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Full text of "National Lead Company lead products for industry and trade"

i 





I 



NATIONAL 



LEAD 



COMPANY 



PRODUCTS 



far 



INDUSTRY and TRADE 




CATALOG NO. 4 7 J 






MEMBER OF 




COPYRIGHT 1947, NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY 



PRINTED IN U.S.A. 





# 




III 




INTRODUCTORY 








1 


■i 


CONTENTS 




Section 






Pages 



Introductory I-VIII 

A Lead Pipe for Water Service and Plumbing A1-A4 

B Lead Fittings B1-B10 

C Sheet Lead for Building Construction C1-C8 

D Solder D1-D12 

E Fluxes E1-E2 

F Caulking Lead F1-F2 

G Miscellaneous Lead Products G1-G6 

H Cinch Anchoring Specialties H1-H4 

J Bearing Metals . J1-J8 

K Printers' and Electrotypers' Metals K1-K6 

L Grid Metal L1-L2 

M Zinc Base Alloys M1-M4 

N Pewter N1-N2 

O Block Tin Products 01-02 

P Dutch Boy Painting Materials P1-P2 

Q General Information and Data for Lead Users Q1-Q16 

R Index R1-R2 



[For exact location of a specific item, see Index at back of book. 



IV 
INTRODUCTORY 



j y 



38 



The common metal . . . 



[ 



L E 



Lead is as old as the hills and, as a metal, has 
been known and used by man for thousands of 
years. The alchemists of the Middle Ages con- 
sidered lead the oldest metal and gave it the name 
of the father of the gods, Saturn. Thus it bears the 
sign of Saturn b . 

Lead is found in the earth's crust in many 
parts of the world. It occurs most commonly as the 
mineral galena, the natural sulphide of lead. 
Principal lead producers are the United States, 
Europe, Australia, Canada and Mexico. In this 
country, the state of Missouri is the main source of 
lead, followed by Idaho and Utah. 

After the ore has been mined, it is crushed 
into fine particles which are put through a separat- 
ing and concentrating process which rids the ore 
of the unwanted parts, usually called "tailings." 
Then the lead "concentrates" are smelted — an 




operation in which the concentrates, generally in 
the form of lead sulphide, are reduced to metallic 
lead. Impurities that remain are removed by refin- 
ing processes. 

The impurities often associated with lead con- 
centrates are silver, copper, zinc, antimony, bis- 
muth, iron and several other metals. So thorough is 
the refining process for lead used for certain 
purposes (i.e. corroding) that the metal may assay 
99.995 per cent pure. Chemical lead usually is 
99.90 to 99.92 and common lead from 99.73 to 
99.93 per cent pure. 

After the refining process, the molten lead is 
cast into pigs and shipped to the manufacturers of 
lead products, among whom the makers of storage 
batteries, cable coverings, paint pigments, Ethyl 
gasoline, ammunition, lead sheet and pipe, foil and 
insecticides are the largest consumers. 



Left: Scene in a St. Joseph Lead Co. mine in southeast 
Missouri. An idea of the size of the opening may be 
obtained by noting the tiny figure of a miner near the 
upper left corner. Below: A one-pound specimen of 
galena — lead-bearing mineral. The picture is life size. 




INTRODUCTORY 



A 



D 



. . . with uncommon properties 



Lead is heavy. A cubic foot of cast pure lead 
weighs 707 pounds. Because it concentrates great 
weight in small volume, lead is the obvious choice 
for such articles as sash, counter and dress weights, 
sinkers, shot and some types of ballast. 

Lead is soft. Ordinary soft lead has a Brinell 
hardness number of 3.2 to 4.5. Because it is soft 
and inelastic, lead is used in bearing metals, ex- 
pansion bolt anchors, gaskets, washers, lead wool 
and caulking. 

Lead is pliable. In the form of pipe, tubing, 
cable covering, sheet and wire it can easily be 
made to conform to various shapes and contours 
encountered in excavations, plumbing and piping 
systems and in roof, ceiling, wall and floor in- 
stallations. Because it is so easily worked and 
formed, and because it has no "spring," lead is 
universally used for the cames with which stained 
glass windows are made. 

Lead is low-melting. Ordinary lead melts at 
621 ° F. Its low melting point is one of the reasons 
lead is used in caulking and casting. Lead is com- 
bined with one or more other metals to form elec- 
tric fuses, sprinkler heads and boiler plugs — all 
requiring low melting points. Many solders and 

Right: Pouring molten lead in a smelter. Below: This 
section of lead pipe, 17" long and 5" wide, weighing 29 
pounds, was dug up in Rome in 1907. It had been part 
of a "plumbing" system installed about the year 75 A.D. 
It has undergone practically no change whatever in 
nearly 2000 years. The embossed lettering on this pipe, 
when expanded and translated reads: "{Manufacture 
of the) Emperor Caesar Augustus Vespasian, under the 
charge of Callistus, freedman of the emperor, manager." 




printers' metals, which must be readily meltable to 
fit them for use, are lead-base alloys. 

Lead is "absorbent." Energy, in the form 
of sound, vibration, radio waves and radium ema- 
nations, is absorbed to a considerable degree by 
lead. Because of this unusual quality, lead is used 
in doors and partitions of radio studios; for anti- 
vibration pads under buildings; for protective 
shielding in X-ray rooms, and where radio-active 
materials are made or handled. 

Lead is corrosion-resistant. Atmosphere, soil, 
salt water and many chemicals — all corrosive by 
nature— have little effect upon lead. Because of its 
high resistance to corrosion, in combination with 
other attributes, lead is used for roofing, orna- 
mental work, flashings, water service pipe, chem- 
ical equipment, overhead and underground cable 
sheathing, and in numerous other installations 
subject to attack by corrosive elements. Lead and 
certain lead compounds exhibit a property which 
may be called electro-chemical reversibility. To 
this property we attribute the efficiency of the 
modern lead-acid storage battery. 

Lead is durable. It is the most durable of the 
common metals. In fact, lead is used instead of 
other materials for many architectural and indus- 
trial purposes largely because it lasts. 







VI 
INTRODUCTORY 






A BACKGROUND FOR SERVICE 




A length of lead pipe is a prosaic thing. There 
is no glamour in it — or in almost any other lead 
product. Lead pipe or sheet or fittings are bought, 
installed — and largely forgotten. They are bought 
for the service they render, not for the goods 
themselves. So long as that service is rendered, so 
long are they out of mind. 

Some buyers may specify National lead prod- 
ucts simply because they are produced by the 
world's largest maker of lead goods. Others may 
purchase National lead products simply because 
they are the most widely distributed. But most 
buyers order National lead products because they 
give the service every buyer has a right to expect 
in return for his money. 

Raw material resources that stretch back to the 
mines themselves, manufacturing plants that are 
equipped with proper facilities, manpower that has 



the necessary know-how — these are major factors 
in the production of lead goods that give long, 
honest service. 

But that's not the whole story. A highly im- 
portant, and most interesting, chapter is devoted to 
research — the unending search for better means, 
methods and materials, so that National can offer 
the best possible product for the best possible serv- 
ice at the lowest possible price. 

To carry on research it is, of course, necessary 
to have adequate facilities. These National has. 
Pages would be required to picture and explain the 
many machines, implements and instruments with 
which National research laboratories are equipped. 
But that wouldn't and couldn't show the vital 
element that makes research just what the word 
implies — the restless, inquiring, never-satisfied 
frame of mind that sets the true researcher apart from 
the "qualitative -quantitative" laboratory technician. 
The men who man the Research Laboratories 
of National Lead Company believe sincerely what 
National's customers have found for themselves — 
that National lead products truly reflect the un- 
paralleled resources and facilities of the Company. 
But they also believe — and demonstrate — that good 
lead goods can be made even better. 

It is the purpose of this catalog to bring these 
better lead goods — the products of great resources, 
extensive facilities, experienced manpower and 
perfection-seeking research to the earnest atten- 
tion of the lead goods buyers of the country. 



The National Lead Company line of metal products is so diversified and contains so 
many highly specialized items that, on numerous occasions, customers and the Company 
have found it mutually advantageous to discuss problems involving the use of certain metal 
products before orders are placed or goods shipped. This "meeting-of-minds" policy has, 
in fact, resulted in the development of new products which filled a need for which no stock 
or standard item hitherto was available. 



'? 



VII 
INTRODUCTORY 



GO "NATIONAL" FOR LEAD 

With unmatched facilities for the production and distribution of lead goods and related 
items, it is natural for those who buy or specify these commodities to look first to National Lead 
Company as a source of supply. Lead-consuming industries and lead -installing trades have, in- 
deed, turned to us so often and in such numbers that National Lead Company has become the 
nation's lead headquarters. 

NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY 

GENERAL OFFICES: 111 Broadway, New York 6, N. Y, 



BRANCHES, SALES OFFICES AND WAREHOUSES: 



Branch 
ATLANTIC BRANCH 
BALTIMORE BRANCH 
BUFFALO BRANCH . 
CHICAGO BRANCH 

Detroit, Michigan 

Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
CINCINNATI BRANCH . 

Louisville, Kentucky . 

Atlanta, Georgia . , 
CLEVELAND BRANCH . 
PACIFIC COAST BRANCH 

Los Angeles, California 

Portland, Oregon . . 

Seattle, Washington 

Spokane, Washington 
ST. LOUIS BRANCH . . 

Dallas, Texas . , , . 

Kansas City, Missouri . 

New Orleans, Louisiana 

Omaha, Nebraska . . 

St. Paul, Minnesota 
JOHN T. LEWIS & BROS. CO 
NATIONAL LEAD CO. OF PENNA 
NATIONAL LEAD CO. OF MASS. 
MORRIS P. KIRK & SON, Inc. . 
NATIONAL LEAD CO 



Address 
111 Broadway, New York 6 . . . . 
214 W. Henrietta Street, Baltimore 3 

116 Oak Street, Buffalo 3 

900 W. 18th Street, Chicago 8. . . 
1627 West Fort Street, Detroit 16. . 
744 No. Fourth Street, Milwaukee 3 
659 Freeman Avenue, Cincinnati 3 
1320 Heyburn Building, Louisville 2 

Bishop Street, Atlanta 

1213 West Third Street, Cleveland 13 
2240— 24th Street, San Francisco 10 
932 Wilson Street, Los Angeles 21 . 
1211 N. W. Glisan Street, Portland 9 

973 John Street, Seattle 9 

N. 908 Howard Street, Spokane 1 1 . 
722 Chestnut Street, St. Louis 1 . . 
959 Terminal Street, Dallas 2 . . . 
1406 W. Thirteenth Street, Kansas City 7 



Phone Number 

. Rector 2-9400 

. . South 0900 

Cleveland 2262 

. Canal 3700 

Cadillac 0309 

. Daly 4870 

Parkway 7970 

Jackson 1541 

Hemlock 3231 

Prospect 4060 

Mission 0440 

Trinity 5101 

Atwater 0254 

. Eliot 8130 

Broadway 1 185 

Chestnut 8785 

Riverside 8336 

. . Victor 0507 



516 Tchoupitoulas Street, New Orleans 1 2 . Raymond 4990 

2810 A Street, Omaha 7 Jackson 4404 

102 West Fairfield Avenue, St. Paul 1 . . Garfield 6345 
2545 Aramingo Avenue, Philadelphia 25 . Regent 9-7484 
1376 River Avenue, Pittsburgh 30 ... . Fairfax 2335 

800 Albany Street, Boston 6 ..... . Garrison 1000 

2717 S. Indiana Street, Los Angeles 23 . Angelus 2-1101 
OF ARGENTINA, S. A Buenos Aires 



HOYT METAL COMPANY OF GREAT BRITAIN, Ltd. . London, England 
THE CANADA METAL CO., Ltd. Toronto, Winnipeg, Montreal, Vancouver 



All prices listed in this catalog are subject to change without notice. The information 
contained in this book is believed to be accurate, but National Lead Company 
disclaims responsibility for errors. 



VIII 

INTRODUCTORY 



f 




THE DUTCH BOY TRADE-MARK 

(Registered in U.S. Pat. Off.) 

The original portrait of the Dutch Boy, reproduced above, was painted in 1907 
by Lawrence Carmichael Earle. Mr. Earle, who died in 1921, was a distin- 
guished portrait and character painter. His Dutch Boy is admired by art critics 
as a boy portrait of unusual merit. 

To the American buying public, the Dutch Boy is a familiar figure. He 
appears in the national advertising and on many of the products of National 
Lead Company ... a symbol of quality and reliability. 






[ 

I' 1 



4 



AA-l 
LEAD PIPE 



for handling corrosive chemicals 



LEAD PIPE 

for handling corrosive chemicals 



Lead piping is standard equipment in indus- 
trial plants where the manufacturing process in- 
volves the use of corrosive chemicals or gases. 
Typical large users are the oil refineries, metal 
refineries, acid plants, chemical companies, pulp 
and paper mills, rayon plants and the like. 

The special property of lead pipe which makes 
it virtually indispensable in industrial equipment is 
corrosion resistance. Its outstanding use, because 
of this property, is in the manufacture and trans- 
portation of sulphuric acid. However, lead pipe has 
been and is being used successfully to handle a 
large number of other industrial chemicals and 
gases, often under severe service and temperature 
conditions. 

In addition to corrosion resistance, the pli- 
ability of lead pipe is an advantage in chemical 
equipment. It allows easy-working, such as bend- 
ing, and the fabrication of the pipe into coils or 
other special apparatus. 



Since the cost of extruding lead pipe is not 
high, a major portion of the initial cost is for the 
metal itself. Thus discarded lead piping has a high 
scrap value, an economy factor which should not 
be overlooked when purchasing pipe. 

GRADES OF LEAD PIPE 

Several types of lead pipe are available for 

industrial use. All are made either of chemical 
lead or of chemical lead to which small amounts 




Above: Lead pipe line for handling a salt solution. Pipes 

are insulated to facilitate temperature control. Below: 

Discharge pipe on the outside of a circular concrete 

settling tank. 









AA-2 
LEAD PIPE 



for handling corrosive chemicals 





of other metals have been added to induce hard- 
ness, higher acid-resistance under certain condi- 
tions, or some other desirable property. The term 
"chemical lead" refers to a grade of undesilver- 
ized lead containing small amounts of copper and 
silver which practical experience has shown 
possesses unusual anti-corrosive properties. 

The various types of lead pipe available dif- 
fer greatly in mechanical strength, resistance to 
corrosion and other physical properties. If there 
is no previous service record to guide the selection 
for a particular installation, the industrial engineer 
should first determine, by means of tests or by con- 
sultation with the technical staff of National Lead 
Company, the most suitable type to use. 

TELLURIUM LEAD PIPE* 

This grade of pipe is made from prime chemi- 
cal lead to which a small quantity of tellurium has 
been added. The addition is in the amount indi- 
cated by our extensive research on this alloy. 

Lead containing tellurium has several out- 
standing properties. One is an improved corro- 
sion resistance, particularly at the higher temper- 
atures. Another is the capacity to work-harden. 
Tellurium lead— toughened by bending, stretching 
or hammering— actually has a greater tensile 
strength than before. Still a third property is a 
greatly improved resistance to failure under vibra- 
tory stresses. 

Tellurium lead pipe installations are success- 
fully cutting costs in many industrial and chemical 
plants. A plating concern recently reported that 
heating coils fabricated from tellurium lead lasted 
100 per cent longer than the coils used previously. 
A chemical concern reported that a tellurium lead 
pipe line carrying alum liquor at 90°C. had per- 
formed satisfactorily for three years, whereas the 
type of pipe formerly used twisted and bulged after 
three months' service. 

*Pat. No. 2,060,534 

Top: Lead piping in connection with a battery of diges- 
tors in a large industrial plant. Center: Another view of 
the lead discharge pipe shown on the preceding page. 
The solution empties into a drain protected with sheet 
lead. Bottom: Lead pipe line connecting a series of lead - 
lined acid mixing and storage tanks. 



AA-3 

LEAD PIPE 

for handling corrosive chemicals 



TELLURIUM-ANTIMONIAL LEAD PIPE 

Tellurium lead pipe is also available alloyed 
with any specified antimonial content. As with 
straight antimonial lead pipe, the standard is 6 
per cent, and this alloy will be supplied unless 
otherwise specified. 

OTHER GRADES 

Chemical Lead Pipe: Chemical lead pipe 
is made only from standard accepted brands of 
prime lead which conform to Grade II of the 
A. S. T. M. standard specifications (B29-35). 

Antimonial Lead Pipe: Antimonial lead 
pipe is made from prime chemical lead, alloyed 
with any specified antimony content up to 10 per 
cent. Most pipe of this grade contains 6 per cent 
antimony which is standard in many plants. 

Tin-Lined Lead Pipe: This pipe is made 
from pure chemical lead with an adherent tin 
lining. Stock sizes are %" ID. (10 ozs. per foot) 
and 14" ID. (12 ozs. per foot). Other sizes can be 
made quickly on order. 

SIZES AND WEIGHTS 

Lead pipe, manufactured by National Lead 
Company, is made in a wide range of sizes and 
weights to fit every industrial need. A list of many 
commonly used sizes and weights is given on pages 
AA-5 and AA-6. 

PACKING 

Every precaution is taken to wrap and pack 
our lead pipe properly to protect it for handling and 
shipment to the consumer. The method and manner 
of packing and the protective coverings used de- 
pend, of course, upon the materials available at 
time and place of shipment. Certain types and sizes 
of pipe are shipped in coils or on reels, others in 
standard lengths, unless otherwise specified. 

Top: A battery of lead -lined acid mixing tanks, together 
with the lead piping and lead-lined valves necessary to 
supply the system. Bottom: Six per cent antimonial 
Hanged pipe and fittings fabricated at one of our plants 
for a southern paper company. The total shipment 
weighed more than 26 tons. 



•*. 




AA-4 
LEAD PIPE 



for handling corrosive chemicals 





Above: A group of special corru- 
gated lead pipe coils. Corruga- 
tions increase the heating sur- 
face. Below: Lead cooling coils 
in an acid plant. 




SPECIALTIES 

Special Lead Pipe: Lead pipe of special 
composition or shape can be supplied on short 
notice. This includes such pipe as that used in 
chromium plating equipment or elliptical pipe 
used for cooling gases where a large surface area 
to a small volume of pipe is desired. 

Flanged Pipe & Fittings: Flanged anti- 
monial lead pipe, flanged lead headers, ells, bends 
and similar pipe fittings are supplied on customer's 
specification. 

Lead Traps and Bends: We manufacture 
a full line of lead traps and bends for the chemical 
industry as well as for water service and plumbing. 




Special helical lead coils coupled for testing. 

Lead bends can be supplied in any desired size 
from 1 x /i" I.D. up to and including 6" I.D. Traps are 
furnished in all standard patterns. 

We can also supply extruded chemical lead 
bends. The following list prices and cut dimensions 
are for the standard 90° bend but we can furnish 
any shape bend and any length required. 

(Prices subject to change without notice.) 



Inside 
Diameter 


Wall 
Thickness 


Cut 
Dimensions 


List 
Prices 


3" 
4" 
5" 
6" 


M" 
W 


5i4"x534" 

6J4" x 634" 
7}4"x 7J4" 
8 " x 8 " 


S6.00 

8.00 

10.50 

13.00 



Where an oversize bend is wanted, for each 
inch or fraction thereof of excess length over listed 
size, the increase in price is as follows: 
For 3" diameter 54 cents per inch or fraction 

(( AH (( gO « « « « « 

a c» a nr\ « « « u u 

u c/i tt no a u a a a 

Lead Pipe Coils: We fabricate lead pipe 
coils of any size and of any composition desired. In 
ordering, the best plan is to submit a blueprint. 
Specify center-to-center dimensions, number of 
turns, spacing between turns and position and 
length of inlet and outlet. 

Lead Spacer Blocks : For pipe coils erected 
in the field, it is a good plan to use fabricated lead 
spacer blocks or coil supports. We manufacture 
lead spacer blocks in a wide range of sizes, compo- 
sitions and shapes. Special types can be furnished 
at extra costs to include making of new dies. 



/-- 




AA-5 
LEAD PIPE 



for handling corrosive chemicals 



LEAD PIPE SIZES AND WEIGHTS 



The sizes and weights given m this table are 
those used frequently in the chemical trade. 
In most cases the dimensions differ from sim- 



ilarly classified pipe used for water service and 
plumbing. Lead pipe in other sizes and weigh ts 
can be furnished on short notice. 



NOMINAL 




NOMINAL 






SIZE 




SIZE 


NOMINAL 


NOMINAL 


INSIDE CLASSIFICATION 


OUTSIDE 


WALL 


WEIGHT 


DIAMETER EAST 


WEST 


DIAMETER 


THICKNESS 


PER FOOT 


Inches 




Indies 


Inch 


Pounds 


W E 


AQ 


.481 


.053 


.35 


D 


XI". 


.531 


.078 


.55 


C 


L 


.561 


.093 


.67 


13 


M 


.601 


.113 


.85 


A 


S 


.661 


.143 


1.14 


AA 


XS 


.721 


.173 


1.46 


AAA 


xxs 


.741 


.183 


1.58 


Spec. 




.761 


.193 


1.69 


Spec . 




.801 


.213 


1.93 


\i" E 


AQ 


.64 


.070 


.62 


L) 


XL 


.68 


.090 


.82 


C 


L 


,7.' 


.110 


1.04 


B 


M 


.73 


.115 


1.09 


Spec . 




.80 


.150 


1.51 


A 


S 


.84 


.170 


1.76 


AA . 


XS 


.88 


.190 


2.03 


Spec. 




.96 


.230 


2.59 


AAA 


xxs 


1.04 


.270 


3.21 


H" E 


AQ 


.77 


.073 


.79 


D 


XL 


.81 


,093 


1.03 


(' 


L 


.88 


.128 


1.49 


B 


M 


.96 


.168 


2.06 


Spec. 




.98 


.178 


2.21 


A 


s 


1.02 


.198 


2.52 


AA 


XS 


1.06 


.218 


2.84 


Spec. 




1.08 


.228 


3.00 


AAA 


xxs 


i.14 


.258 


3.51 


?i" E 


AQ 


.88 


.065 


.82 


D 


XL 


.94 


.095 


1.24 


C 


L 


1.00 


.125 


1.69 


Spec. 




1.03 


.140 


1.92 


B 


M 


1.07 


.160 


2.24 


Spec. 




1.10 


.175 


2.50 


A 


s 


1 .14 


.195 


2.84 


AA 


XS 


1.21 


.230 


3.48 


Spec. 




1.27 


.260 


4.06 


AAA 


xxs 


1.34 


.295 


4.76 


7 " 
. 8 




1.00 


.062 


.91 






1.12 


.123 


1.89 


1" E 


AQ 


1.20 


.100 


1.70 


D 


XL 


1.23 


.115 


1.98 


C 


L 


1.27 


.135 


2.36 


B 


M 


1.35 


. 175 


3.17 


A 


S 


1.42 


.210 


3.92 


AA 


XS 


1.48 


.240 


4.59 


AAA 


XXS 


1.59 


.295 


5.90 


IK" E 


AQ 


1.44 


.095 


1.97 


D 


XL 


1.49 


.120 


2.54 


C 


L 


1.53 


.140 


3.00 


B 


M 


1.59 


.170 


3.73 


A 


S 


1.67 


.210 


4.73 


AA 


XS 


1.74 


.245 


5 . 65 


AAA 


xxs 


1.84 


. 295 


7.04 



NOMINAL 

SIZE 
INSIDE CLASSIFICATION 

DIAMETER EAST WEST 



NOMINAL 

SIZE NOMINAL NOMINAL 

OUTSIDE WALL WEIGHT 

DIAMETER THICKNESS PER FOOT 



Inch 



<-s 



IW' 



y-h" 



2" 



IW 



3] 



Inches 



Inch 



Pounds 



E 


AQ 


1.74 


.120 


3, (A) 


D 


XL 


1.78 


.140 


3.54 


C 


1. 


1.83 


.165 


4.24 


B 


M 


1.87 


.185 


4.81 


A 


S 


1.98 


.240 


6.45 


AA 


XS 


2.04 


.270 


7.38 


Spec . 




2.07 


.285 


7.85 


AAA 


XXS 


2.12 


.310 


8.66 


D 


XL 


2.00 


.125 


3.62 


( 


1. 


2.06 


.155 


4.55 


B 


M 


2.12 


.185 


5.52 


Spec. 




2.15 


.200 


6.02 


A 


S 


2. 18 


.215 


6.52 


AA 


XS 


2.31 


.280 


8.77 


AAA 


XXS 


2.50 


.375 


12.31 


E 


A( j 


2.18 


.090 


2.90 


Spec . 




2.24 


.120 


3.92 


D 


XL 


2.27 


.135 


4.44 


Spec. 




2.31 


.155 


5.15 


C 


L 


2.34 


.170 


5.69 


B 


M 


2,38 


.190 


6.42 


A 


S 


2 . 48 


.240 


8.30 


Spec. 




2.50 


.250 


8.69 


AA 


XS 


2.51 


.255 


8.87 


AAA 


XXS 


2.71 


.355 


12.91 






2.66 


.080 


3.17 






2.67 


.085 


3.38 






2.75 


.125 


5.07 






2.80 


.150 


6.13 






2.87 


.185 


7.66 






3.00 


.250 


10.62 






3.12 


.310 


13.44 






3.25 


.375 


16.66 






3.375 


.437 


19.81 






3.50 


.500 


23.19 






3.10 


.050 


2.34 






3.18 


.090 


4.28 






3.19 


.095 


4.52 






3.24 


.120 


5.76 






3.25 


.125 


6.04 






3.34 


.170 


8,30 






3.37 


.185 


9,08 






3.50 


.250 


12.56 






3.62 


.310 


15.83 






3.75 


.375 


19.57 






3.875 


.437 


23 . 25 






4.00 


.500 


27.05 






3 . 665 


.082 


4.71 






3.68 


,090 


4.96 






3.71 


.105 


5.82 






3.75 


.125 


7.00 






3.87 


.185 


10.50 






4.00 


.250 


14.49 






4.12 


.310 


18.42 






4.25 


.375 


22.46 






4.37 


.435 


26 . 63 






4.50 


.500 


30.91 






AA-6 
LEAD PIPE 



for handling corrosive chemicals 

LEAD PIPE SIZES AND WEIGHTS (Continued) 




1 



NOMINAL 

SIZE 

INSIDE 

DIAMETER 

Indies 



4" 



Wi" 



5W 



6! 2 ' 



7" 



NOMINAL 

SIZE 
OUTSIDE 
DIAMETER 



Inches 

4.18 
4.20 
4.25 
4.30 
4.37 
4,50 
4.65 
4.75 
4.84 
5.00 



4.71 

4.75 

4.81 

4.87 

5.00 

5.11 

5.25 

5.375 

5.50 



5.10 
5.25 
5.31 
5.37 
5.50 
5.62 
5.75 
5.87 
6.00 



5.66 
5.75 
5.87 
6.00 
6.12 
6.25 
6.37 
6.50 



6.25 
6.37 
6.50 
6.62 
6.75 
6.87 
7.00 



NOMINAL 

WALL 

THICKNESS 



Inch 

.090 
.100 
.125 
.150 
.185 
.250 
.325 
.375 
.420 
.500 



.105 
.125 
.155 
.185 
.250 
.305 
.375 
.437 
.500 



.050 
.125 
. 155 
.185 
.250 
.310 
.375 
.435 
. 500 



.080 
.125 
.185 
.250 
.310 
.375 
.435 
.500 



125 
! 85 
.250 
.310 
.375 
,435 
.500 



NOMINAL 

WEIGHT 

PER FOOT 



Pounds 

5.64 

6.30 

7,97 

9,67 

11.99 

16.42 

21.68 

25.36 

28.64 

34.78 



7.43 
8.94 
11.10 
13.35 
18.36 
22.60 
28.26 
33.29 
38.64 



3.85 
9.90 
12.29 
14.77 
20.29 
25.38 
31.15 
36.47 
42.50 



6.83 
10.87 
16.18 
22,22 
27^76 
34.06 
39.82 
46.37 



11.84 
17.60 
24.15 
30.14 
36.95 
43.17 
50.24 



6.75 


.125 


12.80 


6.87 


.185 


19.02 


7.00 


.250 


26.09 


7.125 


.312 


32.75 


7.25 


.375 


39.85 


7.375 


.437 


46.75 


7 . 50 


.500 


54.10 


7.25 


.125 


13.76 


7.37 


.185 


20.43 


7.50 


.250 


28.01 


7.625 


Ml 


35.14 


7.75 


.375 


42.74 


7.87 


.435 


49.86 


8.00 


.500 


57.96 



NOMINAL 

SIZE 

INSIDE 

DIAMETER 



Inches 



W 



10" 



11" 



12" 



NOMINAL 

SIZE 

OUTSIDE 

DIAMETER 



NOMINAL 
WALL 

THICKNESS 



Inches 

7.75 
7.87 
8.00 
8.12 
8.25 
8.37 
8.50 



8.25 
8.37 
8.50 
8.62 
8.75 
9.00 



8.75 
9.00 
9.12 
9.37 
9.50 



9.37 
9.50 
9.62 
9.75 

10.00 



9.75 
9.87 
10.00 
10.25 
10.37 
10.50 



10.25 
10.37 
10.50 
1 . 62 
10.75 
10.87 
11.00 



11 


50 


12 


00 


12 


37 


12 


50 


12 


62 


12 


75 


13 


00 



Inch 

.125 
.185 
.250 
.310 
.375 
.435 
.500 



.125 
,185 
.250 
.310 
.375 
.500 



.125 
.250 
.310 
.435 
.500 



,185 
,250 
,310 
.375 
. 500 



,125 
.185 
.250 
.375 
.435 
.500 



,125 
,185 
, 250 
,310 
.375 
.435 
.500 



250 
500 



.185 
.250 
,310 
.375 
.500 



/-- 



NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY • Atlantic Branch 
111 Broadway, New York 6, New York 



NOMINAL 

WEIGHT 

PER FOOT 



Pounds 

14.73 

21.84 
29.95 
37.29 
45.64 
53.20 
61.82 



15.69 
23.26 
31.88 
39.67 
48.54 
65 . 69 



16.66 
33.81 
42 . 05 
59.90 
69.55 



26.09 
35.74 
44.43 
54.34 
73.42 



18.60 
27.50 
37.68 
57.24 
66.58 
77.28 



19.56 
28.89 
39.61 
49.16 
60.14 
69.90 
81.15 



43.47 
88.89 



34,49 
47.33 
58.60 
71.73 
96.58 



[ 
[ 



[ 



[ 

I 
[ 



I 



L 



[ 
I 

r 




BB-1 
SHEET LEAb 



SHEET LEAD 

Sheet lead is produced by rolling or milling. 
Its manufacture involves first the casting of large 
slabs, several inches thick, from pigs of pure lead 
or a desired lead alloy. These slabs are then rolled, 
either hot or cold depending upon the composition 
of the lead, between steel rollers to a specified 
thickness. 

For many years, we have been the nation's 
leading supplier of high quality sheet lead. Our 
product is made only from standard accepted 
brands of prime lead and lead alloys. Every pre- 
caution is taken to produce sheet that is precisely 
as specified with respect to thickness or weight, 
subject to commercial tolerances. 

SIZES AND WEIGHTS 

The standard size for milled sheet lead, weigh- 
ing three pounds per square foot or over, is 8' 
wide by 20' long. The standard size for sheet lead 
weighing less than three pounds per square foot 
is 4' to 5' wide by 15' long. However, we are able to 
furnish sheets on short notice which are consider- 
ably larger in width and length than these standard 
sizes. The maximum sizes are given in the table on 
the following page. 

Sheet lead may be specified either by its weight 
per square foot or its thickness. There is a rough 
mathematical correlation between the two. Pure 
lead sheet weighing one pound per square foot is 
\4±" thick. Except in the larger sizes, each addi- 
tional pound per square foot adds \{\" to the thick- 
ness. 

Commonly used weights of sheet lead are 
shown in the table on the next page. Other weights 
per square foot can be rolled on short notice. 

DIRECTIONS FOR ORDERING 

In ordering sheet lead, specify the type of lead 

wanted, the weight per square foot or the thickness 
and the number and size of the sheets. In ordering 




Our care in manufacture insures sheet lead of accurate 
thickness and weight. 

sheet lead in other than regular stock sizes, please 
note the following instructions: 

If plain rectangular sheets are wanted, state 
clearly the width and length. In the case of irregu- 
lar shape sheets, forward a sketch giving dimen- 
sions or send a drawing of the object to be lined or 
covered, stating clearly all dimensions. 

PACKING 

Unless otherwise specified, all sheet lead is 
shipped in rolls which are carefully packed in 
wooden slats or double-faced corrugated board 
and fastened with steel straps, wire or rope. 




View of a sheet lead rolling mill showing rollers which 
propel the lead, and cutting table in foreground. 



BB-2 

SHEET LEAD 



SHEET LEAD SIZES AND WEIGHTS 

The weights given below apply to common lead only. Other types of lead, such as anti- 
monial or hard lead, weigh slightly less for a given thickness. 



Pounds 
Per Sq. Ft. 



1 

2 

2H 

3 

4 

5 
6 
8 

10 

12 

14 

1() 
20 

24 
30 

40 



60 



Actual Thickness 




App. Thickness in Inches 



Decimal 



.0117 
.0156 
.0234 
.0312 
.0391 
.0468 
.0547 
.0625 
.0781 
.0937 
.1250 

.1563 

.1875 

.2188 
,2500 
.3333 

.4000 
.5000 

.6667 



1.0000 



Fraction 



Maximum Sizes 



1/80 

1/64 

3/128 

1/32 

5/128 

3/64 

7/128 

1/16 

5/64 

3/32 

1/8 

5/32 

3/16 

7/32 

1/4 

1/3 

2/5 
1/2 

2/3 



4'xl5' 

8'x20' 

8'x20' 

7'x45' 

9'x45 
10'x45 
10'x45' 
10'x45 

10'x43' 

10'x43', ll'x40' 
U'6"x30\ ll'9"x20 

10'x40' 
ll'6"x35' 

/ ll'x40' 
\ 10'x48' 

( ll'6"x40' 

ll'x40' 
I ll'6"x35' 

ll'6"x40' 
ll'9"x30' 

ll'6"x40' 
ll'9"x30' 

/ ll'6"x40 / 
\ ll'9"x38' 



ll'9"x30' 

ll'x34' 

ll'6"x32' 



f ll'x27 
ll'6"x25'6" 
12'xl6' 



ll'x24 
12'xl6 



12'xl2' 



/-- 



I 



BB-3 

SHEET LEAP 

for handling corrosive chemicals 



SHEET LEAD 

for handling corrosive c hemicals 

Because of its high corrosion resistance, sheet 
lead is virtually a standard material for the lining 
of vats, tanks, agitators and similar types of equip- 
ment in chemical and industrial plants. It is also 
employed extensively as a protective covering for 
apparatus subjected to corrosive fumes or acid 
splash. 

Sheet lead has been used successfully with a 
wide variety of acids and chemicals. Of special 
interest is its service record in the concentration 
and handling of sulphuric, phosphoric and hydro- 
fluoric acids, for handling sulphite solutions in the 





paper industry and for sulphonation and chlorina- 
tion processes in the organic chemicals industry. 

In addition to corrosion resistance, sheet lead 
has other desirable properties which adapt it to 
industrial use. Being pliable and malleable, it is 
easily worked and can be readily shaped to con- 
form to the interiors or exteriors of chemical ap- 
paratus. The low melting point of lead facilitates 
the "burning" of sheets to form continuous corro- 
sion resistant surfaces. Finally, sheet lead's rela- 



Above: Lead covered drum-type 
acid filter in a pigment manu- 
facturing plant. The trough in 
the foreground is also formed 
from sheet lead. The revolving 
drum is made of perforated lead. 



Left: Sheet lead lining being in- 
stalled in a circular concrete 
settling tank. Note the vertical 
steel straps which support the 
lining. These straps are later 
covered with strips of lead. One 
strap has already been covered. 



Below: Dehydrator stack connec- 
tions in an acid plant. These 
Hues, formed from sheet lead, 
carry steam containing sulphu- 
ric acid. 



BB-4 

SHEET LEAD 

for handling corrosive chemicals 



i 



tively low initial cost and high salvage value make 
it more economical than many other materials that 
are sometimes used. 

GRADES OF SHEET LEAD 

For construction purposes in chemical and in- 
dustrial plants, we manufacture sheet lead of sev- 
eral different types. The standard grades furnished 
are chemical lead, tellurium lead, tellurium-anti- 
monial lead, antimonial lead, and crawlproof lead, 
a reinforced chemical lead. Descriptions of these 
grades are given on the pages that follow. 

Occasionally, sheet lead of a special composi- 

CHEMICAL LEAD SHEET 

Chemical lead sheet is rolled from "chemical 
ead," a term used in the trade to designate a type 
of lead produced from southeast Missouri ores. 

Chemical lead is a practically pure lead, free 
from bismuth and characterized by the presence of 
about .06% copper. The copper is advantageous in 
several respects: it increases the normal corrosion 
resistance of lead; raises its recrystallization tem- 
perature, thus retarding grain growth; and gives 
lead a greater tensile strength and higher endur- 
ance limit or fatigue strength. 



tion is required for certain types of equipment. 
We are in a position to furnish these special leads, 
according to specification, on short notice. 

SELECTION OF SHEET LEAD 

The various grades of sheet lead differ more 

or ess widely in mechanical strength and corro- 
sion resistance under a given set of conditions. If 
there is no previous service record to guide the 
selection of sheet lead for a particular installation, 
the industrial engineer should first determine, by 
means of actual plant tests or by consultation with 
the technical staff of National Lead Company, the 
grade which will best serve his purpose. 



Chemical lead has been used successfully in 
the chemical industry for more than a generation. 
It may properly be called the base lead for acid- 
handling purposes since virtually all other grades 
intended for industrial use are simply chemical lead, 
alloyed with varying quantities of other metals. 

