height ; their limbs were 
usually full and well formed ; their complexion a brownish copper, 
with coarse straight black hair, growing very low on the forehead : 
this is suffered to grow long, and hangs down on both sides of the 
face, adding much to the wildness of their appearance. Their fore- 
heads are low and narrow towards the top, their eyes small, black 
and deep set, Some were observed with their eyes set, Chinese- 
like. The resemblance was somewhat increased by the width 
of the face, which was a particular characteristic. The nose is 
usually a little flattened at the root, and wide at the nostrils, the 
lips full, and the chin not prominent. The expressions of their 
countenances betoken neither intellect nor vivacity. The men were 
o-enerally decked out in tawdry finery, partly after the Spanish 
fashion ; the women had only the chilipa to cover their nakedness. 



104 R I O N E G R O. 

Of the Ancases very little appears to be known ; they live towards 
the north, speak a peculiar language, and are inferior to the rest in 
stature. 

The Chilenos are derived from the western side of the continent, 
and are predatory bands of the great Araucanian nation. 

The Peulches, including the Pampas and Tehuiliches, Falkner, 
in his account of this country, describes as inhabiting the portion 
south of the Rio de la Plata, and to the east of the Cordilleras ; they 
are scattered over the vast plains of the interior. Those to the north of 
the Rio Colorado are generally known under the name of the Pampas 
Indians ; they call themselves Chechehets. Those to the south of 
that river are termed Tehuiliches ; they inhabit the table land between 
the Cordilleras, and the desert plains of the coast. 

These people are represented as of gigantic stature, and it is said 
by the residents, that those from the south are generally taller than 
those from any other part, and Indians are said to have been met 
with who are distinguished for their gigantic height and well-formed 
limbs, but this rests on vague authority. 

Our philologist related an anecdote of a young Indian who had 
learned the Spanish tongue, whom he had been questioning relative 
to his language, in order to obtain a certain class of phrases. After 
having written down a word, in repeating it, he connected it with 
some adjunct, as my father, his house, this knife. The Indian mis- 
took his meaning, and immediately took fire at the supposed insult, 
thinking that the correctness of what he had said was doubted, and 
that the object was to entrap him in a falsehood. It was with some 
difficulty that he was pacified. 

The Guachos and Indians are of course good horsemen, being- 
trained to it from their infancy. Indeed they may be said to live 
on horseback, and it is very seldom that they are seen to walk any 
distance however short. 

Their dress, although uncouth and ill-arranged, is comfortable, and 
picturesque when they are on horseback, particularly when at full 
speed in search of a bullock to lasso. The ease and nonchalance 
with which a Guacho mounts his steed, arranges himself in the 
saddle, quietly trotting off, lasso in hand, to select his victim, and 
detach it from the herd; then the eager chase, the furious speed of 
the horse, the flying dress of the Guacho, with upraised arm whirling 
his lasso, the terror of the animal, the throw of the lasso, and instan- 
taneous overthrow of the bullock, all the work of an instant, excited 



RIO NEGRO. 105 

both our admiration and astonishment. Nothing can exceed the ani- 
mation of both horse and rider on these occasions. 




Mr. Waldron, our purser, made an endeavour to purchase some 
vegetables for the crews, from an estancia on the river side, of which 
an old Spaniard was the owner, thus affording him an opportunity 
of disposing of many of them. But the conditions were that they 
must be on the beach in a few hours, which was ample time to have 
duo- up an acre. As soon, however, as he learned these terms, he 
shrugged his shoulders, and declared the thing impossible, took down 
his guitar, seated himself in front of his house, and began to play a 
lively air, which his two sons accompanied with their voices. 

The coast and the banks of the Rio Negro are composed of sand- 
hills of from thirty to fifty feet in height, covered with a scattered 
growth of grass, which prevents the sand from blowing away. 
These gradually rise to the height of one hundred feet, except to 
the southward of the river, where the bank is perpendicular ; at this 
height the ground stretches away in a level prairie, without a single 
tree to break the monotony of the scene, and affords a view as unin- 
terrupted as the ocean. 

The apparent hills along the river are found to be no more than 
the face of the excavation made or worn down by the river, forming 
the valley through which it flows. 

The only verdure on the prairie is a small shrub, which when the 
lower branches are trimmed off serves a useful purpose. From an 
optical illusion, (the effect of refraction,) they appear, when thus 
trimmed, as large as an ordinary sized apple tree, and one is not a 

VOL. I. ^7 



106 RIO NEGRO. 



little surprised to find them, on a near approach, no higher than 
the surrounding shrubs, four or five feet. Shrubs are trimmed 
in this manner at distances of about half a mile from each other, 
and are used as guide-posts on the prairie. A similar optical effect 
is spoken of by travellers on the steppes of Russia. 

Game is most plentiful, consisting of deer, guanacoes and carias, 
cassowaries, partridges, bustards, ducks, &c. Armadillos were com- 
mon, and the ostrich was frequently seen ; porcupines are said also to 
be found. The carias were seen running about in single file, with a 
sort of halting gait. 

The soil of the Campos was mostly a mixture of clay, sand and 
small pebbles, but is destitute of vegetable mould. They have the 
practice of burning the prairies in order to produce a new crop of 
sweet and nutritious grass for the cattle. The rock of the cliff, and 
along the river where it can be seen, is a soft, gray sandstone, in 
some places so friable as to be easily crumbled between the fingers, 
while other specimens are of sufficient hardness for building stone! 
The stratification is perfectly horizontal. 

The width of the river is less than a third of a mile ; it has a rapid 
current, and a large body of water is carried by it to the ocean. The 
ordinary tide is about eight feet, and the spring tides fourteen feet. 
The current is mostly downward, although the tide is felt about ten 
miles above its mouth. The ebb sets off shore some three or four 
miles, and may be known from the discoloration of the water, which 
just without the bar is comparatively fresh. The depth at high water 
on the bar is two and a half fathoms, and the bar is a changing one. 

No springs were observed in the vicinity, or any trace of running 
water except in the river. The water from the rains collects in the 
depressions, and forms large ponds covering acres of ground, but only 
a few inches in depth. 

The time of our visit corresponded in season to our midsummer 
months, and the mean temperature was found to be 73°. The 
winters are represented as very mild; snow does fall, but it disappears 
m a few hours. Ice is seldom seen, though frosts appear to be fre- 
quent in the winter. January, February, March, and April are the 
least tempestuous months. 

The vegetation of the upland bears the marks of long continued 
droughts, in an absence of trees, and the roots of plants penetrating 
vertically. The stunted appearance of the shrubs, branching from 
their base, their branches dense, rigid and impenetrable, usually 



RIO NEGRO. 107 

growing into spines, the smallness of the leaves and their texture, 
which is dry, coriaceous, and hardly deciduous, together with the 
general brown aspect of the landscape, all denote a vegetation adapted 
to endure or escape drought. 

There was formerly some trade here with Boston and New York 
in hides, horns, hones and tallow, in exchange for cotton and woollen 
goods of a warm fabric, hardware, crockery, boots and shoes, a few 
articles of furniture, spirits and tobacco, all of which are bartered at 
an enormous profit. Considerable quantities of salt are shipped 
round to Buenos Ayres. Vessels discharging or taking in a cargo 
here, pay twelve and a half cents per ton. Vessels stopping without 
discharging pay half duty ; vessels for refreshments are permitted to 
remain twenty-five days free of duty, after that time they pay half 
duty. This duty includes pilotage and all other charges; but the 
governor seems to have the power to exact the full duty whenever he 
thinks proper. 

Sarsaparilla abounds in this section of the country. 

As the bar is a shifting one, no permanent directions can be given, 
nor can any survey be relied on. The annual freshets and gales of 
wind that take place from May to October, often change the position 
of the bar. According to the pilots, it had recently undergone a 
change, and there was three feet less water on it than had been 
before. Even the direction had been altered from southeast by 
south, to southeast by compass. 

The week we lay off the bar, we experienced much fog, and found 
the current strong, two and a half knots on the flood and ebb. The 
former runs to the southwest, the latter in the contrary direction. 
The roadstead may be considered a very unsafe anchorage except in 
the fine season. The gales come from the southeast, with a heavy 
sea. By taking advantage of the flood tide, and standing off to the 
southward and eastward, there will be found little difficulty in getting 
off shore, to avoid the danger a vessel would be exposed to. 

While engaged at this place, I felt great uneasiness for the safety 
of the boats, the officers employed having but little experience in 
managing them. The fogs and strong current rendered it extremely 
difficult to proceed rapidly with our survey, many of the boats were 
detained out over night, and others reached the ship with difficulty. 

On the night of the 30th of January, the weather assumed a 
threatening appearance. The wind changed to the eastward, with a 
failing barometer ; the sea rising, accompanied by a heavy fog, with 



108 RIO,NEGRO. 

the absence of three boats, caused me much anxiety. During the 
night the wind increased to a gale from the southeast. At daylight 
the Peacock made signal that the boats had reached her in safety. 
It had now became necessary for the squadron to leave this dangerous 
anchorage. Taking advantage of the tide, we effected it without diffi- 
culty, getting off under our storm-sails; three of the vessels were 
obliged to slip their cables. The barometer during the gale fell to 
29-600°, which was lower than we had seen it since our departure 
from the United States. Towards evening, when the weather mode- 
rated, we again sought our anchorage. One of the boats returned to 
the Vincennes with but half her crew ; the rest, it was reported to 
me, had deserted. Two boats with officers were accordingly des- 
patched for the purpose of apprehending them, as soon as we 
anchored. The men were found by the Guachos without difficulty. 
They accounted for their absence, that they had, while waiting 
on the beach, been enticed into the interior in chase of some game 5 , 
and the fog coming on suddenly, they had lost their way, missed 
the boat, and were obliged to pass the night on the prairie. The 
boats in returning to the ships narrowly escaped accident in passing 
through the rollers on the bar, and it was with great difficulty they 
reached the ship at midnight. Their lengthened absence caused no 
little anxiety for their safety to all on board. 

Dr. Pickering on this occasion at my request visited a cave he had 
mentioned to me as existing, for the purpose of ascertaining its 
temperature, believing it would give some more accurate information 
as to the mean temperature of the climate at this season. It was 
found to be 70°, in a horizontal hole twelve feet from the surface. 

On the 1st February, the Peacock, Porpoise and tenders, were 
engaged looking for their anchors; the two latter regained theirs, but 
the former was lost, the buoy having sunk. 

El Carmen may be termed a convict settlement; for culprits 
and exiles are sent here from Buenos Ayres. The garrison is 
composed of about two hundred soldiers, principally African and 
Brazilian slaves brought here during the Banda Oriental war. 
Among them we found a person who called himself an American, 
from Rhode Island, by name Benjamin Harden, junior, who was 
desirous of claiming our protection. He was of small stature 
slender make, and a light complexion, with a mild expression of 
countenance, and about thirty years of age. His story was, that he 
had been by chance in Buenos Ayres at the time when the govern- 



RIO NEGRO. 109 

ment was in want of troops, and that he w T as seized and compelled to 
enlist. On inquiring, however, of the governor, it proved that he 
had been engaged in a riot at Buenos Ayres, in which he had killed 
two or three men, and committed other outrages, for which he had 
been condemned to death, but on the intercession of a friend, the 
sentence was commuted to that of exile as a soldier at this place. 
His farther history is, that not long since he formed the plan of 
deserting with another convict, by seizing an English trading vessel, 
in the absence of the captain and part of the crew, and making off 
with her, which he was fully able to accomplish, being an excellent 
sailor. The night however before the day fixed on for the execution 
of this plan, he got intoxicated, discovered the whole design, and 
received the severe punishment of twelve hundred lashes at three 
different times. 

On the morning of the departure of the schooner, he effected his 
escape from the town, and swam off to the schooner. He was re- 
cognised by an officer, who knew his history in part, namely, that he 
had become a robber and a murderer, and had been an outcast from 
his father's house for fifteen years. He was told he could not be 
received on board, and a boat landed him again. 

On the 3d of February we got under way, and were glad to leave 
so exposed and unpleasant an anchorage. 

On the 4th and 5th, we experienced a heavy sea from the south- 
ward, with much wind. 

Finding the tenders were much distressed while keeping company 
with the ships in the heavy sea, I made signal to them to make the 
best of their way to Orange Harbour, judging that I should thus save 
much time, as well as great wear and tear to the vessels : they w T ould, 
also, by arriving before the squadron, materially aid it by acting as 
pilots, in case we should need such guidance. On the 6th the 
weather began to moderate, and the wind to haul to the westward. 
Shortly afterwards we had strong winds accompanied with rain. 
The lower scud was seen passing rapidly from the northward and 
westward, whilst the upper scud was moving from the south-south- 
west. We found the current setting to the north-by-east, about 
fifteen miles in twenty-four hours. 

On the 8th we had a sudden fall of the barometer to 29-500 in., but 
without any change in the weather, except fog and mist. The wind 
was from the west-northwest. On the llth, the wind hauled to the 
southwest, when the barometer began to rise, and the weather to 

vol. i. 28 



110 RIO NEGRO. 

clear off. On the 12th, the barometer a? am fell to 29-500 in., which 
brought thick weather and rain, with a heavy bank of cumuli to the 
southward and westward, — a precursor of bad weather. In a few 
hours we had heavy squalls, with hail and rain, the weather becoming 
sensibly colder. Temperature 46°. The next morning we made 
Staten Land, and soon afterwards Cape St. Diego, Terra del Fuego. 
The land was broken, high, and desolate. The Straits of Le Maire 
were before us : we were just in time to take the tide, and with a fair 
wind we sailed rapidly through the strait, passing its whirls and 
eddies, now quite smooth, but in a short time to become vexed and 
fretted by the returning tide. The squadron glided along with all its 
canvass spread to the breeze, scarcely making a ripple under the 
bows. The day was a remarkably fine one for this climate, and the 
sight beautiful, notwithstanding the desolate appearance of the shores. 

I cannot see why there should be any objection to the passage 
through the Straits of Le Maire, as it gives a vessel a much better 
chance of making the passage round the cape quickly. No danger 
exists here that I know of. A vessel with the tide will pass through 
in a few hours. As for the " race and dangerous sea," I have fully 
experienced it in the Porpoise, on the side of Staten Land ; and am 
well satisfied that any vessel may pass safely through it, at all times 
and in all weathers, or if not so disposed, may wait a tew hours until 
the sea subsides, and the tide changes. We were only three hours in 
passing through. We entered the straits with studding-sails set, and 
left them under close-reefed topsails. Squalls issuing from the ravines 
were frequent and severe, and were accompanied occasionally by a 
little snow. The barometer had fallen to 29-250 in. Contrary to my 
expectations we had on the next day delightful weather, with light 
and variable winds from the eastward, and at times calms. This 
gave me an opportunity of examining the currents. Many rips were 
observed, and it was found, as the vessels were on different sides of 
them, they were set in opposite directions. The current, on the 
outside of a line drawn from Cape Good Success to Cape Horn, sets 
to the eastward, and vessels sailing to the westward would greatly 
facilitate their passage by beating within this line, taking advantage 
of the tide on its ebb, and passing between the Hermit Islands and 
the main through Nassau Bay, if the time is at all favourable for it. 
In case of necessity, they may obtain good anchorage. 

To the eastward of Cape Horn I obtained a sounding with the 
deep-sea thermometer to the depth of four hundred and fifty fathoms. 



RIO NEGRO. HI 

The temperature at the surface was 44°, and when the thermometer 
came up it showed but 28°. The sounding was perpendicular, and 
the thermometer had been examined by two or three persons before 
going down, so that we were assured there was no mistake. So 
remarkable a circumstance surprised me not a little. It was too 
late to attempt another sounding that night, and I regretted in the 
morning to find myself on soundings in eighty fathoms water. The 
temperature at that depth did not fall below 46°, whilst at the surface 
it was 49°. 

The coast of Terra del Fuego presents the same general character 
throughout, of high, broken, and rugged land, which appears of a 
uniform elevation of about one thousand or fifteen hundred feet, with 
here and there a peak or mountain covered with snow, rising to some 
four or five thousand feet. The whole wears a sombre and desolate 
aspect. It may be said to be iron-bound, with many high and 
isolated rocks, that have become detached from the land apparently 
by the wear of ages. Numerous unexpected indentations occur all 
along the coast, many of them forming harbours for small vessels, 
and some of them very safe ones. 

On Captain King's report of Orange Harbour, I had determined to 
make that our place of rendezvous previous to our first Antarctic trip, 
and accordingly all the vessels were ordered to proceed thither. We 
had his directions, although we were without the chart. I felt 
confident I might repose full reliance in them, from his well-known 
ability ; and I now offer an acknowledgment of their value and 
general accuracy. 

The channels formed by the islands are deep, with no anchorage 
except in the coves near the rocks ; but a vessel is generally safe in 
passing through, as there are no dangers but those which show 
themselves, and wherever rocks are, kelp will be found growing upon 
them. To pass through the kelp without previous examination is 
not safe. It borders all the shores of the bays and harbours, and 
effectually points out the shoal water. 

It was my intention to pass within or to the north of the Hermit 
Islands into Nassau Bay, but the wind did not permit our doing so. 
This bay forms a large indenture in the southern coast of Terra 
del Fuego, a few miles to the northward of Cape Horn ; it is about 
thirty miles east and west, by eight miles north and south, and is 
somewhat protected from the heavy seas by the Hermit Islands. 
Around the bay are found some harbours, sheltered by small islands, 
and surrounded by precipitous rocky shores, with occasionally a small 



112 



RIO NEGRO. 



ravine forming a cove, into which streams of pure water discharge 
themselves, affording a safe and convenient landing-place for boats. 

On the morning of the 16th, on board the Porpoise, Lieutenant 
Dale observed a remarkable parhelion, of which he made the annexed 
sketch. 









The upper is the true sun, the lower the mock sun. They were of 
equal size, and nearly of the same brightness. The latter was about 
a diameter below the former. The sun's altitude was 8°. At the 
same altitude, and 21° 40' south of it, was another mock sun, showing 
prismatic colours towards the sun, and with a brush of light in 
opposition. No halo or arc was seen. The whole disappeared in 
about fifteen minutes. The masthead temperature was not noted 
on board the Porpoise; but according to that of the Vincennes, 
there was a difference of 5° in temperature at the time between 
the deck and the masthead, showing a state of atmosphere favourable 
to this phenomenon. Barometer 29-55 in., temperature 42°. 

In passing the cape the weather was delightful. We sailed within 
two miles of this dreaded promontory, and could not but admire its 
worn and weather-beaten sides, that have so long been invested with 
all the terrors that can beset sailors. Here we first encountered the 
long swell of the Pacific, but there was scarcely a ripple on its 
surface. Although the landscape was covered with snow,* the lowest 
temperature we had yet experienced was 40° Fahrenheit. 

The Porpoise, just before night, made signal that she wished to 
speak us, and sent on board a tub filled with a large medusa, for 



RIO NEGRO. 



113 




m 






examination by the naturalists. Its dimensions were nine feet in 
circumference; the brachial seven feet long. It proved to be the 
Acalopha medusa pelagia of Cuvier. 

On the 17th of February, we had an 
extraordinary degree of mirage or re- 
fraction of the Peacock, exhibiting three 
images, two of which were upright and 
one inverted. They were all extremely 
well defined. The temperature on deck 
was 54°, that at masthead 62°. A vessel 
that was not in sight from the Vincennes' 
decks, became visible, as in the annexed 



^ M;<*t*nzimz'Wff/;f<i 



t<^*'^*^Mnr?-*.W't*^!.!1^*^/!^y>W^W,t.t,r^ivil4lf?pt-K/-ft?tt'> 




sketch ; the land at the same time was much distorted, both vertically 
and horizontally. Barometer stood at 29-62 in. ; hygrometer 10°. 
On board the Peacock, similar appearances were observed of the 
Vincennes and Porpoise. There was, how- 
ever, a greater difference between the mast- 
yp head temperature and that on deck, the 
'JZOZZ thermometer standing at 62° at masthead, 
while on deck it was but 50°, being a dif- 
ference of 12° ; that on board the Vincennes 
differed only 8°. The sketches were taken 
about the same time : that made of the Pea- 
cock on board the Vincennes it will be seen 
was the most elongated. 

We continued beating into the passage 
between the Hermit Islands and False Cape 
Horn, and found great difficulty in passing Point Lort, from the 
very strong outward set of the tide, which we found to run with a 
velocity of five miles an hour. We were not able to make way 
against it, though the log gave that rate of sailing. After beating 
about in this channel a long and dark night, with all hands up, we 
made sail at daylight, and at half-past 6 a. m. anchored in Orange 
Harbour. Here we found the Relief and tenders, all well. 
vol. i. 29 




VINCENNES. 



114 RIO NEGRO. 

The Relief, it will be remembered, was left by the boats at the 
mouth of Rio Harbour, on the 19th December. Lieutenant-Comman- 
dant Long found it necessary to come to anchor before they cleared 
Raza Island, in consequence of its falling calm, and the flood tide 
drifting them in towards the harbour. The next day they took their 
departure, and with a northerly wind steered on their course to the 
southward, with hazy weather. 

On the 22d they experienced a current of twenty miles to the 
eastward. 

The barometer stood lower than had been observed before, 29-79 in. 
The weather had the appearance of a change, the wind hauling to 
the southward by the west, and then to the southeast quarter, with 
clear and pleasant weather. 

The 26th, the sea was extremely luminous in large patches ; tem- 
perature of the water 73°. 

On the 27th, in longitude 50° 19' W., latitude 35° 11' S., being 
three hundred miles off the mouth of the Rio Plata, they found the 
water very much discoloured ; its temperature had fallen to 70° ; no 
bottom was found with one hundred and fifty fathoms of line. Three 
sail of American whalers were in sight, one of which they spoke. 

The 28th, the current was found setting to the east-southeast, 
twelve miles. 

The 29th, in latitude 38° 54' S., longitude 54° 00' W., the water 
was still much discoloured, its temperature having fallen to 56° ; air 
66°. The ship was set southwest forty -six miles in twenty-four 
hours. No bottom was obtained with the deep-sea line. On this 
and the next day the ship was surrounded by large numbers of 
birds, consisting of albatross, black petrel, &c. Shoals of por- 
poises and seals, and large patches of kelp, were met with. The 
current was now found to have changed to north-northeast, fourteen 
miles. 

On the 31st they had reached the latitude of 40° S. Many tide- 
rips were here observed, and the water continued very much dis- 
coloured, having the appearance of shoal river-water. Although the 
chart indicated bottom at fifty-five fathoms, a long distance to the 
eastward, none was found with one hundred and seventy fathoms. 
The current was felt setting north 69° east, thirty-six miles ; water 
fell to 55°, air 59°. 

On the 1st of January they obtained soundings in fifty-five 
fathoms, fine yellow and black sand; this day there occurred a 



RIO NEGRO. 115 

thunder-storm, with rain and hail. The current was north 49° east, 
thirty-one miles : temperature of the water 54°, that of the air 64°. 

On the 2d, latitude 41° 24' S., longitude 5S° 40' W., the wind was 
from the northward and westward, and was accompanied by hazy 
weather ; the temperature of the water rose to 58°, air 66°. The cold 
water which had been passed through had continued for a distance of 
one hundred and sixty miles; the current was found, by anchoring a 
boat, to set south-half-west three-fourths of a mile per hour. The same 
kind of soundings continued ; some large dark spots were discovered 
in the water, but on examination they proved to be shoals of small fish 
resembling herring. Immense flocks of sea birds were still met with. 

The current from the 4th till the 7th was setting northeast-by-east, 
ten to twenty miles a day ; water and air continued at about 60°. 

On the 5th, in dredging, they succeeded in obtaining a number of 
interesting shells, from deep water. 

On the 9th they discovered the coast of Patagonia, near Point 
Lobos. It appeared low at first sight, but, on approaching it, showed 
a level table-land, between four and five hundred feet high. At eight 
miles south of Cape Raza, latitude 44° 20' S., longitude 65° 06' W., 
the water was seen to break moderately, in the direction of east-north- 
east and west-southwest; a boat was lowered, and an officer sent to 
examine the shoal : the least depth of water found was fourteen 
fathoms. 

On the 10th they rounded Cape St. Joseph's. The country 
was destitute of trees ; only a few shrubs were seen : it appeared 
covered with a tall grass, and the only living thing seen was a herd 
of guanacoes. 

During the sail down the coast the dredge continued to be used, 
and with success, and many interesting objects were obtained ; among 
them, terebratulas, chitons, corallines, sponges, many small and large 
crustaceous animals, and large volutes (Cymbiola Magellanica.) 

On the 12th they again discovered land to the southward and 
westward, which afterwards proved to be Cape Three Points. 
Captain King's remarks, relative to the apex of one of the hills, as 
not being visible to the northeast, was found to be erroneous : it was 
distinctly seen on board the Relief at a distance of twenty miles. It 
is one of the most remarkable headlands of the coast, showing as it 
does above the flat table-land that is immediately behind it. 

There is a shoal to the westward of Cape Three Points, which 
Lieutenant-Commandant Long, after anchoring, sent three boats to 



116 RIO NEGRO. 

examine. The least water found upon it was seven fathoms; this 
was believed to be a continuation of the Byron Shoal. 

The Bellaco Rock was seen in latitude 48° 30' S., longitude 66° 07' 
11" W. ; there is another rock, bearing S. 17° E. (true), about nine 
or ten miles distant, latitude 48° 38' 44" S., longitude 66° 03' 53" W. ; 
this last rock was found to correspond in position with the Bellaco 
Rock of Nodaies. It would seem, therefore, that there are two rocks, 
and that the one given by Captain Stokes is not the true Bellaco, but 
that it lies in the place assigned it by Nodaies in 1619 ; it is probable 
that the Relief is the first vessel that has verified the existence of both. 
To account for this discrepancy, it is possible that the true Bellaco 
was covered with the tide when Captain Stokes passed that part of 
the coast. At their anchorage the tide was sweeping past them at a 
furious rate ; they had been much affected by it for the last few days, 
and had, on the various trials they had made, found it setting in 
various directions, according as the flood or ebb prevailed. 

At meridian the same day they were oif Port St. Julian. Lieu- 
tenant-Commandant Long thinks the vicinity of Watchman's Cape 
ought to be avoided, from the strong currents that exist near it. 

On the 19th they made Cape Virgins, having kept along the coast 
until then, in from forty to sixty fathoms water, with bottom the same 
as before described. 

On the 21st they passed Cape St. Diego with a strong northwest 
wind, which gradually moderated and fell calm off Good Success 
Bay. It was deemed prudent to wait until the threatening appear- 
ance of the weather subsided, and at 1 p. m., they anchored in Good 
Success Bay. 

The Relief had an opportunity of proving the positions and sailing- 
directions of Captain King, R. N., and it affords me great pleasure to 
say that all his observations tend to show the accuracy of the positions 
and the care with which that officer has compiled his sailing directions. 

No navigator frequenting this coast, or passing round Cape Horn, 
should be without the sailing directions for East and West Patagonia, 
and he will prize them as highly valuable after he has once used 
them. The admirable surveys and exertions of this officer and those 
under him on this coast entitle him to the rewards of his country, as 
well as the thanks of the civilized world. 

The day they landed, no natives were seen, but many marks of 
a recent visit were evident on the beach and in the deserted huts. 
On the morning of the 22d, at daylight, the natives appeared on the 



RIO NEGRO. 117 

beach, shouting to them to land. Lieutenant-Commandant Long 
delayed his departure for a few hours, and landed with a number of 
the officers. As the boats approached the shore, the natives began 
their shouting, and advanced towards them on their landing without 
fear, exhibiting a pleasant air, and apparently with every feeling of 
confidence : they were all unarmed. An old man, who was the chief, 
came forward to salute them, first by patting his own breast several 
times, and then that of each individual of the party, making use of 
the word cu-char-lie, dwelling on the first syllable, and accenting the 
last, in a whining tone of voice. The meaning of cu-char-lie it was 
impossible to divine, for it was used for every thing. After this cere- 
mony they returned to the thicket, and brought forth their bows and 
arrows. These people were admirable mimics, and would repeat all 
kinds of sounds, including words, with great accuracy : the imitation 
was often quite ridiculous. They were naked, with the exception of 
a guanacoe-skin, which covered them from the shoulders to the knees. 

Mr. Agate's drawing of one of these Patagonians, faces the first 
page of this chapter. 

The party of natives was seventeen in number, and with a few 
exceptions, they were above the European height. The chief, who 
was the oldest man among them, was under fifty years of age, and 
of comparatively low stature ; his son was one of the tallest, and above 
six feet in height. They had good figures and pleasant-looking coun- 
tenances, low foreheads, and high cheek-bones, with broad faces, the 
lower part projecting; their hair was coarse and cut short on the 
crown, leaving a narrow border of hair hanging down ; over this they 
wore a kind of cap or band of skin or woollen yarn. The front teeth 
of all of them were very much worn, more apparent, however, in the 
old than in the young. On one foot they wore a rude skin sandal. 

Many of them had their faces painted in red and black stripes, 
with clay, soot, and ashes. Their whole appearance, together with 
their inflamed and sore eyes, was filthy and disgusting. They were 
thought by the officers more nearly to approach to the Patagonians 
than any other natives, and were supposed to be a small tribe who 
visit this part of Terra del Fuego in the summer months; they were 
entirely different from the Petcherais, whom we afterwards saw at 
Orange Harbour. 

None of their women or children were seen, but they were thought 
to be not far distant in the wood, as they objected to any of our 
people going towards it, and showed much alarm when guns were 

vor,. i. 30 



118 



RIO NEGRO. 



pointed in that direction. They seemed to have a knowledge of fire- 
arms, which they called eu, or spirit; and Tcai-eu, which they fre- 
quently uttered with gestures, was thought to indicate their Great 
Spirit, or God. 



v.V 




PATAGONIA VS. 



They had little apparent curiosity, and nothing seemed to attract 
or cause them surprise ; their principal characteristic seemed to be 
jealousy. Though they are a simple race, they are not wanting in 
cunning ; and it was with great difficulty that they could be prevailed 
upon to part with their bows and arrows in trade, which they however 
did, after asking permission from their chief; this was always neces- 
sary for them to obtain before closing a bargain. They have had 
communication frequently before with Europeans; pieces of many 
articles of European manufacture were seen in their possession, such 
as glass-beads, &c. They refused tobacco, whiskey, bread, or meat, 
and were only desirous of getting old iron, nails, and pieces of hoop- 
iron. 

Their food consists principally of fish and shell-fish. Their fishing 
apparatus is made of the dorsal fin of a fish, tied to a thin slip of 
whalebone, in the form of a barb ; this serves as a good hook, and 
with it they obtain a supply of this food. Their arms consisted alto- 
gether of bows and arrows. The natives had the common dog, which 
they seemed to prize much. 

Mr. Rich employed his time in botanical researches ; the prominent 
plants were Berberes, Winteria, Vaccinium, Andromeda, Composite, 



RIO NEGRO. 119 

(some woody) Cruciferse, Umbelliferse, &c. A number of these were 
just putting forth their flowering buds. Scurvy-grasses and wild 
celery abounded. 

The tracks of the guanacoe were seen, and some land-shells were 
obtained. 

Captain King's description of this bay was found to be correct ; the 
position of it by the Reliefs chronometers was 65° 11' 31" W., by 
sights taken on shore, which is 2' 13" to the west of the longitude 
assigned it by him. The latitude was not obtained, but that given by 
Captain King, 54° 48' S., is believed to be correct. 

The morning of the 23d they left Good Success Bay. On the 
25th, having made but little progress to the westward, and the usual 
and certain appearance of bad weather approaching, Lieutenant- 
Commandant Long determined to anchor under New Island to await 
it, which was accordingly done at five o'clock the same evening, 
in thirty fathoms. Shortly afterwards it blew furiously, with rain 
and hail, which continued throughout the night. 

The plants were the same as those seen at Good Success Bay, but 
were much farther advanced, being in full flower. Several heath-like 
plants and many new grasses were procured. During the time they 
were at anchor, some tide was perceptible, but it was quite irregular. 

The latitude of the anchorage was determined to be 55° 17' S., 
longitude 66° 13' W. It is not deemed a suitable or safe anchorage, 
unless well provided with good ground-tackle. 

On the 26th they again were under way for Orange Harbour, 
which they reached four days afterwards, where they were employed 
preparing for sea and accumulating fire- wood, preparatory to the 
arrival of the rest of the squadron. They had also established a light- 
house on the top of Burnt Island, which forms the protection to Orange 
Harbour on the east, as directed by their orders. On the 17th of 
February, as before stated, the Relief was joined by the rest of the 
squadron. 




FU.ll.lAN PADDLES, ETC. 



CHAPTEE VI. 



CONTENTS. 

ORANGE HARBOUR — PLAN OF THE SQUADRON'S OPERATIONS — NATIVES — THEIR 
APPEARANCE — THEIR HUTS — ARRIVAL OF MORE NATIVES — THEIR TALENT FOR 
MIMICKRY — VISIT TO THEIR HUTS— THEIR FOOD — SOIL NEAR ORANGE HARBOUR — 
TIDES— WHALES. 




J 




•r *~.V 






CHAPTER VI. 

TERRA DEL FUEGO. 
18 39. 

Orange Harbour is on the western side of Nassau Bay, separated 
and protected from it by Burnt Island. It is nearly land-locked, and 
is the safest harbour on the coast. The hills on each side, after 
several undulations, rise into conical peaks, and the naked rock is 
every where broken into a jagged outline, with no creeping plants to 
soften or take off its harshness. Every thing has a bleak and wintry 
appearance, and is in excellent keeping with the climate; yet the 
scenery about it is pleasing to the eye, bounded on all sides by 
undulating hills, which are covered with evergreen foliage. Distant 
mountains, some of which are capped with snow, shooting up in a 
variety of forms, seen beyond the extensive bays, form a fine back- 
ground. From the vessels, the hills look like smooth downs, and if 
it were not for the inclemency and ntfulness of the weather, they 
might be contemplated with some pleasure. 

The hills are covered with dense forests of beech, birch, willow, 
and winter-bark. Some of the former are forty or fifty feet high, 
having all their tops bent to the northeast by the prevailing south- 
west winds. They are remarkably even as to height, having more 
the look, at a distance, of heath, than of forest trees. 

The whole coast has the appearance of being of recent volcanic 
rocks, but all our investigations tended to prove to the contrary. We 
nowhere found any cellular lava, pumice, or obsidian, nor was there 
any granite, or other primitive rock seen, though reported by Captain 
King as existing. The rock was trachytic, or of trap formation, 
apparently having undergone more or less action by fire. 



124 



TERRA DEL FUEGO 




Immediately on our arrival at Orange Harbour, active preparations 
were made for a short cruise to the Antarctic. Although the season 
was late, I at least anticipated getting some experience among the ice, 
and I concluded that the lateness of the season would have allowed 
it to have detached itself from the shores of Palmer's Land, and 
would permit as near an approach as possible to its main body or 
barrier, in the vicinity of Cook's Ne Plus Ultra. 

Agreeably to my instructions, such disposition was made of the 
squadron as seemed best calculated to obtain the necessary results in 
the different departments. Captain Hudson, with the Peacock, and 
the Flying-Fish, under Lieutenant Walker, as a tender, were ordered 
to the westward, as far as the Ne Plus Ultra of Cook. I went in the 
Porpoise, Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, accompanied by the 
Sea-Gull, Lieutenant Johnson, to pass to the south, for the purpose if 
possible of exploring the southeast side of Palmer's Land, or, should 
an opportunity offer, of proceeding further south. The Relief, Lieu- 
tenant-Commandant Long, was ordered into the Straits of Magellan, 
through the Brecknock Passage and Cockburn's Sound, with part of 
the gentlemen of the scientific corps, in order to enlarge our field of 
operations. Mr. Peale volunteered to go south in the Peacock. 

The Vincennes was safely moored in Orange Harbour, and left 
under the charge of Lieutenant Craven, to carry on the investigations, 
surveys, &,c. &c. Messrs. Couthouy and Drayton, of the scientific 



TERRA DEL FU EGO. 125 

corps, remained in the Vincennes. Lieutenant Carr was put in 
charge of the observatory. 

In making the changes necessary for this cruise to the south, I 
regretted extremely being compelled, from the want of junior officers," 
to supersede temporarily both Passed Midshipmen Reid and Knox 
in command of the two tenders. These officers had not their 
superiors in the squadron for the situations they occupied ; but the 
duty I owed the Expedition and country compelled me to do it, and 
also to refuse their application to be transferred from the tenders, for 
I was well satisfied, as long as they were on board, the vessels would 
be well taken care of. I had a very high opinion of Mr. Reid, from 
the experience I had had of him ; and as respects Mr. Knox, I feel it 
my duty here to acknowledge how much the Expedition is indebted 
to him for his services on board the Flying-Fish. He not only had 
the ability, but the necessary perseverance and ambition, to perform 
his duties well. So arduous were they, that I was for a time obliged 
to transfer him to my ship on account of his health. The moment 
his health permitted it, he was again put in command of the Flying- 
Fish, to the great advantage of the service. In according thus much 
to his industry, ability, and zeal, I am well satisfied that I but speak 
the opinion of every officer in the squadron. 

The vessels were well supplied with fuel, provisions, and various 
antiscorbutics, for ten months. A spot for the observatory was fixed 
upon, and orders left for the duties to be performed during the 
absence of the squadron.* 

The 22d of February was duly celebrated by the hoisting of flags, 
but we had not time to make a holiday of it. 

During our stay, we had, at various times, visits from the natives. 
They were all at first very shy, but after they found our friendly 
disposition towards them, they became more sociable and confiding. 

Before our departure from Orange Harbour, a bark canoe came 
alongside, with an Indian, his squaw, and four children. The tribe 
to which they belonged is known by the name of the Petcherai 
Indians. They were entirely naked, with the exception of a small 
piece of sealskin, only sufficient to cover one shoulder, and which 
is generally worn on the side from which the wind blows, affording 
them some little shelter against its piercing influence. 

* The instructions issued for the proceedings of the vessels will be found embraced in 
the Appendix, from XXV. to XXX. inclusive. 
vol. 1. 32 



126 TERRA DEL FUEGO. 




Wv ^ *^mkp*&ti&ti5$ 



NATIVE OF TERRA DEL F17EOO. 



They were not more than five feet high, of a light copper colour, 
which is much concealed by smut and dirt, particularly on their 
faces, which they mark vertically with charcoal. They have short 
faces, narrow foreheads, and high cheek-bones. Their eyes are 
small and usually black, the upper eyelids in the inner corner over- 
lapping the under one, and bear a strong resemblance to those of the 
Chinese. Their nose is broad and flat, with wide-spread nostrils; 
mouth large ; teeth white, large, and regular. The hair is long, lank, 
and black, hanging over the face, and is covered with white ashes, 
which gives them a hideous appearance. The whole face is com- 
pressed. Their bodies are remarkable from the great developement 
of the chest, shoulders, and vertebral column ; their arms are long, 
and out of proportion; their legs small and ill made. There is in 
fact little difference between the size of the ankle and leg, and when 
standing, the skin at the knee hangs in a large loose fold. In some, 
the muscles of the leg appear almost wanting, and possess very little 
strength. This want of developement in the muscles of the legs is 
owing to their constant sitting posture, both in their huts and canoes. 
Their skin is sensibly colder than ours. It is impossible to fancy 
any thing in human nature more filthy. They are an ill-shapen and 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 127 

ugly race.* They have little or no idea of the relative value of 
articles, even of those that one would suppose were of the utmost use 
to them, such as iron and glass-ware. A glass bottle broken into 
pieces, is valued as much as a knife. Red flannel, torn into strips, 
pleases them more than in the piece; they wound it around their 
heads, as a kind of turban, and it was amusing to see their satis- 
faction at this small acquisition. 

The children were quite small, and nestled in the bottom of the 
canoe on some dry grass. The woman and eldest boy paddled the 
canoe, the man being employed to bale out the water and attend to 
the fire, which is always carried in the bottom of the canoe, on a few 
stones and ashes, which the water surrounds. 







Their canoes are constructed of bark, are very frail, and sewed 
with shreds of whalebone, sealskin, and twigs. They are sharp at 
both ends, and are kept in shape as well as strengthened by a 
number of stretchers lashed to the gunwale. 

These Indians seldom venture outside the kelp, by the aid of which 
they pull themselves along, and their paddles are so small as to be of 
little use in propelling their canoes, unless it is calm. Some of the 
officers thought they recognised a party on the Hermit Islands that had 
been on board ship at Orange Harbour. If this was the case, they 

* For their dimensions, see Table of Comparative Proportions, at the end of the work. 



128 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



must have ventured across the Bay of Nassau, a distance of some ten 
or twelve miles. This, if correct, would go to prove that there is 
more intercourse among them than their frail barks would lead one 
to expect. 

Their huts are generally found built close to the shore, at the 
head of some small bay, in a secluded spot, and sheltered from the 
prevailing winds. They are built of boughs or small trees, stuck 
in the earth, and brought together at the top, where they are 
firmly bound by bark, sedge, and twigs. Smaller branches are then 
interlaced, forming a tolerably compact wicker-work, and on this 
grass, turf, and bark are laid, making the hut quite warm, and im- 
pervious to the wind and snow, though not quite so to the rain. 
The usual dimensions of these huts are seven or eight feet in 
diameter, and about four or five feet in height. They have an oval 
hole to creep in at. The fire is built in a small excavation in the 
middle of the hut. The floor is of clay, which has the appearance of 




FUEGIAXS AND HUT. 



having been well kneaded. The usual accompaniment of a hut is a 
conical pile of shells opposite the door, nearly as large as the hut 
itself. 

Their occupancy of a hut seems to be limited to the supply of 
shell-fish, consisting of mussels and limpets, in the neighbourhood. 

These natives are never seen but in their huts or canoes. The 
impediments to their communication by land are great, growing out 
of the mountainous and rocky character of the country, intersected 
with inlets deep and impassable, and in most places bounded by 
abrupt precipices, together with a soil which may be termed a 
quagmire, on which it is difficult to walk. This prevails on the 
hills as well as in the plains and valleys. The impenetrable nature 
of the forest, with the dense undergrowth of thorny bushes, renders 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 129 

it impossible for them to overcome or contend with these difficulties. 
They appear to live in families, and not in tribes, and do not seem 
to acknowledge any chief. 

On the 11th of March three bark canoes arrived, containing four 
men, four women, and a girl about sixteen years old, four little boys 
and four infants, one of the latter about a week old, and quite naked. 
The thermometer was at 46° Fahrenheit. They had rude weapons, 
viz., slings to throw stones, three rude spears, pointed at the end with 
bone, and notched on one side with barbed teeth. With this they 
catch their fish, which are in great quantities among the kelp. Two 
of the natives were induced to come on board, after they had been 
alongside for upwards of an hour, and received many presents, for 
which they gave their spears, a dog, and some of their rude native 
trinkets. They did not show or express surprise at any thing on 
board, except when seeing one of the carpenters engaged in boring a 
hole with a screw-auger through a plank, which would have been a 
long task for them. They were very talkative, smiling when spoken 
to, and often bursting into loud laughter, but instantly settling into 
their natural serious and sober cast. 

They were found to be great mimics, both in gesture and sound, 
and would repeat any word of our language, with great correctness of 
pronunciation. Their imitations of sounds were truly astonishing. 
One of them ascended and descended the octave perfectly, following 
the sounds of the violin correctly. It Avas then found he could sound 
the common chords, and follow through the semitone scale, with 
scarcely an error. They all have musical voices, speak in the note 
G sharp, ending with the semitone A when asking for presents, and 
were continually singing, 



czn^n 



=^33=3£S3-^=3 



EH^F 



Yah mass scoo nah Yah mass scoo nah. 

Their mimickry became annoying, and precluded our getting at any 
of their words or ideas. It not only extended to w T ords or sounds, but 
actions also, and was at times truly ridiculous. The usual manner of 
interrogating for names was quite unsuccessful. On pointing to the 
nose, for instance, they did the same. Any thing they saw done they 
would mimic, and with an extraordinary degree of accuracy. On 
these canoes approaching the ship, the principal one of the family, or 
chief, standing up in his canoe, made a harangue. He spoke in G 

vol. i. 33 



130 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



natural, and did not vary his voice more than a semitone. The pitch 
of the voice of the female is an octave higher. Although they have 
been heard to shout quite loud, yet they cannot endure a noise. 
When the drum beat they invariably stopped, their ears, until it 
ceased. On hearing a pistol or gun fired, they immediately did the 
same. They always speak to each other in a whisper. Their 
cautious manner and movements prove them to be a timid race. 
The men are exceedingly jealous of their women, and will not allow 
any one, if they can help it, to enter their huts, particularly boys. 

The women were never suffered to come on board. They appeared 
modest in the presence of strangers. They never move from a sitting 
posture, or rather a squat, with their knees close together, reaching 
to their chin, their feet in contact and touching the lower part of the 
body. They are extremely ugly. Their hands and feet were small 
and well-shaped, and from appearance they are not accustomed to do 
any hard work. They appear very fond and seem careful of their 
young children, though on several occasions they offered them for 
sale for a trifle. They have their faces smutted all over, and it was 
thought from the hideous appearance of the females, produced in part 
by their being painted and smutted, that they had been disfigured by 
the men previous to coming alongside. It was remarked that when 
one of them saw herself in a looking-glass, she burst into tears, as- 
Jack thought from pure mortification. 

The men are employed in building the huts, obtaining food, and 
providing for their other wants. The women were generally seen 
paddling their canoes. 

When this party of natives left the ship and reached the shore, the 
women remained in their canoes, and the men began building their 
temporary huts ; the little children were seen capering quite naked 
on the beach, although the thermometer was at 40°. On the hut 
being finished, which occupied about an hour, the women went on 
shore to take possession of it. They all seemed quite happy and 
contented. 

Before they left the ship the greater part of them were dressed in 
old clothes, that had been given to them by the officers and men, who 
all showed themselves extremely anxious "to make them comfortable." 
This gave rise to much merriment, as Jack was not disposed to allow 
any difficulties to interfere in the fitting. If the jackets proved too 
tight across the shoulders, which they invariably were, a slit down 
the back effectually remedied the defect. If a pair of trousers was 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



I3L 



found too small around the waist, the knife was again resorted to, and 
m some cases a fit was made by severing the legs. The most diffi- 
cult fit, and the one which produced the most merriment, was that 
of a woman to whom an old coat was given. This she concluded 
belonged to her nether limbs, and no signs, hints, or shouts, could 
correct her mistake. Her feet w T ere thrust through the sleeves, and 
after hard squeezing she succeeded in drawing them on. With the 
skirts brought up in front, she took her seat in the canoe with great 
satisfaction, amid a roar of laughter from all who saw her. 

Towards evening, Messrs. Waldron and Drayton visited their huts. 
Before they reached the shore the natives were seen making a fire on 
the beach, for their reception, evidently to avoid their entering their 
huts. 

' On landing one of the men seemed anxious to talk with them. He 
pointed to the ship, and tried to express many things by gestures ; 
then pointed to the southeast, and then again to the ship, after which, 
clasping his hands, as in our mode of prayer, he said "Eloah, Eloah," 
as though he thought we had come from God. 

After a little time they gained admittance to the hut, The men 
creeping in first, squatted themselves directly in front of the women, 
all holding out the small piece of sealskin to allow the heat to reach 
their bodies. The women were squatted three deep behind the men, 
the oldest in front nestling the infants. 

After being in the hut Mr. Drayton endeavoured to call the 
attention of the man who had made signs to him before entering, to 
know whether they had any idea of a Supreme Being. The same 
man then put his hands together, repeating as before, "Eloah, 
Eloah." From his manner it was inferred that they had some idea 
of God or a Supreme Being. 

Their mode of expressing friendship is by jumping up and down. 
They made Messrs. Waldron and Drayton jump with them on the 
beach, before entering the hut, took hold of their arms, facing them, 
and jumping two or three inches from the ground, making them keep 
time to the following song : 




la la la 



la la la la la. 



132 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 



All our endeavours to find out how they ignited their fire proved 
unavailing. It must be exceedingly difficult for them to accomplish, 
judging from the care they take of it, always carrying it with them 
in their canoes, and the danger they thus run of injuring themselves 
by it. 

Their food consists of limpets, muscles, and other shell-fish. 
Quantities of fish, and some seals, are now and then taken among the 
kelp, and with berries of various kinds, and wild celery, they do not 
want. They seldom cook their food much. The shell-fish are 
detached from the shell by heat, and the fish are partly roasted in 
their skins, without being cleaned. 

When on board, one of them w T as induced to sit at the dinner table, 
when ; after a few lessons, he handled his knife and fork with much 
dexterity. He refused both spirits and wine, but was very fond of 
sweetened water. Salt provisions were not at all to his liking, but 
rice and plum pudding were agreeable to his taste, and he literally 
crammed them into his mouth. After his appetite had been satisfied, 
he was in great good humour, singing his " Hey meh leh," dancing 
and laughing. His mimickry prevented any satisfactory inquiries 
being made of him relative to a vocabulary. 

Some of the officers painted their faces black, white, and red ; this 
delighted them very much, and it was quite amusing to see the 
grimaces made by them before a looking-glass. 

One of these natives remained on board for upwards of a week, and 
being washed and combed, he became two or three shades lighter in 
colour. Clothes were put on him. He was about twenty-three years 
of age, and was unwell the whole time he was on board, from eating 
such quantities of rice, &,c. His astonishment was very great on 
attending divine service. The moment the chaplain began to read 
from the book, his eyes were riveted upon him, where they remained 
as long as he continued to read. At the end of the week he became 
dissatisfied, and was set on shore, and soon appeared naked again. 
It was observed on presents being made, that those who did not 
receive any began a sort of whining cry, putting on the most doleful- 
looking countenances imaginable. 

They are much addicted to theft, if any opportunity offers. The 
night before they left the bay, they stole and cut up one of the wind 
sails, which had been scrubbed and hung up on shore to dry. 

Although we had no absolute proof of it, we are inclined to the 
belief that they bury their dead in caves. 



TERRA DEL FUEGO. 133 

There is a black-coloured moss that covers the ground in places, 
giving it the appearance of having been burnt. Many small ponds 
are met with, as though the peat had been dug from the place, and 
filled with water. There is great plenty of scurvy-grass and wild 
celery close to the beach. 

Here any quantity of water may be obtained on the top and sloping 

sides of the hills. 

The decomposition of the feldspathic rocks appears to be going on 
rapidly. This, combined with vegetable matter, forms a rich soil, 
but it is so exceedingly wet from the constant rains and snows, that 
it is very questionable if any agricultural operations could succeed. 

At Orange Harbour the tide was found to have four feet rise and 
fall. High water, full and change, at 4 p. m. Among the Hermit 
Islands it seems to be affected by the winds in the offing. The flood 
sets to the east. 

Large numbers of humpback whales were seen in March about 

Orange Harbour. 

In a small cove on New Island, a different description of hut was 
seen by the officers of the Relief. Not having met with any natives, 
it was not in their power to ascertain if it belonged to the same tribe. 
It was built of logs, with their upper ends leaning together in the 
form of a cone, and nearly circular at the base ; the interstices were 
filled with grass, leaves, and earth, in which some grasses had taken 
root, and were growing. It is represented in the tail-piece. 




34 



CHAPTER VII. 



CONTENTS. 

DEPARTURE OF PORPOISE-WHALE SHIP— HEIGHT OF WAVES-KING GEORGE'S ISLAND- 
O'BRIEN'S AND ASPLANDS ISLANDS-PALMER'S LAND— ADVENTURE ISLETS— GALE— SEA- 
GULL ORDERED TO RETURN -RETURN OF THE PORPOISE - ELEPHANT ISLAND -GOOD 
SUCCESS BAY — BOAT DETAINED- ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE — ACCIDENT- LIEUTENANT 
HARTSTEIN— GALE — FURTHER ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE THE PARTY- PORPOISE COM- 
PELLED TO PUT TO SEA— CAPE ST. DIEGO — ANCHOR OFF IT— RETURN TO GOOD SUCCESS 
BAY— PARTY JOIN— THEIR TRANSACTIONS— LEAVE GOOD SUCCESS BAY— NASSAU BAY — 
DARK NIGHT — FIND OURSP.LVES AMONG KELP — ANCHOR — NATIVES — REACH ORANGE 
HARBOUR-ALL WELL— SEA-GULL— DECEPTION ISLAND- PENGUINS- SEA LEOPARD- 
TEMPERATURE- VISIT TO CRATER— FORCE OF WIND — CAPTAIN SMILEY— DEPARTURE- 
ARRIVAL AT ORANGE HARBOUR-SENT IN SEARCH OF LAUNCH-LOSS OF THAT BOAT- 
RETURN OF SEA-GULL — AGAIN SAILS FOR WOLLASTON'S ISLAND — BAILY ISLAND — SEA- 
GULL HARBOUR-ARRIVAL OF FLYING-FISH. 



CHAPTER VII. 

SOUTHERN CRUISE. 
18 3 9. 

On the 25th of February, having completed the arrangements for 
the southern cruise, and prepared instructions for the continuance of 
the duties of the Expedition in case of my being detained among 
the ice, the signal was ordered to be made for the vessels to get under 
way, when I joined the Porpoise. Very many of my crew were 
desirous of following me, and expressed regrets and disappointment 
that the Vincennes was not going south. All I could do, was to 
promise them enough of Antarctic cruising the next year, and I 
believe they are now all satisfied that I kept my word. About 7 
a. m., we left the harbour, with a light breeze from the north, having 
the Sea-Gull, of which vessel Lieutenant Johnson was in charge, in 
company. On passing the other vessels of the squadron we received 
three hearty cheers, which was duly returned. 

Various causes conspired to render our short stay in Orange 
Harbour the turning point of the discipline of the cruise. I cannot 
but express my surprise, even at this distant day, that any officers 
embarked in this undertaking could have so far lost sight of their duty 
as to have endeavoured to throw obstacles in the way of the prompt 
execution of the duties they owed to the country, and the service on 
which they were engaged, or would have allowed selfish feelings to 
predominate over those for the public good. Prompt and energetic 
action soon put an end to these small difficulties. 

At the mouth of the harbour, Captain Hudson and the few officers 
who had accompanied us took their leave. I must own at that 
moment I felt greatly depressed, for I was well aware that we had 

VOL.. i. 35 



138 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

many, very many dangers to encounter before meeting again. But 
there is a feeling produced by the kind of service on which we were 
engaged, that gives a stout heart, braces it for meeting almost every 
emergency that may happen, and causes us to look forward with 
hope to overcome the difficulties that may lie in our path. After a 
short time we saw the Peacock and Flying-Fish under sail, fol- 
lowing us. 

The wind continued light, with fine weather, until the afternoon. 
The whole scenery around us was viewed to great advantage, under 
a mild state of the atmosphere, taking away from it the usual gloomy 
aspect which a sky, overcast and boisterous, gives. A dense bank of 
cumuli in the southwest foretold that we were not long to enjoy such 
moderate weather. About 4 p. m., a heavy squall struck us, which 
soon took us clear of the islands, on our course to the southward. 

On the 26th, we discovered a sail, which proved to be the whale 
ship America, from New Zealand, bound to New York, and afforded 
us an opportunity of writing home, which we gladly availed ourselves 
of. The master of the America informed me that he had experienced 
constant heavy winds, and had been thirty-five days from New 
Zealand ; that the ship was very leaky, but having a full cargo of 
three thousand eight hundred barrels of oil, he was in great spirits. 
I have seldom seen at sea a more uncombed and dirty set than his 
crew. How they preserve any tolerable state of health I know not, 
and it is not at all surprising that the ravages of scurvy should be 
felt on board of some vessels belonging to the whaling fleet, if this 
is the state in which they are kept. 

After delivering our letters we bore away to the southeast, the 
wind inclining to the northwest and blowing heavy, with a high and 
remarkably regular sea following. This afforded me an opportunity 
I had long desired, for making observations to determine the height 
of the waves, together with their width and velocity. It is obviously 
very difficult to do this with correctness. I shall therefore state the 
means which I adopted, in order that it may be perceived what 
reliance is to be placed on the results. 

This opportunity was far more favourable than that which occurred 
off Madeira, when I was enabled to get only an approximation to 
their velocity, they were not then urged on by any fresh impetus as 
in the present case. 

The Porpoise was directly ahead of the Sea-Gull, and but two 
waves apart; the rate of sailing was about eight knots an hour, both 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 139 

vessels being apparently very steady. In heaving the log, I found 
that the chip, in drawing in the line, was, when on the top of the next 
wave astern, distant by line three hundred and eighty feet, equal to 
one-sixteenth of a mile, and the schooner being on the next wave, 
was twice the distance, or one-eighth of a mile. The time occupied 
for a wave to pass from the schooner to the brig was thirteen seconds, 
taking the mean of many trials, from which none varied more than a 
second and a half. This gave about twenty-six and a half miles in 
an hour for their apparent progressive motion. In order to get their 
height, I took the opportunity when the schooner was in the trough 
of the sea, and my eye on board the Porpoise in the horizon, to 
observe where it cut the mast : the wood-cut will illustrate it. 




This gave me thirty-two feet. The waves ran higher and more 
regular on this occasion than I have seen them at any other time 
during the cruise. 

We had many albatrosses hovering about, and at times resting as 
it were immovable in the storm, some gray petrels, and Cape pigeons 
in numbers. The weather becoming thick, and the temperature of 
the water having fallen to 32°, I deemed it prudent to heave to during 
the darkness. 

The 28th came in more moderate. As soon as it was light we 
ao-ain made sail to the south. Towards noon the wind hauled to the 
northward and brought rain. The temperature of the water was 37°. 
The wind now again hauled to the southward and blew fresh. At 
noon we had reached the latitude of 61° 20' S., longitude 60° 49' W. 
We found ourselves obliged to lay to this night also, it being too dark 
to run. 

At daylight on the 1st of March we had snow in flurries, and the 
first ice islands were made. They excited much curiosity, and 
appeared to have been much worn, as though the sea had been 
washing over them for some time. They were of small size in com- 
parison with those we afterwards saw, but being unused to the sight, 
we thought them magnificent. At noon we made land, which proved 
to be Ridley's Island. It was high, broken, and rugged, with the top 
covered with snow. The rocks had a basaltic appearance, and many 
were detached from the main body of the island, with numerous high 



140 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

pinnacles, very much worn by the sea. The surf was too great to 
attempt a landing for the purpose of procuring specimens. As we 
closed in with the land we lowered a boat and tried the current, which 
was found setting to the north-northwest, two fathoms per hour. 

At 6 p. m. we had several ice islands in sight, Cape Melville 
bearing south by east (true). We now had light winds from the 
south-southwest. 

The north foreland of King George's Island was in sight, and 
found to be well placed on the charts. The appearance of all this 
land is volcanic ; it is from eight hundred to one thousand feet high. 
The upper part is covered and the valleys filled with snow of great 
depth. Before night we had several other islands in sight, with 
many bergs and much drift ice. 

On the 2d, at daylight, we made O'Brien's and Aspland's Islands, 
to the eastward, with many ice islands, some of a tabular form, and 
from half a mile to a mile in length. The temperature of the water 
was 34°. Through the fog and mist, we got a sight of Bridgeman's 
Island, and stood for it, with the intention of landing on it. The fog 
cleared off as we approached it, and we could perceive distinctly the 
smoke issuing from its sides. We made it in latitude 62° 06' S., and 
longitude 57° 10' W. I determined to land, although the fog was 
hovering in the horizon around us, and ordered a boat to be prepared. 
While in the act of getting ready, in less than ten minutes, we were 
enveloped in a fog so dense, that we could not see three lengths of the 
brig. We were now a short distance from and under the lee of the 
island, and perceived a strong sulphureous smell. We waited for 
some time, in hopes of its clearing, but we were disappointed, and I 
therefore deemed it advisable to proceed under short sail, feeling our 
way to the southward, with the expectations, every moment, of en- 
countering icebergs. 

This island is about six hundred feet high, and of the shape of a 
flattened dome. The sea was quite smooth, but the long swell was 
heard dashing against it and the icebergs as we passed them. 
^ On the 3d of March, we filled away at daylight, and stood for 
Palmer's Land. The birds now had very much increased, Cape 
pigeons, with the gray and black petrel, and occasionally penguins, 
swimming about us in all directions, uttering their discordant 
screams. All seemed astonished at encountering so unusual an 
object as a vessel in these frozen seas. At 6 h 30' we made land, 
which I took to be Mount Hope, the eastern point of Palmer's Land! 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 141 

By 8 a. m. we had penetrated among the numerous icebergs, until 
we found it impossible to go farther. I have rarely seen a finer sight. 
The sea was literally studded with these beautiful masses, some of 
pure white, others showing all the shades of the opal, others emerald 
green, and occasionally here and there some of a deep black, forming 
a strong contrast to the pure white. Near to us, we discovered three 
small islets, and gave them the name of the Adventure Islets, while 
beyond, and above all, rose two high mountains, one of which was 
Mount Hope. I place the eastern extremity of Palmer's Land or 
Mount Hope in longitude 57° 55' W., latitude 63° 25' S. 

We found the coast to trend off to the southeast, and I judged we 
could see it trending from twenty-five to thirty miles. We had now 
ascertained, beyond a doubt, that there was no open space next to the 
land, as I had been led to believe would have been found, so late in 
the season. The whole area was studded with icebergs, which it now 
became us to get clear of if possible before night set in. 

It was a day of great excitement to all, for we had ice of all kinds 
and descriptions to encounter, from the iceberg of huge quadrangular 
shape, with its stratified appearance, to the sunken and deceptive 
mass, that it was difficult to perceive before it was under the bow. 
Our situation was critical, but the weather favoured us for a few hours. 
On clearing these dangers we kept off to the southward and westward, 
under all sail, and at 8 p. m. we counted eighty large ice-islands in 
sight. It afterwards became so thick with mist and fog, as to render 
it necessary to lay-to till daylight, before which time we had a heavy 
snow-storm. The temperature of the water had fallen to 29° ; air 28°. 
At one hundred fathoms depth we found the former 29°. A strong 
gale now set in from the southward and westward. The brig's deck 
was covered with ice and snow, and the weather became excessively 
damp and cold. The men were suffering, not only from a want of 
sufficient room to accommodate the numbers in the vessel, but from 
the inadequacy of the clothing with which they had been supplied. 
Although purchased by the government at great expense, it was found 
to be entirely unworthy the service, and inferior in every way to the 
samples exhibited. This was the case with all the articles of this 
description that were provided for the Expedition. Not having been 
able to satisfy myself to whom the blame is to be attributed, con- 
tractors or inspectors, I hesitate to give their names publicity. The 
deception is in my opinion to be attributed to both. 

On the 5th of March the gale had increased. The tender Sea-Gull 
vol. i. 36 



142 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 



being in close company, both vessels were in imminent danger. At 
3 a. m. we narrowly escaped several icebergs. At 4 a. m., it blew a 
very heavy gale from the southwest ; the temperature of the air fell 
to 27°, and that of the water was 29° ; the ice formed rapidly on the 
deck, and covered the rigging, so much as to render it difficult to work 
either the brig or schooner ; dangers beset us in all directions, and it 
required all the watchfulness we were possessed of to avoid them. 

From the state of the weather, the lateness of the season, and the 
difficulty of seeing around us, not only during the several hours of 
the night, but even in the daytime, the constant fogs and mist in 
which we had been for several hours every day enveloped, rendered 
our exertions abortive, and precluded the possibility of doing any 
thing more than to attend to the sailing of the vessels. These reasons 
determined me to give up the endeavour to proceed farther south, 
feeling convinced the season for such explorations had gone by. I 
therefore ordered the Sea-Gull to return to Orange Harbour, well 
knowing that her situation was much worse than our own ; directino- 
her to touch at Deception Island on the way, while we proceeded to 
the northward to examine some of the other islands. 




SOUTHERN CRUISE. 143 

When we bore away, I had the intention of passing towards the 
assigned situation of the Aurora Isles, but I found tie crew so much 
enfeebled by their constant exposure, while some of them were 
affected with incipient scurvy, that I concluded it was better to return 
to Orange Harbour as soon as possible. We encountered great num- 
bers of ice-islands, of large size ; but I shall defer speaking of their 
formation &c, until I relate my second trip to the Antarctic Circle, 
the following year, and shall only remark here, that they were similar 
in formation and appearance to those then seen. 

We continued under easy sail, enveloped in fogs, and falling in 
repeatedly with icebergs close aboard, from which at times we escaped 
with difficulty. 

On the 6th March the wind shifted to the northward, with snow. 
Great numbers of penguins, Cape pigeons, and whales, were around 
the vessel. 

The 7th commenced with rain and snow. The wind was light and 
from the westward ; it gradually hauled to the southwestward and 
blew fresh. While making all way to the northward, the fog lifted, 
and high land was reported within a short distance of us. A few 
moments more, and we should have been wrecked. It proved to be 
Elephant Island. We found from it that we had been set upwards of 
fifty miles to the eastward, in the last four days, by the current. We 
passed to leeward of it. The sea was too high to attempt a landing. 
In the afternoon it cleared, and from our observations, we found Cape 
Belsham, its eastern point, well placed. We passed between it and 
Cornwallis Island. The Seal Rocks were also seen and observed 
upon. 

Elephant Island is high and of volcanic appearance ; its valleys 
were filled with ice and snow. We tried the deep-sea temperature. 
At the surface it was found to be 36°, whilst at three hundred fathoms 
it was 33°. 

We now stood to the northward, and until the 14th had continued bad 
weather, accompanied with heavy seas. On this day we made the land. 

On the 16th we were off the Straits of Le Maire, where I again 
tried the deep-sea temperature, with a wire sounding-line, which 
parted at three hundred and forty fathoms, and we lost the apparatus. 
I then made a second experiment, with a line of rope four hundred 
fathoms in length. The temperature of the surface was 44°, of the 
water below, 37°. This was about sixty miles to the eastward of the 
place where I had sounded before, on the 15th February, when passing 
around Cape Horn in the Vincennes. 



144 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

March 17th, we had light winds from the eastward, and a smooth 
sea, with delightful weather. There was, however, a heavy bank of 
cumuli to the south west ward, and after a few hours' calm, the wind 
came from that quarter, and began to blow fresh, accompanied with 
heavy squalls. We did not succeed that night in reaching New 
Island, where it was my intention to have anchored and rode out the 
gale. We in consequence found ourselves the next morning thirty 
miles to the eastward of our position on the previous evening, having 
drifted at the rate of three miles an hour. From appearances, I 
inferred that the gale had set in for several days ; I therefore deter- 
mined to make for Good Success Bay, and await the breaking up of 
the storm, being satisfied we could make little progress to the west- 
ward during its continuance. 

We anchored in the bay early in the afternoon, when we took our 
boats and went on shore for a few hours. There was but little surf 
when we landed, but it rapidly increased, and one of the boats in 
attempting to pass through it filled, and after several ineffectual 
attempts, did not succeed in getting off. A boat was sent to their 
assistance, but returned with a report that no assistance could be ren- 
dered them, and that they had determined to remain until morning. 

In the morning the surf had very much increased. The sea setting 
in the bay, rendered our situation uncomfortable, and somewhat 
dangerous, as we were exposed to the force of it and the wind, which 
had hauled to the southeast. 

At 1 p. m., being desirous of sending provisions to the party on 
shore, Lieutenant Hartstein was ordered to take charge of two boats, 
to communicate with them, and give them supplies. 

My intention was to effect this by having a line floated on shore by 
which to haul the seal-boat or yawl, having provisions lashed in her, 
through the surf, by the party on shore. Instructions to this effect 
were given to Lieutenant Hartstein, who was enjoined not to risk the 
lives of the men. We watched them attentively with our glasses. 
Shortly after they had anchored their boats outside the surf, we 
perceived Lieutenant Hartstein and three men strapping on their 
life-preservers, and preparing themselves for a landing in the boat. 
I felt under great apprehensions of accident. Placing, however, great 
confidence in that officer's judgment, I was assured he would not risk 
the lives of the men, and his own, on such an occasion. It was with 
great anxiety we watched their proceedings ; and in a few moments 
afterwards they were separated from the other boat, still apparently 
making preparations. In an instant they were borne on the crest 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 145 

of the rollers, and immediately disappeared. Some few minutes 
after, the boat was seen bottom up among the rollers. Presently, 
the other boat's crew were seen pulling in haste towards a person ; 
one was picked up, then another. We looked intently for the 
rest, but no signs of them were seen. We then endeavoured to 
count the party on shore, and we thought it had increased, but the 
constant motion of the vessel rendered it impossible to keep our 
glasses fixed on them for a sufficient length of time to ascertain their 
number. We now saw the boat returning ; it soon reached the 
vessel, and Lieutenant Hartstein and Samuel Stretch proved to be 
the two that had been saved. Both were much exhausted. The 
persons in the boat, while yet at a distance from the brig, to relieve 
our anxiety, gave us the joyful intelligence that Williams and Moore 
had reached the shore in safety. 

Lieutenant Hartstein, on recovering from his exhaustion, informed 
me, that on arriving at the surf and anchoring the boat, he found it 
impossible to carry into effect the intention of getting a line on shore. 
He then concluded that in the surf-boat, with oars, and a line from 
the boat outside, they might land in safety. Samuel Stretch, John 
Williams, and Samuel Moore, volunteered to accompany him. They 
strapped on their life-preservers, with which they were provided, and 
were preparing themselves for the trial, when a wave curling without 
them, carried them forward with rapidity ; in an instant the boat was 
thrown end over, and they found themselves struggling for life in a 
furious surf. Had it not been for the life-preservers, they must all 
have been drowned. The undertow assisted in bringing Stretch and 
himself out, (neither of whom could swim,) together with the boat. 
Williams and Moore swam to the beach. 

The night proved dark and stormy, and the squalls were furious. 

The morning of the 21st dawned with no better prospect. All our 
endeavours to get a supply of provisions to the party on shore by 
kites, &c, failed, and it was now deemed advisable for the safety of 
the brig, to slip our cables and go to sea on the making of the flood, 
which sets out of the bay. Previous to this time, we were employed 
in supplying the yawl with provisions, intending to leave her as a 
buoy to our cable and anchor, and to prevent her from sinking our 
India-rubber life-spars were lashed in her. 

When the time arrived there appeared no alteration for the better. 
We slipped our cable and stood out of the bay under our storm-sails. 
A very heavy sea was encountered in the straits, and particularly 

vol. i. 37 



146 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

in the race that is formed on the Staten Land side, but we passed 
through without difficulty or accident. When we got under the lee of 
that island we had smooth water, almost a calm, and moderate weather. 
The contrast was great indeed, from the violent gale we had just left. 

On the 22d and 23d we had light winds, and were drifted to the 
northward some thirty miles, occasionally passing through rips and 
tide eddies. We had generally between fifty and sixty fathoms 
water, with soundings of sand, shells, and coral. 

On the 24th, it being calm, we anchored in forty-four fathoms, off 
Cape St. Diego, to await the tide, and found the current running at 
the greatest strength two and a half miles per hour. 

We did not again reach Good Success Bay until the night of the 
25th, after five days' absence, when we found the party had got the 
provisions, and were all well. At daylight on the 26th they came on 
board. On the 27th we recovered our anchor, and on the 28th set 
sail for Orange Harbour. 

On the evening of the 29th, having entered Nassau Bay, (it being 
quite dark), as we were standing as we supposed over for Orange 
Harbour, when we heard the surf, and suddenly discovered that we 
were close in and among the kelp ; we immediately anchored, in six 
fathoms. 

At daylight we found ourselves in a snug cove of Wollaston's 
Island, and that the false pack-saddle to the southward of the island 
had served to mislead us. 

We were here visited by a canoe with six natives : two old women 
two young men, and two children. The two women were paddling! 
and the fire was burning in the usual place. They approached the 
vessel singing their rude song, « Hey meh leh," and continued it until 
they came alongside. The expression of the younger ones was ex- 
tremely prepossessing, evincing much intelligence and good humour. 
They ate ham and bread voraciously, distending their large mouths 
and showing a strong and beautiful set of teeth. A few strips of red 
flannel distributed among them produced great pleasure; they tied it 
around their heads as a sort of turban. Knowing they were fond of 
music, I had the fife played, the only instrument we could muster 
They seemed much struck with the sound. The tune of Yankee 
Doodle they did not understand, but when "Bonnets of Blue" was 
played they all were in motion keeping time to it. The vessel at 
this time was under way, and no presents could persuade them to 
continue any longer with us. There was some disposition in the 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 147 

younger ones, but the adults refused to be taken where the fickleness 
of their climate might subject them to be blown off. We found them 
also extremely imitative, repeating over our words and mimicking 
our motions. They were all quite naked. 

I have seldom seen so happy a group. They were extremely lively 
and cheerful, and any thing but miserable, if we could have avoided 
contrasting their condition with our own. 

The colour of the young men was a pale, and of the old a dark 
copper colour. Their heads were covered with ashes, but their ex- 
terior left a pleasing impression. Contentment was pictured in their 
countenances and actions, and produced a moral effect that will long 
be remembered. 

On the 30th we reached Orange Harbour. While yet off the port, 
we made signal for the boats, and were soon joined by them, and 
learnt with much pleasure that they were all well. The Sea-Gull 
had returned safely. Lieutenant Craven having entertained some 
fears of the safety of the launch, which had been absent on a sur- 
veying excursion, had despatched that vessel in pursuit of her. 

The Sea-Gull returned to Orange Harbour from the southern 
cruise on the 22d of March, having, after parting company, visited as 
directed Deception Island. On the morning after parting company 
(5th March), Lieutenant Johnson gives the following account of the 
situation of the Sea-Gull : " The water was freezing about the decks, 
icicles, forming with the direction of the wind, enveloping every 
thing, shipping seas every five minutes, jib still hanging overboard, it 
was next to impossibility for us to make sail, and we should even 
have found difficulty in waring ship to avoid danger ; our foresheets 
were of the size of a sloop of war's cable, from being so covered with 
ice; there was scarce a sheave that would traverse." After encoun- 
tering thick and foggy weather, they reached Deception Island on the 
10th of March, and anchored in Pendulum Cove. 

