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Full text of "Nazis Against the World"

NAZIS AGAINST 
THE WORLD 

The Counter-Boycott is the Only 
Defensive Weapon against Hitler- 



QompUments of 
SAMUEL UNTERMYER 

As only one hundred thousand copies are 
being distributed at this time, after read- 
ing this book please pass it on to your 
friends. Your attention is especially di- 
rected to the Preface, which accurately 
outlines the issues in this campaign. 



I 



Issued by the 

Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League 
to Champion Hirnian Rights 

729 Seventh Avenue 
New York, N. Y. 



Price 25 cents 



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NAZIS AGAINST 
THE WORLD 

The Counter-Boycott is the Only 
Defensive Weapon against Hitler- 
ism's World-Threat to Civilization 



Selected Speeches jrom World Leaden 
of Public Opimon 



'Public ophnon as the jone. 
the Boycott as the weapon, will 
break the power of Hitlensfn/' 



Issued by the 

Non-Seaarian Anti-Nazi League * 
to Champion Human Rights 

729 Seventh Avenue 
New York, N. Y. 



Price 25 cents 



11^ If-HAK At AUtlllN lit N I li»n 



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NON-SECTARIAN ANTI-NAZI LEAGUE 
To Champion Human Rights, Inc. 

729 Seventh Avenue 
New York, N. Y. 



OFFICERS 



Samuel Untermyer 
President 

Hon. James W. Gerard 
Vice-Pi-esident 

Hon. Fiorello H. LaGuardia 

Vice-President 

Hon, Arthur S. Tompkins 
Vice-President 

Dr. Abba HiUel Silver 
Vice-President 

Col. Theodore Roosevelt 
Vice-President 



Dr. A. Coralnik 
Vice-President 

]. David Stern 
Treasurer 

Louis Myers 
Actmg Treasurer 

Mrs. Mark Harris 

Acting Chairman, Executive 
Committee 

Bernard G. Richards 

Executive Secretary 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 



Samuel Untermyer 

Chairman 
Hon. George Gordon Battle 
Hon. James M. Beck 
Hon, James W. Gerard 
Hon. Arthur S. Tompkins 
Rev. John Haynes Holmes 
Rev. Edward L. Hunt 
Hon. Frank P. Walsh 
Oswald Garrison Villard 
Hon. Leopold Prince 
Mrs. Mark Harris 
Hon. M. Maldwin Per tig 



Dr. A. Coralnik 

E. N. Kleinbaum 

Louis Myers 

J. David Stern 

Dr. Abba HiUel Silver 

Abraham Cahan 

Jacob Fish man 

Dr, Benjamin Dubovsky 

Allie S. Freed 

J. George Fredtnan 

Siegfried F. Hartman 

E^ekiel Rabinowitz 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Pai* 

Preface , 1 

We are Bound to Speak Out! 

Address by His Grace, The Archbishop of Canterburyj at Queen's 
Hall, London, June 27, 1933 9 

No Concessions to this Kind of Germany 

By Sir Ausren Chamberlain, M.P. (Extract from Speech in 
House of Commons, April 13, 1933) . 11 

Liberal Principles in Danger 

By Sir John Simon, Secretary of State for Foreign Affair* 
(London), April 13, 1933 . , . . U 

Child Victims of the New Germany 

By Lady Violet Bonham-Carter, London, December 20, 1933 . . 15 

Getting Rid of the Old Testament 

By Rev. James N. Gillis, Editor, "The Catholic World," Novtm* 
ber 23, 1933 . . U 

Civilization Against Hitlerism 

By Hon. Samuel Seabury, at Madison Square Garden, New York, 
March 7, 1934 20 

A Liberars Attitude toward the Nazis 

By Prof. Raymond Moley, Editor, "Today," at Madison Square 
Garden, March 7, 1934 39 

The Nazi Assault on Organized Labor 

By William Green, President, American Federation of Labor, at 
Dinner, February 14, 1934 . &2 

Labor's Stake in the Struggle 

By Dr. Abba Hillel Silver, Address at Dinner to Wiliam Green, 
President, A. F. of L., February 14, 1934 58 

Nazi Peace with Jews Unthinkable 

By David A. Brown, Publisher, New York, October 20, 1934 . 41 

An Orgy of Suppression 

By Walter M. Citrine, President, International Federation of 
Trade Unions and General Secretary, British Trade Union Con- 
gress. Address, October 19, 1934 . , , 4€ 



N|rr|: 



TABLE OF CONTENTS™ Contmued 



Page 



A Vital Challenge to Christians 

By Dr. Paul Hutchinson, Editor-in-Chief, "The Christian Cen- 
tury," Chicago, May 21, 1934 129 

Germany Has Forfeited Respect of Mankind 

Speech by Hon. Bainbridge Colby, Secretary of State in President 
Wilson's Cabinet, at Battery Park, New York, May 10, 1933 . .13^ 

Love of Justice 

Address by Hon. Bainbridge Colby at Madison Square Garden, 
March 7, 1934 - 134 




iPPW 



SELECTED ADDRESSES AND WRITINGS BY 
SAMUEL UNTERMYER 

Civilization's Only Weapon against Hitlerism 

Address at Dinner to William Green, President, American Fed- 
eration of Labor, New York, February 14, 1934 55 

Address at the Annual Memorial Service of the Jewish War Veterans, 

Park Avenue Synagogue, May 27, 1933 76 

Radio Address, Broadcast over Station WEVD to the American Fed- 
eration of Labor and Other Workers, April 22, 1934 . . . , 84 

Address at the Maccabean Chanukah Celebration, Madison Square 

Garden, New York, December 16, 1933 . . . . . . . . 89 

Radio Address, Broadcast over Station WOR in answer to Address 

of Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, May 16, 1934 98 

Address before the Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Associations, 

Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, December 13, 1933 .... 103 

Address at Public Dinner, New York, October 17, 1934 109 

The Olympic Games and Nazi Germany 

Letter to Avery Bruadage, September 26, 1934 115 

The Question of Trading with Germany 

An Open Letter of Protest to Hon. Cordell Hull. Secretary of 
State, September 29, 1934 125 



PREFACE 

In this enlightened era a nation which was once a leader among 
the civilized peoples of the world cannot revert to barbarism with- 
out its reverberations being heard and felt all around the world. 

The leaders of the Nazi regime are self-confessed advocates of 
bruteTorce, reaction and ruthlessness. Their contempt for law 
and their destruction of all civilized conceptions of justice and of 
all other ideals speaks through all their utterances and all their 
works. The echoes that are heard from other countries were in- 
evitable and they are surely not surprised wdien they hear their 
standards and practices desctibed in terms of medieval rule and 
savagery. 

While the Nazis, blind to the refinements of a progressive age, 
may content themselves with shouts and exclamations^ marching 
orders and bugle calls, with barbaric yelps and all accompanying 
noises oi a revived mihtarism, civilization with a sharpened sense 
of responsibility will speak in her own way with dignity of style 
and impressiveness of form. It may be one of the sad compensations 
of the moral collapse of Germany that the literature of freedom 
and justice is constantly growing in volume and intensity of pur- 
pose. Already have the Nazi rulers and despoilers of all that is 
sacred in human life been condemned in many thousands of 
books, pamphlets, speeches, sermons, magazine and new^spaper 
articles published in all languages. Their leaders in the scientific, 
literary, musical and other branches of the cultural world whom 
, they have outlawed and whose properties they have confiscated 
solely because of their race, have been eagerly received and shel- 
tered by an appreciative world. 

Not an outstanding voice has been raised in their defense. The 
increasing volume of the protests of all mankind, finding its most 
concrete and eifeaive form in the boycott against German goods 
and services must before long lead to a collapse of the vicious, 
callous political philosophy that now dominates the German Reich. 

The material collected in this volume consists of Addresses b)' 
outstanding men and women, leaders in world-affairs. It has been 
selected from among many hundreds of speeches, protests, and 
denunciations of the atrocities and continuous, increased petse- 
coitions by the Nazi regime, from the day it assumed power down 
to the present time. These protests reflect the outraged cry of 
civilization against the many wrongs that are being perpetrated 
through the enslavement by Germany of its people and its sad 
reversion to the horrors of medieval times. 

The chief purposes of this publication are: 

1. To demonstrate to the world that an eltective substitute 
for the horrors of war has at last been found, through the boycott, 
to hereafter prevent a Nation, whether or not it is a member of 
the League of Nations, from racial and religious pogroms and 
persecurions, from trampling upon' its helpless minorities, and 



ilMiyrnfrtii".r t •--•'< *i Aim mm ufNi m». 



iiiiiiiiiiiiBiiiiiiiiiiiii 



Preface 



from otherwise defying and outraging humanity. It would be 
effeaive as ro nine of every ten Nations, including also the coun- 
tries of Asia, Africa and Sourh America. That is more than can 
be said of the League. It is an ideal, peaceful way of enforcing 
the "economic sanctions" expressly provided foe by the Covenant 
of the League of Nations, which the latter has been unable to 
enforce. 

It would be particularly effeaive against a great Nation that 
has reverted to barbarism and would thus be cut off from com- 
mercial relations with other nations until it mends its ways. It 
would require no Government action. Irs success would depend, 
of course, upon the extent to which it is actively supported by 
wo rid- sentiment. 

Notwithstanding the many pious protestations of Der Fuehrer, 
rhe proofs are overwhelming that Germany is preparing for war, 
and directing all her energies to that end. AH that these protesta- 
tiens mean is that she is not yet ready. Nothing short of economic 
bankruptcy and the consequent inability to buy the necessary raw 
materials, can save the world from that catastrophe. The downfall 
of the Hitler regime, brought about by economic stress as the result 
of the boycott, and that alone, will accomplish that result. It is 
therefore the highest duty of all peace-loving peoples to contribute 
to that end — lest the world be plunged into an abyss from which 
civilisation cannot survive. 

2. The success of such a remedy would rescue Christianity and 
the cause of racial and religious freedom from the domination of 
the Stare which now threatens to engulf and destroy it. It would 
ensure the continued separation of Church and State, and would 
render impossible the continuation or repetition of Germany's vast 
foreign propaganda campaigns, spreading among our people the 
poisonous germs of race and religious hatreds such as that from 
which America is now suffering. 

The German Government is manifestly bent upon the destruc- 
tion of all religious freedom and the ultimate rigid regimentation 
of all religious belief by the State; the placing of the Churches 
under the iron heel of the State, with the Scriptures rejeaed and 
a pagan form of worship substituted as prescribed by the Reich. 
If there is, at the moment, comparative quiet on the Catholic 
Front, this respite will continue only until after the approval of 
the Saar plebiscire. Until that crisis is past the conflia over the 
determined attempt to strike down existing religious beliefs will 
be soft pedaled. The significance of the so-called "German Chris- 
tian Church" as part of the plan for the gradual conversion of 
the German people to the Atheistic views of Dr. Rosenberg is 
confessed in his writings. This is what will happen to Christianity 
as soon as the present storm blows over, that will permit applying 
the screws to the brave men who are engaged in the desperate fight 
that is now going on. 







Preface 

Dr. S. Parkes Cadmaii, one of America's most eminent Protes- 
tant divines, thus accurately summarizes tfie situation; 

'Those who steadfastly Intend this shameful thing are not to 
be disiuadtd by present failure. They can be counied on to con- 
tinue their agitation^ which will in future, as in the past, be 
characterized by violence, propaganda and the exaltation of in- 
competence and narrow nationailsric sectionalism. 

"hi its simplest terms, the struggle in Germany is to deter- 
mine .whether State worship in modern form, racialism and 
nationalistic extravaganzas shall take the place of a spiritual and 
universal religion, which has always found at least some degree 
of expression in the Christian churches — both Catholic and 
Protestant." 

^^ Opposition to the new^ Nazi religion. Dr. Cadman declares, 
"is not simply an affair of a few religious leaders but is rooted 
in the deepest convictions of the laity as well, 

"Despite the shameless and lying propaganda which has as- 
siduously shown only one side of the issue and has sought at 
every point to deceive the German church people concerning 
the real issues at stake, the facts have penetrated to a very con- 
siderable proportion of the church members with consequences 
that are increasingly serious for the future of the Nazi move- 
ment/' he adds. 

Promises Only W^ords 

Promises t)f "conft-ssionul freedom and the liberty to preach," 
which have been made by the Nazi leaders to the pastors, are 
empty wotds^ Dr. Cadman writes. By the Nazi leaders "it has 
been understood that this freedom must be made to comport 
with the new Nazi ideology and the 'Weltanschauung' of its 
high priests led by the unspeakable Rosenberg. 

"Less pressure has been put on the Roman Catholic Church in 
the Third Reich in recent months because the Nazis do not wish 
to lose the plebiscite in the Catholic Saar region. Hitler and his 
lieutenants, however, have sent up 'trial balloons' proposing the 
unification oj Catholics and Protestants into one Reich church. 

"The effect of this has been to drive the Catholics and Prot- 
estants into a united movement which has the peculiar character- 
istics of being designed to marshal their respective forces to 
achieve a continued separateness! They are consequently closer 
together in spirit than heretofore," 

For the period I allowing the Saar plebiscite in January, 1935, 
Dr. Cadman predicts increased aggressiveness on the pari of the 
Nazi leaders, 

"The repressions, restrictions, intimidations, arrests, unscrupu- 
lous spying and vicious misrepresentation which have charac- 
terized the activity of the Reich Church is only a prelude to 
what will come in February, 1955, If the Nazis have their way. 
If by that time they have not learned the ultimate futility of 
their planned course of coercion, there will be seen In Germany 
a 'Kulturkampf far more serious than that from which Bismarck 
was compelled to draw back after bitter disillusionment in the 
late Eighties." 

In the beginning, Dr. Cadman continues, Catholic and Protes- 



A1 AU^tlH ntH I tM«* 

iiiii 



Preface 

quently was nut widely known in German church circles) 
aroused a moral condemnation which was not sectarian, but 
which does credit to the finer instincts of both Catholic and 
Protestant Christians in tiie Reich/' 

The resistance offered by German Christians to the Nazi 
church leaders has been characterized by "heroism," 
3, Another equally important purpose of this publication is to 
disprove, demonstrate and set at rest for all time the utter falsity 
and absurdity of the widespread, constantly repeated German 
propaganda that the ever-increasing, world-wide boycott of Ger- 
man goods is a ]ewish movement. This is not and was at no time a 
Jewish question, although the Jews were the first victims and have 
been in proportion to their numbers the greatest sufferers from 
the reign of terror and lawlessness that now holds the German 
people in its grip. But these horrors were followed in rapid 
succession by other and more numerous groups, of which Organ- 
ized Labor and the Catholic and Protestant Churches are out- 
standing instances. 

The Jews constitute less than one per cent of the world's popu^ 
lation and less than four per cent of the population of the United 
States. It goes without saying that they alone could not have 
created a fraction of the havoc that has already been inflicted upon 
Germany by the boycott. 

As illustrating the baselessness of the claim, the world mem- 
bership—about 17,000,000— of Organized Labor, which is but 
one of the many faaors participating in this boycott, alone num. 
bers more than the total Jew^ish world-population. 

Cable messages issued from time to time by the vast German 
Propaganda Ministry, as though emanating from German Jews, 
purporting to deprecate the boycott, are quite understandable 
when we realize the terroristic conditions under which they are 
put forth. They shed a flood of light upon a situation that renders 
such pronouncements possible. 

The boycott is the only weapon that has resulted in such slight 
amelioration of the persecutions as have taken place, With the 
press completely gagged and free speech made a crime, it is the 
only channel through which world-opinion can be made known in 
Germany. Persuasion is worse than useless. They are deaf to the 
cries of humanity. Appeals to their pocket-books alone give them 
pause. 

The German Jews must be made to realize the fact that they 
are not the only group concerned in this movement. Christianity, 
Organized Labor, Women, the Masons and others have an equal 
stake. If World Jewry were to withdraw from participation in 
this world-wide boycott tomorrow, w^hich is not for a moment 
conceivable, it would go on all the same— until civilized govern- 
ment and religious freedom are reinstated in Germany. Their 
withdrawal would have as much effect on the situation as that of 
the Esquimaux. 




Preface 

Neither the pogroms nor the St. Bartholomew's Day slaughter 
of June 30, 1934, have been or will ever be forgotten. No amount 
of suppression of the news of actual conditions and no more 
millions hereafter squandered in propaganda will mislead the 
world as in the past or will reinstate Germany to a place in the 
Family of Nations; nothing short of the destruction of Hitler- 
ism, and all for which it stands^ could accomplish that purpose. 

The uprising by Labor and the intensive boycott of German 
goods which it is prosecuting here, in Great Britain and many 
other countries, is readily comprehensible in the light of a state- 
ment made by Mr. Walter M. Citrine, who is the President of the 
International Federation of Trade Unions and Secretary of the 
British Trade Union Congress, in an Address a few weeks ago at 
the Annual Convention of the American Federation of Labor at 
San Francisco, in which he cites the German Statistical Society, 
an official German body, as authority for the statement that under 
the Hitler regime — 

"German wages have reached the lowest level in 50 years. 
The official records show that only 1% of the workers receive 
an average weekly wage of more than $13.50, while 50% re- 
ceive between $3.50 and |7.30 and 131/2% receive less than 
13.50." 

Added to these elements are the Catholic and Protestant 
Churches and clergy and the tens of millions of their members, 
to whom the attempted seizure and control of their Churches by 
the State, the destruction of rehgious freedom, and the placing 
of Christianity of all sects under the iron heel of Government, 
has forced many more millions to adopt the boycott as their only 
weapon of defense. 

When we supplement these many victims by the protests of 
the women of the world who have been outraged by the loss of 
their freedom, their exclusion from business, and the position to 
which they have been relegated as "breeders of children" and 
household drudges, and the Masonic Lodges and Orders that 
have been exterminated and their property confiscated, the con- 
tention that this is a Jewish boycott becomes farcical. 

This is the spontaneous revolt of humanity of all creeds and 
races, and the boycott is its only practical and effective form of 
expression. 

The supporters of the boycott must above all things be ever 
on the alert in the purcliase of merchandise to detect the innu- 
merable frauds, evasions and trickery that are being employed to 
deceive the public into the purchase of German goods under 
false pretenses. Our laws specifically provide that every imported 
article i as well as the container in which it comes, must be plainly 
and conspkt-iously stamped with the country of origin. 

It would require pages to describe the various forms of de- 
ception that are being practiced. German goods are being re- 



,,t ir-iiAn Ai AiiriiiN urNt mn 



!'iiFn!n,iiiii:! 



Peeface 

shipped from Holland, Oechoslovakia, Poland and other parts 
of the world camouflaged under the names of those countries. 
German brands are being obliterated and names of cities and 
provinces, instead of the country of origin, are being used. Where 
parts of an article are made in Germany, the name of that country 
is being omitted, and in many cases the word "Germany," in- 
stead of being conspicuously placed on the article, is either con- 
cealed or printed in such small type and so illegibly that it is 
difficult to find it. 

Unrestricted "dumping" is another favorite device that is be- 
ing resorted to by Germany in its desperation. This is accom- 
plished not only by selling goods below cost but by the acceptance 
in Germany at par for the payment of goods of so-called "blocked- 
marks" that are worth about 40 cents on the dollar. 

Another means adopted by the importers, some of whom, to 
our shame and humiliation be it said, are Jews, is the purchase 
in this country and especially in diis City, mainly from one of our 
greatest banks, of discredited German bonds that have defaulted 
on their intetest at about 20 cents on the dollar, and the use of 
those bonds in Germany at par toward paying for merchandise. 

These are a few only of the many means employed, for the 
success of which the laxity of our Government Departments is 
largely to blame. But for the trade resistance to German goods 
at any price, throughout the country, ihese methods would render 
competition by our manufacturers impossible. It is none the less 
a grave indiament of our Treasury Department to whom our 
manufacturers have the right to look for the proteaion that they 
are not receiving. 

If there are any Americans — which I doubt— to whom Getman 
trade is more important than human life and the future of civili- 
zation, or who labor under the delusion that we shall lose business 
that is worth retaining through the boycott, let them remember 
that out total world-exports amount to only 6% of our gross 
income, and of this trifling percentage less than one- half of one 
per cent goes to Germany; that they have been paid many times 
over with out own money, and that our dealings with that country 
have cost us billions of dollars in their dishonored and worthless 
obligations. America would have been vastly better ofi if it had 
no business or financial relations with Germany since the war. 

The boycott has already stimulated the manufacture in this and 
other countries of many lines of merchandise formerly imported 
from Germany, and will do so in increasing volume as time goes 
on. From a material standpoint, the boycott has proven to be a 
blessing instead of the handicap that was shortsightedly pre- 
diaed of it. 

The unfortunate efforts oi our inept State Departm^ent to pull 
down our protective barriers in the hope of increasing our export 




Preface 

trade, by agreements at the expense of our home manufacturers, 
should be brought to an end. It evidences a revival of the dis- 
astrous "free trade" policies that cost us so dearly in the past. 
This letting down of the bars would flood our markets with for- 
eign goods made by pauper labor at the expense of our home 
factories, and of our standards of living. Any trade agreement 
that might be made with Germany would be especially unfortunate 
— ^in the light of our past experiences with that country, and for 
the further reason that what she mainly wants from us are raw 
materials for war purposes, which ir is our highest duty to prevent 
her from getting, so far as lies within our power. 

There will, of course, always be a substantial amount of inter- 
national exchange in articles that we cannot produce, such as tea, 
coffee and the like, for the goods that these countries are unable 
to manufacture; but it is not true, as stated in the title of the 
advertised forthcoming Address of the Secretary of State, that 
"international trade is indispensable to full and stable prosperity." 

Nothing could better illustrate the depths of depravity to which 
the Hitler regime has sunk in its unconscionable warfare to exter- 
minate its Jewish minorities and to spread broadcast race and 
religious hatreds than the trial now in progress in Berne, Switzer- 
land, at the time this pamphlet goes to press. 

When Henry Ford's "Dearborn Independent," many years ago, 
published and circulated the spurious "Protocols of the Wise Men 
of 2ion," which had long before been overwhelmingly demon- 
strated to be clumsy forgeries, he was dragged into Court by 
Mr. Untermyer, in behalf of Herman Bernstein, in an aaion for 
hbel brought in the Federal Court of the Southern District of 
New York, on account of such publication. 

In order to escape trial Mr. Ford then confessed that these 
so-called "Protocols" were forgeries that had been imposed upon 
hjm, and manfully issued a public apology. Long before that 
time, in 1921, the "London Times" exposed these forgeries. And 
yet the Stretcher newspapers aaively and persistently aided and 
abetted by the Hitler government in and out of season, knowing 
that they were forgeries, and after their full exposure, continues 
to pubhsh them under the proteaion of that Government! What 
more convincing evidence of malice and mendacity could there be! 

Whilst this pamphlet represents only an infinitesimal fraction 
of the ever-enlarging literature of the indictment of Hitlerism, it 
contains sufficient illustrations of damning evidence against Nazi 
misrule and oppression, showing the cruelties and the wrongs 
that this regime has visited on the various liberal groups within 
the State, upon progressive elements, organized labor, women, who 
are subjeaed to a new form of slavery and innocent children of 
dissident groups whose sufferings cannot be adequately visualized. 
The Nazi attacks upon Christianity and rehgious freedom and 



IIMlWfMHM V 



1 Ah A I Aim I IN tilNHIliJ 

mill 



PREFACE 

upon every form of independent thought and aaion are here 
fuiiy outlined. 

If it be true, as published in London on apparently high author- 
ity, that the Nazi Government is beseeching thirty of its German- 
Jewish refugees who were engaged in commerce in Germany, to 
return to that country, I cannot conceive of any self-respecting Jew 
considering any such plea. It would be a base betrayal of his per- 
secuted fellow-Jews in Germany. 

The public addresses here reproduced and especially the 
speeches of Mr. Untermyer, were heard at gatherings attended 
by hundreds of thousands of men and women in all parts of the 
country, by millions over the nation-wide broadcasts, many of 
whom are eager to help in resisting the unspeakable menace of 
Hitlerism. It is in answer to the demand of many of those who 
have heard and read these addresses that a seleaed few are now 
being made available for wider circulation. 

The addresses of Mr. Untermyer are notable not only for the 
consummate manner in which he assembled the facts, the great 
skill of the advocate and pleader for a noble cause, the persua- 
siveness and eloquence with which the case is presented; they 
should become memorable by teason of the circumstances under 
which he had called into being this world-wide movement and has 
piloted it through its stormy career which has now encircled all 
the world and which in the end should prove the undoing of 
Na^i domination. Few instances in history have shown such com- 
plete identification of a man with a movement. This is the case 
with Mr. Untermyer and the boycott, which was first given 
tangible form through his address delivered in Boston in April 
of 1933. It was subsequent to that that the movement took or- 
ganized form as a world movement with Mr. Untermyer's as- 
sumption of the leadership as the President of the Non-Sectarian 
Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human Rights and of the World 
Conference in July, 1933, at Amsterdam, Holland, over which he 
presided. Many men of eminence in various countries represent- 
ing different races and creeds became associated with the work, 
and supporters in many cities have lent strength and vigor to the 
furtherance of the work. 

As this book goes to press another Non-Sectarian World Con- 
ference is to be held at London on November 25th to intensify 
and coordinate the boycott between the various countries at which 
outstanding leaders of every race and creed and of organized labor 
from ail parts of the world will be represented. 



New York, Noyember 1st, 1934. 



'^WE ARE BOUND TO SPEAK OUT" 

By His Grace The Archbishop of Canterbury 

From an address delivered at Queen's Hall 
]mie 27, 1933 

I AM not going to rehearse afresh the facts which have them- 
selves so eloquently appealed to us all. They are all familiar. 
We all know how at this moment, as we sit here in peace 
and security, the members of the Jewish Community in Germany 
are being driven from all the State services, from posts which 
they have acquired by right of their capacity in the law, in medi- 
cine, in the Universities, even, as Mr. Garvin once said, from the 
concert room where music was once supposed to be the common 
language of all mankind. Even if they are allowed to remain 
in business or profession, they are increasingly deprived of any 
clrances of maintaining a livelihood, and I would ask you to 
think because this is what has been increasingly brought home to 
myself from what I hear about the condition of affairs in Germany, 
of the families now in hiding from persecution and proscription 
in all the streets of German cities, suffering agonies of apprehen- 
sion and of humiliation; and I think with particular indignation 
■ of what I have heard about the treatment of Jewish children, for 
in the schools in Germany they are being kept apart from other 
children as if they were somethmg uncfean. Imagine the effect 
upon those children, themselves having had borne in upon them 
at the most tender stage of their livts'that they are not fit to be 
associated with other Germans, and imagme still more the effect 
upon the German chiidren of the non -Jewish race in being thus 
at the very start of their lives educated in contempt and scorn of 
their fellow-creatures. 

Now I do not wish to dwell upon these facts, but if it be true 
that on this scale injustice is abroad violating these elementary 
instincts of our common humanity, then it is impossible either 
here, or, I should have thought, in any part of the civilized world, 
for those citizens to whom these things are part of the heritage 
which they most constantly prize, to remain silent. They are 
bound to speak out if only for the relief of their own conscience. 
It is, of course, true that we have no desire to interfere with 
the laws of other nations, and yet in spite of that I feel bound 
to recall to my memory the words which were spoken in 1882 
at a great meeting of protest against similar treatment of the Jews 
in Russia, words spoken by one who had then and deserved a 
great place in the life of our English folk, the late Cardinal Man- 
ning. These are his words: 

■'The laws of humanity, of nature and of God are the foun- 
dation of all other laws, and if in any legislation these are 
violated all other Nations of Christian Europe, indeed of the 
whole commonwealth of civilized man, would instantly acquire 
a right to speak aloud." 






^im 



mm 



■9Pi«l 



We Are Bound to Speak Out ■ By Archbishop of Canterbury 

It is that right chat we feel bound to exercise here in London 
this evening. Yea, I think we may go further. We are learning 
slowly, bur I hope surely, that the nations of the world are one 
community. What other hopes have we of this momentous Con- 
ference now assembled in London unless that truth can be not 
only held, but applied: for everyone knows that not only in the 
behef, but in the application of that fundamental truth, to which 
w^e have been driven quite as much by economic necessity as by 
our own thoughts in the enforcement of that great principle, lies 
the only hope' of the restoration of the prosperity of the world. 
What does i^t mean? It means that the concerns of the one Nation 
are the concerns of all ; that the spirit, the tone of mind the tend- 
encies that operate in one Nation have necessarily their cffeas 
upon all ; and therefore, if anything occurs on a large scale which 
offends the common Instinas of anything that can be called a 
community of Nations, every member of that community is con- 
cerned. 

I want to make this clear — that we are not here because we have 
been pressed and prompted by members of the Jewish community. 
It is true that we have a great, deep, and just sympadiy with the 
Jewish community and an admiration for many of the great 
qualities which it has shown throughout the long history of the 
world, but we are here not because they pressed and prompted us, 
but because our hearts already go out to them in obedience to 
the same common principles of our humanity. I should like also 
to make it even more abundantly clear that we are not assembled 
out of any kind of hostility to the Gteat German Nation. Our 
regret is that what is happening in Germany with regard not only 
to the Jewish community (but very specially to them) affeas us 
with the sense that just as we were trying to be fair and just 
to them, they have brought in a new element of doubt and aliena- 
tion. Therefore, it is not because of any enmity with the German 
people, but because of the very strength of our desire to be 
friendly that we have felt bound to come together this evenmg 
and I hope with unanimity to pass this Resolution. 



''NO CONCESSIONS TO THIS KIND OF 
GERMANY" 

By Sir Austen Chamberlain 
Extract from Speech in House of Commons, ApH^ 13, 1933 

I AM not going to enter into a discussion of the internal 
happenings of Germany except insofar as they are applicable 
and pertinent to a Debate on Foreign Affairs. What is 
this new spirit of German nationalism? The worst of the all- 
Prussian Imperialism, with an added savagery, a racial pride, 
an exclusiveness which cannot allow to any fellow-subject not 
of "pure Nordic birth" equality of rights and citizenship within 
the nation to which he belongs. Are you going to discuss 
tevision with a Government like that? Are you going to discuss 
with such a Government the Polish Corridor? The Polish Corri- 
dor is inhabitated by Poles; do you dare to put another Pole 
under the heel of such a Government? I beg the Right Hon, 
gentleman to beware of what he is doing. After all, we stand 
for something in this country. Our traditions count, for our 
own people, for Europe and for the world. Europe is menaced 
and^ Germany is afHicted by this narrow, exclusive, aggressive 
spirit, by which it is a crime to be in favour of peace and a crime 
to be a Jew, ^ That is not a Germany to which we can aiford to 
make concessions. That is not a Getmany to w^hich Europe can 
afford to give the equality of which the Prime Minister spoke. 
That is more than he ever promised. I understood that the 
promise made by the Five Powers was of equality of status, to be 
reached by stages. Before you can afford to decide, -or to urge 
others to decide, you must see a Germany whose mind is turned 
to peace, who will use her equality of status to secure her own 
safety but not to menace the safety of others ; a Germany which 
has learnt nor only how to live herself, but how to let others 
live inside her and beside her. 



