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B H A R A TA-M U N 1 









1, Park Street. 
, 1951 

Work No. 272 





A Treatise on Hindu Dramaturgy and Histrionics 

Ascribed to 

B H A R A T A - M f X I 

Vol. I. ( Chapters I-XXVII ) 

Completely translated jor the jirst time from the original Sanskrit 
with m Introduction and Various Notes 

M .U'OMOH A N (iHOS H M.A., Pn. I). <OAt,) 

H'M 195y 


si,** \*>a^ 



the memory of 

thom great scholars of India. and the West 

mho by their indefatigable study and. ingenious interpretation 
of her Religion, Philosophy, Literature and Arts, have demon- 
strated the high ealiie of India- s culture to the World at large and 
ham helped her towa.nls a reawakening and political alteration., 


who by their discovery of the Universal aspect of this culture 
have made patent India's spiritual kinship with the other ancient 
nations of the World and ham paved the way for an ultimate 
triumph of Internationalism. 


The preparation 'of an annotated English translation of the 
Natya&stra entrusted to me as early as 1944, by the Royal Asiatic 
Society, has been delayed for various reasons which need not 
be recounted here in detail. But mention must be made of one 
important factor of this delay, viz., the inherent difficulty of this 
very old text which is not yet available in a complete critical edition. 
From my first serious acquaintance with it in 1925 in connection 
with the editing of the Abhinayadarpana (Calcutta, 1934) this work 
has always engaged my attention in the intervals of other duties. 
But it was only a few years ago, that I came to believe that the 
'entire work could be translated into English. It was, however, only 
after making some actual progress in translation that I realised the 
difficulty ef the task and understood to some extent at least why 
no complete translation of this veiy important text had so far not 
been mada. 

However, I considered it a duty to make strenuous efforts 
and proceeded patiently with the work and finished at last translat- 
ing the major portion of the Natyasastra. I am now genuinely 
happy to place it before the scholarly public, not because it could 
be done in an ideal fashion, but because it could be finished at all. 

In handling a difficult old text like this it it natural that one 
has to offer conclusions and interpretations, here and there, which 
due to the absence of better materials cannot be placed on surer 
grounds. But whatever tentative assertions I have made, have 
been made after the most careful consideration with the expectation 
that they may prove helpful to others working in this field, and it 
may be hoped that their number has not been too many, and in a 
few cases where I myself had any doubt about the interpretation 
offered, the same has been expressly mentioned in the footnote. 

The chapters on music covering a little more than one fourth 
of the Natyasastra still remain to be done. These when completed 
will be published in the second volume. As the work on it, is 
progressing very slowly and it cannot be said definitely when it will 
be finished, it was thought advisable to publish the portion of 
the translation already prepared. Though the musical terms occur- 
ring in the present volume remain undefined, the absence of chap- 
ters on music where they have been discussed, will not, it is hoped, 
seriously interfere with the understanding of the dramaturgy and 
histrionics treated here. 

For information regarding the plan and scope of the present 
work, the reader is referred to the Introduction, section I. 

For the purpose of this volume, works of various scholars 
have been helpful to the translator and they have been mentioned 


in proper places. But among them all, the American Sanskritist 
Dr. G. C. 0. Haas deserves to be specially mentioned ; for his 
plan of the translation of the Dasarupa, has been adopted in a 
slightly modified manner in the present work. , 

I am indebted to Dr. 8. K. De, due to whose kindness I 
could utilise the unpublished portion of the AbinavabhSratl It is 
also a great pleasure to acknowledge the uniform courtesy of 
different officers of the Society from 1947-1950, especially Dr. K.N. 
Bagchi, and Dr. Niharanjan Ray, the General Secretaries and 
Mr. S. K. Saraswati, the Librarian and Mr. Rakhahari Chatterji. 
the Superintendent of the office, whose patience I had to tax on 
different occasions in course of the publication. 

I am grateful to my father-in-law Sri Kali Charan Mitra 
who read the original draft of the first fourteen chapters of the 
present work and made suggestions regarding the language, and to 
my esteemed friend Dr. S. N. Ray, M.A.,Ph.D. (London) formerly 
Head of the Department of English in the University of Dacca, 
for reading the proof of the first twelve formes and also for going 
through in Mss. the Introduction and for making welcome 

I wish to mention here vciy gratefully the debt I owe to 
Dr. Kalidas Nag in connexion with the preparation and the publi- 
cation of this work. But for his suggestion to undertake this work 
it might not have reached at all the stage of publication. 

Last but not the least it becomes my most cheerful duty to 
express my gratitude to Prof. Suniti Kumar Chatterji, who has 
also helped me otherwise in connexion with this work. This 
help and his constant encouragement have rendered this work less 
arduous than it might otherwise have been. 

™„ ta Iwf d hei ' e *'* *P° lo g«f t0 t^ refers for the many mis- 
prints that have crept into the volume. They are requested to make 
kindly, the necessary corrections pointed out in the corrigenda. 

»tk November, I960 Th TnMgahr 



Ag.j Abhinava 

A3, notes. 









det ' 
De's Ms. 
















... The first hemistich of a verse. 

... Bhasa's Abhisekanataka. 

... Nandikesvara's Abhinayadarpana. 

... Arthadyotanika, Raghavabhatta's commentary 

on the sakuntala. 
... Abhinavagupta or his commentary of the 

... Ardhamagadhi. 
... Bhasa's Avimaraka. 
... Kautilya's Arthasastra (ed. Jolly). 
... Kautilya's Arthasastra (ed. Jolly). Vol. II. 
... Baroda ed. of the Natyasastra. 
... The second hemistich of a verse. 
... Bhasa's Balacarita. 
... Bhamaha's Kavyalamkara. 
... Bhasa-nataka-cakra ed. by C. R. Devadhar 
... Saradatanaya's Bhavaprakasana. 
... Chowkhamaba (Benares) edition of the 

... The third hemistich in a stanza. 
... Bhasa's Carudatta. 
... Chandah-sara-samgraba. 
... Dandin's KavyadarSa. 
... Definition or definitions. 
... The Ms. of the Abhinavagupta's commentary 

(Abhinavabharati) belonging to Dr. S. K. De. 
... Dhananjaya's Dasarttpa. 
... Bhasa's Dutaghatotkaca. 
... Bhasa's Dutavakya. 
... Example or examples. 
... Nobel's Foundation of Indian Poetry. 
... J. Grosset's edition of the Natyasastra. 
... Gaikwar's Oriental Series. 
... Haas's translation of the DaSarupa. 
... Indian Antiquary. 
... Indian Historical Quarterly. 
... Sten Konow's Indische Drama. 
... Haldar's Vyakarana-darsaner Itihasa. 
... Journal of the Dept. of Letters, 

Calcutta University. 
. ,.. Vidyalamkara's JivanikoSa. 







Natakalaksana. \ 
' NL., / 

















B., Bam. 






SV Pr. 


tr., trans. 


,. Kavyamala ecL of the Natyasastra. 
.. Hemaeandra's Kavyanusasana. 

Bhasa's Karnabhara. 
.. Ramakrishna Kavi or his commentary to 

.. Vatsyayana's KamasBtra. 
... Kalidasa's Kumarasambhava. 
... Damodaragupta's Kuttanimata. 
... Sylavain LeVi's Le Thfttre indien. 
,.. Bhasa's Madhyamavyayoga. 
... BhavabhSti's Malatlmadhava. 
... Kalidasa's Mai vikagnimitra. . 
... Coomaraswamy's Mirror of Gestures- 
... i&draka's Mrcchakatika.. . 
... Vi&khadatta's Mudrarak§asa. 
... Sagaranandin's Natakalaksanaratnakofo. 

... Ramacandra and Gunaeandra's Natyadarpana. 

... New Indo-Aryan. 

... Nitti-Dolci's Le Grammairiens Prakrit. 

... Natyasastra. 

... Purana. 

... Pafcaratra 

... Panini. 

... Pangala's CltandalistUra. 

... Pischel's Grammatik der Prakrit-spraehen. 

... Praki'ta-Paingala. 

... Pratisakhya. 

... Prakarana. 

... Bhasa's Pratima-nataka. 

... Bhasa's Pratijna-yaugandharayana. 

... Paniniya-Siksa. 

... Paia-sadda-mahannavo. 

... Ramayana. 

... Harsa's Ratnavali. 

... Kalidasa's Rtusamhara. 

... Kalidasa's Abhijflanasakuntala. 

... Sahityadarpana. 

... Sarngadeva's Samgitaratnakara. 

... Bhoja's Srngaraprakafo. 

... Bhasa'B Svapavasavadatta. 

... translation or translated. 

... Uttararamacarita of BhavabhQti. 


jj rU , ... Bhasa's Urubhariga. 

Vikram. ... Kalidasa's Vikramorva&ya. 

Winternitz. ... Winternitz's History of Indian Literature. 

NJS. (a) Numerals preceding the paragraphs of the translation relate 
to the serial number of couplets in the original. When the same number 
is repeated in two consecutive paragraphs, in the first place it will indicate 
the first hemistich and in the second the second hemistich. Roman figures 
relate to the chapter of the NS. 

* (b) For the "manner of referring to dramas, see under the Bhasa- 
nataka-cakra in the'Bibliography (Original Texts). 

(c) In the footnotes to the Introduction long : vowels, cerebral 
sounds andjthe labial sibilant have been indicated by italics. 

1, General Works 

Barua, B. M. .- Inscriptions of Asoka, Vol. II, Calcutta 1943. 

Chatterji,S. K. -Origin and Development of the Bengal, 

Language, Calcutta, 1926- 

Coomaraswamy, A, K. ... The Mirror of Gestures, New York, 1936. 

De, S. K. - Sanskrit Poetics : Vol. I and II, 

London, 1903, 1926. 

Ghosh, Chandramohan ... Chandahsarasamgraha (CSS ), Calcutta. 

Haldar, Gurupada ... Vyakarana-darsaner Itihasa (Itihasa). (An his- 
torical account of the grammatical speculation # of the Hindus 
in Bengali), Calcutta. 1350 B.E. 

Jolly, J. ... Hindu Law and Customs, Calcutta, 1929. 

Keith, A. B. ... Sanskrit Drama, Oxford, 1924. 

Konow, Sten. ... Das Indische Drama. Berlin, 1920. 

Levi, Sylvain ... Lo Theatre indien, Paris, 1890. 

Mankad, D. R. ... Typos of Sanskrit Drama, Karachi, 1936. 

Nitti-Dolci, L. ... Les Grammairiens Prakrit, Paris, 1938. 

J. Nobel. ... Foundation of Indian Poetry, Calcutta, 1925. 

PischeliR. ... Grammatik der Prakrit-sprachen, . 

Strassburg, 1900. 

Pusalker ... Bhasa, Lahore, 1940. 

Raghavaa, V. ... Sfngara-Prakasa, Bombay, 1940. 

Seth, H. D. ... Paiasaddamahannavo, Calcutta, 1928. 

Sircar, D.C. ... Select Inscriptions bearing on Indian History 

and Civilization, Calcutta, 1942. 

Vidyalamkar, S. B. ... Jivanikosa (A dictionary of the Puranic mytho- 
logy in Bengali), Calcutta. 

2. Original Texts 

Abhinavabharati (Ag.) ... On chapters I-XX ed. Ramakrishna Kavi in B. 
On chapters XXI-XXVII and XXIX-XXXH the Ms. of 
Dr. S. K. De. Reference to the Ms. are to its pages. Printed 
portion of the commentary when referred to, relates to the 
relevant text in B. 

Abhinayadarpana of Nandikesvara ( AD. ). Ed. Manomohan Ghosh 
Calcutta, 1934. 

Abhisekauataka (Abhi.). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 

Arthadyotanika. Nirnayasagara ed. 

Avimaraka. Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 

Arthasastra of Kautilya (AS.). Ed. J. Jolly, Vols I and II, Lahore, 1923-24. 

VUararamacarita ofBhavabhati (Uttara.). Ed. Ratnam Aiyar, Bombay 1930. 
Vrubhanga (tJru.> Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 
£tusamhara of. 'Kalidasa. Ed. Jivananda Vidyasagar, Calcutta, 1893., 
Karnabhara (Karna ). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 
Kavyadarsa ofiDandin. Ed. N. Sastri, Lahore, 1990, Samvat. 
Kavyalannkara of Bhamaha. Ed. B. N. Sarma and B. Upadhyaya Chow- 
khamba. Benares, 1928. 

Kavyalainkara^fjVaniana, Ed. K.P. Parab & W. Pansikar, Bombay, 1926. 

K'ytilata of Vidyapati, Ed. Haraprasad Shastri. 

Kuttanimata, Ed. in Bibliotheca Indica, Calcutta. 

Carudatta of Bhasa (Caru). Ed. Devadhar in BliNC. 

Dasarilpa (DB). Ed. K. P. Purab, Bombay, 1897. Oar references are to 
thjs edition. The ed. of. G.C.O. Haas with an English tran- 
slation has also been referred to. P. Hall's ed. {.Bibliotheca 
Indica) has also been used- 

Dutaghatotkaca of Bhasa (Dutagha.) Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 
Dntavakya'of Bhasa (Dutava.). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC 
Madhayamavyayoga of Bhasa (Madhyama-). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 
Malavikagnimitra of Kalidasa (Malavi.). Ed. S. P. Pandit. 

( Bombay Sanskrit Series ), Bombay, 1889. 
Mrcchakatika (Mrech). Ed. K. P. Parab and W. L. S. Pansikar, 

Bombay, 1926- 
Mudraraksasa of Visakhadatta (Mudra). Ed. Kasinath Trimbak Telang 

{Bombay Sit. Series), Bombay, 1928 
Meghaduta of Kalidasa (Megha). Ed. S. Vidyaratna, Calcutta, 1821, Saka. 
Natakalaksana-ratnakosa of Sagaranandin (Natakalaksana, NL). M. 

Dillon, London, 1939. References are by lines unless 

otherwise mentioned. 

Natyadarpana of Ratnacandra and Gunacandra (ND.), Ed. in GOS. 

Natyasastra of Bharata (N^). Chapters I-XIV. Ed. J. Grosset, Paris, 
Lyons, 1898 ; Chapters I-XX. ed. R. Kavi, Baroda, 1926^ 
1936. Numbering of couplets in this work is often wrong. 
Iu case of chapters I-III this has been corrected, but in 
case of other chapters wrong numbers have been retained 
and in some cases where confusion may occur, pages have 
also been referred to. The edition of Sivadatta and Parab 
(Bombay, 1894), and the Chowkhamba edition (Benares, 1©26) 
have also been used. 

Paflcaratra of Bhasa (Paflea). Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 

Paflcatantra of Visnusaraman, Chowkamba, Benares, 1930. 

Paninlya-siksa (P8.) ( Ed. Manomohan Ghosh, Calcutta, 1938. 

PratijaYia-yaugandharayana of, Bhasa (Pratijril.), Ed. BhNC. 


Pratimanataka of Bhasa (Pratima.) Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 
Balacarita of Bhasa (Bala.), Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 
Bhavaprakasana of Saradatanaya (BhP.) Ed, in GOS. 
Bhasa-nataka-cakra (Plays ascribed to Bhasa), critically edited by C. R. 
Devadhar, Poona, 1937. References are to acts, verse passages 
and lines after them, e.g. Svapna, 1. 12, 23 indicates the twenty- 
third line afrer the twelfth verse in act I of Svapnavasavadatta 
Vikramorvasiya of Kalidasa (Vikram.). Ed- 8. P. Pandit. {Bombay Sans- 

krit Series), Bombay, 1898. 
Venisamhara of Bhattanarayana ( Ed- K. 8. Parab and W. L. 'A. 

Pansikar, Bombay, 1930. 
Raghuvamsa of Kalidasa (Raghu.). Ed. K.P. Parab and W.L.S. Pansikar, 

Bombay, 1932. 
Ratnavall of Sriharasa (Ratna.), Ed. M. K. Jogelkar, Bomba'y 1925. 
Sakuntala of Kalidasa^ (Sak.) Ed. Isvara chandra Vidyasagar, Calcutta. 
Sarogitaratnakara of Sarngadeva (8R.). Snandasrama edition. 
Sahityadarpana of ViSvanatha Kaviraja (8D.) Ed. Jivananda'Vidyasagar. 
Svapnavasavadatta of Bhasa (Svapna.), Ed. Devadhar in BhNC. 
Harsacarita of Banabhatta, Ed. P. V. Kane, Bombay, 1912. 


PREFACE ... ... Vll 




I. The Present Work, p. XXXVII ; 1. General History of the 

Study, p. XXXVII j 2- Basic Text, p. XL; 8. Translation, p. XLI; 

4. Notes to the Translation, p. XLI. 

II. The Ancient Indian Theory of Drama, p. XLH ; 1. The 

Meaning of Natya, p. XLII ; 2. The Dramatic Conventions/ p. XLIV ; 
3. The Time and Place of Drama, p. XLV ; 4. The Unity of Imperession, 
p. XLV ; 5. Criticism of Drama, p. XLV ; 6. The Pour Aspecta of 
Drama, p. XLVIII. 

III. Literary Structure of the Ancient Indian Drama, p. 
XLIX ; The Ten Types of Play. The Nataka, p. XLIX j (a) Subject- 
matter and the division into Acts, p. XLIX ; (b) Explanatory Devices, 
p. LI ; (i) Introductory Scene, p. LI ; (ii) The Intimating Speech, p. 
LI ; (iii) The Supporting Scene, p. LI ; (iv) The Transitional Scene, p. 
LI ; (v) The Anticipatory Scene, p. LI ; (c) The Plot and its Develop- 
ment, p. LI ; The Prakarana, LII ; The Samavakara, p. LH ; The 
Ihamrga, p. LIII ; The Dima, p. LIII ; The Vyayoga, p. LIII ; The 
Utsrstikanka, p. LHI ; The Prahasana, p. LHI ; The Bhana, p. LTV ; 
The Vithi, p. LIV. 2. Diction of Play, p. L1V ; (a) The Use of Metre, 
p. LIV ; (b) Euphony, p. LIV ; (c) Suggestive or Significant Names, 
p. LV ; (d) Variety of Languages Dialects, p. LV. 

IV. The Ancient Indian Drama in Practice, p. LV ; 1. Occa- 
sions for Dramatic Performance, p. LV ; 2. The Time for Performance, 
p. LVI ; 3. The Playhouse, p. LVII ; 4. The Representation, p. LVHI. 
(a) The Physical Representation, p. LVHI ; (b) The Vocal Representation, 
p. LXI j (c) The Costumes and Make-up, p. LXI ; (d) The Temperament, 
p. LX1II. 

V. Literature on the Ancient Indian Drama, p. LXIV ; l>The 
Early Writers : SUalin and Krsasva, p.LXIV ; 2. The Socalled Sons of 
Bharata (a) Eohala, (b) Dattila, (c) Satakarni (jSitakarna, fialikarna), (d) 
Asmakutta and Nakhakutta, (e> Badarayana (Badari), p. LXIV ; 3, Sam- 


grahakara, p. LXV ; 4. The Present Text of the Natya&stra, p. LXV j 5. 
Medieval Writers on Drama, (a) Nandi (NandikesVara), Tumburu, Visa- 
khila and Carayana, (b) Sadaftva, Padmabha, Drauhini, Vyasa, and Inja- 
neya, (c) Katyayana, Rabula and Garga, (d) Sakaligarbha and Ghantaka, 
(e) Yartika-kara-Har§a, (f) Matrgupta, (g) Subandhu, (h) Compilers 
of the Agnipurana and the Visnudharmottara, pp. LXV-LXVII ; (6) Late 
Literature on Drama, (a) Dasarupa, (b) NStekalaksanaratnakosa, (c) 
Natyadarpana, (d) Rayyaka's Natakamimamsa, (e) Bhavaprakasana, (f) 
Sahityadarpana and Natakaparibhasa, pp. LXVII-LXX. 

VI. The Natyasastra : The Text and iis Commentaries, p. 
LXXI i 1. Its Author, p. LXXI ; 2. The two Recensions, p. LXXI ; 
3. Unity of the Natyasastra, p. LXXII ; 4. Its Scope and Importance, 
P.LXXIV; 5. Its Style and Method of Treatment, p. LXXIV ; 6. The 
Early Commentators : Scarya Kirtidhara, and Bhasyakara Nanyadeva 
(b) Bhatta Udbhata, (e) Bhatta Lollata, (d) Sri Bankuka, (e) Bhatta 
Nayaka, (f) Bhatta Yantra, p. LXXV; 7. Bhatta Abhinavagupta, 

VII. Data of India's Cultural History in the Natyasastra, 
p. LXXVIII ; -1. Language, p. LXVIII ; 2. Literature, p. LXXVIII , 
3. Art, p. LXXVIII; 4. Metrics, p. LXXIX; 5. Poetics, p. LXXIX ; 
6. Costumes and Ornaments, p. LXXIX ; 7. Mythology, p. LXXIX ; 
8. Geography, p. LXXX; 9. Ethnological Data, p. LXXX ; 10. 
Ars Amatoria, p. LXXX ; 11. Arthagastra, p. LXXX ; 12. Psychology, 
p. LXXXI. 

VIII. The Date of the Natyasastra, p. LXXXI I ; 1. The Geo- 
graphical Data, p. LXXXII ; 2. The Natyasastra earlier than Kalidasa, 
p. LXXXII ; 3. The Mythological Data, p. LXXXIII ; 4. The Ethno- 
logical Data, p. LXXXIII; 5. The Epigraphical Data, p. LXXXIII; 
6. The Natyasastra earlier than Bhasa, p. LXXXIV. 

THE NITYA&STRA (Translation) 


Chapter One 

1. Salutation, p. 1 ; 2-5.' Sages question, p. 1 ; 6-23. Bharata 
answers, pp. 2-5 ; 24-25. The Nafcyaveda and Bharata's one hundred sons, 
pp. 5-6 ; 26-40. Names of Bharata's one hundred sons, pp. 6-7 ; 41 • Per- 
formance begins with three Styles, p. 7 ; 42-45. Need of the Kaisik! Style, 
p. 7-8 ; 46-47. Creation of Apsarasas for practising the Kaisik! Style, 
p. 8 ; 47-50. Names of Apsarasas, p. 8 ; 50-53. Svati and Narada engaged 
to help Brahman, pp. 8-9 ; 53-58. The Banner Festival of Indra and the 
first production of a play, p. 9 ; 58-63. The pleased gods reward Bharata's 
party, pp. 9-10 ; 64-66. Vighnas attack the actors, pp. 10-11 ; 67-68. 
Indra comes to iheir protection, p. 11 ; 69-75. The Origin of the Jarjara, 
p. 11 ; 75-81. The Origin of the first playhouse, pp. 11-12 ; 82-97. Differ- 
ent gods asked to protect different parts of the playhouse as well as the 
actors, pp. 12-13 ; 98-105. Brahman pacifies the Vighnas, pp. 13-14 ; 106- 
121. Characteristics of a drama, pp. 14-16 ; 122-129. Offering Piija to 
the gods of the stage, pp. 16-17. 

Chapter Two 

1-3. Introduction, p. 18 ; 4-8. Three types of playhouse, pp. 18-19 j 
8-11. Three sizes of the playhouse, pp. 19 ; 12-16- The table of measure- 
ment, p. 20 ; 17. The playhouse for mortals, p. 20 ; 18-23. Disadvan- 
tage of a too big playhouse, pp. 20-21 ; 24-26. Selection of a suitable 
site, p. 21 ; 27-28. Measurement of a site, pp. 21-22 ; 28-33. Taking up 
the string for measurement, p. 22 j 33-35. The ground plan of tho play- 
house, p. 22 ; 35-43. The ceremony of laying the foundation, pp. 23-24 ; 
43-63. Raising pillars of the playhouse, pp. 24-26 ; 63-67. The Matta- 
varanl, pp. 26-27 ; 68-74. The stage, pp. 27-28 ; 75-85. Decorative work 
in tho stage, pp. 28-30 j 86-100. Description of a square playhouse, 
pp. 30-32 ; 101-104. Description of a triangular playhouse, p. 32. 

Chapter Three 

1-10. Consecration of the playhouse, pp. 33-34 ; 11-16. Offering 
Pftja to tho Jarjara, pp. 34-35 j 17-20. Installation of gods, p. 35 ; 20-32. 
The Mandala for installing the gods, pp. 35-36 j 33-39. Offering Puja to 
tho gods, p. 37 ; 40-73. Consecration of the Mattavarani, pp. 37-40 ; 
73-81. Consecration of tho Jarjara, p. 41 ; 81-87. Homa or pouring ghSe 
into sacrificial fire, pp. 41-42 j 87-89. Breaking the jar, p. 42 ; 89-93. 
Illumination of tho stage, pp. 42-43 ; 93-97. Good results of consecrating 


the stage, p. 43 ; 98-101. Evils following non-consecration of the stage., 
pp. 43-44. 

Chapter Four 

THE CLASS DANCE, Pages 45-75 

1-14. Brahman writes the first play and gets it performed, pp. 45-46 ; 
14-16. Two kinds of Preliminaries, pp. 46-47 ; 16-27. The Angaharas, 
p. 47 ; 28-29. Uses of Aiigahlras, p. 47 ; 29-61. The Karanas, pp. 47-49; 
62-169. Definition of 108 the Karanas, pp. 49-60 ; 170-245- Definition of 
the Angaharas, pp. 60-65 ; 246-252. The Recakas, pp. 65-66 ; 253-264. 
The Pindibandhas, pp. 66-68 ; 265-272- The Sages speak on the use of 
dance, pp. 68-69 ; 273-274. The Vardhamanaka, p. 69 ; 27,5. The Ssarita, 
p. 69; 276. The Upohana, p. 69 ; 277-294. Entry of female dancers and 
the four kinds of Pindis, pp. 69-72 ; 295-308. The Cnandakas, pp. 72-73 ; 
309-310. The gentle dance, p. 73 j 311-314. Occasions suited to dance, 
pp. 73-74 ; 315-320. Occasions when dances are prohibited ; p. 74 ; 321- 
324 Playing of drums, pp. 74-7b; 325-328. When drums are not to bn 
played, p. 75 

Chapter Five 

1-4. The sages question, 76 ; p. 5-6. Bharata answers, p. 76 ; 7. Preli- 
minaries defined, p. 76 ; 8-16. Parts of the Preliminaries, pp. 76-77. 17, 
Pratyahara, and Avatarana, pp. 78 ; 18. Srambha, and Asravana, pp. 78 ; 
19. Vaktrapani, Parighattana, p. 78 ; 20. Samghotanii, Margasarita, p. 79. 
21. Asiirita and the Application of Songs, p. 79 ; 22-23. Utthapana, p 79 ; 
23-24. The Walking-round, p. 79 ; 24-25. The Benediction, 79 ; 25-26. 
^uskavakjsta Dhruva, pp. 80 j 26-27. Rangadvara, p. 80 ; 27-28. The Cari 
and the Mahacari, p. 80 ; 28-29. Three Men's Talk, p. 80; 29-30. The 
Laudation, p. 80 ; 30-32. Origin of Bahirgita and its justification, pp. 
80-81 ; 33-36. Daityas and Raksasas provoked to jealousy, p. 81 ; 37-38. 
The {tods approach Niirada to stop the Nirglta, p. 81 ; 38-44. Narada 
pacifies the gods, p. 82 ; 44-59. The gods are pleased with the Nirglta 
(Bahirgita), pp. 82-83; 60-64. Songs in puro Preliminaries, p. 84; 
65-66. The first Walking-round, p. 84 ; 67-76. The second Walking-round, 
pp. 84-86 ; 77-84. The third Walking-round, pp. 86-87 ; 84-89. The 
fourth Walking-round, p. 87 ; 89-101. The Parivartani Dhruva, pp. 87-89 ; 
101-104. The Fourth Man enters, p. 89 ; 104-107. Singing of the Avakrsfci 
Dhruva, pp. 89-90 ; 107-113. Examples of the Benediction, pp. 90-91 j 113- 
116. An example of SuskavakRta Dhruva, p. 91 ; 116-119. Rangadvara, 
p. 91 ; 119-127- Carl, pp. 92-93 ; 127-137. Mahacari, pp. 93-94 ; 137- 
141, The Throj Men's Talk, p. 94 ; 14U142. The Laudation, pp. 94-95 ; 


143-154. The Tryasra Preliminaries, pp. 95-96 ; 155-166. The Mixed 
preliminaries, pp. 96-97 ; 167-179. Introduction of a play, pp. 97-99. 

Chapter Six 

THE SENTIMENTS, pages 100-117 

1-3. The sages question, p. 100 ; 4-8. Bharata answers, pp. 100-101 ; 
8-14. Digest, Memorial Verse and Etymology denned, pp. 101 ; 15-16. The 
eight Sentiments, p. 102 ; 17-21. The Dominant States, p. 102 ; 22. The 
eight Temperamontal States, pp. 102-103 ; 23. The four kinds of Histrio- 
nic Representation, p. 103 ; 24. The two Practices and the four Styles, p. 
103 ; 25-26. The four Local Usages, and the Success, p.- 104 ; 27-29. The 
notes, and the f«ur kinds of musical instrument, p. 104 ; 29-31. The five 
kinds of Dhruva, pp. 104-105 ; 31-33. The Sentiments explained, pp. 105- 
136 ; 33-38. Thi» relation between the Sentiment and the States, p. 106-107 ; 
38-43. The eight Sentiments from the four original ones, p. 107-108 ; 44-45. 
The presiding deities of the Sentiments, p. 108 ; 45-48. The Erotic Senti- 
ment, pp. 108-110 ; 48-55. The Comic Sentiment, pp. 110-111 ; 56-57. 
Of persons of the middling type, p. Ill ; 58-61. Of persons of the inferior 
type, pp. 111-112 ; 61-63. The Pathetic Sentiment, p. 112 ; 63-66. The 
Furious Sentiment, pp. 112-113 ; 66-68. The Heroic Sentiment, p. 114 ; 
68-72. The Terrible Sentiment, pp. 114-115 ; 72-74. The Odious Sentiment, 
pp. 115 ; 74-76. The Marvellous Sentiment, p. 116 ; 77. The three kinds 
of the Erotic, the Comic and the Terrible Sentiments, p. 116 ; 78. The 
three kinds of the Pathetic Sentiment, p. 116 j 79. The three kinds of the 
Heroic Sentiment, pp. 116-117, 80. The three kinds of the Terrible Senti- 
ment, 117. 81. The three kinds of the Odious Sentiment, p. 117 ; 82-83. 
The three kinds of the Marvellous Sentiment, p. 117. 

Chapter Seven 

1-3. Bkavas (States) explained, p. 118 ; 3-4. Vibhavas (Determi- 
nants) explained, pp. 118119 ; 4-6 Annbhavas (Consequents) explained, 
p. 119 ; 6-7. The three kinds of State ; Dominant, Transitory and Tem- 
peramantal, pp. 119-120 j 7-8. Difference between the Dominant and the 
other States pp. 120-121 ; 8-9. Love, p. 121 ; 9-10. Laughter, p. 121 ; 10- 
14. Sorrow, p. 122 ; 14-20. Anger, pp. 122-123 j 20-21. Energy, pp. 123- 
124 ; 21-25. Pear, p. 124 ; 25-26. Disgust, p. 125 ; 26-27. Astonishment 
p. 125 j 27-29. The Transitory States, pp. 125-126 ; 27-30. Discourage- 
ment, p. 126 ; 30-32. Weakness, pp. 126-127 ; 32-35. Apprehension, 
PP. 127 ; 35-37. Envy, pp. 127-128 ; 37-46. Intoxication, pp. 128-129 ; 
48-47. Weariness, p. 129 ; 47-48. Indolence, pp. 129-130; 48-49. Depression, 
P. 130 ; 49-51. Anxiety, p. 130 j 51-53/ Distraction, pp. 130-131 ; 53-55. 


Recollection, p. 181 ; 55-57. Contentment, pp. 131-132 ; 57-59. Sbame, 
p. 132 ; 59-60. Inconstancy, p. 132-133 ; 60-62. Joy, p. 133 ; 82-65. Agita- 
tion, pp. 133-134 ; 65-66. Stupor, p. 134135 ; 66-67. Arrogance, p. 185 ; 
67-69. Despair, p. 135-136 ; 69-70. Impatience, p. 136 ; 70-72. Sleeping, 
p. 136 ; 72-74. Epilepsy, p. 137 ; 74-76. Dreaming, pp. 137-138 ; 76-77. 
Awakening, p. 138 ; 77-79. Indignation, p. 138 ; 79-80. Dissimulation, 
pp. 138-139 ; 80-81. Cruelty, p. 189 ; 81-82, Assurance, p. 139 ; 82-83. Sick- 
ness, pp. 139-140 j 83-85. Insanity, pp. 140-141 ; 85-90. Death, pp. 141- 
142 ; 90-91. Fright, p. 142 ; 91-93. Deliberation, pp. 142-143 ; 93. 
Temperamental States, p. 143 ; 95. Perspiration, p. 144 ; 96. Parafysis 
and Trembling, p. 144 ; 97. Weeping, p. 144 ; 98. Change of Colour 
and Horripilation, p. 144 ; 99. Change of Voice and Pointing, p. 144 ; 
100-106. Representation of the Temperamental States, pp. 144-145 ; 107- 
124. Application of the States to the different Sentiments, p|>. 145-147. 

Chapter Eight 
1-3. Sages question, p. 148 ; 4-6 Bliarata answers, pp. 148-149 ; 7. 
The meaning of abhinaya, p. 149 ; 8-9. The four kinds of abhinaya, p. 
149 ; 11-16. The Gesture : its three varieties, pp. 149-150 ; 17-37. Gestures 
of the head and their uses, pp. 150-152; 38-42. The thirtysix Glances, 
pp 152-153 ; 43-51. The Glances to express the Sentiments, pp. 153-154 ; 
52-60. The Glances to express the Dominant States, pp. 154-155 ; 61-84. 
The Glances to express the Transitory States, pp. 155-158 ; 85-95. Uses of 
Glances to express the Transitory States, pp. 158-159 j 95-98. The eye- 
balls, pp. 159-160 ; 99-102. Uses of the eyeballs, p. 160 ; 103-107. The 
additional Glances, pp. 160-161 ; 108-111. The eyelids, p. 161 ; 112-115. 
Uses of the eyelids, p. 162 ; 116-120. The eyebrows, pp. 162-163. 121-125. 
Uses of the eyebrows, p. 163 ; 126-128. The nose, pp. 163-164 ; 129-132. 
Uses of the nose, p. 164 ; 132-134. The cheeks ; p. 164 ; 135-137, Uses of 
the cheeks, pp. 164-165 ; 137-139. The lower lip, p. 165 ; 140-142. Uses of 
the lower lip, p. 165 ; 143-146. The chin, p. 166 ; 146-149. Uses of the 
chin, p. 166 ; 149-157. The mouth, pp. 166-167 ; 157-158. The colour of 
the face, p. 167 ; 159-165. Uses of the colour of the face, pp. 167-168 ; 
166-167. The nock, p. 168 ; 167-173. Description and usos of the neck 
gestures, pp, 168-169. 

Chapter Nine 
1-3. Bharata speaks, p. 170 ; 4-17. Sixtyseven gestures of the hand, 
pp. 170-171 ; 17-126. Gestures of single hands, pp. 171-181 j 126-155. 
Gestures of combined hands, pp. 182-185 j 156-159. General rules regard- 
ing the use of hand gestures, p. 185 ;. 160-165. Different movements of 


hand gestures, p. 185 j 166-167. Spheres of hand gestures, p. 186 ; 168-177. 
The quantity of gestures, pp. 186-187 ; 178-204. The Dance-hands, pp. 187- 
189 ; 205-211. The four Karanas of the hands, pp. 189-190 ; 212-214. The 
movements of arms. p. 190, 

Chapter Ten 
1-9. The breast, pp. 191 ; 10-15. The sides, p. 192 j 16-17. Uses of the 
sides, p. 192 J 18. The belly, p. 192 ; ; 9-20. Uses of the belly, pp. 192-193 ; 
21-^4. The waist, p. 193 j 25-26. Uses of the waist, pp. 193-194:27-31. 
The thifch, p. 194 ; 32-33 Uses of the thigh, p. 194 ; 34-37. The 
shank, pp. 194*195 ; 28-40. Uses of the shank, p. 165 ; 41-51. The feet and 
their uses, pp. 195-196 ; 52-54. The Carls, p. 196. 

'Chapter Eleven 
THE CIRI MOVEMENTS, Pages 197-206 
1-3. Definitions, p. 197 ; 4-6. Uses of the Carls, p. 197 ; 7-12. The 
thirtytwo Cans, pp. 197-198 ; 13-2a The earthly Carls, pp. 198-199 ; 
29-49. The aerial Carls, pp. 199-201 ; 50-71. The SthSnas, pp. 201-203 ; 
71-88. The four Nyiiyas in using weapons, pp. 203-205 ; 88-91. The 
Sausthava, p. 205 ; 91-92. The Caturasra, p. 205 ; 92-94. The four acts 
relating to the bow, p. 205 ; 94-96. The method of exercise, pp. 205-206 ; 
96-100 Health and nourishment of persons taking exercise ; p. 206. 

Chapter Twelve 
1-5. Tho Mandalas, p. 207 ; 6-41. The aerial Mandalas, pp. 207-210 ; 
42-68. The earthly Mandalas, pp. 210-212. 

Chapter Thirteen 

1. Gaits for different characters, p. 213 ; 2-3. Entrance of dramatis 
personae, p. 213 ; 4-7. Posture for superior and middling characters at the 
entrance, p. 213 ; 8-10. The interval of their feet, pp. 213-214 j 10-11. The 
time for their steps, p. 214 ; 12-14. The tempo of their Gait, p. 214 ; 15-24. 
The natural Gait, pp 214-215 ; 25-29 Gait of kings, p, 216 ; 30-34. 
Gait under special conditions, p. 216 ; 35-40. Tempo of Gaits under 
special conditions, pp. 217 ; 41-48. Gait in the Erotic Sentiment, pp. 
217-218 ; 48-54. Gait in the Terrible Sentiment, p. 218 ; 54-56. Gait iu 
the Odious . Sentiment, p. 218 ; 57-58. Gait in the Heroic Sentiment, pp- 
218-219 j 59-60. Gait in the Marvellous and the Comic Sentiments, p. 
219 ; 61-69. Gait in the Pathotic Sentiment, pp. 219-220 ; 70-75. Gait 
(of inferior characters) in the Terrible Sentiment, p. 220 ; 76-78. Gait of 


merchants and ministers, p. 220 ; 79-86. Gait of ascetics and sectarians, 
pp. 220-321 j 87. Gait of a person in darkness, p. 221 ; 88-92. Gait 
of one riding a chariot, pp. 221-222;. 92-95. Gait while moving in 
the sky, p. 222 ; 96-100. Gait in ascending a lofty palace, p. 222 ; 
101-104. Gait in getting down into a lower place, pp. 222-228 ; 105-107. 
Gait in travelling by boat, p. 223 ; 108. Gait in riding a horse, p. 223 ; 
109. Gait of serpents, p. 223 ; 110. Gait of a Parasite, p. 224 j 112- 
114. Gait of the Kaficukiya, p. 224 ; 115-117. Gait of emaciated, sick 
and fatigued persons, p. 225 ; 118. Gait of a person walking a long 
distance, p. 225 j 119-120. Gait of a corpulent person p. 225; 121-122. 
Gait of intoxicated persons, p. 225 ; 123-130. Gait of a lunatic, p. 225 ; 
131-136. Gait of lame men, cripples and dwarfs, p. 226 ;. 137-1 46. Gait 
of the Jester, pp. 226-227; 146-148. Gait of manials, p^227 ; 148-149. 
Gait of Sakara, p. 228 ; 150. Gait of lowly persons, .p. 228; 151. Gait 
of the Mleccha tribes, p. 228 ; 152. Gait of birds ; 153-158. Gait of lions, 
bears and monkeys, pp. 228-229 ; 159-171. Walking postures of women, 
pp. 230-229; 171-177. Gait of women, p. 230 ; 177-179. Gait of young 
women, p. 231 ; 179-181. Gait of aged women, p. 231 ; 181-183. Gait 
of handmaids, p. 231 ; 183-186. Gait of half-women, p. 231 ; 186-187. Gait 
of children, p. 242 ; 187-181. Gait of hermaphrodite, p. 232 ; 188-189. 
Gait in the change of a role, p. 232 ; 189-191. Gait of persons in disguise, 
p. 232 ; 192-193. Gait of the tribal women, P. 232 ; 193-195. Gait of 
women ascetics ; PP. 232-233 ; 195-199. Sitting postures for men and 
women, P. 233 ; 196-197. Sitting at case, P. 233 ; 197-198. Sitting in a 
thinking mood, p. 233 ; 198-199. Sitting in sorrow, p. 233 ; 199-200. Sitting 
in fainting and intoxication, p. 233 ; 200-201. Sitting in shame and sleep, 
p. 234 ; 201-202. Sitting on ceremonial occasions, p. 234 ; 202-203. Sitting 
in pacifying a beloved woman, p. 234 ; 203-206. Sitting in worshipping a 
diety, p. 234 ; 206-207. Seats for different characters, p. 234 ; 208-210. 
Scats for male characters, p. 235 ; 210-214. Seats for female characters, p. 
235 ; 215-216. Seats for ascetics and sectarians, p. 235 ; 217-220. General 
rules about seats, p. 236 ; 221-228. Lying-down postures, pp. 236-237. 

Chapter Fourteen 


1. The Zones, p. 238 ; 2- The arrangement of drums, p. 238 ; 3. The 
ijonal division, p. 238 j 4-7. Utility of the Zonal division, p. 238 ; 8-10. 
Indicating relative location on the stage, p. 239 ; 11. The east on the 
stage, p. 239 ; 12-15. The rule of exit, p. 232 ; 16. Indication of rank in 
group walking, p. 239 ; 17. Indicating distance great, small and medium, 
p. 240 ; 18-20. Movements of gods and demigods p. 240 j 21. Movement 
}f men in Bharatavarsa, p. 240 ; 22. Departure for a distant place, 


p. 240 j 28-82. Time allowed for the events of an Act, pp. 240-241 ; 
32-35. Movements of gods, p. 241; 36. The four Local Usages, pp. 
241-242; 37-39. The Daksinatya Local Usages, pp. 242-243; 40-42. 
The Svanti Local Usage, p. 243; 43-46. The Odra-Magadhi Local 
Usage, 243 ; 47-49. The Pattcala-Madhyama Local Usage, p. 244 ; 50-55. 
The two-fold entrance in observing Local Usage, p. 244 ; 50. The two 
General types of plays, p. 245. 57-60. The violent type, p. 245 ; 61. The 
delicate type, p. 245 ; 62. The two Practices, p. 245 ; 63-64. The realistic 
Practice, pp. 245-246 ; 65-78. The conventional Practice, pp. 246-247. 
Chapter Fifteen 
^ RULES OP PROSODY, Pages 248-261 
1. The actor's speech, p. 248 ; 2-4. Importance of speech in drama, 
p. 248 ; 5. The ^wo kinds of recitation, p. 248 ; 6-7. Different aspects of 
Recitation, p. 249 ; 8. The speech-sounds, p. 249 ; 9-19. Consonants ; their 
articulation, pp. 249-251 ; 20. Vowels ; their quantity, p. 251 ; 21-22. The 
four kinds of word, p. 252; 23-25. The noun, pp. 252-253; 26-27. The 
verb, p. 253 ; 28. The particle, p. 254 , 29. The affixes, p. 254 ; 30. The 
nominal affix, p. 254 ; 31. The case-ending, p. 255 ; 32-33. The euphonic 
combination, p. 255 ; 34-35. The compound words, pp. 255-256 ; 36. The 
two kinds of word, p. 256 ; 37. Words in prose, p. 256 ; 38. Words in 
verso, p. 256; 39. Syllabic metres, p. 256; 40-42. Rhythm-types, 
pp. 256-257 ; 43-49. Twenty-six Rhythm-types, p. 257 ; 49-79. Possible 
metrical patterns, pp. 257-258 ; 79-89. Another method of defining metres, 
pp. 258-259 ; 89-90. The regular couplet, p. 259 ; 90-91. The stop and 
the foot, pp. 259-260 ; 93. Quality of syllables, colours of metres, p. 260 ; 
94-95. Pitoh of vowels, p. 260 ; 95-97, Three kinds of syllabic metres, 
p. 260 ; 98-102. Classes of metres, p. 261. 

Chapter Sixteen 


1-2. Tanumadhya, p. 262 ; 3-4 Makaraka-sn-sa, p. 262 ; 5-6. Malati, 
p. 263 ; 7-8. Malini, p. 263 ; 9-10. Uddhata, pp. 263-264 ; 11-12. Bhrama- 
ramalika, p. 264 ; 13-14. Simhalekha, p. 264 ; 15-16. Mattacesjita, pp. 264- 
265 ; 17-18. Vidyullekha, p. 265 ; 19-20. Cittavilasita, pp. 265-266 ; 21-22. 
Madhukari, p. 266 ; 23-24. Kuvalayamala, p. 266 ; 25-26. Mayurasarini, 
pp. 266-267 , 27-28. Dodhaka, p. 267 ; 29-30. Motaka, pp. 267-268 ; 31-32. 
Indravajra, p. 268 ; 33-34. Upendravajra, pp. 268-269 ; 35-36. Rathod- 
dhata, p. 269 ; 37-38. Svagata, pp. 269 ; 39-40. Salini, p. 270 ; 41-42. 
Totaka, p. 270 ; 43-44 KumudanibhS, pp. 270-271 ; 45-46. Candralekha, 
p. 271; 47-48. Pramitaksara, pp. 371-272; 49-50. Vamsastha, p. 272, 
51-52. Harinapluta, pp. 272-273; 53-54. Kamadatta, p. 273; 55-56. 
Aprameya, p. 273-274; 57-58. Padmim, p. 275; 59-60. Patuvrtta, 

JXHf • 

pp. 274-275 ; 61-62. Prabhavat! ; p. 275 ; 63-64. Praharsini, pp. 275-276; 
65-66. MattamayBra, p. 276 ; 67-68. Vasantatilaka, pp. 276-277 ; 69-70. 
Asambadha, p. 277 ; 71-72. £arabhS, pp. 277-278 ; 73-74. Nandimukhi, 
p. 278 ; 75-74. Gajavilasite pp. 278-279 ; 77-78. Pravaralalita, p. 279 ; 
79-80. &kharini, pp. 279-280 ; 81-82. Vr?abhaeestita, p. 280 ; 83-84. 
^ridhara, pp. 280-281 ; 85-86. Vainiapatrapatita, p. 281 ; 87-88. Vilam- 
bitagati, pp. 281-282 ; 89-90. Citralekha, p. 282 ; 91-93. &rdalavikridita, 
p. 283 ; 94-96. Suvadana, pp. 283-284 ; 97-99. Sragdhara, p. 284 ; 100-102. 
Madraka, pp. 284-285 ; 103-105. Asvalalita, p. 286 ; 106-108. Meghamala, 
p. 286 ; 109-111. Krauiicapadi, pp. 286-287 ; 112-114. Bhujaiiga-viirm- 
bhita, pp. 287-288 ; 115-118. The uneven and the semi-even metres ; p. 288 , 
119-120. Even metres, p. 288 ; 121-122. Pathya, p. 288 ; 123-124- Uneven 
Pathya, p. 289; 125-126. Inverted Pathya, p. 290; 127-128. Capala. 
p. 290 ; 129-136. Vipula, pp. 290-292 ; 137-138. Vanavasika. p. 292 ; 
139-140. Ketumati, p.292 1 141-142. Apar.ivaktra, p. 93 ; 143-144. Pu^pi- 
tagra, 293 •' 145-146. Udgata, pp. 293-294 ; 147-151. Lalita, pp. 294-295 j 
152-159. Srya metres, pp. 295-296 ; 160. Pathya Arya and Vipula Arya, 
p. 296 ; 161. Pathya Ary5, p. 296 ; 162. Vipula SryS, p. 296 ; 163-164 
Capala Arya, pp. 296-297 ; 165. Mukha-capala and Jaghana-capala Arya, 
p. 297 ; 166. Mukha-capala Arya, p. 297 ; 167-170. Jaghana-capala 
Irya, p. 298. 

Chapter Seventeen 

DICTION OP A PLAY, Pages 299-322. 

1-5. Thirtysix marks of a good play, pp. 299-300 ; 6. Ornateness, 

p. 30 ; 7. Compactness, p. 300 ; 8. Brilliance, p. 301 ; 9. Parallelism, p. 

301; 10. Causation, p. 391; 11. Hesitation, p. 301; 12. Favourable 

Precedent, p. 301 ; 13. Discovefy, p. 302 ; 14. Fancy, p. 302 ; .15. 

Unfavourable Precedent, p. 302 ; 16. Convincing Explanation, p. 302 ; 17. 

Persuation, p. 303 ; 18. Distinction, p. 303 ; 19. Accusation of Virtues, 

p. 303 ; 20. Ewnll >nci, p. 393 ; 21. Inference from Similitude, pp. 303- 

304 ; 22. Multiplex Predication, p. 304 ; 23. Description, p. 304 ; 24. 

Pointed Utterance, p. 304 ; 25. Deliberation, p 304 ; 26. Inversion, 

p. 305 , 27. Slip of Tongue, p. 305 ; 28. Mediation, p. 305 ; 29. Series 

of Offers, P. 305 ; 30. Clever Manners, p, 306 ; 31. Censure, p. 306 ; 

32. Presumption, p. 306 ; 33. Celebrity, p- 306 ; 34. Interrogation ; 

35. Identity, p. 307 ; 36. Indirect Etpre«ion of Desire, p. 307 ; 37. 

Wit. p. 307 ; 38. Concealment, p. 307 j 39. Enumeration of Merits, 

p. 308 ; 40. Serai-utterod Expression, p. 308 ; 41-42. Compliment, 

p. -308; 33. Four figures of Spoech, p. 308; 44. Simile, p. 309; 45-49. 

Number of objects compared, p. 309 ; 50. Five kinds of simile, p. 309 j 

51. Simile of praise, p, 309 ; 52. Simils of censure, p. 399 j 53. Simile 

of conceit, p. 309 ; 24. Simile of uniqueness) p. 310 ; 55-56. Simile of 


Partial likeness, p. 310; 57-58. Condensed Expression, p. 310 ; 59-60. 
Metaphor, PP. 310; 61. Yamaka, p. 311; 62-64. Ten kinds of 
Yamaka, p. 311 ; 65-66. Padant a Yamaka, p. 31 1 ; 67-68. Kanei Yamaka, 
pp. 311-312 ; 69-70. Samudga Yamaka, p. 312 ; 71-72. Vikranta Yamaka! 
p. 312; 73-74. Cakravala Yamaka, p 313; 75-76. Sandasta Yamaka, 
p. 313; 77-78. Padadi Yamaka, pp. 313-314; 79-83. Imred'ita Yamaka, 
p. 314 ; 81-82. Caturvyavasita Yamaka, p. 314 ; 83-87. Mala Yamaka, 
pp. 314-315; 88. Ten faults, pp. 315-316; 89. Circuloeution and super- 
fluous Expression, P. 316 ; 90-91. Want of Significance and Defective 
Significance, p. 316 ; 92. Tautology and Want of Synthesis, pp. 316-317 ; 
93. Logical Defect and Metrical Defect, p. 317 ; 94. Hiatus and Slang, 
p. 317; 95. Gunas, p. 317 ; 96. Ten Gunas, pp. 317-318; 97. Synthesis, 
p. 318 ; 98. Perspicuity, p. 318 ; 99. Smoothness, p. 318 ; 100. Concentra- 
tion, p. 318 ; li>l. Sweetness, p. 319 ; 102. Grandeur, p. 319 ; 103 Agree- 
ableness, p. 319 ; 104. Directness of Expression, p. 319 ; 105-106. Exalted- 
ness, pp. 319-320 ; 107. Alamkaras and Gunas, p. 320 ; 108-110. Sounds 
and figure? of spsech according to Sentiments, Metres according to Senti- 
ments, In the Erotic Sentiment, p. 323 ; 111-112. Metres in the Heroic 
Sentiment, and in the Pathetic Sentiment, p. 321 ; 113. In the Heroic and 
the Furious Sentiments, p. 321; 114-115. Vowel length in different 
Sentiments and States, p. 321 ; 116-122. Uses of prolated vowels and 
euphony, pp. 331-322. 

Chapter Eighteen 
1-2. The Prakritic Recitation, p. 323 , 3-5. Three kinds of Prakritic 
Recitation, p. 323 ; 6-17. Vowels and simple consonants, pp. 324-325 ; 
18-25. Conjunct Consonants, pp. 325-326 ; 26. Pour types of language, 
p. 226 ; 27. The Superhuman and the Noble languages, p. 327 ; 30. The 
two kinds of Recitation, p. 327 ; 31. Occasion for Skt. Recitation, p. 328 ; 
32-35. Occasion for Pkt Recitation, pp. 328-329 ; 36-46. Exception to 
the rule for Pkt. recitation, pp. 329-331 ; 47 48. Seven major dialects, 
p. 331; 49-51. Uses of major dialects, pp. 331-332; 52-55. Uses of minor 
dialects, pp. 332-333; 56-61. Distinguishing features of various local 
dialects, pp. 333-334. 

Chapter Nineteen 
1-2. Different modes of address, p- 335 ; 3. Modes of addressing 
males, p. 335 ; 4. Addressing gods, sectarian teachers and learned men, 
p. 335 ; 5. Addressing Brahmins, the king, the teacher and an old man, 
p. 336 ; 6. Brahmins addressing the king, p. 336 ; 7. Brahmins address- 
ing ministers, p. 336 ; 8. Addressing the' equals, Proviledged inferiors 



addressing superiors, pp. 336-337; 9. Addressing employees, artisans 
and artists, p. 337 ; 10. Addressing persons, of respect, 'addressing per- 
sons of equal status p. 337; 11. The charioteer addressing the chariot-rider, 
Addressing an ascetic or a person with beatitude, pp. 337-338; 12. 
Addressing princes, Addressing inferior persons, p. 338 j 13. Addressing 
persons by their occupation or birth, p. 339 ; 14. Addressing a son or a 
disciple p. 339 ; 15. Addressing Buddhist and Juin monks, Addressing 
persons of other sects, p. 339 ; 16. People addressing the king, pp. 339- 
340 ; 17-18. Sages addressing the king, The Jester addressing the king, The 
Jester addressing the queen, her maids, and the king addressing the Jesjfer, 
p. 340 ; 19. Women addressing their husband, p. 341 ; 20. Addressing the 
older and the younger brothers, p 341 ; 21. Modes of addressing women and 
female ascetics and goddesses, p. 341 ; 22. Addressing wives of senior 
persons, and elderly ladies, Addressing an accessible woman and an old 
lady, pp. 341-342 ; 23-24. Addressing king's wives, p. 342 ; 25. Address- 
ing unmarried princesses and a sister, pp 342-343 j 26. Addressing a 
Brahmin lady, a nun or a female ascetic, addressing one's wife, p. 343 ; 27. 
Women addressing their equals, addressing a hand-mand, p. 343 ; 28. 
Addressing a courtezan, p. 343 ; 29. Addressing the wife in love-making, 
p. 344 ; 30. Giving names to different characters in a play, p. 344; 31. 
Names of Brahmins and Ksatriyas, p. 344 ; 32. Naming merchants and 
warriors, p. 344 ; 33. Naming king's wives and courtezans, p. 345 ; 34. 
Naming handmaids and menials, p. 345 ; 45. Naming superiors, p. 345 ; 
37-37a. Naming other persons, p. 345 ; 37-38. Qualities of Recitation, 
p. 346 ; 38-40. Seven notes to suit different Sentiments, p. 346 ; 40-43. 
Uses of the three voice registers, p. 346 ; 43. Uses of the four accents; 
p. 347 ; 43-44. Two ways of intonation, p- 347 ; 45. The Sis Alam- 
karas, p. 348 ; 45 57. Uses of the sis Alamkaras, pp. 348-350 ; 58-59. 
Intonation in different Sentiments, Six limbs of enunciation, pp. 350-351 ; 
59-60. Pause defined, pp. 351-352 ; 60-61. Uses of Pause, p. 352 ; 62-67. 
Hands in connexion with Alamkaras and Pause, p. 352 ; 68-78. Drawn- 
out syllables ahd their use, pp. 353-354. 

Chapter Twenty 
TEN KINDS OP PLAY, Pages 355-379 

1-9. Tenfold division of plays and their structure, p. 3 55 ; 10-12- 
The Nataka, p. 356 ; 13-18. The Act, pp. 356-357 ; 19-26. Incidents not 
directly presentable in an Act, pp. 358-359 ; 27-35. The Introductory Scene, 
pp. 359-360 j 36-38. The Supporting Scone, pp. 360-361 ; 39-40. Number 
of dramatis personae.y. 361; 41-42. Introducing chariots and palaces 
on the stage, pf. 361-362; 43-47. Introducing an army on the stage 
p. 362 ; 48-50. The Prakarana, pp. 262-364 ; 59-63. The Natika, pp. 
364-365; 64-66. The Samavakara, pp. 365 : 366; 67. The first act of the 


Samavakara, p. 366 j 68-69. The second aed the third acts of the Sama- 
vakara, pp. 366-367 j 70. The three kinds of Excitement, p. 367 ; 71. 
Three kinds of Deception, p. 367 ; 72. Three kinds of Love, p. 367 ; 73. 
Love together with duty, pp. 367 ; 74. Love together with materia] gain, 
p. 368 ; 75. Love due to passion, p. 368 ; 76-77. Metres not allowed in 
the Samavakara, p. 368 J 78-83. The thamrga, pp. 368-369 ; 84-89. The 
Uima, p. 370 ; 90-93. The Vyayoga, p. 370 ; 94-96. The Utersti- 
kanka, p. 371 ; 97-101. Scenes with celestial Heroes, pp-372. 371 ; 102. 
The Prahasana, p, 372 ; 103-104. The pure Prahasana, p. 372 ; 105-107. The 
mix*ed Prahasana, pp. 372-373 ; 107-111. The Bhana, p. 373 ; 112-113. 
The Vithi, pp. 373-374 j 114-116. Thirteen types of the Vlthi, p. 374 ; 
117. Accidental Interpretation, p. 374 ; 118. Transference, p. 374 ; 119. 
Ominous Significance, p. 374 ; 120-121. Incoherent Chatter, p. 375 ; 122. 
Compliment, p.*375 ; 123. Enigma and Rapartee, p. 375 ; 124. Outvy- 
ing, p. 375 ; 125. Deception, 375 ; 126. Declaration, p. 376 ; 127. 
Crushing, p. 376; 128. Three Men's Talk, p. 376; 129-131. Undue 
Combination of Words, p. 376 ; 132-133. The Lasya, p. 377 ; 134-135. The 
twelve types of the Lasya, p. 377 ; 136-137. Geyapada, p. 377 ; 188, 
Sthitapathya p, 378; 139. AYina, p. 378 ; 140. Puspagandika, p. 378 ; 
141. Pracchedaka, p. 378 ; 142 Triniudhaka, p. 378 ; 143. Saindhavaka, 
p. 378 ; 144. Dviinttdhaka, p. 379 ; 145. Uttamottaka, p. 379 ; 146. 
Vicitrapada, p. 379 ; 147. Uktapratyukta, p. 379, 148-150. Bhavita, p. 379. 

Chapter Twenty one 
1. The five Junctures of the Plot, p. 380 ; 2. The two kinds of 
Plot ; 308 ; 3-5. Their definition, p. 380 ; 6-8. The five stages of the 
action ; pp. 380-381 ; 9. Beginning, p. 381 ; 10. Effort, p. 381 ; 11. 
Possibility of Attainment, p, 381 ; 12. Certainty of Attainment, p. 381 ; 
13-15. Attainment of Results, pp. 381-382 ; 16-17. Play to begin with 
the Principal Plot, p. 382 ; 18-19. Rules about the omission of Junctures, 
p. 382 ; 20-21. The five elements of the Plot, p. 382 ; 22. The Germ, 
p. 383 ; 23. The Prominent Point, p. 383 ; 24. The Episode, p. 383 ; 
25. The Episodical Incident, p. 383 ; 26-27. The Denouement, p. 383 ; 
28. Secondary Junctures in the Episode, p. 384 ; 29. Limit of the Epi- 
sode, p. 384 ; 30. The Episode Indication, p. 384 ; 31. The First Episode 
Indication, p. 384 ; 32. The Second Episode Indication, p. 384 ; 33. The 
Third Episode Indication, p, 384 ; 34-35. The Fourth Episode Indication, 
p. 385 ; 36-37. The five Junctures, p. 385 ; 38. The Opening, p. 385 ; 
39. The Progression, p. 385 ; 40. The Development, p. 385 ; 41. The 
Pause, pp. 385-386 ; 42-43. The Conclusion, p. 386 ; 44-47. Junctures 
vary in different types of Drama, p. 386; 48-50. Subjuncturo, p. 387 ; 
51 . Alternative Junctures, p. 387- ; 52-53. The sirfold needs of the Limbs 


of the Junctures, p. 387 j 64-57. Uses of the Limbs of the Junctures, 
pp. 387-388 ; 58-68. The sixtyfour limbs of the Junctures, pp. 388-389 ; 
69. Limbs of the Opening, Suggestion, p. 389 ; 70. Enlargement, Establish- 
ment, p. 389 ; 7.1. Allurement, Decision, pp. 389-390 ; 72. Accession, 
Settling, p. 390 ; 73. Conflict of Peelings, Surprise, p. 390 ; 74. Dis- 
closure, Activity, p- 390 ; 75. Incitement, Limbs of the Progression, 
p. 39D ; 76. Amorousness, Pursuit, p. 391 ; 77. Refusal, Pessimism, p. 391 ; 
78. Joke, Plash of Joke, p. 391 ; 79. Moving Forward, Hindrance, p. 391 ; 
80. Pacification, Sweet Words, pp. 391-392 j 81. Thunderbolt, Reference, 
p. 892 j 82- Meeting of Castes, Limbs of the Development, p. 392 ; 
83. Mis-statement, Indication, p, 392; 84. Supposition, Exaggeration 
p. 392 ; 85. Progress, Propitiation, p. 393 ; 86. Deduction, Supplication, 
p. 393 ; 87. Revelation, Quarrel, p. 393 ; 88. Outwitting, 6ismay, p. 393 ; 
89. Panicky Commotion, Limbs of the Pause, p. 393 j 90. Censure, Angry 
Words, p. 394 ; 91. Insolence, Placation. p. 394 ; 92. Assertion, Rever 
ence, p. 394 ; 93. Rebuke, Lassitude p. 394 ; 94. Opposition, Alter- 
cation, p. 394 ; 95. Summing Up, Humiliation, p. 39 ; 965. Foresight, 
Limbs in the Conclusion, p. 395 ; 97. Junction. Awakening, p. 395 ; 98, 
Assembling, Ascertainment, p. 395 ; 99. Accusation, Confirmation, pp. 
395-396 } 100. Gratification, Joy, p. 396 ; 101. Dclivercnce, Surprise, 
p. 396 ; 102. Clever Speech, Retrospect, p. 396 ; 103-105. Termination, 
Benediction, pp. 396-397 ; 106. Five Explanatory Devices, p. 397 ; 107- 
108. The Supporting Scene, p. 397 ; 109. The Intimating Speech, p. 
397 j 110-111. The Introductory Scene, p. 398 j 112. The Transitional 
Scene, p. 398; 113. The Anticipatory Scene, p. 398; 114-130. An ideal 
Nataka, pp. 398400. 

Chapter Twentytwo 

THE STYLES, Pages 401-409 

1-5. The origin of the Styles, p. 401 ; 6-11. The origin of the 
Verbal 8tyle, pp. 401-402.; 12. The origin of the Grand Style, p. 402 ; 
13. The origin of the Graceful Style, p. 402 ; 14-16. The origin of the 
Energetic Style, p. 402 ; 17-25. The origin of the Nyaya, pp. 403-404 ; 
86. The four varieties of the Verbal Style, p 404 ; 27. The Laudation, p. 
404 ; 28-29. The Introduction, p. 404 ; 30-31. The five varieties of the 
Introduction, p. 404 ; 32. Opening of the Story, p. 404 ; 33. Particular 
Presentation, p. 405 ; 34-37. Personal Business, p. 405 ; 38-40. The 
Grand Style, pp. 405-406 ; 41. The four varieties of the Grand Style, pp. 
406 ; 42. The Challenge, p. 406 ; 43 Change of Action, p- 406 ; 44 The 
Harsh Discourse, p. 306 ; 45-46. Breach of Alliance, p. 406 ; 47. The 
Graceful Style, p. 407 j 48. The four varieties of the Graceful Style, p. 
407(49-50. The three kinds of Pleasantry, p. 407 ; 51. Beginning of 
Pleasantry, p. 407 ; 52. Unfoldment of Pleasantry, p. 407 j 5H4, Covert 


Pleasure, p. 408 ; 55-56. The Energetic Style, p. 408 j 57. The four 
varieties of the Energetic Style, p. 498 ; 58. Compression, pp. 408409 ; 
49. Commotion, p. 409 ; 60. Raising the Theme, p. 409 ; 61-62. Conflict 
p. 409 i 63-65. Styles according to Sentiments, p. 409 ; 

Chapter Twentythree 
1-3. Necessity of the Costumes and Make-up, 410 ; 4. Four kinds 
of Costumes and Make-up, p. 410. 5-8 The four kinds of model-work, 
pp.«410-411 ; 9. Decoration, p. 411 ; 10. Garlands, p. 411 ; 11. Four 
kinds of ornament, p. 411 ; 12. Piercing ornaments, Tied-up ornaments, 
p. 411 ; 13. Worn ornaments. Put-round ornaments, p. 412 ; 14. Ornaments 
according habita'tion and tribal origin, p. 412 ; 15. Ornaments for males : 
Head ornamente, Ear ornaments, p 412 ; 16. Neck ornaments, Finger 
ornaments, pp- 412-413 ; 17. Ornaments of the forearm, Wrist ornaments, 
p. 413 j 18. Ornaments above the elbow, Breast ornaments, p 143 I 
19. Ornaments for the entire body, Waist ornaments, p. 413 ; 23-23. 
Ornaments for females : Head ornaments, p. 419 ; 23-25. Ear ornaments, 
pp. 414-415 j 26-27. Neck ornaments, p. 415 ; 28. Breast ornaments, 
p. 415 ; 29. Arm ornaments p. 416 ; 30. Finger ornaments, p. 416 ; 31-33. 
Hip ornaments, pp. 416-417 ; 34-36. Ornaments of the ankles, p. 417 ; 37-44. 
Other rules about ornaments, pp. 417-418 ; 45-51. Costume of celestial 
women p. 418-419 ; 52. Siddha women .p. 419 ; 53. Gandharva women 
p. 419 ; 54. Raksasa women, p. 419 ; 55. Goddesses, p. 419 ; 56-57. Monkey 
females, pp. 419-420 ; 58. Human females according to their countries, p. 
420 ; 59. Women of Avanti and Gauda, p. 420 ; 60 Abhira women, p- 420 ; 
61. Women of the North-east, p. 420 ; 62-63. Women of the South, p. 420 ; 
64. Ornaments to be worn in the right place, pp. 420- 421; 65-67. Dresses 
to suit the condition of females, p. 420 ; 68. Painting the limbs, p. 421 ; 
69. The four original colours, p. 421 ; 70. The derivative colours, p. 421 ; 
71-74. The primary derivative colours, pp. 421-422 ; 75-80. The secon- 
dary derivative colours, p. 422 ; 81. Living beings, p. 422 ; 82. Lifeless 
objects, p. 422 ; 83. Lifeless objects in human form, p. 422 ; 84. Painting 
the limbs, p. 422 ; 85-87. Colour for gods, p. 423 ; 88-89. Colours for 
demigods, 90-92. Colours for human beings in different regions, p. 424 ; 93. 
Colours for Bhutas and Dwarfs, p. 424 ; 94-98. Colours of different 
peoples of Bharatvarsa, p. 424 ; 99-101. Colours of different tribes, p. 425 ; 
102. Colours of different castes, p. 426 ; 103-109. Rules for the beard, p. 
426427 ; 310-127. Rules for different costumes, pp. 427-429 ; 128. Use of 
masks, p. 429; 129-139. Three kinds of crown, pp. 430-431*; 139-145. Rules 
of different hairs, p. 431 ; 146-148. The Sa jiva, p. 432 ; 148-155. The use 
of weapons, pp. 432-433 ; 156-1 58. Use of other objects, p. 433 ; 159. 
lndra's Banner-staff, p. 433 J 160-167. The Jarjara, pp. 438-484 j .167-170. 


TheDandakastoVP- 434; 170*180. The making of masks, pp. 485-436 ; 
180-187. Other accessories, p. 436 ; 187-198. The realistic and conven- 
tional objects, p. 437 j 198-208. Making of ornaments, pp. 438-489} 
208-211. Use of weapons on the stage, p. 439. 

Chapter Twenty four 
1-2. Importance of Temperament p. 440 ; 8. The definition of 
Temperament, p. 440 j 4-5. Feminine graces in the drama, pp. 440-441 ; 
6. Physical graces of women, p. 441 ; 7. The origin of these graced p. 
441 ; 8. Peeling, p. 441 ; 9-10. Emotion, p. 441 ; 11. Passion, p. 441 ; 
12-13. Natural Graces of women, p. 442 ; 14. Sportive Mimicry, p. 442 ; 
15. Amorous Gestures, p. 442 ; 16. Dishabille, p. 442 ; 17. Confusion, 
p. 442 ; 18. Hysterical Mood, p. 443 ; 19. Manifestation «f Affection, p. 
443 j 20. Pretended Anger, p. 443 ; 21, Affected Coldness, p. 443 ; 22. 
Lolling, p. 443. 23. Want of Respouse, p. 443 ; 24. Involuntary Graces 
of women, p. 444 ; 25. Beauty, p. 444 ; 26 Charm, Rndiance, p. 444 ; 27. 
Delicacy p. 444 ; 28. Self-control, p. 444 ; 29-30 Courage, Dignity, p. 
444-445 ; 31. Eight aspects of the male Temperament, p. 445 ; 32. Brilli- 
ant Character, p. 445 ; 33. Graceful Bearing, p. 445 ; 34.. Self-posse- 
ssion, p. 445 ; 35. Tenacity, pp. 445-446 ; 36. Gravity, p. 446 ; 37. Spor- 
tivenoss, p. 446 ; 38. Nobility, p. 446 ; 39. Spirit, p. 446 ; 40-41. Hist- 
rionic Representation through the body, p. 446 ; 42. Word, p. 447 j 43. 
SQca, p. 447 ; 44. Aiikura, p. 447 ; 45. Sakhfi, p. 447 ; 46-47. Natyayita, 
p. 447 ; 48. NtvWty.ifik.ira, \i, 1 18 ; 4*K> I. Twelve forms of the verbal 
Rerpesentation, p 448 ; 52- Accosting, Prattling, p. 448 ; 53. Lament, 
Repeated Speaking, p. 448 ; 54. Dialogue, Change of Words, pp. 448-449 ; 
55. Message, Agreement, p. 449 ; 56. Command, Pretext, p. 449 ; 57.' 
Instruction, Statement, p. 449 ; 58-71. Another classification of the Verbal 
Representation, pp. 449-451 ; 72-73. The basic Representation, p. 451} 
74-75. Regular Historionic Representation, p. 451 j 76-77. Irregular 
Historionic Representation, p. 451 ; 78. Laksa,pa defined, p. 452 ; 79. 
Practice preferred to '.he Sastra, p. 452; 80. Representation of the 
sensual perception, p. 452 ; 81. Sound, p. 452 ; 82. Touch, p. 452 • 
83. Form, p. 452 ; 84-85. Tasto and Smell, pp. 452-453 • 86. Importance 
of the mind, p. 453; 87. The three aspecto of the of the mind p. 
*»S ! 88-89. The favourable mind, p. 353 ; 90. The unfavourable 
mind, p. 453; 91-92. The indifferent mind, p. 453 ; 93. The meaning 
of personal , and the moaning of "external", pp. 453-454 , 94-95 

S™ v m '' 95 - 96 - Love ' P- 4S4 ' W.98. Erotic Affair, p. 454 , 
89-100. Vanous types of women, p. 454 ; 101-102- The woman of 
divme type, pp. 454-455 , 103-104. The woman of Asura type, p. 455 , 
105-106. The woman of Gandharva type, ,..465 , 107-108. The woman o 


Raksasa type, p. 465 ; 109-110. The woman of Naga type. p. 465 ; 111- 
118. The woman of bird type, p. 456 ; 113-114. The woman of Pisaca 
type, p. 456; 115-116. The woman of Yaksa type, p. 456 ■, 117. The 
woman of tiger type, p. 456; 118-119. The human female, pp. 456457 ; 
120-121. The woman of monkey typo, p. 459 ; 122-123. The woman of 
elephant type, p. 457 ; 124-125. The woman of deer type, p. 457 ; 126. 
The woman of fish type, p. 457 ; 127-128. The woman of camel type, p. 
457 ; 129. The woman of Makara type, p. 458 ; 130-131. The woman of 
ass type, p. 458 ; 132-133. The woman of swine type, p. 488; 134-135. 
Thcwoman of horse tvpp, p. 458 ; 136-137. The woman of buffalo type, 
p. 458 ; 138-139. The woman of goat type, p. 458-459 ; 140-141. The 
woman of horse type, p. 459 ; 142-143. The woman cow type, p. 459 ; 144- 
147. Etiquette towards women, pp. 459 ; 147-149. Two elassess of Eti- 
quette, p. 460, 149-150. King'g Etiquette towards women, p. 460 ; 150-155. 
The three classes of women j pp. 460-461 ; 156-159. The beginning of love, 
p. 461 ; 160-162. Signs of love, p. 462 ; 163-165. Signs of a courte- 
zan's love, p. 462 ; 166-167. Signs of love in a highborn lady, p. 462 ; 
168. Signs of a maiden' s love, p. 462 ; 169-171 . Various stages of her love, 
! 172-173. Longing, pp. 462-463. 174-175. Anxiety, p. 463 ; 176-177. Re- 
t collection, p. 463 ; 178-179. Enumeration of Merits, pp. 463-464 ; 180- 
181. Distress, p. 464 ; 182-183. Lamentation, p. 464 ; 184-185. Insanity, 
p. 464; 186-187. Sickness, pp. 464-465 ; 188-189. Stupor, p. 465; 190- 
191. Death, p. 465 ; 192. Manifestation of men's love, p. 465 ; 193. 
Characteristics of love, p. 465; 194-196. Women separated from 
the beloved one, pp. 465-466 ; 197. Relief in lovesickness, p. 466 ; 
198-200. The female Messenger, p. 466 ; 201-207. The king's Etiquette 
to women, pp. 466-467 ; 208-209. Reasons for Conjugal Union, p. 467 ; 
210-211. Eight kinds of Heroine, p. 267; 212- The Heroine dressed 
up for Union, p. 268 ; 214. The Heroine having her husband in subjec- 
tion, p. 268 ; 215. The Heroine seperated by quarrel, p. 268 ; 216. 
The enraged Heroine, p. 268; 217. The deceived Heroine, p. 268; 
218. The Heroine with a sojourning husband, pp. 268-269; 219. 
The Heroine moving to her lover, p. 269 ; 220. Representation of the 
different Heroines, p. 469; 221-223. Enraged, deceived and quarreling 
Heroines, p. 469 ; 223. The Heroine with a sojourning husband, p. 469 ; 
224. The Heroine having a husband in subjection, p. 469 ; 225. Different 
classes of Heroine moving to their lover, p. 469 ; 226. The courtezan, p. 
470 ; 227. The woman of high family, p. 470 ; 228. The hand-maid. p. 470 ; 
229-232. How to meet a sleeping lover, p, 470 ; 233-235. The Conjugal 
Union, p. 470 ; 236. Bohaviour at the Conjugal Union, p. 470 ; 237-239. 
Preparation for the Conjugal Union, pi 471 ; 240-244. Acts prohibited on 
the stage, p. 472 ; 245-252. The Heroine in expectancy, p. 472 J 253-2^7. 


Personal omens, pp. 473-474; 258. HeroWs reception of the beloved, 
p. 474 ; 259-264. Receiving the guilty lover, pp. 474-475 ; 264. Causes 
of jealousy, p. 475 ; 265-266. Depression, p. 475 ; 267-268. Mired Peeling, 
p. 475 ; 269-270. Disgust, pp. 475-476 ; 271-272. Anger, p 476 ; 273-292. 
On treating a lover at fault, pp. 476-478 ; 293-298. Acts forbidden on the 
stage, pp. 478-479 ; 299-300. Endearing terms for the beloved p. 479 ; 
301. Angry terms of address for tho beloved, p. 479 ; 302-309. Endearing 
terms of address explained, pp.479; 310-319. Angry terms of address 
explained, pp. 480-481 ; 320-328. Goddesses in human roles, pp. 481-482. 

Chapter Twenty five * 



1-2. The definition of a Gallant, p. 483 ; 3-8. Qualities of a Gallant, 
pp. 483-484 ; 9-10. The female Messenger, p. 484 ; 11-12« Qualities of a 
Messenger, p. 484 ; 13-18. Functions of the female Messenger, p. 485 ; 19. 
The woman overcome with love, p. 485 ; 20-23. The attached woman, pp. 
485-486 ; 24-27. The hostile woman, p. 486 ; 28-29. Winning back of 
women's heart, p. 486 ; 30-31. Causes of hostility, p. 486 ; 32-35. Acts 
winning women's heart, pp. 486-487 ; 36. The three types of woman, p. 
487 j 37-39. The superior woman, p. 487 ; 40-41. The middling woman, 
p. 487 ; 42. The inferior woman, p. 487 ; 43. The four stages of 
woman's youth, p. 488 ; 44. The primary youth, p. 488 J 45. The 
secondary youth, p. 488 ; 46. The tertiary youth, p. 488 ; 47-48. 
The quaternary youth, p. 488 ; 49. Behaviour in the primary youth, 
p. 488 ; 50. Behaviour in the secondary youth, pp. 488-489 ; 51. 
Behaviour in the tertiary youth, p. 429 ; 52. Behaviour in the quartcrnary 
youth, ft 489 ; 53-54. Five types of man, p. 489 ; 55. The excellent man, 
p"489; 56-37. The superior man, p. 489; 68-59. The middling man, 
p. 490 ; 60-61. The inferior man, p. 490 ; 62-63. The too old man, p. 490 ; 
64-66. Psychological approach to women, pp.490-491 ; 67. Conciliation, 
p. 491 ; 68. Gift. p. 491 ; 69. Diasention, Chastisement, p. 491 ; -70-72. 
Application of Conciliation, Gift etc. p. 491; 73. Reading a woman's 
heart from her behaviour, p. 491 ; 74-80. A courtezan's mercenary 
treatment of men, p, 492. 

Chapter Twekttsix 

Oh J" ^^ Reprr»cntation, p. 493 ; 2-4. Day, night, season ote. 5. 

Objecteonthe ground, p. 493 ; 6. Moonlight, happinc* and air etc, p. 
obL'J'n^T ' du Q 8 f' 8m6kc " tc - 8 - Midday 9U n, p. 494; 9. Pleasant 

494 I N J t ^T bieCte ' P - 494i11 - *■» ^ "alto! feeling, 
p.494,l^ w klaceandflowcrsetc,p.494 i 18. The idea of entirety, 


p. 494 i 14. Audible or visible objects, p. 494 , 15. Lighting, shooting star. 
etc. p. 495 ; 16. Repugnant objects, p. 495 ; 17. Hot wind and heat etc 
p. 495 ; 18. Lions, bears etc p. 494 ; 19. Worshipping superiors, p 495 ; 
20-22. Numerals, p. 495 J 23. Umbrellas, Banners etc, p. 496 ; 24. Memory 
and meditation etc, p. 496 ; 25. Height, p. 496 ; 26. Past and Cessation 
etc, p. 496; 27. The autumn, p. 496 ; 28-30. The early winter, pp 496- 
497 ; 31. The winter, p. 477 ; 32. The spring, p. 497 ; 33. The summer 
p. 497 ; 34. The rains, p. 497 ; 35. The rainy night, p. 497 . 36.37 
Seasons in general, pp, 497-498 ; 38. The States, p. 498 ; 39-40. The 
Determinants, p. 498 j 41-44. The consequents, pp. 498-499 ; 45-46. General 
directions for representation, p. 499 ; 47. Men's and women's efforts, p 

499 ; 48. Women's mevements of limbs, p. 499 ; 49. Meaning of words' 
p. 499 ; 50-51. Joy, p. 499-500 ; 52. Anger, p. 500 ; 53-54. Jealous Anger of 
women, p. 500 ; # 55. Men's sorrow, p. 500 ; 56-57. Women's sorrow, p. 

500 ; 58. Men's fear, p. 500 ; 59-60. Women's fear, pp. 500-501 ; 61-64 
Women's intoxicated condition, pp. 501 ; 65. Parrorts and Sarikiis, p. 501. 
66. Big birds, p. 501 J 67. Asses and Camels, p. 501 ; 68-70. Bhiitas and 
Pisacas, p. 502; 70-71. Greeting an invisible person, p. 502 ; 71-73. 
Greeting gods superiors, p. 502 ; 73-74. Great crowd, and friends etc] 
p. 502 ; 74-75. Mountains and tall trees, p. 5U2 ; 75-78 Wide expanse 
of water, pp. 502-503 ; 78-79. A house and darkness ete, p. 503 ; 79-80. 
Lovesick, cursed and possessed persons, p. 503 ; 80-83. A swing, p 503 ; 
83-85. Speaking to the sky, pp. 503-504 ; 85-86. Speaking aside, Concealed 
speaking, p. 504 ; 87-88. Private Personal address. Thinking within 
ouoself, p. 504 ; 90-91. Mentioning -incidents that occured already, pp. 
504-505 ; 91-92. Representing Concealed speakihg, p. 505 ; 92-94. Repeti- 
tion of words, p. 505 ; 94-95. Suspension of Representation, p. 505 ; 
95-97. Observing proper States, p. 505-506 ; 97-98. No movement in 
the state of sleeping, p. 506; 98-99. Declamation of a person in 
sleep, p. 506 ; 99-100. Dsclamation of old people, Children's words, 
p. 506,' 100-102. Dying declamation, p. 506; 102-103. Representation of 
death, p. 507 ; 103-104. Death from disease, p. 507 ; 104-105. Death from 
drinking poison, p. 507 ; 105-107. The eight stages in death from poison, 
p. 507; 107-108. Weakness, p. 507 ; 108-109. Tremor, p. 507 ; 109-110. 
Burning sensation, p. 508; 110-111. Hiccough, p. 508; 111-1 2. 
Froth in the mouth, p. 508 ; 112-113. Breaking of the neck, Paralysis, 
P- 508 ; 113 115. Death, pp. 508 509 ; 115-118. General directions, p. 509 ; 
118-122. The triple basis of drama, p. 509 ; 123-129. People supplying 
norm to the drama, pp. 509-510. 

Chapter Twentyseven 
1. The Success in dramatic production, p. 511 ; 2. The two kinds 


of Success, p. 511 ; 8. The human Success, p. 511 ; 4. The vocal Success, 
p. 511; 5-15. The physical Success, p. 511-513; 16-17. The divine 
Success, p. 513 ; 18-19. Three kinds of Blemishes, pp. 513-514 ; 20. 
Blemishes from gods, p. 514 ; 21-23. Blemishes from an enemy, p. 514 5 
23-27. Selfmade Blemishes, pp. 514-515 ; 28. Blemishes without remedy, 
p. 515 1 29-36. Palpable sources of Blemishes, pp. 516-517 } 37-39. 
Three grades of Blemishes, p. 617 ; 40. Wrong Benediction, p. 517 ; 
41-43. Interpolation is a Blemish, pp. 517-518 ; 44-47. Limitation of 
human efforts in a play, pp. 518-519 ; 48-57. Spectators of a performance, 
pp. 519-520; 50. Various Classes of spectators, p. .520 ; 59-62. Dis- 
position of different spectators, p. 520 ; 62-70. Assessors in a perfor- 
mance, pp. 520-521 ; 71. Controversy about a performance, p- 522 J 
72. Procedure in deciding controversies, p. 522 ; 73. Recording of Ble- 
mishes, p. 522 ; 74-75. Ideal position of Assessors in a performance p. 
522 j 76. Blemishes to be ignored, pp. 522-523 ; 77-82. Procedure of 
awarding the Banner, pp 523-524 ; 83-84. Co-ordination, p. 554 ; 85-87. 
Charm of limbs, p. 524 ; 88-97. Suitable times for performance, p. 525 ; 
98-99, Emergency performances are independent of time, p. 526 ; 100-101. 
Qualities of an Actor, p. 526 ; 102 An ideal performance, p. 526 ; 
103. Brilliance of Pageant, p. 526 ; 104-105. The best performance, 
p. 526. 

Chapter Thuitfopr 

TYPE OP CHARACTERS, Pages 527-537 

1. Three types of character in a drama, p. 527 ; 2-3. A superior 
male character, p. 527 ; 3-4. A middling male character, p. 527 ; 5-7. 
An inferior male character, p. 527 ; 8-10. A superior female character, 
pp. 527-528 ; 11. A middling female character, p. 528; 12. An inferior 
female character, p. 528 ; 13-14. A mited character, p. 528 ; 16-20. The 
four types of the Hero, pp. 528-529 ; 20-23. The four types of Heroines, 
p. 529 ; 24-25. The two classes of employment for characters, pp. 529-530 ; 
26-29. Female inmates of the harem, p. 530 ; 30-32.Tho chief queen, p. 530 ; 
33-34 The other queens, p. 530 ; 35-36. High-born wives, p. 531 ; 37-39. 
Ordinary wives, p. 531 ; 40. Concubines, p 531 ; 41-42. Women artistes, 
p. 531 j 4344. Actresses, pp. 531-532 ; 44-48. Dancers, p. 532 ; 48-49. Maids 
in constant attendance, p. 532 ; 49-51. Maids of special work, p. 532 ; 
51-53. Maids in constant move, pp. 532-533 ; 53-54. Errand girls, p. 

533 i 54-55. Mahattarls, p. 538 ; 55-56. Pratiharics, f>. 533 ; 56-57. 
Maidens, p. 533 ; 57-58. Old dames, p. 533 ; 58-60. lyuktikas, pp. 533- 

534 ; 61-64. Qualities of women to be employed by the kin«, p. 534 ; 
64-70. Other inmates of the harem, p. 534; 71. The Vanjadharas. p. 
635 ; 72. The Nirmundas, p. 535 ; 73-74. The Kaiicukins, p. 685 j 76-77, 


External persosn, pp. 535-636 ; 78-82 The king, p. 536 j 82-83. The 
leader of the army, p. 586 j 84-85. Councillors, pp. 536-537 ; 85-87. 
Judges, p. 537 j 87-90. Courtiers', p. 537. 

Chapter Thirtyfive 


1. Distribution of Roles, p. 538 ; 2-4. General principles of dist- 
ribution, p. 538 ; 5-6. The role of gods, p. 538 ; 7-8. The role of Rak$a- 
sas, fiie Danavas ete, pp. 538-539 ; 9-11, The role of kings, p,' 539 ; 12-13. 
The role of army leaders and councillors, p, 539 ; 14, The role of the 
Kaiicukin and the Srotriya, p, 539 ; 15-17, The role of minor characters, 
p. 539-540; 19, 'The role of fatigued persons, The role of persons 
without disease* pp, 440 ; 19-21. Special cases of assigning roles, 
p, 540 ; 22-23. The roles of characters with extra or special limbs, pp. 
540-541 ; 24. The first entry of a character, p. 541 ; 25-26. The result of 
proper impersonation, p, 541 ; 27. The psychological preparation for 
impersonation, p. 541 ; 28. The three kinds of impersonation, p. 541 j 29. 
The natural impersonation, p- 541 j 30, The unnatural impersonation, p. 
541 ; 31-33. Imitative representation, p. 542 ; 33-36. Suitability of women 
in some roles, 542 j 37. Training for women in different roles, p. 524 ; 
38. Result of proper assignment of roles, pp 542-543 ; 89-41. Result of 
employing women for acting, p. 543 j 42. The two types of dramatic 
production, p. 543 ; 43-47. Tho delicate type of production, pp. 543-544 ; 
48-53. The violent type of production, pp. 544-545 ; 53-59. The typical 
impersonation of a king; p 545 ; 59-62. Impersonation of the attendants 
of gods, p. 546 ; 62-68. The characteristics of a Director, pp. 546-547 j 
69-71. The natural qualities of a Director, p. 547 ; 71-72. Characteris- 
tics of an Assistant to the Director, p. 547 ; 72-73. Characteristics 
of an Actor, p. 547 j 73-44. Characteristics of the Parasite, p. 547 ; 
75. Characteristics of the iSakara, pp. 547-548 j 76. Characteristics of the 
Jester, p. 548 ; 77. Characteristics of the servant, p. 548 ; 78-81. Charac- 
teristics of the courtezen, p. 548 ; 81-83, Characteristics of the typical 
Heroine, p. 548 ; 83-85. Women disqualified to be Heroines, p. 549 ; 
85-89. Members of the typical theatrical party, p. 549 ; 89-91. Charac- 
teristics of the Jester, pp. 549-550 ; 91-92. Charactcrista of the master 
musician, p. 550 ; 92-93. Meaning of the word Nate, p. 550 ; 93-95. 
Benediction defined, p. 550 ; 96-97. Characteristics of the playwright, p. 
561; 97-98. Characteristics of the Actor, p. 5 51; 98-99. Characteristics 
of the actress, p, 551 ; 99-100. The maker of headgears* p> 551 s 100-101. 
The maker of ornaments, p. 551 : 101-102. The maker of garlands, the 
costumcr, the painter and the dyer, p, 551 ; 103-104. The Craftsmen, the 
Kusilavas, p, 552 ; 104-135. The other members of the party, p. 552. 


Chapter Thirtybix 

1-9. Sages question, pp. 553-554 ; 10. Bharata's reply, pp. 554 ; 11-23. 
The Preliminaries and their uses, pp. 554-555 ; 34-26. The ablution of the 
Director on the stage, p. 555 ; 27-29. Bharata's sons offended the sages by 
caricature, p. 556 ; 80-36- The sage3 curse Bharata's sons, pp, 556-557: 
37-38. Gods intercede in favour of Bharata's sons, p. 557 ; 39-40. Bharata's 
sons approach their fattier, p. 557 ; 41-45. Bharata pacifies them, pp, 557- 
558 ; 46-49. Nahusja invites divine artistes to the earth, p. 558; 
50-51. Gods reject the request, p. 558 ; 52-53- Nalnisa approaches Bharata, 
p. 559 j 54-57. Urva& and the mundane drama, p. 559 ; 58-61. Bharata 
grants the request and sends his sons to the earth, pp. 659-560 j 62-63. 
Kohala is the successor of Bharata, p. 560 ; 65-68, Bhaiate's sons come 
down to the earth, p. 560 ; 62-70, Kohala and his associates, p. 560 ; 
71-73 Value of the Natyas^stra, p. 561 ; 74-77. Value of the dramatic 
show, and the final Benediction, p. 561. 



I. The Present Work 

1. General History of the Study 

Since the West came to know of the Sanskrit literature through 
William Jones's translation of the Sakuntala 1 , the nature and origin of the 
ancient Indian theatre have always interested scholars, especially the 
Sanskritists, all over the world. H. H. Wilson who published in 1826 the 
first volume of his famous work on the subject 2 deplored that the Natya- 
sastra, mentioned and quoted in several commentaries and other works, 
had been lost for ever 3 . P. Hall who published in 1865 his edition of the 
DasarOpa 4 , a medieval work on the Hindu dramaturgy, did not see any Ms. 
of the Natyasastra till his work had greatly advanced 5 . And for the time 
being he printeS the relevant chapters of the Natya&istra as an appendix to 
his DasarSpa. Later on he undertook to critically edit the Ms. of the 
Natyasastra he acquired ; but this venture was subsequently given up, 
due perhaps to an insufficiency of materials which consisted of one unique 
Ms. full of numerous lacunae* But even if the work could not be brought 
out by Hall, his very important discovery soon helped others to trace similar 
Mss. elsewhere. Aud in 1874 Hcymann, a German scholar, published on 
the basis of Mss. discovered up till that date a valuable article 7 on the 
contents of the Natyasastra. This seems to have been instrumental 
in attracting competent scholars to the study of this very important 
teit. The French Sanskritist P. Eegnaud published in 1880 chapter 
XVH» and in 1884 chapter XV (in part) and the chapter XVI 9 of the 
Natyasastra. This was soon followed by his publication of chapters VI 
and Vninl884. u And J. Grosset another French scholar and a pupil 
of Eegnand, published later on (in 1888) chapter XXVHI " of the Natya- 
sastra which treated of the general theory of Hindu music. 

' Saoontaln, or the Fatal Ring. Translated from the original Sanskrit and 
Pracrita, Caloutta 1789. 

' H. H. Wilson, Select Speoimens of the Theatre of the Hindus (3 yolst, 
Calcutta. 1826-1827. ' Wilson, p. 37. Grosset, Introduction, p. iij. 

4 The Dasarupa by Dhananjaya (Biblioiheca Mica), Calcutta, 1861-1865. 

' Grosset, Introduction, t. iij. ' See note 5 above. 

' TJeber Bharata's Natyasastrun in Naohrichten von der Koeniglisehen 
Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Goetingen 1874, pp. 86 ff. Ref. Grosset, Introduction 
p xj ID. pp 2-3. 

" Le dix-eeptieme ohapitre du Bharatiya-naiyasistra. Annales du' Musie 
Guimet ( Tome, 1. 1860, pp. 86 ff. 

• La metrique de Bharata, texte Sanscrit de deux chapitres du Natyasastra 
publio pour premier fois et sum d'une, interpretation francaise, Annales due Musee 
Guimet, Tome, It, 1884, pp. 65 ff. ' " Rhctorique sanserite, Paris, 1814. 

1 ' Contribution a l'«t*de de la nuisique hindou, Lyons, 1888. 


But the different chapters of the work and studies on them) which 
were published up till 1888; though very helpful fot the understanding of 
some aspeots of the ancient Indian dramatic works cannot be said to have 
thrown any considerable light on the exact nature of the ancient Hindu 
plays, especially the manner of their production on the stage. Sylvain 
Levi's Theatre indien (1890) in which he discussed comprehensively 
the contribution of his predecessors in the field and added to it greatly 
by his own researches, made unfortunately no great progress in this 
specific direction. Though he had access to three more or less complete 
Mss. of the Natya&astra, L£vi does not seem to have made any serious 
attempt to make a close study of the entire work except its chapters 
XVH-XX(XVffl-XXII of our text) and XXXIV. Thc.reason for his 
relative indifference to the contents of the major portion (nearly nine-tenths) 
of the work, seem to be principally the corrupt nature of his Ms. materials, 
like his predecessors, Levi paid greater attention to the study of the 
literary form of the ancient Hindu plays with the difference that he utilised 
for the first time the relevant chapters of the Natyasastra, 1 * to check 
the accuracy of the statements of later writers on the subject like 
Dhananjaya 1 * and Visvanitha 1 * who professed their dependence on the 
Natyasastra. But whatever may be the drawback of Levi's magnificient 
work, it did an excellent service to the history of ancient Indian 
drama by focussing the attention of scholars on the great importance of 
the Natyasastra- Almost simultaneously two Sanskritists in India as 
well as one in the West were planning its publication. In 1894 Pandits 
Shivadatta and Kashinath Pandurang Parab published from Bombay the 
original Sanskrit text of the work. 1 "' This was followed in 1898 by 
J. Grosset's 1 * critical edition of its chapters I-X1V based on all the 
Mss. available up till that date. 

Though nearly half a century has passed after the publication of 
Grosset's incomplete edition of the Natyasastra, it still remains one of the 
best specimens of modern Western scholarship, and though in the light of 
the new materials available, it is possible nowa-dayg to improve upon his 
readings in a few places, Grosset's work will surely remain for a long 
time a landmark in tiie history of the study of this important text. It is 
a pity that this very excellent work remains unfinished. But a fact 
equally deplorable is that it failed to attract sufficient attention of scholars 

" Chapters XVII-XX ( XVIU-XXU of our text ). 
1 ' The author of the Dasarupa. See abore note 4. 
14 Ike author of the Sabityadarpana. See below. 

11 Sri Bkaratamuai-pranitam, NiWyajntram, ( Karyamala, 42 ) Bombay, 1884. 
11 Xwate da Bhitrata »ur leTboatru. Texts Sanscrit, Edition critique. Tome 
I. Partie, I. (Annates de i' UnieertUt de Lyons, Fane. 40, 1898) 


interested in the subject.. Incomplete though it was, it nevertheless 
contained a good portion of the rules regarding the presentation of plays on 
the stage, and included valuable data on the origin and nature of the 
ancient Indian drama, but no -one seems to have subjected it to the 
searching study it deserved. Whoever wrote on Hindu plays after Levi 
depended more on his work than on the Natyasastra itself, even when 
this was available (at least in a substantial part) in a critical edition. It 
may very legitimately be assumed that the reasons which conspired to 
render the Natyasastra rather unattractive included among other things, 
the difficulty of this text which was not yet illuminated by a commentary. 

Discovery in the early years of the present century of a major por- 
tion of a commentary of the Natyasastra by the Kashmirian Abhinava- 
gupta" seemeij to give, however, a new impetus to the study of the 
work. And it appeared for the time being that the Natyasastra would 
yield more secrete treasured in the body of its difficult text But the first 
volume of the Baroda edition of the work (ch. I-VII) 18 including Abhi- 
nava's commentary, disillusioned the expectant scholars. Apart from 
the question of the merit of this commentary and its relation to the 
available versions of the Natyasastra, it suffered from a very faulty trans- 
mission of the text. Not only did it contain numerous lacunae, but quite 
a number of its passages were not liable to any definite interpretation due 
to their obviously vitiated nature. Of this latter condition the learned 
editor of the commentary says, 'the originals are so incorrect that a 
scholar friend of mine is probably justified in saying that even if Abhi- 
navagupta descended from the Heaven and seen the Mss. he would not 
easily restore his original reading. It is in fact an impenetrable jungle 
through which a rough path now has been traced'. The textual condition 
of Abhinava's commentary on chapters VIII-XVHI (VIII-XX of our 
text) published in 1934 ' 9 was not appreciably better. 

But whatever may bo the real value of the commentary, the two 
volumes of the Natyasastra published from Baroda, which were avowedly 
to give the text supposed to have been taken by Abhinava as the basis of 
his work, presented also considerable new and valuable materials in the 
shape of variant readings collated from numerous Mss. of the text as well 
as from the commentary. These sometimes throw new light on the con- 
tents of Natyasastra. A study of these togethor with a new and more or 

" Di, 8. K, Ds seems to be the fiist in announcing the existence of a more or 
less complete Ms. ot Abhinava's commentary, and in recommending its publication. 

ESkt. Poetics, Vol I. pp. 120-121. 
«' NaiyasoBtra with the commentary ot AbhinaTagnpta. Edited with a preface, 
pendix and Index by Ramakrishna Kari. Vol 1, Baroda 1926. 
" Natyasostra with the commentary of Abhinavagupta. Edited with an 
reduction and Index by M. Ramakrishna Kari. Vol, II, Baroda, 1934. 


less complete (though uncritical) tett of the work published from Benares 
in 1929 s ° would, it is hoped, bo considered a desideratum by persons 
interested in the ancient Indian drama. The present work has been the 
result of such a study, and in it has been given for the first time a com- 
plete annotated translation of the major portion of the Natyasastra based 
on a text reconstructed by the author. * ' 

2. The Basic Text 

The text of the Natyasastra as we have seen is not available in a 
complete critical edition, and Joanny Grosset's test (Paris-Lyons, 1898) 
does not go beyond ch. XIV- Hence the translator had to prepare a cri- 
tical edition of the remaining chapters before taking up the translation." 
For this he depended principally upon Ramakrishna Kavi's incomplete 
edition (Baroda, 1926, 1934) running up to ch. XVIII (our XX) and 
including Abhinava's commentary, as well as the Nirnayasagar and 
Chowkhamba editions (the first, Bombay 1894, and the second, Benares, 
1929). As the test of the Natyasastra has been available in two distinct 
recensions, selection of readings involved some difficulty. After the most 
careful consideration, the translator has thought it prudent to adopt 
readings from both the recensions, whenever such was felt necessary from 
the context or for the sake of coherence, and these have been mentioned 
in the footnotes. But no serious objection may be made against this 
rather unorthodox procedure, for A. A. Macdonell in his critical text of 
the Brhaddevatit (Cambridge, Mass. 1904) has actually worked in this 
manner, and J. Grosset too in his edition 'does not give unqualified pre- 
ference to any racension and confesses that due to conditions peculiar to 
the Natyasastra his text has 'un caractere largement eclectique' (Introduc- 
tion, p. xxv) and he further says 'nous n'avions pas l'arabition chimerique 
detendreala rcconstitution du Bharata primitif (loc. «'/.). Condi- 
tions do not seem to have chaged much since then. 

" .Sn'-Bharltmuni-prattitam Na/ayasastram. {Kashi- Sanskrit StrUi\ Benares, 

' ' This edition will be published later on. The following chapters of the NS. have 
been translated into Frooch : ch XIV and XV ( our XV and XVI ) Vogabhinaya by 
P. Begnaud in hie Metrique du Bharata ; see note 8 above. eh. XVII (our XVIII) 
Ihtsxeidhnna by Luigia Niiti-Dolci in her Les Grammairiens Prakrit, This has been 
partially ,( 1-24 ) translated into English by the present writer in his Date of die Bharata- 
Na/yasasrra, See JDL, 1930, pp. 73f. Chapter XXVIII by J. Grosset in his Contribution 
a l'ttude de la mnsique hindou ; see note 10 above. Besides these, ch, XXVUI by B. 
Breoler in his Qrund-elemente der alt-indisohen Musik nach dem Bharatiya-nafya- 
iflstra. Bonn. 1922, and ch. IV by K V. N. Naidu, P. 8. NaiduandO.V. B. Pantlu in 
the Tawdavalaksanam, Madras, 1936 and chapters Mil translated into Bengali by 
the late Pandit Asokenath Bhattacharyya in the Vasomati, 1352 B8. 


3. . Translation 

Though the translation has been made literal as far as possible except 
that the stock words and phrases introduced to fill up incomplete lines 
have been mostly omitted, it has been found necessary to add a number of 
of explanatory words [enclosed in rectangular brackets] in order to bring 
out properly the exact meaning of the condensed Sanskrit original. 
Technical terms have often been repeated (within curved brackets) in 
the translation in their basic form, especially where they are explained 
or defined. In cases where the technical terms could not be literally ren- 
dered into English they were treated in two different ways : (1) they were 
given in romanised form with initial capital letters e.g. Bhana and Vithi 
(XX. 107-108, '112-113), Nyaya (XXII. 17-18) etc. • (2) Words given as 
translation have "been adopted with a view to indicating as far as possible 
the exact significance of the original, e.g. State (ihava) Sentiment (rasa), 
VI. 33-34. Discovery (Prapti), Persuasion (siddhi), Parallelism (uddAa- 
rana) (XVII. 1), Prominant Point (bindu), Plot (.mufti) (XX.15) etc : 
Lest these should be taken in their usual English sense they are distin- 
guished by initial capital letters. Constantly occuring optative verbal 
forms have been mostly ignored. Such verbs as kuryat and bhavet etc, 
have frequently been rendered by simple 'is' or a similar indicative form. 
And nouns used in singular number for the sake of metre have been silently 
rendered by those in plural number and vice versa, when such was con- 
sidered necessary from the context. 

4. Notes to the Traslation 

Notes added to this volumes fall generally into three categories, 
(a) Text-critical. As the basic text is not going to be published imme- 
diately, it has been considered necessary to record variant readings. 
For obvious reasons variants which in the author's opinion are less 
important have not been generally recorded, (b) Explanatory. These 
include among other things references to different works on allied 
subjects and occasional short extracts from the same. Abhinavagupta's 
commentary naturally occupies a prominent place among such works, and 
it has very often been quoted and referred to. But this does not mean 
that the worth of this work should be unduly exaggerated. ' (c) Materials 
for Comparative Study. A very old text like the Natyasastra not 
illuminated by anything like a complete and lucid commentary, should 
naturally lw studied in comparison with works treating similar topics 
directly or indirectly. Hence such materials have been carefully collated 
as far as the resouroes at the author's disposal permitted. 

!■ See M, Qhosh, "The NS. and tho Abhinavabhoratt" in IHQ vol. X. 1934, 
pp. 161ff. 


Bat even when supplied with these nates, readers of this translation 
may have some difficulty in reconstructing from the work written in 
a diifiise manner the picture of the ancient Indian drama in itt theatrical 
aa well aa literary form, as it existed in the hoary antiquity To give 
them some help the theory and praotice of the ancient Hindu drama has 
been briefly discussed below together with other relevant matters. 

II. The Ancient Indian Theory of Drama 
1, The Meaning of Natya 

The word "Natya" has often been translated as 'drama' and the 
plays of ancient India have indeed some points of similarity with those of 
the Greeks. But on a closer examination of the technique of their pro- 
duction as described in the NatyaSastra, the Hindu dramas represented by 
the available specimens, will appear to be considerably different. Unless 
this important fact is borne in mind any discussion on the subject is liable 
to create a wrong impression. As early as 1890 Sylvain Levi (pp. 423-424) 
noticed that Indian Natya differed from the Greek drama from which 
the Westerners derived their early conception of the art. Though it is 
not possible to agree with Levi on all points about the various aspects 
of this difference and the causes which he attributed to them, no one 
can possibly have any serious objection against his finding that, "Le 
ndtaka par se nature autant que par son nom se rapproaehe de-la dance 
scenique ; le drame est Taction mttne" (Joe. cit). Levi however did not 
for reasons stated above fully utilize in this connection the Natyasastra 
which contains ample materials for clarifying his conclusion. 

The essential nature of the (Natya) derived from its etymology 
cannot by any means be called fanciful. For in the Harivamsa 1 (c. 200 A.C) 
we meet with an expression like nalflkam nanrtuh (they danced a play) and 
the KarpQramaBjari 1 (c. 1000 A.C.) has an expression like sattaam 
naccidavvam (a Sattaka is to be danced or acted). 

The terms like rupaka or rUpa (representation) and preksa (specta- 
cle), all denoting dramatic works, also characterise the Hindu dramas 
and show their difference from the drama of the Greeks who laid 
emphasis on action and not on the spectacle. Of the sir parts of the 
tragedy, the most typical of the Greek dramatic productions, Aristotle 
puts emphasis on the fable or the plot and considers decoration to be un- 
important. On this point the philosopher says : 

"Terror and pity may be raised by decoration— the mere spectacle; but 
they may also arise from the circumstanco of the action itself, which is far 

» Vis»uparrw, Oh. 93. 81. 28, * .Ed. M. Ghosh, p. 80. 


Prferable aad shows a superior poet, For the fable should be so construe- 
that wiftout the assistance of the sight its incidents may excite horror 
eommissemtion in those who hear them only; # • # # 
to produce this effect by meaa3 of the decoration discovers want of 

art in the poet ; who mast also be supplied with an expensive apparatus" 

But in case of the Hindu dramas the decoration (i. c. the costumes 
and make-up) mostly plays an important part. Equally with five other 
elements such as gestures and postures (ahgikd), words (vacika), the 
repftscntation of the Temperament (satlva), it gives the Natya its charac- 
teristic form. But in the theatre of the Greeks, it was not the case. In the 
performance of the tragedies, for example, they did not care much for the 
spectcale, if the declamation was properly made. For Aristotle himself says 
that, "the power of tragedy is felt without representation and actors" 
(II. IH).' 

Another peculiarity of the Hindu dramas was their general dependence 
on dance (nrtya), song [gita), and instrumental music (vadya). Though 
the chorus of the Greek tragedy introduced in it some sort of dance and 
songs, the function of these elements seem to have been considerably differ- 
ent in the Hindu drama. The ancient Indian play was produced through , 
words, gestures, postures, costumes, make-up, songs and dances of actors, 
and the instrumental music was played during the performance whenever 
necessary. But these different elements did not play an equal part in all the 
plays or different types of play. According as the emphasis was to be put 
on words, music, or dance, a play or its individual part partook of the 
nature of what the moderns would call 'drama', 'opera', 'ballet' or 'dramatic 
spectacle' 6 . Due to this nature the Hindu dramas which connected them- 
selves in many ways with song, dance and instrumental music, had a literary 
form which was to some extent different from that of the ancient Greeks. 
But it was not so much due to this literary form as to the technique of 
their production on the stage that the Hindu dramas received their special 

After forming a general idea of this Natya, from the various terms 
used to denote it, one should enquire what the ancient Indian theorists 
exactly meant by the term (Natya) or what they regarded as being the 
essence of the dramatic art as opposed to the arts of poetry, fiction or pain- 
ting. To satisfy, our ouriosity on this point the Natyasastra gives us the 
following passage which may pass for a definition of the Natya. 

'A mimicry of the exploits of gods, the Asuras, kings as well as of 
householders in this world, is called drama" (1. 120). 

' Poetics (Eferymans Library), p. 27. ' Ibid. p. 17. 

' HJB. Wilson, On the Dramatic System of the Hindu«, Oaloutta, 1827, pt. 1420. 


This description Beems to fall in a line with Cicero's view that "drama 
is a copy of life, a mirror of custom, a reflection of truth". In this state- 
ment Cicero evidently takes his cue from Aristotle who considered that the 
art in general consisted of imitation (mimesis). But this does not help us 
very much to ascertain the nature of drama as an example of 'imitation'. 
For the Greek philosopher nowhere defines this very essentially important 
term. So when he declares that "epic poetry, tragedy, comedy, dythrambics 
as also for the most part the music of the flute and of the lyre all these are 
in the most general view of them imitations" 8 , one can at best guess how 
drama imitates. There seems to be no such difficulty about understanding 
the view of the Hindu theorists. The Natyasastra lays down very elaborate 
rules as to how the drama is to make mimicry of the exploits of men and 
their divine or semi-divine counterparts. It is due to rules of representa- 
tion that the Hindu drama has been called by the later theorists 'a poem to 
be seen' (SD. 270-271). By this term epic or narrative poetry and fiction 
etc. are at once distinguished from drama which is preminently a spectacle 
including a mimicry of activities of mortals, gods or demigods. It may 
now be asked what exactly was m-ant by the word mimicry (anukarana) 
used by the Indian theorists. Did this mean a perfect reproduction of the 
» reality ? For an answer to this question we are to look into the con- 
ventions of the Hindu drama. 

2. The Dramatic Conventions 

That the Hindu theorists turned their attention very early to the 
problem of dramatic representation and enquired about the exact placo of 
realism or its absence in connection with the production of a play, is to be 
seen clearly from their very sensible division of the technical practice into 
"realistic" (tokadAarami, lit. popular) and "conventional" (nalyadAami, 
lit. theatrical". By the realistic practice, the Na^yasastra (XIV. 62-76 ; 
XXIII. 187-188) means the reproduction of the natural behaviour of men 
and women on, the stage as well as tho cases of other natural presentation. 
But from the very elaborate treatment of the various conventions regarding 
the use of dance, songs, gestures and speeches etc. by different characters 
it is obvious that tho tradition of the ancient Hindu theatre recognised very 
early the simple truth that the real art to deserve the name, is bound to 
allow to itself a certain degree of artificiality which receives its recognition 
through many conventions. One very patent example of this conventional 
practice on the stage; is speeches uttered 'aside' or as soliloquy. The 
advocates of extreme realism may find fault with these as unnatural, and 
the accusation cannot be denied, but on closer examination of circumstances 
connected with the construction of a play as well as its production on the 
stage, it will be fouud that if the spectators are to demand realism very 

• BMtfc»,p.6- 


rigidly then no theatrioal performence of any value, may be possible. 
Neither the Hindus nor the Greeks ran after this kind of absurdity. Critics 
of ancient Indian dramas will do -well to remember this and to take care 
to understand the scope and necessity of various conventions relating to 
the production, so that they may better appreciate the art of great 
play-wrights like Bhasa, Kalidasa, ikdraka and Visakhadatta. 

3. Time and place in Drama 

Hindu playwrights, unlike the majority of Greek tragedians, did 
never make any attempt to restrict the fictional action to a length of time 
roighly similar to that taken up by the production of a drama on the stage. 
In developing plots they had not much restriction on the length of time, 
provided that, individual Acts were to include incidents that could take 
place in course of a single day, and nothing could be put in there to interrupt 
the routine duties such as saying prayers or taking meals (XX 23), and 
the lapse of time between two Acts, which might be a month or a year (but 
never more than a year)' was to be indicated by an Introductory Scene 
(pravesaka) preceding the last one (XX. 27-28). 

Similarly there was almost no restriction about the locality to which 
individual Actors, and gods in their human roles were to be assigned, 
except that the human characters were always to be placed in India i.e. 
Bharatavarsa (XX. 97). 

4. The Unity of Impression 

In spite of having no rules restricting the time and place relating to 
different incidents included in the plot of a drama, the playwright had to be 
careful about the unity of impression which it was calculated to produce. 
For this purpose the Natyasastra seems to have the following devices : 

The Germ (Hj'a) of the play as well as its Prominent Point (iindu) 
was always to relate to every Act of the play and the Hero was sometimes 
to appear in every Act or to be mentioned there (XX. 15, 30). 

An Aet was not to present too many incidents (XX24), and such 
subsidiary events as might affect the unity of impression on their being 
directly presented, were merely to be reported in an Introductory Scene. 
Besides this, short Explanatory Scenes were sometimes put in before an 
Act to clarify the events occuring in it (XXI). 106-111. All these, not only 
helped the play to produce an unity of impression but also imparted to its 
plot a rapidity of movement which is essential for any kind of successful 
dramatic presentation. 

5. Criticism of Drama 

Indians from very early times considered plays to be essentially 
spectacle' (Jrekea) or 'things' to be visualised ; hence persons attending 

• BhaTabhwti however violates the rule in his Uttara. in letting many years 
paw between Acts I and II. 


the performance of a play were always referred to (XX VII. 48-57) as 
'spectators' or 'observers' (prehataY and never as audience (srotr), although 
there was always the speech element in it, which was a tiling to be heard. 
This disposes of the question of judging the value of a drama except in 
connection with its production on the stage This importance of the 
representational aspect of a play has possibly behind it an historical reason. 
Though in historical tiuies wo find written dramas produced on the stage, 
this was probably not the case in very early times, and the dialogues 
which contribute an important part of the drama wore often impro- 
vised on the stage by the actors", and this practice seems to have 
continued in certain claws of folk-plays till the late medieval times' ". 
Hence the drama naturally continued to be looked upon* by Indians as 
spectacles oven after great playwright creators like Blusa, Kalidasa, 
SOdraka, and Bhavabhuti had writt-n their dramas which in spite of 
their traditional form were literary master-pieces. 

Now, dramas being essentially things to be visualised, their judgement 
should properly rest with the people railed upon to witness them. This 
was not only the ancient Hindu view, even the modern producers, in spite 
of th<ir enlisting the service of professional (dramatic) eritics, depend 
actually on the opinion of the common people who attend their 

The judgement of the drama which is to depend on spectators has 
been clearly explained in the theory of the Success discussed in tho Natya- 
sastra (XXVII). In this connection one must remember the medley of 
persons who usually assemble to witness a dramatic performance and what 
varying taste and inclinations they might possess. For, this may give us 
some guidance as to what value should be put on their judgement which 
appear to have no chance of unity. In laying down the characteristics of a 
drama the Natyasastra has the following : "This (the Niitya) teaches duty to 
those bent on doing their duty, love to those who "are eager for its 
fulfilment, and it chastise* those who are ill-bread or unruly, promotes self- 
restraint in those who are disciplined, gives courage to coward*, energy 
to heroic persons, enlightens men of poor intellect and gives wisdom to the 
learned. Ihis gives diversion to kings, firmness [of mind] tcpersons afflicted 
with sorrow, and [hints of acquiring] wealth to those who arc for earning 
it, and it brings composure to persons agitated in mind. The drama as I 

•• Tho Kr,„akirtana, a collltfo, of MidH, J^T"* Vo11 » «*■>» 
in our early boyhood that «teZ3 , *■»"«« ol.dnm.. We M w 

theatre whi^ depend ol ZSJl'^ """"*"*» '^^ -*» 


havo devised, is a mimicry of actions and conducts of people, which is rich 
in various emotions and which depicts different situations. This will relate 
to actions of men good, bad and indifferent, and will give courage, amuse- 
ment and happiness as well as counsel to them all" (1.108-112). 

It may bo objected against the foregoing passage that no one play can 
possibly please all the different types of people. But> take this view of 
a dramatic performance, is to deny its principal character as a social 
amusement. For, the love of spectacle is inherent in all normal people and 
this being so, every one will enjoy a play whatever be its theme, unless it 
is 'to contain anything which is anti-social in character. The remarks of 
the author of the Natyasastra quoted above on the varied profits the specta- 
tors will reap from witnessing a performance, merely shows in what diverse 
ways different 'types of plays have thoir special appeal to the multitu- 
dinous spectators. And his very detailed treatment of this point, is for the 
sake of suggesting what various aspects a drama or its performance may 
have for the spectators. This manysidedncss of an ideal drama has been 
very aptly summed up by Kalidasa who says, "The drama, is to provide 
satisfaction in one [place] to people who may differ a great deal as regards 
their tastes" (Malavi. 1.4). It is by way of exemplifying the tastes of such 
persons of different category that the Natyasastra says : 

"Young people are pleased to sec [the presentation of] love, the 
learned a reference to some [religious or philosophical] doctrine, the seekers 
after money topics of wealth, and the passionless in topics of liberation. 

Heroic persons are always pleased in the Odious and the Terrible 
Sentiments, personal combats and battles, and th/3 old people in Puranic 
legends, and tales of virtue. And common women, children and uncultured 
persons are always delighted with the Comic Sentiment and remarkable 
Costumes and Make-up" (XXV. 59-61). 

These varying tastes of individual spectators were taken into consi- 
deration by the author of the Natyasastra when ho formulated his theory of 
the Success. The Success in dramatic performance was in his opinion of two 
kinds, divine (dat'viki) and human (nianum) (XXVII. 2). Of these two, 
the divine Success seems to be related to the deeper aspects of a play and 
came from spectators of a superior order i.e. persons possessed of culture 
and education (XXVII. 16-17), and the human Success related to its 
superficial aspects and came from the average spectators who were ordinary 
human beings. It is from these latter, who are liable to give expression to 
their enjoyment or disapproval in the clearest and the most energetic 
manner, that tumultuous applause and similar other acts proceeded 
[(XXVII. 3, 8-18, 13-14), while the spectators of the superior order gave 
[their appreciation of the deeper and the more subtle aspects of a play 
sXXVII, 5, 6, 12, 16-17). During the medieval times the approval of the 
Spectators of the latter kind .came to bo considered appreciation par 


excellence and pro-occupied tho experts or learned critics. They analysed 
its process in every detail with the greatest possible care in their zealous 
adherence of Bharata's theory of Sentiment (rasa) built upon what 
may bo called a psychological basis. 

But in spite of this later development of this aspect of dramatic cri- 
ticism it never became the preserve of specalists or scholars. Critic* never 
forgot that the drama was basically a social amusraent and as such depen- 
ded a gr eat deal for its success on the average spectator. Even the Natya- 
sastra has more than once very clearly said that the ultimate court of appeal 
concerning the dramatic practice was the people (XX. 125-126). Hence a 
fixed set of rules, be it of the Natyavcda or the Natyasastra was never 
considered enough for regulating the criticism of a performance. This 
seems to be tho reason why special Assessors appointed to judge the 
different kinds of action occurring in a play (XXVI. 6S-69), decided in 
co-operation with the select spectators, who among the contestants deserved 
to be rewarded. 

6. The Four Aspects of Drama. 

Though the Hindu plays are usually referred to as 'drama' all the ten 
varieties of play (riifia) described in the Natyasastra are not strictly speak- 
ing dramas in the modern sense. Due to the peculiar technique of their 
construction and production they would partially at least partake of the 
nature of pure drama, opera, ballet or merely dramatic spectacle. To under- 
stand this technique one must have knowledge of the Styles (vrtti) of dra- 
matic production described in the Natyasastra (XXII). These being four 
in number are as follows : the Verbal (bharati), the Grand (saltvati), tho 
Energetic (arabhali) and the Graceful (iaisiki). The theatrical presenta- 
tion which is characterised by a preponderating use of speech (in Skt.) and 
in which male characters are excusivcly to be employed, is said to be in the 
Verbal Style (XXII. 25ff.). This is applicable mainly in the evocation of the 
Pathetic and the Mervellous Sentiments. The presentation which depends 
for its effect on various gestures and speeches, display of strength as well as 
acts showing tho rise of tho spirits, is considered to be in the Grand Style 
(XXII. 38 ff). This is applicable to the Heroic, the Marvellous and the 
Furious Sentiments. The Stylo which includes the presentation of a bold 
person speaking many words, practising deception, falsehood and bragging 
and of falling down, jumping, crossing over, doing deeds of magic and 
conjuration etc, is called the Energetic one. This is applicable to tho Terri- 
ble, the Odious and the Furious Sentiments (XXII. 55ff). The presenta- 
tion which is specially interesting on account of charming costumes worn 
mostly by female characters and in which many kinds of dancing and sing- 
ing are included, and the themes acted ralate to the practice of love and ite 


enjoyment; is said to constitute the Graceful Style (XXII. 47ff). It is pro- 
per to the Erotic and the Comic Sentiments. 

From a careful examination of the foregoing descriptions one will see 
that the Styles, excepting the Graceful, are not mutually quite exclusive in 
their application. On analysing the description of different types of play 
given in tlio Natyasastra it will be found that the Nataka, the Prakarana. 
the Samavakara and the Ihamrga may include all the Styles in their presen- 
tation, while the I)iraa, the Vyayoga, the Prahasana, the Utsrstikanka, the 
Bhaiia and the Vithi, only some of those (XX. 88, 96). Hence one may call 
into question the soundness of the fourfold theoretical division of the Styles 
of presentation. But logically defective though this division may appear, 
it helps one greatly to understand the prevailing character of the perfor- 
mance of a play as it adopts one or more of the Styles, and gives prominence 
to one or the o^ier. It is a variation of emphasis on these, which is 
responsible for giving a play the character of a drama (including a dramatic 
spectacle), an opera or a ballet, Considered from this standpoint, dramas or 
dramatic spectacles like the Nataka, the Prakarana, the ?amavakara and 
the Ihamrga may, in their individual Acts, betray the characteristics of an 
opera or a ballet. The Prahasana, an, one Act drama to be presented with 
attractive costumes and dance, may however to some extent, partake of the 
nature of a ballet. The Pima, the Vithi, the Bhaiia, ihe Vyayoga and the 
Utsrstikanka are simple dramas devoid of dance and colourful costumes. 

III. Literary Structure of the Drama : 
1. Ten Types of Play 

The Nalaka, To understand the literary structure of the Hindu 
drama, it will be convenient to take up first of all the Nataka which is the 
most important of tho ten kinds of play described in the Natyasastra 1 . 

(a) Subject-matter and division into Acts. 

The Nataka is a play having for its subject-matter a well-known 
fetory and for its Hero a celebrated person of exalted nature. It describes 
the character of a person descending from a royal seer, the divine protec- 
tion for him, and his many superhuman powers and exploits, such as 
success in different undertakings and amorous pastimes 5 and this play 
should have an appropriate number of Acts (XX. 10-12). 

As the exploits of the Hero of the Nataka have been restricted to his 
success in different undertakings including love-matters, it is a sort of 
'comedy', and as such it can never permit the representation of the Hero's 
defeat, flight or capture by the enemy or a treaty with him under compul- 

1 NS. ignores the Uparopakas. Fortheae scoSD. NL. andBhP. ete.^ 

sion. Such a representation would negutive the subject of the play whir], 
is the triumph or the prosperity of the Hero. But all these except his (th,. 
Hero's) death, could be reported in an Introductory Scene which may 
come before an Act. The presentation of the Hero's death was for 
obvious reasons impossible in a comedy. 

The first thing that attracts the attention of reader on opening a 
Nataba, is its Prologue (sthapana or prastuvana). But according to th<- 
Natyasastra this was a part of the Preliminaries (/mrvaraitna) and was 
outside the scope of the play proper (V. 171). That famous playwright* 
like Bhisa, Kalidasa and others wrote it themselves aii'l made it the formal 
beginning of their dramas, seems to show that they made in this matter an 
innovation which as great creative geniuses they were fully entitled to. 

But unlike the Greek plays the Hindu Natakas are divided into 
Acts the number of which must not be le.« than live' or more than dn 
(XX. 57). These Acts, however, are not a set of clearly divided scenes a» 
they usually are in modern western compositions of this category. An 
Act of the Hindn drama consists of a series of more or less loosely con- 
nected scenes* which due to its peculiar technique could not be separated 
from one another. It has three important characteristics , 

-(i) Only the royal Hero, hi* queen, minister, and similar other im- 
portant personages are to be mndo prominent in it and not any minor 
character (XX. 18). This rule seems to be meant for securing the unity of 
impression which has been referred to before. 

(ii) It i9 to include only those incidents which could take place in 
course of a single day (XX. 23). If it so happens that all the incidents 
occurring within a single day cannot be accommodated in an Act these 
. surplus events are to be reported in a clearly separated part of it, called 
the Introductory Scene (firaveiaka) where minor characters only can 
take part (XX. 27, 30). The same should be the method of reporting 
events that are to be shown as having occurred in the interval between two 
Acts (XX. 31). Evidently these latter should be, of secondary importance 
for the action of play. But according to the Natyasastra these; should 
not cover more than a year (XX. 28). This al lowance of a rather long 
period of time for less important events occurring between two Acts of a 
Nitaka was the means by which the Hindu playwrights imparted speed to 
the action of the play and compressed the entire plot distributed through 
many events over days, months and years within its narrow frame-work 
suitable for representation within a few hours. 

(iii) An Act should not include the representation of events relating 
to feats of etcessive anger, favour and gift, pronouncing a course, running 

' Sao note 2 in IV. below. 


away, marriage, a miracle, a battle, loss of kingdom, death and the siege 
of a city and the like (XX. 20, 21). The purpose of this prohibition was 
probably that, when elaborately presented in an Act, these might divert 
much of the spectator's interest from the line of the principal Sentiment 
which the play was to evoke and might therefore interfere whith the unity 
of impression which it was to make. 

(b) Explanatory Devices 

(i) The Introductory Scene. It has been shown before how the 
Ililtdu playwrights divided the entire action of the Nataka into two sets 
of evonts of which the one was more important than the other, and how 
they represented in its Acts the important set, whereas the less 
important ones 'were reported, whenever necessary, in an Introductory 
Scene giving we the idea of the time that intervened between any two 
Acts. This Scene is one of the five Explanatory Devices {arthopaksepaka) 
which were adopted by the playwright for clarifying the obscurities that 
were liable to occur due to his extreme condensation of the subject-matter. 

