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Full text of "National convention of the Socialist Party held at Chicago, Illinois May 1 to 6, 1904 part 2"

^ 



156 



Afternoon Session, May 4. 



Afternoon Session, May 4. 



157 



who will work for Socialism in this 
organization, in my opinion. It has 
been my experience that the member- 
ship of Cincinnati has grown within 
the last year from 65 members to over 
500, and we have got to send special 
committees around to collect dues and 
keep them in line, and spend all the 
money in getting them to the meetings 
and in advertising and propaganda 
within our own membership, for many 
a time from the floor of the Local Cin- 
cinnati have I seen the fundamental 
principles of Socialism dragged in the 
dust. Now, that is simply because of 
our loose form of organization. It is 
entirely too loose, and the thing that 
will prevent that is high dues. These 
sentimentalists are not going to run 
into our organization when they have 
to pay for it, but when you have low 
dues where they can come and spit their 
fire out and go away and come back 



states or shall it be extended throtiull 
the state organizations in their immcdmli 
vicinity and in a field that they undri 
stand, by methods which they hiivl 
worked out in their own organization 
for their own locality? That is llif 
question. It is not any question ul 
crime or anything else. Please get tlill 
out of your minds. Second, with «■ 
gard to the National Committee. Yhii 
will go further back than February In 
find a time when there was a nationiti 
debt over the organization, very nnicll 
further back. Now, then, please turil 
that argument the other way, for thil 
is where it belongs. The national doM 
has practically been paid off. The nt* 
cessity for heavy dues from the nationil 
membership has practically ceased. 'Ilni 
memberhip is growing. The comriulii 
questions it. There is no question aboiil 
the growth of the membership in the 
coming four years, and that is what w» 



in three months afterward, then the are working upon. Another point: Wn 

have just made arrangements to-day for 
adding to the power of the Natioiml 
Committee two more sources of incoiiir 
These ought to be and will be sourrri 
of income. First, the lecture burcnii 
The uniform rate of pay for these nini 
is at a rate which will probably make II 
possible in view of the increase in mciii 



party will sooner or later cease to be 
a Socialist Party based on the true 
principles of Socialism. 

DEL. CLARK (Neb.): I consider 
the proposition to reduce the dues of 
the national organization to three cents 
little less than a crime (applause), for 
this reason: Since last February there 



never has been a month closed in which ^ership, shorter railroad jumps, largar 



there was sufificient funds to pay all the 
debts of the national organization. We 
are going into a campaign and if we 
reduce the dues at the present time to 
three cents we will simply destroy the 
work that has been done within the last 
year. (Applause.) 

DEL. GLANZ (N. J.): I am in 
favor of the report for the simple rea- 
son you have decided here this after- 
noon to provide ways and means to 
defray the expenses of your delegates 
to the National Convention. You have 
also decided to increase the salary of 
your National Secretary, and for that 
reason I desire to support the recom- 
mendation of the committee. 

DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.): From 
the remarks the proposition would seem 



number of appointments made, and M 
on, to secure something for the natioiwj 
organization on the regular routes <il 
these men. Am I right? 

A DELEGATE: No. 

DEL. GAYLORD: Well, I think I 
am, for I have been looking over tlin 
ground. We, representing the party In 
Wisconsin in the national organization, 
have helped out the national organiw- 
tion. Now, as to the literary burrnil, 
there is a proposition made that liter 
ature shall be published and sold. Th|| 
will not mean at an exorbitant profll, 
but a little profit on a great many snln* 
is an ordinary proposition to nKiku 
money. What we want is an opportiiii 
ity to distribute literature, to print liter- 
ature and distribute it. I would rath»l 



to indicate that some one was trying have a national bureau do that so loiin 

to disrupt the organization. It would as it is a regular bureau and not for 

seem that there are men on the floor profit. Somebody suggested somethlnj 

to advocate this thing. That is not the about the sentimentalists. Who sri 

proposition. The question is merely as they? There is not much danger ol 

to the method of expending the money. sentimentalists joining the party. i"lirr» 

Shall it be expended through the na- are not many in Wisconsin, at any riit», 

tional office at long range, in organized joining the party out ■ of sentiuinit, 



I line is something required when they 
imii the Socialist Party that requires 
Mi.iir than mere sentiment. The senti- 
111. iiialists are the people that stand 

I I. Hind with their hands in their pock- 
.'(•i wishing they could find something 
I., do for Socialism. I say, "Why 
iluii'l you join the party?" 

Di'.L. STEDMAN: It costs $60 per 
Inral. 

I)I-:L. GAYLORD: It costs the na- 
liniiul organization $60 per local to or- 
K.iiii/.e, which is simply to the interest, 
viMi see, of the members. The states 
HI- rapidly becoming organized. There 
I; less and less use for the expensive 
work which has been absolutely neces- 
»,iry. I am not kicking about the ex- 
|.rii (■ ; I am simply showing less and less 
will be absolutely necessary, and more 
mil more results will follow with the 
iiiiiKt economic and effective method and 
iHiiiiimous co-operation of the state or- 
iMin/ations, with their close fellowship; 
.l.m ( forget that. You cannot spoil fel- 
i..\v hip by reducing dues, and you will 
.1.. more effective work than by this 
..Mill long-range method which has 
Ihiu in favor up to this time. It seems 
I., me it is for us to consider which is 

III. best method of expending money. 
W. are expending this money. Don't 
I III Ilk we are striking a blow at the 
Ih.hI of the National Secretary or at 
iIm- national office. I am sorry_ the 
.i.iinades feel so strongly^ about it. I 

III! simply trying to provide an argu- 
III. lit from this side. I am sure some 
..ilii IS should provide it also because I 

ill I sure they have it in their minds. 

Ml (be arguments except that of Com- 
I 1. 1.- Stedman have been on the other 

1. 1.- Now, then, don't make the _mis- 
I 1 1,.- of robbing the local organizations. 
I.' iibcr reduce the amount of local dues 
I., be paid by the branch to the national 
l.l^.,:lnization, because the difference can 
Im- used to better advantage at home. 
I>.. you get the point? That is the 
iM.iiil; stick to it. Use the money in 
III.- most effective way, that is at short 
I .iin<-. (Applause.) I am asked a 
,|,i.-,lion. The question is, What do we 
Ii..|>.- to accomplish by reducing the 
.III.-',? I do not propose, nor does Cotn- 
iMJi- Stedman, to reduce the dues paid 
mil. (he whole organization. We pro- 
I...-.C to reduce the percentage of the 
(..t.il dues paid to the national organ- 
I. .ilion. 
DEL. HILLQUIT, of the Constitu- 



tion Committee: I will just give you 
briefly the process of reasoning which 
actuated us in adopting that recom- 
mendation. When the question of fix- 
ing the dues came up before the com- 
mittee it was discussed, and we pro- 
ceeded on this assumption: We can- 
not have any large bank account now 
pertaining to the national office, but we 
know that the work done by the na- 
tional office has been necessary. Per- 
haps a little more could have been done, 
but no superfluous work has been done. 
As a result there is absolutely no money 
in the treasury at the office, and some 
debts are to come on top of this and 
at a time when we have to make pro- 
vision for a national campaign of the 
largest dimensions so far as Socialist 
campaigns are concerned. We are mak- 
ing arrangements to increase the facil- 
ities of the national office and add de- 
partments to it, adding a literature de- 
partment which' involves, like any in- 
vestnient of money, a need of income. 
To come at that time, and speak of cur- 
tailing the dues to the national office, 
seems to us absolutely out of place and 
out of common sense. (Applause.) 
Now, I suggest to you, comrades, and 
to Comrades Stedman and Gaylord, 
they seem to be afraid that our national 
office will get rich. Let us say this: we 
are getting reports from the national 
committee every month or so. We see 
not only how much money came into 
the office, but we also see how much 
was expended and what it was expended 
for. Whenever we discover that the 
national office is getting more money 
than it can properly and profitably em- 
ploy for the cause of Socialism we will 
get our twenty locals in five states to 
move that it be reduced. (Applause.) 
So far, there is no necessity for it. 

Delegate Robbins (Cal.) moved the 
previous question. Seconded and car- 
ried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Discussion i» 
now in order, and Delegate Mills has 
the floor. Upon which side do you 
speak. Comrade? 

DEL MILLS : In favor of the three- 
cent dues. 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is in fa- 
vor of the amendment. No one is in 
order but Delegate Mills. 

A DELEGATE: I wish to speah 
next. 



158 



Afternoon Session, May 4. 



Afternoon Session, May 4. 



159 



THE CHAIRMAN: Then you will 
have to get the floor. 

DEL. MILLS (Kan.) : I wish to 
speak in favor of the three-cent dues 
because the motion was not made for 
two cents. The comrades who have 
served on the National Committee are 
aware that I have been in favor of 
two-cent national dues for a long time 
and that we have, or I have agreed, not 
to raise the question solely under the 
consideration that there were other and 
more important matters first to be pro- 
vided for. I do not agree with the sen- 
timent making the dues three cents a 
month as a basis for the revenues of 
the national organization. I will give 
only one illustration. In the State of 
Kansas we have never had a secretary 
who has been able to give attention to 
the work, or at least who has done so, 
until the first of last January. We have 
only been paying ten dollars a week, 
but yet Kansas has accomplished more 
since the first day of January than dur- 
ing the two years previous that it has 
been an organized state. Now, Com- 
rades, if more states, if a dozen states 
are to have the benefit of this increase, 
not a reduction of dues, but a different 
method of expending the dues, it would 
strengthen our organization and we 
would have a better local organization 
to carry on the campaign on the ground 
where the real battles must be fought 
anyway. (Applause.) 

DEL. SPARGO: I desire to speak 
in favor of the committee's report. I 
want to say that I regard it as 
little less than a crime to reduce the 
dues to be paid to the national office; 
I don't regard it as less than a crime. 
I regard it as a crime against the So- 
cialist Party. (Applause.) I have no 
doubt whatever that Comrade Mills is 
in favor of three cents as against five 
cents. I have no doubt whatever that 
'Comrade Mills is in favor of nothing 
at all as against three cents. 1 have no 
doubt, however, but that Comrade Mills 
is in favor of a national organization 
at this time, whatever the cost may be, 
and I believe there can be nothing more 
fatal to the interests of the Socialist 
Party of America than to jeopardize 
its national organization by cutting 
short its funds. In the cities and in 
the states we may raise funds for city 
and state purposes more readily than 
we can do it for the national organiza- 
tion, and we cannot afford to say that 



the national office must depend upon II 
begging policy in order that it may 
carry on its work. (Applause.) Wli»» 
are we talking about? What are w» 
discussing? We have now organiMii 
of the Socialist Party, with a five-ceill 
due, who are waiting for their wagcul 
wages which were too little to begin 
with and which they ought to have huil 
long ago. We have now $700, I under 
stand, standing out, owing to the im 
tional organizers, workmen like out 
selves, whom we haven't got the money 
to pay, even when the national fee ii 
five cents instead of three. Comrade*, 
from state and city and hamlet thci» 
come to the national office, as evciy 
one here knows, calls for Sociaiistlf 
lecturers, calls for the propaganda ut 
this movement, and the national oflk't" 
sits there equipped to send men in cv 
erything except the money to send 
them. (Loud applause.) Comrades, I 
am opposed to any motion to redui'o 
dues. Should it be carried on the flooi 
of this convention, should this convcn 
tion betray the interest of the party 1" 
that extent, I for one will agitate tliul 
the matter be referred to the refercii 
dum of the party. (Prolonged »[t 
plause.) 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Secretary 
will now read the first amendment upDii 
which there will be a vote without niiy 
further debate. 

A DELEGATE: I rise for infol' 
mation. 

THE CHAIRMAN: There can lin 
no information granted, Comrade, nI 
this time, except such as you gain from 
the reading of the Secretary. 

THE DELEGATE : Are you awuM 
that the Committee on Constitution Iml 
in its hands a report which has nol 
yet been brought before this convcil 
tion? 

THE CHAIRMAN: We don't know 
anything except that the convention ll 
prepared now to vote upon this q»n»* 
tion and the delegate will be seatfil 
The Secretary will proceed with till 
reading of the amendments. 

THE SECRETARY: Delegate Hloh- 
ett, of Ohio, moved to amend sectliMI 
6 of Article XII by striking out (III 
words "five cents" and inserting "t»H 
cents," and adding after the word "l«f» 
ritories" the following: "Five cent* 0# 
this amount shall be set aside to Nil' 
cumulate to pay the expenses of thi 



(III.): I rise to 



imiiilters of the National Committee 
•Hill the delegates to the National Con- 

■ iiiniii when in regular session." 

II' question was then put on the 

Ml. riment of Delegate Bickett as read 

' ll' .Secretary, and it was defeated. 

I 1 1 1'". CHAIRMAN : The Secretary 

ill ir;id the next amendment. 

Illh: SECRETARY: The next 

.iiiHiiilinent is one by Comrade Sted- 

of Illinois, to amend by striking 

111 Mic word "five" and to substitute 
til. \Mird "three." 

III. amendment was put to a vive 

•■ . Mite, and the result being in doubt, 

Inision was called for. A rising 

I. WHS then had with the result that 
ill. ( liairman declared the motion lost. 
I 111 iiinouncement of the Chairman was 
I ini'l with loud applause. 

I li. (]uestion then recurring upon the 
Mill III section as reported by the Com- 

II. <. it was put to a vive voce vote 
.1.1 . .irried. 

till., CHAIRMAN : The Commit- 
iii Hill proceed. 
KM.. MEYER 

ml — 

I 1 1 1-: CHAIRMAN : There is noth- 

■ ir lirfore us to amend. There is no 
.111 Ml before us until the Chairman of 

ill. t oinmittee reads it. The comrade 
IV ill please be in order. Proceed. 

nil'. INITIATIVE AND REFERENDUM. 

'.r.linn 7 of Article XII was then 

.1.1 i)y Chairman Hillquit as follows: 

"Section 7. All state organizations 

li.ill iirovide in their constitutions for 

(III initiative, referendum and impcra- 

tur mandate." 

I 111 adoption of the section as read 
Mil', moved and seconded. Motion car- 
Miil 

ni'l. EERGER (Wis.): I rise to 
iinlu .1 motion to insert another clause. 

Mil'. CHAIRMAN: To add a new 
tliiii !■ Let us have it. 

I HI.. BERGER: To add another 
lui.i to be known as section 8, to 
oh! .1', follows: "No member of the 
'.. i.ilr.l Party having been nominated 
I.. I .my political office, shall sign any 
IiI'.Ik' I'f any capitalistic political par- 
h. .11 organizations. Any member of 
ill. '-nialist Party elected to any po- 
liii. ll oflice shall be considered a rep- 
I. iiii.itivc of the Socialist Party, and 
1 11(1 iiihiT in the political division in 
n III! It hi- is elected, and subject at all 



times to the management of the same." 
The amendment was .seconded. 
DEL. SAUNDERS : I wish to speak 
in favor of the amendment. 1 believe 
we have in Eastern Illinois one of the 
best reasons for the adoption of this 
new section. We have elected individ- 
ual members to office there who have 
on divers occasions refused to carry 
out their instructions. 

DEL. SIMONS (III.) : I rise to a 
point of order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: State your 
point. 

DEL. SIMONS: The delegate is 
bringing a subject matter into this con- 
vention that is still undecided in the 
local party here, and as the other side 
cannot be heard, I do not believe it is 
in order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I cannot agree 
that the question is out or order, but I 
can agree that it is unwise to take up 
the time of the convention at this time 
with a local dispute that belongs be- 
fore the State Committee. 

DEL. SAUNDERS: I will modify 
that then, Mr. Chairman and Comrades. 

DEL. SIMONS: Leave out the 
state or the district, the specific place, 
and then it is all right. We all know 
that it is possible for any individual 
elected to office to say to his constitu- 
ents, or rather the membership of the 
Socialist organization that elected him, 
to say, "I am not going to vote with 
you people," and you have a vote where 
it probably should be three thousand, 
and you can only account for one thou- 
sand of the Socialist Party member- 
ship. He can very well say to us, "I 
owe my allegiance to the electorate," 
instead of owing his allegiance to the 
political party by which he was elected. 
I believe that, will be sufficient, and not 
wishing to take up time any longer, I 
submit that that is a sufficient reason 
for passing it. 

Motion was made and seconded to lay 
the amendment on the table. 

A vive voce vote was then taken and 
the result being doubtful, a division 
was called for. The motion was then 
put to a rising vote, and declared car- 
ried, and accordingly the amendment 
was tabled. 

Article XII was then read by Chair- 
man Hillquit, as follows: 



160 



Afternoon Session, May 4, 



Afternoon Session, May 4. 



161 



"The location of the headquarters 
of the party shall be determined by 
the National Committee." 

The adoption of the article as read 
was moved and seconded. 

DEL. CARR (111.): I move to 
amend so as to have the article read as 
follows : "The National headquarters 
to be in Chicago, Illinois." 

Motion seconded. 

A motion was then made and sec- 
onded to table the amendment, and the 
question being put, it was carried and 
the amendment tabled. 

The question then recurring on the 
adoption of the article as reported by 
the Committee it was put to a vive voce 
vote and declared adopted. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Commit- 
tee will proceed. 

Article XIV was then read, as fol- 
lows : 

"This constitution may be amend- 
ed by a national convention or by a 
referendum of the party in the man- 
ner above provided." 

On motion duly seconded and carried, 
the article was declared adopted as read. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Commit- 
tee is now through. We have adopted 
a motion here to stay in session until 
the Committee gets through, and I un- 
derstand they are through. The Com- 
mittee has the floor. 

DEL. HILLQUIT (N. Y.) : There 
are a few provisions here which I no- 
tice are marked "not considered by all 
of the Committee." I am frank to say 
they were not considered by me. The 
first is withdrawn, I am informed by 
the Committee. The section withdrawn 
reads as follows : 

"Section 2, Article II. No member 
of the party in one state or territory 
shall, under any pretext, interfere 
with the regular organized movement 
in any other state." 

The Committee recommends the 
adoption of the last two sections. The 
first one reads as follows : 

"Section 3, Article II. A member 
who desires to transfer his member- 
ship from a local in one state to a 
local in another state, may do so upon 
the presentation of his card showing 
him to be in good standing at the 
time of asking for such transfer." 



Motion was made and seconded 
adopt the section as read. 

REMOVAL OF NATIONAL COMMITTKKM AN 

DEL. STEDMAN (111.) : I movf Oi 
amend that section as follows: "Aii)f 
national committeeman found guilty lif 
the National Committee of violatiiiK lli» 
principles or constitution of the imilt 
shall have his seat declared vacant lit 
the National Committee and the tin 
tion of his successor referred tn III* 
state or territorial organization." 

Motion seconded. 

DEL. GOSS (O.) : I do not .luiu 
understand the sense of that motion 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Secrctwiv 
will kindly read the amendment ii( 
Comrade Stedman. 

The Secretary then read the atnnnl 
ment as requested by the Chairin',111 

DEL. GOSS: I would be williiiK !•' 
vote for that if there was a prnviimii 
added to it. I don't believe that init 
organization, and particularly tlir Sn 
cialist Party, should have the rislil l'< 
expel any representative that m.iy li** 
chosen by any of the states to rfjin' 
sent them on the National Cynuiiilirt", 
unless the member of the Natiuiiid 
Committee is given a fair trial. lU 
should be given a chance to (Iffrml 
himself. 

THE CHAIRMAN: That fnllowl 
as a matter of course. Delegate .^trtl 
man will kindly enlighten the cnuniiijl^ 
in that regard. 

DEL. STEDMAN: If the Nalioiml 
Committee at any time sends a niiiii III 
a state and the state sends him IhiiIi 
they will have to receive him. 

DEL. WALDHORST (Ala.): ThKII , 
I move to add to Comrade Stediiiiiil'l 
amendment the following : "And \\\t 
cause of such action to be subinill»(| 
to the members of said state, wlicrr ||| 
is a committeeman." 

DEL. STEDMAN: I will accept 11 

DEL. HOEHN (Mb.) : T don't Im 
lieve the Committee has the ri^lit IM 
expel any member. I believe that 1 lull) 
should be preserved to the state, 
move this amendment be tabled. 

The motion was seconded and rarrl#l| 
and the amendment declared tabled 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Comnill»i|] 
will proceed. 

CHAIRMAN HILLQUIT: I Hifl^ 
just informed by my colleagues on lll| 
Committee that a majority of the mii<ii|' 



I* nil the Committee recommends the 
'I rl.iuse, which reads as follows: 
■■■ ..lion 6, Article IV. On the 
III I 1. lint of atiy national committee- 
iii.iii or of three locals in any state 
III .my act on the part of such state 
iiiKMiiization, or of any local subject 
III lis jurisdiction, in violation of the 
|i|iilfiirm or con.stitution of this organ- 
(#iilinn, an investigation shall be un- 
ijeitiikcn acting under the rules of the 
Niilinnal Committee, to the end that 
mil li organization shall be brought 
lilt II conformity." 

h w.is moved and seconded to adopt 

III iiilicle as read. 

IH'I. GAYLORD (Wis.): It seems 

in. I hat the word "local," the third 

1 III I lie third line, should be strick- 

II I It seems to me this has noth- 

. !■■ ilo with locals. The investiga- 

i -1 I state that has violated the prin- 

,1 ■! platform of the national or- 

iii.n would not be a matter for 

!• . li to take up. 

HI I HILLQUIT: The Committee 

me that it will accept the sug- 

I -11 ind strike out the word "local." 

I 'I I GAYLORD: Then it will 

1 1 '11 the complaint of any national 

lUccman or of three locals in any 

.I. .if any act on the part of such 

I <it uanization." 

Ill [TILLQUIT: Yes. 

HI I GAYLORD: "Subject to the 

..III! jurisdiction?" 

nil, HILLQUIT: Yes. 

II Ij. CHAIRMAN: The Secretary 
ill II. iw read the section as it has 

' .. itiK-nded: 

III. .Secretary then read the section 
■ M.nded and upon motion duly sec- 
.' I. I .iiid carried the section was de- 
tilopted as amended. 

TION OF STATE ORGANIZATIONS. 

I'Kate then moved to adjourn. 
SI^EDMAN: I move you that 
I .' of Article II, which reads as 
, be called up : "No member of 
1 1 V in one state or territory shall, 
iiiy pretext, interfere with the 
I organized movement in any 
•i.itc." I move the adoption of 
< it inn as read, 
motion was seconded. 

CHAIRMAN: It has been 

lUv moved and seconded by Dele- 

■ Icdman that the first paragraph 

lli<- caption, "Not considered by 



all of the Committee," be adopted as it 
appears in the printed slip. 

DEL. STEDMAN: Some three 
years ago you will remember we had a 
contest over the question of state au- 
tonomy. It was hoped at that time that 
it was settled for once and for all. The 
constitution thjt we have adopted here 
this afternoon gives the national organ- 
ization the right to send lecturers into 
any state if may choose, and it gives the 
National Committee the right to go into 
the state and decide controversies, and I 
think we should have something in the 
constitution so that the state may tell 
the nation to keep its hands off and may 
tell the other" states to keep their hands 
off. It has been a Godsend to the 
states outside that you have not been 
called upon to judge the differences that 
have occurred in the State of Illinois, 
and there is no reason under heaven 
why any single man who is a represen- 
tative of the state should ask the_ Na- 
tional Committee to come and sit in 
judgment upon purely a local squabble. 
I think that amendment should be car- 
ried for this reason : The growth of 
the parties within the states gives them 
a local standing which our national or- 
ganization should not take away from 
them. I believe that should be placed 
in the constitution, so that every sin- 
gle state can keep meddlers out of the 
state when it desires and keep persons 
away from it who are coming in to 
settle grievances and who always end 
up by creating a disturbance. 

Motion was made and seconded to 
table the motion of Delegate Stedman, 
but it was defeated on being put to a 
vive voce vote. 

The question was then put on the 
adoption of the section as read and it 
was carried and declared adopted 
amidst enthusiastic applause. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Jhis completes 
the work of the Committee, as I un- 
derstand it. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: There is one 
more provision : 

"This constitution shall take effect 
and be in force from and after the 
time of its approval by national refer- 
endum of the party membership. In 
voting upon this constitution mem- 
bers must vote it as a whole." 
It was moved and seconded to adopt 
the recommendation of the Committee 
as read. 



I 



162 



Afternoon Session, May 4. 



DEL. MEYER (111.): I desire to 
make a motion to take from the table 
the amendment to section 2 of Article 
IX, offered by myself and seconded by 
Delegate Spears, of Illinois, and that 
it be sent back to the Committee on 
Constitution in order that it may re- 
ceive the consideration which it de- 
serves. 

THE CHAIRMAN: There is an- 
other matter before the house, and, 
therefore, your motion cannot be en- 
tertained. In its proper order, when 
there is nothing else before the house, 
we will entertain a motion such as you 
make, but we cannot entertain such a 
motion at this time, because if the mo- 
tion is carried there will be two sep- 
arate and distinct matters before the 
house. This matter that is reported by 
the Committee is the only legitimate 
matter before us. We will discuss that 
and nothing else at this time. 

DEL. WEBSTER (0.): Are w.e 
now ready to adopt the entire report of 
the Committee on Constitution? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Not quite. We ' 
will first pass upon this section that is 
now before us, and then, if necessary. 
we will pass a motion to adopt the 
constitution as a whole. 

DEL. SAUNDERS: I move as an 
arnendment that we accept the report 
with the exception of the part of it 
that states that the membership shall be 
compelled to vote upon it as a whole, 
and I wish to substitute for that that 
they may have an opportunity of vot- 
ing on it seriatim. 

The motion was seconded. 

The question was put on the motion 
and it was defeated. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The question 
now comes upon the original recom- 
mendation of the Committee. 

A vive voce vote was then taken 
upon the adoption of the recommenda- 
tion as returned by the Committee and 
the result being doubtful, a division 
was called for. 

A rising vote was then taken and the 
section declared adopted, the vote stand- 
ing as follows: 59 in favor, 30 opposed. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Now does the 
delegate from Illinois wish to renew 
his motion to take from the table? 

DEL. MEYER (111.) : I do. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The motion is 
that we take from the table the amend- 




Afternoon Session, May 4. 



168 



5 



ment to section 2 of .A.rticle IX, nffwd 
by Comrade Meyer, the section )* 
ing the one providing for the priiillH| 
of pamphlets in different languauiti 

The question was then put and lll| 
motion lost, 

DEL. BUTSCHER (N. Y.) : I iiiiiM 
that we now adopt the constitittinM M 
a whole. 

The motion was seconded. 

DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.) 
Committee on Municipal Progr.im il 
cides to be heard upon the quest ii mi 
adopting the constitution as a wIimI» 
The Committee at their meeting yrnln 
day had a typewritten resolution iw 
ommending an amendment to the iiiii 
stitution of sections which I shall \v4 
take the time to discuss here. By luiii 
accident this did not reach the Coinniii 
tee in time, and only reached flicni Illii 
afternoon ; I do not know the 1 ciimHj 
why. I, therefore, desire to ask llmj 
you will defer final action on tin- mi(( 
stitution as a whole until that CutniMll 
tee has given proper consideratiim It 
the recommendation of the Mnniil|t« 
Program Committee. 

DEL. CARR (111.) : I move wr iti|i 
journ. 

THE CHAIRMAN: We Im 
adopted a motion that we shall mil ^ 
journ until the Committee has ciii 
pleted its report. 

DEL. MORGAN (111.) : I mim 
that we delay the vote on the conilll 
tion as a whole until we receivr 
ther information from the Connn 
on Municipal Program. 

The motion was seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It has l«i 
moved and seconded that the mnlioii 
adopt the constitution as a whola 
on the table until we hear from 
Committee on Platform and Miniirll 
Program. It is only amendable 111 
time. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: As to tli.il. 
move, Mr. Chairman, that we now 
ceed to the adoption of the conf 
tion as a whole, except that wf 
reopen it for the purpose of heariiitt 
report of the Committee on Mnnlflj 
Program. 

DEL. MORGAN: I accept 
amendment. 

DEL. STEDMAN : Suppose 
Committee on Resolutions should lirii 
in something. 



iiini 



nil' CHAIRMAN: Yes, and be- 

i.n iliat, the motion is out of order. 

inlion before us is that the motion 

,i|i|ii()ve the constitution as a whole 
,,ii (lie table subject to some recorn- 

.Mil.idnn or report from the Commit- 
Mii Mlunicipal Program. 

I II. motion was carried and it was 

j'll'l'. CHAIRMAN: The next thing 

tr|. I is to fix the time for adjourn- 

,, Hid I want to say before you fix 

I line for adjournment, that when 

■ 1. iiiiic is fixed it does not mean that 



we will then adjourn. You will decide 
by vote whether you will meet to-night 
or not and when you have fixed that 
time, I have some announcements that 

I will make. , .. ^ .^u 

It was moved and seconded that tne 
convention adjourn, to meet again at 
eight o'clock in the evening of the 
same day. 

The Chairman then announced the 
meeting places of the various commit- 
tees and the question was then put upon 
the motion to adjourn, which was car- 
ried. 



EVENING SESSION 



I III convention came to order 
iimiiily at eight o'clock. 

1 1 1 !• CHAIRMAN : In the lan- 
,iiM- uf the celebrated southern states- 
,,, ^^r had better learn at this point 

I ,l,,ut where we are at before we 

, , , I any further. In accordance 
,1, ili, Chair's understanding of _ the 
..iii-u the report of the Committee 
, I ..nstitution being the last order 

i,n mess under the rules of order, 
.A ili:ti report being disposed of, it 

uM appear that we are face to face 

. uuh unfinished business. That un- 
,, h. ,1 l)usiness, in accordance with the 

I , landing of the Chair, being the 
,,.,1 of the Press Committee, which 
niukr discussion at the last pre- 
, n session of this convention, if 
■ ■ .Megates or the Chairman of the 
Committee are in the hall, and 
. 1 iKiirman is prepared to continue 
, i.|u,ii, we will hear from him. Is 
I, I ,..,ic Simons here? Is any one else 
H ilir Press Committee prepared to 
,1, 111. his report where he left off? 

.1 m the hands of the Secretary? 

r.MST. SECY CROSS: The Sec- 

. iM\ might say that the report is m 
h iiids of the Secretary, or rather m 
I, amis of the Assistant Secretary. 
(JM- Assistant Secretary does not 
liimsclf capable of the task of pre- 
iiir Ihc report of this Committee to 
...iivcntion because he knows not 
I I hey recommend, he knows not 
1.1 explain the resolutions to the 
Mil ion, and, consequently, it ap- 
lo him that it might be the best 



tl 

III. 
Mm 

i..i 
•. Ill 

iIm 

.• I, , 
1... 



thing for us to do to lay this report 
over until some member of this Press 
Committee appears before the conven- 
tion. ^ ^ , 

THE CHAIRMAN: It may be a 
very good suggestion for the conven- 
ience of the Secretary and also to over- 
come the neglect on the part of the 
Press Committee to be here and at the 
disposal of the convention when they 
are called, but it seems to me if we 
arc going to take up business in regular 
order it ought to be taken up m that 
way. Here is Delegate Simons now. 
Delegate Simons will please take the 
platform and report for the Committee 
on Press, where he left off at the last 
previous session of this convention. 

DEL. SIMONS : The next recom- 
mendation of the Press Committee has 
already been covered by the CommUtee 
on Constitution and was to the effect 
that the National Secretary be empow- 
ered to issue a printed monthly report 
of official affairs. The matter being 
disposed of, no motion is necessary. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If there is no 
objection, that matter having been cov- 
ered in the constitution, it will be 
passed. There is no objection and it 
is so ordered. 

SOCI.\LIST PLATE MATTER. 

DEL. SIMONS: The next recom- 
mendation of the Committee reads as 

follows: 

"We would recommend for the 
consideration of the convention the 
proposition of establishing a bureau 
under the control of the national of- 
fice of the Socialist Party for the pur- 



Hi. 



164 



Evening Session, May 4. 



pose of furnishing plate matter on 
Socialism, such matter to be of an 
educational character, treating Social- 
ism from a scientific and propaganda 
point of view, and not entering into 
questions of party tactics. 

There are, at the present time, a 
large number of papers that are will- 
ing to publish Socialist matter, but 
either because of lack of editorial or 
financial ability, are not able to secure 
the same. In many places, also, So- 
cialists are already considering the 
desirability of establishing weekly 
papers, but are handicapped by the 
same difificulties. This plan will as- 
sist in solving this problem in two 
ways : either the matter can be pur- 
chased for an existing paper, or if it 
is decided to establish a paper direct- 
ly under Socialist control, it will re- 
duce the expense of publication." 

DEL. SIMONS: Comrade Chair- 
man, I want to move you in accord- 
ance with this recommendation, that 
the convention recommends to the 
National Committee the organization of 
such a bureau. 

The motion of Delegate Simons re- 
ceived several seconds. 

DEL. KERRIGAN: What would be 
the cost of such an iandertaking ? 

DEL. SIMONS: We have investi- 
gated the matter, and believe that the 
expense will be very small and that in 
a short time the undertaking will be 
self-supporting. 

DEL. KERRIGAN: It would be 
some little work to carry this thing 
through, would it not? , 

DEL. SIMON'S: I do not think it 
would. I think it could be made to 
more than pay its own way at the 
start. One hundred papers would more 
than do that, and we have promises of 
practically that many papers, and then 
there are a good many other papers 
which once we get started would be 
willing to take our matter, so that in 
my opinion there will be only a short 
time indeed before the undertaking 
would be on a paying basis. 

DEL. JOHNSON! (la.): I would 
like to state for the benefit of those 
comrades who are not interested es- 
pecially in the publication of Socialist 
papers, that this suggestion of the 
chairman of the Press Committee would 
be a very good thing from the stand- 




Evening Session^ May 4. 



165 




! 



point of the patrons and the ptlJUH 
constituting the present Socialist ptM» 
It would help out in a great iilliu 
ways in their work, and I believe (JM 
there would be a sufficient deniaiitj j(| 
a very short time for a sufficient IIUIIH 
ber of those plates to make it a Noilfltl 
of at least a small income to the III' 
tional organization, and for one I 
heartily desirous that that work sliiill 
taken up by the organization acnil 
ing to the suggestion of the chairiiMHI 
of the Press Committee. 

The question was then put and |l 
motion carried unanimously. 

DEL. SIMONS: That is pradl.n|i 
ly all of our report. It is the loiill 
thing that we wished to accomplisli. 
do not think of anything more. (LiiiK 
applause.) There is just one woni 
want to say for the information of lliiiil 
here. The charge which the Presh A|i 
sociation makes to us, and probably Inl j| 
same thing will be made to the parly, If 
one dollar per page, which is six I'lil 
umns every three weeks. It can Im 
spread out over three weeks. Al llil 
present time with one hundred jiiiiifH 
it would only be furnished every tliiN 
weeks, and that would give two ml 
umns a week for three weeks. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I would Hkl 
to ask Comrade Simons before rrljl 
ing if he can give us the name o( |||| 
delegate who can inform the dclrund ' 
here, who are anxious for inforniitlli 
in regard to this matter, and particull 
ly in regard to this plate bureau. 

DEL. SIMONS: On the teciiitl.'ll 
side of it, Comrade Strobell has unlltl 
ered more material than anybody nil 
On some sides of it I have gathn 
all the material I could get hold tjl 
and I would be glad to answer »W 
questions that you may put to me. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The dclru«m 
will please notice, those that arr 
terested in this matter, that they l|{ 
consult with Comrade Strobell, of Nl 
Jersey, and Comrade Simons, of II 
nois, in regard to such information H 
they desire. 

DEL. SIMONS (111.) : I shall 
more than pleased to give all llip 
formation in my power as also 
Comrade Strobell. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Is there 
other unfinished business that the 
retary knows of? 




\ ni'.LEGATE: The Resolutions 

.iiiiiiiltce has not reported. 
MM': CHAIRMAN: What dispo- 
II Inn was made of the Trades Union 
' Minniittee? 

III'.!.. NAGEL (Ky.) : It has not 

"Mil .ictcd upon yet. 

Mil'; CHAIRMAN: If there are 

M|i|ic(ions, we will start to call the 

mn 111 Iocs in their regular order and 

I mm them as they are read, if 

lie ready. The first is the Com- 

(tiiilii- on Platform, are they ready? 

I III' Committee on Platform not be- 
i>ll u';idy to report, it was passed, 
nil': CHAIRMAN: Is the Com- 
iM'c on Municipal Program ready? 
ni'l, UNTERMAN (111.): The 

iitee on Municipal Program will 

I '.Illy to report to-morrow morn- 
ii prefers to wait until to-mor- 
m..rning. 
ill' CHAIRMAN: The Commit- 
■ 11 Municipal Program reports 
<' s and promises to have its mat- 
in uch shape as to intelligently act 
■ ii to-morrow. Is the Committee 
lutions ready to report? 
SPARGO (N. Y.) : We are 



!■,■ 
I'l I. 
I'll 

I HI': 

111 

1 |,i 



CHAIRMAN: Delegate Spar- 
Chairman of that Committee, 
■ase take the platform. 

M«<Ni»lution on Colorado Outrages 

I'll, SPARGO (N. Y.) : Comrade 

I an and Comrades: Your Com- 

<<•• in completing its report desires 

vv the following resolution upon 

'I I ml rages in Colorado and other 
(iltii !■, of the class struggle: 

"Whereas, The Socialist Party is 
llii' political organization of the work- 
inn class, pledged to all its struggles 
Knil working ceaselessly for its eman- 
flpalion, it declares this convention 
mjiiinst the brutality of capitaUstic 
flilc and the suppression of popular 
finlils and liberties which attends it; 
Mini calls upon all the workers of the 
vmnilry to imite with it in the strug- 
■|(* for the overthrow of capitalist 
Elimination and the establishment of 
H'liiioniic equality and freedom. 

" I inie after time workers have been 
|lii|iiisoned, beaten and murdered for 
Hii other reason than that they were 
i'lnii',i;liiig for some measure of that 



comfort and decency of existence to 
which as the producers of wealth they 
are entitled. The master class has, in 
various states and cities, organized 
citizens' alliances, manufacturers' as- 
sociations, anti-boycott associations 
and the like, which, in order to dis- 
rupt and crush out the economic or- 
ganization of the workers, have in- 
stituted a reign of lawlessness and 
tyranny, and assailed all the funda- 
mental principles and most cherished 
institutions of personal and collective 
freedom. By suborning the executive 
and judicial powers in various states 
they have infringed upon the liberties 
of the American people. 

"Under their baleful influences, in 
direct contravention of the letter and 
the spirit of the Constitution, civil au- 
thority has been made subordinate to 
the military in ^ Pennsylvania, Colo- 
rado and elsewhere. 'Freedom of the 
press and the right of pubhc assem- 
bly have been denied in many states; 
and by the Dick militia bill liability 
to compulsory military service has 
been imposed upon every male citizen, 
and that merely at the caprice of the 
President. 

"At the present time there exists in 
Colorado a state of violent capitalist 
anarchy and lawlessness with the con- 
sent and under the armed protection 
of the state government. Peaceable 
citizens have been forcibly deported 
by armed bodies of lawbreakers, aid- 
ed and abetted by military usurpers 
of the civil powers ; involuntary servi- 
tude has been imposed by injunctions 
compelling citizens to work under 
conditions distasteful to them. Inno- 
cent and law-abiding citizens have 
been arrested without warrant, im- 
prisoned without trial, and when ac- 
quitted by decision of the civil courts, 
held by the military in defiance of 
every principle of civil authority and 
government ; and the right of habeas 
corpus, for centuries cherished as a 
safeguard for personal liberty, has 
been unlawfully suspended with the 
result that in a so-called 'free state' 
of our so-called 'free republic' there 
exists a despotism greater and more 
infamous than that which has ever 
characterized Russian autocracy. 

"Now, we declare these conditions 
in Colorado are the natural and logi- 
cal results of the prevailing economic 
system which permits the private 



166 



Evening Session, May 4. 



T 



Evening Session, May 4.. 



16? 



ownership of the means of the com- 
mon life and renders the wage-work- 
ing class dependent for life itself 
upon the owners of the means of pro- 
duction and distribution. Between 
these two classes, the workers and 
the masters of their bread, there ex- 
ists a state of constant warfare, a 
bitter and irrepressible class conflict. 
Labor, organized for self-protection 
and to secure better conditions of life, 
is met by powerful organizations of 
the master class, whose supreme pow- 
er lies in the fact that all the func- 
tions of government, legislative, judi- 
cial and executive, have been unwit- 
tingly placed in their hands by their 
victims. Controlling all the forces of 
government, they are entrenched in a 
position from which they can only be 
dislodged by political methods. 

"Therefore, this convention of the 
Socialist Party reaffirms this princi- 
ple of the International Socialist 
Movement, that the supreme issue is 
the conquest by the working class of 
all the powers of government and the 
use of those powers for the over- 
throw of class rule, and the estab- 
lishment of that common ownership 
of the means of the common life, 
which alone can free individual and 
collective man." 

DEL. SPARGO: Your Committee 
desires to explain, if explanation be 
necessary, why such a lengthy resolu- 
tion has been drafted. We understand 
perfectly well that for the purposes of 
this convention it might not be neces- 
sary to have any such resolution, but 
in the present condition of affairs there 
is one thing quite certain, that the great 
bulk of the people and the workers of 
this country know nothing, or little, if 
anything at ail, of the condition of af- 
fairs in Colorado and other parts of 
the country to which we refer. (Loud 
applause.) Now it seemed to your 
committee that this resolution, if adopt- 
ed, might find its way even into the 
capitalist press. That if it did not it 
ought to be published in the Socialist 
press, so that we, at least, could say : 
"Here the Socialist Party has declared 
and shown the real meaning of these 
outrages against which you are com- 
plaining." 

Now, then, there were several reso- 
lutions which came before your commit- 
tee which were referred to other com- 



mittees in whose province they ruHrt 
A resolution also came before the crtHI 
mittee which in its way estahllilillj 
something of a precedent. Drlp(|«lj 
Littlefield handed it in on behnlf h| 
some one who is understood not In M 
a member of the Socialist Party, 11 
was a resolution for our considefMllMj 
advocating co-operative exchangcn, T( 
is only fair to Delegate Littlefidtl |(| 
say also that he declined responsililllij 
for the resolution. Your comnilOll 
decided that we take action on lli»|| 
resolutions as they are presented, i||M 
stead of reading them over here. ■ 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Chnii ii 
of the opinion that at some prcvldtil 
meeting it was decided to print tlio m 
ports of the committees. If that lill 
no particular bearing on the matter l» 
fore us we may, of course, act oil lltl 
matter as it comes before us. I hIiiihI(| 
say that in accordance with finiMlj 
methods of procedure, we had IwllM 
listen to the report of the Coniiiilll»| 
on Resolutions and then take them M|t 
in their turn, perhaps. 

DEL. KEOWN (Mass.) : These t 

lutions are not to be printed. Therefntij 
I make a motion that we consider lliKtl 
seriatim as they are read. 

The motion was seconded. 

DEL. BICKETT (O.) : I .|.p|t'| 
think there is going to be so niiicli lili 
fore this session to-night but wlifil 
can let the committee read the rr 
lutions over and then take them iiji 

The question was then put on Iltln 
gate Keown's motion, and it wim \*,\ 
ried. 

_ THE CHAIRMAN : The _ firM 
tion then before the convention I 
the resolution just read by the CuiiilHl 
tee on Resolutions. 

DEL. RICHARDSON (Cal.) 
move the adoption of the Colorado fi 
olution as read. 

The motion was seconded aiul 
question called for. 

DEL. UNTERMANN (III.): I w 
to offer an amendment to this ie«M| 
tion that the passage which now K*\ 
"Liability to compulsory military .serVj 
has been imposed upon every male 
zen," be amended so as to read ; " 
bility to compulsory military service 
been imposed upon all males helw 
the ages of eighteen and forty live " 

DEL. SPARGO: Your comiiill 



the amendment. Your commit- 

these things under advisement, 

< were so many other things 

iiifiht have been mentioned which 

ii.t be mentioned, that we de- 

r that reason that we could not 

!■ matters any more in detail 

< y were brought to us. We 

Mil have had the time to go into 

'■ matters if we had tried to 



HI 



'Ml McEACHERN (111.) : I would 

'■ 1' liave that portion of the reso- 

■'.'11 which refers to the fact that the 

'■ I military bill was instituted at the 

of the President, if that is the 

.1 the resolution, I would wish 
i ' that stricken out. 

I 'I I .SPARGO: That is not in any 

III. sense of the resolution. I will 

I I In text and then I think you will 

' iIm >cnse: "And by the Dick mill- 

I ill liability to compulsory military 

■ 1 lias been imposed upon every 

■ ' II I /en between the ages of eighteen 
' I iiy-five years, and that merely at 

ipiices of the President." Not 

1 1.- bill was instituted at the ca- 

■ 1 the President, but that, as a 

II III" fact, the enforcement of the 

I iMiis of that statute are entirely 
' |iii|,iit upon the caprice of the Pres- 

I III i|uestion-was called for. 

I'll. GARVER (Mo.) : I wish to of- 
I ■ ill' following amendment, to insert 

' I "only" in the clause, "the So- 

' I Tarty is the party of the work- 
1 • lis." The reason why I desire 

I this word is because it has been 

"iMiiitid to me on the floor of this 
t 1. i lo-day that the trades union 
jHH 1 , .1 capitalist party. I wish to em- 
|Im I 1 the fact that the Socialist Party 
i- I III only party of the working class. 

I ^I'l'l.lllSC.) 

I 1 1 !■ CHAIRMAN : The Chairman 
I iIm ( '(immittee will please read it. 
I'll SPARGO: The Committee 
aiil I'upt the amendment if the con- 

II 11 1 will accept the responsibility 

I" I Ml' tautological expression of the 

|i •liHiiiti in that form. When you say, 

li I ilu' party of the working class," 

l( 1 entirely superfluous to say "the 

I li;irly." That is singular and not 

(I'll il, :ni(l it is as specific as it can 
I liJv be. If, however, the conven- 
ti '.ists upon having "only," super- 



fluous as it is, added to the resolution, . 
we have no objection. (Loud applause.) 

DEL. GARVER : I am satisfied with 
the explanation. The only object of the 
amendment was to draw the attention ■ 
of the convention to that very point 
and make clear our contention in that 
matter. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The conven- 
tion is hardly in need of any such ex- 
planation. The motion upon the adop- 
tion of the resolution as amended is now 
in order. 

The question was then put and the 
resolution adopted by a unanimous vote. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Commit- 
tee will proceed. 

DEL. WESSLING (N. Y.) : Com- 
rade Chairman 

THE CHAIRMAN: For what pur- 
pose do you rise? 

DEL. WESSLING: Couldn't it be 
made unanimous? 

THE CHAIRMAN: It is unani- 
mous . 

DEL. WESSLING : Well, have it so 

THE CHAIRMAN: Well, the Sec- 
retary can so state if he thinks it neces- 
sary. The Committee will proceed. 

DEL. SPARGO : Among the resolu- 
tions submitted to the Committee was 
a statement rather than a resolution by 
Comrade Holman of Minnesota, on be- 
half of the State of Minnesota. I 
only mention it here because in printed 
form it has been handed around the 
convention. Now the comrades of Min- 
nesota have come to the committee and 
said that upon reconsideration they are 
in favor of withdrawing it and letting 
the matter take its usual course in their 
own state committee. Therefore, your 
committee desires to withdraw that reso- 
lution which has been before the con- 
vention in printed form. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Are there any 
objections to the withdrawal of the 
resolution that has been printed and 
handed around to the delegates under 
the caption "The Minnesota Case?" 
There is no objection, and the position 
of the committee will stand as the posi- 
tion of the convention. It will be so 
ordered. The Committee will proceed. 

AS TO SECRET CAUCUSES, 

DEL. SPARGO : A resolution from a 
delegate from Connecticut was pre- 
sented to the committee, as follows: 



168 



Evening Session, May 4.. 



Evening Session, May 4.. 



169 



"Resolved that it is the sense of 
this convention that we should at this 
period of our development as a class 
conscious party, cut loose from every 
capitalist device and method, and that 
we hereby condemn the holding of 
secret caucuses by the members of this 
convention, and if any such there be 
who have been guilty of such action, 
they are hereby condemned. That we 
do not believe in and will not here- 
after uphold any capitalist cut and 
dried methods of selecting committees 
or candidates." (Applause.) 
DEL, CAREY (Mass.) : I move its 
adoption. 

DEL. SPARGO: Your committee re- 
ports unfavorably upon the motion. It 
reports unfavorably because of the im- 
possibility of ever enforcing such a 
motion. (Applause.) There is no method 
known to your committee whereby any 
two or more delegates can be prevented 
from agreeing upon a certain course of 
action in the convention. (Applause.) 
DEL. LUCAS (Minn.) : I think we 
might give our expression of condem- 
nation of such proceedings. The Social- 
ists don't ne^d to go into any of these 
side shows, and yet these things do 
creep into our convention. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The report is be- 
fore you, Gentlemen, what is your pleas- 
ure? 

DEL. TOOMEY (Conn.) : I move 
that the report of the committee be laid 
on the table. 

Seconded. 

The question was put on the motion 
and it was lost. 

SECRETARY DOBBS: I move that 
the report of the committee be con- 
curred in. 

DEL. CAREY (Mass.) : I move that 
the delegate presenting the resolution 
be given leave to withdraw. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The delegate has 
had ample opportunity to do so if he 
desires it. 

The question was then put to concur 
in the recommendation of the committee 
and the motion was carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The committee 
will proceed. 

THE NEW YORK DAILY CALL. 

DEL. SPARGO: Next is a resolu- 
tion by Delegate Dobbs of New York, 
as follows : 



"Whereas, daily newspapers whifh 
shall stand as the uncomproiiiliilH| 
champions of the working clasii Ml 
the exponents of the principles of IN 
Socialist Party constitute one of jjll 
most urgent needs of the SofUlill 
movement of the United State.*, %m 
Whereas, the Socialists of N»t 
York announce that they will lii'llH 
the publication September 1st of Ihi 
New York Daily Call, a newsimiMrt 
devoted to the interests of tlir Sh 
cialist Party and the working dim 

Resolved that we, the delegalcn ii| 
the National Socialist Convent ii 111 Hi 
sembled at Chicago, May ist, i<)(M, ilM 
hereby cordially endorse the pmjfi'J 
to establish the New York Daily ( hII, 
and we call upon the Socialists ol llt^ 
United States to render every a'nlM 
ance in their power to the New VmiIi 
Comrades having the enterprise IH 
charge." 

Your committee reports favoiiilill 
upon the motion. 

The adoption of the resolution wM 
moved and seconded. 

DEL. WILKINS (Cal.) : I sliotiM 
like to know if this private cnlci|iH«t 
is to be the property of the local, 

DEL. SPARGO : No. UnforlmuilHl| 
there can be no such thing as proiiMilil 
of the local, because the local is iinl | 
body recognized by law; therefoir, till 
corporation has been formed of nil if) 
the members of the Social Denioi 
Party in the city who care 
themselves of it, and none can evi'i lin 
long to it but members of the Sm l,tl|i( 
party, and then it is provided IIimI Ml 
interest shall ever at any time bo |I|||| 
upon the profits accruing from the cilllf 
prise. 

DEL. BICKETT (O.) : The nro 
ance of that resolution, isn't that iillH 
the same as the official endorsenu-iil 
partisan press? Isn't that resolulioii 
of order? 

TH^E CHAIRMAN : It is not oii« 
order. As to whether this convonllol 
overstepping its authority when il 
ommends the establishment of hiii'I 
paper, is a question of which llir i1 
vention itself is the best judge. 

DEL. DALTON (111.): CMiifj 
Spargo, in this corporation when *i\% 
is held by members of the .Snrl 
party, will one man have more inl1ii«||| 
and more votes than another? 
DEL. SPARGO: No, sir. 



ol nil III 
::niMi mllij 
to IIV4I) 



ItlL. HILLQUIT (N. Y.) : I would 
iMii iilcr that that is perfectly in order, 
jitii nevertheless I would like to call 
I'iiii attention to one point, the growing 
II. Ill of a national organ, and we find it 
I Mncssed right here, and sooner or 
liihi it will have to come. (Applause.) 

11 IE CHAIRMAN: Any further re- 
(hiiiUs upon the motion before us? The 
million is that the report of the com- 
Miltk'c be concurred in. 

|)I"L. BROWER (111.) : I am heartily 
HI i.ivor of the motion, but I would 
• iiKK<"J't to the convention that we give 
\\Vv encouragement to any city in the 
nitintry that can afford a daily along 
*vitli this recommendation to help the 
Miniiades in New York. There are 
I idle 1 cities in this Union to-day that 
III III :i daily paper for the propagation 
ill till- principles of Socialism, such as 
III. nty of Chicago and others. (Ap- 

lillMM'.) 

|i|;L. SPARGO: I desire to say, 
I iiiiiiades, first that the committee will 
II. pi the suggestion that we do give 

iragement to any such efifort in any 

I Hi uf the country, no matter where it 

■ M\ l)c; and in the second place your 

niiiiittee does not consider such a 

iiMiiii.n as an endorsement of a paper, 

lull as an encouragement of an effort 

III . lablish a Socialist paper. There 

I HI in' no such thing as the endorsement 

il .1 paper which does not exist. (Ap- 

|.|.iir,c.) 

I'lL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : If the 

■ ii\.iition wanted to control the paper, 

ii\ New York would be the first to 

I. against it; it would refuse to sur- 

Irr the control of that paper because 

w want the control of it. But, in order 
I- I m.iurage the comrades, we ought to 
I I lliis resolution, and we certainly 
iijlit not to hesitate to give them this 
. Ill iiiiragement. (Applause.) 

ni'.L. WOODBEY (Cal.): I simply 
" ml to say that there seems to be a 

■ Il ii'isition on the part of the com- 
I nil , lo think that our endorsement of 
ilii < iitcrprise in New York is the same 
I'liili.isition we had last night of owning 
Hill iiperating a paper. I would be 

■ 1II111K to give endorsement to any 
iiililihle Socialist paper, it does not 
li.l' any difference what paper it is. 
Hill I hope the resolution will pass for 
iliii nason. It is an altogether different 
|iii|iiisilion from that of owning and 



operating a paper by the National Com- 
mittee. 

DEL. SIMONS (111.) : I move the 
previous question. 

Motion seconded and carried. 

The question was then put on the 
adoption of the resolution as read, and 
the motion carried with only one dis- 
senting vote. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The committee 
has the floor. 

DEL. SPARGO : In reporting yester- 
day, I said that the committee would 
publish a statement sent by Local San 
Francisco. Unfortunately I have left it 
at the hotel and haven't it here at the 
convention in time to be printed. I 
have the statement here and will read 
it if desired, but your committee con- 
siders that since it has gone the rounds 
of the Socialist Papers and is not a 
matter which this convention can act 
upon in any manner, shape or form, 
that that particular statement with re- 
gard to Mayor Schmitz refusing. to ap- 
point a member of the Socialist Party 
on the Board of Election Commissioners 
had best be laid on the table unless the 
convention desires it read, which is all 
that Local San Francisco asks. 

DEL. COLLINS (111.) : I move that 
it be laid on the table. 

Motion seconded. A vive voce vote 
was then taken and the result leaving 
the chair in doubt the motion was put 
to a rising vote and carried. 

THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

DEL. SPARGO: Your committee 
asks for final action upon the resolu- 
tions presented yesterday which are be- 
fore you in print. I presume I need not 
trouble to read the resolutions because 
you have them, but I desire on behalf 
of the committee to move the adoption 
of the resolution on the Russo-Japanese 
War. 

The motion was seconded. 
THE CHAIRMAN : Perhaps you had 
better read it. 

DEL SPARGO: All right. The 
Chairman says on account of the au- 
dience and visitors that I had better 
read them. The resolution on the Russo- 
Japanese War is as follows : 

"Whereas, The conflicting com- 
mercial interests of the ruling classes 
in Russia and Japan have induced the 
governments of those countries to 
bring about war between the Russian 
and Japanese nations ; and 



170 



Evening Session, May ^. 



Evening Session, May 4.. 



171 



Whereas, the working people of 
Russia and Japan have no interest in 
waging this campaign of bloody war- 
fare, be it 

Resolved, That this convention of 
the Socialist Party of America sends 
greetings of Fraternity and Solidarity 
to the working people of Russia and 
Japan, and condemns the Russo-Jap- 
anese War as a crime against progress 
and civilization. And be it further, 

Resolved, That we appeal to the 
wage workers of Russia and Japan to 
join hands with the . International 
Socialist movement in its struggle for 
world peace." 

DEL. DEUTZMAN (Cal.) : I move 
you, Comrade Chairman, that the reso- 
lution be adopted and that we send 
copies to the Socialist press of Japan 
and Russia. 

The motion was seconded, and car- 
ried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The committee 
will proceed. 

COMPENSATION OF SPEAKERS. 

DEL. SPARGO: We have a resolu- 
tion from the New Jersey delegation re- 
garding the compensation of speakers 
and the engagement of speakers. It is 
as follows: 

"Whereas, It is the practice of some 
lecturers and organizers to engage 
with organizations of the Socialist 
Party, at an indefinite compensation, 
dependent upon their success in col- 
lecting funds or selling literature, or 
else engagins: without understanding 
as to compensation ; and 

Whereas, Under such conditions the 
ability of a comrade to remain in the 
field depends upon circumstances 
other than usefulness in the propaga- 
tion of clean-clut Socialism ; there- 
fore be it 

Resolved, That this convention de- 
clares itself opposed to 1 speculative 
methods of compensating lecturers 
and organizers, and in favor of the 
payment of a definite pre-determined 
salary or fee." 

DEL. SPARGO: Your committee 
moves the adoption of that resolution as 
the expression of the opinion of this 
body. 

THE CHAIRMIAN: It is regularly 
moved and seconded that the report 
just read be the expression of the opin- 
ion of this body. Are you ready for 
the question? 



DEL. WEBSTER (0.) : I move yOU 
that it be laid on the table. 

The motion was seconded, but on I*' 
ing put to a vive voce vote was IohI, 

A division was called for and a riHllig 
vote was taken, resulting in the inolliiii 
being declared lost. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The motion In- 
fore us now is upon the adoption of tlld 
committee's recommendation. 

The question was then put on \\\* 
adoption of the New Jersey resohiliiiM 
as read and the motion carrying, it wii« 
declared adopted. 

The announcement of the adoption itl 
the resolution met with hearty appliiiiiiD 
on the part of the convention. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The commiUrii 
will proceed. 

REGULATION OF SPEAKERS. 

DEL. SPARGO: The next n-solii 
tion is in regard to the following .siilii 
ries and fees to be paid speakers. Il 
is as follows : 

"Whereas, exorbitant salaries iif 
fees have sometimes been paid III 
speakers and organizers for \\\t\\ 
services; and, 

Whereas, Such practices are ril|ii 
gether unwarranted and unjust in M 
proletarian movement ; therefore, he || 
Resolved that this body declares II 
self opposed to paying speakers \\\ 
other workers employed by the p.irljf 
exorbitant fees or salaries, plai'iii| 
them above the standard of the wuiil' 
ing class the party represents ; uilli 
we 

Recommend: That, as far as ptn 
sible locals of the Socialist I'ailjf 
should engage their speakers and iir< 
ganizers through the national or sImIW 
organizations, thus discouraging tlw 
abuses arising from the unsatisfaclmy 
methods at present pursued." 
DEL. SPARGO : Your committee r«< , 
ports favorably and moves the adop(ln|| 
of this resolution. 

The motion was seconded. 
DEL, FARRELL (O.) : I want |i| 
say, Mr. Chairman and comrades, ill 
reference to this resolution that llii'I'l 
are some of our states in this coiiiilrf 
which are peculiarly situated with ip' 
erence to carrying on propaganda nipr|« 
ings, and I want to say that in my nwW 
state, down there in Ohio, that we Mil 
one of those states. We have fuiillil 
out that the most successful mecliiim 
we can hold are on Sunday aftern(iii||| 



Mini it is a hard matter to get a suit- 
Mil, liall for Sunday afternoon in the 
Mii.iller cities down there, as they are 
)MMiily supplied with suitable halls for 
|Mi>|i:iganda meetings. It is not like the 
.i(\ of Chicago or some of the larger 
I III... and for that reason we are com- 
|M lied to take what we can get for our 
III., lings, and we cannot always get 
Mii-.tkers when we want them, from the 
N.iti.iiial Committee, and there may be 
lull. when in order to hold a good 
in..iiug we will have to pay what is 
1.11111(1 here exorbitant prices, but if 
.i.n liical in that city sees fit to bear 
• III expense of bringing the comrade 
ill. I. on the special occasion, I don't 
I 111 111. they ought to be hampered with 
.III resolution. 

I 1 1 R CHAIRMAN : The Chairman 
I I hi' committee will kindly explain the 

. Ill . I of that resolution. 
HI L. SPARGO: The resolution is 

.I..I mandatory upon any local or state 
.1 ilir country. It is purely the expres- 
1..11 !if the opinion of this convention. It 
1... n't say that this must be done upon 

.11 .I'casions, but that as far as possible 

(ler to discourage these methods, 

■ |ii.iL(.rs should be engaged through the 
iiuli.>n;d or state organizations. To meet 
llir rase mentioned by the delegate from 
iiliio, suppose that the locals to which 
II. i.ferred find that they could not get 
. luaker through the national com- 
iiiiil.i', there would be no insuperable 

I. i.ule in getting Jiim through the state 

■ iniiiittee, and after all it is not man- 
.lii.'iy upon them; it is simply an ex- 
|ii. i.>n of the opinion of the conven- 
I 

lir.L. KEOWN (Mass.): In the 
iiirinent made by the chairman of that 
■ iniiilttee I desire to ask the meaning 
I "exorbitant." Suppose Karl Marx 

.1.- to be brought back here again. 
Wi.iilil you consider one hundred dol- 
lii fnr a lecture from him exorbitant? 

HIT.. SPARGO: Yes, sir. 

Ill' I.. KEOWN: Or would you con- 
1.1.1 iwo dollars altogether too small? 

HI' I.. STEDMAN: That is too much. 

hM.. KEOWN: Now I have seen 
.iMt speakers to whom I would gladly 
l.i'. i;ivcn two hundred dollars not to 
I.. II The comrades must admit that 

I. Socialist party speakers do the move- 

... Ill more harm than we can imagine. 
\ii-.|li(r thing, I do not believe that we 



can estimate the ability of a speaker 
either in a convention like this or in a 
local body. It is simply a matter which 
must be arranged between the local and 
the speaker. I am not in favor of put- 
ting any stipulation whatsoever on the 
amount that we are going to pay our 
speakers. Another thing, if we give 
our approval to any such thing as that, 
I claim it is just the same as a law. 
If you wish your servant to do some- 
thing or your boss wishes his working- 
man to do anything, that is practically 
equivalent to a command to do it. If 
we write down our opposition to any 
such thing as that, I claim that is just 
the same as law. In using this word 
"opposed," I interpret it as a command 
from the convention. I am opposed ab- 
solutely to fixing the compensation of 
speakers. I believe that should be left 
to, circumstances entirely, and to the 
local who calls for the speaker or to 
the state organization. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I will ask for 
a further interpretation of this resolu- 
tion by the chairman of the committee: 

DEL. SPARGO: Your committee 
does not desire to argue the question 
raised by the last speaker except only 
to answer the question as to what we 
would consider an exorbitant salary or 
fee. It may be that in the case of some 
speakers it would be worth while to 
pay them two hundred dollars not to 
speak. (Laughter.) It may be quite 
true that five dollars would be exorbi- 
tant for some men. It is equally true 
that two hundred and fifty dollars a 
lecture is exorbitant for any man. (Ap- 
plause.) It would be exorbitant even 
for Marx or for La Salle if we could 
bring them back to talk to us. The 
delegate wishes to know what we would 
consider exorbitant for Comrade Marx. 
I tell the delegate that Karl Marx ans- 
wered it himself when he said : "I will 
live and my family, upon the five dol- 
lars a week I can get while I am writ- 
ing 'Capital' for the working class." 
(Loud applause.) 

DEL. LUCAS (MSnn.) : I want to 
say just a word on this matter. My ex- 
perience has been that where we have 
paid these exorbitant salaries it has ex- 
ceeded the resources of the community. 
There are too many members who, 
when they try to get a speaker, select 
him not for the good he will do, but 
because they would like to see him and 



Evening Session, M<iey 4. 



173 



172 



Evening Session, May ^. 



get a chance to listen to his eloquent 
remarks, his flow of eloquence. When 
you have a man to come and make but 
one lecture, I care not how far his 
reputation may extend, he only for the 
moment makes a little excitement there 
and it becomes absolutely worthless un- 
Iss it can be followed up, and many 
times when you have spent a hundred 
dollars or two hundred dollars for one 
of those speakers the whole of their 
lecture has had to be preserved by the 
common soap box orators that get noth- 
ing whatever for their labor. (Ap- 
plause.) We have been told time and 
again that it is the constant dropping 
of water that wears away the stone, 
and so it is with any of these great 
movements. It is not the frequent flashes 
of lightning that affect the cause, but 
it is the persistent and constant effort 
of the whole party, and we have many 
of our strongest workers amongst us 
that are never recognized. (Applause.) 
I hope that this will be adopted, for I 
think that it is necessary that there 
shall be some rebuke come from this 
body against the lavish expenditure of 
money that is absolutely eating away 
the vitality of the movement. 

DEL. JOHNSON (la.) : That is an- 
other one of those questions that might 
lead us into an eternal discussion like the 
one pertaining to the salary of the secre- 
tary, and I move the previous question. 

DEL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : I rise to 
a point of order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: What is it? 

DEL. SLOBODIN : Is this matter not 
all stated in the constitution that we 
passed this afternoon ? 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Chair does 
not so understand it. 

DEL. SLOBODIN: Where we left 
this in the hands of the Executive Com- 
mittee to give us a rate that shall gov- 
ern the price of speakers. 

THE CHAIRMAN: This has to do 
with employing the speakers and rec- 
ommends that the locals should engage 
their speakers and organizers as far as 
possible, through the state and national 
organizations. 

DEL. SLOBODIN: From the nature 
of this question we are not going to 
hear from speakers who have no pros- 
pect of receiving pay from our con- 
stituency. You won't hear from Com- 
rade Carey or from Comrade Hayes, 



you won't hear from any of the power 
ful orators of the convention. Now I 
am in that position, but I do nioiil 
positively object to this resolution wllltil 
means nothing more nor less than % 
resolution of condemnation upon o«» 
speakers. There may be an exceptioniil 
case to which it does not apply, bill N) 
a matter of fact generally the speakru 
are a much abused lot. 

The previous question was mov«i1i 
and the motion being seconded, it c«f 
ried. 

The adoption of the resolution n« 
read was then put to a vive voce vntt' 
and the result being doubtful, a divisimi 
was called for. A rising vote was ihril 
taken with the result that the re.solil 
tion was declared adopted, the "vote !)•= 
ing as follows: Ayes, 65; Nays, 51. 

REPORT UPON TRADE UNION 
RESOLUTIONS. 

DEL. SPARGO: As the final pari nl 
our report, I have to report upon lli<' 
four trades union resolutions whidi 
were referred back to our comniidrf 
from the Trades Union Commitli'*, 
through the convention yesterday. Til* 
committee debated at great length iiinHI 
each of the four resolutions. We fuiiilly 
decided to report back to this convcil' 
tion as follows : 

That in view of the fact that no iiml 
ter how improperly the resolutions hml 
been through the hands of another com 
mittee, had been reported favorably In 
this coramitte by that committee, iiit it 
committee we declined to make iinif 
counter or other recommendation ;illt'l 
recommendations had been made by <iii«i 
committee by whom they were refciinl 
That leaves the committee in this jiupiI 
tion : We did not desire to shrink fniill 
any responsibility that I was 'propnly 
ours, but we do say that in view of lIlN 
circumstances under which the rcsuhl 
tions came to us, that as a comniilln* 
we will make no recommendation wlml 
soever, and as individual members of tlii> 
convention, that will leave us free lit 
take whatever action we may sec 111 
That leaves the matter now in the IiiiimIi 
of the convention. They can either tnkf 
the resolutions under consideration nl 
they can lay them upon the table as llii<|| 
may see fit. Your committee has imlli 
ing else to report. 

THE CHAIRMAN: That comiili-lM 
the report of the Committee on RfHohl 
tions. It is now in order for tliis iiiii 
vention to act upon the report of III* 



rominittee on Resolutions as a whole, 

1 i> take such other action as you see 
lilt regard to this committee. Dele- 

H. ( arey has the floor. 

hi I.. CAREY (Mass.): Mr. Chair- 

I desire to have the Chairman 

I . rlcar the exact status of the mat- 

: I .ported by the Committee on Reso- 
liiiiMiis. including its final statement 
itiintiuh its chairman on the Trades 
Uinnii proposition. I desire to know 
llir fxact status of the matters that he 
ilttd said they declined to act upon; the 
..iinct status that they occupy in this 
.Miiv.iition if the report of the Com- 
inlHi'c on Resolutions is accepted and 
...|h|,|(h1 as a whole. Not particularly 
.M, much because the Commlittee on 
I i,i.li-s Unions needs the instruction, but 
liiMMiisc I wish to avoid unnecessary 

MMlllict. 

1 1 1 1", CHAIRMAN : The Chair would 

ili.it the status of those resolutions 

III it they are precisely where they 

I- hrforc they went to the Committee 

. K'. solutions. The Trades Union 

Iniion is what you are asking about, 

Ml ii :'' And the Chair would rule that 

1. I. solutions are precisely in the 

position where they were before 

iIh \ were sent to the Committee on 
1;. Minlions, and all other matters upon 
hhli the Committee on Resolutions 
I. . .ntod are before this convention to 
■ I upon as a whole. 
Ui'l.. HAYES (O.) : As I under- 

1 ii, Mr. Chairman and fellow dele- 

, J. . the supplementary resolutions 

.|M,iicd by the Trades Union Com- 

iir,> were, by a vote of this con- 

iihiiii, referred to the Committee on 

I .iliilinns. Now this committee comes 

in JMie this evening and makes a re- 

l».il that is no report, and if I under- 

(Hul tiie Chair aright he rules that the 

,. ..Iiiiions are then still in the hands 

I ihr Trades Union committee. Am I 

■M.-.t? 

I III'. CHAIRMAN: Yes, where they 
I M In-fore they were sent to the Com- 
....II I.' on Resolutions. 

1 1 1' I.. HAYES: That the supplemen- 
iiiv K'solutions are now in our hands. 
I ..111 lake my oath that we haven't got 
iliiiii (Laughter.) The resolutions, 
..nil .ill due respect to the Chair and 
III. ( ninmittee of Resolutions, are in 
ill. hands of the Resolutions Committee, 
...I if the Resolutions Committee de- 
M. In make its report it should do so 
tMilhiiil attempting to beat the devil 



around the stump, and if it is unable 
to handle the resolutions it should state 
so plainly and above board to this con- 
vention in order that this body may take 
the proper action to refer .them back to 
the Trades Union Committee where 
they belong. (Loud applause.) 

THE CHAIRMAN : I would say for 
the information of Delegate Hayes that 
the Chair was asked the question as to 
the status of this resolution, and the 
Chair would again reiterate that the 
resolutions are precisely in the position 
they were before they were referred to 
the Committee on Resolutions. The 
Committee on Resolutions asks to be 
absolved from responsibility in the mat- 
ter, owing to the peculiar circumstances 
under which they received them, and 
that is the status of these resolutions 
at this time under the Chair's rulmg. 
The Chairman of Resolutions Commit- 
tee asks to be heard and he has the 
floor. 

DEL. SPARGO: Comrades, your 
committee did not in the first place ac- 
cept the resolutions. The resolutions 
came to us and we did discuss them. 
We discussed them at great length and 
we did find things that we could do. We 
found that at least we could write them 
in the English language, which they 
were not written in. (Laughter and 
applause.) 

DEL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : I rise to 
a point of order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: What is the 
point of order? 

DEL. SLOBODIN: That we have a 
resolution that is now before us. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Chair will 
rule that the point of order is not well 
taken. The Chairman of the committee 
is at liberty to make such remarks and 
cast such reflections upon this commit- 
tee as the convention is willing to lis- 
ten to. 

DEL. KERRIGAN (Tex.) : I ask for 
information. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Ddegate Kerri- 
gan will take his seat. The chairman of 
the committee has the floor. 

DEL. KERRIGAN: I ask for in- 
formation. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You will get 
your information by the proceedings of 
this convention. Do you raise a point 
of order? 



174 



EvetUng Session, May 4. 



J 



DEL. KERRIGAN : No, sir. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Then you have 
no reason to rise at all. The Commit- 
tee on Resolutions will proceed. 

DEL. SPARGO: The resolutions are 
now in the hands of the Secretary of 
the convention, and if we are to be 
taunted that we are unable to do any- 
thing or that we were afraid to do any- 
thing, it is only right and proper to say 
in reply to that taunt that there was at 
least one thing we might have done. 
We did not do it, out of consideration 
for the feelings of Delegate Hayes and 
his associates. (Laughter and ap- 
plause.) 

DEL. KEOWN (Mass.) : Mr. Chair- 
man, 

THE CHAIRMAN: For what pur- 
pose do you rise? 

DEL. KEOWN: I wish to make a 
motion. 

THE CHAIRMAN: There is no 
motion in order while the delegate has 
the floor. 

DEL. SPARGO: Now then, Com- 
rades, why did the committee decline 
to make any more specific report? I 
will tell you. Because the committee 
tried time and again, knowing well that 
a struggle lies before this convention, 
upon each of the four motions in that 
supplementary report, we tried time and 
again by conference with the members 
of the Trades Union Committee, to do 
something in the way of having pre- 
pared a decent substitute for the whole, 
and mark you well, the delegate that 
taunts us with being unable or unwil- 
ling to do anything, was unwilling to 
extend to the members of your com- 
mittee even the ordinary courtesy of 
one man to another. Now, Comrades, 
we decline to shoulder all the responsi- 
bility of throwing this convention into 
a fight upon these matters. We say that 
you have no right to place that respon- 
sibility upon any one or more men in 
this committee. You have drawn up 
resolutions which are bound to be the 
source and center of a fight that is 
going to shake this convention to its 
very basis. It has come to the knowl- 
edge of the members of the Resolution 
Committee 

DEL, SLOB ODIN (N. Y.) : Point of 
order; what is before the convention? Is 
there a motion before the convention? 



THE CHAIRMAN : I want to m Im 
Comrade Spargo that he will briiiH Im 
a speedy close his report as ChiilniiM 
of the Resolutions Committee, mm 
leave out of consideration the nirlliiHH 
or alleged methods of any membrn h| 
any other committee. 

DEL. SPARGO: I have finishrd I 
simply say that when the coiniiilllM 
was besieged from one side and IlitM 
the other, and when they were hroiiiM 
face to face with all the prospnlj** 
consequences of this matter, wIiIhIi 
ought to have come before us in liii 
first place, but which went intd llti 
hands of another committee and wliltM 
was then reported upon in a cnUJH 
form by them and then referred In Ml 
and we are to be held responsible fdi iM 
mistakes and the misdeeds of am H hut 
committee, and we are not williii(j In 
accept that responsibility. (Appliiiutt I 

DEL. KEOWN: I move to miiI.ihII 
now the resolution which I previmulf 
offered. 

DEL. FARRELL (O.) : I movr yi.il 
that the report of the ResoIiUlMHi 
Committee be adopted as a whoir, iitt)i 
that the Trades Union resolutions IIimi 
come before the house. 

The motion was seconded and irti 
ried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The secrflM»» 
will now please read the first tiniUl 
union resolution. 

DEL. CAREY (Mass.) : I dcniir lH 
ask permission of this house in itMltfl 
to save time, if they will grant nir |t|ii 
two minutes. 

THE CHAIRMAN: For what pttr* 
pose do you rise? 

DEL, CAREY: For the puri.ofir ttf 
proceeding in order on this Tr«t||| 
Union proposition. The Trades Unlii 
Committee has made its report anil 
is in print, the part that they rcfrnn., 
to us. Now I would suggest thai w| 
act on the general proposition Itrftifl 
we take up the specific resolutions, 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Ciii** 
is entirely right. We have dispoHcd it| 
the Committee on Resolutions' wmV 
The next unfinished business is tlir lt> 
port of the Committee on 'i'liulM 
Unions, and if you desire now to li«||i 
up the Committee on Trades Unliiiir 
report, if that is the next onin tif 
business, we will take it up from Ihp li«< 
ginning and the secretary will read Itrif 



Evening Session, May 4. 



175 



.1 .ill the report made by the Commit- 
1. 1 Mil Resolutions. 

I»I'L BERTHA WILKINS (Cal.) : 
I nc to a point of information. I 

Im.iiM like to know as a matter of in- 
li.iinalion whether this Comrnittee on 
|/t ■.nliitions has ceased to receive reso- 
liihoiis? 

II IK CHAIRMAN: No, and they 
.mII not until they have been discharged. 
I li. V .ire still in existence, and if there 
1^ .my resolution any delegate desires to 
ml induce it will be referred to the 
I (HMinittee on Resolutions and they will 
tHinit upon it in due course. 

liI'L. DEUTZMAN (Cal.): I want 
1.1 111. ike a protest. 

I IIP, CHAIRMAN: Your protest is 
iimi 111 order; there is nothing in order 
lull (he secretary's reading. Please be 
III nrder. Take your seat. The secre- 
liiiv will now proceed with the reading 
III I he Trades Union Committee's re- 
I 

1)1 [. DEUTZMAN: I have a reso- 
1 11 that I want to offer. 

I 1 1 1', CHAIRMAN : If you have an 
.(MHinhnent to make upon the Trades 
liiiinn resolutions it will not be in order 
iHilil the original trades union reso- 
liiiiiiiis are before this convention. Now 
fl' II' subside until we get the original 
'• "I 111 ions before the convention. Then 

• will entertain your amendment. 

mi.. DEUTZMAN: I have more 
iImm :m amendment. 

I I i !■: CHAIRMAN : Have you an 
iiin. iKJinent that you want to make? 

IH'I.. DEUTZMAN: I desire, Mr. 
I li III man, to explain this. 

I 1 1 !•: CHAIRMAN : The secretary 

ill iilcase read. You will please keep 

, .cat now unless you want to raise 

.1 iMiiiil of order. 

Ml !.. DEUTZMAN: I rise to a point 

nl Ml.llT. 

I I Ih; CHAIRMAN : What is it? 

I 'I- 1.. DEUTZMAN: The point of 
>.i.|. I is this, that the Committee on 
I • 'iliilinns has not done its work be- 

iii !• iliey referred one resolution which 
' iniiited; they did not report on it. 
iliMifore, before proceeding further 
ii'ii irsnlution is before us and not the 
ii mIi union resolution. 

MM': <'MAIRMAN: I will say that 
ilii iMiiiit of order is not well taken. 



If at any future meeting of this con- 
vention when we reach the order of 
business of the Committee on Resolu- 
tions, if the Committee on Resolutions 
fails to report your resolution, you may 
call upon them to report your resolu- 
tion or give reasons why they do not do 
so. For this evening's session we have 
passed the Committee on Resolutions 
by formal vote, and have decided to 
take up the Committee on Trades 
Union report, and that is the next thin'g 
in order. 

DEL. SPARGO: I rise to a question 
of personal privilege. 

THE CHAIRMAN: State it briefly. 

DEL. SPARGO: Briefly it is this: 
That in rendering the report of the 
committee, I overlooked that resolution, 
as I explained to the delegates, but I 
told them it would come before the con- 
vention in due course. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The secretary 
will read the report of the Trades Union 
Committee. 

THE TRADES UNION RESOLUTIONS. 

THE SECRETARY (Reading): 

"The trades and labor union move- 
ment is a natural result of the capi- 
talist system of production and neces- 
sary to resist the encroachments of 
capitalism. It is an effort to protect 
the class interests of labor under the 
capitalistic system. However, this in- 
dustrial struggle can only lessen the 
exploitation, but does not abolish it. 
The exploitation of labor will only 
cease when the working class takes 
possession of the means of produc- 
tions and distribution and estab- 
lishes their right to the full 
product of their labor. To fully 
carry out these measures the working 
class must consciously become the 
dominant political power. The or- 
ganization of the workers will not be 
complete until they unite on the polit- 
ical as well as the industrial field on 
the lines of the class struggle. 

The trades union struggle requires 
the political activity of the working 
class. The workers must assist and 
permanently secure by their political 
power what they have wrung from 
their exploiters in the economic strug- 
gle. In accordance with the decisions 
of the International Socialist Con- 
gresses in Brussels, Zurich and Lon- 
don, this convention reaffirms the 
declarations that the trades and labor 



176 



Evening Session, May 4. 



Evening Session, May 4. 



177 



unions are a necessity in the struggle 
to aid in emancipating the working 
class, and we consider it the duty of 
all wage workers to affiliate with this 
movement. 

Political differences of opinion do 
not and should not justify the divi- 
sion of the forces of labor in the in- 
dustrial movement. The interests of 
the working class make it imperative 
that the labor organizations equip 
their members for the great work of 
abolition of wage slavery by educat- 
ing them in Socialist principles." 

THE CHAIRMAN: Gentlemen, you 
have heard the report of the Commit- 
tee on Trades Unions. What is your 
pleasure ? 

DEL. CARR (III.) : I rise to a point 
of order. The hour of adjournment has 
arrived, and a motion to adjourn is the 
next thing in order unless we suspend 
the rules and continue the meeting. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Delegate Carr 
makes the point of order that the hour 
of adjournment has arrived. The Chair 
rules that the point of order is well 
taken. The hour of adjournment is 
here. What is your pleasure, gentle- 
men? 

DEL. HOEHN (Mo.) : I move that 
we suspend the rules and that the con- 
vention continue in session for one hour 
longer. 

The motion was seconded and car- 
ried. 

DEL. DALTON (III.): I rise to 
move the striking out from this Trades 
Union resolution all of those words be- 
ginning with "Political differences of 
opinion," and ending with "industrial 
movement." "Political differences of 
opinion do not and should not justify 
the division of the forces of labor in 
the industrial rnovement." I move that 
that be stricken out. 

Motion seconded. 

DEL. GOAZIOU (Pa.) : I wish to 
offer another amendment : instead of 
striking out that part, I wish to add to 
it, after the word "movement," the fol- 
lowing : "any more than differences of 
opinion as to the best form of indus- 
trial organization should divide the 
working class in the political move- 
ment." 

The motion was seconded. 

At the request of a delegate, the secre- 



tary then read the clause as it wouT 
stand as last amended, as follows: 

"Political differences of opinion iln 
not and should not justify the diviHinH 
of the forces of labor in the induslriitl 
movement, any more than differences of 
opinion as to the best form of industrl«j 
organization should divide the workiin 
class in the political movement. 

DEL. SMITH (Ore.) : I rise to iniik* 
an amendment that we lay this rcptirl 
on the table, and I wish to speak III 
support of the amendment. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I have to ill 
form the delegate from Oregon that N 
motion to lay on the table is not debut 
able. 

DEL. HOEHN (Mo.) : Comrad*' 
Chairman and Delegates : The very fm I 
that delegates on the floor of the So 
cialist convention can take the fliiui 
and move to lay such an important rvvi 
lution on the table, shows the neccsftlly 
of bringing this matter before the cini 
vention. It shows that it has bcniiiii' 
necessary for the trades unions to ncl 
into the Socialist Party and teach ilii« 
Socialist party a little unionism. (Luiiil 
applause.) We have always claiinrtl 
that we have a monopoly on the socliil 
science, on the wisdom in the laliiii 
movement. We have always lodkcil 
down upon the poor trades unioiiitl 
We went to a Socialist meeting. W»> 
secured a five cent Socialist pamplili'l, 
We read half of that pamphlet and wf 
did not understand the half which wi' 
read, and then we went out and in 
formed the rank and file of the tr;u|i'» 
unionists what they must do and wlwil 
they must not do; we informed thclH 
how wise we were and how fooliult 
they were. I believe the time has cmiii 
when the Socialist Party can no loinjpf 
hide itself behind empty phrases, whi'H 
the Socialist Party must come mil 
clearly and positively and state its \u\%i 
tion towards the trades union inovt' 
ment. I want to inform you thai w» 
cannot be a success without the Jahiir 
movement. There cannot be a succrm 
ful Socialist movement without a MM' 
cessful trades union movement. (Crlm 
of "Hear, hear" and loud applaunr ) 
The trades union movement must he llin 
back bone of the Socialist Party. 

DEL. SPEARS (III.) : I ri.se lo N 
point of order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Order plrnim, 



Miilil we learn the delegate's point of 
tidn. 

liI'L. SPEARS: My point of order 
. ill it the comrade is not speaking to 
ilir iiuUion to strike out, but upon the 

Mil III .. 

I 1 1 1<, CPIAIRMAN : The delegate is 
|i>iilii-tly in order if he speaks upon the 
gt'iii'ial merits of the question before 
ilir house. 

I>l,l,. HOEHN: I should like to in- 
(iiHii our friends from Illinois and 
I »|M . lally from Chicago, that this trades 

M question cannot be settled by 

, t of order. (Loud cheering and 

i|i|il,uisc.) This trades union question 
tt \\]> before the Socialist convention, 
>iii| il must be settled and must be set- 
ilnl light. I have said that the trades 
iiiunii movement must be the backbone 
il tlu- Socialist Party, and I may add 
li. .1 ilie Socialist Party must be the 
I I -.lie of the trades union movement. 
n,| applause.) Herr Kautsky, one 

• iIm leading authorities on interna- 

I il Socialism, said in one of his 

"The labor movement is the 

II III ion of Social Democracy," and 
1 III. Socialists do not realize this fact, 
I ill' \ tail to recognize and understand 
1 . i.ict, Socialist Democracy will go 

imrcs because it will not fulfil its 

1..11. It is our duty as Socialists, 

I. iKsentatives of the Socialist Party, 

ii'Miiize the proletariat. It is our 

I 1 111 organize the working class, not 

I iHilitically but economically as well. 

of "Right," and loud applause.) 

I 1 h now to ask you whether the 
ii unionists of Colorado, the Inem- 

II I' the Western Federation of 

■I .uid the members of the United 

^liii. Workers in Colorado, whether 
ii- . Iirave boys are not fighting an 

Iiattlc for (he cause of liberty? 