10 



11 



1^ ■*(! Ar AiiniiN utN I 



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vvvn 



"LIBERAL PRINCIPLES IN DANGER" 

By Sir John Simon 

Secretary of State jor foreign Affairs 

From a Speech Delhered in the House of Commons 

April 13, 1933 

I DESIRE to say a word on a matter which the Right Hon, 
Member for Eppitig dealt with at the end of his very im- 
pressive and moving speech, namely, the special concern 
which we have at the present time with regard to the news 
as to the treatment of Jews in Germany, This debate has been 
especially useful, because it has expressed the deep, general and, 
I might say, universal feeling that is entertained in this country 
on the recent treatment of Jews and other minorities in Germany. 
I do not think it would be out of place if I say now, speaking 
as a Member of the Government, that it would be a profound 
mistake for anyone in any country to imagine that this feeling 
is either limited to or instigated by members of the Jewish 
community. On the contrary, it Is a spontaneous expression and 
it Is an inevitable expression of the attachment which we all feel 
to the principle of racial toleration. My Right Hon. friend the 
Member for Darwen (Sir. H. Samuel) said, quite truly, that it 
was a Liberal principle. So it is. It is a claim which many of 
us who have great attachment to that general outlook may fairly 
make. It is one of those principles which in past times has 
been a subject of controversy in our own political life and in 
which, in the broadest sense, Liberal opinion has championed 
the oppressed. 

It is also one of those things which have entered into the 
traditions of the whole of the British people. To-day there is 
no distinction between any of us, whatever our party affiliations 
may be, and we cannot conceive that civil iibert>^ upon which 
the progress not only of great nations but of neighborly relations 
so often depend, are nor gravely menaced by the matters to 
which attention has been called to-day. It is not a Jewish outlook 
and it is not merely the outlook of a section or of a party; it is 
what may truly be called the Anglo-Saxon outlook. It is the 
outlook of those who have inherited traditions which have been 
common to England and Germany alike, I make these observa- 
tions knowing well the responsibility which rests upon the Gov- 
ernment In such a matter, and I do not believe that we should 
be expressing the feelings of the country if I did not associate 
myself with what has been said on this subject to-day. 



12 



CHILD VICTIMS OF THE NEW GERMANY 

By Lady Violet Bonham-Carter 

Address Delivered in London^ England ^ 
December 20, 1933 

I WANT to make clear my profound conviaion that this 
Is not a matter which concerns the Jewish community alone. 
It concerns all who believe in justice and in our common 
humanity. It concerns all who care for mental and spiritual 
freedom; and it concerns all who care about the welfare of 
children and their happiness. 

It is, as Lord Cecil has said, a challenge to civilization. I 
want to say — speaking not for myself alone, but for countless 
others who, like myself, though outside the Jewish community, 
are deeply stirred by these terrible events — we wish to stand 
by your side in taking up this challenge. 

I can truthfully say that nothing within my political memory 
has ever moved me more deeply to horror and indignation than 
recent events In Germany. We, in this country, have looked on 
with dazed astonishment at this nightmare. We have seen 
libraries burnt. We have seen monuments erected to murderers. 
We have seen faith and race perseaited and proscribed, thought 
and art forbidden unless confined in the strait-jacket of State 
control. 

We have seen Germany banish and despoil many of her 
greatest and most distinguished sons, men whose high achieve- 
ments in every field of endeavour have brought her honour 
throughout the world. And these are perhaps the happiest. 

For countless nameless ones are sufiering imprisonment and 
worse to-day, are suffering gross and cruel injustices, simply 
because they happen to be what we here should call Liberals, 
or to belong to the Jewish race and persuasion. 

I suppose if this were Germany most of us would be behind 
barbed wire. I can only say for myself that I should be ashamed 
to be anywhere else. 

If these are the first-fruits of the new faith called German 
Christianity — a faith which, in order to fulfill all Aryan require- 
ments, has, I beheve, transferred the cradle of our religion from 
the Lake o£ Galilee to the Norwegian Fiords — all I can say Is 
that It does not confine itself to an attack on the historical 
foundations of the Old Testament. It is an outrage and a 
violation of the spirit of the New. It runs counter to every 
concept that was ever held or taught by the great and gentle 
Founder of the faith to which I belong. 

But that these pedantic barbarities shotild be extended in their 
scope to children— this is difficult for us here to realize or to 
imagine. I have here a letter from a German-Jewish child — 
a boy of 13^— the son of a Jewish father and of a Christian 

13 



Qiliill 



1!|T' ::[ MIT; I'lR 



German Child Victims ■ By Lady Bonham-Carter 



mother. He was brought up as a Protestant. He was, until 
lately, in a school in a southern German provincial town. He 
is now, I am glad to say, safe in Paris. 

"I was the only Jew in my class" (he writes), "Until Easter 
I was a Protestant, then they found out that my father was a 
Jew and so I became one. After that everything was different. 
No one would be friends with me. No one would answer me. 
In school no one would sit next to me. They all used to want to 
before^ as I was the best in the class and they all wanted to crib. 
Now I had to sit all alone on the back bench. At first I was 
frightfully unhappy^more so as the masters who always used 
to like me could not stand the sight of me any more. When 
they came Into the classroom everyone had to jump up and with 
right hand outstretched shout 'Heil Hitler!' I did too — or I 
didn't. I don't know. If I did then the whole class would shout 
'The Jew Is profaning our greeting!' And If I didn't the master 
shouted 'You wait you Marxist bastard!' Then I was ordered to 
shout 'Heil Hitler!' alone three times. The whole class laughed. 
I was so afraid, I wanted to cry. And then I used often to be 
late so that I shouldn't have to shout 'Heil, Hitlet!' The master 
used to give me extra work to do as a punishment. He wrote 
in the class book, 'For Jewish slovenliness.' 

"Once I did not know the answer — I used always to know 
before — so he asked me if the only thing I could do was 'Fires 
and murders like my father.' Once when 1 could not answer, 
the history master said I should be slaughtered like father. I 
tried to pull myself together, but tears used to sometimes come 
and then they used to say I was a dirty coward like the rest 
of the Marxists. The worst thing of all was in the "breaks' in the 
courtyard. We children of Jewish and Matxist parents had to 
go into a corner of the courtyard by ourselves. Then there was 
always trouble. The others shouted nasty things at us and threw 
stones. Once I defended myself so they hit me and bullied me 
fearfully. Those in charge didn't even, come near. 

"At singing it w^as worse still. I had to learn the text of the 
Horst Wessel Lied and the other songs and then I had to say 
them alone. Again they used to laugh and shout horrid things. 
'Tn drawing I had to do nothing but swastikas. Once I got 
detention because I drew a crooked one. Then the master wrote 
in his book, "Fot ridiculing the German symbol.' 

"Before I used to be the best pupil. Now I was the worst. 
Whether I got something right or wrong, I always got the worst 
marks. I was the scapegoat for everything." 
This is an authentic letter, and what it describes is not an 
exceptional case. I daresay that there are many such. 

Can anyone who has a child of their own even dimly imagine 
what they would feel if their child were being daily subjected 
to such bewildering injustice and humiliation? 

But what is more important than the suffering of the parents 
is the suffering of the children, and not their suffering alone — 
though it is difficult at times to see past that — but the effect that 
such experiences must inevitably produce on their nature, on 
their whole outlook, on ail that delicate structure that goes to 
make up what we call character. 

14 



German Child Victims • By Lady Bonham-Carter 

Science (always a day behind the fair) is telling us now 
what mothers and poets have always known — that these early 
years of awakening and unfolding are perhaps the determining 
factor in all that is to come:— 

"These first affections, 
These shadowy recollections 
Which, be they wdiat they may. 
Are yet the fountain-light of all our day. 
Are yet the master-light of all our seeing." 
In what dark colours will these unhappy children see life? 
How can they trust a system which has failed them so cruelly 
from the outset? How can they believe in gentleness or gener- 
osity who have not even known justice? 

Children instinctively give back to life what life has given 
to them. What sort of a world are these children going to 
build.^ How can these child-victims of blind racial persecution lay 
the foundations of that new order of International brotherhood 
and understanding which, we are told and truly told, is the only 
hope of the future? 

We are not here to denounce these things, which we are, 
alas! powerless to prevent, but to consider what help we can 
give, what first-aid we can render to its viaims. 

I have no fear that the faith and the courage of the Jewish 
race will fail. They have carried it high through the centuries, 
a torch which no suffering could quench. But the faith of a 
child, the courage of a child, is a candle just lit. It must be a 
guatded flame. 

Our first duty surely is to try and remove as many of these 
children as possible from surroundings in which they can ohly 
grow up warped and bruised and embittered by injustice, and to 
replant them in a soil in which they can grow to freedom and 
to happiness. 

Imagine just for one moment that your child — the child you 
most dearly love — has been removed from your care and placed 
outside the reach of your protection — that it is suffering injustice^ 
humiliation, desolation such as most sheltered children can, thank 
Heaven, not even imagine, that it is in dire need of help. 

As you would wish it to be proteaed, comforted, and saved, 
30 I ask you to help others now. 



i3 



MfltWfinMMV 



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ir"l:H!^'"ll 



GETTING RID OF THE OLD TESTAMENT 

By Rev. James M. Gillis 

Editor, The Catholic World 

Address Broadcast Over Station WLWL, November 23» 1933 

THERE is an ancient pagan maxln^, "Whom the gods would 
destroy, they first make mad." And it does really seem 
that those who are bent upon self-destruction commence 
by losing theit wits. 

One of the maddest ideas that has evet been exhibited to the 
world that has witnessed so much lunacy is that of certain 
Na^i Christians in Germany who have declared their intention 
of doing away with the Old Testament. The reason alleged is 
that the Old Testament is Semitic - — or to speak more accurately, 
Jewish. The anti- Jewish movement has gone so far in Hitler's 
Reich that some of the extremists, following the discredited 
Ludendorff, want to get rid not only of the Old Testament but 
the New, not only of Judaism but Christianity as being Jewish 
in origin and ethos. The Ludendorff element is more courageous 
and consistent than those who dare go only half-way in their 
determination to get rid of all that smacks of Judaism. For 
every book in the New Testament, as well as in the Old, was 
written by a Jew. St. Luke, St. Mark and St. Paul were Jews of 
the Dispersion, that is to say, Jews of other countries than 
Palestine, but they were none the less Jews. 

The Apostles were Jews as truly as the prophets; Peter and 
Paul and James and John were quite as Jewish as Abraham, 
Isaac, Jacob and Moses. And if we must introduce the Sacred 
Name of Jesus into this ridioilous business, there was not one 
drop of any blood but Jewish in the veins of the Son of Mary. 
So, once these anti -Jewish fanatics get going, if they have the 
audacity to be consistent, they will have to thrown away the New 
Testament with the Old. If they eliminate everything Jewish 
from their religion, they will have to get rid of our Saviour 
Himself, and His Mother and His foster father and all His 
friends, apostles and first disciples. 

And if they get rid of Our Lord, whom will they put in His 
place? Ludendorff, who probably is mad — in the original sense 
of the word — that is insane — has the answer. He suggests a 
new god, or rather an old heathen god dug up out of the grave 
in which he had lain for some 1,400 years — the god Wotan, 
otherwise Woden, for whom our Wednesday (Wodensday) was 
named in heathen times. Wotan, by the way, had one peculiar 
charaaeristic in Teuton and Scandinavian mythology. He was 
the god of the wind^ — perhaps we may say the god of the big 
wind; and as such I should say an appropriate choice for the 
Hitlerites; if Hitler won't be jealous of a god who can blow 
harder and longer than he. 



16 



Getting Rid of the Old Testament • By Rev. J. M. Gillis 



Also Wotan, like all the other heathen deities, demanded and 
received human sacrifice. Perhaps the extreme bigots like Luden- 
dorff plan to offer him human sacrifices once again — and doubt- 
less the human sacrifices would be Jewish men, women and 
children. I wouldn't put it beyond him. One of the marks of 
a bigot is that he thinks he does a service to God when he 
persecutes his fellow-men. 

Speaking of human sacrifice — when the primitive Christians 
were persecuted in Rome and in other parts of the Empire, they 
were thought to be Jews. And die Romans had reason to con- 
sider them Jews, for in fact most of them were Jews. When 
St. Paul went out into the Gentile world, though he considered 
himself to be by the divine call apostle to the Gentiles, he 
always preached first in the synagogues, and the first Christians 
were Jews. The earliest martyrs in consequence, not only at 
Jerusalem but at Rome, were Jews. Indeed, the first three popes, 
if not the first four popes, were Jews, 

In the text of the Roman Mass even to this day we have 
reminders that our remotest ancestors in the Faith were Jews; 
to say nothing of the introductory parts of the Mass (taken 
generally from the Old Testament and hence Jewish) . When 
we come to the Canon, the sacredest part of the Divine Liturgy, 
we speak of "Our Father Abraham," and of Melchisedech, the 
high priest, who offered sacrifice for Abraham. 

To put the matter briefly and pointedly — we Christians con- 
sider ourselves to be direct and legitimate heirs to the Jewish 
religion. Our faith began in Judaism, and to this day is steeped 
and saturated with Judaism. It may be that a good many Jews 
don't know how Jewish is the Christian religion, but there is no 
excuse for a Christian's not knowing that we have inherited a 
very great deal of the Jewish tradition and the Jewish spirit. 
We use the Jewish scriptures, we honor the Jewish heroes, the 
Jewish parriarchs, prophets, sages and kings. We claim Isaiah 
and Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel, no less than Matthew, Mark, 
Luke and John, We hold that the Old Testament written 
before Christ is just as divinely inspired as the New Testament 
written after Christ. 

NoWj therefore, we have and can have no sympathy and no 
agreement with those who try to dejudaize Christianity. To 
eliminate the Jewish element from our faith would be to tear 
up and throw away the roots of the Christian religion. 

But what do the madmen in Germany know about all this? 
Even those who do not go the full u^ay with Ludendorff in his 
demand that a heathen deity be replaced upon the altars from 
which he was dethroned more than a thousand years ago; even 
those who speak merely of lopping off the Old Testament as 
Jewish and retaining the New Testament as Christian, are like 

17 



,,MiMfr4*>titf nt irKAfi At AUuiiN (UN mm 



lliill'filiilliliil 



Getting Rid of the Old Testament ■ By Rev. J. M. Gillis 



all fanatics, ignorant. In faa, I think it a feasible proposition 
chat ignorance is the cause, or at least the sine qua non of 
fanaticism. 

I am ashamed to say that I meet from time to time evidences 
of ignorance in this matter even on the part of out own Catholic 
people. Some of them don't know or at least rightly appreciate 
our Jewish originj and some of them are ignorant of the purity 
and the majesty, the beauty and the high spirituality of die 
Jewish religion. Perhaps we can't blame them altogether. The 
Jews they meet are for the most part not good specimens; they 
are apostate Jews, and an apostate does no credit to the religion 
which he has abandoned. We ought to know that from our 
apostate Catholics, Almost always they hand out ready-made 
explanations of their apostasy. Renegades, Hke all other sinners, 
have some httle conscience left; and so they feel it necessary 
to excuse themselves to their friends and neigitbors; to givt a 
good account of themselves to those who want to know why 
they left their old faith. They cook up plausible statements; 
they say they didn't like the manners or perhaps even the morals 
of the clergy; they objected to the znoney at the door; they 
didn't Hke this and they didn't like that — they couldn't believe 
this and they couldn't believe that. They manage to fool the 
outsider (perhaps) ; they manage to fool themselves (no doubt!) 
but they don't fool those who are "in the know." Their real 
difficulty is not the creed but the commandments; what drives 
them out is not the morals of the clergy, but their own morals; 
it isn't the money at the church door that is the real obstacle to 
their faith, but the money in their own pockets — money that has 
no right to be there. We know them; they are a shame to 
us: especially when they don't actually secede from the chutch 
once and for ail, but tag along with us, more or less. We have 
to take the blame for them, though they are not really ours. 

Therefore, we ought to know what to think of lapsed, fahen 
away, apostate Jews. They, too, are a bad lot. But we have no 
more right to judge the original, beautiful, pristine, pure Jewish 
reUgion by them than our critics have a right to judge Catholicism 
from corrupt politicians, or bootleggers or gangsters who happen 
to have what is called a Catholic name. We Catholics have 
suffered so much for the sins of bad Catholics that we should be 
the last persons in the world to condemn Judaism for the sins of 
bad Jews. We demand that our faith be judged on its own merits. 
We ought to judge Judaism on its own merits. 

And that brings me back to what I reaJly meant chiefly to 
say: these ignorant Nazi Christians who talk of throwing the 
Old Testament overboard, dorit know the Old Testament, With 
the possible exception of the New, there is no literature extant 
superior to or equal to the Old Testament. It is superb, mag- 

18 




Getting Rid of the Old Testament • By Rev, J. M. Gillis 



nificent, eloquent beyond all description; it is sweet and strong, 
it dips down deep into the heart of man — even into the heart 
of God. I have often quoted a sentence from the famous English 
novelist, John Cowper Powys who wrote of the Psalms of David, 
*' (They) are the most pathetic and poignant, as well as the most 
noble and dignified of all poetic hteratute. The rarest spirits 
of our race will always return to them at every epoch in their 
lives for consolation, for support and for repose." 

What Powys says of the Psalms, may be said of the entire 
Old Testament. 

It is a familiar and indubitable faa that the greatest writers 
of prose and of poetry in every language have fed upon and 
developed their genius upon the literature of the Bible — and 
that those whose style has been distinguished for dignity, grandeur 
and power, have particularly steeped themselves in the Old 
Testament. 

Just by way of a sample, let me read you one or two seleaions. 
Here is a passage out of Ecciesiastes, not ostensibly a poem, like 
the Psalms, but was there ever poetry tliat could surpass this 
richly beautiful prose? 

''Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth, before the 
evil days come, and the years draw nigh, when thou shalt say, 
I have no pleasure in them ; before the sun and the moon and the 
stars are darkened, and the clouds return after the rain; in the 
day when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the strong 
men shall bow themselves, and the eyes shall be darkened, and 
the doors shall be shut in the street; when one shall rise up at 
the voice of a bird, and all the daughters of music shall be 
brought low; yea, they shall be afraid of that which is high, 
and terrors shall be in the w^ay ; and the almond-tree shall blossom 
and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and desire shall fail; 
because man goeth to his everlasting home and the moutncrs go 
about the streets; before the silver cord is loosed or the golden 
bowi is broken, or the pitcher is broken at the fountain, or the 
wheel broken at the cistern, and the dust returneth to the earth 
from whence it came, and the spirit return to God who gave it." 
(xii. 1-7.) 

These passages and a thousand others of superb beauty, of 
power, of righteous wrath, of pathos, and pity and consolation, 
were written by Jews under divine inspiration and these are what 
certain Nazis are stupid enough to wish to throw away. When 
race fanaticism goes to that extreme, it shows itself for what it is 
— madness. 

If it be only a myth that pagan gods made men mad as a pre- 
liminary to destroying them, it is no myth that the true God 
may destroy men who deliberately cultivate the madness of race 
prejudice. 

19 



KMIVfM**!** "^ '► 



[Tn!i'!iiiiii''[ 



CIVILIZATION AGAINST HITLER 

By Samuel Seabury 

Address Delivered at the Mddison Square Garde??, 
March 7, 1934 

THE meeting which brings us together is no ordinary occa- 
sion. We have discussed a momentous issue: the Cause 
of Civihzation against Hitlerism. 

What then is civilization? 

Generally, we recognize it as an advanced stage of social 
development and of the forces in society which make for human 
progress. 

As history attests, civilization springs from a background of 
tradition and knowledge which have inculcated among those 
who live within the zone of its influence the habits of order and 
the observance of the laws of reason, and secures to them the 
guarantees of freedom. 

Multiple factors have entered into its creation; myriad are 
the benefits to mankind which flow from its development. 

Western civilization, for example, has created a social conscious- 
ness that recognizes individual liberty, the freedom to live, to 
work, to think, to speak, to write and to publish, and the free- 
dom to give the fullest expression to human personality. 

It builds its development upon laws embodied in the cus- 
toms and habits of the people and in the ideals visioned by a 
moral sense which makes men sensitive of the rights of others 
and conscious of tiieir obligations to one another. 

The two faaors which have most impeded the march of civi- 
lization — the two gravest evils which man through the ages has 
inflicted upon his fellows — are religious persecution and war. 

These are the twin plagues which the peace, happiness and 
future development of mankind require shall be extinguished. 

Disregard our social inheritance, renounce the principles of 
liberty and freedom which civilization has attained, and you 
break the bonds which hold civilization together and usher in 
an era of savagery and barbarism. 

Strong as our civilization is, the lesson of history, as well as 
recent events, admonish us that civilization has in it elements 
of uncertainty and insecurity. It cannot exist unless the individuals 
and states within the zone of its influence recognize their depend- 
ence upon the observance of rules that ate necessary for the 
orderly development of social life. 

Just as no individual can disregard the other members of the 
community in which he lives, so no civilized state can disregard 
the other states in the world of which both are a part. 

Those interested in the cause of civilization should beware 
of the advance of barbarism, manifesting its approach through 
religious persecution and race hatred. 

20 



Civilization Against Hitler : By Samuel Seabury 



Yet these are the banners under which Hitlerism is seeking 
to make its advance. 

A great state and the rule over a great people have been seized 
by a tyrant whose grip is as firm as his policies ate wicked. 

These policies have manifested themselves in unspeakable op- 
pression and acts of cruelty. They threaten not only the extermi- 
nation of the liberty of those who live under his rule, but the 
liberty, integrity and independence of neighboring states. 

In the addresses which have been made this evening, you have 
heard the testimony of witnesses who represent different schools 
of thought, and who, in various spheres of action, are the accred- 
ited leaders of those for whom they have assumed to speak. 
Collectively, these witnesses voice not only the cultural, political, 
academic and religious views which are basic in our civilization, 
but they have enunciated what I verily believe to be the true 
verdia of American pubHc opinion. 

The views thus expressed have not dealt with prophecy, but 
with facts. The faas have disclosed what has happened in Ger- 
many and the outrages which have been perpetrated during one 
year of the Hitler regime. 

The witnesses you have heard tonight have detailed events, 
the occurrence of which has shocked the moral sense of man- 
kind and wliich are peculiarly distressing to those of us who 
cherish the American ideal, because these events strike at the 
basic principles which underlie human freedom. 

Not only do these events distress us in this respea, but they 
reveal the commission of cruelties and of outrages upon those 
who are near and dear to a group of our own citizenship— a 
group which have contributed much to the upbuilding of our 
institutions and constitute an element in our country whom we 
delight to acknowledge as our partners in American citizenship. 
The hideousness of the events, their promise of further oppres- 
sions and their menacing character, threatening the very foun- 
dations upon which Western civilization rests, justly alarm all 
those who are interested in the advancement of that civlhzation 
and are opposed to its being disrupted by the precipitation of 
another fiery ordeal of battle which these Hitler taaics, if not 
prevented, foreshadow. 

These events thus create the issue upon the determination of 
which momentous consequences depend, and involve no other 
question than the Cause of Civilization Against Hitlerism. 

Other States may in their present stage of development have 
extended their state powers unduly over the consciences and 
the rights of their own citizens, but the Nazi state has gone fur- 
ther in that its basic idea is the deification of force, the dogma 
of race and the discrimination against all who are not of that race. 
The test by which the Nazi state determines whether the rights 

21 



imiv^Min V HI- rmAh A( AumiN m n i inn 



Civilization Against Hitler ■ By Samuel Seabury 

of men shall be recognized is made dependent not upon the aaion 
or conduct of the individual, not upon his merit or the lack of 
it, but solely on the race from which he has sprung. 

Thus Hitler, in a spirit of nationalistic egoism, outlaws the 
brotherhood of man, proclaims those of his race alone the chil- 
dren of a common father and discriminates against all others. 
Recognizing that the attributes of the God whom mankind recog- 
nizes are too catholic and comprehensive to fit his narrow category, 
he creates his own god— a god fashioned in the hideous imaee of 
Hitlerism. 

The facts which many speakers have so eloquently presented 
CO you to-night attest that the multiple tyrannies, oppressions, bru- 
talities, cruelties and injustices, in their various forms and mani- 
festauons, are all destructive of the cause of civihzation, and are 
all indications of an aggressive Hitlerism which hurls its defiance 
at the world. 

Others have spoken to you of specific aas which Hitlerism has 
perpetrated. Let us inquire what is the thought which has 
ptompted these aas. From what have they sprung, and what is 
the progtam of which they ate a part? 

We must look for a moment at the historical events which 
preceded the advent of Hitler to power, and the ideology to 
which he has since committed the Gerroan people. 

The HohenzoUerns abdicated on November 9, 19I8. A Soviet 
regime intervened. It did not givt satisfaction. A national as- 
sembly, representative of all classes of. the community, met at 
Weimar on February 6, 1919, and adopted the Weimar Consti- 
tution m August of that year. That constimtion rested upon the 
broadest principles of democracy and justice. In its preamble 
the people of Germany pledged themselves "to renew and to 
establish its federation on the sole bases of liberty and justice, 
to serve the cause of peace within and without, and to promote 
social progress." 

Time will not permit detailed comment upon this remarkable 
document. 

Suffice it to say that it proclaimed the German Federation a 
Republic with its supreme power vested in the people. It fa- 
voted the cause of peace and encouraged education and inter- 
national good will. Foreign conquests were proclaimed uncon- 
stitutional. The army and navy were proclaimed the "defence 
force," and could not be otherwise employed without a breach 
of the Constitution. It etected the standard of brotherhood in 
the place of the old order of special privilege. The right to 
trade and the right to work was insisted upon indeed, the right 
to an opportunity to work was expressly provided for. It laid 
upon sound principles the foundations for the administration of 
justice and guaranteed the rights of all, irrespeaive of race, creed 

22 



• Civilization Against Hitler • By Samuel Seabury 



or sex. It surrounded personal liberty and freedom of opinion 
with constitutional safeguards and secured the right of public 
meeting. It treated a man's person and his home as sacred and 
recognized his right ro emigrate to foreign countries. Art, science 
and the teaching and development of each were made free from 
social conttol, and the state recognized its obligations to pre- 
serve these rights from interference by individuals, groups or 
governments. 

The Constitution of Weimar rested on the firm foundations of 
social justice, economic freedom and the common good. That 
Constitution was adopted in 1919. It represented the opinion 
of post-war Germany and it visioned an era of peace andf good 
will. Had it been given effect, it would have meant much to man- 
kind, but other forces intervened. I have no time to trace them. 
Suffice it to say that on Oaober 18, 1933, four days after Hitler 
had led Germany out of the League of Nations and the Disarma- 
ment Conference, Hitler proclaimed: "Germany wants nothing 
but peace," and that she rejeaed every policy of force. 

His every act since that time, as well as his previous utterances, 
show that his statement was false. 

In his book "My Battle" ("Mein Kampf"), he said: "It is 
necessary, then, for better or worse, to resort to war if one 
wishes seriously to arrive at pacifism. In reality, the humanitarian 
and passive ^idea will perhaps be excellent on that day when the 
man superior to all others will have conquered and subjugated 
the world first of all in such a measure that he becomes the sole 
master of this earth. First, then, the battle, and afterwards — per- 
haps — pacifism." 

Stop for a moment and consider the imphcations of this utter- 
ance. 

Peace is not to prevail until the man whom Hitler regards as 
"superior to all others shall have subjugated the world," in such 
a measure "that he becomes the sole master of this earth." 

Thus were the enlightened ptecepts of the Constitution of 
Weimar nullified and trampled under foot, and thus was ushered 
in the era of tyranny and violence for which Hitler has consistently 
stood. 

The menace to the world from this attitude clearly appears 
from another utterance contained in Hitler's book. I quote it: 
"Not until the Germans have realized that they must engage in 
an aaive and final conflict with France will it be possible to 
bring the fruitless struggle to a conclusion — on condition, how- 
ever that Germany sees in the extermination of France a means 
of providing her people with the necessary room for expansion 
* * *". And Hitler goes on to add: "There are ei£:hty million 
Germans in Europe today. This policy will be recognized as the 
correa one when, in less than one hundred years from now, the 

23 



|tt4tVrH*tH V itr mAhAIAimilN IIINIItlTi 



iifiiiiiiiiiii 



Civilization Against Hitler - By Samuel Seabury 

Contineat of Europe is inhabited by cwo hundred and £fty 
million Germans." 

Not only has the Constitution of Weimar been scrapped, but 
the mask has been torn aside and Hitler appears openly proclaim- 
ing that his group represents the men superior to all others and 
that a preliminary to the advent of peace is the subjugation of 
the world by them, and that they shall be recognized as the 
earth's sole masters. 

Not only does he proclaim this as an ultimate end, but he points 
out that Germany— that is, the Hitler Germany — "sees in the ex- 
termination of France a means of providing her people with the 
necessary room for expansion." 

According to Hitler, the lines of other national states are to 
be eliminated by war and conquest and in less than a hundred 
years the continent of Europe is to be inhabited by 250,000,000 
Germans, acmated by the Hitler lust for power, accomplishing 
its purposes by the Hitlerized processes of violence and cruelty, 
until the German power shall have "subjugated the world" and 
become "the sole master of this earth." 

Since that time, the policy of Germany has been to arm, and 
while it disguises the groups that it keeps equipped for battle, 
they include not only the regular army, but the Prussian Police! 
the Black Shirts, the Black Coats, the Steel Helmets and others^ 
an aggregate force of over a million men, A million men, ready' 
when their leader shall give the signal, to commence the work 
of "the extermination of France" and "the subjugation of the 
world." 

Then, and then only, will the ideal of the Hitler state be 
reahzed^a state repressive of the personalities within it, aggres- 
sive, threatening and ruthless to all who are without it. 

In order to appreciate the activities of the German national 
socialistic government for which Hitler speaks one must under- 
stand its ideology. 

The basic idea underlying the whole program of tyranny is 
the German conception of the state, its powers and funaions. 
It IS a natural development of a school of German political phil- 
osophy and is the rock upon which the Hitler regime is founded. 

Hitler not only enthrones this instrument of oppression, which 
he calls a state, as tyrant and despot over all who hve within it, 
but he threatens, by its power, the existence of other states and 
gives express notice that its purpose is to exterminate each and 
every state which refuses to make way for the march of Hitlerism. 

Force and fear— the power to use fotce and the capacity to 
inculcate fear and terror among others — are the distinaive at- 
tributes of the state which Hitler has created. Indeed, the over^ 
shadowing pre-eminence which has been accorded government by 
force and fear in the Hitler state excludes a consideration of fun- 

. 24 



Civilization Against Hitler : By Samuel Seabury 



damental polidcal, social and economic principles, because, in 
the light of that false pre-eminence, these principles find neither 
room nor occasion for expression. 

This view makes of the state an instrumentality of oppression, 
which kills the power to formulate ideals for the future and 
lifts a sordid materialism into the seat of power, cteates an 
antagonism between law and justice, divorces the government 
from any connection with self-government and so paralyzes human 
endeavors as to render them incapable of giving expression to 
those qualities which, under free conditions, are among the glories 
of humanity. 