The other Explanatory Devices are as follows : The Intimating 
Speech (culika), the Supporting Scene (viskam&haka) the Transitional 
Scene (ankdvalara) and the Anticipatory Scene (ahkamukha). 

(ii) The Intimating Speech. When some points [in the play] are 
explained by a superior, middling or inferior character from behind the 
curtain, it is called the Intimating Speech (XXI. 108). 

(iii) The Supporting icene. The Supporting Scene relates to the 
Opening Juncture only of the Nataka. It is meant for describing some 
incident or occurrence that is to come immediately after (XXI. 106-107). 

(iv) The Transitional Scene. When a scene which occurs between 
two Acts or is a continuation of an Act and is included in it, relates to 
the purpose of the Germ of the<play, it is called the Transitional Scene 
(XXL 112). 

(v) The Anticipatory Scene. When the detached beginning of an 
Act is summarised by a male or a female character, it is called the Anti- 
cipatory Scene (XXI. 112). 

(c) The Plot and its Development 

The Plot or the subject-matter (vaslu) of a Nataka may be twofold : 
"The principal" (adkikarika) and the "incidental" (prasahgiia). The 
meaning of the principal Plot is obvious from its name, and an incidental 
Plot is that in whioh the characters acting in their own interest incidentally 
furthe^thc purpose of the Hero of the pricipal Plot (XXL 2-5). 

The exertion of the Hero for the result to be attained, is to be 
represented through the following five stages (XXI. 8) : Beginning 
(ambha), Effort (prayatna), Possibility of Attainment (pmpti-sqmihavd), 


Certainty of Attainment (niyal&pti) and Attainment of the Result 
(fhalaprapti). These five stages of the Plot liave five corresponding 
Elements of the Plot (XXI. 20-21) such as, the Germ (bija), the Prominent 
Point Hindu) the Episode {pataka), tho Episodical Incident (firaian) and 
the Denouement (karya). Besides these aspects of the action and the 
Plot of the Nataka, the elaboration of the latter has been viewed a< 
depending on its division into the following live Junctions which are a- 
follows*: the Opening {mukhi), the Progression ipratimukha). the Develop- 
ment (gariha), the Pause (vimaria) and the Conclusion («;'< vahaiia)- 

Aud these have been further subdivided and described to give 
detailed hints as to how the playwright was to produce a manageable play 
including events supposed to occur during a long period of time. 

Kalidasa's Sakuntalii and Bhiisa's Svapna-vasavadattii are well- 
known examples of the Nataka ' 

The Prakarana. The second species of Hindu play, is the Praka- 
rana which resembles the Nataka in all respect- e«ept that ''it takes a 
rather less elevated range". \^ Plot is to be original and drawn from 
real life and the most appropriate theme is love The Hero may ben 
Brahmin, merchant, minister, priest, an officer of the king or a leader of 
the army (XX. 49-51). The female characters include a o-mrtezan or a 
depraved woman of good family (XX. 33) '. But the court<vun should 
not meet the Hero when he is in the company of a lady or gentleman of 
high family, and if the courtezans aud respectable ladies must meet on any 
account they are to keep their language aud manners undistorted (XX. 55- 
56). From these and other features, the Prakarana has been called a 
bourgeois comedy or comedy of manners of a rank below royalty. 

Siidraka's Mrcchakatika and Bhavabhiiti's Malatimadhava are well- 
known examples of the Prakarana. 

The Samavakhra. The Saniavakara is the dramatic representation 
of some mythological story which relates to gods and some well-known 
Asura, who must be its Hero. It should consist of three Acfr which are 
to take for their performance eighteen Nadikas (seven hours and twelve 
minutes).' Of these the first Act is to take twelve and the »econd four 
and the third two Nadikas only. The subject-matter of the Samnvakara 
should present deception, excitement or love, and the number of characters 
allowed in it arc twelve. And besides this, metres used in it should be 
of the compter kind (XX. 63-76). 

u.atetheobj^lofdramat.c utriga,, a prohibition which could sadly hare cooled tho 

nSTSSu ^ tta * ll *lM« «"<» Ooagrero -Select *pc*im.a. of Hindu 

• See" H.H. Witaw, Oo tho Dramatic Sysfe. f tb, Hindus, Occulta, 1887, p. 16. 


No old specimen of this type of drama has reached us. Prom the 
description given in the NatyaSastra it seems that the Samavakara was 
not a fully developed drama, but.only a dramatic spectacle on the sasis of 
a mythological story. It naturally became extinct with the development 
and production of fulfledged literary dramas such as those of Bhasa and 

Ihamrga. The Ihamrga is a play of four Acts in which divine 
males are implicated in a fight over divine females. It should be a play 
with well-ordered construction in which the Plot of love is to be based on 
causing discord among females, carrying them off and oppressing [the 
enemies], and when persons intent on killing are on the point of starting a 
fight, the imperilling battle should be avoided by some artifice (XX. 78-82). 

No old specimen of this type of play has been found. Prom the 
description givAi in the Natyasastra it seems that the Ihamrga was a play 
of intrigue, in which gods and goodesses only took part. 

The Dima- The l)ima is a play with a well-constructed Plot and its 
Hero should be well-known and of the exalted type. It is to contain all the 
Sentiments except the Comic and the Erotic, and should consist of four 
Acts only. Incidents depicted in it arc mostly earthquake, fall of meteors, 
eclipses, battle, personal combat, challenge and angry conflict. It should 
abound in deceit, jugglery and energetic activity of many kinds. The 
sixteen characters which it must contain are to include different types 
such as gods, Nagas, Raksasas Yaksas and Pisacas (XX 84-88). 

No old or new example of this type of play has reached us. It seems 
that like the Samavakara this was a dramatic epectacle rather than a 
fulfledged drama. With the advent of literary plays of a more developed 
kind, it lias naturally become extinct. 

Vyayoga. The Vyayoga is a play with a wcll-kuown Hero and a 
small number of female characters. The events related in it are to be of 
one day's duratiou. It is to have one Act only and to include battle, per- 
sonal combat, challenge and angry conflict (XX. 90-92). 

Bhasa's Madhyama-vyayoga is a solitary old specimen of this type 
of play. 

Utsrgtikaiika, The Utsr§tikanka or Aiika is an one-act play with 
a well-known plot, and it includes only human characters. It should 
abound in the Pathetic Sentiment and is to treat of women's lamentations 
and despondent utterances when battle and violent fighting have ceased, and 
its Plot should relate to the downfall of one of the contending characters 
(XX. 94-100). 

Bhasa's Urubhanga seems to be its solitary specimen. This type 
of play may be regarded as a kiud of one-act tragedy. 

The Prahasana. The.Prahasaua is a farce or a play in which the 
Comic Sentiment predominates* dud it too is to consist of one 'Act only. 


The object of laughter is furnished in this, mainly by the improper couducl 
of various sectarian teachers as well as courtezans and rogues (XX 102-106). 

The Mattavilasa and the Bhagavadajjukiya arc fairly old specimens 
of this type of play. 

The Bhana. The Bhana is au one Act play with it single character 
who speaks after repeating answers to his questions supposed to be given 
by a person who remains invisible, throughout This play in monologue 
relates to one's own or mother's adventure. It should always include many 
movements which are to be acted by a rogue or a Parasite (XX. 108-1 10!. 
The Bhanas includod in the collection published under the title Cufur- 
bhani seem to be old specimens of this typo of play. 

The VUlii. The Vithi should be acted by one or two persons- It 
may contain any of the three kinds of characters superior, middling and 
inferior (XX. 112-113). It seems to be a kind of a ve*y short one Act 
play. But one cannot be sure about this ; for no specimen of this type 
of play has come down to us. 

2. Did ion of a Play 

(a) The Use of Metre. One of the first things to receive the atten- 
tion of the Hindu writers on dramaturgy was the importance of verse in the 
dramatic dialogue. They discouraged long and frequent prose passages 
on the ground that these might prove tiresome to spectators (XX- 34). 
After giving a purmawul place to verse iu drama the Hindu theorist* 
utilized their detailed knowledge of the structure of metres which varied 
in ctesuru as well as the number and sequence of syllables or moras in 
a pkda (XV. 3bff„ XIV. 1-86), for heightening the effect of the words 
used, by putting them in a appropriate metro. In this respect they framed 
definite nW a> to the suitability of particular metres to different Senti- 
ment*. For example, the description of auy uct of boldness in connexion 
with the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments is to be given in the Arya 
metre, and compositions meant to express the Erotic Sentiment should be 
in gentl'' metre- such as Milini and Mandakrauta, and the metres of the 
iSakkari and the Atidhrti types were considered suitable for the Pathetic 
Sentiment (XVII. 110-112). In this regard the Hindu theorists, and for 
that matter, the Hindu playwrights anticipated the great Shakespeare 
who in his immortal plays made "all sorts of experiments in metre". 

(b) Euphony, After considering the use of metres the author of the 
Nityasastra pays attention to euphony and says, "The uneven and even 
metres which have been described before should be used in composition 
with agreeable and soft sounds according to the meaning intended. 

The playwright should make efforts to use in his composition sweet 
and agreeable words which can be recited by women. 

A Way abounding in agreeable sound and sense, and containing no 


obscure or difficult words, intelligible to the country people, having a good 

construction, fit to be interpreted with dances, developing Sentiments 

becomes fit lor representation to spectators" (XVII. 119-122). 

(c) Suggestive or Significant names. Another important aspect of 
the diction was the suggestive or significant names for different characters 
in a play. It has been said of Gustave Flaubert that he took quite a long 
time to find a name for the prospective hero and heroine of his novels, 
and this may appear to be fastidious enough. But on discovering that the 
Hindu dramatic theorists centuries ago laid down rules about naming the 
created characters (XIX. 30-36), we come to appreciate and admire the 
genius of the great French writer. 

(d) Varisty of languages or dialects. The use of Sanskrit along 
with different dialects of Prakrit (XVIII. 36-61) must be ascribed to 
circumstances m the midst of which the Hindu drama grew up. The 
dramas reflect the linguistic condition of the society in which the early 
writers of plays lived. As the speech is one of the essential features of a 
person's character and may profitably be retained unal- 
tered from the normal. Even in a modern drama dialacts are very often 
used though with a very limited purpose. 

IV. The Ancient Indian Drama in Practice 

1. Occasions for Dramatic Performance 

The Hindu drama like similar other forms of ancient art and poetry 
aeems to have been of religions origin, and it developed probably out of 
jdances and songs in honour of a deity like &va who in later time3 came to 
styled the great dancer-actor (natarafa). As time passed, the dance 
rith songs gradually assumed the form of regular dramatic spectacles, and 
ae range of subjects treated was extended beyond the legends connected 
ith the exploits of a particular deity. It is just possible that this 
Jevelopment of the religious aspect came in course of time to be partially 
rrested, and plays began to be composed more with a purely secular 
baracter. And this change considerably loosened its original connexion 
|ith the popular deities. Possibly due to this the Hindu drama in the 
Btoric period of its career, is found to be acted sometimes for moral edifi- 
ion as in the case of the Buddhist plays, sometimes for the aesthetic 
ftjoyment of the elite as in the case of KalidSsa's works, and sometimes 
|hononr of a deity as in case of one of Bhavabhttti's plays. In spite of 
various uses, the Hindu drama unlike its modern counterparts did 
ftsibly never become an ordinary amusement of everyday life. It was 
{ttly on special occasions like a religious festival, a marriage ceremony, 
ing's coronation, a friend's visit that dramatic performances were held 
39 ; AD. 12-14). But among all these ocoasions religious festivals 


were the most common for the performancee of drama. It was natural 
that on such occasions the drama was a popular entertainment as well, the 
public being then in a holiday mood. 

Another fact about the dramatic performances of the Hindus was 
that these were sometimes held in the form of contests (XXVII. 21-22, 
71, 77-79). Different groups of actors vied with one another for the 
popular appreciation, and reward for their skill in the particular art. This 
drama, however does not seem to have been a regular feature of the Hindu, 
as was the case with that of tho Greeks, and theatrioal troups gave, how- 
ever, performance usually for money without any spirit of rivalry towards 
others, and were paid by the rich people or the different guilds. 

2. The Time of Performance 

Except in the midnight or at noon or at the time of the Sandhya 
prayers, the Hindu dramas could be performed almost at any part of the 
day or of the night. But this does not mean "that any play could be pro- 
duced at any allowable time during the twentyfour hours. Though at the 
command of the patron the Director of a theatrical party could overlook 
strict rules in this regard, the time of performance was to be regulated 
according to the nature of the subject-matter of the individual play. For 
example, a play based on a tale of virtue was to be performed in the fore- 
noon ; a performance which was rich in instrumental music, and told a 
story of strength and energy, was to be held in the afternoon, and a play 
which related to the Graceful Style, the Erotic Sentiment, and required . 
vocal and instrumental music for its production, was to be performed in 
the evening ; but in case of plays which related to the magnanimity of 
the Hero and contained mostly the Pathetic Sentiment, performance was 
to be held in the morning (XXVII. 88-99). 

Though in the modern times dramatic performance is mostly held in 
the evening, the ancient Indian rules regarding the assignment of a play of 
a particular type to a particular part of the day or of tho night need not 
be considered queer ki any way. On the other hand, they appear very 
much to have been based on a proper understanding of the ever-changeable 
nature of human personalities. Even if a play based on a tale of virtue 
. or of woe, when properly presented on the stage, could be appreciated at 
anytime, it had better chance of impressing the spectator in the forenoon 
, or in the morning, when after the night's sleep and rest, he could be the 
Vmost receptive in regard to these Sentiments That a play including a 
story of energy and strength can better be assigned to the after-noon is to 
. be explained on the assumption that on taking rest after meals at the com- 
pletion the morning's activities, one becomes psychologically more competent 
to appreciate stories of strength and energy presented on the stage. In a 
similar manner, a play with love as its principal theme CUt« Jrith 


the Erotic Sentimont) may be mora effectively pro3eatcd on the stage in the 
evening, when after the day's work, one is naturally inclined to enjoy the 
company of his dear woman, be she his wife or the hetaera. 
3. The Playhouse or the Theatre 
The Natyasastra describes various types of playhouse, and their 
different parts have been mentioned to some extent in detail. But in the 
absence of evidence the like of which has been copiously available in case 
of the Greek theatre, it cannot be said how far the ancient Indian plays 
were peformed in specially constructed theatres. It may be possible that 
only the kings and very wealthy people owned playhouses constructed accor- 
ding to the Nityyasastra, while dramatic spectacles meant for the common 
people were heid in the open halls called the Nat-mandir (Natya-mandira) 
in front of the {Samples, or in a temporarily devised theatre under the cover 
a canopy, as in *he case of the modern Bengali Yatras which seem to have 
some resemblance and connexion with the ancient Indian Natya described 
in the Sastra. One remarkable feature of the playhouses described in the 
Natya-sastra is that they are of a very moderate size, the largest among 
them (meant for mortals) being only thirtytwo yards long and sixteen 
yards board, capable of accommodating about four hundred (400) spectators. 
This is in sharp contrast with the Athenian theatre which sometimes held 
as many as fifteen thousand (15,000) people. 

" The comparative smallness of the ancient Indian theatre was a nece- 
ssary consequence of the pecular technique of the dramatic production. 
For in a larger playhouse the spectators could not all have heard delicate 
points on which depended in no-small measure the success of a performance. 
The inordinately largo Athenian theatre was not much handicapped in 
this respect, for the Greek drama depended on a considerably different 

The Natyasiistra describes three main types of playhouse : oblong 
(vikrsfa), square (caturasra) and triangular {tryasra). These again might 
be the large, medium or small, with their length respectively as one hundred 
and eight, sixtyfoui, and thirtytwo cubits. This gives altogether nine 
different varities of theatres, viz. (i) the large oblong, (ii) the large- 
square, (iii) the large triangular, (iv) the medium oblong, (v) the 
medium square (vi) the medium triangular, (vii) the small oblong, 
(viii) the small square and (ix) the small triangular. These nine types 
can also be measured in terms of damjas instead of that of cubits. This 
will give us eighteen different diamensions oE playhouse. But the Natya- 
sastra is silent about the use of the playhouse measured in terms of danQas, 
and the playhouse of the largest typo measuring 108 cubits in length have 
been prohibited by the Sastra for tho mortals. And it has been mentioned 
before that a playhouse more in area than thirtytwo yards long and sixteen 

yards broad has been prescribed for them. This should bo divided into 
three parts : (i) the tiring room (nepathya) (ii) the stage (rahgapitha 
or rahgasirsa) and (iii) the auditorium (rahgamanfala). Of these the 
tiringroom would be at one end of the theatre and would measure sixteen 
yards by four yards. On the two sides of the stage there should be two 
Mattavaranis each occupying an area of four yards by four yards and 
having four pillars. Thus the area to be occupied by the seats of specta- 
tors would be twentyfour yards by sixteen yards. 

The tiring room (nepathya) was the place in which the actors and 
the actresses put on the costumes suited to the different roles, and from fhis 
place, the tumults, divine voices {daiva-mni) and similar other acts 
proceeded. This part of the theatre was separated from the stage by 
two screens over its two doors, Between these two doors the members 
of the orchestra {kulapa) were to sit and the direction facing them 
was to be considered conventionally the east. 

4. The Representation 

To understand the technique of representation of the Hindu drama 
one must remember that it avoided stark realism and gave utmost 
scope to imagination and fancy. The one unmistakable evidence of 
this is the total absence of any painted scenery from the stage. This 
is but a- negative side of it. If the Hindus avoided bringing in any 
kind of artificial scenery, they made positive efforts in communicating 
the meaning of the drama and calling forth the Sentiment (rasa) in 
the spectators through suggestive use of colour in the costume and 
make up of the actors and rhythmic movements of many kinds which 
have been summed up in their theory of four representations (abhinaya) 
such as angika, vaeika, aharya, and sattvika (VI.23). 

(a) The Physical Representation 

Among these, the ahgika should be discussed first. This consists 
of the use of various* gestures and postures of which the Natyasastra 
gives elaborate descriptions. Different limbs have been named and their 
manifold gestures and movements described, with various significance 
attached to each one of them (VIII.-XII). For example, the head has 
thirteen different gestures which are as follows : 

Akampita : Moving the head slowly up and down. 

Kampita: when the movements in the Akampita head are quick 
and copious. (Uses) : The Akampita head is to be applied in giving 
a hint, teaching questioning, addressing in an ordinary way (lit naturally), 
and giving an order. 

The Kampita head is applicable (lit. desired) in anger argument 
understanding, asserting, threatening, sickness and intolercnce. 

Dhnta and Vidhuta : A slow movement of the head is called the 


Dhuta and when this movement is quick it is called Vidhuta. (Uses) : 
The Dhuta head is applicable in unwillingness, sadness, astonishment 
confidence, looking side ways, emptiness and forbidding. 

The Vidhuta head is applied in an attack of cold, terror, panic, 
fever and the first stage of drinking (i. e. intoxication). 

Parivahita and Udvahita : when the head is alternately turned 
to two sides it is called the Parivahita, and when it is once turned 
upwards it is known as the Udvahita. (Uses) : The Parivahita head 
is applicable in demonstration, surprise, joy, remembering, intolerence, 
cogitation, concealment and [amorous] sporting. 

The Udvahita head is to be applied in pride, showing height, 
looking high up, self-esteem and die like. 

Avadhuta ! When the heaPIs once turned down it is called the 
Avadhuta. (Usts) : it is to be applied in [communicating] a message 
involking a deity, conversation and beckoning [one to come near]. 

Aflcita : When the neck is slightly bent on one side the Aflcita 
head is tha result. (Uses) : It is applicable in sickness, swoon, intoxication 
anxiety and sorrow. 

Nihaficita : when two shoulder** are raised up with the neck bent 
on one side the Nihaficita head is produced. (Uses) : It is to be used 
by women in pride, Amorousness (vilasa), Light-heartedness (laltla). 
Affected Indifffirence {bibboka), Hysterical Mood (kilakinciia). Silent 
Expression of Affection (mottayifa), Pretented Anger (kuttamitaY ; 
Paralysis {stambha) and Jealous Anger (matia). 

Paravrtta : when the face is turned round, the Paravrtta head is 
the result. (Uses) : It is to be used in turning away the face, and 
looking back and the like. 

Utk§ipta •. when the face is raised up the Utks.ipta head is the 
result. (Uses) : It is used indicating lofty objects, and application 
of divine weapons. 

Adhogata : The head with the face looking downwards is called 
the Adhogata. (Uses) : It is used in shame, bowing [in salutation] and 

Parilolita : when the head is moving on all sides, it is called 
Parilolita. (Uses) : It is used in fanting, sickness, power of intoxi- 
ation, possession by an evil spirit, drowsiness and the like. 

The eyes are similarly to haw different kinds of glances according 
to the States {bhava) and Sentiments {rasa) they are to express. The 
eyeballs too are liable to similar changes to creat impressions of 
different feelings and emotions, and so have the eyebrows, tho nose, 

1 For the definition of all these terms together with the preceding ones see NK 
XXIV. 15,18-82. 


the cheeks, the chin, and the neck. The hands, however, are the most 
important limbs in the making of gestures. Gestures and movements of 
hands fall into three classes, viz. single {asamyula), combined (samyuta) 
and dance hands (nrtta-hasta). Single-hand gestures and movements 
relate to one hand only, while combined hands to both the hands, The 
following are examples of the three kinds of hand gestures r— Pataka 
(single hand) : The fingers extended and close to one another and the 
thumb bent. A»jali (combined hand) Putting together of the two Pataka 
hands is called the Afijali. Caturasra (dance-hand) : The Katakamuk.ha 
hands held forward eight Aiigulis apart [from each other] on one's breast, 
the two shoulders and elbows on the same level- Besides these gestures, 
the hands have varied movements which are characterised by the following 
acts : drawing upwards, dragging, drawing out, accepting, killing, beckon- 
ing, urging, bringing together, separating, protecting, releasing, throwing, 
shaking, giving away, threatening, cutting, piercing, squeezing and 
beatingdX. 161-163). 

Prom the foregoing discussion about the gestures it is apparent that 
their uses fall into two different categories, viz. realistic and conven- 
tional. Of these two types, the gestures used conventionally far outnumber 
those of the other kind. But this should not appear strange. For the 
ancient Indian dramatists and theatrical producers were fully conscious 
of the limited scope of realism in arts of various kinds, and hence they 
conceived action as comething very closely allied to dance. This demanded 
that while moving on the stage with or without uttering any word, the 
actors should gesticulate rhythmically, to impart grace and decorative 
effect to their figure. For this very purpose another set of gestures called 
Dance-hands (nrtlahasta) are also to be used. As their name implies 
these hands were exclusively to be used in dance, but for reasons men- 
tioned above -they were sometimes utilized at the time of declamation 
or recitation. Tjjte lower parts of the body down to the Jfeet are also 
to be similarly used. Among these, the feet are the most important On 
them depend the different movements of the entire body as well as the 
various standing postures. The movements of the feet are of three kinds, 
viz. ordinary gait, Cari and Mandala, Of these, the Can is a simple 
movement of the feet (XI.) while Mandala, is a series of such movements 
considered together (XII.) During the stage fighting the two combatants 
are to move with Carls and Mandalas in accompaniment with suitable 
music And the gait is very valuable for the representation of different 
roles- In this matter too convention plays a very considerable part. The 
Natya&istra lays down elaborate rules about the width of footsteps and the 
tempo of the gait for different characters according to their social position, 
age, sex v health and feeling as well as the peculiar environments in which 
they might be placed (XEU. 1-157). 

(b) The Vocal Representation 

The second means of theatrical representation consists of the use of 
speeoh. It relates to the proper musical notes (svara) voice registers 
(sthatu), pitch of vowels (varrta), intonation (kukri), speech-tempo (laya) 
to be used in reciting or declaiming a passage for the purpose of evoking 
different Sentimente (rasa) in the spectators. For example to call forth 
the Comic and The Erotic Sentiments a passage should be recited with tho 
Madhyama and the Paiicama notes, and for the Heroic and the Marvellous 
Sentiments the Sadja and the Rsabha would be the suitable notes. 

To call a person staying at a distance the voice should proceed from 
the head register (iiras) and when he is at a short distance it should be 
from the chest {.uras), and for calling a man at one's side the voice from 
the throat register (kantka) would bo proper (XIX. 43). 

For any speech with the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments the prevail- 
ing pitch would be Udatta (acute) and Svarita (circumflex) while in the 
Heroic, tho Furious and the Mervellous Sentiments it should be Udatta 
and Kampita. 

In the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments the speech-tempo should be 
medium, in the Pathetic slow, and in the other Sentiments a quick tempo 
is appropriate (XIX. 59). 

Besides the above aspects of speech, close attention was to be given 
in observing rhythm and cadence. And the metrical character of any 
passage in verse was to be fully expressed in its recitation or declamation. 
For this propose the Natyasastra devotes nearly two full chapters (XV, 
XVI) which discuss prosody and allied topics. 

(c) The Costumes and Make-up 

One important element in theatrical representation now-a-days is the 
various stage appliances such as, painted scenery, costumes and make-up 
However able the actors aud actresses might be in delivering the 
speeches assigned to their roles, without being placed against properly 
painted scenery and without having proper costumes and make-up, by their 
acting and delivery alone they cannot create that kind of stage-illusion 
which is necessary for the success of a dramatic production. But in the 
ancient Indian stage thero was no painted scenery. Hence the actors had to 
depend a great deal upon costumes and make-up. By the term ShSryabhi- 
naya the Hindu theorists understood these two items (XXIII).. 

Though painted scenery is considered indispensable iu tho modern, 
theatre, tho aucient Indians having a considerably different conceptiou of 
the drama, did not require its aid for the production of a play. The wall 
that separated the tiring room (nepathya) and the stage (raitgapiiha) 
together with the screens covering the two doors connecting the stage aud 
the tiring room, served as tho back-ground to show off to advantage tho 


figures of the performers. And these, the wall and the screens, possibly 
did not contain anything other than the usual decorative designs. This 
simplicity in the character of the scenic apparatus was a nacesscry con- 
comitant of the peculiar technique of the Hindu drama, and its cause 
may be looked for in ite early history. The introduction of magnificent 
scenery appears to be a later development in the history of drama. 
Similarly the back scene of the Shakaspearean stage consisted of a bare 
walli and anything in the way of spectacular effect was created by the 
movements and grouping of actors 

The production of an impression by means of painted scenery would 
have been alien to the taste of the ancient Hindus who were more or less 
conscious of the limitation of realism in their various arts. In order to make 
the spectators visualise the place and time of the dramatic story in hand, 
the Hindus had a different device. Numerous descriptions of place and 
time composed in rhythmic prose and verse, which are scattered over the 
classical Hindu plays, served very efficiently indeed the purpose of painted 
scenery. When properly read or sung, these passages very easily created 
an illusion of the place or the time described. The elaborate description 
of Vasantasena's magnificent reisdence in the Mrcchakatika was calcu- 
lated to call up vividly its picture before the mind's eye. The same 
thing may be said of the grand description of the Dandaka forest in 
the Uttararamacarita. This device of making a scene lively, has been 
utilized by Shakespeare also. In appreciation of his very beautiful des- 
cription of place and time, one critic says "The plays are full of such des- 
criptive passages as can nullify the achievements of decorators and 
mechanics." It has already been mentioned that in the Shakespercan 
stage too painted scenery was unknown. 

There being no scenery of any kind in the Hindu theatre which made 
no effort at realism, the spectators were required to use their imagination 
to the utmost. The demand on tho spectator's imagination made by the 
ancient Indian producers of plays was further testified by their rules of 
conventional Zonal division (kaksa-vibhaga) of the stage (XIV. 1-15). 
Some of these are as follows : 

A Zone might change with the actor walking a few steps over the 
stage.'' Any ancient Hindu play will furnish numerous examples of this 
convention. For etample in the first Act of the Sakuntala tho king appears 
for the first time at a distance from Kanva's hermitage, but shortly after- 
wards he enters it by simply taking a few steps over the stage, looking 
around and saying. "This is the entrance of hermitage and let me enter it". 

By the same kind of convention the inside and outside of a house was 

> Dae to this kind of convention, scenes of the Hindu plays ware not clearly 
separated as thay aro in a modern drama. This puzzled J?. Hall who says : 


simultaneously presented. 8 The rule relating to this was as follows : 
According to the Zonal division, those who entered the stage earlier should 
be taken as being inside [a house] while those entering it later are known 
to be as remaining outside it. He who enters the stage with the intention 
of seeing them (ie. those entering earlier) should report himself after 
turning to the right. To indicate going to a distant locality one is to walk 
a good few steps over the stage and to indicate going to a place near by, a 
short walk only is needed, while a walk of medium duration will indicate 
going to a place of medium distance, But in case a person leaves one 
country and goes to a distant land, this is to bo indicated by closing 
the Act in which such an event occurs, and mentioning again the same 
fact in an Explanatory Scene at the beginning of the next Act. 

An example* of some of these conventional rules occurs in the ninth 
Act of the Mrftchakatika where Sodhanaka appears first as being at the 
gate of the court of justice and enters it by making a pantomimic move- 
ment ; then again he goes out to receive the judge and re-enters, the court- 
room after him by simply walking over the same stage. And when the 
judge has started work, Sodhanaka again goes out to call for the complain- 
ants. This going out also consists of actually walking a few steps over 
the stage. 

Though painted scenery was not in use in the Hindu theatre objects 
like hills, carriages, aerial cars, elephants etc, were represented on the 
stage by suggestive models {putta) of these. According to the Natyasastra 
the model works were of three kinds, viz. sandhima which was made up 
of mat, cloths or skins, wrapping cloth, or other materials wrapped round 
something, and vyajt'ma which was a mechanical contrivance of some kind 
From Dhanika, the commentator of the Dasarupa (II. 67-58), we learn 
about a model-work of an elephant for the production of the Udayana- 
carita, and the Mrcchakatika owes its name to the toy cart which plays an 
indispensable role in the story- 

(d) The Temperament 

The fourth or the most important means of representation is the 
Temperament (sattva) or the entire psychological resources of a man 
(XXIV), The actor or the actress must for the time being feel the 
States that he or she is to represent, and only then will the Sentiments 
[related to them follow. This kind of reprsentation was indispensable for 
giving expression to various delicate aspects of men's and women's 
emotional nature. 

So far as is known, Hindu dramas have always been parted into acts ; but never 
ave they had scenes. It is somewhat to be wondered at, that the Hindus, wi h their 
'ordinate love tor subdivision, should have left those univented. (Introduction to 
)asantpa, pp. 28-29. » Secnote 2 above. 

V. Literature on the Ancient Indian Drama 

1. The Early Writers 

Silalin and Krmva. Panini (circa 500 B;0.) refers (IV. 3.110-111) 
to the Natastttras of Silalin and Krsasva. As the works of these two 
authors hare perished beyond recovery we are not in a position to have 
any exact idea about their contents. But LeVi and Hillebrandt have taken 
them to be manuals for actors (nata) though Weber and Konow have con- 
sidered those to have been sets of rules for dancers and pantomimists, and 
Keith has accepted their view. Konow further thinks that the treatises of 
Silalin and Krsasva were absorbed in the body of the Natyasastra (ID. p. 1) 

2. The so-called sons of Bharata 

After Silalin and Krsasva come the writers whose, names have been 
included in the list of the one hundred sons of Bharata, given in the extant 
version of the Natyasatra. (I. 26-22). Among these Kohala, Dattila 
(Dhurtila), Salikarna (Satakarna), Badarayana (Badari), Nakhakutta and 
Asmakutta have been referred to and quoted by later writers as authorities 
on dramaturgy and histrionics. Beside3 these, Vatsya and Sandilya have 
beon named as authorities on drama by some writers. Such references and 
quotations are our only source of knowledge of them and their work. 

(a) Kohala Among the writers on drama who wrote after Silalin 
and Krsasva, Kohala seems to be the most important. In the extant 
version of the Natyasastra (XXXVI. 63), it is given in the form of a 
prophecy that Kohala will discuss in a supplementary treatise all those 
topics on drama that have not beon touched by Bharata. Prom quotations 
of his works made by Abhinava 1 and another commentator, 2 as well as 
from their references to his opinion, it appears that Kohala wrote on dance 
and dramaturgy as well as historionics and music. 

(b) Dattila, Hamjilya, and Vatsya, Dattila seems to be identcal 
with Dantila or Dhurtila mentioned in the Natyasastra (I. 26). Abhinava 
too quotes from one Dattilitcarya 3 and it is likely that he is not other 
than this Dattila. From these quotations .it appears that he wrote 
on histrionics and music. Sandilya and Vatsya montioned in the 
Natyasastra (XXXVI. 63) along with Dattila (Dhurtila) are to us nothing 
but mere names. It is possible that they were writers on somo aspects 
of drama and theatre. 

» Ag I. pp. 173, m, 183-184; II p. 26, 55, 130, 133, 142, 116, 148. 151,155, 
407,416-417,421,434,438-439,413,452,459; De* Ms. p. 413, 436, 496 521 680 

• BhP. pp. 204. 210, 236' 245, 251. 

' Ag. I. p. 205, Besides this Ag. quotes and refer* t ) Dattila in less than 14 times 
while eomenting on chapter on ibmc. See Do's Ms. pp. 544, 573, 576, 580 583, 588 590 
621, 6^628, 68, 631, 640, 642, 644, 650, 655. See also Ku«» »1 123 


(c) Satakaryi (fatakatwh &Mkarna). Satakariii as a proper name 
is found in inscriptions from the first lecntury B. C. to 149 A. C. Hence 
it is possible (though not quite certain) that fcktakarni the writer on drama 
flourished about the first century A. C* Like kings in later times who were 
sometimes found to take interest among other subjects in drama and poetics 
and to write treatises on them, this Satakarni might well have been a king 
or a person of royal descent From the quotations made by later writers 3 
from him it appears he wrote on dramaturgy. 

(d) Asmakutta and Nakhakutta. These two writers from their 
nanws appear to have been contemporaries, probably belonged to the same 
locality. Sagaranandin 9 and Visvanatha' quote from Nakhakutta, and 
Sagara only is, known to have quoted from A^makutta 8 , Prom these 
quotations it appears that AiSmakutta and Nakhakutta wrote on 
dramaturgy. , 

(e) Ebdarayana [Badari). Sagara quotes from Badarayana twice 9 
and possibly names him once as Badari, and from the extracts quoted it 
seems that this early writer discussed dramaturgy. 

3. Samgraliakara 

Abhinavagupta once mentioned the Samgraha and once the Sam- 
graliakara. 10 In the Natyasastra (VI. 3, 10) itself also one Samgraha 
has been mentioned. It seems that the reference is to the identical work. 
From those facts it appears that the work might have been a compendium 
treating of dramaturgy as well as liistrionics. 

4. The Present Text of the Natyasastra (circa 200 A.C.). 11 
5. Medieval Writers on Drama 

(a) Nandi (Nandikesvara) Tumburu Visakhila and Camyana. 
Besides the writers mentioned above Abhinava and Saradatanaya refer to 
Nandi or Nandike&vara 1 2 and the former also names Tumburu" and 
Visakhila 1 4 with occasional reference to their views or actually quotations 
from them, and Carsiyana has once been quoted by Sagaranandin. 15 

(b) Sadimva, Padmablm,- Drauhini, Vy'usa and Ahjaneya. 

4 Select Inscriptions, pp. 191-207. 

• NL. 1101-1102, Rucipati's Comm. on AR. p. 7. 
« NL. 2768-2769, 2904-2905. 

' SD. 294, Nakhakutta has also bean mentioned by Bahmwpa in his Comm. on 
Dasampa (Indian and Iranian Studies presented to I). Ross, Bombay, p. 201), p. 201 f,n. 

• 83,437.27663707, 2774-2775. ' NL. 1092-1094, 2770-2771. 

10 Ag. II. pp. 430, 2770-2771. ,l Sec below sections VI. and VIH. 

** Ag. I. p, 171, Do's Ms. p. 559. This Nandikesvara may bo identical with 
the author of the AD. l ' Ag. I. pp. 165. 

1 4 Ag. I. p. 199 also De's Ms. pp. 547, 561, 5C3, Soo also Kutfa, si. 123. 
" NL. 862-363. 


Abhinava and iWadatenaya once refer to Sadasiva 1 " while some writors 
on drama, such as Padmabhn, 1 ' Drauhini, 18 VyaW and Injaneya* 1 ' 
have boon named by Saradatanaya only. But we are not sure whether they 
were really old authors or these names have been attached to some late 
treatises to give them an air of antiquty. 

(c) Katyayatta, Rahula and Getrga. These three writors, quoted 
by Abhinava and Sagara may be counted among tJjo medieval writers on 
on drama. Prom the available extracts from his work Katyayana 81 seems 
to have been a writer on dramaturgy. Rahula has been twice quoted in 
Abhinava's commentary, and Sagara" has once referred to his view. 78 
Prom these it appears that Rahula was a writer on dramaturgy as well as 
histrionics. Garga as an authority on drama has been mentioned by Siigara- 
nandin.' 4 In the absence of any quotation from him we cannot say what 
exactly he wrote about- 

(d) Sakaligarbha and Gkaqtaka. Abhinava mentions among others 
the names of SSakaligarbha* 6 and Ghantaka. 78 Of these two, Ghaiuaka 
seems to bo a contemporary of Sanknka, and as for, Sakaligarbha, we 
have no definite idea about his time. Prom the references to their views 
it appears that they wrote on dramaturgy. 

(e) Variika-kara Harm. Abhinava once quotes from the Varti- 
kakrt 17 and once from the Vartika 18 and neifc time from tho Harsa- 
vartika, 10 and besides this he once refers to tho views of the Vartika- 
karl. 80 Sagaranandin and Saradatanaya refer to one Harsavikrama 8 ' or 
HarRa. 85 It seems possible that they all referred to the same author, and 
tho name of the author of the Vartika was Harsa or Har§a-vikrama- 
Prom these quotations and the references it appears that this Vartika was 
an original treatise on dramaturgy and histrionics. 

(f) Matrgupla. Matrgupta has been taken to be a commentator 
of the Natyai&tra by Sylvain Levi. 33 Though this view has been 
accepted by authors who have written later on tho subject, 8 * from the 
metrical extracts 5 3 made from his work by some commentators it appears 

'• BhP. 152, DR. IV. 38-3). " Bh'*.p. 47. " BhP. p. 239. 

•» BhP. 251. •• Soenotol9. " NL. 1484-1485. Ag. II. pp. 245-246. 

>■ Ag. I. pp. 115, 172. NL. 2873-2175. •• NL. 3225. " NL.3226. 

• ■ Ag. II. p. 452. Kavi thinks that Sakaligarbha - .Sakaleya- Udbhala. 

" Ag, II. p. 436. 

" Ag. I. p. 172. This Vmrtika seams to have been in original work like Kunw- 
rila's Slokavnrtika written in verso. •■ Ag. I. p 174. 

" Ag I. p. 207 alsoDe'9Ms.p.545. •• Ag.Lp.31. 

»• NL.3225. ■■ BhP. 23*. ■■ Le Theatre indien p. 1 5. 

" e. g. Skt. Poetics, Vol. (p. 32-33). 

'» A. dy pp. 2, 0,7, 8, 9, 13, 15. 110, 126, 230, NL. 102, 314-316, 459-471, 534, 
1186(?), BhP. p. 234. 


that he composed an original work on the subject. It is probable that in 
this he occasionally explained in prose the view expressed by the author of 
the Natyasastra.' 6 Interpreting in thia manner one can understand the 
words of Sundara-nrisra, who, commenting on Bharata's definition of the 
Benediction (nandi), remarks that 'in axplaining this Matrgupta said 
etc'." About the time of Matrgupta, we have no sufficient evidence. All 
that can be said is that, Abhinava quotes from his work once 88 and hence 
he [was earlior than this great well-known commentator,. Besides this 
Sagaranandin, who is possibly earlier than Abhinava, names Matrgupta 
aloitg with old writers such as ASmakutta, Nakhakutta, Garga, and 
Badarayana (Badari);'"' hence it appears that he was not a late writer. 

From the* meagre information available about him scholars have 
identified him widh the poet of that name living during the reign of Har§a- 
vikramaditya of "Kashmir who seems to have been the author of a work on 
drama called Vartika. This would roughly place his work at the end of 
the 4th century AC. or in the beginning ofthe5th.' 10 From the extracts 
made from his works it appears that wrote on dramaturgy and music. 

(g) Subandhu, Baradatanaya refers to one Subandhu who wrote on 
dramaturgy. 41 If it is possible to identify him with the famous author of 
the Vasavadatta, then he may be placed roughly in the 5th century A.C. 

(li) The compilers of the Agnipurut}a and the Visiyudharmottara, 
The Agnipurana treats of na{ya, nrtya, and rasa, but this treatment depends 
considerably on the Natyasastra- There is literal borrowing from this 
work as well as parapharases of some of its metrical passages in this 
1'urana. This portion of the Agnipurana is usually placed after Dandin 
(circa. 7th century).** The Vis^udharmottara too treats of nrtta, nafya 
and abhinaya, and thia treatment too is dependent on the Natyasastra and 
does not appear to be earlier than the 8th century. 

6. Late writings on Drama 

(a) Daiarupa. The Dasarupa (DaSarupaka) of Dhananjaya was 
composed in the last quarter of the 10th century A.C. during the reign of 
Munja (Vakpatiraja, II) the king of Malawa. This work, as its name 
implies, treats of ghe ten principal forms of dramatic works (ritpa) which 
constitute the subject-matter of chapter XX of the Natyasastra, but it 

91 For example Sugars, (NL. 534IT.) discusses Matrgupta's view in his compi- 
lation which is written in Terse and prose. It seems that this author was his model. 

" Skt Poetics Vol, I. pp. 102-103. 

" A g. Do's Ms. p. 643. Dr. S. K. De thought that Matrgupta was unknown 
to Ag. (Skt. Poetics, Vol. i. p. 33) . 

" See note 23 above. " Keith, Skt. Drama, p. 291. 

41 BhP.p.838. «> Skt. P.oetios, Vol.!- p. 102-103. 


actually brings in a few other relevant matters scattered over other parts 
of this comprehensive work. 

Any careful student of the Natyasastra will easily discover that 
Dhananjaya in restating the principles of dramaturgy in a more concise 
and systematic form has carried too far tho work of his abridgment and 
left out quite a number of important matters. The special stress which 
he lays on tho literary aspect of drama by his exclusion of its histrionics 
and other technical sides, very clearly indicates the general decadene of 
India's aesthetic culture at the time. With his professed reverence for 
the rules of tho Natyasastra (ascribed to Bharata), ho seems to have mis- 
understood the aims and objects of its author who composed his work for 
the playwrights as woll as the producers of plays. 4 3 

But whatever be its limitation, the Dasariipa, and its commentary 
Avaloka without which it was only half intelligible, attained in course of 
time a wido popularity and gradually superseded the Niityasastra which 
socms to have become very rare with tho passage of time. And the 
DaSarupa so thoroughly supplanted other dramaturgic works as existed 
before its time, that with the exception of the Natya&stra it is the most 
well-known work on the subject and very frequently drawn upon by the 
commentators of plays as well as later writers on dramaturgy like 

(b) Na{akalaksaiM-ratnako'sa. Slightly earlier than the Dasariipa 
or contemporaneous with it, 1 4 is the Nitakalaksana-ratuako&i (briefly 
Natakalaksana) of Sigarauandin. Till about a quarter of a century ago 
our only knowledge of the work consisted of a few quotations from it in 
different commentaries. Bat in 1922 the late Sylvaiu Levi discovered its 
Ms. in Nepal and published a report on its contents and other relevant 
matters (Journal Asiatique, 1922, p. 210). Since then the work has been 
carefully edited by M. Dillon and published (London, 1937). Just like 
Dhananjaya, Sagaranandin too discusses in his NStakalaksjana, dramaturgy 
in detail aud mentions only incidentally certain topics connected with 
histrionics. But unlike the Dasariipa tho Natakalaksana does not treat 
exclusively of dramaturgy, but refers to histrionics whenever necessary. 
Though tho author professedly depends on no loss than seven different 
authorities such as Harsa-vikrama, Matrgupta, Garga, Asmakutta, Nukho- 
kutta, Badari (Badariiyana), and Bharata (the mythical author of the 
Natyasastra) yet his dependence on tho last-named one seems to be the 
greatest A large number of passages have actually been borrowed by him 
from the same.' 5 Besides these borrowings the extent of Sagaranandin's 

" Ag. I. p. 7. 

" See B. Kari, 'Date of Sr'agara-Nandiji ' in Indian and Iranian Studies prewnted 
to D. Boss. Bombay. 1939. pp, 198ff, ," SeoNL.pp 143-144. 


dependence on the NatyssSstra is apparent from his echoing of the 
numerous passages 46 of the latter. 

(c) Natyadarparia. The Natyadarpana 4 ' of Ramacandra and Guna- 
candra is the next important work on dramaturgy after the Dasariipa. Of 
the two jouuVauthors* 8 of this text, who were Jains Ramacandra lived 
probably between 1100 and 1175 A.C., and ho was a disciple of the famous 
Hemacandra. Ramacandra wrote a largo number of works including 
many plays. But of Gunacandra, the collaborator of Ramacandra, very 
little is known except that he too was a disciple of Hemacandra. T lie 
Natyadarparia which is divided into four chapters, treats of dramaturgy. 

This work, has been composed in Anustup couplets. Its brevity 
of the treatment is compareable to that of the Da&ufipa, and as in the latt r 
many, of its passages cannot be fnlly understood unless a commentary is 
consulted. Fortunately for us the joint-authors of the work have loft for 
us a very clearly written and informative vrtti (gloss). It is evident from 
the metrical text that the authors had access to the Niityasastra and ex- 
ploited it very thoroughly, And whatever could not bo accommodated in 
the text has been added in the prose vrlti which has utilised also Abhi- 
nava's famous commentary. Besides this the authors have occasionally 
criticised tho views of other writers among whom the author of the Dasu- 
rupa figures most prominently. 8 " All this has given tho Niityadarpana 
a unique value and some superiority over the Dasarupa. 

(d) Ruyyaka's Natakamimamsa. Ruyyaka alias Rucaka/' T who 
was a Kashmirian and flourished probably in the 12th century, was a 
voluminous writer on poetics. It was from one of his works (a commentary 
of Mahima-bbatta's Vyaktiviveku) that we learn of his NatakaniimKmsa a 
work on dramaturgy. No Ms. of this work has so far been discovered. 

(e) Ehhvapralmana. Soiadiitanaya, who seems to have been a 
Southerner and flourished in the 12th century, wrote the Bhavaprakaiana" s 
which dealt with dramaturgy in greater detail than either the Dasarupa or 
tho Niityadarpana. And his work acquires an additional authority from 
the fact that Saradatanaya had as his teacher one Divakara who was tho 
Director of a theatre 04 and might be taken as deeply conversant with the 
theory and practice of Indian drama as it was current in his time. Though 
>&radatanaya depends much on earlier authors for the materials of his 
work, yet his approach to the subject is to some extent original. As the, 
name of his work implies, it deals with the "expression" firakusa of the 

" Printed out by M. Dillon in the margin of HU 
" Ed. in G.O.8. Baroda. 1929. <• See Introduction of ND. p.:i. 
" But thoy hare also drawn materials from older writers like Kohala, 6'aHkuka 
and Ag. See ND. p. 224. •' See ND. Introduction p. 3. " Skt. Poetics, p. I90ff. 
' > Ibid. p. 186. " Bid. Q.O.S. Baroda, 1930, ' ' BhP. p. 2 also Introduction, p.G. 


"State" (ihavd). Now the proper expression of the States by the actors 
according to the Natyasastra gives rise to the Sentiments (rasa). Hence 
Saradatanaya begins his work with the description of the States and 
everything connected with them- Next ho passes very naturally to the 
discussion of the Sentiments, These being thoroughly discussed, he 
takes up the Heroines of different classes who are the main stay of the 
Sentiments. The time factor in the plot and the diction of the play 
which also arc means of developing the Sentiments are considered next. 
Afterwards he analyses the body of the play and its different parts. 
This brings him to the consideration of the ten major and twenty minor 
types of play (rtifia), and finally of the miscellaneous matters connected 
with drama and theatre. To avoid prolixity we desist from giving here 
any detailed account of its contents which include all' possible topics 
relating to dramaturgy. It may bo briefly said that • Saradatanaya's 
treatment of the subject is in many respects more comprehensive than 
that of the Dasariipa, the Natakalaksana, and the Niityadarpana. And 
to attain his object Saradatanaya has freely referred to the Natyasastra 65 
as well as the works of early writers like KolnuV' Matrgupta, 57 Harsa 08 
and Subandhu. 5 " Besides this he has sometimes mentioned authors like 
Dhvanikrt, Rudrata, Dhanika, Abhinava, Blioja and, sometimes referred 
also to their views and criticised these. u All this adds to the great value 
of his work. 

(f) Sahilyadarpana and Nalakaparibhasa, VisvanStha Kaviraja, 
who flourished about the tli irtocnth century" r was a poet and a scholar 
and in this latter capacity he wrote among other things the famous 
Sahityadrapana which treats all branches of the Skt. literature including 
drama. It was the sixth chapter of this work dealing with drama on which 
the early western writers of the ancient Indian drama mostly depended. 
For his treatment of drama Visvanatha seems to have utilised tho Natya- 
sastra,' 1 the DasarUpa" and its commentary Avaloka 64 as well as the 
Work of Rudrata and others. 

SiAga-Bhupala's Natakuparibhasa is known only in name. But his 
Rasarnavasudhakara 85 also treats of drama towards its end, It seems 
that no important treatise on drama was written after all these works. 

-•' >arad«tanaya'a debt to So has been pointed out by the editor of his work, 
tee Introduction of BhP. pp. 61-0?. '• See above note 1. " See above notes 33-37. 

" See above notes 31-32. " Sua abeve note 41. 

■° lihP. pp. 175, 179, 95, 150, 327, 82 160, 194, 313, 12, 152. 1U4, 213, 216, 242, 245, 
251 • " Ski. Poetics, Vol. 1. pp. 233 ff. 

" See SD. 281, 306, 321, 503, 517; 537. 

" So SD. Viwan .tha wrongly a aacribed to Dhanika what belong* to DR.UII. 
32-33;. This misled some scholars to boliovo that Dhanika and Dhana»jaya were not 
different persona. • • See Skt. Poetics. Vol. I. pp. 243 ft". 

' ' fed. Trivandrura Oriental Series, 1916. . 


Vf. The Natyasastra' : The Text aiitf its Commentators 
1. Its Author 

The If atyasastra is commonly attributed to Bharata Muni. 1 But 
Bharata cannot be taken as its author, for in the Natyasastra itself 
his mythical character is very obvious, and the majority of the Parana? 
are silent about the socalled author of the Natyasastra*, and there is not a 
single legend about him in any of the extant Puranas or the Bamayana and 
the Mahabharata. The word Bharata which originally meant 'an actor' 
seems to have given rise to an eponymous author of the Rharaiasastra or 
the Naiakaslra (the manual of actors). 

2. lta Two Recensions 

Whoever jnight be the author of the Natyasastra it is certain that 
the work itself possesses undoubted signs of great antiquity, and one of 
these is that its text is available in two distinct recensions. In having 
two partly divergent recensions the Natyasastra can well bo compared 
with works like tho Nirukta, the Brhaddevata and the Sakuntalii. 
The editors of these works have differently settled the claims of their 
shorter and longer recensions. At first sight the tendency would bo to 
accept tho shorter recension, as representing tho original better, 
because elaboration would seem in most cases to come later. But opinion 
is divided in this matter: Pischcl regarded the longer recesion as being 
nearer tho orginal 3 , Macodonell has also given his verdict in favour of the 
longer recesion 4 but he has not ventured to reject tho shorter recension 
entirely as being late, and Lakshinan Sarnp has definitely suggested that 
tho shorter recension is the oalier one. 5 All these go to show that the 
problem of the relation between two recensions of any ancient work is not 
so simple as to be solved off-hand. So in this case also we should not 
settle the issue with the idea that the longer recension owes its bulk to 

The text-history of tho Natyasastra shows that already in the tenth 
century tho work was available in two recensions. Dhananjaya the author 
of the DasarQpa quotes from the shorter recension while Bhoja, who closely 
follows him, quoted from the longer one. a Abhinava in his commentry 
of tho Natyasastra, however, used the shorter recension as the basis of 
his work. 7 It is likely that the longtime which passed since then has 
witnessed at least minor changes, intentional as well as unintentional, in the 

1 Seo IHQ. Vol. VI. 1930. pp. 72 ff, Annals of BORI, Vol. XV, 1934, p. 90 fn. 

' See N8X 2-5 note 2. ' KolidW* Sakuntala. HOS. p. XI. 

* The Brhaddevata, HOS. Vol. I. p. XVIII-XIX. 

* Introduction to the Nighanra and Nirukta, p. 39. 

' Preface to Baroda od. of N.V. Vol. I. p. 8. ' Soe above.note 0. 


toxtofboth tho reeeMoas. Heaoo the problem becomes stf/1 'mow <<Mm& 
But a careful examination of the rival recensions may give us some C/ue 
to their relative autlicnticity. Bamnkrishna Kavi who has examined no less 
then forty Mss of the text, is of opinion that the longer recension (which 
he calls B.) seems to bo ancient, although it contains some interpolation 
(pointed at by him) going back to a time prior to Abhinava. 8 Mr. Kavi, 
however, does not try to explain tho origin of the shorter recension which 
he calls A. This view regarding the relative authenticity of the longer 
recension soems to possess justification. Reasons supporting it are to be 
found in the teste differcntating the two recensions, which are as follows : 

(i) Chapters XIV and XV of the shorter recension dealing with 
prosody introduce tho later terminology of Pingala (ra, ja, sa, na, and bha 
ganas etc.) while tho longer recension uses terms like laghu and guru in 
defining the scheme of metres. • 

(ii) The shorter recension in its chapter XV gives definitions 
of metres in Upajilti. while the corresponding ehaptcr (XVI) of the 
longer recension gives them in Anustup metre and in a different order. 
Considering tho fact that tho bulk of tho Natyasastra is written in this 
(Anustup) metre tho longer recension in this case seems to run closer to tho 
original work." 

Though Ramakrishna Kavi, has overlooked it, there is yet another 
point which may be said to differentiate tho two recensions. The chapter 
dealing with the Natyagunas and Alamkaras have nearly forty slokns 
difforntly worded in the two recensions. These Slokas in the longer 
recension (ch. XVII) are written in the usual simple language of the Natya- 
sastra while (ch. XVI) in tho shorter recension (tho Slokas) betray a 
later polish. Tho opening stanzas of the chaptar (XVI) in the shorter 
recension are in Dpajiiti metre while in tho longer recension (ch. XVII) 
they arc in the iSIoka metre. This points to the earlier origin of the latter 
for tho bulk of the Natyasastra as has been pointed out before is composed 
in the same metro. Now the shorter recension which appears to be of later 
origin, does not seem to be totally devoid of worth. It appears that this 
has in certain cases preserved what once existed but arc now missing in 
the longer recension. Tho cases in which the shorter recension gives in a 
different language the corresponding passages of tho longer recension may 
be explained by assuming that tho passages in question were probably 
written from memory of the original in the prototype of the recension. 

3. Unity of the Natyasastra 

. Some scholars have entertained a doubt tho unity are authorship of 
the Natya&istra. They think that there are indications that "it (the 

* Spe above note 6. ' See above note 6. 


XT(yu/$TstraJ /10s 6cea svA/ectctf to cousii/cmM' jnr>A/wMi/# in A&r t/u/tv 

before it assumed tiio present s/iaj« " 

The .alleged indications may be sumned up as follows : 
(i) The colophon at the the end of the KM. text of the Natyasastra. 
(ii) The mention of Kohala as the future writer on certain topics in the 
Natyasastra (XXXVI. 63). (iii) Bhavabhiili's reference to Bharata 
Muni, the socalled author of the Sastra, as the Tauryatrika-sntrakiira. 
(iv) The mention of the siitra, the bfiasya and the karika as its constituent 
parts in the Natyasastra itself along with the the existence of prose 
passages in it. As for the first alleged indication Dr. 8. K. De has tried 
to connect the colophon of the Natyasastra (santaptai cayam Nandi- 
Bharata-samgitcffiitstakam with the chapter on music only. To Ho opines 
that the Nandi-Jjharala of the colophon indicates that the chapters on 
music ( XX VIII-X XXIII) are Bharata's original teaching on the subject 
as modified by the doctrine of .Nandi. If we could accept the view it would 
have been easy to believe in the composite authorship of the Natyasastra. 
But this does not seem to bo possible for tho following considerations : 

(a) The colophon in question stands at tho end of two Mss. copied 
from the same original and are missing in all the rest of the available Mss. 

(b) The word samgita occurring rarely in tho Natyasastra includes 
according to Siin'igadeva (c. 1300 A.C.) glla (song), vudya (instrumental 
music) and nrtya or nrtta (dance). Hence the colophon may be taken in 
relation to the entire text and and not with the chapters on music alone. 

(c) Nandi as a writer or authority on samgita alone has not been 
mentioned anywheres else. 

As for the prediction that Kohala will treat certain topics not 
discussed in the Niityasastra, it may be said that there is nothing in it to 
show that Kohala is later than the author of this treatise. He was in all 
likelihood a predecessor or a contemporary of his. 

The most important of all the alleged indications of the plural 
authorship of the Natyasastra is the third one. The idea that the work was 
originally written in prose and was subsequently turned into verse, arose 
probably from a misunderstanding of the word siitra. In spite of its tradi- 
tional definition as alpnkzaram asandigdkam survad vihmlomukham 
etc. there is nothing iu it to show that tho siitra must always bo iu prose. 
Indeed the Niityadarpana-sutra is entirely in verse, and the Saddharma- 
pundarika'Slltra of the Mahiiyiina Buddhists is partly in verse and 
partly in prose. In the Mangalacarana slokas of his commentary 
Abhinava too mentions the extant Natyasastra as tho Bharatastttra. Thus 
on taking the siitra in its oldest sense, the theory of tho supposed original 
prose version of the Niityasiistra falls to the ground. The existence of the 
prose passages in the Natyasastra does not in the least help this theory, and 

•° Skt, Poetics, Vol 1. p. 21. , '■' JM. GCH. Baroda, 1929. 


it may bo explained on the assumption that the author found it more con- 
venient to write certain things in prose. AH this will remove the difficulty 
in understanding the words of Bhavabhuti who mentioned Bharata as the 

4. It Scope and Importance 
It has already been shown what a great variety of topics the Natya- 
sastra discusses in connection with its principal theme, the dramatic art. 
In sharp contrast with almost all the later writers on the subject its author 
treats of dramaturgy as well as histrionics. In justification of this two- 
fold aspect of this work Abhinava says that 'it is for the guidance of the 
producers as well as playwrights' 1 i . As the drama in any form is primari- 
ly and essentially a spectacle, laws of its production should be considered 
indispensable for the playwrights. It is a wellknown fact that many good 
literary dramas often get rejected by the theatrical directors because of 
their construction being found unsuitable for successful and profitable 
reperscntation in the stage. The author of the Natyasastra was evidently 
conscious about this vital connection between the literary and technical 
aspects of a drama, and treated of both very elaborately. It is a very 
unique text dealing with every possible aspect of the dramatic theory and 
practice. It is no wonder therefore that the Natyasastra was often quoted 
or referred to in later treatieses on gestures, poetics, music, prosody and 
even on grammar, besides being often laid under contributfon by commen- 
tators of diffirent Sanskrit and Prakrit plays. And all the later writers 
on dramaturgy too depended greatly if not cxeusively on this work, and 
most of them expressly mentioned their debt to the Muni Bharata, 
the supposed author of the Natyasastra. 

5. lis Style and Method of Treatment 

In style the Natyasastra differs very largely from all the later writers 
on drama who professed adherence to it and formulated their rules in a con- 
cise manner. Those latter are sometimes so very brief, that without the 
help of a commentator thoy are not easily intelligible. Though some passa- 
ges remain obscuro without a commentary or similar help yet the major por- 
tion of the Natyasastra is written in a simple language in the Sloka and the 
SryS metres. Though composed mainly in verse, a very small number of its 
passages are in prose. As the work is in the form of dialogue between 
Bharata, its mythical author, and some ancient sages, it has some similarity 
with the Puranas. One of the charge, brought against the Natyasastra is 
that it is very diffuse. This is true. On a careful examination of his 
method of treatment it will be found that the author of the Natyasastra, 
like :the famous Piinini, treated of the subject analytically. He has taken 

" 4*1 p. 7. '» Haas, P.XXVIH.' 


up iudividual topics and considered them in every possible detail and 
has found it necessary to repeat things for the completion of the matter in 
hand- This ha? given it diffuseness. But the adoption of this method 
was unavoidable in a technical work which aimed at completeness. This 
however may be said to have rendered it difficult to some extent- The 
difficulty with which we moderns are confronted in studying this 
ancient work, is however primarily due to its discussing an art which 
has pratically gone out of vogue for quite a long time. That the text was 
transmitted through a defective Ms. tradition is no less responsible for 
ocSasional difficulties it presents. 

6. The Early Commentators 

According to Sarngadeva (SB. I. 1. 9) the commentators' who set 
themselves to the task of explaining or elucidating the Natyasastra 
are Lollata, Cdbhata, Sankuka, Abhinavagupta and Kirtidhara. 
Abhinava in his commentary refers in addition to Bhatta 
Yantra and Bhatta Nayaka who may be taken as commentators of the 
Natyasastra, and quotes from of ouo a Bhasya and one Vartika. The Vartika 
however seems to be an independent treaties on drama though the Bhasya 
an old commentary. But in the absence of suitable data our knowledge 
about the date of these commentators and the nature as well as the value of 
their work, is very inadequate. We are however discussing below what- 
ever meagre informations may be gathered about them. 

(a) Acarya Kirtidhara and Bhusyakaxa Nanyadeva. Abhinava 
has referred to Kirtidhara only once. 1 * But from the special respect shown 
him by the commentator who calls him acarya, it appears that Kirtidhara 
was a very early commentator of the Natyasastra, and as such he was 
possibly anterior to Bhatta Udbhata and hence may be placed in the 6th or 
the 7th century. 15 And Nanyadeva 16 quoted by Abhinava as the author 
of the Bharata-Bha§ya seems to be another early commentator of our text. 

(b) Bha\ta Udbhata. Bhatta Udbhata's" opinion has been thrice 
quoted by Abhinava. As his views were controverted by Bhatta Lollata 
who flourished in the 8th century it is possible that Udbhata was a person 
of the early 8th or the late 7th century.™ Though it has been doubted 7 ' 
whether Udbhata was really a commentator of the Natyasastra, from the 
reference to his work by Abhinava we may be fairly certain in 
this matter. 

14 Ag.I.p.206. Cf. Skt. Poetics, Vol. I.p,29. T ' Cf. Ski. Poetics, I. p. 39. 

1 ' Ho should be distinguished from bis namesake who was a kiug off Mithila in 
Iho 12th century (see JASB for 1915, pp. 407 ff.) 
" Ag. II. pp. 70, 441, 451, De-s. Ms. pp. 392. 
" See Skt. Poetics, I. pp. 76ff. 
11 Skt. Poetic, I. pp. 37 ff. 


(c) Bhatlfl Lolla{a. Bhatta Lollata has been referred to as many 
as eleven times.* From these he appears to be a commentator of the 
Natyasastra. As the rasa theory of Saiikuka was known to have been 
lavelled against Lollata's view on :the same, this latter writer nourished 
possibly in the middle of the 8th century. 51 " 

(d) £>ri Haitiuki. Abhinava referred to SrI-Sankuku or Hankuka 
as many as fifteen times. 5 - About his time wo seem to liavo some definite 
information. For he is probably identical with the author of the poem 
Bhuvanabhyudaya written during the Kashmirian king Ajitiipida whose 
date is about 818 or 816 A. C. 33 

(e) Malta Nayaka. Bhatta NSyaka has been referred to as many 
as six times by Abhinava. u Besides explaining and elucidating the 
Natyasastra, at least in part, he wrote on the Dhvani theory an indepen- 
dent work named the Hidayadarpaiia. He has been placed between the 
end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. " 

(f) BhaUa Yantra, From the single reference to him in Abhiua- 
va*s commentary it appears that Bhattu Yantra 2 * was a commentator of 
the Natyasastra. About him nothiug more can be said except that lie pre- 
ceded the celebrated commentator. 

7. Bhatta Abhinavaguplu 

Among the commentators of the Niityasistra, Abhinavagupta or Abhi- 
nava is the most wellknown. But his fame rests also on his commentary 
on the Dhvanyaloka as well as numerous learned treatises on the Kashmir 
Saivism. From the concluding portion of some of his books we learn a few 
facts of his family history, and on the strength of these lie lias been placed 
between the end of the 10th and the begining of the 1 1th century. 2 ' From 
the AbhinavabhSrati we learn that his another name was Nvsimhagupta.- s 

Although like any other work of this class it professes to explain the 
text, Abhiuava's commentary is not always an adequate help for under- 
standing the several difficult passages of the Natyasastra. This drawback 
might be due to its defective text tradition, but a careful study of it will 
convince any one that all ite weak -poiuts cannot be explained away on this 
assumption alone. There are instances of Abhiuava's not being sure about 
the explanation offered, for example, the word kutafia is once explained as 

" Ag I pp. 208, 260, 279, 299 , II. pp. 134. 196, 415, 423, 436, 452. Dc's Mb p. 380. 
bkt. Poetics. Vol. I, pp 3S.39. 

4i3.«utf;K ,217 ' 274 '^ m ' mai8ilI - pp ' 4iii436 - ije ' 8 ' M8 ' «• ™> 

" See Skt. Poetics, I pp :j8-39. 

" Ag. I. pp. 4, 26,278, II. p. 298, Dee MS pp. 000, 508. 

■• Skt Poetics, I. pp. 39ff. •• Ag. I. p, 208. 

•• SktPoetfe 8 ,I.pp.U7tf. »'-S 6 e Ague's. Ms. pp. 428, 611. 


'four kinds of musical instruments' 89 and next as 'a group of singers and 
players of musical instruments'" and then again as 'four of musical instru- 
ments'," while explaining the mallavararii he gives four different views* 5 
and does not give special support to his own preference. Besides this, his 
explanation in some cases seem to be fanciful. For example, he oxplains 
khamlana as (meaning) 'also fanning by means of a fan made of 
palmleaf'.* J This evidently is wrong, for in the same context vyajanakam 
'fanning' has been mentioned, and kharf^ana may better be interpreted as 
'drawing patterns or designs'. 3 * But such instances are not many. That 
Abhinava had as the basis of his commentary a defective text of the Natya- 
sastra, is apparent from its published portion, and his text was in places to 
some extent different from any of the versions that have reached us. It is 
due to this latter fact that sometimes particular passages of the commentary 
cannot be connected with any portion of the text (given above the commen- 
tary) iu the Baroda edition. For example, once Abhinava writes "here 
iire four ca-karas", 3 '" but in the text indicated by the pralika two ca-kuras 
only are available. And curiously enough a part of this text quoted 
elsewhere 36 in the commentary corroborates the available reading of 
the text. Jn another place of Abhinava's commentary we have the word 
alambhana explained, but we look in vain for it in the text. 37 The same 
is the case with avyaiireka and agama occuring in the commentary later 
on. 4 " And some responsibility for its reduced usefulness must be ascribed to 
the fact that Abhinava had his commentary based on an imperfect text of 
the Natyasastra. 

There is still another reason due to which Abhinava's work does not 
prove to be quite adequate for our need. It is probably because he wrote 
the commentary with a view to help scholars of his time, whose knowledge 
on many things relating to the Indian drama, theatre and general literature 
he could easily assume, his commentary sometimes falls short of our needs. 

But in spite of these limitations Abhinava's work has its value. 
Whenever he has to explain any theory or problem concerning the dramatic 
art or general aesthetics, lie does it very exhaustively by quoting all possible 
views on the same and often cites examples from a vast number of dramatic 
and other works some of which have perished. Often he sums up the 
discussion in a masterly fashion. That he was a voluminous writer on the 
abstruse philosophical topics gave him some facility in handling such 
matters. But, for the purpose of reconstructing the theory and practice 
of the ancient Indian drama, such scholastic discussions arc often not of 
much value, though students of Indian poetics and aesthetics will surely 

a j 

Ag. I.p.73. ■» Ag.I.p.65. •» Ag. l.p. 186. 

Ag. 1. pp. 64-65. " Ag. X. p. 41. " See note 2 on IX 61-64' 

Ag.II.p.34. ■• Ag. I. p. 203. " Ag.II. pJi , 
Ag. II. pp. 9?, 226. 


be profited by their perusal. But it must be said of Abhioava's common- 
tary that it gives considerable help in understanding some difficult passages 
of the very old obsolete text of the Natyasastra, and for this we should be 
genuinely greatful to him. 

VII, Data of India's Cultural History in the Natyasastra 

Besides giving all sorts of information relating to the dramaturgy 
and histrionics as well as the allied arts of dance and music, the Natya- 
sastra includes considerable other materials for the cultural historv of 
India. The most important among theso will be discussed below under 
their several heads. 

1. Language 

The Natyasastra gives some description of Pkt. (XVIII. 1-25) and 
examples of Dhruva songs in Pkt. (XXXII). From these materials it 
seems that the Pkt of the Natyasastra lie mid-way between the Pkt. of the 
classical dramas and that of Asvaghosa's plays. Besides this there occur 
in this work (XVIII. 44, 48) some references about the. nature of languages 
used by the ancient tribes liko the Barbaras, Kiratas, Andhras, Dramidas, 
Sabaras aud Candiilas. Thare arc besides other interesting matters relat- 
ing to the language used by men of different professions aud status in life. 

2. Literature 

In addition to Prakrit verses given as examples of Dhruvas, the 
Nfityasiistra cites numerous poetical stanzas in Skt. as examples of the 
Benediction and of the different metres (V. 108-112, 130-131 : XVI). 
These arc very early specimens of the ancient Indian literature. It is on 
the testimony of these which are free from the artificiality of the later classi- 
cal poetry, that P. Regnaud placed tho Natyasastra about the beginning of 
the Christian era (Introduction to Grosset's cd. of the NS. p. VII-VIII). 
The Natyasaastra contains also the earliest available discussion on 
figures of speech (alamkara), and the method of criticism based on the 
theory of Sentiments (rasa) which became very popular amongst Indian 
scholars during the medieval times- 

3. Art 

In the Visnudharmottara (II. 2. 4) it has been "said that tho canons of 
painting arc difficult to understand without an acquaintance with the 
canons of dancing. Now the Hindu drama as we have seen before depends a 
great deal on dance which is in fact its mainstay. The same work similarly 
connects the canons of painting with the canons of image-making. Thus 
the three arts being connected with one another, the Najyasastra receives 
an aditionat importance. This view is justified by the fact that tiw 
Natyasastra desoribes various male postures (sthatta) such as Vai«nava, 


Saroapada, Vaisakha, Manila, Jlidho and Pratyaiidha (XJ. 50-71), and 
female postures (sthana) (XIII. 159-169) such aslyata, Avahittha and 
Asvakranta. These and the various gestures described in the Natyasastra 
may also be helpful in studying specimens of the ancient sculpture and 
painting. It should be noted in this connection that the Samarftngana- 
sBtradhara a medieval eneyclopoedie work while describlug the rules of 
making imaees describes (od. GOS. Vol. II. p. 301ff) the hand gestures 
etc, almost in the language of the Natyasastra. 

. 4. Metrics 

Piftyeight varieties of metre of soma, ardhasama and visama types 
have been described in the Natyasastra (XVI). All those are perhaps 
antorior in timo to the Chandhah-siitras of Pingala. One important aspect 
of this description is that the name of the following metres are different 
in tho NS. e.g. Drutavilambita=Harinapluta (Ni3), Bhujangaprayata= 
Aprameya (N§>, Srrigvini=Padraini (NS), Malini=Nandimukhi (Ns), 
Harini=Vrsabha-cestita (Ni5), Mandakriinta=^ridhara (NS), Pvithvi= 
Vilambita-gati (NS), Kusumita-lata-vellit5=Citralekha (NS). 

5. Poetics 

The Natyasastra enumerates (XVII. 43-106) four poetic figur, s 
(alamkara), ten Gunas and ten faults (dosa) of a composition. In brief 
these may be called the earliest writings on poetics. To the theory of 
Sentiment (.rasa) and the States (ihava) (VI-VII) also the same remark 

6. Costumes and Ornaments 

Detailed descriptions of ornaments, and directions about costumes to 
bo used by characters in a play according to thoir social status, profession, 
religious faith, and tribal origin etc. are given in the Natya&istra (XXIII. 
1-67, 110-127). These may throw interesting light on the social life of 
the Indian people in tho remote past. 

7. Mythology 

The NStyasastra mentions (I-V, XXXIII-XXXIV, XXXVI nu- 
merous gods, 'goddesses, demigods etc. Classified according to the system 
adopted by Hopkin in his *Epic Mythology* they are as follows i „ 

(a) Lower Mythology : Serpont, Birds, Waters, (b) Spirits : Pitrs, 
Bhutas, Rak§asas, Asuras, Daityas, Danavas, Yaksas, Guhyakas. (c) The 
eight great gods ; Tho Sun-God, tho Moon-God, tho Wind-God, the 
Fire-God, the Goii of death, Varuna and Ocean, Indra, the Dikpalas 
(World-protector), (d) The Host of Spirits : Gandharvas, Apsafasas, 
Kama, Asvins, Maruts, Rudras, Visvedevas, Sdityas, (e) Divine * Seers ■. 
Brhaspati, NSrada, Tiimburu, (f) Earthly list's and Personages: 


Bala (d.'va), Nalmsa, Sauatkumara. (g) The Three Supreme Deities i 
Brahman, Vi51.u1, fiiva. (h) Lesser God : KSrtikcya. (i) Goddesesses : 
Sarasvati, Laksmi, TJnra, Parvati, Candika, Siddhi, Medha, Smrti, Mati, 
Niyati, Niyyti. It is probably significant that Ganesa and the Avatiiras of 
Visnu are absent from this list. 

8. Geography. - 
In its chapters XIV, XVIII and XXIII the Natyasastra mentions 
some geographical names such as Anga, Ante (Anti) rgiri, Andhra, AvantI, 
Arvnda, Svarta, Snarta, Usinara. Odra, Kalinga, Kasmlra, Kosala, Khasa, 
Tamralipta, Tosala, Tripara, Daksinatya, Dramida, Nepala, Paftcala, Puli- 
nda (bhiimi), Paundra, Pragjyotisa. Pramsu-pravrtti, Plavamga, Bahir- 
giri, Brahmottara (Suhmottara), Bhargava, Magadha, Madraka, Malav- 
artaka, Maharastra, Margava, Malava, Mahendra, Mosala, ( Vauga. 
Vatea, Vanavasa, Vartika (Martika), Vahlika, Vidisa, Vidcha, Siiraseua, 
SSiilaka, Sindlui, Surastra, Sauvira, Gaiiga, Carmanvati, VetravatT, Mahen- 
dra, Malaya, Sahya, Mekala, Kalapaiijara, Himalaya, Vindhyn, Bhiirnta. 

9. Ethnological Data. 

The names of the following tribes occur in the Natyasiistra. 
Kiisi, Kosala, Barbara, Andhra, Dramida, Abhira, Habara, Candala, Sakn, 
Pallava (Pahlava) and Yavana. From the costumes and colours to he 
assigned to their body it may bo possible to trace thorn historically. 

10. Ars Amatoria. 

The Natyasastra mentions Karaitantra or Kiimatantra (XXV. 38, 53- 
567) and Kamasastra (XXXV. 46). But as it divides women into twenty- 
four classeR, and Viitsyiiyana's Kamasiitra into four classes these names do 
not seem to relate to the Kamasiitra which probably comes later. 

11. Artliasaslra. 

The Natyasastra Is of opinion that "The members of the court (sali/iir 
stara) should be appointed after consulting the views of Brhaspati who 
thinks that the following are the qualities required for this office. "They 
should be always roady for work, alert, free from indolence, undaunted by 
hard work, affectionate, forbearing, modest, impartial, skillful, trained in 
polity and good manners, deeply conversant with .tho art of argumentation 
and all other branches of knowledge, and not affected by sexual passion and 
the like" (XXXIV-87-90). The word sabhastara which has been translated 
here as a member of the court, occurs in the Smrti of Vyasa who holds that 
this officer should hold discussion about morals (dhOrmavakya) for tho 
edification of those who are present (in court). In Mbh 4.1.24, however 
sabhastara appears only as a courtier (sabhya, Ntlakantha) who is parti- 
cularly interested in gambling (Jolly, Hindu law and Custom, pp. 287-288). 


The description of the king, the senapati, the amalya and the pifcfowaka 
„8 given in the Natyasastra (XXXIV, 78-87) might well have been taken 
from the now lost work of Brhaspati recognised by Kautilya as one of his 
sources. The Natyasastra gives besides one interesting information that 
the inmates of a royal palace included a smtaka (XXXIV. 84-69) and that 
there was besides a functionary named kumaradhikrla (XXXIV. 76-77). 
As the definition has been lost, it is not possible to know what his duty was. 
Can he be identified with the kumaramatya mentioned in Samudragupta's 
inscription P 
• 12. Psychology. 

The Natyasastra seems to be the first in recognizing the twofold 
importance of psychology in connexion with the production of a play. Its 
classification of Heroes and Heroines according to their typical mental and 
emotional state* (XXIV. 2l0ff., XXXIV. 15ff). proves its admission of 
the importance of psychology on the creative side of the dramatic art ; for 
with the complete knowledge of all possible reactions of different objects 
and incidents upon such Heroes and Heroines, the playwright as well as 
actors and actresses could attain the greatest possible success in charac- 
terisation. On the critical side also the importance of psychology was 
discovorod by the Hindu theorists almost simultaneously. It was realised 
early that no strictly objective standard of beauty ever existed, and the 
enjoyment of a theatrical production consisted of peculiar reactions which 
the art of the playwright as well as that of the actors could success- 
fully evoke in spectators of different types. It is on this assumption that 
the theory of Sentiments and States (VI-VH) important alike for the 
criticism of the theatre and the belles letlres has been elaborated by the 
author of the Natyasastra. Such a view does not allow any kind of 
dogmatism in the criticism of art and literature, and will make due 
allowance for the views of people who may widely differ in their tastes 
because of their varying cultural equipment. 

VIII. TUe Date of tUe Natyasastra 

More than sixteen years ago, a careful investigation of the linguistic, 
metrical, geographical and ethnographic data, of the evidenco to be drawn 
from the history of poetics and music, of the Kamasastra and the Artha- 
sastra, and from inscriptions the- present writer came to the conclusion that 
the available text of the Natyasastra existed in the second century after 
Christ, while the tradition which it recorded may go back to a period as 
early as 100 B.C. (Tho Date of Bharata-Natyasastra", in the JDL. Vol. 
XXV. 1984). 1 Since this conclusion was made, a more intensive 

1 For a bibliography on the Date of the NS. see this paper p. 1 , 



study of the text as well as accession of fresh data has confirmed the 
writer's belief in ite soundness. Thc30 additional materials are being 
discussed below. 

1. The Geographical Data 

Geographical names occur in the Natyasastra (XIV. 36ff.) mostly 
in connexion with pravrttts or Local Usages which seem to be a later con- 
ception and not at all indipensable for understanding the theatrical art as 
explained in the Natyasastra. In fact the authors of the DasarQpa and the 
Natakalak§ana, who speak of the vrttis are absolutely silent on pravrttis 
whicli are connected with them. Considering the fact that those works 
depend a great deal on the Natyasastra their omission of this item may be 
taken as very significant. Geographical names occuring in connexion with 
tho praw;ilis are found in the Mbh. and some of the PurSnos, some of those 
being almost in the same sequence (see D. C Sircar, "Text of the Puranic 
Lists of Peoples" in IHQ. Vol. XXI., 1945, pp. 297-314). It seems that 
some interpolator put them into the text of the Natyasastra, for associating 
it with all the different parts of India, though the original work was an 
exposition of the dramatic art as it was practised iu the northern India 
especially in the midland only. Hence the geographical data should not 
bo used in determining the date of our text. 

2. The Natyasastra earlier than Kalidasa 

The argument that a particular dramatist who disregards any rule laid 
down in the Natyasastra, will be earlier than it in time, will reverse the 
accepted chronological relation between the Natyasastra and Kalidasa. 

(a) Though the fact has been overlooked by oarlier writers on the 
subject, Kalidasa too violates the rules of tho Natyasastra on the 
following points : 

(i) Though the prescribed rule (XIX. 33) is that tho king's wives 
should be given names connects with tho idea of victory, some of Kali- 
dasa's royal Heroines have been named as follows : Dharini, Iriivati 
(Malavi.) Hamsnpadikii, Vasumati (Sak,). 

(ii) It is also in disregard of the rule (XIX. 34) proscribing for tho 
handmaids (presya) the names of various flowers, that Kalidasa has 
Nagarika, Madhukarika, Samabhrtika, Nipunika, Candrika, Kaumudika 
(Malavi.), Parabhrtika, Caturika (Sak.) as the names of handmaids in 
his play. Vakuliivalikii (Malavi.) is possibly an exception. 

,, (iii) Though the prescribed rule (XIX. 34) is that the names having 
an idea of auspiciousness, should bo given to the menials, Kalidasa has 
Raivataka and Sarasaka (Malavi.) as tho names of servants. 

(iv) The term svamin has been used by an army-chief (senapaii) in 
addressing the king (Sak. II) in violation of the proscribed rule that it 
should he used for the crown-prince (XIX- '12). 


(v) Besides these, Kalidasa has written elaborate Prologues to his 
plays, though the Natyasastra does not recognize anything of this kind as 
a part of the play proper. These as well as the departures from the rules 
in Bhasa's play, may be taken as great dramatists' innovations which as 
creative geniuses they were fully entitled to. 

(b) Besides these there seems to be other facte which probably go to 
show that Kalidasa knew the present Natyasastra. They are as follows : 

(i) Kalidasa uses the following technical terms of the Natyasastra : 
ahgahara, wtti, sandhi, prayoga, (Kumsira, VII. 91), ailga-sattva-Bacana' 
srayam nrttam (Raghu, XIX. 36), palm, prasnika, sauMava, apadeia, 
upavahana, sMa, vastu, mayuri mar/ana (Malavl.) 

(ii) KalidSsa mentions the mythical Bharata as the director of 
the celestical thoatrc (Vikram, III). 

(iii) According to Katayavcnia, Kiilid:isa in his Malavi. (I. 4.0 j 21.0) 
refers to particular passages in the Natyasiistra (1. 16-19 ; NS (C.) XXX, 

3. The Mythological Data 

In the paper montioned in the beginning of this chapter the present 
writer was mistaken in his interpretation of the word mahagrumaifi which 
does not mean Ganapati as Abhiuava the reputed commentator of the 
Natyasastra opines (see notes on III.1-8.). The absenco from the Natyasastra 
of this deity who does not appear in literature before the fourth century 
speaks indeed for the great antiquity of this work. 

4. The Ethnological Data 

The Natyasastra in otie passage (XXIII. 99) names Kiratas, Barbaras 
and Pulindas together with Andhras, Dramilas, Kasis and Kosalas who 
wero brown (asita, lit- not white), and in another passage (XVHI. 44) names 
Andhras and Dramilas together with Barbaras and Kiratas. Apastamba 
the author of the Dharinasutra who lived at the latest in the 800 B-C. 
belonged to the Andhra laud (Jolly, Hindu Law and Custom, p. 6 and also 
P.V. Kane, Hist, of tho Dharmasastra. Vol. I. p, 45). Hence it may be 
assumed on the basis of these names that the Natyasastra was in all likeli- 
hood composed at a time when a section at least of the Andhras and tho 
Dramilas (forefathers of the modern Tamils) were still not looked upon 
as thoroughly civilized. Such a time may uot have been much after the 
beginning of the Christian era. 

5. The Epighraphical Data 

Sylvain Levi has discovered parallelism between the Natyasastra and 
the inscriptions of the Indo-Seythian Ksatrapas like Chastana who are 
referred to therein as svimi a term Jtpplioablo, according to the Sastra to 


the yuwraja or crown-prince (I. Ant. Vol. XXXIII. pp. 163f). Though 
MM.P.V. Kane (Introduction to the 8D. p. viii) has differed from him, 
Levi's argument does not seem to be without its force. It may not be con- 
sidered unusual for common persons who aro intimate with him to show 
the future king an exaggerated honour by calling him svamin u term to 
be formally applied to the reigning monarch only. Besides the argument 
put forward by Levi, there may be collected from the inscriptions other 
facts too which may incline us to tako 200-300 A.C. as tho thno of the 
compilation of the Natyasastra. These are as follows: 

(a) The word gemdharva probably in the senso in which the Natya- 
sastra uses it (XXXVI. 76) occurs in the Junagarh Bock inscription 
of Budradaman, I (150 A.C.). This also mentions terms, like savslhava 
and niyttddha which we moot in the Natyasastra probably in the same 
sense (Junagarh Inscription of Budradaman I. See Select Inscriptions, 
pp. 172-173). 

(b) The respect for 'Cows and Brahmins' (go-hrahmana) which the 
author of the Natyasastra shows at the end of his work (XXXVI. 77) 
has its parallel iu the inscription referred to above. And respect for 
Brahmins also finds expression in more than one inscription belonging to 
the 3rd century A.C. {op. cit. pp. 159, 161, 165) 

(c) The three tribal names Saka, Yavana, and Pahlava appearing 
in the inscription of Vasistiputra Pulomayi (149 A.C.) occur in the 
same order in the Natyaiastra {op. cit., p. 197,) and NS. 

The cumulative effect of all these data seems to be that they may 
enable us to place the Natyasastra about 200 A.C., the time of these 

6. The Natyasastra earlier than Bhasa 

Lack of conformity to the dramaturgic rules of the Natyasastra has 
sometimes been cited as an evidence of the antiquity of Bhasa, the argu- 
ment being that as ho wrote before the rules were formulated, he could 
not observe them. This view however, seems to be mistaken. For the 
rules occurring in the Natyasastra cannot, for obvious reasons, be the 
author's fabrication without relation to any pre-cxistcnt literature.' 1 If 
the Natyasastra was written after Bhasa's plays, its rules had every chance 
of having been a generalisation from them as well as from numerous other 
drpjjiatic works existing at the time, while the contrary being the ease (i.e, 
Bhisa being later than the Najyaswtw) some novelties are likely to be 

• F.Hall in his Introduetion (p. 12) to the Dasarwpa says: At all events, he 
(Bharata) .would hardly have elaborated them (the rules) oxcept as inductions, from 

actual compositions, * . 


introduced by the dramatist in disregard of the existing rules. It is on 
this line of argumont that the chronological relation between Bhasa and 
the Natysiistra, will be judged below. 

(a) On no less than three points, Bhasa seems to have disregarded 
the rules of the Natyasastra. These are as follows : 

(i) The suiradiara (Director) begins the plays, though according 
to the Natyasastra the stkapaka (Introducer) should perform this 
function (V. 167). 

(ii) In contravention of the rule of the Natyasastra (XX. 20) 
Bhasa allows death in Act I of Abhiseka. 

(iii) In the^ Madhyama-vyayoga and the Dutaghtotkaca, Bhasa does 
not give tho usual bharatavakaya (final benediction) and what he gives 
in its stead, may be au innovation. 

Hence it may be assumed that the Natyasastra was completed before 
the advent of Bhasa,. 

(b) Besides this, there seems to bo some good evidence in his works 
to show that the dramatist was acquainted with this ancient work on 
drama. For example, he mentions in a humorous context the Jester con- 
founding the Natyasastra (Avi. II 0. 38-39) with the Ramayana. Bhasa's 
mention of some tcchinical terms as well as the acquaintance which he 
shows with some special rules of the Natyasastra may also be said to 
strengthen the above assumption. 

(i) First, about the technical terms. They are '• sauslhava, prastavana, 
svtradhara, prehaka, cari, gait, bhadfamtikha, hava, bhava, mama, 
natakiya, the root patha, rahga. 

(ii) The hetaera in the Carudatta (I. 26, 3 a) says within herself, "I 
am unworthy of being allowed entrance into the harem" (abkaini aham 
abbhanlara-pavesassa). This seems to refer to the N8. XX. 54. The 
expression, "by means of a Nataka suiting the time" (kalasamvadiiia 
nwlaena) in Pratima. (I. 4. 7) probably points to NS. XXVII. 88ff. 

(iii) The vocal skill of the hetaera referred to by the Sakara (Parasite) 
in tho Carudatta may also be said to point to the elaborate rules regarding 
intonation (kaku) in the NS. XIX 37-8. 

(iv) Besides these, expressions like "the two feet made facile in 
dance due to training" {nrtlopadesa-viiada-caranau) and "she represents 
the words with all her limbs" (jtbhinayati vacamsi sarvagatraih) in 
the Carudatta (1.9.0, 16.0) probably relate to the elaborate discussion 
on dance and tho use of gestures in the Natyasastra. 

On the. basis of all these it may be assumed that Bhasa was 
acquainted with the contents of the-pfeseut text of the Natyasastra. Hence 


it ma; be placed in the 2nd centuary A. C. i-e. one century before 
the time generally assigned to Bhasa's works. (Jolly, Introduction to Ari 
p. 10, bat according to Konow Bhasa's date may be the 2nd century 
A.C. See ID. p. 51). 

From the foregoing discussions it may be reasonable to assume 
the existence of the Natyasastra in the 2nd centuary A.C., though it must 
not be supposed that the work remained uninterfored with by interpolators 
of later ages. Such an interpolation may exist more or less in all the ancient 
texts. For example, Aristotle's Poetics too, in its received text, has bfien 
suspected to have interpolated passages in it. There are indeed interpolated 
passages in the Natyaiastra and some of these have been^ pointed out' 
and a few more may by some chance bo discovered afterwards. But this 
may not bring down the work as a whole to later times. 

1 See notes on XVlfl. 6, 48 ; XX. 63. Besides these cases, the seventeen couplets 
after XV. 101 and the five couplets after XVI 169 are spurious. For theae do not 
giro any important information regarding the art of the theatre or dramaturgy and may 
be merely scholastic additions. The passage on pravrtlis XIV. 36-55 may also bo 




, Salutation 

1. With'a bow to Pitamaha 1 (Brahman) and Mahesvara* 
(Siva) I shall* explain the Canons of Drama* (NaiyaSastm) 
which were uttered by Brahman. 

Sages question. 

2-5. Once in the days of yore, high-souled sages such 
as, Streya 1 and others who had subdued their senses, approached 
the pious Bharata 2 the master of dramatic art during an inter- 
mission of studies (anadhyaya). He (Bharata) then just Bnished 

1 (B. G. same). ' Pitamaha (the Grand-father) is a Puranic epithet 
of the Vedic god Brahman. For, the Pitts (the Fathers) such as Angiras, 
Bhrgu, Daksa and Mariei and others> whose descendants peopled this earth, 
were their progeny. In the later literature and religion of India, Brahman 
gradually recedes in the background and practically vanishes. His place is 
taken by the extra- Vedic &va, and Visnu in his fullfledged Puranic 

2 Mahesvara (the Great God) is another name of Siva who is 
originally a pre-Vedic deity. Salutation to Siva along with Brahman, is 
very rare in Indian literature. 

3 By 'drama' in this connexion is to be understood any play in its 
theatrical and literary character. For on this point Ag. (I. p. 7) says that 
the N8. is meant ior the producer (of a play) as well as the poet 
(=playwright). «rfwftw«N$>Wi mwfafii. 

2-5 (B.G. same). ' Itreya— There are two Streyas. One is a 
disciple of Yajiiavalkya (Mbh.) and another that of Vimadeva (Brahma P.) 
See Vidyalankar, /ivani-kosa, sub voce. 

* Puranas.except the Matsya (24. 28-30) are silent on this Bharata, 
the authority on the Canons'of Drama, ' 


the muttering of prayers (japa) and was surrounded by his 
sons. The sages respectfully said to him, "0 Brahman, how did 
originate the Naytyaveda* similar to the Vedas,- which you 
have properly composed ? And for whom is it meant, how many 
limbs does it possess, what is its extent* and how is it to be 
applied ? Please speak to us in detail about it all 5 ". 

Bharata' answers. 

(i. Hearing these words of the sages, Bharata began in reply 
to speak thus about the Natyaveda : 

7-12. "Get yourselves cleansed, be attentive and hear 
about the origin of the Natyaveda devised by Brahman 1 . 
Brahmins, in the days of yore when the Golden Age ( Krta- 
yuga)i* passed with the reign of Svayambhuva (Manu), and 
the Silver Age (Tretaynga) commenced with the career of 
Vaivasvata Manu, and people became addicted to sensual 

3 Natyaveda— The 'Natyaveda' according to Ag. is a synonym for 
the 'Natyasastra', and is no Vedic work. He (I. p. 4) says : *is 3 *W *C 

4 firanuma=fsztei\t. Ag. tak<* the word in the sense of proof 
(prammiam atra nucaya-janakatvam), but ho cites another view as well, 
which takes the word to mean 'number' and is as follows : ^ 3 iTOiaral 
wrrfttt iTBrrfHirawftmii *i swfii famirfwfls'j v* *sitw». 

6 Prom the five questions put in here, it is not tol)e assumed that 
the treatment of subjects mentioned will follow the order'of these. 

6 (B.G. same). 

7-12 (B.G-. same). ' The reference here is to the Natyaveda 
alleged to have been composed by Brahman in about 36000 tiokas. It is 
also believed that, later on a shorter work (in 12000 granthas) was based 
on this great work and it was in the form of a dialogue between Siva and 
Parvatl. This is considered by some to bo the Sdibharata or Sadaslva- 
bharata. The present NS. contains about 12000 granthas and it is supposed 
to include the views of the authors of the now extinct Natyaveda (composed 
by Brahman) as well as of the Sdibharata. See Preface to NS. (B.) pp. 6-7. 
On this point Ag (I. p. 8) says: iSi ssifawswftwwrafa^'ta mwt m i W Bftwismg 

la A. K. Coomaraswamy has freely translated 8-17 (The Mirror of 
Gestures, New York, 1936, p. 16), 


pleasures*, were under the sway of desire and greed, became 
infatuated with jealousy and anger and [thus]' found their 
happiness mixed with sorrow, and Jambudvlpa* protected by 
the Lokapalas (guardians of the worlds) was full of gods, 
Danavas, Gandharvas, Yaksas, Raksasas and great Uragas 
(Nagas), the gods, with Indra (Mahendra) as their head, 
(approached) Brahman and spoke to him, 'We want an object 
of diversion, which must be audible as well as visible*. As the 
Vedas are not to be listened to by those born as Sudras, 
be pleased to create another Veda which will belong to all the 
Colour-groups 8 (varna)". 

13. "Let it be so", said he in reply and then having 
dismissed the king of gods (Indra) he resorted to yoga (concen- 
tration of mind) 1 and recalled to mind the four Vedas.* 

14-15. He then thought: "I shall make a fifth 1 Veda on 
the Natya with the Semi-historical Tales (itihaxa),* which will 
conduce to duty (dharma)*, wealth (artlm) as well as fame, will 

' gmmyadharma~kg. explains the word differently and as follows : 
1WtS^t»n«llfalT^t"t$'itfaift <*+: WtfaflWNW. 

8 According to ancient Indian geography the earth was divided 
into seven dvipas (continents). Jambudvlpa is one of them. It included 
Bharata-varsa o* Bharata-varsn, known at present as India'. Vi§mi P. (ch. 
1-12). See Winternitz, Hist, of Indian Literature, Vol. I, p. 548. 

4 On this point Ag. says : S*afa% Hi wfafil ^pfturefaari:. 

5 This relates to the four classes such as Brahmana, Ksatriya, Vaisya 
and Sfldra. V 

13 (B.GK same). ' Yoga has been defined in Patafljali's work as 
cittamiiinirodhah. It however begins with the concentration of the mind. 

* After 13, B. reads one additional couplet. But G> considers this 
passage to be spurious and puts it in the footuote. 

14-16 (B.G-. same). l In the early Indian literature the itihasa 
alone was considered as the fifth Veda. See Chandogya Dp. VII. If. and 
?., and Sutbmipata, 11.7 (sollasiutta). Kautilya's Arthasastra too gives 
tho same position to the itt/iiisas. See Winternitz, Vol. T.-p. 313. 

1 On itihasa see note below. 

' dhama also means virtuo, law and custom etc. 


contain good counsel and collection [of other materials for human 
well-being], will give guidance to people of the future as well 
in all their actions, will be enriched by the teaching of all 
scriptures {mtra) and will give a review of all arts and crafts* 

16. With this resolve the Holy One (bhagavat) from 
his memory of all the Vedas shaped this Natyaveda compiled 
from the four of them. 

17-18. The recitative (pathija) he took from the Egveda, 
the song from the Saman, Histrionic Representati6n (abhinaya) 
from the Yajns, and Sentiments (rasa) from the Atharvaveda, 
[and] thus was created the Natyaveda connected with the 
Vedas principal and subsidiary (vedopnvala) 1 , by the holy 
Brahman who knows [them] all. 

19-20. After the creation of the Natyaveda Brahman said 
to Indra (lit. the lord of the gods), "Semi-historical Tales 
(itihasa) 1 have been composed by me, you are to get them 
[dramatized and] acted 2 by gods. Pass on this Natyaveda to 
those of the gods who are skilful, learned, free from stage-fright 
and inured to hard work." 

4 The word iUpa is very often synonymous with kola. As the 64 
kolas enumerated in different works include different arts and crafts, these 
two words may be translated as 'arts and crafts', tSilpa, however, is some- 
times to be distinguished from kola; and then it may mean merely 'a craft'. 

16 (B.G. same). 

17-18 (B.G. same). ' Vedofiaveda—tiie Vedas and the Upavedas 
i.e. the Vedas principal as well as subsidiary. The Vedas are all 
well-known, and there are at least four Upavedas, one being attached to each 
of the Vedas. They are as follows: the Syur-veda.(the Science of Medicine) 
to the Rgveda, Dhanur-veda (the Science of Arms)— to the Yajurveda, 
Gandharva-veda (Musical Science) to the Samavcda, and Sthaparya-sastra 
(the Science of Architecture) to tho Atharvaveda. 

19-20 (B.G. same). ' Kautilya's Arthasastra in its definition of 
itihasa enumerates purima and itivrtta as belonging to its contents. An 
ttiwtta, according to Wmtmiitz, can only mean an "historical event" and 
turayta probably means "mythological and legendary lore." Vol. L p. 818. 
Pargiter has, however, extracted solid historical facte from some of the 

.1.35] THE 0BIG1N OF DBAMA 5 

21-22. At these words of Brahman, Indra bowed to him 
with folded palms and said in reply, "0 the best and holy 
one, gods are neither able to receive it and maintain it, nor 
are they fit to understand it and make use of it ; they are unfit 
to do anything with the drama 1 . 

23. The sages (muni) 1 who know the mystery of the Vedas 
and have fulfilled their vows, are capable of maintaining this 
(Natyaveda) and putting it into practice." 

The Natyaveda and Bharata's one hundred sons 

24. On, these words of Kakra (Indra), Brahman said to me; 
"0 the sinlesstone, yon with your one hundred sons 1 will have to 
put it (the Natyaveda) to use". 

25. Thus ordered. I learnt the Natyaveda from Brahman 

extant Puraiias (See Iris Ancient Indian Historical Traditions, London, 
1922). According to the native Indian tradition itihasa is said to be an 
account of events that occurred in the past, carrying in it instructions 
about duty, wealth, enjoyment of pleasure, and salvation. The traditional 
iloka is— 

The same tradition assigns the position of itihasa to the Mahabharata 
the great Indian epic. It is possibly this itihasa that has been connected 
with the Natyaveda by the author of the mstra. Hence it appears that 
Oldenberg's theory about the original connexion between epic and dramatic 
poetry, is worthy of serious consideration. Nuty'ukhyam paticamam vedam 
setihasam karomy aham (15) seems to be very significant Ag. (I. p. 13) 
explains setihasam as itihasopademkatvpam saprabhedam. Sec Winternitz, 
Vol. I. pp. 100 ff. 312 n. ' See note on 14-15 above. 

21-22 (B.G-. same). ' It may be tentatively suggested hero that the 
gods represented the primitive Indo- Aryans who. possibly had no drama. 
On this point see the author's PrScIn Bharator Natya-kala (in Bengali), 
Calcutta, 1945 p. 60 ff. 

23 (B.G-. same). l The word muni is evidently to be derived 
from the Pkt. root muqa 'to know' which is most probably not of Indo- 
European origin. 

24. (B.G. same). l The Puraiias and similar other works totally 
ignoro these one hundred soas of Bharata. 

25 (B. G-. same). 

6 THE NATyASAStBA [1. 25- 

and made my able sons study it as also [learn] its proper 

Names of Bharata's one hundred sons 

26-39. ^-Names of my sons are) Sandilya, Vatsya, Kohala 2 , 
Dattila 3 , Jatila, Ambasthaka, Tandu, Agnislkha, Saindhava, Pulo- 
man, Sadvali, Vipula, Kapi&jali, Badari, Yaraa, Dhumrayana, 
lambudhvaja, Kakajangha, Svarnaka, Tapasa, Kedara, Kalikarna,*, 
Dirghagatra, Balika, Kautsa, Tandayani, Pingala, Citraka, Ban- 
dhula, Bhaktaka, Mustika Saindavayana Taitila, Bhargava, Suci,, 
Bahula Abudha, Budhasena, Pandukarna, Kerala, Rjuka, Mandaka, 
£ambara, Vtinjula, Magadha, Sarala, Kartr, Ugra, Tuflara, Parsada, 
Gautama, Badarayana 5 , Visaht, Sabala, Sunabha, Mesa, Kaliya, 
Bhraraara, Pithamukha Muni, Nakhakutta , As"makutta 7 , Satpada, 
Uttama, Paduka, Upanat, Srati, Casasvara, Agnikunda, Ajyakunda, 
Vitandya, landya, Kartaraksa, Hiranyaksa, Kusala, Diihsaha, 

26-89 (B. same ; G. 26-38). ' B. and G. road some of these names 
differently. Some at least of the so-called sons of Bharata might in fact 
have been the authors who wrote on dramaturgy, histrionic art, dance and 
music etc. iSingabhupala mention the first four. See below notes 2-7. 

3 Kohala has again been mentioned in NS. (<J.) XXXVI. 65. Ag. 
has referred to his opinion several times and quoted from liis work on 
natya (Vol. J. pp. 140,173,182,183,288; Vol. JUL pp. '&> Mf 13«> 133, 
142, 144, 146, 147, 151, 155, 407, 416, 421,434,452,458,459). JLater 
writers like Damodaragupta, Hemacandra, Sarngadeva, Saradatanaya and 
Singabhilpala acknowledge him as an authority on drama and music. (Sec 
S. K. De, Skt. Poetics, p. 25. f.n.) 

8 Ag. has quoted a passage from the work of one Dattilaearya (Vol. I. 
p. 205). He seems to be identical with this Dattila. Sec also note 1 above. 

1 Walikania is probably identical with ISatakania referred to and 
quoted in the commentary of the Anargharughava '(,,. 7. gcc Levi, IT 
PP. 27, 65) and the Sitakalak jana. (p. 47, ed. M. Dillon), a S51iv5hana 
— Satavakana. 

5 The Natakalaksana (pp. 46, 114) refers to and quotes from him. 

»^^Szt m,m Mmu> " d qHOtra from t,,i8 


Jala, Bhyanaka, Bibhatsa, Vicaksana, Pundriiksa, Pundranasa, 
Asita, Sita, Vidyujjihva, Mahsjihva, Salufikayana, Syamayana, 
Mathara Lohitanga, Saijivartaka, ParbiSikha, Trislkha, Sikha, 
Sankhavarnamukha, Sanda, ^ankukarmi, Sakranemi, Gabhasti, 
Ams'umali, Hatha, Vidyut, Satajangha, Raudra and Vira. 

39-40. [Thus] at the command of Brahman and for the 
benefit of the people I assigned to my sons different roles suitable 
to. them 1 . 

Performance begins with three Styles. 

41. O' Brahmins, I then prepared to give a performance 
[yrayoga) in which was adopted dramatic Styles (rrtti) such as 
the Verbal (bharati), 1 the Grand (mttrntl), and the Energetic 

Need of the Kaisiki Style 

42-43. H [then went 2 to Brahman and] after bowing, 
informed him [of my work]. Now Brahman (lit. the (jui'h 
of gods) told me to include the Graceful (kaffikl) Style also 
[in my performance], and he asked me to name materials 
conducive to its introduction. 

43-45. Thus addressee] by the master I replied, "Give me 
materials necessary for putting the Graceful (ktiiiill) Style into prac- 
tice. At the time of Nilakantha's 1 (Siva) dance I have seen his 
Graceful Style appropriate to the Erotic Sentiment, and this requires 

39-40 (B. same ; G. 39). l G. reads 39b differently. 

41 (B. same ; G. 40). v The four Styles probably related to four 
tribes such as Bharata, Siittvata, Keiika and Arabhata. Among these 
Bharata and SSttvata are wellknown. The remaining two names might 
have been lost. 

42-43 (B. same ; G. 41). 1 G om. 42a. 

? pragrhya (=embracing) has been taken to mean 'going to'. 

43-46 (B. same ; G. 42-44a). l Siva is India's traditional god of 
dance. See M. Ghosh (ed.) Abhinayadarpana, Calcutta, 1934, English 
Translation, p. 1. 

8 THE NATYA8ASTRA [ 1. 46- 

beautifnl dresses and is endowed with gentle AngahSras* and 
has Sentiments (/■«.«»), States (bh&va) 3 and action as its soul. 

Creation of Apsarasas far practising the Kai&ki Style 

46-47. This Style cannot he practised properly by men 
except with the help of women." Then the powerful Lord 
(Brahman) created from his mind nymphs (apsaras) who were 
skillful in embellishing the drama 1 , and gave them over to me 
[for helping me] in the performance. « 

Names of Apsarasas 

47-50. [Their names 1 are] : Maiijiikes% Sukeft, MKrakefl, 
Sulocanii, Saudamini, Duvadatta, Devasena, Manoiama, Sudati, 
Sundari, Vidagdha, Sumala, Santati, Sunanda, Sumukhi, Magadhi, 
Arjuni, Sarala, Kerala, Dhrti, Nanda, Supuskala and Kalabha. 

Sviiti and Narada engaged to help Bharata 
1)0-51. And l.y him (Brahman) Svati 1 together with his 
disciples was employed to play on musical instruments, (lit. drums) 
and celestical musicians (<j«mihan;i) such as, Narada 1 and others 
were engaged in singing songs. 2 

51-53. Thus after comprehending the dramatic art (»a%) 
which arose out of the Vedas and their [different] limbs! 1 ' 
along with my sons as well as Svati and Narada approached 
Brahman (lit. lord of the worlds) with folded palms and 

;1<V mgakvm see Ns. IV. 16 ff. R, a d mrdvahgahara for 
nrthnga ;1 „ B. » ], W cttai ] H 011 Sta ^ m , ^ yj , 

46-17 (ft same ■ (I. 44b-45;. > mlyidaiMra here ,nav be taken also 
to mean nmydmikaras mentioned in NS. XXIV. 4-5. 

ina S lS^ 47 '? l ' G -' tMSX '* a " d »•«« — ° f «» — 
in a slightly ditterent ninnim- 

mas can ln Bhagavata and Vayn P. Spo Vidyalankar. JK.. sub **. 

.instrumiSr 8 " ^ **"*» -*-W« of stringed 
5W3(B.51b-53a,G. 50-51). 


said that the dramatic art {>Mija) has been mastered, and prayed 
for his command. 

The Banner Festival of Indra and the first production of a play 

53-55, On these words, Brahman said, "A very suitable 
time for the production of a play has come : the Banner Festival 1 
of Indra has just begun i make use of the Natyaveda now on 
this occasion". 

55-58. I then went to that festival in honour of Indra's 
victory which took place after the Danavas and the A suras (enemies 
of the gods) were killed. In this festival where jubilant gods 
assembled in great numbers I performed for their satisfaction 
the holy 1 Benediction (n&ndi) containing blessings with words in 
their eightfold 3 aspects (astahga, lit. of eight limbs). Afterwards I 
devised an imitation of the sitution in which the Daityas were 
defeated by gods (and), which represented [sometimes] an alter- 
cation and tumult and [sometimes] mutual cutting off and piercing 
[of limbs or bodies]. 

The pleased gods reward Bharata's party 

58-61. Then Brahman as well as the other gods were pleased 
with the performance and gave us all sorts of gifts 1 as a token 
of joy that filled their mind. First of all the pleased Indra 

53-55 (B. 53b-55a ; G. 52-53). ' This festival occurred on the 
twelfth day of the bright half of the moon in the month of Bhadra. It was 
a very popular festival in ancient India. Asvaghosa mentions it in his 
kavyas. Maha, a part of the compound dhvaja-tnaha is simply a Pkt. 
form of the word makha meaning 'sacrifice' j cf. Indra-makha. 

55-58 (B. 55b-58a ; G. 54-56). l Veda-sammita (.veda-nirmiia, G.) 
means 'like the Veda' i. e. 'holy'. 

' The eight aspects of words are noun (noma), verb (akhyata), 
particle (nifatd), prefix {upasarga), compound word (samasa), secondary 
suffis (taddhita), euphonic combination (sand/ii), nominal awKverbal 
suffixes (vibhakti). See S& XV. 4. 

58-61. (B. 58b-61, G. 57-59) » Making gifts to dancers, singers 
and actors at a performance, is a very old custom in India. Such gifts were 
mado by rich members of the audience, while the common people enjoyed 

10 THE NATYASASTBA [ 1. 61- 

(Saki-ii) gave his auspicious banner, then Brahman a Kutilaka 8 
and Varuna a golden pitcher (bhrngara), Sfirya (the sun-god) 
gave an umbrella, Siva success (sUdhi), and Vayu (the wind- 
god) a fan. Visnu gave us a lion-seat (simltasam), Kuvera 
a crown, and the goddess Sarasvati gave visibility as well as 
audibility 8 . 

62-63. 1 The rest of the gods, and the Gandharvas, the 
Yaksas, the Eaksasas and the Pannagas (Nagas) who were present 
in that assembly and were of different birth and merit, gladly, gave 
my sons speeches suited to their different roles [in the play], States 
{bharn) 2 , Sentiments H, [good physical] form, [proper] 
movement [of limbs] and strength as well as beautiful ornaments. 

64-65. Now when the performance relating to the killing 
of the Daityas and the Danavas began, the Daityas who came there 
[uninvited] instigated the Vighnas (malevolent spirits) with Viru- 
paksa as their leader, said, "Come forward, we shall not tolerate 1 
this dramatic performance." 

66. Then the Yighnas (evil spirits) together with the Asuras 
resorted to supernatural power {maya) and paralysed the speech, 
movement as well as memory of- the actors. 

the performance without any payment. This old custom is now dying out 
under the influence of modern theatres which realise; the price of the enter- 
tainment beforehand by selling tickets. 

3 Kutilaka.—Ag. takes it te mean 'a curved stick fit to bo used 
by the Jester'. But lie does not seem to be supported in this by the old 
dramatic literature. Jn Kalidiisa's Miilavi. however occur bhuahgama 
i'ult'la-damlakaUAa and damjakallha (id Pandit, Bombay, 1889, IV. 150, 
160). But it is not clear from the context whether it belonged to the 
Jester. TheNK. XXIII 167-170 describes probably this damlakM.ha, but 
does not connect it v, ith the Jester. 

* Prom now on the numbering of couplets is wrong in B. 
62-63 (B. same ; G. 60-61). ' B. reads 63a as rw mui »W'l«it 
hm*:, ■' For details on States see NS. VI. 

64-65 (B.same-, 0.62-63). ' na kmmnymnahe (neltham ucha- 
make, B). 

68 (B.same;Q. 64). 


67-68. Seeing this injury to them, 1 Indra sat in meditation 
to ascertain the cause of break in the performance and found 
out that, surrounded on all sides by the Vighnas (evil spirits), 
the Director (sUtradhara) together with his associates (actors) 
had been rendered senseless and inert. 

69-70. Then with eyes turning in anger be rose and 
took up that best banner staff (dhvaja), brilliant with all the 
jewels, set in it. With this Jarjara Indra beat to death the 
Asuras and the Vighnas who were hanging about the stage [for 
mischief]. ' 

71-73. The Vighnas together with the Danavas having been 
slain, all the gods saids in joy. "0 f Bharata,] you have got a divine 
weapon with which all destroyers of a play have been made jarjara 
(beaten to pulp). Hence it will have the name of Jarjara. 1 

73-75. The remaining enemies too who may come to do 
violence to [actors] will fare like this." To the g"ods, Indra then 
said with pleasure, "'Let it be so : this Jarjara will be the protection 
of all actors.'' 

75-76. [And afterwards], when the play was ready and 
Indra's festival continued in full force, the remaining Vighnas began 
to create terror for the rest of the actors. 

76-78. Having noticed these attempts caused by the insult 
of the Daityas 1 I, along with my sons, approached Brahman [and 
said], "O the holy one and the best of gods, the Vighnas (the evil 
spirits) are determined to destroy this dramatic performance ; so 
enlighten me about the means of its protection." 

67-68 (B. same ; G. 65-66) ' tatra tesam salt (svtradharasya, B.G.) 

69-70 (B.MW!;Cf. 67-68). 

71-78 (B. 71-72, 78b ; G. 69-70, 71b). l This isjsvidently an instance 
of folk-etymology. We read 72b. as, itoPmTw: « 3i SI smfiwm : (C.) 
but B. G. «l«frl M WT 9** m*r. m: and adds one hemistich as follows:— 

73-75 (B. 73b-75, G. 72-78). 75-76 (B. 76, G. 74). 

76-78 (B. 77-78 ; G. 75-76). ( . ' daityattam (madarthe, V.) 

w THE NATYASA8JBA [ 1. 78~ 

78-79. "0 the high-souled one," said Brahinan then to 
Visvakarman, 1 "build carefully a playhouse of the best type." 

79-81. After constructing it according-to this instruction 1 
he (i.e. Visvakarman) went with folded palms to Brahman's court 
[and said], "0 god, please have a look at the playhouse which has 
[just] been made ready." Then Brahman, along with Indra and 
and all other good (lit. the best) gods, went to have a view of the 

82-88. On seeing it Brahman said to the rest of gods, "You 
ought to co-operate in the protection of the playhouse in its several 
parts [and of the objects relating to dramatic performance) Candra 
(the moon-god) to protect the main building ; the Lokapalas 
(guardians of the worlds) its sides, the Maruts its four corners, 
Varuna the space [within the building], Mitra the tiring room 
(nepathya), Agni its plinth 1 , clouds the musical instruments 2 , 
deities of four Colour-groups (nirna) 3 the pillars, the Sdityas and 
the Rudras the space between the pillars, the Bhutas (spirits) the 
rows [of seats "dharani], the Apsarasas its rooms, the Yaksjtais 
the entire house, the ocean-god the ground, Yama the door, the two 
Naga kings (Ananta and Vasuki) the two blades of the door 
(dvampatra)*, the Rod" of Yama the door-frame, diva's Pike the 
top of the door. 

88-93. l Niyati and Yama (Mrltju) were made two door- 
keepers, and Indra himself stayed by the side of the stage. In the 

78-79 (B. 79 ; G. 77). ' Visvakarman is the 'architect of the gods, 
He is very frequently met with in the Puriinas. There was also'.a Vedic 
deity of this name. See Vidyalankar, JK, sub voce. 

79- tl (B.81-,82; G. 79-80). ' Krtva yatkokUm evam tu grham 
padmodbhavnwya. B. G. read in place of this hemistich a complete ihka. 

82-88 (B. 8 3-89a • G. 8l-87a). » Vedika rahgfiwdM tatra tikmo' 
dhisthutetyarihali (Ag.). 

2 bharpla iti tripuskare sopakarane (Ag.) 

" Such deities arc nowhere to be met with. 

* dvamfiatr* (dvam-fiarhe <}.) » See NS. III. 1-8 note 5 
^ 88-93 (B. 891,95a ;G.87b-92a). , R . ^ a ^ ^^ ^ 


Mattavarani was placed Lightning which was capable of killing 
Daityas, and the protection of its pillars was entrusted to the very 
strong Bhutas, Yaksas, Pisacas and Guhyakas. In the Jarjara was 
posted Thunder (vajra) the destroyer of Daityas, and in its 
sections (farm) were stationed the best and powerful gods. In the 
topmost section was placed Brahman, in the second Siva, in the . 
third Visnu, in the fourth Kartikeya and in the fifth great Nagas 
such as, Sesa, Vasukl and Taksaka." 

93-94. Thus for the destruction of the Vighnas, gods were 
placed in different parts of the Jarjara, and Brahman himself 
occupied the middle of the stage. It is for this reason 1 that flowers 
are scattered there [at the beginning of the performance]. 

95. Denizens of the nether regions such as, the Yaksas, the 
Guhyakas and the Pannagas were employed to.protect the bottom 
of the stage. 

96. Let Indra protect the actor who assumes the role of the 
hero, Sarasvatt 1 the actress assuming the role of the heroine, 
Omkarah* the Jester and Siva the rest of the characters (dramatis 

97. He (Brahman) said that the gods who were employed to 
protect it (ie. the play) would be its guardian deities. 

Brahman pacifies the Vighnas 

98-99. In the meanwhile gods in a body said to Brahman, 
"You should pacify the Vighnas by the conciliatory method (Oman). 
This (method) is to be applied first, and secondly the making of 
gifts (dam) ; and (these proving futile) one should afterwards create 

93-94 (B. 95b-96 ; G. 92b-93). ' See NS. V. 74. 

95 (B. 97 ; G. 94). 

96 (B. 98 ; G. 95). ' Sarasvati mentioned here seems to be the 
Vedie goddess of the same name. See Rk. 1, 1 42.9 and OK. sui voce, 

3 Oinkara as a deity is very rarely to be met with. 

97 (B. 99 ; G\ 96). 

u ■ THE NATJASASTBA - f 1. 100- 

dissension [among enemies], and this too proving unsuccessful 
punitive force (dan/fa) should be applied [for curbing them 1 ]. 

100. Hearing these words of the gods, Brahman called the 
evil spirits and said, "Why are you out for spoiling the dramatic 
performance ?" 

101-103. Questioned thus by Brahman, Virupaksa 1 
together with the Daityas and the Vighnas, said these conciliatory 
words: "The knowledge of the dramatic art (riatyaveda) which you 
have introduced for the first time, at the desire of the gods, has put 
, us in an unfavourable light, and this is done by you for the sake of 
the gods; this ought not to have not been done by you who is 
the first progenitor (lit. grand-father) of the world, from whom 
came out alike gods as well as Daityas." 

104-105. These words being uttered by .Virupaksa, 1 
Brahman said, 'Enough of your anger, O Daityas, give up your 
grievance (lit sorrow), I have prepared this Natyaveda which will 
determine the good luck or ill luck of you as well as of the gods, 
and which will take into account acts and ideas of you as well as 
of the Daityas. 

Characteristic of a drama 

106. In it (ii&tya) there is no exclusive representation of 
you or of the gods: for the drama is a representation of the state 
of the Three Worlds (bhavaiinkirtam) 1 . 

107. [In it] sometimes tliere is [reference to] duty, some- 
times to games, sometimes to money, sometimes to peace, and 


98-99. (B. 100-101 , O. 97-98). » This is an aicientilndian political 

100 (B. 102 ; G. 99). 

101-103 (B. 10S-105 • G 100-109"» itu . t.- 

MM, A ■ r> m - m >- Thw name occurs in Ram. and 

107.' (BUWjG.lMX h 


sometimes laughter is found in it, sometimes fight, sometimes 
love-making and sometimes killing [of people], 

108-109. This teaches" duty to those bent on doing their 
duty, love to those who are eager for its fulfilment, and it chastises 
those who are ill-bred or unruly, promotes self-restraint in those 
who are disciplined, gives courage to cowards, energy to heroic 
persons, enlightens men of poor intellect and gives wisdom to the 
leawied 1 . 

1 10. This gives diverson to kings, and firmness [of mind] to 
persons afflicted with sorrow, and [hints of acquiring] money to 
those who are, for earning it, and it brings composure to persons 
agitated in mind. 

111-112. The drama as I have devised, is a mimicry 1 of 
actions and conducts of people, which is rich in various emotions, 
and which depicts different situations. This will relate to actions 
of men good, bad and indifferent, and will give courage, amusement 
and happiness as well as counsel to them all. 

113. The drama will thus be instructive 1 to all, through 
actions and States (bhava) depicted in it, and through Sentiments, 
arising out of it. 

114-115. It will [also] give relief to unlucky persons who 
are afflicted with sorrow and grief or [over]-work, and will be 
conducive to observance of duty (dharma) as well as to fame, long 
life, intellect and general good, and will educate people. 

116. There is no wise maxim, no learning, no art or craft, 
no device, no action that is not found in the drama (natya). 

108-109 (B. 110-111 ; O. 107-101). » All these lay stress on the 
educative aspect of dramatic performances. 

110 (B. 112 ; G. 109). 

111-112 (B. 113-114 ; G. 110-111). 'Aristotle also brings in 'imita- 
tion' to explain poetry and drama (See Poetics). 

118 (B. 115 j G. 112). > Sec above 108-109 Hote. 

114-115 (B. 116-11? ; G. 118-114).' 

116 (B. 118 j G. 115). 

16 THE NATYASA8TBA [ 1. 117- 

117-118. Hence I have devised the drama in which meet 
all the departments of knowledge, different arts and various actions. 
So, (0, Daityas) yon should not have any anger towards the gods ; 
for a mimicry of the world with its Seven Divisions (sopta dvlpa) 1 
has been made a rule of, in the drama. 

119. * Stories taken out of Vedic works as well as Semi- 
* historical Tales (itih&sa) [so embellished that they are] capable of 

giving pleasure, is called drama (nStya). 

120. J A mimicry of the exploits of gods, Asuras, kings as 
well as house-holders in this world, is called drama. 

121. And when human nature with its joys and sorrows, is 
depicted by means of Representation through Gestures, and the like 
(i.e. Words, Costume, and Temperament or Satlva) it is called 

Offering Pflja to the gods of the stage 

122-123. The Brahman said to all the gods, "Perform duly 
in the playhouse a ceremony (niijana) with offerings, Homa, J 
Mantras 4 , (sacred) plants, Japa 3 : and the offerings in it should 
consist of eatables hard as well as soft (bhojijn and bliahj/a*). 

124. Thus this Veda {i.e. this Natyaveda) will have a 

117-118 (B. 119-120 ; G, 116). ' According to the Puranic geography 
the world was divided into seven continents such as Jainbu, Plaksa, Balmali, 
Kusa, Kraufice, SSka and Puskara. Each of these continents was further 
subdivided into nine regions, and Bharata (India) is a legion of the Jambu 

119(1231-1248 ; G. 119) > B. readsone couplet more afirr this. 

120 (B. 121b-122a , G. 117) « We read 120b as kHmukamaam lake 
natyam etadbhamnyati, but B. G. differently. 

121 (B, I22b-I23a ; G. 118). 

122-123 (B. I25b-127a ; G. 120-121). ' W. fferi« K oMations to 
gods by throwing ghee into the consecrated fire. 

8 i»3»/rffl-formula of prayer sacred to any deity. 

» /^-repeating a mantra or muttering it many time* ' 

-1. 125 ] THE ORIGIN 01 DRAMA 17 

happy adoration of the world. A dramatic spectacle (preksa 1 ) 
should not be held without offering Puja 2 to the stage. 

125. He who will hold' a dramatic spectacle without offering 
the Puja, will find his knowledge [of the art] useless, and he will be 
reborn as an animal of lower order (tiryag-yoni). 

126. Hence [producers of a play] should first of all offer by 
all means, Puja to the ' [presiding] deity of the stage, which is* 
similar to the [Vedic] sacrifice. 

127. The actor (nartaha) or his wealthy patron (arthapati) 
who does not 'offer this Puja or does not cause it to be offered, 
will sustain ajoss. 

128. He who will offer this Puja according to the rules and 
the observed practice, will attain auspicious wealth and will [in the 
end] go to heavens." 

129. Then Brahman with other gods said to me, '"Let it be 
so, offer Puja to the stage." 

Here ends Chapter I of Bharata's Natyasastra, 
which treats of the Origin of Drama. 

124 (B.l27b-128a ; G.122) > prekm Pali petkha occuring in Sikkha 
pinks (c. 600 D. C. ). 

1 Puja— worshipping a deity with flowers, sweet scent, incense, 
music and offering of eatables. 

125 (B.128b-I29a, G.12.*i). 126 (B.129b-130a, G.124). 
127 (B.130b-131a, 0.125) 128 (B13lb-132a, G.126). 

129 (B.l32b-13:t, G.127). 



£3 SEP 1959 



' Introduction 

1-2 On hearing Bharata's words, the sages said, "0 the holy 
one, we would like the hear about the ceremony relating to the 
stage. 1 And how are the men of future to offer Puja in the 
playhouse or [to know about] the practices related to it, or its 
accurate description ? 

3. As the production of a drama begins with the playhouse, 
you should [first of all] give us ks description." 

The three typos of the playhouse 

4. On hearing these words of the sages, Bharata said, 
"Listen, sages, about the description of a playhouse 1 and of the 
Puja to bo offered in this connexion. 

5-6. J Creations of gods [observed] in houses and gardens 2 . 

1-2 (B.O. same). » ranga here means *tlie stage.' It may also mean 
the auditorium as well as the spectators sitting there. So Kalidasa write • 
**1 wsftwjfiwfBpw n tfft xv : S a k. J. i. o. 3 (B.G. same) 

i (KG. same). '. Except the cave (c. 200 B.;C.) in the Ramgarh 
.ill suspected by Th. Bloch (Report of the Archaeological Survey of 
India, 190H PP.123 ff) to have been the remains of a theatre, there, is no 
other evidence of tl„. existence of a playhouse i„ ancient India. Prom the 
desenpfonof the playhouse in the pr^eut chapter we learn that it was 
,nstr„ct«lwith nek walls and wooden posts probably with a thatched 

S" r ' V >«<*** < ««**« mentioned by Ka.idasa i 
ksMalav, was poss,blv something like a playhouse (nilyammlaM 

is sr :"S~,"r "7;""'. *- - L L * 

connected wifl, fl ne,ghl wilnn g ]mvimei , ,„, 

«£££"■* ' BrWh « ! *» h * - *- B— Is one 
■* hi^S "° ^ ° f ' **"»■ 8 » itabI " * the 


are the outcome of their [mere] will but men's [creative] activity 
should be carefully guided by rules [laid clown in the Sastras]. 
Hence, listen about the method of building a playhouse and of the 
manner of offering Puja at the site [of its construction]. 

7-8. There are three types of playhouses devised by the 
wise Visvakarman [the heavenly architeeht] in the treatise on his 
art (mstra). They are oblong (vib-dn), 2 square (eatwrauru) and 
triangular (tryasra). 