The weather was extremely unfavourable during his stay of a 
week, being very boisterous. The plan of this bay by Lieutenant 
Kendall, of the Chanticleer, with which I furnished Lieutenant 
Johnson, was found accurate. On their landing, the bare ground 
that was seen, was a loose black earth. The beds of the ravines and 
the beaches were of a black and reddish gravel, much resembling 
pumice-stone in appearance. Penguins were seen in countless num- 
bers, or, as he expresses it, " covered some hundreds of acres on the 
hill-side." It was then the moulting season, and they were seen 



148 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

busily occupied in picking, off each other's feathers. It was an 
amusing sight to see them associated in pairs, thus employed, and the 
eao-erness with which the sailors attacked them with the oars and 
boat-hooks. They were not inclined to submit quietly to this intru- 
sion, and in some instances readily gave battle. Their manner in 
doing it was to seize the aggressor with their bill, and beat him with 
their nippers. Their bearing was quite courageous, and their retreat 
dignified, as far as their ridiculous waddle would permit. They 
were showy-looking birds, with yellow topknots, and are known as 
the Aptenodytes chryscome. 

As an accompaniment to these penguins, a small white pigeon was 
found here, quite tame. These were easily taken in numbers. They 
are not web-footed, have red legs and bills, with perfectly white 
though not fine plumage. They seem to live entirely on the dung of 
the penguin, and their flesh is black, coarse, and unpalatable. Sailing 
up the bay, they descried a sea-leopard (the Phoca leopardina Jam,) 
which Lieutenant Johnson succeeded in taking, but by an unac- 
countable mistake, the skull, &c, were thrown overboard. Its 
dimensions were also omitted to be taken. 

Knowing that Captain Foster, in the Chanticleer, had left here a 
self-registering thermometer, in 1829, I directed Lieutenant Johnson 
to look for it, and note its standing. Immediately on securing the 
tender he proceeded to search for it, but notwithstanding the particular 
directions, he did not find it. Since my return home, I have received 
a letter from William H. Smiley, master of a sealing vessel that 
touched there in February, 1842, stating that he had found the ther- 
mometer, and carefully noted its minimum temperature, which was 
5° below zero. 

Lieutenant Johnson, in company with Assistant-Surgeon Whittle, 
visited an old crater, at the head of the bay, where a gentle ascent of 
about four hundred feet brought them to the edge of an abrupt bank, 
some twenty feet high, surrounding the crater on the bay side. The 
crater was about fifteen hundred feet in diameter, from east to west, 
bounded on the west or farther side by lofty hills, with many ravines, 
which had apparently been much washed by heavy rains. This led 
to the belief that the water found within the crater would be fresh, 
but its taste, and the incrustation of salt found on its borders, showed 
that it was not so. Near the east end of the crater, the water boils in 
many places, sometimes bubbling out of the side of a bank, at others 
near the water's edge, with a hissing noise. The surface water was 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 149 

found to be on a level with the waters of the bay, and to be milk-warm. 
A few inches below it was perceptibly colder. No thermometric ob- 
servations were obtained. The ground near the Boiling Springs was 
quite hot. In the vicinity were lying quantities of cellular and 
scoriaceous lava. The only sign of vegetation was a lichen, growing 
in small tufts, around the mouth of several small craters, of three or 
four feet in diameter. From these a heated vapour is constantly 
issuing, accompanied by much noise. Before they returned to the 
tender, they were overtaken by a violent snow-storm from the north- 
east, and with difficulty reached the cove without the boat, having 
been compelled to leave it at the opposite side of the bay, for the force 
of the wind was such as to render all their efforts to pull against it 
useless. This weather continued with much snow for three days, 
when it ceased snowing, but still blew heavy. Lieutenant Johnson 
had the intention of carrying their yawl over, for the purpose of 
sounding in the crater, to ascertain its depth, and get its temperature, 
which it is to be regretted was not done. On the 17th of March they 
sailed from Deception Island, having left a bottle enclosing reports, 
tied to a flag-staff. This was afterwards found by Captain Smiley, 
who mentions in his letter to me, that in February, 1842, the whole 
south side of Deception Island appeared as if on fire. He counted 
thirteen volcanoes in action. He is of opinion that the island is 
undergoing many changes. He likewise reports that Palmer's Land 
consists of a number of islands, between which he has entered, and 
that the passages are deep, narrow, and dangerous. 

The Sea-Gull, after a stormy passage, reached Orange Harbour on 
the 22d, all much exhausted. They were despatched by Lieutenant 
Craven the next day, as before stated, in search of the launch, (which 
had been absent eleven days,) on the route she had been ordered to 
pursue. 

In passing over from Hermit Island to that of Evout's, during a 
brisk gale and heavy sea, the launch, in towing, filled, broke adrift, 
and was lost. The men had all been previously ordered out of her, 
and most of the articles removed. The Sea-Gull again reached Orange 
Harbour on the 5th. 

On her arrival, finding the launch had not completed the duties 
pointed out, I again despatched the Sea-Gull tender, to finish them, 
particularly to examine and survey a harbour on the east side of 
Wollaston's Island. She accordingly sailed the next day, and suc- 
ceeded in performing the required duty, having surveyed a very 

vnr.. T. 38 



150 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 



safe and convenient harbour on the east side, and ascertained that 
the so-called Wollaston Island formed two islands. Leaving to the 
easternmost the name of Wollaston, I have given to the western the 
name of Bailj, after Francis Baily, Esq., the well-known Vice-Pre- 
sident of the Royal Society, as a small memento of the obligation the 
Expedition and myself are under to him, for the great interest he 
took in the equipments, and kindness shown me while in London 
when procuring the instruments. The harbour that lies between 
these two islands was named after the Sea-Gull. A chart of it will 
be found m the Hydrographical Atlas. Lieutenant Johnson was 
again transferred to the Vincennes. On the 12th, the Flying-Fish 
arrived bringing news of the Peacock and their operations, which 
will be detailed in the following chapter. 




CHAPTER VIII. 



CONTENTS. 

DEPARTURE OF PEACOCK AND FLYING-FISH — GALE — RETURN TO ANCHOR — FINAL 
DEPARTURE— DIEGO RAMIERES— GALE— SEPARATION— DEFECTIVE OUTFITS OF PEACOCK- 
CURRENT— GALE— ACCIDENT TO WILLIAM STEWART— HIS RESCUE— DEATH— FIRST ICE- 
BERG—DIP OBSERVATIONS— WEATHER— ICEBERGS AND SNOW — GALE — SITUATION OF 
PEACOCK— BIRDS— AURORA AUSTRALIS— DEEP SEA SOUNDING— FOG— PETRELS — BREAK- 
ING ASUNDER OF ICEBERGS— DENSE FOG— DANGERS — SNOW-STORM — OBSERVATIONS— 
FLYING-FISH REJOINS — LIEUTENANT WALKER'S REPORT — SITUATION OF VESSELS- 
COUNCIL OF OFFICERS-CAPTAIN HUDSON RESOLVES TO RETURN— WEATHER— AURORA- 
GALE— SHIP ON FIRE — FLYING-FISH DESPATCHED FOR ORANGE HARBOUR — GALE- 
ACCIDENT TO ROYAL HOPE— PHOSPHORESCENCE OF SEA — WHALE SHIP— ARRIVAL OF 
PEACOCK AT VALPARAISO — FIND THE RELIEF — LIEUTENANT-COMMANDANT LONG'S 
INSTRUCTIONS— DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED— GALE— TOWER ROCKS— ANCHOR UNDER 
NOIR ISLAND-DANGEROUS POSITION— LOSS OF ANCHORS— AWFUL NIGHT— PART CABLES 
—NARROW ESCAPE— CONDUCT OF COMMANDANT AND OFFICERS— COUNCIL— DETERMINA- 
TION OF IT— PROCEED TO VALPARAISO— ARRIVAL OFF THE PORT— COMMANDANT LOCKE, 
H. B. M. SHIP FLY— RELIEF ANCHORS— ARRIVAL OF FLYING-FISH AT ORANGE HARBOUR- 
PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE — WINDS — TEMPERATURE — BAROMETRICAL RANGE— 
CLIMATE-ANIMALS-WOLF-BIRDS-ORANGE HARBOUR-VINCENNES AND PORPOISE TAKE 
THEIR DEPARTURE— SEA-GULL AND FLYING-FISH TO AWAIT THE RELIEF— ANCHOR IN 
SCAPENHAM BAY— GALE— ORANGE BAY— FINAL DEPARTURE— VINCENNES AND PORPOISE 
PART COMPANY— ALBATROSS — DYSENTERY— ISLAND OF MOCHA— TRADE WINDS— VIN- 
CENNES' ARRIVAL AT VALPARAISO— ARRIVAL OF PORPOISE AND FLYING-FISH— HEAVY 
GALE-SEA-GULL LAST SEEN— WHALER. 



CHATTER VIII. 

SOUTHERN CRUISE — CONTINUED. 
18 39. 

At 10 a. m., on the 25th of February, the Peacock, with the tender 
Flying-Fish, got under way, and also received parting cheers from the 
Vincennes and Relief as they passed out of the harbour. The wind, 
as with the Porpoise, was light and variable until the afternoon, 
when they likewise encountered the heavy squall from the southwest, 
which with the thick weather induced Captain Hudson to regain the 
outer anchorage of Orange Harbour, and remain there during the 
continuance of the gale. The next morning, the weather proving 
more favourable, they again got under way, and stood down the bay, 
with all sail set, and a fine breeze from the northward. Although 
they were passing rapidly through the water, when off Point Lort 
they found the flood tide so strong as to impede their progress. 
Indeed, such was its strength, that for a portion of the time they 
made little or no headway, and the tide being contrary to the wind, 
produced a cross and very unpleasant sea, By meridian they had 
reached the island of Diego Ramieres. 

The heavy bank of cumuli that had been perceived in the west, 
by noon began to develope itself, and by 3 o'clock they were under 
their storm-sails. The barometer, which was at 29-21 inches, began 
to rise as it came on. This gale lasted twenty-four hours, and during 
its continuance the tender Flying-Fish was lost sight of. Captain 
Hudson in his instructions to Lieutenant Walker, notified him that 
the Peacock would w^ait twelve hours in or near the situation where 
last seen, which he now did, but no tidings being received of the 
tender, he bore away for their first rendezvous, having taken the 
precaution to fix four places of meeting. 

During the last gale, from her bad and defective outfits, nothing 
could be more uncomfortable than the Peacock, and although every 

VOT.. T. 39 



J54 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

precaution was taken to make the ports tight, yet from their working 
it was found impossible to keep them so. 

After the gale, they found they had been set about three miles 
per hour to the southeast. Until the 3d of March they had moderate 
weather. On the morning of the 4th of March the barometer 
stood at 28-34 in. Shortly afterwards it began to rise, and a gale set 
in which blew heavily for several hours, when the weather again 
moderated, but the sea continued very high, and rendered the ship 
extremely wet. The wind varied from south by west to west-north- 
west. 

On the 7th they again had squalls of snow and rain, with strong 
gales. On the 9th, although the weather had moderated, yet the sea 
was very heavy, and the ship tossed and tumbled about in every 
direction. William Stewart, captain of the main top, was this day 
knocked off the yard, and in his fall struck the main rigging, but he 
canted and fell overboard, when he was seen to lie quite insensible, 
feet up, supported by his exploring boots, which were supposed to 
have occasioned his fall. A bowline was thrown over them, and he 
was dexterously drawn on board again. The ship had but little 
headway, and it would have been impossible to have lowered a boat, 
on account of the roughness of the sea ; his rescue was therefore 
almost miraculous. Every care was taken of him, but it was soon 
found that the violence of the concussion had been so great, that his 
lungs had become gorged with blood, and little hopes were enter- 
tained of his recovery. After lingering to the 11th he died. He 
was greatly regretted by both officers and men, for he had proved 
himself an excellent man, and was well calculated for the service. 
On the same day his body was committed to the deep, with the usual 
ceremonies. 

This day they made the first iceberg. The only indication in the 
air or water at approaching it, was a fall of two degrees in the 
temperature of the former, and one degree in the latter. Their 
position was in latitude 64° S., and longitude 80° W. 

On the 13th the weather proved fine and the sea smooth, affording 
an opportunity of making dip observations. These gave it 75°. The 
variation was 33-30° E. Their position was in latitude 64° 27' S., 
longitude 84° W. 

On the 14th, Captain Hudson remarked a great and striking change 
in the weather since they passed the 62° of south latitude, it having 
become much more settled, and free from the sudden squalls and con- 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 155 

stant gales they had experienced since leaving Cape Horn. Several 
birds were shot this day, including an albatross and many penguins. 
Petrels and Cape pigeons were seen. They now began to fall in with 
icebergs in numbers. The temperature of the water and air had 
fallen to 33° and 32°. 

On the 15th and 16th they had very many icebergs as their 
companions, mostly of fantastic shapes, much worn and broken, — 
disagreeable weather, with snow-squalls passing over. A continued 
twilight in the horizon and slight appearances of the aurora were 
seen, but no rays. 

They encountered during the 17th and part of the 18th, the 
heaviest gale and sea they had experienced since leaving the United 
States. The thermometer in the air stood at 21° of Fahrenheit, and 
in the water at 28°. The ship was completely coated with ice, even 
to the gun-deck. Every spray thrown over her froze, and her bows 
and deck were fairly packed with it. The crew suffered much from 
the gun-deck being constantly wet, and it being now covered with 
ice, caused the ship to be damp throughout. 

On the 18th the gale continued, with a heavy sea, the winds now 
prevailing more from the south and south-southeast. There were 
many birds about the ship; among them a sheath-bill, which Mr. 
Peale made every exertion to take, but without success. A blue petrel 
was, however, caught. Several icebergs were in sight, and at night 
they had a beautiful display of the aurora australis, extending from 
south-southwest to east. The rays were of many colours, radiating 
towards the zenith, and reaching an altitude of 30°. Several brilliant 
meteors were also observed. 

Hot coffee was now served to the crew at midnight, or at relieving 
of the watch, which proved exceedingly acceptable. The tempera- 
ture of the air had fallen to 22°, and of the water to 28°. 

On the 1 9th they had another display of the aurora, and it exhi- 
bited a peculiar effect. In the southern quarter there was an 
appearance of a dense cloud, resembling a shadow cast upon the 
sky, and forming an arch about 10° in altitude. Above this were 
seen coruscations of light, rendering all objects around the ship 
visible. From behind this cloud diverging rays frequently shot up 
to an altitude of from 25° to 45°. These appearances continued until 
day dawned. The night was remarkably fine, and many shooting 
stars were observed. The barometer stood at 29-77 in. During the 
afternoon of this day a fog-bank was perceived in the southwestern 



156 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

quarter, and they were a short time afterwards completely enveloped 
in a fog so dense and thick, that they could not see twice the length 
of the ship. Fortunately, hefore it closed in, they were enabled to 
get good bearings of the different icebergs in sight, and particularly 
of those which closely surrounded them. 

On the 20th they had moderate weather with fogs. They had 
now reached the longitude of 90° W., latitude 68° S., and obtained a 
sight of the icy barrier. The fog becoming dense, they were obliged 
to heave the ship to, and the sea being smooth, they took the 
opportunity to sound with the deep sea line, with the apparatus 
for temperature. The line being of copper wire, they succeeded in 
getting out eight hundred fathoms of it, but when they began to reel 
it up, it parted, and the whole was lost. The noise of the sea beating 
on the icebergs was frequently heard close aboard, and several loud 
sounds resembling thunder, which they imputed to the breaking 
asunder and turning over of large icebergs. 

The dip was also tried, and was made 78° ; the variation was found 
to be 33° easterly. On the fog lifting they found themselves in near 
proximity to icebergs and field ice. Some few petrels were seen 
about the ship of a different species from any heretofore observed by 
us. All trials to obtain one proved unsuccessful. 

During the whole of the 21st they could not venture to run, in 
consequence of the dense fog, which lasted all day, with the ex- 
ception of about an hour. Mr. Peale having shot one of the petrels, 
of the same kind as seen the day before, a boat was lowered to pick it 
up, of which advantage was taken to try the current. It was found 
setting one third of a mile per hour to the northwest by west. 

The 22d proved also foggy. At daylight the fog lifted for a few 
moments, and they discovered the icy barrier extending from north- 
east by north to southeast by east. At about 9 a. m. the fog again 
lifted, when they discovered icebergs all around them, rendering their 
position extremely dangerous. Every endeavour was made to effect 
their escape as soon as possible. Besides petrels, Cape pigeons, &c, 
a flock of tern were seen. 

The wind continuing from the northward and westward, they wore 
ship to the northward. In the latter part of the day, considering 
their situation m the vicinity of so many icebergs too dangerous to 
beheld under such circumstances, they therefore made sail and ran 
off to seek a more open sea, Many whales were seen and heard 
during the last few days. 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 157 

On the 23d it partly cleared, and the fog having been succeeded 
by a snow-storm, the wind hauled to the west, with a heavy bank of 
clouds in that quarter. The barometer showed no indication of a 
gale ; the weather turned out thick, and prevented them from seeing 
any distance. They had some severe squalls, accompanied with 
snow. On the 24th, the wind hauling to the northward and west- 
ward, brought snow and thick weather, with some heavy squalls. 
Many icebergs were met with, which were fortunately avoided. 
A sharp look-out was kept for them, and the ship put in readiness 
to perform any manoeuvre that might be desirable. Some of the 
icebergs were two hundred feet above the surface of the water, 
and of a pinnacle shape. The snow continued to fall fast, rendering 
the ship uncomfortably wet 

On the 25th the fog continued until near meridian. Many birds 
were seen about the ship, and many fin-back whales. They obtained 
a meridian observation, the first for the last six days, and found 
themselves in the latitude of 68° S., longitude 97° 58' W. Here, 
in the evening, to their great joy, they fell in with the tender Flying- 
Fish. On her near approach, all hands were turned up, and gave 
her three hearty cheers. Lieutenant Walker came on board, and 
reported to Captain Hudson as follows : 

That he had visited all the appointed rendezvous in hopes of 
falling in with the Peacock, but without success, having encountered 
very severe and boisterous weather. On the 18th they left the 
fourth rendezvous, having passed the 17th in its vicinity. They then 
turned towards the south for Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, and continued 
their way to the southward. The weather was at times very thick, 
the ice islands became numerous, and they occasionally passed a 
little floating ice. On the 18th the ice became abundant, and floated 
in latsre masses around them. At 4 a. m. the water was much dis- 
coloured, and some of the ice also having the appearance of being 
but lately detached from the land. They obtained a cast of the lead, 
but found no bottom at one hundred fathoms. At 8 o'clock the fog 
lifted, and discovered, to the amazement of all, a wall of ice from 
fifteen to twenty feet high, extending east and west as far as the eye 
could reach, and spreading out into a vast and seemingly boundless 
field to the south. This wall was formed of masses of all sizes, and 
various shapes and colours. Their latitude at this time was about 
67° 30' S., longitude 105° W. The weather becoming thick, they 
stood to the northward, and soon ran into blue water. 

vol. i. 40 



158 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

On the 21st, at 7 a. m., they saw the ice extending in broken 
ranges from south by east to northeast, and the sea extending round 
to the westward. At 8 o'clock, the water was again much dis- 
coloured, and many large icebergs were around. At meridian their 
latitude was 68° 41' S., longitude 103° 34' W., when they again 
stood to the southward, running among the ice islands with a fair 
wind, flattering themselves that they should before noon of the next 
day get further south than Cook had. But their hopes were soon 
blasted ; for the weather became thick, and they were in consequence 
obliged to heave to. The wind soon freshened to a gale, accompanied 
by a heavy sea. 

March 22d, from midnight to 4 o'clock, a fresh gale, with rain. 
The weather lighting up at intervals, made them aware that they 
were in the midst of innumerable ice islands, so closely packed as 
scarcely to afford a passage between them. At 4, the wind still 
continuing fresh and the weather misty, they stood to the northward 
and eastward. The weather grew thicker and became colder. 
Shortly after the fog lifted, and they found themselves surrounded 
by narrow fields of ice, with contracted passages between them, 
extending in a direction perpendicular to that of the wind. As far as 
the eye could reach were icebergs, packed and floating, in all direc- 
tions. After *a short examination, some places appeared where the 
ice was not so compact. At one of these they succeeded in passing 
through. Fresh gales and thick weather followed, and they still 
passed numbers of icebergs, of from eighty to one hundred feet in 
height, with the sea breaking on them. 

On the morning of the 23d, their latitude was 70° $., longitude 
100° 16' W. The weather proved clear. In the afternoon they 
again stood to the southward and eastward for three hours, when 
they observed the appearance of land, and discovered large masses of 
ice and numerous icebergs. At midnight the southern horizon was 
beautifully illuminated with the aurora australis. 

On the 24th of March they had a heavy fall of snow ; passed many 
icebergs, and large quantities of floating ice ; got suddenly into large 
fields of packed and broken ice, extending as far as the eye could 
reach, in all directions, which, with the accumulation of snow, 
appeared to be rapidly becoming solid. They lost no time in forcing 
their way out. All on board were of opinion, that within a short 
time after they cleared it, it became a firm field of ice. The latitude 
observed was 69° 06', longitude 96° 50' W. 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 159 

Having on two occasions narrowly escaped being closed in by the 
ice, Lieutenant Walker had determined to return, and was making 
his way to the north when he fell in with the Peacock. 

The nights having become long, with the interruptions occasioned 
by fogs and snow-storms, afforded but little time for running the 
vessels among the icebergs, whose numbers rendered the navigation 
extremely hazardous. The condition of the Peacock for a winter's 
campaign, was miserable, and on board the Flying-Fish there was no 
protection in the event of being frozen in. The positive nature of 
his instructions, combined with the report of Lieutenant Walker, 
convinced Captain Hudson of the necessity of turning the vessels' 
heads towards a more temperate climate. On holding a council with 
his officers, he found them all of the opinion that the season for active 
operations in these latitudes had passed, and that it was advisable for 
the vessels to proceed without delay to the north. 

He remarks in his report (which, together with Lieutenant Walker's, 
will be found in Appendix XXXI.), "That it required more moral 
courage than I can well describe, to bring my mind to this decision, 
for we had at that moment less ice about us than at any time since 
we had entered among it ; but I felt satisfied, taking all things into 
consideration, that nothing more could be done at this late season, 
and that it would be recklessly hazarding the lives of those entrusted 
to my care, jeoparding the vessels, and of great detriment to the 
future operations of the Expedition, which an honest conviction of 
the duty I owed my country, most decidedly forbade." The vessels 
accordingly steered to the northward. 

The weather, during the cruise south, w r as exceedingly unfavour- 
able, for with few exceptions during their stay in the Antarctic 
circle, they were enveloped in dense fogs, or found only occasional 
relief from them in falls of snow. The crew during the whole time 
enjoyed an unusual degree of health, which is not a little surprising, 
for, since leaving Orange Harbour, the state of the ship had been 
such as to promote disease. The precautions and endeavours to keep 
the men dry, entirely failed, from the condition of the ship, heretofore 
referred to. 

On the night of the 26th, they had again a slight display of the 
aurora, its radiations extending 30° in altitude. Fresh gales blew 
from the northwest, with a heavy sea, so that the tender found 
difficulty in keeping company, and they reduced sail in order to 
avoid parting with her. 



1(30 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

The fresh gales continued on the 27th, accompanied with rain. 
Towards night it cleared a little, and, with the aid of the young 
moon, they were enabled to run through the ice. 

The weather proved thick on the 28th and 29th, and they had little 
opportunity of making progress to the north, against the northwest 
winds, which were light, On this night a new danger beset them, 
that of being consumed by fire ! At midnight, on the 29th of March, 
they were aroused by the smell of burning and smoke, issuing from 
the main hold. The usual orders were given relative to the maga- 
zine. The drum beat to quarters. On opening the main hatch, smoke 
issued out in volumes, and fire was discovered under it, proceeding 
from a bag in full blaze. This was soon passed on deck, and the 
fire extinguished. It was fortunately discovered in time, and was 
found to proceed from a quantity of coffee, which had been put 
below, in the bag, after it had been burnt or roasted, the previous 
afternoon. 

On the 1st of April, in latitude 60° 12' S., longitude 84° 20' W., 
Captain Hudson despatched the tender to Orange Harbour, with his 
reports to me, and continued his route to Valparaiso. The last 
icebergs seen, were in latitude 62° 30' S., longitude 87° 41' W.; 
the temperature of air 33° ; of water 35°. 

Captain Hudson speaks in the highest terms of his officers and 
crew; of their promptness and efficiency in the performance of their 
respective duties, and of their cordial co-operation in carrying out 
his views. 

They experienced a gale of wind on the 6th and 7th of April, in 
which the barometer fell to 28-71 inches. Some of the squalls were 
remarkably heavy, and the sea high and topping. The gale began 
at northwest, varying to the eastward, and suddenly chana e d° to 
west-southwest, latitude 52° 47' S., longitude 84° W. 

On the 9th, Royal Hope, ordinary seaman, fell from aloft, but did 
not experience any injury. In latitude 51° S., longitude 82° W., 
the sea again showed signs of phosphorescence : temperature of the 
water was 46°. 

On the 11th, they had reached the latitude of 47° 30' S., longitude 
80° W., and the weather began to moderate, having passed the 
stormy latitudes of from 50° to 60° S., where the heaviest winds and 
seas are met with. 

The wind, on the 13th of April, m the latitude of 40° S., began 
to draw to the eastward, and gradually passed into the trade wind. 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 161 

The 15th of April was the first fair day they had had since the 
25th of February. 

On the 16th of April, they had much phosphorescence, appearing 
as it were in sheets of liquid fire : the temperature of the water 58° ; 
latitude 36° S., longitude 75° W. 

On the 17th, they spoke the whale ship Francis, and afforded her 
medical assistance. Until the 20th, they had very light airs, in- 
clining to calms. On the evening of the 19th, they made the land of 
Chili ; and on the 21st, the Peacock arrived in Valparaiso, where to 
their surprise they found our store-ship the Relief, which had arrived 
at Valparaiso some days previous. 

The Relief left Orange Harbour on the 26th of February, (a copy 
of her instructions will be found in Appendix XXX.,) for the purpose of 
visiting various places in the Straits of Magellan, to afford an oppor- 
tunity of making investigations, and opening a larger field for our 
naturalists during the fifty or sixty days they were to be detained 
on the coast. Most of the scientific gentlemen were accordingly 
transferred to her ; and she was ordered to enter the Brecknock 
Passage, and thence into Cockburn Sound, of which we had King's 
valuable chart; and I thought that the passage into the strait was 
more feasible, and might be sooner accomplished by that route than 
by taking the eastern passage, particularly as the wind was favourable. 
I also thought it would enable them to explore more parts of the 
straits, and those which had been least visited. 

Various difficulties prevented her reaching the entrance to the 
Brecknock Passage, principally that of keeping too far off the coast 
on long tacks to the southward. 

On the 17th of March, after being at sea twenty days, they ap- 
proached the coast, and a gale ensuing from the southwest, Lieutenant- 
Commandant Long, on the following day, determined to run in and 
anchor under Noir Island, which is spoken of by King as an excellent 
harbour. The wind was blowing a gale from the southwest, with thick 
weather and hail squalls. Noir Island was discovered under the lee, 
judged to be about twelve miles distant, when they steered for it. It 
becoming thick, they did not discover the Tower Rocks until they 
were almost up with, and just had time to clear them. These rocks 
presented a magnificent and fearful sight, the sea breaking completely 
over them. Three anchors were prepared. They rounded the south- 
east point of the island, and stood in for the bay. At about 5 o'clock 
they anchored in seventeen fathoms, and the anchor took effect. 

VOL. I. 41 



162 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

On the morning of the 19th, the highest point of Noir Island was 
seen, capped with snow; the wind had abated somewhat, but not 
enough to permit of their landing in a snug little cove abreast of them. 
In the afternoon the wind again increased, and another anchor was let 
go. There was much sea, and the ship rode very uneasy at her 
anchor. The sea broke tremendously on the reef astern, shooting up 
in columns, such as are seen to appear under the effect of mirage. 
After it became dark the wind shifted to the southward and eastward 
which brought the sea from that quarter, and exposed them more both 
to it and the wind. The anchors shortly after began to drag, and 
the vessel was urged in the direction of a rock. Fortunately the 
wind abated towards morning, and came from its old quarter, south- 
west, more off the land, but still blew with violence. 

On the morning of the 20th, one of their chain cables was found 
to have parted. The chain was hove in with some difficulty and 
another anchor let go. The weather towards evening became again 
threatening, and produced no little anxiety. At nightfall it shifted 
in the same way it had done the previous evening, blowing again 
heavily. The ship was felt to be constantly dragging, accompanied 
by that grating kind of noise of the chain moving on the bottom, 
which is any thing but agreeable. The rock astern, together with 
the reef toward which the wind and sea were both setting the 
ship, rendered their situation truly appalling. The prospect of any 
one surviving, in case they had struck, was extremely slight. The 
night was dark and stormy, and the dragging continued occasionally 
until midnight, when they found they had passed and escaped 
the rock, and were near the reef. They now shipped a heavy 
sea over the bows, the shock of which was so great that it parted 
their cables, and their drifting became rapid. From the set of the 
current, they just cleared the reef. When the point of the island 
bore east of south, they slipped their cables, wore round, and made 
sad; and on the 21st, at daybreak, they found themselves off Cape 
Gloucester. l 

The conduct of Lieutenant-Commandant Long, his officers and 
men, during the perilous situation in which the Relief was placed, 
deserves great praise; they did their duty in every respect. On 
getting to sea, Lieutenant-Commandant Long, with a council of offi- 
cers opened his sealed instructions, which directed him to proceed 
to Valparaiso in the event of not finding me on his return to Orange 
Harbour, and concluded to make for Valparaiso, off which port he 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 163 

arrived on the 13th of April, without anchors, which soon became 
known to Commandant Locke, of her Britannic Majesty's ship Fly. 
He, in the most prompt and handsome manner, despatched a boat 
with an anchor to the assistance of the Relief, and it affords me great 
pleasure to acknowledge the obligation we felt under to him. The 
next day the Relief anchored in the bay of Valparaiso. 

But to return to Orange Harbour. 

The Flying-Fish arrived on the 11th April. The duties of the 
observatory having been completed, the instruments were embarked, 
and every thing made ready for our departure During the Vin- 
cennes' stay here of sixty days, we found the weather exceedingly 
changeable. The winds prevailed forty-seven days from the west- 
ward, twelve days from the north and eastward, and one from the 
southeast, The mean temperature was 44-36°; maximum, 56°, 
minimum, 32°. During this time there were eleven gales of wind, 
of from two to three days' duration. 

The mean range of the barometer was 29-801 in. ; its movement in 
predicting the weather, was directly opposite to that observed in 
other latitudes, the gales always commencing when the barometer 
began to rise, fine weather generally continuing until it reached its 
minimum, 29-109 in., to which it sinks in from twenty -four to thirty- 
six hours, and where it remained stationary for a few hours, during 
all which time the weather continued good. As the barometer 
begins to rise, the gales come on, and continue until the mercury 
again reaches nearly its maximum point, 30-244 in. 

There were but few days on which rain did not fall during some 
portion of the twenty-four hours, but seldom heavily; lightning and 
thunder occurred once during the time. The climate may be called 
extremely boisterous, although from the fact of the natives being 
without any kind of covering, one would suppose it cannot be very 
variable as to temperature, throughout the year. The want of 
clothing is not, however, peculiar to all the natives; those seen at 
Good Success Bay were well covered with guanacoe-skins, and are 
a finer-looking and taller race of men. 

Observations of any kind are difficult to be had at Orange Harbour, 
both by day and night. 

While Lieutenant Carr and his party were at the observatory, a 
wolf was seen, at which Midshipman Clark fired, but supposed he 
was not shot. The next morning he was found dead at a short dis- 
tance from the place. He appeared very ferocious and fearless. Mr. 



164 SOUTHERN CRUISE. 

Drayton made a correct drawing of him, and a number of measure- 
ments were taken. The hair was long over the whole body, and 
that about the neck and shoulders stood erect. It was a male 
weighed fifteen pounds and three quarters, and measured from nose 
to tip of tail, three feet six and three-fourths inches, and stood sixteen 
inches and a half high ; colour of back, top of head and tail, gray, the 
latter with a tuft of black at its end ; sides of head and outside of legs 
reddish brown ; white between the legs and on the belly. Dr. Fox 
some days afterwards shot a female near the same place; she had 
attacked one of the men and seized his pea-jacket. 

The wolf is the only land animal that is a native of the soil, and is 
supposed the same as that described by Captain King. The natives 
have many dogs. 

Of land birds, we found the upland goose, a most beautiful eagle, 
a few plover, and some small birds. There are great quantities of 
wild fowl, geese, ducks, and the usual sea birds, to be seen at all 
times in the harbour, where they find abundance of food among the 
kelp. 

A number of burnt human bones were dug up in a cave, but 
whether the natives burn their dead or not, we had no opportunity of 
ascertaining. 

Orange Harbour is a most excellent place to obtain wood and 
water. The latter is easily procured, and of good quality. Winter- 
bark may be obtained here in large quantities; scurvy-grass and 
wild celery are also plentiful around the shores; and fish are in 
abundance. 

As a resort for vessels in distress or affected with scurvy &c &c 
this port may be recommended as being the only one on 'this 'coast 
that otters a safe and convenient harbour to supply their wants 

On the 17th April, the time having expired for the return of the 
Kelief, I concluded to leave Orange Harbour with the Vincennes and 
Porpoise. Believing the Relief had been detained, the Flyino--Fish 
and Sea-Gull tenders were both left to await her arrival, for ten days 
to take the scientific gentlemen on board, and join us at Valparaiso in 
order to prevent detention by the slow sailing of that ship 

We got under way, but the wind drawing ahead, with appearances 
of bad weather, we anchored in Scapenham Bay. The weather 
becoming stormy, and thinking the place in which we were anchored 
too much exposed, we got under way, ran back and anchored in 
Orange Bay. 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 165 

Before leaving these desolate and stormy regions, it may be expected 
that I should say a lew words relative to the passage round the Cape. 
There are so many opinions relative to the best manner of proceeding 
in this navigation, that one in consulting them derives but little 
satisfaction, no two authorities agreeing in their views upon the 
subject, I am inclined to believe as much depends upon the vessel, 
and the manner in which she is navigated, as the route pursued, 
whether the Cape is passed close to, or given a good berth : the object 
of all is to pass it as quickly as possible, and taking into consideration 
the difficulties to be incurred from boisterous weather, heavy seas, 
and ice, it is impossible to point out the course at any time it may 
be advisable to pursue ; that which appears most feasible at the time 
ought to be adopted, keeping, however, in view, that there is no 
danger to be apprehended in navigating on the western coast of Terra 
del Fuego, as the current sets along its coast, and it is perfectly safe 
and practicable to navigate it as far as Cape Pillar. The great 
difficulty exists in passing the pitch of the Cape ; there is none after 
it in getting to the westward. On the coast, the wind seldom blows 
long from the same quarter, but veers from southwest to northwest : 
the gales generally begin at the former quarter and end at the latter. 
Previous to the southwest gales, it would, therefore, in all cases, be 
advisable, when indications of their occurrence are visible, (which are 
known by the banks of cumuli in that quarter, some twenty-four 
hours previously,) to stand to the southward and westward in pre- 
ference, with as much sail as well can be carried, that when the 
change occurs, you may be ready to stand on the other tack to the 
northward. One thing every navigator ought to bear in mind, that it 
requires all the activity and perseverance he may be possessed of to 
accomplish it quickly. 

On the 20th we took our final leave of these waters, and on the 
21st lost sight of land, passing to the northward of the island of Diego 
Ramieres. 

On the 23d, during a strong gale, we parted company with the 
Porpoise. On the 28th, found ourselves in longitude 78° 30' W., 
latitude 56° 30' S., when I kept away to the northward, it blowing 
violently from the southward and westward, with a heavy sea. 

On the 30th, we had reached the latitude of 43° S., longitude 
76° W., when the wind came out from the northward. It being a 
mild day we caught several fine albatrosses, ten feet six inches from 
wing to wing, with a small hook. They were preserved as specimens. 

VOL. T. 42 



166 



SOUTHERN CRUISE. 



Immediately after leaving Orange Harbour, dysentery made its 
appearance on board, and ran through the whole ship's company. 
Some of the officers were also affected. It proved of a very mild 
type, and readily yielded to medical treatment. Upon our arrival at 
Valparaiso it had entirely disappeared. The medical officers were 
unable to account for it, the health of the ship's company having been 
very good during oar stay at Orange Harbour. It was not thought 
to be owing to the water, as they had been using it for two months 
without any bad effect, but I think must be imputed to the cold and 
wet we experienced the first part of the passage. 

On the 10th we made the island of Mocha, The northerly wind 
continued until the 11th of May, when we had a gale for several 
hours. The barometer indicated this gale by a fall of -300 in. This 
seemed to break up our adverse winds, and we were shortly after- 
wards enabled to lay our course. This was the first fair wind for 
nine days, the head winds having continued from the 2d till the 11th 
instant. 

On the 13th, in latitude 36°, we took the trade winds ; Cape pigeons 
and albatrosses still continuing with us. 

On the 15th we made the land off Valparaiso, and before noon 
anchored in the bay, where we found the Peacock, and received 
tidings that the Relief had sailed with the store-ship Mariposa for 
Callao. The Porpoise arrived on the 16th, and the Flying-Fish 
reached Valparaiso on the 19th, after having experienced extremely 
boisterous weather. 






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CHAPTER IX. 



CONTENTS. 

APPROACH THE COAST— CORDILLERAS— VISIT TO AUTHORITIES OF VALPARAISO— LAND- 
ING OF INSTRUMENTS — CUSTOM-HOUSE OFFICERS — MR. COOD — OBSERVATORY — G. 
G. HOBSON, ESQ. - NORTHERS - PERCEPTIBLE CHANGE IN THE BAY - VALPARAISO — 
DESCRIPTION OF IT— ITS ORDER AND GOVERNMENT — TRAIT OF CHILIANS— POLICE — 
THEIR SIGNAL-SHOPS — AMUSEMENTS — CHINGANO — DANCES — SAMACUECA — HIGHER 
CLASSES— DRESS — TASTE FOR MUSIC — FONDNESS FOR FLOWERS — GENERAL PRIETO 
—HONOURS PAID HIM— BALL— DESCRIPTION OF IT. 



CHAPTER IX. 



CHILI. 

1839. 



On approaching the coast of Chili, every one is anxious to get a 
sight of the Cordilleras. There are only two periods during the day 
in which they can be seen to advantage, viz. : in the morning before 
sunrise, and in the evening at sunset. The first is the most striking 
view. The outline is at that time of a golden hue, and may be easily 
traced, in a long line, running north and south. This gradually 
brightens, and is lost the moment the sun is seen. 

The evening view gives rise to disappointment. The mountains 
are seen at a great distance (eighty miles in a bird's flight) reflecting 
the setting sun, and, in consequence, appear much lower than is 
anticipated. 

On our arrival at Valparaiso, I lost no time in establishing the 
observatory, and commencing its duties. The officers and scientific 
gentlemen were assigned to such duties as were deemed most desira- 
ble to insure the results in the different departments. 

The authorities, whom I at once called upon in company with our 
consul, were exceedingly kind and attentive, and gave every offer of 
assistance. 

The officers of the customs readily gave me permission to land all 
my instruments. Mr. Cood, an English gentleman, kindly offered 
our consul to place at my disposition an unoccupied house on the 
hill. Although it was some distance to mount up, as it was quiet 
and out of the way, I accepted the kind offer, and occupied it. 

As I was desirous of avoiding all unnecessary delay, not only on 
account of the loss of time we had already met with, but because the 
season was approaching when the northers might be expected, every 

vol. i. 43 



170 CHILI. 

exertion was made to supply our wants, and through the kindness 
and attention of our consul, G. G. Hobson, Esq., this was effected 
in the shortest possible time. The northers are greatly dreaded, 
although I think without much cause. One of them, and the last of 
any force, I had myself experienced in June, 1822, (whilst in com- 
mand of a merchant vessel.) In it eighteen sail of vessels were lost. 
But since that time vessels are much better provided with cables 
and anchors, and what proved a disastrous storm then, would now 
scarcely be felt. I do not deem the bay as dangerous as it has the 
name of being. The great difficulty of the port is its confined 
space, and in the event of a gale, the sea that sets in is so heavy, that 
vessels are liable to come in contact with each other, and to be more or 
less injured. The port is too confined to accommodate the trade that 
is carried on in it. Various schemes and improvements are talked 
of, but none that are feasible. The depth of water opposes an almost 
insuparable obstacle to its improvement by piers. The enterprise of 
the government and the inhabitants of Valparaiso are, I am well 
satisfied, equal to any undertaking that is practicable. 

From the best accounts, I am satisfied that the harbour is filling 
up, from the wash off the hills. Although this may seem but a small 
amount, yet after a lapse of sixteen years, the change was quite 
perceptible to me, and the oldest residents confirmed the fact. The 
anchorage of the vessels has changed, and what before was thought 
an extremely dangerous situation, is now considered the best in the 
event of bad weather. The sea is to be feared rather than the wind, 
for the latter seldom blows home, because the land immediately 
behind the city rises in abrupt hills to the height of from eight 
to fifteen hundred and two thousand feet. 

Valparaiso has greatly increased in size and consequence within 
the last few years, and has become the great sea-port of Chili, and, 
indeed, of the whole coast. Although it labours under many disadvan- 
tages as respects its harbour, which is inferior to others on the coast, 
yet it is the nearest and most convenient port to Santiago, the capital. 

I have had some opportunity of knowing Valparaiso, and con- 
trasting its present state with that of 1821 and 1822. It was then a 
mere village, composed, with but few exceptions, of straggling 
ranchos. It has now the appearance of a thickly settled town,°with 
a population of thirty thousand, five times the number it had then. 
It is divided into two parts, one of which is known by the name of 
the Port, and is the old town, the other, by that of the Almendral, 



CHILI. X71 

occupying a level plain to the east. Its location is by no means such 
as to show it to advantage. The principal buildings are the custom- 
house, two churches, and the houses occupying the main street. 
Most of the buildings are of one story, and are built of adobes or 
sun-dried brick. The walls of the buildings are from four to six feet 
thick. The reason for this mode of building is the frequent occur- 
rence of earthquakes. The streets are well paved. The Plaza has 
not much to recommend it. The Government House is an inferior 
building. Great improvements are now making, and many buildings 
putting up. 

They are about bringing water from one of the neighbouring 
springs on the hill, which, if the supply is sufficient, will give the 
town many comforts. On the hills are many neat and comfortable 
dwellings, surrounded by flower-gardens. These are chiefly occupied 
by the families of American and English merchants. This is the 
most pleasant part of the town, and enjoys a beautiful view of the 
harbour. The ascent to it is made quite easy by a well-constructed 
road through a ravine. The height is two hundred and ten feet 
above the sea. The east end of the Almendral is also occupied by 
the wealthy citizens. The lower classes live in the ravines. Many 
of their habitations are scarcely sufficient to keep them dry during 
the rainy season. They are built of reeds, plastered with mud, and 
are thatched with straw. They are seldom of more than one apart- 
ment. 

The well-known hills to the south of the port, called the " Main 
and Fore Top," are the principal localities of the grog-shops and 
their customers. These two hills, and the gorge {quebrada) between 
them, seem to contain a large proportion of the worthless population 
of both sexes. The females, remarkable for their black eyes and red 
"bayettas," are an annoyance to the authorities, the trade, and com- 
manders of vessels, and equally so to the poor sailors, who seldom 
leave this port without empty pockets and injured health. 

It was difficult to realize the improvement and change that had 
taken place in the habits of the people, and the advancement in civil 
order and civilization. On my former visit there was no sort of 
order, regulation, or any thing that had a tendency to good govern- 
ment. Robbery, murder, and vices of all kinds were openly 
committed. 

The exercise of arbitrary military power alone existed. Not only 
with the natives, but among foreigners, gambling and knavery of the 



172 CHILI. 

lowest order, and all the demoralizing effects that accompany them, 
prevailed. Every body engaged in trade was found more or less to 
recognise the system of fraud and deceit that had become the order 
of the day. The demoralizing influence of smuggling, and bribery 
in open day, without disguise, with the knowledge and connivance of 
the higher authorities, whose duty it was to apply the corrective, 
naturally brought about this state of things, and the inference was 
drawn, true or false, that they participated in the profits accruing 
from such transactions. 

I myself saw on my former visit several dead bodies exposed in the 
public squares, victims of the cuchillo. This was the result of a 
night's debauch, and the fracas attendant upon it. 

No other punishment awaited the culprits than the remorse of 
their own conscience. 

Now, Valparaiso, and indeed all Chili, shows a great change for 
the better; order reigns throughout; crime is rarely heard of, and 
never goes unpunished ; good order and decorum prevail outwardly 
every where ; that engine of good government, an active and efficient 
police, has been established. It is admirably regulated, and brought 
fully into action, not only for the protection of life and property, but 
in adding to the comforts of the inhabitants. 

There is no country that more strongly bears the impress of the 
working of a master spirit, in conjunction with a desire on the part 
of the people to maintain order by good government, than Chili. 

The civil power has now complete ascendency over the military, 
which had so long ruled Chili with despotic sway. The breaking 
down of the latter was the first step to the establishment of good 
order, and removed the spirit of disorganization that a military 
ascendency was for ever producing. Revolution had become another 
word in the army for promotion, for with it, every officer usually 
obtained a grade. Each officer was ever ready to seek self-aggran- 
dizement, whenever he could create a party in his favour; and no 
opportunity was lost in bringing about dissatisfaction at the mode in 
which the existing government conducted affairs. 

The predominant trait of the Chilians, when compared with other 
South Americans, is their love of country and attachment to their 
homes. This feeling is common to all classes. There is also a great 
feeling of independence and equality. Public opinion has weight in 
directing the affairs of state. The people are fond of agricultural 
pursuits, and the lower orders much better disposed towards foreigners 



CHILI. 173 

than in other parts. Schools and colleges have been established, and 
a desire to extend the benefits of education throughout the population 
is evinced. This has been of late one of the constant aims of 
government. 

The credit of forming this police is given to Portales. It con- 
sists of two distinct bodies, one mounted, the other on foot. The 
watchmen carry swords only. The former patrol the streets on 
horseback, while the latter take their particular walk round a square 
or two, for which they are responsible. A message may be sent 
through them to the farthest end of the city, and an answer returned, 
in fifteen minutes. They carry a loud and shrill whistle, the sounds 
of which are varied as occasion requires, and by it a concentration of 
force can be effected in a few moments. The notes of the whistle 
when all is well, are 




When they cry the hour they all sing the same tune, but the pitch 
is ranged in accordance with the scope of the voice. The manner of 
singing the hour is pleasing, thus : 



! P =r:= F 



Viva Chi - li, Viva Chi - li, las diez and - a y se - re - na. 

In the morning they add to it a prayer, as Ave Maria-purissima las 
cinco ij media. The music does not differ from the night-song, but 
has the few additional notes that are necessary. This police adds 
greatly to the comfort as well as to the safety of the inhabitants. To 
give an instance of its effects, apothecaries are chosen weekly to keep 
their shops open all night, and in case of sickness or requiring any 
aid, one has only to call for the vigilante, who takes the recipe and 
passes it to the next, and so on to the shop, where it is obtained, and 
returned as soon as possible, without any trouble whatever. They 
have their particular rounds, and each door is obliged to have a pad- 
lock. If any door is found without it, they put a lock on, for which 
the owner has to pay a fine of four dollars to the city to have it 
removed ; half is the reward of the vigilante. 

A complaint during our stay was made by one of the officers, of 
exactions made by a policeman. It was instantly taken notice of 
and punished. It is to be regretted that this police should still wear 
vol. i. 44 



174 CHILI. 

the military uniform, as it seems unbecoming in a republican form of 
government ; at least we thought so. 

The shops are well filled with almost all articles of English, 
American and French manufacture. The markets are well supplied. 
There are no market-gardens in the neighbourhood of Valparaiso, 
and nearly all the vegetables are brought from the valley of Quillota, 
about sixteen miles distant, on the backs of mules in panniers. The 
mode of bringing grass or clover to market is peculiar, it at times 
almost covers both horse and rider. The supplies are abundant and 
of excellent quality, consisting of all kinds of fruits and vegetables, 
&c. The prices vary but little from those at home; beef, for 
instance, costs six and a half cents per pound. 

There are but few amusements. Among them is a theatre, which 
is small and inconvenient, and the chingano, both of which are 
usually open on a Sunday evening. 

The Chilians are extremely fond of the dance called the sama- 
cueca. This may be called the national dance, and is in vo<me 
among the common people. It is usually performed at the chingano, 
which is a kind of amphitheatre surrounded by apartments where 
refreshments, including strong drinks, are sold, and is generally well 
filled by both sexes. The dance is performed on a kind, of stao-e under 
an open shed. The music is a mixture of Spanish and Indian, and is 
performed altogether by females, on an old-fashioned long and narrow 
harp, one end of which rests on the lap of the performer, and the other 
on the stage, ten feet off. A second girl is seen merrily beating time 
on the sounding-board of the instrument. On the right is another, 
strumming the common chords on a wire-string guitar or kitty, 
making, at every vibration of the right hand, a full sweep across all 
the strings, and varying the chords. In addition to this, they sang a 
national love-song in Spanish at the top of their voices, one singing a 
kind of alto, the whole producing a very strange combination of sounds. 

The dance is performed by a young man and woman ; the former 
is gaudily decked in a light scarlet jacket, embroidered with gold 
lace, white pantaloons, red sash and pumps, with a tiny red cap ; 
whilst that of his partner consists of a gaudy painted muslin dress, 
quite short and stiffly starched, not a little aided by an ample pair of 
hips; thrown over all is a rich-coloured French shawl; these, with 
well fitted silk stockings, complete her attire. These last are in truth 
characteristic of the Chilian women of all classes, and they take no 
pains to conceal them. One not unfrequently sees the extravagance 



CHILI. 175 

of silk stockings in the washerwomen at their tubs, and even with 
their hands in the suds. The dress in general tits neatly, and nature 
is not distorted by tight lacing, or the wearing of corsets. Nothing 
is worn on the head, and the hair parted and equally divided from 
the forehead back to the neck, hangs down in two long plaits on each 
shoulder to the waist. 

The style of dancing is somewhat like a fandango. The couple 
begin by facing each other and flirting handkerchiefs over each 
other's heads; then approaching, slowly retreating again, then quickly 
shooting off to one side, passing under arms without touching, with 
great agility, rattling and beating time with castanets. Their move- 
ments are quite graceful ; that of their feet pretty, and withal quite 
amorous: the gestures may be readily understood, not only by the 
native audience, but by foreigners. 1 cannot say much for its moral 
tendency. 

The hicrher classes of females have the name of beiiw virtuous and 
estimable in their domestic circle, but we cannot say that they are 
beautiful. They dress their hair with great care and taste. Their 
feet are small, and they have a graceful carriage. 

The French fashion of dress prevails, and they are just beginning 
to wear bonnets. The advancement of civilization is rapid ; the imi- 
tation of foreign habits and customs will soon predominate over those 
of Chili, and what is of more consequence, some attention is being 
paid to their education. 

A rather singular occurrence took place at a review of the militia 
on the Plaiancia, one Sunday, by the President, who was attended by 
his daughter and a number of the most respectable ladies of the place. 
They marched down the line, and afterwards danced with the officers 
on the field in the presence of the soldiers. All the South Americans 
are inveterate dancers, the Chilians taking the lead. The taste for 
music is general, but although they have a number of national airs, 
few have been printed. All the printed music in common use is 
foreign, as are the instruments. Pianos are to be seen in almost 
every house. 

The natives have a fondness for flowers, although they are but little 
cultivated. Few gardens are yet to be seen of any consequence. 
They require constant irrigation the most of the year, which may 
account for this want. There are two in the Almendral, surrounded 
by high walls, and kept in tolerable order, and great attention is paid 
in them to foreign plants. 

We happened to be at Valparaiso during the President's visit, 



176 CHILI. 

which, connected with the late victory and successes in Peru, caused 
much rejoicing, and every possible attention was shown to the Chief 
Magistrate, both by natives and foreigners. Among others, he was 
taken on an aquatic excursion on board of a small brigantine, decked 
out with the flags of all nations, and was accompanied by the civil 
authorities of Valparaiso, the English admiral, and others. On pass- 
ing the men-of-war he received the customary salutes from all but 
ourselves. We could not fire salutes on account of our chronometers. 
On his passing, however, the rigging was manned, and we gave him 
several hearty cheers, which, it was said, much delighted the Presi- 
dent and his suite, from the novelty of the compliment. 

Three balls were given during the stay of the squadron here, in 
consequence of the visit of the President (General Prieto); one in 
honour of the recent victory of Yungai over the Peruvians ; the others 
by the citizens and foreigners to his Excellency. As the former was 
an extraordinary occasion, a description of it will give some insight 
into the manner in which they conduct these affairs in Chili. All 
three were managed in a manner that would have been highly cre- 
ditable in any part of the world. 

The place selected for the great ball was between the walls of two 
large unfinished storehouses, a space of one hundred and fifty feet long 
by ninety wide, over which temporary arches were built, the whole 
covered with an awning lined with blue, and studded with stars, from 
which were suspended some twenty very handsome chandeliers. The 
whole was carpeted, while the various pillars which supported the roof 
were decorated with emblems of the victory and nation. At the end 
opposite to the entrance was a transparency of General Bulnes, the 
hero of Yungai, surrounded with scrolls of his deeds. Along the 
corridors which the piazzas formed, ranges of sofas and seats were 
placed; on the walls were hung rich mirrors and paintings: the 
former rested on massive pier tables, in which hundreds of lights 
were seen reflected, whilst the graceful festoons of the national flags 
and pennants formed into draperies, intermixed with wreaths of 
flowers and evergreens m endless variety, encircling emblematic 
designs of the nation's glory, produced an effect not easily surpassed. 
The reception-room of the President was hung with scarlet tapestry, 
decorated with paintings, mirrors, and pier tables, and brilliantly 
lighted with chandeliers, &,c. 

There were likewise card-rooms, smoking-rooms, supper-rooms, 
and a dressing-room for the ladies, in which were a number of hair- 
dressers and mantua-makers constantly in attendance. The whole 



C H I L I. 



177 



was well got up, unique, and truly splendid ; all Valparaiso had sent 
furniture of every kind, and even the churches had contributed to 
assist in the great gala fete in commemoration of the national victory. 

The company consisted of about five hundred, one-third of whom 
were females. Many costly uniforms, of various patterns, and not a 
little fanciful, added to the brilliancy of the scene. 

About ten o'clock the ball was opened by the President, Don Joaquim 
Prieto, in person, a novel sight to us. He was dressed in a richly em- 
broidered coat, gold epaulettes, and field-marshal's sash. He danced 
a minuet with a lady of Valparaiso, whom he had especially selected, 
after which the dancing became general, consisting of quadrilles, 
country-dances, and waltzes, besides which they had the lascivious 
dances of samacueca, cachucha, and lordean. These partake some- 
what of the bolero and fandango, or Spanish and African dance. 

By way of interlude, marches and national airs were played and 
sung. The ball did not break up until eight o'clock next morning, 
at which hour the President and his daughter were escorted home by 
a procession of the dancers, with the music playing national airs, 
forming rather a grotesque show to the bystanders, from the inter- 
change of hats and outer garments that had taken place. 

On reaching General Prieto' s quarters they sang a national hymn, 
after which many were invited in, where they again continued 
dancing until noon. 

I should not omit to mention that after midnight the ladies under- 
went a second operation of the toilet. 

The whole equalled, if it did not surpass, any of our own fetes at 
home ; indeed all who attended were much surprised, having little 
idea that Valparaiso could have made so brilliant and tasteful a 
display of beauty and magnificence. 




:^s%^ 



TAKING GRASS TO MARKET. 

A7i 



CHAPTER X. 



CONTENTS. 

JOURNEY INTO THE INTERIOR— BrLOCHES— TRAVELLING— CASA BLANCA —GEOLOGICAL 
FORMATION— CURACOVI— HEATH ABOVE THE SEA— CUESTA DE ZAPATA — GUEST A DEL 
PRADA— ROADS— TRANSPORTATION OF GOODS— BEGGARS-PLAIN OF MAYPO— CORDILLE- 
RAS— ST. JAGO — MINT — LIBRARY — AMUSEMENTS — FASHIONS — MARKET — CLIMATE — 
EXCURSION TO THE CORDILLERAS— MOUNTAIN SCENERY-SNOW— GU AN ACOES— HEAT- 
RETURN TO ST. JAGO— MAYPOCHO— JOURNEY TO SAN FELIPE— QUILLOTA— TUPONGATI 
PEAK— DIKES — EVANGELISTO CELIDONO — FARM-HOUSE — CATCHING WILD HORSES — 
RANCHO— ENTERTAINMENT— ARRIVAL AT SAN FELIPE DE ACONCAGUA— MR. NEWMANS- 
MR. CHASE— TOWN OF SAN FELIPE— CHICHA AND AGUARDIENTE— THEIR MANUFACTURE 
-AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS-VISIT THE COPPER MINES-MODES OF WORKING THEM— 
THEIR SITUATION— TRANSPORTATION OF ORES— WAGES— TEMPERANCE REGULATIONS- 
LAKE ON THE HIGH CORDILLERAS— COPPER ORES-RETURN TO SAN FELIPE-KINDNESS 
OF MR. NEWMAN AND LADY— CELIDONO— QUILLOTA— RETURN TO VALPARAISO— EARTH- 
QUAKES— PROTESTANT CHURCH— LIBERALITY OF PRIESTHOOD— ORACION— COMMERCE- 
EXPORTS— IMPORTS— FOREIGN VESSELS— POPULATION— COLLEGES— CONGRESS— IMPROVE- 
MENTS IN PROGRESS— REVENUE— NATIONAL DEBT— CLIMATE— FRUITS— ADMINISTRATION 
— EXECUTIVE — SENATE — HOUSE OF DEPUTIES— MILITIA— ARMY— NAVY— G. G. HOBSON, 
ESQ., U. S. CONSUL — LIEUTENANT CRAVEN — HIS GALLANT CONDUCT— CAPTAIN ISAAC 
M'KEEVER— U. S. SHIP FALMOUTH— FLYING-FISH— GALE— SEA GULL LAST SEEN— HER LOSS 
—PASSED MIDSHIPMAN JAMES W. E. REID— PASSED MIDSHIPMAN FREDERICK A. BACON- 
ADMINISTRATION OF GOVERNMENT OF CHILI. 



CHAPTER X. 

C H I L I — C O N T I N U E D. 
18 39. 

Previous to my arrival at Valparaiso, the naturalists and some 
officers on board the Peacock and Relief had made excursions into 
the interior. On my arrival I allowed all those who could be spared, 
and were desirous of visiting Santiago, sufficient leave to make the 
trip. Several set out for that city, and some with a view of making 
the trip to the Cordilleras beyond. 

The bilocheros were eager for opportunities to hire their biloches, 
a vehicle somewhat resembling a double gig, which is generally used 
for travelling in Chili. They have a most rickety and worn out 
appearance ; almost every part appears mended with cords made of 
hide. They accommodate two passengers, and the time required 
between Valparaiso and the city (Santiago), is about eighteen or 
twenty hours. In the shafts a horse is put ; a postilion rides another 
on the left, and sometimes another is 'placed on the right, both being 
fastened to the vehicle by lassos of raw-hide proceeding from the 
saddle. Each vehicle is attended by three bilocheros or drivers, with 
a drove of twelve or fifteen horses, forming quite a cavalcade. 

The bilocheros are very expert at their business. They are excel- 
lent riders, having been brought up to this exercise from their infancy, 
and understand managing their horses, though in a rude way. Their 
horses are small, but spirited, and bear fatigue well. Their usual 
speed is about nine or ten miles an hour. Few equipages can com- 
pare with these crazy machines, driven, as they sometimes are, pell- 
mell up hill and down dale, with all their accompaniments of horses, 
Guachos, &c. ; and it affords no small amusement to those on foot, 
to witness the consternation of the affrighted passengers, in momen- 

vol. i. 46 



1S2 CHILI. 



tary expectation of a break down, and a broken neck or limbs. It is 
a difficult matter to acquire composure, on seeing the numerous 
temporary lashings, giving ocular proof that accidents have been 
frequent, however well satisfied one may be with the skill of the 
conductor. Fortunately the road is excellent, though at this season 
(May) it is divested of much of its beauty from the want of vegetation. 
The interest is, however, carried forward to the lofty peaks of the 
Andes, of whose summits occasional glimpses are had; and the eye 
glances over the surrounding scenery in the immediate neighbour- 
hood, that would elsewhere be deemed grand, to rest on some high 
and towering peak. Among these the peak of Tupongati is the most 
noted, ranking, since the measurement of King, as next in height to 
the Himmaleh mountains. 

The first stopping-place is at Casa Blanca, a small pueblo of some 
five hundred inhabitants, where travellers usually sleep. The ac- 
commodations were good, having been recently much improved. In 
the neighbourhood is the only tract of woodland to be found in this 
part of the country. The elevation of Casa Blanca, about thirty miles 
from Valparaiso, is five hundred and ninety-eight feet above the level 
of the sea. The primitive district extends about fifty miles from the 
coast, and of course is found here. It is composed chiefly of gneiss, 
which is generally easily decomposed. The mountains, in "conse- 
quence, are not rugged, but of an easy ascent, and mural precipices 
are not met with. The gneiss was in some places observed to 
pass into hornblende rock, resembling the trachytic or igneous green 
stone. It contains abundance of diffused epidote, and among the 
minerals schorl was observed, but no garnets were found. 

The road from Casa Blanca next passes through Curacovi, a small 
pueblo, three hundred and forty-four feet above the level of the 
sea, where the trap rock first makes its appearance, and then 
over a high ridge called the Cuesta de Zapata. This terminates the 
first plain, and divides it from the second, of similar character, which 
extends to the Cuesta del Prado. It is passed over by a zigzag road, 
and was found to be two thousand three hundred and ninety-four feet 
high. On reaching the top the view that presents itself is extensive 
and magnificent. 

In front is the extensive plain of Maypo, with here and there a 
conical mountain standing alone on it. At the extremity of the plain 
rise the lofty peaks of the Andes, covered with eternal snow, some 
reaching above the clouds. They appear but a few hours' ride off 



CHILI. 183 







although at a distance of twenty leagues. On either side rise the 
high ridges of the Cuesta. Beneath lie grazing grounds, extending 
over the plain, and covered with flocks and herds. Life and anima- 
tion is given to the whole by the view of the national road, on which 
are seen numbers of vehicles, mules, &c, threading their way up and 
down the mountain-side, charged with foreign and domestic pro- 
ducts. This is the only road of any extent for wheel-carriages in the 
country. It is kept in good repair by convicts, who are seen working 
in chains. A moveable prison or lock-up house, somewhat resembling 
the cages used in caravans of wild beasts, is used for their accommo- 
dation and security at night. 

The heavy merchandise is for the most part transported in ox carts 
of enormous dimensions. Their wheels are clumsy and without 
tires, and the whole frame is made strongly with timber pinned 
together. Their perpendicular sides and rounded tops are wattled 
with cane and covered with bull's-hide. No iron is used in their 
structure ; wooden pins and raw-hide lashings seem to answer the 
purpose better. The yoke is set on the heads of the oxen, behind the 
horns, and fastened, to them. The creaking of these carts may be 
heard for miles, as they never think of greasing the axles to lessen 
the friction. They are generally drawn by four or eight oxen. The 
wood-cut, at the end of this chapter, from a sketch taken by Mr. 
Drayton, will complete the description. 



184 CHILI. 



Lighter articles are transported by mules, and immense numbers 
of these animals are seen on the road at all times. 

The mode of changing horses is truly characteristic of the country. 
The relays are made as soon as the shaft-horse tires ; he is quickly 
taken out, and one of the drove caught with a lasso, and put in his 
place, when on they go. These relays occur every eight or ten miles ; 
the only relief the poor horses have is a trot out of harness, and without 
a load. The bilocheros seldom dismount; all is done on horseback. 
On going up hill, a third or even a fourth horse is soon hitched to the 
vehicle to assist the draught, The horses are all in good condition, 
and it is not a little remarkable that they should be so, for I understood 
that their only food at this season was chopped straw. The teamsters 
and Guachos themselves are equally abstemious. They live mostly 
upon bread and their favourite chicha, which is made from the grape, 
and resembles cider; but after it has passed through a fermentation it 
is quite intoxicating. The mud huts or ranchos, on the road side, are 
filled with happy and contented faces. 

Begging is common on the road to the city, and is quite a business. 
The beggars let themselves to the highest bidders, and value them- 
selves according to their deformities. At Valparaiso two days are 
allowed in each week for begging. 




peasant's noirsK. 



The plain of Maypo, which reaches to the foot of the Cuesta del 
Prada, is extremely level, and is almost thirty miles in width, 
extending to the foot of the Cordilleras. The road leads nearly in a 
straight line over it to the city of Santiago, which is situated on the 
eastern side of the plain. 

The elevation of Santiago above the sea is fifteen hundred and 
ninety-one feet, upon the third step or plain from the coast. Its 
entrance is through avenues bounded by high adobe walls, which 
shut out ail the view, except the Cordilleras, which tower above and 
beyond it. 

The more the Cordilleras are viewed the greater appears their 
attraction. They have at all times an imposing aspect from the 



CHILL 18 g 

neighbourhood of the city. Their irregular and jagged outline is 
constantly varying under the effects of light and shade. The rays of 
the setting sun, with the deepening shadows, throw the innumerable 
peaks into bold relief, and at times produce yellow and red tints, which 
give a remarkable character to the whole scene. The red tints are 
often accompanied with a green hue in the sky. The city is sur- 
rounded by many fine orchards, gardens, farms and grazing grounds. 
The former being enclosed by high adobe walls, give it a rather 
unpleasant appearance, until the city is fairly entered, when the 
streets have a fresh and clean look. The city is laid out in squares. 
Its streets are well paved, and have good sidewalks. This fresh 
and clean appearance, we afterwards understood was owing to a 
law, obliging all to whitewash their houses and walls once a year, a 
practice which gives a general uniformity, at least in colour, to the 
whole, and forms an agreeable contrast with the red tiled roofs. The 
houses are mostly of one story, built in the form of a hollow square, 
from twenty to forty feet wide, round which the rooms are situated. 
The roof projects so as to form a kind of piazza or covered way. The 
gatew T ay is usually large, and the rooms on each side of it are not 
connected with the rest of the building, but are rented as shops. 
Opposite to the gateway is the centre window, guarded by a light 
and ornamental iron frame, painted green or richly gilt. The court- 
yard is usually neatly paved with small rounded pebbles from the bed 
of the Maypocho, arranged in fanciful forms, but in many cases they 
are laid out in flow T er-gardens, where roses and geraniums are seen in 
full bloom. 

The river Maypocho runs through one portion of the city, and 
supplies it with water, which is conducted through all the principal 
streets, assisting much in preserving their cleanliness, though not 
sufficient to supersede the necessity of scavengers. In the centre of 
the city is the great Plaza, where the public buildings are situated. 
They are built of a coarse kind of porphyry, obtained from the moun- 
tains, and are on a large scale. The cathedral and palace each occupy 
one side ; in the centre is a fountain, with several statues of Italian 
marble, but which is entirely too small to have any effect in so large 
a square. All these buildings are much out of repair, having been at 
various times damaged by earthquakes. 

The cathedral is very large and extensive. Its altar is decked with 
a great quantity of gold and silver. There are many paintings and 
hangings, among which is a large number of trophies, which have 
been taken in their various wars, and are here preserved. The niches 

vot,, i. 47 



186 CHILI. 



are filled with wax figures representing saints, and there are also the 
remains of two martyrs of the church, in a tolerably good state of 
preservation. 

The palace was originally built for the Viceroy. It is now 
appropriated to the accommodation of the President, and the public 
offices. On the side opposite to the palace is a colonnade, which is 
not yet finished, and will occupy the whole side of the square. 
Under its portico are fancy and dry goods shops, and between the 
columns various trades, or lace and fringe-makers are at work. In 
the evening this becomes a most busy scene. Females, with large 
flat baskets before them, are vending shoes, fruit, and fancy articles ; 
others are employed in cooking cakes, and the whole lighted up as it 
is with numerous candles, affords much amusement to the stranger, 
besides giving him an opportunity to see a large number of the 
inhabitants. The greater part of those present are females. 

The mint occupies a whole square; it has never yet been com- 
pleted, and has also suffered greatly from earthquakes. The operation 
of coining is in the rudest and oldest form, the same as practised in 
Europe in the last century. The rolling and cutting are done by 
mule power, and the oldest kind of fly-press, with a great screw 
beam, having enormous balls at the end, is used. The dies they use 
are made from the male die, in the same way as with us, but they 
have not the same facility, and want the modern improvements in the 
process. A toggle-jointed press was imported from France, but it 
was soon put out of order by the workmen, and there being no one 
to repair it, its use has been abandoned. 

The library is extensive, containing several thousand volumes 
which formerly belonged to the Jesuits, and many curious manu- 
scripts relating to the Indians. 

For amusements they are not very remarkable. They, however, 
boast of a theatre, and a chingano. There appears to be little 
business doing, and Santiago may be called a quiet city. The siesta 
is daily indulged in; even the shops were shut in the afternoon, and 
the city is as quiet as midnight. Towards the cool of the evenino- 
the Alameda is resorted to. It is a beautiful walk, about a mile fn 
extent, well shaded, and occupies one bank of the river. It is planted 
with a double row of poplar trees, which seem to thrive well here. 
Streams of water are constantly running on each side of the walk. 
Every few yards stone seats are placed, which are at times filled 
with a well-dressed population. The Alameda affords at all times a 
cool and pleasant promenade. 



C II I L I. 



187 



The evenings are generally passed at tertulias, in visiting socially, 
or in shopping in the colonnade. The inhabitants are much addicted 
to gambling. Monte is the game with the higher classes, whilst that 
of match-penny is the favourite of the lower orders. The Chilian 
ladies are remarkable for their ease of manner, kindness, and attention 
to strangers. They are fond of diversions of any kind, but more 
particularly those of dancing and music, both of which are much 
practised. They seem extravagantly fond of music. Dancing they 
are taught very young. Most of them have good figures, and some 
would be called quite pretty, but their teeth are generally defective, 
which causes them soon to look old. Their costume varies little from 
our own, except that the ladies wear no bonnets. 

The gentlemen follow the European fashions. 

The dress of the lower order is a mixture of Spanish and Indian. 
They are fond of bright colours. Over their shirt and trousers is 
worn a blue or brown poncha. A high-crowned and small-rimmed 
hat, tied on under the chin, over a bright cotton handkerchief on the 
head, completes their outfit. They are a well-disposed people, and 
good citizens, and have more the air of contentment than any other 
nation of South America, 




The markets are well supplied. There is one large one near the 
banks of the Maypocho. It covers an area of four or five acres, and 



188 CHILL 

is surrounded by a low building, with a tile roof, supported by 
columns, under which meats of all kinds are sold. The centre is 
reserved for vegetables, fruits, flowers, poultry, and small wares. 
The market-women are seen seated under awnings, screens, and 
large umbrellas, which are used to keep off the sun. 

The whole is kept quite clean and has a pretty effect. Fruit and 
vegetables are abundant and cheap. They are of excellent quality. 
The grapes and peaches are of the finest kind; apples are also 
plenty, but no care appears to have been taken to secure the finest 
kinds. Cabbages, beets, potatoes, cauliflower, &c, are all large and 
fine. 

Beef is proverbially fine, and also the mutton ; the prices are six 
and a quarter cents for the former, the latter three cents per pound. 

The average price of a horse is twelve dollars, but some that are 
well broken are valued as high as those in the United States. 

The climate of Chili is justly celebrated throughout the world, and 
that of Santiago is deemed delightful even in Chili; the temperature 
is usually between 60° and 75°. Notwithstanding this, it has its 
faults. It is extremely arid, and were it not for its mountain 
streams, which afford the means of irrigation, the country would be a 
barren waste for two-thirds of the year. Rains fall only during the 
winter months, (June to September,) and after they have occurred, 
the whole country is decked with flowers. The rains often last 
several days, are excessively heavy, and during their continuance the 
rivers become impassable torrents. The temperature near the coast 
does not descend below 58°. The mean temperature, deduced from 
the register kept at Valparaiso, gave 63°. At Santiago the climate 
is drier and colder, but snow rarely falls. On the ascent of the 
Cordilleras the aridity increases with the cold. The snow was found 
much in the same state as at Terra del Fuego, lying in patches about 
the summits. Even the high peak of Tupongati was bare in places, 
and to judge from appearances, it seldom rains in the highest regions 
of the Cordilleras, to which cause may be imputed the absence of 
glaciers. 

Several of our gentlemen made an excursion to the Cordilleras, in 
order to get information in their various departments. I regretted 
they were not provided with the necessary instruments for ascertain- 
ing heights. The party left Santiago in biloches, and travelled 
to the eastward five leagues to the " Snow Bank" from which the 
city is supplied. The ascent was gradual, but quite constant, as no 
intervening ravines occurred. They then took horses, leaving their 



CHILI. 189 

biloches to return. Their route after this lay up a valley. On the 
surrounding heights the guanacoes were seen in great numbers. On 
reaching the head of the valley, one of the party became so unwell 
that he was unable to proceed, and was obliged to return. 