Our chemical lead sheet is rolled only from 
standard accepted brands of prime lead which 
conform to Grade II of the A.S.T.M. standard 
specifications (B29-35). It is furnished in any 
gauge from \{± " up. 



Large lead-lined mixing tank. Inlet and outlet connections are also of lead. 




I 

t 

I 

i 

I ' 

J; 

I 

I 

| • 



f 




BB-5 
SHEET LEAD 



for handling corrosive chemicals 




Strips of lead with and without tellurium content after 
immersion in 96% sulphuric acid at 305° C. for 3 minutes. 
Tellurium lead weight loss, 0.97%— other lead 5.11%. 



Strips of lead, with and without tellurium content, 

stamped and then stretched. Stamping strengthened 

tellurium lead (top) but weakened the other lead. 



TELLURIUM LEAD SHEET 



Tellurium lead sheet is rolled from a grade oi 
lead obtained by adding a small quantity of tellu- 
rium (less than 0.1%) to primary chemical lead. 

One outstanding feature resulting from the 
addition of tellurium is improved corrosion resist- 
ance—particularly under conditions where corro. 
sion is most severe— at high temperatures, when 
vibration or mechanical strain is also present. In a 
flash test, specimens of tellurium lead and lead 
without tellurium were held at 305°C. in 96% sul- 
phuric acid for three minutes. The lead containing 
tellurium showed a weight loss of only 0.97%; the 
other lead showed a weight loss of 5 . 1 1 % . 

Another quality which tellurium develops in 
lead is the capacity to work-harden— to strengthen 
under strain. Tellurium lead, toughened by me- 
chanical action such as rolling, bending, stretching 
or hammering, actually has a greater tensile 
strength and resistance to fracture than before. 

Tellurium lead's ability to strengthen itself has 
been of great practical value in plants where the 
nature of the operation or the design of the equip- 
ment puts an undue burden on the corrosion 

*Pat. No. 2,060,534 



SERVICE REPORTS ON TELLURIUM LEAD 

An Explosives Manufacturer 

"Its rate of corrosion is about half that of 
ordinary lead." 

A Chemical Company 

"We estimate approximately 25 per cent 
longer life from tellurium lead as compared 
to other leads." 

A Soap Manufacturer 

"After 8 months' service, the tellurium 
lead lining in our tub shows no signs of 
creeping and very little if any corrosion, 
although subjected to 10 per cent boiling 
sulphuric acid." 

A Rayon Manufacturer 

"Our tellurium lead lining — in service two 
years — still conforms to the tank shape as 
snugly as on installation. No bulging has 
occurred." 

A Battery Manufacturer 

"The 3-year old tellurium lead lining in 
our large sulphuric acid mixing tank is very 
smooth and uniform with no sign whatever 
of buckling, although the tank is used for 
cutting raw acid. Other linings have given 
us trouble by buckling and cracking," 

A Metal Refinery 

"For the last two years, we have purchased 
all our lead reguirements in tellurium lead. 
We find a considerable advantage in its 
stiffness and resistance to vibration crys- 
tallization." 



BB-6 

SHEET LEAD 



for handling corronv^nemicair 





resistant materials used. For example, tellurium 
lead tends to give longer service when employed 
as a lining in tanks where frequent and rapid heat 
changes occur. Movements of the lining due to 
expansion or contraction toughen the lead at the 
point of deformation. Subsequent movements due 
to expansion take place at other points over the 
lining, lessening the possibility of fatigue fracture. 
Still another quality of tellurium lead— due in 



Tellurium lead's longer life under vibratory stress makes 
it a suitable material for the linings of mixing tanks 
(left), for the coverings on rayon spinning machines 
(above), or for other equipment subject to vibration. 

part to its capacity to work-harden— is a higher 
endurance limit and therefore a greatly improved 
resistance to failure under vibratory stresses. 
Where vibration exists, tellurium lead appears to 
set up an opposition to the vibration, toughening 
and strengthening itself to the point where it with- 
stands considerable buckling or creeping. 

Tellurium lead in sheet form is available in any 
gauge from \4i" up. 



TELLURIUM-ANTIMONIAL LEAD SHEET 




Tellurium-antimonial lead sheet is made from 
tellurium lead, alloyed according to specification 
with various percentages of antimony. As in the 
case of straight antimonial lead sheet described in 
some detail on the opposite page, the antimony 
content usually specified is 6%. 

In general, the addition of antimony to tel- 
lurium lead produces the same physical changes as 
those noted for straight antimonial lead. Harder 
and stiffer than straight tellurium lead, its better 
resistance to abrasion makes it suitable for linings 
subject to considerable erosion. 

Tellurium-antimonial lead sheet is furnished 
in any gauge from \{± up. 

Installing a tellurium-antimonial lead lining in an oil 
refinery agitator. In this particular installation, the 
depth of the tank and the relatively few supporting 
straps indicated the use of a sheet lead hardened and 
stiffened with antimony. 



I 
I 




BB-7 

SHEET LEAP 

TSnRSnaTiiigcorrosive chemicals 



ANTIMONIAL LEAD SHEET 



Aritimonial or "hard" lead in sheet form is 
made from chemical lead, alloyed according to 
specification, with various percentages of antimony 
in order to obtain greater mechanical strength. 
The antimony contents usually specified range from 
4% to 10%, 6% being specified in most cases. 

The tensile strength of 6% antimonial lead is 
approximately twice that of chemical lead. This 
fact, combined with its greater hardness and stiff- 
ness, makes it a suitable material for use in tanks 
where the mechanical strain is severe or where 
linings are supported by a skeleton framework. 
Also antimonial lead has better abrasion resistance 
than chemical lead and is therefore better suited 
to installations where erosion is a problem. Finally, 
antimonial lead is more resistant to cutting or 
mechanical injury when hit or struck by harder 



metals and tends to give better service as a lining 
in tanks where this condition exists. 

Due to the fact that antimony lowers the melt- 
ing point of lead from 620°F to 477°F, antimonial 
lead is more affected than is chemical lead by 
elevated temperatures. As the heat rises, it loses its 
mechanical strength more rapidly as well as its 
ability to resist acid attack. Antimonial lead is not 
recommended for use with temperatures above 
220°F-240°F. 

Antimonial lead sheet is furnished in any 
gauge from Id" up. The specific gravity of anti- 
monial lead is lower than that of chemical lead; 
consequently sheets of the same size and thickness 
are lighter. Antimonial lead sheet, containing from 
4% to 6% of antimony, weighs approximately 3.2% 
less than chemical lead sheet. 







Above: Partly assembled evaporator in a by-product 
coke plant. Interior of the evaporator is lined with sheet 
lead. The "cracker pipe" at center and the large diam- 
eter connecting pipes shown in photo at upper right, 
are formed from heavy gauge antimonial lead sheet. 



Right: A battery of selenium precipitate tanks in a cop- 
per refining plant. The tanks are lined with 6 per cent 
antimonial lead sheet. 



BB-8 
SHEET LEAD 



for handling corrosive chemicals 




CRAWLPROOF SHEET LEAD 



In tanks, vats or agitators where linings are 
subjected to a relatively severe strain, crawlproof 
sheet lead provides a greater measure of freedom 
from buckling, crawling and similar movements 
than does chemical lead sheet. 

Crawlproof lead is chemical sheet lead rein- 
forced in the center with antimonial lead bars. 



The bars are placed exactly like steel rods in rein- 
forced concrete and firmly embedded so that no 
separation can take place. 

Crawlproof sheet lead is furnished in any 
gauge from J^" up and in any size not exceeding 
73^' in width by 35' in length. Each sheet is marked 
showing the direction of the reinforcing bars. 



BURNING BAR OR ROD LEAD 

An important feature of lead construction in 
chemical equipment is the welding or "burning" 
operation. Lead sheets are joined together by fusing 
them at a well-cleaned joint by means of a torch and 
a strip of lead known as a "burning bar". The latter 
is almost always of the same composition as the 
sheets to be joined. 

We manufacture burning bar in any desired 
composition and any desired shape. Usually burn- 
ing bar is furnished in circular wire form, %" 
in diameter, and is shipped on reels. 

ANTIMONIAL LEAD ANODES 

Lead anodes containing 6% antimony are 

used successfully in chromium-plating equipment. 



Experience has shown that they provide a uniform 
distribution of electrical current in the chromic 
acid bath and wear down evenly on both sides. 

We manufacture antimonial lead anodes (or 
lead anodes of any other desired composition) in 
any size according to the customer's specification. 
The usual anode is in strip form, y 8 " to y±" thick, 
4" to 8" wide and 20" to 36" long. 

Our anodes are made only from pure metals, 
doubly refined. They are highly polished and free 
from all blemishes. They are packed flat, well pro- 
tected for shipping. 

In tanks where antimonial lead anodes are 
used, the tank lining should always be antimonial 
sheet lead, never chemical sheet lead. 



Lead alloy anodes being used in a special process for zinc-coating steel wire. The coating is applied as the wire feeds 

through the lead-lined plating tanks. 




/<^ 



NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY • Atlantic Branch 
111 Broadway, New York 6, New York 



■ 




L cc-1 




LEAD-LINED EQUIPMENT 







LEAD-LINED EQUIPMENT 



For some purposes in the chemical and acid 
industries, particularly where high pressures and 
temperatures, agitation or vacuum are involved, 
ordinary lead equipment lacks the mechanical 



strength necessary for long service. For use under 
severe operating conditions of this nature, we 
manufacture a complete line of lead-lined and 
hard (i.e. antimonial) lead equipment. 



LEAD-LINED PIPE AND FITTINGS 



"United Tubond" Lead-Lined Pipe is made 
by using steel pipe (or iron when specified) in ac- 
cordance with the A.S.T.M. Standard Specifica- 
tions. The lead lining is an extruded lead tube 
(chemical or antimonial) thoroughly bonded to the 
outer casing by the United Process. This method of 
manufacture insures a smooth interior in which 
friction is reduced to a minimum. Our standard 
lengths for this pipe are 20 feet. We are also 
equipped to furnish * 'United Tubond' ' Lead-Lined 
Pipe flanged and cut to your specifications. Ex- 
panded Lead-Lined Pipe can also be furnished. 




"United" Lead-Lined Fittings are made of 
cast iron or steel heavily lined with lead. They are 
cast oversize from our own patterns so that after 
they are lined they have a full flow area in their 
respective sizes. Flange diameters and templates 
for drilling conform to American Standards. 



LEAD-LINED AND HARD LEAD VALVES 





Left: "United" hard lead Chem-Rayon "Y" plug and 
seat Hanged valve. Center: "United" Type "R" hard lead 
split-body flanged valve. Right: "United" chemical hard 
lead -lined wedge type flanged acid gate valve {with 
section cut away to show inner construction). 




"United" Lead-Lined and Hard Lead Flanged 
Acid Valves are manufactured in all required sizes 
and patterns — "Y," angle, gate, check and dia- 



phragm; also valves to meet special requirements. 
Our Lead-Lined Valves are furnished in the 125 lb. 
Standard Cast Iron and 150 lb. Standard Cast 



CC-2 

LEAD-LINED EQUIPMENT 



1? 



[ 
{ 



I. 




I. 



A group of 10-inch hard lead wedge type gate valves for use in a rayon plant. 



Carbon Steel. All interior parts coming in contact 
with the solution handled are substantially lined 
or covered with lead. Our Hard Lead Valves are 
well proportioned and sturdily constructed. Bodies 
are reinforced with fins cast integral, affording 
maximum strength while reducing weight to a 
minimum. 

In addition to the foregoing mentioned valves 
in which the seats are cast integral with the body, 
we manufacture our "United" Type "R" Split- 
Body Flanged Valves made of Hard Lead or Lead- 
Lined Cast Iron or Steel. This type valve offers the 
following advantages: 

(a) It can be installed as a V, Y" or an angle 
pattern by simply reversing the position of the body 
sections. This eliminates the need for stocking both 
"Y" and angle pattern valves, (b) The seat and 




plug disc are removable and can be replaced 
readily at a nominal cost, thus cutting valve main- 
tenance costs, (c) The split-body design makes pos- 
sible the use of any type of alloy plug disc and seat 
to meet requirements for handling various solutions. 



HARD LEAD ACID RESISTANT PUMPS 

Where gravity flow is not available to convey 
solutions to succeeding stages of operation, acid 
resisting pumps must be used. We manufacture 
hard lead centrifugal pumps of two types, the open 
or "horizontal" pattern and the vertical shaft 
pump. An unusual feature of the vertical pump is 
the elimination of the packing gland. The boot 
serves as both suction chamber and auxiliary sup- 
ply tank. "United" horizontal pumps are self 
lubricating with large internal grease glands sup- 
plied by compression 
cups. The casing is 
of hard lead with ihe 
impeller of the same 
alloy cast around a 
reinforcing spider. 



Left : "United" hori- 
zontal hard lead cen- 
trifugal acid pump. 
Right: "United" verti- 
cal hard lead centrifu- 
gal acid pump, pack- 
ingless type. 




[ 



/-. 



? 



CC-3 



LEAD-LINED EQUIPMENT 




A batterv of ten homogeneous lead-lined vertical steel blow cases ready for shipment to a chemical plant. 

HOMOGENEOUS LEAD EQUIPMENT 



Homogeneous lead-lined or lead-covered ap- 
paratus, including such equipment as storage 
tanks, autoclaves, heating coils and jacketed pres- 
sure tanks of all descriptions, is designed for use 
under operating conditions where high steam pres- 
sure and vacuum are encountered, or where heat 
transfer is of importance. Equipment of this type 
manufactured by us is being successfully used by 



many industrial plants throughout the country and 
time and again has demonstrated its superiority 
over the older types of loose lined equipment. 

The outstanding feature of homogeneous lined 
or covered equipment is the firm adherence of the 
lead. By our method of manufacture, the lead lin- 
ing or covering is inseparably bonded to the steel, 
copper or brass of which a particular piece of 



Six homogeneous lead-covered copper coils for use in a pigment manufacturing plant. 




CC-4 

LEAD-LINED EQUIPMENT 





Above: Three homogeneous lead-lined steam sepa- 
rators. Below: Lead-lined steam jacketed steel drum. 




apparatus is constructed. The bonding of the lead 
is accomplished by the application of the lead 
direct to the steel without the use of tin or tin-lead 
alloys. This method of bonding allows the equip- 
ment to operate at higher temperatures. The bond 
will not be broken unless heat is applied close to 
the melting point of lead (620°F.) and is capable of 
withstanding shock, vibration, vacuum and rapid 
changes in temperature. 

Besides its application for the lining of tanks, 
kettles, stills, drums and the like, the homogeneous 
process is used successfully for the covering of 
agitators, propellers, and mixing devices of all 
descriptions. 

SERVICE 

Lined equipment for chemical and allied plants 
usually varies according to the type of operation 
for which it is intended. In the case of homoge- 
neous equipment, for example, it is necessary to 
fabricate the apparatus to meet individual require- 
ments. Our engineering department offers its 
service to anyone having acid contact problems 
to solve. If blue prints and sketches are submitted, 
we will be pleased to offer suggestions in detail as 
to the most economical and satisfactory use of our 
products. Address inquiries to National Lead Com- 
pany, Lined Products Department, 111 Broadway, 
New York 6, N. Y. 



TYPICAL INSTALLATIONS OF HOMOGENEOUS EQUIPMENT 



EQUIPMENT 



PRODUCT 



CONTACT 



TEMP. 



STEAM 
PRESSURE 



VACUUM 



Tanks and Lead-Covered Coils 

Extractors, Scrubbers, 
Separators 

Autoclave 

Tank 

Tank Coils 

Tanks and Covers 

Tanks 

Car Tanks 



Alum 



66° Be. to Dilute Sulphuric Acid 220° F. 



Sulphur Dioxide 


— 


200° F. 


60 lbs 


Chemicals 


25% Sulphuric 


300° F 


— 


Chemicals 


14% Sulphuric 


212° F. 


110 lbs 


Chemicals 


Ferrous Sulphate, 25% Sulphuric 


230° F. 


40 lbs 


Acid Recovery 


Sulphuric Acid Mist 


180° F. 


— 


Naphthalene 


40% Sulphuric 


200° F. 


40 lbs 


Battery Acid 


66 Be. Sulphuric Acid 


Atmosp. 


— 



29 14 ' 



29" 



/--. 



NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY • Atlantic Branch 
111 Broadway, New York 6, New York 






¥ 



A-l 

LEAP PIPE 

for water service and plumbing 



LEAD PIPE 

for water service and plumbing 



Lead pipe is widely used for water service and 
the waste and vent systems in plumbing. Among 
those responsible for the installation of such sys- 
tems—water works engineers and the plumbing 
trade generally— lead pipe has long been recog- 
nized as ideal for the purpose. 

For the underground piping which connects a 
residence or building with the water main, lead 
pipe has many advantages to recommend it. It re- 
sists soil corrosion and is less subject to perfora- 
tion. Having smooth interior walls and a high hy- 
draulic efficiency, it offers a minimum of resistance 



ADVANTAGES OF LEAD PIPE 

1. Durable 

Lead pipe lasts indefinitely. 

2. Flexible 

Lead pipe is flexible , . . adjusts itself to 
building or ground settlement. 

3. Fewer Joints Needed 

Lead pipe comes in long, continuous 
lengths ... is readily bent around corners 
and obstacles. There are thus fewer joints 
to impede water flow. 

4. Less Trouble From Freeze-Ups 

Freeze-ups are less likely to burst lead pipe. 
It expands with the expanding water. 

5. Hydraulic Efficiency 

Lead pipe offers less resistance to water 
flow than other types of metal pipe. 

6. Non-Rusting 

Lead does not rust. Therefore lead pipe 
never clogs from this cause. 

7. Non-Staining 

Water flowing through lead pipe does not 
discolor . , . will not stain expensive bath or 
kitchen fixtures. 

8. Corrosion-Resistant 

Lead pipe resists soil corrosion as well as 
the action of many acids and chemicals. 

9. High Salvage Value 

Discarded lead installations have a high 
scrap value. 

10. Low Cost Per Year 

The exceptional durability of lead pipe 
makes its cost per year of service lower than 
that of pipe made from any other material. 



to water flow. Being pliant and flexible, it adjusts 
itself to ground settlement and, if the water freezes, 
is less likely to burst because it can expand slightly 
with the expanding water. 

For the supply and waste systems inside a 
building, lead pipe is equally advantageous. Fur- 
nished in long continuous lengths, it is readily bent 
around corners and obstacles making fewer joints 
necessary. Frequent joints tend to impede water 
flow. Being flexible, lead pipe is less likely to be 
damaged by vibration or building settlement. 
Furthermore, lead pipe does not clog from rusting, 




Above: Typical lead water service showing the multiple 
tapping method employed when a large service is con- 
nected to a small main. Below: Lead roughing-in for a 
battery of four lavatories. 




A-2 



LEAD PIPE 



for water service and plumbing 



V 



nor does it discolor water leading to the staining of 
expensive fixtures. 

Many building codes require the use of lead 
pipe for the waste and vent systems. This is a sani- 
tary precaution based on the proven dependability 
of lead pipe — its record in countless installations of 
trouble-free service year in and year out. 



-w*-: 




Above: Uncoiling lead pipe in a trench before attaching 
to water main. Below: Bending lead pipe. Note the bend- 
ing spring inserted in the pipe. Right: A graphic illustra- 
tion of lead's flexibility and the advantage taken of it by 
a skilled plumber. 




MANUFACTURE OF LEAD PIPE 

Our lead pipe— sold under the Dutch Boy 
trademark— is manufactured by the extrusion proc- 
ess in modern hydraulic presses. In this process, 
the lead, at a carefully regulated temperature, is 
forced under heavy pressure through a die and 
around a core to form continuous lengths of seam- 
less, smooth-bore pipe. 

Only standard accepted brands of refined 
lead are used. Only skilled operators handle the 
presses. Every care is taken to obtain uniform wall 
thickness, correct weight per foot and freedom 
from defects that might cause weakness. The result 
is lead pipe of the highest possible quality, de- 
signed to render long, honest service. 

SIZES AND WEIGHTS 

Due to the nature of the extrusion process, 
lead pipe can be produced in a wide range of diam- 
eters and weights. A selected list of sizes is given 
on the second page following. This list conforms to 
the national standard of lead pipe sizes and weights 








A-3 
LEAD PIPE 



for water service and plumbing 




approved by the Lead Industries Association and 
adopted by most lead pipe manufacturers. 



Our lead pipe, bends and traps for 
plumbing and water distribution conform to 
FEDERAL SPECIFICATION WW-P-325 



An outstanding feature of the approved list is 
that all sizes of pipe in the A, AA, and AAA classi- 
fications (Federal designations Class 50, Class 75 
and Class 100, respectively) will safely withstand 
constant cold water pressures as follows: 

A (or "Strong") 50 lbs. 

AA (or "Extra Strong") 75 lbs. 

AAA (or "Double Extra Strong") 100 lbs. 

Heretofore, the safe working pressures of these 
classes of pipe often decreased as the diameter 
increased. 

MARKING 

All lead pipe shown on the accompanying list 
in sizes from ]/ 2 " I.D. to 2" I.D., whether coiled or 




Left: Modern hydraulic press extruding seamless, 
smooth-bore lead pipe. Above: This photo shows the 
marking which appears on lead pipe sold under the 
Dutch Boy trademark. Below: Coils of lead pipe before 
and after packing for shipment. 




in lengths, is stamped as shown in the photograph 
above. This stamping, which includes the Lead 
Industries Association "Seal of Approval" and the 
National Lead Company name and trademark, 
appears approximately every thirteen inches. The 
I.D. and weight per foot are stamped on one end. 

PACKING 

Every precaution is taken to wrap and pack 
our lead pipe properly to protect it for handling and 
shipment to the consumer. The method and manner 
of packing and the protective coverings used de- 
pend, of course, upon the materials available at 
time and place of shipment. Certain types and sizes 
of pipe are shipped in coils or on reels, others in 
standard lengths, unless otherwise specified. 






[ 



A-4 

LEAD PIPE 



for water service and plumbing 



LEAD PIPE SIZES AND WEIGHTS 




The sizes and weights given in this table are 
those approved by the Lead Industries Asso- 
ciation as standard for plumbing purposes. 



Lead pipe in other weights and in sizes up to 
and including 12" I.D. can be furnished on 
short notice. 



NOMINAL 






NOMINAL 






NOMINAL 






NOMINAL 






SIZE 






SIZE 


NOMINAL 


NOMINAL 


SIZE 






SIZE 


NOMINAL 


NOMINAL 


INSIDE 


CLASSIFICATION 


OUTSIDE 


WALL 


WEIGHT 


INSIDE 


CLASSIFICATION 


OUTSIDE 


WALL 


WEIGHT 


DIAMETER 


EAST 


WEST 


DIAMETER 


THICKNESS 


PER FOOT 


DIAMETER 


EAST 


WEST 


DIAMETER 


THICKNESS 


PER FOOT 


Inches 






Inches 


Inch 


Pounds 


Inches 






Inches 


Inch 


Pounds 


%". 


E 


AQ 


.520 


.072 


.50 


iy 2 " 


E 


At) 


1 . 740 


.120 


3.00 


D 


XL 


.549 


.087 


.62 


D 


XI. 


1.775 


.138 


3 . 49 * 




c 


L 


.577 


.101 


.74 




(' 


I. 


1 . 83 


. 1 65 


4.24 




B 


M 


.631 


.128 


.99 




B 


M 


1.88 


.191 


4.9S 




A 


S 


.725 


.175 


1.49 




A 


S 


1 . 985 


.242 


6.51 


.. 


AA 


xs 


.811 


.218 


2.00 




A A 


XS 


2.075 


.288 


7.95 




AAA 


xxs 


.888 


.256 


2.50 




AAA 


xxs 


2.27 


.386 


11.24 


y 2 " 


E 


AQ 


.628 


.064 


.56 


1 3 / 4 " 


M 


XL 


2 . 025 


.137 


3.99 


1) 


XL 


.666 


.083 


. 75 


C 


I. 


2 . 085 


.168 


4.97 




C 


L 


.712 


.106 


.99 




B 


A I 


2.145 


.198 


5.95 




B 


M 


.756 


.128 


1.24 




A 


S 


2.195 


.221 


6.74 




A 


S 


.798 


.149 


1.49 




AA 


XS 


2 . 405 


.327 


10.5 




AA 


XS 


.876 


.188 


1.99 




AAA 


xxs 


2 . 625 


.437 


14.8 




AAA 


xxs 


1.012 


.256 


2.99 














%" 


E 


AQ 


.765 


.070 


. 75 


2" 


I- 


AQ 


2.1S5 


.092 


2.98 


D 


XL 


.803 


.089 


.98 




L) 


XL 


2.285 


.142 


4.69* 




(' 


L 


.881 


.128 


1 .51 




C 


L 


2.355 


.177 


5.94 




B 


M 


.953 


.164 


2.00 




B 


M 


2.41 


.205 


6.97 




A 


S 


1.019 


.197 


2.55 




A 


S 


2.505 


.251 


8.74 




AA 


XS 


1.082 


.228 


3.01 




AA 


XS 


2.75 


.375 


13.8 




AAA 


xxs 


1.137 


.256 


3.48 




AAA 


xxs 


3.01 


.504 


19.4 


w 


i-; 


AQ 


.906 


.078 


1.00 


m* 






2 . 75 


.125 


5.07 


D 


XL 


.940 


.095 


1.24 






3.00 


.250 


10 . 63 




c 


L 


1.006 


.128 


1.73 
















B 

A 


M 

S 


1.068 
1.156 


.159 
.203 


2.23 
2.99 




























AA 


XS 


1.212 


.231 


3.50 


3" 






3.25 


.125 


6.04* 




AAA 


XXS 


1.336 


.293 


4.72 








3.50 


.250 


12.56 


1" 


E 


AQ 


1.19 


.096 


1.62 














D 


XL 


1.23 


.116 


2.00* 


4" 






4.25 


.125 


7.99* 




C 


L 


1 . 285 


.142 


2.50 








4 . 50 


.250 


16.42 




1! 


M 


1.355 


.178 


3.23 
















A 
AA 


S 

XS 


1.43 
1.49 


.214 
.246 


4.01 
4.73 




























AAA 


xxs 


1.596 


.298 


5.97 


5" 






5.25 
5 . 50 


.125 
.250 


9.90 
20 . 29 


1%" 


E 


AQ 


1.44 


.096 


1.99 














D 

C 

1! 
A 


XL 
L 
M 
S 


1.485 
I . 5?> 
1,59 
1.67 


.118 
.139 
.171 
.210 


2.49* 

2.98 
3. 75 
4.73 


6" 






6 . 25 
6 . 50 


.125 
.250 


1 1 . 84 
24.15 


*This is 


the minimum recommended 


weight for pipe of this 




AA 


XS 


1.765 


.257 


5.99 


size to b 


e used for soil, \\ 


aste, vent 


or flush pipes and for 




AAA 


XXS 


1.89 


.319 


7.74 


bends ar 


d traps. 











/"-.. 



I 

I 

I 

I 
I 

m 
« 




B-l 
LEAD FITTINGS 



LEAD FITTINGS 

As shown on the following pages, we manu- 
facture a full line of -lead fittings and accessories 
for use in plumbing systems. The line includes 
traps of various designs in all standard patterns, 
short, long, and extension bends, combination fer- 
rules, combination bends and ferrules and solder- 
ing nipples of various types. 

In addition to these products which are stock 
items and can be supplied on short notice, we also 
manufacture closed-end bends and ferrules used 
by plumbers to test their roughing-in work, deep 
seal traps and ground joint vented traps, the special 
traps used in the Southern and New England dis- 
tricts, and lead or lead alloy fittings in special 
sizes, shapes and weights. 

Our plumbing accessories can be depended 
upon to be of the highest quality in every respect. 
They are made from pure, refined lead only. The 
accuracy of our dies and the care and skill of our 
workmen insure correct shape and a uniform wall 
thickness throughout. Where a national weight 
standardization exists, such as in traps and bends, 
each product is stamped individually with the Lead 
Industries' "Seal of Approval," as well as with our 
name and trademark, and the size and weight. 



Our fittings conform to Federal Specification 
WW-P-325. 



To facilitate ordering, we have given as com- 
plete data as possible on the following pages. 
These include prices, details of construction, sug- 
gestions for ordering, methods of packing and 
price list for extras when differing from regular 
specifications. 

Top: Lead drum trap with inlet and outlet connections 
wiped on. Note that both connections are made near 
the base of the trap at right angles, giving water in the 
trap a swirling, and thus a cleaning motion. Center: 
Lead bends and piping for a battery of five wall-hung 
closets. "Chairs," similar to the one under the center 
bend, will be installed under the others for the perma- 
nent support of the closets. Bottom: Extruding lead trap 
on hydraulic press. The lead is forced under pressure 
through the die. Manipulation of valves produces bends. 







B-2 

LEAD FITTINGS 



"# 



LEAD TRAPS 




Our lead traps are carefully made from the 
best grade of pure refined lead. They are extruded 
under high pressure, insuring a smooth interior 
and uniformity in wall thickness throughout the 
entire length. They conform to Federal Specifica- 
tion WW-P-325. 

Lead traps in all the standard styles and sizes 
come either vented or un vented. Extra long de- 
signs in all sizes are furnished with either long 
inlet or long outlet. 

In ordering drain traps, specify style, inside 
diameter and weight division. State whether vent- 
ed or unvented is desired. Unless otherwise speci- 
fied v 'standard weight" unvented will be furnished. 

In ordering extra long traps, specify whether 
long inlet or long outlet is desired. 



DIMENSION SCALE FOR REGULAR TRAPS 

Note: Dimensions are taken on inlet, outlet, length over all and from center to ends. 



FULL S 




H S OR P 




RUNNING 




RUNNING Y 







Full S 


3 AS 


14 


Sor P 


Running 


Running Y 


Bag 


Size 


Inlet Outlet 


Inlet Outlet 


Inlet 


Outlet 


Inlet Outlet 


Inlet Outlet 


Length Over All 


134" 


434" ' 6 '4" 
4j|* 7" 
4'A" 8" 

4" ioy," 

3J4" UK' 


4H" 5 34" 
4 34" 6" 
414 " 7 > i " 
4" 10" 
3}4" 11" 


4\4" 

4}.4" 

4U" 

4" 

3H" 


6" 

7" 
8" 

Hi " 
10" 


4\4" 5U" 
534" 634" 
534" IVi" 
7K," 7U" 
8" 8" 


4'i»" SH" 
534" 6" 
534" 7J4" 
7 1 -," 10" 
8" 11" 


HJi" 

13" 

15" 

mi" 

2234" 


1 j| * 


2 " 


3" 


4" 





DIMENSION SCALE FOR EXTRA LONG TRAPS 

Note: Dimensions are taken as shown by arrows on illustrations of regular traps above. 





Size 


Full S 


MS 


H S or P 


Running 


Running Y 


Bag 




Length Overall 


Inlet Outlet 


Inlet Outlet 


Inlet Outlet 


Inlet Outlet 


Length Over All 


1J4" 


24" 
24" 
24" 


4 34" 16 34"' 
414" \h%" 
4J4" 153-5" 


4}i" l*H" 
4V>" 14" 
434" 14" 


4">" 17>«" 
5J4"' 16?4'" 
SX" i6H" 


4V," 1634" 
534" 15?4" 
534" 15)4" 


24" 
24* 
24" 


134" 


2" 





1 

[ 

[ 
[ 
[ 
[ 
[ 
r 
\ 
[ 
1: 

1 
[ 

1 

1. 
1 



1 



/^ 




B-3 
LEAD FITTINGS 



REGULAR AND EXTRA LONG TRAPS 



U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 



Weight in Lbs. Per Running Foot 

Diameter — Inches, 

Full S — Regular 

— Extra Long 

'4 S — Regular 

— Extra Long 

1 ■', S or P — Regular 

— Extra Long 

Running — Regular 

— Extra Long 

Running V — Regular 

— Extra Long 

Bag — Regular 

— Extra Long 



Standard (Lightest) Weight 



SrEOAi. (Medium) 
Weight 



2M 



3 '4 



SO . 90 
1 .36 



.81 
1 . 19 



.75 
1.02 



.72 
1.15 



LOS 
1 .58 



SI. 38 
2.00 



1.30 

1.76 



1 .20 
1 . 55 



I. 13 

1.67 



1.34 
1 .82 



t .73 
2.34 



3 



S2 . 69 
2.62 
2.24 
2.09 
2.46 
3.35 



S3 . 25 
3.07 
2.49 
2 . 53 
3.15 
4.77 



Si. 03 
1.64 



.94 
1 .43 



.87 
1 .11 



.87 
1 .41 



.94 
1 .45 



1.28 
1.91 



SI. 65 
2.40 



1.53 
2.08 



1 .42 
1 .83 



1 .31 
1 . 98 



1 . 45 
2.01 



2.08 

2.80 



Extra Heavy Weigi 



2;.; 



1 1 , 



SO. 87 
I .44 



.81 
1 .28 



.70 
1 .13 



.74 
1.23 



1 .06 
1.67 



SI. 25 
1.95 



1 .15 
1 .72 



1 . 09 
1 .50 



1 . 03 
1 . 65 



1 . 09 
1 .52 



1.54 
2.24 



SI. 85 
2.69 



1.73 
2.33 



1 .57 
2.02 



1 .46 
2.18 



1.61 
2.23 



2 . 33 
3.11 



S3 . 09 

2.97 

2.58 
3 . 25 

2.35 
2.88 
3.96 



s 



S4.30 
3 . 95 
3.25 
3 . 28 
4.05 
6.30 



REGULAR AND EXTRA LONG VENTED TRAPS 

U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 



Weight In Lbs. Per RrNxixn Ft 

Diameter — Inches 

Vent Size — Inches 

Full S 



— Regular. . . 
— Extra Long . 



:, -i S 

',. Sor 1' 

Running 

Running V 

Bag 



— Regular. 
— Extra Long 



Regular. . . 
-Extra Long . 



— Regular. . . 
— Extra Long . 



-Regular. . . 
Extra Long. 



-Regular. . . . 
-Extra Long. 



Standard (Lightest) Weight 



IVa 



1'j 



SI .85 
2.31 



1.76 
2.14 



I .70 
1.97 



1 .67 
2.10 



1 .71 
2.10 



2.03 
2.53 



3 M 



L'.; 



S2. 33 S2.63 
2.95 3.25 



2.25 
2.71 



2.15 
2.50 



2.08 
2.62 



2.29 
2.77 



2.68 
3.29 



2.55 
3.01 



2.45 
2.80 



2.38 
2.92 



2.59 
3.07 



2.98 
3.59 



S3. 94 
3.87 
3.49 
3.34 
3.71 
4.60 



S4.50 
4.32 
3.74 
3.78 
4,40 
6.02 



Special (Medium) 
Weight 



1'. 



Si .98 
2.59 



I .89 
1.3& 



1 .82 
2.17 



1.82 
2.36 



1 .89 
2.40 



2.23 
2.86 



m I 



S2.90 
3.65 



2.78 
3.33 



2.67 
3.08 



2.57 
3 . 23 



2.70 
3.26 



3.33 
4.05 



Extra Heavy Weight 



!'.» 



1', 



SI .67 
2.24 



1 .61 
2.08 



1.57 
1.94 



1.50 
2.03 



1.54 
2.03 



I .86 
2.47 



Ha 



Hi 



$2.20 
2.90 



2.10 
2.67 



2.04 
2.45 



1.98 
2.60 



2.04 
2.47 



2.49 
3.19 



S2.80 
3.64 


S3. 10 
3.94 


2.68 
3.28 


2.98 
3.58 


2.52 
2.97 


2.82 
3 . 27 


2.41 
3.13 


2.71 
3.43 


2.56 
3.18 


2.86 
3.48 


3.28 
4.06 


3.58 
4.36 



$4.34 
4.22 
3.83 
3.60 
4.13 
5.21 



|! 2" traps have U2" vent connections unless otherwise specified. 
For nickel plating on \]>i" and VA" vents, add 75 cents lo list price; on 2" vents, add SI. 00. 



STOCK PACKAGES OF LEAD TRAPS 



A Barrel of Full S Contains 

A Barrel of % S Contains 

A Barrel of ^ S or P Contains. . . 
A Barrel of Running Contains. . . 
A Barrel of Running Y Contains. 
A Barrel of Bag Contains 



75 
75 
75 

100 
75 
50 



VlIXI ED 



50 
50 

50 
60 
M\ 
30 



Us' 



50 
50 

5ii 
72 
50 
36 



36 
36 

30 
50 
24 
24 



Plain 



24 
24 
24 
36 
24 
18 



Vented 



20 

20 
20 

24 



3" 



$5.55 
5.20 
4.50 
4.53 
5.30 
7.55 



4" 



Stock packages of extra long traps contain approximately 30 IK", 25 IK" and 20 2' 






B-4 

LEAD FITTINGS 



? 



CHEMICAL LABORATORY TRAPS 

Made of Chemical Lead with cleanout and 
ring of hard lead for protection against acid waste 
of laboratory sinks. Body is 3" inside diameter, 
l/ 8 " thick and 8" long with a 2l/ 2 " cleanout, the 
ring of which is lead burned to the body. Inlet 
and outlet are 1 1/2 " XH Lead and are lead burned 
to the body. 

Special sizes made on special order. Write 
for prices. 

ULCO NON-SIPHON LEAD TRAPS 

Ulco Non-Siphon traps are made of drawn 
lead. Both the inlet and outlet are extruded as is 
the ball or anti-siphoning feature which is then 
spun to size and lead-burned in place. These traps 
are ruggedly constructed and highly efficient. 