, The three sizes of the playhouse 

8-11. Their sizes vary : they may be large (jycslhi), middle- 
sized (madkya) arid small (avara). The length (lit. measurement) 
of these [three types] fixed in terms of cubits as well as Dandas, is 
one hundred and eight, sixtyfour or thirty two. They 2 should 
[respectively] have [sides] one hundred and eight, sixtyfour and 
thirtytwo [cubits or Dandas] 3 long. The large playhouse is 
meant for gods 4 and the middle-sized one for kings, while for the 
rest of people, has been prescribed the smallest [theatre]. 5 

7-8 (B.G. same). 

8-11 (B.G. same). ' Some are for identifying the oblong, the square 
and tho triangular types respectively with the large, the middle-sized 
and tho small playhouses, but Ag. very rightly objects to this. He says. 
According "Wt«i* i\H sSsrslfa iftt %Uf[ <w g v&4 faa ftrfa *wtn Ssi wrt:— 
<flrct* 9m«i to Ag's view there will be the following nine tj-pes of playhouses : 
(i) large oblong (ii) large square, (iii) large triangular, (iv) oblong (v) 
medium square, (vi) medium triangular, (vii) small oblong, (viii) small 
square and (xi) small triangular. For a free translation of the passages in 
this chapter (8, 17, 19, 24-28, 33-35, 43-53, 63,68, 69-92) relating to.the cons- 
truction of the playhouse see D. R. Mnnkad, "Hindu Theatre" in 1HQ. 
VIII. 1932. pp. 482 ff. 

3 They »'. e. the large, the middle-sized and the small. 

8 As the measurements described are both, in terms of cubits and 
<fo>i<las (4 oubite), eighteen kinds of playhouse will be available. 

* Ag (I. p.51) thinks that by gods, kings and other peoples mentioned 
in this passage characters in a play have been meant But this view does not 
soem to be plausible. So the other view, mentioned by liim, which takes 
Sods and kings etc. as spectators may be accepted. 

• After this, B. reads throe couplets which go rightly between 2Q and 
24. Oh also holds tho same view. * * 


The table of measurement 

12-16. Listen now about the measurement of all these 
theatres, which has been fixed by Visvakarman. Units of these 
measurements 1 are: Ami, Raja, Bala, Liksa, Yiika, Yava, Angula, 
cubit {hasta) and Danda. 

8 Anus 


I Raja 

8 Rajas 


1 Bala 

8 Balas 



8 Liksas 


1 Yukii 

8 Yiikas 


1 Yava 

8 Yavas 


1 Angula ' 

24 Angulns 


1 cubit 

4 cubits 


1 Danda. 

the preceding 


of measurement I shall describe 

them (i.«. the different classes of playhouses). 

The playhouse for mortals 

17. An [oblong] playhouse meant for mortals 1 should be 
made sixtyfour cubits in length and thirtytwo cubits in breadth. 

Disadvantage of a too big playhouse 

18-19. No one should build a playhouse bigger than the 
above; for a play [producedj in it (i.e. a bigger house) will not be 
properly expressive. For anything recited or uttered in too big a 
playhouse will be losing euphony due to enunciated syllables' being 
indistinct 1 [to spectators not sitting sufficiently close to the stage]. 

20. [Besides this] w hen the playhouse is very big, the ex- 
pression in .he face [of actors] on which rests the Representation 

12-16 (\\.\ o-l9, G.samrX '.The table of measurement giveu here 
agrees substantially with the one given in the ArthasTistra of Kautilya (see 
IHCJ. VU1. p. 482 footnote). 

17 (B.20, (!.««»«). ' A medium oblong playhouse is meant here. 
It is described in detail later ou. See 33-38, 43-45, 63-66 below. 

18-10 (B.21-22, 0. same). > anabhivyakta-varmivhd. B. reads 
amhsawm-dharmatvad. In spite of Ag's acceptance of this reading it 
may not be considered genuiue. 


of States and Sentiments, 1 will not be distinctly visible [to all the 

21. Hence it is desirable that playhouses should be of 
medium size, so that the Recitatives as well as the songs in it, may 
be more easily heard [by the spectators]. 1 

22-23. Creations of gods [observed] in houses and gardens 
are^the outcome of their [mere] will, while men are to make careful 
efforts in their creations ; hence men should not try to rival the 
creation of gods. 1 I shall now describe the characteristics of a 
[play] house suitable for human beings. 

* Selection of a suitable site 

24. The expert [builder] should first of all examine a plot 
of land and then proceed with a good resolve to measure the site 
of the building. 

25. A builder should erect a playhouse on the soil which 
is plain, firm, hard 1 , and black or 2 white. 

26. It should first of all be cleared and then scratched with 
a plough, and then bones, pegs, potsherds in it as well as grass and 
shrubs growing in it, are to be removed. 

Measurement of the site 

27a. The ground being cleared one should measure out 
[the building sitel 1 • 

20 (B.24, G.21). ' rugo dkivasrsli-rasasrayali. 

J21 (B,24, G.21) ' After this B. G.' read two more couplets. 

22-23 (B. 27-28, G. 24-25). ' That is, mortals (men) should not 
build a playhouse „£ the biggest type which has beeu prescribed for gods. 

24 (B. 29, G. 26). 

25B.30,G.27). l Ag. thinks ka[hina means anmaru (=fertile). 

•' According to Ag. the second ca moans f or'. 

26 (B. 3I.G.28). 

27a (B. 32a, G. 28a). 'This hemistich is followed in B and £ by 
one couplet which in trans, is as follows : The asteiismsi UttaraphalgunI 
(Beta-Leonis), Uttarasadha (Tau-Stigitlarii), Cttarabhiidrapada (Andro- 
medoe),Uxs^m\» ( Lambda- Orionis), Visakha (lota-Ltbra), Revati (Pis- 
c\um), Hastii (Cotyii), Tisya (Delta-CancriJ and Anuradha I ' Delta-Scorpii) 
are favourable, in connexion with drama. 

22 THE NATrASASTBA ' I 1 -™- 

27-28. Under tlic asterisin Pusya (Gancri) he should spread 
[for measurement] a piece of white string which may be made of 
cotton, wool, Muiija grass or bark of some tree. 

Taking up the string 

28-31. Wise people should prepare for this purpose a string 
which is not liable to break. When the string is broken into two 
[pieces] the patron 1 [of the dramatic spectacle] will surely die. 
When it is broken into three a political disorder will occur in the 
land, and it being broken into four pieces the master of the 
dramatic art 2 will perish, while if the string slips out of the hand 
some other kind of loss will be the result. Hence it is desired 
that the string should always be taken and held with [great] care. 
Besides this the measurement of ground for the playhouse should 
be carefully made. 

32-33. And at a favourable moment which occurs in a 
(happy) Tithi 1 during its good part (mt-knram)' he should get 
the auspicious day declared alter the Brahmins have been satisfied 
[with gifts]. Then he should spread the string after sprinkling on 
it the propitiating water. 3 

The ground plan of the playhouse 

33-35. Afterwards he should measure a plot of land sixty- 
four cubits [long] 1 and divide the same [lengthwise] into two 
[equal] parts. The part which will be behind him (i.e. at his back) 
will have to be divided again into two equal halves. Of these 
halves one | behind him] should be again ' divided equally into two 
parts, um- of which will be made the -tago (aiwia-iina) and 
the part at back the tiring room i mpalhijn). 

27-28 (B. 33b-34a, 0. 30b-3k). 

28-31 (B. 34b-37, G. 31b-34). ■ mminoli-firekmpateh. Ag. 
- firayoktur=naty?tmryasya. (Ag.) 

32-33 UUs-39a,G. 35). > W- a lunar (lav . • 
kara,,a~ & half of a !uuiH . day> m , ^ ^ 
G. omits 33a. 

03-35' (B.39b-41a.G 3«-<vn lu^-i* L 

»ia, m. , le -37). See 1.7 jibove and the note 1 on it. 


The ceremony of laying the foundation 

35-37. Having divided the plot of land according to rules 
laid down before, he should lay in it the foundation of th8 play- 
house. And during this ceremony [of laying the foundation] all 
the musical instruments such as, conchshell, Dundubhi*, Mrdanga 2 , 
and Panava* should be sounded. 

37-38. And from the places for the ceremony, undesirable 
persons such as heretics, including Sramanas 1 , men in dark red 
(Jcasaija) 2 robes as well as men with physical delects, should be 
turned out. 

38-39. »At night, offerings should be made in all the ten 
directions | to various gods guarding them J ami these offerings 
should consist of sweet scent, flowers, fruits and etables of various 
other kinds- 

39-41. The food-stuff offered in the four [cardinal] direc- 
tions east, west, south and north, should respectively be of white, 
blue, yellow and red colour. Offerings preceded by [the muttering . 

35-37 (B.41b-43a, G.38-49). l dundiMi—a kind of drum. 

a mrdanga — a kind of earthen drum. 

3 pmia-M — a small drum or tabor. 

37-38 (B.43b-44a, G.40). ' pasamla.— This word :has a very curious 
history. Derived originaly from panada (moaning 'assembly' or 
'community') its Pkt from was tpassada or *passa<]a or pasatja. The 
form pasad.a with spontaneous nasalization of the second vowel gave rise . 
to Asokan pasamda (Seventh Pillar Edict, Dolhi-Topra), which is the 
basis of Skt. pasa>,i<]a in the sense of 'heretic'. It may be mentioned here 
that in Asokan Pkt. the word meant simply a 'community' and not a 'hereti- 
cal community'. One of the very early indications of disfavour to heretics 
is to be found in the fourth book Cell. 18) of the Visnu P. See Winteruitz, 
Vol. I. p. 551. 

8 Ft reads iramina, but G. iramana, the word means Jain monks. 
See NS. XVIII. 36 note 2. 

3 Muwtya-vasana— men in kusmy& or robe of dark red colour ; such 
people being Buddhist monks who accepted the vow of eclebacy, were 
considered an evil omen, for they symbolised unproductivity and want of 
wordly success etc. See also NS\ XVIII, 36 note 2. 

38-39 (B.44b-45a,G.41) * 39-41 (B.45b-47a, G42-43) 


of] Mantras should be made in [all the ten] different directions to 
deities presiding over them. 

• 41-42, At [the time of laying] the foundation ghee 1 and 
Piiyasa 2 should be offered to Brahmins, Madluiparka :) to the king, 
and rice with molasses ('jmla) to masters [of dramatic art]. 

42-43. The foundation should be laid during the auspicious 
part of a happy Tithi under the asterism Muh(Lamhda.8cm-idonin}. 

Raising pillars of the playhouse 

43-45. After it lias been laid, walls should be built and 
these having been completed, pillars within the playhouse should be 
raised in an [auspicious] Tithi and Karana which arc under a good 
asterism. This [raising of pillars] ought to be made under the 
asterism Rohini (Ahli'ln-ntit) or Sravana (A'/u'dLr) [which are 
considered auspicious for the purpose]. 

45-46. The master [of dramatic art), after he has fasted for 
three [days and] nights, is to raise the pillars in an auspicious 
moment at dawn. 

41-42 (B.47b-48a. G.44). ' gAee-elariM butter. 

" pHwsa-r'm rooked in milk with sugar. It i< a kind of rice- 

3 madhuparka—'u mixture of honey' ; a respectful offering proscribed 
to bo made to an honourable person in Vedic times, and this custom still 
lingers in ceremonies like marriage. Its ingredients are five : eurd (dadhij 
ghee (sarph), water (jala), homy (handra) and white sugar (situ). 

42-43 (B.48b-49a, G.45). 

43-4'i (IU9b-51a, G.4<>-47). ' karat/a— hnli of the lunar day 
(tithi). Thei are eleven in number viz.— (I) vava, (2) vidava, 
(3) kaulava, (4) taitila, (5) gara, (6) mru'ja, (7) PtW, (8) iakwi, 
(9) calmpada, < 10) nhga and (11) kintughm, and of these the first seven 
are counted From the wood half of the lirst day of the hMa-paha (bright 
half of the moo„) to the fct half of the fourteenth day of the h^a-paha 
(dark half of the moon). They occur eight times in a mouth. Th'c remain- 
ing karams occur in the remaining duration of tithis and appear only 
once in a month. See Suryasiddhanta-II. 67-68. 

45-46 (RK]b-52a, G.48). 


46-50. *In the beginning, the ceremony in connexion with 
the Brahmin pillar should be performed with completely white, 2 
articles purified with ghee and mustard seed, and in this ceremony 
Payasa should be distributed [to BrahminsJ. In case of the 
Ksatriya pillar, the ceremony should be performed with cloth, 
garland and unguent which should all be of red 3 colour, and during 
the ceremony rice mixed with molasses (gu4<() should be given to 
the, twice-born caste. The Vaisya pillar should be raised in the north- 
western direction of the playhouse and [at the ceremony of its 
raising] completely yellow 4 articles should be used and Brahmins 
should be given rice with ghee. And in case of the Hudra pillar, 
which is to be raised in the north-eastern direction, articles used in 
offering should all be of blue 5 colour, and the twice-born caste 
should be fed with Krsara, 

50-53. First of all, in case of the Brahmin pillar, white 
garlands and unguent as well as gold from an ear-ornament should 
bo thrown ;it its foot, while copper, silver and iron are respectively 
to be thrown at the feet of the Ksatriya, Vaisya and i%dra pillars. 
Besides this, gold should be thrown at the feet of the rest [of 

53-54. The placing of pillars should be preceded by the 
display of garlands of [green] leaves [of mango trees around them], 
and the utterance of 'Let it be well' (misti) and 'Let this be an 
auspicious day' {[mnijaha). . 

54-57. After pleasing the Rrahmins with considerable 
(analjin) gift of jewels, cows and cloths, pillars should be raised 

46-50 (B.52b-56a, G.50-53). ' bofore 46, G. reads on the strength 
of a single ms. one couplet as follows :— ^ 1 n 5 ^ mm' wt Hifafa ^ I 
W *WW «r» V" «V: *"1 » This interpolation seems to record 
She tradition that the pillars should be considered as wooden. 

8 white— symbol of purity and learning, associated with the Brahmins. 

* red— symbol of energy and strength, associated with the Ksatriyas. 

* yellow— symbol of wealth (gold) associated with the Vaisyas. 

* blue— symbol of non- Aryan origin associated with the Madras. 
50-58 (B.56b-58aAG.54-56). _ ' 53-54 (Btf9b-60a, G.57,) • 



[in such a manner that] they do neither move nor shake nor turn 
round. 1 Evil consequences that may follow in connexion with 
the raisins of pillars, are as follows: 'when a pillar [after it has been 
fixed] moves drought comes, when it turns round fear of death 
occurs, and when it shakes, fear from an enemy state appears. 
Hence one should raise a pillar free from these eventualities. 

58-60. In case of the holy Brahmin pillar, a cow 1 should 
be given as fee (dahina) and in case of the rest [of the pilkrs] 
builders should have a feast- And [in this feast foodstuff] 
purified with Mantr.i should be given by the wise master of the 
dramatic art (vHtijafarim). Then he should be fed with KrsarS* 
and salt. 

00-63. After all these rules have been put into practice 
and all the musical instruments have been sounded, one should 
raise the pillars with the muttering over them of a suitable Mantra 
[which is as follows] : 'Just as the mount of Mem is unmoved 
and the Himalaya is very strong, so be thou immoveable and 
bring victory to the king.' Thus the experts should build up 
pillars, doors, walls and the tiring room, according to rules. 

TV Mattaviiraiu 

03-65. On [each] side of the stage {fiwjn-iiilka) should be 
built the Mattavarani 1 and this should be furnished with four 
pillars and should be equal in length to the stage (w hgiijiUha) 

54-57 (B.56b-63, 0.r.8-61n). l amlitam (B. acalilan)— Though Ag. 
is supposed to road acalitam lie interprets it correctly as valayu- 
hjyadinuparivarttanam yasya karaiiiyam na b/tavati'Q. p.6(0. 

58-60 (B. «4-66a, 0. 61b-63). ' This kind of payment is probably a 
relic of the time when there was no metallic currency. 

s krsaru is made of milk, sesamum (tila) and rice. Compare tin's 
word with NIA. khicaili or kkuw]i (rice and peas boiled together with 
a few spices). e>0-fi8 (B.66b-«2a, G 64-66) 

63-65 (B.69b-71a, G.67-68). ' matta-vurani—'W? word does not 
seem to occur in any Skt. dictionary. There is however a word mattavumm 
meaning 'a turret or small room on the top of a large building, a veranda, 
a pavilion'. In Ksirasvamiu's commentary to the AmaraWa, matta- 
varana hite been explained as follows ; matttdamiopmrayah syht pragriw 


and its plinth should be a cubit and a half high*. And the 
plinth of the auditorium {rahijanvtnialaY should be equal in 
height to that of the two [Mattavaranis]. 

65-07. At the time of building them (the two Mattavaranis) 
garlands, ' incense, sweet scent, cloths of different colours as 
well as offerings agreeable to [Bliutas] should be offered [to them]. 
And to ensure the good condition of the pillars, one should 
put" a piece of iron below them, and Brahmins should be given 
food including Kivara- The Mattavaranis should be built up 
after observing* all these rules. 

• The stage 

68. Then one should construct the stage (ravijapjtlta) 1 

matlavhranalt (see Oka's ed. p. 50). This is however not clear. Jdatta- 
varanayor varmjilaka mentioned in Subandhu's Vasavadatta (ed. Jivananda. 
p. 33) is probably connected with this word. Sivarama Tripathl explains 
these woids as follows : JrWiwI HWft WlskTJ%l! I fiwiWSWpf $\ »?irqfilHT 
iRiF^t i Bftq^ffl afo-j fafti 91 <j *«$«*{ ii This also does not give any clear 
idea about mattavii-rtiiia or matlavamiiayor varantlaka. But the word 
mattavaram may .lie tentatively taken in the sense of 'a side-room.' 
Ag. seerasto have no clear idea about it. On this he (I. pp. 64-65) says : 
fwroft *r*fSjuHiwi*m «»H1 firifto-f«f«tWwi ft nr«Krrft«t ( •^irftiw ? ) 
K^iftsijtf finftwiWiiw. A Dictionary of Hindu Architecture, by (P. K. 
Acharya Allahabad, 1927) does not give us any light on this term. 

'' According to a view expressed in the Ag. (I. p. 62) the plinth of the 
mattavuran* is a cubit and a half higher than that of the stage — iwitsa 
Ktii *r<tai3w ai^TWifwro v% m: qrnif mnrcwr. The plinth of the audi- 
torium is also to be of tlis same height as that of the mattavarani. But 
nothing has been said about the height of the plinth of the tiring room. 
From the use of terms like raitgitvataraim (descending into the stage) it 
would appear that the plinth of the tiring room too, was higher than the 
stage. Weber however considered that the stage was higher. Indische 
Studien XIV. p. 225 Keith, Skt. Drama, p. 360. of. Levi, Theatre indien, 
i. 374, ii. 62. 

8 B. reads rahgamamlapam instead of raiigamaiirjalam (G) which 
is the correct reading. 65-67 (B.71b-73, 69-71a) 

68 (B.74, G.71b-72a). ' Some scholars following Ag, arc in favour 
of taking and rahgapMho rahgaiina as two different parts of the> play- 
house (see D.B. Mankad, "Hindu Theatre" urfflQ. VIII. 1932, pp. 480 ff. 


after due performance of all the acts prescribed by rules, and the 
stage (raiiijaiirsa) should. include six pieces of wood. 

69-71. The tiring mora (uepdlhya) should be furnished 
with two doors 1 . In filling up [the ground marked for the stage] 
the black earth should be used with great care. This earth is to 
be made free from stone chips, gravel and grass by the use of 
a plough to which are to be yoked two white draught animals. 
Those who will do [the ploughing] work should be free from 
physical defects of all kinds. And the earth should be carried 
in new baskets by persons free from defective limbs. 

72-74. Thus one should carefully construct the plinth of 
the stage (rtmgaiii'Kn) 1 . It must not be [convex] like the back of 
a tortoise or that of a fish. For a stage (rahij<t[)Uha) the ground 
which is as level as the surface of a mirror, is commendable. 
Jewels and precious stones should be laid underneath this 
(nihyniimi) by expert builders. Diamond is to be put in the 
east, lapis hmdi in the south, quartz in the west and coral in 
the north, and in ihe centre gold. 

Decorative work iu the stage 

75-30. The plinth of the stage having been constructed 
thus, one should start the wood-work which is based on a carefully 
thought out {uha-tiiatyuliarsamyttlrtii) 1 [plan], with many artistic 

and IX. 1933-pp. 973 ff. ; V. ltaghavan, "Theatre Architecture in Ancient 
•India" Triveni 1V-VI, (1931, 1933) also "Hindu Theatre", IHQ. IX. 
1933. pp. '991 ff. I am anable to agree with them. For my arguments 
on this print so.. "The Hindu Theatre" in IHQ. IX. 1933 pp. 591 ff. 
and The NiS' and the Abhiiiavabliiirati" in IHQ. X. 1934 pp. 161 ff. 

69-71 (15.75-77, G.72b-75a). ' On this point the Hindu Theatre has 
a similarity with the Chinw lueatre. (See A.K. Coomaraswamy-"Hindu 
Theatre" in IHQ. IX. 1933. p. 594). 

72-74 (B. 78-80, (>.75b-78»). ' See note 1 on 68. If rangaiina and 
rmgafrha are take, to mean two different parte of the playhouse the 
interpret to, of the passage will lead us to unncessary difficulty. 

?5-8<J (B.80-86a, 0.780-83). < fife and pralyuha may ako b. 
taken as t,vo architectural terms (see Ag. I, p. 63). 


pieces such as decorative designs, carved figures of elephants, 
tigers and snakes. Many wooden statues also should be set 
up there, and this wood-work [should] include Niryuhas 2 , 
variously placed mechanized latticed windows, rows (Moroni) 
of good seats, numerous dove-cots and pillars raised in different 
parts of the floor 3 . And the wood-work having been finished, 
the builders should set out to finish the walls. No pillar, bracket 4 , 
window, corner or door should face a door 5 . 

80-82. .The playhouse should be made like a mountain 
cavern 1 and it should have two floors 2 [on two different levels] 
and small windows ; And it should be free from wind and should 
have good acoustic quality. For [in such a playhouse] made 
free from the interference of wind, voice of actors and singers as 

' niryaka is evidently an architectural term but it does not seem to 
have been explained clearly in any extant work. Ag's explanation does not 
give us any light 

* In the absence of a more detailed description of the different parts 
of the wood-work, it is not possible to have a clear idea of them. Hence 
our knowledge of the passage remains incomplete till such a description is 
available in some authentic work. 

* nagadanta means 'a bracket'. The word occurs in Vatsyayana's 
Kamasutra. mgadantavasakta vina (I. 5.4) 

* On this passage Ag. (I. p. 64) says : sftwi ^flurafto fax WTO%^- 

80-82 (B. 86b, 89a, G. 84-85). l The pillars of the playhouse being 
of wood, the roof was in all probability thatched and in the form of a 
pyramid with four sides. Probably that was to give it the semblance 
of a mountain cavern. 

* The two floors mentioned here seem to refer to floors of different 
heights which the auditorium, «w//«w»r«'.»» »ud the stage hail. See 63-65 
above and note 2 on it. According to some old commentators dvirbkOmi 
indicated a two-storied playhouse while others were against such a sugges- 
tion. Ag. (1. p. 64) says : ? 1* *f i^3«ww>if'im^*fn *f*1 1 fiwft 
*fffwpiw%>i wft ftiffctwrnfiMi twiwiuft*t (?) mMtsnft fvfMt igfiiftm* i 


well as the sound of musical instruments 8 will be distinctly 
heard 4 . 

82-85. The construction of walls being finished, they should 
be plastered and carefully white-washed. After they have been 
smeared [with plaster and limej, made perfectly clean and 
beautifully plain, painting should be executed on them. In this 
painting should be depicted creepers, men, women, and their 
amorous exploits 1 . Thus the architect should construct a play- 
house of the oblong (n'W") type. 

Description of a square playhouse 

86-92. Now I shall speak of the characteristics of that of 
the square {i-nhinwi-a) 1 type. A plot of land, thirtytwo cubits in 
length and breadth, is to be measured out in an auspicious moment, 
and on it the playhouse should be erected by experts in dramatic 
art. Rules, definitions ;ind propitiatory ceremonies mentioned 
before [in case of a playhouse of the oblong type] will also 
apply in case of that of the square type. It should be made 
perfectly square and divided into requisite parts 2 by holding 
the string [of measurement], and its outer walls should be made 
with strong bricks very thickly set together. And inside the 
stage and in proper directions [the architect] should raise ten 

3 kutapa— This word is explained by Ag. differently in different 
parts of his comm. Once (J, p. 73) he says f llWfl <*<jf»wfl«iwi«i*tf»l and next 
time too (J. p. J<-6) lie says ^gf5vmn«i ?a<i, but in another place (I. p. 65) 
he say W. wi-iimm *ty. and this latter view seems to have boon 
repeated in I. ?. 2U. The lirst view seems to give the correct interpretation. 

4 After H.87 B. repeats 19 (B22) unnecessarily. 

82-go (B.89b-92, G.86-P9a). ' atmabhogajam literally means 'due 
to self-indulsfiice or eujoynnit of the self. Compare with this description 
the decorative paintings in the Ajanta cave*. 

86-92 (B.9:t-99a, l>. 89b-95). ' caturasra gives rise to NIA. mums 
or corns. 

'The exact nature of this division is not clear from tl.e passage. 
The view expressed by Ag. 0. P. 66) on this point does not seem to be 


pillars 3 capable of supporting the roof. Outside the pillars, 
seats should be constructed in the form of a staircase by means 
of bricks and wood, for the accommodation of the spectators. 
Successive rows of seats should be made one cubit higher than 
those preceding them, and the lowest row of seats being one cubit 
higher than the floor And all these seats should overlook the 

92-95. In the interior of the playhouse six more strong 
pillars capable of supporting the roof should be raised in suitable 
positions and'with [proper] ceremonies (i e. with those mentioned 
before).' And # in addition (o these, eight more pillars should bu 
raised by their side. Then alter raising [for the stage or 
rutujaihlhii] a plinth eight cubit [square, more] pillars should be 
raised to support the roof of the playhouse. These [pillars] should 
be fixed to the roof by proper I'a-teuers, and be decorated with 
figurines of 'woman-with-a-tree' ( n —sdhihhanjikh). 

95-100. After all these have been made, one should care- 
fully construct the tiring room (ntjMthjd). It should have one 
door leading to the stage through which persons should enter with 
their face towards [the spectators]. There should also be a second 
door facing the auditorium (minjtt). The stage [of the square 
playhouse] should be eight cubits in length and in breadth, 
it should be furnished with an elevated plinth with plain 
surface, and its Mattaviirani should be made according to the 
measurement prescribed before (is. in ease of the oblong type of 

3 The position of tltcso ten pillars and others mentioned afterwards 
i* not clear from the text. Whatever is written on this point in Ag's 
commentary is equally difficnlt to understand. Those who are interested 
in the alleged view of Ag. may be referred to articles of D. R. Mankad 
and V. Rajfli avail (loc. cit.). 

92-95 (B.99b-102a, G.96-98). ' satastri^&ila-bhanjika (see A. K. 
t'ooinaraswamy, 'The Women and tree or siilabha jikii in Indian literature 
in Acta Orieutalia, vol. VTl. also cf. this author's Yaksas, Part II. p. 11.) 

95-inn (B.1026-107 6.99-104). > Both the sides are meant. There 
should be two mattavaratfis as in the ease of an oblong medium, 
(rikrsia-madhya) playhouse described before (17, 32-35). 


playhouse). The Mattavaram" should be made with four pillars 
by the side 1 of the plinth [mentioned above]. The stage 
should be either more elevated than this plinth or equal to it 
in height. In case of a playhouse of the oblong (oilcrsla) type, 
it should be higher than the stage, whereas in ' a playhouse 
of the square type it should have a height equal to that of the 
stage. These are the rules according to which a square type play- 
house is to be built. 

Description of a triangular playhouse 

101-104- Now f shall speak about the characteristics of the 
triangular [Irynm,) type of playhouse. By the builders, a play- 
house with three corners should be built, and the stage {mwjnpHhn) 
in it also should be made triangular. In one corner of the 
playhouse there should be a door, and a second door should be 
made at the back of the stage (mw</a/»itta). Rules regarding 
walls and pillars 1 which hold good in case of a playhouse of the 
square type, will be applicable in case of the triangular type*. Those 
are the rules according to which different types of playhouses 
are to be constructed by the learned. Next I shall describe 
to yon tin.' i propitiatory] I J fija in this connexion. 

Here ends Chapter II of Bharata's Natyasilstra 
which treats of the Characterises of a Playhouse. 

101-104 (B.108-1 11, G.104b-108). > It is not clear how the 
playhouse will have pillars like those of other types. 

Playhol!" ""*"*""* W bMn PrCaCriW "' «™ of the triangular 

Consecration of the playhouse 

1-8. In the auspicious playhouse constructed with all the 
characteristics [mentioned obove] cows, and Brahmins muttering 
[proper Mantras] should be made to dwell for a week. Then the 
master of the dramatic art who has been initiated [for the purpose] 
and has put on new cloths, fasted for three days, lived away from 
his bed-room (lit. the dwelling house), has kept his senses under 
control and has [thus] become purified, will besprinkle his limbs 
with water over which purificatory Mantras have been muttered, 
and consecrate the playhouse. This [consecration] should take 
place after he has made obeisance to the great god Siva the lord 
of all the regions, Brahman who sprung from the lotus, Brahaspati 
the preceptor of the gods, Vi?nu, Kartikeya, SarasvatI, LaksmI, 
Siddhi, Medha, Smrti, Mati, Candra (Moon), Sflrya (Sun), Winds, 
Guardians of all directions, A^vins, Mitra, Agni, and other gods, such 
as Rudra, Varnas 1 , Kala* Kali 8 , Yama, Niyati, the Sceptre of 
Yama*, Weapons of Visnu", the Lord of the Nagas (Serpents), the 
Lord of the birds (Garuda), Thunderbolt, Lightning, Seas, Gan- 
dharvas, Apsarasas, Sages, Natya-maids 8 , MahSgramani (the great 
leader of Ganas) 1 , Yaksas, Guhyakas 8 and the hosts of Bhutas. 

1-8 (B.l-7, 9. G.l-7, 9). l varnas— No gods called varnas are to 
be met with in any other work. They may be taken as deities ruling 
specially ovor the four varnas of people. 

' Kala— There are several legendary heroes (gods, sages and Asuras) 
of this name, see Vidyalankar, JK. sub voce. 

* Kali— There are many legendary heroes of this name, see JK. 
sub voet. 

* See note 5 below. 

* Weapons of Vi§nu appear as deities in the Act I of Bhasa'i Bala. 

* natyakumari— Such goddesses are possibly mentioned nowhere else. 

' mahagramani— The great leader of Ganas. It is very difficult 
to accept Ag's identification of mahagramani with Ganapati (jnakagra- 
itanir ganapati))). For in 58 below, occurs the term mahagmieivara 


0-10. Having made obeisance to these, and other divine 
sages (devarsi), he should with folded palms invoke all the gods to 
their respective positions, and say, "Ye, holy ones, should take us 
under your protection during the night, and ye with your followers 
should offer us assistance in this dramatic performance". 

Offering Paja to the Jarjara 

11-18. Having worshipped [thus] all the gods as well as 
all the musical instruments (kutapa) 1 he should offer Puja to the 
Jarjara 2 for attaining good success at the performance [and pray 
to it as follows]. "Thou art Indra's weapon killing all the 
demons ; thou hast been fashioned by all the gods,, and thou art 
capable of destroying all the obstacles ; bring victory to the king 
and defeat to his enemies, welfare to cows and Brahmins and 
progress to dramatic undertakings". 

14-15. After proceeding thus according to rules and staying 
in the playhouse for the night, he (the master of the dramatic art) 

(in the plural number) indicating the different leaders of Ganas who 
followed Siva. One of such leaders lias been mentioned there as Nandisvara 
(Nandin). Besides this the term Gane^a (the leader of Ganas) has also 
been applied to Siva in 47 below. In describing pimjibai dhas the pt'nrji 
of Ganesvara has been named as dakxayajlia-vimardini (KB. IV. 260). This 
too shows that ganesvara, gramani or mahagriimaiii meant simply the 
leader, one of the leaders or the great leader of Ganas. The fully 
developed Ganapati .seems to be non-existent at the time when the NS. was 
composed. Our suspicion in the matter seems to be corroborated by 
the variant tathu grimadhi-devala recorded in the ms (ha of B. for 
mahagnmanyam. Ganapati seems to be a late entrant into the Hindu 
pantheon. He is not mentioned in any one of the old Puranas. Only the 
Varaha, Vamana and Brahma-vaivarta P. which arc very late know 
the deity (Winternitz, Vol. 1. pp. 566-568, 573, Vidyalankar, JK. sub voce). 
* KalidSsa makes no distinction between Yaksas and Ouhyakas, 
See Meghaduta 1 and 5. 

•See above.. 9-10 (B.10-11, G.10-11). 

11-13 (B.12-14, G.12-H). » See below 72- r 3 note 3. The reading 
samfimyuja in all editions and inss. seems to be wrong. It should be 
emended as samprapujya. 

'. See 73-81 below. 

14-15 (B.15-16, G-,15-16). 


should begin Puja as soon as it is morning. This Puja connected 
with the stage should take place under the asterism Ardra (Alpha- 
Ononis) or Magba (Regulus) or Yamya (Mmca) or Purvaphalguni 
(Delta-Leonis) or PurvasSdha (Della-Sagittarii) or Purvabhadra- 
pada (Alpha-Pegasi) or Silesa (Hydrae) or Miila {Lambda. 

. 16. The stage should be illuminated and the Puja of the 
gods in its connexion should be performed by the master of the 
dramatic art (jacaryn) after he has purified his body, concentrated 
his mind [to these acts] and initiated himself [to the Puja], 

•Installation of the gods 

17. During the concluding moments of the day, which are 
considered to be hard and full of evils, and are presided over Ky 
Bhutas, one should perform Acamana 1 and cause the gods to be 

18. [Along with these gods] should be [taken] red thread- 
bangle (pratinara) 1 , the best kind of red sandah red flowers and red 
fruits. [With these andj articles such as barley, white mustard, 
sunned rice, Nagapuspa 2 powder and husked saffron (priyangu)*, 
the gods should be installed. 

The Mandala for installing the gods 

20. In this ceremony one should draw in proper place a 
Mandala 1 according to the manner prescribed. 

21. This mandala should be sixteen Talas (hasta) 1 square 
and it should have doors on all its four sides. 

16 (B.17, G.17). 

17 (B.l 8,0.18). ' SfliiwwM— ceremonial rinsing of the mouth by 
sipping water from the palm of the hand. 

18-20 (B.l£21a. G.19-21a). 

1 pratisarce—SutrO'vinirmita grant hi-mantah ka'nkanavncaah, Ag, 
(I. p. 74). 

" nagapwpa^the campaka tree (ApteL but Ag. says nagapuspam 

* priyangu— saffron, and not the fruit of the priyangu creeper. 

20 (B.21b.G. 2lb). l See the diagram 1. 

t\ (B.22-G82). ' hasta in this passage i* to be interpreted as 

36 THE NATYASASTBA [{m. jg. 

22. In its middle should be drawn two lines vertically and 
horizontally (ie. parallel to the sides), and in the apartments made 
by these lines, should be installed the different gods. 

23-30. In the middle of this (manfala), should be put 
Brahman who has lotus as his neat 1 . Then one should first of all 
put in the ea-t Siva with his host of Bhutas, Narayana (Visnu), 
Indra, Skanda (Kartikeya), Surya, As"vins, Candra, SarasvatI, 
Laksmi, Araddha and Medha, in the south-east Agni, Svaha, 
Visvedevas, Gandharvas, Rudras and Rsis, in the south Yama, 
Mitra with his followers, Pitrs, Pisaeas, Uragas and Guhyakas, 
in the south-west the Raksasas and all the Bhutas, in the west the 
Seas and Varuna, in the north-west the Seven Winds 3 and 
Garuda with other birds, in the north Knvera, Mothers of the 
Natya, Yaksas with their followers, in the north-east leaders of 
Ganas such as Nandin, Brahmarsis and the host of Bhutas in their 
proper places. 

31. And [in the eastern] pillar should be placed Sanat- 
kumara 1 , in the southern one Daksa*, in the northern one 
Gramani (lit. leader of Ganas) 3 and in the western one Skanda 

32. According to this rule all the gods in their [proper] 
form and colour should be placed in their respective positions. 

hasta-taia or tola i.e. the interval between the tips of the thumb and the 
middle-finger stretched in opposite directions. 11WWI? nil ft TW8 wrWt l 
mnfcroiS mwoittlfa: , SB. VII. 1046. Otherwise* it will be im- 
possible k. accomodate the ma V ,1ala on. the stage which is eight cubits 
wide (8eeNS.lI. 83-35). The ancient commentators like i$ankuka and 
others pointed out how absurd it would be take hasta in the passage 
m the sense of cubit, (see Ag. I. p. 75). 22 (B 23. 0.23) 

23 3U (B.24-31, 0,24-31). i According to Ag. a lotus i. to be 
Vamana P. (see Vidyalaukur, JK. tut voce) 
of Brlaf'^ ' **'™ of the great ^ and .« 

'.Daksa-oneofthe lords of the creation frajipati), «>n of Pra- 
cetas Ihere ^ VidXkTjK.SL 
*e above 1-8 not, 7. *<*U,j£ 


Offering Paja to the godB 

33. After they have been installed with regular ceremony 
in suitable places they should be worshipped in a fitting manner. 

34. Gods [in general] should be given white 1 garlands and 
unguents, while Gandharvas, Agni and Surya should be given gar- 
lands and unguents of red* colour. 

. 35. After being treated [thus] in due order and manner 
they should be worshipped according to rules with suitable offerings. 
36-39. "[Offerings suitable to different gods and goddesses 
are as follows] : Brahman Madlmparka 1 , Sarasvatl Payasa 2 , gods 
like Siva, Visnu, and Indra sweetmeats. Agni rice cooked with 
ghee, Candra and Surya rice cooked with molasses, Visvedevas, 
Gandharvas and sages honey and Payasa, Yama and Mitra cakes 
and sweetmeats, Pitrs, Pigacas and Uragas ghee and milk, host 
of Bhutas rice cooked with meat, wines of different kinds and grams 
covered with thick milk. 

Consecration of the Mattavarani 

4044 Similar shall be the rules regarding the Puja in 
^connexion with the Mattavarani. [Offerings to be made to different 
gods and demigods are as follows] : Raksasas half-cooked meat, 
Danavas wine and meat, the remaining gods cake and Utkarika* and 
boiled rice, gods of seas and rivers fish and cakes, Varuna ghee and 
Payasa,:Sages various roots and fruits, the wind god and birds 
different edible stuff (lit. bhaksija and hhojyu), Mothers 8 of the 

33 (B.34, 034). 

34 (B.35, 0.35). ' 'WluV here seems to be the symbol of purity 
and good grace.- 

' 'Rod' here seems to bo the symbol of energy. 

35- (B. 35, G.36). 

36-39. (B. 37-40, G. 37-40). ' mad/mparka—sx* above II. 41-42. 
note 3. 

* Payasa— ate above II. 41-42 uote. 

40-44.(B,41 45, G.41-45). l See above. 

3 «//tef«*o"»a kind of sweetmeat. 

1 These goddesses seem to have b«eu ignored by the Purayag. 


Natya, and Kuvera with his followers eatables including cakes, and 

45. These different kinds of foodstuffs should be offered 
to them and the Mantras to be uttered at the time of making 
offering to different gods will be as follows : — 

46. (The Mantra for Brahman), the god of gods, the 
most lordly one, the lotus-born one, the grand-father (of 'he 
worlds) accept this my offering consecrated by the Mantra. 

47. (For Siva) the god of gods, the great 'god, the lord 
of Garros 1 and the killer of Tripura, accept this my etc. 

IS. (For Visnn), Narayana, Padmanabha, the best of 
the gods, with unrestrained movement, accept this my etc. 

49. (For Indra), Purandara, the lord of gods, the thunder 
hearer, the maker of the hundred exploits, accept this my etc. 

•>(.i. (For Skanda), Skanda the leader of the celestial 
army, the blessed one. the dear son of £iva, the six-mouthed 
one, accept this my etc 

51. (For Sarasvati,), the goddess of the gods, the very 
blessed one, the dear wife of Hari, accept this my etc. 

52 (For goddesses Laksmi, Siddhi, Mati, Medha) 
.Laksmi, Siddhi, Mati and Medha, ye who are honoured by all the 
worlds, accept this my etc. 

53. (For Maruta) U Mfiruta, you who know the might 
of all the creatures nnd are the life of all the world, accept this 

my etc. - • 

3*. vFor fiaksasas) O the great Kaksasas, the great-souled 

;v/^ fe ~ Thi9 U8 k "" , '" ali in "* » M «- 'top'**, lefiikh, 
Wo. Ik. word m-m to be coiu v «bd with the NIA. luci, loci, 
from tloctu, *lociku. 

•15(K46,0.46) 36 (B.47, G.47) 

«ll«. p'T (! ' 48 ' ' H 8 ' l0Uld ** marked hm t,,at ' *™ »« been 
48(B.50.(r.49). 49(B.48,(i.50). 50 (B 49 51) 

51JB.53,0.52). MfR«.tf. M , « 5 ' fit 


ones, the song of Pulastya, born of different cause?, accept this 
my etc 

55. (For Agni) O Agni, the mouth of the gods, the best of 
the gods, the smoke-bannered one, the eater of things offered in 
sacrifice, accept this my offering given with love. 

56. (For Candra) Soma, the lord of all the planets, the 
king of the twice-born ones, the favourite of the world, accept 
thi3 my etc. 

57. (For Sflrya) the maker of day, the mass of heat, the 
best among the planets, accept this my etc. 

58^ (Far lords of Ganas such a?, Nandls'vara) the great 
lord of Ganas. among whom NandlsVarn is I he foremost, accept 
this my etc. 

50. (For Pitrs) I bow to all the Pitrs. do ye accept my 
offering. (For Bhutas) I always bow to all the Bhutas who may 
have a liking for offerings 1 . 

60a. (For Kainapala) O KSmapila, I always bow to thee 
to whom this offering is made. 

60-61. (For Gandharvas) Gaudharvas, amongst whom 
Nfirada, Tumburti and ViSvavasu are the foremost, accept this my 
best offering. 

61-62. (For Yama and Mitra) O Yarnn and Mitra, the 
gods who are adored by all the worlds, accept this my etc. 

62-03. (For Nagas) I bow to all the Pannagas in the 
nether region, who are .devourers of wind, give me success in 
dramatic production after I have worshipped you. 

■ 63-64. (For Varuna) Varuna, you who are the lord of all 
waters and haye the swan as your mount, be pleased along with the 
seas and rivers, after I have worshipped you all. 

55(B.57,G.56). 56 (B.58. G.57). 

57(IU9,G68). 58 (G.60, B.59). 

59(P.6l,G.60a). ' G. puts one hemistich after 60a without nura- 
Wing it. 60a (B.62a, G.6Db). . 60-61 (B.62b-63a, G.61). 

61-62 (B.68b-64a, G.62). 62-63 (B. 64b-65a, G.63). 

63-64 (B.65b-65a, G.64\ 


64-65. (For Garuda) the son of VinatS, the high-souled 
one, the lord, the king of all the birds, accept this my etc. 

64-66. (For Kuvera) the superintendent of [all] wealth, 
the king of Yaksas, the guardian of the world, the lord of riches, ye 
along with Guhyakas and Yaksas accept this my etc 

66-67. (For mothers of the Natya) mothers of the 
Nstya such as Brahml and others, ye be happy and pleased to 
accept my offering. 

B7-''-8. (For others) weapons of Rudra, ye accept my 
offerings. weapons of Visnu, ye too accept [things given by 
me] out of devotion for Visnu. . 

68-69. Yama, the Fate, the dispenser of death to all 
creatures and the end of all actions, accept my offerings. 

69-70. Ye other gods who are occupying the JIattavSrani, 
accept this my etc. 

70-71. To all other gods and Gandharvas too who occupy 
the heavens, the earth, the middle region and the ten directions, 
these offerings are made (lit. let these be accepted by them). 

71-72. Then a [earthen] jar 1 full of water with a garland 
of leaves in its front, should be placed in the middle of the stage, 
and a piece of gold should be put into it. 

72-73. All the musical instruments covered with cloth 
should be worshipped with [sweet] scent, flowers, garlands, incense 
and various eatables hard and soft. 1 

64-6,1 B.66b-67a, G.65). 65-66 (B.67b-6$a, G.66). 

66-67 (B.68b-69a, G.67). 66-68 (B.69b 70a, G.68). 

68-69 (B.70b-71a, G.69). 89-70 (B.71b-72a, G.70). 
70-7! (B.72b-73a, 0.71). 

71-72 (B.73b-74a, G. 72). > For the significance of this iar see below 

72-73 (B.74b-75a, G.76). ' This passage with some minor variation 

has been repeated inB. and G. But this is out of place there. For the 
order in which musical instruments (kulafia) and the Jarjara «Lould be 
worshipped sec 11-13 above. 


■ Consecration of the Jar jar a 

73-74. Having worshipped all the gods in due order, and 
offering Puja to the Jarjara fin the following manner] one should 
Have the obstacles removed. 

74-76. [One should fasten a piece of] white cloth at the- 
top [of the Jarjara], blue cloth at the Raudra joint, yellow cloth at 
the Visnu joint, red cloth at the Skanda joint, and variegated 
cloth at the lowest joint 1 . And garlands, incense and unguents, 
are to be offered to it (the Jarjara) in a fitting manner. 

76-77. Having observed all these rites with incense, 
garlands and unguents one should consecrate 1 the Jarjara with the 
following Mantra: 

77-78. "For putting off obstacles thou hast been made very 
Mrong, and as hard as adament, by gods such as Brahman. 

78-70. Let Brahman with all other gods protect thy top- 
most part, Hara (Siva) the second part, Janardana ( the 
third part, KumSra (KSrtikeya) the fourth part, and the great 
Pannagas the fifth part* 

80-81. Let all the gods protect thee, and be thou blessed. 
Thou, the killer of foes, hast been born under Abhijit (Vega), the 
best of the asterisms. Bring victory and prosperity to the king !" 

Homa or pouring ghee into sacrificial fire 

81-82. After the Jarjara has thus been worshipped and all 
offerings have been made to it, one should with appropriate Mantras 
perform Homa and pour (ghee) into the sacrificial fire. 

82-83. After finishing the Homa he should with the fire 
lighted [in the place of sacrifice] do the cleaning work (?) which is to 
enhance the brilliance of the king as well as of the female dancers." - 

73-74 (B.75b-76a, G.73). 

' 74-76 (B.76b-78a, G.74-75). l For identifying the joints eee 78-79 

below.. 76-77 (B.79b-80a, G.77). - 77-78 lB.80b-81a,G 78). 

78-80 (B.81b-82, G.79-8(M. 80-81 (B. 83b-84a, G.80l)-81). 

81-82 (B.84b-85a, G. 82). ' 82-83 (B.85b-86a, 0.88). 


83-84. After, faring illumined the king and the dancers 
together with the musical instruments one should sprinkle them 
again with water sanctified by the Mantra, and say to them : 

84-85. "You are born in noble families and adorned, with 
multitudes of qualities, let whatever you have acquired by virtue 
of birth, be perpetually yours." 

65-86. After saying these words for the happiness of 
the king, the wise man should utter the Benediction for the success 
of the dramatic production. 

86-87. [The Benediction] : Let mothers such as Sarasvatl, 
Dhrti, Medha, Hrl, &i, LaksmI, and Smrti 1 project you and 
give you success. 

Breaking the Jar 

87-88. Then after performing Homa according to rules with 
ghee and the proper Mantra the master of dramatic art should 
carefully break the jar. 

88-89. In case the jar remains unbroken the king (lit. 
the master) will have a cause of fear from enemies ; but when 
it is broken his enemies will meet with their destruction. 

Illumination of the stagp 

89-90. After the breaking of the jar, the master of the 
dramatic art should illuminate the auditorium {rabgo) with a 
lighted lamp. 

90-91. Noisily, that is, with roaring, snapping of fingers, 
jumping and running about, ho should cover the auditorium with 
that lighted lamp [in his hand], 

91-92. Then a fight should bo caused to be made [on the 

83-84 (B.86b-87a, G.84). 84-85 (87b-88a, G.85). 

85-86 B.88b-89a, G.86). 86-87 (B.89b-90a, GJ7X 

. 87-88 (B.90b-91a, G.88). > These are the seven H5tya«nStrkis. 
) 23-30 above. g8 . 89 B.91b-92a, G.89). 

89-90 (B.92b-93a, G.90). 90-91 (B.93b-94a, G.91). 

91-93 (B.94b-96a, G.92-93). ' dundubhi-* kind of drum. 


stage] in accompaniment with the sound of all the musical fnsfra* 
meats such as couch-shell, Dundabhi 1 , Mrdanga* and Panava*. 

92-93. If the bleeding wounds [resulting from the fight] 
will be bright and wide, that will be a [good] omen indicating 

Good results of consecrating the stage 

• 93-94. Tf the stnge is properly consecrated it will bring 
good luck to the king (lit the master) and to people young and 
old of the city as well as of the country. 

94-95. , But when the auditorium is not consecrated in 
proper manner it will be indifferently held by gods, and there 
will be an end of the dramatic spectacle, and it will likewise bring 
evil to the king. 

95-9G. He who willfully transgresses these rules [of 
consecration of the stage] and practises [the dramatic art], will 
soon sustain loss and will be reborn as an animal of lower order. 

90-97. Offering worship to the gods of the stage is as 
meritorious as a [Vedic] sacrifice. No dramatic performance 
should be made without first worshipping the deities presiding over 
the stage. When worshipped, they (these god.-) will bring you 
worship, and honoured they will bring you honour. Hence one 
should by all efforts offer Puja to the gods of the stage. 

Evils following non-consecration of the stage 

98-99. Never will fire fanned by violent wind burn things 
so quickly, as defective rites will burn quickly [the master of the 
dramatic art]. 

99-100. So the stage should be worshipped by the master 
of the dramatic art who is purified, disciplined and proficient in 

* mrdahga—k kind of earthen drum. 

' panava— a kind of drum. 

93-94 (B.96b-97n, G.94). - 94-95 (B.97b-98a, G.95). 

95-96 (B.98b-99a, G.96). 96-98 (B.99b 101a, G.97.-98). 

98-99 (B.lUlb-102*, G.99). ' 99-100-(B.l02b-103a, 0.1 0U ). 

44- * HE NATIASASTRA [II. 100 


the rules of the art and initiated into the practice of it and has 
quiet of mind. 

100-101. He who with an agitated mind places his 
offering in a wrong place, is liable to expiation like one who pours 
ghee into the sacrificial fire without proper Mantras. This is the 
procedure prescribed for worshipping the gods of the stage. It 
should be followed by producers [of plays] in holding a theatrical 
show in a newly built playhouse. 

Here ends Chapter III of Bharata's Natyalastra, 
whirl) treats of Pujii to the gods of the stage. 

100-101 (B.103b-104a, Q.101-102). 



Brahman writes the first play and gets this performed. 

1. After having worshipped [the gods presiding over the 
stage] I said to Brahman, "Tell me quickly, the mighty one, 
which play should be performed 1" 

2. [In, reply] I was told by the Lord, "Perform the Amrta- 
uianthana (the Churning of the Ocean) 1 which is capable of stimu- 
lating efforts .'Mid of giving pleasure to gods. 

3. I have compo.-ed this .Samavakiira 1 which is conducive 
to [the performance of] duties ('thai nut), to [the fulfillment ofj 
desire (tow) as well as [to the earning] wealth (<i rthn)," 

4. When this Samavakiira was performed, god> and demons 
were delighted to witness actions and ideas [familiar to them]. 

5. Now, in course of time Brahman (lit. the lotus-born one) 
said to me, "We shall present today the play before the great- 
souled Siva (lit. the three-eyed one)" 

6-7. Then on reaching along with other gods the abode of 
Siva (lit. the bull-bannered one) Brahman paid him respects and 
said, "O the best of the gods, please do me the favour of hearing 
and seeing the Samavakiira which has been composed by me." 

8. "I shall enjoy it," said the lord of gods in reply. Then 
Brahman asked me to get ready [for the performance]. 

9-10. "O. the best of the Brahmins, after the Preliminaries 
connected with the performance had been completed this 

1 (B.G. same) 

2 B.G. same). ' The legend about the churning of the ocean occurs 
in the Mbh. (I. 17-19.) and the Visnu P. (1> Sec Wintcrnita, Vol. I 
pp. 889, 546. 

8 (B.G. same). » See N& XX. .69 ff. 

4 (B.G. same). 5 (B.G. same). 6-7 (B.G. same). 

8 (B.G. same). 9-10 (B.G. same). t 


(Samavakara named the Amrtamanthana) as well as a Dlnia 1 named 
the Tripuradaha (the Burning of Tripura) was performed in the 
Himalayan region which consisted of many hills and in which there 
were many Bhutas, Ganas* and beautiful caves and waterfalls". 

11. Then all the [Bhutas] and Ganas were pleased to see 
actions and ideas familiar to them, and Siva too was pleased and 
said to Brahman : 

12. "0 the high-souled one, this drama (»%«) which is 
conducive to fame, welfare, merit and intellect, has been well- 
conceived by you. 

13-14. Now in the evening, while performing it, I remem- 
bered that dance made beautiful by Angaharas 1 consisting of 
different Karanas 2 . You may utilize these in the Preliminaries 
[(lUrmrahya) of a play. 

Two kinds of Preliminaries 

14-10. In the application of the Vardhamanaka 1 , the 

Asarita*, the Gita* and the Mahaglta you will depict properly the 

ideas [by means of dance movements]; and the Preliminaries which 

you have [just] performed are. called "pure" (suddha). [But] when 

' (]tma—OD.e of the plays of the major type ; for its characteristic* 

see N^. XX. 84 ff. 

' Tripuradaha-&iv& killed an Asura (demon) named Tripura by 
burning him with one of his fiery arrows. Hence he is called Tripurantaka 
or Tripnrari. Thi» legend occurs in the Varaha P. Sec JK. sub voce. 

8 B.G. read toAuctttodrutitakirne instead of bah:Mmgunakirne. 

11 (B.U. smey i 2 (B.G. same). 

1S-U&6.JMM). ' patera-major dance figures which depend 
on nunor dance figures (kara.fasj The word means 'movement of limbs' 

tL _L i e f lains jt " wmt •*** ■** «""*nw rw wt vc 

below ^ 1 ^ ff , 7 ^ ^9 • 3,l ^ Fw ** *- *• *•*- - 

14-16 (B.G. same). ' See K& V. 12-1S no* 3 


' Bee Nl V. 60-«3 note 8. 


these dances will be added to them (pure Preliminaries) they will 
he called "mixed" (eUra% 

The AngahSras 

16-17. To these words of Siva Brahman said in reply, "0 
the best of the gods, tell us about the use of the Angaharas." 

17-18. Then Siva (lit. lord of the world) called Tamju and 
said*, "Speak to Bharata about the use of the Angaharas." 

18-19. And by Tandu I was told the use of the Angaharas. 
I shall now speak of thera as well as of the various Karanas and 
Reoakas*. , 

19-27. The thirty two Angaharas are as follows :— Sthira- 
hasta, Paryastaka, Sficlviddha, Apauiddha, Xkisptaka, Udgha$ta, 
Viskambha, Aparajita, Viskambhapasrta, Mattakrlda, Svastikarecita, 
Parsvasvastika, Vrfcika, Bhramara, Mattaskhalitaka, Madavilasita, 
Gatimandala, Paricchinna, Parivrttarecita, Vai&kharecita, Paravrtta, 
AlStaka, Parsvaccheda, Vidyudbhranta, Uddhrtaka, A~lldha, Recita, 
Acchurita, Aksiptarecita, Sambhranta, Upasarpita, Ardhanikutteka. 

Uses of the Angaharas 

28-29. I shall now speak about their performance depen- 
dent on the Karanas. [And besides this] "0 the best of the Brah- 
mins, I shall tell you about the movements of hands and feet that 
ire proper to the Angaharas. 

The Karanas 

29-80. All the AngahSias consist of Karanas ; hence I shall 
nention the names of the latter as well as their descriptions. 

16-17 (B.G. same). 17-18 (B. same, G. 16). 

18-19 (B. same, G.17). l Se below 247 ff. 

19-97 (B. same, G.18-27a). 

28-29 (B. same, G.27b-28). ' for details, about katana see SOff below. 

29-30 (B. same G.29). ' karana— minor dance figure. Ag. (1 93) 
plains the karana as vw«?n ft*** wrsfnfii <w*vf«Hit«i g nwwW 


30-34. The combined [movement ot] hands and feet in 
dance is railed the Karana: Two Karanas will make one MatrkS, 
and two, three, or four Matrkas will make up one AngahSra. Three 
Karanas will m:ike a Kaliipaka.four a Sandaka 1 , and five a SamghS- 
taka. ' Thus the Angaharas consist of six. seven, eight or nine 
Karanas. I shall now speak of the hand and feet movements 
making up these (Karana*). 

3 1-55. The Karanas are one hundred and eight in number 
and they are as follows: Talapuspaputa, Vartita, Valitoru, Apaviddha, 
Samanakiia, Llna, Sva-tikaiwita, Mandalasvastika, Nikuttaka, 
Ardhanikuttaka, Katk-chinnn, Ardliarecita, Vaksahsvastika, Un- 
matta, ' Svastika, Prsthasvastika, Diksvastika, AlSta, Katisama, 
Aksiptareeita, Viksiptaksipta. «\ rdliasvastika, Aficita, BlmjangatrS- 
sita, Urdhvajanu, Xikuficita, Matalli, Ardhamatalli. Recukanikuttita, 
Padapaviddhaka, Yalita, Giiuiniu, Lalita, Dandapaksa, Bhujanga- 
trastaredta, Nfl'-ura, Vaisikhareeita, Bl.raniaraka, Catura, Bhu- 
jangaacitaka, Dan l.ikarmta, Vr-cikakuttita, KatibhrSuta, Lata'- 
vrs"c'ika, Chinna, VrsYikarwita, Vrscika, Vyainsita, Parsvani- 
kuttana, Latatatilaka, Kianlaka, Kuiicita, Cakramandala, Uroman- 
dala, Aksipta, Talavilfwta. Argala, Viksipta, Svrtta, DolnpSda, 
Vivrtta, VinivrSta'. Pur<vakriiutn, Xisumbhita, Vidyudbhrilnta, 
Atikranta. Vivaititaka. (.'ajiikiidifa, Talasamsphotita, Garuda- 
plutaka. OanuViioI, Paiivi-tta, PSrsVnjSnu, GrdhraA'allnaka, 
Samnata, SucI, Ardhnsfici, Surlviddhn. Apakranta. Mayuralalita. 
Sarpita. Daijdapilda. llarinaplutn, Prenkholita, Nitamba, Skhalita, 
Karihasta. Pnn-irpit;!, Siinhalai'dita, Simliiikarsita, Udvrtta. 
Upasrta, Talasinighattila. J.mita, Avahitlhaka.Nivesa Elakakrfcjita. 
Urudvrtta, Mada>k! li dita. VisnukiSnta, Sambhrftnta, Viskamblia. 
Udgha.ttita, Vrs i .l,liuku..lii il , Lolitaka, Nagapa.supita, Pakatasya, 
Gangavataratvi. [11],.., Kaianas will )»> used] in dance, 'fight, 
persona! combat, walking as well as movement in general. 

56. Foot movements which have been prescribed for 

80-34 ( 15. same, G. 30-33!. > W ^yz-B.G. read tna^aka. 
£4-55 (B.34-55a, 56a, G.34-54) 
56 (B.59, G.167). 


the exercise of Sthanas 1 and Caris 8 , will apply also to these 
Karanas 8 . 

57. And application of the Nrtta-hastas 1 which have been 
prescribed for dance is generally implied in the Karanas. 

58. The Sthanas, the Carls and the Nrtta-hastas mentioned 
[before] are known as the Matrkas the variations of which are 
called the Karanas. 

59. I shall treat the Carls suitable for [representing] fight 
at the time of discussing the foot movements. The master [of 
dramatic art] should apply them on any occasion according to his 
histrionic talents. 

60. In the Karana the left hand should generally be held 
on the breast, and the right hand is to follow the [right] foot. 

61. Listen [now] about the movement of hands and feet in 
dance in relation to that of hip, sides, thigh as well as to breast, 
back and belly 1 . 

Definition of the Karanas. 

62. Talapuspaputa— Puspaputa hand held on the left side, 
the foot is Agratalasancara, the side is Sannata (Nata) 1 . 

' See N& XI. 49 ff. 2 See NS. XI. 2 ff. 

* B.G. read one hemistich more before 56a. It does not occur in some 
mas. Ag. records this fact. Though these ] f)8 karanas constitute general 
dance, which is sometimes interpolated in 'the acting to fill up its gaps, 
they (karanas) may be also used to embellish the movement of limbs in 
fights of any kind. Ag. (I. p. 96) says 'sft'tf q«* *g|5tsf«iraT*m<?tW fiisn^fR'n^ 
w\ uym*, jwifcji wrss* «*"■• «toT**f'i 11 "F" 8 : besides this he says 
tanugatisihitisammiliie karanam (I. p. 97) 

57 (B.171, G.56a, 168). ■ For nrttahastas see N!$. IX. 177 ff. 

58 (B.173, G.170). 89 (B.56b-57a, G.56). 

60 (B.57b-58a or 172, G.169). 

61 (B. 58b-59a, G.57). ' For B.60 (G.58) omitted see NS. XL 90-91. 

62 (B.61, G.59)» l For the sake of convenience constituent parts of 
the karanas have been separately mentioned without putting them in a 
cumbrous sentence. This method has been followed by A. K. Coomara- 
swamy in MG. As the definitions of these parts can be easily traced 
through the index they have not been referred to in the notes. 



63. Vartita — Vyavrtta ( = Vyavartita) and Pari vartita hands 
bent at the wrist, then these hands placed on thighs. 

04. Valitora— $ukatunda hands to make Vyavartita and 
Parivartita K., and thighs are Valita. 

65. Apaviddha— the (right) hand with Sukatunda gesture 
to fall on the (right) thigh, the left hand held on the breast. 

66. Samanakha— the two Saraanakha 1 feet touching each 
other, two hands hanging down, and the body in natural pose. 

67. Lina— the two Pataka hands held together in Anjali 
pose on the breast, the neck held high, and the shoulder bent. 

6?. Svastikarecita— two hands with Rccita and Aviddha 
gesture held together in the form of a Svastika, then separated 
and hold on the hip. 

69. Mandalasvastika— two hands moved to unite in the 
Svastika gesture with their palms turned upwards in a similar 
manner, and the body in the Mandala Sthana (posture). 

70. Nikuttaka — each of the hands to be moved up and 
down 1 alternately between the head and another arm, and the legs 
also moved in a similar manner. 

71. Ardhanikuttaka— hands with Alapallava 1 gesture bent 
towards shoulders, and legs moved up and down: 

72. Katiechinna— the hip serially in the Chinna pose, 
two Pallava hands held alternately and repeatedly on the head. 

63 (B.62, Ml) 64 (B.63, 0.61) 65 (B.65, G.62) 

66 (B.fiS, 0.63). ' samanakha f«>t has nowhere else been mentioned 
in the M 67 B.66, 0.64). 

68 (B.97, 0.65). 69 (B.68, 0.66). 

70(B.69, G.67>. ' nikuttita=nikuttam. Ag. (I. p. 103) quotes the 
definition of nikuUana from Kohala as follows : umamanam vinamattam , 
syad ahgasya nikuttanam. 

7UB.70 0.68). » For kuwita BG. read aneita. But Ag. (I. p. 204) 
Tread *i»W/«"suid means by this word tho alafiallnva gesture, 
h (B.71, 0.69). 


73. Ardharecita — hand with Suclmukha 1 gesture to move 
freely, feet to move alternately up and down, side in Sannata (i.e. 
Nata) pose. 

74. Vaksahsvastika — two legs on each other in the form of 
a Svastika, the two Recita hands brought together in a similar 
manner on the breast which is bent (iiihihcita). 

75. Unmatta — feet to be Aiicita and hands to be Recita. 
76- Svastika— hands and feet respectively held together 

in the Svastika form. 

77. Prsthasvastika — two arms after being thrown up and 
down coming together as a Svastika, two feet also to come together 
as a Svastika with Apakranta and Ardhasuci Carls. 

78. Diksvastika — turning sideways and towards the front 
in course of a single (lit. connected) movement, and forming 
Svastika with hands and feet. 

79. Alata — after making Alata Carl 1 taking down hand 
from [the level of] the shoulder 8 , then making Urdhvajanu Carl 8 . 

80. Katisama — feet to be separated, after the Svastika 
Karana, of the two hands one to be placed at the navel and the 
other at the hip, and the sides in the Udvahita pose. 

81. Aksiptarecita — the left hand on the heart, the right 
hand Recita and thrown up and sideways, and then the two hands 
to be Recita with Apaviddha (Xviddhaka) gestures. 

82. Viksiptaksiptaka— hands and feet first thrown up, 
then again thrown down. 

83. Ardhasvastika — the two feet to make the Svastika, the 

73 (B.73, G.70). ' By apaviddha Ag. (1. i>. 105) means the sitd- 
mukha gesture. 

74 (B.74, G.71). 75 (B.7i, G.72). 76 (B.76, G.73). 
77 (B.77, G.74). 78 (B.78, G.75). 

79 (B.79, G.76). ' carana^nin. ' ■syamsayet^amsiui ;>/«/?■ 
kramariam kuryat (Ag). '* krama^chn. 

80 (B.80, G.7/)- ' udvahita aide it* nowhere else mentioned in 
'the Mb. 

81 (B.81, G. 78). 82 (.B.82, G.79) 83 UJ.83, G.«i). 


right hand making the Karihasta gesture, and the left one lying on 
the breast- 

84. Ancita— in the Ardhasvastika the Karihasta to be 
alternately in Vyavartita (Vyavrtta) an<l Parivartita movement, 
and then bent upon the tip of the nose. 

85. Blmjangntmsita—the KuScita feet to l>e thrown up, the 
thighs to hire an oblique Xivartatm (Nivrtta) 1 movement, tlw hip 

and the thigh also to hare the same movement. 

86. Unlhvajaim— a Jvuiirita foot to be thrown up, and the 
knee to be held up (lit. stretched) on a level with the breast, and 
the two hands to be in harmony with the dance. 

87. Nikuiieita — feet to be moved as in the Vrscika K., 
two hands to be bent at the sides, the right hand to be held at the 
tip of the nose 

88. Matalli — making a whirling movement while throwing 
back the two feet (left and right), and moving hands in the 
Udvestita and Apaviddha movement. 

89. Ardhamatalli — feet to be drawn away from the position 
in the Skhalita K., left hand Recita, and afterwards to be put on 
the hip. 

90. Recitanikuttita— the right hand to-be Recita, left foot 
Udghattita (= Nikuttita), and the left hand with Dola gesture. 


85(15.84,0.82). ,' rV nivariayet,y,.Vt. read vivartayet, and for 
nivrttam B. vivrttam and G. vivartuc. 86 (B.86, G.83). 

87 (B.87, 0.84). ' For vycika karana, B.G. read vridka coram. 
But NS. does not know any carana or carl of this name, while a K. 
of this name occurs, and one karana is very often used to defino anotlicr 
karana; sec texts for 84 above, 103 and 107 below. In all those eases 
some mas. read karana instead of carana. 


89 (B.89, G.86). ' skhalitipasitfrn fiadan foot drawn away from 
the lwsition of tlw skhalita K. 

90/B.9U, 0.87). 'According U, Ag. udgAa^ta-nikuttita for* 
which see above 70 uote. 



91. Padapaviddhaka— the Katakamukha hands with their 
, back against the navel, and feet to be in SucI and [then] the 

Apakranta Can 

92. Valita—hands to be Apaviddha, feet to be in SucI Cari 
Trika turned round [in the Bhramari Cart]. 

93. Ghurnita— the left hand in Valita and moved round, 
the right hand with Dola gesture, and the two feet to be drawn 

away from each other from the Srastikn position. 

94. Lalita — the left hand with Karihasta gesture, the 
right one to he again turned aside (Apavartita), two feet to be 
moved up and down. 

95. Dandapaksa— observing Urdhvajanu Cari, Lata hands 
to be placed on the knee. 

96. Bhujahgatrastarecita —the feet to be in Bhujahgatrasta 
Cari, the two hands to be Recita and moved to the left side. 

97. Nupura— the Trika to be gracefully turned round, [in 
the Bhramari Cart] the two hands to show respectively Lata and 
Recita gestures, and the Nupurapada Cart with the feet. 

98. Vaisakharecita— hands and feet to be Recita, so the hip 
and the neck, and the entire body in Vai&kha Sthana (posture). 

99. Bhramaraka— Svastika feet in Sskipta Cart, hands 
in Udvestita movement, and Trika 1 turned round [in the 
Bhramari Cart]. 

100. Catura— the left hand with Aiicita, (i.e. Alapallava) 1 
gesture, the right hand is with Catura gesture, the right feet in 
Kuttita (i.e. Udghattita) pose. 

91 (B.91> G.88). 92 (B.92, G.89). 

98 (B.98, G.90). ' Kor voMo. BG read vartita, 

M (B.94, G.91). • See N8. IX. 191. 

95 (B.95, G.92). 96 (B.96, G.93). 97 (B.97, G .94). 

98 (B.98, G.96). 

99 (B.99, G.96). ' Trika used here ami many times afterwards 
means the trMsthi (sacrum) the lowest point in the vertibral column 
where the two other bones of the legs meet 

100 (B.100, G.97). ' This is Ag's interpretation of Aficita. 
' Thu ig Ag'e interpretation. • 


101. Bhujangancita— the feet in BhujangatrSsita Cart, the 
right hand Recita, the left hand with Lata gesture. 

102. Dandakarecita — hands and feet to be freely thrown 
about on all sides like a staff (daiufa), and the same hands and 
feet to be Recita afterwards. 

103. Vr&ikakuttita — assuming the Vrscika K. and the 
hands with Nikuttita movement. 1 

104. Katibhrantt— the SucI Cart, the right hand with the 
Apaviddha (Aviddha) gesture and the hip to be moved round. 

105. Latavrscika— a foot to be Ancita and turned back- 
wards, and the left hand to be with Lata gesture- its palm and 
fingers bent and turned upwards. 

106. Chinna— the Alapadma hand to be held on the hip 
which in Chinna pose, the body in the Vaisakha Sthana (posture). 

107. Vyscikarecita— assuming the VnScika K„ the two 
hands in the form of a Svastika gradually to be Recita and 
to show Viprakirna gesture. 

108. Vrscika— the two hands bent and held over the 
shoulders, and a leg bent and turned towards the back 1 . 

109. Vyamsita— assuming Alldha Sthana, the two hands 
to be Recita and held on the breast and afterwards moved up and 
down with Viprakirna gesture. 

110. Parsvanikuttaka— Svastika bands to be held on one 
side, and the feet to be Nikuttita. 1 

Ill Lala$atilaka— after assuming the Vrscika. K. a mark 
{tUaka) in tlie forehead to be made with a great toe. 

112. Krantaka-bendiug a KunciUi leg behind the back, 
the Can, then the two hands to be thrown down. 

101(B.101,U.98). 102(B.102.G.9») 

108 (B.103, (1.100). ' S,o above 70 note. * 104 ffl 104 G 1011 

issssr '•?<■"*«■«* rssss* 

I" (Mil, G.108). U2 (B,li G 100 " ■^ 7 ° "* 


113. Kuncita — a leg to be first Aiicita and left hand to be 
liekl on the left side with its palm upwards. 

114. Cakramandala — the inner Apaviddha (Addita) 1 Cari 
with the body bent and held down between the two arms hanging 

1 15. Uromandala — two feet drawn away from the Svastika 
position and used in Apaviddha (Addita) Cari and hands in 
Urflmandala gesture. 

1 10. Aksipta — hands and feet to be thrown about swiftly 
in thisKarana. 

1 17. Ttlavilasita — foot with the toe and the sole turned 
upwards and held high on the side, and the palm of hands bent. 

118. Argala— feet stretched backwards and kept two Talas 
iind a half apart, and hands moved in conformity with these. 

119. Viksipta — hands and feet to be thrown backwards or 
sideways in the same way. 

120. Svarta — the Kuncita feet put forward and the two 
hands moved swiftly to befit the dance. 

121. Dolapada— the Kuncita feet thrown up, and two hands 
swinging from side to side in a manner befitting the dance. 

122. Nivrtta — hands and feet first thrown out, and the 
Trika to be turned round and the two hands to be Recite. 

123. Vinivrtta — observing the >Suci Cari, the Trika to be 
turned round and hands to be Recita. 

124. Parsvakranta— observing the Pars"vakranta Carl, 
throwing out hands towards the front, and moving them in a 
manner befitting the dance. 

113(B.113 ( G.U0). 

114 (B.114, 0.1 1 1). ' According to Ag. apaviddha = Ofjijith curi for 

which see N8. XI. 22. 1 15 (B.l 15, G.l 12). 

116 (B.U6, 0.113). U7(B.117,G.1U). 118 (B.118, G.1I5). 

119 (B.119, G.116). 120 (B.120, G.117). 121 (B.121, G.118). 

122 (B.122, G.119). ' For nivrtta, B. reads vivrtta, 

123 (B.1 23,0.120), 124 (B.124, 0-121). 


I2f). NWumbhita— a foot bent towards the back, the breast 
raised high, and the hand held at the centre of the forehead (tUakn). 1 

126. Vidyndbhranta 1 — foot turned backwards and the 
two hands in the Mandalaviddha* gesture stretched very close to 
the head. 

127- Atikranta — observing the Atikranta Cari, the two 
bunds stretched forward in a manner befitting the dance. 

128. Vivartitaka— hands and feet to be thrown out, the 
Trika to be turned round and hands to be Recita 

129. Gajakridita— the left hand bent and brought near the 
[left] ear, and the right hand in Lata gesture and the feet 
Dolapada Cari. 

130- Talasamsphotita 1 — a foot to be swiftly lifted tip and 
put forward, the two hands showing Talasamsphotita 2 gesture. 

131. Garudaplutaka— the two feet to be stretched back- 
wards and the two hands -right and left— to be respectively with 
Lata and Recita gestures, and the breast raised up. 

132. Gandasuci — the feet to be in Sucl position, the side to 
be Unnata, one hand to be on the breast and the other to bend and 
touch the check. 

133. Parivrtta— the hands raised in Apavestita gesture, 
the feet in Suci position, the Trika is turned round (in the 
Bhramari Cari). 

134. ParsVajanu-one foot in Sama position and the 
opposite thigh raised, and one Musti hand on the breast. 

135. Grdhravalinakii— one foot stretched backwards and 
one knee slightly bent and the two arms outstretched. 

125 (H.125, 0.122). > Ag. interprets differently 

126 (B;126, 0.123). ' Ag. interprets differently. 

a Nowhere defined in N& 127 (B.127, 0.124). 

128 (B.128, 0.1 25). ] 2 9 (B.129, 0.126). 

130 (B.l 30, 0.127). 'Ag. interprets the passage, differently. 

Defined nowhere in N& 

131(11.131,0.128). 132 (B.182, 0.129). 133 (B.138, G.1S0). 

134 (B.134, 0.131). 135 (B.135, 0.132). 


136. Sannata — after jumping, the two feet are to be put 
forward in Svastika form and the two hands to show Sannata 1 
(?,e. Dols) gesture; 

137. Suci— a Kuficita foot to be raised and put forward on 
the ground, and the two hands to be in harmony with the per- 

• 138. Ardhasuci — the Alapadma hand is held on the head, 
the right foot is in Sue! (karana) position. 

139. Suelviddha— one foot of Suci Karana being put on 
the heel of another foot, the two hands to be respectively put on 
the waist and the breast. 

140. Apakranta— after making the Valita thigh, Apakrauta 
Cart is to be performed, the two hands to be moved in harmony 
with the performance. 

141. Mayuralalita— after assuming the Vrscika K. two 
hands to be Recita, and the Trika to be turned round [in the 
Bhramari Cart]. 

142. Sarpita — the two feet to be moved from the Aficita 
position and the head with ParivShita gesture, and the two hands 
are Recita. 

143. Dandapada — after the Nupura Cart, Dandapada Cart 
should be observed and the aviddha (vaktra) hand should be shown 

144. Harinapluta — after observing the Atikriinta Carl one 
jumps and stops, and then one of the shanks are bent and 
thrown up. 

145. Prenkholitaka — after observing the Dolapada Cart one 
is to jump and let the Trika turn round (in the Bhramari Cart and 
come at rest. 

186 (B.136, G.133). ' According to Ag. Sannata =Dolahasta. 

137 (B.137, G.134). 138 (B.138, G.135). 

140 (B.140, 0.137). HI (B.H1, G.138). 

U2 (B.142, G.139). U3 (B.H3, G.UO). 144 (B.144, G.141). ■ 

145 (B.145, G.142). ' Defined nowhere in N8, 


1 46. Nitamba— arms to be first thrown up and hands to have 
their fingers pointing upwards and the Baddha Cari to be observed. 

147. Skhalita - after observing Dolapada Cari, hands with 
Kecita gesture to be turned round in harmony with this. 

148. Krihasta — the left hand is to be placed on the 
breast, the palm of the other hand to be made Prodvestitala, the 
feet to be Aucita. 

149. Prasarpitaka— ;one hand to be Recira and the other 
with Lata gesture, and feet to be Samsarpitatala ( = Talasaiicara). 

150. Simhavikrldita — after observing tlin Alata Cari one 
is to move swiftly and hands to follow the feet. 

151. Simhakarsita — one foot to be stretched backwards and 
hands to be bent and turned round in the front and again to be bent. 

152. Udvrtta— hands, feet and the entire body to be moved 
violently (lit. thrown up) and then Udvrtta Cari to be observed. 

153. Upasrtaka— observing Aksipta Cari and hands in 
harmony with this Cari. 

154. Talasamghattita — observe the Dolapada Cari two 
palms will clash with each other and the left hand to be 

155. Janita — one hand to be on the breasti, the other 
hanging loosely and observing Talagrasamsthita (Janita) CSri. 

156. Avahitthaka — after observing Janita K. raising hands 
with fingers spread out and then letting them fall slowly. 

157. Nivesa— the twe hands will be on the breast which 
should be Nirblmgna and the dancer should assume Mandala 
Sthana (posture). 

146 IB.H6, G.143). 147 (B.H7, G.144). 148 (B.148, G.145). 

149 (B.149, G.146). 150 (B.150, G.147). 151 (B.151, G.148). 

152 (B.152, G.149). 153 (B.153, G.150). 154 (B.154,G161). 

155 (B.155, G.152). ' According to Ag. Talagrasamsthita pad» 
means Janita cari. 

156(B.156,G.153). 1.57 (B.T57, G.154). 


158. Elakakrldita — jumping with Talasancara 1 feet ;md 
coming to the ground with the body bent and turned. 

159. Urudvrtta — a hand made Avrtta (Vyavartita) and then 
bent and placed on the thigh, shanks made aiicita and Udvrttn. 

160. Madaskhalitaka — two hands hanging down, the head 
assuming the Parivahita gesture, the right and the left feet to be 
turned round in Aviddha Cart. 

• 161. Visnukranta — a foot stretched forward and bent as if 
on the point of walking, and hands to be Recita. 

162. Sambhranta— a hand with Avartita (Vyavartita) move- 
ment placed on Jhe thigh which is made Aviddha. 1 

163. Viskambha — a hand to be Apaviddha, 1 SucI Cari, foot 
to be made Nikuttita and the left hand on the breast. 

164. Udghatta — feet to in Udghattita 1 movements and 
hands in Talasamghattita movement 8 are to be placed on two sides. 

105. Vrsabhakridita — after observing the Alata Carl two 
hands to be made Recita, and afterwards these should to be made 
Kuiiclta and Aiicita. 

166. Lolita — hands on the two sides to be Reicta and 
Ancita, and the head Lolita. and Vartita. 

167. Nagapasarpita— to draw back feet from Svastika 
position and the head to be Parivahita and hand to be Recita. 

158 (B.158. G.155). I- Same as agratalasaticara, see NS. X. 46. 

159 (B.159, G.156). 

160 (B.160, 0.157). ' Denned nowhere in NS. 

161 (B.161, G.158). 

168 (B.162, G.159). ' Defiuud nowhere in >"«. 

163 (B.163, G.160). ' Defined nowhere in NS. 

164 (B.164, G.161). ' Defined nowhere in NS. 
4 Defined nowhere in NS. 

185 (B.165, G.162). ' Defined nowhere in NS. 

166 (B. 166, G. 163). 

167 (B.167, G.164). ' Defined nowhere in Nti. 

6 THE NATYASASTBA 5 [- IV. 168- 

168. Sakatasya— beginnning with body at rest, advancing 
with a Talasaiicara 1 foot and making the breast Udvahita. 2 

] 69. Gangavatarana — foot with the toes and the sole turned 
upwards, hands showing Tripataka with the fingers pointing down- 
wards and the head being Sannata. 1 

Tho Aiigaharas 

170. I have spoken of one hundred and eight Karanas. I 
shall now describe the different Angaharas. 

171-173. Sthirahasta— stretching two arras and throwing 
them up, taking up Samapada Sthana, the left "hand stretched 
upwards from the level of the shoulder, taking up afterwards the 
Pratyalidha Sthanai then observing successively the Nikuttita, 
Urudvrtta, Aksipta, Svastika, Nitamba, Karihasla and Katiechinna, 

174-176. Paryastaka— observing Talapuspaputa, Apa- 
viddha, and Vartita Karanas, then takiug up Pratyalidha Sthana, 
then assuming Nikuttaka, Urudvrtta, Aksipta, Uromandala, 
Nitamba, Karihasta, Katiechinna, Karanas. 

176-178. Sucividdha— after showing Alapallava(Alapadma) 
and Suci (mukha) gestures assuming one after another Viksipta. 
Avartita, Nikuttaka, Urudvrtta, Aksipta, Urnomandala, Karihasta, 
and Katiechinna Karanas. 

178-180. Apaviddha— Apaviddha and Sucividdha Karanas, 
then observing Udvestita K. with hands and turning the Trika, 

168 (B.168, G.165). » See above 158 note. 4 B. reads udghaiitt. 

16:) (B.169, G.166). ' Defined nowhere in NS. 

3 Defined nowhere in Nii. 

» For B.170-174 and G.167-170 see 50-61 before. 

170 (B.I74, 0.17U ' Defined nowhere in N8. 

171-173 (B.175-177, 0.172-174). ' Definition of th, ai^akaras 
have been translated like the katams ■ above sec. 62 not*. Airfqm are 
mostly combinations of the karams. 

174-176 (B.17H-18I),,, Q.175-176). > G. Omits 175b. 
176-178 (r5.l80b.-182a, 0.177-1 79aJ. 
478-1S0 (B.l82b-184a, (j .I79b-180). 


showing with hands Uromandalaka gestures and assumiug Kati* 
chinna Karana. 

180-182. Aksiptaka — assuming successively Nupura, Vik- 
§ipta, Alataka, Aksipta, Uromandala, Nitamba, Karihasta and 
Katicchinna Karanas. 

182-184. Udghattita 1 — moving Udvestita and Apaviddha 
(Aviddha) hands and the two feet to be Nikuttita, and again 
changing them to Uromandala gesture and then assuming Jsucces- 
sively Nitamba, Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas. 

184-187. Viskambha— hands by turns made Udvestita, feet 
.are successively made Nikuttita and bent, then assuming Urudvrtta 
K. hands to be made Caturasra 1 and feet Nikuttaka, assuming 
then Bhujangatrasita K. hands to be made Udvestita, assuming 
Chinna and Bhramaraka Karanas while Trika is to be moved, 
then Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas to be assumed. 

187-190. Aprajita — assuming Dandapada K., hands having 
Viksipta and Akspita 1 movement, then assuming Vyamsita K. the 
left hand moving along with the left foot, then bands being Catu- 
rasra and feet having Nikuttaka movement, assuming Bhujangatra- 
sita K. and hands having Udvestita movement, then assuming 
successively the two Nikuttakas (i. e. nikutta and ardhanikuttaka), 
Sksipta, Uromandala, Karihasta, and Katicchinna Karanas. 

190-192. Viskambhapasrta— assuming Kuttita and Bhu- 
janga trasita Karanas, Reclta hand to show the Pataka gesture, 
then to be assumed successively Aksiptaka, Uromandala, Lata, 
Katiccheda Karanas. 

192-195. Mattakrida — assuming Nupara K. • by turning 
Tirka, then assuming Bhujangatrasita K. assuming next Becita K. 

180-182 (B.I84b-l86a, G.l8l-ld3). 

182-184 (B.186b-188a, G.188-184). l lu the definition of ahgahara 
this term has been equated with nrtta or dance. 

184-187 (B.l88b-19la, G.185-187). ' Defined nowhere in NS. 
187-190 (B.l9lb-I94a, G. 188-189). l Defined nowhere iu NS. 
190-192 (B.194b-I96a, G.190-191). 
192-195 (B.196b-199a, G.199.-194). 


with the right foot, and then assuming successively Jksiptaka, 
Chinna, JBahyabhramaraka, Uromandala, Nitamba, Karihasta, 
Katiccheda Karnas. 

196-197. Svastikarecita 1 — hands and feet are Recita, then 
assume Vrscika K. and again repeat this movement of the hand 
and feet, and then Nikuttaka K. and the Lata gesture alternately 
with the right and the left hand, and then Katicchinna K. 

197-200. ParsVasvastika — assuming (Dik-) Svastika from 
one side and then the Ardhanikuttaka, all these to be repeated 
on the side, then the ^flvrtta (vyaavartita) hand to be .placed on the 
thigh, then to assume successively Urudvrtta, ^ksipta, Nitamba, 
Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas. 

200-202. Vrs'cikapasrta— assuming Vrs'cika K. holding the 
Lata band to be held on the nose, after moving the same hand in 
Udvestita movement, then assuming successively Nitamba, 
Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas. 

202-204. Bhramara— assuming successively Nupurapada 
-4ksiptaka Katicchinna, Sucividdha, Nitamba, Karihasta, Uro- 
mandala and Katicchinna Karanas. 

204-206. Mattaskhalitaka— asuming Matalli K. and moving 
round the right hand and bending and placing it near the fright) 
cheek, then assuming (successively) Apaviddha. Talasamsphotita, 
Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas. 

206-208. Madavilasita— moving with Dola hands and 
Svastikapasrta feet, making hands Ancita as well as Valita and 
then assuming successively Talasamghattita, Nikuttaka, rudvrtta, 
Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas. 

195-197 (B.l99b-201a,G.195-198). ' ]„ the translation of this K. 
Ag. has been followed. 

197-200 (B.201b-204a, G,19M9»). • l n the translation of tin, K. I 
have followed Ag. 

200-202 (B.204b-2()6a, G.200-201). 
202-204 (B.206b-208a, G.202-203). 
204-206 (B.208b-210a, G.204-205). 
i.08-208(B.arob-212a, G.806-207). 


208-210. Gatimandala— after assuming Mandala Sthanaka 
and making the hands Recita and the feet Udghattita assuming 
successively Matalli. Aksiptn, Uromandala and Katiccheda 

210-212. Paricchinna — after the Samapada Sthan 1 assum 
ing Paricchinna {ue. Chinna) K then with Aviddha foot assuming 
Bahya Bhrama ka 1 and with the left foot assuming Sue! K. and 
than observi* (successively) Atikranta, Bhujangatrasita, Karihasta 
and Katicc'.. nna Karanas. 

* • * 

212-216. Parivrttakarecita — holding on the head hands in 
loose Svastika form and them after bending the body the left hand 
to be made Recita, and raising the body, again the same hand 
to be made Recita, after this hands to show Lata gesture and 
assuming successively Vrfcika, Recita, Karihasta Bhujangatrasita, 
A"ksiptaka Karanas then have Svastika foot ; all this to be 
repeated after turning back completely, then assume (successively) 

216-219. Vaisakharecita — along with body the two hands 
to be made Recita and all this is to be repeated with the body 
bent, then observe Nupurpada Can and Bhujangatrasita, Recita, 
Mandalasvastika, afterwards bending shoulder Urudvrtta, Aksipta 
Uromandala Karihasta' and Katicchinna Karanas are to be 

219-221. Paravrtta— assuming Janita K. and putting for 
ward a foot, then assuming Alataka K. and turning the Trika, [in 
the Bhramri Carl] afterwards the left hand bend and to on the 
cheek, then assuming Katicchinna Karana. 

208-210 (B.2l2b-214a, G.208-209). 

210-212 (B.2Ub-2l6a, U.. 10-211). 'According to Ag (I.p.152) 
bahya bhramaraka seems to mean a cari of that name. But it seems that 
by this bhramaraka, the movement known as bhraman has been meant. 
See M. Ghosh AD. 289ff. also A. K. Coomaraswamy. MG. p.74. \ 

212-216 (B.2l6b-220a, G.212-215X 

216-219 (B.220b-223a, G.216-218). 

219-221 (B.228b-22. r >a, G.219-2$0). 

6t THE NAT7ASASTBA [ IV. 221- 

221-223. Alataka— assuming Svastika, vyarasita [in it 
hands being RecitaJ, Alataka, Drdhvajanu, NikuScita. Ardhasfici, 
Viksipta, Udvrtta, Aksipta, Krihasta and Katicchinna Karanas one 
after another. 

223-225. Parlvaccheda—holding Nikuttita hands on the 
breast assuming Drdhvajanu, Aksipta, Svastika Karanas, Trika 
to be turned round, then Uromandala, Nitamba, Karihasta and 
Katicchinna, Karanas to be assumed. 

220-227. Vidyudbhranta— assuming SucI K. using the left 
foot first, and Vidyubhranta K, using the right , foot first, then 
Sfici K. with the right foot moved first, and Vidyudbhranta with 
the left foot moved first, afterwards assuming Chinna K., and 
turning round the Trika, then Lata and Katicchinna Karanas. 

227-229. Udvrttaka- assuming Nupurapada Cart hanging 
the right and the left hands by the side, and with them assuming 
Viksipta K., with these hands assuming [again J Suci K, and 
turning round the Trika [iu Bhramari Cart] and then assuming 
Lata and Katicchinna Karanas. 

229-231. Slidha— assuming Vyamsita K, striking the 
hands on the shoulder, and then Nflpura K, with the left foot 
[moving first], afterwards Alata and Aksiptaka Karanas with 
the right foot [moving first] and then making Uromandala 
gestures with hands and assuming Karihasta and Katicchinna 

231-233. Recita — showing Recita hand, bending it on one 
side and making the [same] Recita movement and then repeating 
this movement after bending the entire body, assuming succes- 
sively Nupurapada, Bhujangatrasita, Recita, Uromandala and Kati- 
cchinna Karanas. 

221-223 (B.225b-227a, G.221-222). 
223-225 (B.227b-229a, G.223-224). 
225-927 (B.229b-231a, G.225-226). 
227-229 (B.231b-233a, G.227-228). 
229-231 (B.233b-235a, G.229-280). 
231-233 (B.235b-237, G.231-232). * 


/ . 

234-285. A"echurita— assuming Nupura K. and turning the 
Trika round, assuming Vyamsita K. and again turning round the 
Trika, then assuming successively Alataka 1 K. from the left 
[sidej and Sucl, Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas. 

236-238. Aksiptarecita— Svastika feet to be in Recita and 
so the Svastika hands, then with the same (i.e. Recita) movement 
they should be separated) and with the same Recita movement they 
are*to be thrown up, then assuming successively Udvrtta, Aksipta, 
Uromamjala, Nitamba, Karihasta and Katicchinna Karanas. 

239-241*. Sambhranta- assuming Viksipta K. throwing out 
the left hand with'Siici gesture, the right hand placed on the breast, 
Trika to be turned [in the Bhraraari Cart} then assuming succes- 
sively Nupura, Aksipta, Ardhasvastika, Nitamba, Karihasta, 
Uromandala and Katicchinna Karanas. 

242-243. Apasarpita — observing Apakranta Cart and 
assuming Vyamsita K. with the hands moving in Udvestita 
manner, then assuming successively Ardhasuci, Viksipta, Katic- 
chinna, Udvrtta Aksiptaka, Karihasta and [again] Katicchinna 

244-245. Ardhanikuttaka -observing swiftly Nupurapadika 
Cart, hands to move in harmony with the feet and Trika to turn 
round [in the Bhramari Cart], then hands and feet to make 
Nikuttita movement, afterwards assuming Uromandala, Karihasta, 
Katicchinna and Ardhanikuttaka Karanas. 

The Recakas 

246. I have spoken of these thirtytwo Angaharas ; I shall 
now describe the four Recakas 1 ; please listen about them : 

247. Among the Recakas the first is that of the foot (jwla), 

234-235 (B.238-239, G.233-234 1 . ' Read vamam calatakam for 
padam calatakam in B. 

236-238 (B.240-242, G.235-237). 239-241 (B.243-245, G.238-240). 

242-243 (B.246-247, G.241-242). 244-345 (B.248-249, G.213-244). 

246 (B.250, G.245). l For the relation between Recakas and the 

Angaharas and the use of the Recakas see Ag, 


66 THE NATIASA8TRA [ IV. 348- 

the second is that of the waist (kaii), the third is that of the hand 

(haxki) and the fourth is that of the neck (ijrlva). 

248. The term Recita [relating to a limb] means moving 
it round separately {i.e. not in any Karana or Cari) or its drawing 
up or its movement of any kind separately. 

249. Pada-recaka— Going from side to side with wavering 
feet or with differently moving feet, is called their Recaka. 

250. Kati-reeaka — Raising up the Trika and the turning 
of the waist as well as its drawing back, is called the Kati-reeaka. 

251. Hasta-recaka— Raising up, throwing out, putting 
forward, turning round and drawing back of the hand is called its 

252. GrivS-recaka — Raising up, lowering and bending the 
neck sideways, and other movements of it are called its Recaka. 

253-254. Seeing Hamkara (Siva) dance with Recakas and 
Angaharas, Parvati too performed a Gentle Dance (lit. danced with 
delicate forms) 1 , and this dance was followed by the playing of 
musical instruments like Mrdanga, 1 Bheri, Pataha, Bhambhs*, 
Din/lima, Gomukha, Panava and Dardura. 

255. [Besides on this occasion] MahesVara (Siva) danced in 
the evening after the break-up (lit. destruction) of Daksa's saeri- 
lice 1 with different Angaharas and in conformity with proper time 
beat [tola) and tempo {layn). 

248 (B.252, G.247). 249 (B.253, G.248). 

2f0 1B.254, G.249). 251 (R.255. G.250). 

252 (B.256, G.251). 

253-254 (B.257-258, G. 252-253). l Read iirtyanti sma ca parvati 
A?. I. p. 203. 

2 mrdahga, bheri, pataha. bhambha, dincjima, dardura and panava 
arc drums of different sizes and shapes, and' made of different materials 
such as clay, wood etc. Of these bheri, panava and gomukha (possibly 
n horn) have been mentioned in the Bhagavad-glta, eh. 1.13. 

5 B. read jhanjhyit (pa. bambha). 

255 (B.259, G.254). l The story of the break-up of Daks/s sacrifice 
occurs in two different forms in the Bhagavata and the Varaha P, 
See JK. under Daksa, 


256. Ganas like N/andin and Bhadramukha seeing then 
[in course of this performance of fW], Pindibandha 1 [of different 
dance forms] gave names to them [and imitated these] well. 

257-263. Names of Pindls specially attached to different 
gods and [goddesses are as follows] : Siva— Vrsa, Nandin - PattisI, 
Candika (Kali)— Simhavahini, Visnu— Tarksya, Svayambhu— 
(Brahman)— Padma (lotus), Sakra (Tndra) — Airavuti, Manmatha 
— Jhasa, Kuinara (Kartikeya)— Sikhi (peacock). Sri (Laksmi)— Ulu 
(owl), Jahnavi (Ganga)— Dhara, Yama— Pasa, Varuna— Nadi, 
Kuvera (Dharfada)— Yaksi, Bala (riima)— Hala (plough), Bhogins 
(serpents) — Sarpa, Ganesvaras (the lords of Ganas) 1 — Daksayajna- 
vimardini, The [ Pin Ji ] of Siva, the killer of Andhaku*, will be 
Raudrt in the form of his trident. The Pindis of the remaining 
gods and goddesses will be similarly, named after (lit. marked with) 
their own banners 3 . 

2G3-264. After inventing the Recakas, Angaharas and 
Pin lis, Siva communicated them to the sage Tandu 1 who in 
his turn made out of them dance together with songs and 

256 (B.260, G.255). ' Pimlibandha—kg. (I. 170-171) explains the 

words as follows: — tfwtw *mfflfajrtw«qr?«:nflwt fq<gtfa i fq«$i»r. inwf- 

trofci f^^*nvQq fflfarq^K*«qiw««f«raif^[i:<ii«qT: i \rim 11 

fq^twi: <t«irs*ifq fqi^tw \fa) tmrawfav;- Prom these quotations it is 
apparent that Ag. had no definite idea about the pirulibandha or ptttfi. 
But the word occurs in the following couplet of a later work on 
dramaturgy (Bh P. p.264) : 

$Wiw£l *t qfantsifa mfirai: i fq^q^tftfwtre: top* W5?rs«n u 
I'rom the above quotation the meaning of the word seems to be a term 
relating to group-dance. For more about fii)u\ibandha see 257-262, 
284-285, 291-294 below. 

257-262 (B.261 266a, G.256 261). ' Ganesvari means relating to 
GaneSvaras or lords of hosts ; see above NS. III. 31,53 and 111. 1-8 note 7. 

The story of Siva's killing the Asura Andliaka occurs Ram, 
Hraivamsa and several Puranas. See JK. sub voce. 

* B. omits 263b altogether. 

263-264 (B.266b-268a, G.262-263). \ Tandu's name doe, not seem 
to occur in any extant Purana. It is just possible that the name of 
this muni has been derived from, tamjav/t a non-Aryan word which 
originally may have meant dance. 

B8 f HE NATtASASTBA [ iV. 266. 

instrumenbil music ; and hence this dance is known as Tfindava 
(i.e. of Tandu's creation). 

The sages speak 

2G5. Use of Gestures etc, (ahhimya) having been devised 
by the experts, for drawing out the sense [of songs and 
speeches in a play] what led to the making of dance ("»•"")> 
and what is its nature ? 

2G6. Why is dance made in connexion with the Asgrita 
songs ? It does neither relate to its meaning nor reflect its 

207. [In answer to these questions] it is " said that the 
dance is occasioned by no specific need ; it has come into 
use simply because it creates beauty. 

268. As dance is naturally loved by almost all people, it is 
eulogised as being auspicious. 

269. It is eulogised also as being the source of amusement 
on occassions of marriage, child-birth, reception of a son-in-law, 
general festivity and attainment of prosperity. 

270. Hence the host of Bhutus have ever praised 1 the 
Pratiksepas' which are used in songs and in regulating the division 
of dances. 

271. Siva (lit. god) too was pleased to say to Tandu, 
"Perform this dance in connexion with the singing of songs. 

265(B268b-269a,G.264). ' B. reads tasman nrttam for kasman 
ntflam in 265b. 

266 (B.269b-270a, G-285). 267 (B.270b-271a, G.266). 

268 (B.27lb-272a, G.267). 269 (B.272b-273a, G.268). 

270 (B.273b-274a, G.269). » For Prakirtitdh, B.G. read pravarlitah. 
' Pratiteepa— Ag. (I. p.182) defines this term as follows :— mwftjw 

271 (B.274b-275a, G.270).' l For tamjuh santosaphrvakam. This 
variant has been recorded by Ag. (1.181) and it seems to be the correct 
reading. B.G. read tan<\ustlm<\avaJHtrvakam. 


272. The Class Dance (landava) 1 is mostly to accompany 
the adoration of gods but its gentler form (siihintara-yrayoya) 
relates to the Erotic Sentiment. 

The Vardhamanaka 

273. Now while coming to discuss the Vardhamanaka I 
shall describe the rules regarding the performance of the Class 
Dance (larutava) as it was performed by Tandu. 

274. As in its performance Kala and tempo (luya) attain 
crddhi (increment) due to the increment of Aksaras it is called 
the Vardhamanaka. 

• The Asarita 

275. After setting down the musical instruments (knlaiia) 
the producers [of plays] should get the Asarita performed. 

270. Then after the Upohana has been performed to 
the accompaniment of drums 1 and stringed instruments, a female 
dancer should enter [the stage] with the playing of drums 

277. This playing of the [instrumental] music should be 
in pure Karana 1 and Jati 2 . And then a Cari should be performed 
with steps in accompaniment of music. 

278. On entering the stage with flowers in her hands the 
female dancer should be in the Vaisakha Sthana (posture) and per- 
form all the four Recakas (i.e. those of feet, hand, waist and neck). 

272 (B.275b-276a, G.271). l The tawlava has been translated by 
some as 'wild dance' (Haas, Dasariipa, p. 5), but the adjective seems to 
be misleading. From the present chapter of the NS, it appears that 
the word meant 'class dance' which has been codified. It is to be distin- 
guished from the folk dance' mentioned in later works. Tuniiava was 
no exclusively male dance. For the illustrations of the kararpas taken 
out of old bos reliefs and printed in the Baroda ed. of the NS. show 
that these were performed by women as well. These karmias were evidently 
elements of tamlava ■, litsya performed by women was only a gentler form 
of the tuifffava. 

273 (B.276b-277a, G.272). 274 (B.277b-278a, G.273). 
275 (B.278b-279a, G.274). 27« ( B.279b-280s, G.275). 
277 (B.280b-261a, G.276). 278 (B.281b-282a, G.27-7). 

to 1HE NATYASAS!I?BA [ IV. 2t9- 

279. Then she should go round the slage scattering flowers 
from her hands to gods, and after bowing to them, she should make 
use of different gestures (abhimiya). 

230. Instrumental music should not he played when there 
is any song to be delineated by gestures, but at the performance 
of Aftgaharas drums must be employed. 

281. The playing of drums (lit. instrumental music) during 
the Class Dance should be Sama, Rakta, Vibhakta and distinctly 
heard (m>knta) on account of clear strokes and should be properly 
following different aspects of the dance. 

282. After following the song [with her danqe] the dancer 
should make her exit and others [like her] will enter [the stage] 
in the same manner. » 

283. These other women will in due order form Pindis 1 
and till all these are formed they will perforin the Paryastaka. 

281. After forming [Pindis] these women will make their 
exit, and during the formation of the Pindis an instrumental music 
which has various Oghas and Karanas should be played, and it 
should be similar to the music at the time of the Paryastaka. 

285.287. Then this Upohana should be again performed as 
before and the Asarita too ; a song also should be sung and a 
female dancer should enter the stage in the manner described 
before, and she should delineate [the meaning of the song in the 
second Axarita by suitable gesture] and translate the subject- 
matter {radii) 1 into a dana>. 

288. After finishing the Asarita the female dancer should 
make her exit, and then another female dancer should enter the 
stage and make a similiar performance. 

289. Thus at every step the rules of Asarita should be 
followed by singers as well as players of the instrumental music. 

279 (B.2821,-283., G.278). 280 (B.283b-a84a, G .279). 

281 B.284b-285a, 6,-80). 292 (B.285D-28B*, 0.281). 

283 <B.28Hb-287a, (i,m>. ' &.. d» m ,'82 im*> 2 

284-285 (T1.2H71.-288, 0.283(1-284). 

285-287 (B.289-291a, 0.284h-»H-, -N«l i v , /i j , . 

.... . " , ' , '»>' r -o*)-a.., ..sbj. | ( „,. wstu (padavaslu) sec 

Malavi. U. U, 5, 8, 13, 14. 288'(B,!i91b-292a, 0.287). 


290. [During all these performances] the first foot 1 of the 
song should be sung once, the second twice, the third thrice, and 
the fourth four times. 2 

291. The Pindis have four varieties Pindi [proper] 
Srnkhalika, Latabandha, and Bhedyaka. l 

292. The name Pindi or Pindibandha is due to its being a 
Pindi (lump), a cluster {iinhn.ii) 1 is called Srnkhalika 2 , and that 
wh'ich is held together [as it were] by a net, is Latabandha*, and 
Bhedyaka 1 is to be the (separate) dance of one individual. 

293. The Pindibandha is to be applied in the first (lit. 
shortest Asartfa), Hmkliala at the transition of tempo, the 
Latabandha in the middle one and the Bhedyaka in the 
longest (i e. Asarita). 

2S9(B.292b-293a, G.288). l Vastn here means padavastu. See 
above 285-287 note. 

2 These (ishritas were distinguished by .the kalas of time they 
required. According to Ag. (1.185) the shortest asarita takes up 
seventeen kalas, tli« medium asarita thirty-three kalas and the longest 
asarita sixty-live kah'is. 

290 (B.293b-294a, G.289). l It is implied that each each of these 
groups of songs should be followed by dance of different dancers. 

291 (B.294b-295a, G.290). ' See notes 256 above. In the BhP. 
(p. 246) occurs the following passage : — 

5n: m a9fi inraisO*i*aiJ'l i <wqrnrW»i la'i «r <srar wit ii 

<W*K fa; <jqi«ii 5Fj « * 8g*: I fq«5ftW5 5 ! w <rafatW<i 3*1 II 

From this it is quite clear that the pirtitlbandlia relates to the grouping 
of dancers. Of these the gulma is a general collective dance, the mikhala 
is the dance in which partners hold one another's hands, the lata is 
the dauce of two putting their arms'around each other, and the bhedyaka 
is the dance of each one separately .away from the group. The section 
292 below does not quite agree with this view. 

292 (B.295b-296a, G.291). ' Sec above 291 note. 

2 BhP. does not identify the gulma and the mtkkalika. 

3 See above 291 note 1. * See above 291 note 1. 

8 Sec above 291 note 1. * sanrtta=ekanrtla=ekasya nrtta ; 

of sakrt ( - once). 


294. Origin (of Pindis) is twofold : Yantra and Bhadra- 
sana. J These should be learnt and properly applied by the 
producers [of plays]. 

The Clmndaka 

295. In the Vardhamana the producer should thus use 
[dances]. I shall speak again about the rules regarding the 
performance of songs and Chandakas. 

290. I shall now speak of the dance and the instrumental 
music that should accompany songs consisting of the Vastu 1 as 
well as of their (Angas). During the performance of this song 
and music a female dancer should enter the stage. ; at that time 
iill the drums are to be sounded and all the stringed instruments 
arc to be played with Ksepa and Piatikscpa. 2 

298. First of all, the entire words (vastu) of the song 
should be represented by gestures, and next the same should be 
shown by a dance. 

299. Directions given above regarding the dance, use of 
gestures and the instrumental music will apply equally to (he 
subject matter of the songs in the Asarita. 

300. This is the rule with regard to songs consisting of 
the Vastu. Now listen to description of songs made by Angas. 

301. Rules regarding the dance, use of gestures and the in- 
strumental music which apply to words (of songs) are equally appli- 
cable in case of Chandakas which are composed of their Angas. 

302. During the Mukha and the Upohana the instrumental 
music should be played with heavy and light Aksaras by keeping 
them distinct (lit. separate). 

293 (R.296b-297a, 0,292). 'The distinguishing features of the 
three asartlas have been given in note to 289 above. 

394(B297b-298a, 0.2*0. "Ibis passage is not clear. A^ 
emanation (I.p.193) „f the yantra an d the bhadrasana is not convincing. 

295 (B.298b-299a, 0.294). 

296-297 (B.299b-301a, 0.295). - See above 285-287 note 1. 
i! or firatikzepa see above 270 note 2 


308. When in course of a song some of its parts are 
repeated, the parts uttered first should be delineated by gestures 
and the rest are to be translated into danqe. 

304*305, When in course of a song some of its parts are 
repeated it should be followed by the instrumental music which 
observes the rule of three Panis and three kinds of tempo. On an 
occasion like this the instrumental music should follow the 
[proper] tempo. 

305-308.. The Tattva, the Anugata and the Ogha relate to 
the Karana. Among these, the Tattva is to be applied in slow 
tempo, the Anugata in medium tempo and the Ogha in quick tempo. 
This is the rule regarding the instrumental music. [Different] parts 
of the song in case of a Chandaka are to be repeated. This is 
always the rule in [combining] the dance, Gestures and the song. 
In case of songs composed in one stanza (nibaddha) commencement 
(gralia of the playing of drums) should take place at their end, 
but in the repetition of the parts [of a large song] such 
commencement should take place from the beginning. 

The Gentle Dance 
809. This should be the procedure in performing the 
Asarita songs. Now consider [all] that relating to the adoration of 
gods as the Gentle Dance'isukmara). 

310. The Gentle Dance with the Erotic Sentimen t [relates to] 
a dialogue between a man and a woman when they are in love. 

Occasions suited to dance 

311. Now listen, O Brahmins, about occasions in plays 
when dance introduced in course of songs. 

312. Experts should apply dance when the principal words 
of a song [in a play] as well as its [ornamental adjunct known as] 

301 (R304b-305a, G.300). 302 (B.305b-306a, G.801). 

303 (B.306b-307a, G.302). 304-305 (B.3)7b-308a, G.303-804h). 

805-308 (]B.308b-311, G.304b-307). 309 (B 312, G.308). 

S10 (B.313, G.309), • 311 (B.3H, G.310), 


Varna 1 comes to a close or when any character attains good 
fortune [in a play]. 

813, And dance should take place on an occasion in a play 
when something connected with love occurs between a married 
couple, for it (the dance) will be a source of joy. 

314. Dance should also take place in any scene of a 
play when the lover is near and a [suitable] season or the 
like is visible. 

Occasions when dances are prohibited 

315. But dance should not be applied to the part of a 
young woman who is enraged (kharrfita), 1 deceived (vipralabdha) 1 
or separated [from her lover] by a quarrel (kalahantarifa)*. 

310. Dance should not be applied also at a time when a 
dialogue is going* on or when the beloved one is not near at 
hand, or has gone abroad. 

317. And besides this when one realises the appearance of 
one of the seasons or the like from the words of a Messenger, 
and feels eagerness or anxiety on account of this, no dance should 
be applied. 

318. But if during the performance of any part of the play 
the heroine is gradually pacified, dance is to be applied till its end. 

319. If any part of a play relates to the adoration of any 
deity one should perform there a dance with energetic Angaharas 
which Siva created. 

320- And any love-song mentioning relations between men 
and women should be followed by a dance with delicate Angaharas 
which Parvati (lit. the goddess) created. 

Playing of drums 

321. I shall now speak of the rules about the playing of 

312 (B.315, 0.311). ' See NS. (C.) XXIX. 19-82. 

313 (B.3I6, 0.312). 314 (B.317, 0.313). 

315 (B.318, G.314). > soe N8\ XXIV. 216. . 8 ibid. 217, 
* ibid. 215., 316 (B.819, G.315), 

•317 (B.320, G.316). 818 (B.821, 0.317). 

819 (B.322 ,0.318). 880 (B.328, 0.819). 

4V. 828 ] DESdfclPTIOtf Of tHB CLASS DANCfi 75 

drums which should follow four-footed Narkutaka, 1 Khanjaka" 
and Parigltaka. 

322. Playing of drums should begfti with the SannipSta 
Graha at a time when a foot of the Dhruva of the Khafija or the 
Narkuta class has been sung. 

323. In course of a DhruvS which consists of even number 
of feet with equal number of syllables the drum should be 
played with the Graha by the fore finger after its first foot has 
been sung. 

324. [After performing the Dhruva song with the playing 
of drums as directed above] this song should be repeated with 
proper gestures [to delineate it], and it should be again sung, and 
at the end of its last foot drum should be played. 

When drums are not to be played 

325. Drums should not be played at a time when the song 
or its Vargas have been finished or it is beginning afresh. 

326. During the Antara-marga which may be made by 
Trantris or Karanas, the Class Dance should be followed by 
drums as well as the Suci Cari. 

3ii7. One who will perform well this dance created by 
Mahesvara (Siva) will' go [at his death] free from all sins to the 
abode of this deity. 

328. These are the rules regarding the Class Danee 
arising out of its application. Tell me what more I am to 
speak now about the rules of the Natyaveda. 

Here ends Chapter IV of Bharata's Natyasastra 
which treats of the Characteristics of the Class Dance. 

831 (B.S24, G.320). l See NS. (0.) XXXI. 51 1 • XXXII. 304 ff. 
> See Si (C.) XXXI. 511 t XXXH. 434. 322 (B.325, G.321). 
823 (B.326, G.822). 824.(B.327, G.323). 

325 (B.328, G.324). M6 (B.829, G.3-26). 

827 (B.330, 0.32*). 328 (B.381, G.327). 

Chapter five 


The Sages question. 
1-4. On hearing the words of Bharata who continued the 
topic of drama the sages were pleased in mind and said, "We have 
heard from you about the origin of drama 1 and the Jarjara* as 
well as [the means of] stopping obstacles 8 , and the worship of 
gods*. Having grasped the meaning we would like to know 
in detail (lit exhaustively), the very splendid one, about the 
Preliminaries with all their characteristics ; it behoves you, 
Brahmin, to explain [everything] for our understanding [the 
same properly]." 

Bharata answers. 
5-6. Hearing these words of the sages Bharata spoke thus 
about the rules of the Preliminaries : "0 the^blessed ones, listen to 
me. I am speaking about the Preliminaries as well as of the Pada- 
bhaga 1 , the Kalas and the Walking-round 3 [which relate to 

Preliminaries defined 
7. As it is first performed at the beginning (pUrvam) in 
the stage (rahga) it is called the (.pur varanga) 1 Preliminaries. 

Parts of the Preliminaries 
8-11. Its different parts which are to be performed in due 

1-4 (B.G. same). ' See NS. 1. 13-18. s See TS& I. 69-73. 

' See L 54-68. * See Mill. 

6-6 (B.G. same). > fiadabAaga-See Ntf. (C.) XXXI. 308-309. Thio- 
ls a term relating to tola. 

' Ai/a-unit of the time measure in music. See N8. (C.) XXXI. 608. 
On this Ag. (I. 211) says : vn «^i[ * wrfVfl mwit ft'i.unfw* i OT 
«mst «jmp«««in!mrirf wfti:. » parivarta. On this see bdow 23-24, 65-80. 

7 (B.G. same). > BhP. defines purotahga as follows : wnwir. unmtw: 
itfwifa qftft: i tfftifl«ns# *«tft«%i: (SR. p . 742)1 The definition in 
tho the comm. of DR. (III. 2) is corrupt. 8-11 (B.G. same). 


order with the playing of drums and stringed instruments as well 
as with Recitatives (pathytt), are as follows : Pratyahara 1 , 
Avatarana 2 , Arambha 8 , Ss*ravana 4 , Vaktrapani 6 , Parighattana 8 , 
Samghotana 7 , Margasarita 8 , and Asarita* of the long, the medium 
and the short types. These songs outside [the performace of a 
play] are to be sung by persons behind the curtain 10 to the 
accompaniment of drums and stringed instruments. 

• 12-15. Then after removing the curtain 1 , dances and 
recitals 2 are to be performed with the playing of all musical 
instruments, and some song of the Madraka* class is to be sung, 
or one of the Vardhamanaka 4 class along with the Class 
Dance [suitable to it] should be applied, Then should take place 
[one after another] during the Preliminaries the following : — 
Utthapana 8 , Walking round 6 , Benediction'', Suskapakrsta 8 , Ranga- 
dvara 9 , Cari 10 , Mahacari 11 , Three Men's Talk 12 and Laudation 13 . 
16. I shall now explain in due order the characteristics 
of all these which are to be included in the ceremony of the 

1 See below 17. " See below 18 * See below 18. 

* Sec below 18. 5 See below 19. 6 See below 19. 

' See below 20. ' See below 20. ' See below 21. 

lg From this statement it appears that the tirst nine items of the preli- 
minaries were performed on the stage covered with a front curtain much 
like the modern drop curtain. There were besides this, two curtains on 
two doors of the tiring room. It seems that the front curtain came into 
regular use in later times and especially at the end of each act. Cf. javani- 
kantar used as a synonym of 'act' in the KM. 

12-15 (B.G. same). ' The front curtain ; see 8-11 note 10 above. 

s Recitals of the Benediction fnhndi) and the Laudation (prarocam) 
etc. * madraka— a class of songs. 

4 vardhamanaka— a. claw of songs with dance. See NsJ. (C.) XXXIX. 
224ff. B See below 22-28. • See below 23-24, 65-89. ' See below 
24-25, 107-113 ' See below 25-26, 113-116, " See below 26-27. 

1 ° See below 27-28, 119-120. "See below 27-28, 127-130. 

1 ' See below 28-29, 137-141. ' * See below 29-30, 141-142. 

16 (B.GK same). ' It may .appear that these items of the •Prelimi u 


The Pratyahara 

17. Arranging of the musical instruments (kutapa) is 
called the Pratyahara 1 . 

The Avatarana 
The seating of singers is called the Avatarana (lit. coming 
down) 8 . 

The Irambha 

18. The commencement of vocal exercise for singing 
(parigita) is called the Arambha (lit. beginning)*. 

The Ssravana 
Adjusting the musical instruments for playing them in due 
manner is called the AVravana. ' 

The Vaktrapani 
10. Rehearsing (lit. dividing) the different styles (vrtfi) 
of playing musical instruments is called the Vaktrapani'. 
The Parighattana 
The strings of instruments are adjusted duly during the 
Parighattana 4 . 

neries to bo performed behind the front curtain, have been made needlessly 
elaborate. But it is not 'so. In ancient times people duo to different 
conditions of their lives, were not so much punctual in coming to 
the theatrical show, They did not come to it all at once and at any fixed 
time. Quite a long time passed before they all assembled. Hence from 
behind the curtain the Director offered to the early-comers (naturally 
the people who had no haste in their lives) whatever they could, 
while preparing for the actual performance. Hence Ag. (I. p. 215) says 
that nine items of the Preliminaries were meant for a [common] women, 
children and fools. The same practice about the Preliminaries maybe 
observed even now incase ofthcYatris or the open air theatrical per- 
formances in Bengal. 17 (B.G. same). 

1 Kor the arragement of the musical instruments see the diagram" 2. 

- tor the position of singers see diagram 2. 

18 (B.G. same). ' asravaiiih-For details about the performance of 
;hisseeNS. ((J.) XXIX. 120 ff. 

W (TiXi. same). ' vakirap«,,i-V m details n U m \ the performance- 
:or this see Ncj. (0.) XXIX. 131 ft". 

•" fiartetaftanar-Vvr the performance of this see N«. (0.) XXIX. 



The Samghotana 

20. The Samghotana 1 is meant for rehearsing the use of 
different hand poses [for indicating the time-beat]. 

The Margasarita 
The playing together [in harmony with one another] of 
drums and stringed instruments is called the Margasarita*. 

The Xsarita 

21. The A"sarita is meant for practising the beat of 
time-fractions .(kalapata) z . 

The Application of songs 
And the Application of songs (yltavixlhi)* is for singing the 
glory of gods. 

The Utthapana 
22-23. I shall now speak about the Utthapana (lit. raising) 
ceremony which is so styled because from this, the reciters of the 
Benediction start (lit. raise) first of all in the stage the performance 
[of the play]. Hence the Utthapana is considered by some to be 
the beginning [of the performance]. 

The Walking-round 
23-24. The Walking-round (parirartana.) is so styled 
because in it, the guardian deities of different worlds are praised 
[by the Directer] walking all over [the stage]. 
The Benediction 
2-1-25. The Benediction (iiaii'fr) 1 is so called because it 
must always include [and invoke ) the blessing of gods, Brahmins 
and kings. 

20 (B.G. same). l samghotana— For the performance of this see 
N& (C.) XXIX. 137-141. 

8 margasarita— -For the performance of this see N8. (C.) XXIX. 

21 (B.Q. same), >, hsarila— For the performance of this see NS. 
(C). XXXI. 59-75. 169-194. ' See S&. (C). XXX. 267 ff. 

22-23 (B.22-23a, G. 21 e-22). 

23-24 (B.23b-24a, G.23). l parivartana-parivarta see below 65 ff. 

24-25 (B 24b-25a, G.24). ' For its specimens see below 107 ff 1 . 

80 THE NATVASA8TBA [V. 2fi- 

The i^uskavakrsta Dhruva 

25-26, When an Avakrsta Dhruva is composed with 
meaningless sounds it is called ^uskavakrsta 1 , It indicates verses 
for the Jarjara 3 . 

The Rangadvara 
26-27. The Rangadvara is so called, because from this part 
commences the performance which includes Words and Gestures. 

The Carl and the Mahaeari 
27-28. The Cart is so called because it consists of move- 
ments depicting the Erotic Sentiment and in the Mahaeari occur 
movements delineating the Furious Sentiment. 

The Three Men's Talk 
28-29. The conversation of the Director (mtradhara), an 
Assistant {paripariroka) and the Jester 1 is called the Three Men's 
Talk (trigata). 

The Laudation 
29-30. The address which the Director (lit. the expert) 
makes suggesting the Denoument of the action (karyo) of the play 
in hand with [proper] reasoning and arguments is called the 
Laudation (prarocana). 

The origin of the Bahirgita and its justification 
30-31. I shall now describe in detail the SsrSvana 
which is included in the Bahirgita and shall speak of its 
origin as well as its justification. 

25-26 (B.26, G.25). ' aftC below 113-115. 

2 The meaning is not clear. B.G. read between 25b and 26a two prose 

26-27 (B.27, G.26). 27-28 (B.28 G.27). 

28-29 (B'29,G'28). > The Jester's role is assumed by one of the 
Assistants. See below 70 where two Assistants enter along with the Director, 
lor details of the Three Men's Talk see below 137-141. 

29-30 (B.30,G.29). ■ For details about the Laudation see below 


31-32. Now when songs in seven forms 1 and in Citra a and 
Daksina* Mgrgas together with the Upohana 4 and the Nirgita* 
were started by musical experts like Narada in praise of gods, 
all the gods and the Danavas, in the assembly were made to hear 
the Nirgita* performed with proper tempo and time beat 1 . 

Daityas and Raksasas provoked to jealousy 

. 33-34. Now on hearing these happy songs praising the 
gods, the Daityas and the Raksasas were all provoked to 

34-36. Under these circumstances they pondered [over the 
matter] and said to one another : "We are glad to hear (lit. 
accept) this Nirgita in accompaniment of the instrumental music, 
(and not the songs) in seven forms 1 about the exploits of the gods, 
which they were pleased to hear ; we shall hear the Nirgita only 
and shall always be pleased with it. Then these Daityas 
[and Raksasas] pleased with the Nirgita urged for its repeated 

The gods approach Narada to stop the Nirgita. 

37-38. This enraged the gods who said to NSrada, These 
Danavas and Raksasas are pleased with the Nirgita only [and do 
not want anything else i.e. songs]. Hence we wish this perfor- 
mance (of the Nirgita) to coxne to an end. What do you think 
of this ?" 

30-31 (B.31, G.30). 

81-32 (B.32-33, G.31-32). ' Seven forms means the types of tolas. 
See N& (C.) XXXI. 497 ff. ' Sec (C.) XXXI. 414. 

» See (C.) XXXI. 412. 4 See (C.) XXXI. 234 ff. 

* Another namo for bahirgita. See below 33-42- 

8 nirgila — instrumental music. 

5 For different aspects of the tela sec NS. (C.) XXVIII. 15-16 and 
(C) XXXI. 33-34 (B.34, G.33). 

34-86 (B.35-87a, G.34-36a). A The seven forms— On this Ag. ( 1. 
P- 224) says : w««*M«wfcrMMawT vwrcii vvm i?if"tfa« **m liJW 



Narada pacifies the gods. 

38-41. Hearing these words of the gods Narada replied, 
"Let the Nirgita dependent on the music of stringed instruments be 
not stopped, and this (nirg-rfa) combined with the Upohana and 
accompanied by the music of stringed instruments will have seven 
forms. Enraptured (lit. bound down) by this Nirgita the Daityas 
and the Raksasas will not be provoked and they will not create any 
obstruction [of the performance]. 

41-42. This is the called Nirgita to satisfy the vanity of the 
Daityas while in honour of the gods it is called the Bahirgita. 

42-44. This is to be played by experts in She Citravlna 1 
with metallic strings, and the performance should contain light 
and heavy syllables (afaara)* and have Varnas* and AlamkSras*. 
It is. called the Nirgita because in it there is sung a combination of 
sounds carrying no sense, and to satisfy the jealousy of the gods 
it is called the Bahirgita". 

The gods are pleased with the Nirgita (Bahirgita). 

44-45. . The reason behind the Nirgita in its seven forms as 
well as the Utthapana and the like, will now be given. 

45-54. ThePratyShSra pleases the Raksasas (Yatudhana) and 
the Pannagas, while the Apsarasas are delighted with the Avatarana. 
The Gandharvas are pleased when the A"rambha is performed, and 
in the performance of the A"ft - 5vana the Daityas take delight. The 
Vaktrapani pleases the Danavas and in the Parighattana the hosts 
of Raksasas are [again] pleased. By the Sanighotana Guhyakas 
are satisfied, while the Margasiirita the pleases Yak?as. When 

37-38 (R37b-38, G.36b-37). 38-41 (B.39-41, G.38-40). 

41-42 (B.42, G.41). 

42-44 (B.43-44,.G .42-43). ' citravina—natyoparanjanarthaya vina; 
a kind of vim suitable for being played during the performance of a 
drama. » Syllables like gkrt and drri are heavy, and syllables like, 

ma, la, ka, la are light. » See N8. (C.) XXIX. 19-23. 

«. See N& (C.) XXIX. 24-75. 44-45 (B.45, G.44), 

4*5-54 (B,54b-55, 46-53, G.45-58),, 

-V. 59 ] THE PBELIMiNAkiES 01? A PLAY '83 

songs (g'daka) are sung the gods enjoy them, and Eudra with 
his followers is pleased by the performance of the Vardhamana. 
Similarly in the performance of the Walking-round (parivarr 
tana) Lokapalas (the guardians of the worlds) are delighted, 
and the Moon-god is pleased with the Benediction. During 
the singing of the Avakrsta (Dhruva) Nagas are pleased, while 
Suskavakrsta (Dhruva) pleases the host of Pitrs (ancestors). In 
the" Rangadvara Visnu is pleased, while the Jarjara, ceremony 
pleases the leaders of Vighnas. On the Carl being performed 
Uma takes pleasure while on the performance of Mahacari 
the Bhutas are delighted. 

55. So much about worshipping the deities in different parts 
of the Preliminaries (purvarahga) beginning with the Pratyahara 
and ending in the [Maha] cSri. 

• 56. O the best of Brahmins, in course of describing the 
different parts of the Preliminaries I have named the gods pleased 
by them and mentioned [the individual] parts of it in which they 
take delight. 