IK. ■, are fighting the greatest struggle 
I I 111 American proletariat to-day, and 

II ' ill not do for us to stand here and 
1 II iliose boys, "Stop your struggle; 

I |i vour fight; your trades unions 
III 'I liolp you any." 
Mil. KERRIGAN (Tex.) : I want 

I ill I lie attention of the chairman to 
iiii t 111 that the comrade is overstep- 
|iiir liis time. 

Mil' CHAIRMAN: You are mis- 
l.ilni 'I'he delegate has two minutes 

II II Do not eat up his time. Delegate 
Mill liii will proceed. 

I HI. IIOEHN: If I were to under- 



take such a position as that, 1 would be 
ashamed of myself. I say no: as So- 
cialists it is our duty to get right into 
this fight and help those boys in their 
economic struggle and do all we can to 
help win that battle for the eight hour 
law in Colorado, and the battle for free 
speech. (Applause.) 

Several delegates endeavored to ob- 
tain the floor. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Delegate Ott of 
Wyoming has the floor. 

DEL. OTT (Wyo.) : I ask to call up 
my resolution that has been submitted 
to the secretary. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Is it an amend- 
ment to the proposition before Che 
house? 

DEL. OTT : Yes, sir, it is a substi- 
tute for the proposition before the 
house. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The secretary 
will kindly read it. 

SUBSTITUTE FOR TRADES UNION RESOLU- 
TIONS. 

The substitute offered by Delegate Ott 
was then read by the secretary as fol- 
lows ; 

"In view of the fact that the Trades 
Union resolution as adopted by the 
Unity Convention of Indianapolis, In- 
diana, is wholly inadequate to meet 
the conditions representing themselves 
in results of recent occurrences in the 
trades union movement; and 

Whereas, the Socialist Party as the 
party of the working class, • recognizes 
the class struggle within society as 
the active force in lining up the work- 
ers of the world in the militant or- 
ganizations for the struggle of eman- 
cipation from wage slavery, political- 
ly in the Socialist Party, and econom- 
ically in such organizations as are 
used as instruments of the class strug- 
gle to the end of overthrowing the 
capitalistic system of society, and 

Whereas, several economic organi- 
zations of labor have combined with 
capital in harmony-of-interest com- 
binations, with the object of obscur- 
ing the issue and leading the work- 
ing class astray to perform yeoraan 
duties for capitalization and the pre- 
vailing order of things; 

Therefore, be it Resolved by this 
Convention, that the SociaHst Party, 
recognizing the necessity of organiza- 
tion in economic fields as a weapon 
for the defense of the workers against 
the capitalists' encroachments, it also 



,A 



i 



178 



Evening Session, Mtny 4. 



*ii 



mt 



I 



recognizes the fact tha,t in line with 
the declarations of all Socialist par- 
ties throughout the world, the eco- 
nomic organizations of the workers 
must be a constructing force for the 
conduct of .industries in a Socialist 
commonwealth ; 

The Socialist Party, therefore, urges 
and appeals to the members of the 
working class that they join such in- 
dustrial unions on economic lines as 
will band together the workers in a 
common and tight bond of solidarity, 
in which they will not be divided and 
split asunder by the conflicting in- 
terests of craft and guild divisions, 
and which also aim at the establish- 
ment of the co-operative common- 
wealth by combined political and eco- 
nomic action upon the lines of the 
class struggle, both the political and 
economic organizations to be used as 
instruments and means to that end. 

The Socialist Party also wishes to 
denounce before the workers of this 
land the treacherous, deceitful work 
of the conglomeration between several 
labor leaders so-called, and the capi- 
tains of industry such as the National 
Civic Federation and other like in- 
stitutions, and brand these federations 
as instruments of the capitalist class 
to perpetuate the system of to-day, 
and to use organized labor as tools 
for that purpose." 

DEL. OTT : Mr. Chairman and Rep- 
resentatives and Brothers and Sisters : I 
would state that the pages read by the 
secretary are about in the same order 
as the German declaration in regard 
to trades unionism. • The solidarity of 
trades unionism and. Socialism must be 
defined; the co-operation of the two is 
essential. We must help to organize the 
economic field in order to become .strong 
ourselves and so aid the workers of the 
country in their struggle for advance- 
ment. We must assist in every way 
possible to organize the laboring class 
of the country against the onslaught of 
capitalism, which is our aim, because if 
we accomplish that in a thorough man- 
ner, such as is indicated by this resolu- 
tion, there is no doubt that Socialism 
will at once have attained the greatest 
step in the history of the Socialist Party. 
I will ask the adoption of this resolu- 
tion because of its impartiality to any 
one. It covers the field thoroughly 
from our standpoint, it cannot be im- 



which is ^certainly explicit and to llil 

il 



peached, and we have the right, mill 
claim that right, that each of us itliitll 
assist the laboring men of the coiiiill» 
to organize themselves, to band tiifiil 
selves together for their own pcrmiitll 
improvement and advancement; for (In 
doing away of these chains bound ahittil 
them by the capitalists ; for breaking |||| 
fetters with which they hold in bonditHl 
these men and women, millions ill 
workers in the country, and now <Mf 
that purpose I offer this resoliilloH, 



point, and which I hope will be irm 
again so everybody will understand il, 
and I hope it will pass in order th;il w* 
may be able to be ready at any tiiiir In 
fight the battle. 

DEL. SMITH (Ore.): Coimi.mU 

Chairman and Comrades: I would iiii) 

consider myself a Socialist if I kepi my 

seat to-night and did not at least |iiii 

test against this body taking u\) lliU 

matter. I want it distinctly undcrslinii 

that I speak for my own self, Uku I 

personally consider it completely oiil ..| 

order to bring such a proposition lidm. 

a Socialist convention. (Applause.) A« 

class conscious revolutionary Soci.illn|,i 

— ^yes, I use the combined term — we li.iii' 

no business with those temporary iniivi< 

ments. (Applause.) If Socialism shiinU 

for anything it stands for what il jiiii 

f esses to stand for, and that is the 11 mi 

plete breaking down of the present '.v" 

tem. (Loud applause and chcciiiiu I 

The trades unions of this country rfpit' 

sent nothing more than a slight rcfniii 

over present conditions (applause), lUii, 

as a reform movement it has no pliiu 

in the propaganda of Socialism. (CiIm 

of "Good" and prolonged applaiiir | 

We have long enough dallied with lima 

reform movements of different l<iiiiU 

and our constitution last year wa.s ilin 

laughing .stock of the intelligent So. inl 

ists of the country. We got that jiImI 

form so mixed and tangled up thai w* 

hardly knew what we did stand for nm 

selves, (Laughter and applause.) Tlif 

trades unionists have never helped llm 

Socialist Party, and you know th;il llml 

is true. (Loud cheering and appl;!!!-!! ) 

The Trades Unionist is leaning upon hli 

little crutch and until that cnitcli It 

broken entirely under him, he will liiivn 

to lean upon it, whether we prc-in || 

SociaHsm or not. (Cries of "CmkI*' 

and prolonged applause.) I saw ||||| 

beautifully illustrated. Comrade Clmlr 

man, in British Columbia last fall, I 



▼ 



,1 



Evening Session, May 4. 



17VI 




wnii through as the speaker in the cam- 
iirtlKii— that five weeks' campaign last 
lull ill British Columbia. The campaign 
lull. .wed on the heels of a strike that 
liiiil been universal throughout British 
( nliimbia, the gold mines and every- 
wIh'ic else. They lost in all parts of the 
iiriiviiice until we as Socialists came in- 
ii) that campaign and we pointed out to 
llinii what we stood for, which was the 
miiiiliihition of the wage system, and 
|iiiliilcd the way clearly to the chang- 
IllU of the system as the only remedy 
^11 their suffering— they had already 
till 1 1 I he example of the inefficiency of 
I III' strike, it failing them, and the re- 
Diill was after the crutch of the strike 
liiiil been broken under them, they 
(ii'ilifd to -our banner and gladly es- 
iMUi'cd the Socialist Cause. (Loud 
Hiiil long continued applause.) Now, 
riMinade Chairman, in conclusion let me 

itny I hat the moment that the Socialist 
I'tiily of the United States steps out 
-I "'II a clear class-conscious platform of 
' .ivvii, and frees its skirts from all 

■ petty movements (Cries of "Hear, 

11 '") then we will begin to move for- 
11(1 :uid to grow. (Tumultous cheer- 
■M- 111(1 applause.) 

1 vera! delegates here endeavored to 

II nil the floor and the Chairman recog- 
Mi nl Delegate Brandt of Missouri. 

I MIC CHAIRMAN: Delegate Brandt 
111 Si. Louis has the floor. 

I HI.. KEOWN (Mass.): I rise to a 
|Hiiiil of order. 

111!^: CHAIRMAN : What is your 
|Miiiil of order? 

1)1'!.. KEOWN: I object to this man- 
ii'i i>f conducting business here; there 

xd much noise in the hall that not one 
l«'lrKate in ten can hear. 

niK CHAIRMAN: The delegates 
Ik 111 come to order. 

IH'L. KEOWN: I submit that this 

I I ifgularly elected convention, and I 
.l.j.'il to these people in the gallery 

Iiiii.n noises and trying to sway the 

i'<hii(.',s of the delegates to this conven- 
htii (Loud hissing and cat calls.) 

I I 1 1'-, CHAIRMAN : The delegate 
I Massachu.setts is clearly within 

III lii'hts when he makes the statement 
ilhil lir has made. It may not have been 

I I 111', but he was certainly justified if he 
I III nielli it was true. So long as a dele- 
iiili lliinks that the audience of men in 
(III f;al!cry are endeavoring to create a 



demonstration here, he is cle;iily vvillim 
his rights to make a protest, il cnnii-i 
with ill grace from the di-U't.'.ali"i l'> 
this convention to abuse the <lrlfK.il<' 
from Massachusetts for mukiuK Ib.it 
perfectly legitimate protest. (A|))il;iini" ) 
I shall insist that the most tluimiiKli 
principles of democracy be observed in 
this convention and that the doors uf 
this convention be thrown wide open In 
any visitor that cares to come in, Imt 
we will not permit that privilege lo lif 
abused, and the audience will kindly 
take notice that they will be rei|iiirt'd 
to-look at this particular circus and not 
to participate in it. (Laughter and ai>- 
plause.) Delegate Brandt has the floor. 

DEL. BRANDT (Mo.) : Comradr 
Chairman and Comrades: I am nol g" 
ing to appeal to your prejudices ubr |(» 
your party principles here to-night, Inil 
I am going to speak to you as one wlm 
has been a member of a trades union 
for nearly seventeen years, and one who 
has been a member of the Socialist 
Party movement ever since it was pos- 
sible for a trades unionist to honestly 
come into a Socialist Party movement, 
in 1897. A speaker before has stain! 
that the minute this Socialist Party 
breaks clear of this trades union non- 
sense and breaks clear of this immediate 
demand proposition we will amount to 
something. (Applause.) There was a 
Socialist Party prior to ours in this 
country, and the minute that they broke 
loose from the actual interests of ihc 
working man as he is on the streets 
and in the mines and in the factory and 
in the mill to-day, the minute that parly 
broke loose from those interests, that 
party sunk into oblivion. (Loud ap- 
plause.) That party is dead, and I am 
no pessimist and I claim to be as good 
a Socialist as any man in this hall, but 
I say this without the thought of want- 
ing to be an evil prophet or a pessimist, 
follow that course and ignore the teach- 
ings of the Socialist movement inter- 
nationally, and I say that you will fall 
into the same depths of degradation and 
to the same place which they sunk to. 
You don't want to take up this trades 
union movement, do you? (Cries of 
"No, no.") Then I will tell you some- 
thing: You believe in International So- 
cialism, do you? You are followers of 
it? Well, then, eat a little crow; listen 
while I read. I have here an article 
that was written in the International 




180 



Evening Session, May ^. 



Socialist Review, published here in Chi- 
cago, that I want to read you. 

DEL. HAWKINS (Neb.) : A point 
of order, Mr. Chairman. 

THE CHAIRMAN: What is your 
point of order? 

DEL. HAWKINS: Are we here to 
discuss the merits of Trades Unionism 
or Socialism ? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Your point of 
order IS entirely out of order. You are 
out of order. Take your seat. 

DEL. DALTON: I rise to a point 
of order. I ask that the Chair prevent 
any delegate from speaking to a dele- 
gate who has the floor, without first 
having gained permission of the Chair 

THE CHAIRMAN; The delegate is 
wholly right and he in the first place 
can assist us by carrying out that rule 
Comrade Brandt has the floor and he 
will proceed. 

DEL. BRANDT: Comrade Chair- 
man, I hope you will not take that in- 
terruption from my time. I want to 
read you an article from the April num- 
ber of the International Socialist Re- 
view a resolution that was adopted by 
the London Congress of Socialists. The 
resolution reads as follows : "The trade 
union struggle of the wage workers is 
indLspensable, in order to resist the en- 
croachments of Capitalism and to im- 
prove the conditions of Labor under 
the present system. Without trade 
unions no fair wages and no shorter 
hours of labor." 

DEL McEACHERN (III.): Com- 
rade Chairman, I desire to ask the dele- 
gate a question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If the delegate 
agrees to yield you the floor you may 
do so. 

. DEL. BRANDT : I will stop at any 
time to answer any question if it is not 
taken off of my ten minutes' time. 

DEL. McEACHERN: I would like 
to ask the delegate if that is from 
the Fabian Society or from the Social- 
ist movement. 

DEL. BRANDT : You will draw your 
own conclusions if you will allow me 
to read it, and I believe I can pro- 
nounce all the words in this resolution 
correctly, "However, this economic 
struggle only lessens the exploitation, 
but does not abolish it. The exploita- 
tion of labor will cease when society 



takes possession of the means of pffl 
duction. This is conditioned on til* 
creation of a system of legislnllv* 
measures. To fully carry out Ih^w 
measures the working class must 1# 
come the deciding political jiowK 
However, the working class will (Htlf 
become such a political power in till 
same ratio as its organization, the tiHitl 
union, grows. By the very organic* 
tion into trade unions the working clnil 
becomes a political factor. 

"The organization of the worlditj 
class is incomplete and insufiicient nN 
long as it is only political. 

"But the economic (trade unimi) 
struggle also requires the political id 
tivity of the working class. Very (»l(ii|j 
the working men have to assert iiml 
permanently secure by their ])ohliii«i 
power what they have wrung from llu'll 
exploiters in the free economic stniKKln 
In other cases the legislative gains tiuiki- 
economic conflicts by trade union m 
tion superfluous. The international rn 
operation of the working class on (Iik 
trade union lines, especially in rcKiuil 
to labor legislation, becomes more iiim 
essary in the same degree as the nu 
nomic relations of the capitalistic wnrlil'n 
market and the conflicts of the natimirtl 
industries develope. 

"In accordance with the decision m( 
the International Socialist Congrtviimi 
in Brussels and Zurich, this congri's-t ijn 
dares that the organization of li.uliH 
unions is an absolute necessity in ill! 
struggle of emancipation of the wmli' 
ing class, and we consider it as the (Inly 
of all wage workers who aim nl (li# 
emancipation of labor from ca(iiliill*» 
wage slavery to join the union of llirll 
respective trade. 

"The trade unions, in order to ilrt 
effective work, shall be nationally ul 
ganized and the splitting up of tlic •'!•■ 
ments in separate organizations w III 
be condemned. Political differencn iif 
opinion shall not be a cause for divli) 
ing or splitting up the forces in llw 
economic struggle, but the prolelmUH 
class struggle makes it the duty for till 
labor organizations to educate illfif 
members in Socialist principles." ( A|» 
plause.) 

Mr. Chairman and Comrades, I l)« 
lieve in Socialism; I believe in 1lic III' 
ternational Socialist movement ; I Imi 
lieve in the Socialist Party of AinnlcH. 
but I will tell you one thing, that ! iiJMl 
believe in, and that is I believe lliri* 



11 



Evening Session, May /. 



181 



♦ 



. t.ilior movement throughout the whole 

■ il.l, and when I say that I am speak- 

niH I onservatively. I want to say to 

I Iclegates in this convention that 

I MM may laugh and you did laugh a 

ImI. ago at some of the expressions 

ii.ii ucre made here, and I know the 

II Mons of some of you who have 
I 1 1.1 the arguments here upon this 

II .md the utterances upon this floor, 

I. Ml I want to bring one thing home to 
.Mil I want some of you people who 
1 il ( ilie opposite stand to this to con- 
iinlul it on this floor to-night and I 
Mil r'ling to tell you what that is, I am 
KiiiiiK to say this to you: You have 
Hill :i Socialist Party movement in Mil- 

inl.ic and it is a working class move- 
i. Ill You haven't any reform or un- 

III labor party movement there. (Ap- 
iiliiii;i-.) You have a Socialist party 
■ MMvcment in Massachusetts. 

hIL. BICKETT (O.): The gentle- 
Miiii IS exceeding his time. 

I 1 1 li CHAIRMAN : Hie has a half 
ni<' to close. Don't take a minute 

I 111', time. 

nil. BICKETT: Point of order. 

II lie CHAIRMAN: There is no 
|initii of order. Please be in order and 
.illuw the delegate to finish his half 
iiiiniilc. 

DI'.L. BRANDT: You have got a 
ii.iiist Party in Massachusetts that 
1. 1 iccomplished results, and in this 
I- MM^- half minute which I have got I 
. ml to bring this home to you, that 
vim cannot show me a single instance 
III (Ik- American Socialist movement 
ivIi.M- the Socialist Party has got right 
ilnwii to the field of action and defined 
llii iiilerests of the working man to-day 
im well as in the future, where any 

II I. It III movement has sprung up, as 
III. II' has been where you people ha-ve 

In I'd this class struggle _ which _ is 

ti t; on to-day in every vicinity, in- 

.linhiig the city we are in. 

II II'. CHAIRMAN : Comrade Mor- 
u III will please take the Chair. 

1 1, legate Morgan here assumed the 
I ii III 

1 1 1 AIRMAN MORGAN: Delegate 

I .1 man has the floor. 

I > !• I ., SIEVERMAN : This has been 

H I t strenuous day, and now I am 

mlilii-sing you not as Chairman but as 
« ill li-gate. 



DEL. BICKETT: Point of order. 

DEL. FARRELL (O.) : Sit down. 

DEL. BICKETT: I don't have to 
sit down. 

DEL. SIEVERMAN: I have been 
approached by a number of delegates — 

DEL. BICKETT: Comrade Chair- 
man. 

DEL. SIEVERMAN: Will the Del- 
egate from Ohio please keep quiet? 

DEL. BICKETT: Are you Chair- 
man or Speaker? 

DEL. SIEVERMAN: I say, I have 
been approached by a number of dele- 
gates to-day and I have been told that 
I have saved this convention quite a 
few hours, and while I am not so sure 
that I have done so, I am going to 
ask you to give me just a few minutes, 
that is, you decent delegates who are 
here. (Applause.) There are some del- 
egates here that don't know and would 
not understand the laws of decency. 

DEL. TOOLE (Md.) : Mr. Chair- 
man, I protest against such language 
being used here. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: I would 

suggest that the delegate be in order 

and then I would suggest that the 
speaker restrain himself. 

DEL. SIEVERMAN: The speaker 
stands corrected, but he would remind 
you, however, that he would not have 
used the language unless he had known 
of the truth of his statement. I rise 
to speak in defense of the committee's 
report. I think I will have to fight 
my way through. I want to say as a 
preliminary proposition that it is the 
easiest thing on earth for a member 
of a trades union who is a Socialist to 
attend his trades union meetings and 
find himself in conflict with the con- 
trolling elements on the floor of that 
trades union, and finding himself 
worsted by reason of the superior num- 
ber of the enemy, he then becomes dis- 
gusted and quits activity in the trades 
union movement, dividing bis future 
course with reference to the trades un- 
ion movement upon a purely local in- 
cident; and being completely disgusted 
with his experience, he comes into a 
National Socialist convention to ask 
that convention to adopt or refuse to 
adopt resolutions that have to do with 
a great economic movement, without 
having any greater support behind him, 



182 



Evening Session, May 4. 



Evening Session, May 4. 



183 



so far as he is concerned, than his in- 
dividual experience in his own local 
movement, which is more often than 
not the result of a degree of lethargy 
and want of enterprise. (Loud ap- 
plause.) There is no lack of material 
to prove that in the trades union move- 
ment there are corruptionists galore, 
nor is there any lack of material to 
prove that if the Socialist trades un- 
ionists were to take a keener, more 
active and a more thorough interest in 
their trades unions, that these corrupt 
elements would be sooner or later 
driven out of the trades union field. 
(Applause.) And, I want to remind 
you comrades, that coming into this 
convention thus prompted by local ex- 
perience hardly does credit to us. We 
have asked ourselves the question, 
"What is the trades union movement?" 
How comfortable the reflection of the 
delegate from Oregon that it is a 
crutch; a crutch upon which labor 
leans, and the quicker it breaks the 
better for the invalid, as illustrated in 
British Columbia. What a shallow and 
what a superficial knowledge of the 
trades union movement that statement 
betrays. (Applause.) And the charge 
fits every delegate here who so en- 
thusiastically approved and gave dem- 
onstration of approval of that state- 
ment. What is the trades union move- 
ment? It is the concrete effort of the 
working class to wrest concessions, to 
wrest material advantages from the 
capitalist class that they do not now 
possess. How do they develop? Is 
that sign of the American flag still 
here? Is that flag here that has been 
desecrated by the enumeration of the 
ills and the tyrannies that have been 
practiced upon the organized working 
men? That tells the tale in the graphic 
language of the conflict between capi- 
tal and labor. (Applause.) Here is 
labor leaning on a crutch in the east, 
in the west, in the north, everywhere ; 
where they get the opportunity they 
contest the field with capital. They 
declare that insofar as by their numeri- 
cal strength they may make it possi- 
ble, they will wrest better conditions 
from the capitalist class. Not so in the 
south. The crutch is not in evidence 
south of Mason and Dixon's line. (Ap- 
plause.) South of Mason and Dixon's 
line the modern wage slave, like the 
chattel slave before the war, has no 
protest to make. Like the chattel slave 



before the war, willingly he bares llll ' 
back to the lash of capitalist opin'i'* 
sion. (Loud applause.) In the .hi mill 
this crutch is not in evidence, and wliitl 
is the status of the labor question III 
the south as viewed through the ryi" 
glasses of the Socialist? Is there iiiiy 
where in this country a portion, is tlioid 
anywhere in this country a spcctmU 
that may so fill us with discouragciunili 
that may so send the chills of pcssliii 
ism up and down our back as the <'iiii 
ditions that prevail in the labor lirltl 
in the south? (Loud applause.) (Hi, 
delegates, this trades union movciiifiil 
is the economic expression of the wnil« 
ing class in the economic field. (A|i 
plause.) You cannot ignore this Inil 
out of existence. This conflict is lu'in 
You, as the chosen, the self-appoiiilfil 
champions, if you please, of tlic In 
terests of the working class, yon ciiii 
not escape going on record for \\\ 
against the working class in their sIiiim 
gle with capital. (Prolonged appl.iimi' I 
You may hide behind whatever suliti'i 
fuge you elect, but the trades niiinn 
ists upon this field will drag you foilll 
and will make you take a stand foi iii 
against labor in this economic lirltl 
(Loud cheering and applause.) 'I'liU || _ 
not altogether, at least not yet, a imlif I 
of academics. (Cries of "Good," Mil!) 
applause.) We, who compose III* 
Trades Union Committee, may no! Ii» 
able to write resolutions in choice V.\\% 
lish, we don't wear any college-gr.iiili'il 
initials before or after our names, (ii|i 
plause), but we know something lii|) 
plause) about eating dust; we Kimw 
something about standing to the iim 
chine when the shriek of the failnill 
whistles summons us from our lii'if 
side; we know something about lllli 
evils that visit the working class, nil| | 
as the result of theoretical speciil;illfi||| 
or of philosophic academic trcnilii 



3! 



upon the subject. (Loud applause) N 
We learned in the school of bitter i'« 
periences, and we better than ruiviiHl 
else appreciate the motives, the ii|i'iil|i 
and the aspirations that govern nitl| 
prompt the working class. Come to \\y 
you college-bred Socialists. (Limi^liliif 
and applause.) Go to school to u'l iidi) 
we will tell you something about wIlKl 
the working class wants and that U | 
working class platform all tlir y'*!!^ 
round. (Prolonged cheering :inil ii|l 
plause). 
DEL. LAMB (Mich.) : ComimU 



iiiiinian: Underneath this great ques- 

1 I here is a philosophy. There ex- 

III the United States to-day a 

H .(onomic force. It is the domin- 

MhK force, it is the controlling force 

M '.ncicty; that force is capitalism. 

Iiiw let me tell you, comrades, there 

■ ■( Inrce which you cannot meet with 

M.I theory. You have got to meet 

.1 i;iH)n the actual, practical field of 

■ (lie of life. (Applause.) Before 

III supplant capitalism as the dom- 

economic force in the United 

I you must fit the laboring class 

ilKTsede it in its mission. It is 

I 1 matter of sentiment; it is a mat- 

■ 1 cold, hard fact. The working 

■ I' 1)6 fit to survive in the economy 

■ uty must build himself up, and 

ii. iim-l build himself up from the very 

I. ill Comrades, we propose an in- 

lii»|ii.il state, do we not? We propose 

III imlustrial State. What does that 

HI It means that every working 

the United States shall be or- 

I first in his craft and then in 

' I r-s as a workingman, through 

'laduations, through much labor, 

III 111 much study. I can imagine, 

I ' liiiirman and Comrades, an indus- 

I lie, but I cannot imagine possi- 

111 industrial state controlled by 

ii 1.111S, not even by Socialist poli- 

M (Applause.) There is some- 

ilic trades union association is 

nil:-' It is growing and fitting it- 

I ii.r what? The individual cannot 

• t 111I0 the Socialist state except 

I Hrli the organization of his craft 

I I lie Socialist state can never come, 

I ill God's world, without going 

■' iirli the collective training and the 

iiiiim of interests which the 

'■ ii union gives. They cannot, ex- 

ii iliiough that, reach to the Socialist 

II' Now we are building an indus- 

M.i ,t;itc. In that state the working 

I ilic producer of the wealth of all 

' ■ I , will be the dominant influence, 

."I il will come through the trades 

1 n Let me- say to you, friends, 

Il . n operative commonwealth never 
ic through a political organiza- 

I I 1 1 must come through the organ- 
ii III nf the trades, and it is coming 

' I w;iy. Now I do not know that I 
I I myself clear upon this. I have 

■ ire for politics or politicians. 

I 11 !• CI I AIRMAN : The conven- 

II (vill be in order so you can re- 
' iKciition. 



DEL. LAMB : Is my time up, Com- 
rade Chairman? 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: No, Com- 
rade, I will call upon you when your 
time is up. 

DEL. LAMB: I have little use for 
politicians of any kind, except as they 
may educate, but the real educator in 
the Socialist ranks will understand that 
the unit of the co-operative common- 
wealth after the individual, is the or- 
ganized industry, and only those who 
operate the machines can organize that 
industry. I presume I may be followed 
by those who can treat of this subject 
better than I do. 

Several delegates here endeavored to 
obtain the floor. The Chairman recog- 
nized Delegate Hayes. 

DEL. WEBSTER (O.) : Comrade 
Chairman, I suggest that a member 
on one side be given the floor and then 
a member on the other side. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: Delegate 
Hayes has the floor. 

DEL. COLLINS (111.) : Point of 
order. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: What is 
it? 

DEL. COLLINS: 1 make the same 
suggestion as that made by the com- 
rade from Ohio, that one delegate on 
each side be given the floor. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: Well, as 
there has been no rule established and 
it is near quitting time, we won't stop 
to make new rules. Delegate Hayes 
has the floor. 

DEL. HAYES (O.) : Mr. Chair- 
man, I don't know but what I will 
probably need less than ten minutes. I 
was in hopes that the author of the 
amendment to cut out the sentence that 
"political differences of opinion do not 
and should not justify the division of 
the forces of labor in the industrial 
movement," would have taken the floor 
and defended his position upon that 
proposition. Now having made his de- 
fense, I will take the aggressive in the 
brief time that is allotted to me and 
make the statement as emphatically as 
I can, that despite the fact that the his- 
tory of our movement, national and in- 
ternational, has been, from the day of 
Marx and La Salle down to date, that 
the writers have called upon the work- 
ers of all countries to unite and throw 
oflf the chains of bondage, I say despite 



184 



Evening Session, May 4. 



Evening Session, May 4. 



185 



that fact a grand philosopher comes be- 
fore us here to-night and attempts to 
cut out that part with reference to other 
political parties except our own with 
whi-ch the working class may be briefly 
identified under our present system. 
The working class of the United States 
is composed, it is true, of Republicans, 
of Democrats, of Socialists, Single- 
taxers and perhaps many other political 
parties aijd factions, but even though 
the men of the old parties, our breth- 
ren in the shops and the factories and 
the mines may be identified with these 
parties, unconsciously they are strug- 
gling against the capitalist class which 
is turning their muscle and their blood 
into profits and rolling them up in 
hundreds of millions of dollars a year. 
(Applause.) And, the only place that 
they have through which to give ex- 
pression of this almost, apparently hope- 
less struggle, is in the trades union 
movement as organized at present. Men 
may rail at and denounce the trades 
union movement, and while I am not 
of the opinion that any great number 
of Socialists do so, still I say there 
may be an individual here and there 
who will come into a convention of this 
kind for the purpose of causing internal 
dissension, but I say to you whatever 
dissentions may be raised, I say to you 
that the trades union movement will 
survive all of the criticisms and de- 
nunciations that may be heaped upon 
it by the capitalists on one side or the 
traitors in labor's ranks upon the other 
side. (Loud applause.) We of the 
trades union movement, those of us 
who belong to organized labor, are con- 
stantly in the forefront of the great 
battle that is waging in this country. 
Our battle does not last one day, or one 
week, or one month, or one year, but 
it goes on and on until one side or the 
other wins. (Applause.) If we sur- 
rendered our trades unions and placed 
our dependence solely upon the casting 
of a ballot once or twice a year, the 
working class of this country would be 
in deeper misery than it is to-day (ap- 
plause) and it is only because of the 
resisting power (applause), it is only 
because of the resisting power of the 
workers in the industrial field that we 
have secured some concessions, slight 
as they may be. All in fact that the 
workers have secured has not been 
gained by political movements, has not 
been gained through the old parties, 



but has been won despite thr m|) 
position of the old parties, and, niH 
sequently, it is our duty to briuH iht 
trades unionists in line with the Sdclnl 
ist Party and attempt to accomplUll 
politically what we are aiming In iIh 
now industriously. (Loud applaiiir ) 
There is one more point I wish In 11 
fer to. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You have imi 
minute left. 

DEL. HAYES: The statement m| 

the lady delegate, of the comrade flniH 
Oregon, who said that she was in Mill 
ish Columbia where a battle had Imki 
waged unsuccessfully upon the iinhn 
trial field, and after they had uuiK 
down into defeat they rallied In till 
standard of the Socialist party and wnH 
Yes, I grant that that is true. HiM ll 
the men had not been organized, if lllf 
men would not have made a figlil, v'lH 
would not have won. (Prolonged ii|t 
plausc.) 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: The IIimn 

for adjournment has now arrived. 

Motion was made to suspend llin 
rules and continue in session fnr iit( 
hour, but the motion failed for willll 
of a second. 

DEL. BRANDT (Mass.) : I miiki' N 
motion that we continue in session nil 
til this matter is settled. 

Motion seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The moti(iH ll 
made and regularly seconded thai Wfl 
continue in session until this siiti|m'( 
matter is settled. Are you preparnl IH 
receive amendments to that motiniif 

A DELEGATE: I move thai t 
time be extended one hour. 

A DELEGATE: I move to lay 
the table. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: Mot| 
is made that it be laid on the tlf 
Are there any seconds to that mot^ 

DEL. FARRELL (O.) : I 
that we extend the time of adjournml 
one hour. 

The motion was seconded. 

DEL. CAREY (Mass.) : Mr. Cln|(! 
man, I want to submit to the dcle|||| ' 
a suggestion that I have and if || 
delegates will listen I am quite Nlf 
that tbey will agree with me. 

A DELEGATE: Mr. Chairnil 
some of us are getting tired .'IihI 
think that the question of continiiln 



1.1 r I this evening should be discussed 

I liiile before a vote is taken. 

II IE CHAIRMAN: The delegate 
In not in order. Comrade Carey has 
I In- lloor. 

Di'X. CAREY: What I desire to 
■(.iir is this: That it is clearly appar- 
,ni (hat a good many of these mem- 
l.ri have not attended their trades un- 
iMii meetings, else they would have bet- 
in knowledge of parliamentary proced- 
un and would keep quieter. (Laugh- 
1. 1 ) But, Comrades, I desire to state 
ilii , that there are some of us who 
...n ider this matter to be of more im- 
|.Mii;ince than others would consider it, 
III I I believe that in the mood which 
(111. convention is in to-night, that we 
in in no condition to give serious atten- 
iimi to the subject before the house. 
( \p|)lause.) I believe, Comrades, that 

I I nc adjourn now and sleep over it, 
ili.i( we will come in to-morrow and 
liui' a better time and be better fitted 
I.. (:dce proper action on this matter. 
I \|.|ilause.) Mr. Chairman, would 
(..n accept a motion to adjourn? 

( ITAIRMAN MORGAN: There is 
I motion already before the house to 
. irnd the time until half past eleven, 
Miir hour. You will either have to 
inn nd that or vote it down. 

DRL. SEIVERMAN: Lay it on the 
I iMv. 

DI'X. CAREY: Comrade Delegate, 
(vli.itever may be our particular opin- 

s on this subject, I want to appeal 

111 you as one of those unhappy agita- 
Imsfor the Socialist Party, I want 
In nppeal to you that this question is 
.if mo much importance to be settled 
Im night or hurried through to-night in 
(lie mood we are in. 

DEL. DALTON (111.): I move to 
iiliourn at this time, or to give ten 
iinnutes' discussion to this subject on 
• nil side and then adjourn; or if that 
I not agreeable, I am willing to ad- 
inuin, but I insist that I be heard upon 
ilir; proposition. 

(11 AIRMAN MORGAN: The mo- 
iinii before us is, Comrade Delegates, 

III It we continue this session until half 
|ir t eleven. That has not been amend- 

Di'L. SPARGO (N. Y.): I rise to 

' ('1 1 AIRMAN MORGAN: Comrade 
' pirgo has the floor. 



DEL. SPARGO: I beg to move as 
an amendment that we continue the 
discussion for ten minutes only and 
then we do adjourn until nine o'clock 
to-morrow morjiing. 
The motion was seconded. 
DEL. FARRELL (O.) : I want to 
speak on the amendment. 

DEL. KERRIGAN: I want to speak 
on that amendment and I hope that I 
will be granted the courtesy of this 
convention to be given the floor at 
least once in a while. I have not had 
the floor but two minutes this whole 
day. (Laughter.) 

DEL. LUCAS (Minn.): I rise to 
a question of personal privilege. 

Several tother delegates endeavored 
to obtain the floor. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: Now your 
Chairman is about as stubborn as any- 
body in this hall and I will not recog- 
nize anybody until we have order. 

DEL. LUCAS: Question of privi- 
lege. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: There is 
no question of privilege proper at this 
time. 

DEL. LUCAS: Yes there is. I just 
want to make a suggestion. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: The dele- 
gate will be seated. Delegate Farrell 
has the floor. 

DEL. LUCAS: I have a right to 
make a suggestion. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: Be seat- 
ed; you are out of order. Delegate 
Farrell has the floor. 

DEL. FARRELL: As a member of 

this convention 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: You must 
speak to the amendment. 

DEL. FARRELL: I am going to 
speak to the amendment and to the 
business before the house. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: No, you 
are to speak to the amendment. 

DEL. FARRELL: To the amend- 
ment, yes, that is before the house. I 
want to say, Comrades, that as a trades 
unionist and as a Socialist and as one 
that is not possessed with any more 
than the usual physical power, I feel 
that T am in a position to stay here to- 
night to settle this all important ques- 
tion. I feel that this convention needs 
the settling of this question to-night. 



I 



186 



Evening Session, May . 



i'»W| 



I want to say that I have, since this 
matter was brought out, had a resolu- 
tion in my hands as an amendment and 
I wanted to place it before the house, 
as I believe it will settle this whole 
proposition ; not as a condemnation of 

the trades union movement- 

CHIAIRMAN MORGAN: The dele- 
gate will be in order. He will speak 
to the amendment to adjourn in ten 
minutes. 

DEL. FARRELL: All right. I hold 
that it is to the interest of this con- 
vention, and to the interest of the So- 
cialist Party, that this convention be 
continued at least for one hour more to- 
night, in an endeavor to settle this 
question, and for that reason I will 
vote in favor of extending the time one 
hour. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Delegate Mills 
has the floor. 

DEL. MILLS (Kan.): Now, Com- 
rades, I want this motion to adjourn 
in ten minutes to carry, and for a num- 
ber of reasons. I want to speak on this 
question myself. I know twenty oth- 
er men who want to speak on this ques- 
tion to-night, and they want to speak 
very badly, and a good number of us 
are gettmg a little bit excited. For my 
part, I do not want to speak fo-night. 
I want the comrades who are in this 
hall now to adjourn and to go home 
and go to bed and come back in the 
morning with the determination that 
we will speak on this matter without 
excitement, deliberately and carefully, 
and decide it as a deliberative body 
ought to decide a great question such 
as this is. (Applause.) 



DEL. DUCAS (Minn.) : All I wtiil 
to say is this, that in order to setlln 
this we should have equal time to di* 
cuss this, and I ask that the time Im^ 
divided on each side equally. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: The del 
eagte is out of order. 

It was moved and seconded that tlir 
debate be closed. Motion carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN,: The question 
now comes on the motion that thin 
session be extended ten minutes iitnl 
that we then adjourn until nine o'clock 
to-morrow morning. 

The question was put and the motion 
carried. 

DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : Comra.lr 
Chairman, I desire to move that an 
equal number of speakers, if they no 
desire, on the opposite side to those who 
have already spoken, be heard to-moi 
row morning. 

The motion was seconded. 

CHAIRMAN MORGAN: Will 
Comrade Spargo please state the nm 
tion again? 

DEL. SPARGO: Comrade Chaii 
man, I say that although I myself dr 
sire to speak on the motion, yet in view 
of the fact that a considerable nuin 
bar of delegates desire to speak on (In- 
other side, that upon the opening of tlir 
convention to-morrow, if they so dr 
sire, an equal number against the mo 
tion ought to be heard before any 
speakers in favor of it be heard, anil 
that, thereafter, they be heard one on 
each side. 

The motion was seconded and carrird 

On motion, the convention then ail 
journed until nine o'clock, Thursday, 
May 5, 1904. 



Morning Session, May 5. 



187 



FIFTH DAY'S SESSION 



.'Mcretary Dobbs called the conven- 
iiuii to order at 9 o'clock, and called for 
HMiiiiiiations for chairman for the day. 
DI'.L. TOOLE (Md.): I move the 
MMinination of the chairman of yester- 
ihiy. We have had a chairman who 
iiMH ruled so completely that I renomi- 
iiiilc Chairman Sieverman. 

Mic following other nominations 
iM If made: 
■K-dman (111.), by Gaylord (Wis.)- 
VV. W. Wilkins, (Cal.) by Irene 

.Smith (Ore.). 
H.irnes (Pa.), by Collins (111.). 
Ii.iiidlow (Ohio), by Berger (Wis.). 
Mailly (Neb.), by HSllquit (N. Y.). 
hi'.L. WHITE (Mass.): J ;desire 
1.. ,t;ite for Comrade Sieverman that he 
. miiot be here this morning. 

I HE SECRETARY: Are there any 
liiiilior nominations? 

|)!:L. PATTON (Cal.): I move 
ih.ii we proceed to elect. Miction sec- 
iiiidtd and carried. 
Wilkins and Barnes declined, 
riic Secretary called for a rising vote 
nil the three remaining candidates, and 
II resulted as follows: Stedman, 48; 
M.iilly, 55 ; Bandlow, 7- Delegate 
M.iilly was declared elected and took 
(lir chair. 

I he following were nominated for 
V IK- Chairman: 
Ruse (Miss.), by Berger (Wis.). 
Sicdman (111.), by White (Mass.). 
Itarnes (Pa.), by Hillquit (N. Y.). 
'niithworth (Colo.), by Cogswell 
(Kan.). 

H.iudlow (Ohio), by 

Hrlirens (Mb.), by 

Oil motion the nominations were 
liiiscd. 

Rose, Stedman, Barnes, Southworth 
mill Bandlow declined, and Delegate 
hrlirens being the only candidate, was 
Hii:iiiimously elected. 

HIE CHAIRMAN: The Secretary 
will read the order of business. 



THE SECRETARY: We :mI 
journed upon the Trades Union ifsoln 
tions. Four have spoken favoiablr i" 

the resolutions, and it was uiidi-i.sl I 

that four on the other side woiilil lir 
given time to speak, and then after HmI 
there would be an equal division nl 
time. . ^ 

THE CHAIRMAN: I am nifoniii<l 
by the Secretary that the debate niimi 
the Trades Union resolutions was nol 
closed last night. I was not prcsciit, 
so I did not know the status of adairs. 
I am informed that it was agreed tb.U 
four speakers in the affirmative liavinn 
spoken in favor of the resolutions, fi»ur 
should have the floor against. 

DEL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : I mov<- 
that we proceed to take a vote on this 
resolution at 11 o'clock. Seconded. 

DEL. HANFORD (N. Y.) : To my 
mind, the only business which we liavi- 
is to arrive at a conclusion in regard 
to which side will win. 

DEL. WILKINS (Cal.): Is the sub 
stitute resolution that we have before 
us the trades union resolution? 
THE CHAIRMAN: Yes. 
DEL. WILKINS: I was not hcrr 
last night, and I want the substitute 
read. 

DEL. HANFORD: There is a mo 
tion before the house now, and the gen- 
tleman cannot rise to a point of infor- 
mation. There is a question before Uio 
house now, which is that we iJiorccd 
to vote at II o'clock. It is to lli;il 
motion I am now talking, and 1 (In mil 
know why the delegates here ;,lnnilil 
not be aware of it or be in a jiosiliiui 
to ask information upon it. I iiuTcly 
want to talk briefly to the proptisilioii 
that we proceed to vote at 11 o'clnck 
Regardless of what the result of \\i\n 
vote may be, notwithstanding the fad 
that I am prepared to vote and I know J 
many others here are, to my mind it ii ^ 
important to this body that on any 



188 



Morning Session, May 5. 



Morning Skssion, May 5. 



189 



practical question which arises we 
should get the opinions of "comrades 
on both sides of that question at least, 
and we should not move the previous 
question until each side has been heard 
to the limit. I want to see this con- 
vention accomplish the remainder of 
its work in the shortest possible 
manner, but, Mr. Chairman, I have 
a volume here which tells me what 
it is to cut off debate, and which 
tells me what it is, regardless of the 
fact that you may have a majority on 
your side, to get away from the prop- 
osition simply because you can. This 
is a proposition on which we want, not 
to discuss the personality of various 
people on different sides of the question, 
but to discuss the merits of the ques- 
tion and we will not be satisfied with 
the discussion of the merits of the ques- 
tion until every delegate here who has 
something to say has been heard. The 
point I wish to make is this : If we do 
discuss the question fully, and if in- 
stead of discussing each other, we con- 
fine ourselves to the merits of the ques- 
tion, then whatever decision is made, 
we can expect unanimity in the sup- 
port of it. But if, instead of that, we 
go into a consideration of this man's 
past and that man's future, it will lead 
us away from an effort to reach the 
intelligence of the comrades not by a 
mere majority conclusion, whatever it 
may be, but a practically unanimous 
conclusion, by the enlightenment of the 
cornrades on this question, something 
which we all need, every one of us. 

DEL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : Reason- 
ing from the premises of Comrade Han- 
ford, we should never adopt the pre- 
vious question until every delegate who 
wants to be heard on the particular 
question has been heard. We want to 
transact some business. We have been 
learning something about the proposi- 
tion before us. It was discussed for 
two hours at least yesterday, and we 
have two hours before us to discuss it 
yet, and I think we should proceed to 
vote upon this proposition. I move to 
amend that we vote not later than 11 
o'clock, if you will permit, and there is 
no objection. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If there is no 
objection the motion will be amended to 
read "Not later than 11 o'clock." 

DEL. RICHARDSON (Cal.) : I have 
not occupied much time, but I want to 



suggest a question on this motion, 'riimi 
are two propositions before this coiivril 
tion. The first thing we should dnliU 
is this : Shall this convention foi mil 
late an expression of the relations, ut 
attitude, rather, of the Socialist rmtli 
towards trade unions? That is ill* 
first question, and that is the one iIihI 
has been debated so far entirely. Nnvy, 
let us grant, for the sake of arguiiii'iil, 
that that is carried in the affirmallyi' 
Then the next question is, what nIihII 
be the formulated expression? Wluil 
shall constitute the resolution? Gcnil* 
rnen, tell us here, and perhaps they hi* 
right— I am not here to deny it- liml 
people say that if we fail to formiiliili' 
an expression, this movement goc.i |u 
pieces. Then this is a very imporliiiij 
matter, and hence, the formulation nl 
that expression is a very vital lliiiiM 
This debate is going on simply on llif 
answer to the first question. Shall ww 
formulate an expression at all? TinMn 
fore, Mr. Chairman, I move as a tmli 
stitute for the motion that is now Iw 
fore the house that the first vote tiiUlt 
in disposing of the report of the (.'(iiil 
mittee on Resolutions shall be an aiiHW«»r 
to the question, "Shall this convcnlliiH 
formulate an expression of the attitiliU 
of the Socialist Party toward trHiil 
unions?" And settle that question oiilyi 
Then we will get down out of (III 
clouds to the resolution itself as a np(i- 
ondary matter. That would natunUllf 
follow. 

Substitute seconded by DelcKHll 
Parks. 

DEL. CAREY (Mass.): Mr. Chnlf 
man, I want to say this: There wiin I 
very wise mail who tried to save tlllM 
by making all sorts of motions, and wl 
spent valuable time that ought t<i Im 
devoted to the real subject of dispoNhljl 
of such propositions as this. If yoti 
want to close the debate at 11 o'cloch, 
vote for it; if you don't, vote it dnwit, 
Let us stop chewing the rag about mill 
essentials and get at the question. 

Delegate Kerrigan moved to lay ilia 
motion on the table. (Seconded.) 

Delegate Sieverman moved the pi»' 
vious question. Seconded and rHI'- 
ried. 

The motion to close the debate not 
later than 11 o'clock was put and lost. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The sccrplmfi 
will now read the substitute and umeiti|> 
ment of the matter before the house, 



rilE SECRETARY: There is quite 
I number. There is the original as of- 
iMrii by the committee, and there are 
.1 Muiple of amendments to change the 
i.liiaseology, and there is an entirely 
11. w substitute. I think it would con- 
MMiic valuable time unless they want 
iliiin all read. 

I HE CHAIRMAN: Everybody has 
111.- original motion. Let us hear the 
.iiKslitute. You already have the orig- 
in.! I resolution before you on the tables. 
DEL. HAYES (Ohio): I would like 
I., say that I believe every delegate m 
I Ins hall understands the substitute 
iiilly. Let us get down to debating the 
.|ii(stion and not consume more time. 
I Ins was read once last night. 

TilE CHAIRMAN: Then we will 
pmcced to debate upon the substitute. 

Hie Secretary then read the substitute 
ir.olution offered by Delegate Ott of 
\V\oraing at Wednesday's session. 
I he question was called for. 
1)1£L. CAREY: I rise to discuss a 
• inrstion that I have been trying to get 
ii since yesterday, the trade union ques- 
iinM. Have I the floor to discuss the 
ii.nk' union question? 

I HE CHAIRMAN: Delegate Carey. 

DEL. BROWER (111-): A point of 

.n.ler. At the close of last night's ses- 

lun a motion was carried and the 

iluirman stated specifically that when 

lins matter was taken up this morning 

III.' sides should be divided until the 

piakers against the side of the trade 

Miiiun resolution should have as many 

,|u cches as the other side, prior to any 

,.n.' else speaking in defense of the 

|,i. .position, and then other speakers 

nnnlit take the floor. I submit to you 

tli.il this is out of order. 

DEL. CAREY: When I arose on this 
,i,U' no man rose to oppose it, and I 
i.M>k the floor to defend it. 

DEL COLLINS (III): I "se to a 
pnint of order. I do not think that 
inuiion was passed last night. 

HUE SECRETARY: The motion 
vv.cs passed as stated by the gentlemaii 
I, mil Illinois, and it was understood 
1 1 1.1 1 as many speakers in opposition to 
ill. trade union motion should be heard 
r. were heard in advocacy of the trade 
nnicin motion. 

Di'X. COLLINS: I would like to 
ni.ike a suggestion, to save time; that 



the comrades that are against the reso- 
lution on trade unionism pick out six 
on their side, or as many as you want, 
or nine; then let us pick out six or nine 
on the other side. I think that will 
satisfy the trade union side. 

THE CHAIRMAN : There is no mo- 
tion on the subject. 

DEL. HOEHN (Mo.) : I trust we 
will start the debate, and I hope that 
those who are opposed to the resolu- 
tion will make their presence known 
now. They have not been heard yet, 
and it is about time that we heard from 
them. We want to hear from them as 
quick as possible. 

DEL. CAREY : If there is any under- 
standing that those opposed to the reso- 
lutions are entitled to this time I am 
perfectly willing to yield. It will be 
II o'clock soon. I am perfectly willing 
to yield. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I am going to 
call on Comrade Cross, assistant secre- 
tary, to read the exact status of affairs, 
as I was not present last night. I have 
relied upon the statement of Comrade 
Cross and want to get it before the dele- 
gates so as to facilitate matters. 

DEL. TAFT (111.) : I rise to a ques- 
tion of personal privilege. I wish to 
protest against the statement that those 
opposed to this resolution are opposed 
to trade unionism. (Applause.) 

THE CHAIRMAN:. That is no ques- 
tion of personal privilege. 

ASST. SECRETARY CROSS: The 
matter before the house is as follows: 
You are at present - debating the sub- 
stitute offered by Comrade Ott tof 
Wyoming. You are not debating trade 
unionism or anything else, but you rnust 
debate upon the substitute as offered by 
Ott of Wyoming. 

DEL. KERRIGAN (Tex.) ; I move 
to table the substitute. Seconded. 

DEL. BERLYN (HI.): That is the 
most outrageous idea I ever heard of. 
DEL. MORGAN (111-): The dele- 
gates will remember that I was m the 
chair when we adjourned last night. 
The chairman was not present, there 
was a motion passed which the secre- 
tary has not read, and I would like to 
state it for the information of the dele- 
gates The motion was that we should 
continue in session for ten tninutes; 
that then we should adjourn, and that 



190 



Morning S\ession, May 5. 



Morning Session, May 5. 



191 



to-morrow (this) morning as many 
speakers who were opposed to the 
adoption of the resolution should have 
the floor as there had been in favor of 
the resolution. The debate commenced 
with a lady from one of the western 
states here. She opposed the resolu- 
tions in toto. That was followed by a 
member from Missouri, and then our 
friend here (Delegate Lamb, of Michi- 
gan), and Max Hayes. All three of 
those spoke in favor of the trade union 
proposition, and it is in order, unless 
we consider the motion passed last 
night, now to give to the opponents of 
the resolution three speakers. 
A DELEGATE: Four. 

DEL. MORGAN: No, three speakers 
Now, you ought to be satisfied. I am 
m favor of the resolutions, and I am 
rnaking this plea for you, and I say 
there were three, and that is in ac- 
cordance with the resolution. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Mor- 
gan, who was vice-chairman yesterday, 
and in the chair when yesterday's ses- 
sion adjourned, states that in accord- 
ance with the resolution adopted there 
are three speakers opposed to the adop- 
tion of the trade union resolution en- 
titled to the floor. 

DEL. MORGAN: That is right 
DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : I rise to 
a pomt of order. So far from there 
being three, there were five, the names 
, nu- delegates, speaking being Hayes 
°! Vt '°' J^^"^^ °^ Michigan, Sieverman 
of New York, Hoehn of Missouri and 
iirandt of Missouri. (Applause.) 

THE CHAIRMAN: And there was 
one opposed. Smith of Oregon. 

. DEL. BERLYN (111.) : A point of 
information. The secretary stated that 
the only thing that was in order now 
to be discussed was the substitute reso- 
lution offered by the comrade from 
Wyoming. I claim, intending to partici- 
pate m this discussion, that under the 
motion to strike out from some dele- 
gate in Illinois the entire subject mat- 
ter arising from the report of the Com- 
mittee on Trades Unions is before the 
house. That is my conception of it 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is to say, 
that the original resolution and the sub- 
stitute are both before the house 

DEL. BERLYN: And the motion to 
strike out, all are before the house. 



THE CHAIRMAN: And the molioM 

to strike out what? 

DEL. BERLYN: This clause. Ther« 
was a motion made by a coihrade thnl 
that should be stricken out, "Politiml 
differences of opinion do not and shoulil 
not justify the division of the force* 
of labor in the industrial movement." 

THE CHAIRMAN: The assistaiK 
secretary has suggested that he do whiil 
I wanted him to do at first, read tlii< 
minutes of last night's session relaliiin 
to this matter, and I must insist 011 
order until the secretary is thronuli 
reading the minutes of that part of lTit> 
session. 

ASST. SECRETARY CROSS: Kr 
port of committee on trade unions takrii 
up. Moved to suspend rules one hoiir; 
seconded and carried. Moved by D«l 

*°"; ^IJ"' ^° ^^^^^^ °"t clause beginiiiin 
with political conditions" and eiuiiiin 
with "Industrial movement." That w«i 
also seconded. Goaziou of Penn.Hyl 
vania moved to add to the last paragraph 
the words, "any more than differciirr 
ot opinion has to the best form of in 
dustnal organization should divide l\\» 
working class in the political movr 
ment. Moved to lay on table, whirli 
was ruled out of order as not dcbiil 
able. Discussed by Hoehn of Missoiiil 
Moved by Ott of Wyoming and .sn 
onded that the resolution be ameiulr.l 
and then he offered his substitute wlii. li 
has been read to you this morning bv 
the secretary a few moments ago. Ii 
was then moved to continue in sesNiriii 
until the matter is settled; secondnl 
Moved to lay on table; carried. Movnl 
to continue for one hour; secoiulr.l 
i'pargo amends to continue for Icii 

"JT^fv,^""^ ^^^" adjourn until 
o clock Thursday; this was secondr.l 
Moved previous question; carried Mh 
tion to extend ten minutes and adjourn 
until 9 Thursday morning; thai wiu 
carried. Ott, amend to extend for u\\p 
^U'"' was not put before the hou.-r 
Moved by Spargo that an equal lunii 
ber of speakers talk on each side of llir 
question and that those against spniJi 
hrst. Carried, and the convention nd 
journed amidst uproar. 

DEL HILLQUIT: I move to tabU 
the substitute. Seconded 
. kT".? CHAIRMAN: It is moved I., 
t^ble the substitute offered by Comra.l.. 

Question called for. 



i 



III motion was put on the question 
( I ililing the substitute, and was de- 
li >. .1 carried. 

Mil': CHAIRMAN : The question 
HMW. as I understand, reverts upon 
iIm 

I 'I I.. PARKS (Kan.): According to 
III! tiih- that was adopted last night we 
himIiI not to dispose of any of these 
tmiilnlions before we have a chance to 
i'tll< upon these subjects. ' 

I 1 1 \i CHAIRMAN : The question 
<»<\\ reverts upon Delegate Goaziou's 
tim tidnieiit. 

I ML. CAREY (Mass.): Last night 
led that a certain number of 

■ \ pposed to the trade union propo- 

lln.ii should be given the floor equal 
111 (III- number of those that had already 
11II..1I for it. What I want to know is, 
ii. I hey going to talk or not? 

• t \ I':RAL DELEGATES : Talk, 
i.ll 

I'M PARKS: I want to talk, Mr. 
' I i.in. I want to talk. 

I 111 CHAIRMAN: I will recognize 
M IIM for the proposition. 

I'M, BERLYN (III.): A point of 

nil I My point is that when a com- 

hI, .isks the floor it is not right for 

I' I iKiir to question what side he is 

IN' can develop his argument as he 

I ill-: CHAIRMAN: The question 
II verts upon Delegate Goaziou's 
Imcnt. 

I 'I I PARKS (Kan.): I rise to a 
(11. ml of nrder. We adopted a rule last 
hit/ III ii>r the order of business this 
iliiiniiii)^ as to the discussion of this 
iMilr union resolution. I want to know 
i -. .ire going to have a right to talk 
I Ml ii. That is my point of order. I 
■Mil IkiM the floor until it is decided. 

I '11 CROSS: I would suggest that 
. n I.I Ik on the resolution. 

I 'I I PARKS: That is what I want 
I I" I ask for the floor for that pur- 
I ' ' 

I I IP. CHAIRMAN: Comrade Parks 

ily has the privilege of the floor, 

i"t I w.int him to talk to the question. 
I V'f'RAL DELEGATES; Talk, 

IhII, 

I'M. GIBBS: I suggest that he take 

ill' .lull 

I 'I I PARKS (holding up his club) : 



I will state that that club is more 
powerful than the policeman's club, and 
more authority than Roberts' Rules of 
Order, because I use it as a symbol for 
truth and not for truth itself. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Talk to the 
question. 

DEL. PARKS : My friends, there are 
some objections urged against talking 
upon this side of this question, some 
saying that the people who are opposed 
to some of the resolutions brought up 
here are simply educated people who 
don't want the proposition discussed 
and are throwing a slur at the people 
who are studying the philosophy of 
Socialism and social problems. My 
friends, Karl Marx was one of the best 
educated men that the world ever pro- 
duced, and carried Ph. D. at the end of 
his name. If it had not been for Karl 
Marx we would not have had "Capi- 
tal" written, and we would not perhaps 
have had the Communist Manifesto. Wy 
friends, it would be a good idea if some 
of these labor union men that are so 
active in this discussion would spend 
five cents and buy a copy of the Com- 
munist Manifesto, which I propose to 
quote this morning, upon this side of 
the question (Applause.) The thing 
we want to look out for is not to divide 
the workers. Karl Marx said, "Work- 
ers of the World, unite ; you have noth- 
ing but' your chains to lose, you have a 
world to gain." We propose to unite 
all the workers, and not make a state- 
ment to appeal to one class of workers. 
(Applause.) If we take a special side 
and make Socialism a union movement 
we will divide the workers, and we will 
be doing the identical things that the 
capitalists succeed in doing, having the 
scab and the union man fighting one 
another. What we want to do is to go 
before the working men of the United 
States and appeal to all classes, and 
not to any one particular class. Capi- 
tal and capitalism favor unionism so 
long as they can use unionism for their 
weapon. (Applause.) Roosevelt him- 
self is a union man, and you will hear 
union men tell you that Roosevelt is 
the greatest American and that he has 
done a great deal down in the American 
anthracite fields to protect the rights of 
laboring men. We are not a union 
party. We are a working men's party, 
and we want that distinctly understood. 
(Applause.) What is unionism? Union- 
ism simply begs for more wages, higher 



192 



Morning Session, May 5. 



Morning S^cssion, May 5. 



193 



wages. What is Socialism? We pro- 
pose to abolish the wage system. (Ap- 
plause.) What is the interest of the 
working man when he goes into a 
union? Is it because of the spirit of 
solidarity or is it because of the selfish 
advantage he gets out of it? Most of 
them go into it because they are going 
to help out their pocketbooks. Now, 
my friends, we know that in 1848 Karl 
Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto. 
We know that at that time, according 
to the preface written by Frederick 
Engels, there was a great union move- 
ment all over Europe. Karl Marx was 
called upon to write a manifesto that 
would appeal to all the workers of the 
world, and he wrote a manifesto which 
became the platform of the workers of 
the world when these trade union move- 
ments on the continent and in England 
went to pieces. Unionism rises and 
falls, but Socialism, my friends, is a 
Science as true as the science of math- 
ematics, and it will last as long as the 
universe lasts. My friends, the unions 
went to pieces after the insurrection in 
Paris in 1848, and they tell us in the 
preface : 

"When the European working class 
had recovered sufficient strength for 
another attack on the ruling classes, 
the International Working Men's As- 
sociation sprang up. But this asso- 
ciation, formed with the express aim 
of welding into one body the whole 
militant proletariat of Europe and 
America, could not at once proclaim 
the principles laid down in the Mani- 
festo. The International was bound 
to have a program broad enough to 
be acceptable to the English Trades 
Unions, to the followers of Proudhon 
in France, Belgium, Italy and Spain, 
and to the Lassalleans in Germany. 
Mlarx, who drew up this program to 
the satisfaction of all parties, entirely 
trusted to the intellectual develop- 
ment of the working class, which 
was sure to result from combined ac- 
tion and mutual discussion. The very 
events and vicissitudes of the strug- 
gle against capital, the defeats even 
more than the victories, could not 
help bringing home to men's minds 
the insufficiency of their various fa- 
vorite nostrums, and preparing the way 
for a more complete insight into the 
true conditions of working-class 
emancipation. And Marx was right. 
The International, on its breaking up 



in 1874, left the workers quite differ* 
ent men from what it had found thedl 
in 1864." 
I will read the whole of it : 

"Proudhonism in France, Lm 
salleanism in Germany, were dymn 
out, and even the conservative Kiiu 
lish trades unions, though most til 
them had long since severed thpll 
connection with the Internationul, 
were gradually advancing towardi 
that point at which last year at Swiiit 
sea, their president could say in tlirll 
name, 'continental Socialism had ltn| 
its terrors for us' ". 
(Here the gavel fell.) 

DEL. GIBBS (Mass.) : ComrntU 
Chairman , 

THIE CHAIRMAN: On which .lidn 
are you? 

DEL. GIBBS: In opposition to \\w 
committee's report as presented. I winli 
to speak in opposition to the conniiil 
tee's report as presented to this convni 
tion, but first I wish to resent the lit 
ainuation that those who are opposed hi 
this report are also opposed to llin 
trades union movement. (Applause | 
I would not do one single thiuK In 
lessen or to weaken the bonds of fralri 
nal union which exists between Iradi' 
unionism, and the Socialist movemeiil I 
speak in opposition to this motion Im< 
cause I believe the time is coininn 
rapidly, if that time is not already \n\v, 
when the Socialist movement niiul 
cease making any special appeals to iiiiy 
particular part of the working cluM 
(applause), and must recognize the fml 
that our sole mission is to the whid« 
of the working class. Now, Mr. Ciiaif 
man, it is unfortunate, perhaps, thai 
arn obliged to speak from the stall 
point of the despised professional. 
say that may be somewhat unfortunn 
It is true, friends, that I am obliged „ 
wear a longitudinal crease in my pailU, 
but I do it for exactly the same rcaNiMi 
that some of you fellows are oliliunj 
to wear a horizontal crease in yniif 
overalls. It is true that I am ol)liu«i|| 
to wear a clean shirt, for exactly III* 
same reason that some of you fellown 
are obliged to wear dirty shirts, it li 
true that I am obliged to carry around 
a professional title in front of my 
name, for exactly the same reason llml 
some of you fellows don't wear a till*, 
But I want to say that I have found m\ 
this, that my grocer, when he sends liU 




l.ll. sometimes makes a mistake and 
I Mils the "Dr." after my name instead 
ill in front I am not proud of these 
ilmigs. These are simply the badges of 
Miv servitude. I recognize the fact, in 
oilier words, that my profession has 
JMon reduced to the level of the wage 
working class. I am speaking from the 
llonr of this convention to-day, not as 
.1 friend of the working class, for I 
.1. spise that term, but I am speaking 
,, a working man myself. (Applause.) 

I want to remind you, friends, that I 
li.ivc not learned the philosophy of So- 
Milism out of a book. I have learned 

I I l)y the hard and bitter experiences 
Ml my own life. (Applause.) I learned 
ilir A B C's of Socialism standing in 
iIh rag room of a paper mill at eleven 
\r,irs of age, when I was obliged to 

i;ind upon a salt box to reach the top 
..I the table that I was working at, and 

I have been perfectly at home upon a 
■.:ilt box, a soap box, a shoe box or any 
oilier old kind of a box ever since. In 
oihcr words, my capitalist friends build- 
. .1 better than they knew, and that is the 
vv.iv they made a Socialist orator out of 
iim! While I speak from the standpoint of 
ilir orator, I deplore any taunts or any 

iHcrs or bitterness that may be raised 
Iniwcen these two sections or elements 

III our party. I want to say that I 
lliiig back to our friends of the trade 
I II I inn movement these taunts that they 
h:ive flung at us. I simply decline to 
.iM-ept those taunts; that is all. They 
..mnot hurt me with that brickbat be- 
(.iiisc I wear the armor of intense loy- 

illy to the working class movement 
uhich cannot be penetrated by any such 
inrrc taunts as those. I want to say 
1I11I when the work of this convention 
Ii:i11 have been completed we will both 
I iiul together; we will clasp hands to- 
Ki-llier, and we will stand shoulder to 
■ lioiilder, fellow-comrades in the work- 

II ii' class movement of the world. (Ap- 
rlnisc.) Now, I want to tell you, 
h I nils, what kind of a Socialist I am. 
I li<ild that it is the supreme or the 
III. I duty of the Socialist movementto 
|iior!r\ini to the whole of the working 
.t,i,s that it is a slave class. I say, to 
fli.' whole working class, and not to any 
I'll licular part of it. 

Delegate Webster (Ohio) arose. 

DIE CHAIRMAN (to Delegate 
(iiM)s): You have three minutes. 



DEL. GIBBS: Under the rule, we 
are entitled to ten minutes. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Go ahead, Com- 
rade Gibbs. 

DEL. GIBBS: I want to tell you 
what kind of a. Socialist I am. I hold 
that it is the first duty of the Social- 
ist movement to proclaim to the whole 
of the working class that it is a slave 
class ; in other words, to draw the class 
line so clear and distinct that the work- 
ing man, though a trade union man, 
cannot err therein. It is our first duty, 
I say, to proclaim the fact that the whole 
working class is a slave class. We 
must proclaim the fact to the farm 
slave and to the factory slave, to the 
educated and to the ignorant slave, to 
the scab slave and to the union slave; 
to the black slave and to the white 
slave alike. (Applause.) As our sec- 
ond duty we must unite these parts of 
the working class in a solid political 
organization which will grasp the 
powers of government for the sole pur- 
pose that it may emancipate the work- 
ing class. And our third duty, as I 
conceive it — perhaps the highest and 
holiest duty which the Socialist move- 
ment has to-day — is to proclaim to all 
classes and to the whole world that 
we proclaim the class struggle for 
the sole and supreme purpose that 
we may forever abolish the class 
struggle. (Applause.) Now, friends, 
that, I say, is my conception of 
Socialism and the Socialist move- 
ment. If that is academical Socialism, 
I am an academic Socialist. Now, I 
ask the question. What relation does the 
trade union movement bear to this 
program? And I want to suggest right 
here, friends, that it is not for us 
to show our position towards the 
trade unions, but it is for the 
trade unions to show their posi- 
tion towards us. (Applause.) I want 
to thank my comrade. Lamb, of Michi- 
gan, for making one point clear. He 
declared that we must endorse the trade 
unions in order that they might recog- 
nize the fact that we must have the or- 
ganized workers of the world in the 
future to carry forward the organized 
work of the world. I recognize the 
force of that argument, but I want to 
say in reply that it is equally true that 
we must have the organized wage- 
workers of the world, and we must also 
have and endorse the organized workers 



194 



Morning S^ession, May 5. 



in every other department of life. Fol- 
lowing the logic of his argument, we 
should endorse, for instance, organiza- 
tions of the farmers, because in the fu- 
ture co-operative commonwealth we 
must have organized farmers. We 
ought to endorse the organizations of 
the doctors, for in the future co-opera- 
tive commonwealth we must have doc- 
tors ; and I suspect, friends, that if 
some of us don't stop wasting our nerv- 
ous and physical strength here we will 
need some of the doctors before we get 
through with this convention. (Laugh- 
ter.) I want to say, also, that follow- 
ing that same line of logic, we ought 
to endorse the ministers' organizations 
and associations, for I suspect we are 
going to require a few ministers to as- 
sist at the funeral of capitalism and 
take care of the moral wrecks that we 
Jeave behind. In other words, I hold 
that our mission is to the whole of the 
working class. I am opposed to this 
motion not because I am opposed to 
the trade union, but because I am op- 
posed to any special endorsement of any 
fractional part of the working class, 
for that special endorsement obscures 
the clear line of the class struggle. It 
keeps the workers divided. In other 
words, it does the old, old world-wide, 
ages-long capitalist trick, keeps the 
workers divided against each other, and 
just so long as we are willing to do 
that or in any way to aid them, just so 
long the capitalist system and the capi- 
talists will remain in power. There- 
fore, I am opposed to this motion in its 
present form. I believe we should 
mamtain our freedom and sympathetic 
attitude towards the trade unions, but 
we should simply from this time on 
"gang our own gait," hew straight to 
the line of the class struggle, and let 
the chips fall where they may. (Ap- 
plause.) 

DEL. KRAYBILL (Kan.): Com- 
rades, I want to ask, should not those 
wlio have not yet spoken upon this 
proposition have an even opportunity 
upon the floor? Is it not capitalistic to 
monopolize the time? Let us hear 
from those who have not been heard 
before. 

Delegate Berlyn (111.) arose. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Do I understand 
that Delegate Berlyn speaks in opposi- 
tion to the trade union resolution? 

DEL. BERLYN : I am going to speak 



in opposition to the motion to strike 
out that clause. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Delegate Berlyn 
has not the floor. Comrade Toole. 

DEL. TOOLE (M/d.) : Comrades, 1 
am opposed to the trade union resolu- 
tion as reported, but on different 
grounds from those of the last speaker, 
I am opposed to this resolution not be- 
cause I am opposed to trade unionism, 
but because this resolution ties the So- 
cialist Party to one particular brand 
of trade unionism. (Applause.) I sub- 
mit this to this convention; that or- 
ganized labor continually shifts to mecl 
the attacks of organized capital. It Ih 
only a short while ago that the old 
Knights of Labor went to pieces be- 
cause it did not meet the industrial con 
■ditions that obtained. I also submit 
that present conditions are such that 
the trade union pure and simple, the 
blind policies laid down by the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, are not such 
as to meet the present industrial con- 
ditions. (Applause.) And I submit 
this ; that if the trade union movement 
is carried on on the present lines laid 
down by Gompers it will be wrecked 
m Its opposition to capitalism; that i.s 
at the mercy of organized capital. For 
between the courts and the injunctions 
on the one side, and the militia and the 
Employs' Associations on the other, the 
near future sees the smash of organized 
labor, and if this convention ties the 
Socialist Party to that peculiar brand 
of trade unionism, we go down in the 
wreck of trade unionism pure and sim- 
ple. (Applause.) Mr. Chairman and 
members of the convention, I am in 
favor of trade unionism, but I am in 
favor of a form of trade unionism that 
meets modern industrial conditions, 
(applause), and I say this, that a form 
of trade unionism that does not declarr 
for the ballot is pnerile, childish and 
not worthy the support of a body of 
Socialists. (Applause.) Because I sub 
mit this : that the modern form of trade 
unionism has its beginnings and its 
bounds within the present system, and 
that the very minute it reaches a point 
where it can be eflFective, that very 
minute it becomes the weakest, because 
the very minute it becomes so strong 
that it ties up capitalistic organization.s, 
that very minute capitalism is bound to 
destroy it because it can no longer ex- 
ist. I mean by that that the logical ' 



Morning Skssion, May 5. 



195 



jinlicy of trade unionism is to raise 
vv.iKCs; that it is to reduce production; 
(li.it it is to put the conduct of the 
l.iihiness in the hands of the trade 
mnons; and I say that when that point 
,11 lives at which the trade unions are 
hiving and at which they must strive 
I . trade unions, that that very point 
|iinves the destruction of trade union- 
iiri, because capitalism is bound to de- 
li uy it or die. But the weak point is 
ilii;: that they have left the powers of 
(vvernment in the hands of the capi- 
i.ilisis. They are powerless and there 
I . where we are drifting to. The capi- 
i.ilists are of necessity forced to smash 
ilu trade union movement, and the 
(I ide union men have put all the 
liiivvers of government in the hands of 

I he capitalists. If we understand the 
iniiustrial conditions, what must we do 
.1 .Socialists? Must we bind ourselves 
h. this puerile form of trade union or- 
>:,iiiization? I repeat, I am not opposed 
In trade union organizations, but at this 

I I ilical moment we must do one of two 
ilimgs: we must either leave the men 

III the industrial movement, to fight it 
..111 as those in control of the industrial 
timvement see fit, or else we must do 
111 is: we must rise to the occasion, we 
must get out of the mire of opportun- 
iMii and rise to the heights of revolu- 
iitiiiary action. (Applause.) We must 
.1.1 one of two things: we must either 
Irave the trade union movement to take 
il , own course, and take no action in it 
wh.itsoever, or else declare that the 
Siiiialist Party, the organized revolu- 
iii.iiary proletariat itself, will take 
ili.irge not only of the political move- 
in nit, but of the trade union move- 
iiiriit as well. In the language of Dan- 
tun, we must dare, and dare, and dare 
,u;.iin. And it is up to us, comrades, 
wlii-ther we will rise to this occasion: 
will I her we will go forth from this con- 
VI ntion determined and inspired by all 
ill.- martyrs of the past. Let me tell 
v'lii, comrades, let me refer you to the 
1 iiiiiiitions in Colorado, to-day, and I 
W.I lit to say that until that condition 
ii.ise in Colorado I would have been 
III favor of a resolution like this. But 
I was more impressed by what a dele- 
r ill- from Colorado told me to-day, that 
uliin he was brought up to the bull- 
ion, they told him that if he were a 
' imnpers Socialist, that if he were a 
"|ime and simple" Socialist, he was all 

I IK lit. Comrades, let me repeat in con- 



clusion, we must do either one thing or 
the other : we must decide to let the 
trade unions take their own course, 
leaving the trade unions to follow out 
the lines of industrial development and 
we will frame our action, or we must 
make up our minds to take the revolu- 
tionary policy and conduct the trade 
union movement ourselves. Otherwise, 
if we tie ourselves to a moribund or- 
ganization, if we tie ourselves to an 
organization that is already dead in 
purpose and principle, we will miss the 
opportunity and we will let the golden 
moment slide by, and perhaps die with 
the movement that we tie ourselves to. 
(Applause.) 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Wil- 

kins of California. This is the last 

speaker in opposition, making the fifth . 
speaker. 

DEL. BERTHA WILKINS (Cal.) : 
There are different kinds of union 
movements in this country. Some 
unions are class conscious and some 
unions are merely craft conscious. The 
craft conscious union man is always 
talking about the scab. The class con- 
scious man is a Socialist. The West- 
ern Federation of Labor has declared 
for Socialism. The union men in the 
unions that have not declared for So- 
cialism are like people who build a 
levee of sand bags to hold back the ris- 
ing river. The true Socialist is build- 
ing a levee that shall stand for all 
time. The unionist who is also a So- 
cialist is a class conscious union man. 
I take a middle ground on this line 
practically; theoretically, I do not. I 
was asked the other day, for instance, 
I am a typesetter — "If you were mak- 
ing your living at typesetting would you 
join a union?" I said I would join a 
union; I could not do anything else. I 
asked the lady who spoke yesterday 
against this substitute, "Would you join 
the union?" She said, "I would not 
join the union." That is the difiference. 
In practice, therefore, I would take the 
middle ground; in theory, I take no 
middle ground. It seems to me that 
even if I were in the union, I could not 
give my heart and my energy to sim- 
ple and pure unionism. They would 
get my dollar and a half a month for 
dues. It would be a perfunctory pro- 
ceeding, this belonging to the union; 
it would not he the work that I should 
want to do. My real work would be 



196 



Morning Session, May 5. 



Morning Session, May 5. 



197 



given to Socialism, to class conscious 
Socialism. I believe that between 1904 
and 1908 the path of miionism is not 
going to be a path strewn with roses. 
I believe that in the west at least the 
powers of capitalism are uniting so that 
they will have a very serious time as 
they are having in Colorado. In all 
cities of the west the merchants and 
manufactures' associations and the 
citizens' alliances are organizing. They 
are doing it quietly, but they are doing 
it well and I believe that between 1904 
and 1908 we will have existing in other 
places the conditions now existing in 
Colorado, and perhaps in many other 
places. (Applause.) Even now, 10,000 
men are out of work in Southern Cali- 
fornia, and many of those men are 
union men, hitting the pipe while many 
non-union men are at work side by side 
with union men. The union then is to 
a certain extent doomed. With the 
power of capitalism absolutely united 
against unionism, the union is doomed 
because the union is fighting with a 
little rock against the gattling gun. 
And so, to-day, I believe that the West- 
ern Federation of Miners, which has 
taken a stand for Socialism, which has 
also taken the stand of not resisting 
the powers that be, the powers of capi- 
talism—has taken the wise stand, and 
it seems to me that this convention 
should command that stand. 

DEL. JONAS (N. Y.) : And vote the 
Democratic ticket. 

DEL. WILKINS: When Comrade 
Floaten was taken from his house at 
night and was walked barefoot over the 
ground, the blood that stained that snow 
was as honorable as any blood ever 
shed upon the battle field; and when 
Comrade Floaten says that the next 
time a man breaks into his house he 
will die right there, Comrade Floaten 
makes a mistake. Right there it seems 
to me we should make a stand. Are we 
to resist the authorities or are we not 
to resist the authorities? — and I have 
passed a resolution in to the Committee 
to that effect. I believe we should make 
a definite stand on that proposition. Is 
the theory, the policy of non-resistance 
to the ofiicials in authority the right 
policy? I say that it is the right policy, 
and that Comrade Floaten when he did 
not resist did the right thing. Bebel 
says, "If you resist the authorities that 
be you make of your bodies cannon 



feed, simply cannon feed." That U 
what they want us to do so they nmy 
have a chance to kill us. But let III 
have it so established that every tini0 
something happens in the course of 4 
strike, every time an accident happcin 
in the mines where the men are stiik 
ing, every time a building burns down 
in the strike country, in the strike liclii, 
let us have it known everywhere lluil 
the capitalists themselves paid for limits 
things, that they hired men to bin 11 
down those buildings, that they liirni 
somebody to cause the explosion in tlin 
mine. That is the case to a great en 
tent in Germany. In Germany, imw 
ever, the conditions are very dilTeinil 
from the conditions in this country. Tlii' 
unions are like the Western Fedenilinii 
of Miners, almost without exceptinii 
Socialist organizations. (Applaustv ) 
The conditions, therefore, are not panil 
lei to the conditions in this counlry, 
When the Comrade from St. Louis yrli 
terday said that the Socialists musi Uv 
the backbone of the labor unions ami 
the labor unions must be the backboiu' 
of the Socialist movement, I say thiil 
that might be true in Germany, but I lie 
conditions are different in this tnml 
ridden country, very different. I wiiiil 
to say again, my sympathies go oiil In 
the unions that are class conscious an<l 
have declared for Socialism. But ihn 
craft conscious Socialists who have jiinl 
a little 2 by 4 pen around their organ i/n 
tion, cannot help us on this question. 
If we pass a resolution it seems to tnc ll 
should be commendatory of thonf 
unions which have declared for Sociiil 
ism. You should draw, a clear cut liiiii 
between the Socialist unions and (lin 
non-Socialist unions. 
A DELEGATE: Mr. Chairman — 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Chair will 
recognize no one until he makes « 
statement. When the Chair told Com 
rade Parks that his time was up it wtin 
because the Chair was under the iin 
pression that the three minute nilp 
prevailed. He was not aware that li'M 
minutes were allowed, that the rcKiihil 
ten minutes for each speaker was In 
order, and Comrade Parks was, thcrr 
fore, allowed only three minutes oul ii( 
his regular ten. I am, therefore, goiii|| 
to call on Comrade Parks for the 10 
maining seven minutes so that ho chu 
conclude his argument. (Applause.) 

DEL. PARKS: My friends, I iiny 



tlw Socialist agitators will handle this 
Hiiion problem all right if you will put 
II' 111 such a position that the capitalists 

Hit go before the unorganized work- 

. I mhI tell them that I am opposed 
I i i!n' scabs and am taking sides with 
III' union man. My friends, the So- 
il, ili>l agitator should be able to teach 
Ihr doctrine of the class struggle, eco- 
imniii- determinism and surplus value. 

I he class struggle is only one of the 
iluclrines, and trade unionism is only 
iitii' of the forms of the class strviggle. 

'■-.., ray friends, as I said a little 

m!.- ago I use this as an emblem of 

II mil (exhibiting his painted club). Car- 
mil I). Wright says that organized labor 
• III I ho average produces something like 
Ini dollars' worth of goods a day when 
1 1 IV employed, and that the average 

rs are something less than two 

ll.irs a day. Now, my friends, what 

ill. laboring man doing in order to 

1 more of the product of his labor? 

I use this stick to represent the ten 

.lull.irs, and I use this part of the stick 

I indicating the short end of the stick) 

Im represent what labor gets, or two 

(I. .11 us. This (exhibiting the long end) 

Mpiiscnts what goes to capital in the 

liipi' of rent, interest and profit. The 

r.iliiician tells the laboring man_ that 

lie interests of capital and the inter- 

I of labor are identical. The So- 

ili I agitator should go forth and 

li-a that the interests of labor and 

iIm interests of capital are absolutely 

Mii.inonistic, and that there is a class 

iiiti;L;]e, and politics is the science of 

iIm governmental control of men. So- 

I nil Mil is the science of the administra- 

iMii of things. (Applause.) We do not 

» ml 1(1 put anything into our platform 

■ I |i.iss any resolutions here to catch 
■ ■ir-;. We want to put in a statement 
• I principles here that will appear to 

ihr reason of the world. My friends, 
I III., as I say (the long end), accord- 
in r. to the statement of Carroll D. 
\\ iii;ht, represents the proportion which 
1'. ; to capital, and this (the short 

■ ii.l), represents the proportion that 

MS to labor. Now, the laboring man, 
11 nider to get more of what he creates, 

I s a union. What for? To force 

lip \v;i.t;cs. When wages go up, rent, 
nii.icst and profit diminish, l^he capi- 
I ill I sees that the higher wages go the 
I. rent, interest and profit he has. 
Mm. is only true in the gold mining in- 
■In ities of Colorado and the rest of the 



worlds because the capitalist cannot put 
the increased wages upon the price of 
gold. The price of gold is fixed in the 
markets of the world. The capital of 
the west, in order to break down the 
union, is shipping in scab labor to force 
down wages, for when wages go down, 
rent, interest and profit go tip. There 
is the class struggle, my friends, and 
what the Socialist should do is to go to 
the laboring man and point out that 
there is a class struggle, and that the 
interests of labor and the interests of 
capital are absolutely opposed. Now, the 
laboring man, in order to get more of 
when you take the other industries, ex- 
cept in the gold mines in the west, you 
see there is no class struggle going on 
between the capitalists and the laboring 
men because when the laboring men 
force up wages what the capitalist 
loses in the shape of wages he puts 
upon the prices of the goods that the 
laboring man has got to buy back. (Ap- 
plause.) Now, my friends, we should 
go forth and teach the laboring man 
that in order to stop this exploitation 
the laboring man must own the machine 
that he produces the goods with.; and 
that is Socialism. Now, my friends, I 
am not opposed to unionism. I was 
once a member of the American Labor 
Union myself. There has been a kind 
of a slur thrown out here that perhaps 
I have gotten all my training in Social- 
ism from schools and from books. My 
friends, when I came out of the univer- 
sity, the best work I could do was 
teaching school at $30 to $35 a month. 
I went out and joined the proletarians 
of Colorado, and I have traveled all 
over the west and mixed with all kinds 
of people and worked in all sorts and 
conditions of trades. I have worked 
in the sewer and on ranches and in the 
mining camps and lumber camps and 
different places, and I was able to make 
more money at common labor than at 
practicing law or teaching school. And, 
my friends, I wish it distinctly under- 
stood that I am not simply a theo- 
retical, school-book Socialist. Now, as 
to unionism, there is some good coming 
out of the unions ;_ there is great good 
coming of the unions. The union is 
developinig class consciousness. The 
union docs good because it gives the 
union man a drill in parliamentary 
practice and tactics, and it is a good 
thing. It is unfortunate that most of 
the workers of the world are not 



^ 



198 



Morning Session, May 5. 



united in any sort of shape. As I 
said before, my friends, if we divide 
the workers we will be doing just the 
thing that the capitalists have always 
succeeded heretofore in doing. We 
want to appeal to all the workers of the 
world to unite, and not make any spe- 
cial appeal to anybody. We can point 
out to the labor union man and show 
him where his position i.s, and that it 
is only a means to an end ; that we 
have the organization, and that our 
aim is industrial freedom, and with in- 
dustrial freedom will come the free- 
dom of all the workers of the world. 
(Applause.) 

THE CHAIRMAN: The debate will 
now continue an hour, with one speaker 
on either side until the time is up. 