In ordering, specify size, style and weight 
division. The dimension scale for these traps is the 
same as for regular traps. 
PRICE LIST ULCO NON-SIPHON LEAD TRAPS 




Weight In" Lbs. Per Running Foot 

Size 

Full S 

MS 

14 Sot P..: 

Running 

Full 8 — Long Inlet No. 1 

Full S — Long Outlet No. 2 

Ji S — Long Inlet No. 11 

% S— Long Outlet No. 12 

1 .; S or P — Long Inlet No. 3 

jiSor P— Long Outlet No. 4 

DRUM TRAPS 



Standard Weight 



IX 



r 



S2.25 
2.20 
2, 10 
2. 10 
2.70 
2.70 
2.55 
2.55 
2.40 
2.40 



S3. 10 
3 . 00 
2.90 
2.90 



Medium Weight 



\W 



iW 



2" 



S2. 10 
2. 10 
2.00 
2.00 
2.55 
2.55 
2.40 
2.40 
2., 10 
2 . .SO 



S2.40 
2.30 
2.20 
2.20 
.L00 
J. 00 
2.80 
2.80 
2.60 
2.60 



$3.35 
3.25 
3.15 
3.15 
4.10 
4.10 
3.80 
3.80 
3.55 
3.55 



Extra Heavy Weight 



314 



\H" 



114" 



$2.25 
2.20 
2.15 
2.15 
2.80 
2.80 
2.65 
2.65 
2.50 
2.50 



S2 . 60 
2.50 
2.45 
2.45 
3 . 30 
3.30 
3.10 
3.10 
2.90 
2.90 



4'., 



$3.55 
3.45 
i.M) 
3 . 30 
4.40 
4.40 
4.05 
4.05 
3.75 
3.75 




Our drum traps are made from pure, refined 
lead, drawn and then spun to insure a smooth, 
seamless wall of uniform thickness. They are fur- 
nished in a variety of patterns with screws of either 



plain brass, polished brass, nickel-plated or chro- 
mium-plated finishes. 

In ordering drum traps, state the style by 
number, the weight division, diameter and length 
of body and the screw finish. 
\" HARD LEAD DRUM CAP SCREW 

A uniform, high-pressure die casting of dense 
grain which will be serviceable for many years. It 
is especially intended for concealed installations 
where costlier fittings are not required. 

Though economically priced, this screw is a 
quality product of generous weight and proportion, 
sharp threads and fine finish. 

The cover measures 4 1 /g" outside diameter, 
isl/ 8 "thickwith3' / I.P.T. 




B-5 
LEAD FITTINGS 




No. 1 



No. 2 



No. 3 



No. 4 



No, 10 



No. 11 



DRUM TRAPS 

U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 



Drum Traps Complete 
(Screws Ordinary Finish)* 



Regular Pattern 



No. 2 



Nos. 
3 & 4 



No. S No. 5'; 



No. 6 



Nos. 
7 & 8 



New England Pattern 



No. 9 



Nos. 
No. 10 11 & 12 



Drum 

Traps 

Without 

Screws 



4x8 
4x9 

4 x 10 

4x11 
4x 12 

4 x 14 

5 x 10 
5x11 

5 x 12 

6 x 10 
6 x 11 
6x12 



Standard 
Standard 
Standard 

Standard 
Standard 
Standard 
Standard 
Standard 
Standard 
Standard 
Standard 
Standard 



Weight. 
Weight . 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight . 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 



SI. 50 



3.30 
3. 55 
3.75 
3.90 



$2.60 
2.72 
2.80 
2.88 
2.95 
3.25 
3.70 
3.85 
4.00 
4.25 
4.45 
4.60 



$3.00 
3.12 
3.20 
3.28 
3.35 
3.65 
4.10 
4.25 
4.40 
4.65 
4.85 
5.00 



$2.00 
2.12 
2.20 
2.28 
2.35 



j'.lO 

2. 22 
2^30 
2.38 
2.45 
2.75 
3.20 
3.35 

3 . 50 
3.75 

3 . 95 

4. 10 



$2.80 
2.92 
3.00 
3.08 
3.15 
3.45 
3.90 
4.05 
4.20 
4.45 
4.65 
4.80 



$3.20 
3.32 
3.40 
3.48 
3.55 
3.85 
4.30 
4.45 
4.60 
4.85 
5.05 
5.20 



$1 .90 
2.02 
2.10 
2.18 
2.25 
2.55 
3.00 
3.15 
3.30 
3.55 
3.75 
3.90 



$2.60 
2.72 
2.80 
2.88 



$3.00 
3.12 



3.20 
3.28 
3.35 
3.65 
4.10 
4.25 
4.40 
4.65 
4.85 
5.00 



$0.90 
1.02 
1 .10 
1.18 
1.25 
1.55 
2.00 
2.15 



4x8 Special Weight. 
4 x 9 Special Weight. 
4 x 10 Special Weight. 
4x11 Special Weight. 
4x12 Special Weight. 
4 x 14 Special Weight. 



4x8 
4x9 
4 x 10 
4x11 
4 x 12 

4 x 14 

5 x 10 
5x11 

5 x 12 

6 x 10 
6x11 
6 x 12 



Extra 
Fxtra 
Extra 
Extra 
Extra 
Extra 
Extra 
Extra 
Extra 
Extra 
Extra 
Extra 



Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 
Heavy 



Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight. 
Weight . 



2.75 
2.88 
2.97 
3.07 
3.15 
3.45 



3.15 
3.28 
3.37 
3.47 
3.55 
3.85 



2.15 
2.28 
2.37 
2.47 
2,55 
2.85 



.38 
.47 



.65 
.95 



3.35 
3.48 
3.57 
3.67 
3.75 
4.05 



2.05 
2.18 
2.27 
2.37 
2.45 
2.75 



2.75 
2.88 
2.97 
3.07 
3,15 
3.45 



2.40 
2.50 
2.63 
2.75 
2.90 
3.30 
3.40 
3.55 
3.70 
4.15 
4.35 
4.60 



3.10 
3.20 
3.33 
3.45 
3.60 
4.00 
4.10 
4.25 
4.40 
4.85 
5.05 
5.30 



3.50 
3.60 
3.73 
3.85 
4.00 



2,50 
2.60 



3.60 
3 . 75 



3.70 
3.80 
3.93 
4.05 
4.20 
4.60 
4,70 
4.85 
5.00 
5.45 
5.65 
5.90 



2.40 
2.50 
2.63 
2.75 
2.90 
3.30 
3.40 
3.55 
3.70 
4.15 
4.35 
4.60 



3.10 
3.20 
3.33 
3.45 
3.60 
4.00 
4.10 
4.25 
4.40 
4.85 
5.05 
5.30 



3,50 
3.60 
3.73 
3.85 
4.00 
4.40 
4.50 
4.65 
4.80 
5.25 
5.45 
5.70 



1.05 
1 , IK 
1.27 
1.37 
1.45 
1.75 



1.40 
1.50 
1.63 
1.75 
1.90 
2.30 
2.40 
2.55 
2.70 
3.15 
3,35 
3.60 



*T"or polished brass, nickel plated or chromium 
plated screw finishes, add. 



. .!() 



.30 



,30 



(Drum Traps with iron pipe threads also available.) 



DRUM TRAP ACCESSORIES 



Price of Screws 


No. 1 


No. 2 


Nos. 
3 &4 


No. 5 


No. SLg 


No. 6 


Nos. 
7 & 8 


Drum Trap Screws — Ordinary Finish 


$1.00 
1.20 


$1.70 
2.00 


$2.10 
2.40 


SI. 10 
1.30 


SI. 20 
1.45 


$1.90 
2.20 


$2.30 




2.60 






Details of Screws 
















Outside Diameter of Cap — Face 


i l A" 

3M" 
16 


3M* 

3 l Vfs" 
16 


4>r 

3M" 

3 1 Vi' 5 " 
16 


3M" 
16 


5" 

3%" 

3'liV 

16 


4><j" 

3M* 

3>Ue" 

16 


4J$* 


Outside Diameter of Cap — Threads 

Inside Diameter of Ring 


3M* 
3 u 4i" 


Number of Threads to Inch 


16 


Flange Extends Beyond Body 


%" 







WEIGHT OF LEAD USED FOR DRUM TRAPS 

4-inch Standard equals Lead Pipe weighing 5 lbs. per ft. 
4-inch Special equals Lead Pipe weighing 6 lbs. per ft. 
4-inch Extra Heavy equals Lead Pipe weighing 8 lbs. per ft. 



5-inch Standard equals Lead Pipe weighing 8I/4 lbs. per ft. 
5-inch Extra Heavy equals Lead Pipe weighing 10 lbs. per ft. 
6-inch Standard equals Lead Pipe weighing 10 lbs, per ft. 
6-inch Extra Heavy equals Lead Pipe weighing 13 lbs. per ft. 






B-6 

LEAD FITTINGS 






LEAD BENDS 




COMBINATION (Lead and 
Iron (BENDS and FERRULES 

Our combination bends and ferrules are care- 
fully manufactured to insure ease of installation 
and a tight connection. They are fitted with a cast 
iron drive ferrule of the highest quality. 



/- 




We manufacture a complete assortment of 
lead bends to meet every modern building require- 
ment. All bends are extruded under high pressure 
from refined lead only. They are uniform in wall 
thickness and true to size. 

In ordering, specify weight division, inside 
diameter, type of inlet and length of outlet. 
DIMENSION SCALE FOR LEAD BENDS 



Dimensions 
are taken 
as shown 
by arrows 



-Size 



SHORT BEND 




X 



Centkk to Ends 



I '4 -inch. 

I ' 2 " 



inches .3 ! : 

4 

- m 

5)..; 



LONG BEND 




Center to Ends 



6 

7 

m 

10 




Lea <l and Iron Fern' 1 ' 
'OUR on this labE' 




COMBINATION 

(Lead and Iron) FERRULES 

Our combination ferrules come up to the 
same high standard as our bends and ferrules. 
Made only from first-grade metals, they can be 
depended upon to give long satisfactory service. 



1 



f 



B-7 
LEAD FITTINGS 



LEAD REDUCING BENDS 

Increased use of three-inch stacks on Defense 
Housing projects during the war called for lead 
reducing bends with a four-inch inlet and a three- 
inch outlet. Lead reducing bends of our manufac- 
ture meet the rigid standards set up by Lead Indus- 
tries Association. One of the principal provisions 
of this standard provides that the bottom of the 
bend, when installed, shall be smooth and straight 
so that it cannot form a trap for substances passing 
through the bend. In the approved reducing bend 
the reduction in diameter occurs exclusively on 
the top and sides, leaving the bottom of the bend 
smooth, straight and without obstruction. 




IMPROVED (Lead and Iron) FERRULE COMBINATION 




Lead and Iron Ferrules and Bends and Fer- 
rules are now available in improved pattern. 

The Improved Lead and Iron Ferrule is spun 
with an extra long ferrule on the outside, eliminat- 
ing any possibility of melting or puncturing lead 
stub or bend when pouring and calking lead in hub. 

Smooth all lead interior provides for free, un- 
restricted flow of waste. 

The iron ferrule is completely insulated from 
moisture, thereby safeguarding against rust or 
corrosion. 

Lead is spun back tightly over the bead of the 
ferrule to prevent rupture of joint resulting from 
unusual settlement of fixture or stack. 

A non-hardening rubber base cement is ap- 
plied at this junction to provide a plastic seal 
against gas leakage. 

Available in all customary sizes. 4" diameter, 
in lengths not exceeding 14", packed in individual 
cartons of 6 to a standard container. 



B-8 

LEAD FITTINGS 



U 



3 






HARD LEAD CLOSET FLOOR FLANGES 



A high-pressure, injection molded die casting 
with maximum tensile strength, hardness and dense 
grain, thus offering higher resistance to bending or 
fracturing than hand or gravity cast lead flanges 
and light weight brass sand castings. 

An enduring lead alloy which only requires 
candling to permit quick soldering to bend or stub. 

Cut below shows flange attached to inlet end of bend. 
Flange may be joined to bend or stub by a wiped or sol- 
dered joint, or by lead welding. 





Dimensions conform with Lead Industries As- 
sociation's requirements; 3 /s" thick rim, 4 slots for 
bowl connection, and weighing not less than 25 oz. 
Packed in Cartons of 25 each, 



HARD LEAD FERRULES 

These antimonial lead fittings are as highly 
resistant to corrosion as is the common lead forming 
the main soil and waste drainage system. The wall 
is of uniform thickness, the interior surface is mir- 
ror-smooth. Installation may be made in the regular 
manner or the ferrules may be joined by welding 
or lead burning. Complete instructions are printed 
on label attached to each ferrule. 








B-9 
LEAD FITTINGS 



SHORT AND LONG BENDS • EXTENSION BENDS 

U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 





Standard (Lightest) Weight 


Special (Medium) 
Weight 




Extra Heavy Weight 




Weight Per Running Foot In Pounds. . 


m 

IK 

SO . 25 
.30 


2H 
\ l A 


2 


5 6 
3 4 


2 
Hi 


3 


4 
2 


2\i 

1M 


3 l A 

m 


4 l A 
2 


6 

3 


8 
4 




§0.38 
.50 


$0.57 
.78 


$1 .09 
1.39 


$1.50 
1.95 


$0.31 
.41 


$0.51 
.66 


$0.69 
1.00 


$0.34 
.50 


$0.62 
.79 


$0.80 
1.05 


$1.21 
1.60 


$1.84 




2.40 




.40 
.47 
.55 
.60 


.56 
.67 
.77 
.84 


.79 

.94 

1.09 

1 .19 


1.39 
1.65 
1 .90 
2.07 


1 .70 
2.00 
2.30 
2.48 


.52 
.62 
.72 
.79 


.75 

.89 

1.03 

1.12 


.99 
1.17 
1.36 
1.49 


.60 
.72 
.84 
.92 


.90 
1.07 
1.24 
1.35 


1.08 
1.28 
1.49 
1.63 


1.57 
1.87 
2.16 
2.35 


2.09 




2.45 




2.81 


*Short Inlet— 20* Outlet 


3,04 




.46 
.54 
.62 
.67 


,67 
.77 
.88 
.95 


.99 
1.14 
1.29 
1.39 


1.73 
1.99 
2.24 
2.42 


2.15 
2.44 
2.73 
2.92 


.60 
.70 
.80 
.87 


.89 
1.03 
1.17 
1.26 


1.24 
1.42 
1.61 
1.74 


.70 

.82 

.94 

1.02 


1.07 
1.24 
1.41 

1.52 


1.35 
1.56 
1.76 
1.90 


1.96 
2.25 
2.54 
2.74 


2.62 




2.98 




3.34 




3.58 


For each inch of length over listed size. 


• 03M 


.04'; 


.06U 


.1034 


.12 


.04':,' 


.06 


■ 07M 


.05 


.07 


.08)5 


.12 


.15 







*Short inlets are same dimensions as inlets on short bends of corresponding size; long inlets are same as on long bends 

STOCK PACKAGES 



A Barrel of Short Bends Contains. 
A Barrel of Long Bends Contains. 



150 

100 


75 
50 


60 
36 


30 
24 


15 
12 


150 
100 


75 
50 


60 
36 


150 
100 


75 
50 


60 
36 


30 
24 


15 
12 



COMBINATION (LEAD AND IRON) BENDS AND FERRULES 

U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 



Length of Outlet . , . 

Standard Weight 

4" Short Inlet*. ... 
4" Long Inlet**. . . 

Extra Heavy Weight 

4" Short Inlet* 

4" Long Inlet**. . . 



$2.20 
2.65 



2.59 
3.12 



$2.30 
2,75 



2.71 
3.24 



15* 



$2.40 
2.85 



2.83 
3.36 



$2.50 
2.94 



2.95 
3.48 



16" 



$2.60 
3.04 



3.07 
3.60 



17" 



$2.70 
3.14 



3.19 
3.72 



$2.80 
3.23 



3.31 
3.84 



$2.90 
3.33 



3.43 
3.96 



20' 



$3.00 
3.42 



3.54 
4.08 



*Short inlets are 5 1 >" long; the pipe used weighs 6 lbs. per running foot. 
**Long inlets are 9M~" long; the pipe used weighs 8 lbs, per running foot. 

COMBINATION (LEAD AND IRON) FERRULES 

U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 



Standard Weight 

1M" for 2" Cast Iron Pipe. 
1 l A " for 2 " Cast Iron Pipe 
2" for 2" Cast Iron Pipe 
3" for 3" Cast Iron Pipe 
4" for 4" Cast Iron Pipe 

Extra Heavy Weight 

I A" for 2" Cast Iron Pipe 
2" for 2" Cast Iron Pipe 
3" for 3" Cast Iron Pipe 
4" for 4" Cast Iron Pipe 



Lengths (In Inches) 



$0.28 
.42 
.50 



4^2 



$0.28 
,28 



$0.36 
.36 
.41 
.60 
.72 



.44 
.49 

.75 
. 84 



$0 . 43 
.43 
.46 
.67 

.S5 



.54 
.84 
.94 



$0.51 

.51 

.57 

.82 

1.02 



.(.1 

.67 

1 .00 

1.23 



10 



$0.60 

.60 

.67 

.9S 

1.25 



.72 

.81 

1.18 

1 .45 



12 



$0.67 

.67 

.76 

1.10 

1.40 



.80 

.93 

1.35 

1.67 



14 



$0.80 

.80 

.80 

1.15 

1,60 



1.15 
1.10 
1.46 
2.00 



16 



$0.90 

.90 

.86 

1.22 

1.73 



1.30 
1.23 
1 .63 
2.21 



10 



$1.00 

1.00 

.92 

1.30 

1.85 



1 . 45 
1 .36 
1 .80 
2.45 



$1.10 
1.10 
1.00 
1.40 
2.10 



1.60 
1.49 
1.97 
2.70 



24 



$1.30 
1.30 
1.15 
1.60 
2.30 



1.90 
1.75 
2.33 
3.16 



$1.40 $1.65 



30 



36 



1.40 
2.00 
2.75 



2.20 
2.90 
3.76 



1.65 
2.30 
3.25 



2.60 
3.40 
4.36 



STOCK PACKAGES 



A Full Barrel of Ik'" or Ua" x 2" Contains 

A Full Barrel of 2 " Contains 

A Full Barrel of 3 " Contains 

A Full Barrel of 4" Contains 





160 


160 


160 


120 


80 


80 


200 




160 


160 


120 


80 


80 


100 




80 


80 


60 


40 


40 


72 




50 


50 


38 


25 


25 



See Note A 
See Note A 
See Note A 
See Note A 



32 


32 


32 


32 


15 


15 


10 


10 



See Note A 
See Note A 
See Note A 
See Note A 
and B 



Note A: Ferrules 14". 16", 18", 30" or 36" in length are packed in boxes containing 12 or 24 pieces to the b° x - 
Note B: Any barrel of 4" ferrules may be packed to carry an equal number of 3", 2" or 1,4" nested within the 4 

ACCESSORIES 

U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 



Diameter 

Iron Thimbles for Ferrules each 

Brass Thimbles for Ferrules • each 

Brass Spuds for Soldering Nipple.; eacl1 



$0.20 



I J •■' 



$0.25 



$0.15 
.38 
.45 



$0.20 
.70 
.75 



$0.25 
1.00 
1. 00 



$0.75 



B-10 

LEAD FITTINGS 




[ 

1 



COMBINATION (Lead 
and Brass) SOLDERING 
NIPPLES 

All brass parts on our combination bends and 
soldering nipples are accurately made from the 
finest quality metal. The lead portion is extruded 
and the two joined together in a neat, workmanlike 
manner. 

COMBINATION (LEAD AND BRASS) 
SOLDERING NIPPLES 

U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 




Length — In Inches 

Standard Weight 

lJi" for \\i" Iron Pipe 
1 M " for 1 Y " Iron Pipe 
2" for 2" Iron Pipe.. 
3" for 3" Iron Pipe.. 
4" for 4" Iron Pipe. . 

Extra Heavy Weight 

l\i" for 1}4" Iron Pipe 
1 L £" for 1H" Iron Pipe 
2" for 2" Iron Pipe.. 
4" for 4" Iron Pipe. . 



SO. 39 

.48 

.72 

1.26 

1 .63 



.41 

.51 
.79 

1.70 



SO. 42 

.55 

.81 

1.43 

1.84 



.45 

.85 
1 .95 



$0.44 

.60 

.86 

1 .50 

1 .95 



.48 
.60 

.90 
2.15 



SO. 52 

.66 

.96 

1.67 

2.13 



.56 

.71 
1 .04 
2.35 



SO. 58 

.74 

1 .08 

1 .86 

2.36 



.64 

.82 
1.18 

2.55 



SO. 63 

.80 

1.17 

2.00 

2.53 



,7! 

.92 
1 .31 
2.75 



SO. 73 

.93 

1.37 

2.27 

2.93 



.79 
1 .04 
1.47 
3 . 15 



$0.78 
1.00 

i -i; 

2.41 
3.10 



.86 
1 .14 
1.60 
3. ?5 



SO . 83 
1.07 
1 .56 
2.56 
3.27 



.93 
1 .24 
1.72 
3.55 



SO . 90 
1.15 
1 .68 
2.70 
3.45 



1.00 
I .34 
1 ,85 
3.75 



SI .00 
1.30 
1 .87 
3.00 
3.80 



1 .15 
1 .55 
2.12 
4.25 



SI .20 
1.48 
2.27 
3.53 
4.35 



1 .37 
1 .85 
2.52 
4.75 



SI. 30 
I .65 
2.58 
4.00 
4.92 



1 .60 
2.15 
2.92 
5.70 



COMBINATION (LEAD AND BRASS) BENDS AND SOLDERING NIPPLES 

U. S. STANDARD PRICE LIST 



Length of Outlet . . . 

Standard Weight 

l L i"^-Short Inlet. 

■ — -Long Inlet. 
Hi"— Short Inlet. 

— Long Inlet. 
2" —Short Inlet. 

■ — Long Inlet. 
3" — Short Inlet. 

— Long Inlet. 
4" — Short Inlet. 

— Long Inlet. 

Extra Heavy Weight 
IH"— Short Inlet. 

— Long Inlet. 
V X A" — Short Inlet. 

— Long Inlet. 
2" — Short Inlet. 

— Long Inlet. 
3" — Short Inlet. 

— Long Inlet. 
4" — Short Inlet. 

— Long Inlet. 



12" or 
Less 



$0.79 
.85 
1 .04 
1.15 
1.51 
1.71 
2.65 
2.99 
3.33 
3.78 



.99 
1.09 
1.38 
1.55 



$0.82 
.88 
1.09 
1.20 
1.57 
1.77 
2.76 
3.10 
3.45 
3.90 



1 .04 
1.14 
1.45 
1 .62 
1 .89 
2.16 
2.95 
3.34 
3.87 
4.40 



14" 



SO. 86 
.92 
1 . 13 
1.24 
1 .64 
1 .84 
2.87 
3.21 
3.57 
4.02 



1 .09 
1.1') 
1.52 
1 .69 
1.97 
2.24 
3.07 
3.46 
4.02 
4.55 



SO. 86 
.93 
1.15 
1 .25 
1 .66 
1 .86 
2.91 
3.25 
3.63 
4.07 



3.51 
4.08 

1.61 



$0.89 
.96 
1 .20 
1 .30 
1 .72 
1 .92 
3.02 
3.36 
3.75 
4. 19 



1 .79 
2.09 
2.37 
3.25 
3.63 
4.23 
4.76 



17" 



SO . 93 
1.00 
1.24 
1.34 
1.79 
1 .99 
3.13 
3.47 
3.87 
4.31 



I .21 
1.31 
1.69 
1 .86 
2.17 
2.45 
3.37 
3 . 75 
4.38 
4 »1 



$0 . 94 
1 .01 
1 .25 
1 .36 
1.81 
2.01 
3.16 
3.50 
3.93 
4.36 



3.42 
3.80 
4.44 
4.97 



$0.97 
1.04 
1.30 
1.41 
1.87 
2.07 
3.27 
3.61 
4.05 
4.48 



1 .28 
1 .38 
1.79 
I .96 
2.30 
2.56 
3.54 
3.92 
4.59 
5.12 



IQ» 



$0. 99 
1 .06 
1 .32 
1 .43 
1.91 
2.11 

3.68 
4.11 
4.55 



i •; ! 

1 .41 
1 .S3 
2.00 
2.35 
2.62 
3.61 
4.00 
4.67 



STOCK PACKAGES OF SOLDERING NIPPLES 



Length — In Inches 


4 


6 


8 


10 


12 


20 


24 


A Full Barrel of 1J4" Contains! 200 
A Full Barrel of \\i" Contains 160 
A Full Barrel of 2" Contains. . 120 
A Full Barrel of 3" Contains. . 75 
A Full Barrel of 4" Contains. . ' 60 


200 
160 
120 

60 
48 


150 
120 
90 
45 
36 


100 
80 
60 
30 
24 


100 
80 
60 
30 

24 


40 
30 
20 
15 
10 


40 
30 
20 
15 
10 



Note: Soldering nipples 14", 16", 18", 30" or 36" in length are packed in boxes with 12 or 24 to the box. 



/^ 



•if 



C-l 
SHEET LEAD 



SHEET LEAD 

Sheet lead is produced by rolling or milling. 
Its manufacture involves first the casting of large 
slabs, several inches thick, from pigs of pure lead 
or a desired lead alloy. These slabs are then rolled' 
either hot or cold depending upon the composition 
of the lead, between steel rollers to a specified 
thickness. 

For many years, we have been the nation's 
leading supplier of high quality sheet lead. Our 
product is made only from standard accepted 
brands of prime lead and lead alloys. Every pre- 
caution is taken to produce sheet that is precisely 
as specified with respect to thickness or weight, 
subject to commercial tolerances. 

SIZES AND WEIGHTS 

The standard size for milled sheet lead, weigh- 
ing three pounds per square foot or over, is 8' 
wide by 20' long. The standard size for sheet lead 
weighing less than three pounds per square foot 
is 4' to 5' wide by 15' long. However, we are able to 
furnish sheets on short notice which are consider- 
ably larger in width and length than these standard 
sizes. The maximum sizes are given in the table on 
the following page. 

Sheet lead may be specified either by its weight 
per square foot or its thickness. There is a rough 
mathematical correlation between the two. Pure 
lead sheet weighing one pound per square foot is 
\4i" thick. Except in the larger sizes, each addi- 
tional pound per square foot adds x (\" to the thick- 
ness. 

Commonly used weights of sheet lead are 
shown in the table on the next page. Other weights 
per square foot can be rolled on short notice. 

DIRECTIONS FOR ORDERING 

In ordering sheet lead, specify the type of lead 
wanted, the weight per square foot or the thickness 
and the number and size of the sheets. In ordering 




Our care in manufacture insures sheet lead of accurate 
thickness and weight. 

sheet lead in other than regular stock sizes, please 
note the following instructions: 

If plain rectangular sheets are wanted, state 
clearly the width and length. In the case of irregu- 
lar shape sheets, forward a sketch giving dimen- 
sions or send a drawing of the object to be lined or 
covered, stating clearly all dimensions. 

PACKING 

Unless otherwise specified, all sheet lead is 
shipped in rolls which are carefully packed in 
wooden slats or double-faced corrugated board 
and fastened with steel straps, wire or rope. 




View of a sheet lead rolling mill showing rollers which 
propel the lead, and cutting table in foreground. 



C-2 

SHEET LEAD 




r 



SHEET LEAD SIZES AND WEIGHTS 

The weights given below apply to common lead only. Other types of lead, such as anti- 
monial or hard lead, weigh slightly less for a given thickness. 



Pounds 
Per Sq. Ft. 



/A 

1 

U2 
2 

2' 2 
3 

4 

5 
6 



10 
12 



14 



16 



20 



?A 



30 



40 



(if) 



Actual Thickness 





App. Thickness in Inches 



Decimal 



Maximum Sizes 



.0117 
.0156 
.0234 

.0312 

.0391 
.0468 
.0547 
. 0625 
.07S1 
.0937 
.1250 

.1563 

.1875 

.2188 
.2500 
.3333 

.4000 
.5000 

.6667 



1 . 0000 



1/80 
1/64 
3 12S 
1/32 

5/128 

3/64 

7 128 

1/16 

5/64 

3/32 

1/8 

5/32 

3/16 

7/32 

1/4 

1/3 

2/5 
1/2 

2/3 



1 " 



4'x15' 
8'x20' 
8'x20' 

/ x4.i 

9'x45' 
0'x45' 
0'x45' 

0'.x45' 

0'x43' 

0'x43\ ll'x40' 
l'6"x30', ll'9"x20 

0'x40' 
lVx35' 

l'x40' 
0'x48' 

l'6"x40' 

l'x40' 

l'6"x35' 

l'6"x40' 
l'9"x30' 

l'6"x40' 
l'9"x30' 

l'6"x40' 
l'9"x3S' 



l'9"x30' 

l'x34' 

l'6"x32' 



l'x27' 

l'6"x25'6" 

2'xl6' 



l'x24' 
2'xl6' 



12x12' 



/- 




C-3 
SHEET LEAD 



in building construction 



SHEET LEAD 

in building construction 





Above: Construction detail of the lead-covered 
dome of the New Jersey State Reformatory at 
Rahway, N. J. All seams shown, including those 
where the sheets join the batten caps, are loose- 
locked to provide for expansion and contraction. 

Right: General view of the Reformatory and its 

lead-covered dome. Nearly 75,000 pounds of sheet 

lead were required for this job. 

Below: This photograph shows a lead-covered 

cornice and through-wall flashing. The cornice 

covering has been attached to the flashing with a 

loose-locked seam. 







.-■'■'■ 



ROOFING AND FLASHING 

One of the most important and, incidentally, 
one of the oldest uses of sheet lead is for roofing 
and related building purposes such as flashings, 
cornice coverings, gutter linings and the like. 

Its chief advantage for this purpose is perma- 
nence. Lead is non-rusting and more resistant to 
atmospheric corrosion than any other non-ferrous 
metal. Consequently, properly installed, sheet lead 
roofing and flashings rarely require repair or 
replacement. 

Another advantage lies in appearance. After 
exposure to the weather, lead takes on a soft, gray 
patina which goes well with any architectural style. 
Moreover, lead roofs and flashings do not stain 
other building materials. 



The type of sheet lead most frequently speci- 
fied for roofing and flashing is hard lead— an alloy 
of common lead and antimony. The distinct ad- 
vantage gained by using hard lead lies in the fact 
that its weight is less than that of soft or common 
lead for a given thickness. Six per cent antimonial 
lead is approximately five per cent lighter than 



C-4 

SHEET LEAD 






in building construction 



common sheet lead. 

The proper weight of sheet lead to use for 
roofing depends upon the nature of the installa- 
tion. For gutter linings, cornice coverings, base 



flashings and roofing purposes generally, three 
pound sheet is recommended. For cap flashings 
and batten roofs where the battens are fairly close 
together, two and one-half pound sheet will suffice. 



SHEET LEAD FOR X-RAY EQUIPMENT 




A unique characteristic of lead is its ability to 
absorb short wave length radiations, such as X-rays 
and radium emanations. Because of this special 
quality, sheet lead is used extensively for wall and 
cabinet linings, protective shields and other pur- 
poses in hospitals and laboratories where these 
powerful radiations are handled. 

Regarding the use of lead in X-ray rooms, the 



*r = "roentgen," a unit of quantity for X-rays 



Above: Construction photo showing method of lining 
walls with sheet lead in rooms to be used for deep 

therapy X-ray work. 

Left: View looking into the completed X-ray room 

shown under construction above. 

following excerpts from an article by Singer and 
Lawrence in "Industrial Radiography" will be of 
interest. 

"The object in planning X-ray protection for 
any installation is to reduce the X-ray intensity at 
all positions where personnel will be stationed to a 
value such that no person will receive more than 
O.lr* during any 24-hour period. No hard and fast 
rules need be laid down for accomplishing this; the 







C-5 
SHEET LEAD 



in building construction 



methods to be used are best left to the ingenuity of 
those making the plans. Almost any space can be 
made safe against X-rays by the use of lead or con- 
crete walls of sufficient thickness — in practice such 
an installation would probably be considered pro- 
hibitively expensive, especially when protection 
against very penetrating radiation is required. The 
alternative is to consider other methods of pro- 
tection to be used in addition to radiation barriers. 
In the interest of economy, full consideration should 
therefore be given to all three of the following 
factors: 1. Distance from barrier to X-ray source; 
2. Direction of X-ray beam; 3. Radiation barriers." 

Following a discussion of distance from barrier 
to X-ray source, and direction of X-ray beam, the 
article has this to say about radiation barriers: 

"When full advantage has been taken of both 
distance and tube orientation, it will usually be 
found that the radiation intensity is still excessive 
at the control station and in adjacent rooms. 



Fig. I. Lead thickness required for protection against 
narrow X-ray beams generated by voltages between 200 
and 500 KV for various distances between the tube tar- 
get and operator. 



LEAD PROTECTION 

CONSTANT POTENTIAL 
REFLECTED BEAM - 



K = 10 




I =TUBE CURRENT (MA) 
D = DISTANCE (METERS) 



170 



150 



130 



110 



-JO 



9 70 



50 



30 



10 



K=10 



LEAD PROTECTION 

CONSTANT POTENTIAL 
REFLECTED BEAM - 




600 



800 1000 1200 
TUBE VOLTAGE (KV) 



1400 



200 300 400 

TUBE VOLTAGE (KV) 



500 



Fig. II. Lead thickness required for protection against 
narrow X-ray beams generated by voltages between 500 
and 1400 KV for various distances between the tube 
target and operator. 

Thought must then be given to protective walls or 
screens. For X-rays generated by voltage under 250 
kilovolts, lead sheet is generally used for this pur- 
pose; for more penetrating radiation, concrete is 
most often chosen. The use of lead sheet in com- 
bination with concrete is becoming more common 
and has much to recommend it. The type of barrier 
selected is determined by relative cost and con- 
venience. 

"Two classes of protective barriers should be 
distinguished: 

1. Barriers against direct radiation — from the 
tube port, from leaks in the tube housing, 
and from radiation not absorbed by the 
tube housing. 

2. Barriers against scattered radiation — scat- 
tered by the patient, walls of the room, or 
other irradiated objects. 

The scattered radiation is generally less penetrat- 
ing and less intense than the direct radiation; less 
protection is, therefore, needed against it." 



C-6 

SHEET LEAP 



in building construction 



SHEET LEAD FOR SOUND-DEADENING AND VIBRATION ABSORPTION 




Lead does not ring when struck and is not 
easily set in vibration. This fact, combined with its 
mass, accounts for its successful use in deadening 
sound and vibration. 

For vibration absorption, particularly under a 
building foundation, the sheet lead is usually 
formed into an "anti-vibration pad". These pads 
in most cases consist of two layers of eight pound 
sheet lead enclosing layers of asbestos board, the 

SHEET LEAD FOR SHOWER BATH PANS 



Left: These doors to an N. B. C. broadcasting studio, 

made from layers of wood and sheet lead, are said 

to reduce noise by an average of 39.56 decibels. 

Above: Lead "anti-vibration pad" under a grillage 
in a New York hotel. 

whole being about an inch thick. Where loads are 
lighter, smaller pads are used. In some installations 
merely the sheet lead itself is sufficient. 

For sound absorption, construction methods 
vary. In one installation — a broadcasting studio — 
the doors are laminated with three layers of wood 
and two layers of four pound sheet lead. In another, 
four pound sheet lead lines the walls, floor and ceil- 
ing of a laboratory interior. 





In the Rome of antiquity, baths were lined with 
sheet lead to keep them water-tight. For the same 
reason, many modern shower stalls have a lead 



This sheet lead shower pan is designed for a three- 
shower installation. It will provide positive and per- 
manent waterproofing. 

pan at the base to keep water from seeping through 
the floor. 

Lead shower pans are easy to install and per- 



C-7 
SHEET LEAD 



in building construction 



I 
I 

] 
I 



manent. The sheet lead dresses down evenly over 
the surface to be covered, leaving no voids to per- 
mit later settlement and possible damage to the 
finished tile floor. It is not damaged by building 
movement and permanently protects against the 
seepage of moisture. 

For shower stall installation, six pound sheet 
lead is the usual specification. When placed in con- 
tact with concrete or mortar, the lead is painted 
with asphaltum or coated with tar to protect it 
during the initial period against attack by the fresh 
lime contained in those materials. Lead in contact 
with cinders should be similarly treated. 

SHOWER PAN INSTALLATION 

The following directions should be observed in 
installing lead shower pans: 

1. Use 4 to 6 lb. lead — the heavier weight 
being preferable. 

2. Cut the sheet to the size and shape of the 
shower stall, allowing 6 in. for turn-up all 
around and cutting a hole to receive the 
drain. 

3. Chalk mark the stall area centered on the 
sheet, less ^§ in. to allow for the bend and 
thickness of the lead. 

4. Place a 2 in. by 4 in. along the chalk marks 
and dress the upstands into position. Placing 



the dresser on edge on the chalk lines and 
striking with the mallet facilitates bending. 

5. Fold the corners tight to the sides and solder 
or burn the corner seam. 

6. Notch studs back ]/ 4 in. for the height of the 
upstands so they will set back and catch 
any leakage through the tile above. 

7. If installed on concrete, coat both sides of 
the lead pan with asphaltum, including 
upstands. If installed on wood, place a 
layer of asphalt-saturated building paper 
under the pan and coat the inside and up- 
stands with asphaltum. This simple pre- 
caution will protect the lead from possible 
attack by water seeping through green 
cement, concrete or mortar during the 
initial period before these materials have 
become carbonated. 

8. Install the pan and countersink the trap 
flange to assure drainage. Be sure the joint 
at the drain is tight. 

9. Flash the corners of the stall with strips of 
lead 6 in. wide and at least 5 ft. high with 
the lower end inside the upstand of the pan. 
This will prevent leakage at the corners. 

10. Plug the trap and fill the pan with water as a 
test before the tile is installed. 
Rims of tubs with showers over them should be 
flashed with lead as shown in the small sketch. 