Dr. Pickering, Messrs. Dana, Peale, and Drayton, went on. As 
they proceeded they found the middle region was marked by 
spiny plants, principally Burnadesia. The soil was found to be a 
mixture of loose earth and pieces of rock. On rising higher the 
vegetation became almost wholly extinct. Places occurred of an 
eighth of a mile in breadth, destitute of verdure of any kind. The 
party then ascended a ridge belonging to the main body of the 
Cordilleras, and at an elevation of about ten thousand feet, they 
reached its summit. Here they had an extensive view of all the 
line of the snow peaks. That of Tupongati appeared the most 
conspicuous, although at a distance of eighty miles. The guide 
asserted that he could see smoke issuing from its volcano in a faint 
streak, but it was beyond the vision of our gentlemen. The peak 
itself from this view of it was quite sharp-pointed. The scene 
immediately around them was one of great grandeur and desolation : 
mountain after mountain, separated by immense chasms to the depth 
of thousands of feet, and the sides broken in the most fantastic forms 
imaginable. In these higher parts of the Cordilleras they found a 
large admixture of the jaspery aluminous rock, which forms the 
base of the finest porphyries; also chlorite, in abundance. The 
rock likewise contains fine white chalcedony in irregular straggling 
masses. Trachytic breccia was observed in various places. The 
porphyry is of a dull purple colour, rather lighter than the red sand- 
stone of the United States. No traces of cellular lava were seen, nor 
of other more recent volcanic productions. No limestone was seen 
in the regions traversed by our parties; all the lime used at Santiago is 
obtained from sea-shells ; nor were any proper sedimentary rocks seen. 

Nothing could be more striking than the complete silence that 
reigned every where ; not a living thing appeared to their view. 

After spending some time on the top they began their descent, and 
after two hours' hard travelling they reached the snow line, and 
passed the night very comfortably in the open air, with their blankets 
and pillions, or saddle-cloths. Fuel for a fire they unexpectedly 
found in abundance: the Alpinia umbellifera answering admirably 
for that purpose, from the quantity of resinous matter it contains. 
Near their camp was the bank of snow before spoken of, from which 

vol. i. 48 



190 CHILL 

the city has been supplied for many years. It covers several acres. 
The snow line here seemed to have remained constant, and would 
have afforded a fine opportunity to have verified the rule of Hum- 
boldt, but they had no instruments. The height they had ascended 
was supposed to have been about eleven thousand feet, and the Cor- 
dilleras opposite them about four thousand feet higher. The view of 
the mass of the Cordilleras, in its general outline, was not unlike those 
of Mont Blanc and other mountains in Switzerland. 

Mr. Peale went in search of the guanacoes, and succeeded in 
killing one nine feet in length and four feet in height. They were 
found to frequent only the most inaccessible summits, and are said 
never to leave the vicinity of the snow. They feed upon several 
small thorny bushes, which impart a flavour to their flesh, and a 
smell to their excrement that may be distinguished at some distance 
from their places of resort. They make a peculiar sound when 
alarmed, like that of the katydid, (Gryllus.) This animal is never 
hunted for the market, though its flesh is good. The Benzoar is 
often found in its stomach, and is highly prized among the natives and 
Spaniards as a remedy for various complaints. It is also used as a gum. 

All the party suffered greatly from the heat of the sun's rays, and 
the dryness of the atmosphere. Their faces and hands were blistered, 
and the nose and lips made exceedingly sore, while the reflection 
of the light from the snow caused a painful sensation to the eyes. 

The next day they reached Santiago, whence they returned to the 
Port, as Valparaiso is usually distinguished in the country. 

Over the Maypocho at Santiago there is a substantial stone bridge, 
with five arches. For nine months of almost every year, the bed°of 
the stream is nearly dry. At the time of our visit it was about 
two yards wide and several inches deep; but in the winter and 
spring, during the melting of the snows, it becomes quite a torrent, 
and from the damage that has been done in former times, they have 
taken the precaution to wall it in on the side of the city, towards the 
Cordilleras, for several miles, with stone and hard brick. When 
swollen it is a quarter of a mile wide, rapid and deep, and would cut 
off the communication with the surrounding country were it not for 
the bridge. 

Messrs. Couthouy and Dana were desirous of making a trip to the 
copper mines of San Felipe, to which I readily consented, and gave 
them all the time possible. Although this was short, yet by their 
indefatigable industry it afforded some interesting results. They 



CHILI. 191 

left Valparaiso on the 1 7th for San Felipe, which is about one 
hundred miles north of Valparaiso. They were to have taken a 
barometer with them in case of ascending some heights, but it was 
forgotten. 

These gentlemen took a biloche as far as Quillota, a distance of 
forty miles, and proceeded thence to San Felipe on horses, for the 
use of which they were to give thirty dollars each, and one dollar 
extra for the service of the peon who accompanied them for seven 
days. The road to Quillota was found good, although many hills 
and valleys were met with. 

For the first twenty-five miles the road passed along the sea-shore, 
with no elevation over two hundred feet ; it was thought equal to the 
most frequented turnpikes in our own country. At six miles from 
Valparaiso, the road is cut through a bed of sienite, remarkable for 
the singular vertical dikes of granite by which it is intersected. As 
this curious formation will be ably treated of in the Geological Report, 
I shall referthe reader to that for a description. 

Ten miles from Valparaiso, the valley of Villa del Mar, having a 
breadth of nearly three miles, is crossed. This is a sandy plain, 
through which a broad shallow stream, coming from the eastern hills, 
runs. At twenty-five miles they reached the broad valley of Concon. 
Here the road turns to the eastward. This valley varies in width 
from three to six miles. The character of the rocks is granitic, and 
they appear to decompose rapidly when exposed to the air. Sienite 
was frequent, and on approaching the mountains, numerous varieties 
of trap formation, greenstone, porphyry, &c, were met with. 

Ten miles before reaching Quillota, the road passes over a level 
plain, which extends beyond that place. The hills which bound the 
valley to the south, are of low elevation until approaching Quillota. 
Near Quillota, in the south and southeastern direction, a lofty ridge 
rises, adjoining the campagna of Quillota, which is one of the high 
cones used as sea-marks for the harbour of Valparaiso. This is lost 
sight of at the town in consequence of it being shut out by an 
intervening ridge. The town, or city of Quillota, occupies the 
centre of the valley, and is twenty miles from the sea. They 
reached it about one hour before sunset, when they stopped at Mr. 
Blanchard's, who keeps a house for the accommodation of foreigners. 

On the 18th they arose at daybreak, at which time the thermo- 
meter stood at 36° in the open air, seventy feet above the sea. 

The town of Quillota, (according to Mr. Blanchard,) is embraced 



192 CHILI. 

within a circumference of three leagues. It contains several churches, 
of simple construction. The " Calle Largo," the longest street, is 
upwards of a league in length. The same authority gave its popula- 
tion at ten thousand inhabitants. The houses are all of one story, and 
are built of adobes, with thatched roofs. There is an abundance of 
fine building stone, but in this land of earthquakes, it is considered 
safest to use the lightest materials. Almost every house has a vineyard 
attached to it, the grapes of which were of good quality, and very abun- 
dant. At some places, although the vintage was half gathered, yet 
the crop still on the vines was such as would have been considered 
elsewhere an abundant yield. A portion of the grapes rot upon the 
vines, as the inhabitants have not the industry or inclination to manu- 
facture them, although by proper attention they would yield a good 
wine. As it is, they only manufacture some into a hard and acid wine, 
called Masta, or boil the juice down to the favourite drink of the lower 
classes, called Chicha, which somewhat resembles perry or cider in 
flavour. The small quantity that is not consumed, is distilled into 
•aguardiente, and disposed of at Valparaiso. Besides grapes, con- 
siderable quantities of wheat and Indian corn are cultivated. Apples, 
pears, and quinces, are also raised. The former are inferior to our 
own, the latter much superior, and in great plenty. 

Oranges were also abundant, but of indifferent flavour. 

Quillota is well supplied with water from the river Concon or 
Aconcagua. The water is led through all the streets and gardens of 
the place. It is used for all household purposes, as taken directly 
from the gutters, which are the recipients of dirt of every description 
from the town. For drinking, it is allowed to settle in large jars kept 
for the purpose. 

The intercourse with strangers at Quillota, has been much less 
than at Valparaiso or Santiago, and consequently they are less liberal, 
and more bigoted. This was particularly shown, about four years 
previous to our visit, by their burning in the public square, a large 
number of Bibles in the Spanish language, along with a heap of 
immoral and indecent pamphlets, in the presence of the civil, military, 
and ecclesiastical authorities. These Bibles had been distributed by 
our countryman, Mr. Wheelwright, who has done so much by his 
enterprise in introducing the communication by steam alono- the 
western coast of South America. 

In the morning early, the thermometer stood at 36°. The greatest 
cold is experienced just before sunrise and after sunset. 



CHILI. 193 

On leaving Quillota they passed through the " Calle Largo," and 
took the southern side of the valley, passing along the foot of the 
Mellacca hill, a smooth and rounded elevation, about three hundred 
feet in height, and a mile and a half in circumference. This hill is 
covered with a thin soil, from the decomposition of its own rocks. 
The valley now narrows, and in some places is not over a few hun- 
dred feet in width. At about a league from Quillota, they ascended 
a cuesta of the Quillota ridge, one thousand feet above the plain. 
On its top, they were much gratified with the beautiful prospect. 
The fruitful plain or vega of Aconcagua, varying in width from one 
to six miles, extends to the west some twenty miles to the ocean, and 
is lost in the other direction in the mountains ; it is watered by pure 
streams, and covered with farm-houses and hamlets, surrounded by 
trees and vineyards. To the northeast are the Andes, heaped as it 
were on each other, until the towering and distant peak of Tupon- 
gati, with its giant form, crowns the whole. One feature of the plain 
was peculiar : the mountains seemed to sink into it as if it was the 
ocean itself. In some cases the line was so well defined, that one 
foot could be placed on the plain, and the other on the base of a 
mountain, rising six or seven thousand feet high. The sketch will 
give a better idea of it than any description. The distance of Tupon- 
gati is about forty leagues. 







Captains King and Fitzroy have made the height of this peak 
several hundred feet above Chimborazo. The surrounding moun- 
tains, though from ten to twelve thousand feet high and much nearer, 

vol. i. 49 



194 CHILL 

sink into insignificance when compared with it. Indeed all the 
objects are upon such a grand scale that they fail to excite the notice 
that they would attract if situated elsewhere. On the top of this 
cuesta, Mr. Couthouy obtained, in a torpid state, a small quadruped 
of the size of a mouse, a very interesting specimen of the order 
Marsupia. A description of it, with a spirited drawing by Mr. 
Peale, will be found in the department of Mammalogy. 

The road over the cuesta was narrow, steep, and broken. It de- 
scended into a plain, which was found well cultivated and watered 
by a branch of the Aconcagua. 

The ridges on the northern side of the valley now became more 
lofty and precipitous, exhibiting the columnar structure more dis- 
tinctly. The trap dikes were in some places four feet wide, and in 
one place, where the rock had been cut to form the road, fourteen 
dikes were counted within three hundred feet. On their way up 
the valley the peon's horse gave out, and they were obliged to stop 
and hire another at a farmer's house, who was called Evangelisto 
Celidono. This rancho, twenty feet by ten, was rather better than 
others that were met with, but at the same time bore a strong 
resemblance to them. It was constructed of large adobes, or rather 
blocks of clay, and finished in the inside neatly with the same 
material. It consisted of but one apartment, the floor of which was 
clay. It had a thatched roof, which was open in several places. 
There was no window. The door and the holes in the roof supplied 
all the light. The furniture, if such it could be called, consisted of 
a rude bedstead and an apology for a table at one end; the other 
was divided into three bins, one to contain corn, another beans, and 
the third potatoes, with saddles and various kinds of horse-gear, and 
a bag or two of wheat. On one side was a clay seat, three feet broad 
by six long, and the height of an ordinary seat, whilst from the rafters 
hung in nets a good supply of bread, cheese, and numerous strings of 
onions, garlic, and red Chili peppers. There were besides two chairs 
and a bench. All the cooking is done in a small detached building, 
and a small clay oven in the yard is an accompaniment of every 
rancho. Bread and an abundance of grapes, of which they could not 
eat more than a third, were supplied them for a "medio." The 
second cuesta was shortly afterwards mounted, of about five hundred 
feet elevation, and on the top they were gratified by witnessing the 
mode in which the Chilians capture the wild horses. A party of four 
or five horsemen, with about twenty dogs, were seen formed in an 



CHILI. 195 

extended crescent, driving the wild horses towards the river with 
shouts. All were armed with the lasso, which was swinging over 
their heads, to be in readiness to entrap the first that attempted to 
break through the gradually contracting segment ; the dogs serving 
with the riders to head the horses in. They continued to advance, 
when suddenly a horse with furious speed broke the line, passing 
near one of the horsemen, and for a moment it was thought he had 
escaped, the next he was jerked round with a force that seemed 
sufficient to have broken his neck, the horseman having, the moment 
the lasso was thrown, turned round and braced himself for the shock. 
The captured horse now began to rear and plunge furiously to effect 
his escape. After becoming somewhat worn out, he was suffered to 
run and again suddenly checked. This was repeated several times, 
when another plan was adopted. The dogs were set on him, and off 
he, went at full run, in the direction of another horseman, who threw 
his lasso to entangle his legs and precipitate him to the ground. 
The dogs again roused him, and off he again started, and was in like 
manner brought to a stand ; after several trials he became completely 
exhausted and subdued, when he stood perfectly still and allowed his 
captors to lay hands upon him. The shouts of the men, the barking 
of the dogs, and the scampering of the horses, made the whole scene 
quite exciting. 

Shortly afterwards it was suspected their peon was leading them 
astray ; this was evident by their crossing and recrossing the river, 
and wandering at random on a road which was apparently but little 
travelled. After a toilsome route of three and a half hours they found 
themselves surrounded by many branches of the river, whose banks 
were but a few inches above the water. The peon then acknowledged 
himself bewildered, and that he had missed his way. Crossing the 
streams was attended with some danger, for owing to their rapidity 
and depth they were near sweeping the horses off their legs. Return- 
ing a league or two they fortunately met a muleteer, who put them in 
the road, but their horses were now so exhausted that they were 
compelled to seek lodgings at a rancho. After applying at several 
they succeeded in getting a place to lie in, after making many pro- 
mises of liberal payment. A similar course, notwithstanding a positive 
refusal or denial of having any provisions, procured them a casuela, 
served in a large wooden bowl, with wooden spoons. This is a sort 
of Chilian chowder, with a plentiful supply of garlic, onions, Chili 
pepper, &c, and one of the favourite dishes of the country. In 



196 



CHILI. 



three days' ride they had passed over about sixty miles ; the highest 
temperature experienced was 65J°, the lowest 35|°. At the rancho 
where they stopped for the night, the temperature fell 20£° in three 
hours. 

They passed the night with the usual annoyance in most houses 
in Chili, for fleas were found in great abundance. In the morning 
the temperature was 35j°, and the ground covered with hoar frost. 
The rancho was supposed to be about one hundred feet above the 
level of the sea, The mountains in the immediate neighbourhood 
were from six to seven thousand feet high, exhibiting a gorgeous 
appearance as the sunbeams lighted them up, and at times the 
brilliancy was so great as to dazzle the eye. They left the rancho at 
seven o'clock, and although it was only ten miles distant, they did 
not reach San Felipe before eleven. The road passed over a third 
cuesta, which exhibited a regular columnar structure. The hills 
inclining to the northward open and present to view the broad plain 
of Aconcagua. San Felipe de Aconcagua stands about fifteen 
miles from the foot of the Andes, and the mountains are seen from 
thence in all their grandeur. The peak of Tupongati is, however, 
lost sight of as the town is approached, disappearing behind the 
nearer snowy peaks. This mountain is situated on the dividing or 
eastern ridge of the Cordilleras, and within the United Provinces of 
La Plata. 

On arriving at San Felipe, they proceeded at once to the house of 
Mr. Henry Newman, an English gentleman resident there, and 
engaged in mining operations, to whom they had letters. Mr. 
Newman was not at home, but they were hospitably received by 
his lady, a native of Chili, who treated them with great kindness 
and attention. In the absence of her husband, she made them 
acquainted with an American gentleman, a Mr. Chase, who happened 
to be on a visit there, from Santiago. He had been in Chili since 
the failure of the expedition of Carrera, when he, with several 
of his companions, settled in Chili, and afterwards engaged in 
mining operations. He had several times amassed a large property, 
and as often lost it, by the revolutions that had taken place in the 
country. He is now engaged in working a silver mine, in the 
vicinity of Santiago, and attempting the German process of smelting, 
as there are vast quantities of ore, containing a large per centage of 
silver, which have hitherto been neglected, from the impracticability 
of separating the silver by the usual method. There is now only one 



CHILI. 197 

survivor from among the thirty persons who settled in Chili with Mr. 
Chase. From his operations he expects in a few years to realize 
a large fortune. 

The town of San Felipe is laid out with great regularity, in the 
form of a square, surrounded by extensive alamedas, which are planted 
with Lombardy poplars. Mr. Newman gave the population at from 
twelve to thirteen thousands. In the centre of the town is a large open 
square, one side of which is occupied by the town hall, and offices 
connected with the municipality. Opposite are the church and 
barracks, and the remaining sides are occupied with shops and 
private dwellings. The houses are all of one story, and are in a good 
style of building. The better class of houses stand some distance 
back from the street, and are decorated tastefully with paintings in 
fresco on the walls. Roses and jessamines were seen in every court- 
yard, and the gardens are well filled with various fruits, apples, 
peaches, pears, grapes, pomegranates, oranges, lemons, and quinces ; 
the latter are remarkably fine, and in great plenty. The houses, as 
in other parts of Chili, have no fire-places, in lieu of which they use 
brazeros, or pans of live coal, when they require heat. Mr. Chase 
took them to a friend of his, to see the process of manufacturing the 
acida and aquadiente of the country. The whole process is carried 
on in a large court behind the house. The grapes are brought in 
large baskets, or on hand-barrows, made with poles and raw hide, 
and are emptied in heaps, under an open shed. Here several small 
boards are placed, on which the grapes are laid by the men, who 
separate them from the stalks, by rolling them rapidly in their hands, 
the grapes falling along the boards which are inclined into a large 
vat, where they are trodden out by men. The juice, which runs off 
through a rude strainer at one end, is received into large earthen jars ; 
the pumice, or residuum, is from time to time taken out of the vat, 
and placed on a platform, when more juice is expressed, by laying 
boards and heavy stones upon it, That part which is intended for 
wine proper, or the " must;" is received like the first into earthen 
jars, where it undergoes the requisite fermentation, and receives a 
small quantity of brandy, or the aquadiente of the country, to give it 
body. The chicha is made by boiling down the clear grape-juice after 
fermentation, for several hours, over a slow fire. After this process, 
it was put in enormous earthen jars, containing sixty to one hundred 
and twenty gallons, which are covered over, and tightly luted. The 
portion not required for consumption, is afterwards distilled with 

vor.. i. 50 



198 CHILL 

the pumice into aquadiente of the country. The stills were of the 
simplest construction, being nothing more than a number of large 
earthen pots, holding from eighty to one hundred gallons, placed in 
the ground over a long narrow oven. Instead of a worm, a straight 
pipe of copper is used, about twenty feet long, one of these was 
inserted into each pot or jar, and to effect the condensation, a stream 
of water from the river was led so as to pass over them. All their 
agricultural implements are equally rude and primitive. Their 
ploughs are nothing more than a crooked stick, with the share end 
pointed, and hardened by charring. Notwithstanding these disad- 
vantages, they are enabled to raise large crops, and bring their farms 
into tolerable condition. 

In the evening they had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Newman, who 
returned, and his reception was, if possible, even more kind than 
that of his good lady. Learning that our gentlemen wished to visit 
some of the mines in the neighbourhood, he immediately made ar- 
rangement to send his agent to his own establishment, five leagues 
beyond San Felipe, and provided them horses and mules, in order 
that their own might recruit for their return journey. The tempera- 
ture at San Felipe varied, between noon and 10 p. m., from 63° to 49°. 
The night was remarkably clear and fine, 

The next morning they started, with Mr. George Alderson, for the 
mines, which are near the summit of the first Cordillera, on the 
Mendoza road, and about three thousand feet above the level of the 
sea. They were here informed that in consequence of the late heavy 
falls of snow, the roads were all covered and congealed, and that it 
extended several thousand feet below the limit of perpetual snows. 
They had no use for the neglected barometer, and had some satisfac- 
tion in feeling they had not been troubled with it. About a league 
from San Felipe they passed a large porphyritic mass, some spe- 
cimens broken from which contained grains of quartz. They then 
passed up a singular gully, about twenty feet deep and as many wide, 
for about a league. On leaving the gully, they gradually ascended 
until they reached the ranchos at Jaquel, at the foot of the mountain 
Avhere the mines were situated. It being too late to make the ascent 
to the mines that night, the running streams in the neighbourhood 
were visited, but nothing was found. They were entirely destitute 
of fhiviatile shells and mollusca. Other objects of interest were 
however obtained, in the classes of insects and reptilia, which will 
be described in the reports of these different departments. At sunset 



CHILI. 199 

the snowy mountains exhibited a magnificent sight ; lighted up and 
glistening in the sunshine, it appeared as though some tremendous 
conflagration had broken out. After this the progress of night pro- 
duces a peculiar effect. It was quite dark in the valley, while the 
lofty summits were yet tinged by the setting sun. The limit of 
darkness was distinctly seen advancing upwards like a dark Avail, and 
as it ascended, peak after peak became lost to view, until the whole 
was enshrouded in obscurity. 

The part of this valley where the ranchos are situated is called La 
Vega of Jaquel. This is the principal smelting-place, the ore being 
brought here by mules from the foot of the mountain, down whose 
sides it is thrown from the mines. The descent is about two 
thousand feet, and very steep. Mr. Alderson stated that it took 
thirty seconds for the ore to descend. The face of the mountain, 
from long usage, is worn quite smooth. The ranchos at the mine, 
about six hundred feet below the summit, on the steep mountain side, 
are visible from here. The Jaquel valley is said to contain a few 
sulphur springs, which are reported as poisonous. Our gentlemen 
had not time to visit them. The temperature, before leaving 
San Felipe, at 6 o'clock, a. m., was 45°, at 10 a. m., 54° ; at 
Jaquel, three hundred feet above the sea, at 5" 30 m , it was 55°, at 11 
p. m. 51°. 

Mr. Newman had previously lost much property here by the 
burning of his whole establishment, excepting two buildings, fire 
having been communicated to the thatched roof by the sparks from 
the furnace, during a tornado that passed over. So rapidly had the 
flames spread, that it was with difficulty that Mr. Newman and his 
agent saved their lives. Besides the loss of buildings, a large quantity 
of machinery, lately imported from England, was destroyed. 

On the 21st May, they set out on mules for the mines, accompanied 
by Mr. Alderson, and reached them about ten o'clock. Their first 
act was to change their boots for a pair of raw-hide shoes, such as 
are used by the miners, in order to ensure a safer footing. They 
now entered the principal gallery, which was about seven feet high 
and five broad, excavated for about twenty yards horizontally ; it then 
divides into several branches, and these again into others, from fifteen 
to twenty yards in length. 

The greatest extent of any one gallery is over thirty feet. The 
mountain has been penetrated horizontally to about four hundred feet, 
in the direction of northeast to east-northeast, as the veins run, and 



200 CHILI. 

vertically to a depth of about one hundred and fifty feet. Each 
person was provided with a tallow candle, stuck in the end of a split 
stick six feet long, and caution was given not to lose sight of the 
guide, for the galleries, although small, are so numerous, and commu- 
nicate with each other so frequently, that a person might easily be lost. 

The ladders, or rather posts, by which the descents are made, are 
not a little dangerous. They are not all secured, so that it becomes 
necessary for one person to hold the ladder whilst another descends, 
and it causes no small uneasiness to see the foot of it resting on a 
mere ledge. These shafts are at times crossed by a gallery, where 
but a single post is laid over them, and they pass over it by steadying 
themselves against the side wall. At the bottom of one of the shafts, 
at about three hundred feet from the mouth of the mine, the thermo- 
meter, after remaining for half an hour, stood at 52°, the air outside 
being 56°. This may be considered a fair test of the temperature. 
They report that they perceive no difference in the mine, in winter 
and summer. 

There appears to be little system in working the mines, and little 
knowledge of the structure of the rock or the courses of the veins. 
Mr. Alderson mentioned that a few months previously, they had been 
working for several weeks, extending a shaft, without meetino- a 
particle of ore to repay their labour, and they were just about givino- 
up the search, when the mayoral, or master-workman, declaring he 
would have a last blow for luck, struck the rock with all his force. 
This detached a large fragment, and to their surprise and delioht, 
laid open a vein which proved the largest and richest that had been 
worked for many years. From this it would appear that the employ- 
ment is attended with much uncertainty, and after exhausting one of 
these treasures, there are no means or signs known to them by which 
they can ascertain the best direction to take to discover another. 

This mine is situated in claystone, the sedimentary rock of the 
region, where it is intersected by a dike of compact clinkstone. 
The dike is about six feet wide. The adjoining claystone has a 
dark greenish brown colour, and resembles a wacke. It is so much 
fissured that it is difficult to break off a small piece which will 
present a fresh surface. The green carbonate of copper, and silicious 
carbonate of copper (chrysocolla), stain the rock for one hundred feet 
from the vein, occupying the fissures, and giving the surface a green 
or bluish tinge. In some places chrysocolla forms in small botryoidal 
incrustations on the face of the rock. The ores of copper occur in 



CHILI. 201 

veins in the claystone and the rock of this dike, but most abundantly 
near the junction of the two rocks. The veins are very irregular, 
and are more or less elongated. They are occasionally connected, 
but in the excavations frequently run out. In order to discover 
new ones, they follow the lines of the green carbonates, or the 
seams of calcareous spar and quartz. The name of metal is given 
as a general term to all the ores, that of quizo to the lode in which 
they are contained. 

The ores contain more or less sulphur, and often a portion of 
arsenic. Some silver is also occasionally mixed with the copper. 
Some of the ores found at this mine have been very rich, yielding 
sixty-five to seventy per cent, of pure copper. The average yield is 
about forty-five per cent. The various qualities are denominated, 
metal-regio, platiado, bronze, and piedra bruta. The last, as the name 
implies, is worthless. 

The mines, by the light of the numerous candles, exhibited all the 
shades of green, blue, yellow, purple, bronze, &c, having a metallic 
and lustrous appearance. The confined air, with the heat of so 
many candles, made it quite oppressive, and persons who have not 
often visited mines, are subject to faintness and vertigo. Mr. 
Alderson and Mr. Dana were both affected by it. It was the first 
time the former had ever penetrated so far, Mr. Newman and himself 
being governed by the report of the mayoral, and the ore brought up 
in their operations. The miners were not a little astonished at our 
gentlemen loading themselves, besides the specimens of ores, with 
the piedra bruta which they considered of no value. The manner of 
labour in the mines is in as rude a state as it was found in the agri- 
cultural branches of industry. A clumsy pick-axe, a short crowbar, 
a stone cutter's chisel, and an enormous oblong iron hammer, of 
twenty-five pounds weight, were the only tools. The hammer is only 
used when the ore is too high to be reached with the pick or crowbar. 
The miners, from the constant exercise of their arms and chest, have 
them well developed, and appear brawny figures. When the ore is 
too tough to be removed by the ordinary methods, they blast it off in 
small fragments, not daring to use large blasts, lest the rock should 
cave in upon them. Only a few weeks previous to their visit, the 
mayoral, while at the farthest end of the gallery, was alarmed by the 
rattling down of some stones, and before he could retreat, the walls 
caved in for several yards outside of where he was, leaving but a 

VOL. I. 51 



202 CHILI. 

small space. It required eighteen hours of unceasing efforts of nearly 
a hundred men to extricate him from his perilous situation. 

The ore is brought to the mouth of the mine on the backs of men, 
in sacks made of raw hide, and holding about one hundred pounds. 
Whenever a sufficient quantity to load a drove of mules is extracted, 
it is thrown down the mountain slide, and then carried to the furnace 
at Jaquel. Only seventeen miners were employed ; previous to this 
the number employed was one hundred. Whenever a richer vein 
was struck, a larger number were employed, who could always be 
easily obtained by foreigners, the natives preferring to work for them, 
as they say whatever the profits or losses may be, they are sure of 
being regularly paid. The wages are small — from three to four 
dollars per month, in addition to their food. They are allowed to 
draw a third of their pay on the last Saturday of every month, and 
full settlement is made twice a year. They are supplied with 
clothing and other necessaries, out of which the agent makes a per 
centage, and which is charged against their wages. 

There is one admirable regulation of the Chilian government, that 
of not permitting liquors to be brought within a league of any mine, 
under a severe penalty, which is strictly enforced. The cost of the 
maintenance of each workman is not great; they are allowed as 
rations for breakfast four handfuls of dried figs, and the same of 
walnuts: value about three cents. For dinner they have bread, and 
fresh beef or pork. Small stores, as sugar and tea, they find them- 
selves. One of the greatest inconveniences, and which is attended 
with some expense, is the supply of the miners with water, which 
must be brought up the mountains. 

The miners' huts are the last dwellings on the Chilian side of the 
Andes. Mr. Alderson mentioned that in five hours' ride from thence, 
a lake was reported to exist, three leagues in circumference, on the 
summit of a conical mountain, which is surrounded by a beach of 
sand and gravel, and has no outlet. Several persons confirmed this 
statement as to the existence of the lake, that it had no visible outlet, 
and that the water was always at the same level. Although desirous 
of visiting so interesting a spot, they found they had not time left to 
accomplish it. They therefore determined, instead, to make a visit 
to the coal mine which was reported as existing about two leagues 
farther on the Cordilleras. They reached this in about three hours. 
Leaving their mules, they scrambled up the face of a cliff for some 



C IT I L I. 203 

two hundred feet, where some fragments of coal, more, however, 
resembling lignite, and retaining perfectly the structure of the 
original wood, were found. Other pieces had the form of coal, 
and on ignition burned quite freely, showing the presence of bitumen 
and sulphur. The last was always found in small lumps, resembling 
the siftings of coal, and was embedded in a friable earth, containing 
saltpetre. No coal was found in situ; their time did not admit of any 
extended examination. Coal would indeed be a most valuable discovery 
for the Chilian mines, where wood is so scarce that they are prevented 
from reducing the ore, and in consequence, as I have before remarked, 
they are obliged to send it to Valparaiso for shipment. The principal 
ores which the mine of Mr. Newman affords, are the vitreous, gray, and 
variegated copper. Copper pyrites, and the red oxide of copper, also 
occur, and the silicious carbonate (chrysocolla) is abundantly disse- 
minated through the rocks. These ores are generally massive, or 
show only imperfect traces of crystallization. Native copper is 
rarely found at this mine. Its occurrence is not welcomed by the 
miners, as they consider it a sure sign that the vein will soon run out. 
It is usually found with large quantities of red oxide of copper. 
According to Mr. Dana this would seem to indicate, that the native 
copper and red oxide have originated from the reduction of other ores 
by heat, and this would account for the above fact, which seems to be 
well established among miners. 

Copper ores occur sparingly at other localities in this part of Chili ; 
the valuable mines are chiefly confined to the northern provinces. 

After again returning to Jaquel, they mounted their horses, and 
reached San Felipe, after about two hours' hard gallop. The tem- 
perature during the day varied from 44° at six o'clock in the morning, 
at Jaquel, to 58° at noon, on the hill at the mines; and at 10, p. m., 
at San Felipe, it was at 47°. 

On the 22d, they set out on their return, after a good deal of delay, 
owing to the stupidity of their peon, who had indulged too much in 
his favourite chicha. Nothing could exceed the kindness and atten- 
tion shown them by Mr. Newman and his lady and Mr. Chase. Mr. 
Alderson, the agent, devoted himself to them for two days, during 
which time he left nothing undone that could promote and forward 
the object of their visit. It affords me great pleasure to bear testi- 
mony also to the numerous fine specimens of copper, &c, from other 
mines, which Mr. Newman presented to the Expedition, and to 
return him our thanks for them and the kind attention of his lady. 



204 CHILI. 

Our gentlemen returned to the rancho of Evangelisto Celidono, where 
they passed the night, and were furnished with a like casuela as 
before. All the farmers they met were a simple, good-hearted set, 
caring for little beyond their own immediate neighbourhood, and 
knowing little but to supply their own wants. Celidono informed 
them that he had been at the Port (Valparaiso) only once in five years. 
He seems to have all that is needful. His wife was engaged in spin- 
ning with the distaff and spindle. There being but one room, they 
were accommodated on the clay floor, spread with their pillions and 
saddle-cloths, while Celidono and his wife occupied the bed. The tem- 
perature varied from 65-30° on their arrival, at 5 h 30 m , to 53° at 11 p. m. 
On the morning of the 24th, the thermometer stood at 51°, on 
the summit of the cuesta, and at 58° between 9 and 10 o'clock. 
Here the scene was very different from what they had before wit- 
nessed. The plain they had just left was in broad sunshine, showing 
distinctly its many cultivated farms ; that to which they were about 
descending was a sea of dense white clouds, extending seaward as far 
as the eye could reach, as though a vast body of white cumuli had 
descended and filled the whole extent of the Quillota valley. These 
clouds kept rolling off towards the sea before the light wind, and rose 
gradually as they passed off. They reached Mr. Blanchard's, at 
Quillota, at noon, when the temperature was 60°, and taking their 
biloche, they arrived at Valparaiso m the evening. 

Having heard much about the rise of the coast, from the effects of 
earthquakes, I was desirous of gaining all the information in relation 
to this subject. From the residents the accounts are so contradictory, 
that no correct intelligence can be obtained. The decrease in the 
depth of the bay, I have before said, can be accounted for, and un- 
doubtedly is owing, so far as it has taken place, to the wash of the 
hills ; and the formation of a new street which has been reclaimed 
from the bay, has given rise to the idea, and it is pointed out as 
having been built upon ground left dry by the earthquake of 1832. 
Several of our naturalists made a close examination of the coast in the 
neighbourhood, the result of which on the minds of all was, that there 
was no proof of elevation. That changes in the beaches, through the 
agency of the heavy rollers and the northers that yearly occur, are 
constantly going on, is quite evident ; but these, as one would natu- 
rally suppose, increase the shores only in some places, while in others 
they are wearing it away. 

Earthquakes do not appear to happen at any particular season. 



CHILI. 205 

The great one of 1730, was in July ; that of 1751, in May ; and those 
of 1822 and 1835, both of which did much damage, in February. 

Slight shocks of earthquakes are experienced very frequently 
throughout Chili. One during our stay, on the 28th of May, started 
every one from their beds, but the shock was not repeated. No 
peculiar state of the weather, or other phenomenon, seems to precede 
them. That of 1835 nearly destroyed the towns of Concepcion, 
Talcahuana, Arauco, Angeles, Coluna, Chillian, Talca, and Cau- 
quenes. It was very slightly felt in Valparaiso, and scarcely at all 
farther north. The sea receded in Valparaiso two feet, and returned 
immediately. The ground seemed to swell under the feet. In Juan 
Fernandez it was very severely felt ; and the following extract from 
the report of the then governor of that island, to the supreme govern- 
ment, is interesting. " I was walking, at the Castle of Santa Barbara, 
with the commandant of the garrison, when we suddenly observed 
that the sea had come over the mole. Fearing great damage, I 
hastened to have the boats drawn from under a shed, and prepared 
for use. At the same moment we heard a loud roaring, as of thunder, 
and saw a white column, like smoke, rise from the sea, a short 
distance from the place called ' El Punto de Bacallao,' and then felt 
the earth move. The sea retired about two hundred feet, when it 
commenced returning with great \uolence. This time it carried 
nearly every thing with it ; broke down all the houses and huts but 
the one recently built of stone and mortar to contain provisions. 
Happily, this withstood its violence, although the water ascended 
more than six feet up its sides. It then retired again to its usual 
height. Constant shocks were felt during the night, and the sea, at 
the place before mentioned, continued throwing up water and smoke 
like a volcano." 

Chili abounds with volcanic mountains, but few of them are in an 
active state of eruption, which may account for the frequency of 
earthquakes. The peak of Tupongati is the only one in activity in 
this section. Our travellers to the Cordilleras were not fortunate 
enough to get a sight of it at night. 

Although by the constitution the Catholic religion is the established 
one, yet they have become so enlightened as to tolerate that of the 
Protestant Episcopal form. A license could not be given to build a 
church, but the authorities, on being asked if the worship would be 
permitted, readily gave an assurance that it would not be interfered 

vnr.. t. 52 



206 CHILL 

with ; that although they could not allow a church to be put up, 
there could be no objection to their worshipping in a private dwell- 
ing. Since then a very nice room has been prepared, and a resident 
chaplain, Mr. Rowlandson, has been called, who officiates regularly 
on the Sabbath. The effect that it has produced on the habits of the 
foreign residents, of whom there are about three hundred, is marked. 
About one hundred and eighty of them are constant attendants on the 
service. 

What is somewhat remarkable, the person most in favour of 
toleration and building a church, is the priest of Valparaiso ; and the 
only vote recorded for toleration, on the adoption of the constitution, 
was given by a Catholic bishop. 

The influence of the clergy is great, and they have much political 
power in the state. The people may generally be called bigoted, and 
under the control of the priests. The clergy as a body stand very 
fair ; they encourage schools. The inhabitants are ignorant as yet ; 
their opportunities for instruction are limited. There is no impe- 
diment in the way of Protestants teaching. 

Although it may be somewhat trite to mention it, yet one cannot 
but admire the sight of the Oration, or sunset prayer. Whatever 
may be our idea of Catholic forms of worship, no one can witness it 
here without feeling the solemn and impressive scene of a whole 
community, on the striking of the evening bells, instantly stopping 
employment, both within and without doors, and uncovering their 
heads to offer up their thanks or prayer for a few minutes, ft must 
bring reflection, unless habit so blunts the mind and feeling as 
to make it callous to impressions well calculated to make men 
consider their evil ways, and feel thankful for the blessings they 
receive. 

The commerce of Chili is increasing rapidly. Valparaiso numbers 
sixty coasting vessels, of from fifty to three hundred and fifty tons, part 
of which are engaged in the trade from Valdivia and Chiloe to the 
northern ports, with timber and staves; and part are charged from 
Maule and Concepcion with grain, returning in ballast to Valpa- 
raiso, to load with foreign manufactures for the various ports of 
tne republic. The exports are taken away in foreign vessels 
and consist of copper, hides, wool, hemp, and plata pina. About 
sixty thousand quintals of copper are exported from Huasco, Co- 
qmmbo, and Valparaiso annually; one hundred and fifty to two 



CHILI. 



207 



hundred thousand quintals of 100 lbs. in copper ores are shipped 
annually to England, and one hundred thousand marks of 8 oz. in 
bar silver. The returns from sales of English goods are made 
mostly in bullion. 

Thirty thousand hides are exported, principally from Valparaiso. 
Five to six hundred quintals of wool are shipped annually from 
Concepcion. The grain and country produce are generally sent 
to Peru and Guayaquil. Very little silver is coined in the country, 
dollars being an article of merchandise, worth from seven to nine per 
cent., according to the supplies from Bolivia or Peru. From eight 
hundred thousand to one million silver dollars come annually from 
Cobija to Valparaiso, and are shipped thence to England. Gold 
coins are issued from the mint at Santiago, doubloons, half, quarter, 
and eighth doubloon pieces ; the current value of the ounce is seven- 
teen dollars twenty-five cents. 

The annual imports into Chili and Peru have averaged — 

$6,000,000 

1,500,000 

600,000 

500,000 

2,000,000 



From England, . 
" the United States, 
" France, 
" Germany, . 
" other quarters, . 



Total, 810,600,000 



The returns from Chili are in — 

Copper and copper ore, ..... $2,000,000 

Bullion, 1,800,000 

Hides, wheat, hemp, wool, 700,000 

Bullion and dollars received in payment for goods 
sold for other ports, and transported to Valparaiso 

for United States and Europe, .... 1,700,000 

Total, $6,200,000 

The revenue of the government is largest from commerce. 

The custom-house receipts are fully . . . $1,000,000 

Tobacco and wines, monopolies of government, . 400,000 

Diezmos or tithes, 600,000 

Alcavales or internal sources of revenue, . . 200,000 



Making a total of $2,200,000 

The ordinary expenditure is about $1,800,000. 



208 CHILL 

The number of foreign vessels employed in the trade is about 
two hundred and seventy, the same vessels arriving generally twice. 
They are of the following nations : 

English, 90 

American, ........ 80 

French, . . 70 

Hamburg, Dutch, and Sardinian, .... 20 

Mexico, Colombia, and Sandwich Islands, . . . 10 

Total, 270 

The population of Chili may be estimated at one million two 
hundred thousand. 

Santiago contains about sixty thousand inhabitants, and is one 
of the few South American capitals, perhaps the only one, that is 
increasing in wealth and population, ft has various private semi- 
naries for both sexes, a national institute or college, on a liberal 
footing, an extensive hospital, a medical college, and a military 
academy. The Congress meets on the 1st of June, every year, when 
the President delivers his message. 

Valparaiso numbers thirty thousand inhabitants, and is one of the 
most flourishing seaports in the world. Its population has quintupled 
within the last twenty years, and it is rapidly advancing in every 
improvement, growing out of an increasing foreign commerce, and 
the enterprise of its inhabitants, fostered and encouraged, as they are, 
by government. 

The mining districts are to the north, and the grain country to the 
south. Extensive flour mills are now at work in Concepcion and 
its neighbourhood: the machinery is brought from the United 
States. 

The recognised internal national debt is about $2,000,000, of which 
sum $800,000 is consolidated, bearing an annual interest of from 
two to six per cent. The government was about to consolidate the 
remainder, when their attention was called to other expenses abroad. 
The foreign debt is a loan from England, taken in 1822, of 
£1,000,000, with the interest now due, will not fall far short of 
$8,000,000. 

There is very little variation in the climate. During what is 
called the winter, when the rains prevail, between the 1st of May 
and the 1st of September, the thermometer occasionally falls for a 



CHILI. 209 

few hours to 52°, but the mean of it throughout the year, at mid-day, 
would be 65°. During the dry season, from September to May, the 
thermometer at times reaches 78° to 80°. In the evening and morn- 
ing, it is at 60°. 

Fruits are abundant in their season : apples, pears, apricots, nec- 
tarines, plums, peaches, cherries, &c. ; figs, grapes, strawberries, 
oranges, limes, and every variety of vegetable. 

The present administration is composed of — 

General Joaquim Prieto, President : term of office, five years ; 
eligible for a second, but not a third successive term. 

Don Joaquim Torconal, Minister of Foreign Relations, and Acting 
Minister of the Hacienda, or Treasury. 

Don Ramen Cavareda, Minister of War and Marine. 

Don Mariano Egafio, Minister of the Interior and Justice. 

EXECUTIVE COUNCIL. 

The President of the Supreme Court of Justice, 

The President of the High Court of Appeals, 

The Reverend Bishop of Santiago, and Apostolic Vicar, 

A General of Division, 

The Minister of the Estanco, or Government Monopolies, 

Two Ex-Ministers, 

Two Judges, and 

A Secretary of the Council. 

THE SENATE 

Consists of nineteen members, elected for five years, representing 
ten provinces. 

THE HOUSE OF DEPUTIES 

Consists of eighty-two members, elected for three years, represent- 
ing thirty-five departments. 

Foreigners require ten years' residence to obtain citizenship, it 
unmarried ; six years, if married ; three years, if married to Chi- 
lenos. 

According to present calculation, the militia force of the republic 
reaches forty-five thousand : forty battalions of infantry, eighty squad- 
rons of cavalry, and eleven companies of artillery. 

vnr_ T. "O 



210 CHILI. 



THE ARMY, 

Agreeably to the constitution, in time of peace consists of three 
thousand men : eight companies of foot and horse-artillery, two regi- 
ments of cavalry, and three battalions of infantry. 

OFFICERS. 

One Major-General, 
Eight Colonels, 
Twenty Lieutenant-Colonels, 
Twenty-five Majors, 
Thirty-four Captains, 
Nine Adjutants, 
Twenty-one Lieutenants, 
Sixteen Sub-Lieutenants, 
Two Surgeons-in-chief. 

THE NA.VY 

Consists of the Brig Achilles, twenty guns; Schooner Colocolo, 
eight guns. 

OFFICERS. 

One Post-Captain, 

Two Commanders, 

One Lieutenant of Marines, 

Three Pursers. 

The late war with Peru has increased both the army and navy to 
the following, in round numbers : eight thousand troops, six thousand 
of whom are still m Peru, but about to return; two thousand in Chili 
with officers complete, all under the command of General Bulnes' 
nephew of the President. 

The navy, increased by capture and purchase, consists of, and now 
in service, four ships, two brigs, two schooners, and a new forty-four 
gun frigate expected daily from France. 

During the time of our visit, June, 1839, the President, in his 
message, resigned the extraordinary powers conferred upon him, and 
recommended a reduction of the army to a peace establishment. 
Since that time he has been succeeded by his nephew, General 



CHILI. 211 

Bulnes, who from all accounts retains the high reputation and popu- 
larity he gained in Peru. 

From G. G. Hobson, Esq., United States Consul at Valparaiso, 
and our countrymen resident there, we received every kindness and 
assistance, and from them we derived much information respecting 
the country. To the former I feel myself under many obligations 
for his great kindnesses and the attention he gave to our business, 
the warm interest he took in the Expedition, and the manner in 
which he forwarded our views, and aided in procuring the necessary 
supplies. To him I feel bound to acknowledge my indebtedness for 
much valuable information ; and the many agreeable hours spent in 
his family will long be remembered. He not only stands deservedly 
high with our countrymen, but has the respect and high considera- 
tion of the Chilian government. An American cannot but feel proud 
of such a representative abroad. 

Our departure from Valparaiso was delayed for some days, owing 
to the non-arrival of the Sea-Gull, and the prevalence of north winds 
and calms, together with fogs. These often prevent vessels from 
sailing in the winter season. 

During this time, one morning as the fogs lifted, a brig was dis- 
covered in a dangerous situation near the beach of Concon; boats 
were immediately despatched to her relief; she proved to be the 
English brig Superior; the master was found dead drunk on his 
cabin-floor ! She was towed to the anchorage, and placed in safety. 

Lieutenant Craven was left at Valparaiso to take command of the 
Sea-Gull when she should arrive. After a delay there of some 
months, he joined the Pacific Squadron, and was transferred to the 
Schooner Boxer, Lieutenant-Commandant Nicholson, which vessel 
made strict search for the Sea-Gull in all the places she could have 
possibly met with disaster, in conformity to the orders of Captain 
Clack, then in command of the Pacific Squadron. 

I cannot resist the opportunity when speaking of Lieutenant 
Craven, to refer to his praiseworthy conduct in being instrumental 
in saving the crew of the Chilian vessel of war, the Monteguedo, 
that came near being lost. By his exertions, seconded as they were 
by the officers of H. B. M. ship Fly, they were rescued from a 
watery grave. It gave me great pleasure some time afterwards to 
receive the highly complimentary notice of it by the Hon. J. K. 
Paulding, then Secretary of the Navy, which will be found included 
in Appendix XXXIV. 



212 CHILI. 



On the 17th of May, the United States ship Falmouth, Captain 
M'Keever, arrived from Callao, and it is with much satisfaction and 
pleasure I refer to my meeting and acquaintance with this officer, 
whose liberal views, and the aid rendered the Expedition, were of 
essential service in forwarding our duties. The manner in which 
the aid was given, rendered it doubly welcome. 

As before mentioned, the Flying-Fish arrived on the 19th, having 
left Orange Harbour on the 28th of April, in company with the 
Sea-Gull. At midnight, the Sea-Gull was last seen. Shortly after- 
wards, it began to blow in strong squalls, and rapidly increased to a 
gale ; by half-past eight of the 29th, it was "blowing furiously." At 
one o'clock, False Cape Horn was made under the lee, when Passed 
Midshipman Knox determined to run for a harbour. At 4 p. m. they 
anchored under the south point of Scapenham Bay, where they 
dragged their anchors, and were obliged to remove to Orange Bay. 
There they anchored, and rode out the remainder of the gale* which 
lasted with violence until the morning of the 1st of May, on which 
day they again took their departure, and shortly afterwards fell in 
with a whaler, who seemed not a little surprised to find a New York 
pilot-boat off the Cape, and to have an interrogatory put to him, to 
know if he wanted a Cape pilot, 

Although I felt some uneasiness about the Sea-Gull, I did not 
apprehend that she had met with accident. The time that has since 
elapsed, and the careful search that was made, leaves no doubt of her 
loss, and a strong belief that all on board perished in that gale. 
Nothing since that time has been heard of her. How, or in what 
way, disaster happened to her, it is impossible to conjecture. I had 
the greatest confidence in the officers who had charge of her; they 
were both well acquainted with the management of the vessel. Their 
loss, and that of the vessel, were a great disadvantage to the Expedi- 
tion, which was felt by me during the remainder of the cruise, these 
vessels being well calculated for the southern seas, particularly in the 
low latitudes, though much exposed in boisterous weather. 

They were principally intended to be engaged with the boats in 
surveying operations, and were well adapted to that service. 

Messrs. Reid and Bacon were among the most promising young 
officers in the squadron, and I was extremely well satisfied with the 
performance of their duty in the vessel. The crew consisted of 
fifteen persons. 

Passed Midshipman James W. E. Reid was the son of the late 



C H I L I. 213 

Governor Reid of Florida. He was a native of Georgia, and entered 
the service in September, 1831. He was ordered to the Exploring 
Expedition in 1837, and appointed to the command of the Sea-Gnll, 
one of the tenders attached to the Expedition, previous to sailing, in 
August, 1838. 

Passed Midshipman Frederick A. Bacon, entered the service in 
May, 1832. He was a native of the State of Connecticut, where his 
highly respectable relatives reside. He joined the Expedition in 
1838, and was attached to the Sea-Gull, previous to leaving the 
United States. 

Both of these young officers brought with them into the Expedi- 
tion a high character, and, during the short period which they were 
attached to it, they were distinguished for their devotedness to the 
arduous service in which we were engaged. Their deportment 
was that of ardent and zealous officers, and of upright and correct 
gentlemen. 

Mr. Bacon left a widow and one child. 

In the family of Mr. Reid there has been a remarkable fatality 
during our absence. His respectable father, the Governor of Florida, 
and three or four other members of his family, have since died. 

During our stay at Valparaiso, the Chilian army was daily expected 
to arrive from Peru, and all were rejoicing over its success. All oppo- 
sition to the existing administration had died away. The manner 
in which the government of General Prieto had carried through its 
plans, both of war and peace, had met with the approbation of all 
parties. One of the first acts of the government, was to restore to 
their ranks, Generals Pinto, Borgono, and others, whose conduct had 
been extremely praiseworthy, though opposed to the government for 
the last eight years. They, although believing themselves ill used 
by it, discouraged all attempts at revolution, preferring to suffer 
themselves, rather than be instrumental in producing changes. 
Attention was now paid to the building of custom-houses, and other 
public works, in Valparaiso, and elsewhere. The whole seemed to 
have given a fresh impulse to every thing in Chili. Those who had 
been at all doubtful of the stability of the government, lost their 
fears, and became its warmest supporters, while happiness and joy 
seemed to reign every where. 

The Congress met on the 1st of June, when the President delivered 
his annual "message, resigning the extraordinary powers with which 
he had been clothed in January, 1837. All Chili will bear tes- 

vm.. T. v** 



214 



CHILI. 



timony, foreigners as well as native born, that in no one instance 
has he abused them, but so conducted himself, and his administration, 
as to entitle him to the thanks and rewards of a grateful country. 

Chili, with such rulers, and so moderate and energetic a govern- 
ment, must rise rapidly in the scale of nations. 




CHAPTER XL 



CONTENTS. 

WANT OF CORRECT HISTORICAL RECORDS-O'HIGGLNS DECLARED SUPREME DICTATOR- 
RESIGNS IN 1823-COUNCIL OF STATE APPOINTED-GENERAL FREYRE LANDS AT VALPA- 
RAISO—ARREST OF O'HIGGINS — HIS RELEASE — GENERAL RAMON FREYRE ASSUMES 
THE GOVERNMENT— RETIRES TO PRIVATE LIFE-ADMIRAL BLANCO PRESIDENT-BLANCO 
RESIGNS-SUCCEEDED BY VICE-PRESIDENT-HIS RESIGNATION-FREYRE AGAIN CHOSEN 
PRESIDENT— FREYRE RESIGNS— PRIETO BECOMES PRESIDENT— RESIGNS— PRESIDENT OF 
THE SENATE ACTS— ELECTION HELD— PRIETO ELECTED— REFUSES TO SERVE— VICUNEA 
PRESIDENT OF SENATE —TROUBLES — JUNTA APPOINTED— CIVIL WAR— ABANDONMENT 
OF THE CAPITAL— FREYRE CALLED IN— JOINS THE PRESIDENT'S PARTY — BATTLE OF 
LIRCAI, APRIL, 1830— DEFEAT OF FREYRE— HIS BANISHMENT TO PERU— NEW ELECTION- 
DON FRANCISCO TAGLE RETURNED AS PRESIDENT— OVALLE AS VICE-PRESIDENT— BOTH 
RESIGN — PRESIDENT OF SENATE AGAIN ACTS— NEW ELECTION — GENERAL PRIETO 
ELECTED, JULY, 1831— STATE OF THE COUNTRY— HIS ADMINISTRATION— DIEGO PORTALES 
—SYSTEM OF REFORM— MILITIA SYSTEM— ESTABLISHES PUBLIC CREDIT— CIVIL RULE- 
TRANSACTIONS WITH PERU— RATIFICATION OF TREATY, AND RECEPTION OF MINISTER 
—CIVIL WAR IN PERU — DEFEAT OF SALAVERRY — NEW ORGANIZATION OF PERUVIAN 
GOVERNMENT — RUPTURE BETWEEN CHILI AND PERU — SECRET EXPEDITION UNDER 
GENERAL FREYRE— INTELLIGENCE OF IT RECEIVED IN CHILI— ACTIVITY OF GOVERN- 
MENT — CAPTURE OF FREYRE — HIS SECOND BANISHMENT — POPULARITY OF THE 
ADMINISTRATION — SEIZURE OF PERUVIAN VESSELS — SUSPENSION OF HOSTILITIES — 
CONVENTION— CHILI REFUSES TO RATIFY THE PROCEEDINGS— CHILI SENDS HER FLEET 
—CHILI DECLARES WAR — EXPEDITION ORGANIZED— DECREE OF PRESIDENT PRIETO— 
EXPEDITION FITTED OUT UNDER ADMIRAL BLANCO— TROOPS QUARTERED AT QUILLOTA 
—PORTALES' INSPECTION OF TROOPS — HIS ARREST — VIDAURRE'S MUTINY— ACTA OF 
OFFICERS — NEWS REACHES VALPARAISO — CONSTERNATION — CONDUCT OF MILITIA— 
VIDAURRE'S DEMANDS— PORTALES' NOBLE CONDUCT— VIDAURRE'S ATTACK ON VALPA- 
RAISO— HIS DEFEAT AND FLIGHT — PORTALES' DEATH — VIDAURRE CAPTURED AND 
BROUGHT TO VALPARAISO— TRIAL AND EXECUTION— EXPEDITION SAILS TO PERU— ITS 
FAILURE— TREATY OF PAUCARP ATA— EXPEDITION RETURNS— BLANCO DEPRIVED OF HIS 
COMMAND— BULNES— NEW EXPEDITION— ITS DEPARTURE. 



CHAPTER XL 

POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILL 
18 39. 

Of the early political history of Chili, we found it difficult to 
obtain any correct information. There is no publication existing at 
this date, which furnishes any satisfactory account of the republic in 
its first struggles to establish itself. 

Nearly all the principal actors in its busy scenes are yet living, 
and not so old but they entertain hopes of a change from day to day 
that may restore them to power and importance. These, together 
with the factions that were connected with them, watch with anxiety 
every turn of public opinion, and with one or the other of them, most 
of the educated Chilians, who alone are capable of giving an account, 
are more or less identified. 

For this reason only partial statements can be obtained from any of 
them. Those who keep aloof from party, are too timid to express 
any opinion on political subjects, as it might involve them in 
difficulty. The few foreigners whose long residence in the country 
would enable them to furnish facts, so distort them by their preju- 
dices towards different administrations, that no dependence can be 
placed upon their statements. The inequality of rule of the Chilian 
administrations makes it difficult to follow their history, and one is 
left to the barren sources of information afforded by government 
proclamations, and the official reports of the day, always more or less 
erroneous and exaggerated, in favour of the ruling party. 

After the battle of Chacabuco and Maypo, in which O'Higgins 
commanded, he was unanimously proclaimed Supreme Director of 
Chili, in April, 1817. He continued to fill the situation until 1823, 
when, in consequence of his allowing great abuses to exist in the 

vnr.. t. *>«'* 



218 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

subordinate branches of government, and not listening to the 
respectful remonstrances sent him from all quarters of the country, 
a meeting of the principal inhabitants of the capital and neighbour- 
hood took place at the town hall. 

The subject was discussed freely, and his deposition was deter- 
mined upon. It was agreed, however, to notify him, for few men 
were more esteemed than O'Higgins. He received the commission 
courteously, and when satisfied that they really expressed the voice 
of the people, he without hesitation resigned his power, and departed 
for Valparaiso, with the intention of proceeding to Peru. A council 
of state was named by the assembly at Santiago, composed of three 
distinguished citizens, until the supreme power could be disposed of. 
When O'Higgins arrived in Valparaiso, General .Ramon Freyre 
landed from Concepcion with three hundred men, having come up 
from the south to depose O'Higgins. 

Although the latter was no longer in his way, he arrested him on 
the plea of making him give an account of his administration. This 
step was not popular. The Junta in Santiago directed his release, 
and ordered Freyre to furnish him with the necessary passport. 
This was done in the most complimentary style, and this distin- 
guished individual, admitted by all to be the first soldier of his 
country, left it for Peru without complaint. There honours were 
showered upon him as testimonials of his worth, and what was far 
better, the Peruvian government gave him a hacienda. 

He still lives in Lima, respected by every one, not having engaged 
in politics since his retirement from Chili. He has been invited 
back, but refuses to come. He was succeeded by Ramon Freyre, 
considered as the champion of liberal institutions, who was named 
Supreme Director and Captain-General, 31st March, 1823. He 
resigned in July, 1826, retiring to private life, after a popular rule. 
His opposition to O'Higgins is justified by its being said that he was 
left to perish from want of supplies to his troops on the frontier. 
Though he had been constant in his representations of the fact to 
O'Higgins, he had been neglected, and was compelled to appear 
himself and claim attention. There is believed to be much truth in 
this— O'Higgins having many corrupt creatures about him, who are 
said to have been the cause of it. Freyre is much respected, though 
not considered a man of talent. He never mixed in public life after 
the resignation of his dictatorship, unless called upon as a mediator. 
Admiral Blanco was next named President by the Congress then 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 219 

in session, and Don Augustin Azyguine Vice-President. Blanco 
was one of the vainest of men. Fortunately for the country, he was 
so much mortified at the opposition shown to some of his fancies, 
that he resigned, two months and three days after his appointment. 
The Vice-President succeeded him. Such dissensions, however, 
prevailed, that he also became disgusted and resigned. Pinto was 
charged with the presidency, which he exercised from the 5th of 
May, 1827, till 14th July, 1829, when, on the plea of ill health, he 
resigned and went to his estate. 

In conformity with a law of 1826, the President of the Senate acted 
as president until the middle of October, when the elections took 
place, and General Pinto was returned to the office. During his 
acting presidency two military revolts had occurred, and the country 
was full of factions. As the elections to Congress were considered to 
have been illegally conducted, the general opposition to its measures 
was ascribed to that cause. Pinto, therefore, on being elected, in- 
formed them, that he would only accept on condition that the Congress 
should be dissolved, and that new elections, according to the consti- 
tution, should take place. They did not concur in this, when he 
declined occupying the office, and it went begging again. Vicunea, 
President of the Senate, entered upon the duties of President ; the 
clamours throughout the country increased; the whole population 
was in movement, a party behind pushing it on. Town meetings 
were held and representatives sent to Santiago. 

The government refused to receive their committee, and on this 
being told to the meeting, a junta gobemativa was appointed, and the 
country was pronounced to be against the Congress, as an unconsti- 
tutional body Collecting a great number of all classes, they again 
went to the President's house, and found he had set out in the night, 
with all his ministers, for Valparaiso. The greatest confusion pre- 
vailed in the capital ; orders were received at the public offices from 
the Junta and from the acting President, both claiming to be repre- 
sentatives of the people. In the mean time the southern army, under 
General Prieto, approached the city. It had declared for the Junta. 
The troops in the city, under General Lastra, considered themselves 
subject to the order of the President for the time. The armies met 
on the field of Ochagavia, and the first blood in civil war was shed. 
Both parties claimed the victory after a sharp contest, A convention 
was, however, entered into, and Freyre was again called forward to 
aid in restoring tranquillity to the country. Nothing satisfactory 



220 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

grew out of this arrangement. Freyre became disgusted at some 
non-compliance with his orders as captain-general, but instead of 
returning to his family, ill-ad visedly started off to join the party of 
the President in Valparaiso, setting himself in opposition to the Junta, 
and calling upon all the officers to join him. Unfortunately, some of 
the foreign officers did so. He embarked from Coquimbo with troops, 
and thence proceeded to the south, landed, and was met at Lircai by 
General Prieto's army, on the 17th April, 1830, when Freyre was 
entirely defeated. This offence resulted in his banishment. Most of 
the foreign officers were killed ; it is said after they had surrendered. 

The elections now went forward ; Don Francesco Tagle was 
returned President, and Don Tomas Ovalle as Vice-President : both 
extensive land proprietors and respectable men. The first soon 
resigned, and Ovalle exercised the honour but a short time, dying 
soon after succeeding. The President of the Senate acted until 
elections were again held, when General Prieto was returned Presi- 
dent, July 14th, 1831, and continued to hold the office at the time of 
our visit. 

It appears throughout the history of the different administrations 
which have ruled the country since its separation from Spain, that 
all have been directed by a common spirit of advancement to the 
country. All their decrees prove this, and under any one of them, 
had they retained power but a few successive years, it would have 
prospered. As the people of Chili (that is to say, the mass of the 
population,) are proverbial for their apathy, and disposed to submit to 
authority without questioning its origin, the main error of the early 
administrations was their extensive lenity towards political offenders, 
whose turbulent spirit and restless ambition no clemency checked. 
The impunity with w T hich such disorganizes returned to their 
intrigues after repeated pardons, and the too liberal, or, more properly 
speaking, visionary schemes of government, no doubt operated to 
produce the sudden and frequent changes of government, before any 
one of them had time to mature plans of improvement or organize a 
system of legislation, or a mode for the proper administration of laws. 
A want of energy and resolution of purpose encouraged factions to 
hope for success in their attempts to gain the ascendency. Imaginary 
abuses were charged home against each successive ruler, and the 
country was a prey to convulsions. This state of affairs prevailed 
in a greater or less degree till 1831, when the present administra- 
tion came into power. Its course was totally different from its 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 221 

predecessors. It adopted at once the most energetic measures to 
establish order; introduced a necessary severity, which produced a 
hue and cry against it, in the country. But it was not diverted from 
its purpose. It went on reforming abuses, nipping revolution in its 
bud, and banishing the most refractory; by a salutary terror awed 
the many factions, and pursued vigorously its career of improvement 
in every branch of government. No one felt disposed to give it 
credit. All its acts were ascribed to one or other of the former 
parties. Every one spoke of them as being proposed, projected, or 
introduced by O'Higgins, Freyre, or Pinto, forgetting that their 
good intentions were never carried out, and that it w T as the abuses 
permitted by them that led to civil war. The present administration 
proved itself fit to rule. It wielded its power energetically but 
beneficially. Its vigilance never slept ; and the parties which occa- 
sionally showed symptoms of movement, have at last made up their 
minds to come into the fold of good citizens. 

The actual president at the time of our visit, was General Joaquim 
Prieto, a man of unblemished private character, full of benevolence, 
but who, no doubt, had he been left to the direction of his own feel- 
ings and judgment, at several periods of his official career, would by 
his mistaken lenity, have brought upon his government the fate of all 
the preceding ones. Fortunately for the lovers of order, he had for 
several years to aid him, as minister of war and the interior, Diego 
Portales, one of those master spirits a country but rarely produces ; 
a man whose early life was engaged in commerce, but who in the 
progress of revolutions, evincing more than ordinary utility, became 
a prominent politician, and eventually one of the leading men of the 
country. From his resolute and unbending temper, he was permitted 
to become the head of a party, and soon gained such an ascendency, 
that they abandoned themselves to his guidance. He might have 
obtained the presidency, had ordinary ambition directed him, but, 
impelled by a more noble one, he chose to attach himself to the ad- 
ministration as one of its ministers, in order, as subsequent events 
proved, that he might be better able to carry out the plans he medi- 
tated. He possessed a resolution in his political career which never 
swerved from what he conceived his duty, or what he thought the 
interests of his country required. He had the unyielding temper of 
a reformer; and never w r as one more wanted in any country. He 
recommended the establishment of a militia system, with a view to 
check every future military interference in the government; and 

vol. i. 50 



222 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

when it was opposed on the ground that it would only endanger the 
peace of the country to place arms in the hands of the people, he 
answered. " No ! depend upon it the only way to secure permanent 
order, is to create a power in the people which may be enlisted on 
their side, and if this should declare against the government, it would 
be evidence enough that it ought no longer to rule, for such a power 
should consist of the best portion of the population of the country. 
The first object must be to counteract military influence ; for it too 
frequently happens amongst us, that when we make a colonel, and 
give him a regiment, his aspirations soon extend to supreme com- 
mand." 

His counsel was listened to : a militia system was organized ; the 
army was reduced ; numerous generals and other officers were struck 
off the list; the number of civil officers in the various departments 
was diminished, salaries cut down, and the most rigid economy 
observed in every branch of the government. Setting an example of 
unwearied industry in the discharge of his duties, he exacted from 
those under him a strict performance of theirs. He corrected abuses 
which had the countenance of time for their practice ; he aroused his 
countrymen from their iudolence; corruption ceased, persons were 
selected to fill office from their fitness, and not as formerly, from 
family influence. His militia system worked admirably ; it produced 
a feeling of order among a population notoriously irregular in their 
private habits and domestic economy ; it became a national guard 
exercising a certain kind of police over the whole land. Indeed all 
his energies were called into play, to improve and advance his coun- 
try; roads were planned to open communications to the coast from 
sections abounding in agricultural wealth, but remote from the sea- 
board. He set about raising the public credit by husbanding the 
revenue, so as to enable it, after consolidating domestic and foreign 
debt, to appropriate a certain amount, first towards the periodical 
payments on account of interest, and then to effect an arrangement 
with the English bond-holders. For the latter purpose, an agent was 
named to proceed to England. To accomplish such radical chances 
great perseverance and firmness were requisite, and these qualities 
eminently characterized Portales. It is surprising how well he 
adapted his march to the actual state of the country, and its preju- 
dices of education. He supported the clergy to obtain their instru- 
mentality as a moral power to strengthen the government, knowing 
that otherwise they would, as they frequently had, become its most 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 223 

formidable opponents. All this created much discontent among many 
speculative politicians, who fancied they could establish a refined 
system of government over an uneducated and prejudiced mass of 
men like the Chilians ; a population that had but a few years emerged 
from a political state little different from that of Europe in the middle 
ages, whose predilections were deeply rooted, whose habits only 
change by an increasing intercourse with nations more enlightened 
than themselves, and who gradually and almost imperceptibly yield 
to such an influence. 

This government came into power after military rule had been 
in possession of authority almost ever since the nation became 
independent. It had been the custom to consult military men on 
every change of government ; the rivalry of generals consequently 
kept up a constant revolutionary propensity. A government, to 
establish civil rule supreme in the land, and in order to have its laws 
obeyed, would be obliged to exercise more severity with it than 
pre-existing circumstances had called for. Portales incurred the sole 
odium of this severity. His activity and energy were ever present 
and before the public. He had a difficult task to perform in recon- 
ciling jarring interests, and pushing out this system of reform, 
but he did it fearlessly. No selfish feeling seemed to actuate him. 
His enemies admit that his disinterestedness was extraordinary, and 
that neither himself nor his family were benefited by his public 
employment. The remains of that unqniet military spirit, the 
growth of revolution, would occasionally show itself, but the 
government instantly crushed it, and sent the offenders out of the 
country. A good understanding was sought with foreign powers. 
A treaty was effected with Mexico, and one with the United States ; 
and a mission to accomplish one with Peru, sent up by President 
Orbejoso, was met with confidence. Unfortunately, when the ratifi- 
cation of the latter was about being exchanged, a military revolt broke 
out in Peru, headed by a Colonel Salaverry, which succeeded in 
driving the legal government from Lima, and established one there 
of which Salaverry declared himself supreme chief. 

The Chilian government, too anxious to complete the treaty, which 
was advantageous to the two countries, sent it to Peru, and exchanged 
ratifications with Salaverry, who was at the time acknowledged to be 
the de facto ruler, as far as decrees and possession of the capital 
went, In this view of the case, Chili had an undoubted right to 
conclude the treaty, and to expect that it would be observed. The 



224 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 



ratification of the treaty by Salaverry was followed by his sending a 
minister to Chili, although the ambassador of the former government 
(Orbejoso's) was still there. This was the germ from which grew 
the misunderstanding that occurred on the restoration of Orbejoso's 
government, which was effected through the intervention of the Pre- 
sident of Bolivia, General Santa Cruz, who had been called upon by 
Orbejoso for assistance. This resulted in the defeat of Salaverry, the 
establishment of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, and the naming of 
Santa Cruz as Supreme Protector, for life, by assemblies convoked by 
him, and the appointment of Orbejoso as President of North Peru. 

While these matters, however, were in progress, Orbejoso, who had 
returned to Lima after the battle of Socabaya, immediately on his 
arrival annulled the treaty with Chili, with no other notice to the 
latter government than the public decree, by which she was informed, 
that four months were allowed her to renew it, or not, otherwise it 
would be of no effect. 

Chili took umbrage at this abrupt mode of proceeding, and allowed 
the time to pass, when both governments restored the former retalia- 
tory duties on their respective products. 

Santa Cruz framed a new commercial code for Peru, and among 
its articles was one imposing double duties on all vessels touching at 
any Chilian port, before going to Peru. This measure was odious 
to Chili, and was considered as evincing unfriendly feelings. Whilst 
Chili was in the full tide of prosperity, and attending to her own 
internal regulations, the administration, satisfied that all was quiet at 
home, appears to have been utterly regardless of the course things 
were taking 1 in Peru. President Prieto at this time was re-elected 
for a second term, upon which General Ramon Freyre, the former 
director of Chili, but for some years banished the country, and living 
in Peru, set out with a lew other exiled Chilian officers, on a 
revolutionary adventure to Chili. Embarking in two Peruvian 
government vessels, hired from Orbejoso ostensibly for a trading 
voyage to Central America, he had really the intention of proceeding 
to the south of Chili, and making a descent upon the coast. He 
entertained the expectation of being joined by the old military and 
other dissatisfied persons, and was in hopes of finally establishing 
himself again in power. Some few days subsequent to Freyre's depar- 
ture from Lima, the Chilian consul-general hearing of it, despatched 
a fast-sailing vessel to apprise his government. The vessel had a 
very short passage, and the intelligence took the government entirely 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 225 

by surprise. They were wholly unprepared for an attack from any 
quarter. Their only armed vessel was a small schooner, and this 
was employed at the time to bring the electoral returns from Chiloe. 
The intelligence, however, caused government no alarm. With a 
promptitude characteristic of Portales' system, which was now fairly 
established, a dismantled brig-of-war was rigged, a crew shipped, and 
made ready for sea in four days. Gun-boats were armed, and every 
precaution taken to guard against surprise. At the same time 
government received tenders of service from people of property and 
influence, throughout the whole republic, and few felt any doubts 
that the result of the affair would be in favour of the government. 

Soon after, the largest of Freyre's vessels, with some of his best 
officers on board, was brought in by her crew, and delivered up. It 
was ascertained that the rendezvous was to be Chiloe. No time was 
lost in sending off the prize, with a good equipment, to decoy Freyre, 
if possible. He was found in possession of Chiloe. The stratagem 
was successful, and they returned with him prisoner, and the other 
vessels as prizes. Thus ended, in the short space of two months, an 
expedition headed by one who had been the most popular ruler Chili 
ever had. Though possessing still many friends in the country, he 
found himself a prisoner and not a voice raised to his rescue. His life 
was considered forfeited, as he had been banished by the present gov- 
ernment, and had come to introduce anew all the horrors of civil war 
into a peaceful country. The recollection of his distinguished ser- 
vices to the nation in times past, his having with honour to himself 
and credit to his country filled its highest office, and no doubt some 
sympathy for his changed situation, obtained for him the clemency of 
the government. He and his adherents were again banished, and no 
person connected with him otherwise punished. He was also per- 
mitted to see his family frequently during his confinement. 

The result of this attempt had the effect of strengthening the 
administration. People of property and respectability, even of oppo- 
site parties, rallied around it : a satisfactory proof that there was a 
love of order rising, and that the supremacy of civil rule would no 
longer submit to changes effected by arms. 

In the meanwhile, circumstances seemed to justify the belief of 
the connivance of the Peruvian government in Freyre's plan. 
It had been notified by the Chili consul-general, a few hours after 
the vessels sailed, of the true objects of the voyage, and there was still 
time to prevent their success. They shuffled out of the affair, and 

VOL. I. 5? 



226 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 

on learning that the consul-general was despatching a vessel to 
inform his government, they put an embargo on the port of Callao. 
The vessel, however, had sailed before the order reached the port ; 
on understanding which the embargo was immediately raised. 