57-58. The performance of the Preliminaries which means 
worshipping the gods, is praised by them (i.e. gods) and is con- 
ducive to duty (dharma), fame and long life. And tliis perfor- 
mance whether with or without songs, is meant for pleasing the 
Daityas and the Danavas as well as the gods (lit. denizens of the 
celestial region). 

59. I shall now tell you [afterwards] while discussing the 
rules of Dhruvas 1 the characteristics and function of performances 
with or without songs {saglta and nirglta) as well as of the 
Vardhamana t * 

55 (BJS6, G.54). 56 (B.57, G.55). 

57-58 (B.58-59, 0.66-57). 

59 (B.61, 0.59). ' See TS&. (C.) XXXH. 

* Before this couplet (59) B. reads one additioual Uoka (B. 60). 

fgg NATTA8ASTSA ff.M- 


The songs in die pure Preliminaries 

60-63. After performing the songs (gltaka) 1 and the Vardha- 
m5 na', one should sing the Utthapant (Raising) Dhruva 8 which has 
in its feet of eleven syllables the first two, the fourth, the eighth 
and the eleventh as long. It should be [sung in] the Caturasra 
(Tala)* and [should consist of] four feet and four Sannipatas" 
as well as three kinds of tempo {lay*)* and three caesura 7 
{yah). Besides this it should consist of four Walking-rounds 
{■parivarta) and of three Partis 8 , and it should be in the Visloka 9 
metre and in the same kind of Tala. 

64. The Tala in question should consist consecutively of 
Saroya 1 of two Kalas, Tala of two Kalas, Samya of one Kala and 
Sannipata of three Kalas. » 

The First Walking-round 

65. Thus a Sannipata Tala of eight Kal8s should be 
observed by the experts. And it is said that a Walking-round 
is made up of four such Sannipatas. 

60. The first Walking-round in the Preliminaries should 
be made in slow tempo (sthitalaya) and on the termination of 
the third Sannipata in it (ie. the first parivarta) drums should 
be played. 

The second Walking-round 

67. On the termination of the first Walking-round the 
second one (i.e. Walking-round) having commenced in medium 

60-63 (B.62-65, G.60-63). ' See N& (C.) XXXI. 267 ff. 

'See NS.(C.) XXXI. 225 ff. 

• The term utthapani dkruva does not occur in the Dhruvadkyayn 
V&. (0.) XXXII. * See N8. (C.) XXXI. 9-11. 

• SeeNS. (C) XXXI. 38-39. • See N8\ (C.) XXXI. 4. 
' See Nl (C.) XXXI. 532-537. 

8 Ag. explains three pants as samapuni, avara-pani and ufiaripai}'- 

• See M(C.) XXXII. 149. 

64 (B.B6. 0.64). > Cf. N8\ (C.) XXXI. 74. 

65 (B.67, O 65). 66 (B 68, 0.66). 67 (B.69, 0.67). 


tempo (laya) the Director [and the two Assistants] 1 should enter 
[the stage]. 

68-09 The three should simultaneously enter [the stage] 
with handfuls of flower-offering.. But before that they should get 
themselves purified, initiated and furnished with charms for 
protection [against evil spirits]. They should be clad in white, and 
flowers carried by them should [also] be white, and they should 
be looking with the Adbhuta glance 1 and be in the "Vaisnava 
Sthana" with Sausthava of the body. 

70. The two 1 Assistants (]>avii>awika) should carry a 
golden pitcher tylirhgara) and the Jarjara, and with them by his 
side the Director should put forward five ateps. 

71- These five steps [will be] for the purpose of worshipping 
Brahman, and the manner of putting them forward will be described 
[below] in detail. 

72. They should slowly place their two feet three Talas 1 
apart and then raise [them one by one] on each side and again put 
them down at the same [distance]. 

73. After going five steps 1 in the manner described above 
the Director and his two Assistants (lit. others) should perform 
the SucI Cart with left foot moved first and the right foot 

74. Then the Director should offer flowers in Brahman's 
circle (Brahma-mamfala) which is another name for the centre of 
to stage where the deity is supposed to be present. 

1 Entrance of the two Assistants is implied in this passage. ' See 
below 68-69, 

68-69 (B.70-71, G.68-69). * 8ee NS. VIH. 48. ' See NS. XI. 50-52. 

70 (B.72, G-.70). ' One of the Assistants is to assume the role of 
the Jester in the Tliree Men's Talk. See above 28-29, 187-144. 

* Jarjara— see N& HI, 73 ff. 

71 (B.73a, 0.71). » B. omits 71b. 

72 (B.74, G.72). l tola— a unit' of length. The distance from the 
til> of the middle finger to the wrist. See NS. Ill, 21 note. 

73 (B.75, G.78). ' B. vwtuupadi for fiancai>adi. 74 (B.76, G.74). 

86 THE tf 4TYASASTRA [ V. H- 

75-77. And afterwards he {is. • the Director) should res- 
pectfully bow to Brahman (lit;* Pitamaha) with Lalita gesture, 1 
and to measure the length of time during the salutation he should 
thrice touch the ground with his hand, and his steps should be 
[suitably] divided. The second Walking-round which begins, with 
the entrance of the Director and ends 2 with the salutation [to 
Brahman] and use of gestures [related to it], should be performed 
in medium tempo (laya). 

The third Walking round 

77-78. Next during the third Walking-round (parivarta) 
the Director should go round the Brahman's circle {i.e. the centre 
of the stage), perform Acamana and take up the Jarjara. [The 
manner of taking it up is as follows :] 

78-80. Bising up quickly from [Brahman's] circle 
(manilaht) he should perform the SucI (lit. Vedha) Cart with this 
foot {is. the right foot) put forward first and the left foot after- 
wards. And then he should again raise his right foot which was 
on the side and perform the SucI (Vedha) 1 Can putting forward 
the left foot first and the right foot afterwards. 

80-83. Going found [the centre of the stage] the Director 
should call the person (i.e. one of the Assistants) who carries the 
golden pitcher {bhrhgara)} and perform ablution (iauca) [with 
water from this vessel]. He should then perform Acamana and 
sprinkle himself with water in due order. Thus after performing 
properly the ablution the Director should carefully take up the 
Jarjara, the destroyer of obstacles, and this act should be per- 
formed along with the beginning of the last Sannipata [of this 
second Walking-round]. 

83-84. The third Walking-round beginning with going 

75-77 (R77-79a, G.74c-76). ' See MS. IX. 201. B reads wmdatfithi- 
nayanugali for "nayant'akah. 

77-78 (B.79, G-.77 ). '" 78-80 (B.80-81, G.78-79). ' According 

tr Ag. (I. l>. 233) Vedha*" Suci Can. 

80-83 (B.82-84, 0.8(1-82). ' S«- above 70. 
83-64 (B.85, G.88). 


round the centre of the stage (if. Brahmtmo^ala) 1 and ending 
with the taking.up of the Jarjara should be performed in n quick 

The fourth Walking-round 

84t87. After taking up the Jarjara to ward off evils he 
should mutter [some Mantras] in eight Kalas. .-Then he should 
perform the Suci (Vedha) Car! by putting forward the left foot 
first and the right foot afterwards, and then, move five steps to- 
wards the musical instruments. And then again he should observe 
the Suci (Vedha) Cari by putting forward the left foot first and 
the right foot* afterwards. The fourth Walking-round which 
begins with the taking up of the Jarjara and ends 1 with an 
approach to the musical instruments should be made in a quick 

87-88. In this [punarainja which is of the Caturasra type] 
movements of hand and feet in it will occupy sixteen Kalas while 
it being of the Tryasra type such movements will occupy Twelve 
Kalas only. 

88-89. [The Director and the two Assistants] should make 
three salutations by touching the ground, with the hand and 
before this they are to sprinkle themselves with water, but in case 
of the Tryasra [Preliminaries such sprinkling] has not been 
prescribed 1 . 

The Pari vartani Dhruva 

89-90. In this manner they should perform the Utthapana 
(lit. raising). Then*comes the Parivartanl (Walking-round) Dhruva 

1 See N& m, 23-30*note. 

84-87 (B.86-88, G .84-86). ' B. reads kutapo nigamaniakah. 

87-88 (B.89, G.87). 

88-89 (B.90, G.88). l This and the preceding (87-88) passage should 
properly go after N& 64 for they relate to the Utthapana which should 
come before the Walking-round ; 'sec before 22-23. 

89-90 (B.91, G.89). l For caturasre, B. G. caturasram. 


which should be performed in the Caturasra (Tala) and medium 
tempo and with eight Sannipatas. 

90-91. The Dhruva (song) which has only the last syllable 
long in its four feet of eleven syllables, is called the Parivartant 
(Walking-round) Dhruva. 

91-92' During the singing of this Dhruva the Director 
should move letffords 1 in the Vartika MSrga with graceful step 
in accompaniment of instrumental music and should bow to 
[different] deities in directions belonging to them. 

92-93. And during the foot movement [mentioned above] 
each step of the Director should consist two Kalas.and movement 
in each direction should consist of two Sannipatas. 

93-94. Then he would observe the Suci (Vedha)Cari 
putting forward the left foot first and the right foot afterwards 
and putting the latter at a distance of two Talas. 

94-95. In this manner he should go five steps with 
the Atikranta Carl 1 and bow to different deities in directions 
belonging to them. 

95-97. First of all he should bow to the eastern direction 
presided over by (Sakra) Indra, secondly he should bow to the 
southern direction belonging to Yama. Thirdly he should bow to 
the western direction ruled by Varuna. Fourthly he should bow 
to the northern direction of which Dhanada (Kuvera) Is the 

97-98. After bowing to these directions he should perform 
the Slid Cari putting forward the left foot first and the right foot 
afterwards and begin the Walking-round. * 

98-99 Then with his face towards the^east the Director 

90-91 (B.92, G.90). 

91-92 (B.93, G.91). ' vamakena (vMikena, B). 

92-93 (B.94a, 0.92). }, B. pmits 93a. 

93-94 (B.94b-95a, G.93). ' 

94-95 (B.95bc, G.94). " 'Sec NS. 3&. 29. 

9.5-97 (B.96-97, G.95-96). 97-98 (B.98, G.97), 

98-99 (B.99, G.98), 


should bow to&va (Rudra), Brahman and Visnu (Upenflra) while 
going "forward three steps by 'masculine', 'feminine' and ^neuter' 
feet [one after another). 

99-100. The right foot is 'masculine' and the left foot is 
'feminine' while the right foot not [much] raised is clled !neuter'. 

100-101. f§iva ,([sa) should be bowed to with the masculine 
foot [put forward firstj while in bowing to Brahnwif the neuter .foot 
[should be so put forward] 1 . 

The^outb Man enters. 


101-102. The Walking-round should be [finished] thus, and 
then the FourtU Man {luitwtha-kara) should duly enter [the stage] 
with flowers [in his hands]. 

102-103. And he should duly offer Pujfi to the Jarjara and 
to all the musical instruments (kntapa) as well as to the Director. 

103-104. His foot-movements during the Puja should be 
made to accompany the playing of drums, and there should be no 
song sung then, but only meaningless syllables should be chanted 

Singing of the Avakrsta Dhruva 

104-105. After offering the Puja the Fourth Man should 
make his exit. And then should be sung an Avakrsta Dhruva 1 in 
Caturasra (Tula) and slow tempo (4hiU-hujri). 

105-106. This Dhruva should abound in heavy syllables 
and depend on the Sthayi-vainji 1 and be made up of eight Kalas, 
and its Tala should be Avapanika. 

— ' -II— l.ll.l M I ■ " ! '■■-■ ■'■» ■ . " — " -.111.1.. . ■' ■ .— I. - .11 

99-100 (B.100,G.99). 

100-101 (B.101a-102b, G.100). ' B. repeats here 90-91- 
101-102 (B 103/ G.101). 
102-103 (B.104, G.102). l See NS. Ill, U-13. 
103-104 fB.105, G.103). 

104-105 (B.106, G.104). ' Que of the six kinds of Dhruvas. See NS. 
(C) XXXII. 154-159). 

105-106 (B.107, G.105). » Se*> Ns, (C.) XXIX. 21 . 

90 THE NATYA8ASTBA ' [V. 108- 

106-107. The Avakrsta Dhruvg is a song consisting of 
four feet of ten syllables of which the fourth, the fifth, the seventh 
and the eighth will be short. 1 

Tho Benediction 

107-108. Then the Director will recite in a medium 
[madhyama) tone the Benediction which should consist of eight 
or twelve feet {paila). 1 

108-109. ' These are tho specimens of Benediction) : 

namo'stu sarvadevebhyo 

dvijatibhyah subham tatha I 
jitam somena vai rajiia - J 

arogyam bboga eva ca l) 
TV. Salutation to all the god?. Blessed be the twice born 
class. May Soma the king attain victory as well as healthy life 
'and [eartblyj enjoyment. 1 

109-110. brahraottaram tathaivastu 

hatabrahmadvisas tatha I 
pra&stvimam maharajah 
prthivim ca sasagaram I 
Tr. Let there bo an advancement of tho cause of the 
Brahmins, and let their enemies be killed, and let the great king rale 
this earth together with all the seas. 

110-111. rastrara pravardhatam caiva 

rangas cayam samrdhyatam I 
preksakartur mah8n dharmo 
bhavatu brahmabhavitah l 

77. Lot this state prosper, and this theatre flourish and let 

106-107 (B.108). > G. omits this. 

107-108 (B 109, G.106). l For different interpretations of fiada see 
Levi, pp. 132-133, II. 25-26. Raghnvabhatta quotes from Ag. in his bakun- 
talatika (p. 6) the following : usiffl tffatwijflifn faumtf «wf»i or ijwgflat- 
mPi or i«wwft v and *i*ta wmwiwii*.*^ <rcs»[. Those passages do not 
occur in tho published Abhinavabharati. 

.108-109 (B.U0; G.107). l See Levi, p. 133. 

109-110 (B.111, G.108). -UO-lll (B-112, G.109). 


the producer of the theatrical show attain virtues proceeding from 
the Vedic knowledge. 

U 1-1 12. kavyakartur yasas" castu 

dharmas capi pravardhatam I 
ijyaya canaya nityam 

prtyantam devata iti 1 

Tr. Let the playwright (lit. writer of the karya) attain fame 
and let his virtue increase, and by this kind of sacrifice (tjajhu), 
let the gods be # a)ways pleased with him. 

112-113. After the recitation of each of such Benedictory 
poems the two Assistants should loudly and distinctly say, "Let 
this be so." 

The Suskavakrsta Dliruva 

113-114. The Benediction should thus be performed duly 
according to the rules [mentioned above]. Then should be sung 
the Suskavakrstii Dhrura and verses praising the Jarjara. 

114-115. This Dlmiva should consist of nine long syllables 
first and then six short syllables followed by three long syllables, e.g. 

115-110. digle digle jhande jhande jam 
bu ka va li ta ka te tc ja. 

The Rangadvara 

116-118. After properly performing the Suskavakrsta 
Dhruva, he (the Director) should recite in a loud tone one Sloka in 
adoration of the deity in course of whose worship [the dramatic, 
performance is going to be held], and then [another Sloka] paying 
homage either to the king or to the Brahmins should be sung. 

118-1 It). After reciting the Jarjara.Sloka in what' is called 
tha Rangadvara (lit. entry into the performance) he should again 
read another Sloka to honour the Jarjara 1 . 

111-112 (B.tlS.GllO). 

112-113 (B.114, G.llla). ■ 113-114 (B.U5, 0.112). 

114-115 (B.U6, 0.113). 115-116 (B,117a. 0.114). 

116-117 (B 117b-U8a, 0.115). < 117-118 (B.118b-119a, lr6) ; 
118-119 (B.119b-l30a, 0.117). ' ' Mss. reading is/arjarasya vitmana 


The Cari 

119-120. And after the Jarjara has been honoured; 1 he 
should perform a ,€ari and the two Assistant* , should step 
backwards. * 

120-121. Then the Addita Dhruva 1 should be performed 
with the medium tempo (/a//«)j Catarasra Tala and four Sannipatas. 

121-122. The Dhruva (song) which has the first, the fjfth 
audi the lasf syllables long a nef the remaining syllables short in all 1 
its four feet of twelve syllables, is called the Addita. , 

, 122-123. I shall relate its application according to the 
procedure adopted by Siva (Mahesvara), and UmS When performing 
it in the past with [the display ol] different States (Wiora)- and' 

i23-t25. After assuming the Avahittha Sthana (posture), 1 
and placing the left hand [first] with its palm downwards on the 
navel and taking up the Jarjara by his other hand,* the Director 
should go five steps, with his left hand showing the Pallava gesture ; 
and while going he should cover one Tala at each step and move 
his limbs gracefully 3 . 

125-127. Afterwards ho should perform the Sucl Carl by 
putting forward his left foot first and the right foot afterwards. 
Then the Director <( I it. the expert one) should recite a Sloka with 
love as its • subject-matter, And after reciting this Cart Sloka and 

{timmwa). But this gives aa relevaat meaning. We emend, i*. !»• 
jarjfuasytt mmtnanam. 

llShl23(B.li0brl2Ua.Ua). ' Bead m&^&(&&.nmuit#*i), 

■' 120-121 (», G.11S). l See below 12^422, •!», Hi (C.) 

121-122 (B.122b.l23a, GL120). l2a42a;(B»123kl25», 0.121). 

123-125 (B.124b, 125b, 126, G. 122-123). ' Deaacdin. T&&. XHL lAfc 
165. * Mss. read lutudlirtam. But its meaning is not clear. It is 

just possible, that the original reading has been changed. We thorefore 
emend this to taladki;tam. meaning 'held in palm" or 'held byhand,' 

* B. reads.hetwcen 123b.and 124a an.additionalliomjitiea. 

UUH27 (B,127-I28,.aia4»125). ' 


performing the Walking-round, he should with his face towards the 
front withdraw backwards with steps described before. 

■ » The Mahacari 

127-128. And after placing the Jarjara in the hands of one 
of the Assistants fie should perform the Mahacari in accordance 
with the rules laid down below. v 

• 128-130. During this Cari the Dhruva song should be of 
the Caturasra type and in quick tempo, and it should have 
four Sannipatae and eight Kalas. This Dhruva song should have 
feet of eleven syllables of which the first, fourth, seventh, tenth 
and the last are" long and the remaining ones short. 

130-131. (An example of the Caturasra Dhruva) : 
padatalahati-pat i ta- sailam 

ksobhita-bhuta-saraagra-samudram I 
tSndava-nrttatn idam pralayante 

patu harasya sadS sukliadayi II 

Tr, Let the ever-pleasing Class Dance of Hara (Siva) after 
the destruction of the world, which smashed the hills by the 
impact of his feet and agitated the ocean with all creatures living in 
it. always give you protection. 

130-131. Then he should step towards the drums (hhanfri) 
and afterwards perform the Suci Cari followed by a change of the 

1S2-J 33. Afterwards he should move his feet gracefully , 
with a quick tempo, and keeping them three Talas apart, he 
should" go five steps. There Again he should perform the Sucl 
( Vedha) C&M with his left foot put forward first and the right one 
afterwards. * 

134-135. And with the foot movement [described above] he 
should move backwards with his face towards the front, and again 
he should go three steps forward in a similar manner, and then he 

1 27-128 (B.129, G.126). 128480 (B. 130-131, G.127-128). 

130-131 (B.132, 0.189). 131-132 (B.133, G.130), 

132-133 (B.134-I35a, G.131-132n): 134-135 (B.ia5b-13fc G.138b-133). 


should again perform theSuci Cart with his left foot put forward 
first and the right foot afterwards. 

130-137. Then he should recite a couplet calling up the 
Furious Sentiment while bringing his feet together, and then after 
going three steps he should call for the two Assistants, and on their 
coming up, a Narkutaka Dhruva should be sung. At the time of 
singing this Dhruva he should perform the SucI (Vedha) Carl by 
putting forward the left foot first and the right foot afterwards. 

The Three Men's Talk 

137-138. Then in case of a phiy in the Verbal Style (Wio- ; 
rati vrtti) the Throe Men's Talk (Irigntn) should take place. 
During it (this Talk) the Jester should suddenly come in and 
deliver a discourse consisting mostly of irrelevant words to excite 
the smile of the Director, 

138-139. In this discourse should be brought in some 
controversial topic with an abrupt remark or an enigmatical utter- 
ance [of some kind], and questions such as who is [there] and who 
has won, leading to the plot pf the play (lit the poem), but no 
unpleasant topie should be brought in. 

140-141. In the Three Men's Talk an Assistant talks with 
the Jester who finds fault with his words which are, [however,] 
supported by the Director. 

The Laudation 

141. Then the Director (lit. an expert) should put in the 
Laudation and the Invitation [to members of the audience], and 
for the success of the performance (lit. the stage) the subject of the 
play should again be mentioned. 

142. After putting into practice all these rules, all the three 
persons (i.e. the Director and the two Assistants) should perform 

138437 (B.137-138a, G.134-135a). 

137-138 (B.138b-139a, G.l35b-I38a). 

138-139 (B.139b-140, G.136b-137). 

140 (B.1 41, G.omite). u\ (B.U2, G.138X 

142 (B.148; G.139X 


the SucI (Vedha) Carl, and they should go out together while 
performing any CSrt other than the Jviddba one. 

The Tryasra Preliminaries 

143-144. Thus, Brahmin?, should be performed the 
Preliminaries of the Caturasra type ; now I shall speak of that of' 
the Tryasra type. Its use is similar and its component parts are 
the same ; the only feature that distinguishes it from the Caturasra. 
one is its abridged measure of Tala. 

1-15-146. [In it] the Bamya should consist of two Kalas and 
the Tftla of one Kala, and again the SamyS is to consist of one Kala 
and the Sannipata of two Kalas. With this kind of measurement 
of Kala, Tala and tempo, should be performed the Tryasra Preli- 
minaries which include the Utthapana and such other items. 

147. The Dhruva (song) which has the fourth, the eighth, 
the tenth and the last syllables long in all its four feet of twelve 
syllables, is called the Utthapana Dhruva of the Tryasra (type, 1 . 

148. In the Tryasra Preliminaries an expert dancer should 
abridge the instrumental music, movements [of persons], Dhruva 
songs and their Tata- 
US. The actions and movements [of a dancer] are to be 

made of two types— elaborate and abridged — according as the 
instrumental and vocal musics are such. 

150-151. It is said that each movement of hands and feet 
should be of two Kalas' duration, and in any Walking- round in the 
Caturasra (Preliminaries) the hands and feet should be moved 
sixteen times, while in the Tryasra Preliminaries they are to 
move only twelve times. 

151-152. This is the measurement of both («'.". of hand and 
foot movements) in the Preliminaries. But in the Walking-round, 
the foot movement should consist of three steps only, but in bowing 

143-144 (B.U4- 145, G.140-1 ll). 

145-145 (B.146-147, G.14M43). 147 (B.148, G.144). 

148 3.149,0.145). 149 (B.150, G.146). 

150-151 (B.l51-152a, G.147-148a). 

151-152 (B,l52b-153, G.148D-149). 


to [the different] directions in the Caturasra Preltmimttfes one 
should go five steps. 

153. [But all these matters] should be performed in the 
Tryasra Preliminaries according to the measure of Tala as the 
master of the art thinks fit. Hence to avoid repetition no [elaborate] 
direction about the same has been given [here]. 

154. the best of the Brahmins, thus should be perform- 
ed the pure Preliminaries of the Caturasra and the Tryasra types, 
which relate to a play depending on the Verbal Style. 

The Mixed Preliminaries 

155. So much about the pure Preliminaries which I was to 
describe. I shall now till you how the producers may turn them 
to one of the mixed (r.itrn) type. 

150-157. After the Utthapnni (Raising) Dhruvii has been' d with flowers given by the Fourth Man {raturthakard) 
and resounded with the well measured loud songs of musical ex- 
perts, DundubhU should be played again and again. 

158. [And in the mixed Preliminaries thus begun] clusters 
of white flowers should bo scattered all over [the stagej, and the 
Angaharas should be performed by [dancers dressed as] goddesses. 

159-160. The Class Danco which has been described above 
with its [firths], Recakas, Angaharas, Nyasas and ApanySsas 
should intervene the separate feet of the Benedictory (itHiidi) 
poems (pitdu). Tliis rule should be put into practice by those who 
would turn pure Preliminaries into mixed ones. 

1GI. After tho 'pure' Preliminaries have been duly made 
'mixed' [all the dancers dressed as] goddesses should make 
their exit. 

102. After tho exit of all the female dancers the other 
parts of the Preliminaries should be performed. 

153 (B.154, G.UO). 154 (B.155, G.151). 

155 (B.l5t>, G.152). 156-157 (B.157-158, G.153-154). 

158 (B.159, G.155). 159-160 (B.160-161, G.156.157). 

161 (B.l62a, 16.3a, G.158). 162 (B.l63b-J64a, G.159). 


• - 163." This is the manner in which the pure Preliminaries 
should be changed into mixed ones. But in the Preliminaries, be 
they of any type, there should not be too much dance and song. •: 

164. If [in a performance] songs, music and dance continue 
for too long [a timej they tire out the artists as well as the 

165. Tired [persons] can neither attain or help to attain a 
clear impression of the Sentiments and the States, and because of 
this the rest of the performance (i.e. of the play itself) cannot 
excite pleasure.^ 

166. After performing the Preliminaries, be they Caturasra 
or Tryasra of the pure or mixed type, the Director along with his 
Assistants should make their exit from the stage 1 . 

Introduction of the play 

167. After the Preliminaries have been duly performed 1 in 
the manner described, the Introducer (sthapaka) 2 should enter 
[the stage] and he should resemble the Director (sulrwlhara) in 
every respect (lit. in quality and form). 

163 (B.164W65a, G 160). 1 64 (B 165b-166a, 0.161). 

165 (B.166b-167a, G.162). ' B. reads one additional couplet after this. 

166 (B 168b-l69a, G.163). ' B. reads three additional couplets (B. 
I69b-172a) after this. 

167 (B 1 2b-173a, G.164). ' The read ; ng prajujya in this parage 
seems to bo defective ; for the nominative to this prajujya cannot be 
slhapaka 0ntroducer). Dhanaiijaya (c. 10th century) clearly gays 
that the sulradhara (the Director) having gone out after the Preli- 
minaries (purvaraiiga), another actor enters to introduce the drama 
(III. 2). The same is the opinion of Saradatanaya (c. 1175-1250). See 
the BhP. p.228, lines 56. ViSvaniitha also expressed a similar opinion. 
See the SD. VI. 26. Hence this passage should be construed some- 
what like the well-known proverb ralhe ca vhmanam drstva pwnar- 
janma na vidyate . It seems tl at BhiUa cut down the Preliminaries 
and made an end of the practice of getting the play introduced by the 
sthhpaka. This assumption will explain why Bairn wrote sutradhara- 
krlarambhailp etc. (Harsascarita, Introduction, 15). 

' Ag. says sitfradkara era stAaPakah, cf. n°t« 1 above, 

98 . THE~N.ATYA6ASTRA [Vi.lflft- 

168. He should assume the VaisnavaStharin (posfere) 1 and 
the Sausthava* of the body, and on entering the sta^e he should 
observe the foot movements which the Director had used. - 

16!). At the entrance of the Introducer the DhravS' ishould 
be made suitable to the occasion (lit. meaning) and it will be either 
Caturasra or Tryasra and be in medium tempo. 

170. Then he should perform a Carl in praise of. gods and 
Brahmins in accompaniment with the recitation of Blokas contain- 
ing sweet words and evoking various Sentiments and States.. 

171. After thus pleasing the spectators (lit. the stage) he 
should announce the name of the play-wright (lit., the poet), and 
then he is to start the Prologue (prastavana) which relates to 
proclaiming the theme of the play (lit. the poem) 1 . 

172-173. Then by mentioning (lit. having recourse to) a god 
in a divine [play], a man in a human [play] and a god or a man in 
[a play] where gods and men [meet, he] should proclaim in different 
ways the subject of the play [lit. the poem] by variously alluding 
to its Opening (mukha) and Germ C'/Jtj) 1 . 

174. After introducing the play the Introducer (lit. the 
Brahmin who makes the introduction of the play) should go* out 
[of the stage]. Thus should be performed the Preliminaries accord- 
ing to the rules. 

175. If any producer of a play will perform the Preliminaries 
according to the rules laid down, nothing inauspicious will happen" 
to him and be will [after his death] reach the heavenly "region/ 

176. i On the contrary] whoever produces a play in an 
willful violation of the rules [in this matterj will sustain great loss 
and will [after his dealli] be reborn as a creature of a lower order. 

168 (B.l73b-174a, G.165). » Sec XI. 50-51. • Sec XI. 89b, 91a. 

169 (Ii.l74b-175a, G.166). 170 (B.175-176a, G.167). 
171 (B.176b-177a, 0.168). ' B. reads one additional hemistich. 
172-173 (B.178-179, G;169-170). ' Sec SD. VI. 27. also DB. HI 3. 

.174 (B.180, G.171). 175 (B.181, G.172). 

176 (B.182, G.173). 


17?. Fire fanned by a strong wind dpes not burn [anything] 
so quickly as does the wrongly made production. ^ 

178. In this manner the Preliminaries of two different ex* 
tents {pramana) should be performed by the people of Avanti, 
Pancala, Daksinatya and Odra regions. 

.179. Brahmins, these are the rules regarding the Preli- 
minaries. Tell me what other rules relating to the Natyaveda 
should be discussed now 1 . 

Here' ends Chapter V of Bharata's Natya&stra 
which treats pi the Preliminaries to the production of a play. 

177 (B.184, G.175). 178 (B.184, 0.175). 

179 (B.185, G.176). ' The portion of this chapter after this iloka 
has not been translated. It is not from the hand of author of the NS. 

The, sages question. 

1-3. After hearing about the rules regarding the Prelimina- 
ries, the great sages continued their inquiries and said to Bharata, 
"Answer five of our questions. Explain how the Sentiments 
enumerated by experts in dramatic art attain their special qualities. 
And why are the bhaoas (States) so called, and what do they 
bhavatjanti (make us feel) ? Besides these, what are the real mean- 
ings of terms such as, Digest (mmijrahi) 1 Memorial Verse 
(karika) and Etymology (nirukta)" ? 

Bharata answers. 

4. At these words of the sages, Bharata continued speaking 
and mentioned in reply to their question the distinction between 
the Sentiments and the States. 

5-7. And then he said, "0 sages, I shall tell you in 
detail and in due order about the Digest {sowjraha), the Memorial 
Verse (kaiika) and the Etymology (lUnikta). I am not able by any 
means to exhaust all the topics about drama (nalt/a) ; for science 
(jham), 1 and arts and crafts {hilpa)* connected with it are 
repectively manifold and endless in number. And as it is not 
possible to treat exhaustively (lit. to go to the end of) even one of 
these subjects which are [vast] like an ocean, there cannot be 
any question of mastering them all. 

9. [Hence] I shall tell you about the Digest on Sentiments, 
States and such other matters, which has its contents embodied' 

1-3 IB.G. tame), i For a possible chronolouieal implication of 
sanigraha, karM, uirukta, svtra and bhteya mentioned in this chapter 
seoSkt.Port.cs.Vol.I.Mff. 4 (B.O. *»«,). 

5-7 (B.G. same). > Mmnwyiitaranadint iasMni (A g). 
. »uPam~citrap U stndi-karmani{X % ). 

8 (B.O. same). > a»d sutra&MrtJia. 

[ VI 14- tHB SENMMENTS 101 

in a small number of Sutras (short rules) but which promotes 
inference [about the understanding of the subject]. 

Digest Memorial Verse and Etymology defined 

9. When subjects taught in detail have been compressed 
and brought together in [a number of] Sutras and their Bhasyas 
(commentary), these latter constitute according to the learned a 
Digest isamgraha). 

10. The Digest [of the Natyaveda treats] the Senti ments, 
the States, the Histrionic Representation {abhinaija), the Practice 
(dharmi), the Styles {vrlli), the Success (siddhi), the notes (xvara), 
the instrumental music (atndya), songs and the stage. x 

11. When a rule (lit. meaning) is explained (lit. uttered) 
briefly in the manner of a Sutra by means of a minimum (lit. small) 
number of words it is called the Memorial Verse (k&rika) which 
shows the meaning [of the rule clearly]. 1 

12. The Etymology (iiimkta) is that which arises in con- 
nexion with various nouns, is helped by dictionaries and rules 
of grammatical interpretation, includes the meaning of the root 
involved as well as the reasons modifying it, and is helped by 
various findings [of Sastras]. 

13. When the meaning [of a noun] is established from a 
consideration of its root [and pfatijaya or affix], words expressing 
[such] meaning in brief are called the Etymology. 

14. O the best of the Brahmins, [the subjects included into] 
the Digest (mmgraha), which I mentioned earlier, will now be 
discussed in detail with the necessary Memorial Verses (karika) and 
Etymologies connected with them, 

9(8.G same). 

10 (B.O. same). ' B. adds one more couplet after 10. 

11 (B.12, Or. same). 'One additional characteristic of the karika ii 
that it should be generally composed in metres like arya or tloka, e.g 
the Samkhyakarika. 

12 (B.18, 0.19). 13 (B.U, G. U). 1 4 (B.15, G.U). 

iQt THE NAT* A8ASTBA [Vl.lg. 

The eight Sentiments 

15. The eight Sentiments (rasa) 1 recognised in drama 
are as follows : Erotic (srhgam), Comic (hanya), Pathetic (Icarunn) 
Furious (ramlra), Heroic (fira), Terrible (bhaijanalca) Odious 
(biblmtsa) and Marvellous {adbhula).* 

16. These eight are the Sentiments named by Brahman; 
I shall now speak of the Dominant, the Transitory and the 
Temperamental States. 1 

The Dominant States 

17. The Dominant States {dha>j\bham) x are .known to be 
the following : love, mirth, sorrow, anger, energy, terror, disgust 
and astonishment, 

18-21. The tliirtytliree Transitory States (vijabhuari- 
bhava) 1 are known to be the following : discouragement, weakness, 
apprehension, envy, intoxication, weariness, indolence, depression, 
anxiety, distraction, recollection, contentment, shame, inconstancy, 
joy, agitation, stupor, arrogance, despair, impatience, sleep, epilepsy, 
dreaming, awakening, indignation, dissimulation, cruelty, assurance, 
sickness, insanity, death, fright and deliberation. These are 
defined by their names. 

The eight Temperamental States 

22. Paralysis, Perspiration, Horripilation, Change of Voice, 

15 (B.16, G.15). ' rasa— A. K. Coomaraswamy is for translating the 
TfwdM'navour' (MQ. p. 17). 

9 The later writers on Skt. poetics add one mora rim iiania) 
■to this number. 

16(B.17, G.16). ' ihma-k. B. Keith translates this n*rd as 
feeling 1 or 'emotion'. See Skt. Drama, p. 31V. A. K. Coomaraswamy 
and others translate it as 'mood' (he. cit.). We are with Haas who translates 
it as 'State.' See DR. p. 108. 

17 (B.18, Q.17). ' sthayMava-Ktit\i translates the term as 'domi- 
nant emotion' (Skt. Drama) aod Haas as 'Permanent State' (DR.) and 
,f&m as 'permanent mood' («./. S. K. De, Skt Poctiej, Vol. II. p. 28). 
19-21 (B.IH2, G.18-21). ' Thesa are also known as wVSnVMaw, 
M(B.28,0.9S). 'i&thO* MSM-The worn Mtika cannot b« 

,yj a* J -5CHE SENTIMENTS ~#3 

Trembling, Change of Cofoiir, Weeping and Fainting are the eight 
Temperamental States 1 . 

The lour kinds of Histrionic Representation 

2'). The four kinds of Histrionic Representation are Ges- 
tures (ahgilca) 1 ', Words (naciha)', Dresses and Make-up (aharya)* 
and the Representation of the Temperament {sattviha).* 

The Two Praotiees 

24. The Practice of Representation (dharml) 1 in a dramatic 
performance fs twofold : realistic (lokadharmi, lit. popular) and 
coventional {n&tyadharmi, lit. theatrical). 

The four Styles 

And the Verbal (bliarat:), the Grand (salt call), the Graceful 
(Icaigik',) and the Energetic (arahhiHl) are the four Styles (vftti)*. 

properly translated into English. Keith does not make any such 
attempt (sec Skt. Drama) Haas translates the sattvika-bhava as 
Involuntary States'. But this seems to bo very misleading, for the 
Ntj. takes satha to be connected with manas. (see VI. 94), and most 
of the later writers follow this work in this respect. So the 
author of the ND. (III. 153) writes i«W it sw a^ii'jfaw %g»«fh srfsnr: 
n^s'raqtf' fr i «jwi <n «tft?n«fi Ti«iii sjfagij. The N8. has also a 
definition of sattva which is as follows: ftiii* w*n *m (XXIV. 7). 
The author of the BhP. elaborately defines the term sattva and discusses 
the psychological process connected with its use j sec (pp. 13-14). 
Visvanatha in his SD. (164) dofincs sattva as follows : vm "W watfw*- 

23 (B.24, G.23). l ahgika— means Gestures of special kind defined- 
in the sustra -, sec NS. VIH-XH. 

2 vodka — means Words suitable for representation of the different 
States ( bhava) composed by the playwright. See NS. XV-XXII. 

8 See NS. XXIII. * Sec NS. XXIV. 

24 (B.25-26a, G.24-25a). ' dhami— This word lias not been very 
correctly used, But the meaning is clear ; for details about dharml see 
NS. XIII 69-81. 

' Haas translates mitts as Styles of Procedure (DR. p. 67). The 
four Styles aro translated by him as Eloquent (bharati), Grandiose (satlvati) 
Gay (kaiiiki) and "Horrific (arabMi). We follow Keith's translation 
(Skt Drama, p. 326). For details about vrttis see N& XXII. Iff. 

• l64i THE NATYASASTKA [Vi. 26- 

The four Local Usages 

2f>-26. Avanti, Daksinatyn, OdramSgadhi and Panelist- 
madhyama are the four Local' Usages (pWdliy in a dramatic 


The Success " - 

The Success 8 in the dramatic performance is of two kinds : 
divine {laivih) and human (wa'*«?i). . 
The Notes 

27-29. And [musical] notes such as, Sadjn, Rsabha etc. are 
seven 1 in number, and they fall into two groups :. human (fartrg 
lit from body) and instrumental (w'wm lit from the Vina). 1 
Th< four kinds of musical instruments 

The musical instruments are of four kinds 2 : stringed (tata) 
covered (.»ww*/H solid (ghnna), and hollow (mtira). 
Among these, the stringed (tain) means an instrument with 
strings, the covered 'iivi naildha) means a drum, the solid (ghana) 
a cymbal and the hollow (swim) a flute. 

The five kinds of Dhruvas 

20-30. Songs which relate to Dhruvas are of five kinds 1 : 

25-26 (B.28b-27a, 25b-2fi:i). ' firavrtti—Kaas translates tliis word 
as 'Local Characteristics', (See PR , p 74). The five geographical names 
(Avanti, D ikstinatya, Odra, Magadl.a and Paficala) probably show that 
those ww the parts of India where dramatic show was current at tho time 
when tradition recorded in this NS, arose. Omission of the north-eastern 
part of India, including Bengal and Assam, probably si ows that at 
that time these places were, still in many respects outside tho palo of 
Aryanized India. An 1 the omission of the north-western India from this 
list may be explained on the assumption that it being on the way of 
the new immigrants w'.o frequently poured into this country the forma- 
tion of a iv istiiiUhcd usage was difficult. For details about Pravrttis 
see N.'i. XIV. 36-56. 

* sidtthi (*\\cw&)— For details about the Success sec N& XXVII. 1 ff. 

27-29 (15.28.i-30, 0.27b 29). l Sec NS. (C.) XXVIII. 19, 11. 

\See NS. (C.) XXVI11. 1-2. 

g9-30 (B.31-33a, G.30-31a). ' See NS. (C.) XXXII. 334-352. 

.yi. 81 ] THE SENTIMENTS 105 

entering (pravesa), casual (ahepa), going out (niskama), pleasing 
{pr&sadika) and intermediate (antara). And the playhouse is 
of the three types : oblong (vilysla), square (caturasra) and 
triangular (tryasra) 2 

31. So much about the Digest on drama giving its con- 
tents (lit. meaning by a small number of Sutras (concise rules). 
I shall now speak about the contents of the Sutra-work 1 . 

The Sentiments explained 

In that connexion T shall firft of all explain the Sentiments 
(rasa). No meaning proceeds [from speech] without [any kind 
of] Sentiment. The Sentiment is produced (rasa-nispaitih) from 
a combination (sumyoga)* of Determinants (vibham), Consequents 
(anubhava) and Transitory States (vynbhicari-bhavn). Is there 
any instance (drdanta) [parallel to it]. [Yes], it is said that, as 
taste (rasa) results from a combination of various spices, vegetables 
and other articles 3 , and as six testes (rasa) are produced by 
articles such as, raw sugar or spices or vegetables, so the 
Dominant States (sthayibhava), when they come together with 
various other States (bhara) attain the quality of the Sentiment 
(£.". become Sentiment) 4 . Now one enquires, 'What is the meaning 
of the word rasa" ? It is said in reply to this [(hat rasa is so 
called] because it is capable of being tasted (ayra<lt/ate). How 
is rasa tasted ? [In reply] it is said that just as well-disposed 
persons while eating food cooked with many kinds of spices enjoy 
(asvadayanti) its tastes (raw) and attain pleasure and satisfaction, 

' B, adds one couplet after 30. 
31 (B.33b-34a, G.31b, c). l The original of the next passage till the 
beginning of 33 is in prose. 

8 Tho N& nowhere explains the terms nnfatti and samyoga of this 
definition and does not include tho sthayiblihva in it (the def.). Hence the 
theory of rasa has come to be interpreted differently in later times by 
Lollata, Sankuka, (Bhatta) Niiyaka and Abhinavagupta. For a brief 
exposition of their views see Visnupada Bhattacarya— Sahityamimanisa 
(Bengali), Calcutta, 1948. pp. 33 ff. 

8 G. adds here ono sentence more (tatha nispattih). 

4 tatraha (G. rsaya ucvJi), ' 


so the cultured people taste the Dominant States (stlifiyi-bhava) 
while they see them represented by an expression of the various 
States with Words, Gestures and the Temperament and derive 
pleasure and satisfaction. Thus is explained [the Memorial Verse 
ending with] tasman nalyarasa Ui". For in this connexion there 
are two traditional couplets : 

32-33. Just as connoisseur of cooked food (bhalcta) while 
eating food which has been prepared from various spices and 
other articles, taste it, so the learned people taste in their mind 
the Dominant States (such as love, sorrow etc) when they are 
represented by an expression of the States with Gestures. Hence 
these Dominant States in a drama are called the Sentiments. 1 

The relation between the Sentiments and the States. 

a Now one enquires, "Do the States (bhava) come out of the 
Sentiments (rata) or the Sentiments come out of the States ?" 
On this point, some are of opinion that they arise from their 
mutual contact. But this is not so. Why ? 

"It is apparent that the Sentiments arise from the States 
and not the States from the Sentiments. For [on this point] there 
are [traditional] couplets such as : 

34-35. The States are so called by experts in drama, for 
they cause to originate (bhavayanti) the Sentiments in connexion 
with various modes of dramatic representation. Just as by many 
articles of various kinds auxiliary cooked food (vyahjana) is 

'See below 33-34. 

32-33 (B.35-36, G32-33). ' For a discussion on Bharata's theory 
of rasa see Skt. Poetics, Vol. II. pp. 25 ff. 

* The original of this passage till the beginning of 34 is in prose, 
but its reading seems to be confused. In the light of the five karikas that 
follow one may be justified in changing the order of some sentences and 
in emending it partially as follows : ^rai* •itfJPUil «tWt KfltimSjfttfflftfil, 1 
g dNI suirafafasfttftfn i ?ra *w?i i iw* f* i<*rcii^'nt<nif«f"i»ftftffl. 

But if it is really an instance of textual corruption it may be said 
to have been sanctified by time, for Bhoja who refuted Bharata's view on 
bhavas giving riso to rasas relied on this text Cf . V. Raghavan, $Sr. Pr. 
P. 26. 34-36 (B.38-39, G.84-35). 


brought forth, so the States along with different kinds of Histrio- 
nic Representation will cause the Sentiments to originate. 

30. There can be no Sentiment prior to (lit. without) the 
States and no States without the Sentiments [following it], and 
during the Histrionic Representation they are produced from their 
mutual relation. 

37. Just as a combination of spices and vegetables imparts 
good taste to the food cooked, so the States and the Sentiments 
cause one another to originate (bhavayanli). 


38. Just as a tree grows from a seed, and flowers and fruits 
[including the seed] from a tree, so the Sentiments are the source 
(lit. root) of all the States, and likewise the States exist [as the 
source of all the Sentiments] 1 . 

The eight Sentiments from the four original ones 

Now we shall describe the origins, the colours, the [presiding] 
deities, and examples of these Sentiments. Sources of these [eight] 
Sentiments are the four [original] Sentiments e. ;;. Erotic, Furious, 
Heroic and Odious.* 

39. The Comic [Sentiment] arises from the Erotic, the 
Pathetic from the Furious, the Marvellous from the Heroic, and 
the Terrible from the Odious. 

40-41. A mimicry of tho Erotic [Sentiment] is called the 
Comic, and the result of the Furious Sentiment is the Pathetic, and 
the result of the Heroic Sentiment is called the Marvellous, and 
that which is Odious to see results in the Terrible. 

42.43. The Erotic Sentiment is light green (syama), the 
Comic Sentiment white, the Pathetic (Sentiment) ash-coloured 

36(B.40,G.36). 37 (B.41, G.37). 

33 (R42, G.38). ' B adds ono prose' sentence more after this passage. 
8 Tho original of this passage till the beginning of 39 is in prose. 
» Bhoja criticises this view of the author of the Stt. in his Sr. ft 
See Ramaswamy Sastri Bh. P. Introduction p. 28; V. Raghavan, Sr. ft. 27. 
39 (B.44, G.89). 40-41 (B.45-46, G.40-41). 

42-43 (B.47-48, G.42-43). 


(kapota), the Furious Sentiment reel, the Heroic (Sentiment) light 
orange (gawa), the Terrible (Sentiment) black, the Odious (Senti- 
ment) blue and the Marvellous (Sentiment) yellow. 

The presiding deities of the Sentiments 

44-45, Visnu is the god of the Erotic, Pramathas of the 
Comic, Rudra of the Furious, Yama of the Pathetic, &va (Maha- 
kala), of the Odious, Yama (Kala) of the Terrible, Indra of the 
Heroic, and Brahman of the Marvellous Sentiments. 

1 Thus have been described the origins, the colours and the 
deities of these (Sentiments). Now we shall explain the Determi- 
nants (ribhnra), the Consequents (aimhhant), the Transitory 
States (njahhirariu), their combination, and their definitions and 

We shall now enumerate the Dominant States in different 

The Erotic Sentiment 

Of these, the Erotic (otjoiw)' Sentiment 'proceeds .from the 
Dominant State of love (rati) and it has as its basis (lit. soul) a 
bright attire ; for whatever in this world is white, pure, bright and 
beautiful is appreciated in terms of the Dominant State of love 
(srhijara). For example, one who is elegantly 'dressed is called a 
lovely person (irnyarin). Just as persons are named, after the 
custom of their father or mother' or famiiyjn accordance with the 
traditional authority, so the Sentiments, the States and other 
objects connected with drama are given names in pursuance of the 
custom and the traditional authority. Hence the Erotic Sentiment 
has been so named on account of its usually being' associated with 
a bright and elegant attire. It owes its origin to 'men and women 
and relates to the fullness of youth. It has two bases': union 
(wmhhoga) and separation (viprcdamblui). Of these two, the Erotic 
Sentiment in union arises from Deteminants like the pleasures of 
the season, the enjoyment of garlands, unguents, ornaments [the 

" 44-45 (B.49-50, 0.44-45). 'The original of this passage till the 
beginning of 46, is in prose. 


company of) beloved persons, objects [of senses], splendid mansions, 
going to a garden, and enjoying [oneself] there, seeing the [beloved 
one], hearing [his or her words], playing and dallying [with 
him or her]. It should be representated on the stage by Conse- 
quents such as clever movement of eyes, eyebrows, glances, 
soft and delicate movement of limbs, and sweet words and similar 
other things. Transitory States in it do not include fear, indolence, 
cruelty and disgust. [The Erotic Sentiment] in separation should 
be represented on the stage by Consequents such as indifference, 
langour, feais jealousy, fatigue, anxiety, yearning, drowsiness, 
sleep, dreaming awakening, illness, insanity, epilepsy, inactivity, 
[fainting], death and other conditions. 

Now it has beeen asked, "If the Erotic Sentiment has its 
origin in love, why does it [sometimes] manifest itself through 
pathetic conditions ?" [In reply to this] it is said, "It has been 
mentioned before that the Erotic Sentiment has its basis in union 
as well as in separation. Authorities on ars amatoria {vaiiika- 
saslra) have mentioned ten conditions [of the persons separated 
from their beloved ones, which are pathetic], We shall discuss 
them in the chapter on the Common Histrionic Representation. 2 
The Pathetic Sentiment relates to a condition of despair owing 
to the affliction under a curse, separation from dear ones, loss of 
wealth, death or captivity, while the Erotic Sentiment based on 
separation relates to a condition of retaining optimism arising 
out of yearning and anxiety. Hence the Pathetic Sentiment, 
and the Erotic Sentiment in separation differ from each other. 
And this is the reason why the Erotic Sentiment includes 
conditions available in all other Sentiments. 

46. And the Sentiment called Erotic is rich in pleasure, 
connected with desired objects, enjoyment of seasons, garlands 
and similar other things, and it relates to [the union of] man and 
woman. . 

There are besides two ArySs related to the preceding Sutra : 
47-48. The Erotic Sentiment arises in connexion with 


46(B.52,G.46). " 47-48 (B.54-55, G.47-48). 

110 THE NATY ASA8TEA t VI. 49- 

favourable seasons, garlands, ornaments, enjoyment of the company 
of beloved ones, music and poetry, and going to the garden and 
roaming there. It should be represented on the stage by means of 
serenity of the eyes and the face, sweet and smiling words, satisfac- 
tion and delight, and graceful movements of the limbs. 

The Comic Sentiment 
*Now the Comic (h&sya) Sentiment has as its basis the 
Dominant emotion of laughter. This is created by Determinants 
such as showing unseemly dress or ornament, impudence, greediness, 
quarrel, defective limb, use of irrelevant words, mentioning of diff- 
erent faults, and similar other things. This (the Comic Sentiment) 
is to be represented on the stage by Consequents like the throbbing 
of the lips, the nose and the cheek, opening the eyes wide or con- 
tracting them, perspiration, colour of the face, and taking hold of 
the sides. Transitory States in it are indolence, dissimulation, 
drowsiness, sleep, dreaming, insomnia, envy and the like. This 
(Sentiment), is of two kinds : self-centered and centered in others. 
When a person himself laughs it relates to the self-centred (Comic 
Sentiment), but when he makes others laugh it (the Comic Senti- 
ment therein) is centred in others. 

There are two traditional Aiyas here : 

•±9. As this makes one laugh by an exhibition of oddly 
placed ornaments, uncouth behaviour, words and dress and 
strange movement of limbs, it is called the Comic Sentiment. 

50. As this makes persons laugh by means of uncouth 
behaviour, words, movement of the limbs and strange dress, it is 
known as the Comic Sentiment. 

51. This Sentiment is mostly to be seen in women and 
persons of the inferior type, and it has six varieties of which I shall 
speak presently. 

5,2. They are: Slight Smile (mita), Smile (hadta), Gentle 
Laughter (oihadta), Laughter of Redicule (itpahasita), Vulgar 

1 The original of thts passage till the beginning of 49 is in prose. 
49{B.58,G.49). 50 (B.59, G.50). 

61 (B.60, G.51). 52(B.61,G.62). 


Laughter (apahanifa) and Excessive Laughter (atihasiia,). Two by 
two they belong respectively to the superior, the middling and 
the inferior types [of persons]. 

53. To persons of the superior type belong the Slight Smile 
(smita) and the Smile {lianita), to those of the middling type the 
Gentle Laughter (vihasita) and the Laughter of Ridicule (npahasita) 
to those of the inferior type the Vulgar Laughter (aijahasita) and 
the' Violent Laughter (atihasita). 

There are Slokas on this subjects : 

5 k The Slight Smile (smita) of the people of the superior 
type should be'characterised by slightly blown cheeks unci elegent 
glances, and in it the teeth should not bo visible. 

55. Their Smile (ha«ita) should be distinguished by bloom- 
ing eyes, face and cheeks, and in it the teeth should be slightly 

Of persons of the middle type 

56. The Gentle Laughter {vihasita) should have slight 
sound, and sweetness, and should be suitable to the occasion and in 
it the eyes and the cheeks should be contracted and the face joyful. 

57. During the Laughter of Ridicule (npahasita) the nose 
should be expanded, the eyes should be squinting, and the shoulder 
and the head should be bent. 

Of persons of the inferior type 

58. The laughter on occasions not suitable to it, the laugh- 
ter with tears in one's eyes, or with the shoulder and the head 
violently shaking, is called the Vulgar Laughter (apahasita). 

59. The Excessive Laughter (atihaxita) is that in which 
the eyes are expanded and tearful sound is loud and excessive, and 
the sides are covered by hands. 

00. Comic situations which may arise in the course of a 

53 (B.62, G53). 54 (B.65, G54). 55 (B 66, G-55). 

56 (B.68, G.56). 57(B.69,G.57). 58 (B.71, G.58J, 

59 (B.72, G.59), 60 (B.73,G.60). 


play, for persons of the superior, middling or inferior type are thus 
to be given expression to. 

61. This Comic Sentiment is of two kinds : self-centred and 
centred in others; and it relates to the three types of persons : supe- 
rior, middling and inferior, and has thus [on the whole] six varieties. 

The Pathetic Sentiment 

x Now the Pathetic (kamm) Sentiment arises from the Doriii- 
nant State of sorrow. It grows from Determinants such as afflic- 
tion under a curse, separation from dear ones, loss of wealth, 
death, captivity, flight [from one's own place], [dangerous] accidents 
or any other misfortune. This is to be represented on the stage by 
means of Consequents such as, shedding tears, lamentation, dryness 
of the mouth, change of colour, drooping limbs, being out of 
breath, loss of memory and the like. Transitory States connected 
with it are indifference, langour, anxiety, yearning, excitement, 
delusion, faintiug, sadness, dejection, illness, inactivity, insanity, 
epilepsy, fear, indolence, death, paralysis, tremor, change of colour, 
weeping, loss of voice and the like- 
On this point there are two Aryas : 

62. The Pathetic Sentiment arises from seeing the death of 
a beloved person, or from hearing something very unpleasant and 
these are its Determinants. 

63. This is to be represented on the stage by Consequents 
like weeping loudly, fainting, lamenting and bewailing, exerting 
the body or striking it. 

The Furious Sentiment 

*Now the Furious {rawlra) Sentiment has as its basis the 
Dominant State of anger. It owes its origin to Raksasas, Danavas 
and haughty men, and is caused by fights. This is created by 

61 (B.74, G.61). » The original of this passage till the beginning of 

62 is in pros •. 62 (B.76, G,62). 

63"(B.77, 0.63). ' The original of this passage till the beginning of 
64 is in prose. 

-VI. 66 ] THE SENTIMBNS 113 

Determinants such as anger, rape, abuse, insult, untrue allegation, 
exorcizing, threatening, revengefulness, jealousy and the like. Its 
actions are beating, breaking, crushing, cutting, piercing, taking up 
arms, hurling of missiles, fighting, drawing of blood, and similar 
other deeds. This is to be represented on the stage by means 
of Consequents such as red eyes, knitting of eyebrows, defiance, 
biting of the lips, movement of the cheeks, pressing one hand 
with, the other, and the like. Transitory States in it are presence 
of mind, determination, energy, indignation, restlessness, fuiy, 
perspiration, trembling, horripilation, choking voice and the like. 

Now one enquires, "Is it to be assumed from the [above] 
statement about Kaksasas that they only give rise to the Furious 
Sentiment, and that this Sentiment does not relate to others ?" 
[Reply]. "No, in case of others too this Sentiment may arise. [But 
in case of Riiksasas] it is to be understood as their special function. 
They are naturally furious, 2 for theyhave many arms, many mouths, 
standing and unkempt hairs of brown colour, and prodigious 
physical frame of black complexion. Whatever they attempt, be 
it their speech, movement of limbs or any other effort, is by nature 
furious. Even in their love-making they are violent*. It is to 
be easily inferred that persons who imitate them give rise to the 
Furious Sentiment from their fights and battles. 

On these points there are two Aryas : 

64. The Furious Sentiment is created by striking, cutting, 
mutilation and piercing in lights, and tumult of the battle and 
the like. 

65. It should be represented on the stnge by special acts 
such as the release of many missiles, cutting off the head, the 
trunk and the arms. 

66. Such is the Furious Sentiment viewed [by experts] ; 
it is full of conflict of arms, and in it words, movements and 
deeds are terrible and fearful. 

' G. considers this passage till the. end of this sentence as an atya 
(0.64). » Cf. Bhattikavya, VIII. 98. 

64 (B.79, G.65). 65 (B.80, 0.66). 66 (B.81, G.67). 



The Heroic Sentiment 

*Now the Heroic (vlra) Sentiment, relates to the superior 
type of persons and has energy as its basis. This is created by 
Determinants such as presence of mind, perseverance, diplomacy, 
discipline, military strength, agressiveness, reputation of might, 
influence and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by 
Consequents such as firmness, patience, heroism, charity, diplomacy 
and the like. Transitory States in it are contentment, judgement, 
pride, agitation, energy (vega), ferocity, indignation, remembrance, 
horripilation and the like. 

There are two Aryas [on these points] : 

67. The Heroic Sentiment arises from energy, persever- 
ance, optimism, absence of surprise, and presence of mind and 
[such other] special conditions [of the spirit]. 

08. This Heroic Sentiment is to be properly represented on 
the stage by firmness, patience, heroism, pride, energy, agressive- 
ness, influence and censuring words. 

The Terrible Sentiment 

J Now the Terrible (bhayamka) Sentiment has as its basis 
the Dominant State of fear. This is created by Determinants like 
hideous noise, sight of ghosts, panic and anxiety due to [untimely 
cry of] jackals and owls, staying in an empty house or forest, 
sight of death or capitivity of dear ones, or news of it, or discussion 
about it. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such 
as trembling of the hands and the feet, horripilation, change of 
colour and loss of voice. Its Transitory States are paralysis, per- 
spiration, choking voice, horripilation, trembling, loss of voice, 
change of colour, fear, stupefaction, dejection, agitation, restlessness, 
inactivity, fear, epilepsy and death and the like. 

On these points there are two traditional ArySs : 

69. The Terrible Sentiment is created by hideous noise, 

1 The original of this passage till tho beginning of 67 is in prose. 
67 (B.83, G.68). 

•68(B.84,G.69). ' The original of this passage till the beginning 
of 69 is in prose, 69 (R.86, G.70). 


sight of ghosts, battle, entering an empty house or forest, offending 
one's superiors or the king. 

70. Terror is characterised by looseness of the limbs, the 
mouth and the eyes, paralysis of the thighs, looking around with 
uneasiness, dryness of tha drooping mouth, palpitation of the 
heart and horripilation. 

71. This is [the character of] natural fear; the artificially 
shown fear also should be represented by these conditions. But in 
case of the feigned fear all efforts for its representation should be 

72. This'Terrible Sentiment should be always represented 
by tremor of the hands and the feet, paralysis, shaking of the 
body, palpitation of the heart, dryness of the lips, the mouth, 
the palate and the throat. 

The Odious Sentiment 

1 Now the Odious (b ibhatsa) Sentiment has as its basis the 
Dominant State of disgust. It is created by Determinants like 
hearing of unpleasant, offensive, impure and harmful things or 
seeing them or discussing them. It is to be represented on the stage 
by Consequents such as stopping the movement of all the limbs, 
narrowing down of the mouth, vomitting, spitting, shaking the 
limbs [in disgust] and the like. Transitory States in it are epilepsy, 
delusion, agitation, fainting, sickness, death and the like. 

On these points there are two traditional Aryas : 

73. The Odious Sentiment arises in many ways from 
disgusting sight, tastes, smell, touch and sound which cause 

74. This is to be represented on the stage by narrowing 
down the mouth and the eyes, covering the nose, bending down 
the head and walking imperceptibly. 

70 (B.87, G.71). 71 (B.88, 0.72). 

72 (B.89, Q-.78). ' The original of this passage till the boginning 
°f 73, is in prose. 

78 6.92, G.74). 74 (B.93,'G.75). 


TAo Marreffom /Sbat/meat 

'The Mavvellous (miiAtt&i) Sentiment has as its basis the 
Dominant State of astonishment. It is created by Determinants 
such as sight of heavenly beings or events, attainment of desired 
objects, entrance into a superior mansion, temple, audience hall 
(sabha), a seven-storied palace and [seeing] illusory and magical 
acts. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as 
wide opening of eyes, looking with fixed gaze, horripilation, tears 
[of joy] perspiration, joy, uttering words of approbation, making 
gifts, crying incessantly ha, ha, hii, waving the end of dhoti or 
«3ri, and movement of fingers and the like Transitory States in 
it are weeping, paralysis, perspiration, choking voice, horripilation, 
agitation, hurry, inactivity, death and the like. 

On this point there are two traditional Aryas ; 

75. The Marvellous Sentiment is that which arises form 
words, character, deed and personal beauty. 

76. This is to be represented on the stage by a gesture of 
feeling [sweet] smell, joyful shaking of limbs, and uttering of ha, 
ha, ha, sounds, speaking words of approbation, tremor, choking 
voice, perspiration and the like. 

The three kinds of the Erotic, the Comic and the Terrible Sentiments 

77. The Erotic Sentiment is of three kinds, viz, of words, 
dress, and action. And the Comic and the Terrible Sentiments 
are likewise of three kinds, viz, of limbs, dress and words. 

The three kinds of tbo Pathetic Sentiment 

78. The Pathetic Sentiment is of three kinds, viz that 
nsmg from obstruction to lawful deeds, from loss of wealth and 
from bereavement. 

The three kinds of the Heroic Sentiment 

79. The Heroic Sentiment is likewise of three kinds, viz. 

'The original f this passage till the bovine of 78, is in prm 
'75(B.95,G.76). 76 (B.96, G.77). 77 (B 97 G 781 

78(B.98,G.79). 79(B.99,G.80). '' 


that arising from making gifts, from doing one's duty (d/tarma) and 
from fighting [one's enemy) 

The three kinds of the Terrible Sentiment 

80. The Terrible Sentiment is also of three kinds, viz, 
feigned fear, fear from a wrong action, and fear from an apprehen- 
sion of danger. 

The three kinds of the Odious Sentiment 

81. The Odious Sentiment is of three kinds, viz. 
nauseating, simple, and exciting. Of these the Sentiment from 
a sight of stool and worms is nauseating, and the sight of blood 
and similar objects is exciting. 

•The three kinds of the Marvellous Sentiment 

82. The Marvellous Sentiment is of two kinds, viz. celestial 
and joyous. Or these the celestial is due to seeing heavenly 
sights, and the joyous due to joyful happenings 1 . 

83. These are the eight Sentiments and their definitions, 
I shall hereafter speak of the characteristics of the States. 

Here ends Chapter VI of Bharata's Natya&stra 
which treats of the Sentiments. 

80 (BJOO, G.81). 81 (B.101, G.82). 

82 (B.102, Q.83). ' B. adds here a spurious passage on ianta rasa. 


Bhwvas (States) explained 

0. Now I shall;spoak of the bhamn (States). An enquiry in 
this connexion is, "Why are the bhava* (States) so called ? Is it 
because they bhavayanti (pervade) and are hence called bliavas 
(States)?" It is said in reply that bhavas (States) are so called 
because through Words, Gestures and the Representation of the 
Temperament, they bhavayanti (infuse) the meaning of the play 
[into the spectators]. l Uhava is 'cause' or 'instrument', for 
words such as, bbdcita, oasita and hta are synonymous. An 
expression like, '0, all these things are bh'dvHa (pervaded) by one 
another's smell or moistened by one another's juice,' is established 
even amongst the common people. Hence the root bhamya means 
'to pervade'. Ont his point there are the following Slokas : 

1. When the meanings presented by Determinants and 
Consequents are made to pervade (yamaytc) [the heart of the 
spectators] they are called bhavas (States). 

2. As in these the inner idea of the playwright (kavi) 
is made to pervade [the mind of the spectators] by means of 
Words, Gestures, colour of the face and the Representation of 
the Temperament they are called bhavas (States). 

3. As they cause the Sentiments relating to various kinds 
of Histrionic Representation to pervade [the mind of the 
spectators], they are called bliavas (States) by those who 
produce a drama. 

Vibkatoas (Determinants) explained 

"Now, why is the word vibhava used ?" [Answer] : "The 
word vibham is used for the sake of clear knowledge. It is 

(B.O. same). 

1 .(B.l-2, G.1). ' Wo read bhava itikarana(m) sadhanam yatha etc. 
2(B.8,G.2). 3(B.4-5;g.8). 


synonymous with k&rana, nimitta and hetn. As Words, Gestures 
and the Representation of the Temperament are vibhaoayte (deter- 
mined) by this, it is called ribhava (Determinant). Vibhavita 
(also) means the same thing as vijhata (clearly known). 

On this point there is a Sloka : 

4. As many things are vibhavynin (determined) by this 
through Words, Gestures and the Representation of the 
Temperament it is named vibhava (Diterminant). 

Anubhavas (Consequents) explained 

"Now, why is the word nnubhava used ?" (Answer) "Because 
the Histrionic Representation by means of Words, Gestures and the 
Temperament are mmbharyntfi (made to be felt) by this, it is 
called awibhavit (Consequent). 

On this point there is a Sloka : 

5. As in it the spectators are anubhavyate [made to feel] 
things by means of Words and Gestures it is called anubhara and 
it relates to words as well as to [gestures and movements of] major 
and minor limbs. 

Now we have explained that the States (bhava) are related to 
Determinants (vibhava) and Consequents (nnubhava). Thus are the 
States (bhai:a) created. Hence we shall discuss the definitions and 
examples of the States together with their Determinants and Conse- 
quents. Of these, the Determinants and the Consequents are well- 
known among people. They being connected with the human nature, 
their definitions are not discussed. This is for avoiding prolixity. 

On this point there is the Sloka : 

6. Determinants and Consequents are known by the wise to 
1)0 things which are created by human nature and are in 
accordance with the ways of the world. 

The tliree kinds of States : Dominant, Transitory and Temperamental 

Now the Dominant States (dhayi-bhava) are eight in num- 
ber. The Transitory States (ryabhii'arinah) are thirtythree and 

4 (B.6, G.4). 6 (B.7-8, G.5). ' We read with B. 

6 (B.9, 0.6). 


the Temperamental States are eight in number. These are the' three 
varieties of the States. Hence we are to understand that there are 
fortynino States capable of drawing out the Sentiment from the 
play. The Sentiments arise from them when they are imbued with 
the quality of universality (mmamja, lit. commonness). 

On this point there is a Sloka : 

7. The State proceeding from the thing which is congenial 
to the heart is the source of the Sentiment and it pervades the 
body just as fire spreads over the dry wood. 

Difference between the Dominant and the other States 

It is said in this connexion : "If the fortynine States being 
represented by Determinants (vibhavn) and Consequents (anubhava) 
coming into contact with one another become Sentiments when 
they are imbued with the quality of universality, how is it that 
Dominant States only are changed into Sentiments (and not Deter- 
minants and Consequents) ?" [In reply to this] it is said : 
"Just as among persons having same characteristics and similar 
hands, feet and belly, some, due to their birth, [superior] manners, 
learning and skill in arts and crafts, attain kingship, while others 
endowed with an inferior intellect become their attendants, in an 
identical manner, the * Dominant States become masters because 
on them Determinants (vibhava), and Consequents (anubhava) and 
Transitory States (tyabhicariv) depend. Similarly some of the 
other States (e.g. Determinants and Consequents) have the quali- 
ties of [king's] local officers, and [hence] Transitory States 
(vyabhkarin) become attendants to these (Determinants and 
Cons equents) because of their [superior] quality. Now it may be 
asked, "Is there any parallel instance ?" [Answer.] "Just as only a 
king surrounded by numerous attendants receives this epithet [of 
king] and not any other man, be he ever so great, so the Dominant 
States (dhmji-bhava) only followed by Determinants, Consequents 
and Transitory States receive the name of Sentiment. [On this 
point] there is a traditional &loka : 

7(B.10-11,G.7). » fwn^HM-aifWhi: wifilHWfllfair wwuraaui 

srfSwiM hhi;. 


8. Just as a king is superior to other men, and the 
preceptor (guru) is superior to his disciples, so the Dominant 
States (sthayi-bhava) are superior to the other States (Determi- 
nants, Consequents and Transitory States). 

The Dominant States 

Characteristics of these which are known as the Sentiments 
have been mentioned before. Now we shall discuss the marks of 
the States common to them. First of all we shall take up [the case 
of] the Dominant States (sthayi-bhava). 


Love (rati) which has pleasure as its basis is caused by 
Determinants like seasons, garlands, unguent, ornaments, dear 
ones, enjoyment of a superior residential house and absence of 
opposition [from any one]. It is to be represented on the stage 
by Consequents such as a snirling face, sweet words, motion of 
eyebrows, and glances and the like. 

There is a Sloka [on this point] 

9. Love arises from the attainment of desired objects, 
because of its agreeableness. It is to be represented on the stage 
by sweet words accompanied by [suitable] gestures and movements 
of limbs. 


Now Laughter (ha*ya) is caused by Determinants such as. 
mimicry of others' actions 1 , incoherent talk, obtrusiveness, foolish- 
ness and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by means 
of Smile and the like. 

.On this point there is a traditional Hloka : 

10. Laughter arises from a mimicry of other people's 
actions. It is to be represented on the stage by the learned with 
Smile, Laughter and Excessive Laughter. 

8 (B.l 2-14,0.8). 

9 (B.H-15, G.9). ' B. adds ku/iaia after paraceMu. 

10 (B.16-17, G.10), 



Sorrow (ioka) is caused by Determinants such as death of the 
beloved one, loss of wealth, experience of sorrow due to any one's 
murder or captivity, and the like. It is to be represented on the 
stage by Consequents such as shedding tears, lamentation, bewail- 
ing, change of colour, loss of voice, looseness of limbs, falling on 
the ground, crying, deep breathing, paralysis, insanity, death and 
the like. Weeping in this case is of three kinds : [weeping of 
joy, [weeping] of affliection and [weepingj due to jealousy. On 
these points there are traditional Aryas : 

11. 1 Weeping in which the checks are blooming in joy, the 
body is horripilating, there are words 2 of remembrance and tears 
are not concealed is called weeping of joy. 

12. Weeping in which there is a loud sound, copious 
shedding of tears, uneasiness of the body, want of steady move- 
ments and efforts, lamentation after falling on the ground and 
rolling on the earth is called weeping due to affliction. 

13. Loud weeping of women in which the lips and the 
cheeks are throbbing and the head is shaking, the eyebrows and the 
glances are moving in anger, is called weeping due to jealousy. 

14. Sorrow relates to women, persons of the inferior type, 
and it has its origin in affliction [of any kind]. With relation 
to it, persons of the superior and the middling types are 
distinguished by their patience and those of the inferior type 
by their weeping. 


Anger (fowllm) is caused by Determinants such as insolence, 
abusive language, quarrel, altercation, opposing [persons or 
objects] and the like. Tt is to be represented on the stage by 
Consequents such as swollen nose, upturned eyes, bitten lips, 
throbbing checks and the like. 

11 (B.l n, G.ll). ■ B. reads one additional couplet (B.18, before tliis, 

. Read sanusmararjam vaganibkrthsram. 

W(R20,Gkl2). 13(B.21,G.13). 14 (B.88-23, 0.14). 


15. Anger is of five kinds, viz., anger caused by enemies, 
superior persons, lovers, servants, and feigned anjjer. 

On this point there are traditional Aryas : 

16. One should show anger against resistance by the enemy 
with knitting of eyebrows, fierce look, bitten lips, hands clasping 
each other, and touching one's own head and breast. 

17. One should show anger against control by superiors 
with slightly downcast eyes, wiping off slight perspiration and 
not expressing* any violent movement. 

18. One, should show one's anger to the beloved woman 
by a very slight movement [of the body], by shedding tears, 
and knitting eyebrows and with sidelong glances, and throbbing 

19. Anger to one's servants should be represented on 
the stage by means of threat, rebuke, dilating the eyes and casting 
contemptuous looks of various kinds. 

20- Anger which is artificially shown with a view to 
the realisation of an ulterior motive and which mostly betrays 
marks of effort is called feigned anger, and it relates to two 1 


Energy (utsaha) relates to persons of the superior type. It is 
caused by Determinants such as absence of sadness, power, 
patience, heroism and the like. It is to be represented on the 
stage by Consequents such as steadiness 2 , munificence, boldness of 
an undertaking, and the like. 

On this point there is a Sloka : 

15 (B.24, G.omits). 1 6 (B.26, G.15). 17 (B.27, G.16>. 

18 (B.28, G.17). 19 (B29, G.18). 

20 (B.30-31, G-19). ' ubhayarasa (dvirasa, G.). 
8 Omit dhairya after slhairya. 

21 (B.82-33, G 20). * Omit smPada before siittya. 
3 Omit kantara before durdina. 


21. Energy which has effort as its basis and which grows 
out o{ alertness and such other qualities, should be represented on 
the stage by acts of vigilance and the like 


Fear {bhmjo) relates to women and persons of the inferior type, 
ft is caused by Determinants such as acts offending one's superiors 
and the king 1 , roaming in a forest, seeing an elephant and a snake, 
staying it. an empty house, rebuke [from one's superiors], 2 a dark 
rainy night, hearii.g the hooting of owls and the cry of animals 
that go out at night, and the like. It is to be represented on the 
stage by Consequents such as, trembling hands and feet, palpitation 
of the heart, paralysis, dryness of the mouth, licking thelips, perspi- 
ration, tremor, apprehension [of danger], seeking for safety, run- 
ning away, loud crying and the like. 
On this point there are Slokas : 

22. Fear arises from an embarassment due to offending one's 
superiors and the king, seeing terrible objects and hearing awful 

23. This is to be represented with tremor of the limbs, 
panic, drying up of the mouth, hurried movement, widely opened 
eyes and such other gestures and actions. 

24. Fear in men arising from terrifying objects should be 
represented on the stage by actors (lit. dancers) with slackened 
limbs and suspended movement of the eyes. 

Thde is also an Arya on this point : 

25. This (fear) should be represented on the stage with 

tremor of hands and feel, and palpitation of the heart, paralysis, 

.dung the lips, drying up of the mouth, loosened limbs and sinking 
{msanna) body. b • 

22(B.34,G.21). 23(B.35,G.22), 

24 (B.36, G.23). 




Disgust {jwgupm) relates to women and persons of the interior 
type. It is caused by Determinants such as hearing and seeing 1 
unpleasant things, and the like. It is to be represented on the 
stage by Consequents sucli as, contracting all the limbs, spitting, 
narrowing down of the mouth, heartache and the like. 
On this point there is a -Sloka. 

26. Disgust is to be represented on the stage by covering 
the nose, contracting all the limbs, [general] uneasiness and 

_ Astonishment (n,«ayy.) is created by Determinants such as 
illusion, inagtc, extraordinary feats of men, great excellence in 
painting, art- works in parchment 1 and the like. It is to be 
presented on the stage by Consequents such as wide opening Z'l 
the eyes, looking without winking of the eyes, [much] movement 
of the eyebrows, horripilation, moving the head to and fro the <** 
of "well, done," "well done," and the like. ^ 

On this point there is a Sloka ; 

27 Astonishment arising from joy due to extraordinary 
acts should be represented by means such as joy tears, fainting 
and the like. ° 

The Transitory States 

The Dominant Slates 1 are to be known as described here- 

We shall now explain the Transitory States (v^bhicari-bhava) 

It is questioned, "Why are these called vyabkkanmhr [In answer] 

it is said that t>t and of, hi are prefixes, and the root is cara meaning 

to go', 'to move». Hence the word vyabhicarinah means 'those that 

move in relation to the Sentiments towards different kinds of objects 

that is, they carry the Sentiments which are connected withWords 

Gestures and the Temperament. It is questioned, "How do they 

cany [the Sentiments] ?" In answer it is said, "It is a popular 

1 Omit fiarikirtana after iravana. 

a? fn 40 " 41 ' G,a8)k ' 0mit "4* afto «**• 

(B.42-43, Ga6 )- l Omit rasasamj?,a/ f (B) after sthbyino bhavah. 

126 *HB NAtftfASASTBA [ Vtl. 28- 

convention to say like this, just as people say, The sun carries 
this iiahaira (star) or that day. It does not however mean that 
these arc carried on arms or shoulders. The Transitory States 
should be considered like this. These Transitory States (vyahhi- 
caribham) as mentioned in the Digest [samgruha) are thirlythree 
in number. We shall describe them now. 


Discouragement (irira>th) is caused by Determinants 
such as, being reduced to poverty 2 , getting insulted, abusive lan- 
guage, wrathful beating, loss of beloved persons and the knowledge 
of the ultimate (lit. essential) truth and the like. It is to be 
represented on the stage by Determinants such as weeping, 
sighing, deep breathing, deliberation and the like, on the part of 
women and persons of the inferior type. 

On this point there is a Sloka: 

28. Discouragement grows out of being reduced to poverty, 
and loss of dear ones, and it is to be represented on the stage by 
deliberation and deep breathing. 

On this point there two traditional Aryas : 

29. Discouragement arises from loss of dear ones, poverty, 
disease, envy from seeing the prosperity of others. 

30. A discouraged man has the eyes . bathed in tears, face 
and eyes miserable due to heavy breathing and he is like a yogi 
absorbed in meditation. 


Weakness (ylani) proceeds from Determinants such as vomit- 
ting, purgation, sickness, penance, austerities, fasting, mental worry, 
too much drinking, sexual indulgence, too much exercise, travelling 
a long way, hunger, thirst, sleeplessness and the like. It is to be 
represented on the stage by Consequents such as weak voice, 
lustreless eyes, pale face, slow gait, want of energy, thinness of the 
body, change of colour and the like. 

2 Omit vyadhyavatmna after dhtidra. 

28(B.44,G.27). 29(B.45, Q.28). 80 (B.47-48, G.29). 


On this point there are two Aryas : 

31. Weakness grows out of voinitting, purgation and sick- 
ness, penance, and old age. It is to be represented on the stage by 
thinness of the body, slow gait and tremor [of the limbs]. 

32. Weakness is to be represented on the stage by a very 
weak voice, weakness of the eyesight, poor gait, constant slackness 
of the limbs. 


Apprehension (ianka) has doubt as its basis and it relates to 
to women and persons of the inferior type. It is caused by Deter- 
minants such a» theft, giving offence to the king and the like. It is 
to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as constantly 
looking on, hesitating movement (" r<il,-ii)rfhati<t) t dryness of the 
mouto, licking the lips, change of facial colour, tremor, dry lips, 
loss of voice and the like. 

There is a Sloka on these points : 

33. Apprehension in the Terrible Sentiment is due to 

robbery, and the like, and in case of the Erotic Sentiment it is due 
to [a possible] deception on the part of the lover. 

Some authorities prescribe (lit. desire) in this case a conceal- 
ment of appearence which is to be characterised by [adoption 
of] clever tricks and gestures. 

There are two Aryas in this connexion : 

3 k Apprehension is of two kinds : viz. that arising from 
one's ownself and that arising from another person. That arising 
from^qne's own self is to be known from one's eyes and efforts. 

35. A man with l Apprehension has n dark face, a thick and 
protruding tongue, slightly trembling limbs, and he constantly 
looks sideways. 


Envy (aaUjia) is caused by Determinants such as various 
offences, hatred, other people's ' wealth , good luck, intelligence, 

31 (B.49, G.30). 82 (B.50,51, G.31). 33 (B.52-53, G 32). 

34 (B.54, G,33). 35 (B.55-56, G.34). 


sports, learning and the like. It is to be: represented on the stage 
by Consequents such as finding fault with others, decrying their 
virtues, not paying any heed to these, remaining with downcast 
face, knitting eyebrows in disparagement and abusing others in the 
assembly [of men]. 

On these points there are two Aryas : 

36. Envy arises in a person who is displeased to see other 
people's good fortune, wealth, intelligence, and exuberence of 

37. It is to be represented by a distorted face, knitting eye- 
brows, face turned away in jealous anger, decrying other people's 
virtues and showing hatred towards them. > 


Intoxication (mtidn) is caused by drinking of liquor and 
Similar other things. It is of three kinds and has five Determinants. 
There are the following Aryas on this point : 

38. Iotoxication is of three kinds, viz. light, medium and 
excessive. It has five causes which should bo represented on the 

39. While intoxicated some sing, some laugh and some 
use hot words while other sh>ep. 

40. Among these, persons of the superior type sleep, 
those of the middling type laugh and sing, and (hose of the inferior 
type cry or use hot words. 

41. Light intoxication is characterised by smiling face, 
pleasant feeling, joyful body, slightly faltering words, delicately 
unsteady gait and relates to persons of the miperioV type. 

42 Medium intoxication is characterised by drunken and 
rolling eyes, drooping arms or arms restlessly thrown about and 
irregularly unsteady gait, and relates to persons of the middling 

36 (B.57, Q.35\ 37 (B.58-59, G.86). 38 (B.60, G.37), 

.39 (B.61, G.38-. 40 (B.62, G.39). 41 (B.63, G.40). 

42(B.64, G.41). 


43. Excessive intoxication is characterised by loss of 
memory, and incapacity to walk due to vomitting, hiccough and 
cough, and a thick protruding tongue and spitting, and relates to 
persons of the inferior type. 

44. A character who [acts] drinking on entering the stage 
is to show that his intoxication is increasing, but the character 
who enters the stage as drank should show that his intoxication 
is decreasing. 

45. But the intoxication should be stopped by effort when 
there is panic, grief and increase of terror due to some cause. 

40. On 'account of these special conditions, intoxication 
disappears quickly just as grief passes away on hearing the 
happy news of [sudden] prosperity. 


Weariness (srama) is caused by Determinants such as 
travelling a long way, exercising of the limbs and the like. l It is 
to be represented on the stage by ^Consequents such as gentle 
rubbing of the body, [deep] breathing, contraction of the mouth, 
belching, massaging of the limbs, very slow gait, contraction of the 
eyes, making Sitkara and the like. 

There is an 5rya on this point : 

47. Weariness in man is caused by travelling [a long 
way] and exercising [the limbs], and it is to be represented on the 
stage by [deep] breathing, tired gait and the like. 


Indolence (alasija) is k caused by Determinants such as 
nature, lassitude, sickness satiety, pregnancy and the like. And 
it relates to women, and men of the inferior type. It is to be 
represented on the stage by Consequents such as aversion to 
any kind of work, lying down, sitting, drowsiness, sleep and the 
like. On this point there is an Arya : 

43 (B.65, G.42). * 44 (B.66, G.43). 45 (B.61, G.44). . 

46 (B.68-69, G.46). » We follow the reading of the ms <fa in B. 

47 (B.70-71, G.46). » adhvagali for nrtt wfew'lB). 


48. Indolence arising from lassitude as well as nature 
should be represented on the stage by discontinuance of all activity 
except taking food. 


Dipression (dainya) is caused by Determinants such as 
poverty, mental agony and the like. It is to be represented on 
the stage by Consequents such as want of self-command, dullness 
of'the body, absent-mindedness, giving up of cleansing [the body] 
and the like. 

There is an Arya on this point : 


49. Dipression of men proceeds from anxiety, eager expec- 
tation and misery. Different modes of representing it on the 
stage includes giving up of cleansing [the body] in any way. 


Anxiety (cinta) is caused by Determinants such as loss 
of wealth, theft of a favourite object, poverty and the like. It 
is to be represented on the stage by [deep] breathing, sighing, 
agony, meditation, thinking with a downcast face, thinness of 
the body and the like. 

There are two AYyas on this point : 

50. Anxiety of men arises in various ways : from the loss of 
wealth, theft of a favourite object, and a heart full of expectation. 

51. It is to be represented on the stage by sighing, deep 
breathing, agony, and absent-mindedness, giving up of cleansing 
[the body] and want of self-command. 


Distraction (tnnha) is caused by Determinants such as 
accidental injury, adversity, sickness, fear, agitation, remem- 
bering past enemity and the like. It is to be represented on 
the stage by Consequents such as want of movement, [excessive] 

48 (B.92-73, G.47). 49 (B.74-75, G.48). 

60 (B.76, G.42). 51 (B.77-78, G.50), 


movement of [a particular] limb, falling down, reeling, not 
seeing properly and the like. 

There is a Sloka on this point : 

52. Due to seeing a robber in an unexpected place or from 
panic of different kinds distraction occurs to a man when he 
finds no help [near by]. 

There is also an Arya on this point : 

53. Distraction occurs due to adversity, accidental injury, 
memory of past enemity. It is to be represented on the stage 
by suspension of the activity of all senses. 


Recollection (smrti) is remembering every condition of 
happiness and misety. It is caused by Determinants such as 
impairment of health, disturbed nightly sleep, seeing and speaking 
with a level head, thinking, constant practice and the like. It is to 
be represented on the stage by Consequents such as notkling of 
the head, looking down, raising up the eyebrows and the like. 
On this point there is a Sloka and an Arya •' 
64. One is said to be recollecting something when one 
remembers past happiness and misery' which were either conceived 
in mind or did actually occur and was forgotten. 

55. Recollection arising from impaired health, or relating 
to the Vedas and Darsanas is to be represented on the stage 
by raising or nodding of the head and raising the eyebrows. 


Contentment (dhfti) is caused by [Determinants such as] 
heroism, spiritual knowledge, learning, wealth, purity, good conduct, 
devotion to one's superiors, 'getting excessive amount of money, 
enjoying sports, and the like. It is to be represented on the stage 
by Consequents such as enjoyment of objects gained, and not 

6» (B.78^.61). 53 (B.80-81, G.52). 

54 (B.82, G.53). 

65 (B.83-84, G.54). ' Omit mamratha (B.G.) after adhika, 


grumbling over objects unattained, past, partially enjoyed, lost and 
the like. 

On this point there are two Aryas : 

56. Contentment arising from spiritual knowledge, purity, 
wealth and power, is always to be represented on the stage by an 
absence of fear, sorrow and sadness. 

67. When one enjoys attained objects such as [sweet] 
sound, touch, taste, form and smell, and is not sorry over their 
non-attainment one is said to have Contentment. 


Shame (vrtfa) has improper action as its basis. It is 
caused by Determinants such as humiliation and repentance 
on account of transgressing words of superiors or disregarding 
them, nonfulfilment of vows and the like. It is to be represented 
on the stage by Consequents such as covered face, thinking with 
downcast face, drawing lines on the ground, touching clothes 
and rings, and biting, the nails, and the like. 

There are two Aryas on this point : 

58. When a man, after he has done anything improper, 
is seen by those who are pure, he becomes repentant and is 

59. The ashamed man will cover his face, draw lines on die 
ground, bite the nails and touch clothes and rings. 


Inconstancy (capalata) is caused by Determinants such as 
love, hatred, malice, impatience, jealousy, opposition and the like. 
It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such as harsh 
words, rebuke, beating, killing, taking prisoner, goading and the 

There are two Xryas on this point 

■ ' ■' ■ " ■ ■ ' ■ " i ' n i h i ...I.. i n i || h ^^at— — aw— 1 

56 (B.85, G.5S). 57 (S.86-87, 0,58). 

58 CB.88, 0.57). 59 (B 89-90, CK58). 


00. When a man does anything like killing or imprisoning 
any one without any forethought he is said to be inconstant be- 
cause of his not being definite in his action. 


Joy (harm) is caused by Determinants such as attainment 
of the desired object, union with a desired, trusted and beloved 
person, mental satisfaction, favour of gods, preceptor, king, and 
husband (or master), receiving [good] food, clothing and money 
and enjoying them, and the like. It is to be represented on the 
stage by means of Consequents such as brightness of the face and 
the eyes, using sweet words, embracing, l horripilation, tears, 
perspiration and the like. 

There are two Aryas on this point : 

61. Joy is caused to a man when he has attained any 
object or obtained anything which was unobtainable or has met 
his beloved one or has his heart's desire fulfilled. 

62. It is to be represented on the stage by brightness of 
the eyes and the face, loving words, embrace, delicate movement of 
the limbs, and perspiration and the like. 


Agitation (avega) is caused by Determinants such as por- 
tents, wind or rains, [outbreak] of fire, running about of elephants, 
hearing very good or very bad news, stroke of adversity and the 
like. In this connexion portents include [a stroke of] lightning and , 
[falling] of meteors or shooting stars, eclipse of the sun and the moon, 
and appearance of comets. It is to be represented on the stage by 
looseness of all the limbs, sadness, distraction of the mind, loss of 
facial colour, surprise and the like. [Agitation] due to violent winds 
is to be represented by veiling [the face], rubbing the eyes, 
collecting [the ends] of clothes [worn], hurried going and the like. 
[Agitation] due to [heavy] rains is to be represented by lumping 

60 (B. 91-92, 0.59). ' Omit pulakila after kan\akita (B.O). 


82 (B.94-94, 0.61). 

lti fHB NATYASASfPRA [Vll.136 

together of all the limbs, running, looking for some covered 
shelter, and the like. [That] due to [an outbreak of] fire is to be 
represented by eyes troubled with smoke, narrowing down all the 
limbs, or shaking them, running with wide steps, flight and the 
like. That due to running about of elephants is to be represented 
by hurried retreat, unsteady gait, fear, paralysis, tremor, looking 
back and the like. [That] from hearing something favourable is 
to be represented by getting up, embracing, giving away clothes 
and ornaments, weeping, horripilation and the like. That due to 
hearing anything unpleasant is to be represented by ' falling down 
on the ground, lamentation, rolling about [even] on a rough 
surface, running away, bewailing, weeping and the like. And that 
due to popular rising {prakrti-vgasana) is to be represented by 
sudden retreat, taking up weapons and armour, mounting elephants 
and horses and chariots, striking 1 and the like. 

63. Agitation of these eight kinds has hurry as its basis, 
This is characterised by patience on the part of persons of the 
superior and the middling types ; but agitation of persons of the 
inferior type is marked by flight. 

On this point there are two ArySs : 

64. Agitation occurs over an unpleasant report, disregard 
of instruction, throwing a missile and panic. 

6i>. Agitation due to an unpleasant report has as its Conse- 
quents assuming a sad look, and that due to a sudden 
of enemy is to be represented by clash of weapons. 


Stupor (ja4ata) is caused by Determinants such as cessation 
of all activity, hearing of a much desired thing or a [very] harm- 
ful thing, sickness and the like. It is to be represented on the 
stage by Consequents such as not uttering any word, speaking 
indistinctly, remaining absolutely silent, looking with steadfast 
gaze, dependence on others and the like. 

1 tampraharana (pradkarana B. G.J. 

63 (B.96, G.62). 64 (B.98, G.63). 65 (B.09-100, 0.64). 


There is an A"rya on this point : 

60. A man is called stupid when due to senselessness he 
cannot distinguish between good and bad as well as happiness and 
misery, and remains silent and dependent on others. 


Arrogance (yarva) is caused by Determinants such as king- 
ship, noble birth, personal beauty, youth, learning, power, attain- 
ment of wealth and the like. It is to be represented on the stage 
by Consequents such as contempt 1 [for others], harassing [people], 
not giving reply [to one's question], not greeting [others], looking 
to sh ulders, roaming [at large], contemptous laughter, harsh 
words, transgressing [commands of] the superiors, insulting [others] 
and the like. 

There is an A~rya on this point : 

67. Arrogance of persons of the inferior type due to 
learning, youth, beauty, royalty and attainment of wealth is to 
be represented by movement of the eyes and the limbs. 

' Despair 

, . Desoair (rka<1a) is caused by Determinants such as inability 
to, finish the work undertaken, accidental calamity and the like. It 
is to be represented on the part of persons of the superior and the 
middling types by Consequents such as looking for allies, thinking 
about means, loss of energy, absent-mindedness, deep breathing and 
the like. And on the part of persons of the inferior type it is to be 
represented by running away, looking down, drying up of the 
mouth, licking the corner of the mouth, sleep, deep breathing,, 
meditation and the like. 

There are two Sryas on this point : 

08. Despair arises from nonfulfilment the work begun, being 
taken at the time of committing theft, and giving offence to the 
king and the like. 

66 (B.101-102, G.65). l Omit awya before avajtm. 

67 (B.103-104, G.66), «8 (B.105, G.67). 

186 THE NATYASASTBA [ Vl'1. 69- 

69. In case of persons of the superior and the middling 
types this is to be represented by thinking about various means, 
and in case of persons of the inferior type sleep, deep breathing, 
and meditation are to represent it. 


Impatience (nutsuhja) is created by Determinants such as 
separation from beloved persons, remembering them, sight of a 
garden and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by Con- 
sequents such as sighs, thinking with downcast face, sleep, drowsi- 
ness, desire for lying down and the like. 

There is an Arya on this point : 

70. Impatience arises from the loss of beloved persons or 
from remembering them. This is to be represented on the 
stage by thinking, want of sleep, drowsiness, dullness of the body 
and desire to lie down and the like. 


Sleeping (nidi a; is caused by Determinants such as weak- 
ness, fatigue, intoxication, indolence, [too much] thinking, too much 
eating, [soporific] nature and the like. It is to be represented on 
the stage by Consequents such as heaviness of the face, tolling of 
the body, rolling of the eyes, yawning, massaging of the body, deep 
breathing, relaxed body, closing the eyes and the like. 

There are two Aryas on this point : 

71. Sleep comes to a man through weakness, fatigue, exer- 
tion, [too much] thinking, natural ('tendency [to sleep] and keep- 
ing awake throughout the night. 

72. It is to be represented on the stage by Consequents 
such as heaviness of the face, closing the eyes, or their rolling, 
stupor, yawning, massaging of the body and the like. 

89 (B.106-107, G.68). 

70 (B.108-109. G.69). > hrira-lolana (avalckanaB.), 

7J(B.110, G.70). 

72 (B.11 1-112,0.71). 



Epilepsy (apasmara) is caused by Determinants such as 
being possessed by a god, a Naga, a Yaksa, a Raksasa, a Pisaca 
and the like, and a memory of such beings, eating food left after 
somebody's partaking of it, staying in a deserted house, non- obser- 
vation of proper time [in taking food, in sleeping etc.], derangement 
of humours (dhatu) 1 and the like. It is to be represented on the 
stage by Consequents such as throbbing, trembling, running, 
falling down, perspiration, foaming in the mouth, hiccough, licking 
[the lips] with the tongue, and the like. 

On tliis point there are two Aryas : 

73. Epilepsy occurs in a person when he is possessed by 
Bhutas and Pisacas, when lie remembers these beings, [eats] 
Ucchista 1 , stays in a deserted house, disregards for proper time 
[for taking food etc.], and is impure [in body]. 

74. Falling down suddenly on the ground, trembling, 
foaming in the mouth, and rising up while senseless, are condi- 
tions during Epilepsy. 


Dreaming (siipta) is caused by Determinants such as inter- 
ruption of sleep, enjoying objects of senses, infatuation [of any 
kind], spreading the bed on the ground, dragging the bed over the 
ground and the like. The dreaming which occurs in sleep is to be 
represented by Consequents such as deep breathing, dullness of 
the body, closing the eyes, stupefaction of all the senses, dreams 
and the like. 

There are two Aryas on this point : 

75. Dreaming occurs due to interruption of sleep, enjoying 
objects of senses and infatuation [of any kind]. It is to be 

1 They are three in number please viz. wind (vayu), bile (pitta) and 
phlegm (kapha). 

73 (B.113, G.72). 1 That which is left over in one's plate after he 
has finished his meal. 

M (B.114-11!?, G.73). . 75.(B.116, O.omit). 


188 THE NATTA8ASTEA [Vn.76- 

ropresented on the stage by closing the eyes, deep breathing, 
dreaming dreams and talking while asleep. 

70. Dreaming is to be represented on the stage by deep 
breathing, imperfectly closing eyes, stupefaction of all senses and 
absence of all activity. 


Awakening (viboflha) is the break of sleep, and it is caused 

- by Determinants such as digestion of food, bad dreams, loud 

sound, sensitive touch and the like. It is to be represented on the 

stage by Consequents such as yawning, rubbing the eyes leaving, 

the bed, and the like. 

There is an Arya on this point : 

77. Awakening is caused by digestion of food, [loud] 
sound, [sensesitive] touch and the like. It is to be represented on 
the stage by yawning, rubbing the face and the eyes, and the like. 


Indignation (amavssa) is caused to persons abused or insulted 
by those having superior learning, wealth or power. It is to bo 
represented on the stage by Consequents such as shaking the head, 
perspiration, thinking and reflecting with a downcast face, determi- 
nation, looking for ways and means and allies, and the like. 

There are two Hlokas on this point : 

78. Indignation grows in energetic men who have been 
abused or insulted in an assembly by those having superior learn- 
ing and wealth. 

79. Tt is to be represented on the stage by energy, deter- 
mination, reflection with a downcast face, shaking the head, pers 
piration and the like. 


Dissimulation^flw/M^/io) is the concealment of appearance. 
It is caused by Determinants such as shame, fear, defeat, respect, 

76 (B.117-118, G.74). 77 B.119-120, G.75). 

VB (B.121, G.76). . 79 (3.122-123, (3.77), 


deceit and the like. It is to be represented on the stage bj Con- 
sequents such as speaking like another person, looking downwards, 
break in the speech, feigned patience and the like. 

There is a Sloka on this point '• 

80. Dissimulation is due to boldness, deceit, fear and the 
like. It is to be represented by carelessness about an action, and 
not speaking much in reply or in addressing [others]. 

1 Cruelty 

Cruelty (ugmta) is caused by Determinants such as arrest of 
robbers, offence to kings, offending words and the like. It is to be 
represented on the st;ige by Consequents like killing, imprisoning, 
beating, rebuking and the like. 

There is an Arya on this point : 

81. Cruelty occurs when a robber is arrested or the king 
is given affence. It is to be represented on the stage by Conse- 
quents such as killing, imprisoning, beating, rebuking and the like. 


Assurance (matt) is caused by Determinants such as 
thinking- about the meaning of many Sastras and considering 
the pros and cons of things. It is to be represented on ■ the ■ 
stage by Consequents such as instructing pupils, ascertainment 
of [any] meaning, removal of doubt and the like. 

There is a Sloka on this point : 

82. Assurance comes to men when they arc well-versed 
in the meaning of many SSstras- It is to be represented on the 
stage by Consequents such as instructing pupils and explaining the 
meaning [of Sastras]. 


Sickness (rydilhi) owes it origin to [sin attack of three 
humours such as] wind {rata), biles (/»///<») and phlegm {ka[ilni). 

80 (B.124-J.25»G.78). 81 (B.126-I27, 0.78). 

82 (B.128-129, G.80). 

140 tHE NATIASASfRA [VII. 83- 

Fever and similar other illnesses are special varieties of it. Fever 
is of two kinds, viz. that with a feeling of cold (sita) and that with a 
feeling of heat {il&ha). Fever with a feeling of cold should 
be represented by Consequents such as shivering, tremor of the 
entire body, bending [the bodv], shaking of the jaws, narrowing 
down the nasal passuge, dryness of the mouth, horripilation, 
lamentation and the like. And. Jhat . with a feeling of heat, 
is tp be represented by throwing oat clothes, the hands and the 
feet, desire [to roll on] the ground, [use of] unguent, desire for 
coolness, lamentation, crying and the like. The other types of 
sicknesses are to be represented on the stage by Consequents 
such as narrowing down the mouth dullness of the body, [deep] 
breathing, making [peculiar] sounds, crying, tremor and the like. 

There is a Bloka on this point : 

83. Sickness in general should be represented on the 
stage by looseness of the limbs, throwing out the limbs and 
narrowing down the mouth due to illness. 


Insanity (uiimadu) is caused by Determinants such as 
death of beloved persons, loss of wealth, accidental hurt, derange- 
ment of [the three humours] : wind {i'al(i), biles (i>ilt<t), phelgm 
(Uesman), and the like. It is to be represented on the stage by 
laughing, weeping, crying, . talking, lying down, sitting, running, 
dancing, singing, and reciting [something] without any reason, 
smearing [the body] with ashes and dust, taking grass, Nirmalya 1 , 
soiled cloth, rags, potsherd, earthen tray as decoration [of the 
body], many other senseless acts, and imitation of others. 

There are two Aryas on this point : 

84. Insanity occurs owing to death of beloved persons, 
toss af wealth, accidental hurt, wind (void), biles (pitta}, phlegm 
{kaplta) derangement of the inind in various ways. 

>■■» 83 (B.130431, G.8I. J Remains of a flower-offering to a deity, 
Which- is^upposed to purify a person who takes it with reverence. 
84(13.132, G.82). 


85. Insanity ie to be represented by laughing, weeping,' 
sitting, running and crying without any reason and [other] sense- 
less acts. 


Death (inarana) conies through sickness as well as acci- 
dental injury. Of these two kinds of death, that from ' sickness 
is caused by Determinants such as a malady of the intestine and 
the liver, colic pain, disturbance of humours, tumours, boils, fever, 
cholera, and the like. And that due to accidental injury is 
caused by weapons, snake-bite, taking poison, [attack ofj fero- 
cious animals, injury due to falling down from elephant, horse, 
charriot and other vehicles. I shall now speak of the different 
methods of their representation on the stage. Death from 
sickness is to be represented on the stage by Consequents such 
as looseness of the body, niotionlossness of the limbs, closed eyes, 
hiccough, deep breathing, looking for family members, speaking 
indistinct words and the like. 

There is a Sloka on this point : 

80. Death due to sickness is to be represented on the 
stage by one mark viz. loose body and inactive sense organs. 

But death due to accidental injury is to be represented 
on the stage in different ways : c.<j. [death due to] wound by 
weapons is to be represented by Consequents such as suddenly 
falling down on the ground and the like. In case of snake-bite 
or taking poison [there is gradual] "development of its symptoms 
which are eight in number, viz. thinness (of the body), tremor, 
burning sensation, hiccough, foam from the mouth breaking of the 
neck, paralysis and death. 

85 (B.133-134, G.83). l Earlier writers on the Hindu drama 
Wrongly believed that NS. excluded wanes of death from the stage. (See 
Keith, Skt. Drama, pp. Hi ; also M. Ghosh. "A so-called convention of 
the Hindu Drama", JLHtJ. ,IX. 1933, pp. 981 ff.). Windish thought that. 
Sudraka in his (Act. VUI) violated a rule in showing the murdex of 
"asantasena by Sakara (Der griechischo Einfluss in indische Drama., 
Berlin, 1882. p. 43). 

86 (B.13W86, G.84). 


There are two traditional Slokas on this point : 

87-88. The first symptom " of the development [of the 
effect of poison] is thinness of the body, the second trenior, 
the third a burning sensation, the fourth hiccough, the fifth foaming 
in the mouth, the sixth" breaking of the neck, the seyenth 
paralysis and and the eighth death. 

There are besides two XrySls on this point : 

89. Death due to [an attack of] ferocious animals, elephant, 
horse, or falling from chariots and mounts, wound by weapons should 
be represented by absence of any further movement of the body. 

90. Thus death occurs under various conditions. It should 
be represented by proper words and gestures. 


Fright (I raw) is caused by Determinants such as flash 
of lightning a meteor, thunder, earthquake, clouds, crying or 
bowling of big animals and the like. It is to be represented 
on the stage by Consequents such as, shaking of narrow limbs, 
tremor [of the body], paralysis, horripilation, speaking with a 
choked voice, talking irrelevantly, and the like. 

There is a Sloka on this point : 

91. Fright is caused by a very terrible sound and the like. 
It should be represented on the stage by looseness of limbs and 
half-shut eyes. 


Deliberation {ritarka) is caused by Determinants such as 
doubt, cogiation, perplexity and the like. It is to be represented 
on the stage by Consequents such as various discussions, settling 
the definition, concealment of the counsel and the like, 

There is a Sloka on this point : - 

92. Deliberation whieh arises from discussions and which 
has doubt as its basis is to be represented on the stage by 
movement of the head, the eyebrows and the eyelashes. ' 

8»-98 (B.137-138, G.85-86). 89 (B.139, G.87). ' ~~ 

90 (B.140-141, G.88). 91 (B.142-143, G.89). 92 (B.144-M5, G.90). 


These are the thirtythree Transitory States ; they are to be 
produced in a play by men and women of the superior, middling 
and the inferior types in conformity with [proper] place, time and 

93. These thirtythree- are known as the Transitory States, 
I shall now explain in detail the Temperamental States, 

The Temperanfentai States 
Now it may be questioned, 

"Are these States (bhQva) called Temperamental because 
other States (Determinants, Consequents and Transitory States) 
are said to be without the Temperament ?" [In answer] it is said 
that the Temperament in this connexion is [something] originating 
in mind. It is caused by the concentrated mind. The - Tempera- 
ment is accomplished by concentration of the mind. Its nature 
[which includes] paralysis, perspiration, horripilation, tears, 
loss of colour and the like, cannot be mimicked by an 
absent-minded man. Hence the Temperament is desired in a 
play for the purpose of imitating human nature. If the question 
is, 'Is there any reason in support of this view ?' then it may 
">e said that in theatrical practice, situations of happiness as well 
is misery should so purely accord with the Temperament behind 
:hem that they may appear to be realistic (i/athwivarujia). How 
jan sorrow which has weeping as its basis be represented on the 
stage by any one who is not sorry ? And how can happiness 
which has joy as its basis be represented on the tage by 
any one who is not happy ? Hence the Temperament (wit for) 
being desired (in acting) in connexion with certain States the latter 
are called Temperamental. The explanation of (he Temperament 
is this, that tears and horripilation should respectively be shown 
by persons who are not [actually] sorry or happy. 

94. The eight Temperamental States are as follows : 
Paralysis, Perspiration, Horripilation, Change of Voice, Trembling, 
Change of Cojour, Weeping and Fainting. 

93 (B.146-147. G.90). 

94 (B.148, G.92), ' above VI 22 note 1 , 


Among these, 


95. Perspiration ( svrJa ) occurs as the result of anger, 
fear, joy, shame, sorrow, toil, sickness,, heat, exercise, fatigue, 
summer and massage. 

Paralysis and Trembling 

96. Paralysis ( 4amhl M ) occurs as being due to joy, fear, 
sickness, surprise, sadness, intoxication and anger, and Trembling 
(l:an>iin=:i-q>atlni) duo to cold, fear, joy, anger, touch "[of tho 
beloved] and old age. 


97. Weeping (awi) occurs as being due to joy, indignation, 
smoke, collyrium, yawning, fear, sorrow, looking with a steadfast 
gaze, cold and sickness. 

Change of Colour and Horripilation 

98. Change of Colour (mivaniya) occurs as being due 
to cold, anger, fear, toil, sickness, fatigue and heat, and Hor- 
ripilation {nimanr'i) due to touch, fear, cold joy, anger and 

Change of Voice and Fainting * ' 

99. Change of Voice (xwni-s&ht) occurs as being due to 
fear, joy, anger, fever, sickness and intoxication, and Fainting 
(praltt i/h) due to loo much toil, swoon, intoxication, sleep, injury, 
astonishment and the like. 

Representation of the Temperamental States 

100. These are to be known by the wise as the eight 
Temperamental States, I shall speak afterwards about actions 
which will represent these States. f 

95 (B.149, G.93). 96 (150, G.94). 

f! (B.151, B.95). 9 8 (B.152, G.96). 

99 CB.153, G.97). 10 o (B.159, G.98) 


101. Paralysis should bo represented on the stage by 
being inactive, motionless, smileless, like an inert object, senseless, 
and stiff-bodied. 

102. Perspiration should be represented on the stage by 
taking up a fan, wiping off sweat as well as looking for breeze. 

103. Horripilation should be represented on the stage by 
repeated thrills, hairs standing on the end, and touching the body. 

104 Change of Voice should be represented by broken 
and choking voice, and Trembling by quivering, throbbing and 

105. Change of Colour should be represented by alteration 
of colour of the face by putting pressure on the artery, and 
this is dependant on the limbs. 

106 Weeping should be represented on the stage by 
rubbing the eyes and shedding tears, and Loss of Consciousness 
by falling on the ground. 

Application of the States to the different Sentiments 

107. These are the fortynine States (bhava) of the three 
kinds mentioned by me. Now you ought to hear of the different 
Sentiments to which they are applicable. 

' 108. All the (fortynine) States except indolence, cruelty and 
disgust are applicable to the Erotic Sentiment (lit. raise the Erotic 
Sentiment by their own name). 

109. Weakness, apprehension, envy, weariness, inconstancy, 
dreaming, sleeping dissimulation are the States applicable to the 
Comic Sentiment. 

110. Discouragement,, anxiety, depression, weakness, weep- 
ing, stupor and death are the States applicable to the Pathetic 

101 (B.155, G.100). 102 (B.156, G.99). 

103 (B.157, G.102). . 104 (B.158, G.101). 
105 (B.159, G.I03-104a) 106 (cf. B.160-161, G.105). 

107 (B.162, G.106). # 108 (B.169, G.107). 

109 (B.171, G.108). ' 110 (B.172, G.109). 


111. Arrogance, envy, energy, agitation, intoxication, anger, 
inconstancy and cruelty are the States applicable to the Furious 

112-113. Presence of mind, energy, agitation, joy,, assurance, 
cruelty, indignation, intoxication, horripilation, change of voice, 
anger, envy, contentment, arrogance and deliberation are the States 
applicable to the Heroic Sentiment. 

114. Perspiration, trembling, horripilation, choking voice, 
fear, death, change of colour are the States applicable to the 
Terrible Sentiment. 

115. Epilepsy, insanity, despair, intoxication, death, sickness 
and fear arc the States applicable to the Odoius Sentiment. 

116. Paralysis, perspiration, loss of consciousness, horripila- 
tion, astonishment, agitation, stopper, joy and fainting are the 
States applicable to the Marvellous Sentiment. 

117. These 1 Temperamental States which depends on the 
various kinds of Histrionic Representation are included into all the 
Sentiments by experts in the production of plays. 

118-119. No play in its production can have one Sentiment 
only. If in an assemblage of the many 1 States, Sentiments, Styles 
(rrtti) and Local Usages (prcmiti) [in the production of a play], 
any one item has varied representation it should be considered 
the Dominant Sentiment and the rest the Transitory ones*. 

120. That which stands on the principal theme [of the 
play] and is combined with Determinants, Consequents and Tran- 
sitory States is the Dominant Sentiment. 

Ill (B.173, G.113). 112-113 (B.174-175, G.I10-111). 

114(B.176,G.114). 115(B.177,G.115). 116 (B.178, G.115). 

117 (B.179, G.116). ' ye tvete (canye. B). 

1 namibhinayasam%riiah B. 

118-119 (B.180-181, G.117-118). > tahunam (sarvemm G.). soma- 

. * After this B. reads one additional couplet, 

120 (B.183, G.119). 


121. 1 This Dominant Sentiment should be represented 
with an exuberence of the Temperament, but the Transitory States 
by mere gestures and postures (lit. form), for they are to support 
the Dominant Sentiment [and as such should not excel 2 it], 

122. [An equally full representation of] a variety [of Senti- 
ments] does not please [the spectators], and such a variety is rare 
in practical life (lit. amongst people). But a mixture of different 
Sentiments will however, bring pleasure [to the spectators] when 
such is carefully represented. 

] 23. In [the production of] a play the Dominant, the Tem- 
peramental andjthe Transitory States which are supporters of the 
Sentiments and which are accomplished through many objects and 
ideas, should be assigned to male 1 characters 2 . 

124. The Sentiments and the States in plays are thus to 
be created. One who knows this well will attain the best Success 
[in the production of a play]. 

Here ends Chapter VII of Bharata's Natyasastra 
which treats of the Representation of the States. 

121 (B.184, G.120). ' A disregard of this principle is liable to 
cause undue prominence to a minor character in a play and thereby to 
frustrate the principal object of the playwright. 

1 After this B. reads some additional couplets (B.185-189a) which 
include a variants of 122 a (B.189a) and 122b (B.186b) and a repetition 
of 118a (B.186a) and 1186 (B.187a). 

122 (B.184 foot-note, 9, G.121). 

123 (B.189b-190a, Q-.122). l punisanukiTiiah (puspavaklrnali. B.G.). 
* An analysis of the plays of the best kind, known to us seems to 

explain this rule. For in almost .ill of them superior roles are assigned 
to men who can better be made the vehicle of different aud complex 
psychological states. 

124 (B.190bc, G.123). 


Tne sages question. 

1-2. Through your kindness we have heard in due order 
everything relating to the origin of the States (bhava) 1 and Senti- 
ments (rasa)'. - AVe shall now like to know also what the experts 
say about the different kinds of Histrionic Representation, their 
meanings and different subdivisions. 

3. the blessed one, you are also to tell us accurately 
what kinds of Histrionic Representation are to be applied to which 
[places or occasions] by persons aiming at the Success. 

Bharata answers. 

4. On these words of the sages, Bharata spoke thus relating 
to the four kinds of Histrionic Representation. 

5. "0 sages, I shall now speak to you in detail so that 
the Histrionic Representation becomes properly explained to you. 

1 We shall speak of [the fact that] the abliiiuiya (Histrionic 
Representation) is of four kinds. The question is, "Why is it called 
the abhinaya ?" It is said in reply to this that the abhinaya is 
derived from the prefix abhi, and the verbal root »* meaning 'to 
cause to get' (to attain), and the sufix ac attached to these two, 
Hence a [full] answer to this should be made after a consideration 
of the root and its meaning. 

There is a Sloka on this point : 

6. As the root nl preceded by abhi means 'carrying the per- 
formances (prayoga) of a play [to the point of direct] ascertainment 

1-2 (B.G. same). ' See NS. VIII. » See W& VI. 

3 (B.G. same). i (B.G. same). 

5 (B.5-6, G.5). » This portion till the beginning of 6 is origin- 
ally in prose. 6 (B.7, G.6). 

Mil i3 ] the gestubes of minob limbs 149 

of its meaning,' so [the word made out of them] becomes abhinaya 
(carrying towards). ' 

The meaning of abhinaya 

7. Abhinaya is so called because in the performonce [of a 
play] it together with the Sakha 1 , the Anga 2 and the Upanga* 

"explains the meaning of different [things]. 

The four kinds of abhinaya 

8. IJrahmins, the Histrionic Representation of a play 
takes place in four ways, and on this (Representation) the plays 
of different types rest. 

9. Brahmins, this Histrionic Representation is known 
to be fourfold : Gestures 1 {any ilea), Words (wika) Dresses and 
Make-up {aharya) and the Temperament {sattrika). 

The Gesture : its three varieties 

10. Of these, the Temperament has been described before, 
along with the States ; now listen first of all about the Gestures 

11. The Gesture is of three kinds, viz. that of the limbs 
{sarira), that of tho face (mnkhaja) and that related to [different], 
movements of the entire body {cedalrla) including the Sakha, the 
Anga and the Upanga. 

12. Dramatic performance in its entirety relates to the six 
limbs including the major and the minor ones such as head, 
hands, lips, breast, sides and feet. 

13. The six major limbs {anga) are head, hands, breast, 
sides, waist and feet, and the (six) minor limbs {upanga) are eyes, 
eyebrows, nose! lower lip and chin. 

7 (B-8, G.7). ' Sec 15 below- See 13 below. s See 13 below. 

8 (B.9, G.8). 

9 (B.10, G.9). > More properly 'gestures and postures.' 

10 (B.11, G.10). 11 (B.12. 0.11). 12 (B.13, G.12). ^ 


14. Producers of plays should reckon the Sakha, dance 
(itrtta) and the Ankura as the three aspects of the Histrionic 
Representation (abhinaya). 

15. The gestures (ahgiko) are called the Sakha ; * panto- 
miming through them is the Ankura* and that which is based 
on the Karanas 3 and consists of the Angaharas 4 is called dance 

10. Brahmins, listen first of all about the different 
gestures of the head, which are included in the facial gestures 
and which support many Sentiments {ram) and State's (bhava). 

Gestures of the head and their uses ' 

17-18. The gesture of the head is of thirteen 1 kinds, viz. 
Akamptita, Kampita, Dhuta, Vidhuta, Parivahita, Udvahita, 
Avadhuta, Aflcita, Nihaucita, Paravrtta, Utksipta, Adhogata, 
and Lolita. 

19. Akampita : Moving the head slowly up and down is 
called.the Akampita. 

Kampita : When the movements in the Akampita head are 
quick and copious the same is called Kampita 1 . 

20. (Uses) ; The Akampita head is to be applied in giving 
a hint, teaching, questioning, addressing in an ordinary way (lit. 
naturally,), and giving an order 1 . 

14 (B.15, G.14). 

15(B.l6, G.15). ' Sarngadeva defines the sakhu and aitkura as 
follows s— w iretfs ftrarmt ftf"w wmnr i vsti ijpfarwtfgqtftar mffoir i 
Tflsir «t «ftn 1$ mfiranfrnitaHi i 8R. VII. 87-38). 
From this wo learn that the sakha means the flourish of the gesticulating 
hand (kara-vartanit) preceding one's speech whereas the ankura means 
such a flourish following it. ' See Ni§. IV. 299 ff. 

8 See Si IV. 170 ff. * See Si IV. 170 ff. 

16 (B.17, G.16). 

17-18 (B.18-19, G.17-18). ' The AD. has nine gestures of the head. 
Sec ed. M. Ghosh, 49-66, and A.K. Coomaraswamy, MG. pp. 86-38, 

19 (B.20, G.19). 

20 (B.21, G.20). » E reads one additional couplet after this. 


21. The Karapita head is applicable (lit. desired) in anger, 
argument, understanding, asserting, threatening, sickness and 

22. Dhuta and Vidhuta : A slow movement of the head is 
called the Dhuta, and when this movement is quick, it is called 
the Vidhuta. 

23. (Uses) : The Dhuta head is applicable in unwillingness, 
sadness, astonishment, confidence, looking sideways, emptiness and 
forbidding. . 

24. The Vidhuta head is to be applied in nn attack of cold, 
* terror, panic, fever and the first stage of drinking. 

25. Parivahita and Udvahita : When the head is alternately 
turned to the two sides it is called Parivahita, and when it is once 
turned upwards it is known as Udvahita : 

26. (Uses) : The Parivahita head is applicable in demons- 
tration, surprise, joy, remembering, intolerance, cogitation, conceal- 
ment and [amorous] sporting. 

27. The Udvahita 1 head is to be applied in pride, showing 
height, looking high up, self-esteem and the like. 

28. Avadhuta : When the head is once turned down it is 
called Avadhuta. (Uses) : It is to be applied in [communicating] 
a message, invoking [a deity], conversation and beckoning [one 
to come near], 

29. Aiicita : When the neck is slightly bent on one side 
the Aficita head is the result. (Uses) : It is applicable in sickness, 
swoon, intoxication, anxiety and sorrow. 

30-31. Nihancita : When two shoulders are raised up with 

21 (B.22, G.21). 22 (B 24,0.22). 

23 (B.25, G23). 24 (B.26, G.24). 

25 (B.27, G.2B>), ' G. reads one additional hemistich between 25a 
and 25b, and names the head movement as udhuta. 

26 (B.28, G.26). 

27 (B.29, G.27). » B. reads the name as adkuta. 

28 (B.30, G.28). 29(B.31,G,29). 
30-31 (B.32-33, G.30-31). 


the neck bent on one side the Nikaflcita head is produced. (Uses) : 
It is to be used by women in pride, Amorousness (vilasa) 1 , Light- 
heartedness {lalita)* Affected Indifference, (bibboka) 3 , Hysterical 
Mood, Qcilalihcita)*, Silent Expression of Affection {moffiyita) 8 , 
Pretended anger, (LiiUamita) , Paralysis and Jealous anger (mana). 

32. Paravrtta : When the face is turned round.the Paravrtta 
head is the result. (Uses) : It is to be used in turning away the 
face and looking back and the like. 

33. Utksipta : When the face is [slight'y] raised the 
Utksipta head is the result. (Uses) : It is used in lofty objects and 
application of divine weapons. 

34. Adhogata : The head with the face looking downwards 
is called Adhogata. (Uses) : It is used in shame, bowing [in 
salutation] and sorrow. 

35. Parilolita : When the head is moving on all sides, it is 
called Parilolita. (Uses): It is used in fainting, sickness, power of 
intoxication being possessed by an evil spirit, drowsiness and the 
like 1 . 

36. Besides these there are many other gestures of the 
head, which arc based on popular acting. These are to be used 
according to the popular practice (lit. nature). 

37. I have spoken about the thirteen gestures of the head. 
Now I shall discuss the characteristics of the Glances. 

The thirtysis Glances 

38. The Glances expressing the Sentiments 1 are KantS, 
Bhayanaka, Hasya, Karuna, Adbhuta, Eaudrl, Vlra, and Blbhatsa. 

1 Sec NS. XXIV. 15. 

2 See ibid 22. 3 See ibid 11. l See Hid 18. 
8 Sec ibid 19. • Sec ibidiO. 

32 (B.34, G.32). 33 (B 35, G.33). 34 (B.36, G.34). 

35 (B.37, G.35). ' B. reads after this an additional couplet. 

36(B.39,G.36). 37 (B.40, G.37). 

38 (B.41, G.38). The AD. too has only eight glances, see ed. M. 
Ghosh, 66-78, and A. K. Coomaras\ramy, MG. p. 40. Bat curiously 
enough the names of 'the eight glances in the AD. even if referred by 


39. The Glances to be used in the Dominant States are 
Snigdha, Hrsta, Dlna, Kruddha, Drpta, Bhayanvita, Jugupsita and 

40-42. The Glances to be used in the Transitory States 
such as &unya, Malina, Grants, Lajjanvita, Glana, Sankita, 
Visanna, Mukta, KuRcita, Abhitapta, Jihma, Lalita Vitarkita, 
Ardhamukula, Vibhranhl, Vipluta, Akekara, Vikosa, Trasta and 
Madira, make up their number thirtysix 1 . 

The Glances to express the Sentiments 

43. I shall now explain the characteristics of these Glances 
in connexion with the various Sentiments and the States, and shall 
describe their functions. 

44. Kanta : When with a feeling of love a person con- 
tracts his eyebrows and castes a sidelong look, he is said to have 
a Kanta (pleasing) Glance which has its origin in joy and pleasure. 
It is used in the Erotic Sentiment. 

45. Bhayanaka : The Glance in which the eyelids are 
drawn up and fixed, and the eyeballs are gleaming and turning up 
is called Bhayanaka (terrible). It indicates a great fear and is 
used in the Terrible Sentiment. 

46. Hasya : In the Hasya (smiling) Glance the two 
eyelids are by turns contracted, and they open with the eyeballs 
moving and slightly visible ; it should be used in representing 

47. Karuna : The Glance in which the" upper eyelid has 
descended, the eyeball is at rest due to mental agony, and the 
gaze is fixed at the tip of the nose, and there is tear, is called 
Karuna (pathetic). 

Coomaraswamy's text to the Bharatasastra, does not occur in the NS. 
which has no less than thirtysix glances. Besides the eight glances Coo- 
maraswamy's text records (he. cit) fortyfour glances which include 
those mentioned in the NsL 39 (B.4J, G .39). 

40-42 (B.43-45, G.43-42). » See note 1 to 38 above. 
43 (B.46, G.43). 44 (B.47 G.44). 

45-46 (B.48-49a, G.45-46a). • 47 (B.49, G.46b). 


164 THE NATYASASTBA [ Till. 4ft. 

48. Adbhuta : The Glance in which eyelashes are slightly 
curved at the end, eyeballs are raised in wonder, and the eyes 
are charmingly windened till the end, is called the AdbbatS (of 

49. Raudri : The pitiless Glance in which the eyeballs 
are rough, red, raised, and the eyelids are still and the eyebrows 
knitted, is called Raudrl (cruel), and it is used in the Furious 

. 50. Vlra : The Glance which is bright, fully open, agi- 
tated, serious, and in which eyeballs are at the centre of the eye (lit. 
level) is called Vira (heroic), and it is used in the Heroic Sentiment. 

51. Blbhatsii : The Glance in which the corners of the 
eyes are nearly covered by eyelids, the eyeballs are disturbed in 
disgust and the eyelashes are still and close to each other, is 
called Bibhatsa (odious). 

The Glances to express the Dominant States 

52. The Glances defined here are known to occur in relation 
to the Sentiments. I shall now explain the Glances relating to 
the Dominant States. 

53. Snigdha : The Glance which is not much widened 
(lit. medium widened), is sweet, and in which eyeballs are still, 
and there are tears of joy, is called Snigdha (loving) ; it is used 
in love ( lit grows out of love ). 

54. Hrsta : The Glance which is moving, slightly bent 
and in which eyeballs are not wholly visible (lit. entering), and 
there is winking, is called Hrsta (joyful) ; it is used in laughter. 

55. Ding : The Glance in which the lower eyelid is 
slightly fallen, eyeballs are slightly swollen, and which is moving 
very slowly, is called Dlna (pitiable) ; it is used in sorrow. 

48(B.51,G.48). ' 49 (B.52, G.49). 

50 (B.53, G.50). 

51 (B.54, G.51). l B.G. add after this one couplet defining the 

52 (B.56, G.53). 53 (B.57, G.54). 54 (p.9, B.55, G.55). 
55 (p-9, B.56, G.56). 


5t$. Kruddha : The rough Glance in which eyelids are 

motionless and drawn up, eyeballs are immobile and turned up 

and the eyebrows are knitted, is called Kruddha (angry) • it is 
used in anger. 

57. Drpta: The steady and widely opened Glance in which 
eyeballs are motionless, and which shows forth (lit. emits) prowess 
is called Drpta (haughty) ; it is used in energy (lit. grows out of 

58. Bhayanvita : The Glance in which the eyes are widely 
opened, the eyeballs are mobile in fear and are away from the 
centre [of the eye], is called Bhayanvita (awe-stricken) ; it is used 

in : 

59. Jcgupsita : The Glance in which eyelids are contracted 
but not joined together, and the eyeballs are covered and are 
turning away from the object coming in view (lit. the place in 
view) is called Jugupsita (disgusting) ; it is used in disgust 

60. Vismita: The level Glance which is fully blown and 
in which eyeballs are throughly turned up and the two eyelids are 
motionless, is called Vismita (astonished); it is used in 

The Glances to express the Transitory States 

61. These are the Glances relating to the Dominant States, 
that I have just defined. I shall now explain the characteristics of 
the Glances in the Transitory States. 

62. Sunyg: The Glance which is "weak and motionless 
and in which the eyebalhs and the eyelids are in ordinary position 
(ht. level), and which turns to the space and is not attentive to 
external objects is called 8\inya (vacant). 