Elevation and plan of a lead shower pan installation with comer flashing. 
Sketch at right shows method of flashing rims of hath tubs having overhead showers. 



LMptal lath 
'"to pan ^^ 




A M- * 



Lead pan coated 
both sides mm 
asphaltum 



Lead ship/a 

in comers 



Studding 



Lecrd waste P'P^ 




Lead flashtn 
dafh tub rim 



■ ' ' Lead pan coaled both 

» j! sides tvith asphaltum 

M 




Weephales 



Section through 

lead bath tub 

flashing 



C-8 



SHEET LEAD 



in building construction 



<£3 



I. 




Above: Lead-covered floor in the tank room of a 

large modern office building. Below: A lead-covered 

laboratory table. 



FLOORS AND TABLE TOPS 

An interesting, although a rather specialized 
use of sheet lead is as a covering for floors and 
table tops in laboratories, hospitals and industrial 
plants. 

Lead flooring has been found to give better 
and longer service where corrosive substances are 
handled. It has also been used successfully in 
plants handling inflammables or explosives where 
it tends to prevent sparking. Lead table tops for in- 
dustrial laboratories, besides being non-corrosive, 
are said to reduce the breakage of glassware. 




f 







D-l 
SOLDER 



SOLDER 



Solder is used in practically all trades and in- 
dustries for the joining of metals such as tin, lead, 
copper, copper alloys, nickel, monel metal, iron, 
steel and stainless steel. 

Soldering differs from welding in several re- 
spects. One of the chief distinctions between them 
is that in soldering, the metals to be joined are not 
heated to their melting points. Consequently, one 
of the requisites for a solder is that its melting point 
be lower than those of the metals it unites. Solder 
joins largely through its ability to adhere readily to 
the properly cleaned surfaces of other metals. 

To insure adhesion in soldering, fluxes are 
necessary. Mild fluxes such as rosin, tallow or 
grease principally prevent oxidation of the metals 
being joined due to contact with the air or the hot 
solder. Active fluxes such as zinc chloride or some 
other chemical solution dissolve oxides already 
formed. 

COMPOSITION 

Solder is composed principally of lead and tin. 
Regardless of the proportions, it has a lower melt- 
ing point than lead. When the tin content is 423^% 
or higher, it also has a lower melting point than tin. 

When heated, solder does not change imme- 
diately from a solid to a liquid (except in the case of 
the eutectic alloy 62% tin— 38% lead) but passes 
through an intermediate semi-liquid state. By vary- 
ing the proportions of lead and tin, solders of differ- 
ing melting points andtensile strengths, and ranging 
from extreme fluidity to sluggishness during the 
semi-liquid state, are obtained. 

Occasionally small quantities of other metals 
are added to solder to produce hardness, greater 
strength, brightness, a very low fusing point or 
some other special quality. The proper alloying of 
these other metals with lead and tin requires a high 
degree of manufacturing skill. Their presence in 
any considerable quantity in the average solder is 
usually considered a defect. 




Above: Pouring molten solder over a joint in a lead- 
covered telephone cable. As the solder cools to aplastic 
state, it is molded to shape with the "catch cloth." 

Below: Finishing a wiped joint in lead pipe. 




P-2 
SOLDER 



1 



SELECTION OF SOLDER 

The selection of a solder depends largely on 
the method by which it will be applied, i.e. whether 
by wiping, sweating or the use of a blow-torch, 
soldering iron or solder bath. The method of appli- 
cation is, in turn, determined by the type of assem- 
bly, the character of the metals to be joined, their 
size and position, the speed with which the opera- 



tion must be completed and the shape, strength 
and appearance required in the finished work. 

Where the buyer does not have past experi- 
ence to guide the selection or where doubts exist 
as to the suitability and economy of the solder now 
being used, the technical staff of National Lead 
Company will be glad to recommend the proper 
grade of solder to use. 




OUR LINE OF SOLDER 

We manufacture under the "Dutch Boy" trade- 
mark a complete line of solder, designed to meet a 
wide range of requirements. In addition to the bar 
solders shown above, the line includes numerous 
other solders of various shapes and compositions 
to meet all soldering needs. These are described 
on the following pages. We also manufacture 



solder without our trademark in practically any 
form or of any composition specified by the user. 

All solders we manufacture are guaranteed to 
be made only from pure, clean metals, carefully 
alloyed to insure uniformity. They are free of for- 
eign substances tending to produce brittleness, 
discoloration or lack of adhesion. 



[ 



I 
I 

[ 



[ 
[ 
I 






I 
I 



D-3 
SOLDER 



DUTCH BOY* BAR SOLDER 



Dutch. Boy bar solder is available in eight 
grades — each one of which is suitable for certain 
kinds of work and is designated by number. The 
grades with the lowest numerical designation con- 
tain the most tin. 

DUTCH BOY 111 

This is the highest grade solder sold under the 
Dutch Boy trademark. It is guaranteed to be made 
of new lead and new tin, carefully mixed in equal 
parts (50% tin and 50% lead). Its melting range is 
361 °F 421°F. 

Dutch Boy 1 1 1 is bright, strong and free from 
impurities. It flows easily, covers more area and 
has superior adhesion. It is widely used for new 
roofing work and is popular among tinsmiths, 
manufacturers and canners. Sold in bars weighing 
approximately \ x /i lbs. 

DUTCH BOY 222 

Dutch Boy 222 is a smooth, free-flowing solder 
which contains slightly less tin than Dutch Boy 111. 
Its melting range is 361°F-432°F. It can be used 
wherever a bright, strong solder is wanted. Sold in 
bars weighing approximately 1 }A lbs. 

DUTCH BOY 333 

Dutch Boy 333 is a composition suitable and 
popular for the general run of galvanized iron and 
sheet metal work, roofing and cornices. Its melting 
range is 363°F-441°F. It flows freely. Sold in bars 
weighing approximately 1 1 ■$ lbs. 

DUTCH BOY 444 

Dutch Boy 444 is a grade of solder which is 
known to the trade under the brand "Strictly Half 
and Half" although it actually contains more lead 
than tin. With a melting range of 363°F-435°F, 
Dutch Boy 444 is useful for heavy seamed work and 
is sometimes used for the reduction of better grades 
of solder. Sold in bars weighing approximately 



DUTCH BOY 555 

Dutch Boy 555 is suitable for many special 

requirements and is particularly adapted for plumb- 
ing work where a bright showy job is required. It 
can be used with an iron. Dutch Boy 555 has a 
melting range of 363°F-448°F. It is sold in bars 
weighing approximately \ x /i lbs. and rectangular 
ingots weighing 5 lbs. 




Above: Solder being cast into bars. Below: Burs being 
removed from mold. Imperfect bars are discarded. 




* Trade Mark Reg. U. s. Pat. Off. 



DUTCH BOY 666 

Dutch Boy 666, with a melting range of 363 °F- 
450°F, flows freely but not quite as well as the finer 
grades. In electrical construction, tin can factories 
and for work of a similar character, it is the most 
thoroughly reliable and economical solder that can 



D-4 
SOLDER 



¥ 



be used. It is also a first-class dipping solder. Sold 
in bars weighing approximately 1 }4 lbs. and ingots 
weighing 5 lbs. 

DUTCH BOY 777 

Dutch Boy 777 contains an unusually large 
percentage of tin for solder of this grade. It has a 
melting range of 363°F-450°F. When used by 
plumbers for wiping it can be reduced slightly with 

APPROXIMATE DATA ON THE PHYSICAL 



more lead. Sold in bars weighing approximately 
1 }4 lbs. and ingots weighing 5 lbs. 

DUTCH BOY 888 

Dutch Boy 888 is strictly a plumber's solder. 
It wipes a joint that will not sweat unless the solder 
is doped too heavily with lead. It has a melting 
range of 361°F-453°F and is sold in 1 J L > lb. bars and 
ingots weighing approximately 3 lbs. 

PROPERTIES OF DUTCH BOY SOLDERS 





Ultimate 

Tensile 

Strength 

lbs./sq. in. 


Elon- 
gation 
m 

< 


Shear 

Strength 
lbs./sq. in. 


Impact 

Strength 

(Izod) 

ft. lbs. 


Brinell 

Hardness 

No. 


Specific 
Gravity 


LlQUIDUS 


Soli 


DUS 


\o. : 


Cent. 


Fahr. 


Cent. 


Fahr. 


ill 


6450 


90 


5800 


15.4 


12.3 


8.85 


216 


421 


183 


361 


111 


6600 


90 


5700 


15.4 


12.3 


8.92 


222 


432 


183 


361 


333 


6400 


90 


5500 


15.1 


12.2 


9.04 


227 


■141 


184 


363 


444 


6600 


90 


5625 


15.2 


12.7 


9.02 


224 


435 


184 


363 


555 


6700 


90 


5525 


14.8 


12.7 


9.11 


231 


448 


184 


363 


666 


7000 


80 


5450 


14.5 


13.4 


9.19 


232 


-150 


184 


363 


777 


7000 


75 


5375 


14.3 


13.3 


9.24 


Ul 450 


184 


363 


888 


7000 


70 


5275 


13.7 


13.3 


9.33 


234 453 


183 


361 



MELTING CHARACTERISTICS OF TIN -LEAD ALLOYS 

(Also see page D-ll for table) 



r 


^>6£2 °r 










600 












\^K 




LJ QU/D 






500 




^531 








\ 
















^460 








HfSS 


■;.■-.'•■;•' PASTY 






/^| 


400 


' \ 




■ ■ 




333^ 


^^^ 1 










1 




ii 




-in', r H / „ ,, ., .. 




\-"""'^ if,; 


PASTY I 






;S/.di W 




- SOLID : '\ ■ 




(Slil 



600 



500 



450 



4-00 



%T/ V%Lead a0 /80 



10 



%o 



60 



V40 



8 0, 



20 












D-5 



SOLDER 



DUTCH BOY FLUXRITE WIRE SOLDER 



A fluxed wire solder made on a new principle. 
In Fluxrite the flux is enclosed in several parallel 
grooves running along the surface of the wire 
rather than in one central channel like conven- 
tional fluxed wire solder. Fluxrite thus has the 
advantage of automatically applying the flux first 
to the work, an important point in efficient solder- 
ing. With Fluxrite, the wire is heated, the flux is 
released to cover the work and then the solder 
melts to complete the job. 

Fluxrite can be supplied with rosin or acid 
flux as well as with certain of the intermediate 
neutral types of fluxes, and comes in a wide range 
of compositions and diameters. It can also be fur- 
nished in special shapes to fit specific jobs. Fluxrite 
is ideal for all types of electrical, telephone and 
radio work. It has proved very successful in solder- 
ing operations involving induction heating. It has 
also been used very successfully in conjunction 
with stream-lined sweated copper fittings and pipe. 




Dutch Boy Fluxrite Wire Solder is stocked in 
the same diameters and on the same weight spools 
as conventional wire solder. Other sizes from 
Hi" to Uii", as well as special gauges, can be fur- 
nished promptly on special order. 



DUTCH BOY FLUX CORE SOLDER 

Dutch Boy Flux Core Solder is hollow solder 
wire filled with either an acid flux or a rosin flux. 
The former is suitable for general work wherever 
wire solder is considered the best form to use. The 




Right: Soldering a terminal wire on an oscillator for 

voice frequency carrier telegraphy. For soldering work 

of this type, rosin flux core solder — furnishing solder 

and flux simultaneously — is ideal. 

Courtesy Bell 
Telephone Laboratories 



Trade Mark Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 




7 



D-6 
SOLDER 



■ i 



L, 



latter is especially fine for electrical work, includ- 
ing radio. 

Both Dutch Boy Rosin-Core Wire Solder and 

AUTO BODY SOLDER 



Dutch Boy Acid-Core Wire Solder are supplied in 
three sizes— ^g", %±" and He". They are furnished 
on 1, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 50 lb. spools. 






KlfliPOOBJflfL G.SA0 8 5>> BD$>"T g^lliER 



This grade is a special solder designed for 
auto repair work. Containing only pure, clean tin 
and lead, it has the pastiness necessary for the 
proper filling of dents but will not run. It contains 
no hard spots, molds smoothly under a paddle and 
can be worked readily into narrow crevices and 
scores. The finished work will be tough and strong. 

Auto Body Solder is furnished in 4 or 8-ounce 
bars. The latter are %" square and 13" long. 
Both are packed in 25 lb. cartons. It can also be 
supplied in \ x /> lb. bars, packed in 50 lb., 100 lb. 
or 250 lb. boxes, or in Y±" round wire form cut in 
13" strips for use in solder spray guns. The strips 
are packed in 25 lb. cartons. 

NITON ALLOY 

A special alloy developed for use in place of 
tin-bearing auto body solders. Sold in oval bar 
form, extruded, not cast. Put up in 100 lb. net 
weight cartons. 

DUTCH BOY TINNING 
COMPOUND 

This is a real time and labor saver on auto 
body repair work. Its use does away with the need 
for preliminary removal of surface coatings. The 
area to be repaired is heated, the Tinning Com- 
pound is rubbed on with a wad of steel wool and 
the heat from the blow-torch and the ingredients in 
the compound do the preparatory work of cleaning 





1 



and tinning the affected area, ready to take the 
solder. 

This compound is also ideal for tinning bearing 
shells — it produces quickly and simply a well- 
tinned surface that bonds perfectly with shell and 
bearing metal. 

Dutch Boy Tinning Compound is put up in 
one-lb. net weight containers only. 






m 

STAINLESS STEEL 
SOLDER 

This solder has exceptional tinning and wet- 
ting characteristics and low fusion temperature to 
avoid buckling of sheet metal. Makes strongest 
possible joint. Supplied in wire form or in 8-ounce 
and l)-2 pound bars. 

PECOS SOLDER 

This low-tin solder is a specially formulated 
alloy that has met with wide acceptance because it 
has working qualities comparable with solders of a 
much higher tin content. 

Pecos is fast tinning and fast wetting. While it 
has a higher liquidus point than a solder rich in 
tin, it applies more readily than the usual low tin 
solder. This minimizes oxidation and fouling of 
soldering irons. 

Pecos solder is furnished in 8 oz. bars M" x 
V m " x 12", packed 100 lbs. to the case. Also sup- 
plied in wire form, 1 lb., 5 lb. and 50 lb. spools. 

SILVER CONTENT 
SOLDER 

National Lead Company has developed sev- 
eral solders of a tin-lead-silver combination. The 



D-7 
SOLDER 




^*,r 







Torch soldering operation on autotruck radiator. 



addition of silver in carefully regulated proportions 
gives these solders certain qualities that make them 
ideal for many specialized uses. They have met 
with enthusiastic reception by important solder 
users. 

These special solders are not to be confused 
with the wartime solders where silver was used to 
replace tin and which were sometimes difficult to 
handle and uncertain in their actions. All of the 
National Lead solders have been well tested in 
practice and will be found thoroughly reliable and 
easy to use. 

Information about silver content solder that 
will meet your particular requirements will be 
gladly furnished upon request. 



Soldering by the induction heating method. The assembled parts with solder preplaced go on conveyor belt at right 
then pass between induction heating elements {center) where the soldering operation takes place in a matter ot 
seconds. Completed unit is at extreme left. Courtesy American Transformer Co. 




I 



D-8 



SOLDER 



i 



LEAD, TIN, AND SOLDER WIRE SPECIFICATIONS 
(Birmingham or Stubs Gauge) 



Number of 


Diameter 


Area 


Lead — 

Lb. per Ft . per 


Lb. per 


lin— 

Ft. per 


—50-50 Solder- 
Lb. per Ft. per 


\ r } Antimonial Lead 
Lb. per Ft. Per 


Wire Gauge 


Incli 


Sq. In. 


100 Ft. 


Lb. 


100 Ft. 


Lb 




100 Ft. 


Lb. 


100 Ft. 


Lb. 


31 


.010 


. 00008 


.04 


2564 


.03 


4000 




.03 


3245 


.04 


2632 


30 


.012 


.00011 


.05 


1852 


.04 


2857 




.04 


2360 


.05 


1887 


29 


.013 


.00013 


.06 


1563 


.04 


2439 




.05 


1997 


06 


1613 


28 


.014 


.00015 


.07 


1351 


.05 


2083 




.06 


1731 


.07 


1 38 ( > 


5 7 


.016 


. 00020 


. 10 


1020 


,06 


1587 




.08 


1298 


, 10 


1042 


26 


.018 


, 00025 


.12 


813 


.08 


1266 




in 


1038 


.12 


840 


25 


.020 


. 0003 1 


. 15 


658 


.10 


1020 




.12 


838 


.15 


676 


24 


.022 


.00038 


.19 


538 


.12 


833 




. 15 


683 


. 18 


553 


23 


.025 


. 00049 


.24 


417 


.16 


645 




.19 


530 


.23 


427 


22 


.028 


.00062 


.30 


329 


.20 


510 




24 


419 


.30 


338 


21 


.032 


. 00080 


.39 


255 


.25 


395 




.31 


325 


.38 


262 


20 


.035 


. 00096 


.47 


213 


.30 


329 




.37 


270 


.46 


218 


19 " 


.042 


.00139 


.68 


147 


.44 


227 




54 


187 


.66 


151 


18 


. 049 


.00189 


05 


108 


.60 


167 




.73 


137 


.90 


111 


17 


.058 


.00264 


1.29 


77.3 


.84 


120 




1.02 


98.3 


1.26 


79.3 


16 


.065 


.00332 


1.63 


61.5 


1.05 


95 


1 


1.28 


78.2 


1.59 


63.1 


15 


.072 


. 00407 


1.99 


50.2 


1.29 


77 


6 


1.57 


63.8 


1.94 


51.4 


1 I 


.083 


.00541 


2 . 65 


37.7 


1.71 


58 


3 


2.08 


48.0 


2.58 


38.7 


13 


.095 


.00709 


3.47 


28.8 


2.25 


44 


5 


2.73 


36.6 


3.39 


29.5 


12 


.109 


. 00933 


4.57 


21.9 


2.96 


55 


X 


3.59 


27.8 


4.46 


22.4 


11 


.120 


.01131 


5 . 54 


18.0 


3 . 58 


11 


9 


4.36 


23.0 


5.40 


18.5 


10 


.134 


.01410 


6.91 


14.5 


4.47 


22 


4 


5.43 


18.4 


6.73 


14.9 


9 


.148 


.01720 


8.43 


11.9 


5.45 


18 


4 


6.63 


15.1 


8.22 


12.2 


8 


.165 


.02138 


10.5 


9.55 


6.77 


14 


8 


8.24 


12.1 


10.2 


9.7<) 


7 


.180 


.025-15 


12.5 


8.02 


8.06 


12 


1 


9.80 


10.2 


12.2 


8.23 


6 


.203 


.03237 


15.9 


6.30 


10.3 


9 


75 


12.5 


8.02 


15.5 


6.47 


5 


.220 


.03801 


18.6 


5.37 


12.0 


8 


50 


14.6 


6.83 


18.2 


5.51 


4 


.238 


. 04449 


21.8 


4.59 


14.1 


7 


10 


17.1 


5.83 


21.3 


4.71 


3 


,259 


.05269 


25.8 


3.87 


16.7 


5 


99 


20.3 


4.93 


25.2 


3.97 


2 


.284 


. 06335 


31.0 


3.22 


20.1 


4 


98 


24.4 


4.10 


30.3 


3.31 


1 


.300 


.07069 


34.6 


2.89 


22.4 


4.47 


27.2 


3.67 


33.8 


2.96 



SPECIAL SOLDERS 




In addition to the solders shown on the pre- 
ceding pages which are designed in composition 
and shape to meet average requirements, we manu- 
facture solder in practically any form desired by 




Left: Soldering fuses with Dutch Boy wire solder. To 
insure continuous operation, the soldering iron is kept 
at the correct temperature by an electrical heating 
element. 



Courtesy Metropolitan 
Electric Mfg. Co. 



D-9 
SOLDER 



the user and alloyed according to any specified 
formula. A number of frequently specified types are 
described on the following pages. 

Because of the great variety of shapes and 
compositions which may be supplied, special 
solders— with the exception of the more commonly 
used forms of solder wire— are not ordinarily kept 
in stock. However, our facilities for manufacturing 
solder are so complete that any order can be filled 
promptly. The photo at the right shows most of the 
forms in which our solders are supplied — sheet, 
slab, thin bar, tape or ribbon, pulverized, wire, 
drop and segment. 

Wire Solder— Wire solder is produced by an 
extrusion process. It can be supplied in practically 
any desired diameter from 1/40" to 29/64" and of 
any specified composition. 

Our wire solder is carefully made to insure 
uniformity in gauge throughout the entire length. 
It is furnished on 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 65 lb. spools, 
or, if specified, in 5, 10, or 25 lb. coils, or, cut into 



segments. In ordering wire solder, use the gauge 
table on the preceding page. 

Tape or Ribbon Solder— Tape or ribbon 
solder is commonly used where the parts to be 
joined are preheated with a blow-torch and the 




solder then applied. Being an extruded product 
like wire solder, it can be furnished in almost any 
width or thickness desired by the buyer. It is 
shipped on spools or reels. 



Solder bath used for soldering copper tubes in automo- 
bile radiator cores. The core at the left is about to be 
dipped in the bath. Slab or ingot solders are commonly 
used for this purpose. 

Courtesy Kramer Auto Radiator Co. 




P-10 
SOLDER 





Triangular Bar Solder — Triangular bar 
solder gets its name from its triangular shape which 
is found useful in many specialized types of solder- 
ing work. The bars usually measure 14" in length 
with ]/±" , Xfj" an d %" sides although other sizes 
are available. This form of solder is either cast or 
extruded according to the quantity ordered. 

Drop Solder — Drop solder is triangular bar 
solder which has been cut into slices according to 
the specifications of the buyer. The slices can be 
cut to practically any thickness desired. When 
ordering drop solder, state the desired number of 
drops to the ounce or pound. 

Tinner's Bar Solder — Tinner's bar solder is 
a cast product and is furnished in bars 12" to 14" 
long and usually Yi" to •}+" wide and Yi' thick. 
It is a handy bar for soldering seams in certain 
kinds of tin work. 

Meter Bar Solder — Meter bar solder is either 
cast or extruded according to the size of the order. 
It is rectangular in shape, usually about 14" long, 
%" to y 2 " wide and M" to y s " thick. It derives its 
name from the fact that it is widely used for seam 
soldering in the manufacture of gas meters. 

Capping Bar Solder — This is a small cast bar 



Above: Can soldering machine. As the can bodies leave 
the forming machine at the extreme left, they pass 
over the solder bath where short rolls apply solder to 
the seam. Below: Soldering top seam on a gas meter 

Courtesy Lambert Meter Co 




[ 



I 




SOLDER 



about l /i " x l /i" and 12" long. It is sometimes used 
by canners in place of drop or segment solder. 

Solder Slabs— For solder baths, solder is usu- 
ally supplied in slab form. The common sizes are 
36" x 3" x I", 24" x 3" x %* and 18" x 3" x %". 
They vary in weight from 15 to 35 lbs. 

Pulverized Solder — Pulverized solder is 
useful for fine, delicate soldering work. This form 
is available in all standard solder compositions and 
comes in 50, 100 or 200 meshes to the square inch. 
Special composition alloys and meshes can be sup- 
plied on application. 

Sheet Solder — Any solder formula is also 
available in sheet form. The sheets are first cast 
and then rolled. It is available in sizes not larger 
than 24" x 36" and thicknesses from .010" to .100". 

Solder Rings and Shapes (Die Cut) — We 
are prepared to furnish, on special order, sheet 
solder punched or cut in an unlimited range of 
sizes and shapes to meet the problem of machine- 
soldering large quantities of identical parts. Note 
illustration at right. 

MELTING DATA ON TIN-LEAD ALLOYS 

Also see chart on page DA 




Composition 


Mkltin< 


; Points 




Composition 


Meltixi 


; Points 












Freezing 
Range 












Fre 
Ra 






















NGE 


I in 


Lead 


Solidus 


Liquidus 




Tin 


Lead 


Solidus 


Licji 


lid us 






Per 


Per 
Cent 








Per 
Cent 


Per 

Cent 










Cent 














; 








1 




°F 


°c 


°F 


°C 


°F 


°c 






op- o c 


°F 


°C 


°F 


°c 





100 


621 


327 


621 


327 








52.5 


47.5 


361 183 


410 


210 


49 


27 


2.5 


97.5 


574* 


301* 


606 


319 


32 


18 


55.0 


45.0 


361 183 


399 


204 


38 


21 


5.0 


95.0 


518* 


270* 


594 


312 


76 


42 


57.5 


42.5 


361 


183 


387 


197 


26 


14 


7.5 


92.5 


450* 


232* 


581 


305 


131 


73 


60.0 


40.0 


361 


183 


374 


190 


13 


7 


10.0 


90.0 


361* 


183* 


570 


299 


209 


116 


62,0 


38.0 


361 


183 


361 


183 








12.5 


87.5 


361* 


183* 


559 


293 


198 


110 


62.5 


37.5 


361 


183 


363 


184 


2 


1 


15.0 


85.0 


361* 


! S3 : 


550 


288 


189 


105 


65.0 


35.0 


361 


183 


367 


186 


6 


3 


17.5 


82.5 


361* 


183* 


540 


282 


179 


99 


67.5 


32.5 


361 


183 


372 


189 


11 


6 


20.0 


80.0 


361 


183 


531 


277 


170 


94 


70.0 


30.0 


361 


183 


378 


192 


17 


9 


22.5 


77.5 


361 


183 


520 


271 


159 


88 


72.5 


27.5 


361 


183 


383 


195 


22 


12 


25.0 


75.0 


361 


183 


511 


266 


150 


83 


75.0 


25.0 


361 


183 


387 


197 


26 


14 


27.5 


72.5 


361 


183 


500 


260 


139 


77 


77.5 


22.5 


361 


183 


394 


201 


33 


18 


30 . 


70.0 


361 


183 


491 


255 


130 


72 


80.0 


20.0 


361 


183 


399 


204 


38 


21 


32 . 5 


67.5 


361 


183 


484 


251 


123 


68 


82.5 


17.5 


361 


183 


405 


207 


44 


24 


35 . 


65.0 


361 


183 


477 


247 


116 


64 


85.0 


15.0 


361 


183 


410 


210 


49 


27 


37.5 


62.5 


361 


183 


469 


243 


108 


60 


87.5 


12.5 


361 


183 


417 


214 


56 


31 


40.0 


60.0 


361 


183 


460 


238 


99 


55 


90.0 


10.0 


361 


183 


423 


217 


62 


34 


42.5 


57.5 


361 


183 


451 


233 


90 


50 


92.5 


7.5 


361 


183 


428 


220 


67 


37 


45.0 


55.0 


361 


183 


441 227 


80 


44 


95.0 


5.0 


361 


183 


435 


224 


74 


41 


47.5 


52.5 


361 


183 


432 222 


71 


39 


97.5 


2.5 


381 194 


442 


228 


81 


45 


50.0 5U.U 


361 


183 


421 216 


60 33 


100.0 





450 232 


450 


232 












rrcd value 


i tor engin 


:enng pur 


loses but a 


re not cq 


lilibrium 


values. 


At equilil 


rium the 


;utectic lin 


\\< are 1 <> 


5-98% tin 







P-12 
SOLDER 



NALCO* SOLDER PAINT 

j "Nalco Flux No. 11- Acid type. \ 
1 Nalco Flux No. 12— Rosin type./ 

This is a combination of finely-divided solder 
and flux particles, held in suspension with a 
special water gel. It is used like a regular paint, 
being brushed out on the work. Heat is then applied 
and a brightly tinned surface results. It is a real 



time saver and a great convenience in electrotype 
backing, tinning bearing shells, in auto body repair 
work and in pretinning parts prior to sweat joining. 

Nalco Solder Paint stays in suspension in the 
container and is always ready for use. It has good 
adhesion and will stay on the area to be soldered 
even in a vertical position. Preheating is not re- 
quired. 

Nalco Solder Paint is sold in J4, 1/ 5 and 50-lb. 
containers. 



LOW-MELTING SOLDERS (FUSIBLE ALLOYS) 



Solders and alloys with particularly low-melt- 
ing points, some even lower than water's boiling 
point, are included in this classification. They are 
used where ordinary solders will not do, principally 
in automatic safety devices, of which sprinkler 
heads in fire-extinguishing systems are a good 
example. 

Another important field for fusible alloys is in 
connection with work on materials or objects easily 
damaged by excess heat, such as wax impregnated 
radio condensers. These alloys likewise are used 
to seal glass equipment where a vacuum tight joint 
is needed, and for joining metals with glass or 
other vitreous materials. 

Low-melting alloys are often employed as 
molds or patterns, for filling thin-walled tubes so 
they can be bent and for short run forming dies. 



National Lead Company furnishes fusible al- 
loys (low-melting solders) in any desired composi- 
tion. Some of thoss in common uss are listed below. 



Sprinkler head con- 
trolled by fusible alloy. 
Arrow points to sol- 
dered Joint. 




*Trade Mark Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 

COMPOSITION AND MELTING TEMPERATURES FOR 
SOME LOW-MELTING EUTECTIC ALLOYS 



Melting 

Point 

°C 


Melting 

Point 

°F 


Composition in Per Cent 


Bismuth 


Lead 


Tin 


Cadmium 


Others 


47 

70 

91.5 

95 

102.5 
124 
130 
138.5 
142 
144 
177 
183 


117 
158 
197 
203 
217 
256 
266 
281 
288 
291 
351 
362 
ion 


40.9 
50.0 
51.6 
52.5 
54.0 
55.5 
56.0 
58.0 


22.1 
26.7 
40.2 
32.0 


10.7 
13.3 


8.2 

10.0 

8.2 


18.1 In 




15.5 
26.0 




20.0 




44.5 




40.0 
42.0 
51.2 




4 . Zn 








30.6 


18.2 
40.0 
32.2 




60.0 






67.8 
61.9 
91.0 
96.5 






38.1 








9 . Zn 


221.3 430 
236 457 

7J7 A77 








3.5 Ag 




79.7 
87 


17.7 


2 . 6 Sb • 








13.0 Sb 


















E-l 
FLUX 




FLUXES 



While flux is purely an adjunct to soldering and forms no part of the completed joint, it is fully as 
important as the solder itself. Without the proper flux and its careful use, an unsatisfactory solder join is 
sure to result. 

The functions of a flux are three in number. First, it removes oxide or other surface film from the work 
after, of course, the parts have been made physically clean. Second, it promotes heat transfer and forms 
a protective layer over the joint during the soldering operation to exclude air and prevent oxidation 
before the solder freezes. Third, it reduces the interfacial tension between the solder and the metal being 
soldered so the solder can rapidly ,v wet" the surface. In addition to doing these essential things, a flux 
should be easy to apply and economical to use. It should leave no corrosive residue to attack the joint and 
give off no fumes which are injurious to the operator. 

National Lead Company, as a result of long experience and familiarity with the practical applications 
of solder, has developed a number of fluxes which are being marketed under the Nalco name. These 
cover a wide range of uses so that within the following group the average solder user will find a flux to 
efficiently meet his requirements, whatever they may be. 

FLUX No. 1 FLUX No. 5 

Soldering Fluid. This is an acid free but Sweat Tube Fitting Flux. This liquid flux 

corrosive type flux for use on copper, brass, steel, was developed for soldering sweat copper tube or 



tin and terne plate. It is a general purpose flux for 
plumbing, refrigerating, air conditioning, metal 
caskets, auto bodies and work where residue can be 
removed. 

FLUX No. 2 

Tinner's Flux. Compounded essentially for 
galvanized iron work, this is an extremely active 
liquid flux that will remove the zinc coating be- 
neath the solder and thus prevent brittle joints. 
FLUX No. 3 

Stainless Steel Flux. This is a liquid flux 
for use on stainless steel which results in neat, 
sound joints with a minimum of harmful fumes. It 
is also very active. 

FLUX No. 4 

Dipping and Coating Flux. As the name 
suggests, this strong, acid free fluid flux is espe- 
cially designed for the hot dip coating of parts in 
solder. L ow water content to minimize spattering. 
*Fluxrite Wire Solder may be obtained with this flux. 



pipe fittings (sometimes called streamline) where 
it is essential for the solder to penetrate into the 
joints by capillary attraction. The flux promotes 
rapid flow of the solder, including even low-tin 
and silver-lead solders, and greatly aids the joining 
operation. 

It is also useful for other types of work on 
copper, brass or steel where rapid action and high 
penetration are necessary. 

FLUX No. 6 
Liquid Rosin Flux. A completely non- 
corrosive rosin flux in a volatile solvent, it provides 
a reliable, fast acting flux for all general work 
where the liquid form is more convenient and 

efficient. 

FLUX No. 7* 

E 3 A Flux. This flux is a solid rosin base 

material which leaves a hard, dry residue that is 

guaranteed non-corrosive. It meets USN Bureau 

of Ships specification for a non-corrosive flux. 



E-2 
FLUX 



\r 



m 




FLUX No. 8 
OPS-1A Flux. This solid flux, of the neutral 
type, is especially adapted for soldering on brass 
although it works equally well on copper, tin and 
terne plate. Should be used with adequate ventila- 
tion because of its somewhat unpleasant odor, due 
to its special composition. 

FLUX No. 9 
Acid Paste Flux. This is a unique and 
powerful product which leaves a completely water 
soluble residue. It can be used on most clean 
metals except stainless steel and aluminum. Wash- 
ing quickly removes all residue. This paste can be 
applied in any position and solder will flow only as 
far as the flux extends. 

FLUX No. 10 

Rosin Paste Flux. This is not to be confused 
with the average non-corrosive paste containing 
considerable zinc-ammonium chloride. It is a pure 
rosin product and can be used safely on any type 
work, no matter how delicate. Like the other Nalco 
rosin fluxes it will pass the most exacting tests for 
non-corrosive and electrically non-conductive 
residue. 

FLUX No. 11 

Acid Solder Paint Flux. A solder and flux 
combination, mixed with a special water gel, ready 
for application. Simply paint it on the work, apply 
heat and a bright tinned surface results. 

Nalco Acid Solder Paint stays in suspension, 
is always ready to use and will cling to even a 
vertical surface. It stays on the spot to be soldered. 
No preheating is required. 

It is a great timesaver and convenience in such 
operations as the backing of electrotypes, tinning 
bearing shells, auto body work and pretinning 
parts prior to sweat joining. 



*Fluxrite Wire Solder may be obtained with this flux. 



FLUX No. 12 
Rosin Solder Paint Flux. With this the user 
has the advantage of both solder and flux. A drop 
of rosin paint accomplishes two jobs in one opera- 
tion. Only heat is needed to complete the job. 
Especially helpful to the electrician, both because 
of its convenience and its absolute non-corrosive 
quality. Also useful for small sweating jobs on 
copper, tin plate and easily soldered metals. 

FLUX No. 13 
Petrolatum Base Flux. This is a paste flux 
intended for plumbing, tinning and electrical work. 
It is especially adapted for use on sweat fittings, 
copper tubing and gas meter assembling, having a 
very rapid action and leaving a protective film of 
petrolatum to prevent corrosion. 

FLUX No. 14 

No. 14. A radically different type of flux, 
Nalco No. 14 is as active as a good quality corrosive 
type yet it leaves a non-corrosive, non-conductive 
residue. Properly used, in the correct quantity to 
assure nearly complete decomposition, Nalco No. 
14 can be used on practically any job where the 
non-corrosive properties of a rosin flux were here- 
tofore required. It contains no zinc or ammonium 
chlorides or free hydrochloric acid. 

It is not satisfactory for use on tarnished stain- 
less steel, Inconel and aluminum. It does work on 
zinc but here it generates a corrosive residue prod- 
uct which must be washed off. 

FLUX No. 16 

(Similar to No. 14 but in gel form.) 

FLUX No. 17 
Petrolatum Base Solder Paint. A paste 
type solder paint suitable for use on all metals 
except aluminum, magnesium and stainless steel. 

Nalco Fluxes Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 14 are packaged 
in pint, quart, gallon, 5-gallon and 55-gallon containers. Nos, 
9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16 and 17 come in } i, 1, 5, and 50 lb. cont- 
ainers. 



/- 




F-l 
CAULKING LEAD 



CAULKING LEAD 

For the caulking of joints, particularly in cast 
iron bell and spigot pipe, lead is the material most 
frequently used. One of its advantages lies in the 
fact that it is soft and yielding, thus permitting a cer- 
tain amount of movement in the pipe without leak- 
age. If a leak does occur, the joint is easily repaired. 



INGOT LEAD 

Ingot lead is cast from selected grades of pig 
lead in 5-part sectional ingots, solid 5 lb. ingots or 
25 lb. and 50 lb. pigs. The sectional ingots are spe- 
cially designed for caulking purposes. Each section 
is easily detached from the others and fits the usual 
melting pot. 

Since our ingot lead is made from selected 
metals, it is easy-flowing and soft which allows it to 
be readily caulked. 



For caulking purposes, we furnish lead in two 
forms — ingot (or pig) lead for cast lead joints and 
lead wool which is worked cold. Both ingot and 
wool carry the Lead Industries ' Association Seal of 
Approval — indicating that the lead is of the re- 
quired purity for caulking purposes. 






APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES OF INGOT 
(OR PIG) LEAD AND HEMP REQUIRED 
FOR C. I. PIPE JOINTS* 



Workman pouring molten caulking lead into a Joint in 
a cast iron water main. 



Size 

of 

Pipe 


Lbs. of Lead per Joixt 
2 In, Thick 


Lias, of Hemp 
per Joint 


Water 


Gas 


Water 


Gas 


3 
4 
6 
8 
10 

12 
14 
16 
18 
20 

24 
30 
36 
42 
48 

54 
60 
72 
84 


6.00 

7.50 

10.25 

13.25 

16.00 

19.00 
22.00 
30.00 
33.80 
37.00 

44.00 
54.25 
64.75 
75.25 
85.50 

97.60 
108.30 
146.00 
170.00 


8.14 
11.31 
14.56 
17.67 

20.85 

27.20 

41.28 

49.07 
60.06 
71.57 
83.13 
102.63 


.18 
.21 
.31 
.44 
.53 

.61 

.81 

.94 

1.00 

1.25 

1.50 
2.06 
3.00 
3.62 
4.37 

6.25 

8.25 

12.50 

15.00 


.23 
.34 
.49 
.59 

.67 

1.03 

1.39 

1.67 
2.28 
3.32 
4.00 
5.20 



*From the Cast Iron Handbook (copyright 1927) published by the Cast 
Iron Pipe Research Association. 