DEL. CAREY (Mass.): Mr. Chair- 
man, I want to call the attention of the 
convention to this fact, that the argu- 
ment against trades unions has been 
reduced to that (holding up Delegate 
Park's stick). Take it (handing the 
stick to Delegate Parks). This argu- 
ment against trade unionism has been 
reduced to a piece of wood, like those 
persons who are lookinig around and 
calling on the workers to unite, and 
then when they come to a Socialist body 
they argue for the men that refuse to 
unite. (Applause.) But, aside from 
that — remember the stick ! In the name 
of the workers of this country, I thank 
those excellent lawyers and doctors 
who constitute themselves an advisory 
board to wean the trade union move- 
ment. I thank them for their advice. 
We do not understand English, but we 
do understand this fact, that the eco- 
nomic movement" of the working class, 
whatever its mistakes, whatever its -lim- 
itations, whatever the errors of leaders 
or the form of organization, the eco- 
nomic movement of the working class, 
in the shape of the trade union move- 
ment, is the expression of a protest 
from me and my brother at the machine. 
(Applause.) Call the union what you 
will, be its form of organization what it 
may, but when my brother and I work- 
ing in the factory say to our master 
that we want more, we are giving the 
first expression of the awakening con- 
sciousness of the working class. (Ap- 
plause.) It is well for you, who do not 
know the daily struggle of the working 
class in the shop, — it is well for you 
to rap us over the knuckles for our 



mistakes, and we thank you for it. Hut 
remember this: That whatever you itity 
or whatever you may not say about lu, 
we of the workinig class are rmi 
fronted not with a vote next year, lull 
we are confronting our master in llif 
factory every day, and not only onct" n 
year. (Applause.) And we have III* 
courage, not to go out on a street cm 
ner and deliver lectures on a stick, hill 
we have the courage, we of the trad* 
movement who are Socialists, to TikIiI 
our bosses in the factory every diiy, 
and then at the ballot box. The tniifii 
union movement exists not because I 
want it or you do not want it. 'i'lic 
trade union exists because of the rrii 
nomic division of society. The L'iImu 
union is a form of protest on the p;ul 
of the workers of the world agaiiul 
conditions under which the labor powrf 
of the workers shall be sold at .iiu'll 
prices as to reduce the workers (n « 
level where they will be incapable "I 
reaching' the heights of the SocinlNl 
philosophy. (Applause.) We of llii» 
trade union movement who are Sociiil 
ists seek to protect our class from lif 
ing forced down into the lower lovrl* 
of animal degradation. We meet llii» 
conditions, we compete, we of the tradr* 
union movement that are Socialii^U. 
while you people are writinig books nilif 
giving us philosophical dissertation.** nil 
a stick. (Laughter and applause.) Wn 
are defending our class, preserving ll» 
manhood, guarding it against such 
degradation as would make it iniiwm 
sible even to understand the gentlcinnil 
from Kansas. (Laughter.) That ll 
our position. And I tell you, Comradrn, 
that it does not matter to us of Mil 
trades union movement what you do, 
but it will be a sorry spectacle, ajid M 
IS a sorry spectacle, that that portiiirt 
of the working class who rise to Marx'l 
appeal and unite in defense of thcilW 
selves, must needs plead with you fof 
recognition of them. (Applause.) Ami 
it is to the everlastinig discredit ii( 
every man who, while he may arKlll 
Socialism from a stick, as the oppn«|« 
tion to the trades union movement WH« 
finally reduced to- 

A DELEGATE : I rise to a point i.l 
order. The delegate is not defcndiiiM 
trades unionism. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The point is nnl 
well taken. 

THE DELEGATE: I appeal. 



Morning Session, May 5. 



1% 



L 



Di'X. CAREY: All right; go ahead, 
1111- your points. We will stay with 
VI Ml if you want us. 

TFIE CHAIRMAN: The delegate 
will proceed. 

l)i<:L. CAREY: I beg your pardon. 
I I list want to call attention to the 
iiiiple fact that the trades union move- 
iiinit, despite what you may do or what 
\<>u may not do, the trades union will 
rsist whether you wish it to exist or 
nil! Just at present I am one of the 
MKilators for Socialism, and I am going 
li>inie; but vvhen I go home and go 
iiilo the shop and confront the condi- 
(11 MIS there, and beside me is some poor 
iriiiirant working man who has risen to 
ill' point where he appreciates the 
I'liiis pressing him downward, and he 
i\ to me, "Jim, let us make a stand 
I "I lietter conditions in this factory," 
t will hand him over Karl Marx. 
I I uighter and applause.) Yes, I will 
I ill Socialism, too. But at the same 
iiiiM T will stand beside him as he 
UyUi^ for the preservation of his man- 

I 'I and to keep ray class from thp 

I'lwcr levels, in order, you intelligent 
|i'i sons- — in order that he may be cap- 
iM'' of understanding Karl Marx. 
1 Ih ic gentlemen, every one, who have 
lipped the trades unions and then 
I '"111 there and you agreed with them, 
iIm V are good fellows, and we are good 
I'll'tvvs, and yet they give us a whack 
Ml I lie jaw. They remind me of the 
lillnvv who asked a boy to watch his 
li.ini for a few minutes. He said to 
III! hoy, "Is your father a Christian?" 

I 111- lioy said, "Yes, but he don't work 

I I il." (Laughter.) And these lovers 
-I (he _ trades union movement, they 
II' in it, but they are not working at 
ii [list now. (Applause.) But what- 
'>ii- your position, I repeat again, what 
AMiiId you do, you men that have spoken 
ir.iiiist us, and you women? What 
v.iiild you do in case of a street car 
Hike here in Chicago? What would 

wMi do? Would you ride or would 
will walk? 

\ DELEGATE: Walk. 

IM'.L. CAREY: Exactly, you would 
«.ill. Yes, and yet you don't want to 
■liviilr the working class. Don't you 
I'lmw that you are turning down that 
iii'M union man who is running the car? 
"■'Ill lake your position with whom? 
Willi us? That is what you do. And 



you cannot avoid it. You intelligent 
Socialists, during a street car strike 
presenting an unhappy division between 
the non-union and the union man, what 
will you do? You will go on making 
Socialist speeches, but will you ride on 
the scab cars and stand for the scab? 
No, you will refuse to ride, and you will 
stand with the trade unionists that are 
making that contest. (Applause.) 

DEL. FARRELL (Ohio) : I spoke 
last night in favor of continuing the 
meeting last night for one hour, but did 
not have the pleasure of talking on the 
resolution before the house. Comrade 
Chairman and Comrades, I thank you 
for giving me the opportunity to speak 
on this question. I want to say that 
I do not consider myself more capable 
than anybody else to talk intelligently 
on this question, but I perhaps may 
have had more experience in the trades 
union movement than some here, be- 
cause I have been an active trade union- 
ist for the past fifteen or eighteen years. 
I want to say that I stand before this 
convention to-day as a trade unionist, 
and one who carries a paid-up card in 
one of the biggest organizations in this 
country. (Applause.) But I want to 
say also. Comrade Chairman and Com- 
rades, that I stand here first of all as 
a member of the Socialist Party of 
America, and then as a member of the 
Socialist Party of the world. (Ap- 
plause.) I want to say to you that at 
the last meeting of Local Dayton, that 
matter was brought up there and was 
thoroughly discussed, and the members 
that attended that meeting were prac- 
tically every one a man who carried a 
trade union card, and that they took 
action there instructing me as their rep- 
resentative to advocate the wiping out 
of all trade union propositions or reso- 
lutions or any other resolution that ap- 
pealed to any particular part or branch 
of the working class to-day (applause), 
and I want to say that it is my candid 
opinion and my belief that the Social- 
ist movement can further its interests 
best by ignoring all resolutions that 
come before this convention which have 
a tendency to recognize the trade union 
movement or any other particular part 
of the working class. (Applause.) I 
want to say, Mr. Chairman and Com- 
rades, that there may have been a time 
in former ages when there was a greater 
necessity for the trade union movement 
to awaken the intellectual ability of the 



200 



Morning Session, May 5. 



Morning Session, May 5. 



201 



working class of this country to the 
fact that they should organize for their 
own protection. I want to say that 25 
or 30 years ago — ^or, yes, 15 years ago — 
we did not have the Socialist movement 
in this comitry to awaken the people to 
their real interests as we have to-day. 
I want to say, Comrade Chairman and 
Comrades, that the trade union move- 
ment in this country to-day, is too 
much, if I may so term it, of a spider 
web for the Socialist movement to take 
any part in it. I want to say that the 
Employers' Association to-day is or- 
ganized as it has never been before. I 
want to say that it is my opinion that 
the trades union movement is going to 
have a harder row to hoe than it ever 
has in its history, and I believe that the 
opportunity is here for the Socialist 
movement to go forward as it has never 
done before. Remarks have been made 
by some of the Comrades who have 
spoken that the trade union movement 
will advance the immediate and mate- 
rial interests of the working class. I 
want to say that this convention is not 
here to deny to the workers of this 
country or the workers of the world 
the right to organize as trade unions. 
I believe that trade unionism will 
live, one way or the other, and I hope 
it will. As I say, I will remain a mem- 
ber of the orgairization of my craft so 
long as I am eligible to membership, but 
I want to say that my work in the 
Socialist movement has been hampered 
because of my activity in the trade 
union movement, and my efforts i;i the 
future shall be in the interest of So- 
cialism because the trade union move- 
ment can never solve this problem defi- 
nitely. It can never obtain a perma- 
nent settlement of the struggle that is 
now on. (Applause.) I want to say 
that the Socialist movement advocates 
a definite and permanent settlement, 
and for that I believe we ought to work 
first, last and always, and assist the 
other so far as we can, but that is all. 
I want to say to you that the labor 
union movement for the past few years 
has maintained a lobbying committee 
at Washington in ihe houses of congress 
to advocate that laws be passed in the 
interest of the working class, and then 
at election they will turn around and 
vote their enemies into office, and I say 
that that is wrong. I say that our duty 
is to awaken the workers to the fact 
that they can accomplish far more by 



using the ballot than they can by th#i 
strike, the boycott or the union labcL 
In relating a little past history of tllO 
trades union movement I might ciill 
your attention to the fate of the K. »( 
L., an organization that once advocatril 
noble principles and had power oium' 
numerically. That organization iiilH 
practically sunk into oblivion, to llir 
extent that there is practically nothiiiH 
of it left but a history which it made in 
the great American labor movemeiil 
I would call your attention to the gniil 
strike at Homestead in 1892, when llir 
iron workers were shot down in cold 
blood because they saw fit to march in 
a body on the public highways, and all 
the struggle and all the blood that wii" 
spilled in that great struggle, did ntil 
settle the trouble between capital ami 
labor so far as the iron workers of llir 
country were concerned. I want to s;iv 
that the great strike of the A. R. 1 1 
which took place in 1894, when many 
men were forced to lay down tlicii 
tools and quit their work in defense nl 
their rights as trades unionists, — lli.il 
with all the sacrifices that were made 111 
that struggle, when one— as good a man 
as ever carried a union card — was forci'il 
to spend six months behind prison bai't, 
that all that did not settle the trouhlr 
between capitalism and labor in llii- 
trade unions in the railroad industry 
I want to say, when we come down 11 
little further to the disaster in Idalm 
in 1898. when men were thrown by llir 
hundreds into the bull-pen and treatcil 
with such contempt — which is in my 
opinion the blackest blot on Amcriciui 
history — that all that sacrifice did nui 
succeed in settling definitely the troubir 
between the miners of Idaho and I lit' 
employers. I want to say that in njon, 
in one of the manufacturing institutions 
of this country, perhaps one of llii' 
greatest in the world, the National Casli 
Register Works at Dayton, Ohio, n 
strike was declared by the metal \m\ 
ishers in that factory, and they sue 
ceeded in shutting down the entire plaiil 
for seven weeks. That fight was con 
tinned for six or seven months with m 
good prospects of success as any stril«<' 
that was ever declared in the hislmy 
of organized labor. I want to say llial 
that strike was fought with vim .iml 
vigor when the members of that or 
ganization were discharged, and it wii» 
fought successfully to a final concin 
sion and the institution was whipped tn 



I 



. landstill, but when the settlement 
■ mil it was arranged in such a way that 
imdiing was conceded to the men, not 
• \<[\ provision being made for the re- 
I III II of one of the trade unions who 
lih! none on strike six or seven months 
|iH\ious; not one returned into that 
liidory. I want to say that all these 
iIiiiirs will perhaps call your attention 
1.. ilu; inability of the trade union move- 
in. m to solve the problem that con- 
liniiis the workers to-day. 1 believe 
ili;ii the proper thing for this conven- 
III -M here to do to-day, taking every- 
ilniu' into consideration — I want to say 
1 1 1,1 1 I do not want to see this conven- 

I divided; I want to see all factions 

l.iM this hall when this convention ad- 
luiims, united, and united in the cause 
.il ,'^ucialisni. (Applause.) 

DI'LEGATE TOOLE (Md.) : A 
I It of order. It is now 11 o'clock. 

I 1 1'E CHAIRMAN : That motion 
>\,r. not carried. 

I >i legate Gaylord of Wisconsin raised 
iln |)oint of order that it being ii 
1. 1 luck, under the former motion no 
Inillier discussion could be had, but 
llif (.'hair ruled that the motion to that 
' II' '( was not carried, and the discus- 
I'ni was continued. 

I hrreupon Delegate Gaylord offered 
lih Inllowing resolution and moved its 
iMlM|,iion as a substitute for the resolu- 
I :is presented by the Committee: 

" Fhe Socialist Party of America 
irmgnizes that the trades union or- 
I'.inizations are an essential part of 
llir labor movement, and are 'abso- 
liiltly necessary for the purpose of 
ii|ilinlding the standard of living and 
n isling the encroachments of capi- 
I ilism under the present economic 
v4cm. 
"We heartily commend them in 
iliiir efiforts to organize the working 
I Irs for that purpose and declare 
ill. it it is the duty of every Socialist 
\\\\n can do so to join his respective 
h. I lies union." 

\ motion to table the above resolu- 

1 w.is declared out of order as Dele- 

I i\> ( i;iylord had the floor. 

Ml !.. GAYLORD: Now, we have 

Ii. imI various Comrades plead for 

|...iili.ir things. One has asked that 

1 1. intellectual should be ignored, 

implied such a plea. Another 



has asked that the trade unions shou!d 
be ignored, a plea directly made by 
the speaker who just preceded me. 
Others, both on the floor and in groups 
on the outside, have advocated that the 
farmers be ignored. Others will say 
that unorganized labor also should be 
ignored, and possibly some other eco- 
nomic group should be ignored, and 
thus we secure the ignoring of the 
whole working class. Now, what do 
you want to do that for? Let us rise 
for a little while to a higher level, if 
we can, and get a view of the whole 
field. This substitute motion puts it 
before this convention as represented 
in various ways. We do not represent 
the whole of the working class in our 
proper persons here to-day, and that is 
the reason we do not expect to elect 
our candidates. There is a labor move- 
ment which for the present as an ac- 
tual fact is bigger than the Socialist 
Party of America or the International 
Socialist Party. As a matter of fact, 
physically and materially on the prin- 
ciple of economic determinism we are 
not so big yet as the entire labor move- 
ment. Let us recognize that fact. If 
we do not, it will down us, and others 
will take our place. (Applause.) I 
mean ourselves — not the Socialist philo- 
sophy nor the Socialist movement We 
are responsible in a sense for the great 
ideal which we arc here to represent. 
We are responsible in a sense also to 
the ideal and fact of the labor move- 
ment as a whole. Let us get that 
clearly in our minds. What does this 
labor movement include? Who should 
be consciously represented in it or in 
a gathering trying to represent it? Ele- 
ments every one of which are really 
represented here to-day, economic 
groups everyone of which has its rep- 
resentative on this floor — the intellec- 
tuals, the organized trade union move- 
ment, the farmers, the unorganized 
labor and, if you please, I daresay there 
may be one or two specimens of genus 
hobo, if some of us like myself were 
to be frank and admit it. I don't know 
where my home is. Now, then, let 
us look for a moment at the facts as 
we get the whole field in view. First, 
there is the Socialist Party. We will 
not be too modest and put ourselves 
first. We claim to be class conscious, 
we claim to be intelligent. That is 
what consciousness means. First of 
all, we know that we know ourselves. 



i 



Morning Session^ May 5. 



203 



203 



Morning Session, May 5. 



and from that we get to know other 
things and get to know the sense of the 
whole situation. We, therefore, have a 
right, I think, to put ourselves first and 
most representative, as this hody in 
the persons present proves. Now then, 
there are other elements intermingled. 
Next I put, in my opinion, the organ- 
ized labor movement. At once we see 
sections in this — the great eastern 
movement, as I think we may well call 
it to-day, the A. F. of L., and the great 
western movement, the A. L. U., and 
the other great local and state trade 
unions, some unaffiliated, some affiliated, 
locally but not nationally, some affiliated 
nationally and not internationally. 
Shall we here to-day, representing the 
most intelligent group of the working 
class, refuse to recognize the fact of 
this great labor movement? What do 
we gain by that? I do not plead for 
the recognition of any local union, I do 
not plead for the A. L. U. nor for the 
A. F. of L., although I carry a card 
in one of those. I plead for the recog- 
nition of the fact that economic groups 
exist within the labor movement next 
in intelligence, I believe as proved by 
their organization, to the Socialist 
Party. (Applause.) Do you want to 
lose what will be lost,^ — whatever it is, 
I am not discussing what it is^by ig- 
noring that fact? What for? I say rec- 
ognize it. Don't ignore it. Open your 
eyes. It is there, whether you like it 
or not it is there, and most of us really 
like it. (Applause.) I say recognize 
it, and point to it — you will not misun- 
derstand me — with pride. I have been 
speaking of the organized labor. Now, 
there is the unorganized, and in this we 
may include at once, the intellectual 
groups of various sorts ; they are not 
organized as such. They will be prob- 
ably before a great while and that will 
then bring them into the organized 
field. Then there is the great mass of 
unskilled factory workers ; next to that 
there is the great mass of common la- 
bor drifting here and there, the drift- 
wood on our modern economic sea. 
After them — perhaps ahead of them, I 
should say — come the farmers. In the 
city I am closer to the other group 
than to the farmers, and I put them 
first, but perhaps the farmers should 
come next to the organized labor, 
though as an economic group they are 
not yet organized. If they were or- 
ganized as an economic group I should 



say, recognize them next to organi/fl«) 
labor. But you need to recogiilM 
them. They are there and must l# 
recognized in your working prORriilli 
This is a survey of the whole field | 
am trying to give you for the purjimii 
of getting down to business on tlll| 
particular point. 

Delegate Miller (Colo.) secured lllf 
eye of the Chair, and the Chairiimii 
asked : 
"On what side do you speak?" 
DEL. MIILLER: I ppeak for iIik 
resolution submitted. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I must lir«i 
from someone in opposition. 

DEL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : A qiiM 
tion of personal privilege. I waul In 
introduce an amendment so it may I* 
read before the delegate speaks. 

DEL. MILLER: And read the suit 
stitute just offered along with it. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The subslitulM 
offered by Comrade Gaylord and llir 
amendment offered by Comrade Slolxt 
din will be read. 

DEL. SLOBODIN: This is lh» 
amendment to the substitute, iiimI 
should take its place : 

"Socialist political action first, niitl 
the trade movement next, are lliii 
main weapons to be used by III* 
working class for the better life iiii(( 
of the capitalist class for gmilrf 
profits. We consider it the duty iif 
the Socialists to join the unions of ' 
their trades and to promote there til* 
spirit of solidarity and identity of I III 
interests of the entire working cinnti 
We recognize, however, that till 
main activity of the trade unions l| 
confined within the narrow Hmi 
the daily interests of their trades 
industries. 

"We call on the members of III* 
trade unions who realize the fiii'l 
of the class struggle which the woili 
ing class is fiercely waging agniii*! 
the capitalist class for a larger slim* 
in the product of labor. While ill* 
trade unions are of great advantiigj 
to the working class in the strumjl( 
against the exploitation of labor, lliiiy 
cannot alone abolish this exploitaliiilli 
The exploitation of labor will cdilll 
to an end when the instruments (if - 
production will be owned by the nil- , 
tire people for the equal benefit ill 



mions jl 
Hmit.s o| 
ades mil) 



■I 



all. Every trade unionist who real- 
izes this should join the Socialist 
I'.irty and assist in arousing the 
vvorking class to political action, so 
ili.it it may secure the powers of 
►■overnment, and, by abolishing wage 
1.1 very and establishing the co-opera- 
live common wealth, achieve its own 
emancipation." 

DEL. BERGER (Wis.) : A point of 
Miller. My point of order is that you 
I .iiinot introduce a substitute of a sub- 
'ililute. 

TIIE CHAIRMAN: This is not a 
iil'litute of a substitute, but an 
iinciulment. 

DEL. STEDMAN: A point of or- 
ilri. You cannot introduce an amend- 
iintil of a substitute. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point of 
■iidiT is not well taken. The Secre- 
iiiv will read the substitute and the 
iidment to the substitute. 

DI'.L. STEDMAN: The point of 
"iiirr is this, that you cannot amend a 
nil' litute. 

rilE CHAIRMAN: I will state to 
I "Hirade Stedman that under the pres- 
Hii condition of affairs, with a num- 
I" 1 I if substitutes and amendments be- 
I'lr the house, that I would entertain 
till, amendment in order to attempt to 
M. lire the close of the debate. We will 
viilc upon the question. Comrade 
'.|ic,ns has ^ the floor. 

I ((legate Phelan, of Illinois, moved 
III 1 1 the amendment be laid on the ta- 
ll' , Init the motion was lost. 

IH:L. SPEARS (111.): Comrade 
< li.iirman and Comrades: The state- 
iiHiii has been made here that those op- 
|Mr.iiig trade unions were naturally in- 
iillirlual and non-unionists. I stand 
li. liic you as a trade unionist, and 
It'll as an intellectual. I also stand 
lie lure you as a representative of 
IimIIi the two great trades unions, both 
111. ,'\. F. of L. and the A. L. U., and 
I land opposed to all trades union 
!■ -lutions in the Socialist movement, 
!■■ insc I recognize this fact: That 
till' trades union movement is the out- 
miiii' of a development, just the same 
ttn I he trust is the outcome of a devel- 
H|iiiicnt to-day. The economic develop- 
liiriii produced the trust on behalf of 
llir capitalist; it also produced the 
limlc'; union movement on behalf of 
III! workmen. Trades unionism can 



only be a reform, and we must recog- 
nize it as a reform in every sense of 
the word. Some reference has been 
made to the London resolution. In that 
resolution the conditions that may have 
met with approval by those who de- 
cided on those resolutions, coming from 
countries where conditions are differ- 
ent than here in America, may have 
had some force. But why should we 
take the conditions here and try to 
measure them with the half-bushel of 
the man from Germany or England? 
Some one referred to his experiences in 
trade unions. I have had experience in 
trades unions. I know what it is to 
be up against a labor fakir in the 
Chair, backed up by all those who want 
to throttle any Socialist agitation in the 
trades union. Resolutions in trade 
unions, what are they worth? Not the 
paper they are written on, my friends. 
(Applause.) Concessions? What con- 
cessions have you got? You have got 
no concessions except what the capi- 
talist may give out of fear, nothing 
else. One of the delegates has appealed 
to you with all the sentiment he could, 
and he referred to the South, and said 
that we had no movement in the South. 
My Comrade from the South tells me 
we should look to the South for a year 
or two. The reason they have no So- 
cialist movement is they have not had 
any agitators there. Further, some one 
said our only hope was in the trades 
union movement. My friends, if that is 
our only hope we have got a dismal 
outlook for Socialism. (Applause.) I 
am a trades unionist for one purpose 
only : It is to my material interest. 
M'y material interest compels me to be 
a trades unionist if I want to eat. I 
belong to the typographical union, and 
my scale of wages has been increased 
$12 a month. For 50 cents a week I 
get $12 a month. It is a pretty good 
speculation. I grant you it is a good 
place, if you could do something there. 
I say to the men, "Join the union," 
every time I am "on the box," because 
it brings men together. When they 
are organized they are discontented. 
That is all I can see in it. They say 
it is one phase of the class struggle, 
and the next thing we know we will 
have other phases of the class struggle 
Then my Comrade from Massachusetts 
called us non-uniters. He said we were 
non-uniters. He spoke of fellows who 
united in the trades union movement. 



204 



Morning Session, May 5. 



had seemed to think that the men who 
could not get into a trades union be- 
cause the fee to get in was so high, 
that he never expected to see it accom- 
plished. When you make it a $250 fee, 
and the poor devil hasn't got a dollar 
in his pocket, how can he become a 
trades unionist? Then he spoke of the 
courage of the trades union Socialists. 
I have the courage to be a Socialist be- 
cause I couldn't be anything else. He 
spoke of handing Carl Marx to him. I 
don't hand them Karl Marx because I 
don't know enough about it to do it. All 
I know is that I am a wage slave, and 
that is all I can preach. All I know is 
capitalism puts me in a shop and com- 
pels me to work there day after day. 
I do not want to waste my energies in 
the trades unions when I can do far 
more by showing that we stand for the 
whole working class first and the un- 
ion next. 

At this point there were cries of 
"Time," and the Chairman said: 

"The speaker's time is not yet up, 
and he retains the floor for one minute 
more." 

DEL. SPEARS: I venture to say 
that some of my Comrades from the 
smaller towns may think it is unusual 
for one from the city to be opposed to 
the unions. I have had some Comrades 
tell me what wonderful things you 
have done in the union. Mayhap you 
have while you have some little control, 
but you little know what the fight is in 
the city. You little know what trade 
unions are doing in this city. NO doubt 
they have honest men in the trade union 
in some places, and you may by a sort 
of a so-called honesty do something in 
that line, but as a whole it is futileto 
tie ourselves up to the trade union 
movement. Let them fight their battles. 
And who are they? After we have as- 
sisted them in fighting the battle, who 
will get them? Mr. Hearst will come 
out and say he stands for the labor 
union movement, and he is quite anxious 
to have 

At this point, the gavel fell and Dele- 
gate Hanford secured recognition, stat- 
ing that he desired to speak to the main 
question and in favor of the adoption 
of the trade union resolution. 

DEL. HANFORD (N. Y.) : Now, 
Mr. Chairman, and Comrades, with the 
single exception of possibly Comrade 
Gaylord of Wisconsin, I do not think 



that the speakers have dealt at all ad4< 
quately with this question. We seem (• 
go on the basis that the so-called S(|» 
cialist Labor Party of the past went 
that the trade union is only for tin t| 
take or leave, or do what we please will 
it. We know perfectly well that (III 
Socialist movement is not that kind fll 
a movement. We go out and tell iiiHI 
and women that you have got to mm 
to Socialism for your salvation, but wli|f 
can't we understand that in the lliiW 
intervening vmtil the day when Socinl 
ism shall come to pass a man has koI 
to live in order to establish Sociiilimii, 
and that the race has got to survivr i» 
there will be no race to enjoy SocialiiiM 
(Applause.) The trades union niov* 
ment deals with this question here uiiil 
now. True, not for all, but for as iimiiv 
as it can and it is going to continue 
You can read the history of the liul 
hundred years, and I can tell you Ihiil 
had it not been for the force broiiulij 
to bear by the trades union movcmriil 
in resisting the - encroachments of nt 
ganized capitalism there would hnvl 
been no working class to go into Srt' 
cialism. (Applause.) Now, this did 
not come out of any great desire of till 
trade unionist to do a wonderful illlfl 
wise thing. It came out of neccNully 
That is where the trade unions w»ril 
born and so long as there is a necnitllf 
for them they will remain. Now, Irl i|| 
recognize that as a fundamental finl, 
and I doubt if anyone here can diH|i(il# 
it, and I know that it cannot br (jl| 
proved. Now, let us see what the Mft' 
cialist Party in this country did. Oilll 
a few years ago, they adopted and |M|| 
into the resolutions which were uiimij* 
mously adopted, substantially thr rfi 
marks which were made by the cloqii»«| 
Comrade of Illinois (Spears) and |l 
several other Comrades here. ' 'I'ln 
unanimously adopted a proposition I 
this : 'This bogus trade unionism 
impotent, petrified, motionless, hold 
the proletariat at the mercy of the cii 
talist class,' and so on. There is a |)rt 
of that resolution, and then at the hol 
torn they said, 'Let the Socialist wn(i<l| 
words everywhere be, "Down with trHitl 
unionism pure and simple," "Away wlll| 
the labor fakirs," "Onward with thl 
S. T. & L. A. and the S. L. P." ' Alll 
what became of the men that passed |||{ 
resolution? (Cheers and ApplaiiHi 
All there is left of the organizatiiin I 
passed that resolution is this littlr c|| 



Morning Session, May 5. 



205 



Si 



f\ 



.illHM.k. (Applause.) Now, it is a splen- 
liil I lung for Comrades to get up here 
hmI t ilk about being a Socialist, first, a 
u ,,\, unionist next, and something else 
II. , ii,it. I can tell you, Comrades, 
II ii( rover you work if it comes right 
> nil the question — if it comes to that 

• >■ In night or to-morrow morning — 

- oti strikes to maintain a living 

. . ', on can bet one of two things— 

■ uld go on a strike and fight for 

< \ou would be a "dead one." This 

iiiii of trades union is not at all a 

, . 1 1 'II of whether you like it or dis- 

ii ft is here, and don't you think 

• 1 minute that because of the Latti- 

Mi the Hazletons that you will even 
I I t.iake on the wheel of progress of 

II hU-s union movement. Their very 
1 1 will make them stronger. Their 

1 in the last analysis will be found 

I s. Are you going out on the 

|. and tell these trade unions that 

III ' some particular organization is 
IK .<•■<[ by a labor fakir that its body 

.m|M)sed of labor fakirs? If you do 

H I'.ill you be allowed to talk to that 

., nil ation on the line of educating 

ihiiii 111 Socialism? Not on your life. 

Willi xou have got to do is to say this: 

. 11 kiiow.the truth perfectly well, and 

ii ii I , tliat in the trade union, men may 

I .iiiiil)t, officers may go wrong, but 

: .III know that the rank and file will 

I ...iisciously go wrong except for one 

, and that is lack of light to see 

Oil iiulit." When you have said that 
IJiiii yon can put the light before them. 
II. I i|iK'stion is probably more import- 

I LI 1 1 any other question that we can 

Ml. Iiore to-day. I want myself to be 
.11 nut only in the trades union but 
. M wlicre else, to take a position where 
HM man who opposes me from the 

- l|»)int of the working class, I can 

|lii..u a rock at him and knock his damn 
lil.nK niT. (Applause.) That is where 
I .v.iiil to be. And this trade union 
I. ..lilt inn, putting us upon that line, 
•iniilinn for the working class in the 
iMilr miion and out of it, wherever 
lliMl trade union is, I say again and I 
Hill i.|KMt: The working class, right or 
>ii..iir. 1 don't care whether they are 
.iilii nr wrong. (Applause.) You go 
.1 iiicl talk about wage slavery and you 
I., i.ing on to show why they are 
I . . Can you expect this man who 
1.1 tuiii under slavery for centuries, 
(In man who has been constantly mis- 
, IkI ever since he was taught to read. 



can you expect him suddenly to get a 
bolt of light from heaven and proceed 
and never make a mistake? They have 
got to go up against these mistakes, and 
I will still concede that and still say, 
the organization that survives to-day, . 
even though wrong, will be right to- 
morrow and still survive. (Applause.) 
Go all down the Tine in the history of 
this trade union movement and what do 
you find? They talk here, for instance, 
about trades unions _ passing resolutions 
of endorsement. I don't care a single 
cent for all the resolutions, so far as 
their passage is concerned, but I do 
care an immense amount about the dis- 
cussion of those resolutions in these 
bodies. I am not trying to convert labor 
leaders. I am not trying to convert 
capitalism. I am trying to convert this 
common man at the bottom who has to 
pay the cost of everything, and out of 
whose heart-blood and sweat comes the 
penalty of all his errors. (Applause.) 
Do you mean to say that that man has 
no interest in going wrong? His very 
life depends upon his going right, and 
all you need to get him to go right is 
two things: First, that he shall hear 
you with an open mind ; and, second, 
that you know enough about the subject 
so that you can present to him in a 
way that he can understand. (Applause.) 
He will know the reason why the trades 
union movement in this country to-day 
is not where it should be, other than 
from natural and economic causes. The 
next great reason is in our deficiency. 
Our deficiency. We should have been 
school-masters talking to the five year 
old child, and learning him his letters; 
and simply because we have gone to this 
child in the economic primer and, in- 
stead of teaching him his letters, we 
have tried to give him a volume of 
Karl Marx, and he didn't understand it. 
We say "You are a damn fool, and 
there is no use trying to do anything 
with you." Now, you people that have 
not had success with the trade union 
movement, let me tell you to do this 
thing, which I intend to do. I intend 
to look for the fool not so much in him 
as in myself— to teach him his letters, 
then words of one syllable and then I 
know he will learn to read, and when 
he does understand the subject, he will 
be with us because, as I said, his very 
life depends upon his coming with us. 
(Applause.) 
A DELEGATE: I have got up a 



206 



Morning Session, May 5. 



dozen times on this question, and I ap- 
peal to you I am entitled to be heard. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The delegate 
will take his seat. Delegate Hayes, the 
Chairman of the Committee, asks to 
submit his supplementary report, and 
he has the floor. 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio.) : Mr. Chair- 
man, and Delegates : This question has 
been discussed the greater part of yes- 
terday afternoon and this forenoon, and 
the hour of noon is practically here. It 
is my opinion that practically every 
Delegate in this Hall has made up his 
mind how he is going to vote 

A DELEGATE : I thought you had a 
supplementary report? 

DEL. HAYES: I intend to make it, 
but I want to explain it. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Chairman 
of the Committee has a perfect right to 
make a statement why he is making a 
supplementary report, and order must be 
preserved. 

DEL. HAYES: I say it is the desire 
of the Committee that this matter be 
brought to a vote as soon as possible ; 
and for that reason we have again gone 
over the original proposition submitted 
and made some alterations which the 
Committee believes will meet with the 
views of the delegates here assembled, 
and I will read the resolution. Those 
of you who have copies of the original 
report may follow it and you will note 
that some things have been stricken out 
and others worded somewhat differently. 

SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT OF TRADES UNION 
COMMITTEE. 

"The trade and labor union move- 
ment is a natural result of the capi- 
talist system of production and is 
necessary to resist the encroachments 
of capitalism. It is a weapon to pro- 
tect the class interests of labor under 
the capitalistic system. However, this 
industrial struggle can only lessen the 
exploitation, but cannot abolish it. The 
exploitation of labor will only cease 
when the working class shall own all 
the means of production and distribu- 
tion. To achieve this end the working 
class must consciously become the 
dorninant political power. The or- 
ganization of the workers will not be 
complete until they unite on the polit- 
ical as well as the industrial field on 
the lines of the class struggle. 

The trade union struggle cannot at- 
tain lasting success without the po- 
litical activity of the Socialist Party: 



The workers must iortify and per 
manently secure by their polilliii 
power what they have wrung fitiW 
their exploiters in the economic .strti| 
gle. In accordance with the dcciNliilM 
of the International Socialist (jW 
gresses in Brussels, Zurich and l/Mi 
don, this Convention reaffirms IM 
declarations that the trade and UW 
unions are a necessity in the striii|||||l 
to aid in emancipating the wnrHmi 
class, and we consider it the duty lil 
all wage workers to join witii lllli 
movement. 

Neither political nor other difffl 
ences of opinion justify the divinliiiti 
of the forces of labor in the indiiMiUl 
movement. The interests of the w(»li 
ing class make it imperative that iM 
labor organizations equip their iiii'lH 
bers for the great work of the aliiijl 
tion of wage slavery by edu(nllii| 
them in Socialist Principles." 

Mr. Chairman, I offer this as a mill 
stitute or a correction for the orij|lii«| 
report of the Committee on Innln 
unions. 

The motion was seconded by Delpgnlf 
Dilno of Missouri. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It is moved m\ 
seconded — I will not speak until cv«<i|f 
delegate takes his seat. It is nutvul 
and seconded that the supplenicnirtlii 
report of the Committee be adoplfti 
One moment, before you proceed tlllfi 
further, I want to call attention tr) |||f 
fact that according to the agrcrmPHJ 
there were to be an equal numbn ill 
speakers on each side. Now, since I III 
five speakers on each side have spnUn 
there have been three speakers for ||||| 
trades union resolution and only (W{ 
against, and I would consider it jimlll 
that another in opposition — (Crif% 
Delegates for recognition here iiil»f»1 
rupted the Chairman, who continued 
follows) : One moment. I will iMj, 
proceed until the Delegates take tlmil' 
seats. And I would consider it Jill| 
that another 
given the privilege 
opinion. (Cries; 
right!"). And 
recognize the comrade from MniitHHIi 
I believe. Aren't you opposed? 

A DELEGATE (Mont): I mil 
favor of the resolution. 

Delegate Maurer of Pennsylvanin wM ' 
recognized by the Chair and staled lIlMJ 



1 



Morning Session, May 5. 



207 



^ 




III (l<sired to speak in opposition to the 
M ■.iliition. 

Mil': CHAIRMIAN : The question is 
11 I 111- motion to adopt the supplement- 
M i<i)ort. 

A delegate here asked if a roll call 
'M I he resolution would be permitted 
iimI ihe Chairman replied: "You will 
l.ivr time for that when the vote is 

M l.hrd." 

I>l I.. MAURER (Penn.) : Comrade 
'li. Ill man, this is the first opportunity 
I li.ive had to address this Convention. 
^\ In 11 I came here I made up my mind 
I wiis in the presence of what are com- 
KMMily termed "spell-binders" and I was 
Aillmn to give way here and let the 

|M- II -binders"— - 

I lie speaker was here interrupted by 
ilic |i(iint of order that he was not speak- 
HiH to the question, and he replied, "I 
well 10 introduce my question." 

I II E CHAIRMAN : Let the speaker 
(tiiiiicd, and he will come to the ques- 
li'ii if you give him a chance. 

ni'.L. MAURER: I have come to the 
MM. fusion that it is necessary to take 
1 ihllCrent position than the smart ele- 
Hiini iiave taken. After listening to 
' iniade Carey and Comrade Hanford 
iMinj; to bamboozle us, trying to make 
K hilieve that things are different from 
«li,i( they are, I find it impossible to 
■ ■ni.iin sitting in my seat any longer. 
I In V forget they are talking to Social- 
' I . now. I want you to understand 
ill ii I am a neighbor of George Baer of 
iiiilluacite fame. I came from Penn- 
«iU.iiiia. I am a union man, at that, in 

I I standing and have been in the 

iMiioii for the last twenty-four years. I 
H ml you to know that I have not been 

•Ml lilted with the union in a paid 
i.i|ii.ity, but as a volunteer. After 
lliiiiuiiig to some of the talk that I 
ii.ur hoard upon this floor it arose in 
nn mind that perhaps this was a busi- 
11. . delegates' convention instead of a 

" I ilist convention. (Applause.) 
I 1 1 IC CHAIRMAN : I must ask the 

\'< ikcr not to make reflecting remarks 
H|Kiii Ihe convention. 

I>I:L. MAURER: I do not intend to. 
I Im>; pardon if I do. 

I I ll<: CHAIRMAN : He must confine 
liiiiiM-lf to the question. 

MIL. MAURER: Now then, the 
• iii. iKin has been raised here by 

of those who favor union- 



ism, they have claimed last night 
upon this platform, and this iiuini- 
ing again, what the unions have done 
for the working class. They have 
pointed to the west, to the east and to 
the north. I want to tell you this : In 
the strike in Pennsylvania in the coal 
fields it was not the trades union move- 
ment that fought that fight alone. The 
Pennsylvania delegation that sits iu're 
to-day was represented in that fight, and 
won, that victory, which the poor and 
simple considered a victory, but which 
Socialists know was not — it was not 
brought to that point by the trade union- 
ists, but by the Socialists of the United 
States. (Applause.) You talk about 
the Socialists being against the trade 
unionists? Far from it. You try to 
convey the idea here that we are trying 
to fight the unions. I spoke to the 
plumbers in the City of Chicago the 
other night, and I am going to speak 
to another union to-night, and I want 
to have the honor of going back to my 
people, to my comrades, to my union 
men in Pennsylvania, and 1 want to be 
put on record as being against putting 
the Socialist Party in any light at all as 
a compromise with any other organiza- 
tion. (Applause.) It has been said that 
we are doing what the Socialist Labor 
Party did on this floor. Those insinua- 
tions have been cast out. I want you to 
distinctly understand the Socialist Labor 
Party antagonized trade unionists. We 
do not antagonize trade unionists. (Ap- 
plause.) I came from a union where 70 
per cent of our members are Socialists, 
and when I joined them there were only 
two Socialists in the union that I now 
affiliate with, and we didn't have to be 
the tail-end of organized labor to ac- 
complish that. Fellow comrades, it is 
said among our union men, and espe- 
cially in the American Federation of 
Labor, that you dare not bring Social- 
ism into the union. Keep Socialism out 
of the union, they tell us, it is bad for 
the union; and in Boston they boasted 
about how they took the sting out of 
the union movement. Now, it neces- 
sarily follows in my opinion that if So- 
cialism is bad in the union it is bad to 
bring unionism into the Socialist move- 
ment. (Applause.) Why, I am svir- 
prised at the tactics assumed by the op- 
position. That resolution as it stands 
there, I do not question that it is ac- 
ceptable to most of us. I do not ques- 
tion that if it had stopped at that— but 



208 



Morning Skssion, May 5, 



^ 



Morning Session, May 5. 



209 



what have you got back of that ? If that 
is all you ask for I do not question but 
what that could be carried unanimously, 
but we suspect from the remarks here 
that that is not all you ask from this 
convention. You say we should fight 
for the union man. Where is there a 
Socialist in this convention who has not 
been doing that? You talk as if we 
were a lot of strike-breakers. I am sur- 
prised. These tactics, comrades, may 
go, as I said before, among unionists 

THE CHAIRMAN: Your time is 
up. 

DEL. MAURER: A half minute I 
have. In conclusion, let me say this : 
I do not stand here representing the 
unions. I stand here to represent the 
good cause of education in order to 
emancipate the proletariat of the whole 
civilized world, and not alone of the 
trade union. (Applause.) 

DEL. BERLYN (111.) : I am in fa- 
vor of the resolution as reported by the 
committee. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I want to state 
that I shall recognize no more speakers 
until a motion to put the question is 
made. 

A delegate here moved the previous 
question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Ber- 
lyn has the floor. 

DEL. BERLYN : Comrades, I am in 
favor of the resolution in its entirety. 
I am opposed to the proposition as 
made by one of the delegates from my 
state to strike out, and call attention to 
the fact that in the trades union organ- 
izations a diversity of political opinion 
exists, and must of necessity exist. If 
you go on a strike, you haven't got 
time to ask a man whether he is a demo- 
crat or republican. We need the trades 
unions in our business, and right here 
is the point. This resolution in its en- 
tirety protects us against slobbering 
Over the trades unions. We recognize 
that all shades of political opinions go 
into the trades unions and when we 
recognize that we cannot subordinate 
ourselves to them. That is the value of 
this resolution in its entirety. To strike 
this out would open the door again for 
some more Daniel DeLeon. (Applause.) 
The trades union cannot be organized 
on political lines. That is impossible, 
and I take pride that I never have and 
never will allow myself to be dragged 



into any other kind of schism.s In ||m 

trade union. The trades union piiiiHM 

condemn it. Why, to deny thi.t imm 

lution would be simply to say tliiil m 

are an ostrich— you put your head in ||t| 

sand and you cannot see. 'I'mtf 

unions exist, and it is from cotn|iiil« 

arising from conditions that lliry 

exist. If thtj^ comrades in this iiHf({ 

cannot keep their trails clear an<l lii< 

what the true trade union poliiy If, 

they had better learn. In MilvvitilliH 

they have shown results. And thr niiH 

rades from St. Louis— Hoehn Alttl 

Brandt — they have been applying |ni 

trick of truckling to the trades iniltiltl, 

and what do they show? Nothiiiu l|( 

Milwaukee they never antagonize |||| 

trade union, and they don't allow lltl 

trade union to sit on their trail. 'I ltii| 

were with the boys in the fight ('V«"lk 

time, but they kept their own Sfxliiilfl 

movement free. (Applause.) I riMimiH 

ber two years ago when we went wl|H 

the National Committee to Si. Lniiit 

We had a show. We made a illiHI 

museum show of the National CiiMt 

mittee, and we were told that the cnllit 

central body of St. Louis were Smltil 

ists. We had a big meeting and wi' tmil 

some rag chewing there, and llt)i| 

cheered us to the door; and when |||| 

election results came in they did wii||| 

than at Chicago, by a long shot. Ntt 

that is the thing that we want to iivii|i 

and the resolution in its entirely *n 

that they are not Socialists, thai ||{ 

kinds of political opinions are prciiw 

and dictates the policy all over the cnHi 

try that we must not allow ourselvr* |l 

be subjected to them. This ainfiiil 

resolution is a cipher if you pan* 

I say that the injury done to thr H«- 

cialist movement in the United S\n\vn 

from the earliest day that I was III ii 

has been the everlasting attempt to i'ii|| 

ture the leaders of the trades tniliiilL 

and forgetting all about the rank itllll 

file. (Applause.) Then, on the ujiitf 

side, we have got -a. disgusting sct-nr Iln 

our union when the question conirn nk 

of helping some other fellow, soiiip i|f 

our soap-box fellows make a sprii 

which I cannot understand in any g(f 

way than putting the Socialists in 

credit. There is no room for the Hi 

box speech in the union. The 

thing to preach is to show the eflii'li 

of the economic struggle and tell t 

in the union we stand for Socialism . 

and simple. I say, keep politics on'l 




I III union and if you don't you will have 
I Italics union that will swamp you. 
I'll.. PHELAN (111.): May I ask 
\"< lion? Is there a political organ- 
1 to-day in the trades union? 

I'l L. BERLYN: No. There is in 
iMi I rades unions. I will explain : I am 
'"• Miher of a trades union as long as 
I 11 f you. I have held all kind's of 
iM .lis and I am active to-day, and in 
I ■ unions I have preached the class 
"H| til' until they begin to know where 
I Mini Anybody who has followed the 
' n in this city has known that I have 
1 ulive. We are making sound So- 
il i of the leaders. Let us stand by 
H philosophy. The moment a Social- 
I 1" "limes a business agent or is ma- 
iill. interested and identified with a 

to that degree he becomes cor- 

I ii ■! (o the idea of capturing the lead- 

iiid has been a detriment to the 

iiicnt. Let the unions do their own 

iM ss and let us not intrude upon 

' II work. 

I '■ li!;ate Walsh of Montana secured 

'ii. M rognition of the Chair, and the 

' I III asked upon which side he wished 

■ i-ak. 

i 'h I. WALSH (Mont.) : I desire to 

III part of my time to Comrade Smith 

I I iirgon. 

1 1 1 h: CHAIRMAN : Comrade Smith 
I I int^on has already spoken on the 

I'll IM'II. 

I'l l„ WALSH: I desire to yield 
I III if my time to anyone else. 
I ' I us of "No, No, No.") 

Hlli; CHAIRMAN: If Comrade 
>' 1 1 1 wishes to speak on the question 
' must speak now. There are only 
•1 III minutes and a half until adjourn- 



II. WALSH (Mont.): It appears 

IM Uiat we have got into a trades 

11 proposition. We have a resolu- 

rre that has been introduced by 

■ niiinittee and I would feel like act- 

iipon that resolution had it come 

.111 organized body of labor, but I 

i|>|)()sed to that resolution or the 

I Party taking any stand upon 

pinposition whatever. (Applause.) 

Wire told last night by one of the 

Ills from the stage that we have 

1 iling dust. We know we have, 

1 1 we continue the proposition, we 

i.il dust for five years longer. And 



so we have got to organize upon So- 
ciahstic principles. There is no mis- 
understanding of our point that we are 
opposed to trades unions. We are not 
opposed to trades union, but we are op- 
posed to bringing the trades union into 
this Socialist convention. Tlie com- 
rade who just left the floor upon that 
proposition says that he does iiot be- 
lieve in bringing politics into the unions. 
I do believe in it, and all our western 
people believe in bringing Socialism into 
the unions. What good is an opinion 
if we cannot teach our comrades the 
right way out of the wilderness? We 
have failed to do it in the Trades Coun- 
cil ; we have failed to do it in the 
trades union. Then there must be some 
other way of providing for it, and that 
only way is the Socialist movement. It 
is a class movement. We have to-day 
scabs who are class conscious Socialists. 
I ask you what we are going to do with 
them? Are we going to stand up for 
the union man and say, "Down with the 
scab?" I ask you what we are going to 
do with Mitchell coming into the west- 
ern country to raise trouble? I will 
tell you what we are going to do. We 
are going to drive him out of the coun- 
try. That is what we are going to do. 
Now, we have got to organize upon the 
lines of Socialism and go along that 
line. Supposing that we had followed 
the Lynches, the Gomperses and 
Mitchells; suppose we followed the 
preaching of the doctrine of Hanna, 
who said the union is a good thing. 
Suppose we followed that. What do 
we find we are fighting? They say 
themselves capitalism and this, that, and 
the other are fighting, not organized 
labor in Colorado, but anarchistic So- 
cialism. That is what we are fighting. 
Then after capital has disrupted or- 
ganized labor, as they attempted to dis- 
rupt the typographical union in the 
Miller case, I ask you, if the majority 
is on the other side, who is the Social- 
ist Party going to preach class struggle 
to? 

DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : A point 
of information : The information I de- 
sire to get from the Chair is whether 
before the question is closed, or at what 
time, I may submit an amendment to the 
main resolution? 

THE CHAIRMAN : Not this morn- 
ing. Comrade Spargo. We have 
enough resolutions, substitutes, amend 



210 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



211 



ments and supplementary reports to 
cover the question in every form. 

DEL. SPARGO: No, Comrade 
Chairman, there is one point which has 
been raised which in my opinion is the 
most important point of all, and that 
has not been touched by any motion 
that I have heard read in this conven- 
tion. 

At this point Delegate Berger se- 
cured recognition and the Chair stated 
that there were left four minutes be- 
fore the hour for adjournment. 

DEL. BERGER (Wis.): Comrade 
Chairman and Comrades: I came from 
a city where we have a labor move- 
ment with two arms — a Socialist arm 
and a trade union arm. (Applause.) 
And this is the only kind of a labor 
movement that will succeed in this 
country or any other modern country. 
In Milwaukee, the Socialist Party — the 
Social Democrat Party it is called in 
our state — has received in it about 15,- 

000 or 16,000 trade union men. It was 
a regular class vote. The capitalist 
papers before election claimed that if 
Victor Berger was elected the trades 
unions would run amuck in Milwaukee 
and that the poor manufacturers would 
have to close out their factories and 
move away — probably to Chicago, 111. — 

1 don't know where. 

A DELEGATE (111.): We'll take 
care of them. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Don't interrupt 
the speaker. 

DEL. BERGER: Comrades, I will 
say this, that the trade union movement 
is fully as important as the Socialist 
movement at the present time. (Cries 
of "No" and hisses.) I will just point 
to the difference: Look at the labor 
movement and the Socialist movement 
in England and look at the Socialist 
movement in Germany. In England, 
they have a one-arm movement and 
there it is similar to the conditions here, 
it is crippled. In Germany and in 



France you have the two-arm in(iv< 
nient, right and left. And look at m 
labor movement in America. Outnliji 
of Milwaukee, in America, the liilint 
movement is also one-armed bcciniM 
the Socialist Party does not count niiirli 
outside of a few places. Now, our IiIm 
is to have the two-arm movement, nno 
this can only be done in the followlMl 
way: not in carrying resolutions hiifl 
and there, but in getting the memlipf 
ship. It can only be done by a |ii«i 
sonal union of the Socialist Party iiml 
the trades union. By a personal iiiiiiiM 
I mean that the same people who hi« 
active in the trades union are also acllvo 
in the Socialist* Party, and that is III* 
case in my home town. If you gn In 
the Central Committee of the Sdiiiii 
Democrat Party with a few except liilll 
you see about the same faces as yon »»t 
in the Trades Council. 

THE CHAIRMAN: One miiiHll 
more, comrade. 

DEL. BERGER: Then I will »<•( 
the rest of the time afterwards ? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Yes. 

DEL. BERGER: I have only oim 
minute more, and I will take my litiii' 
afterwards. I , say it would be siiiipU 
criminal for the Socialist Party not In 
recognize — not only criminal, but mil 
cidal — if you do not recognize the jifti 
pie who are fighting the class stru«|ilK 
every day of the year. We claim Id li» 
the political party of the class consciuin 
Now the trades union man is fiKlilliin 
the class struggle every day of the \ri\\ 
— every time the labor union tricii Ik 
make a contract or a wage scale wllll 
the employer. How can we afford |M 
turn the trades union down willmlll 
committing suicide? 

THE CHAIRMAN: The hour lif 
adjournment has arrived, and the iii(»« j 
vention will stand adjourned for tl|| 
noon recess, and Comrade Berger wl 
have the remainder of his time when 
re-assemble. 



AFTERNOON SESSION 



Chairman Mailly called the meeting 
to order at one forty-five p. m., and im- 
mediately recognized Delegate Berger, 
who had still six minutes left from the 
ten minutes allotted him in which to 
speak upon the trades union resolution. 



DEL. BERGER (Wis.) : Mr. CUM 
man and Comrades : I said hrfo( 
lunch that the economic movemcnl 
the labor class is co-ordinate to tlir |H 
litical movement of the labor class, Kd. 
that you cannot neglect one williilil 



i I ippling the movement, the entire 
.1. v.inent. I will say, further, that 

nil', to the attitude towards the trades 

I movement of the Socialist Party, 

•Mil' to our attitude there are Social- 
' I lid delegates on the floor here to- 
I ' V wlio would never have become So- 
mIi (s if it had not been for the atti- 
">'\r we have taken. It has been agi- 
't'll here that the trades unions have 
lajit to speak for the men who are 

I iiiganized. Now one of the com- 

I' ■ Rave me a very good point on that. 

11' :iid, "If two million or a million 

""\ I half men organized in the trades 

HI. MIS have no right to speak for the 

y.imzed men, what right do we 

' .niy-three thousand organized men 
'iv to speak for the entire laboring 
I ' ; " I want to ask you that. I think 
■ I ■ ( is a very good point, a very good 
I nil, indeed. If one million a half 
Miiiized men have no right to speak 
I 1 llinse that are not organized, what 
<i(>.lil rlo we twenty-three thousand have 
111 '.peak for the entire laboring class? 
Wr have the right and they have the 
HkIiI. Now, comrades, I have prom- 
. .1 l<> give part of my time to Comrade 
I It lis of Washington, just to please 

MM- of my Chicago friends, and I 

■ iilil like the Chairman to be kind 
ii.iiikIi to give him part of my time. 

HIE CPIAIRMAN: Has Delegate 
I II IIS had the floor before on this ques- 
II. nil' 

lil'.L. BERGER: No, he has not. 

IllE CHAIRMAN: Well, Delegate 
Mills has three minutes then. Come 
I 1 ward. (Applause.) 

IH'-.L. TITUS (Wash.) : I belong to 

M.- of the professions, I suppose, so 

I I if them being on the other side. 

In I can take the opposite with good 
„ 1 I . . I only want to make two or 
1 1. 1.. |)oints, and I will be through in 
ilin <■ minutes. 

I hiive been listening here to this dis- 
.m.Miin and the people who are opposed 
I.I lilts trades union resolution strike rne 
.(» Iiciiig utterly impractical in their 
mMiiiii'tits. (Applause.) I want to ask 
yiiii wlint would happen to the laboring 
Hiiit'i if there were no trades unions, and 
Hti)i nf the speakers from Chicago an- 
twi'ird it this morning. He said, "If 
I W.I sii'l in a trades union I would be 
HiMlini', six dollars and a quarter less a 
Mi'iK ilian I get now, and I think it a 
|immI investment to pay twenty-five cents 



a week to get six dollars and a quarter 
back." (Laughter.) Now it is a fact 
that the motto under, present conditions, 
under capitalism, must be, "Get all you 
can." (Applause.) This impracticable 
suggestion that you don't want any 
trades unions to get what you can is 
wholly in line with these people who 
are opposed to any program. (Ap- 
plause.) They would strike down trades 
unions, strike down everything that 
gets us anything and reduce the whole 
class to the level of the coolies in the 
far East. We do not want that; we 
want the best we can get under these 
conditions. They say, however, the 
worse off you make the working class 
the better it is for them. Now, I want 
to disassociate myself entirely and abso- 
lutely from the impossibilists. (Ap- 
plause.) Not that I disassociate my- 
self thereby from those who stand for 
the strictest Marxian program (Ap- 
plause), but I believe in getting what 
you can under present conditions before 
seeking to abolish the whole thing. 
One other point and I have done. The 
main reason for our going in with the 
labor unions is not to make them po- 
litical bodies, we don't want any poli- 
tics in labor unions, not at all (ap- 
plause) — ^but the main reason for going 
into the labor unions is to educate them 
for Socialism. (Applause.) Right now 
when Samuel Gompers is in league with 
the Civic Federation to capture some 
two million or three million wage-work- 
ers who are organized for capitalistic 
alliance, to work for capitalism, in al- 
liance with it to defeat the rest of the 
working class by means of organized 
labor — when capital is trying to capture 
organized labor, let us bring a counter 
stroke. The most strategic move_ for 
us to take is to go into unions as indi- 
viduals and educate them so they can- 
not be captured by capital. (Applause.) 
Nothing but the education of the work- 
ing class will accomplish that. (Ap- 
plause.) 

DEL. ROBINSON (Ky.) : I move 
the previous question. 

Motion seconded. 

DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : I rise to 
a point of information. 

THE CHAIRMAN: What is your 
point ? 

DEL. SPARGO: Whether the 
amendment which I have already handed 
in will be read now or whether it will 



212 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



213 



I 



be in order after the previous question 
has been moved? 

THE CHAIRMIAN: I shall have to 
put the previous question. 

The previous question was then put 
to a vive voce vote, and the result of 
the vote being doubtful, a rising vote 
was taken and the motion declared car- 
ried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The question 
now recurs upon the adoption of the 
supplementary report of the committee. 
There will now be one speech on each 
side, three minutes apiece. 

DEL. HILLQUIT (N. Y.) : I rise to 
speak in favor of the supplementary re- 
port of the committee. You will notice 
that it is not only a declaration in fa- 
vor of trades unionists, but it is also a 
distinct and specific declaration that the 
labor unions should be educated in So- 
cialistic principles, and it is a specific 
declaration on the issues that are fac- 
ing us to-day. It seems to me, Mr. 
Chairman and delegates, that we have 
had any number of resolutions passed 
in times past, but whenever we have 
come to the practical issue, we will find 
that there has been no expression of 
the party's will on one side or the other 
side of the question. If we are to be for 
trades unionism, vote for this report, 
but if we are to be against them, vote 
down the supplementary report. 

DEL. O'MALLEY (Mont.) : If I 
am on the opposition side it is not be- 
cause I am opposed to a declaration in 
favor or against trades unionism, but 
because I am opposed to that which has 
been sedulously kept in the background 
this morning and last night. I am op- 
posed to the kind of declaration we have 
here, which a portion of the party, 
backed by long training, long parlia- 
mentary training, is endeavoring to ram 
down the throats of this convention. I 
had hoped that those of the Socialist 
Party who are following the delectable 
occupation of ' attempting to force this 
thing through would at least have had 
the manhood to have arisen upon this 
matter and stated their position, and not 
attempted to hide behind the trades 
union movement as a general proposi- 
tion, in endeavoring to force through 
this organization a specious endorse- 
ment of one kind of unionism. I want 
to say to this convention that if, by 
the adoption of this resolution, they say 
to the workingmen of the west that they 



should abandon their industrial oi'||ii|i 
ization to go into a combination wlili>H 
at best is nothing more than phiylim 
mto the hands of the capitali.stN, f 
strongly urge the western men to iii| 
a little bit of profanity and to tell ||||| 
convention to go to hell. (Loud «■• 
plause.) I want to say, Mr. ChairmMI 
and comrades, that conditions in thr ll|i 
dustrial world to-day are not as IliM 
were twenty-five years ago. 'I |i| 
growth of capitalism has put an ciifir»'l» 
different phase on the matter. Oiir ti( 
the delegates made the remark hcrr lit 
day or yesterday that there were .sixty 
four divisions of the shoe trade, ami | 
want to say that if trades unionism w«| 
earned to its logical conclusion in ||ii 
industrial plant in my city, we wniiM 
have sixty-four separate and distiiicl iii 
ganizations in the shoe industry llirin 
every one of them fighting their but ill* 
separately and going on strike our itt 
a time, and being crushed one at a lliii* 
But, standing together as we do, \\w \\\ 
jury of one is the concern of all 'iiiul 
through that union we hold our sliTnatii 
and gain our battles. (Loud applauif I 
Comrades, the point involved in lli« 
resolution before this body is this: Will 
you by your vote to-day say that we iln 
sire to turn the working class, Ixuillll 
hand and foot, over to those whn hiivf 
been unable to accomplish anythiuR, umi) 
to defend our action because the ImMij 
by which they tie them bears the liili|i| 
of the trade union? 

THE CHAIRMAN: The time Imi' 
expired and the question now rcvpll* 
to the adoption of the supplempnlNi» 
report of the committee. 

DEL. HAYES (O.) : Point of kh] 

der. ' 

THE CHAIRMAN: I have rcn» 
nized Comrade Gaylord. 

DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.) : I w| 
to say that the substitute submitted 
me is withdrawn. It was willuiim 
before, as I understand it 

THE CHAIRMAN: It was witi 
drawn. For what purpose do you r||| 

DEL. CAREY (Mass.) : I rise ft 
the purpose of asking the conveiUinn 
they will permit me to make a sugn 
tion that will hasten the solution of] 
matter. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Is it the pli 
ure of the convention? (Crii-H , 
"No." ) There is objection, rind || 



t 
I 



■ inr.iion reverts to the supplementary 

lilL SLOBODIN (N. Y.): Point 
i III formation. 

I I i E CHAIRMAN : State your 
I il. 

|)|:L. SLOBODIN: Does the sup-. 
Iiliiiitntary report take the place of the 
Ml {(filial ? 

HIE CHAIRMAN: The supple- 

• <i. iil.iry report is withdrawn. 

IH'L. PARKS (Kan.): The supple- 
"MMi.iry report is not withdrawn. 

I 1 1 E CHAIRMAN : Oh, no, I should 
iMvr said the substitute of Comrade 
'.ivI'Md is withdrawn. The supple- 
iiirtiiiiy report takes the place of the 
nUKiiial report. 

DI.L. SLOBODIN: My substitute 
1 nines first. 

HIE CHAIRMAN : No. The ques- 

'11 romes upon the supplementary re- 
1 'Il All those in favor will manifest 
•II I IV saying aye. 

A great many delegates endeavored 
In nhtain recognition, many of them 
n.iiit; to points of order. 

I>I:L. SMITH (Ore.): I ask for a 
jiniiii of information. 

I)I:L. PARKS: I rise to a point of 
nnlci-. 

A I this point there were loud cries for 
ml! r;ill. 

KI'.L. LUCAS (Minn.): I rise to a 
|Miini of order. 

I II E CHAIRMAN : I will recognize 

lie until order is restored. Com- 

1 hIi Lucas will take his seat. Now, 
iIhii I will recognize the delegates one 
.1 .1 lime. 

Itl'.L. STEDMAN (111.): Comrade 

• li.iiiman. 

I M r CHAIRMAN : For what pur- 
|Mi,r (jo you rise? 

ni'.L. STEDMAN: I rise to make 
» Midi ion that we have a roll call on 
llil'. 

Mniion seconded. 

nil': CHAIRMAN : It is moved and 
•iiniidcd that there be a roll call upon 
till' nloption of the supplementary re- 
|Miil A.re you ready for the question? 

I III' question was called for, and the 
lliiiiioii being put, it was carried unani- 
Hliiir.ly. 

I 1 1 \'. CHAIRMAN : The motion is 

mlnlilcd. 

Hi I. . PARKS: Point of order. 

I 1 1 1", CHAIRMAN : Comrade Parks 

Will I. ike his seat. 



DEL. PARKS: I rise to a point of 
order. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Comrade Parks 
will take his seat. I shall not recognize 
any one on any question but the secre- 
tary on the roll call. 

DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : Point of 
order. 

DEL. PARKS: I have risen to ^ 
point of order; that is always in order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Let me state 
that I will not recognize any one on any 
question except the secretary on the roll 
call. 

DEL. PARKS: You will have to 
recognize a point of order. 

A DELEGATE: What I want to 
know is, what we are going to vote on. 

DEL. PARKS : We don't know what 
we are voting on. I rise to a point of 
order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Parks 
of Kansas will take his seat. 

DEL. PARKS: Let me state my 
point of order. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Comrade Parks 
will take his seat. The secretary will 
read — and if you had been calm I would 
have done this before — the secretary will 
read the supplementary report and we 
will then proceed with the roll call, 
and nobody need get excited. The 
previous question has been called for. 

DEL. SPARGO: I rise to a point 
of order. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Delegate Spargo 
will take his seat. (Loud applause.) 
The secretary will proceed with the 
reading of the supplementary report. 

The secretary then read the Trades 
Union fesolution as finally returned by 
the committee. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Now one mo- 
ment : before the roll is called I want 
to call attention to the fact that there 
may be omissions on the roll call. The 
roll call was printed, I believe, before 
one or two of the delegates — the last 
delegates — took their seats, so that if 
there are any omissions you will un- 
derstand that it is not our fault. Also, 
I think it would be much better and the 
secretaries will be able to follow much 
better if each delegate will rise when he 
votes so that the delegates can both see 
and hear him. 

DEL. MILLER (Col.) : I rise to 
make a motion in regard to procedure. 

THE CHAIRMAN: No motion is 
in order at this time. 



tu 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



215 



i 



ROLL CALL ON TRADES UNION RESOLUTION. 

The roll call was then had, the dele- 
gates answering as follows: 

Yes :— ALA., Waldhorst ; CAL., Cobb, 
Deutzman, Wilkins, M. W., McKee, 
Richardson, Wilson, Woodbey; COL., 
Floaten, Hazlett, Miller, Southworth ; 
CONN., Mahoney, Toomey; IDAHO, 
Ault; ILL., Beryln, Breckon, Brewer, 
Carr, Collins, Morgan, Smith, Simons, 
Stedman; IND., Hollenberger, Oneal, 
Reynolds; IOWA, Johnson; KAN., 
Cogswell, Will; KY., Nagel, Robinson, 
Markert; MASS., Carey, Brandt, Kelley, 
Keown, Hayman, Outram, White; 
MICH., Lamb, Menton; MISS., Rose; 
MINN., Brattland, Gilbertson, Holman, 
Lucas; MO., Behrens, Brandt, Dilno, 
Hoehn, Lipscomb, Raible, Rathbun; 
NEB., Clark, Mailly; N. H., Mur- 
ray; N. J., Burrowes, Kronenberg, Os- 
wald, Ufert, Reilly, Rubinow, Strobell; 
N. Y,, Atkinson, Butscher, Dobbs, 
Ehert, Flanagan, Gerber, Hanford, Her- 
ron, Hillquit, Jonas, Lee, Dressier, 
Sieverman, Slobodin, Spargo, Wegener, 
Wessling; OHIO, Bandlow, Bickett, 
Goss, Hayes, Stanton; OKLA., Hayes, 
Snyder; PA., Barnes, Goaziou; S. D., 
Knowles; WASH., Titus; WIS., Ber- 
ger. Born, Young, Gaylord, Hunger, 
Spence, Cross, Thomas. 

No:— ARK., Lefever, Penrose; CAL., 
Robbins, Keller, Patton, Weaver, Wil- 
kins, Bertha; IND. TER., Whitelatch; 
ILL., Phelan, Smith, Unterman; IND,, 
Barrett, Debs; IOWA, Bennett, Jacob- 
son, Work; KAN., Parks, Kraybill; 
LA., Putnam; MD., Toole, Young; 
MASS., Gibbs; MICH., Benessi; 
MINN,. Bosky, Ford; MONT., Mc- 
Hugh, O'Malley, Walsh, Hirt; NEB., 
Hyland, Hawkins ; N. J., Glanz ; OHIO, 
Farrell, Webster; OKLA., Kolachney, 
Loudermilk, Reshaw; ORE., Smith; 
PA., Ayres, Bacon, Heydrick, Gagli- 
ardi, Maurer, Ringler, Moore; S. D., 
Potter; TENN., Stockell; TEXAS, 
Kerrigan, Langworthy, Latham ; 
WASH., Lund. 

Not voting: — Mills, Kan.; McGrady, 
Ky. ; Littlefield, Mass. ; Leonard, Minn. ; 
Turner and Garver, Mo. ; Zorn and Wil- 
ley, Ohio; Forbes, Pa. 

DEL. CURTIS (N. Y.) : I record 
my vote in the affirmative. 

DEL. SPEARS (111.) : The Illinois 
alternates have to be added yet. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Who are they? 

DEL. SPEARS: Newman in place 
of Block. 



A DELEGATE : No, in place of 
Eachern. 

DEL. MORGAN (III.) : The Clu^ 
man_ of the Committee on Crcdciitlil,, 
I think, will be able to inform yon iIik. 
the substitute of Comrade McEiiilittiii 
was Comrade Newman. 

DELEGATES: No. 

DEL. MORGAN: It was arniiiM»(( 
with the Committee on Credential."!, Htttl 
there are no more substitutes. 'Ilti 
convention elected no substitutes. 

A DELEGATE: That makes it i-ttiM 
plicated. 

THE CHAIRMAN: No; thcri. j|f|' 
only two, and there will be no one i'|»ii 

DEL. MORGAN: I protest .iKnldil 
recording the vote of a substitulr Hiiti 
has not been recognized by the ('iiiii 
mittee on Credentials. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Is it not lf|_ 
that Spears and Newman are altcrimlitll 

DEL, MORGAN : It is not tnir 

DEL. SPEARS: The chainm.11 hI 
the Committee on Credentials inf(iiiii«H 
me that I was a member. 

DEL. LEE: Comrade Newman Wdl 
the first alternate. As far as the fnii) 
mittee on Credentials were concciiiml, 
there were more, but I cannot iil Ihii 
moment say how many alternatrM' n$ 
dentials were received. There wt-H 
either three or four, to the best ol iitjl 
memory. Comrade Newman's ikimiI 
coming first. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If there in hM 
objection, we will proceed. Nrsviii«M 
voted in the affirmative and Spc«iii« in 
the negative. 

DEL. PALMER (Mo.) : I liavK m4 
I vote yes. 

DEL OTT (Wyo.) : My name h| 
not been called. I vote yes. 

DEL. TOOLE: No; he votes no, 

DEL. SEIDEL (Wis.) : I vofr 
for the regular delegate. 

DEL. HEATH (Wis.) : I votci yl 

DEL. OTT : I voted yes for tho at 
pose of movijjg you that we reconiTf 
this vote. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I shall not 
sider that motion now. 

DEL. OTT : Let me explain my 
sition, that is all. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I cannot 
sider your motion. 

DEL. OTT: I am not making It 
this time. 

THE CHAIRMAN: What nro 
doing? 



ni'.L. OTT: I wish to explain my 
|H. iiion. 

I I ! E CHAIRMAN : Pending the re- 
• iill of the vote being announced, I shall 

'' I'li'L.' PATTON (Cal.) : I move that 
111.- secretary read over the names of 
ill..,,- that have voted, before we finish 
111. count. 

I I IE CHAIRMAN: I do not thnik 
ill 1 1 is necessary. 

DI'X. PATTON: Will we now have 
1 .liance to record our votes upon the 
L.liodin substitute? 

I HE CHAIRMAN: It depends 
Mpnii the result of the vote upon the 
iipplementary report. 

|)|:L. PARKS: I protest agamst 
h.iviug to vote on this supplementary 
M-iiiirt first. We should have voted on 
I In- substitute first. 

I HE CHAIRMAN: Take your seat. 

I iliink everybody is satisfied with the 
^\.lv the vote has been put and taken. 

I I y< )u will wait a few minutes you will 
li.ivc the result, while I attend to a lit- 
il. official business. Comrade Ford, 
I1..U do you vote? 

DRL. FORD (Minn.): No. 

SI'ICRETARY DOBBS: The secre- 
l.nv is ready to announce the \\ite. 
II,,. vote resulted: Yes, 107; ng, 52- 
I \ii|)lause.) 

I HE CHAIRMAN: The question 
iinw comes on the regular order of busi- 

I il'X. MEYER (111.) : What becomes 
.1 my motion? ' ' 

I HE CHAIRMAN: I asked you to 

niL- it out and leave it at the desk. 

I>h-L, HILLQUIT: I move to sus- 
|M ,1.1 the regular order of busmess and 
H . rive the report of the Platform Com- 
iiiillce. 

Seconded. 

I'lie motion to suspend and receive 
111.' committee's report was put and car- 

"I'trfore receiving the report, Delegate 
■•IMTgo, of the Resolutions Committee, 
Mihlc the following statement: 

DKL SPARGO: I desire to call at^ 
i,nli..n to a change in the resolutioji, 
l,„ I lie sake of accuracy. The fact is, 
,|„u- is no such body as the Iirterna- 

.,1 Socialist Congress, and we have 

,,, I, en- that in mind. The Internationa 
•.„,:,list Congress is an International 

,„i-,list and Trade Union Congress, 
,n.l it makes the resolution incorrect m 



so far as it indicates that the Socialists 
and Trade Unionists act together. I 
move that correction be made. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I will request 
that that correction be deferred until it 
comes to the order of election of dele- 
gates. That is the report of the Com- 
mittee on Platform. 

DEL. SPARGO : I mean that in that 
motion as already adopted, the words 
"and trade union" ought to be inserted 
before "congress" for the sake of ac- 
curacy. 

Motion seconded and carried. 

Report of the Committee on Plat- 
form 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Her- 
ron, chairman of the Committee on 
Platform, will submit the report from 
that committee. This is an important 
matter— the adoption of the platform— 
and delegates will please preserve order 
and keep their seats. 

DEL. HERRON: I wish to state 
that on account of the lateness of the 
hour at which we finished this docu- 
ment last night, in order to have it in 
the hands of the printer, there was no 
time to read proof. There will be one 
or two incidental typographical errors 
in the way of punctuation and so on, 
and one Hne which I will call attention 
to which should be left out. I would 
like to say that this platform which we 
present to you is the unanimous report 
of the committee, even, I think,, unto 
the least particular. Our effort has 
been to present a platform that shall be 
in one sense the appeal of this conven- 
tion to the American people. We have 
embodied in this substantially every- 
thing there is in the historic Socialist 
platforms, and yet have attempted to 
make a platform that would be in the 
terms of American political life and dis- 
cussion. 

Chairman Herron of the committee 
then read the report as follows, the 
reading beginning at 2:33 p. m. and 
ending at 2:48 p. m: 

I. 

The Socialist Party, in convention 
assembled, makes its appeal to the 
American people as the defender and 
preserver of the idea of liberty and 
self-government, in which the nation 
was born; as the only political move- 
ment standing for the program and 



216 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



principles by which the liberty of the 
individual may become a fact; as the 
only political organization that is 
democratic, and that has for its purl 
pose the democratizing of the whole 
of society. 

To this idea of liberty the Repub- 
lican and Democratic parties are 
equally false. They alike struggle for 
power to maintain and profit V an 
industrial system which can be pre- 
served only by the complete over- 
throw of such liberties as we already 
have, and by the still further enslave- 
ment and degradation of labor. 
_ Our American institutions came 
into the world in the name of free- 
dom. They have been seized upon by 
the capitalist class as the means of 
rooting out the idea of freedom from 
among the people. Our state and na- 
tional legislatures have become the 
mere agencies of great propertied in- 
terests. These interests control the 
appointments and decisions of the 
.nidges of our courts-. They have 
come into what is practically a private 
ownership of all the functions and 
forces of government. They are using 
these to betray and conquer foreign 
and weaker peoples, in order to es- 
tablish new markets for the surplus 
goods which the people make, but are 
too poor to buy. They are gradually 
so invading and restricting the right 
of suffrage as to take away unawares 
the right of the worker to a vote or 
voice in public affairs. By enacting 
new. and misinterpreting old laws 
they are preparing to attack the lib- 
erty of the individual even to speak 
or think for himself, or for the com- 
mon good. 

By controlling all the sources of 
social revenue, the possessing class is 
able to silence what might be the voice 
of protest against the passing of lib- 
erty and the coming of tyranny. It 
completely controls the university and 
public school, the pulpit and the press, 
and the arts and literatures. By mak- 
ing these economically dependent 
upon itself, it has brought all the 
forms of public teaching into servile 
submission to its own interests. 

Our political institutions are also be- 
ing used as the destroyers of that in- 
dividual property upon which all lib- 
erty and opportunity depend. The 
promise of economic independence 
to each man was one of the faiths 



upon which our institutions wcm' 
founded. But, under the guise ol 
defending private property, capitalisin 
IS using our political institutions In 
make it impossible for the vast nm 
jority of human beings ever to becoiiir 
possessors of private property in lli<i 
means of life. 

Capitalism is the enemy and rlr 
stroyer of essential private property 
Its development is through the Ickii'I- 
ized confiscation of all that the lalinr 
_ot the working class produces, abovd 
Its subsistence-wage. The privntP 
ownership of the means of emplov 
ment grounds society in an econonii. 
slavery which renders intellectual aii.l 
political tyranny inevitable. 

Socialism comes so to organize in 
dustry and society that every iudi 
vidual shall be secure in that priv.-il.- 
property in the means of life upmi 
which his liberty of being, thouKJil 
and action depend. Tt comes to rescii.' 
the people from the fast increasiuH 
and successful assault of capitalism 
upon the liberty of the individual. 

II. 

As an American socialist party. \vr 
pledge our fidelity to the principl.-i 
of international socialism, as em 
bodied in the united thought and -.w 
tion ofthe socialists of all nations 
In the industrial development already 
accomplished, the interests of tin- 
world's workers are separated by no 
national boundaries. The condition 
of the most exploited and oppres.seil 
workers, m the most remote place-, 
of the earth, inevitably tends to draK 
down all the workers af the world 
to the same level. The tendency n{ 
the competitive wage system is to 
make labor's lowest condition tlir 
measure or rule of its universal con 
dition. Industry and finance are no 
longer national but international, in 
hoth organization and results. 1"Iir 
chief significance of national bouii 
claries, and of the so-called patriot. 
isms which the ruling class of each 
nation is seeking to revive, is tlir 
power which these give to capitalism 
to keep the workers of the world 
from uniting, and to throw tlieni 
against each other in the struggles of 
contending capitalist interests for tlir 
control of the yet unexploited mar. 
kets of the world, or the remaininji 
sources of profit. 



1 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



'^n 



11 



'I'lie socialist movement, therefore, 
. ,1 world-movement. It knows of no 

Ilicts of interests between the 

vvwikcrs of one nation and the work- 
.1 . of another. It stands for the free- 
.Inni of the workers of all nations; 
iihI, in so standing, it makes for the 
lull freedom of all humanity. 

III. 

I he socialist movement owes its 
I.Mih and growth to that economic 
.1. v.'lopment or world-process which 

I rapidly separating a working or 
(.inducing class from a possessing or 
..ipitalist class. The class that pro- 
iliircs nothing possesses labor's fruits, 

I I 111 the opportunities and enjoyments 
ilusc fruits afford, while the class 
tl1.1l does the world's real work has 
III! leasing economic uncertainty, and 
|.bysical and intellectual misery, for 
1 1 portion. 

I'he fact that these two classes have 
11. >t yet become fuHy conscious of 
ilicir distinction from each other, the 
l.ul that the lines of division and in- 
Incst may not yet be clearly drawn, 
,1m,s not change the fact of the class 
. (inflict. 

I'his class struggle is due to the 
piivate ownership of the means of 
riiiployment, or the tools of produc- 
hnii. Wherever and whenever man 
nwned his own land and tools, and by 
Hum produced only the things which 
1 1,- used, economic independence was 
IMissible. But production, or the 
ind<ing of goods, has long ceased to 
l«. individual. The labor of scores, 
(.1 even thousands, enters into almost 
, very article produced. Production 
r. now social or collective. Prac- 
( I, ally everything is made or done 
l.v many men— sometimes separated 
Iv seas or continents — working to- 
v'.lher for the same end. But this 
.M operation in production is not for 
I In- direct use of the thing? made by 
I lie workers who make them, but for 
111.- profit of the owners of the tools 
,ind means of production; and to this 

I , <lue the present division of society 
,nlo two classes; and from it have 

lining all the miseries, inharmonies 
.111.1 contradictions of our civilization. 
I between these two classes there can 
be no possible compromise or identity 
nl interests, any more than there can 
!..■ iieace in the midst of war, or light 

II, I be midst of darkness. A society 



based upon this class divisimi i.iiri.'s 
in itself the seeds of its own il.">lnu' 
tion. Such a society is f. >iiii.ii-d m 
fundamental injustice. llific .mii Ik- 
no possible basis for .social p.-ai.', I^i 
individual freedom, for mciil.il ;iim1 
moral harmony, except in the ('•" 
scions and complete triumph "( ibr 
working class as the only class lliiil 
has the right or power to be. 

IV. 

The socialist program is not a 
theory imposed upon society for its 
acceptance or rejection. \i is but 
the interpretation of what is. snon.-i 
or later, inevitable. CapitaHsm is ;d 
ready struggling to its destruction, it 
is no longer competent to organi/c 
or administer the work of the world, 
or even to preserve itself. The cap 
tains of industry are appalled at 
their own inability to control or di- 
rect the rapidly socializing forces of 
industry. The so-called trust is but 
a sign and form of the developing 
socialization of the world's work. 
The universal increase of the uncer- 
tainty of employment, the universal 
capitalist determination to break 
down the unity of labor in the trades 
unions, the widespread apprehensions 
of impending change, reveal that the 
institutions of capitalist society arc 
passing under the power of inhering 
forces that will soon destroy them. 

Into the midst of the strain and 
crisis of civilization, the socialist 
movement comes as the only con- 
servative force. If the world is to he 
saved from chaos, from universal dis- 
order and misery, it must be by the 
union of the workers of all nations 
in the socialist movement. The so- 
cialist party comes with the only 
proposition or program for intelli- 
gently and deliberately organizing the 
nation for the common good of all 
its citizens. It is the first time that 
the mind of man has ever been di 
rected toward the conscious organ 
ization of society. 

Socialism means that all those 
things upon which the people in com- 
mon depend shall by the people in 
common be owned and administerorl, 
It means that the tools of employ- 
ment shall belong to their creators 
and users; that all production shall 
be for the direct use of the produc.'rs; 
that the, making of gogds for pi "lit 



218 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



219 



shall come to an end; that we shall 
all be workers together; and that all 
opportunities shall be open and equal 
to all men. 

V. 

To the end that the workers may 
seize every possible advantage that 
may strengthen them to gain complete 
•^^ntrol of the powers of government, 
and thereby the sooner establish the 
co-operative commonwealth, the So- 
cialist Party pledges itself to watch 
and work, in both the economic and 
the political struggle, for each suc- 
cessive immediate interest of the 
working class; for shortened days of 
labor and increases of wages; for the 
insurance of the workers against ac- 
cident, sickness and lack of employ- 
ment; for pensions for aged and ex- 
hausted workers; for the public 
ownership of the means of transpor- 
tation, communication and exchange; 
for the graduated taxation of in- 
comes, inheritances, franchises and 
land values, the proceeds to be ap- 
plied to the public employment and 
improvement of the conditions of the 
workers; for the complete education 
of children, and their freedom from 
the workshop; for the prevention of 
the use of the military against labor 
in the settlement of strikes; for the 
free administration of justice ; for 
popular government, including initia- 
tive, referendum, proportional repre- 
sentation, equal suffrage of men and 
women, municipal home rule, and the 
recall of officers by their constituents; 
and for every gain or advantage for 
the workers that may be wrested 
from the capitalist system, and that 
may relieve the suffering and 
strengthen the hands of labor. We 
lay upon every man elected to any 
executive or legislative office the first 
duty of striving to procure whatever 
is for the workers' most immediate 
interest, and for whatever will lessen 
the economic and political powers of 
the capitalist, and increase the like 
powers of the worker. 

But, in so doing, we are using these 
remedial measures as means to the 
one great end of the co-operative 
commonwealth. Such measures of 
relief as we may be able to force from 
capitalism are but a preparation of the 
workers to seize the whole powers of 
government, in order that they may 



thereby lay hold of the whole iy»\m 
of industry, and thus come into lliuli 
rightful inheritance. 

To this end we pledge ourgrlvr*, 
as the party of the working clasn, Im 
use all political power, as fast nn 11 
shall be entrusted to us by our It I 
low-workers, both for their immcchiilr 
interests and for their ultimate mimI 
complete emancipation. To this ciiij 
we appeal to all the workers ii| 
America, and to all who will Irini 
their lives to the service of the woili 
ers in their struggle to gain thfit 
own, and to all who will nobly mihI 
disinterestedly give their (days ami 
energies unto the workers' cau.sr, Id 
cast in their lot and faith willi llii> 
socialist party. Our appeal for lli« 
trust and suffrages of our fellow 
workers is at once an appeal for llirli 
common good and freedom, and Im 
the freedom and blossoming of niii 
common humanitj-. In pledging mii 
selves, and those we represent, to Id 
faithful to the appeal which we ni;ilu, 
we believe that we are but prepainm 
the soil of that economic frecdniii 
from which will spring the frecdnm 
of the whole man. 

At the conclusion of the readinx ••! 
the platform, there was long-contiiuicij 
applause. 

Delegate Herron called attention In 
certain words which should have lirrii 
omitted from the printed copies of llin 
platform which were in the hands of llin 
delegates while the report was hriivu 
read. 

THE CHAIRMAN : You have licar.l 
the report of the Committee on flnt 
form. What is your pleasure? 

DEL. NAGEL (Ky.) : I move id 

adoption. 

DEL. JONAS (N. Y.) : I move io 
accept It as read, without any further 
discussion. Seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It is moved 
and seconded that the report be accepted 
as read. 

Question called for. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The Chair will 
not presume not to give the privilcgd 
of the floor to any delegate. 
. DEL. TAFT (111.) : I have a mo- 
tion; you may vote it down, and prnl). 
ably will. But, nevertheless, there ars 
r.ertain sentences in this platform whirll 
I do not believe ought to be put in n 



'...ri.-dist platform. One in particular 
(•. Ibis appeal in the last paragraph, 
In I his end we appeal to all the work- 
,r, of America": it is to what follows 
ih.il I object: "and to all who will lend 
ili<-ir lives to the service of the work- 
,1 , in their struggle to gain their o\yn, 
,iiiil to all who will nobly and dism- 
in.-stedly give their days and energies 
unto the worker's cause, to cast in their 
|..t and faith with the Socialist Party. 
I iiKiintain that if there are persons out- 
iiilc of the working class who are will- 
iny to come in and work with the 
wn'iking class and to stand absolutely 
nil the working class platform, they are 
wrlcome and we want them as work- 
. IS, but I do object to making any ap- 
11..1I on any ethical or other considera- 
iinii to any person not belonging to the 
unrking class, in a Socialist platform. 
{ Applause.) ^ , ^ 

There was no second to Delegate 
I lift's motion. . , 

I HE CHAIRMIAN: It is naoved 
,,iul seconded that the report of the 
I ommittee on Platform be accepted and 
(lie platform adopted. 