It is this degraded conception which visualizes the state as 
the sole source of civil and moral obligadon, crushes truth, makes 
Injustice inevitable and kills the seed from which alone can 
germinate ideals that hnd their most exalted expression in reli- 
gious, ethical and philosophical endeavors, and in an art and 
iiteramre worthy of the world's best traditions. 

In this Hitlerized state all intelleaual and cultural activities 
are formulated, standardized and co-ordinated so as to flood the 
country, and mislead the people, with a false propaganda, favor- 
able to the ideal of the Nazi state, and all attempts to correct the 
raisimprcssions so creattd are suppressed and punished. 

The publicity and the attempt to mould public opinion favor- 
able to the program of the government is made by the Ministry 
of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda. 

Thus the press is entirely under governmental control, so that 
every editor is, in effect, a public official whose utterances are 
dictated and controlled by the state. Broadcasting is likewise 
controlled and enlisted in the cause of governmental propaganda. 
Advertising is taken over by the state. A black list is established 
fof books and many are upon the Hitler Index. The government 
not only diaates to the libraries what they may collect, but upon 
occasion the Nazi state directs the burning of books. Vain effort: 
You can no more stay the progress of the truth by reducing to 
ashes the form in which it is expressed, than you can imprison 
it behind iron bars. 

The Nazi state controls the life of every citizen. Education 
and training for the young are directed in the same way; it has 
become the privilege of the few and is dominated by the teachings 
o( the Nasi state. Jewish youth is denied the benefits of education. 
Great scientists, artists and teachers whose reputations are world- 
wide, have been driven from Germany because of racial tests 
which have been applied. 

The administration of justice in Germany has been debased 
by providing for the determination of issues not in accord with 
law or justice, but solely upon the racial group to which the 
parties belong. 

25 



,,„,„,,„„,,¥ tir i»-y*i» Ai AuniiN (itN I mu 



Civilization Against Hitler * By Samuel Seabury 



Doctors, lawyers, judges, members of all the learned professions 
and cultural groups who are not of the favored race have been 
discriminated against. 

Representatives of trade unions and all who dissent from the 
philosophy and practices of the Nazi state are equally proscribed 
and discriminated against. The heads of the unions, like other 
dissenters, have been herded in concentration camps. 

The assets and funds of the labor unions collected for unem- 
ployment relief have been confiscated and stolen by the Nazi state, 

Women have been driven from industry and denied every 
vocation except those within the home and the bearing of children. 

All the great social fellowships — teligious, culmral, charitable, 
scientific and political — which abound in every civilized state, 
have been converted into agencies of propaganda for Hitler ism. 

The Nazi state, however, does not limit itself to the suppression 
of cultural and social groups or fellowships, but subjects the 
private life of the individual to the same measure of contro!. It 
insists not only upon the regimentation of the actions of men, 
but their religious beliefs as well. 

The academic freedom which prevailed in German universities 
has been stamped out and their educational institutions, formerly 
great centres of learning and culture, have likewise been converted 
into agencies of propaganda for Hitlerism, 

The attempts of the Nazi state to subjugate the intellect and the 
religious beliefs of the people have received their most effeaive 
resistance from the churches. There was resistance in the fields 
of science, Hteratute and art, but it was unorganized or came from 
individuals whose organizations had been destroyed. The influ- 
ences of the Catholic Church and the Protestant Churches were 
too strong to be so easily disposed of and other methods of 
accomplishing the same purpose were resorted to. The great 
Catholic Church preserved its independence and loyalty to its 
traditions by refusing to worship at the Hitlet shrine. As a 
result, the Catholic ptess has been rigidly censored and is dis- 
criminated against by the Nazi state. The Protestant Churches 
have been reduced to mere cogs in the political machine and are 
forced to teach the principles of Hitlerism as if they were the 
precepts of religion. 

The outrages to which the Jewish people have been subjeaed 
have been inhuman, uncivilized and barbarous. 

Every method which ingenuity, cruelty and perversity could 
devise to harass and oppress the Jews has been resorted to. 

The Jews constitute the majority of those who have been 
herded in the concentration camps, whete they have been subjected 
to every cruelty and indignity. 

As long as the Jew remains in Germany he is denied the right 
to participate in wholesome, decent, civilized life. While the 

26 



Civilization Against Hitler - By Samuel Seabury 



Jew remains in Germany it is the new religion of the Nazi state 
that he shall be persecuted and oppressed. He is penahzed in 
every activity he may exett. 

Slavery without any mitigating circumstances must be the lot 
of the Jew who remains in Germany while the Nazi state is in 
power. And yet laws have been enacted in Germany which 
forbid the Jews to go elsewhere. Forbidden to leave Germany, 
they are outraged and oppressed while they stay. Prisoners to 
the Hitler state, denied the right to expatriate themselves, they 
must continue to remain under the Hitlet regime and suffer the 
persecutions and cruelties incident to it. 

Forbidden to live elsewhere, penalized while they remain, the 
Jewish populations of Germany are the galley slaves in the Nazi 
ship of state. 

What can we say of such a state and the evils that it has pro- 
duced except what Garrison said of slavery: that it is the "sum 
of all villainies." 

Not content with the slaughter of the innocent within its own 
realm, Hitlerism has created agencies throughout the world 
tiirough which it spreads false and malicious propaganda against 
the Jews, the only purpose of which is to stir up strife and 
create race hatred and prejudice. 

In the discriminations against, and the persecutions of, the 
Jews, other people must not be so short-sighted as to conclude 
that they ate not also affected. Persecution of one is an injury 
to all. Let us not forget that, in the language of our own James 
Russell Lowell, 'Tn the gain or loss of one race, all the rest 
have equal claim/' 

In the fanaticism whicii has characterized the Nazi zeal, they 
have even rewritten the Psalms of David so that, instead of their 
giving an expression to an appreciation of the fatherhood of 
God — the very negation of the idea of racial discrimination- — - 
these Psalms shall hereafter in Germany hymn the Hitler hate 
against the race which produced them and clothed them in gar- 
ments of beauty which they have worn through the ages, 

Hitlerism is determined to establish its supremacy in Germany 
and throughout the world, even though, in order to accomplish 
this result, it must pass over the corpse of civilization. 

The public opinion of the world will stop this advance. 
Hitlerism shall not pass over a highway strewn with the wrecks 
of western civilization. It shall not pass that way — no, not until 
the stars have darkened and the sun has set in the heavens, 
never to rise again. 

The reason why Hitler cannot succeed is that a force greater 
than he will overcome him. The force that shall overthrow him 
is the public opinion of the world. The public opinion of the 
world rules the world. It has toppled kings from their thrones 

27 



i,^,v^H*M V •••- ii-WAn A I AimiiN urN I IIMt 



-i|i:'i|Vll!T':' 111 



Civilization Against Hitler • By Samuel Seabury 

and reduced great empires to dust and ashes. It has brought 
vain-glorious tyrants to the block or sent them to exile. It is 
a force strong enough to overthrow Hitlerism, its armies, its 
satellites, its bigots and fanatics. But public opinion must be 
aroused. It must be organised. The emergency is great; the 
need fot immediate aaion vital. It must be crystallised at once 
and it must find expression in a boycott against Hitlerism — a 
boycott as wide as civilization and as powerful and as strong as 
humanity. 

Other tyrants have often been overthrown as the result of an 
opposition led by individuals, but Hitlerism must be confronted 
by the atoused public opinion of the world, which will condemn 
it to the everlasting infamy which it merits. 

Public opinion as the force, and boycott as the weapon, will 
break the power of Hitlerism. It will clear it from the pathway 
of the developing and advancing civilization which it obstruas 
and thus accord to the world the only opportunity it has for 
the preservation of world peace. 




28 



A LIBERAL'S ATTITUDE TOWARD 

THE NAZIS 

By Raymond Moley 

Address Delivered at the Madison Square Garden, 
March 7, 1934 

r 1 ^HE modern world is built upon nations and the modern 

I nation is built upon the principle of unity. Unity in a 
-*- nation comes from one of two things — the tie of common 
blood or the tie of common rational principle. 

In the building of the American nation through the trials of 
colonial infancy, through its expansion over the continent and, 
still more significant, through its population from all of the 
peoples of the world, there was no choice in its means of unity. 
Its people did not have common blood. ThereforCj it had to build 
its unity out of common principle. 

What is this principle, then, which to us muse mean a unify- 
ing reality as deep as blood? It is the principle of social justice in 
the face of obvious external differences. The very basis of 
social justice is that freedom of worship should be recognized, 
that freedom of expression should be guaranteed and, more 
latterly, that the right to enjoy the produas of labor and the 
riches of nature's bounty should be justly protected. Religious 
and political justice has been followed by the building of the 
principle of economic justice. 

I have no illusions about the nature of justice. Its expression 
comes in part from the revelation of divine wisdom. But such 
is the nature of the world that its definition comes along from 
the hard necessities of human living. If we cannot have justice, 
we cannot have life. That is the American creed. 

If we believe that creed, which is fundamentally based upon 
the superiority of principle over common origin, based upon the 
faith and, I believe, now the scientific truth that physical externals 
of origin are unimportant factors in the fabric of civilization, we 
- cannot believe and we cannot tolerate as a principle of national 
unity for ourselves, the barbaric delusion that blood relationship 
is the chief principle that must govern civilization. 

That is my faith as a libetaL 

When this nation was born, the world was old. Everywhere 
were civilizations based upon different principles than ours. But 
we displayed our experiment in the face of a grim and hard 
world; we challenged the cynical old age of Europe and Asia. 
We defended this principle with blood and treasure. Behind 
the barricades of our faith, we have tried and are trying more 
than ever to put into economic life the reality of our conceprions 
of justice for all — all Americans. 

A certain minor public official, whose name is unimpottant, 

29 






Liberal's Attitude Towards Nazis - By Raymond Moley 



Liberal's Attitude Towards Nazis * By Raymond Moley 



was confronted some time ago by a demand that in view of the 
sacred principle of asylum established and cherished in this 
country from its origin, certain citizens of Germany should be 
admitted to this country. He replied that the demand was backed 
merely by a few small groups along the Atlantic Seaboard, and 
that he, as a public official, representing the nation, was not 
impressed. I want the answer to this assertion to be clear and 
unequivocal. 

It is not a small group or a special interest or even a group 
of special interests that is concerned in this question. It is the 
whole American people. And with regard to the specific cmestion 
that that public official was discussing when he made that state- 
ment, public opinion broke the bonds of callous bureaucracy and 
put this country on record once and for all on the question of 
asylum. That issue has been settled and settled in the only 
possible American way. 

Burke said in his immortal argument before the English Parlia- 
ment in behalf of the colonies that "In order to prove that the 
Americans have no right to their liberties, we are every day 
endeavoring to subvert the maxims which preserve the whole 
spirit of our own. To prove that the Americans ought not to 
be free, we are obliged to depreciate the value of freedom itself; 
and we never seem to gain a paltry advantage over the Americans 
in debate, without attacking some of those principles, or deriding 
some of those feelings, for which our ancestors have shed their 
blood." 

What Burke said of the attitude of British liberals toward 
Americans is precisely what must be said now of the proper 
attitude of American liberals toward justice and freedom in Ger- 
many. We cannot find excuses for what Hitler has done without 
at the same time finding reasons why our faith in our country 
is a hollow pretense. We cannot whittle away the guilt of Hitler 
by asserting that he is speaking for a grear nation's rights without 
repudiating the distinction that makes the United States a nation 
itself. Here is our chance to square our eloquent pretensions with 
splendid performance. 

And so as an American who cherishes the liberal principles 
that hold us together as a nation, I abhor and detest the barbaric 
reversion that is Hitlerism. I believe that an American cannot 
excuse it without impugning his own principles. He has the 
right to expect his government to share in his abhorrence and 
to lend what legal aid it can to those who have suffered from 
Hitlerism. 

This threat is not to one religion alone. It is a threat to every 
religion — to the spirit of religion itself. It is not merely a denial 
of right to a minority of Germans. It is a denial of the rights 
of all minorities. 



It is not merely a battle in behalf of Jews. It is a fight for 
the integrity of American principle. 

I hate Hitler and Hitlerism not only because they have denied 
justice to fellow human beings. I hate this thing because it is 
the enemy of my country, of my faith and of my right to be free. 



30 



31 



MWw^M»ny rir 



lAfi Al AMOMN III Nl tl1i> 



ii'iTiTi iii'nriii 



NAZI ASSAULT ON ORGANIZED LABOR 

By William Green 

Address delivered at the testimonial dinner in his honor, 
February 14, 1934 

PEOPLE of every age have been compelled to sacrifice, strug- 
gle and fight for the preservation of human rights and the 
exercise of freedom. They lose sometimes when through 
political manipulation despotic appeals are made to passion, feel- 
ing and racial sentiment. It is when these uncertain and danger- 
ous characteristics of mankind are mobilized that tyrants win and, 
as a result, exercise autocratic control through the power of gov- 
ernment. 

In these modern days the hope of the oppressed people, in a 
state where a tyrant rules, lies in the development of an aroused, 
keen, sensitive international conscience. When the public opinion 
of mankind becomes aroused in opposition to intolerance and in- 
justice, the victims of misrule become encouraged to fight for the 
enjoyment of their individual rights and for the recognition of the 
broad principle of human brotherhood. 

The masses of the people have ever cherished the principles of 
democracy, freedom and justice as a priceless heritage. They do 
nor wish nor do they ever expect to enjoy special privileges. Their 
economic, industrial and social salvation lies in the enjoyiTient of 
free and unrestricted opportunity to organize for self-helpfulness, 
to participate in the civic and political affairs of the Nation and 
to freely use their political and economic power so that they may 
establish a social and poUtical order wliich makes for human bet- 
terment. 

It is because of the devotion of the working people to the doc- 
trine of human rights and human freedom that they were shocked 
when they learned of the atrocious treatment which, under the 
Hitler regime, has been accorded working people and the Jewish 
residents of Germany. The aroused feeling which was created in 
the minds of the working people throughout the world was re- 
flected in the artion taken by the British Trade-Union Congress, 
the Trade-Union organizations of Holland, Belgium, Czecho- 
slovakia, Switzerland, Spain, France, The International Federation 
of Trade-Unions and the American Federation of Labor, repre- 
senting the working people of the United States and Canada. 
These Trade-Union organizations are the accredited instrumentali- 
ties through which the voice of Labor, in the countries named, is 
given expression. Their feelings were aroused, their sensibilities 
shocked when they learned that through a seizure of political 
jpower in Germany the Hitler regime had launched a campaign of 
brutal perseaition against the Jewish people and had destroyed 
the democratic Trade-Unions of Germany, imprisoned the ofEcers 

32 



Nazi Assault on Organized Labor * By William Green 



of these Trade-Unions, confiscated their property and raided their 
offices and headquarters. 

It was because of this inhuman and indefensible action practiced 
by the Hitler administration that these Trade-Union organizations, 
almost all of them, declared in favor of an economic boycott upon 
German goods and German service. Every man and woman who 
loves liberty and who places human rights above and beyond ma- 
terial rights will approve and applaud the action which these eco- 
nomic, democratic organizations, representing the working people 
of so many nations throughout the world, have taken. 

The indictment against the Hitler regime in Germany is direct 
and amazing. The facts justify the charge that defenseless, law- 
abiding, upright Jewish citizens of Germany were subjected to 
most cruel persecution because they were Jews — and for no other 
reason. The working people of Germany who had built up their 
Trade-Unions and had acquired Trade-Union property were forced 
to witness the destruction of their Trade-Union institutions while 
their leaders were thrown into prison, not because they had com- 
mitted any crime but merely because they had been identified with 
the bona fide Trade-Union movement of Germany. 

Under this policy of ruthless extermination directed against 
Trade-Unions 86 buildings serving as headquarters of the National 
Trade-Unions, 233 local peoples' houses, directly or indirealy 
connected with the German Trade-Union movement, 16 health 
centers, with more than tw^o thousand beds and 4 Trade-Union 
schools were confiscated by the Government. These 339 build- 
ings represented a monetary value of 260,000,000 marks or $100,- 
000,000. 

The German Labor Bank, with 240 branches, representing a 
total value of 80 million marks, w^as forcibly taken over by the 
Nazi storm troopers. The confiscatory policy of the Government 
did not stop there. The German Consumers Society, which had 
established 46 cooperative factories composed of four million 
members and which had acquired property and a treasury amount- 
ing to 240,000,000 marks or nearly $100,000,000, was seized by 
the Government. One hundred and tw^enty-six newspaper dailies 
and 84 printing establishments belonging to the Social-Democratic 
Party, representing a value of 80,000,000 marks, were taken by 
the Government. Added to this was the labor, sport and culture 
movement with its numerous institutions, homes and theatres, 
which had been built up and established as a paralleling activity 
of the Trade-Union movement. 

The accumulated property of the German Labor movement, 
which amounted to 700,000,000 marks or $270,000,000, was 
forcibly seized under the pretense of coordination. Reliable 
information shows that a great part of this property has been 
totally destroyed. The "peoples' houses" in Leipzig, Breslau 

33 



[|iii'iiiiii'iki<iiiiiNiiiiiir'iiii 



I III 



i!riT[i!!Ofifirri!i 



I M i iw i wi i 



Nazi Assault on Organized Labor - By William Green 



and Nuremburg, furnishings, libraries and otlier valuables were 
thrown into the streets and publicly burned. Safes, belonging 
to the Trade- Unions, were opened and robbed of their contents. 

Recently a so-called "New German Labor Code," entitled 
"The Law for the Organization of National Labor," was pro- 
mulgated. The Hitter administration, through the operation of 
this law, undertakes to create a relationship bers^^een employer 
and employee based upon the complete domination and control 
of industrial ownership and industrial management. 

This so-called Labor Code is revolutionary and reactionary. 
It completely annihilates Labor Unions, prohibits strikes and 
terminates collective bargaining, as well as the right to organize. 

The new set-up created by this Labor Code provides for a 
system of shop councils which it is intended will function under 
the supervision of governmental labor trustees, Subjea to cer- 
tain exceptions, the employer is clothed with authority to hx 
wages and working condirions upon his own initiative although 
the workers are accorded the nominal but meaningless right to 
appeal to the state. 

The structure of Trade-Unionism erected in Germany upon 
the initiative of the workers and which always was regarded 
as the bulwark of the liberties of the German workers has been 
completely destroyed. A new industrial and economic order 
which, in operation, subjeas die worker to industrial manage- 
ment control reduces the worker to an industrial status approxi- 
mating slavery. Not only have the German workers suffered 
the loss of millions in money but they have been robbed of their 
economic power and influence, the only weapon which free 
labor can use in establishing decent wages and humane con- 
ditions of employment. 

While giving consideration to these faas we must bear in 
mind that in Germany, as in the United States, Great Britain 
and other countries, large numbers of Jewish people are mem- 
bers of Trade-Unions and for that reason it h reasonable to 
conclude that they sufiered double persecution, the persecution 
whicli was direaed against them because they were Jews and 
that which was directed against them because they were mem- 
bers of Trade-Unions. Because of the cultural and social inclina- 
tion of the Jewish race the Jewish workers found an opportunity, 
as members of Trade-Unions, to give expression to their idealism 
and pursue their quest for education. They appreciated fully 
the value of association with the cooperative societies, the Trade- 
Union schools and health centers. Through the complete 
annihilation of these educational and cultural instrumentalities 
set up by the Trade-Union movement of Germany many Jewish 
working people have been denied the only opportunities wliich 

34 



Nazi Assault on Organized Labor ■ By William Green 



were available for self- advancement and for the promotion of 
the common good. 

It appears, from authentic reports received, that all the fury 
of racial hare towards the Jewish population of Germany reached 
a climax when the election of Hitler became an assured fact. 
Immediately there followed a campaign of persecution against 
Jewish people residing in Germany which, when the true record 
is written, will stand as a blot of shame against Hitler and 
those associated with him in control of the German government. 
Hitler, through his campaign addresses, campaign literature and 
public manifestoes, is largely responsible for the persecution 
which has been visited upon the Jewish people in Germany. 
He came into power singing his song of hate. Its refrain was 
echoed by those whose feelings and passion had been aroused 
against a race which has given to the world men of mighty 
intellect and genius. 

The annihilation of the Trade-Unions and the persecution of 
the Jewish people will be regarded by all liberty-loving people 
as the transcendent sin committed by the Hitler Administration. 

The working people of our own country recognize and sup- 
port the right of die citizens of Germany, as well as of all other 
nations, to establish their own form of government and to 
formulate their own political and governmental policies. It 
should be respected by all those who claim it as a right for 
themselves. In voicing a protest, therefore, against the ill treat- 
ment of the Trade-Unions and Jewish people of Germany, 
Labor entertains no thought of interference in the political 
structure or the political policies of the German Nation. Science, 
invention and improved methods oi transportation and com- 
munication have brought the nations of the world into closer 
contact and closer relationship. The people of one nation are 
more nearly the neighbors of another now than ever before. 
Our concern, therefore, in the indefensible action taken against 
Trade -Unions and the Jewish race by the Hitler government is 
rhat of a neighbor who insists that if neighborly relationship 
and neighborly intercourse are to be maintained the Hitler gov- 
ernment must observe those standards of national ethics due 
neighbor nations. 

It is the apparent purpose of the Hitler regime to drive the 
Jewish people out of Germany, through the application of the 
economic and discriminatory pressure. One may well inquire 
why such a policy is pursued by those in cliarge of a govern- 
ment made up of people who have prided themselves upon their 
culture. Why should the Jewish people, who belong to a race 
which has made a record in the contribution h has made to 
science, education, literature .and art be subjected to cruel, in- 
defensible treatment in the Homeland where they had cast their 

95 



ilf It-MAM Al AUhllN lUNItMn 



Nazi Assault on Organized Labor • By William Green 

fortunes and where they had served their Government in a dis- 
tinguished way both in peace and in war' They constituted a 
small minority of the German population. Their conduct had 
been above reproach. They were law-abiding citizens respect- 
ing the authotity of the state. They constituted no menace to 
the existing order. Their helpless condition ar this time appeals 
to the sentiments and sympathies of all people who are influenced 
by sentiments of humanity. 

The answer to all of this is: They are persecuted only because 
they ate Jews — just as working people in Germany, are per- 
secuted because they are Trade-Unionists. 

The working people throughout the world responded in ac- 
cordance with the lofty ideals and fine traditions of Trade- 
Unionism and the Trade-Union movement. These organizations 
of Labor are founded upon the broad principle of brotherhood 
and fraternity. They will not countenance or tolerate those 
primitive instincts of racial hate which consign a man or woman 
to punishment of the most distressing kind merely because he 
belongs to some other race, speaks a different language or em- 
braces a different creed. This is a cardinal principle of the 
American Federation of Labor. The question of race or creed 
has no place in the policies, principles or membership of this 
great economic institution. 

Moved by the highest motives of human welfare and inter- 
national good-will, the American Federation of Labor expressed 
its opposition to the policy of persecution directed against the 
members of the Trade-Unions and the Jewish people of Ger- 
many. It could not remain silent and be true to Its own tradi- 
tions, principles and policies. The men and women of Labor 
who attended this Convention realized that merely voicing a 
protest would not, of itself ^ be sufficient. The action of the 
central figure, who shaped and directed the destinies of the 
German Government, made it clear that any appeal ro his heart, 
conscience and judgment would have no effect. The opinion of 
Labor must, of necessity, be brought home to him in some more 
definite and convincing way. For this reason the American 
Federation of Labor decided by unanimous vote that "the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor join with other public-spirited organiza- 
tions in our country in officially adopting a boycott a [gainst Ger- 
man-made goods and German service, this boycott to continue 
until the German government recognizes the right of the working 
people of Germany to organize into bona fide, independent trade 
unions of their own choosing, and until Germany ceases its op- 
pressive policy of persecution of Jewish people." 

In placing this boycott upon German go'^ds and German 
service Labor disavows any disposition or intention of niterfering 
in the internal affairs of the German governmen: Sut will call 

36 



Nazi Assault on Organized Labor ■ By William Green 

upon working people and their friends, at home and abroad, to 
apply it until the working people of Germany are made free to 
organize into their own Trade-Unions, and until the Jewish 
people, residing in Germany, are accorded the equal right, with 
other German citizens, to enjoy all the rights and privileges to 
which they are morally, legally and poHticaliy entitled. 



37 



^ It-HAA At AimilN OtNIIMM f 

iitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiy I 



,,„,ypf,^, IV iif II- KARA) Aim I IN Utm IH>1 

lllil 



LABOR'S STAKE IN THE STRUGGLE 
By Dr. Abba Hillel Silver 

Address Delivered at the Testimonial Dinner to Mr. William 

Green, President of the American Federation oj Lab Off 

February 14, 1934 

IT is gratifying to note the very positive leadership which 
Mr. Wilham Green, President of the American Federation 
of Labor, has been giving to the anti-Nazi boycott move- 
ment in the United States. The testimonial dinner which is 
being given to him by the Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League, in 
which so many prominent citizens are participating, is a just 
and fitting recognition of his courageous and far- sighted labor 
statesmanship. Mr, Green was among the £rst in this country 
to realize that Naziism is as fatal to the interests of labor as to 
those of the Jewish group in Germany. The same bloody hand 
which laid w^aste the Jewish community also destroyed all the 
agencies and institutions of mumal help and proreaion which 
organized labor had established in Germany over a period of 
many years, outlawed its unions, scattered its forces, imprisoned 
its leaders, confiscated its funds and reduced the working men 
to a condition of feudal vassalage. 

This, of course, was the prime objective of the Nazi move- 
ment. That is why it was so heavily financed by the big indus- 
trialists, bankers and manufacturers of Germany. The bogey 
of Communism which the skillful Nazi agitators raised was a 
ruse and a camouflage. The German Republic was never seri- 
ously threatened by Commimism. It was the rising power of 
organized labor and the clear trend towards socialization of 
industry which the hard-pressed and frightened magnates of 
Germany were passionately eager to check and which they suc- 
ceeded in checking. At least for the time being. , . . For 
no such victory can long endure at this late day. Those pur- 
blind industrial rulers of Germany wdio have succeeded in de- 
stroying the only free institutions whereby the progress of the 
people could have been assuted through peaceful ways of evolu- 
tion have laid up for themselves a bloody day of reckoning. 

It is a commonplace of Jewish history that the reaaionary 
forces of a country which are aligned against the Jew are also 
aligned against the working classes. The fortunes of our people 
throughout the w^orld have been linked up always with the 
progress of freedom and political and economic liberalism. Wher- 
ever these ideals flourished, the position of our people was 
satisfactory. 

Wherever they were suppressed, its position became insecure 
and frequently desperate. Similarly the fortunes of labor are 
linked up with the progress of these great social ideals. Those 

3P 




I 



Labor's Stake in the Struggle * By Rabbi Hillel Silver 

who attack them attack also the security and rights of labor. It 
is, therefore, no accident of history that Naziism, which is the 
implacable foe of the Jewish people, is also the implacable foe 
of organized labor. 

It is well to remember that the whole of modern anti-Semitism 
is to be traced back to Bismarck's Germany. It was after Bis- 
marck turned reactionary and broke with the liberals, that the 
signal was given for a concerted attack upon the Jews in Ger- 
many as a means of undermining and discrediting liberalism 
and socialism. It was from Bismarck's Germany that modern 
anti-Semitism, spread to Austria-Hungary, France and Tzarist 
Russia. There is not an argument which the Nazis used in their 
fourteen years of vicious anti- Jewish propaganda after the World 
War that was not first propounded by the henchmen of German 
political and economic reaction fifty years ago. The present 
Nazi leaders borrowed their entire ideology from the writers, 
journalists, politicians and theologians who did the dirty work 
for Bismarck half a century ago — During, Marr, Rohling, 
Stoecker, etc. 

Even the definitive program of the Nazis for exterminating 
the Jews from the life of the country was formulated in scien- 
tific detail at that time — the removal of all Jews from public 
office and from the educational system of Germany, their exclu- 
sion from the press and from all economic activity and their 
disfranchisement. In the same way the international aspect of 
Nazi anti-Semitism was anticipated by the German reactionaries 
fifty years ago when they convoked the first international con- 
gress against Jews at Dresden. 

Every reactionary movement has used the Jew as the pivot in 
the fulcrum for dislodging liberal and progressive ideas and 
institutions. The enemies of the Third Republic in France 
stigmatized it as Jewish. Tzarist Russia pogromized the Jew 
because it claimed that he was responsible for the revolutionary 
movements which were undermining the regime. Hitler attempts 
to eradicate democracy by declaring that it is fundamentally Jewish 
and not Germanic. . , . 

Fascism is a deliberate and conscious effort to restore mankind 
to that system of ideas and social organization which prevailed 
in the days before the French Revolution. If it triumphs in 
the world, it will also restore our people to the status which 
it occupied in pre-Revolutionary days ™ political and economic 
rightlessness and defenselessness. Instead of free men intrenched 
in inahenable human rights, we shall become members of a 
disfavored minority group in an hierarchic system of feudal vas- 
salage — exactly the position which we occupied in the Middle 
Ages. It was the doctrines of the French RevoIution-^Liberty, 

39 



. iiliiilililiiilillilllliiO 



!'[ini!i!ifif!iir''i 




Labor's Stake in the Struggle * By Rabbi Hillel Silver 

Equality, Fraternity — which opened for us the doors of oppor- 
tunity in Europe and which made the Nineteenth Century for 
the Jews of Western Europe the Golden Age of their history. 
Fascism will again shut these doors against us. It has already 
shut them in Germany. Lacking the basis of economic idealism^ 
Fascism must find some other social ideal as its basis. It can 
find it only in an intensified nationalism or racialism. Strong 
nationalism and raciahsm always spell strong anti-Semitism. They 
are intolerant of ail minority groups. 

The Jewish people is, therefore, fighting in self-defense against 
this rising tide of poUtical reaalon, national chauvinism and 
racial intolerance. But other groups, too, must wage a similar 
defensive war against this self -same menace, particularly trade 
unions which are the first to succumb whenever Fascism triumphs. 
It is, therefore, most logical that in the attack upon Hitlerism 
and Fascism, organized labor should form one unified front with 
the hosts of Israel against the common foe. For every anti-Semite 
is, under the skin, an enemy of freedom and of the working class. 



40 



NAZI PEACE WITH JEWS ALONE 

UNTHINKABLE 
By David A. Brown 

THE press of this country has lately carried a story from 
England indicating that the Jews of that country would 
discontinue the boycott if Germany were to restore all 
political and civil rights to the Jews. We question that any such 
statement has been made by any authoritative Jewish group. Yet 
the story is news and will be carried throughout the length and 
breadth of this and other lands. 

Months ago. In an article dealing with all the forces that have 
been boycotting German made goods and German services, the 
writer stated: "No separate peace can be made by Hitler and his 
Naxi gang with the Jews, for the boycott is not and never has 
been a Jewish boycott, regardless of the fact that Hitler, Goebbels, 
and the others of the Na^i ilk would try to have the world believe 
that only Jews were engaged in boycott activities." 