F-2 

CAULKING LEAD 



■4 



w 



r 



LEAD WOOL 



Lead wool is formed from strands of lead 
twisted loosely into rope form. Many prefer it to 
ingot lead for caulking purposes because it re- 
quires no preheating and thus saves time and 
labor. Properly packed, lead wool makes a tighter 
and more flexible joint than a poured joint which 
tends to shrink slightly after casting. Also lead wool 
can be used under water, in wet ground or in other 
places where a cast joint is not practical. 

Lead wool comes in 5 and 50 lb. bags or on 
reels. It runs about 2>2 feet to the pound. 




Length of Lead Wool. Note fineness and 
continuity of individual strands 



Lead wool is packed in sturdy, waterproof, 
three-ply kraft paper bags 



APPROXIMATE QUANTITIES OF LEAD WOOL AND YARN REQUIRED FOR C. I. PIPE JOINTS 

For Pressure up to 500 Lbs. 



Lead Wool 


Yarn 


Lead Wool 


Yarn 


Diam. OF 


Depth — 


Weight — 


Depth — 


Diam. of 


Depth — 


Weight — 


Depth — 


Pipe 


Inches 


Lbs. 


Inches 


Pipe 


Inches 


Lbs. 


Inches 


2 




2 


2 


14 


1M 


16 


3 


3 


m 


3 


2 


15 


IK 


IS 


3 


4 


m 


4.5 


2 


16 


iy 


20 


3 


5 


m 


5.5 


2V 2 


18 


w 


22 


3 


6 


m 


6.5 


2H 


20 


m 


25 


iVs 


7 


m 


8.5 


2% 


24 


m 


36 


3% 


8 


iy 8 


9 


2% 


30 


iy 2 


45 


3H 


9 


IVs 


11 


2% 


36 


m 


60 


3% 


10 


iy s - 


12.5 


2% 


42 


m 


75 


m 


12 


in 


14 


2Ys 















G-l 
MISCELLANEOUS LEAD PRODUCTS 



MISCELLANEOUS LEAD PRODUCTS 



LEAD TUBING 



Lead tubing is simply lead pipe of an extremely 
small bore and wall thickness. It is used for the 
compressed air lines in draught beer installations, 
gas stove connections, lightning-rod coverings, and 
in chemical plants. When hardened with anti- 
mony, it is employed extensively by player piano 
manufacturers and organ builders. Its chief ad- 
vantages are flexibility and permanence. 

We manufacture lead tubing, either from pure 
lead or from lead alloyedjwith tin or antimony. 

STOCK SIZES OF LEAD TUBING 




Inside Diameter 


Outside Diameter 


Wek 


■ht per Foot 


Ixside Diameter 


Outside Diameter 


Weight per 


Foot 


',." 


V 




ji OZ. 


H" 


1: V 


6 oz. 




V 


% B 




1 OZ. 


Va" 


' '10 


8 oz . 




1 " 


%r 




\y>o/.. 


U" 


1 ./' 


1 2 oz . 




1 " 


U" 




2 oz. 


"|: 


V 


2 oz. 




h," 


U" 




2 oz. 


2** 


' i«" 


2 oz. 




V 


: >v," 




3 oz . 


.V 


1 ./' 


7oz. 




34" 


%" 




4 oz. 


V 


}■>" 


4oz. 




H" 


H" 




5 oz. 











LEAD WIRE 




APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF FEET 
PER POUND OF LEAD WIRE 



Lead wire is used in a variety of ways. In the 
smaller sizes, it is employed for bearing alignment 
work, for caulking, for electrical work and for 
spray guns in applying metallic coatings. Because 
of its pliability, non-rusting and non-corrosive qual- 
ities, nurseries make use of it for tying up vines and 
shrubbery. In the larger sizes it is usually referred 
to as burning bar or rod lead and is used in welding 
sheet lead. Alloyed with antimony, it is used by 
battery and brake-lining manufacturers. We sup- 







FEET PER POUND 


Gauge No. 


Diameter 






Birmingham 






or Stub's 


Mils 


Pure Lead 


6% Antimonial 






Wire 


Lead Wire 


1 


300 


2.89 


3.00 


2 


284 


3.22 


3.35 


3 


259 


3.87 


4.03 


4 


238 


4.59 


4.77 


5 


220 


5.37 


5.58 


6 


203 


6.30 


6.56 


7 


180 


8.02 


8.34 


8 


165 


9.55 


9.93 


9 


148 


11.9 


12.3 


10 


134 


14.5 


15.1 


11 


120 


18.0 


18.8 


12 


109 


21.9 


22.8 


13 


95 


28.8 


29.9 


14 


83 


37.7 


39.2 


15 


72 


50.2 


52.2 


16 


65 


61.5 


63.9 


17 


58 


77.3 


80.4 


18 


49 


108 


112 


19 


42 


147 


153 


20 


35 


213 


221 


21 


32 


255 


265 


22 


28 


329 


342 


2.? 


25 


417 


433 


24 


22 


538 


560 


25 


20 


658 


685 


26 


18 


813 


852 


27 


16 


1020 


1056 


28 


14 


1351 


1408 


29 


13 


1563 


1635 


30 


12 


1852 


1913 



G-2 

MISCELLANEOUS LEAD PRODUCTS 



f 



ply lead wire in practically any gauge desired and 
of any specified composition. Our product is ex- 
truded under high pressure and is guaranteed to be 
uniform in diameter, true to gauge and free from 
irregularities or other defects. In addition to round 
wire, we also supply square, oval, half-round and 
other shapes on order. Lead or lead alloy wire is 
ordinarily furnished on reels. However, it will be 
cut into lengths and boxed, if desired. 

TAPE LEAD 




Tape or ribbon lead is an extruded product 
taking the form of long, thin strips of lead. It is used 
by manufacturers for stamping out products such 
as washers, dress weights, discs and the like. It is 
also used for caulking, flashing, patching and, in 
some instances, for tennis court markers. 

Tape or ribbon lead is made up according to 
specification and is ordinarily furnished on reels. 
Our stock of dies is large enough to enable us to 
fill most orders for tape or ribbon lead without the 
necessity of making up new dies, thus insuring a 
lower cost and promptness in delivery. 

LEAD GASKETS AND WASHERS 

We can furnish lead gaskets in any thickness 
and outside diameter up to 11 feet. These are not a 
stock article and are made up only on receipt of 
orders accompanied by blueprints, templates or full 
specifications as to thickness, inside diameter and 
outside diameter. 

Our stock of dies and punches is such that we 
can furnish lead washers of practically any size, 
both in the flat and the concave type. 



HARDENING LEAD 

Hardening lead is a pure lead, highly refined, 
for use in the hardening and tempering of steel. 
Our hardening lead is triple-refined to a purity of 
at least 99.995% true metallic lead. All lots can be 
depended upon to be of uniform purity. The lead 
is furnished in a double pig weighing approximate- 
ly 50 lbs. The two sections are easily separated. 

DAR AND PIG LEAD 

We can furnish lead in pig or bar form cast 
from standard accepted brands of prime metal. The 
pigs weigh approximately 100 lbs.; the bars are 
cast or pressed in 5 oz. (approx.) bars and packed 
in 25-lb. cartons unless otherwise specified. Bars 
are about Y 2 " thick x S l 4" long. 

PULVERIZED LEAD 

Pulverized or "granulated" lead is used in 
several industries but chiefly in rubber manu- 
facture. Our pulverized lead is made from standard 
brands of commercially pure lead. It is available 
in three sizes — 50 mesh, 100 mesh and 200 mesh. 
Packed in 50 lb. tins; or in 450 lb. kegs. 

Other pulverized metals also are available. 

LEAD SHOT 

We manufacture drop and chilled shot in all 
standard sizes from .04" diameter to .23" diameter. 
We also manufacture compressed buck shot and 
lead balls ranging in diameter from .24" to .68". 
For air rifles, we make a special size of shot known 
and branded as "Air Rifle Shot." Having a diam- 
eter of .175", it is designed for most makes of air 
rifles. Sold under the brand name "Tatham, " our 
lead shot and lead balls are carefully manufac- 
tured to insure roundness, solidity, smooth polish 
and uniformity and accuracy as to size. 

Drop and chilled shot and lead balls normally 
are packed in 25 lb. bags. Air Rifle Shot is sold 
in large or small tubes, packed 100 to the case. 
The large tube contains approximately 4 ozs. of 
shot; the small tube approximately 2% ozs. Air 
Rifle Shot is also furnished in 1 lb. cartons, packed 
25 cartons to the case. 



BH 



G-3 
MISCELLANEOUS LEAD PRODUCTS 



LEAD ROOF FLANGES 




Lead rooi flanges are preferred by many con- 
tractors to flanges made from other materials be- 
cause they are durable, easy to install and readily 
adjustable to the roof pitch. 

Our flanges are one-piece, high pressure cast- 
ings of pure lead. They are guaranteed against im- 
perfections common to the average flange such as 
blow holes, blisters, etc. An exclusive feature is a 
slightly stiffer apron which guards against possible 
leakage as a result of wind pressure and conse- 
quent curling of the apron away from the roof. 
These flanges are furnished in eight stock sizes as 
shown below. 

We are also in a position to furnish two-piece 
flanges made with extra long boots and larger size 
aprons to conform to government specifications. 



PRICES AND SIZES OF STOCK ROOF FLANGES 



SIZE 


List 
Price 


Weight of 
Flange 


Stock 
Package 


Sleeve 
Length 


Size oe Base 


\H" 

l}4" 

2" 

2M"....... 

3" 


SI. 25 
1 .30 
1.50 
1.60 
1.70 
2 . 00 
3.00 
4.30 


3.00 lbs. 
3.59 lbs. 
3.69 lbs. 
4.48 lbs. 
5.00 lbs. 
6.18 lbs. 
8.50 lbs. 
9.00 lbs. 


12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
6 
6 


2H" 

2H" 
r%" 

V/%" 

2y 8 " 
214" 

4'," 
4" 


7%"x 10^" 
SH" x 10%" 
&H" x n y 8 " 

9H" x 11%" 
«%" ^ 13 H" 
H%"x 14 V' 
13'V x 16", " 
I4 1 -/' x 17"" 


4" 


5 " 


6 " 



LEAD ROOFING WASHERS 

We manufacture lead washers in practically 
any size and of any dimension desired. The stock 
sizes which we supply for roofing purposes are 
listed below. These washers are packed according 
to the customer's order either loose or in 5 lb. car- 
tons, in 50 or 100 lb. boxes. When ordering, state 
quantity and method of packing desired. 






Size 


Outside 




Approx. No. 


No. 


Hole 


Diameter 


Thickness 


to Pound 


1 

2 


Vs" 


%" 


. 055 " 
. 055 " 


268 
263 


3 


W 


%° 


.070" 


117 


4 

*5 
**6 


V 

Ya" 


H" 
H" 
H" 


.070" 
.070" 
.070" 


118 
121 
125 


10 


■Kg" 


- 


.063" 


70 



ROOF FLANGE EXTENSION 

An all lead extension designed to weather- 
proof roof stacks or vents flashed with conventional 
low sleeve flanges or to add reach to existing low 
flanges. Easily installed for either purpose — no 
soldering or caulking. Regularly furnished in 7" 
length in all standard diameters. Special sizes on 
special order. 



*This size for %' stove bolt . **This size for M" stove bolt. 



Diameter in Inches 


Ik 


1^ 


2 


2H 


3 


4 


List Price, each 

For each additional inch 
of length add 


.42 
.06 


.47 
.07 


.60 
.09 


.70 
.10 


.82 
.11 


1.07 

.15 






G-4 

MISCELLANEOUS LEAD PRODUCT? 



IP 



LEAD SASH WEIGHTS 

Because lead combines great weight with small 
area, it is effectively used for all types of counter- 
balances. One of the most familiar forms is the lead 
sash weight. For this purpose, it has the additional 
advantage of being non-rusting and quieter in 
operation than weights cast from other metals. 

We manufacture both cast and extruded lead 
sash weights. Any size, any weight and practically 
any style sash weight can be furnished. Below is a 
table of. the approximate weights per foot of cast 
and extruded weights in square and round styles. 



LEAD CAMES 



SQUARE— CAST 


ROUND 


—CAST 


Size 


Weight 


Diameter 


Weight 


1" 


4% lbs. 


1" 


3% lbs. 


114" 


1% lbs. 


ni" 


6 lbs. 


\w 


11 lbs. 


1M" 


8% lbs- 


\w 


13 lbs. 


i-V 


10 lbs. 


\%" 


15 lbs. 


IK" 


IB! lbs. 


w 


17H lbs. 


IV 


13! . lbs. 


2" 


19% lbs. 


2" 


15'., lbs. 


2X" 


25 lbs. 


2%" 


i<;l. lbs. 


2 ' 2 " 


30% lbs. 


2 ' .. " 


24 lbs. 


2%" 


37\4 lbs. 


2H ■■ 


2 9} 4 lbs. 


3" 


44M lbs. 


3" 


3i% lbs. 


314" 


52 lbs. 


3H" 


40% lbs. 


m» 


60 \<> lbs. 


3Vi" 


47}..; lbs. 


3%" 


6?M lbs. 


3%" 


siyi lbs. 


4" 


78% lbs. 


4" 


62 lbs. 


SQUARE— E 


XTRUDED 


ROUND— E 


XTRUDED 


Size 


Weight 


Diameter 


Weight 


1M" 


7.06 lbs. 


Hi" 


5.50 lbs. 


lM"x Ua" 


10.24 lbs. 


l \4 " 


7.82 lbs. 


iW 


14.43 lbs. 


lVg" 


9.78 lbs. 


l%" x 2" 


16.35 lbs. 


m» 


11.10 lbs. 


2" 


18.60 lbs. 


m" 


12.83 lbs. 


2"x2M" 


21.60 lbs. 


i" 


15.30 lbs. 


1' x 2M" 


23.60 lbs. 


Hi" 


19.02 lbs. 


2H" 


24.36 lbs. 






2 \4 " 


29.48 lbs. 







WEDGE LEAD 



Lead wedges are used chiefly for justifying 
and aligning masonry, especially in such struc- 
tures as monuments and tombstones. Driven into 
the irregular spaces left by the stones, they com- 
pensate for irregular settling and tend to absorb 
vibration. 

We manufacture wedge lead, both plain and 
flanged, in all standard shapes and sizes. We will 
be glad to furnish further information as to other 
sizes and shapes we produce. Wedge lead is usu- 
ally supplied wound on reels carrying 50 or 100 
lbs. It can also be furnished cut in lengths. 




Lead cames or glazier's lead are grooved 
strips of lead used to support and hold together the 
panes of glass in leaded glass windows. They are 
produced by the extrusion process in a wide va- 
riety of sizes and patterns. 

We manufacture a full line of lead cames in 
several different styles including round cames, 
flat cames, colonial cames, High Heart and T 
cames, and closed slot reinforced cames, a style 
used in work where the designer wishes to elimi- 
nate stay rods. A steel strip running through the 
central groove of the lead holds the work firmly in 
place. We also make cames in Antique, Rustic, 
Rough Cast, Hammered and Frosted designs. 

All our cames are made from a grade of lead 
proved by experience to be the best for the pur- 
pose. They are milled so that the cement will take 
tight hold and prevent leaks. Our came lead is 
furnished in six foot lengths packed in boxes which 
weigh approximately 100 lbs., when packed. 




STANDARD WEDGE LEAD SIZES 



No. 1 


3 ,f 6 "x '%/' 


Flanged 


No. 7 


w 


x »4o" 


Plain 


No. 2 


Wx-W 


Flanged 


No. 8 


'6' 


x W 


Plain 


No. 3 


Mi" x Ifs" 


Plain 


No. 9 


w 


x l A" 


Plain 


No. 4 


Vsi" x "/6" 


Plain 


No. 10 


H' 


*y 2 " 


Plain 


- No. 5 


H".x %'' ' 


Plain 


No. 11 


W 


x H" 


Plain 


No. 6 


Ji"* 1, ,ii" 


Plain 











^ 




G-5 
MISCELLANEOUS LEAD PRODUCTS 



TUBE BLANKS 




These blanks of antimonial lead are widely 
used for collapsible tubes for tooth paste, shaving 
cream, printing ink, adhesives, painters' and 
artists' colors and many other commodities. 

Available in several types — uncoated anti- 
monial lead, tin-copper alloy, 3% tin-coated, Tyi% 
tin- coated. Other coatings supplied on request. 
The coating may be specified for the inside of the 
formed tube, the outside or both inside and outside. 

The blanks are made in all standard diameters 
from .425, which forms a tube 13 /3 2 " in diameter, to 
2.235", which forms a tube 2^" in diameter. 



Blanks for tubes of other dimensions furnished on 
special order. 

Buyers may specify flat blanks, bowl-type or 
cup-type. 

National Lead Company's Tube Blanks are 
uniform in composition, size, weight and contour. 
The coating on coated blanks is bonded by a 
special process to the base metal, insuring a 
smooth, uniform coating on the formed tube, and 
a finish that is well adapted to all forms of labeling 
— stamped, stencilled, printed, lithographed or 
pasted. 



BLANK SIZES FOR TUBES OF VARIOUS DIAMETERS 



Diameter 
of Tube 


Approx, Diame- 
ter of Blank 


Diameter 
of Tube 


Approx, Diame- 
ter of Blank 


Diameter 
of Tube 


Approx. Diame- 
ter of Blank 


Diameter 
of Tube 


Approx. Diame- 
ter of Blank 


2M" 


2.235" 


w 


1.140" 


Vs" 


.840" 


Vs" 


.610" 


2" 


1.960" 


IH' 


1.110" 


'32 


.820" 


%" 


.600" 


IK" 


1.495" 


w 


1.095" 


%" 


.800 " 


l %i 


.578" 


\w 


1.470" 


w 


1.050" 


%" 


.797' 


%,' 


.520" 


l%" 


1.350" 


1" 


.978" 


%' 


.793" 


V2" 


.485" 


1 a/ " 
I'M 


1.292" 


3 « 2 " 


.952" 


"Mi" 


.763" 


%" 


.425" 


1M" 


1.235" 


%• 


.925" 


H" 


.735 " 






IK" 


1.225" 


L >fo" 


.917" 


%" 


.682" 






Bl8* 


1.160" 


Vs" 


.855" 


w 


.670" 







G-6 

MISCELLANEOUS LEAP PRODUCTS' 



LEAD ALLOY 
COATINGS 



Lead alloys which contain 93 per cent or more 
of lead with small amounts of other metals are being 
used in increasing quantities for the coating of iron 
and steel products by the hot dip process. 

In addition to their universally recognized 
high resistance to corrosion, these new lead alloys 
have a number of other advantages over other 
coatings applied by the hot dip process. One of 
these is exceptional ductility. Severe forming and 
bending operations do not affect the bond between 
the coating and base metal, since the readiness 
with which the alloy flows under stress prevents 
its cracking or peeling. In fact, these coatings facili- 
tate the forming operation by acting as a lubricant. 

Another highly desirable feature of a lead 
alloy coating is its ready acceptance of a paint 
finish. It is not necessary to weather the surface or 
to use any special priming procedure. 

Also, lead alloy coated iron or steel can be 
soldered easily with the aid of a mild flux. In many 
instances, the dipping of small fabricated units 
completes both the soldering and the coating in 
one operation. On small parts, such as nuts and 
bolts, the smooth, even coating has an additional 



: o © i 


• : 


s> i 


% \ \ 



advantage in that it acts as a gasket, making a 
tighter fit. 

The new alloys resist abrasion to a marked 
degree, due to their inherent hardness which re- 
sults from careful balance of ingredients. 

Lead alloys offer several possible production 
economies, too. Since, with these alloys, oper- 
ating temperatures are low, some fuel may be 
saved. Furthermore, drossing does not occur to 
any appreciable extent and pot replacement cost 
is considerably less because there is no alloy 
attack upon the pot. 

One of the first commercial applications of 
these new lead alloys was in the production of 
coated sheet steel by the larger steel concerns. 
Alloys have been applied to both sides of sheets of 
various gauges, adding from 0.2 ounce to 0.8 ounce 
per square foot to the weight. Conventional hot dip 
sheet coating machines are being employed with- 
out any major constructional changes in the units. 

Lead alloys are also being used for the con- 
tinuous hot dip coating of steel strips. The strips 
range from one to 26 inches in width and from a 
few thousandths to several hundredths of an inch 
in thickness. 

Small ferrous and non-ferrous parts in a wide 
variety of sizes and shapes are being successfully 
coated by the batch process. In addition, many 
articles are being dipped after fabrication, notably 
radiators. Here the lead alloy acts not only as a 
corrosion preventive coating but also serves to 
bond the radiator fins to the tubes. 

Gasoline tanks, metal containers, farm equip- 
ment, fencing, air conditioning ducts and coils, 
radio parts and housings, meter boxes, drawn auto 
filters, battery handles, etc., are among the articles 
now being produced with lead alloy coatings. 

Since proper fluxing is of prime importance in 
the use of these lead alloy coatings, National Lead 
Company has made available certain fluxes which 
can be depended upon to do a good job. 

For complete information on Lead Alloys write the nearest 
office of National Lead Company. 




J-l 

BEARING METAL 



BEARING METAL 



Bearing metal or babbitt is a general term used 
to describe a group of alloys of widely varying 
composition which are used to line machinery 
bearings. Their function is to reduce friction and 
save the shaft from injury. 

FACTS ABOUT BEARING METAL 

There are two varying requirements in a bear- 
ing metal. The first is an adequate resistance to 
pressure so that it may properly sustain the load 
put upon it in service. The second is the ability to 
(1) conform to irregularities in the shape or align- 
ment of the shaft and (2) return readily to a smooth 
surface after being cut or roughened by foreign 
substances which may get into the bearing. The 
first requirement is met by a proper degree of 
hardness and crushing strength. The second is 
met by a proper degree of malleability. 

Other important requirements of a bearing 
metal are: a low frictional coefficient, a relatively 



high melting and softening point, and the ability to 
resist the corrosive action of acids which may form 
in the lubricating oil at high temperatures. 
COMPOSITION 

The chief constituents of babbitt metal are tin, 
lead, antimony and copper. The alloys commonly 
used range from those having a high percentage of 
tin, with small amounts of copper and antimony and 
no lead, through intermediate grades containing all 
four metals to the lower grades which have a high 
lead content and no tin. 
SELECTION OF BEARING METAL 

The selection of a babbitt metal depends en- 
tirely on the nature of the service it must perform 
in the bearing. 

Where bearings are subjected to heavy loads, 
high speeds and high temperatures, the use of a 
better grade "tin-base" babbitt is called for. These 
alloys are comparatively hard and have a high 




Several types of babbitt-lined machinery bearings. 



J-2 

BEARING METAL 



compressive strength, but are tough and not brit- 
tle. Furthermore, while tin has a lower melting 
point than lead, the tin-base alloys are always 
hardened with a fairly high percentage of copper 
which means they are never completely fluid until 
subjected to a temperature 200°-300° above the 
solidification point. In consequence they retain 
their hardness better at high frictional heats. 

Where bearings are subjected to high speeds 
but little strain, an intermediate alloy, composed 
of more nearly equal parts of tin and lead, is satis- 
factory. These alloys melt at a lower temperature 



than either the tin-base or the lead-base alloys and, 
therefore, lose their hardness and strength to a 
greater degree with rise of temperature and under 
friction. In this respect, they are not such good 
bearing metals as the other alloys, although they 
find use in very thin linings where their superior 
fluidity combined with their property of adhering 
firmly to a tinned bronze or steel backing is of ad- 
vantage and where lack of strength is not objec- 
tionable. 

For bearings operating at low speed and carry- 
ing little weight, a lead-base alloy will suffice. 



OUR LINE OF BEARING METAL 



Under the Dutch Boy and Hoyt Metal Co. 
trademarks, we manufacture a complete line of 
bearing metals designed to fill most bearing re- 
quirements. The approximate physical properties 
of these alloys as well as a general indication of the 
types of bearings in which they are commonly used 
will be found on the following pages. 

In addition to our branded metals, we are 



equipped to furnish special alloys in accordance 
with customers' formulas. We also make analyses 
of samples and furnish bearing metals which dupli- 
cate these analyses. 

Our bearing metals are ordinarily furnished 
in an easily handled ingot form. However, we can 
supply babbitt in any shape desired, either cast 
or extruded in wire form for use in spray guns. 



wjV. 



9JL 



v. 




Left: Diesel engine, directly connected to a generator, in 

the plant of a large manufacturing company. Above: 

Base of the diesel engine at left showing main bearings 

lined with babbitt. 



/^ 




■1-3 
BEARING METAL 








• • * I ■ t* ^ - "• x 



DUTCH BOY' BEARING METAL 



The bearing metals sold under the Dutch Boy 
trademark cover a wide range of uses and needs. 
They are carefully and expertly alloyed from pure, 
clean metals. All the grades are cast in round- 
bottom molds. The ingots fit an ordinary ladle. 

DUTCH BOY PHOENIX METAL* 

This bearing metal is the top grade in our 
Dutch Boy line. It is recommended for heavy work 
and high speed machinery. 

When melted, Phoenix Metal is very fluid and 
can readily be run into the smallest boxes. It is 
tough, hard and elastic. Where great ductility is 
required— for example, in cases where the ham- 
mering action caused by the play of the shaft may 
bring about fracture in the lining material— Dutch 
Boy Phoenix is distinctly superior. Phoenix Metal 
is especially adapted for crank pins, cross-heads, 
main bearing and pillow-blocks of large shafts, in 
automobiles, dynamos, marine engines, gang saws, 
rock cru shers, etc. 

• Trade Mark Reg. TJ. S. Pat. Off. 



DUTCH BOY HEAVY PRESSURE METAL 

This alloy, like Dutch Boy Phoenix, is designed 
for the highest grade work and, like Phoenix, con- 
tains no lead. Its special characteristic is great re- 
sistance to crushing strain. It will stand the most 
severe pounding without squeezing out. It is 
harder than Phoenix, and for that reason is to be 
preferred for some purposes. 

Because it contains no lead and has a high 
percentage of copper, Dutch Boy Heavy Pressure 
Metal melts at a high temperature, is easily chilled, 
and retains its hardness at the highest temperatures 
at which bearings operate. 

In melting, Heavy Pressure requires more heat 
than Phoenix to bring it to a perfectly fluid condi- 
tion. Consequently, it cannot be so readily poured 
into a very thin bearing. Heavy Pressure is pre- 
ferred to Phoenix where the design of bearings is 
such that an excessive pressure per square inch of 
bearing surface is developed. In such cases it fre- 



J-4 

BEARING METAL 



it 

4' 



v 



[ 
I 




Babbitt-lined machinery bearings grouped around a jig and mold set-up for casting linings. 



quently pays to sacrifice the greater fluidity and 

malleability of Phoenix for the sake of the extra 

resistance to unusually severe pressure. 

DUTCH BOY GENUINE 
BABBITT METAL 

Dutch Boy Genuine Babbitt Metal is made ex- 
actly according to Isaac Babbitt's formula patented 
in 1839. It analyzes as follows: tin 88.9 per cent, 
antimony 7.4 per cent, copper 3.7 per cent. The 
Dutch Boy trademark on this alloy constitutes a 
definite guarantee that its composition is as stated. 
This is important because the term "genuine bab- 
bitt" has been applied at times to alloys which vary 
more or less widely from the original formula. 
DUTCH BOY NO. 1 JOURNAL METAL* 

This metal is compounded expressly for large 
bearings where the pressure, though heavy, is 
steady — on heavy engine and general mill work, 
for instance. 

While Dutch Boy No. 1 Journal will stand prac- 
tically as much crushing strain as Dutch Boy 
Phoenix or Dutch Boy Heavy Pressure, its melting 
point is much lower and it will not do the work of 
Phoenix or Heavy Pressure when subjected to ex- 

*Trade Mark Reg. U.S. Pat. Off. 



cessive speed. However, it retains a high degree of 
hardness at 212°F, a temperature often reached by 
bearings in operation, being exceeded in this re- 
spect only by Heavy Pressure. 

Dutch Boy No. 1 Journal is easily poured, with 
very little shrinkage. It is good for use in steam 
winches and other hoisting machinery. 

DUTCH BOY STERLING 
JOURNAL METAL* 

This is a copper-hardened metal, high in tin, 
capable of resisting considerable crushing strain. 
It is the grade used largely in stationary gas en- 
gines and for other equipment in many fields where 
a lower-priced metal than Dutch Boy Phoenix is 
desired, and yet one that will do satisfactory work, 
except under the most severe service. Its desirable 
qualities are fluidity superior to the tin-base alloys 
containing more copper, and the property of ad- 
hering better than the alloys containing more lead. 

DUTCH BOY PERFECTION 
ANTI-FRICTION METAL 

Perfection Anti-Friction Metal is a copper- 
hardened alloy which sells at a popular price. It has 
an unusual resistance to crushing strain for this 



/^ 







J-5 




BEARING METAL 












grade oi metal, and its hardness at 212°F is ample 
for normal requirements. 

Due to its low melting and liquefaction points, 
Perfection Anti-Friction will be found to be an easy 
handling metal, flowing freely at less than 500°F. 
It peens easily and oil clings tightly to its surface. 

Except where the most excessive strains and 




^^J 

)^^ 





the highest speeds are developed, this alloy is 
recommended for all types of machinery. 

DUTCH BOY BEARING METAL 

This metal is used satisfactorily on many kinds 
of machinery and general mill work. It is the exact 
equivalent of many anti-friction metals sold at 
double its price. Dutch Boy Bearing Metal is 
adapted for pulleys, hangers, line shafting and 
slow-moving machinery. 




Pouring a babbitt lining. This method, used in many 

machine shops, is usually employed for the smaller 

bearings. 



APPROXIMATE DATA ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 
DUTCH BOY BEARING METALS 















Perfection 








Heavy 


Genuine 


No. 1 


Sterling 


Anti- 


Bearing 


Grade 


Phoenix 


Pressure 


Babbitt 


Journal 


Journal 


friction 


Metal 


Specific Gravity 


7.478 
.270 


7,526 
.272 


7.477 
.269 


7.637 
.276 


8.810 
.318 


9.878 
.357 


10.116 


Wgt. Lbs. Per Cu. In 


.365 


Solidus — ° Cent 


234 
453 

371 


238 
460 

407 


238 
460 

362 


185 
365 

291 


184 
363 

346 


244 
471 

257 


239 


■ — °Fahr 


462 


Liquidus — ° Cent 


260 


— °Fahr 


700 
825 


765 
890 


684 
809 


556 
681 


655 
780 


495 
620 


500 


Proper Pouring Temp. (°F.) 


625 


Tensile Tests 
















Ult. Str. Lbs./Sq. In 


9,460 


12,280 


10,910 


12,760 


9,325 


11,557 


9,100 




16.8 


6.3 


14.9 


3.3 


1.4 


2.6 


3.8 


Compressive Strength 
















(App. Deformation of Cyl's. 1" 
















Dia. x 2" High at 70 °F.) 
















At 1,000 Lbs./Sq. In 


.0001" 


.0000" 


.0000" 


.0005 " 


.0002 " 


.0001" 


.0001" 


At 5,000 Lbs./Sq. In 


.0017" 


.0004" 


.0015" 


.0023" 


.0014" 


.0043 " 


.0040" 


At 10,000 Lbs./Sq. In 


.0800" 


.0080" 


.0120" 


.01 SO" 


.0306" 


.0311" 


.0300" 


Brinell Hardness 
















At 20°C— 68°F 


24.0 

18.1 

12.2 

8.1 

4.5 


32.3 
24.7 
16.0 
11.3 

5.9 


26.7 

20.8 

12.2 

8.1 

4.9 


32.4 
20.8 
15.0 
10.0 


23.3 

14.1 

10.9 

6.4 


27.5 
19.9 
13.6 
11.3 
3.4 


23.5 


50°C— 122°F 


17.3 


100°C— 212°F 


11.9 


150°C— 302°F 


7.5 


200°C— 392°F 


3.4 


Brinell No. at 20° C. after anneal- 




ing 28 days at 100° C 


23.1 


31.5 


25.4 


28.4 


20.0 


23.0 


19.1 



J-6 

BEARING METAL 



9 




HOYT BRAND BEARING METALS 



Babbitt metals carrying the name "Hoyt Metal 
Co." have been known and used in the trade for 
more than a half century. Carefully made from 
pure, clean metals, these alloys are recognized as 
standard, high grade babbitts everywhere. Several 
of the more popular brands are described on this 
and the following page. 

GENUINE-A BABBITT METAL 

Hoyt's Genuine-A has been the standard for 
many years in all types of machinery where a high 
grade babbitt is necessary. It is being successfully 
used in babbitting the bearings of electrical 
machinery, locomotive cranes, steam shovels, con- 
crete mixers and other machinery where a heavy 
load is distributed over a comparatively small bear- 
ing surface or where excessively high speeds are 
developed. 



Trade Mark Ree. U. S. Pat. Off. 



DIESEL OIL ENGINE BABBITT 

This grade of babbitt is especially alloyed with 
a view to withstanding the extreme pressure caused 
by impact in the largest of the diesel type engines. 
Due to its extreme toughness and low coefficient of 
friction, it is a reliable babbitt for use in marine 
or industrial installations of internal combustion 
engines. It is also well suited to give dependable 
service under the high speed and the heavy pres- 
sures encountered in aircraft and automotive 
motors. It may be used in the form of a poured or 
die cast bearing or the lining of a bronze shell. 

TROJAN BABBITT METAL 

Trojan Babbitt has been used successfully as a 
substitute for genuine babbitt in steam engines, 
motors, internal combustion engines or other types 
of equipment where the service required is not 
excessive. 







J-7 
BEARING METAL 



It is also used extensively in hoisting engines, 
dredging machinery, tractors and harvesting 
machinery. 

FAULTLESS-A BABBITT 

This bearing metal is a scientifically alloyed 
mixture of lead, tin, antimony and copper. It is de- 
signed for use in sawmill and other woodworking 
machinery subject to sudden and intermittent 
strain. 

The extreme fluidity of Faultless-A Babbitt in- 
sures better adherence to either a bronze or steel 
backing than is possible with the ordinary lead-base 
babbitt. This is true when even very thin linings are 
being cast. 

EAGLE-A BABBITT 

Eagle-A Babbitt is a popular priced lead-base 
bearing metal suitable for many types of general 
service. It has been used with complete satisfaction 
in machine shops, cotton gins, harvesting and 
woodworking machinery, under comparatively 




Above: Ring oiling pinion shaft bearings on a horizontal 

power pump (housing in foreground removed to show 

rings.) 

heavy loads and high speed. On the basis of its 
performance, this alloy can safely be called su- 
perior to many other brands which sell for a higher 
price. 

HOYT'S STANDARD NO. 4 

This grade is a standard utility babbitt made 
from selected metals and suitable for line shaft and 
other installations where the load is not excessive 
and the bearing is not subjected to sudden strain. 



APPROXIMATE DATA ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF 
HOYT BRAND BEARING METALS 





Genuine-A 


Diesel 


Trojan 


Faultless-A 


Eagle-A 


Standard 


Grade 


Babbitt 


Oil Engine 


Babbitt 


Babbitt 


Babbitt 


No. 4 


Specific Gravity 


7.34 

4.24 

225 
437 

371 
699.8 

824 


7.46 

4.31 

238.8 
462 

422 
791.6 

916 


7.75 

4.48 

187 
368.6 

282 
539.6 

700 


9.005 

5.2 

184.4 
364 

292.2 
558 

683 


10.04 

5.8 

243 
469.4 

260 
500 

625 


10.67 


Wgt. Ozs. Per Cu. In. 


6.17 


Solidus — Cent 


247 


— Fahr 


476.8 


Liquidus — Cent 


265 


— °Fahr 


509 


Proper Pouring Temp. ( F.) 


634 


Compressive Strength 














(App. Deformation of Cylinders, 














1M* Dia. x 2Y 2 " High at 70°F.) 














At 1,000 Lbs. /Per Sq. In. 


.0000 


.0000 


.0005 


.0012 


.0020 


.0025 


5,000 Lbs. /Per Sq. In. .. . 


.001 


.0005 


.0023 


.0040 


.0090 


.0170 


10,000 Lbs. /Per Sq. In. 


.015 


.013 


.0104 


.0140 


.0620 


.2850 


Brinell Hardness 














At 21° C.— 70°F.. 


28.6 
12.S 


34.4 
15.7 


27.4 
11.2 


21.8 
8.2 


23.5 
11.9 


14.3 


100° C— 212°F.. 


6.4 







J-8 

BEARING METAL 






I 



HOYT NUMBER ELEVEN METAL 



Hoyt Number Eleven Metal is a high-grade 
babbitt, specially designed for use in equipment 
where the service is exceptionally severe— for 
example, in aircraft engines, where fairly heavy 
loads must be sustained for long periods at high 
speeds. 

Hoyt Number Eleven Metal has high anti- 
frictional qualities and exceptional toughness. It 

SATCO*LINED BEARINGS 

National Lead Company, through its subsid- 
iaries, the Magnus Metal Corporation and the 
American Bearing Corporation, manufactures and 
sells bearings lined with Satco Metal for use in 
diesel engines, steam and electric locomotives and 
cars, and for various types of machinery. 

The lining metal used in these bearings is a 
patented alloy developed especially to meet mod- 
ern service conditions where bearings are subject- 
ed to unusually high speeds and heavy loads. It is 




retains its hardness and resistance to crushing 
strain to a considerable degree even at elevated 
temperatures. 