Question called for. 

THE CHAIRMAN: AH those in 
|;ivor of that motion will signify it by 
■,;iying aye. Contrary, no. The report 
nt the Committee on Platform is adopt- 
ed. (Applause.) 

Nominations 
THE CHAIRMAN: The next 

tiling in order is . 

DEL. BERLYN (111.) : Nommations 
l(jr President. 
THE CHAIRMAN : One moment. 
DEL. STEDMAN (111.) : The Com- 
mittee on Program is ready. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Referring to 
tlie regular order of business, the next 
thing in order is the report of the 
Committee on Municipal Program. 

DEL. HILQUIT: Inasmuch as 
we passed the nominations for Presi- 
dent and Vice-President until the plat- 
form was adopted, nominations are now 
ill order. ^, , . 

THE CHAIRMAN : The chair was 
ill error. We took up the report of the 
Committee on Platform under a sus- 
pension of the rules. The next thing in 
order, therefore, reverting to the origi- 
nal order of business, now that the re- 
port of the Committee on Platform has 
been received and adopted, will be to 
proceed to the nomination of a candi- 



date for President. (Applause.) Nom- 
inations are in order. Delegate Herron of 
New York. 

HERRON NOMINATES EUGENF. V. DEHS FOR 
PRESIDENT. 

DEL. HERRON: Mr. Chairman 
and Comrades of the Convention: In 
rising to make what I believe will be 
the unanimous nomination of this 
convention, I would like to preface 
that nomination with a statement of 
what has come to me in watching the 
proceedings of this convention, and in 
watching the general development of 
the Socialist movement for the two 
years since our Indianapolis conven- 
tion. I think I shall go away from 
this convention very much of an optim- 
ist concerning the future of the work- 
ing class of America. There are greater 
struggles before us, or before espe- 
cially those of you who are in the ranks 
of labor, than perhaps we know. Here 
in America, the conditions of labor on 
the one side, and of capital on the 
other side, are intensifying with a ra- 
pidity and sharpness that no Socialist 
economist would have prophesied twen- 
ty or thirty years ago. More than m any 
other nation of the world the lines of 
economic conflict, the lines of defini- 
tion between the working class and the 
capitalist or possessing class, are being 
clearly drawn, and drawn by the ex- 
perience of the working class itself; 
and I have no doubt, although this is 
not the place for prophecy, but what 
the great international or world catas- 
trophe—if it is to be a catastrophe— 
of the capitalist system will be precipi- 
tated here in America. (Applause.) 1 
have no doubt but what, in the spread 
of the commonwealth of labor around 
the world, that the sun of that Co-op- 
erative Commonwealth will rise here 
on the American continent, and m this 
republic. (Applause.) And, therefore, 
it has seemed to me more urgent than 
anything else that the working class of 
America should become conscious not 
only of its struggle, not only of itself, 
of its class, but of its opportunity. 
There is a sense in which we might say 
what Marx once said to the workers in 
the International at Brussels, and say 
it with more truth, that the destinies 
of the workers of the world, "for per- 
haps the next two or three centuries to 
come are pivoted upon the solidarity 
and the intelligence and the character 



220 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



221 



of the organization of labor here in 
America. (Applause.) And jt has 
seemed to me, therefore, important that 
here, above almost every other country, 
the working class, with the pressure of 
the struggle upon it, and with the pre- 
ceding advantages of the public school, 
such as they were,— that the working 
class here in America is better pre- 
pared than perhaps in any other nation 
to work out its own salvation and its 
own destiny. For, in the end, the work- 
ers of the world will never be free un- 
til they free themselves by their own 
united action. (Applause.) No matter 
what others who may gladly give 
themselves to the workers' struggle may 
do, in the end, all freedom and all good 
that is handed down by one class unto 
another class historically has proven de- 
lusive. In the struggle of the Paris 
Commune, in the struggle of the Lol- 
lards in early England, with their ideals 
of a certain sort of Social Democracy, 
and in all history, the subject peoples 
have maintained a positive gain or a 
positive freedom wherever they have 
gained that freedom for themselves ; and 
whenever they have lost, and whenever 
they have been betrayed, it has been be- 
cause their cause was committed to 
other hands than their own. (Ap- 
plause.) 

Now, I say that the proceedings of 
this convention and the development of 
the Socialist movement within the last 
two or three years, have given me a 
feeling of infinite relief, especially since 
I have been here. I feel that the heart 
and the brain of the working class are 
sound. I feel that the woflcing class 
can be trusted in America to work out 
Its own destiny. (Applause.) I feel 
that it will keep faith with its opportu- 
nity and its responsibility for the eman- 
cipation of the workers of the world. I 
am sure that in the intensifying struggle 
that will bring upon us, in the next four 
or five years, things of which we do not 
now dream, that may try men's souls 
and bodies and faith, try the whole man- 
hood of men as possibly men were 
never tried in human history— I feel that 
when that crisis or that day of judg- 
ment comes, the working class Socialist 
movement of America will be as great 
as its cause, and that it will rise up to 
match Its opportunity. (Applause.) 

Now, there is no man in American 
who more surely and faithfully incar- 



nates the heart-ache and the protest llltl 
the struggle of labor for its emain'l|m 
tion, or more surely voices that stnimln, 
A^ Eugene V. Debs. (Great applaiUM I 
And, Mr. Chairman and Comradi'-i nl 
the convention, I count it as amouK llif 
great joys of my life— I do not say intii 
ors, because I have done with thriii 
long ago (applause)— I count it nin<iii|| 
the great joys and opportunities of tuy 
life to stand before you to-day and miiii 
mate Eugene V. Debs as the candi.liilr 
of the Socialist Party of the Uiiilr.l 
Mates for President in our coming mi 
tional campaign. (Prolonged iiii 
plause.) 

THE CHAIRMAN : Delegate Cai.H 
of Massachusetts. 

CAREY SECONDS THE NOMINATION OF llKllft 

DEL. CAREY: Mr. Chairman: I 
am a representative of the workiim 
class— a class that has aroused lliciii 
selves to the point where they tii.'ii.i 
expression of protest against Ihni 
masters, and during that protest lir 
tween ourselves and between tho.sc nl 
us that are in immediate conflict with 
our masters day after day, there coiiir 

divisions between us, and sometimes 

of us who is making protests agaiiinl 
our masters in a certain unscientilii 
fashion may differ with a certain othn 
one. But this is the issue. The issue ix 
that every time we protest against oiii 
masters, we stand with those who in tin 
last analysis stand for our class. (An 
plause.) 

And whatever may be the differcni-r 
between myself and anybody else in ccr 
tain immediate struggles, whatever niiiy 
be the differences, the ultimate iwnm 
by which we of the trades union niovr 
ment judge a man is not because he tell* 
us he loves us, but because he him 
proven that he has stood with us in 
the hour when we needed him, (An 
plause.) 

I am here to second the nomination 
of ray Comrade, Herron, and I am jump 
to warn the convention against criti' 
cisms that may be born out of the iin 
happy discussion on the trades union 
movement that we have just passcj 
through, but to tell you— and I tliink 
I can speak for any trades unionisf 
here (is there any who would object t(^ 
that?)— that my Comrade, Debs, reprr 
sents us in the trades union movemcill 
of this country (applause) ; that he hn« 
gone down to death because he dared 
in the struggle of my class, in the at- 



I I nipt of my class to protect themselves 
.ir.ainst a degradation that would rob 
ilum of the power to express them- 

rlveSj and dares to defend us. (Ap- 
l>l.iuse.) And whatever may be urged 
.i(.;ainst him by the capitalist press or 
ilicir satellites, I remember that my 
I 'iinrade Debs, in the hour when my 
I liss were at the point of absolute ex- 
iiiidion, that he stood with us and 
cliDSC the silence of the jail rather than 
IMustitute himself against us. (Ap- 
|il.iuse.) 

I tell this convention again that 
iliiough all of the unhappy efforts of the 
' M .cialists, and of that particular portion 
iit ihe Socialists who have. had unhappy 
c\|)eriences, as I have had them, in that 

iiuggle, there is this name that the 
u' irking class conjure by. Not that this 

III an is an angel — not that he can read 
111'- palm of your hand and tell you 
ivliclher you are going to be president or 
IP 'I. No. Not that he understands the 
ii.Hisformation of value into active cap- 
iiil — although he does; but because my 
I I imrade. Debs, in the issue between 
I 111 working class and the capitalist class 

inod in the breach when it cost some- 
iliiiig to stand there. (Applause.) And 
I 1 are not what else you may do, I care 
iM'l what else you may say, I care not 
Ini the "scientific analysis of the unity 
111 the multiplicities" (laughter), but I 
r.iti tell you this, that to a working 
il.is.s who peer through the grim win- 
iliiws of a factory, or in the darkness of 
I In- mine, or upon the thundering rail- 
mads that carry them to death too often, 
(lie iL- is one name that brings a thrill of 
li<i|ic to the working class, wherever 
ill! y may be, whatever may be the trade 
union they belong to, and that name is 
I Ik- name of Eugene V. Debs, of Indiana. 
((■JiL-ers and continued applause.) 

DFX. M. W. WILKINS (Cal.) : I 
l<ii<iw that I voice the sentiment of the 
Smialist Party of the Pacific Coast 
wlu-n I say I count it a joy and an 
liiiunr to second the nomination of Eu- 
unir V. Debs for President of the 
lliiilcd States. (Applause.) 

I 1 1 E CHAIRMAN : You have heard 
iIm- noinination of Comrade Eugene V. 
I •• lis for President of the United 
Si. lies. 

|)I:L HAYES (Ohio): I move that 
III! nominations be closed, and that Eu- 
U'-iii- V. Debs be declared the nominee 
III (he Socialist Party for President of 
llii- United States. 



EUGENE V. DEBS NOMINA I KH I'NANI 
MOUSLY FOR I'KESniKNr 

The motion was .seconded liom .ill 
parts of the hall, and aiiii<l tin- thciTH 
of the delegates the vote was laUcii dc 
daring Eugene V. Debs the i-andulatf 
of the Socialist Party of Aim-rii-a a.s 
President of the United Si ales. I lit" 
Chair appointed Delegates Ililhiuil (N. 
Y.), Hayes (Ohio), Bcrger (Mn), 
Stedman (111.), Will (Kan.), l-'lnal.-n 
(Colo.), and Titus (Wash.), as a mm 
mittee to escort Comrade Debs lo Ihc 
platform. 

THE CHAIRMAN: PendinK ihc 
arrival of Comrade Debs we will |iio 
ceed, as our time is limited. We will 
proceed with the next order of bnsi 
ness, which is the nomination of a can- 
didate for Vice President. Comrade 
Titus of Washington has the floor. 
TITUS NOMINATES HANFORD FOR VICE- 
FRESIDENT. 

DEL. TITUS (Wash.) : Comrades, 
I think every member of this conven- 
tion feels it the highest honor of his 
life as he finds himself a part of the 
Socialist movement that speaks its first 
word in this campaign in this hall to- 
day. We have all heard the words of 
Comrade Herron nominating Comrade 
Debs, and we have felt the thrill when 
he spoke concerning the class struggle 
and all that it means for the great class 
that we represent to-day, and we are 
proud of our candidate for President. 
There is one thing on which 1 believe 
this convention of the Socialist Party of 
America should be fully agreed, and it 
is something that has been felt through- 
out this convention since Sunday morn- 
ing. Some of us have thought we were 
slow. Some of our capitalistic critics 
have thought we were incapable, but 
there is one thing that we have done 
representing the working class — we have 
worked freely together, we have ex- 
pressed our minds, and we have come 
to a common mind. This is the only 
place where such freedom is possible on 
the American continent in a political 
convention. (Applause.) 

Now, Comrades, we have made no 
mistake thus far. I have felt and I 
think every member here feels the in- 
creasing consciousness of membership in 
a great movement of the world. I 
think we begin to thrill with a conniion 
consciousness of a common destiny and ; 
with the highest mission that has ever 
been committed to any class in the 



I 



T 



222 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



world— its own emancipation and that of 
the rest of humanity with it. (.Applause.) 
There is a sort of inevitableness about 
the movement with which we are con- 
nected. It is not merely the equanim- 
ity of minds; that can be had in any 
common organization. It is not merely 
a unanimity of interests ; that can be had 
in many. But there is the unanimity of 
consciousness of a common destiny im- 
pelled by powers that move evolution 
onward that has been expressed in our 
platform. The more you read it the 
more you will discover that it has in it 
all that preceding platforms of this par- 
ty has had, and more, and all that the 
German, French or English Socialist plat- 
forms have contained, and more, con- 
cerning the growth and progress of the 
human race toward a higher destiny. 

We are taking part in self-conscious 
action toward the guidance of the pow- 
ers of evolution. We may go to de- 
struction; this party may go to destruc- 
tion if you fail in wisdom, if you fail 
in discernment of the economic causes 
that underlie this evolutionary move- 
ment. As we become instructed, as we 
are true to the knowledge that is con- 
veyed to us by the great masters of the 
science of sociology, the science of So- 
cialism, as we are true to those we shall 
succeed and not fail. 

Now, Comrades, these remarks are 
preliminary to the nomination of a can- 
didate for Vice President. I have heard 
it mentioned on the floor of this con- 
vention, and before, that some man or 
men, some choice among men who were 
not members of the working class, should 
be placed upon our ticket. I enter a most 
emphatic protest against nominating 
upon our ticket any man who is not a 
true representative of that class that 
holds the destiny of the world in its 
hands. (Applause.) We are in the 
formative period. Our party, I had al- 
most said, was not yet fully integrated. 
I believe it would be a mistake to say 
that. Perhaps one week ago we might 
have said it truly, but no man could have 
attended this convention without becom- 
ing convinced that this is a party truly 
integrated, truly unified. It cannot be 
destroyed unless it makes some stupen- 
dous blunder. (Applause.) We have 
a working man's convention. Every is- 
sue that has been presented here has 
been decided in the interests of the 
working class. We have a working- 
man's platform, and we have a work- 
ingman at the head of our ticket (ap- 
plause), and I propose another repre- 



sentative workingman to be associatrd 
with Eugene V. Debs. I propose tlii« 
name of a man who is known from oii» 
end of the Socialist world to the othn , 
who has long been associated with llif 
triumphs of Socialism and the strugKl<'i 
of Socialism; who has suffered for S(i 
cialism, suffered for what he belicvi'* 
to be the interests of his own class; ti 
man not of the west, to which I beloin, 
but a man of the Atlantic coast, auil I 
hope this nomination will be mado «« 
spontaneous as that of the head of llu' 
ticket. I present the name of Ben 11 an 
ford, of New York. (Cheers and con 
tinued applause.) 

DEL. BERGER (Wis.) : In beliiill 
of the State of Wisconsin, or in bcliiill 
of the party of Wisconsin, which is ill 
most entirely made up of the prolelariiil 
— we have very few preachers, very few 
lawyers, and still fewer judges ami 
other prominent people in our ranks 
in behalf of the working men associali-il 
in the Socialist Party, I rise to second 
the nomination of Comrade Ben lliui 
ford, of New York. (Applause.) 

DEL. HILLQUIT (N. Y.) : In \)9 
half of the State of New York, o( 
which the nominee, Benjamin Hantoi'd, 
is a member, I desire to second the now 
ination. We in New York have in Olir 
movement men of all conditions. W» 
have lawyers, Comrade Berger (lauKli 
ter), and we have doctors and we liiivi" 
preachers. We also have the workinn 
class, and the movement is as sound «« 
any state can boast of — and the prid*" 
of this movement in our state is Urn 
jamin Hanford. (Applause.) Wc ol 
New York who have worked with Hrn. 
we of New York who have strugnli'd 
with Ben for the common cause, (nr 
our great cause of Socialism, we of Nrw 
York appreciate Ben Hanford as ml 
other set of men possibly can. 

I say to this convention and to tlm 
delegates here assembled that under llil 
circumstances could any better choir^i 
any worthier choice, have been niadf liif 
associate to the presidential candiduU 
than you have made by the selection iif 
Benjamin Hanford. If we now ^o !)•• 
fore the working class of the nation, If 
we now go before the voters at lurM 
of this nation, and ffesent to them till 
ticket of "Debs and Hanford," no lirh«| 
of any party can beat that. (ApplauH.) 

The strength and brains of the woilU 
ing class of this country will be WDll 1 
represented on our ticket. It is hflnf' 
said once in a while by the oppoiirnii , 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



223 



"t our cause that the working class is 
Hying to take the reins of government, 
I lie administration of the affairs of this 
• "nntry, into their own hands. I chal- 
li nge any old party politician or any 

' I of politicians to rival our ticket, with 
.1 combination of men as fully capable, 

r. intelligent, as earnest, as fully repre- 
■iiitative of the interests of the great 
■I niggling class as will be the candidates 
mI the Socialist Party, after our nomina- 
(11 111 of Eugene V. Debs for President 
.111(1 Benjamin Hanford for Vice Presi- 
ilfiit. (Applause.) 

DEL. RICHARDSON (Cal.) : Mr. 
' liairman and Comrades: In behalf of 
till- delegation of California, we want to 
ii:ich the hand of fellowship, of com- 
i.nleship, clear across the plains and 
>iv(T the mountains to our brothers in 
New York and second the nomination 
111 Ren Hanford. (Applause.) 

DEL. HAZLETT (Colo.) : Comrade 

< li.iirman and Comrades: In behalf of 
I III- woman proletarians of the United 

'I ites, in behalf of those who are 
I'liiied with their brother comrades in 
iliiir great struggle for existence, in be- 
li.ilf of the women who have been 
imshed out of homes and into factories, 
iImtc to fight with their brothers for 
till- means of life, I desire in the name 
111' ('olorado to second the nomination of 
(ninrade Hanford for the position of 
\'i(c President. 

And I do this also in the name of 
lilt- comrades who are fighting the class 

I niggle in the far west. I do it because 
ivr want a proletarian workingman on 
I III- ticket in the place of Vice President 
111 represent us in Colorado, where the 
|iinlctarians have been forced from their 
Ik Miles, where they have been thrown 
iniu jail without process of law, where 
ilii-y are aliens from the homes to which 
ilii-v belong, where they are enduring all 
till- iiardships of the class struggle. In 
Inii.ilf of the women of America, in 
l"li;ilf of our comrades in Colorado, I 
.jr. ire to second the nomination of Com- 
I nle Hanford. (Applause.) 
l)i:L. DILNO (Mo.): Comrade 

< li.iirman and Fellow Comrades: In 
liili.ilf of the delegation from Missouri, 
I ill 'iire to be recorded in the minutes of 
ilii proceedings of this convention as 
1 mini sing the candidacy of our Comrade 
I I \'ew York. (Applause.) Although 
Ml --niiTi is located in the middle west. 

111! she is familiar with the work of 

< niirade Hanford, knows him person- 
,illv and has been with him in many of 



the great campaigns. Wc know the in- 
terest he has in the movement, and the 
sacrifices which he ha.s made for the 
cause. We know also fairly well that 
he is typical of the class which this 
party repi^esents, and, therefore, in behalf 
of the delegation, again I wish to be re- 
corded as seconding the nomination of 
Comrade Hanford, of New York. (Ap- 
plause.) 

DEL. BANDLOW (Ohio) ; In behalf 
of the comrades of the State of Ohio, 
I desire to move that Comrade Ben 
Hanford be made the unanimous choice 
of this convention as our candidate for 
Vice President. 

The motion was seconded and unan- 
imously adopted amid the long and con- 
tinued cheers and applause of the dele- 
gates. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The Chair will 
take the liberty of appointing Delegates 
Carey (Mass.), Sieverraan (N. Y.), 
Barnes (Pa.), Berlyn (111.), Oneal 
(Ind.), Hazlett (Colo.) and Richard- 
son (Cal.), to escort Comrade Hanford 
to the platform. (Applause.) 
hanford's speech of acceptance. 

The committee appointed by the Chair 
then escorted Comrade Hanford to the 
platform, and, after the enthusiastic ap- 
plause which greeted him had subsided, 
he said : 

"Mr. Chairman and Comrades : You 
notice we went a long way around to get 
here. (Laughter.) I have noticed that 
Socialists sometimes do go a long way 
around to get a very short distance, but 
just so we get there, that is the main 
thing. (Laughter and applause.) I 
very much regret that Comrade Debs is 
not here. I should not only much 
rather that he had spoken first but really 
I am in doubt as to whether I am do- 
ing exactly the conventional thing. 
However, Socialists do not always do 
the conventional thing, anyhow. (Laugh- 
ter and applause.) 

I want to say briefly a word in rela- 
tion to Comrade Debs, that, for a long 
time past, myself and many other com- 
rades have considered with each other, 
in an entirely informal way, as to who 
would in all probability be the best pos- 
sible choice as a candidate for President, 
and while none of these comrades that 
I have mentioned were considering it . 
from any other standpoint than (he 
good of the party, cveiy one cf iln-ni 
was unanimous in the opinion that Com- 
rade Dehs would he the best possible 
man to nominate for President at this 
time. (Loud applause.) 



T 



224 



Afternoon Session^ May 5. 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



226 



ii» 



4111 



In relation to myself I do not know 
that there is much that I can say, more 
than this : That I have never allowed 
myself to seek anything in the Socialist 
movement from a personal standpoint, or 
for that matter in any other movement, 
but at the same time I have always been 
in the position that, whenever the party 
told me to do something, I always did it, 
no matter whether I liked it or not. 
(Loud and prolonged applause.) Com- 
rade Titus made one mistake in a re- 
mark about me in placing my name be- 
fore the convention. He spoke of my 
having made sacrifices for the Socialist 
movement. It depends on the way you 
look at it. In one sense it might perhaps 
be truly said that I had done a little 
of this or a little of the other, where 
possibly in a certain way I might have 
done better for myself by not doing 
given things, but I want to say this : 
that the Socialist movement has done 
more for me than I can ever do for it. 
(Applause.) I don't know that I ex- 
actly agree with the philosophy which 
says that whom the Lord loveth he 
chasteneth, but I do believe that there 
is no thing that a man can do in the 
world, that there is no blessing that can 
be conferred upon a man by any power 
on earth, which will be of the immense 
benefit to him throughout his whole life, 
so much as that of following the con- 
scientious convictions of his own mind 
in matters of right and wrong. (Loud 
applause.) 

T can say here truthfully that T very 
much doubt that, so far from my having 
sacrificed anything for the Socialist 
movement, I very much doubt if I would 
have been alive to-day had it not been 
for the Socialist movement, and I will 
tell you why. As you know, in my 
trade about ten or fifteen years ago 
there came in what we call the linotype, 
or typesetting machine ; that machine 
came along. They put one of them in 
the printing office, one man got a job 
onerating it, and this one man with the 
aid of the machine did the work that it 
formerly took three or four or five or 
as high as si:: men to do. Because of 
that machine, every time that one of 
them was put in an office they told 
?nme of the old hand printers to get out. 
to walk the plank, take to the street, be 
a tramp. Now. .strange as it may seem, 
i'lst about the time that typesetting ma- 
chine was entering the printing offices 
was about the time that I got tangled up 



in the Socialist movement. (Laughter,) 
Of course some people may imaRln* 
there is some connection between tlia 
two (laughter), but what I want Ui 
point out is this : I saw friends of minr, 
men that I had known for years, mm 
better, abler than I was in every ra 
spect, men whom to-day, judged from 
the best standard of manhood could udl 
be improved upon, I saw men like thiil 
driven out into the street, placed tluTP 
without an occupation, idle ; idlenciit, 
not leisure, but enforced idleness, and I 
saw those men go to the gin mill to-diiy 
and take a few glasses and to-morrow 
and take a few more, I saw them hr 
come despondent, I saw them look fm 
work week in and week out, and mil 
get it, and I saw men of the chararlri 
that I have mentioned who went mi 
down the line and eventually filled »i 
drunkard's grave for no other primary 
reason than the lack of employmriil 
forced upon them through the entrant's 
of that machine into my business. 

Now, I did not follow that cournr, 
and do you know why? As I say, thrsr 
men, many of them, were abler and bri 
ter than I can ever be, but I got tangleil 
up in this Socialist movement, and evcr.y 
day when I was out of work, when I wii* 
a victim of enforced idleness, instemi 
of going to the gin mill and wasting my 
time, or becoming despondent, I used 
that time reading a book or a paper, oi 
making a Socialist speech on a soap Iioh, 
or something of that kind. In otlin 
words, idleness for others was work foi 
me, and what was despair to other pro 
pie was the star of hope to me. (Lnml 
applause.) That is one of the reasnni 
why I say that I certainly cannot id 
any just sense be said to have ever niiidi 
any sacrifices for the Socialist movi' 
ment. It is to the Socialist moveninil 
that I attribute the fact that I am alivi 
to-day. To use a slang expression, I 
consider that for the last seven or eighl 
years, and all the more years I have koI 
to come, I am what you would ml I 
"living on velvet," that is, I am already 
winner if I should drop dead right now | 
I have got more than is coming to nif, 
(Laughter and applause.) 

Now I do want to say a word abnilt 
one of the acts of this convention any 
how : the trade union resolution to diiy 
upon which we had the roll call. ThnI 
to me was a very vital and imporlnnl 
matter. Not in itself, but from llil* 
standpoint, and I want to illustrate .-ignln 
by calling to your mind the old Socialitt 



I .iliin- party of which we still have left 

I'l .iriically the record only. (Laughter.) 

I wn years ago I went down in the coal 

I'll Ml in Pennsylvania while the strike 

>' I 2;oing on there. I spoke once or 

I'll or three or four times a day, I 

iiniik. Wherever I went all it needed 

I 10 put up a little placard and leave 

I Mill ice on a telegraph pole for two 

1)11111 ■^, and there, as though they had 

I'liiiig out of the ground, were a thou- 

mil men or five thousand men or ten 

ii'ir.md men, and I can say that they 

I ' ml me gladly, and not only that, but 

ill! \ heard Comrade Barnes and other 

•iimriides who were with me, and they 

I" mi any number of speakers. In fact, 

iIh ^ heard gladly all the speakers that 

1'" Socialist party sent there. And, do 

Ml know why? Not for one moment 

I it the question of the few dollars 

UN I rents that we collected for them, 

I ill simply because those men knew 
III I Ihis much about the Socialist Party, 
iliii it was in hearty sympathy with the 
ti nil s unionists as against the capitalists 
Ml ilii'ir scraps with the capitalists. 

Now there was another party that 

Ill have liked to have gone and sent 

1" ikcrs down into that field, but it did 
mil send one, and had it sent a speaker 
ill' II', that man would not have been 
'Ml fo have spoken one hundred words 

1 my town in the whole strike field. 

Ill Socialist Labor party was not able 
I' I lid speakers there just because of 

I I attitude against the trades unions. 
' \|'iilause.) Now what I want you to 
'tn.lnstand is this, and after you hear 
ill' iiioposition I want you to go around 
mil consider it, you comrades who dis- 
'tirc with me, but I do tell you 
ilii that we have got to become more 

nil more practical all the time. We 
■I 'ii't expect to have another convention 
t ■! Imir years, and yet we need to have 
I 'iTivention every six months. Do you 

iiiiu why? Why, for the experience 
ill. it we get in it, working as an organ- 
i| I <il body. (Applause.) 

Now this body so far has to my mind 
ilmir its work well, but it has taken twice 
llii' lime necessary to do that work. 
W liv ? Not for lack of intelligence; not 
I'll lick of integrity, but for lack of ex- 
I" I II ncc. (Applause.) There are some 
iliiii": in this world that you cannot 
li 11 II nut of a book whether it is Roberts' 
l<'iili . of Order, or be the book what it 
** iiin (Laughter and applause.) I want 
(i> ln' in a position where the trades 



unionists will listen to me, am! imii 
party, by taking the position that it han, 
can go out before the trades uiiimiistH, 
taking no part, no share in llu-ir scrapH 
with each other — because they have their 
troubles the same as we do. You think 
it is an awful thing for two of the.c 
trade unions to have troubles with each 
other, but Lord, look at us and ihr 
troubles we have had. (Laughter.) 
You think it is terrible when they m.il«- 
mistakes, but, good heavens, 1 would 
like to know, down to this hour almost, 
when we have ever had a chance to make 
a mistake that we didn't make it. 
(Laughter and loud applause.) Hut, 
they are like us again in this further 
respect: they have no interest in per 
petuating their mistakes, any more than 
we have in perpetuating ours, and if 
they are wrong to-day they have got to 
be put into the crucible of experience so 
that they may come out right. (Cries of 
"Good" and loud applause.) 

As a concluding word I want tn 
impress upon your minds just one 
thing : This has been a splendid con 
vention. There is one thing about it, 
that, with all of our, what we might 
call bungling methods merely, of doing 
business, simply to the fact that be- 
cause of our not being accustomed to 
the tools, we do not know how to use 
them rightly; with all that, there is this 
thing that I have observed clearly in 
this convention. It is this : that ab- 
solute openness, frankness and good 
faith with which every comrade met ev- 
ery other comrade, both in debate and 
otherwise, no matter in what measure 
he disagreed with him. We must culti- 
vate, we must at all times do everything 
that we can, to keep up that spirit of 
having everybody speak out in meeting, 
no matter who it is, no matter what his 
opinion may be. Don't, whatever you 
do, try to keep it quiet, don't try to carry 
it out by conspiracy, by plotting or by 
scheming. Out with it, and let it staml 
upon its merits. If it is a good plan or 
a good scheme you have got in yotu' 
head, bring it out and we will take it. 
If it is not good, we will show where il 
is wrong, and so let no man imagine that 
if he speaks for some scheme that is not 
good that it will hurt him. It will diT 
him good to find out what is the matter 
with it. (Loud applause.) 

And, comrades, when you go back 
home, remember that we all agree 
that this convention b^s been the great 



226 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



est Socialist convention ever held in the 
United States, much greater than any 
other. (Applause.) Not only greater 
in numbers, but in the general character 
and quality and ability of the assembled 
delegates. But do not forget this, that 
your work does not stop with this con- 
vention. Do not forget, whatever you 
do, that not only from the time that 
you get home, but when you start for 
home, the campaign for International 
Socialism has begun. (Prolonged ap- 
plause.) It won't run itself, and we 
haven't got any capitalist to run it for us. 
It is going to be run by you people and 
the people that send you, and what I 
say to you is, do all that you can, not 
only to arouse yourselves and your 
comrades, but to inspire them with the 
hope and the promise of success. Prog- 
ress I What movement on the face of 
this earth that stood for one hundredth 
part as much has ever made such rapid 
progress as this Socialist movement has, 
the world over? (Loud cheering and 
applause.) 

Do you know, Comrades, that twenty 
years ago I had never read the word 
"Socialism" to have the remotest idea 
of what it meant, other than in a dic- 
tionary or something of that kind? Do 
you know that fifteen or sixteen years 
ago that if a man had been located, say 
in Davenport, la., or in any other town 
of two or three hundred thousand in the 
United States, and wanted to find out 
what Socialism meant (I mean an 
American born), he would have had to 
hire a detective to find somebody that 
could tell him. (Laughter and ap- 
plause.) You talk about progress; I tell 
you, my friends, that while in certain 
states from time to time you may be 
discouraged, the burden may seem to you 
too heavy ; while in certain states from 
time to time there may be the darkest 
outlooks, don't forget that this old 
movement is going marching on, and 
nothing on this earth can stop it. . 

You have the greatest privilege, as 
Comrade Titus pointed out, that any 
people on the face' of the earth have ever. 
had before. In all previous revolutions, 
none of them, not one of them, ever had 
it in its power to do anything more than 
liberate a certain group of people, or a 
little nation of people. Take the war of 
the Rebellion ; all it could do was to lib- 
erate the black slaves from chattel slav- 
ery and make wage slaves of them. Go 
back to the Revolutionary war and all 



they could do was to take our politlml 
liberties for ourselves and get our |tfi 
litical independence from King Georgr 
But this movement does not propose In 
free me and leave another man a slave , 
this movement does not propose to firr 
the people of Cook county and leave nil 
the rest of the people up against It 
This movement proposes to free cvrty 
man and every woman and every rliilil 
on the earth, wherever they be, whatrvri 
color they may be, for all time. Thl» 
movement is not only worth living (m 
(loud applause), but it is better woilli 
dying for than any other movemeni In 
the world. (Prolonged cheering and ap 
plause.) 

To bring about the furtherance nl 
this thing, I say to you, let your he;iil« 
be as true as steel, be steel to the veiy 
back; put your soul and body both iiiln 
action, and we will have Socialism In 
our time and in our country. 

Delegate Hanford was greeted willt 
the most enthusiastic cheering and iiti 
plause at the conclusion of his spercli, 
and when quiet had been restored, IIh' 
regular order of business was proceeded 
with, as follows : 

THE CHAIRMAN: The next tliiiiM 
in order is the report of the Secretin y 
of the International Socialist Bureiiil, 
Comrade George D. Herron, Interim 
tional Secretary for the United Stalen 

DEL. HERRON : If I were sure llinl 
the Chairman would not call me to nr 
der, I would say that things are coniiiin 
so fast this afternoon that I can hardiv 
keep up with them, especially when I 
find my good friend, Benjamin Hanfonl, 
nominated as the Socialist candidate for 
Vice President. (Laughter and n|i 
plause.) 

Report of the International Soclnl* 

ist Bureau by the Secretary 

for the United States. 

Comrades of the National Conveii 
tion : The International SocialliJ 
Bureau was' formed as a result of 
the Paris convention of 1900, and iif 
previous conferences between the iin 
tional representatives of the Soci;ilU| 
movement of Europe. 

The purpose of its formation wan In 
constitute an International Bureim, 
through which the Socialist moveiiiriif 
of the various nations of the world 
might communicate with each n{h(>r, 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



227 



,ind co-operate with each other in 
inutually understood programs, and, 
so far as practicable, in united action. 
Brussels was selected as the seat 
of the International Bureau, and 
semi-annual meetings have been held 
since the Bureau's formation. 

But it cannot be said that the Bu- 
reau has as yet accomplished much 
lieyond keeping itself on record, or 
lieyond the rather unimportant discus- 
sions of details that have occurred at 
Its semi-annual sessions. Perhaps its 
most significant action has been the se- 
curing of concurrent action on the part 
of the Socialist members of the differ- 
ent European parliaments concerning 
the war between Great Britain and 
the Boers. Resolutions were intro- 
duced by Socialist members into the 
national legislative bodies at Berlin, 
Rome and Brussels, that cyeated no Ut- 
ile discussion, and considerable Brit- 
ish indignation and protest. As a re- 
sult, many public meetings of protest 
were held throughout the continent. 

While, of course, the resolutions had 
no effect upon the war or its outcome, 
the pedagogic or propaganda result 
was very valuable. Some discussion 
has also been occasioned by the reso- 
lution passed by the Bureau concern- 
ing the lynching of negroes in the 
United States. I feel obliged, how- 
ever, to decline personal responsibil- 
ity for the resolution as it was worded. 
It is very different in statement and 
substance and is much more extreme 
than the report which I sent to the 
Bureau upon this subject. 

But on the whole, it does not seem 
to me that the International Socialist 
Bureau has as yet been at all equal 
to its opportunity. It is not worth 
while for Socialist men — all of them 
overworked in their own national 
movement — to gather together from 
the ends of the earth twice a year to 
hear statistical reports and minor dis- 
cussions. But it is immeasureably 
worth while that the great Interna- 
tional Socialist movement shall be 
fused in one great dynamic world 
body; that the Socialist movement of 
all nations shall act together as one 
voice and one power in every great 
([uestion, in every great nation ; that 
it shall hold and be the balance of 
(lOwer which every nation must reckon 
with. 
If the Socialist movement had the 



balance of power, if it even had only 
one-third, we will say, of the suffrag- 
ists of Russia and Japan, if it only 
had one-third enough to hold the bal- 
ance of power, it could prevent a war 
between Russia and Japan, and not 
only that, but it could practically com- 
pel the disarmament of the whole 
world. That, acting through its rep- 
resentatives, if the Socialist move- 
ment held the balance of power po- 
litically in the different nations, that 
acting through its representatives in 
this bureau, or through them carry- 
ing out its instructions, the Interna- 
tional Socialist movement might make 
it impossible for one nation to go to 
war with another simply because of 
the centralizing of the influence or of 
the forces of the Socialist movement in 

the nation, when it were needed. 

So, the poet's dream of the federa- 
ation of the world, and the parliarnent 
of man, is germinal in the Internation- 
al Socialist Bureau, and it is only by 
recognition of this, and by a larger 
sense of the Bureau's opportunities 
and significance, that it can justify 
and develop its being. 

I am afraid it ill becomes the mem- 
ber from the United States to speak 
with such emphasis concerning the 
possible need and importance of the 
Bureau, as the Socialist movement of 
this country has taken practically no 
interest in the Bureau's existence, and 
has paid nothing towards its mainten- 
ance. There seems to be some confu- 
sion even of the International Social- 
ist Bureau, which is, in theory, in 
perpetual session, with the Interna- 
tional Socialist Congress, which meets 
upon the call of the Bureau, and is a 
convention, not a Bureau, and which 
meets this coming August in Amster- 
dam, and to which this convention 
should elect delegates. 

We should also at this convention 
adopt, or recommend, some method of 
making a regular annual contribution 
for the maintenance of the Bureau. 
All that has been paid is the sum of 
251J4 francs in 1901, and that was 
by a private individual, and for the 
Social Democratic party, before the 
present unity of the Socialist forces 
had been accomplished. 

The Socialist movement of the 
United States, as a movement, has paid 
nothing at all in the four years since 
the Bureau's formation. 



228 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



k 



I would recommend that the sum of 
1,000 francs, or $200.00, be settled upon 
as our present annual contribution. 
Fraternally submitted, 

George D. Herron. 
THE CHAIRMAN : Gentlemen, you 
have heard the report of the National 
Secretary of the United States for the 
International Socialist Bureau. What 
is your pleasure? 

DEL. STEDMAN (111.) : I move that 
the report be received and the recom- 
mendation be concurred in. 
Motion seconded. 

FINANCIAL SUPPORT TO INTERNATIONAL 
BUREAU. 

DEL. KERRIGAN (Tex.) : I move 
to amend the report by striking out that 
portion of the report relating to the 
$200, and that that portion be referred to 
the National Committee, and I do so 
for this reason: That $200 will not be 
sufficient at this time to meet the in- 
creased expense that the convention has 
provided for, and it would be well for us 
to see our way .clear before we commit 
ourselves to any further expense. Now 
that, I think, would be the wiser plan to 
follow. 

Motion seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Delegate Her- 
ron has the floor. He desires to speak 
on this matter. 

DEL. HERRON: I would like to 
state in reference to this recommenda- 
tion, that in a certain sense we are un- 
der what might be called a moral obliga- 
tion to add our part towards the support 
of the Bureau, for this reason : That we 
did at the time of its formation accept 
a membership in the Bureau and were 
elected to that Bureau, and it does not 
look well to receive the quarterly report 
and find that Germany has paid so 
much, and France so much, and Italy so 
much, and England so much, and the 
United States nothing. Now this, un- 
derstand, is not to pay the expenses of 
aiiy American member, whoever he 
might be; no provision is made for that. 
This is simply \o pny our part towards 
the maintenance of the headquarters of 
the Bureau at Brussels, in which the So- 
cialist movements of all the nations 
have paid their part. 

DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : Comrade 
Chairman, I rise to support the recom- 
mendation of the International Secretary 
as against the amendment proposed by 
Delegate Kerrigan. I do so partly be- 
cause I am one of the original f ramers 



of the motion which resulted in tlio 
formation of the International Bureau, 
Before that was presented to the Inter 
national Congress at Paris which giivti 
it birth, it was the pleasure of my guml 
Comrade Herron and myself to frame 
the motion and the plan upon which llu- 
Bureau was established. Now, 1 cmi 
fess. Comrades, that I am so far disap 
pointed in the results of the effort to r« 
tablish a Bureau. The idea of the for 
mation of the International Socialinl 
Bureau was briefly this: that just no 
surely as the old International was 11 
povver for the expression of the Inlci 
national working class sentiment, and 
just so surely as it was a power before 
the shaking thrones of Europe at thai 
time, I say now when we have a far 
greater movement, when we have a fai 
more important movement, when we arc 
confronted with far more important ami 
far more maiiacing conditions, the work 
ing class movement of the world 
ought at all times to be able to act in 
concert upon any contingency whicii 
might arise, and I desire to emphasize 
the point which has already been madf 
by Comrade Herron at the speech deliv 
ered after the famous banquet on Sun 
day night, and that point briefly is thi.i ; 
that the working class movement of llin 
world has now arrived at a point where 
it is powerful enough whenever it so 
desires, if it can act in harmony, it can 
prevent the international capitalist class 
doing many things which they desire to 
do and which they may do it we do not 
prevent them. (Applause.) Now, Com 
rades, the International Bureau hir, 
done little, and why has this been, 
Why, because in the main the work 
ing class movement has been in 
different to its opportunities and indif 
ferent to its responsibilities. If we, or 
any men, want to belong to the Inter 
national movement, we must accept our 
share of the responsibilities of the In 
ternational movement, and we cannot ac 
cept that responsibility merely by pioin 
resolutions. We have got an ofhce in 
Brussels of the International Bureau, 
we have a United States secretary and 
we have an International machinery, but 
we refuse, or have refused up to now, 
to make any contribution to that power 
which alone can make that machinery 
efficient and which alone can set it in 
motion. Therefore, I am in favor of 
the committee's recommendation that wo 
contribute 1,000 francs now. I believe 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



I I is not too much to pay for our contri- 
I'lilion to the Bureau. I believe it is 
1. 1 (her too little, and I hope that by the 
inne we have another convention of the 
\nierican Socialist Party, we shall have 
In Iped to make the Bureau the power 
i'liich it ought to be, and that we shall 
lii' prepared to contribute much more 
Minn $200 to its support. (Loud ap- 
plause.) 

I>EL. HILLQUIT (N. Y.) : I desire 
I ■ offer the following: "Resolved, that 
iIm- National Committee be instructed 
i<' formulate rules for the election by 
K'fcrendum of as many representatives 
In (he International Socialist Bureau as 
I he party may be entitled to, and for the 
payment of the dues of this party to the 
lid Bureau." If that is seconded I 
will state my reasons. 

The resolution was seconded. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: We have al- 
I'ldy provided by constitution that the 
Secretary has charge of national and 
ilio international affairs of his party. 
\Vc have so far nowhere no rule abso- 
Ink'ly, whatsoever, for the election of 
I Mir delegates to the International Bu- 
rrau. We may only have to elect one 
'ii- we may have to elect more than that. 

I lie only other Socialist party in this 
'lumtry, the Socialist Labor party, has 
rl( clcd none, so we are really entitled 
I" two. There has been no provision, 
li'iwever, whatsoever, as to the election 
"f these representatives. We have pro- 
\ iiK'd for no reports to the National 
I'ninmittee at stated intervals to be pub- 
lished in the party press, which I pre- 

lune will be very desirable and keep 
I 111' members posted on what we are do- 
111L', in the International movement. 
I'ln.illy, we have not paid a cent to the 
■iipport of the Bureau. Now I do not 
1. 1 low whether the payment of this $200 
p. now required. I notice, however, that 
while the International Bureau has done 
1<;s work possibly than it was expected 
I" do. it has incurred less expense, and 
liT this reason, and in order that we 
iM.iy have definite action on this matter, 
I move the passage of that resolution. 

DEL. STEDMAN (Til.): I want to 

|ii ;i1c in favor of my amendment. In 

ilir first place, the last thing to be done 

III any convention is the adoption of the 
' aistitulion. I called the attention of 
III'- convention last evening to just what 
III now occurred. Until after a report 
"I .ill committees vou never should take 



up the constitution. That is the most 
important thing for the regulation of the 
organization for the next four years, and 
we find it occurring now and it will 
occur again, that unless you wait until 
at least a partial report of the commit- 
tees, before taking up the constitution, 
these difficulties will arise. I move, 
therefore, that that portion of the re- 
port be retired in relation to the pay- 
ment of money, and that it be referred 
to the Committee on Constitution, and 
that other matters which come up dur- 
ing the evening be sent to them. Then 
they can come in and make a final report 
and before we adjourn we can conclude 
the final approval or disapproval of the 
report in the vote on the adoption of the 
report of the Committee on Constitution 
as a whole. That is what should be 
done. 

The motion was seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It is moved 
and seconded that that part of the In- 
ternational Secretary's report which rec- 
ommends the payment of a certain sum 
to the International Bureau, shall be re- 
ferred to the Committee on Constitu- 
tion. 

The question was then put on the mo- 
tion and it was lost. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The question re- 
verts upon the report. The motion be- 
fore us now is upon the acceptance of 
the report of the Secretary as read. 

The motion was carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The next thing 
in order under the rules of order is the 
election of delegates to the International 
Socialist Congress. 

International Delegates. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: I desire to offer 

a resolution under this head: 

Resolved, first : That this conven- 
tion now proceed to the election of 
delegates to the International Social- 

' ist Congress, to be held in Amster- 
dam in August, 1904. Second : That 
the election of such delegates be by 
ballot, and that the three candidates 
receiving the largest number of votes 
upon such ballot serve as such dele- 
gates. Third: That this convention 
and the National Committee of the 
party shall be authorized to issue cre- 
dentials for the attendance at the In- 
ternational Congress as delegates of 
the party, to such and as many addi- 
tional members in good standing in 



J 



T 



230 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



231 



the party, not exceeding twenty in all, 
as may apply for such credentials, in- 
tending to attend said Congress at 
their own expense. Fourth : That no 
state or local organization of the party 
shall issue credentials to delegates to 
the said International Congress. 
The resolution was seconded. 
DEL. HILLQUIT: I desire to state 
the reasons for this resolution. In the 
first place, I advocate the election of 
three delegates to the International Con- 
gress. I believe the time has come when 
our party ought to assert itself in the 
international movement. Up to the 
present, in fact, we have had no Social- 
ist movement in the United States worth 
speaking of. When the last convention 
was held in 1900, especially, the Social- 
ist movement in this country was so 
much torn, it was divided into so many 
different factions, that it was absolutely 
impossible to speak of an organized So- 
cialist movement in this country. For 
the first time in the history of the 
movement in this country we have now 
a solid, strong, promising and growing 
organization of national scope. For the 
first time in the history of our move- 
ment we have almost all of the states 
and territories in the Union represented 
in national convention, and I say the 
time has arrived when we ought to take 
a place among the nations of the world 
in the movement of Socialism. (Ap- 
plause.) Three delegates is not any too 
large a number, And I wish to state 
also that this is not only on mere sen- 
timental grounds. The international 
movement reacts on each and every na- 
tional movement represented in it. A 
good showing at the International Con- 
gress strengthens the national organiza- 
tions of the different countries, because 
it strengthens the entire ^ternational 
movement. Just in the same as when 
we have strengthened the organization of 
our respective states by this splendid 
convention, just in the way as we will 
have inspired new enthusiasm and cour- 
age in the hearts of our different local 
organizations and state organizations by 
this national convention, so the interna- 
tional convention will inspire new hope 
and enthusiasm and visions of success 
in the hearts of the various national 
movements. And I say it is our duty 
to contribute our share to make that 
success a fact by having at least three 
official representatives of the party in 
the International Congress. In the next 



place, also provide that the National 
Committee or this convention should 
have the right to issue additional creden- 
tials to such as expect to attend the con- 
gress at their own expense. I know per- 
sonally of a number of comrades who 
expect to go abroad in the summer and 
who would gladly embrace the opportun- 
ity to be present at the International 
Congress. At the same time we ought 
to restrict this power to issue creden- 
tials to the national organization, for 
this reason : Up till now it has been 
customary for every local, for every 
state, for every organization, to issur 
credentials. At the International Con- 
gress it will be recognized, no matter 
by whom issued, since the organization 
issuing it stands on the principles and 
the platform of the class struggle and 
political action. Now, I want to say 
that occasionally we may place our 
movement in a very unenviable light 
through these loose methods. For in- 
stance, at the first of the series of the 
last international conventions in Paris, 
America was represented by a delegate 
from an association of coach owner* 
and cab owners. That was the kind of 
labor organization represented therr, 
There was another delegate supposed to 
represent the United German trades who 
unfortunately did not find his way to 
the Congress and came back and reporteil 
that he could not find it. Paris was n 
big city, and little conventions were lost, 
If you go through the history of all 
those conventions and look at the re 
ports of our party at those conventlonn, 
you will find that they were anything 
but a credit to it. And I say that no 
matter who the various persons may 
be, whether they be from the local or 
the state, when they go to the congresn, 
they will be regarded as the representn- 
tives of our party, and we should al 
least be able to know who goes and 
who sends them. I know of one com 
rade who has already obtained credcii 
tials from the state convention of New 
Jersey. I happen to know that com 
rade, and I happen to know that he ii 
a very excellent comrade and will maki* 
a good representative. That comrade 
should receive credentials from the Na- 
tional Committee. There may be oth- 
ers who may be good comrades, but who 
will not do as representatives of thia 
nation, as far as the Socialist movempiil 
Is concerned, In the International Con 
gress of Socialists. They cannot prop 



' I ly represent us, and I say we ought 
Im have control over this, and it is for 
iliis reason that I provide that state or 
liical organizations shall not issue cre- 
dentials to delegates at the International 
I onvention. (Applause.) 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio) : I under- 

faud from Comrade Hillquit's resolu- 

inm that the delegates to be elected shall 

lie fray their own expenses. Am I cor- 

irct? 

DEL. HILLQUIT : No, I do not say 
I hat. 

DEL. HAYES: Then I misunder- 
lood the resolution. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: You certainly 
.lid. 

DEL. HAYES: I beg your pardon. 

DEL. HILLQUIT : I said three dele- 
gates to be elected by this convention, 
;ind I further said this convention and 
I he National Committee to have the 
power to issue additional credentials to 
such comrades as might happen to go 
abroad and intend to be there and want 
iredentials. 

DEL. HAYES: Then the party is 
In pay the expenses of the delegates, of 
Kiurse. 

i:)EL. HILLQUIT : Certainly. 

DEL. HAYES: All right; that is 
• atisfactory. 

DEL. KERRIGAN (Tex.) : I would 
like to say a word. I dislike to be eter- 
nally bringing up anything that relates 
lo the conduct of party affairs, but facts 
.ire stubborn things, and -"they are apt 
In disturb us at the critical moment. 
Sending three delegates will be a nice 
lliiiig for the party, and an international 
j'.alhering over there will also be a good 
tiling for the world Socialist movement, 
lint the question is the material side of 
this thing, and Socialists are obliged to 
admit that it is the material, after all, 
lliat determines a man's and a party's 
iniirse. Now, we know that the Na- 
linnal Committee had to surrender the 
tiylit of meeting and passing upon party 
affairs last January, because it was 
llioiight that it was to the best interest 
nf (he party to wipe out a debt and save 
llie amount that this committee meeting 
would cost. Here we are proposing to 
( rrate additional expense without any 
possible means for increasing the rev- 
rinu's, and the national office will proba- 
Mv find itself at the conclusion of this 
M.nvcntion with a deficit. I would like 



to know where all these funds are going 
to come from. I like always to have 
any additional expense if there is also 
provided means for raising those funds. 
That is the practical way to look at 
these things. I think we should not send 
delegates unless the party docs pay the 
expense. I think furthermore that we 
can well afford to wait until such time 
as there are funds. I would like to se^ 
a balance once in a while in the report 
of the National Secretary. It would 
make us feel that we could go on with 
our work in the nation. We have a 
national campaign on hand, and this 
summer will be a very good time to 
use all the funds we can possible raise 
at home. 

DEL. BERLYN (111.) : I move that 
we proceed to nominate. 

The Secretary being called on, read 
the Hillquit resolution to the convention. 

DEL. KERRIGAN : Does that mean 
that they shall pay their own expenses? 
The language of that resolution seems to 
be that they shall pay their own ex- 
penses, 

THE CHAIRMAN: No, the third 
paragraph provides that those who re- 
ceive credentials direct from the Na- 
tional Committee shall pay their own 
expenses, but the second paragraph, pro- 
viding for the election of three dele- 
gates, says nothing at all as to whether 
they shall pay their own expenses or not. 

DEL. OSWALD (N. J.): I think 
with Delegate Kerrigan, that we are go- 
ing a little too far with the expenditure 
of money. We have already voted td 
increase the salary of the National Sec- 
retary. We have a recommendation 
from the Committee on State and Mu- 
nicipal Platform which calls for the 
election of a secretary for the special 
work of attending to the preliminary 
work on municipal and state platform, at 
a salary of $i,ooo a year, and I think 
we would feel rather ashamed to go 
back to our constituencies and say that 
we have added this additional burden 
to the national finances. Therefore, I 
move you that for the word "three" in 
the report offered, the word "one," mak- 
ing it read 'one delegate." Seconded. 

DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.) : I rise for 
information. I never made the trip 
across, and I do not know how much it 
costs. Can we get some idea how much 
the expense of three delegates will be, 



232 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



or one delegate, so that we can act in- 
telligently ? 

THE CHAIRMAN : I will ask Com- 
rade Max Hayes, who attended the Brit- 
ish Trade Union Congress as a dele- 
gate from the American Federation of 
Labor last year, as to what he would 
estimate the cost to be. Is Comrade 
Hayes in the hall? 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio): I want to 
say that the Federation of Labor allows 
its fraternal delegates to Great Brit- 
ain $300 each, but a delegate travel- 
ing alone, of course, can go there and pay 
his expenses on the $300 and remain, as 
they usually do, and visit the various in- 
dustrial centers for several weeks. I 
believe that the trip could be made to 
Amsterdam direct and return for about 
$200. 

A DELEGATE: $200 for expenses? 

DEL. HAYES: Yes, expenses. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Is that all, Com- 
rade Hayes? 

DEL. HAYES: That is all I know. 

Question called for on the amendment. 

DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : I just 
as much dislike arguing for what 
seems to be extravagance as other dele- 
gates dislike arguing on the other side, 
but I want to say that there comes a 
time when it is seemingly unwise to bal- 
ance a hundred dollars, more or less, 
against certain well-defined interests in 
the party. (Applause.) As to the proba- 
ble expense, I have no doubt at all that 
three men elected from, let us say one 
from the east, one from the middle west 
and one from the west, if you like, — 
that the whole business could be done, 
well, safely say, and a comfortable mar- 
gin left, if you devote five or six hun- 
dred dollars for the expense. A dele- 
gate says no. All right. I have done 
the work, and I know something about 
it, and I say that it can be done for 
about $150 to $200 per delegate, and that 
without inflicting any sort of hardship 
upon the men elected as delegates. (Ap- 
plause.) Now, then, comrades, I say 
this: that at this convention in partic- 
ular there is an especial reason why the 
Socialist party of America should be well 
represented. In the first place, the fac- 
tion of a party that once was and now is 
only a memory, is sending all its party 
membership as its delegation in the per- 
son of Daniel De Leon. (Laughter.) 
And that Daniel De Leon, the Socialist 



Labor party of America, will, I have m 
doubt, do all that lies in its power U> 
vilify, to calumniate, to misreprcsciil 
alike the personnel and the character iil 
the Socialist party of this country. Now, 
comrades, whatever you say, the opiii 
ion and the good will and the gonil 
faith of your European comrades mcaiii 
something to the Socialist party (jf 
America, and if for no other reason 
than that we should go there to vindi 
cate our position and party integrity, il 
would be money well spent and wp 
ought not to consider the saving of thai 
money. But there is another reason, and 
this reason goes deeper, and is of ini 
portance on both sides of the Atlantic, 
It is this : that during the past year ui 
two the movement at home has been i\f 
voting itself largely to the study of wlisil 
we in this country call the trust qucH 
tion, and upon the discussion of thai 
trust question as they have it in Eii 
rope there has been in large part a fac 
tional fight which has done somethiiin, 
at any rate, to disrupt the European 
movement. Now, the views of the 
American delegation to tliat conferencp 
upon this particular question would lir 
of immense advantage to the European 
movement, and I say that we owe it In 
the International Socialist movenieni 
that we send a delegation from America 
that will present this question of tin" 
concentration of capital and capitalisi 
power from the point of view of tlir 
country that has it in larger measure 
than any other. (Applause.) And for 
this reason I am in favor of the motion 
to send three delegates at the expenfic 
of the party. I am in favor of tlir 
recommendation that if there be twenty 
good men and true, or good women ami 
true, who desire to represent the party, 
they should be given credentials to il, 
and I hope that when our Internatioiiiil 
Congress meets in Amsterdam we shall 
"have a delegation from the Sociali.tl 
party of America worthy of the present 
strength of the party, worthy of its in 
tellectual character, worthy of its pro.t 
pects, and second to no delegation in that 
congress. (Applause.) 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio) : I wisll 
to endorse the remarks of Conn-ado 
Spargo on the matter of sending three 
delegates to the Amsterdam Congr<')»(i, 
I believe that the expense — say it will 
average $200 per delegate — can very ea»« 
ily be proportioned among the varinnn 
states, the amount raised and sent to the 



^ 
^ 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



233 



ii;itional headquarters. I believe that it 
I . necessary to send three delegates, by 
iiason of the experience that I had while 
.11 ross the water last fall. I want to say 

10 you delegates here this afternoon that 
"111 European brothers and comrades 
liive practically no conception of the 
iicmendous labor movement of the 
I'liited States and of the various social 
njiheavals that have taken place in this 
' I'untry during the past dozen years. The 
i|iiestion of trusts, to the average Euro- 
pean, is a closed book, although they 
arc at the present time beginning to 
I 111 the same pressure from the capital- 
1 .1 class above that we have felt in this 
l.nid during the past six or eight years. 
I '.111 it is true that practically no news 

I Its through the cables between the 
American and the European industrial 
.niters. You can take your leading 
1 .1 indon daily newspapers, and all of the 
American reports, whether they be of a 
fi neral news nature, of a political nature 
nr otherwise, are condensed into about 
half a column. There is never any men- 
iiiin made of any industrial struggle 
licTc. There is never the semblance of a 
word regarding the growth, expansion 
iiul victories, local though they may be, 
"\ the Socialist movement of this coun- 
iiy, and for that reason it becomes nec- 
rsary that we send our delegates there 
lu inform our comrades on the other 
■ iile of the water as to the exact condi- 
liniis that exist in the United States, 
wlicther they be intellectual, political, 
•ocial or otherwise. I am heartily in 
ia\'or of the proposition to send three 
delegates, and am satisfied that we can 
\<iy easily raise the funds. (Applause.) 
DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.): I was 
.niir>ng those advocating the reduc- 
ni;.; of the monthly dues to three cents. 
I have been doing a little arithmetic 
liiie, and if my practice is not wrong 
I w ( p cents for one month from each 
iiiiMnber of the present organization would 
|iay these expenses as estimated. And 
I I'dunt it well worth much more than 
ivvii cents that each member be repre- 
■••ntcd as he would be by three men 
wlio could be selected. I sympathize 
wiih Comrade Kerrigan in immediate 
ililliculties. It is not what we have done, 

11 is not what we have on hand; it is 
what we can do that will be the inspira- 
(ii>n of this party, and that will make 
jinssibilities all the while. I am in favor 
III iliree delegates, and of paying their 
<\|)cn3es. 



DEL. HOEHN (Mo.) : I am op- 
posed to sending three delegates to 
Europe. I am opposed to this motion or 
to this resolution for two reasons: In 
the first place, we are in a national cam- 
paign. I believe we need all the funds 
we can get to carry on a successful 
campaign. When you elect three dele- 
gates to the congress, you will certainly, 
try to elect the best ones, the best ele- 
ment you can get, and I believe, as we 
are now in a national campaign, we 
ought to keep the best element at home 
to do some good work at home. (Ap- 
plause.) I do not believe that three of 
our best men should be sent over to 
Europe while we need them at home to 
make the battle. We need every good 
man at home, and when the time comes 
that the Socialist party of America 
grows to cast a million votes, then our 
European comrades will soon enough 
learn about the growth of the Socialist 
movement. (Applause.) 

DEL. BENESSI (Mich.)) : I rise to 
a point of information. I would like to 
be informed in what language the delib- 
erations of the congress are carried on. 

DEL. HOEHN : In three languages. 

DEL. BENESSI: Which languages? 

DEL. HEREON: They will be in 
three languages ; French, English and 
German. 

DEL. BENESSI: Then I think 
there should be three delegates or 
two delegates, because I am not in favor 
of twenty delegates. I would be in favor 
of a verv small number of delegates, and 
those delegates to be chosen, if we pos- 
sibly can, from among the proletarians, 
and at the same time from among the 
comrades that can speak at least two or 
three languages. I would be in favor of 
that. 

DEL. REILLY (N. Y.) : I wish to 
speak in support of Comrade Oswald's 
amendment providing for one delegate 
instead of three. While I recognize 
the importance of the Socialist Party of 
America being adequately represented at 
the International Socialist and Trade 
Union Congress, and while I recognize 
the advisability of not quibbing at the 
expense of sending a delegate or two 
more, there is one question that must 
be met, and that is, where are the funds 
to come from? During the past year, 
from my personal experience from hav- 
ing some dealings with the national of- 
fice, I know that the National Secre- 



1 



234 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



Afternoon Session,. May 5. 



285 



tary has been at his wits' ends as to 
how funds could be secured to pay tht 
expenses incident to the necessary work 
of the party here in this country at the 
present time. No doubt the National 
Secretary can testify that much ,has 
been left undone because the amount 
necessary for it could not be obtained. 
As to the desirability of having three 
delegates present, especially with the 
National Committee as authority to is- 
sue credentials to twenty men, if they 
so desired to go and pay their own ex- 
penses, because the Socialist Labor par- 
ty will be there, I want to say that the 
American Socialist movement is not so 
weak as to require three of its best^men 
to match De Leon in replying to his mis- 
representations. (Applause.) We 
have any number of men singly who are 
more than a match for him in ability 
to defend the Socialist Party against 
any calumination he may bring against 
if. 

DEL. TITUS (Wash.) : I want to 
repeat the sentiment just uttered by 
the delegate from New Jersey. It 
seems to me absurd to go on spending 
money to send three delegates across the 
water to be an antidote to De Leon. 
We are providing for a lot of expenses. 
We have advanced the salary of the 
Secretary. We have had to advance 
the expense of all those associated with 
him in the office, and we will have a 
big office force. We have a proposi- 
tion here before us for a $i,ooo salaried 
officer to take care of the State and 
Municipal Program business. We seem 
to think that we have got a big treasury. 
I hope we will have. We have just 
barely paid a big debt of our old organ- 
ization. I want to ask in conclusion, 
what good can three do over one? Let 
us save our money and keep our men 
at home. There will be plenty of men 
over there. Comrade Hillquit has said 
there are others that want to go and will 
go anyhow, and we will be well repre- 
sented, and I do not see' any reason 
especially for three, especially one from 
the Pacific coast, which would co.st 
$150 for expenses in this country alone 
to come from the Pacific to the Atlantic 
as to cross the ditch. Let us stay at 
home, do our work and save our money. 

DEL. WALDHORST (Ala.) : I am 
like Delegate Titus. I am opposed to 
three, or even one. I think we have a 
job on hand that will take all the energy 
of every man in the movement, and 



there is no one that we can possibly 
spare to do the work at the present 
time in the Presidential campaign. I 
can assure the comrades that there in 
a great deal of hard work to be doup, 
It is even a hard matter to raise lliu 
necessary funds required to do the work 
in the states at home, and the result il 
that v/herever we need a lot of men to 
work they are hard to get, and if w< 
have more funds in the state the stalf 
would have a larger membership and wu 
should have a larger vote at each elec 
tion. It may be all right for the coiii' 
rades to go that fortunately can spare 
every once in a while a five or ten-dol 
lar bill or more for the advancenu'iil 
of the cause, but the majority of llm 
members are not in a position to do thai, 
and especially right now, because there 
are states where in some of the local.s ii 
majority of the members are not ni 
work and are not even able to keep u|i 
their dues. We increased the salary 
of the Secretary. We have provided fur 
another $i,DOO expense. We want to 
provide the means to have a lot of bookn 
and pamphlets and tracts to furnish the 
members with. In all that we are pro 
viding for expense, and in no way arc 
we providing for additional revenue to 
do the additional work. I agree with 
the comrades so far as representation 
at the International Congress is coii 
cerned, but at the same time I think wf 
can stand it for a few months until wr 
are better financially able to do the work. 
This year is a most important year ill 
the history of Socialism in America, 
and I think we have about all we ciiii 
do in this year from now until next 
November. I read the reports of the 
International Bureau, and I can say thai 
I was as much disappointed as any man 
could be. I know the international 
movement as well, I suppose, as a gooil 
many do, because I have been in llii* 
movement long enough, and I say tliiit 
there were some questions discussed thai 
to me, with the industrial developmnil 
of to-day, are absolutely puerile, that arc 
not fit to be talked of. That is the way 
I look at it. It is far more important 
to me to see every working man in lliP 
United States in the ranks of the So- 
cialist Party. That is the most iui 
portant task that we have had for yeaiH, 
and the only one that I think is worlll 
considering and spending money on. I 
want to make more Socialists, and I want 
to make them right where I live, and I 



f 



►■ncss every other comrade is in the 
.luie condition. Talk is very cheap, but 

II lakes money to buy food. I have wit- 
nessed the progress of the party in New 
^ iirk and some states where they have 
In on organized twenty years. I was in 
I Ik- movement sixteen years ago in New 
N ork, and I have been in the move- 
II lent fifteen years in the South, and we 
li.ive made more progress in the last 
lliree or five years than has been made 

III any other section, considering the 
(inie that Socialism has been known. 
And right here we want to saddle six or 
eight hundred dollars on the shoulders 
"if the comrades, and when I go home 
what will they say? They will say, 
'N'ou must be a millionaires' club by 
I lie way you have been throwing money 
.innmd." I think it is about time we 
|iut a stop to it. I have taken no part 
III the debate on many questions, for the 

iinple reason that I thought it was not 
necessary, but now that a question 
lomes up that I do not think is neces- 
•ary, I am going to kick, and there are 
.'thers of the same kind. Comrade 
Spargo illustrates it very well, and Com- 
Kide Herron too. I agree with them, 
lint this is not the most important mat- 
li-r to us. Let us build up the party and 
cit more members; then we can attend 
I lie congress and send not only three, 
lint three hundred, and I will be glad 
wlien the time comes 

DEL. GOAZIOU (Pa.) : I am in 
fiivor of the amendment that has been 
made to send one. I feel that we can 
liinl one member that is able to represent 
III is party at the Amsterdam Congress, 
,111(1 I would be sorry if we would send 
three delegates because one party in 
I Ills country has decided to send De 
I. eon. A few years ago the papers, at 
le.ist so far as the French papers were 
■ nnccrned, did not take into much con- 

ideration the Socialist party here. I 
lio not believe it is necessary to send 
niie man, so far as that part of the pro- 
i^r.nn is concerned. To-day the papers of 
I lie revolutionary party of France know 
rx.u-lly what De Leonism means, at least 
Ml far as I have been able to read them, 
,iiid I hope that if we send one or three, 
we send them not with the notion that 
lliey are needed there because De Leon 
r. K^'iig- I think that is the worst rnis- 
l.ike we have made, in so far as talking 
.iliout De Leon. The French newspapers, 
I he revolutionary French papers to-day — 
.mil although I don't read the German 



papers, because I cannot read German, 
I suppose it will be the same with the 
German papers — exactly understand De 
Leon to-day, and he can go to Amster- 
dam and tell all the stories that he 
thinks necessary, and they won't believe 
him. 

The previous question was moved, 
seconded and carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The question now 
recurs upon the resolution. 

DEL. TITUS: I move as a further 
amendment to the^ resolution that we 
elect an alternate. Seconded. 

The amendment of Delegate Titus was 
then put and carried, and the resolu- 
tion as amended was adopted. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Nominations are 
now in order. 

EI.ECTION OF INTERNATIONAL 
DELEGATE. 

The following nominotions were made: 
May Wood Simons (111.), by Hazlett 
(Colo.) 

J. S. Smith (111.), by 

A. M. Simons (111.), by J. S. Smith 
(111.). 

Spargo (N. Y.), by 

Hillquit (N. Y.), by Reynolds (Ind.). 
Herron (N. Y.), by Menton (Mich.). 
Wilson (Cal.), by Cogswell (Kan.). 

Hayes (Ohio), by — • 

Berger (Wis.), by Robinson (Ky.). 

Carey (Mass.), by 

Unterman (111.), by 

Hillquit, seconded by Titus (Wash.). 

Mailly (Neb.), by — — 

Lamb (Mich.), by Berger (Wis.). 
Delegate Miller (Colo.), moved that 
the nominations dose. Seconded and 
carried. 

While the names were being placed 
on the blackboard. Delegate Phelan 
(111.) extended an invitation to the 
delegates, on behalf of the Third Ward 
Branch of Cook County Local to attend 
an entertainment at their headquarters, 
3345 State street, this (Thursday) 
evening. Also an invitation from the 
German Women's Socialist Club to at- 
tend an entertainment Friday evening 
after the adjournment of the national 
convention, at Trade Union Hall, 55 
North Clark street. 

DEL. WORK (Iowa) : I move that 
the candidate receiving the second high- 
est vote be the alternate. Seconded and 
carried. 

DEL. CARR (III.) : I move that it 
require a majority of the whole vote, 
not simply a plurality. Seconded. 



1 



23« 



Afternoon Session^ May 5. 



Afternoon Session, May 5. 



237 



k 



DEL. BRANDT (Mo.) : I move that 
that motion be laid on the table. Sec- 
onded. 

The motion to lay on the table was 
adopted. 

The list of nominees was called off by 
the Chairman, and Herron, Wilson, 
Hayes, Berger, Carey^ Mailly and Lamb 
declined. Mrs. Simons was not pres- 
ent. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Did the delegate 
who nominated Mrs. Simons have her 
authority. 

DEL. HAZLETT : No, I did not have 
authority. 

Delegate Smith (111.) assumed au- 
thority to withdraw the name of MJay 
Wood Simons. 

DEL. HAZLETT: I don't know that 
Comrade Smith has any more authority 
to withdraw Mrs. Simons' name than 
I to nominate her. If Mr. Simons hap- 
pens to be the delegate she might be the 
alternate and might go. 

DEL. CARR (111.): As a delegate 
from Illinois, I think it would be very 
unfair to run Mr. Simons as against 
Mrs. Simons for this election. Of 
course, if she consents, I have nothing 
more to say. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I think, under 
the circumstances, as Comrade Smith 
has no authority to use or withdraw 
Mrs. Simons' name, her name should 
be retained on the blackboard. (Ap- 
plause.) 

Delegate Kerrigan moved that if no 
election was had on the first ballot the 
two lowest in the list should be dropped. 

THE CHAIRMAN : It is understood 
that if no one is elected on the first 
ballot the lowest will be dropped. 

The vote was then directed to be col- 
lected by the secretaries of the state 
delegations and handed to the secretary 
of the convention. 

DEL. BARNES (Pa.) : Before we 
proceed to vote, and while the tellers are 
preparing, I desire to ask the Chairman 
if it is necessary to suspend the rules 
in order to abolish the night session 
this evening. I ask for information. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I should so rule. 

DEL. BARNES : Then before I make 
a motion I would state, if it is in order, 
that there has been a call issued for a 
meeting of state secretaries and organ- 
izers of the party. They have not as yet 



come together. There are at least (wo 
committees who have minor mattern lo 
bring up to date and consider in ordrr 
to be able to report intelligently iuiil 
conclude their report upon the mal(«*iii 
in hand. The delegates have been vpiy 
faithful in their attendance on the (l«> 
sessions and night sessions. My idcii I* 
to abandon the meeting to-night in ordrl 
to permit the work of the convention In 
the hands of committee to get in sliiipn 
to be dispatched readily on to-morniw 

THE CHAIRMAN: A motion will \\» 
in order. 

DEL. BARNES: I am prefacins IIh- 
motion very briefly. I believe that il it 
impossible for us to conclude our wciifc 
to-night. There will of necessity be In 
morrow's session, but if we do not li.-tvf 
a night session we can easily conrlnijo 
our work to-morrow, and a little hclli'i 
by reason of not having a night ses.sinii 
For these reasons I move that the riilp< 
be suspended and that we do nol hiiv* 
a night session this evening. 

Motion seconded. 

DEL. ROBINSON (Ky.) : I hope lli# 
motion will not prevail. We have bri"!! 
here the greatest part of a week, ami 
many of us must soon leave for hniiip 
We want to remain until the close of ltii> 
convention if possible. If we hold ti 
session to-night it will expedite matlrn 
so that perhaps we can finish up til 
time to get away on the evening train* 
to-morrow. I want to see this motion 
voted down. 

DEL. HOEHN (Mb.) : We are in llin 
same position. Three of our dclcRUtm 
left last night, and five of us will liiivi' 
to leave to-night on the midnight triilii 
There are only about two left, lit*" 
others having important business Iti 
transact at home, and we cannot help II, 
but must leave to-night. I would lik# 
to attend a night session. 

THE CHAIRMAN (Delegate Mull 
ly) : I wish to make a statement on I* 
half of the National Secretary and (ln» 
state secretaries. We have been Iry 
ing all week to get a conference of llii> 
state secretaries and of the nalioititl 
organizers. Various things have liiip 
pened to prevent us from holding tlul 
conference. We believe that snrli N 
conference is of great value to the piuly, 
and T believe we can very well adjoiiilj 
to-night and let us' come togetlicr aiiij 
consider and give us an opportunity In 
come to an understanding that will rcNllll 



III ystematizing our work. If this con- 
i< i. lice is held we can talk and go over 
IHlrrent things about which we ought 
<>> ' uufer, and I hope we will be given 
ilii opportunity. 

Dl'.L. TOOLE (Md.): I want to go 
III line to-morrow, but I want to protest 
IK" 1 list doing away with this evening's 
icNsion. My local sent me here to do 
iviirk. I have to leave to-morrow on 
ilii three o'clock train, and I want to 
'I ihc business of this convention done 
I'l U'vc that time, and if we adjourn to- 
iiii'lit we will waste time. The same way 
Mill other comrades. 

Dl'.L. STEDMAN : I think the trouble 
iMlh the time at these conventions is al- 
\\ i\ s on the first day. You had a ban- 
i|iiri that night, when as a matter of 
1 11 1 you should have been adopting rules 
I 111 I lie convention. If you had worked 
I 111' first day like you have since we 
wniild be nearer final adjournment. 
\iiii .should have given your committees 
iiinr to work at night, instead of requir- 
iMr, I he members to be in attendance at 
ilii riiuvention. If you had followed this 
pLin we would have been through to-day. 
I 1 1 link we should now adjourn. I 
III ink the first order of business tp-mor- 
I vv should be the report of the Com- 
luiid c on State and Municipal Program, 
uliirh will enable us to finish early to- 
iiHurnvv. 

I lt(' motion to suspend the rules re- 
i|iiiimg a night session was put and 
1 II I icd. 

Delegate Stedman moved that the first 
iMilrr of business to-morrow (Friday) 
iii.Miiing be the report of the Committee 
Mil Slate and Municipal Program. Sec- 
"Milnl and carried. 



Delegate Cross (Wis.) moved to sus- 
pend the rules until the convention had 
voted upon the matter before the house. 
Seconded and carried. 

ASS'T SECY. CROSS (Wis.): I 
would like to make one announcement, 
that will take perhaps but two or three 
minutes. The assistant secretary finds 
it necessary for him to return to Madi- 
son, Wis., in order that he may resume 
his studies in the university to-morrow 
morning. I have already spent over a 
week from home, and find it necessary 
to return by the three o'clock train to- 
morrow morning. Therefore it is with 
the greatest regret that I say adieu 
to the delegates of this convention. 
(Applause.) 

On motion of Delegate Irene Smith 
(Ore.) a vote of thanks was unani- 
mously tendered to Assistant Secretary 
Cross for the work he performed as as- 
sistant secretary of the convention. 

The vote on International Delegate 
was then announced, as follows : Hill- 
quit, 46; Untermann, 37; A..M. Simons, 
35 ; Spargo, 15 ; May Wood Simons, 14. 

THE CHAIRMAN : If agreeable to 
the house, according to customary rule, 
the last two lowest ones will be dropped. 

Delegate Berger (Wis.) moved to ad- 
journ till to-morrow morning. Sec- 
onded, and carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN : That leaves the 
matter of final election of a delegate for 
to-morrow morning. That will be the 
first order of business, after which will 
come the report of the Committee on 
State and Municipal Program. 

The convention then adjourned until 
Friday morning. 



23B 



Morning Session, May 6 



Morning S^ession, May 6. 



239 



SIXTH DAY'S SESSION— MORNING 



National Secretary Mailly called the 
convention to order at g o'clock. 

The following nominations were made 
for Chairman for the day : 

Stedman (111.), hy Gaylord (Wis.). 

Barnes (Pa.), by Collins (111.). 

Barnes declined. 

On motion the nominations were 
closed and Delegate Stedman, being the 
only nominee, was unanimously elected. 

Nominations for vice-chairman were 
made as follows : 

W. W. Wilkin s (Cal), by Titus 
(Wash.). 

Kolachney (Okla.), by Hayes (Okla.). 

On motion of Delegate Nagel (Ky.) 
the nominations were closed. 

A rising vote being taken, Delegate 
Wilkins was elected vice-chairman. 

DEL. HERRON : At the close of the 
session last eveniiig we were engaged 
in the election of International Dele- 
gate. 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is in 
order. 

DEL. HERRON: I make a motion 
that the candidate receiving the highest 
number of votes be considered the dele- 
gate, and the candidate receiving the 
next highest the alternate. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Unless there is 
objection that will be the order. 

No objection was heard. 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio) : There seem 
to be many delegates absent this morn- 
ing, and owing to the lateness of their 
arrival I will make a motion that the 
vote be held open till lO o'clock in order 
to give those now absent an opportunity 
to vote ; that the vote close at lO o'clock, 
until which time votes can be handed in 
at any time. And I move to suspend 
the rules for that purpose. 

Motion seconded and carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The first order 
of business is the report of the Commit- 
tee on State and Municipal Program. 

DEL. FLOATEN (Colo.): Mr. 



Chairman, I desire to present a cotninll' 
nication from Local Denver. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If there i.H im 
objection we will read the communlfl* 
tion from Denver before the report. 

Secretary Dobbs read the communlcl 
tion referred to, as follows : 

"To the National Convention oj ( 

Socialist party : 

"Comrades : The following rcstilll 
tion was adopted by Local Denvrr «{ 
its regular business meeting held Ajuil 
27, 1904: 

"Whereas, there is among SociiilUU 
in the United States a difference ril 
opinion upon the question of whiil In 
known as the immediate demands ; niiil 

"Whereas, we as Socialists havr Mil 
clearly defined program to gnidi* Ml 
in the transition from the capital liill»» 
system to the co-operative or collrri 
ive system; and 

"Whereas, from this time forward 
we may expect to elect an incrcnulttf 
number of Socialists to metnbrnihi| 
in municipal councils and state lc||l»' 
latures, who will be compelled to mii 
upon public questions in their ofllt'ldl 
capacity; and 

"Whereas, there being no nltiniil|ii| 
or legislative program endorsed <m% 
cially by the Socialist party, such riilli 
resentatives must be guided each fiy 
his own personal judgment or hy |rt« 
culiar local conditions, and hcnrr \ff 
liable to err, and thus hinder the wn 
of the party and subject himself Nltl 
the party to adverse criticism ; anil 

"Whereas, the party should 
place such responsibility upon its 
resentatives, but should prepare n 
nite, specific program and then 
its representatives to a strict rcipi 
sibility in their official acts in acPOfl 
ance therewith; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, That we, the mcmll 
of Local Denver in regular bpmI 
assembled, do hereby memorlllf 



and petition the National Convention 
<if the Socialist party to appoint or 
licet a committee of three of its most 
:ilile and judicious members to prepare 
a municipal and legislative program, 
aid program to be submitted to a 
referendum vote of the entire party 
membership for adoption, and if rati- 
tied by a majority of all members 
voting thereon said program shall be- 
come a part of the official platform of 
I in; Socialist party." 
I HE CHAIRMAN: If there is no 

• iliMction the communication will be re- 

'ci\(d and placed on file. 

DliL. PARKS (Kan.) : I move that 

It lie referred to the Committee on State 

uiil Municipal Program. 
IIIE Cn AIRMAN: If there is no 

nli[iction it will be referred to the proper 

Miiimiittee. Comrade Untermann has a 

II |i. lit from the Committee on State and 
Municipal Program. 

l/e|)ort of Committee on State and 
Municipal Program. 

HKL. UNTERMANN. on behalf of 
ill! Committee: Pursuant to instruc- 

I s from this convention, your Com- 

iiiiltce on State and Municipal Program 

III rived the report of the permanent 
Municipal Committee elected by the In- 
ili.inupolis Convention. That permanent 
I iiiiiinittee had taken great care in elab- 
'dialing a municipal program, and your 
Miiiiinittee feels that the dispatch with 
wliiili we have been able to do this work 
W.I-- due in great measure to the careful 
wmking which the permanent committee 
liiiil chosen for the making of this mu- 
iMi ipal report, and we feel that the 
lli.iiiks of your committee are due to 
ilii- permanent committee elected by the 
liiiliaiiapolis convention, and especially 
|i' lis secretary, Comrade A. M. Simons. 
I hr greater part of the report of the 
jKiinanent committee is embodied in the 
H|inri of your committee here. The 
Sliilf Program is the main work which 
ymir present committee has done. I 
liitw proceed to read the report which 
vmir committee submits to you. You 
will notice from the reading that certain 
hIikJii changes have been made from the 
|Minird copy, and I would suggest that 
Vim make notes of it when I come to 
llir jiassages, so that we may all be able 
III discuss the que.stion when it comes 
ii|i fur discussion. 

I '1 legate Untermann then read the re- 



port, which will be found in the Appen- 
dix. 

DEL. UNTERMANN (at the con- 
clusion of the reading) : I move that 
the report be adopted. Seconded. 

DEL. FORD (Minn.) : I move that 
this whole thing be laid on the table. 

DEL. WILL (Kan.) : I rise to sec- 
ond the motion to adopt the report as 
a whole. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It has been 
moved and seconded that the commit- 
tee's report be accepted and adopted. 
Comrade Untermann has the floor. 

DEL. WEBSTER (Ohio) : Hasn't 
10 o'clock arrived, the hour for voting 
on International Delegates? 

THE CHAIRMAN: It has. You 
will please prepare your ballots. The 
candidates are Hillquit, Untermann and 
Simons. 

DEL. DALTON (111.) : A point of 
information. Has it not been decided 
by this convention that we shall elect 
one man and then submit the vote to a 
referendum ? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I cannot tell 
you. I will inquire of the Secretary. 
There was no such provision made. 

DEL. DALTON: I desire at this 
point to make a motion that the three 
names be submitted as the nominees of 
this convention, recommended to the 
Socialist party as candidates for Dele- 
gates to the International Congress. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Then your mo- 
tion is to suspend the rules and substi- 
tute. The rules provide for election by 
the convention. You must make a mo- 
tion, if you wish to do that, to suspend 
the rules. 

DEL. DALTON': That was the point 
of information that I asked. Then 1 
make a motion to suspend the rules for 
purpose of this motion. 

THE CHAIRMAN: And you mean 
to refer these to a referendum? 

DEL. DALTON : Yes. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Is there any 
second to the motion? 

The motion was seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN : It has been 
moved and seconded that the rules be 
suspended and that the three names on 
the blackboard be referred to a refer- 
endum of the party for a vote, the one 
receiving the highest vote to be the dele- 
gate, and the next one the alternate. 

DEL. HERRON: The majority of 
the members of the various branches 
will not understand the question as to 



240 



Morning Session, May 6. 



Morning Session, May 6. 



241 



the International Delegate nearly as well 
as the members of this convention. The 
matter was here debated, and such infor« 
mation or instructions as will be given 
upon the question was given here, and 
the intention is here to get a representa- 
tion that is consistent on just such ques- 
tions as these. If the matter is referred 
to a referendum, it will, between now 
and the middle of July when the dele- 
gate must leave, or perhaps the first of 
July even, be practically impossible to 
get any adequate result, or to get any 
result that will be nearly as representa- 
tive of an expression of the party's mind 
as in this convention here assembled. 

DEL. DALTON: It appears to me 
that the names on the blackboard and 
the activity of those delegates in the 
party are sufficiently well known out- 
side of this convention to the member- 
ship of the party that they can vote in- 
telligently on this question. It appears 
further to me that this thing of sub- 
mitting one man's name to the member- 
ship of the party for a referendum vote 
is a farce. If you are going to elect a 
man to the International Congress, elect 
him, and then don't go to a referendum 
with his name. There is no reason for 
all this haste. Before the middle of 
July you can get an expression of the 
party's opinion. The Socialist press 
will be in the hands of the membership 
before the end of next week in all parts 
of the country, telling them who these 
candidates are. It does not take very 
long for them to decide. They will de- 
cide according to the activity of these 
men, according to their active service 
in the party, according to their quali- 
fications, and I claim that the member- 
ship is a good and sufficient judge of 
these matters. If we are going to have 
referendums, if we are going to preserve 
the principles of democracy, let us set 
the example ourselves. 

DEL. SILVERMAN (N. Y.) : I 
want to reiterate what I said on the 
subject of the referendum at an earlier 
staee in the proceedings of this conven- 
tion. On all questions on which the 
referendum principle can be practically 
effective I shall vote in favor of the 
referendum principle, but I submit that 
in the selection of men to do given work 
none are better qualified to cast intelli- 
gent votes than those who have met 
these men in person and who are familiar 
with all the qualifications they may pos- 
sess. It is not sufficient to know a man 



by the accounts of him. It is not «iif 
ficient to know of a man that his uiiiim 
frequently appears in the Socialist pirn* 
It is a fact that if this motion caitli"» 
and we go to our respective const i( II 
encies, our respective locals will dciiniil 
upon us who have been to this coiivPli 
tion to tell them what we think of I In- 
respective merits of these candidates liti 
this office, and that simply means tlnil 
the delegates here will cast the voir hI 
the membership just the same as iIhk 
will do, only in more concrete and uiiii| 
intelligent and practical form, if Ihtu 
motion is voted down and we selcci mil 
people here. We are fully competciil In 
elect our candidates for President iiiiil 
Vice-President of the United States. Wt 
are equally as competent to elect iiiii 
delegates to the International Sofiiiilnl 
Conference, and we are vioIatiuK iiii 
fundamental principle of their refoirii 
dum when we decide upon doing llml, 
and for that reason I submit tlial Wf 
ought to vote down this proposiliuii 
and proceed with the election. 