The boycott is so far-reaching at the present time that it would 
be difficult to name any group in any country not actively engaged 
in boycotting something of German make. It would be difficuk 
to name any group that has not been outraged by Nazi enaa- 
ments and the development of Hitler's philosophy. Starting with 
the^ destruction of Jewish life in Germany — the foundation upon 
which Hitler built his Nazi army— carried out so brutally, so 
inhumanly, so completely, that a whole world was shocked, fol- 
lowed in rapid order by the destruction of the labor unions in 
Germany, confiscating all their property including miUions of 
marks in the labor union treasuries and the imprisonment or mur- 
der of praaically all union leaders. 

The propaganda from Germany ignores entirely the reaction 
of organised labor throughout the entire world to this unjust, 
unprecedented, cruel, insane action of madmen, crazed by the 
power of which they became possessed. That there were many 
Jews in the labor ranks in Germany goes without saying. But 
there were millions of Germans in the labor unions of that coun- 
try of which the Jews could have been only a handful. 

Labor throughout the world, their sense of justice outraged, 
began the boycott of German- ma de-goods the moment news was 
flashed to them of the aas perpetrated against their brother- 
union-workers. They did not wait for an official boycott to be 
invoked. Nor did the Jews the world over hesitate to boycott 
Germany the moment Hitler came into power. Had there never 
been an organized boycott movement In any country of the world, 
the hurt, shocked and outraged peoples of the world would have 
refused to buy goods made-in-Germany, for that would have been 

41 



, iiiiiiifiaiiillilli^ 



■ll 


ITI'lilWi!! 


1 


1 



Nazi Peace with Jews Alone Unthinkable, by D.A.Brown 

the natural human reaction toward a government guilty of atrocities 
far greater than Germany was ever charged with during the 
World War, 

The organization of the boycott movement only developed when 
it was realized that there could be no other method of bringing 
home to the German people the resentment of the rest of the 
world toward Hitler, his Nazi followers and their brutal treat- 
ment of all who would not goose-step with them. 

There followed in the wake of the Nazi attacks upon the Jews 
and union labor, a series of acts that further shocked the world: 
bonfires built to burn millions of priceless books, by writers who 
had helped make the Germany of yesterday, and the cruel perse- 
cution of such writers who remained in Germany whose philosophy 
was not in harmony with the Nazi conception of a Hitlerized 
Germany, 

This insane act of Hitler added to the boycott movement every 
booklover, every lover of justice and fair play in every country. 

The destruction of a free press and free speech added millions 
more to the boycott army and an outraged press — some of which 
tried to be neutral, awakened to the danger of what was being 
done in the name of a new political philosophy — not only joined 
in the boycott movement, but publicized the barbaric aas of a 
barbaric government, which again added to the boycott army. 

Offenses against the artistic world — musicians, painters, sculp- 
tors, singers, actors-— were such that they too had special reason 
for resentment and they have expressed themselves in no unmeas- 
ured terms in every corner of the globe. Educators, professional 
men, lawyers, the judiciary, doctors, engineers, scientists, all have 
been hurt to the quick by what has happened to those of their 
respected and respective professions in Germany, and they would 
be less than human if they did not use the only weapon possible^ — 
that of boycott. 

Women throughout the world have protested against the nar- 
row rut to which the women of Germany are confined — to provide 
the fodder for poison gas, guns, aeroplanes, for the future wars 
for which Hitler is preparing. This is to be their main occupation 
and in this manner Germany has turned the clock back by at 
least fifty years. The women of the world who have fought hard 
and sacrificed much to gain step by step their rights for which 
women have striven these many years, will not take lying down 
this attempt to deprive the millions of women in Germany of 
those gains which have come to them after years of desperate 
struggle. 

Women who In the past, in every part of the world, have looked 
with favor on the made-in-Germany mark, today refuse to buy 
any article bearing that mark, and many refuse even to shop 
in a store that sells German-made goods. When the women joined 

42 



Nazi Peace with Jews Alone Unthinkable, by D.A.Brown 



the boycott movement, they became a force to be reckoned with, 
which all the propaganda from Germany that the boycott Is purely 
a Jewish boycott, will not affect in the shghtest. 

Another large and powerful group that has joined the boy- 
cott movement is composed of those in this and other countries 
who invested money in the numerous German securities that 
were sold by hundreds of millions after Germany passed through 
its currency debacle and went on the gold basis. Since Hitler 
came into power, these securities (to use a Wall Street expression) 
have practically fallen out of bed. This is due endrely to the 
manner in which Germany has dishonored its obligations. Practi- 
cally ail of these securities have defaulted on principal and inter- 
est payments and this holds true not only of securities of the 
government, state and city, but even German corporation securities. 

German securities, governmental and otherwise, arc selling on 
the market today at about forty cents on the dollar, or at about 
bankrupt value. 

It is a well known fact that a large proportion of these securities 
were held in this country, particularly by those of German birth 
and those of German descent. The only hope for these bond- 
holders lies 'm the complete overthrow of Hitler and his political 
philosophy, for it is recognized that the longer he remains in 
power, the greater the depreciation of these securities. Should 
he remain in power long enough, it is believed. Hitler will find 
some way of refusing to pay these hundreds of miUions in their 
entirety. 

The sooner Hitler is out of power, the sooner these bonds and 
other securities will have a value that will represent the cost of 
these bonds to their owners. Boycott is the only effective course 
and you may rest assured that the large number who are suffer- 
ing rhe loss of principal and interest are fighting along these lines. 

There is another group, whose numbers run into the millions, 
in every country in rhe world, who see such dangers in a Hitler- 
ized Germany that they are willing to go to any length to destroy 
Hitler's power and to bring sanity back into the lives of the Ger- 
man people. This group is comprised of those who have definitely 
committed themselves to peace, who are basically and funda- 
mentally opposed to war. 

Long before Hitler came into power, and since, there has been 
a rattling of sabers and the menace of war. His many speeches, 
even though he talk of peace, are interpreted as threats of war. 
The withdrawal of Germany from the League of Nations was 
interpreted throughout the world as a preparatory step for war. 
The formation of the Storm Troops and the youth movement in 
Germany is recognized by the countries of Europe as an addi- 
tion to the German army limited by the Versailles Treaty. The 
manufacture of munitions, poison gas, small and large guns, aero- 

43 




i;iipiii[^;ffipr'ii! 

msM 



Nazi Peace with Jews Alone Unthinkable, by D.A.Brown 

planes, parts for submarines in Germany at the present time and 
since Hitler's rise to power, all point toward preparation for 
war and a constant threat to the peace of the world. 

These peace lovers today regard the purchase of any item 
made~in-Germany on par with the actual purchase of war mate- 
rial and no sane person could or would charge a peace lover with 
helping Germany to carry out her threat. These millions of high- 
minded advocates of peace are boycotting and advocating boycott 
as the only means of bringing the supporters of Hitler to their 
senses. 

I have left the most important boycott group to the last — 
those who have been affected by the religious philosophy of the 
Nazis. The attempt on the part of Hitler to substitute a pagan 
religion for Christianity has met with aggressive resentment by 
CathoHcs and Protestants all over the world. 

Christianity refuses to be nationalised within Germany and is 
fighting, yes, boycotting — openly and unafraid — Hitler's own re- 
ligion, a religion of bigotry, fanaticism and inhumanity. 

The imprisonment and persecution of great religious leaders, 
both of the Catholic and Protestant faiths, have been protested 
against by all religious groups and all religious organizations. The 
Pope, speaking for the Catholics of the wotld, has upon many 
occasions expressed his outraged feelings at the attempts being 
made to regiment Catholics and the Catholic religion and at the 
persecution of religious leaders of his faith. 

Hundreds of millions of Catholics and Protestants scattered 
throughout the world, openly and publicly resentful of what is 
happening to their Christian brethren in Germany, have only one 
concrete method of sending the message of their resentment to 
Germany — and that is through the boycott of German-made goods 
and German services. Hitler may cry out time and again that this 
is a Jewish boycott, but he is fooling no one other than himself. 

Hitler at the present moment is confronted with a boycott from 
within and a boycott from without. From without Germany the 
boycott is limited to things material. But within Germany it is 
political, social and spiritual. 

The laboring masses in Germany, though outwardly resigned, 
are boycotting, with unconquerable spirit, Hitler's hypocritical 
notions of national welfare — notably his glorification of suffering 
under the sign of the swastika. The underground ferments, fuelled 
by resentment against fettered minds and souls, is a silent seething 
boycott which must sooner or later erupt and destroy Hitlerism. 

The Reichswehr and the storm-troops are shot through with 
rebellious brooding hosts, mercenary soldiers who, though com- 
paratively well fed, keenly sense the misery of millions of their 
dear ones. Others conceal pent up feelings of revenge for the 
recent massacre of their fathers, brothers and comrades. If Hitler 

44 




I 



r 

I 



Nazi Peace with Jews Alone Unthinkable, by D.A.Brown 

were to call these men to arms against his "enemies,*' he would 
probably be met with a boycotting resistance so ominous that his 
very "throne" might tremble. 

Intellectually, too, there is a boycott within Germany. The 
handful of creative minds that have remained in Germany are 
lacking the inspiration amid the barbaric sterilities of Naziism. 
All mental effort being concentrated on hate for this or that un- 
yielding group, the minds of thinking men and women simply 
cannot funaion constructively. And that type of automatic boy- 
cott is supremely damaging to the immediate future of Hitlerism, 

It is unthinkable that Jews anywhere would make a separate 
peace with Hitler. Not even if Hitler were to say to the Jews 
of the world that he would give back to the Jews every right that 
has been taken from them — political, social and economic. Even 
though he were to invite back into that country all those who 
left. Even though he would offer to compensate them for the 
enormous economic loss they have suffered and to reimburse 
them as far as it is humanly possible for such mental and physical 
suffering as they have had to endure under his regime. 

The Jews would refuse to make a separate peace because their 
sense of justice is an integral part of the Jewish religion and 
Jewish philosophy. The Jews would demand that the wrongs 
perpetrated upon all the groups in Germany first be righted before 
they would consider the acceptance of any peaceful gesture that 
might come to them from the Nazis. 

The Jews are a part, even though a small part, of the entire boy- 
cott movement and will remain faithful until victory shall have 
crowned the efforts of all those who are figliting for a reborn 
Germany that will resemble the Germany of the past — a Germany 
respected by the world. 



45 



Wl'II.IBIi 



"AN ORGY OF SUPPRESSION" 

Extracts from an Address Delivered at the Annual Convention 

oj the American Federation of Labor at San Francisco, Calif. 

on October 19, 1954- , 

By Mr. Walter M. Citrine 

(General Secretary of the British Trade Union Congress and President 
of the International Federation of Trade Unions.) 

IT is not my duty to talk to you about any of the many eco- 
nomic problems which are facing the trade-union movements 
of Europe, There is one outstanding, overriding question 
which has engaged the serious attention not only of the British 
Trade Union movement, but of the whole of the continent of 
Europe. The institutions which have been built up after centuries 
of sacrifice, after cenuiries of toil on the part of millions of ob- 
scure and unknown workers are now threatened with destruction. 
Their safety is menaced in a degree which I think transcends 
anything in our previous history. Democratic institutions which 
some of us had believed had become deeply rooted in the con- 
sciousness of the people have crashed within the last few years. 

I know to some of you here it may seem rather remote, sitting 
in the security of this magnificent civic building, protected and 
safeguarded as you are by the Constitution of the country to which 
you belong, it may seem to you that there is no possibility what- 
ever of this poisonous growth of Fascism being able to develop 
in countries like your own^ with an age-long democratic tradition. 
I would remind you of the fate of the German trade-union move- 
ment, a movement which a few years ago represented over five 
million conscious, intelligent and understanding trade-unionists, 
a movement which in its real estate, in its great printing offices, 
in its great halls and meeting houses, pointed the way to many 
of our movements in the direction of creating real stability. Who 
would have thought two years ago that that movement, led by 
some of the most competent, the most sincere, the most able 
Labor leaders that the world has produced in the Labor Movement 
would have been destroyed in a comparatively few months.'' 
Who would have thought that in Europe today we would have 
had in eleven countries a dictatorship established of a more or 
less tuthless character? 

I say, therefore, that although we feel strong and confident in 
the power of our Institutions to resist this menace, the price of 
liberty still is eternal vigilance, even on the part of those of us 
who feel secure. 

In the last hundred years there has been a steady emergence 
of democratic institutions. The world over has witnessed a steady, 
progressive movement in the direction of representative institu- 
tions. The trade-union movement the world over has made a 
striking contribution In that respect. Our branches, our councils, 

46 



L 



An Okgy of Suppression • By Walter M. Citrine 

our committee rooms, have been the training gtound in which 
many of the eminent statesmen of the world have learned the 
true purposes and meaning of democracy. Our movement very 
likely has made political democracy a reality. Our movement, as 
this convention has witnessed, is steadily traversing along the 
road, bestrewn with obstacles as it is, of industrial democracy, 
and that movement, that tendency of one hundred years, is now 
in these countries that I have mentioned being reversed. 

Your President, in the invitation which he sent to me, asked 
me to describe to you the operation and the development of Fas- 
cism. Before doing so I want to state something which may be 
regarded by some as in the nature of a plaritude or truism that 
scarcely requires iteration. The trade-union movement as a volun- 
tary association of the workers, organized together for the pur- 
pose of raising their standatds of life and securing some measure 
of control over their conditions of life, of necessity can only exist 
and function in an atmosphere of freedom. I apply that to every 
form of dictatorship, no matter what its color may be. I don't 
care whether it is a brown dictatorship, a black dictatorship ot a 
red dictatorship. In its essence the trade-union movement as we 
have understood it is an organization which has been built up 
by the sacrifice of our people and it can only function as it pro- 
tects these instruments in their behalf in an atmosphere of free- 
dom. 

Wherever dictatorship comes, dictatorship must by the very 
nature of things, if it is to be complete, crush all opposition. That 
is the reason why you have found the same methods and the same 
tactics in country after country where the dictatorship has been 
erected. That is why intellectual freedom is no longer possible, 
because intellectual freedom represents a danger to the dictator- 
ship. That is why professors of the universities and of the high 
schools and the teachers who are training the young must be 
members of the ruhng party, must be true" and loyal to the dic- 
tatorship. That is why the great cooperative movement, as an 
instrument of the consuming and production side of labor must 
similarly be subjected and destroyed. 

Communist dictatorship, like the Fascist dictatorship, is essen- 
tially something against which the great voluntary trade-union 
movement must strive. From the practical point of view, Com- 
munism has ceased to become in the majority of the countries of 
Europe at least a serious factor which might menace the strength 
of the working class. There was a time when the Communist 
movement was regarded as an inherent part of the working class 
movement. A process of disintegration, a system of day in and 
day out vilification of the trade-union officials and leaders, the 
pouring of contempt upon the very instrument of trade-unionism, 
all these things have led to a period of disillusionment and in 

47 






'Umi'inilffl^fifl 



An Orgy of Suppression • By Walter M. Citrine 

few countries today would the Communists be regarded as any- 
thing more ot less than violent and rabid opponents of the move- 
ment which we have ereaed. The disillusionment has meant that 
there is now no real danger of our movement being misled. 
Fascism today is the danger. Fascism, because of the great wealth 
it can command, because of the reactionary forces which it can 
enroll behind it has become the danger. Fascism, as you know, 
arose in Italy, It spread to Germany. It spread to Austria. Its 
record is everywhere the same. Everywhere it is a record of sup- 
pression, of brutality and terrorism. It has stamped out personal 
and political liberty in a way that we would not have dreamed 
would have been possible. 

When we turn to the construaive sphere its spacious promises 
of a new era have almost every one of them been falsified. It has 
proved to be a record of failure and of futility, and none oi us 
should ever lose the opportunity of emphasizing that. It has cre- 
ated an unrest on the continent of Europe, which, if it continues, 
must inevitably lead to world-wide war. I shall give you the 
reasons for all these statements in a few moments. 

Is it any coincidence that in Italy, in Germany and in Austria, 
the funds of the Fascist parties in those countries have been de- 
rived from reactionary employers? Is that any accident? Or does 
not this really mean in its essence a struggle on the part of those 
employers, faced by the democratic movement of Labor, advanc- 
ing under popular suffrage nearer and nearer to power, to try to 
wrest that power from them by armed force? 

Now let us pass to Germany. The growth of Nationalism came 
through the feeling of national humiliation on the part of the com- 
mon people, a feeling generated in very great measure by the 
consequences of the Treaty of Versailles, the effect of which, as 
you know, was to rid Germany of its colonies, of Alsace and Lor- 
raine, to drive the Polish corridor right into the center of its 
Eastern territory, and hand this section over to the Poles. Foreign 
troops were on German soil until 1929. Then there were economic 
causes, such as the payment of reparations, the loss of shipping, 
the inflations which you remember so well when the German 
mark was not worth the paper on which it was printed, when 
the fortunes of the middle class in Germany, a most significant 
faaor, were almost completely wiped out because of the inflation. 
Then there came the wage cuts in the latter years of 1931 to 
1933j the cuts in unemployment benefits, and last, but not least, 
the existence of six and a quarter million unemployed in Germany. 

Who would have believed that Germany could have sustained 
six and a quarter million unemployed without revolution? It is 
no wonder that there should be serious dissatisfaaion. Politically 
there was a multiplicity of parties in Germany, Democracy was 
brought almost to stagnation. Again you will see this is a vety 

48 




• 



An Orgy of Suppression • By Walter M, Citrine 

significant point. Twenty-seven political parties were appeahng 
for the suffrage of the electorate. How could anything else arise 
except a weak coalition between party and party, with the exist- 
ence of private armies like the Nazis, the Nationalists, the Social- 
ists, the Communists, and so on. People were mardiing about the 
streets in arms, with all the possibilities necessary for violent 
outbreak. No wonder there was a feeling of pessimism. 

And in these citcumstances Hitler, with his exttavagant ptom- 
ises, formed what he called the Nationalist Socialist party. He, 
too, was going to establish Socialism, but it was going to be 
National Socialism and should have no connection with an inter- 
national movement. How Hitler got power is known to most of 
you, and I do not propose to deal with it except to say that after 
he had formed a government in conjunction with the Nationalist 
patty in Germany he then started to swear into all the key posi- 
tions in Getmany all his own reliable Nazis. Praaically every one 
of the leading police officials in Germany was sent away on in- 
definite leave and while he was away the Nazis put their own 
men in. Then they swore in as auxiliary poHce three hundred 
thousand Nazis who were given the authority of the State to shoot 
their opponents. And you know the German policeman usually 
resembles a miniature arsenal, more than anything else because 
he has three sets of weapons. 

Perhaps you think I am exaggerating, General Goering, as 
Minister of Prussia, published a notice which appeared in the 
press of the wotld in which he said that not only must all police 
shoot on the least provocation, but those who fail to exercise the 
power would be held responsible to him. That was an open 
invitation to the wholesale murders which subsequently took place. 

In February, 1933, this was the state of affairs in Germany. 
The International Federation of Trade Unions, which had its 
meetings and offices in Berlin, called a special meeting of its 
executive on February 18. I presided over that meeting, and the 
purpose of that meeting was to find out from the German trade 
unionists what they were really doing and what they intended to 
do to meet what was quite obviously the growing danger of a 
Fascist outbreak. We spent several hours in discussing the mat- 
ter and I laid down this, that the principle of the International 
Federation of Trade Utiions prescribed autonomy for every one 
of its constituent units. I said: "We, as International Executive, 
have no right to tell the Getmans what they shall do in this con- 
tingency; we have no right, who ourselves are not required to 
take the risk, we who shall be secure in our own different capitals, 
have no right to tell other men what they shall do." I said further: 
''When all that is said and done, the German trade-union move- 
ment represents one of the most powetful movements in the 
International Trade-Union Movement and I implore you, as 



49 



l»Mlu«Hbi 1 V nr 1 1 n A(i A I Ai iti 1 1N ul N i mu 

illiillllliiilliilii:iilliililillJiilil!lllilli 



'HFil'IiillR!! 



An Orgy of Suppression • By Walter M. Citiune 

representative and responsible men, to tell us in what way we 
can help, what we can do. Is there any direction whatever in 
which we can give you backing and support in this crucial period?" 

Well, what were we told? We were told — and this is the first 
time I have ever stated it publicly, but I thuik it is necessary to 
say it in order that you shall at least understand that everything 
was ready^thar despite the assistance of six and one-quarter mil- 
lion unemployed German trade-unionists, they were determined 
to put up the maximum possible means of resistance, that the 
button™that was the expression — the button only had to be 
pressed and the working class movement would offer that re- 
sistance. 

Then you know what happened. On the 2Sth of February, 
there came the Keichscag fire and tliere was a wave of feeling 
throughout Germany against the alleged Communist and Socialist 
incendiaries. That fire, as subsequent events have shown, was 
in all probability started by the Nazis themselves in order to 
give them the time-worn pretext that so many forces have adopted 
in this world — I think you call it a frame-up — to give them the 
opportunity of arresting and imprisoning their opponents. None 
the less, there was a wave of feehng hostile to the trade-union 
movement at that period as a consequence of that fire. They had 
no chance of stating their case. Their newspapers were suspended. 
The police were put upon the platform of every private meeting. 
The reports of their meetings were suppressed, they were not 
allowed to send out to their own press their leaflets and their 
posters, and as you know, the Government completely monopol- 
ized everything until it was impossible in any public way for the 
German Trade Union Movement to get its message over to its 
people. 

Then came the election of March 5, with the German people 
dragooned, intimidated, many of them brougiit from hospitals in 
beds in order to vote for Hitler and his supporters. And I admire 
the German working class for even under those circumstances 
there were still seven million people ready to vote against the 
Na^is. With his 43 per cent of German voters who voted on 
that occasion, Hitler was able to become the largest party, and by 
a coahtion of his friends, the Nationalists, who had been helping 
him at the instance of President Hindenburg, there was launched 
an orgy of suppression in which every section of the community 
which was known in any shape or form to hold an independent 
opinion was persecuted with a barbarism that must have been 
indescribable. The Jews in particular were selected for this sort 
of treatment. They were the people who, togethet with the 
Matxists, it was said had brought Germany to the vetge of bank- 
ruptcy. They were the people who had cornered the finances of 
the country and who were in control of the large department 

50 




An Orgy of Suppression ■ By Walter M. Citrine 

stores. And was it any wonder that at the direct instigation of 
the Na^i officials the Jews were most brutally beaten and tortured? 
I have no time to give you instances, instances that are on record 
for ail who care to see. All that I can say is that my manhood 
is revolring when I think of an elderly Jewish Rabbi, eighty years 
old, dragged out of his synagogue and beaten in the streets. J 
say my manhood is revolting, and I hope every other decent citizen 
feels as I do about it. 

The attitude toward the trade-unions in the early days of the 
dictatorship was indefmite. There seemed to be some possibility 
that Hitler would not attempr at that stage to dissolve the trade- 
unions. Wc had a meeting in Brussels of the International Federa- 
tion of Trade Unions to wdiich I asked the German representatives 
in particular to be invited. I am sorry to say that they did not 
come. I am sorry to say that despite the greatest effort on our 
part by telegram, by letter and by personal word, not one of the 
trade-union representatives in Germany attended our meeting 
and we had to reach our decisions alone. 

It was quite clear that the Government was holding us per- 
sonally responsible, as prominent representatives of the Socialist 
party and the trade-unions in Germany, I say this, which I have 
not said publicly previous to this time. They actually sent over 
to Great Britain and to certain other leading European countries 
a representative of the German press, who is a Socialist. He 
came direct with a message from General Goering, the Prime 
Minister of Prussia, saying that if only the trade-unionists of 
Great Britain and elsewhere would cease their criticism of 
the Na^i Government the 172 Socialist and Labor papers and 
trade-union journals which have been suppressed would be allowed 
once again to start. That was the message that was brought to us, 
and there is not the slightest doubt about it that the message was 
authentic and came from the sources I have described. We knew 
what that meant. They were not content merely with holding as 
hostages individual German trade-unions, but they wanted to use 
that as a means of silencing the conscience of the trade-union 
movement of the world. 

My friends, they failed. They were terms that we could not 
accept, and as a consequence we definitely declined to have any- 
thing to do with such a proposal. The German trade-union officers 
were seized on the 2nd of May, many of their leading officials 
among them. One of the most respected men I have ever met, a 
man in a position comparable with that of your President Green, 
President Leipart, the head of the German trade-union movement, 
whose leg had been broken twelve months before in a compound 
fracture and who for six months had been limping about to out 
various meetings, who was in a delicate state of health, was 
dragged from his office to a Nazi barrack in one of the principal 

51 



tJMtVkHMltV lit- ir dAtt Al AlltJlIN HI N 4 inu 



immifBiFJ!!!! 



iiiiyiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiijii 




An Orgy of Suppression ■ By Walter M. Citrine 

streets of Berlin, dragged into a cellar and compelled there, by 
force, to bend his left leg backwards and forwards, they thinking 
that was the best way of torturing him, and finally, like Christ 
of olden days, had a wreath put around his head. That is what 
happened to the President of the German Federation of Trade 
Unions. That represents the mental point of view of the Fascist 
movement. It has no respect whatever for a life of service to the 
working class, a service given by a man of irreproachable character, 
who was treated in that abominable fashion. 

He was not alone. There have been many others arrested and 
thrown into prison for a few weeks and out for a few weeks 
without a chaige of any kind. There is no need for me to elaborate 
further into this German Na^i terror. All I can say is that his- 
tory is repeating itself and there, as in Italy, the struggle with the 
churches is taking place, not only with the Catholic Church, but 
with the Protestant churches. It is finding Hitler demanding that 
his representatives and his nominees shall occupy the prominent 
positions in those churches. He wants to use the church not as 
an instrument of the conscience of the individual, not as an in- 
strument for the purification and preparation for another life, 
he wants to use it as an instrument of the State to still further 
intimidate the German people. 

Economic nemesis is overtaking Germany. In the first six 
months of their external trade last year — and I am now talking 
about a country which was the largest export country in the world 
two years ago, they had an adverse trade balance in the fitst six 
months of theit trade despite the faa that they have cut down 
their imports of $65,000,000. The gold reserve of Germany has 
almost entirely disappeared. The railways last year, in 1933, suf- 
fered a loss of $117,000,000. The tax yield on tobacco, on sugar, 
and indeed on every State monopoly has fallen materially and 
substantially. 

And what has happened to the workers? Again we have diffi- 
culty in getting accurate statistics, but the figures which I am 
giving you now are compiled from the German ojEcial statistical 
bureau itself, which in turn took these figures from what is 
called the German Labor Front. The German Labor Front repre- 
sents the apology for a trade-union organization which has been 
inserted and imposed in the German economic system. These 
are the figures translated into dollars of German wages at the 
present time. Less than 1 per cent of the German workers receive 
more than $13.50 a week. Fifty per cent of the German workers 
receive from $3.50 to $7 per week. Thirteen and one-half per 
cent receive $3.50 per week or less. There are 2,500,000 more 
workers now engaged in industry according to Hitler. He has 
reduced unemployment, so he says, by 2,500,000, and yet despite 
that the gross amount of the German wages bill is down 10 per 

52 




i 



An Orgy of Suppression ■ By Walter M. Citrine 

cent, despite the fact that there are 2,500,000 more wage earners. 

Let me give a specific example. In Ktupps in 1932, 35,647 
people were employed. In 1933, there were more than 43,409 
people employed. In 1932, the wages paid on that similar number 
of men was $17,250,000. In 1933, it had fallen to $16,750,000. 
Now that specific example which I give you supports the general 
conclusion, namely, that German total wages have declined, and 
the figure which I gave you of 10 per cent is an authentic figure 
taken from Germany's own statistics. 

It cannot be a coincidence that the trade in Germany has de- 
clined more in its overseas aspect, its export trade, than any other 
country in the wotld in the last thirteen months. That cannot be 
an accident. That is definitely associated with the diaatorship. 
Wages in Germany today are lower than they have ever been for 
the last fifty years, and Germany, instead of being one of the 
high wage countries in Europe, is now rapidly becoming one 
of the lowest. 

Your President, on Tuesday of last week, uttered words which 
represent, I hope, the spirit and the meaning of all that the 
American Labor Movement stands for. He said: "No group of 
red-blooded men will submit to tyranny. Labor has never sub- 
mitted and it never will," 

Our third means, and I am proud to know your convention 
adopted it, is the boycott. We launched the boycott in the early 
stages, and the efiectiveness of that has been attested to by the 
German Minister, Dr. Scliacht. He said only recently that the 
boycott has been one of die most potent means of bringing down 
the over-seas trade of Germany. That is the only way by which 
finally the Governments of these countries can be taught that 
Fascism does not pay. They are doing their level best to gener- 
ate the feeling of war in their countries. When I came to this 
country the first thing I got was a copy of a Montreal paper and 
on the front page was a speech by Mussolini, accompanied by a de- 
cree which he imposed, under which children from eight years of 
age up to the age of thirty- one are to be given an intensive and con- 
tinuous military training. The Italian children for years have been 
taught to sing of the days when they would capture Daimatia, 
of the days when they could cross the Nice and rescue from the 
French that little town. In the same way the German children are 
being taught that their destiny lies in the glorification of war. Re- 
member, every Nazi leader has attested to the faa that there 
must be conflia some day and that Germany must conquer the 
world. That is the prospect held out to us. We have to fight this 
menace by every means in our power. 

I know it is a long time since the last great war took place. The 
memories of that time are receding, they are getting dim. The 
American public, although they may have lost many of their 

53 



lIHtv/tritill f *.l H « AH A I Aim I IN MPNMBW 

.uiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiir 



^niiffiiiifiiin'! 



An Orgy of Suppression - By Walter M. Citrine 

bravest and finest men, have not experienced a condition where 
the planes went circling overhead, dropping bombs indiscrimi- 
nately over towns and killing and maiming people who had fled 
to their cellars. You did not experience that. Would we be safe 
in saying we would not experience it if another war came? 

There is no nation in the world that has stood for peace more 
consistently than has the American Republic. The American Re- 
public, through its great President, uttered one of the greatest 
sentences, whatever its realization may have been, that has ever 
been uttered. He said of the last war: "This war is to be a war 
to end war, to make the world safe for democracy." Is the world 
safe for democracy? Are the possibilities of war further away than 
they were before Fascism came, or has Fascism brought the 
dangers of that war nearer to us? I say the facts that I have given 
to you alone, apart from your own meeting, ought to leave no 
doubt in your minds. 

And I am reminded of the words of the gteat immortal Lincoln 
whose memory lives m the minds of millions of people outside 
of these shores. This nation was engaged in a vital conflict which 
finally put the seal on the abolition of slavery, and established the 
Declaration of Emancipation. In one of his addresses, the Gettys- 
burg address, I think it was, looking over the graves of those 
who had fallen in that great struggle, he said: "Let us here highly 
resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain and that this 
great nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and 
that government of the people, by the people and for the people 
shall not perish from the earth." 

How true the apphcation of those words come inro our situation 
as we see it today! It is to that task that the trade-union movement 
of Europe and your fellow trade-unionists have set their hands. 
They cannot accomplish much without your virile assistance, your 
material, your moral and yout financial help. It is to you we 
look, and my purpose in coming here is to try if I possibly can 
to show you that our struggle is your struggle, that the battle of 
democracy is being fought in Europe and may be decided in 
Europe. I come to you for help. I cannot believe that you will 
refuse it. 