This alloy is being successfully used, not only 
in aircraft engines, but in marine engines, steam 
turbines, and other large equipment where bear- 
ings are subjected to high speeds and either con- 
stant or intermittent loads. 



being used successfully in railway work as a lining 
for truck and trailer brasses, car journal bearings, 
cross-head gibs, lateral hub facings, etc. It has also 
proved superior to standard composition alloys in 
internal combustion engines and for various other 
types of machinery. 

Satco Bearing Metal combines the hardness 
of the most costly white metal alloys with the advan- 
tage of an initial melting point 100° F. higher. It 
has a solidification temperature of 563° F. and a 
complete liquefaction temperature of 788° F. This 
quality is important as it greatly increases the re- 
sistance of the lining to failures due to a breakdown 
of lubrication in service. 

Another outstanding characteristic of Satco 
Bearing Metal is its high resistance to transverse 
stresses, a quality which minimizes the tendency of 
the lining to crack or deform under heavy loads. 

DATA ON SATCO BEARING METAL 



Satco-lined lateral hub facing for engine-truck, trailer 
and driving boxes. 

* Trade Mark Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 





Satco 


Tin- Base 
Babbitt 


A. A. R. 

Lining 

Metal 


Brinell Hardness 

At 70° F 

150° F 

212° F 

300° F 

350° F... 


23.8 
19.7 

17.2 

12.0 

9.6 

7.7 

16,300 
12,300 
10,200 
7,000 
3,700 


22 . 2 

17 ; 2 

12.9 
7.6 
3.5 

t 

17,200 

11,200 

7,500 

4,000 

2,000 


17.8 
13.2 
9.5 
4.2 
t 


400° F 

Ult. Compressive 
Str. Lbs./Sq, In. 
•U 70° F 


t 

15,600 


150° F 


9,500 


212° F 

300° F 

400° F 


6,100 
2,700 
1,200 







[ 



tMetal too soft to determine hardness. 







K-l 
TYPE METALS 



TYPE METALS 

Type metals— the group of lead-base alloys 
used by job printers, publishers and trade com- 
positors for casting type, slugs and electrotypes — 
are unique among metal products in one respect. 
Constantly being melted and reused, they require 
intelligent serviceing. The working stock must be 
"toned up" with new metal from time to time. 
Periodic analyses of composition are necessary. 

For this reason, the experienced buyer of type 
metal usually prefers to buy from a concern which 
not only furnishes high grade metal but is able and 
willing to help him care for the metal properly. 

National Lead Company has been supplying 
Blatchford type metal to printers for a good many 
years. Its sales and technical staffs are thoroughly 
familiar with printing equipment and the proper 



1 




The good casting quality of our linotype metal insures 
sharp, clean type. 



National Lead Company's Blatchford Type Metals are 
cast to fit all types of feeder mold equipment, automa- 
tic as well as hand fed. 

care of type metal. They are ready and willing at 
all times to render advice and assistance in the 
solution of metal problems. 

Furthermore, a complete type metal service 
plan is available. When desired, customers' metal 
stocks are carefully analyzed at regular intervals, 
dross exchanged and the correct toning metal sent 
to maintain an efficient, properly proportioned 
working supply. 

As described on this and the following pages, 
National Lead Company manufactures a complete 
line of type metal designed to fill every type or plate 
casting requirement. Each alloy is made from pure, 
clean metals to insure that it will be free -flowing, 
have good casting qualities and a low rate of dross- 
ing. Moreover, National Lead Company's type 
metals can be depended upon to be always uniform 
in quality and composition. 

LINOTYPE METAL 

Linotype metal contains lead, tin and anti- 
mony. The tin contributes toughness, and the anti- 
mony contributes hardness. Good linotype metal 
must be made from absolutely clean metals. It 
should be free-flowing and have desirable surface 
tension. The presence of all these qualities insures 
the casting of sharp, clean type. 

While linotype metal is used principally on 
Linotype, Intertype and Ludlow machines which 
cast a single slug, it is also used on Monotype 
Strip Material and Elrod machines, casting either 
rule borders or spacing material. In some news- 
paper plants, it is also used for the casting of flat 
printing plates from mats. 

Linotype metal is carried in stock in three- 
sectional ingot bars and is packed in 250-lb. cases. 
It is also available in bars, suitable for use in 
automatic feeders. 



K-2 

TYPE METALS 



-\ 



1? 




Above: Casting unit of the monotype typesetting ma- 
chine delivering type. Below: Casting and cutting stere- 
otypes. The metal is heated in the immersion gas-fired 
pot in the background. 



MONOTYPE METAL 

Monotype metal is alloyed from the same 
metals as linotype metal although it contains a 
larger percentage of tin which increases its 
strength, and a larger percentage of antimony 
which makes it harder. This alloy is used princi- 
pally on monotype machines which cast single 
letters or characters. 

However, our monotype metal is sufficiently 
hard to be used, not only on monotype machines, 
but also on the Monotype Sorts Caster for casting 
hard type, usually in the larger sizes, for hand 
assembly. 

Monotype metal is furnished in ingot form. 
The ingots weigh approximately 1 } 4 lbs. each and 
are packed in 250-lb. cases. 
STEREOTYPE METAL 

Stereotype metal is alloyed from the same 
metals as linotype and monotype metal. Ordinarily 
its hardness is about midway between the two. 

The principal uses for stereotype metal are in 
casting the curved plates used in newspaper print- 
ing and in casting flat plates from the mats supplied 
to newspapers. However, many printers are now 
buying stereotype equipment for the casting of 
plates in general work. Stereotyping is a simple 
process and, where repeat orders are contem- 
plated — book work, form printing, catalogs — the 
stereotype matrix is kept in stock, avoiding the 





K-3 
ELECTROTYPE METAL— TYPE METALS 



necessity of tying up expensive foundry type await- 
ing further orders. 

Stereotype metal comes cast in pigs of 50 to 65 
lbs. each. Smaller ingots furnished if desired. 

SORTS CASTER METAL 

Sorts Caster metal is a hard monotype metal 
which contains, in addition to tin and antimony, a 
small percentage of copper. It is widely used in 
Monotype and Thompson Type Casters. The type 
cast is in every way comparable to foundry type. 

Sorts Caster metal comes cast in ingot form 
and packed in 250-lb. cases. 

COMBINATION METAL 

Combination metal is a special alloy midway 

between linotype metal and stereotype metal. It 
is designed particularly for use in shops where it is 
not considered desirable or feasible to maintain 
two remelting pots— one for Linotype and the other 
for Stereotype. 

Combination metal is furnished in ingot form. 

ELECTROTYPE METAL 

Electrotype metal is a "backing" metal and is 
used to give body to a copper or nickel-faced 
electrotype. While it is alloyed from the same in- 
gredients as the type metals, the tin and antimony 
are present only in small quantities. 





Our Sorts Caster metal produces type comparable in all 
respects to foundry type. 



In commercial electrotype plants, the metal, 
of course, is not reused. In publishing houses and 
among large job printers, however, the backing 
metal is frequently melted from the nickel or 
copper shell and used over again. Concerns fol- 
lowing this practice should have their working 
stock analyzed before ordering new metal. Electro- 
type metal becomes rich in tin after successive 
remeltings, due to the tin foil used in backing. 

Electrotype metal is furnished in pig form. 

BLATCHFORD METAL FLUX 

For reducing dross and cleaning all type 
metals. Sold in 5 lb., 25 lb. and 50 lb. containers. 



NOTE: Nalco Solder Paint is a real time saver and a great con- 
venience in electrotype backing. Composed of finely divided 
solder and flux particles held in suspension in a special water 
gel, Nalco Solder Paint is applied to the back of the electro in 
the same way as a regular paint. 



K-4 


# 




IMPRESSION LEAD— ELECTROTYPE CASES— LEAD PLATES 


1 








Molding press for use in molding impression lead. 

IMPRESSION LEAD 

In many electrotyping foundries, impression 
lead, rather than wax, is used as the molding mate- 
rial for the reproduction of very fine halftones and 
the plates used in multi-color printing. The use of 
impression lead obviates imperfections and dis- 
tortions which frequently occur in wax molding 
because of dimensional changes in the wax. 

National Lead Company manufactures three 
grades of impression lead: plain impression lead; 
ready-to-mold impression lead; and tin-coated im- 
pression lead. 

Plain impression lead is simply a pure grade 
of lead in sheet form of uniform thickness and soft- 
ness. Ready-to-mold impression lead is a lead 
sheet which has been scratch-brushed after rolling 



and sprinkled with graphite. The protective coating 
of graphite prepares the surface for the electroplat- 
ing bath and retards corrosion. Tin-coated impres- 
sion lead is so made to prevent corrosion. 

Impression lead sheets are furnished in any 
size according to specification. Maximum size 
sheets measure 24" x 36". 

ELECTROTYPE CASES 

Electrotype cases are lead alloy sheets used 
by electrotypers for wax molding. They can be 
supplied J/g" thick (or heavier, if desired) and in 
any width and length specified. One side of the 
sheet has been wire-brushed to insure close ad- 
hesion of the wax. The maximum size for electro- 
type cases is 22^" x 33^ "■ 

MUSIC PLATES 

Music plates are made of an alloy of lead and 
used by printers of sheet music. The engraver first 
rules the plates with a special five-pronged fork 
and then stamps on the notes with steel dies. A 
proof is taken and printing plates are made from 
the proof. 

We manufacture music plates in various com- 
positions of tin, lead, antimony and copper. The 
plates are uniform in thickness and rolled to a high 
luster. They are rectangular in shape and usually 
measure 6^" x 9J4", 8" x 11", or 9^" x 13". 
Larger or smaller sizes can also be furnished. 

TINT PLATES 

Tint plates are used for color work by many 
large printing houses. They are also used for print- 
ing names, trademarks and designs on fabrics by 
bag companies, cotton mills, etc. 

Tint plates are cast from varying proportions 
of lead, tin and antimony. They are planed on a 
planer and shaved on one side to a high luster with 
a shaving knife. Our tint plates are very accurate 
in measurement. Minimum thickness supplied is 
.155"; maximum size 22}i" x 33^". Smaller sizes 
are furnished on request. 



[ 



[ 







K-5 
BLATCHFORP SYSTEM 



BLATCHFORD PLATE MOUNTING SYSTEM 



working surface of which is ruled in quarter-inch 
squares, providing a fractional-inch, rather than a 
pica, gauge for the make-up man. 



The Blatchford System for mounting printing 
plates has been scientifically designed and then 
perfected by printers themselves to meet the re- 
quirements of all classes of printing production. 

Its advantages are many. It is simple in con- 
struction. It provides a uniform support for every 
square inch of printing surface of every printing 
plate. Hair line register is obtained with a minimum 
ot time and effort. Plates cannot move on the base 
during the longest runs once they are properly 
positioned and locked. By virtue of the unusual 
shape of the sectional unit, a "straight line of break" 
is eliminated. 

The basic unit of the Blatchford System is a 
1 'honey-combed, ' ' six-sided, L-shaped section, the 

Above: " L" shaped units of the Blatchford base. 
Below: A fine example of intricate plate mounting by the Steidinger Press of New York City. It is the "red" form of a 
four-color process job printing on a 46 1 /*" x 70" sheet. There are 121 separate plates in this form. It would have been 
impossible to mount these plates on any other base with sufficient catches to properly hold and register them. 





K-6 

B L ATC HFORP SYSTEM 



4 




The numerous advantages of the Blatchford system of plate mounting are demonstrated in a most practical manner in this illustra- 
tion. Besides the usual printing plates, all accessory devices — punches, cutting, perforating and scoring rules, folding points or 
markers, machine rules, borders, etc. — are accommodated on Blatchford Base. Many of the time and labor saving short cuts indi- 
cated in the above lock-up are possible only with Blatchford Base. 



The odd shape of the unit gives the Blatchford 
System an exclusive advantage: when woven into 
a form or bed, each unit has six similar units hold- 
ing it in place — instead of four as with square- 
shaped sections. By thus eliminating a "straight 
line of break", there is less possibility of springing 
or warping a form in lock-up. 

Furthermore, there are no restrictions in 
handling small plates in the Blatchford System. 
Plates as small as 1^4" x \\i" or %" x 2" can be 
registered and locked each with six hooks and with 



margins of }/$ ". A plate as narrow as a 6-point 
linotype slug can be mounted and supported with a 
pair of catches opposite each other at \]/i" 
intervals. 

INQUIRIES 

Further information about the Blatchford Plate 
Mounting System will gladly be furnished on 
request. Address your inquiry to National Lead 
Company, E. W. Blatchford Co. Branch, 63 Park 
Row, New York City, or 900 W. 18th St., Chicago. 







L-l 
GRID METAL 



GRID METAL 

Grid metal is lead hardened with antimony. 
It is used by battery manufacturers for casting the 
frames or perforated plates which hold the lead 
oxides in a storage battery. 

We manufacture grid metal of a uniformly 
high quality. The purity of the metals used as well 
as the exactness with which the alloy meets our 
customer's specification as to antimony content 
and tolerance of impurities is a primary consider- 
ation with our production department. Our grid 
metal is usually furnished in 60 lb. pigs although 
lighter weight pigs may be obtained if desired. 

COMPOSITION 

The antimony content of grid metal varies 
from 4% to 12% depending on the type of plate 
being cast. For automotive battery grids or all 
other grids which are thin and light in construc- 
tion, the lead may contain between 89c an d 12 r j 
antimony. An alloy of this composition imparts 
greater hardness and strength to the plate. At the 
same time, it facilitates machine casting because it 
possesses greater fluidity over a longer tempera- 
ture range. 

For casting heavy duty grids— those intended 
for farm-lighting, truck and stationary batteries- 
alloys containing 4% to 6% of antimony are satis- 
factory. Grids of this type are ordinarily of heavy 
construction and the usual practice is to cast them 
by hand rather than in casting machines. 




Above: Storage battery room in a large broadcasting 
studio. Note the lead grid inside the battery in the fore- 
ground. Below: Standard type of grid used in the auto- 
mobile storage battery. The grid at the right is shown 
after pasting with lead oxide. 




L-2 

GRID METAL 





Interior of the storage battery house at a large mine. 

The workmen are inspecting the batteries and bringing 

up the acid level in cells where needed. 

CASTING TEMPERATURE 

A temperature of 800° to 850° F. is a proper 
one for the machine casting of grids from 8-12% 
antimonial lead. For hand casting, a temperature 
approximately 50° F. higher may be necessary. 
The alloys containing 4-6% antimony require a 
casting temperature of 850° to 900° F. 



TREATMENT AND TEMPERATURE 
OF MOLD 

An improper preliminary treatment of the cast- 
ing molds, or their operation at temperatures which 
are too high or too low, are frequent causes for 
defective grids. 

The inner surfaces of the molds should first be 
coated either with a layer of acetylene smoke or a 
liquid spray compound. A "lubricant" of this latter 
type is manufactured by National Lead Company 
and is known as "Molspray." 

A temperature of 350° to 450° F., depending 
upon the grid size and mold construction, is a satis- 
factory working temperature for machine operated 
molds. Hand operated molds might require some 
external heat, especially in the early stages of cast- 
ing, to attain a good working temperature. Molds 
which are too hot delay solidification of the metal. 
Molds which are not hot enough may result in the 
production of grids with missing ribs. 

TREATMENT OF GRIDS 

Grids freshly cast — even from 12% antimonial 
lead — are quite soft. The usual practice is to "age" 
grids for three to six days before pasting them. This 
is especially necessary with the thinner grids or 
those intended for machine pasting. "Aging" is 
most readily accomplished by allowing the grids to 
stand at room temperature for the specified period. 






GRID METAL SPECIFICATIONS OF VARIOUS BATTERY MANUFACTURERS 



Specifications 



Antimony — Nominal 

Tin — Minimum 

Maximum 

Arsenic— Minimum 

Maximum 

Copper — Maximum ........ 

Bismuth — Maximum 

Nickel — Maximum 

Zinc — Maximum 

Silver — Maximum 

Iron — Maximum 

Sulphur — Maximum 

Manganese — Maximum .... 
Lead 



Manufacturer 



11.5 

.45 
.55 
.08 
. 12 
.10 
.005 
.01 
None 
.0015 



Balance 



B 




C 




9. 


15 




20 


25 




30 


.15 




08 


.08 




08 


.05 




05 


.01 




01 
005 


.01 






.01 




005 


.005 




005 


ance 


Balance 



.50 

.10 

.05 

.05 

.("115 

.0015 

.0015 

.01 



Balance 





E 




F 


to. 


9.5 








25 




40 




50 
08 




2 




15 




10 




10 




025 




005 
01 




001 








6i 








001 






Balance 


Balance 



, 15 
. 15 

!6?5 
. 075 
.005 
.005 
.005 
None 
.005 



.25 
.40 



.10 
.08 



Balance 



/^. 




ZINC BASE ALLOYS 

for die or slush casting 

Zinc base alloys ara used by die casters and 
slush casters in the fabrication of a wide variety of 
articles for many different purposes. The objects 
cast range from certain types of tools and machin- 
ery parts to household utensils and ornaments. 
The alloys contain — in addition to zinc — aluminum, 
copper or magnesium, varied according to the 
required physical properties of the finished casting. 
They are superior to many other metals or alloys 
which might be used for the purpose. 

They have excellent casting qualities and a 
relatively low casting temperature. Melting be- 
tween 725°F-800°F according to composition, they 
flow smoothly and readily and present a good sur- 
face finish. They take plated, lacquered or enam- 
eled finishes equally well. Their physical strength, 
exceeding most other soft metal alloys, is ample for 
practical purposes. 

For pressure or die casting, we manufacture 
four standard alloys which cover a range from 
maximum physical strength to extreme fluidity. 
These alloys are designated as 123-X, 124-M, 124-S 
and 124-C. Their physical properties are indicated 
on the page that follows. We also produce other 
alloys, developed by our technical men in col- 
laboration with the manufacturer who may require 
an alloy of a different composition for a particular 
type of casting. 

For slush casting, we manufacture two stand- 
ard alloys designated as 126-X and 126-C. The 
physical properties of these alloys, particularly as 
regards flow, differ from the physical properties of 
pressure casting alloys due to the nature of the 
process. Here the alloy is poured into the mold 
without pressure. As the alloy in contact with the 
mold hardens, the latter is inverted and the molten 
core is poured out leaving a hollow casting. 

All our zinc base alloys are guaranteed to be 
made only from metals of the required purity. 




Typical castings made from National Lead Company's 

die casting alloys. Note the good surface finish of objects 

above; the intricacy of castings below. 




M-2 

ZINC BASE ALLOYS C. T. METAL 






[ 



They are skillfully alloyed under ideal foundry con- 
ditions, designed to eliminate all danger of contam- 
ination thus insuring continued uniformity and strict 



adherence to the proper and desired chemical 
composition. The alloys are furnished in 7 lb. bars 
packed in 500 lb. boxes. 



APPROXIMATE DATA ON NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY DIE CASTING ALLOYS 



Tensile Strength — Lbs./Sq. In 

Impact Strength (('harpy) as measured on \i" x H" bar 

Elongation — % in 2 Inches 

Compressive Strength — Lbs./Sq. In 

Brinell Hardness 

Specific Gravity 

Melting Point • 



123-X 



124-M 



1 24-S 



124-C 



42,000 


?>?> ,000 


38,000 


37,000 


1 2 . 00 


1 1 . 00 


14.50 


1 5 . 00 


2.5 


3.0 


3.5 


6.0 


93,100 


60,500 


87,300 


91,700 


83 


62 


73 


71 


6.754 


6.644 


6.675 


6.717 


734°F. 


728 Q F. 


727°F. 


732°F. 



C. T. METAL 



C. T. Metal is a lead and antimony alloy ideal 
for casting metallic novelties, lamp bases, clock 
cases, casket hardware, and ornamental metal 
objects of all descriptions. 

Our C. T. Metal is an exceedingly clean alloy 
and flows freely at a low temperature. Drossing in 
use is reduced to a minimum. Superior in casting 
qualities, it produces a hard, tough casting with 
sharp outlines. It lends itself excellently to all types 
of plating. 

C. T. Metal is furnished in 100 lb. pigs, 25 lb. 
pigs and ingot bars. 




This workman, using a slush mold, is casting novelty 
cigarette boxes from our C.T. metal. 







M-3 
ZINC BASE ALLOYS 



KIRKSITE A 



* 



This special zinc-base alloy is the ideal mate- 
rial from which to make dies for forming, blanking 
and trimming sheet materials and for molding plas- 
tics. Kirksite A may be used as sand-cast for form- 
ing and trimming dies and, in the rolled form, may 
be used for blanking dies for sheet metal, fibre and 
other sheet stock, and for plastic molds made in 
sand or casting plaster. 







... ., :; 6 srrsr v • 



I 




Right and left hand upper front door sill stampings, 
made of .037" deep-drawing body steel. 18,000 pairs were 
produced from die sets of Kirksite A. Two- foot Kirksite 
A shrinkage rule indicates relative size of stampings. 




Using .062" steel, 1800 of these parts were blanked on 
one rolled Kirksite A die and formed on punch and die 
of cast Kirksite A. (Pencil indicates relative size.) 




These stampings give proof of the toughness of Kirksite 
A forming dies. The stock is .091 " stainless steel. The 
depth of the draw in the stampings is 2 l ■> inches. 

"Trade Mark Registered in U.S. Patent Office by Morris P. Kirk 
& Son. Inc., a subsidiary of National Lead Company. 




Dies made of this material are in commercial 
use in almost all kinds of presses, from rope and 
air drop-hammers through hydropresses and 
brakes, to mechanical presses of toggle, crank and 
double acting types. They are being used without 
* pressure rings" or ^binders" as well as with 
such clamping devices made of Kirksite A or of 
steel. 

Kirksite A is best suited for short or medium 
production runs of stampings for the aircraft and 
automotive field; housings for household appli- 
ances; vending and office machines; metal furni- 
ture and fixtures; toys and novelties. This modern 
alloy has a special appeal for those who wish to 
experiment with various models of their wares to 
determine the buying public's reactions before 
going into full-scale tooling-up on any specific 
model. With Kirksite A this preliminary "sampling" 



M-4 

ZINC BASE ALLOYS 



production can be accomplished easily, quickly 
and economically. 

Kirksite A is available in both ingot and rolled 



Below: A tube-bending device which utilizes Kirksite A 
for both the form-block and the shoe. Right: A group 
of cast Kirksite A chuck jaws (in background), and 
various fittings fastened to separating plates ready to 
be used as part of the mold in which the jaws are cast. 





(sheet) form. We will be glad to send complete 
information on this versatile die material to those 
who indicate an interest in its possibilities. 




w 



%&* 



I 

L"J 
[J 

[ l 

I 



KIRKSITE DIE PLANT 

We maintain a modern plant completely 
equipped for the prompt production of all types of 
Kirksite tooling, i.e., blanking, forming and plastic 
molding dies, and special tools for bending, as- 
sembling and machining operations. The shop can 
start with sketches, prints, models or hand-made 



parts provided by the customer or the necessary 
models and patterns can be produced in the shop 
itself. 

The up-to-date methods employed in the die 
plant are designed to produce efficient tools 
promptly and economically. 



Large Kitksite die set made in our shop. The punch, weighing 18 tons, and the die, weighing about 16 tons were 
designed for use in stamping auto body roof panels. Together with the blank holder, not illustrated, the die set 

weighed about 84,000 lbs. 








N-l 
PEWTER 



PEWTER 



Pewter — sometimes called Britannia Metal — is 
a lead-free alloy, composed principally of tin with 
small amounts of antimony and copper. Consider- 
ably harder than pure tin, it is a highly ductile 
and malleable metal and can be readily fabricated, 
by casting, drawing, spinning or hand manipula- 
tion, into a variety of objects. 

Pewter is widely used by manufacturers of flat 
ware and hollow ware. Because of its easy working 
qualities, it is also used in large quantities by 
amateur metal craftsmen and students in art metal 
courses in schools and colleges. 

One of the chief attractions of a fabricated 




pewter object is its fine appearance. The alloy re- 
sembles silver and takes the same high polish, al- 
though, having a lower light-reflective property, it 
has a somewhat darker cast. Pewter articles are 
hard enough to withstand every-day use without 
becoming seriously marred or dented. 

Pewter is furnished in either rectangular 
sheets or circular discs. The discs range in diam- 
eter from 2" to 20" and come in gauges from 14 to 
20. Rectangular sheets are obtainable in these same 
gauges in any size up to 24" x 36". A table showing 
the complete range of gauges and sizes is given 
on the following page. 







A 



Above and Below: Types of utensils commonly exe- 
cuted in pewter. The punch bowl and ladle above, the 
work of an amateur metal craftsman, was selected by 
the American Federation of Arts for exhibition at the 

1937 World's Exposition in Paris, France. 
Left: Our pewter is supplied in rectangular sheets 

and discs as shown. Note the high gloss. 




N-2 



PEWTER— GASKET IVIETAL— ANTIIV10NY— ZINC 



^J3 






SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF PEWTER SHEETS* AND DISCS 



Gauge 20 ga, 19 ga. 18 ga. 17 ga. 16 ga. 15 ga. 14 ga. 

Thickness 031 in. .035 in. .040 in . .045 in. .050 in . .057 in. .064 in. 

Weight of Discs of Following Diameters 

2 in %OZ. %oz. %oz. % oz. %vz. % oz. % oz. 

3 in 1 oz. l'/iooz. 1% oz. l%az. 1% oz. 1% oz. 2 oz. 

4 in l^oz. 2 oz. 2%oz. 2^ oz. 2%oz. 3% oz. 3% oz. 

5 in 2% oz. 3 oz. 3}^ oz. 4 oz. 4% oz. 5 oz. 5% oz. 

6 in 3%oz. 4>4 oz. 4%oz. 5%oz. 6 oz. 6% oz. 7% oz. 

7 in 5% oz. 6 oz. 6% oz. 7%oz. 8^ oz, 9%oz. 11 oz. 

8 in! 6%oz. 7%oz. 8% oz. 9% oz. 11 oz. 12% oz. 14% oz. 

9 in...- 8%oz. 10 oz. 11% oz. 12% oz. 14 oz. 16% oz. 18% oz. 

10 in, 10% oz. 11% oz. 13*4 oz. 15% oz. 16% oz. 19% oz. 22 oz. 

11 in.. 12^ oz. 14% oz. 16% oz. 18% oz. 20% oz. 23% oz. 26% oz. 

12 in 15 oz. 17% oz. 19% oz. 22 oz. 24% oz. 28% oz. 31% oz. 

13 in 17% oz. 20Moz. 23 oz. 25% oz. 28% oz. 33 oz. 37% oz. 

14 in 20% oz. 23% oz, 26% oz. 30 oz. 33% oz. 38% oz. 43% oz. 

15 in , 23% oz. 27 oz. 30% oz. 34% oz. 38% oz. 44% oz. 50 oz. 

16 in 26% oz. 30% oz. 35 oz. 39% oz. 43% oz. 50% oz. 56% oz, 

17 in 29% oz. 34% oz. 39% oz. 44% oz. 49 oz. 56% oz. 63% oz. 

18 in 33% oz. 39 oz. 44% oz. 49% oz. 55% oz. 63% oz. 72 oz. 

19 in 37% oz. 43% oz. 49% oz. 55% oz. 61% oz. 70% oz. 30 oz. 

20 in 41% oz. 48 oz. 54% oz. 61% oz. 68% oz. 78% oz. 88% oz. 

♦Weight of Sheets per Sq. Ft 19 oz. 22 oz. 25 oz. 28% oz. 31% oz. 35% oz. 40% oz. 

When ordering specify quantity of discs or sheets and gauge. Sheets may be ordered any size not exceeding 24" x 36". A 
price list for pewter sheets and discs will be mailed upon request. 



GASKET METAL 

Gasket Metal is a special alloy designed for 
sealing joints in refrigerating machinery, particu- 
larly for the joints of compressors where carbon 
dioxide or some similar gas is used as the refriger- 
ant. 

Our special Hoyt No. 8 Gasket Metal was de- 
veloped by us in close collaboration with the largest 
manufacturers of refrigerating machinery in the 
country. Of correct composition, it makes a gasket 
hard enough to resist compression yet not so hard 
as to be brittle. Gaskets cut from this metal can be 
used on either the warm or the cold end of the 
compressor. 

Gasket Metal is furnished in the following 
thicknesses: .006", .010", .015", and .029". It is 
packed flat in special boxes to prevent damage in 



shipment. In ordering this metal, it is a good plan 
to state size and number of gaskets to be cut. We 
will then send sheets of a size and shape that will 
cut with a minimum of waste. 

ANTIMONY 

Antimony possesses the property of increasing 
the hardness of metals with which it is alloyed and 
thus has a wide commercial use. We can furnish 
pure antimony of any brand desired. It comes in 
cakes varying from 40 lbs. to 55 lbs. depending 
upon brand. 

SLAB ZINC (Spelter) 

Prime zinc after smelting but before refining. 
Used widely for brazing and galvanizing purposes. 
We supply this grade of zinc in slabs weighing 
approximately 60 lbs. 



0-1 
BLOCK TIN PRODUCTS 



BLOCK TIN PRODUCTS 

The term "block tin" indicates that the pipe 
or tube is of pure and solid tin, The wide use of tin- 
plated metals has resulted in a misconception of the 
true nature and properties of tin, especially as to 
durability. In the metal trade, it has long been the 
custom to refer to pure and solid tin as block tin. 

TIN PIPE 

While tin pipe has many and varied uses, its 
most important applications are in beer dispensing 
apparatus, soda fountain installations, handling 
distilled water and for all types of equipment 
handling liquids intended for human consumption. 
Tin pipe does not rust, tarnish or corrode, and 
therefore does not contaminate most of the liquids 
regularly passed through it. The ease with which tin 
pipe can be bent or coiled is an additional advan- 
tage in this connection. 

We manufacture tin pipe in a variety of sizes 
and weights. A selected list is given below. Other 
sizes and weights can be furnished on short notice. 
Our tin pipe can be depended upon to be uniform 
in wall thickness and free from hard and soft spots 
or other imperfections. 

Block tin pipe is supplied in straight lengths, 
on coils or on reels as specified on the order. 




Beer dispensing unit with the top removed to 
block tin pipe cooling coils. 



s/ioiv 



BLOCK TIN PIPE— APPROXIMATE SIZES AND WEIGHTS 



Inside 


Outside 


Weight 


Inside 


Outside 


Weight 


Inside 


Outside 


Weight 


DlAM . , 


Diam., 


per Ft., 


Diam . , 


Diam., 


per Ft., 


Diam.. 


Diam., 


per Ft., 


In. 


In. 


Oz. 


In. 


In. 


Oz. 


In. 


In. 


Oz. 


: „, 


y& 


y 2 


% 


%F 


5 
6 


H 


- : ':r> S 


8 
9 


's 


% 


% 




V, 

l % s 


7 
8 




%s 


If) 
14 


Hg 


K F 


iy 2 




i;',., F 


9 










% 


2}-> 




% 


10 


M 


% 


8 


X 


H 


3 




'-'':, 


12 




2 %. F 

i: 'lr,S 


10 
11 




% 


4 


7 .o 


% F 


4 




12 




% s 


5 
6 




% S 


6 
8 


. 


:u :j , [- 
1 


16 

17 




' , s 


7 










i \4i 


20 




4 I' 


8 


H 


% F 


4K 
















^s 


5 


1 


\\b F 


9 


•>IG 


%F 


4 




% 


5K 


. 


Wv F 


14 




H s 


SH 




y s F 


6 


- 


1% 


16 




% 


TH 




2 Kn 


7 


• 


1 3 4 6 F 


18 




'';,, ! 


8 




-' :;- F 


8 




- 1%F 


20 


H 








2 % s 


10 




iM 


22 


14 S 


4 

4.j; 




y 4 s 


12 









F: Full. 



S: Scant. 



0-2 

BLOCK TIN PRODUCTS 



f 



TIN SHEET 

Tin in sheet form is used extensively by soda 
tank manufacturers and as the lining material in 
tanks and vats employed in the preparation and 
handling of drugs, food products and various chem- 
icals. Tin sheet does not corrode nor does it con- 
taminate substances in contact with it. It is easily 
worked and thus easy to install. 

We manufacture sheet tin by a milling process 
from specially refined, primary metal. It can be 
supplied in practically any thickness and size up to 



SIZES AND WEIGHTS OF SHEET TIN 



1 lb. per sq. ft. 



1 /40 inch. 




\ x /i lbs. per sq. 


ft. 


1/27 inch. 




2 lbs. per sq. 


ft. 


1 /20 inch. 




2j- / 2 lbs. per sq 


. ft. 


1/16 inch. 




3 lbs. per sq. 


ft. 


1/13 inch. 




3]/2 lbs. per sq 


ft. 


1/11 inch. 




4 lbs. per sq. 


ft. 


1/10 inch. 




5 lbs. per sq. 


ft. 



1 /8 inch, 
10 lbs. per sq. ft. 

1/4 inch. 
20 lbs. per sq. ft 




1/2 inch. 



a width of 8 feet. Small size sheets are shipped flat 
and carefully packed to avoid damage. Large size 
sheets are shipped on rolls. 

TIN ANODES 

Our tin anodes are made from the highest 
grade, refined metal only. Highly polished and free 
from imperfections, they provide uniform distri- 
bution in the acid bath and wear down evenly. 

Anodes are supplied in any size and shape 
specified in the order. They are carefully packed 
for protection in shipping, 

TIN WIRE 

An important use for fin wire is in spray guns 
for the application of metallic coatings. We can 
supply pure refined tin wire for this and other pur- 
poses in all standard wire gauges. 

TIN TAPE 

Tin tape is an extruded product and can be 
furnished in practically any width and thickness 
desired. It is furnished on spools or reels according 
to the weight of the shipment or the specification of 
the purchaser. 

PULVERIZED TIN 

Pulverized or powdered tin is used principally 
for the pre-tinning operation in delicate soldering 
work. We furnish pulverized tin in three meshes— 
50, 100 and 200. It is packed in tins or bulk con- 
tainers. 

BAR TIN 

We furnish pure refined tin cast in bar form. 
These bars, which weigh approximately 1 lb. each, 
are widely used by plumbers for enriching solder. 
They are carefully packed in boxes of any weight 
desired by the customer. 

INGOT TIN 

Pure refined tin is also obtainable in rectan- 
gular ingot form. Each ingot weighs approximately 
5 lbs. 
PIG TIN 

We also supply pure tin cast in pig form for 
large users. Pigs weigh approximately 100 lbs. 




Q-l 
GENERAL DATA 



CHEMICAL CORROSION RESISTANCE OF LEAD 

Lead may be economically employed with many of the chemicals used in the process industries. 
The following partial list of such chemicals with brief comments on the reactions they may be expected to 
have with lead is intended as a general guide in the selection of materials of plant construction. Because 
of the broad range of chemicals and the wide variation of operating conditions existing in modern industry 
a more complete and more specific list would be impractical. 



ACETIC ACID. Moderately corrosive to lead, but corrosion 
is greatly accelerated by high velocities and temper- 
atures. Acetic anhydride and glacial acetic acid are 
handled in lead. 

ACETONE. Lead may be used satisfactorily. 

ACETYLENE. Little effect on lead. 

ALCOHOL, ETHYL. No effect on lead. 

ALCOHOL, METHYL. No effect on lead. 

ALUMINUM SULPHATE or ALUM. Lead may be used 

satisfactorily. 
AMMONIA. Lead is unaffected by the dry gas, and by 

liquid unless sodium or potassium are dissolved in it. 

AMMONIUM AZIDE. No effect on lead. 

AMMONIUM CHLORIDE. Lead may be used at ordinary 
temperatures with concentrations up to 10 per cent. 

AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE. Lead satisfactory with liquid 
or gas at practically all temperatures and concentrations. 

AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE. Lead may be used satis- 
factorily. 

AMMONIUM SULPHATE. Lead may be used satis- 
factorily. 

ANTIMONY CHLORIDE. Lead is somewhat corroded, 
but is used with comparative economy for chlorinating the 
tri-chloride to the pentachloride. 

BENZYL CHLORIDE. Lead may be used satisfactorily, 

BORIC ACID. Lead may be used satisfactorily. 

BRINE. (See Sodium Chloride.) 

BROMINE. Lead may be used when cold and acid free. 

CALCIUM CARBONATE. Found in natural waters and 
forms a good protective coating on lead. Added to water 
to reduce plumbo-solvency. 

CALCIUM HYDROXIDE. Presence in green cement cor- 
rodes lead in presence of moisture and oxygen. However, 
added to soft waters reduces plumbo-solvency. 

CARBONATES, SOLUBLE. Act as a protection to lead in 
natural waters unless present in excess, when it increases 
solubility. Lead is used in acid carbonate systems for 
generating CO-. 



CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS. Action on lead 
varies from slight to severe depending upon breakdown 
to HC1 and presence of organic acids. 

CHLORINATION PROCESSES. Lead is slowly corroded 
at temperatures usually used, but has satisfactory life and 
greater economy compared with other common metals. 

CHLORINE. Dry does not affect lead and lead may be used 
with moist chlorine up to about 1 10°C. with slight corro- 
sion. Amounts of chlorine used in water treatment do not 
affect lead. 

CHROMIC ACID. Lead may be used with fairly high con- 
centrations of this acid. Tellurium-Antimony Lead or 
Antimony Lead are preferred for use as anodes, heating 
pipes and tank linings in chromium electroplating work. 
For prolonged life of lead equipment, anodizing is recom- 
mended to aid in the formation of an adequate protective 
coating. 

CINDERS. Lead embedded in cinders should be protected. 

COAL TAR. Lead used in refining and recovery of many 
by-products. 

CONCRETE, CEMENT or MORTAR. When green, free 
lime present attacks lead. Aging to carbonate lime or 
applying asphalt coating on lead recommended to pre- 
vent such corrosion. 