This was publicly commented on at the time by foreigners in the 
place, and afforded conclusive evidence that the Peruvian government 
was concerned in the plot. The Chilian vessels of war, Achilles and 
Colocolo, the only ones possessed by the government, were despatched 
suddenly on secret service. A confidential agent accompanied them. 
They went to Callao, and seized upon three Peruvian vessels of war 
lying in the harbour, to take away the only means of offence in the 
power of a government which had proved itself so unfriendly. This 
being done, the vessels were taken over to the island of San Lorenzo, 
and anchored under the guns of the Chilian vessels. The Chilian civil 
agent demanded explanations respecting Freyre's expedition. Before 
these were given great excitement prevailed on shore, at what was 
conceived to be an outrage against civilized nations ; for it was said 
that the Chilian vessels had entered under the guise of friendship, 
and while partaking of the hospitality of a nation at peace witb their 
own, had basely taken advantage of it to insult the country. The 
Chilian consul-general, when the news first reached Lima, was 
subjected to a short arrest. Finally, matters settled down, and the 
parties agreed to discuss the subjects of complaint on board the 
English sloop-of-war Talbot. Santa Cruz sent one of his principal 
officers, and a convention was agreed upon for the suspension of 
hostilities on both sides for the term of four months. The Peruvian 
vessels were to remain in possession of the Chilians, and no warlike 
preparations during the time were to be made by either party. Santa 
Cruz disavowed any participation in Freyre's plans, and expressed 
his willingness to pay Chili her loss in putting the invasion down 
He also bound himself to the performance of his part of the conven- 
tion, leaving the Chilian agent subject to the approbation of his 
government, and assured him of his earnest desire for a good under- 
standing with Chili. 

The vessels returned to Chili, a diplomatic agent of Santa Cruz 
accompanying them. The Chilian government refused to ratify the 
convention, as soon as it was informed of it, and proceeded in the 
most active preparations for fitting out all the captured Peruvian 
vessels. At this time it might have dictated any terms to Santa 
I ruz, who was anxious to secure his newly acquired power. Chili, 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 227 

however, had no confidence in him, and prepared for the coming 
struggle. Santa Cruz's minister returned to Peru. He was followed 
by the Chilian fleet, having a high diplomatic agent on board, with 
the government sine qua non, viz., the abandonment of the Con- 
federation, and the restoration of the independent sovereignties of 
Peru and Bolivia. Santa Cruz refused to receive a minister attended 
by an armed force, which had the appearance of a menace. In vain 
did the Chilian minister offer to send them away, and remain in the 
smallest vessel of the squadron, saying the latter was merely to guard 
against a repetition of Freyre's expedition. Nothing was done. The 
Chilian minister returned home, and Chili then declared war against 
the Confederation, on the 12th of December, 1836. Freyre's attempt 
was crushed in August, 1836. 

Chili became sensible too late, of her error in not protesting at 
first against the armed interference of Santa Cruz in the affairs of 
Peru, by not doing which she tacitly assented, and thus encouraged 
him. But, occupied with her internal concerns, she heeded little 
what was passing around her, and had not Freyre's expedition been 
fitted out in Peru, Santa Cruz's plans of government would have 
been unmolested. She felt too late that no confidence could be placed 
in her new neighbours. Bent, therefore, on his downfall, an expedi- 
tion against him was planned, composed of naval and land forces, and 
numerous banished Peruvians living in Chili were permitted to 
join, who formed themselves into a separate body, under General La 
Fuente, a distinguished Peruvian revolutionist. The first ill effects 
of a revival of a military spirit in Chili were now experienced. As 
before mentioned, one of the reforms of the government was the 
reduction of the army to a number barely sufficient to protect the 
southern frontier against the Indians. To create a force, therefore, 
it became necessary to raise recruits in every direction. Congress 
being in session, granted extraordinary powers to the President, a 
very necessary step to give effect to executive decrees. 

The following is a translation of a decree of the President, issued 
by Portales, as Minister of the Interior, at the breaking out of the war : 

Department of the Interior. 

In consequence of the power that the 43d and 82d articles of the 
Constitution have conferred upon me, I have well considered and 
approved the following resolution of the National Congress. 

1 st. He who has been condemned to remain in a particular part of 



228 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILL 

the Republic, or exiled from it by the judicial sentence, and for the 
crime of sedition, conspiracy, and riot, will suffer death if he breaks 
his confinement or exile. 

2d. In whatever part of the Republic any one of the criminals 
included in the foregoing article may be apprehended, without the 
limits that have been assigned to him, the authorities will seize and 
shoot him, within twenty-four hours, without any other proofs than 
may be necessary to identify the person, and without suffering any 
appeal to a higher authority. 

3d. The present law will begin to act, respecting all those who are 
expelled the Republic for the crimes which are expressed in the first 
article. 

On this account I direct it to be promulgated, and to take effect in 
all parts, as a law of the state. 

^ „ (Signed) Prieto. 

Diego Portales. 

Santiago, January 28th, 1837. 

Inasmuch as the National Congress has declared the state to be in 
actual war with Peru, and in consequence clothed the President of 
the Republic with all the necessary powers that his prudence may 
find necessary, for the exigency of the state, without any other limi- 
tation than that he shall not condemn or give punishment of his own 
will, but leave these to be judged by the established tribunals, or those 
which this present government may hereafter establish. In conse- 
quence of the authority conferred upon me, I promulgate, by the 
articles forty-third and eighty-second of the constitution, sanction, 
approve, and order the foregoing decree to be made public, through 

the P re ^ Prieto. & 

Diego Portales. 

Santiago, 31st January, 1837. 

This decree did not fail to renew the complaints of old parties 
against the government as despotic, &c. To carry on the war, part 
ot two battalions of a veteran regiment from the south arrived at 
Valparaiso, under the command of Colonel Vidaurre, a brave and 
distinguished officer. They were ordered to Quillota, where recruits 
were to join them, until the regiment should be full, and where they 
were to be drilled and disciplined, for embarkation. Vidaurre was 
appointed head of the staff of the army, under Admiral Blanco 
J^ncalada, commander-in-chief. A regiment of one thousand four 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 009 

hundred men was soon completed, and reported to be in fine order. 
The navy, composed of seven vessels, was ready to sail. At this 
time Portales, being minister of war, came to Valparaiso, to hasten 
the departure of the expedition, and to give his personal inspection to 
its materiel. Vidaurre was his protege, and an invitation to a ball, 
said to be about being given in Quillota, sent by Vidaurre, was 
accepted by Portales, who intended going there to examine the 
condition of the troops. At the same time, he determined on 
carrying Vidaurre his epaulettes and promotion as brigadier and 
chief of the staff. On the afternoon of the 3d of June, 1836, 
Vidaurre ordered the troops into the square for Portales' recep- 
tion. When all were assembled, Vidaurre made a signal; some 
soldiers advanced, surrounded and seized Portales, who was not 
allowed to say a word, but was hurried to prison, and heavy irons 
put on him. An acta, or declaration, was drawn up and signed 
by about forty officers, all subalterns, containing the usual phraseo- 
logy of such documents, about tyranny, injustice, suffering country, 
&c. A servant of Portales escaped unseen, and brought the 
astounding intelligence to Valparaiso, soon after midnight, creating 
the greatest consternation. It was naturally supposed that an officer 
of Vidaurre' s energy and character would push for Valparaiso 
without delay. If he had done so he would have taken it. Alarm- 
guns were fired, and before daylight the militia were under arms, and 
not long after the squadron, consisting of some seven vessels, were 
hauled towards the Almendral. In the course of the day, some few 
hundred men, sent by Vidaurre, were met and repulsed by a body 
of militia. Not long after, a flag of truce was sent to the town, 
demanding the delivery of the "Port" and vessels, threatening, in 
the event of a refusal, to execute Portales, and in case the town was 
taken, to give it up to plunder, besides shooting every officer found in 
arms. It is said that Vidaurre offered to save Portales' life if he 
would write an order for the surrender of the town. This he refused 
with indignation. The authorities, nevertheless, remained firm, and 
allowed the flag to return. The greatest anxiety prevailed in the 
Port, as a night attack was apprehended, and it was feared the 
militia, new to warfare, would run, or perhaps join the revolters. 
The measures taken to defend Valparaiso were admirable. No con- 
fusion was observed, and the greatest alacrity was manifested by 
every officer of the government and citizens to aid the cause of order. 
The foreign merchants, however, sent their books, papers, and money, 
vol. i. 58 



230 POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILL 

on board the English frigate Blonde, the only foreign vessel of war 
in port. Vidaurre came on, confident of success. He encountered 
the militia at the entrance of the Port, about 2 o'clock in the morninc, 
and met with so warm a reception that he was compelled to fall back. 
The militia pushed on, directed by Admiral Blanco. The go- 
vernor, Colonel Vidaurre, a cousin of the revolutionist chief, followed 
him up so closely that it ended in a complete defeat, Vidaurre's 
troops scattering themselves in every direction, himself flying with, a 
lew officers. When the fate of his troops was decided, his step-son, 
who was in the rear, where Portales was in a gig, heavily ironed, 
had him taken out, with his secretary, and shot. Portales not being 
killed by the first fire, was bayonetted, with savage brutality, in 
various parts of his body, which they left in the road, covered with 
thirty-five wounds. The pursuit continued throughout the day; the 
soldiers were left without officers, and gradually returned to their 
old quarters, where they were incorporated with other regiments. 
Some days elapsed before Vidaurre and his accomplices were taken. 
Although a feeling of horror pervaded the community at the fate of 
Portales, yet the most perfect order and confidence continued. 
Neither on his examination, nor that of his officers, did it appear 
that the movement had been encouraged by any party in the country. 
In fact, it could only be inferred that he was ambitious to play the 
part of a second Salaverry. 

Order triumphed most completely. The militia had arrayed itself 
on its side, and increased confidence was felt in the government 
though there were not wanting some who predicted its speedy 
downfall, now that it was deprived of its most efficient member 
\ idaurre was replaced by a much more respectable person, General 
Aldunate, a man characterized as the Don Quixote of honour by 
those less scrupulous than himself. The government gained by 
this exchange, but the loss sustained in the death of Portales was 
irreparable. He stood alone; he worked for his country; and his 
late was most unmerited. Deeply did every true friend of Chili 
deplore it. He had taught that the civil authority could be made 
supreme and he will have one of the most conspicuous places in the 
history of Chili. He was in the prune of life, about forty-two years 
of age, unmarried, and at no period were his services more required 
His energy, however, seemed to have been imbibed by the whole ad- 
ministration, and no abatement took place in the preparations for war 
\ idaurre and his officers were tried by a court-martial held in 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILI. 231 

Valparaiso, and condemned to be executed. Twelve were shot, the 
rest were banished. This was the first execution of such a sentence 
for political offences that had ever occurred in Chili. Some pretended 
to bode ill from it, but its effects so far have been salutary; and 
these desperate characters will not be inclined to run headlong into 
revolutionary movements after seeing the fruits of it. 

The expedition, composed of three thousand men, finally sailed, 
and disembarking at Islay, proceeded to Arequipa, the second city of 
Peru, of which they took possession. Santa Cruz's troops retired to 
the interior. Lafuente was here proclaimed Supreme Chief, according 
to prescribed forms in such cases provided, and set about organizing 
his government, filling offices without a real of revenue, or any source 
from which he could raise any. No disaffected Peruvians joined 
them, and their situation became very critical, as Santa Cruz was 
concentrating his forces, and threatened to cut off their communi- 
cation with their ships. Thus hemmed in, they would have been 
obliged to surrender at discretion. These advantages were possessed 
by Santa Cruz, and the Chilians saw no way of escape. Why Santa 
Cruz should have lost this opportunity to strike a decided blow, is 
inconceivable. He did, however, lose it, and proposed to treat. 
Communications passed for some days. Santa Cruz's army aug- 
menting daily, was now double that of the Chilian general, who 
seemed to have no alternative but submission. Still he put a brave 
countenance on the affair, and signed at Paucarpata a treaty with 
Santa Cruz, having previously held a council of war, which was at- 
tended by the minister plenipotentiary which the Chilian government 
had sent with the expedition. There was no voice raised against the 
treaty. It was honourable to the Chilians, and saved their whole 
army. Festivities followed, after which the Chilian army embarked 
and returned home. Neither the government nor the people were 
satisfied. Blanco was received coldly, and landed secretly. The 
President refused to ratify the treaty. It was considered dis- 
graceful, as the object of the war was not gained, and singularly 
enough, the war now became popular with all parties. The army 
landed in perfect order. Blanco was deprived of his command, and 
a court-martial ordered. The troops were again sent to Quillota, 
and the greatest enthusiasm seemed to prevail. A new and more 
formidable expedition was determined on, and General Bulnes, the 
President's nephew, who commanded the troops on the frontiers, and 
w r as known as a bold dashing officer, was appointed to the command. 



232 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF CHILL 



Many thought the government mad, foresaw forced loans, and all the 
attendant evils, great financial difficulties, and, eventually, revolution. 
Still the government moved steadily on. Six thousand men were 
soon got together, well officered, well equipped, and with a military 
chest well filled. It is generally believed that the church made a 
loan to the government for this war, and it is said that they possess 
one-eighth of the landed property of the country. The second 
expedition sailed, confident of success. No loans were asked for 
by government, nor any funds other than the ordinary revenue used, 
yet no account remained unpaid. This was and continues to be the 
marvel of every one. The greatest regularity was observed in all 
the dealings of the government agents ; no complaints of extortion or 
abuses were heard. The internal affairs of the country went on as 
if no war existed. Improvements were not neglected ; light-houses 
built ; roads improved ; and no interruption took place in the usual 
operations of government. With this last expedition went General 
Gamara, one of the fathers of Peruvian revolution, grown gray in the 
service. Lafuente went as his adjunct, though he had once made a 
revolution against him. With these went a host of military leeches, 
Peruvian exiles, ready to bleed their country to its last gasp. High- 
sounding words of patriotism, oppressed country, self-devotion, &c, 
flowed from them in most extravagant terms. From their local 
information it was well for the Chilians to have them, but they were 
the fire-brands of the army as a part of its material. Bulnes, a plain 
blunt soldier, it was felt would use- no ceremony with any of them 
if he found them playing the fool, which those who knew their 
characters thought they would. 

The remaining part of the operations of the Chilian army in Peru, 
will be treated of when I give the sketch of the history of that 
country. 



mAm.. 




STIRRUPS, srURS, ETC., OF CHILI. 



CHAPTER XII. 



CONTENTS. 

PORPOISE SAILS-ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS-DIFFICULTIES OF LEAVING THE BAY 
—REGULATIONS OF PORT BADLY OBSERVED— CONDUCT OF THE CAPTAIN OF HAMBURG 
VESSEL — DEPARTURE — PART COMPANY WITH PEACOCK AND TENDER — EVENTS ON 
PASSAGE TO CALLAO— ZODIACAL LIGHTS— MAKE THE COAST OF PERU— TEMPERATURE 
OF WATER— ENTER BOUQUERON PASSAGE— ANCHOR AT SAN LORENZO — GEOLOG[C A L 
STRUCTURE OF ISLAND — BURYING • GROUND — ARRIVAL OF FALMOUTH — C APT ATN 
M'KEEVER— HIS KINDNESS— DESERTERS— CONDUCT OF CREW OF RELIEF— PUNISHMENT 
—EFFECTUAL SUPPRESSION OF SUCH CONDUCT — COURT-MARTIAL — JUSTIFICATION — 
CHANGE OF ANCHORAGE TO CALLAO— HErGHT OF LIMA— MOLE— CALLAO— VESSELS IN 
PORT— CASTLE— DESCRIPTION OF HOUSES— RELIGIOUS PRACTICES — MARKET — REVIEW 
OF TROOPS— OLD CALLAO— EFFECTS OF EARTHQUAKE— VAULTS FOR DEPOSITING THE 
DEAD— POPULATION OF CALLAO— FOURTH OF JULY— ROAD TO LIMA — DEVASTATIONS- 
BELLA VISTA — APPROACH TO LIMA — ENTRANCE AND APPEARANCE — ITS PLAN — 
AMUSEMENTS — SAY A AND MANTA — ITS PRIVILEGES — DESCRIPTION OF IT— HOUSES— 
PORTALES OR ARCADES— PALACE— FOUNTAIN— CATHEDRAL— CRYPT— NOVEL HEARSE- 
MARKET— CONVENT OF SAN FRANCISCO— LIBRARY— SIGNATURE OF PIZARRO— FOUNDING 
OF LIMA— THEATRE — NAVAL SCHOOL — CLASSES OF NATIVES —POPULATION — NEWS- 
PAPERS-HAND-BILLS— FESTIVAL— CORPUS CHRISTI— MR. MATHEWS— MANUFACTORIES- 
FESTIVAL OF ST. JOHN'S— AMANCAES — CELEBRATION— EARTHQUAKES— EFFECTS PRO- 
DUCED—GATEWAY, NAVAL SCHOOL— CLIMATE— RAIN-MEAN TEMPERATURE— HEALTH— 
RIMAC-IRRIGATION— HARVEST— CHILIAN ARMY-STATE OF THE COUNTRY-MANNER OF 
RECRUITING THE ARMY — TREATMENT OF SLAVES-DEATH OF BENJAMIN HOLDEN — 
SMALL-POX— PRECAUTIONS ADOPTED. 



< 






























• 


















. .* *. 






CHAPTER XII. 

PERU. 
1839. 

On the 26th of May, the Porpoise sailed for Callao, in order that 
some repairs might be made on her, which our time here did not 
admit of. At Valparaiso the weather was extremely unfavourable 
for astronomical observations. I had been in great hopes of being 
able to obtain a series of moon culminating stars, and occultations, 
but no opportunity occurred, so that I had to content myself with 
those for rating the chronometers, and to connect this port with Callao. 
The longitude adopted for Fort San Antonio, was 71° 39' 20" W., 
which is the last determination of it by King and Fitzroy. 

On the 4th we made an attempt to get out of the bay, bnt were 
obliged again to cast anchor. At this season of the year, light 
northerly winds usually prevail, and a heavy swell frequently sets in 
the bay, making the roadstead very uncomfortable, and at times 
dangerous. The vessels are too much crowded, and the regulations 
of the port are not sufficiently attended to. 

I was not a little amused with the master of a Hamburg barque, 
who dropped his anchor so as to foul the berth of my ship, and when 
he brought up, swung close alongside. He seemed perfectly satisfied 
with his situation, and apparently knew little about his business, 
showing all the doggedness of his countrymen. The weather looking 
threatening, I sent him word to move, stating that in case of a change 
of wind, he would be greatly injured. He quietly replied that his 
vessel was made of teak, and that his underwriters or my government 
would pay his damages, and that he could stand a good deal of 
grinding ! Without more ado, I sent an officer and men, and put him 
at once out of my way. 



236 PERU. 

On the 6th, we had a breeze from the southward and eastward, and 
immediately got under way with the squadron, and succeeded in 
making an offing. As we opened the land to the southward my view 
and thoughts wandered in that direction, hoping that still, and at the 
last moment, the missing tender might heave in sight. But no white 
speck was seen, or any thing that could cause a ray of hope that she 
might yet be in existence, and my fears foreboded what has since 
proved too true, — she and her crew had perished. 

On the second day after leaving Valparaiso, we had a fresh gale 
from the northward, accompanied with much sea. During the night, 
in thick weather, we lost sight of the Peacock and Flying-Fish. On 
the 9th we got beyond the wind, which blows along the coast from 
the northward, and our weather improved, exchanging fog, rain, mist, 
and contrary winds, for clear weather, and winds from the southwest. 
The current was found west by north, nine miles in twenty-four 
hours. The wind, however, continued variable. On the 12th, in 
longitude 74° 40' W., latitude 28° 34' S., we took the trades, but they 
proved very unsteady. They would be very strong for a few hours, 
and then again light and almost calm, with squally appearances all 
around the horizon. The sea was quite smooth, and the weather 
pleasant. During the days that the trade winds were not strong, we 
usually had the wind to vary to the northward and eastward for a 
few hours. 

On the morning of the 19th, the zodiacal light was quite brilliant, 
resembling the aurora borealis, but without its radiating, vacillating, 
and transitory appearance, and having the form of a distinct narrow 
cone. At its base it was 20° ; the apex could not be ascertained on 
account of the intervention of clouds. As the dawn increased the 
cone grew broader, until it was lost in the daylight. Its whole 
duration was about forty-five minutes. The stars were seen through 
it, as though covered with a transparent veil. On the same day we 
found the temperature at bottom in eighty-three fathoms 57°, whilst 
at the surface it was 63°. We were then abreast of Point Sola, and 
San Lorenzo bore to the north, distant twenty-five miles. 

On the 20th, in the evening, we passed through the Bouqueron 
Passage, having got several casts of the lead in three and a quarter 
fathoms water, and by the assistance of the lights of the other vessels, 
anchored near the rest of the squadron at San Lorenzo, after a pas- 
sage of thirteen days. We found them all well, and proceeding 
rapidly with their repairs. The Peacock and Flying-Fish arrived 



PERU. 237 

two days before us. We found the current generally with us, but not 
strong. The temperature of the water varied at sea from 58-27° to 66-5°, 
that of the air, from 57-3° to 63-04°, a rise of eight degrees in the former 
and six degrees in the latter in twenty-one degrees of latitude. 

On receiving the reports of the commanders of the different vessels, 
active operations were at once begun to refit, replenish our stores, and 
complete our duties. The necessary changes in officers and men 
were made, in consequence of my determination to send the Relief 
home. This I did on several accounts. I have stated that from the 
first I found her ill adapted to the service ; her sailing I saw would 
retard all my operations, and be a constant source of anxiety to me ; 
and I felt that I already had objects enough without her to occupy 
and engross my attention. The expense was another consideration, 
which I conceived myself unauthorized to subject the government to, 
particularly as I found on calculation, that for one-tenth of the sum it 
would cost to keep her, I could send our stores and provisions to any 
part of the Pacific. 

We found it necessary to have the Relief smoked, in order to 
destroy the rats with which she was infested, to save our stores 
from further damage. During this time the repairs of the Porpoise 
had been completed, and the usual observations for rating our 
chronometers, and with the magnetic instruments, were made on 
shore; and such officers as could be spared allowed to visit Lima. 
The naturalists were also busy in their several departments. We 
remained at San Lorenzo ten days, during which time its three 
highest points were measured with barometers at the same time. 
The result gave eight hundred and ninety-six feet for the southern, 
nine hundred and twenty for the middle, and twelve hundred and 
eighty-four feet for the northern summit. Upon the latter the 
clouds generally rest, and it is the only place on the island where 
vegetation is enabled to exist, The others are all barren sandy 
hills. It is said that the only plant which has been cultivated is 
the potato, and that only on the north peak. This becomes possible 
there from the moisture of the clouds, and their shielding it from 
the hot sun. 

The geological structure of the island is principally composed of 
limestone, clay, and slate. It presents a beautiful stratification. 
Gypsum is found in some places between the strata, and crystals of 
selenite are found in one or two localities. Quantities of shell-fish 
are found on the shore, and the waters abound with excellent fish. 
vol. i. 60 



238 PER U. 



The burying-ground is the only object of interest here. The 
graves are covered with white shells, and a white board, on which is 
inscribed the name, &c. They appear to be mostly of Englishmen 
and Americans, and it would seem that the mortality had been 
great. But when one comes to consider the large number of men-of- 
war which have been lying in the bay, and the period of time elapsed, 
the number of dead does not seem large. 

It was with much pleasure we greeted the arrival of the Falmouth, 
Captain McKeever, whose kindness in supplying our wants and 
forwarding our operations, we again experienced. The essential and 
timely aid he gave me, in exchanging the launch and first cutter of 
his ship, for materials to build one, which I had brought from Valpa- 
raiso for that purpose, prevented our detention here. 

The Falmouth brought from Valparaiso three deserters from the 
squadron, who had been apprehended by Lieutenant Craven, and 
from whom I received a report stating that two of them, Blake and 
Lester, had been guilty not only of desertion, but that their desertions 
had been attended with very aggravated circumstances. Just about 
this time the stores were delivering from the Relief. Among them 
was a quantity of whiskey for the other vessels. The marines who 
were placed on duty over the spirit-room as guard, with six persons 
employed in moving it, got drunk by stealing the liquor, and her 
whole crew became riotous. The delinquents were ordered on board 
my ship in confinement. These were court-martial offences, but the 
duties of the squadron would not permit me to order a court for their 
trial, without great loss of time and detriment to the service. To let 
such offences pass with the ordinary punishment of twelve lashes 
would have been in the eyes of the crew to have overlooked their 
crime altogether. I was, therefore, compelled, in order to preserve 
order and good discipline, to inflict what I deemed a proper punish- 
ment, and ordered them each to receive twenty-four lashes, excepting 
Blake and Lester, who received thirty-six and forty-one. This was 
awarding to each about one-tenth of what a court-martial would have 
inflicted ; yet it was such an example as thoroughly convinced the men 
that they could not offend with impunity. This was, I am well satis- 
Led, considered at the time as little or no punishment for the crimes 
of which they had been guilty, but I felt satisfied that the prompt 
and decided manner in which it was administered would have the 
desired effect of preserving the proper discipline, and preventing its 
recurrence. In this I was not disappointed. I should not have 



PERU. 



239 



made this statement, had it not been that this was the sole charge out 
of eleven, spread out into thirty-six specifications, on which a court of 
thirteen members, after an investigation of three weeks, could find I 
had transgressed the laws of the navy in the smallest degree. In 
justification of my course on this occasion, I could not but believe 
that the following clause of my instructions from the Hon. J. K. 
Paulding, Secretary of the Navy, ought to have sufficed: "In the 
prosecution of these long and devious voyages, you will necessarily 
be placed in situations which cannot be anticipated, and in which 
sometimes your own judgment and discretion, and at others necessity, 
must be your guide." Under this I acted. I am fully satisfied that 
in this case circumstances did occur, which in the language of my 
instructions did make "necessity my guide," and I fully believe that 
in so doing I saved the results of the Expedition, the honour of the 
navy, and the glory of the country. 

On the 30th of June the squadron went over to Callao. 

The Bay of Callao is too well known to require much to be said of 
it. The climate, combined with the prevailing winds, make it a fine 
harbour. The island of San Lorenzo protects it on the west from the 
swell of the ocean, but its northern side is entirely exposed ; there is 
no danger to be apprehended from that quarter. A few miles to the 
north the influence of San Lorenzo ceases ; the surf there breaks very 
heavily upon the beach, and prevents any landing. 

The gradual manner in which the extensive plain rises from 
Callao towards Lima, seems to give a very erroneous idea of the 
situation of the city. From the bay it is seen quite distinctly, about 
six miles distant, and does not appear to be elevated ; yet I measured 
the height of Mr. Bartlett's house above the level of the sea by 
sympiesometer, and found it four hundred and twenty feet. The 
rise would be scarcely perceptible to a stranger passing over the 
road, or one who had not a practised eye. 

The tide at Callao is small, generally of three and four feet rise. 
The temperature of the water during our stay was 60° ; of the air 
from 57° to 63°. 

Since my visit to Callao in 1821, it had much altered and for the 
better, notwithstanding the vicissitudes it has gone through since that 
time. A fine mole has been erected, surrounded by an iron railing. 
On it is a guard-house, with soldiers lounging about, and some two or 
three on guard. 

The mole affords every convenience for landing from small vessels 



240 PER U. 

and boats. The streets of Callao have been made much wider, and 
the town has a more decent appearance. Water is conducted from 
the canal to the mole, and a railway takes the goods to the fortress, 
which is now converted into a depot. This place, the seaport of 
Lima, must be one of the great resorts of shipping, not only for its 
safety, but for the convenience of providing supplies. The best idea 
of its trade will be formed from the number of vessels that frequent it. 
I have understood that there is generally about the same number as 
we found in port, namely, forty-two, nine of which were ships of war : 
five American, two French, one Chilian, and thirty-live Peruvian 
merchantmen, large and small. 

The Castle of Callao has become celebrated in history, and has long 
been the key of Peru. Whichever party had it in possession, were 
considered as the possessors of the country. It is now converted to a 
better use, viz. : that of a custom-house, and is nearly dismantled. 
Only five of its beautiful guns remain, out of one hundred and forty- 
five, which it is said to have mounted. During our visit there the 
Chilian troops had possession of the country, which they had held 
since the battle of Yungai. Most of the buildings are undergoing 
repairs since the late contest. 

It is said that the fortress is to be demolished, and thus the peace 
of Callao will in a great measure be secured. 

The principal street of Callao runs parallel with the bay. There 
are a few tolerably well-built two-story houses on the main street, 
which is paved. These houses are built of adobes, and have flat 
roofs, which is no inconvenience here, in consequence of the absence 
of heavy rains. The interior of the houses is of the commonest kind 
of work. The partition walls are built of cane, closely laced together. 
The houses of the common people are of one story, and about ten feet 
high; some of them have a grated window, but most of them only a 
doorway and one room. Others are seen that hardly deserve the 
name ot houses, being nothing more than mud walls, with holes 
covered with a mat, and the same overhead. 

The outskirts of Callao deserve mentioning only for their excessive 
filth, and were it not for the fine climate it would be the hot-bed of 
pestilence. One feels glad to escape from this neighbourhood. 

The donations to the clergy or priests and the two small chapels 
are collected on Saturdays from the inhabitants. On the evening of 
the same day, the devotees of the church, headed by the priest, carry 
a small portable altar through the streets, decorated with much tinsel 



PERU. 241 

and various-coloured glass lamps, on which is a rude painting of the 
Virgin. As they walk, they chaunt their prayers. 

The market, though there is nothing else remarkable about it, 
exhibits many of the peculiar customs of the country. It is held in 
a square of about one and a half acres. The stands for selling meat 
are placed indiscriminately, or without order. Beef is sold for from 
four to six cents the pound, is cut in the direction of its fibre, and 
looks filthy. It is killed on the commons, and the hide, head, and 
horns, are left for the buzzards and dogs. The rest is brought to 
market on the backs of donkeys. Chickens are cut up to suit pur- 
chasers. Fish and vegetables are abundant, and of good kinds, and 
good fruit may be had, if bespoken; in this case it is brought from 
Lima. Every thing confirms, on landing, the truth of the geogra- 
phical adage, " In Peru it never rains." It appears every where 
dusty and parched up. 

We had a good opportunity of visiting the far-famed fortress. It is 
said to be able to contain ten thousand troops ; and, from its extent, 
would appear capable of accommodating that number with ease. 
What engaged our attention most, was a review of the soldiers of 
the garrison. They are about eight hundred strong, and every one 
seemed to be "acting on his own hook," as they are said to have 
done in the late battle. The officers, instead of swords, carried cow- 
hides, about five feet in length, which they applied with earnestness 
to the men, and indeed, from appearances, they seemed to require it, 
if they were ever to be changed into soldiers. 

The situation of old Callao is still visible, under the water, and 
though an interesting object, becomes a melancholy one, when one 
thinks of the havoc a few minutes effected. The very foundation 
seems to have been upturned and shaken to pieces, and the whole 
submerged by a mighty wave. The wonder is that any one escaped 
to tell the tale. 

Two crosses mark the height to which the sea rose : the upper 
one, one-third of the way to Lima, indicates the extreme distance to 
which the water flowed; the lower one marks the place whither 
the Spanish frigate was carried. I very much doubt the truth of 
either. I can easily conceive that a great wave would be sufficient 
to carry a large vessel from her moorings half a mile inland, but I 
cannot imagine how the water should have reached the height of one 
hundred and fifty feet at least above the level of the sea, and yet 

VOL. I. 61 



242 PERU. 

permitted two hundred inhabitants of old Callao to have escaped on 
the walls of a church which are not half that height. 

Outside the walls of the fortress are several large vaults, filled 
with the dead, in all stages of decay, and on which the vultures were 
gorging themselves : this was a revolting spectacle. Indeed, it is truly 
surprising that the higher classes, and those in immediate authority, 
should not feel the necessity of appearing more civilized in the dispo- 
sition of their dead. Many are thrown in naked, and covered only 
with a few inches of sand. Great numbers of skeletons are still seen 
with pieces of clothing hanging to them. Dogs and vultures in great 
numbers were every where feeding upon the dead, or standing aloof 
fairly gorged with their disgusting repast. If any thing is calculated 
to make a people brutal, and to prevent the inculcation of proper 
feeling, it is such revolting sights as these. 

Callao is said to contain between two and three thousand inhabi- 
tants; but this number, from the appearance of the place, seems to be 
overrated. Several new buildings are going up, which proves, that 
notwithstanding the times of revolution, they still persist in carrying 
on improvements. The principal street is about a third of a mile in 
length, and is tolerably well paved, with sidewalks. Billiard-sions 
stare you in the face. This, I presume, may be set down as the 
great amusement, to which may be added the favourite monte at 
night. There is no lack of pulperias. 

Coaches, or rather omnibusses, run several times a day to Lima 
The old accounts of robberies on the road to Lima, are still fresh in 
the mouths of strangers. In times of revolution it was infested by 
robbers, but the steps taken by government have effectually put a 
stop to them. l 

The 4th of July was duly celebrated. The Falmouth, Captain 
M Keever, fired a salute in honour of the day, and the Vincennes 
was dressed with national flags. 

On the road to Lima is Bella Vista; but it is in ruins, and has 
been so ever since the revolution. It was generally the outpost 
or battle-ground of the two parties; and although the soil in 
the plain which borders the sea is extremely fertile, consisting of 
decomposed rock, containing the elements of fertility in the greatest 
abundance, it now appears a neglected waste. Attention to its 
cultivation and irrigation would make it a perfect garden On 
approaching Lima, the gardens and fields are found to be cul- 



PERU. 043 

tivated and well irrigated. Fields of Indian corn are seen, some 
fully ripe, some half-grown, and others just shooting up, — a novel 
sight to us. This bears testimony not only to the fineness of the 
climate, but to the fertility of the soil. The gardens near the city 
are filled to profusion with fruits of all descriptions. 

The road, on its near approach to the city, forms an avenue of 
about a mile in length. This, in its prosperous days, was the usual 
evening drive, and afforded a most agreeable one. On each side are 
gardens filled with orange trees, the fragrance of whose flowers, and 
the beauty and variety of the fruit, added to its pleasures. It is now 
going to decay from utter neglect. Its rows of willows, and the 
streams of running water on each side, though forming its great 
attraction, will, if suffered to remain without attention, be completely 
destroyed. No one seems to take interest in the public works. So 
marked a difference from Chili could not but be observed. 

At Lima I was struck with the change that had taken place since 
my former visit. Every thing now betokens poverty and decay; 
a sad change from its former splendour and wealth. This appear- 
ance was observed not only in the city, but also among the in- 
habitants. Whole families have been swept off, and their former 
attendants, or strangers, have become the possessors of their houses 
and property. 

The country lias been a scene of commotion and revolution for the 
last twenty-five years, of which Lima for a long time was the centre. 
The fate of Lower Peru being entirely dependent on it, and the fortress 
of Callao, the alternate possessors have stripped it and its inhabitants 
in every way in their power. It may with truth be designated a 
declining city. 

The neglected walls and ruined tenements, the want of stir and life 
among the people, are sad evidences of this decay. The population 
is now said to be about forty-five thousand, although in former times 
it has been supposed to amount to as many as sixty-five or seventy 
thousand. 

The aspect of the city, especially a bird's-eye view from the 
neighbouring hills, gives to the eye of the stranger the appearance 
of ruins. There are few buildings that have the look of dura- 
bility, and no new ones have been put up for the last forty years. 
The plan of the city combines more advantages than any other that 
could have been adopted for the locality. The streets are at right 



244 p E R u - 

angles, and all sufficiently broad. Those which run with the 
declivity of the ground, northwest and southeast, have water flowing 
through their middle. They have not, however, a very clean ap- 
pearance ; but this is certainly not to be imputed to the want of the 
facility of being made so. The uses to which these streams are put, 
and the numerous buzzards that frequent them, gives the stranger 
any other idea than that of cleanliness. The buzzards are protected 
by law, and may be seen fighting for their food in the gutters, 
regardless of passers; or sitting on the tops of the houses, thirty or 
forty in a row, watching for more food. 

Great attention has been paid to laying out the Alameda, which is 
on the north side of the city. Its centre is ornamented with a 
number of fountains ; its walks are well shaded on each side with 
trees ; and the running water adds to its freshness : all unite to 
form a delightful promenade. In the cool of the evening it is much 
frequented, and its stone seats are occupied by numbers of citizens. 
This is the best place to get a view of the inhabitants ; and notwith- 
standing their internal commotions, they appear fully to enjoy their 
cigarittas, which they are constantly smoking. The peculiar dress 
of the ladies is here seen to the best advantage, and, however fitted it 
may be to cover intrigue, is not, certainly, adapted to the display of 
beauty. A more awkward and absurd dress cannot well be conceived. 
It is by no means indicative of the wearer's rank, for frequently this 
disguise is ragged and tattered, and assumed under its most forbid- 
ding aspect to deceive, or carry on an intrigue, of which it is almost 
an effectual cloak. 

I never could behold these dresses without considering them as an 
emblem of the wretched condition of domestic society in this far- 
famed city. 

The saya and manta were originally intended as a retiring, modest 
dress, to mark reserve, to insure seclusion, and to enable ladies to go 
abroad without an escort. The general term for the wearers is 
Tapada, and they were always held sacred from insult. Tapada is 
likewise applied to a dress which is also frequently seen, viz. : a shawl 
worn over the head, so as to cover the nose, mouth, and forehead. 
None but the most intimate friend can know the wearers, who fre- 
quent the theatres in this disguise. It is to be regretted, that it is 
now worn for very different purposes from its original intention. 
Intrigues of all kinds are said to be carried on under it. It enables 



PERU. 245 

the wearer to mix in all societies, and to frequent any place of 
amusement, without being known, and, even if suspected by her 
husband or relatives, the law of custom would protect her from 
discovery. In this dress, it is said, a wife will pass her own husband 
when she may be walking with her lover, and the husband may 
make love to his wife without being aware it is she. 

The saya is a silk petticoat, with numerous small vertical plaits, 
containing about thirty yards of silk, and costing fifty or sixty 
dollars. It is drawn in close at the bottom of the dress, so that 
the wearer is obliged to make very short steps (ten inches). It 
is a little elastic, and conforms to the shape, whether natural or 
artificial, from the waist down. The manta is a kind of cloak, of 
black silk. It is fastened to the saya at the waist, and brought over 
the head and shoulders from behind, concealing every thing but 
one eye, and one hand, in which is usually seen a cross, or whose 
fingers are well ornamented with jewels. Before the manta is 
arranged, a French shawl of bright colours is thrown over the 
shoulders, and brought between the openings of the manta in front, 
hanging down nearly to the feet. The loose saya is also much worn : 
this is not contracted at the bottom, and in walking has a great 
swing from side to side. 

The walk of the Lima ladies is graceful and pretty, and they 
usually have small feet and hands. 

The houses are built of sun-burnt brick, cane, and small timber. 
All those of the better class have small balconies to the second story. 
Most of the houses are of two stories, and they generally have an 
archway from the street, secured by a strong portal, leading into an 
open court. The lower, or ground-floor, is used as store-houses, 
stables, &c. This peculiar manner of building is intended as a 
security against the effects of earthquakes. The housetops are a 
depository for all kinds of rubbish, and the accumulation of dust is 
great. The staircase leading to the upper story is generally hand- 
some, and decorated with fresco paintings, which are, however, far 
below mediocrity. This style of building is well adapted to the 
climate. 

The Portales or Arcades is one of the most attractive places for the 
stranger. He is there sure at all hours to see more of life in Lima 
than at any other place. They are built on two sides of the Plaza. 
The ground-floor is occupied as shops, where all kinds of dry-goods 

vol. i. 62 



246 PERU. 

and fancy articles are sold. Between the columns, next the Plaza, 
are many lace and fringe-workers, &c. ; and without these again 
are sundry cooks, fresco-sellers, &c., who are frying savoury cakes 
and fish for their customers, particularly in the morning and late in 
the evening. 

The Arcades are about five hundred feet long, well paved with 
small stones, interlaid with the knuckle-bones of sheep, which pro- 
duces a kind of mosaic pavement, and makes known the date of its 
being laid down as 1799. This place for hours every day is the great 
resort, and one has a full insight to every store, as they are all doors, 
and consequently quite exposed to their remotest corner. The second 
story is occupied as dwellings. 

The Palace of the Viceroy occupies the north side of the Plaza. 
The lower part of it is a row of small shops, principally tinkers and 
smallware dealers. On the east side is the Archbishop's Palace and 
the Cathedral. 

The fountain in the centre of the Plaza is a fine piece of work, and 
was erected, according to the inscription, in 1600, by Don Garcia 
Sarmiento Sotomayer, the Viceroy and Captain-General of the 
kingdom. 

11 El que bebe de la pila sequenda in Lima," is the usual saying. 
" He that drinks of the fountain will not leave Lima." 
The Cathedral is a remarkable building, not only from its size, but 
its ornaments. Most of the decorations are in bad taste, and I should 
imagine its former riches in the metals and precious stones have 
contributed chiefly to its celebrity. Certainly those ornaments which 
are left cannot be much admired. 

Its great altar, composed of silver, might as well be of lead or 
pewter, for all the show it makes. In a chapel on one side of the 
building, there is a collection of portraits of the Archbishops. They 
are good faces, well painted, and all are there but the one who at the 
breaking out of the revolution, proved faithful to his sovereign and 
the Spanish cause. They all have had the honour, except him, 
to be interred in niches, in the crypt, under the great altar. Many 
of the coffins are open, exposing the dried-up remains of the saints, 
clothed in leather jackets and shoes, which the sacristan made no 
difficulty about disposing of for a trifle. Two skulls and a hand 
were obtained. There is some good carving about the choir of the 
Cathedral. 



PERU. 



247 



A hospital is attached to this church. A novel sort of hearse was 
seen employed here, with four drawers as temporary coffins. 




HOSPITAL HEARSE. 



The market of Lima is kept in an open square. It is a strange 
place to visit, and the scene that is witnessed there cannot fail to 
amuse the stranger. It is well supplied, and many purchasers fre- 
quent it. There are no stalls, and mats are used in their stead. The 
meat is laid on them in rows, and the vegetables heaped up in piles. 
Some of the piles consist of only one kind, but they are generally all 
mixed together. The meat, as at Callao, is cut with the grain, and 
into small pieces, to suit the purchasers ; and poultry is cut up in a 
similar manner. But what will most attract a stranger's notice, are 
the cooking establishments. These are in great request ; stews, fries, 
and olla-podridas, are in constant preparation by some brawny dame, 
who deals out, with much gravity and a business-like air, the small 
pieces to the hungry Indians who stand by waiting for their turn. 
The fried dishes, seemed to claim their preference, if one could judge 
by the number in waiting. The expertness of the woman who offi- 
ciated was truly wonderful, twisting and twirling the dough in her 
hand, placing it upon a stick, dipping it in the hot oil, and slipping 
it as soon as cooked dexterously into the dish for her customers. 
Then again was a frier of pancakes close by, equally expert. The 
variety of dishes cooking was surprising, and those who fried fish 
exhibited undoubted proofs of their freshness, by consigning them to 
the pan before they had ceased to live. 

I was surprised at the variety of fish, meats, vegetables, and fruits ; 
the latter particularly. These were in season, and included oranges, 
cherimoyers, pomegranates, paltas, plantains, bananas, papaws, grana- 
dillas, apples, figs, and ananas. 



248 PERU. 

The above are the usual articles crowded into the market, but were 
I to stop here, one half would not be told. All sorts of goods, jewelry, 
cottons, woollens, laces, hardware, linen fabrics, handkerchiefs, shoes, 
slippers, hats, &c, are hawked about by pedlers with stentorian lungs, 
who, with the lottery-venders, with tickets, ink-horn, and pen, selling 
the tickets in the name of the Holy Virgin and all the saints, make 
an uproar that one can have little idea of, without mixing in, or 
witnessing it. 

The convent of San Francisco occupies six or seven acres of 
ground. In its days of prosperity it must have been a magnificent 
establishment. Its chapels are very rich in gilding, carved work, 
&c, and the cloisters are ornamented with beautiful fountains and 
flower-gardens. Part of it is now occupied by the soldiers as 
barracks, and their muskets are stacked on the altar of one of its 
chapels. It has long since been stripped of its riches and deserted, 
but it seems once to have possessed all that wealth, luxury, and taste 
could effect or suggest. The good Father Anculus, who showed the 
building, was shrewd and obliging. The gallery of paintings con- 
tains, it is said, many fine Murillos. The remains of its former 
splendour, even now, justifies what Father Feuillee asserted, that 
there was nothing of the kind to compare with it in Europe. There 
are but few friars here at present, but it is said to have formerly main- 
tained five hundred, living in the greatest luxury and licentiousness. 
The most remarkable object in the church, was the shrine and image 
of a black Virgin Mary, with a white infant Saviour in her arms. 

The public library is composed of rare and valuable books, both in 
French and Spanish, taken from the Jesuits' College and convents. 
They are in good order, and among them are many manuscripts, 
which are beautifully illuminated. The librarian, a young priest, 
deserves our thanks for his attention and civility. 

The public museum has been but lately commenced. It contains 
a collection of curious Peruvian antiquities, some native birds, and 
the portraits of all the Viceroys, from Pizarro down. At the cabildos, 
or city hall, are to be seen some of the archives of Lima, kept until 
recently in good order. Many signatures of the old Viceroys and 
Governors are quite curious ; among others, that of Pizarro is shown. 
As few of them could write, they adopted the Rubrica, made by 
placing the finger of the left hand and making the flourish on each 
side of it, the clerk filling in the name. This method has since been 



PERU. 



249 



generally adopted among the South Americans, in signing official 
document?, being considered full as binding as if the name was 
written. 




The book in which the signatures were written, was entitled : 

LIBRO 1° DE LOS CABILDOS 

DE ESTA CIUDAD DE LOS REYES, 

QUE CORMIENZA, 

EL ANO DE 
1534. 

This would make it appear that the city was founded a year before 
the date given in Herrera, Garcilaso, Calancha, Montalvo, and others, 
who dispute about the day of the month, without having regard to 
the year. This book bears evidence that the municipality was orga- 
nized a year prior to that given by them as the year in which the 
city was founded, and shows that they have made a chronological 
error as to the year ; but very little doubt can exist that the city 
must have been founded before the municipality existed. 

The theatre is a handsome building, although much out of repair. 
It was brilliantly lighted the night we visited it, and was crowded 
with numerous officers in full uniform. Among them were many 
Chilians of rank. The ladies in the boxes were in full costume, and 
made a great display of jewels. In the parterre there were many 
"tapadas." The horrors of the Inquisition formed a prominent part 
of the subject of the play. For the performance I cannot say much. 

Near the Alameda, on the north side of the city, is a large oblong- 
enclosure of nearly eight acres, with thick stone walls, and a large 
gateway at each end. It was intended for a naval school, and theatre 
to exhibit sea-fights. It contains large reservoirs, which were in- 
tended to be filled with water from the Bimac, and to have possessed 
a tiny fleet, some of which it is said were actually constructed. 
This was a favourite project with one of the last Viceroys, and a 

vol. i. 63 



250 PERU. 

more absurd one could scarcely have been conceived. The water 
is now used for a much better purpose, namely, to turn the machi- 
nery of some adjacent mills. 

There are three classes of inhabitants, viz. : whites, Indians, and 
negroes. The union of the two first produces the cholo, of the 
two last, the zambo, and of the first and last, the mulatto. The 
Spaniards, or whites, are a tall race, particularly the females. They 
have brown complexions, but occasionally a brilliant colour, black 
hair and eyes. Some of them are extremely beautiful. The cholos 
are shorter, but well made, and have particularly small feet and hands. 
All classes of people are addicted to the smoking of cigars, even in 
carriages and at the dinner-table. It does not seem to be considered 
by any one as unpleasant, and foreigners have adopted the custom. 

The cholo women partake of the dark brown skin of the Indian, 
have low figures, short round faces, high cheek bones, good teeth, and 
small hands and feet. Their whole figure is robust in the extreme. 

There does not appear to exist any accurate account of the popula- 
tion of Peru, but it is generally believed to have decreased, particularly 
the whites and negroes. The best information gives but little over a 
million inhabitants, viz. : about one hundred and twenty-five thousand 
whites; natives and cholos, eight hundred thousand; with ninety 
thousand negroes and ranchos, of whom about thirty-five thousand 
are slaves. This does not vary much from the number given by the 
geographies forty years ago. The country appears, from all accounts, 
not only to have decreased in population, but to have diminished in 
wealth and productiveness. A much less proportion of the soil is 
cultivated than under the " Children of the Sun." 

There are half a dozen newspapers published in Lima, two of these 
daily. They are, like the Spanish, small sheets. They have a good 
deal of control over public opinion. Few or no advertisements are 
seen in them. These are deemed unnecessary in Lima, and all the 
amusements, such as the theatre, cockfighting, &c, are placarded on 
the portals. A high price is asked for these papers. 

On the 30th of May there was a grand procession, on the festival 
of Corpus Christi. It was preceded by a party of negroes, dressed in 
the most gaudy colours, singing, dancing, and keeping time to a 
native tune, somewhat like Mumbo Jumbo, to testify their joy that 
the blessings of Christianity had reached them. Then followed some 
priests, bearing lamps covered with artificial flowers, and swinging 
censers. Next came the shrines of the Virgin and saints, covered 



PERU. 251 

with tinsel and gold, mounted on large pedestals, and borne on the 
shoulders of men. After this came the host, and on its passing every 
one uncovered and kneeled down. Then came the military, who were 
all out, and offered us a fine opportunity of viewing the recruits, the 
greater proportion of whom were Indians. The government had 
been ferreting out the Indians in a manner hitherto unpractised. 
There was much mixed blood among the Peruvian soldiers, cholos, 
zambos, and some few negroes, while the Chilian troops had very 
little. Among the Chilians, the regiment of Portales was pointed 
out, which had left Chili six hundred strong, and was now reduced to 
four hundred. 

During my stay at Lima, I had the pleasure of an introduction to 
Mr. Mathews,* whose researches in natural history are so well 
known. Combined with his being a good naturalist, he has great 
talent as an artist. His portfolio contained many beautiful drawings 
of plants, flowers, and birds, from beyond the Cordilleras. He owns 
an estate of thirty miles square, at the foot of the eastern slope of the 
Cordilleras, for which I think he had paid one thousand dollars. He 
is married to a woman of the country, is extremely enthusiastic in 
his researches, and has lately recovered some of the unpublished 
manuscripts of Ruiz and Pavon. 

There are several small manufactories of gold lace, &c, but nearly 
all the goods sold and consumed in the country are foreign. Lima is 
the great retail place. There has been lately set up a manufactory 
of glass, but too recently to judge of its success. The mechanical 
employments are numerous, but all are in a rude state. When it is 
considered that Lima was founded nearly a century before the settle- 
ment of our own country, it shows a marked difference in favour of 
the enterprise, &c, of the Anglo-Saxon race. 

On St. John's day, (24th of June,) the patron saint of Lima, a 
great festival among the lower classes — the cholos, natives, zambos, 
and blacks — takes place. It is held in the valley of Amancaes, about 
three miles north of the city. Previous to the day, a number of tents 
and booths are erected in the valley, which is about half a mile long, 
and one-third of a mile wide. These are decked out with flags and 
banners. There are tents for refreshments, strong drinks, dancing, 
gambling, &c, in every direction. 

* In the death of this gentleman science has lost one of her most zealous and enthusi- 
astic labourers. 



252 



PERU. 




On the road leading to this scene are erected shrines of the saint, 
where all who pass are expected to pay their contributions. 

On this day every horse and vehicle in Lima are engaged, and at 
exorbitant rates. The whole road leading to the valley is crowded 
from an early hour in the morning. The higher classes generally 
frequent it early and return soon, while those of the middle and 
lower classes continue to keep it up until a late hour. Every one 
is decked with the flowers of the Pancratium Amancaes, which grows 
in great abundance in the place where the festival is held, and the 
decoration extends even to the horses and mules, as well as to the 
booths and vehicles. As the day advances the crowd increases. No 
4th of July in our own country could equal the uproarious drunken- 
ness that ensues. Dancing is the favourite amusement. The dance 
in which they most delight is a national one, called the samacueca, 
and no words can give an idea of its vulgarity and obscenity. I 
think it a happy circumstance that it is confined to this country. 
One Amancaes' day would upturn a whole year of morals. As 
intoxication ensues it goes to extreme lengths. Italia (or rather 
pisco,) is pledged to every one, and many are seen with bottle and 



PERU. 253 

glass passing about, and pledging happiness and prosperity, in the 
hope of getting a small reward. The music to which they dance 
consists of a small guitar, accompanied with the voice, and beating 
of time; the time is quite monotonous, somewhat resembling the 
Spanish seguidilla. The crowd is great, consisting of cholos, 
zambos, negroes, and whites, variously dressed and jumbled toge- 
ther, — some singing, some begging, fighting, swearing, laughing; 
no order, all confusion. This is the centre of the fray. On the 
outskirts are seen groups of the better classes, sitting down to their 
pic-nics. 

The acting President and Governor of Lima, Lafuente and staff, 
honoured the place with their presence, to please the people. He did 
not, however, appear to receive any honours, nor was his arrival 
greeted with marks of approbation or enthusiasm. Towards evening, 
when the inebriated mass is returning, the great sport of the day 
occurs. The cholo women, who ride astride, are remarkably good 
horsewomen, and extremely expert in managing their horses. Their 
dress is peculiar : a large broad-brimmed hat, with flowing ribands of 
gay colours, short spencer or jacket of silk, a gaudy calico or painted 
muslin skirt, silk stockings, blue, pink, or white satin shoes, and over 
the whole is sometimes worn a white poncho. Large wooden 
stirrups, ornamented with silver, numerous pillions, a saddle-cloth, 
and richly ornamented bridle, all decked with amancaes, form the 
caparison of the steeds. 

Nothing can exceed the confusion of the return of this great 
throng, moving over a dusty road, shouting and racing. The cholo 
women are always on the lead, and actively engaged in taking care 
of their drunken partners, who are frequently seen mounted behind 
them, with their faces flushed from the effects of pisco, forming an 
odd contrast to the beautiful yeliow r flowers that adorn their hats. 
The great feat of the women who ride single, is to unhorse their 
companions, which they frequently succeed in doing, to the great 
amusement and sport of the pedestrians, and the discomfiture of their 
male associates. They are seen while at full gallop to stop suddenly, 
whirl round two or three times, and go off again at full speed, 
covering themselves and the bystanders with dust. Just before 
reaching the city, the road is lined with vehicles, not unlike our cabs, 
in w^hich are seated ladies in full costume 

The Alameda, as well as the streets leading into it, is crowded on 
this occasion with all the fashion of the city. Though the crowd 

vol. r. 64 



254 



PERU 



would lead to the belief that every body was abroad, yet the doors 
and windows are filled with heads, more or less decorated with 
amancaes. This is a festival nowhere surpassed in drunkenness and 
uproar. 

Most of the buildings in Lima have suffered more or less from 
earthquakes. It was the season of earthquakes during our stay, and 
three were felt. Some of our gentlemen complained of a sickening 
sensation during the first. It did not, however, do much damage. 
The second took place on the 5th of June, and was sensibly felt ; 
a third was experienced on the 10th of June, with a continued 
shaking of the walls and floors. The last was reported as having 
been more severe to the northward. At lea, an official statement 
reported that about one thousand jars of pisco had been broken. 
They are usually set up on end, in contact with each other, and 
contain from seven to ten gallons each. It is truly surprising how 
long the churches have stood, with their lofty towers. Curious 
effects have been produced in some places. Two conical adobe caps 
of the Franciscan Convent have been shifted from their places ; one 
as if by a rotary motion or force apparently in a direction from left 
to right; the other is turned half round, and seems ready to fall. 
Another instance was noted at the gateway of the naval school before 
spoken of. A large block has been turned one-fourth round, while 
those under it remain in place. 

These adobe blocks have generally a large iron rod running 
through them. A representation in the annexed figure of the latter 
is given. 




GATEWAY OF THE NAVAL SCHOOL. 



With the name of Peru the want of moisture is generally asso- 
ciated. The general impression is that it never rains there. This, 



PERU. 255 

however, is far from being strictly true, except in certain parts of 
it. Were it not, however, for irrigation by the mountain streams, 
a great portion of Peru would certainly become nearly a desert. 
Indeed the upland is so now, not yielding any herbage whatever 
until the pasture region of the Cordilleras is reached. We are 
not to imagine, however, that the atmosphere is very clear, or that 
sunshine always prevails. It is extremely difficult to get a clear 
day. Father Feuillee has put upon record, more than a century 
ago, that the heavens were generally obscured. I can bear testimony 
to the truth of this remark, for although a glimpse of the sun was 
usually had some time during the day, yet it was almost as difficult 
to get equal altitudes at Callao during our stay as it was at Terra del 
Fuego. 

The dew (almozo) of Lima is never so great as to produce running 
water, yet it is more like rain than a Scotch mist. 

The peculiarity of their being no rain, has been accounted for in 
several ways, but not to me satisfactorily. The prevailing cold and 
dry winds from the southward sweep over the western shores of the 
continent; having a great capacity for moisture, they absorb it as 
they advance to the northward, from every thing ; on reaching the 
latitude of 12° S., they cease, and having become saturated, now rise 
to a sufficient height, where they are condensed by the cold strata, and 
again deposited on the mountains in almost constant rains. This will 
account for the aridity in the high Cordilleras of Chili, as well as for 
the existence of the desert of Atacama, and the want of rain on the 
coast of Upper Peru ; and at the same time, for the moisture of the 
high Cordilleras of Peru, which will be shortly spoken of. It will 
be remembered that our parties on the Cordilleras of Chili found the 
aridity to increase on ascending, to the very edge of the perpetual 
snow T , and all the plants were of a thorny character. 

The records of Lima mention the falling of rain only four times in 
the eighteenth century, and the occurrence of thunder and lightning 
an equal number of times. But this applies to a small part of Peru 
only, namely, the country bordering the coast, some fifty or sixty 
miles in width, around Lima. It will be seen that our party who 
visited the interior, w T hen at the height of ten thousand feet, entered 
a region subject to rain, and on the crest of the mountains the soil 
w r as kept perfectly moist by the frequent snows and rain. 

Mr. Bartlett, our Charge d'Affaires, gave me the range of the ther- 
mometer at Lima throughout the year, as being from 60° to 85° ; 



•256 PER U. 

during our stay, which was in their winter months of May and June, 
the range was from 65° to 69°. 

Fire is not used often, but from the continual dampness there is a 
cold and clammy feeling, that is exceedingly uncomfortable and pre- 
judicial to health. Lima has certainly the reputation of being a 
healthy place— how obtained I know not— but it certainly does not 
deserve it. 

The interments have annually averaged over three thousand five 
hundred, in a population amounting by the best accounts to no more 
than forty-five thousand. Many of these deaths are those of strangers, 
and the climate has always been fatal to the Indians. 

During our stay at Callao, the temperature of the air varied from 
57° to 63°. On July 4th, it stood at the same point in both places. 
The temperature of the Rimac on the 11th of June, was 69° to 71°; 
on the 4th of July, 64°. 

The Rimac derives its waters exclusively from the snows of the 
Cordilleras. It is a mountain torrent throughout its whole course. 
The quantity of water in it is small. The width at its mouth is about 
thirty feet, and one foot deep. It has not sufficient force to break a 
passage through the beach to the sea, and the water filters throuo-h 
the pebbly soil. 

In Peru, when the land is irrigated, it is one continued vegetation 
throughout the year. Harvests are gathered in every season, and 
flowers and fruits may be seen at the same time. On the east side of 
the Cordilleras the harvest takes place about the middle of June. 
Tarma and Jauja are the first cultivated districts. The » montanas," 
as they call the forests, are situated at the eastern base of the Andes. 
Their crest is estimated to be thirty or forty leagues from the coast, 
and it is about fifteen leagues farther to the montanas. The ther- 
mometer during the jaunt to the Cordilleras ranged from 50° to the 
freezing point of Fahrenheit. 

During our visit, the Chilian troops were in possession of the 
country, and Lima was garrisoned by them. They were a sickly 
and worn-out body of men, the tertiana prevailing to a great extent 
among them. They were apparently well clad, new clothing having 
been issued to them at the expense of the Peruvian treasury. They 
were all, I was told, extremely anxious to return to Chili. Although 
the nominal power was in the President, Gamarra, or the acting 
Governor, Lafuente, until his arrival, yet Bulnes commanded and 
watched over their proceedings. The Peruvians are to all intents 



PERU. 25? 



and purposes a conquered people, although they profess to think the 
Chilians their friends, and say that the war was only against Santa 
Cruz and his policy. No favourable accounts can now be given of 
the state of Peru. A want of confidence exists every where. The 
government is bankrupt in principle and funds. The tenure of 
property is uncertain, and oppression, extortion, and want of principle 
have brought the country to the verge of ruin. The people are 
harassed by the frequent changes, and the government, military, and 
constantly changing, gives rise to all kinds of disorder. This' is to 
be imputed to the ambition of the various rulers or generals, who 
endeavour to keep old and little understood controversies in a constant 
state of agitation, for their own benefit. Revolution is the order of 
the day. One broke out again in Payta a few days before we sailed, 
and Peru was raising troops to attack Bolivia. 

Their manner of recruiting the army is not unlike the press-gangs 
of England. They scour the country far and near for recruits, and 
if not obtained, compel every poor Indian met with, to serve against 
his will. Agriculture, and every other kind of honest industry, has 
fallen into disrepute, if not into entire neglect, and the whole country 
is left in a continued state of anarchy and confusion. Yet, extraor- 
dinary as it may seem, one would never suspect, from the outward 
appearance of its inhabitants, that the country could be in such a 
state. All their pastimes go on as usual. Among these, the festivals 
of the church are most conspicuous; for they yet claim the outward 
respect of all, both high and low, and constitute the only bond that 
holds society together. All are subservient to the rites of the church. 
Even the Chilian general officers dismount and kneel on the passing 
of the procession, and all the different guards, with their officers, not 
only give the military salute, but also drop on their knees. 

I was much struck with the sight of a mistress and her slave, who 
had followed her to the cathedral, kneeling on the same piece of cloth, 
telling their beads, and saying their prayers together. This I was 
told was quite common. It seemed a tacit acknowledgment that 
religion reduced all to the same level. From what I could learn, the 
slaves are treated with great kindness. 

During our stay here, we had the misfortune to lose one of the 
marines, Benjamin Holden, who had been transferred but a few days 
from the Relief to the Peacock. He was interred at San Lorenzo. 
One of the servants on board the Peacock, a boy, was discovered to 
have the small-pox. He was immediately removed to a tent at San 

vol. i. 65 



258 



PERU. 



Lorenzo, and every thing provided for him, until he could be sent to 
Lima, Mr. Bartlett, our consul, having procured the permission for 
his removal there. 

Every precaution against this disease had been taken, by vaccina- 
ting the crews after leaving the United States. 

I felt great uneasiness lest we might carry it with us to the Islands, 
where it might spread among the natives, and render our visit 
ever memorable by the introduction of that dreadful scourge. All 
the clothing, and every thing that had been in any w T ay connected 
with the sick, or his nurses, was destroyed, in the hopes of rendering 
us exempt from the contagion. 




LIMA HOUSE. 



CHAPTER XIII. 



CONTENTS. 

A PARTY FOR THE INTERIOR — PREPARATIONS FOR THE JOURNEY — PASSPORTS— MR. 
BIGGS — DEPARTURE — EFFECT OF OFFICIAL PAPERS— FACE OF COUNTRY — RUINS OF 
INC A TOWNS — PONCHORUA — C A BALLEROS — CONVOY OF SILVER — ACCOMMODATIONS — 
EARTHQUAKE— ROUTE UP THE VALLEY OF CAXAVILLO— FACE OF COUNTRY— ST. ROSA 
DE QUIVI— YASO— OBRAJILLO— DIFFICULTIES IN PROCURING MULES— BEAUTY OF SITUA- 
TION — LLAMAS — RIOTERS — PLUNDERING OF INHABITANTS — CULNAI — LA VINDA — 
VEGETATION— MULETEERS ENCOUNTERED— REACH THE CREST OF THE CORDILLERAS— 
CASA CANCHA— ITS ACCOMMODATIONS— COOKING RANGE— SICKNESS OF PARTY-SNOW- 
STORM— ALPAMARCA— COMPANY OF PERUVIANS — THEIR ATTENTIONS — PROCESS OF 
AMALGAMATION OF ORE— MR. BEVAN— VISIT TO THE MINE— FACE OF THE MOUNTAIN- 
ROAD— B A NOS-HOT SPRING— BEAUTY OF VALLEY— VEGETATION— THREATENED ATTACK 
OF A CONDOR— PORTRAIT— INCIDENTS RELATING TO IT— DESCRIPTION OF BANOS— ITS 
HABITATIONS— STATE OF HORSES— RETURN TO CASA CANCHA-CHILIAN CONVOY FROM 
PASCO-PASCO— MINES— VEINS OF ORE— NUMBER OF MINES IN OPERATION — LAWS IN 
RELATION TO SILVER MINED— DUTIES— HILL OF RACO— NEW SPECULATIONS IN 1840— 
DIFFICULTIES IN PURCHASING MINES — THE POLITICAL STATE OF THE COUNTRY 
ADVERSE TO THIS BUSINESS — TEMPERATURE — BEAUTY OF SITUATION OF CASA 
CANCHA — THEIR DEPARTURE ON THEIR RETURN — LINE OF PERPETUAL SNOW — 
AMMONITE — CHICRINE — TRAVELLING PARTIES — FRENCHMAN — HIS COMPLIMENTS — 
CULNAI — CULTIVATION — HOSPITALITY — OBRAJILLO — ACCOMMODATIONS — WANT OF 
GALLANTRY— GUIDES — SETTLEMENT — BRIDAL PARTY — YASO — ROBBERY — YANG A — 
HOSTESS— A NGELITA-CABALLEROS— RETURN TO LIMA- BOTANICAL REVIEW— GEOLOGI- 
CAL CHARACTER OF THE COUNTRY— FLYING-FISH SENT TO PACHACAMAC— LANDING- 
TEMPLE— TOWN— TOMBS— THETR CONTENTS— EMBARKATION— RETURN TO CALLAO. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

PERU — CONTINUED. 
1 8 3 9. 

On the arrival of the Relief at Callao, Messrs. Pickering, Rich, 
Agate and Brackenridge, requested permission to make a jaunt to the 
Cordilleras of Peru, for the purpose of making botanical collections. 
I felt much gratified that this object had been effected, although I 
could not but regret that they were suffered to depart without the 
necessary instruments for obtaining the altitudes, which had been put 
on board the Relief at Orange Harbour, for that very purpose. 

Mr. Rich spoke the Spanish language well, which afforded the 
party many facilities for overcoming the difficulties that were thrown 
in their way. 

In Lima the journey was considered as a very serious undertaking, 
and likely to be attended with much danger, from the banditti who 
frequent the route they intended to pass over, — that to the mines of 
Pasco. Through the friendly assistance of Mr. Biggs, of the house 
of Messrs. Bartlett & Co., every thing was made easy. By his 
advice they supplied themselves, not only with blankets and horse- 
furniture, but with all sorts of provisions, and particularly with 
bread, of which they took as much as they could carry, notwithstand- 
ing the country was described as well inhabited. As a preliminary 
step, it was necessary to provide themselves with passports, for which 
they lost no time in applying. After the delay of a day, the pass- 
ports came in the form of a letter of protection, and recommendation 
from Lafuente himself, to the local authorities throughout all Peru, 
couched in the most liberal terms, and treating the affair with as 
much importance as if it was a national one. It is a regulation that 
the names of all who receive passports, shall be published in the 
official gazette ; their intention, therefore, became known to all Lima. 

vox. i. 66 



262 PERU. 



From the few who are gazetted, it would appear that but a small 
number travel into the interior, or that the regulation is not very 
strictly complied with. 

The injunction to render the party assistance in case of need was 
very strong, and among other things specified to be furnished, was 
cbthing, which was thought to look somewhat ominous in' this 
country of banditti. In spite of the positive terms in which the 
passport was expressed, it was found of little effect in procuring 
them mules or horses; and it was not until after much trouble and 
disappointment on many sides, that horses were at last obtained from 
the post establishment. 

On the 16th May they were ready to set out, and were accom- 
panied for some miles by Mr. Biggs, whose friendly advice and 
assistance they had often, during the jaunt, to be thankful for It 
saved them much inconvenience, and was the cause of their being 
provided with many little comforts, without which they would have 
suffered. 

Their proposed route was up the valley of the Rio de Caxavillo 
the river next to the northward of the Rimac. Leaving Lima, they 
passed through the suburbs of San Lazaro, at the gate of which and 
for the only time during the journey, they were desired to show their 
passports. Some little difficulty arose, and an intention was expressed 
to unload the baggage-mule for examination. This, however was 
soon removed by the reading of the passport, and the examination 
ended in many bows, and the repeated exclamation, « Go on, go on » 
God speed you !" Such was the talismanic effect of an official docu- 
ment at the period of our visit. 

After leaving the city their route lay along the margin of the 
extensive plain that borders on the sea, at the foot and over the low 
hills which skirt it. Many columns of dust and loose particles of 
sand were seen rising from the heated plain, by the action of the 
wind, forming vortices of considerable diameter and elevation Clouds 
of smoke, too, were visible in the distance, proceeding, according to 
the information of their guides, from the burning of the cane-brakes 
I he Peruvian willow, so much resembling the Lombardy poplar 
in its form, was much admired, and the contrast in the landscape 
between the barren clay-coloured hills and the bright sreen of the 
irrigated fields was singular. 

At the distance of three leagues from Lima, they passed through 
the rums of an Inca town, situated (as they uniformly found them 



PERU. 263 

afterwards) just on the border of the irrigated valley. The walls of 
the town were very thick, built of mud and unburnt brick, at right 
angles, very much after the modern maimer; the hills, also, were 
seen covered with the ruins of Indian buildings, some of them 
resembling fortifications. 

They now turned up a beautiful valley, on the irrigated fields of 
which were seen herds of horned cattle, horses, and goats, a proof 
that the irrigated land is not exclusively used for tillage. 

At six leagues from Lima they reached Ponchorua, the first 
stopping-place ; but the party concluded to go a league beyond it to 
Caballeros, where they passed the night. They arrived there in 
sufficient time to make a short excursion to the banks of the Rio de 
Caxavillo, which appeared a larger stream than the Rimac. 

Around Caballeros are very extensive meadows and fields of clover. 
The posada was found occupied by the guard and muleteers who 
acted as a convoy of silver from Pasco. They gave up the only room 
in the house for our gentlemen, into which they were shown, and 
wmere a good supper was provided for them, while the guard took 
up their quarters in the yard. The metal, it was observed, was in 
large masses of pina, some of them heavy enough for a load for a 
mule, and an inconvenient burthen to run away with. 

They passed the night on the tables and rude seats, under cover, a 
luxury they had not yet learned to appreciate. 

At midnight they felt the shock of an earthquake. A distant 
hollow sound was at first heard, which seemed to approach, in- 
creasing rapidly, and before they could spring to their feet the house 
was rolled and shaken as if it had been on an agitated sea. Mr. Rich 
says that it was with difficulty he could hold himself on the table 
where he had been lying. The natives of the adjoining huts ran out 
into the road, uttering horrible shrieks, striking their breasts, and 
offering up prayers to the Holy Virgin to protect them. The shock 
continued severe for forty seconds, but the phenomenon lasted alto- 
gether two minutes; it produced a slight sea-sickness, which con- 
tinued for some time afterwards, and a bewildered sensation, that 
rendered it difficult to collect their ideas to speak. The sound 
resembled that produced by throwing stones over precipices, so as 
to roll on hollow ground beneath. This earthquake was the most 
violent that had been experienced for some time, and was felt sen- 
sibly at Lima and through all Lower Peru. No material damage was 



264 PERU. 



done, in consequence, according to the people of the country, of its 
not getting to the surface. 

Early on the 17th the party set out up the dry mountain valley, 
the soil of which is composed of stones and loose powdery earth.' 
This kind of ground continued for five leagues, with not a drop of 
water, nor was a plant or bird collected ; nothing was seen growing 
but a few Tillandsias. On this route they passed many crosses, 
marking the spots where there had been loss of life : a sight that was 
not calculated to excite pleasing thoughts, and bringing to mind not 
only the great number of murders that had taken place, but the 
daily occurrence of attacks upon small parties of travellers by the 
desperadoes of Peru. 

Immediately on the confines of this dreary waste is Yanoa, a 
deserted-looking place, but having some good gardens and orchards 
At noon they reached Santa Rosa de Quivi, a small place, where 
they procured some good fruit. After travelling two leagues, they at 
dark reached Yaso, and stopped at the postmaster's house ; he was 
not at home, but they were permitted to sleep in the porch or 
veranda. Nothing edible was to be found in the village, except a 
few potatoes, after supping on which they disposed themselves on 
the clay and stones, with their arms ready for service, a precaution 
necessary at times, even in the most frequented places, in Peru. 

During the day, they had been much annoyed by sand-flies, and 
fleas were as usual in myriads at night ; besides these, they had a 
few musquitoes, but the latter are seldom felt in Peru. 

The screaming of parrots during the night had announced that 
some change had taken place in the vegetation. In the morning they 
found this to be the case. The land in the vicinity of the town was 
cultivated, and some good orchards and fields of clover seen ; the 
mountains, which had hitherto been gray with Tillandsias, had' now 
assumed a greenish tinge. Agaves made their appearance here, and 
a few miles beyond, the hills became entirely green; all showed that 
a different region had been entered. The inclined roofs of the huts 
proved that rains were experienced, and that it was found necessary 
by the inhabitants to protect themselves from them. 