54 



ADDRESSES BY SAMUEL UNTERMYER 

Civilization's Only Weapon Against Hitlerism 
(Address read at the Testimonml Dinner to Mr. Willmm Green, 
President, American Federation of Labor, February 14, 1934.) 

There are some respeas in which our Government has been 
unpardonably lax in enforcing the legal protection to its own 
industries to which they are entitled, and has thereby retarded 
our efforts to exclude contraband German-made goods from 
entry into this country, thereby playing directly into the hands 
of this outlaw Government. Our customs law provides that 
there shall be plainly and conspicuously marked, or branded, 
upon every article imported into this country and upon the con- 
tainer m which it is enclosed, the name indicating the comitry 
of origin. That does not mean the city or county or othet 
political subdivision of a country, but the country itself. 

This law is being deliberately violated and evaded by German 
importers and by the retail shops that handle their goods, with 
the knowledge of our Customs authorities, under a ridiculous 
order of the Treasury Department. As a result of this palpable 
evasion, our American shops are flooded with German-made 
goods smuggled into our country bearing obscure, unreadable, 
wilfully misleading, instead of conspicuous, markings as the law 
requires, or with no markings at all. Some of these camou- 
flaged or hidden marks are such as "Made in Bavaria," "Made 
in Saxony," and other States, Provinces or cities with which 
many of our people are not familiar as being parts of Germany 
or located there. Since the German States have been abolished 
there are no longer even such political subdivisions. They are 
fictitious. These marks are a fraud upon our consumers. And 
yet all our efforts to induce the Customs audiorities to protect 
our consumers against these frauds have thus far proved un- 
availing, so that it has now become necessary, to our shame 
and humiliation be it said, to appeal to the courts to protect 
the American public against our own Government. That ruling 
of the Treasury Department, made under a previous Adminis- 
tration and adhered to by this, is simply grotesque. 

The Postal Authorities have been equally derelict in failing 
to protea our mails against scurrilous, seditious literature printed 
in Germany in the German and English languages and smuggled 
into this country by the tons by German ships flying the pirate 
flag of the Swastika, and circulated broadcast by the millions of 
copies, assaihng our institutions, attacking our citizens on the 
score of their race, and maligning our President, 

The day we are commemorating in honor of our great, souh 
ful, martyred President, whose heart bled in sympathy with the 
oppressed, and whose love of mankind was the greatest asset 
of any nation in modern history, reminds us that we have no 
occasion to be proud of the halting, inactive, do-nothing atti- 

55 



I lilt AH A I MtnniH inu\ mn 



liiiilllli Ill; 



Addresses by Samuel Untermver 

tude of our present government in the face of the world disaster 
and disgrace of Hitierism. When we turn to the unexampled 
record of acliievement and service by our country under the 
inspiration of that grand soul in forever wiping out the foul 
stain of slavery, and when we reflect with just pride upon the 
many instances in our history when we have had the courage 
to intetvene with solemn and effective protest against race and 
religious cruelty and persecution perpetrated by other countties 
against their minorities, we should bow our head and blush with 
shame at our cowardice and apparent callousness in this great 
crisis. 

This reign of terror has now lasted for almost one year with 
ever increased inrensity and ingenuity of cruelty, and we have 
not lifted a finger beyond the merest idle and meaningless ges- 
tures. It is poot consoladon in the midst of such humiliation 
to remind ourselves that there were times when our country 
showed a very different spirit. We have at least proud memories 
of a past to console us and perhaps yet to speed us into action. 
Out action against Russia and other countries had far less pro- 
vocation. It is late, but not yet too late, for us ro redeem 
ourselves, open up our secret diplomatic archives and pubHsh 
the official reports. We now demand to know the truth and 
the whole ugly truth, so that our people may get some faint 
conception of the horrors that have been inflicted upon tens of 
thousands, of the murders, suicides and other crimes, and the 
intolerable sufferings that have been perpetrated upon these 
600,000 loyal German citizens of Jewish faith or ancestry, and 
to which they have been and are being day by day subjected, 
solely because their ancestors were, or one of them was, of 
Jewish blood. In that way we should be able by one fell stroke 
to pull down the house of cards that this vast German-paid 
propaganda bureau has built around us. We have the facts. 
Why continue to suppress them and thus become a party to 
the floods of falsehoods that are being constanty fed to our 
people? With the dissemination of these official lies the time 
for maintaining these niceties has passed. 

Since our Government apparently will not protect our manu- 
facturers and consumers, why should they not protect them- 
selves, the manufacturers by conspicuously labeling their prod- 
ucts "Made in America," and the consumers by buying Ameri- 
can goods. As the result of intensive investigation we find that 
there is nothing Germany manufactures tliat we cannot dupli- 
cate here ii given tariff' proteaion. 

Fortunately, the liberty- loving American people, irrespective 
of creeds or races, as well as the gieat masses of the Jewish 
people, realize the crisis and are proving the effectiveness of 
this defensive Boycott as the only conclusive answer to the 

56 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

cruel Hitler boycott of the unfortunate German Jews, the exter- 
mination of all labor unions and the attempt to destroy the 
Christian Churches. This effectiveness is evidenced by the havoc 
that is being wrought to Germany's export business all over the 
world. For six months after our campaign began and until it 
had been organized and put into full swing, the German Gov- 
ernment was able to camouflage the figures, but tJiat is no longer 
possible, as is evident from the November and December remrns. 
They have now reversed and belied their previous boasts and 
representations and are crying that because of the Boycott they 
are forced to tepudiate their obligations and are unable to pay 
the interest on their debts due America. In point of fact that 
argument is as false as was the other. They had defaulted 
on their debts long before there was a boycott. History tells us 
that they are chronic inairable debt repudiators. 

World opinion cannot reach into Getmany. The masses of 
its people have no conception of the opinion the world holds 
of theif brutal and reckless crucifixion of their minorities, nor 
of their attempts to destroy the Christian Churches, and the 
freedom of religious worship, nor of the wicked, seditious propa- 
ganda they are conduaing all over this country against our estab- 
lished instimtions, nor of the assaults upon the freedom of and 
disfranchisement of all womanhood. With a press gagged, bound 
and censored as never before in modern history, and with all 
criticism of the Government and freedom of speech punishable 
as a capital crime, by death, there is only one language that can 
be conveyed to the German people or that they can be made to 
understand. When their factories are closed and their workmen 
discharged because the world has tutned its back upon them, and 
as a result Germany cracks, as it will economically, then and only 
then will the masses of its people, v/ho have been kept in 
Ignorance of what has been happening, demand to know the 
reason the world refuses to deal with "them, and will rise and 
destroy their false leaders. 

As a lifelong open and aggressive champion of organized 
labor for the past 54 years, from the days when such champion- 
ship was a reproach, I am thrilled and proud to have lived to 
see the day when the dream that labor is to come into its own 
is about to become a reality. Through the NRA we are on the 
threshold of a new economic era, of which the step now being 
taken is a mere entering wedge and which will eventually 
secure for labor a more just share of the wealth it creates. The 
peaceful struggle has just begun. I venture the prediction that 
the present codes signahze the dawn of a new charter of liberty 
and justice for the toilers. 

By the sa.me token that the old economic ordet in industry 
is about to be reversed and regulated competition and coopera- 

57 




■I'l'Frm'iiFf'iii 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



tion are to take the place of compulsory ruinous competition 
among employers, so is the atrocious fraudulent company-union 
to be abolished, the right of labor to combine for its protection 
to be enforced by law and all the long-denied demands of an 
advanced socal state are to be written into our statures. 

At last we are to reaH2e the outlawry of child labor, that 
was denied us by the Supreme Court: the minimum living wage, 
the inauguration of old age and unemployment insurance and 
kindred reforms, that will bring about the substitution of a 
real Democracy for the cold and narrow Bankocracy that has 
until now ruled the land and has molded our laws to register 
the selfish demands of concentrated capital, as opposed to the 
recognition of human rights. No longer shall the labor of 
human beings be treated as a mete commodity regulated solely 
by the economic laws of supply and demand. The wear and 
tear and depreciation that have always been conceded to capital 
as applicable to the mechanical machine as a legitimate part 
of the cost of business, are at last to be applied to the human 
machine. 

It is, therefore, with enthusiasm that I endorse and applaud 
each and every one of the ten planks of the sound and humane 
platform publicly announced a few weeks ago as embodying 
the demands of labor by our honored guest as President of the 
American Federation of Labor. 

Strange indeed it is that at this epochal stage in our history, 
when our country is going forward by leaps and bounds to- 
wards the goal of social and economic freedom, we should 
find ourselves forced, in the interest of common humanity, to 
take up the cudgels in denunciation of the medieval policies 
of a foreign country that has reverted to brutal savagery, and 
the most inhuman industrial, racial and religious persecution 
of modern times, by a Regime that has seized and is prostitu- 
ting the government of a people that was once regarded as 
amongst the most cultured of the nations, but that now has 
ruthlessly severed all the ties that bound it to civilizationj and 
has reverted to an unrecognizable state of barbarism. 

The proper limits of rhis address will not permit of even a 
brief summary of the many counts going to make up the terrible 
indiament against this band of cruel Sadists, masquerading as 
a Government, that constitutes the Hitler Regime, and of the 
reason why the entire civilized world should, with one acclaim, 
regardless of Race or Creed, refuse to recognize Germany under 
its present despotic rule as a member of the family of nations. 

Suffice it to say here, that bearing on the widespread extent 
of this Anti-Semitic program of the Nazi Government, figures 
have been collated and published by the Chairman of the German 
Relief Fund of rhe Joint Distribution Committee, showing that 

58 



up to December last 120,000 Jews had been deprived of their 
occupations in various fields of endeavor, and that, including 
members of the families of those ousted, the total number thus 
without means of livelihood was 175,000. The report also 
showed that in many instances businesses owned by Jews were 
being boycotted, and portrayed the indescribable plight of Jewish 
children in German schools. 

Let me here emphasize the fundamental fact that lies at the 
basis of our Boycott campaign, that although the German citizens 
of^ Jewish birth and ancestry, who have been imbedded in the 
soil of their native land for more than a thousand years before 
the^ Teutonic Invasion, and who freely shed their blood for 
their fatherland, are the immediate victims of this nightmare, 
their tragic plight is only one of the many phases of this mad 
onslaught upon civilization. That outbreak of racial and reli- 
gious bigotry, horrible as it is, is not more serious in its effects 
than are other phases of the reign of terror that is convulsing 
and threatening to destroy Germany. The 550,000 Jews thus 
murdered, starved, beaten or disfranchised and deprived of all 
the opportunities to earn a living, or thrown into vile concen- 
tration camps and driven to suicide, constiuite, after all, less 
than one per cent of the population. 

The point I want to make is that, incredible as are these 
atrocities, this is not primarily a Jewish question. Orher equally 
revoking crimes and misdemeanors are proven against the Hitler 
Regime, on their own confession, that alike directly affect all 
humanity. Those of us who refused to believe the reports of 
the Belgian atrocities have but to hear one per cent of whar 
the Jews are enduring, and their doubts will be dispelled. And 
yet the full extent of the gruesome tragedy can only be con- 
jectured. The hideous facts will never be permitted to be told 
but we know enough to sicken our souls, and to turn away in 
horror from these fiends in human form, whose fanatical joy 
is in torture. 

Reverting to the uprooting of the labor unions, we now 
know that the exclusion of all Jews from the unions of Ger- 
many so as to destroy their opportunity to earn a livelihood 
and thus to intensify and prolong their agony, was a mere 
Satanic prelude to the destruction of the unions themselves. Why, 
you may well ask, have these unions, that are the developments 
of generations of social progress, been thus wantonly annihilated 
and outlawed? The Jews are being crucified upon the grotesque 
pretext that there is to be a new race founded in Germany, 
having only pure Aryan blood, as though there were or could be 
such a thing. It is a fantastic pretense born in ignorance and 
dishonestly pursued in defiance of all hisrory. The Germans of 
North Germany are of an entirely different strain of blood from 

59 



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Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



those of South Germany, Neither has at most more than a 
smattering of Aryan blood, if any, as have the Jews. The thing 
wouid be a huge joke if it were not tragic in its effects. 

It is a logical reaction to these absurd myths and vagaries 
about Aryan and Nordic blood now sought to be implanted 
into the German consciousness that at least the beauty-parlor 
industry should be thriving in Germany to such an extent and 
has so alarmed this Opera Bouffe Government that it has felt 
called upon to issue an official warning against the rate at which 
brunettes are being converted by these beauty parlors into 
peroxide blondes to meet the Nordic requirements. Whether 
this decree is to apply to men as well as women does not appear 
from the cable despatches. Why not? Sterilization of all per- 
oxide blondes should be the next step. But imagine if you can 
the consternation of the fond parents when the progeny fails 
to abide by the peroxide test. Gilbert and Sullivan in their 
most palmy days never wrote anything quite so funny. 

The underlying reason for the destruction of the German labor 
unions, although no more exaisable, is more understandable than 
its wicked persecution of its Jewish citizens. The labor unions 
were suppressed upon the command of the ammunition manu- 
facturers and the industrial barons of big business who financed 
the Hitler campaign. They are responsible for the rise of 
Hitlerism to power and are the real rulers of the present regime. 
It is upon the demand of these industrialists that every trace and 
vestige of social freedom and democracy in Germany has been 
annihilated; and banished liberty of speech and of the press have 
converted that benighted country into the most cruel, bigoted 
despotism on earth. We shall have to go back more than 1,000 
years in the world's history to find its like. 

These industrial barons have decreed thi^ enslavement and 
destruction of labor, which has so valiantly fought for the freedom 
which it has achieved. Under the inspired leadership of organ- 
ized labor, Germany had become the pioneer country of the 
world in advanced social legislation. All this now bids fair to 
be undone. The serfdom of labor is again enthroned in that 
savage regime. That is one of the many reasons w^hy it must be 
destroyed. 

The same industrial overlords are fomenting war for their 
own profit, and have suppressed organized labor, the better to 
coin blood-money out of the sweat of the wotkers, They are 
merely attempting in a bigger, more daring and more ruthless 
fashion, with Hitlerism as their pliant and willing tool, what 
the trusts and big business have been doing to our labor until 
their reign was ended by the advent of President Roosevelt and 
the New Deal. 

Herein lies also the greatest peril to the success of our NRA. 

60 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



This is not so apparent in the East as in states such as Cali- 
fornia from where I am writing you now. Nor is the revolt 
against the concessions to organized labor in its relation to the 
NRA on the surface so general among the great corporations 
controlled from the East, as among the smaller business men 
in the West and South. As I see the situation the battleground 
will be in this State, after the Federal Government has estab- 
lished the constitutionality of the law in the courts, in which 
I believe it will succeed but only as an emergency measure. If 
it has not by the time the emergency has passed become so 
firmly imbedded in the roots of business as to continue on its 
own momentum, I fear that it will not survive. It has its 
perils, chief of which is its encouragement of trusts and monop- 
olies. How it can enthrone them as it is doing by legalizing and 
strengthening these cartels and at the same time putsue them 
under the anti -trust law is to me a paradox. It means the 
maintenance of a vast bureaucracy to police the business of the 
entire world; and yet the experiment is well worth trying. 

Some of the many other counts in the staggering indiament 
against the Hitler Regime remind us of the wisdom of the trite 
adage that "Whom the gods would destroy, they first make 
mad." What, for instance, can be the motive for this relendess 
war against the Christian Churches in Germany? Its avowed 
objective is said to be to bring about the substitution of a 
so-called German State Church in place of the present Cathohc 
and Protestant Churches. The separation of church and state 
?,nd the freedom of the church from state control has heretofore 
been the proud boast of the German people. In South Germany 
the Catholics are in the majority; in North Germany the Luth- 
erans and other Protestant churches prevail; but they have all 
had their own laws and forms of religious creeds and private 
government, free from the control of the state. Why is it now 
being attempted to destroy that independence and to revive and 
substitute paganism in its place? 

The reason, if it can be so dignified, is as cheap, trivial, 
bigoted and fantastic as is the pretext for the persecution and 
annihilation of the Jews. The two are intimately associated. 
The thought that the Old Testament, and parts of the New 
Testament, teach that Jesus was born a Jew of the House of 
David, and that his mother was a Jewess, is intolerable to these 
fanatics, And so they have actually decreed that these parts 
of the Bible shall be eliminated. In order to efiea that elimina- 
tion, the Government has accordingly decided that there shall 
be a new bible and a new church. 

But here these gentlemen reckoned without their host when, 
drunk with their btief power, based upon the suppression of the 
popular will, they stupidly imagined that it was only necessary to 

61 



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order the clergy to change their deep-rooted conviaions over-night 
to suit the crack-brained notions of these mad heretics. Never 
in modern times, or since men went to the stake for their beliefs, 
have the clergy more proudly demonstrated their wilhngness to 
suffer for their conviaions. 

One of the most heartening recent evidences of the courage 
and independence of our own clergy was its protest published 
on January 29th by "The American Committee on Religious 
Rights and Minorities" against the present campaign of the 
German Government to make all Christian churches subordinate 
to the State, and the persecution of Jews, and in which Germany 
was denounced in unmeasured terms. The protest was signed 
by the leading men of the Catholic clergy and the Protestant and 
Jewish ministries, but mainly by outstanding membets of the 
Christian clergy. It was a fit corollary to the document issued 
almost a year ago by 1,200 of the outstanding members of the 
American clergy. 

The following is quoted from the recent protest: 

"Whether or not the first reports of physical mal-treatment 
were exaggerated there certainly were many attacks upon 
Jews. Far more serious, however, is the announced determina- 
tion of the Government to eliminate a vast majority of the 
600,000 Jews in Germany, and the larger part of others who 
were counted Jews on account of mixed Jewish and Gentile 
ancestry, from the political, commercial, professional and cul- 
tural life of the nation. The evidence of this is clear and 
based on official statements of Government authorities. 

"Any man would rather suffer some physical injury than 
be ruined or driven out of his profession, and thus deprived 
of the means of support for himself and his family. The re- 
sultant suffering to women and children is worse than assaults 
upon men. Peculiarly trying is the fear of Jewish children 
who are compelled to live in an atmosphere of fear and hat- 
red which dooms them to an abnormal life. 

''No nation in he modern world * * ^' * can afford 
to alienate the confidence and good-will of the civilized world 
as Germany is now alienating it. It is far more serious, how- 
ever, when, as in Germany today that is the official and 
avowed policy of the Government, to deny to a whole class 
of its people their equal rights as citizens on account of thek 
Jewish citizenship, and then virtually to order Christian 
churches to become an instrument in the carrying out of 
this pohcy." 

It is no easy matter to hnd out what is happening in this 
struggle that is surging beneath the surface and is fairly con- 
vulsing Germany. Every bit of news, or so-called news, that 
trickles through, has been so doctored and censored by the vast 
government propaganda bureau under the direction of that arch- 
fiend Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda, and his atheist colleague 
Dr. Alfred Rosenberg, who now openly denounces Christianity, 
that we learn of only the merest f taction of the tottures being 

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Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

inflicted upon recalcitrants. No record is kept of the thousands 
upon thousands who are being murdered in and out of the 
concentration camps, or of the suicides or of the deaths by 
statvation. 

I wish it were as simple a matter to seaire anything like 
equally wide publicity for the American side of the story as 
is being accotded by the American press day by day to the 
vast output of the German Propaganda Bureau. Of late even 
the National broadcasting companies have been virtually closed 
to the discussion of the boycott. They call it "controversial," 
as though all important discussion is not in a sense conttoversial. 
Radio control should be vested in the Government. Super- 
vision is not sufficient. It does not supervise. It is too much 
power to entfust to ptivate control. 

For years I have pointed to Mr. William Randolph Hearst 
as the most clear-sighted statesman of the present generarion. 
I am more than ever confirmed in that view. And yet the 
Hearst papers that have always justly earned and enjoyed a 
nation-wide reputation for independence, fot social advancement 
and race and religious liberty, have done themselves no credit 
and have not added to their reputation by prominently print- 
ing, at great length on Sunday, January 28th, a long lauciatoty 
interview on Hitler and his alleged accomplishments, being 
another of the many outputs of the tireless, distorted German 
Propaganda Bureau. 

The author of that particular output is the present Vice- 
ChanceUor^ Capt. Franz von Papen. The article, like all the 
others emanating from that bureau, is mainly charaaeristic fot 
what it suppresses rather than for anything it says. 

So true to form is it in its bogus historical review of those 
accomplishments, that not one word is uttered concerning its 
crucifixion and avowed determination to exterminate the Jews, 
that has so profoundly shocked and stirred the hatred and con- 
tempt of the people of all lands. Equally eloquent is its silence 
over the attempt to supplant the Christian Churches by the 
New German State Church that is to scrap the Bible and des- 
troy all freedom of religious worship and beliefs. Nor is there 
a word about disfranchisement of womanhood and their exclusion 
from business. 

Here is the dishonest and cavalier way in which Captain von 
Papen discusses the destruction of labor unions and the enslave- 
ment of labor: 

"Dissolution of labor unions and employers associations 

follows The owner will again become the undisputed 

leader of his undertaking; there is no longer to be collective 
responsibility; on his (the employer's) shoulders rests the 
responsibility for the weal and woe of the workers." 
May God help the workets! 

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Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



Is it any wonder that in our country. Great Britain and every 
other country where labor is organized, a Boycott has been 
declared and is being prosecuted by the labor unions against 
German-made goods, and against all relations with that enslavedj 
benighted country. 

The writer of that article is, by the way, the same Captain 
von Papen who was anached to the German Embassy at Wash- 
ington at the time we severed diplomatic relations with Germany, 
and who was, together with a numbet of his associates, uncere- 
moniously expelled from and kicked out of our country before 
we severed these relations, for having been discovered by our 
Secret Service Agents betraying our hospitality and criminally 
conspiring to violate our neutrality. 

That "ttifling circumstance" has not been forgotten. 

Underneath a false propagandist appearance of peace and 
order presented by the censorship picture, Germany is today 
an armed camp, virtually ruled by military law, with coutts of 
justice as a mere "blind" to carry out political administrative 
decrees. 

It is only a few days since the publication of incidents that 
escaped over the rigid censorship, of which the following are 
a few iUustrations: 

In Munich the public ptoseaitot, on behalf of the Govern- 
ment, demanded sentences of eight months each in jail for 
three Catholic priests accused of ''spreading attocious stories 
about conditions in Germany" — which meant telling the truth. 

In Berlin on January 5th, Stuttgart's political police arrested 
t^^o Catholic priests, Fathet Dangelmeier of Metzinger and Father 
Smrn of Waldheim and sent them to the concentration camp 
at Kehburg. The police accused one priest of saying Mass for 
six Communists as they were about to be beheadedT the other 
priest was charged with having actually dared to hold a meeting 
of young Cathohcs on an evening when Chancellor Hitler was 
addressing the nation over the radio "thus tending to deflect 
attention from Hitler's remarks." 

The Nazis were reported to be futther incensed when they 
learned that the Bishop of Mayence had ordered Catholic Churches 
of his diocese to fly the church flag instead of the Nas:i banner. 
Hundreds of such instances might be cited. They are a mere 
small fraction of the thousands that are occutring, the news 
of which is suppressed by the stern edicts of the Minister of 
Propaganda — that "Knight Errant of religious 'toletanceV' Dr. 
Goebbels! 

During the present month a Jewish butcher named Ludwig 
Froheimer, wide-eyed with fear, was hustled into Court at Wies- 
baden and confessed that he had actually been guilty, as he had 
been all his life, of having slaughtered a steer in Kosher fashion. 

64 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



Chancellor Hitler had decreed that no Kosher meat may be 
prepared in Germany, (no one knows why, except his fiendish 
hatred that prompts to make life more and more unbearable 
for his persecuted victims) . He had likewise decteed that such 
meat could be imported only under restrictions so drastic that 
German Rabbis are urging vegetarianism as the only salvation 
for the orthodox Jews — for which they will ptobably be punished 
for insubordination. 

Until recently, anti-kosher arrests had all been for the crime 
of smuggling in kosher meat. Froheimer was the first to be 
arrested for actual kosher butchering, which has existed and 
been recognized, and approved, and the use of which has been 
lauded in Germany, and for that matter all over tlie world, 
for untold centuries. It is universally admitted to be a health 
measure and is prescribed by the Bible, Here is what the Nazi 
judge said to this wtetched offender: 

"You placed an alien law, namely the Talmud, above German 
law. Since this is the first offense I sentence you to two months 
in prison," 

Meantime the Ministry of Justice was in chaos in Berlin as 
weary German jurists who had scarcely slept for weeks had 
rushed to completion the "code Hitler," a complete new body 
of penal laws. 

"Race stamps this code" said Nazi Codifier Helmuth 
Nicolai, "Our whole new legal system is constructed on the 
cornerstone of race. There are two kinds of justice. The 
Nordic or Teutonic is something one feels. The conscience 
of the racially pure Teutonic tells him what is right and what 
is wrong. The Oriental has no conscience, being of mixed 
race. He does not perceive what is right as clearly as does 
the German." 

Was there ever such drivel dispensed in the sacred name 
of justice? It would be excruciating comic-opera if it were 
not such ghastly tampering with human lives, 

Jewish lawyers and judges who had been permitted to resume 
their offices have been again thrown out of the courts in East 
Prussia, while Jewish lawyers in Berlin were warned that they 
should refrain from appearing ia court. 

No wonder Mr. Michael Wilhams, editor of the Common- 
weal, and President of the Calvert Association, who is a member 
of the committee appointed by the "American Committee on 
ReHgious Reports and Minorities" to go to Germany and investi- 
gate conditions there, after spending weeks in Berlin interviewing 
members of the Hitler Government and leading professional and 
business men, both Getman and American, as well as Protestant, 
Catholic and Jewish leaders, reported on his return that the 
Nazi atrocities perpetrated upon the Jews are the worst known 
in History, 

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Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

"So far as the persecution of the Jews is concerned," says 
Mr. Williams, "I am positive that those in the best position 
to know the facts, the foreign newspaper correspondents in 
Berlin and the American consular officials, agree that there 
was, and that there continues to be, a persecution of Jews 
which, in its extent surpasses any record of persecution in 
Jewish History, for it goes deeper and is more inclusive in 
its intent to absolutely ehminate the Jewish portion of the 
German Nation, than any other outbreak of the kind. 

"One of the most prominent German political leaders told 
me that he believed tirat while the world outside of Germany 
might palliate the physical violence perpetrated upon the Jews 
during the first days of the Nazi rule as understandable, even 
if deplorable, that when the Nazis delberately undertook to 
write into the fundamental iaw of the land, measures out- 
lawing all Jews, including Germany's most patriotic citizens, 
they made a mistake comparable only to the invasion of 
Belgium at the outbreak of the World War. For several hun- 
dred thousand young Jews there is no future, as long as the 
present regime retains its present position." 

From his personal investigations made within a few months 
after the outbreak of the Jewish atrocities, Mr. Williams re- 
ported the then recorded deaths and serious casualties from the 
Nazi troopers' attacks on the Jews at 3,300 of which 300 cases 
resulted in death and at least 3,000 in serious injury and that 
it began with a veritable massacre and continues to the present 
day with more refined, but nonetheless cruel, forms of murder 
and extermination by Germany of its minorities. 

That is what the German Government calls an "internal affair" 
with which other countries are not concerned and against which 
they have no right to protest. 

If that be true, the World War was indeed fought in vain. 

These people are heretics and atheists at heart although tliey 
have not, until recently, dared openly avow it, to what were 
once a God-fearing people. They not only have no rehgious 
beliefs, they have no veneration or respect for religion. Their 
ambition seems to be to tear up by the roots and destroy all 
faith. Whilst they dare not use the same brutal methods of 
persecution against the terror-stricken Christians because they 
constitute 99% of the Nation, as they have used to exterminate 
the Jewish minority, their assaults upon the religious convictions 
of the Protestants and Catholics are nonetheless intolerable. 

In an article recently published in The Commonweal, by the 
eminent writer Mr, George N. Schuster, he reviews and analyzes 
the struggle that is now under way in Germany between the 
Government and the Catholics. 

He likens the struggle of the past nine months to a battle 
where the only weapons are rifles and Maxim silencers and says 
it is impossible to spend months in the country without getting 

66 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

one glimpse of what is a great, fearful and bitterly contested 

fight, ^^ 

"The Catholic population," he says, "is hardly aware of 
what is going on, since all discussion of conflict which appears 
in the Nazi press tnakes it appear as if a few recalcitrant 
'political priests' were misrepresenting the pure doctrines of 
the new Germany. A seal has been placed upon the lips of 
the priests; at least one hundred members of the regular and 
secular clergy have been put in jail, but only one has been 
permitted to be brought to trial. 

'Today the material advantages gained in nearly 60 years 
of effort have been almost completely lost. Practically all 
positions they (the Catholics) once held in the ministry^ judi- 
ciary and the various administrative organizations are now 
occupied by others. Even more Impressive is the wholesale 
loss of smaller government jobs in cities, towns and villages. 
A whole thousand burgomasters were fired in Westphalia 
alone. 

"As to the CathoHcs unfortunate enough to be wholly or 
pardy _ of Jewish blood, the only thing left for these people 
to do is to go off somewhere and die. 

"Less obvious but more important is the change in the 
spiritual ministry of the church; religious journalism is today 
almost a thing of the past in Germany. Catholics still possess 
a number of daily papers but everyone of these is patently 

dying of inanition More dangerous still is the threat 

to the educational program of the church. Today every young 
German who expects to get on in the world must become a 
member of the official Nazi 'political education' group. , . , 
There were whole months during which the activities of the 
Hider-Jugend (Hitler Youth) were so arranged as to render 
impossible church attendance on Sundays; Catholic parents 
said to me bitterly that they found themselves wishing their 
children had never been born." 

Mr. Schuster concludes as follows: 

""Against it (The Hitler Government) Catholicism, Protest- 
antism and Judaism must stand allied, cost what it may. So far 
the spoils of battle have gone to the Nazis but it is ultimate 
victory which alone counts. The lot of German Catholics 
will not be easy — indeed it may enlist the outraged sym- 
pathies of the world — nevertheless I do not believe in the 
permanence of bogus faiths." 

Just a word here about the platform of the New German 
State Church as outlined by Dr, Rcinhold Krauss, leader of 
the so-called German Christians in Berlin, which he summarizes 
as follows: 

(1) That all non- Aryans should be removed from office in 
the German Protestant Church (there are at least 30 Jews who 
are Lutheran pastors in the Reich) ; 

(2) The establishment of separate "Ghetto" Churches for 
racially Jewish parishoners of Christian Churches who are Chris- 
tians but partly of Jewish ancestry. 

(3) The exclusion of the Old Testament from the Bible on 

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the ground that it is a Jewish document. (Dr. Krauss is re- 
ported to have given deep offense to hundreds of pious Germans 
by charaaerizing the Old Testament as "a colleaion of tales 
by cattle dealers and pimps.") 