DEL. KERRIGAN (Texas): 1 .!■■ 
sire to endorse what Comrade llnimt 
has said, and add that I cannot umli'i 
stand why we should incur an additiniul 
expense and waste of time in this iiiiiii 
ner. As Comrade Sieverman propel l|f 
says, it will devolve upon the dclcuiilP* 
here anyway, and the various locals will 
ask our opinion of the men, and il U 
a waste of time. We ought not to pliuHl 
ourselves in the attitude of dclaylil( 
when we have a chance to act on tliiiin 
coming up here. Let us decide on n|! 
the things we can, and save time iillll 
labor. 

DEL. FORD (Minn.) : I rise In 
point of order. It is that we voted Ull 
proceed to vote on the candidates iil lO 
o'clock, and that the man receivinn lltl 
highest number of votes should be lit* 
clared elected. 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is «n|ij'l 
but you can always vote to suspend l||| 
rules. 

DEL. FORD: But we have not iliirHj 
that. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I beg your iilir« j 
don, that was the motion of the riiiH' 
rade from Illinois. 

DEL. TAFT (111.): I wish tu Hlkl 
for information. By the stateniciil li|' 
the Comrade on my left that one HHIttliJ 
would be sent out to a refereiuliiiii J|f|| 
the party. 



'.11 

ma 



\ 



IHE CHAIRMAN: It is that the 
ilirce on the board be sent to a refer- 

' iiilum. Now, you made an argument, 
wliile you rose to a point of informa- 
imn, to ask a question. 

DEL. TAFT: My question is this: 
Will the name of the person, the one of 
I he three who is elected here this morn- 
II iv;, be sent out to a referendum? 

THE CHAIRMAN: There has been 
III I motion to do that, up to the present 
lime. 

DEL. PARKS: I move the previous 
i|iustion. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You cannot rise 
I'll that purpose. Comrade Gaylord has 
ilir floor. 

HBL. GAYLORD: I was satisfied 
iviih what Comrade Sieverman said on 
ilir subject of the referendum. It should 
l.r employed only at the proper time 
iii'I in the right place. 

DEL. MAURER (Pa.) : I agree with 
ill' amendment. I wish these Com- 
inks to distinctly understand that this 
l"i<ly does not constitute the brains of 
ilir Socialist party by any means. My 
"I'll lion on this matter is that the Com- 
liiiks at large know just as well who 
III select as this body does, and I ap- 
|iiiive of that amendment. 

I )elegate Parks moved the previous 
ijiii '^lion. Seconded and carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: We now revert 
I" I the main question on the substitute 
i.illing for the suspension of the rules 
iiikI the submission of the three names 
1111 the blackboard to a referendum vote, 
III' liighest to be the delegate and the 
111 st to be the alternate. 

The substitute was defeated. 

THE CHAIRMAN: We will now 
jii'i'i'ed to ballot. 

Mere Vice-Chairman Wilkins took the 
''(i:iir, and the vote on International 
1 1' I' ti;ate was taken up. Pending the 
iiiiiouncement of the vote, Delegate Un- 
i.iiiiann, on behalf of the State and 
Municipal Program Committee, ad- 
'li« scd the convention. 

Ill I! \['K ON PROPOSKD STATE AND MUNICIPAL 
PROGRAM. 

DFL. UNTERMANN: To antici- 
jMii- possible criticism and to dispatch 
III' work of this convention, I beg leave 
I" make a few remarks in introducing 
III' subject and justifying the report of 
w'lii committee. In the first place, it 
"HIS to me there can hardly be any 
liiiission of the question that such a 
i'i'i«ram is necessary at the present crit- 



ical moment. Most probably we shall 
elect some comrades to stale legislatures 
this fall. We already have elected quite 
a number to local administrations, and 
in various localities difficulties have 
arisen from the very fact that the com- 
rades so elected did not have a pro- 
gram and did not know how to proceed 
along proletarian lines. If there is anjr 
possibility of any difference of opinion 
on this point it can only be on the ques- 
tion, "Shall we give them a certain set 
of instructions now, or shall we wait 
till we have elected a large number and 
give them a program when they ask for 
it?" To me it seems that it is much 
better to provide in advance for the 
demand for instructions which we know 
will come, instead of waiting until the 
necessity for instructions arises. We, in 
convention assembled here, are much 
more likely to agree on a general out- 
line of suggestions by which our candi- 
dates may be guided than are the mem- 
bership at large scattered over an enor- 
mous territory, with all the difficulties 
attending such a situation. In the sec- 
ond place, I wish to emphasize once 
more the fact that all the various posi- 
tions and suggestions contained in the 
report of your committee are nothing 
but suggestions, and are not in any way 
mandatory or binding on any local ad- 
ministration or on any state, so long as 
we believe in the principle of local au- 
tonomy, and . this convention has reaf- 
firmed it. The National Committee has 
no power and this convention has no 
power to make any of these outlines 
mandatory. We realize, however, that 
a great number of states have already 
declared in favor of these suggestions 
and asked this convention and asked the 
National Committee to give them a cer- 
tain set of instructions by which they 
may be guided in their activity in the 
local and state administrations. In the 
third place, I wish to justify the formu- 
lation of this report. It may have 
seemed to a good many of you that your 
committee took a long time to get this 
report before the convention, and that 
when it finally came it was very volu- 
minous. As one delegate said, there 
was so much room on the back of it 
that we might at least have printed on 
the back of it a municipal bill of fare. 
Well, we might have done it if we could 
have agreed on a bill of fare. But the 
reason for making this report as volu- 
minous as it is and for giving it the 



i 



242 



Morning Session, May 6. 



Morning Session, May 6. 



243 



k 



form of general suggestions, was this : 
We realized that we would not come 
before this convention until very late, 
at a time when the delegates would be 
tired and would wish to go home, and 
we did not want this work to be con- 
sidered in a rush. It is very import_ant 
that every passage of this report should 
be well considered because it must stand 
for at least four years, unless amended 
by referendum, which would be very 
difficult; and for this reason your com- 
mittee took great pains to go minutely 
over every single section, discussing it 
sentence by sentence and position by 
position, until we all unanimously 
agreed; and the fact that we could 
agree, although we represented so many 
different elements of the party, it seems 
to me should be an indication that this 
convention also should be able to agree 
unanimously on this report. (Applause.) 
Therefore we found it necessary to out- 
line in a general way all the points that 
we thought would be met in talking with 
the workers by our elected comrades, 
and we used the form that we took in 
this report because we realized that any 
suggestions which we might make could 
only be general and not very detailed, 
and these suggestions we have given in 
such shape that they would form good 
propaganda material for our elected can- 
didates in their class struggle in parlia- 
ment. And therefore every single posi- 
tion has been worded so that our can- 
didates if elected can make it the basis 
for fighting the class struggle in local 
administrations and state administra- 
tions, and clearly set forth the prole- 
tarian standpoint in every bill that they 
introduce. Without detaining you any 
longer, and in coming to a conclusion, 
I only wish to say a final word about 
methods of discussion. I have missed 
very much, in the course of the various 
discussions which we have had here, 
that fraternal spirit which should per- 
vade the Socialist party. (Applause.) 
Personal animosity has entered into the 
discussions without any need, and has 
clouded the judgment of the delegates 
and made it impossible to discuss many 
of these great matters on their merits. 
If the materialistic conception of his- 
tory in which we all believe teaches us 
anything it is this, that we are all crea- 
tures of our environments, and that if 
we differ in our ideas it is simply be- 
cause we come from different environ- 
ments. But this Socialist party of ours 



is an open forum; it is the melting pot 
in which these various differences o( 
opinion can be thrown and melted into 
a mighty arm, and I hope that this con- 
vention which has just unanimously 
adopted the platform will unanimously 
adopt this report. (Applause.) I be- 
lieve that the unanimous adoption o( 
this report, as well as the unanimoun 
adoption of your platform, will show to 
the world at large that the Socialist 
philosophy is not a basis for a material 
istic philosophy, but is simply the affir 
mation of a new faith, the faith in thr 
all-conquering power of the humiiii 
brain, backed up by the Socialist phi- 
losophy. And in asking you to thu» 
unanimously adopt the report, I am 
simply asking you to consider the moral 
effect which its adoption will have on 
the world at large. (Applause.) 

At this point the Secretary announced 
the vote on International Delegate, at 
follows: Untermann, 57; Hillquit, 52; 
Simons, 32. 

No name having a clear majority, it 
new ballot was ordered. 

THE SECRETARY: According In 
the rule adopted the name lowest in tlit; 
list will be dropped out, and the voting 
now will be on Untermann and Hill- 
quit. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Proceed to take 
a vote. 

DEL. BRANDT (Mo.) : I want tli« 
floor to offer an amendment. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You cannot gel 
the floor on that ground. We will take 
a vote. While we are taking the vote 
I want to make an explanation which 
will save a good deal of confusion. 
When the delegates rise in their dif- 
ferent order, if they will just give their 
names I will mark their names on a 
slip, and then they will be called ill 
order. In that way it will be unneces- 
sary for five or six to take the floor, 
I will take them in their order and 
mark their names, and then as I pul 
down their names they will be recog 
nized and will be called. That will he 
the process. 

The following delegates presented 
their names for the purpose of bcina 
placed on the Chairman's list : Ford 
(Minn.), Irene Smith (Ore.), Wal«h 
(Mont), Coggswell (Kan.), Dalton 
(111.), Lucas (Minn.), Parks (Kan.), 
Rose (Miss.), Mills, (Kan.). 

DEL. WALSH (Mont.): I do not 



iliink it is necessary to take much time. 
I offer an amendment to the whole re- 
|iort. There can only be one dividing 
line here. But I will read the motion 
til St, and then I want to say just a few 
v\ 'irds and all here will understand it 
ilinroughly. I want to substitute for 
I Ills whole report the following: 

"The National Convention recom- 
mends that in the event of any So- 
cialists being elected in any localities 
(m state or municipal tickets, that they 
hs guided thereafter in all their legis- 
lative acts by considering, 'Is the 
legislation in the interest of the labor- 
ing class? If so, I am for it; if not, 
I am opposed to it.' " 

Now, I do not see where this com- 
iiiiltee could have got this report that is 
nffered here, except they might have 
(lipped the last page from the Chicago 
American. (Applause.) It is ridicu- 
I'liis from start to finish. It is impos- 

iMe to talk about it. It is ridiculous 
lo recommend such a program as that 
In go over the United States. When 
Mni go into its details and the incon- 
• latencies and the foolish whims, it is 
miijossible for anybody to ferret it out. 
I f you elect Socialists who have got to 
Ik- guided by such a thing or suggestion 
.IS this you have not elected Socialists, 
.11 id you had better keep them away 
from Montana. There is one city in 
Montana already where we elected So- 
ri.ilists, and where, while technically , 
iluy are not in a majority, they are to a 
errtain degree. They have continued 
111 follow practices of the old politicians, 
III licensing prostitutes and licensing 
j'.miblers and turning affairs into a 
i.'i,ift profit system. I say this, that we, 
.IS Socialists, cannot recommend such 
tilings as those. You cannot recommend 
such a silly program as this. We would 
lint follow It, nor would any Socialist 

ilii-mpt to follow it. We might as well 
Like it for a hat rack. There is no one 
liii( the Committee that could be guided 
liv it. In the name of Heaven, I won- 
kier how they could have done any- 
lliing like this, except, as I say, 
llicy could have got the last page 
I if Hearst's Chicago American and 
:i(lached it on here. He advocates all 
llicsc things. He tells you how to run 
(lirse things, and it is impossible to 
Oidw many reasons for not following 
lilin. If this was followed out on this 
III, in you would have a program longer 



than the Chinese Bible. And so I say 
the division stands in this house this 
morning upon this proposition. Are 
we for the sentimental demands con- 
tained in this proposition, or are we for 
the rock of Socialism that stands for 
principles? (Applause.) Let us get on 
the right line. Let us get on the right 
rock, and go home, and don't let us go 
home until we go there right. There 
is no use in electing a class of 3 by 2 
Socialists who, when they are in office, 
don't know what to do. If we are going 
to elect men that don't know what to 
do, who can't pass laws in the interests 
of the laboring people, for God's sake 
let the old parties elect them; we don't 
want to elect them. (Applause.) 

DEL. FORD (Minn.) : I simply rise 
at this time to second that motion. 

At this point Secretary Dobbs an- 
nounced the result of the last ballot on 
International Delegate, as follows : 

LTntermann, 80; Hillquit, 61. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Un- 
termann is elected Delegate and Com- 
rade Ilillquit will act as alternate. Now, 
it has been moved and seconded that 
the substitute declaring that we are in 
favor of everything In the interest of 
the working class, instead of having a 
program, be adopted in place of the 
whole report. The next speaker is 
Comrade Smith. 

DEL. IRENE SMITH (Ore.) : It 
seems to me that we, as intelligent men 
and women, can look at this question 
this morning in a calm, clear, intelli- 
gent manner. I know that every So- 
cialist on this floor this morning wants 
that which is for the best good of the 
Socialist movement. I know I do, with 
all my soul. It Is the Socialist move- 
ment we are working for, first, foremost, 
and forever, and from that standpoint 
I want to speak just a few words to 
you this morning. If we were about 
to elect our President and Vice-Presi- 
dent, if we had to-day the senates of all 
of the states filled with our people, and 
if we thought we were about to take 
control of the government of this great 
country, this program then would be in 
perfect order with the situation. This 
program then would be probably just 
what the Socialists would undertake to 
carry into execution. But, comrades, 
let us remember that we are now a little 
minority faction, a small political fac- 
tion in a great political field, with no 



F 



▼ 



244 



Morning Session, May 6 



possibility of finding any work. To do 
what? To patch up this old system? 
Why, no, comrades. The work of the 
Socialist party of the world is not to 
patch up the old system; it is to in- 
augurate a new system (applause) — a 
new system, comrades ; and this plat- 
form as it stands to-day represents 
patches to be placed upon the old sys- 
tem. You do not say here anything 
about the system being wrong, but you 
go to work and you give us so many 
plasters to put onto the weak spots of 
the old system. Now, what we want is 
a complete new system of government 
under which to work, and when we have 
the new system of government all of 
these things will follow as a matter of 
course. Now, comrades, this is what 
I say : I say, if we go out and carry 
to the people this lengthy program of 
promises that you know as well as I 
it would be absolutely impossible for us 
to carry out, you know we are but gath- 
ering the floating sentiments of the 
people and you know that that vote is 
always reactionary upon our movement. 
We do not want our men elected to the 
senate halls of this country by a vote 
excited by the sentiment of that paper. 
We want the men elected to our legis- 
lative halls with the one sole motive 
behind them, and that motive the com- 
plete destruction of the capitalist sys- 
tem. _ (Applause.) That is what we are 
working for. And, comrades, do not 
let your prejudice stand in the way, but 
stop and think for a moment, and real- 
ize that we have now before us a cam- 
paign wherein we will reach the ears 
of thousands and hundreds of thousands 
of the workers of this country. Let us 
go before them in this campaign not 
with silly platitudes and promises that 
we cannot fulfill, but let us go before 
them as the revolutionary party that we 
represent, carrying to them the way out 
of all of these difficulties into a com- 
plete realization of what the right civ- 
ilization ought to be. It is the system 
that is wrong, comrades. The Socialist 
party and all of their program has to 
do with the changing of the system of 
governments of the world, and when 
that is done all these minor ills will 
naturally settle themselves. (Applause.) 
While I stand to-day with you here and 
will try if I can to uphold the will of 
the majority, yet as a minority vote I 
do again ask of you men and women 
to consider well the confusing condi- 



tions or the confusing effect that thil 
will have upon the minds of the voten 
if it is carried here to-day. We mini 
act intelligently and not for the moment, 
not for the mere getting of a few littl* 
demands. No, this party does not stand 
for that. This party stands for tlin 
wiping out forever of this system of 
accursed wage slavery that is the bot 
tgm, the basic principle upon whicll 
capitalism rests, and when that is doiiit 
and capitalism is wiped off the face o( 
the earth, we can then institute a pro» 
gram that will bring not only tlicM 
blessings, but a million times more, into 
the homes and lives of our fellow beingt, 
(Applause.) 

DEL. COGSWELL (Kan.) : Coin- 
rades, I feel that at this moment n 
woman should answer a woman, t 
stand for the immediate demands, or 
rather for placing the immediate de- 
mands in our program. In the past I 
have opposed immediate demands I)C- 
cause they were only here and there 
enforced or thought of in many placm, 
Without any direct program the nioul 
ridiculous claims were written out fm 
us as workers to take up and advoc.il r 
and stand for. I opposed in a most bil 
ter way a constitution in a state a shoil 
time ago because it went beyond what 
I thought was fair or was what woulii 
be possible to have the people under 
stand or the people stand for. I np 
posed it not because it was a program, 
but because it was simply one stair, 
Therefore I advocate most strongly ami 
strenuously that we as members of thi| 
National Convention should take som« 
stand that will guide us in the future ill 
out state and municipal work. You go 
into one state to speak in a campaign 
for the candidates on your state or mu- 
nicipal ticket, and you find some of tliP 
most ridiculous things written out that 
you have to stand for. (Applause.) 
I opposed having such a nonsensical lot 
of stuff everywhere, one conflicting willi 
the other. If we are going to stand to- 
gcther as a well-organized party w( 
want to have the head and strongeit 
part of our party our guide; that is otir 
National Convention. If we have tliii 
program it is not mandatory; it is not 
compelling us to do this or that, but It 
is a guide, and is a guide from the moul 
intelligent people in our movement, 
(Applause.) Comrades, we do not need, 
we women or men either — it is not nec« 
essary for us to come before you to-dajf, 



Morning Session, May 6. 



245 



Hid tell you what Socialism is or what 
"lucialism stands for. (Applause.) Cer- 
i.iinly not. I give you more credit for 
intelligence than that I should come here 
.itid tell you that we are working in a 
class struggle, or tell you that we want 
I he co-operative commonwealth. You 
know it. (Applause.) But is it neces- 
sary that we should go without clothes 
or go in rags until we get the co-oper- 
;itive commonwealth? Is it necessary, 
hccause our clothes are old and worn, 
iliMt we should not patch them if we 

I annot get a new suit? Comrades, we 
want the co-operative ■ commonwealth, 
iinl you and I know it, but besides that 
«(• want some guiding program that 
will lead the man that does not know 
what we want to do what we want. 
( Applause.) If we can clearly say, we 
IS Socialist workers, "no, we do not 
ntcd a guiding program for ourselves," 
wi are certainly an intelligent enough 
liody of people to understand what we 
lie speaking for, but we do want the 
iverage working man or working woman 
iliat has no time to go into these things 
111, in a comprehensive way, be able to 

iim up some of the things that the So- 
ii;ilists expect to give them in the fu- 
ll ne and are trying to give them what 
ilicy can in the present. That is all we 
.1 K'. We do not call this the real So- 

I I ilistic object, the real idea of what we 
.III' going to have when we have the 
in operative commonwealth. This is 
■ imply what you might call a propa- 
c.aiida pamphlet, if you will, something 
In teach the people that we are doing 

I his for the children and that for the 
wnmen of this nation that are down- 
(rndden and abused for ages; something 
ili.it will give us some idea of what we 
want for the working people. It is not 
!,nnrething for us that do not need it; 

I I is something for the people that do 
need it. (Applause.) I heard it said 
lli.it we were milksops because we had 
niough to live on. We are not milk- 
•ops, comrades, we are giving our life 
111(1 energy and all we possess to help 
III'' man that cannot help himself, and 
In make the women of this nation a 
rii'dit to this nation. (Applause.) I 
iiinvc that you have this program. It 
1'. a grand help to the workers that go 
<iiit from state to state workirig in ^ 
(diiiprehensive way, instead of in ordi- 
ii.iiy places here and there meeting the 
jjiratcst number of absurdities, the most 
ri<liculous things called programs, with 



the most ridiculous claims and nonsensCi 
instead of standing for something con- 
sistent and practicable. We do not ad- 
vocate state Socialism or municipal So- 
cialism, but we are only pointing to what 
we can do in all the states — and all the 
states -means the nation. (Applause.) 

DEL. DALTON (111.): Comrade 
Chairman and delegates, I had intended 
to move an amendment to discuss this 
paragraph by paragraph. The substi- 
tute, however, is what we are speaking 
to, and I will not make that motion. I 
did not understand just what the Chair- 
man would rule, or whether he would 
give nie another chance at it, so with 
your kind permission I shall now pro- 
ceed to sing this. (Laughter). I 
thought yesterday when I read the plat- 
form that we had become a fully Amer- 
ican movement because we have got the 
American dictionary into our platform, 
all of it. I find to-day we have become 
American and International, because we 
have got the International Encyclopedia 
added to it for our program. (Laughter 
and applause.) I do not know whether 
they seriously meant this or not. They 
come to us and say this is neither man- 
datory nor obligatory, and they are 
afraid to add that it is not purgatory. 
It certainly is going to be pretty tough 
on the poor fellow, and he will certainly 
earn his thousand dollars a year if he 
gets it by learning this game of ping- 
pong program and immediate demands. 
(Laughter.) I am going to amend that 
he be compelled to learn to whistle it 
and teach it to the rest of us. What 
does it mean if it is not obligatory or 
mandatory? What has this convention 
got to do if it is merely suggestive? 
We are not a suggestive body. We are 
here to legislate. We are here to make 
laws. We are here to lay down the law 
for the party, so much so that it has 
been said on the floor here that we arc 
the competent ones to decide everything 
from International Delegate down to 
what kind of public houses we shall 
have in Podunk. It means nothing, ac- 
cording to their statement. Well, if it 
means nothing, then why do they bring 
it before this convention? Why, if they 
consider this wise, why didn't this per- 
manent Municipal Program Committee 
try it by submitting it to the Socialist 
press and have it circulated throughout 
the United States for the next four 
years for the information of the Social- 
ists? They tell us that it is not a pro- 



▼ 



Mornmg Session,, May 6. 



247 



246 



Morning Session, May 6. 



paganda document. It is a sort of eso- 
teric thing which the thousand-doliars- 
a-year Secretary is going to deal out to 
us. I want to discuss one thing here, 
and as I am not a parliamentarian, I 
want the Chairman to be a little lenient 
with me. They tell us in Section D 

DEL. BROWER (111.) : I rise to a 
point of order. The question is on the 
substitute motion of the delegate from 
Wyoming. He proposes to take up this 
matter and bring out what he wants. 
I ask for a decision on the question. 
I submit to this convention that the 
question is on the amendment. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I think it is 
perfectly proper for members to point 
out objections. He is speaking against 
the whole thing. If he has any particu- 
lar thing it is all right. What I think, 
above everything else, should be done, is 
to have the "fullest possible discussion 
of the entire matter on its merits. (Ap- 
plause.) There are a good many who 
have changed their minds upon this sub- 
ject in the last few years in Chicago, 
and I think there will be many others 
in the country, and I think we ought to 
consider at least one section with some 
attention. I therefore hope the previous 
question will not be moved until it has 
been thoroughly thrashed out. 

DEL. DALTON : I am going to ask 
you not to take that off my time. We 
realize on this side that we are up. 
against it. We realize that this is a 
municipal program, state program and 
all the rest of it in the convention, and 
as far as the majority is concerned, we 
do not hope to win. We hope, however, 
to point out how eminently useless this 
thing is, and if we do take up the time 
of the convention, remember we do not 
thrust this on you. None on this side, 
whatever crimes they have committed, 
have ever drawn up a blanket like that. 
But there is one section here, Section 
D, on the Committee on State and Mu- 
nicipal Affairs, providing that the Na- 
tional Committee shall elect a secretary 
whose compensation shall be fixed by 
the National Executive Committee. 
Now we have a National Secretary. 
That National Secretary has certain 
specific duties to perform. We have a 
National Executive Committee and over 
that stands the National Committee. 
We have a Lecture Bureau and a Liter- 
ature Bureau, All of them have cer- 
tain duties and certain powers as strictly 



defined as we could define them. Hori 
comes a committee with a salary at' 
tached. It is not attached to, it is takoH 
off and given to another committee ami 
a salary attached to the National Sci' 
retary and the expenses of this coniinll 
tee. Now I submit in all seriousnciift, 
comrades, that if this thing contain* 
anything that is good, if it is not Ml 
the same time mandatory, if it is merely 
suggestive, there is absolutely no reaiuii 
why the Socialist party should \A 
charged any expenses or any salary. U 
these men, giving them the credit that I 
will give an opponent — if they mcttii 
that seriously for the Socialist parly, 
why do they not withdraw all theitt 
provisions that look like looting thf 
treasury? Why do they not withdraw 
it and say, "Comrades, we want to mnlin 
certain suggestions to you and to nil 
members of the Socialist party. Wr 
know that there is a difference of opiii 
ion. We want to put our ideas in coll 
Crete shape, and we want to have accmii 
to the Socialist press so as to get accfUK 
to the Socialist members, and in tliitl 
way leave the rest of it to the intclll 
gence that we all have, leaving it to llir 
intelligence of the rank and file." Woiilil 
that not have answered every purpoHcf 
and every purpose that would subscrvu 
the cause of Socialism? I submit Itml 
to your consideration. Another thinu ' 
under the heading, "State Program," I 
find down here that they tell us tlml 
under present circumstances the work 
of the Socialist movemenL in the atiilp 
legislature must necessarily be confiiinil 
to efforts for the realization of siu'll 
limited measures as they may be able 1(1 
wrest from capitalist concessions. TliHl 
sounds like good sense. They go down 
further here and say, "They must jIb' 
fend the interest of the working-clail 
against the encroachments of the CAjil- 
talist class, and decline in their parlU' 
mentary work any trading with capitiih 
ist representatives for favorable legiHU« 
tion." It has been again and again HI* 
firmed on this floor that every reprcH0H» 
tative not elected by the Socialists nild 
not under the control of our orgatiixl* 
tion must necessarily be the reprcseniH* 
tive of the capitalist class. How in llll^ 
name of all that is sensible and parlJM 
mentary can they possibly wrest ntiy«l 
thing as Socialist representatives of till | 
working class in parliaments where tlli^ 
class struggle takes on the shape 01 j 
compromise, necessarily takes on tlWj 



shape of concessions? How can they 
wrest power if you at the same time 
Irll them, "You must not do any log- 
I [filing or any trading with the capitalist 
members at all?" The thing is absurd 
nil the face of it. You cannot discon- 
nect it. " You must consider every part 
ur you must take the position for which 
we have been censured, the impossiblist 
liosition. You must go in there and 
light there as Socialists. Then, if you 
.lie in the majority you can go in there 
Mild take something from them. If you 
■lie not in the majority you must seek 
111 make trades with them. And you 
will come to that. The motion to sub- 
litute by the comrade from Montana 
i^; to my mind the best measure that 
r.-in be adopted by this convention, for 
I lie reason that if there is anything con- 
crete in this you do not lose it by that. 
You get the chance to offer these as 
you say you have been doing for the past 
vcar. You get the chance to show to 
lliese people who are to be elected some 
lliings that they can do, and at the same 
lime you avoid the danger of setting 
lip a sort of cabinet bureau and sorne- 
Ihing to entail expense on the Socialist 
party. For that reason L claim that the 
adoption of this thing at this time, as 
suggested, will suggest only one thing 
(o the rank and file. They will overlook 
whatever may be good in it. They will 
simply say, as they would have a perfect 
right to say— it suggests simply that the 
immediate programmers wanted to set 
up a machinery that would_ entail ex- 
pense and wanted to give a job to some 
ping-pong player. I think it is a mis- 
take. (Applause.) 

DEL. BERTHA WILKINS (Cal.) ; 
A point of information. I would like to 
know what Comrade Untermann's rea- 
sons are, as a German, as a student of 
Tnternational Socialism; I would like to 
Know how he came to go over on the 
■ide of the opportunists. Will you allow 
liim to make that statement? 

THE CHAIRMAN : I could only do 
il by unanimous consent of the house. 

DELEGATES : Consent. 

DEL. PARKS (Kan.) : No, I will 
nliject at this time, as taking up my 
lime. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Very well ; pro- 

DEL. PARKS: Comrades, I am no 
orator. I only talk about things that I 
know about, and I have no right to go 



before the American public and talk 
about things that I do not know about. 
So, my friends, I simply talk straight- 
forward talk. You all know I am from 
Kansas. A Kansas poet has said that 
human " hopes and human creeds have 
their roots in human needs, and I sup- 
pose that there is a great human need 
for this program which has come before 
us this morning, which some call great 
and which others do not. Now, my 
friends, we have unanimously adopted 
our platform. Some of the committee 
on the platform openly boast that their 
immediate demands are concealed under 
that platform. A comrade came to me 
off that committee yesterday who was 
state secretary in the state of Kansas, 
one of the men who was back of this 
majority platform in the state of Kansas 
where I led a fight in our convention 
to its defeat, and told me it was an ab- 
solute victory for this majority platform 
that was proposed by seven out of eight 
in the Platform Committee in the Kan- 
sas convention. Now, my friends, I 
want to tell you what is in that major- 
ity platform, and if this is a victory for 
that majority platform in Kansas, I 
should have voted against the other, the 
platform that we voted on yesterday. 
But at the same time I did not vote 
against that platform because I under- 
stood that we were going to have_ an- 
other committee report and I was silent 
when the vote was taken yesterday. It 
did not have my approval either one 
way or the other because I had not 
had an opportunity to talk upon that 
platform. Now that majority platform 
in Kansas stands for the public owner- 
ship of monopolies, not interstate^ in 
character, including city building sites, 
telegraphs, telephones and electric rail- 
ways Tor cities and states ; water, light- 
ing and power plants, with service fur- 
nished at cost; public industries, includ- 
ing department stores, lead and zinc 
mines, and oil, gas and salt wells, their 
products to be furnished to Kansans at 
cost. Over here it says : "They can 
provide for the farmer grain elevators, 
stock yards, packing houses, telegraphs, 
freight transportation within the state, 
and loans of money at cost. They can 
elect a board of railway commissioners 
with full power to fix rates. They can 
unite farm to town by good roads and 
electric car lines and telephones, pro- 
vided by the state and furnished at cost. 
They can enlarge and improve, at state 



248 



Morning Session, May 6. 



^ 



Morning Session, May 6. 



249 



t qu; 



expense, the work of the Kansas ex- 
periment station, and enlist the full pow- 
er of the state in securing the long de- 
sired outlet, by rail or canal, to the 
Gulf of Mexico," etc. Then following 
that paragraph comes this paragraph: 
"The Socialists of Kansas stand for 
each and all of these beneficent meas- 
ures, and appeal to the wealth pro- 
ducers of this state to aid them in 
their attainment." Comrades, I abso- 
lutely opposed such a program in the 
state of Kansas, and I submitted and 
championed this minority report, which 
contains the following provision : "The 
Socialist party, when in office, shall al- 
ways and everywhere, until the present 
system of wage slavery is utterly abol- 
ished, make the answer to this question 
its guiding rule of conduct; will this 
legislation advance the interests of the 
working class and aid the workers in 
their class struggle against capftalism? 
If it does, the Socialist Party is for it; 
if it does not, the Socialist Party is 
absolutely opposed to it." 

DEL. DILNO (Mo.) : A point of or- 
der, lie is not discussing the question 
before the house. The platform of Kan- 
sas is not up for discussion. 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is true, 
but a man can talk about even the 
Manifesto. 

DEL. PARKS: I will say that we 
adopted a clear-cut strictly revolution- 
ary platform in Kansas by referendum, 
and we defeated that kind of a propo- 
sition that you have here. I must talk 
hastily. The Declaration of Independ- 
ence says that while evils are sufferable 
people are disposed to bear them rather 
than rise in rebellion against them. 
Now in 1848 when the Communist Man- 
ifesto was written, the Socialist move- 
ment in Europe was a popular middle- 
class movement, and it was called the 
Socialist movement for that reason. I 
\yill read from page 7 of the introduc- 
tion by Frederick Engels : 

Yet, when it was written we conid 
not have called it a Socialist Mani- 
festo. By Socialists, in 1847, were 
understood, on the one hand, the ad- 
herents of the various Utopian sys- 
tems: Owenites in England, Fourier- 
ists in France, both of them already 
reduced to the position of mere sects, 
and gradually dying out; on the other 
hand, the most multifarious social 
quacks, who, by all manner of tinker- 



ing, professed to redress, without any 
danger to capital and profit, all soili 
of social grievances, in both cases mm 
outside the working class movcnicnl, 
and looking rather, to the "educatctl'' 
classes for support. Whatever por 
tion of the working class had become 
convinced of the insufficiency of nipii" 
political revolutions, and had pni 
clamied the necessity of a total .socini 
change, that portion, then, called itst-K 
Communist. It was a crude, rounh 
hewn, purely instinctive sort of Com 
munism; still, it touched the cardiiiiil 
point and was powerful enoiiKli 
amongst the working class to pm 
duce the Utopian Communism, in 
France, of Cabet, and in Germany, nl 
Weitling. Thus, Socialism was. in 
1847, a middle class movement. Com 
munism a working class movenicul 
Socialism was, on the continent ill 
least, "respectable;" Communism wan 
the very opposite. 

But this Communist Manifesto con 
tains a program in Section IL of it, and 
the reason I favor this report of tlir 
committee this morning is — and I ex- 
pect to be able to make it plain why il 
is that Comrade Untermann is in fav<n' 
of the adoption of this program — is lliiil 
as to Section IT. of this Commuiii,N| 
Manifesto Frederick Engels says: 

No special stress is laid on the rev 
olutionary measures proposed at llir 
end of Section IL That passa«r 
would, in many respects, be very dif 
ferently worded to-day. In view t)f 
the gigantic strides of modern indnn 
try since 1848, and of the accompany 
ing improved and extended organiz:i 
tion of the working class, in view of 
the practical experience gained, fir.-*! 
in the February revolution, and then 
still more in the. Paris Communr, 
where the proletariat for the first time 
held political power for two whoir 
months, this program has in some dp 
tails become antiquated. One thiiiH 
especially was proved by the Coin 
mune, viz., that "the working claM« 
cannot simply lay hold of the ready 
made state machinery and wield it fin 
its own purposes." Further, it in 
self-evident that the criticism of So- 
cialist literature is deficient in rela- 
tion to the present time, because it 
comes down only to 1847 ; also that tho 
remarks on the relations of the Com 
munists to the various opposition par- 



lies, although in principle still correct, 
yet in practice are antiquated, because 
the political situation has been en- 
tirely changed, and the progress of 
history has swept from off the earth 
the greater portion of the political par- 
lies there enumerated. But then, the 
Nfanifesto has become a historical 
document, which we have no longer 
any right to alter. 

It contains a whole lot of what we 
.,ill immediate demands. Now, my 
friends, I do not favor this program 
lur the reason that it offers a platform. 
I believe we ought to have a platform 
(if principles, and we ought to have a 
program, a reasonable appeal to attract 
.ittention and bring into our movement 
men who will become the class-conscious 
masses of our party. I am in favor of 
I he adoption of this program for prop- 
aganda work. I believe our appeal to 
I he people ought to be upon principles, 
hilt we need a program. Comrades, I 
^v.iuld consider it a misfortune, I would 
(onsider it a calamity, if I should be 
e lected to any office by the Socialist Party 
mI America and we had no such program 
IS this to back me up. We do not want 
lo make the program our basis of ap- 
l„al while we are going out making 
prnpaganda speeches.' Let us preach 
live doctrine of the class-struggle, eco- 
nomic determinism and surplus value, 
uid then we can point to our program 
howing what we may do. Now, I want 
In read from Labriola, who was the au- 
ilu^r of the Esasys on the Materialistic 
I'onception of History. In the first es- 
say he comments upon the Communist 
Manifesto, and this great Italian, who 
ihed a few weeks ago, says on page 10 
nf his book: "We surely would be tak- 
ing a false road if we re^rded as the 
<'ssential part the measures advised and 
proposed at the end of the second chap- 
h'r" (speaking of the Communist Mani- 
fi'sto) "for the contingency of a revo- 
hilionary success on the part of the 
proletariat." That is, if we should take 
it as the essential thing. Comrades, I 
believe a platform of principles is the 
essential thing for the Socialist Party, 
:ind then we need such a working pro- 
rr.im as we have here from this com- 
milee. This necessity is shown again in 
I ise of our political relationship to the 
oilier revolutionary parties of Germany, 
I qian and elsewhere. I am going to. 
lake up this program and see what we 
have in it. This program, if you will 



notice over here, says : "The work of 
Socialist members of state legislatures 
and local administrations, under present 
circumstances, must necessarily be con- 
fined to efforts for the realization of 
such limited measures as they may be 
able to wrest from the capitalist ma- 
jority for the benefit and in the interest 
of the working class." We stand at 
all times for the interests of the work- 
ing class. It says they must defend the 
interest of the working class against the 
encroachments of the capitalist class, and 
decline, in parliamentary work, any trad- 
ing with capitalists or their representa- 
tives for favorable legislation. And 
then one more sentence and I will be 
through. All measures are to be con- 
sidered in the light of their bearing on 
the working class. This will prepare the 
working people for their part in the class 
struggle by increasing their intelligence 
and independence and be considered as 
so many weapons for the winning of 
their victory. I hope you will unani- 
mously adopt this program that has been 
submitted by our committee. 

DEL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : Does 
the Chair keep a list of the speakers? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Yes, just as 
they stand up and ask for the floor I 
mark their names down. 

DEL. SLOBODIN: You have not 
got my name. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If you would 
stand and ask for the floor, I would 
mark your name down in regular order. 

DEL. SLOBODIN: I ask for the 
floor. 

DEL. BENESSI (Mich.): I ask for 
the floor. 

THE CHAIRMAN: All right. Com- 
rade Carr has the floor. 

DEL. DEBS (Ind.) : I would like 
to ask why Comrade Untermann can- 
not be heard in his own behalf? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Un- 
termann spoke originally in the open- 
ing, and he is entitled to the floor only 
once to speak upon the question unless 
there is unanimous consent or the rules 
are suspended, one or the other, and 
there was an objection because Com- 
rate Parks was entitled to the floor at 
. the time. 

DEL. DEBS: It seems to me we 
could afford to suspend the rules to re- 
lieve the comrade of what must be re- 



250 



Morning Session, May 6. 




Morning Session, May 6. 



251 



garded as a very unfortunate position. 
I think Comrade Untermann, if a sus- 
pension of the rules is necessary, ought 
to be heard in his own behalf. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If there is a 
motion to suspend the rules, I will en- 
tertain it, or if it is the unanimous con- 
sent of the house. 

DELEGATES: Consent. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Is there any 
objection _ to Comrade Untermann an- 
swering the question which was asked 
him as to what caused his change from 
the revolutionary European position to 
that of favoring a program? 

DELEGATES : No. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Please state 
your question. 

DELEGATE BERTHA WILKINS : 
I would like to ask Delegate Untermann, 
in view of the Dresden Conference, after 
that struggle with the opportunists, how 
do you stand for this platform, with its 
opportunism? 

DEL. UNTERMANN: I can only 
answer that I have not changed my po- 
sition. My position has been before the 
Socialist Party of the United States 
since I have been a member of it, and 
that is since the Indianapolis conven- 
tion; and ever since that time, in print 
and speech, I have declared for a strict- 
ly scientific declaration of principles as 
our campaign platform, and the separa- 
tion of a working program from that 
platform, and in so doing I have in no 
way abandoned the revolutionary stand- 
point of the Socialist parties of the 
world. (Applause.) This same ques- 
tion has agitated all the Socialist par- 
' ties from the very beginning. In 1869, 
when Comrades August Bebel and Wil- 
liam Liebknecht were first elected to 
the Bundesrath of the North German 
Alliance, that question was urged for 
the first time, and Comrade Liebknecht's 
idea fully coincided with the idea of our 
present impossibilist friends. He said: 
"I will tell you what we will do. We 
will walk into the North German Bund 
and protest and walk out again." But 
Bebel said : "No, hold on a minute. I 
am going to walk in, and I am going to 
stay there, and I am going to fight the 
capitalists in there, if I am the only So- 
rialist member in parliament." (Ap- 
rl->use.> In 1875 it became an absolute 
"'■'-pssity for all the Socialist elements 
in Germany to unite, because it was 



now a question of either assisting Ihi 
bourgeoisie or being absolutely over- 
ridden by the government. As you 
know, the labor movement proper In 
Germany had been created by Lassall* 
and propagated by the Lassalleans; ami 
their standpoint was that now held hy 
the American capitalists who believe ill 
state capitalism. But when the Lassil 
leans recognized that even their life (Jp 
pended on uniting with the Marxinii 
wmg, it was Toelke, I believe, wasn't 
it 

DEL. JONAS: Yes, it was Toclk«, 
DEL. UNTERMANN: —who camt 
and said, "We must get together," Ami 
Liebknecht said, "All right, we muM 
get together and unite on a common 
platform," and a common platform wan 
written. And who edited it? Tim 
same comrade who several years prior 
to this had adopted that impossible po- 
sition, but had been converted to the 
other position by practical experience in 
parliament— William Liebknecht. Again, 
a few years after, in 1878, when the So- 
cialist Party of Germany was threat 
ened with absolute destruction by tlir 
passage of the anti-Socialist laws, they 
reaffirmed the platform in principle, and 
Karl Marx was very wrathy at the po 
sition they had taken because he ha<l 
not arrived at the same standpoint that 
Liebknecht had in 1869, and he wroir 
a very wrathy letter to Liebknecht, tn 
which Liebknecht replied, "My dear 
Mtirx, you are living in England, and 
you do not know what is good for Ger 
many. We are making this fight here. 
and with all due. deference to your jud« 
ment, we are going to keep to our poHi 
tion." So the Socialist Party of Ger- 
many continued to retain the immediatr 
demands in the platform, a thing for 
which I do not stand in the United 
States, because, as the Communist Manl 
festo plainly says, the application of 
these measures depends entirely on thr 
economic and political situation of each 
country. The platform which we havp 
adopted contains immediate demand*, 
but they are embodied in that platform 
in such a form that they are acceptable 
to me, because in order to find them 
.you have got to look for them with ■ 
microscope. Even our impossibilint 
friends did not know that they were in 
there until I called their attention to it, 
and if they cannot see them I woiilii 
like to know how the man on the street 
will see them. (Applause.) Our im- 



' 



nu'diate-demand friends think they stole 
1 march on us, because we forced them 
lo put the immediate demands into the 
iMMly of the platform, and I am glad, 
.„ui they are glad, and we are all sat^ 
■ lied, and everything is lovely and the 
^.nose hangs high. (Applause.) Now, 
you might just as well say that Marx 
.hanged his revolutionary position based 
on the Communist Manifesto m which 
h,- had embodied a long string of tm- 
iiK'diate demands, by writing that Bruns- 
wick letter. But he did not abandon 
,iuy revolutionary principle in changing 
I lis opinion in this matter of tactics. 
Moreover, he again changed his mind 
on this point, for in the eighties of the 
l,,st century, when the Parti Ouvner 
liancais wanted a scientific plattorm, 
(.uesde and Laf argue got together and 
invited Karl Marx to write a platform 
lor the party. Marx did so, and if you 
Will kindly look at that platform you 
will see that it has a beautiful long 
I ail of immediate demands, worked out 
l,y Karl Marx himself. Yet nobody ac- 
, used him of being any the less revolu- 
lu.nary for it. On the contrary, in con- 
sequence of that long program for pres- 
ent-day action, the Parti Ouvner Fran- 
eais was enabled to push the class strug- 
^'le vigorously in the French munici- 
linlities, even more so than the oppor- 
tunist Millerandists who had used the 
immediate demands for political trading 
rather than for a class struggle activity. 
Ihe Millerandists did not pay as much 
attention to the Social Revolution in the 
municipalities as the Guesdists did, and 
so the latter did much more effective 
work for Socialism than the former. I, 
liierefore, say that I have in no way 
abandoned the standpoint which I have 
held before and since I went into this 
Iiarty If you will please look at a ut- 
ile pamphlet that I wrote about the mu- 
nicipalities, and look at an article that 
1 wrote in the International Socialist Ke- 
\iew about a political program, you will 
see that I absolutely have been true to 
I lie position I have there taken. I do 
not think that in the United States therp 
will ever be any necessity for my chang- 
ing that position, but I realize that it 
we could have the revolution to-morrow 
we might as well have it to-day. No, 
but you can fight for the revolution in 
iiarliament; you can fight the capitahst 
class in parliament, and every little sug- 
gestion followed out there will be a 
means of fighting for the revolution in 



parliament. I absolutely deny the cor- 
rectness of the position taken by Com- 
rade Dalton that it will not be possible 
to wrest something from the capitalist 
class With the immense trade union 
movement in the United States ready 
to be crushed under the iron heel of 
military despotism; with the Parryites 
and the Citizens' Alliances organized all 
over thi% country to crush unionism, 
there "will " soon be a demand evci> by 
the pure and simple trade unionists, for 
political representatives— the weapon, 
and the only weapon, by which labor can 
be emancipated. They will come into 
the Socialist Party then, and we shall 
send men into parliament. And the eco- 
nomic situation outside will be an argu- 
ment that will back us up and force the 
capitalists to grant these demands that 
we shall make on them. Just as the 
Guesdists in France, who, taking _ ad- 
vantage of the Frenchf economic situa- 
tion have been able to better the con- 
dition of the working class of the great 
cities, so to a much greater extent shall 
we in the United States be able to help 
the working class by fighting the revo- 
lution in all the administrations of this 
country. In closing, I again reiterate 
that I have not changed my position; 
that I have been faithful to that posi- , 
tion and faithful to the comrades who 
have believed in me, because I took that 
position, and I can assure you that they 
shall never regret that they have trusted 
me. (Applause.) 

DEL. CARR (111.) : The adoption 
of the platform yesterday came to me 
as an inspiration. I believe the docu- 
ment will become sacred in the years to 
come. I believe that the Socialist move- . 
ment will date a new impulse from the 
adoption of that platform. I feel with 
reference to this program very much 
the same way, for the very reason that 
from the first T objected to it when it 
was presented to me, and made some 
remarks in harmony with the remarks 
of Comrade Dalton, that it was a blank- 
et and too big, and all that sort of 
th'jng; but the very comprehensiveness 
of this program is after all its great feat- 
ure. An objection is made that the 
motion to substitute includes in it the 
expression "in favor of everything that 
favors the working class and against 
everything that opposes it." « seems 
to me that Comrade Walsh should with- 
draw that motipn to substitute, and 
should favor this program on that prop- 



252 



Morning Session, May 6. 



osition. It IS so comprehensive and it 
covers the ground so thoroughly that it 
IS hardly likely that questions can arise 
m the municipalities or states that can- 
not at least be illuminated by the pro- 
gram proposed. (Applause.) And for 
that reason, and also because I am in 
lavor of the general proposition of your 
program, I am very urgently in favor of 
the adoption of this program substan- 
tially as It has been presented. But it 
does seem to me that the adoption of 
this program as an official utterance of 
this convention, even though it be urged 
only as suggestions, is sufficient at this 
tinie without the formation of a bureau 
and the election of a secretary to have in 
charge something which is in itself but 
suggestive and advisory. (Applause ) 
It does seem to me that the national of- 
fice and the state offices and the local 
party, guided by the suggestions in this 
program and aided by the advice of 
genuine Socialist lawyers that are be- 
coming numerous in the Socialist Par- 
ty, will be quite sufficient to meet all 
the necessities of the case without the 
addition of this expense to our work 
(Applause.) The general objection is 
made to the program by those who have 
opposed It— though I am happy to say 
that the opposition is not in the same 
spirit that it was before— that they be- 
lieve in Socialism and not in these im- 
mediate demands. That reminds me of 
a shipwrecked crew on a storm-tossed 
sea in a life boat, the crew divided into 
two factions; one faction says, "I want 
to get to shore, and I do not 
believe m anything else but get- 
ting to shore." The other faction 
says, We are just as anxious to get to 
shore as you are, but in order to get 
to shore we have got to bail the boat, 
we have got to work and we have got 
to use every practical means possible 
to get to shore." (Applause.) It has 
been stated on this floor by one op- 
posed to the adoption of this program 
that this program would be by her fa- 
vorably considered if we were about to 
elect a President of the United States 
senate, congress, and all that sort of 
thing. Gentlemen, I submit that this 
P''°8I^'5/^o"ld be very insignificant and 
msufficWht m such a situation as that 
(Applause.) We would be at shore 
then, on the point of landing. We would 
not need buckets to bail with nor oars 
to row with. The conditions that would 
prevail if we were on the point of car- 



Morning Session, May 6. 



253 



rying this country by a great victor* 

would be very different, and the nrtii' 
tical appliances would not be the saiiif 
1 want to make the point a little clcainf 
if possible that the only difference Iw 
tween us is as to the method by wliiHi 
we will get to shore. On that point I 
appeal to the record of the SocialUl 
Party in France, Germany and eino 
where. I presume all of you are iw 
quamted with the development of Sii 
cialism in. the French and German cilir* 
where the comrades have obtained luoiil 
control. Ihey have been just as firm 
and clear as we have in the declaration 
of Socialist principles, but they have real 
ized that when they were elected, tliry 
had certain demands that they nitlM 
meet ; demands made by the people tlinl 
they must meet; and they started out lt» 
meet them. They have revolutionized 
the public schools in their respective cil 
les. They have revolutionized pubhi' 
transportation and other things in tllfli 
respective cities, and they have shown 
so practically to the masses of those rr 
spective cities, who see the workiimi, 
under the Socialist government and the 
good of a Socialist administration evni 
in the midst of the capitalist system, 
that it IS almost impossible to dislodxr 
these Socialist municipal governmcnl'i 
gfter they have once been established 
(Applause.) Capitalism seems to havr 
no chance to regain its lost power under 
circumstances like those. 

DEL. WEBSTER (Ohio): J would 
like to ask a question. Will you movr 
to strike out that bureau? 



DEL. CARR: Excuse me, I want to 
use my time just now for another pur 
pose. I am told that my time is almosi 
up. As I said in the first place, I can 
not feel in a very combative mood when 
there is such a spirit manifested in thlH, 
and I insist, with great seriousness, on 
the adoption of .this report substantially 
as it has been submitted. 

DEL. ROSE (Miss.): Comrade., 
Mis^ssippi will not detain you very 
long ; but I am in . favor of this pro- 
gram, whether that be opportunist or 
whatever it may be, I am in favor of 
the program as submitted by your com- 
mittee Why ? On your streets only last 
night I hearil the arguments of various 
Socialists m combat with citizens of 
your city and I frequently heard it said, 
Aha, they don't agree on what they 
want themselves;" and in lecturing I 



li.ivc had the question asked, "What are 
vni going to do to replace the conditions 
lliiit we have?" Some of our speakers 
liivc said that if we have not got men 
uiili sense enough to know what to do 
when they are elected, don't nominate 
ilum." That is all very well, but when 
will answer the question and then some- 
'Mu else asks you if that is the party 
iiM.iiion and you say, "No, this is only 
my personal position," your position 

I I IK to the ground. And so we in the 
flic of Mississippi ask for a guide 
• iiiiething like this, so that we can 
Ihiw that all Socialists have some sem- 

M, 1 1 ice of harmony on these questions 

III local issues. We have been told that 
I III is patch work. The patch work 
1 1 1.1 1 I take it for is something like a 
linai I knew that was rebuilt on the 
Mississippi. There was a good old gen- 
ilcinan there, a wealthy lumber dealer, 
will I had his own ships and schooners, 
iihl one time had a boat that he called 
(In Katy Maria, and the old thing was 

i> rotten it was in danger of sinking. 
Mill the crew refused to sail on it any 
lunger. So he thought he would have 
lu do a little patch work on the schooner, 
mil he had it hauled up on the ship- 
i.iiil to be patched, and they, patched it. 
I lie ship builders went to work and toglf 
niT the decks, took off the siding, took 
nut the rudder, and they kept on tak- 
111).; the pieces off piece meal. Once in 
I while Mr. Leonard, the owner, came 
. I round to see how the patch work was 
Ki'ling along, and finally he left it in 
I lie liands of the shipbuilders, and when 
iticy got through with it the only old 
iliiiig about the schooner was its name, 
K.ity Maria. (Applause.) The men 
will) were rebuilding his Katy Maria 
KtKw the dangers in going to sea with 
I patch-work boat, and they made it 
'1.1 f<', but they did it in a way that Mr. 
I rnnard was not onto. And so I be- 
lirvc that the Socialists of to-day will 
icliuild the old ship of state, and when 
tl ((imes out of .the political dry dock, it 
will he new, and there will not even be 
\Ur old name to it. Now, in MSssis- 
n)p|ii -I don't know how it is with the 
ic'.l of you — the situation is something 
tll<<' this: we have no guide to go by 
wlirre I live. We have summer bath 
liMiiscs, and have small rails extending 
mil into the water where people can go 
diiiiiiR the summer months. Those are 
vriv narrow paths, and some have rail- 
liiKs and some have not, and on very 



dark nights people sometimes walk out 
upon the wharves, and where there are 
no railings they occasionally fall over- 
board and take the bath before they are 
prepared for it. Where there are guides 
or railings on the sides, they are always 
perfectly safe. Now, if I go before the 
comrades of Mississippi — not the So- 
cialist comrades, but the comrades that 
we want to make Socialists of — and 
when they ask me our position on local 
questions and ask if that is the position 
of the party on some question, I can say 
it was the position recommended by the 
national convention assembled in Chi- 
cago, and then I have got something per- 
manent and solid to stand on. It is 
not my personal opinion at all. (Ap- 
plause.) I believe the best possible lit- 
erature that we can circulate in Missis- 
sippi — I don't know how it is in these 
other cities of the north — is this paper 
that we are discussing' right now. Some 
say that we don't want our comrades 
elected to offices, for instance, because 
they would have to trade. I do not be- 
lieve they would have to trade. But 
let us follow that to the logical conclu- 
sion. If we follow it out to the logical 
conclusion, we won't elect anybody. 
What kind of a party are we to go 
before the people and say, "Here we are, 
but we don't want your votes, because 
if we elect men and put them in the 
legislative bodies they will be utterly 
unable to do a thing." (Applause.) 
"We don't want them to do a thing." 
If we talked to the peoj)le in Missis- 
sippi like that, saying that our men are 
unable to do anything when elected, do 
you think we are going to get them to 
help us elect them? I believe that our 
comrades can do something; not a great 
deal, it is true, but they can do some- 
thing with this guide to help them. And 
so whether you call -me an opportunist 
or what not. I am a Socialist to the 
backbone, but I am in favor of this 
paper. (Applause.) 

Delegate Toole of Maryland moved 
the previous question. Seconded. 

Delegate Mills of Kansas took the 
floor. 

DEL. HERRON (N. Y.) : I rise to 
a question of personal privilege. 

DEL. JONAS (N. Y.) : Are you go- 
ing according to the list? 

THE CHAIRMAN : Yes. 

Here the Chairman stated that at the 
noon adjournment an opportunity would 



f 



254 



Morning Session, May 6. 



Morning Session, May 6. 



255 



L 



be given all delegates who were not in 
the first photograph taken of the mem- 
bers of the convention, to have their 
pictures taken and added to the main 
photograph. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I now under- 
stand that Delegate Herron has a ques- 
tion of personal privilege. I think it is 
that we suspend the rules and ask the 
committee to present the candidate for 
President to the convention. 

DEL. HERRON: Yes. 

Comrade Debs, the nominee for Pres- 
ident, was then escorted to the platform 
by the Committee of Notification. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Comrades, it is 
my pleasure to present to you the Ferdi- 
nand Lasalle of the twentieth century. 

Debs' Speech of Acceptance. 

Comrade Debs was greeted with pro- 
longed applause, and after it had sub- 
sided sufficiently for him to be heard 
he addressed the convention as follows : 

In the councils of the Socialist Party 
the collective will is supreme. (Ap- 
plause.) Personally I could have wished 
to remain in the ranks, to make my 
record, humble though it might be, fight- 
ing unnamed and unhonored side by side 
with my comrades. I accept your nomi- 
nation, not because of any honor it con- 
fers^ — for in the Socialist movement no 
comrade can be honored except as he 
honors himself by his fidelity to the 

movement (Applause.) I accept 

your nomination because of the confi- 
dence it implies, because of the duty it 
imposes. I cannot but wish that I may 
in a reasonable measure meet your ex- 
pectations ; that I may prove myself fit 
and worthy to bear aloft in the coming 
contest the banner of the working class 
(applause) ; that by my utterances and 
by my acts, not as an individual, but as 
your representative, I may prove my- 
self worthy to bear the standard of the 
only party that proposes to emancipate 
my class from the thralldom of the ages. 
(Applause.) 

It is my honor to stand in the pres- 
ence of a historic convention, and I 
would that Karl Marx might be here 
to-day (applause) ; I would that Las- 
salle and Engels, the men who long 
before the movement had its present 
standing wrought and sacrificed to make 
it possible for me to stand in this mag- 
nificent presence — I wish it were possi- 
ble for them to share in the glories of 



this occasion. We are on the cwr ftl 
battle to-day. We are ready for \\\t 
contest. (Applause.) We are ea^n (iM 
the fray. (Applause.) We depart fiDiil 
here with the endorsement of a nui 
vention that shall challenge the ||||< 
proval of the working class of the wnt'lij 
(Applause.) The platform upon wlilti) 
we stand is the first American utleriiiit»i 
upon the subject of Internationa! Sti 
cialism. (Applause.) Hitherto wv hiiVV 
repeated, we have reiterated, we hitvf 
followed. For the first time in tlu- liU 
tory of the American movement we hitvt 
realized the American expression of 
that movement. There is not a llllli 
not a word in that platform which is iiii| 
revolutionary, which is not clear, whitll 
does not state precisely and properly llili 
position of the American movement. W* 
leave this convention, standing on lliU 
platform, to throw down the gaiiiill(»t 
to the capitalist enemy (applause), In 
challenge the capitalist oppressor wllil 
stands for the perpetuation of the iiy»- 
tem that keeps in chains the wiirl<rr« 
in whose name we meet to-day. ( A|i 
plause.) 

There is a Republican party; lli»i 
dominant capitalist party of this tinit'i 
the party that has its representative lit 
the White House ; the party that niti'* 
in both branches of Congress; thepiiily 
that controls the Supreme Court; tht' 
party that commands the press; I lit' 
party that gives inspiration to the siili 
sidized pulpit; the party that giiidm 
every force of government; the parljf 
that is in absolute power in every i\f 
partment of our public aflfairs. And iil 
a necessary result we find that corrtip 
tion is rampant ; that the Congress ii( 
the United States dare not respond III 
the demands of the people to uncovitf 
the sources from which corruption finwl 
like lava streams down mountain sidm | 
that they adjourned long before llm 
regular hour in order that they niiKlll 
postpone the inevitable. (Applause,) 

There is a Democratic party (a vdit'i 
"Where?") ; a party that has not stoc 
enough left to proclaim its own ])ailki 
ruptcy (laughter and applause) ; an c 
piring party that totters upon the criil1|i 
bling foundations of a dying class ; 
party that is torn by dissension ; a part 
that cannot unite; a party that is loiik' 
ing backward and hoping for the rcMlIf 
rection of the men who gave it insi)il'(l« 
tion a century ago; a party that is ap- 
pealing to the cemeteries of the pint 



( .i()plause) ; a party that is trying to 
Miilize itself by its ghosts, by its 
iHipses, by those who cannot be heard 
111 their own defense. (Applause.) 
I liomas Jefferson would scorn to enter 
.1 modern Democratic convention. He 
u'luld have as little business there as 
Aliraham Lincoln would have in a lat- 
in day Republican convention. (Ap- 
|il.iuse.) If they were living to-day they 
uunld be delegates to this convention. 
I I remendous applause.) 

The Socialist Party meets these two 
i .i|iitalist parties face to face.withoutapol- 
xyw scorning to compromise; it throws 
il<'\vn the gage of battle and declares 
ili.ii there is but one solution of what 
i\ railed the labor question, and that is 
li\ (he complete overthrow of the capi- 
i.ilist system. (Applause.)' 

'i ou have honored me, in the magni- 
iiKii- of the task you have imposed upon 
iiK . far beyond the power of my weak 
\M«ids to express. I can simply say that 
iilxdient to your call I respond. (Ap~ 
|ilause.) Responsive to your command 
I .iiu here, to serve you to the limit of 
iii\ capacity. My controlling ambition 
li:ill be to bear the standard aloft where 
till battle waxes thickest. (Applause.) 
I -liall take advantage of every oppor- 
iiiiuty to proclaim the emancipating 
mission of the Socialist movement. I 
li.ill be heard in the coming campaign 
(.ipplause), as often, as decidedly, as 
riMiihatically, as -revolutionarily (ap- 
plnnse), and as uncompromisingly (ap- 
|i.l:mse) as my ability, my strength and 
iiiv fealty to the party will allow. 

I invoke no aid but that which springs 
III mi the misery of my class (applause) 

iin power that does not spring spon- 
i.iiirnus from the oppression and exploit- 
.11 inn of the workers of the world. 

.Above al! things T realize that for the 
lust time in the history of the ages 
llicrc is a working-class movement 
("Hear, hear," and applause) — perfect- 
ly free from the patronizing cant of 
llinsc who riot in the misery of the class 
ulin make up that movement. 

( )n this occasion, above all others, my 
iniiirades, we are appealing to ourselves, 
«!■ are bestirring ourselves, we are 
Kiiiii'iing the working class, the class 
lli.il through all the ages has been op- 
|it< .scd, crushed, robbed and debased, 
Ini I lie one reason that it has lacked 
I In onns'"ionsness of its overmasteri'i.T; 
|Hi\\cr tJiat shall finally give it supreme 



control and make it the sovereign ruler 
of the world. (Applause.) This class 
is just beginning to awaken from the 
to«\3or of the centvu'ies ( ai)])lau':e). The 
most hopeful sign of the lime is tliat 
from the dull, dim eye of the proletaire 
there shoots forth the first gleam of in- 
telligence, the first signal that he is 
waking up, and that he is becoming con- 
scious of his power; and when through 
the vitalizing influence of the Socialist 
movement he shall become completely 
conscious of that power, he will over- 
throw the capitalist system and bring 
emancipation to his class and to all hu- 
manity. (Great applause.) 

To consecrate myself to my part in 
this great work is my supreme ambition. 
(Applause.) I can only hope to do that 
part which is expected of me so well 
that my comrades, when the final verdict 
is rendered, will say, "He is not remem- 
bered because he was a candidate for 
President; he did not aspire to hold 
office; he did not try to associate his 
name with the passing glories, but he 
did prove himself a worthy member of 
the Socialist Party (applause) ; he 
proved his right to a place in the Inter- 
national Socialist movement. (Ap- 
plause.) If when the service to which 
you have called me shall have been 
completed this can be said of me. 
my acceptance of your nomination will 
have been far better made than T 
could hope to frame it in weak words, 
and so I close, with the wish and the 
hope and the ambition that when the 
fight has been fought, when the task 
you have imposed upon me has been per- 
formed, so far as it lies in the power 
of an individual to perform that task, 
my acceptance of the honor you have 
conferred upon me will have been 
worthily made, and that your judgment 
may then be vindicated by the mem- 
bership of the party throughout the 
country. 

From the depths of my heart I thank 
you. I thank you and each of you, and 
through you those you represent. 1 
thank you not from my lips merely. 1 
thank you from the depths of a heart 
that is responsive to your consideration. 
We shall meet again. We shall meet 
often. And when we meet finally we 
shall meet as a victorious host to riti''y 
the triumph of the Socialist Republic. 
(Great aii'i prolonged applause.) 

Prolonged cheers and applause fol- 






256 



Afternoon Session, May 6 



lowed the address of Comrade Debs, 
terminating with three rousing cheers 
and a tiger. When a semblance of order 
was finally restored the Chair said : 

Comrades, the hour of adjournment 
has passed and we will adjourn until 
half-past one — but wait one moment. I 
wish to repeat the request that was 
made by the photographer, that those 
who were not included in the photo- 
graph will step back a moment and step 
to the back of the hall. 

DEL. Mills (Kas.) : I wish to make 
a suggestion which I think we will 



unanimously agree to, and that is y\\*S 
upon beginning the discussion after ixl 
journment the three-minute rule Iw 
adopted. 
THE CHAIRMAN : Make it fivr 
DEL. Mills: All right. I move \*« 
suspend the rules and adopt the llv» 
minute rule on speeches a,fter the Mil 
journment. 

Delegate: I move to amend by innli 
ing it three-minute speeches. 
DEL. Mills: I accept the amendinriH 
THE CHAIRMAN: The convciilli.ii 
stands adjourned. 



AFTERNOON SESSION 



The Chairman called the convention 
to order at r :30 P. M. 

Consideration of the report of the 
Committee on State and Municipal Pro- 
gram was resumed. 

DEL. MILLER (Col.) moved that 
speakers be limited to three minutes. 
The motion was seconded by Delegate 
Mills (Kan.) 

It was moved to amend by permitting 
members of the committee to have ten 
minutes. Seconded. 

The previous question being ordered, 
the motion as amended was carried. 

DEL. LUCAS (Minn.) : It was not 
my desire to take up much time in this 
debate at the start, because I thought 
these resolutions or this program was 
so much within the limit of common 
sense that it would not be necessary for 
any debate, and in taking the floor at 
this time I only wish to set forth the 
opinion of the members in Minnesota. 
I know that in Minnesota 98 out of 
every 100 — aye, more than that— will be 
in favor of this proposition. To vote 
down this proposition is simply to turn 
the Socialist ship loose without any 
chart, without any rudder, to let us act 
without any system. We must have 
something else besides a compass ; we 
must have a chart to steer by ; we must 
know our course if we do not want to 
go to pieces on the rocks. Now, the 
program that is presented here is not 
mandatory ; it simply gives us a certain 
guide so that the people in the United 
States, and especially in the West, will 
have some idea of what we want and 
how to get at it and how to do it. 
People who talk the most about Karl 
Marx and revolutionary Socialism and 
all that thing are sometimes the most 
ignorant Socialists we have in the move- 



ment. (Criep of "No, no.") I prrf<i» 
to stand by the advice of such men (t* 
Liebknecht and Bebel rather than lit 
that of comrades who have only Ik'hk 
in the movement a short time. I bclirvf 
in going for those things that arc n 
possibility, but doing it on our owti 
initiative and on our own platfoiiii, 
without any concessions to the tilliff 
parties or ^yish any of their help, I 
believe also in the advice of Liebknrt hi, 
that whenever you can seize anylliliin 
that is for the interest of the laboiiiin 
class, we should seize it and takr \\ 
without compromise. (Applause.) 

Delegate Bosky (Minn.) asked (11 
have his name placed on the spcal<ri«' 
list. 

DEL. KERRIGAN (Tex.) : I fully 
sympathize with the desire for an nil 
phatic, clear declaration of principlfi, 
but I am satisfied that some of Hip 
comrades are mistaken in their view ill 
the value of this program. We Iniv* 
had some experience in Texas with lli« 
confusion that arises from the want ii( 
an expression on the part of our rniil^ 
as to just what measures in a municliml 
way are advisable for the SociiiflM 
movement. Last spring I was in a chih. 
paign there, and it devolved upon \\%\ 
and- a few other comrades to prepai'*' | 
platform, so I went to a scrapbonk tllM 
I keep and extracted some of the iiU|< 
forms that I had been collecting IrOlif 
various newspapers that had piiblinhij 
the platforms adopted in cities in dff 
ferent parts of the country. I want 
say that there were no two of lIlPliT 
alike; and some of them were so roni 
tradictory that I wondered that any n% 
would put them forth and expect In 
credited with good sense. Now, I whU. 
to say that the conditions in the oHIimI 



Afternoon Session, May 6 



25i 



iImk religious world are a fair sample 
nl what arises from a want of authority 
HI interpretation. There are over a 
iliMiisand creeds, I believe, and one of 
ill. charges brought against the Catho- 
li rhurch has been that it would not 
1II..VV the people to interpret the Bible 
hi Miit themselves. Now, I am not en- 
.li.ising the religion of the Catholic 

Ininh, but it is true that where each 
III III claims the right to interpret the 
Mil.lo to suit himself, confusion is the 
II lilt. I make no comparison between 
Sncialism and such questions as ortho- 
ildxy, but I say this, that if a man is 
(illiiwed to place any construction that he 
'ins fit on Socialism, we can understand 
ill f exactly what the result will be. 

I lure is nothing binding in this pro- 
I I iin, and! think the comrades are 

ini|ily mistaken as to its purpose and 
. ll.it. I know there are some meri who 
iliink it their duty to express their su- 
I'l'ilicated class-consciousness by always 
ill idling on nothing but the very e_s- 

. me of International Socialism in 

■ M ry utterance, though I am not pre- 
1 1.1 1 id to say that the comrades here to- 
4;iy are of that stripe. Now, I only 
• i| licet to that part of the report that 
A' mid tend to bind the party to a defi- 
iiii> program, and dare say there is a 
111. liked tendency on the part of Social- 

I Is to refuse their own medicine. We 

II <• very loud in our declarations about 

■ ..itKimic determinism, and point out 
Imw it operates in the world at large, 
I III I when it comes to our own affairs we 
ilii not want to take our own medicine. 
I Icrc is a case of economic deterrnin- 
iMiii staring us in the face, running right 
iiitd our arms: a proposition to estab- 
lish a salaried office with $1,000 ex- 
ll(•ll'^cs attached to it. Now, I should 
\v;iivc that. That is the only part that 
I seriously object to. There are some 
miiior details that are inconsequential 
iiiil can be settled when the time comes. 
I unit to emphasize one fact 

11 IE CHAIRMAN: Time. If the 
Miiiiiade had listened to the report he 
miiild have noticed that there was not 
Mi:, word about the salary to be given 
(m I Ik: Secretary. The report provided 
1-1 .1 committee with a secretary. He 
» I lo be elected by the Committee on 
Miiiiiripal Program, with the consent 
..( (he Executive Committee, and they 
a. 1- lo fix the compensation. 

ni'l.. HEYDRICK (Pa.): I am in 
lu.ir of the substitute offered by Com- 



rade Walsh of Montana, for the reason 
that at present the Socialist movement 
is rather educational than anything else, 
and for the further reason that you have 
there a program long enough to satisfy 
the possible, not to say probable re- 
quirements of the party for the next 
15 or 20 years. We have every popu- 
list plank that it is possible to incor- 
porate into one, and for the reason that 
that is so it seems to me that the proper 
thing to do is to make a short, concise 
and definite declaration upon the policy 
of the members elected upon that vote- 
catching platform. There is nothing in 
the composition .and construction of 
Comrade Walsh's amendment to which 
even Comrade Spargo would take ex- 
ception, as far as its English is con- 
cerned, I believe. It is easily compre- 
hensible, and everyone to whom it comes 
should understand definitely the position 
of the Socialist party, and this is one 
thing that will be hard for him to learn 
from any other declaration of this con- 
vention. In the last analysis, anyway, 
the best that can be said is that the test 
for our position upon any legislation 
is, whether or not it is in the interest 
of the working class. If we pledge our- 
selves to that position and are true to 
it, we may rest assured that any power 
once conferred by the working class on 
our catididates shall be again and again 
reposed in them 50 long as they are true 
to that cardinal principle. Of course 
I know that what I say, like what Com- 
rade Gibbs' and a few others have said, 
will have no weight because we belong 
to that fraction of the working class 
known as the intellectual proletarians, 
or the proletarian intellectuals. We have 
both here, and even a taint of that is 
of course out of place here. The intel- 
lectual has no place in the Socialist 
movement until after he is dead. Then 
he is used here as authority for every 
statement. (Agplause.) 

DEL. STEDMAN (111.) : In the 
first place, let us understand this : there 
are 546 cities in the United States with 
over 8,000 inhabitants. You may nomi- 
nate your candidates for President and 
Vice-President this year, but you will 
not elect them. You know that in the 
next year or two you will not only elect 
one, but hundreds of aldermen, and a 
great number of representatives, to go 
to the legislatures of the different 
states. You must have some definite 



258 



Afternoon Session, May 6 



IW 



method of instructing them, or at least 
of pointing out what should characterize 
their action in a legislative body. It is 
argued by some who seem to be proud 
that they are not intellectuals — in other 
words, proud of their own ignorance 
(applause), proud because they know 
little— that the ideal test of a proposi- 
tion should be whether it is in favor of 
the working class, and if so, we are in 
favor of it. Let me tell you that every 
dernocratic politician of whom the So- 
cialists might ask, "what will you do?" 
will answer, "anything the working 
. class wants." Ask Bath House John 
and every corrupt politician, and they 
will say. "I am for the working class, 
and I will do everything they want." 
Ask a politician in the Impossible camp, 
arid you get exactly the same reply, "I 
will vote for the interest of my class." 
When you ask, "What do you propose 
to do?" then he will be unable to tell. 
Let us remember a few things ; that this 
rnoyement at the present time is a mu- 
nicipal rnovement; it will grow and de- 
velop within the states, and you will 
take possession of them long before you 
do of the national government. The 
municipalities are the natural homes of 
the proletariat. It will first assert its 
strength there. You will first be obliged 
to assume a constructive course and con- 
structive propaganda there. We are 
going to have new conditions. The con- 
dition that has characterized our move- 
ment heretofore has been analytical and 
condemnatory of the capitalist system. 
We are going to have responsibility 
thrust upon our shoulders, on the shoul- 
ders of every member of our party. As 
Socialist officers increase in number, just 
to that extent must we assume a con- 
structive course in introducing within 
the present system all that we can that 
will enable the proletarians to raise 
their standard of living and contribute 
to their well-being. There are inquiries 
corning in from members of the party 
asking that we endorse this proposition 
and endorse that proposition. To whom 
should these go? To the National Sec- 
retary, when the National Secretary has 
a great amount of work upon his hands ? 
Of course, until after the national ma- 
chinery is running that might be done, 
but not otherwise. After the work is 
organized it should go to a committee 
who will have it in charge and who 
should -devote their' attention to it. The 
Indianapolis convention created such a 



committee, and you have that coinifllf 
tee's report to begin with, and you kiuiw 
the character of the committee and \\\* 
research shown by their report. Viti) 
should have some kind of special wiiili 
for the different committees. TJie inii«| 
of them cannot run the whole iiiuvh 
ment, but they may become quite iivi 
feet in a particular department. 

DEL. VVALDHORST (Ala.) : All I 
want to say is that I want to ask ( iniii 
rade Walsh to take the substitute llml 
he introduced and put it into the luii 
stitution. I think that is the pnipfl 
place for it, but not on the pniKiuiM 
The next point, as Comrade Sleihiiiiii 
pointed out, there is no compulsion nl 
tached to the program that has lirni 
rnade out ; it is a general recominriiilii 
tion of the committee. The next 1111* 
I vv'ant to say this, that in all the i<« 
perience of the Socialist party, whrirvui 
they have attempted any legislation, tlml 
is whenever it was forced upon llirtil 
where the growth of the movement liu* 
made it absolutely necessary thai llir» 
take the reins of governmenl in imh 
nicipalities, they have been confrinili'il 
with that one obstacle, that neither Ilia 
party, state, national nor local, lias liNi{ 
any provision made for such occaNiiMId 
as that. We have got in Alabama Iwn 
aldermen, both of them Socialists, liul 
there is no program, and it was ini|i(ii|< 
sible for the local there to provide i«ii||> 
gestions as to what is necessary lo T»| 
for them to work under. We arc iiiii 
academicians; most of us are wi)rl<ii||( 
men. Now, wherever there has I>rii(| 
an organized movement of the Socially 
party that has taken hold of the powrrjlj 
of the municipal government, they liHVf| 
a program mapped out by which cflcljJ 
and everyone of the officials can .slinm 
that their action was based on a ccrtHl)[ 
line of municipal action, and the rcNUlj 
has proved so satisfactory that tlii'l 
were never called back ; they have r«' 
mained in office. The water work* flf 
Berlin are one in.stance, the city mil 
ways of Berlin another. In the legi)il| 
tures of several of the middle .sta'tcn f 
Germany there are men that have li«( 
elected and re-elected; and why? Rl 
cause they were standing on a ccrtal 
defined platform or routine of wOlf 
that was mapped out by the party ft 
these officials to follow and carry a||f 
And if they could not carry thpm m( 
it called the attention of the whole pdljl 
lic, of all the people, to certain ohjoo* 



Afternoon Session, May 6\ 



259 



I !• 'lis in carrying on the work and prop- 
,i(;:inda of the party, which is far more 
important and has done more good than 
,ill other propaganda combined. It was 
.1 practical illustration of the Socialist 
III office and that is what we need, and 
what we need is a guide by which each 
in;in can do his work. The street rail- 
ways in several cities are ready almpst 
i<. be brought under direct control of 
llu- municipalities. Waterworks the 
'.ime; some of them have them. Now, 
il you do not define the conduct which 
uill govern any Socialist officials elected 
i.i such positions in such departments, 
iIku you will not show to the public 
aliat the man has to do. Just like the 
|.i<:vious speaker said, the democratic 
.111.1 republican ward heelers will give 
I lie same answer to the voter as the So- 
. i.iiist will. But we might give him a 
I il at form and refer him to certain ob- 
i(,is in view that are set out by the 
party, and then it is a diiTerent propo- 
rtion. Therefore, I hope you will adopt 
du' majority program report. 

DEL. HAZLETT (Col.) : May I 
have the consent of the convention to 
peak after the other Colorado delegates 
I Live spoken? 

THE CHAIRMAN: The comrade 
wishes to know whether she can have 
ronsent to speak after the other Colo- 
lailo delegates have spoken. 
DELEGATES: Consent. 
rHE CHAIRMAN: If there is no 
objection it will be permitted. No ob- 
|i ction. 

DEL. TITUS (Wash.): Comrades, 
I would like to give you a slight history 
nf the origin of the wording of this 
amendment. The only portion of the 
Seattle platform, which has now been 
adopted by five states, and I am re- 
sponsible for, is that section ^which is 
m.luded in this amendment: "The So- 
ci.ilist party, when in office, shall always 
.md everywhere," and so on; you are 
I'.nniliar with it; it is in this amend- 
ment. Two years ago in our municipal 
rioction, this platform was drawn, and 
Ihe wording of that particular section 
was due to me ; nothing else in it. You 
liave it in your Chicago platform, I be- 
lieve, the municipal platform. Now, in 
iddition to the statement that when we 
are in office we will try every question 
with respect to the interest of the work- 
ing class, I had added what is necessary 



to go with it, a statement of the things 
that we would do under the particular 
local conditions where we are asking 
for the suffrages of the citizens. (Ap- 
plause.) Comrade Ault of Idaho re- 
minds me of this fact also— I had for- 
gotten it: our comrades in the conveii- 
tion, in spite of my advocacy of this 
what you might call immediate-demand 
idea, cut that off and put the platform 
before the public there in its beheaded 
condition. (Applause.) That is, the 
head is there, but the limbs are gone. 
We say we will do . these things, 
but we do not tell what we will 
do. Now the judgment of a par- 
ty is better than the judgment of any 
one or two men. (Applause.) I do 
not believe in any procrustean law by 
which a party will say how you should 
do these things when you get into 
power, but I do believe in our suggest- 
ing and intimating, under special condi- 
tions and environments, what the men 
who go into office to represent the party 
should do. This you can have. There 
is every reason to believe we have it 
here. I want to say that this is not a 
platform; it is not even a suggestion of 
a platform. We have got the platform 
by itself. The platform says exactly 
what is in this long list; in substance, 
that we will do certain things in the in- 
terest of the working class if we have 
the chance. Now, then, is there anything 
impracticable about that? Is there any- 
thing about that that is non-revolution- 
ary? As I came up to the room I heard 
a comrade ridiculing this platform and 
" ridiculing these demands. These are 
not demands except when we shall try 
to do something; they are a mere sug- 
gestion of the line in which we will act. 
It is absolutely rational; and it would 
be irrational to leave the old demand 
or statement that we will do whatever 
we can, and then not say what we will 
do under specific conditions. Those are 
the things, I believe, that make it rea- 
sonable to adopt this platform. The 
constant mistake is made, however, of 
talking about those immediate demands 
as things that we are going before the 
people to advocate. No, we are gomg" 
before the people on the platform that 
we adopted yesterday. (Applause.) 
We will not talk about these things at 
all. If a man is elected to a legislative 
assembly in any state or to the council 
in a city, those are things which he will 




^ 



260 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



Afternoon Session, May 6, 



261 



try to do while we are a minority. 
When we become a majority we will 
fulfill the promises of the platform. (Ap- 
plause.) We will overwhelm- the capi- 
talist system and abolish wages. 

DEL. BERLYN (111.) : I am going 
to say that I am m favor of adopting 
these suggestions because they are only 
suggestions. But there has been so 
rnuch error in those who oppose a por- 
tion of this, so much that is irrelevant, 
that after all we are quarreling about 
nothmg. Those people take the position 
that we are going to overturn the capi- 
talist system and build a new system 
brand new. Now, those are what they 
call revolutionists who do not know a 
thing about what a revolution is. (Ap- 
plause.) The Socialist revolution proper 
is the seizing of power by the working 
class so that they can take the things 
that are already constructed and use 
them in their own interests; and we are 
going to construct some of the things 
that we are going to be the masters of. 
That is what this proposition proposes; 
It is simply a suggestion; we may reject 
them. What does it amount to? We 
make these suggestions, and if you are 
going to adopt them in any city and in 
every state of the United States, and 
we were to elect Debs and Hanford, 
we would not use one of them. (Ap- 
plause.) There is nothing to that in 
that regard. The delegate from Oregon 
said these things would be good after 
we got into power. After we get into 
power we are going to do something 
else entirely. (Applause.) That is the 
history of revolution. Let them read the 
demands of the Third Estate in France 
when it got power. Look at the Amer- 
ican revolution, how it started. The de- 
mand was for certain legislation, that 
they might fish better. Before they got 
through they said to King George, "Get 
out." It was another proposition en- 
tirely. (Applause.) And that is the 
law that governs revolutions. The 
people who talk so glibly about being 
revolutionists, let them first understand 
what they mean by revolution. (Ap- 
plause.) It is the change of power for 
which we are trying to organize the 
working class so as to obtain power in 
order to administer the things that are, 
and not the things that might be con- 
structed. That is what we are fighting 
for. We are fighting for the world. 
The world is at stake, and between us 
and the capitalist class there is a battle. 



Don't get off of your balance on llili 
phraseology. The Chicago plallndM 
IS referred to. If you people kiii^M 
the nature of that Chicago pliti 
form you would talk diflcirinU 
That Chicago platform was a(|ii|ii 
ed in a committee on plallmiH 
of which I was a member. I editrd « 
portion of it, and it said, "We will iln 
evarything for the working' class nn « 
whole, if the opportunity offers." |'« 
erything for the working class im k 
whole. But I followed it .with this piini 
graph: "And any portion of the wiiik 
ing class, if opportunity offers." (A 
delegate: "That w,as stricken oir"( 
Right you are; that was stricken nil 
You cannot understand a thing nnlrfia 
you know how it was born. They iliit 
not want to do anything for any purl mil 
of the working class. (Applause.) 

DEL. WORK (Iowa) : It has Iip 
quently been said that the purpose nl 
the republican platform and the driim 
cratic platform is to get in on, but mil 
to stand on after you get in. The |nii 
pose of this program is not to get in on. 
but to stand upon after you do get in 
It is not a platform. Its purpose i.s In 
act as a guide to the legislators aiitj 
aldermen and mayors who may |i# 
elected by the Socialist party. The uii 
ponents to this program are placed in 
an inconsistent position, because, as Iimk 
already been pointed out, they or we hy 
the aid of their votes have already 
adopted a national program. It is triii< 
that it is in the platform and not in h 
separate document, where it ought to Im 
But, nevertheless, it is in the natioii.il 
program, and you will find it in llin 
last paragraph on the third page of tim 
platform adopted yesterday, where wp 
declare for old age insurance, the gradil 
ated taxation of incomes, inheritancflu, 
franchises and land values, for the eqiwl 
suffrage of men and women, for pre 
venting the use of the military agalnitl 
labor in the settlement of strikes, fur 
the free administration of justice, fot 
popular government, including initin 
tive, referendum, proportional represni 
tation and the recall of officers by thrli 
constituents, etc. That is a nationiil 
program, and yet we have not elected it 
single United States senator or reprr 
sentative in the lower House of Con 
gress. And if you are willing to hav« 
a national program under those circnin 
stances, why are you not willing to 
have a state and municipal progrfini 



wlien we have already begun to elect 
late and municipal officers. (Ap- 
|.)ause.) We have already elected a 
liiindred or two of aldermen and mayors 
mil other city officials, and at the No- 
riiiber election it is as certain as any- 
ilmig can be in this world that we will 
.kct several dozen state legislators, and 
,it the next municipal election next 
pring we will elect several hundred 
innre of municipal officials, so that the 
lime is ripe for a municipal program. 
W c have here to-day Jacob Hunger and 
Ircderick Heath as representatives from 
W isconsin and the rest of the Milwau- 
l,rc aldermen, asking this convention to 
rivc them the benefit of its collective 
uisdom on this subject. (Applause.) 