COPPER SULPHATE. Lead is used for anodes and tank 
linings in electrorefining, electroplating and electroform- 
ing equipment, and is preferred for acid solutions. 

ETHER. Little or no effect on lead. Lead used in its manu- 
facture. 

FERROUS SULPHATE. Lead used for tank linings and 
coils in production and use. 

FORMALDEHYDE (Formic Acid). Action on lead similar 
to that of acetic acid. 

HYDROCHLORIC ACID. Use of lead is not generally 
recommended but it has been used with some corrosion 
in concentrations up to 30% at normal temperatures and 
20% at 100°C. Antimonial lead shows better resistance 
than ordinary lead. 

HYDROFLUORIC ACID. Lead is commonly used and 

has fair resistance to dilute acid. 
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE (Anhydrous Hydrochloric 

Acid). Little effect on lead. 
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE. Not likely alone to affect lead, 

but accelerates acid corrosion. 



Q-2 

GENERAL DATA 



4 



KOCH ACID REDUCTION MASS. Lead may be used 
satisfactorily. 

MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE. Corrodes lead as it does other 

metals. 

MALACHITE GREEN MOTHER LIQUOR. No appreci- 
able effect on lead at 80°C. 

MIXED ACIDS. Mixtures of sulphuric and nitric acids can 
be used with lead at ordinary temperatures if water 
present is less than 30%. 

NAPHTHALENE. No effect on lead. 

NITRATION MIXTURE of H-ACID. Lead is used with 
rather, high corrosion. 

NITRIC- ACID. Lead is not generally recommended with 
this acid, but is used with little corrosion when concentra- 
tions are above 80% at normal temperature. 

NITRO-BENZOL and NITRO-CHLOR-BENZOL. Cor- 
rosive to lead. 

NITROCELLULOSE. Lead widely used as in all rayon 
manufacturing processes. 

NITROGLYCERINE. Lead used to handle spent acid. 

NITROSYL-SULPHURIC ACID. Action on lead is least 
at specific gravity of about 1.5 to 1.6. Close control thus 
minimizes corrosion. 

ORGANIC ACIDS. In general, accelerate the corrosion of 
lead, but their presence in solutions does not always pre- 
clude the use of lead. 

OXYGEN. Dry gas merely tarnishes lead. In presence of 
water, initial attack is usually followed by formation of 
protective coating formed by salts such as carbonates, 
sulphates and silicates in the water. In the absence of 
these salts, deaeration may be employed to remove 
oxygen because of its action on all metals. 

OXY-L ACID. Lead is corroded to some extent but is about 
the only economical metal that can be used with satis- 
faction. 

PHENOL. Lead may be used satisfactorily, 

PHOSPHORIC ACID. Lead may be used with concentra. 
tions up to 80% below 200°C. Impure acid has even less 
effect on lead and can be used up to 85% concentration. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOLUTIONS. Lead is satisfactory 
generally. 

POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE. Attacks lead. 

PYRIDENE. Does not affect lead. 

SILICATES. Form protective coatings on lead and thus 
can be recommended for treating natural waters if 
necessary. 

SODIUM BISULPHATE. Can be handled in lead when 
highly concentrated. 



SODIUM CARBONATE. Dilute solutions do not affect lead; 
in natural waters forms protective coating on lead. 

SODIUM CHLORIDE. Lead satisfactory for dilute solutions 
at ordinary temperatures. Sea water and brine are com- 
monly handled in lead or antimonial lead. 

SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE. Lead may be used satis- 
factorily. 

SODIUM HYDROXIDE. Lead can be used with concen- 
trations up to 25% and temperatures of 80°C. 

SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE. Attacks lead. 

SODIUM HYPOSULPHITE. Lead can be used satis- 
factorily. 

SODIUM SULPHATE. Lead can be used satisfactorily with 
solutions up to 10% concentration boiling. 

SODIUM SULPHIDE. Lead can be used satisfactorily with 
these solutions at temperatures up to 100°C. 

SODIUM SULPHITE. Lead can be used with solutions up 

to 20% concentration at 25°C. 
SULPHUR CHLORIDE. Has little effect on lead. 

SULPHUR DIOXIDE. Has little effect on lead when dry 
and can be used moist up to about 200°C. 

SULPHURIC ACID. Lead is the standard material for 
handling this acid. It can be used with concentrations up 
to 96% at room temperature and 85% up to 220°C. It is 
sometimes used satisfactorily even up to 250°C. 

SULPHUROUS ACID. Lead is satisfactory up to about 
220°C. 

TANNIC ACID. Somewhat similar to acetic acid. 

TARTARIC ACID. Somewhat similar to acetic acid. 

THIONYL CHLORIDE. Lead is used satisfactorily up to 
220°C. and sometimes higher. 

TITANIUM SULPHATE. Solutions can be handled satis- 
factorily in lead. 

VICTORIA GREEN MOTHER LIQUID. Lead may be 
used satisfactorily up to 80°C. 

WATER, DISTILLED. Dissolves lead very slowly in pro- 
portion to amount of dissolved oxygen. 

WATER, NATURAL. Usually no effect on lead because of 
protective coating formed from dissolved salts. Very soft 
waters or those of peaty origin may dissolve lead slightly, 
as they do other metals, and such action can be prevented 
by treatment of the waters with lime or sodium silicate. 

WOOD. Most wood has little or no corrosive effect on lead. 
A few instances of corrosion by wood containing organic 
acids, such as green oak, have been reported. Wood to be 
lined with lead should be inspected for presence of borers. 

ZINC CHLORIDE. Lead can be used satisfactorily. 



[ 



[ 

[ 



[ 



L 



[ 




Q-3 

GENERAL DATA 



CHEMICAL FORMULAS OF COMMONLY USED LEAD COMPOUNDS 



CHEMICAL 
NAME 

Hydra ted 
Basic Lead 
Carbonate 

Basic Lead 
Sulphate, 

White 

Basic Lead 
Sulphate, 

miH- 



Lead 
Monoxide 

Triplumbic 
Tetroxidc 

Triplumbic 
Tetroxide 



COMMON OR 
TRADE NAME 



White Lead 



FORMULA PRACTICAL APPLICATION 

The most widely used of lead pigments. Also used in glazing pot- 
2PbC0 3 — Pb(OH): tery and enameled ware, in putty and in the manufacture of orange 
mineral. 



2PbSC) 4 .PbO 
( Appro x.) 

2PbSOi.PbU 
(Approx.) 
Colored by small 
quantities of lead 
sulphide and carbon 



Used extensively in the mixed paint industry, and also as an ac- 
celerator of vulcanization in the manufacture ol rubber. 



The principal use of blue basic lead sulphate is in the manufacture 
of paint for steel. 



Litharge 

Orange 
Mineral 



Red Lead 



Phi) 

Pb.O, 

Pb,O s 



Lead 
Chromatc 


Medium Chrome 
Yellow 


PbCrO, 


Lead 
Acetate- 


Sugar of 
Lead 


Pb(C..H,Q ; ) : .— i 


Lead 
Antimonate 




PbafSbGOs 


Lead Arsenate 




Pb 3 (As0 4 ;, 


Lead Azide 




PbX 6 


Lead 
Borate 




Pb(B0 2 ) 2 .H:0 
Pb0.3B 5 3 


Lead Carbonate 


Cerrusite 


PbC0 3 


Lead Dithiofurate 


pixcjlocss) 


Lead 
Fluosilicatc 




PbSiF 8 


Lead 
Linoleate 




Pb(CisH 31 0,) 3 


Lead 
Nitrate 




Pb(NOj) 2 


Lead Oleate 




Pb(Ci,H 33 ; )2 


Lead 
Resinate 




Pb(C ! OH !9 2 ) ! 


Lead Stearate 




PbCdsHasOOs 


Lead Sulphate 
(plumbous) 


Anglesiie 


PbSOj 


Lead Sulphide 


Galena 


PbS 


Lead 
Sulphocyanate 




Pb(C\S). 


Lead Tetraethyl 




Pb(CTUji 


Sodium 
Plumbite 


Doctor 
Solution 


XaPb(OH) 3 



Used in the manufacture of Battery Plates, Class, Colors, Rubber, 
Varnish, Pottery, and in the refining of Oil. 

Csed largely by color makers and manufacturers of printing 
inks. 

Xext to white lead the most widely used lead paint pigment. Red 
[.rail is the world's standard paint for protecting iron and steel 
against corrosion. 

Csed in the manufacture of paint and colors. By varying the condi- 
tions of manufacture other lead chromates such as Orange Chrome 
Yellow, Chrome Red and Chrome Green may be produced. 

Pb(C :: H.iO ; :):. — 3LUO Used in the manufacture of other lead salts, mordant in dyes, drier 
in paints, lead coating steel. 

Used as pigment in paint, ceramics, crockery and glass industries. 



Insecticide. 

Used as primer in explosives with nitroglycerine. 

I'sed as drier in paints. Also used in glazes and enamels. 

Mineral occurring in nature from which lead is sometimes produced. 

Accelerator in manufacture of rubber. 

Solution of about %% PbSiF 6 and 11% ILSiFe used as electrolyte in 
electrolytic refining of lead. 

Principally used as drier in paint and varnish. For this purpose it 
is dissolved in turpentine while warm. 

Used in manufacture of other lead salts, matches, fireworks, in- 
secticides. 

L'sed as drier in varnish. Also used in rubber and lubricants. 

Principally used as drier in paints. For this use it is dissolved in 
petroleum solvent or mixture of turpentine and petroleum thinner. 

L'sed as a drier in varnish and lacquer. 

Mineral occurring in nature from which lead is sometimes 
produced. 

Most common mineral from which lead is extracted. 

l'sed as primer in explosives. 

Used as anti-knock ingredient in motor fuels. 

Widely used in oil refining, referred to as "doctor solution". 



*Compiled with the assistance of the Lead Industries Association. 



Q-4 

GENERAL DATA 




DATA RELATIVE TO CHEMICAL LEAD PIPES FOR HEATING COILS 



Inside Diam- 
eter of Pipe 


Maximum 
Steam Pressure 


Corresponding 
Temperature 


Pipe Classi- 


Pipe Outside 
Diameter 


Weight 


per Ft. 


Sq. Ft. Surface 
Area per 100 Ft. 


in Inches 


Lbs. per Sq. 


[H. 


in °F. 


fication 


in Inches 


Lbs. 


Ozs. 




Length 


% 


30 




274 


C 


1.006 


1 - 


12 




26.3 


:! . S 


40 




287 


A 


1.156 


3 






30.3 


% 


50 




298 


AA 


1.212 


3 - 


8 




31.75 


1 


30 




274 


i; 


1.356 


3 - 


1 




35.5 


1 


40 




287 


AA 


1.492 


4 - 


12 




39.05 


1 


50 




298 


Special 


1.61 


6 - 


2 




42.15 


m 


30 




274 


A 


1.67 


4 - 


12 




43.7 


\H 


in 




287 


AAA 


1.889 


7 - 


12 




49.4 


IX 


50 




298 


Special 


2.012 


9 - 


10 




52.65 



SAFE WORKING PRESSURES 

For Calculating Safe Working Pressure of Pipe 
at Various Temperatures 



Temperature 


°C. 


°F. 


20 


68 


30 


86 


40 


104 


50 


122 


60 


140 


70 


158 


80 


176 


90 


194 


100 


212 


110 


230 


120 


248 


130 


266 


140 


284 


150 


302 


160 


320 


170 


338 


180 


356 


190 


374 


200 


392 


210 


410 


220 


428 


230 


446 


240 


464 


247 


477 


327 


621 



Equivalent 

Steam Gauge 

Pressure 

Lbs. per 

Sq In. 





6 

14 

24 
38 
55 
75 

99 
131 

167 
210 
261 
323 
390 
470 
535 



Maximum 

Allowable Fiber Stress 

in Lbs. per Sq. In. 



Tellurium 

or Chemical 

Lead 



200 
190 
180 
172 
162 
153 
144 
136 
127 
118 
110 
100 
90 
80 



6% 

Anti.monial 

I. had 



400 
370 
340 
310 
280 
254 
2i22 
195 
165 
137 
110 
80 
50 







The formulas to be used with the above values are: 

2 ST PD 

P= orT = 

D 2S 

Where P is the safe working pressure in lbs. per sq. inch 

S is the maximum allowable fiber stress from above 

table 
T is thickness of pipe wall in inches 
D is internal diameter in inches. 
Sometimes it is advisable to use wall thicknesses greater than 
those derived from the above equation for mechanical or 
structural reasons. Where corrosion is anticipated, it is well to 
provide additional wall thickness. 



HEATING COIL FORMULA 

For Calculating Length of Lead Pipe Needed 
for Heating Solutions — Time 1 hour 



Mean temperature 
difference °F. = 



(T-Ti)-(T-T 2 ) 



2.3 logio 



(T-TQ 
(T-T 2 ) 



where T = Temperature of steam or heating 
medium in °F. 
I 1 ! = Initial temperature of solution in °F. 
T 2 = Final temperature of solution in °F. 

Length of pipe required = 

VxWX(T 2 -T,)XSpXl2 



HXMXDX3.1416 



where V 
W 

Tn 



= Volume of solution in gallons 
= Weight of solution in lbs. per gal. 
= Temperature to which solution is to 
be heated in °F. 
. = Initial temperature of solution in °F. 
Sp = Specific heat of solution 
H =Heat transfer in B.t.u./sq. ft./°F./hr. 
= 150 
= Mean temperature difference °F. 
= Outside diameter of lead pipe in 
inches 



T, 



M 
D 



NOTE: H varies with the thermal conductivity of the solu- 
tion, the density of the solution and the amount of stirring. As a 
general figure H= 150 when convection currents function well 
or there is mild stirring. For a more thorough consideration of 
heat transfer problems, engineering books on the subject 
should be consulted. 



TEMPERATURE CONVERSION 

From Fahrenheit to Centigrade— Subtract 32, mul- 
tiply by five -ninths. 

From Centigrade to Fahrenheit — Multiply by nine- 
fifths, add 32. (Also sec Page Q- 13) 




Q-5 
GENERAL DATA 



FEET OF PIPE REQUIRED TO HEAT AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS 



TIME 


NOMINAL 


STEAM PRESSURE 


IN LBS., SO. 


IN. 


TIME 
FOR 


NOMINAL 
PIPE 


STEAM PRESSURE 


IN LBS./SQ. 


IN. 


HEAT- 


OUTSIDE 














HEAT- 


OUTSIDE 














ING 


DIAME- 
TER IN 


3 


10 


25 


50 


100 


150 


ING 

62° F. 


DIAME- 
TER IN 


3 


10 


25 


50 


1 00 


150 


TO 


INCHES 














TO 


INCHES 














212° F. 
















212° F. 




















FEET OF PIPE 


PER GALLON 






y 2 


FEET OF PIPE 


PER GALLON 






Vi l 


83 


.99 


.72 


.54 


.40 


.32 


.46 


.25 


.18 


.14 


. 10 


.08 




M l 


38 


75 


.55 


.41 


.30 


24 




:l ( 


.35 


.19 


.14 


.11 




(IS 


.06 




1 1 


08 


.59 


.43 


.32 


.24 


.19 




1 


.27 


15 


.11 


.08 




06 


.05 


i ., | ],- 


1 't 


83 


.45 


.33 


.24 


.18 


.15 


2 Mrs. 


IX 


.21 


.12 


.09 


.06 




05 


.04 




1 '•> 


71 


J8, 


.28 


.21 


.15 


12 




p. 


.18 


. 10 


.07 


.06 




04 


.03 




I 


55 


.30 


.22 


.16 


.12 


.10 




2 


. 14 


.08 


.06 


.04 




03 


.05 


2 l A 


46 


.25 


.18 


.14 


.10 


.08 




iy> 


.12 


.07 


.05 


.04 




03 


.02 




'., 


92 


.50 


.36 


.27 


.20 


.16 








i 


69 


.38 


.28 


.21 


.15 


.12 




















54 


.30 


.22 


.16 


.12 


.10 


















1 Mr. 


p.; 

2 


42 
36 
28 


.23 
.19 
.15 


.17 
.14 
.11 


.12 

. 1 1 
.08 


.09 
.08 
.06 


.08 
.06 
.05 




















2'., 


23 


.13 


.09 


.07 


.05 


.04 





















FLOW OF WATER IN HOUSE SERVICE PIPES 



(in cu. ft. per min,)* 
Thomson Meter Co. 



Conditions of Discharge 



Pressure 
in Main 
Lbs. per So. In. 



Nominal Diameters of Lead Service Pipe in Inches 



;^S 



I' 





30 


1.10 


1.92 


3.01 


6.13 


16.58 


33.34 




40 


1.27 


2.22 


3.48 


7.08 


19.14 


38.50 


Through 35>' of Service Pipe, 


50 


1.42 


2.48 


3.89 


7.92 


21.40 


43.04 


No Back Pressure 


60 


1.56 


2.71 


4.26 


8.67 


23.44 


47.15 




75 


1.74 


3.03 


4.77 


9.70 


26.21 


52.71 




100 


2.01 


3.50 


5.50 


11.20 


30.27 


60.87 




130 


2.29 


3.99 


6.28 


12.77 


34.51 


69.40 




30 


0.66 


1.16 


1.84 


3.78 


10.40 


21.30 




40 


0.77 


1.34 


2.12 


4.36 


12.01 


24.59 


Through 100' of Service Pipe, 


50 


0.86 


1.50 


2.37 


4.88 


13.43 


27.50 


Xo Back Pressure 


60 


0.94 


1.65 


2.60 


5.34 


14.71 


30.12 




75 


1.05 


1.84 


2.91 


5.97 


16.45 


33.68 




100 


1.22 


2.13 


3.36 


6.90 


18.99 


38.89 




130 


1.39 


2.42 


3.83 


7.86 


21.66 


44.34 




30 


0.55 


0.96 


1.52 


3.11 


8.57 


17.55 




in 


0.66 


1.15 


1.81 


3.72 


10.24 


20.95 


Through 100' of Service Pipe 


50 


0.75 


1.31 


2.06 


4.24 


11.67 


23.87 


and 15' Vertical Rise 


60 


0.83 


1.45 


2.29 


4.70 


12.94 


26.48 




75 


0.94 


1.64 


2.59 


5.32 


14.64 


29.96 




100 


1.10 


1.92 


3.02 


6.21 


17.10 


35.00 




130 


1.26 


2.20 


3.48 


7.14 


19.66 


40.23 




30 


0.44 


0.77 


1.22 


2.50 


6.80 


14.11 




in 


0.55 


0.97 


1.53 


3.15 


8.68 


17.79 


Through 100' of Service Pipe 


50 


0.65 


1.14 


1.79 


3.69 


10.16 


20.82 


and 50' Vertical Rise 


60 


0.73 


1.28 


2.02 


4.15 


11.45 


23.47 




75 


0.S4 


1.47 


2.32 


4.77 


13.15 


26.95 




100 


1.011 


1.74 


2.75 


5.65 


15.58 


31.93 




130 


1.15 


2.02 


3.19 


6.55 


18.07 


37.02 



NOTE: In this table it is assumed that the pipe is straight and smooth inside, that the friction of the main and meter are 
disregarded, that the inlet from the main is of ordinary character, sharp, not flaring or rounded, and that the outlet is the run 
diameter of the pipe. The exact details of the conditions given are rarely met in practice, consequently the quantities ot the taDie 
may be expected to be decreased, because bends may interpose, or stop-cocks may be used, or back pressure may be increased, etc. 

*To find the discharge in gallons, multiply by 7.48. 



Q-6 

GENERAL DATA 



SPECIFICATIONS FOR PIG LEAD ASTM (B29-43) 

Chemical Requirements 



Silver, max., per cent 

Silver, min., per cent 

Copper, max., per cent 

Copper, min., per cent 

Silver and copper together, max,, per cent 

Arsenic, max., per cent 

Antimony and tin together, max., per cent 

Arsenic, antimony and tin together, max., per cent. 

Zinc, max., per cent 

Iron, max., per cent 

Bismuth, max., per cent 

Lead (by difference), min., per cent 







COMMON 


SOFT 


CORRODING 


CHEMICAL 


DESILVERIZED 


UNDESILVERIZED 


LEAD* 


LEAD* 


LEAD A* 


LEAD* 


0.0015 


0.020 
0.002 


0.002 


0.002 


0.0015 


0.080 
0.040 


0.0025 


0.04 


0.0025 








0.0015 








0.0095 










0.002 


0.015 


0.015 


0.0015 


0.001 


0.002 


0.002 


0.002 


0.002 


0.002 


0.002 


0.05 


. 005 


0.15 


. 005 


99.94 


99.90 


99 . 85 


99.93 



*Explanatory Note: 

Corroding lead is a designation that has been used for many years in the trade to describe lead which has been refined to a 
high degree of purity. 

Chemical lead has been used for many years in the trade to describe the undesilverized lead produced from Southeastern 
Missouri ores. , 

Common desilverized lead A is a designation that is used to describe lully refined desilverized lead. 

Soft undesilverized lead is used in the trade to describe the type of lead produced from ores of the Joplin, Mo. district. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR SLAB ZINC (SPELTER) ASTM (B6-37) 

Chemical Requirements 



Lead, max., per cent 

Iron, max., per cent 

Cadmium, max., per cent 

Aluminum 

Sum of lead, iron, cadmium, max., per cent, 



SPECIAL 






GH GRADE 


HIGH GRADE 


PRIME WESTERN 


0.007 


0.07 


1.60 


0.005 


0.02 


0.08 


0.005 


0.07 




Xone 


Xone 




0.010 


0.10 





MELTING POINTS 



DEGREES 

c 

Aluminum 652 

Antimony 630 

Bismuth 271 

Brass/Copper —67 

\Zinc -33 910-930 

Cadmium 321 

Chromium 1550 

Cobalt 1490 

Copper 1083 

Gold 1063 

Lead 327 

Magnesium 651 

Manganese 1242 

Mercury —39 

Nickel 1452 

Phosphorus . 44 

Platinum 1773 

Silver 960 

Steel 1375 

Sulfur 113 

Tin 232 

Tungsten. 3370 

Zinc 419 





WEIGHT 


DEGREES 


PER CUBIC 


F 


INCH 




LBS. 


1215 


.0975 


1167 


.2391 


520 


.3541 


1670 1706 


.3060 


610 


.3125 


2822 


.2579 


2714 


.3216 


1982 


.3230 


1946 


.6973 


621 


.4090 


1204 


.0628 


2268 


.2680 


-38 


.4890 


2646 


.3220 


111 


.0657 


3224 


.0774 


1760 


.3788 


2506 


.2833 


235 


.0750 


450 


.2640 


6098 


.6980 


787 


.2580 



EUTECTICS OF LEAD 



Melting Point of Eutectics of Lead with Other Metals: 

other metal per cent by weight temp. ° c. 

Silver Ag 2.3 304 

Arsenic As 2.8 292 

Gold Au 15 215 

Barium Ba 4.5 291 

Bismuth Bi 56.5 125 

Cadmium... Cd 17.4 248 

Magnesium, . Mg 3 250 

Palladium . . . Pd 5 265 

Platinum. . . . Pt 5 290 

Antimony . .Sb 12.5 251 

Tin.........Sn 62 183 

Zinc Zn .5 318 



Q-7 
GENERAL DATA 



INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC WEIGHTS, 1941 



Actinium! , Ac 

Alabaminef Afa 

Aluminum Al 

Americiumf Am 

Antimony Sb 

Argon A 

Arsenic As 

Barium Ba 

Beryllium Be 

Bismuth Bi 

Boron B 

Bromine Br 

( !admium Cd 

Calcium Ca 

Carbon C 

Cerium Ce 

Cesium Cs 

Chlorine CI 

Chromium Cr 

Cobalt Co 

Columhiimi Cb 

Copper Cu 

Curium! Cm 

Dysprosium . Dy 

Erbium Er 

Europium Eu 

Fluorine F 

Gadolinium Gd 

Gallium C.a 

( Germanium. Ge 

Gold Au 

Hafnium Ill 

Helium He 

1 lolmium Ho 

I tydrogen H 

Illiniumf II 

Indium In 

Iodine , I 

Iridium Ir 

I ron Fe 

Krypton Kr 

Lanthanum La 

Lead Pb 

Lithium Li 

Lutecium Lu 

Magnesium Mg 

Manganese Mn 

Masurium! Ma 

Mercury Hg 

Molybdenum Mo 



ATOMIC 
NUMBER 

89 
85 
13 
95 
51 
18 
33 
56 

4 
83 

5 
35 
48 
20 

6 
58 
55 
17 
24 
27 
41 
29 
96 
66 
68 
63 

9 
64 
31 
32 
79 
72 

> 

67 

1 

61 

-1" 
53 
77 
26 
36 
5 7 
82 
3 
71 
12 
25 
43 
80 
42 



ATOMIC 
WEIGHT 

227 

221 
26.97 

241 

121.76 
39.944 
74.91 

137.36 
9.02 

209.00 
10.82 
79.916 

112.41 
40.08 
12.010 

140.13 

132.91 
35.457 
52.01 
58.94 
92.91 
63.57 

242 

162.46 

167.2 

152.0 
19.00 

156.9 
69.72 
72.60 

197.2 

178.6 
4.003 

1 64 . 94 
1.008 

146 

114.76 

126.92 

193.1 
55 . 85 
83.7 

138.92 

207.21 
6 . 940 

174.99 
24.32 
54.93 
99 

200.61 
95 . 95 



ATOMIC 

NIMIIKH 



ATOMIC 
WEIGHT 



Neodymium Nd 60 144.27 

Neon N e 10 20 ! 183 

Neptunium! Np 93 237 

Nickel Ni 28 58.69 

Nitrogen N 7 14 . 008 

Osmium Os 76 190.2 

Oxygen O 8 16.0000 

Palladium Pd 46 106.7 

Phosphorus P 15 30.98 

Platinum Pt 78 195.23 

Plutoniumf . Pu 94 239 

Polonium! Po 84 210 

Potassium K 1 ( ' 39.096 

Praseodymium Pr 59 140.92 

Protactinium Pa 91 231 

Radium Ra 88 226.05 

Radon Rn 86 222 

Rhenium Re 75 186.31 

Rhodium Rh 45 102.91 

Rubidium Rb 37 85 .48 

Ruthenium Ru 44 101.7 

Samarium Sm 62 150.43 

Scandium Sc 21 45 . 10 

Selenium So 34 78.96 

Silicon Si 14 28.06 

Silver \g 47 107.880 

Sodium Na II 22.997 

Strontium Sr 38, 87 . 63 

Sulfur S 16 32.06 

Tantalum Ta 73 180.88 

Tellurium Te 52 1 27 .61 

Terbium Tb 65 159.2 

Thallium Tl 81 204.39 

Thorium Th 90 232.12 

Thulium Tm 69 169.4 

Tin Sn 50 118.70 

Titanium Ti 22 47.90 

Tungsten W 74 183.92 

Uranium IT 92 238 . 07 

Vanadium V 23 50 . 95 

Virginium! Vi 87 224 

Nenon Xc 54 131 .3 

Ytterbium Yb 70 173.04 

Yttrium Y 39 88.92 

Zinc Zn 30 65.38 

Zirconium Zr 40 91.22 

!Data not as yet established by International Committee on 
Atomic Weights. 

Elements 43, 85 and 87 are also called, respectively, Tech- 
netium (Tc), Astatine (A+) and Francium (Fy). 



'Report of International Committee on Atomic Weights, /. Am. Clictn. Sac, 63,850 ( 1941 ). 



DENSITY DATA FOR LEAD, TIN AND THEIR ALLOYS 



Wt, in Wt, IN 
Density Lbs. per Lbs. per 
Metal (Water— 1) Cu. In, Cu. Ft. 

Lead 11.36 .410 70S 

Tin 7.30 .264 453 

5% Tin 95% Lead 11.00 .397 686 

10% Tin 90% Lead 10.70 .386 667 

25% Tin 75% Lead 9.95 .359 620 

30% Tin 70% Lead 9.70 .350 605 

35% Tin 65% Lead 9.50 .343 593 

40% Tin 60% Lead 9.30 .336 581 



Wt. in Wt. in 

Density Lbs. per Lbs. per 

Metal (Water— 1) Cu. In. Cu. Ft. 

45% Tin 55% Lead 9.10 .328 567 

50% Tin 50% Lead 8.89 .321 555 

55% Tin 45% Lead 8.70 .314 542 

60% Tin 40% Lead 8.50 .3058 528 

6% Antimony 94% Lead. . . 10.8S .392 679 

8% Antimony 92% Lead.. . 10.74 .388 674 

10% Antimony 90% Lead. . . 10.59 .382 664 

12% Antimony 88% Lead. . . 10.52 .380 655 



Q-8 

GENERAL DATA 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY 
DEGREES BAUME TABLE 

For Three Common Acid Solutions 



COMPARISON OF BAUME SCALE 
AND SPECIFIC GRAVITY 

Liquids Heavier Than Water 1 



Phosphoric Acid 






%H 3 PO< 


SPECIFIC GRAVITY 


°BAUME 


1 


1.0038 


0.6 


10 


1.0532 


7.3 


20 


1.1134 


14.8 


30 


1.1805 


22.2 


40 


1 .254 


29.4 


50 


1.335 


36.4 


; 60 


1.426 


43.3 


- 70 


1.526 


50.0 


80 


1 . 633 


56.2 


90 


1.746 


62.0 


100 


1.870 


67.5 


Zinc Chloride 






%ZnCl, 


SPECIFIC GRAVITY 


°BAUME 


2 


1.0167 


2.4 


10 


1.0819 


11.0 


20 


1.1866 


22.8 


30 


1.2928 


32.8 


40 


1.4173 


42.7 


50 


1.5681 


52 . 5 


60 


1.749 


62.1 


70 


1.962 


71.1 


Sulphuric Acid 






%H I SG« 


SPECIFIC GRAVITY 


°BAUME 


I 


1.0051 


0.7 


10 


1.0661 


9.0 


20 


1.1394 


17.7 


30 


1.2185 


26.0 


40 


1.3028 


33.7 


50 


1.3951 


41.1 


60 


1.4983 


48.2 


70 


1.6105 


55 . 


80 


1.7272 


61.1 


90 


1.8144 


65.1 


97 


1 . 8364 


66.0 


100 


1.8305 


65.8 



APPROXIMATE BOILING POINTS OF H;S0 4 AT 
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE 



50 


'Be 


—295 F 


60 


ii 


-386 F 


61 


ii 


— 400 F 


62 


" 


—415 F 


63 


» 


—432 F 


64 


" 


—451 F 


05 


" 


—485 F 


66 


" 


—538 F 



DEGREES 
BAUME 


SPECIFIC 
GRAVITY 


POUNDS PER 
GALLON 


1) 


1.000 


8.328 


5 


1.036 


8.625 


ID 


1.074 


8.945 


15 


1.115 


9.289 


20 


1.160 


9.660 


25 


1.208 


10.063 


30 


1.261 


10.501 


35 


1.318 


10.978 


40 


1.381 


11.501 


45 


1.450 


12.076 


50 


1.526 


12.711 


55 


1.611 


13.417 


60 


1.706 


14.207 


65 


1.813 


15.094 


66 


1 . 835 

... 145 
= 14.-) 


15.285 



sp. gr. 



CONVERTING METERS TO FEET 



METERS 


FOOT EQUIVALENT 


METERS 


FOOT EQUIVALENT 


1 


3 . 2808 


26 


85.3008 


2 


6.5616 


27 


88.5816 


3 


9.8424 


28 


91.8624 


4 


13.1232 


29 


95.1432 


5 


16.4040 


30 


98.4240 


6 


19.6848 


31 


101.7048 


7 


22.9656 


32 


104.9856 


8 


26.2464 


33 


108.2664 


9 


29.5272 


34 


111.5472 


in 


32 . 8080 


35 


114.8280 


11 


36.0888 


36 


118.1088 


L2 


39.3696 


37 


121.3896 


13 


42 . 6504 


38 


124.6704 


14 


45.9312 


39 


128.0512 


IS 


49.2120 


40 


131.2320 


16 


52.4928 


41 


134.5128 


17 


55.7736 


42 


137.7936 


18 


59 . 0544 


43 


141.0744 


1') 


62.3352 


44 


144.3552 


20 


65.6160 


45 


147.6360 


21 


68 . 8968 


46 


150.9168 


21 


72.1776 


47 


154.1976 


23 


75.4584 


48 


157.4784 


24 


78.7392 


49 


160.7592 


25 


82.0200 


51) 


164.0400 



: 



[ 




Q-9 
GENERAL DATA 



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LEAD 

Atomic number 82 

Atomic weight ■ ■ ■ 207.21 

Density— 20°C, cast 1 1 -35 

327.4°C, solid H-005 

327.4°C, liquid 10.686 

550°C, liquid 10.418 

Atomic volume • • 18.27 

Melting point, °C 327.4 

Boiling point °C, at 760 mm. pressure 1700 

Specific heat, per °C, cal per g 0.030 

Latent heat of fusion, cal per g 5.47-6.26 

Coef. of linear expansion (17-100°C), per °C. . . . 0.0000293 
Thermal conductivity, cal. /cm. 2 /cm. /°C. /sec. 

at room temperature 0.083 

Electrical resistivity, microhm cm 20.65 

Modulus of elasticity in tension 0.8-2.0 million 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF TIN 

Atomic number 50 

Atomic weight 118.7 

Density— 20°C, cast 7-29 

Atomic volume 16.23 

Melting point, °C. 232 

Boiling point °C, at 760 mm. pressure 2270 

Specific heat, per °C, cal per g 0.054 

Latent heat of fusion, cal per g 14.4 

Coef. of linear expansion (17-100°C), per °C. . . . 0.000023 
Thermal conductivity, cal. /cm. 2 /cm. /°C. /sec. 

at room temperature 0.157 

Electrical resistivity, microhm /cm 11.5 

Modulus of elasticity in tension 5.9-7.8 million 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC 

Atomic number 30 

Atomic weight 65.38 

Density— 20 G C, cast 7 -l 4 

Melting point °C 419 - 4 

Boiling point °C, at 760 mm pressure 907 

Coef. of linear expansion (17-100°C.),per°C 0.000033 

Thermal conductivity, cal. /cm. 2 /cm. /°C. /sec 0.268 

Electrical resistivity, microhm /cm 6.0 

Color Bluish White 

f Brittle at ordinary temperatures 
Character ■ . . \ Malleable at 100°C. (212°F.) 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ANTIMONY 

Atomic number ~* 

Atomic weight 'In 

Density 6 „°2 

Melting point °C °30 

Boiling point °C, at 760 mm pressure I 440 

Coef. of linear expansion (17-100°C), per °C 0.0000113 

Thermal conductivity, cal. /cm. 2 /cm. /°C. /sec °- 50 

Electrical resistivity, microhm /cm 2.67 

Color Blue-white 



Character 



Brittle 



Q-10 

GENERAL DATA 




-i 



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF COPPER 

Atomic number 29 

Atomic weight 63.57 

Density— 20°C 8.94 

Melting point, °C 1083 

Boiling point, °C. at 760 mm. pressure 2595 

Coef. of linear expansion (17-100°C), per°C 0.0000164 

Specific heat, per °C, cal. per g 0.0919 

Latent heat of fusion, cal. per g 50.46 

Electrical resistivity, microhm /cm 1 .682 

Thermal conductivity, cal. /cm. 2 /cm. /sec. /°C 0.923 



PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF OTHER METALS 



Metal and Chemical Symbol 



Aluminum, pure (Al). . . 

Arsenic (As) 

Bismuth (Pi) 

Brass, (67 Cu, 35 Zn . . 
Brass, (80 Cu, 20 Zn) .. 

Cadmium, cast (Cil). . . 

Calcium (Ca). 

Chromium (Cr) 

Cobalt (Co) 

Gold, pure, cast (Au).. 

Iridium (Ir) 

Iron, pure (Fe) 

Iron, cast, 4% Carbon. 

Magnesium (Mg) 

Manganese (Mn) 

Mercury (Hg) 

Nickel, cast (Ni) 

Platinum (Pt) 

Potassium (K) 

Silver, pure (Ag) 

Sodium (Na) 

Steel, soft, .1% Carbon 

Tellurium (Te) 

Titanium (Ti) 

Tungsten (W) 



Density 



2.70 
5.73 
9.80 
8.47 
8.62 

8.65 
1.55 
7.148 
8.9 
19.3 

22.4 
7.87 
7.03 
1.74 
7.44 

13.546 

8.9 
21.45 

0.86 

10.5 

0.97 

7.87 
6.24 
4.5 
19.3 



VVt. Lds. 

Per 
Cu. In. 



.0975 
.2070 
.3541 
.3060 
.3113 

.3125 
.0560 
.2579 
.3216 
.6973 

.809 

.284 
.2538 
.0628 
.268 

.489 
.322 
.774 
.031 

.38 

.035 

.2843 

.224 

.163 

.698 



Coefficient 

of Linear 

Expansion per 

°F. at Room 
Temperature 



Melting Points 



.0000133 

.00000214 

.00000747 

.0000106 

.0000100 

.0000166 
.0000139 
.0000045 
.0000067 
.00000S0 

.0000035 
.0000066 
.0000066 
.0000143 
.0000128 



.0000076 
.0000043 
.000046 
.0000105 

.0000395 

.0000066 

.0000093 

.00000396 

.0000022 



Taiir. 



1215 

*1497 

520 

1670-1706 

1769-1814 

610 
1564 
2822 
2714 
1945 

4368 
2795 
2102 
1204 
2268 

-38.0 

2645 

3224 

144.1 
1761 

207.5 
2732-2804 

S46 
3272 
6098 



Boiling Points 
at 760 mm. Pressure 



'Cent. 



652 

*S14 

271 

910-930 

965-990 

321 

851 
1550 
1490 
1063 

2409 
1535 
1150 
651 
1242 

-39 

1452 

1773 

62 

960 

97.5 

1500-1540 

452 

1800 

3370 



°Faiir. 