(4) The elimination of the Apostle St. Paul and other "in- 
feriority complex" passages from the Bible, including all refer- 
ences to the crucifixion of Jesus. 

In other words all the present Christian religions and beliefs 
are to be scrapped and emasculated and a new Nordic Pagan 
Faith is to be substituted. 

There is still another feature to this Hitler campaign which, 
to my mind, far transcends in importance to America and Ameri- 
can citizenship ail the crimes that are being perpetrated by the 
Hitler Regime within its own boundaries, and all its assaults 
upon the liberty of its own people. Whilst this reversion of a 
once great Nation to the savagery of the Dark Ages is by no 
means the "internal affair" that the Nazi Government claims 
it to be, but is on the contrary a great international concern that 
is a challenge to humanity, in the end it more directly affects 
its own people. The aspect of the Hitler activities to which I 
wish now briefly to revert, constitutes a wanton violation of our 
American neutrality and a direa assault upon our institutions. 

This is a grave indictment of a Nation with which we are 
supposed to be at peace, but it is one that is overwhelmingly 
established by the faas in our possession, which it is proposed 
to bring to the attention of Congress in an investigation that 
has already been demanded by a Senate Resolution that is now 
under consideration. 

The grave offense charged against the Hitler Government is 
that of a country-wide seditious propaganda conducted on our 
shores with the aid of German ships and seamen, and German 
emissaries, directly aimed at undermining the loyalty of our 
13,000,000 American citizens of German birth or ancestry, sow- 
ing and spreading widecast the seeds of racial and religious bigotry 
and hatred. 

To that end organizations have been formed under the names 
of "Friends of New Germany" and other names such as "Storm 
Troops," "Blue," "Brown" and other "Shirts." Tons of cir- 
culars, newspapers, magazines and other literature from Germany, 
published and printed in German and English, have, as before 
stated in another connection, been smuggled into this country 
on German ships and scattered by German agencies into every 
corner of the land. Other newspapers, printed in German and 
English, are being published in various parts of this counrty, 
bitterly assailing our Government and its President and calling 
upon American citizens of German birth or descent to embrace and 

68 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



introduce into our laws the un-American treasonable docttines of 
Hitledsm, 

The alarming extent to which this constantly increasing and 
distorted Government-paid flood of propaganda is unconsciously 
impregnating and influencing the Ametican Press, is becoming 
day by day more apparent and more dangerous. It must be 
checked or counteracted if our traditional liberty-loving protection 
of the oppressed is to survive. 

There are gratifying signs from the belated action of our 
Departments of State and Labor that we are at last to be 
aroused from our Rip Van Winkle slumbers, at least to the 
extent of making possible an asylum for the crucified German 
Jews. 

Senator Borah has admirably characterized this persecution as: 
"A wicked and blasphemous exhibition of diseased minds." 

And has declared on the floor of the Senate: 

"That the upholding of American principles is our sup- 
reme duty, a duty we cannot disregard" and that "we need 
not be dismayed, but we cannot be unconcerned. The right 
to worship according to the dictates of one's conscience, the 
right to freedom from persecution on account of race, are 
parts of that political liberty, that freedom from oppression 
which is the life-blood of democracy." 
At this time we may profitably take a leaf out of our history 
of the action of our Government over 80 years ago, when 
Kossuth, the Hungarian Patriot, as the result of his struggle 
for the pohtical and religious freedom of his country, barely 
escaped with his life when he was driven out of Hungary and 
escaped to Turkey where he was held captive at the request 
of the Hungarian Government. We ah recall with a thrill of 
pride in Our Country how we sent our battleships for Kossuth 
and his little band of patriots, how Kossuth was welcomed by 
Congress and was presented to the President by that great lawyer 
and elocpent statesman, Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State, 
in one of the greatest of his many famous speeches, in which he 
used these memorable words: 

"Gentlemen, there is something on Earth greater than 
arbitrary or despotic power, and that is the aroused indigna- 
tion of the civilized world." 

How true that is of the present situation and what a con- 
clusive answer to the absurd contention that the slaughter and 
persecution of the German Jews is an "internal affair." 

"The American Hebrew" in its issue of January 26th, reminds 
us that a generation later that same exalted principle was uttered 
by President Harrison, when in 1891, referring to remonstrances 
made by the United States to Russia because of the May Law 
in force against the Jews, he said in his message to Congress; 

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Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

"The banishment, whether by direct decree^ or by the less 
certain indirect methods of so large a number of men and 
women IS not a legal question. A decree to leave one country 
IS m the nature of things, an order to enter another ~ some 
other. This consideration, as well as the suggestions of 
humanity, furnishes ample ground for the remonstrances 
which we have presented to Russia." 
_ We are tiow told that there is an intensive propaganda lobby 
in Washington that is directing its activities toward kiUing the 
Tydmgs Anti-Nazi resolution in the Senate Committee on Foreign 
Affairs. "The American Hebrew" reports on what it says is the 
most trustworthy authority that Senators are being personally 
assured by messages coming from the German Embassy at Wash- 
ington that the preamble setting forth the Anti-Semitic campaign 
in Germany as described in the Tydings Resolution is contrary 
to the facts and that the Jews in Germany are in no way the 
object of Government persecution. A more brazen, audacious 
falsehood it would be mipossible to conceive. It flies directly in 
the face of all of the official pronouncements of the Nazi Govern- 
ment itself, of the hundreds oi censored reports from the dis- 
tinguished American correspondents, and can only be characterized 
as a piece of unexampled audacity and effrontery. This Embassy 
propaganda is said to dare to make the silly threat that if the 
Tydings Resolution should be passed by the Senate, it will mean 
that Germany will break off relations with the United States and 
that that incident might possibly be followed by a war between 
the two nations. The Senatots are said to be also flooded with 
telegrams and letters from the Nazi propaganda sources throudi- 
out the country. ^ 

'The most disheartening part of the report," says the same 
reliable authority, "which comes from the same sources in 
Washington is that the Senators, in the face of the facts as 
known to the entire world, and as confessed, and in fact 
boasted by Germany, is that almost all of the Senators accept 
the word of the German Embassy as facts, and most of them 
are almost totally ignorant of what the Nazi Government has 
actually perpetrated." 

Writing editorially of the attitude of the Senators, with regard 
to these threats the same authority says: 

'They (the Senators) have heard vaguely of the dismissal 
ot professors, and the exclusion of artists from the theatre 
and he cmema, but they seem totally unacquainted with the 
economic restrictions and persecutions that make the life of 
Jews in Germany humanly unbearable. 

"What the Senators who have been approached by agents 
from the German Embassy fear most is the threat that favor- 
able action on the Tydings Resolution will be followed imme- 
diately by a break in our relations, by the Reich, and possibly 
by war. ^ ^ 

"What we have written here is calculated merely to call 
the attention of the country to the type and character of this 

70 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



one phase of the Na^i propaganda which is leveled to destroy 
the Tydings Resolution." 

Other phases of this daringly false propaganda are pointed out 
as follows: 

_ "(1) Newspapers in this count ty are being fed with mate- 
rial bearing a Berlin datehead It is so obviously German 
propaganda that at times 'I wonder/ says Mr. David A, 
Brown, 'how it passes the editorial desk." 

"(2) Special articles sent from Europe, and in many cases 
written in this country, presenting in the most favorable light 
all that Germany has done, and making favorable compari- 
sons of the Revolution in Germany with that in Russia. 
There is no point of similarity between the two. 

"(3) A Speakers Bureau of English speaking men and 
women is maintained here, all of whom are well trained 
speakers, and who travel the width and breadth of the land. 
This portion of such addresses is purely Anti-Semitic." 

Says Mr. Brown of that work, "I consider the work of the 
speakers bureau the most effective and at the same time the 
most dangerous phase of their activities in the United States. 
These lecturers are appearing before Clubs, Societies, Churches, 
Fraternal Bodies — in fact before any group that will give them 
a hearing. They make no charge for the services of their 
speakers or for their traveling expenses, and they even ofc 
to assist in the publicity attached to a meeting of this kind. 

"(4) In addition to the publication of five propaganda 
newspapei's printed in Germany and distributed here, there 
are several printed in English and likewise distributed here. 
Anyone reading them would at once realize that they are 
Nazi sheets to the core, but much material has been furnished 
either directly by Germany or by Nazi headquarters in America. 

"(5) There are being published in America, and also being 
sent by Germany, large quantities of leaflets, booklets, and 
pamphlets, printed both in English and in German that reek 
with Anti-Semitism, 

"(6) The Nazis, realizing the possibilities within the high 
schools and colleges of this country, are making use of such 
students as will lend themselves, to carrying on a subtle cam- 
paign of Anti-Semitism. They are presenting (lying) statis- 
tics to show that the Jews predominated the professions of 
Germany; and that unless the youth of this land takes steps 
to prevent it the Christian youth here will find itself in a 
second rate position, entirely ignoring the fact that the Jews 
are but 3% of the total population of this country. 

"(7) Every German Consular office in the United States 
has a propaganda bureau, having definite instructions to use 
their offices for German propaganda purposes; that the Con- 
suls and their staffs shall be available at all times to carry out 
the instructions of the Propaganda Bureau in Berlin, and its 
counterpart in this country." 

It is further charged that among other propaganda activi- 
ties radio speakers are employed or secretly subsidized, who, 
in the course of their news presentation of the day to vast 
audiences manage to introduce an item or two of pure, un- 
adulterated German propaganda, and that one or two of the 
regular news announcers over the radio are at present under 

71 



pjwnOTf 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

ment'LTof^b'"l§ '" '^' ^"^ '''^''^ ^^ '^' ^^'"^^^ Govern- 
ment or of the Nazi organization in this country 

liven moving pictures," says Mr, Brown "are not free 

from this msidious propaganda, mainly in the form of news - 

eft T"''''^ outstanding events throughout the word No 

news-re l^TrSn'^V? m"'"'^^ H'' "^^^ '^ ^^^^^^ "^ ^i-- 
newsieels, and that holds true of events favorable to Ger 

many takmg place m this country. This seems stran/e when 

you consider that these news-reels have n vc^dc^'fte "^^^ 

All this leads to the problem of how best to combat this 

taken by the Hitler Regime toward undermining and evenruallv 
destroying the existing Chnstian religions, was die appoiZem 
a few days ago by Hitler of Alfred Rosenberg, one o hL 
closest fnerids and leaders, and one of the ori^^al and mo 
Poli :n "'^^ -^t.Semices. as head of the so4lled 'Fordgn 
Pol cy Division and Government supervisor of the church bodfes 

Following and in line wfrh the vicious activities of Reich 

nl c2 "v'' '"'^ '^' J"^^"^^ ^^ P^-^^^ -'^ clergymen he 
placing of this supreme power in the hands of Dr Lsenbet^L' 
IS the most significant step yet taken toward disrupting fhe S 
an Churxhes and tl.e Catholic and Protestant religions and sub- 
stituting Pagamsm or the '^Nordic-Germanic Cidt " 

-Let It be remembered that Rosenberg is the author of the 
widely read book 'Jhe Myth of the Twentieth Century ' in 
which he decries and denounces Christianity, ^' 

I quote verbatim from an inspired official cabled propagandist 
report from Ber m on February 2nd, headed: ^'A N^ew^ Ge'tn 
•■ ■ 'u^ ^' \^'^'' "^''^^ ^ ''German- Heaven and a docma 
replacing the Bible with Nordic myths ... was env^a^ed tod^v 
as an equal of Protestantism and Catholicism. ^ ^ 

"Since July 30, when about 100,000 Hitlerites had di\ 
avowed Christianity in Eisenach and declared^h ir respon" 
s^biluy for our Germanic origin before the divine reaht7d^e 
movement has grown apace." ^^vme reantj, tne 

The Eisenach resolution reads: 

"We are adherents of a Germanic faith which derives its 

feolr m"^u ^'T ^^^V"^^^'"^^ inheritance of the German 

people. We a I confess that resting in divine reality we are 

esponsible with our Germanic origm before this divineTealhy 

and before our people for a German-born faith." ^' 

From this it would seem that Odin and Balder and Freya 

and other German gods, are to be placed back on the throne 

irom which they were driven by advancing Christianty 

A leader in the movement recently said that Naziism and 

72 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

Christianity are incompatible. "Germany's great aim," he said, 
"must be one people, one Reich, one religion, one church. The 
one religion, of course, can be only a Nordic-Germanic one. 
The Narional Socialist revolution must become transformed into 
a heathenish- Germanic one; then only will the revolution have 
achieved what we all hope for." 

On the fifth of this month a meeting was held at Berlin of a 
congress of the "Germanic Research Society," consisting of noted 
German professors. The censored cable reports say that at that 
meeting — 

"It was agreed for the most part that Christianity was not 
meant for Germans," 

The delegates represented "The Pagan Teutonic Faith Move- 
ment" of Dr. Alfred Rosenberg, the new philosophic diaator 
of the New Germany. That movement was the sole topic of 
discussion. The religious correspondent of The Frankfurrer Zeit- 
ung was permitted by the propagandist censor of the Empire 
to say of the movement as follows (which would indicate that 
the Government was behind the movement) : 

"The movement at heart Is anti-Christian. Christ and 
Christianity as a whole are denied." 

Dr. Johann von Leers, the official Nazi Culture Leader, and 
a personal friend of Dr, Rosenberg, was among the most out- 
spoken in the conference. "Christianity," he said, "is a com- 
position of inferiority and Jewish philosophy." He demanded 
abolition of Christianity outright, and return to pte-historic light- 
bearer worship. He said the trend was toward a national, not 
a universal religion. 

Dr. Neckel, of Berlin, presented a dissertation lasting hours 
to prove his contention that Christianity triumphed by the most 
brutal methods. 

On January 22nd, Professor Karl Adams, of Tuebingen Uni- 
versity, before The Catholic Youth Society in Stuttgart, delivered 
a sermon in which that great Catholic savant illuminated the 
bitter conflia now proceeding between the Catholic clergy and 
the Nazi Government authorities in South Germany. Not one 
Berlin newspaper published any account of the sermon. In the 
course of his grave denunciation of the German Christians (the 
name of the Rosenberg Nazi movement within the German 
Protestant Church) Professor Adam said: 

"If that is the German faith movement as based on biology, 
then for us Catholics it is superstition. Has German history 
ever been able to point to men like Peter and Paul? The 
German Christians know^ nothing about Prophets, They know 
only myths, fairy tales and sagas." 

"It was after this bold sermon," says the cable dispatch, "that 
the Stuttgart Police broke up the parade of the Catholic Youth 
Society." 

[73 



.iL.iUMiiiikli.lLyj„i,||,|„iUiy 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

Last November, John Elliott, writing for the New York 
Herald Tribune from Berhn, presented a graphic word picture 
of this moveriient to oust the existing Christian Churches. Among 
other thmgs he said: ^ 

-Tarslfal and Zarathustra are struggling these days for 
mastery of the German Protestant Church. The opposing 
factions and the Evangelical Modernists organized in thf 
faoTJ^^''^''''^ League which aheady has more than 
3 000 clergymen on its roils, and the Nazi radicals, who 

Hn«.nfM 'S^l '" TJ'^*" P^"^^^" Christian Church with 
Hossenfelder, B.shop of Brandenburg. The Modernists stand 
tor the Christian spirit of humanity The Nazi extremists 
represent the worship of blood, force and gratification of No^^lc 
supremacy. 

Hitlerisra and Christianity are incompatible on at least two 
gfounds, says Mr. Elliott: 

th.'V.i J^'^ internationalism of Christianty is in conflict with 
the fanatic nationalism that animates the Hitler movement. 
Upon the appeal of Archbishop Erhng Eidem of Sweden and 
he B: hop of Chichester to Reich Bishop Mueller to dislodge 
beLdn'rt'r^'' for the sake of preserving the connectifn 
Rkhon w f'?r ^^'T'^ ^""^ '^''^ Protestant Church abroad, 

Bishop Hossenfelder replied: 'We German Christians believe 
that It IS more important for us to share the faith of Ger- 

Xr ^'ople. "'' '' ^'"''" ''"^''^ ^''^ '^' ^^^^^^^^^ '^f 
''(2) The glorification of the Nordic-Germanic race as 
Sng of Chris"''" ""^"^^ '' '^""^"^^^^^'>' ^^P^-^^ - ^he 
The Evangelical Modernists see in the movement of the Nazi 
radicals the entering wedge for the introduction of heathenism 
d.at would make of German Christianity a revised form of ancient 
Germanic Wotan worship advocated by General Erich von Luden- 
Qorlt and his ilk. 

There can be no question that the triumph of Na^iism and 
the enforced substitution of Pagan religion, to be known as the 
German Church, under rigid State control, means the destruc- 
non of Chnstiamty in Germany, and that just as the Russian 
Communists tried for years to introduce Communism into other 
countries, just as the Hitler Government is now spreading its 
anti-Semitic propaganda in our countty and in other lands and 
IS spendmg tens of milions of dollars for that purpose, so' will 
he campaign be waged to spread paganism and unbelief in our 
and other lands. 

Permit me, in conclusion, to appeal to organized labor, throuRh 
our honored guest, to now gWt to your boycott resolution the 
active force, life and vitality into which they are capable of beinc. 
ff Z'f /' IT ^'^^'' rf;;^-oiighout the length and breadth 
of the land. This you can do by urging, not only upon your 
membership, but upon all of the workers of the country, and par- 

74 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

ticularly upon their families, that they carefully scrudnize all 
of their purchases, so as to ptotect themselves against the many 
forms of fraud and evasion that are being practiced, and that 
they refuse to buy Getman goods or to patronize German ships 
or shipping or to deal with any shop or merchant that handles 
German merchandise 

Such action would eventually automatically compel all shops 
that ate seeking their patronage to permanently display signs 
announcing that they cio not buy or sell such goods, and at 
the same time stimulate the sale of goods made in Ametica, 
and thus give much needed employment to our labor. Wher- 
ever necessary further tariff protection to that end should be asked 
of Congress. 

Anothet step in your campaign that would be ec|ually potent 
would be to support the stevedores and others who are con- 
nected with the loading and unloading of German ships that 
are most active agents in smuggling into our country and dis- 
tributing products and seditious contraband literature against 
American institutions, in their refusal to handle such goods. 

I do not believe that any patriotic American Union or non- 
union worker would refuse to respond to such an appeal, ot 
would take the place of one who so refused. You can thus be 
the most important factor towards smashing the present despot- 
ism that has outlawed all organized labor in Germany, and 
which is now engaged in a dastardly campaign to destroy Christi- 
anity and to enthrone virtual Paganism in its place. 

I repeat, for the reasons above stated, that this is not primarily 
a Jewish question. It is the intimate concern of all humanity. 
As stated by Mayor LaGuardia in a speech in New York City, 
after strongly assailing Hitlerism, and endorsing the boycott of 
German goods, and after pointing out that he was a Vice-President 
of the organization of which I am the President: 

"The Nazi problem is not a religious question but a grave 
International problem. The boycott was a decisive and active 
stand against Hitlerism which at the same time fits in per- 
fectly with the program dedicated to the prevention of war. 
To be against Hitler is to be for the people of Germany. 
To be against Hitler is to be for the peace of the world." 



75 



B'iffn5:fW!^ 



Address at the Annual Memorial Service of the 
Jewish War Veterans, New York, May 27, 1933 

%ersary of your organization last year, have the Jewish War 
Veterans met to celebrate this glorious, inspiring anduZty 

Kr: wTh'T""''/ '""'^ l----ndering^cond\.ons. Nev 
before ha^^e they been forced to sit helplessly by as witnesses to 
the crucifixion of their unoffending brethren upon avatar of 

oba^^nd Hef '"'; "" ^^^^"^^^ ^^ ^^-- ^-- ^--n into 
oblivion and destroyed centuries ago by the onward march of 
civilization and the brotherhood of man. 

When we reflect that of these 550,000 German Jews (which 
mcludes men women and children, old as well as yLng) upon 
whom these diabolical tortures and persecutions are being per 

the supteme sacrifice," and 35,000 were seriously wounded- 
many thousands of them permanently-in the cLse of their 
ungrateful country, one begins dimly lo visualize someth ngo 

mans inhumamty to man," when human being are mrnedlnto 
beasts of prey by the wild fury of brutal fanaticism 

tYcty page of Germany's history and of ours, and of that of 
other countries bears eloquent, unimpeachable' witness aga n' 
the foul libels behind which these savages seek to hide th s 
come against dvilization^that the Jew fs not Ae mo t Jova 
patnotic^and self-sacrificing citizen to^his own country'wLeXr 

h^ver^CjA ^^ '^'' ^"' ""V"^' ' ^'''^ glance at the part the Jews 
have played in our own history. We may well hold up our heads 

Droad' tH '" '"' "^ T^"^^ "^ ''' ^"^ ^^^-Id be intensely 
TetJ '^'"'''''JT I^"' "' '" ^^^^^ patriotism has been 
the gtnding star of the American Jew. In all the wars of the 
Repubhc his deeds have cast their fragrance of heroism and 

the NatioT' ''"' ^'^' '* ''' "^"^''''y ^"^ ^^^^^ ^-^^1« 'f 
Beginning with the Revolutionary period: Manuel Mordecai 
Noah, CoL Isaac Franks and Major Benjamin Nones weTe ImS 
de-camp on the staff of General Washing/on. Nones was a French- 
man fired by the sentiments that enlisted Lafayette. A private 
under Pulaski, he attained the distinaion under Baron D^eKalb 
of Major commanding a legion composed in large measure of 
Hebrews. At Beaufort. Washington /corps of Jewish volunteer 
fought under General Maultrie with indomitable valor '^^'' 

the^™!^'^^'" ^ w/^' 'PP''^'^ ^"^ ^^^"^^ ^° ^^^ '^^ colonists in 
the Revo utionary War it was a Jew, Haym Salomon, who most 
generously responded. He immediately subscribed ^300,000 to 

76 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



the cause, and in all gave $658,007.13, not a penny of which has 
ever been repaid to his heirs. That was a great fortune in those 
days. 

Within the last few years there has been considerable discus- 
sion in Congress over a Bill introduced in the Senate to repay the 
heirs of Haym Salomon the money loaned by him to finance the 
War against the British. Accompanying this Bill was a Senate 
resolution enumerating Salomon's patriotic donations to Robert 
Mortis. Besides his conttibutions, he supplied Congiessmen and 
officers of the Army and of the Government with the means of de- 
fraying their ordinary expenses, among whom were Jefferson, 
Madison, Lee, Steuben, Mifflin, Sinclair, Wilson, Monroe and 
Mercer. He sacrificed his fortune for the cause. 

Will it be said that such a man was not a patriot? He was 
captured by the British, thrown into prison and died before he 
himself could take any steps to secure reimbursement for the 
wealth he had expended, leaving his wife and four small chil- 
dren in want. 

Nor was Haym Salomon by any means the only Jew who un- 
seliishly sacrificed his fottune for independence. Among the 
signers of the bills of credit for the Continental Congress in 1776 
were Samuel Lyon and Benjamin Jacobs of New York, Benjamin 
Levy and Isaac Moses of Philadelphia. Herman Levy, another 
Philadelphian, repeatedly advanced money for the support of 
the Atmy in the fiefd. Manuel Mordecai Noah of South Caro- 
lina not only served in the Army as an officer on Washington's 
staff, and with General Marion, but gave $100,000 to further 
the cause. 

The story is told, and it is authentic, based upon an unpub- 
lished letter of Jared Sparks, that at the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tionary Wat a Mr. Gomez of New York proposed to a member 
of the Continental Congress that he be permitted to form a com- 
pany of soldiers for service. The member of Congress remon- 
strated with Mr. Gomez on the ground that he (Mr. Gomez) 
was then 68 years of age; to which Mr. Gomez replied that he 
"could stop a bullet as well as a younger man." 

Mordecai Sheftall was appointed Commissary-General of the 
troops of Georgia in 1777. Soon thereafter he was also appointed 
Commissary to the Continental troops. When the British attacked 
Savannah in 1778, SheftalFs name appears as one of the most 
patriotic of the defenders, besides contributing large sums of 
money. 

Major Benjamin Nones, a Jew of Bordeaux, France, served 
with signal success on the staffs of both Washington and Lafay- 
ette. He became Major of a legion of 400 men composed largely 
of Jews, and fought in nearly every battle of Carolina. 

Among the many Jews in the War of 1812 who fought for 

77 



IIMK/^Mwtt . '•( ihiAb * 1 milislHI H » 



.LiiJ,ujj,„i.iijj|j,|jjj|iLII,JL 



Addresses by Samuel Untbrmyer 

mL'"^"V^'P"'','^' ^''''- C°'- N^'^'^n Meyers, Capt Meyer 
Moses Adjutant Isaac Meyers, Samuel Noah, Isa;c Me tz Ben 
jamm Grat., Dav.d Metzler and Judah Touro distinguished'rhem- 

After the Revolutiotx Touto went to the then French territotv 
of Louisiana, setthng in New Orleans in 1802. During Andrew 
Jackson s memorable defense of that city, after the Terdtory had 

'eTforZe"e°nr*'/f^' ^"'"' '^^■™' ^'^ had "m/sLd f 
e^eit tortune, entered the ranks as a common soldier and was 
severely wounded, being given up for dead. ^^' 

The history of the War with Mexico also sparkles with the 
achievements of the American Jew. Genera '^Davd T^^Leon 
At' Mnn?"' t" '^'t' "' ^°"«'^"^- f- ^^^ gaiiantty and abmty 
son wS; ^r-,Hr^S^''?»^ ^™^ complimented in peT 
son by General Taylor for his dauntless heroism. ^ 

tJtt r*'' ° *' ^'^-^ "^"^ "S-''^ bear overwhelming witness 

VoL ..r T '? "^"'f "''"^"^ ""^ '^"'^^^ «'de. The 1st New York 

S Th. h ?"^ ''i"' '-"^ "°^^ *^" °"-'-l^ composed of 
Jews. The highest rank attained by any of them during the Ci.^ 

ZZT.rT''^ ^l ^/"^'"'^ Kneffler; who enlisted "a the 79th 
ervfre th r r"'''' i"^^''"^ "^ ^ P'ivate, and rendered such si.nal 

In the political movements for the abolition of slavery the Tews 
ook a leading part. The first official call to or^m^e^^^^ 
ion movement was signed by four Jews of th? Cleadet of 
the German population of Chicago. 

pJr^^i^l^^^^^ political movement, Dr. Edward Moritz of th^ 
Philadelphia Demoh-at, Rabbi Samuel M Isaac aTeacher.r^d 
^ditox of the Jewish Messenger, Rabbi liebmanAlle^r a Detroit 

fmon. th^'' 'I'^'^'^'^f^^ -d Dr, Felsenthal in Chi g^we e 
among those who sowed the seeds of liberty "^ 

Rabbi Morals, on account of his anti-slavery sentiments wa. 
eleaed an honorary member of the Union League ClurofPhna 
delphia, an honor which he shared with Rev. Dr. Dav^d E nhorn 
who, in 1856, had come to pro-slavery Baltimore from Aus^^^^^^ 
where his temple had been dosed against him by th^ImS 
Government on account of his alkged^revolutionary^^orts From 
cal, Dr. Einhorn poured forth shot and shell from the Old Testa- 

aZrofT'^U ^^^'^ ^^™-f ?^^^ ^'^^^'y -^ the time sen -ng 
™ t l-Li' '"'?"'' "^'^'^ ^^^'^^" °^t ^^ ^^^e city and his 
return prohibited under martial law. 

Dr. Einhorn in Baltimore, and later in Philadelphia, did as 

78 




Addresses by S.amuel Untermyer 

much as any man in his day to create public sentiments which 
destroyed slavery. 

If we inspect the muster rolls of the Spanish-American War 
here again we find over 5,000 Jews who volunteered and oilered 
their lives on the altar of their country. 

It may not be generally known that the first Philippine standard 
lowered in the Philippines was captured by Sergeant Motris J. 
Cohen of Funston's regiment, who afterwards fell In the chatge 
at Caloocan. Jacob Wilensky, a mere lad of sixteen, was killed 
in the first skitmish of Col. Roosevek's Rough Riders. The first 
American soldier to fall in the attack on Manila was a Jew, Ser- 
geant Maurice Jusch of the Ist California Volunteers, a regiment 
containing over 100 Jews. 

And who dares detract from the achievements of the Jew in 
the great World War? A phalanx of upwards of 250,000 strong, 
these sons of Israel, all American citizens, battled for their Coun- 
try on land and sea, in the ait and under the sea. Though con- 
stituting but 3% of the population, over 5^ of their number 
were in the fighting forces of the Nation. Available statistics dis- 
close that nearly 20% of the entire Jewish contingent in the great 
conflict were volunteers. In the army alone, nearly 10,000 Jews 
held commissioned rank. 

Outstanding deeds of heroism credited to the Jewish soldiers 
are far too numerous to recite here. It was Sergeant Max Gold- 
stone who crawled into the enemy machine-gun nest, from which 
perilous position in the thick of the fight he directed the Ameri- 
can artillery fire until the enemy was forced to retreat. 

The name of Battling Benjamin Blaustein will be forever en- 
shrined amongst the heroes of the Fighting 69th Regiment. 

Wherever the story of the "Lost Battalion" is chronicled there 
must be told how, after messenger upon messenger seeking to 
bring relief to the despairing troops, sped to certain death, it was 
Abraham Krotoshinsky, a little Jewish tailor from the Bronx, 
who volunteered and saved the day. 

Not less than 1100 citations for valor were awarded to men 
of the Jewish faith. Of these, 723 were conferred by the Ameri- 
can command, 287 by the French, 22 by the British, and 46 by vari- 
ous others of the allied commands. The Congressional Medal of 
Honor, of which only 78 have thus far been awarded, were con- 
ferred on three Jewish soldiers. The Distinguished Service Cross 
is worn by at least 150 American Jewish ex-service men. The 
French Medaille Militaire by 4 American Jews, and the Croix 
de Guerre is known to have been awarded to 174 Jews in the 
American Expeditionary Forces. 