DEL. UFERT (N. J.) : Comrade 
( hairman and Comrades, I am in favor 
.1 the adoption of this program, be- 
1.1 use when we adopt this program we 
.lie not adopting a platform of the So- 
I iilist party. It merely gives our rep- 
irscntatives whom we may elect a guide 
ulien they are chosen to office, and then 
uc will not have occurrences of the kind 
which some of our papers have been 
( riticising, such as the cement sidewalk 
platform and platforms of that kind. 
When we do lay down a guide of this 
kind there will be no cause for the oc- 
( nirence of such platforms in the So- 
. ialist movement. The question hinges 
Mil this: Whether, by the adoption of 
this program, we take from the Socialist 
liarty its revolutionary spirit. I do not 
liclieve we do. Last April in Milwaukee 
I he Social Democratic party elected nine 
ililermen, and they had an immediate- 
ilcmand program attached to their plat- 
form. In Chicago we have what is 
known as one of the most revolutionary 
liicals in the United States, so-called, 
lint the Chicago Local or Chicago So- 
cialist movement has not yet caused as 
much of a revolution as the Milwaukee 
movement (applause), by seizing from 
llic capitalist class the control _ of the 
powers of goverftment. That is what 
vvc are after, friends, and that is lyhat 
we are going to get by going at it in a 
•ane and rational way. That is the only 
cpicstion between the Socialist and the 
npposition parties. The battle is for the 
. Miitrol of the powers of government. 
In places such as Milwaukee and others, 
where we have gotten control of the 
powers of government, we find they 
have accomplished something in the rev- 
olutionary line. You go to the capital- 



ist class in Milwaukee, and you go to 
the capitalist class in Chicago, and ask 
them which is the more revolutionary 
movement? You can rest assured that 
the capitalist class in Milwaukee has 
far more respect for the Socialist move- 
ment in that city than has the capitalist 
class for the movement in Chicago. We 
must stop talking revolution and revo- 
lutionize things. We are the most revo- 
lutionary party, I say, in this country. 
(Applause.) 

DEL. CARR (111.) : A point of order. 
I believe it has been the rule this after- 
noon for the comrades to alternate in 
talking on this question. I believe this 
is the fifth man who has opposed the 
motion. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Your point of 
order is not well taken. 

DEL. CARR: The rules provide 
that. 

THE CHAIRMAN: No, the rules 
provide that when the previous question 
is moved you alternate, not before. 

DEL. MILLER (Colo.) : This pro- 
gram is an attempt to give a local inter- 
pretation to the philosophy of Marx in 
the language of the working class. It 
is a practical demonstration of the fact 
that we know what the interest of the 
workers is. Before we have a right to 
he entrusted with the work of legisla- 
tion we should be prepared .to tell what 
we would do in a municipality. At a 
time when a strike against an employer 
becomes an insurrection against the 
state, it is proper for the workers to 
give a practical interpretation to the 
class struggle, and to say that the fed- 
eral troops shall be prohibited from in- 
terfering in the disputes between capital 
and labor. (Applause.) That is the 
way we understand the class struggle. 
This simply shows that the Socialists 
have arisen high enough for a view of 
the entire field of political activity, and 
are able to direct the Socialist move- 
ment, the Socialist party, in every part 
of that field. We have passed the crit- 
ical stage; we have passed the academic 
stage. This thing is getting out of the 
chairs of editors and economists and 
political philosophers, down into the 
hearts and minds of the working class. 
We have a right to appeal to the sup- 
port of the workers when we show by 
our practical declarations upon the ques- 
tions that confront them that we know 
just where their interests lie and are 



I 



262 



Afternoon Session, May 6,, 



Afternoon Session, May <">. 



2r>H 



prepared to take our place right by their 
side and direct their affairs on every 
part of the field. And until we are able 
to make this concrete expression we are 
merely an academic party. 

DEL. HTLLQUIT: I rise to a poiht 
of order. That the Chair is proceeding 
contrary to our wishes in keeping a 
list. I make this point of order in order 
to expedite the business. 

SEVERAL DELEGATES : Consent. 

THE CHAIRMAN : All right. Com- 
rade Floaten has the floor. 

DEL. FLOATEN (Colo.) : The Col- 
orado delegation has been very modest 
during this convention, and I trust you 
will pardon us if two of us speak, one 
after the other, on this question. Thpre 
was a time when I thought very little 
about a working program. In fact I 
did not know whether it was necessary 
or not. From the discussions here to- 
day and the difference of opinion of the 
delegates to this convention I am very 
well satisfied that the party should ex- 
press itself positively one way or the 
other. It does not matter what that 
expression is, but we must have an ex- 
pression of the party. We are here to- 
day and the difference of opinion of the 
the concrete expression of the Socialist 
party as near as possible without a refer- 
endum vote. We get the crystallized 
opinion of the party throughout the 
states, because most of the organized 
states are fairly well represented. Now, 
the point is not what we will do after 
we gain control of the nation as Social- 
ists, but while we are a minority party 
in the nation or in the state, we may be 
a majority garty in a community or a 
municipality, and that is what this pro- 
gram is for. It is to tell us so that we 
may act with uniformity on all classes 
of questions that may come up which 
are of interest to the working class. 
One of the great objections that we have 
had in Colorado in canvassing for Com- 
rade Miller here for the legislature, was 
"What do you intend to do? On what 
side of_ the question will you vote in 
the legislature?" ' Suppose he is with- 
out a guide, he can simply say, as has 
been expressed here, "I will take that 
side which is in the interest of the work- 
ing_ class." N'ow, the Socialist party is 
divided as to what is the best interest 
of the working man. Some Socialists, 
and good ones at that, will say that the 
best thing is to grant franchises to cor- 



porations and let the working class U 
ground down till they see the necesdily 
of voting the Socialist ticket. Othcri 
say on the eight-hour question that th* 
best thing to do is not to give them nil 
eight-hour law, but allow them to work 
twelve or fourteen hours until they ctiii 
see the necessity of coming into the So 
cialist party. There are good SocialiMn 
that hold those opinions. On the ollirf 
side there are Socialists who say tiiiil 
if there is a measure which would Iw 
of benefit to the working class it dukIiI 
to be supported by the Socialists. Wliiil 
we want is an expression of the Sorinl 
ist party as to what will be of the gn-iil 
est benefit to the working class. 

DEL. WILL (Kan.): I come from 

a state which a few years ago turnnl n 

capitalistic Republican majority nf 

8o,Doo into a majority for a former ml 

nority party that took control of all |iiii 

tions of the government in that sIjiIc 

These people were engaged in the dlo 

cussion of national issues, largely tn llm 

exclusion of state issues. They Ii,mI 

talked about i6 to i, national owner. lii|i 

of railroads and these other little piiilv 

issues, and what do we find to-day In 

that state? Now, I clearly foresee llml 

if the Socialist movement conliimrn 

along the lines laid down by some ii( 

our friends we are liable to make m 

actly the same mistake. I can clciuly 

foresee that in comparatively a fi-w 

years, if the Socialist movement cnii 

tinues to develop as it is now devfli>|i 

ing, we will carry some states. Il scrmt 

to me a very rational proposition tii.il In 

a few years we shall carry the stair n\ 

Kansas. Now, the question to my nnml 

is just this: When we are in powci In 

the state of Kansas and have control nl 

both branches of the legislature and nl 

the executive power and of the judui,!! 

department, shall we be prepared lo iln 

something, or shall we not? Our friniili 

who are what are called ini])ussililr,l ■ 

would say we should do nolhiuK. II 

we go before the people with llml Kiml 

of a proposition and say that we (h I 

propose to do anything, and tliat w<' 
could not do anything even if we wrw in 
power, then I wish to say right Ih-m' 
that we may as well abandon it now, 
once for all, because we will nevci ^^^•^ 
into power. I wish to say in the semiitl 
place, that if we ever have the minfni 
tune to be placed in power with idt^m 
of that kind in our minds, the rrsnll 
would be disastrous to the Socialinl 



to see 



this 



T exoect, however. 



an to make the party 
; for saving the peoj 

i-racy 



1 \v 
I inn 



'e can to make the party a useM 
1.7fnr saving the people from 

I rise to the reg- 



eful tries 



Socialism, and 1 do no >'\ , , , 

.Wd make^je^.ngU^.;m^s.u...^ 

I"' ^ ''• The people 

Ihal are 



am for the *«- ^ ^. 

of the United States. 



Sr^J^^^^SI 



i.i.:l,hillquit: 

III, 11 order 

I HE CHAIRMAN : No, I recogmze 
IhlrgateKraybill of Kansas. 

KRAYBILL (Kan.) 



so that no man 
a corner on 



or set of men ca 
the necessities of lite. 

1 think Ihe 



Dl'.L. 



lilt 



^.^..... . Last 

indorsed the pUt- 



DEL. REILLY (N. J,) 
the adoptiot 
on an hone^. 

..opting a rr!""f„.r:°Se we'shS 






gram _ 



Conditions have evolved,^ to 
lioint where they 



demand that this 
be made practical. 



,1,1, when asked if I "■.""•-- ' jg 
ill ilr use. 

'" , ^\ IZ rrnss the river until we 
V, should not cross uic nv 
, „, it We can never cross the "ver 

^'^ weU into the river. Wejannot 



guidance in those P^^f ^.^"^^"„ " ers o 

m ouici • -diate demands 

' the 



view 
cure 
an 



,otes for the imme 



llkr up 



I ..Wo ihf entire sini<in>-'" "- — , . 
;'"„Scer elected a. the next elec 10" 

one .thing at a time. 



7 'TVr"'tlie"emandpation oj the 
„„'l.;;i'cSst„t,.h*e^an.„raUon 

the other question Comrade iitub 
W„,iin..o,i ha. exges,ed by «™s CO 



that this 



the 



.,e are acctisel of bring u^scient^c 

for 

Hearst 

word 

a 



„ elass, ^^-^ tms has not been 

effect. There is no uang^. - ""'^o^i^ine 
^ ■■ class program, a working 

fact 



There is no danger in our adopt- 
„,,aJScla.P-og.an,,awo*nS 



,1, of not being Socialists Last n 

1,1, I declared for a scientific basis 

"..,:._ T wn^ told that I am a He 



SSSiiSS;^ 



■„„raisni'l was told that 

, : ,er Now, I want to say one 

fr:s.iere1l1n'th?e:nS?o„. 

'■'" ,"'' " '4foZ „t Wild Olives." 
''''■'''%USTa, book I realised tlje 

■ .i- 1.,!,^^ ;« Fnffland; i weni 



in inaugurating tnese »-;;"ir _i that 

^^et^-:s?^t^o?--- 

^"Kgate Hazlett (Colo.) rose 

THE CHAIRMAN- You will recol 



lect that it was by consent that the com^ 



litions of labor mEngland^^^^^^^^ 



While 

'""fTfurther'ird f realized thai labor 

■:„nje the world is in that condition^ 

'F'Tofirfs^^peS'i'ss 

,,,,o„es ^n this^country^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 
uuinan, um 
( Applause 



floor after the 



A point 



\ T believe that I am a bo- 
",^''r?rom every standpoint, if I am 
V::.''::^ Jrinalp^gram and immediate 



Inr a 



municipal progi 



spoken upon the question 

,°^^v'^Tti?r''e°s'n''or*^hicfpro- 
"IdS'Sa, rt'i^Chairman shall make a 

''tHe'cHMRMAN. I understand 
„„, very welh ^^ And I proles, that 
rcon'vr„n,°S.ir^nv:n£^: 

''The CHAIRMAN: Just one sec- 
0,1™^ wS. to say this: one or, »; 

delegates from New York sen.^ .^^ ^^^^^ 
r S TmU :S of those who in,.. 



DEL. SPARGO: 



1 



264 



Afternoon Session, May d. 



Afternoon Session, May 6^ 



265 



already asked for the floor. The com- 
rade here has the floor (referring to 
Delegate Hazlett). 

DEL. SPARGO : As a matter of per- 
sonal privilege, 1 desire to say that it 
was not my intention or the intention of 
these 

THE CHAIRxMAN: You are out of 
order. 

DEL. SPARGO: I move the pre- 
vious question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You have not 
the floor. Proceed; the comrade from 
Colorado has the floor. 

DEL. HAZLETT (Colo.): I wish 
to speak of an aspect of the subject that 
has not been touched as yet, and that is 
the claims of the opposition that they- 
stand upon a scientific and revolutionary 
standpoint. It seems to me, and it is 
my belief, that their position, instead of 
bemg scientific, is the position of the 
anarchists as a class. It is a position 
vifithont method and without system; a 
position to move forward without 
knowing whither you are going. We 
have an instance in the State of Colo- 
rado at the present time. We have in 
Teller County in Colorado a bolting fac- 
tion of the Socialist party. That is the 
chief seat of the strike. They curse the 
leaders of the strike and the officials of 
the Mine Workers' Association. As a 
result of that, in that place they have 
stood on the street corners and boasted 
that not one of them has been put in the 
bull pen, while in Telluride and Idaho 
Springs the leaders of Socialism who 
are also the leaders in the union move- 
ment have been deported. Now, Social- 
ists claim to be different from the super- 
ficial anarchists who construe the word 
"revolutionary" as simply meaning let- 
ting everything go until you get in 
power, and then depend upon circum- 
stances, as v/ith the Paris Commune. 
I deny the correctness of this position. 
I believe in emphasizing the necessity 
of systematizing the means by which 
Socialists may learn what we can do 
when we get control of the means of 
production and other things. I under- 
stand that this program which is offered 
to us to-day is simply like a bill of fare : 
you con take part of it or you can leave 
part of it; you can use what you want. 
You do not have to swallow the whole 
thing, but you swallow it according to 
your needs. It also is a help in refer- 
ence to the position in which it places 



the Socialist party. We. all know w» 
are being asked our position on vailmii 
questions. Here we have something tliitl 
we can show. This does not cuvn llti 
whole system of affairs, but it docs iilmi^ 
the position of the party upon CfilMlii 
matters that come before us, ami >*i- 
can refer our people to somethiiiK ilmt 
has definite authority behind il. I'm 
this reason I am opposed to the iiiilrll 
nite proposition. It seems to iiic il U 
only superficial, and will lead aslniy llo 
Socialists who have got about lo ll» 
point of the Socialist philosopiiy. I'm. 
this reason I favor the adoption ol ilu- 
program as it stands, and I am kI.uI i.. 
have something to talk about. (A|i 
plause.) 

DEL. HILLQUIT : A point of oi.l. . 
We have not provided for keeping tip . 
list of comrades. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point i. 
overruled. Do you wish to take an >i|' 
peal? If so, take it. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: Exactly. I ImI 
was the question of privilege I wa'- n 
ferring to a while ago. 

THE VICE-CHAIRMAN: Do ynu 
take an appeal? 

DEL. HILLQUIT: I do, for iI.Ih 
reason, that in the rules we havt- |iiii 
vided for a certain parliamentary (inln, 
and we did not provide for a spe.-ikn'n 
list. In making this appeal I do not ihi 
so because I want to speak, but I nm 
sider it an unjustifiable waste of limn 
to keep a list. What it results in U 
this: On a question which prol)iili|y 
could have been decided with a disiiii 
sion by three or five men on each nIiIp, 
we have a list of twenty-five. Just iniyy 
I may want to say something, and I will 
give my name in. In two hours fniiil 
now I will be called upon to say wind 
somebody else has covered, but I \\,\\\\ 
made it my duty to still say it Iiccmihc 
I am called upon. And why? Lot iiiiy 
one rise when he has something to 'my, 
and let the Chair recognize him. 

CHAIRMAN STEDMAN: Vnii 
know how much more unsatisfactory || 
would be if all got up at once, i |(»i 
Chair would have to single onl unr, 
and he might single out the right nnn 
and might single out the wrong one innl 
give him an opportunity to speak. I 
cannot see any objection to haviiif.! carli 
one ask for the floor and be reiOKiii/rii 
in his turn. Comrade Hillquit lias iiol 



t 



Ihih recognized because each one was 

rucn his turn. If the comrade had 
I l.cd for it he would have got his turn. 
\ . it stands now he has no right to go 
m ;ihead of the others. (Applause.) 

I he decision of the Chair was sus- 
I, III led. 

A Wisconsin delegate moved the pre- 
Miiiis question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Ber* 
^M r, of Milwaukee, has the floor. 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio) : I would 
like to be put down on that list, be- 
muse when my time comes I want to 
move the previous question. 

DEL. SIEVERMAN: I also, be- 
..iiise I desire to second it. 

DEL. BICKETT (Ohio) : I move 
\\. adjourn. 

I HE CHAIRMAN: Delegate Ber- 
(■I r has the floor. 

DEL. BERGER (Wis.): I suppose 
c \crybody is getting tired of this debate. 
DELEGATES: No, no! 
DEL. BERGER: I suppose every- 
linily is getting tired of this debate, and 
( \ erybody has made up his mind as to 
iinw he is going to vote. I for one am 
tiling to vote for this program. I am 
ii.pt going to make a speech. I am go- 
iii^;- to move the previous question. Sec- 
Miiiled. 

DEL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : Pie has 
iiKule a speech when he is not entitled to 
iii.ike a speech. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I have not 
Inard any speech. 

DEL. SLOBODIN: Yes, you have, 
lit- has just told how he is going to vote. 
DEL. SIMONS (III): A pointof 
cider. In moving the previous question 
lit- has no right to make any argument 
whatever. 

THE CHAIRMAN; The point of 
Older is well taken. 

DEL. BERGER: Mr. Chairman, a 
((iR'stion of information. 

THE CHAIRMAN: What is the 
<|iiestion? 

DEL. BERGER: Roberts' Rules of 
( )rder say that you can make a few re- 
iiKirks. Am I right. Comrade from 
Kansas? 
i DELEGATES: No. 
DEL. DALTON (111.) : A point of 
<iider. When Comrade Berger moves 
the previous question and goes on to 



make a speech you should make him sit 
down. He has no right to make a 
speech. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Don't worry. 
Comrade Berger will 1)C able to take 
care of himself without assistance from 
any delegate from Illinois. Comrade 

Mteyer 

DEL. BERGER: A point of order. 
The Chair did not recognize my niolion 
on the previous question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Please take 
your seat. I was following the list 
and recognized Comrade Meyer, an<l 
he has the floor. 

DEL. MEYER (111.) : I recognize 
the fact that the proposed program is a 
plan for the guidance of legislation m 
the United States, but it is also for the 
purpose of guiding the soap box orators 
and speakers that are called upon to 
stand before the class-conscious prole- 
taire. Now, the first function of the 
Socialist Party is the education of the 
men and women of the working class, 
such education consisting of a knowl- 
edge of the fundamentals of Socialism 
in order that economic conditions may 
be properly interpreted by them, so that 
our fellow-wage slaves, men, women 
and children, may know the cause of 
such conditions and the only remedy, 
the abolition of the system of rent, m- 
terest, and profit — competitive wage slav- 
ery. To teach the non- Socialist any- 
thing but the fundamentals of Socialism 
is to blur and envelop them in a mist 
which is created by the capitalist parties 
and is called by the Socialists reform, 
reactionary and vague, and rightly so, 
because the blindness of non-Socialists 
prevents them from penetrating such 
mist-containing methods. In the course 
of economic ethics some men and wo- 
men become conscious of the fact that 
society is divided into two classes, 
wealth producers and those who eat the 
food, wear the garments and shelter 
themselves in the magnificent structures 
created by and taken from the former 
with the assistance of paper covered 
with ink and known as law, made by 
the latter and for the latter, because of 
the political and the law making and 
law interpreting and law executing pow- 
er being in the hands of the latter. That 
exploiting class which is sustained by 
the policeman's club and the rifle, uses 
all the power in its hands to perpetuate 
the present system of parisitism to keep 



i 



266 



Afternoon Session, May 6 



^ 



Afternoon Session, May 6 



267 



in economic slavery, submissively and 
servilely, the working class of the world. 
Therefore, the working class must unite 
and take from the other class the pow- 
ers of government for the purposes stat- 
ed in the only program which is revolu- 
tionary, the platform of the International 
Socialist Party, the party of the work- 
ers of the worljd. (Applause.) Some 
comrades ask me the question, "When 
you are on the soap box and the non- 
Socialist comes to you and asks you 
what we are going to do about the work 
involved in municipalization or the re- 
organizing of municipal ownership of 
the street railways," I say this, that I 
will answer him, "We stand for all 
these things, but I recognize, my friend, 
that you do not understand why we 
stand for these things, because you do 
not understand the fundamentals of So- 
cialism." I will have to go to work and 
talk about the fundamentals of Social- 
ism, ^nd I will do it for the class con- 
scious proletaire in order that he may 
understand why we stand for these va- 
rious measures which may or may not 
ameliorate the condition of the working 
class. As to the duty of legislators, 
comrades who may be elected to the leg- 
islatures, I desire simply to state this, 
that the Socialists elected to the legisla- 
ture or council of any city, state or na- 
tion can do nothing else but work for 
Socialism by exposing capitalism and 
capitalist tactics employed to keep in 
submission the working class. In con- 
clusion I stand neither for th.e substitute, 
which is a compromise, nor do I stand 
for the original. (Applause.) 

DEL. HANFORD (N. Y.) : A ques- 
tion of parliamentary inquiry. Under 
the rules that we are working under now 
I would like to inquire if there is any 
way to reach the previous question? 

THE CHAIRMAN : There is, but I 
recognize Comrade Breckon. 

DEL. HANFORD: We can only 
reach the previous question provided 
some comrade who is listed to speak 
should change his mind, withhold his 
speech and make that motion? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I am not an- 
swering your question, though I pre- 
sume that may be true. 

DEL. HANFORD: I ask that in- 
formation of the Chair, as he appears 
to be working under rules that nobody 
knows but himself, and I think he is 
in duty bound to enlighten us. 



THE CHAIRMAN: That may liti 
true. I only hope the balance of I tin 
convention understand the rules brlln 
than the comrade from New Ymlt 
Comrade Breckon has the floor. 

DEL. HANFORD : Must that iim 
tion be seconded by another person mi 
the list? 

THE CHAIRMAN: No; it iIim<« 

not have to be seconded by any onr, 

DEL. HANFORD: Then why ..in') 
the original motion be made by any niinf 

THE CHAIRMAN: Because ymi 
have not been recognized for that piil 
pose. I have recognized Coiiiimlii 
Breckon, and he has the floor. 

DEL. BRECKON (111.): We \m\ 
a great deal these days from the .Sn 
cialist platform and from the sojij) h<i» 
and from all the newspapers respecliiiy 
the improved tools of production ;iiii| 
what wonderful things they have m 
coniplished. It seems to me that we lull 
to recognize an improved tool of prit|t 
aganda that has come into our naliiiiml 
convention in the shape of a workiiiK 
program that makes these logical ri'vn 
lutionists able to be a united body mi 
the important questions that are lielni*' 
us. Another thought: It has been hhIiI 
on this floor in the discussion that lliimp 
who stand for this program are iiiiiiu' 
diate demanders, that they are oiipm 
tunists. Any one who will hunt n]i llii' 
definition of those terms will find llml 
they mean the subordination of prim I 
pie to tactics, and I want any imin, 
revolutionist or otherwise, to ]K)iiil In 
a single instance in this program wlii'm 
there is any evidence of subordinalliHI 
of princijjle to the tactic that is tniij 
down. 

DEL, SLOBODIN: I will. 

DEL. BRECKON: Very well. Nri,!, 
the opposition in the main that ha.s nuuii 
before this body proposes a working 
principle that might infinitely belter lio 
defined, as it has been defined, thai ll 
might be wrapped up in a nutshell mi 
irnpracticable principle so-called. W» 
tried it in Chicago in our city ciiii 
vention two years ago, and we sent n\\\ 
orators upon the soap box to meet ill* 
questions that came to us, and we wrrd 
answering them in as many difTrrniil 
ways as there were questioners and (inm 
tions, and we found the need of workiiin 
out the great fundamental proposilidiii 
as they have been brought to us lo-duy 



W c have before this convention for con- 
ileration an improved tool for the 
uorking out of this great proposition, 
.11 id many are the minds in this conven- 
tion that have got into the whirlpool of 
rronomic thought and that will appre- 
, i,ite the value of this improved tool in 
I he working out of the economic prob- 
l.ms before us to-day. (Applause.) 

DEL. THAMS: May I be allowed 
t.v give my time to Comrade Berger? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Not without 
\W consent of the convention. 

DEL. THAMS : I move the previous 
cpicstion. Motion seconded. 

DEL. CARR (111.): A question of 

information. Will this previous ques- 

tinn compel a vote on the first program? 

rHE CHAIRMAN : It does not. It 

will compel a vote upon the substitute. 

DEL, CARR: All right. 

The motion on the previous question 

u;is put and carried. 

DEL. SLOBODIN: Before record- 
ing my vote may I make a statement of 
wliy I vote? 

THE CHAIRMAN : I presume ordi- 
narily you have a right, in the absence 
uf a rule to the contrary or objection. 
Objection was heard. 
DEL, TITUS: A point of informa- 
(inn. Do we not have two speakers 
now before we vote? 

THE CHAIRMAN: We do. This 
is on the substitute. But understand, 
my ruling will be this, that the car- 
iving of the substitute or disposing of 
I lint will not bring us to a vote upon 
I he majority report. There will be the 
same right of discussion. 

THE SECRETARY: The substitute 
hv Walsh of Montana is as follows: 
'The National Convention recommends 
lliat in the event of any Socialists be- 
ing elected in localities on state or mu- 
nicipal tickets, that they be guided 
I hereafter in all their legislative acts 
by considering, 'Is the legislation in the 
Mil crests of the laboring class? If so 
1 ;nn for it, if not I am opposed to it. 

DEL. SLOBODIN : I want to speak 
lo the substitute. 

DEL. HAWKINS (Neb.): A point 
..f information. I want to know if we 
liiive the power of recording our ballot 
1.V States? .„ , 

riTE CHAIRMAN: That will be 
left to the convention. 



A delegate moved to proceed to take 
a roll caU on the auiendment. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I understand 
we have three speakers on a side. Com- 
rade Slobodin wishes to si)eak in favor 
of the substitute. 

Delegate Simons of Illinois slated 
that he wished to speak against the sub- 
stitute. 

DEL. SLOBODIN : I am in favor of 
the substitute, because I am against this 
concoction reported by the committee. I 
am not opposed, but am in favor of a 
working program, but this is not a work- 
ing program, for the Socialist Party will 
not be able to work on this program. 
It is a jumble of various demaiids made 
by various parties during the history of 
the reform movement. It is not a con- 
crete and coherent statement of de- 
mands made by a proletarian Socialist 
Party. (Applause.) We do not need 
such a guide for the various changing 
conditions, but want a statement of the 
fundamentals of scientific Socialism. No 
reform will be able to accomplish the 
emancipation of the working class. This 
program contains a jumble of things put 
in there because some so-called Social- 
ist stands for them, such as uniform text 
books, tax reforms and all sorts of ideas 
jumbled together. . 

" DEL. SIMONS (111.) : I am afraid 
I will have to do something I never did 
before, ask you to keep a little quiet in 
order to hear me, as my voice has 
failed me. I am one of those who ad- 
mit that there are some mistakes in this 
platform. While recognizing these de- 
fects, I had hoped that there might be 
an opportunity to reach them by amend- 
ments, but I want to say that for the 
purpose of a working program I am here 
to fight for it.. I am for it because I am 
a militant revolutionary Socialist and 
am not afraid to say where I stand on 
anything. I am for it because I am a 
class-conscious Socialist, and because 
you cannot fight the battle of the class- 
struggle anywhere but here and to-day 
in this present convention. (Applause.) 
I am for a working program because I 
am a democratic Socialist and believe 
that the rank and file of the party in 
convention should determine the policies 
of those who are the elected servants of 
the party and not leave them to their 
own sweet will to do as they see fit. 
(Applause.) I am for it because I am 
a proletarian Socialist, and because I 
believe that they ought to be controlled 



^ 



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Afternoon Session, May 6 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



2(W 



» 



as far as possible by an outline of the 
limits within which they must work, 
and not be subject to the autocratic dic- 
tation of some committee untrammeled 
by rules. (Applause.) Again, they 
have told us here that we needed no 
program until we had the co-operative 
commonwealth, until we had a complete 
victory. I am for a program because I 
am a scientific Socialist and not an idle 
dreamer. (Applause.) When the time 
comes that we shall have captured all 
portions of society we will not need 
our programs, we will only need to take 
over the things that we can run as fast 
as the removal of difficulties will permit 
us to act. Again, it has been said that 
we must strike at the heart of this by 
striking out the position of the municipal 
secretary. I tell you, I have had some 
experience. When I was in Belgium I 
was talking over the details of the work 
with Comrade Emil Vinck. He has 
taken hold of the work -and has done it 
so thoroughly that it has strengthened 
the party and the bureau has been able 
to furnish the members with all the in- 
formation that they needed, until, by vir- 
tue of the very example that he has set, 
he has compelled the Socialist Party of 
France two years ago to follow his ex- 
ample, and it is followed by the party 
in Germany. Are we going to lag be- 
hind when we in America here in the 
next year will certainly send one hun- 
dred, if not a thousand men, into the 
legislative and municipal councils in this 
■country? We need to know what they 
are going to do. During the last year 
good men were elected to municipal of- 
fices, but with not the slightest notion 
of what they were going to do. They 
were all agreed that they were working 
in the interest of the working class, but 
there were no two that had an idea what 
these interests were. These are some 
of the reasons why I ask you to accept a 
program to some extent, even if you are 
not able to go any further. Or if you 
can take the time, if you will indicate 
necessarv amendments, I will agree with 
you there. But by all means do not 
leave us for another four years subject 
to a long string of abuses which we are 
just beginning to see the faint shadows 
of in half a dozen cities in this coun- 
try, which will confuse the workers and 
hinder the progress of the party. 

DEL. BOSKY (Minn.) : A point of 
information. Is this list that has been 



used on the table there, to apply to ttlll 
question, or is it cancelled? 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is ihm 
celled; the previous question is moved, 

DEL. BOSKY: That means timt I 
have no right to speak? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Yes, when the 
previous question is moved you Imv* 
a right to vote it either up or down, m 
you please. 

The Secretary then read the stilmll 
tute offered by Delegate Walsh. 

Delegate Walsh moved a roll call liv 
states. Seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It require* « 
majority vote to call for a roll call. 

The question being put, the nKiJiiiii 
for a roll call was lost. 

THE CHAIRMAN: We now pin 
ceed upon the original question bcfcifH 
the house, and that is the substitute, 

Upon vote, the Chair declared lli« 
substitute defeated. 

DEL. HILLQUIT N. Y.) : I mf.v# 
as a substitute for the report of (ha 
committee the following: "Rcsolvrtl, 
that the report of the Committee oh 
State and Municipal Program be N- 
ferred to the National Executive Com- 
mittee for revision and adopted, the .111 iil 
report when so revised and adopted In 
have the force of a recommendatiiiii 
only." 

Seconded. 

DEL. MEYER (111.): A point ill 
order. I maintain that the Chair him 
no right to entertain the substitute nil 
less there are one or two amendnuMiln 
before the house. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point iil 
order is well taken. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: I appeal fn.m 
the decision of the Chair. There wim 
a motion before the house, a motion In 
adopt. I offered as a substitute that tilt 
report be not adopted but be refcrroi] 
to the National Committee for revisidii 
and adoption. It is fully in accord willi 
parliamentary rules and procedure In 
entertain the substitute. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You offered il 
as a substitute. 

Vice-Chairman Wilkins assumed llio 
Chair, and the ruling of the Chair wnii 
sustained. Delegate Stedman resiimpit 
the Chair. 

Delegate Webster (Ohio) rose. 

DEL, BERGER: Mr. Chairman 

THE CHAIRMAN: The comradii 




1 1 . .111 Ohio has the floor unless you have 
I point of order or a question of per- 
niiat privilege. 

DEL. BERGER; A point of order. 
I hive la right to make an amendment? 

I'HE CHAIRMAN: Yes, the whole 
Mliort is open for amendment. Delegate 
Wrbster of Ohio has the floor. 

DEL. WEBSTER: I move to amend 
I he report by striking out the part be- 
(■1 lining, "Whereas, the Committee on 
' -1:1^6 and Municipal Program," and end- 
iml; with the words just before "State 
I 'Ingram." Seconded. 

riTE CHAIRMAN: Plea.se send the 
uncndment up in writing. I will state 
ilii< to the convention, that in dealing 
mill all the motions 1 will try to con- 
(uir myself to the particular paragraphs, 
iinl then we can dispose of them. It 
\mI! be better than taking it up seriatim, 

DEL. CARR (III.): The motions 
ih.il have been already made will in- 
■ Inde all that matter. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Will the Sec- 
irliry read the paragraph as it reads as 
jinended? 

THE SECRETARY: The amend- 

nt of the gentleman from Ohio con- 

itiiiplates striking out of the preamble 
ill of that portion beginning with 
"W liereas," in the sixth paragraph, and 
I'Miiig down to the words "State Pro- 
(•i.nn." 

THE CHAIRMAN: Are you ready 
Im the question? 

DEL. BERGER (Wis.): I have an 
.iimndment to that. 

the Secretary read tlie substitute of 
Hi legate Berger, that the report of the 
I'liinmittee on State and Municipal Pro- 
ii:nn be referred to the National Com- 
iiiidee for revision and adoption, the 
•.liil report when so revised and adopted 
In have the force of a recommendation 

nllly. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Wc have now 
lirfnre us the entire report. There is a 
inuposed amendment to a portion of the 
I. piirt. Now, if you want to dispose of 
II Ml, do as you please, and then dispose 
nj it all. 

DEL, BERGER: I believe this that 
I ihlTered is as good as a substitute for 
I III- whole. It embraces the whole. 

IITE CHAIRMAN : That is the 
.11110 as Delegate ?rillquit's motion, and 
It is not in order at this time. 



DEL. CARR (111.) : 1 .nn sure (he 
mover of the ainciKlnnnl just made 
will accept a supKisiiun ! .un idiniit (<> 
offer, and therefore I d'Hi'l cm- li> ;in 
nounce it as an anicmlnirnl In llie 
amendment. In order In iiuluilr ,ill 
that matter to which he refers i( slimild 
strike out paragraph 6 rdiove llir word 
"Whereas" to "State Prngriiiii," If yon 
strike out what he has moved to siriki- 
out and leave that stand there, in (he 
manner offered in the repcg-t 

DEL. WEBSTER: I accept the sug 
gestion. 

The question was called for. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Are you ready 
for the question? 

DEL. TITUS (Wash.) : There seems 
to be some misunderstanding as to the 
exact changes which tlicy have made 
in their report from the printed re- 
port. I would like to ask for the read- 
ing of Section D, which does not stand 
in the report as it did stand in the 
printed copy. Also for the paragraph 
beginning "Therefore, be it resolved ;" 
I would like to ask if they have changed 
that. I don't know as they noticed this. 
It provides that the permanent secre- 
tary's office shall be at the National 
Headquarters. Have they changed that, 
too? 

DEL. UNTERMANN: Ynn will see 
that Section D does not change the 
paragraph beginning "Therefore." Sec- 
tion D reads as follows: "The Commit- 
tee on State and Municipal Affairs, 
shall, on the approval of (lie Executive 
Committee of the Nalion;i1 Committee, 
elect a permanent secretary, whose of- 
fice shall be at the nalion.il headquar- 
ters, and whose eonipcnsalion shall be 
fixed by the Executive Committee of the 
National Commitlee." 

DEL. GOAZIOU ( i'.i ) : T hope thi ■ 
convention will not iidojit the report of 
(he committee 

THE CHAIRMAN: You will have 
to confine your reiiKiiks to the amend- 
ment. 

DEL, GOAZIOU: I hope the con- 
vention will not accept (he amendment, 
nor the report, which is liable to do harm 
to the Socialist Party. I am not 
against a working pl.itform, but I am 
against a working platform as the ex- 
pression of this convention. I hope this 
report will be sent to the various states 
or the various counties or locals. If wc 



"^ 



270 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



271 



r 



have to discuss this program on its 
merits the discussion of every part of 
the program on its merits will take a 
week. I am not ready to swallow the 
whole thing as it is here, and I believe 
it ought to be referred. I have no ob- 
jection to this program being distrib- 
uted as literature. 

THE CHAIRMAN : The motion be- 
fore the house is the amendment. Un- 
til that is disposed of you will be out 
of order. 

DEL. GOAZIOU: Yes, the amend- 
ment should precede the whole report 
technically. 

THE CHAIRMAN: When you get 
to the rest of the report that will be 
disposed of. 

DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.) : I wish to 
speak on the amendment, and I wish 
simply to say : Read the report, please. 
which suggests that it is a condensa- 
tion of the encyclopedia, and then read 
the encyclopedia. This amendment will 
really handicap the party. The section 
which it is moved to strike out makes it 
possible, as soon as the Executive Com- 
mittee deem it necessary, to make a 
practical and uniform plan. Now, I speak 
for Wisconsin, and I want to tell you 
that in Sheboygan if there had been such 
a committee and such a program and 
such a secretary as this the work there 
would have been diflferent. That is all 
I want to say. 

Delegate Weaver (Cal.) moved the 
previous question. 

DEL. MILLS (Kan.) : I desire to 
speak on the previous question when it 
is ordered. 

The Vice-Chairman assumed the Chair 
and recognized Delegate Stedman. 

The question being put on the pre- 
vious question it was carried. 

DEL. STEDMAN : I have no doubt 
but what if this was referred to the 
National Committee and they were to 
revise it, the collective wisdom of the 
National Committee would far exceed 
the puny knowledge of the commitee 
that worked on it or the special com- 
mittee of the last convention. But I 
sometimes think that if this convention 
should have a permanent committee on 
that subject, that would not pay any 
great attention to national affairs, but 
would confine their attention to the one 
subject, that in the course of four or 
five months or perhaps ten, they might 



i 



have wisdom equal to some of tliiii* Ih 
the New York delegation. (LaiiKlilct I 
I believe we should act along thp hiir ol 
the Indianapolis convention. 1 iit IIhI 
time urged the appointment of this hum 
mittee. I believe the best rcsulln will 
ultimately be realized by a coiitiiiiiMKi 
committee upon this subject. I iIiImIi 
we need committees to look aflri |||i 
national, municipal and local pull||i<||l 
work and the literary movenieiil wIlliMt 
the Socialist Party. At this timr lltii 
Socialist movement with its growl li tttMJ 
development should have spcci;il hum 
mittees on special things to whirli llii<| 
will devote their entire time, or :il IiimI 
a major portion of their time. l'"<ii lliitl 
reason I am against the proposed \\\\w\\\ 
ment and in favor of a continuous himi 
mittee upon this subject. (Appliuinf" | 

DEL. WEBSTER (Ohio): I, llli* 
Comrade Simons, am a democralic f^ij 
cialist, and I demand that a stair »\m\ 
have the privilege of paying fni Im(|| 
which it wishes to have, and fni mm 
more. Now, as I understand, the hmm 
rades from Illinois, or at least a uimhI 
many of them, are opposing (his iIiIm< 
in toto. I am in favor of the kcim i 
proposition, but I am not in fiivm 
spending our money to keep a hmiimiII 
tee here to club them into submissimi Id 
my ideas. (Cries, "Hear, hear," ami h^ 
plause.) For that very reason 1 <|ii iMtt 
want this committee given any snili MM 
thority. If this report goes out tu (III 
people of the different states (hcv will 
know whether this thing is best m iittl 
We are just now in an expcriiiiriildl 
stage on this question of immcdinlf ij* 
mands. If the local in Chicago lifhi«vM 
that the immediate demands are mil |||| 
best thing for Socialism I demami \\ 
they should have the right to try it wll 
out them. I believe for one lliiil 
Cleveland, Ohio, the demand fm ||{ 
mediate demands will cause a k"»w 
in Socialism, and T want them In I 
that in Cleveland, but I do not wniH 
compel these gentlemen in Chir:i(|it 
help pay for our work in ClcvchMid 

The question was called for and Mull- 
gate Webster's amendment was dcfftil(i(|, 

DEL. HILLQUIT : May I ask wllll 
is now before the convention? 

THE CHAIRMAN: That porli.MI Mf 
the report which has not been acini t|j| 
The entire report is before the niiivuliii 
tion. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: Is it now In i^ 



\ 



ill I to move to refer the matter, the 
■i;une as I have before? 

THE CHAIRMAN: You moved be- 
I.ML to refer to the National Commit- 
wc as a whole for revision, they to re- 
V ISO it if possible? 

DEL. HILLQUIT: Exactly. 

I HE CHAIRMAN: I suppose it is, 
\iMither motion intervened. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: Then I so move 

IHUV. 

1 he motion was seconded. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: I move that the 
MiH>rt be referred to the National Com- 
iiiili-e for revision and adoption, and 
ili.it when so revised and adopted the 
Miort shall have the force of a recom- 
iiuiidation only. (Seconded.) Now, I 
■ Irsire to state my reasons for my mo- 
iiiiii. I am practically in favor of a 
l;ilc and municipal program. I think 
1 late and municipal program is abso- 
liih ly necessary for a party that expects 
h. ilo some work in the political field 
iiicl does not want to do the work in a 
liiphazard manner. But I am just as 
iiiiphatically opposed to the present 
ill, ill. I say that while I am in favor 
• A .1 working program and of .some oi 
ilii- points contained in this program, 
il uuuld take some one to edit and go 
iiMT it paragraph by paragraph and re- 
use it. I will call the attention of the 
4rl. 'gates to but a few things. For in- 
liuice, on the public schools we have 
illni^ether unnecessary detail. The pro- 
Hsion for uniform school books, the pro- 
visi.in for the choice of text books by a 
iiiiiiinission — they are all things that 
\».\\ 1)6 debatable, and we certainly can- 
in il see why a proletarian party should 
(,inil for such things. I call the atten- 
1 11 II I of the delegates to this clause pro- 
Hiliiig that members of the state militia 
Mr 111" be exempt from all other military 
1 1 \ ii-e. What in the name of goodness 
iinl common sense does a Socialist con- 
Miiiion have to do with that question? 

I \|iiihuise.) And why should we want 
111 i-nnfine the state militia to strike- 
liii:iking and exempt it from military 
i|iil\ ? I will call the attention of the 
iJiJiKates to this clause: "All land held 
Ini speculation and land not actually 

II 1(1 liy the owners to be subject to pur- 
ili.r.i' by the state at an advance of ten 
|M-i cent on the assessed valuation as 
\\\i•^\ by the owner." If there is any- 
thing to encourage land speculation, 
wliv, that is the thing; give them ten 



per cent more than Ihcy lluiuselves ask. 
(Applause.) Public cniiliol nf the en- 
tire liquor traffic; i dun'l know why 
this clause is necessary in a wnrkiug 
class political program. And if you will 
read it from beginning to end you will 
find things of this kind all through. 
For instance, the right of privates in 
the state militia to elect their uilicers ; 
can't you imagine anything more revolu- 
tionary, more class-conscious, than these 
demands to go before the public with? 
I say that if we adopt this as it stands 
we will make ourselves ridiculous. (Ap- 
plause.) I say at the same time that 
we cannot leave this convention without 
making adequate provision for the adop- 
tion of a state and municipal program. 
Now, I believe that the only way to do 
will be to refer it to the National Com- 
mittee. The National Committee may 
elect a sub-committee of three; not to 
put them like a jury in a room over 
night and have them work it out, but 
give them a month for it. Let them study 
the question ; let them discuss it 
leisurely and sensibly and write 
it out, and then send it to 
the committee as a whole, and when 
they have adopted it it will be .in time 
for the election of state and municipal 
officers to be guided by. We arc now 
on the eve of an important state or mu- 
nicipal election. We can bide our time; 
we can wait ; but introduce something 
that we will not be ashamed of and 
have to explain for four years to come. 

DEL. BOSKY (Minn.) : A point of 
information. Is there any way for me 
to get on the floor and say something 
against this motion? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I will recognize 
you next. 

DEL. UNTERMANN: Judged by 
the repeated questions as to the sane- 
ness of mind of your conmiittee, which 
have chiefly been raised on the part of 
the New York delegation, you would 
think the whole intelligence and com- 
mon sense of this convention was 
massed in the New York delegation. We 
have studied this thing and talked it 
over carefully and long and discussed 
every position. I will just notice one 
goint, as to the militia. The question 
is asked, what in the name of common 
sense has the question of the militia 
got to do with a class-conscious Social- 
ist program ? The men and women 
who act together as class-conscious So- 



272 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



Afternoon S^s^on, May 6. 



273 



cialists may want to use the militia. 
Now, in order to be able to use the mili- 
tia we will have to knock out the pres- 
sent militia law, which takes the control 
of the militia out of the hands of the 
state authorities and places it in the 
hands of the capitalist president. When 
we take the control of the state into our 
hands we want to have the control of 
that militia, and not the capitalist presi- 
dent. 

DEL. MEYER (111.) : A point of or- 
der. I desire Comrade Untermann to 
talk to the motion made by Comrade 
Hillquit of New York. 

DEL. UNTERMANN: I am ex- 
plaining why we took this action. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You rise to a 
point of order, but carry on an argu- 
ment. What is your point of order? 

DEL. MEYER: My point is that he 
should speak to the motion to refer this 
to the committee. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point is 
not well taken. 

Delegate Collins (111.) raised a simi- 
lar point of order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The comrade 
from New York pointed out one para- 
graph of the program. Delegate Unter- 
mann at the present time is answering 
the point made by Comrade Hillquit in 
regard to the militia. 

DEL. UNTERMANN: The point 
has been made that the reasoning facul- 
ties of the committee are out of order, 
and I am trying to show what we did, 
and in order to do so I must be able to 
make my point. But I do not care to 
discuss it any further than just to say 
that in regard to the militia law we did 
know what we were doing, and that in 
every case we knew what we were do- 
ing, though it may displease the New 
York delegation. 

DEL. BOSKY (Minn.) : I have tried 
to get the floor, and could not, and now 
if there is any possible chance I want 
to talk on this program, or amendment, 
or substitute. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You have the 
floor now. Your three minutes are run- 
ning now. 

DEL. BOSKY : I say that great con- 
fusion exists as to this whole question. 
Some reason that a program will be all 
right here because it has worked in 
Germany. We have heard of the great 
success of the Socialist Party in Ger- 



many. But you forget that the cihuII 
tions over there are entirely diflVinil 
In Germany they have an emperor, iiitil 
the Socialist Party has nearly four mil 
lion votes. But here the situation ii» mI 
together different. We have got a inn 
stitution, and when we get a majmllt 
then we can take the powers of goviiii 
ment into our hands. But this will lulti 
a long time. We all agree on vvIihI 
we want; we only disagree on llii- lut 
tics to be adopted in this couvciiIimk 
Comrade Berger of Wisconsui iIimiIik 
they have had great success, but tlir hiii 
cess is only temporary. 

DEL. HERRON (N. Y.) : 1 «l..l. 
siuiply to,' call the attention of Ihc mil 
vention to the fact that Comrade Mill 
quit's motion amounts to a subsl.iiillnl 
adoption of the report of the coiniiiilhr 
There seems to be an apprehcnsimi in 
the minds of some that the pass;iKi mI 
his motion to refer to the National < uiii 
mittee is equivalent to a rejection nl lln' 
report. Such is not the case. JHm iiim 
tion to refer would amount pradimlllf 
to an adoption of this report, only II !■ 
to be revised and edited by a commilli' 
appointed by the National Coniiiiillti 
Now, comrades, do not put soiik' nl ii'i 
in the position of being obliged li> |iiil 
ourselves on record as voting agaiii"! ii 
state and municipal program, wlu'ii (V*- 
are not in any such attitude as lli.il I 
have always been and have only mriill^ 
written in favor of a practical wmlilin 
program to be put into the hands nl uj 
dermen and state legislators who nlmll 
be elected. We are heartily in liivnt 
of that. The New York delcgatinii liui 
been referred to as being opposed In h 
working program. Such is not liie i uhim 
but this motion has been made to nvlif 
because we are in favor of seem inn 4 
working program that shall imt |i,mi< 
in it elements that will be niisltMillii||| 
and will be not only misleading lull ilnil 
gerous. It is certainly very true, ainl \\\< 
all agree, that if the Socialist I'.iilv U 
to elect men to political ollicf ll(»t|| 
should have political experiencr, iiiii) 
they should understand how to inillnlH 
legislation even when they arc in |||M 
minority. If we had had a pinMinii) 
we would not have had the expeiii mm 
that we have had in some of the ^liiti'* 
perhaps in some of the Massarlm i lln 
mtmicipalities. The adojilion of lln iiin 
tion of Comrade Hillquit will re nil ||| 
the reference of the program In ,i «it» 
cial committee appointed by the Nn 



iiniial Committee, and then the repprt 
will come before ^ou adopted, and we 

.III put ourselves upon record as voting 
I' I it, as we desire to do. It will come 
In lure you adopted and revised, with 

(line of these features which are mis- 
li ailing properly edited or revised, so 
ili.it they can go before the party of 
lilt country as a working program. I 
HHicly want to call your attention to 
ill. It fact. 
DEL. SPEARS (111.): I have an 

iiiicndment, that said report shall be^ 

I HE CHAIRMAN: Send the 

iiinndment up. Comrade Spears ofifers 

in amendment to the motion to refer. 

DEL. SPEARS: I am opposed to 
iri.rring it to the National Executive 
I iiinmittee alone to decide the question. 
I was in favor of moving this amend- 
iih lit to refer the whole matter to a 
iiicrendum of the entire membership, 
I HI the (Chairman would not allow me 
ii. do so. Now, I propose to state my 
|i'i iiion on the whole thing in this way: 
A r are a minority party, and we must 
M|i|iose anything in the line of mere re- 
I'.iin, and every bit of that program is 
H |.,rm, and I don't want any of it. I 
\\.\\\\ our legislators in office to be the 
.line as I when I go out on the soap 
Ik,\ or in the factory or shop opposing 
ilu- capitalist class, not by reform or 
Miiiipromise measures that may in some 
w.iv help one or another of the different 
l.iaiiches of labor and be injurious to 
I lie whole movement for all time. I 
u.mt to get the whole thing as fast as 
I can get it. I am opposed to the mo- 
lion as, it stands now. I would have 
liren in favor, if I could have got my 
amendment, of sending it to a referen- 
iliim afterwards. I have no more con- 
liilciice in a committee of seven or nine 
iliaii in the Executive Committee. I 
li.i\i' great confidence in the member- 
liip. I do not even want to leave it to 
ilii^ convention. I want to leave it to 
llir membership, and when the member- 
lii|i decides that in the interest of the 
iM, lalist movement they want to have 
111. it, all right, I will have to submit, 
linause I am a part of them, but I 
u'liii't preach it. 

DEL. BERGER (Wis.) : There is 
MM warmer friend of a practical work- 
mr, program in this convention than 
\ I. tor Berger himself. We must have 
I laogram for the guidance of the united 
ly of Socialism. We had almost 20,- 



000 Socialist voles in Milwaukee, which 
means almost one-third of the entire 
vote. We had a working program 
there, and we must have a program. 
Now, I am saying this in order to sat- 
isfy you and make it certahi to every 
one of you that we are in favor of a 
working program. But this report that 
is given to us by the committee is not 
a working program. It is a real ini- 
possiblist program. There are some 
things in it that are simply impossible 
and ridiculous. (Applause.) I cannot 
tell the people in Milwaukee to select 
some of those planks; they are all im- 
possiblist planks. Now, I can see that 
for once Chicago and Milwaukee agree. 
Now, comrades, the best possible way 
out of it is to refer this to the Na- 
tional Committee. You have 31 people 
there, selected for their special fitness 
for propaganda. They will go over it 
carefully, and if necessary bring it be- 
fore a referendum of the party. If that 
is done I will leave it to the referendum, 

1 promise you. (Applause.) I am not 
afraid of the judgment of the member- 
ship of the Sociahst Party of America. 
I know what the judgment of the Social- 
ist Party in Wisconsin is, and we are 
not so much more intelligent than the 
rest. Now, Comrades, those of you who 
are in favor of a municipal program 
ought to be willing to refer. Those who 
are not also ought to refer, because this 
will give you a chance to discuss it. 
Please have it referred to the National 
Committee. I thank you. 

DEL. MEYER (111.) : A question of 
personal privilege. Isn't the substitute 
before the house? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Yes. 

DEL. MEYER: Then I raise the 
point of order that the discussion is not 
in order. It is the same point I raised 
awhile ago when you decided it was 
not in order. 

THE CHAIRMAN: This point is 
a motion to refer. 

DEL. MEYER: To refer the substi- 
tute. There is an amendment, and I de- 
sire to move the motion on the amend- 
ment. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Comrade Mills 
has the floor. If you want to make the 
point later I will give you the floor and 
I will entertain a motion to amend. 

DEL. SPEARS: A point of order. 
You refused my motion to amend. 



274 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



275 



Wjk 



THE CHAIRMAN: That may be. 
Comrade Mills has the floor. 

DEL. MILLS (Kan.): I have only 
three minutes, and I would like to have 
order while I speak. I do not think 
there is any dispute of such a nature 
as leaves any question as to how this 
convention will act on the matter of a 
working program. The only question 
now before us seems to be the question 
as to how the admitted mistakes in the 
program as submitted shall best be rem- 
edied. If you will read again the re- 
port itself, it provides for a standing 
committee on the municipal program 
subject_ which shall not make a recom- 
mendation and go out of existence as 
this rnotion proposes, but shall remain 
in existence and be all the time in a 
position to repeat the recommendations 
throughout the year and the years. The 
standing committee which we have had 
has been doing some work during the 
previous years, and it is simply a ques- 
tion now whether the admitted mis- 
takes shall be revised by this convention 
here and now, or shall be left in the 
hands of the standing committee of 
specialists appointed on this subject, or 
shall be referred to the National Com- 
mittee, made up of men living in thirty 
different states, who never have seen 
each other yet and do not know each 
other. The members have that com- 
mittee^ have spent a long time, and have 
turned the whole matter over to you. I 
as a member of that same committee 
urge that this matter shall not 
be given to the National Committee, 
but that it shall be disposed of by this 
convention or shall be left in the hands 
of the Municipal Committee which is 
proposed under the resolutions now be- 
fore the house. (Applause.) 

DEL. CAREY (Mass.) : I have un- 
fortunately happened to be one of those 
Socialists who liave been elected. I 
have a long record, five terms in the 
legislature and one in the city govern- 
ment. I am for a working program, 
but I am not for that working program 
(applause). There are many things in 
there, as has been mentioned, that I be- 
lieve should have no part or place in a 
socialistic recommendation even. (Ap- 
plause.) I am sure that it is not with- 
in the power of this convention — we 
have not the time now, for we are go- 
irig home, many of us — to enable us to 
give this matter consideration in all the 
several details of its multitudinousness 



— that is a sood word — to go ovor nil 
the ten thousand recommendations iilIM 
consider each of them on Iheir inciilN, 
together with all the numerous ann'iiil 
raents and counter amendments iiiiil 
points of order and every other lliiiiu, 
it would take us until at least a wcfi 
after the next national campaign lir 
fore we got to the end of it. The lliiiiM 
is to refer it somewhere, to some cuiii 
mittce that can make such altcraliium 
as will make it a document lli;il I 
personally would be proud of. Ami 
then if, after it is thus improved, nnv 
other comrade or body of conirjiilm 
want to submit it thus improved In I hi' 
membership, I will vote for its siihinli 
sion. So I ask of the convention I lull 
whatever we may do, whether it ii i) 
question of reference to the Naliuiml 
Committee or of reference to a .staiidiiiH 
committee on municipal program, kivt 
it to some body of people, to the Muiid 
ipal Committee or to the Nalinmil 
Committee. I say that because I am Ini 
a program, but I say it because vvliili' I 
will be forced to vote for it as it i.s, hi' 
cause I want a program, yet I do nui .1. 
sire to go out from this convenliHii 
standing for some of the propositiniii 
contained in that report. So I say llii> 
best way out of it, the intelligent wiiy 
out of it, is to refer it to a comnn'Uci' In 
edit it, improve it, and then let tlic mciii 
bership act finally on it if a rcfereiKJiiiii 
is demanded. 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio): Am I In 
order to move the previous quest inn i' 

THE CHAIRMAN: No. 

DEL. HAYES: Then I will linlij 
the floor — 

DEL. SPEARS 
amendment here. 

DEL. HAYES: I move the previiMU 
question. Seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I will liavr m 
put it. The previous question is mnvi'il 
and seconded. All in favor of pullMiM 
the previous question will signify it liy 
saying Aye. Contrary No. Carricil 

DEL. HAYES: I want to spc.-.l< in 
favor of Comrade Hillquitt's million 

DEL. OTT (Wyo.) : I want to spiiili 
against. 
^THE CHAIRMAN: All right. 

DEL. PHELAN (111.) : I think nii« 
of the meanest thmgs T ever saw on ll|i< 
floor of a convention has just occunril, 



There is mi 



THE CHAIRMAN: You are not in 
"uler now. I have recognized some 
"lie else. 

Delegate Phelan protested against the 
iiiling, which was followed by consid- 
I rable confusion, and the Chairman 

I 'pped for order. 

fHE CHAIRMAN: The previous 
iinestion has been moved. Is there any 
111 her person who wishes to speak in fa- 
v>>r of reference? 

DEL. COLLINS (111.) : Some of the 
members are in doubt as to how we 
liould vote. If the amendment of Com- 
i:ide Hillquit passed, will it go to a 
irferendum vote afterwards? That is 
what we want to know? 

PHE CHAIRMAN: I cannot tell. 

I I may be buried by the National Com- 
mittee. No one can tell that. I am not 
lure as a prophet. I do not know what 
I lie National Committee will do with it. 
I he only thing I know is the motion 

III foie the house, which is to refer it to 
I lie National Committee. I will recog- 
nize Comrade Meyer. 

DEL. HERRON: A point of order. 
\ ou stated to the convention that this 
I, to refer to the National Committee, 
it is to refer to the National Committee 
fnr adoption. That is the resolution. 

The Secretary, being called on, read 
1 )degate Hillquit's motion. 

DEL. CARR: A question of per- 
.iiiial privilege. I have been trying for 
.<une time to get the floor to move an 
.imcndment to refer it to the party after 
I Ik- National Committee shall revise it. 
I believe it would certainly be the sense 
ni this convention that that ought to be 
dime. 

i:)EL. HILLQUIT: I will accept the 
amendment. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It is accepted 
l)\ the mover of the original motion that 
it' be refered to a general referendum. 

DEL. PARKS (Kan.) : Mr. Chair- 
iiKui, there is one constitutional pro- 
vision 

DEL. DALTON (111.) : A point of 
inlVirmation. If this amendment car- 
I ics to refer to the National Executive 
I imnnittee for revision and adoption 
Jill! then to have the force of a re- 
...inmendation only, does that mean 
iliiit it carries with it the election or ap- 
pnintment of this committee mentioned 
m there who will have the power to 
h;ime a secretary or elect a secretary 



and add that expense to the national 
treasury? 

DEL. HILLQUIT: I will state that 
the National Committee may revise it in 
that respect or in any other, and when 
revised it will go to the membership on . 
referendum. 

DEL. DALTON: Is a referendum 
provided for? 

DEL. HILLQUIT: It is provided 
for. 

DEL. SPEARS: Will the submis- 
sion to the referendum be clause by 
clause or as a whole? 

DEL. LANGWORTHY (Texafe) :( 
Adoption as a whole. 

DEL. TAFT (111.) : A point of or- 
der. The previous question has been 
called for, and we should vote on the 
question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point of 
order is well taken. Will the Secre- 
tary please read the motion ? 

DEL. WOODBEY (Cal.) : I rise to 
a question of personal privilege. About 
a fourth of the members have asked for 
recognition and have been recognized. 
My name is on the list, but it has not 
been called, and I have repeatedly asked 
for the floor since. I see no good reason 
for it. I am asking for information. 

The question was called for. 

DEL. WOODBEY: I have not got 
the amendment. I have nothing except 
the original motion. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The amend- 
ment is that it be referred by the Na- 
tional Committee to a referendum of the 
party. 

DEL. WOODBEY : I ask the Chair- 
man to please answer my question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It is impossi- 
ble. There are lots of questions I can't 
answer, and that is one of them. There 
is nothing before the house at the pres- 
ent time, but the substitute to refer, 
which the secretary will please read. 

The Secretary read the motion as fol- 
lows : "That the report of the commit- 
tee on State and Municipal Program be 
referred to the National Committee for 
immediate revision and adoption, the 
said report when so revised and adopted 
to have the force of a recommendation 
only, when approved by referendum." 

DEL. CARR (111.) : I move to 
amend by striking out the latter part 



276 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



Afternoon S^e&sion, May 6. 



277 



and inserting that it shall be referred to 
the party for adoption. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Write out your 
amendment and send it up. 

DEL. MEYER (111.): When he 
gives you his amendment I wish to have 
the motion read as follows : "That this 
report be referred to the National Com- 
mittee, and this committee shall refer 
it to the membership of the party." 
(Seconded.) That is all I desire to 
say. I want a vote taken on that. 

DEL. SIMONS (111.) : I simply 
want to plead that you send this out for 
discussion and for further alteration, be- 
cause of the fact that we need the edu- 
cation and the time that we spend in 
discussing this will not be wasted. 
There are some things in it I do not like 
and many that you do not like, but at 
any rate if you pass this and send it to 
a referendum, I am pretty sure we will 
do a lot of educational work on State 
and Municipal Program. (Applause.) 

The motion to refer was then put and 
declared adopted. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The Commit- 
tee on Resolutions, I understand, has a 
resolution to offer. You have adopted 
the constitution but you have not heard 
the final report of the Committee on 
Resolutions, and you have made no pro- 
vision for the campaign. The Com- 
mittee on Resolutions has the floor. 
Report of Committee on Resolu° 

lions. 
DEL. SPARGO, of the Committee: 
Comrade Chairman and comrades, you 
have already before you in print a res- 
olution from Local San Francisco. The 
resolution reads : 

"Resolved, by the Socialist party 
of America in convention assembled, 
that the Socialist party condemns all 
propaganda organizations not con- 
nected with the Socialist party doing 
Socialist propaganda, and that no 
member of the Socialist party shall be 
a member of any organization not af- 
filiated with the Socialist Party. If 
such organization is doing Socialist 
propaganda, being a member of any 
organization as before mentioned shall 
be sufficient cause for expulsion from 
the Socialist party." 
Your committee moves that it be not 
adopted. (Applause.) Motion sec- 
onded. 

It was moved and seconded that the 
report of the committee be concurred 
in. Carried. 



DEL. SPARGO: Resolution .siilimll 
ted to the convention at the desiir hI 
the state of Washington as exprcsNcil li| 
a referendum vote : 

"Be it resolved, that no cuiimI 
state or national official in the Soi M 
ist party shall at any time hold nil I't 
itorial or any other literary prmlllnit 
on any capitalist paper or on Miiy 
other paper not in harmony willt \\\* 
program of the International Sdil'tl 
ist Party and the Socialist I'lirly "I 
America; provided, however, tliiil tli^ 
holding of such position shall mil nl 
feet any comrades' standing in ik 
party." 

Your committee also moves timl llili 
resolution be not adopted. Secoiidnl 
_ DEL. TITUS: I wish to ask ii mmi'. 
tion, not as a matter of debate. Will 
somebody on this floor tell me ckhiIU 
what the action taken in the (Jriiimii 
convention was on these lines? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I do not t^imw 
The Chair cannot tell you exacllv 
remember reading a translation liul 
cannot tell you. If there is anyotif wlm 
can tell he might go to Comrade hlti* 
and tell him. It is no longer a pniiil iij 
information. 

Delegate Untermann offered tci riii 
swer the question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The CliMlr 
holds that the only thing now lirfnid 
us is the regular order. Proceed, CniH 
rade Titus. 

DEL. TITUS: I wish to asl< llul 
the Chair allow Comrade Untcniiaiiii In 
answer that question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: That i-i njl 
right, you make the motion that 1 1 || 
the sense of the convention tiial CniM 
rade Untermann should answer tlic i|in'« 
tion. Are you ready for the qiir'dlniif 
All in favor will say aye. CoiiIiik^, 
no. Comrade Untermann, it i.s np |m 
you. 

DEL. UNTERMANN : The qnrMlnii 
in Dresden was not simply whclliri ,'<n 
cialists should be permitted to woiK nil 
capitalist papers. The question WMI 
whether it was good tactics for n Hh 
cialist to write his grievances in a i i«|l 
italist paper instead of a Social I'M |m| 
per. Some of the opportunists had uiiiM 
into such bourgeois papers instc.nl Ml 
the party press when thoy had h«>»|| 
turned down in their Socialist lurid" ill 
Germany. Therefore the wIkiIc (iiicilliiH 



■ il the relation of Socialists to the party 
iM.ss came up, and it was decided flnal- 
l\ that scientific papers, trade papers, 
11 h1 the like had nothing to do with the 
i|iii stion and should not be ruled out, 
I, lit it was decided that no Socialist 
huuld be permitted to write for any 
..i|iitalist paper that viciously attacked 
I III- Socialist party. 

DEL. TITUS: I had nothing to do 
uith introducing this resolution in the 
i.ite of Washington, and personally I 
Jill not in favor of it, but I am instruct- 
..1 by our state to support it to the best 
.1 my ability, though I do not know of 
my strong arguments to present in fa- 
wi"r of it at this time. (Laughter.) But 
I railed out the information given by 
I .Hiirade Untermann concerning the Ger- 
m m action and leave it for you to act. 
I )n motion the recommendation of the 
Miinmittee was concurred in. 

DEL. SPARGO: Resolution sub- 
nulled by Delegate Reynolds of Indi- 
.ina : 

"Whereas, capitalism keeps the 
working class in subjection through 
force and through fraud; and 

"Whereas, with the spread of So- 
cialist philosophy and revolutionary 
ideals which are rapidly permeating 
I lie American people, it becomes and 
will become increasingly difficult to 
-k-ceive the masses or to practice 
Irauds successfully at the polls; and 
•'Whereas, capitalism is already 
(iirning to its last weapon and main- 
lay to check the rising revolutionary 
lide, namely, violent suppression by 
I lie army and militia; and 

"Whereas, it has been made ex- 
ceptionally difficult to weaken the 
■Irong right arm of plutocracy by im- 
pregnating the army and the militia 
with Socialism; therefore, be it 

"Resolved, that we recognize the 
iremendous importance and the pres- 
ent necessity of making the rank and 
tile of the army and militia disloyal 
to their brutal masters and loyal to 
their class and to the better future 
(ivilization. 

"Resolved, that we hereby authorize 
and direct our National Executive 
( Drnmittee to take action for the fo- 
. using and concentrating of special- 
I <d determined propaganda for So- 
. iaiism among the privates of the 
limy and the militia over the entire 
ruiintry and its colonies." 



Your comiiiillee moves that it be not 
adopted. (Seconded.) , 

DEL. MEYER (111.): I would like 
to ask the committee why it makes that 
report. Will it please cxiihiin? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Does the com- 
mittee wish to give its reasons? 

DEL. SPARGO: The committee has 
no objection to doing so. The commit- 
tee feels that at this time there is no 
particular reason why we should un- 
dertake a specialized propaganda among 
the military forces of the country. The 
committee also feels that it would be 
exceedingly difficult to do it, and that 
it would be unfortunate for the Social- 
ist party in America to be precipitated 
into anything rashly at this time. 

The question was called for, and the 
recommendation of the committee was 
concurred in. 

DEL. SPARGO: Your committee 
desires to make this motion, desires its 
adoption, and then desires to be dis- 
charged : 

"The convention desires to place 
upon record its appreciation of the ar- 
rangements made by the local com- 
rades for the convention, and the com- 
fort and entertainment of the visit- 
ing delegates and their friends. To 
their efforts much of the success of 
this convention may be attributed, 
and we earnestly hope that the local 
movement will derive lasting benefit 
and inspiration from this historic 
gathering. We also desire to ac- 
knowledge with thanks the efficient 
assistance rendered to the convention 
by the national office staff. By their 
uniform courtesy and willingness to 
assist upon every occasion they have 
won the thanks of every delegate and 
of the movement they represent." 

Your committee moves its adoption. 
(Seconded.) 

The motion being put, was unani- 
mously carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The commit- 
tee is discharged, with the thanks of this 
convention. 

The Committee on Credentials, and 
the Committee on Local Quorum being 
called on, announced that they had no 
further report to make, arud they were 
discharged. 

The Committee on Platform, through 
its chairman, made an announcement: 




278 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



279 



DEL. HERRON : In printing the 
platforms that were distributed yester- 
day in the convention hall there were 
several typographical errors. In one 
case a whole line was dropped out, 
changing the meaning. I would ask 
that the members of the convention 
as they leave the hall take the programs 
which they have today and the platforms 
with the typographical errors cor- 
rected. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If there is no 
objection the report of the committee 
will be received and the committee dis- 
charged. 

Report of Committee on Ways 
and Means. 

The Committee on Ways and Means 
being called on, reported through the 
Secretary, Delegate Kerrigan of Texas. 
DEL. KERRIGAN: As secretary of 
the Committee on Ways and Means I 
desire to present the following further 
recommendations adopted by the com- 
mittee ; 

"That the Socialist party of Amer- 
ica adopt and copyright the platform, 
to be sold exclusively by the Nation- 
al Secretary at such price as the Na- 
tional Committee shall fix. 

"That the Socialist party adopt and 
copyright a badge to be sold exclus- 
ively by the National Secretary at 
such price as the National Committee 
shall fix. 

"That the Socialist party of Amer- 
ica shall adopt and copyright a flag 
and have the same made in various 
sizes suitable for hall decorations, 
parties, etc., the same to be sold ex- 
clusively by the National Secretary at 
a price fixed by the National Com- 
mittee. 

"All profits arising from the sales 
of the foregoing to be placed to the 
credit of the National agitation and 
organization fund." 
This recommendation was adopted 
unanimously. The next one I will not 
sign, as I do not think the recommenda- 
tion should be made, by our committee. 
However, it was moved and carried that 
it be presented. It was adopted that — 
"We recommend to the convention 
that the National Secretary and his 
' assistant be made bonded officers. 
"We recommend that the 4th day of 
July, 1904, be set aside by the Social- 
■ ist party of America as Party Funds 
Day, and that all members of the par- 
ty be called upon to give that day to 



collections and forwarding to the Nil 
tional Secretary such sums as llicii 
may thus raise, such collections lo li(i 
placed to the credit of the aKilallnii 
and organization fund, and liutl llili 
day may hereafter be known as I'mly 
Funds Day, on which the menihiMilil|i 
will be called upon to act in tlic niimM' 
manner. 

"The committee recommends lliitl 
the practice of comrades in iiiiiliy 
parts of the country, of writing li'l 
ters and circulars to secretaries id In 
cals in various states, appealing Im 
funds for many presumably nii'iiln 
rious propositions, be discoiiliinii J 
However, your committee docs iih| 
think this way of raising funds slimilil 
be discontinued providing the coiim hI 
of the State Committee of the stiilr In 
which the funds are attempted In In 
collected is first obtained. 

"Your committee recommends lliitl 
persons asking for contributions Imin 
the membership of the parties ol \<i 
rious states be required to risl< I mi 
such contributions through the '.1 iii 
secretaries of such states. 

"We recommend that three per nnl 
of the profits on all entertainiiHiM ■, 
picnics, etc., given by the state, Im il 
or branch organizations of Iho .'•" 
cialist Party be paid to the Nalimiiil 
Secretary for the credit of llir 111 
tional organization fund. 

"Your committee presents to vnii .* 
working plan and a method of inln 
ing party funds by means of ailniilliiil' 
a label on approval, for use mi itH , 
literature to be read or circidalcil Itll 
the party members. The l:d)cl IhI 
lows in a general way the plan ai|ii|il 
ed by the Typographical Union in 11 « 
use of the label to slmw thai Ihlli 
printing is done by union men. Hiij 
the label presented would show lliitl 
the literature bearing the parly ImIhiIl 
had the official approval of tl.c |i:iilv, 
The committee voted unaninionsly I 
recommend its use on books, pam|iiiluH| 
and leaflets, but were a tie as to |ictIii(1i( 
icals, as only eight memberswere |ii'M* 
ent, one member being absent rnmi lh| 
meeting. We are of the opinion lilf 
the use of this label seems prailiciil 
every way, and if adopted would l<r ll" 
means of producing much needed ml 
enue for the party. The connnitlrr (iti| 
ther desires to state in that connccfll 
that the working plan prepared in 
some length necessarily, and unlcs?i ihl 
convention desires it it will not be ipH( 



1 1 would probably take ten or fifteen 
I Minutes to read the plan in all its de- 
I uls. The committee further is of the 
npinion that something should be done 
in order to stop the practice of circulat- 
in:i books and other literature without 
;iny compensation to the party and some 
fuc'ans of controlling such matters. We 
lliink that the party is entitledto some 
ro.mpensation for the work ol its mem- 
In rship and the fact that its agitators 
:md organizers are continually enlarg- 
ing the existing • market for Socialist 
lilcrature and making a new market. 
Now, it will be entirely with the con- 
vention as to just what disposition will 
W made of the present report. I pre- 
•.nme that the report should be disposed 
of in the regular way if so desired. 

Delegate Miller of Colorado moved 
lliat the report be referred to the Na- 
li.,nal Committee for such action as it 
may deem best. Motion seconded and 
( arried. 

THE CHAIRMAN : If there is no 
nbjection, the committee will be dis- 
. barged. The report of the Auditing 
I ^ >nimittee is next in order. 

The National Campaign Fund. 

nEL. MATLLY: I did not have 
lime to make this motion before, as I 
was busy writing it at the time you 
passed to the next order of business. 
I ask permission to introduce this reso- 
hitinn now. 

Consent was given. 

Delegate Mailly then read the follow- 
ing resolution : "Resolved, That this 
Socialist Party recommends that party 
members donate during the month of 
I line, IQ04. one-half day's wages to the 
National Campaign Fund, one-third of 
Iho amount derived therefrom to be re^ 
laincd by the local, one-third_ by the 
•;late. and one-third by the national or- 
1- a 111 nation." 

On motion the resolution was adopted. 

The Auditing Committee reported 
ilirongb Secretary Dobbs that the books 
nf the National Secretary were found to 
lif in good ronclition and recommended 
lh.it a permanent auditing committee be 
appninted. 

On motion, duly seconded, the report 
i.f I he committee was accepted, the rec- 
-aiunendation accompanying the report 
Hinpted, and the committee discharged. 



DEL. ITERRON: Mr. Chairman, it 
was stated here on the floor of the con- 
vention by Comrade Mailly day before 
yesterday, that at the close of this con- 
vention he would hand in his resigna- 
tion as National Secretary, and I rise 
for one, not only to speak my own pro- 
test, but what I hope will be the pro- 
test of this convention, against the res- 
ignation of Comrade Mailly, especially 
at this particular time. It would be a 
matter of great calamity, as Comrade 
Titus said, to the party as a whole and 
to the development of the movement 
if Comrade Mailly should present his 
resignation now, upon the eve of the 
national campaign, and for that matter, 
if he should present it at all. I take, 
I believe, all the responsibility upon 
myself in this matter, because when 
Comrade Mailly was upon a bed of sick- 
ness and had put me under bonds not 
to nominate him for this position, T went 
from his sick bed and violated my word 
and nominated him for this position, and 
as is well known to us in New York, 
he has remained in this position very 
largely at the urgent request of many 
of his friends with whom he was for- 
merly associated, and he has done it 
against his own will, against his own 
desires. He has desired very much to 
go back to work, which he would rather 
engage in ; but I feel that notwithstand- 
ing what he has said, and notwithstand- 
ing his own desire in the matter, it_ is, 
I know, urgently desired that he with- 
draw his resignation for a number of 
months. I feel that we as a conven- 
tion should request him that he with- 
hold his resignation permanently if _ he 
will, but if not permanently, to with- 
draw it at least until the end of the 
national campaign and the national elec- 
tion. (Applause.) And, therefore, I 
I make a motion to that effect, that not 
merely as an expression of our appre- 
ciation of Comrade Mailly's splendid 
services, because I know we feel all that, 
but as a matter of interest to the Social- 
ist Party upon the eve of the election. 
I make the motion that he be requested 
to withhold his resignation either per- 
manently, or if not permanently, until 
after the close of the national campaign. 
Motion seconded. 

DEL. BERGER (Wis.) : As a mem- 
ber of the Local Quorum and in behalf 
of my friend. Comrade Eugene V. Debs, 
whose sentiments I believe I express, 
I second the motion of Comrade Herron, 



280 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



281 



I believe it is the duty of Comrade 
Mailly not to desert, and especially 
when we are right on the eve of battle, 
but to stand by the banner-bearer of the 
party at least until the election. (Ap- 
plause.) I hope that Comrade Mailly 
will so understand his duty as a sol- 
dier of the Socialist revolution that he 
will stand through the battle and serve 
as he had promised, at least up to Jan- 
uary 1st, 1905. 

DEL. SIEVERMAN (N. Y.) : It 
seems to me as though I am in a meas- 
ure responsible for the unfortunate con- 
dition that prevailed at the time Com- 
rade Madly took the attitude that he 
did. It seems to me as though the cli- 
max that had been reached immediate- 
ly preceding Comrade Mailly's manly 
attitude on this question was principally 
due to the bungling methods with which 
I, as the chairman of that day, attempted 
to handle the business immediately pre- 
ceding that act. It seems to me that at 
this time I ought to say that from my 
point of view at least I should have re- 
fused to entertain Comrade Mailly at 
the time he took the floor, or others 
who unfortunately in the heat of battle 
said things against which the sensitive 
mind of anybody would rise. And it 
seems to me that to ask pardon is to do 
meager justice under the circumstances. 
Now, I want to call Comrade Mailly's 
attention to the fact that the Socialist 
Party of America is composed of re- 
cruits who have enlisted in the army 
of the working class, and that from 
among these recruits, these enlisted men, 
we select our officers, and that we do 
not concede the right to our officers to 
resign at pleasure. (Applause.) I in- 
sist that while Comrade Mailly owes it 
to his own self-respect to see that his 
own name and his own reputation are 
preserved, that he owes it to this move- 
ment to give, within the next few criti- 
cal months, the immense capabilities he 
possesses to work in the interest of the 
working class of this country, if Com- 
rade Mailly will study all the condi- 
tions. (Applause.) 

DEL. HANFORD (N. Y.) : I was 
talking this matter over some little time 
ago with Comrade Debs, and Comrade 
Debs and myself came to a unanimous 
conclusion in the matter. We were of 
the opinion that we ought to accept 
Comrade Mailly's resignation, the same 
to take effect on the 31st of next Jan- 
uary. I believe his term expires on 



the following day. (Laughter.) Umit 
to say, however, that I am |iri iilUili 
fortunate in being able to know mm 
thing about Comrade Mailly. Suiiih mI 
you know I went out on a led 111 r Ittin 
not long ago, and I never rea!i/r.| tvlul 
kind of a man Mailly was iitilil <i|lt.| 
that tour was over. I must siiv IIh| 
any man that can retain his .self iuiiUhI 
and continually give back tin- soil m 
swer that turneth away wnilli mm.Im 
the aggravation of the letters fidui ih» 
self and committees .and memlrir, mul 
others, is certainly fully qualillr.l |i,|i 
that position. I suppose Mailly ihimI 
bly must have had a notion cxtMlitt 
somewhere down in his heart thm im.' 
haps I did not mean all I said, 01 |lmi 
i was laboring under difficultic.. *)) 
something of that kind. But wlil'l. | 
do not need to admit for a iimntmit 
that in our movement there is ;miv niiilt 
thing as the indispensable man, I do Im 
sist that from time to time we dn iiilt 
across the man for the job, and wIhm It 
comes to the question of Nafioimt '.,.. 
retaryship as shown by his perforin.iMK 
of his services in the office, the mini liti 
that job IS William Mailly, and wr wiiit 
him to stay right there. 

The question was called for. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I would .,m 
gest that the date for the rosiKMiilldM 
be set for the 29th or 30th of •i<imi« 
February. All in favor of the iiinl|ii|| 
will s;igmfy It by saying aye. CmliiUM, 
no. The motion is carried. Conni.iM 
Madly has to serve. (Applause.) 

DEL. IRENE SMITH (Ore ) | 
want to ask if Comrade Mailly (cfi.l.nd 
Ills resignation. 

THE CHAIRMAN: He did nnl .,iy 
he did. 

DEL. MAILLY: Mr. ChniniMH 
and Comrades, if I had known (linl 
my words of two days ago would linvtl 
resulted in this action I certainly wii||j||' 
not have uttered them. I only waul ||| 
say to this convention that I am w %^ 
ciahst that belongs to the working cImMi 
1 believe in discipline. I believe lt| 
the working class organization, in |||| 
working class uniting in order (Hi 
achieve its emancipation. Believing ||i»i 
I would be a poor soldier, I would Im | 
poor Socialist, if I did not accept (hi 
call or demand of those with wliiiin 
am_ organized and of the movenieiiJ nf 
which I am a part. (Applause.) | 
would be lacking in the commonesi, lh| 



linest qualities of human nature if I 
-Ik! not appreciate your action. The 
Miily thing that I have to resent is the 
iiii|iutation that in this movement, this 
(\nrking class movement, there is only 
CHIC man that can fill this job. I had 
li.ipcd that in the interval between 
I linrsday and to-day the delegates to 
tins body would have selected one 
.iiiiong their number or among the 
p.iity membership whom they would 
,l.cm capable of filling the position. I 
iulieve you have such men. I would 
iliink verv little of the Socialist move- 
ment if I believed that there was only 
Miie man capable of filling any job in 
llic party. (Applause.) But under the 
incumstances, in view of the present 
■ilnation, I shall reconsider my deter- 
mination, and I shall serve in the pres- 
.iit position, in view of your command, 
mitil the election at least; and in doing 
<\ in taking up this work again, in re- 
iirwing my services in the national of- 
lue, I pledge to you and pledge to 
those behind you, to the working class 
of this country and to tho.se behind 
iliem again, the working class of the 
ivnrld, the best capacity, the best ability, 
I he greatest devotion that I can give 
(o this movement — the one movement 
worth living for, and the one move- 
ment worth dying for. (Applause.) 

Report of the Committee on For- 
elgn=Speaking Organizations. 

THE CHAIRMAN: We will now 
listen to the report of the Committee 
on Foreign-Speaking Organizations. 

DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.) of the 
tommittee: On request of the Creden- 
ii.ds Committee, a Committee on For- 
rign-Speaking Organizations was ap- 
pointed. Delegate Lee was the chair- 
man of that committee. He is exhaust- 
c<l with the work of the convention 
f;dling especially on him, and has asked 
inc to report in behalf of that commit- 
tee, which I heartily do. I will not 
trouble you with a recital of all that 
e;ime before the committee. Two or- 
ganizations were represented before the 
committee, the Polish Socialist Alliance 
and the Federation of Italian branches 
in the State of New Jersey. I will not 
read it all; it is too late. Our recom- 
mendation takes the form of a sugges- 
tion of a section or series of sections for 
I lie constitution, and in order that we 
mnv avoid an interminable discussion I 



move, on behalf of the committee, un- 
less there are objections from members 
of the committee, that this matter be 
referred to the National Committee or 
Executive Commiltec, and by them to 
a referendum as an amendment to the 
constitution, that when endorsed by 
their respective state organizations, lo- 
cals may be organized among those who 
cannot speak English, in the language 
which they most readily use. 

The report of the committee in full 
is as follows : 

When endorsed by the respective 
state organizations, locals may be 
organized among those who cannot 
speak English in the language which 
they most readily use. 

Members of these branches shall 
pay state and national dues, shall af- 
filiate with the respective state and 
local organizations, and be subject to 
its laws and shall be in all respects 
equal in rights and duties with all 
other members of the party. 

Locals so organized may form state 
and local organizations within the reg- 
ular party organization. 

When the locals shall have been or- 
ganized in any one of the foreign na- 
tionalities, they may 011 application to 
the National Committee secure the 
right to organize a national executive 
committee for that nationality, the 
members of which executive commit- 
tee shall be subject to approval by 
the National Committee. 

Any difficulties arising on account 
of the organization of foreign-speak- 
ing locals, shall be referred for settle- 
ment to the respective executive com- 
mittees with appeal to the National 
Committee. 

Each nationality so organized shall 
have the right to two delegates to the 
national convention, having voice and 
vote on matters affecting respective 
nationalities. 

The office of the National Secretary 
shall facilitate the work of any such 
Executive Committee, and wherever 
practicable, the work shall be carried 
on at the national office. 
DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.) : I move 
the adoption of the report and recom- 
mendation of the committee. 
The motion was seconded. 
DEL. J. S. SMITH (111.) : I rise 
simply to ask a question of the commit- 
tee whether in their opinion this plan 
would not give those foreign-speaking 



282 



Afternoon S^ession^ May 6. 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



283 



organizations double representation, 
and whether they will be part and par- 
cel of the respective state and local or- 
ganizations and thereby participate in 
the election of delegates to the national 
convention ; and, second, part and par- 
cel of their own organization, again 
participating in the election of their 
delegates to this same national con- 
vention. 

DEL. GAYLORn : It was the opin- 
ion of the committee that the degree of 
double representation indicated by the 
proposed amendment is not of such 
sort as to endanger in any respects the 
rights or safety of the party organiza- 
tion, inasmuch as these two delegates are 
limited to voice and vote upon matters 
especially affecting their respective or- 
ganizations. 

DEL. LEE (N. Y.) : I believe no 
member of the committee will object if 
it should be insisted upon that those 
two delegates from each foreign speak- 
ing organization be given simply a 
voice without a vote. I should not fa- 
vor that, but I believe the members of 
the committee will accept the amend- 
ment if it is insisted upon. 

TFTE CHAIRMAN: The committ- 
tee accepts the suggestion of Comrade 
Smith ? 

DEL. GAYLORD: If it is insisted 
upon. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Do you insist 
upon it, Comrade Smith? 

DEL. SMITH: In justice to those 
who speak English, I do. 

DEL. LEE : The committee under- 
stands that they speak oidy on ques- 
tions affecting the respective nationali- 
ties. You still insist that they shall not 
ha^•e a vote but only a voice ? 

DEL. SMITH: I do not, provided 
that is embodied in this recommenda- 
tion. 

DEL. GAYLORD : It is so embodied. 