2733 
4139 

2642 



1413 
2709 
4500 
5252 
5371 

8852 
5430 

2025 
3904 

674 
5252 
7933 
1425 
3634 

1638 
5430 
1989 
9212 
10700 



"Cent, 



1500 
*615 
1450 



767 
1487 
2482 
2900 
2966 

4900 
3000 

1107 
2151 

357 
2900 
4390 

774 
2001 

892 
3000 
1087 
5100 
5927 



'Under pressure. Sublimes without melting at ordinary pressure. 




Q-ll 
GENERAL DATA 



THERMAL DATA FOR COMMON METALS AND ALLOYS 



Mean 

Specific 

Heat60°F. 

TO M.P., 
B.T.U. PER 

Metal Lb. per°F. 

Aluminum 0.248 

Antimony 0.054 

Bismuth 0.033 

Cadmium 0.058 

Copper 0.104 

Lead.... 0.032 

tin 0.069 

Zinc* 0.101 

Alloys Composition 

Babbitt 

Lead Base: 75 Pb, 15 Sb, 10 Sn 0.039 

Tin Base: 83.3 Sn, S.4 Sb, 8.3 Cu 0.071 

Die Casting 

Zinc Base: 95.86 Zn , 4.1 Al , 0.04 Mgf . . 0.105 

Tin Base: 90 Sn, 4.5 Cu, 5.5 Sb 0.070 

Lead Base: 80 Pb, 10 Sn, 10 Sb 0.038 

Aluminum: 92 Al, 8 Cu 0.236 

Linotype: 86 Pb, 1 1 Sb, 3 Sn 0.036 

Low Melting Point Metalst 

Lipowitz: 26 Pb, 13 Sn, 10 Cd, 51 Bi.. . 0.041 

Wood's: 26 Pb, 13 Sn, 12 Cd, 49 Bi... 0.041 

Rose's: 28 Pb, 22 Sn, 50 Bi 0.043 

Plumbers' Solder: 50 Pb, 50 Sn 0.051 

Stereotype: 82 Pb, 15 Sb, 3 Sn 0.036 







Total 






Total 


Heat in 




Heat 


Mean 




Heat in 


Solid at 


Latent 


in Liquid 


Specific 


Average 


Liquid at 


Melting 


Heat 


at Melting 


Heat of 


Pouring 


Pouring 


Temp., 


of Fusion, 


Temp., 


Liquid 


Temper- 


Temp., 


B.T.U. 


B.T.U. 


B.T.U. 


B.T.U. PER 


ature 


B.T.U. 


per Lb. 


per Lb. 


per Lb. 


Lb. per°F. 


°F. 


per Lb. 


286.4 


169.1 


455.5 


0.252 


1380 


497.1 


59.7 


70.0 


129.7 


0.054 


1320 


138.0 


15.1 


18.5 


33.6 


0.035 


620 


37.2 


37.4 


19.5 


56.9 


0.074 


750 


67.3 


199.9 


90.8 


290.7 


0.111 


2200 


314.9 


18.0 


9.9 


27.9 


0.032 


720 


31.1 


26.9 


24.9 


51.8 


0.060 


650 


63.8 


73. 


44. 


117. 


0.122 


900 


131. 



15.S 


26.2 


42.0 


0.038 


625 


48.2 


28.6 


34.1 


62.7 


0.063 


916 


91.2 


69. 


49. 


lis. 


0.127 


770 


131. 


27.6 


30.3 


57.9 


0.062 


650 


70.3 


20.5 


17.4 


37.9 


0.037 


820 


46.0 


257.3 


163.1 


420.4 


0.241 


1400 


480.8 



15.3 



21.5 



36.8 



0.036 



620 



41.6 



3.6 


12. 


15.6 


0.041 


190 


17.2 


3.6 


12. 


15.6 


0.042 


190 


17.2 


6.1 


13. 


19.1 


0.041 


330 


23.8 


18.1 


23.0 


41.1 


0.046 


500 


45.1 


15.5 


26.2 


41.7 


0.036 


620 


46.4 



*From Industrial Gas Series, "Combustion" 3rd Edition, Am. Gas Assn. IData revised by National Lead Company 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CAST LEAD-ANTIMONY ALLOYS 











Tensile 








Brinell 




Strength 




Antimony 


LlQUIDUS 


Hardness 




Lbs. per 


Elongation 


% 


°F. 


No. 


Density 


So. In. 


% 





621 


4.0 


11.35 


1780 


80 


1 


612 


7.0 


11.26 


3400 


16 


2 


602 


8.0 


11.18 


4200 


16 


3 


590 


9.1 


11.10 


4700 


15 


4 


578 


10.1 


11.03 


5660 


22 


S 


565 


11.0 


10.95 


6360 


29 


6 


552 


11.8 


10.88 


6840 


21 


7 


539 


12.5 


10.81 


7 ISO 


21 


S 


527 


13.3 


10.74 


7420 


10 


9 


515 


14.0 


10.66 


7580 


17 


10 


505 


14.6 


10.59 


7670 


15 


11 


496 


14.8 


10.52 


7620 


13 


12 


489 


15.0 


10.45 


7480 


12 


12.5 


485 


15.1 


10.42 


7380 


11 


13 


492 


15.2 


10.3S 


72SO 


10 


14 


496 


15.3 


10.30 


7000 


9 



Q-12 

GENERAL DATA 




TABLE OF DECIMAL EQUIVALENTS 



Decimal 



%i 015625 

L£ 03125 

56 ° 46875 

Me ° 625 

% 078125 

s& 09375 

Jti 10 9375 

H 125 

o^ 140625 

Mi 15625 

%.' 1'1875 

Ke I8 75 

is^ 203125 

J£ 21875 

% 234375 

K ■•■ -25 



Fraction 



Decimal 



1% 265625 

%, 28125 

% 296875 

Kg 3125 

% 328125 

% 34375 

23^ 359375 

% 375 

:% 390625 

% 40625 

27£ 421875 

Kg «75 

2% 453125 

% 46875 

3^4 484375 

^ 5 



Fraction 



Decimal 



3% 515625 

% 53125 

»%.... •. .. .546875 
.. .5625 



ic. • 



% 578125 

% 59375 

*% 609375 

% 62 5 

% 640625 

2i^ 2 65625 

% 671875 

% 6875 

% 703125 

2%, 'I 875 

% 734375 

X 75 



Fraction 



Decimal 



*%i 765625 

2^ 2 78125 

% 796875 

% 8125 

% 828125 

1%, S4375 

«Kt 859375 

H «75 

% 890625 

2%, 90625 

% 921875 

% W75 

% 953125 

3^2 %875 

«% 984375 

1 1. 



POUNDS 





Ounces Pounds 


Ounces Pounds 


Ounces Pounds 


Ounces Pounds 


Ounces Pounds 




14= .015625 
y ? = .03125 


2Y 2 = .15625 


5M= -3438 


83/2= -5313 


14 = .875 




3 = .1875 


6 = .375 


9 = .5625 


15 = .9375 




34= .046875 


3H= .21875 


6K= .4063 


10 - .625 


16 =1. 




1 = .0625 


4 = .25 


7 = .4375 


11 = .6875 






\]4= .09375 


4J4= .2813 


71^= .4688 


12 = .75 






2 = .125 


5 = .3125 


S = .5 


13 = .8125 






COMPARISON OF GAUGES 



No. 



0000000 

000000 

00000 

0000 

000 

00 



1 

2 
3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 
9 

ID 

11 
12 
13 
14 
15 



Birmingham 

OR 

Stubs 



American 

or 

Brown & Sharpe 



.454 
.425 
.380 
.340 

.300 
.284 
.259 
.238 
.220 

.203 
.180 
.165 
.148 
.134 

.120 
.109 
.095 
.083 
.072 



.460 
.40964 
.3648 
. 324".6 

. 28930 
.25763 
.22942 
.20431 
.18194 

. 16202 
.14428 
.12849 
.11443 
.10189 

.09074 
.0S081 
.07196 
.06408 
.05707 



United States 
Standard 



.3 
.46875 

.4375 

.40625 

.375 

.34375 

.3125 

.28125 

.265625 

.25 

.234375 

.21875 

.203125 
.1875 
.171875 
.15625 
. 140625 

.125 

.109375 

.09375 

.078125 

.0703125 



No. 



16 

IV 
18 
19 
20 

21 

22 
23 
24 

IS 

26 
11 
28 
29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 

37 
38 
39 

40 



Hi 



KMINT.HAM 
OR 

Stubs 



.065 
.058 
.049 
.042 
.035 

.0315 

.028 

.025 

.022 

.020 

.018 
.016 
.014 
.013 
.012 

.010 
.009 
.008 
.007 
.005 

.004 



American 

or 

Brown & Sharpe 



.05082 
.04525 
. 04030 
.03589 
.03196 

.02846 

.025347 

.022571 

.0201 

.0179 

.01594 

.014195 

.012641 

.011257 

.010025 

.008928 

.00795 

.00708 

.00603 

.00561 

.005 
. 00445 
.003965 
.003531 
.003144 



United States 
Standard 



.0625 

.05625 

.05 

.04375 

.0375 

.034375 

.03125 

.028125 

.025 

.021875 

.01875 

.0171875 

.015625 

.0140625 

.0125 

.0109375 

.01015625 

.009375 

.00859375 

.0078125 

.00703125 
.006640625 
00625 




Q-13 
GENERAL DATA 



MENSURATION 



to obtain multiply 

Annulus 

Area of Diff. of sq. of diam. . 

" Diff. of sq. of radii. . 

Circle 

Area of Cireum 

" Cireum 

" Cireum. 2 

" Diameter 2 

" Radius 2 

Cireum. of Diameter 

" Radius 

Diam. of Cireum 

Radius of Cireum 

- Side of equal square 

of Cireum. of circle .... 

Diam. ol circle 

Side of inscribed 

equal, triangle ol . Diam. of circle 

Side of inscribed 

square of Cireum. of circle. . . . 

Side of inscribed 

square of Diam, of circle 

( n\i;, Regular 

Volume of Area of base 



BY 



0.78540 
3.1416 



} oXradius 

H Xdiamcter 

0.0795 

0.7854 

3.1416 

3.1416 

6.2832 

0.3183 

0.1591 



Cone, Right Circular 

Lateral area of . . . . Radius of base , 



Volume of (Radius ol base) 2 . . . 

Cube 

Diagonal of Length of one side. . 

Total surface area 

of Area ol one side. . . . 

Volume of Area of one side. . . . 



(Length of one side) 3 . 



Cycloid 

Area of (Radius of circle)' 2 . 

Length of arc of. . . Radius of circle . . . 



Cylinder, Hollow 
External surface 

area of External radius. . . 

Internal surface 

area of Internal radius. . . . 

Volume of Diff. of sq. of radii . 

Cylinder, Truncated Right Circular 

Lateral area of . . . . Perimeter of base. . 

Volume of Area of base 



Ellipse 

Area of Product of axes 

" Product of semi-axes. 

Fillet 

Area of (Radius of circle) 2 . . . 

Parabola 

Area of section of. . Max. width of section . 



0.2821 
0.8861 

0.8660 

0.2251 

0.7071 

HjXallttude 



3.14l6Xslant 

height 
l.0472Xallitude 



1.7321 



Length of one 

side 
1 



9.4248 



6.2832 Xheight 

6.2832 Xhcight 
3.1416Xheight 



Average height 
Average height 



0.7854 
3.1416 



0.2146 



%X length of 

cord 



to obtain 

Parallelogram 
Area of 



Prism, Rectangular 
Volume of 



Length of base 
Area of base . . 



by 
Altitude 
Altitude 



Prism, Regular 
Lateral area of. . . . 
Volume of 



Perimeter of base. 
Area of base 



Altitude 
Altitude 



Pyramid, Regular 
Lateral area of. . . 
Volume of 



Perimeter of base. 
Area of base 



H^Xslan! height 
.'•3Xallilude 



Rectangle 
Area of . . 



Rhombus 

Area of . 

Sector 
Area of . 



Length of base Altitude 

Product of diagonals, lo 
Length of arc. . . . 



Sphere 

Side ol inscribed 

cube of 

Surface of 



Volume of. 



Radius. . . . 
Cireum. . . . 
Diameter 2 . 

Cireum. 3 . . 
Diameter 3 . 
Radius* , . . 

Surface. . . . 



2 X radius 



1.1547 

Diameter 

3.1416 



Volume of inscribed 
cube of 

Trapezoid 

Area of 



0.0169 
0.5236 
0.4188 
, l eXdiameter 



Radius 3 1.5395 



Triangle 
Area of . 



Sum of parallel sides. 
Length of base 



J^Xaltitude 

1 >Xaltitude 



TEMPERATURE CONVERSION 



TO CONVERT FROM 

Degrees Centigrade 
Degrees Centigrade 
Degrees Centigrade 
Degrees Fahrenheit 
Degrees Fahrenheit 
Degrees Reaumur 
Degrees Reaumur 



Degrees Fahrenheit 
Degrees Absolute* 
Degrees Reaumur 
Degrees Centigrade 
Degrees Reaumur 
Degrees Centigrade 
Degrees Fahrenheit 



SUBSTITUTE IN 
FORMULA 

(°C.X9/5)+32 
(°C.+273.18) 
CC.X4/5) 
(°F.-32)X5/9 
(°F.-32)X4/9 
("Reaumur X 5/4) 
("Reaumur X 
9/4)4-32 



*or Kelvin or Rankin 

PREFIXES 

PREFIX meaning numerical VALUE 

Micromicro- . . One-trillionth 0.000,000,000,001 or 10- 1 

Millimicro-. . . One-billionth 0.000,000,001 10- 9 

Micro- One-millionth 0.000,001 lO- 6 

Milli- One-thousandth.. 0.001 10- 3 

Centi- One-hundredth. . . 0.01 10- 2 

Deci- One-tenth 0.1 10- 1 

Deka- Ten 10 • 10 

Hecto- One hundred 100 10 2 

Kilo- One thousand 1,000 10 3 

Mega- One million 1,000,000 10 6 



J 



Q-14 

GENERAL DATA 



j 



DIAMETERS, CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES IN INCHES 

including contents in gallons at one foot in depth. 



Diameter 


ClRCUM. 


Area 


Gallons 


Diameter 


ClRCUM 


Area 


Gallons 


Inches 


Inxhes 


Sq. Ins. 


1 Ft. Depth 


Inches 


Inches 


Sq. Ins. 


1 Ft. Depth 


1 in 


3 1416 


.7854 


.04084 


6V 2 


20.420 


33.183 


1.72552 


u 

3% 


3 5343 


.9940 


.05169 


H 


20.813 


34.471 


1.79249 


3.9270 


1.2271 


.06380 


H 


21.205 


35.784 


1.86077 


4 3197 


1.4848 


.07717 


Vs 


21.598 


37.122 


1.93034 




4.7124 


1.7671 


.09188 


7 in. 


21.991 


38.484 


2.00117 


Vs 

% 
y% 

2 in 


5.1051 


2.0739 


.10784 


H 


22.383 


39.871 


2.07329 


5.4978 


2.4052 


.12506 


H 


22.776 


41.282 


2.14666 


5.8905 


2.7611 


.14357 


Vs 


23.169 


42.718 


2.22134 


6.2832 


3.1416 


.16333 


¥2 


23.562 


44.178 


2.29726 


X 


6.6759 


3.5465 


.18439 


Vs 


23.954 


45.663 


2.37448 


Vi 


7.0686 


3.9760 


.206V5 


U 


24.347 


47.173 


2.45299 


V* 


7.4613 


4.4302 


.23036 


Vs 


24.740 


48.707 


2.53276 


u 


7.8540 


4.9087 


.25522 


8 in, 


25.132 


50.265 


2.61378 


u. 


8.2467 


5.4119 


.28142 


H 


25.515 


51.848 


2.69609 


% 


8.6394 


5.9395 


.30883 


% 


25.918 


53.456 


2.77971 


7 < 


9.0321 


6.4918 


.33753 


% 


26.310 


55.088 


2.86458 




9.4248 


7.0686 


.36754 


H 


26.703 


56.745 


2.95074 


14 


9.8175 


7.6699 


.39879 


Vs 


27.096 


58.426 


3.03815 




10.210 


8.2957 


.43134 


Z A 


27.489 


60.132 


3.12686 


10.602 


8.9462 


.46519 


v% 


27.881 


61.862 


3.21682 


y% 

% 

7 A 


10.995 


9.6211 


.50029 


9 in. 


28.274 


63.617 


3.30408 


11.388 


10.320 


.53664 


M 


28.667 


65.396 


3.40059 


11.781 


11.044 


.57429 


U 


29.059 


67.200 


3.49440 


12.173 


11.793 


.61324 


% 


29.452 


69.029 


3.58951 


4 in. 


12.566 


12.566 


.65343 


y% 


29.845 


70.882 


3.68586 


Vs 
H 

H 
M 
H 


12.959 


13.364 


.69493 


% 


30.237 


72.759 


3.78347 


13.351 
13.744 


14.186 
15.033 


.73767 
.78172 


H 


30.630 
31.023 


74.662 
76.588 


3.88242 
3.98258 


14.137 


15.904 


.82701 


10 in. 


31.416 


78.540 


4.08408 


14.529 


16.800 


.87360 


% 


31.808 


80.515 


4.18678 


:i i 


14.922 


17.720 


.92144 


u 


32.201 


82.516 


4.29083 


7 'K 


15.315 


18.665 


.97058 


Vs 


32.594 


84.540 


4.39608 




15.708 


19.635 


1.02102 


y% 


32.986 


86.590 


4.50268 


H 


16.100 


20.629 


1.07271 


% 


33.379 


88.664 


4.61053 


16.493 


21.647 


1.12564 


% 


33.772 


90.762 


4.71962 


K 


16.886 


22.690 


1.17988 


y% 


34.164 


92.885 


4.82846 


17.278 


23.758 


1.23542 


11 in. 


34.557 


95.033 


4.94172 


17.671 


24.850 


1.29220 


H 


34.950 


97.205 


5.05466 


18.064 


25.967 


1.35028 


M 


35.343 


99.402 


5.16890 


18.457 


27.108 


1.40962 


% 


35.735 


101.623 


5.28439 


6 in. 


18.849 


28.274 


1.47025 


y* 


36.128 


103.869 


5.40119 




19.242 


29.464 


1.53213 


Vs 


36.521 


106.139 


5.51923 


19.635 


30.679 


1.59531 


% 


36.913 


108.434 


5.63857 


20.027 


31.919 


1.65979 


H 


37.306 


110.753 


5.75916 



These tables are theoretically correct, but variations must be expected in practice. 







Q-15 
GENERAL DATA 



DIAMETERS, CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES IN FEET 

including contents in gallons at one foot in depth. 



Diameter 


ClRCUM. 


Area 


Gallons 


Diameter 


ClRCl'M. 


Area 


Gallons 


Ft. 


In. 


Ft. In. 


So. Ft. 


1 Ft. Depth 


Ft. 


In. 


Ft. In. 


So. Ft. 


1 Ft. Depth 


1 




3 IH 


.7854 


5.8735 


4 


8 


14 VA 


17.1041 


127.9112 


1 


1 


3 4^ 


.9217 


6.8928 


4 


9 


14 11 


17,7205 


132.5209 


1 


2 


3 8 


1 .0690 


7.9944 


4 


10 


15 2Jg 


18.3476 


137.2105 


1 


3 


3 11 


1.2271 


9.1766 


4 


11 


15 sh 


18.9858 


142.0582 


1 


4 


4 2K 


1.3962 


10.4413 


5 




15 8} 2 


19.6350 


146.8384 


1 


5 


4 5? £ 


1.5761 


11.7866 


5 


1 


15 ll? s 


20.2947 


151.7718 


1 


6 


4 8^ 


1.7671 


13.2150 


5 


2 


16 23 4 ' 


20.9656 


156.7891 


1 


7 


4 ny 8 


1.9689 


14.7241 


5 


3 


16 53 4 ' 


21.6475 


161.8886 


1 


8 


5 1% 


2.1816 


16.3148 


5 


4 


16 9 


22.3400 


167.0674 


1 


9 


5 5^ 


2.4052 


17.9870 


5 


5 


17 0» s 


23.0437 


172.3300 


1 


HI 


5 9 


2.6398 


19.7414 


5 


6 


17 3J 4 


23.7583 


177.6740 


! 


11 


6 2J4 


2.8852 


21.4830 


5 


7 


17 6? s 


24.4835 


183.0973 


2 




6 3H 


3.1416 


23.4940 


5 


8 


17 9 5 s 


25.2199 


188.6045 


2 


1 


6 6M 


3.4087 


25.4916 


5 





18 03-4 


25.9672 


194.1930 


2 


2 


6 9M 


3.6869 


27.5720 


5 


10 


18 3% 


26.7251 


199.8610 


2 


3 


7 0% 


3.9760 


29.7340 


5 


11 


18 l}i 


27.4943 


205.6133 


2 


4 


7 3^ 


4.2760 


32.6976 


6 




18 10 ] s 


28.2744 


211.4472 


2 


5 


7 7 


4.5869 


34.3027 


6 


3 


19 7} 2 


30.6796 


229.4342 


2 


6 


7 10M 


4.9087 


36.7092 


6 


I! 


20 4? 8 


33.1831 


248.1564 


2 


7 


8 1?8 


5.2413 


39.1964 


6 


9 


21 23 s 


35.7847 


267.6122 


2 


8 


8 4^ 


5.5850 


41.7668 


7 




21 11 Js 


38.4846 


287.8230 


2 


9 


8 7% 


5.9395 


44.4179 


7 


3 


22 9J 4 


41.2825 


308.7270 


2 


10 


8 10M 


6.3049 


47.1505 


7 


6 


23 6% 


44.1787 


330.3859 


2 


11 


9 1J* 


6.6813 


49.9654 


7 


9 


24 4!g 


47.1730 


352.7665 


3 




9 5 


7.0686 


52.8618 


8 




25 1 J 2 


50.2656 


375.9062 


3 


1 


9 SJ4 


7.4666 


55.8382 


8 


3 


25 11 


53.4562 


399.7668 


3 


2 


9 11^ 8 


7.8757 


58.8976 


8 


6 


26 8? g 


56.7451 


424.3625 


3 


3 


10 2H 


8.2957 


62.0386 


S 


9 


27 5 3 4 


60.1321 


449.2118 


3 


4 


10 5^ 


8.7265 


65.2602 


9 




28 3 } i 


63.6174 


475.7563 


3 


5 


10 8M 


9.1683 


68.5193 


9 


3 


29 5 s 


67.2007 


502.5536 


3 


6 


10 UK 


9.6211 


73.1504 


9 


6 


29 10 J s 


70.8823 


530.0861 


3 


7 


11 3 


10.0846 


75.4166 


9 


9 


30 7^2 


74.6620 


558.3522 


3 


8 


11 6H 


10.5591 


78.9652 


10 




31 5 


78.5400 


587.3534 


3 


9 


11 93/g 


11.0446 


82.5959 


10 


3 


32 2H 


82.5160 


617.0876 


3 


10 


12 OH 


11.5409 


86.3074 


10 


6 


32 \\% 


86.5903 


647.5568 


3 


11 


12 3% 


12.0481 


90.1004 


10 


9 


$3 9\i 


90.7627 


678.2797 


4 




12 6H 


12.5664 


93.9754 


11 




34 6? i 


95.0334 


710.6977 


4 


1 


12 9% 


13.0952 


97.9310 


11 


3 


35 4)s 


99.4021 


743.3686 


4 


1 


13 1 


13.6353 


101.9701 


11 


6 


36 1 ] 2 


103.8691 


776.7746 


4 


3 


13 4K 


14.1862 


103.0300 


11 


9 


36 10 J s 


108.4342 


810.9143 


4 


4 


13 7M 


14.7479 


110.2907 


12 




37 8 j^s 


113.0976 


848.1890 


4 


5 


13 10H 


15.3206 


114.5735 


12 


3 


38 5M 


117.8590 


881.3966 


4 





14 13/s 


15.9043 


118.9386 


12 


6 


39 3J4 


122.7187 


917.7395 


4 


7 


14 4^ 


16.4986 


123.3830 


12 


9 


40 0? s ' 


127.6765 


954.8159 



These tables are theoretically correct, but variations must be expected in practice. 



Q-16 

GENERAL DATA 




4 



PRODUCTS OF NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY 



PRODUCTS OF THE 

SHEET LEAD 

Antimonial 

Chemical 

Common 

Crawlproof 

Tellurium 

Tellurium- Ant imonia 1 . 

Special Alloy 

LEAD PIPE 



Antimonial 

" Chemical 

Common 

Tellurium 

Tellurium- Antimonial 
Special Alloy 

FITTINGS, PUMPS, VALVES 

Bends, Lead or Lead Alloy 
Bends and Ferrules, Combination 
Cocks, Antimonial Lead Plug 
Ferrules, Combination 
Fittings, Cast Antimonial Lead 
Flanges, Closet Floor, Hard Lead 
Pumps, Antimonial Lead 
Soldering Nipples, Combination 
Traps, Lead or Lead Alloy 
Valves, Antimonial Lead 

LINED OR COVERED 
PRODUCTS 

Acid Recovery Equipment 
Bars, Lead-Covered Steel 
Chemical Apparatus, Lead-Lined 
Coils, Lead-Lined Copper 
Lead-Covered Copper 
Tin-Lined Copper 
Tin-Covered Copper 
Fittings, Lead- or Tin-Lined 
Impellers, Lead- or Tin-Covered 
Pipe, Lead-Lined Iron, Brass, Copper 
or Steel 

Lead-Covered Iron, Brass, Cop- 
per or Steel 
Tin-Lined Iron, Brass, Copper or 

Steel 
Tin-Covered Iron, Brass, Copper 

or Steel 
Tin-Lined Lead 
Pumps, Tin-Lined Lead 
Sheets, Lead-Covered Steel 
Tank Cars, Lead-Lined 
Tank Connections, Lead- or Tin-Lined 

or Covered 
Tanks, Lead- or Tin-Lined 
Valves, Lead- or Tin-Lined 
Wire, Lead-Covered Iron, Copper or 
Monel 

OTHER PRODUCTS 

Acetate oi Lead 

Barium Sulphate 

Barytes 

Basic Lead Chromate 

Basic Lead Sulphate 

Castor Oil 

Colors, Dry and in Oil 

Drier, Liquid 



METAL DIVISION 

BEARING METAL 

Dutch Boy and Hoyt Brands 
Special Shapes 
Special Composition 

SOLDER 

Dutch Boy Brands 
Rosin and Acid Core 
Solder Fluxes 
Solder Paints 
Special Shapes 
Special Composition 



CINCH ANCHORING SYSTEM 

Expansion Bolts 

BLATCHFORD PLATE 
MOUNTING SYSTEM 

HOMOGENEOUS LEAD 
EQUIPMENT 

See Lined or Covered Products 



TYPE METALS 

Combination Metal 

Linotype — Intertype 

Ludlow 

Monotype 

Sorts Caster 

Stereotype — Autoplate 

Special Mixtures 

MISCELLANEOUS 
PRODUCTS 

Alloys, Lead, Tin or Zinc Base 

Aluminum Solder 

Anodes, Lead, Tin or Special Alloy 

Antimony 

Antimonial Lead 

Balls. Lead 

Bars, Lead or Tin 

Battery Straps 

Bearings 

Bearing Plates, Lead 

Bottles, Lead 

Britannia Metal 

Burning Bar 

Came Lead 

Castings, Special 

Caulking Lead 

Chemical Lead 

C. T. Metal 

Coils, Lead, Tin or Special Alloy 

Common Lead 

Electrotype Cases 

Electrotype Metal 

Extruded Shapes, Special 



Drilling Muds (Oil Well) 

Flake White 

Flatting Oil 

Flaxseed, Ground, Meal or Cake 

Hyposulphite oi Lead 

Lead Mixing Oil 

Linseed Cake 

Linseed Oil 



Flux, Blatchford 

Flux, Solder 

Fuse Wire 

Gaskets, Lead 

Gasket Metal 

Glazier's Lead 

Grid Metal 

Guards, Metal 

Hammer Metal 

Hammers, Lead or Babbitt 

Hardening Lead 

Impression Lead 

Ingot Lead 

Key Leads 

Kirksite A 

Leads, Printers 

Mold Metal, Rubber 

Music Plates 

Needle Metal 

Net Leads 

Organ Pipe Metal 

Ornaments, Lead 

Pewter 

Phosphor Tin 

Pig Lead 

Pig Tin 

Pinking Blocks 

Pipe, Tin 

Plates, Lead 

Pulverized Metals 

Ribbon, Tin or Lead 

Roof Flanges 

Rooting Washers 

Sash Weights, Lead 

Screens, Lead 

Sheet Tin 

Shredded Lead 

Sinkers, Lead 

Sleeving, Lead 

Shot, Lead 

Sounding Leads 

Spacers, Lead 

Spelter 

Stamping Metal 

Tellurium Lead 

Tellurium-Antimonial Lead 

Tempering Lead 

Tinning Compound 

Tint Plates 

Tube Blanks 

Tubing, Lead, Tin or Special Alloy- 
Washers, Lead 

Wedge Lead 

Weights, Miscellaneous Lead 

White Copper Stamping Metal 

Wire, Lead, Tin or Special Alloy 

Wool, Lead 

Zinc 

Zinc Base Alloys 



Litharge 
Liquid Lead 
Orange Mineral 
Red-Lead 
Red-Lead Paint 
Titanium Pigments 
Wall Primer 
White-Lead 



1 

I 




R-l 
INDEX 



INDEX 



KEY TO INDEX — The material in this catalog is divided into eighteen sections. Except for the Introduction, 
the sections are identified by letters which appear at the top of every page near the outer corner. The 
sections are in alphabetical order. 

Products and other items are indexed by letters and numbers. The letters indicate the sections. The 
number indicates the page in the section. 



Item 



Section 
and 
Page 



A, 



.cid Core Solder D 

Acids Used with Lead Q 

Addresses, National Lead Company Branches , . . VII 

Alloys, Zinc Base, Die or Slush Casting. ...... M - 

Anchoring Specialties, Cinch H 

Anchors, Lead Screw . . H - 

Anodes, Tin O 

Antimony N 

Antimony, Physical Properties of Q 

Atomic Weights Q 

Auto Body Solder D 



B, 



►abbitt Metal ... J 

Bar Lead G 

Bar Solder, Dutch Boy D 

Bar Tin O 

Battery Grid Metal ... L 

Bearing Metal 

Bearing Metal, Dutch Boy 

Bearing Metal, Hoyt Brand 

Bearing Metal, Hoyt No. 11 

Bearings, Satco-Lined , 

Bends and Ferrules, Combination B 

Bends and Nipples, Combination B 

Bends, Lead B 

Blanks, Tube G - 

Blatchford Metal Flux K 

Blatchford Plate Mounting System K 

Blatchford Type Metals K 

Block Tin Products O 

Bcdy Solder, Auto D - 

Branch Addresses, National Lead Company ... VII 

Britannia Metal .... N - 



- 6 
-10 

- 6 

- 5 

- 3 
S 

- 1 

- 1 

- 6 



wame Lead 

Casting Alloys 

Caulking Lead 

Caulking Tool, Cinch Brand 

Chemical Formulas of Commonly Used Lead Compounds 

Chemicals Used with Lead 

Cinch Anchoring Specialties 

Circles, Measurements of 

Coatings, Lead Alloy 

Combination Bends and Ferrules 

Combination Ferrules 

Combination Metal 

Combination Soldering Nipples 

Comparison of Baume Scale and Specific Gravity . . 

Conversion, Temperature 

Converting Meters to Feet 

Copper, Physical Properties of 

C. T. Metal 

Cylinder, Cinch 



G - 4 

M - 1 

F - 1 

H - 4 

Q - 3 

Q - 1 

H - 1 

Q -14 

G - 6 

B - 6 

B - 6 

K - 3 

B 10 

Q - 8 

Q -13 

Q 8 

O 10 

M - 2 

H - 4 



D, 



ecimal Equivalents Q -12 

Decimal Equivalents, Ounces and Pounds Q -12 

Density Data — Lead, Tin and Their Alloys Q - 7 

Drill, Cinch Brand Four-Point H-4 



Section 
and 
Page 



Drum Traps B-4 

Dutch Boy Trademark VIII 



.Cjlectrctype Cases K 

Electrotype Metal K 

Eutectics of Lead Q 

Expansion Bolts H 



JT errules, Combination B 

Fittings, Plumbers' Lead B 

Flanges, Lead Roof G 

Flashing, Sheet Lead C 

Flatting Oil P 

Floors, Sheet Lead for C 

Flux Core Solders, Dutch Boy D 

Fluxes E 

Fluxrite Wire Solder D 

Fusible Alloys D 



V^asket Metal N 

Gaskets, Lead . . G 

Gauges, Comparison of Wire Q 

Glazier's Lead G 

Grid Metal L 



H, 



■ ardening Lead G 

Hard Lead Closet Floor Flanges B 

Hard Lead Drum Cap Screws B 

Hard Lead Ferrules B 

Heating Coil Formula Q 

Heating Coils, Data on Pipe for Q 



I 



mpression Lead K 

Ingot Lead F 

Ingot Tin O 



K, 



• irksite A Alloy. 
Kirksite Die Plant . 



M 

M 



J_l aboratory Traps B 

Lead Alloy Coatings G 

Lead-Antimony Alloys, Properties of Q 

Lead, Physical Properties of Q 

Lead-Tin Alloys, Melting Points of D 

Linotype Metal K 

Linseed Oil P 

Low-Melting Solders D 



6 
1 
3 
3 
2 
8 
5 
- 1 
5 
12 



2 

2 

12 

4 
■ 1 



- 4 

- 6 
-11 

- 9 
-11 

- 1 
2 

12 



M, 



.elting Points of Metals Q— 6 

Mensuration Q —13 



R-2 



INDEX 




INDEX (Continued) 



Metals and Alloys, Thermal Data on Q -11 

Metals, Physical Properties of Q ^ 

Monotype Metal v ~ i 

Mounting System, Blatchford Plate v ~ a 

Music Plates K - 4 

JNI alco Fluxes J " \ 

Nalco Solder Paint wtV 

National Lead Company, Branch Offices vu 

National Lead Company, Products of Q Jo 

Nipples, Combination Soldering » 1U 

Niton Alloy g ° 

Non-Siphon Traps, Ulco to 

No. 11 Bearing Metal, Hoyt J « 

Xaint Materials, Dutch Boy n ~ n 

Pecos Solder 2 l 

Pewter " l 

Pig Lead nlfi 

Pig Lead Specifications U ° 

P' Tin O — 2 

Pipe, Lead, Feet Reguired to Heat Cleaning Solutions . Q - 5 

Pipe, Lead, for Water Service and Plumbing .... A 1 

Pipe, Lead, for Water Service and Plumbing, Sizes . A 4 

Pipe, Tin 2 1 

Plate Mounting System, Blatchford £>~ io 

Prefixes Sift 

Products of National Lead Company U -Ao 

Pulverized Lead So 

Pulverized Tin u ~ * 

Red Lead \~\ 

Reducing Bends, Lead no 

Ribbon or Tape Lead J* ^ 

Ribbon or Tape Tin )-> * 

Ring Wedge Cinch Anchor £_o 

Roof Flange Extensions n _ o 

Roof Flanges, Lead n _o 

Roofing, Sheet Lead for £ | 

Rcofing Washers, Lead « ^ 

Rosin Core Solder u s 

feafe Working Pressure Table n a 

Sash Weights, Lead t I r 

Satco-Lined Bearings . . . J ° 

Service Pipe, Water Flew in House W o 

Sheet Lead in Building Construction C ^ 

Sheet Lead, Sizes and Weights r\ 

Sheet Tin )> % 

Shot, Lead o_a 

Shower Pans, Sheet Lead for ^ ° 

Silver Content Solders n K 

Slab Zinc Specifications U ° 

Slab Zinc (Spelter) N - 4 



Slush Casting Alloys M - 1 

Solder D - 1 

Solder, Auto Body 5 o 

Solder Wire Gauges D - 8 

Soldering Nipples, Combination B -10 

Solders, Dutch Boy Bar D ■ - 3 

Solders, Flux Core So 

Solders, Special 5 q 

Sorts Caster Metal K -3 

Sound-Deadening, Sheet Lead for C - b 

Specifications for Pig Lead Q - 6 

Specifications for Slab Zinc S ~ o 

Specific Gravity Tables So 

Spelter (Slab Zinc) N - 2 

Stainless Steel Solder D -7 

Stereotype Metal K-2 

1 able Tops, Sheet Lead for C 8 

Tanks, Contents of Q -14 

Tape Lead S ~ 

Tape Tin O - 2 

Temperature Conversion W lo 

Thermal Data Q -11 

Tinning Compound ^ b 

Tin, Physical Properties of Q 9 

Tin Products 2 ~ \ 

Tint Plates K _ r ___ 4 

Trademark, Dutch Boy VI11 

Traps, Drum 5 I i 

Traps, Laboratory p o 

Traps, Lead v ~ a 

Traps, Ulco Non-Siphon B - 4 

Tube Blanks £ ^ ? 

Tubing, Lead v ~ ] 

Type Metals K - 1 

Washers, Lead ~ 3 

Wedge Lead « ~ j 

Weights, Lead Sash G - 4 

Weights, Minimum for Plumbing Pipe A - 4 

White Lead J* - J 

Wire Gauges, Comparison of f? d 

Wire Gauges, Solder H ? 

Wire, Lead or Lead Alloy G - 1 

Wire, Solder R ~? 

Wire, Tin V o 

Wool, Lead ¥ - A 

^^-Ray Protection, Sheet^Lead for C - 4 

Zinc Base Alloys M - 1 

Zinc, Physical Properties of U ^ 

Zinc, Slab (Spelter) N-Z 






L 



NATI 



COMPANY!