63. Malina : The Glance in which ends of the eyelashes 
are not shaking and ends of the eyes are pale, and which is charac- 
terised very much by half-shut eyelids, is called Malina (pale). 

56 (p.9, B.57, G.57). 67 (p.9. B.58, G.58). 58 (B.69, G.59). 
89 (B 60, G.60). 60 (B.61, G.61). 61 (B.62, G.62). 

62(B.68,G.63). 63 (B.64, G.64). 


64. Srffnta" : The resting Glance in which eyelids have 
been let down due to fatigue, corners of the eyes are narrowed, 
and the eyeballs are fallen, is called Pranta (tired). 

65. Lajjanvita : The Glance in which ends of the 
eyelashes are slightly bent, the upper eyelid is descending in 
shyness, the eyeballs are lowered due to shame, is called Lajjanvita 

06. Glana : The languid Glance in which the eyebrows 
and the eyelashes are slowly moving and eyeballs are covered 
[under the eyelids] due to fatigue, is called Gliina (lazy). 

67. Sankita : The concealed Glance which' is once moved, 
and once at rest, slightly raised, obliquely open and in which 
the eyeballs are timid, is Sankita (apprehensive). 

68. Visanna : The bewildered Glance in which eyelids 
are drawn wide apart in dejection, and there is no winking and 
the eyeballs are slightly motionless, is called Visanna (dejected). 

69. Mukula : The Glance in which eyelashes are slightly 
trembling, the upper eyelids are of the Mukula type and the 
eyeballs are opened in happiness, is called Mukula. 

70. Kuncita : The Glance in which ends of eyelashes are 
bent due to the eyelids being contracted and the eyeballs are also 
contracted, is called Kuncita (contracted). 

71. Abhitapta : The Glance in which the eyeballs are 
slowly moving due to the movement of the eyelids, and which 
indicates much distress and pain, is called Abhitapta (distressed). 

72 Jihma : The Glance [in which the eyelids are hanging 
down and slightly contracted and the eyeballs are concealed, and 
which casts itself obliquely and slyly is called Jihma (crooked). 

73. Lalita : The Glance which is sweet, and contracted at 
the end [of the eye] and which is smiling and has movement of the 
eyebrows, and shows signs of love is called Lalita (amorous). 

64 (B.65, G.65). 65 (B.66, G.66). 66 (B.67, G.67). 

67 (B.68, G.68). 68 (B.69, G.69). 69 (B.70, G.70). 

7«(B.71,G.71). 71 (B.72, G.72). 

72(B.73,G.73). 73 (B.74, G174). 


74 Vitarkita : The Glance in which the eyelids are turned 
up for guessing, the eyeballs are full blown and moving downwards 
is called the Vitarkita (conjecturing). 

75. Ardhamukula : The Glance in which owing to joy the 
eyelids are of the Ardhamukula*. type, the eyeballs are half-blown 
and slightly mobile is called Ardhamukula. 

76. Vibhranta : The Glance in which the eyeballs are 
uiovingjand'so are the eyelids, and the middle [of the eye] is wide 
open'and full-bjown, is called Vibhranta (confused) 1 . 

77. Vipluta : The Glance in which the eyelids [first] 
tremble and'theh become, motionless and the eyeballs are [again] 
disturbed, is called Vipluta (disturbed). 

78. Akekara : The Glance in which the eyelids and the 
corner of the eyes are slightly contracted and joined together 
and is half-winking, and the eyeballs are repeatedly turning up, is 
called Skekara (half-shut). 

79. Vikosa : The joyful Glance in which the two eyelids 
are wide open and there is no winking and the eyeballs are not 
immobile, is called Vikos"a (full-blown). 

80. Trasta : The Glance in which the eyelids are drawn 
up in fear, the eyeballs are trembling and the middle of the eye is 
full-blown due to panic, is called Trasta (frightened). 

81. Madira : The Glance in which the middle of the eye 
is rolling, the ends of the eyes are thin, the eyes are bent, and the 
corners of the eyes are fully widened, is called Madira (intoxicated). 
It is to be used in representing light intoxication. 

82. In medium intoxication this Glance should have its 
eyelids slightly contracted, the eyeballs and and the eyelashes 
slightly mobile. 

83. In excessive (lit. the worst) intoxication the Glance 

74 (B.75, G.75). 75 (B.76, G.76) 

76 (B.77, 0.77). ' B.G. read 76b. differently- 

77 (B.78, G.78). 78 (B.79, G.79). 79 (B.80, G.80). 
80 (B.81, G.81). 81 (B.82, G.82). 82 (B.8S, G.83). 
83 (B.84, G.84). 


should have [either too] much winking or no winking at all, and 
the eyeballs in it should be slightly visible, and it (the look) 
should be turned downwards. 

84 These are the thirtysix Glances due to the Sentiments 
and the Dominant States described by me. Now listen about their 


Uses of the Glances expressing the Transitory States 

85. The Glances due to the Sentiments are to be used in 
representing them, while Glances due to the Dominant (States) 
should be used'Jin expressing these. Now listen about the uses 
of the Glances due to the Transitory States in representing these 

86-93. Sunya (vacant) — in anxiety and paralysis (motion- 

Malina (pale)— in discouragement, change of colour. 

Sranta (tired) — in weariness and depression. \ 

Lajjanvita — (bashful) 1 — in shame. 

GIana\(lazy) — in epilepsy, sickness and weakness. 

Sankita (apprehensive) — in apprehension. 

Visanna (dejected)— in depair. 

-Mukula — in'sleeping, dreaming and happiness. 

KuScita (contracted)— in envy, undesirable object, objects 
visible with difficulty and pain in the eye. 

Abhitapta (distressed) — in discouragement, accidental hurt 
and distress. 

Jihma (crooked)— in envy, stupor and indolence. Lalita 
(amorous)— in contentment and joy. 

Vitarkita (conjecturing)— in recollection and deliberation. 

Ardhamukula— in joy due to an experience of [sweet] smell 
or touch. 

84 (B.86, 0.84). ' We adopt G's reading 
. 85 (B.86, G.85). 
86-93 (B.87-94, 087-94). « lajjita Qalita, B.). 


Vibhranta (confused)— in agitation, hurry and confusion. 

Vipluta (disturbed)— inconstancy, insanity, affliction of 
misery and death. 

Skekara (half-shut)— in looking to a distant [object], 
separation and consecration by sprinkling (proktita) 1 . 

Vikosa (full-blown) — in awakening, arrogance, indignation 
cruelty and assurance. 

Trasta (frightened)— in fright. 

Madira (intoxicated)— in intoxication. 

94-95. Here I have finished the proper discription of the 
thirtysix Glances ; now listen about the [additional] Glances, and 
gestures of the eyeballs, the eyelids and the eyebrows due to the 
Sentiments and the States. 

The eyeballs 

95-96. Eyeballs have gestures of nine kinds : Bhramaaa 
(moving round), Valana (turning), Pata-Patana (relaxing), Cakuaa, 
(trembling), SampravoSana, (drawing inside), Vivartana, (turning 
sideways), Samudvrtta (raising up), Niskrama (going out) and 
Prakrta (natural). 

96-98. Bhramana (moving round) — turning round the 

eyeballs at random. 

Valana (turning)— moving (the eyeballs) obliquely. 
P5tana= Pata (relaxing) — the relaxation (of the eyeballs.) 
Calana (trembling)— the tremor (of the eyeballs.) 
Sarapravesana= Praves\a (drawing inside) — drawing (the 

eyeballs) in. 

Vivartana (turning) — turning the eyeballs sideways in a 

sidelong glance {kalaha). 

1 B. G. read preksitem.1 
94-95 (B.95, G.95). 

95-96 (B.96b-97n, G.96). l B.G, read one additional couplet after 

96-98 (B.98b-100a, G.98-100n),. 


Samudvrtta (raising up)-the raising up of the eyeballs. 
Niskramana (going out)-going out. [as it were of the 

Prakrta (natural))-eyeballs in the natural (glance.) 

Usf« of the eyeballs 

99-101. Now listen about their uses in [different] Senti- 
ments and States. 

Bhramana (moving round), Valana (turning) and Samudvrtta 
(raising of eyeballs)— in the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments. 

Niskramana (going out), and Valana (turning of the 
eyeballs)— in the Terrible Sentiment. 

Sampravesana (drawing of the eyeball)— in the Comic and 
the Odious Sentiments. 

Patana (relaxed eyeballs) in the Pathetic Sentiment. 

Niskramana (going out of the eyeballs)— in the Marvell- 
ous Sentiment. 

Prakrta (natural) eyeballs— in the remaining Sentiments 
(lit. States). 

Vivartana (turning sideways of the eyeballs)— in the Erotic 

102. These are the natural gestures of eyeballs based on the 
popular practice. They are to be applied [suitably] to all the 
different States. 

The additional Glances 

103-107. I shall speak about the varieties of Glances in 
special relation of these (lit. there). These are of eight kinds, viz. 
Sama (level), Saci (sidelong), Anuvrtta (inspecting), Alokita (casual), 
Vilokita (looking round), Pralokita (carefully looking), Ullokita 
(looking up\ and Avalokita (looking down). 

99-101 (B.101b-104a, G.100b-102a). 
102 (B.104b-105a, G.l02b-l04a). 
103-107 (B.105b-110a, G.104-109a> 


Sama (levelj-the eyeballs are in a / ere ] position and at rest 

Sacl (side-Iong)-the eyeballs are covered by eyelashes. 

Anuvrtta (inspecting)-Glance which carefully observes anv 
form. ' 

Slokita (casual)-(the eyeballs) in suddenly seeing any 
object). ' 

Vilokita (looking round)— (eyeballs) in looking back. 

Pralokita (carefully looking)-turning (eyeball from side 
to side. 

Ullokita (looking up)— (turning the eyeballs) upwards. 

Avalokita (looking down)-(turning the eyeballs) towards 
the ground. 

These are the gestures of the eyaballs in relation to all the 
Sentiments and the States. 

The eyelids 

108-1 1 1. Now listen about the gestures of the eyelids follow 
which the movements of eyeballs They are : Unmesa (opening), 
Nimesa (closing), Prasrta (expanding), Kuncita (contracted),' 
Sama (level), Vivartita (raising up), Sphurita (throbbing), Pihita 
(resting), and Vitaclita (driven). 

Unmesa (opening)— separating the eyelids 

Nimesa (closing)— bringing together the eyelids. 

Prasrta (expanding) -separating the eyelids widely. 

Kuncita (contracted)— contracting the eyelids. 

Sama (level)— eyelids in a natural position. 

Vivartita (raising up)— raising up the eyelids. 

Sphurita (throbbing)— when the eyelids are throbbing. 

Pihita (resting)— when the eyelids are at rest (lit. clofed). 

Vitadita (driven)— when struck the eyelids are struck 

108-111 (B.110b-ll4a, G.109b-U8a). 


Uses of the eyelids 

112-115. Now listen about their uses in different Senti- 
ments and States : 

Vivartita (raising up) — in anger. 

Niniesa (closing)— in anger. 

Uninesa (opening) — in anger. 

Prasrta (expanding)— in objects causing wonder, joy, and 
heroism. * 

Kuiicita (contracted) — in seeing undesired objects, (sweet) 
scent, flavour and touch. 

Sama (level) — in love. 

Sphurita (throbbing) — in jealous}'. 

Pihita (resting) — in dreaming, fainting, affliction due to 
storm, hot smoke, rains and collyriuni and eye-disease. 

Vitadita (driven) — in accidental injury. 

These are the uses of the eyeballs and the eyelids in express- 
ing the Sentiments and the States. 

The eyebrows 

116-120. Now, listen about the gestures of eyebrows, 
which accord with those of the eyeballs and the eyelids. (They) 
are seven in number and are as follows : Utksepa (raising), Patana 
(lowering), Bhrukufi (knitting), Catura (clever), Kuiicita (con- 
tracted), Recita (moving) and Sahaja (natural). 

Utksepa (raising)— raising of eyebrows simultaneously or 
one by one. 

Patana (lowering) — lowering of eyebrows simultaneously 
or one by one. 

Bhrukuti (knitting) - raising the root of tho eyebrows. 

Catura (clever)— slightly moving and extending the eye- 
brows in a plea-sing manner. 

112-115 (B.U4b-118a, G.113b-Wa). 
116-120 (B.ll8b-123a, G.117b-l2?a), 

■Villi 186 ] the gestures of minor limbs m 

KuBcita (contracted)— slightly bending of eyebrows one by 
one or the both at once. 

Recita (moving)— raising of one of the eyebrows in an 
amorous way. 

Sahaja (natural)— the position which the eyebrows maintain 
by nature. 

Uses of the eyebrows 

121-125. Now I shall speak about their uses in (expressing) 
the Sentiments' and the States. 

Utksepa .(raising) — in anger, deliberation, passion, sporti- 
venoss, in seeing and hearing only one eyebrow is raised, and in 
surprise, joy and violent anger both the eyebrows are raised up. 

Patana (lowering) — in envy, disgust, smile, and smelling. 

Bhrukuti (knitting)— in objects of anger, dazzling light. 

(Datura (clever) — in love, sportiveness, pleasing (object), 
(pleasing) touch 1 and awakening. 

Kuncita (contracted) — in manifestation of affection, pretended 
and hysterical mood. 

Recita (moving) — in dance. 

Sahaja (natural)— in simple (anav'uhlha) conditions. 

The nose 

126-123. (.Gestures of the eyebrows have been described ; 
now listen about those of the nose. They are of six kinds : 
Nata, Manda, Vikysta, Socchvasa, Vikimita and Svabhavika. 

Nata -lobes are constantly clinging (glidajmia) 

Manda — lobes are at rest. 

Vikrsta— lobes are blown. 

Socchvasa— when air is drawn in. 

Vikimita — the contracted nose. 

121-125 (B-123b-126, I28-l2!>a, G.122b-127»). ' B. road? 12-t a 
differently and one additional hemistich after this. 
126-128 (B.129b-182a, G.Wb-ROa). 


SvSbhavika— the natural nose. 

Uses of the nose 

129-132. This is the description of the gestures of the 
nose. Now listen about their uses : 

Nata — in slight weeping £it intervals. 

Manda — in discouragement, impatience and anxiety. 

Vikrsta — in strange smell, breathing, anger and fear. 

Socchvasa — in sweet smell and deep breathing. 

Vikunita— in laughter, disgust and envy. 

Svabhavika — in the remaining conditions. 

The cheeks 

132-131 Cheeks are of six kinds : Ksama (depressed). 

Phulla (blown), Purna (full), Kampita (trembling) and Kuiicita 
(contracted) and Sama (natural). 

Ksama (depressed) — (cheeks are) fallen. 

Phulla (blown) — (cheeks are) raised 

Purna (full)— (cheeks are) expanded. 

Kampita (trembling)— (cheeks are) throbbing. 

Kuiicita (contracted) — (cheeks are) narrrowed down. 

Sama (natural) -as (cheeks are) by nature. 

Uses of the cheeks 

135-137. Cheeks have been described. Now listen about 
their uses. 

Ksama (depressed)— in sorrow. 

Phulla (blown)— in joy. 

Pfirna (full) — in energy and arrogance. 

129-132 (B.132b, 134-136a, G.130D-133). » Instead of 129b, B. read* 
one couplet slightly different in content, 
■132-134 (B.136D-138, G.l34-138a). 
135-137 (B.139-141a,G.136b-l38). 


Kampita (trembling) — in anger and joy. 

Kuiicita (contracted) — in horripilation (sensitive) touch, cold, 
fear and fever. 

Sama (natural)— in the remaining conditions. 
The lower lips 

137-139. Gestures of the lips are six in number. (They 
are) : Vivartana (narrowing), Kampana (trembling), Visarga 
(spreading out), Viniguhana (concealing), Sandastaka (biting), 
Samudgaka (contracting). 

Vivartana (narrowing) — lips narrowed down. 

Kampana (trembling)— throbbing (of lips). 

Visarga (spreading out) — to spread out (lips). 

Viniguhana (concealing) — drawing in (of lips)- 

Sandastaka (biting) -(lips) bitten by teeth. 

Samudgaka (contracting)— the contraction of lips and keeping 
them at rest. 

Uses of the lower lips 

140-142. These are the gestures of the lips ; now listen 
about their uses. 

Vivartana (narrowing) — in envy, pain, contempt, laughter 
and the like. 

Kampana (trembling) —in pain, cold, fear, anger, swiftness 
and the like. 

Visarga (spreading out) — in women's amors, affected indiffer- 
ence and painting of lips. 

Viniguhana (concealing)— in making efforts. 

Sanda?taka (biting)— in manifestation of anger. 

Samudgaka (contracting)-in pity, kissing and greeting. 

187-138 (B.141b-143, G.l39-141a . 
140-142 (B.144-146, G.141b-144»). 


The chin 

143-146. So much about the gestures of the lips j now 
listen ahout those of the chin ; (they are) : Kuttana, Khandana, 
Chinna, Cuksit.i, Lehita, Sauia and Dasta. 

Kuttana — when the upper teeth are in conflict with the 
lower ones. 

Khandana — when (the two lips) repeatedly come together 
with each other. 

Chinna — when (the two lips) very closely meet each other, 

Cuksifci — when (the two lips) are held widely apart. 

Lehita — in licking the (lips; with the tongue. 

Sama — when (the two lips) slightly parted from each other. 

Dasta— when the lower lip is bitten by the teeth. 
Uses of the chin 

146-149. Kuttana — in fear, cold, attack of old age, and 

Khandana — in mutterings prayers (japa), studying, speaking 
and eating. 

Chinna— in sickness, fear, cold, (taking) exercise, and angry 

Cuksita — in yawning. 

Lehita=Lehana — in greediness. 

Sama — in a natural position. 

Dasta— -in angry efforts. 

So much about the gestures of the chin in relation to the 
teeth, the lips and the tongue. 

The mouth 

149-156. Gestures of the mouth are: Vidhuta, 
Vinivrtta, Nirbhugna, Bhugna, Vivrta and Udvahi. 

143-146 (B.147-150a, 0.l44b-147). 
146-149 (B.150b-153a, G.U7-150aJ. 
l4P-156(B.163b-l60a, G.150D-157). 


Vidhuta— the obliquely open (mouth). 

Vinivrtta — spread out (the mouth). 

Nirbhugna — (the mouth) lowered. 

Bhugna= Vyabhugna — (the mouth) slightly spread out. 

Vivrta — the mouth with the lips kept apart. 

Udvahi — (the mouth) turned up. 

Uses of the mouth 

Vinivrtta — in women's envy, jealousy, anger, contempt 
and bashfulness and the like. 

Vidhuta— jin restraining, saying 'not .so' and the like. 

Nirbhugna — in looking into depth and the like. 

Bhugna— in being ashamed, discouragement, impatience, 
anxiety, discipline and consultation. It is natural for the 

Vivrta— in laughter, sorrow and fear. 

Udvahi — in sportiveness and pride of women, in saying 
'go away', and disregard, in saying 'so indeed' and angry words. 

156-157. The exports should also use the mouth in 
conformity with the varieties of Glances such as Sania and Saci 
and the like mentioned by others. 

The colour of the face 

157-158. The col.. ur of the face according to the circum- 
stances (lit, meaning) is of four kinds : natural (wabharika) 
bright ( prasaima), reddened {nriia) and dark (ii/ama). 

Uses of the colour of the face. 
159-100. Natural face — in a natural and indifferent (mood)- 
Bright face— in wonder, laughter and love. 
Reddened face— in intoxication and in the Heroic the 
Terrible and the Pathetic Sentiments. 

156-157 (B.160b-161n, G.158). 
157-158 (B.l6lb-162a, G.159). " 
159-160 (B.162b-164, G.160-162a). 


Dark face— in the Terrible and the Odious Sentiments. 

161-162. The colour of the face should be thus used to re- 
present the States and the Sentiments. The acting done with the 
Gestures of the Sakha 1 , the Anga and the Upanga is good, but 
without proper colour of the face it will not be charming (lit.) 

162-163. Even a few Gestures when combined with the 
proper colour of the face will double their charm (lit. beauty) just 
as the moon [rising] at night will. 

163-164. Glances too when combined with the proper colour 
of the face will clearly express the different States and the Senti- 
ments, and on this (i.e. the colour of the face) the Histrionic 
Representation rests. 

164-165. The colour of the face suitable to the represen- 
tation of the States and the Sentiments, should follow every 
gestures of the eye (Glance), the eyebrow and the mouth. So 
much about the colour of the face which is the basis of the 
States and the Sentiments. 

The neck 

166-167. I shall now tell you, Brahmins, about the 
gestures of the neck. They are of nine kinds : Sama, Nata, 
Unnata. Tryasra, Recita, Kuficita, Aficita, Valita, and Vivrtta. 

Description and uses of the neck gestures 

167-171. Sama— the natural neck. (Uses) : in meditation 
natural pose, and muttering of Mantras. 

Nata— (neck with) face bent down. (Uses) in wearing (lit. 
binding) ornaments, putting ones arms round (lit. taking) some- 
body's neck. 

161-162 (B.165b-I66a, G.162b-163). ' See 11 and 15 above. 

162-163 (B.166-l67a,G.l64). 

163-164 (B.l67b-I68a, G.165). 

164-165 (B.168b-169, G.l66-167a). 

166-167 (B.170, G.167b- 168a). 

167-171 (B.171-175, G.l68b-173a> 


Unnata—neck with the face upturned. (Use): in looking up. 
Tryaara - neck with the (ace turned sideways. (Use) : in 

carrying weight on the neck, and sorrow. 

Eecita — the neck shaken or moved. (Uses) : in feeling 
(bhava), churning and dance. 

Kuncita— the neck with the head bent down. (Uses) : in 
pressure of weight and in protecting the neck. 

Ancita — the neck with the head turned back. (Uses) : in 
hanging (to death), arranging hair and looking very high up. 

Vahita — the neck witli the face turned sideways. (Uses) : in 
looking with the 1 neck turned round, 

Vivrtta — neck with the face towards the front. (Use) : in 
(indicating) going towards one's own place. 

172- 1 73- These are the many varieties of the neck gestures 
according to their [expressing different] customary states of 
men. Gestures of the neck are all to follow the gestures of the 
head and the head gestures also are reflected in those of the 
neck. So much about the description of the gestures of the 
head and the connected minor limbs {v/iaSiya) and their uses. 
N'ow listen about the gestures of the remaining limbs {ah'j«), 
which T am going to describe. 

Here ends Chapter VIU of Bharata's NatyasSstra, 
which treats of the Gestures of Minor Limbs. 

l72-m(l',.l7(i-177,Or.l7:U>-l7. r .). 




Bharata speaks 

1-3- So much about the minor limbs such as head, eyes, 
eyesbrows, nose, lips and cheecks, and their description that I 
was to tell you. I shall now- define you for the gestures of hands, 
breast, sides, belly, waist, thighs and feet and [explain] theirproper 
use 1 . In this connexion I shall [first of all] explain the gestures 
of hands and the like, that are used in the production of a play. 
You are to listen how they are to be applied [in acting]. 

Sixtysevcn gestures of the hand 

4-7- Gestures of single haiuhiiisnmijhta-haxta) 1 are twenty- 
four in number: Patilka, Tripataka, Kartarimukha, Ardhacandra, 
Arala, Sukatunda, Musti, Sikhara, Kapittha, Katakanmkha 2 , 
Sucyasya (Suciinukha),Padmakosa, Sarpasirah, Mrgas'irsa, Kangula, 
Alapadma (Alapallava), Catura, Bhramara, Hamsasya, Hamsa- 
paksa, Sandarpsa, Mukula, Urnanabha and Tfimracuda. 

1-3 (B.l, 3, 2, G.l-3). ' This use relates' to the two-fold Practice 
(realistic and coventioual) on the stage (See N>S. XIV. 62ff). The 
realistic Practice (lokadharmi) in this connexion is of two kinds, viz. 
(1) that reflecting one's emotion, as in arrogant reference to one's own- 
self, this {paiukd) hand is to be laised on a level with the forehead 
(IX. 19), (2) that representing the external form of an object, as the 
use of the Padmakosa hand to represent lotus and similar flowers. The 
conventional Practice {'talyadliarmf) is likewise of (wo kinds, vW. 
(1) that creating an ornamental effect, as the use of the four karmias 
of the hand (See NS. IX. 205-211 below), (2) thai partially, 
a popular behaviour, as the use of the trifiatakh hand to represent 
words spoken aside ( janimtika ). See Ag. 

4-7 (B.O. same). ' The-e hands gestures are ordinarily used singly; 
but at times two bauds showing one of these gestures are used simul- 
taneously. But still these are railed single (asamyu/a) hands. For, 
combined (samyuta) hands are so called because they are always to be 
shown by both the hands ; see Ag. 

3 Some mss. read this name as khalakimukha. Our reading is 


8-10. Gesture? of combined hands (/mmijuta-hanta) 1 are 
thirteen in number : Aiijali, Kapota, Karkata, Svastika, Kabika- 
vardhamanaka 2 , Utsanga, Nisadha, Dola, Puspapata, Makara, 
Gajadanta, Avahittlia and Vardhamana. 

10-17. Dance-hands (nrtta-lntdn) 1 are Caturasra 2 , Udvrtta 
Talamukha, Svustika, Viprakirna, Arfdakatakamukha, Aviddha- 
vaktra, Siieyasya, Hecila, Ardliarecita, Uttanavancita, Pallava, 
Nilamba, Kesabandha, Lata, Kariliasta, Paksavafieitaka, Paksa- 
pradyotaka, Gatudapaksa, Dandapaksa, Urdhvamandali, Parsva- 
liiarulali, Uromandali (Jrah-parsvardliaiiiaridall, Mustikasvastika, 
Nalinipadinako^a, Alapallava, (Jlbana, Lalita and Valita. 

These are (he sixtyfour 3 gestures of hands. 

Gestures of single hands 
l'('-2ti. Now listen about their definition and uses. 
Pataka (Hag) — the lingers extended and close against one 
another, and the thumb bent. 

supported by the AD. (See ed. M. Ghosh, verse 124. A. K. Coomaraswamy 
MG. p. 50). 

8-10 (B.G. same). ' See note 1 to 4-7 above. 

' Some mss. read this name as khalaih" ; kaiakiwardhana, is the 
warm' of a samyuta-hasta in the AD- (od. M. Ghosh, 187 and A. K. 
Cooinaraswamy, MG. p. 60). 

10-17 (B.G. I0b-17a). ' These gestures (dance hands, nrttahasta) 
as their name implies, are ordinarily to be used in dance ; bat in course 
of acting too they arc often to be used along with other gestures (single 
and combined) to create an ornamental effect (See note I to 1-3 above). 
See Ag. 

2 In the Skt. text these names are given in dual number e.g. 
our caturasra stands as caturasrau. The reason for this is to be sought 
in the fact that unlike the single and combined hands which must represent 
one single idea or object, the hands in the dance-haud gestures are 
to be individually moved, not for representing any idea or object but 
for creating an ornamental effect in acting as well as in dance. See Ag. 

8 In actual enumeration hand gestures are sixtyseveu in number 
(single. 24, combined 13 and Dance-hands 30). Catuhsas{hi in the text 
should be emended to saptasaslhi. • 17-26 (B.18-25, 26a, G.18-25. 26a). 


(Uses) : To represent an administration of blows, scorching 
heat, urging, attainment of happiness and arrogant reference of one's 
ownself 1 this. hand is to be raised on a level with the forehead. To 
represent the glare of heat, torrential rain and shower of flowers two 
Pataka hands with the fingers separated and moving, are to be joined 
together. A shallow pool of -water, present of flowers, grass and 
any design [lit. object] made on the ground are to be represented 
by two such hands separated from the Svastika position. The 
same Pataka hands with their lingers pointing downwards arc to 
be used to represent anything closed, made open, protected, 
covered, dense or private (concealable). This very band with 
its lingers pointing downwards and moving up ami down, is to 
express the speedy movement of wind and [ocean] waves, [ocean 
waves] breaking against the shore, and flood. The Recaka 
of this hand should be used to represent encouragement, many 
[in number], a great crowd of men, height, beating of drums, and 
flight of birds upwards. And anything washed, pressed, cleansed, 
pounded, or holding up a hill or uprooting it, should be represented 
by the palms of two such hands rubbing each other. This is 
also the manner of representing man and woman 2 . 

26-32. Tripataka (flag with three fingers)— the third finger 
of the Patakahand to be bent. 

(Uses) : It is to be used in representing invocation, descent, 
bidding goodbye, prohibition, entrance, raising up [anything] 1 , 
bowing [in salutation], comparing 2 , suggesting alternatives, touching 
[the head with] auspicious objects or putting them on the head, 
putting on a turban or crown and covering the mouth or the ears. 
This very hand with its fingers pointing downwards and moving 
up and down is to be used in representing flight of small birds, 
stream, snake, bees and the like. And with the third finger of the 

1 In saying 'I too/ 'of mc too', 'by me too', in me too' and the like (Ag). 

2 Ag. gives detailed rules about tho use of the pataka hand in all 
the cases mentioned above. 

26-32 (B.G. 26b-32) ' Ag. thinks that this relates to objects like 
one's chin. 

2 nidarianam upanumopameyabhrniam (Ag.). 


Tripataka should be represented wiping off tears, drawing a Tilaka 
or Patralekha 3 and touching of hairs. 

33-88. Two Tripataka 1 hands held like a Svastika repre- 
sents adoration of the feet of venerable persona (yum). Two such 
hands are to meet each other's end for representing marriage. 
Separated and moved from this position they indicate a king. 
When obliquely forming a Svastika they represent planets. To 
indicate an ascetic they are to be raised with palm turned back- 
wards. To represent a door they are to face each other. Submarine 
lire, battle and sea monsters are to be indicated by two Tripataka 
hands, first raised near one's face and then moved with the lingers 
pointing downwards. >> ith these, very hands should be indicated 
jumping of monkeys, waves, wind and women. To show the cresent 
moon this hand should put forward its thumb, and to indicate 
a king's march [against bis enemy] this hand should turn itself 
towards the back. 

3D-H. Kartarliuukha (sissors' blades) — the forefinger of 
the Tripataka hand to bend backwards. 

(Uses) : This [hand with its fingers] pointing downwards 
will represent showing the way, decorating the feet 1 or dying them-, 
and the crawling [of babies] 3 . With fingers pointing upwards it 
will represent biting, horn and letters. And when the lingers in it 
are turned differently (i.e. the middle finger is bent backwards) it 
will represent falling down, death, transgression 4 , reversion, cogita- 
tion and putting [anything] in trust 5 . 

:J rocanalabhanakam-bo\\c\\m% (the body) with go-rocam or drawing 
ornamental designs (patralekha) on the body with this substance. 
Gorocana is a bright yellow pigment prepared from the urine or bile of 
a cow. 

33-38 (B.G. 33-38). ' This portion does not occur in all mss., and 
may well have been a later addition. 

8 Parents, grand-parents and the spiritual guide etc. are meant by 
this term. 

39-11 (B.(x. 39-41). ' racanam kasturika dimpairabMigadikriya 
(Ag.). » mnjanam alaktakena (Ag.). 

3 Read rihgana for rahgana iu B. 

1 vyatikramalf—aparadhali (Ag.). 5 nyasta-niksepana. 


42. And with the two such (samyuta) "bands or one such 
(asamynta) hand should be represented antelope, yak, buffalo, 
celestial elephant (airavata), bull, gate {(jOfjara) and hill-top. 

43-45. Ardhacandra (crescent moon) —the fingers and the 
thumb so bent as to make a curve like a bow. 

(Uses) : With this should be represented young trees, 
crescent moon, conchshell, jar (knhi'sa), bracelet, forcible opening, 
exertion 1 , thinness and drinking 2 . With this [very] Ardhacandra 
hand women should represent girdle, hip, waist, face, Talapatra' 
and earring. 

- 40-52. Arala (bent)— the forefinger curved like a bow, 
the thumb also curved and the remaining lingers separated and 
turned upwards. 

(Uses) : With this should be represented courage, pride, 
prowess, beauty, contentment, heavenly |objeets], poise, act of 
blessing and other favourable states. And this, again, will re- 
present woman's gathering of hairs or scattering them and looking 
carefully over their entire body, The preliminaries to the marriage 
by bride's going round the bridegroom 1 and [marital] union 2 are 
to be represented by two Arala hands moving around each other 
and their fingers meeting in the form of a Svastika. And with 
similar hands should be represented circumambulation, round 
objects, great crowd of men, objects arninged on the ground 8 . In 
calling any one, asking any one not to come in, uprooting anything, 


4S-+5 US 'J. 43-45). ' hyastam khedam (Ag.). 

■ pimam for ptnam (B.G.), 

' Mss. rend lidapatra (tail.apatra) meaning a kind of ear-ornament 
(tailaitka or lulaiika). it is different kuiiijala from which is also an 

46-52 (IS.40-52, (i 46-51, 53). ! kautukam—vivakiU piirvabhavl 
vad/ttwaravor aairali anlarvmihali (A?..). 

8 vivfiliah—agnau sitkdni panigrahawm (Ag.). 

3 Objects sneli as Alpanh and ilowers arranged on the ground. 
Jt'or Alpana see Ealpana by Andre at Suzaune Karpellea, Paris, 1930 (?) 

* 0. reads after this a couplet defining the Arida hand. 


saying too many tilings, wiping off sweat and enjoying sweet smell, 
abuse, censure the Tripataka hands have been prescribed before by 
me, but women are to use the Arala hand to represent these. 

53-54 Sukatunda (parrot's beak)- the ring-finger -(third 
finger) of the Arala hand is bent 

(Uses) with this should be represented words such as '(It 
is) not I', '(It is) not you, (It is) not to be done; invocation, 
farewell, and saying 'Fie (upon you)' in contempt. 

55-50. Musti (fist: — fingers have their ends [bent] into the 
palm and the thumb [is set] upon them. 

(Uses) : IJ is used to represent beating, exercise 1 , exit, press- 
ing 2 , shampooing 3 , grasping sword and holding clubs and spears. 

57-58. Sikhara (peak)— in this very hand (mudj) the thumb 

(Uses) : It is used to represent reins, whip, goad, bow, 
throwing a javelin (tinnum) or a spike (sa/,//), painting the two 
lips and feet and raising up hairs. 

59-00. Kapittha (elephant-apple)— the forefinger of the 
Hikhara hand to be bent and pressed by the thumb. 

(Uses) : It is to represent weapons such as sword, bow, 
discus, javelin (tmiuirn), spear (Inmtii), mace, spike (ivkti), 
thunderbolt and arrows, true and wholesome deeds. 

1-04. Katakfimukha — the ring-finger and the little finger 
of this Kapittha hand to be raised and bent. 

(Uses) : It is used to represent sacrifice 1 ', oblation 2 , 
umbrella, drawing up reins, fan. holding a mirror, drawing 

.13-64 (B.53-54, G.54-55). 

.15-56 (B. 55-56, Or. 56- 7). ' Vyayivma according to Asr- moans 
yuddha (light or duel). 

2 'Pressing' of tlio teats of cows and buffaloes while milking'tlicm ; 
tfanaphlanc—mahisyudidohaiie (Ag). 

3 Samvahana according to Ag. means mrtphlana. 

57-58 (R.57-58, G.58-59). • 59-60 (B.59-60. G.60-61 ). 

61-64 (|>.4l, B.60-63,. G.53-65). ' hotram—srugudi-ttttanena, A«. 
2 havyam—ujyadyamukhem (Ag.). 


[patterns] 3 , powdering, taking np big sticks, arranging a pearl neck- 
lace, taking up garlands, gathering the ends of clothes, churning, 
drawing out arrows, plucking flowers, wielding a goad, drawing out 
a goad, string and looking at a woman. 

65-71. Suciinukha — the fore finger of the Katakamukha 
hand to be streehed. 

(Uses) : I shall tell you briefly of its various uses as the 
forefinger [in it] is raised and bent, moving sideways, shaking, 
moving up and down, and moving up without any rest. 
By moving the forefinger upwards [in this hand] are to be 
represented discus, lightning, banners, blossoms, (tarring 1 , zigzag 
movement, a cry of approbation 2 , young serpent, young sprout 1 ', 
incense, lamp, creepers 4 , Sikhanda 5 , falling down, curve and round- 
ness and with the forefinger raised this [hand] again should be 
used in [representing] stars, nose, [the number] one, club and 
stick. And [this hand with the forefinger] bent should meet the 
mouth to represent a being with teeth, and by the circular 
movement of this hand one should represent the taking away [a 
man's] every thing. And the forefinger iri this hand should be alter- 
nately raised and lowered to represent long study and long day. And 
the same should be curved, moved up and down near the face to 
represent a sentence. And to indicate 'no' or 'speak' the fore- 
finger should be stretched, shaken and moved up. 

72-75. This hand should be shaken to represent anger, 
perspiration, hair, ear-ring, armlet and decoration of the cheeks. 

3 khamlanam— drawing decorative patterns or designs on anything. 
Ag's explanation of this seems to be wrong. Cf. alaka-tilaka patravaliiii 
khamlantr (draws the alakii-iilaku and patriwali) in the Kirtilata »l 
Vidyiipati. See ed. Haraprasiid SSiistri, Calcutta, BS. 1831 UiiM.) pp. 
13-14, and the root khw] (to draw) in E. Bengal dialect of Tippers. 

65-71 (B.64-71a, 0.66-72). ' karniuidiktt-karnapura (Ag.). 

s Saying 'welldone.', 'how beautiful' etc b pallava but B. halymm. 

4 The text uses two words valli and lath meaning 'creeper'. Ag. 
distinguishes between the two as follows : alavu-pmbhrlayo vallyali and 
drbkm/prabkrtayo latah 

J h'k/imiila—fotmiirakamtm khkafnhah (Ag.). 
72-75 (B.71b-75a. 0.73-76). 


And to represent pride, 'I am,' enemy, 'Who is this', and 
scratching of the ear it should be held near the forehead. [And 
two Suclmukha hands] should be united to represent the union 
[of men], and be separated to indicate separation, and to represent 
a quarrel the two hands should be crossed, and to show bondage 
they are to press each other. The two Suciraukha | hands] 
facing each other and held separately on the left side will 
represent the close of the day, and held on the right side they 
will indicate the close of the night. 

76. This hand moved in the front will indicate [any] 
form, stone", whirlpool, mechanical contrivance and a hill, and 
to represent the serving up of meals the same movement of the 
hand pointing downwards is required. 

77. To represent Siva this hand pointing downwards 
is to be held close to the forehead and to indicate Indra this 
hand is to be raised [to the forehead] and held across it. 

78. By two such hands the orb of the full moon is to 
be represented, and to indicate the rising of Indra (i.e. raising 
his banner) it should be held close to the forehead. 

79. [This hand] moved all around will represent the orb 
of the moon, and to indicate Siva's [third] eye, it should be held 
on the forehead and [in ease of] Tndra's [eyes it should be] 
raised obliquely. 

80. Padmakosa (lotus-bud)— the fingers including the thumb 
to be separated and their ends to bend, but not to meet one 

81. (Uses) : To represent Bilva and Kapittha (elephant- 
apple) fruits and the breasts of women [this hand is to be used]. 
But to represent accepting [these fruits] or flesh, this hand should 
be slightly bent at its end. 

82. [This hand] should bo held [to represent] offering 

76 (B.77b-78a, G.77). 77 (B.78b-79a, G.78). 78 (B75b-76a, G.79). 
79 (B.76b-77a, Q.80). 80 (B79b-80a, G.81). 

81 (B.80b-8la, G.82). ' B. adds one hemistich after this. 

82 (B.82, G.83). 

"8 THE NATIASASTBA [ ix. 83. 

Puja to a deity, carrying tribute, casket, offering the first funeral 
cake 1 , and a number of flowers, are also to be indicated by the 
Padmakosa hand. 

' 83. The two sucli hands with moving fingers meeting at 
the wrist and turning backwards will represent the full-blown 
lotus and water-lilly. 

84. Sarpa&rah (snake-head)— the fingers including the 
thumb t-i be close to one another and the palm to be hollowed. 

85. (Uses) : Tt is used to represent the offering of water, 
movement of serpents, pouring water [on anything], challenging 
[for a duel], motion of the elephant's frontal globes (himbha) 
and the like. 

'80. Mrgasiisa (deer-head)— the Sarpasirah" hand with all 
its fingers pointing downwards, but the thumb and the little 
finger raised up. 

87. (Uses) : It is moved to represent here, now, "Tt is", 
to-day, possible, splendour (nllamiw), throw of dice, wiping off' 
perspiration and pretended anger. 

88. Kangula— The middle and the fore-fingers and the 
thumb to be separated and the ring finger to be bent but the little 
finger raised. 

89. (Uses) : By this are to be represented immature 
fruits of various kfnds and angry words of women. 

90. Alapallava (Alapadmaka)— all fingers turned towards 
the palm, standing on its side and separated from one another. 

91. _ (Uses) : It is to be used for indicating prevention, 
words like "Who arc you," "It is not", "nonsense" and a woman's 
allusion to herself. 

1 agrapintla-dtma—nandimukhd&raddha {kg.). 

83 (B.8.% G.84). 84 (B.84, G.85). 85 (B.85, G.86). 

86 (B 86, G .87). 87 (B.87, G.88). 

88 (B.88, G.89). » trertagnisamsthitah=viralali (Ag.). 

89 (B.89, G.90). ' B. reads one additional couplc*(9.90) after this, 
98 (B.91, G.91). 91 (B.92, G.92). 


92. Catura— the four fingers stretched and the thumb bent 
near the middle finger. 

93. (Uses) : It is to be applied in representing policy, 
discipline, penance, cleverness, a young girl, a sick person, spirit, 
deceit, proper words, welfare, truth and tranquility. 

94. By one or two such hands moved round should be 
represented openness, deliberation, moving, conjecture and shame. 

95. By the combined Catura hands are to be represented 
lotus-petals compared with eyes, and ears of deer. 

96-98. Besides these, the Catura hand is to indicate sports, 
love, brilliance, memory, intelligence, judgement, forgiveness, 
nutrition, consciousness, hope, affection, reasoning, union, purity, 
cleverness, favourableness, softness, happiness", character, question, 
livelihood, propriety, dress, soft grass, a small quantity, wealth, 
defeat, sexual intercourse, merit and demerit, youth, home, wife 
and various colours. 

99. [To represent] white it (the Catura hand) should be 
held up ; red and yellow are indicated by moving it round, and 
blue by pressing [one such hand with another]. 

100. Bhramara (bee)— the middle finger and the thumb 
crossing each other, the forefinger bent, the remaining two fingers 
separated and raised. 

101. (Uses) : It is used to indicate the plucking of flowers 
with long stems such as lotus and water-lily, and ear-ring. 

102. It should fall down with a sound to represent rebuke, 
pride of power, quickness, beating time and producing confidence. 

103. Hamsasya (swan-mouth) — the forefinger, middle finger 
and the thumb close 1 to one another and the remaining fingers 

92 (13.93, G.93). 93 (B.94, G.94). 94 (B.95, 0.95). 

95 (B.96, G.96). 4 . 96-98 (B.97-99, G.97-99). 99 (B.100, G.100). 
" 100 (R101, d.101). M)l(B.102,G.102). 102 (B.103, G.103). 
103 (B.104, G.104). ' nirantarh iti viralalvam nuedhati (Ag.). 


104. (Uses) : It with the slightly throbbing end is used to 
,. indicate .specially, fine, small, loose, lightness, exit, and softness. 

10!). Hamsapaksa (swan-wings)— the threefingers stretched, 
^he little finger raised and the thumb bent. 

106-108. (Uses) : It is used to indicate pouring libation of 
water, and it should be held near the cheek to represent acceptance 
of a gift, Acamana and taking meals by Brahmins, embrace, 
excessive stupor, horripilation, touch, unguent and gentle massage. 
It may again be used to indicate according to the [prevailing] 
Sentiment, amorous action of women relating to the region between 
their breasts, their sorrow and touching of their chin. 

109, Sandamsa (pincers)— the forefinger and the thumb 
of the Arala hand crossed and the palm a little hollowed. 

110. The Sandamsa (hand) according to the Sentiments 
and States, is of three kinds, viz. that [held] in front, that near 
the mouth and that on one side. 

111-115. (Uses) : In representing the plucking of flowers, 
making garlands of them, taking up grass, leaves, hairs or thread 
and holding or pulling out an arrow or thorn the Sandamsa should 
be held in one's front. And to represent taking off a flower from 
-.Us. stem, the wick [of a lamp], [collyriumj stick, filling up [any 
vessel with any thing], in saying 'fie [upon you'], and anger, this 
should be held near the mouth. To represent the sacred thread, 
piercing a hole [in pearls and similar sbjects], bow-string, fineness, 
arrow, and objects aimed at, yoga, meditation and small quantity 
[two] such hands should be combined. This shown by the left 
hand held on one fide and slightly turning its tip is used to re- 
present softness, abuse and envy. It is used also to indicate pain- 
ting, colouring one's eyes, deliberation, stem, drawing Patralekha 
and squeezing of lac-dye by women. 

116. Mukula (bud) -the fingers bent and close to one 
another and their tips meeting together in the Halnsasya hand. 

104 (B.105, G.105). 105 (B.106, 6-106). 

106-108 (B.107-109, G.lll). 109 (1.110, Q.110) 

rw(B.lll,Glll). 1U-1I5 (B.112-U6 G). il6(B.117,G.117). 



117-118. (Uses) : It is used to represent the making of 
offerings in worshipping a deity, bud of a lotus or a water-lily, 
throwing a kiss (vUa-enmhana), contempt, miscellaneous things, 
taking meals, counting of gold coins, narrowing of the mouth, 
giving away [anything], quickness and buds of flowers, 

119-120. Urnanabha(spider)— the fingers of the Padmkosa 
hand [further] bent. 

(Uses) : It is used to represent the combing of hair, 
receiving stolen goods, scratching one's head, skin disease, 
lions, tigers and such other animals, and taking up [touch] — stone. 

121-122. , Tamracuda (lit. copper-crest i.e. cock) — the middle 
finger and the thumb crossed, the fore-finger bent, the remaining 
[two fingers] at the palm. 

(Uses) : It should fall down with a sound to represent 
rebuke, beating time, inspiring confidence, quickness, and making 

123. This hand is to be used to indicate small fractions of 
time such as Kala, Kastha, Niinesa and Ksana as well as talking 
to a young girl and inviting her. 

124. When the fingers in a hand are close to one another, 
bent and the thumb is set on them, the same is [also] called the 
Tamracuda hand. 

125. By this hand are to be indicated hundred, thousand 
and lac of gold coins, and when the lingers in it are suddenly made 
to move freely it will represent sparks or drops. 

120. the best of Brahmins, these are the single hands 
described by me. Now hear about the combined hands which 
I am going to describe. 

117-118 (B.U8-U2, G.118-U9). "' vilacumbanam svahhiprayam avf- 
skartum svahastatn, eva mukulitam vitas cumbant'xti vitacumbanam (Ag.). 

119-120 (B.120-121, G.120-121). l Cf. Ag's explanation of caurya- 

121-123 (B. 122-124, G.12^-123). 123 (B.124, G-124). 

124 (B.125. G.125). ' 125 (B.126, G.126). 126 (B.127, G.127). 


127. Afijali— Putting together of the two Pataka hands is 
called Afijali. 

(Uses) : It is used to greet gods, venerable persons (guru) 
and friend 1 . 

128. In greeting gods it is to be held on the head, in ease 
of venerable persons it is to be held near one's face, and for 
greeting the friends it is to be placed on the breast, and in case of 
the remaining persons there is no fixed rule. 

1 29. Kapota (pigeon)— The two ( A iijali) hands meeting on 
one of their sides will make the Kapota hand. Listen about its 
uses. • 

130. (Uses) : It is to be used to indicate an approach with 
inimical attitude, bowing and talking to a venerable person. To 
indicate cold and fear, women are to hold this hand on their breasts. 

131. 'The hands [showing the Kapota gesture] released after 
the meeting of fingers will indicate anxious words, or 'This much 
can be done' or 'Nothing more can be done.' 

132. Karkata (crab)— When the fingers of the hands are 
interlocked the Karkata hand is produced. 

133. (Uses) : It is used to indicate the bees-wax, 'niassagin<* 
of the limbs, yawning just after awakening from sleep, a big body, 
supporting the chin and holding a conch-shell [for blowing it].' 

134. Svastika— The two Arala hands upturned and held 
together at the wrists will form the Svastika. It is to be used by 

135. (Uses) : When the hands are separated from the 
Svastika position, it will indicate directions, clouds, the sky, forests, 
seas, seasons, the earth and similar [other] extensive things. 

127 (B.128, G.128). 

128(B.129b-30a,G.129). ] B. adds one additional hemistich after 
this. 129(B.l30b-131a,G.13O). 

130(B.131b-132n,G.131). 131 (B.132b-132a, G.132). 

,132 (B.l33b-184a, G.133). 133 (B.134b-135a, G.134). 

134 (B.l85b-I36a, G.135). 136 (B,l*6M37a, G.136). 


136. Katakavardhamanaka — When one Kataka (mukha) 
hand is placed on [the wrist ofj another Kataka [mukha] hand the 
Katakavardhamanaka hand will be produced. 

(Uses) : It is to be used in movements connected with 
love-making and in bowing [to a person J* 

137. Utsanga — When the Arala hands are contrarily 
placed and are held upturned and bent, the Uts-anga hand will he 
the result. 

(Uses) : It is used to indicate the feeling of touch. 

138. It is also used to indicate anything to be done with 
great effort, acts, of anger and indignation, squeezing [anything] 
and women's acts of jealousy. 

139-140. Nisadha— The left hand holding the [right] arm 
above the elbow and the right hand similarly touching the left arm 
with a clenched fist will make a Nisadha hand. 1 

141. (Uses) : It is to indicate patience, intoxication, pride, 
elegance, eagerness, valour, arrogance self-conceit, haughtiness 
motionlessncss, steadiness and the like. 

142. Dola— When the two shoulders are at ease in a 
Karana and the two Pataka hands are hanging down the Dola 
hand is produced. 

143. (Uses) : It is to be used in indicating hurry, sadness, 
fainting, fit of intoxication, excitement, state of illness and wound 
by a weapon. 

1 14. Puspaputa — The two Sarpasirah hands with their 
lingers close to one another meeting on one side very closely will 
give rise to the Puspaputa hand. „* 

m (B.137b-138.., G.137). 137 (B.13U, G.138). 138 (B 140, G.139). 

139-140 (B 144-145). ' G. omits this passage and 141, and read them 
differently, but in the footnote to lines 1 1-16 the definition occurs, and the 
uses too. B. also gives an additional definition and uses of the Nisadha 
in B.141 143. 

141 (B.146). ' See note 1 to 139-140. 

142(B.148,G.142). ' 143 (B.149, G.143). 

144 (B.150, G.144).. ' - "145 (B.151, G-145). 


145. (Uses) : It is to be used to indicate the receiving or 
carrying of rice, fruits, flowers and foods of various kinds and the 
carrying and removing of water. 

146. Makara— When the two Pataka hands with their 
thumbs raised are turned down and. placed on each other the 
Makara hand is produced. 

147. (Uses) : It is used to indicate lion, tiger, elephant, 
crocodile, shark (mal-ara) and fish and other carnivorous animals. 

148 Gajadanti— The two Sarpasirah hands, 'touching the 
opposite arms between the shoulder and the elbow will give rise to 
the Gajadanta hand. 

149. (Uses) : It is to be used to indicate the carrying of the 
bridegroom and the bride, excessive weight, clasping a pillar and 
uprooting a hill or a block of stone. 

150. Avahittha— When the two 6ukatundi hands m.ut 
each other on the breast and are bent and then slowly lowered, the 
Avahittha hands will be the result. 

151. (Uses) ; It is to be used in indicating weakness, sigh, 
showing one's body, thinness [of the body] and longing [for a be- 
loved person"!. 

152. Vardhamana— When the Mukula hand is clasped by 
the Kapittha the result will be the Vardhamana hand. 

153. (Uses) : By pressing one hand with the other it is used 
to indicate grasping, receiving, preserving, convention (or doctrine) 
truthfulness and abridgement. 

154. Or the two Hamsapaksa hands turned down will be 
the known as the Vardhamana. (Uses) : It is to be used to represent 
the opening of objects like latticed windows. 

155. The two kinds of hands (single and combined) 

146 (B.152, 0.146). 147 (B.153, 0.147). 

148 (B.154, G.148). H9 (B.155, 0.149). 

150 (B.156, G.150). 151 (B.157, 0.151). 

152-153. J Ms. 67. of 0. and (la of B. road tho passages as we do 
but B. and 0. reject this and read thorn differently. 

154 (B 158, G.152). 155 (B.160, G.153). 


described briefly may be used elsewhere also in conformity with 
the rules laid down here. 

General rules regarding the use of hand gestures 

156. In acting, hand [gestures] should be selected for their 
form, movement, significance, and class according to the personal 
judgement [of the actor]. 

157. There is no gesture (lit. hand^that cannot be used in 
indicating [some] idea. I have profusely described whatever forms 
(lit. gestures) are usually seen [to be associated with different 

158. There are besides other popular gestures (lit. hand) 
connected with other ideas, and they also are to be freely used along 
with the movements inspired by the Sentiments and the States. 

159. These gestures should be used by males as well as 
females with proper regard to place, occasion, the play undertaken 
and a suitability of their meaning. 

Different movements of hand gestures 

160. I shall now describe the varied movements which 
these gestures (lit hands) [should] have in connexion with th», 
[different] Sentiments and States. 

161-163. [These movements are] : drawing upwards, dragg- 
ing, drawing out, accepting, killing, beckoning, urging, bringing 
together, separating, protecting, releasing, throwing, shaking, 
giving away, threatening, cutting, piercing, squeezing and beating. 

164. Hand gestures according to the theory of Histrionic 
Representation are to have three kinds of general movements, viz* 
upwards, sideways and downwards. 

165. These movements of hands should at the time of their 
use, be embellishad by means of [suitable] expressions in the 
eyes, the eyebrows and the face. 

156 (B.161, G.154). 157 (B.162, B.G.155). 

158 (B 163, G.156). 159 (B.164, G.157). 

160 (B.165, G.158). 161-163 (B.166-168, G.159 161), 

164 (B.169, G.173). . 165 (B.l 70, G.162). 

186 THE NATXABASTBA :{ IX: 169- 

Spheres of hand gestures 

160. The experts are to use the hand gestures according 
to the popular practice and, [in this matter] they should have an 
eye to their movement, object, sphere, quantity, appropriateness 
and mode. 

167. Hand gestures of persons of the superior type should 
move near their forehead, that of the middling type of [ ersons 
at about their breasts while the inferior persons [should move 
their hand gestures in regions] below this. 

The quantity of gestures 

168. In the superior acting, hand gestures should have 
scanty movement, in the middling acting medium sort of movement, 
while the ordinary acting should have profuse movements of hand 

169. To indicate different objects and ideas the hand gestures 
of persons of the superior and the middling types [in such cases] 
should conform the definitions given [in the Sastra] while gestures 
of the persons of inferior type should follow the popular practice 
and their [own] natural habit. 

170. But when [specially] different occasions or times 
present themselves, wise people should make different uses of 
the hand gestures. 

171-174. While a person is to represent himself as sad, 
fainting, terrified, overcome with disgust or sorrow, weak, 
asleep, handless, inactive, drowsy, inert, sick, attacked with fever, 
seized with panic, attacked with cold, intoxicated, bewildered, mad, 
thoughtful, practising austerities, residing in a cold region, prisoner 
under arrest, running very swiftly, speaking in dream, suddenly 
moving away and cutting nails he is not to use hand gestures, 
but he should resort to the Representation of the Temperament as 
well as to the change of voice suitable to the different States and 

166 (B.171, G.163). 167 (B 172, 0.164). 

168 (B.173, G.166). 169 (B.174, G.166). 

170 (B.175, G.167). 171-174 (B.176-179, G.168-171). 

-IX. 183 ] f HE GESTUBES OP HANDS 187 

175. At the time of verbal acting {i.e. when the actor will 
enunciate his part) the eyes and the look are to be directed to points 
at which the hand gestures are moving, and there should be proper 
stops so that the meaning may be [clearly] expressed (lit. seen) 1 . 

17G. The movements of hands in dancing and acting will 
be of five kinds, viz. palms kept upwards, downwards or oblique, 
fingers pointing upwards or downwards. 

177. These are the hand gestures connected with the various 
kinds of Histrionic Representations. I shall now speak of Dance- 
hands (i e. gestures to be used in dance). 

The Dance-hands 

] 78. Caturasra — two Katakamukha hands held forward 
eight Angulls apart [from each other] on one's breast, the two 
shoulders and elbows on the same level. 

1 79. Udvrtta — the two Hamsapaksa hands waved like a 
palm-leaf (fan). Its alternative name is the Talavrnta (palm-leaf). 

180. Talamukha— the two hands from the Caturasra 
position to be held obliquely facing each other. 

181. Svastika — the Talamukha hands crossed at the 
wrists ; but released after this they are called Vipraklrna. 

182. Aralakatakamukha— the two Alapallava (Alapad- 
maka) hands with palms upwards changed into Padmakosa hands. 
Its another name is Aralakataka- 

183. Aviddhavaktraka— The two hands are to have a 
graceful (leutila) movement after touching [successively] the oppo- 
site shoulder, elbow and hands, and the palms [of the hands] moved 
are to turn towards the back. 

175 (B.180, G.172). ' B. repeats hero 164 (B.169) 

176 (B.182, G.175). i 77 (B.183, G.176). 
178 (B 184, G.177). 179 (B.185, G.178). 
180 (B.186, G.179). 181 (B.187, G.180). 

182 (B.188, G.181). l B.G. read after this a variant of this 
definition. , . 183 (B.190, G.183). 


184. Sudmukha—The two' S&rpt^ir&h hands with their 
thumbs touching middle fingers are to stretch their tips obliquely. 

185. Recita - the two Hamsapaksa hands swiftly moving 
with the palms facing upward This is like the ordinary Recita [of 
the hands]. 

186. Ardharecita-The left hand should be as in the 
Caturasra and the right hand as in the Recita. 

187. UttSnavancita— The two Tripataka hands are slightly 
bent obliquely and the shoulders and the&lbows are moved. 

188. Pallava— the two Pataka hand joined at the wrist. 

Nitamba— the two Pataka hands taken out from the shoulder 
[to the hip]. 

1K9. Kesabandha— the two hands moved out from the 
hair-knot (kwbnmUm) and held on the sides. 

190. Lata— the two hands to be obliquely stretched 

191. Karihasta— the Lata hand held up and swung from 
side to side and the Tripataka hand held on the ear. 

192. Paksavaiicitaka-ono Tripataka hand placet! on the 
waist and another on the head. 

193. Paksapradyotaka-the Paksavancitaka 'hands chang- 
ing places (/.,. the hands placed on the waist to be put on the 
head and vice versa). 

194. Dandapaksa-the two Harnsapaksa hands moved 
alternately and then held out like a staff. 

195. Ordhvamandall-the two hands to have circling 
movement near the upper region {i.,. the upper part of the body). 

mfl^a"* ' M -« a *-«"«— ^definition. 
185(B.193,G.186). 186 (B.1 H G.187) 

187(B.195,G.188X 188(B.196,G.189) 

189(B.197,G.190). 190 (B.198,G.I91) 

1^.199,0.192). 192(B.200,G.198). ' 

1»»»1.0.19A IMflUeW-Mft 195(8.203,0.196)- 


Partivamandall — the same movement made on one side. 

1 96. Uromandall — affer circling movements one hand to 
be raised up and the other to hang down, and movements to take 
place near the breast. 

197.. Urahparsvardhamandala — the Alapallava (Alapad- 
maka) and Argla hands moved by turns above the breast and on 
the sides. 

198. Mustikasvastika — the two Katakamukha hands bent 
at the wrists and moved round. 

199. Nalinipadmako&i the hands to be moved by turns 
with Vyavartita and Parivartita Karana. 

200. Allapallava — the two hand to have the Udvestita 
Karana in their movements. 

Ulbana— the two hands to be stretched up and waved. 

201. Lalita — two [Ala]-pallava (Alapadmaka) hands to be 
moved above the head. 

Valita— the two Lata hands crossed at their elbows. 

202. The Dance-hands are to be used in forming Karanas 
and hands such as the Pataka should be used in representing 
the meaning [of words], 

203. [But] sometimes, out of necessity their uses are inter- 
changed, and the names given are due to their predominant use 
in drama and dance. 

204 The Dance-hands are of two kinds : single and com- 
bined. I shall now speak of hands in relation to the Karanas. 1 

The four Karanas of the hand 

205-206. Instructors of hand gestures are to note carefully 
the four classes into which all such gestures are grouped. The four 
classes are : A"vestita, Udvestita, Vyavarita and Parivartita. 

196 (B.204, G.197). 197 (B.205, 0.198). 198 (B.206, G.199). 
199 (B.207, G.200). 200 (B.208, G.201). 201 (B.209, G.202). 
202 (B.210). » G. omits this. 203 (B.211). * G. omits this. N 
204 (B.212, G.203). ' This - Karana is evidently differently from the 
K. mentoned in H& IV. 62ff. 205-206 (B.213-214, G.204-2W). 


207. Avestita : When the fingers beginning with the first 
one (the forefinger) are gradually pointing inwards at the time [the 
hand] moves round, the Karana [thus produced] is called Avestita. 

208. Udvestita : When the fingers beginning with the first 
one [forefingers] are gradually pointing outwards at the time 
[the hand] moves round, the Karana thus produced is called 

209. Vyavartita : When fingers beginning with the last 
one (the little finger) are gradually pointing inwards at the time 
[the hand] moves round the Karana thus produced is called 

210 Parivartita : When the fingers beginning with the last 
one (tho little finger) are gradually pointing outwards at the 
time [the hand] moves round, the Karana thus produced, is called 

211. Hand gestures in their [various] movements when 
applied in drama and dance should be followed by Karanas having 
[appropriate expression of] the face, the eyebrows and the eyes. 

The movements of arms 

212-213. Persons dealing in drama and dance have pres- 
cribed ten [movements] of arms : Tiryak, Drdhvagata, Adhomukha, 
Aviddha, Apaviddha, Mandala, Svastika, Aiicita, Kuncita and 

214. O Brahmins, I have now finished the brief description 
of rules regarding the Karanas and shall speak afterwards about 
the movements of the breast, the belly and the sides. 

Here ends Chapter IX of Bharata's Natyas'astra 
which treats of the Gestures of Hands. 

207 (B.215, G.206). 208 (B.216, G.207). 

209 (B.217, G.208). 210 (B.218, G.209). 

211 (B.219, G.210). 212 (B.220, G.211). 

213 (B.221, G.212). 214 (B.222, G.213). 



The breast 

1. The breast is known to bo of five kinds : Abhugna 
(slightly bent), Nirbhugna (unbent), Prakampita (shaking), Udvahita 

(raised) and Sama (natural). 

2. Abhugna (slightly bent)— (the bratst) lowered, back 
high, shoulders slightly bent and at times loose (not stiff). 

3. (Uses) ; in hurry, despair, fainting, sorrow, fear, sickness,- 
broken heart, touching of cold objects, rains and being ashamed 
of some act. 

4. Nirbhugna (unbent)— (the breast) stiff, back depressed, 
shoulders not bent and raised. 

5. (Uses) : in paralysis, having resentment, look of surprise, 
assertion of truth, mentioning oneself haughtily, and excess of 

6. Prakampita (shaken) — the breast incessantly heaved up 
[and down]. 

7. (Uses) : in laughter, weeping, weariness, panic, [fit ofj 
asthma, hiccough, and misery. 

8. Udvahita (raised)— the breast raised up. 

(Uses) : in (representing) deep breathing, viewing some lofty 
[object], and yawning. 

9. Sama (natural)— All the limbs being in the Caturasra 
and with Saustlmva the breast will be called Sama (natural). 

1 (B.IX.223, G.l). 2 (B.IX.224, G.2). 

3 (B.IX.225, G.3). 4 (B.JX226, G.4). 

5 (B.IX.227, G.5). l B.G. read after this an additionafeouplet- 

6 (B.IX.229, 0.1). 7 (B.IX.280, G.8). 
8 (B.IX.281, G.9). 9 (B.IX.232, G.10). 


The aides 

UK I have properly described the variety of the breast 
movements. And I shall now define here the two sides. 

11. The sides are of five kinds, viz., Nata (bent), Samunnata 
(raised), Prasarita (extended), Virvartita (turned round) and 
Apasrta (drawn away). 

12-15. Nata (bent)— the waist slightly bent, one side slightly 
bent, one shoulder drawn away slightly. 

Unnata (raised)— The other side [on the assumption of the 
Nata position] will be Unnata (raised), [because in relation of it] 
the waist, the side, the arm and the shoulder will be raised. 

Prasarita (stretched)- the stretching of the sides in their 
(respective) directions. 

Vivartita (turned round)— the Trika (sacrum) is to be 
turned round. 

Prasrta (drawn away)— the side restored to its original 
position from the Vivartita movement [described above]. 
These are the definition of the various kinds of sides. 

Uses of the sides 
16-17. Nata (bent)— in approaching any body. 
Unnata (raised)— in going backwards. 
Prasarita (stretched)— in joy and the like. 
Vivartita (turned round) -in turning about. 
Apasrta (drawn away)— in returning. 

These are the uses of sides. Now listen about those of 
the belly 

The belly 
18. The belly is of three kinds : Ksama (thin), Khalva 
(depressed), and Puma (full). Of these, the thin (belly) is Ksama, 
the bent is Khalva and the full belly is Purna. 

10(B.IX.233,G.ll). ll(B.IX.284,G.12). 

12-15 (B.IX.235-238, G.13-16). - B roads nmrtita. 
• 16-17 (B.1X. 239-240, 0.17-10. 1 8 (B.IX.241, 0.19). 


' Uses of the belly 


19-20. JCfama, (thin) : in laughter, weeping, inhalation and 

Khalva (depressed) : in sickness, penance (tapas), weariness 
and hunger. 

Purna (full) : in emitting breath, fatness, disease, too much 
eating and the like. 

These are the uses of the belly. Now listen about that 
of the waist. 

The waist 

21-24. The waist in dance and drama is of five kinds, viz. 
Chinna (turned aside), Nivrtta, (turned round), Recita (moved 
about), Prakampita =Kampita (shaken) and Udvahita (raised). 

Chinna (turned aside)— in turning the middle of the waist. 

Nivrtta (turned round)— in turning to the front from the 
reverse position. 

Recita (moved about) — in moving in all directions. 

Prakampita (shaken)— in obliquely moving up and down. 

Udvahita (raised)— in raising the two sides of the waist 

These are the movements of the waist. Now listen about 
their uses. 

Uses of the waist 

25-26. Chinna (turned aside) : in exercising [the limbsl 
hurry and looking round. 

Nivrtta (turned round) : in turning round. 

Recita (moved about) : in movements [of the general type]. 

Prakampita (shaken) : in the walking of hunch-backs and 
persons of the inferior type. 

19-20 (BJX,242-243a, 244a, G.20-21). l B.G. read an additional ho- 
mistieh between 20a and 20b. 

21-24 (BJX.244b-248a, G.22-25). > B.G. read differentiy. 
25-26 (B.IX.248b-250a, G.26-27X 


Udvahita (raised) : in the [movement of] corpulent [persons] 
and the amorous movements of women. 

The thigh 

27-30. The thighs have five conditions, viz. Kampana 
(shaking) Valana (turning), Stambhana (motionlessness), Udvartana 
(springing up) and Vivartana (turning round). 

31, Kampana (shaking)— raising and lowering of heels 

Valana (turning)— drawing the knees inwards [while going]. 
Stambhana (motionlessness)— suspension of movement. 
Udvartana (springing up)— drawing the knee inwards (valita) 
and moving it. 

Vivartana (turning rould)— drawing the heels inwards. 
Uses of the thigh 

32. Kampana (shaking) : in the frightened movement of 
persons of the inferior type. 

Valana (turning) : in the movement of women at ease. 
Stambhana (motionlessness) : in perturbation and despair. 
Udvartana (springing up) : in exercising [the limbs] and the 
Class Dance. 

Vivartana (turning round) : in going round due to causes 
like hurry. 

33. Similar other [conditions of the thigh] as they are 
found in popular practice, may be assumed. So much about the 
description of the thigh. Now listen about the shank. 

The shank 

34-37. The shank is of five kinds, viz Xvartita (turned) 
Nata (bent), Ksipta (throwwout), Udvahita (raised) and Parivrtta 
(turned back). 

27-30 (B.IX.250b-253, G.28-31a). 
. 30-32 (B.IX.254-256a, G.31b-33). 
33 (B.IX.256b-257a, 0.34). ■ 34-37 (BJX.257b-258a, G.35), 


Avartita (turned)— the left foot turning to the right and the 
right [one] to the left. x 

Nata (bent) — the knee bent. 

Ksipta (thrown out)— shank thrown out. 1 

Udvahita (raised)— raising [a shank] up. 

Parivrtta (turned back) — the turning back [of a shank]. 

Uses of the shank 
38-40. Avartita (turned) : in the Jester's walking. 
Nata (bent) : in assuming Sthana (standing) and Asaiia 
(sitting) postures, 

Ksipta (thrown out) ". in the exercise [of limbs] and the 
Class Dance. 

Udvahita (raised) : in movements like quick (avidtlha) 

Parivrtta (turned back) : in Class Dance and the like. 
These are the movements of the shank. Now listen about 
the movement of the feet. 

The feet and their uses 

41-50. The feet are of five kinds, viz. Udghattita, Sama, 
Agratalasancara, Ancita and Kuiicita. 

Udghattita — standing on the fore part of the feet and then 
touching the ground with the heels. 

(Use) : In practice this is to follow the Udghattita Karana 
and this should be applied once or more in the high or medium 

Sama (natural) — [feet] naturally placed on an even ground. 
It relates to representing a natural posture. 

(Use) : It should be kept still in representing the natural 

88-40 (BJX.262b-263a, G.39). 

41-50 (B.IX.265b-270a, 273b-278a, G.42-45, 47-52). » B. adds three 
additional couplets after 45, and G. adds one additional couplet after 44. 
9 B. reads si At/a for ksa/a meaning 'wound'. 

196 THE NAT* ASASTBA [ X. 51. 

position of the body in connexion with the various Kansas, but 
in the Becaka movement of the feet it should be moved. 

Agratalasaucara— the heels thrown up, the big toe put forward 
and the other toes bent. 

(Uses) : This [is to be used] in urging, breaking, standing 
posture (stli&naha), kicking, striking the ground, walking, throwing 
away [something], various Recaka movements and walking on the 
forepart [of the foot] due to an wound at the heel. 

Anclta— the heels on the ground, the forepart of the feet 
raised and all the toes spread. 

(Uses) ; It is to be applied in representing a movement with 
wound at the forepart of the foot, turning round in every way, foot 
being struck [by something] and in various Bhramarl movements. 

KuScita— the heels thrown up, toes all bent down and 
the middle of the feet too bent. 

51. (Uses) : It is to be used in aristocratic (iidatta) going, 
turning round to the right and vice versa and the Atikranta Cart, 

The Carls 

52. Persons practising [the Carts] should take up simul- 
taneously the movements of the feet^ the shanks and the thighs. 
[For] in the movement of feet are included all the movements of 
the shanks and the thighs. 

53. The thighs follow the way in which the feet are moved, 
and these two [limbs] constitute together the Carl of the feet. 

54. These are the descriptions and uses of the [various] 
limbs. I shall now describe the System of the [different] Caris. 

Here ends Chapter X. of Bharata's Natya&stra, 
which treats of the Gestures of other Limbs 

61 (BJX.278-279a, G.53). ' B. reads after this three additional 
hemistichs wich define the Sari foot as follows : The [right foot with its] 
heel raised resting on the big toe and the left foot in the natural position 
constitute the Sue! feet. It is used in dance and playing the Napura. 
• 52 (B.IX.281, G.56). 53 (B.IX.282, G.57). 

54 (B.IX.283, G.58). 




1. As the Girls prescribed by rules and connected with 
[different] limbs relate to (vyayacchante from vya-yam, stretch 
out to) one another they constitute (lit arc called) a vyayama 
(System) 1 . 

2. Cart : The movement [mainly] with a single foot, is 
called the Carl'. 

Karana 1 : The two feet moving [together] is called the Karana. 

3. Khanda : A combination of the [three] Karanas is called 
the Khanda. 

Mandala : Throe or four Khandas combine to make up 
tho Mandala. 

Uses of the Carl 

4. From the Caris proceed dance as well as movements 
[in general] and release of missiles ; and [the stage] fighting [in 
general] should be made with the Carls. 

5. Whatever has been described as Histrionic Representa- 
tion (nlklya) is included in the Carts, and no part of it can take 
place without the same. 

6. Hence I shall described the rules of the Carts which are 
to be used in dance, ordinary movements and fights [on the stage]. 

The thirtytwo Caris 

7-9. The following sixteen are the earthly (bhaunii) Carts : 
Samapada, Sthitavarta, ^akatasya, Adhyardhika, Casagati, Vicyava, 

1 (B.X.2, G.2). * B.G. road one additional couplet before this. 
i (B.X.S, G 3). l This karana should be distinguished from that 
mentioned in N& IV. 80, 34-75, 63ff. 3 (B.X.4, G.4). 

4 (B.X.5, G.5). 5 (B.X.6/G.6). 6 (B.X.7, G.7). . 

7*9 (B.X.8-10, G.8-10). 


Edakakridita, Baddha, Urudvrtta, Addita, Utsyandita, 1 Janita, 
Syandita 2 , Apasyandita 8 , Sainotsarita-matalli and Matalli. 

10-12. The aerial (afcastfo) Carls are sixteen in number. 
They are as follows : Atikranta, Apakranta, Parsvakranta, 
TJrdhvajanu, Suei, Nupurapadika, Dolapada, Aksipta, Aviddha, 
UdvrttS, Vidyudbhriinta, Alata, Bhujaugatrasita, Harirtapluta, 
Dandii and Bhramaii. 

The earthly Carls 

13. Samapada - the two feet close together, the nails [of the 
toes] meeting, and standing on the spot 1 . 

14. Sthit&varta — one Agratalasaiicara foot drawn up to 
cross the remaing foot and this movement repealed with another 
foot after separating the two. 

15. Sakatasyii— -the body held upright, one Agratalasaiicara 
foot put forward and the breast being Udvahita. 

1C. Adhyardhika— the left foot on the back (i.e. heel) of 
the right one, the latter to be drawn away [a Tala and half a part]. 1 

17. Casagati— the right foot put forward and then drawn 
back aud at the same time left foot drawn back and put forward 

1 8. Vicyava — seperating the feet from the Samapada posi- 
tion and striking the ground with their fore part. 

19. Edakakridita — jumping up and down with the Tala- 

saiicara feet. 

1 G. reads names as Ulspandita, Apaspandita and Spandita 
and B. as Ulspandita, Syandita, and Apasyandita. I have been taken 
the root syand as the basis of all these names. Mas. erratically give syand 
and spand. '■> sec note 1 above. 8 Hid. 

10-12 (B.X.11-13, G.ll-13). 

13 (B.X.14, G 14). ' On the appropriateness of this name Ag. 
writes ■. ii wn?r ^ v ^(fa,, _ ^^ft m vm ^ „ mmm i^ft ma 
wra<t *M«i* iterant m aiq^lftft WW. 

14(8X16,0.15). 15(B.X.16,G.l6). 

16 (B.X.17, G.17). • The exact measure (1£ tola) is given by Ag, 

17 (B.X.18, G.18). 18 (BX19, G.19). 19 (B.X.20, G.20). 


20. Baddha — The sideways movement of the thighs when 
the two shanks are crossed. 

21. Urudvrtta — the heel of a Talasaiicara foot placed 
outwards, one of the shanks to be slightly bent and the thigh 
turned up. 

22. Addita — one Agratalasancara foot rubbing against 
the fore part or the back of another foot. 

23. Utsyandita — the two feet to move gradually side- 
ways (lit. in and out) in the manner of the Recaka. 

24. Janita — a Musti hand held on the breast and 
another hand movod round, and the feet to be Talasaiicara. 

25. Syandita— one foot put forward five TiilaS away 
from the other. 

Apasyandita — the reverse of the Syandita Can (i.e. another 
foot being put forward five Talas away from the other). 

26- Samotsarita-matalli — going back with a circular move- 
ment and the feet being of the Talasaiicara kind. 

27. Mattali— going back with a circular movement and 
hands being Udvestita and motionless. 

28. These arc the Caris used in pesonal combat as well as 
in the Karanas. I shall now describe the aerial Carls. 

The aerial Carls 

29. Atikranta— a Kuficita foot thrown up, put forward 
and caused to fall on the ground. 

HO. Apakranta— the Valana posture of the two thighs, a 
Kuncita foot raised and thrown down sideways. 

31. ParSvakranta— one foot Kuncita and another thrown 
up. and brought near the side. 

20 (B.X.21, G.21), 21 (B.X.22, 0.22). 22 (B.X.23, 0.23). 

23 (B.X.24, 0.24). 24 (B.X.25, 0.25). 25 (B.X.26, G.26). 

26 (B.X.27, G.27). 27 (BX.28, 0.28). 28 (B.X.29, G.29). 

29 (B.X.30, G.30). 30 (RX.31, 0.31). 31 (B.X.32, G.32). 


32. TJrdhvajanu--throwing up a Kufieita foot and its knee 
brought up to the level of the breast, and the remaining knee with- 
out movement and then this second foot thrown up in the manner 
of the first, and the first foot kept motionless. 

33. Suci— a Kuiicita foot thrown up and brought above 
the knee of the remaining foot and then to let it fall on its fore 

34. Nupurapadika— one Aficita foot raised up and taken 
behind another foot and then quickly caused to fall on the ground. 

35. Dolapada— one Kuiicita foot thrown up and moved 
from side to side and then caused te fall on the ground as an 
Aficita foot, 

36. Sksipta— one Kuiicita foot thrown off and then 
placing it quickly on an Ancita foot by crossing the shank of the 
remaining leg. 

37. Aviddha— one Kuiicita foot from the Svjistika posi- 
tion stretching and falling on the ground quickly as an Aficita foot. 

38. Udvrtta— the (Kufieita) foot of the Aviddha Carl 
taken round [the thigh of the remaining leg] and thrown up and 
then caused to fall [on the ground]. 

39. Vidyudbhranta— one foot turned to the back and after 
touching its top part to be stretched and the head moved in a circle. 

40. Alata— one foot stretched backward^ and then put in 
and afterwards caused to fall in its heel. 

41. Bhujangatrasita— one Kuiicita foot thrown up and 
the waist and the knee being turned round and the thigh [of the 
remaining foot] to be turned round too. 

42. Harinapluta — the foot in the Atikranta Cart to be 
caused to fall on the ground after a jump and the shank of an 
Aficita foot to be put in the Ksipta posture. 

32 (B.X.33, G.33). 33 (B.X.34, G.84). 34 (B.X.35, G.35). 

35 (B.X.36, G 36). 36 (B.X 37, G.37). 37 (B X 38, G.38). 

38 (B.X.39, G.39). 39 (B.X.40, G.40). 40 (B.X41, G.41). 

41 (B.X.42, G.42). 42 (B.X.43, G.43). 


43. Dandapada : the foot in the Nupura— [padika] Cari to 
be stretched and quickly to turn. 

44 Bhramari : the foot in the Atikranta Cari to be tlirown 
up and the entire body turned round (lit. the Trika turned round) 
and then the second foot to be moved on its sole. 

45. These are the aerial Cari?, consisting of graceful 
movements of the limbs. These are to be applied in the release of 
weapons like an arrow and the thunderbolt (vajra). 

46. O, Brahmins, in all these cases the two hands should, 
according to the circumstances, either precede, go simultaneously 
with or follow the feet. 

47. Where the foot [moves], there the hand [should follow] 
and where the hand [moves], there the entire body. [Hence] after 
taking a step, all the minor limbs should be made use of. 

48. When in course of a Cari a foot, comes to rest on the 
ground the [corresponding] hand should bo moved round and 
brought on the waist. 

49. I have fiinished describing the Caris consisting of grace- 
ful movements of the limbs. I shall now speak of the Sthanas 
(standing posture) to be used in the release of missiles of all kinds. 

The Sthanas 

50. The six Sthanas (standing postured for men are 
Vaisnava, Sampada, Vaisakba, Mandaln, A~lidha, and Pratyaltdha. 

51-52. Vaisnava — the feet two Tolas and a half apart, one 
foot in the natural posture and another obliquely placed with toes 
pointing sideways and the shank bent (ahcita) and limbs with 
the Sausthava. Visnu is the presiding deity of this Sthana. 

53. (Uses) : From this Sthana persons of the superior and 
the middling types should carry on their ordinary (lit. natural) 
conversation in connexion with the various duties. 

43 (B.X.44, 0.44) 44 (B. X 43, G.45). 45 (B.X.46, 0.46). 

46(B.X.47,0.47). 47 (B.X.48, G.4S). 48 (B.X.49, 0.49). 

49(B.X.50,G.50). 50(B.X.51,G.51). 

51-52 (B.X.52-53, G.52-53). . 53 (B.X.54, G.54). 




54. It should also be assumed in throwing a disc, holding 
a bow, in patient and stately movement of the limbs and in anger. 

55*57. On being reversed it is to be used in anger of love. 
And similarly in the administration of rebuke, and in love, distress, 
apprehension, envy, cruelty, assurance, and recollection, it is to be 
assumed when the Erotic, the Marvellous, the Odious and the 
Heroic Sentiments are prominently introduced. 

57-58. Samapada — the feet in the natural posture and kept 
one Tala apart and the body with the natural Sausthava. Brahman 
is its presiding deity. 

58-CO. (Uses) : It should be assumed in accepting blessings 
from the Brahmins 1 , and in mimicking birds. The bridegroom at 
the marriage ceremony, persons in the sky, chariot and aerial car 
(vimana), persons 2 of marked sects (liiigastlia) and persons practis- 
ing vows are also to assumethis. 

00-62. Vaisakha — the two feet three Talas and a half apart 
and the thighs without motion ; [besides this] the two feet to be 
obliquely placed pointing sideways. Kartikeya (Skanda) is its 
presiding deity. 

62-64. (Uses) : This Sthana should be assumed in riding 
horses, and in exercise, exit [from any place], mimicking large 
birds, practice of bending the bow and in the Re&ikas [of 
the feet]. 

64^65. Mandala : It relates to Indra (i.e. its presiding 
deity is Indra). In it the feet are four Talas apart and they are 
obliquely placed and turned sideways, the waist and the knee are 
in the natural position. 

54 (B.X. 55, G.55). 55-57 (B.X.56-58, 56-57). 

57-58 (B.X.58-59, 0.58). 

58-60 (B.X.59-61, G.59-60). ' vipramahgala—vipraih yatt mahga- 
lasirvacanadi (Ag.). 

2 Uhgasthan—UivHyah vratastha urdhvakayadi trajhahgah (?) 

60- 62 (B.X.61-63, G.61-62). 62-64 (B.X.63-65, G.63-64), 

64-65 (B.X.65-66, G.65). 


65-66. (Uses) : The Mandala Sthana should be assumed in 
the use of weapons like the bow and the thunderbolt, riding of 
elephants, and mimicking large birds. 

60-67. Slldha : The right foot in the Mandala Sthana 
drawn five Talus apart [from the other foot] will make the Alidha 
Sthana. Rudra is its presiding deity. 

67-69. (Uses) : This Sthana should bo assumed in all acts 
relating to the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments, duel of wrestlers 
and in the representation of enemies, an attack [on them], and 
release of missiles. 

69-70. Pratyalidha : When the right foot is bent and the 
left foot is put forward in the Alidha Sthana the Pratyalidha 
Sthana will be produced. 

70-71. (Uses) : The missiles made ready for throwing from 
the Alidha Sthana arc to be [actually] thrown from the Pratyalidha 
Sthana. The actor should use various weapons from this Sthana- 

The four Nyayas iu using weapons 

71-72. There are four Nyayas (ways) of using weapons (lit. 
releasing missiles), viz. Bharata, Sattvata, Varsaganya, and 

72-7;5. In the Bhiirata [Nyaya the weapon] should strike 
(lit. cut) at the waist, in the Sattvatta at the foot, in the Varsaganya 
at the breast and in the Kaislka at the head. 

73-74. In these Nyayas arising out of the various Carts, 
the actors should walk about [on the stage] at [the time of] using 

74-75. The Nyayas (way) are so called 1 because fights [on 
the stage] are nlyante (carried on) with the Angaharas relating 
to the Nyiiyas and arising out of them. 

66-66 (B.X.66-67, G.66). 66-67 (B.X.67-68, G.67). 

67-69 (B.X.68-70, G.68-69). 69-70 (B.X.70-71, G.70). 

70-71 (B.X.71-72, G.71). 71-72 (B.X.72-73, G.72), 

72-73 (B.X.73-74, G.73). • 73-74 (B.X.74-75, G.74). 

74-75 (B.X.75-76 G.75). ' prakirliiah B. reads pravartitah. 

THE NATFAMSnU fxr.75. 


75.79 Bharata: Putting forward the shield with the left 
tad and taking the sword (lit. weapon)* actor should walk 
about on the stage. Stretching the hand forward fully and then 
drawing It back he should move the shield at his back from side to 
side and flourish the swovd (lit. weapon) around his head, and it 
should also be turned round [about the wrist] near the cheek. 
And again the hands holding the sword and the shield should be 
flourished gracefully around the head. 

80-81. Sattvata : I shall now speak of walking about in 
tbc Sattvata Nyaya. In it the same flourishing (/.«. as in Bharata) 
of the sword and the shield holds good, but this (the flourishing of 
the weapon) should take place at one's back. 

81-82. Varsaganya . The walking about in the Varsaganya 
Nyaya will be similar to that in the Sattvata, and the sword (lit, 
weapon) and the shield also should be flourished similarly, but 
these should go round the head. 

83-84. Kaisika : The flourishing of the sword (lit. weapon) 
near the breast or the shoulder which is to take place in the 
Bharata [Nyaya] will hold good in case of the KaWika. But [in 
the latter] the sword (lit. weapon) should be made to strike only 
after being flourished over the head. 

84-85. With these graceful movements of the limbs 
weapons like the bow, the thunderbolt and the sword are to be 
flourished at the time of their use. 

85-87. In the stage-fight there should be no [actual] pier- 
cing, cutting or flow of blood and the actual striking. The use of 
weapons (lit. release of missiles) should be done with its mimicry, 
or the cutting off [of any one's limb] should be represented, 
according rules, by the use of gestures and postures only. 

78-88. The cxerciso should be performed in the Angaharas 


76-79 (B.X.76-80, G.76-80). 80-81 (B.X.81-82, G.80-81). 

81-82 (B.X.82-83, G.82-83) 83-84 (B.X.84-85, G.83-84). 

84-85 (B.X.85-86, G.85). 85-87 (B.X.76-88, G.76-87). 

•87-88 (B.X.88-89.G.88). ' B.G. road ono additional couplet after 


embellished with* flic Bausthava and accompanied by music with 
[proper] tempo and Tala. 

The Sausthava 
8S-01- Those performing the exercises [in] 
should tote care of the Saustlmva, for the limbs without it 
(Saustlmva) create no beauty (lit. do not shine) in drama or 
dance. The Sausthava of limbs is to be presented by being still, 
unbent, at ease, not very upright and not much bent. When the 
waist and the ears as well as the elbow, the shoulder and the head 
are in their natural position (mma) and the breast is raised 
it will be the Saustlmva [of the body]. 1 

The Caturasra 

91-92. Calurasara : The Vaisnava Stbana with the two 
hands moving about at the waist and the navel together with 
the breast raised, is called the Caturasra of the limbs. 

The four acts relating to the bow 

92-93. There are four acts relating to the bow, viz. prepar- 
ing (parimarjana), taking an arrow (adam), taking an aim 
(mndhana) and shooting (»Wi - *iina). 

93-94. The preparing (pai-imarymn) 1 is the bending [of the 
bow], taking (ijralutna) is the pulling out of [the arrow], taking an 
aim (sandhana) is to put the arrow to the bow, and shooting 
(molcmnd) is the release [of the arrow]. 

The method of exercise 

9 4-95. '. One should perform exercise [in the Angaharas and 
Caris] on the floor as well as [high up] in the air and should have 
beforehand get one's body massaged with the [sesamum] oil or 
barely gruel. 

88-91 (B.X.89b, 91-93, G.89b 90-92). l B.G. read one additional 
couplet after this. 

91-92 (B.X.94-95, G.94). 92-93 (B.X.95-96, G.95). 

93-94 (B.X.96-97, G.96). l G. reads samtnarjana. 
94-95 (B.X.97-98, G.97). 

206 THE NATYASASTBA ' [ XI. 95- 

95-90. The floor is the proper place (lit. mother) for 
exercise. Hence one should resort to the floor, and stretching 
oneself over it one should take exercise. 

Health and nourishment of persons taking exercise 

96-99. For the strength of body one should take [proper] 
snuff and get oneself purged [lit. resort to the rule regard- 
ing the abdomen], take agreeable food, [meat-] juice and drink. 
For vitality is dependent on one's nourishment and the exercise is 
dependent on vitality. Hence one should be careful about one's 
nourishment. When the body is not cleansed and one is very 
tired, hungry, thirsty, has drunk too much [water], eaten too much, 
one shonld not take exercise. The wise [teacher] should give 
training in exercise to his pupil who has a graceful body and 
square breast and is not covered with [much] garment. 

100. These are the rules regarding the Cans in connexion 
with the exercise of [the limbs]. I shall hereafter speak of the 
different Mandates. 

Here ends Chapter XI of Bharata's Niityasastra 
which treats of the Rule of Caris. 

95-96 (B.X.98-99, G.98). 

96-99 (B.X.99-102, G.99-102). 100 (B.X.103, G.103). 


Tho Mandates 

1. I have now properly described the Caris in connexion 
with the use of weapons (lit. release of missiles). [Now] learn 
about the Mandalas arising out of a combination of the Caris. 

2-3. The aerial Mandalas are : Atikranta, Vicitra, Lalita- 
saiicara, Sucividdba, Dandapada, Vihrta, Alata, Vamaviddha, 
Lalita and Kranta 1 . 

3-5. The earthly Mandalas are Bhramara, Askandita 1 , 
Avarta, Samotsarita, Edakakridita, Ad jitn, Sakatasya, and Casagata. 
[Now] listen about their description. 2 

The aerial Mandalas 

6-9. Atikranta — the right foot [to be moved successively] 
in the Janita Can and [the Sakatasya Cari in which tho breast is] 
Udvahita, the left foot in the Alata Cari and the right foot in the 
Parsvakranta Cari. (next) the left foot in the Suci Cari and the 
right foot in the Apakranta Can, [again] the left foot [successively] 
in the Suci Cari and [the Bhramari Cari by] turning the Trika 1 , 
(then) the right foot in the Udvritta Cari and the left foot in the 
Alata Cari which should be changed (lit. divided) to the Bhramari 
Cart, again this left foot in the Alata Cari and the right foot in 
the Dandapada Can. 

10-13. Vicitra — the right foot [successively to be moved] 
in the Janita Cari and in the Talasancara 1 (Nikuttana), manner 

MB.XI. 1,0.1). 

2-3 (B.XJ.2-3, 0.2-3). ' B. adds one additional hemistich after this. 

3-5 (B.XI.4-6, G.3-5). J Mss. sometimes gives this name as aspan- 
dita which seems to bo a corruption for askandita. See the Cari olthis 
name XL 7-9. 

s B. roads 5b. differently. 

6-9 (B.XI.7, 8b-ll, G.6-2). ' Sec Ag. 

10-13 (B,XI,llb-l2a, 13a, 13-15, G.10-13). ' Sec Ag. 


(then) the left foot in the Syandita Carl, the right foot in the Parl- 
vakranta Cari a , (again) the left foot in the Bhujangatrasita Cart and 
the right foot [successively] in the Atikriina and Udvftta Carta, 
(next) the left foot in the Suci Cari, the right foot in the Yiksitpa 
(Aksipta) Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta Carl. 

11-17. Lalitasancara— the right foot with the knee raised 
[to move] in the Suci Can, (next) the left foot in the Apakranta 
Cari and the right one in the Parsvakranta Cari (again) the left foot 
[successively] in the Suci and the Bhramarl Casis [this latter by 
turning round the Trika] and the right foot in the Parsvakranta 
Cari and the left foot in the Atikranta Carl which to be changed 
(lit. divided) into the Bhramari Cari 1 . 

18-19. Sucividdha — the left foot [to be moved] in the 
Sue! and the Bhramari Carls [the latter by turning the Trika 
round], the right foot in the Parsvakranta Cari the left foot in the 
Atikranta Carl, next the right foot in the Suci, the left foot in 
the Apakranta Crai and the right foot again in the Parsvakranta 

20-22. Dandapada— the right foot to be moved in the 
Janita and the Dandapada Calls, the left foot in the Suci and the 
Bhramari Caris [the latter by turning the Trika], (next) the right 
foot in the Urudvrtta Cari and the left foot in the Alata Cari, 
(again) the right foot in the Parsvakranta Cari and the left 
foot [successively] in the Bhujangatrasta and the Atikranta Caris 
to meet the right foot in the Dandapada Cari and the left foot 
[successively] in the Suci and the Bhramari Caris [the latter by 
turning the Trika]. 

23-26. Vihrta— the right foot [to be moved] in the Janita 
Can (then) its Nikuttana, (next) the left foot in the Syandita 
Cari and the right foot in the Urudvrtta Cari, (then) the left foot in 
the Alata Cari and the right foot in the Suci Cari, again the left 

■ B. reads one additional hemistich after 10. 
14-17 (B.XI.16-17, 19, G.14-16, 18). l B.G. reads ono additional 
couplet after 16. 

. 18-19 (B.XJ.20-21, G.19-20). 20-22 (B.XL22-24, G.21-23). 

23-26 (B.XI.25-28, G .24-27). 


foot in the Parsvakranta Cari and the right foot in the Aksipta 
and the Bhramari [this by turning the Trika] and the Dandapada 
Caris, (then) the left foot in the Suci and the Bhramari Caris [the 
latter by turning the Trika] again the right foot in the Bhujanga- 
trasita Cari and the left foot in the Atikranta Cari. 

27-29. Alata— the right foot [to be moved] in the Sue! Cari 
and the left foot in the Apakranta Cari, then the right foot in the 
ParsVakranta Cari and the left foot in the Alata Cari, after moving 
by turn in the these [two] Caris six or seven times with graceful 
steps, again the right foot in the Aprkranta Cari and the left foot 
[successively] in the Atikranta and the Bhramari Caris. 

30-33. Vamaviddha — the right foot [to be moved] in the 
Suci Cari, the left foot in the Apakranta Cari, (then) the right foot 
in the Dandapada Cari and the left foot in the Suci Cari and right 
foot in the Bhramari [this by turning the Trika] and the Parsva- 
kranta, Carls, (next) the left foot in the Aksipta Cari and the right 
foot in the Dandapada and the Urudvrtta Caris, (then) the left foot 
[successively] in the Suci, the Bhramari [this by turning the Trika] 
and the Alata Caris, (next) the right foot in the Prfws'vakranta 
Cari and the left foot in the Atikranta Cari. 

34-37. Lalita — the right foot [to be moved] in the Suci 
Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta Cari, (then) the right foot 
in the Parsvakranta and the Bhujangatrasita Caris, (then) the left 
foot in the Atikranta Cari and the Urudvrtta Caris the left foot and 
the Alata Cari, and the right foot in the Pars'vakranta Cari, next the 
left foot in the Atikranta Cari with graceful steps. 

38-40. Kranta — the right foot [to be moved] in the Suci 
Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta Cari, then the right foot in 
the Parsvakranta Cari and the left foot too in the same Cart (Pars- 
vakrama), moving round alternately in these Caris in all directions, 
again the left foot in the Suci Cari and the right foot in the 

27-29 (B.XU9-30, 31b-32a, G.28-30). 
30-33 (B.XJ.32b-36a, G.81-34). 

34-37 (B.XI 36b-37a, 38-40a, G.85-37). ' G. omits 35a and 36b. • 
38-40 (B.XI.40b-43a, G.38-40). ' 

210 " " THE NATYA8A8TBA [ XII. 41- 

Apakranta "Cari. This Mandala is prescribed for the natural gait. 
Hence it is willed Kranta (V. going. 

41. These are the aerial Mandalas. Now T shall describe 
those on the earth. 

Tho earthly Mandalas 

42-44. Bhramara— the right foot [to be moved] in the 
Janita Carl and the left foot in the Skandita (Askandita) Carl, then 
the right foot in the Sakatasya Carl and the left foot to be stretched, 
(next) the right loot in the Bhramari Cart [by turning the Trika], 
again the left foot in the Skandita (Askandita) Can and the right 
foot in the Sakatasya Cart, then the left foot in the Apakrantii 
(Apasarpi) Cari and the Bhramari Cari by turning about the back. 

15-17. Askandita — the right foot [to be moved] in the 
Bhramari Cari and the left foot in the Addita anil the Bhramari 
Carts [the latter by turning the Trika], then the right foot in the 
Urudvrtta Cari and the left foot in the Apakrantii (Apasarpit.) and 
the Bhramari Caris [the latter by turning the Trika then] the right 
foot in the Skandita Cari, (next) the left foot in the Pakatiisya and 
the same foot to violently strike the ground. 

48-50. Avarta— the right foot [to be moved] in the Janita 
Cart and the left foot in the Talasaiicara (Nikuttaka) Cari, then the 
light foot in the Sakatasya and the Urudvrtta Cari, (next) the right 
foot foot the Atikranta (Apasarpi) Cari turning backwards and the 
Ciisagati Cari, then the right foot in the Skandita (Askandita) Cari 
and the left foot in the Sakatiisyi'. Cari, again the right foot in the 
Bhramari Cari with the Trika turned round, and the left foot in the 
Apakianta (Apsarpi) Cari. 

51-53. Samotsarita — assuming first of all the Samapada 
Sthana, then stretching the two hands with their palms turned 
upwards, (next) their intermittant Avestana and Udvestana move- 
ments, [then putting the left hand] on tiie waist, the right hand 
moved in the Avartita manner [next the right hand to be put on 

41 (B.XI.43b-44a, G.41). 
' 43-44 (B.XI.44b-47a, G.42-44). 45-47 (B.XI.47b-50a, G.45-47). 

48-50 (B.X150b-53a, G.48-50).' 51-58 (B.XI.53b-56a, G.51-53). 


on the waist] and the left hand moved in the Avartita manner, 
moving round alternately with this Cari will rise to the Samotsa- 
rita Mandala. 

54-55. Edakakridita — the two feet on the ground [to be 
moved successively] in the Siici and the Edakakridita Cari?, (next) 
the swift moving Bhraraari Cari by turning the Trika, (then) mov- 
ing [the feet] round alternately in the Suci and the Aviddha Cans. 
This will give rise to the Khanda-mandala named Edakakridita. 

56-58. Addita — the right foot [to be moved] in the 
Udghattita manner and then [simply] moved round, next [to 
be moved] in the Syandita (Asyandita) Cari and the left foot in the 
Sakatasya Cari, next the right foot to be moved backwards in the 
Apakriinta (Apasarpl) and the Casagati Caris, (then) the left foot 
in the Addita Call and the right foot in the Apakranta (Apasarpita) 
Cari. (next, the left foot in the Bhramari Cari and the right foot in 
the Syandita (Asyandita) Carl and to violently strike the ground. 1 

59-GO. Sakatasya — The right foot [to bo moved] in the 
Janita Cari and next it to move; in the Talasaiieara (Nikuttaka) 
manner, the same foot in the Sakatasya Cari and the left foot in the 
Syandita (Asyandita) Cari, moving round in this manner alternately 
with the Sakatasya Cari. This Cari Mandala named the Sakatasya 
is to be used in fight. 

61-62. Adhyardba — the right fooot [to be moved succes- 
sively] in the Janita and Syandita Caris, then the left foot in the 
Apakranta (Apasarpita) Cari and the right foot in the Sakatasy.'- 
Cari. Moving around alternately in these Caris, will be the Can 
Mandala named the Adhyardha to be used in personal combat. 

63-64. Pistakutta — The right foot [to bo moved] in the 
Suci Cari and the left foot in the Apakranta [then] the right foot in 

54-55 (B.XI.56b-58a, Ot. 54-55). l This khanrlamaiid.ala seems to be 
another name for eclakakfitli ta. 

56-58 (B.XI.58b-6la, G.56-58). l asphotana—padatalena bJnmi- 
tatjana (Ag.). 

59-60 (B.XI.61b-63a, G.59-60). " 61-62 B.XI.63b-65a, G.6U62). 

63-64 (B.XI.65b-67a, G.63-64).' 


the Bhujangatrasita Cart and the left foot too in the same Cari. 
Thus going round in the Bhujangatrasita Cart is known as the 
Cari Mandala named the Pisfcakutta known to be used in personal 

65. Casagata — Going round with feet in the Casagatai Cari 
is called the Can Mandala named Casagata. It to be used in per- 
sonal combat. 

66. Here I have described in brief the Mandalas arising out 
of the various Cans. Now I shall describe the Saina Cans. 

67. The use of the Sama Carls are known as Sama Manda- 
las. [An actor] using them is to follow the instruction of the 

master actor (acaryabuddhi). 

68- These Mandalas to be used in fight aud personal 
combat, are to be performed with sportiveness and graceful move- 
ments of limbs, and should be accompanied by [suitable] instrumen- 
tal music. 

Here ends Chapter XII of Bharata's Natyas'astra, 
which treats of the Rules about the Mandalas. 

65 (B.XI.67b-68a, G.65). 66 (B.XI.68b-69a, G-.66). 

67 (B.XI.69b-70a, G.67). 68 (B.X1.79b-"la, G.68). 



1. So much about the formation of the Mandalas by a 
combination of the Systems of Cari (cari-vyayama). I shall here- 
after describe the Gaits suitable for (lit. existing in) different 
characters [in a play]. 

Entrance- of dramatis personae 

2-3. After the Upavahana in accompaniment of drums and 
other musical instruments has been performed by observing Kalas 
suitable to the Marga [adopted in it], and the Dhruvas [to be sung] 
at the entrance of dramatis personae, have commenced and the 
curtain has been drawn away, the actors who arc to develop the 
Sentiments in the various items [of a play] should enter (lit. be 
made to enter) the stage. 

Posture for superior and middling characters at the entrance 

4-7. In case of characters of the superior and the middling 
types [the actor] should assume the Vaisnava Sthana, his breast 
being raised, Sama and Caturasra, shoulders at rest and not 
raised very much, the neck as graceful as that of a peacock, the 
shoulders eight Angulas apart from the ears, the chin four Angulas 
apart from the breast, and the two hands (the right and the left) 
respectively at the navel and at the left waist. 

The interval of their feet 

8-9. [In the posture described above] the interval between 
the two feet [of the actor] should be two Talas and a half. Steps 

1 (B.X1I.1, G.l). ' On the Gait Ag. says : "The Gait is to be pres- 
cribed with a view to the person, Sentimout, situation, place and occasion". 

2-3 (B.XII.2-3, G.2-3). '-It seems that upavahana gave rise to 
upo/iana(Pkt) which afterwards was adopted in its place ; for upohana 
see Ntf. (Ch) XXXI. 235ff, It is defined by Ag. as follows : upohyante 
samasa-vyasaiah padakalatalasamabhihitali svara yasminn ahge tat 
lathoktam (I.p.186). 

4-7 (B.XH.4-7, G.4-7). 8-9 (B.XH.8-9.G.8-9). 


that he will take should according to his own measure [of the hand] 
be four or two Talas or one Tala wide. 

9-10. In case of [characters such as] gods and kings the 
steps should be four Talas wide, of the middling [type of charac- 
ters] two T.Jas, and of women and persons of the inferior type 
one Till a wide. 

The timo for their steps 

10-11. [And the time required for the steps should be] four 
or two Kalas or one Kalfi only. [Steps] of the superior [characters] 
should take four Kalas, those of the middling type two Kalas and 
those of the inferior type one Kala only. 

The tempo of their Gait 

12. An expert in the theatrical art should apply three 
kinds of tempos — slow, medium and quick — to the Gait [of 
different characters] according to their nature. 

13. The Gait of the superior [characters should be] slow, 
that of the middling [characters should have] the medium [tempo, 
while the Gait of] the inferior [characters should be] quick and 
copious. [Thus] should be applied the three tempos according 
to the spirit [of the different characters]. 

1-1. So much about the rules regarding the timing and 
tempo [of the steps], the sinless ones, listen now about the 
manner of taking steps [suitable to different characters]. 

The natural • Gait 

15. In his natural [Gait] a superior [character] is to raise his 
knee up to the height of the waist and in case of Ciiris to be used in 
fighting the same (ie, the knee) is to be raised up to the height of 
the breast. 

16-19. With the graceful steps of the Parsvakriinta Carl and 

9-10 (B.XII.9-10, G.9-10). 10-U (B.XII.10-11, G.10-11). 

12 (B.X1I.12, G.12). ' B. reads layam budhah 

13 (B.X11.13, G.13). l sattvam-cittavHtih (Ag.). 
J4 (B.XII14, G.1.4). 15 (B.XII.l^ G.15| 
16-19 (BJQI.16-19, G.16-19). • 


in accompaniment of instrumental music he should go five uniform 
steps, towards the corner of the stage and then he should move 
in the Suci Carl by putting forward his left foot first and the 
right foot afterwards. Then turning round he should go [five 
similar steps] towards the second corner of [of stage] and then 
move in the Suci Cari by putting forward his left foot first and the 
right foot afterwards. Next time he should [again turn round and] 
go [five similar steps] towards the musical instruments and then 
again move in the Suci Cari by putting forward bis left foot first 
and the right foot afterwards. Thus his movement will consist 
of twentyonc steps. 

20. In an oblong stage the actor (hhnrata) should make 
elaborate foot movements (lit. coming and going by foot-steps), but 
in square and triangular stages such movements should respectively 
be of the Caturasra and the Tryasra types. 

2 1. When [a character] is walking along with his equals, • 
the tempo [of his Gait] will be [according to his own rank in 
terms] of four or two Kalas or of one Kala. 

22. But when any one is walking accompanied by 
persons of the middling and the inferior types [the tempo of the 
Gait of the group] will be in terms of four and two Kalas and 
one Kala. 

23. The wise actors should make the steps four Talas wide 
in case of gods, Danavas Pannagas (Naga), Yaksas, kings, and 

2 !«. All [other] dwellers of the heaven 1 will have steps of 
medium [width]. But those among them who are haughty 2 should 
have Gait similar to that of the gods. 

' SceV. 70-7 1 . s vedhahr-parxmkaetre sticipadanipata/i (Ag.). 

20 (B.X1I.20, G.20). 21 (B.XII.21, G.21). 

22 (B.XII.22, G.22). 

23 (BX1I.23, G.23). ' B.G. reads here daitya iustead of deva 

24 (B.XII.24, G.24). ' By sucfi dwellers devadulas are meant (Ag.). 
' inataliprabhrfayah (Ag.). . 


Gait of kings 
The sages -question : 

25-28. 'ill the kings are human beings why should they 
have a Gait similar to that of the gods ?" It is said [in reply]. 
"Why should not the kings have Gait suitable for these (i.e. gods) ? 
In drama the characters [are of three kinds, viz.] divine, serai- 
divine (lit. divine-human) and human. Of these, the nature of 
gods is divine, that of the kings is semi-divine and that of the 
others is known to the people as human. For'the kings have been 
described in the Vedas and the Vedanta (Upanisad) 1 as being 
made up (lit. born) of the parts of [different] gods. Hence there 
cannot be any fault in kings imitating the gods." 

29. This is the rule of the Gait in ordinary walking, but for 
Gaits in cases of hurry, insanity and anger the rule about its 
measure will not apply. 

Gait under special conditions 

30. [In those cases] the producers of plays are to apply to 
all the different characters, superior, middling and inferior, Gaits 
as modified by their peculiar condition. 

31. Their Gaits should be of the duration of half of four 
Kalas or half of that (i c. two Kalas) on attaining conditions other 
than the normal ones. 

32. [The relative position of the different characters as 
regards the timing of their Gaits is as follows] : While a superior 
[character] will have a Gait of four Kalas, a middling [character] is 
to have that of two Kalas an inferior [character] of one KalS. 

33. When a middling character will have a Gait of a Kala, 
an inferior character is t% have that of half a Kala. Thus 
one should make [in different Gaits under special conditions) a 
redaction of Kalas. 

25-28 (B.XII.25-28, G.25-28). l vedadhyatmasu=vedem tatha 
adhyatnmastresu vedantem (Ag.). 

29(B.XII.29,G.29). 30 (B.XII.30, G.30). 

31,(B.Xn.31, G.31). 32 lB.XII.32, G.32). , 

33 (B.XII.33, G.33). ' G. read 33 a differently. * 


34. The Gait of superior persons is not to be applied to 
that of the middling type, and the Gait of the middling characters 
is not to be applied to that of the inferior type. 1 

Tempo of Gaits under special conditions 

35-37. In case of an attack of fever, hunger, fatigue, due to 
austerities, [excessive] terror, 1 dissimulation, uneasiness, love [in 
separation], sorrow and in the sick persons' walking the Gait'should 
be of slow tempo lasting more, than four Kalas. But in case of 
anxiety the Gait should be of four Kalas' [duration J. 2 

37-40. In case of concealed (lit. uneasy) love, panic, fright, 
agitation, joy, hurried action, hearing of unwelcome news, haughti- 
ness or insult, sight of porentuous objects, urgent work, distress, 
search for enemies, pursuit of an offender and pursuit by a ferocious 
animal, the wise [actor] should have Gaits with steps of two Kalas' 

Gait in the Erotic Sentiment 

41-44. The Gait in ordinary love-making should be graceful. 
[The lover] is to enter the stage with the female Messenger {dull] 
showing the way. He is to act his part (lit. meaning connected 
with the play) by means of the Siica 1 . He should be adorned with 
lovely garments, perfumes, ornaments 2 and garlands of various 
sweet-scenting flowers. He should walk with graceful steps in 
the Atikranta Cari, and his limbs should have the Sausthava, 
and ho should move with proper tempo and Tftla. His hands 
should always follow the feet. The former should be raised along 
with the falling of the latter and with the raising of the latter the 
former should fall (lit. vice versa)*. 

45-48. Now listen about the Gait in case of concealed love. 
After dismissing his servants (lit. men) the lover is to walk 

34 (BXII.39b-40a, G.34). 

35-36 (B.XII-34-35, G.35-36). ' vismaye G. viksate. " G. omits i#a. 

37 (B.XII.34-36a, G.35-36). 37-40 (B.XlI.26b-39.», G-37-S9). 

41-44 (B.XII.40b-44, G.49b-44a). ." Sec Ni5. XX1V.43. 
2 Itoad hrdyair gandhair tatka vaslmir alamkaraib ca. 
8 G. omits 44b, 45-48 (B.XIJ.45-48(» i ' G.44b-47), 


tat night] along with the female Messenger as his guide. He is to 
put out the lamp. Ho is to be dressed in [simple] clothes suited to 
the time day and is to not make his toilet elaborately. In making 
love secretly a person is to walk with slow and silent steps, and 
from [any] sounds [heard at the time] he is constantly, to look 
around and tremble in his body and to have a faltering Gait. 

Gait in the Terrible Sentiment 

48-54. [In treating the Gait] in the Terrible Sentiment I 
shall speak only with regard to Daityas, Raksasas and Nagas. 
Brahmins, the Terrible Sentiment only is dominant in their 
case. And this Terrible Sentiment is of three kinds, viz. Terrible 
in make-up, Terrible in limbs and Terrible by nature. [An ex- 
ample of] the Terrible in make-up is [a Raksasa] with his body 
dripping in blood, mouth moistened with it and having pieces of 
flesh in the hands. An example of the Terrible in limb is a very 
tall [Raksasa] with a prodigious physical frame, many heads, and 
many hands holding weapons of various kinds. And an example 
of the Terrible by nature, is a person with red eyes, tawny hair, 
black complexion and rough voice and a person who is always 
scolding [others] and who stands with feet four Tiilas apart and 
take steps four Tiilas wide. This is the Gait which [characters] 
resembling them are to have. 

Gait in the Odious Sentiment 

54-50. The Gait [of a person walking] on the ground which 
is either a place of cremation or a place gruesome on account of a 
battle [having taken place there] should be used in acting in 
connexion with the Odious Sentiment. The feet in the EdakakriditS 
Cari falling in quick succession sometimes close to and sometimes 
wide apart from each other, with the hands following them, will 
constitute the Gait in the Odious Sentiment. 

Gait in the Heroic Sentiment 

57. The Gait in the Heroic Sentiment should consist of 
swift footsteps in the various Caris. 

■ 48-54 (B.XII.48b-54, G.48-53). 
54-56 (B.XII.55-57a, G.54-55). ' 57 (B.X1I 57b-57a, pl45, G.56). 


58. In case of mental excitement the Gait should consist of 
footsteps of proper Kala and Tala {halo) in the Parsvakranta, 
Aviddha and Sucl Cans. 

Gait in the Marvellous and the Comic Sentiments 

59-00. These are the Gaits prescribed for the superior 
characters. I shall now describe the Gait for the middling and 
the inferior characters. In their astonishment and joy they are to 
take swift and short steps in all directions, and in their laughter 
too they are to take to this,and similar foot movements. 

Gait in the Pathetic Sentiment 

61-63. The Gait in the Pathetic Sentiment should be in 
slow tempo [and it should be connected with] eyes full of tears, 
drooping limbs, arms thrown up and down, and loud weeping. 
Ai.d this Gait is also to contain one and a half times more Kalas 
and is to have repeated foot-movements [of the same kind]. This 
[Gait] is also to be used in case of women and persons of the 
inferior type. 

63-66. [In connexion with the Pathetic Sentiment] the 
superior characters should be patient, tearful, heaving deep sighs 
and looking upwards and [their Gait in conformity with these condi- 
tions] is to be of no [regular] measure and [they are] not to have the 
Sausthava [of the body]. In case of death of their beloved persons 
and relatives they are to bend down on their breast in dejection and 
to become senseless due to grief, and to walk with the feet not 
raised very high. When too much beaten the shoulder and the arms 
are to be made drooping and the [entire] body is to be made un- 
steady (lit moved round) and walking [should be] by measured steps. 

67-69. A [special] Gait is to be assigned to women and 
persons of the inferior type when they are attacked with cold or are 
overtaken by a torrential shower. [In such a case] they are to 

58 (B.XH.57b-58a, G.57). 89-60 (B.XII.58b-6(Ja, G.58-59). 

61-63 (B.XH 60b-62, G.60-62a). 

63-66 (B.XH.63-66, G.62D-65).- 1 B. reads one additional hemistich 

after 64. 

67-69 (B.XI1.67-69,G.66-68)- ' 


draw all their limbs together, to shiver greatly, to put their two 
hands on the breast, to bend their body, and their teeth are to 
clatter and lips are to throb and the chin is to quiver, and in 
representing an attack of cold the Gait should be slow. 

Gait in the Terrible Sentiment • 

70-75. In the Terrible [Sentiment] the experts should 
make the Gait of women, and men of the inferior type who are 
lacking in spirits, suitable to their nature (lit. in that manner}. 

[In the Terrible Sentiment] they are to have wide open 
and moving eyes, the Vidhuta head and the look awe-stricken and 
turned alternately to sides, and holding the Kapota hand they 
are to walk with quick steps, trembling body and faltering Gait. 
This [kind of movement] should be resorted to when a person is 
pursued [by an enemy], threatened or frightened [by any one], 
[And the same rule will apply] when they see anything dreadful 
or hear any dreadful sound. In the terrified state the Gait suitable 
for wowen, and men who are cowards (lit. have renounced prowess) 
will consist of movement of the feet in the Edakiikridita Can 
falling in quick succession sometimes close to and sometimes at 
a distance from each other, and the hands are to follow them. 

Gait of merchants and ministers 

70-78. The Gait of merchants and ministers is to be 
made natural. They should walk in the Atikiv.nt". Cari with 
steps two Talas wide. Their [left hand] showing the upturned 
Katakfunukha should be on the nave), and the right [lit. the first 
hand | showing the upturned AriMa should be on one side away 1 
[from the left one]. They should not make their limbs drooping, 
motionless or excessively moving. 

Gait of ascetics and sectarians 

79-86. Yatis, Sramanas, those practising austerities and 
those observing the vow of Brahmacarya are to have a [special] 

70-75 (B.XII.70-75, G.69-74). 

76-78 (B.XII.76-78, G.75-77). ' R. reads stananiare for ' tadantare 
(G. Utthuntare). 

79-86 (B.XIL79-86, G.78-85). * PitUum (B. lidhaya). 


Gait [In acting their part] a wise [actor] should have immobile 
eyes looking only four cubits [in the front], a ready memory, the 
entire body in steadiness and he is to keep the mind at rest, to 
assume the marks belonging to his sect and to have modest clothes 
generally dyed in dark red, and to stand with the Samapada feet 
and to assume the Sthana of the same name. Then he should make 
two Catura hands one of which is to be stretched. And assuming 
a serene appearance in conformity with the performance he should 
perform the (Atikrama) Cart with natural (lit. not 
drooping) limbs. The best ascetics of the great vow are to be con- 
nected with these qualities or others contrary to them. As for the 
rest of the ascetices they according to the vow [enjoined by their 
own sects] are to have a Gait confused or stately or sober or mild. 
And in case of the ascetics of the Pasupata sect they should walk 
in the Sakatasya and Atikrant'. Cans with haughty steps. 

Gait of a person in darkness or of a blind man 

87. The Gait [of a person] in darkness or the Gait of a 
blind [man] should consist of the feet drawn over the ground 
and the hands groping for the way. 

Gait of one riding a cliariot 

88-d2. The Gait of a person riding a chariot should consist 
of simple (curnn) steps. From the Samapada Sthana (posture) he 
is to make a mimicry of the being carried in a chariot (lit. go the 
movement of a chariot), and with the one [hand he is to take up] 
the bow and with the other the pole [of the chariot]. And his 
charioteer is to remaian busy with the whip and the reins, and the 
draught animals according to the class [of the vehicle] should be 
represented differently. And with quick and simple steps he is to 
enter the stage. The Gait of one in a celestial car (rimaiia) should 
be made like that of one riding a chariot. One who is about to 

*lihgam i.e. japabhasmakaupimdi (Ag.). 

8 Gacched—atikramad (B. gacched vyatikratnad, G. gaeched 

87 (B.X1I.87, G.86). ' andha-yane (B.G. read atha yane). 
88-92 (B.X1I.88-92, G.87-91). . 



in0 unt [these vehicles] is to hold his body up and with opposite of 

this [motion] one is to make one's discent [from themj. 

Oak while moving in the sky 

02-95. The Gait of a character moving through the sky in 
to include the aerial Caris and looking downwards, and [besides 
this] one is to move [first] from the Samapada Sthana (posture) 
with simple steps. The Gait of one who desends from the sky is 
also to be of this kind. This Gait is to consist of steps straight 
and wide or high and low, or irregular and round about. 

The Gait of a person falling from the sky is to include the 
Apaviddha arms, scattered ends of clothes and eyes set on the 
ground [below]. 

Gait in ascending any lofty palace 

06-98. [In a play sometimes] there is necessity of ascen- 
ding | stairs of] a palace, tree or hill or any other high object and 
descending from them or getting down into a river or some lower 
region and getting up from it. In ascending [the stairs of] a 
palace a person should move the feet in the Atikriinta Carl, and 
with the body held up he should put forward his steps in [the 
flight of] stairs. In descending from the same, the body should be 
slightly bent and one foot should be in the Atikranta Carl and the 
other in the Aficita movement. 

98-100. This Gait suited to ascending [the stairs of] a 
palace should be applied in climbing hills. But in the case of 
hills the limbs are to be thrown up. The climbing of trees [should 
be represented] by steps in the Atikranta, Sutf, Apakranta and 
Parsvakrantfi Carls. 

Gait in getting down into lower places 

101-104. This should also be the Gait in coming down 
[from the trees] and the same should apply in case of getting down 
into a river. s 

92-95 (B.XII.92-95, G.91b-94). 

96-98 (B.XII.96-98a, G.95-97). ' gatram anamya (B. gatram 

'99-100 (B.XU.103-104, G.103 104). 
101-104 (B.XlI105a, 98b-101, G.98-101). 


The Gait in [case of coming down from the top of] a palace ' 
will apply only in crossing [a river]. 

The Gait of a person moving in the river will be according 
to the depth (lit measure) of the water. In shallow water, with 
the tuckiug up of one's clothes, and in the deep [water] with the 
throwing oat of hands one is to move with the fore port of one's 
body slightly bent. And in case of a person's being carried away 
by the current (lit. water) he is to stretch out his arms one by one 
to push forward water repeatedly and during this movement 
all his limbs are to be busily engaged 'and the mouth filled up 
[with water]. y 

Gait in travelling by boat 

105. The Gait of a person travelling by a boat should be 
made up of quick steps. According to these rules (lit. this rule) 
one should observe the various Gaits and movements. 

106-107. All these [conveyances] are to represented (lit 
made) by [suggestive] tokens (namjna) only. [If you ask] "why", 
[the reply will be the question], "Will the actors (lit. producers) 
have to die when the character [to be represented] is said to be 
dead ?" The elephant will be represented by taking up a goad, the 
horse by a bit and the other conveyances by a whip. 

Gait in riding a horso 

108. The Gait of a person riding a horse will consist of the 
Vais'akha Sthana and simple foot steps of the various kinds. 

Gait of serpents 

1 09, The Gait of serpents will be by the Svastika feet, [To 
represent it the actor] is to move in the Parsvakriinta. Can and then 
make a Recaka of the Svastika feet. 

105 (B.XH.l02a, 105b, G.102b, 105a). 

106-107 (B.XII.106-107, G.105-106). ' G. reads 106b as lasman 
nrtta itiprokte kirn kartavyam. prayoktrbhih. This passage shows that 
use of painted scenery was not indispensible in the ancient Indian stage 
On this point Ag. Bays : Z* PnrcfaWffisfi KJiwiKjfwra'i 1(1)3*1 i AMI'S 

108 (B.XII.108, G.107). 109 (B.XII.109, G.108). 


Gait of a Parasite 

110. The Gait of a Parasite {oiia) should be made graceful. 
[An actor] is to represent {lit. go) the Gait of a Parasite by putting 
forward Akuficita (Kuiicita) feet within one Tala and holding the 
Katakavardhamana hands with the proper Sausthava and letting 
[these] hands follow the feet 

Gait of the Kaiicukiya 

112-113. [The Gait] of the Kiificukiya (armour-bearer) 1 
should be made [suitable] to his particular age and condition. When 
he is not old* his Gait should be as follows : With the feet raised 
half a Tala high and simple steps he should walk carrying his 
limbs like one who is treading (lit. touching) upon mud. 

114 But in case of his being [thoroughly] old he should 
walk with the trembling body and raise the feet slowly and with 
[every] step he is to take his breadth. 

110 (RXII.110, G.109). Ill (B.XII.UO.G.llO). 

11M1SCRX1L112-113, G. II 1-1 12). ' Tho word kancuhya (Mir- 
cukin) should bo translated as 'armour-bearer' and not as 'chamberlain' 
which term should he used for sannidhiitr ; see Kautilya's Arthasastra 
(2. 4. 23). BhP. (p. 292) defines the Khltcukiya as follows : 

(Passiouless Brahmins who have knowledge and wisdom being in charge 
of (the king's) armour and crown, and holding the cane-stick (as symbol 
of their authority), aro called KaTicukiyas by the wise). 

2 a-wddhasya. This adjective of the kaiieukiya contradicts the 
following (probably very late) dolinition : ■w^'ffl ?^ fitft ^iiwPw I 
«4*raftf "<*: <*s€taTfatJta?l i sRSwugSiT ft9? iiii wfift i 
This passage has been wrongly ascribed to Bharata in Rucipati's commen- 
tary to the Anargharaghava (cd. in Kavyamala, p. 109). The kaiicukiya 
in tho plays ascribed to Bhasa (i.e. Svapna, Pratima, Abhi. Paiica. 
Duta. and Bala.) does not show any trace of old age. Tho kaiicukin in the 
Sak. deplores that the cane-stick which he hail taken up as the symbol 
of his office, has become in old age the support of his body which he 
could move with difficulty (V.3.). From this it may be assumed that he 
was appointed before old a:;o came upon him. 

144(B.XII. 144, G113). ' For an old kanekin see Sak. loc.. cit 
MudrS, IL etc, % »nd 111. 1. 

-Xtfl. 138 ] THE DIFFERENT GAITS 226 

Gait of emaciated, sick and fatigued persons 

115-117. The Gait of an emaciated person should consist 
of slow steps. And in case of an attack of fever or other illness, or 
of fatigue due to austerities, or hunger, a person is to walk with 
lean and depressed belly, feeble voice, depressed cheek, lusterless 
eyes, slow movement of the hands and the feet, tremor and affliction 
of the limbs and with [every] step he is to emit breath. 

Gait of a person walking a long distance 

118. The Gait of a person walking a long distance is to 
consist of slow steps, narrowing of limbs and the rubbing of the 

Gait of a corpulent person 

119. A corpulent person is to walk with the feet raised 
slowly and he is to drag on his body with great effort. 

1 20. A person going with [hurried] steps should be copiously 
breathing, and be covered with perspiration due to fatigue and his 
steps should be simple. 

Gait of intoxicated persons 

12 1 . The Gait of persons with light (lit. young) and medium 
intoxication will be reeling, with the two feet [sometimes going] 

122. The Gait of persons heavily (lit. worst) intoxicated 
will consist of unsteady feet, reeling body and staggering steps. 

Gait of a lunatic 

123-130. The Gait of a lunatic will consist of irregular 
steps, many Caris in imitation of [various types of] men. He has 
unpolished and dishevelled hair and body covered with dust ; he 
talks without any reason and talks too much in an unnatural 

115-117 (B.XII.115-117, G.114-116). 

118 (B.XII.118, G.U7). 

119 (B.XII.U9, G.U8). 120 (B.XI1.120, G.119). 
121 (B.XII.121, G.120). ]22 (B.X1T.122, G.121). 
123-130 (B.XII.123-130, 0.122-129). 


manner ; sometimes he sings and sometimes laughs and is not 
ready to accompany [any one] ; and he [sometimes] dances in joy 
and [sometimes makes drumming [with any ohject he may find 
before him], Or.ce he runs swiftly and at other times stands still ; 
[again] sometimes he is seated and sometimes lying down. He 
is to wear rags of different kinds and to make the public road his 
irregular dwelling place. A lunatic will be of the above description 
(lit. this man). His gait will be as follows : 

After moving in the Baddha Oari he is to cross his feet. 
The i going round in all the four direction with this Cari lie js to 
perform the Bhramara Mandala outwards and reach one corner of 
the stage. Then turning the Trika gracefully and holding the Lata 
hand with irregular movements he is to move with his feet. 