The valley had now become more contracted, and level ground was 
seldom seen; the mountains increased in elevation, the roads and 
scenery partaking of the character of Madeira. Cascades were seen 
springing from almost the very summits of the high peaks ; cattle were 



PERU. 265 

grazing, and occasional cultivated patches were mingled with the 
pasture-grounds ; the aid of irrigation was no longer necessary ; and 
the Cordillera plants of the Flora Peruviana, with the vegetation made 
known by Humboldt and Bonpland, were recognised. At noon, after 
travelling six leagues, they reached Obrajillo, the rendezvous of the 
two celebrated Spanish botanists, Ruiz and Pavon, authors of the 
Flora Peruviana. 

There are three towns, Obrajillo, Canta, and San Miguel, about a 
mile distant from each other, said to contain three or four thousand 
inhabitants. At Obrajillo, the general to whom they had letters of 
introduction, was not at home; some difficulty in getting mules 
occurred in consequence, and it was not until much time and patience 
had been exhausted, that our gentlemen understood the real difficulty, 
which was, that the horses they had brought from the low country 
were not considered capable of standing the cold and fatigue of the 
mountains, the owners at Lima having refused to allow their mules 
to cross the mountains. They were assisted in procuring mules and 
guides by the general's son. 

Obrajillo, the largest of the three towns, contains about one hun- 
dred cottages. It has a stone church, with two towers, apparently of 
some age, which fronts on the open square. The dwellings are of 
one story, without floors, and almost without furniture, yet it is said 
to be the residence of many wealthy people. How true this may be, 
it was impossible from appearances to determine, for the high and 
low, the rich and the poor, all seem to live in the same style. 

The difficulties that occurred in procuring mules for their journey, 
had delayed them so long as to place it out of their power to proceed 
before the next day. The opportunity of visiting the environs was 
taken, and a large collection of plants was obtained, the annuals 
being found in the right season for making collections. The cascade 
which was seen as they approached, was visited, and exhibited a 
picturesque and beautiful appearance, even when it was four miles 
distant. 

At Obrajillo there are many nice gardens and fields, under a good 
state of cultivation. The roadside itself looked like a flower-garden, 
and flowers of almost every hue were seen on either side, Calceolarias, 
Lobelias, &c. 

Here was the first point where they had met the llama used as a 
beast of burden ; the load which they carry is from seventy to ninety 
pounds. 

vol. i. 67 



266 PER U. 

On the 19th, at an early hour, some vagabonds, assuming the name 
of Chilians, went the rounds of the village, helping themselves to 
every thing they desired, to the utter dismay of the inhabitants, who 
made no resistance. The consequence was, that having neglected 
to supply themselves with bread the evening before, they lost the 
opportunity of doing it. This was a serious inconvenience, for 
Obrajillo supplies the upper country with bread, as Lima does the 
lower, and it is procured with difficulty, except at these two places. 
Potatoes were therefore taken as a substitute, though a very incon- 
venient one, from their great weight and bulk. 

They were on their route by six o'clock, and an hour's ride brought 
them to a spot where the river formed a very picturesque rapid, soon 
after which they entered into a wild and romantic pass between steep 
acclivities and precipices of immense height. 

At ten o'clock they reached Culnai, a distance of five leagues ; it 
contains about thirty cottages; its height is believed to be ten 
thousand feet above the sea, and here cultivation ceases, ending with 
the potato, Tropaeolum, Oxalis, and Basella. The second region of 
plants also terminates here, and now ensued the " Paramera," or 
pasture region of the Andes, avoided by the inhabitants of the lower 
districts on account of the cold. This third region comprises a set of 
plants which make a gradual transition from those of the second 
region to low alpine scraggy bushes, none of which exceed two feet 
in height. The Paramera is remarkable for a dense sward of coarse 
grass, and low herbaceous plants, principally of the order Composite. 
The flowers of the latter, it was remarked, were particularly large in 
proportion to the plant. These form a rich pasturage for the flocks 
and herds, which are seen feeding in the valleys and along the sides 
of the hills. 

No cultivation was attempted beyond Culnai, and but two species 
of Cacti were met with above this. 

They had hitherto for the most part followed a northerly direction, 
but now they diverged more to the northeast. The temperature was 
falling as they ascended, the air was clear and bracing, and the 
scenery as they advanced became more interesting, and even sublime. 
To its wild and precipitous features was now added the high snowy 
peak of La Vinda in the distance, and some few spots of snow were 
occasionally seen in places sheltered from the sun's rays. The mule- 
path had become narrow, and when they met with mules, which was 
often the case, it became necessary to turn under the rocks, until the 









. - 
of>portttmiy i.i" .i.:-.- ? ■.■■ ■'■■'?k v .• M : ; *-,.. - \ «. 

•VM''i!!iA =:.. 1,51 UJ :,*:, ,-, -^ ^ Vx ^7 -^ 

- 

1 

; 

; 



PERU. 267 

path was clear. On one occasion, one of the party allowed his mnle 
to take the ontside ; the consequence was that a muleteer shoved mule 
and rider several feet over the bank. No injury was received, and 
the dilemma went off with a good laugh at the fright. 

The sagacity of the mules on these occasions is great. They 
endeavour always to cling to the wall side, and will succeed in doing 
it, if not prevented by the rider. Their caution is great when they 
apprehend danger in passing over steep places ; the instant danger 
was anticipated, the nose and fore feet were used to ascertain its 
extent, which done, the animals cautiously proceeded, and reached 
the bottom with great care and ease both to the rider and themselves. 

About three o'clock they had gained the fourth or alpine region, 
where they were met with sharp and cutting winds, accompanied 
with hail and snow, that proved very uncomfortable to their sunburnt 
faces; this was supposed to be at an elevation of about fifteen 
thousand feet. Our gentlemen now felt the effects of the elevation 
in headache, difficulty of breathing, and excessive lassitude. The 
crest of the Cordilleras is at this place a league in width, the surface 
very uneven, containing small lakes without outlets sunk in deep 
hollows; beyond this the streams which form the extreme sources 
of the Amazon were running to the eastward. After travelling 
two leagues on a gentle descent, they arrived at Casa Cancha about 
dusk. 

Those of the party who first arrived witnessed a fracas with the 
cuchillo, so often appealed to here when a misunderstanding occurs ; 
no injury, however, resulted from it. 

Casa Cancha consists of three huts, and is nothing more than a 
muleteers' rendezvous ; the place is in charge of two women, who in 
expression, if not in form, might have been taken for witches. The 
accommodations, if they may be so called, were an apartment 
common to all the inmates, with no fastening to the door or windows, 
without a fire, although the thermometer falls to the freezing point 
at night, and nothing but the hard ground to lie upon ; there is not a 
stick of wood nor any resinous Umbelliferae, as on the Chilian Andes, 
to be had, and the cooking is done with turf, when it can be obtained, 
but dry cow-dung is most frequently used for this purpose. This is 
the only and the best establishment the place affords; even the first 
females in the country can procure no better accommodations, and 
will bear it for the night with contentment. 

As a special mark of distinction, a smaller apartment was assigned 



268 



PERU. 



to our gentlemen, in a hut adjoining that in which their supper was 
cooked, of which they witnessed the preparation. The cooking 
range was of peculiar construction, and might serve as a pattern for a 
modern cuisine. It occupied one corner of the apartment, and appeared 
to be convenient and well adapted to the wants of the inmates. The 
vignette is a representation of it and the occupant. 




After a time the fore quarter of mutton made its appearance, in 
the hands of their landlady, scorched to a cinder. Being unpro- 
vided with a knife, she began to tear it into small pieces with her 
fingers. Our gentlemen remonstrated, but nothing would stop her 
until nearly every morsel of it had passed through her dirty hands. 
This, added to her state of intoxication, caused some of them to lose 
their supper from sheer disgust, though all agreed that she carved or 
tore it into pieces in a most dexterous manner. 

After supper they were informed by their guides, in much conster- 
nation, that a band of Chilian marauders were approaching; the 
whole establishment was in great uproar. The party, however, 
proved to be a convoy. The officer in charge was civil, and engaged 
freely in conversation on the pending contest between Chili and Peru. 

During the night the party were very much troubled with head- 
ache and difficulty in breathing ; they passed an uncomfortable night 



PERU. 269 

on the clay floor. The thermometer in the doorway stood in the 
morning at 33°. 

Casa Cancha is in a valley snrronnded hy lofty mountains. Its 
height, upon the authority of a gentleman at Lima, is fourteen 
thousand five hundred feet above the level of the sea. Pasturage 
in its vicinity is good; sheep and cattle are abundant; bread and 
potatoes are brought over the mountains from Obrajillo ; of these they 
have oftentimes but a scanty supply, which was the case at this 
period. The evening previous to their arrival a theft had taken 
place there, — a gentleman had had his fire-arms stolen ; a great loss 
when one takes into consideration the nature of the country, and the 
dangers to be encountered in travelling. 

On the morning of the 20th, with one exception, they were all 
affected with vomiting, headache, and fever, and still suffering much 
from difficulty in breathing; this is usually felt on first visiting these 
elevated regions, and is said to be particularly so at night. 

The morning proved so boisterous, with frequent hail showers, that 
they determined to remain the day to rest their mules and recruit 
themselves. Their breakfast was more acceptable than the last 
night's supper ; it consisted of olla podrida and milk. 

As the weather allowed them to botanize, they set out in two 
parties, but had not been occupied over two hours before they were 
overtaken by a severe snow-storm, which entirely covered up all small 
plants, and made it difficult for them to scale the rocks. 

On the 21st they had determined to proceed to Bafios, which, 
from the description of their guides, who were ignorant, however, of 
the route beyond Casa Cancha, they had been led to believe was on 
the eastern slope of the mountain. 

They started at an early hour, with the wild geese flying and 
feeding around them, determining to visit Alpamarca, which is distant 
from Casa Cancha about two leagues, but owing to their guides being 
unacquainted with the paths, they were led about among the moun- 
tains, and over extensive plains, covered with coarse herbage. A 
variety of beautiful flowers were found, and many domesticated 
llamas were seen feeding. At 11 o'clock they stumbled, as if by 
accident, on the place, consisting of a number of huts; one of these 
showed the welcome sign of bread for sale, viz., a basket stuck upon 
a long pole ; and they were fortunate in procuring some small rolls. 

Alpamarca proved to be in the vicinity of a silver mine, and here 
they found a goodly company of Peruvian gentlemen, collected from 

vol. i. 68 



27() PERU. 

various quarters, and among them the general to whom they had 
brought letters to Obrajillo. They were received with great kind- 
ness and attention; the company insisted upon their dismounting, 
and gave them the cheer they had prepared for themselves, which 
was readily partaken of. It was served in a large gourd-shell, and 
consisted of a Spanish hotch-potch, or olla, with, carrots, pot garlic, 
pepper, and small bits of mutton. It was observed, as the eatables 
were disappearing, that the Spanish Dons now and then would 
partake of the tidbits by reaching over their shoulders from behind. 
This repast was well timed, for our party had been fasting sufficiently 
long to enable them to do ample justice to it. 

On further examination the hut proved to be provided with some 
few of the necessaries of life, although the supply was not large. 

The Peruvians sent for the superintendent of the mine, and in the 
mean time showed the process of extracting the silver, which was as 
follows : the ore is broken up until it resembles earth ; it is then 
thrown into a large round vat and mixed with mercury and water ; 
six or eight mules are then turned in and driven round and round, 
until the amalgam is formed ; it is then put into a vessel, and stirred 
with water until the earth mixes with it, and the water being poured 
oif, leaves the amalgam, whence the mercury is finally evaporated. 

The ore appears to be taken almost entirely from the surface. It 
is poor, and the mines do not yield much profit. There are many 
old veins that have been extensively w r orked, but owing to their 
depth have been abandoned. 

The superintendent arrived after a while; he proved to be an 
English miner (Mr. R. Bevan,) who had been twenty years in the 
country. He was delighted to see our party, saying that an Ame- 
rican and Englishman were all the same in Peru, and that he had 
not heard his own language spoken for two years. He informed 
them that the old Spaniards had worked the mines cheaper than any 
one has been able to do since. They were large landholders, and 
contrived to keep themselves in debt to their tenants; this they 
always paid in manufactured goods, very much in demand with the 
Indians who worked the mines, thus making a double profit on the 
wages. At the present time the mines are worked by Indians of a 
mixed blood, who have a language of their own. They are much 
addicted to the use of coca, and without a supply of this leaf they 
will not work. 

Mr. Bevan took the party to the mine, which is some distance up 



PERU. 



271 



the mountain. Much difficulty was experienced in breathing the 
rarefied atmosphere, and great fatigue in walking, so much so, that it 
was necessary to stop every few steps to rest, and what was sur- 
prising, Mr. Be van and the Indians who accompanied them, appeared 
to be more affected than any of the party. He assured them it was 
the same, even with the Indians born on the spot, showing that 
neither time nor other circumstances can acclimatize a constitution 
to this high region. On reaching the mouth of the mine, they 
saw several emaciated and ghastly-looking Indians seated near the 
entrance ; they descended a few yards into it, but found that their 
time would not admit of the delay necessary to pass down to the 
places where they were at work ; and wishing to pay more attention 
to the interesting region of botany in which they then were, they 
gave up their intention of descending. 

On no part of their journey did they find so many remarkable 
plants as on this mountain; for information respecting these, the 
reader is referred to the Botanical Report. 

Towards the middle of the afternoon they had returned to the hut, 
when they determined to proceed to Banos. Previous to leaving 
Alpamarca, they had some difficulty with their guides, who were 
dissatisfied with their bargain; it therefore required some manage- 
ment to prevent them from deserting altogether, and caused our 
gentlemen some fear lest they might be compelled to return; but 
after much dispute, the guides consented to proceed, although it 
must be allowed that the bargain was far from being advantageous 
to them. 

Along the road to Banos they passed some high ridges, with snow 
and ice coming at times down to the path ; also lakes in deep ravines, 
somewhat resembling small craters, which, like all the rest they had 
seen, were tenanted by numerous water-fowl. 

The crest of the Andes did not appear quite so broad as it was 
found to be four leagues to the southward, but its elevation was 
thought to be greater. The contiguous ranges of snowy peaks, in 
the direction of Pasco, were very striking. The Indians have names 
for all the most remarkable ones, but the Spaniards embrace the 
whole, together with the principal one, under the name of La Vinda. 

From the direction of the descent to the northward and westward, 
they began to suspect they were descending upon the western slope 
of the Cordilleras instead of the eastern ; this proved to be the case, 
which was no small disappointment, as it was their original intention 



272 PERU ' 



to have reached the wooded district on the eastern slope, termed 
" montanas." In this they were therefore disappointed. As they 
proceeded the country improved, the climate became milder, and the 
soil richer : on their way they crossed a small stream, which was said 
to he the source of the river Chancai. 

At dark they reached Bafios, which is computed to be upwards of 
five leagues from Casa Cancha. Bafios is considered to be at about 
the same elevation as Culnai, but the descent is more rapid to the 
former. According to the custom of the country, they applied to the 
alcalde for accommodations, who is obliged, according to law, to 
furnish them with a house, if the town should possess none for the 
accommodation of strangers, free of expense, and to provide them 
with a cook ; the travellers buy their own provisions, and pay for the 
cooking, one real for each dish. 

Bafios is celebrated for its mineral hot springs, from which it 
derives its name ; they flow from the base of a high mountain. 

The town consists of about thirty houses, and a church of which 
the inhabitants are very proud. It is a neat village situated in a 
deep ravine, by the side of a tumbling stream, bounded on both sides 
by mountains three thousand feet high. The mountain sides appear 
so precipitous that the remark was made by one of the party, " that 
he could not conceive why the cattle that were feeding on their sides 
did not fall off." 

Along the margin of the stream, carnations, pinks, stock gilly- 
flowers, and French marigolds are naturalized; the pinks grow in 
immense numbers in every crack and crevice. 

The cabbages here are woody and arborescent, like the cow or tree 
cabbage, the trunk and branches being quite hard and covered with 
bark, and they have at a distance some resemblance to the Brug- 
mansia suaveolens. 

The thermometer stood at 50°, and the weather in comparison with 
the day before was quite mild. 

The hot spring is close to the village ; owing to their thermometer 
being for low temperatures, not graduated above 140° they did not get 
its exact temperature ; but eggs put in were cooked in about three 
minutes, and their tea was prepared by a vessel being placed in it, so 
that it could not be far from the boiling point at ten thousand feet 
elevation. No steam was seen to issue from the orifice, but vapour 
rises afterwards to mark the spot; there is also a strong smell of 
sulphur, and at night a thick cloud hangs over the spring. The 





















, 



■ 






' 



. 



PERU. 273 

water was tasteless, and there was a coating of the red oxide of iron 
on the substances over which the water had passed, and in some 
places a white powder is seen. A few yards distant from the location 
of the hot spring was a cold one, which, mingled with the hot, is 
found to have a very agreeable temperature for a bath, in which the 
people bathe, and women wash their clothes; the hot spring was 
thought to discharge several gallons in a second. 

The soil in this valley is good, and cultivated in places with care : 
no fruit was observed. The largest trees were a species of elder and a 
Buddlea; Calceolaria, Salvia, Heleotropium, &c, abounded. 

On the 22d they determined to remain at Banos. At an early 
hour in the morning they found the village was deserted, and it 
appeared on inquiry that all the inhabitants had gone abroad to tend 
their herds. For the purpose of taking as wide a range as possible 
in search of plants, our gentlemen separated from each other, some 
going up, while others descended ; they all met with great success in 
their botanical researches. Dr. Pickering attempted the ascent of 
one of the summits ; by noon he had reached a high elevation, and 
looking up he espied a huge condor coming down the valley. He 
stopped to observe its motion, as it sailed slowly and majestically 
along. To his surprise, it took a turn around him, then a second and 
a third, the last time drawing so near that he began to think it 
meditated an attack. He describes himself as being in the worst 
possible condition for a fight, his strength being exhausted by climb- 
ing, and his right hand had been lamed for some days from a hurt. 
The nature of the ground too was any thing but favourable for 
defence ; but there was nothing left except to prepare for a fight, and 
with this intent he took a seat and drew his knife. At the instant, 
as if acquainted with the iron, the bird whirled off in a different 
direction. Dr. Pickering confesses, however humiliating the ac- 
knowledgment, that he was at the time very well satisfied with the 
condor's determination to let him alone. 

Condors are numerous here, and many stories are related of their 
attacks upon animals ; but this was a more decided manifestation of 
a disposition to assail the human race than any we heard of. 

Dr. Pickering was enabled to reach the ridge that bounded the 
valley, but there were many higher beyond. The view there was 
grand and distant, overlooking to the west eight distinct ridges be- 
tween him and the sea, which was too ill defined to be made out with 
any certainty. He descended by the same route again to the village. 

vol. i. 69 



274 PERU. 

The alcalde discovering that one of the party (Mr. Agate) was an 
artist, became extremely anxious that he should make a sketch of 
his father-in-law, an old revolutionary soldier who resided there. 
As the son-in-law had been so attentive, and offered them so many 
civilities, among others the loan of a silver dish, spoon, and fork, 
he could not do less than gratify these wishes. For this purpose 
the old man dressed himself in his uniform. The task of sittino- 
was greatly too much for him, and he was nearly overcome with the 
excitement and exertion. The old man was greatly delighted with 
the picture, as were all those about him, except the son-in-law, who 
expressed great dissatisfaction that it should be without legs, — it 
being only a half length, — and offered a large price to have them 
put on, but time did not admit of it. The sketch was presented to 
him, which has placed it out of my power to give a cut of it. 

Mr. Agate's first effort was deemed so successful that his reputation 
was at once established at Banos, and shortly afterwards he was 
called upon by the sacristan to engage him to paint the four Evange- 
lists for the church. Price was no object, provided he could do it, 
and they would besides consider it as a great favour. 

Some of the bystanders proposed to have the constable painted, 
and pointed to a strapping big negro. 

The houses literally contained no furniture, and the silver lent to 
our party was believed to be the only valuables in the place. The 
only articles besides that were seen, were some roughly made wooden 
spoons, earthen dishes, and water-jugs, a few boards made into a 
rough table, with a stool or two, and a bedstead made of canes and 
plastered with clay. In no part of the United States, whether in 
the cabins of the Far West, or in the vilest dens of our eastern cities, 
are persons to be seen living in such a miserable manner. The 
country people of Peru, notwithstanding they are surrounded with 
every thing to make them comfortable, want the knowledge and 
industry to make use of them. 

On the 23d they left Banos on their return. Notwithstanding 
their horses had had some rest, their backs were in a shocking stated 
but the sores did not seem to be regarded much by the guides, who 
applied soap to them ; they scolded and blamed the English saddles, 
which they called " Gallapagos turtles." 

The party had determined to make another visit to Alpamarca, but 
the guides would not listen to it, giving as a reason that they should 
have their horses stolen if they did. While this discussion was 



PERU. 



275 



going on, they met a person who informed them that the only persons 
now there were Indians. As their only inducement to return was 
the agreeable company they had left, they acceded to their guides' 
views, and taking another direction, arrived at Casa Cancha in the 
afternoon. At night they had an arrival of some Chilian cavalry, 
and there was great alarm felt among the occupants of the huts and 
the guides, for fear of losing their horses, a disaster which they said 
often occurred when such visiters came. The commander proved to 
be a gentlemanly person, and rendered our party much assistance. 
This party had left Pasco, the chief m'ning place of Lower Peru, in 
the morning, and represented it as a place of considerable trade, con- 
taining many foreign residents, including English, American, French, 
and German. He stated that the Quichua language was spoken 
there, and that the Spanish was not commonly understood. 



;?]L&.S? ©5f TA,B<0 




The towm of Pasco is at an elevation of thirteen thousand feet, 
and situated in the plain of San Juan, at the head of two ravines or 
gullies, one called Rumiallana, leading to the northward, and the 
other Huanuco, to the eastward, where the two great veins of Col- 
quijirca and Pariajirca unite. These are supposed to extend some 
seventy miles in length, and the town of Pasco is situated at their 
junction, a plot of which, taken from the survey of Mr. Trevithick, is 



276 PER U. 

given above. The part of the ground that has been broken up, and 
in which ores have been found, is about half a mile in length in a 
north and south direction, and about one-fourth of a mile east and 
west. Within the whole of this extent ores have been mined of 
greater or less value, and the number of mines worked and now 
deserted are said to amount to upwards of a thousand : some of these 
are represented on the plan by round marks. 

The town of Pasco is surrounded on three sides — northeast and 
south by hills of blue limestone ; on the west the hills are of sand- 
stone, and on the southwest of a blue slate. Through the latter rock 
the adit wmich comes up from the lake of Quilacocha has been 
driven, until it reached the metalliferous ground in the district of 
Santa Rosa. All the ores of the Cerro are ferruginous, and the silver 
nearest to the surface is contained in an ochreous iron-stone. In 
particular spots the silver is found mixed with lead and copper, and 
at variable depths in different localities the ores rest on a bed of solid 
iron pyrites, which in some mines yield silver and in others not. 

Although there appeared to be two veins, crossing each other at 
right angles, yet strictly speaking there is but one, the great vein of 
Colquijirca. This vein comes in from the hill of Uliachim, on the 
south of the town, and runs through the whole metalliferous ground 
to the edge of the plain of San Juan on the north. 

On the course of this lode, generally speaking, the richest ores are 
met with. On each side of the vein an extensive deposit of ore is 
generally found, with little regard to the ordinary regularity of metal- 
liferous formation. 

The plain of San Juan is divided into many mining districts, to 
which names are given to distinguish them more readily. The 
southernmost of these is called Zauricocha, and contains several 
mines, from which great wealth has been produced since the Revo- 
lution. This is the district from which all the richest ores have been 
produced, and it has been always looked upon as the most important 
district in the Cerro. It is believed that farther south, between this 
point and the hill of Uliachim, some good ores exist, but no attempt 
has yet been made to mine there. 

In the district of Santa Rosa, lying west of Zauricocha, the greatest 
quantity of ore has been raised : it has been worked down to the level 
of the adit; and in several mines, where good ore has been discovered, 
they have descended to a lower level, drainage having been effected 
by hand-pumping. 



PERU. 277 

On the east of the Zauricocha is the district called Arenillapata, 
in which few mines are now worked ; the ore which is produced, 
although abundant in particular spots, is not rich. 

Immediately within the town there are some few mines that are 
good, but there has never been any extensive work carried on, and it 
is believed that ore yet remains to be discovered. 

Cayac, another district lying north of Zauricocha, is worked to 
some profit; the upper adit from the northwest reaches it, and 
several mines have been producing good results. 

To the north of Cayac are the Chucarillo and Zauacancha dis- 
tricts, the working of the mines in which has been impeded by water 
ever since the breaking out of the revolutionary war. The upper 
adit, leading from the gully of Rumiallana, is above them, and they 
derive no benefit from it. 

To the north of these last two districts lies the plain of San Juan; 
there are some small veins running through some parts of it, but no 
important discovery has yet been made, although many mines have 
been opened and carried down to depths of from one hundred and 
twenty to one hundred and fifty feet. The lower adit, from the 
gully of Rumiallana, is to run through it, and may open to the 
proprietors some discoveries to recompense them for their labour. 

The whole number of mines considered rich in the different 
districts, may be enumerated as follows : 

In Zauricocha 12 to 14. 

Santa Rosa 20 to 25. 

Cayac 10 to 12. 

Chucarillo 5 to 6. 

Zauacancha 10 to 12. 

Each of these mines comprises a space of one hundred and eighty 
feet long by ninety feet wide. 

The silver ores are estimated by a measure called a box of ore, 
which contains twenty-five mule-loads of ten arrobas or twenty-five 
pounds each. Each box varies in value from six Spanish marks to 
three thousand ; the former being the lowest which, under the most 
favourable circumstances, will pay the cost of working. The poorest 
is of course the most abundant. 

The miner who can raise ores in considerable quantities, which 
will give ten to twelve marcs per box, does well. 

vol. i. 70 



278 PERU. 

The produce of the mines since the close of the revolutionary 
war has amounted to the following, viz. : 

MARCS. OZ. 

In 1825, 228 bars, . . weighing 56,971 6 

1826, 818 163,852 

1827, 1068 221,707 7 

1828, 922 201,338 

1829, 359 82,031 

1830, 457 96,265 

1831, 635 135,139 3 

1832, 994 219,380 5 

1833, 1133 256,333 2 

1834, 1142 267,363 4 

1835, 1148 276,813 2 

1836, 991 244,404 1 

1837, 1172 234,785 3 

1838, 1172 248,022 6 

1839, 1210 279,260 3 

To this may be added one-fifth for silver that has not paid duties. 

The first adit of importance driven into the mines was that of San 
Judas, which passed the wall of the vein of Zauricocha in the year 
1794. By means of this adit very rich ores were raised, especially 
from the king's mine. In the year 1808, the present deep adit, from 
which so much was expected, was begun ; for covering the expenses 
of constructing it, the body of miners imposed a duty of one real per 
marc on all silver melted in the government assay-office. This adit 
reached in 1830 the southwest edge of the metalliferous ground of 
Santa Rosa, up to which time the whole of its course had been in a 
hard rock. An auxiliary adit was then commenced, fifty-four feet 
above the level of the main one, and both of these works have been 
carried on until the present time. The ground above being better 
adapted for driving in, the upper adit is in advance of the lower, one 
thousand five hundred feet, and has arrived at the district of Cayac 
The lower adit has reached the mines situated upon the vein of 
Zauricocha, without having cut a single vein or deposit of ore in its 
transit. There are several rich mines a little in advance of this adit 
some of which have been hitherto drained by hand-pumps, and which 
must be shortly very much benefited by it, for, although they extend 
below the level of the adit, yet they will have some fifty feet of pump- 



PERU. 279 

lift removed. It will excite some wonder that steam is not employed 
in the draining of such valuable mines. It has, however, been 
tried ; a few years previous to the revolution four steam engines, of 
thirty horse power each, were brought out from England, and three 
of them put up in the districts of Santa Rosa, Cayac, and Zaura- 
cancha. That of Zauricocha was not set up, but the other three 
were worked with some success. 

A level was driven from the engine-shaft of Santa Rosa, into the 
mines of Zauricocha, and rich ores were raised. The engine of 
Cayac did little more than assist that of Zauricocha, which, on 
account of the greater quantity of water, was barely able to do the 
work required of it. The expense incurred by the house of Abodia 
in this undertaking was upwards of six hundred thousand dollars, 
and at the moment when they had begun to receive a good return for 
their capital, the revolution broke out, and the troubles incident to it 
put a stop to their work, and left them with that amount of loss. 
Subsequently, at the close of the war, the engine of Santa Rosa was 
again put in operation, and in parts of the years 1826 and 1827, a 
considerable quantity of silver was produced, in virtue of the 
drainage effected by it. 

Some abortive attempts were made to use the engine of Zauri- 
cocha, from 1829 to 1833, but since that time they have all been 
abandoned, and considered as unserviceable. 

The establishments for grinding and amalgamating the ores are 
situated at from one mile to three leagues from the mines, those 
nearest the town are deficient in w-ater for several months in the year. 
The construction of all these mills is rude, and much power is lost. 
A mill will grind two hundred boxes of the hardest ore, provided it 
has a constant stream of water. The amalgamation of the ore with 
mercury is effected by its being trodden by horses in circular 
enclosures, containing from five to ten boxes. The consumption of 
mercury between mechanical and chemical loss is about one pound 
for each marc of silver produced. 

No attempts have yet been made at roasting any of the ores. 
Coal mines are met with in various parts of the country, at the 
distance of from tw r o to seven leagues ; the price is one real for an 
arroba, but might be much reduced if the business w r as properly 
attended to. 

Various plans have been formed at Lima and in England to 
purchase and work these mines, but with what success is very 



280 PERU. 

uncertain; the attempts have generally been supposed to have 
resulted in a loss. Speculation is always rife in search of these 
valuable ores, and prospects of great gain are invariably held out 
to those who engage in them, but there is much difficulty in getting 
the business into successful operation. The great error committed 
by all the English companies established in 1825, for working mines 
in Spanish America, was in saddling themselves with great numbers 
of people engaged at high salaries, and workmen at extravagant 
wages ; the expenses attending them swallowed up much of the 
funds before any work was begun. These included not only inspec- 
tors and mining-captains, but artisans, all of whom were sent from 
England. From a total change of life and circumstances, the 
mining-captains and artisans almost invariably turned out in a short 
time drunkards, and good for nothing. In some cases workmen 
were brought out, and these turned out much more worthless than 
either of the two former classes. They, indeed, did more work than 
the Indians, but their wages were higher, and the expenses for their 
importation in addition, made them cost much more. 

According to the laws of Peru, the silver produced in this depart- 
ment must be sent to the government assay-office to be melted into 
bars, and thence to the mint at Lima to be coined. The usual price 
of silver as it comes from the mine, is from seven dollars six reals, to 
seven dollars seven reals per marc. If remitted to Lima on account 
of the miner, it yields him about eight dollars one real per marc. 

The duties it pays are six dollars per bar of two hundred and ten 
marcs to the assay-master, one real per marc for the public works of 
the Cerro, and one real per marc to government. 

The mint price is eight dollars two maravedis per marc of eleven 
pennyweights fine. 

Within three leagues of Pasco, on an extensive plain, there stands 
an isolated hill of porphyry, called Raco. From this hill are cut the 
stones used in grinding the ores, which are from two and a half to 
three varas in diameter, and from eighteen to twenty-four inches in 
thickness. The cost for delivering them at the foot of the hill is ten 
dollars for every quarter of a vara of their diameter, and the expense 
of drawing them to the mills, varies from seventy to two hundred 
dollars, according to the distance.* 

* Most of the above facts are derived from a person who had long resided on the spot, 
and been engaged in various mining operations. 



PERU. 281 

In 1840 several new attempts were about to be made in mining 
speculations. 

The great difficulty to secure success seems to be in providing for 
the proper drainage, which the present adit will not accomplish alone, 
and great advantages might be derived from steam power properly 
employed to free the mines of water. The owners of the mines are 
always desirous of inserting in the contracts, that they shall not have 
any water to raise themselves, as this is the most expensive part of 
the process, for the ore is very rapidly mined the moment the water 
is drained off. The remuneration given to the proprietors of the 
steam engines is one-fifth of the ore raised ; this was the sum paid to 
the old company, and the same was stipulated to be paid to the parties 
who undertook the same work in 1829. 

Mines are to be bought at all times on reasonable terms, for the 
miners often desire to retire from business, or wish to sell for the sake 
of profit, or are not able to carry them on from a want of capital. 
There is, however, one difficulty a purchaser has to contend with, 
for the mines are almost always held in small shares among a number 
of relatives, many of whom refuse to sell their small interest, This 
makes the mines less desirable property, as difficulties almost 
invariably occur with these small proprietors. Mines are constantly 
in the market, and offered at reasonable rates. 

No miner who has worked with reasonable prudence, steadiness, 
and a sufficient capital, has failed to do well since the year 1833. 
The produce of the mines of the Cerro from that time, has not 
varied much from one year to another, as will be seen by the table 
heretofore given. The undertakings which have been carried on 
upon an extensive scale, are those which have prospered most. 
There were many difficulties that the first mining companies had to 
encounter, that others need not again apprehend ; the local interests 
are better understood and would be more respected ; a better know- 
ledge of the people prevails, and of the modes of mining; and 
the people themselves have lost some of their prejudices against 
foreigners. Persons may now be obtained to assist in the direction 
as well as to afford advice to the agents, who may be entrusted 
with the affairs of the company, so that the prospects of success in 
the operations are decidedly more favourable than they were fifteen 
years previously. But although the actual operation of mining may 
be more advantageous, yet the country in its political and commercial 

VOL. I. 7 1 



282 PERU. 



character has very much deteriorated, and there is little doubt, on the 
whole, that but little capital will be invested in it until there is a 
great change in its rulers as well as in its people, and until govern- 
ment, the laws and good order become as well established as they are 
in Chili. All the friends of Peru, seem, however, to be well satisfied, 
from appearances, that the day is not far distant when she will be 
enabled to sit down quietly in the enjoyment of tranquillity. 

To return after this digression to our party: they had much 
agreeable conversation with the Chilian officers, and passed a 
pleasant evening. As I have before spoken of the accommodations, 
it is needless to say that they were not improved. 

On the morning of the 24th, the thermometer stood at 36° in the 
hut, and on the rivulet there was ice one-fourth of an inch thick. 
Mr. Brackenridge gathered seeds here of a curious species of Cactus, 
which grows plentifully all over the mountains in dense tufts; from 
the quantities of down or fine hair upon it, it has the appearance at a 
distance of a white sheep, so much so that a group of them was 
sometimes mistaken for a flock. 

Although Casa Cancha was a wretched hovel, and had every thing 
in it to disgust, yet the situation was one of great beauty and truly 
romantic. In the stream that flowed near it, were fish of from six to 
eight inches in length, but none of these were taken, as the party 
was not provided with fishing-tackle. 

When the time came for their departure, they were glad to bid 
adieu to the place, and to begin their ascent to the top of the ridge. 
They rode two leagues to the source of the stream, which is near the 
summit of the ridge. At but a short distance from their path was the 
lme of perpetual snow. They found the ground hard frozen as the 
snow was approached, and almost bare of vegetation, only a few 
stunted spears of grass occurring here and there ; even this appeared 
to be wanting in the bare spots above the snow line. The snow was 
but a thin covering, its surface was hardened, and its lower margin 
formed a perfectly unbroken horizontal line, along the face of the 
mountain. This was not apparently the case on the other ridges, for 
the snow lay there in hollows and sometimes descended, as°before 
remarked, below the path. 

In the alpine lakes was a species of Myriophyllum, the same as 
found at Culnai, three thousand feet below. Dr. Pickering picked 
up an ammonite here. ° 



PERU. 283 

They descended rapidly down the western declivity ; the scenery 
was beautiful, and they had plenty of employment in collecting. 
Two large parties were met, as they descended, the one of loaded 
mules, the other of several genteel travellers, among whom were 
females, accompanied by several servants well armed. In the after- 
noon they reached a solitary hut, at a place called Chicrine, situated 
at the foot of La Vinda, and kept by an old woman with one eye ; 
she proved very much the reverse of their hostess at Casa Cancha, 
being very cleanly ; here they passed the night comfortably. 

A Frenchman, who was now passing for a native, and was on his 
way to Pasco, with his servant, joined them at Chicrine. Being 
invited to partake of supper, he accepted, and did ample justice to 
it, but when he had finished, contrary to the usual politeness of 
his countrymen, he told them he had never eaten a worse meal in 
his life. 

After this remark, a belief was entertained that his saddle-bags 
contained something, and he was accordingly plied with questions 
until he confessed he had a loaf of bread ; this proved quite a treat 
and triumph over their fellow-lodger, who promised them a farther 
treat in the morning upon some fine chocolate. 

On the morning of the 25th, the Frenchman departed early, and 
forgot all about his fine chocolate, they regretted to hear, shortly after 
their arrival at Lima, that he had been robbed and murdered on his 
return. 

Our party set out early, and after an hour's ride reached Culnai, 
where the villagers were busy gathering in their potatoes. There 
were also several patches of Oxalis cunata, Tropeoleum tuberosum, 
and a species of Basella. The two former when cooked were well 
tasted, and all of them are much esteemed by the natives. These 
patches are enclosed by low stone dikes ; the plants as they advance 
are earthed up, as we do potatoes, in the early part of the season ; 
irrigation is necessary, as the soil is light and open, and consists 
chiefly of decayed rock and vegetable mould. Here some very 
interesting seeds and roots of a species of Alstrcemeria were gathered. 

Culnai and Banos are about on the same level, ten thousand feet 
above the sea, and are the highest points of cultivation ; they are both 
distant from the crest by the route of the water-course about nine miles. 

Dr. Pickering having preceded the party on foot, reached Culnai 
after nine o'clock, when he entered a store and was received with, the 
utmost cordiality ; a meal was at once prepared for him, consisting of 



284 PERU. 

eggs and potatoes, called chupe in the country, which was kindly 
tendered ; the landlord was very inquisitive, and examined his budget, 
calling the attention of the bystanders to it ; his charge was reason- 
able, and he gave the doctor a hearty salutation at parting, with the 
" Adios per Dios." 

At dark the party was reunited at Obrajillo. Those who arrived 
first witnessed the slaughtering of a bullock in the square, on which 
occasion great numbers of condors and buzzards were collected in the 
air above. The latter bird is seldom seen above Yaso. They 
stopped at the posada, which they found occupied by the company of 
Chilian troops, whom they had met at Casa Cancha, and in conse- 
quence they were obliged to take up with a filthy hut. 

At Obrajillo good crops of Indian corn, rye, and beans are raised, 
but none of these grow higher up. 

A singular and rather amusing custom was witnessed in the 
morning, which does not speak much for the gallantry of the male 
population. A town officer was seen strutting with a spear about 
the public square, calling all the women out to come and sweep it. 
They soon made their appearance, and were not long in creating a 
prodigious dust. They swept the dirt up into small heaps; then 
taking their coarse shawls from their shoulders, they spread them 
upon the ground and put the dirt they had collected into them, to be 
carried away. 

The Chilian officers called upon them with oifers of service, and 
were very civil and polite. 

At Obrajillo it was said that the wealthy men of the place kept 
very quiet, being much alarmed at the presence of the Chilians. 

The guides now demanded a settlement, but requested their money 
might be kept for them until the party reached Lima, as they cer- 
tainly would be robbed if they took it themselves. This incident 
proves how little security there is in this country, for any class of 
persons having any thing valuable about them. 

The preparations that had been made in the town were for a 
festival, and the guides were disinclined to start for Lima. A little 
bribery, however, and reminding them that one of the greatest feasts 
in the Catholic church, that of Corpus Christi, was near at hand, 
induced them to go forward. 

On their way from Obrajillo, which they left at an early hour, they 
met a bridal party on horseback. The bridegroom's hat and person 
were decorated with carnations and pinks; the bride and brides- 



PERU. 



285 



maid carried the same flower, which they presented to our gentlemen 
in passing. After a hard day's ride they reached Yaso, and took up 
their quarters in the porch of the posthouse ; the landlord and post- 
master's absence was now accounted for, by saying that he had gone 
to church, but would soon be back ; he of course did not come, nor 
was he expected by our gentlemen. They in consequence fared 
badly, for they had nothing to eat. They found here a gentleman 
who had been robbed the day before, by three persons in masks ; 
they had treated him with great politeness, only proposing exchanges 
to his disadvantage; he had nothing else to complain of; they took 
his purse, watch, spurs, and a drink of his brandy. Much to their 
surprise, the guides, who had been so scrupulous about their money, 
showed no signs of alarm. A new difficulty arose with them : they 
had been informed that a conscription was going on, and they were 
afraid to proceed, lest they should lose their liberty, but the assurance 
that they would be protected while with the party, satisfied them. 

The frequency of murder, highway robbery, and a constant resort 
to the cuchillo, has not been exaggerated in the accounts of Lower 
Peru. 

On the morning of the 27th they again set out, having prepared 
themselves to encounter any force. The guides, knowing well the 
dangers that were to be apprehended, showed much solicitude about 
keeping the company together. 

They reached Yanga without accident, and finding the posada 
occupied by a party of soldiers, and a recruiting officer, they were 
directed to a house with a porch, but they found it shut up. They 
therefore, being assured that the owner would soon return, deposited 
the saddles, &c, in the porch. Soon after a woman appeared, and on 
being informed of their situation, and that they had fasted for two 
days, she set about providing for their supper, apparently from 
Christian motives, for during the process she crossed herself several 
times. She proved to be the owner of the estate, was somewhat 
advanced in life, managed her own affairs, and was seemingly well 
adapted to encounter the roughness of the times. The heiress, a 
little girl, (Angelita by name), came galloping on a horse, driving the 
cattle before her, with the air of a veteran, having command over 
both the animal she rode, and those she drove ; they were not much 
struck with her beauty, for her well-plastered face, and wide-spreading 
and matted hair, gave her the appearance of an elf; but she was a 



286 PER U. 

specimen of Peruvian nobility. Their supper was good, and they 
were permitted to lie on the clay floor, in the house. 

They paid the usual price for the accommodations. In the morning, 
before their departure, they purchased fifty oranges for twelve and a 
half cents (a real), it being stipulated, however, that they should be 
gathered by themselves. These served to refresh them while passing 
over the barren track (described in their ascent), of four leagues. 
They were overtaken by their Chilian friends, and the troop, when 
their minds were relieved of the apprehensions of robberies. 

Caballeros was reached at an early hour, and here they intended to 
have stopped on account of their horses, but their Chilian friends 
persuaded them to pursue their journey to Lima, promising to render 
them assistance, in case they should need it. At Caballeros they 
witnessed a fight between a turkey and a game-cock ; strife, indeed, 
appears to be a constant amusement with the Peruvians, and scenes 
of this kind seem alone to interest the public. After a long day's 
journey of twelve leagues, they reached Lima at eight o'clock, very 
much fatigued, and happy to return to the comforts of civilized life. 

The only novelty they met with during the day's ride was a 
Gnacho on horseback, carrying a pine board before him, a proof of 
the scarcity of such articles in Peru, and the value that is set upon 
them. 

This journey, although attended with much fatigue and some dis- 
appointment, from not having obtained their object entirely, that of 
reaching the wooded district of the eastern slope of the Andes, yet 
was very productive of results in the botanical department. 

The great difference of elevation, and the variation in climate con- 
sequent thereto, would lead one to expect a greater variety in the 
vegetation than was found. Forests were no where met with, nor 
were any of the palm tribe seen ; very few of the many tropical plants 
were perceived even on the coast. The smaller shrubs were seldom 
found, except in the lower region, where their limit is circumscribed 
to the well-watered district. Thickets are very rare, and in the 
higher regions appear to be altogether wanting. The vegetation of 
Peru on the whole is characterized by an air of tameness, indicating 
but a slight change of season, and has been classed into four distinct 
botanical regions, which are easily distinguished; they will claim 
particular attention, and afford much interesting matter, in the 
Botanical Report. 



PERU. 



287 



The geological region passed over was also one of much interest, 
and from the observations of the gentlemen the following information 
has been derived. 

The geological structure, as far as their observations went, cor- 
responds to that of North Chili, with the exception of a narrow belt 
of sedimentary rock along the sea-coast, west of the granitic range, 
which is wanting in that country. This belt includes the island of 
San Lorenzo, and others, as well as the coast itself, to the extent of 
from seven to ten miles from the sea-beach. These sedimentary 
rocks are argillaceous, distinctly stratified, and more or less slaty, the 
layers being in many places discoloured by the red oxide of iron. In 
other places they appeared of a black colour, as if in the vicinity 
of coal beds, of which the existence was spoken of, but we did not 
discover any unequivocal traces of this substance. Some conspicuous 
examples of faults were noticed by Mr. Dana, along the coast of San 
Lorenzo. Many minerals were also found by this gentleman, among 
them gypsum was of frequent occurrence, also some fossils, for which 
information reference is made to the Geological Report. 

The hills and mountains to the eastward, joining the above sedi- 
mentary rocks, are exclusively of granite, which extends in width to 
the distance of forty-five geographical miles beyond Yaso. In places 
it has very much the appearance of a stratified rock, is much broken 
and variable in its character, so as to render it somewhat deceptive. 
Dr. Pickering observes, that this peculiar character or appearance is 
owing to the slow process of the decomposition of the rock in this dry 
climate, and which would in other places, subject to the ordinary 
fluctuations of seasons, be covered with several feet of earth. The 
same reasons will account for the duration of the Inca villages that 
cover many of the hills, and which a copious shower would entirely 
wash away. The gf anite on its eastern side was coarse-grained, pre- 
senting more of the ordinary appearance of that rock. 

Immediately eastward of the granite district commences the trap 
rocks, consisting for the most part of porphyry. Dr. Pickering traced 
the line of junction for some miles, the hills on one side being of 
granite, on the other porphyry. The eastern limit of the trap region 
is supposed to be distant some twenty miles from the western. The 
porphyry resembles the Swedish and that in the vicinity of Boston. 
Many porphyry pebbles, supposed to be of this formation, were 
found on the beach at Callao, having, it is to be presumed, been 
carried there by the action of the water-courses. 



288 p E R u - 

Next comes the plateau of the Cordilleras, which is formed of sedi- 
mentary rocks ; this includes the silver mines, and the highest peaks, 
and is apparently of the same age as the coast. Much of the rock is 
argillaceous. At Baiios an argillaceous limestone was used for burn- 
ing, and quantities of gypsum, used for manure, was brought from the 
vicinity of Casa Cancha, some twenty miles to the north. Conglo- 
merates prevailed over a great portion of the crest the party traversed. 
The included pebbles were observed to be of regular shape, smooth 
and polished as if sea-washed. All the party remarked the smooth- 
ness of the pebbles in the torrents of the Cordilleras, which had a 
strong resemblance to those on the sea-beach. From the information 
relative to the mines in the Cerro de Pasco, it will have been per- 
ceived that blue limestone, slate, and sandstone, exist in that vicinity ; 
and at the silver mines at Alpamarca, a compact bluish rock was 
observed, probably the limestone ; it was not, however, ascertained 
whether it was argillaceous or a pure limestone. Dr. Pickering 
remarks, that it contained numerous hard seams of opaque calcareous 
spar, with somewhat the lustre of "satin spar." Sandstone with 
small pebbles was not uncommon. 

The bare spots of the higher peaks did not present the variety of 
colour of the Chilian Andes, but had a uniform dark slaty hue. 
Many incrustations were seen forming on the rocks and plants : this 
was found to be gypsum. 

Previous to our departure, I felt desirous of having an excursion 
made to the ruins of Pachacamac, and having heard that the landing 
was easy and good, on the inside of the island, I sent the tender 
Flying-Fish thither, with Dr. Pickering and Lieutenant Underwood. 

Pachacamac is one of the most interesting spots on this part of the 
coast, although it is said it will not compare with many others in 
various parts of the country, especially at Cusco. 

They left Callao on the afternoon of the 28th of June, and were at 
anchor about midnight abreast of the place. At daylight the surf 
was found so heavy as to render it dangerous to land in the whale- 
boat. By the perseverance of the officers, a raft was formed of the 
India-rubber mattresses and oars; two balsas were also provided. 
Lieutenant Underwood made the first attempt, and paddled himself 
into the rollers, the first one of which threw him and the balsas 
end over end. Shortly after, the raft was seen bottom up, the oar 
broken, and the fragments sticking up in various directions, but he 
was missing. He soon, however, made his appearance at some dis- 



PERU. 289 

tance, and just as he reached the raft, a second sea broke over him, 
and he again disappeared, apparently much exhausted. When the 
third roller broke over him he was considered for a few moments as 
lost ; and it was no small relief to see him crawling from the water 
up on the beach a short time afterwards. The raft was now pulled 
back to the tender by the line. In consequence of the ill success of 
this experiment, it was determined to make a trial in the whale-boat, 
which succeeded without accident. Dr. Pickering and Lieutenant 
Underwood now proceeded to the temple. At the base of the hills, 
they found a few cabins of Indians, who stated that they had not 
chosen the proper place for landing. 

The Temple of Pachacamac, or Castle, as it is called by the 
Indians, is on the summit of a hill, with three terraces ; the view of 
it from the north is somewhat like the Pyramid of Cholula, given by 
Humboldt, except that the flanks were perpendicular. 

The whole height of the hill is two hundred and fifty feet, that of 
the mason- work, eighty ; the form is rectangular, the base being five 
hundred by four hundred feet. At the southeastern extremity the 
three distinct terraces are not so perceptible, and the declivity is more 
gentle. The walls, where great strength was required to support the 
earth, were built of unhewn square blocks of rock ; these were cased 
with sun-dried brick (adobes), which were covered with a coating of 
clay or plaster, and stained or painted of a reddish colour. 




TEMPLE AT PACHACAMAC. 



A range of square brick pilasters projected from the uppermost 
wall, facing the sea, evidently belonging originally to the interior of a 
large apartment. These pilasters gave it the aspect of an Egyptian 
structure. In no other Peruvian antiquities have pilasters been seen 
by us. On one of the northern terraces were also remains of apart- 
ments; here the brick appeared more friable, owing to a greater 
proportion of sand ; where they retained their shape, their dimensions 
were nine inches in width by six inches deep, varying in height from 
nine inches to two feet; and they were laid so as to break joint, 
though not always in a workmanlike manner. 

vol. i. 73 



290 



PERU. 



The remains of the town occupy some undulating ground, of less 
elevation, a quarter of a mile to the northward. This also forms a 
rectangle, one-fifth by one-third of a mile in size ; through the middle 
runs lengthwise a straight street, twenty feet in width. The walls of 
some of the ruins are thirty feet high, and cross each other at right 
angles. The buildings were apparently connected together, except 
where the streets intervened. The larger areas were again divided 
by thinner partitions, and one of them was observed to contain four 
rectangular pits, the plastering of which appeared quite fresh. 

The annexed wood-cut will give a representation of the ground, 
&c. ; both are from sketches made by Lieutenant Underwood. 




GROUND PLAN OF FACHACAMAC. 

No traces of doors or windows towards the streets could be dis- 
covered, nor indeed any where else. The walls were exclusively of 
sun-dried brick, and their direction, northeast and southwest, the 
same as those of the temple, which fronted the sea. 

Some graves were observed to the southward of the temple, but 
the principal burying-ground was between the temple and town. 
Some of the graves were rectangular pits, lined with a dry wall of 
stone, and covered with layers of reeds and canes, on which the earth 
was filled in to the depth of a foot or more, so as to be even with the 
surface. The skulls brought from this place were of various charac- 
ters ; the majority presented the vertical elevation, or raised occiput, 
the usual characteristic of the ancient Peruvians, while others had 
the forehead and top of the head depressed. Eight of these were 
obtained, and are now deposited at Washington. The bodies were 
found enveloped in cloth of various qualities, and a variety in its 
colours still existed. 

Various utensils and other articles were found, which seemed to 
denote the occupation of the individual : wooden needles and weaving 
utensils ; netting made in the usual style ; a sling ; cordage of various 
kinds; a sort of coarse basket; fragments of pottery, and plated 
stirrups. They also found various vegetable substances: husks of 



PERU. 



291 



Indian corn, with ears of two varieties, one with the grain slightly 
pointed, the other, the short and black variety, which is still very 
commonly cultivated ; cotton seeds ; small bunches of wool ; gourd- 
shells, with a square hole cut out, precisely as is done at present. 
These furnished evidence of the style of the articles manufactured 
before the arrival of the Spaniards, and of the cultivation of the 
vegetable products ; when to these we add the native tuberous roots 
(among them the potato) cultivated in the mountains, and the animals 
found domesticated, viz., the llama, dog, and Guinea pig, and the 
knowledge of at least one metal, we may judge what has since been 
acquired. 

The embarkation of the party was attended with risk, but they all 
got on board the Flying-Fish without accident. 

Mr. Knox also visited the island of Pachacamac, during the day, 
but did not succeed in finding any graves. He obtained, however, 
some interesting geological specimens. 

In a few hours they again reached the anchorage at Callao. 




CHURCH AT RANO*. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



CONTENTS. 

SELF-AGGRANDIZEMENT THE OBJECT OF RULERS- END OF REVOLUTIONARY WAR- 
GENERAL BOLIVAR DICTATOR-HIS AUTHORITY CEASES-GENERAL LA MAR ELECTED- 
GAMARRA'S TREACHERY-LA MAR ARRESTED AND BANISHED-GAMARRA AND LAFUENTE 
ELECTED-ATTEMFrS TO SEIZE LAFUENTE-HIS ESCAPE-EXECUTION OF MAJOR ROSEL- 
CONVENTION CONVOKED -GAMARRA RESIGNS -ORBEJOSO ELECTED- REVOLUTION BY 
BERMUDEZ AND GAMARRA-BERMUDEZ CAPTURED-ORBEJOSO'S AUTHORITY RESTORED 
— SALAVERRY REVOLTS — DECLARES HIMSELF SUPREME DICTATOR - UNITES WITH 
GAMARRA-GAMARRA DEFEATED-ARRESTED BY SALAVERRY AND BANISHED— SALA- 
VERRY MARCHES AGAINST SANTA CRUZ - BATTLE OF SOCABAYA - SALAVERRY 
DEFEATED -TAKEN PRISONER -TRIED AND SHOT - ORBEJOSO REINSTATED-TREATY 
WITH CHILI NULLIFIED - SANTA CRUZ'S INTRIGUES - DISMEMBERMENT OF PERU - 
ASSEMBLY OF SICUANI-SANTA CRUZ NAMED SUPREME PROTECTOR-CONVENTION OF 
HUARA- GENERAL FREYRE FITS OUT AN EXPEDITION - CHILIAN CONSUL-GENERAL 
EVADES THE EMBARGO-SEIZURE OF PERUVIAN VESSELS-NEGOTIATION-CESSATION OF 
HOSTILITIES -INVASION OF ALTA PERU - DISASTROUS CAMPAIGN-TREATY OF PEACE- 
RETURN OF CHILIAN ARMY-CHILIAN GOVERNMENT REFUSES TO RATIFY THE TREATY 
-LEGION OF HONOUR -DISCONTENT AT SANTA CRUZ'S POLICY -WAR AGAIN COM- 
MENCED - EXPEDITION FROM CHILI - INVASION OF PERU -BATTLE OF LIMA - LIMA 
TAKEN — ORBEJOSO ESCAPES- GAMARRA NAMED PRESIDENT- SANTA CRUZ MARCHES 
UPON LIMA-CHILIANS EMBARK-LAND AT HUARA— PURSUED BY SANTA CRUZ-BATTLE 
OF YUNGAI- SANTA CRUZ TOTALLY DEFEATED - ESCAPES TO LIMA - THENCE TO 
AREQUIPA-SEEKS REFUGE ON BOARD A BRITISH SHIP OF WAR-BULNES SAILS AGAIN 
FOR CALLAO — DISEMBARKS HIS TROOPS -TAKES POSSESSION OF LIMA - CONGRESS 
CONVOKED-GAMARRA ELECTED PRESIDENT-RESULTS OF BATTLE OF YUNGAI-BULNES 
WITH HIS ARMY RETURN TO CHILI -GAMARRA GOES TO AID BOLIVIA-HIS FORCES 
ROUTED, AND HIMSELF KILLED - CHARACTER OF BOLIVAR - LA MAR -GAMARRA - 
LAFUENTE-ORBEJOSO-SALAVERRY-SANTA CRUZ— HIS ACTS-COMMERCE-PERU AND 
CHILI-IMPORTS-EXPORTS— TRADE WITH THE UNITED STATES. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 
18 39. 

The history of Peru, during the last twenty years, is involved in 
even more obscurity than that of Chili. This arises from the 
frequent change of rulers, and the consequent alterations in policy 
and government. The history may be said to be merged in 
biographical memoirs of its several rulers, who have, without an 
exception, acted for self-aggrandizement alone, without ever looking 
to the benefit of their country, its peace, or happiness. They have, 
in their public decrees and acts, been lavish and prodigal of the 
words honour, liberty, justice, &c, in order to cry themselves up, 
and their opponents down. Yet, without exception, the moment they 
have become installed, they have pursued the very course they before 
reprobated, and the country has continued to suffer. 

The victory of Ayacucho, gained by General Sucre in December, 
1824, put an end to the war of the revolution, and placed the whole 
country in the possession of the patriots, with the exception of Callao. 
On the surrender of that fortress, January 7th, 1826, Spanish 
authority ceased to exist in South America. General Bolivar was 
at this time President of Colombia, and Dictator of Peru, invested 
as the latter with constitutional powers, but exercising unlimited 
authority. Through his means, and the troops of Colombia, the 
liberation of Peru had been effected, and after that event, many 
of these troops were quartered in Lima, much to the annoyance of 
the Peruvians, who were anxious to get rid of the military, and the 
expense of maintaining them. Their presence, and the cost of 
supporting them, became the more odious, because it was believed 
they were retained to support the arbitrary power of the Dictator. 



296 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

In the beginning of the year 1827, the Peruvians, through their 
intrigues, effected a revolt among the Colombian troops, who made 
prisoners of their officers, and thus an end was put to the authority of 
the Dictator Bolivar, by which Peru was freed from the presence, as 
well as the expense, of foreign troops. 

Immediately after this event, General La Mar was elected and 
proclaimed President of Peru. He was a native of Guayaquil, 
reported to be a mild and just man, had been brought up in the 
Spanish army, and w T as attached to General San Martin; but he 
appears to have been ill adapted to rule over such a people as the 
Peruvians. At first his election was popular, and his name took the 
place of that of Bolivar over all the gates, &c, in the City of Kings. 

At this change every demonstration of joy was witnessed. The 
Colombian troops were sent to the neighbourhood of Guayaquil, 
when they attempted a revolution against the Colombian authorities 
in Guaymas and Quito, (about forming the republic of Equador,) in 
which they were partially successful, but were soon put down by 
General Flores. These acts led to hostilities between Colombia and 
Peru, and in the beginning of 1828, La Mar marched to the 
frontiers of Colombia, without any declaration of war, with a part 
of the Peruvian forces, leaving General Gamarra, a native of Cusco, 
who had been the cause of so much revolution and bloodshed in 
Peru, to follow with a second division of Peruvian troops. At this 
time General Santa Cruz (who had been for a short time President 
of Peru) was President of Bolivia, and he, together with Gamarra 
and Lafuente, conspired to overthrow La Mar, after which Santa 
Cruz was to be proclaimed President of Peru, Gamarra Vice-Presi- 
dent, and Lafuente Minister of War. 

With this plan in view, Gamarra joined La Mar on the frontiers of 
Colombia. The battle of Portete took place soon afterwards, when, 
in consequence of the treachery or cowardice of Gamarra, the 
Peruvians were beaten, and capitulated on the field of battle to 
General Sucre, who was opposed to them with a much inferior force 
of Colombians. A treaty was signed, but was soon violated by the 
Peruvians, and hostilities again commenced. Another division of the 
Peruvian army, one thousand five hundred strong, which had been 
acting in Bolivia, embarked from Arica, under Lafuente, to join La 
Mar, in the jnorth. They arrived at Callao, and were disembarked 
against La Mar's orders, and shortly after Lafuente overthrew the 
government at Lima, whilst Gamarra arrested La Mar in the north, 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 097 

and banished him to Costa Rica, in Central America, where he 
shortly afterwards died. 

Lafuente ejected all the officials, and assumed the government in 
the name of Gamarra. 

Gamarra and Lafuente, having thus secured the army and govern- 
ment, overlooked Santa Cruz, and got themselves confirmed, the 
former as President, the latter as Vice-President of Peru. This 
is the secret and chief cause of the great animosity and personal 
hatred which existed between Gamarra and Santa Cruz, and which 
has led to several years of revolutions and counter-revolutions in 
Peru, as well as to the wars of Bolivia. 

In 1829, Gamarra was elected President for four years, and is the 
only chief magistrate who has retained his office to the end of the 
term for which he was chosen. Lafuente was at the same time 
elected Vice-President. During the administration of Gamarra, 
there were several attempts to revolutionize the country, but they 
were suppressed. 

In the year 1831, Gamarra being on the frontiers of Bolivia, with 
the army, he became suspicious that Lafuente was concerned in some 
of the movements, and gave orders to seize him. Lafuente had little 
notice of it, but when the party detached for the purpose arrived at 
his quarters at night, Senora Lafuente, his wife, bolted the door, to 
give time for her husband to escape. The officer in command, 
before going to the apartment, had stationed guards around the square 
with orders to shoot any one whom they saw escaping. On arriving 
at the door of the chamber he found it bolted, and ordered it to be 
opened. This was done by Senora Lafuente, after her husband had 
effected his escape through the window. The officer, eager in pur- 
suit, followed, but mistaking the course of flight, got upon the roofs 
of the houses, where he was seen by his own soldiers, who, true 
to their orders, fired and shot him dead. Lafuente, thus saved by 
the good management of his wife, escaped to Callao, where he found 
an asylum on board the United States' ship St. Louis, then lying in 
the, roads. Thence he went to Chili, and from Chili to Bolivia, 
where he became reconciled to Santa Cruz, and endeavoured to 
obtain aid from him to overthrow Gamarra. 

Another conspiracy is said to have been discovered by Gamarra in 
1832, in which Major Rosel was suspected of being the leader. He was 
then commander of a regiment, and the plot was believed to involve 
the seizure of the President's person. Some colour is supposed to 



298 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

have been given to this suspicion by the fact that Rosel drilled his 
men at an unusnal hour, and apparently kept them in readiness for 
active duty. On the 18th of January, while at his quarters in the 
evening, he was seized, disarmed, tried on the spot, and shot on the 
following morning. It is believed that this, as well as many other 
supposed conspiracies, existed only in Gamarra's own fears or sus- 
picions. The summary manner, however, in which he treated all 
who showed any thing approaching a rebellious spirit, kept the 
disaffected within bounds. Among other persons, his suspicions fell 
upon the President of the Senate and acting Vice-President, Manuel 
Telluria, who was seized, carried to Callao, forced on board a small 
vessel of war, and transported to Panama. 

In July, 1833, just at the close of Gamarra's term of office, the 
convention which had been provided for by the Constitution of 1828, 
was convoked to meet at Lima, there to amend the constitution. It 
was still in session when his term expired, on the 20th December, 
1833. On the 19th he sent in his resignation to the National Con- 
vention, and issued an address to the people, announcing that the 
wished-for day had arrived when he could retire to private life. This 
was well known to be false, for at the same time he was making these 
protestations, he was doing every thing in his power to secure his 
re-election. Gamarra had become extremely unpopular, and through- 
out the country was accused of injustice and tyranny. News of 
revolts were reaching the capital (Lima) every day, both from the 
north and south, and only a short time before his term expired, he- 
had gone south to quell one at Ayacucho. 

At the time of the expiration of his term of office, the electoral 
college for the choice of a president had not met, in consequence of 
some informality in the election of its members ; and as no constitu- 
tional election could be obtained, the Convention, with the sanction of 
Gamarra, balloted for a provisional president, until the election should 
take place, and the choice fell upon General Don Luiz Orbejoso, in 
opposition to Bermudez, who was a creature of Gamarra's, Gamarra 
himself, by the constitution, not being re-eligible. 

Soon after Orbejoso was elected, Bermudez, instigated and aided 
by Gamarra, on a plea of the unconstitutionality of the election, 
effected a revolution in Lima, This took place on the 18th of 
January, 1834, when the Convention was dispersed at the point of 
the bayonet ; many lives were lost, and Orbejoso fled to the Castle of 
Callao. The people of Lima on this occasion showed some spirit, 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 



299 



and took part in the affray, which was quite unlooked for, as they 
had generally been in the habit of retiring to their houses, and 
allowing the contending parties to settle the strife. In a few days 
they rose upon the soldiers of Bermudez, whom they compelled to 
evacuate the city and retire beyond the mountains, where they soon 
after capitulated, and Orbejoso's authority was re-established. Ga- 
marra fled to Bolivia, and was protected by Santa Cruz. 

During this insurrection, Lafuente again returned to Peru, and, 
being detected or suspected of intriguing to get himself named 
President, was banished by Orbejoso. He retired to Chili to await 
events. 

In February, 1835, during Orbejoso's absence to the south, General 
Salaverry, who was in command of the Castle at Callao, revolted, 
seized upon the government, and declared himself supreme chief. In 
June he issued a decree appointing a council of state, consisting of 
twenty-four members, of which he was president, and began to 
exercise the most despotic authority. Orbejoso had, in the mean 
time, sent to demand aid of Santa Cruz to put the insurrection down. 
The council of government had during the previous rebellion of 
Bermudez, invested Orbejoso with extraordinary powers, especially 
authorizing him to call upon Santa Cruz, President of Bolivia, for aid 
to quell the insurrection in Peru; but Bermudez had capitulated 
before Santa Cruz was called upon to act. After the rebellion of 
Salaverry, Orbejoso assumed those powers. In the mean time Sala- 
verry went on committing acts of cruelty and oppression. 

Gamarra, always on the watch, now made his appearance, in the 
hopes of again raising himself to power. He had fled from Bolivia, 
and had collected about fifteen hundred men, to make war upon 
Orbejoso, when he issued a proclamation in May, 1835. Sala- 
verry, however, knowing that Gamarra was entirely influenced by 
interested motives, declared him an outlaw, and prepared to march 
against him; but on learning that Santa Cruz was marching on Peru 
with three thousand Bolivian troops, he immediately treated with 
Gamarra, and they agreed to act together against Orbejoso and his 
new ally. Before they could unite their forces, Santa Cruz attacked 
and completely routed Gamarra's troops, who fled almost alone to 
Lima, where Salaverry soon after arrested him and sent him to Cen- 
tral America, whence he proceeded to Chili, to carry on his intrigues 
to keep Peru in a state of civil war. Salaverry now marched against 
Santa Cruz ; they met near Arequipa, and the battle of Socabaya was 



300 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

fought, where Salaverry was completely defeated, and taken prisoner 
while attempting to gain his vessels at Islay. He was immediately 
tried by a military commission, and with his principal officers shot at 
Arequipa. The career of Salaverry was short, but unexampled in 
Peru for its activity and energy. His fate excited no sympathy, for 
he had committed some of the most barbarous acts, executing persons 
without trial, upon the slightest suspicion of being disaffected to his 
authority. 

Orbejoso, on being reinstated by the aid of Santa Cruz, and the 
insurrection being put down, called an assembly of the deputies at the 
town of Sicuani, and set about punishing all who had taken part or 
served in any manner during the rebellion of Salaverry. 

The nullification of the treaty with Chili is said to have been 
brought about by the advice of Gavia del Rio, who was supposed to 
be somewhat under the influence of Santa Cruz. He made use of 
.the argument, that it contained stipulations injurious to, and contrary 
to the policy of Peru, which was to endeavour to promote direct inter- 
course with all nations, a policy which outweighed all the advantages 
that could be derived from Chili. 

In 1836, General Herrera was received as ambassador from Bolivia 
by Orbejoso, and with General Moran, who commanded the troops, 
seems to have exerted a great influence over Orbejoso. He entered 
into an offensive and defensive alliance with Bolivia, which gave all 
the ascendency to Bolivia, or rather to Santa Cruz, engaging that the 
Bolivian army should remain in Peru until peace should be esta- 
blished at the north. From this it was evident that Peru was ruled 
by strangers, and that her interests were forgotten. The people, 
therefore, soon became dissatisfied with the administration of Orbe- 
joso, and when he desired a new election of deputies, they in many 
of the towns refused to vote, believing that his object was none other 
than to secure himself a re-election by the Assembly. 

He dismembered the eight provinces of Peru, by declaring that 
four of them should be known hereafter under the name of South 
Peru, composed of the departments of Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cusco, 
and Puno. Nothing can be more absurd than the way in which lie 
seems to have conducted the government, and the bombastic and 
foolish tone of his decrees, wherein he is styled, or styles himself, 
" Citizen, Don Louis Orbejoso, Great Hero and meritorious General 
of divisions, and Grand Marshal of the State of South Peru." 

The Assembly of Sicuani met on the 17th March, when it con- 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 



301 



ferred upon Santa Cruz the title of Supreme Protector of South 
Peru, consisting of the four above mentioned provinces of Arequipa, 
Cusco, Ayacucho, and Puno. At the same time every power was 
given him over the state, as well as to call a legislature to convene 
as soon as he should think proper. This was virtually extending his 
power over the half of Peru next bordering on Bolivia, and was the 
first step towards making him head of both states. The assembly 
likewise passed great encomiums on the Bolivian army, awarding to 
them medals and thanks. On Santa Cruz it conferred the title of 
Invincible Pacificator of Peru, and voted that his equestrian statue 
should be erected on the field of Socabaya, that his portrait should be 
hung up in their hall, and in all the tribunals and public offices of 
the republic. The next act was to pass a resolution to appoint a 
committee to wait upon Santa Cruz, to present him with the declara- 
tion of independence, and to state to him the desire they had to invest 
him with the Supreme Protectorate, awarding to him likewise a 
salary of thirty thousand dollars a year for the expenses of his exalted 
situation. 

On the 19th the Assembly approved of the treaty entered into 
between Orbejoso and Santa Cruz. 

The Assembly of Sicuani was but four days in session ! ! and its 
whole object seems to have been to confer titles and honours on Santa 
Cruz, instead of looking into the affairs of the state. This must 
strike any one as having been a ridiculous boyish farce, and it cannot 
be a matter of surprise that the South Americans should rather be 
retrograding than advancing, when one takes into consideration 
such acts. 

On the 3d August, 1836, the Convention of Huara (which had 
been previously summoned) met. After being organized, it received 
messages from the provisional President, and the Supreme Protector 
by his plenipotentiary, who submitted three projects for an organic 
law, to the Assembly, for the purpose of uniting Peru and Bolivia 
under one head. It proposed to form them into the three fede- 
rative states of Bolivia, North and South Peru, each to have a 
president, and all to be under the Supreme Protector, who was 
named for life. The chief difficulty the Convention had to overcome, 
was whether a successor to the Protector, in case of his death or 
infirmity, should be named, and whether Orbejoso should be the 
party. During the pendency of this question, Orbejoso sent word to 
the Assembly, through the minister, that they might desist from the 
vol. i. 76 



302 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

project of his becoming the successor of the Protector. This great 
difficulty having been given the go-by, the organic law was passed, 
organizing the four remaining provinces under the title of North Peru. 
At the same time, the act that had been passed by the Convention at 
Sicuani, establishing the state of South Peru, was confirmed. At 
this session, Orbejoso was made a grand marshal, the pay of that 
rank was voted to him, and also a clasp for a sword-belt set with 
diamonds, with one hundred thousand dollars in money. A monu- 
ment to Santa Cruz in one of the Alamedas in Lima was provided 
for, with a gold sword inlaid with diamonds, and one hundred 
thousand dollars to his wife as pin-money. This convention was 
only in session three days ! ! It may very well be imagined what the 
people of Lima thought of these acts, by the fact that on the 13th 
August, Orbejoso returned to Lima, without receiving any attentions 
whatever. Orbejoso had previous to this time adopted the novel plan 
of chartering (aumdamiento) the government vessels of war, consider- 
ing they had no longer any use for them ; when General Freyre, 
the former director of Chili, who it has been mentioned was banished 
from that country, and was residing in Lima, engaged the two 
frigates for the purpose of making a descent on Chili. All the 
Chilians who had been banished, united with him, and it is believed 
that Orbejoso favoured and aided the project by money as well as 
advice. A similar belief was entertained in relation to Santa Cruz, 
although he denied it, to suit his purposes. 

Peru and Bolivia thus became one government, under the name of 
the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, and Santa Cruz was declared 
Supreme Protector for life, with almost unlimited authority. This 
was an unpopular measure in Peru, who complained that her inde- 
pendence had been bartered for foreign aid. There was little to 
unite her to Bolivia, no common interest, and but little commercial 
intercourse to cement a union. Bolivia, on the other hand, saw 
herself involved in quarrels in which she had no interest; moreover, 
Chili and Equador became suspicious, and jealous of the ambitious 
projects of the Protector of the new Confederation; while the 
misunderstanding respecting the treaty, and the restrictions that 
were put on her commerce, tended to widen the breach with Chili. 

The Protector, on his arrival in Lima, was received with great 
rejoicings, &c. One of his first acts was to impose a discriminating 
and additional duty on all goods introduced into the ports of the 
Confederation, when imported in vessels having touched at a Chilian 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 



303 



port, with the ostensible object of encouraging a direct trade fmm 
Lurope and the United States, to Peru and Bolivia. The Chilians 
took great offence at this act. Peru in her struggle for independence 
had received much assistance, first from Chili, and then from 
Colombia, and was in debt to both for the expense of the war. This 
very aid produced its usual consequences, b Y creating those feelings 
of hostility which the ungrateful indulge in towards their benefactors 
It soon became apparent that the vessels of war were chartered by 
General Freyre, who embarked in them with a number of the dis- 
contented Chilians who were in exile, and about two hundred soldiers 
This was done secretly, but the Chilian consul-general contriving to 
get the information, as has been related, despatched a vessel to notify 
his government, before an embargo was laid. We have heretofore 
seen, m the chapter which treats of the affairs of Chili, how the 
whole affair was frustrated, and how Freyre and the others were 
taken prisoners. 