DEL. LEE: They should vote upon 
questions affecting their nationalities. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: I desire to 
speak against the adbption of these 
rules. I think, as the constitution 
stands to-day, there is absolutely noth- 
ing to prohibit the organization of such 
foreign-speaking organizations as shall 
be desired, nor is there any provision 
against the united action of several of 
such locals within one state or in any 
geographical division or territory for 
the purpose of propaganda work. I 



think, however, a system like llif iti|« 
proposed, the organization of a imrly 
within the party and an official rctd(|iil 
tion of It, and the creation of a iiiiIIimmI 
executive committee of one cerl;iin ItiM 
guage or branch of the party nii-iiili»'t 
ship, will have a tendency to crnilr ill 
vision and antagonisms within (he irtitli 
and file of the party. We h.ivr Imij 
that in olden times. We have hml M 
among the Jewish speaking bramhch ul 
the party, and it has created a godd i|m|| 
of dissatisfaction. Where you iiiivr it 
separate group within a party with m |t 
arate interests in some respects whiili 
is unavoidable, I think that llic milt 
thing we can do in behalf of \\w Iik 
eign speaking residents of this (luiiilik 
would be to urge upon the NaliiiMtil 
Committee hereafter that tlicy |i<iv 
more attention to agitation and (MkiiiiI 
zation among the non-English-spriikliiu 
residents of the United States, t )iii 
party organization is flexible ei"'«-jli lu 
admit them within the party wrKii'iil/n 
tion and allow them facilities for pmiirt 
ganda in their own language, and llml 
is the only thing to be accorded t<i Ihriii 
We are working on political linos ; w(« 
are divided into states, and the stitip* 
into locals, and in the locals wc iiti* 
again divided into ward branches, iniil 
must be so divided to exercise polHI 
cal activity. We could allow a nntiihri' 
of Polish speaking comrades or llidhiii 
or German speaking comrades to (imii 
propaganda clubs or some such sprrinj 
divisions, but you cannot cut thciii till 
from the organizations to which liii'y 
belong according to their residence \ 
am much afraid that this resolution m« 
it reads now will be misleading ,nii| 
confusing in many respects — I llini' 
fore move as a substitute that wo tri 
ommend to the National Commillri 
that they hereafter give special adni 
tion to agitation and organization aiiniiin 
non-English-speaking residents of IliP 
United States. 
The motion was seconded. 
DEL. LANGWORTHY (Tex.) : I 
am somewhat like Comrade Hillf|nil ^<^ 
to the formation of federations in llir 
various languages. Under certain tii 
cumstances I think it would be nocrx 
sary. The French-speaking cleniont, Im 
instance, thought some time ago tluit |( 
would be to the advainage of pnipn 
ganda amongst them to have a fcdoiH'. 
tion aflfiliated with the national org.uil 
zation. A proposition was subniillfil 



I.. I he National Secretary and by him to 
\\\c National Quorum, and they- referred 
It back to this convention. Since that 
lime the local that I belong to passed a 
1. solution that it favored a contmu- 
.11 ICC of the present form of orgamza- 
li..n among the foreign-speaking ele- 
iiiiiit on one condition. That condition 
IS that the documents and literature 
lh.it should be sent from the na- 
linnal office should be sent out to 
tJH' various locals in their respective 
languages so that they would not 
|i:ive to hunt up interpreters to read 
(lie correspondence that would come 
horn the national or state officers. I 
.uuld have organized a large number of 
oiganizations of French-speaking peo- 
ple and various others, but the trouble 
ii.is been that under the present form 
nf organization they could not find the 
necessary element among themselves to 
(li the correspondence in the English 
language with the state or national of- 
tice, and the result was that several lo- 
c;ds which had been organized dropped 
mit, lapsed, if you please, just for the 
n ason that they could not find the nec- 
. sary material to do the necessary cor- 
1. spondence. I believe if you would 
come to Chicago you would have men 
who are able to do the writing or to 
send out correspondence in the various 
Idiguages. If this was done I believe 
wc would not need any federation of 
Inieign nationalities. I believe t^iat in 
the forming of federations there is 
:dways danger; that is, there is the dan- 
ncr of conflict of interest between one 
„i two individuals in the foreign fed- 
.ration and the national organization. 
I' or instance, if the National Secretary 
of a foreign organization, whether it 
1„> French, German or any nationality, 
liiiled to agree with the national office 
Ins influence would to some extent or 
entirely draw his organization away 
Irom the Socialist party, something that 
would not be done in the ordinary pres- 
ent form of organization if the htera- 
inre would be printed in the various 
foreign languages. 

DEL. SPEARS (111.): I am in fa- 
vor of the substitute or amendment of- 
fered by Comrade Hillquitt, because I 
think it will solve the question. I am 
opposed to the admission, in a general 
way, of these different organizations in 
the way proposed by the committee, for 
the reason that they say they allow the 
• lates to give the authority. Now, these 
organizations have national organiiza 



tions ; they have locals in New York 
and Chicago, say; suppose lliat New 
York accepts them and Illinois refuses 
them, there will be a conflict. The thing 
should be settled by the Executive 
Committee themselves. Let them set- 
tle it and let them try to get those 
comrades to go into the older organi- 
zations and to learn English, if they in- 
tend to be in an English-speaking coun- - 
try. Of .course I know it is ti#)uble- 
some where they can only speak one 
language. I am in favor of the substi- 
tute. 

The question was called for. 
DEL. DEUTZMAN (Cal.) : I am 
a foreigner, but I am opposed to hav- 
ing inside of our party any organiza- 
tion composed of foreign-speaking 
members alone. I am in favor of hav- 
ing propaganda clubs, but am opposed 
to having foreign clubs transact the 
business of the So(;ialist party. I think 
we should urge the forming of such 
clubs among foreigners, but at the same 
time I do not think that they should 
transact the business of the party in 
a foreign language, because as a re- 
sult there will certainly be people there 
who can speak English and they 
will mislead the people that do not 
understand the English language, by 
making misstatements or misinterpre- 
tations of that which is done in 
the English language. I have seen it 
done and know it. Therefore, I am op- 
posed to taking any foreign organiza- 
tion or federation as such into the party. 
The question was then put on refer- 
ring the matter to the _ National Com- 
mittee, and it was carried. 

Supplementary Report of Trades 
Union Committees. 

The Committee on Trades Unions, 
through Delegate Hayes of Ohio, pre- 
sented the following supplementary re- 
port: 

Resolved, That the Socialist party 
warns the organized workers of this 
country to be on their guard against 
attacks upon their funds and we de» 
mand national and state legislation 
protecting these funds as well as the 
property of individual unionists 
against damages for alleged injuries 
inflicted by picketing, strikes and boy- 
cotts. . 

Resolved, That the Socialist party 
declares its unalterable opposition to 
the introduction of the vicious open- 
shop system; we demand in the name 




284 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



of the workers of America the union 
shop, not only m privately-owned in- 
dustry, but in all the governmental 
mstitutions_ of the nation, states and 
municipahties ; 

Resolved, That we demand union 
conditions on all purchases and con- 
tracts made by the nation, cities and 
states, not only a maximum eight- 
hour working day, but also the pre- 
vailing union scale of wages ; and we 
point to the hostile attitude of the 
republican and democratic parties in 
congress, in Colorado and other states 
as evidence of the impossibility of 
obtaining union demands for the old 
political parties; 

. Whereas, every sign of the times 
indicates that the capitalist class of 
this country through its right hand, 
the republican party, and through its 
left hand, the democratic party is 
seeking to destroy the labor organi- 
zations by means of injunctions and 
by legislation, limiting the rights of 
organized labor; 

Resolved, That this vicious work 
can be prevented only by united prac- 
tical action of labor on the lines of 
the class struggle; and 

Resolved, That we call upon the 
wage-workers to join the Socialist 
party with a view to putting an end 
to the political conditions that make 
It possible for the capitalist class to 
use the political machinery of the 
country as a weapon against the 
working class. 

SIGNED BY THE COMMITTEE. 

.^EL HAYES: Mr. Chairman, in 
view of the fact that the time is grow- 
ing short and there probably are more 
questions to come before the house, and 
in view of the further fact that these 
supplementary resolutions are in the na- 
ture of a working platform, I make a 
motion on behalf of the committee that 
this be submitted to the National Com- 
mittee and be adopted and submitted to 
a referendum vote along with the other 
portions of the working program adopted 
here this afternoon. 

The motion was seconded 

DEL WALSH (Mont.):' Do I un- 
derstand that this report on this trade 
union question made by the committee 
IS a substitute for the other that we 
have adopted. 

THE CHAIRMAN: No, it is not 
a substitute. It is an additional report 



DEL. WALSH: I move to |„y || 
on he table at this time. Sccn,„l..;i 

Ihe motion to lay on the table wh. 
lost by a rising vote of 35 to «• 

DEL SIEVERMAN (N Y ) • I 
move the previous question on ii'|..| 
ring the committee's report. 

The motion was seconded and mi 

The Trades Union Committee h.ivliiM 
no further report to make, was .h* 
chargxid. The Committee on G.ii'.IIIm 
tioii benig called on, reported tliiniiMl. 
Delegate Hillquit. 

DEL HILLQUIT: As a membn ..( 
the Committee on Constitution I di'^hn 
to cah attention to the fact thai Hit 
Constitution has never been adoplcl ,.. 
a whole. I now move that il |in 
adopted as a whole. 

The motion was seconded. 
Final Action on Constitution. 

THE CHAIRMAN: It has l„ 

moved and seconded that the Coii.sdtu 
tion Committee's report be adopted im 
a whole. 

DEL BERGER (Wis.). I handed in 
an amendment— 

THE CHAIRMAN: At the time Hi.. 
report of the Committee on Coiislim 
tion was adopted most of the meinbri« 
ot the Committee on Platform vvn.^ 
not in the convention, and, furlliri 
more, a great number of them writ' 
out who were on the program, and || 
1 recollect, Delegate Berger was ii.>| 
here at the time. 

DEL. BERGER: I was not hero mI 
the time that the constitution w,i. 
adopted. I. have something whx li 
would involve state autonomy. I liav»" 
an amendment to make, and ilml 
amendment is in the hands of the ( niii 
mittee on Constitution. Conmid.. 
Kichardson has got it and will read II 
to you. 

Delegate Richardson read the aiiu-iid 
ment, as follows: 

"On the complaint of any Natioiml 
Committeeman, or of three locjiln 
in any state, of any acts on the iiail 
of such state organization or of any 
local subject to its jurisdictiim lit 
violation of the platform or const il 11 
tion of this organization, an iiivcsli. 
gation shall be undertaken, acliiin 
under rules of the National Coniinil 
tee, to the end that such orgam/a 
tion shall be brought into conform 
ity. ' 



\ 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



DEL. RICHARDSON: I move, 
hrst, that the word "any" in the first 
line be stricken out and the word "the" 
ubstituted therefor. Again, strike out 
I lie word "three" and insert after the 
word "locals" the words "representing 
111 the aggregate one hundred mem- 
liers." And then I want this added: 
•But no such state shall be denied rep- 
lesentation in the National Organiza- 
lion as the result of any such investi- 
<-;ations unless a national referendum to 
ihe party membership shall first be or- 
dered, and such referendum must in- 
< lude the vote of the state in question." 
I move those amendments. 

The amendments were seconded 

DEL. BERGER: Mr. Chairman, I 
helieve the best thing would be to cut 
out the entirje section. We do not 
want to meddle with the internal trou- 
bles of every state. No good can come 
from it. I, as National committeeman, 
do not want to meddle with the trou- 
Ijles of other states. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Not even 
Chicago ? 

DEL. BERGER: No, not even 
Chicago. Let Illinois take care of its 
own affairs. Let Wisconsin take care 
of its own affairs, and let California take 
care of its own affairs. Therefore, I 
move you that we strike out the en- 
tire section; I mean to table the whole 
-ection. 

The motion was seconded. 

DEL. SIEVERMAN (N. Y.) : It 
strikes me that when this convention in 
regular session adopts a constitution, 
that that cannot be ruthlessly taken 
from the previous day's proceedings 
;tnd tabled. 

THE CHAIRMAN: One second; 
the point of order is not well taken, 
for this reason^ 

DEL. SIEVERMAN: I beg your 
pardon, I am not raising _a point of 
order, I am talking to the question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Pardon me. 

DEL. SIEVERMAN: I submit that 
if we want this thing altered let us 
first so decide. Let us vote against 
this if we do not want it, and if we 
want it leave it there. 

DEL. MILLS (Kan) : We have a 
clause in our National Constitution 
providing that no state shall adopt a 
constitution or a platform in violation 
of the provisions of the National Con- 



stitution. This clause does not create 
additional powers, as the comrade from 
Wisconsin seems to fear. The power 
is already in the constitution. The Na- 
tional Committee has adopted, and is 
now acting under rules providing for 
a method of procedure in case a com- 
plaint is made against any state for 
non-conformity with the National Con- 
stitution and with the national platform. 
This clause provides no other ground. 
No local quarrel can be investigated; 
no local action of any sort can be in- 
terfered with. The national constitu- 
tion provides that the states must con- 
form to the national constitution in 
their platforms. This clause does not 
create additional power. This clause 
does not provide authority for invad- 
ing any state. This clause is put into 
the constitution not to create state au- 
tonomy, but for the purpose of pro- 
hibiting the National Committee from 
violating state autonomy. It is an ef- 
fort to protect the citizens; it is an 
effort to protect the rights of a state. 
The National Committee is to enforce 
this national constitution. Suppose a 
state does not adopt a constitution in 
violation of the national constitution; 
suppose a state does adopt a platform 
in violation of the national platform; 
has this party no authority to see to it 
that the party that calls itself the So- 
cialist party for any state shall be able 
to enforce the provisions of our consti- 
tution; that the constitution of the 
state and the platform of the state 
shall conform with the corresponding 
national documents? (Applause.) This 
provision does not create that authority; 
it only declares that if any state has to 
complain against another it must do 
so through its National Committeeman. 
For instance, if Missouri is to com- 
plain against Kansas it must speak 
through its National Committeeman, 
not by an unseemly passage of resolu- 
tions, not by making complaints by un- 
authorized letters, for no state in 
America can be found whose committee- 
man will file a complaint against a 
state for violating the national consti- 
tution or platform until it is reasonable 
to take it for granted that there is 
ground for complaint. But within the 
state, suppose our state of Kansas 
adopts a platform in violation of the 
national platform; shall we depend 
upon this outside state alone? It is 
suggested that it ought to be three lo- 




286 



.* 



Afternoon Session, May 6 



cals with not less than a hundred mem- 
bers. Very well; that no quarrel can 
be brought from a state to the na- 
tional organization on any other ques- 
tion than the question of conformity 
to the national constitution and to the 
national platform. But no irregular 
and unseemly method of procedure can 
bring it even then. But then if it is 
plain that any state is irregular in 
form as to its platform or its constitu- 
tion, they have got a National Commit- 
teeman to represent them under any 
circumstances or on any question. 

DEL. SLOBODIN (N. Y.) : 1 am 
in favor of Comrade Berger's motion 
to strike out. The National Commit- 
tee has already the power to interfere 
when the state violates the national 
constitution or platform. What is this 
provision? To give the minority in 
a state power to bring up its grievance 
for so-called violation of the national 
constitution or platform, and to bring 
its grievance before the National Com- 
mittee ; in other words, to make a state 
quarrel a national quarrel, and that is 
what we have. I therefore am in favor 
of striking out the resolution. 

The hour of adjournment being 
near, Delegate Sieverman moved that 
the rules be suspended and that the 
convention continue in session until all 
its business is transacted. Motion 
seconded and adopted. 

DEL. HYLAND (Neb.) : The pres- 
ent time would seem to be a good one 
to understand this matter. The com- 
rade who spoke so forcibly against 
striking- out— the chances are that he 
did not know what was in there when 
he voted for it. When a member can 
usurp the state laws and state name, 
go from one state into another state, 
and go back to his own state and be 
protected in his rule, then that state has 
no means of redress. We have had 
several cases of that kind in the last 
year. Nebraska has had several cases 
where individuals came in from other 
stales and violated its state autonomy. 
For that reason 1 am in favor of this 
proposition. We must have state autono- 
my. The state of Illinois will not permit 
me to steal in Iowa and then go to 
Illinois and be protected from prosecu- 
tion. The laws of the United States 
compel the surrender of a criminal to 
the authorities of the state in which he 
has committed the crime. 

DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.) : I have 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



287 



withm the last year known of cascx mm 
both sides of the question here. In 
spite of that, or rather in view of lltiit 
and as a consequence of that, 1 am In 
favor of cutting out any such umvl 
sion. We have trouble enough willmiH 
mixing m the smaller quarrels. I.r| 
us take care of ourselves, but co iiji 
crating in every way possible to lin 
ther the cause of Socialism. 

Delegate Robbins (Ky.) moved llm 
previous question. Seconded .mil 
carried. 

DEL. CLARK (Neb.): I am op 
posed to striking this out. This claims 
was dictated by comrade Mills, and I 
wrote according to his dictation. 1 con 
sider it unfair for the man who dir 
tated this clause to try to have || 
.stricken out now, after a number nl 
delegates have left the convention. 

At this point there was much imi 
fusion on the floor of the conveiiliini 
Delegate Mailly made an explanatiim 
m regard to Delegate Mills' attitude, 
and the speaker resumed ; 

DEL. CLARK: In the presence nl 
the delegates I want to beg Comraili' 
Mills' pardon. I did not under.staiiil 
that he wanted it to stay there. (Ap 
plause.) When he was speaking I 
was outside getting a cheese sandwirli 
and when I came in I misundersttniil 
the purport of Comrade Mills' remark m 
Now, this constitution will go to llii< 
members of the party. I am going In 
vote in favor of it being voted uptiii 
seriatim, clause by clause. It witi 
adopted by the delegates in this con 
yention several days ago. Let us rcfri 
it to the membership, and if the mem- 
bers of the party want it then we want 
it. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: In the tirM 
place, as chairman of the Committee (Hi 
Constitution, I desire to decline any 
responsibility for this clause. It v/wn 
adopted by several members, though I 
did not know the way in which it hud 
been adopted. Comrade Clark has I'H 
plained how it was written. It liiiN 
never met with my approval and never 
will meet it. I believe for one thai n 
general statement to the effect that tliv 
platform of the party is the supremo 
expression of the party, and all statu 
platforms and constitutions are to con 
form thereto, would have said about all 
that we are called upon to say. I do not 
believe in the adoption of a code of 



1 



■ liminal procedure as part of our con- 
titutton. I do not believe in making 
niles which will facilitate and invite 
interstate quarrels. I believe, if we 
strike this out, leaving here the other 
ilause which prohibits one member or 
-tate from interfering with the affairs 
of another state without the consent of 
iliat state, we have done about all that 
we are called upon to do to guard the 
party and the members and the au- 
tonomy of the movement in each state, 
and no more than that should be de- 
manded. 

The question was then called for and 
put on a rising vote, the result being 
,\g in favor of striking out, and 31 
against ; so the section was declared 
stricken out. 

Eligibility of Candidates. 
DEL. SPEARS (111.) : I have an 
.amendment under the head of "State 
Organizations." It is that "No person 
shall be eligible or recognized as a can- 
didate of the Socialist party for anv po- 
litical office unless he or she has been 
.■ontinuously a member in good standing 
in the party for one year or more." 
Seconded. 

DEL. HAZLETT (Colo.) : I rise to 
ii point of information. How docs that 
■ipply to members that belong to new 
organizations that have been in exist- 
ence only a short time? 

DEL. SPEARS: I don't want it to 
;ipply to new organizations. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You have bis 
answer. 

DEL. CARR (111.) : It does seem 
to me that the amendment would tend 
to cripple the work where there was 
not. a large club or local. It is all 
right in Cook County, where every 
other member of the club may be a 
randidate. hut it is not a good thing in 
isolated districts of the state. I _sub- 
mit that a campaign for a Socialist 
(irket is one of the best possible means 
of educating the people on Socialism 
that we could possibly find. There are 
,n good many places where a county 
ticket, for instance, could not be made 
up of the best Socialist material, and 
^you may call me a heretic for say- 
ing this, but where branches are satis- 
fied that they could get suitable can- 
didates who are class-conscious Social- 
ists outside of the branch, they ought to 
have the privilege of putting them up, 
l.rrause there arc men like that who for 
,'nne reason arc not members of the 



club. I know the position seems to be 
inconsi.steiit, and T may lie criticised for 
taking this position, but 1 believe this 
resolution would cripple tlic St)ciaHst 
movement in a great many counties in 
the United States, and I hope there- 
fore that this matter of nominations 
will be left to the judgiiient of the 
party in the respective Idealities. 

DEL. HOLLENBERGEK (Ind.) : Tf 
that section is adopted won't it_ inter- 
fere with state autonomy? T raise the 
point of order that it would. 

THE CHAIRMAN: There is a 
point of order raised, and the Cliair is 
in doubt, but I will rule tliat the point 
is good. The point is made that it 
would be improper and violate the other 
provisions of tlic constitution, as it 
would be in condict with state 
autonomy. 

A DELEGATE: How about unor- 
ganized states? 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is not in- 
volved in the question, because it does 
not involve unorganized states, I shall 
rule the point of order well taken. 

Delegate Spears appealed from the 
decision of the Chair. 

DEL. SPEARS: I maintain that 
this convention, constitnted of the rep- 
resentatives of the members of the So- 
cialist party, has a right to say who 
shall be their candidates, and that the 
Socialist party shall not be used, as it 
has been used in some sections, to as- 
sist the other parties. I want to stop 
that, and I sulimit we have that au- 
thority. 

The Vice Chairman put the question 
on the appeal from the Chairman's de- 
cision, and the Chair was sustained. 

DEL. IRENE SMITH (Ore.) : Here 
is a question that we have met continu- 
ally, and we don't know how to de- 
cide it. Does that mean that it is left 
for each state to decide? 

THE CHAIRMAN : Yes. they will 
have to decide for themselves. The 
states will have to decide, the party 
fixing the test of membership. 

DEL. SLOBODIN: Will this re- 
quire an additional referendum of the 
county or state? 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is left to 
the states. That clause is lost. 

DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : It seems 
to me some provision should be made 
in the constitution against the election 



288 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



of any person to the National Commit- 
tee of the Socialist party who has not 
been a member of the party for a cer- 
tain specified time. It might also be 
- provided in some way to cover our na- 
tional ticket. At any rate, I propose as 
an amendment that no person shall be 
elected to the National Committee of 
the Socialist Party or nominated for any 
position on the national ticket unless he 
or she shall have been a member in 
good standing for a continuous period 
of one year or over. 
The motion was seconded. 
CHAIRMIAN STEDMAN: I want 
to suggest a point about this. Suppose 
you have a new organization, that you 

are organized only a month 

DEL. WALSH: I raise a point of 
order. Aren't the committeemen 
elected by the states? 
THE CHAIRMAN: Yes. 
DEL. WALSH: Then this is out of 
order, the same as the one as to a man 
holding a political office. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If you raise 
the point of order, I shall rule that it 
is out of order. 

DEL. HANFORD (N. Y.) : I now 
move that we adopt the constitution as 
a whole. 
The motion was seconded. 
DEL. HAYES (Ohio): For infor- 
mation, I want to know if it would be 
too late, after this vote -is taken, to 
move that the constitution be submitted 
to a referendum by sections. 

THE CHAIRMAN: No, you can 
adopt it and then refer it if you wish. 

DEL. DILNO (Mb.): I believe 
there was an amendment handed in a 
few rniniites ago by Delegate Saunders 
of Illinois, which the secretary has not 
read. 

DEL. McHUGH (Mont): I wish 
to move that the last part of Comrade 
Spargo's motion be adopted ; that is, 
that nominees on the national ticket 
shall have been members of the party 
one year. 

Motion not seconded. 

Delegate Spargo moved the previous 
question, and the motion was seconded 
and carried. 

The motion to adopt the constitution 
was then put and declared carried. 

Delegate Titus raised a point of order 
that debate should have been permitted 



before putting the question on the ore- 
vious question. 

DEL. HANFORD: A point of order 
1 made a motion that we adopt the con- 
stitution as a whole. That motion was 
duly seconded. There were other com- 
rades on the floor for various purposes. 
1 then rose, was recognized by the 
Chair and moved the previous ques- 
tion. 1 hat question was put to the mem- 
bers and a vote taken. We were then 
m a position where, if any one had at 
thattime received recognition from the 
Lhair, he would have been given three 
minutes' time. 

THE CHAIRMAN: May I ask a 
question ? 

DEL. HANFORD; One moment; 1 
am stating my point of order. No such 
speaker did rise and no such speaker 
was so recognized. The giving the floor 
to two, one on each side, is a privilege; 
it is not a compulsory matter. Not 
having arisen, we proceeded to vote the 
vote was taken in due form, and we 
cannot go back of it without a motion 
to reconsider. The result was an- 
nounced before the point was made. We 
don't compel people to talk three min- 
utes on any question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I will rule the 
point of order of Comrade Hanford 
well taken. 

DEL. TITUS: I appeal. 

DEL. MAILLY (in .the chair) : 
Shall the Chair be sustained? All in 
favor will say aye 

DEL. TITUS: I have a right to 
speak to the appeal. 

THE VICE CHAIRMAN: Yes. 

DEL. TITUS: Comrade Hanford is 
correct in all except one particular. It 
is not necessary and has not been the 
practice on this floor for 51 speaker who 
wishes to speak to address the Chair 
before the previous question is stated, 
but afterwards. Now, I have taken the 
usual course, and I demand the right 
to speak on this question. The ques- 
tion before us has not been put. 

DEL. SIEVERMAN: Oh, yes, it is 
carried. 

DEL. TITUS: But it was carried 
after I addressed the Chair and was 
ready to speak, and he recognized me. 
I have appealed, and am stating the 
reasons for my appeal. 

Upon vote the Chair was not sus- 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



289 



tained. Delegate Stedman resumed the 

A division was called for, but not in- 
sisted upon. 

DEL TITUS: I am opposed to 
adopting this constitution as a whole 
without an opportunity to submit another 
amendment. This is my amendment 
that I desire to submit when the op- 
portunity is given. I do it because a 
speaker on this floor has proposed that 
there should be candidates endorsed by 
the Socialist party in sections where 
there is no organization of the bocial- 
ist party. I am wholly opposed to it, 
and my proposition is to prevent it 
and provide that no candidates shall be 
endorsed by the Socialist .Party who 
are not members of the Socialist Party. 
(Applause.) 

DEL WALSH (Mont.): A point 
of order. I cannot see that that reso- 
lution doesn't cover substantially the 
same ground as the ' comrade s over 
here. . , 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point ot 
order is well taken. 

DEL. TITUS: I appeal from that 
decision. , • n 

DEL. MAILLY (in the chair): 
State your appeal. 

DEL TITUS : My reason for the 
•inoeal is that in the constitution that 
r have adopted heretofore we have 
provided over and over /g^'" ™ 
state organizations shall do, and the 
Chair hfs no right to rule as he has 
done that I have no right to PUt in 
another provision of the same. sort. We 
;?ovMe that all state orgamzations shal 
nrovide in their constitutions for the 
Fnitrative, referendum and imperative 
maSe.' If the Chair's ruling is cor- 
rect we have no business to put that 
[n it is a violation of state autonomy. 
I protest against this railroadmg proc- 
ess. Let us go calmly. 

CHAIRMAN STEDMAN: Com- 
rade Tilus, I think, will. remember tha 
stated to the convention .ha I was 
in doubt upon the proposition And 
hen I simply made a statement of the 
result of such a provision; an appeal 
was taken, and the convention dec ded 
it I did it for this reason: l^atthey 
ad practically decided the Question, and 
vvhv should they adopt another such 
^mLdment? Tl^ey had one amendment 
fixing the period of membership, and 
adopted it, and I stated to the conven- 



tion at the time that I was in doubt, 
and the convention decided the parlia- 
mentary question. Now, then, your 
amendment comes as an amendment 
upon the question of the adoption ot 
the report as a whole, after tbc pre- 
vious question is called for. When 
the previous question is called for on 
the adoption of the report as a whole, 
the only thing you can do is either to 
adopt it or refuse to adopt it as a whole. 
DEL TITUS: I want to refuse, so 
as to get it in shape. 

CHAIRMAN STEDMAN : Ml 
right, then vote no. 

Upon vote the Chair was not sus- 
tained. 

CHAIRMAN STEDMAN (resum- 
ing the chair) : I am in doubt as to 
how to rule again, or what you wish to 
do. . ^ . 

DEL. TITUS: Am I in order in 
offering this amendment? 

THE CHAIRMAN : Yes, T will rule 
that an amendment is in order if it is 
seconded. 

DEL. CARR (111.) : I desire to 
amend the amendment— 

DEL. TITUS: I am willing to take 
any suggestions. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You have a 
motion to make? 

DEL. TITUS: Yes. 
THE CHAIRMAN : Please . make 
it and the secretarv will record it. 

'deT TITUS- I am willing to do 
so, but I want it to express the sense 
I wish to convey. 

DEL CARR: We have had exper- 
ience in our locality. 1 suggest two 
vears be put in there, and then none 
^r the politicians will drop into our 

r>TTT TITUS : Let it read that "No 
cSte?™,. be p„. to'-I^^"/,*'; 

Socialist party who are not members or 
fhe party ^and' who have not been mem- 
bers of the party for a contmuous period 
of one year, except in new locals. 

DEL GAYLORD (Wis.): A point 
of order. Here is an amendment in- 
troduced at a time while a -ember - 

speaking in favor of a "^°t'°"^ ^^^\*i! 

orevious question is moved, and the rm 

fng must necessarily be on the right to 

offer the amendment. 
THE CHAIRMAN : The convention 



290 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 




Afternoon Session, May 6. 



291 



has decided that the Chair's ruling was 

wrong. We are entitled to receive the 

amendment, and it is before the con- 
vention. 

DEL. SIEVERM'AN (N. Y.) : The 
Chair does not state the position cor- 
rectly. The convention has decided 
against the Chair on his rnling that the 
comrade did not have the right to the 
floor to speak. We have not had this 
point before us that Comrade Gaylord 
now raises, and it is separate and dis- 
tinct from the one that was raised by 
Comrade Titus. Comrade Titus raised 
the point that he was entitled to speak 
under the rule, but he did not raise 
the point that he had the right to sub- 
mft an amendment to the motion upon 
vi^hich the previous question had been 
ordered, and I back up the second ap- 
peal. The point of order made by 
Comrade Gaylord was that it is too 
late to introduce any amendment. The 
previous question has been ordered, and 
there is nothing in order but two speak- 
ers, one for and one against, and then 
a vote. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I think the 
point of order is well taken. But while 
I think the point of order is well taken, 
under the rule I do not think that when 
the previous question has been called 
for to adopt a report as a whole we can 
do an3d:hing except either accept or re- 
ject the report. I hold that amendment 
is out of order. If you wish you may 
appeal again. 

DEL. SPARGO: A point of in- 
formation. The information I desire, 
is this: As I now undertsand the po- 
sition, if we desire to let Delegate Titus 
move his amendment it will be neces- 
sary to vote down the question upon 
this vote. 

THE CHAIRMAN: That is right. 

DEL. PARKS (Kan.): I want to 
talk against adopting this motion. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You cannot do 
so. If you -have a point of information 
or of order I will listen to it. 

DEL. PARKS: We have a right to 
talk on the two sides of the question. 

THE CHAIRMAN: No, we have 
done so already. All in favor of adopt- 
ing the constitution as a whole will 
signify it by saying aye; contrary, no. 

A division was called for. 

THE CHAIRMAN: All in favor of 
adopting the constitution as a whole will 



rise. All against adopting it as a wholr 
will rise. 

DEL. WEAVER (Cal.) : This is « 
vote against, is it not? 

THE CHAIRMAN : Yes, it is. Th« 
motion to adopt as a whole is lost. 

DEL. TITUS : I move this amend 
ment to our constitution: ".No candi- 
date shall be nominated bv any subdi- 
vision of the party unless he is a mem- 
ber of the party, and has been such for 
at least one year; but this provision 
shall not apply to organi7.ations which 
have been in existence for less than one 
year." 

Amendment seconded. 

Delegate Simons (111.) moved Ihr 
previous question. Seconded. 

DEL. SPEARS: I move- as an 
amendment to the amendment 

THE CHAIRMAN: All in favor 
of the previous question will signify if 
by saying aye. All opposed to the pre- 
vious question will signify it by say 
ins no. Carried. 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio) : I want 1n 
speak against that, for three minutes. 

DEL. SIMONS (111.): T desire (<- 
speak first. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The report as 
a whole is before the convention. Com 
rade Hayes has the floor. 

DEL. SIMONS : I will take the floor 
first. 

DEL. HAYES: I am again.st adop- 
tion- 

THE CHAIRMAN : This is on the 
amendment. 

DEL. SPARGO: A question of 
privilege. I desire to ask the mover of 
that motion if, in order to cover the 
point that was evidently in mind, he 
will not include the words "or endorse," 
so that it shall read "nominate or en- 
dorse?" 

DEL. TITUS: Yes. 

DEL. BERLYN (111.) : I raise the 
point of order that a Socialist organiza- 
tion has no right to endorse anybody. 

DEL. I] AYES: T am opposed to 
the adoption of the amendment because 
I believe that is a matter that ought to 
be left to the states and locals them- 
selves. In the state of Ohio, by rea- 
son of the fact that municipal elections 
have been abolished in most of the 
cities, we would have probably forty 



t 



or fifty officials to be elected, which 
means that many of the locals will be 
unable to fill their tickets with candi- 
dates to be placed in the field at the 
coming election. We do not want to 
"o into the field with a rag-tag. and 
l,ob-tail. ticket. We want to go mto 
the field with a. complete ticket from be- 
ginning to end, and if you leave this 
matter to the state organizations we can 
at least run affairs in a satisfactory 
manner without the meddling of the na- 
tional organization. In the cities where 
we have put forth a great amount of 
energy and spent a great amount oi 
lime and money we have good locals. 
In the small towns they do not have 
sufficient membership— that is have 
not had sufficient members within the 
last year— to place tickets in the held. 
Now, then, when they come m, say 
after six months, although they may 
have voted the ticket much longer, 
under this amendment we cannot place 
them on the ticket, although we know 
that they are class-conscious Socialists 
and all-wool, yard-wide Socialists, and 
understand Marx in the original i do 
not know why a man who has been m 
the Socialist movement twenty years 
understands much more about it than 
some man who has been in it only one 
year. For that reason I am opposed to 
the measure. 

DEL. COLLINS (111.) : \ take the 
opposite side from Comrade Hayes 
from personal experience, both in this 
state and in the state of Pennsylvania. 
I know it from experience m Pennsyl- 
vania especially. During «ie time of 
the strike in the anthracite fields we or- 
ganized locals by the hundreds and 
fhey put up tickets, and they put men 
on the tickets who did not know So- 
cialism any more than a cow. That is 
why I object to any man or any woman 
going on the Socialist party ticket un- 
less they have been in the party one 
vear at least It has been the ruiiia- 
^fon of the movement in Pennsylvama, 
putting people on the ticket who knew 
nothing about Socialism. We all know 
from Lperience that when rnen come 
So the Socialist movement they do no 
know much about the P^^^ t^ ^^^f^^ics 
(applause), and we know that there 
are men that are always looking for 
political jobs, and those people who 
have friends in the little towns bo h m 
this state and m other states. If we 
go out and tell them that "You cannot 



get into political office until you are 
twelve months in our party," there will 
not be so many political ringsters work- 
ing to get into our party. (Applause.) 
For that reason i hope that the amend- 
ment of Comrade Titus will pass here 
without a dissenting vote. 

The question was called for. The 
motion being put on the amendment, it 
was declared carried. A division was 
called for, but on those in the affirma- 
tive rising, the division was waived. 

A motion was then made to adopt 
the report as amended. 

The question being put on the adop- 
tion of the constitution as amended, it 
was adopted. 

The Referendum and the Consti- 
tution. 

DEL. lARR: Did you not rule a 
while ago that it would not be too late 
after an adoption of the constitution to 
refer it to a referendum? 

THE CHAIRMAN: i so ruled. 

DEL. CARR: I so move that the 
constitution be referred to the party to 
be voted upon, section by section. Sec- 
onded. ' ,,T 

DEL. HANFORD (N. Y.) : We 
have sat here for a long time this week. 
We have considered this matter section 
by section when members tried their 
best to send it to people who knew 
something about these matters. Now it 
is adopted, and there is no w-ay for the 
members at large to do but vote for 
the constitution. Now, the point is that 
if you do send it to a referendum to be 
voted upon by sections, you will find 
one section stricken out and another 
section will be carried, and they will 
be in conflict with each other. Ihese 
comrades in voting at that time will 
have no opportunity for amendment, 
and after the constitution has been 
adopted questions will come up within 
the party because of the fact that some- 
thing is in the constitution and some- 
thing else is stricken out, and with the 
exception of mistakes and with the ex- 
ception of new errors it will be a reit- 
eration of this constitution as it stands. 

DEL. RICHARDSON (Cal) : I 
move as an amendment to the last mo- 
tion that the constitution shall be sub- 
mitted to a referendum vote to be voted 
on as a whole. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I hat has been 
carried, if I mistake not. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: Yes. 



r^ 



292 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



THE CHAIRMAN: A motion was 
made at the previous session that the 
constitution should be referred to the 
members as a whole. This motion 
that IS pending now is to refer it so 
that It can be taken up seriatim 
,u^^k- HILLQUIT: I desire to say 
that the reason for making the recom- 
mendation at that time, and it was fully 
discussed at the time the report was 
originally made, was this: that if the 
constitution as a whole was voted down 
we have another instrument to fall 
back upon, and that is the present con- 
stitution, but if this constitution is 
voted upon by sections and part of it 
is thrown out and part of it is left we 
remain without a working constitution. 
It the present constitution which is 
under consideration is not an improve- 
ment upon the old constitution from 
the standpoint of the members, we are 
at liberty to vote it down, and we have 
the old constitution; if on the other 
hand it is an improvement and if there 
should be some little flaw in it, we have 
provided for the amendment of any 
section at any time and its submission to 
a vote of the party. 
,^.DEL BOSKY (Minn.) : I do not 
think there is any danger whatever of 
this constitution being rejected on the 
referendum vote. There can be no 
danger whatever, because we do tiot 
make any additions to the constitution, 
we make them to our platform. The 
constitution is entirely sufficient. Leave 
ft to a referendum vote and it will be 
safe. That is all I have to say 

DEL. PARKS (Kan.) : We want a 
constitution to go into this campaign 
with, and we need this constitution to 
go into effect at once in order that the 
direction of our party may be under 
the right constitution. 

DEL. RICHARDSON: A point 
of order. A motion was formally 
made and entertained and adopted to 
refer this constitution to be voted on 
as a whole. No motion is in order ex- 
cept a motion to reconsider the vote. 

The Chairman decided the point of 
order not well taken. 

DEL. PARKS: Our constitution 
provides that a convention can amend 
the constitution, and I think that is a 
wise thing, because our constituencies 
have sent us here and entrusted us with 
the work of framing and adopting a 
constitution and platform for carrying 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



298 



on the party business. It will take m 
long time, forty-five days anyhow. Ki 
get a referendum and get this const I 
ution adopted. We need the constitii 
tion and we need it right now. 

ihe previous question was moved 
and seconded. The Chairman put tlic 
question, but before announcing the rp 
suit he called on the Secretary to rcail 
the motion. 

DEL. TITUS: I wish to speak uii 
this. 

THE SECRETARY: The origi„„| 
motion is that the constitution be sub 
mitted to a referendum by sections 

THE CHAIRMAN: The origiiii,! 
motion was to submit as a whole, and 
this motion is to submit seriatim. 

DEL. TITUS: I am going to talk 
in favor of this motion to submit seri 

T' TT-f, ^. <^bjection raised by Com- 
rade Hillquit is based entirely upon the 
assumption that the membership of the 
party is stupid. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: No 
. ^?L TITUS: Yes. If we cannot 
trust the membership of the party to 
vote on this intelligently section by sec- 
tion, then our party is stupid. Do you 
suppose they are going to strike out an 
important section which will qualify 
some other section? They are not that 
stupid. There is no danger whatever 
when you give the party an opportunity 
to vote section by section, but there iii 
danger in making it impossible for them 
to advance. If you are going back to 
the old constitution, it is a farce and 
you need not send it out at all. Sup- 
pose they want to vote against any 
single provision like the $1,500 salary, 
you cTive them a chance. Anyway, let 
the memhership be trusted; you know 
you can trust the membership of this 
party. W« have done it heretofore. 
They are jealous of their rights, and we 
have no business to take away their 
right to decide what constitution we 
shall work under. 

DEL. STRICKLAND: Comrade 
Chairman, I think we are losing siglit 
of the fact that the National Secretary 
in his report to us asked above every- 
thing else that we give to the National 
Committee a working constitution, and 
vye cannot do that by carrying this mo- 
tion to submit it seriatim. 

DEL. TITUS: You can't do it any 
other way. 



DEL. STRICKLAND: The only 
way that we can provide our National 
Committee with a working constitution 
soon is to submit this constitution as a 
whole or not submit it at all. You un- 
derstand, comrades 

DEL. TITUS: May I ask a ques- 
tion? 
DEL. STRICKLAND: Yes. 
DEL. TITUS: Will it take any 
longer to submit it seriatim than the 
other way? 

DEL. STRICKLAND: The result 
will be longer. The only way that we 
can be certain that we have a working 
constitution, and have it soon, is to 
submit it as we have already decided 
to submit it, as a whole. 

DEL. PARKS: Don't submit it at 
all. 

DEL. STRICKLAND: Well, don't 
submit it at all. In other words, the 
only way that we can provide our na- 
tional organization with a working con- 
stitution is to vote down this motion 
and leave the matter where it is. 
Several delegates called for a vote. 
The motion to refer seriatim was 
put and lost. The motion to refer as 
a whole was then carried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If there is no 
further report from that committee the 
committee will be discharged. 

DEL. CARR (III.): I move to re- 
consider the vote by which it was 
moved to refer as a whole, in order to 
move that it be not referred at all, if 
necessary. The motion to refer as a 
whole is an absolute farce. 
The motion was seconded. 
THE CHAIRMAN : How did you 
vote on the motion to refer as a whole? 
DEL. CARR: I don't believe I was 
present. 

The motion was declared out of 
order. 

DEL. HAZLETT (Col.): In view 
of the fact that the delegates to this 
convention have refrained from smok- 
ing during the sessions of the conven- 
tion, with much distress of_ mind to 
themselves, out' of consideration for the 
lady delegates present on the floor, I 
wish to move that a vote of thanks be 
tendered to the delegates for such con- 
sideration. 

The motion was seconded amid 
applause. 



DEL. SPARGO (N. Y.) : I desire 

on behalf of my friends, to say that we 
do not care for a vote of thanks ; but I 
would like to move a counter-motion, 
that in view of the fact that wo have 
refrained for six days or thereabouts 
from smoking., because they were op- 
posed to smoking, that they now oblige 
us by smoking each their first cigar. 

The Platform and the Referendum. 

THE CHAIRMAN: If there is no 
objection I will put both molion.s. All 
in favor of both motions will signify it 
by saying aye. Contrary, no. Tliey are 
carried. 

DEL. DALTON (III.) : A point of 
information. I want to ask if the plat- 
form adopted by this convention is to 
be sent to a referendum vote of the 
party ? 

THE CHAIRMAN : I do not know. 
I was not the chairman the other day. 
DEL. YOUNG (Md.) : I move that 
it be referred to a referendum vote. 
The motion was seconded. 
THE CHAIRMAN: I declare that 
out of order, on this ground, that the 
motion should have been made imme- 
diately after the adoption of the re- 
port. 

DEL. DALTON : Is that all the in- 
formation you can furnish? 

THE CHAIRMAN: There was no 
motion made to refer the platform. 

DEL. DALTON: Then I make a 
motion that the platform of the Social- 
ist party be referred to the member- 
ship of the Socialist Party for a vote, 
and I desire to speak on that. 
The motion was seconded. 
THE CHAIRMAN : I will rule that 
out of order, because it was not made 
at the time it was before the conven- 
tion. 

DEL. DALTON: I take an appeal. 
The ground of the appeal is, that the 
referendum is a fundamental law of 
the party, that no chairman and no ses- 
sion of this convention can overthrow 
and smash that law without going to 
the rank and file of the party and ask- 
ing them for their permission. 

VICE CHAIRMAN WILKINS : 
The question before the house is the 
appeal of Comrade Dalton of Illinois 
from the ruling of the chair. All who 
sustain the chair will manifest it by 
saying aye. Contrary, no. The chair is 
in doubt. 



294 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



0( 



.A division was called for, and on a 
rising vote the chair was- sustained by 
a vote of 62 to 37. 

A Resolution on Marriage. 

DEL. MAILLY: I ask leave to in- 
troduce the following resolution at this 
stage of the proceedings: 

"Whereas, Socialists are accused 
''^ being opposed to marriage; and 

Whereas, since this convention 
has been in session two of its mem- 
bers namely, A. A. Triller and Car- 
rie L. Johnson, of Iowa, have been so 
inconsiderate of the feelings of the 
opponents of socialism as to become 
united in marriage; therefore, be it 
Resolved, that this convention of 
Socialists presents its congratulations 
to the comrades named, and wishes 
them a long and happy life and suc- 
cess in their united work fof the 
cause." 

The adoption of the resolution was 
moved and seconded, and the resolu- 
tion was adopted with enthusiasm 

DEL. MAILLY: These are the finaj 
announcements we expect to make. You 
an know how our comrade Martin my as- 
sistant in the National office, has at- 
tended to the viseing and certifying of 
the railroad certificates of the delegates 
I thought it would be a matter of infor- 
rnation to the delegates to state to them 
that the passenger agents who were 
present on Tuesday for the purpose of 
visemg the certificates for the railroad 
companies_ informed me personally that 
m all their years of experience, at no 
convention had the railroad certificates 
been presented to them in the order 
that Comrade Martin had presented 
them; and I take pleasure in making 
that announcerpent and citing it as a 
testimonial to the fact that Socialists 
know how to systematize their work. 
Second, we have had a stenographic re- 
port of this convention taken, and ^e 
expect to have the proceedings printed 
very soon and sold at a nominal cost 
to the membership, and we wish you to 
push the sale. We shall get it out as 
soon as possible. 

DEL. MILLS (Kan.): Did I cor- 
rectly understand the chair? Is any- 
one who voted for the referendum of 
the constitution as a whole in order in 
moving a reconsideration of that Ques- 
tion r 

THE CHAIRMAN: You did. 



j^D|L.^MILLS: Is it still in ordn (.. 

THE CHAIRMAN: I would i,m| 
entertain the motion from anyone rs 
cept one who voted in the affirmalivf 

DEL. MILLS: I voted in the allli 
mative. Is it still in order for aiiyoiiM 
who voted in the affirmative to niovn 
to reconsider? 

THE CHAIRMAN: I think it In. 

DEL. MILLS: I wish to niakr it 
statement and a motion to that v\h'v\ 
Have I consent to do so? 

Several delegates were heard to kIvp 
consent. 

DEL. MILLS: The statemeni I 
wish to make is to this elYect : Whni 
the constitution is submitted as a wlmlp 
I think there is no question about iln 
being adopted. I am quite sure (ho 
comrades will_ agree with regard |.. ih, 
fact that if it were submitted so llml 
they could vote on each section by it 
self, then there would be a point in'siili 
mitting it to a referendum. But, as i( 
IS submitted as a whole, if it is put intn 
immediate operation as a whole, ihi 
comrades will have exactly the srinii 
remedy in that case that they would in 
the other. If we have the vote on Ihn 
referendum as a whole, that is the only 
way by which we can have the new 
constitution. If afterwards we fiml 
things that we want to amend wc can 
amend them by referendum. If, on (In- 
other hand, we thought that it .shonl.l 
take effect immediately on the adjourn 
ment of this convention, all of the coin 
rades were then in a position of act 
ing on the constitution, and at a sav 
ing of expense: In order to make 11 
motion, then, that the conslifntimi sh.ill 
go into immediate effect, I move a re 
consideration. 

The motion was seconded by Deir 
gate Jacobsen of Iowa, and was cm 
ried. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The question 
now before the house is the question nil 
referring the constitution to the mem- 
bership as a whole. 

DEL. MILLS: I wish to make % 
motion now that the constitution bq 
into immediate effect. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The motion 
was to refer the constitution to tlip 
members as a whole. That was 'car 
ried. This motion was a motion to re- 




consider, whiclj brings up the original 
motion. 

DEL. MILLS : Then I wish to make 
.m amendment by substituting that the 
lonstitution go into immediate effect. 

The motion was seconded. 

Delegate Weaver (Cal.) moved 
I he previous question. Seconded. 

DEL. D ALTON 111.) : I am op. 
jtosed to the constitution going into im- 
mediate effect, for this reason: I do 
not see how those who want the plat- 
form referred to the membership - are 
.^oing to have it referred if we adopt 
(his constitution. Acting under the old 
' onstitution, there is a provision to that 
< fifect. Now, I know that there is con- 
iderable opposition to things that we 
liave got in the platform, and there is 
no use bothering about it, but I want 
(o tell you plainly that you cannot do 
any good unless you have a united party 
and a united sentiment back of it. No 
matter what we say about how wise we 
are here we are no wiser than we should 
he in our locals on these matlers. If you 
ijet a vote of the membership on a 
referendum, no matter how good a plat- 
form you have, there will be some 
things that they will find fault with. 
("live them a chance at it. They may be 
intelligent, or they may be stupid, but 
we can never get above their intelli- 
r,'ence. 

DEL. WILKINS : I rise to a point 
of order. We are not considering any 
question concerning people's stupidity. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point of 
order is well taken. Comrade Daltoti 
will proceed in order. We arc not dis- 
cussing the question of platform, only 
the reference of the platform. 

DEL. DALTON: I am discussing 
ihe question of ;i refere;idi.nn of ilie cijii- 
stitution, and I have a right to cite in 
illustration anything which may be 
proper. I select the platform for that 
jiurpose. Am 1 in order? 

THE CHAIRMAN: Proceed. You 
have got half a minute. 

DEL. DALTON: Well, in that 
half minute I want to ask you men, will 
it not be wiser on our part to submit 
this platform and this constitution to 
a referendum of the party? 

DEL. HILLQUIT: A point of or- 
de"f. The motion now before the house 
cannot be entertained for the reason 
that our present constitution provides 
that the constitution may be amended 



fjy a convention, suliject to a refereii- 
duin, and in view of the fact that we 
have not amended that clause as pro- 
vided in the old constitution we have 
no alternative but to .submit the present 
constitution to a referendum. 

THiE CHAIRMAN: Was that con- 
stitution adopted through a referen- 
dum ? 

DEL. HILLQUIT: Yes, it was 
adopted by referendum. 

THE CHAIRMAN: The point of 
order is well taken, and the question 
before the house is on referring the 
constitution as a whole to a referen- 
dum. 

DEL. DALTON: A point of infor- 
mation. Will the ("liair furnish tie 
information now ? Can we refer the 
platform according to what Comrade 
Hillquit says and according to your 
understanding? 

THE CHAIRMAN: 1 Iml is the 
Chairman's view. 

DEL. WOODBEY (Cal.) : I under- 
stood Comrade Hillquit to say that the 
convention could not amend the con- 
stitution without submission to a refer- 
endum. But this is not a question of 
amendment of the old constitution. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Do you raise" a 
point of order ? 

DEL. WOODBEY: Yes. My point 
is that according to Comrade Hillquit's 
statement the convention cannot amend 
the constitution without submitting it 
to a referendum. But this is only a 
question of adopting a new constitu- 
tion. There is a difference between the 
two. 

THE CHAIRMAN: Ihold that your 
point of order is not well taken. 

DEL. WOODBEY: I appeal from 
the decision of the chair on that point. 

DEL. MILLS (Kan.) : May I read 
from the old constitution ? Comrade 
Woodbey, if you will waive that just 
a moment I think vve can settle this. Do 
I have your consent? 

DEL. WOODBEY: Yes. 

DEL. MILLS: The constitution 
reads, "this constitution may be amend- 
ed at any national convention subject to 
a majority referendum vote of the 
party, or by referendum without such 
action of the convention," etc. I think 
the point of order is well made, and I 
submit the motion was out of order. 
Under the rule it must go to a refer- 
endum. 



296 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



1 



the referendum of the constitution to 
wa™dLS^^^^^^•■ This question 

th^t^h ^^^^' I move now to amend 
that this referendum be by sections. 

ine motion was seconded, and the 
question was called for 

DEL HANFORD : I rise to a nnfnf 

that Comrade Mills' motion by wh S 
we come back to the referendum IgSn 

out^of "/de^"- ^'^ ^^'^'^ ^^-? - 
th.^^.?'^^^^^^^^: The chair rules 
that the question before the house iJ 
the motion which was brought into ex- 

i's t'oTefe^ ''' reconsideratiL, and that 
IS to refer as a whole, and the comrade's 
amendment to refer seratim, which is 
now before the convention. 

DEL. HANFORD: The question to 
tSe"housr'°'^' ' ^'^'"^' '' "- '^^f°- 

THE CHAIRMAN: No, the amend 
ment is before the house. 

DEL. HANFORD : What is the 
amendment? 

THE CHAIRMAN: The amend 
ment ,s the amendment of Comrade 
<-arr to refer seratim. 

DEL. HANFORD: Yes. Now 
what I want to get at is this: that the 
motion to refer as a whole is in order 
tor the simple reason that the reference 
IS provided for in the old constitution 
and you have got to refer. How often 

often shall we reconsider our action? 
^ow if we keep this up I am going to 

tlien I will elect myself Chairman and 
Secretary of this convention, and I 
will reconsider every act tUat has hap- 
pened here when there were two-hun- 
dred delegates and I will be the party 
for I can last as long as anybody 
. At this point there was much confu- 

ZL^f '^^ ^" ""<^ ^'^^ chairman 
rapped for order 

Iik?^to' ^^r.^^^\ ^^"-^^ I would 

like to speak on the amendment 
„,£?L>^ILLS: I rise to a point of 
order. The motion to submit seriatim 
has beeri already voted down, gnd can- 
not be discussed now. The only ques- 
tion before the house is the motion to 



reconsider, and I 



question on that motion. 



move* the prcvloii. 



-" '"■' >'" i"dL mori( 
THE CHAIRMAN: The point n( 
order is not well taken 

have this constitution sent to a rcfcrni 
dum m one form or another, and „ 
amazed at the delegates here puttinV 

cause T ho T? ^^-"^^ membership, I,, 
cause 1 have here m my hand the nlm 
form that you adopted yesterday, w 
out debate, m which we say that^'wril 
fieve in popular government and ih,. 
inmative and referendum. (Applan.s. 
And I submit that if you deny ihr 
membership of the Socialist paify 
the United States the right to vm. 

that this statement here is a falsr 
hood with many other statements |ji,,i 
I^^beheve are false within this du.-„ 

DEL. WOODBEY: I rise f, ,. 
pomt of order. It has already Ln 
moved to refer, and therefore there 
nothing to refer. 

A^^^V ^^^?-'- Whether you do ,„ 
do not send this to a" referendum fn, 
this convention, it will be sent in u 
form or another. 

DEL. CLARK (Neb.): I supDorl 
the amendment of Comrade Car: C' 
ecfV-^?-;,-^ do not consider the c 
iective intelligence of this convent iu, 
's greater than the collective T, 
gence of the entire Socialist Party | 
do not consider that we have a riRlH 
to deny the entire Socialist Party a 
opportunity to vote upon the entire s" 
cialist constitution, and to vote upon 
It section by section, or an opportSy 
to vote for their amendment? or m 
opportunity to argue and discuss t i," 
different propositions pro and con be 
ween themselves. If we have a sll 
^et^thl If constitution that will nol 
get the endorsement of the party, thci 
t ought not to be m the constitution 
(Applause.) And, if wc are afraid Ih 
we have put something in there Iha 
they will not endorse, then by all 
rneans let us give them an opportunity 
to vote upon that constitution 

DEL. GAYLORD (Wis.) : There 
has been no motion as vet for the nrc 
v.ous question I have got a story fhlf 
I believe ought to be told right now 
and I am going to tell it. I believe in' 
the referendum. Let me tell you Ih ' 



I 



Afternoon Session, May 6. 



297 



story. There was once a printer and 
lie was setting up something from the 
I opy. He called the foreman and said, 
"Foreman, that thing isn't quite right, 
is it?'^ The foreman looked at it and 
said, "Well, you follow copy." Just 
then a gust of wind came and took the 
copy out of the third-story window, and 
the printer said, "All right, here goes," 
;md he followed the copy. There are 
men that would like to follow the prin- 
ciple of the referendum in exactly that 
same fashion. The comrade talks about 
collective intelligence. Collective intel- 
ligence is a good thing when you can 
focus it, but the intelligence of a col- 
lective body must be focused in order 
to be effective. It is not a question of 
how much collective intelligence there 
is in the Socialist Party compared with 
the collective intelligence of this body. 
This body was selected for a certain 
purpose and it is supposed to carry out 
that purpose. The provision is not 
made in the national constitution for 
referendum seriatim. Understand, that 
has gone once to a referendum. If they 
had believed always in the seriatim ref- 
erendum and the referendum always is 
absolutely right, they would have pro- 
vided at that time for a seriatim refer- 
endum every time. Why didn't they? 

Delegate Strickland moved the pre- 
vious question. Motion seconded and 
carried. 

DEL. IRENE SMITH (Ore.) : I 
wish to speak on this question just to 
this effect. We are thinking of sending 
out this constitution to be voted upon, 
which I hope will be carried, seriatim, 
by the party, and until that is done it 
is feared that we shall have no consti- 
tution to work by. See here, comrades, 
we have got the great constitution of 
the SociaHst Party of the world, and 
don't be afraid ; the party won't go to 
pieces if we don't have a party consti- 
tution for a few weeks. I agree with 
the fine sentiments of the comrades that 
have spoken here today in support of 
democracy. I believe our cause is safer 
in the hands of the party as a whole 
than it is in the hands of a few ex- 
cited delegates here this afternoon or 
any other time, and therefore I do hope, 
in conclusion, that you will see to it 
that you do this courtesy to the boys 
that could not be here and the girls that 
could not be here, to trust to their 
judgment and let this constitution go 
before them to be voted upon 'seriatim. 



and trust in their ability and intelli- 
gence to decide what they want in the 
constitution. 

DEL. WOODBEY: It seems to me 
there don't need to be very much said 
about this. Remember this, now, that 
if this constitution goes before the peo- 
ple to be adopted seriatim and a mate- 
rial section of that constitution is 
knocked out, then we are at the ex- 
pense of another referendum and with- 
out a constitution. Remember, now, be- 
cause the old constitution will not be in 
effect. 

A DELEGATE: Yes it will. 

DEL. WOODBEY: Not at all. If 
the people who adopted the constitution 
without having it done seriatim had 
wanted it done that way they would 
have fixed it and made it mandatory in 
the old constitution that all thjngs be 
submitted seriatim. It does not. 

DEL. IRENE SMITH: Yes. 

DEL. WOODBEY: The constitution 
does not provide anything of the kind. 
The constitution does not provide that 
we shall submit it seriatim, but it does 
say that it shall be submitted, mark you, 
and I think the people elected the dele- 
gates to this convention with the idea 
that the delegates have sense enough to 
adopt a sufficient constitution, tl believe 
that the people will adopt the constitu- 
tion as a whole. I believe another 
thing: That if, after this convention, 
we find ourselves after sixty days or 
three months without a constitution, 
that we might possibly get along. I am 
in favor of submission as a whole. 

The question was then put on the 
amendment to submit the constitution 
to a referendum vote seriatim, and the 
amendment was lost. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Under the pro- 
visions of the last constitution, endorsed 
by the members of the party, this con- 
stitution will go to them upon a refer- 
endum as a whole. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: Urider the head 
of new business, I move, in accordance 
with the resolution, that the national 
body issue credentials to Comrade 
Schluetter, of New York, to represent 
this party at the International Socialist 
Congress. Comrade Schleutter is the 
editor-in-chief of the New York "Volks 
Zeitung," and has been a member of the 
party for the last quarter of a century. 
He is well qualified to represent it at 
the congress, and he intends going. 



298 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



299 



DEL. HAYES (O.) : I would like to 
include the name of Comrade Morris 
Hillquit in that motion. 

The question was put on the issuance 
of credentials to Comrade Schleutter, 
and was carried. 

DEL. REILLY (N. J.) : I move that 
credentials be issued to Comrade 
Charles Kiehm of New Jersey. 

DEL. HILLQUrr : He is a member 
of the party of New Jersey and is going 
to attend the Liternational Congress. 
He has obtained credentials from the 
New Jersey State Convention, but un- 
der our rule today they would become 
nugatory. I know the comrade to be a 
good raeniber of the party, and I second 
the nomination. 

The question on the issuance of cre- 
dentials to the New Jersey comrade was 
put and carried. 

DEL. HAYES: I desire to put the 
name of Morris Hillquit before the con- 
vention, and move that credentials be 
issued to him. 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

DEL. MAILLY ; We have voted cre- 
dentials to three comrades to act as dele- 
gates. Under the action taken there are 
still seventeen. 

DEL. ROSE (Miss.) : I have a reso- 
lution. It is that as we have referred 
the state and municipal program to the 
National Committee, the National Com- 
mittee shall within ninety days provide 
a state and municipal program for the 
instruction of the p^irty membership. 

The motion was seconded and carried. 

As to a Campaign Committee. 

DEL. DALTON: I move that the 
Natio.nal Committee, the Executive 
Committee of the Socialist Party be the 
Campaign Committee for the year 1904. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You don't 
mean that for one moment. 

DEL. DALTON: I said I did. 

THE CHAIRMAN : I know you did, 
but do you mean for them to have the 
power and run the campaign as a gen- 
eral committee? It seems to me we 
should have at least one man from each 
state. Well, you have heard the mo- 
tion that they constitute the Campaign 
Committee. 

The motion was seconded. 

DEL. BERLYN (111.) : I make the 
point of order that this motion is out 
of order, for we have sent a new con- 
stitution to a referendum of the party 
and the Executive Committee does not 
exist. 



THE CHAIRMAN: I hold that lli# 
point of order is not well taken. 

A DELEGATE: He said the N« 
tional Committee. 

THE CHAIRMAN: You said hiilli 
National and Executive Cominiltr*, 
Which do you mean? Do you mean titil 
National Executive Committee or ijiii 
National Committee ? 

DEL. DALTON: I mean the now 
Executive Committee. 

DEL. GaYLORD: A point of or 
der. We are acting under workiilH 
rules that we have adopted, which pro 
vide that this committee shall be elci'lrd, 
This motion provides that a commitlnit 
not yet in existence or elected by tlili 
convention shall be the Campaign Coin 
mittee. 

DEL. HILLQUIT: I desire In 
amend the motion of Comrade Dalloii, 
that the affairs of the campaign be li'fl 
to the National Secretary until siirll 
time as an executive committee is (inly 
elected, whereupon the Executive Coin 
mittee shall perform the functions of 
Campaign Committee during the cnii 
paign. 

DEL. DALTON: I accept \\\w\ 
amendment. 

DEL. GAYLORD : A point of order, 
That motion is based upon an assuinji 
tion that the membership will eudoriti' 
the constitution now to be submitted In 
them. If the membership should rcfiitii 
to endorse the constitution the affairn 
of the present campaign will be left cli 
tirely in the hands of one man. 

THE CHAIRMAN: 'I'he point of 
order is not well taken. 

DEL. MAILLY: In answer to Com- 
rade Gaylord I will state that until th» 
adoption of this constitution we Jiad it 
constitution, the form that was in exist- 
ence till this convention met. Under ll 
committeemen were selected. Their 
term has not yet expired, as they wora 
selected by referendum last year, and ths 
National Committee now in exislciu'O 
imder the present constitution can ill" 
rect the National Secretary, so the af- 
fairs of the party are not in the hands of 
one man. He is still under the direction 
of the present National Committee un 
til this constitution is endorsed by tlij 
membership. 

CHAIRMAN STEDMAN: T want 
to move as a substitute this : tJiat tlu' 
National Committee, or Executive Coni' 



mittee, if they so designate, constitute 
the campaign committee with power to 
add to its number. 
The motion was seconded. 

THE VICE-CHAIRMAN: Are you 
ready for the question? 

CHAIRMAN STEDMAN : The rea- 
son I do that is this : You m.ay find 
one man in one location, and you may 
find five men in another adapted to the 
work of the national campaign. There 
must be a committee on press and print- 
ing, there must be a committee on lit- 
erature, there must be some one to work 
out the routes of different speakers dur- 
ing the campaign, and you will find a 
hundred different things to think of. 
You will find one person qualified in 
one direction, and another person quali- 
fied in another direction. You combine 
the members with the various qualifica- 
tions into the campaign committee. When 
the work of the campaign is closed the 
committee makes its report to the Na- 
tional Committee and goes out of exist- 
ence. I am satisfied that will be the 
most effective method of conducting 
your national campaign. I state that 
from experience, and I have had twelve 
or fourteen years' experience. 

DEL. MAILLY: I am sorry to take 
issue with the statement that the Exec- 
utive Committee has power to add to 
its members. That might be advisable 
if we did not already have an office force 
in the national office. There are four 
persons in the national office. I do not 
see any necessity for the amendment, or 
the provision giving power to add. We 
have four persons in the national office 
already, and the work is gradually be- 
ing subdivided, and I think a commit- 
tee of seven or nine is large enough, 
so I favor the amendment with that 
provision excluded. I think Comrade 
Stedman will find, with the development 
of the campaign and with the present 
organized force in the office, that it is 
unnecessary to give it power to add. 

The question on the substitute was 
then put and the substitute was lost. 

The original motion as amended was 
then carried. 

Delegate Waldhorst (Ala.) offered the 
following resolution, and moved its 
adoption : 

Resolved, That this Convention re- 
quest all unattached Sociahsts to file 
their names and residences with the 



respective State or the National Secre- 
tary, as the case may be. 

That we instruct the National Sec- 
retary to have the Platform and such 
other printed matter in one little pam- 
phlet for the use of the membership 
as quick as possible. 

The motion to adopt the resolution 
was seconded and carried. 

DEL. HAYES (Ohio) : I move that 
this convention extend a vote of thanks 
to the secretaries and all the chairmen 
who have served during the sessions 
of this convention. 

DEL. D. M. SMITH (111.) : I move 
a vote of thanks to every delegate who 
has not risen to a point of order. 

Motion seconded and carried. 

DEL. MAHONEY (Conn.) : I hope 
you will have patience while a delegate 
from Connecticut speaks. I will not 
take longer than necessary. It is not 
the fault of the Connecticut delegation 
that the Connecticut delegation has sat 
here in silence throughout this whole 
session. Let me tell you, comrades, it is 
not because we are not in the movement. 
We have been in the Socialist move- 
ment for seven or eight years, and we 
have been fighting the battle of the 
down-trodden class through the trades- 
union movement for the last fifteen or 
sixteen years, and I assure you that the 
Connecticut delegation has not sat here 
in silence for nothing, While they have 
.sat in silence they have thought, and 
when they go back to their constituents 
in Connecticut they will be better able 
and better prepared to go before the 
public and fight for the emancipation of 
the dispossessed proletariat of Connecti- 
cut. Another thing I wish to say is 
this : As I have said, we .sat silent 
representatives in an organization that 
stands for the overthrow of the sy.stem 
that is represented by rent, interest and 
profit. There has also been an illus- 
trator of the rent, interest and profit 
system used in this convention, and that 
illustrator has become, in my estimation, 
historical. That silent illustrator of the 
capitalist system represented by rent, in- 
terest and profit, is Comrade Parks' 
stick. Comrade Parks' stick I wish to 
carry back to the Connecticut proletari- 
ans as a representative token of the si- 
lence of their delegates while in this 
convention. I therefore request that the 
convention request Comrade Parks to 



300 



Afternoon S^ession, May 6. 



present to the Connecticut delegation 
the historical stick. 

Delegate Berlyn moved that the con- 
vention adjourn. Seconded. 

THE CHAIRMAN : Comrade Strick- 
land will close the meeting by leading 



us with the "Marseillaise." 

There being no further businpi«K lit 
transact, Delegate Strickland led in llin 
singing of the "Marseillaise," and Ml 
7:20 P. M. the convention adjoiiiiiKil 
sine die, with three cheers for SociallKH 



APPENDIX 



If 



hisi of Deiegaies to the National toni)eniioH 



301 



No. 1. 



List of Delegates 



Name. Address. 

ALABAMA. 
Waldhorst, F. X 1016 S. 23d St., Birmingham. 

ARKANSAS. 

Lc Fevre, Dr. Wells 1409 W. Barraqiie St., Pine Bluff. 

Penrose, Wm Medith. 

CALIFORNIA. 

Cobb, John Lyman Dos Palos. 

Deutzman, Chas. P 121 Eddy, U. S. Hotel, San Francisco. 

Keller, Paul Box 5, Santa Clara. 

McKee, Harry M 130 National Ave., San Diego. 

Patton, John J 490 N. Raymond Ave., Los Angeles. 

Richardson, Noble A 780 Fifth St., San Bernardino. 

Weaver, Herman B 535 Third St., Chico. 

Wilkins, Bertha S ..725 S. Olive St., Los Angeles. 

Wilkins, M. W Dimond. 

Wilson, Jackson Stitt Highland and Ridge Sts., Berkeley. 

Woodbey, George W 703 12th St., San Diego. 

COLORADO. 

Ash, Wm. M Delta. 

Floaten, A. H Telluride. 

Hazlett, Ida Crouch. 2137 Stout St., Denver. 

Miller, Guy E 

Southworth, Royal A. 420 Charles BIdg., Denver. 

CONNECTICUT. 

Mahoney, Cornelius 173 Frank St., New Haven. 

Toomey, Eugene 86 Cedar St., New Haven. 

IDAHO. 
Ault, Erwin B 526 Main St., Lewiston. 

ILLINOIS. 

Berlyn, Bernard ,. .662 E. 63d St., Chicago. 

Block, Samuel loio Jefferson Ave., Peoria. 

Breckon, Chas. L 673 Burling St., Chicago. 

Brower, James H 380 North St., Elgin. 

Carr, Edward E 134 Vermilion St., Danville. 

Collins, John 579 W. Huron St., Chicago. 

Dalton, Wm. S 39th St. and Langley Ave., Chicago. 

McEachern, Duncan B 1839 92d Place, Chicago. 

Mance, A. W 283 Wells St., Chicago. 



M 



List of Delegates to the National Convention, 



ILLINOIS— Continued. 

Meyer, Theodore 226 Ontario St., Chicago. 

Morgan, Thomas J 79 Dearborn St., Chicago. 

Phelan, J. E 

Smith, D. M' 6419 Jackson Ave., Chicago. 

Smith, Jas. S 318 W. Madison St., Chicago. 

Simons, Alzie M 227 i6th Ave., Melrose Park. 

Stedman, Seymour 519 E, 66th St., Chicago. 

Taft, Marcus H 99 Randolph St., Chicago. 

Untermann, Ernest Lombard. 

INDIANA. 

Barrett, Wm 524 E. Washington St., Indianapolis. 

Debs, Eugene V 451 N. 8th St., Terre Haute. 

Gridley, Albert T 60 Harrison St., Aurora. 

Hollenberger, Matt 1531 Law Ave., Evansville. 

Oneal, James 269 Boylston Bldg., Chicago. 

Reynolds, Stephen M 11 15 S. 6th St., Terre Haute. 

INDIAN TERRITORY. 
Whitelatch, Wm. T Durant. 

IOWA. 

Bennett, John W 107 Market St., Sioux City. 

Jacobsen, Jno. J 1129 12th St., Des Moines. 

Johnson. Carrie L 295 6th St., Dubuque. 

Work, John.M 1313 Harrison Ave., Des Moines. 

KANSAS. 

Cogswell, Eleanore G 708 Bluff St., Rosedale. 

Kraybill. Luella R 105 E. New St.. Coffeyville. 

Mills, Walter Thomas Box 405, Kansas City, Mo. 

Neal, Wm. S Udall. 

Parks, Wade R Bonita. 

Will, Thomas Elmer 207-9 Sedgwick Block, Wichita. 

KENTUCKY. 

McGrady, Thomas 319 Poplar St., Bellevue. 

Markert. F. R 2526 Dtineau St. 

Nagel, Adam L 506 E. 3d St., Newport. 

Robinson, Frank L 709 First St., Louisville. 

LOUISIANA. _ 
Putnam, Wilbur Evangeline. 

MARYLAND AND DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Toole, Wm. A. 136 Gitting St.. Baltimore. Md. 

Young, Sylvester, L. V 334 S. Locust St., Plagerstown, Md. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Carey, James F Haverhill. 

Brandt, Herman "jz Avon St., Maiden. 

Gibbs, Howard A 46 Abbott St., Worcester. 

Hayman, Alexander 2 Proctor St., Haverhill. 

Kelly, John J 62 Grattan St., Chicopee Falls. 

Keown, James A 23 Ireson St., Lynn. 

Littlefield, Geo. E Westwood. 

Outram, Alfred B 150 Poplar St., Chelsea. 

White. Dan A 13 Crowell St., Brocton. 

MICHIGAN. 

Benessi, Wm. L 746 Portage St., Kalamazoo. 

Lamb, Clayton J Dryden. 

McFarlan, Jas. H 726 Church St., Flint. 

Menton, John A. C 1323 S. Saginaw St., Flint. 

Walter, Wm, E 



List of Delegates to the National Convention. 

MINNESOTA. 

Brantland, M. A ..Ada. 

Bosky, Edward 512 S. Minnesota, New Ulm. 

Ford, Edwin B 314 Central Ave., Faribault. 

Gilbertson, A. N Willmar. 

llolman, S. M 11 Oak St., S. E., Minneapolis. 

Klein, Nicholas Wrenshall. 

Leonard, Geo. B 535 Andrews Bldg., Minneapolis. 

Lucas, Thos. H 348 Kent St., St. Paul. 

MISSOURI. 

Behrens, E. T 1200 E. 3d St., Sedalia. 

Brandt, W. M 319 Walnut St., St. Louis. 

Dilno, Fred H 206 N. 13th St., St. Louis. 

Garver, Wm, L Chillicothe. 

Hoehn, G. A 324 Chestnut St., St. Louis. 

Knecht, Carl 230 S. Main, Poplar Bluff. 

Lipscomb, Caleb Liberal. 

Palmer, T. E 1220 Holmes St., Kansas City. 

Turner, Geo. H 14 Rookery Bldg., Kansas City. 

Raible, Hugh J 634 Main St., Jasper. 

Rathbun, John H 910 S. Missouri Ave., Sedalia. 

MISSISSIPPI. 
Rose, Sumner W Biloxi. 

MONTANA. 

Hirt, John 1025 5th Ave., S., Great Falls. 

McHugh, C. C City Hall, Anaconda. 

O'Malley, Malcolm G 746 Maryland Ave., Butte. 

Walsh, John H Lewistown. 

NEBRASKA. 

Clark, Wm. E 269 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. 

Hawkins, J. W S19 N. i6th, Omaha. 

Hyland, Patrick J 4014 Decatur St., Omaha. 

Mailly, Wm 269 Dearborn St., Chicago, 111. • 

NEW HAMPSHIRE. 
Murray, James S Concord. 

NEW JERSEY. 

Rurrowes, Peter E 622 Chestnut St., Arlington. 

Glanz, Wm 68 Lyon St., Patterson. 

Kronenberg, Carl 128 Congress St., Jersey City. 

Oswald, Walter L 37 Locust Ave., Arlington. 

Uf ert, Chas 590 Clinton Ave., West Hoboken. 

Reilly, James M 285 Barrow St., Jersey City. 

Rubinow, David 67 Congress St., Newark. 

Strobell, G. H 44 Hill St., Newark. 

NEW YORK. 

Atkinson, Warren 122 Ft. Green Place, Brooklyn. 

Bush, C. P Falconeer. 

Butscher, Wm 279 Hooper St., Brooklyn. 

Curtis, A. L. Byron 4 St. Joseph's Place, Rome. 

Dobbs, Charles ^36 E. 23d St., New York. 

Ehret, Wm *. . . .1580 First Ave., New York. 

Flanagan, Peter J 36 Somers St., Brooklyn. 

(jerber, Julius 461 Bushwick Ave., Brooklyn. 

lianford, Ben 781 Marcy Ave., Brooklyn. 

I lerron, Geo. D 59 W. 45th St., New York. 

I lillquitt, Morris 67 W. 131st St., New York. 



ao3 



304 



List of Delegated to the National Convention, 



NEW YORK— Continned. 

Jonas, Alexander 223 E. i8th St., New York. 

Lee, Algernon 3 W. 115th St., New York. 

Dressier, Gustave . 1507 Washington Ave., New York. 

Sieverman, Frank A 184 Wilkin St., Rochester. 

Slobodin, Henry L 60 Second Ave., New York. 

Spargo, John 610 E. 84th St., New York. 

Wegener, Otto 11 Cooper Square, New York. 

Wessling, H. W 164 Locust Ave., New Rochelle. 

Mayell, Alfred A 220 E. S2d St., New York. 

Wilshire, Gaylord » . . . Cor. Bdy. & 77th, Hotel Belleclaire.N V 

Hawley, C. P 

NORTH DAKOTA. 

Haight, S. E Osnabrock. 

Thams, Tonnes 320 8th St., Fargo. 

OHIO. 

Bandlow, Robert 33 Gladstone St., Cleveland. 

Bickett, Charles A 221 1 Marquis St.. Cincinnati. 

Farrell, Daniel P ._ 568 W. 4th St., Dayton. 

Goss, Martin '. 233 Wilson St., Newark. 

Hayes, Max S 193 Champlain St., Cleveland. 

Stanton, W. A 427 12th St., Toledo. 

Webster, Warner L 32 Woodlawn Ave., Cleveland. 

Willey, Charles E 627 Erie St., Youngstown. 

Zorn, Julius T09 Odd Fellows' Temple, Cincinnati. 

OKLAHOMA. 

Hays, Roy Goodnight. 

Kolachny, Jas. V Hennessey. 

Loudermilk, A. S 520 E. Wade St., El Reno. 

Ren.shaw. Achilles W Hennessey. 

Snyder, J. E Skedee. 

OREGON. 

Smith, Irene M 1115 N. 5th St., Tacoma. Wash. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Ayres, Hugh G 712 Church St., Royersford. 

Barnes, J. Mahlon 232 N. gth St., Philadelphia. 

Bacon, Geo. W 13 E. Market St., York. 

Forbes, Miss S. Innes 901 Pine St., Philadelphia. 

Goaziou, Louis 730 Washington Ave., Charleroi. 

Heydrick, Charles 631 State St.. Erie. 

Gagliardi, Frank Box loi, Belle Vernon. 

Maurer, James M 1516 N. loth St.. Reading. 

Moore, Edward 3462 N. Water St., Philadelphia. 

Ringler, Robert B 347 Spence St., Reading. 

SOUTH DAKOTA. 

Knowles, Freeman 50 Van Buren St., Deadwood. 

Potter, O. C Sioux Falls. 

TENNESSEE. 
Stockell, Chas. H 60254 Church St., Nashville. 

TEXAS. 

Kerrigan, John 346 Elm St., Dallas. 

Langworthy, R. 608 Virginia Ave., San Antonio. 

Latham, Ernest B 719 E. California St., Gainesville. 



1 



List of Delegates to the National Convention, 

WASHINGTON. 

Lund, O Merchants' Hotel, Spokane. 

Titus, Hermon F 2003 2nd Ave., Seattle. 

WISCONSIN. 

Ammann, Henry J Kiel. 

Berger, Victor L 344 6th St., Milwaukee. 

Bistorius, H. W 516 2d Ave., Milwaukee. 

Born, Jacob W 604 State St., Racine. 

Cross, Ira B 511 Francis St., Madison. 

Gaylord, Winfield R 1632 Meinecke Ave., Milwaukee. 

Heath, Frederick 344 6th St., Milwaukee. 

Hunger, Jacob 602 Chestnut St., Milwaukee. 

Seidel, Emil 1154 20th St., Milwaukee. 

Spence, J. M. A 417 S. Adams St., Green Bay. 

Thomas, Elizabeth H 344. Sixth St., Milwaukee. 

WYOMING. 

Ott, Frederick W Laramie. 



305 



306 



The National Platform. 



No. 2. 



The National Platform 



AS REPORTED BY THE COMMITTEE ON PLATFORM AND ADOPTED 
BY THE CONVENTION. 



I. 

The Socialist Party, in convention assembled, makes its appeal to the Amni 
ican people as the defender and preserver of the idea of liberty and self-Rovrin 
ment, in which the nation was born; as the only political movement standiiiK fiM 
the program and principles by which the liberty of the individual may bccomn 
a fact; as the only political organization that is democratic, and that has for ll« 
purpose the democratizing of the whole of society. 

To this idea of liberty the Republican and Democratic parties are ctiiiitlU 
false. They alike struggle for power to maintain and profit by an jnduHliltil 
system which can be preserved only by the complete overthrow of such libcilln* 
as we already have, and by the still further enslavement and degradation of liilioi 

Our American institutions came into the world in the name of frcnldill 
They have been seized upon by the capitalist class as the means of rootiiiR nil* 
the idea of freedom from among the people. Our state and national legisl;iliin«fi 
have become the mere agencies of great propertied interests. These interests niii 
trol the appointments and decisions of the judges of our courts. They have i-niHii 
into what is practically a private ownership of all the functions and forcrt (i( 
government. They are using these to betray and conquer foreign and wniltitr 
peoples, in order to establish new markets for the surplus goods which the in'ciiiU 
make, but are too poor to buy. They are gradually so invading and restrii'tmj 
the right of suflFrage as to take away unawares the right of the worker to a vmU 
or voice in public affairs. By enacting new and misinterpreting old laws, lh«|f 
are preparing to attack the liberty of the individual even to speak or think for hlin< 
self, or for the common good. 

By controlling all the sources of social revenue, the possessing class i,i nlilll 
to silence what might be the voice of protest against the passing of liberty hI)^ 
the coming of tyranny. It completely controls the university and public sriifiiil, 
the pulpit and the press, and the arts and literatures. By making these cconnin 
ically dependent upon itself, it has brought all the forms of public teachind |||(H 
servile submission to its own interests. 

Our political institutions are also being used as the destroyers of thnf Ib< 
dividual property upon which all liberty and opportunity depend. The proii|||| 
of economic independence to each man was one of the faiths upon which rUlf 
institutions were founded. But. under the guise of defending private propurljfi 
capitalism is using our political instituitons to make it impossible for thr vr|| 
majority of human beings ever to become possessors of private property in |||| 
means of life. 



The National Platform. 307 

Capitalism is the enemy and destroyer of essential private property. Its devcl- 
ovment is through the legalized confiscation of all that the labor of the working 
class produces, above its subsistence-wage. The private ownership of the means 
of employment grounds society in an economic slavery which renders intellectual 
md political tyranny inevitable. 

Socialism comes so to organize industry and society that every individual 
ihall be secure in that private property in the means of life upon which his liberty 
of bemg, thought and action depends. It comes to rescue the people from the 
fast increasing and successful assault of capitalism upon the liberty of the indi- 
vidual. 

II. 

As an American socialist party, we pledge our fidelity to the principles of in- 
ternational socialism, as embodied in the united thought and action of the social- 
ists of all nations. In the industrial development already accomplished, the inter- 
ests of the world's workers are separated by no national boundaries. The condi- 
tion of the most exploited and oppressed workers, in the most remote places of 
f^e earth, inevitably tends to drag down all the workers of the world to the same 
.evel. The tendency of the competitive wage system is to make labor's lowest \ 
condition the measure or rule of its universal condition. Industry and finance are 
no longer national but international, in both organization and results. The chief 
significance of national boundaries, and of the so-called patriotisms which the ruling 
class of each nation is seeking to revive, is the power which these give to capital- 
ism to keep the workers of the world from uniting, and to throw them, against 
each other in the struggles of contending capitalist interests for the control of the 
yet unexploited markets of the world, or the remaining sources of profit. 

The socialist movement, therefore, is a world-movement. It knows of no 
conflicts of interests between the workers of one nation and the workers of an- 
other. It stands for the freedom of the workers of all nations ; and, in so stand- 
ing, it makes for the full freedom of all humanity. 

III. 

The socialist movement owes its birth and growth to that economic develop- 
ment or world-process which is rapidly separating a working or producing class 
from a possessing or capitalist class. The class that produces nothing possesses 
labor's fruits, and the opportunities and enjoyments these fruits afford, while 
the class that does the world's real work has increasing economic uncertainty, 
and physical and mtellectual misery, for its portion. 

The fact that these two classes have not yet become fully conscious of their 
distinction from each other, the fact that the lines of division and interest may 
not yet be clearly drawn, does not change the fact of the class conflict. 

This class struggle is due to the private ownership of the means of employ- 
ment, or the tools of production. Wherever and whenever man owned his own 
land and tools, and by them produced only the things which he used, economic 
independence was possible. But production, or the making of goods, has long 
ceased to be individual. The labor of scores, or even thousands, enters into 
almost every article produced. Production is now social or collective. Practically 
everything is made or done by many men — sometimes separated by seas or con- 
tinents—working together for the same end. But this co-operation in production 
is not for the direct use of the things made by the workers who make them, but 
for the profit of the owners of the tools and means of production ; and to this 
is due the present division of society into two classes; and from it have sprung 
all the miseries, inharmonies and contradictions of our civilization. 

Between these two classes there can be no possible compromise or identity 
of interests, any more than there can be peace in the midst of war, or light in the 
midst of darkness. A society based upon this class division carries in itself the 
seeds of its own destruction. Such a society is founded in fundamental injustice. 
There can be no possible basis for social peace, for individual freedom, for mental 
and moral harmony, except in the conscious and complete triumph of the working 
class as the only class that has the right or power to be. 



308 



The National Platform. 



The National Platform. 



309 



IV. 

The socialist program is not a theory imposed upon society for its acceptance 
or rejection. It is but the interpretation of what is, sooner or later, inevitable. 
Capitalism is already struggling to its destruction. It is no longer competent 
to organize or administer the work of the world, or even to preserve itself. The 
captains of industry are appalled at their own inability to control or direct the 
rapidly socializing forces of industry. The so-called trust is but a sign and form 
of the developing socialization of the world's work. The universal increase of 
the uncertainty of employment, the universal capitalist determination to break 
down the unity of labor in the trades unions, the widespread apprehensions of 
impending change, reveal that the institutions of capitalist society are passing 
under the power of inhering forces that will soon destroy them. 

Into the midst of the strain and crisis of civilization, the socialist movement 
comes as the only conservative force. If the world is to be saved from chaos, 
from universal disorder and misery, it must be by the union of the workers of all 
nations in the socialist movement. The socialist party comes with the only prop- 
osition or program for intelligently and deHberately organizing the nation for 
the common good of all its citizens. It is the first time that the mind of mail 
has ever been directed toward the conscious organization of society. 

Socialism means that all those things upon which the people in common de- 
pend shall by the people in common be owned and administered. It means that 
the tools of employment shall belong to their creators and users; that all pro- 
duction shall be for the direct use of the producers; that the making of goodn 
for profit shall come to an end; that we shall all be workers together; and that 
all opportunities shall be open and equal to all men. 