Gait of lame men, cripples and dwarfs 

131-130. The Gait of lame persons, cripples and dwarfs in 
connexion with the display of physical defects for the sake of the 
Comic Sentiment, will be of three kinds. In one | kind of J Gait of 
lame persons the feet are to remain stiff. Tn the second one, feet 
are to be made Agratalasancara and the body is to held up (lit. 
raised) by the stiff foot. [And in the third] the body is to move on 
one foot, and to rest on another fool and setting feet in this order 
[the lame men] are to go. This will be one's Gait when one 
has run a thorn in the sole of one's foot. The Gait of cripples will 
consist of the Agmtalasaficara and the Aficita feet, the steady body 
and the Nata shanks. During the Gait of dwarfs all their limbs 
are to be narrowed down and they .should neither move [quickly | 
nor take [wide] steps. 

Gait of tho Jester 

137-140. The Jester will have the same Gait consisting of 
simple laughable steps with feet raised high [and put forward]. And 
his Gait will relate to three kinds of laughter : laughter due to 

131-136 (B.XII.131-136, G.13M35a). ' For trividha G. reads 
•oividha and omits 133b. ' * 

.137-140 (B.XII.137-U0,. G.135b-138)- l For vnkyakrta B.G. read 


limbs, due to words and due to the costume and makeup. Of these 
the ugly and big teeth, baldness, hunch on the back, lameness and, 
distorted lace will be objects of laughter due to limbs. When one 
walks like a crane looking up and looking down and with wide 
strides, this too becomes an object of laughter due to limbs. 

140-141. Talking incoherently, meaninglessly, unnaturally 
and uttering obscene words arc to be known as [objects of] laughter 
due to words. 

141-142, A. person covered with (altered clothes or skin, 
or smeared with ink (or lamp-black), ashes or yellow "Oeherc is [an 
object ol'l laughter due to the costume and make-up. Hence 
the [Jester] after considering the characters [he will be con 
frontingj should carefully (lit. essentially) assume [one or more 
ofj these states. 

143-146. The Gait of the Jester should be distinguished 
according to his different conditions. | For example J in his natural 
Gait he is to carry the Kutilaka (kulila) in his left hand and to 
show the Catura (gesture) with the right hand. Besides this he is 
lower by turns one of his sides, head, hands and feet observing 
proper tempo and Tula. The Gait other than this which is natural, 
will be abnormal His Gait on having some food which was 
difficult to get, will be arrested. 

Gait of the menials 

146-148. The Gait to represent the walking of servants of 
lower order or other persons of the inferior type should be as 
follows : in the walking of servants, one of their sides or head or a 
hand or a foot is to be lowered and their eyes fire to move to 
[different] objects. 

8 For vakavat G. reads khagavad, 

140-141 (B.XII.140b-141a, G.139). ' For vakyahasyam B.G. reads 

141-142 (B.XI1.141b-142, G.140-141a). 

143-146 (B.XlI.143-146a, G.141M44). ' B. reads 146a as 
alabhalabhad bhuktasya etc. 

146-148 (B.XIL146b-147, G.146-146). 


Gait of the Sakara 

148-149. The Gait of the Bakara will consist of proud but 
ordinary steps, and while walking he will touch his clothes and 
ornaments and often look at them, and from the unnatural motion 
of his body his garlands, and suspended parts of the clothes are 
to move to and fro. 

Gait of lowly persons 

150. Persons of inferior birth are to walk with eyes looking 
around, protecting their limbs from the contact of other people. 

Gait of the Mleccha tribes 

151. The Gait and movements of the men of different 
Mleccha tribes such as the Pulindas and the Sabaras should be 
made according to the lands they inhabit. 

Gait of birds 

152. The Gait of birds, beasts of pray and other animals 
is to be made according to the character natural to them. 

Gait of lions, bears and monkeys 

153. The Gait of lions, bears and monkeys is to be made 
[like that] which was assumed by the lord Visrtn incarnated as the 
Man-lion. [It is as described below]. 

151-155. [In this Gait] after assuming the Alidha Sthiina 

(posture) with limbs conforming to it, that is, one hand on the 

knee and the other on the breast, one is to look all around and 

put one's chin on one's shoulder and to walk with feet placed five 

' Talas apart. 

156. The Gait should be applied to [represent] lions and 
such other animals at the time of personal combat as well as in 
entering the stage. 

148-149 (B.XII.149-150a, G.147) ' G. omits 141a. 
150 (B.XH.150b-15la, G.148). 151 (B.XII. 151b-152a, G.149). 
152 (B.XII.152b-153a, G.150). 153 (B.XII. 153b-154a, G.151). 

154-155 (B.XII.l54b-156a, G.152-153). 

•156 (B.XH.156b-157a, G.154). ' Lions etc here indicate actors with 
the mack of these animals. 


157. As for the rest of animals the Gait and the Sthana 
(posture) for them when entering the stage or carrying any one or 
anything on the back should be made suitable to the occasion. 

158. These [different] Gaits are thus to be used by wise 
[actors]. The Gaits that have not been described by me, are to 
be adopted from [the practice of] people. 

Walking postures of women 

159-160. I shall now speak of the Gaits and movements 
of women. The Sthana (posture) of women in walking and 
speaking [to others] will be Ayata, Avahittha and Asvakranta. 

160-161. Ayata : Tn the Ayata Sthana (posture) the right 
foot will be Sama, the left (lit. f he other at- the side) foot Tryasra 
(obliquely placed) and the left waist raised. 

161-164 (Uses) : This Sthana is to be used in invocation, 
dismissal, observing carefully, thinking and dissimulation. And 
first appearance on the stage, scattering handfuls of flowers on 
the stage, anger due to jealous love, twisting the forefinger, 
prohibition, pride, profundity, silence, fit of resentment (mana) 
and looking to the horizon are also to be represented from this 
Sthana 1 . 

161-165. Avahittha : Tho>Jeft foot will be Sama and the 
right (lit. the other at the side) foot Tryasra (obliquely placed) 
and the left waist raised up. 

165-167. (Uses) : This Sthana is known (lit. remem- 
bered) as natural for women during conversation [with anyone], 
in determination, satisfaction and conjecture In representing 

157 (B.XII.157b-158a, G.155). 1 58 (B.XII.158b-159a, G.156). 

159-160 (B.XII.159b-160, G.156c-157). ' B. reads five additional 
hemistichs after this^ 

160-161 (B.Xn 163b-164a, G.158). 

161-164 (B.XII.164b-167a, G.159-161). 

164-165 (B.XI1.167b-168a, G.162) ' B.G. read two additional coup- 
lets after this. 

165-1^7 (B.XU.171b-172a, 170b 171a, G.165-166). 

280 THE NAT1ASA8TRA [ XIII. 167- 

anxiety, amorousness, sportiveness, grace, the Erotic and the like 
[Sentiments] and looking towards the way of someone [coming 
or going] this Sthana is to be used. 

167-168. Asvakrsinta : The Sthana in which one toot is 
raised and the other is resting on its fore-part and [ready for] the 
Sue! or the Aviddha Cari is called AsVakranta 1 . 

168-169. (Uses) : This Sthana is to be assumed in taking 
hold of the branch of a tree, plucking a cluster [of flowers] or in 
the taking of rest by goddesses or women for any purposes. 

169-171. The Sthana will be [maintained by a dancer] till 
any movement begins. For during a dance the Sthana is at an 
end when the Carl has begun (litis present). This is the rule of 
the Sthana for women and for men as well. T shall now describe 
women's Gait in relation to their nature. 

Gait of young women 

171-176. [Such a Gait will serially include the following 
Sthana and movements] : The Avahittha Sthana, the left hand 
pointing downwards, the right hand with the Katakiimukha gesture 
placed on the navel, the right foot raised gracefully up one Tiila and 
thrown on the hilt one and simultaneously with that the left hand 
with the Lata gesture placed on the navel and the right side bent, 
placing the right hand on the hip and the Udvestita movement 
of the left Land, then the left foot put forward, the right hand with 
the Lata gesture, [After assuming this Sthana and movements] 
they arc to walk five steps with the body slightly bent and the 
head gracefully held in the Udvahita posture. 

1 76-177. The rules for going about on the stage which have 
been prescribed for men will apply also for women. 

., 167-168 lB.XlJ.172b-173a, G-167). ' B. reads two additional coup- 
lets after this. 

168-169 (B.XU.175b-l76a, G.168). 

169-171 (B.XI1. 176b-) 78a, G.169-170). 

171-176 (B.XII.178b-183a, G.17L-175). 

176-177 (B.XlI.l83b-184a, G.176). 


Gait of young women 

177-179. The steps of women should not be made of six or 
eight Kalas duration. Such a step will he irksome for them. This 
will be the Gait of women in their youth. I shall speak [now] 
about the Gait of women who are aged {nlhttvi ijina). 1 

Gait of aged women 

179-181. After assuming the Avahittha Sthiina and putting 
the loft hand on the waist and the right hand with the Arala 
gesture upturned, placed between the navel and the breasts, they 
are to walk gradually with their body neither relaxed nor stiff nor 
[much] moved about. 

Gait of handmaids 

181-183. The Gait of hand-maids should be made bewil- 
dered (nilliluaiita). They are to walk with slightly raised body 
and flourishing arms, after assuming the Avahittn Sthiina with 
the left hand pointing downwards and the right hand showing 
the Katakamukha hand held on the navel. 

Gait of lialf-womeu 

183-184. The Gait of the half-women, an admixture of 
that of men and of woman will consist of stately but graceful 
movement of limbs and playful steps (lit. feet). > 

184-180. The time required for the Gait which has been 
prescribed for persons of the superior type will be halved in case 
of women and the inferior types of men. And the Gait [prescribed 
for persons] of the superior, the middling and the inferior types 
will apply in ease of women [of those types] except for the foots- 
teps which will be graceful [for the latter]. 

177-179 (B.XlT.184b-186a, G.177-178). ' B.G. read stkaniya ya 
striyas tasam for sthaviyasinam eiasam. The word sthaviyas may well 
bo a comparative degree form of sthavim. Cf. daviyas for dura. *> 

179-181 (B,XIU86b-188a, G.179-180). 

181-183 (B.XII.188b-190a, G.181-182). 

183 184 (B.XlI.190b-191a, G.188). 

184-188 (B.XII.191b-193a, G.184-185). 


Gait of children 

186-187. The Gait of children will he according to their 
will and no Sausthava and [fixed] measreuient will be required. 

Gait cf hermaphrodites 

187-188. The third (ype of person? will he hermaphrodites 
in whose case women's Gait to the exclusion of their [partial] male 
character, should be applied. 

Gait in the change of role 
188-189. A change [of their role] by men, women and 
hermaphrodites should be represented by assumption on their part 
of Gaits suitable to those [new roles] to the exclusion of their own 
[original] character. 

Gait of persons in disguise 
189-191. For disguise, sports or deception [of others] a 
woman assumes the role of a man, and a man that of a woman. [In 
such cases] the woman should play the role of a man with patient 
and liberal spirit and intelligence, and with acts as well as dress, 
words and movement suitable to that [character]. 

191-192. To play the role of a woman a man is to wear her 
clothes, speak like her and look at things and abstain from looking 
at these as she does, and is to assume a delicate and slow Gait. 

" Gait of the tribal women 
192-193. Women of inferior birth and of the Pulinda and 
the Sahara tribes are to have Gaits natural to their community. 

Gait of women asocctios 
193-194. In case of observing a vow or practising austeri- 
ties or bearing the mark [of religious sects.] or staying in the sky 
the Samapada Cart is to be used [as their Gait]. 

186-187 (B.XII.193b-191a. 0.186). 
187-188 (B.XII.l94b-l95a, G 187). 
188-189 (B.XU.195b-196n, G.188). 
189-192 (B.XII.196b-199u. G.189-191). 
1'92-193 (B.XII.199b-200;i, G.192). 
193-194 (B.Xll.a00b-20la, G-193). 


194-195. An expert in dramatic art should not assign the 
energetic Angaharas, Carls and Mandalas to women. 

Sitting postures for men and women 

195-199- Sitting posture* (sthana) for men and women 
should be made conforming "to (lit. combined with) the different 
States which they are in, and similar should be their postures 
while in bed. 

Sitting at case 

196-197. In sitting at ease the two feet are at rest (vnkam- 
bhita) and kept doubled up (ahcita), the Trika is slightly raised, 
and the two hands are put on the thighs on the two sides. 

Sitting in a thinking mood 

197-198. When a person is to assume [deep] thinking, 
[from the easy sitting posture] he is to stretch slightly one of 
his feet, and the other foot is to rest on the seat and the head 
is to bend on one side. 

Sitting in sorrow 

19H-199. When a person is in [deep] sorrow, [from the 
easy sitting posture] he is to put up his hands for supporting the 
chilli or his head is to rest on the shoulder, and he is [to look like] 
one whose mind and the sense-organs are not working (lit. lost). 

Sitting in fainting and intoxication 

199-200. When a person is fainting or is intoxicated, tired, 
weakened or sad, ifr-oni 'he easy sitting posture] he is to stretch 
his arms loosely and to sit depending on [some] support. 

194-185 (B.XII.201b-202a, G.194). 
195-196 (B.XI1.202b-203a, G.195). 
196-197 (B.XlI.203b-204a, G196). 
197-198 (B.XII.204b-205a, G.197). 
198-199 (B.XTT205b-206a, 01 98). 
199.200 (B.XII.206b-207a, 0.199). 


Sitting in shame and sleep etc. 

200-201. When a person is ill, ashamed, asleep or in 
meditation he is to lump together his limbs between legs and 

Sitting on ceremonial occasions 

201-202. In offering a libation of water to the spirits of 
diseased parents, muttering of Mantras, saying the Sandhya prayers 
and making Aeamana, one is to assume the sitting posture with the 
hump raised, in which the hip and the heels come together. 

Sitting in pacifying a beloved woman 

202-20H. In appeasing [the anger of] a beloved woman and 
pouring ghee into the sacrificial fire and doing similar other acts, a 
person is to put one of his stretched knees on the ground [from the 
sitting posture mentioned above]. 

Sitting in worshipping a deity 

203-206. Downcast face and the sitting posture with the 
two knees on the ground (i.<: kneeling down) is to be assumed in 
adoring a diety, pacifying the angry | superiors], bitterly crying for 
sorrow, seeing a dead body, the fear of persons of low spirits, 
the begging of something by lowly persons and servants, and, 
attendance during the Homa and the sacrificial work. Ascetics 
(mini!) while practising austerities are |also] to assume this sitting 
posture (lit, rule about sitting). 

Seats for different characters 

200-207. Now the seats (lit. rules regarding the seats) for 
males and females in a drama, are twofold : public (I'ahi/a) and 
private (aJilijiaiit'irii). [These two terms] public and private relate 
to the royalty (lit. the king). 

200-201 (B.XII.207b-208a, 0.200). 
201-202 (B.X11.208b-209a, G.201). 
202-201 (B XII.209b-210u, G.202). 
203-206 (B.XIJ.201b-213a, G.203-205). 
206-207 (B.XU.213b-214a, Or.206). 


Scats for male characters 

208-210. O Brahmins, gods and kings are to be given 
tlie Lion-seat (i.e. throne), the priests and the ministers the 
cane-seat, the commander of the army and the crown-prince the 
Munda-seat, the Brahmins the wooden seat and the other princes 
the carpet-seat. This ride of seats should he observed in the 
royal court. 

Scats for female characters 

210-214. I shall now speak of the rule of seats for women. 
The chief queen should be given the Lion-seat, the female 
relatives and wives of the king other than the chief queen the 
Munda-seat, the wives of priests and ministers the cane-seat, 
the concubines [of the king] the seat consisting of cloth, skin or 
carpet, the wives of Bralnnins and female ascetics the seat made of 
wood (p<itt<t)> t' 10 wives of Vaisyas the seat of pillow (cushion*, 
and for the remaining women the ground will be the seat. So 
much about the rule of seats in the inner appartments as well as 
in public places, While residing in one's own house one can 
take any seat according to one's liking. 

Seats for ascetics and sectarians 

215. The seats for the ascetics should be according to the 
rules [of the order] they are observing. For the members of 
different sects with special marks the seats will be according 
to their vows. 

216. While pouring ghee into the sacrificial fire or 
doing the sacrificial duty in general or offering a libation of 
water to the departed parents one is to sit on a VrSi 1 , Munda-seat 
or cane-seat. 

208-210 (B.XH.214b-217a, G.207-210a). ' A cane-chair. 
2 muijjasana is probably nothing other than Bengali mala. 
210-214 (B.XII.2l7b-221, G.210b-214). 

215 (B.X1I.222, G.215). > For- example, some have tiger-skin as 
their seat, some deer-skin or a piece of woolen blanket 

216 (B.XII.223, G.216). ' a seat made of kusa grass (Apto). 

THE NATIASA8TBA [ Xiu. 217 . 


General rules about goats 
217 Other local people («tf*»yw) who arc of [high] |,j r , h 
^posmslgmt^vnw^honldyhononrecl b >' tk ' ki "% ''.>' 

/aij ofe 0/ su/'toWeJ stats. 

*/& To his equals he 0>- the king) the is to offer seats 
equal in height to that of his own, to perxon* of medium importance, 
the seats of middling height, and to persons who are superior 
to him, should be given a more elevated seat, while the lowly 
persons are to be seated on the ground. 

219. Before the preceptor, the king or the spiritual guide 
(guru) wise persons are to sit on the ground or on an wooden 

220. Sitting together with the spiritual guide, the preceptor 
or the king in a boat, on an elephant or in a chariot, is allowed 
(lit. not to be objected to). 

Lying-down postures 

221. Postures in the bed are known (lit. proclaimed) as 
Skuncita, Sama, Prasiirita, Vivartita, Udvahita and Nabi. 

222. Akuncita : Lying down with limbs narrowed down and 
the two knees sticking to the bed is called the Skuncita posture. 
It is to be used in representing persons attacked with cold. 

223. Sama : Lying down with the face upwards and the 
hands free and turning downwards is called the Sama posture. Tt 
is the posture in deep sleep. 

224. Prasarita : Lying down with one arm as the pillow 
and the knees stretched, is called the Prasiirita posturc. ft is to be 
used to represent one enjoying a sleep of happiness. 

225. Vivartita : Lying down with the face downwards is 
called the Vivartita posture. It is to be assumed in [representing , 

217 (B.XII.224, G.217). 218 (B.XII.225, G.218). 

219 (B.XU.226, G.219). 220 (B.XU.227, G.220). 

221 (B.XM.228, G.221). 222 (B.XD..229, G.222). 

223 (B.XH 230, G.22H). 224 (B.XH.821, G224). 
' 225 (B.XII.832, G.225). 


wound from any weapon, death, vomitting, intoxication and 

226. Udvahita : Lying down with the head resting on 
the hand and making a movement of the knee, is called the 
Udvahita posture. It is to he used in sports iind on entrance 
of the muster. 

227. Nata : Lying down with tlw lugs (lit. shanks) 
slightly stretched and the two hands loosely resting is called the 
Nata posture. It is to he used in laziness, fatigue and distress. 

228. This is the [rule of] Gait and movements J was to 
tell you. Whatever remains unsaid should he devised accord- 
ing to the demand of circumstances. I shall lira rafter ,«peak 
about the division of the stage into Zones in connexion with going 
about on it. 

Here ends Chapter XII f of Bharata's Natyasastra 
which treats of the Gaits and other Movements. 

220 (B.X 1J.::W, G.22'.). 227 (B.XH.2 .'-J, 0.527). 

228 ( RXJJ.235, G.228). 


1. One should fix the Zones [of the stage] after knowing 
the division of the three [kinds ofj playhouse, that have been men- 
tioned before by me. 

The arrangement of drums 

2. The producer [of a play] should arrange the drums 
between the two doors of the tiling room, which I have 
described before. 

The Zonal division 

3. The Zonal division 1 is to lie indicated by going about on 
the stages [When one is in a particular] Zone [of the stage, it] 
will change [lit. be another] with his walking out of it. 

Utility of the Zonal division 

l-(i. [It is] from the [convention of] the Zonal division that 
one is to know [whether the place in which the scene has been laid] 
is a house, a city, a garden, a pleasure resort, a river, a hermitage, 
a forest, the earth, the sea, Lany part of] the Three worlds, any 
one of the Seven great divisions of (he earth or its continents, 
any of the different mountains, the sky (lit. light), the [surface ot 
the] earth or the nether world (ra«oW»), the places of rest, cities 
or palaces of the Daityas 1 . 

7. The Zones should be fixed with reference to places such 
as a city, a forest, a continent or a mountain in which the scenes 
have been laid (lit. the event occurs). 

1 (B.XHI.1, G.l). ■ See NW. II. 63ff. 

2 (B.XUI.2, G2). 

3 (B.XIII.3, G3). l As modern devise of the change of scenes was 
absent in the ancient Hindu theatre, the convention of the Zonal division 
indicated the locality in which different characters met 

,4-6 (B.XIH.4-6, G-4-6), ' B. reads daityamgalayas for daityamam 
aiayas. 7 (B.XIIJ.7, G.7). 


Indicating relative location 

8. [The Zonal] division should relate to location inside, 
outside or in the middle and to a place far or near. 

9. According to the convention of the Zonal division those 
who have entered [the stage] earlier, should be taken as being 
inside [a house], while those entering it later are to be known as 
remaining outside it. 

10. He who enters the stage with the intention of seeing 
them (/. r. those entering earlier) should report himself turning to 
the right. 

The east on the stage 

11. The direction which the drums and the two doors of the 
tiring room face, should always be considered as the east in course 
of the dramatic performance. 

The rule of exit 

12. If any person will go out from the place (lit. there is. 
inside the house) on any business he is to make his exit by the 
very door he used when entering 1 . 

li!. Tf after going out he is lore-enter that house he will 
make his exit |if neeeseary ] by the door through which the men 
[who enter later] came. 

14-15. If out of necessity he goes along with latter, [re-] 
enters the house with the latter, or by himself alone, another Zone 
should be prescribed for the two. This other Zone will be indicated 
by their [order in] walking. 

Indication of rank in group walking 

10. With the equals, one is to walk side by side and with 
one's inferiors one is to walk surrounded [by the latter], and hand- 
maids are to be known by their walking before [the master]. 

8 (B.X11I.8, G.8). 9(B.XIII.9,G.9). 10 (B.XIII.10, GfHO). 


12 (B.X1JI.12, G.12). * B. reads the couplet differently. 

13(B.XJU.13,G.1S). 14-15 (B.XJ11 14.G.14), 


Indicating distance great, small and medium 

17. The same place if much walked over will be taken as 
a distant land. And near by lands or lands ot medium distance 
are to be indicated likewise (in the same principle) 1 . 

Movement of gods and demigods 

18-20. According to the various needs of the plot (lit. play) 
gods and demigods are to move to cities, forests, seas or mountains 
through the sky, by an aerial car, by their occult power or by 
different other acts. But while in disguise in a play they (/. e 
gods and demigods) are to move on the ground, so that they may 
be visible like human beings (lit. through human causes) 1 . 

Movement of men in Bharatavarsa 

21. The gods and demigods can at their will move to any 
of [the nine] divisions [of the Jambudvipa], but it is prescribed 
that men are to move in Bh'.rata [varsa] (India) alone. 

Departure for a distance place 

22. If a person departs on business to a distant place this 
is to be indicated by closing the Act [with his departing] and 
mentioning again this fact in an Introductory Scene (yxwiM'a). 

Time allowed for the events of an Act 

23. To indicate the attainment of an object one is to 
traverse a measure of distance. But in ease of failure in this 
matter (lit. in non-attainment of the object) (he Act should be 
brought to an end. 

24. [Incidents in a play occurring for] a Ksana, a Muhnrta, 
a Yama and a day are to be accommodated in an Act in pursuance 
of the Germ (rijn) [of the play]. 

25. But a month or a year is [to be considered] finished 
with the end of an Act ; and events occurring more than one 
year after, should not be put. in an Act. 

16 (B.XII116. G.16). 

17 (B.XJII.17, G.17). ' For an oxample of this see Uttara I. 
18-20 (B.XIII.18-20, 0,18-20).' B.G. add one couplet after this. 

21 (B.X1II.21, 0.22). 22 (B.XUJ.23, 0.23). 23 (B.X1II.24, 0.24 . 
24 (B.XIII.25, 0.25). ' 25 (B.X1 1126, 0.26). 


26. The Zones of the • stage [and allied conventions] con- 
cerning the movements of men are thus to be observed in a play 
in connexion with Bharatavarsa (India). Now listen about that 
of gods and demigods. 

27-32. Yaksas, Guhyakas, the follow ers of Kuvera, (lit. the 
giver of wealth), Riiksasas, Bhutas and Pisacas who live on the 
best mountain KailFuui included in the Himalayas, are known 
as dwellers of the latter mountain. Gandharvas, Apsarasas and 
Ganas are known to live on the Hemakuta. On the Nisadha live 
all the Niigas (serpents) such as Resa, Vasuki and Taksaka. The 
thirty-three groups of gods dwell on the great Meru, and Siddhas 
and Biahmarsis on the Blue [Mountain] full of lapis lazuli 
The White Mountain is the abode of Daityas and Danavas, while 
Pit re resort to the Srftgavat [mountain]. These are the best moun- 
tains where gods and demigods dwell. With reference ot the 
Zonal division they should be [placed] in Jambudvlpa [where 
these mountains exist]. 

Movements of gods 

32-35. Their exploits should be represented (lit. made) 
according to their habits and powers, but their costumes and make- 
up should be like that of human beings. All the conditions of gods 
are to be made human. Hence they should not be represented (lit. 
made) as winkless [which they traditional! , are]. For the States 
and the Sentiments [in a play] depend on Glances. And the 
States are [first] indicated by Glances and then represented by 
gestures and postures (lit. by limbs). This is all about the Zonal 

The four Local Usages 

36. I shall now resume the description of the Local Usages 
(prarrtti) which according to the experts in drama are four : Avanli 
Daksinatyi^, Pancal! and Odhra-Magadhi 1 . 

. «r 

26 (B.XI1I.27, G.27). 27-32 (B.XIU.28-33a, G.28-33). 

32-35 (B.XlII.33b-36r, G.35-37a). ' For tu iaiyam B. reads na 

36 (B.XIII.36b-38, G.^7b-38). ' The passage following this till tl.e 
beginning of 37 is in prose. 


[Now comes the question] : Why is [it called] pravrtii 
(report) [of the Local Usages] ? [In answer to this] it is said that 
■pmvrtti is so called because it informs [one] about the Local 
Usages regarding costumes, languages, manners and professions 
in different countries of the world. Vrtti and pmvrtti mean 
'information', There arc many countries in this world. Hence 
it is' asked, "How a fourfold division of these (('.«. the four 
pravrttis) [can be] proper ? And an observance of all these 
pravrttis possess [some] common characteristics." [In reply] 
it has been said, "It is true that their observance has [some] 
common characteristics; but as people hive different native 
countries, costumes, languages and manners, I have prescribed 
a fourfold classification of the dramatic performance which is 
attached to four different Styles according to the preference 
of [different] people. [Hence] countries are connected with the 
performance which relate to the Styles such as the Verbal 
{bharati) the Grand (sattmtli), the Graceful (kai&iki) and the 
Violent (arabluiti). And from these [countries] arise the 
four pravrttis (Local Usages) and also the [entire] performance 
including them. 

The Daksinatya Local Usage 

Now [it is said] in that connexion (lit. there) that the 
Southern [countries] favour various kind of dances, songs and 
instrumental music, an abundance of the Graceful (kaisiki) Style 
and clever and graceful gestures. They are as follows : 

37 Countries adjacent to mountains named the Mahendra, 
the Malaya, the Sahya, the Mekala and the Kalapanjara 1 , are 
known as the Daksinapatha (Deccan). 

• 38-39 [But] Kosala, Tosal.i, Kalinga 1 , Yavana, Khasa, and 
countries like Dramida, Andhra, Malrrastra 3 , Vainna and Vana- 

37 (B.X1II.39, G.39)' ' Kalapa jara seems to be same as modern 
Kalirjara (=Kalapi jara) j pinjara is a variant of paltjara ; see 
Paia-saddamaliannavo, sui voce. 

38-39 (B.xilI.40-41, G.40-41). * See note 1 to 43-45. 
• ' Andhra-Mahara§tra may also be taken 'as the name of the great 
Andhra empire (maha-rasira). 


vasika which lie between the Southern OceaD and the Vindhya 
[mountain] are always to take to the Daksinatysi Local Usages 8 . 

The Avanti Local Usage 

40-41. Avanti, Vidisa, Saurastra, Malava, Sindhu, Sauvira, 
Arvudeya 1 Dasarna, Tripura, and Mrttikavat always take to the 
Avanti Local Usage 2 . 

42. The performance [of a play] by [people of] these [coun- 
tries] should depend on the Grand (s&ttvati) and the Graceful 
[kaisilci] Styles and [such a procedure] should be adopted by 
the producers. 

The Odhra-Magadhi Local Usage 

43-45. Eastern 1 [countries such as] Anga, Vanga, Kalinga*, 
Vatsa, Odhra (Odra), Magadha, Pundra, Nepala, Amtargira, Bahi- 
rgira, Plavamgama, Malada 3 , Mallavartaka,* Brahmottara," Bhar- 
gava, 8 Margava, 7 Pragjyotisa, Pulinda, Videha and Tamralipta, 
adopt the Local Usage known as the Odhra-Magadhi. 

46. In relation to other countries too known in the 
Puranas as belonging to the East the Odhra-Magadhi . Local 
Usage is applied. 

3 . Geographical names mentioned in this passage and the passages 
that follow, arc mostly to be met with in the Puranas (sometimes with 
variant readings). For a discussion on the same see Dines Chandra 
Sircar, 'Text of the Puranic Lists of Peoples' (IHQ. Vol. XXI. 1945 
pp. 297-314). 

40-41 (B.XIH.42-43, G.42-43). ' Arvuda or modern Ibu in Raj- 
putana is probably meant by this name. 

42 (B.XKL44, G.44). 

43-45 (B.Xni.45-47, G.45-47). ' B. prahga pravrttayah. 

2 The twofold mention of Kalinga requires an explanation. It is 
possible that the two different Usages were current in this region. 

8 Malada be may modern Maldah District of Bengal. 

' Mallavartaka may be modern Mallabhum (Bankura in Bengal. 

6 For Brahmottara see Visvabharati Patrika, Vol. IV. pp, 250ff. 

6 Bhargava remains unidentified, 

' Margava remains unidentified. 

46 (B.XIIL48, G.48). 


The Paiicala-Madhyaina local Usage 

47-48. Countries such as PancJa, Surasena, Kasmira, 
Hastinapura, Vfilhika, Si'kala 1 , Madra and Uslnara which are 
contiguous either to the Himalayas or to the Northern bank of 
the Ganges, take to the Paficala-madhyma Local Usage. I 

49. In this Usage the Grand (sattvatj) and the Violent 
(ardbhati) Styles are known [to predominate]. The application of 
these [means] paucity of song and excessive movement and 
extraordinary Gaits and steps. 

The twofold entrance in observing Local Usages 

50. Going about on the stage in [observing] Local Usages, 
will be in two ways, viz. by entering from the right and by 
entering from the left. 

51. In the Avanti and the Daksiniitya Local Usage the 
going about [on the stage] will be from the right, and in the Piiiieali 
and the Odhra-Magadhi it will be from the left. 

52. In ease of the Avanti and the Daksinatya Local 
Usages the door to be used in entering should be the Northern 
one, while in case of the Paficali and Odhra-Magadhi Local Usages 
the Southern door should be used. 

oI3. But in view of the special assembly, place, occasion 
and expression of meaning these rules may be combined (lit. be 
made into one). 

54. Experts should apply to plays the Local Usages 
which have been prescribed before for different countries. 

55. In musical plays (ganakadi) these rules sho»ld be 
simplified. One should produce them (lit. practice those acts) in 
disregard of the multiplicity of Local Usages. 

47-48 (B.XITI.49-50, G.50-51). ' The reading Salyaka of some mss. 
may be a variant of Salvaka. As in the Puranas an expression like 
ialval} iakalavasinah is met with, Salvas or Salvukas might have been 
the name of a tribe residing in the ancient Sakala region. 

49 (B.XIU.51, G.49). 50 (B.XHI.52, G.52). 

, 51 (B.Xin.53, G.53). 52 (B.Xm.54, G.54). 

53 (B.XIIL55, G.55). 54 (B XZII.56, G.56). 55 (B.XIII.57, G.58). 


The two general types of plays 

56. The production of a play in conformity with the rales 
of dramatic practice is' of two types : delicate (sukwniaru) and 
violent (avbldhii). 

The violent types 
57-58. The play which requires violent (arihlha) gestures 
and movements {aivjaliaiv) to represent, cutting, piercing and 
challenging! and contains the use of magic and occult powers as 
well as artificial objects and make-up, and lias more men and less 
women [among its ilmimiti* /*/.'ivsu/n/«] and applies [in its production J 
mostly the Grand and the Violent Styles, is of the violent type. 

59. According to the [expert] producers, [plays otj the l)ima. 
the. Samavakara, the Vyayog;i and the Iliamrgu [classes] are 
known to be of the violent type. 

60. Production of plays of this type should be made by 
[an impersonation of] gods/Danavas and Rakaasas who are majestic 
and haughty, and have herorism, energy and strength. 

The delicate type 

61. The Nataka, the Prnkarana, Vltlii and the Anka are 
plays of the delicate type, and they depend [for their production] 
[on an impersonation of] human beings only. 

The two Practices 

62/ I shall now define (lit. relate the characteristcs ol) the 
two Practices (dlurnni) which have been mentioned before. 

The realistic Practice 

63-64. If a play depends on natural behaviour [in its 
characters] and is simple and not articial, and has in its [plot] 

56 (B.XI1I5 9 ; G.59) 57 (B.XIH.60-61, G.60-61). 

59 (B.XI11.62, G.62). 60 (B.XI1I 63, G.63X 

61 (B.XII1.64, G.64). ' B. adds five additional couplets after this. 

62 (B.XI1I.70, G.65). ' For a discussion on Dharmis see V. Ragha- 
van, Niitya Dharmi and Loka Dharral (Idealism and Realism of Bharata's 
Stage), Journal of (Oriental Researches. Madras, Vol. VII. pp. 359-375. 

68-64 (B.XU1.71-72, G.66-67). ' See note 1 to IX. 1-3. 


professions and activities of the people and has [simple aeting and] 
no playful flourish of limbs and depend* on men and women of 
different types, it is called realistic (l-iMhtmuj) 1 . 

The conventional Practice 

65-IJ6 Tf a play contains speech, activity, beings and 
states of the extraordinary kind, and requires acting with playful 
flourish of limbs and possesses characteristics of dance, and 
requires couventiona! enunciation, and is dependent on emotionally 
earned parsons (lit.) characters it is to be known as conventional 
[iiaijadkarm'i) 1 . 

07. If anything used by (lit. among) people, appears 
(lit. set foot) 1 in a play (lit here) as endowed with a corporal 
from and speech 2 the practice is [a]so| called conventional 
(naJtijadhannl) 3 . 

U8. [The practice in a play according to which persons arc 
supposed] not to hear words uttered in proximity, or to hear what 
has not been uttered at all, is [also] called conventional. 

69. If objects like a hill, conveyance, aerial car, shield, 
armour, weapon or banner-staff are made to appear on the stage 
(lit. are used) in [human] form, it is known as an [instance of] the 
conventional Practice. 

70. If after appearing in a role, one assumes a different 
role [in the same play], on account of his being an expert in 
both the cases or being the sole actor available for both the 
roles, it is known to be an instance of the conventional Practice. 

71- If after a person has been employed (lit. being) in the 
role of a woman for whom marital connexion with a particular 
character is forbidden by the Sastras, is made to appear in the 

65-67 ( H.XI1I.75, G.70). ' padant • G. reads bhadram. 
* mitrtimai sabhibhasam (B. murtimat sabhilasam). 
' Au instance of this is the personification of the Bhrama&apa in 
Miiyapu§paka (Ag.). 

68 (B.XIII.76, G.7I). ' For amnnoktam, G. reads atroktam caiva. 

69 (B.XIII.77, G.72). '' G. omits two couplets (70 and 71) after 
this. ■ 70 (B.XIII.78) 71 (B.XIII.79). 


role of another woman with whom such connexion is permitted, it 
becomes an instance of conventional practice. The same will 
be the result if the situation in the above case is reversed. 

72. That, [in a play instead of simple walking] one dances 
or goes with graceful movement of the limbs as well as with 
similarly made steps is known as conventional Practice. 

73. Tf the [ordinary] human nature which has acts of 
joys and sorrows as its essence (lit. soul) is represented by (lit. 
combined with) [special] gestures it becomes [an instance of] 
the conventional Practice. 

74. The Zonal division which includes (lit. depends on) 
many rules, is also [an instance of] the conventional Practice 

75. A play should always be produced with the conven- 
tional movement [of limbs], for without the [use of] Gestures [by 
the actors] no pleasure occurs [to the spectators]. 

7C. All the States are natural to all [persons] and all the 
gestures [in connexion with them are used] from necessity 
(arthnlah) ; [hence] a decorative movements of limbs [in producing 
a play] has been considered as [an instance of] the conventional 

77. So much about the Zonal Division, [the two] Practices 
and the [four] Local Usages. Experts in dramatic production 
should know these and put them properly into practice. 

78. I have described here the Histrionic Representation by 
means'of the Sakha and the Angahara- I shall afterwards speak 
about such Representation depending on Words which consist of 
vowel and consonantal sounds. 

Here ends Chapter XIV of Bharata's Natyasastra 
which treats of the Local Usages and the Practices. 

72 (B.XIII.80, G.73). 

73 (B.XIII.81, G.74). » B rends one additional couplet after this. 

74 (B.XIII.82, G.75). l B. reads one additional couplet after this. 

75 (B.XHI.84, G.76). 76 (B.X1II.35, G.77). 
77 (B.XIII.86, G.78). 78 (B.X1H.87, G.79), 



The actor's speech 

1. O the best of Brahmin?, I shall now speak about the 
nature (lit characteristics of) the Verbal Representation which 
has been mentioned before 1 and which relates to (lit. arises from) 
vowels and consonants. 

Importance of speech in drama 

2. One should take care of words 1 . For these are known 
as the body of the dramatic art (/<«///«). And < lestures, Costumes 
and Makeup and the Temparamental (*al'vil;n) acting [merely J 
clarify the meaning of words. 

3. In this world (lit. here) the Sastras are made up of words 
and rest on words; hence there is nothing beyond words, and words 
are at the source of everything 1 . , 

4. The Verbal representation is related to [a knowledge 
of] nouns (nama), verbs (aklu/ta), particle (ni^atu), preposi- 
tion {ii)MHtirtja), nominal suffix (tahlkHu) compound words 
(mimasn), euphonic combination (xnn<lhi) and c.ise-eiidim's 
( vibhakti ). 

The two kinds of recitation 

5. The Recitation Qiathja) [in a play] is known to be 
of two kinds : Sanskritic and Prokritic. I shall speak of their 
difference in due order. 

1 (C.lj B.XIV.l). > For the four kinds of Histrionic Representation 
which includes the Verbal one see N8. VI. 23. 

2 (C.1;B.XIV.2), "This rule applies to the actors as well as to 
the play-wright. On this Ag. says : vfa nw *a*i ifit Mifon fr»tf<ii<in% 
are* n*<rarrtt. 

3 (C.3; B.X1V.3). ' Tiiis view is also held hy Bhatrhari (circa 
600 A.'C.) in his Vakyapadiya (XgamakandaXSee B. p. 224, foot note. 

4. (C.4; B.X1 V.4). 5 (0.5; B.X1V.5). 


Different aspects of Recitation ,. 

0-7. [They consist of] vowels, consonants, euphonic combi- 
nation, case-endings, nouns, verbs, prepositions, particles and 
nominal suffixes. The Sanskritic Recitation is characterised by [a 
due regard to] these aspects and compound words, and includes 
various verbal roots 1 . Now listen about its application. 

The speech-sounds 

8 The fourteen founds beginning with a and ending in 
au, are known as vowels, and the group of sounds beginning with 
ka and ending in ha are known as consonants. 

Vowles are fourteen in number 1 . A, a, i, i, u, u, r, r, I. ], 
c, ai, o and au are to be known as the vowels. 

The group of letters beginning with ka, are consonants. Ka, 
kha, ga, gha, na, ca, cha, ja, jha, mi, ta, tha, da, dha, n.a, ta tha 
da, dha, na, pa, pha, ba, bha, ma, ya, ra, la, va, (5a, sa sa and ha 2 
[constitute] the group of consonants 3 . 

Consonants : their articulation 

9. The first two sounds of each group [of the stop 
consonants] are known as unvoiced (<ujlw*n) and the rest [of the 
group] are called voiced (ijhoMt). 

6-7 (0.6-7; B.XIV.6-7). ' R-ad mmadhatu-sammrayam, C. 

8 (C.8; B,X1V.8). ' Different aiksfis and Priitisakhyas enumerate 
vowels differently. According to the PS. they are 22 in number, while the 
Atharva, Taittirlya, and Vajasaneyi, Prutifcikhyas and the Rktantra 
Vyakarana (Samavcda Pr.) give their number respectively as 13, 13, 16, 
23 and 23. See VS. (ed. Manomohan Ghosh) p.51. . 

3 PS. counts anusvara, visarga, jihvamvliya and upadhtmnlya 
among consonants. Sec ed. Ghosh, p. 50. 

8 B. reads after this a couplet (B.10) from PS. see ibid, p. 59. Not 
occurring in most of the tnss. this may be taken as spurious. This is 
followed in B. by a prose passage which also seems to be spurious. The 
same is our view about the couplet B.ll which follow this prose passage. 
The substance of tMs couplet (B.ll) occurs in 9 below- 

9 (C.9 ; B.XIV.12). ' In C. this couplet occurs after 8 and before 
the prose passage that follows it. 


10. These 1 [consonants] are to be classified into (lit. known 
as) voiced and unvoiced, velar, labial, dental, lingual (jihvya)*, 
nasal, sibilant, palatal and Visarjanlya. 

'11 In these groups [of consonants] ga, gha, na, ja, jha, 
n, da, dha, na, da, dha na, ba bha, ma, ya, ra, la and va are voiced, 
while ka, kha, ca, cha, ta, tha, ta, tha, pa, pha, sa, sa, sa and ha are 

12-14. Ka, kha, ga, gha, and na, are velar (kanihastlia) 1 
ca, cha, ja, jha, Fia, i, i, ya and sa palatal, ta, tha, da, dha, na, r, 
ra, and sa cacuminal (murdhawja), ta, tha, da, dha, na, la, and 
sa dental, pa, pha, ba, bha, and ma labial; a and ha are from the 
throat (kardhoxtha), o and au are throat-labial (kanthyostlia,- 
xthana) 2 , e and ai, throat-palatal {kntaha-talavya). 

14-15. The Visarjanlya is from the throat, and ka and [kha] 
are from the root of the tongue 1 . The place of articulation for pa 
and pha are lips, and the same will be for the closet! (arivrta) 
vowels u and u 2 . 

15-16. [The group of sounds] beginning with ka and 
ending in ma are called stops (sparsa), sa, sa sa, and ha are open 

10 (CIO; B.XIV.13). ' Read the first hemistich as <tf ^nwfor, 

8 Thejihvya docs not seem to occur in any well-known grammatical 
work. This is perhaps synonymous with murdhanya; for in the pro- 
duction of murdhanya sounds jihva (tongue) plays the most important part, 
The Taittiriya. Pr. describes the manner of their production as follows ; 
Jihvagrena prativeslya murdhani ta-vargasya (11.37), Curiously enough 
this term has never again been used in the Ntt. 

11 CC.11; B.X1V.14). 

12-14 (C.l2-14a; B.X1V.15, 15 of p.230 and 16). ' For different tradi- 
tional views about the places of articulation of consonants see P8. p. 62. 
Read lib as follows : — qre^f zstrnTO-siw tftr qSmta:. 

* Read 12a as follows :— wm^i: ^WIWJIWII fltriw tnsatwn:. 

8 Read 13b as follows :— -nrasir i^mr: ro^'zw $f» farat itai:. 

1 Read 14a as follows : ^ "ft *»ra»ili!ft 1 § qrtft ^ wwwft. 

14-15 (C.l4b-15a, B.XIV.16b-17a). ' See noto I to 12-14 above. 

8 Read 14b-15a, as follows i »ro) fw&SWt fcrnqjIi'SftiwSl: I liffit- 

15-16 (C15b-16a, B.XIV.17b-18a). • C. sarnvrtali for samvrtajah. 

-XV. 21 ] BULBS OP PBOS,ODY 281 

(vivrta) while semivowels (airfahitha) are erosed (samvrta), na, 
iia, 9a, na and ma are nasal [sounds]. 

16-17. Sa, sa, and sa and ha are sibilants (imiim-h, lit. hot) ; 
ya, ra, la and va arc semivowels (aiUiihithii, lit. intermediate), 
hka from the root of the tongue (jihnamidltja) and hpa from the 
Upadhma (nparfhmaniya). 

17-18. Ka, ca, ta, ta and "pa are [simply] uttered (nmrite), 
and kha, cha, tha, tha and pha are uttered [markedly] from the 
throat, and ga, gha, ja, jha, da, dha, da, dha, and ba, bha from the 
throat as well as the breast (kanihuiasya) 1 - 

18-19. The Visarjaniya should be known as a sound from 
[the root of] the tongue 1 . These are the consonants which have 
been briefly defined by me. 1 shall now discuss the vowels with 
reference to their use in words. 

Vowels : their quantity 

20. 1 Of the above mentioned fourteen* vowels ten constitute 
homogenous pairs (winaiw), of which the first ones are short and 
the second ones long. 

The four kinds of word 

21. Constituted with vowels and consonants [described 
above] the words include verbs (skhyata), nouns (nclma), roots 
(tihatu), prepositions (npaxarya) and particles (niyafa), nominal 
affixes (taihUuta), euphonic combinations (nandhi) and case- 
terminations (vibhakti). 

16-17 (C.16b-17a; B.XIV.18b 19a). 

17-18 (C.17b-18a, B.XIV.19b-20a). ' Read this couplet as follows : 

18-19 (C.18b-19 ; B.XIV.20b-2l). '.See note 1 to 12-14 above. 
Read 18b as follows : tat fafl«^Wt fsiIT5«rf¥tf ^:. See the foot-note in B. 
under B. 20b. 

20 (C.20; B.XIV.22b-23a). ' B. reads one additional hemistich 
(B 22a), before this. 

3 About the number of vowels see 8 note 1 above. 

21 (C.21j B. foot note 4 in p. 231). 


22. The characteristics of vocables have been mentioned in 
detail by the ancient masters. I shall again discuss those charac- 
teristics briefly when an occasion will arise 1 . 

The noun 

28. The noun 1 has its functions determined by the case- 
endings such as 'su' and the like, and by special meanings derived 
therefrom 2 ; and it is of five 8 kinds and has a basic meaning 
(pratipntlikartha) and gender*. 

24. It (the noun) is known to be of seven 1 classes and 
has six cases, and [sometimes] it is well-established ([irathittt) 2 and 

22 (C.22; B. foot-note 5 in p. 231). 

23 (C.25; B X1V.28). ' This couplet has evidently boon misplaced 
in 0. as well as B. Begin it as svadyudya" . 

' The second hemistich should be emended as follows : nfinnfiwitfef- 

8 The five kinds of noun have been enumerated as follows : 3"»ra«i 
K?4 * ftfjTW wmn i st^iijsw mi mq lliw wtffl il Goylcandra, Samksip- 
tasara-vivarana (Rrf. Haldar, Itihiisa, p. 174). 

* There is a difference of opinion about the number of basic meanings 
(pridipadikartha) of a word. According to Panini they are-two : chareteris- 
tics of a species (jitti) and object (dmvya). Katyayana adds one more to the 
number which is gender (likga). But Vyighrapit— a rather less kuown 
ancient authority— took their number to bo four. According to him they 
arc : characteristics of a species, object, gender and number (samkhyu). 
Pataiijali however considered them to be live in number, e.g. characteristics 
of a species, object, gender, number and case [karaka). (Haldsir, Itihiisa 
p. 447-48. 

24 (C.23; B.XIV.25b-26a). l The seven classes probably relate to 
the seven groups of case-endings. 

* The words Prathita and sudhya as grammatical terms an- 
scarcely well-known. Prathita seems to relate the well-known words 
as a whole, which cannot be conveniently analysed into component parts. 
(Unadi derivation should in this connexion be considered as the most 
artificial). It may be in contrast to these that the words which can be 
built up from the verbal roots and affixes etc. are known as sadhya O 
be.madc). These two terms may therefore be taken as synonymous with 
rGjAa and yaugika respectively. _«, 


[sometimes] is to be constituted (sa/lhya)* [and when combined 
with different case-endings] it may imply* indication (nirdega) 3 , 
giving to (sampradana), taking away (ai>Wlantt) and the lik*. s 

25. 1 The verbs relate to actions occurring in the present and 
the past time and the like ; they are sometimes well-established 
(l>rathita) 2 and sometimes to be constituted (sailhya)*, are distin- 
guished and divided according to number and person. 

The verb 

26. [A collection of] five hundred roots divided into twenty- 
five classes are to be known as verbs (akhyata) in connexion with 
the Recitation, and they add to the meaning of the nouns 1 . 

27. Those that iipaxtjnnti (modify) the meaning of the 
verbal roots in connexion with the meaning of basic words 1 are for 
that [very] reason called it/nutti nja- (preposition) in the science of 
grammer (xttmskara-iastra). 

3 Nirdesa seems to to relate 'nominatives ; for it is one of the 
meanings of the case-endings. Enumerating these some grammarian says : 
ftw. <mii %A R?T"5m$iif( i ^rarafsqfa^ii ftwwttf: R^tfflJU: .- (Haldar, 
Itihasa, p. 170). 

25 (C.24; B.XIV.26b and cf. 29b). ' Read the couplet as follows :— 

B. 27a seems to be corrupt and redundant. 

2 In case of verbs prathita seems to relate to irregular froms like 
prmya in place of drg, and sadhya to regularly constructed ones. Sec 
also note 1 to 24 above. 

26(C.26a;B.XlV. 27b, 29a). l C. omits 26a and gives only 26b 
as C. 26a. There are different number of roots in lists (DhatupStha) 
attached to different grammatical works. It is not known which give 
their number as five hundred. Dhanapala (970 A.C.). in his commentary 
to Jaina Sakatiiyana's Dhatupatha says on the subject as follows : 
*3*«jJWr*rf'M»ri<.'i* w * i toj: Sferiw* vnfli ^f<u wn: ll ' (Ref. Haldar, 
Itihasa, p. 44). Verbal roots are divided according to Panini into ten classes 
(gatta). Their division into twentyftve classes does not seem to occur in any 
well-known work. 

27 (C.26, B.XIV.30). ' This definition of the ufiasarga follows 
Sakatayana's view on the subject as expressed in the Nirukta 0,. 1.3-4). 
According to this authority upascrgas have no independant meaning and 

361 THE NATYA8A8TRA [ XV. 28- 

The particle 

28. *As they nipatmti (come together) with declined words 
(pada) to strengthen their basic meaning, root, metre" or etymo- 
logy*, they are called nipatas (particles). 

The affixes 

29, 1 As it distinguishes ideas {pratyaya) and develops the 
meaning [of a root] by intensifying it or combining [it with 
another] or [pointing out] its essential quality {mitva), it is called 

pratyaya (affix). 

The nominal affix 

30- x As it develops the meanings [of a word] by an elision 
[of some of its parts], a seperation of its root and affix, or their 
combination and by pointing out the abstract notion [indicated by 
it], it is called taddldia (nominal affix). 

they are merely auxiliary words modifying the meaning of the verbal 
roots. On the different ways in which such modification takes place 
one grammarian says : sfcfillffl wati «finmj*4* I fafitlfe ?l»m$>!<re9'iiftlfcroT. 
Haldar, Itihasa, p. 346). 

28(C27;B.XIV.3l). ' According to Panini indecliuables (avyaya) 
of the ca-group are particles (nipaia). See I. 5.57. According to 
Patanjali nipiitas do the function of case-endings and intonation (svara= 
pitch accent). He says : farffatswfTOwra wftfit rinra«^r:...(on P.II1.4.2). 
The author of the Kasika too accepts this view in his comments on P.I. 4.57. 

2 Ca, vat, tu, and hi are instances of such nipatas. 

s It is not clear now nipatas, strengthen the etymology given 
here.- Probably the reading here is corrupt. 

29 (C.28; B.XIV.32). ' Such an elaborate definition of the pratyaya 
doer! not not appear to occur in any exant grammatical work. Ag. 
seems to trace it to the Aindra school of grammarians. The meaning 
of the definition is not quite clear. According to the common interpre- 
tation the pratyaya means that which helps to develop a meaning from 
root ( 3tre: q?fta^ q s«tt: ). 

30 (C.29; B.XIV.33). ' This definition of the taddhita does not 
seem to occur in any well-known grammatical work. It describes the 
processes through which the taddhita suffix will transform a word. 


The case-ending 

31. As they vibliajanti (distinguish between) the meanings 
of an inflected word or words with reference to their roots or gender, 
they are called vihhahti (case-endings). 

The euphonic combination 

32- Where separated vowels or consonants sandhtyate 
(combine) 1 by coining together 2 (i/ogatah) in a word or words it is 
called [an instance of] sandhi (euphonic combination). 

33. As due to the meeting of two sounds (lit. letters) or of 
two words, their sequence (krama)*- sandhlyate (result in a combi- 
nation), it is called mndhi (euphonic combination). 

The compound wordB 

34. The Samasa (compound word) which combine 1 many 
words to express a single meaning an.l suppresses affixes, has been 
described by the experts to be of six kinds such as Tatpurusa and 
the like. 

31 (C.30; B.XIV.34). l This definition follows the etymological 
sense of the term {vibhakii). Diu-gasimha of the Kalapa school says 
the case-endings are so called because of their giving distinctive moaning 
to a word (i*!"! fmitl? fffl%). See Halclar, Itihasa, p. 169). 

32 (B.XIV.35) C. omits this. Road vtsltsta for vitista. ' The 
sandhi in strictly speaking, not merely a combination of two sounds (vowels 
or consonants), in a great number of cases their mutual phonetic influence, 
constitutes a sandhi. This is of live kinds, and relate to savara-s, 
vyanjana-s, prakrli-s, anusvara-s, and visarga-s. 

' This 'coming together' depends on the shortness of duration which 
Roparate the utterance of the two sounds. According to the ancient 
authorities sandhi will take place when this duration will not be moro 
than half a maim. It is for this reason that the two hemistichs in a 
couplet are never combined. 

«jfa: i *WRrf(<"s*wq^fl^rat^^flSl!i , !. (USldar, Itihasa p. 166). 

33 (C.31; B.XIV.36). " C. reads 33a, as ^m *«w <rJ*ifrihimM|irrt. 

34 (C.S2; B.XIV.37). ' Reads somharat samato'fli (B.) for sfimha* 
rand samk»ej>at (C-). • - 

2S6 THE NATIA8A8TBA [*?•% 

35. Observing such rules of grammar (iabda-vidhfflia) one 
should compose series of inflected words ([>ada) combined in verse 
or in prose, which have the quality of suggesting extensive meaning 
(lit. extensiveness ) l . 

Two kinds of word 

36 Padas are inflected words 1 and are of two kinds, viz. 
those used in verse, and those in prose, Now listen 2 [first] about 
the characteristics of words used in prose. 

Words in prose 

37. Words used in prose are not schematically combined, have 
not the number of their syllables regulated, and they contain as 
many syllables as are required to express the meaning [in view] 1 . 

Words in verse 

38 Words used in verse consist of schematically combined, 
syllables which have caesura and stops 1 and which have their 
number regulated 2 . 

Syllabic metres 

39. Thus arises a Rhythm-type (''lunulas) called Vrtta 
( syllablic metre ) made up of four feet 1 which expresses different 
ideas and consists of [short and long] syllables. 

Rhythm typos 

40. Rliythni-lypcs in feet are twenty-six in number. 
Syllabic metres with these Rhythm-types are of three kinds, viz. 
even (mma), semi-oven (unlhu-muwi) and uneven (cixitum). 

35 (C.3:*; B.X1V.38). ' Read the couplet as follows :— nfir. sreflrapt 
fawarairaigs?: i q^wt: i^ait: wrflmrtw *,ii «'. 

36 (C.34; IS.XIV.39?. ' 0. vibhajykapadam for vibhaktyantam ; ('. 
bahir-bodhala for samvibodhala. 

37 (C.35i.B.XIV.40). ' B. anibaddhapadam .chandas for anibad- 
dhapadavrnda ; G. arthopekmkmrayutam and TV °syntam for 

38 (C.36; B.X1V.41) ■ V, padaccheia for yaltcihcda. 

39 (C.37; B.XIV.42). ' B. pramuna-niyatuttmkam for pramaya- 
niyatakmram; Read phdair-vamair for pmfoirvarnair, 

40 (C.38 ; B.X1V.43). 



41-42. This Mylhm-type which assumes the form of 
different syllabic metres is the body of words. There is no 
word, without rhythm and no rhythm without word. Combined 
with each other they are known to illuminate the drama. 

Twentysis Rhythm-types 

43-49. [The Rhythm-type] with one syllable [in a foot] is 
palled Ukta, with two syllables is Atyukta, with three syllables 
Madhya, with four syllables Pratistha, with five syllables Supra- 
tisthii., with six syllables Gayatri, with seven syllables Usnik, with 
eight syllables Anustup, with nine syllables Brhati, with ten syllables 
Pankti, with eleven syllables Tristup, with twelve syllables JagatI, 
with thirteen syllables Atijagati, with fourteen syllables Hakkart, 
with fifteen syllables Atisakkari, with sixteen syllables Asti, with 
seventeen syllables Atyasti, with eighteen syllables Dhrti, with 
nineteen syllables Atidhrti, with twenty syllables Krti, with 
twentyone syllables Prakrti, with twentytwo syllables Akrti, with 
twentythree syllables Vikrti, with twentyfour syllables Samkrti, 
with twontyfive syllables Atikrti 1 , and with twentysix syllables 

Possible metrical patterns 

49-51. Those containing more syllables tban these are 
known as Malfi-vrttas. And the Rhythm-types being of many 
different varieties, metrical patterns according to the experts 1 are 
innumerable. The extent of these such as Gayatri and the like, is 
being given [below] But all of them are not in use. 

51-76. [Possible] metrical patterns of the Gayatri [type] 
are sixtyfour, of the Usnik one hundred and twenty-eight, of the 
Anustup two hundred and fiftysix, of the Brhati five hundred 
and twelve, of the Pankti one thousand and twentyfour, of the 
Tristup two thousand and forty-eight, of the Jagati four thousand 

41-42 (C.39b-40 ; B.>aV.44b-45). 

43-49 (C.41-47a s B.XIV.46-52a). ' also called abhikrti. 

49-51 (0.47b, 58b-59a, B.XlV.52b-54a). ' These experts are mathe- 
maticians like Bhaskaraearya. Sec Litavati, section 84, (ed Jiviinanda, 
P. 50). 51-76 (G,59b-80a; B.XlV.54b-79), 


238 THE NATYASA8TBA [ XV. 77- 

and ninetytwo, of the Sakkari sixteen thousand three hundred 
and eighty-four, of the Ati&kkari thirtytwo thousand seven hundred 
and sixty-eight, of the Asti sixtyfive thousand fiive hundred 
and thirty-six, of the Atyasti one lac thirty one thousand and 
seventy-two, of the Dhrti two lacs sixty-two thousand one hundred 
and forty- four, of the Atidhrti five lacs twenty-four thousand 
two hundred and eighty-eight, of the Krti ten lacs forty-eight 
thousand five hundred and seventy-six, of of the Prakrti twenty 
lacs ninety-seven thousand one hundred and fifty-two, of the 
Akrti 1 forty-one lacs ninety-four thousand three hundred and four, 
of the Vikrti eighty-three lacs eighty thousand six hundred and 
eight, of the Sainkrti one crore sixty-seven lacs seventy-seven 
thousand two hundred' and sixteen, of the Abhikrti (Atikrti) 
three crores thirty-five hies fifty-lour thousand four hundred and 
thirty-two, of the Utkrti six crores seventy-one lacs eight thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-four. 

77-79. Adding together all these numbers of different 
metrical patterns we find their total as thirteen crores forty-two 
laes seventeen thousand seven hundred and twenty-six. 1 

Another method of defining metres 

79-81. I have told you about the even metres by counting 
[their numbers]. You should also know how the triads which 
make up the syllabic metres. W hether these are one, twenty, 
thousand or a crore, this is the rule for the formation of all the 
syllabic metres or metres in general. 

81-82. Triads are eight in number and have their own 
definitions. Three syllables heavy or light, or heavy and light 
make up a triad which is considered a part of each metrical 

1 ttlokas giving the numbers of metres of the akrti, vikrti, samkrti, 
a&hikrli (atikrti) and utkrti classes seems to be corrupt in C. 

77-79 (C.80b-82a;B.XlV.80-82a). > Readings of B. and not 
literally agree. 

79-81 (C.82-84a; B. foot note 4 in p. 241). ' C. omits 79b, 
' 81-82 (C.84b-85; B.XIV.83b-84). 


83-84. [Of these eight triads] bha contains two light 
syllables preceded by a heavy one (— w <J), ma three heavy 

syllables ( ), ja two light syllables separated by a heavy 

syllable (<j — ,_,), sa two light syllables followed by a heavy syllable 
(v \j — ) ra two heavy syllables separated by a light one (— u — ), 

ta two heavy syllables followed by a light one ( «>), ya two 

heavy syllables preceded by a light one and (kj ), na three 

light syllables ( u v/ v/). 

85-80. ^ These are the eight triads having their origin in 
Brahman. For the sake of brevity or for the sake of metre they 
are used in works on prosody, with or without [inherent] vowels 
(i. e. a y 

86-87 A single heavy syllable should be known as ga and 
such a light syllable as la. 

Separation of two words [in speaking a verse] required by 
rules [of metre] is called caesura (yati). 

87-88. A heavy syllable is that the which ends in a long or 
prolated (pluta) vowel, Anusvara, Visarga or comes after a con- 
junct consonant or sometimes occurs at the end [of a hemistich]. 

88-89. Eules regarding the metre, relate to a regular 
couplet (mmpat), stop, foot, deities, location, syllables, colour, pitch 
and hyper-metric pattern. 

The regular couplet 

89-90. A couplet in which the number of syllables is neither 
in excess nor wanting is called a regular one (sampat). 

The stop 

90-91. The stop (virama) occurs when the meaning has 
been finally expressed. 

83-84 (C.86-87; B.X1V.85-86). 

85-86 (C.88-89a; B.X1V.87, 88b). ' B. roads one additional 
hemistich between 85b and 86a. 

86-87 (C.89b-90a ; B.X1V.89). 

87-88 (C.90b-91a; B.XIV.90). 

88-89 (0.48; B.XTV.102). 89-90 (C.49, B.XIV.103). 

90-91 (C.50; B.XIV.104). 


The Foot 
The foot (pmla) arises from the root jnd, and it means one 
quarter [of a .couplet]. 

The presiding deities of luetics 

91-92. Agni and the like presiding over different metres are 
their deities. 


Location is of two kinds, viz, that relating to the body and 
that to a [particular] region. 

Quantity of syllables 

93. Syllables are of the three kinds, viz. short, long 
and prolated {pinto). 

Colours of metres 

Metres have colours like white and the like. 

Pitch of vowels 

94-95. The pitch of vowels is of three kinds, viz- high, low 
and medium. I shall speak about their character in connexion 
with the rules of Dhruvas Rules [about their use] relate to the 
occasion and the meaning [of thing sung or recited] 

TJiree kinds of syllabic meters 

95-97. Syllablic metres are of three kinds, viz. even (mma), 
semi-even (ardha-sama) and uneven vwama). 

If the number of syllables in a foot of any metre is diffident 
or in excess by one, it is respectively called Nivrt or Bhurik. If the 
deficiency or excess is of two syllables, then such a metre is respec- 
tively called either Svaiftt or Viriit. 

91-92 (C.51; B.XJV.105). 

93 0.53b-54a, B.XJV. (107b-10Sa). This couplet is preceded by in B. 
three hemistich* which do not occur in some versions, and which seem to be 
irrelevant. 94-95 (C.53b-54a, B,XIV.108b-109). 

95-97 (C.54b-58a, B.XIV.110-llfl»). 

-XV. 102 ] BULBS OF PBOSODt 261 

98. All the syllabic metres fall into three classes such as 
divine, human and semi-divine. 

91). Gayatri, Usruk, Anustup, Briiati, Tristup and JagatI 
belong to the first or the divine (divi/a) class. 

100. AtijagatI, Hakkari, Atisakkari, Asti, Atyasti, Dhrti and 
Atidhrti belong to the next (i.e. human) class. 

101- Kyti, Prakrti, Vyakrti (Akrti), Vikrti, Sainkrti, 
Abhikrti (Atikrti) and Utkrti belong to the semi-divine class 1 . 

102. O the best of Brahmins, now listen about the metrical 
patterns which are to be used in plays and which are included in 
the Rhythm-types described by me 1 . 

Here ends Chapter XV of Bharata's Natyalastra 
which treats of the Rules of Prosody. 

98 (C.91b-92a, B..XIV.112b-113a). 

99 (C.92b-93a, B.XIV.113b-114a). 

100 (93b-94a, B.XIV.114b-115a). 

101 (C.94b-95a, B.XIV.115b-116a). l The seventeen couplets after 
this (C.101a-118a B.XIV, Il6b-l32a) seem to be spurious. For a discus- 
sion on this point see the Introduction. 

102 (0.118-119, B.X1V.13 :-134). ' Some versions of the NS. read 
this couplet as the beginning of the next chapter. 


1. 1 Tanu-mdhya is a variety [of metres] of the Gayatri 
class. [In each of its feet] the first two and the last two syllables 
are heavy 3 . 

Example : 

2. santyakta-vibhusa bhrastaiijana-netra I 

hastArpitaganda kiin tvam tanu-madhya II 
fair lady (lit. slim-waisted one), why 1 have you cast off 
your ornaments, why are your eyes without collyrium and why are 
you resting the cheek on the palm of your hand ? 


3. [Of the same class is] Makaraka-s'irsa which has [in 
each of its feet] the first four syllables light and the last two 


4. svayam upayantam bhajasi na kantam I 

bhayakari kim tvam makaraka-slrsa II 

You are not' greeting the beloved one who has .come to 
you of his own accord terrible one, why 1 are you so dull- 

1(C.2,'B.XV.2). ' This is preceded in B. and C by a couplet 
which rightly belongs to the Chapter XV. (XIV. in B.) 

a Scheme (- - u, u - -). The definition of this metre is also its 
example though an independent example also follows. Such is the east' 
with many other metres defined in the MS. 

2 (C.3, B.XV.3). > Km ham— why ( are ) you...? Cp. Km 
akaranam eva dar&anam rat aye na diyate, Kumar. IV. 7. 

3 (C.4, B.XV.4). ' Scheme (uuo.u- -). This is called Sasivadana 
by Pr. P. Vr. R. and Srv. 

. 4 (C.5, B.XV.5). ' See above 2 note 1. 
■ Makarakaiiiira— having a head («'.«. brain) like that of a makara. 



5. [The metre with] the feet of six syllables of which the 
second and the filth are light and the rest heavy, is called 
Malati 1 . 
Example : 

6. sobhate baddhaya satpadaviddhaya l 

lnalatlmalaya manini lilaya II 
The offended woman wearing the Malati garland in which 
the bees are clinging looks charming. 


7. [The metre with] the feet of six syllables of which the 
second one is light [and the rest heavy] is called Malinl. 1 

Example : 

8. snana-gandha-srngbhir vastra-bhiisayogaih I 

vyaktam evaisa tvam malinl prakhyata II 
By your perfumed bath, [wearing of] garlands, [good] dress 
and ornaments you are clearly recognised as the wife of a garland- 


9. [The metre with] the feet of seven syllables of which 
the second, the fourth and the fifth are light [and the rest heavy] 
is called Uddhata 1 . 

The allusion is perhaps to the foolish mokara in the Vanara-makara-katha 
in the Piiiicatantra, IV. which really believed that the monkey had left 
its heart behind in the tree on the river-bank. Hence I translate the 
word as "dull-headed one." 

5-6. (B.XY.9-10). l Scheme (- u -, - v -) C. omits this metre. 

7 (C.&, B.XV.6-7). ' Scheme (- u -, ). This is quite different 

from the metre Malyai defined by Pii'igala and his followers. The N8. 
calls this second Malini (with 15 syllables in each pada) Nandimukhi. 
See below 73-74. 

8 (C.7, B.XV.8). 

9 (C.8, B XV.11-12). ' Scheme (- u-,uu -, -). 

10 (C.9, B.XV.13). 


10. danta-kunta-krtankam vyakulAlaka-sobham I < 

samsativa tavasyam nirdaynyam rata-yuddhara II 

Your face which bears the marks of spear-like teeth [of the 
beloved] and is strewn over with your dishevelled hair, indicates 
indeed an unrelenting fight of love. 


11. [The metre with J the feet of seven syllables of which 
the first two and the last two are heavy [and the rest light] is 
called Bhramara-malika 1 . 

Example ; 

12. nana-kusuma-citre prapte sural ihi-mase I 

esa bhramati inatta kiinte bhramara-mala II 

beloved one, this being the month of Caitra which is 
varigated with different flowers, cluster of bees are flying about 
intoxicated [with their smell]. 


13. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which 
the first, the third, the fifth, the seventh and the last [the eighth] 
are heavy [and the rest light] is called Simha-lekha r . 

Example :— 

14. yat tvaya by nneka-bhiivais cestitain rahah sugatri i 
tan mano mama pravistam vrttam atra simha-lekham 1 

That you have planned the love's embrace in various ways, 
fair-limbed one, has been inscribed in my mind with the scratch 
of a lion's claws 1 . 


15. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which the 

11 (CIO, B.XV.14-15). 1 Scheme (--v,vv -,- ). 

12 (Oil, B.XV.16). 

13 (C.12, B.XV.19). ' Scheme (- «j -, v, - u, - u -) C. gives the 
name as Sirnhalila. 

14 (C.13, B.XV.17-18). ' The translation follows Ag. 

, 15 (C.14, B.XV.20, 21). l Scheme (v; - u, - u -, U -). Tnis-metre 
is named as Pramanika in Pr P. 

-Xtl.20] MEfcBIOAL PATTERNS 265- 

second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth are heavy [and the rest 
light] is called Matta-cestita. 1 
Example : 

16. carjlvaghumit^ksanani vilambitsikulalakam I 
asamsthitaih padaih priya karoti matta-cestitam II 

The beloved one with her eyes restless and rolling, hairs 
hanging down dishevelled, and footsteps unsteady, is behaving like 
a person who is intoxicated. 


17. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which all 
are heavy, is called Vidyul-Ickha. 1 

Example : 

silmbho-bharair anardadbhih syiimambhodair vyapte vyoinni I 
adityamsu-spardhiny esa diksu bhranta vidyul-lekha II 

The sky being overcast with dark clouds which are roaring 
and are laden with masses of water, a flash of lightning which 
rivals the sun-beam is running in [different] directions. 


19. [The metre with] the feet of eight syllables of which 
the fifth, the seventh and the last are heavy [and the rest light] 
is called Citta-vilasita. 1 

Example : 

20. smita-vasa-viprakasair dasana-padair amibhih I 
varatanu purna-candram tava mukham avraoti i 

fair lady (lit. fair limbed one) ', your face with the teeth 

16 (C.15, B.XV.22). 

17 (C.16, B.XV.23, 24). ' Scheme ( , , - -). B. gives 

the name as Vjdyun-mala. This is the name in Pingala and Sr. B. 

18 (C.17, B.XV.25). 

19 (B.XV.26). ' Scheme (u v u, u - u, - -). C. omits this metre. 

20 (B.XV.27). l This mode of addressing a beloved woman is as old 
as the time of Pataiijali who quotes the fragment of a poem as follows : 
■varatanu sampravadqnti kukkufih (Ref . Apte's Guide to Skt. § 319). 



revealed on account of your smile, outshines (lit. covers) the full 


21. [The metre which has] the feet of nine syllables of which 
the last three are heavy [and the rest light] is called Madhukari. 1 

Example : 

22. kusumitam abhipasyanti 

vivid ha-taruganais' channam I 
vanam ati&iya-gnndhitdhyam 

bhramati madhukari hrsta II 
Seeing the woodland covered with various trees full of 
flowers and rich in exuberance of [pleasent] odour, the female 
bee is flying about in delight. 


23. [The metre which has] the feet of ten syllables of which 
the first and the last three are heavy [and the rest light] is called 
Kuvalaya-malii 1 . 

Example : 

24. asinims te s"irasi tada kSnte 

vaiduraya-sphatika-suvarnadhye I 
sobham svani na vahati tSra 

baddha suslista kuvalaya-maleyam II 
dear one, this well-made garland of Kuvalaya 1 flowers 
fastened at that time on your head which has been richly decorated 
with lapis lazuli, quartz and gold, does not bear [any more] its 
naturalbeau ty. 


25. [The metre which has] the feet of ten syllables of 

21 iC.18, B.XV.28, 29). » Scheme u u U, u u u, ). This 

metre is called BhujagaSiiinbhttii ("yuta, vrtii) by Pingala and his followers. 


2) (C.20, B.XV.31, 32). > Scheme (- - -, V U u, w - -, -). This 
is called Panava by Pingala and his followers. 

. 24 (C.21, B.XV.33). * Kuvalaya is a blue aquatic flower of tho 
of the lotus class. 25 (C.22, B,XV.H 35). 

•XVI. 29 j MfiTBIOAL PATtERtfS 26? 

which the second, the fourth, the sixth and the eighth are light 
[and the rest heavy] is called Mayurasarim 1 . 
Example : 

26. naiveute'sti samgamo m'Snusair 

nasti kamabhoga-cihnain anyat I 
garbhiniva drsyase hy anarye 

kim mayura-sarini tvam evam II 
O ignoble one, you have no union with men, neither have 
you any sign of love's enjoyment. Still you look like one who is 
enceinte. You indeed behave like a pea-hen. 1 


27- [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which 
the first, the fourth, the seventh the tenth and the last are heavy 
[and the rest light] is called Dodhaka. 1 
Example : 

28. praskhalititgrapada-pravicaram 

matta-vighurnita-gatra-vilasam I 
pasya vilasini kunjaram etam 

dodhaka-vrttam ayam prakaroti II 
merry lady, look at this elephant which with its faltering 
steps of the front legs, and with the body playfully moved about 
[as if in] intoxication, is imitating the manner of a calf (?) 1 


29. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which 
the first two, fifth, the eighth, and the last are heavy [and the 
rest light] is called Motaka. 

1 Scheme (- *J -, \j - kj, - \j -, -), ' Piiigala gives the name as 
Mayurasa and so does Vr. R. 

26 (0.23, B.XV.36). ' This relates the belief that the pea-fowls' 
sexual union take place in complete seclusion. 

27 (C.24, B.XV.37, 38). i Scheme (- u v, - \j vj, - u u, - -). 

28 (C.25, B.XV.39). *' Wo are not sure of the meaning of theft word 
dodhaka. Ag. writes dodhakena giyatnanam vrltam dodhaka-vrttam. 

29 (C.26, B.XV.40). ' Schcmfi. (- - v, kj - U, u - U, U -). This is 
named as Motanaka by Gangadasa in'Ch. M. 

jgg 28BNAI1TA8AST8A tXVL36. 

Example s 

BO. eso'inbuda-nisvana-tulya-ravah 

ksibah skhalatnana-vilamba-gatih I 
srotva ghana-garjitam adri-tate 

vrksan prati motayati dviradah II 
This elephant hearing the clouds roaring in the mountain 
valley, is trumpeting in excitement as loudly as the [rain] clouds 
and is rushing with faltering steps to the trees. 

31. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which 
the third, the sixth, the seventh and the ninth are light, [and 
the rest heavy] is called Indra-vajra 1 . 

Example : 

32. tvatp durniriksya duratiprasada 

duhkhaika-sadbya kathinaika-bhava I 
sarvasv avasthasu ca kama-tantre' 
yogyasi kim va bahunendravajra II 

You are hard to be looked at, difficult to be pleased and won 
over, and you have an unmixed ( lit, one ) hard feeling, in the 
practice of love, you are unfit (ajioijija) at every stage ; and in short 
you are [like] the thunder-bolt of Indra. 


33. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which 
the first, the third, the sixth, the seventh, the ninth are light [and 
the rest heavy] is called Upendravajra 1 . 

Example : 

34. priye sriya varna-visesanena 

smitena kantya sukumar-bhavat I 
ami guna rupa-gunanurupa 

bhavanti tc kim tvam upendravajra II 


30 (C.27, B.XV.41). 

31 (C.28, B.XV..2). ' Scheme (- - U, - - u, U - U, - -). 

.33 (G.30, B.XV.-W). ' Scheme (u - u, - - u, o - u, - -). 
3.(0.31, B.XV..5). 

.*%!?} UmSHChb PATTERNS <m 

beloved one, due to your beauty, the special colours 
[of your dress} smile, grace and delicate bearing, these qualities 
ol yours have matched the qualities of the [beautiful] form. Are 
you the bow of Indra ? I 


35. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which 
the first, the third, the seventh, the ninth and the last are 
heavy [and the rest light] is called Rathoddhata 1 . 
Example : 

30. kim tvnyFi subliafca dura-var/itaui 

natrnana na suhridSm pn'yam krtam I 
yat paJayanaparayanasya tc 

yati dliulir adhuna rathoddhata II 

O good soldier, why have you left the battle-field com- 
pletely. You have done neither any good to yourself nor to your 
friends, for while runing away [from the battle field] the dust [in 
your road] rises now [as if] scattered by chariot. 1 


37. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which 
the first, the third, the seventh and the tenth and the last are heavy 
[and the rest light] is called Svagata 1 . 

Example : 

38. adya me saphalam ayata-netre 

jivitam madana-samsraya-bhavam I 
agatasi bhavanain mama yasmat 
svagatam tava varoru nislda II 

Today the two large eyes of mine have attained their object 
and so has my life and love, because you have come to my house ; 
fair lady, you are welcome, please be seated. 

1 Upendm-vajmmlu indra-dhanum upamitam etc. (Ag.). 

35 (C.32, B.XV.46). > Scheme (- u -, v u u, - u -, u -\ 

36 (C.33, B.XV.47). ' B. gives au additional example of this 
metre (B.XV.48). 

37 (C.34, ' Schema (- v -, kj u U, - o u, - -). 



39. [The metre with] the feet of eleven syllables of which 
the sixth and ninth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Salini. 1 . 

Example ■. 

40. duh&lam va nirgunam papakam va 

loke dhairyad apriyam na bravisi I 
aryani Slam sadhvi he te'nuvrttam 

niadhuryadhya sarvatha Salini tvam II 
On account of your patience with the people you do 
not, utter a harsh word to any one who has bad manners or is 
without any merit or is wicked. good lady, you have followed 
a noble manner, you are a housewife full of sweetness in every 


41. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which 
the third, the sixth, the ninth and the last. are heavy [and the 
rest light] is called Totaka. 1 

42. kim idam kapatasraya-durvisaham 

bahu-sathyatii athdlbana-ruksa-katham I 
svajana-priy a- saj j ana-bhedakaram 
nanu totaka-vrttam idam kuruse II 

Why is this crooked and insufferable conduct full of villainy, 
and unambiguous (lit. direct) and harsh words hurting the relations, 
dear ones and [other] good people ? You are indeed behaving 
like a cutter. 


43. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which 

38 (0.35, B.XV.50). 

39 (C.36, B.XV.51). ' Scheme ( , - - u, - - U, - -). 

40 (0.37, B.XV.52). 

41 (0.38, B.XV.53, 54). ' Scheme (u u -, u u -, u u -, u kj -). 

42 (C.39, B.XV.55). 

43 (C.40, B.XV.59), 


the first four, the. eighth and the tenth are light [and the rest 
heavy] is called Kumudanibha T . 
Example : 

44. kumudanibha tvam kama-brina-viddha 

kirn asi-natabhruh s"ita-vata-dagdha I 

katham api jata agratah sakhinani II 

fair-eyed damsel, being like a Kumuda flower why have 
you been struck with cupid's arrow and why do you appear 
pale before your friends like a delicate Nalini blasted by the 
cold wind. 


45. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which 
the-ftrst-five, the seventh and the tenth as are light [and the rest 
heavy] and the caesura falls after the fiivt five syllables, is called 
Candra-lekha 1 . 

Example : 

46. vaktram saumyam tc padma-patrayat&ksam 

kamasyitvasam svabhruvos c&vabhasam | 
kamasyjlpidam katnam ahartukarnam 

kantya tvam kiinte candra-IekhSva bhasi II 
beloved one, your sweet face with eyes as large as lotus- 
petals and the splendour of your eyebrows, are the abode of love, 
and they are ready to bring love even to the god of love ; you 
shine as it were like a phase of the moon. 


47. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which 

1 Scheme (wuu,u— ,- v» -, v; kj). B. gives another metre of 
this name with a different scheme (- \> -, «.; — , uuu,u — ) and an 
example of this (B.XV.56-58). 

44 (C.41, B.XV.60). 

45 (C.42, B.XV.61). ' Scheme ( , , u - -, u - -), 

46 (C.43, B.XV.62). 47;(C44, B.XV.63). 


the third, the fifth, the ninth and the last are- heavy [and the 
rest light] is called Pramitakarsa 1 . 
Example : 

4S. smita-bhasini hy acapaMparus". 

nibhrtapavada-vimukhi satatam I 
yadi kasya eid yuvatir asti snkha 
prainitaksara sa hi pivmaii jayati II 

If any one has a pleasing young wife with restrained speech, 
who is always smiling and averse to speaking ill of him [even] 
secretly, and is never fickle or harsh, that person verily thrives. 


49. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which 
the second, the fourth, the fifth, the eighth, the tenth and the last 
are heavy [and the rest light] is called Vamsasthii. 1 

Example : 

50. na me priyii yad bhumiina-varjita 

krtapriya te parusabhiblrsanaih I 
tatha ca pasyamy aham adya vigraham 
dhruvam hi vamsastha-gatih karisyati H 

You are not dear to me, for you are wanting in esteem [for 
me] and your harsh words [also] have made you displeasing [to 
me]. So I see that the natural habit will surely bring a quarrel 


51. [The metre with] feet of twelve syllables of which the 
fourth, the seventh, the tenth and the last are heavy [and the 
rest light] is called Harina-pluta 1 . 

1 Scheme (o <j -, u - k>, u \j -, u u -). 

48 (C.45, B.XV.64). 

49 (C.46, B.XV.65, 66). ' Scheme (u - w, - - v>, u - v, - u -). 

50 (C.47, B.XV.67). 

51 (C.48, B.XV.68). 'Scheme (w u v, - u v, - u u, -u-). 
This is called Druta-vilambita by Pingala and his Mowers. 


Example : 

52. parusa-vakya-kaafabhihata tvaya 

bhaya-vilokana-pars'va-nuiksa^a I 
varatanuh pratata-pluta-sarpanair 
anukaroti gatair harina-plutam'H 

The fair lady (lit. fair-limbed one) 1 , smitten by the whip of 
your harsh words, and looking in fear to her sides and riming away 
continously with quick steps is imitating by her movements a deer's 


53. [A metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which the 
seventh, the ninth, the eleventh and , the last are heavy [and the 
rest light] is called Kamadatta 1 . 

Example : 

54. karaja-pada : vibhusita yatha tvani 

sudati dasana-viksatadhara ea i 
gatir api caranavalagna-manda 

tvam asi mrga-samaksi kamadatta ll 

fair lady 1 , you have been adorned with the marks of 
nails, your lips have been bitten by teeth and your gait also is 
faltering and slow. It seems, deer-eyed one, that you have 
given [yourself up ] to [the enjoyment of] love. 


55. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which 
the first, the fourth, the seventh and tenth are light [and the 
rest heavy] is called Aprameya 1 . 

52 (C49, B.XV.69). See above 20 note I. 

53 (C.50, B.XV.70). ' Scheme (uuu,uuu,-U-,u- -). C. 
calls this Kama-matta. 

54, (C.51, B.XV.71). Sudati- O fail-toothed one. 
55 (C.52, B.XV.72). ' Scheme (v - -, U - -, \J - -, u - -). This 
is called Bliujanga-prayata by Pingala and his.foUowers. 


Example : 

56. na te k8 cid anya samS drsyate strt 

nr-loke vislsta gunair advittyaih I 
trilokyam gunigryan samahrtya aarvan 
jagaty aprameyasi srsta vidhatra II 

Nowhere amongst the mortals (lit. in this world) is to be 
seen a woman who is your equal, and is distinguished by. singular 
accomplishments. The creator has made you matchless by putting 
together [in you] all the best virtues of the three worlds. 


57. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which 
the second, the fifth, the eighth and the eleventh are light [and the 
rest heavy] is called PadminI 1 . 

Example : 

deha-toyasaya vaktra-padmojjvalii 

netra-bhrngakula danta-harasaih smita I 
kesa-patrac-chad;":. cakravaka-stani 

padminiva priye bhasi me sarvada H 

58. dear lady, you always appear to me like a lotus-lake, 
for your body is a pool of water which shines by the lotus-face, 
and your eyes arc the restless bees [there] and you smile with the 
swan-like teeth and your hairs are [the lotus] leaves, and the 
breasts are like the Cakra-vakas 1 [swimming there]. 


59. [The metre with] the feet twelve syllables of which the 
first six and the tenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called 
Patuvrtta 1 . 


57 (CM, B.XV.74, 75). ' Scheme •(- u - - u - - u - - u -). 
This is called Sragvini by Pingala and his followers. 

58 (C.55, BXV.76). ' B. giveg a second example (B.XV.77) which 
seems to be a variant of this. 

. 59 (C.56, B.XV 78, 79). ' Scheme, (u u u, U u kj, - - -, u - -). 
This is oalled Puta by Pingala and his followers. 


Example : 

60. upavana-salilanara bala-padmair 

bhramara-parabhytanam kantha-nadaih I 
samada-gati-vilasaih kaminlnara 

kathayati patuvrttani madhu-masah II 

The month of Oaitra (lit. honey-month) with lotus-buds 
in the garden-lakes, songs of bees and cuckoos and the playful 
movements of intoxicated women, is anouncing its smart manners 1 . 


61. [The metre with] the feet of twelve syllables of which 
the second, the fourth and the ninth the eleventh and the last 
are heavy [and the rest light] is called Prabhavati. 1 

Example : 

62. katham nv idam kaniala-visala-loeane 

gi'hani ghanaih pihita-kare nisakare I 
acintayanty abhinava-varsa-vidyutas 

tvam agata sutanu yatha prabhavati II 

fair one, with eyes as large as a lotus, how have you 
come like a radiant being to this house [of mine] when the rays 
of the moon have been covered by clouds and you have not cared 
for the impending (lit. new) rains and the lightning ? 


63. [The metre with the] feet of thirteen syllables of which 
the first three, the eighth, the tenth and the twelfth and the last 
are heavy [and the rest light] is called Praharsini 1 . 

60 (C.57, B.XV.80). ' I am not certain about the exact meaniDg 
of the term fnfavrtta. One ma. gives it as pa\uvrtta (see B.) which I adopt. 

61 (C.58, B.XV.81 ). ' Scheme (u - o, - <j k>, u \j -, u, - -). 

62 (C.59, B-XV.82). 

63 (C.60, B.XV.83). ' 8cheme.( > uuu,u-u,-u-,-). 



Example : 

64. bhavasthair madhura-kathaih subhasitais tvam 

satopa-skhalita-vilambita-gatais" ca I 
s'obhadhyair harasi mangmsi kamukanam 
suvyaktara hy atijagati praharsinl ca II 

[0 fair one], by >your loving and sweet words, witty 
sayings, beautiful, majestic, faltering and slow steps, you capti- 
vate the mind of lovers. It is apparent that you are enrapturing 
beyond [anything else in] this world. 


65. [The metre with] the feet of thirteen syllables of which 
the sixth, the seventh, the. tenth and the eleventh are light [and 
the rest heavy] is called Matta-mayura 1 . 

Example : 

66. vidyun-naddha sendra-dhanur-dyotita-deha" 

vatoddhutah sveta-balaka-krta-sobhah I 
ete meglia garjita-nadojjvala-cihnah 

pravrt-kalam matta-mayuram kathayati II 

These clouds [characterised] by a thundering noife and 
brilliant signs containing lightning and rainbow, moved about by 
the wind, and adorned with white cranes speaks of the [arrival 
of the] rainy season which maddens the peacocks. 


67. [The metre with] the feet of fourteen syllables of which 
the first two, the fourth, the eighth and the eleventh and the 
thirteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called 
Vasanta-tilaka 1 . 

64 (C.61, B.XV.84). 

65 (C.62, B.XV.85). - 1 Scheme ( , - - v, u - -, u u -, -). 

66 (C.68, B.XV.86). 

67 (0.64, B.XV.87). x 8oaeme.(- - u, - u v, o - u, u - v, - -). 

■XVl.4i } MfiTSlCAL PATTBBN8 2?? 

Example : * 

68. citrair vasanta-kusumaih krta-kesa-hasta 

srag-dama-malya-racana-suvibhiisitangi I 

saksad vasanta-tilakeva vibhati nan u 
This well-dressed woman who has adorned her braid of 
hairs with the many-coloured vernal flowers, and the rest of her 
body with various types of flower-garlands 1 and her ears with 
various ornaments, looks indeed like the decoration (tilaka) on the 
forehead [of the goddess] of spring. 


69. [The metre with the] feet of thirteen syllable, of which 
the first five and the last three are heavy, [and the re.-t light] is 
called Asambadha. 1 

Example : 

70. mani lokajnah sruta-bala-kula-siladhyo 

yasmin sammanam na sadrsam anupasyed dhi I 
gaccet tarn tyaktva druta-gatir aparam desam 
kirna nanarthair avanir iyain asambadha II 

A proud person who knows the world and is learned, strong, 
of high birth and character, must leave [a country] in which he 
does not find adequate honour, and quickly goes to a different 
country ; for this world is scattered over with wealth of many kinds 
and offers no obstruction [to such a person], 


71. [The metre with the] feet of fourteen syllables of which 
the first four, the tenth, the eleventh the thirteenth and the 
last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Sarabha 1 . 

68 (C.65, B.XV.88). ' Srak and malya are used here probably to 
indicate two different kinds of garlands. 

69 (C.66, B.XV.89). - 1 Scheme ( , - - u, v \j kj, u &-, - -). 

70 (C.67, B.XV.90). 

71 (C.68, B.XV.91). - 1 Scheme ( , - \j kj, u U u, - - u," - -). 



72. ess kanta vrajati lalitam vepamana 

gulmac-channam vanam uru-nagaih sainpraviddham I 
ha ha kastam kim idara iti no vedmi rmidho 
vyaktaip krodbac-charabha-lalitam kartu-kama II 
This beloved lady goes trembling in a graceful manner to 
the forest covered with shrubs and interspersed with high hills. Ah, 
what a pity, the fool that I am, I could not understand that 
due to anger she is openly playing the graceful role of an young 


73- [The metre with] the feet of fifteen syllables of which 
the first six, the tenth, and the thirteenth are light [and the rest 
heavy] is called Nandimukhi. 1 ; 
Example : 

74. • na khalu tava kadacit krodha-tanmtyataksam 

bhrukuti-valita-bhangam drsta-purvam mayasyam I 
kim iha bahubhir uktair ya mamaisa hrdistha 
tvam asi madhura-vakya devi nandimukhiva II 
Never before have I seen your face with eyes red in anger 
and with eyebrows curved in frowning ; lady, what more shall I 
say ? Are you the [same] sweet-tongued one who resides in my 
heart and is like Nandimukhi ? 


75. [The metre with] the feet of sixteen syllables of which 
the first, the fourth, the sixth and the last are heavy [and the 
rest light] is called Gaja-vilasita. 


73 (C.70, B.XV.93). x Scheme (uuu,uuu, , o - -, u 

- -). This is called Malim by Piftgala and his followers. 

74 (C.71, B.XV.94). 

75 (C.72, B.XV.95, 96). - 1 Scheme (- u U, - u -, u V V, u u u, 
UUv, -). This is called Rsabha-gaja-vilasita by Pingala and Ms 


Example : 

70. toy&dhariah sudhira-ghana-patu-pataha-ravaih 
sarja-kadaraba-nlpa-kutaja-kusuma-surabhim I 
kandala-sendragopaka-racitam avanitalam 
viksya karoty asau vrsabha-gaja-vilasitakam II 
On seeing the surface of the earth adorned with the Kandala 
rind the Indragopa, and perfumed with the flowers of Pal, 
Kadamba T , Nipa 2 , and Kutaja, which open at the loud and clear 
drum-like peals of thunder (lit. sounds of the clouds) this [man] 
imitates the sportful movement of a bull-elephant. 


77. [The metre with the] feet of sixteen syllables of which 
of the second, third, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the twelfth the 
thirteenth, the fifteeth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] 

.is called Pravara-lalita, 1 
Example : 

78. nnkhitlidham giitram da&ma-khacitam costlui gandam 
sirah pusponmisYam pravilulita-ke&ilaka'ntam I 
gatih khinnfi ceyam vadanam api sambhranta-netram 
alio slaghyam vrttam pravara-lalitam kama-cestam .» 

Her body has been scratched by nails, und lips and the 
chocks are bitten by teeth, the head is set with flowers, hairs 
have their ends dishevelled, and her gait is languid, and the eyes 
are restless. Ah, a very graceful exploit of love, has taken place 
in a praisworthy manner. 


7!). [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of which 
the second, the third, the fourth, the fifth, and sixth, the twelfth, 

78 (C.73, B,XV.97). T Kadamba and nijki are usually considered 
synonymous. It is just possible that there are two different trees with 
these two names and later writers have ignored the difference which 
may be very slight. It may be- noted here that the Concise Oxford Diction- 
ary defines nipa as a "kind of E. Indian palm'. 

' See note 1 above, 

77 (0.74, B.XV.98, 99)/ Scheme (u - -, , o u yj,Kj\} -,' - w 

-, - ). . 78 (C.75, B.XV.100). ' 79 (C.76, B.XV.101, 102). 


'the thirteenth and the hut are heavy [and the rest light] is called 
Sikharigl. 1 

80. mahanadydbhoge pulinam iva te bhati jaghanam 
tathasyam netrabhyam bhramara-sahitam pankajam iva I 
tanu-spars'as' diyam sutanu sukumaro na parusah 
stanabhyittn tungabhyiim sikhari-nibha bhasi dayite II 

Your hip is like the sand-bank at the margin of a river, 
your face together with the eyes, is like a lotus with the bees, the 
touch of your body is soft and not rough ; with your two elevated 
breasts you look like a hill with [two] peaks, dear one. 


81. [The metre with the] feet of seventeen syllables of which 
the first five, the eleventh, the thirteenth, the fourteenth and the 
sixteenth are light [and the rest heavy] is called Vrsabha-eestita. 1 

Example : 

82. jalada-ninadam srutva giirjan madoccaya-darpitah 
vilikhati malum smgaksepair vrsah pratimmlya ca I 
sva-yuvati-vrto gosthad gostham prayati on nirbhayo 
vrsabhalalitam eitram vrttaui kuroti ca sadvale II 

On hearing the thundering noise of the clouds the bull 
maddened with an excess of rut, is striking the earth with its 
horns and is bellowing in reply. And then, surrounded by young 
females of its class it goes fearlessly from one cow-pen to another 
and has the various sportive exploits on the giwn [pasture]. 


83. [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of 
which the first four, the tenth, the eleventh, the thirteenth, 

' Scheme (u - -, , u u u, v; u -, - u v, u -)• 


81 (C.78, 15.XV.104, 105). ' Scheme (u U u, vv-, - - -, - u -, 
«; U-, u -). This is called Harim by Pingala and his followers. 
• 82 (€.79, B.XV.106). 83 (C.80, B.XV.107-108, 109). 


the fourteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called 
.Sridhara. 1 
Example : 

snanais curnaih sukha-surabhibhir ganda-lepais ca dhupaih 
puspais' canyaih slrasi-racitair vastra-yogais" ca tais taih I 
nana-ratnaih kanaka-racitair anga-sambhoga-samsthair 
vyakam kiinte kamala-nilaya sndharev&ti bhasi II 
O beloved one, by your batliing, powders, pleasently fragrant 
paste smeared on your cheek, tlio [hair- perfuming] incense, flowers 
set on the hair (lit. head), various clothes and many jewels com- 
bined with gold worn on the limbs, you shine indeed very much 
like the lotus-dwelling [one] who is the goddess of beauty. 


85. [The metre with] the feet of seventeen syllables of 
which the first, the fourth, the tenth and the last are heavy [and 
the rest light] is called the Vamsa-patra-patita. 1 

Example : 

86. esa gajo'dri-mastaka-tate kalabha-parivrtah 
kridati vt'ksa-gulma-gahane kusuma-bhara-nate I 
megha-ravam nisamya muditah pavana-java-samah 
sundari vamsa-patra-pntitam punar api kurute II 

O fair lady, this elephant which surrounded by young 
ones is playing near the peak of the hill in the thick forest of trees 
and shrubs bent with flowers, is delighted to hear, the roaring of 
clouds and is moreover causing, like the wind, the bamboo leaves 
to fall [on the ground], 


87. [The metre with the] feet of seventeen syllables of 
which the second, the sixth, the eighth, the twelfth, the fourteenth, 

1 Scheme ( , - u u, o w u, - - v, - - w, - -). This is called 

Mandiikriinta by Pingala and his followers. 


85 (C.82, B.XV.111). J- Scheme (- u u, - o -, w u u, - w v,, 
uuu,u-), 86(0.83, B.XV.U8). 87 (C.84, B.XV.113-114, ll5), 


the fifteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called 
Vilambitagati. 1 

Example : 

88. vighurnita-vilocanii prthu-vikirna-hara punah 
pralamba-rasana calat-skhalita-pada-manda-krama I 
na me priyam idam janasya bahumana-ragena yan 
madena viva^a vilambita-gatih krita tvam priye II 

beloved one, your eyes are rolling, the large necklace 
is displaced, the girdle is hanging loose, and your slow steps are 
faltering ; I indeed like 1 this your slow gait that you assume out of 
overwhelming pride due to this man's love and respect [for you], 


89. [The metre with the] feet of eighteen syllables of which 
the first five, the eleventh, the twelfth, the fourteenth, the fifteenth, 
the seventeenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is 
called Citra-lekha 1 . 

Example : 


nana-ratnadhyair bahubhir adhikam bhusanair anga-samsthah 
nana-gandhadhyair madana-jananair anga-ragais' ca hrdyaih I 
kesaih snan&rdraih kusuma-racitair vastra-ragais - ca tais taih 
kante samksepat kim iha bahuna citra-lekhS va bhasi II 
O beloved one, you shine very much witli the many be- 
'jewelled ornaments worn in your limbs, various pleasant cosmetics 
rich in passion-inspiring scents, hairs clean after bath and decorated 
with flowers, and varied colours of your clothes. What shall I say 
more ? To be brief, you appear like a painted picture. 

1 Scheme (<j - u, u u -. «j - w, w -, u - <-», <j -). This is 
called Prithvi by Pingala and his followers. 

88 (C.85, B.XV.116). > lit. Is it not dear to me ? 

89 CC16, B.XV.117). l Scheme ( , - - <J, <J \j <j, u - -, o - -. 

O - -). This is called Kusumita-lata-vellitS- by Pingala and his followers. 



91-92. [The metre with] the feet of nineteen syllables of 
which the first three, the sixth, the eighth, the twelfth, the thir- 
teenth, the fourteenth, the sixteenth, the seventeenth and the last 
are heavy [and the rest light] is called Sflrdulavikridita 1 
Example : 


nana-siistra-sataghni-tomara-hatah prabhrastn-sarvayudliah 
nirbhinnodara-padn-bahu-vadana nirbhartsitah 6atravah I 
dhairyotsaha-parakrama-prabhrtibhis tais tair vicitra-gunaih 
vrttam te ripu-ghati bhati samare sardulavikriditani II 

The enemies have been repelled after [some of them have 
been] killed with various weapons, Sataghni and Tomara and [some 
have] their bellies, arms, feet and face pierced and [some have] lost 
all their weapons. Your enemy-killing exploits in battle comparable 
to the tiger's sports and characterised by virtues such as, patience, 
energy and valour, are splendid. 1 


94-95. [The metre with/ the] feet of twenty syllables of 
which the first four, the sixth, the seventh, the fourteenth, the 
fifteenth, the sixteenth and the last are heavy [and the rest light] 
is called Suvadana. 1 
Example : 

netre lil&las&nte kamala-dala-nibhe bhrfl-capa-rucire 
gandostham pina-madhyam sama-sahita-ghanah snigdhiis' ca'analt I 
karnav amsa-pralambau cibukam api natam ghona surucira 
vyaktanx tvam martya-loke varatanu vihitasygka suvadana II 

91-92 (C.88-89. B.XV.119, 120, 121 . l Scheme ( , v; i*-,\u - 

U,Uu-,"U,--U, -). 

93 (C.90, BXV.122). ' B. gives an additional example of this 

94-95 (C.91-92, B.XV.124-125, 128). ' Scheme ( , - v/ -,*r v u, 

U\J\j, O - -, - V KJ, u -). 

96 (C.98, B.XV.127). 


Your eyes are like lotus-patals, beautiful with the bow-like 
eyebrows and their ends are playfully lazy ; the cheeks and lips 
are plump in their middle, the teeth are all equal, in a line, thickly 
set and shining, the ears are hanging down as far as the shoulders, 
the chin is bent and the nose is beautiful, fair lady, in this 
mortal world you are indeed the only fair-faced woman whose face 
has been [carefully] fashioned. 


97-98. [The metro with] the feet of twentyone syllables of 
which the first four, the sixth, the seventh, the fourteenth, the 
fifteenth, the seventeenth, the eighteenth, the twentieth and the last 
are heavy [and the rest light] is called Srcigdhra. 1 

Example : 


cut&sokaravindaih kuruvaka-tilakaih karnikaraih sirisaih 
punnagaih parijatair vakula-kuvalayaih kjmsukaih sittimuktoih I 
etair niina-prataraih kusuma-surabhibhir viprakirnais ca tais tail* 
vasantaih pnspa-vrndair naravara vasudhii sragdharevadya bhati H 

O king (lit. best among men), due to the many and various 
sweet smelling vernal flowers such as, Cuta, Asoka, Aravinda, 
Kuravaka, r Pilaka, Karnikara, Sirisa, Punnaga, Parijata, Vakula, 
Kuvalaya, Kimsuka and Atimukta, this earth looks today like a 
woman wearing [many] garlands of flowers. 

100-101. [The metre with] the feet of twenty two syllables 
of which the first, the fourth, the sixth, the tenth, the twelfth, the 
sixteenth, the eighteeenth, and the last are heavy [and the rest 
liglitpis called Madraka 1 . 

97-98 (C.94-95, B.XV.128-129, 130). > Soliome (- — , - u -, - v w, 

uuO,u.-,u-u- -). 99 (C.96, B.XV.M). 

•100-101 (C.97-98, B.XV.182-133, 134). l Schema (- O U, - u -, u u 
v, - u -, u u w, - kj -, u u v, -). ■ 


Example : 
udyatam eka-hasta-cai'anam dvitiya-kara-recitam suvinatam 
vamsa-mrdanga vadya- madhuram vicitra-kararutnvitam bahu vidham I, 
madrakam etad adya subhagair vidagdha-gati-cesitiah su-lalitnir 
nrtyasi \ibhramakula-pndam vivikta-rasa-bhavitam ,<asi-mukhi II 

fair lady (lit. moon-faced one), you are dancing to- 
day in accompaniment of sweet sounds of flutes and drums 
the Madraka T dance with one of your hands raised up and 
another bent, and your feet are restless in a hurry- And you 
are making happy, clever and graceful movements in pursuance 
of many and various Karanas, ;md this dance is imbued with 
a distinct Sentiment {rami). 


108-104. [The metre with] the feet of twentythree syllables 
of which the fifth, the seventh, the eleventh, the thirteenth, 
the seventeenth, the nineteenth and the last are heavy [and 
the rest light] is called Asvalalita. 1 
Example : 

10f>. vividha-turaaga-naga-ratha-yaudha- 

samkulam alam balain samuditam 

yasti-vitatam bahu-praharanam i 

samkita-bhatara bhayakulam idain 
krtam abhiviksya samyuga-mukhe 

samipsita-gimam tvayas'valalitam II 

[Even after] seeing this completely assembled army consisting 

of many horses, elephants, chariots and lighters, the manifold 

assaults spread by hundreds of arrows, darts, javelins, club's find 

swords, and the foot-soldiers terrified and afraid on account of the 

102 (C.99, B.XV.135). ' Sec NS. IV. * 

103-1 04 (C.100-101, B.XV.136-137, 138). ' Scheme (u O v, u - u, 
-uv,u-u, -uu, u-u, -yy,u-), 
105 (C.102, B.XV.139). 

286 THE kiTYABASTRA [XIII. 106- 

noise of released missiles, and the terror-stricken directions, you 
have practised in the forefront of the battle the sportful movements 
of a horse, the merit of which is very much desired [by people]. 


106-107. [The metre with] the feet of twentyfour syllables 
of which the first six, the eighth, the eleventh, the fourteenth the 
seventeenth, the twentieth and the twentythird are light [and 
the rest heavy] is called Megha-miila. 1 
Example : 

• 108. pavana vala-sam&hata livra-ganibhira- 
nadii balakavali-mekhala 
ksUidlmra-sadrsocca-rupii mahanila- 

dhumafijan&bhambu-garbhodvaha I 

gagana-tala-visarini pravrsenyii 

drdham megha-mala 'dhikam sobhate II 

The sky-covering mass of clouds of the rainy season, having 
deep and piercing sounds, wearing a flight of cranes as their girdle, 
carrying in their womb water of deep blue colour comparable to 
that of smoke and collyrium, girding the waist with the rainbow 
as the belt, having their armour-plates illumined by the flash of 
lighting looks indeed vciy beautiful. 


109-110. [The metre with] the feet of twentyfive syllables 
of which the first, the fourth, the fifth, the sixth, the ninth, the 
tenth, and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called 
Karunca-padi. 1 

106-107 (C.103-104, B.XV.140-141, 142). ' Scheme (uuu.UuU, 
- \J -, - u -, - o -, - u - - U -, - \J -). 


109-110 (C.106-107, B-XV.144-145, 146). ' Scheme (- u kj, , 

U O'-j -uw,uuu,uuu,uuu, u u u, -). 


Example : • 

111. yah kila daksaip vidruta-somani kratuvaram 

a-camasam apagata-kalas"am 
patita-yupam ksipta-casalam vicayanam 

a-samidham a-pas*ukam acarukam I 
karmuka-muktenas'u cakiira vyapagata- 

suragana-pitr-ganam isuiia 
nityam asau te daitya-ganilrih pradahatu 

makham iva akhilam t 

Let Siva (lit the foe of the demons) who by arrows dis- 
charged from his bow quickly spilled the Soma-juice, threw away 
the Camasa, broke the Kalasa, felled the Yupa, dislodged the 
Casala, put out the fire, destroyed the fuel, scared away the 
[sacrificial] animals, spilled the Caru and put the gods and the 
Fit-Is to flight in Daksa's great sacrifice, always destroy all your 
enemies like the same (sacrifice). 1 


112-113. [The metre with] the feet of twentysix syllables 
of which the first eight, the nineteenth, twentyfirst, twentyfourth 
and the last are heavy [and the rest light] is called Bhujanga- 
vijrmbhita. 1 
Example : 

11-1. rupopetam devaih srstam samada-gaja- 
vilasita-gatim niiiksya tilottamam 
priidaksinyat praptam drastum bahu-vadanam 

aculu-nayanam firah krta-van harah I 
dlrgham nihsVasyantar-gudham stana-vadana- 
jaghana-rucirain niriksya tatha punah 
prsthe nyastaip devGndrena pravaramani 

kaijaka-valayam bhujanga-vijrmbhitam H 

111 (C.108, B.XV.147) ' B. gives one additional example (B.XV.148) 
which occurs in Halayadha's commentary to Pingala. 

112-113 (C.109-I10, B.XV.149-150). A Scheme ( ,---?-- u, 

o \j \j, v u u, v yj u, - u -, u u -, \j -), 

114 (C.lll, B.XV.151). 


Seeing the- beautiful TilottamS created by the gods with 
the gait of an elephant in rat, 'while afce. came to circumam. 
bulate him, &va fixed all the eyes on, her and kept his 
heads and mouths motionless. And- then tne lord of gods 
(Siva) on seeing -her who was beautiful on account of her 
breasts, face and the hip, sighed silently and put away on his 
back the golden bangles set with the best of jewels in which snakes 
were yawning. 

The uneven and the semi-even metres 

115- These are, the best of Brahmins, the ev§n metres 
I mentioned [before]. Novv listen about the uneven and the 
semi-even metres. 

116. The metres of which the feet belong to different, 
metrical types and are dissimilar, are called uneven (v'mmn), 

117-118. The metres in which the two [alternate] feet 
are similar while the two [contiguous] feet are not similar, are 
called semi-even (ardluisanw). And the metre in which all 
the feet are dissimilar is called uneven. The semievcn metre 
is to have its even and odd feet dissimilar and the first of 
such groups of feet may be shorter or longer than the rest 
or one of them may be longer and the other shorter than 
the rest. 

Even metres 

119. An even metre is defined by defining one of ils feet 
while uneven metre requires the definition of all its feet. And 
from a definition of the two feet the semi-even metre is known. 
This is the division of feet [in different semi-even metres]. 

120. I have described the even metres with reference to 
their divisions of feet. Now I shall describe the characteristics 
of the uneven metres in terms of triads, {i.e. yams). 

114a, (C.112, B.XV.153). ' According to B. it is spurious. 

114b (C.118, B.XV.154). 115 (C.U4, B.XV.155). 


11-118 (C.116-U7, B.XV.157 158). 

•119 (C.118, B.XV.159). * 120(C.U9,B.XV.160) 


Pathya " 

121. If [in Anustup], the first foot contains sa, sa, ga, ga, 
and the second sa, ra, la, ga and such will be the remaining 
even and odd feet 1 , it is called Pathya*. 

Example : 

122. priya-tlaivata-mitrilsi priya-sambandhi-bandhav^ 1 I 
3 priya-dana-rata pathya dayite 3 tvam priyM me > 

You respect the gods and the friends, you lore the matri- 
monial relations and the kinsmen, you are disposed to make 
affectionate gifts and you are agreeable, beloved one, you 
are dear to me. 

Uneven Pathya 

123. [The Anustup metre of which] the first foot contains 
ma, ra, ga, ga, the second ya, sa, la, ga, the third ra, bha, la, ga 
and the fourth ja, sa, la, ga [is called an all-uneven (sarva-vimma,) 
Pathya] 1 . 

Example : 

124. naivacaro, na te mitram na sambandhi-guna-kriya 1 I 
sarvatha sarva-visama pathya na bhavasi priye ll 

dear one, you have no [good] conduct, no friend and 
you have no good action towards the relatives and are in every 
way very rough ; so you are not agreeable. 

121 (O.120, B.XV.162). ' 0. gived the correct reading yugmau- 
jakau 'even and odd' (feet). 

2 (I & III) kj y> - u u - - - and (II A IV) u w - - yj -, ^ - 

122(0.121, B.XV.163). ' Cdaivalafov sambandhi, 

2 C. vara for rath. 

8 C. yadyapilov dayite. 

123 (C.I33, B.XV.164). ' (1) , - u -, - -, (II) w - -, u u -, 

w -, (III) - kj -, - u u, u - (IV) --u,ou-,u-. 

124 (0.134, B.XV.165). l B. priya for kriya- 


Inverted Pathya 

125. These are the characteristics of the first and the third 
feet 1 . They being" inverted ie. the second and the fourth being 
of this description, the metre will be called the inverted Pathya. 

126. krtena ramanasya kim sakhi rosena te' pyarthain I 
viparita na patbyasi tvam jade kena mobita 1 II 

What is the use of this anger shown to your beloved one ? 
[It seems that] you are foolish and have been deluded by some- 
body and have been upset, [so] you are not agreeable. 

127. [The metre with the feet of eight syllable of which] 
the fourth, the fifth and the sixth [in the heinistictis] are short, 
is called Anustup Capalii. 1 
Examples : 


- na khalv asyah priyatamah srotavyam vyahrtam sakhyS I 
nSradasya pratikrtih kathyate capala hiyam II 

[He] is not this girl's dearest one. This [information] to 
be heard [privately] was proclaimed loudly by the female friend. 
This fickle woman is indeed [to be] called an image of Narada 
(the deity of quarrel). 


129. [If a metre with the feet of eight syllables has] the 
seventh, syllable short in its second and the fourth feet, it is 

125 (C.122, BXV.166). ' A passage before this seems to be lost. 
C. reads yugmayor—oi the two even (feet). B. lias ayujor—oi the two 
odd (feet). 

126(C.123," B.XV.r67). - ' We udopt B's reading. (I) v-v, 
u u -, \j -, (II) \j u -, - KJ -, - -, (III) - v -, - u -, u -, (IV) v v -i 

127(C.124,B.XV.168). J C v&ula for capala. 
128 (0.125, B.XV,169). 129 (C.126, B.XV.170). 


called [Anustup] Vipula. According to some 1 the seventh syllable 
in all the feet will be short in [such] Vipula. 
Example : 

130. sainksipta vajravan-madhya heraa-kumbha-nibha-stani I 
vipulasi priye sYonyam purna-chandra-nibhanane II 

dear one, you are thin [in bodyl your waist is slender 
in the middle like a Vajra, your breasts are like golden pitchers, 
your hips are large and your face is like the full moon. - 

131. gangeva tvam meghagame aplfivita-vasundhar^ I 
kula-vrksan arujati sravanti vipulacalat 1 II 

You arc like the Ganges at the advent of the rains, flooding 
the earth, destroying the trees on the bank arid flowing down 
from a highsnountain 

1 32. The feet of Pathya are thus of various types ; in the 
remaining [types of AnustupJ even <ind odd feet may be made up 
with other triads (irikay. 

133. In this metre a triad ending in a heavy syllable (i.e. 
ma, ra, ya, sa) or consisting of light syllables {i.e. na) is never 
to occur (lit. desired) after the first syllable while after the fourth 
syllable a short syllable must occur (lit. is prescribed). 

134. It in the feet of a Pathya there are three heavy 
syllables at the end it is called [Anustup] Vaktra. 

Example : 

135. danta-ksatadharam subhru jagara-glana-netrantam I 
rati-sambhoga-khinnam te darsaniya-taram vaktram II 

fair lady, the lips being bitten by teeth, eyes being 
languid due to keeping awake, your face has become more charming, 
after its exhaustion in lore's enjoyment. 

1 Saitava— mentioned in Pingala and Agni P. See CSS. p. 38. 
130 (C.127, B.XV-171). 

181 (C.128, B.XV.172). ' B. C. vattat for calai. ^ 

132 (C.129, B.XV. 174). l We follow B. 133 (C.130, B.XV.1 75). 
184 (C.131, B.XV.176). • 135 (C.132, B.XV.177). 


136. These are all-uneven metres of the Anustup class. 
The authorities differ from one another as regards [the arrange- 
ment of] the triads and syllables. 1 


137. The metre which has its feet consisting of sixteen 
Matras as parts of Gatha to be divided into four sections in terms 
of triads and the part of a triad, is called Vanavasika. x 

Example : 

138. asarathita-pada suvihvalangi 

mada-skhalita-cestita-manojna I 
kva yasyasi varoru surata-kale 

visama kim vanavasika tvam n 

fair lady, your gait is unsteady, limbs are agitated, and 
your faltering movements due to ardent passion are charming. 
Where are you going at the time of love's enjoyment ? Are you a 
perverse woman of Vanavasi ? 


139. The metre of which the first and the third feet consist 
of sa, ja, sa, ga and the second and the fourth bhn, ra, na, ga, is 
called KetumatI. 1 

Example : 

140. sphuritadbaram cakita-netram 

rakta-kapolam ambuja-dal&ksam I 
kim idam rusapahrta-Sobham 

ketumatt-samam vada mukham te II 

Yonr lips are throbbing, the eyes which are like lotus-petals 
are trembling and the cheeks are red. Tell me why has your face 
robbed of its beauty by anger, become like KetumatI (flame) ? 

136 (B.XV.178). l C. omits thin. 

137 (0.146, B.XV.179). ' Pingala calls this Matrasamaka. His 
Vanavasika is simply a variety of this. See 088. p. 21. 

188 (C.U7, B.XV.180). 

139 (O.140, BXV.181). ' Scheme : (I & III) u -, o - U, u v -, 
-, (II 4 IV) - u u, - u -, \j u <j, - - 



141. In* the metre called Aparavaktra the first and the 
third feet consist of na, na, ra, la, ga and the second and the 
fourth of na, ja, ja, ra. 1 

Example : 

142. sutanu jala-parlta locanam 

jalada-niruddham ivendu-mandalam I 
kirn idam apara-vaktram eva te 

sasi-vadane'dya mnkhatn paran-mukham II 
O fair lady (lit. moon-faced one) why are your eyes full of 
tears and why do you look like like the orb of the moon obscured 
by the clouds and why has your face turned today like some one 
else's face ? 


143. In Puspitagra metre the first and the third feet 
consist of na, na, ra, ya, and the second and the fourth of 
na, ja, ja, ra, ga. 1 

Example : 

1 44. pavana-raya-vid huta-caru-sakham 

pramudita-kokila-kantha-nada-ramyam I 

varatanu pasya vanam supuspitSgram II 
O fair lady, look at the top of the blossoming forest in 
which the wind is shaking the beautiful branches of trees, the 
gladdened cuckoos are singing with sweet voice and the bees arc 
humming all around. 


145. In Udgata metre the first foot consists of sa, ja, sa, 

141 (C.142, B.XV.183, 184). » Scheme : (I & III) v u U, u u U, 
u -, (II & IV) uw, yj-u, \j-kj , - v - . 

142 (C.132, B.XV.177). „ 

143 (C.144, B.XV.186). ' Scheme (I & II) u u v,, u\J\j,-v~. 
u - -, (II & IV) u u \j, u - u, «~» - u, - u - - 

144 (C.146, B.XV.187). .' 146 (C.135, B.XV. 188). 

294 THE NATtASASTEA [ XVI. 150- 

la, the second of na, sa, ja, ga, the third of bha, na, ja, la, ga and 

the fourth of sa, ja, sa, ja, ga. T 

Example : 

146. tava roma-rajir atibhftfi 

sutanu madanasya manjarim I 

bhramar&vultva kusumat samudgata II 

fair one, the hairs which rise from the hollow of your 
lotus-like navel are comparablo with a swarm of bees coming out 
of flowers and they exceed in beauty Cupid's blossoms. 


147. The metre Lalita has its first foot consisting of sa, 
ja, sa. la the second foot of na, sa, ja, ga, the third foot of na, na, 
sa, sa, and the fourth foot of sa, ja, sa, ja, ga. 1 

Example : 

lalita kula-bhramita caru-vasana-kara-caru-pallava I 
lady, hurriedly but gracefully moving the beautiful 
clothes and the delicate hands and having a blooming lotus-like 
face you look charming after the fatigue of love's sports. 

149. These are the syllabic metres of the even and uneven 
types, to be used in dramas and poems. 

150. There are besides many other syllabic metres which 
have been mentioned here collectively. They are not to be used 
because they do not embellish [a composition]. 

1 Scfieme (I) \j u -, <j - u, \j kj -, V, (11) uyu,yu-,u-u, 
-, (111) - yj U, <j «j \j, v - \j, v -, (IV) o vj -, \j - v, o u -, \j - V, - 

146 (C.136, B.XV.189). 

147 (C.137, B.XV.190). * Scheme (1 & II) same as in Udgata. (Ill) 
uuu, uuu,.uu-, \jKt-, (IV) uu-,u J 0, u u «-, u - u, 
Piiigala's Laliia has the fourth foot similar to that of Udgata 

148 (C.133, B.XV.191). 

1*49 (C148, B.XV.IS2). 150 (C.149 B.XV.193). . 


151. The syllabic metres forbidden here after may be 
used in songs. I shall describe their varieties while treating the 

Irya metres 

152- This is the definition of various syllabic metres 
briefly treated by me. Next I shall give the definition of the 

153. The Aryas are of five types, viz, Pathya, Vipuli, 
Capalii, Mukha-capala, and Jaghana-capala. 

154. I shall speak about their caesura and division of 
Matras and their varieties depending on Ganas which have been 
prescribed as characteristics of these. 

155. In these metres the caesura marks the division [of 
feet]; the Gana consists of four Matras, the second and the fourth 
(lit. the last) feet are the even ones, and the first and the third 
(lit. the rest) odd ones. 

156. [In an Arya] the odd Ganas consisting of four 
Matras should have no ja and the even Ganas maybe of any 
type according to the choice [of the poet]. 

156 a. The eighth Gana in every Arya is to be known as 
half a Gana {i.e. two Matras). 

157. The sixth Gana may be of two alternative types 
and the eighth will consist of one [syllable]. The sixth Gana in the 
second hemistich will consist of one Matr3 only 1 . 

158. In one alternative is that the sixth Gana will be ja, 
(u - v.) mid in the other it will consist of four short syllable, 
{o^jKjyj) and these relate to the caesura (yati). 

151 (C.150, BXV.194). 152 (C.151, B.XV.195). 

153 (C.152, B.XV.196). 154 (C.153, B.XV.197). 

155 ("C.154, BXV.198). 196 (C.155, B.XV.199, 211, 2f8a). 

157 (C.156, B.XV.200, 208b-209a). 'Read 157b (with C) as <njra 

• 158 (C.157, B.XV.201, 209b-210a). 


159. The caesura may occur when the second la after the 
fifth Gana has been completed or it may occur from the first 
syllable [of the sixth Gana], or after the fifth Gana [has been 
completed]. 1 

Pathya-Irya and Vipula-5ryi 

160- The Arya metre of which the caesura occurs after the 
three Ganas (lit feet are made up of three Ganas) is called Pathya. 
The Vipula Arya is different from this, only because it observes 

no caesura (yaii) of any kind [within its hemistichs]. 1 
Examples : 

Pathya Arya 


kasya tu pithumrdu-jaghana tanu-bahvamsodari [na] pathya II 

To whom is not agreeable a woman with lovely and 
lotus-like soft eyes, copious long, black and [curled] hairs, large 
and soft hip, slim arms and abdomen ? 

Vipula Arya 

1G2. vipula-jaghana-vadana-stana-nayanais 
fiyata-nasa-gandair laliita- 
caranaih s"ubhii kanyii II 
A maiden is auspicious when her hip, face, breasts and 
eyes arc large, lips, palm and feet are red and nose, cheeks, 
forehead and ears are prominent. 

Capala Srya 
163. In the Capala (Arya) the second and the fourth 

159 (C.158, B.XV.202, 210b). ' Read 159 a B ftSfeif* «$ta wn» «<tf 

160 (C.159, B.XV.203). l Bead the couplet as «*j fits q[?: <aiq vm 
q *ir n m *i*i i ^m fow*» 3 fiswrtfiww. 

161 (C.160, B.XV. 213). 

• 162 (BJCV.2H). 163 (B.XV.215, 204). 


Gagas in each hemistich are to consist of a ja (lit Gana with a 
heavy syllable in the middle). 
Example : 

164. ^dbhartr-ggmini parusa-bhasini kama-cihna-krta-vesa I 
*ya nati-mamsa-yukta sura-priya sarvatas capala II 

The woman who goes defying her husband, speaks harshly, 
has erotic signs in her dress, is not very fleshy and is fond of meat, 
is inconstant in every respect. 

Mukha-capala and Jaghana-capala Arya 

165. When the definition of a Capala applies to the first 
hemistich [onlyj of an A~rya it is called the Mukha-capala. And 
when the same applies to the second hemistich [only] it is called 

Examples : 

Mukha-capala 5rya 

166. arya mukhe tu capala tathapi earya na me yatah sa tu I 
daksii grha-krtyesu tatha duhkhe bhavati duhkharta II 

My lady is talkative, but still her conduct [in general] is not 
bad, for she is an expert in my household work, and in my misery 
she feels miserable. 

Jaghana-capala 5rya 

167. vara-mrga-nayane capalasi 

varoru sasanka-darpana-nibhasye I 
kamasya sarabhutena 

purna-mada-caru-jaghanena II 

fair lady with the eyes of the best deer, and a face 
like the moon or the mirror, by your hips which constitute the 
best prize of love and which are charming on account of your 
swelling passion, you are [marked as] faithless (lit. inconstant). 

164 (B.XV.216). ' B. reads udbhata. 

4 B. reads janati, for ya nTtti. Prof. S. P. Bhattacharya suggested this 

165 (B.XV.2I7). 166 (B.X.V.218). 167 (B.XV.219). 



168. When the two hemistiehs of a CttpalS have (he same 
characteristics it is called the all-round Capala. 

169. This metre is known have thirty Mate's in its first 
hemistich and twenty-seven in the second 1 . 

170. Following these rules (lit. thus) one should compose 
plays (lit. poetical composition) utilising (lit. having) therein 
diffeient metrical patterns belonging to (lit. arising from) different 
Rhythm-types, and such plays are to have the thirtysix character- 
istic marks (lakmiyi). 

Here ends Chapter XVI. of Bharata's Niityasastra 
which treats of the Metrical Patterns. 

168 (B.XV.220 ; 0.162b- 163a). 

169 (B.XV.205, 201 ; 0.163b-164a,). ' The five couplets after this 
(B.XV.222-226) are corrupt and appear to be spurious. These will be 
discussed in the Introduction. 



Thirtysix marks of a good play 

1-5. The thirtysix characteristic marks {laksawi) 1 of 
(a good] dramatic composition (kavtja) 2 arc as follows : Onateness 
(lihnsann), Compactness (aksam-ximtili&tn), Brilliance (soliha), 
Parallelism (wiaharana), Causation {k>-tn\ Ho.-itation (nommjnX 
Favourable Precedent (tlrafauta), Discovery (prapti), Fancy 
(abhipraijii), Unfavourable Precedent (uhlariana), Convincing 
Explanation (uinil;ln), Persuation, (siiltlhi), Distinction (vfo'Mwi), 

1-5 (C.l-5, B. p.348-350, XVI.1-5). x About the significance of the 
the term laksana, the commentators of the NS. are not at all unanimous. 
Ag. mentions no less than ten different views on the subject. Evidently 
some of these are far-fetched and off the mark. It seems that laknana 
in this connexion is comparable to the same word occurring in the com- 
pound word makapurusa-laksana (characteristic marks of a superman). 
Accordiug to one view this laksana differs from the alamkara (ornament) 
and the guna (qualities) of a person as figures of speech (alamkara) and 
excellences (guna) of a composition differ from its characteristic marks 
(laksana). The composition in this connexion is evidently a dramatic 
one though some of the commentators think otherwise. For a discussion 
on the position of laksanas in the history of the Alamkara literature 
see 8. K. De, Skt. Poetics, II. pp. 4-5 ; see also Ramakrishna Kavi, 
(B.II.pp. 348 349) and V. Jtaghavau's paper on Laksanas in the Journal of 
Oriental Research, Vol. VI. pp. 70, 71, 81, 82. Mas. of the NS. fall 
into two distinct recensions as regards the. text treating the thirty-six 
laksanas. One receasion followed by older commentators, and late 
writers like Visvanatha, and Singabhftpala, uses Anustnp verses for 
the enumeration of laksanas We have adopted this as the basis of 
our translation. The second recension which seems to be later, has 
been followed by commentators like Kirtidhara, Abhinavagupta and 
late writers like Dhanajaya and others. This greatly varies from the 
other recension with which it has not more than seventeen names (of 
laksanas) in common, and among these, definitions of eight only are 
similar in both the recensions. 