The party in power in Chili had always been opposed to Santa 
Cruz personally, and believed that he had planned and aided the 
attempt to revolutionize Chili. Under pretence therefore of danger 
from the preponderating influence of the Peru-Bolivian Confedera- 
tion, under so ambitious and intriguing a head, they resolved on 
war. For this purpose they deemed it necessary to secure the 
command of the sea, and they sent two vessels of war to Callao, 
ostensibly on a friendly mission, but with secret orders to cut out the 
Peruvian vessels of war, then undergoing repairs in that port. This 
perfidious act was successfully perpetrated, and the next day Santa 
Cruz ordered the arrest of La Valle, the resident Chilian consul- 
general in Lima, but released him in an hour or two, and sent him 
his passport. 

Negotiations were entered into, and resulted, as we have before 
seen, through the intercession of the English diplomatic agent, in a 
convention and a cessation of hostilities for four months. It was 
evident from the first that no peace would ensue ; both parties had 
done wrong, and it is believed that neither wished for peace. Chili 
having now become mistress of the sea, saw no difficulty in carrying 
on the war. Accordingly, three thousand men were embarked, landed 
in South Peru, and marched for Arequipa, where they were speedily 
cooped up, left without resources, and surrounded by superior forces, 
daily augmenting under Santa Cruz. He finding the war unpopular 
in Peru, was desirous of making peace, and waived all the advantages 



304 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

of his position to make a treaty, which was entered into whilst the 
troops were drawn up in order of battle. This treaty was highly 
honourable to both nations. By it the Chilians were allowed to 
re-embark, on condition of returning to their own country, and 
afterwards giving up the plundered vessels to Peru. The troops 
returned to Chili, but the Chilian government refused to ratify the 
treaty, which is known as that of Paucarpata. 

Santa Cruz now instituted the Legion of Honour, in order to 
reward all those who had served with him in his campaigns, and 
annexed a certain compensation, which amounted to an annual 
charge upon the state of fifty thousand dollars. 

Great complaints were made by the Peruvians against Santa Cruz 
for appointing so many foreigners to office, and for inveigling the 
Peruvians who were opposed to him into the country, and then 
placing them under surveillance. These measures gave great dis- 
satisfaction, and made him so unpopular that they became at once 
desirous of throwing off the connexion with Bolivia, which it was 
now evident Santa Cruz's ambition had brought about. 

He had besides given public notice in writing to the consul- 
general of Great Britain, and of other nations, requesting them to 
communicate from time to time their views and information relative 
to commercial matters. This, in the opinion of the Peruvians, had 
the effect of giving to foreigners undue participation in the govern- 
ment, Even his friends considered that he might have obtained all 
the information without calling upon them in so public a manner for 
it, and thus exciting the jealousy of the Peruvians. He also issued a 
decree opening the ports of Bolivia and Peru to the Spanish flag. 
However wise the latter measure might have been in a commercial 
point of view, it was ill-timed, for the prejudices against the old 
Spaniards are yet extremely strong in South America, and especially 
in Peru. 

Santa Cruz's policy seems to have been to attach, foreigners to his 
person and government, and they for the most part spoke favourably 
of him ; but as he gained ground with them he lost it with his 
countrymen, and those who were and ought to have been his 
supporters felt chagrined and mortified to see him pursue such a 
course. The Peruvians are conceited, proud, and destitute of that 
education and knowledge which would enable them to understand 
the necessity of asking foreigners for advice respecting their com- 
mercial regulations. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 



305 



Santa Cruz, believing himself firmly established in Peru, was 
desirous of seeking popularity abroad, and for this purpose wished 
to have it understood that he was disposed to encourage trade with 
foreign nations. 

Chili again despatched to Peru the same troops, augmented by 
reinforcements, under the command of General Bulnes. °With them, 
as in the former expedition, came the proscribed Peruvians, among 
whom was General Gamarra. 

Previous to the arrival of the Chilian expedition, Orbejoso, who 
had been appointed, by Santa Cruz, President of North Peru, 
revolted against his authority, and declared the confederation dis- 
solved. In this he was joined by General Nieto. Orbejoso, however, 
opposed the Chilians, and declined their assistance, telling them that 
if they were seeking Santa Cruz they might seek for him somewhere 
else. Bulnes replied that he must remain ; disembarked his troops, 
and encamped near Lima. The next morning, as one of his regi- 
ments was removing to a more favourable position for water, Orbejoso 
thought that he intended an attack, and, determining to anticipate it, 
marched against him, ordering General Nieto to follow. The latter 
wishing to play chief, kept back. Bulnes, finding himself unexpect- 
edly attacked, ordered an advance on the Peruvians, drove them 
before him, and after the battle* entered Lima with his troops, where 
he maintained himself. Orbejoso, after his defeat under the walls of 
Lima, secreted himself in that city, and from thence, in a few days, 
fled to the Castle of Callao, where he remained until Santa Cruz 
again entered Lima. He then embarked for Guayaquil, where he 
still remains. Nieto sought an asylum on board one of the foreign 
ships of war lying in the bay of Callao. as has been customary in 
their revolutions. 

The day after the Chilians entered Lima, Gamarra succeeded in 
getting himself proclaimed President of Peru, by a few of his 
minions under the bayonets of Chili, and exercised his authority as 
far as their influence extended. 

At the time of these occurrences, Santa Cruz was in Bolivia, 
when, on learning the treachery of Orbejoso, and the occupation of 

* This was witnessed by many persons from the house-tops and steeples, who repre- 
sent it as little better than a massacre ; scenes occurred that were revolting to the sight. 
The history of this so-called battle will be a dark spot on the escutcheons of both Chili 
and Peru, if the truth is ever told. 

vol. i. 77 



306 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

Lima by the Chilians, he collected his force in the valley of Jauja, 
and marched to join General Moran, called the Murat of Pern, 
who was encamped within three days' march of Lima, with three 
thousand men, and awaiting him. Santa Cruz approached Lima, 
after having effected his junction with Moran. He moved on 
confident of success, with his well-appointed force, a host of mar- 
shals and generals in his suite, and boasted that the Chilians would 
soon be in a worse situation than when the treaty of Paucarpata was 
signed. Bulnes, on the approach of Santa Cruz, retired, leaving 
Lima the day before Santa Cruz entered it, embarked his troops in 
the fleet, and sailing north, landed near Huara, in the department of 
Truxillo. This much increased the confidence of the Peruvians, 
who now considered the Chilians as already captured. Belie vino- 
that as the rains had commenced, the Chilians had gone into quarters 
for the winter, Santa Cruz determined to pursue them by land, 
with which intent he made forced marches, through fog and rain, and 
overtook the Chilian army at Huara, where he encamped in a strono- 
position. He considered his enemy to be in so bad a plight, that he 
was sure of overcoming them with ease, and it is said wrote to his 
ministers at Lima, in imitation of Bonaparte, (whom he seems to 
have taken as his model,) "Ah! these Chilians, I have caught them!" 
His intention was to attack them as soon as his soldiers had rested 
after their fatiguing march. The Chilians did not give him leisure 
for this, but to the surprise of Santa Cruz, attacked him in his 
trenches. One of the most sanguinary battles recorded in South 
American history ensued; Santa Cruz was signally defeated, and 
barely escaped with his life, accompanied by no more than twenty 
soldiers. His whole army was entirely cut up, two of his o-enerals 
killed, and three taken prisoners. This battle decided the fate of the 
Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Santa Cruz was the first to take the 
news to Lima. He was joined there by Moran, whom he placed in 
the Castle of Callao, with orders to hold out four months, previous to 
which time he would bring relief, and reinstate himself in authority. 
He was proceeding to Arequipa, when news reached him that General 
Ballevian, the Bolivian commander-in-chief, had declared against him 
in Bolivia, and also that General Velasco was named President; lastly, 
Arequipa, the faithful Arequipa, deserted him with all his officers,' 
with one or two exceptions. Every where his life was cried for; he 
had but time to mount his horse and fly to Islay, accompanied by 
General Miller, Cardeno, and Garcia del Rio, who still adhered to 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 



307 



him. They were hotly pursued by a troop of cavalry, and arrived 
just in time to get on board the British sloop-of-war Samarang, which 
was lying m the roadstead. Here the Protector found a resting- 
place, and is said to have felt himself greatly relieved from the 
incessant troubles he had been engaged in for the last three years 
Thus ended his political career. He was taken to Guayaquil, where 
lie has since remained, forming new plans to involve his country in 
war tor his own personal aggrandizement, He had promised better 
tor Peru than any other ruler before him, but his ambition destroyed 
all the plans he had formed for his country's good, and he ended by 
entailing upon her many difficulties and troubles that will take a 
long time to overcome. 

Bulnes, after his victory of Yungai, immediately embarked and 
sailed for Callao, where he again disembarked, and took possession of 
Lima. Gamarra, as I have before said, was proclaimed President, by 
a Congress convoked by himself, which voted at the point of the 
bayonet. This has not been unusual in South America, and all the 
acts of the Congresses may in fact be called the sole will of the 
chief magistrate, under whatever title they may be issued. Besides 
naming Gamarra President, this Congress inflicted upon the people 
a new constitution by his direction. 

The battle of Yungai, which took place on the 20th January, 1839, 
concluded the war with Santa Cruz, and entirely overthrew his 
power by the loss of his whole army (in these countries a very few 
troops bear the name). In this battle there were four thousand two 
hundred Chilians, and four thousand five hundred Peru-Bolivians 
engaged. Fifteen hundred of the former, and two thousand of the 
latter, were left dead on the field; the wounded Chilians were 
numerous, but those of the Peru-Bolivians were said to have been 
put to death in the rout which ensued. The battle began at six 
o'clock in the morning, and was contested for six and a half hours. 
The Peru-Bolivians complain that at its commencement great advan- 
tages were lost to them by the conduct of Colonel Guilaste, who, with 
seven hundred men, betrayed his trust, and early decided the fate of 
the battle. It is said that every soldier on both sides fought "upon 
his own hook," and continued the battle as long as he chose, the 
officers having little or no control over their men. Indeed, I heard 
it repeatedly said, that the troops commanded the officers, and not 
the officers the troops. If it had not been so, many of the acts of 
barbarity and cruelty that are represented upon good authority as 



308 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU.. 

having occurred, would not have taken place. These I cannot but 
consider as destroying all the glory of the day to the Chilians, whose 
avowed object in coming to Peru, was to make war against Santa 
Cruz, and not against the Peruvians. 

Gamarra was now established firmly in Peru, and the confederation 
broken up. Bulnes and his forces returned to Chili, where he has 
since been elevated to the highest office of the republic (that of Pre- 
sident); thus ended the year 1839. 

In 1840, Bolivia, after the overthrow of Santa Cruz, became the 
prey of rival factions, and Gamarra was invited to come with an armed 
force and settle their disputes. No sooner, however, had he reached 
Bolivia, than the rival chiefs, forgetting their own quarrels, united, 
for their animosity against him exceeded their own little jealousies. 
They attacked him at disadvantage, and completely routed his forces. 
He himself was killed in his flight from the field of battle. The 
Bolivians in their turn now invaded Peru, but through the mediation 
of Chili, a peace was brought about, which left both Peru and Bolivia 
in a state of great anarchy and confusion : all the men of any note 
endeavouring to create a party for themselves. 

The above sketch of the history of Peru has been obtained from 
persons long resident and eye-witnesses of many of the scenes, and 
the few official documents that have been from time to time published. 

To complete the history of the misgovernment of Peru, I will now 
add short biographical sketches of the chiefs who have been the 
principal actors in all these troubles and revolutions, obtained from 
those who were personally acquainted with most of them. 

In the order of events, as they have occurred, Bolivar stands first ; 
his history is, however, too well known to need any detail. He un- 
doubtedly had talents, and was at first an honest and conscientious 
patriot. He split upon the rock that had already wrecked so many 
before him. His desire of personal aggrandizement made him forget 
that he set out to promote the welfare and happiness of his country. 
He consequently fell a victim to his disappointed ambition, and for 
many years previous to his death, accused his country, which he 
believed to be indebted to him, of ingratitude, for not preferring his 
interests to its own happiness. Notwithstanding his many faults, 
posterity will give him due credit for his actions. This, however, 
does not satisfy the South Americans. Their taste and customs lead 
them to desire present gratification rather than posthumous fame. It 
is remarkable, that not one of the men that the revolutions in South 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 



309 



America have brought forth, appear to have been influenced by the 
leelmg that he was serving his country. 

La Mar was, during the early part of the war of the revolution, in 
the Spanish service, but he afterwards joined the popular side He 
served with great credit to himself until the close of it, and contri- 
buted much to the success of the last and decisive battle of Ayacucho 
After this he retired to Guayaquil, where he had married a lady of 
good family, and remained quietly in the enjoyment of domestic 
comfort, until he was called to the presidency of Peru. He was a 
man of respectable talents, pure and unsuspected integrity of cha- 
racter, and universally esteemed in private life. He died in Central 
America, after he had been banished by Gamarra, leaving a reputation 
much above that of any of his associates. 

Gamarra also served for several years in the Spanish army, before, 
the revolution broke out. He early joined the patriot side. As a 
subaltern, he acquired the reputation of being an active and zealous 
officer, but on his promotion to higher grades, he is said not to have 
displayed, in the battles and skirmishes in which he was engaged, 
any skill, and his courage was more than once questioned. At the 
close of the war he was raised to the rank of general of division; and 
his first act, as has been seen, was to desert La Mar at Portete, which 
showed both his treachery and cowardice. His success has been 
ascribed to his skill in intrigue, and to his making use of the patronage 
his situation placed in his hands to effect his purposes. He trampled 
upon the rights of those over whom he ruled, while he at the same 
time was making the strongest professions in favour of democratic 
principles, and the rights of the people. Under the pretext of 
restoring to his country its violated constitution, he has twice over- 
thrown the established authorities, and placed himself in power at the 
point of the bayonet. Lavish of the public treasure, and equally 
careless in the economy of his private affairs, he lived and died in 
poverty. He was false in his friendships, and unforgiving in his 
enmities; he was greatly to be feared by those with whom he became 
reconciled after a quarrel. He has left but few admirers, although 
through his management he contrived to hold the reins of govern- 
ment longer than any one who has yet occupied the presidential 
chair. 

Lafuente was a cadet in the Spanish service, but joined the patriot 
cause. He did not gain much reputation in the war of the revolution, 
and his first essay as a general officer was a disobedience of orders 



78 



310 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

in landing at Callao, while on his way to join La Mar, at the same 
time uniting in intrigues with Gamarra, whom he succeeded in getting 
nominated as President, and himself as Vice-President. These two 
chiefs appear to have understood each other, and to avoid collision in 
the division of the spoils, agreed that each should pursue his leading 
passion. Gamarra accordingly conferred honours and rewards, whilst 
Lafuente indulged his mercenary propensity to accumulate wealth. 
The latter has grown rich, by robbing the people and by farming out 
the resources of the state to his agents and friends. Although 
certainly not the only chief magistrate who has plundered the state, 
he is, perhaps, the only one in Peru who has hoarded his ill-gotten 
wealth, and obtained affluence whilst his country was impoverished. 
He is still living, and was acting as chief during our visit to Lima. 

Orbejoso served in the patriot army during the revolution, and at 
the close of the war retired to his estate near Truxillo, with but little 
reputation. There he remained until elected to the presidency, in 
1831. Without talents as a statesman or courage as a soldier, he 
acquired more popularity than any other of his contemporaries in 
Peru. He undoubtedly sold his country to Santa Cruz, receiving as 
the price of it, the appointment of President of North Peru, or rather 
that of one of his lieutenants. At the moment of a threatened invasion 
from Chili, he renounced the Confederation in order to gain indepen- 
dent command, and regained much of his lost popularity by a show 
of patriotism and gallantry in opposing the invading force. His 
imbecility and want of knowledge, together with the conduct of 
General Nieto, lost him the battle, under the walls of Lima, with 
the possession of the city, and all his troops. Soon afterwards he 
was found in retirement at Guayaquil, where he has been constantly 
occupied in forming plans for his reinstatement to power. 

Salaverry served as a cadet in the last year of the revolution, and 
was esteemed an enterprising and gallant officer. He was, however, 
of a reckless disposition, and it is related that he threatened to shoot 
his mother, who had opposed one of his youthful freaks. Others, 
however, bear testimony to his good conduct in all his domestic 
relations, and to his kindness and generosity. When he usurped the 
supreme authority, he had no more than about two hundred men 
at his command, yet in less than three months the whole country 
had recognised his authority and government. In his short public 
career he certainly showed violent passions, and evinced cruelty in 
many of his acts, but he seems at times to have had impulses of 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. gjj 

generosity, though they may have been but feeble. At the time 
he assumed the command, and declared himself supreme chief, he 
banished General Nieto, a superior officer. The captain of' the 
vessel in which he went was induced to land him in the north of 
Peru, where he collected some troops, and made war upon Salaverry 
who immediately marched against him, vowing vengeance for what 
he termed his ungrateful conduct, in return for his lenity On 
Salaverry's approach, one of Nieto's followers betrayed him, and he 
was surprised and captured. Salaverry immediately invited him 
to his tent; they supped and slept together on the same hide, but he 
afterwards banished him from Peru. 

Another act, which does not show him in quite so good a light, 
was his ordering General Valle Reistra, an old companion, an 
amiable and good officer, to be torn from his wife at midnight, 
and within her hearing shot in cold blood, for no alleged crime] 
and it is supposed merely for the purpose of striking "terror into 
his opponents. He was full of energy, both to determine and 
execute his plans, and evinced talents which, had they been con- 
trolled by judgment and guided by moral principle, would have 
consolidated his power and saved his country from the anarchy 
which has since existed. He possessed the true spirit to rule the 
Peruvians, so far as energy was concerned ; and before Peru becomes 
settled, she will need some military despotism, in order to break 
down the small and numerous contending chiefs, that are, as each 
gains the ascendency, the worst of tyrants. The mode of his death 
has already been spoken of. 

Santa Cruz was in the Spanish service at the commencement of 
the revolution, and being captured by the patriots, was for some time 
a prisoner in Buenos Ayres. On his liberation he espoused the 
popular cause, and was for a short time at the head of the government 
in Peru, where he had been placed by Bolivar, and continued until 
the setting aside of Bolivar's authority, and the election of La Mar 
as President. He was expelled by the intrigues of his enemies, but 
was afterwards employed as minister to Chili. His subsequent ele- 
vation to the presidency of Bolivia has led to the suspicion that he 
participated in the assassination of the former President, Blanco, and 
his patronage of the known actors in that affair, gave strong grounds 
for believing the truth of the report. 

Santa Cruz is a man of ordinary talents, but of sound common 
sense. From his education (which is superior to that of his 



312 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

countrymen) he is far in advance of them in his knowledge and 
appreciation of the institutions of other countries. He is indefati- 
gable in his labours, and always exacts the attention of others to 
their duties. His passions are strong and his temper unforgiving. 
Mercenary in his disposition, and economical in his habits, he has 
always been lavish of the public treasure to promote his own views. 
From his liberal cast of mind, he always manifested a strong desire 
to forward the introduction of improvements, and adopt such mea- 
sures as would tend to improve the state and its people. His 
measures undertaken for this purpose, were sometimes arbitrary, 
and by them, and his desire to engross all the power in his own 
person, he lost much popularity. Foreigners esteemed him as one 
of the most efficient chief magistrates that have ever presided over 
this unfortunate country. 

For the purpose of elucidating the character of the proceedings of 
the chiefs in this country, I will end by giving a translation of one of 
the decrees, establishing the government of South Peru, by Santa 
Cruz. 

Considerando. 

1. That the government of South Peru remains incomplete by the 
death and absence of some of the persons composing it. 

2. That the necessity exists, that that government should have an 
organization more simple than it has yet enjoyed. 

It is decreed. 

Article 1. That the government of South Peru be composed of a 
Provisionary President, and a Secretary-General, who shall transact 
all the ordinary affairs of the Interior and Hacienda, agreeably to the 
law T s, orders, and existing decrees. 

Article 2. The Provisional President will place his rubric to all the 
resolutions and official papers, and sign, with the Secretary-General, 
the decrees which he may issue. 

Article 3. The Provisional President and Secretary are responsible 
for all the acts of his administration. 

Article 4. There shall be two Secretaries, one for the Interior, the 
other for the Hacienda, with the necessary subordinates. 

Article 5. The Provisional President will fill all the vacant places, 
and displace any from bad conduct, or the neglectful performance of 
his duties, or transfer them to other posts, as he may deem best for 
the public benefit. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 313 

Article 6. He may lay duties, if they should be necessary for the 
wants of the service or state. 

Article 7. He will have all the executive power which may be 
necessary for the security, order, and regulation of the state, in every 
thing that is not reserved by this present decree, notwithstanding, he 
cannot take the proper rights belonging to the executive power, 
neither give orders nor resolutions contrary to the existing legislation, 
nor to the decrees which may be in full force, but to facilitate, make 
clear, and do away with the difficulties which may impede their 
execution, and that they may be able to execute the intended reforms 
and mandates. 

Article 8. The Provisional President of South Peru will receive 
the honours and treatment which are due to a chief having executive 
power, and the Secretary-General those corresponding to a minister 
of the cabinet. 

My Secretary-General is charged with the execution of the present 
decree, who will have it printed and circulated. 

Given in the Protectoral Palace of Puno, 17th September, 1837. 

(Signed) Andres Santa Cruz. 

The Secretary-General, 

M. De la Cruz Mendez. 

Another decree followed this, of the same date, appointing General 
Herrera the Provisional President, and Colonel Don Juan Jose 
Lavrea Secretary-General. 

The results of my inquiries into the commerce and trade of Peru, 
are by no means satisfactory. The vacillating policy pursued towards 
the trade has been most extraordinary, and some of those engaged 
in commercial pursuits have frequently been enabled, through the 
necessities of the government, to reap many advantages. Much 
illicit trade was carried on, even before the revolution, under the 
Spanish rule. The restriction laid by its authority on commerce, 
kept the prices of imports high, whilst the low value of exports, 
left to the arbitrary demand of monopolists, prevented or diminished 
the means of these countries to pay for what they wanted from 
abroad. 

From this state of things resulted the limited trade and enormous 
profits under the colonial system. As soon as the ports were opened, 
an expansion took place, and the trade was entirely overdone. The 
markets became glutted with all kinds of foreign fabrics, and many 

VOL. 1. 7i) 



314 POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 

ruinous voyages were made from ignorance of the wants of the 
people, and their means of payment. 

For the last ten years the trade has been better understood. The 
demand and the means of payment have been more accurately ascer- 
tained, and a healthy and increasing commerce has been carried on, 
as far as the state of the country and the fluctuations, which are 
inseparable from a distant traffic, would permit. The commerce of 
Peru will not bear a comparison with that of Chili, and while the 
former has been diminishing, the latter has been rapidly increasing. 
A portion of the supplies which were formerly sent to Peru direct, 
are now obtained in Chili, and sent to their destination in coasting 
vessels. This change has been brought about by the unwise policy 
pursued by the various Peruvian rulers, in imposing heavy transit 
duties. It is also to be attributed to the advantageous situation of 
Valparaiso, w T here purchasers are always to be found for articles for 
the leeward coast. There is little doubt in the minds of those who 
are most competent to judge, that Valparaiso must become the prin- 
cipal mart of foreign commerce on the west coast of America. 

The foreign trade of Peru is principally carried on by the English, 
Americans, and French. Of late years, a good many German and 
Spanish vessels have been sent thither, and occasionally some of the 
Mediterranean flags are seen on the coast. 

The annual imports into Peru are combined so much with those of 
Chili, that it was deemed proper to include them under the one head; 
those of Peru amount to about two-fifths of the whole. Of these 
imports, part go to Guayaquil, and the Intermedios, or South Peru 
and Bolivia, take about one million from Chili and Lima. The 
returns made from Peru are as follows : 

In dollars and bullion, .... 84,500,000 
Bark, hides, wool, cotton, &c., . . . 500,000 



$5,000,000 



It will be perceived, that both in Peru and Chili, the imports and 
exports are nearly the same in amount ; and the question naturally 
arises, whence the profits on the trade? It is readily answered that, 
as has been already said, large quantities of goods are annually sold 
in Chili and Peru for Central America, the proceeds of which are 
shipped thence direct to Europe and the United States, and do not 
appear in the above note of exports. 



POLITICAL HISTORY OF PERU. 315 

These countries offer a large market for our own domestic cottons, 
and, if the prices can be maintained, the United States will supply 
the most of the coarser kinds used there. I have it from the best 
authority, that the increase in the consumption of these goods, is now 
double what it was five years ago, and is increasing. 

The article of flour, however, has greatly fallen off: previous to 
1830 there were nearly thirty thousand barrels sold; in the last three 
years, six thousand; and only one thousand in 1841, in consequence 
of Peru being abundantly supplied from Chili. 




FOUNTAIN AT LIMA. 



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CHAPTER XV. 



CONTENTS. 

STORE-SHIP RELIEF-EDWIN BARTLETT, ESQ. -EDWARD M'CALL, ESQ.- DEPARTURE - 
CAPTAIN M'KEEVER-PERUVIAN BRIG-SMALL-POX-GENERAL ORDER-PROPOSED ROUTE 
-CURRENTS- EXPERIMENTS -TEMPERATURE -ALEXANDER OGLE - CLERMONT DE 
TONNERRE-APPEARANCE OF IT-SURVEY-NATIVES-JOHN SAC-DIFFICULTIES WITH 
THE NATIVES- LANDING - SERLE ISLAND- HONDEN- SURVEYS -CORAL ISLANDS - 
VEGETATION - BIRDS, ETC. - DISAPPOINTMENT ISLANDS - INHABITANTS- WYTOOHEE- 
OTOOHO-TAIARO-RARAKA-LANDING-ONE-HANDED CHIEF-HIS VISIT TO THE SHIP- 
INHABITANTS-CATCHING FISH-LEAVE-TAKING-GALE-NARROW ESCAPE OF PEACOCK- 
PORPOISE DESPATCHED-VINCENNES ISLAND-CRITICAL POSITION OF TENDER-LANDING 
-ARATICA ISLAND-COMMUNICATION WITH ITS INHABITANTS -LANDING- VILLAGE- 
DESCRIPTION OF ISLAND -FRESH WATER - FOOD - TENDER DESPATCHED TO KING 
GEORGE'S GROUP-VINCENNES AND PEACOCK DISCOVER MANHII AND AHII ISLANDS- 
SURVEY - LANDING - OBSERVATIONS - NATIVES - DESERTER - ECLIPSE _ PEACOCK DE- 
SPATCHED TO RURICK ISLAND -VINCENNES PASSES TO NAIRSA - INHABITANTS - 
KRUSENSTERNS ISLAND - METIA ISLAND - ITS APPEARANCE-SURVEY-LANDING- 
NATIVES-MISSIONARIES' KINDNESS-COSTUMES-ASCEND THE ISLAND-VEGETATION- 
APPEARANCE OF THE ISLAND-DEPARTURE-ARRIVAL AT TAHITI-ANCHOR IN MATA- 
VAI BAY-OBSERVATIONS ON POINT VENUS-PROCEEDINGS OF PORPOISE-PROCEEDINGS 
OF PEACOCK-ARUTUA-SURVEY-NAIRSA OR DEAN'S ISLAND-CORAL BLOCKS-METIA 
ISLAND-OBSERVATIONS-TETUAROA-FLYING-FISH-TIOKEA AND OURA-HISTORY OF 
PAUMOTU GROUP-CHARACTER OF ITS INHABITANTS-POPULATION. 



CHAPTER XV. 

PAUMOTU GROUP. 
183 9. 

On the 13th July we had finished the necessary outfits and taken 
in our stores. The remainder of the latter were embarked in the 
store-ship Relief, which was ordered to land a part of them at the 
Sandwich Islands, and the rest at Sydney, New South Wales, after 
which to proceed to the United States by the way of Cape Horn. 

We took leave of our kind friends, Edwin Bartlett, Esq., United 
States Charge d'Affaires, and Edward M'Call, Esq., United States 
Consul. To both these gentlemen I am under many obligations for 
their kindness and information in relation to the country and its 
affairs. Their long residence had made them familiar with those 
subjects; and many of the transactions they communicated had hap- 
pened under their own eyes. 

At 5 p. m., having a light breeze, the signal was made to get under 
way, and we were soon standing out of the bay under all canvass. 
Captain M'Keever accompanied us until we reached the point of San 
Lorenzo. On his taking leave, we expressed our thanks for the im- 
portant aid he had rendered us, by giving him several hearty cheers. 

The day after our departure, we fell in with a Peruvian brig from 
San Bias, in want of water, which we supplied. She had fallen to 
leeward of her port, and her people were reduced to much distress for 
want of that necessary article. 

I had felt much anxiety lest the small-pox should make its appear- 
ance among us, and looked forward daily with apprehension to the 
hour when the sick reports were made. On the 14th my worst fears 
were realized, for the Peacock made signal that they had a case of 
that disease on board. It fortunately proved of a mild type, and no 



320 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

other symptoms occurred that left any doubt of the entire extinction 
of the contagion. I was, therefore, greatly relieved, as day after 
day elapsed, to be assured that we had not only escaped so dreadful 
a scourge ourselves, but that there was no danger of its being com- 
municated to the islanders. 

Being now about to enter upon a new field of observation, in which 
we should necessarily come much in contact with the natives, I 
issued the following General Order, to guard against any misde- 
meanours, and to insure a correct deportment in both officers and 
men, during our intercourse with the islanders. 

GENERAL ORDER. 

The undersigned, commanding the Exploring Expedition, informs 
the officers and crews under his command, that as they are now 
about to visit the islands of the Pacific, and to have intercourse with 
their inhabitants, he wishes to inculcate on all in the squadron, that 
courtesy and kindness towards the natives, which are well understood 
and felt by all classes of mankind ; and trusts that neither contempt 
of, nor interference with, their customs, habits, manners, and preju- 
dices, nor arrogance over them, will be shown by any one belonging 
to the squadron ; bearing always in mind, that savage nations have 
but vague ideas of the rights of property, and that theft committed by 
them has been the great cause of collision between them and civilized 
nations. 

He would therefore enjoin upon all great moderation in every thing 
respecting their intercourse with them, that no act of hostility will be 
committed, and that an appeal will be made rather to their good-will 
than to their fears. 

That the manner of trading with them which will be established 
in the squadron, will be most strictly adhered to by all, and that in 
the event of difficulties or collision, all acts of force will be avoided, 
unless for self-protection ; in short, our aim shall be peace, good-will, 
and proper decorum to every class, bearing constantly in mind, that 
the future intercourse of our countrymen with the natives of the 
islands we may visit, will very much depend on the impression made 
on their minds by us, and recollecting, that it is the nature of the 
savage long to remember benefits, and never to forget injuries. 

It therefore behooves us, wherever we go, to leave behind us, whe- 
ther among civilized or savage nations, favourable impressions, not 
only as respects this national expedition, but of our flag and country- 



PAUMOTU GROUP. SO[ 



men. 



The Commander-in-chief feels a confidence in relying on the 
officers and crews to carry out these views, from their good and 
exemplary conduct heretofore, and trusts that he will not have to 
regret the confidence he reposes in them. 

Any acts inconsistent with these views, will meet with the most 
exemplary punishment. 

(Signed) Charles Wilkes, 

July 13th, 1839 Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

United States' Ship Vineennes, 

I had determined, on leaving Callao, to take up the examination of 
the Paumotu Group, recommended to the Expedition by that distin- 
guished navigator and promoter of science, Admiral Krusenstern 
whose notes were made a part of my instructions, and have been 
already referred to in Appendix V. I therefore steered for the island 
of Minerva, or Clermont de Tonnerre, one of the most eastern of the 
Paumotu Group, or Cloud of Islands, as the name implies. I deemed 
this to be the most interesting point at which to begin our surveys, 
and the researches of our naturalists, particularly as it was inhabited' 
and would thus enable us to trace the inhabitants from one end of 
Polynesia to the other, across the Pacific. At the same time, it 
afforded a very desirable point for magnetic observations, and a visit 
to it would also enable me to settle a dispute between the two distin- 
guished English and French navigators, Captains Beechey and Du- 
perrey, relative to its geographical position. The longitude adopted 
for Callao, from which our measurements were made, was 79° 11' 
10" W. This I found to correspond well with that of Valparaiso, 
the meridian distance between the two being 5° 31' 50". 

On the 14th we found the current setting to the northwest by west 
three quarters of a mile per hour. 

The 15th, at one hundred and twenty miles from the land, we 
had changed the temperature of the surface to 67° beino- a diffe- 
rence of 7°. At three hundred fathoms depth, it was found to be 
51°. This day the current was found setting south half east, half a 
mile per hour. 

The 16th brought several showers of rain, the first we had ex- 
perienced since the 8th of June, off Valparaiso. Here we again tried 
the current, but found none. I now continued the usual experiments 
on the deep sea temperature, dips, variation, currents, the visibility of 
a white object in water, and the dip of the horizon, for which I must 

vol. i, 8! 



322 v PAUMOTU GROUP. 

refer the reader to the tabular results, only mentioning such as are 
generally interesting. 

On the 18th, the surface water was 70°, and at two hundred and 
ninety fathoms depth, 50°. 

On the 24th, in longitude 99° 39' W., we found the current setting 
southeast half a mile per hour, and directly against the wind. Our 
latitude was 15° 35' S. 

Until the 29th we had moderate breezes. The current this day 
was found east northeast, one-third of a mile per hour. At 9 p. m. 
the wind came from the west. This evening we had a beautiful 
display of the zodiacal light. It was very bright ; its altitude was 
25° ; the upper part of the cone was not well marked, and its apex 
was not defined; the breadth of its base was 30°. A fair breeze 
from the southwest continued all the next day, when we had reached 
the longitude of 113° 29' W., and latitude 17° 36' S. 

On the 31st, we passed over the locality of an island marked on the 
charts of Arrowsmith. Although we ran over its position with the 
squadron spread so as to cover an extent of thirty-five miles in 
latitude, and on its parallel for several degrees, lying-to at night, 
nothing whatever was seen to indicate land, and we believe that it 
does not exist. 

On the 4th of August the current was found north one-third of a 
mile per hour. 



^perature at surface, 


75° 


'>0 fathoms below surface, 


74 


100 " " " 


. . 73* 


200 " " •* 


61 


300 " " " 


50 



On the 5th, the current was two-thirds of a mile per hour, to the 
north-northeast. 

The winds on the parallel of 18° cannot well be termed the Trades, 
for at this time of the year they will be found very variable, though 
prevailing generally from the eastern quarter, with a long swell from 
the southwest. The upper stratum of clouds were generally seen 
flying from the southwest. The deep sea temperature on the 6th, 
at three hundred and fifty fathoms depth, was 46°, surface 77°. 

The 7th proved a calm and fine day, throughout which experi- 
ments were made hourly, to ascertain the depth at which a white 
object could be seen; the altitude of the sun was taken at each 



PAUMOTU GROUP. oon 

OiO 

observation, and also the force and direction of the current The 
ST" V^ Wat6r ^ 0ne ' h ™ dre ° fathoms was 75°, whils 

S u- s was 77 °' We were in longitude 125 ° w - latitude 

« Je he , "f f f '!? 8tl i 9th ' 10th ' and 1Uh ' the mete °™ lowers 
were looked for, the officers and naturalists keepino- watch each 

quarter of the heavens being under vision at the sametime On £ 
8 h upwards of one hundred shooting stars were seen, but the nights 
of the 9 h 10th, and 11th, were cloudy. On the former we had 
much lightning, thunder, and rain, with squalls from the southwest 

On the 12th Corporal Alexander Ogle of the marines, died of 
inflammation of the brain. He was a valuable man, and had been 
promoted for his good conduct. He had the confidence of his officers 
and the esteem of his corps. In the afternoon all hands were called 
to bury the dead, and his body was committed to the deep, the usual 
ceremonies being performed by the chaplain, and the vessels of the 
squadron having their colours at half-mast. 

On the 13th of August, at 5 o'clock, p. „., we made Clermont de 
Tonnerre or Minerva Island, and by careful observations the next 
day, found its southeast point to be in longitude 136° 21' 12" W lati 
tude 18° 32' 49" S. Clermont de Tonnerre being the first low'coral 
island we had met, naturally excited a great deal of interest We had 
Pictured them to ourselves as being a kind of fairy-land, and it there- 
fore was looked for with anxiety. At first sight, it appeared much 
like a fleet of vessels at anchor, nothing but the trees being seen in the 
distance, and as the ship rises and sinks with the swell of the ocean 
they are alternately seen and lost sight of. On a nearer approach! 
the whole white beach was distinctly seen, constituting a narrow belt 
of land, of a light clay colour, rising up out of the deep ocean, the surf 
breaking on its coral reefs, surrounding a lagoon of a beautiful blue 




.t»a-as 



tint, and perfectly smooth. This island was twelve feet above the 
level of the sea, and six hundred feet wide to its lagoon, and is com- 



324 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

posed of coral debris and vegetable matter. The shrubs are few, 
and not more than from twelve to fifteen feet high, the Cocoa-nut, 
Palms, and Pandanus showing conspicuously above them. We 
found it by our survey, to be ten miles long, by one and a half wide, 
lying in a west-northwest and east-southeast direction. The first 
sounding, on the east side of the island, at three hundred feet from 
the reef, was obtained in ninety fathoms (coral sand) ; at one 
hundred and eighty feet, eighty-five fathoms (coral sand); at one 
hundred and thirty feet, seven fathoms (hard coral), being at the 
edge of a nearly perpendicular shelf; thence to the shore, the bottom 
was uneven, decreasing to four, three, and two fathoms, until a 
second or upper coral shelf rose, over which the water at high tide 
flowed. This extended to where the beach is composed of broken 
coral and shells, and arose on a gentle declivity to ten feet high. 

The Peacock sounded within three quarters of a mile from the 
southern point of the island : at three hundred and fifty fathoms, the 
lead brought up for a moment, and then again descended to six 
hundred fathoms without reaching bottom. When it was hauled up, 
it had a small piece of white and another of red coral attached to it. 
The west side of the island is a bare reef, over which the surf breaks 
violently. There is no opening or entrance to the lagoon. 

For the purpose of surveying the island, the Peacock and Flying- 
Fish took the west side, while the Vincennes and Porpoise were on 
the east. Boats were lowered and sent on shore for the purpose of 
landing ; several of the officers and naturalists succeeded in reaching 
the beach, (swimming through the surf,) where they remained about 
two hours making collections. 

I saw some natives, five men and two women, and endeavoured to 
hold communication with them. The former were armed with long 
spears. They were cautiously watching our movements ; and after 
the boats had left, they were seen examining the beach for articles 
that might have been dropped. Every inducement was held out to 
them to approach my boat, but without success, and we were obliged 
to return on board for the night, not having succeeded in finishing 
the survey. Wishing to have communication with the natives, and 
effect a landing, we lay to, and by morning found that we had 
drifted off from the island eight miles to the northwest, and did not 
again reach our station until towards the afternoon. I then pro- 
ceeded to the beach, taking with me as interpreter, John Sac, a New 
Zealander, who spoke the Tahitian language, determined, if possible, 



P AUMOTU GROUP. 325 

to enter into communication with the natives, and to land to make 
observations. Seventeen natives were now seen on the beach, armed 
with long spears and clubs, which they were brandishing with 
menacing attitudes, making motions for me to retire. As I 
approached them with a white flag flying, many more were seen 
in the bushes, probably in all about one hundred' I told John Sac 
to speak to them, which he did, and found he was understood. The 
only answer he could get from them was, several of them crying 
out at the same time, "Go to your own lands; this belongs to us* 
and we do not want to have any thing to do with you." It was impos- 
sible to beach the boat without injury on account of the surf and coral, 
and in order to land it was necessary to swim a short distance, 
which could not be done without our being attacked, and suffering 
injury, before we had established a friendly intercourse. I therefore 
had recourse to throwing presents to them,— all of which, they eagerly 
took,— assuring them that we were friends ; but they still continued 
warning us off, and threatening us with their long spears. I am 
rather inclined now to think our interpreter was partly the cause of 
my not succeeding in overcoming their fears and scruples. John Sac 
was truly a savage, although he had imbibed some feelings of 
discipline, and was generally a well-disposed fellow. He was a 
petty New Zealand chief, at the Bay of Islands, and had resided 
some time at Tahiti, where he said he was married. At times it was 
difficult to control John's movements. He on this occasion soon 
became provoked at the chief's obstinacy ; and the idea of their re- 
ceiving all our presents so greedily without thanks in return, excited 
his native fire ; his eye shone fiercely, and his whole frame seemed 
agitated. Half naked as he was, his tattooing conspicuous, he stood 
in the bow of the boat brandishing his boat-hook like a spear, with 
the dexterity of a savage. It was difficult to recognise the sailor in 
the fierce majestic-looking warrior before us. The chief and John 
kept passing words until both were becoming vociferous, the one 
appearing as savage as the other. John's animated attitudes and 
gestures were the admiration of all. As we could not understand 
him, he may have said many things to irritate the savage chief before 
lie could be silenced, although he declared his innocence in that 
respect afterwards. I had been engaged for upwards of an hour 
endeavouring to overcome their fears of us, when I was joined by 
several boats from the other vessels. The officers being anxious to 
have communication with the natives, were desirous of landing, and I 
vol. 1. 82 



a 



326 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

readily gave them permission to do so without arms. They passed a 
short distance from us, hoping to effect their purpose without oppo- 
sition, but the natives separated in order to oppose any landing. 
One or two officers swam through the surf without arms, and were 
boldly set upon by three of the natives, when they made a hurried 
retreat. This evidently gave the natives confidence, when their con- 
duct became more outrageous. Mr. Couthouy requested permission 
to land with presents, under the protection of the boat, which I gave 
him. He swam on shore, pausing now and then for the purpose of 
showing the trinkets. The chief motioned him away, but he landed 
on the rocks. The chief, retiring, appeared as if somewhat alarmed, 
while Mr. Couthouy advanced towards him, holding out the presents. 
On being joined by another native the chief stopped, raised his spear, 
and with a shout and distortion of countenance, made a pass at Mr. 
Couthouy, who at once dropped looking-glasses, trinkets, &c, at his 
feet, and quickly made for the boat. The savage took no notice of 
Mr. Couthouy's offerings, but advanced to attack him with his spear. 
When he had reached the edge of the surf, he made another thrust 
at him, but fortunately without injury. This precipitate retreat gave 
them still more confidence; they now began throwing pieces of coral, 
numbers of which struck the men in my boat. I felt no disposition 
to do them harm, and yet I had no idea of letting them see and feel 
that they had driven us off without landing, well knowing, however, 
if a forcible landing took place, and they made resistance, that 
accident would befall one side, and probably both. I, therefore, 
thinking that they had no idea of fire-arms, ordered several blank 
cartridges to be fired, but they took no notice of them.* According 
to John Sac, they hooted at these arms, calling us cowards, and 
daring us to come on shore. I then fired a small charge of mustard- 
seed shot at their legs, which did not produce any effect. Then, Mr. 
Peale, who was near by me, was requested to draw his ball, and load 
with mustard-seed, which he did, and Lieutenant North likewise 
fired, which caused the chief and all the rest to retreat, rubbino- their 
legs. The officers were now permitted to land, under strict injunc- 
tions not to leave the beach, in order to avoid all contact with the 
natives. So much time had been lost before I could get the 

* I have since understood, however, that the poor natives have been fired upon by 
trading vessels engaged in the pearl fishery, in mere wantonness, which will account for 
their hostile reception of us. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. £ 27 

instruments safely on shore, that I found it too late to make the 
observations I desired. 

The natives whom we saw, appeared a fine athletic race, much 
above the ordinary size. Their colour was darker than that of our 
Indians, but their features resembled them. No tattooing was ob- 
served on the men, and the women were not seen close enough to 
distinguish them^ The hair of the former was long, black, and 
straight, The chiefs had theirs drawn back, and tied in a knot 
behind. The others had theirs hanging loose. They wore a small 
maro made of leaves, and the chiefs a Pandanus leaf around their 
necks, probably to distinguish their rank. The women wore a piece 
of tapa as a petticoat; they were not oiled, and some of their heads 
seemed filled with ashes or lime. They spoke and understood the 
rahitian dialect, The only information obtained from them was, that 
vessels had before been there, but had gone away without landing 

Immediately on their being driven from the beach, a large column 
of smoke was seen, no donbt a signal to the other inhabitants of the 
island. After being on the reef half an hour, we joined our boats, and 
returned on board near sunset. One canoe was reported, the next 
morning, as having been seen from the Peacock. 

The number of inhabitants that we saw certainly did not exceed 
one hundred and twenty. 

The common house-fly was found in great numbers at this island. 
A number offish were caught; some shells, and specimens of most of 
the plants were also procured. 

After lying to for the night, we, at daylight on the 16th, bore away 
for Serle Island, having first ascertained our distance from the point 
of Clermont de Tonnerre by triangulation. We then ran by the 
patent log for Serle Island, direct, by which means we made the 
distance between the two islands, twenty-six miles and two-tenths. 
No signs of any other island exist between these two. This will, I 
think, settle the question between Duperrey and Beechey. The latter 
is undoubtedly wrong as respects the longitude of Clermont de Ton- 
nerre, which he places some twenty minutes too far to the eastward, 
and I doubt not some accidental error has occurred in his observa- 
tions; for I find, at Serle Island, Duperrey, Beechey, and myself, 
agree within a few minutes. 

Serle is a low coral island, and has a large and very regular clump 
of trees on its western end, which at a distance might be taken for a 
mound or hill. Its length is seven miles, and its width one and a 



328 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

fourth. It lies in a northwest and southeast direction. There are 
but few inhabitants on it. The position of its southeast end is in 
latitude 18° 21' 10" S., longitude 137° 04' 10" W. 

The vessels again separated for its survey ;* boats were sent to trace 
the reef, and have communication with the natives, if possible. Before 
night we had completed our survey, and the boats returned. Lieu- 
tenant Alden, in charge of one of them, reported that he had had 
communication with the natives, who were very friendly and desirous 
of holding intercourse with him. He obtained several articles of 
curiosity from them. Some of them were tattooed. They were found 
to be a set of arrant thieves, wishing to carry off every thing they 
saw, trying even to pull the copper off the blades of the oars, but appa- 
rently without any idea that it was wrong. When first seen they 
were armed with spears, but seeing that we did not attempt to land, 
they sent them away in charge of a boy, and swam off to the boat. 

I now determined to wait until the next day, for the purpose of 
having further communication with them, and ordered every thing to 
be prepared for an early landing ; but during the night, the officer of 
the deck of the Porpoise (Acting Master Sinclair) ran into the Vin- 
cennes, and did both vessels some injury, smashing the starboard 
quarter boat, which broke adrift, cutting off our backstays, and losing 
some of the head-spars of the Porpoise. By this accident we lost our 
position, and in the morning found ourselves so far to the leeward, 
that I knew it must occupy much time— which we could not afford 
to lose — before we could regain the island. I therefore reluctantly 
bore away to the northward, to pass over the localities of one or two 
doubtful islands, on our way to that of Honden. 

On the 19th of August we made Henuake, Honden, or Dog- 
Island, and came up with it about noon. The boats were at once 
despatched, in order to ascertain if a landing could be effected, and 
the ships began the surveying operations. The surf was found very 
heavy on the beach, but the boats notwithstanding succeeded in 
landing. The number of birds seen hovering over the island was an 
indication that it was not inhabited, which proved to be the case. 
Several turtles were caught, and a number of specimens obtained. 
The survey of the island not having been completed, I lay by all 
night, and in the morning early despatched boats to complete the 
examination of it, and to effect a landing. The greatest part of the 

* For ihe mode of making the surveys of the Coral Islands, see Appendix XLI. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 329 

day was spent on the island. Near the place where we landed, there 
has been a channel to the small lagoon in the centre of the island, and 
there is another of a similar character on the opposite side. They 
were both dry, and the sea-water can only communicate with the 
lagoon at very high tides. From our observations of the day, the 
usual neap tide is three and a half feet, and it would give high water 
at full and change of the moon, at 2 p. m. 







SECTION OF CORAL ISLAND. 



There are many blocks of compact coral, just at high water mark, 
quite black on the outside, but on fracture they showed the white 
coral. The white coral shelf over which the sea flows at high water 
was two hundred feet broad, the low water falling two feet below its 
surface : it is quite level, but there are many holes and large longi- 
tudinal cracks in it. On this lies the compact coral above spoken 
of, extending beneath the coral sand. It is about ten or twelve feet 
wide. The coral sand beach above the compact layer has eight feet 
perpendicular rise, and lies at an angle of 47°. On the top of this 
are small pieces of coral, which have been thrown up by the sea, 
around the roots of trees and shrubs, growing to the height of from 
fifteen to twenty feet. We found the water in the lagoon quite salt, 
and very warm. Its bottom for a long distance was filled with a fine 
deposit of calcareous mud, about six inches in depth. The water 
had apparently evaporated from the lagoon, and to the taste was 
much salter than the ocean. Purslain (Portulacca) was found 
growing in a thrifty state in this deposit, Where the lagoon was 
deeper, some fine specimens of corals were observed and obtained. 
No traces of inhabitants were perceived on this island. The state 
of nature in which the birds were found, and other indications, 
gave proof that it had not been inhabited, at least for some time. 
There were a great many sharks, both in the lagoon and outside, 
which were so ravenous that they would bite at the oars. It was by 
no means pleasant to have to swim through the surf to the boat 
with them so numerous around us. 



s:j 



330 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

The landing on a coral island effectually does away with all 
preconceived notions of its beauty, and the ideas formed in its favour 
are immediately put to flight. That verdure which carpeted the 
whole island in imagination from a distant view, was in reality but a 
few patches of wiry grass, that obstructs the walking, and offered 
neither fruit nor flowers to view, it grew among the rugged coral 
debris, with a little sand and vegetable earth. 

The principal trees and shrubs are the Pandanus, Boerhaavia, and 
Pisonia. It is somewhat surprising that a few trees forty or fifty feet 
high should have found sufficient soil to protect their growth. Most 
of the trees, however, are of stunted size, being not more than ten to 
fifteen feet in height, and eighteen inches in diameter. 

Van Shouten and Le Maire visited this island, 10th April, 1616, 
some two hundred years before, and it was even then clothed with 
vegetation. If their description is an accurate one, the island appears 
now to be rather higher, as they report " from what they could judge, 
the greater part of the island is overflowed at high water;" this is 
certainly not the case now. The centre of the island is in latitude 
14° 55' 40" S., longitude 138° 47' 36" W. 

The number of birds on the island was incredible, and they 
were so tame as to require to be pushed off their nests to get their 
eggs. The most conspicuous among them was the frigate-bird 
(Tachypetis aquilus), many of the trees were covered with their 
nests, constructed of a few sticks. The old birds were seen, as they 
flew off, inflating their blood-red pouches to the size of a child's head, 
and looking as if a large bladder was attached to their necks. The 
gannets, sooty terns, and the beautiful tropic bird, were in countless 
numbers ; the former guarding their eggs, (which were laid on the 
ground without a nest,) with care, remaining by them, and even 
suffering themselves to be captured without resistance. Their hoarse 
croaking was quite deafening. 

Some droll sights were seen of crabs walking off with snakes, and 
both again seized by some stout bird and borne away. Perfect 
armies of soldier or piratical crabs (Paguri) were seen moving in all 
directions with their shells. We enjoyed ourselves much, and found 
no use for our guns, powder, and shot, As many specimens as we 
could desire were taken with the hand, both old and young. In 
some cases the tropic birds were taken off their nests, and from others 
their eggs were taken without disturbing them ; indeed, I have never 
seen any barn-yard fowls half so tame. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



331 



The various snakes, the many-coloured fish, the great eels, enor- 
mous and voracious sharks, shells, large molusks, spiders, with the 
curious lepidoptera, seemed to have quiet possession, their webs 
stretching in every direction, and occasioning us much annoyance : 
all gave a novelty to the scene, that highly amused and delighted us. 
In the afternoon we returned on board, loaded with specimens, and 
the survey being completed, we bore away on our course. 

There are no cocoa-nut palms on the island, as has been reported 
by Captain Fitzroy, in his voyage; nor is there any fresh water to be 
found. Some of our gentlemen saw on the beach some broken oars 
and some remains of a boat, but nothing could be identified. 
Pandanus trees exist on the south side. 

On the 23d of August we made the Disappointment Islands of 
Byron : they are two in number, called Wytoohee and Otooho. On 
the same day, I was informed by Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, 
of the Porpoise, that George Reynolds, ordinary seaman, had died of 
chronic pneumonia ; the chaplain went on board and performed the 
last offices, in the afternoon. 

On the morning of the 24th we were off the northwest end of the 
island of Wytoohee, which lies in latitude 14° 09' 30" S., longitude 
141° 17' 50" W. Many canoes came off to the ship: as they 
approached the vessels, the natives were heard, while at some dis- 
tance, singing, and, as they drew near, the clamour increased, 
accompanied with much laughing, and many gesticulations; but 
none of them could be induced to come on board, and they were not 
willing to part with any thing but some pieces of old matting. An 
attempt was made to get some of their paddles, but they rather 
ridiculed the idea of parting with them. 



CAXOE OF WYTOOHEE. 



The canoes were quite small, being from twelve to fifteen feet long. 
They generally contained two and sometimes three natives. Each 
canoe had an out-rigger, and a projecting point, both before and 
behind, by which they get into them from the water. They are 



332 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

formed of strips of cocoa-nut wood sewed together. Two persons can 
carry them. Their paddles were curved backwards. 

In order to dispel their fears, articles were given them gratuitously, 
and by way of showing their gratitude, they began a monotonous 
song or chaunt. They would occasionally stop, look up, and return 
the laugh of the crew by a grin ; apparently enjoying the sport as 
much as any of them. 

I sent one of the boats to the shore, with the interpreter, under 
Lieutenant Case, but they refused to allow them to land. No actual 
violence was attempted, but Lieutenant Case reported the impractica- 
bility of landing without opposition, and injury to themselves and 
natives. They received several presents, but they had no fruit to 
give in return, as their cocoa-nuts were tabooed. They gave, in 
exchange, some articles, consisting of cloth, fish-hooks, adzes, and 
pearl-shells. Among the articles seen in their possession, was a fine 
silk pocket-handkerchief, showing that they had had communication 
not long since with vessels. They refused to part with their spears 
or clubs. Their adzes were rudely made, but ground very sharp ; 
they were formed of the tridachna or cassis shell, lashed on a handle 
somewhat resembling our adze-handles. Knives were also observed 
in their possession. 

These natives are peculiar, and appeared totally distinct from any 
others we met with in this group, having strong wiry beards and 
moustaches, and a different physiognomy. The portrait by Mr. 
Drayton, gives a very correct idea of them. 




NATIVE OF WYTOOHKE. 



The remainder of the day was employed in surveying the island, 
which not being finished by night, we lay to in order to complete it 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 3 . i3 

the next day. On the 25th, the Peacock and Porpoise were ordered 
on one s,de of the island, the Vincennes and tender on the other 

slwes WCTe "^ t0 CffeCt * lam,ing lf P ° Ssible and trace the 
The island is formed of islets connected by a washed coral reef of 
irregular shape, with a lagoon having many knolls in it, of various 
sizes, some four or five feet above the surface. The southeast portion 
is the largest and most thickly wooded, and contains the laro-est 
number ot inhabitants. ° 

After the surveying duties were over, we found ourselves at the 
northwest point of the island. The natives who had refused to allow 
us to land, were now seen waving green boughs, which is the general 
sign of good-will, and a desire to have communication, and many were 
•seen dancing on the beach with their spears in their hands I gave 
orders to send the boats to the shore, but on reaching it we found 
them still averse to our landing; they, however, assisted Mr 
Couthouy through the surf to the beach, but when he had reached 
it, hey surrounded him, and led him back very gently to the water, 
making him distinctly understand that they would not permit hiffl to 
visit their huts. They were extremely desirous of obtaining buttons 
pieces of iron, and cloth. We gave them several small articles, but 
they could not be persuaded to part with their spears and clubs 
The chief, who was a very old man, was seen lying under a 
Pandanus tree, close to the beach, and on being told I wished to see 
him and make him a present, he arose; his hair was quite gray, and 
he had a long and stiff white beard ; his legs were enlarged with the 
elephantiasis, the swelling being of a white colour, and so large and 
regular that many thought he had on sailor's trousers. About twenty 
natives were with him on the beach. After being shown the 
presents I had for him, he was induced to wade into the water up to 
his neck to receive them. On coming alongside the boat, he seemed 
somewhat uneasy, until he had gone through the ceremony of 
rubbing noses, which I must confess was any thing but agreeable 
with so dirty and diseased a person. He was extremely anxious to 
get hold of the presents, and amused us by at once plungina them 
under the water, seeming in no manner concerned about keepino- 
them dry. He was all the while making a noise like the purring o°f 
a cat In return for my presents, he at once offered me the short 
mantle of matting which he had over his shoulders. 
They understood the Tahitian language. The chief o-ave his 



VOL. I. S4 



334 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



name as Korokoa, and the name of the island as Wytoohee. He 
appeared about sixty years of age, and his teeth were all sound and 
good. 

His brother was the priest, to whom I also gave some presents. 
This man had a very remarkable head, the forehead being very high, 
and narrow almost to a deformity, with a dark and suspicious bright 
eye. His hands were deformed, being destitute of joints, and the 
lower part bent at right angles. The son of the chief was a 
remarkably fine-looking lad of fifteen. We saw no women, as they 
had all been hid. The colour of these natives was much darker 
than those seen before ; in some the hair was inclined to frizzle, and 
the beard curly. All the grown men that I saw had mustaches; 
their features were strongly marked with a good-humoured expression 
of countenance ; they wore the maro, and some had a few feathers in 
their hair. 

The boats of the Peacock succeeded in landing on the east side of 
the island, where the coral reef shelves at about an angle of 10°, and 
having the wind blowing obliquely on it, there is comparatively little 
surf : some half a dozen natives were here seen ; an officer approached 
them making signs of friendship, which they returned. Among the 
number were two old men, who came forward holding their arms 




NATIVES OF WVTOOIIKE. 



upright above their heads, with their hands open. At first they 
seemed quite timid, meeting the advances made in a manner which 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



335 



showed that they were anxious to propitiate us, but stiJl fearful. 
They were reassured by our making them some small presents, and 
became desirous of shaking hands, and even offered to rub noses. 
They were all armed with a stick, (for it could not be called a 
spear,) six or seven feet long, on some of them were fastened the 
jaws of the porpoise. 

They appeared to be greatly astonished, and their looks bespoke 
amazement at our appearance. Occasionally, as if to satisfy them- 
selves of the reality, they would put their hands on us. On receiving 
a few trifling presents they broke forth into the same song or chaunt 
that was heard on their first coming towards the ship. The younger 
ones were the first to show confidence, and were much disposed" to 
laugh and joke with the men, and some of the officers thought they 
recognised those who had been in the canoes the day before. 

On our gentlemen requesting to go to their huts, they seemed to 
be thrown into a kind of stupid wonderment, but on being assured 
they had nothing to fear, their countenances brightened up, and they 
led the way through the wood to an open space, surrounded by 
pandanus and cocoa-nut trees. These natives had evidently had 
communication with vessels, but I very much doubt if any had 
landed before. They did not appear at all alarmed at the firing of 
guns, but were much surprised to see the birds killed, holding°up 
their hands, and making ejaculations. They had no idea of & the 
principles of barter, and allowed any thing to be taken without oppo- 
sition, receiving any articles in return with gratitude and delight. 
Iron was prized more than any other thing. On reaching the huts 
inquiry was made of them for their women, when a general burst of 
laughter ensued and they gave us to understand, that they had pene- 
trated our motive for visiting their island—" That as we inhabited 
an island without any women, we wanted to have some." Nothing 
more was said to them on the subject. They accompanied us to the 
boats, and at parting went through the same ceremonies of rubbing 
noses, shaking hands, and raising their arms with the palms towards 
us. According to the estimate I made of the inhabitants, the number 
was about ninety. From the great age of the chiefs, and the absence 
of wounded or scarred individuals, I should believe they lived in 
peace. They, however, gave their neighbours on the small island to 
the west (which they called Otooho), a very bad name. Water in 
small quantities is to be had on the eastern section of the island, and 
a little biche de mar might be taken on the reefs. A small rat was 



336 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

very troublesome to the natives. This island has some Cocoa-nut, 
Bread-fruit, and Pandanus trees; the Pisonia, Tournefortia, and the 
shrubs that are common to the low islands, also grow upon it. 

The huts of the natives scarcely deserve the name ; they are merely 
four or five poles, with both ends stuck in the ground, forming an 
arch on which strips are tied, and over these the leaves of the cocoa- 
nut, mats, and grass are laid. They are about six or eight feet long, 
four feet high, and about five feet wide, barely sufficient to keep out 
the sun, and entirely useless as a protection from rain. 



J*} 



-" .'" 







NATIVE HUT. 



Their utensils are small, and seemed ill adapted to their use. 
Their baskets were suspended from the tops of their huts and from 
trees. The natives seemed destitute of tapa. No anchorage was 
found at this island. 

At nightfall the squadron was put under short sail, supposing that 
the current by the morning would take us to the leeward near 
Otooho, a distance of ten miles. It lies west-northwest of Wytoohee, 
distant twelve and one-third miles, and is distinctly seen from it, like 
a round knoll. This appearance is owing to the trees upon it, for the 
land is as low as coral islands usually are. We found by the morn- 
ing, that the current had been about one mile per hour to the west, 
and therefore much stronger than I anticipated. We were in conse- 
quence some distance to leeward of the island. With the light wind, 
I knew the ship could not reach the island before the afternoon. I 
immediately sent the naturalists on board the tender Flying-Fish, 
and gave Lieutenant Pinckney orders to endeavour to land them, and 
to pass around the island and survey it; neither of which he suc- 
ceeded in doing. The survey was finally completed by the boats of 
the Vincennes and Peacock. The naturalists endeavoured to effect a 
landing, but were opposed by some dozen natives, who were resolute 
in preventing them from going beyond the water's edge; in other 
respects they were disposed to be quite friendly. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 337 

The chief was an old man, and was induced to venture off towards 
the boat. One of the gentlemen swam to those on shore ; his recep- 
tion was similar to that met with at the other islands : rubbing noses, 
kissing, and shaking of hands. Whenever he attempted to lay his 
hands on them, they started back, but were continually pawing and 
whining over him, making a kind of purring noise, not unlike that by 
which we propitiate or soothe the feelings or doubtful temper of some 
beast, They presented them with mats made of the pandanus leaf, and 
also pieces of worn-out tapa, in return for many articles received, but 
would not surfer our people to put their feet upon dry ground, and 
when it was attempted, kept shoving them gently into the water. 
The naturalists in the afternoon endeavoured to effect a landing at 
another place, out of sight of the natives, and succeeded. Mr. Brack- 
enridge, on landing the second time, ran to the thicket, in order to 
lose no time in making collections, and was employed in gathering 
specimens, when two stout natives came running up, and made him 
understand, by very intelligible signs, that he must return to the boat ; 
he pretended not to understand them, and endeavoured to proceed, 
but they went before hirn, and crossed their clubs, deter mined that 
he should go no farther. This caused him to laugh, in which the 
two natives joined. Finding there was no alternative, he took an 
oblique direction towards the boat, hoping by this means to enlarge 
his collection, which he succeeded in doing, while the natives, as he 
describes it, shouldered him out of the bush, and then towards the 
boat. The rest of the party having gone up to the huts, were at once 
seized and shoved down towards the boat and into the surf, where 
they presented rather a ludicrous appearance, with the danger of 
drowning on the one side, and the natives on the other, who had them 
completely in their power, as they had neither arms nor any other 
means of defence. No harm, however, was done them, but the alarm 
incident to being threatened with spears. The only mishap met 
with was the loss, by one of the gentlemen, of a pair of spectacles, 
and a bruise or two from the coral in their hurried retreat. As the 
surf was heavy, life-preservers were sent to those who could not 
swim; and after much detention they reached the boat in safety. 
Had such a circumstance occurred at Clermont de Tonnerre, I am 
satisfied that most serious consequences would have resulted to us. 

The superficial extent of the island of Otooho is about a square 
mile; it has no lagoon, is well covered with trees, and has fresh 

vol. i. 85 



338 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



water. There were nineteen men counted, which would make the 
population about fifty souls. No women or children were seen. 

At all the inhabited islands we found the greatest numbers of the 
common house-fly, while at Honden Island (uninhabited) none were 
perceived. No one can estimate the annoyance they cause, until it 
has been experienced. 

The huts of the natives of Otooho are different from those of the 
neighbouring island, but fully as rude. 

At about three quarters of an hour after sunset, the naturalists were 
again on board, and we bore away on our course to Raraka. Having 
been informed that several islands were supposed to be in this 
neighbourhood, that were known to the natives, but not laid down on 
the charts, I determined to lie to during the night, and at daylight we 
again bore away, spreading the squadron in open order of sailing. 

On the 29th, at daylight, land was reported, and we soon ascer- 
tained that it was not laid down on the charts. It is low, nearly 
of a circular form, and well covered with trees and shrubs, and has 
a lagoon of some extent. Its centre is in latitude 15° 42' 25" S., 
longitude 144° 38' 45" W. I named it King's Island, after the man 
at the masthead who first discovered it. After completing the survey 
of it, we landed on its lee side, where the water was quite smooth, 
and spent the afternoon in examining it. There were no natives 
on it, but every indication that it had been inhabited recently by 
a party of pearl fishers. The lagoon appears to be well supplied 
with the pearl oyster. We found on the island two small springs 
of fresh water, near its lagoon, and a good supply of cocoa-nuts. 
Many specimens of plants were obtained, and several interesting 
objects of natural history were added to our collections; for an account 
of these, the reader is referred to the reports of the naturalists. 

This island had more soil on it than any yet met with, and seemed 
to be productive. Large quantities of cocoa-nuts were lying about in 
heaps, that had been gathered by those who had visited it before us. 

The magnetic observations were also made here. The width of 
the island to the lagoon was found to be twelve hundred feet. A 
very narrow reef surrounded it, and the whole island was but six feet 
above the sea reef. No coral blocks were seen. It lies twenty miles 
to the northeast of Raraka. There is no opening to the lagoon, and 
the island is thickly wooded all round. An old canoe was found 
very much decayed and broken, and the remains of a hut on the beach. 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 339 

In the morning we bore away for Raraka, and shortly afterwards 
made it. As we approached it another island was discovered, to the 
northward and westward, which was not laid down on any charts. 

On Raraka we soon discovered a party of natives, near the 
entrance to the lagoon, waving a Tahitian flag, three horizontal 
stripes, red, white, and red. They were partly dressed, some in 
shirts, without hats, others with vests, and others again with trousers 
of all colours. I joined the schooner, stood in for the mouth of the 
lagoon, and landed. 

Nothing could be more striking than the difference that prevailed 
between these natives and those of the Disappointment Islands, which 
we had just left, The half-civilization of these natives was very 
marked, and it appeared as though we had issued out of darkness 
into light. They showed a modest disposition, and gave us a hearty 
welcome. We were not long at a loss to know to what to ascribe it : 
the missionary had been at work here, and his exertions had been 
based upon a firm foundation; the savage had been changed to a 
reasonable creature. Among the inhabitants was a native missionary, 
who had been instrumental in this work. If the missionaries had 
effected nothing else, they would deserve the thanks of all those who 
roam over this wide expanse of ocean, and incur its many unknown 
and hidden dangers. Here all shipwrecked mariners would be sure 
of kind treatment, and a share of the few comforts these people 
possess. No savage mistrust and fear were seen here. The women 
and children came about us, receiving our trifles. They showed 
much joy and curiosity at the sight of us, and were eager to supply 
our wants. The chief was an old man, much tattooed about the 
breast and arms, which gave him the appearance of a blue and 
brown checker-board ; others had large rosettes on their legs, and 
horizontal bands on the back, passing a considerable distance on each 
side of the spine, elaborately executed in various patterns. 

This is believed to be the tattooing w^ i 

peculiar to the inhabitants of Anaa 
or Chain Island. They frequent the 
different islands of the group, and 

are generally employed by those who ^5$%/^^ ^ ' 
are engaged in the shell fishery. ^^^T™™,. 

I was particularly struck with the modest and quiet behaviour 
of the native missionary, who was a Tahitian. He kept himself 
aloof, whilst all the others were crowding round to partake in the 




340 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



presents we were distributing, and seemed much gratified and asto- 
nished when I selected him out to bestow a present on, similar to the 
one I had given the chief. 

All the males' heads were shaven, somewhat after the fashion of a 
Dominican friar. This practice is said to have been adopted by the 
missionaries at Tahiti, for the sake of cleanliness, and also to dis- 
tinguish the Christian from the heathen party. The women have 
theirs cut close, and some are clothed in a pareu, consisting of three 
or four yards of cotton, others in a loose gown. They were any thing 
but good-looking; but the men were tall and well made. Their 
variety of apparel was droll enough. As for the children, I have 
seldom seen any finer; all were well formed, and as cheerful as they 
could be. They were for the most part naked. About two hundred 
inhabitants were counted on the island, most of whom belonged to 
Tahiti and Anaa, or Chain Island, and were here on a shelling 
voyage. They had arrived in two double canoes, such as have been 
used in navigating from island to island ; they were now drawn up on 
the beach. These vessels were apparently well taken care of, and in 
this situation we had a good opportunity of examining them. The 
annexed is a faithful representation of one. 




DOUBLE CANOE OF THE TAUMOTU GROUP. 



They are thirty-five feet long and four and a half feet wide, 
connected together by a strong framework, on which is placed a 
deck, and a mat hut erected on it. Every part is neatly put together, 
and well secured with twine and sennit made of cocoa-nut fibres ; no 
iron or metal of any kind is used about them ; they have two masts, 
supported by vines in place of ropes, and are enabled to spread large 
mat sails ; they steer with a large oar. After examining them, one is 
not at a loss to account for the long voyages which the natives have 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



341 



been sometimes able to accomplish in them. They find no difficulty 
in navigating them, and are now learning the use of the compass, 
but I am informed they still prefer sailing by the stars and sun, and 
seldom make any great error. Navigating as they do from island to 
island, they have not unfrequently been overtaken by storms, and 
some have been lost, while others have taken refuge or been wrecked 
upon other islands, and have been absent from their own several 
years. These gales they say come from the northwest. They live 
here in small huts, which are rather an improvement upon those of 
the islanders we have already seen ; they are formed of poles, with 
a mat covering, and are carried Math them on their voyages. 

Though scarcely able to protect them from the weather, yet these 
huts are clean, and lined with mats. Their persons seemed cleanly 
also, and they showed a great disposition to oblige us. Some 
attention was paid to cultivation, as was evinced in the plantation 
and care of their cocoa-nut groves, as if wishing to provide for their 
future wants. The trees of the young plantations were all carefully 
staked around. Their food consists of dried fish, somewhat similar 
to a whiting, of which they had a good and plentiful supply, and also 
of the masi, a preparation of the bread-fruit, which they were keep- 
ing for their return voyage. 

This was the first island on which we observed the dawning of 
Christianity and civilization. The native missionaries, although 
they are yet ignorant of most of the duties enjoined upon a Christian, 
still do much good in preparing the way. Many learn to read, and 
some even to write, under their tuition; yet they have many 
impediments thrown in the way of their efforts by the introduction 
of spirits by the whites. The old chief, and others, are much 
addicted to the use of it, and the vessels resorting here for the 
pearl fishery generally employ native divers, and pay them for the 
most part in rum or whiskey. We found here an Englishman who 
had belonged to a schooner engaged in the pearl fishery. He told 
me he had been left sick there by his vessel, and had been kindly 
treated during his stay of three months on the island. I was in 
hopes of obtaining some information from him, but he knew little 
or nothing of the language, and, moreover, was a stupid fellow. I 
gave him a passage to Tahiti, whither he was desirous of going, in 
the tender. 

Having some business on board, I invited the chief to go off with 
me : he first inquired if all the boats and men were to stay ; on my 
vol. i. 86 



342 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



telling him they were not, he said he would go on board if I would 
also take his wife, and her brother,— to which I consented. 

The chief had lost one hand, which he informed me had been 
bitten off by a shark whilst employed in diving for shells. We 
became great friends, and he thought it necessary to be at my side 
the whole time. He was an odd old man, and proved before we left 
him that he had become acquainted with some of the vices of civi- 
lization. 

We all embarked, soon reached the tender, and bore away for the 
ship, some three or four miles distant. The old one-handed chief 
now came up to me in a very mysterious manner, and untying a knot 
in the tail of his shirt (which was the only garment he wore besides 
his maro,) with no small difficulty, with one hand and his teeth, drew 
from it a small dirty piece of linen, tied up as a bag; this he produced 
with great form, and evidently expected to astonish me. The 
contents proved to be a few small discoloured pearls ; these he 
begged me to accept, but I declined to receive them. We now 
reached the ship, and I ordered every thing to be shown them. Their 
surprise was very great. While on board, Messrs. Drayton and 
Agate succeeded in getting a most accurate portrait of him. 







re£gMS$ 



^.^W%m 



PORTRAIT OF THE ONE-HANDED CHIEF. 