With about 14,000 casualties and 3,000 Jews who gave up their 
lives, where is the man so bold as to deny to the Jews the courage 

79 



ttuHtt **i ** I IWh 



juj,i.m»Li.„ii.,u,yuilMi 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

X^on'?" '^°'^" '" *' '''^'"'' °^ *' '°"""y °f '^'^ birth or 
The thrilling story oJ Libbj Goldsrone, who at the aoe of 88 
years, led a parade in the city of Pittsburgh, Pa„ in 1917? to help 
he Liberty Loan Drive, is well known. This daughter of Isracf 
an American patriot to the core, died in Pittsburgh in 19J2 at 

in the World War, and another 14 grandsons awaiting service 
rn concentration camps throughout the country ^ 

of seven s^oT K'°^'°u °^ ^'''^^'"' ^'^ ^""'y- >^ *« '"^^her 
ot seven sons whom she gave to the country of her adoption 

every one of whom saw active service in the World War ' 

.Jt-^J^'t ^u' ^''^''"' "' *' U""=d States, originally or- 

tion oi tl e slanderous aspersion upon Jewish patriotism was 
atigmentcd at the close of the Spanish-American^ War b^' J^^' 
who had served with distinction m that conflia, and still ater 
^Jewish survivors of tlie World War, now con^prises an organ 
izaton of more than 22,000 active members dbtributed in 70 
centred' i^a ? *'°"«'°"' *^ ^°^""''- ^^"^ -"cities are 

01 the Jew aod fight Bis battle wherever unjusdy assailed" 

or Arl Irt i " ^"T"" P'^?^' ^^"'^ ^^ P^^^^ Nordic 

fh. r!^ V / ' '^"^^ '^'' ^^ ignorant rack! arrogance on which 

tpl d an/'"'f?"^';! ""' ^"'^ "^ ""^ °^-^ P^--^-l bur now 

at^ur>:^e^:ad^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^- -^- ^^^3^ P-^^<i 

JewS ovef 25?:^ """"'' ^^"""^ ^' ^'^ ^^^^^ P^^^ ^^^ 
Ar^nmlSif^ ''^''^"^' ^^' ^'^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ absurd Nordic or 

, "Puiity of German stock is sheer nonsense. Eastern Germany 
IS said to be about 60% Slavic population. Southern GerSanv 
IS about 40% Celtic. Naturally the Na^i drive is in the 
perdous region of racial megalomania. Surely the Nazi mus? 
w/ste"n'w^d''¥ ^'"^ r "^ P"^^ "^^--1 stocb in th 
|^Sr.^s;\^^l/~^^ C..C T 

?t!^7i^XS;,^''- ''-'''' '-'^ -' Croati^L'^tth^ 

In conclusion, let me quote from Mark Twain's euloev of rhe 
Jews m his book ''Concerning the Jews": 

"According to statistics, the Jews constitute but one per cent 
of the human race. * * * Properly the Jew ought hfrdly to 

80 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



be heard of; but he is heard of — has always been heard of. 
He is as prominent on this earth as any other people, and his 
commercial importance is absurdly out of proportion to the 
smallness of his bulk. His contributions to the world's list of 
great names m art, science, music, literature, finance, medicine 
and abstruse learning are and always have been grotesquely 
out of proportion to his numbers. He has made a wonderful 
fight in this world, in all the ages; and he has done it with 
his hands tied behind him. * * * The Egyptian, the Babylonian 
and the Persian arose, filled the planet with sound and splen- 
dor^ then folded his tent and passed away. The Greek and the 
Haman foUow^ed. Tliey made a vast noise, and they are gone. 
Other peoples have sprung up and held their torch for a timCj 
but it burned out, and they now sit in twilight or have van- 
ished. The Jew saw them all, beat them all, and is now what 
he always was, exhibiting no decadence, no infirmities of age, 
no weakening of his parts, no slowing of his energies, no dull- 
ing of his alert and aggressive mind. All things are mortal 
but the Jew, all other forces pass, but he remains. What is 
the secret of his immortality?" 
How then date these brutal, upstart savages, masquerading for 
a brief day on the World stage have the brazen effrontery to chal- 
lenge the courage and patriotism of the Jew in the face of all 
history? 

To our glory be it said that there is no spark of revengefulness 
or vindictiveness in the Jewish character. I'hroughout all the 
centuries of persecution to which our race has been subjected we 
have ever evidenced a forgiving spirit. We have never struck a 
blow except in self-defense, and then all too rarely and only when 
driven to desperation, with our backs to the wall. 

Perhaps we would have suffered less but for our lack of fight- 
ing spirit, except as patriots in the defense of our native or adopted 
country. There our heroism and spirit of self-sacrifice are bound- 
less and are written large in the histories of all countries. 

In the present emergency we have at last found in the eco- 
nomic boycott an effective weapon whereby we can make common 
cause in the interest of huixianity and against all assaults, not only 
upon our religious beliefs but upon those of other creeds, and 
upon organized labor and democracy. That is the holy cause in 
which we are now embarked, and with every promise of success. 
The economic downfall of Hitlerism and the liberation of civili- 
zation from its hateful yoke are nearer at hand than is generally 
realized, through the world boycott of German goods, ships 
and shipping. 

Let us take a look at present-day faas and figures, as refleaed 
by the German gold standard and gold reserve. There is some- 
thing farcical in her pretense of maintaining a gold standard. 
With her interest and other obligations dishonored, Friday's 
[May 25, 1934} Reichsbank statement showed a beggarly ratio 
of 4.65^ of gold reserve against her outstanding note circulation, 

81 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 
which is virtually no gold reserve whatever. Even this measec 

dve' leifJ^U I ^''' ^8°./^ mdicating the growing, destruc- 
tive effect of the boycott and that Germany is now tterablin? 
on the verge of economic collapse, ^ 

iA?^fi-f7 /" ^°^'^ ''°"'"S= °^ ^'^'^"day last with those of 
May 28th of the years 1932 and 1933, here are the figures: 

1932— 856,284,000 marks 

1933—372,348,000 marks 

1934—146,951,000 marks 
or about one-eighth of what they were two years ago. She is at 
the lowest ebb since the War, v.hen she repudiated her entire 
outsmndrng currency. If she were to pay a fr^action of the nter 

hopSLS^nsfcr '"' ="-^ ^^ ^-' ^'- --■'' b^ 
Since January 5th of this year her gold holdings decreased 

from 389,190,000 marks by 242.259.000 marks, or b/ bou 60% 
Not even that grand-past-master in finandal juimlerv Dr' 

Schacht, can much longer maintain the pretense of Slvency or 

keep a straight face whilst he prates about the gold standard" 
And yet her solvency could be restored almost overnifiht when 

bl'trv an^r"'/" '^'"t" l-r midnight madness of^eS 
bigotry and fanaticism and return to the fold of civilization She 
has only to restore civic and religious freedom to the Je*; and 
ehgious freedom to the Catholics and Protestants and to return 

will be well. The world is not interested in her internal affair, 
or the extent to which her own citizens may see fit to "ur^'^d 
their freedom but the heinous crimes she is perpetrating upon he 

aZrf'°^Tf r '°K« '''''' P'''"^ ^^'^ boundaries of interna 
affairs. They have become the concern of the entire world. 

onTL", ^™^?uP^P'^ ^'^ "°' permitted to know that they are 
on the verge of bankruptcy, or what is happening to them World 
news and world-opimon that are inimicaYcannot reachltrCer 
many, with its gagged press and suppressed freedom of speech 
Their rulers know full well the economic debacle that conWs 

efSn/ oTe y*^^'^™-^ "- turning their backs upo, and 
retusmg to deal with them under existing conditions 

fhe riw if "^"^ °".5 ?f^'°"' ^""^ P^f^^tant brediren and with 
the Labor Unions and JMasonic Lodges of the world we are per 
forming a great service for the masses of the German people 
If we succeed m cracking and overthrowing the Hitler regime 
we will have rescued Germany from the frenzy that is inevifaWv 
driving It into war, and will have restored its people to s^ky 
S mlii! '° ^'"''^'^"'"a ^^' ^^"ifices that we 

82 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

In conclusion, let me again repeat what I have so often said, 
that this is not a Jewish question, heartrending as is the plight 
of our fellow-Jews. The service in which we are engaged fat 
transcends the limitations of any one race or sea. It is a service 
that embraces all humanity. 



83 



tUERBII . (If t*.*** *• AMUnW H*=M* IB* 

^^^^i^^^ UJMJJJJIIilJJ 



Address Broadcast Over Station WEVD to .the 
Workers of the United States, April 22, 1934 

I UNDERSTAND that this Radio Address, urging active 
participation in the boycott of Gertnan goods, ships and 
shipping to which I have gladly consented to devote the 
intermission in the splendid concert we are now holding in 
Carnegie Hall, is more particularly directed to the workers of 
the country. 

There is one aspect of this situation to which I must call your 
special attention. It is this: The impression is studiously, but 
I am glad to say unsuccessfully, sougiit to be created that this 
boycott is directed against or includes our own German-American 
merchants and shop-keepers. I need hardly say to you that this 
is a wicked falsehood. We have no quarrel with them, whatever 
may be their views or sympathies. Our campaign is strictly 
confined to goods made in Germany. It does not concern persons 
or their nationality. 

Besides, we know that there are 100 German-American citizens 
who hate Hitler and everything for which he stands, and who 
love American conceptions of fair-play, for every one bigot and 
fanatic who is opposed. Let no one deceive you on that score. 
We have the same contempt for a man who would boycott a 
shop because it is run by a German as if it were boycotted 
because it was run by a Jew. 

You are, of course^ familiar with the faa that this is a purely 
defensive boycott, which the American Federation of Labor and 
other labor organizations of this country and of Great Britain, 
and, in iaa, nearly all over the world, have declared against all 
German goods, ships and shipping because of the ruthless desttuc- 
tion by Germany of all Labor Unions and of the social system 
built up by the Unions through a generation or more of struggle, 
and because of the horrible persecutions it has practiced and is 
continuing, with ever increasing bitterness and intensity, upon 
its own loyal citizens, solely because they are Jews, or of remote 
Jewish ancestry in whole or in part. 

Thanks to the destruction of the Unions and to the confiscation 
of their funds, the workers of Germany ate now back, chained 
by the yoke of serfdom to the employers where they were before 
they began to enjoy the fruits of social freedom earned by their 
hard-won viaories. 

This was to have been expected. Hitler is the tool and spokes- 
man of the munitions manufacmrers and other industrial barons. 
They financed his campaign, and in return he is doing their 
bidding in suppressing the voice of labor. His newly organized 
puppets, which he calls "Labor Fronts," are squarely under the 

84 



Addresses by Samuel UntermyeR 

heels of theit masters, and there they will remain until rescued 
by the collapse of his government and the reassertion by the 
people of their rights, which nothing can avert short of the war 
towatd which he is bending all his energies. 

The destruction of a free press and of freedom of speech — 
which is now a capital offense — and the rigid prohibition of any 
party or other organization to oppose any of the policies of this 
despotism, have hushed the voice of the people and relegated 
it to the dim memories of the past. The workers are now slaves 
of a great State machine that rolls over and crushes them, so that 
the expression of their individual opinion is no longer possible. 

All German citizens who are Jewish artisans and workers iiave 
been batted from the Labor Unions, no matter how long their 
service and how useful, patriotic, law-abiding and inoffensive they 
may be. It is a brutal and wholly unnecessary act of despotism 
and injustice to these loyal citizens who shed their blood in the 
defense of their country and to their children and children's 
children. It is an outrage upon civilization and humanity. 

The strucmre of Trade Unionism, which has always been re- 
garded as the bulwark of the liberties of German workers, has 
been completely annihilated. As Mr. Green, who is one of my 
authorities for many of these statistical statements, very aptly 
said, in one of his recent speeches: 

"A new industrial and economic order which, in operation, 
subjects the worker to industrial management control, reduces 
the worker to an industrial status approximating slavery. 
Not only have the German workers suffered the loss of millions 
in money, but they have been robbed of their economic power — 
the only weapon which free labor can use in establishing 
decent wages and humane conditions of employment." 
In the Address I made a few moments ago before the concert 
audience in Carnegie Hall, I referred briefly, within the limit 
of time allotted me over the radio, to a few incidents illustrating 
the nonchalant and apparently unsympathetic and non^helpful 
attitude of our Administration toward the situation in Getmany. 
I bow to no man in my admiration and affection for our great 
President. He has been confronted with problems fully as great 
and as anxious as those that were encountered by our lamented 
President during the World War, and has unfortunately but 
necessarily been compelled to rely for the solution and the details 
of the questions with which I am now concerned upon members 
of his Cabinet^ and especially on his antiquated-minded, reac- 
tionary Secretary of State. The latter seems more interested in 
vainly trying to resurtect his exploded World Economic Confer- 
ence and hopeless Disarmament negotiations, in which Germany 
has been tagging along, laughing up its sleeve and with its 
tongue in its cheek, than in hearkening to the voice of humanity, 
in obedience to the great traditions of our Nation. 

85 



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Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

It IS generally believed that because of the unlimited and well- 
deserved confidence of Congress in our President, it is likely to 
leave in his hands the negotiation of new tariff treaties, having for 
their purpose the extension of our export trade. If it were pos- 
sible for the President, with the burdens upon him, personally 
to negotiate such treaties, I think we would all feel safe. But 
with such negotiations entrusted to the present Secretary of State 
I am frank to say that I, for one, would feel most unsafe just now 
whilst the German governmentj although refusing to pay its debts, 
or even the interest on them, has had appropriated and otherwise 
provided over 30,000,000 Marks for this year to continue and 
extend the existing vicious propaganda, most of which is being 
spent in this country, and witii which the German Ambassador, 
the Embassy and the various Consuls in this country are more 
than familiar. 

The Secretary of State is reported to be negotiating one of 
these treaties with Germany. The principal items of that treaty 
are reported to be cotton, copper and other materials entering 
into and to be used for the purpose of manufacturing war muni- 
tions, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, and of equipping 
Germany to destroy the peace of the world and to embark upon 
what will perhaps be the most destructive war of all time. 

In a cable dispatch of the 12th inst., from Prague (it would 
not have passed the German censor) from Frederick T. Birchall, 
one of the most distinguished and experienced of foreign cor- 
respondents, we find the following declaration made by Dr. Paul 
Hertz, former Parliamentary Secretary of the German Socialist 
Party: 

"If the Un'ned Slates gninfs Germany credits for raw mate- 
rials in any large quantities the United States will be respon- 
sible for the next war in Europe. Aiost of the world has 
already accepted this as certain. 

"Without a foreign Joan — or credit for raw materials, which 
amounts to the same thing — Plitier in Germany is doomed. 
With the aid of a foreign loan Hider may continue for some 
years, A continuance of his regime would simply imply the 
steady rearmament of Germany. With armaments completed 
the time will arrive for carrying out that part of the Nazi 
program involving the incorporation in the Reich of neighboring 
territories containing large numbers of Germans. That surely 
will mean war. 

'The only country that can supply on credit such raw mate- 
rials as Germany now requires in quantity, but cannot pay for, 
is the United States." 

The latest budget nominally allots 30,000,000 Marks to the 
Department of Propaganda — actually, however, the Department 
gets bet^^een 50,000,000 and 60,000,000 marks from the radio- 
broadcasting service which formerly went to the Department of 
Posts and Telegraphs and now goes into the propaganda coffers, 

86 




Addresses by Samuel Unteelmver 



which accounts for the 80,000,000 marks (or $32,000,000) 
appropriated this year for propaganda, to which I have referred. 
As evidencing the pace at which rearmament is going on in 
Germany, and to which we are contributing, our Foreign Policy 
Association has coUeaed interesting statistics: 

The Storm TrooperSj sometimes referred to as "Hitler's Private 
Army/' are now estimated at about 2,500,000 men. This army 
possesses an aviation scpadron! 

Tlie French dossier on German reartnament reports that — 
"The German rulers have almost completed the reorganization 
for war of the entire industrial, material and human resources 
of the Reich." 

The best proof of the intensive preparations of Germany within 
its own borders is offered by the recent increases in the prices of 
munitions stocks of German firms : 

In 1932, the shares of the Berlin Karlsruhen Industrie Werke 
were quoted at from 16 to 58. In 1933, they were between 55 
and 95- During the same period the stock of the Bayerische 
Motoren Werke, manufacturers of airplane engines and trench 
mortars, ranged from 24 to 64 in 1932. During 1933, it varied 
between 67 and 140. The I. G. Chemical combine was Hsted 
in 1932 at between 81 and 108, and in 1933 at 95 to 148. 

Another indication of the scale on which war preparations are 
being conducted in Germany, In which we are actively assisting 
and are now asked to be the principal factor, is the great increase 
in the importations by the Reich of raw materials used particularly 
for war purposes, such as copper, cotton, nickel, manganese, iron, 
aluminum, wood and wood-pulp. 

Is our Nation made up of guileless children that, la the face 
of what is going on, they are willing to pay any attention to 
Hitler's absurd and insincere professions of peace, when everyone 
at all familiar with world affairs must realize that that nation is 
feverishly and enthusiastically preparing to plunge the world 
into the greatest w^ar the world has ever known and that in that 
way only does their present government expect to hold its despotic 
power. 

If our Government furnishes the credits with wdiich to bring 
this crowning disaster upon the head of civilization, its respon- 
sibihty will be beyond words. 

Use your influence in every direction to stop this foolhardy 
enterprise. We owe something to humanity. If we cannot im- 
prove our economic position without precipitating such a catas- 
trophe, we deserve to go to the wall. 

Greatly as I admire the President, it is my sincere hope and 
prayer that he will make no trade treaty with Germany. There 
is nothing we can contribute to sucli a treaty except war materials. 
With their semi-pauper labor they can manufacture merchandise 

87 



,lMUM,J.iJLlLlll,illJ,JlliL 




Addresses by Samuel Untermy£R 

in ordinar)^ commerce so much cheaper than we can that any 
exchange on that basis would result only in destroying and clos- 
ing our faaorieSj just as they are about to revive. 

If the treaty contemplates furnishing mainly war materials and 
taking in return manufactured products that will compete with 
our manufaaurers, what is to become of the latter? 

I have always felt that the wisdom of making such sacrifices 
to extend our export trade is more than doubtfuL After all, our 
exports amount to only 6% of the total business of the country, 
"We would be better off, if necessary, to reduce oar production to 
that extent, if our consumers cannot absorb it^ than to open wide 
our doors to the destructive competition that would result from 
the reduction of our tariffs. 

However that may be, let us, who entered upon the destructive 
World War to end Wat and to "make the World safe for 
democracy," avoid the furnishing of sinews to a country that 
could not put itself in condition to wage war without our active 
aid. 

The main object of civilization just now should be, not to 
build up the Hitler regime, but to destroy it, so far as that is 
possible within the rules of international law; and the way to 
break that power peacefully is through economic sanaions, of 
which the boycott is the most powerful 

Does experience teach us nothing? If we had kept out of rhe 
World War, as we should have done, and our Government had 
forbidden our ammunition-makers to sell to the belligerents, as 
humanity dictated, we would have saved untold lives and billions 
of dollars, and all the misery of this depression would have been 
averted. 

Is it not high time that civilised countries reckon lives above 
dollars, and that we take the lead among the nations in prohibiting 
the sale of arms and ammunition to foreign countries for war 
purposes? If necessary, let the Government take over all the 
plants. Anything is better than to continue responsible for the 
butchery and savagery of war. 

We prattle a lot in high-sounding phrases about the iniquity 
of war, but lack the moral courage to take the only step that 
would end it. 



88 



Address at the Maccabean Chanukah Celebration, 
Madison Square Garden, December 16, 1933 

THIS year's Chanukah has a far wider and deeper signifi- 
cance for World Jewry than at any time in the past. I 
need not remind you that the purpose of this traditional 
holiday is to commemorate the heroism of the Maccabees of old. 
Over 2,000 years ago, Judas Maccabeus and his small band of 
sturdy Jews courageously faced the invading herds of Syrians and 
successfully repulsed them. This triumph for the Maccabees 
insured the survival of the Jewish people and their culture that 
was gravely threatened by that invasion. It is this holiday of 
"Chanukah," or the "Feast of Lights," that marks this joyous 
event. 

Coming at this, the greatest crisis in our long existence, this 
celebration is an inspiring symbol of the solidarity that is the 
greatest need of the Jewish people in this, the most cruel and 
unprovoked assault upon their existence in the long history of 
Judaism, To meet it as it should be met and conquered, calls for 
the revival of the militant Maccabean spirit of the Jews. That 
this spirit is not dead but merely slumbering has been repeatedly 
demonstrated in the past, but I will admit that, except among the 
great masses of our people in this country, prosperity' has deadened 
our fighting spirit. Our so-called "high^brow," ultra-prosperous 
leaders have become ''pussy-footers," though always generous, 
well-intentioned and loyal to the cause of Judaism — according to 
their dim lights. 

They have forgotten that our dauntless-spirited, persecuted 
downtrodden people have never gotten anything except by fight- 
ing for it. An incursion into the history of the Maccabees may 
give them some of the courage they need in this crisis. 

Let them recall that upon the result of the 2,000-year-old 
struggle between the Maccabees and the Syrians depended the 
survival of the Jews, — but the issue was not any more grave 
than it is today. They at least had the alternative of accepting 
assimilation at the hands of their oppressor or of fighting for 
their perpetuation in the face of tremendous odds. 

Mathatias, spurred on by his valiant nons, was the guiding 
force in arousing the Jews of that time to an understanding of 
the peril that faced them. It was this handful of Maccabees that 
was responsible for saving Jewish civilization. 

Despite its small si2;e, Palestine is wonderfully rich in historic 
associations, Not a hill or valley, not a town or village 
throughout the whole country that does not possess proud and 

89 






iiLiiiij,yiyiiiJLii,iyiiy,iijyiLiU 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

sacred traditions which run back into the dim and distant past. 
Jerusalem, as you probably know, was an old city when Egypt 
began to flourish, and was already ancient when Rome was 
founded. The early records of Palestine go back many thousands 
of years, to the time when all of Europe was covered with 
enormous forests inhabited by wild men just emerging from 
their rough Stone Age. 

If anything could permeate Hitler's dense ignorance of history, 
as when he chatters about the Germans being "Aryan," it would 
be useful to him, if anything could penetrate his bigoted, fanatical 
anti-Semitic hatred, if he were to grasp the full significance of 
this Feast of the Lights. 

The home of the ancient Maccabees, in the village of Mo din, 
is well-known to us. Its site is now occupied ^by an Arab 
village, called Midien, about seven miles east of Ludd. The 
village is located in the foothills of Judea in a rather out-of-the- 
way, but not inaccessible spot. It was here, according to history, 
that the Maccabees lived and died. It was in this village that 
old Mathatias, the father of the five patriot sons, raised the 
standards of revolt against the Greek Syrians and started the 
series of conflicts that have gone down in history as the Maccabean 
Wars. 

A second landmark m that War is the pass of Upper Beth 
Heron. As its name signifies, this is a narrow pass in the Judean 
mountains, on the road from the coast to Jerusalem. The modern 
village of Beth-Ur is situated on a hill overlooking the pass. It 
was at this point that Judas decided to meet the Greeks, under 
the leadership of Heron. When the enemy's army came in sight, 
"foot-soldiers, cavalry and slave-metchants, as numerous as the 
sands at the shores of the sea," Judas' little band were frightened 
at their display of power. But Judas reminded his men that 
they were fighting for their lives and laws and that they should 
draw inspiration and courage from the justice of their cause. The 
soldiers responded with a will, and swooped down from the 
hillside upon the enemy. The Greeks were completely routed; 
only a few hundreds remained of the thousands that had ventured 
into the pass. 

A third landmark of the Maccabean Wars is the village of 
Enmaus, called by the native — Amwas. It is located in the^ hills 
about seven miles directly south of Modin. It was here that 
Judas Maccabeus, by a brilliant feat of generalship, outwitted the 
the Syrian commander Gorgias and won a tremendous victory. 

After some preliminary skirmishes with the Greeks, Judas and 
his little army of only 6,000 men retired to the mountains of 
Judea, believing that the Greeks would be afraid to pursue him 
there. The Greek general with 40,000 trained troops encamped 
west of the village of Enmaus. When Judas learned of the 

90 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

location of the Greeks, he came down from the mountains and 
took his stand on the south side of the village, with his right 
flank resting on the Judean hills. 

The Greek general, Gorgias, then decided to surround Judas 
and his pitiful handful of soldiers; and so, in the dead of the 
night, he took some picked men, and by a roundabout way over 
the hills, reached the right flank of the Jewish encampment. To 
his surprise he found the camp utterly deserted. Judas had left 
campfires burning in order to mislead the Greeks and had dis- 
appeared. Gorgias, thinking that Judas might have escaped to 
his favorite retreat in the hills, wheeled about and started in 
pQfSuit. 

But what had happened to Judas? Instead of retreating before 
the Greeks into the mountains, he had marched west and had 
come around the rear of the Greek camp which had remained 
at Enmaus. After a bloody engagement in which they lost 
heavily, the Greeks decided to abandon the camp and retreat to 
the coast. Judas then followed at their heels and tutned what 
would have been an otderly retreat into a veritable rout. Nor 
did he call his men back until they had pursued the Greeks 
almost to the gates of Jamnia and Ashdod. Then he came back 
to the deserted camp of the Greeks and set it on fire. 

When Gorgias returned from liis search of Judas' army in 
the mountains, he saw his camp in flames and the Jewish army 
drawn up in front of it ready to give him battle. The Greek 
soldiers were so paralyzed with fear that they refused to hght. 
They turned and fled, leaving Judas undisputed master of the 
field, and Judas now had his path clear all the way up to Jerusalem. 
He left several detachments of soldiers to guard the various 
mountain passes, while he himself took the bulk of the army 
with him to Jerusalem and there re dedicated the Temple to the 
service of the true God. 

Whilst we are gathered here tonight to celebrate that victory, 
the Feast of Lights means more to us than the mere commemora- 
tion of that glorious ancient event. It serves not only to remind 
us of our present difficulties, but it is a call to arms for the 
exercise of the courage and resistance against great odds that 
animated our forefathers over 2,000 years ago. Not for many 
generations has the festival of Chanukah had the meaning that 
it holds for us this year. Antiochus Epiphanes was the enemy 
in the days of the Maccabees. His unworthy descendant, Adolf 
Hitler, is our arch- foe today. The success of our efforts in com- 
batting Hitler involves, in a sense, the use of weapons that 
served Judas Maccabeus. The Maccabeans succeeded because they 
did more than utter pious wishes for the salvation and regenera- 
tion of their people. With their backs against the wall they 
fought bravely and continuously until the enemy had been van- 

91 



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lilllll 



iMyiiyiiiuiiiiiiiUll 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

quished. That must be the keynote of our struggle today. A 
struggle no less significant in its bearing upon the future of our 
race than was the battle of the Maccabees against the Greek 
invaders. 

The only difference is that the weapons of warfare have 
changed. Instead of physical force we are driven to the economic 
counter-boycott of Germany as our only defense against the cruel 
campaign of persecution, having for its admitted ultimate ob- 
jective the extermination of all German Jews solely because they 
are, or their ancestors were, Jews, 

Although the German Jews are the immediate viaims of this 
unspeakable campaign of sadist horrors of a loyal, patriotic, 
inoffensive people, solely because of their race, the fight this time 
is more than a Jewish fight— it is a struggle in which the Hitler 
regime is arrayed on one side and all world-civilization on the 
other. The ourcome of that struggle means vastly more to non- 
Jewish Americans and to American institutions; to the Christian 
religion, and to all womanhood regatdless of race or creed, than 
it means to the Jews of Germany, or even to the Jews of the 
wotld. 

Let me develop my meaning more plainly. It is now an estab- 
lished fact, of which we have overwhelming evidence, that this 
country is being overrun with seditious Nazi propaganda, the 
purpose of which is to sow the seeds of race-hatred among our 
people. Just as Russia unsuccessfully tried to spread the doctrines 
of Communism in America and other parts of the world, so the 
Hitlet regime, with its swarms of agents now covering this coun- 
try, is seeking to implant the poison of anti-Semitism. 

The Russians were for years refused recognition by us because 
of this campaign, and when finally tecogni^ed it was upon the 
exptess agreement that they would not again seek to invade our 
shores with Communist emissaries or propaganda. 

Germany is recognized by our Government and has an alleged 
Ambassador, who is really a propagandist in disguise and is 
violating our neutrality and hospitality. Are we to lend our 
encouragement and support to a country that is thus seeking to 
undermine our institutions? 

Has not this country already suffered sufficiently at the hands 
of Germany to make it plain that it is to our interest to cease 
having anything to do with her? That is one reason why I say 
that this is not a Jewish question, but one in which all Americans 
are still more deeply concerned. 

If any evidence further than that which Ambassador Luther 
furnished in his recent address at Columbia University were 
required to demonstrate that this man is a pernicious propagandist, 
it is abundantly furnished by what he said from this platform 
at the so-called "German-Day" celebration on December 6th, 

92 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

where the circumstances of his appearance and what he said were 
so deeply resented that it required a substantial section of the 
New York police force to ptotea him and to prevent a riot. 

It would, by the way, be interesting to know upon what pre- 
tenses and representations so good and guileless an Ametican as 
Secretary Roper was lured into taking part in that unpatriotic 
meeting, surrounded by anti-Semitic swastika emblems, and thus 
attempdng to lend it respectability and apparent official sanaion. 
He had no business there. 

Before referring to that part of Dr. Luther's speech, to which 
I feel that the American people should take the deepest offense, 
let me draw your attention to a few pieces of unconscious humor 
in which that gentleman indulged, which demonstrated an amazing 
want of a sense of humot and a false conception of the gullibility 
of the American people. He said: 

"I ask you your firm resolve to study the truth about Germany 
and not to be satisfied with incomplete reports whose correct- 
ness is often contradicted and inherendy questionable." 

Does he take us for a pack of ignorant fools? Is he not aware 
that we know what is happening in the wotld? Whete can we 
get "the truth" about Germany, except as it trickles through over 
the most tigid censorship the w^orld has ever known, cabled from 
its own vast propaganda service in Berlin, presided over by its 
Minister of Propaganda? 

Our complaint is that we do not get the truth, and that the 
German propaganda bureau garbles and suppresses the facts. 
Now then where are we to get or "study the truth"? 

And what does he mean by "incomplete teports"? We are 
fairly flooded with this dishonest and distorted "news." And 
whose reports are they? 

The picture that is being made of Germany in this country is 
one that is drawn by the German Government itself. The Ameri- 
can correspondents there are under the most rigid control. We 
are literally fed upon German fables, except that now and then 
someone escapes from the horrors of that country to the safety of 
neutral soil from whom we learn at times a little of the truth. 
But who will evet know the unspeakable cruelties, mutder, sui- 
cides, starvation and other crimes visited upon our unfortunate 
brerhren? 

When the Belgian atrocities were reported in our press rhere 
were many of us who refused to believe that such things were 
possible even in war in our 20th-Cenmry civilization. Now we 
know better, and that there is nothing in the way of refinements 
of cruelty of which these Sadist brutes, inspired by race hatred 
and the joy of witnessing torture, are nor capable. Is there not 
something either demoniacal or delightfully naive in this man, 

93 






Addresshs by Samuel Untermyer 

representing a country that has destroyed a free press and freedom 
of speech, calmly inviting us to "study the truth"? 

Do you realize how many newspaper offices have been closed 
and their presses silenced? And how many Jewish editors of 
those papers have, without rhyme, reason or excuse, except that 
they were Jews or of remote Jewish ancestry, been ousted from 
their own properties, without compensation had them literally 
confiscated and supplanted by Nazi editors, until there is not now 
m Germany a newspaper that dares print a line contrary to the 
commands of the Government, and that all of them are mere 
servile Government "mouthpieces" who dare not print the truth, 
under penalty of long imprisonment? 

Under these circumstances this appeal of the Ambassador is 
an insult to our intelligence and a flagrant evidence of insincerity 
and hypocrisy. 

The crowning instance of unconscious humor and downright 
dishonesty is the following delicious bit from that same gentleman ^ 
"I pray you to he^irken attentively to the great peace dcclara- 
rion of Chancellor Hitler." 