3 Kavya in this connexion means the drsya-kavya or dramatic 


Accusation of Virtue (gmaiipata), Excellence (gun&tifaya), 
Inference from Similitude (tulyartarka), Multiplex Predication 
(padoccaya), Description (dista), Pointed Utterance (upadida), 
Deliberation (ricara). Inversion (viparyaya), Slip of .Tongue 
(bhramia), Mediation (annnaya), Series of Offers {mala), Clever 
Manner (dahinya), Censure (garliana) Presumption (arth&patti), 
Celebrity (pnwiddhi), Interrogation (prccha), Identity (sarupyn), 
Indirect Expression of one's Desire (manoratha), Wit (Ma), 
Concealment (»i»b«/iii) s , Enumeration of Merits (ynna-kirtana), 
Semi-uttered Expression (aunkta-xiddhi) and Compliment (/>«- 
yavacam = prioldi), 


G. 1 To adorn the composition with many figures of 
speech (alamkara) and Gunas as if with ornaments, for creat- 
ing manifold meanings is called Ornateness (lifrumm, lit. 
ornament) 8 . 


7. 1 When an wonderful sense is expressed by means of a 
small number of syllables with double entendre, it is called 
themark named Compactness (ahara-sanujhata, lit. assemblage 
of syllables) 2 . 

8 Emood samhobho to samksepo. See below 38 note 1. 

6 (C.6; B.p 350, XVJ.6) ' A close study of Ag's. commentary on 
passages dealing with lakmnas is liable to give one an impression that 
the exact meaning of some of the terms at least relating to this subject, 
has been to some extent lost, and various explanations have been 
partly based on guess. But in the absence of anything better we are 
to depend on them though very cautiously. Definitions of various 
laksanas are mostly not at all clear without examples which have 
been very liberally given by Ag. To avoid prolixity wo refrain from 
quoting them here. Interested persons may sec them in the Baroda 
ed. of the NS. (Vol. II pp. 294ff,). For an example of bkvsana. Sec 
Kavi. As any old commentary to these (NS.) passages dealing with 
laksanas, has not come down to us, we used in this connexion the 
one prepared by M. Ramakrishna Kavi. See B. II pp. 348ff. (Referred 
to as Kavi). 

7(C.7;B,p.350,XV1.7). ' See. Kavi. 

-XVII. 12 ] DICTION OF A PLA* 301 


8. 1 Ii a charrhing and novel meaning [arises] when a less 
known object is referred to by likening it to a well-known one, 
and a wonderful sense is expressed through double entendre 2 it 
is called Brilliance (sobka, lit- beauty) 


9. When by words expressing similar circumstances 1 a 
suggestion is cleverly made to accomplish an object, it is called 
Parallelism (wlaharana, lit. example) 1 . 


10. When brief and pleasing words by the force of their 
[tactful] use achieve the desired object, it is called [an instance of] 
Causation (hetu) 1 


11. When due to many considerations a sentence is 
brought to an end without fully communicating the essential theme 
[in view], it is [an instance of] Hesitation {> lit. doubt). 1 

Favourable Precedent 

12. That which suppoiting the case in hand 1 is an example 
of its reason and is pleasing to all people, is a Precedent 
Favourable to the speaker (drstanta, lit. example). 2 

8 (0.8; B.p 350, XV1.8). ' 0. yatra slMam vixidyarlham for 
yatra sh'st/i vicilrartha. See Kavi. 

9 (C.9-, r>.i>.»51, XV1.9). ' 0. tvalphrlha for tulyartha. Cf. SD.438 
Ag'a dclinition in trans, is as follows. When from the occurrence (lit. 
sight) of a single word good many unmentioned ones can be inferred (lit. 
accomplished) it is called Sample (udaharana). 

lO(C.lO;B.p352, XVI.10). ' Cf. SD. 139. Ag. reads this defi- 
nition as follow* : **it smwi! iJwirafliMwi i faatawrw Wwfwnfinwi 
(B.XVI.14). Its meaning is not clear, Ag.'s explanation does not seem to be 
convincing. Possibly there is textual corruption in this. 

11(011; B.p.352, XVI.ll). ' Cf. SD. 440. 

12 (C.12; B. p.352, XVI.12). ' C. paksapaksartha for yastu 
aksartpha. Cf. SD. 341. Ag.'s text in translation is as follows ; That a 



13. When on seeing some indications, the existence of 
something is assumed it becomes [an instance of] Discovery 
(\>rajif), lit. attainment) 1 which is included among the marks 
of :i [good J drama. 


1 1. When an idea interesting to people [but] hitherto non- 
existent, is conceived on the basis of similarity [of two objects], it 
is [an instance of] Fancy (a^hijirwja, lit. belief) 1 

Unfavourable Precedent 

15. When well-known instance are mentioned for rejecting 
the contrary view it is [an instance of] Unfavourable Precedent 
(niilav'saita, lit example) 1 

Convincing Explanation 

10. Words that are spoken in support of the meaning of 
some faultless statement made before, constitute Convincing 
Explanation (iiinikla, lit etymology)'. 

/earned person discovers similarity [of anything] with something per- 
ceived by him earlier, is called Illustration (distanta). Of. the figure 
of speech of this name in HI). 697. 

1 3 (0. 1 j H.p.353, XV!. l;i). ' Cf. SI). 446, Ag. similar (Ti.XVJ.32 ). 

1-KC.Uj B.p.353; XVI.14). 'SI). 445, Ag. reads this as a 
variant of yukti (B.XV1.3S) wliicli in translation is as follows: The 
meaning which is made up only of many mutually compatible objects 
combining with one another, is called Combination (yukti). (If. 
SI). 51)1. 

1 5 (C.15; ]i.p.2o4. XVI.15). See SD. 444. Ag. reads this as a variant 
iixih (T5.XVI.-i8). The meaning of thisdef. is not clear. Ag. offers no 
explanation of this, but gives an example, which it is vory difficult to 
fit in with the definition. Cf. SD. 471. 

16 (0.16; B.p.254, XVI.16). ' Cf. SD. 453. Ag.'a text in translation 
is as follows : Explanation (nirukta) is two kinds : factual and non- 
factual. [Of these] ihe factual {explanation] is thai which is well- 
known (lit. accomplished before), and the non-factual is that which 
has not been so (lit. not accomplished)'. 



17. When name of great* persons are mentioned with a 
view to accomplish the object aimed at, it is [an instance of] 
Persuation (dddhi, lit. success) 2 . 


IK. When after mentioning many well-known great objects 
something is said distinguishing a thing from them, it is [an 
instance of] Distinction (visemna) 1 . 

Accusation of Virtues 

19. When virtues are mentioned with sweet words of harsh 
import 1 which carry the contrary implication, it is [an instance of] 
Accusation of Virtues (gunatipata, lit. opposition of virtue) 2 . 


20. When after enumerating the qualities available in 
common men, one mentions some special qualities, it is [an 
instance of] Excellence (atisaya) 1 . 

Inference from Similitude 

21. When an object directly perceived is inferred from a 
mataphor or simile applied in an identical sense, it is [an instance 

17 (C.17; B.p.354, B.XVI.17). ' C. pravaktanim for pradhananiim. 
Of. SD. 454. Ag. roads this with a slight variation. 

18 (C.18; B.p.355, XVI.18). l Of. SI). 452. Ag. roads this as a 
variant of kxama (B XV1.IU) which in translation is as - follows : When 
one being hurt by harsh and provoking roirds uttcrred by a wicked person 
in the presence of good people, remains without anger, it is [an instance 
of] Forgiveness (ksania). • 

1 9 (C.19; B.p.355, XVI.19) ' 0. madhuro nisthumrtho for madhu- 
rair niMurarthair. Cf. SD. 450. Ag. roads this as a variant of 
gunaniwiida (B.XVI.13a) which in translation is as follows : Eulogy 
(gimanuvada) relates to inferior subjects compared with superior ones. 

20 (C.20; B.p.355, XV1.20). ' Cf. SD. 451 Ag.'s reading (B.XV.13) 
in translation is as follows : When anything compares favourably 
to the best thing [to which it can be compared] it is [an instancfrof] 
Erce Hence (atisaya). 21 (0.21; B.p.356, XVI.21). 


of] Inference from Similitude (tultja-tarka, lit. reasoning from the 
comparables) 1 . . 

Multiplex Predication 

22. When a number of words are used along with a number 
of other words to form different groups for the same purpose, it 
becomes [an instance of] Multiplex Predication (pmlormya) 1 . 


23. When any object or incident directly seen or not, is 
described in harmony with locality, time or from related to it 
it becomes [an instance of] Description (ilistu) 1 . 

Pointed Utterance 

24. When one says something of his own on the basis 
of Sastras and thereby pleases the learned, it is a Pointed Utterance 
(upadida, lit. utterance) 1 . 


25. That which establishes something not directly perceived 
and is in harmony with the meaning expressed earlier 1 and 

1 Cf. SD. 442. Ag. reads this is as a variant of the definition of 
Exhortation ( B.XVI.19 ) which in translation is as follows : To say 
something very pointedly through suggesting one's own idea by 
means of likening it to others' actions, is called E-eltortation (iikrauda). 
Cf. SD. 472. 

22 (C.22 ; B.p.356, XVI.22). l Cf. SD. 443 Ag.'s reading in transla- 
tion is a? follows : When anything is described as possessing differ- 
ent aspects by means of many words of similar import, it is [an instance 
of] Multiplex Predication (padoccaya) which puts together many objects. 

23 (C.23; B.p. 356, XVT.23). ' BC. drsla for dista Cf. SD. 448. Ag. 
reads this" as a variant of sarupya (B.XVJ.15) which is different from 
XVI.35 and is as follows : 

24(C.24 ; Bp.357, XVI.24). ' Cf. SD.449; Ag. reads this is as 
a variant of Argumentation {upapatti, B.XVI.35). The translation 
is as follows: When faults discovered are explained away as being 
otherwise it is called Argumentation (upapatti) in connexion with 
drama. Cf. SD. 482. 

25 (C.25; B.p. 357, XVI-25). » C. fmrvadeW for pnrvaZaya; B. 
anekopiidhi for anekapoha. Cf. SD. 447. Ag.'s reading of the definition in 


includes much elimination of errors (apoha), is called Deliberation 


26. When due to seeing [something] an alteration of 
Deliberation, takes place on account of a doubt, it is called 
Inversion (viparyayq,) 1 . 

Slip of Tongue 

27. Manifold deviation of proud and similar other persons 
from the intended words to something else is called Slip of 
Tongue (bhramsa, lit. lapse) 1 . 


28. [Words] which please the two persons with mutually 
opposed resolution and [are aimed at] accomplishing some object, 
constitute Mediation (anunaya, lit imploring) 1 . 

Series of Offers 

29. When for the purpose of accomplishing an object one 
(lit. learned men) suggests to a person his many needs [which 
may be fulfilled], it is [an instance of] Series of Offers (mala, 
lit. garland) 1 . 

translation as follows : Deliberation (vicara) is the critical examination 
of many things (under B.XVI.33). 

26 (C.26; B.i>. 357, XV126). ' B. dntopadhtayoh for drsiopayogatah 
Cf. SD. 456. Ag. reads this as a variant of the def of Wrong Perception 
(mithyadhyavasaya B.XVI,16) which in translation is as follows : 
When in place of a non-existent object one takes for certain some- 
thing similar to it, it [becomes an instance of ] Wrong Perception 

27 (C.27; B.p.358, XVI.27)- ' Emend drstiidibhir to drptddinam 
Cf. drptadinam hhaved bhramgo vacyud anyalarad vocal). SD. 455. Ag. 
reads this as a variant of the def. of Witty Compliment (priyavacand) 
which in trans, is a3 follows : That which is apparently liable to provoke 
anger but brings joy in the end and includes a blessing, is called 
Witty Campliment (priyavacana=priokti) B.XVL29. 

28 (C.28, B.p.358, XVI.28). ' Cf. SD. 458 Ag. reads this as a 
variant of the dof. of. Subservience (anuvrtti) which in trans, is as follows : 
To follow with a purpose another person as a matter of courtesy, love 
or favour, is called Subservience (anuvriti) B.XV1 34. Ag. reads %his 
differently. Cf.SD.494. 

29 (C.29; B.p.359, XVI.29). ,' Cf. SD. 459- 


Clever Manners 

30. When one attends another person with a happy and 
pleased face, [sweet] speech and [agreable] movements, it [is an 
instance of] Clever Manners (dahinya). x 


31. If any one mentions [someone's] .faults and explain 
them as merits, or decries his merits and calls them faults, it 
becomes [an instance of] Censure {yarhana) 1 . 


32. When from a sweetly- worded mention of something, 
some other object is to be understood, it is [an instance of] 
Presumption {athapatti). 1 

33- That which is expressed with excellent words mentioning 
many well-known exploits, gives rise to Celebrity {prasiddhi) 1 . 
34. When by courteous (lit. proceeding from courtesy) 1 
words one questions oneself or another [imaginary person] it is [an 
instance of] Interrogation (jirccM). 

30 (C.30; B.p.359, XVI.30). ' Cf. SD. 457. Ag. reads this as a 
variant of the def. of Clover Request (yacTia) which in translation is as 
follows ; Words which are apparently liable to provoke anger, but bring 
joy in the end' and turn favourable are called. Clever Request (yaciia) 

31 (C.31; B.p. 359, XVI.31). ' Cf. SD. 461, Ag. reads this as a 
variant of the dof. of Deceit (kapatasamgfuda) (B.XVL30) which in 
translation is as follows : Application of some stratagem for the decep- 
tion or defeat of others, is called Deceit (kapata). When two or three 
{stratagems) are applied together it becomes . a Multiplex Deceit 
(kapata-satnghata) Cf. SD. 473. 

32 (C.32; B.p.360, XVI.37), ' Cf. SD.460. Ag. reads as a variant of 
the def. of Embellishment {karya, B.XVI.37) which in translation is as 
follows : When defects of an object are explained as merits or merits 
are derived from t/ie defects it is [an instance of] Embellishment (karya). 

33 (C.33; B.p.360, XVI.33). ' Cf. SD. 463- Ag. reads this as a 
variant of the def. of Submission {anunili, B.XVI.38) which in 
translation is as follows : Sweet words which are uttered, to please 
one after forgiving one's singular offence due to anger, is called 
submission (anuniti). Sec also under B.XVL 21. 

34 (C.34; Bp.361, XVI.34). > Emend okrod {akarod C) to wand 

-XVII. 38 ] . -DICTION OF A PLAY 307 


35. When from seeing or hearing something [suddenly] one 
is confused by its suspected identity [with another it is an instance 
of] Identity (sarupya) 1 . 

Indirect Expression of Desire 

36. Expressing one's secret desire of the heart 1 by a 
pretence of referring to somebody else's condition, is called Indirect 
Expression of Desire (manoratka, lit. object of the mind). 


37. Words which are addressed in a [clever] manner by 
expert disputants and which relate to accomplishment of similar 
objects 1 , constitute Wit (leia).* 


38. When being faultless one declares to be taking upon 
oneself various faults of another, it [is an instance of] Concealment 
(samlcsepa, lit. taking away)- 1 

Of. abhyarlhanaparair vakyair, SD. 462. Ag. (B. XVI.24) reads this 

35 (0.35 ; B.p.361, XVI.35). ' Of. SD. 464. Ag. reads this as a 
variant of the def. of Wounded Self-respect (abhimana, B-XVI.8) 
which in translation is as follows : When one is not pacified even when 
one is consoled by means of many words and acts, it is [an instance of] 
Wounded Self-respect (abhimana). Cf. SD. 493. 

36 (C.36; B.p. 362, XVI.36). ' Cf. SD. 468. C. hrdayarthasya 
for hrdayasthasya Ag. reads this in substantially identical manner 

37 (C.37; B.362, XV1.37). ' C. sadrmrtha-vinispannah for "bhinis- 
patya, Cf. SD. 467, Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. of Obs- 
truction (pralisedha B.XVI.23) which in translation is as follows : 
When one sets out to do something contrary to another's desire and 
is opposed by clever persons {lit. those who knoiv the businecs) it is 
called Obstruction (pratisedha). 

38 (C.38; B.p.363, XVI38). ' Emend tu ksobha to samhsepa. C. tu 
doKd) Cf, SD. 465, samksepo yat tu samksepad atmanyarthe .prayujyale. 
Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. of paridevanam (parivudanam 
of Bhoja, parivada of SSradatanaya, parivedana of Sarvesavara) See 
B.XVX39 foot note (•). The meaning of its def. is pot clear. 



Enumeration of Merita 

39. When merits of men who excel [others] in qualities in 
this world, arc ascribed to one single person it [is and instance of] 
Enumeration of Merits {qiina-kirtana) 1 . 

Semi-uttered Expression 

40. When from the mere commencement of a subject the 
rest of it is comprehended without being actually expressed in 
words 1 it [is an instance of] Semi-uttered Expression (annleta- 
siihlhi, lit. unuttered achievement) 2 . 


41. When words are uttered in a pleasant mood to honour 
an honourable person and to. express joy [for his acts] it [is an 
instance of] Compliment (priyoHi, lit. pleasing utterance) 8 . 

42. These tliirtysix characteristic marks of a dramatic (lit. 
poetical) composition conducing to the object in view (i.e. writing 
plays) will beautify a play (lit. composition) 1 and [hence 
they] should be properly used according to the .Sentiment 2 [intro- 
duced in itj. 

Pour figures of speech 

43. Four figures of speech available in drama 1 are : Simile 
(npama,) Metaphor (lupalca), Condensed Expression {dlpahi, lit. 
lamp) and Yamaka. 

39 (C.39 ; B.p.363, XVI.39). l Cf. SD.466. Ag. reads this def. 
in translation as follows : When a proclamation of various qualities 
of a person takes place, but his faults are not given out, it is {called 
an instance of] Enumeration of Merits (guna-kirtana). See B. XVI. 9. 

40 (C.40; B.pp. 363-64, XVI.40). ' 0. vijanatu for vimnukta. 
Cf . SD. 469. Ag. reads this as a variant of the def. paridevana etc. 
(see 38 note above). 

41 (C.41; B.p.364, XVI.41). ' Cf. SD. 470. Ag. reads this 
differently, see above 27 note 1. 


' C. kavyesu sodaharatiani for prabandhaiobhakarani, C. balimu- 
rupam (rasanurufiam), C. for yaiharasani. 

, 43 (C.43; B.XV1.40). ' B. reads the second hemistich as kuvyasy 
ete hyalainkarm catvaralp parikirlitafo. 


44. When in a poetical composition anything is compared 
on the basis of some similarity it is [an instance of] Simile (upama) 
It relates to quality and form. 

Number of objects compared 
45-49. This comparison may be of one with one or many, 
or of many with one, or of many with many. (Examples of these 
are as follows): your face is like the moon (one compared with 
one) 1 , stars shine like the moon (many compared with one), 
having an 'eye like 1 that of a hawk, a peacock and a vulture (one 
compared with many) ; and elephants are like clouds .(mny com- 
pared with many). 

Five kinds of simile 

50. Simile is of five kinds, viz. [that of] praise (praiamHci), 
[that of] censure (nimla), [that of] conceit {kalpita), [that of] 
uniqueness ,-(««</«•*. lit. similar looking) and [that of] partial 
likeness (Idmcit xadtii). 

Simile of praise 

51. The king was pleased to see that largt.-eyed lady just 
as the sages are pleased to see the success incarnate after it has 
been achieved with austerity. 

Simile of censure 

52. The woman clung to that rough-looking person devoid 
of all good qualities just as a creeper clings round a thorny 1 
tree which has been [partially] burnt by the forest-fire. 

Simile of conceit 
i)ii. The Elephants exuding ichor and moving slowly with 
gracefulness look like mobile mountains. 

44 (C.44j B.XVI.41). 

45-49 (C.45-49; B.XVI.42-45). .' ekasyanekavisaya should be 
emended to anekasy ckavisaya (47b). 

2 tulyukm (ins. na in B.) for tulyartha (B. C). 

50 (C50iB.XVI.46). 51 (C.51; B.XVJ.47). 

52 (C.52; B.XVI.48). * Read kantakinam for kanthagatam, C. 

53 (C.53; B.XVI.49). 


Simile of uniqueness 

54. What you have done today to satisfy someone else's 
desire, is comparable only to your [other] superhuman 1 deeds. 

Simile of partial likeness 

55. Here is come my lady friend whose face is like the 
full moon, eyes are like the petals of a blue lotus and the gait 
is like that of an elephant in rut. 

56. These briefly are the varieties of similes. Those not 
described here are to be gathered from [different] poetical works 

■ and from the popular speech (lit. the people). 
Condensed Expression 

57. When words agreeing with different [sets of] words are 
combined into one sentence by way of illuminating them together 
it is [an instance of] Condensed Expression (dijmka, lit. light) 1 . 

Example : 

58. In that region (lit. there) fuilness (lit. want of emptiness) 
was always effected 1 by swans in the lakes, by flowers in the trees, 
intoxicated bees in the lotuses and by friendly groups [of men and 
women] in the parks and the gardens. 


59. An image of slight likeness which is conceived due to 
indecision [from objects] characterised by similar limbs, is called 
Metaphor (/•ftjwfei)- 1 - 

Example : 

60. The pool of water and women, with their lotus-faces, 
Kumuda- smiles, beautiful and open Nilotpala-eyes and swans 
cackling around, seem to be talking to one another. 

54 (CM; B.XVI.50). ' Read atinmnusta for iti manusa. B. 

55 (C,55; B.XVJ.51). 56 (C.56; B.XVI52). 

57 (C.60; B.XVI.53). ' B. gives an additional def. (XV1.54). 

58 (0.61 ; B.XVI.55). l Tho plain meaning is that the lakes were 
full of swans, the. trees full of flowers, lotuses full of bees, and the.parks 
and gardens full of friendly groups of people. 

59 (C.58j B.XVI.56). ' (B.XVI.57) and (C.57) give a second 
def. which does not appear in all mss. 

• 60 (C.59; B.XVI.58). 



61. Repetition of words at the beginning of the feet and 
the other places constitute Yamaka (lit. twin). Listen to their 
characteristics which I am going to tell [you] 1 . 

Ten kinds of Yamaka 

62-64 Yamakas are of the ten kinds : Padanta Yamaka, 
Kafici Yamaka, Samudga Yamaka, Vikranta Yamaka, Cakravala 
Yamaka, and Sandasta Yamaka, Pfidadi Yamaka, Araredita 
Yamaka, Catur-vyavasita Yamaka and Mala Yamaka. 

Padanta Yamaka 

65. When similar syllables occur at the end of all the 
four feet they constitute Padanta Yamaka. 

Example : 

66. dina-ksayat samhrta-rasmi-mandalaiu 

diviva lagnam tapaniya-mandalam | 
vibhati tamram divi surya-mandalam 

yatha tarunyah stana-bhara-mandalam u 

At the decline of the day, the reddish (lit. copper-coloured) 
orb of the sun shorn of its cluster of rays, shining like a golden 
disc in the heavens, looks like a big round breast of a maiden.- 1 . 

Kafici Yamaka 

67. Two similar words occuring at the beginning and at the 
end of each foot constitute Kauci Yamaka. 

61 (C.62; B.XVI.59). ' For an old definition of Yamaka see 
Bhamaha, II. 17. 

62-64 (C.63-65; B.XVI.60-62). ' Bhamaha mentions a fivefold 
division of Yamaka See II. 9. He seems to have known the tenfold division 
of the NS-, and is of opinion that his fivefold division includes at least 
Sanda?ta and Samudga Yamakas. See II. 10. 


66 (C.67; B.XVI64). ' B. gives an additional def. (B.XVI.65). . 

67 (C.68: B.XVI.66). ' • 


* Example : 

68. yamayamas - candravatinam dravatinam 

vyakt£vyakti sara-janinam rajamnam I 
phulle phulle sa-bhramare va'bhramare va'rama vismayate ca smayate ca 1 II 

The length of hours (yama) of the moon-lit. nights, passing 
swiftly in the company of young women are scarcely perceived. 

Flowers having blown whether with or without bees, the fair 
lady looks at them admiringly, and the park smiles [with their 

Samudga Yamaka 

69- When the same hemistich by its repetition completes 
the verse it is [an instance of] Samudga Yamaka. 
Example : 

70. kotakl-kusuma-piindura-dantah 

&>bhate pravara-kiinana-hasti I 
sobhate pravara-kiinana-hasti II 
The very big wild elephant with its tusks as pale-white as 
Ketakl flowers, looks beautiful ; and the elephant-like large forest 
looks beautiful with Ketaki flowers as its pale-white tusks. 

Vikranta Yamaka 

71. When two alternate feet are similar, it is [an instance 
of] Vikranta Yamaka. 

72. sa purvam varano bhutva dvifraftga iva parvatah I 
abhavad danta-vaikalyad-vi^rnga iva parvatah II 

Formerly being an elephant comparable to a two-peaked 
mountain, [now] its two tusks being broken it has become like a 
mountain without any peak. 


69 (C.7.0; B.XVI.68). ' Road yama-yamus for yamam yamam{B) 
and maya muya (C). This Yamaka occurs in Bhamaha, II. 10^ and 
Dandin,IH.58-54. 70 (C.71; B.XVI.69). 

71(C.72;B.XVI.70). . 72(C.73iRXV1.71). 

■XVII. 77 ] DICTION Off A PLAY 313 

Cakravala Yamaka 

73. When the word at the end of a foot is similar to the 
word at the beginning of the next foot it is [an instance of] 
Cakravala Yamaka 1 . 

Example : 

74. sarais 1 tatha satrubhir ahata hata. 

hatfis ca bhuyas tv anupmnkhagaih khagaih I 
khagais ca sarvair yudhi saficitas citas 
citadhirudha nihatas talais talaih. II 
Thus they were killed after being struck by arrows of the 
enemies as well as by birds of prey flying closely behind such 
missiles ; the battle-field was swamped with such birds by which 
dead bodies placed on the funeral pyre were being pounced upon 
with their [sharp] talons. 2 

Sandasta Yamaka 

75. When the two words at the beginning of a foot are 
similar, it is [an instance of] Sandasta Yamaka. 1 

Example : 

76. pasya pasya me ramanasya gunan 

yena yena vas"agam karoti mam I 
yena yena hi mamaiti darsanam 
tena tena vasagam karoti mam II 
Look at the qualities of my lover, by which he makes me 
bow to him, and he charms me by those qualities with which he 
comes to my view. 

PadSdi Yamaka 

77- When the same word occurs at the beginning of each 
toot, it is [an instance of] Fadadi Yamaka. 

73 (C.74; B.XVI.72. l B. has an additional definition (B.XVI.73) of 
of Cakravala Yamaka. 

74 (C.75; B.XV1.74). ' Emend iailas to sarais. 
2 C. reads citfuthirlitlha hi hata hata narah. 

75 (C.76; B.XVI.75). ' This term occurs in BhSmaha, 11.10, a«d 
Dandin, 111.51-52. But the lattnr's def. is different. 

76 (C.77; B.XVI.76). 77 (C.77; B.XVI.77). 


Example : 

78. visnuh srjati bhutani visnuh samharate prajah I 

visnuh prasute trailokyam visnur lokadhi-daivatam II 

Visnu creates all living beings ; Visnu destroyes all creatures; 
Visnu creates (lit. gives birth to) the three worlds and Visnu is the 
over-lord of [all] the worlds. 

Jmredita Yamaka 
70. When the last words of a foot are reduplicated, it 
becomes [an instance of] Amredita Yamaka. 
Example : 

80. vijrmbhitam nihsvasitam muliur mulmh 

katham vidhcya-smaranam pade pade I 
yatha ca tc dhy.'inam idam punah punah 
dhruvara gata tain 1 rajani vina vina II 
[You had] deep repeated sighs, [yon] remembered [her] as 
you uttered her name frequently and thus as [you were] in cons- 
tant meditation [of her] your [sad] night passed without her. 2 

Catur-vayavasita Yamaka 

81. When all the feet consist of similar syllables it is [an 
instance of] Catur-vyavasita Yamaka. 

Example : 

82. varan anam ayara eva kalo viirananain ayam eva kalah | 
varananam ayam eva kalo vfi rananam ayam eva kalah II 

This is the time of the Varana [Hovver] ; this is the 
season when the elephants (Warn) are free from disease. This 
is the time [for] the enemies to come ; or this is the time for 
[going to] battle. 

Mala Yamaka 

83. When one consonant with different vowels occurs in 
various words it is [an instance of] Mala Yamaka. 

78 (C.78; B.XVI.78). 79 (C.79; B.XV1.79). 

80 (C.80; B.XVI.80). » Emend ie to tarn. 
* The trans, is not very literal . 
.81 (C.81; RXVI.81). 32 (C.82; B.XVI.82). 83 (C.83; B.XV1.83). 

-XVII. 88 ] DIClION OF A PLA¥ 516 

Example : 

84. hall bali hali mali suli kheli lali ja.ll I 
balo balocca-lol&kso musall tv abhiraksatu II 

Let the strong Balarama, the garlanded Balarama, who 
holds a a spike, is sportive, faltering [in gait] and is full of 
Sentiment, and Balarama who is high in strength and who 
has his eyes rolling and who holds a club, protect you. 

85. asau hi r&raa rati-vigraha-priya 

rahah-pragalbha ramanam raho-gatam I 
ratena ratrau ramayet parena vii 

no ced udesyaty ariinah puro ripuh II ' 
This beautiful woman who is fond of love's fight and is 
unashamed in it, will secretly please her lover at night with the 
best embrace, till the sun will rise in the east as her enemy. 

86. sa puskaraksah ksatajdksitaksah 

ksarat ksatebhyah ksatajam duriksam i 
ksatair gaviiksair iva samvrtangah 
saksat sahasraksa ivavabhati li 

The lotus-eyed one having his eyes bathed in blood, letting 
fall from his wounds awful blood and [having his body] covered 
with window-like wounds looked like the thousand-eyed god 
(lndra) in person. 

87. A play (lit poetical work) should be composed by 
[introducing] these | characteristic] marks after considering their 
objects and functions. I shall speak hereafter about faults (<losa) 
in such works. 

Ten faults 

88. Faults in a play (lit. poetical work) may be'of ten kinds 
such as, Circumlocution (ijufoartha), Superfluous Expression 
(atlhaiitam), Want of Significance (arthahjua), Defective Signi- 
ficance (bhinnarthn), Tautology (ekartha), Want of Synthesis 

84 (C.84: B.XVI.84). 85 (C.85; B.XVI.85). 

86 (C.86; B.XVI.86). 87 (C.87; B.XVI.87). 

88 (C.88j B.XVL88). 


(abhiplutavthi), Logical Defect (mjaijadi/prta), Metrical Defect 
visama), Hiatus (mmdhi) and Slang {kbdaeijnta) 1 . 

89. Mentioning [anything] by means of a [manufactured] 
synonym, is to cause Circumlocution {ijU4haHha, lit. hidden 
meaning) 1 

Superfluous Expression 
When anything not to be mentioned is described it is [a 
case of] Superfluous Expression (adhantara)* . 
Want of Significance 

90. An expression which is irrelevant 1 or which remains 
incomplete 3 is [an instance of] Want of Significance (arthahlna)*. 

Defective Significance 
Defective Significance {hhkmiihu, lit. broken meaning) 
includes an expression which is not refined, or is worthy of a rustic. 

91. When the intended sense is changed into another sense 
it is also called Defective Significance. 


92. Tautology (I'karllia), means [indiscriminating] use of 
[many] words for a single purpose 1 . 

1 For a discussion of the faults in NS. see S- K. Do, Skt. Poetics, 
II, pp. 19. 

89 (C.89j BXVI.89). ' An example of such a synonym is FJkadhika- 
nava-vinuma for Doaamiha, Cf. Bhiiinaha (1.37.) seems to be using 
gitt],haxa&:IMidhana in an identical sense. Sen 1. 45-46- S. K. I)e trans- 
lates this term as "use of difficult expressions" (Joe cit), 

a An example of such an expression is fiwi'it'Pi Wl ,5f "^ V*. 
'The beautiful lady's look injects (lit. spreads) indeed love as well as anxiety 
and insensibility. Here "anxiety and insensibility" arc superfluous, for 
love includes these two states of the mind (Ag.). 

90 (C.90; B.XVI.90). ' An example of such an expression is 
■*raifo «nfa (wfii) mmn xt") it g*Ji!iT wsg'tfa. To say that a mugdlm 
heroine can be sainara-calura (expert in love) as well, is incoherent. (Ag.). 

2 The example of suvaiexa is « win wmw^ wq«tn sqwr. 

* For mahatma bhiigyavdsid may be construed as mahiitma abhagya- 
va&ai and thereby its moaning may remain incomplete or undecided without 
a reference to the context. 91 (C.91; B.XVI.91). 

• >; 92 (C.92; B.XVI.92). ' An example of Tautology (ekaHha) i» 
kundendu-hara-hara-hasa-sitam. White like a Kuuda flower, the moon 


Want of Synthesis 
[When a sentence is] completed within [each] foot [of a verse] 
it [is an instance of] Want of Synthesis (abhiplutartha) 2 . 

Logical Defect 

93. Anything devoid of reasoning is an example of Logical 
Defect (nyayad-apeta) 1 -. 

Metrical Defect 
Lapse in the metrical structure is called Metrical Defect 
(vi&ama, lit. unevenness). 


94. When words [which should combine in Sandhi] are kept 
separate it is [an instance of J Hiatus (rimndhi). 

When a sound or accent is dropped it is an instance of slang 
(sabdacijida, lit. lapse in a word) 1 . 


95. These are tins faults of a poetical work properly des- 
cribed by me. Gunas (merit) are their negation and are characterised 
by sweetness and deptli of meaning 1 - 

The ten Gunas 

96. The ten Gunas are : Synthesis (slew, lit, union), Pers- 
picuity (i>ra*adii), Kmoothness (*t iiiata), Concentration (xamailhi), 

and the laughter of Siva. Any one simile would have been enough. 
Each simile here serves the same purpose and hence Tautology has 
occurred (Ag.). See Bhamaha, IV. 12. 

s Read samapyate (ms. na. in B.) for samasyate. An example of 
this is i *mr jftfii W. «c; $g?sitfHnn ' «$fa a T *m*t^t ^ nwfiwwur.. Here 
all the four feet contain four complete sentences which are not connected 
with one another by sense. 

93 (C93; B.XVI.93). ' nyayvad-apetam=dettakala-viruddham etc. 
(A;;.) 'defying the limitation of place and time'. Bhamaha's deia-kula- 
kala-lokanyayagaPM-virodhitu (lV.28ff ) seems to be included in this. 

94 (0.94; B.XV1.94). ' Such dropping occurred probably due to 
the Prakritic habit in speech. 

95 (0.95; B.XVI.95). l Vainana holds the opposite view (funa- 
viparyayatmimo dosahAL 1.1.) and according to him Gunas are positive 
entities (kava-sobfutyali kartaro dharmi, gunah, III, 1. 1). 

96 (0.96; B.XVI.96). A Bhamaha, HI. 1. 4., aud Dandia, '1.41-94., 


Sweetness (mUhwya), Grandeur (o/'as), Agreeableness (saaku- 

marya, lit. delicacy), Directness of Expression (artha-vyakti, lit 

expression of meaning), Exaltedness (udara, lit. deep) and 

Lovelines (frgjrfi). 


97. Union of words connected through meanings intended 
is called Synthesis (slesa) 1 . 


98. Where the unexpressed word or sense is comprehended 
through a use of easily understood words and sense, it is [an 
instance ofj Perspiciuty {[nimvhi) 1 . 


99. When a composition does not contain too many un- 
compounded words, redundant expressions and words difficult to 
understand it is [an instance of] Smoothness (xamatd) 1 . 


100. Possessing some special sense which the men of genius 
can find out in a composition (lit. here) is called Concentration 
(sama'IM) 1 . 

have ten Gunas and name them similarly But their descriptions are 
different. Of. De, Skt. Poetics, II. pp.l5ff. Nobel, Foundations, pp. 104ff. 

97 (C.97; B.XVI.97). 1 Cf. Vsimana, III. I. 11 ; Dandin I. 43-44. 
BC. Hive another description (C.98, B.XVI.98) of this Guna, which in 
translation is as follows : A [composition} which is, imbued with deep logic 
hut from its nature is [very] plain and is very well-knit-together is 
called Compact (slista). 

98 (C.99; B.XVI.99). l Cf. VSmana 111. 1. 8; Dandin L45. 

99 (C 100; B.XVI. 100). ' Cf. VSmana ffl. 1.12; Dandin 1-47-50. 
(B.XVI.101) and C. (100) gives an additional description of this Gun a 
which in translation is as follows : When alamkaras and gunas match 
and illuminate one another it is called [an instance of] Smoothness 

100 (C.p.212 f.n. 1. B.XVI.102). > Cf. Vamaua, III. 1.13; Dandin 
1.93-94. B.(XVI.103) and C (101) gives an additional description of 
samadhi, which in translation is as follows : Careful condensation of 
meanings suggested by and derived from similes, is called Concentration 



101. When a sentence heard or uttered many times does 
not tire or disgust [anyone], it [is an instance of] Sweetness 
(martharya) 1 . 


102. When a composition consists of a use of many and 
varied compound words exalted [in sense] and agreable [in sound], 
it is [an instance of] Grandeur (o/rts) 1 . 


103. When a composition consists of words easy to pronounce, 
euphonicaliy combined, and giving agreeable impression [even when 
treating some unpleasant topic], it is [an instance of J Agreeableness 
(sauhmavya) 1 . 

Directness of Expression 

104. It any subject (lit. action) relating to the [common] 
events occurring in the world gets expressed by means of well- 
known predicates, it becomes [an instance of] Direct Expression 
(artha-vijalcti) 1 . 


105. When in a composition superhuman characters are 

101 (C.102; RXVI.104). ' Cf. VSniana III. 1. 11-21; Dandin I. 

102 (C.p.212, f. n. 2; B.XVI.105). ' Cf. VSmana 111.1.5; Dandin 
1.80-85. B. (XVI.106) and C. (103) gives a second definition of this 
Guna which in translation is as follows : If a [composition otherwise] 
censured and deficient in quality reflects an exalted sense through 
its words and is rich in sound and sense it becomes [an instance of] 
Grandeur (ojah). Hemacandra utilised this definition (Ch. IV.) 

103 (C.104; B.XVI.107). ' Cf. Vfimana III. 1. 22; Dandin calls 
this sukumarata. 

104 (C.p.212. f. n. 3; B.XVI.108). '' C. suprasiddhadhntuna for 
suprasiddhabhidhana, (B.XVI.109) and C.(105). gives a second definition 
of this Guna, which in translation is as follows : When the meaning 
of a composition can be grasped by the penetrating mind just after 
its recital (lit. use) it is [an instance of] Directness of Expression 
(arthavyakti). 105 (C.p.2l2, f. n. 4; B.XVI.101). 


described in relation to the Erotic and the Marvellous Sentiments 
and the various States, it is [an instance ofj Exaltedness («&*«)*. 

106. That which [in a composition] while describing the 
sportive movement of [a character] delights the ear and the mind 
just as the moon [pleases us], is [an instance of] Loveliness (I'&at*) '• 

Alamkaras, and Guuas according to Sentiments 

107. These are the figures of speech, faults and Gunas 
[available in a poetical composition] ; I shall now describe their 
application in connexion with different Sentiments. 

Sounds and Figures of Speech according to Seutiments 

108. The poetical composition in connexion with the Heroic, 
the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments should consist mostly 
of light syllables and should include similes and metaphors. 

109-110. In the Odious and the Pathetic Sentiments it (the 
composition) should be similar except that it should consist mostly 
of heavy syllables. 

Metres according to Sentiments : in the Heroic and 
the Furious Sentiments 
Whenever any act of boldness is described (lit. occurs) in 
connexion with the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments, it (the com- 
position) should be in the Arya metre and should have metaphor 
and Condensed Expression in it. 

In the Erotic Sentiment 
In the Erotic Sentiment the composition should be in gentle 

1 Cf. Vamana, III. 1. 23; Daudin, I. 76-78. R(XVI. III.) and 
C(106) give along with this a definition of the Gima named udara. 
In translation it is as follows : When the composition includes witty 
and graceful words having many special senses which are marvellous, 
it is [an instance of] Exaltedness (udatta). 

106 (C.p.212 f. n. 5; B.XVI.112). ' Cf. Vamana, III. 1. 25; Dandin, 
I. 85-88. C (107), gives an additional definition of this Guna, which in 
translation is as follows ; When a composition gives delight to the ears 
as well as to the mind on account of its well-put-togeiher words, it is [an 
instance of] Loveliness (kanti). 

107 (C.108; B.XVL113). 108 vC.109; B.XVI.1M). 
109-110 (C.110-111; B.XVI.115-116). 


In the Heroic Sentiment 
111-112. In the Heroic Sentiment the poetical composition 
should have gradation [of sounds] and it should be in metres of the 

Jagati, Atijagatl and Bamkrti types. In the description of battles 
and tumults Utkrti has been prescribed by the experts. 

In the Pathetic Sentiment. 
Sakkari and Atidhrti would be the proper metres in the 
Pathetic Sentiment.. 

In the Heroic and the Furious Sentiments 

113. The metres prescribed for the Horoic Sentiment may 
be applied in the Furious Sentiment as well ; and as for metres in 
the rest of the cases (t. e. those not mentioned) they should be 
made suitable to the meaning intended. 

Vowel-length in different Sentiments and States 

114. In connexion with the drama the poets should use 1 
short, long and prolated (pluta) vowels for representing different 
Sentiments and States. 

115. In the intonation [in Eecitation] a vowel consisting of 
one Matra is short, of two Matras is long and of three Matras is 
prolated (pluta). 

Uses of the prolated vowel 

11<>. In remembering anything, in [expressing] indigna- 
tion 1 , in lamenting or in the reading of Brahmins the prolated 
(pluta) vowels occur. 

117. [Syllables concerned in these connexions] will be 'a' 
for remembering, 'u' for indignation, 'ha' for lamentation and 'om' 
for the reading of Brahmins. 

111-112 (0.112-113; B.XVI.117-118). 

113 (C.114; B.XVI.119). 

114 (C.115; B.XVI.122). l C. kavyam vijUyam for karyam 

115(C.U6; B XVI 123). 

116 (C.117-, B.XVI.124). * C. smile castrayute for smrte casuyiie. 

117 (C.ll8j B.XVL125). 

322 TfiE NATYASASTBA [ XVII. 118- 

118. Besides these, other syllables in a play (lit. poetical 
composition) should also be made short, long or prolated {pluta) 
according to the Sentiments and States [they are to'express]. 

119. The uneven and uneven metres which have been 
described before should also be used in composition with agreeable 
and soft sounds according to the meaning [intended] 1 . 

, 120. The playwright should make efforts to use in his 
composition sweet and agreeable words which can be recited by 
women. For, furnished with these (i.e. such words) a play will 
appear very much beautiful just as lotus-lake [will appear] adorned 
with swans. 

121. With harsh words such as cehifita 1 , delicate dramatic 
art does not appear beautiful just as a public woman does not 
appear well by the side of Brahmins who are clad in Ruru-skin, 
and are annointed with ghee and who carry the skin of black 
antelopes and have the Aksa-mala [in their hands]. 

122. A play abounding in agreeable sounds and senses, 
containing no obscure and difficult words, intelligible to country- 
people 1 having a [good] construction, fit to be interpreted with 
(lit. fit for) dances, developing Sentiments by many [characters] 2 
and having suitable Junctures (sandhi) and their [proper] unions, 
becomes fit for presentation to the spectators. 

Here ends chapter XVII of Bharata's NstyaSSstra 

which treats of the Characteristics of a good play in connexion 

with the Verbal Representation. 

118(C,119 ! B.XVI.126). 

119 (C.120; B.XV1120). ' B. reads 120a as yac chandah fiRrvam 
evoktam visamardhasame samam. B. sabdais tat karyam lu rasanugam 
for karyas te'rthavaianugah. 

120(C.121;BXVI.121). 'The word cekrifayalam occurs in the 
AvL (in.18) ascribed to BliSsa. (See A.D. PuBalker, Bhasa, Lahore, 
1940, p.131). 

121 (0.122; B.XVI.127). 

122 (C.123; B.XVL128). ' C. budhajanaiukhayogyam yuktiman. 
, ' B. bahttkrtamamrgam for bahurasakrtamargam, C. 



The Prakritie Recitation 

1. 1 Thus I have spoken in brief 2 of the Sanskritic Recitation. 
Now I shall speak of the characteristics of the Prakritie Recitation. 

2. The former (lit this) [when] changed and devoid of the 
quality of polish, is called the Prakritie Recitation, and it has as 
its chief feature changes due to different conditions. 1 

Three kindi of the Pkt, Recitation 

3. In connexion with the dramatic representation, it (the 
Pkt Recitation) is of three 1 kinds, viz, that with the same words 
[as in Sanskrit] (samana-iabda), that with corrupt (vibhrastti) words 
and that with words of indigenous origin (deii). 

4. A sentence contaning words like kamala, amala, renit,, 
tarahga, Ma, sa&tta and the like are used in the Prakrit composi- 
tion [in the same manner] as in Sanskrit. 1 

5. * Sounds which change their combined form or vowels 
or sustain loss and that often in the middle of a word* are 
corrupt (vibhragta).* 

1 (C.l, B.XVL1). » For an English translation (with the text and 
notes) of XVHL 1-24, seeM. Ghosh, "Date of the Bharata Natyasastra", 
JDL. Vol. XXV. (1933). For a French translation (together with tho 
romanised text) of this chapter see L Nitti-Dolci, Les Grammairiens 
Prakrits, 1938, pp. 64-V6. 

9 samasatah (C. dvi jolt amah). 

9 <C.2; B.XVII.8). ' Cf. Nitti-Dolci, p.70. 

3 (C.3; B.XVII.3). ' Later Prakrit Grammarian? called the above 
three classes of words tatsama, tadbhava and deii respectively. 

4 (C.4; B.XVH.4b-5a). ' B. reads one additional hemistich (4a) 
before this. Cf. Nitti-Dolci, p.20. 

5 (C.5; B.XVH6b-6a). » Cf. Nitti-Dolci, p.70. 

8 C; yanty apadadau prayas, B. for gacchanti padanyasta, C. 
' B. reads one additional couplet after 5. 


Vowels and simple consonants 

6. Sounds following e and o (ie. ai and au) and the Anu- 
svara [in the alphabet] do not occur in Prakrit And such is the 
case with sounds between va and sa (i.e. ia and sa) and the final 
sounds in the ha, ca and ta groups (i.e, m, ha, na). 1 

7. Ka, ga, ta, da, ya, and va are dropped [in Prakrit] and 
the meaning is carried by the [remaining] vowels, and hha, gha, 
tha, dlia and bha become ha without giving up the meaning of 
the word. 

8. In Prakrit ra does neither precede nor follow [a conso- 
nantal sound] except in cases of bhadra, vodra, hrada, candra 
and the like. 1 

9. Klia, gha, tha, dha and blia always become ha in words 
such as muhha, megha, hatha and vadhu prabhuta. 1 And as for 
lea, ga, ta, da, ya 2 and va, the vowel 8 following them always 
represents them. 

10. Sa it should be known, always become clia in words 
such as satpada. 1 The final syllable of kila should be ra and the 
the word hhalu should become him. 

6 (C. 6-8; B.XV11.7). " This together with three following couplets 
are written not in Skt. but in Prakrit. Hence they seem very much 
to be an interpolation. The first of these occurs as a quotation (with- 
out the author's name) in a late metrical work edited by M.H.D. 
Velankar (Annals of the Bhandarkar Inst. XIV. 1932-33, pp. 1-38, 
citation, Nitti-Dolei, p.71). 

7 (C.6-8; BXVII.8). 

8 (C.6-8; B.XVII.9). • Nitti-Dolci and B. reads padra for draha. 
See chaya and Ag. and also PSM. for the Pkt. words.Of. Nitti-Dolci, p.71. 

9 (C.6-8; B.XVU.10). ' Evidently hard aspirates in case of other 
words did not change. Ag's. example of sucli words are kheta, parigha, 
alia. This speaks of the high antiquity of the Pkt. of the NS. 

a The non-aspirate consonants mentioned here are to be understood 
as devoid of the inherent vowel V. 

' The word son ( =svaralf) hero means "vowel" and not "sound". 
Cf. Nitti-Dolei p.71. 

10 (£9; B.XVH.U). ' Ag. is silent about this satpadadi gana. 


11. Ta becomes <£a in words such as bhata, tot and tola, 
and sa and sa always become sa, e.g. visa {visa} and samha {tonka). 

12. In words such as itara and the like ta standing not in 
the beginning of a word becomes an indistinctly pronounced 
da. x X>a in words such as vad.a,va and tagaga becomes la. 

13. Tha in words such as satha, patha, pUhi and the like 
become dha, and na becomes na everywhere in pronunciation. 1 

14. Pa [in it] changing into va, apana becomes avana. And 
except in case of words like yatha and tatha tha becomes dha. 

15. One is to know parmi as pharusa, for pa becomes pha 
[in it], and mrga will be changed to mao while mrta will also 
be ma". 1 

10. An employed in words like ausadha etc. will change to 
o, and ca in words such as pracaya, acira and acala etc. will 
change into ya. 1 

17. Thus [change] the sounds in Prakrit when they are 
not mutually connected (i.e. they are simple). Now I shall describe 
the change of conjunct sounds. 

Conjunct consonants 

18. Sea, psa, tsa and thya change into (r)eha, hhya, hya 
and dhya into (;j)jha, sta into ttha, sta into tiha, sma into mha, 
ksna and xna into nha, and hsa into {h)kha. 

11 (O.10; B.VH.12). 

12(C.ll; B.XVII.13). ' This indistinctly pronounced da is perhaps 
a spirantiscd da. Ag. thinks that it is somewhat like a la. cvt€t $f ima 

13 (C.I 2; B.XVII.14 f.n.). l B. reads the first hemistich as follows : 
itilft ^ w^ v*m«iTsft sagwfa and C. too differently. Dha in ■vardhana 
{i.e. in combination with ra) changes into (iha. 

14 (C.12b-13a, B.XVII.15). 

15 (C.13b 14a B.XV1I.16). ' Tlie word maa (maya) from mrta 
as well as mrga had its spirantiscd da reduced to ya-sruti which how- 
over was not shown in writting during the early days of this phonetic 
change (Sec IHQ. VIII. 1933, suppl. p. 14-15). o 

16 (C.14b-15a; BXVII.17). l This ya-sruti for ca did not probably 
at once lead to its graphic elimination. . 

17 (C.15b-16a; B.XVII.18). . 18 (C.l6b-18a; B.XV1L19.) 

326 tHE NATtASASfBA [tVIlt.ld- 

19. 2icarya will be accliariya and niicaya niccJiaya, 
ntsaha ucchtiha and pathya, paccha. 1 

20. Tubhyam becomes tujjluim, mahyam majjham, vindhya 
vimjlia, dasta dattha and hasta hattha. 

21. Gh'Uma becomes gimha, Uakma sanlia, usna unha 1 ; 
jdkm jaJekha, paryanha pallamka. 

22. There is metathesis in the group Ima occurring in 
words such as brahman etc., and in brhaspati [the group spa] 
becomes pha, yajha becomes janm, bhlma bhimha. 

23. Ka and similar other letters (sound) while on the top 
of another letter (sound) will have to be disjointed in their 
pronunciation 1 . 

2i. Thus are to be learnt the pronunciation of Prakrit and 
Sanskrit. I shall discuss hereafter the classification of regional 
languages (desa-bhasa). 

25. The [languages] to be used in drama are of four types 
in which Recitation should be either of the refined (sanulcrta) or 
of the vulgar (praJcrta) kind. 

Four types of languages 
-6. The Super-human Language (atibhasn), the Noble 
Language (arya-bhasa) 1 the Common Language (j&ti-bhasa) and 
the Language of Other Animals (yonyantari blOsa)* are the [four] 
languages occurring in plays. 

19 (0.l8b-19ai B.XVII.20a-21a). ' B. reads one additional hemistich 
between 19a and 19b. 

20 (O.l9b-20a; B.XVlL21b-22a). 

31 (C.20b-21a; B.XVII.22b-23a). ' C. reads irsnah kanhah. 

22 (C.2lb-22 ai B.XVII.23b-24a). 

23 (C.22b-23a; B.XV124b-25a). T This probably relates to svara- 
bkakti (anaptyxis). Kilesa (klesd), radana (ratna) and duvara (dv'ara) 
may bo examples of this. 

24 (C.23b-24a; B.XVII.25b-26a). > Cf. Nitti-Dolei. p-73. 

25 (C.24b-25a; B.XVII.26b-27a). 

26 (C.25b-26a; B.XVlI.27b-28a). ' Some commentators think that 
aryabhasa means a language in which Vedic words preponderate (Ag.). 

s -C. reads jatyantari and yonyantari. 


The Superhuman and the Noble Languages 

27. The Super-human Language is for the gods, and the 
Noble language for the kings 1 . These have the quality of refine- 
ment 1 {mmshara) and are current over the seven great divisions* 

(ihfipa) of the world. 

The Common Language 

28. The Common Language prescribed for use [on the 
stage] has various forms 1 . It contains [many] words of Barbarian 
{mleccha) origin and is spoken in Bharata-varsa [only] 1 . 

The Animal Language 

29. The Language of Other Animals 1 have their origin in 
animals domestic or wild and in birds of various species, and it 
follows the Conventional Parctice {lialya-dharml). 

Two kinds of Recitaticn 

30. The Recitation in the Common language which relates 
to the four castes, is of two kinds, viz, vulgar (prakrta) and refined 

27 (C26b-27a; B.XVII.28b-29a). ' The alibhasa and aryabhasa 
arc possibly the dialects of the pure Indo- Aryan speech. It^hould be noted 
that "samskrta" (Sanskrit) as the naim of a language is absent here. 
Bhoja takes ait'-, arya- and fiUi- bhiisas respectively as irauta (Vedic), ansa 
(Puranic) and laukika (literary) speeches. See Sr. IV. pp,191ff. 

' Read samskaraguna for samshara-pathya (the ms. bha in B.). 

. 3 Read saptadvipa-pratiMita for samyahnyaya pratislhita (the ms. 
bha in B). 

28 (C.26b-27a; B.XVII.29b-30a). ' Read vividha-jatibhasa ; vividha 
(ca, da in B.) for dvividha. 

' The common speech or the speech of the commoners is distinguished 
hero from that of the priests and the nobility by describing it as con- 
taining words of Barbarian (mleccha) origin. These words seem to have 
been none other than vocables of the Dravidian and Austric languages. They 
entered Indo-Aryan pretty early in its history. See S. K. Chatterji, Origin 
and Development of the Bengali Language, Calcutta, 1926 pp. 42,178. 

29 (C.27b-29a ; B.XVII.30b-81a). l Neither the N& nor "any 
extant drama gives us any specimen of the conventional language of 
lower animals, which is to be used in the. stage. 

30 (C.2»b-29a; B.XYIL81b-32«.). 


Occasion for Skt. Recitation 

31. In case of the self-controlled {dlnra) Heroes of the 
vehement (uddliata), the light-hearted (lalUa), the exalted (udatta), 
and the calm (pi'«ioitf«) types, the Recitation should be in Sanskrit. 

Occasion for Pkt. Recitation 

32. Heroes of all these classes are to use Prakrit when the 
occasion demands that. 1 

33. l In case of even a superior preson intoxicated with the 
kingship (or wealth) or overwhelmed with poverty no Sanaskrit 
should be used. 2 

34. To persons in disguise 1 , Jain monks 8 , ascetics 3 , religious 
mendicants* and jugglars should be assigned the Prakrit Recitation. 

31 (C. 29b-30a; B.XVII.32b-33a). 

32 (C80b-31a; B.XVI1.33b-34a). ' As Arjuna disguised as Brhannala. 

33 (C.31b-32a; B.XVII.34b-35a). ' Wc follow C. tat. 

* No extant drama seems to furnish any illustration of this rule. 
B. reads one additional hemistich before this. 

34 (C.32b-33a; B.XVII.36). ' vynjalingapravistanam'V^iom in 
disguise of different kinds of professional and religious mendicanta etc.. 
See Kautilya's Arthasastra. An example of this is Indra in tho guise 
of a Brahmin speaking Pkt. in Karna. ascribed to Bhasa. Nitti-Dolci takes 
this expression as an adjective of kramananam etc.. But it need not be 
construed like this. This part of the rule seeim to relate to Skt 
speaking characters assuming disguise. Viradhagupta (Mudra II.) assuming 
the guise of a snake-charmer, is an example of such characters. And so 
arc Yaugandhariiyana and Rumauvan in the Pratiji>5, (III) ascribed to 

8 Sramana (Pkt. samana). The word is to be taken to mean here 
a Jain monk. CLJadivattham avanemi samanao homi, Avi. (V.) ascribed 
to Bhasa j tramana was sometimes used also in connexion with the 
Buddhists. See below 36. 

* tapasvin— It appears that the author of the MS. meant by this 
term ascetics in general. Though we find Brahmin ascetics in ancient 
literature, the institution of asceticism was most probably of non- Aryan 
origin. This seems to be justification of assigning Prakritic Recitation to 
all the ascetics irrespective of their sectarian affiliation. 

4 bhiksu-— religious mendicant in general. It should not be res- 
tricted to Buddhists alone. The alternative name of the Brshma-sutra 
is the Bhiksu-sQtra. 


35. Similarly Prakrit should be assigned to children, 
persons possessed of spirits of lower order, women in feminine 
character 2 persons of low birth, lunatics and phallus-worshippers 8 . 

Exception to the rule for Pkt. Recitation 

36. But to itinerant recluses 1 , sages 2 , Buddhists 8 , pure 
►Srotriyas* and others who have received instruction [in the Vedas] 
and wear costumes suitable to their position (liiigastha)* should 
be assigned Sanskritic Recitation. 

35 (C.33b-34a; B.XVII.37 f.n. 9). » R.'s reading in translation is 
as follows : Similarly Pkt. should be assigned to &iiva teachers, lunatics, 
children, persons possessed of spirits of lower order, women, persons 
of low birth and hermaphrodites (B.XVII.37). 

a In a queen's role a woman may sometimes speak Skt. See 38-39 
below. The parivrajika in the Malavi. speaks Skt. 

3 salihga.— This possibly means the member of a sect which like the 
Lingayets wears a phallus suspended from their neck. 

36 (C.34b-35a; B.XVII.38). ' parivraj—a person of the fourth 
mrama. A recluse belonging to the Vedic community. 

3 muni, — This word, probably of non-Indo-Aryan origin meant in 
all likelihood <! wise man." See NS. I. 23 note 1. In the ancient world, 
wisdom was usually associated with religious and spiritual elevation. This 
might have been the reason why the word was applied to persons like 
Vasistha and Narada. 

' sakya. — a follower of the Buddha. There is nothing very astonish- 
ing in Skt. being assigned to Buddhist monks. Buddhist teachers like 
Asvaghosa, Nagarjuna, Sryadova, Vasubandhu were almost all great 
Sanskritists, and the Mahayiina literature was written in Sanskrit of 
corrupt as well as of pure variety. This might have been the general 
linguistic condition before the schism arose among the Buddhists- In 
Asvaghosa's Sariputra-parakarana Buddha and -his disciples speak 
Sanskrit (Keith, Skt. Drama p.82). Asvaghosa assigns Skt to a sramana, 
as well (loc. cil). This sramana was possibly a Buddhist ; see 34 f.n". 

* coksesu (caifaem, C.) srolriyesu — for the pure srolriya or a 
learned Brahman. The adjective "pure" icoksa) used with srotriya is 
possibly to separate him from an apostate who might have entered Jain 
or any other heterodox fold and was at liberty to use Pkt. ^ 

5 sisjfih lihgasthali—i<s\\g\o\\% mendicants who have received 
instruction (in Vedas). 


87. Sanskrit Recitation is to be assigned to queens, cour- 
tezans 1 , female artistes to suit special times and situations in which 
they may speak. 

38-39. As matters relating to peace and war, the auspicious 
and inauspicious movements of planets and stars and cries of birds 
concern the well-being or distress of the king these are to be known 
by the queen, and for this reason she is to be assigned Sanskritic 
Recitation in connexion with these (lit. in that time) 1 . 

40. For the pleasure of all kinds of people, and in con- 
nexion with the practice of arts, the courtezans are to be assigned 
Sanskritic Recitation which can be easily managed. 

41. For learning the practice of arts and for amusing the 
king the female artiste has been prescribed to use Sanskrit in 
dramatic works 1 . 

42. The pure speech of the Apsarasas 1 is that which has 
been sanctioned by the tradition (i.e. Sanskrit), because of their asso- 
ciation with the gods ; the popular usage conforms to this [rule]. 

43. One may however at one's pleasure assign Prakritic Reci- 
tation to Apsarasas [while they move] on the earth. [But to the 
Apsarasas in the role of] wife of a mortal also [the same] should 
be assigned when an occasion (lit. reasons and need) will occur 1 . 

44. In the production of a play their [native] language 
should not be assigned to tribes such as, Barbaras, Kiratas, 
Andhras and Dramidas 1 . 

37 (C.35-36a; B.XVII.39). ' An example of this is VasantagenS 
speaking Skt (Mrech. IV.). 

38-39 (C.36b-38a; B.XVII.40-41). ' This rule cannot possibly be 
illustrated by any extant drama. 40 (C.38b-39a; B.XV1I.42). 

41 (C.39b-40a ; B.XVH43). l There is possibly no example of 
this in any extant drama, 

42 (C.40b-41aj B.XVII.44). ' No play with an Apsaras speaking 
Skt is available. All the Apsarasas in Vikram, speak Pkt 

43 (C.41b-42a; B.XVH.45). l Read manusimm (ca in B) for 
manusanam. JJrvasi is an example of an Apsaras who became the wife 
of a mortal. (Vikram). 

44(C.42b-43a;B.XVn.46). ' Seo N8. XXIII. 99 notes. 


4£. To pure tribes of these names, should be assigned 
dialects current in Saurasena, 

46. The producer of plays may however at their option use 

local dialects ; for plays may be written in different regions [for 

local production]. 

Seven major dialects 

47. The Seven [major] dialacts (bhasa) are as follows : 
Magadhi, Avanti [Avantija], Pracya, Sauraseni (Surasenl), 
Ardhamagadhi, Biihlika, Dakslnatya 1 . 

48. In the dramatic composition there are, besides, many 

less important dialects {vibhasa) 1 such as the speeches of the Sakara, 

Abhiras, Candalas, Sabaras, Dramidas 2 , Odras* and the lowly 

speech of the foresters 

Uses of major dialects 

49. [Of these] Magadhi is assigned to guards (lit. inmates) 
of the royal harem 1 , and Ardhamagadhi to menials, princes and 
leaders' of merchants' guilds 2 . 

45 (C.43b-44a; B.XVIL47). 46 (C.44b-45a; B.XVII.48). 

47 (C.45b-46a; B.XVI1.49). » Magadhi/ Sauraseni and Ardha- 
magadhi are well-known. But any old and authentic description of 
5vanti, Pracya, Biihlika and Daksinatya Pkt. seems to be non-existent. 
According to Prthvidliara a very late authority, Mycch. contains the 
specimens of Svanti and Pracya only. It is to be noted that the present list 
does not include Maharastri.. See M. Ghosh. ''Maharastri a late phase of 
Sauraseni", JDL. 

48 (C.46b-47a; B.XVU.50). ' By the word vibhasa Prthvidliara 
understands vididha bhasa hinapatra-jrrayojyatvad hinuh. See Pischel, 
Grammatik, §§ 3-5. No old and authentic specimen of the vibhasas has 
reached us. According to Prthvidhara the Mrcch. contains Sakari and 
Candali besides Dhakki which last the NS. does not know. 

' It is curious that after forbidding the use of languages like 
Dramida (Dramila) in 44 above, the author is including it among the 
dialects that can be allowed in dramatic works. One possible explanation 
of this anomaly may be that here we meet with a late interpolation, and 
passages from 48-61 belong to a later stratum of the text. 

' Read dravi4<4rajah for dramilandhrajah, B; draviiiodraja^, ^C. 
See 55 note 1. 

49 (C.47b~48a; B.XVH.51). ' For a list of such persons see DRJI.74. 
* According to Pischel this passage assigns AMg. to servants. 


50. Pracya is the language of the Jester 1 and the like ; 
and AvmUi is of the rogues (//Afirfff)"- The Heroines, and 
their fewde Mends are also to speak Snaweni when not in 
any difficulty. 

51. To soldiers, gamesters, police chief of the city and the 
like should be assigned Daksinatya 1 , and Bahliki is the native 
speech of the Khasas who belong to the north, 

Uses of minor dialects 

52. Siikari should be assigned to the Sakara and the Sakas 
and other groups of the same nature 1 , and Candali to the Pulkasas 
and the like. 2 

53. To charcoal-makers, hunters and those who earn their 

Rajputs (rajaputra) and leaders of merchants' gxa\&(.iresthi). See Gramma- 
tik § 17. Bat no extant drama seems to illustrate this rule. For 
Candanadiisa who is a srrsthl, does not speak AMg. (Mudrii, 1) while 
Indra in the disguise of a Brahmin speaks this dialect of l'kt. (Kariia. 
ascribed to Bhiisa). 

50 (C.48b-49; B.XVJI.52). ' According to Prthvidhara Vidusaka 
in the Mrcch. speaks Pracya the sole characteristic of which is abun- 
dance of pleonastic ka. See Pischel, Grammatik, Grammatik, § 22. 

2 0. yojy'a bharn for dhurtiinfim apij. According to Prthvidhara the 
the two policemen Viraka and Candanaka in the Mrcch. (VI.) speak 
Svanti. But according to the latter's own admission he was a Southerner 
and a man of Kalnata. No old and authentic description of this 
dialect is available, see Pischel, Grammatik § 26. 

51 (O.49b-50a: B.XVH.53). ' Oandanaka's language in Mrcch. in 
spite of Prthvidhara's testimony to the contrary may be taken as a 
specimen of Daksinatya. See 50 note 2 above. No old and authentic 
description of this dialect is available. Of. Pischel, Grammatik § 24. 

52 (C.50b-51a; B.XVII.54). ' iakaranum iakudimm for mkh- 
mghosakadinam (B.), and iabarariam iakndinam (C). According to 
Prthvidhara Sakara in Mrcch. speaks Sakiiri dialect. Of. Pischel, 
Grammatik, § 24. 

A Prthvidhara thinks that Candalas in Mrcch (V.) speak the 
Candali dialect. Cf. Pischel, Grammatik, § 25. 

•53 (C.51b-52a; B.XVII.55). ' B. iatura-itasa for iabam-bham. 
This dialect seems to have been the parent of the modern Sora language. 


livelihood by [collecting] wood and leaves should be assigned 
Sabari 1 as well as the speech of forest-dwellers. 

54. For those who live in places where elephants, horses, 
goats, sheep, camels or cows are kept [in large numbers] Sbhiri 1 
or Sabari 2 has been prescribed, and for forest-dwellers and the 
like, Dravidl 8 [is the language]. 

55. Odri is to be assigned to diggers of subterranean 
passages, prison-warders, grooms for horses 1 ; and Heroes and 
others like them while in difficulty are also to use Magadhi for 

Distinguishing features of various local dialects 

56. *To the regions [of India] that lie between the Ganges 
and the sea, should be applied a dialect abounding in e 2 

57. To the regions that lie between the Vindhyas and the 
sea should be assigned a language abounding in na 1 ( or ta). 

58. Eegions like Surastra and Avanti lying on the north of 
the Vetravati one should assign a language abounding ca 1 . 

4 See 54 note 3. 

54 (C.52b-54a; B.XVII.56). ' Xbhiri dialect is not available in 
any extant drama. 2 See 53 note 1. 

3 Dravidl dialect is not available in any extant drama. It is possible 
that it was not a pure Dravidian speech (See 44 above). Possibly a 
Middle Lido-Aryan dialect in which Dravidian phonetic and lexical 
iniluence predominated was meant by this. Its habitat was in all likeli- 
hood some region of North India. Of. Nitti-Dolici, p. 120-122. 

55 (C-54b-55a; B.XVII.57). ' Emend oijArt'kiirasaraksasam (tlAa 
in B) into o<\r\ kara&varaksatam (C. odrikanaali ca rafoatam and B. 
sandhikarasvarakmtam); for Odri Pkt. see 48 note 3. and Nitti-Dolci, 
PP. 120 f.n. 4 and i22. 

56 (C.55b-56a; B.XVII.59). ' B. again roads 44 after 55. 

8 This "a" is perhaps termination of the nominative singular the 
o-bases in AMg. 

57 (C.53; B.XVI1.60). ' This relates to a dialect of Pkt. which 
changes na always into -na. Though according to some grammarians 
Pkt is always to change na into i}a, it seems that such was not strictly 
the case with all its dialects. For example in the so-called Jain Pkt. 
(AMg. of Hemacandra) has initial « and intervocal ««. 

58 (C.56b-57a; B XVII.61). ; It seems that at the time of the 


59. To people who live in the Himalayas, Sindhu and 
Sauvlra a language abounding in u should he assigned. 1 

60. To those who live on the bank of the Carmanvati river 
and around the Arvuda mountain a language abounding in o 1 (or 
ta) should be assigned. 

61. These are the rules regarding the assignment of dialects 
in plays. Whatever has been omitted [here] should be gathered 
by the wise from the popular usage. 

Here ends Chapter XVIII of Bharata's Natyasastra 
which treats of the Rules regarding the Use of Languages. 

author of the passage iutervocal ca in this particular region was yet 
maintained or dental t sounds were mostly changed into c sound (as in 
ciHka for tisthd). 

59 (C.57b-58a; B.XVU.62). x This u perhaps relates to a close 
pronounciation of the o vowel. 

60 (C. omits this ; B.XVII.63). x This o perhaps relates to a open 
pronounciation of the u vowel. 

61 (C.53b-59; B.XVII.64). 



Different modes of address 

1-2. These are, O the best of Brahmins, the rules on the 
use of languages [in a drama]. Now listen about the rules of 
popular modes of address 1 or the manner in which persons of 
equal, superior or inferior status in a play are to be addressed by 
those of the superior, the medium or the inferior class. 2 
Modes of addressing males : addressing great sages 

3. As the great sages are adorable (lit. god) even to the 
gods they are to be addressed as "holy one" (lhagamn) 1 and their 
wives are also to be similarly addressed. 2 

Addressing gods, sectarian teachers and learned men 

4. Gods, 1 persons wearing sectarian teacher's dress 2 and 
persons observing varied vows 8 are to be addressed as "holy 
one" {bhagavan)* by men as well as women. 

1-2 (C.l-2, B.XVTI.65-66). 1 This manner of addressing different 
persons includes referring to them before their ownselves or before 
others e.g.. In Sak. (I), Dnsyanta is referred to by his charioteer as 
uyusman and then he is addressed in the same term ( Yathajnapayati 
aynsman. ayuman pasya paiyd). 

s Rules given hereafter do not cover all the numerous and different 
cases occurring in the cxant dramatic literature in Skt. and Pkt 

3 (C.3; B.XVII.67). » Ex. Kiisyapa (Kanva) addressed by his dis- 
ciple (Sak. IV.) Marica by Du§yanta (ibid. VII.) and Ravana in ascetic's 
disguise by Rama (Pratima. V). 

2 No ex. of this seems to be available in any extant drama. 

4 (C.4; BXVH.68). l Ex. : Agni (Abhi. VI). & Varuna {ibid. IV). 

2. Ex. (Ravana disguised as an ascetic addressed by Rama (Pratima. 
V.). The Jester in Pratijfia (III) addressing the Jain monk (sratnanaka) 
:<s bhaavam {bhagavan) to create laughter ; bhadanta would have been 
the proper term in this case. See below 15. 

8 Read here nanamratadhara (bha in B) for nanatruiadhara (B) 
and narmrutidhara (C). Ascetics belonging to minor heterodox sects 


Addressing the Brahmin 

5. The Brahmin is to be addressed as "noble one" (arya), 1 

Addressing the king 
And the king [is to be addressed as "great king" (maharaja).'* 

Addressing the teacher 
The teacher [is to be addressed] as "professor" (acari/a). 3 

Addressing an old man 
And an old man [is to be addressed] as "father" (t&ta).* 

Brahmins addressing the king 

6. Brahmins may address the kings at their pleasure, by 
their names. This should be tolerated, for the Brahmins are to 
be adored by the kings. 

Brahmins addressing ministers 

7. A minister is to be addressed by Brahmins as "Coun- 
cillor" (amatya) or "minister" (sariva), 1 and by other persons, 
inferior to them {i.e. Brahmins) he [is] always [to be addressed] 
as "sir" (arya)* 

Addressing the equals 
8- One is to accost one's equals by the name with which 
they are styled 1 . 

seem to have been included in this term. Ag. reads naruisruladharalt and 
explains this as bahmrutah. 

5 (C.5; B.XVII.69). ' Brahmin (Kesavadisa) in Madhyama. addressed 
by Bhima. 

2 Ex. Sumantra addressing PaSaratha ( Pratima, II), and Vibhlsana 
addressing Ravana (Abhisefca II ). 

' Ex. Canakya addressed by his disciple (Mudra, I). 

4 Ex, Bharata addressing Sumantra the old charioteer (Pratima, VI). 

6 (C6; B.XVII70). ' Ex. Indra disguised as a Brahmin addressing 
Karna (Karna.), Cf. Canakya addressing Candragupta mostly as Vrsala 

7 (C.7; B.XVH.71). » No example of this rule seems to be 
available in any extent drama. See note 2 below. 

3 Ex. The door-keeper (.pratikari) addressing Yaugandharayann 
( Pratijna, I.). But curiously enough Riiksasa has been addressed not 
as 'Arya' but as 'Amatya' (connciller) by the door-keeper, and by his 
friend Viradhagupta too he is addressed likewise (Mudra, EQ. 

. 8 (0.8; B.XVII.72). l Ex. Canakya addressing Raksasa and we 
versa (Mudra, VII.). 


Privileged inferiors addressing superiors 
A superior person may however be addressed (or referred 
to) 2 by name by inferior persons when the latter are privileged to 
do so 3 . 

Addressing employees, artisans and artists 

9. Men and women in one's employment 1 , and artisans 
and artists 2 are to be addressed as such ((. e. according to their 
status) 8 . 

Addressing persons of respect 

10. A respected person is to bo addressed as 'honoured sir' 
(bham), and a person of slightly less so as "comrade (marxdka 
or wiarsd). 1 

Addressing persons of equal status 
A person of equal status should be addressed as 'brother" 
(ro.ijafiya) 2 and a low person as 'hey man' (ham-ho) 3 

The charioteer addressing the chariot-rider 

11. The chariot-rider should always be addressed by the 
charioteer as "long-lived one" (aijusman) 1 . 

2 B. saparivhram, so also Ag. 

3 Ex. Hamsaka referring to Yaugandharayana before the latter. 
(Pratijna. I. 13.14). See above note 1. 

9 (C.9; B.XVII.73). ' Yaugandhariiyana addressing Salaka by name 
(Pratijiiil. I. 2. 4) and the hero Carndatta addressing the maid-servant 
UadanikS (Cam. I. 21.15). 

2 Ag. explains karuka and *ilpi as follows : <*nnsi: «p*fiWi: 
faf"itfin*Wi:, artisans are those that build stiipas and the like objects, 
artists arc painters and the like. 

3 Ex. The king addressing Haradatta one of the teachers of dramatic 
art (MSlavi. II. 12.4). 

10 (CIO; B.XV1I.74). ' Ex. pliriparivika addressing sTttradkara as 
bhava, and suira° addressing paripufivika as mitrsa (Abhi. 1. 1.6,8). Sakara 
once addressing vita as bhava and next time as malisa (marisa) in Cam. 
1.17.3; 26-3). The word marsaka does not seem to occur any extant drama 
while marisa occurs very often. See Uttara. (I. 4.7) and Malavi (1. 1. 3). 

2 Ex. Siddharthaka and Samiddhiirthaka addressing each other 
(Mudra. VI. 2. 14, 16). ^ 

3 Ex. Canakya's spy addressing his disciple as ham-ho bamhana, 
(Mudra. I. 18.4). 

11 (C.11; B.XVII.75). l Ex. Dusyanta's priest addressing the two 



Addressing an ascetic or a person with beatitude 
An ascetic or a person who has attained beatitude (praSawta) 
is to be addressed as "blessed one" (iSilho)'. 
Addressing princes 
12. The crown-prince is to be addressed as "sire" (soamin), 1 
and othar princes as "young master" (bhartr-daraka) 3 . 
Addressing inferior persons 
Inferior persons are to addressed as "pleasing one" 
(sanrmja)", "auspicious-looking one" (bhrulra-muhha)* and such 
terms should be preceded by '0' (/i«) 6 . 

disciples of Kasyapa (Kanva) and Gautami tapasvinah (Sak.V. 11. 6). 

3 The word sadhu as a form of address does not seem to occur in 
any extant drama. 

12 (C.12; B.XVII.76). ' No example of this rule seems to be 
available in any extant drama. On the other hand svamin is very often 
used in addressing a king. Ex. Yaugandhariiyana addressing the king 
Udayana (Svapna. VI. 17.1). Kauiijayana and Bhntika addressing the. king 
Kuntibhoja (Avi. 1. 5.3; 8.5). On the use of the word svamin in inscriptions 
see Sylvain Levi, Journal Asiatiqne, Ser. 9, XIX.95ff. I. Ant. Vol. 
XXXIII. p. 163. Sita's maid addresses Rama as bhalla (Pratima. 1. 9.2), 
The door-keeper (pratihari) refers to the crown-prince Rama as bhailida- 
raassa ramassa (Pratima. 1. 2.9). aud not as samiassa mrnassa, 

8 The word has been used with reference to the crown prince in 
Pratima. (loc. cit. I). In referring to other princes play-wi'iglits use the 
word kumiira. In Pratima. (III. 14.12) Bharata lias been addressed with 
this term. In Mudrii. (JV. 12.5) Malayaketu has been addressed similarly. 
Avimaraka, the lover of Kurangi is addressed as bhallidaraa by her maid 
(Avi. HI. 17 2). 

a This use of the term sautnya does not seem to occur in extant 
drama, and bhadra appears to have taken its place, e.g. Bharata addressing 
tho messenger (bhata) in Pratimii (1II.4.2I Dusyanta addresses his chief of 
the army (senapati) similarly (Salt. II. 5.4). 

4 Ex. Raksasa's spy {purmd) addressing his door-keeper (Mudra. 
IV. 8.2). In Abhi, (VI. 31.1) Agni (god of fire) addresses Rama as bhadra- 
mukka though earlier, (VI. 36.7) lie says : m me namaskuram kartum 
arhati deveiah. The Jester addresses tho carfilnlas as bho bhaddamuha 
(Mrceh. X. 23.3). 

* It does not seem to occur before these terms in any extant drama. 


Addressing persons by their occupation or birth 

13. In a play a person is to be addressed by a term appro- 
priate to his birth or to the vocation, art or learning practised 
by him. 1 

Addressing a son or a disciple 

14. A disciple or a son is to be addressed by the guru or 
the father as "child" (vatsa) L "son" (jmtraka)', ''father" (lata) 3 or 
by his own name or clan-narae (yotra)*. 

Addressing Buddhist and Jain Monks 

15. Buddhist and Jain (ninjrantha) monk- are to be 
addressed as "blessed sir" (hhadanta) 1 . 

Addressing persons of other sects 
Persons of other sects' are to addressed by terms enjoined 
by their own rules 3 . 

People addressing the king 
10. The king is to be addressed by his servants as well as 

13 (C.13; B.XV1I.77). ' Not many examples of this rule seem to 
be available in any extant drama. In Mrcch. (X. 20.1) Carudatta's son 
addressing the Candalas as are canijulu'vaay be an example of this. 

14 (C.14; B.XVH.78). ' Ex. Sauvlra king addressing Avimaraka 
(Avi. VI. 17.4). Cf. Drona addressing Duryodhaua (Paiica. 1.22.3). 

2 Ex.Thcform^«^ra£« does not seem to occur in any extant play. 
The from usually available form is putra. Drona addressing Duryodhana 
as putra (Paiica I. 23.3). Duryodhana addressing his son similarly 
(Dru. I. 42.3). 

8 No example of this seems to be available in any extant drama. 

4 Ex. Vali addressing Angada by name (Abhi. I • 25.2). Kasyapa 
(Kanva) addressing Sarngarava by name (Sak. IV. 16.1). Instances of a 
son or a disciple addressed by clan-name (gotra) do not seem to occur ia 
any oxtant drama. 

15 (C.15jB.XVH.79). » Ex. Ksapanaka addressed by Raksasa and 
Siddharthaka as bhadanta (Mudra IV. 18.2; V. 2.1). A Buddhist monk 
is very rarely met with in extant dramas. Asvaghosa's drama included 
such , a character, but' one cannot say from the fragments how he was 
addressed. (See Keith, Skt. Dr. p. 82) 

a According to Ag. one is to understand by 'other sects' Pasupatag 
and the like. 

3 An example of such a rule is a term like bhapusan or bha- 
sarvajfoa used in addressing Pasupata; teachers (Ag.). 

16 (C.16; B.XVH.80), 


his subjects as "lord" (deea), 1 , but when he is an overlord [of 
other kings] he is always [to be addressed] by his servants as "sire" 

Sagos addressing the king 
17-18. The king is to be addressed by sages (m) as "king" 
{rajan) 1 or by the patronymic term 2 . 

The Jester addressing the king 
And he should be addressed as "friend" {nujiwjn) 3 or "king' 
(rajan)*- by the Jester (wtesa&a). 

Jester addressing the queen and her maids 
The queen and her maids are to be addressed by him as 
"lady" (bhivati) 5 . 

The king addressing the Jester 

The Jester is to be addressed by the king by his name or as 
"friend" (vaijasya) 6 . 

1 Ex. The Kailcukin addressing the king (Mudiii- III. 10.3). 
Ganadasa addressing the king (Miilavi. I. 12. 8). Viblusana refers to 
Rama as deva (Abhi. VI. 20.3) when he is not yet a king ; besides 
this the same Viblusana addresses Havana as mahimja (Abhi. III. 15.1). 
See also 12 note 1. 

3 Ex. Yamnika addressing the king Dusyanta (Sak. VI. 24.10). But 
in Bala. (III. 3.1) the cowherds address Saiikarasana as ihatta, and Nauda- 
gopa too addresses Vasudeva likewise (Bala. 1. 19. 30). 

17-18 (0. 17-18; B. XVII. 81-82). ' Ex. Bhagavan (Yudhisthira) 
addressing the king Virata (l'aiica. II. 14.2). 

8 No ex. of this seems to occur in extant dramas. Narada addresses 
the two kings simply as Kuntibhoja and Sauviraraja in Avi (VI. 20. 8, 12). 

8 Ex Tho Jester in Sak. (II. 2.1) and Malavi. (V. 3.18). 

4 No example of this seems to occur in any extant drama. In 
Ratna (I. 16.35) the Jester ouce addresses the king as bhaUa. 

6 Bhavati in the Jester's speech would be bhodi. Ex. Tho Jester 
addressing the queen's maid in Svapna. (IV. 0.28) also addressing the 
queen (Malavi, IV. 4.23.) and addressing the queen's maid Snsamgatii 
(Ratnii. IV. 0.30). 

6 Examples are easily available. See Svapna, Sak. Vikram. etc 
The Jester is addressed also as sakhe. See Malavi. (IV. 1. 1 and Vikram 
II. 18.11. etc.) and as bhadra (Vikram. II. 18.15). 


Women addressing their husband 

19. By all wumen in their youth the husband should be 
addressed as a "noble one's son" (arya-pntra) 1 , but in other cases, 
the husband is to be addressed simply as "noble one" (arya)*, and 
in case of his being a king he may be addressed as "great king" 
(mahar&ja) 3 also. 

Addressing the elder and the younger brothers 

20. The elder brother should be addressed as "noble one" 
(arya) 1 and the younger brother like one's son 2 . 

These are the modes of adi'ress to be used to male characters 
in a play. 

Modes of addressing women 

21. I shall now speak of the modes of address to be used 
to female characters in a play. 

Addressing female ascetics and goddesses 

Female ascetics and goddesses arc to be addressed as "holy 
lady" (bhagavati) 1 . 

Addrcsiing wives of senior persons, and elderly ladies 

2-2. Wives of respectable seniors, and other elderly ladies 
(»thanlya) are to be addressed as 'lady'' (blmcati) 1 . 

19 (C.19; B.XV1I83)- ' Examples are easily procurable; sec Sak, 
Malavi, Svapna etc. 

2 Ex. Nati in the prologue {prastavana) addressing the sutradhara 
her husband (Cam. and Mudra). 

8 Ex. Giindharl addressing Dlutara§tra (Uru. I. 38.2). Urvasi refers 
to the king likewise (Vikram. IV. 39.2). 

20 (C.20; B.XV1I. 84a 85a). ' Ex. Laksmana addressing Rama 
(Pratima. I. 21.2). Sahadeva addressiug Blrima (Veni. 1.19.12). 

? Usual from in such a case is vatsa; but the younger brother is 
also sometimes differently addressed, e.g. by name of the mother as 
Saumitre, (Pratima. I. 81.1), Kaikeylmatah, {ibid. IV. 2.21). Sec above 
14 and 4. 

21(0.21; B.XVIL85a-86a). 'The king addressing the privfajika 
(Malavi. 1. 14.2 ) ; the Kaficukiu addressiug the female ascetic (tapast) in 
Vikrani. (V. 9.2). ^ 

22. (C. 22; B. XVII 86b-87a). ' Ex. Sumantra addressing the 
widowed wives of Dasaratha as bhauatyaii (Pratima. III. 12.2 ). The 
Kaiicukiu addressing the Pratihari in Svapna. (VI. 0.6). 


Addressing an accessible women and an old lady 
An accessible woman (gami/a)* is to be addressed as "gentle- 
woman" (bhadre)* and an old lady as "mother" (amba)*. 
Addressing king's wives 

23. In a play king's wives are to be addressed by their 
servants and attendants as "mistress" (bhaUin)i, "madam'' 
(iwamini) 1 and "lady" (dcvi)*. 

24. [Of these], the term "lady" {dm) 1 should be applied to 
the chief queen (roaftwl) by her servants as well as by the king. 
Tho remaining [wives of the king] are to bo addressed [simply] as 
."mistress" (bhallini) and "madam" (nvamini) 3 . 

Addressing unmarried princesses 

25. Unmarried princesses are to be addressed by their 
handmaids as "young mistress" (hhartr-daril-aj 1 : 

" gamya— not within the prohibited degree of soma! relationship. 

8 Ex. Avimaraka addressing Kuratigika (Avi. III. 19.0)- Busyanta 
addressing Priyamvada (Mak. I. 22.6). But tho king addresses Citralekha as 
bhadramuhki (Vikram. II. 15.9) as well as bhadre (ibid. III. 15.0). 

4 Ex. The king, tftvaS and their son addressing the female ascetic. 
(Vikram. V. 12.3,5,18). 

23 (C. 23; B. XVII. 87b-88a). > Ex. (i) bhat{ini. Nipunika address- 
ing the queen (Vikram II. 1919); Kiiiicanamala addressing the queen 
(Ratna I. 18.11). But in Pratimii (I. 5,4) the maid {cetjD addresses Sita 
who is not yet a queen, as bhallini. (ii) Soamini as a term of address to 
the queen docs not seem to occur in any extant drama. 

* Bx. The maid (ceti) addressing the queen Bhanumati (Veni. 
II. 2.14). 

24 (C.24j"B. XVII. 88b-89a). l See above 23 note 2. For an example 
of king addressing the queen as devisee Pratijna. II. 10.12. 

4 The term bhogini meant those who were merely an object of enjoy- 
ment i.e. those who were not dharmarpatnis (wives elligible to take part 
in religeous rites . 

8 No. oxample of svamini being used in addressing such a wife 
seems to occur in any extant drama. In Malavi. IV. 17.8 Nipunika 
addressing Iravati the second wife of Agnimitra uses the term bhaitini 
the very term to be used rightly for the chief queen Dharini. 

25 (C.25; B. XVn. 89b-90a). ' Ex. The maid- (celi) addressing 
Padmavati (Svapna. 1. 15.11) and Kurangi (Avi. HI. 0.45). 


Addressing a sister 
An elder sister is to be addressed as "sister" (bhagini) 2 and 
an younger sister as 'child" (vatse) 9 . 

Addressing a Brahmin lady, a nun or a female ascetic 

26. A Brahmin lady, a nun (lihgastha) or a female ascetic 
(vratim) is to be addressed as "noble lady" {arye) 1 . 

Addressing one's wife 
A wife is to be addressed as "noble lady" (arye)* or by 
referring to her father's 8 or son's 4 name. 

Women addressing their equals 

27. Women friends among their equals are to be accosted 
by one another with the word "hallo" (hcda) 1 . 

Addressing a handmaid 
By a superior woman a handmaid {i>rexya) is to be accosted 
with the word "hey child" (ham-je) 2 . 

Addressing a courtezan 

28. 1 A courtezan is to be addressed by her attcndents as 
Ajjuka 8 , and when she is an old woman she is to be addressed by 
other charactors in a play as Atta 3 . 

3 This mode of address does not seem to occur in any extant drama. 
cf. Karp. I. p. 18. 

3 Ex. Yaugandharayaaa in the role of au elder brother addresses 
the queen who is playing the rolo of his younger sister as vatse 
(Pratij a. I. 9.11). C. om. 25a. 

26 (C. 25b-26a; B. XVII. 90b-91a). ' No ex. of this rule seems to 
be available in any extant drama. Parivrajika in Malavi (1) and the 
female ascetic in Vikram. (V) could have been addresses as arye instead of 
as bhagmiaii. In Madhyama. Ghatokaca addresses the wife of the Brahmin 
as bhavati. 

" Ex. Suiradk'tra addressing his wife ( Mrcch. I Malati. I) 

3 e.g. Matharaputri (Mathara's daughter). No example seems to 

occur in any extant drama. 

1 e.g. Somasarma-janani (Somasarman's mother). No example seems 

to occur in any extant drama. 

27 (C. 26b-27a; B. XVII. 91b-92a). l For ex. see Sak. Vikram. etc. 

* Ex. Sita addressing her maid'(Pratimii. I. 4.21), IravatI addressing 
Nipunika (Malavi. III. 14.1). 

28 (C. 27b-28a; P. XVII. 92b-93a). " ' Read the hemistich 28a as 


Addressing wife in love-making 

29. In love-making the wife may be accosted as "my dear" 
(/Jtti/w) 1 by all except the king. But priests' and merchants' wives 
are always to be addressed as "noble lady" (ary)*. 

Giving names to different characters in a play 

30. The playwrights should always assign significant names 
[to characters] which are not well-known and which have been 
created [by them] 1 . 

Name of Brahmins and K$atriyas 

31. Of these, Brahmins and Kaatriyas in a play should, 
be given, according to their clan or profession, names ending in 
sarman or varrnan 1 . 

Naming marehants 

32. The names of merchants 1 should and in <htla?. 

Naming warriors 
To warriors should be given names indicating much valour. 8 

2 Ex. the heterao (ganika) addressed by her maid (Caru- II. 0.6). 
The word ajjuka ("aryakii, OlA) "madam" afterwards came to mean 
'heterae' as in the title of the Prahasana Bhagavadajjukiyam by 
Baudhiiyana Kavi 

* No example of this soems to be available in any extant drama. 
But the word occurs in tho form of aitih in Micch. (IV..10). 

29 (C.28b-59a, B. XVII. 93b 94a). ' Sakuntala is addressed as j>riyc 
by Dusyanta (Sak. VII. 20.6), but the occasion is strictly not one of love- 
making (irhgara) ; Udayana while lamenting for Viisavadatta says Htt 
j>riye, ha priya-iisyc etc. (Svapna. 1. 12.53). 

' No example seems to be available in any extant drama. 

30. (C.29b-30a: B.XVII. 94b-95a). l No example of such names 
seems to occur in any extant drama. 

31 (C.30b-31a; B.XVII. 25b-96a). ' No example of such names 
seems to occur in any extant drama. 

32 (C.31b-32a; B.XVII. 96b, 97b). '. Ex. Carudatta the hero 'of 
Bhasa's play of the same name. 

2 B. reads after this one additional hemistich which in translation is 
as follows: The name of Kapalikas should end in ghatfta. The inter- 
polator had evidently Bhavabhnti's Aghoraghanta (Malati) in mind. 

8 Ex. Virasena in Malavi. (1.8.1). 


Naming king's wives 

33. The king's wives should be given names [which are 
connected] with the idea of victory (yijaya) 1 . 

Naming courtezans 
Names of courtezans should end in datta?, mitm* and 

SSMO 4 . 

Naming hand-maids 

34. In a play hand-maids should be given the names of 
various flowers 1 . 

Naming menials 

Names of menials should hear the meaning of auspiciousness*. 
Naming superior persons 

35. To superior persons should be given names of deep 
significance so that their deeds may be in harmony with such 
names 1 . 

Naming other persons 
3G. The rest of persons 1 should be given names suitable to 
to their birth and profession. 

Names [that are to be given] to men and women [in a play] 
have been properly described [by me]. 

37a. Names in a play should always be made in this 
manner by the playwright. 

33 (0. 32b-33; B.XVII. 98). ' No example of this seems to occur 
in any extant drama. 

- No example seems to occur in any old drama. And the name 
Vasavadattii for the queen in several dramas seems to he a clear violation 
of the rulo (See Svapna. Ratna. etc.). 

3 No example seems to occur in any old drama. 

4 Ex. Vasantasena in Bhasa's Cam. and Sudraka's Mrcch. 

34 (C.33b-34a; B.XVII. 99). ' Nalinika in Avi. (II) and Padmiuika 
in Svapna (V) seems to be rare examples of this. 

3 Ex. Jayasena the servant (bhata) of the king (Avi. I). 

35 (C34b-35a; B.XVII 100). ' No example seems to occur in any 
extant play. *» 

36 (C.35h-36a; B.XVJI. 101). ' E.g. Brahmacari (Svapna. I), Vila 
(Cam.) Devakulika, and Sudhakura (Pratima. IV.) etc. 

37a (C. 36b; B. XVII 102a). 


37-38. After knowing exhaustively everything about the 
rules of language 1 in a drama, one shonld practise Recitation which 
is to have six Alamkaras. 

Qualities of Recitation 

2 I shall now describe the qualities of Recitation. In it 
there are seven notes (svara), three voice registers (sthana), four 
Varnas (lit, manner of uttering notes), two ways of intonation 
(kaku), six Alamkaras and six limbs (anya). I shall now explain 
their characteristics. 

The seven notes (swra) are : Sadja, Rsabha, Gandhara, 
Madhyama, Paficama, Dhaivata and Nisiida. These are to be made 
suitable to different Sentiments. 

Seven notes to suit differment Sentiments 

38-40. In the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments the notes 
should be made Madhyama and Paficama. Similarly in the Heroic, 
the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments they should be made 
Sadja, and Rsabha. In the Pathetic Sentiment the notes should 
be Gandhara and Nisada, and in the Odious and the Terrible 
Sentiments they should be Dhaivata. 

Uses of the three voice registers 

There are three voice registers (sth&iut) ; the breast (nnix) 
the throat (kantha) and the head (i'u-asi). 

4041. Tn the human body as well as in the Vina notes 
and their pitches proceed from the three registers : the breast' the 
throat and the head. 

41-42. In calling one who is at a distance, notes proceeding 
from the head register should be used, but for calling one who is 
not at a great distance, notes from the throat register is to be used, 
while for a person who is by one's side, notes from the breast [will 
be proper]. 

37-38 (C. and prose 37a ; B.XVH. 102b. 103a). ' It will be apparent 
from the notes given above that the rules regarding forms of address have 
very often been overlooked in extant dramas. 

2 The text from here till the beginning of 38-40 is in prose. 

38-40 (0.38-39; B.XVII. 103b, 104-105a). 

40-41 (C.40. 41a ; B.XVII. 105b-106). 
■ 41-42 (C.41b-42a ; B.XV1I.107). 


42-43. At the time of Recitation, a sentence begun with 
notes from the breast should be raised to notes of the head register 
and at its close it should be brought down to notes of the throat. 

Uses of the four accents 

43. In Recitation the four accents will be : acute (iiddtta) 
grave (auudatta), circumflex (svarlt,i) and quivering (kampita). 

1 Recitation in circumflex and acute accents is suitable to the 
Comic and the Erotic Sentiments, acute and quivering accent is 
suitable to the Heroic, the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments, 
while grave, circumflex and quivering accents are appropriate to 
the Pathetic, the Odious and the Terrible Sentiments. 

Two ways of intonation 
There are two ways of intonation, e.g. one entailing expacta- 
tion (*al<cl,hk&a) and another entailing no expectation (nirakahktu). 
These relate to the sentence uttered. 

44. A sentence which has not completely expressed its [in- 
tended] meaning, is said to be entailing an expectation (mkahlcsa) 
and a sentence which has completely expressed such a sense, is said 
to be entailing no expectation (uirakankta). 

x Now, entailing an expectation relates to [the utterance of a 
sentence] of which the meaning has not been completely expressed 
and which has notes from the throat and the breast, and begins with 
a high pitch (tara) and ends in a low pitch (maiuira) and has 
not completed its Varna or Alamkara. 

And, entailing no expectation relates to [the utterance of a 
sentence] the meaning of which has not been completely expressed 
and which has notes from the head and begins with a low pitch 
(mandra) and ends with a high pitch (t&ra) and has completed its 
Varna and Alamkara. 

42-43 (C42b-43a; B.XVH.408). 

43 (C. 43b, 43c ; B. XVII. 109-110). » The text from here till the 
beginning of 44 is in prose. 

44 (C. 44; B. XVII. HI). J The text from here till the beginning 
of 45 is in prose. 

348 THE NATYASASTttA [ XIX. 45. 

The six Alamkaras 
45. The six Alamkaras of the [note in] Recitation are that it 
may be high (ucca), excited (<Upta), grave (mandra), low (nica), fast 
(dnda), and slow (mlambita). Now listen about their characteristics. 
Uses of the six Alamkaras 
1 The high (ucca) note proceeds from the head register and 
is of high pitch (tcira) ; it is to be used in speaking to anyone 
at a distance, in rejoinder, confusion, in calling anyone from a 
distance, in terrifying anyone, in affliction and the like. 

The excited (dlyta) note proceeds from the head register 
and is of extra high pitch (tamtam) ; it is to be used in reproach, 
quarrel, discussion, indignation, abusive speech, defiance, anger, 
valour, pride, sharp and harsh words, rebuke, lamentation 2 
and the like. 

The grave (mandra) note proceed from the breast register 
and is to be used in despondency, weekness, anxiety, impatience, 
low-spiritedness, sickness, deep wound from weapons, fainting, 
intoxication, communicating secret words 4 and the like. 

The low (»jm.) note proceeds from the breast register but has 
a very low pitch (numdra-tara) sound ; it is to be used in natural 
speaking, sickness 5 , weariness due to austerities and walking a 
distance, panic, falling down, fainting and the like. 

The fast (dnda) note proceeds from the throat register and 
is swift ; it is to be used in women's soothing children (lalhua) 
refusal of lover's overture (manmana)', fear, cold, fever, panic 7 , 
agitation, secret emergent (atijaijika), act. pain and the like. 

45 (C.45; B.XVII. 112-114). ' the text from hove till the begiiung 
of 46 is in prose. 

i. Com. "krandita", "nirbhartsana? 

3 B. inserts kritja after vyadhi. 

4 C. om. guhyuranthavacana. 

G After vyadhi read tapa-pathesranta-trasla. 

6 0. skhalita- vellana-madana for lallana-manmana. On the meau- 
iug of lalla (lallana) and manmana there is no unanimity. Wo follow 
Ag's upidhyaya, who says wn<ft iift^wai iraM?si-spi|in& gw 
mwtfiriftT'iiFtwwrel * (Ag) 

' After trus (trasta.C.) ieaAyasimtyayika(giulha)karyavedanadi)iu- 


The slow (vilambita) note preeeetls from the throat register 
and is of slightly low pitch (mandra) 8 ; it is to boused in love , 
deliberation, discrimination, jealous anger, envy, saying something 
which cannot be expressed adequately, bashfulness, anxiety, 
threatening, surprise, censuring, prolonged sickness Xo , squeezing 
and the like. [On this subject] there are the following traditional 
couplets : 

46-48. To suit various Sentiments the intonation (bakii) 
should always be made high (aeca), excited (dljda), and fast (drata) 
in a rejoinder, confusion, harsh reproach, representing sharp- 
ness and roughness, agitation, weeping, challenging one who is not 
present (lit. away from the view) threatening and terrifying 
[anyone], calling one who is at a distance, and rebuking [anyone]. 

49-50. Intonation should be made grave (mandra) and low 
(it'tai) in sickness, fever, grief, hunger, thirst, observation of a lessor 
vow (nli/ama), deliberation, deep wound from a weapon, communi- 
cating confidential words, anxiety and state of austerities. 

51. Intonation should be made grave (mandril) and fast 
(drula) in women's soothing children (I alia)}, refusal to love's 
overture (maiimiana) 3 , panic and attack of cold. 

52-55. The intonation should be made slow (rihvmhila), 
excited (dqda) and of low pitch (mandra) in following an object 
lost after being seen, hearing anything untoward about a, desired 
object or person, communicating something desired, mental deli- 
beration, lunacy, envy, censure, saying something which cannot be 
adequately expressed [by words], telling stories, rejoinder, confusion, 
an action involving excess, wounded 1 and diseased limb, misery, 
grief, surprise jealous anger, joy and lamentation. 

8 C. mandra for tanumandra. B B. reads karuna after srhgara. 

1 ° C. reads rosa for roga. 

46-48 (C.46-48; B.XVII. 115-117). 

49-50 (0 om. B.XVIL 118-119). ^ 

51 (C.49j B. XVII. 12D). ' 0. malic ca mardane for lalle ca 
manmane.- '' See note 1- 

51-55(0. 50; 51a-53a, 51b, 53b, B.XVIL 121-124). ' Read viksate 
vyudhite tvahge. 


56. Grave (mandra) and slow (vikmbtta) intonations have 
been prescribed for words containing pleasant sense and bringing 
in happiness 1 . 

57. Exited (dipta) and high (iicca) intonations have been 
prescribed for words which express sharpness and roughness. 
Thus the Recitation should be made to have to different intonations 
(lit. shelter) by the producers 1 . 

Intonation in different Sentiments 

58-50. Slow intonation is desired in the Comic, the Erotic, 
and the Pathetic Sentiments. In the Heroic, the Furious and the 
Marvellous Sentiments the excited intonation is praised. Fast and 
low intonations have been prescribed in the Terrible and the Odious 
Sentiments. Thus the intonation should he made to follow the 
States (bhava) and the Sentiments. 

Six limbs of enunciation 

'Now there are six limbs [of enunciation] such as Separation 
(viccheda), Presentation {arpana), Closure (visarga), Continuity 
(iituibaiullw), Brilliance (dipana) and Calming (pra'samana). 

Of these, Separation {ebxhtda) is due to pause [viramn). 
Presentation (".i'/mm) means reciting something by filling up 
the auditorium with graceful modulation of voice 2 . Closure 
(oisarya) means the finishing of a sentence. Continuity (anubandha) 
means the absence of separation between words 8 [in a sense group] 
or not taking breath while uttering them. Brilliance (dipana) 
means the gradually augmented notes which proceed from the three 
voice registers (stham), and Calming (pnmmana) means lowering 
the notes of high pitch {tara) without making them discordant. 

Now about their uses in connexion with different Sentiments. 

56 (C.54; B.XV1I.126). ' B. reads one additional couplet before this. 

57 (C.55; B.XVn.127). l C. reads three additional hemistiehcB 
after this. 

58-59. (C.57b, 58; B.XVII. 128-131). ' The text from here till the 
beginning of 60 is in prose. 

2 B. lilayamanamadkuravalguna for lilavarna. 
' B. padantaresu viuhedah for "afesvavicehedah. 


In the Comic and the Erotic Sentiments 4 the enunciation" 
should include Presentation, Separation Brilliancce and Calming. 

In the Pathetic Sentiment it should include Brilliance and 

In the Heroic the Furious and the Marvellous Sentiments it 
should abound in Separation, Calming, Brilliance and Continuity. 

In the Odious and the Terrible Sentiments it should include 
Closure and Seperation. 

All these are to be applied through notes of high (tara), low 
(mandra,) and medium (madhya) pitch proceeding [from the three 
voice registers]. In addressing one at distance the notes should 
be made of high pitch (tara) from the head ; the person addressed 
being not at a great distance the notes should be made of 
medium pitch (madhya) from the throat, and to speak to one at 
one's side notes should be made of low pitch (mandni) from the 
breast. But one should not proceed to the high pitch (tara) 
from the low (mandra) one, and from the low pitch to the 
high one. The three kinds of tempo (laya) of these' notos are 
to be utilised in diflerent Sentiments. In the Comic and Erotic 
Sentiments the tempo should be medium, in the Pathetic it 
should be slow and in the Heroic, the Furious, the Marvellous, the 
Odious and Terrible Sentiments quick. 
Pause defined 

6 Now, Pause (drama) in connexion with enunciation is due 
to the completion of sense and is to depend on the situation 
(lit. practical), and not on metre. Why ? Because it is found in 
practice that there occurs pause even after one, two three or four 
syllables, e.g. 

60. kim gaccha ma visa sudurjana varito'si I 

karyam tvaya nama ma sarva-jan6pabhukta l II 
What [is the matter] ? Be off. Don't enter. You are prohibited 

* B. adds akahhayam after hasya-grhgarayor. 
6 C. vakyam for pathyam. 

* The text here is in prose. 

60 (C. 59; B.XVII. 132). ' B. ihuktam C. ihukta/t. 


[to enter], very wicked man, the enjoyed-by-all, I have nothing 
to do with you*. 

Use of Pause 
Thus in a play (lit. poetical composition) occur words con- 
taining small number of syllables in cases of Siica* and Ankara* 
[which are connected with Pause]. 

Hence, care should be taken about Pause. Why ? Because 
[an observation of] Pause clears the meaning. There is a couplet 
[on this subject] : 

61. In the [Verbal] Representation {ahhinaya) the pro- 
ducers should always take care about Pause ; for, on it depends 
the meaning [of words uttered]. 

Hands in connexion with Alamkaras and Pause 

02. Keeping the eyes fixed in the direction in which the 
two hands move one should make the Verbal Representation by 
observing proper Pauses for indicating the [intended] meaning. 

63-64. In the Heroic and the Furious [Sentiments] the 
hands are mostly occupied with the weapons, in the Odious they 
are bent due to contempt, in the Comic they are to point to 
[something], in the Pathetic they are to hang down and in the 
Marvellous they are to remain motionless due to surprise. 

65. On similar other occasions 'too, the meaning should 
be made clear by means of Alamkaras and Pauses. 

66-67. Pauses which are prescribed in a verse require 
Alamkaras. Pause should bo observed after a word, when the 
meaning or the breath (pram) requires it. And when words and 
syllables are combined into a [big] compound or [the utterance is] 
quick, or confusion about different meanings is liable to arise, Pause 
should be observed at the end of a foot or as required by the 
breath. In the remaining cases Pause should [depend on the 

2 These are the words of a vipralibdhh Heroine.. 
s See Nil XXIV. 48. « See N& XXIV. 44. 

61 (C.60; B.XVII. 133). 62 (C 61; B.XVII. 134). 

63-64 (C.62-63; B.XVII. 135-136). «5 (0.64; B.XVII.137) 

'66-67 (C.65-67; B.XVTI. 138-14Qa). 


2 Here one should know about Drawn-out Syllables (hrsya- 
hsara) 2 in connexion with the States and the Sentiments. e.g. 

The Drawn-out Syllables and their use 

G8-G9. The consonant ending in a long vowel like a, e, ai, 
or au is known as a Drawn-out Syllable. In sadness, argumenta- 
tion, questioning or indignation such a syllable should take (lit be 
pronounced in) one Kala time. 

70. As for the rest of the syllables they may be pronounced 
with Pause required by their meaning, and such a Pause may be 
one, two, three, four, five or six Kalas' duration. 

71. The Pause being of great duration (vilamhita) the 
syllable pronounced will always 1 be [rendered] long. But its 
duration should not be more than six Kalas 2 . 

72. Or, taking account of the practice as required by some 
cause, or of the act on one should observe Pause in a verse to 
suit the State or the Sentiment [involved]. 

73 In verse, Pauses arising from the foot-division [only] are 
recognized ; but the position of these may bo varied [on the 
stage] by the experts to suit the meaning [of a passage]. 

74. But [while observing Pause as directed above] one 
should not creat (lit. pronounce) ungrammatical words (ajmiubtht) 
or spoil the metre, and one should not pause too long except in 
places of caesura, and in [uttering words expressing] sorrow one 
should not make the intonation excited (dlpta) 1 . 

75. One should recite a dramatic composition (kavya) 
which is free from literary defects (kavya-dom), possesses best 
characteristics and has [literary] qualities, and in such a Recitation 

1 The text hetc is in prose. We follow B's text. 

2 C. nikrdaksara for hsyahara." 

68-69 (C. 68-69; B.XVIL 140-141 ). 70 (C.70; B.XVII1. 142). 

71 (C.71; B.XVIL 143). ' C. yadu for sada. 
2 C. padamm for kalanam. ' 

72 (C. 71c-72a; B.XVlI. 144) . 73 (72b-?3a; B.XVIL 145). 

74 (C.73b, 74a; B.XVIL 146). ' C. repeats 77a before this. 

75 (C. 75; B.XVII. 147). 


one should observe proper rules relating to the utterance of notes 
and their Alamkaras. 

76. Alamkaras and Pauses that have been prescribed in 
case of Sanskritic Recitation should all be observed in un-Sanskritic 
(Prakritic) Recitation of women as well. 

77. Thus in the representation of the ten kinds of dramatic 
works (nqm) producers should prepare Recitation subject to an 
observance of proper notes, Kala, time (tola) and tempo (latja). 

78. Rules of intonation have been described [by me] in 
proper sequence. I shall describe hereafter the ten kinds of dra- 
matic work. 

Here ends Chapter XIX of Bharata's Natyasastra 

which treats of the Display of Intonation in Connexion 

Avith the Verbal Representation. 

76 (C. 76; B.XVII. 148). 

77 (C. 77; B.XVII.149). 

78 (C. 78 ; .B.-XVI1 150) 



1. I shall now describe the tenfold 1 division of plays 
together with their names, functions and modes of production. 

2-3. For their definition (laham) plays are known to be of 
ten kinds such as Nataka, 1 Prakarana, Anka (Utsrstikaftka)*, 
Vyayoga, Bharia, Samavakara, Vlthi, Prahasana, Dima 3 , and 
Ihiimrga. I shall describe their characteristics in detail (lit. from 
the beginning). 

4. Styles {rrftl)] are known as the constituent elements of 
all dramatic works (lit. poems). Considering their production 
the ten kinds of play are considered to have proceeded from these. 

5. Just as the Jsitis 1 and the Srutis 2 of notes constitute a 
scale (ijrama) 3 , so varieties of Styles make up the dramatic com- 
position {jcavija-landha). 

6. Just as the Sadja 1 and the Madhyama 2 scales include 
all the notes, so these two [kinds of] dramatic compositions (Nataka 
and Prakarana) are made up of all the Styles. 

7. The Nataka and the Prakarana are to be known as 
made up of all the Styles and they utilise all the different methods 
of constructions 1 . 

1 (C.l; B.XVIII. 1). ' Old writers on the subject like Kohala men- 
tion additional types of play such as Sattaka, Totaka and Rasaka (Ag.). 
Bhoja ignores the Totaka and recognises only twelve kinds of play includ- 
iug"the Nittika mentioned in the NS. (Sco, V. Raghavan, Sr. Pr. p. 27). 

2-3 (6. 2-3; B.XVIII. 2-8). - 1 This word is sometimes loosely used 
as a synonym of rupa or rupaka. 

8 To distinguish it from ahka meaning "an Act", it it also called 

a It is evidently a non-Aryan word. 

4 (C,4; B.XVIII. 4). ' See NS. XXII. * 

5 (C. 5; B.XVIII. 5). > See NS. (C.) XXVIII. 36ff. 3 ibid. * ibid. 

6 <C. 6; B.XVI1I. 6) » See NS. XXVIII. 22(T. 9 ibid. 

7 (C. 7; B.XVIII.7). ' It seems- that 6 and" 7 .have taken each 
other's place. 


8-9. Plays of the Vitlii, the Saraavakara, the Ihainrga, the 

Utsrstikanka (Aiika), the Vyayoga, the Bhgna, the Prahasana and 

the Dima classes should be made devoid of the Graceful Style. I 

shall hereafter describe the different methods of constructing plays. 

The Nataka 

10-11. [A play] which has for its subject-matter a well- 
known story 1 , for its Hero a celebrated person of exalted nature 
(udaita)* or which describes the character of a person descending 
from a royal seer 3 , divine protection [for him], his many super- 
human powers* and exploits such as, success [in different under- 
takings] and amorous pastimes, and which has appropriate number 
of (lit, richly furnished which) Acts (a!ika) s and Introductary 
Scenes (jiraveiaka), is called a Nataka." 

12- Character of kings, their acts and movements represent- 
ing many States and Sentiments and arising from (lit. made by) 
their joys and sorrows [when described in a play] is styled a 

The Act 

10. After considering the denounment {banjo) suitable to 
the particular stage [of the plot] an Act should be constructed by 
expanding the Turning point (b'uuln) [of the play] It should be 
furnished with a group (<jun«) [of characters]. * 

8-9 (C. 8-9; B.XVIII. 8-9). 

10-11 (C. 10-11; B.XV1II. 10-11). ' It must occur in some form in 
a PurSna, Itihasa (Rim. and Mbh) or any other celebrated work (e.R- 

3 Rama, Kv?na and Udayana arc examples of such persons. This 
and the other conditions mentioned in the note above exclude living persons 
as Heroes of the Natakap. Cf. ND, p. 27. 

3 Janaka and Visvamitra arc examples of such persons. 

* Divine personages may bo introduced in a Nataka only as Heroes 
of an Episode (flaluka) ox Episodical Incident (prakari). See Ag. and 
ND. {loc cit). 

* For the description of Act [ahka) see below 13-15,23. 

Kor a description of the Introductory Scene (prave&aka) see below 
19-21; 27-35. 

12 (0.12; B.XVU1. 12). 

13 (C.13, BiXVUI. 13). ' C. reads this couplet differently. 

-XX. 18 ] TEN KINDS. OP PLAY 357 

14. The Anka (Act) is a rvtfhi 1 (traditional) word. As, by 
means of the States and the Sentiments it causes the meanings [of 
plays] to niha (to grow) through [an adherence to] some [technical] 
rules, it is called an Anka (Act) 2 . 

15. An Act should bo brought to a close by (lit. in) a 
division of the play, and no final disposal of the Germ (blja) should 
be made in it. 1 And the Turning Point (biiidu)' of (lit. 
arising from) a play should again and again (lit. always) be made 
to occur (lit. pervade) in the plot (vastu). 

16. That [part of the play] where a [particular] meaning 
is fully expressed, but where the Germ (Oijo) is not 1 finally dis- 
posed of, is always to be known as an Act which slightly attaches 
itself to the Turning Point (biiidu). 

17. An Act which relates to the direct exploits of the 
persons (lit. Heroes) mentioned [before] and their various States, 
should not bo made too long 1 . 

18. It should also be known that the Act is to contain 
the various Sentiments arising from [words and deeds ofj the queen 1 
of the Hero, his superiors," priest, minister and leader of the army 
(xarlhacaha) 3 . 

14 (C.14; B.XV11I. 14). ' the root ruA—to grow. 

3 Tliis is an instance folk-etymology and does not hell) us at all to 
understand the real miauing of the word. 

15(C.15;B.XVIII. 15). 'Prom the Turning Points, the plot 
attains rapid a movement, and due to these tho dramatic situations arise. 

2 0. oni. kiirya after ahka-sanuiptih and reads karyacchedo na for 
kavyaccedc na, C. kuvyacchedana, 13. S.igaranandin's explanation of this is 
far-fetched (See NL, p 11). 

16(C.16;B.XY1II. 16). 'Emend ca into na. Such an emendation 
seems to be necessary from the special meaning of the word bija. Cf. 
sarvesam aiiklmam yo'rlho Ujalakaxanah (Ag). 

17 (C17 ; B.XVIII. 17). ' Siigaranaudin roads this differently. See 

18 (C.18; B.XV11I.18). ' Quoens include his concubines and the 
mahlidevl (chief queen) (Ag.). 

* Superiors include his parents and teachers (Ag). 
s SurthavaAo'lra seriapatih _ (Ag)." In extant dramas setiapali 
seldom appears. 


Incidents not directly presentable in an Act 
\\). 'Feats of anger, favour, grief, pronouncing a curse, 
running away, marriage, commencement of some miracle and its 
actual appearance, should not be made directly visible in an Act 8 . 

20. A battle, loss of a kingdom, death, and siege of a city 
being not directly visible in an Act 1 , should be presented by 
Introductory Scenes (pravmhi). 

21. In an" Act or in an Introductory Scene of the Nataka or 
the Prakarana there should be no killing of a person who is known 
as the Hero 1 . 

22. His flight, treaty or capture should always 1 be indicated 
by means of special descriptions (lit. poetical passages) and the 
Introductory Scenes will refer to such incidents (lit. acts). 

23. An Act should cover incidents that can take place in 
course of a single day ; it should relate to the Germ of the play 
and should proceed without a hindrance of the routine duties. 1 

19 (C.20; B.XVIII.20). ' B. mid G. read before this one additional 
couplet which in trans, is "The number of Acts in the Nataka and the 
Prakarana should not be less than five and more than ten (read pancapam 
dasii para in the text)". But in view of the couplets 25 and 57 bclow> 
this seems to be superfluous. 

'' alike 'pratyakajuiii=aiiie+apralyaksajuni {ahka-pratyakm, G). 
See An. R. commentary (p.53) where wc have is<W!tfl# sift n«W5ii t w see 
also 20 below. 

20 (C.21; B.XVIII.38). 1 This clearly shows Ijhat death scenes 
were not prohibited on the ancient Indian stage. Sec; Nti> VII.85. note 1. 

2 B. 'pratyakmni lu nalakc for apratyakmkrthni. Cf. Sagara- 
nandin's view on this point (NL. p.13). 

21 (C.22-, B.XVIIL39). l A misunderstanding of this rule as 
adopted in SD. (274) has given rise to the belief of modern scholars 
that the ancient Indian drama did not permit death-scenes on the stage. 
Sco Keith, Skt. Dr. p.293, 354; Haas, DR. p.93. 

22 (C.23; BXVIII.40). ' B. reads yojyah for nilyam, and kavya- 
slesair bahubhit yathafasam nutya-iativajmik as 22b. 

23 (C.24; B.XVI1I.21). ' B. apramitam for ■apramltak. Sagara- 
nandin reads it wjth a slight difference. He quotes also'othcr views about 
the duration of incidents presented in an Act, Sec NL. (p,13). 

•XX. 30 ] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 359 

24. A wise playwright should not put in [too] many inci- 
dents in a single Act 1 . And incidents in it should be depicted 
without a hindrance of the routine duties 2 . 

25. Persons who will enter the stage in an Act (lit. there) 
will go out after performing things connected with the Germ and 
the meaning of the play, and [they are to create] the proper 

26. Knowing the length of a day which is divided into 
Ksanas 1 , Yfunas 2 and Muhurtas 3 one should distribute all the 
different incidents in a play to different acts. 

The Introductory Scene 

27. When incidents that are to be finished in course of a 
[single] day, cannot be accommodated in an Act they should be 
presented in Introductory Scenes after closing the [same] Act. 

28. [Incidents] that may take place in course of a month 
or a year, are also to be presented [similarly] after closing the 
Act 1 ; but [incidents covering] more than a year should never be 
treated [in such a manner]. 2 

29. When in an Act any person goes out on business to a 
distant land, it should be brought to a close [at that point] as 
perscribed before. 

■00. With an Act of the Niitaka and the Prakarana the Hero 
should bo closely associated. And an Introductory Scene 1 
should be made up 2 of a conversation of attendants. 

24 (C.25; B.XV1II.22). l Read ekahke na instead of ekaiikcna 
(B.C.). The controversy over the reading is anterior to the time 
of Ag. (See Ag.). 

* Routine duties include prayers as well as taking meals, (sandhya- 

25 (C.26; B.XVIII.23). 26 (C.27; B.XVIII 25). 

27 t.C.28; B.XVIII.26). ' Ex. Avi, II, Vikram, V. 

28 (C.29, B.XV1II.31). ' C. reads a'ukaechedam kuryat for "cctic- 
dam krtva. The meaning of this rule is that an Act will include events 
covering a month - or a year. But this coutradict 23 above. • 

29 (C.30; B.XVIII.32). 

30 (C.31; B.XVIII.28). ' ' B. vijneyah for kartavyhh;. Q^pravemke 
for pravesako. 

360 THE NATYA9ASTBA [ XX. 31- 

31. An Introductory Scene in the Nataka and the Prakarana 
should be made to relate 1 to the essentials of the Turning Points 
(bindu) and follow the preceding (lit. another) Act 

32. It (the Introductory Scene) should not consist of 
exploits of the superior and the middling characters, and there 
should be no exalted speech in it. And in practice it should adopt 
speeches and manners of the common people. 

33. An Introductory Scene may have many purposes. 
[For example], it may indicate the advent or passage of time, 
change of the Sentiments or the beginning [of an Act] or the 
denounraent (k&rya). 

34. Incidents which depend on many [persons] are to be 
compressed by means of Introductory Scones or in Junctures 
(saiidhi). For a play containing [too] many prose passages 1 will 
be tiresome [to the actors] at [the time of] the production [of the 


35. When a particular item connot be completely presented 
in an Act lest it should be too large for [successful] production, its 
account should be compressed in a few words and put in an Intro- 
ductory Scene. 

The Explanatory Scene 

30. In the Nataka the Explanatory Scone {mdmubhaka) 
should always be made up with the middling characters 1 and it 

31 (C.32; BXVJII.33). ' 0. tiavati kftpyram for samvidhutavyfdi. 

32 (C.33; B:XV1II.34). 

33 (C.34; B.XVIU.35). " Read 33a as sratawifBWqnwriwiini- 

8 B. reads the first hemistich with the change accepted by 
Ag. The passage in B. in trans, will be as follows : An Introductory Scene 
may have many purposes. For example, it may indicato the advent or 
passage of time, or present some explanation or other aspects of planning 
the denoument (karya). 

34(0.35; B.XVIII.36). i For hahucurnafiadair yuktam. C. reads 
bahu-purna-padyavrtlam. 35 (C.36-, B.XV11I.37). 

,36 (C.37j B.XVIII.54). > This is meant that superior characters 
do not appear in an Explanatory Scene. See below 37 note. 

-XX. 41 ] TEN KINDS OF PfiAY 861 

should bo concise and follow the polished style of speaking 
{Mmxhia-vacann). 3 

37. It should be of two kinds : pure (iiuhlha) and mixed 
(mmforna). Of these, the pure is made up with the middling charac- 
ters, and the mixed with the inferior and the middling characters. 

38. In the Niitaka and the Prakarana an Explanatory 
Scene between two Acts or at the beginning of an Act, should 
always include the middling and the inferior characters 1 . 

Number of dramatis fiersonae 

3ft. The Niitaka and the Prakarana should not be made to 
contain a great number of attendants [to the Hero]. The Hero's 
attendants (lit. men of work) in such plays (lit. there) should [at 
most] be four or five 1 . 

40. Plays of the Vyayoga, the Ihamrga, the Sainavakara, 
and the Dima classes should be made to have ten or twelve 
characters ***. 

Introducing chariots and palaces on the stage 

41. A chariot, an elephant, a horse and a palace should not 
be presented on the stage. These should be provided [in a play] by 
means of appearance and costumes 1 [of men concerned] and [their] 
Gaits 2 and movements (ijati-vkara)* , 

37 (C.38; B.XVUI.S5). ' Ex. Pr.itijfiii II. Sale. III. 
3 Ex. Pratimii. II, Vikram. III. 

38 (C.39). l The exact significance of this rule is not clear. It 
possibly mean* to say that plays other than of the Niitaka and the 
Prakarana types, will not allow an Explanatory Scene of the mixed 
kind. An example, of such a scene probably occurs in the Paiica. of Bhiisa, 
which docs not fall into any of the known types of drama. See Pusalker, 
Bhasa, pp. 209ff. 

39 (C.40; B.XVIII.41). \ This rule is possibly meant for avoiding 
the practical difficulty of producing a drama with too many characters. 

40 (C.41). ' C. gives it in a mutilated form. Its second hemistich 
should be read as daiabhih dvadaxabfiir va kuryani. 

41 (C.42). l This couplet should be read ns i aw* *w *ir wrat- 

a See NiJ. XXIII. 6-9. 3 See. NS. XII. 



42. But an elephant, a horse, a palace, a hill or any con- 
veyance as well as imitation weapons may be presented (lit. made) 
by means of model-work by these who know the rules [for their 
construction] 1 . 

Introducing an army on tiro stage 

4;5. If due to any reason 1 a detatchment of an army is to 
be introduced on the stage (lit. here), only five (lit. four) or six 
persons are to make their appearance (lit. going). 

44. {In a play an army] should be made to appear as con- 
sisting of a small number of men, representing mounts and 
travelling requisites, and it should more slowly. For in the military 
role (hatra) 1 of the actors, [actual] rules of polity do not apply. 

45. In the composition of a play Denoument should be made 
[like] the tip of the cow's tail 1 , and all the exalted situations (lit. 
states) should be put at the end. 

46-47. At the conclusion of all the plays which contain 
various States and Sentiments, experts should always introduce the 
Marvellous Sentiment 1 . Thus I have briefly but properly spoken 
about the characteristics of the Nataka. I shall hereafter describe 
the Prakarana by mentioning its characteristics. 
The Prakarana 

48. The play (lit. where) in which the writer prakimUo 
(devises) 1 by his own genius an original plot with its Hero, and 
works up its elaboration (mrlra), is called the Prakarana. 