V. 

' To the end that the workers may seize every possible advantage that may 
strengthen them to gain complete control of the powers of government, anil 
thereby the sooner establish the co-operative commonwealth, the Socialist Party 
pledges itself to watch and work, in both the economic and the political struggle, 
for each successive immediate interest of the working class ; for shortened day* 
of labor and increases of wages; for the insurance of the workers against acfi' 
dent, sickness and lack of employment; for pensions for aged and exhausted 
workers; for the public ownership of the means of transportation, communication 
and exchange ; for the graduated taxation of incomes, inheritances, franchises and 
land values, the proceeds to be applied to the public employment and improvr- 
ment of the conditions of the workers ; for the complete education of children, 
and their freedom from the workshop; for the prevention of the use of the mill' 
tary against labor in the settlement of strikes; for the free administration of 
justice; for popular government, including initiative, referendum, proportional 
representation, equal suffrage of men and women, municipal home rule, and till 
recall of officers by their constituents ; and for every gain or advantage for till 
workers that may be wrested from the capitalist system, and that may relieve tlli« 
suffering and strengthen the hands of labor. We lay upon every man elected 
to any executive or Jegislative office the first duty of striving to procure whatever 
is for the workers' most immediate interest, and for whatever will lessen tllC 
economic and political powers of the capitalist, and increase the like powers o( 
the worker. ' 

But, in so doing, we are using these remedial measures as means to the /hi 
great end of the co-operative commonwealth. Such measures of relief as|w«« 
may be able to force from capitalism are but a preparation of the worker! \n 
seize the whole powers of government, in order that they may thereby lay K>I(| 
of the whole system of industry, and thus come into their rightful inheritance/^ 

To this end we pledge ourselves, as the party of the working class, to tilt 
all political power, as fast as it shall be entrusted to us by our fellow- worker! 
both for their immediate interests and for their ultimate and "complete emancipi« 
tion. To this end we appeal to all the workers of America, and to all wliO 
will lend their lives to the service of the workers in their struggle to gain thflf 



own, and to all who will nobly and disinterestedly give their days and energies 
unto the workers' cause, to cast in their lot and faith with the socialist party. 
Our appeal for the trust and suffrages of our fellow-workers is at once an appeal 
for their common good and freedom, and for the freedom and blossoming of our 
common humanity. In pledging ourselves, and those we represent, to be faithful 
to the appeal which we make, we believe that we are but preparing the soil of that 
economic freedom from which will spring the freedom of the whole man. 



1 



1 



310 



The National Constitution. 



No. 3. 



The National Constitution 



AS REPORTED BY THE COMMITTEE ON CONSTITUTION AND AFTERWARDS 
AMENDED AND ADOPTED BY THE CONVENTION. 



ARTICLE I. 

Name. 
Section i. The name of this organization shall be the Socialist Party, cu 
cept in such states where a different name has or may become a legal requiremenli 

ARTICLE II. 
Membership. 

Section i. Every person, resident of the United States, of the age of eightmi 
years and upward, without distinction of sex, race, color or creed, who has srv 
ered his connection with all other political parties, who subscribes to the principle* 
of the party, shall be eligible to membership in the Party. 

Sec. 2. Any person occupying a position, honorary or remunerative, by I hi' 
gift of any other political party (civil service positions excepted) shall not In- 
eligible to membership in the Socialist Party. 

Sec. 3. A member who desires to transfer his membership from a local ni 
one state to a local in another state may do so upon the presentation of his cnrd 
showing him to be in good standing at the time of asking for such transfer. 

Sec. 4. No member of the party, in any state or territory, shall under an; 
pretext, interfere with the regular or organized movement in any other state. 

ARTICLE III. 
Management. 
Section i. 71ie affairs of the Socialist Party shall be administered by a Nil 
tional Committee, its officers and executive committee, the party conventions, iitul 
the general vote of the party. 

ARTICLE IV. 

National Committee. 

Section i. Each Organized state or territory shall be represented on ihr 
National Committee by one member and by an additional member for every iinn 
thousand members or major fraction thereof, in good standing in the party. l''<il 
the purpose of determining the representation to which each state or terriloiv 
may be entitled, the National Secretary shall compute at the beginning of ciitli 
year the average dues-paying membership of such state or territory for the pro- 
ceding year. 

Sec. 2. The members of this committee shall be elected by referendum void 
of and from the membership of the states or territories which they respect ivrly 
represent. Their term of office shall not be more than two years. The mcmlirii 
of the National Committee shall be subject to removal by referendum vote of tlicll' 
respective states. 

Sec. 3. The National Committee shall meet in regular session once a yrnr 
in all even-numbered years when no national convention of the parly shall Ink* 
place. Special meetings shall be called at the request of a majority of nu-nilicin 



The National Constitution. 



311 



of the committee. The dates and places of such meetings shall be determined 
by the National Committee. 

Sec. 4. Expenses of the National Committeemen in attending meetmgs shall 
be paid from the National treasury. 

Sec. 5. Between the sessions of the National Committee, all its busmess 
shall be transacted by correspondence. 

Sec. 6. The National Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure not 
inconsistent with the provisions of this constitution. 

ARTICLE V. 
Duties and Powers of the National Committee. 

Section i. The duties of this committee shall be to represent the party in all 
national and international affairs; to call national nominating conventions and 
special conventions decided upon by the referendum of the party; to make re- 
ports to national conventions, and to receive and pass upon all reports and ac- 
tions of the Executive Committee. The National Committee shall also arrange 
the rules and order of business for all Conventions, subject to adoption or amend- 
ment by the Convention. 

Sec. 2. The National Committee shall neither publish nor designate any of- 
ficial organ. 

ARTICLE VI. 

Executive Committee. 

Section i. The Executive Committee of the National Committee shall be 
composed of seven members to be elected by the National Committee, from the 
membership of the party; but no more than three members of the said committee 
shall be elected from one state. The term of office of the members of the Ex- 
ecutive Committee shall be one year. 

Sec. 2. The Executive Committee shall meet at least once in three months. 
It shall supervise and direct the work of the National Secretary, organize un- 
organized states and territories, receive semi-annual reports from the state com- ■ 
mittees, receive and pass upon the reports of the National Secretary, and transact 
all current business of the national office, except such as are by this constitution 
or by the rules of the National Committee expressly reserved for the National 
Committee or the general vote of the party. 

Sec. 3. The Executive Committee shall adopt its own rules of procedure not 
inconsistent with this constitution or with the rules of the National Committee. 

Sec. 4. The Executive Committee shall transmit copies of the minutes of its 
meetings to all members of the National Committee, and all its acts and resolu- 
tions shall be subject to the revision of the National Committee. 

Sec. 5. Between sessions of the Executive Committee all its business shall be 
transacted by correspondence. 

ARTICLE VII. 

National Secretary. 

Section i. The National Secretary shall be elected by the National Commit- 
tee ; his .term of office shall be one year. The National Secretary shall receive 
as compensation the sum of Fifteen Hundred Dollars annually. 

Sec. 2. The National Secretary shall have charge of all affairs of the Na- 
tional office subject to the direction of the Executive Committee and the Na- 
tional Committee. He shall receive the reports of the state organizations and of 
the local organizations in unorganized states and territories. He shall supervise 
the accounts of the national office, and* the work of the lecture bureau, the litera- 
ture bureau and such other departments as may hereafter be established in con- 
nection with the national office. 

Sec. 3. The National Secretary shall issue to all party organizations, _ in 
such way as the Executive Committee may direct, monthly bulletins containing 



312 



The National Constitution. 



a report of the financial affairs of the Party, a summary of the conditions and 
the membership of the several states and territorial organizations, the principal 
business transacted by his office, and such other matters pertaining to the organ- 
ization and activity of the party, as may be of general interest to the member- 
ship, buch bulletins shall not contain editorial comment. 

Sec. 4. The National Secretary shall be empowered to secure such help as 
may be necessary for the proper transaction of the business of his office. 

Sec. 5. The National Secretary may be removed from office at any time by 
a majority vote of the members of the National Committee. 

ARTICLE VIII. 

The Lecture Bureau. 

Section I. There shall be maintained in connection with the National office 
a Lecture Bureau for the purpose of arranging tours for lecturers for the prop- 
aganda of Socialism. ^ ^ 

Sec. 2. The Lecture Bureau shall have no connection with the work of or- 
ganization, and It shall have the right to make arrangements for the lecturer."! 
under its auspices with all state or local organizations of the party. 

Sec 3. The National Committee shall establish a uniform rate of compen- 
sation tor all lecturers and organizers working under its auspices. 

ARTICLE IX. 

The Literature Bureau. 

Section i. The National Committee shall also maintain in the headquarters 
ot the party a department for the dissemination of socialist literature. 

Sec. 2. The Literature Bureau shall keep for sale to the local organizations 
of the party and others, a stock of socialist books, pamphlets and other litera- 
ture, and shall have the right, with the approval of the Committee, to publish 
works on socialism or for the purposes of socialist propaganda, but this clause 
shall not be construed as authorizing the Bureau to publish any periodical. 

isec. 3. The profits of the Literature Bureau shall go into the general funds 
of the party treasury. 

ARTICLE X. 
Conventions. 

Section i. The regular national conventions of the party shall be held in 
all years in which elections for President and Vice-President of the United 
states are to be held. 

Sec. 2. Special conventions of the party may be held at any time if decided 
upon by a general vote of the party membership. 

u 11 r' I' J'l^ dates and places of holding such regular or special conventions 
shall be fixed by the National Committee. 

Sec. 4 The basis of representation in any national convention shall be by 
states, each state and territory being entitled to one delegate at large, and one 
additional delegate for every two hundred members in good standing, provided 
however, that no delegate shall be considered eligible unless he is a resident of tlie 
state from which the credential is presented. 

Sec. 5. Railroad fare of the delegates, going to and coming from the conven- 
tion, shall be paid from the national treasury, and such expenses shall be raised 
liy a per capita assessment on the entire membership. 

ARTICLE XL 

Referendum, 

Section i. Motions to amend any part of this constitution, as well as any 
other motions or resolutions to be voted upon by the entire membership of the 
party, shall be submitted by the National Secretary to a referendum of the party 



The National Constitution. 



318 



membership, upon the request of twenty local organizations, in five or more 
"tat« or territories, or any smaller number of local orgamzations having a mem- 

bershio of at least two thousand in the aggregate. 

Sec 2 Whenever a request for a referendum shall have been made as above 
orovided the National Secretary shall forthwith cause the same to be published 
fnSe party press, and shall allow such question to stand open for thirty days 
witSn whch time amendments may be offered thereto m the same manner m 
which an original request for a referendum is to be made, and at the close of the 
Sd neriod of thirty days, the original motion submitted to referendum, together 
wih'al and any amendments whi!h might have been offered, f f ^e -ibmitted 
to the vote of the party members, and such vote shall close forty-five days there- 

^*'"sec 5. All propositions or other matters submitted for the referendum of the 
party shall be presented without preamble or comment. 

ARTICLE XII. 

State Organizations 

Section I The formation of all state or territorial organizations or the re- 

organ™n of state or territorial organizations which "^^^ haJ^S^S rule 

under the direction of the Executive Committee, and m conformity with the rules 

of the National Comnnttee^^^ ^^ ^^^^^.^^^ ^^^^^^ 

localswith an aggregate membership of not less than one hundred but this 
provisio^ shall not affect the rights of states and territories organized prior to 

^'^ llf r ?he'platfTm "orthe Socialist Party shall be the supreme declara- 
tion of the par?y and all state and municipal platforms shall conform thereto 
and no state ooJal organization shall under any circumstances fuse, combin 
or comoromise with any other political party or organization, or refrain from 
makinrnSnations in order to favor the candidate of such other organizations, 
nor shaU a^ycandidate of the Socialist Party accept any nomination or endorse- 
mf'nt from anv other party or political organization. . 

Sec 4 In states and territories in which there is one central organization 
affiliated tith the party, the state or territorial organizations shall have the sole 
iursdictioT of the members residing within their respective territories and the 
S con rol o all matters pertaining to the .propaganda, organization and financia^ 
aftairs within such state or territory; their activity shall be confined to th«r 
?esoectivToSanizations, and the National Committee and sub-committees or offi- 
rerfthereof shall have 'no right to interfere in such matters without the consent 
of the -PecHv-gte or^te^^^^^^^^ ^^ , 

Secretary ^concerning their membership, financial condition and general standing 

""^ ^stc^^e'^The State Committees shall pay to the National Committees every 
month a sum equal to five cents for every member in good standmg withm their 

"'^Set^.^' AlTltaie organizations shall provide in their constitutions for the 
itiStJafivp referendum and imperative mandate. , ,• • • ^ ^u 

Sels No person shall be nominated or endorsed by any subdivision of the 
nartv for candidate unless he is a member of the party, and has been such for 
SlLt one year; but this provision shall not apply to organizations which have 
been in existence for less than one year. 

ARTICLE XIII. 
Headquarters. 

Section I. The location of the headquarters of the party shall be determined 
by the National Committee. 



1 



314 



The National Constitution. 



ARTICLE XIV. 



Report of Committee on State and Municipal Program. 315 



• Amendments. 

Section I. This constitution may be amended by a national convention or by 
a reterendum of the party in the manner above provided. 

ARTICLE XV. 

Time and Method of Taking Effect. 

Section I. This Constitution shall take effect, and be in force, from and 
atter the time of its approval by national referendum of the party membership 
In voting upon this constitution members must vote upon it as a whole. 



rVk 



No. 4. 



Report of Committee on State and Municipal Program 



The following report of the Committee on State and Municipal Program was 
referred to the National Committee for revision, to be afterwards submitted to a 
referendum of the party: 

To the National Convention of the Socialist Party, assembled in Chicago, III., 

May, 1904: 

Comrades: Your Committee on State and Municipal Program beg lerve to 
submit the following report: 

We wish first of all to call the attention of the convention to the fact that 
the report of this committee is unanimous. This is contrary to the expectations 
of the members of the committee, but is the apparently natural outcome of the 
discussion which took place in the sessions of the committee. 

We wish, secondly, to express the opinion of the committee that nothing in 
this report, if adopted by the convention, is to be considered as otherwise than 
suggestive, or as being in an;- way mandatory or binding upon the various state 
and municipal conventions; since the various states and municipalities have their 
own characteristic economic development and political situation. 

In view of the difficulties attending the work of those elected to public office 
to represent the Socialist Party, as already developed in the experience of such 
officials, and also in view of the problems attending the proper preparation of 
state and municipal platforms, your committee have adopted the following reso- 
lutions, and transmitted a copy of them to the Committee on Constitution: 

Whereas, The Committee on State and Municipal Program regard it as es- 
sential that the Socialist Party should have a permanent Committee on State and 
Municipal Affairs, with a permanent Secretary, whose office shall be at the na- 
tional headquarters; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we, the Committee on State and Municipal Program, recom- 
mend that in the constitution of the party, provision should be made for the or- 
ganization of a Committee on State and Municipal Affairs, with a permanent Sec- 
retary, whose office shall be at the national headquarters, and recommend that 
the following provisions become a part of the constitution of the party: 

Section A. There shall be elected at each national convention a Committee 
of nine on State and Miunicipal Affairs. 

Sec. B. The committee shall have power to fill vacancies occurring among 
its members during the interim between the meeting of the national conventions. 

Sec. C. The object of the committee shall be that of an advisory committee 
to suggest lines of activity to local and state officers and to assist them in secur- 
ing data and in the preparation of resolutions, ordinances, bills and such other 
legal measures for the carrying out of the Socialist program as may be necessary, 
and also to advise the party, where it may desire, in the preparation of local and 
state programs. 

Sec. D. The Committee on State and Municipal Affairs shall, on the ap- 
proval of the Executive Committee of the National Committee, elect a permanent 
secretary, whose office shall be at the national headquarters, and his compensation 
shall be fixed by the Executive Committee. 

Sec. E. The expenses of the Committee on State and Municipal Affairs 
while attending its meetings shall be paid from the National Treasury. 



^ 



316 Report of Committee on State and Municipal Program. 



STATE PROGRAM 



SUGGESTIONS FOR XHB ACTIVITY OF SOCIAUST MEMBERS OF THE STATB LEGISIA- 
SUGGEbT ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ SOCIAUST PARTY IS A MINOR PARTY . 

PREAMBLE FOR STATE PROGRAM, 
n^hp nrincioles of the Socialist platform cannot be carried into full effMJ 

st^u^gL wtch%\Jutht into'^^^^^^ iocialist 'movement and the S-'a ». 

Partv T^i must defend the interests of the workmg c ass against the en 
frSmSS'of the capitalist class, and decline in J-, P-i--SLtr?n' s 
trading with capitalist representatives for favorable legislation. ^^"^^^^[^/V"/; 
edsTa^ures and local administrations may well be guided by *e advice of thf 
pe^rent Co",amittee on State and Municipal Program provided by the national 

'^^"Ihe Allowing fugStL^s"a?e made as a preliminary basis for the activity 
( c ■ i;Vr i^prnher^ of the state legislatures and local administrations, with 111* 
uldSdLrthat'thry S: notma^datory, binding, or anything else than su« 
gestive : 

PUBLIC SCHOOLS. 

Freedom of speech and expression of opinioh by teachers and students 

Se textbooks for teachers and pupils; uniform text-books on a 1 subjects tU 
he furnished free to public schools, and to private schools on request. 

The choice of textbooks to be'left to a committee composed of teachers and 
students in all institutions above the grade of high schools. _ 

In history and economics, the . proletarian standpoint to receive equal consul 
f ration with the capitalist standpoint. 

Compulsory education for both sexes up to the age o i8 years. 

cHducation in all branches of science, and manual trainmg for both sex«l 

^° 'id^t^trprSS ?or Srmo^nious physical culture and development through 
. ,vVteSc course of gymnastics and open air exercises, a minimum time fof 
Lch ex'^Sses to be made a requirement for students of both sexes throughoul 

'" Extension of the public school system to assure equal, educational opportunitjjl 
to all classes in all branches of learning; public supervision of all educational in- 
stitutions to secure an equal educational standard. 

STATE MILITARY LAW. 

The repeal of all militia, law which surrenders the POwer of the governor 
over the mS to the federal authorities; and members of the state mihtia to M 

'"-'T^J'S^r^^^ r^t. militia to elect their officers; and st... 

""'FedSa^troofs'to bT^rShSed 'fTom interfering in disputes between capi..)- 
ists and laborers. 

CITIES. 

The autonomy of all municipalities in the matter of the ownership and ope 
tion of all enterprises vital to the municipality as such. 



i 



Report of Committee on State and Municipal Program. 317 

PUBLIC WORKS. 

For the purpose of employing the unemployed and educating citizens in co- 
operation, the state to inaugurate a system ol good roads, a comprehensive system 
of dramage, forestry and irrigation, state farms in connection with agricultural 
experiment stations, and to build bomes to be rented at a price not exceeding the 
cost of production and maintenance. 

The contract system to be abolished in all public workh and such work to be 
done by the state directly. 

OLD AGE PENSIONERS. 

All persons above the age of 6o to be exempt from labor, and to be entitled to 
pensions of not less than the current minimum wage. 

SICK AND DISABLED. 

Adequate facilities to be provided, at public expense, for the care and main- 
tenance of all sick and disabled persons. 

TAXATION. 

A graudated income tax and graduated inheritance tax to be imposed such 
revenue to be used solely in the interest of the working class, not to relieve the 
middle class of taxation. 

LIQUOR TRAFFIC. 

Public control of the entire liquor traffic. 

REGULATION OF CORPORATIONS. 

Railroad and all other corporations operating under public franchises to b- 
placed under state control, and to have their rates fixed by law. 

THE COURTS. 

_ The abolition of all court costs and sheriff's fees in the commencement of 
suits and the abolition of all costs for appealing cases to the courts of last resort 
The establishment of free legal departments. 
Sufficient courts to secure speedy trials. 

PRISON SYSTEM. 

The present brutal system of treating criminal per ons to be replaced by a sys- 
tem of pathological treatment. This includes the abolition of the prison contract 
system, death penalties and isolated confinement, and the substitution therefore of 
sanitariums in rural localities with adequate healthful open-air employment and 
treatment corresponding to modern scientific psychological pathology. 

SUFFRAGE 

The right to vote not to be contingent upon the payment of any taxes, either 
in money or public labor. 

Women to have equal political rights with men. 

Residence qualifications for all elections not to exceed sixty days. 

LABOR LEGISLATION. 

An eight hour day and a minimum wage, uniform for both sexes. 

Free state employment agencies. 

All specific laws detrimental to the working class to be repealed, such as con- 
spircy, anti-boycott and anti-picketing laws; and the abolition of the injunction 
;is a means of breaking strikes. 

Trial by jury in all cases by which a person may be deprived of liberty. 



y.l8 Report of Committee on State and Municipal Program. 

INSPECTION. 
Public inspection of all factories and institutions employing labor. 

LAND. 
All land held for speculation, and all land not occupied or used by the owiifH 
to be subject to purchase by the state at an advance of lo per cent, on the as.srNii«.| 
valuation, as fixed by the owner. 

.n^'^^^^'i'^'i- ^?,''^'' ^."1 ""'"/"^^ ^^"^' to be developed under state dircdinii 
and control directly, and farm lands to be open for use with public assistanco. 

DIRECT LEGISLATION. 
The initiative, referendum and imperative mandate to be put into operalii.li 



MUNICIPAL PROGRAM. 



SUGGESTIONS FOR THS ACTIVITY OF LOCAI, SOCIALIST ADMINISTRATIONS WHII.K 'IHI. 
PARTY IS A MINORITY PARTY. 



PREAMBLE FOR MUNICIPAL PROGRAM. 

Socialist representatives in municipal administration should always bear rlr.ii 
ly in mmd the scientific ba.sis of the Socialist municipal program. Under canil«l 
ism the municipalization of the public enterprises has been compelled in tli • ii. 
Lr?/fV?fM' ^""^'"^^f "^^^-Jl^ F^^t of a few has come to interfere with Ih. 
graft of the remainder of the business world, on account of the developmciil ol 

might be called municipal capitalism, which would operate these publicly owi.nl 
mdus ries for the purpose of reducing the taxes of present property holders 

.f fi T f n"™*" '" """^ ^^""^ Socialism will operate these enterprises in on* 
01 tne three following ways : 

cr.n JiPf ^^^^ r?'*"^ absolutely free of cost to the public, paid for out of till* 
fu^^pfy'^f^New'SS ''' "^'^ ^"' '''''''' '''''''' ''''''''' ^^ *^^ ^^^ -«'• 

Ply fnTof thf Sed^sTafes'"olto£: '"^^^"^^' '''' "^"^' ^^^°^^ °^ ^^^ -" 
Third. Service furnished at a profit to the municipality, the profits to li» 
used for the benefit of the whole community. Instance, th; taking of wat 
works profits for the perfection of fire department and extension of^pa?ks. Im | 
and playground systems. ^ ' '" 

All other measures a« to be considered in the light of their bearing upon till 
workmg class as such. Those which will prepare the working peoole for tl a 5 
part in the class struggle by increase of intdligence, strengthenilg'of tLir boS 
securing independence or certainty of livelihood for them, are to be considr rl 
as so many weapons making for their victory. On the other hand, thetakili 
away from the capitalist class of exclusive privileges, making the courts fr2 
o all and securing as far as possible, the limitation of those powers fi, an' Ji; 
legal, social and political which have accumulated in the hands of the cS (, 

al eveTy ste'p ' '""''"' '"^ ""^^ '^' ""'''"'^ ^^ '^' "°^'^'"^ '^^'' more ri' J 

PUBLIC EDUCATION. 
I.— CHANGES IN INSTRUCTION. 

1. Sufficient kindergartens for all children of proper age 

2. Manual training (not trade schools) in all grades 

3. General introduction of idea of development and freedom in education 
close connection with thmgs, according to principles of modern pedagogy 



Report of Committee on State and Municipal Program. yi9 

4. Teaching of economics and history with evolution of industry as base 
5- Establishment of vacation schools. 
6. Adequate night schools for adults. 

7- Instruction of children as to child labor legislation and rights of chil- 
dren before the law. 



I. 

2. 

3- 



■j 



II.-CHANGES AFFECTING TEACHING FORCE. 

Adequate number of teachers (small classes in all schools). 
Normal school training required as minimum qualification for teaching 
Right of trial for teachers before dismissal. 
Pensions for teachers when superannuated or disabled. 

III.— CARE OF CHILDREN. 

Uniform free text-books for all schools, public and private, on demand 
Free meals and clothing. 
_ Free medical service, inspection for eyes, ears, mental faculties (for educa- 
tional purposes), and for contagion. 

IV.— EQUIPMENT. 

1. Arequate buildings, numerous, not too large. 

2. Ample playgrounds, with physical instructor in charge. 

3. Museums, art galleries, libraries, etc., enlarged and accessible to all chil- 
dren through frequent visits accompanied by teachers. 

4. Baths and gymnasiums in each school. 

5. All school buildings open evenings, Sundays and holidays for public as- 
semblages. 

MUNICIPAL OWNERSHIP. 

I.— PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT. 

1. Reduction of hours and increase of wages to correspond with improve- 
ments m production. 

2. No profits to be used for reduction of taxation. 

3. Pension for all city employes when sick and disabled. 

II.— INDUSTRIES SUGGESTED FOR OWNERSHIP. 

1. AH industries dependent on franchises, such as street cars, electric and 
gas lighting, telephones, etc. 

2. Bakeries, ice-houses, coal and wood yards, department stores, slaughter- 
houses where they are needed. 

Ill— MUNICIPAL AUTONOMY. 

1. Municipal autonomy for the ownership and operation of all enterprises 
vital to the municipality as such. 

2. Issuance of bonds for this purpose up to 50 per cent of the assessed val- 
uation. 

3. Issuance of debenture bonds, secured by plants to be acquired or built. 

WORKING CLASS GOVERNMENT. 

1. Police not to be used in interest of employer against strikers. 

2. Free legal advice. 

3. Abolition of fee system in all courts. Trial by jury without extra expense. 

4. Abolition of fines as ajternative to imprisonment. 

5. Establishment of municipal labor bureau for investigation, inspection and 
report upon conditions of labor. 



820 



Report of Committee on State and Municipal Program. 



Rules of the Convention. 



321 



GENERAL MEASURES FOR PUBLIC RELIEF. 

1. Establishment of useful works and extension of public functions to give 
work to unemployed. 

2. Free medical service, including free medicine. 

3. Adequate hospital service with no taint of charity. 

4. Homes for aged and invalid. 

5. Night lodgings for men out of employment and without homes. 

6. Pensions for all public employes. 

7. Free public crematory. 

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH. 

1. Inspection of food, punishment of all harmful adulteration. 

2. Public disinfection after contagious diseases. 

3. Publicly owned and administered baths, wash-houses, closets, laboratories, 
drug stores, and such other things as care of public health demands. 

4. Adequate system of parks, public play-grounds and gymnasiums. 

FACTORY LEGISLATION. 

1. Special laws for protection of both women and children in both mercan- 
tile and industrial pursuits. 

2. No child under 18 may be permitted to work at any gainful occupation, 
including selling papers, blacking shoes, etc. 

HOUSING QUESTION. 

1. Strict legislation against over-crowding, provision for light and ventilation 
in all rooms. 

2. Building of municipal apartments lo rent at cost of care of buildings and 
depreciation — no return for ground rent to be demanded. 

3. Condemnation and destruction by the city of all tenements not conform- 
ing to proper standards of light, ventilation and over-crowding. 

PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT. 

1. Direct employment by the city— abolition of contract system. 

2. Fixing of minimum wage not lower than standard trade union rate. 

TAXATION. 

r. Progressive income tax, such revenue to be used solely in the interests 
of the working class, and not to relieve the middle class of taxation. ^ 

2. Taxation of ground rents. \ 

3. Exemption of household furniture and laborers' homes up to $2,000. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

1. Erection of "Labor Temple" by municipality as headquarters, meeting 
place and educational center for workers of the city. 

2. Publication of municipal bulletin, containing complete news of all munici- 
pal activity. 

The Committee : Ernest Untermann, Illinois, Chairman ; John M. Work, 
Iowa. Secretary; Seymour Stedman, Illinois; Winfield R. Gaylord. Wisconsin; -■__ 
S. M. Reynolds, Indiana; Luella R. Kraybill, Kansas; J. J. Kclley, Massachusetts; 
Warren .\tkinson, New York. 



No. 6. 

Rules of the Convention 



(Report of the Committee on Rules, after amendment and adoption by the 
Convention.) 



r. A Chairman and Vice-Chairman 
shall be elected at the commencement 
of each day's session. 

2. A Secretary and two (2) Assis- 
tants shall be elected for the entire con- 
vention. 

3. A Reading Clerk and one (i) As- 
sistant shall be elected for the conven- 
tion, 

4. A Sergeant-at-Arms and Assistant 
shall be appointed for the entire Con- 
vention. 

5. Five (5) Pages and five (5) Mes- 
sengers shall be appointed from visiting 
members by the Sergeant-at-Arms. 

6. Four (4) Tellers and two (2) 
Judges to count all ballots shall be ap- 
pointed for the entire convention. 

7. A Committee on Platform shall be 
elected, to consist of nine (g) members. 

8. A Committee on Constitution shall 
be elected to consist of nine (9) mem- 
bers. 

9- A Committee on Resolutions shall 
be elected, to consist of nine (9) mem- 
bers. 

10. A Committee on State and Mu- 
nicipal Program shall be elected, to con- 
sist of nine (g) members. 

11. The Standing Committee on Mu- 
nicipal Program appointed by the In- 
dianapolis Convention shall report to the 
Committee on State and Municipal Pro- 
gram. 

12. A Press Committee shall be ap- 
pointed, to consist of five (5) members. 

13. An Auditing Committee of five 
(5) members shall be appointed by the 
chair, to stand unless objected to by the 
convention. . 

14. A Committee on Ways and Means 
shall be elected, to consist of nine (9) 
members. 

15. A Committee on Trades Unions 
shall be elected, to consist of nine (9) 
members. 

16. Discussions shall be limited to 
ten (10) minutes for each speaker. No 
speaker shall speak a second time until 
all desiring to use their time shall have 



had an opportunity to speak. 

17. The sessions of the Convention 
shall begin at g a. m. and continue to 
12 a. m., and from 1:30 p. m. to 5 130 
p. m. ; and a night session as soon as the 
reports of committees are ready or have 
been called for. The night sessions shall 
extend from 7:30 to 9:30. 

18. Roberts' Rules of Order shall be 
used, with the exception that when the 
previous question has been called for, 
three delegates on each side of the ques- 
tion shall be allowed three minutes each 
for closing the debate before the ques- 
tion is put. 

19. During the sessions of the Con- 
vention no smoking shall be allowed on 
the floor of the Convention. 

20. Order of Business: 

I. Report of the Committee on 
Credentials. 

Report of the National Secre- 
tary. 

Report of Local Quorum. 

Report of the Committee on 
Platform. 

Report of the Committee on 
State and Municipal Program. 

Report of the Committee on 
Resolutions. 

Nomination of Candidate for 
President. 

Nomination of Candidate for 
Vice-President. 

Report of Secretary of the In- 
ternational Socialist Bureau. 

Election of delegates to the In- 
ternational Socialist Con- 
gress.. 

Report of Committee on Ways 
and Means. 

Report of Auditing Committee. 

Report of the Committee on 
Constitution. 

21. All votes to be taken by ayes and 
nays, and, when division is asked for, by 
a rising vote. Roll call to be had only 
when asked for by majority. 

22. Minority Report from the Com- 
mittee on Rules. 



la 



322 



Resolutions Adopted by the Convention. 



Resolutions Adopted by the Convention. 



323 



No. 5. 



Resolutions 



ADOPTED, AFTER AMENDMENT, BY THE CONVENTION 



ON THE COLORADO OUTRAGES. 

"Whereas, The Socialist Party is the only political organization of the work- 
ing class, pledged to all its struggles and working ceaselessly for its emancipation, 
it declares this convention against the brutality of capitalistic rule and the sup- 
pression of popular rights and liberties which attends it ; and calls upon all the 
workers of the country to unite with it in the struggle for the overthrow of capital-, 
ist domination and the establishment of economic equality and freedom. 

"Time after time workers have been imprisoned, beaten and murdered for 
no other reason than that they were struggling for some measure of that comfort 
and decency of existence to which as the producers of wealth they are entitled, 
The master class has, in various states and cities, organized citizens' alliances, 
manufacturers' associations, anti-boycott associations and the like, which, in order 
to disrupt and crush out the economic organization of the workers, have instituted 
a reign of lawlessness and tyranny, and assailed all the fundamental principles and 
most cherished institutions of personal and collective freedom. By suborning the 
executive and judicial powers in various states they have infringed upon the lib- 
erties of the American people. 

"Under their baleful influences, in direct contravention of the letter and the 
spirit of the Constitution, civil authority has been made subordinate to the military 
in Pennsylvania, Colorado and elsewhere. Freedom of the press and the right of 
public assembly have been denied in many states; and by the Dick militia bill 
liability to compulsory military service has been imposed upon all males between 
the ages of eighteen and forty-five. 

"At the present time there exists in Colorado a state of violent capitalist 
anarchy and lawlessness with the consent and under the armed protection of the 
state government. Peaceable citizens have been forcibly deported by armed bodies 
of lawbreakers, aided and abetted by military usurpers of the civil powers ; invol- 
untary servitude has been imposed by injunctions compelling citizens to work 
under conditions distasteful to them. Innocent and law-abiding citizens have been 
arrested without warrant, imprisoned without trial, and when acquitted by decision 
of the civil courts, held bV the military in defiance of every principle of civil 
authority and government; "and the right of habeas corpus, for centuries cherished 
as a safeguard for personal liberty, has been unlawfully suspended, with the result 
that in a so-called 'fr'ee state' of our so-called 'free republic' there exists a despotism 
greater and more infamous than that which has ever characterized Russian auto- 
cracy. 

"Now, we declare these conditions in Colorado are the natural and logical 
results of the prevailing economic system which permits the private ownership 
of the means of the common life and renders the wage-working class dependent 
for life itself upon the owners of the means of production and distribution. Be- 
tween these two classes, the workers and the masters of their bread, there exists 
a state of constant warfare, a bitter and irrepressible class conflict. Labor, organ- 
ized for self-protection and to secure better conditions of life, is met by powerful 
organizations of the master class, whose supreme power lies in the fact that all 
the functions of the government, legislative, judicial and executive, have been 



J 



unwittingly placed in their hands by their victims. Controlling all the forces of 
government, they are entrenched in a position from which they can only be dis- 
lodged by political methods. 

"Therefore, this convention of the Socialist Party reaffirms this principle of 
the International Socialist Movement, that the supreme issue is the conquest by 
the working class of all the powers of government and the use of those powers for 
the overthrow of class rule, and the establishment of that common ownership of 
the means of the common life which alone can free individual and collective man." 

THE NEW YORK DAILY CALL. 

"Whereas, daily newspapers which shall stand as the uncompromising cham- 
pions of the working class and the exponents of the principles of the Socialist 
Party constitute one of the most urgent needs of the Socialist movement of the 
United States, and 

Whereas, the Socialists of New York announce that they will begin the pub- 
lication September ist of the New York Daily Call, a newspaper devoted to the 
interests of the Socialist Party and the working class. 

Resolved that we, the delegates of the National Socialist Convention assembled 
at Chicago, May ist, 1904, do hereby cordially endorse the project to establish 
the New York Daily Call, and we call upon the Socialists of the United States 
to render every assistance in their power to the New York Comrades having the 
enterprise in charge." 

THE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR. 

"Whereas, The conflicting commercial interests of the ruling classes in Russia 
and Japan have induced the governments of those countries to bring about war 
between the Russian and Japanese nations; and 

Whereas, the working people of Russia and Japan have no interest in waging 
this campaign of bloody warfare, be it 

Resolved, That this convention of the Socialist Party of America sends greet- 
ings of Fraternity and Solidarity to the working people of Russia and Japan, 
and condemns the Russo-Japanese War as a crime against progress and civiliza- 
tion. And be it further • 

Resolved, That we appeal to the wage workers of Russia and Japan to join 
hands with the International Socialist movement in its struggle for world peace." 

COMPENSATION OF SPEAKERS. 

"Whereas, It is the practice of some lecturers and organizers to engage with 
organizations of the Socialist Party, at an indefinite compensation, dependent upon 
their success in collecting funds or selling literature, or else engaging without 
understanding as to compensation; and 

Whereas, Under such conditions the ability of a comrade to remain in the field 
depends upon circumstances other than usefulness in the propagation of clean-cut 
Socialism; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That this convention declares itself opposed to speculative methods 
of compensating lecturers and organizers, and in favor of the payment of a definite 
pre-determined salary or fee." 

REGULATION OF SPEAKERS. 

"Whereas, exorbitant salaries or fees have sometimes been paid to speakers 
and organizers for their services ; and. 

Whereas, Such practices are altogether unwarranted and unjust in a prole- 
tarian movement; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That this body declares itself opposed to paying speakers or other 
workers employed by the party exorbitant fees or salaries, placing them above 
the standard of the working class the party represents ; and we 

Recommend: That, as far as possible locals of the Socialist Party should 
engage their speakers and organizers through the national or state organizations, 
thus discouraging the abuses arising from the unsatisfactory methods at present 
pursued." 



324 



Resolutions Adopted by the Convention. 



THE TRADES UNION RESOLUTION. 



National Committee, Socialist Party. 



325 



The trades and labor union movement is a natural result of the capitalist 
system of production and is necessary to resist the encroachments of capitalism. 
It IS a weapon to protect the class interests of labor under the capitalistic system. 
However this industrial struggle can only lessen the exploitation, but cannot 
abolish It ihe exploitation of labor will only cease when the working class shall 
own all the means of production and distribution. To achieve this end the work- 
ing class must consciously become the dominant political power. The organization 
of the workers will not be complete until they unite on the political as well as the 
industrial field on the lines of the class struggle. 

The trade union struggle cannot attain lasting success without the political 
activity of the Socialist Party: The workers must fortify and permanently secure 
by their political power what they kave wrung from their exploiters in the 
economic struggle. In accordance with the decisions of the International Socialist 
Congresses m Brussels, Zurich and London, this Convention reaffirms the declara- 
tions that the trade and labor unions are a necessity in the struggle to aid in 
emancipating the working class, and we consider it the duty of all wage workers 
to join with this movement. 

Neither political nor other differences of opinion justify the divisions of the 
forces of labor in the industrial movement. The interests of the working clas.s 
make it imperative that the labor organizations equip their members for the great 
work of the abolition of wage slavery by educating them in Socialist Principles." 

INTERNATIONAL DELEGATES. 

Resolved, first: That this convention now proceed to the election of a dele- 
gate to the International Socialist Congress, to be held in Amsterdam in August 
1904. Second: That the election of this delegate be by ballot, and that the candi- 
date receiving the largest number of votes' upon such ballot serve as delegate. 
Third: That this convention and the National Committee of the party shall be 
authorized to issue credentials for the attendance at the International Congress as 
delegates of the parly, to such and as many additional members in good standing 
in the party, not exceeding twenty in all, as may apply for such credentials, 
intending to attend said Congress at their own expense. Fourth: That no state 
or local organization of the party shall issue credentials to delegates to the said 
International Congress. Fifth: That an alternate delegate be also selected." 

THE NATIONAL CAMPAIGN FUND. 

"Resolved, That the Socialist Party recommends that party members donate 
during the month of June, 1904, one-half day's wages to the National Campaign 
Fund, one-third of the amount derived therefrom to be retained by the local, one- 
third by the state, and one-third by the national organization." 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

"Resolved, That this Convention request all unattached Socialists to file their 
names and residences with the respective State or the National Secretary, as the 
case may be. ^ 

That we instruct the National Secretary to have the Platform and such other 
printed matter in one little pamphlet for the use of the membership as quick aft 
possible." ■ 



The Socialist Party 

NATIONAL HEADQUARTERS: 
269 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois. 

NATIONAL Secretary, .... WILLIAM MAILLY 



INTERNATIONAL SOCIALIST BUREAU 
63 Rue Heyvaert, Brussellfi, Belgium. 



Secretary. 



VICTOR SERWY 



National Committee 



California N. 

Colorado A. 

Connecticut W. 

Florida W 

Idaho C. 



^^^^"»^ B Andrus 1 108 N. 14th St., Birmingham. 

Arizona H. H. Keays Groom Creek. 

Arkansas L. W. Lowry 2224 Ringo St., Little Rock. 

A. Richardson San Bernardino. 

H. Floaten Basswood, Wis. 

E. White 229 Exchange St., New Haven. 

R. Healey Longwood. 

F. Carter Boise. 

p"0's B. Berlyn 662 E. 63d St., Chicago. 

Indiana S. M. Reynolds 1115 S. 6th St., Terre Haute. 

^wa John M. Work 13 13 Harrison Ave., Des Moines. 

Kentucky Chas. G. Towner 331 Scott St., Covington. 

K^ansas Walter Thomas Mills. ..1429 Masonic Temple, Chicago 

Louisiana Wilbur Putnam Evangeline. 

Maine Chas. L. Fox 10 Free St., Portland. 

Massachusetts ... John C. Chase 64 E. 4th St., New York N Y 

Michigan Wm. E. Walter Hotel Irwin, Bad Axe, Mich 

Minnesota S. M. Holman 11 Oak St.. S. E., Minneapolis 

M^islBoun Geo. H. Turner 14 Rookery Bldg., Kansas City. 

Montana J. F. Fox 71 E. Park St., Butte. 

Nebraska C. Christensen Salida, Colo. 

New Hampshire .M. H. O'Neil 4 C St., Nashua. 

New Jersey Chas. Ufert 590 Clinton Ave., W. Hoboken. 

New York Morris Hillquit 320 Broadway, New York City 

N. Dakota Tonnes Thams Fargo. 

Ohio Howard H. Caldwell . . 522 N. Summit St., Dayton. 

Oklahoma C. C. Halbrooks 203 N. Emporia Ave., Wichita, Kan. 

Oregon B. F. Ramp Salem. 

Pennsylvania .J. Mahlon Barnes 232 N. gth St., Philadelphia. 

S. Dakota Samuel Lovett Aberdeen. 

Texas John Kerrigan 346 Elm St., Dallas. 

Vermont John W. Arvidson Rutland. 

Washington Geo. E. Boomer Prosser. 

Wisconsin Victor L. Berger 344 Sixth St., Milwaukee. 



326 



Staie Secretaries, Sociatisi Party. 



Soctakst \/ote in the United States. 



m 



State Secretaries 



Socialist Vote in the United States 



Alabama F. X. Waldhorst 1016 S. 23d St., Birmingham. 

Arkansas E. W. , Perrin 304 Scott St., Little Rock. 

Arizona Albert Ryan Jerome. 

California Edgar B. Helfenstein 822 W. 2d St., Los Angeles. 

Colorado J. W. Martin ^20 Charles Bldg., Denver. 

Connecticut A. B. Cornelius Box 45, New Haven. 

Florida Wm. C. Green Orlando. 

Illinois Jas. S. Smith 163 Randolph. " 

Indiana Harry Hart 134 E. Washington St., IndianapoliiT 

Idaho L. E. Workman Boise. 

Iowa J. J. Jacobsen 1129 12th St., Des Moines. 

Kansas Thos. E. Will Sedgwick Bldg., Wichita. 

Kentucky Walter Lanfersiek 506 Wash. Ave., Newport. 

Louisiana P. Aloysius Molyneaux ... 372 Walnut St., New Orleans. 

Maine W. E. Pelsey Box 44, Lewiston. 

Massachusetts . . . Fred E. Irish .699 Washington St., Boston. 

Michigan J. A. C. Menton 1323 S. Saginaw St., Flint. 

Minnesota J. E. Nash 45 S. 4th St., Minneapolis, 

Missouri T. E. Palmer Rookery Bldg., Kansas City. 

Montana Wm. H. Pierce 708 S. Main St., Butte. 

Nebraska J. P. Roe 5^9 N. i6th St., Omaha. 

New Hampshire . W. H. Wilkins Box 521, Claremont. t| 

New Jersey W. B. Killingbeck .270 Main St., Orange. 

New York Henry L. Slobodin 64 E. 4th St., New York City. 

North Dakota T. R. C. Crowells Fargo. 

Ohio Edward Gardner 318 Chappell St., Dayton. 

Oklahoma D. S. Landis Stillwater. 

Oregon A. H. Axelson \ 1070 Union Ave., N., Portland 

Pennsylvania Franklin H. Slick 1305 Arch St., Philadelphia. 

Rhode Island John W. Higgins 409 Webster Ave., Arlington. 

South Dakota Samuel Lovett Aberdeen. 

Texas E. B. Latham Box 126, Gainesville. 

Vermont John Anderson 106 Sumner St., Barre. 

Washington E. E. Martin Box 717, Seattle. 

West Virginia . . . F. A. Zimmerman (Acting) McMechen. 

Wisconsin Miss E. H. Thomas 344 Sixth St., Milwaukee. 



1900. 1902 

Alabama 928 2,312' 

Arizona cjo 

^Arkansas 27 27 

California 7,573 g^^^ 

Colorado 684 7,3^0 

Connecticut 1,741 2,857 

*Delaware 57 57 

^Florida 603 603 

Georgia 

Idaho 1,800 

Illinois 9,687 20,167 

I"^ia"a 2,374 7,134 

Iowa 2,742 6,360 

Kansas 1,605 4,078 

Kentucky 760 1,886 

Louisiana 

Maine 878 1,974 

♦Maryland 908 908 

Massachusetts 9,7i6 33,629 

Michigan 2,826 4,261 

Minnesota 3,065 5,143 

Mississippi 

Missouri 6,128 5,335 

Montana 708 2,466 



igpd. 1902. 

Nebraska 823 3,157 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 790 1,057 

New Jersey 4,609 5,491 

New York 12,869 23,400 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 518 1,245 

Ohio 4,847 14,270 

Oklahoma 815 1,963 

Oi'egO" 1,494 3,532 

Pennsylvania 4,831 21,910 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 176 2,620 

^Tennessee 410 410 

Texas 1,846 3,513 

Utah 717 2,927 

♦Vermont 371 371 

^Virginia 225 22^ 

Washington 1,609 4,739 

*West Virginia 286 286 

Wisconsin 7,095 15,957 

Wyoming 552 

Total 98,424 225,903 



In Arizona, Idaho and Wyoming the Socialist Party entered the political 
field for the first time in 1902. In the eight States marked with a star there 
were no State elections in 1902, and the vote for the national ticket in 1900 is 
carried forward for the latter year. 



328 



The Socialist Vote of the World. 



The Socialist Press. 



329 



The Socialist Vote of the World 



The Socialist Press in the United States 



AUSTRIA. GREAT BRITAIN. 

^^7 750,000 1895 55,000 

^900 600,000 1900 100,000 



. BELGIUM. 

1894 320,000 

1900 463,000 

DENMARK. 



1872 
1876 
1881 
1884 
1887 
1890 



268 
1,076 
1,689 
6,806 
8,408 
17,232 



1892 20,094 

1895 • 31,872 

1901 42,972 

^^^ 55,479 

FRANCE. 

1887 47,000 

1889 120,000 

1893 440,000 

1898 790,000 

1900 880,000 

GERMANY. 

1867 30,000 

1871 101,000 

1874 351,952 

1877 493,288 

1878 437,158 

1881 311,961 

1884 549,990 

1887 ■ 763,128 . 

1890 1,427,298 

1893 1,876,738 

1898 2,113,073 

1903 3,008,000 



HOLLAND. 

1901 39,000 

ITALY. 

189s ;. 78,3S« 

1897 120,000 

1900 170,841 



NORWAY. 



1900 
1903 



7.440 
24,779 



SERVIA. 



189s 50.000 



SPAIN. 



1891 
1893 



• 5,000 

7.0011 

1898 20,00(1 

1899 23,000 

1901 25,00(1 

SWITZERLAND. 

1890 13,500 

1893 39,81* 

1896 36,000 

UNITED STATES. 



1888 a,ad| 

1892 ai,sia 

30,110 

34.8fig 

36.a;| 

5S.IS« 

8a,«M 

<^AH 

aa5.yoj 



1894 
1895 
1896 

1897 
1898 
1900 
1902 



'i 



SOCIALIST PARTY PAPERS 

ENGLISH WEEKLIES. 

Alliance of the Rockies, The 420 Charles Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

Appeal to Reason Girard, Kan". 

Chicago Socialist 163 Randolph St., Chicago, 111. 

Common People, The Stillwater, Okla. 

Crisis, The Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Erie People 26 E. Fifth St., Erie, Pa. 

Free Citizen, The Danville, 111. 

Iowa Socialist 6th and Iowa Sts., Dubuque, Iowa. 

Laramie Times Laramie, Wyo. 

Long Island Leader Long Island, Kan. 

Los Angeles Socialist Los Angeles, Cal. 

Montana News Lewistown, Mont, 

New Time, The Spokane, Wash. 

Prosser Record, The Prosser, Wash. 

Referendum, The Faribault, Minn. 

Social Democratic Herald, The 344 Sixth St., Milwaukee, Wis 

Socialist, The 116 Virginia St., Seattle, Wash. 

Worker, The 184 William St., New York, N. Y. 

ENGLISH MONTHLIES. 

Comrade, The 11 Cooper Square, New York, N Y. 

Grander Age, The Biloxi, Miss. 

International Socialist Review, The 56 Fifth Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Social Ethics , .Wichita, Kan. 

Socialist Review, The 724 Dodd St., West Hoboken, N. J, 

Vanguard, The Green Bay, Wis. 

Wilshire's Magazine 125 E. 23d St., New York, N. Y. 

FOREIGN LANGUAGES 

GERMAN. 

Arbeiter Zeitung ,. . 22 North 4th St., St. Louis, Mo 

Die Wahrheit 344 Sixth St., Milwaukee, Wis. 

Neues Leben 119 E. Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

Tageblatt, The (Daily) Philadelphia, Pa. 

Vorwaerts, The 184 William St., New York, N. Y. 

Volkzeitung, The (Daily) 184 William St., New York, N. Y. 

Volksblatt Sheboygan, Wis. 

FRENCH. 
L'Union des Travailleurs Charleroi, Pa. 

BOHEMIAN. 
Spravedlnost 721 Ailport St., Chicago, 111. 

ITALIAN. 
Avanti ,...,,.,., 239 Washington St., Newark, N. J. 



330 



The Socialist Press. 



Index. 



331 



FOREIGN LANGUAGES— (Continued.) 

JEWISH. 
Forward 183^^ Division St., New York, N. Y. 

NORWEGIAN. 
Nye Normanden Tribune Building, Minneapolis, Minn. 

POLISH. 
Robotnik 627 Milwaukee Ave., Chicago, 111. 

SLAVONIC. 
Glas. Svobode 563 Throop St., Chicago, 111. 

SOCIALIST AND TRADES UNION PAPERS 

American Labor Union Journal Haymarket Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Brauer Zeitung (English- German) Odd Fellows Temple, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Cleveland Citizen i93 Champlain St., Cleveland, Ohio. 

Courier-Herald i74 S. Main St., Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Exponent, The 121 N. Baum St., Saginaw, Mich. 

Laborers' Journal Dayton, Ohio. 

Miner's Magazine 625 Mining Exch. Bldg., Denver, Colo. 

Register, The Central City, S. D. 

Toiler, The 422 Ohio St., Terre Haute, Ind. 

Union Sentinel 214 Reed St., Reading, Pa. 

Workers' Gazette 203 South 13th St., Omaha, Neb. 



Errata: Page 214, following should be recorded on Roll Call on Trades Union 
Resolution : Dalton, Mance, Meyer and Taft of lUinoiR, Ash of Colorado, Neal »( 
Kansas, McFarlan and Walter of Michigan, Klein of Minnesota, Knechtof Missouri, 
Wilshire, Bush, Hawley, Riley of New York, Haight and Thams of North DakoU, 
Awmaiw of Wisconsin, not voting; Mayell of New York voting "yes," 



Index 



ii 



Acceptance, Speech of, Eugene V. Debs 

—254-256. 
Acceptance, Speech of, Ben. Ilanford— 

223-226. 
Adjournment sine die — 300. 
Amendment of Constitution— 160. 
Ammann, Henry J.— 16, 40. 
Anielewski, H. — 43, 45. 
Api)eal to Reason~^i', ?6. 88. 92, 93, 97. 

119, 120. 
Appendix — 301-3^0. 
Ash, WilHam— 16. 
Atkinson, Warren— 16, 39, 41, 214. 
Auditing Committee- 
Appointment of — 40. 
Report of — 279. 
Discharge of — 279. 
Ault, Erwin B. — 16, 37, 40, 73, 214. 
Ayres, Hugh G.^i6,"2i4. ' "• " 

B 

Bacon, Geo. W.— 16, 39, 41, 214. 
Bandlow, Robert— 14, 16, 38, ^9, 40, 41, 

51, 82, 84, 187, 214, 22V 
Barnes, J. Mahlon— 16, 17, 30, 38. 40 

41, 44, 51, 65, 68, 83, 84. 97, ^04.' 
109, III, 140, 187, 223. 236, 238. 

Barrett, William— 16, 18, 43, 214." 
Behrens, E. 'I\— 16, 37, 39, 187, 214. 
Benessi, William L.— 16," 38, 39, 41, j-j^ 

78, 138, 214. 233, 249.' 
Bennett, John W.— 16, 214. 
Berger, Victor L.— 16, 22, 26, ^t„ 2,7, 41, 

42, 51, 52, 62, 63, 68, 74,' 90, 105! 
109, 128, 130, 140, 141, 145, 159, 187, 
203, 210, 211. 214, 221, 222, 235, 236, 
237. 265, 267, 269, 272, 273, 279! 284! 
285. 286. 

Berlyn, Bernard— 14, 16, 22, 25, 38, 39 

40, 41, .SI, 63, 67, 68, 83, 139, '149! 

189, 190, 191, 194, 208, 209, 214, 219. 

223, 231, 260, 290, 25^. 300. 
Btckett C. A.— 14, 16, 22, 39, 41, 44. sT, 

64, 65, 68, 114, 115, 118. 127. T47. 

i-Si, 154, r5.S, i.S8, 159, t66, t68. 181. 

214, 265. 
I'istorius, tl. W.— 14, 16, 43. 



Block, Samuel— 16, 38, 72, 214. 
Born, Jacob W.— 16, 214. 
Bosky, Edward — 16, 214, 2^6, 271 27-^ 
292. ' ' ' 

Brand's Hall— 13. 
Brandt, Herman — 16, 52, 184, -^14 
Brandt, W. M.— 16, 27, 97, I34, I79, 180, 

181, 190, 214, 226, 242. 
Brattland, M. A.— 16, 214. 
Breckon, Clias. L.— 16, 41, 51, 86, 214, 
266. ' ' 

Brewery Workmen, 'I'elegram from— 32. 
Brockhausen, F. — 54. 
Brower, James H!— 16, 22, 31, 37, 128 
169, 189, 214, 246. - V , , 

Buffalo, N. Y., Telegram from— 32. 
Bureau, International Socialist— "29. 
Bureau, International Socialist. Report 

of — 226. 228. 
Burrowes, Peter E— 16, 38, 39, 41, 214. 
liush, C. A. — 16. 
Buswick Junction, N. Y., Telegram 

from- — 32. 
Butschcr. William — t6, 38, 40, T62, 2T4. 

C 

California Delegates. Case in Respect 

to Seating — 15. 
Campaign Committee — 298. 
Campaign Fund, National— 279. 
Candidates for Public Office, F.ligibilitv 

of— 287. 
Carey, James F.— 13, t4, 16, 19, 24, 39, 
41, 44, 51, 52, 53. 66, 67. 68, 69, 70, 
7^, 76, 77, 80, 168, 173, 174. T84, 185. 
t88, 189, 191, 198, igg, 212. 214' 
220, 223, 235, 236, 274. 
Carr, Edward E. — 16, 27, 27, 39. 45, 71, 
95, 98, 99. ir3, 121, 122.' r'23, '125,' 
162, 176, 214. 235, 236, 249, 251, 252. 
261, 267, 269. 275, 287, 289, 29r, 293. 
296. 
Caucuses Secret, Rcsohilion nn— 167 

168. 
Cincinnati. Ohio, Telegram from— 3-^ 
Clark, -W. E.— t6, 38. 30. 40. i=;o."i56, 

214, 286. 29f). 
Ck'\'el;nid, Ohio, Telcgrani frMm i.|. 
Cdbl), John L. -If), 38, .|(), _>i.|. 



332 



Index. 



Index. 



333 



Cogswell, Eleanore G. — 16, 37, 103, 187, 

214, 23s, 242, 244. 
Collins, John — 16, 41, 51, 70, 76, l6g, 
183, 187, 189, 214, 238, 272, 27s, 291. 
Colorado Outrages, Resolution on— 

165, 166, 167. Appendix — 322. 
Committees — • 

Auditing — 40, 279. 
Campaign — ^298. 
Constitution — 38, 40, 81, 98-162, 284- 

291, 296, 297. 
Credentials— 13-17, 42-51, 54, 97, 277. 
Foreign Speaking Organizations — 45, 

54, 281-283. 
Local Quorum — 62, 277, 279. 
Platform— 37, 38, 39, 63, 215, 277, 278, 

293, 299. 
Press— 40, 52, 84, 85, 98, 163, 164. 
Resolutions— 39, 41, 52, 63-66, 165- 

17s, 276, 277. 
Rules — 14, 20-37. 
State and Municipal Program — 24, 26, 

.39, 41, 63, 239. 

Trades Union Resolutions — 35, 36, 40, 

41, 51, 75, 76, 175, 176, 206, 283, 284. 

Ways and Mieans — 40, 278, 279. 

Communications — 14, 32, 54, 62, 75, 238. 

Compensation of Speakers, Resolutions 

Concerning — 170. Aj^pendix — 323. 
Congress, International Socialist — 29, 

227, 229, 230. 
Constitution — 

Committee on, Nominations for — 38. 
Committee, Election of — 40. 
Report of Committee — 81, 98-162. 
■ Discussion of — 98-162. 
Amendment of — 160. 
I'inal Action on — 284-291. 
Referendum on — 291-293, 296, 297. 
Final Form of. Appendix — 310-314. 
Conventions, National — 145-148. 
Credentials — 
Committee on, Election of — 13, 14. 
Report of Committee — 15, 16, 17. 
Supplementary Reports — ^42-51, 54, 97. 
Discharge of Committee — 277. 
Cross, Ira B. — 17, 70, 84, 163, 189, 190, 

191, 214, 237. 
Curtis, A. P. Byron— 16, 63, 113, 214. 



D 



Daily Call, Resolutions on Nciv York — 
168. 

Dalton, William— 16, 32, 39, 77, 86, 89, 
91, 93, 94- 96, 129, 139, 145, 146, 
155, 168, 176, 180, 185, 239, 240, 242, 
245, 246, 26s, 27s, 293, 295, 298. 

Debs, Eugene V.— 16,' 37, 39, 75, 214, 
220, 221, 222, 223, 249, 254-256, 279, 
280. 



Debski, A. — 43, 45. 

Delegates, List of, 16, Appendix — 3111 

305- 
Delegates to International Congress- 

229-236, 297, 298. 
Deutzman, Charles P. — 14, 16, 31, 31J, 

41, 51, 89, 94, 170, 17s, 214, 283. 
Dilno, Fred. — 16, 36, 39, 41, 97, 140, jofi, 

214, 223, 248, 288. 

Dobbs, Charles — 13, 16, 17, 38, 40, 41, 
51, 54, 62, 79, 80, 118, 168, 187, 21. |, 

215, 238, 279. 

Dressier, Gustave — 16, 40, 214. 
Dues to the National Organizer — \^.\ 
159. 



Eisner, Richard — 16. 
Ehret, William — 16, 214. 



Farrell, Daniel P. — 16, 36, 39, 40, 51, 

72, 81, 113, 170, 174, i8t, 184, 1S5, 

186, 199, 214. 
Financial Statement of National Sec 

retary — 61, 62. 
Flanagan, Peter J. — 16, 214. 
Floaten, A. II. — 14, 16, 39, 41, 42, 45, 

97, 103, 121, 127, 143, 2T4, 22T, 23H, 

262. 
Forbes, "Innes — 16, 214. 
Ford, Edwin B. — 16, 214, 215, 239, J.|(i, 

242, 243, 
Foreign-Speaking Organization — 
Committee on — 45-54. 
Report of Committee — 281-283. 



(laghardi, Frank — 214. 

Garver, William L.— 14, 16, 167, 214. 

Gaylord, Winfield R.— 14, 16, 20, 2t, 33, 

24, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 38, 39, 41, 

42, 45, 46. 81, 144, 152, 156, IS7. 

i6r, 162, 187, 201, 202, 212, 213, 214, 

231, 233, 238, 241, 270, 281, 282, 2W), 

289, 290, 296, 298. 
Gerber, Julius— 16, 29, 31, 33, 37, 38, 40, 

152, 214. 
Germany, Cablegram from — 54. 
Germany, Cablegram to — 62. 
Gibbs, Howard A.— 16, 39, 41, 51, roo, 

loi, 102, 145, 147, 191, 192, 193. i!'4> 
Gilbertson, A. N.— 16, 214. 
Glanz, William— 16, 4T, 51, 100, i.srt, 

214. 
Goazion, Louis— 16, 32. 39, 40, T04. i.<5, 

136, 144, 176. 190, 214, 235, 2(*), 

270. 
Goss, Martin— t6, too, 160, 214. 



Gridley, A. T,, Case of Delegate— 42, 

43, 44, 46, SO, 106. 
Gritschke, O., Telegram from — 15. 

H 

Hagerty, T. J.— 43, 44, 45. 

Halm and Goeller, 'I'elegram from — 32. 

Hanford, Ren — 16, 28, 33, ^^^7, 39, 41," 51, 

54, 65, 187, 204. 205, 214, 222, 222- 

226, 280, 288, 291, 296. 
Harrack, A. — 16. 

Hawkins, J. W. — 16, 49, 180, 214, 267. 
Hayes, Max S. — 14, 16, 19. 38, 39. 40, 

41, 5T, 52, 65, 70, 75, 76, VS, 79, 84, 

173, T74, 183, 184, 189, 190, 206, 212, 

214, 221, 231, 232, 235, 236, 238, 

265, 274, 283, 284, 288, 290, 291, 298, 

299. 
Hayes, Roy— 16, 38, 97, 214, 238. 
Haynian, Alexander — 16, 38, 46, 214. 
Hazlett, Ida Crouch — 16, 39, 41, 139, 

151, 155, 214, 223, 235, 236, 259, 263, 

264, 287, 293. 
Headquarters, Location of — 160. 
Heath, Frederick — 54, 97, 214. 
Flelfenstein, Edgar — 15. 
Herron, George D. — 16. ^7, 38, 39, 40, 

41, 214, 215, 218, 219, 220, 226, 228, 

233, 235. 236, 238, 239, 253, 254, 272, 

27s, 278, 279. 
Heydrick, Charles — 16, 20, 39, 41, 100, 

214, 257. 
Hibbard. A. A., Telegram from — 75. 
Ililiquit, Morris — 16, 20, 24, ^2, t,7> 38, 

40, 78, 8t, 97, 98-162 (as Chair- 
man of Committee on Constitu- 
tion), — 169, 187, igo, 212, 214, 215, 

2ig, 22T, 222, 229, 230, 231, 235, 237, 

239, 242, 243, 262, 263, 264, 268, 

269, 270, 271, 272, 274. 275, 282, 

284, 286, 291, 292, 295, 297, 298. >. , ^34, i«2, i»3, 190, 214, 235, 236. 
1-Hrt, John— 40, 214. ' ' ^j<, Langworthy, R. O— 16, 39, 41, 51, 145, 

Hochn, G. H.— 16, 27, 37, 39, 40, 41. 51-^4 t .u^^' ^^' ^?\ .:: 

66, 76, 79, 91, no, 160, 176, 177 189 \^ Latham, Ernest B.— 16, 39, 41, 45, 214. 

Lecture Bureau, National — 139-143. 
Lee, Algernon— 14, 15, 16, 17, 37, 38, 
39, 41, 42-51 (as Chairman of Corn- 



International Socialist Bureau — 
Report of — 226-228. 
Support to — 228, 229. 
Election of Delegates to — 229-236. 
Credentials for Dslegates to— 297, 298, 

J 

Jacobsen, John J.— 16, 35, 38, 40, 41, 51, 

54, 124, 143, 214, 294. 
Johnson, Carrie L. — 16, 33, 40, 164, 172, 

214, 294. 
Jonas, Alexander— 16, ^,7, 38, .^o, 54, 75, 

76, 77, 80, 106, 196, 214, 218, 2=^0, 

253- 

K 

Kalinsky, William, Telegram from — 32, 

Katayama, Sen J. — 24. 

Keihn, Charles, as International Dele- 
gate, Credentials to — 298. 

Keller, Paul — 16, 214. 

Kelly, John J. — 16, 39, 41, 52, 214. 

Keown, J. A.— 16, 17, 38, 39, 49, 105, 
106, 166, 171, 174, 179, 214. 
H^Kerrigan, John' — 16, 18, 19, 25, 27, 28, 
T,8, 40, 69, 113, 116, 127, 130, 136, 
153, 164, 173, 174, 177, 185, 188, i8g, 
214, 228, 231, 236, 240, 256, 278. 

Klein, Nicholas — 16, 32, 38, 39, 41, 97. 

Knowles, Freeman — 16, 39, 41, 131, 214. 

Kolachney, James V. — 16, 105, 214, 238. 

Kraybill, Luella R. — 16, 38, 39, 41, 42, 
51, 194, 214, 263. 

Kronenberg, Carl — 14, 16, 38, 214. 

Kuntz, Frank — 54. 



Lamb, Clayton J. — 16, 37, 38, 40, 131, 
134, 182, 183, 190, 214, 235, 236. 



I go, 214, 233, 236 
llollenberger. Matt. — 16, 40, 51, 120, 

142, 145, 214, 287. 
Holman, S. M. — 16, 38, 40, 214. 
Hudson County, N. J., Telegram from 

—32. 
Hunger, Jacob — 16, 41, 51. [76. 214. 
Hyland, P. J. — 16, 39, 214, 286. 

I 

Immediate Demands; Resolution frum 

Denver — 238. 
Inderelst, William, Telegram from — 32. 
Initiative and Referendum — 159. 
International Secretary, Rejiort of — 226- 

228. 



mittee on Credentials), — 54, 77, 78, 

78, 214, 282. 
Le Fevre, Dr. Wells — 16, ,38, 45, 113, 

2:4. 
Leonard, George B. — 37, 39, 40, 51, 54, 

66, 70, 214. 
Licdertafel Frciheit — 15. 
Lipscomb, Caleb — 16. .w, 4t, 214. 
Liss, J.— 43. 45- 
Literature Bureau, National 143, i,j 1, 

145- 
Local Quorum — 
Report of — 62. 
discharge of ConHuillef cu 277. 



334 



Index 



Index 



835 



Loudermills, A. S. — 16, 39, 41, 214. 

Lovett, Samuel — 15. 

Lucas, Thomas H. — 16, 38, 72, 88, 168, 

171, 185, 186, 213, 214, 242, 256. 
Lund, O.— 16, 38, 40, 89, 214. 

M 

Mahoney, Cornelius — 16, 94, 214, 299. 

Mailly, William— 13, 16, 31, 37, 39, 40, 
41, 50, 51, 54-61, 62, 71, 74, 82, 100, 
105, 106, 108, 116, 117, 127, 130, 
132, 136, 137, 138, 1,46, 147. 148, 150, 
187, 210, 214, 235, 236, 238, 279, 280, 
286, 288, 289, 294, 298, 299. 

Mance, A. W. — 16, 79. 

Markert — 16, 214. 

M'arriage, Resolution on — 294. 

Marseillaise, Singing of — 13, 300. 

Martin, Charles R.— 294. 

Maurer, James Ml — 16, 41, 51, 206, 207, 
208, 214, 241. 

Mayell, Alfred A.— 42. 

McEachern, Duncan B. — 16, 167, 180, 
214. 

McFarlan, James H. — 14, 16, 38, 40. 

McGrady, Thomas — 16. 38, 214. 

McKee, Harry M.— 16, 38, 40, 54, 89. 
116, 214. 

Membership, Qualifications for — 99. 

Menton, John A. — 16, 30, 2>1, 38, 41, Si, 
129, 214, 235. 

Meyer, Theo. — 16, 27, 38, 39, 40, 41, 44, 
62, 68, 127,- 128, 131, 142, 143, 144, 
159, 162. 215. 265, 268, 272, 373, 275, 
276, 277. 

Miller, Guy E. — 16, 24, 25, 26, 35. 37, 
38, 40, 51, 75, 76, 90, 120, 128, 131, 

153, 202, 213, 214, 235, 256, 26T, 262, 
279. 

Mills, Walter Thomas — 16, 23, 38, 39, 
40, 44, 48, SI, 67, 68. 69, 70, 95.- 
^, 97, 98, 99, 107, III, 112, 124, 
141, 157, 158, 186, 214, 242, 253, 256. 
270, 273, 274. 285, 286, 294, 295, 296. 

Monessen, Pa., Telegram from — 32. 

Moore, Edward — 16, 39, 41, 51, 52, 214. 

Morgan, Thos. J. — 16, 19, 40, 70, 97, 
120, 136, 162, 181, 183. 184, i8s. 186, 
189, 190, 214. 

Municipal Program — 
Discussion of Committee on — 22-26. 
Report of Committee on — 97. 
(See also State and Municipal Pro- 
gram.) 

Murray, James S. — 16. 214. 

N. 

Nagel, Adam — 16, 32, 38, 39, 41, 51, 63, 
"jd, 80, 87, 93, I to, 113, iTfi, 146, 151, 

154, i6s, 214. 2t8, 238. 



Name of Socialist Party — 98. 
National Committee^ 

Representation on — 112, 113. 

Meetings of — 114, 

Duties and Powers of — 116, J 17. 
National Committeemen — 

Method of Electing — 113, 114. 

Complete List of — Appendix, 325. 
National Executive Committee — 

How Composed and Elected — 121 -127. 
^ Reports of — ^127, 128. 
National Lecture Bureau — 139-143. 
National Literature Bureau — 143-145. 
National Secretary — 

Report of — S4-61. 

Financial Statement of — 61, 62. 

Salary of — 129-137. 

Duties of — 138. 
Neal, W. S.— 16. 
Newman — 214. 

New York Socialist Literary Society. 
Telegram from — 32. 



o. 



Odalski, S. — 43, 45. 

Office-Holders, Admission of, to Party 

—105. 
O'Malley, Malcolm G.— 38, 42, 1.15, n(i, 

212, 214. 
Oneal, James — 16, .30. 31, 2i7, 39; 41, '.S'. 

153, 214, 223. 
Order of Business in Convention — 29, },i, 
Oswald, Walter L. — 16, 38, 40, 99, 21^, 

231! 
Ott, Frederick W. — 54, 121, 123, 124, 

125, 177, 178, 189, 190, 214, 215. 

274. 
O-utram, Alfred B.— 16, 38, 40, 67, 21.). 



Palmer, 'I". E. — 16, 40, 41, 51, 214. 
Parks, W. R.— 16, 18, 26, 27, 45, 50. 52. 

69, 71, 81, 84, 94, 112, 126, 127, 144. 
147, 151, 188, 191, 196, 213, 214, 215, 
239, 241, 242, 247, 248, 249, 275, 21X), 
292, 293, 299. 

Party Organ, Official — 85-96, 1 18-120. 
Patton, John J. — 16, 38, 39, 41, T16, 187, 

214, 215. 
Penrose, William — 14, 16, 38. 214. 
Phelaii, J. E. — 16, 19, 20, 37, 38, .39. f)8, 

70. 84, 85, 119, 126, 127, 139, 141. 
203. 209, 214, 235, 274. 275. 296. 

Plate Matter. Socialist — 163, 164. 
Platform, National, of the Socialist 
Party- 
Committee on. Nominations for- 37, 

38. 
Committee lilecled — 39- 
Report of Conunittee — frv 215-218.277 



Discharge of Conmiittec— 278. 
Referendum on — 293. 
Resolution on Printing of— 299. 
Platform as Adopted— Appendix, 306- 

309. 

Polish Socialist Alliance— 43, 45. 
(See also Foreign-Speaking Organiza- 
tion.) 
Potter, O. C— 16, 214. 
Press, Capitalist, Party Officials on— 

276. 
Press Committee — 
Appointed— 40, 52. 
Report of— 84, 85, 98, 163, 164. 
Discussion of Report— 85-97. 
Press, Socialist and Trades Union— Ap- 
pendix, 329, JiTP. 
Proebstle Joseph, Telegram from— 32. 
Program — 
Municipal, Discussion on— 22-26. 
Committee on State and Mlunicipal— 
Nominations for— 39. 
Election of— 41, 52. 
Report of-^3, 239. 
Debate on Report of— 241-254, 256- 
276. 
State and Municipal, As Referred— 
Appendix, 31S-320. 
Protest against J. Stitt Wilson— iS- 
Putnam, Wilbur— 16, 39, 4i> 214. 

R. 

Raible, Hugh J.— 16, 39, 214- 
Randall, Charles— 43, 50, 5^- 
Rathbun, John H.— 16, 39, 41, 214. 
Referendum, National Party— 148-151- 
Referendum on Constitution— 291, 296, 

297. 
Referendum on Platform— 293. 
Regulation of Speakers, Resolution 

on— 64, 65. 170— Appendix, 323- 
Reilly, James M.— 41, 214, 233, 263, 298. 
Reno, Nevada, Telegram from— 7S- 
Renshaw, Achilles W.— 16, 42, 214. 
Reports of — 

Committee, Auditing— 279. 

Committee on Credentials— iS, 16, 17, 

42-51, 54, 97- . . „ ^ 

Committee on Constitution — 81, 98- 

162- . f- , ■ r^ 

Committee on Foreign- Speaking Or- 
ganization — 281-283. 
Committee on Press— 84, 85, 98, 163- 

164. 
Committee on Platform— 63. 2x5-218, 

277. 
Committee on Resolutions— 64-66, 165- 

175. 276-277. 
Committee on Rules— 20-37. _ 
Committee on State and Municipal 
Program— 63, 239. 



Committee on Trades Union Resolu- 
lutions— 75-70, 175-176, 206, 283, 
284. 

Committee on Ways and Means— 278. 

International Secretary— 226-228. 

Local Quorum — 62. 

National Secretary— 54-62. 
Resolutions on — 

Army and Militia, Propagating So- 
cialism in — 277. 

Caucuses, Secret— 167, 168. 

Colorado Outrages— 165-167. 

Compensation of Speakers and Or- 
ganizers, 64, 65, 170. 

Daily Call, Nezv York— -168. 

Immediate Demands (Denver)— 238, 
239. 

International Delegate— 229, 230. 

Marriage— 294. 

National Campaign Fund— 279. 

Press, Capitalistic, Party Ofihcials on 
(State of Washington)— 276. 

Press, Party— 84-96. 

Regulation of Speakers— 65, 170. 

Russo-Japanese War— 66, 169, 170- 

Belonging to Non-Socialist Party Or- 
ganizations (San Francisco)— 65, 
276. 

Trades Union— 76, 175, ^7(^' Substi- 
tutes for— 177, 178, 201. 

Unattached Socialists — 299. 

As Adopted by Convention— Appen- 
dix, 322-324. 
Resolutions Committee- 
Nominations for — 39. 

Elected— 41, 52. 

Report of Committee— 63-66, 165- 

175, 276, 277. 
Discharge of Committee— 277. 
Reynolds, Stephen M.— 39, 4i, 42, 52, 

62, 63, 214, 23s, 277. 
Richardson, N. A.— 13, H, 16, 31, 3,7, 

38, 39, 40, 44, 45- 50, 54, 62, 80, 97, 

99, 152, 166, 188, 214, 223, 284, 285. 

291, 292. 
Rickcr, H. W.— 62. 
Ringler, Robert B.— 16. 214. 
Robbins', Sam— 14, 16, 21, 37, I57, 214. 
Robinson, T. L.— 29, 39, 40, 41, 5i, 74. 

81, 98, 138, 139, 211, 214, 235, 236, 

286. 
Rockefeller, John D.— 40. 
Roll Call, Rule on— ,33. 34. 35- 
Roll Call on Trades Union Resolutinns 

—214. 
Rose. Sumner W.— 14. 27, 38, 70, 78, 

86, 113, 119, 139. 140, 14'. LSI. 187, 

214, 242, 252, 298. 
Kubinow. David— 16, 40, 214. 
Rules of Convention — 
Committee on — 14. 



r 



336 ^^^^^ 




Index 



337 



Report of CoimuiUee— 20-37. 
Minority Report of ComniitLee— 21. 
Discussion on — 22-37. 
As Adopted — Appendix, 321. 
Russo-Japanese War, Resolutions on- 
66, 169, 170— Appendix, 323. 



San In-ancisco Resolution un Pres.s — 

84-96. 
Saunders— 80, 144, 146, i47, I59, 162. 
Schlueter, Herman F., as International 
Delegate, Credentials to— 297, 298. 
Secretaries, State— Appendix, 326. 
Scidel, Emil— 54, 127, 128, 214. 
Selecting Time for Nomuiations— 06. 
Scrgeants-at-Arms— IS, 26. 
Sessions — 

First Day— 13-23- 
Morning — i, 2. 
Afternoon— 2-23. 
Second Day— 24-53. 
Morning — 24-32. 
Afternoon— 32-53. 
Third Day— 54-96. 
Afternoon— 54-80. 
Evening— 80-96. 
Fourth Day— 97-186. 
Morning — 97-118. 
Afternoon— 1 18- 163. 
Evening — 163-186. 

Fiftli Day— 187-237- 
Morning— 187-210. 
Afternoon — 210-237. 
Sixth Day— 238-300. 
Morning— 238-256. 
Afternoon — 256-300. 

Sieverman, Frank— 14, 16, 29. 31, 3-^, 36, 
38, 41, 46, 51, 69, 71, 76, 81, 82, 97, 
118, 136, 181, 185, 187. 188, 190, 214, 
223, 240, 265, 280, 284, 285, 286, 288, 
290. 

Simons. A. M.— 16, 23, 34, 37, 38, 39, 
40, 83, 84, 85. 87, 88, 94, 95, 96, 107, 
108, 112, 113. 120, 126, 141, 159, 163, 
164, 169, 214, 235, 237- 239, 242, 265, 
267, 270, 276, 290. 

Simons, May Wood— 235, 236, 237. 

Singing Society, Socialist— 13, i5- 
Slobodin, Henry L,— 14, 16, 21, 28, 36, 
- 38, 39, 40, 41, 63, 64, 66, 67. 70, 71- 

73, 75. 81, 94, 138, 169, 172, 173, 

174, 187, 188, 202, 213, 214, 21S, 249, 

265, 266, 267, 286, 287. 
Smith, Duncan M.— 16, 40, 63, 83, 85, 

91, 92, 93, 122, 214, 299. 
Smith, Irene— 16. 18, ?^. 30, 4^, 90, 94. 

95, 97, no, 143. i.r'>, 150, 176, 178. 

187, 190, 209, 213, 214, 237, 242, 243. 
280, 287, 297. 



Smith, James S.— 15, 16, Z% 40, 214, 
235, 236, 281, 282. 

Snyder, J. E.— 16, 38, 39, 54, 214. 

South Dakota Delegate, Case in Re- 
spect to^iS. 

Southworth, R. A.— 16, 38, 39, 4i, 52, 
68, 69, 74, 149, 187, 214. 

Spargo, John— 16, 20, 26, 33, 34, 35, 38, 
39, 41, 42, 45, 48, 51, 63, 64-C)6, (as 
Chairman of Res. Gobi.), —74, ^1, 
79, gi, 92, 106, 113, 134, 135, 148, 
158, 165-175 (as Chairman of 
Res. Cora.).— 185, 186, 190, 209, 210, 
211, 213, 214, 215, 228, 232, 235, 237, 
263. 264, 276. 277, 287, 288, 290, 293. 

Speakers and Organizers, Resolutions 
on— 64, 65, 170. 

Spears, W. Harry— 26, 83, 132, 140, 14J. 
J44, 148, 162, 176, 177, 203, 204, 214, 
273. 274, 275, 283, 287, 290. 

Speech of Ac— p'ance by Debs— 254, 

255- 
Speech of Accep'.ance by Hanford— 223- 

226. 
Spence, J. M. A.— 16, iJ, 39, 4i, 52, 7f>. 

77, 78, 214. 
Stanton, W. A.— 13, 15, 16, i7, 214- 
Debate Concerning Committee— 24.^ 
Rule .' dopted Concerning Commit- 
tee -26. 
Committee on. Nominations for — 39, 
Committee Elected— 41, 52. 
Report ol Connnittee— 63, 239. 
State and Municipal Progreun— 
Debate on Report— 241-254, 256-276. 
Form of Program, as ordered sent to 
National Committee — Appendi.x, 
316-320. 
Stedman, Seymour— 14, 16. 19, 21. 23, 
35, -il, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 46, St. 
52, 63, 81, 83, 84, 122, 140; 154, IS7. 
160, 161, 162, 171, 187, 203, 213, 214, 
219, 221, 228, 229, 237, 238, 257, 264, 
268, 270, 288, 289, 298, 299. 

Stockell. C. H.— 40, 54, 214. 
Stonington, Conn., Telegram from— 32. 
Strickland, Frederick G.— 54, 292, 29.I, 

297. 3C0. - 

Strohell, G. H.— 16, 34, 37, 39, 4°, 4?, 98, | 

150, 164, 214. 



Taft, M. H.— 14. i6, 19. 20, 21, 24, yi, 
69, 72. 74, 82. 84. 99, 123, 143. 189. 
218. 240, 241, 275. 

Telegrams— 14, t5, 32, 54, ''2. 75- 

Thams, Tonne.s— 16, 121. 124, 144. 267, 
lliomas. v.. H.— 16, 39, 214- 

Tinu" of Speakers I.imile(l-2f), 27. 28. .'9. 



Titus, Herman F.— 14, 16, 37, i% 43, 
46, III, 116, 117, 131, 134, 135, 137, 
149, 150, 211, 214, 221, 226, 234, 235, 
238, 259, 267, 269, 276, 277, 288, 289, 
290, 291, 292, 293. 
1'oole, William A.— 16, 41, 49, Si, 85, 
86, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 99, loi, 
105, 118, 119, 120, 13s, 136, 148, ISO, 
151, 181, 187, 194, 201, 214, 237, 253- 
Toomey, Ernest— 16, 83, 147, 168, 214. 
Trades Union Resolutions- 
Discussion of Committee on— 35, 30- 
Committee on, Nominations for— 40, 

41. 
Committee Elected— 51. 
Report of Committee— 75, 76, I7S, 176, 

206. 
Discussion of Report— 76-80, I75-2I3- 
Report of Resolutions Connnittee on 

—172-175- 
Substitutes for— 177, 178, 201. 
Roll Call on— 214. 
Supplementary Report of Committee 

-283, 284- ^ 
Discharge of Committee— 284. 
As Adopted by Convention— Appen- 
dix, 324. 
Triller, A. A.— 294- 

Turner, George H.— 16, 27, 28, 29, 31, 
37, 38, 40, 41, 51, 214- 
U. 
Ufert, Charles— 16, 38, 39, loi, 102, 128, 

214, 261. 
Ufert, Ferdinand, Telegram from— 32. 
Untermann, Ernest— 16, 18, 39, 42, 46, 
165, 166, 214, 235, 237, 239, 241, 242, 
243, 247, 248, 249, 250, 269, 271, 272, 
276, 277. 
Utah Case— 43, 44, 50, Si- 

V. 
Vote, Socialist, of the United States- 
Appendix, 327. 
Vote, Socialist, of the World— Appen- 
dix, 328. 

W. ^ 

Waldhorst, F. X.— x6, 17, 3°, 35, 38, 40, 
50, 67, 68, 95, 98, 102, 104, 127, 153, 
160. 214, 234, 258, 299. 



Walsh, John H.— 39, 40, 42, Si, 87, 209, 

214, 242, 267, 268, 284, 288, 289- 
Walter, William E.— 51. 
Washington, D. C— Telegram from— 32. 
Wayland, J. A.— 86, 93- 
Ways and Means — 

Committee on, Nominations for— 40. 
Committee Elected— 40. 
Report of Committee — 278. 
Discharge of Committee— 279. 
Weaver, Herman B.— 16, 141, 214, 270, 

290, 295. 
Weber, F. J.— 16. 

Webster, Warner L.— 16, 38, 39, 4i, Si, 
76, 80, 81, 87, 92, 93, 97, 98, 104, 105, 
113, 130, 131, 138, 139, 148, 149, 150, _ 
162, 170, 183, 193, 214, 239, 252, 26S, 
269, 270. 
Wegener, Otto— 16, 214. 
Wessling, H. W.— 16, 120, 152, 214. 
White, Dan A.— 14, 16, 33, 35, 37, 4°, 
51, 66, 67, 70, 72, n, 76, 98, loi, 119, 
187, 214. 
Whitelatch, William T.— 39, 42, 214. 
Wilkins, Bertha S.— 16, 123, 179, I95, 

196, 214, 247, 250, 295- 
Wilkins, M. W.-15, 16, 37, 38, 39, (^i 
97, 168, 187, 214, 22T, 238, 241, 26S, 

Will Thomas K— 14, 16, 27, 28, 37, 38, 
39, loi, 104, III, 214, 221, 239, 262. 

Willey, Charles E.— 16, 214. 

Wilshire, Gaylord— 16. 

Wilson, J. Stitt— 15, 16, 17, 38, 39, 4i, 
103, 144, 214, 235, 236. 

Woodbey, George W.— 16, 24, 34, 39, 
45, 47, 73, 74, 132, I39, Hi, I42, 148, 
149, 152. 169, 214, 275, 295, 296, 297. 

Work, John M.— 14, 16, 20. 30. 3t, 38, 
39, 42, 62, 214, 235, 260. 



Young, W. C— 16, 38, 40, 104, 105, 214. 
Young, Sylvester L. V.— 16, 129, 136, 
137, 214, 293. 

Z. 

Znrii, Julius— 38, 78, 103, 126, 214-