The natives were much amused with the ship, and surprised at the 
number of men on board. Many small presents were given them. 
When they were about taking their departure, the old chief com- 
plained of being quite sick, and his whole air and manner showed 
that he was much dissatisfied. The reason could not be imagined. 
The vessel had so little motion, it was thought it could not originate 



P A U M O T U GROUP. 343 

from sea-sickness. I therefore told the interpreter to inquire of him 
what was the matter. No answer was given for some time, but 
they consulted much among themselves in a low tone. The question 
was again repeated, when the old chief's wife answered, " that I 
had not returned the present that had been offered me, and that the 
chief was not pleased, for, according to their customs, the offering a 
present to me entitled him to receive one in return." As very many 
had been made him already, this amused me not a little, and on 
being asked what it was they wanted, they at once signified whiskey, 
which they said was always given them when they went on board 
ship, and the chief wanted some, for he was very sick. I accord- 
ingly ordered a bottle of water with a gill of whiskey in it to be 
given them, and the moment they smelt it their manner was changed ; 
they became all animation, and left the ship in great good humour. 
Mr. Waldron presented them with two sheep, of which they appeared 
quite proud. The brother was quite an intelligent native ; he drew 
for me with a piece of chalk, on the deck, all the islands he was 
acquainted with, with considerable accuracy, giving their relative 
situations, and the native names. That of the island we had seen 
the day before, as Tai-a-ra, and the one to which I had given the 
name of Vincennes Island, as Kawahe. He told me of three small 
islands to the southward of Sacken, which were afterwards found 
by the Porpoise, during the cruise to this group on which I sent 
her in 1840; his knowledge of the western part of this group was 
quite surprising. 

On the next day we landed early, and passed the whole of it on 
shore making observations. We found this was taboo-day or their 
Sabbath, although it was Saturday with us, and all the natives 
seemed to be enjoying its quiet and peace. Few of them were to 
be seen, and they exhibited but little curiosity, and no persuasion 
could induce them to employ themselves in getting fish and shells for 
us. We obtained a full set of observations to determine the position, 
and also those for magnetic results. I place the entrance to the 
lagoon of Raraka in longitude 144° 57' 40" W., latitude 16° 06' 
25" S. The result of our day's observations gave the tides, at full 
and change of the moon, two o'clock, and three feet in height j the 
shore, however, showed that there were at times very high tides. The 
natives said, when it was a round moon they had very high water. 

The entrance to the lagoon is on the north side of the island, about 
one-third of its length from the western end. It is a narrow passage, 
but will admit a small vessel. The current runs very strong out 



344 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

of the lagoon, so much so, that a boat cannot pull against it. The 
entrance is from five to eight fathoms deep, but there is no advantage 
in entering, as the reef is quite as steep within. A small vessel may 
anchor on the outside, in ten fathoms, close to the shore. This island 
is nearly of the shape of an equilateral triangle, and its southern and 
eastern sides are formed by a submerged reef. It is fifteen miles on 
each side. 

The chief, on our second visit, was at first not altogether free from 
alarm at the sight of so many persons on shore ; but each one bring- 
ing himself, his wife, or people, some small present, soon reconciled 
him to their presence. Among the sailors he contrived to get some 
grog, which intoxicated him, and he became of a most joyous tem- 
perament and full of affection. 

The way of catching fish practised here is quite amusing, and to it 
we owe the many specimens in that department of natural history 
which we obtained. The natives enjoy the sport amazingly, and both 
old and young are all in some way participators in it. Near the 
mouth of the lagoon are laid some coral stones, forming a rude 
and shallow pen, with a channel leading to it ; several natives proceed 
about one-third of a mile up the beach of the lagoon, where they 
enter the water, ranging themselves in a row, the tallest in the 
deepest water. They then move along down towards the pen, quite 
noiselessly at first, driving the fish before them. As they approach, 
they begin to splash and make a noise, which gradually increases, 
until it becomes one continued shout. They then contract them- 
selves towards the pen, and the fish are seen jumping and dashing 
in all directions, as if very much alarmed, until they are forced to 
cuter the pen, which is then closed with a few stones, after which 
they begin to spear them with great dexterity, and many were 
obtained. It was gratifying to witness the pleasure both old and 
young appeared to take in this employment, and quite surprising that 
the fish do not escape over the low wall that surrounds them, but 
two or three inches above the water, but they appear bewildered. 
The natives regretted that their success was so small, and imputed 
it to the water being too high. Some fresh water may be obtained 
here. The spring or pond is on the west side of the entrance. 
What the natives had in their cocoa-nut shells was sweet. It is, 
however, in no great abundance. 

Many specimens were added here to our collections. This was 
one of the islands in which I attempted to sound the lagoon. We 
began at the entrance, but found within a very short distance, that 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



345 



the depth increased to thirty fathoms, the water being as blue as the 
ocean. So great a depth made it an undertaking far beyond what 
my time allowed. The sounding in every case of any depth was 
coral sand. 

Towards sunset we all embarked, and my leave-taking with the 
old chief was amusing. He and all his household and retinue began 
to cry and whine over me, so that I was glad to escape from the dis- 
play of so much friendship and parental affection. 

After reaching my ship, the Porpoise again joined us. She had 
been despatched early in the morning towards the eastern end of the 
island, to ascertain its extent, and fix its eastern point; not being 
able to accomplish this, Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold returned 
for further orders. This night we lay to under the lee of Raraka, 
but as it proved dark and squally, we stood to the northward, and 
about 1 o clock we were surprised by seeing a signal from the Pea- 
cock, of danger close aboard, under the lee. I immediately tacked 
and we soon cleared it. It proved to be the reef of Kawahe, over 
which the surf was breaking violently. The Peacock was so close to 
it that Captain Hudson felt himself obliged to stand on his course 
rather than run the risk of miss-staying, and continued to run aW 
it for several miles, until, by its trending to the westward, he was 
enabled to clear the danger. 

On the 1st of September, at daylight, we found ourselves between 
the two islands, and the Peacock was out of sight, but two hours 
afterwards was again seen. I made signal to the Porpoise, and 
despatched her to examine the southeast side of Raraka, and thence 
to follow on to the westward as far as Krusenstern's Island, passing 
along the south side of Nairsa or Dean's Island. I then despatched the 
Peacock to the north end, and the tender to the south end of Kawahe 
to secure meridian observations, whilst the Vincennes was employed 
m surveying its eastern shores. The wind was well adapted to our 
object, and at sunset we met off the north end, having completed our 
work The current was tried, but we found none. The wind was 
fresh from the eastward, with occasional squalls. On the morning of 
the 2d, I determined to land the naturalists on the newly found 
island, and for this purpose made signal to the tender to come 
within hail. My ship was lying with her main-topsail to the mast, 
and forging ahead about a knot an hour. The tender came up on 
our lee quarter, and lulled in an awkward manner, directly across 
our bow. Her mast just escaped coming in contact with our jib-boom. 
vol. i. g7 



346 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

I at once ordered all the sails of the Vincennes to be thrown aback, 
which stopping her way, prevented the dreadful accident of running 
the tender down. It was a most miraculous escape. 

We landed on Vincennes Island, and obtained the usual observa- 
tions. Its south point is in latitude 15° 59' 48" S., longitude 
145° 09' 30" W. It was found to be sixteen miles long by ten wide; 
its greatest diameter lying north and south. It is a narrow annular 
ridge, consisting of many blocks and slabs of coral, which give a 
clinky sound when struck. The coral shelf seemed to dip in one 
place at an angle of 15°, forming a ridge, which was so low that the 
tide was beginning to flow over it before high water. There is an 
opening into the lagoon on the southwest side ; on its southeastern 
part is a high clump of trees, looking like a knoll at a distance. The 
rest of the island is covered with a growth of bushes, ten or twelve 
feet high. The blocks and slabs above spoken of were very much 
water-worn, and were strewn about on the coral shelf. This, where 
I measured it, was five hundred feet wide, but it is not of equal 
width in all parts. Among the coral blocks was some sand, and in 
many of the blocks were found large specimens of the chama and 
other shells. I was informed at Raraka, that there were a few 
inhabitants on Vincennes Island, but none were seen by us. They 
were said to live on the southern end of it. 

After finishing our observations, we returned on board, and made 
sail for Aratica, or Carlshoff Island. We arrived off it in time to 
secure its connexion with Vincennes Island, the distance was found 




NATIVE OF PAUMOTU GROUP. 



by patent log, and astronomical observations, to be twenty miles to 
the westward, after which we stood on and off its eastern point 



w^r 



, .,.,.«, 



if»m*™,HmS&£ 



mmtmm 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



347 



for the night. The next morning at daylight we began its survey. 
I he tender was despatched round its northern shore, whilst the Pea- 
cock and Vincennes took its southern side, running close along the 
reef which continued submerged until near its southwestern end, 
which is twelve feet high and thickly wooded. On roundm- the 
point, we saw a white flag waved by several natives on the beach 
1 immediately despatched a boat, with an officer, who brought off two 
of the principal natives, one of whom spoke a little English, and 
proved quite intelligent. He was tattooed only on one side, from 
the pubis to the sternum, bounded by broad blue bands, which 
divided and terminated under each ear. 

He reported that there were about twenty natives on the island, 
and that they had frequent intercourse with vessels that had visited 
them. They informed me that water was to be had on the island 
* mdmg ourselves short of this necessary article, I despatched several 
boats to procure it. Aratica is eight miles in length by five in 
breadth. J 

All the naturalists were sent on shore, with as many of the officers 
as could be spared from duty. We landed near what the natives 
called their village. This consisted of one or two huts, built in a 
grove of large trees, consisting principally of Pisonias, fifty or sixty 
feet m height. Some of these had been felled (with a small hatchet, 
of which they possessed only one,) to build canoes. It is principally 
used for out-riggers, being light and durable, and well adapted for that 
purpose. We found two canoes partly dug out. The woods were 
quite thick and forest-like. The inhabitants of the village consisted 
ol four men, two women, a dog, and a cat; the remainder of the 
inhabitants live on the northeast side. The lagoon abounds with 
fish, and has several small coral knolls in it, though none with much 
vegetation on them. This is the most elevated of the low coral 
islands we had yet met with. 

It has a deep entrance into its lagoon, on the west side. 
The same formation presents itself here, of three distinct shelves : 
the one submerged, narrow, and shelving rapidly, the other broad, 
level, and covered at high water, but quite bare at low, and having 
the same longitudinal cracks in it. On the upper one is the usual 
accumulation of coral debris and sand, on which the vegetation 
grows. 

On the lagoon side the beach slopes gradually, and there is seldom 
found any decided break, from which to judge of the thickness of the 



■ 



■ 



i 'i i 



i 




Ml 



348 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



coral shelf. On the upper shelf, some large compact coral blocks are 
found. One of these which I measured, was ten by twenty feet. It 
rested upon two small fragments, the remainder having been gra- 
dually worn away by the washing of the sea; seemed, in fact, to 
be a part of that forming the second or upper shelf of coral. The 
wood-cut comprises several that were seen on the coral islands, and 
will give an idea of their shapes. The highest point of the island 
was twelve feet above low water mark. 




COR A I, BLOCKS. 



The fresh water is procured from a large pool, about fifty feet in 
diameter, and of considerable depth ; it is about half a mile from the 
village, to the north, and situated within the line of woods. Water- 
ing is very troublesome and fatiguing when the boats are outside, and 
it is necessary to transport it a long distance, but our leathern 
watering-bags, made it less difficult for us. By entering the lagoon 
through the opening, the boats could approach very near the pool. 
The only difficulty to be found would be in passing into it when the 
tide is setting out. It was reported that there was enough of water 
to supply the squadron. The water was thought by some to be a 
little brackish, but it was found quite potable. 

Many botanical specimens were obtained here, similar to those 
collected on the other islands ; also several birds, a harmless scorpion, 
and lizards, the same as found on the other islands. 

The reefs were covered with Holuthuria and some Biche de mar, 
but none of the valuable kinds, and we also obtained a large number 
of shells. The fish here are said to be poisonous, but the natives, 
we understood, eat some of the kinds, so that it does not apply to the 
whole. The position of the west point of the island was determined 
to be in longitude 145° 39' 46" W., and latitude 15° 26' S. 

Having obtained all the water we could in the afternoon, amounting 
to three hundred and ninety gallons, I directed the course of the 



PAUMOTU GROUP. g 4g 

squadron to the northward and eastward, towards King George's 
Group, having fresh breezes from the east-northeast. The next day 
at noon, the most southern island was in sight, and finding the ships 
could not make it without much loss of time, I despatched the tender 
to the group, with orders to circumnavigate and examine the islands, 
and then to follow us to Tahiti, whilst the Vincennes and Peacock 
bore away to the westward, for the doubtful island of Waterlandt. 
At 5 p. m. it was discovered from the masthead, and at six from the 
lore-yard, bearing northwest by north. 

We stood on and off all night, and at daylight again made the land ; 
we reached its north point at 4 o'clock p. m., when the Peacock was 
ordered to take the east, whilst the Vincennes took the west side • 
we continued the survey until dark, when we took the necessary 
angles to resume the work in the morning. Many natives were seen, 
and smoke rising in several places. On the 6th of September, we 
continued our surveying operations, and shortly afterwards joined the 
Peacock, Captain Hudson having completed his side of the island 
The Peacock now made the signal of land to the westward. Wishing 
to land and make an examination of this island, and have communi- 
cation with the natives, the boats were lowered, and the naturalists 
from both vessels, and many officers, landed, and rambled over the 
western part of the island for several hours. The few natives were 
very friendly, and informed us that the native name of the island was 
Manhn. This is, in all probability, the Waterlandt of Schouten and 
Le Maire, and also Wilson's Island of the Duff. There is a laro-e 
and deep entrance in the southeast end into the lagoon of Manhii 
Island, in which, the natives informed me, vessels had often anchored 
whilst engaged in the pearl fishery. Many cocoa-nut trees were seen 
on this island, and fresh water is to be procured from a pool on the 
southwest side. The island at this end is upwards of half a mile wide 
to the lagoon; the coral reef is here quite broad. Soundings are not to 
be had with one hundred fathoms of line, fifty feet from the edge of it, 
There were some small compact coral rocks here and there,°but no 
regular upper or second shelf; the lower coral shelf was three hundred 
feet in width, and had many long longitudinal cracks, from six to 
eight inches wide, resembling those seen in ice-fields. In some 
places these were quite deep, and in the chasms numerous shells of the 
chama species presented their beautiful colours to view. Some of the 
gentlemen reported that they found a stone sarcophagus, or something 
vol. i. gig 



350 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

much resembling one. We made a set of magnetic observations on 
this island, and many shells, plants, &c, were procured. 

To our surprise, one of the men of the Peacock, by the name of 
Penny, deserted here from the boats. He had been formerly much 
among the islands, engaged in pearl fishing, and spoke the language 
well. Strict search was made for him, until the officer in charge of 
the boats became satisfied that he had no intention of returning. On 
hearing of it, I was convinced that he had chosen this opportunity, 
particularly as he must have been aware that there is very frequent 
communication with Tahiti. The chief of this island informed us 
that he was a relative of the one-handed chief of Raraka. 

The east end of the island lies in latitude 14° 26' 22" S., longitude 
146° 04' 20" W. 

Several of us had our feet severely blistered, from going barefoot 
on the reefs, and were made very uncomfortable from this cause. 
After returning on board, we bore away to the other island, to which 
the natives gave the name of Ahii. I have also added that of Pea- 
cock Island, to mark that its correct position was first established by 
the Expedition. It lies west three-fourths north per compass from 
Manhii, and was found by the patent log to be eight and six-tenths 
miles from reef to reef. On coming up with, it the Vincennes and 
Peacock took opposite sides, and surveyed it, and the next morning 
parties landed. I was hardly able to move, on account of my feet, 
but the desire of getting observations of the eclipse, urged me to make 
the attempt ; I, however, succeeded in getting only the last limb and 
good observations for time. After four o'clock, we returned on board. 
This island is not inhabited, and has only a small boat-entrance into 
its lagoon, on the west side. The coral belt is similar to that last 
described ; it was found to be upwards of half a mile in width, and 
was covered with the same kind of vegetation as the last, excepting 
cocoa-nut trees, of which none were found on the island. The 
lagoon is quite shallow. A favourite fish with the natives is found 
in it, and at certain seasons they visit the island for the purpose of 
catching them. The coral shelf varied from two to five hundred 
feet in breadth. 

Being desirous of making the examination of as many of the coral 
islands as possible, I now despatched the Peacock to the Arutua or 
Rurick Islands, with directions to examine them, and then to proceed 
along the south side of Dean's Island, whilst, in the Vincennes, I 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 35 j 

steered for the north side of the latter, to pass along it. We then 
parted company, and Dean's Island was made by us the next morn- 
ing. After establishing our position, we ran along the northern shore, 
and reached its western point at 4 p. m. Off this point we obtained 
sights for our chronometers, which put it in longitude 147° 58' 34" 
W., latitude 15° 05' 15" S. During the day we passed an entrance 
into its lagoon, and some natives came off from a small village, in 
two canoes, to visit us. They acknowledged themselves subjects of 
Queen Pomare of Tahiti, and were very desirous we should land. 
They brought off a few shells, and told us they had many fowls, pigs, 
taro, &c. There are several islets in the lagoon covered with trees. 
Vast numbers of large blocks were seen lying on its reef. The shore- 
reef is not more than two hundred feet wide, and is composed of but 
one shelf. The current was tried, but none was found. We had 
the wind very fresh from east by north all day. When off the 
western point we discovered Krusenstern's Island to the west, and 
hauled up to pass between it and Nairsa. The passage was found to 
be twelve and two-thirds miles wide, and free from all danger. In 
the evening I stood for Metia Island, to the southward. Nairsa or 
Dean's Island was found to be sixty-six miles in length. 

On the morning of the 9th of September we were in sight of 
Metia or Aurora Island, the north end of which is in latitude 15° 
49' 35" S., longitude 148° 13' 15" W. It was totally different in 
appearance from those we had met with, though evidently of the 
same formation. It was a coral island uplifted, exposing its for- 
mation very distinctly, and as such was very interesting. On 
approaching its eastern end, I sounded at about one hundred and 
fifty feet from its perpendicular cliff, and found no bottom with one 



^fflBKtlESj 




hundred and fifty fathoms of line. The cliff appeared worn into 
caverns. We landed close in its neighbourhood, and on measuring 
its height it proved to be two hundred and fifty feet. The coral 



352 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

shelf was found to be five hundred feet in width, extending on the 
north side of the island, and gradually diminishing in width until it 
loses itself at the western end. This island has all the features that 
one would naturally be led to expect from a low island uplifted. 
The north, east, and west sides present a perpendicular cliff or wall, 
but this character does not prevail on the south side, although it has 
some high knolls. The north ridge is nearly level, and there is a 
break through it (by which we ascended to its top) very much like 
the opening of a lagoon. The north side is concave, and there is 
found within the indentations between its two points, an extensive 
inclined plain, composed of large masses of limestone and vegetable 
mould, on which the village is situated, in a luxuriant grove of bread- 
fruit, cocoa-nut, pandanus, and other trees, similar to those already 
spoken of, as seen on the other islands. There were several copious 
springs, but the natives informed me that there were no running 
streams on the island. 

The natives all seemed delighted to see us, crowded around my 
boat, and assisted to haul it up ; men, women, and children flocked 
around us; all the population were gathered, to the number of about 
three hundred and fifty. We were at once invited to the chief's and 
native missionary's house, situated in the centre of the village. The 
house was constructed of the bread-fruit wood, for a frame, and reeds 
of the wild sugar-cane for the uprights, with interstices for the 
passage of the air, and was lined with mats to exclude it when 
required. It was well thatched, and the whole had a cool and 
comfortable appearance. Cocoa-nuts were soon brought us, and all 
our questions were answered with an alacrity and pleasure that 
showed their strong desire to oblige and assist us. 

The natives had gathered in crowds around the door to look at us. 
They were a fine-looking race, though forming rather a motley group. 
The manner of carrying their children particularly attracted our 
notice ; it had a pleasing effect. We found it afterwards practised 
throughout Polynesia. Many questions were put to me, and now 
and then I could hear a voice saying, " Me ship, captain, me go 
Tahiti." All were more or less clothed in the cast-off garments of 
whites, and not very particular whether they possessed one, two, or 
parts of garments, as long as it appeared different from their own 
tapa, and of foreign fashion. This appeared more ridiculous, for on 
our first landing few were to be seen except in their native dresses, 
but shortly afterwards one might have believed the contents of all 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 



353 



Vv 




MODE OF CARRYING CHILDREN. 

the old clothes shops of one of our cities had been distributed among 
them : storm pea-jackets, light summer pantaloons, vests, capes of 
overcoats, bell-crowned hats, checked and red flannel shirts, most of 
which were torn or worn threadbare in many places, whilst the 
women had bedecked themselves with cocoa-nut oil and turmeric 
giving them a bright orange cast. Their heads were adorned with 
flowers, and they evidently considered themselves in their holiday 
attire. They had an abundance of pigs and poultry The rich 
soil on the upper and interior part of the island produced taro (Arum 
esculentum), sweet potatoes (Convolvulus Batatas), melons, yams, 
and some tobacco, while the bread-fruit and cocoa-nuts were hanging 
m clusters oyer their dwellings. They had also an abundance of 
crabs and fish; on our landing we found them devouring the latter 
with great gusto, raw, but the former they roasted. Here we ao-ain 
saw printed copies of several portions of the Scriptures, and found 
that many of them could read and write well. No spears, clubs 
or warlike instruments were to be seen, and when I asked for 
them as matters of curiosity, they said they had no arms except two 
muskets, which were pointed out to me, hanging up under the eaves 
of the house. The native missionary, a man about fifty years of 
age, told me that in times past they had "all war," but now all was 

VOL. I. 89 



354 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

peace. I was desirous of knowing to what lie imputed the change, 
and he very readily answered " Mittionari, mai-tai, mai-tai," (mis- 
sionary, good, good). They acknowledge the authority of Pomare 
of Tahiti. Dr. Pickering, who was in company with me, came to 
propose that we should ascend the bluff, which the chief, being made 
acquainted with, readily gave his consent to, and sent for two men to 
accompany us. We ascended through the narrow break, twenty 
to thirty feet wide : the natives had improved the path up by 
placing the clinky slabs of compact coral, as a rude pavement, and 
for steps, in order to make the communication more easy to their 
planting grounds. On reaching the top, we found ourselves in a 
wood, and wishing to get a view of the interior, we made for the 
east end, passing occasionally over beds of clinky coral, thrown and 
scattered in all directions. After a walk of more than a mile, we 
came to an open space, from which we had a clear view of the 
interior of the island, which was found to be densely covered with 
trees. The general shape, as far as it could be seen, was pan-like, 
or in the form of a dry lagoon. 

This island was particularly interesting, from its combining both 
high and low vegetation ; and a very considerable collection of plants 
was obtained. Several pigeons were seen, two of which we obtained ; 
they were of a large species of Columba oceanica, that inhabits these 
groups. We crossed many large fissures, running in a line with the 
cliff, some of them tw^o or three feet wide, in which trees of some size 
were growing. 

As far as our observations went, the upper portion of this island is 
composed of limestone or compact coral rock ; the cliff, on its eastern 
side, where we first landed, appears stratified, horizontally, in beds of 
ten to twelve feet in thickness, of a sort of conglomerate, composed 
of shells, coral, and pieces of compact rock, cemented together by a 
calcareous deposit. The under part of this bed had been much worn 
by the sea; the rich soil was composed of vegetable matter and 
decomposed limestone. The slabs that were lying loose upon the 
surface had a clinky or metallic sound when struck. The island has 
unequivocal marks of having been uplifted at different periods ; the 
cliff, at two different heights, appears to have, suffered abrasion by 
the sea. Stalagmites were observed under the cliffs, and some 
stalactitic columns, fourteen feet high by six in diameter. On 
coming towards the village, we saw many natives returning with 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 355 

loads of taro, &c, which they had been sent to gather. On our 
return, we were taken again to the chief's house, and entertained 
with cocoa-nuts, baked taro, and bread-fruit, which had been cooked 
during our absence. At the boat we found more articles for purchase 
than we had the means to pay for, or the boat could carry ; and every 
one seemed desirous of securing the sale of his fruits and 'vegetables 
Notwithstanding the over-supply, the prices were I thought rather 
enhanced than lowered, and there was an evident feeling among the 
crowd that we had not been so liberal in buying as we ought to have 
been. I was glad to get off, in order to be freed from the flies, which 
are in incredible numbers in all the inhabited islands, and a great 
nuisance. I left the island under the impression this little commu- 
nity was a happy and contented one. At about five o'clock, we joined 
the ship, some distance to the southward of the island, and all the 
surveying boats having returned, we bore away for Tahiti, at which 
island we arrived on the 10th. At 5 p. m., Lieutenant-Commandant 
Ringgold boarded us, and brought off Jim, the pilot; he reported all 
well on board the Porpoise. At sunset, we anchored in Matavai Bay. 
I hastened to ascertain the correctness of our chronometers, and the 
next day landed the instruments on Point Venus, and took' observa- 
tions. They gave for its longitude 149° 31' 13-5" W. Krusenstern 
makes it 149° 29' 17" W. 

Lieutenant-Commandant Ringgold, in the Porpoise, after parting 
company on the 1st of September, proceeded to the south side of 
Raraka, in fulfilment of his instructions. He found the whole 
southern part of it a bare reef, with the surf breaking violently over 
it. When off the south point, he made the isle of Katiu or Sacken 
to the south, and that of Makima to the east, and connected them ; 
after which he proceeded to the westward, passing Aratica (Carls- 
hoff), and thence to Nairsa or Dean's Island, which he made on the 
5th; fixed its western end, passed along its south to its western side, 
and thence to Krusenstem's Island, to the westward, which he 
circumnavigated ; from thence direct to Tahiti, anchored in Papieti 
Harbour on the 9th, and the next day proceeded to Matavai Bay, the 
place of rendezvous. 

On the 12th, the Peacock arrived, having passed to the Rurick 
Islands or Arutua, the north end of which lies in latitude 15° 15' 00" 
S., longitude 146° 51' 00" W. A landing was attempted at several 
places in the boats. One of them succeeded near a cocoa-nut grove, 



356 PAUMOTU GROUP. 

but the two that went to land at the village, found the! surf too high 
to attempt it. 

The north shore of Arutua Island was surveyed, when they bore 
away and connected it with Nairsa or Dean's Island, along which 
they ran the whole length of its south side by daylight. The last 
named island is for the most part a washed reef, with no opening. 
The compact coral blocks showed themselves here more conspicu- 
ously, and in greater numbers than before seen. 

The following sketch, by Mr. Agate, will illustrate their appearance. 



- - ■ 

After making the west end of Nairsa, Captain Hudson sighted 
Krusenstern's Island, and then stood for Metia Island, to the south- 
ward, on which the officers landed the next day. Their examination 
confirmed the facts already given, relative to its appearance; they 
landed on the west side of the island. 

Mr. Dana found some recent shells embedded in the limestone, but 
they had lost their texture. 

On this island, the magnetic observations were made, with the 
Peacock's instruments. Captain Hudson also sounded with the deep 
sea thermometer, when within a mile of the island, in six hundred 
fathoms ; the temperature at the surface of the water was 80 J°, that 
below, 44J°. The next day they made Tetuaroa, to the northward 
of Tahiti, formerly celebrated as the resort of the Tahitians, for the 
purpose of recovering from the bodily diseases brought on by their 
debaucheries, &c. It is a low island, about six miles long, with a 
few trees upon it, and a reef off its southern end, extending half a 
mile. It is plainly to be seen from the high ridges of Tahiti. 

On the 14th, the Flying-Fish arrived. She had visited and sur- 
veyed King George's Group, which appeared well inhabited, and 
have entrances to their lagoons on the west side. The native name 
of the two islands, is Tiokea and Oura. The southwest end of Tiokea 
is in latitude 14° 31' 12" S., longitude 145° 09' 30" W. ; Oura 
bears S. 68° W., distant four and a half miles. Then the tender 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 357 

passed to Manhii and Ahii, round the north side of Nairsa, or Dean's 
Island, to Tahiti. 

Little appears to be known of the history of the Paumotu Islands, 
or their inhabitants. At Tahiti I obtained some information from 
one who had been much among the group, and believe that it is as 
authentic as can be obtained, and may be relied on. 

The Island of Anaa, or Chain Island, has been the principal seat 
of power, the natives of which having frequently waged war on the 
others, and succeeded in conquering all to the west of Hau or Bow 
Island, and have frequently fought with it. 

In the reign of the first Pomare, under Tomatiti, they even 
attempted the conquest of Tahiti, and succeeded in overcoming the 
small peninsula of Taiarabu. The story is, that they were about to 
continue their attack on the larger island, when Tomatiti received a 
written letter from Pomare, which caused hostilities to be suspended ; 
and after further negotiation, finally led to Tomatiti's retiring from 
the island with a large present of hogs, tapa, &c. Notwithstanding 
this, the Chain Islanders remained nominally under the government 
of Tahiti, and now acknowledge their dependence on it. 

Anaa, or Chain Island, is one of the smallest, yet it is the most 
thickly peopled island of the whole group. It is said to contain five 
thousand inhabitants, which large number is accounted for by the 
conquest of the other islands, and taking their inhabitants off as cap- 
tives. In the list of the islands and their population, it will be seen 
how few remain on the other islands in comparison with this number. 
The whole island is one cocoa-nut grove, and the principal food is 
fish and cocoa-nuts. The former are caught in large quantities in 
the lagoon. A great change has been brought about in the disposi- 
tion of these islanders within the last twenty-five years, during which 
the Tahitian missionaries have been established at Anaa. Before 
this period, the inhabitants were cannibals. Since the residence of 
the missionaries, they have imbibed better tastes ; and the missionary 
influence has made them more peaceful. This change was first 
evinced by the treatment of their captives, whom they allowed to 
return, if they chose, to their own island ; but very many of them 
had married at Anaa, and became permanent residents there, and few 
have taken advantage of the permission to return. Notwithstanding 
the numerous population, they are said to have an abundance of food. 
The people of Anaa, still consider the inhabitants of the eastern 
islands as cannibals ; but their statement in this respect is little to be 

vol. i. 90 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 

depended upon, for they have no communication whatever with those 
whom they class under this denomination, as they seldom extend 
themselves beyond Hau or Bow Island. 

The Paumotuans are considered more warlike than the Tahitians, 
for which reason Pomare I. kept a body-guard of them in preference 
to his own subjects. They have the reputation of being an honest 
and trustworthy race. 

These islanders are certainly not all from the same stock, and 
those of the Disappointment Group, whom we were much struck 
with at the time of our visit, in particular differ from the others. 
Since we have seen all the different Polynesian groups, these appear, 
however extraordinary it may be, to resemble the Feejee Islanders 
more than any other. 

By all accounts, they speak a different dialect from that of the 
Tahitian nation. The difference is, however, not great, for I was 
told that it required but a few weeks for any of the natives to acquire 
it. Mr. Hale met several Paumotuans at Matavia Bay, and among 
them he found one by the name of Tuoni, who confirmed the 
accounts I have detailed above. 

The population of this group I have nowhere seen given ; I have 
therefore endeavoured to obtain the most satisfactory information in 
relation to it : the whole amounts, in round numbers, to about ten 
thousand, as follows, viz. 

Anaa 5,000 

Manhii 100 

Aratica 60 

Nairsa ........ 70 

Metia 350 

Rurick 200 

King George's 700 

Vincennes ....... 30 

Raraka ........ 40 

Wytoohee 70 

Otooho 40 

Bow Island 60 

Manga Reva, or Gambier Island . . . 2,000 

Serle Island 30 

Clermont de Tonnerre 120 

8,870 
Rest of the group, 1,130 

10,000 



PAUMOTU GROUP. 359 

On the map of this group it will be seen where the line of canni- 
balism extends to, according to native accounts. Although there is 
little doubt that the natives of this group have been addicted to this 
horrible barbarity, yet it is believed that it is not now practised. 

The advancement of civilization by their intercourse with the 
whites, together with the missionary influence, will put an end to 
this practice, and promote peace among all the islanders of the group ; 
not only ameliorating the condition of the natives, but protecting the 
unfortunate mariner who may be wrecked within this dangerous 
archipelago. 

From what has been said of the Paumotu Group, it is evident it 
can afford but few advantages for commercial enterprise; the only 
article which of late years has been sought for among the islands, is 
the pearl oyster-shell, of which considerable quantities have been 
obtained. The return will be noticed under the commerce of Tahiti, 
of which it forms a part. The vessels engaged in the fishery belong 
to foreigners, who reside at Tahiti. The mode of taking the oysters 
is by natives, who are employed as divers, for a very small compensa- 
tion. It is much to be regretted, that the traders should have recourse 
to the demoralizing effects of spirits, in stimulating their exertions. 

The natives themselves carry on a small trade in their double 
canoes, which it will be seen by the wood-cut below, have already 
undergone some modifications from that already given on a previous 
page, as formerly in use. These are principally the Chain Islanders, 
who supply themselves at Tahiti with various small articles, in ex- 
change for their cocoa-nut oil, and dried fish. 




TRADING DOUBLE CANOE. 



APPENDIX. 



CONTENTS. 



I. STATEMENT IN RELATION TO LIEUTENANT HUDSON 365 

II. LETTER FROM THE HON. JOEL R. POINSETT 365 

III. LETTER FROM LIEUTENANT HUDSON 36G 

IV. NAVY GENERAL ORDER 367 

V. MEMORANDUM FOR THE COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 

THE SOUTH SEAS 368 

VI. LETTERS TO THE HON. JAMES K. PAULDING, AND COMMODORE L. WARRING- 
TON 374 

VII. ORDERS TO THE RELIEF 375 

VIII. GENERAL ORDER, NO. 1 376 

IX. ORDERS RESPECTING THE RECEIPT, SAFE KEEPING, AND EXPENDITURE OF 

PROVISIONS, STORES, ETC 377 

X. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS RELATIVE TO OBSERVATIONS 378 

XI. INSTRUCTIONS, PORTION OF, PROMULGATED TO OFFICERS 379 

XII. GENERAL ORDER RELATIVE TO JOURNALS 382 

XIII. LETTER TO LIEUTENANT CRAVEN EXPLANATORY OF GENERAL ORDER 

RELATIVE TO JOURNALS 383 

XIV. ORDER TO PURSERS, AND LETTER TO SECRETARY OF THE NAVY RELATIVE 

TO MARINES' BOUNTY 384 

XV. LETTER TO THE HON. JAMES K. PAULDING, AND REPORT FROM LIEUTE- 

NANT HUDSON RELATIVE TO DEFECTS OF PEACOCK 386 

XVI. METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS UNDER THE EQUATOR 389 

XVII. METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS AT RIO JANEIRO 392 

XVIII. MEMORANDUM OF PASSAGES FROM THE UNITED STATES TO RIO JANEIRO 

FOR EIGHT YEARS 395 



364 CONTENTS. 

XIX. ORDERS RELATIVE TO PERSONAL APPEARANCE, SCIENTIFIC DUTIES, 

ETC 396 

XX. ORDERS TO CAPTAIN HUDSON FOR SURVEY, ETC 400 

XXI. POPULATION OF BRAZIL 402 

XXII. STATEMENT OF THE EXPORTS OF THE PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS OF BRAZIL 

DURING THE YEAR 1838 407 

XXIII. RESULT OF THE MEASUREMENT OF A BASE LINE BY SOUND BETWEEN 

CAPE FRIO LIGHT-HOUSE AND ENXADOS ISLAND 404 

XXIV. SAILING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE RELIEF, PEACOCK, PORPOISE, ETC 408 

XXV ORDERS TO CAPTAIN HUDSON FOR ANTARCTIC CRUISE 411 

XXVI. ORDERS TO LIEUTENANT R. E. JOHNSON FOR ANTARCTIC CRUISE 414 

XXVII. ORDERS TO LIEUTENANT W. M. WALKER FOR ANTARCTIC CRUISE 416 

XXVIII. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR BOAT DUTY, SURVEYING, ETC 418 

XXIX. INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE VINCENNES 420 

XXX. ORDERS TO LIEUTENANT-COMMANDANT LONG 422 

XXXI. CAPTAIN HUDSON'S AND LIEUTENANT WALKER'S REPORTS 424 

XXXII. ORDER TO SEA-GULL 434 

XXXin. GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS IN RELATION TO THE COLLECTION AND PRE- 
SERVATION OF SPECIMENS, SHELLS, ETC 435 

XXXIV. ORDER TO LIEUTENANT CRAVEN AND PAPERS RELATIVE TO HIM 437 

XXXV. GENERAL ORDER RELATIVE TO GOOD CONDUCT OF CREW 439 

XXXVI. ORDER TO LIEUTENANT PINKNEY 440 

XXXVII. GENERAL ORDER RELATIVE TO COURT OF INQUIRY 440 

XXXVIII. LETTER FROM OFFICERS OF THE EXPEDITION, AND GENERAL ORDER.. 441 

XXXIX. ORDERS TO SQUADRON 443 

XL. ORDERS TO RELIEF 445 

XLI. ORDERS FOR OBSERVATIONS, MODE OF SURVEYING CORAL ISLANDS, ETC. 447 

XLII. LETTER RELATIVE TO THE WANT OF CONFORMITY TO ORDERS 453 

XLIII. ORDER RELATIVE TO CORAL SPECIMENS 454 

XLIV ORDERS TO PORPOISE 454 

XLV. ORDERS TO TENDER FLYING-FISH 455 



APPENDIX. 



i. 

STATEMENT IN RELATION TO LIEUTENANT HUDSON'S GOING OUT IN THE 
EXPLORING EXPEDITION, UNDER LIEUTENANT WILKES. 

Lieutenant Hudson received orders, while first lieutenant of the 
navy-yard, New York, to proceed to Washington. On his arrival, 
he was told by the Secretary of the Navy, the Hon. Mahlon Dicker- 
son, that he had been sent for to go out in the Exploring Expedition, 
and was directed to see Mr. Poinsett, then Secretary of War, under 
whose direction these arrangements had been placed. After an 
interview with the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, 
and the President of the United States, Lieutenant Hudson declined 
going out in the Expedition, under Lieutenant Wilkes, in conse- 
quence of his rank, and the military character of the Expedition. 
Lieutenant Hudson left Washington, returned to New York, and 
resumed his duties as first lieutenant of the navy-yard, under 
Commodore Ridgely. 

After a short period the following communication was received 
from the Hon. Joel R. Poinsett, 



Washington, June 5th, 1838. 



II. 

[Copy.] 

Lieutenant Hudson, U. S. Navy, 

Sir, — The anxiety I feel, in common with the whole country, for 
the success of the Exploring Expedition, and the high estimate I 

vol. i. 92 



366 



APPENDIX. 



have formed, from the testimony of your brother officers, of your 
character and abilities, render me exceedingly desirous of securing 
your services as its second officer. Not only is it of great importance 
that the commander should have as his second in command, an officer 
in whose zeal and efficient co-operation he can rely, but the govern- 
ment desires the choice should fall on one possessing the necessary 
qualifications in case of an accident to that officer, to carry out the 
objects of the Expedition, and to conduct it in safety to our own 
shores. With these views and wishes, I have seen, with regret, that 
a mere matter of etiquette prevents you from engaging in a service 
for which you are so well fitted. 

Regarding as I do, the practice of giving officers temporary 
appointments, as illegal, and prejudicial to the service, I could not 
recommend to the President to sanction its continuance for three 
years longer, by granting such appointments to the officers of the 
Expedition. 

It does not, however, appear to me, that this decision ought to 
present an obstacle to your accepting a command under Lieutenant 
Wilkes, whom you rank by what must be considered an imaginary 
line. 

If the Expedition were of a military character, I would not attempt 
to combat your scruples ; but it is purely civil, and even should a war 
break out between the United States and any naval power, your path 
upon the ocean would be peaceful. 

It is the opinion of the President, as well as my own, that an 
Expedition, undertaken to promote science, and extend the bounds of 
human knowledge, ought to command the services of all who can 
contribute to its success, in whatever station it may be thought most 
advantageous to place them ; and I venture to hope, that waiving all 
claim to superior rank, you will accept the command now tendered 
you. 

I am, Sir, respectfully yours, 

(Signed) J. R. Poinsett. 



III. 

After Captain Hudson was assured that a General Order would 
be published, divesting the Expedition of its military character, and 
consulting Commodore Ridgely, well known in the service for his 



APPENDIX. 



367 



high sense of honour, and thorough knowledge on all points of 
etiquette and duty, and for whose judgment he had great respect, 
whose decided opinion and advice was, that it was his duty, as an 
officer of the government, under the circumstances of the case, to 
accept the command and go out in the Expedition; Captain Hudson 
sent the following acceptance. 

IT. S. Navy- Yard, 

New York, June 16th, 1838. 
Sir, — The peculiarly delicate situation in which I felt myself 
placed in relation to Lieutenant Wilkes, must be my excuse for the 
delay which has occurred in replying to your communication of the 
5th instant, proffering to me the situation of second in command of 
the Exploring Expedition. 

The coincidence of opinion between the President and yourself in 
relation to its character, in a military point of view, the claims of 
the nation upon the service of its officers, with the very flattering 
suggestion contained in your letter, have outweighed my scruples. 
I, therefore, from a sense of duty, accept the command, and tender 
my best services to promote the objects of the Expedition, and advance 
the honour of our common country. 

Very respectfully, yours, 

(Signed) Wm. L. Hudson. 
To the Hon. Joel R. Poinsett, 

Secretary of War. 

The following order was issued : 

IV. 

NAVY GENERAL ORDER. 

The armament of the Exploring Expedition, being adapted merely 
for its necessary defence while engaged in the examination and 
survey of the Southern Ocean, against any attempts to disturb its 
operations by the savage and warlike inhabitants of those islands; 
and the objects which it is destined to promote being altogether scien- 
tific and useful, intended for the benefit equally of the United States, 
and of all commercial nations of the world; it is considered to be 
entirely divested of all military character, that even in the event of the 
country being involved in a war, before the return of the squadron, 



368 



APPENDIX. 



its path upon the ocean will be peaceful, and its pursuits respected 
by all belligerents. The President has, therefore, thought proper, in 
assigning officers to the command of this squadron, to depart from 
the usual custom of selecting them from the senior ranks of the navy, 
and according to their respective grades in the service; and has 
appointed Lieutenant Charles Wilkes, first officer, to command the 
Exploring Expedition, and Lieutenant Wm. L. Hudson to command 
the ship Peacock, and to be second officer of said squadron, and take 
command thereof, in the event of the death of the first officer, or his 
disability, from accident or sickness, to conduct the operations of the 
Expedition. 

(Signed) Mahlon Dickerson, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
Navy Department, June 22d, 1838. 



V. 

MEMORANDUM FOR THE COMMANDER OF THE EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 

THE SOUTH SEAS. 

Note. — The asterisk before the number of some of these articles, denotes that 
the islands, &c., have been examined by the Expedition. 

I. I have pointed out, in the supplementary volume of my Hydro- 
graphical Memoirs, (pages 19, 96, and 113,) several islands, the 
existence of which does not appear to be subject to any doubt, but of 
which the position is not determined with the best precision. It is 
much to be wished that all such islands were to be visited, and their 
position verified. With respect to the islands of rather doubtful 
existence, the names of which I have given, (pages 156-165, supple- 
ment,) there is certainly no other method of ascertaining their ex- 
istence than to search for them, and to determine, with the greatest 
precision, the latitudes and longitudes of such as are found. A great 
number of these imaginary islands will then, of course, vanish from 
the charts. 

II. Captain Bligh discovered, in the year 1789, to the northward of 
the New Hebrides, a group of islands, which he named Banks's 
Islands; and Captain Wilson, another cluster of islands, to the 
northward of the Santa Cruz Islands, named by him Duff's Group. 
Neither these nor the Banks's Islands having been since seen, it 
would be well to make a new survey of them. 



APPENDIX. 



369 



III. Islands of Santa Cruz. — In my Memoir, belonging to the 
chart of these islands, I have discussed the situation of Carteret's 
Sivallow Island, and expressed my belief that the islands seen by 
Captain Wilson in 1797 are the same as Swallow Island. Captain 
Freycinet is of the same opinion, and, by a new survey of Wilson's 
Island, confirmed this hypothesis. There remains, then, no doubt 
that Byron's Swallow Island does not exist ; but, as it still continues 
to be delineated on some of the latest charts, it would be well that its 
non-existence should be equally proved by the American Expedition. 

IV. The Solomon Islands. — These islands have partly been visited 
by D'Urville and Shortland, partly by D'Entrecasteaux; and several 
English ships have at different times sailed through them; but a 
complete survey of all the islands composing this great archipelago is 
still wanting. It is indeed very singular that, of all the navigators 
who have lately visited the Pacific Ocean, none have ever attempted 
any thing like a systematic survey of these islands, with the 
exception of D'Entrecasteaux, who, at least, sailed along the southern 
islands from east to west, and thus greatly improved the hydrography 
of them. I have published, in the year 1827, a chart of these 
islands: (Carte Systematique de l'Archipel des Isles Salomon.) 
Having collected all the materials that were to be had at that time, 
many of them in apparent contradiction to each other, I endeavoured 
to reconcile them, and to delineate the lands belonging to this archi- 
pelago, to the best of my judgment. (An account of my proceedings 
will be found in the Memoir accompanying my chart.) By the first 
survey of these islands, it will be seen whether some of my combina- 
tions have been well founded or not. The Solomon Islands being 
the greatest archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, and the least known, 
deserve, no doubt, to be as completely surveyed as the Society, 
Friendly, or other groups. Although ten years have elapsed since 
my chart was published, nothing has been done since that time for 
the hydrography of these islands, to enable me to improve the second 
edition of that chart, (1836,) except in the situation of a group of 
islands, discovered lately, to the northward of the Solomon Islands. 

V. New Caledonia, — A dangerous reef has lately been discovered 
by the ship Petrie, to the northward of New Caledonia ; the precise 
position of this danger ought to be determined. 

VI. Loyalty Islands. — Captain D'Urville has been the first to survey 
the Loyalty Islands ; but having sailed only along the northern side of 
them, it is to be wished that the southern shore might also be surveyed. 

vol. i. 93 



3 7 o APPENDIX. 

* VII. The Feejee Islands.— Captain D'Urville has done a great deal 
to give us a more correct chart of these islands, having surveyed a 
great part of them ; but still he has left unexplored many islands 
belonging to this archipelago. In my supplementary memoir to the 
chart of these islands, I have endeavoured to combine Captain D'Ur- 
ville's survey with such surveys as had been made previous to his 
voyage; and have constructed, according to all the data that have 
come to my knowledge, a new chart of the Feejee islands (named by 
Captain D'Urville, Viti Islands.) Of course the chart cannot be very 
correct, but it may perhaps serve till a new complete survey is made 
of them. 

VIII. New Ireland. — It is astonishing that nearly two centuries 
have elapsed without the islands situated to the north of New Ireland 
—first seen by Tasman, and since by Dampier and Bougainville- 
having been examined, so that we know as little of them as was 
known one hundred and fifty years ago. There remains, then, to be 
made a complete survey of all these islands. As to the islands near 
them, seen by Maurell, it is not likely that they are the same, as some 
have supposed. This is another reason why they should be all 
explored with the greatest precision. 

IX. Admiralty Islands. — It is much to be wished that the islands 
seen by Maurell, to the eastward of the Great Admiralty Island, 
should be explored, since we know that Maurell's account of his 
discoveries does not satisfy the hydrographer. 

X. New Britain. — Admiral D'Entrecasteaux has seen and deter- 
mined, with his usual exactness, the islands situated along the north 
coast of New Britain ; but he has not been able to lay down the coast 
itself, which he has seen only at a distance, and some parts not at all. 

*XI. Low Islands. — Captain Hagemuster, of the Russian navy, 
discovered, in the year 1830, an island to the westward of King 
George's Islands. This island cannot be any other than Schouten's 
Waterlandt. Captain Wilson sailed between two islands, which lie 
took to be King George's Islands. Most navigators have been of the 
same opinion ; although there is a difference of longitude of more 
than a degree between the islands seen by Wilson and King George's 
Islands. Captain Duperrey, (an excellent authority as every hydro- 
grapher will readily admit,) is of a different opinion ; he maintains 
that the two islands between which Wilson sailed are not King 
George's Islands, but are situated to the westward of them. He 
thinks that the island seen by Captain Hagemuster, which I take 



APPENDIX. 371 

to be Waterlandt, is one of the two islands ; and that Captain Hage- 
muster has not seen the other. In order to refute Captain Duperrey's 
hypothesis, the second island, which, according to him, Captain 
Hagemuster might not have perceived, ought to be searched for, to 
the westward of Captain Hagemuster's island ; if it really does exist, 
it cannot be at a greater distance than about fifteen or twenty miles. 

*XII. Commodore Byron's Isles of Disappointment have not been 
visited since their first discovery in 1765. I have endeavoured to 
settle their longitude at 140° 42' W. (page 87 of my supplement;) 
but this being only an approximation, they ought to be surveyed — at 
least visited anew. 

*XIII. By my Memoirs, page 281, and supplement, page 90, you 
will perceive that there is a difference of 27' between Captain Bel- 
linghausen's and Captain Kotzebue's longitude of the west point of 
Prince of Wales's Island* and the island situated to the westward of 
it.f What may be the cause of this difference? since the two 
navigators do not differ, either before or after, more than three 
minutes. Either the length of Vlighen Island has been overrated by 
Captain Kotzebue, or some other error has crept into the longitude 
of either the one or the other. As both are excellent observers, it 
would be very desirable to settle this point, by examining and sur- 
veying carefully all the islands lying to the westward and eastward 
of Vlighen Island, and determine with the greatest precision the 
width of the channels separating the different islands, as well as the 
exact length of Vlighen or Prince of Wales's Island : the error will, 
most likely, be detected in the length of that isle. 

*XIV. There is a difference of 17' in the longitude of the isle 
Clermont de Tonnerre between Captain Duperrey and Captain 
Beechey. At Serle Island, close to it, there is hardly any difference 
at all. The same difference of 17' exists in the longitude of Prince 
William Henry, which Captain Beechey has proved to be the same 
with Captain Duperrey's isle Lortingo ; whereas at Mollu Island, both 
Captains Beechey and Duperrey agree perfectly well. It would be 
worth while to search for the cause of such anomalies. 

*XV. Captain Beechey is of opinion that Captain Duperrey's isle 
Clermont de Tonnerre is one and the same with the island Minerva. 
Captain Duperrey, on the contrary, maintains that the island Minerva 

* On some charts this island is named Dean's Isle ; on my charts, Vlighen Isle. 
t By Captain Porter called Gamble ; by Captain Kotzebue, Krusuntze Island. 



372 



APPENDIX. 



is the same as Serle Island. I am of this latter opinion; although 
the solution of this problem will much depend upon the distance of 
the island Clermont de Tonnerre from Serle Island, which is much 
less on Duperrey's chart than on Captain Beechey's. 

*XVI. There has been lately discovered an island of considerable 
extent, of the name of Raraha. It would be well to examine it, 
since the account given of it is not quite satisfactory. It is stated to 
be situated in 16° 3' S., and 145° 0' W. 

*XVII. I have placed on my chart of the Low Islands, several 
islands, the position of which is rather doubtful; for instance, the 
Bunyer's Group of Turnbull, the island of Britomart, the islands 
discovered by Quiros, and several others. In order to have any 
certainty about their existence and precise position, it is necessary 
to search for and make a survey of them. 

*XVIII. The Islands of San Bernardo and the Island of Danger. 
— Mendane discovered a group of islands, named by him San Ber- 
nardo. These islands have been seen by Captains Freycinet and 
Bellinghausen. Not far from them Byron discovered a small group, 
which he named Islands of Danger. Notwithstanding a difference 
of latitude of half a degree, the two groups have been considered as 
one and the same. It has not been thought impossible that in 
Byron's latitudes there might have been a typographical error: 
besides, none, of all the navigators who have passed here, have ever 
found a second group, which they could not have missed if it really 
existed. Captain Duperrey, however, who is, as I have said above, a 
high authority in whatever relates to the hydrography of the South 
Seas, is of a different opinion : he maintains that Byron's Islands of 
Danger do exist. In order to settle that question, it is necessary to 
search under the meridian of the islands San Bernardo, as deter- 
mined by Captain Bellinghausen, for these Islands of Danger in the 
latitude assigned to them by Byron, as well as for the chain of rocks 
of which he speaks, and which are situated, according to him, to the 
eastward. This has not been done yet, and it would be very desirable 
if it was done, in order not to leave the least doubt on the subject. 

*XIX. Marianne Islands.— On Captain Freycinet's chart there is 
to be seen, to the southwest of the Island of Assumption, rocks, by the 
name of Mary's. Rocks of the same name have been seen by La 
Perouse, to the northward of Assumption Island. In case the Ex- 
pedition should extend its exploratory researches to the northern 
hemisphere, this doubtful point should be settled. 



APPENDIX. 373 

XX. Caroline Islands. — These islands have been so well surveyed 
by Captain Duperrey and Captain Liitke, that there is very little now 
left to be done concerning them. I shall, however, point out here 
some islands that require to be determined with great precision : 1 . 
The island named by Captain Morell, Fasolis, is most likely the same 
with Captain Liitke's, Farroilep ; but a difference of 21' in latitude, 
makes this doubtful. 2. Island Lydia, on Captain Duperrey's chart. 
We do not know by whom it has been discovered, nor who has 
determined its situation. 3. I have endeavoured to prove, in my 
Supplementary Memoir of the Caroline Islands, that the islands Bor- 
delaire, Fame, Campbell, and the island St. Augustine, are one and 
the same. This hypothesis requires to be verified. 4. The Monte- 
verde Islands ought to be surveyed ; what Captains Monteverde and 
Morell, the only navigators who have seen them, have said of them, 
is not sufficiently satisfactory. 5. We see on Captain Duperrey's 
chart of the Caroline Islands, several islands, of which we know 
nothing more than the name, viz. : Bumkay's, Quekin's, &c, and 
their existence and position remain to be ascertained. 6. The island 
of Arrecifos has, so far as my knowledge extends, been seen only by 
the ship Providence, in the year 1811. Not knowing much respect- 
ing it, it is to be wished that it should be surveyed. 

XXI. The Island of Gilbot. — At the end of my supplementary 
volume, I have pointed out what remains to be done in order to have 
a perfect knowledge of all the islands belonging to this archipelago. 

Remark. — Independent of the American Exploratory Expedition, 
there are to be at the same time three others in the South Seas : two 
English and one French expedition. Many of the islands will of 
course be visited by all the expeditions ; and it is to be apprehended 
that their longitudes, determined by the different astronomers of the 
expeditions, will, perhaps, not agree so well as might be wished. 
This difficulty will of course be obviated, by referring their astrono- 
mical observations to the longitudes of such places as are determined 
by absolute astronomical observations with the greatest precision, 
and those most likely to be visited by the ships of the expeditions. 
The positions we have in the South Seas, are Point Venus, in lon- 
gitude 149° 29' 17" W., determined by the passage of Venus over 
the disk of the sun ; Port Honolulu, in the island of Oaho, by 
occultation of several stars, in 202° 10' E.; and Port lackson, Sydney 
Cove, in 151° 17' E., by an eclipse of the sun. In the northern part 
of the Pacific, East Cape, 190° 16' 10" E., may be adopted as a well- 

vol. i. 94 



3 7 4 APPENDIX. 

fixed point, although not determined by absolute astronomical obser- 
vations. With respect to the coast of South America, Talcahuana, 
the longitude of which was determined by Captain Beechey, to be 
in 72° 56' 59" W., seems to me a well-determined point. Captain 
Duperrey is not of that opinion ; and it remains to be settled whether 
the longitude of Talcahuana, or Valparaiso, in 71° 33' 34" W., 
deserves the preference. 

Krusenstern. 

St. Petersburg, January 26, 1837. 



VI. 

United States' Ship Vincennes, 

Hampton Roads, August 14th, 1838. 

Sir, 

I have the honour to state, that since my arrival here, I have 
examined the General Requisition, complained of by Commodore 
Warrington and the Commissioners of the Navy, and find (as I was 
well aware was the case) it duly approved by me. 

The articles that were stricken off the Requisition, were the most 
necessary for us of any thing contained therein ; and I regret to say, 
that in consequence of the objections to allow indispensable articles 
for the service we are going on, we shall be obliged to go to sea much 
less efficient than we would, had they been furnished, and which will 
compel me to subject the government to pay quadruple prices for the 
same articles at Rio de Janeiro. 

I have to request, that you will show this letter to the Honourable 
Commissioners of the Navy, in order to notify them that the Requi- 
sition was not irregularly drawn, but duly approved by myself, and 
consequently assumed as my act. 

I have the honour, &c, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

Hon. Jas. K. Paulding, 

Secretary ofUte Navy, Washington. 



APPENDIX. 375 

United States' Ship Vincennes, 

Hampton Roads, August 18th, 1838. 

Sir, 

I have this morning ascertained that only one set of pump-gear is 
on board this vessel, and one on board the Peacock, which are now 
in use. 

The pumps of the Vincennes are 6| inches. 
2 " Peacock " 6 « 

2 « « « 61 " 

We are now otherwise ready for sea, but cannot sail without these, 
as they cannot be obtained elsewhere ; also two kedges are required, 
and a hose for the pumps, and pipe for the hose of the forcing-pump, 
and an iron brake for the Vincennes. 

I have to request the favour of you to direct that three complete 
sets of pump-boxes, &c, for each vessel, may be furnished to-day. 

All these articles have been repeatedly called for by the officers 
from this ship, but without success. 

I am, most respectfully, Sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
Commodore L. Warrington, 

Navy Yard, Gosport, Va. 



VII. 



U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, August 22d, 1838. 



Sir, 

You will proceed with all practicable despatch to Port Praya, in 
the island of St. Jago, where you will remain five days, and then 
proceed to Rio de Janeiro, where you will await further orders. 

During your stay at Port Praya, you will fill up with water, and 
supply your crew fully with fresh provisions and vegetables. 

You will leave a communication with the consul of that port on 
your departure, addressed to me, in case you should not hear from 
me before that period. 

I am, &c, 
Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

To Lieut. Com. A. K. Long, 

U. S. Ship Relief. 



3 76 APPENDIX. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, August 22d, 1838. 

Sir, 

Should you arrive at Rio de Janeiro before this ship, you will 
inform the navy agent there, that about twenty-five thousand pounds 
of bread will be required at that port for the Exploring Expedition, 
on our arrival there, and request him to have the same prepared of 
the first quality, that there may be no detention. 

I am, &c., 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

A. K. Long, 

Lieutenant- Commandant Relief. 



VIII. 

GENERAL ORDER. NO. I. 

The squadron being now ready for sea, the undersigned, Com- 
mander of the Exploring Expedition, takes this opportunity to return 
his warmest thanks to the officers, scientific gentlemen, seamen, and 
marines, for the indefatigable exertions they have made in equipping 
the vessels in their several departments ; being well aware that 
had it not been for the individual and united exertions of all, the 
preparations could not have been accomplished in the short space of 
time they have been; and he feels confident that the same hearty 
zeal and co-operation will carry us successfully through the arduous 
service in which we have embarked. 

To all the officers of the Expedition the undersigned would re- 
mark, that every feeling which a devotion to such a cause can 
inspire, is felt by him ; and that every thing will be looked to, which 
can tend to insure success in this undertaking, may be confidently 
relied on. 

Harmony and good feeling he would enjoin upon all ; the necessity 
of cultivating this, and the united exertions of all, cannot claim too 
much of your attention. Continue as you have commenced, and rest 
assured that we shall be successful in meeting the expectations of 
our country. 

You may rest assured also of receiving impartial justice from 



APPENDIX. 377 

me, and that in the assignment of duties and promotions, if any 
should occur ; and that all will have the opportunities they desire of 
entering upon the scientific duties, nothing shall be wanting that can 
tend to this end. 

To the scientific gentlemen, I have only to say, that they are, and 
always will be considered as one of us, and that every opportunity 
will be given them that can be imagined by the undersigned, or sug- 
gested by them, to promote the success of the Expedition, in their 
particular departments. My conduct towards them will be the same 
as towards the officers with whom they are associated. 

Those composing the crews of the several vessels of the squadron, 
may be assured that every thing will be done to promote their com- 
fort, and every indulgence granted them compatible with the interests 
of the service ; and it is confidently expected that they will strictly 
conform to the rules and regulations of the navy, and of the squadron ; 
and that the same respect for their officers, good conduct, and good 
feeling for each other, will exist at all times. 

(Signed) Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes. 



IX. 

ORDERS RESPECTING THE RECEIPT, SAFE-KEEPING, AND EXPENDITURE 
OF PROVISIONS, STORES, ETC. 

A return of all stores and provisions will be made before sailing, 
and thereafter, on the 1st of each month, of all stores and provisions 
on hand and expended. 

The Relief having a large proportion of stores on hand, no expen- 
diture of stores will take place, unless by a requisition approved 
by me. 

Great care and economy of stores is enjoined upon the commanders 
in regard to the expenditures of provisions and stores ; and much is 
expected, in regard to their preservation and expenditure, from the 
well-known prudence and attention of the officer commanding the 
Relief. 

The attention of the commanders of the respective vessels is 
vol. i. 95 



378 



APPENDIX. 



particularly called to the expenditure of wood, and every precaution 

is enjoined for its economical consumption. 

The monthly returns will not only embrace the actual condition of 

the provisions and stores, but the quantity of wood, water, &c, on 

hand, and expended. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Hampton Roads, August 14th, 1838. 



X. 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS RELATIVE TO OBSERVATIONS. 

The surgeon and his assistants will take the meteorological obser- 
vations at 3 p. m., 9 p. m., 3 a. m., and 9 a. m. ; viz., the standing of 
barometer, thermometer, and hygrometer. 

The temperature at the masthead, and that of the water, wind, 
weather, and the force of the wind, the quantity of rain, &c. ; the 
officers of the watch will note, and make any remarks of their own, 
regarding facts that may have occurred, (during their watch,) in the 
meteorological journal : all astronomical and atmospherical pheno- 
mena, it is desired may claim attention, and be noted under their 
respective heads. Astronomical phenomena, such as shooting stars, 
zodiacal lights, aurora borealis, the height of their arcs, their colours, 
&c, measured, and the direction they take in the heavens. Atmo- 
spherical phenomena, such as rainbows, halos, water-spouts, lightning, 
appearance of the clouds, rain, the Magellanic clouds, to be noted 
when first observed ; in short, any unusual appearance connected 
with the weather. 

Of the sea, all phosphorescent lights, fishes, and all substances 
adhering to weeds, must not fail to claim attention, and specimens of 
them obtained. Fish caught must be preserved till opened in the 
presence of an officer, and their stomachs carefully examined, and if 
any thing is found, it must be taken care of. 

Things and animals that might in ordinary cases be deemed 
troublesome and useless, are not to be lost sight of, but are to be 
picked up for examination. 



APPENDIX. 379 

Every opportunity of trying the current must be taken advantage 
of, and marked. 

Astronomical observations, viz., lunar distances of the stars, east 
and west of the moon, of the sun, and of the planets, to be frequently 
taken. 

Observations for chronometers must be taken daily, mornings and 
afternoons, when the weather will permit ; azimuths and amplitudes, 
at least once or twice a day, in the morning, or in the afternoon, and 
the ship's head noted at the same time. 

Any of the officers (among whom are considered the scientific 
gentlemen) will on all occasions promote the objects of the Expedition 
by procuring any article referred to in the foregoing instructions, or 
aiding in carrying into effect the same. And the officer of the deck 
is authorized to stop the ship's w T ay, and perform any evolution with 
a view of carrying into effect the above, in which case he will report 
the same immediately to me, if time does not permit his doing so 
previously. 

It is necessary for the sea-officers to make themselves thoroughly 
acquainted with the heavenly constellations, in order to be efficient in 
noting the course of meteors, &c. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
United States' Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, August 25th, 1838. 

XL 

United States' Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, August 25th, 1838. 

The undersigned, commanding the Exploring Expedition, in com- 
municating the following instructions, from the Navy Department, 
for the government and information of those under his command, 
directs the particular attention of all persons in the Expedition to the 
same, and especially to that part of them, which prohibits any one 
furnishing to persons not attached to the Exploring Expedition, any 
communications which have reference to the objects or proceedings 
of the Expedition. 

" Although the primary object of the Expedition, is the promotion 
of the great interests of commerce and navigation, yet you will take 
all occasions, not incompatible with the great purpose of your under- 
taking, to extend the bounds of science, and promote the acquisition 



380 



APPENDIX. 



of knowledge. For the more successful attainment of this, a corps of 
scientific gentlemen, consisting of the following persons, will accom- 
pany the Expedition, and are placed under your direction. 

Mr. Hale, Philologist, 

Mr. Pickering, ) _ _ J ,. 
,, -r, S> Naturalists. 

Mr. Peale, 5 

Mr. Couthouy, Conchologist, 

Mr. Rich, Botanist. 

Mr. Dana, Mineralogist. 

Mr. Drayton, l _ 

A/r A y Draughtsmen. 

Mr. Agate, 3 

Mr. Brackenridge, Horticulturist. 

" The hydrography and geography of the various seas and coun- 
tries you may visit in the route pointed out to you in the preceding 
instructions, will occupy your special attention ; and all the researches 
connected with them, as well as with astronomy, terrestrial magnet- 
ism, and meteorology, are confined exclusively to the officers of the 
Navy, on whose zeal and talents the Department confidently relies 
for such results as will enable future navigators to pass over the track 
traversed by your vessels, without fear and without danger. 

" No special directions are thought necessary, as to the mode of 
conducting the scientific researches and experiments which you are 
enjoined to prosecute, nor is it intended to limit the members of the 
corps each to his own particular service. 

" All are expected to co-operate harmoniously in those kindred pur- 
suits, whose equal dignity and usefulness should insure equal ardour 
and industry in extending their bounds and verifying their principles. 

" As guides to yourself and to the scientific corps, the Department 
would, however, direct your particular attention to the learned and 
comprehensive Report of a committee of the American Philosophical 
Society of Philadelphia, the Report of a Committee of the East India 
Marine Society, of Salem, Massachusetts ; and to a communica- 
tion from the Naval Lyceum of New York, which accompany, and 
are to be regarded as forming a part of these instructions, as far as 
they may accord with the primary objects of the Expedition, and its 
present organization.- You will, therefore, allow the gentlemen of 
the scientific corps the free perusal of these valuable documents, and 
permit them to copy such portions as they may think proper. 



APPENDIX. 3S1 

" The Russian Vice-Admira], Krusenstern, transmitted to the De- 
partment memorandums relating to the objects of this Expedition, 
together with the most approved charts of his Atlas of the Pacific 
Ocean, with explanations, in three volumes. These are also confided 
to your care, and it is not doubted that the friendly contribution of 
this distinguished navigator, will essentially contribute to the success 
of an enterprise in which he takes so deep an interest. It being 
considered highly important, that no journal of this voyage, either 
partial or complete, should be published, without the authority and 
under the supervision of the government, at whose expense this 
Expedition is undertaken, you will, before you reach the waters of 
the United States, require from every person under your command, 
the surrender of all journals, memorandums, remarks, writings, draw- 
ings, sketches, and paintings, as well as all specimens of every kind, 
collected or prepared during your absence from the United States. 
After causing correct inventories of these to be made, and signed by 
two commissioned officers, and by the parties by whom they were 
collected or prepared, you will cause them to be carefully sealed by 
the said officers, and reserved for such disposition as the Department 
may direct. You will adopt the most efficient measures to prepare 
and preserve all specimens of natural history that may be collected ; 
and should any opportunity occur for sending them home by a vessel 
of war of the United States, also copies of information, duplicates of 
specimens, or any other materials, you may deem important to pre- 
serve from future accident, you will avail yourself of the occasion ; 
forwarding, as frequently as may be done with safety, details of your 
voyage, and its most material events ; at the same time strictly pro- 
hibiting all communications, except to this Department, from any 
person attached to the Expedition, referring to discoveries, or any 
circumstances connected with the progress of your enterprise. 

" It is believed that the officers under your command require no 
special advice or direction from this Department. Bearing in mind, 
as they no doubt will, that the undertaking in which they are about 
assisting to accomplish, is one that necessarily attracts the attention 
of the civilized world, and that the honour and interest of their 
country are equally involved in its results, it is not for a moment 
doubted, but that in this, as on all other occasions, they will so 
conduct themselves as to add to the reputation our navy has so justly 
acquired at home and abroad. 



APPENDIX. 

« With the best wishes for the success of the Expedition, and the 
safe return of yourself and your companions, 

"I am, very respectfully, &c, 

(Signed) "Jas. K. Paulding, 

" Secretary of the Navy. 
"Navy Department, August 11th, 1838." 

(Signed) Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 



XII. 

GENERAL ORDER. 

All the officers of the Exploring Expedition will be required to 
conform to the rules and regulations of the service, by keeping a 
journal during the cruise, which he will send to the commander of 
the ship to which he may be attached, weekly. 

This journal will contain the daily reckoning, distances, bearings, 
&c, of the ship when at sea; also, a full record (with such observa- 
tions and remarks as may present themselves) in relation to all 
occurrences or objects of interest, which may, at the time, be 
considered even of the least importance, and which may come under 
the observation of the officers, whether on board ship or on shore, and 
may tend to illustrate any transaction or occurrence which may take 
place, or afford any information in regard to the manners, habits, or 
customs of natives, and the position and characters of such places as 
may be visited. The journals required by this order will be disposed 
of agreeably to the directions of the Honourable Secretary of the 
Navy, and it is expected that they will be as full and complete as 
possible. 

(Signed) Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
I). S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, September 13th, 1838. 



APPENDIX. 383 



XIII. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, September 13th, 1838. 

Sir, 

As the officers may not understand the kind of journal it is 
necessary for them to keep, I take this occasion to make known the 
expectations of the government, and my wishes respecting this part 
of their duty, which I consider as paramount to all others. 

1st. The duties devolving upon all the officers of this Expedition 
are altogether of a public nature, (and it is incumbent on me to say) 
require of them to bestow their constant and devoted attention to all 
incidents, facts, or occurrences, which may present themselves, in 
order that hereafter they may (if necessary) verify or confirm by 
their testimony any information in relation to the same, and thereby 
place the evidence beyond a doubt. This can only be effected by 
keeping full and complete memoranda of all observations, made at 
the time, and entered in the journals. 

2d. I consider it of great importance, that every officer should 
know the actual situation of the ship, from his own calculations, that 
when called upon at any moment, he might be able to refer to his 
own journal for the results. On this might possibly depend the 
safety and ultimate success of the Expedition, as one or two might 
fall into error, but it is not likely that many would. 

3d. The kind of journal required is not a mere copy of the log- 
board, but it is a diary in which will be noticed all that relates to 
public information, being a record of all objects of interest, however 
small, which may take place during the cruise, in the scientific or 
any other department : and the views of the officer ought to be briefly 
expressed concerning things that may come under his notice. The 
very record that nothing has transpired during the day, may be of 
use ; but it is believed that this will be of rare occurrence. 

The whole will form a mass of evidence for the use of the govern- 
ment on our return, which will tend to illustrate and make clear the 
transactions and occurrences that may have taken place, as well as 
the habits, manners, customs, &c., of the natives, and the positions, 
descriptions, and character of such places as we may visit. 

These memoranda are highly essential to me, in order that nothing 



APPENDIX. 

may be neglected or overlooked in conducting the Expedition to a 
successful issue, in which we are all so deeply interested. I wish 
particularly to avail myself of the results and observations of all, 
to avoid the possibility of passing over any subject without full 
examination and remark. 

A casual memorandum or observation, believed at the time of little 
importance, may lead to important and satisfactory results. These 
journals, therefore, will become a useful medium of communication 
between the officers and myself, relative to the scientific and other 
duties in progress. 

I trust I need not remark that the above relates entirely to public 
transactions. With private affairs I have nothing to do : they are, 
and always should be deemed sacred, and, consequently, will form no 
part of the records. 

I enclose a special order relating to this subject, which you will 
promulgate to the officers of this ship. 

I am, respectfully, &c, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

Thomas L. Craven, 

1st Lieutenant, Vincennes. 



XIV. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, September 14th, 1838. 

As it appears to me that the bounty recently directed by the 
Fourth Auditor, to be checked against the marines now attached to 
the Exploring Expedition, was given to them by the authority of the 
Navy Department, through Commodore Jones (as appears by his 
General Order, No. 1,) not as recruits, but in consideration of their 
obligating themselves to serve during the cruise of the Expedition, 
without reference to their term of service; I deem it, therefore, 
proper and just to order the Pursers of the Exploring Expedition not 
to check the bounty against the marines of the squadron under my 
command. 

(Signed) Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 



APPENDIX. 385 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, September 14th, 1838. 

Sir, 

It was with much surprise I learnt, a few days after sailing from 
Hampton Roads, that the pursers of the Exploring Expedition had 
received instructions from the Fourth Auditor, to check the marines 
now in the Exploring Expedition with the bounty paid them in 
November, 1837, by order of Commodore Jones. 

I flattered myself that I had, on sailing, overcome all the obstacles 
that had occurred, and I was not a little excited on finding that a new 
apple of discord had been thrown into the squadron, and particularly 
that part of it so valuable and necessary as the marines. 

I presume, however, this has been done without a knowledge of 
the mischief it might produce in the efficiency and progress of the 
Expedition, if carried into effect. 

As it appears that some of the marines who received this bounty 
had been in the service a long time, and none of them were recruits ; 
and with a view of preventing any mischievous effects upon those 
now in the Expedition, I have issued an order to the pursers not to 
check the bounty referred to ; a copy of which is herewith enclosed, 
marked No. 1 ; also a letter from Sergeant Stearns, in relation to the 
subject, marked No. 2; I take leave also to enclose a copy of the 
General Order issued by Commodore Jones to the Exploring Expedi- 
tion in October, 1837, marked No. 3, which appears to me to embrace 
the case, and has, in my opinion, pledged the faith of the government 
fully ; whether he was authorized by the Department to give such 
pledges or not, is, I think, wholly immaterial to the present case. It 
has been done : and those who have complied and received the bounty, 
believed such to be the fact, which the Department alone could give, 
thereby binding the contract on the part of the government ; which 
(acting for the best interests of the service in which we are engaged) 
I have thought proper to confirm by issuing the order referred to, 
which I cannot doubt will meet your approbation. 