42 (C.42). T Sec above 41 note 2. 

43 (C-44). ' Emend karuvopapannh into k<tranopa°. 
* Emend kartavyamaiitra into karlavyam atra, 

44 (C.45). ' Emend halena into kxatrc na. 

45 (C.46; B.XVIII.42). ' The exact significance of this expression 
as well as the implication of the entire rule is not clear. Ag. however 
quotes two different views on the subject but none of them seems to be 

46-47 (C.47-48; B.XVIII.43-44). ' This is mostly to be done by 
causing unexpected things to happen. The sudden revelation of Svantika 
as Vasavadatta in Bhasa's Svapna. (VI) and the dramatic re-union of 
Sakuntalii with Dusjanta in Sak. (VII) are examples of this rule. 

48 (C.49} B.XVIII.45). ' From this it may bo assumed that once 
there were Prakaranas in which the plot was not wholly original, i.e. the 

-XX. 54 ] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 363 

49. When a playwright constructs a play with an original 
(lit. invented) Germ and a plot which is not connected with Rsis' 
works 1 and which that play has gathered from some other works 
and has some marvellous qualities in it, the same is also called 
the Prakarana- 

50. The plot and its elaboration as the basis of the Senti- 
ments, 1 which bave been prescribed in case of the Nataka are also 
to be applied with [the the detail of] their characteristics to the 
Prakarana in all its Junctures (mndhi) 2 . 

51. The varied exploits 1 of Brahmins, merchants, ministers, 
priests, officers [of the king] and leaders of the army [when pre- 
sented in a play] are to be known as the Prakarana 2 . 

52. The Prakarana should bo known as not made up with 
an exalted Hero. And it does not contain the character of any god, 
has no story of king's enjoyment, and it is connected with the men 
outside [the royal palace]. 

53. The play of the Prakarana type should include [in some 
eases] servants, parasites (rita) and heads of the merchants' guild, 
[as characters and should contain incidents arising from] the 
conduct of courtezans as well as exploits of depraved women 
of good family. 

5 1. [In an Act of the Prakarana] where a minister) head of 
the merchants' guild, Brahmin, priest, minister and leader of the 

playwright worked up materials from the source of the plot, such as 
Mbh. Ram. and Brhatkatha. See above 10-11 note 1. 

49(0.50; B.XVI1I.46). ' Ram and Mbh. are'cxamples of such 

50 (C.51; B.XVIII.47). ' C. rasairayopetain for ca vrttibhedas ca. 

a C. kevalam utpadyavastu syat for salaksanam sarva-sandhisu tu. 

51 (C.51; B.XVin.48). ' From this "varied exploits" one is 
to understand that Prakarana was not concerned exclusively with 

* The types of characters mentioned in the ride are mostly absent 
in the scanty number of extant plays of this type. The Pratijaa. is an 
example of a Prak. having ministers as its Hero. 

52 (0.53; B.XV1II.49). 53 (C.51; B.XVIII.50). 
54 (C.55; B.XVI1I.51). 

364 THE NATYASASTBA . [ XX. 55. 

caravan stay in their family circle, no courtezan should be brought 
in there 1 . 

55. [In the Prakarana] when a person is in the company of 
a courtezan there should not be [at the same time] his meeting with 
any respectable woman (lit. woman of good family), and while he is 
with a person of high family no courtezan should meet him then. 

56. If out of necessity (lit reason) there occurs a meeting 1 
of courtezans and respectable ladies in [any scene of] a Prakarana 
their language and manners should be kept undistorted. 

57. In the Nataka and the Prakarana the playwrights 
should have the number of Acts as not less than five and not more 
than ten 1 ; and this should be furnished with the various Senti- 
ments and the States 2 . 

58. After considering the need and action of the plot 
one should place between two Acts the Introductory Scenes which 
are to compress the events in the Junctures (sawlhi) 1 . 

The Natika 

59. In a play of the Natika (Niiti) class producers are to 
recognise a more or less well-known variety of these two (the 
Nataka and the Prakarana)'. 

1 See 56 below. 

55 (C.56; B.XVIII.52). 

56(0.57; 13.XV1II.53). ' Tim nature of the necessity, sind the 
language which the author oE the NS. had in view in formulating this 
rule, lias probably jbceu indicated in the following couplet, fiwfasrofiw 
nWwwii'W: i wwi w»ri fwi diftf swnfaH Bh- P.p. 242 

57 (0.58; B.XVIII.29). ' Read dam para for dasafiora. 

2 B. reads the second hemistich as iswflfa'i 1 sfconwj mw:, 

59 (C.59; B.XVUI.58). ' Bead this couplet as follows : wwra- 
faf?a: w*%«fti!ii wfiratei i 4^iq <Bf*«rtnt nfrcnm:. Cf. DR. 1.118 (ed. 
Haas, pp. 34-35) and SD. 302. The Introductory Scene cannot bo placed 
in the beginning of a play and it must be in 1'kt. 

59 (C.60a-61bj B.XVIIJ.57). ' Read nutisanjasrite kavye for 
nuiflkayoge prakarane. Sec Avaloka on DR. (ed. Nirnayasagar) 111.43. 
Description of the Natika given here (59-63) has been rightly suspected 
as an interpolation, though Keith is for rejecting this suspicion. See 
Skt. Dr. p. 349. 


60. Different in origin from the [two types of plays] 
the Nataka and the Prakarana, its plot should be invented, the 
Hero should be a king and it should be based on [an incident 
relating to music or affairs of the harem 1 . 

61. And it contains an abundance of female characters, has 
four Acts, graceful gestures as its soul ; well-arranged constituents, 
many dances, songs and recitations, and love's enjoyment are its 
chief features 1 . 

62. The Natika should be known also to contain [a dis- 
play of] royal manners 1 , [fit of] anger 2 , its pacification, and [acts of] 
deceit (dumbho), and to have the Hero 3 , his queen, the female 
Messenger and the attendants [as its dramatis personac]. 

63. ir Phe characteristics of the Nataka and the Prakarana 2 
have been briefly described by me. I shall now speak about the 
characteristics of the Samavakara. 

The Samavakara 
61-65. It 1 should have the [exploits of] gods as its subject 
matter [bljit) and an Asura as a well-known and exalted character 

60 (C.60b-61a; 1J.XVIII.58). ' Keith seems to bo in error about the 
nature oE the subject matter (plot) of the Prak. Sec Skt. Dr. p. 349. Justi- 
fication tor calling the Pratijfia. a Natika may be found in the fact that 
its plot is based on musical lessons given by Udayana to Vasavadatta 
and it has four Acts. But according to its Prologue it is a Prakarana. See 
I'usalkor. Bluisa, pp. 271-272. 

61 (C.62; B.XVI1I.59). ' But for this feature of having four Acts 
only, the Milavi. may be considered a Natika. See Keith. Skt. Dr. p. 350. 
llatua- is a well-known example of the four Act Natika. 

62 (0.63; B.XVIU.60). ' C. kumopacara for rajopacara. 
3 B. krodhadamihisamyukta for krodhasamyula capt. 

3 C, reads 62b as 1I95|i?<ft "wfa fqtwfl llfiran" OTt. 

63 (C.65; B.XVI1I.62). ' B.C. read one additional couplet (0.64; 
B.XVJII.61) ou the basis of two mss. It does not give any new 

2 C. Prakarananalaka-nuli-lakxanam uktam for 'nataka-laksaya- 
nam uktam vipra. Evidently the interpolator who is responsible for 
the description of the Niiti (Natika) inserted ««(» in the reading of C. 
See above 59 note. 

64-65 (C.66-67; B.XVIII.63-64). ' No old specimen of this type 


as its Hero, and it is to consist of three Acts [presenting] the three 
kinds of deception, the three kinds of excitements or the three 
kinds of love 2 . [Besides this] it should have as many as twelve 
dramatis personae and a duration (lit. length) of eighteen Nadikas 3 . 
I shall now speak about the rule regarding the number of Nadikas 
to be alloted to the different Acts. 

60. A Nadika 1 should be known as the half of the Muhurta 2 
which is a [well-known] measure of time. The Acts in a Samava- 
kiira should be measured according to the directions given in terms 
of this Nadika. 

The first act of the Samavakiira 

07. The first Act [of the Saroavakara] should have a dura- 
tion of twelve Nadikas 1 and it is to contain laughter, excitement, 
deception or a Vithi. 

The second and the third acts of the Samavakara 

08. The second Act also should be similar [except that] 
it is to have a duration of four Nadikas 7 -. And the third Act. 
which will bring the plot to a close will have a duration of two 
Nadikas 2 only. 

of drama is available. Samudramanthana by Vatsaraja (12th century) is a 
very late work. Seo Keith, Skt. Dr. p. 267. Bhiisa's Paiiea. is not a Samav- 
Cf. Mankad, Typos of Skt. Dr. p. 58; Pusalker, Bhasa, pp. 202-210. 

* It does not seem likely that any ons play of this type will 
include all three objects (deception, excitement and love) in their three 

8 As the topics (and hence the Acts) in the Samavakiira arc to bo 
loosely related (seo 69 below) ; this limitation has been placed on the 
time lest it should bo made too long. 

66 (C.72a, 68b, BXV11I.67). ' tm]tM-2i minutes. Sec below 
67 note. 

s muhurta=:\ period of 48 minutes. See below 66 note 1. Curiously 
enough Saradatauaya thinks that nutjika is one fourth of a mnhurta. 
See BhP. p. 249. 

67 (C.70; B.XVHI.65). ' 12 wfirjWfo (««#)=4 hows and 48 

68 (C.71; B.XVUI.66). x 4 nu(]iias^ 1 hour 36 minutes. 
8 2 nadikas =48 minutes. 

•XX. 73 ] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 367 

09. 1 In composing the Samvakara different Acts should bo 
made to have different topics. And topics in the Saniavakiira are 
to be loosely related to one another 58 . 

The three kinds of Excitement 

70. Excitement (rvhava) is known to be of three kinds such 
as being due to battle and flood (lit. water), storm (lit. wind) and 
fire, or big elephant 1 at large, and siege to a city. 

Three kinds of Deception 

71. Deception (kapaU) is kt;own to be of three kinds 
such as being due to a devised plan, 1 accident or [the stratagem 
ofj the enemy, It creates joy or sorrow [to persons]. 

Three kinds of Love 

72. In this connexion (lit here) three kinds of love to bo 
presented through different actions are : that in relation to duty 
(dharma), that actuated by material gain (artha) and that actuated 
by passion (I'Snw) 1 . 

Love together with duty 

73. When in [discharging] the duty one attains one's 
[much] desired well-being 1 accomplished in many ways and in 
this connexion means like observing vows 2 , austerities and 
penance are adopted, it is to be known as love in relation to duty 

69 (C.72b, 73; B.XVJJI.69). ' Before this B. reads one additional 
couplet (B.69) which does not give any important information and has 
the support of two mss. only. In C. this occurs after C. 68. 

8 From this it appears that Samav. was not a play of the regular 
type and belonged to a very early stage of evolution of Indian drama. 

70 (C74; B.XVIII.70). ' G. Jalendm-sambhavo for gajemlra- 

71 (C.75; B.XVI1I.71). ' C. yaslu gatikrama, for vaslngatakrama. 

72 (C.76; B.XVIII.72). ' C. reads 72b as fafMtffoinmt ««1 vrare- 
wraw:. *> 

73 (0.77; B.XVHI.73). ' B. reads 73a as *U.\ ^(tmirafa wtfa 


8 C. prati for vrata. 


Love together with material gain 

74. Love in which attainment of material gain occurs in 
various ways 1 is called Love in relation to material gain (tivtha- 
smgard) or it may be that love in which the enjoyment of pleasure 
with women is for the purpose of some material gain. 

Lovo due to passion 

75. Love actuated by passion (kama-hwjara) includes the 
seduction of a maiden and it causes, and also secret or excited 
intercourse 1 of a man with a woman. 

Metres not allowed in the Samavakiira 
70. *In the Samavakara the playwright should make 
proper use metres other than Usnik and Gayatii etc. which are 
of complex construction 2 . 

77. In this manner an expert should compose a Samavakara 
which will be the source of various Sentiments 1 . I shall hereafter 
speak about the characteristics of the Ihamrga. 

The Ihamrga 

78. It (Ihamrga) has as its dramatis pennme divine males 
who are implicated in fights about divine females. It should bo 
constructed with a well-arranged plot and should be convincing 1 . 

74 (C.78; B.XVIII.74). l Read 74a as wnft Sftrevn «nfo tfss- 
5ITC : (ms. cha B.). 

75 (C.79; B.XVIII.75). » Read 76a as wfw'M 5 mm iHmwI* ot' it 
'mi wffl v fwa: **w nw.. (mss. ya, na. pha, bhi in B.). 

76 (C.80; B.XVIII.76). ' Road this couplet as follows :— ^i^niTO- 
Vtfii i Tnift wjfcsiTft am vwrft ifitw saw nCtanfi. The reading 
accepted by Ag. seems to be corrupt. For Usnnik and Gayatri type of 
metres cannot by any means be considered as being of complex con- 
struction (battdhakutila). Our emendation has the support of mss. 
cha. in B. Udbhata (the noted commentator of the NB.) too thinks that 
the rule prescribes complex metres such as Sragdhara for the Samav. 
See Ag. 

8 Lengthy, sami-even and uneven types of metres. 

77(C.81;B.XVlII.77). ' C. sukhadulikhasammrayah imnunarasa- 

78(C.82jB.XVIII.78). ' C. Vipralyaya for vifiratyaya. No old 
specimen of .this type of drama is available. Rukminiharana by 
Vatsaraja is an artificial production of a very late period (12th century)- 

-XX. 85 ] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 369 

79. It is to abound in vehement (uddhata) Heroes and to 
have its construction dependent on feminine anger which is to give 
rise to commotion (samhobha), excitement (nidrava) and angiy 
conflict {samyheta), 

80. The Ihamrga should bo a play with well-ordered cons- 
truction in whicli the plot of love is to be based on causing discord 
among females, carrying them off and oppressing [the enemies]. 

81. All that are to be niado [available] in the Vyayoga — its 
male characters, Styles and Sentiments — should be brought in the 
Ihamrga also, except that the latter is to include (lit. have connexion 
with) the goddesses (lit divine females) only 1 as its female characters. 

82. [In the Ihamrga] when persons intent on killing 1 is 
on the point of killing, [the impending] battle should be avoided by 
some artifice. 

83. Brahmins, the characteristics of the Ihamrga have 
been briefly mentioned by me. I shall speak hereafter on the 
characteristics of the Dima. 

The Dima 

81. The Dima should bo constructed with a well-known 
plot, and its Hero should be wellknown and of the exalted (udciita) 
type. It is to contain the fix Sentiments and to consist of four 
Acts only 1 . 

85-80. It should contain all the Sentiments except the 
Erotic and the Comic, a plot (kuvymjoui) with exciting Sentiments 
and various States, and it is [also] to include incidents such as an 

(Sec Keith, Skt Dr. p. 266). Two other late specimens of this kind 
are Kysnamisra's Vira-vijaya and Krsna Avadhtita's Sarva-viuoda-nataka. 
(See Sten know, ID. p. 114). 

79 (C.83; B.XVIII.79). 80 (C.84a, 85a; B.XVI1I.80). 

81 (C.85b-86a; B.XVIII.81) - l See below 90-93. 

82 (0.84b, 86b; B.XV1II.82). " C. vad/to'fiyudasrayo for vadho'- 

83 (C.87; B.XVII1.83). 

84 (C.88; B.XVIII.84). ' No old example of this typo of drama is 

85-86 (C.89-90; B.XVIII.85-86). 


earthquake 1 , fall of meteors, an eclipse of the sun or the moon, 
battle 8 , personal combat, challange, and angry conflict. 

87-88. The Dima should abound in deceit and jugglary and 
should have the energetic activity of many persons, and dissention 
(bheda) 1 among themselves, and it is to include sixteen characters 
which may be gods, Nagas, Kiiksasas, Yaksas and Pisacas, and 
[besides this] the play is to be carefully made in the Grand and 
the Energetic Styles and is to have many States to support it 2 . 

89. The Dima has been described by me in all its charac- 
teristics. I shall speak now about the characteristics of the 

The Vyayoga 

90. The Vyayoga should be constructed by experts with 
one well-known Hero as its basis, and it should include a small 
number of female characters and [the events related in itj will be 
of one day's duration only 1 . 

91. Many males are to take part in it as in the Samavakiira, 
but it is not to have the latter's length, for it is to have only 
One Act (anka). 

92-93. It should have a royal sago as its Hero and not a 
divine personage, and it should include battle, personal combat, 
challange and angry conflict. Thus the Vyayoga should be made 
with exciting Sentiments as its basis. [ shall now speak of the 
characteristics of the Utsrstikttuka (Anka). 

-' 0. reads 86a as MtW5<ijnVi>f tft^r'iRWflgiii:. 
2 C. 'yuddhp-praharana for yuddh-ud/ianana. 
87-88 (.91-92); B. XV1II..87-88). ' Kbalm-pustotthamyoga for 

8 C. iajjitair-ntiniisraya-tiisesefia for nhmiraya-bJmvasampanna. 

90 (C.94; B.XV1II.90). l Bhasa'sMadhyama. is its solitary old speci- 
men. Prahliidaiiadcva'a Partha-pariikrama (12th cent.), Vatsariija's Kira- 
tarjunlya (12th cent) and ViSvaniitha's Saugandhika-harana etc. are very 
lato specimens of this typo. See Keith Skt. Dr. p. 265. Pnsalker, Bhasa. 
p. 203. Datava. Dtitagha. Pafica. and Urn. cannot be called Vyiiyogas. 
Cf. Pusalker, Bhasa, pp. 186, 187, 190, 209. Mankad, Types of Skt. 
Dr. p. 59-61. 

91 (C.95; B.XVI1I.91). 92-93 (C.96-97 ; B.XVII1.92-93). 

•XX. 99 ] TEN KINDS OB PLAY 371 

Tho Ufsrstikanka 
94. Tho Plot in it is [usually to be] well-known, but it may 
sometimes be otherwise, and it is to be furnished with male 
characters other than those who are divine 1 . 

95-96. The Utsystikanka should abound in the Pathetic 
Sentiment ; it will treat women's lamentations and despondent utter- 
ances at a time when battle and violent fighting has ceased ; it 
should include bewildered movements [of mourners] and it must be 
devoid of the Grand, the Energetic and the Graceful Styles and its 
Plot should relate to one's fall (lit. end of the rise) x . 
Scenes with celestial Heroes 

97. [Scenes of] all tho plays which have celestial Heroes, 
and which [treat] a battle, capture and killing [of enemies], should 
be laid in Bhiirata-varsa 1 . 

98. Of all the Varsas (sub-continents) proscribed for the 
gods why 1 is Bharata-varsa chosen [in this connexion] ? Because 
the entire land here is charming, sweet-smelling and of golden 

99-100. [But scenes of their] garden party (lit. going to 
a garden), sport, pastime and enjoying the company of females, 
are always to be laid in the other Varsas ; for there is neither 
any sorrow nor any grief there. Their enjoyments should take 
place in the mountains which are connected with those Varsas in 
the Pufiinic accounts, but their [other] deeds should begin here 
(i. e. in Bharata-varsa). 

94 (C.91: B. XVIII.94). ' Bhasa's Uru. is a solitary example "this 
type of drama. See Pusalkcr, Bhasa, pp. 199, 200. Keith seems to be in 
error when he says that a play within'a play is often called an Anka. See 
Skt. Dr. p. 268. 

95-96 (C.99-100 ; B. XV1II.95-96). - 1 C. karirvyo abhyudayantas 
tajhaili for karyah kavyavidkijhaih 

97 (C.101; B.XVI1I.97). l This and three following couplets (97- 
100) seem to be more relevant after NS. XIV. 26 which treats similar 

98 (C.102; B.XVin.98). \ C. tasMt for iasmat. 
99-100 (C.103-I04;B.XVHI,90-100). 


101. The characteristics of an Utsvstikanka (Anka) have 
b«en exaustively explained by me. I shall now speak of the 
Prahasana with its characteristics. 

Tho Prahasana 

302 The Prahasana should be known to be of two kinds : 
pure and mixed. I shall separately treat their characteristics 1 . 
The pare Prahasana 

103-104, The Prahasana is known as pure (iMha) 1 when 
it contains comic disputations by Baiva gurus (bhagimit'f and 
Brahmins, abounds in jocular remarks by persons of ill repute, and 
gives uniformly to the Plot a realistic picture of the language and the 
conduct of all these in passages describing their special States. 8 
The mixed Prahasana 

105. That Prahasana is called mixed 1 in which courtezans, 
servants, eunuchs, parasites (rite) rogues and unchaste women 
appear with their immodest appearance, dress and movements. 

101 (C.105; B.XVI1I.101). 

102 (C.106; B XVIH.102). > Hankhadkara's Lataka-mola (12th 
century), Jyotirisvara's Dhlirta-samagami (15th century) and Jagadl- 
svara's Hasyarnava (date uncertaiti), etc. are very late works (See Keith 
Skt. Dr. pp. 261-262). The Matta-vilasa of Mahendra-vikrama-varman 
(620 A.C.) and the Bhagavad-ajjnkiya ascribed to Baudhayana Kavi, 
are fairly old specimens of the Prahasana, See Keith Skt. Dr. pp. 182. 
Bhagavad-ajjukiya ed. P. Anujan Achan, Cochin, 1925. 

103-104 (C.107-108; B.XV1II.103-104). 'The word ihagamt 
relates primarily to a Saiva saint. It is in this sense that the word has 
boon* used in the Prahasana named Bhagavad-ajjukiya and this speaks 
for the antiquity of this work (See above 102 note). A Baiva saint 
appears in the Matta-vilasa, the Dhurta-nartaka and the Ha9ya-cudamani. 
Both these Prahasanas one are however late. See Keith, Skt. Dr. pp. 182, 
262, 265. For some aspects of tho Saiva tenets see Karpuramanjari, ed 
M. Ghosh, pp. LXIII-LX1V. ■ 

* C. reads 103a as« »rowrafirffifaqft«!fowe*'3Wi. 

8 Prahasanas named in note 1 above may be taken as specimens of 
the pure variety. 

105 (C.109; B.XVI1I.105). ' Prahasanas like the Dlmrta-samagama 
and <h e Hasyarnava may be taken as specimens of the mixed variety. 
8ee Keith, Skt. Dr. pp. 260-266. 

-XX. 112 ] TEN KINDS OP PLAY 378 

106-107. Some popular topic [of scandal] or incident of 
hypocrisy should be introduced in the Prahasana through the dis- 
putations of pretenders. The Prahasana should include [any of] 
the types of the Vithi it may properly require 1 . 
The Bhana 

107-108. I shall now speak of the characteristics of the 
Bhana. The Bhana is to be acted by a single character, and it is of 
two 1 kinds : that [with one's] recounting of one's own experience 
and that [with one's] describing someone else's acts 2 . 

109. [The Bhana which is to include] somebody else's 
words addressed to oneself, should be acted by means of replies in 
course of Conversations with Imaginary Persons (akasa-hhasila) in 
accompaniment of [suitable] movement of the limbs. 

110. The Bhana should include characters of rogues and 
parasites (oitu) and treat their different conditions, and it is always 
to consist of one Act and should include many movements which 
are to be acted by a rogue (dhurta) or a parasite. 

111. All the characteristics of the Bhana have been des- 
cribed by me according to the tradition (agama). I shall [now] 
speak of the characteristics of the Vithi in due order. 

The Vithi 
112-113. The Vithi is to be acted by two persons or one. 
And it is to include characters of the superior, the middling or the 

106-107 (CUlO-llla; B.XVI1L106-I07a). ' C. reads 107a as 
^lamfsfafc; affair ftfim «lfinm. 2 See below 112-129. 

107-108 (C.lllb-112; B.XVIII. 107b-108). > Emend vividlia into 
dvividha (ms. cha in B.). 

s The four Bhaiias (Ubhayubhisarika, Padma-prabhrtaka, Dhiirta- 
vita-samvada and Piida-taditaka) published under the title Caturbhani 
placed by F. W. Thomas between the 6 th and the 7th century arc the 
oldest available specimens of this type (F..W. Thomas, J R A S. 1922, 
pp. 262ff. F.W. Thomas, Centenary Supplement J R A S. 1924 pp._129-136; 
S.K.Dc, in J R A S. 1926, pp. 63-90, Hist of Skf. Lit. pp. 241ff. For later 
Bhanas see Koith, SkU Dr. pp. 263-264. 109 (C.113; B.XVIH.109). 

110(C.114;B.XV1II.110). • 111 (C.115; B.XVIII.111). . 

112-113 (C.116-117; B.XVHI.112b-H3a, 112a and its f. n. 2). ' 


inferior type, and it may contain [any of] the Sentiments, and it 
may include [any of J the thirteen types. I shall now speak of the 
characteristics of all these. 

Thirteen types of the Vithi 

114-115. The thirteen types * of the Vithi are : Accidental 
Interpretation {xuhjhahjahi), Transference (avalayita), Ominous 
Significance (araxpandila), Incoherent Chatter {asatprdapa), Com- 
pliment {pntjiunra), Enigma {nail = ual'd'a) Repartee (rakkeli), 
Outvying (lulhicda), Deception {chain), Declaration {nyahara), 
Crushing (mrihra), Three Men's Talk {trijala}, and Undue Combi- 
nation of Words {yanfa) 

11G. [Any of these | thirteen types is always to be attached to 
the Vithi. I shall now speak of their characteristics in due order. 
Accidental Interpretation 

117. If, in order to'explain them men connect words of 
obscure meaning with vords other than [those intended by the 
speaker] it becomes Accidental Interpretation {mhjhatijalca) 1 . 


118. When [anything] occurring in [relation to] something, 
will be made to accomplish something else, it becomes [an instance 
ot] Transference {andutjito) 1 . 

Ominous significance 

1 19. That one attaches (lit. creates) out of misunderstanding 
an auspicious or inauspicious meaning (lit. auspicious or inauspici- 
ous rise) to the words (lit. meaning) mentioned, is [an instance of] 
Ominous Significance {aeaspandita) 1 . 

114-115(0.118-119, Of. B.XVHI.ll3bll4). ' Ahga in this con- 
nexion has been translated as 'division' (Haas, DR. p. 84). But 'types' 
seems to be a more suitable word. 116 (C.120; B.XVIILllSa). 

117(C121, BXVlII115b-ll6a). 'Haas translates the word as 
'Abrupt Dialogue' (DK. p.8l). For an example see SD. 228; cf. Ag. 
DR. (III. 13-14) seems to define it differently. 

118 (C.132; BXVIII.U6b-117a). ' Haas translates it as 'Conti- 
nuance' (See p. 85). For an ex. See 8D. 292 ; Ag. Of. DR.I1I. 14b-15a. 
• . ,119(0.123; B.XVIII.817b-118a). 'The spelling avasyandita 
though accepted by SD. and DR. seems to be wrong (See Ag.). Haas 

-XX. 125] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 375 

Incoherent Chatter 

120. When an irrelevant question (lit. sentence) is followed 
by [an equally] irrelevant answer, it is [an instance of] Incoherent 
Chatter (asat-pralapa) 1 . 

121. When to a foolish person a learned man speaks the 
right words, but his words are not listened to, it is [an instance of] 
Incoherent Chatter 1 . 


122. When comic and untrue words purporting to bo mu- 
tual praise of two persons, are uttered in the interest of one [of 
them] it is [an instance of] Compliment {yrapahca) 1 . 

Enigma and Repartee 

123. An enigmatical remark that gives rise to laughter (lit. 
followed by laughter) is called an Enigma (naltia 1 ). Reparteo 
ral;keli=* vakl clilca) arises from a single or twofold reply. 2 


124. When somebody else's words and those of one's own- 
self, in course of a dialogue, lead to their mutual modification, it is 
[an instance of] Outvying (adhimh)' 1 . 


125. When after alluring one by replies, something oppo- 
site is done (lit. takes place) through those very replies being con- 
sidered meaningless, it is [an instance of] Deception (rhala) 1 . 

translates the word as 'Re-interpretation' (pp. 84, 87) probably under 
the influence of the SD. (528). DR. (III. 19a) has a different definition. 
For an example see Ag. 

120 (C.124). ' We accept the reading of mss. <Ja and da in B. 
(nnder 119) •which has the support of DR. III. 20 and SD. 530. Ag. 
differs and accepts tho reading of 121 below. See Haas. p. 87. 

121 (C.125; B.XVIII.119). ' See 120 note and Ag. 

122 (C.126; B.XVHI.123b-121a). ' See Haas, p. 85; SD. 5ii. 
DR HI. 15b. 

123 (C.127; B.XVIII.ll8a, 120a). ' See Haas, pp. 87 ; SD. 529. 
8 See Haas, p.86, SD. 525. 

124 (C.128; B,XVHI.122b-123a). l See Haas, p. 86; SD. 526. 

125 (C.129; B.XVII. 123b) ' See DR. 17a ; Haas, p. 96 ; SD. gives 
two def . of this including the present one; sec 524-525, 



126. If anything [liable to occur] is described vividly in the 
presence of the Hero and is similarly made to happen [there] with- 
out any fear, it is [an instance of] Declaration (vytiliara) 1 . 


127. That due to an altercation one represents [another's] 
merits as demerits by [showing] cause [for it] and rice vena, 
is called Crushing (mrdava) 1 . 

Throe Men's Talk 

128. When exalted words with the Comic Sentiment are 
shared by three [characters] it should be known as Three Men's 
Talk (tritjata) x . 

Undue Combination of Words 

129. Undue combination of words (,'/i'n#«) according to 
the wise, occurs due to excitement, confusion, quarrel, reviling and 
many people's abusive words 1 . 

130-131 If in a play any of these thirteen types 1 with clear 
meanings, occur and they possess all the characters Sentiments 
and States prescribed for them by the Saslra it is called the Vithi. 
It may bo acted by one or two persons 2 . 

126 (C.130; B.XVIII. foot notes to 125a). l B.s reading seems to 
agree with the def. given in DR. III. 20b and SD. 531. Haas translates 
the tirm as 'Humourous Speech'. See p. 88. 

127 (0.131; B.XVII.12lb-122a). ' DE. III. 2la; SD. 532. Haas 
translates the term as 'Mildness' ; see p. 88. 

128 (C.132; B.XVIII. foot note to 124). > DR III. 16 and SD. 523 
define this differently and they agree with the reading of B. Our 
reading is supported by the pa ms. in B. Haas translates the term as 
'Triple Explanation'. Sec p. 84. 

129 (C.133; B.XVIII.l25b-126a). * C. larambha for samrambha 
4 C. bandhavivadam for vivadayuklam. 

8 DR. HI. 18b and SD. 527 seem to def. it differently. Haas 
translates the term as 'Abrupt Remark' see p. 87. 

130-131 (C.134-135). l Ag. reads Lusyahgas in the next chapter (his 
XIX). It is possible that these were introduced later in the NS. For the 
ms. bha of B. and some commentators using it ignoro them altogether. 
Saradatanaya and others reads liisyakgat differently. Seo Kavi's Intr. to 
B. pp. XI-XII. foot note. 

•XX. 136 ] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 377 

The Lasya 

132. [Similar] other limbs are attached to the Nntaka in 
connexion with the performance of the Lasya, and they owe their 
origin to this (i. e. Nataka), and are to be acted like the Bhana by 
a single person. 

133. The Lasya has a form similar that of the Bhana and 

it is to be acted by one person 1 . Its theme is to be inferred like 

that of the Prakarana and should relate to [loving] intimacy [with 

any one], 

Tho twelve typc3 of the Lasya 

131-135. The [twelve] types of the Lasya are: Geyapada 
Sthitapathya, Asina, Puspagandikg, Praechedaka, Trimudha, Sain- 
dhavn, Dvimudhiika, Uttamottamaka, Vicitrapada, Ukta-pratyukta 
and Bhiivita (Bhava) 1 . 


130. When [the Heroine] is seated 1 on her seat surroun- 
ded with stringed instruments and drums near her, and singers are 
singing [before her] without any accompaniment of these, it is 
called the Geyapada (simple song). " 

132 (C.136 K.XVIII. 169). l lasyahga is an oni act play which 
requires lasya or a gentle form of dance for its representation; for this term 
may be interpreted as lasyam ahgam yasyah salt (that which has lasya as 
its principal element). The ten lasyahgas seem to be ouly so many varieties 
of tho Lasya. Tlie-ie are not its 'elements' as some scholars are apt to 

2 The word vilhyahga also may be similarly interpreted. Vilhi seems 
to be nothing but a particular kind of one act play (defiued in 113 boavc) 
and vtthya'nga may therefore bo translated as 'a play of the Vitlii type'. 

133 (C.137 ; K. XVII. 182). ' See above 132 note ; lasya used in 
this passage means merely liisyaiiga. 

131-135 (C.138-139; K. XVIII. 17)171). l 81). (501) gives only 
ten and BhP. (p. 245-246) eleven lasyahgas, but DR. (III. 52-53) gives 
their number as ten but does not define them. 

136 (0.141 ; K. XVIII. 172). ' Sco SD. 505. The seating posture 
included in this and some of the other varieties of thi lasya need nq| 
appear to be puzzling. For tho Gentle Dance in this connexion did 
not imply tho movement of the entire body. See Gilbert Murray, Euripides 
and His Ago, London, 1946, p. 150. 


137. If a woman aings in a standing 1 posture a song 
dealing with the praise of hor heloved and delineates the same with 
the gestures of her different limbs, it is called the Geyapada. 


138. If a separated woman burning with the fire of love, 
recites anything in Prakrit while seated on her seat 1 , it is [an 
instance of J the Sthita-pHthya. 

139. When one sits 1 without making any toilet 2 and is 
overcome with anxiety and sorrow, and looks with oblique glances 
it is [an instance of] the Asina. 


140. When a woman in the guise of a man recites some- 
thing sweetly in Sanskrit for the pleasure of her female friends, it 
is [an instance of] the Puspagandika. 1 


141. When a [separated] woman pained by the moon-light 
prepares to go to her beloved even if he has done her wrong, it 
is [an instance of] the Praccbedaka 1 . 

•142. A play adorned with even metres and abounding in 
manly States and composed of words which are neither harsh nor 
large, is called the Trimudhaka. 

143. When [one represents] a lover who has failed to keep 
his tryst and is using Prakrit [to express bis grief] through well- 
performed Karanas, it is [an instance of] the Saindhavaka. 

137 (CHI). ' See above 136 note 1. 

138 (C.U2 ; K. XVIIL 173 f.n.). ' Sc« 81). 506 ; also note 1 above 
of 136. Of. K. XVIII. 173. BhP. p. 245, 1. 17-18. 

139 (C.143 •, K. XVIII. 174). ' SD. 507 ; see abovo 136 note 1. Tlio 
Gentle Dance (lasya) in this connexion will consist of slowly moving 
glances only. Cf. BhP. p. 245, 1.19-20. 3 Road aprasadhita gatra. 

140(0.144). iCf.SD. 507 ; see above 136 note l.Cf.K. XVIII. 
175, BhP. p. 245,1.21-22. 

141 (C.145 ; K. XVII. 176). x The def. given in SD. (507) is different. 
SD. reads the term as Trigadhaka. Cf. BhP. p. 246 1. 1-2. 

142 (C. 146 ; K. XVIII. 177). > See BhP. p. 246, 1. 3-4. 

■ 143 (C.147). 1 Cf.SD.508. Cf.K. XVIII. 178, BhP. p. 246. 1 5-6. 

-XX. 160 ] TEN KINDS OF PLAY 379 


144. Delineating h song of the Caturasra type which has 
an auspicious meaning and which treats (lit, lias) clear States and 
Sentiments, with the pretension of efforts, is called the Dvimiidhaka. 


145. The Uttamottamaka is composed in various kinds 
of Slokas ; it includes various Sentiments and is adorned with the 
condition of Passion {hela). 


146. If any woman burning with the fire of love soothes 
her mind by seeing the portrait [of her lover] it is [an instance of] 
the "Vicitrapada. 


147. The Ukta-prntyukta is a combination of speeches and 
counter-speeches due to anger or pleasure, and it [sometimes] 
contains words of censure. It is to be set to music. 

1 I'H. If a woman who is burning with the lire of love after 
seeing her beloved in a dream, expresses [her] different States, it is 
[an instance of] the Bhavita. 

1 19. These are the characteristics of the [different] types of 
Lasya growing out of anger or pleasure, that I had to tell you in 
detail. Tf anything more has not been said, it has been due to 
■the fact that nothing more is required in this context. 

1 50. The rules regarding the ten kinds of play with their 
characteristics, have been stated by me. I shall now speak about 
their bodies and the Junctures with their characteristics. 

Here ends chapter XX of Bharata's Natyasatra, which 
treats of the Ten Kinds of Play. 

144(0.148). Cf. SD. (509) which reads the term as Dvigadha. Cf. 
K. XVIH. 179, BhP. p. 246, 1. 7-8. 

145 (C.149 ; K. XVIII. 180). x Cf . SD. (509). Cf. BhP. p. 246, 1. 9-10-. 

146 (C.150 ; K. p. 207. r. u. 12). ' SD. ami BhP. omit this. 

147 (C.I51 j K. XVHI. 181). x See BhP. p. 246. 1. 11-12. Cf. SD. 509. 

148 (C.152 ; K. p. 207. f. a. 12.). ' SD. omits this. See Bhl'. p. 246. 
1. 13-14 149 (C.153 ; K. 183). . 150 (C.154 ; K. 184). 


The five Junctures of the Plot 

1. The Plot (itkrtla) has heen called the body of the drama 
(lit. poem). It is known to be divided into five Junctures (smulhi). 

The two kinds of Plot 

2. The Plot is of two kinds : Principal (wlhilwika) and 
Subsidiary {pravaiujilca). 

Their definition 

3. The [assemblage of] acts which are fabricated with a view 
to (lit, by reason of) the attainment of [some particular] result, is to 
be known as the Principal Plot. [Acts] other than those consti- 
tute the Subsidiary Plot. 

4-5. The attainment of the result and its exaltation which 
the ingenuity of the playwright (lit. poet) plans by lnolms of the 
associated characters (lit. Heroes) acting in a regular manner (lit, 
resorting to rules), constitute the Principal Plot on account of an 
attainment of the result And any incident (lit. anything) men- 
tioned for helping any other [incident] in it, is called the Subsi- 
diary Plot. 

The five stages of the Action 

6. The exertion of the Hero (lit. one who strives) towards 
the result to be attained, is known to have five stages occurring in 
due order. 

1 (C.l ; K. XIX. 1). * Also called vastu. Cf. DE. 1. 11, SD. 294-295. 
'See DR. I. 22-23, SD. 330 and NL. 458 read vibhagah sampra- 

kalpitah for vibkagah etc. See NL. 216-217. 

2 (C.2 ; %. XIX. 2). - 1 See DR. 1. 11, SD. 295 and NL. 218 219. 

3 (C.3 ; K. XIX. 3). x Cf. DR.1. 12-13, SD. 296-297; NL. 223-224. 
* See above note 1. 

4-5 (C.4-5 ; K. XIX 4-5). - 1 See above 3 note 1 and NL. 228-229. 
' Sco above note I- 

6 (C.7). 1 C. reads one additional couplet (C. 6) before this. Cf. 
NL. 55-56. 


7. These five stages of the Action are known to arise in the 
Nataka and the Prakarana. [Their] Fruition (phala-yoga) relates to 
duty (dhirma), enjoyment of pleasure (k&mti) and wealth (artha). 1 

8. They are : Beginning Qjrarambha), Effort (prayatna), 
Possibility of Attainment (prajjti-mmbhava), Certainty of Attain- 
ment (niynta phala-prapli) and Attainment of the Result 


9. That part of the play (lit composition) which merely 
records eagerness about the final attainment of the result with 
reference to the Germ {blja), is called the Beginning (arambha). 


10. [Heroc's] striving towards an attainment of the Result 
when the same is not in view, and showing further eagerness [about 
it], is called the Efforts (pray/Una). 

Possibility of Attainment 

1 1 . When the attainment of the object is slightly suggested 
by an idea, it is to be known as the Possibility of Attainment 
(ludpU-aambku ra). 

Certainty of Attainment 

12. When one visualises in idea a sure attainment of the 
result, it is called Certainty of Attainment (mtyata phala-prapti). 

Attainment of the Result 

13. When the intended result appears in full at the end of 
events [of a play] and corresponds to them, it is called Attainment 
of the Result (phala-ijoya). 

14. These are the five successive stages of every action 
begun by persons looking for results. 

7 (0.8) ' K. omits this. 

8 (C.10 ; K. XIX.7). * Cf. DR. I. 19; SD. 324; NL. 57-58. 

9 (C.ll ; K. XIX. 8). l Cf. DR. 20; SD. 325; NL. 59-60. 

10 (C.12 ; K. XIX. 9). - 1 Cf. DR. I. 20; SD. 326; NL. 66. 

11 (C.13 ; K. XIX. 10). x Cf. DR. I. 21; SD. 327; NL. 69-70. 

12 (C.14 ; K. XIX. 11). A Cf. DR I. 21; SD. 328; NL. 77. 

13 (C.H ; K. XIX. 12). A Cf. DR. 1. 22; SD. 329; NL. 89. 

14 (C.15 ; K. XIX. 13). 


15. Putting together all these naturally different stages 
which come together [in a play] for the production of the result 
conduces towards the fruition. 

Play to begin with the Principal Plot 

16. The Principal Plot which has been described before 
should be taken up at the Beginning [of a play], for it is to attain 

17. The Plot should either have all the Junctures (sanilhi) 
or lack some of thorn. The [general] rule requires that all the 
Junctures should occur in it, but due to a [special] reason some 
of them may be left out (lit absent). 

Rules about the omission of Junctures 

18. If one Juncture is to be omitted then the fourth one 
goes ; in case of an omission of the two Junctures, the third and the 
fourth are to be left out, and in case of the three to be omitted, 
the second, the third and the fourth should be given up. 

19. In case of the Subsidiary Plot this rule will not apply ; 
for it is to serve the purpose of another [Plot]. Any eveirt can be 
introduced in this [Subsidiary Plot] without violating the rule. 

The five Elements of the Plot 

20. The five stages of the plot such as the Beginning 
(ammhha) 1 etc.. have live corresponding Elements of the Plot 
(artha-pralyti)* . 

21. The Germ (liija), the Prominent Point (hiwlu), the 
Episode (i>ataka), the Episodical Incident (prakarl) and the 
Denouement (k&ry») are the five Elements of the Plot (artlia- 
pralcrti), which should be reckoned and applied in proper manner. 

15 (C. 16 ; K. XIX. 14) 
16(C.17 ; K.XIX.15). 

17 (C18 ; K. XIX. 16). x Emend yat-karyam into tat karyam. See 
NL. 442ff. 18 (C.19 ; K. XIX. 17). 

19 (C.20 ; K. XIX. 18). 

20 (C.21 ; K. XIX. 19) > Sec DR. 1. 19 ; SD. 324 NL. 57-58. 
'See DR. 1. 18 •, SD. 317; NL. 134-135. 

2i (C.22 ; K. XIX. 20). ' See above 20 note 2. 


The Germ 

22. That which scattered in a small measure, expands itself 
in various ways and ends in fruition, is called the Germ (blja) 
of the Plot. 

The Prominent Point 

23. That which sustains the continuity (lit. non-separation) 
till the end of the play even when the chief object [of the play] is [for 
the time being] suspended, is called the Prominent Point (hhidn). 

The Episode 

24. The event which is introduced in the interest of the 
Principal [Plot] and is treated like it, is called an Episode {[Mtaka). 

The Episodical Incident 
2"). When merely the result of such an event is presented 
for the purpose of another (/. >■. the Principal Plot) and it has no 
Secondary Juncture (iinnlhiii'lhiiy it is called the Episodical 
incident (iiiahn't) 2 . 

The Denouement 

26. The efforts made for the purpose of the Principal Plot 
introduced [in play] by the experts, is called the Denouement (kanja). 

27. Among these [Elements] that which has others 'for 
its support (lit. purpose) and to which the rest are taken as 
subordinate, should be made prominent (lit. chief) and not the 
remaining ones. 

22 (C.23 ; K. XIX. 21). ' Cf. DR. I. 17 f SD. 318; NL. 136-137. 

23 (C.24 ; N.XIX. 22). x cf. DR. I. 17; SD. 319; NL. giving a second 
view about the meaning of the bindu says:— 1^ g, qfs *ti3* iwi HiiftlipfflWT^f- 
«rwt nan 1 ' qf*.*^ a T**$: i m\ tts^iw?^ t*atr: namg^flin i t<gf ^ *#t4% 
sfastSnts'Siii i Strait % *wk rftifnrfiw atf# «ftnifafa i « n ^inw wifii' 
1\W[ nfofow: (159ff. 173ff.). There is a third view also ; see. NL. I83ff. 

24(0.25 ; K. XIX. 23). x Cf. DR. I. 13; SD. 320; NL. gives 
also a second view about the meaning of the palaka as follows : TO 
wi.tawmrafctft* taarfyu^ffti (195ff.) 

25 (C.26 ; K. XIX. 24). x As opposed to this, the palaka possesses 
continuity- Anubandho nairantaryena pravartanam (NL. 204). 

8 Cf. DR. 1. 13 ; SD. 321 NL. 199ff. 

26 (C.27 ; K. XIX. 25). x Cf. DR. I. 16; SD. 323; NL- 209ff. Read 
yastu (vrtla, JC) as vastu, C. NL. reads karyatn for vastu. 

37 (C.28 ; K. XIX. 26). ' Cf. NL. 234ff. 


Socondary Juncture ia the Episode 

28. One or more Junctures should ho applied in an Episode 
(patcJca)' "As these serve the purpose oE the Principal [Plot] they 
called Secondary Junctures (aimbundka). 

Limit of the Episode 

29. The Episode should come to an end either at the 
Develoment (ijavbha) or at the Pause (vimaria). Why ? Because 
its treatment is for the purpose of something else (i e. the Prin- 
cipal Plot). 

The Episode Indication 

30. When some matter being taken in hand (lit. already 
thought about), another matter of similar nature (lit. characteris- 
tics) is suggested through an accidental idea (wjniihih^bharn), it is 
called Episode Indication (pntalm-sthaiui). 

The First Episode Indication 

31. The sudden development of a novel meaning (<irthtimni- 
pntti) due to an indirect suggestion, is called the First Episode 

Tbe Second Episode Indication 

32. Words completely carrying double meaning and ex- 
pressed in a poetic language, are called the Second Episode Indi- 

The Third Episode Indication 

33. That which suggests with courtesy the object [of a play] 
in a subtle manner and in the form of a dialogue, is called the 
Third Episode Indication. 

28 (C.29 ; ly XIX. 27). ' Some read anubandha as anusandhi ; cf. 
DR. III. 26-27. 

29 (C.30 ; K. XIX. 28). x Emend tasmul into kasnM. 

30 (C.31 ; K. XIX- 29). * DR.(I. 14) merely defines the term and 
ignores its varieties. But SD. (298-299) follows NS. and defines them. See 
NL. 1000-1001. Sagaranandin says that these should not be applied to the 
last Juncture (nirvahaqa). 

31 (C.32 ; K. XIX. 30). * Emend gunamtyupa" into guna-wtlyupa" 
3 SecSD. 300; NL. 1007- 

32 (C.33 ; K. XIX. 31). l Emend vacasuliZaya" into vacah .tfitisaya". 
See SD. 301 and NL. 101S. 

' 33 (C34 j K. XIX, 32). x See SD. 302; NL. 1021-1022. 


The Fourth Episode Indication 

34. Words with a double meaning expressed in a well-knit 
poetic language and having a reference to something [other than 
what appears at first sight] is called the Fourth Episode Indication. 

35. The poetical composition meant to be acted should have 
thft five Junctures (xandhi) and four Episode Indications (pataJea- 
dhannhi) 1 . I shall next speak of the Junctures. 

The five Junctures 
30. The five Junctures in a drama are the Opening (mnl-ha), 
the Progression (pratimnkha), the Development (jarbhi), the 
Pause (vimaria) and the Conclusion (nirvahana) 1 ■ 

37. The Principal [Plot] is known to be consisting of the 
five Junctures (nandhi). The remaining Junctures are to be 
supported by the Junctures of the Principal [Plot] 1 . 

The Opening 

38. That part of a play, in which the creation of the Germ 
(I'i jo) as the source of many objects and Sentiments takes place, 
is called in consideration of its body the Opening (mnkhn, lit. face) 1 

The Progression 

39. Uncovering of the Germ placed at the Opening after 
it has sometimes been perceptible and sometimes been lost, is called 
the Progression (pratimukha). 

The Development 

40. The sprouting of the Germ, its attainment or non- 
attainment and search for it, is called the Development (i/arbha) 1 . 

The Pause 

41. One's pause (vimaria, lit. deliberation) over the Germ 
(Inja) that has sprouted in the Development (garbha) on account 

34 (C.35; K.XIX.33). x See SD. 303; NL. 1033. 

35 (C.36; K.XIX.84). 

36 (C.37; K.XIX.35), x See DR. I. 23-24; SD. 331-332; NL. 458. 

37 (C.38; K.XIX.36). x These relate to the Subsidiary Plot. 

38 (C.39; K.XIX.37). ' See DR. 1 24-25; SD.333; NL. 536f. quotesNS. 

39 (('.40; K.X1X.38). l Cf. DR. I. 30 r SD. 334; NL. 684f. 

40 (C.41; K.XIX.39). l Cf. DR. I. 36; SD. 335; NL. 7l0f. 

41 (C.42; K.XIX.40). 


of some temptation, anger or distress, is called the Juncture of that 
name (i.e, Pause) 1 . 

The Conclusion 

42. Bringing together the objects [of the Junctures] such as 
the Opening (mukha) etc. along with the Germ [b\ja), when they 
have attained fruition, is called the Conclusion {uirva liana) 1 . 

43. These are Junctures of the Nataka to be known by the 
producers of a drama. They may occur in the Prakarana and 
the other types of plays as well. 

Junctures vary in different types of drama 

44. The Dima 1 and the Samavakara 2 are to have four 
Junctures, and the playwright should never make the Pause 
(vimaria) in them. 

45. The Vyayoga 1 and the Ihamrga 2 are to have three 
Junctures. There should be no Development and Pause 
{avamaria = vimaria) in these two, and the Graceful (kaffilfi) Style 
also has no place in them. 

46. The Prahasnna 1 , the Vithi 2 , the Anka s and the 
Bhana 4 are to have only two Junctures which should be the 
Opening (mulcha) and the Conclusion {nirvahatui), and their Style 
should be the Verbal one (bhavaii). 

47* These are the Junctures to bo adopted by the pro- 
ducers in the ten types of play, Listen now about different kinds 
of Junctures which also will as it were mark their limits. 

' DR. I. 53 calls this avamaria. SI). 336; NL. 770ff, gives two more 
definations of this Juncture. Read the second hemistich as ffftsre^ *ifq 

42 (C.43; K-XIX.41). l Emend the first hemistich as follows :— 
WIWH wM <j«irant «Mim. Cf. DR. I. 4849; SD. 337; NL. 554 f. 

43 (C.44; K.XIX. 42). 

44 (C.45; K.XIX-44a, 43b). ' See NS. XX. 90ff. 2 Sec ibid 78iT. 

45 (C.46; K.XIX.43a, 44b). > See N& XX. 84if. * See ibid. 64ff. 

46 (04748; K.XIX. 45). i See NS. XX. 102IK - See ibid 112ir. 
8 Sec ibid 94ff. * Sec ibid 107ff. 




48-50. The twentyone Sub-junctures are as follows 1 : Con- 
ciliation (soma), Dissention (hheda), Making Gifts (pradana), 
Chastisement (dantfa), Killing (vadha), Presence of Mind {pratynt- 
panmmatitoa), Blunder in Addressing (gotra-skhalita), Rashness 
(sahasa). Terror (bhaya), Intelligence (dlu), Deceit (maya), Anger 
(krodha), Strength (o/ns), Concealment (mmvarawi), Error (hhanti), 
Ascertainment (avadharawi) 2 , Messenger {duta), Letter (lelcha), 
Dream (svapna), Portrait (citra) and Intoxication (mada). 
Alternative Junctures 

51 The events of the Junctures in their respective parts 
(pradesv) 1 will in duo order support those Limbs [of the Junctures] 
by means of their own qualities. 

The sixfold needs of the Limbs of the Junctures 

52-53. Expressing 1 the desired object, non-omission of 
any essential item in the Plot, accession to feeling in production, 
concealment of the objects to be concealed, telling tales of surprise 2 
and disclosing things to be disclosed are the sixfold needs of the 
Limbs described in the Sastra 3 . 

Uses of the Limbs of the Junctures 

54. Just as a man without all his limbs are unable to fight 
a battle, so a play without the Limbs will be unfit for [successful] 
production 1 . 

55. A play (lit, a poem) though it may be poor as regards 
its theme (lit. meaning) will, when furnished with requisite Limbs, 
attain beauty because of the brilliance of its production. 

48-50 (C.49-51: KXIX.Mb, 103b). l NL. 925ff. seems to give this 
passage more correctly with slight variation. The Sub-junctures (sandhi- 
mm sandhi) are to be distinguished from the Secondary Junctures 
(anubandha—anusandhi. DR. 111.26 mentioned in 28 before. 

8 Bead bhavah for vadhah. 

51 (C.52; K.XIX.47). ' Pradeia seems to signify Sub-juncture 
{sandhinam sandhi) discussed in 50 above. See NL. 923. 

52-53 (C.53-54; K.XIX.48-49). ' Read vacanam for racana. 

3 Emend akaryavad abhikhyatam into mcaryavad abhikhyamm. 

, Cf.DR.I.55;SD.407ff. 

54 (C.55; K.XIX.49a, 60a). » Cf. SD. 407ff. 

55 (C.66; K.XIX.50a, 61a). 


56. And a play having lofty theme, but devoid of [requisite] 
Limbs, will never capture the mind of the good [critics] because of 
its [possible] poor production. 

57. Hence in applying the Junctures [in a drama] the 
playwright should give them their Limbs properly. Now listen 
about about them [in detail]. 

The sixtyfour Limbs of the Junctures 
58-59. The Limbs of the Opening (mnlcha) are ; Sugges- 
tion (apulcsepa), Enlargement {pariham), Establishment (parinyasa), 
Allurement (vilobhana), Decision (ytikti), Accession (p'apti), Settl- 
ing {mnadhana), Conflict of Feeling (vidhaiia), Surprise (pariblia,' 
mm), Disclosure (mlbheda), Activity {luuana), and Incitement 
(hheda). Now listen about the Limbs in the Progression 1 . 

60-61. The Limbs of the Progression (pro. timukha) are: 
Amorousness (vilwsa), Pursuit (parixarpa), Refusal (eidhuta), Pessi- 
mism (tqpana), Joke (narnui), Flash of Joke (narmndyuti), Moving 
Forward (pragamana), Pacification (parijupaxana), Sweet Words 
(puspn), Thunderbolt (mjra) 1 . 

62-64. The Limbs of the Development (ijnrlha) arc : Mis- 
statement (alihutahamnn), Indication (marga), Supposition (mpn), 
Exaggeration (ndaharam), Progress (knimn), Propitiation (nam- 
graha), Deduction (mam), Supplication (prdrtham), Revelation 
(alcsipta), Quarrel (Malcn), Outwitting (adhibala), Dismay (iiiheyu) 
and Consternation (n'ulrara) 1 . 

64-66. The Limbs of the Pause (cimarsa = avcmria) are : 
Censure (apacada), Angry Words (sampkHa), Insolence {aMddram) 
Placation (iilcti), Assertion (uyaoasaya), Reverence (pramnga), 
Rebuke (dyuti), Lassitude (Uiedix), Opposition (n'uedhaua), 

16 (C.57; K.XIX,5lb, 52n). 57 (C.58;K.XIX.52b, 53a). 

5S-5P (C.59-60; K.XlX.53b, 25a). T Sec DR. I. 25-26; SD. 338; NL. 

69 61 (C.61-62; K.XIX.55b, 57). » DR. I. 31-32 reads samana for 
tupana; SD. 351. NL. 645ff. 

62-64 (C.63-65; K.XIX.58-59). > DR. I. 37-38, omits prarthana and 
vidrava, adds sambhrama, and gives aksipla as uksepa ; SD. 365. See NL. 
724ff. 64-66 (C.65-67; K.XIX.60-6]). 


Altercation (virodhana), Sumning up (adana), Concealment (cha- 
dana), and Foresight (prarocana)' 1 - 

66-69. The Limbs of the Conclusion are : Junction (san~ 
dhi), Awakening (vibodha), Assembling {gralhana), Ascertainment 
(nirryiyd)t Conversation (paribli&sana), Confirmation {dhrti), Grati- 
fication {pras&da), Joy (aiianda), Deliverance (samaya), Surprise 
(apaguhana), Clever Speech (bhatana), Retrospect (purvavakya), 
Termination of the Play (kavya-samhara) and Benediction.(pras(tsh'). 
These are the sixtyfour Limbs of the Junctures [in a play] 1 . 
Limbs of the Opening 
C'J. I shall now give their definitions in due order 1 . 

Suggestion (upalwpa) is the origin of the object of the play. 2 

70. Enlargement (ijarikdra) is the amplification of the object 
originated 1 . 

Describing it (i. e. the object) thoroughly is called Establish- 
ment (panni/asa) 2 . 


71. The mentioning of good qualities is known as Allure- 
ment (vilobhana) 1 . 

1 Emend vidrava into abhidrava. DR. 1. 44-45. omits abhidrava, 
kheda, nixedhana and sadana and adds vidrava, drava chalana and 
vicalana; SD. 378IF. follows NS. except that abhidrava. appears there as 
drava; chadana should bo emended into sadana; see NL. 798ff. 

66-68 (0.67-69; K.XIX.62-63). ' Emend dyuti. See SD. 391 reads 
krti as dhrti. DR. I. 49-50 gives dhrti as krti, pfirvavakya as piirvabkava, 
upasatnhara as kavyasamhara. NL. 850ff. omits sandhi and vibodha, gives 
dhrti as dyuti, and instead of the first two gives artha and anuyoga. 

a Or. DR. I. 40; SD. 374; NL. 755. 

69 (C.71;K.XIX.64b-95a). ' C. reads before this another couplet 
which in trans, is as follows : For the development of the Germ, all these 
(i.e. 64 limbs) should make up the Junctures properly and Lave clear 
meanings. This does not occur in K. 

" See NL. 556; SD. 338 Cf. DR. I. 27. 

TO (C.73; K.XiX.65b-66a). ' See NL. 569; SD. 340 DR. I. 27. 

" Soe NL. 575; SD. 341; DR. I. 27. 

71 (C73; K.XIX.69b-67a). ' See DR. I. 27; SD. 342; NL. 586. 


Settling the issues is called Decision (yuMi)*. 

72. Accession (prapti) is summing up the purpose of the 
Opening (mukha) 1 . 


Settling (sam&'lhana) is summing up the purpose of the 
Germ (blja)*. 

Conflict of Feelings 

73. Joys and sorrows occurring in a situation, is called 
onftict of Feelings (v'ulltana) 1 . 

Surprise (paribhauana) is an excitement giving rise to 
curiosity 2 . 

7-1. The sprouting of the purpose of the Germ (blja), is 
called Disclosure (lulbheda) 1 . 


Taking up the matter in question is called Activity (luirana) 2 

75. That which is meant for disrupting an union is called 
Incitement (bheda) 1 . 

These are the limbs of the Opening (nmlcha). 

Limbs of the Progression 
I shall now speak of those of the Progression (pratimulcha). 

2 See SD. 343; DR. 1. 28; Haas translates it differently, SD. 343 and 
NL. 593 seem to misunderstand this definition. 

72 (C.74; K.X[X.67b-68a). ' Emend sukkartka" to mukkartha'. 
Sec NL. 598-599. DR. I. 28; and SD. 344 follows what scans to bo a wrong 
reading of the NS. J Sec NL. 605 f. Cf. DR, 1. 28; SD. 345. 

73 (C.75; K.XIX.68b-69a). » See DR. I. 28; SD. 346; NL. 609-610. 
2 See NL. 617; Cf. DR. I. 29; SD. 347. 

74 (C.76; K.XIX.69b-70). » See SD. 348; NL. 620. Cf. DR. I. 29. 
1 See SD. 349; NL. 623. Cf. BR 1. 29. 

75 (C.77; K.XDX.70W. l See NL, 626; SD. 350. Cf. DR. I. 29. 



76. Amorousness (vilasa) is the desire for the pleasure of 
love {rati) 1 . 

Pursuit (parisarpa) 2 is the pursuing of an object once seen 
and then lost. 


77. Refusal (vidhuta) 1 is not complying with the request 
made [by any one]. 

Thinking about (lit. seeing) some danger [in future] is called 
Pessimism (tapctna) 2 . 


78. The laughter which is meant for sports is called Joke 
(narma) 1 . 

Plash of Joke 
The laughter which is meant for concealing one's fault is 
called Flash of Joke (ntmna-dynli) 2 . 

Moving Forward 

79. Speaking words which bring in other words after them 
is called Moving Forward (jirotjamana) 1 . 

Appearance of some calamity is called Hindrance (nirodha) 2 . 


80. Conciliating an angry person is called Pacification 
{parijnpasana) 1 . 

76(C.78;K.XIX.7L). l See SD. 352; NL. 650ff. Of. DR. I. 32. 
2 Sec SD. 353; DR. I. 32-33. Cf. NL. 657. 

77 (C.79; K.XIX.7 I). ' Cf.-NL 663; DR. I. 33; SD. 354 has vidhrta 
for vidhuta. 

2 See NL. 669 Cf. SD. 355 defines it as upayadarsana. DR. 
defines sama instead of thpana (1.33). 

78 (C.80: K.XIX.73). ' Cf. DR. I. 33; DR. 356; NL. 1310CT. 
s Cf. DR. I. 33; SD. 357; NL. 672. 

79 (C.80; K.X1X.74). 'Read utlaroltaram vakyam tu bhaveipra- 
gamanam. Cf. NL. 676; DR I. 34; SD- 358. 

s See NL. 683; DR. 1.34; SD. 359 reads virodha for nirodha. 

80 (C.82; K.XIX75). > Sec NL. 687. Cf. DR 1. 34; SD. 360. ' 


Sweet Words 
Mentioning some favourable peculiarity is called Sweet 
Words (puspa, lit. flower) 3 . 

81. Harsh words uttered on one's face is' called Thunderbolt 
(vajra) 1 . 

Reference (npanyasa) is a remark based on reason. 

Meeting of Castes 
• 82. Coming together of the four castes is called Meeting 
of Castes (varna-samhara) 1 . 

These are the Limbs of the Progression Qyrntimnl-hi). 

Limbs of the Development 
Now listen about those in the Development (gnrhha). 

83. [A speech] founded on deceit is called Mis-statement 
(hipalaxrayn) 1 . 

Speaking out [one's] real intention (lit. reality) is called 
Indication (maiyo) 2 . 


84. A hypotliesis with which novel meanings are combined, 
is called Supposition (rupa) 1 . 

A speech with an overstatement is called Exaggeration 
(wlaharana) 2 . 

2 Cf . DR. 1. 34; SD. 361 ; NL. 691. 

81 (C.83; K.XIX.76). ' Emend pratyaksa-nifiam into praiyakm- 
ruhsam, Cf. NL. 697; I. 35 8D. 362. 

s SccNL. 700; cf. DR. I. 35; SD. 363ff. defines it differently and 
refers to the view of the N$ as kecit tu etc. 

82 (C.84; KN.XIX.77). l NL. 704ff. dofiucs it as varnitasyarthasya 
tiraskaro (concealing the matter expressed), and refers to the view of the 
N8. as caturmm varnanam sammelanam apike'pimrnayanti. Sec SD. 
364; DR. I. 36. 

83 (C.85; K.XIX.78). » Cf. DR. I. 38; SD. 365; NL. 727. 
! Cf.SD.366;NL730;DR.1.38. 

84 (C.86; K.XIX.79). l Cf. DR. I. 39; SD. 367; NL. 735. 

3 Cf. NL. 738; DR. I. 39; SD. 36K 


85. Foreseeing of what is coming afterwards, is called 
Progress (krama) 1 . 

Use of sweet words and gift, is called Propitiation (samgraha)*, 

80. Perceiving something by the name of a thing similar to 
it in form, is called Deduction (anumd/na) 1 . 
Request for love's enjoyment (rati), rejoicing, festivity and 
the like, is called Supplication {pr or than a)*. 

87. The unfolding [of the Germ] in the Development 
(ijni-hha), is called Revelation (aMpta) 1 . 

An angry speech is called Quarrel (toiah) 2 . 

88. Cheating of a deceitful person is called Outwitting 

(inlhibal<i) x . 

Fear arising from the king, an enemy or a robber is called 

Dismay (udvega) 2 . 

Panicky Commotion 

89. Flurry caused by fear from the king or fire is called 
Panicky Commotion (wlrava) 1 . 

These are the Limbs in the Development (garbha). 

Limbs of the Pause 
Now listen about those in the Pause {aramaria =■ rimark). 

85 (C.87; K.XIX.80). ' Emend bhavaktvo into bhavilatvo. Cf. SD. 
;69; NL. 740;DR. I. 39. a Cf. SD. 370; NL. 744; DR. 1. 40. 

'86 (C.88; K.XIX.81). » Cf. NL. 746; DR. I. 40; SD. 371. 

2 Cf. SD. 372; DR. I. 40. NL. 749. jr. 

87(C.89;K.X1X.82). ' Cf. DR. I. 42 has aksepa; SD|$73 has 
iipti=aksipli; NL. 751 has ulksipta. Jf 

88 (6.90s K.XIX. 83). ' Cf. SD. 375; DR. 1. 40; NL. 7Jf 
' Cf. SD. 376; NL. 761; DR. I. 42. 

89 (C.91; K.XIX. 84a). l Cf. DR. I. 42; SD. 377. JT766. 




90. Proclaiming anyone's fault is called Censure (apavada). 1 

Angry Words 
Words spoken in anger are called Angry Words (mmpheia) 2 . 


91. Trangression of the superiors is called Insolence 
{abhi-drava) 1 . 

Allaying of disagreement [with anyone] is called Placation 
(«i) a . 


92. A promise made on account of some reason is called 
Assertion {vyavasaya) 1 . 


Mentioning one's superiors is called Reverence {prasahga) 2 . 


93. Words spoken in contempt are called Rebuke (dyuti) 1 . 

Fatigue arising from a mental effort is called Lassitude (kheda). 

94. Obstruction to one's desired object is called Opposition 
(nisedha) 1 . 

Speaking and counter-speaking in excitement is called 
Altercation (virodham)". 

90 (C.92; K.XIX.84b-85a). l See NL. 801; Cf. DR. I. 45; SD. 378. 
* See NL. 8\)7, Cf. DR. I. 45; SD. 379. 

91 (C.93; KXIX.86b-86a). ' Emend vidrava into abhidrava. Sec 
gNL.813. SD.381 and DC. I. 45, has drava in place of abhidrava. 

1^ ' Emend virodhopagamo into virodhopaiamo ; cf. NL, 819; DR. I 

3-94; K.XIX.87a-86b). * Emend pratimjdosa into pratijiMetu 
■ SD. 380 DR. 1. 47. 

Bj SD. 384. NL. 826 defines differenely. 

>.). ' Cf. NL. 829; DR. I. 46, SD.382; SD. 385. 
. 385. 

g3 8, and SD. 386 has pratisedha in place of this. 
s CfTIH ^840; SD. -387. 


Summing up 

95. Bringing together (lit. attaining) [all aspects] of the 
Germ (blja) and the action is called Summing up (adana) 1 . 

Putting in insulting words for some purpose is called 
Humiliation (sadana) 2 . 


96. That which represents the Conclusion (samhara) [in 
advance] is called Foresight (prarocaiia) 1 . 

These are the limbs in Pause (avairma - vimaria). 

The Limbs in Conclusion 
Now listen about those in the Conclusion (nmhara - 

07. The coming up of the Opening (mulchu) and the Germ 
is called Junction {miulhi} 1 . 

Looking duly for the Denouement {karya) is called 
Awakening (vibodha) 3 . 


98. Intimation of [the various aspects] of the Denouement 
is called Assembling (gralliana) 1 . 

Declaration of facts personally known is called Ascertainment 
(iiirnaya) 1 . 


99. That which is said to blame some one, is called 
Accusation (parilhasajiaY . 

95 (C.97; K.XIX. 99). 1 See NL. 844, DR. I. 48; SD. 389. 

a Emend chadana into sadana. See NL. 848. DR. I. 46 has wrongl> 
chalana for sadina SD. 390 also lias chadana wrongly, 

96 (C.98; K.XIX.88a, 91a). ' See SD. 388; NL. 850. DR. I 47. 

97 (C.99; K.XIX. 91b-92a). ' Emend sukhabijo into mukhaiijo ; cf. 
DR. I. 51jSD. 392. 

a Cf. DR. I. 51; SD. 393. 

98 (C100; E.XXI.92b-93a). ' Cf. DR. I. 51, SD. 394; NL. 864. 
3 Cf. S. 895; DR. I. 51 ; NL. 870. 

99 (C.101; K.XIX.93b-94a). ' Cf. NL. 873; SD. -396, DR. I. 52 
defines the Limb differently. 


Turning to use (lit. conquering) the object gained is called 


100. Treating one with waiting upon or the like, is called 
Gratification [prasada) 1 . 


Attaining objects [of one's desire] is called Joy (ananda) 2 . 

101. Passing away of all misery, is called Deliverance 
(isamayaj 1 . 


Appearence of something wonderful is called Surprise 
(npaguhana) 3 . 

Clever Speech 

102. Words mentioning conciliation, gift and the like arc 
called Clever Speech (bhasana) 1 . 

Retrospect dmrva-rakya) 2 is to be understood as a reference 
to something spoken before. 


10:5. Giving and receiving of a boon is called Termination 
(batya-samhara) 1 . 


[A prayer seeking perfect] peace to the king and the country 
is called Benediction (praiasti)'. 

101. With a view to introducing Sentiments (n*.«i) and 

I Emend dyuli into dhtfi Cf. DR I. 53; SD, 307. 

100 (C.102; K.XIX.94b-95a), 1 Cf. NL. 879; SD. 398; DR; I. 52. 
' Cf. NL. 881; SD. 399; DR I. 52. 

101 (Cl03;K.XIX.95b-96a). * Cf. DR. I. 52; SD. 400; NL 883. 
» Cf. NL. 889; SD. 401 ; DR. I. 53. 

102 (C.104; KXIX.96b-97a). ' Cf. SD. 402; DR. I. 53. NL. 891. 
* Cf. NL. 891; SD. 403. 

103 (C.105; KXIX.97a-98a). ' Sec SD. 404; cf. NL. 893, DR. I. 54. 
" Read nrpa-deia. Cf. SD. 405, NL. 895, DR. I. 54. 

1.04 (C.106; K.XIX.88b-99a). > Cf. SD. 406; NL. 906. 


States {bhava) an expert playwright should insert all these 
Limbs into appropriate Junctures of his work T . 

105. Considering [the scope] of the Action or its condition 
he may sometimes insert all the Limbs or a combination of two 
or three [of them] into the Junctures 1 . 

Five Explanatory Devices 
IOC. The Supporting Scene (mlcambhalca), the Intimating 
Speech (culika), the Introductory Scene (pravesaka), the Transi- 
tional Scene (ahkavatara), and the Anticipatory Scene (nhkaumkho) 
are five Explanatory Devices (arthopaksepaka) 1 . 
The Supporting Scene 

107. The Supporting Scene (viskambhaka) 1 should employ 
the middling 3 male characters, relate to the opening Juncture 
(nuikhasandhi) 3 only of the Nataka, and it is [to be] graced (lit. 
refined) by a priest, minister or Kaucukin (armour-bearer). 

108. The Supporting Scene is of two kinds ; pure and 
mixed. Of these the pure is made up of the middling characters 
and the mixed of the inferior and the middling ones. 

The Intimating Speech 

109. When some points are explained by a superior, mid- 
dling or inferior character from behind the curtain, it is called the 
Intimating Speech (citlika) 1 . 

105 (O.107; K.XIX.99b-100a). ' See above 104 note 1. 

106 (C.108; K.X1X,1U4). » Cf. DB. I 58; SD. 308. NL. 393. Haas 
translates arthopahepaka as "Intermediate Scenes", sec p. 33. But the 
'Explanatory Devices' are all not complete scenes but parts of scenes, 
vide infra. 

107 (C.109; K XIX.105). ' Cf. SD. 308; DR. 338; DR. I. 59 Emend 
vkkamllmkas lu samskrta into viskiimbhakah samskrtah NL. 362 f . quotes 
the view of Carayana as follows: W iRflifti^ ftwff iffl. {Viskambhaka 
relates to the Prakaraiia and the Nataka 'only). It seems that such was 
the case at a later stage of the development of Indian drama. First it 
related to the Niitakas only. ( 

a For a definition of the middling character see NS. XXXIV. 4 
3 According to this direction the viskambhaka at the beginning of 
Pauca. would be an ideal one. 108 (O.110; K-XlX.106). 

109 (C.lll; K.X1X.107). ' Cf. NL. 414 f., 438f.; DR. 1. 61; SD. 310. 


The Introductory Scene 

110. The Introductory Scene (praveiaka) in relation to (he 
Nataka and the Prakarana, is to occupy a place between two 
Acts and to treat the summary of the Prominent Point {bindu)*. 

111. The Introductory Scene should be known as not con- 
sisting of the exploits of the superior and the middling characters 
and there should be no exalted speech in it, and its language 
should be Prakrit 1 . 

The Transitional Scene 

112. As in practice it falls between two Acts or within an 
Act, and relates to the purpose of the Germ (h'tjn), it is called the 
Transitional Scene (ahkavatara). 

The Anticipatory Scene 

113. When the detatched beginning of an Act is summa- 
rised beforehand by a male or a female character, it is called the 
Anticipatory Scene [ahhmiukha) 1 . 

An ideal Nataka 
114-117. The playwright should write a Nataka having 

110 (C.112; K.XIX.108). ' Cf. DR. I. 60-61; SD 309; NL. 307ff. 

111 (C.113; K.XIX.109). ' See NS. XX. 32- Cf. DR. I. 60-61. SD. 
309. C. gives one additional couplet after this. But this (not occuring in 
K.) seems to give no new information. 

112 (C.115; K.XIX.110). ' Cf. DR. I. 62.63; SD. 311; NL. 398-399. 
The def • is not very clear. The ahkavatara seems to furnish an indication 
of the subject-matter of the next Act. An example of this seems to bo 
the dialogue of the Ccti and Vasavadattii at the end of the Act II. of 
Svapna. This relates to the making of a garland by Vasavadattii. 
Another example may be Avimaraka speaking <W «W. I sW H^ $1*1- 
»uJl«i **W<S«U 1331'5'refa «rcnrai:, II. 5-6. This gives a clue to the 
subject-matter of the next Act which treats AvimSraka's entry into tho 
royal harem. 

118(C.116;K.X1X111). ' The ankamukha seems to relate mostly 
to plays other than of tho Nataka and the Prakarana types. Examples of 
this arc perhaps the speeches of the Bhata in the beginning of the Karna, 
and of the Datagha., The reason for the abovo assumption is that 
the rules prescribe viskantbhaka for Natakas only (seo 107), and 
pmveiakax for both Natakas and Prakaranas (see 110). Cf. DR. I 
62; SD. 312, 313;'NL. 408. 

' 114-117 (0117-180! K.XIX.112-J15). 


[different] Styles and minor Limbs {^ratijahga) 1 , Episode Indication 
(pataJca) 2 , Explanatory Devices (athapratileriya)* arising from the 
five stages (avastha)*, having five Junctures (sandlii) 6 , twentyone 
Alternative Junctures , sixtyfour Limbs (aitga) 1 , thirtysix 
lakmwis*, Gunas (excellence) 9 and figures of speech (alamkara) 10 , 
many Sentiments 11 , topics of many enjoyments, exalted speeches, 
characters of great people, description of good conduct, and it should 
be popular, wellknit in its Junctures, easy for production [on the 
stage], composed with soft words and capable of giving pleasure. 

118. The condition of the world arising from the happiness 
and misery and connected with the activity of various people should 
find a place in the Nataka 1 . 

119. There is no wise maxim, no learning, no art or craft, 
no device, no action that are not found in the drama (natya) 1 . 

120. And the human nature with its joys and sorrows 
depicted through the means of representation such as Gestures, 
[Words, Costume and Temperament] is also called a drama (naiya) 1 , 

121. A mimicry of the past exploits of gods, sages, and 
human beings should be also called a drama 1 . 

122. As [this] is represented (nhhinvjate) and interpreted 
{gamyate} by the actors who after suppressing their own nature 
make [for this purpose] various movements of their different limbs, 
it is called the Nataka 1 . 

1 Praiijahga has not boon defined anywhere. It is possible that 
the reading is corrupt. 

* Palaku hero stands for fiatuka-st/iutiaka just as "Bhinm" for 
"Bhlmaseua", sec above 30ff. 

3 Arthapratikriya is only a synonym of arthaprakaft. Sec 
before 20ff. * See before 6ff. 5 See before 35ff. 

6 See before 48ff. ' See before 58ff. 8 See NS. XVII. Iff. 

» See NS. XVH.96ff. ' ° See NS. XVII.43ff. ' > So NS. VI. 

118 (C. 121; K.XIX.U6). ' Cf. NS. 1.120 

119 (C122; K.XIX.U7). 1 See NS. 1.116 

120 (C.123; K.XIX.118). f- See NS. 1.121 

121 (C124; K.XIX.119). » See N& 1120 

122 (C.125; K.XIX120). x This very clearly defines the artistic 
character of drama. 


123. The Nataka is to be so composed as to include all 
States, Sentiments, inclination to all deeds, and the various condi- 
tions [of men and nature] 1 . 

124. The various arts and crafts produced by human beings 
may be applied in the Nataka 1 in their endless forms 1 . 

125. One is to construct a Nataka [onlyj after observing 
the human character, strength and weakness of men, their [mode 
of] enjoyment and reasoning 1 . 

126. In succeeding ages men will be diffident in wisdom ; 
hence those who will be born [after us] will have small learning 
and intellect. 

127. When the world deteriorates, men's intellect, activity, 
[production of] crafts and skill in arts will dwindle. 

123. Hence after observing the strength and the weakness 
of human feeling, one should compose the Nataka with ptanent and 
easily intelligible words. 

120. The plays (lit. poems) which contain | harsh], words 
like ci'l-ii4'da x is repulsive (lit. do not shine) like a courtezan in the 
company of a Brahmin bearing a Kamandalu. 

130. Brahmins, I have spoken about the Plot with its 
Junctures and Limbs. I shall hereafter speak of the characteristics 
of the Styles. 

Here ends chapter XXI of Bharata's Niityasiistra, 
which treats of the Limbs of the Junctures. 

123 (C.126; K.XIX.121). x Cf. Nli 1.113 

124 (C.127; K.XIK.122). ' Emend ekakama into lokakarma. 

125 (C.128; K.XIX. 123). x This puts emphasis on depicting charac- 
ters in a drama. 

126 (C.129; KXIX.124). 127 (0.130; K.XIX.125). 

128 (C.131-, K.XIX.126). 

129 (C.132; K.XIX.127). 1 Bhiisa actually uses the root of this verb 
form in his Avi. (11L18.0). 

13 ) (C.133; K.XIX.128). 


The origin of the Styles 

1. I shall now explain in detail (lit. from the beginning) the 
rise of the Styles (vrtli) and [in relation to them] the origin and 
the formation of dramas 1 . 

2-P>. When the lord Aeyuta (Visnn) after reducing the 
universe into a single [vast] ocean and compressing the creation 
[into a seed] by his supernatural power, was lying on the couch of 
snake, the two Asuras Madhu and Kaitabha maddened with the 
pride of their strength challenged the god at once for battle 1 . 

4-5. These two, after making gestures of challenge, (lit. 

rubbing their arms) fought the imperishable lord Visnu (lihuta- 

bhavana, lit. the creator of beings) with their fists and legs (lit. 

knees), and while doing so they also assailed him (lit. one another) 

with harsh words and shook as it were the ocean with their 

reviling speech 1 . 

The origin of the Verbal Style 

6-7. Hearing the various [abusive] words of these two who 
were threatening 1 [Visnu], Druhina (Brahman) was slightly per- 
turbed in mind and said, "Is it the bhamli r?'/j that start with 
these words [for the fighters] and goes on increasing sttige by 
stage ? Kill the two [at once]." 

8-10. Hearing these words of Pitamaha (Ikalmum), 
Madhusudana (Visnu) said, "Yes, I have made this bhamll rrtli 

1 (C.l; K.XX.1). ' Sagaranandin explains the vriti as follows: 

fwTOCTt I foftfo, NL. 1044ff. 

2-3. (C.2-3; K.XX.2-3). ' The story of Naruyana's reducing the 
three worlds into 'a singlo ocean' occurs in the Ram. VII. 72- ; Kurma 
P. XIII. See JK. under Visnu (8) and Narayana (8). 

4-5 (C.4-5; K.XX.4-5). ' Madhu and Kaitabha charged Narayana 
with the theft of the Vodas. Riira. VII. 72. Sec JK. under Kaitabha. 

6-7 (C.6-7; K.XX.6-7). • EtaenAgarjaloh into tarjatoh (farjatitm, K). 

8-10 (C.8-10; K.XX.8-10). 


for the purpose of ray work. It will be the bh&raU vrtti of the 
speaker, in which words will preponderate. I shall kill these two 
Asuras today". So saying Hari (Visnu) with his perfect gestures 1 
and Angaharas* severely fought these two Daityas who were 
experts in the method of battle. 

11. At that time Hari's pacing with the Sthanakas 1 on the 
ground created a great bhaiu (burden) on the earth (bhumi); the 
bliaratl rrtti (Verbal Style) was built on that (bhara) 2 . 

The origin of the Grand Stylo 

12. And at that [very] time, by the rebounding of the bow 
named Sarnga which was intensely brilliant, steady and full of 
much sattra (strength) the sfdlvatl vrtti (Grand Style) was made 1 . 

The origin of the Graceeful Stylo 

13. When [in course of fighting] the god moved sportively 
with various Angaharas and tied up his siklia (krga ?) the kaisikl 
vrtti (Graceful Style) was made 1 . 

The origin of the Energetic Style 

14. Then from the various personal combats which were 
full of energy and excitement, and which entailed various Caris 
the Energetic (arabhail vrtti) was made 1 . 

15. Whatever acts the god Brahman observed as arising 
out of the different Styles (rrtti), were associated 1 by him 
(Druhina = Brahman) with words suitable to their meaning. 

16. When the two Asuras Madlm and Kaitabha wore killed 
by Hari (Visnri) Brahman spoke to him (Narayana== Visnu) who 
was the subddupr of foes (ariwlama). 

I ahgaih here means ahgikaih and ahgaharaih. 
a SceNS.rV.19-27,170ff. 

II (Gil j K. XX.11). > See NS\ XI. 49ff. 

8 This is a clear instance of folk-etymology and does not really 
explain the origin of this Style. It possibly comes from tho Bharata 
tribe ; see NS. I. 41 f.n. 

12 (C.12; K.XX.12). T Sec above 11 note 2. 

13 (G13; K.XX.13). ' See above 11 note 2. 

14 (C.14;K.XX.14). > See abovfl 11 note 2. 

, 15 (G15; XX.K.15). ' Emend pratyapujayat into pretty ayojayat. 
• 16(C. 16;K.XX.16). 

-XXI. 25 ] TEN STYLES 403 

The origin of the Nyaya 
17-18. O god, thou hast killed the Danavas tvith various 
clear, expressive and graceful Angaharas ; hence this method of 
personal combat [applicable] in throwing all kinds of missiles in 
this world, will be termed as Nyaya 1 . 

1 9. Even this fight made with the Angaharas which arose 
from the Nyayas and observed them (Nyayas) [in practice] will be 
called the Nyaya 1 . 

20. Then the high-souled Druhina (Brahman) gave over to 
the gods this Style full of various States and Sentiments, [for its 
use] in the production of plays. 

21-22. The name Style ('Hit) was made a repository of the 
various States and the Sentiments. And whatever was made and 
in whatever manner, the exploits of the god (Visnu) were utilised 
by the sages in fashioning the similar Styles arising from the 
Words and the Gestures which have their origin in materials taken 
from the four Vedas 1 , and which also have Words and Gestures as 
their chief characteristics. 

23. These Styles which were desired, wellborn and full of 
various Caris, were again, taken by me at Druhina's command, 
for the purpose of making plays (lit poem) 1 . 

24. The Verbal Style (bkarati vrtti) was from the Kgveda, 
the Grand (xjjtflvatl) from the Yajur-veda, the Graceful (Icaisik't) 
from the Sama Veda and the remaining one (i.e. the Energetic or 
(arabhat'i) from the Atharva [Veda] 1 . 

25. The Style which is to be applied by the male characters 
and not by females and which gives prominent place to speeches 

17-18 (C.17-18; K.XX.1M8). ' See NS. XI. 74ff. 

19 (C.19; K.XX.19). ' See NS. IV. 170ff. ■ 

20 (C.20; K.XX-20a, 21a). 

21-22 (C.21-22; K.XX.21b-23a). ' Emend nalyavcda into caturveda. 

23 (C23; K. XX.20b, 23b). ' Emend 23a as follows, gif^t gsirat 

24 (C.24; K.XX.24). x This is a different story about the origin of 
tlio vrtiis. See before 2-14. 

25 (C.2i ; K.XX.25). 


made in Sanskrit, is used by the eponymous bharatas (actors) as 
bltarall (Verbal) 1 . 

The four varieties of the Verbal Style 
20. It has four varieties such as the Laudation (praro -ana), 
the Introduction (amukha), the Vithl and the Prahasana, and 
these have became its component parts (ahga) 1 . 
The Laudation 
27. The Laudation (prarocana) in the Preliminaries is to 
attain success, prosperity, good luck, victory and removal of all sins. 1 
The Introduction 
28-29. That part of a play where an actress 1 , the Jester or 
the Assistant has a talk with the Director on some relevent topic, 
and they use interesting words or adopt any type of the Vithl or 
talk in any other way is called the Introduction (amul-haY . I 
shall speak in detail about its five varieties (lit. elements). 

The five varieties of the Introduction 
;>0. The Accidental Interpretation (whjhatyaka), the Open- 
ing of the Story (kathoijhaln), the Particular Presentation d»'u'jo- 
gatwyd) the Personal Business, (prarrttaka) and the Transferrence 
(nvahjUa) are the live varieties of the Introduction (ainuhha) 1 . 

:U. Of these the characteristics of the Accidental Interpre- 
tation (ndijhati/iihi) 1 and the Transferrence (avalyUa)* have been 
mentioned by me. 1 shall now speak in detail of the characteristics 
ol the rest. 

Opening of the Story 

\)i. [That Introduction] in which a character enters [the 
stage] taking up a remark of the Director or its meaning, is called 
the Opening of the Story {hdtlwilijhahi) 1 . 

1 NL. ll)54ff. DR. II. 5 ; SD. 274, AP. modifies this dcf. by adding 
str'iyuldh pmhioktitit, Mass, on DR. JII. 5 (p.81). 

26 (C 26; K.XX 26). ' Cf. NL. 1008-69; DR. Ill, 5 ; SD. 285. 

27 (C.27; K.XX.27). ' Cf. NL. 1070-7 Iff; DR. III. 6 j SD. 286. 
28-29 (C.28-29;K.XX.28-29). ' Cf. NL.1178-81, DR. III. 7 SD. 286. 

30 (C.30; K.XX.30). ' Cf. NL. 11-88-89 DR.- HI. 8, SD. 287. 

31 (C 31; K.XX.31). l See NS. XX.117 Cf. NL. 1189 ;. DR. III. 14 
SD. 288. « See Nil. XX. 118; NL. 1192, DR. III. 15; SD. 292. 

' 32 (G.32; K.XX32). > Cf. NL, 1 196; DR. JII. 9; SD. 289. 

■XXI. 89 ] TEN STYLES 405 

Particular Presentation 

33. When, over this production [of the Introduction] the 
Director imposes another production and then a character jenters 
[the stage], it is called the Particular Presentation (prayogatisaya). 1 

Personal Business 

34. [The Introduction] in which the Director speaks on 
some business in hand and taking cue from this (lit. with its help) 
a character enters the stage, it is called the Personal Business 
(pravrttaka) 1 . 

35. Taking up one of these types and skilfully giving double 
meaning to it, the wise [playwright] should construct the Introduc- 
tion by freely assembling different characters 1 . 

36. The wise are thus to know the Introduction with differ- 
ent bases 1 . The characteristics of the Vithl 2 and the Prahasana" 
have been mentioned before. 

37. These are the eight 1 different aspects (lit- meanings) of 
the Verbal Style I spoke of. I shall now explain the rules of the 
Grand Style (saltcali) with its characteristics. 

The Grand Style 

38. The Style which is endowed with the sail cai '« quality, 
the Nyayas, metres, and has exuberance of joy and an under- 
current of the State of sorrow 1 , is called Grand (mttrati) 2 . 

30. The Grand Style is known to consist of representation 
by Words and Gestures, and of strength in speeches and acts 
showing the rise of spirit. 

33 (0.33; K.XX.B5). ' See NL. 1201-1202; DB. III. 11 ; SD. 200. 

34 (0.31; K.XX.32). ' Of. NL. 1214-1215; SI). 201; DR. III. 10. 

35 (0.35; K.XX.35). l i.e. actress, Jester or the Assistant. See 28 

36(C.36;K.XX.36). ' Emend vivbudhitsrayam into vivid 'Afumyam. 
8 Sec NS. XX. lllff. » See NS. XX. lOlff. 

37 (C.37; K.XX.37). x PrarocanS, Vitlii, Prahasana and five 
varieties of Smukha. See before 26-30. 

38 (C.38; K XX.38). ' This shows that no pathetic subject-matter 
should find a place in this Style.. 

3 Sec NL. 1234ff. SD. 416. DR. II. 53. 

39 (C.30; K.XX.39). 


40. It is to contain the Sentiments such as Heroic {vlra), 
the Marvellous (adbhuta) and the Furious (raiidra) and to a small 
extent (alpa) the Pathetic (htruna) and the Erotic {irhgara), and 
characters in it should be mostly majestic and defying one another 1 . 

The four varieties of the Grand Style 

41. It is known to have the four varieties such as challenge 
{utlhapaka), Change of Action (parivartaJta), Harsh Discourse 
(sandapaka) and Breach of Alliance (samghuta) 1 . 


42. One's rising up with a view to conflict after saying "I 
am getting up [for battle, now] show me your own prowess" is 
called the Challenge (ntthapaka) 1 . 

Change of Action 

43. If after leaving the thing which caused the rising 
up, one takes to other things due to some need, it is called the 
Change of Action {parivartaka) 1 . 

Harsh Discourse 

44. Various kinds of words containing abuse or insult 
whether these arise from a challenge or not, are called Harsh 
Discourse {sanilapaka) 1 . 

Breach of Alliance 

45. The stopping of an alliance for the sake of a friend, 1 
money or due to an accident or [one's] own fault, is called Breach 
of Alliance (aamghatay. 

46. These are the eight meanings 1 of the Grand Style that 
I spoke of. I shall hereafter describe the characteristics of the 
Graceful Style (kaiiih vilti) 1 . 

40 (C.40; K.XX.40). l See NL. 1271-1273). 

41 (C.41; K.XX.41). > Cf. DR. ll. 53 SD. 416, NL. 1274ff. 

42 (C.42; KXX.42). * Cf. NL. 1276, 4278. The text on this point 
seems to be corrupt, also cf. DR. II. 54; SD. 416. 

43 (C.43; K.XX.43). ' Cf. DR. II. 55; SD. 419; NL. 1279-1282. 

44 (C44; K.XX.44): » Cf. DR. II. 54; SD. 418, NL. 1288. 

45 (C.45; K.XX.45). ' Read mitrartha-karya. 
8 Cf. NL. 1298-1299; DR. II. 55; SD. 417. 

46 (C.46; K.XX.46). l Utthapaka, parivarttaka, the two kinds of 
samlbpaka and the four kinds of samghata. See before 41, 44, 45. 

-XXI. 52 ] TEN STYLES 407 

The Graceful Style 

47. That Style is called Graceful (kauiH) which is 
specially interesting on account of charming costumes worn 
by [dramatis personae] mostly women, and in which many 
kinds of dancing and singing are included and the themes acted 
are practices of love and arc connected with (lit. arising from) its 
enjoyment 1 . 

The four varieties of the Graceful Style 

48- The Graceful Style is said to have the four varieties 
such as Pleasantry (narman), Beginning of Pleasure (narma' 
phnrja) Unfoldment of Pleasure narma-sphnta) and Covert 
Pleasure (narma- garbha) 1 . 

The three kiuds of Pleasantry 

49. The Pleasantry (narma) which abounds in remarks 
made in jest, is of three kinds : that based on love, that with pure 
laughter and that having Sentiments other than the Heroic 1 . 

oO. The Pleasantry (narman) is known as concerned with 
acts of jealousy and anger, words of rebuke, self-reproach and 
deception of others. 

Beginning of Pleasantry 

51. The Beginning of Pleasantry ( narma- sphurja) is to be 
known as the first meeting [of lovers] in which words and dresses 
exciting love [are in evidence] but which ends in fear 1 . 

Unfoldment of Pleasantry 

52. The Unfoldment of Pleasantry (narma-sphola) is the 
cause of the Sentiment contributed by small fraction of different 
States (bhava) and not by any State as a whole 1 . 

47 (C.47; K.XX.47). » Cf. SD. 411; DR. II. 47; NL. 1304ff. 

48 (C.48; K.XX.48). l Cf. DR. II. 48; SD. 411; NL. I308ff.' 

49 (C.49; K.XX.49). l Cf. DR. II. 48-50; SD. 412; NL. 1310 defines 
narma as follows: <wmr: <jwsNN faifsrsi i wwmifAri w«ot«w(j 
but the dcf. of the NS. as well has been referred to. 

50 (C.50; K.XX.50). 

51 (C.51; K.XX.51). l Cf. NL. 1342-1343; DR. II. 51; SD. 413. 

52 (C.52; K.XX.52). » Cf. DR, H. 51; SD. 414 ; NL. 1836 f. 


Covert Pleasure 
53. When the Hero acts incognito out of any necessity 
through his qualities such as intelligence, [good] appearance and 
affection, it is called Covert Pleasure {uarma-garbha) 1 . 

51, These are the eight different meanings of the Graceful 
Style that I was to speak about. I shall hereafter describe the Ener- 
getic Style (ainhhat't) which is concerned with haughty Sentiment. 1 
The Energetic Style 

55. The Style which includes mostly the qualities of a bold 
person (uivhhalo) such as speaking many words 1 , deception, 
bragging and falsehood, is to be known as Energetic (ambhati) 2 . 

50. The Style in which there is a representation of falling 
down 1 , jumping, crossing over, deeds of magic and conjuration, and 
various kinds of fighting, is called Knergetic (firahhuti) 2 . 
The four varieties of the Energetic Style 

57. It. has varieties such as Compression (wmZ'gi/ifriZ'u), 
Commotion (nra[iatn), liaising Various Feelings (rax1ultha[>nua) 
and Conflict (snw/'/wfa) 1 . 


5S. Compression (*iiml'xii>t<tka) is furnished with workman- 
ship (HI pa) in the true sense of the words and it includes the 

53 (C53;K.XX.53). ' According to Siigaranandin Araihaii is an 
ahga of the Gautli witi: NL. 1:185. Cf. DR. 11. 52; SD. 415; KL. 1338 
f. C. adds an additional def. (0.5-i) of this, but it is wanting in K. 

54 (0.55; K.XX.5J,) l The three kinds of narma, the three kinds 
of manna- garHia and narma-phTirja and narma-sphola. 

55 (C.56; K.XX.55). ' 'Many words' probably mean altercation or 
verbal duel. * Cf. NL. 1318 ff. DR. II. 56-57; SD. 420. 

58 (C.57; K.XX.56). The reading prastif in prasiava" seems to be 
corrupt Emend this to vasiva . 

2 See above 56 note 2. C. adds one more def. (C.58) of arabhati 
but this is wanting in K. Iu trans, it will be as follows : That which 
includes excitement due to an application of the sixfold policy (mjguna), 
running away due to deception of the enemy, and that which relates 
to [material] gain or loss, is called the Energetic Style. 

57 (C.59; K.XX.57). ' Cf. NL. 1356 f. DR. II. 56-57. SD. 420. 

58 (C.60; K.XX.58). ' Cf. DR. II. 57-58, SD. 432, NL. 1358 f. 
gives another def. samksipalaka. 

■XXII. Gfl ] THE STYLES 409 

presentation of model works (pnsla) drawings, and dresses, and 
relates to some condensed matter. 


59. Commotion (avapata) is known to relate to the 
occurrence of fear and jubilation, panic, flurry, many kinds of 
speaking, quick entrance and exist 1 . 

Raising the Theme 

60. That deed which is represented as being connected with' 
panic or no panic, and includes a combination of all the Sentiments 
is called the Raising the Theme (rastutthapnna) 1 . 


01. Conflict (samjilteta) is known to include excitement, 
many fights, personal combats, deception, split and [mutual] 
striking of weapons 1 . 

02. These are the Styles to be reckoned by the wise in 
connexion with the drama. Now listen about their application in. 
different Sentiments, which T urn going to tell you. 

Styles according to Sentiments 

03-64. The Style in the Erotic and Comic Sentiments 
should be Graceful and in the Heroic, the Furious and the 
Marvellous Sentiments it should be Grand. And in the Terrible, 
the Odious and the Furious Sentiments one should use the 
Energetic Style, while the Verbal Style is applicable in the 
Pathetic and the Marvellous Sentiments 1 . 

05. I have spoken properly about the Histrionic Represen- 
tation dependent on Words, Gestures, Temperament and the Styles. 
Now I shall treat of the Costumes and the Make-up used in the 
production of plays. 

Here ends Chapter NXII of Bharata's Natyasastra 
which treats of the Styles. 

59 (C.61; K.XX.59). ' Cf. DR. I. 59. SD. 423; NL. 1368f. 

60 (C.62; K.XX.60). ' Cf. DR. II. 59, SD. 420; NL. I372f, 

61 (C.63; K.XX.61). > Cf. DR. II. 50; SD. 421; NL. 1380f. 

62 (C.64; K.XX.62). 

63-64 (C.65-66; K.XX.63-64). ' Cf. NL.' 1059-1562. DR. EL 62; 
SD. 410. C. repeats after this two couplets from the Ch. VII. (118-119). 
65 (C.69; K.XX.65), 


Necessity of the Costumes and Make-up 

1. I shall similarly speak in due order, Brahmins, 
about the Costumes and Make-up ; for the production [of a play] 
depends on this 1 . 

2. The Extraneous Representation (aharyabttmya) deals 
with the rules of the Costumes and Make-up (n^athja) 2 . Anyone 
who wishes for the success (lit. swell-being) of a dramatic 
production should pay attention to these 1 . 

3. The dramatis perzonae are of different types 1 . Indicated 
first 2 by their Costumes and Make-up they accomplish the repre- 
sentation without much effort by means of Gestures and the like. 

Four kinds of the Costumes and Make-up 

4. The Costumes and Make-up (nepathya) are of four 
kinds ; model work (pvsta) 1 , decoration (alamlara), painting 
the limbs (ahga-racana) and living creatures (mnjlva). 

The four kinds of model-work 

5. [Of these] the model-work is of three kinds and of 
various forms. They are : the Joined Object (sandhima), the Indi- 
cating Object (vyajima) and the Wrapped Object (veslima) 1 . 

6. The model work which is made up of mat, cloth, skin and 
the like, is called the Joined Object (sandh.ima) 1 . 

1 (C.l; K-XXI.l). ' K. rcabs lb differently. 

2 (C.2; K.XXI.3). l C. reads after this an additional couplet. 

3 (C.4; K.XXI.2). ' Nanavastha—nanaihitta ya iokudya nana- 
hhutc&rayw ca (Ag. p. 429). 

1 Read purvam {purva, C.) nepalhya-sucitah (sveikah, C. sadkHali) 

4 (C.5; K.XXI.4). ' K. mukla for fiusta. 

* K. natyahga-racana for talhahga-racana. 

5 (C.6; KXXI.5). ' Ceslimah, C. for vestimah, K. 

6 (C.7; K.XXL6). * Sandhimah—sandKanatayu. nirwUah (Ag. 
p. 429). 


7. That which is made by mean* of a mechanical device 
((/antra) is called an Indicating Object (vijajima) 1 and that which is 
produced by wrapping, is called a Wrapped Object (vestima)*. 

8. Hills, carriages, lofty palaces, shields, armours, banner- 
staffs and elephants 1 which are constructed for use in a dramatic 
performance are called model- works {pasta). 

!). Decorations (alamkant) are known to consist of flower- 
garlands, ornaments and drapery which are differently used on 
different parts of the [human] body. 


10. Garlands are of live kinds : encircling (cestita) 1 , spread- 
up (vitata), grouped (aamghaya) 2 , tied-round (granthima), and 
hung-down (pralambita). 

Four kinds of ornament 

11. Ornaments of the body are known by the wise to be of 
the four kinds : that to be fixed by piercing the limbs (aoeiUiya) 1 , 
that to be tied up (liaibtlhamya), that to be worn (praksepya), and 
that to be put round (aropya) 2 . 

Piercing ornaments 

12. [Of these, the ornaments] to be fixed by piercing the 
limbs are ear-rings (Icaiufala) and other ear ornaments 1 . 

Tied-up ornaments 
And those to be tied-up (bandhanaja) are the girdles (srotu- 
mtra) and the Angada (arm-band). 

7 (C.8; K.XXI7). ' Vyajimah—vyhjah sutrasyakarsa\<adirTtPah 
ksepas tena nirvrlto vyiijimah (Ag. p. 430). 

2 Read '7b ag t«T?t 5* 95jt tfrt «J g 4fai\ Ag. (p. 430) explains 
vestimah as follows : upari jatu-sikstadina vestanena nirvrtto vestimah. 

8 (C.9; M.XXI.8). ' Emend nagah into nagah. 

9 (CIO; K.XXI.9). 

10 (C.ll; K.XXI.10). ' C. eeditam. 

2 K. tefiUam for samghatya. Ag. with C. 

11 (C.12; K.XXI. 11). « C. avedya. 
* K. aropyaka, C. aropaka. 

12 (CIS; K.XXI.12). ' The reading of 12b seems to be slightly 


Worn ornaments 

13. The ornaments to be worn (praksepya) are the anklets 
(mpura) as well as the wearing apparels. 

Put-round ornaments 
And those [ornaments] to be put round (amjiya) are the 
golden neck-chain (hemanutra) and necklaces (hara) of different 

Ornaments according to habitation and tribal origin 

14. I shall now speak of the varieties of ornaments of 
men and women according to their habitation and tribal origin. 

Ornaments for males : 
Head ornaments 

15. The crest-jewel {ruiamani) 1 and the crown (mukuta)* 
are called ornaments of the head. 

Ear ornaments 
And the ear-ring (kumfala)*, Mocaka (ear-pendant) 4 and 
ear-top (klla) are ornaments of the ears. 
Neck ornaments 

16. The pearl-necklace (mnkt&vall) the Harsaka 1 ami the 
[gold] thread {nutra) 2 are ornaments of the neck. 

13 (C.14; K.XX1.13). 14 (C.15; K.XXI.14). 

15 (C.16; KXXI.15). ' To be worn on the top of the head- 
Cnjamaifili iiromadhtje (Ag. p. 430). 

8 To be worn above the forehead. Mukulo laMordhve (Ag. I.e.). 

* To be worn in the lower lobe of the ear. Kuntfalam adhara- 
palyam (Ag. l.c). ' 

* To be worn in the hole in the middle of the oar. Mocakah 
karnasaskulyu madhyacchidre ultara-kamiketi prasiddham (Ag. I.C.). 

16 (C.17; K.XXI.16). ' kanaka— & snake-shaped ornament, samud- 
gata-sarpadi ruPataya Prasiddham. (Ag. I.e.). 

* Sutram— golden neck-chain, sutrakam itiguccha-griva-sutraditay'a 
prasiddham (Ag. /•«.). 

3 Kaiakah (va{ika, K.). Ag. (l.c.) reads the term differently. He 
says vetikeli suk.makataka-riipa. 

. . ' Ahguli-mudra—ln later times the two members of this compound 
word, (akguliya and mudra) gave rise to two different synonyms for 
the object (ring) denoted by it> 


Finger ornaments 

And the Kataka [Vatika]* and the finger-ring (ahgdv/a- 
miuira) are ornaments of the finger. 

Ornament of the forearm 

17. The Hastavl 1 and the Valaya 2 arc the ornaments of the 
fore-arm {bahu-ndll). 

Wrist ornaments 

And the bracelet {rucilca)* and the Uccitika 4 are ornaments 

of the wrist. 

Ornaments above the elbow 

18. The Keyura (armlet) 1 and the Angada (arm-band) 2 are 
ornaments to be worn above the elbow. 

Breast ornaments 
And the three-stringed necklace (trusara) 3 is the ornament 
of the breast. 

19. The suspended pearl necklace, the flower-garland and 
the like, are ornaments for the [entire] body. 

Waist ornaments 
And the Tarala 1 and the golden thread {mtra) 2 are 
ornaments of the waist. 

17 (C.18). ' This is seems to be very rarely mentioned in Skt. 

* This word is the same as Bengali bala (bangle). 

s This seems to be a variant of the word rucaka. See note 4 below. 

4 This word seems to be never met with elsewhere. Ag.'s frag- 
mentary gloss on this word or rucaka is as follows : • * cairn iti kara- 
golake vitatam tata urdhve culiketi prasiddhau (f) niskuke agrabahu- 
sthane etat [vMu]-sanam (p. 430). 

18 (C.19, K.XXI.17). ' To be worn above the elbow- Keyure 
karpara (kurpara)-syordAvatali (AgJ.c), but ke bahmirne yauti iti 
keyuram, Ksjrasvamin on Amara II. 6,107. 

8 To be worn above the keyura, Tayor (—keyurayor) urdhve 
tv ahgadam (Ag. l,c). 

3 Tmara—lrisaro muktalatatrayena (Ag. I.e.). 

19 (C.20; K.XXI.18). l To be worn below the navel ; ta[ra]lakmn 
»Mher atah(Ag.U.) 

3 To be worn below the taralaka. Tasyafiyadhah suirakam (Ag. /.<;.). 


20. These are the ornaments for males in case of the 
gods and the kings. I shall now speak about the ornaments for 

Ornaments for females 
Head ornaments 

21-22. The SikhapasV, the Sikhajala*, the Pindapatra 3 
(Khandapatra), the Crest Jewel {cuiamani)*, the Makarika 6 , the 
pearl-net (mv.ldarjalay the Gavaksa 1 and the hair-net (ilrMJah) 
are ornaments of the head. 

22-23. The Tilaka on the forehead should be produced by 
many artistic touches, and group of design above the eyebrows 
should imitate flowers. 

Ear ornaments 

23-25. The ornaments of the ear are the Kundala, the 
Kikhipatra 1 (Khadgapatra), the braid [of hairs], the lotus 2 and the 
Mocaka' the Karnika*, the Karrtavalaya 5 , the Fatrakarnika 6 , the 
Karnamudra 7 that entwines the ear, the Karnotkilaka (ear-top), 

30 (C.21; KXXI.19). 

21-22 (C.22-23a; K.XXI.20-21a). ' This is same as cwlapasa 
mentioned in Megha, II. 2. 

2 Ag. (p. 431) reads it as iikftavyala and explains this as nagagran- 
thibhir upanibaddho madhyekarnika-sthimiyam, and adds to explain piifiji- 
palra (=pinilapatrd) as tasyaiva dalasandhanataya citra^iacanani (?) 
vartulani Patrani pintjipairani. » See note 2 above. 

* The same as mentioned in 15 above. 
6 Ag. reads this makarapatram. 

3 This is the same word which occurs in Megha, I. fi4. 

' No head ornament with this name seems to occur anywhere else. 

22-23 (C.24; K.XXII.21b-22a). 

23-25 (C.23b, 25-26; K,XXII. 21a, 22b-24). 

1 Ag. (I.e.) reads sikhapatra and explains this as sikhapalra mayura- 
picchakaro m'cttravar>ia-mai}i-racitah . 

2 guccha. K. for kahja. C. » Rocaka, C. and darakah K. 

4 This was never met with before. 

6 This is perhaps the sames as mod. Bengali kanbala<*kanbala< 
kanmvalaa< karnavalaya. 

6 This was never met with before. 

' This ornament is still in use among women of backward classes, 


the vnrious kinds of the Dantapatras 8 set with jewels and the 
Kamapura . 

The Tilaka and the Patralekha 10 are ornaments of the 
cheeks 11 . 

Neck ornaments 

20. The pearl-necklace, the snake-group (fiiaht-iJiiWi) 1 , the 
Manjari 8 , the jewel-string 3 the jewel-necklace 4 and the neck-chain 
(sutra)* are ornaments of the neck. 

27. The necklace with two, three or Four strings as well as 
a | gold | chain is the ornament of the neck 1 . 

* These wove possibly made with ivory. 

9 The well-known ear ornament. 

"'The same as jxitrabhahga (drawing decorative designs with 
■vented pigments). 

1 ' C. reads after this four additional and somewhat corrupt couplets 
(C.27b-3la) which may be tentatively translated as follows : And 
the triveni is to be known as the ornament of the breast. The two 
eyes are to be touched with collyrium, and the lips are also to bo painted. 
The four front teeth (of the upper and the lower rows) are to have 
varying colours as well as whitness. When covered with artificial 
colours their beauty is enhanced. Pearl-like teeth of beautiful young 
women embellish their smile, and dyed with the colour of lotus petals 
they will be lovely, and when dyed with emerald colour the lips will 
attain the beauty of tender leaves. And their amorous look will 
constitute their charms 

26 (C.31b-32a; KXXI.25). ' An ornament with the snake-motif ; 
see above 1 6 note 1. This was never mot with before. 

2 Manjari— This was never met with before. 

; ' Ralnamalika—T)m is to be distinguished from ralnaxati (see 
note 4 below) which is a bigger necklace ; for the word malika means a 
small mala. 

4 Ratmtvali — See note 3 above. 

5 Sutra (lit. thread) evidently means a thin thread-like necklace 
made of gold; cf. kanakasutra in Paiicatantra I. (■vayasa-dampati-katka). 

27 (C.S2b-33a). l K. omits this passage. The terms like dvisara 
(wrongly dvirasa), trisara (wrongly trirasd) and catu-sara (wrongly 
caturasa) mean respectively necklaces with two, three and four strings.' 


Breast ornaments 

28. The necklaces with the most artistic work 1 are to be 
ornaments of the breasts. 

The jewelled net is the ornament of the breasts (or the 

back) 2 . 

Arm ornaments 

29. The arm-band (angaria) 1 and the bangles {mlayn) 2 are 
ornaments of upper (lit. the root of the) arms. 

The Varjnra' and the Svecchitika* are ornaments of the 

Finger ornaments 

30. The Kataka 1 , the KaksakhaVheHastapatra 3 , theSupu- 
rnka* and the ring {mmlrahyuliyal/a)* are ornaments of fingers. 

Hip ornaments 

,'il. The Kaiici 1 with a net of pearls, the Kulaka, Mekhala, 
the Itasana and the Kalapa are ornaments of the hip (iront). 

32. The Kafici is |'a girdle] of one string, the Mekhala 
of eight, the Havana of sixteen and the Kalapa 1 of twenty- 
five strings. 

28 (C. 83b-34a ; K.XXJ.26). L nana-ratnakrta (in K.) meaning made 
up of many jewels'. 

2 Pniha-vibTmna (in K.) meaning 'ornaments of the back*. 

29 (C.34b-35a ; K.XXI.28b, 28a). ' K's reading is corrupt. See 
above 18 note 2. 

2 It is now-a-days called ananta in Bengal. Kalidasa's Yaksa 
(Megha, I. 2) had a kind of valaya in his prakoMa (foro-arm). 

8 This seems to connected with the taju still in use among women 
of rural areas in Bengal. 

4 Svecckitika— This was not heard of before. 

30 (C.35b-36a ; K.XXI.27b, 27a). ' K. roads of 30a as imxkha-kalafi. 
katakam tat ha syat patrapiirakam. Kataka is usually met with in the sense 

of an ornament of the wrists. 2 This was never met with before. 

, 3 . This was never met with before. 1 here is however an ornament 
hasta-mra (Apte). * This was not met with before. 

31 (C.36bc; K.XXI.29). l K. reads 31a differently. All the orna- 
ments except kulaka have been denned in 32 below. Kulaka seems to 
be a girdle of the special kind. 

32 (C.W; K.XXI.30). ' Kalapa seems" to have been used by 
Kalidasa in the sense of a necklace (Kumara I. 42). 


33. The pearl necklace of the goddesses and the queens are 
of thirtytwo, sixtyfour or one hundred and eight strings. 

Ornaments of the ankles 

34. The Nupura, the Kinkini, the Jewel-net {ralwijala) 1 
and the ringing Kataka are the ornaments on the ankles. 

35. The Pada-patra is the ornament of the shanks (iamgha) 
and the toe-rings that of the toes, and the Tilaka on the big toe 
are ornaments of the feet. 

36. Similarly [an additional decoration of the feet] will be 
the lae-dye applied on them in various patterns to impart to them 
the natural colour of Atoka blossoms. 

37. These are the decorations of women from the 
hair to nails [of the feet] 1 . Considering the States and the 
Sentiments these are to be applied [in different parts of the body]. 

38. These ornaments (lit. works) having their origin in 
Yisvakarman a are to applied also after a consideration of 
the tradition (a<invi«), measurements [of the wearer] and her 
physical form. 

39- [in dramatic production] one is not entitled to decorate 
the limbs freely and at one's will, with gold, pearls and jewels. 

40. Utilised on account of wealth 1 , the jewelled orna- 
ments put on in proper places will lend beauty to the limbs 2 . 

33 (C.38, K.XXI31). 

34 (C.39, K.XXI.32). ' K. reads ghan\ika lalam eva ca. 
' Hollow bangles within which small stone bits are lodged. 

35 (C.40; K.XXI.33). T C. reads jaiighayoh for padayoh. 

a This was never met with before. Ag. (p. 431) reads tilaka iti 

36 (C.41). ' This passage is wanting in K. 

37 (C.42; K.XXI 34b. >34a). ' Ag. (l.c.) a,nakhad—alaktaka-maa~ 

58 (C.43; K.XXI.35). x Ag. (I.e.) explains agama as ufadanaka- 
ranam. * An authority of arts and crafts (silpa). 

39 (C.44; K.XXI.37l)-38a). x K. reads tarhi saklyanusarena. 

40 (C.45). 1 Read vibhavato. , ' K. omits this passage. 


41. But in the production of plays there should not be a 
use of too mnny ornaments ; for these by stiffening movements will 
cause fatigue [to actors and actresses] 1 . 

42. Weighed down with heavy ornaments one cannot, 
move much, and one so weighed down, is likely to be exausted and 
to be faintaing. 

4?,. Hence [in a dramatic production] there should be not 
used ornaments made of pure gold, but those made of lac and 
inlaid slightly with jewels, will not bring exaustion [to the wearers 
in a play]. 

44. The rules of decoration are optional 1 in case of the 
celestial beings (gods and goddesses) ; but the decoration of human 
beings are to be made careful 1}'. 

45. The eelelstial females are to be distinguished for their 
own roles by means of ornaments and Costumes suited to the 
various States. 

46. Women of the Vidyadharas, the Yaksas, the Nagas, 
and the Apsarasas, and the daughters of sages and gods are to be 
distinguished by their Costumes. 

47. The same rule applies also to women of the Siddhas, 
the Gandharvas, the Raksasas, the Asuras, the godly monkeys, 
and human females. 

48. The Vidyadhara women should be made to have hairs 
(iifr/iS) tied in top-knot decorated with string of many pearls and 
clothes [completely] white 1 . 

49. Tlfe Yaksa women and the Apsarasas should have 

41 (C.46). ' A very sensible warning. 

42 (C.44).- See above 41 note. 

43 (C.48). 

44 (C.49). l For gods are beautiful. by nature. 

45 (C.50). x Read 45a as H^'fa *&* IPIWSI WW?:. 

46 (C.51, K.XXI.42). 

47 (C52). x Road divya-mmara-mriq&m ; cf. 57 below. 
2 K. omits this passage. 

48 (C.53, K.XXI.44). 1 K. reads cilra for sudd/m, C. 


ornaments of jewels, and the same will the dresses of [all] these, 
except that the Yaksa women are to wear the simple Sikha 1 . 

50. The Naga women are to wear like the goddesses 1 the 
ornaments abounding in pearls and jewels, but they arc also have 
hoods 2 Lin addition to these]. 

51. The daughters of sages are to wear a single Veni of 
the hair on their head, and they should not be made to have too 
much decoration. 

Siddha women 

52. The Siddha women should have ornaments abound- 
ing in pearls and emeralds, and their dresses should be of yellow 

Gandharva women 

53. Ornaments of the Gandharva women should be made 
to abound in rubies. And they are to carry a Vina in the hands 
and to have clothes of saffron colour. 

Raksasa Women 

54. The Raksasa women are to have sailires as their 
ornaments, and their teeth are to be made white and the dresses 
of black colour. 


55. The celestial women are to have lapis lazuli, and the 
pearls as their ornaments, and their dresses are to be made green 
like [the colour of] the parrot's tail. 

Monkey females 

56. The women of the [godly] monkeys are to have topaz 1 
and [sometimes] lapis hiznli as their ornaments, and their dresses 
are to be made of blue colour. 

1 Read smuts tviisam. for satnastamm (K). and yas tvasam (C.) 

50 (C.55, K.XXI.38b). ' K. omits 50a. 3 Head phantis liismi (K). 

51 (C.56, K.XXJ.39 and 45). - 1 Read tusam vcio vanocitah (K). ' 

52 (C.57). l For the Siddha women see Megha 1. 14 
.13 (C.58). '■ Road kuryut before Padnm-mant". 

54 (C.59). .1.1 (C.60). 

56 (C.61). l Pitiparaga=pusparaja, NIA. pokh-raj. 


57. This should be the dress of celestial women in their 
love-making. But in other conditions their dresses are to be 
made white. 

Human females according to their countries 

58. Human females are to have dresses and ornaments 
according to their places of origin. Listen properly about them. 

Women of Avanti and of G-audn 

59. The young women of Avanti arc to have curling hairs, 
and the women of Gauda are to have hairs mostly curled and they 
are to have the Sikhapas'a and the Veni. 

Sbhira women 

60. The Abhira women are to have two Venis on their head 
which should be covered with a [piece of] deep blue cloth. 

Women of the North East 

61. The women of the North East are to hold up their 
Sikhandas, and in dressing themselves they cover the body up 
to their hair. 

Women of the South 

62. The women of the South are to have Ullekhya with 
Kumbhlpadaka, and Avarta on the forehead 

G.-J. Thus, dresses, ornaments, and hair-cutting etc. should 
be regulated for the remaining characters according to their habita- 
tion and birth. 

Ornaments to be worn in the right place 

64. An ornament not put on in its proper place will create 

57 (C.62; K.XXI.40a, 46). " Read divyangam" ca. 

58 (C.6S; K.XXI.47, 40a). 

59 (C.64; K.XXI.48). ' Probably the district of Malda and neigh- 
bouring regions in modern Bengal. 

60 (C.65; K.XXI.48). 61 (C.66; K.XXI.50). 

62 (C.67; K.XXI.51). ' Ullekhya is probably connected with 
Bengali «tt»'(tatto). 

' Possibly a special kind of tatto. 3 Some kind oi circular mark. 

63 (C.68b-69a; K.XXL52). * K. omits 82a C. adds one hemistich 
(C. 68a) before 62, which in trans, is follows : Courtezans are to have 
the decoration [of the body] according to their choice. 

'64(C.61>b-70a ; K.XXL53). 


no beauty ; for by wearing a Mekhala (girdle) on the breast 
one will create laughter. 

Drosses to suit the condition of females 
05. Similarly, the condition of females whose lover has gone 
abroad and who arc afflicted with misery are to not to have a clean 
dress, and they are to wear their hair as a single VenI of the head. 

66. The dresses of women who are separated from their 
lovers, should be white and they are not to wear many ornaments 
and not to cleanse their body 1 . 

67. Such should be [the dresses] of women according to their 
habitation and the condition [of existence]. Now I shall speak 
about the proper dresses of men. 

Painting the limbs 

68. But in their (i.e. men's) case the producers of plays 
should first of all paint the limbs, and then Costumes according 
to their habitation should be provided. 

The four original colours 

69. The four original (lit. natural) colours are black, blue, 
yellow and rod ; the limbs should be painted with these. 

The derivative colours 

70. There are besides these, the primary and the secondary 
derivative colours. I shall speak about the ways in which the 
producers are to make them. 

The primary derivative colours 

7t. The yellowish white {jiarufu) colour is made up of the 
white and the yellow 1 , and the pegion (kapota) colour, of the white 
and the blue 2 . 

72. The lotus (ymkna) colour is made up of the white and 
the red, and the green (liar it) colour, of the yellow and the blue. 

65 (C.70b-71a, K.XXL54). 

66 (C.71b-72a, K.XXI.5S). ' navafii hi nrth(=mrja) yuta.QL). 

67 (C.72b-73a, K.XXI.56). ' Veia Masamudbhaw (K). 

68 (C.73, K.XXI.57). > C. omits 68b. 

69 (K.XXI.58). ' C. omits this passage." 

70 (K.XXI.59). ' C. omits this passage. 

71 (C.74a, K.XXI.60a, 61a). ' C. nlla for 0a. 5 C. omits. 71b. 

72 (C.74-75*, K.XXI.80b-fllb). . 


73, The dark red (k&s&ya) colour is made up of the blue and 
the red, and the pale-red (<jaum) colour, of the red and the yellow. 

74. These are the primary derivative colours. Besides these 
there are [many] secondary derivative colours which may be made 
up of three or four [original ] colours. 

The secondary derivative colours 
7:3. Of these, the strong colour should form one part and 
the weak colour two parts ; but the blue colour should be taken as 
directed below. 

76 The blue should form only one part while the other 
colours will form three parts, for the blue is known to be the 
strongest of colour**. 

77. Knowing these rules of colours which are to be pre- 
pared by mixing them variously 1 , one should paint the body of 
different characters. 

78. The painted body together with the change of the 
Costume is to., be considered as due to the convention (ualtja- 
(Iharma) affecting the dramatis iMinomin 1 . 

79-80. Just as [the soul of] a- man on entering the body 
of another being, renounces his own nature connected with a 
different body and assumes another character 1 , so a person having 
(lit. covered with) [a different] colour and Costume adopts tin- 
behaviour connected with the clothes he will wear. 

Living beings 
v 81. As they have breath, the gods, the Danavas, the 
Gandharvas, the Yaksas, the Raksasas and the Pannagas (Niigas) 
are called living beings {praniu) 1 . 

73 (C.75b-76a, Z.XXI.62). 

74 (C.76b-77a, K.XXI.63). 

75 (C.77b-78a, K.XXI.64). 76 (C.78b-79a, K.XXI.65). 

77 (C.79b-80a, K.XXI.66). ' nanusamyoga(C) for mattasamyogaQQ' 

78 (C.80b-81a, K.XXI.67). ' C. reads atter this an additional 

79-80 (C.82b-83a, K.XXI.65). ' Read parabhavam for parabhavam. 
■ . 81 <C.84b-85a, K.XXI.70). l C. reads an additional couplet after 


Lifeless objects 

82. Hills, palaces, mechanical contrivances (;/«.» Jm), shields, 
armours, banner-staff's and the various weapons are known as 
lifeless objects (djiranii)) 1 . 

Lifeless objects in human form 

83. But whenever necessary (lit. due to a reason) they may 
assume a human form with | suitable] dress and speech according to 
the dramatic convention (iiTUiia-nilJiarina). 

Painting the limbs 

8-1. After learning the rule of making colours one should 
paint the limbs [of the ilramnlix p/'iviiua''] in keeping with 'their 
habitation, birth and age- 
Colours for gods 

85. Gods as well as the Yaksas and the. Apsara<as should 
lie painted reddish yellow (i/nin-n), and Rudra, Arka, (the Run") 
Drnhina (Brahman) and Skanda are to have the colour of gold. 

80. Soma (the Moon), Brhaspati. Sukra, Varuna and the 
stars, the ocean, the Himalaya, and Gangs (the Ganges) are to be 
made white in colour. 

87. Angaraka [Mangala = Mars] should bo painted red and 
Budha and Hutas'ana (Agni) yellow and Narayana and Nam as 
well as VSsuki should be dark blue (xi/ama). 

Colour for demi-gods 

88. The Daityas, the Diinavas, the Biiksasas, the Guhyakas, 
the Pi&icas, gods of hills, and the sky are dark blue in colour. 

80. The Yaksas, the Gandhavvas, (he Bhiitas, the Pannagas 
(Nsgas), the Vidyadharas, the Pitrs and the monkeye are of 
various colours. 

82 (C.86b-87a ; K.XXI.71). l Road %wfav. 

83 (C.87b-88a; K.XXI.72). 84 (C.88b-89a, K.XXI.73). 

85 (C.89b-90a ; K.XXT.74). ' Ru-wl rudmrkadrnhina (K.) for 
rudrah sadruhinah (C). 

86 (C.90b-91a; K.XXI.75). 87 (C.91b-92a, K.XXI.76). 

88 (C.92b-93a; K.XXI.77). ' Presiding deity of hills ( Ag.). 

89 (C.93b-64a ; K.XXI.78). 90 (C.94b-95a, K.XXI.79). 

424 MR NATYA8A8TRA [ XXIII. 90- 

Colours for human beiugs in different regions 

90. Human beings who dwell on the Seven Continents 
Unjitartlniya) are to be painted in the colour of burnished gold, 

91. Rut among the inhabitants of Jambudvipu where men 
of various colours live, every one except those who dwell in the 
North Kuru region should be given the colour of gold. 

92. People of BhadrAsVn 1 should have the white colour of 
their body, and so should these of Ketumala. But those of other 
Continents should be made reddish yellow (gam-a) in colour. 

Colours for Bhiitas and dwarfs 

93. Bhiitas and the dwarfs are known to be of various 
colours. They possess odd faces and may have faces of boars, 
rams, buffaloes and deer as well 1 . 

Colours of different peoples of Bharala-varsa 
!U. Listen now about the difierent colours of the people 
of Rhiiratavarsa. Kings there should lie of lotus colour, or dark 
blue or reddish yellow [in complexion]. 

95-90. And the happy mortals there are to be made of the 
reddish yellow (ijavra) colour. Those who practice vile acts, are 
possessed of evil spirits, diseased or engaged in penance and