I have the honour, &c, 
(Signed) Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

To the Hon. James K. Paulding, 

Secretary of trie Navy. 
vol. i. 97 



3g 6 APPENDIX. 



XV. 



U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Off Madeira, September 20th, 1838. 

Sir, 

Although, previous to sailing from Hampton Roads, I was aware 
of some of the deficiencies in the outfits of this ship and the Peacock, 
in preparing them at the navy-yard, Norfolk, for the service in which 
we are engaged, I omitted to mention the same to the Department, 
owing to the necessity of our sailing without delay or detention ; but 
since our arrival at this port, the Peacock particularly has been found 
in such a condition, that it is with regret I consider it my duty to 
represent the same to you, and take leave to enclose herewith, a 
report of her commander, by which it appears she was in a much 
worse condition on leaving the dock-yard at Norfolk, than had been 
anticipated ; instead of being well prepared for the service required 
in the Exploring Expedition. 

I have forwarded to you, through the navy-agent at New York, 
for your examination, a box containing an iron hoop, taken from one 
of the pumps of the Peacock, as a fair specimen of the little attention 
which had been bestowed upon her at the navy-yard, in her repairs. 
I have to state also, that a few days after the ship left the navy-yard, 
her fore and cross-jack-yards were found so much decayed, that it 
was necessary to replace them by new ones, on representation of her 
commander. 

I consider it my duty to state that we have found nearly all the 
men furnished us from the receiving-ship, Norfolk, by your order, 
unfit for the duty required of them ; and on sending some of them 
back, they refused to receive them; consequently I shall have to 
send them home, or transfer them to the squadron on the Brazil 
coast, if Commodore Nicolson will take them, and obtain others if 
possible. 

We shall be put to much inconvenience and delay at Rio de 
Janeiro, where it will be necessary to repair and recaulk the Peacock, 
as far as possible to enable her to perform the cruise required ; this 
will be attended with much additional expense, and is another reason 



APPENDIX. 387 

for making a full representation of the facts, to be made use of as the 
Department may see fit. 

I have the honour to be, Sir, 

Most respectfully, &c, 

Charles Wilkes, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

To the Hon. Jas. K. Paulding, 



Secretary of t/w Navy. 



U. S. Ship Peacock, 

Madeira, September 18th, 1838. 



Sir, 

In a verbal communication, a few days previous to leaving Hampton 
Roads, I stated to you that I could point out many things that ought 
to be done, or rather done over, on board this ship, particularly the 
caulking about the water-ways, sides of the ship, deck, &c, and that 
I had no doubt the ship would make considerable water, when we 
got to sea ; as the work enumerated would occupy some time, and to 
do it conveniently we ought to go back to the yard, it was determined 
at that interview (that from the great desire of the Department, and 
in fact the whole country, that the Exploring Squadron should get 
to sea, as well as the injurious effects delay would have upon the 
officers and men) that the squadron should get off the moment sailing 
orders were received, and remedy as much as possible within our 
means, such defects as might thereafter show themselves in the 
course of our passage. 

Coinciding most fully in opinion with yourself, on that occasion, 
as soon as I returned to the Peacock, I had an examination of our 
pump-gear, and found but one set of boxes in the two forward pumps, 
which, from their rusty and otherwise worn-out appearance, I was 
induced to believe had not been removed since her arrival in port. 
The pump-gear had not yet come on board : we immediately sent to 
the navy-yard for it: when it arrived (the day before sailing,) the 
pumps w T ere tried, and appeared to work well ; we found, however, 
two of the pumps with half an inch less diameter or bore than the 
others ; this I consider a defect, for two reasons : first, the small ones 
not discharging as much water as the large ; secondly, having to use 
pump-boxes of different sizes in the same ship, where from accident 
to one set, the other cannot be used to make up the deficiency ; as 
the sequel proved, the ship leaked considerably the moment we got a 
breeze which drove us through the sea ; not only through her water- 



APPENDIX. 

ways, upper works, and decks, but through the eyes of her combings, 
I presume through the scarf in the stem, at all events running by 
buckets-full down the apron into the store-room, forcing such quan- 
tities of water on her berth-deck, that I found it necessary to scuttle 
it to carry the water off. 

The chain-cables of the ship I rowsed out of the lockers at sea, 
examined the shackles, and found it necessary in two of the cables to 
have almost every shackle put in the forge. So completely had the 
bolts rusted in, that they could not be started until fire had done its 
work upon them, and even then some of them had to be cut entirely 
out. While thus making an overhaul below, I examined the pump- 
well, and to my utter surprise and astonishment, found all the iron 
bands on the two after pumps, below the berth-deck, in the state of 
the one I now send to you for inspection ; and from the fact of one of 
them having entirely rusted off, and found lying in pieces at the 
bottom of the well-room, it may fairly be inferred they were not 
examined at all after the arrival of the ship at Norfolk. I had the 
two pumps, from which the bands had dropped off, well woulded at 
sea, and from the appearance of soft spots about them, am fearful 
when taken out, (which must be done at Rio,) we will find them 
rotten. 

I should have recommended taking them out here, but in conse- 
quence of having to raise up a portion of the spar-deck for that 
purpose, think we may venture to delay it until our arrival at that 
port. I have also to state that the bibbs of both the fore and main- 
masts have started and canted three-quarters of an inch forward, and 
work considerably while at sea. This we shall remedy by raising 
our lower rigging, tops, and trestle-trees, and endeavour to get them 
back in their places, and secure them with extra bolts. I have stated 
but a few of many defects, and can only say that I have, during my 
service, assisted in the fitting out of many vessels, and regret, under 
all the circumstances of the case, to be compelled to add, that taken 
as a whole, the Peacock has been fitted out, (so far as the navy-yard 
was concerned,) with less regard to safety and convenience, than any 
vessel I have ever had any thing to do with. 

Respectfully, &c, 

(Signed) Wm. L. Hudson, 

Commanding 77. S. Ship Peacock. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 



APPENDIX. 



389 



XVI. 

METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS 

MADE 

ON BOARD THE UNITED STATES' SHIP VINCENNES, 
UNDER THE EQUATOR. 



November 6th, 1838. 



Mean Barometer, 
Highest at 11 p.m. 
Lowest at 3 p. m. 

Mean Sympiesometer, - 
Highest at 11 p. m. 
Lowest at 4 p. m. 

Mean temperature of air, 
Mean temperature of water, 



29-99 
30-04 
29-94 

29-68 
29-74 
29-62 

75-37° 
76-10° 



November 7th. 





BAROMETER. 


SYMPIESOMETER. 






HOUR. 










REMARKS. 






P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. 31. 






1 


29-98 


29-98 


29-66 


29-68 


Mean Barometer, - - 


30-00 


2 


29*98 


29-98 


29-66 


29-67 


Highest at 9 a. m. 


30-05 


3 


29-96 


29-98 


29-63 


29-68 


Lowest at 3 p. m. - - 


29-96 


4 


29-97 


29-98 


26-63 


29-68 






5 


29-97 


30-01 


29-64 


29-70 


Mean Sympiesometer, 


29-68 


6 


29-98 


30-02 


29-65 


29-72 


Highest at 8 a. m. 


29-74 


7 


30-00 


30-02 


29-68 


29-70 


Lowest at 4 p. m. 


29-68 


8 


30-02 


30-03 


29-68 


29-74 






9 


30-03 


30-05 


29-70 


29-72 


Mean Temp, of air, - 


76-20° 


10 


30-04 


30-02 


29-72 


29-69 


Mean Temp, of water, 


7618° 


11 


30-04 


30-00 


29-72 


29-68 






12 


29-98 


29-99 


29-68 


29-66 







i>8 



390 



APPENDIX. 



XVI— Continued. 
November 8th. 





BAROMETER. 


SYMPIESOMETER. 
















REMARKS. 




HOUR. 














P. M. 


A. M. 


P. M. 


A. M. 






1 


29-95 


29-99 


29-64 


29-68 


Mean Barometer, - - 


29-95 


2 


29-94 


29-98 


29-63 


29-65 


Highest at 9 p.m. 


30-04 


3 


29-93 


29-98 


29-60 


29-68 


Lowest at 3 p. m. - - 


29-93 


4 


29-96 


29-98 


29-62 


29-68 






5 


30-00 


30-00 


29-64 


29-70 


Mean Sympiesometer, 


29-67 


6 


30-00 


30-00 


29-66 


29-72 


Highest at 9 p. m. 


29-74 


7 


30-03 


29-99 


29-70 


29-71 


Lowest at 3 p. m. - - 


29-60 


8 


30-04 


30-00 


29-72 


29-70 






9 


30-04 


30-01 


29-74 


29-73 


Mean Temp, of air, - 


75-18° 


10 


3004 


3002 


29-74 


29-72 


Mean Temp, of water, 


76-26 


11 


30-02 


30-00 


29-72 


29-70 






12 


30-00 


29-98 


29-70 


29-68 







November 9th. 



1 


29-98 


30-00 


29-62 


29-70 


Mean Barometer, - - 


29-98 


2 


29-97 


29-98 


29-65 


29-70 


Highest at 10 p. m. 


30-05 


3 




29-94 




29-68 


Lowest at 3 a.m. 


29-94 


4 




29-95 




29-68 






5 


29-95 


29-95 


29-63 


29-68 


Mean Sympiesometer, 


29-68 


6 


29-97 


29-98 


29-64 


29-68 


Highest at 9 p. m. 


29-74 


7 


3000 


30-00 


29-68 


29-70 


Lowest at 1 a. m. 


29-62 


8 


30-01 


30-01 


29-74 


29-72 






9 


30-02 


30-02 


29-74 


29-70 


Mean Temp, of air, - 


75-87° 


10 


30-05 


30-02 


29-74 


29-69 


Mean Temp, of water, 


76.60 


11 


30-05 


30-00 


29-74 


29-68 






12 


30-02 


29-98 


29.72 


29-64 







tfl 



5 

TABLE OF METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATK 



JANUARY. 

FEBRUARY. 

MARCH. 

APRIL. 

MAY. 

JUNE. 

JULY. 

AUGUST. 

SEPTEMBER. 

OCTOBER. 

NOVEMBER. 

DECEMBER. 



HIGHEST RANGE OF THERMOM. 



1833. 



92-5< 
93 
90 

88 
78 
77 
76 
81 
84 
86 
89 
91 



1834 



89° 
90 

88 
84 
82 
75 
77 
79 
84 
84 
83 
90 



1835.1 1836. 



1837 



91° 

91 

85 

80 

78 

75 

77 

79 

79 

80 

84 



90° 

90 

90 

82 
73 

78 
77 
82 
81 
83 
83 
86 



91° 

85 
86 
79 
80 
74 
76 
80 
85 
83 
82 
85 



LOWEST RANGE OF THERMOM. 



1833 



74° 

79 

76 

76 

71 

69 

07 

71 

73 

75 

76 

80 



1834 



80° 

79 

77 

72 

72 

66 

69 

66 

72 

68 

71 

72 



1835.' 1836 



74° 

76 

71 

72 

68 

68 

68 

64 

66 

69 

73 

72 



76° 

78 

76 

68 

67 

66 

66 

70 

65 

66 

72 

76 



1837 



73° 

76 

73 

69 

68 

65 

04 

07 

67 

73 

72 

73 



MEAN TEMPERATU1 



1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


80-75° 


78-33° 


76° 


74-33 


77-5 


71 


73-5 


70 


71-4 


72-25 


73-5 


74 


76 


72-66 


75 


78-33 


76-66 


72-3 


79 


75-25 


76 


83 


76 


77-75 


84 


80-75 


78-75 


82-5 


83-5 


82 


87 


84 


84-66 


83-5 


81-25 


78-5 



181 

76- 
73- 
70- 
74- 
75- 
72- 
75 
76- 
79- 
83- 
85' 
82-' 



1833. 



Mean of the highest range of Thermo- 
meter at noon, for 12 months, - 85-5° 

Mean of the lowest range of Thermo- 
meter at noon, for 12 months, - 74 

Mean temp, for 12 months at noon, 79-5 

Fair days in 12 months, 276 " 

Cloudy do. do. 41 £ 

Rainy do. do. 



is ai nc 
276) 

41 I 

48) 



18 34. 



Mean of the highest range of Ther- 
mometer at noon, for 12 months, 83 - 75 c 

Mean of the lowest range of Ther- 
mometer at noon, for 12 months, 72 

Mean temp, for 12 months, at noon, 77*5 

Fair days in 12 months, 238 "J 

Cloudy do. do. 56 I 365 

Rainy do. do. 71 J 



1 



Mean of the highe; 

mometer at nooi 
Mean of the lowes 

mometer at noor 
Mean temp, for 12 
Fair days in 12 mi 
Cloudy do. 
Rainy do. 



MONTHS. 



JANUARY. 

FEBRUARY. 

MARCH. 

APRIL. 

MAY. 

JUNE. 

JULY. 

AUGUST. 

SEPTEMBER. 

OCTOBER. 

NOVEMBER. 

DECEMBER. 



HIGHEST RANGE OF THERM. 


LOWEST RANGE OF THERM. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


1838. 


1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


86° 


87° 


88° 


87° 


75° 


74° 


75° 


75° 


87 


88 


88 


84 


76 


77 


82 


77 


86 


83 


85 


87 


74 


75 


75 


82 


82 


83 


80 


85 


72 


73 


75 


78 


76 


79 


80 


78 


68 


71 


70 


71 


76 


76 


76 


75 


70 


68 


68 


69 


75 


75 


74 


74 


69 


65 


68 


68 


75 


76 


75 


77 


66 


65 


65 


66 


78 


76 


82 


77 


70 


68 


73 


68 


83 


82 


86 


84 


72 


69 


73 


72 


86 


86 


84 


84 


72 


74 


76 


73 


90 


88 


87 


84 


75 


74 


79 


72 



MEAN TEMPERA 



1838. 



82-12 

83-1 

78-9 

77-13 

71-17 

72-36 

72-03 

70-87 

75-36 

77-5 

77-4 

82-3 



1839. 



81-71 

82-7 

80-25 

77-4 

74-51 

71-44 

69-61 

72-12 

72-77 

74-03 

75-93 

80-58 



If 



7^ 
77 
7( 
75 

7] 

7] 

7( 
71 

7c 



1838. 



Mean of the highest range of Thermometer at 

noon, for 12 months, - . . - 81-66 

Mean of lowest do. do. do. 71*53 

Mean temperature for 12 months, at noon, 76-53 

Fair days in do. 228, Cloudy, 70, Rainy, 67, 365 



183 9. 



Mean av'ge of highest range Therm. I Mean av'ge of lowest range Therm. 
1833 to '41, 9 years, at noon, 82-059 1 1833 to '41, 9 years, at noon, 71-064 



Mean of the highest range of Thermometer at 

noon, for 12 months, - . . - 81-5!= 
Mean of lowest do. do. do. 71-06 

Mean temperature for 12 months, at noon, 76-08 
Fair days in do. 219, Cloudy, 67, Rainy, 79, 365 



Mean temperature at noon, fr< 
1833 to '41, 9 years, 77- 



3?3 



II. 

AT RIO JANEIRO, BY MR. JOHN GARDNER. 





FAIR DAYS. 


1837. 


1833. 


1834. 


1835. 


1836. 


1837. 


82° 


12 


22 


21 


26 


24 


79-8 


20 


24 


25 


23 


18 


78-6 


23 


20 


18 


18 


23 


75-5 


25 


15 


15 


25 


12 


73-5 


24 


24 


16 


22 


23 


68 


28 


15 


20 


18 


24 


70 


26 


21 


25 


25 


21 


72-5 


23 


18 


19 


26 


25 


74 


27 


20 


15 


20 


15 


77 


25 


16 


19 


21 


27 


77 


24 


18 


19 


18 


15 


78-35 


19 


25 


20 


22 


16 



CLOUDY DAYS. 



1833. 1 1834J 1835. 



1836 



7 


5 


4 


3 


3 





3 


6 


1 


5 


6 


3 


2 


4 


5 


2 


4 


5 


4 


5 


3 


5 


4 


6 


1 


7 


8 


4 


5 


8 


2 


5 


6 


3 


2 


3 



2 
3 
4 
2 
4 
8 
4 
4 
5 
4 
(3 
5 



1837 



3 
6 

3 
8 
5 
2 
5 
3 
5 
1 
13 
10 



RAINY DAYS. 



1833. 



12 

5 
5 

5 



1 

3 
2 
2 
1 
9 



1834. 

4 

1 

5 

9 

9 

3 
11 

5 

9 

3 
10 

7 



1835 

6 

3 
12 
12 
12 
10 

5 

3 

6 

7 

4 

5 



1836, 



1837. 



3 
3 
9 
3 
5 
(5 
2 
1 
5 
6 
6 
4 



4 

4 

5 

10 

3 
4 

5 

3 
10 
3 
2 
5 



ge of Ther- 

12 months, 82-25° 

ge of Ther- 

12 months, 

ths at noon, 

,232 

52 

81 



70-33 
76-25 

365 



1836. 



Mean of the highest range of Ther- 
mometer at noon, for 12 months, 83° 

Mean of the lowest range of Ther- 
mometer at noon, for 1 2 months, 70 

Mean temp, for 12 months at noon, 77*13 

Fair days in 12 months, 264 } 

Cloudy' do. do. 49 V 366 

Rainy do. do. 53 } 



18 37. 



Mean of the highest range of Ther- 
mometer at noon, for 12 months, 82*16 

Mean of the lowest range of Ther- 
mometer at noon, for 12 months, 70 

Mean temp, for 12 months at noon, 75-52 

Fair days in 12 months, 243 ^ 

Cloudy do. do. 64 V 365 

Rainy do. do. 58 ) 



1841. 



83-35 

81-32 

84-30 

80-5 

74-84 

71-26 

71-29 

7209 

74-47 

75-67 

77-26 

77-24 



FAIR DAYS. 



1838. 



12 

17 
17 

18 
22 
25 
22 
20 
25 
18 
14 
18 



1839. 



16 
16 
13 
20 
18 
25 
23 
24 
15 
15 
17 
17 



1840. 



20 
26 
13 
24 
18 
21 
19 
19 
19 
20 
13 
19 



1841. 



16 
16 
30 
17 
17 
25 
17 
25 
19 
12 



CLOUDY DAYS. 



1838. 



10 
6 

7 
7 
5 
2 
4 
4 
3 
8 
9 
5 



1839. 



6 
11 
12 

2 
9 
3 
2 

4 
6 
6 

7 
6 



1840. 





1 

10 

6 

8 
6 
6 
5 

7 
4 
4 
4 



1841. 



2 

1 

8 
8 
2 

10 

4 

9 

10 

12 

6 



RAINY DAYS. 



1838. 



9 
5 
7 
5 
4 
3 
5 
7 
2 
5 
7 



1839. 



9 

8 
6 
8 
4 
2 

3 
9 
10 




1840. 



5 

2 
8 

5 
3 
6 
7 
4 
7 
13 
8 



1841. 



13 

6 

5 


3 
4 
2 
2 
9 
10 
17 



18 40. 



ean of the highest range of Thermometer at 
noon, for 12 months, .... 82-08 
ean of lowest do. do. do. 73-25 

ean temperature for 12 months, at noon, 77-75 
iir days in do. 231, Cloudy, 67, Rainy, 68, 366 



1841. 



Mean of the highest range of Thermometer at 

noon, for 12 months, - - - - 81.33 
Mean of lowest do. do. do. 72-58 

Mean temperature for 12 months, at noon, 76-92 
Fair days in do. 210, Cloudy, 78, Rainy, 77, 365 



average fair days, from 1833 to 
'41, 9 years, - - - 237 



Cloudy days, from 1833 to '41, Rainy days, from 1833 to '41 
9 years, - - - - 60 | • 9 years, - - - 67 



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396 



APPENDIX. 

XVIIL— Continued. 

AMERICAN ARRIVALS AT RIO DE JANEIRO. 





1839. 


1840. 


1841. 


From the United States, 
From Europe, 
From Whaling, 


92 
31 
26 

149 
10 

159 


97 
27 
13 

137 
14 

151 


119 
39 
20 

178 


Vessels of War, - 

Total, .... 


18 
196 



XIX. 

TO THE OFFICERS OF THE EXPLORING EXPEDITION. 

The undersigned, in calling the attention of the officers of the 
Squadron under his command, to their personal appearance, would 
observe, that in his opinion the example of some of them in this 
respect is not such as should indicate to the crews of the different 
vessels composing the Squadron, the necessity which exists of the 
greatest attention being paid to their personal appearance and clean- 
liness, in conformity to the internal rules and regulations of the 
Squadron. 

He has not been aware until recently of the extent to which the 
wearing of mustachios has been carried ; they in most cases give a 
notoriety and appearance of a want of attention to neatness, &c, 
which renders it impossible for the officer, with any degree of consis- 
tency, to carry the inspection of their men or divisions to that extent, 
which he considers absolutely necessary for the health and comfort 
of all. 

He believes it only necessary to appeal to the good sense of the 
officers in order to remedy their appearance, and feels assured that 
upon reflection they will see the like necessity and importance of 



APPENDIX. 397 

preserving, in this first national Expedition, the usual appearance, 
habits, and customs of their own country. 

Very respectfully, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
United States' Ship Vincenncs, 

At Sea, October 8th, 1838. 



United States 1 Ship Vincenncs, 

At Sea, November 1st, 1838. 

Sir, 

As some misapprehension may exist in relation to the use for which 
the reading-room, or forward cabin, is intended, I think it as well to 
briefly state my views respecting its uses, in which I have no doubt 
all will see the propriety of concurring. 

I view it then in the same light as the ship's library, or a place 
where every one may usefully employ himself, free from the usual 
interruption of the ship's duty, and not subject to other practices, 
which would cause interruption in the use of books. 

The accommodations, though not large, will with due respect and 
consideration for each other's views, be found to be ample, and will 
naturally prevent any one from appropriating exclusively its small 
conveniences to himself; or using its table for writing (intended for 
books and the facility of reference to them), as there no doubt exists 
sufficient room in the several apartments appropriated to the different 
officers for that purpose, without incommoding any one. 

You will therefore keep its use confined to these purposes, and not 
permit the issue of slops, &c, to take place in it. 

Respectfully, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition, 

Lieut. Thomas T. Craven, 

United States' Ship Vincennes. 



ORDERS FOR THE VINCENNES. 

The following arrangements in regard to the scientific duties of the 
officers of this ship, will be adopted when in port. 

Lieutenant Craven will aid the scientific corps as Assistant Natu- 
ralist, when his duties on board can be dispensed with. 

VOL. I. 100 



3g8 APPENDIX. 

Lieutenant Carr will be engaged with me in scientific duty at the 

observatory. . 

Lieutenant Johnson will perform the duty of first-lieutenant during 
the absence of Lieutenant Craven, and will be excused from night 
watch when so engaged. The officers will be divided into watches 
for duty on board ship, at the observatory, and elsewhere, as fol- 
lows : 

1st watch, Lieutenant Johnson and Passed Midshipman Totten. 

2d watch, Lieutenant Alden and Passed Midshipman Reynolds. 

3d watch, Lieutenant Maury and Passed Midshipman May. 

4th watch, Acting-Master North and Passed Midshipman Sandford. 

A relief watch will at all times be on board ship for such duty as 
may be required. 

Mr. Elliot, chaplain, supernumerary for such duty as may be 
required. 

Midshipmen Clark and Elliott, will be excused from watch for 
boats and other duty. 

Acting-Surgeon Gilchrist will be associated with Mr. Rich, Bota- 
nist, of the Expedition. 

Assistant-Surgeon Fox, as assistant to William Peale, Naturalist, 
and Mr. Dana, Mineralogist. 

Assistant-Surgeon Whittle as assistant to Dr. Pickering. 

The officers attached to the tenders, Sea-Gull and Flying-Fish, 
will be associated in scientific duties with the first and fourth w 7 atches 
of the Vincennes and Peacock. 

The arrangements heretofore made in regard to the duties of the 
medical officers will be complied with until further orders, which 
will enable them to devote much of their time to the scientific duties ; 
and it is desirable that they should receive from the scientific gen- 
tlemen, with whom they are associated, every facility which can be 
afforded them, and every opportunity of being useful. 

As the object of this association of duty is to extend as far as 
possible the operations of the Expedition, it is earnestly requested 
that the gentlemen composing the scientific corps will on all occa- 
sions avail themselves of the services of those officers who by this 
order have been associated with them, and of all others who may 
(when their duties and time will permit) be desirous of aiding 
or advancing the interests of the Expedition, by making collections, 
drawings, &c, and that the utmost harmony, good feeling, and 
concert of action may exist at all times, as nothing will so much 



APPENDIX. 399 

tend to promote the usefulness, and be the means of extending the 
objects of the Expedition. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition, 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

November 20th, 1838. 



ORDERS FOR THE PEACOCK. 

The officers to be divided into watches, the same as the Vincennes, 
and a relief watch to be always on board. 

Midshipmen Henry and Hudson excused from watch for boat 
duty, &c. 

Dr. Sickles associated with Mr. Couthouy for scientific duty. Dr. 
Holmes also to aid in scientific duty. 

The orders in regard to the medical officers the same as the 
Vincennes. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, November 21st, 1838. 



ORDERS FOR THE PORPOISE. 

The following arrangements in regard to the scientific duties of 
the officers of the Porpoise when in port, will be adopted. 

The officers will be divided into watches, to perform duty on board, 
at the observatory, and elsewhere, as follows : 

1st watch, Lieutenant Clairborne and Passed Midshipman Blunt. 

2d watch, Lieutenant Hartstein and Acting Midshipman Baldwin. 

3d w^atch, Lieutenant Dale and Passed Midshipman Colvocoressis. 

Lieutenant Dale in sketching, when his other duties will permit. 

Dr. Gillou on duty as Assistant Naturalist, and will make himself 
useful in all the departments. 

The order for medical officers the same as the Vincennes. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, November 21st, 1838. 



400 APPENDIX. 

ORDERS FOR THE RELIEF. 

The watch officers to be divided the same as on board the Porpoise, 

as follows : . . 

1st watch, Lieutenant Pinckney and Passed Midshipman Davis. 

2d watch, Lieutenant Case and Passed Midshipman Cummmgs. 

3d watch, Lieutenant Underwood and Passed Midshipman Sin- 
clair. 

Lieutenant Case, when his other duties will permit, will assist in 

the naturalist department. 

Dr. Palmer will be attached to the scientific department, as assis- 
tant to Dr. Pickering and Mr. Couthouy, Naturalist. 

Midshipman Blair will be excused from watch for boat duty. 

Lieutenant Underwood will be employed in sketching, &c. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

At Sea, November 21st, 1838. 



XX. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Rio de Janeiro, December 15th, 1838. 

Sir, 

You will proceed and make a survey of a shoal said to exist off 
Cape St. Thomas, about sixty miles north of Cape Frio, with the 
Peacock, Porpoise ,* Sea-Gull, and Flying-Fish, which are placed 
under your command for the duty. 

This shoal is supposed to be about twenty miles east-half-north 
from Cape St. Thomas. 

In surveying it, as far as I am able to judge of its locality, I would 
recommend the following mode to be pursued, viz. : 

On your arrival at or near its supposed locality, anchor your four 
vessels at convenient distances from each other, within a suitable 
distance for admeasurement by sound. Here ascertain your latitude 
and longitude accurately, measure your distance between all the 
vessels by sound, firing guns in succession, noting the elapse of time 

* The Porpoise was not on this duty ; these orders were countermanded, as she could 
not be prepared for sea in season. 



APPENDIX. 401 

between the flash and report ; then, or before, measure the azimuth 
between each vessel and the sun, and proceed with your boats to 
sound, radiating from each vessel on the several points of bearings : 
the position of your boats may be accurately ascertained by the 
angles on any three of the vessels, and the soundings obtained can at 
once be inserted on the skeleton chart prepared for the occasion. 

You will, while at anchor, heave the current-log every hour, and 
notice the direction by the head of your ship. After you have satis- 
factorily explored the ground that your vessel may have anchored on, 
you will then, in all probability, know the direction in which the 
shoalest water lies from you, and by shifting the anchorage of each 
vessel in succession toward that direction, you will occupy new 
ground, when the same operation of measuring bases by sound, and 
taking azimuths, will be gone through with, and then you may 
approach the position without any danger, as your chart will be 
constructed as you proceed. 

Lieutenant Johnson has been ordered to the Porpoise to super- 
intend her movements in regard to this survey, and Lieutenant 
Alden to your ship, in whose information, as respects the above mode 
of proceeding, you may rely. 

Mr. Knox, of the Flying-Fish, is also apt at this work. I have 
ordered Mr. May to assist him in this cruise, and Mr. Eld, of your 
ship, to assist in the duties on board the Sea-Gull. 

After you have obtained the necessary information in regard to 
this shoal, (should you be so fortunate as to find it,) you will return 
to Cape Frio, and from thence measure the distance from this harbour 
by sound. 

The most efficient mode of doing this, I conceive as follows, viz. : 
After getting the light in sight, anchor the three vessels so as to form 
a triangle, and take their azimuthal bearings from the sun, measuring 
by sound the distance between the vessels, which will give you the 
bases of the triangle, then measure the angles from on board the 
vessels, with the light-house, and this will give you data to calculate 
its distance and bearing, thence proceed west, keeping the vessels in 
range, and as soon as you get their distance and bearing change their 
positions alternately. 

Very respectfully, 

Charles Wilkes, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition, 

Captain William L. Hudson, 

Commanding U. S. Ship Peacock. 

VOL. I. 101 



402 



APPENDIX. 



XXL 

POPULATION OF BRAZIL, 



Estimated by the numbers of houses furnished by the returns of Elections for Deputies in 
1833, to the National Legislature, calculating each habitation as containing five free 
people, and the slaves as being two-fifths of the whole population. 



PROVINCES. 


NO. OF HOUSES. 


INHABITANTS. 


PARA - - - 


24,500 


102,500 


MARANHAO - 


30,600 


153,000 


PIANHY 


11,300 


56,500 


CEARA -.---- 


35,900 


179,500 


RIO GRANDE DEL NORTE 


12,400 


62,000 


PARAHIBA ..... 


24,700 


123,500 


PERNAMBUCO ..... 


59,900 


299,500 


ALAGOAS ..... 


33,300 


166,500 


SERGISSE ..... 


20,700 


103,500 


BAHIA ...--. 


87,600 


438,000 


CUIABA ...... 


5,600 


28,000 


GOYAS, SLAVES, (17,375) 


13,900 


69,500 


MINAS GERAES, (24,600) 


120,800 


604,000 


ESPIRITO SANTO .... 


7,700 


38,500 


RIO DE JANEIRO, (117,600) 


58,800 


294,000 


st. paulo, (94,166) .... 


56,100 


282,500 


st. Catherine's .... 


9,800 


47,000 


RIO GRANDE DO SOL, (20,500) 


16,400 


82,000 



^ 



RESULTS OF THE MEASUREMENT OF A BASE LINE BY SOU]> 



POSITION OF VESSELS. 



From Light-house to Flying-Fish's 1st, 
" Flying-Fish's 1st to Sea-Gull's 1st, 
" Sea-Gull's 1st to Peacock's 2d, 
" Peacock's 2d to Flying-Fish's 2d, 
" Flying-Fish's 2d to Sea-Gull's 2d, 
" Sea-Gull's 2d to Peacock's 3d, 
" Peacock's 3d to Flying-Fish's 3d, 
" Flying-Fish's 3d to Sea-Gull's 3d, 
" Sea-Gull's 3d to Peacock's 4th, 
" Peacock's 4th to Flying-Fish's 4th, 
" Flying-Fish's 4th to Sea-Gull's 4th, 
" Sea-Gull's 4th to Peacock's 5th, 
" Peacock's 5th to Flying-Fish's 5th, 
" Flying-Fish's 5th to Sea-Gull's 5th, 
" Sea-Gull's 5th to Peacock's 6th, 



ASTRONOMICAL 
BEARING. 



S. 85° 07' W. 

87 45 

85 31 

87 46 

85 16 

85 52 

85 27 

86 04 
86 13 
85 12 

84 43 
66 33 

85 48 
85 10 
84 41 



DISTANCES. 



19514-40 feet 

7009-34 
15475-17 

9524-40 
12778-39 
13426-98 
10525-39 
13381-47 
20845-96 
12821-91 
10468-50 
16055-49 
12801-15 

805619 
18524-69 



DIFF. OF LAT. 



1661-2 S. 

275-2 
1209-7 

371-1 
1054-4 

967-7 

834-9 

918-1 
1375-5 
1073-0 

964-9 

966-2 

937-5 

678-8 
1716-5 



DIFF. OF LON, 



20649-0 W, 

7608-0 
16758-0 
10337-0 
13835-0 
14546-0 
11397-0 
14501-0 
22594-0 
13879-0 
113220 
17410-0 
13867-0 

8720-0 
20048-0 



* The Peacock here char 



Meridian Distances between Cape Frio Light-house and Enxados Island. 
By Sound, ... 1° 08' 52" 8'" 
By Chronometer, . 1 09 48 




*TRt»Umg»jr. 



y^ 



in. 

), BETWEEN CAPE FRIO LIGHT-HOUSE AND ENXADOS ISLAND. 



POSITION OF VESSELS. 


ASTRONOMICAL 
BEARING. 


DISTANCES. 


DIFF. OF LAT. 


DIFF. OF LON. 


From Peacock's 6th to Flying-Fish's 6th, 


S.87 


04' W. 


12914-94 feet. 


660-9 S. 


14012-0 W. 


" Flying-Fish's 6th to Peacock's 7th, 


87 


12 


2024251 


988-9 


21965-0 


« *Peacock's 7th to Sea-Gull's 7th, 


87 


44 


20993-89 


830-3 


22889-0 


« Sea-Gull's 7th to Flying-Fish's 7th, 


89 


54 


15076-91 


26-3 


16379-0 


" Flying-Fish's 7th to Sea-Gull's 8th, 


89 


46 


13654-56 


55-6 


14833-0 


" Sea-Gull's 8th to Peacock's 8th, 


N.89 


46 


19166-72 


78-1 N. 


20829-0 


«« Peacock's 8th to Flying-Fish's 8th, 


89 


58 


21619-72 


12-6 


23487-0 


« Flying-Fish's 8th to Sea-Gull's 9th, 


89 


52 


16044-11 


37-3 


17429-0 


" Sea- Gull's 9th to Peacock's 9th, 


89 


52 


16157-90 


37-6 


17553-0 


" Peacock's 9th to Flying-Fish's 9th, 


25 


00 


18820-54 


1705-7 


8639-0 


« Flying-Fish's 9th to Sea-Gull's 10th, 


26 


00 


14030-06 


12610-0 


6678-0 


« Sea-Gull's 10th to Peacock's 10th, 


25 


05 


1507691 


13655-0 


6938-0 


" Peacock's 1 0th to Flying-Fish's 1 0th 


24 


45 


10877-13 


1878-3 


4942-0 


" Flying-Fish's 1 0th to Sea-Gull's 11th 


24 


05 


2695-70 


2461-4 


1194-0 


« Sea-Gull's 11th to Enxados Island, 


S. 84 


34 


2726-00 


259-1 S. 


2956-0 




38001-5 N. 


418194-5 W. 



ged to Sea-Gull's position. 



Longitude of Enxados Island, 43° 09' 06" 67'" 

Difference of Longitude, .... 1 08 52 8 



Longitude of Cape Frio Light-house, 42° 00' 13" 87'" 




408 APPENDIX. 



XXIV. 



SAILING INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE RELIEF, NOT TO BE OPENED 
UNTIL AT SEA. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Rio de Janeiro, December 18th, 1838. 

Sir, 

You will sail from this harbour, and follow strictly the following 
instructions, which are intended for your government. 

1st. You will proceed with all possible despatch with the Relief, 
under your command, to Orange Harbour, and there await my 
arrival. 

2d. Orange Harbour is situated in latitude 55° 30' 50" S., and 
longitude 68° 00' 23" W. 

3d. You will pursue such a course as will take you on soundings 
about latitude 45° S., and continue on them all the way to Terra del 
Fuego, as near as you can to the land, westerly winds prevailing 
most of the way. 

4th. You will pass through the Straits of Le Maire, and double 
close around the southeast point of Terra del Fuego, keeping in with 
the land, until you are up with the Hermit Islands ; you will then 
have your port open to you clear of hidden dangers. 

5th. A plan of Orange Harbour is among your book of charts No. 
1079. 

6th. On your arrival there, you will set up tide-staves, similar to 
those now in use by us on the Island of Enxados, and keep an hourly 
register of the rise and fall. 

7th. At Orange Harbour, you will employ your crew in cutting 
fifty cords of the best wood, and deposit the same at the most con- 
venient landings, for the use of the squadron on its arrival. 

8th. You will fill up with water, and have your stores and provi- 
sions ready for any delivery. 

9th. Your anchorage will be within Burnt Island, where you will 
establish the light sent you, which you will place in charge of some 
careful person, to be kept lighted during the night. In the event of 
its failing, you will keep a bonfire on shore, as a night-signal for the 
squadron. 



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APPENDIX. 



409 



10th. You will carefully preserve all the soundings, brought up by 
your deep-sea lead, in papers, with the positions where they were had. 

11th. On your route you will make repeated trials of the current, 
and while on soundings you will anchor your boat with the deep-sea 
lead, making use of the current-log. Your acting-master has been 
shown the one in use on board this ship. 

12th. You will expose two thermometers, one having its bulb 
covered with black wool, daily to the influence of the sun, and note 
the difference in your journal ; also that which is shown in the shade; 
and you will continue al] observations as heretofore. 

13th. It is believed that the Relief will not require any repairs; 
should, however, any be necessary, you will complete them at once. 

14th. You will avoid being blown off to the eastward by all the 
means in your power ; running with the coast, and anchoring during 
the continuance of westerly gales under the land, is recommended. I 
am not aware that you have any dangers to fear, except kelp, which 
you may run boldly towards, but avoid entering. 

15th. You will afford Mr. Rich, the Botanist, every facility in 
collecting specimens, &c, and, if possible, seek out places where a 
quantity of wild celery-grass may be collected for the crews on our 
arrival. 

16th. You will issue to such of the crew as may require the warm 
articles of clothing supplied for the Exploring Expedition, charging 
them at the usual slop prices, which will be remitted at the end of 
the cruise, on the good behaviour of the men. 

17th. You will give particular attention to the health and comfort 
of the officers and crew. 

Wishing you a safe and x speedy passage to your port of destination, 

I am, &c, 

Charles Wilkes, 
Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

Lieut. Com. A. K. Long, 

United States Ship Relief. 



United States Ship Vincennes, 

Off Rio de Janeiro, Jan. 5th, 1839. 

Sir, 

In the event of our separating, which, however, you will avoid by 
all possible exertions, you will proceed with all despatch to Orange 

vol. i. 103 



410 APPENDIX. 

Harbour, which is situated in latitude 55° 30' 50" S., longitude 
68° 00' 23" W., taking such a course as will put you on soundings in 
about latitude 45° S. ; continue in them all the way to Terra del 
Fuego, keeping close in with the land as westerly gales prevail. 

You will pass through the Straits of Le Maire, and double close 
round the southeast point of Terra del Fuego, until you are up with 
the Hermit Islands ; you will then have your port open to you, clear 
of hidden dangers. 

You will avoid being blown off to the eastward by all the means 
in your power, running in with the coast, and anchoring during the 
westerly gales. I am not aware that you have any dangers to fear 
except kelp, which you may run boldly for, but avoid entering. 

On your arrival at Orange Harbour, you will find me or instruc- 
tions, or you will await my arrival there. 

You will issue to such of the crew as require them, the articles of 
warm clothing supplied for the Exploring Expedition, charging them 
at the usual slop prices, to be remitted them at the end of the cruise, 
on their good behaviour. 

You will give particular attention to the cleanliness of your ship, 
and the health of the officers and crew. 

A chart of Orange Harbour will be found in your Book of Charts, 
No. 1079. 

Lieutenant-Commandant Long, has been directed to keep the light 
burning during the night, on Burnt Island, as a signal to the 
squadron. 

I send you herewith the rates of your chronometers. 

Very respectfully, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

To Captain William L. Hudson, 

Peacock. 

Lieutenant-Commandant C. Ringgold, 

Porpoise. 

Passed Midshipman J. W. E. Reid, 

Sea-Gull. 

Passed Midshipman S. R. Knox, 

Flying-Fish. 



APPENDIX. 



GENERAL ORDERS. 



411 



As difficulties frequently occur in regard to the dates of the log- 
books and journals of the squadron under my command, owing to the 
difference between civil and nautical time; hereafter, all the log-books 
and journals will be kept in civil time, commencing at twelve o'clock 
this day, being the meridian of the 20th of February, 1839. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Orange Harbour, Feb. 20th, 1839. 



XXV. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 
February 22d, 1839. 

Sir, 

Although I am aware of the lateness of the season, and the risk 
to be incurred in attempting to make any explorations within the 
Antarctic Circle; yet I am of the opinion that there are many 
advantages to be derived from it, that will prove of incalculable 
benefit in any future attempts we may hereafter make at the proper 
season. 

You will, therefore, with the Peacock and tender Flying-Fish, 
make the attempt to carry out the following instructions. 

1st. On sailing from this anchorage, you will proceed as far as the 
Ne Plus Ultra of Captain Cook, in longitude 105° W., and from 
thence you will extend your researches as far to the southward and 
eastward as you can reach, without rendering yourself liable to be 
closed in by the ice. 

2d. You will carefully note your daily positions on the skeleton 
chart, herewith, and trace upon it by astronomical and tangent obser- 
vations (not by compass), all the ice you may fall in with during the 
cruise, whether island or field-ice. 

3d. You will navigate to the southward and eastward until you 
reach the western side of Palmer's or Graham's Land. 

4th. It is believed that the latter part of the summer will afford 
you an opportunity of penetrating here farther south than has yet 



412 APPENDIX. 

been done, and possibly meet an extension of Palmer's Land, more to 
the westward : if you should succeed, you will trace it to the east- 
ward, and return by the southern and eastern side of it, to this 
anchorage, thus circumnavigating this land, unless you should re- 
ceive further information from me. 

5th. Herewith you will receive a Dipping and Intensity Needle, 
with which you will make observations on any floe of ice that may be 
accessible. 

6th. In your progress to the eastward from Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, 
105° W., you will endeavour to get more and more to the southward, 
and to pass to the southward of the two small islands called Peter I. 
and Alexander, (the farthest land south discovered by the Russians 
in 1821,) and then fall in with what Briscoe denominated Graham's 
or Palmer's Land, (its proper American name.) I am of the opinion 
that it extends much farther to the southward and westward, than 
where Briscoe saw the Adelaide Mountains, and that the land 
stretches or trends to the west. This will be a very important 
discovery, and the lateness of the season is very advantageous for the 
exploration, if the summer should have proved an open one. My 
reason for believing in the extension of this land is, that such large 
quantities of ice-islands, which are frequently drifted to the north and 
west of Cape Horn, must have some land to form on, and we are 
aware that all the ice formed about the South Shetlands goes to the 
eastward. 

7th. You must endeavour to reach the southward of Peter I. and 
Alexander Islands, or south of the Russian track. 

8th. You will fill up the skeleton chart as you progress, and treat 
the main ice and ice-islands as if they were land, by inserting them 
on it, which will be an important addition to our knowledge, if we 
only obtain the line of ice in those seas ; it does not appear ever to 
have been done by southern navigators accurately ; had it been so, 
our task would have been more easy. 

9th. I should think the winds from the west to the east will be so 
as to enable you to choose positions to shield your ship under the lee 
of the icy shore (if I may be allowed the expression). 

10th. In the event of your reaching the main land, or a channel 
leading to it, if one offers, you will despatch the Flying-Fish, with 
such officers as you may think fit, to make the recognizance of it, if 
time should not allow a full survey. 

11th. It is desirable that the extent and circumference of any 



APPENDIX. 413 

islands which you may fall in with be ascertained, with their general 
character and productions, if any ; specimens of rocks and sketches 
of their stratification will, if possible, be taken. The islands of ice 
frequently show appearances of stratification, with earth and rocks 
attached to them. Any thing gained from them will be interesting 
and valuable, with a particular notice whether the ice had been much 
worn away under them. 

12th. The aurora australis has not been often seen ; it is said to 
have been seen by Captain Cook near his Ne Plus Ultra, where you 
will commence. You will notice the extent and height of the ice, 
&c, and sketch, if possible, any remarkable refraction, with a descrip- 
tion which will render it clear. 

13th. You will note the observations of the thermometer in the sun 
and shade ; also the temperature of the sea at such depths as you may 
judge best, with the sounding apparatus sent you. 

14th. After having run to Palmer's Land, and not finding an 
opening or land, you will return to this harbour direct, where you 
will find this ship; and you will despatch the Flying-Fish to the 
harbour of Deception Island for information from me, which will, 
if possible, be left in a bottle enclosed in a heap of stones (a sailor's 
grave), on the right-hand side of that harbour, the entrance being at 
the east ; and you will direct the officer in charge of the Flying-Fish 
to remain there, if he should hear nothing of me, as long as possible, 
even until the 1st of May, when she will proceed with all despatch to 
this port. 

15th. Should you be shut up or detained by ice, which, of course, 
you will avoid by all possible means, you will, if possible, communi- 
cate to me at Deception Island, as in case you are out of time, you 
may rely on my sending there to hear from you, and afford any aid, 
as soon as the season will permit, to which place your boats or the 
tender can be navigated. It is my present intention, after surveying 
the southeast shore of Palmer's Land, to touch at Deception Island on 
my return north, and obtain or leave information as to our progress, 
in a bottle, as above described. 

16th. You will, of course, give the most particular attention to the 
health and comfort of the officers and crews of your command, and 
the most economical expenditure of stores and provisions, of which 
you have as much as you can stow, including a large supply of 
antiscorbutics, preserved meats, &c. 

vol. i. 104 



414 APPENDIX. 

17th. Should it, in your opinion, be found at any time during the 
cruise impracticable to carry into effect these orders, and you should 
be of opinion also that a further attempt south, during the present 
season, would be unavailing, owing to bad weather or obstructions, 
you will, on arriving at such conclusions, proceed direct to Valparaiso, 
and await further orders, making all necessary arrangements there in 
regard to a supply of provisions, &c, for the squadron. In such an 
event, you will immediately despatch the Flying-Fish to this anchor- 
age for further orders, which, if we have left, will be found in a pile 
of stones on the summit of Burnt Island, near the tent and lighthouse; 
in the absence of which, however, she will proceed to Valparaiso for 
further orders. 

In conclusion, I cannot express to you how much I feel for the 
safety of yourself, officers, and crews, on this first exploration you are 
about to make, and how deep an interest and anxiety I shall feel for 
you ; that you may meet with all the success I wish for, and that we 
may rendezvous again, to carry out this great national enterprise, is 
the fervent prayer of your attached friend, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

Captain Wm. L. Hudson, 

Peacock. 



XXVI. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 
February 22d, 1839. 

Sir, 

The Sea-Gull, placed under your charge, will be attached to the 
Porpoise. I cannot impress upon you too strongly the necessity of 
keeping company, as the safety of the crews of both vessels may 
otherwise be hazarded ; you will, therefore, use every means in your 
power to prevent a separation. 

1st. You will keep a strict daily journal of every occurrence 
relative to your co-operations with the Porpoise. 

2d. A skeleton chart will be furnished you, comprising the lati- 
tudes and longitudes in which you will cruise, upon which chart an 
accurate track will be laid down of her route ; also the position of all 



APPENDIX. 415 

land, islands of ice, &c, which may be observed. Astronomical 
bearings, when the weather will permit, will be preferable for this 
purpose. 

3d. You will enter also in your journal, the variation of the 
compass, morning and evening ; sketches of refraction, and minute 
observations of all phenomena that may be seen ; also, sketches of 
stratifications of ice, temperature of the water on the weather and 
lee sides of ice-islands, &c. ; the form and direction of currents, and 
the apparent formation of the ice ; also the collection and preservation 
of any specimens of earth or stones that may be discovered on the 
ice, and the appearance of any halos, auroras australis, &c. 

4th. In the event of parting company, you will rendezvous, first, 
for the Porpoise, off Cape Melville, George's Island, in latitude 
61° 55' S., longitude 58° W., to remain two days ; and, secondly, at 
and near the coast of the east side of Palmer's Land. You will, in 
such a case of separation, avoid by all possible means being shut up 
in the ice, and will, on the probability of such an event, proceed at 
once to Deception Island, which harbour you will if possible enter, 
and deposit in a grave formed of stones, on the north side of the 
entrance of the harbour, information relative to your parting com- 
pany, &c. ; and you will remain there for orders as long as your 
safety will allow, and while there you will hunt for and examine a 
self-registering thermometer, left there some time since on the point 
forming the cove. 

5th. You will give particular attention to the health and comfort of 
all on board, and you have an ample supply of provisions, clothing, 
preserved meats, antiscorbutics, &c. 

Wishing you a safe and successful cruise, 

I am, &c, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

Lieutenant R. E. Johnson, 

In charge of Tender Sea-Gidl. 



416 APPENDIX. 

XXVII. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 
February 22d, 1839. 

Sir, 

The tender Flying-Fish, placed under your charge, will be attached 
to the Peacock, and under the orders of Captain Hudson, during the 
present cruise. 

1st. I cannot impress too strongly on your mind the necessity of 
avoiding, under any circumstances, parting company with the Pea- 
cock, as the safety of all on board that vessel may be hazarded 
thereby ; every means will be taken therefore to prevent a separation. 

2d. You will keep a strict daily journal of every occurrence 
relative to your co-operations with that vessel. 

3d. A skeleton chart is furnished you, comprising the latitudes and 
longitudes in which you will cruise, and on which chart an accurate 
track must be laid down of the route, daily ; also, the positions of all 
lands, islands of ice, &c, which may be observed. Astronomical 
bearings, when the weather will permit, are preferable for this 
purpose. 

4th. You will also enter on your journal, the variation of the 
compass, morning and evening ; sketches of refractions, and minute 
observations of all phenomena that may be seen ; also, sketches of the 
stratification of ice, temperature of the water on the weather and lee 
sides of the islands, the form and direction of currents, and the 
apparent formation of the ice ; also, the collection and preservation of 
any stones, specimens of earth, &c, that may be discovered on the 
ice, and the appearance of any halos, auroras australis, &c. 

5th. If you should unfortunately be separated from the Peacock, 
the following rendezvous are fixed by Captain Hudson, for meeting 
again, if possible : 

1st. Latitude 62° S., longitude 80° W., to wait half a day. 
2d. " 64° " 90° « one " 

3d. " 65° " 100° " " " 

4th. " 66° " 105° " " « 

And you will seek the nearest to the above named, coasting along 



APPENDIX. 



417 



the ice as near as possible, and locating your position on your 
skeleton chart. 

6th. The Peacock will pursue the route laid down in the orders to 
Captain Hudson, of which the following is an extract, and will give 
you an idea of the intended cruise, viz. : 

" On sailing from here you will proceed to longitude 105° W., 
(Cook's Ne Plus Ultra,) from thence extend your researches as far 
to the southward and eastward as you can reach, without rendering 
yourself liable to be closed in by the ice. 

" You will then navigate to the southward and eastward, until you 
reach the western side of Palmer's or Graham's Land as it is called on 
the charts. 

" It is believed that the latter part of the season will afford you an 
opportunity of penetrating here further south than has yet been done, 
and possibly meet an extension of Palmer's Land, more to the west- 
ward ; if you should succeed, you will trace it to the eastward, and 
return by the southward and eastward side of it to this anchorage, 
(thus circumnavigating this land) unless you should receive any 
information from me previously. 

"In your progress from Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, of longitude 105° 
W., you will endeavour to get more and more to the southward, if 
possible, and reach to the southward of the small islands of Peter I., 
and Alexander, the farthest land south discovered by the Russians in 
1821, and fall in with what Briscoe has denominated Graham's or 
Palmer's Land, (its proper American name.) I am of the opinion 
that it extends much farther to the southward and westward than 
where Briscoe saw the Adelaide Mountains. 

" Your endeavours must be to get to the south of Peter I., and 
Alexander Islands, or south of the Russian track." 

7th. In the event of your separating from the Peacock, and not 
joining her again, which, however, is not probable, you will coast 
along the ice, agreeably to directions, as far as it may be prudent and 
safe, and proceed to Deception Island for information in regard to us, 
which if there, will be found in a sailor's grave at the north of the 
entrance of the harbour, where you will deposit a communication ; 
and in the absence of other orders, you will proceed to this anchorage, 
where you will find me, or orders, on the summit of Burnt Island, at 
the flagstaff; in the absence of which, or any of the squadron, you 
will proceed direct to Valparaiso. 

8th. You will attend particularly to the health and comfort of all 
vol. i. 105 



418 



APPENDIX. 



on board ; you have ten months' provisions on board for the crew, and 
an ample supply of warm clothing, antiscorbutics, preserved meats, 
&c, in the event of detention, which will be expended in the most 
judicious manner. 

Wishing you a safe and successful cruise, 

I am, &c, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

P. S. You will, if possible, obtain from Deception Island a self- 
registering thermometer, said to have been left some time since on 
the point of the cove. 

To Lieut. Wm. L. Walker, 

In cJiarge of Tender Flying-Fish. 

XXVIII. 

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS, FOR BOAT DUTY, SURVEYING, ETC. 

Immediately after anchoring in position, you will hoist your dis- 
tinguishing pennant, keeping it up till every thing is done, such as, 
distance measured, astronomical bearings taken on one of the vessels, 
the angle between her and the others; also, angles on any thing 
remarkable on shore, such as headlands, flag or signal staves, huts, 
trees, &c. When ready to change your position, haul down your 
distinguishing pennant, and when ready to measure the base or dis- 
tance by sound, which is the first thing to be done after you are in 
position, hoist your ensign at the fore; as soon as all the vessels have 
answered, you will dip it and fire in a few seconds, run up the ensign 
again, and repeat firing three times. 

To communicate the elapsed time to this vessel, hoist the distin- 
guishing pennant of the vessel whose distance is to be shown, and 
with it the "number" indicating the number of seconds; the quarter, 
half, or three-quarters, may be designated by hoisting the first, second, 
and third repeaters under all, thus— the third repeater under No. 
18, would signify eighteen and three-quarter seconds of time. It will 
be seen, therefore, that when it is necessary to repeat a number, one 
of a similar denomination must be used, as another signification is 
given to the repeaters. 



APPENDIX. 41y 

The astronomical bearings may be communicated in the following 
manner, with the distinguishing pennant of the vessel whose bearing 
is to be shown : hoist the "number" indicating the degrees with the 
cornet above, if the bearing be from the north, but under, if from the 
south ; then the corresponding numbers for the minutes and seconds ; 
with the preparatory pennant, if to the east, or without it, if to the 
west, thus : the cornet under 56, would signify S. 56° ; then 04-26, 
would correspond, 04' and 26" W., or, the whole being put together^ 
would stand, S. 56°, 04' 26" W. 

Each officer, before leaving the ship, will see that his boat is fur- 
nished with water and provisions for three days for her crew ; that 
her oars, spars, and sails are in good order, compass, sextant, spy- 
glass, log-line and current-log, leads and lines, grapnel and lines 
for mooring, materials for striking a light, lantern, and field-book; 
also, that their watches have been set to ship's time. 

The boats will be divided into parties or divisions ; each division 
will be under the orders of an officer appointed to take the charge, 
who will receive the general instructions for the day, and who will 
wear their boat ensigns as a distinguishing mark. 

The formula of the field-books will be understood as follows : 

At the head of each page the name of the boat and the date will be inserted. 
In column 1st. The time of taking the angles. 
2d. The soundings, and their nature. 
3d. The soundings reduced. 

4th. The name of the object and the angle to the left of the observer. 
5th. The name of the centre objects only, unless there be three angles 
measured ; then, the centre angle will be inserted with both 
the centre objects. 
6th. The name of the object and the angle to the right of the observer. 

Officers are expected to note any observations on the current, 
soundings, &c, that they may deem necessary to make the results 
less liable to misconstruction and obviate explanation. 

When a line of soundings extends to, or commences at the shore, 
the point must be accurately fixed by at least three angles, and the 
shore sketched in on both sides for some hundred yards, or to some 
well-defined object. 

The daily orders must be carried into strict execution ; and if an 
officer does not clearly understand or perceives any difficulty therein, 
he will so state before leaving the vessel. 



420 APPENDIX. 

If a boat should require assistance, she will hoist the blue flag, or 
No. 5. 

After returning on board, each officer will furnish his commanding 
officer with a copy of his day's work, with the soundings reduced to 
the standard ; a diagram of his boat's track ; and, if co-operating with 
other boats, their relative positions at each anchorage : it being under- 
stood in the diagrams, that the top of the paper will always represent 
the north. 

Jn case of night coming on, the vessels will, if their boats have not 
joined them fire a gun and then a rocket, — the first to call attention, 
the latter to give the direction ; the rocket will be repeated every 
fifteen minutes, and the gun every half hour ; keeping up their night 
distinguishing signals till their respective boats have returned ; and 
when any boat joins them, other than their own, to remain the night, 
from stress of weather, fog, or any other cause, the vessel will fire 
two guns in quick succession. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 
U. S. Ship Vincennes, 
February 22d, 1839. 



XXIX. 

INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE VINCENNES. 

U. S. Ship Vincennes, 

Orange Harbour, Feb. 23d, 1839. 

Lieutenant Craven will enforce strictly the regulations of the 
ship. 

The following officers are left on board the ship for duty, viz., 
Lieutenant Carr; Lieutenant Alden; Purser Waldron; Chaplain 
Elliott; Acting-Master North; Passed Midshipmen Totten, Rey- 
nolds, May, and Sandford; Acting Midshipmen Clemson, Thompson, 
Clarke, and Elliott ; and the four forward officers. 

1st. Lieutenant Craven will have the men who have been trans- 
ferred temporarily to this ship, stationed and quartered at the guns, 
dividing the officers in such divisions that they may be regularly 
exercised agreeably to the rules and regulations. 



APPENDIX. 421 

2d. Lieutenant Craven will have all the sails, boats, rigging, and 
equipments of every description, overhauled and repaired. 

3d. The comfort and health of the crew will claim his particular 
attention, the regularity of their meals, and the avoiding unnecessary 
exposure to the cold, &c. 

4th. The baking of bread, it is desirable should be carried into 
operation, in order that as small a quantity of ship's bread should be 
used as possible. For this purpose, the oven is to be erected on the 
gun-deck, and which it is anticipated by constant use will be suffi- 
cient for this purpose ; if, however, from any defect, it should prove 
otherwise, recourse must be had to serving out flour in lieu of ship's 
bread. 

5th. Every opportunity must be taken advantage of to supply the 
crew with fish, wild celery, &c, and a proportion suffered to visit the 
shore when the work and weather will permit, who must return in 
proper season, (early in the afternoon, by supper time,) on board. 

6th. The sheet cables will be kept constantly bent, and an anchor- 
watch duly observed, night and day ; the three passed midshipmen 
and Mr. North, will keep the watches regularly; and the deck is 
never to be left without one of them, and a midshipman. 

7th. When his duties will permit, he will employ his time, and 
that of the crew, in dredging and fishing, and all specimens will be 
carefully preserved, and drawings made of them. 

8th. He will give all the assistance and afford every facility in his 
power, to aid the duties confided to Lieutenants Carr, and Alden. 

Lieutenant Carr will attend to the astronomical and other observa- 
tions (including tides) on shore, in which he will be assisted by Dr. 
Fox and Chaplain Elliott, so far as the former's duties will permit for 
this purpose. The observatory-house is to be set up on shore, and 
other arrangements made suitable for the accommodations of them 
and ten men, with a boat : this position will be in what is called Forge 
Cove, on the weather side, near the anchorage of this ship. 

Lieutenant Alden is charged with the survey and examination of 
the northern side of Hermit Islands, and the passages between them 
and Terra del Fuego, including Goree Road, and the two small 
islands between the two. All kelp that he may discover is to be 
examined ; also the anchorage under Lenox and New Islands ; and 
to make a careful examination of all other places that may seem to 
offer security for vessels from the prevailing winds ; making notes 
and taking bearings that may serve for directions for vessels seeking 

VCVL. 1. 10(5 



422 APPENDIX. 

shelter. Also the coast between False Cape Horn and Weddell Cape, 
which is to the westward of this harbour, being the parts of this coast 
that have not been sufficiently examined by Captain King. 

He will be accompanied by a passed midshipman on this duty : the 
launch is to be fitted with her deck, sails, &c, with a crew of ten 
men, and provisions, among which are included preserved meats, 
&c, for twenty days, and a small whale-boat (the Fox), or another, if 
deemed more suitable, a tent, and every other convenience that he 
may deem requisite to make the service efficient and comfortable to 
the party. He will proceed on this duty as soon after my departure 
as his preparations and the weather will permit ; and great hopes are 
entertained that he will be enabled to complete these arduous and 
important duties before my return. This service is considered a 
hazardous one, and he will use every endeavour to avoid risking 
himself, men, and boats, as in the event of any loss of the latter, 
much detention would result to the after operations of the Expedition. 

It is hoped that Lieutenant Aid en will be enabled, prior to this 
duty being undertaken, to finish the chart of the Rio Negro. 

Acting Master North will assist Lieutenant Carr in the care and 
attention to the chronometers, their rate, observations, &c. 

It is expected that all passed midshipmen, and midshipmen, will 
exert themselves in carrying out the various and important duties 
confided to them at this anchorage. 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exjiloring Expedition. 



XXX. 

U. S Ship Vincennes, 
Orange Harbour, Terra del Fuego, 
February 23d, 1839. 

Sir, 

You will receive on board the U. S. Ship Relief, under your 
command, the scientific gentlemen, who have been transferred from 
this ship and the Peacock, to the Relief, for scientific duty during 
the present cruise, and you will afford them every possible facility 
and accommodations to enable them to make such observations and 
collections as may be in their power. 

1st. You will proceed without delay to the Straits of Magellan, 



APPENDIX. 423 

entering by the west through Brecknock Passage, Cockburn's Chan- 
nel, and Magdalene Sound. 

2d. Captain King's chart of the Straits of Magellan may be de- 
pended on for all requisite information ; his book of directions will 
also give you a full knowledge of the tides, currents, anchorages, &c. 
I would recommend its attentive examination. 

3d. You will keep full and complete journals of all your observa- 
tions as heretofore, in regard to the soundings, temperature, &c. 

4th. You will on anchoring set up tide-staves, and enter all ob- 
servations agreeably to our formula; and you will continue your 
meteorological journal hourly. 

5th. Should you experience any gales or storms, you will note 
their progress, from the commencement to the end, with their ap- 
pearance, &c. ; and any occurrence of interest will be immediately 
noted in your journal. 

6th. You will also explore and survey Useless Bay in the Straits 
of Magellan, and connect your observations, &c, with Captain King's 
chart; and you will stop at Port Famine, on your way there and 
back, and such other safe harbours as may appear to offer advantages 
for scientific observations and collections ; and you will return to this 
anchorage by the Straits of Le Maire, on or before the 15th of April 
next, if possible, where you will find me or orders on the summit of 
Burnt Island ; in the absence of which you will proceed direct to 
Valparaiso. 

7th. The north side of the Straits of Magellan affords at all times 
good anchorage ; you will keep it close on board. 

8th. The period of your absence must not exceed fifty days, if it 
can be avoided ; during which time I have no doubt all on board will 
exert themselves in making the best possible use of the short space of 
time allowed. 

9th. You will avoid being blown off to the eastward, as in such 
event the Expedition will suffer. 

10th. Should any accident happen to the Relief, you will despatch 
without delay a boat to this anchorage, under charge of an officer, 
through the route you are to enter, pursuing thence Whale-Boat 
and Darwin Sounds, through the Beagle Channel, as far as the 
passage of Host and Navarin Islands, thence into Nassau Bay to 
Orange Harbour. 

11th. Mr. Percival has been ordered to the Relief as pilot; he has 
been in the Straits of Magellan, and will afford you all the aid in his 
power. 



424 APPENDIX. 

You will give particular attention to the health and comfort of all 
under your command. 

Wishing you a safe and successful cruise, 

I am, &c, 

Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 

Lieut. Com. A. K. Long, 

U. S. Ship Relief. 



XXXI. 

U. S. Ship Peacock, 
At Sea, lat. 60° S., long. 84° W., 
April 1st, 1839. 

Sir, 

After separating from you in Orange Bay, on the 25th of February, 
I proceeded with the tender Flying-Fish, under the command of 
Lieutenant Walker, to carry out your instructions, in making a 
recognizance south. On the afternoon of the 26th, a few miles to 
the westward of the islands of Diego Ramieres, we encountered a 
gale, in which we lay-to forty hours, in the course of which we 
parted from our little consort, although we had observed all the 
precautions of firing guns, burning blue-lights, &c. ; after waiting 
in vain fourteen hours, with the hope of again meeting her, we 
resumed our course* for the first rendezvous I had appointed with 
Lieutenant Walker in the event of separation ; that, as well as some 
of the others, we were unable to reach, from a succession of westerly 
gales and boisterous weather. To have persevered in working up 
for them would have consumed the little time we could yet hope for 
in the advanced state of the season, for our further progress south. 

Without troubling you with a more minute detail of occurrences, 
suffice it to say, that on the 11th of March, we fell in with the first 
icebergs, in the latitude of 63° 30' S., and longitude of 80° W., after 
which time they were our constant companions (and on more than 
one occasion very troublesome ones) until we reached the latitude of 
68° 08' S., and longitude of 95° 44' W., where, to my great joy, we 
fell in with the Flying-Fish, and learned from Lieutenant Walker 
that he had passed near most of the appointed rendezvous, and 
worked down from 105° W., until he reached about 70° S., that 



APPENDIX. 425 

the whole surface of the ocean in the direction of south and west 
presented a perfect and impassable barrier of ice ; that he had been 
completely frozen in for a short time on the 23d, and the ice forming 
rapidly around him, when, fortunately, a breeze of wind rescued him 
from his perilous situation. When we fell in with him, he was 
endeavouring to push his way north. 

From the time of our first falling in with icebergs, we had been 
daily passing great numbers (as will be shown by the chart), and 
encountered on the 17th and part of the 18th, the heaviest gale and 
sea we have experienced since we left the United States ; the ther- 
mometer in the air at that time standing at 21° of Fahrenheit, and 
the w T ater at 28° ; the ship completely coated with ice, every spray 
thrown over her freezing ; and about her bows and head fairly packed 
with it. From the 19th to the 25th, we were without a sight of the 
sun or sky, surrounded by ice and icebergs, within the most neigh- 
bourly distance. During a lift of the fog, for a few moments only, on 
the morning of the 22d, and by the aid of an ice-blink, we discovered 
an extended range of icebergs and field-ice in mass, presenting a 
perfect barrier to our further progress south in that direction; and 
so completely were we hemmed in by icebergs on that occasion, that 
I was compelled to carry all the canvass on the ship that she would 
bear, and work her out into some more open position, through a fog 
so dense as to limit our view to two or three times the length of the 
ship. In doing this, we of course kept well prepared, as the dif- 
ferent icebergs popped upon us, to tack, ware, or perform such other 
evolutions as were found necessary to avoid them. 

On the evening of the 25th of March, having reached the latitude 
of 68° 08' S., and then in longitude 95° 44' W., (we had been as far 
west as 97° 58',) with the air at 29°, and the water 30° of Fahrenheit, 
— having had it much lower, as far back as the 17th, and to the north- 
ward of us, where the ship was covered with ice, as well as some 
parts of her gun-deck, — the sun having crossed the equator, and made 
some northern declination ; the shortness of the days here, and the 
little time allowed for running the ship amongst icebergs, without 
much hazard, in consequence of fogs and snow-storms; the miserable 
condition of the Peacock for a winter's campaign, in the event of 
being frozen in ; the masses of ice we had yet to pass through on 
our return, and the nature of my instructions ; — these circumstances, 
combined with the report of Lieutenant "Walker, premonished me of 

vol. i. 107 



426 APPENDIX. 

the necessity of turning the ship's head towards a more temperate 
climate. 

It required more moral courage to bring my mind to this decision 
than I can well describe, for we had at that moment less ice about us 
than at any time since we had entered its neighbourhood ; and had I 
followed my own inclinations merely, and allowed the promptings of 
ambition, or love of praise, to have governed my decisions, regardless 
of the future operations of the Expedition, the lives of my officers and 
men, and the trust reposed in me by the government, I should indeed 
have been unworthy of the trust I hold, and ever felt a consciousness, 
that whatever more might have been achieved, by any further attempt 
south, at that late season, would have been acquired only by reck- 
lessly hazarding, what an honest conviction of duty to my country, 
and the lives intrusted to my care, most decidedly forbade. 

We observed the aurora australis for the first time, on the night of 
the 15th of March, in the latitude of 65° 24/ S., and again on the 
16th, 18th, and 26th. On the night of the 18th, an arc of pale 
twilight was described in the southern quarter, reaching an altitude 
of twelve degrees, and extending from southwest to southeast ; both 
above and below the arc were horizontal sheets of dark stratus clouds, 
and between the lower strata and the horizon, a suspended bank of 
mist or vapour, having all the appearance of a shadow cast on the 
sky; rays of light were continually being thrown out along the whole 
extent of the arc, assuming various hues, of pale red, light blue, violet, 
and straw-coloured tints ; radiating towards the zenith, and reaching 
altitudes of from twenty-five to forty-five degrees. These exhibitions 
were confined to that particular portion of the horizon, and continued 
through the greater part of the night, which was of the clearest star- 
light, — the Southern Cross garnishing the zenith, and the Magellan 
clouds showing more distinctly than I had ever before seen them. 
The weather, during our cruise south, was very unfavourable for 
witnessing any very splendid exhibitions of the aurora; for, with few 
exceptions, during our stay in the Antarctic Circle, we were enveloped 
in dense fogs, or found only occasional relief from such falls of snow, 
as may fairly be classed with any one of our old-fashioned snow- 
storms at home. 

The greatest dip obtained, from the experiments with Dolland's 
needle, was 78°; and in the latitude of 68° S., we found nearly four 
points easterly variation. 



APPENDIX. 



42? 



Mr. Peale has been fortunate enough to obtain as specimens, some 
new and rare Antarctic birds. 

The officers and crew have enjoyed excellent health, been prompt 
and efficient in the performance of their respective duties ; and for 
their cordial co-operation and aid in carrying out my views, deserve 
my warmest thanks, and I beg you will officially say so in your 
report to the Honourable Secretary of the Navy. I herewith enclose 
you Lieutenant Walker's report, who certainly deserves, with his 
officers and men, great credit for his perseverance. 

I have drawn up this report in great haste, for the purpose of 
despatching the Flying-Fish to you, with the earliest intelligence, 
and shall proceed direct to Valparaiso, to carry out your instructions 
there. 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) Wm. L. Hudson, 

Commanding U. S, Ship Peacock. 

Captain Charles Wilkes, 

Commanding Exploring Expedition. 



U. S. Schooner Flying-Fish, 

At Sea, March 26th, 1839. 

Sir, 

In obedience to your order of to-day, I have the honour to report, 
that after separating from you on the evening of the 26th ultimo, we 
hove-to under a reefed foresail until near meridian the next day, 
when the gale moderating, we kept off the wind, with the hope of 
again falling in with you ; and on the evening of the next day made 
a large sail to the northward of us, standing to the westward ; we 
immediately gave chase, but on coming up, made her out to be a 
British merchantman. 

We then stood to the westward for our first rendezvous, with strong 
gales from about south-southwest to west-by-north, accompanied by 
a very large sea, — vessel labouring much, decks and ways becoming 
leaky, but sustained no material damage until the 5th March, when 
our jib was badly split. 

On the 7th we reached our first rendezvous, and whilst lying-to 
there in a heavy gale, our decks were frequently swept by the sea, 
and boats crushed ; on the night of the same, the sea boarded us, 
ripped off the companion-slide, washed the larboard binnacle from 



428 



APPENDIX. 



its cleats and lashings overboard, injured the helmsman and look-out, 
and half filled the cabin. 

On the evening of the next day, the wind moderating, set the 
reefed mainsail, but the vessel sending violently in the old sea, parted 
the reef-pendant, and tore the sail badly ; took in the second reef and 
set it. 

On the 9th of March, the leakage increasing from stress of weather, 
were obliged to move aft all the bread, replacing its weight in the 
bread-room by less perishable stores. 

On the 11th, in the morning, found our new jib nearly gone from 
the stay, but one or two hanks remaining ; got it in, and afterwards 
bent it with a lacing ; set the reefed mainsail, and lowered the fore- 
sail for repairs ; parted again the reef-pendant of the mainsail ; took 
the third reef in it ; finished the repairs of the foresail, set it, and 
furled the mainsail. 

We were now up with our second rendezvous ; but the wind grow- 
ing fresh and the sea rising, the weather thick, with a heavy fall of 
snow, and feeling confident I should only lose time by heaving-to, 
stood on for the third rendezvous. 

I have been particular in stating our losses in sails, as it was one 
of the heavy causes of our not reaching the rendezvous sooner. I 
had determined on making the old sails last, if possible, for the pas- 
sage south, reserving the better suit for our return, when, from the 
lateness of the season, I believed we should encounter, if possible, 
more tempestuous weather ; and owing to the close stowage of the 
hold, it would have been no trifling labour under the circumstances 
to have broken out for them ; and, furthermore, the old suit would 
necessarily have gone below wet, to increase the discomfort of the 
already comfortless condition of the 'tween decks. 

The weather continuing much the same, with the addition of rain, 
hail, and snow, in almost every watch on the 14th and 15th, we 
reached the third rendezvous, where we hove-to for nearly twenty- 
four hours. 

I now despaired of again joining you, but nevertheless felt it my 
duty to run over the track laid down for me, and on the 18th reached 
the fourth and last rendezvous, having passed the 17th in the vici- 
nity ; we turned our head south for Cook's Ne Plus Ultra, the 
longitude alone being specified in the instructions— we continued 
our course to the