"Peace declarations," indeed! From this "Mad Dog of Europe," 
who is giving every energy and planning on a scale" never before 
known toward plunging Europe into another war; who is violat- 
ing every word and line of the letter and spirit of the Treaty of 
Peace, and practically daring the Allies to bring him to terms. 
He has converted all of Germany into a war camp. 
But the gem of the collection is the following: 

/'Germany asks for peace, domestic tranquillity ('tranquiUity * 
mmd you)— the right to regulate her own affairs accordine 
to her own wishes." 

This right of Germany to regulate "her own affairs according 
to her own wishes" refers, of course, to the atrocious and inhuman 
persecution by Germany of her Jewish citizens; to her right, with^ 
out reason or excuse, to murder, rob, torture and disfranchise 
those of Its own citizens who have been for centuries imbedded 
m her soil, because they are in a hopeless minority, unarmed and 
unable to defend themselves,^with the avowed purpose of ex^ 
termmating or driving them into suicide or starvation, and without 
the protest or interference of the civilized world. 

No country has any such right. The claim is contrary to 
international law and to all the dictates of humanity. Such tor- 
tures and crucifixion of an innocent, law-abiding minority of its 
citizens, without rhyme or reason, is not an "internal affair.^' It 
is an international crime. No man who entertains such views of 
human relations or of the rights of minorities is entitled to be 
received or retained as an Ambassador to this country. Nations 
have again and again protested against such treatment by a coun- 
try of its minorities, far less cruel than that to which Germany 
has been forced to confess. 

94 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

To use "German Day," which has been for generations cele- 
brated in this city as the anniversary of the time when the first 
Germans landed in America, is a prostitution of the day and a 
gross offense against the German-Americans who are among our 
most valuable citizens. They are a peace-loving, law-abiding and 
justly recognized influential section of American life. 

What, then, shall we say of a Sadistic, non-American organiza- 
tion in this country, supported by the money of the German 
Government, setting up all over tlie land "Silver Shirts," "Storm 
Troopers," "Steel Helmets," "Fronts" and the like, that has 
violently seized unlawful control of the machinery of the rem- 
nants of these old patriotic German- American societies, driven 
out thousands of their oldest and most respected members, and 
attempts to use the remnants to breed race hatred? 

And what shall be said of another movement, financed by the 
German Government, under the name of "Friends of New Get- 
many/' which has, as have many other bodies of this propagandist 
movement incorporated under the laws of our States, had the 
hardihood to use, in the furtherance of their seditious conspiracy, 
a sea! having imprinted upon it the flag of the United States, and 
over it the swastika emblem, that dares assure American citizens, 
on the authority of the German Government, that they will 
be received in Germany as German citizens, and that thereby 
encourages and actually provides for a divided loyalty by our 
citizens? Yet, amazing as it seems, that is the situation. 

As an essential part of this propaganda, a number of news- 
papers have been started or acquired by these propagandists. 
One of them, the "Deutsche Post," in an editorial in its issue of 
June 15, 1933, on the front page, prints an appeal in which it is 
demanded that all Germans in this country be united in a strong 
political organization which is to be called "The German Ring." 

In that issue, the headquarters of the foreign Nazi groups in 
Hamburg made the announcement and laid down the rule of 
what the friends of the Hitler movement in the United States 
are to accomplish: 

"It is the purpose of this association to propagate German 
national socialism. Members of this association musS be citizens 
of foreign countries." 

What does that mean but that American citizens are to propa- 
gate on American soil the disfranchisement of Jewish-American 
citizens? That is precisely what we are today tolerating. How 
long is it to be permitted to continue? I hope not long after 
Congress convenes. 

This is followed by the statement that German nationals are 
not to join the association. The purpose of this precautionary 
advice is manifest. It is to avoid deportation. 

95 






HUilliiilil 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

The order continues : 

"It is the duty of the association to prepare for our party 
members in foreign countries the possibility to get connection 
with foreign aurhorities, foreign newspapers, and influential 
persons." 

In the August number of the same pubUcation, new appeals 
are made to Americans of German descent to enter politics in 
the United States. The appeal reads, in part; 

"To be in politics means to join the fighting troops of the 
Friends of New Germany and cooperation in forming a bul- 
wark of a united German America." 
In another paragraph is the following: 

"The National Sociahsts' work in foreign countries is the 
unification of all Germans whether they belong to the Party 
or not. There is only one condition, and that is that every Ger- 
man is willing to cooperate according to the tendency and the 
ideas of the National Socialist Government. It is therefore 
necessary to strain all efforts toward the formation of State 
organizations and other directing organizations. This has to 
be done in closest cooperation with the National Socialist groups 
in all places concerned. The Steel Helmets have already put 
themselves under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, ivhich in 
itself means cooperation in foreign countries also. All state and 
local groups of the Nazi Party in foreign countries receive at 
the same time parallel instructions by the foreign department 
of the Nazi Party in Hamburg, The Steel Helmets will give 
identical orders in due time." 
The appeal is signed: 

"BUND DER AUSLANDSDEUTSCHEN, 
Grosse, 

Aaivg member of the Presidium." 
"Heil Hitler" 
"E.uberg 

Plenipotentiary 

of the Foreign office." 

If the investigation that will be demanded of the new Congress 
is granted, I think it can be shown that the present "Friends of 
New Germany," "Fronts," "Steel Helmets" and the like, with the 
aid of the old despised KU KLUX KLAN, constitutes a criminal 
conspiracy against the sovereignty and neurrality of our country. 

Ifj as Dr. Luther claims, the w^holesale butchery and every other 
form of refined cruelty of which human fiends can conceive, 
practiced upon a helpless minority of its own citizens, constitutes 
an "internal affair" of Germany, how will he explain the intrusion 
of the horde of agents of his country into our land and the 
carrying on here of its seditious activities from one end of the 
country to the other? 

The Chairman of the "German Day" celebration in this build- 
ing proposed and the "packed" audience passed a resolution 
unquahfiedly condemning the action of Mayor O'Brien in refusing 
permission for the holding of an earlier celebration of German 
Day in an armory belonging to the City of New York at which 

96 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

a German emissary named Spanknoebel (who was placed by the 
German Government at the head of this "Friends of New Ger- 
many" movement in this country), was to be the chief speaker. 
This is the same Spanknoebel wliO; after promising to appear 
before the Mayor to explain the purpose of the meeting, fled the 
country rather than subjea himself to an examination and is now 
hidden somewhere, a fugitive from justice, under an indictment by 
the Federal Grand Jury in this District. 

Why should the Mayor of the city permit city property to 
be used for this vile propaganda against our institutions? I bow 
to no man in my championship of free speech. I am quite 
willing that Jew-haters, Communists and other bigots and crack- 
brains shall howl themselves hoarse — U they have the money 
with which to hire a hall for that putpose^ — but why should the 
City lend its property, free of cost, for such purposes? 

The temper of the meeting was well illustrated by that arrogant 
and asinine resolution. 

This war into which civilization has been driven is a purely 
defensive war. The world did nothing to seek or provoke it- 
Its duration depends upon rhe will of the aggressor. Whenever 
Germany restores its disfranchised minority, reinstates the men 
in the professions whom it ruthlessly cast out, reopens its schools 
and labor-unions to all regardless of race or creed, reinstates 
freedom of religious belief and observance among the Christian 
Churches J abandons the attempts to destroy the emancipation of 
women, and discontinues its seditious and anti-Semitic propaganda 
in this country, then, and not undl then, will this war end. Then, 
and only then, will Germany be fit to reenter the Family of 
Nations, where all will be forgiven and then the Prodigal Son 
will be welcomed back into the fold. For we realize that these 
fiendish crimes against civilization are not primarily the work 
of the German people but of their false and faithless leaders who 
have led them into this morass where the world regards them 
as pariahs. 



97 



ny.iiUimiii..iii.,y,iiiynyiiM,iLiy 



Answer to an Address of Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels^ 
Delivered over Station WOR, May 16, 1934 

PROBABLY the most amazing speech that has ever come 
over the Trans-Atlantic cables was that of Friday, May 
13th by Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, the German Minister of 
Propaganda, from the Sportspalast in Berlin. 

On page 6 of next morning's issue of the New York Times 
there were two cable reports from BerliOj one headed: 

"GOEBBELS UTTERS THREATS TO JEWS 

Germans Will Vent Rage if the Boycott Continues, 

He Says in 'Last Warning' Speech. Assails 

Catholics Also." 

The other heading reads: 

"NAZI POLICE STOP PROTESTANT RALLY 

Break up Meeting in Berlin Suburb when 

Bismarck's Nephew Assails Violence. 

Disperse Hymn Singers." 

In that speech Dr. Goebbels is reported as having said to his 
audience that: 

"All Germany is aware of the fact that If part of the out- 
side world continues the anonymous boycott against German 
goods this is due to our own Jewish fellow-citizens." 
Pray, what is there "anonymous" about it? The action taken 
has been pursuant to innumerable formal resolutions of nation- 
wide organizations throughout the w^orld, 

"If," said he "the boycott were carried to lengths actually 
endangering our economic situation, it would nt)t mean that 
we would let the Jews go free. No! The hatred of the Ger- 
man people would first of all vent itself on those who can be 
grabbed in the homeland. 

"If," he continued, "the Jews imagine that the bloodless 
course of the German revolution gives them the right to dis- 
port themselves again in their habitual impudeiice and arro- 
gance and provoke the German people, let them be warned not 
to tax our patience too severely. 

"We have spared the Jews." (It would be interesting to know 
how, when and where they have been "spared." Or what he 
means by "bloodless revolution" as applied to the pogrom of 
last year, or to the tortures worse than murder since then.) 
"But if they think they can reappear on the stage and In the 
editorial office, or if they imagine they can stroll along the 
Kurfuerstendamm as if nothing at all had happened^ let them 
take my words as a last warning. 

"German Jews must conduct themselves in Germany in a 
manner befitting 'guests.' They will be left alone by us if they 
will quietly and modestly retire within their four walls and 
if they will refrain from putting forth a claim to equal worth 
and equal rights with Germans. If they do not, they will have 
to blame themselves for the consequences," (Does that mean 
that they can no longer walk the streets?) 

98 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



The cable report continues as follows: 

"Dr. Goebbels was almost as unsparing, if not so contemptu- 
ous, of Catholicism. He charged that Catholic pulpits were be- 
ing used as screens for 'Centrist politics,' and he admonished 
'Militant Churchmen' to have regard how their activities were 
viewed by the German people. He paid his compliments to 
Cardinal von Faulhaber of Munich." 

Reverting to the subject of the Jews, Dr. Goebbels further said: 
"We expect every reader, party member, storm trooper and 
worker to report to us every case of Jewish shamelessness in 
the last months and weeks," (What does he mean by that 
gratuitous insult?) 

"Let every man," says he, "watch them on the streets, in 
the open, in cafes and restaurants, in tlieir professions and on 
voyages, every place where the Jew is to be found individually, 
but especially where tliey appear in crowds. You cannot pos- 
sibly miss them." 
In the article reporting suppression by the Berlin poUce of the 
Protestant clergy, the cable reports that when a nephew of Bis- 
marck, von Arnim, said in his address — ^''We will not submit to 
these acts of violence," the meeting was summarily broken up. 

"The speakers," the cable continues, "had been all too obvi- 
ously referring to former occasions when the police had sup- 
pressed synods and assemblies in other parts of Germany." 

You may have observed that more cable news is reported from 
Germany in the New^ York newspapers than from all the rest 
of Europe combined. This is directly due to the activities of 
Dr. Goebbels' widespread propaganda campaign, for which^ in 
one way or another, $32,000,000 has been appropriated for this 
year, of which $12,000,000 is a ditect appropriation in the budget 
and the balance comes from the transfer of the funds derived from 
taxes on aeroj^lane and other transportation companies and public 
utilities. 

Accurate data as to still further expenditures now being made 
in this country is being gathered and will, I am told, be shortly 
exposed by the Congressional investigation now under w^ay of 
which Hon. John W. McCorraack of Massachusetts is Chairman 
and ex-Senator Hatdwick of Georgia is Counsel. 

From what I can learn, the revelations of the testimony gathered 
by this Committee of the country-wide seditious propaganda to 
spread the seeds of race and religious hatred among out people 
will startle and shake the country to its very foundations. 

When we consider that all the news and mail going into and 
coming out of Germany are rigidly censored and that most of 
these cables originate directly frotn Dr. Goebbels' propaganda 
bureau, it is manifest that this address of Dr. Goebbels was 
intended as a daring attempt to intimidate the Jews of America 
and of other countries of the world and to warn them that if they 
continue to boycott German goods the Jew^s in Germany will be 

99 



_il 



yUilUyy^U^^^ 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

made to suifer^ even though they are in no way responsible and 
have no control over such actions. 

It is the most darhig and amazing unmasking of the long 
campaign of hatred against the Jews and Catholics that we have 
had in the entire course of this unspeakable reign of terror of 
racial and religious persecution. 

Manifestly goaded by the success of the boycott, as the world's 
answer to and only effective defensive weapon against Germany's 
persecution of the Catholics, Jews and Protestant Churches and 
of the anniliilation of the German Labor Unions and Masonic 
orders and the confiscation of hundreds of millions of dollars 
of their money and properties, this latest revelation confirms our 
worst fears and prophecies of the ultimate purpose of the Hitler 
regime. 

Dr. Goebbels continues to refuse to realize that the effectiveness 
of this boycott and its constantly growing strength are due 
mainly to the fact that it is overwhelmingly no n- Jewish. He is 
apparently blind, or pretends to be, to the force of the official 
boycott by the British Labor Party, the American Federation of 
Labor and practically every Labor organization and Masonic order 
in the world. He will not allow for the resentment of the 
Catholics and the Protestants in the various countries in which 
the boycott is most effective, and that it is even more formidable 
in countries like Holland, Belgium, Great Britain, France and 
Czechoslovakia and in far-off lands, starting from Egypt and 
South Africa to Finland, where there are fewer Jews proportion- 
ately than in the United States, constituting here about 5^2 per 
cent of the population. It apparently best serves his purpose to 
falsely place the responsibility for the boycott upon the helpless, 
persecuted German Jews who had no part in it and no mote to 
do with it than he himself, and to virtually warn them of the 
resumption of the dreaded pogroms of last year (which he has 
had in mmd from the beginning and would doubtless long since 
have launched but for the fear of world opinion), whilst at the 
same time disclaiming any such intention. 

His reference to the "bloodless course of the revolution" 
(against the Jews) reminds us that, in all, about 3,000 human 
beings are said to have been murdered in that pogrom and that 
tens of thousands have been wounded and injured. 

It would be interesting to know to what Dr. Goebbels refers 
when he says — "We have spared the Jews." Spared them from 
what? Even those, and their ancestors, who shed their blood for 
their country have, in common with all other German Jews, been 
disfranchised and deprived of their citizenship; their children 
excluded from the schools that they are taxed to support, and 
they are not to be members of Labor Unions so that they cannot 
work at their accustomed trades. Theit shops are plastered with 

100 



i 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

boycott signs and with warnings against dealing with them. All 
professions have been virtually closed to them; they are sub- 
jeaed to constant surveillance, insults, beatings, abuse and con- 
tumely. Life is made intolerable. 

In the same breath in which Dr. Goebbels tells you that 
"We have spared the Jews," he warns them that they who were 
once citizens and the equals of ail other citizens, many of them 
holding positions of trust, honor and distinction, are now "guests" 
who cannot walk the streets, but that if they "will quietly and 
modestly retire within their four walls, and will refrain from 
putting forth a claim to equal worth and equal rights with 
Germans," they will be left alone. But if they do not, they will 
have themselves to blame for the consequences. 

These are all ominous signs oi a determination to exterminate 
the German Jews. How much longer, in the face of such amazing 
outbursts and danger signals, will the civilized world in this 
Twentieth Century stand idly by? h it not high time that, in the 
light of these official threats of the coming storm, the Hitler 
Government should understand that we will no longer tolerate 
this inhuman attitude? 

And how much longer will it permit the use of German money, 
supplied by that Government, to be used in spreading the foul 
seeds of bigotry and hatred among our people? 

Can you visualize the psychology of a man in high official 
position who, in the face of all that has happened, has the 
blindness or hardihood to say to the world— "We have spared the 
Jews"? What could the Hitler regime have done that was not 
worse than death that it has not done and is not doing? 

We refuse to believe that any American, either German born 
or otherwise, will support the revolting program outHned by 
Dr. Goebbels on last Friday. If there are any such let them 
stand forth and subject themselves to the "admiring" gaze of the 
world. 

Referring to Dr. Goebbels' statement; 

"I cannot withdraw the Jewish legislation because the Jews 
abroad boycott us" 

as though it were the Jews alone, or as though they were the 
most important factor. He and his Government know full well 
that if there were not many other far more powerful and numerous 
factors than the Jews alone, engaged in this boycott, it could not 
have assumed its present proportions. 

If Germany really wants to "hold out the olive branch" to 
the world, as is there intimated, but which I do not for a 
moment beheve, it would be eagerly seized and the boycott 
ended — but only in one way: 

Let Getmany repeal its medieval laws; cease its brutal perse- 
cutions; restore equality to its minorities and freedom of worship 

101 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



and belief to all creeds; reinstate Organized Labor to its former 
dignity, and return their confiscated properties to them. 

In short, let it come back into the fold of civili^ationj and it 
would, like the Prodigal Son, be welcomed. 

Official threats, such as those by Hitler's Minister of Propa- 
ganda, to permanently forfeit the respea of all mankind^ by way 
of reprisal for acts for which they are not responsible, will not 
avail. The world has at last found in the economic boycott a 
powerful defensive weapon against the Hitler regime. We now 
know that civilization will not hesitate to use that weapon against 
a nation that chooses to become a social outcast against humanity. 

The world should feel indebted to Dr. Goebbels for his 
incredible exposure. It now knows to what lengths Hitler pro- 
poses to descend and what to expect from him. 

The preservation of civilisation imperatively demands that the 
entire world band together in self-defense, regardless of race or 
creed, as though a fatal plague were sweeping over the world or 
savage beasts of prey were roaming at large in their midst. 

The economic world-boycott now under way, extending into 
every corner of the earth, and that alone, short of war, will 
accomplish that end. It is evident from the cries of distress 
now going up that Germany at last realizes the effectiveness of 
this remedy. 

There are only 16,000,000 Jews, or less than one per cent 
of the world's population. Does Dr. Goebbels really believe 
that w^e are so dull as to be hoodwinked by the silly pretext 
that the Jews are an important faaor in this boycott? Not for 
a moment. It happens to suit his purpose to wreak vengeance 
upon those poor defenseless victims on whom the Hitler regime 
has its iron heel. 

If the German Government had any understanding of world 
opinion it would realize that it has already gone too far toward 
forfeiting the sympathy that was at one time concentrated in its 
favor because of the harshness and injustice of the Versailles 
Treaty, and that it is now on the highroad to not only forfeiting 
that^ sympathy but of being barred from the Brotherhood of 
Nations, 



102 



Address Before die Medicai, Dental and Pharma- 
ceutical Associations, at the Hotel Pennsylvania, 
December 13, 1933 

IAiM here to unfold to you the present condition of the 
American boycott of German goods, ships and shipping, and 
to urge upon you the importance, in your own interest and 
in that of all patriotic Americans of using this opportunity to 
patronize and build up the vast American business interests that 
are dependent upon your encouragement and support. 

Prior to the accession of the Hitler regime to power and its 
brural racial and rehgious persecution with the avowed official 
purpose of exterminating all its citizens of Jewish birth or ances- 
try, its suppression of freedom of speech and of the press and 
of every right of liber ty4oving government, I had frequently 
expressed myself as opposed to the Versailles Treaty and as 
sympathetic with the right of Germany to re- arm lor its proteaion 
against assaults, on an equality with tiie Allies. 

I felt that the Peace Treaty and the Covenant of the League of 
Nations contemplated a gradual disarmament by the nations, in 
the course of which Germany would eventually find itself on a 
par with other nations — as to defensive armament, 

I had also felt that undue advantage was taken of Germany in 
the formulation of the Peace Treaty, In that neither the letter 
nor the spirit of the "Fourteen Points," on the faith of which 
Germany laid down its arms, had been observed in the formal 
Treaty, and that the Allies had availed themselves of the fact 
that Germany was crushed and unarmed to force unjust terms of 
peace upon the latter. 

These conclusions were based upon my long familiarity with 
the life and customs of cultural Germany and of the marvelous 
industry and intelligence of its people, for wliich I had great 
admiration. 

All of this is now changed. The old Germany is no longer 
recognizable, either in the thoughts or habits of its people — 
msofar as they are permitted to express themselves to tht world 
over the rigid censorship of a gagged press and the destruction 
of free speech, carried to the extreme, so that any substantial 
difference with the ruling dictatorship constitutes a capital ofifense 
punishable by death. With great sadness and deep regret I have 
reached the conclusion that this once proud people, especially its 
younger generation, has been converted into a nation of Sadists 
and that much of the Allied propaganda of Belgian atrocities 
circulated during the War, which none of us believed, was prob- 
, ably true. It is as least quire consistent with the horrors that 
have been visited upon a loyal, patriotic, law-abiding and un- 

103 



Addresses by Samuel Unterj^yer 

oflfending people who worshipped their fatherland and who had 
been for centuries imbedded in its soil^ before this terrible 
catastrophe was visited upon them. 

If anyone for a moment imagines that the unbelievable atrocities 
perpetrated upon the Jews of Germany have been in the least 
abated, or that they are not in fact increasing in the refinements 
of cruelty I would like him to see some of the evidence that 
has been collected on this subject. True, the difficulties have 
been almost unbelievable, because of the rigid censorship of the 
press, and the prohibition of free speech, but some of the facts 
have trickled through over this censorship and they are horrifying, 
as indicaring the sufferings of these innocent, loyal people and 
the studied efforts to exterminate them — and all solely because 
they are Jews or of Jewish ancestry. 

Here is one characteristic incident, related to me recently by 
a young writer of great talent from the West. He became 
alatmed at the reports of what was happening In Germany, 
because his mother was still living there, and took a trip to the 
little town in which she lived. Whilst there, one of her neigh- 
bors, who w^as a widow with two sons, borh of whom had served 
in the German army in the World War, came to his mother's 
home in great agony and explained that a few days previously 
Nazi soldiers had come to her home and had forcibly taken her 
sons away, without reason or explanation. She suspected, from 
their arrogant and insulting conduct, that their visit boded no 
good, and so, having heard nothing from them after a few days, 
she began to make inquiries, the result of which was that two 
sealed coffins, said to contain the bodies of her sons, were de- 
livered at her place with instructions that under no circumstances 
were they to be opened. A courageous man in that community 
dared, however, to open the coffins, and was confronred by rhe 
gruesome sight of the bodies of the two young men, liaving been so 
mangled and emasculated that there was not an unbroken bone 
lefr in either body, from the top of their heads to their feet. 

There was, of course, no remedy. There is never any remedy 
in Germany for any atrocity committed by German soldiers. The 
word "Sadists" was invented for such people. They are human 
beings turned into wild beasts. 

Nobody really knows what is happening to these half million or 
more hopeless, defenseless people left to the tender mercies of 
these savages. The thousands of cases of murder, insaniry, suicide 
and starvation will never be recorded. Nor will the horrors of 
the vile "concentration camps" ever be known. Perhaps it is 
just as well that mankind shall be kept in ignorance of the 
depth of depravity to which that people has descended. We 
know sufficient of those unspeakable depths to remind us that 

104 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



of all the tragedies confronting us in life none is greater than 
"Man's inhumanity to man.'* 

As one of a thousand instances illustrating the extremes to 
which the present regime is wdlling to go in suppressing and 
punishing all independent expressions of opinion, I call your 
attention to an article on page 10 of the New York Times of 
November 22nd, headed: 

'TX- JUDGE IS JAILED AS NAZI DEFAMER. 

GETS 15 MONTHS FOR PUBLISHING JOB APPEAL 

THAT SAID JEWS- CHANCES WERE DWINDLING. 

AUTHOR GETS LIKE TERM." 

The case in question was that of a former judge and a news- 
paper publisher. The prosecution was based on an article 
written by one of these gentlemen and published by the other — 
the editor of a Jewish community paper. The offense consisted 
only of a respectful, inoffensive appeal to Jewish employers to 
be more solicitious of their co-religionists "whose chances of 
fm<^mg employment have been steadily dwindling since the na- 
tional revolution." That clause constituted the ^burden of the 
offense. The article charged that "Jewish employers have been 
evading their duty of employing Jews." 

The record shows that ex- Judge Rechnit2 had volunteered for 
service at rhe outbreak of the War; had been commissioned an 
officer; been severely wounded; had been decorated with the 
Iron Cross (both classes), and had finally written a campaign 
history of his regiment. Rechnltz's forefathers had lived on 
Silesian soil for two centuries and knew no other fathetland 
than Germany. The Judge ordinarily assigned to that Court, 
and who would normally have presided at the trial, refused to 
serve on account of his old association with Rechnitx, who had 
served with him in the same Court. 

This most recent instance is merely symptomatic. I have had 
recounted to me and have investigated hundreds of bloodcurdling 
horrors, without reason or exaise and prompted only by race 
hatred, bigotry and fanaticism rhat have been, from day to day, 
perpetrared upon our people. 

To enter into any adequate description of the horrors of the 
present governmental persecution of the Jews, merely because 
they are Jews; of the thousands of reported suicides and tortures 
of the concentration camps and prisons, in which men are con- 
fined merely because they are Jews; of the confiscation and 
destruction of fortunes honestly gained by generations of thrift 
and industry — would require volumes. 

The underlying purpose stands not only confessed but is 
glorified by Hitler in his book — "Mein Kampf," It is avowedly 
the result of years of steady inaiication into the minds and 

105 



mm ii,iLmiiiii.iiiiiiiLiL,ll 



Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

hearts of the German people of the doarine of fanatical hate, 
based on that most absurdj false and imaginary race theories 
that were ever foisted upon the world. The thought is that by 
exterminating the Jews, and preventing the birth of future chil- 
dren of mixed blood, the German people will become "pure 
Aryan stock." If that mad conception were not so ridiculous 
to all who have studied this subject it would be the laughing 
stock of the world, as it is to most and will be to all of us 
some day. 

Answering now, directly, the frequently propounded question, 
as to whether Germany should be given international equality, I 
say, emphatically, no. Her people are ruled by a despot, with 
a hand of iron. Liberty is a crime. They are ground down undet 
the heel of the most brutal and ignorant dictatorship ever known. 

World opinion of her barbarous government and of the savages 
who at the moment control it, cannot reach into Germany through 
its uncivilized censorship. The German people have no idea 
what the world thinks of the reversion of their country to the 
"civilization" of the Dark Ages. They delight in cruelty. Such 
a people, so ruled, crushed under the heel oi a medieval dictator, 
cannot safely be entrusted with armed equality. They have been 
taught, and are acting on the theory, that their lives and those 
of their childten, and their children's children, are dedicated to 
a war of revenge. The faas fly in the face of al! protestations 
to the contraty. 

Under existing circumstances the present regime has already 
been permitted, through the supineness of the Allies, to go too 
far in preparing for another war. Every energy is directed to 
that end. Hitler's peace professions are as dishonest as have been 
his other assurances. In my judgment the mistake that France 
is making is in not marching into the Rhine land and taking 
possession, until the wanton and defiant daily violations of the 
tetms of the Treaty with respea to armaments are terminated 
and removed. If she waits much longer she will have herself 
only to blame for the tragedy that is about to overtake the world. 
Germany can afford to pour our more wealth in modern re- 
armament than the countries that pay their debts — for she nor 
only does not pay them but does not pretend that she will ever 
do so. Her first act was to absolutely destroy the entire currency 
of her country and to repudiate her internal debt. Now she has 
repudiated her debts to the world whilst she pours hundreds of 
millions into new armaments, foreign propaganda to poison 
Christendom, and has so lowered the moral standards in her 
own country that the former family-loving people of Germany 
are no longer recognizable. They have been played upon and 
whipped into the fury of wild beasts against their defenseless 
fellow-citizens for no understandable reason except theit des- 

106 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 



peration at the unjust treatment they have received at the hands 
of the Allies. 

The events of the past few weeks, even as coloted, distorted 
and minimized by the censotshsip through which they have passed, 
are but one more demonstration of the contempt of the Hitler 
regime for the religious convictions and practices of the Protes- 
tants and Catholics in their country. That regime would destroy 
religious freedom as it has destroyed individual liberty, and 
reduce it to the proportions of a State serfdom. The civilized 
countries of the world will be false to theit duty to humanity 
to petmit such a tribe of savages and Sadisrs to regain entry into 
the Brotherhood of Man. 

I repeat^ — a thousand times, NO. Although this "Mad Dog 
of Europe" and his satellites have Germany by the throat, crushed 
under theit feet, and are venting their long pent-up racial hatted 
and fanaticism upon their defenseless, unoffending Jewish citizens 
to their heart's content, the security of civilization demands that 
they in mrn be kept under the heel of the enlightened nations of 
the Earth, until Germany a^vakens to a realization of the enormit}^ 
of its crimes, forgoes its mad dreams of revenge and installs a 
Government representative of the cultured, freedoradoving people 
that the Germans were imtii this virus was injected into their 
blood. Then, and not until then, will it be time enough to take 
up the question of modifications of the Versailles Treaty, on the 
basis of the old legal maxim that "he who comes into a Court 
of Equity must come with clean hands." 

I refrain, at this time, from commenting upon the cheap, false, 
garbled and utterly shameless and unworthy statements of Am- 
bassador Luther and Mr. Hoffmann, the President of the Steuben 
Society, in their attempts on their 'German Day" celebration at 
Madison Square Garden on December 6th, ro excuse or apologize 
for the most btutal, barbarous regime of modern times. 

I expect to deal with the occurrences of that occasion, and the 
resolutions there passed, on Saturday evening of this week from 
rhe same platform at Madison Square Garden from which those 
falsehoods were uttered. I wish, however, to say here that the 
views and sympathies of out non-Jewish American citizens of 
German birth were grossly misrepresented at that meeting. They 
are not apologists for the horrors that continue to be inflicted 
upon Getman Jews by Hitler and his satellites. On the contrary, 
they abhor and feel that their native land has been disgraced and 
outlawed from the brotherhood of nations. 

Have you, in all your associations with the millions of these 
respected of our citizens met one who has been willing to at- 
tempt to defend of excuse it? I know thousands of them who 
are among my friends and have yet to hear of one who has not 

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Addressks by Samuel Untermyer 

bowed his head in shame or openly denounced this mad reversion 
to the Dark Ages, At the proper time I propose to defend 
these gentlemen against this propagandist whom I here again 
charge with masquerading as an Ambassador and lending his 
exalted office to the insulting argument that this unspeakable 
campaign of persecution is an "internal affair." Internal affair, 
indeed! It is the concern of all Civilization. 




108 



Address Delivered on October 17, 1934 

THE entire German nation is today suffering under a reign 
of terror unequalled in history, in which freedom of speech 
and of the press are reminiscences of the dim past and in 
which the courts are a mockery of justice and the administration 
of the law is a servile tool of the political bandits now in power. 

All political opposition is annihilated by the simple method 
of standing opponents by the thousands up against a wall and 
filling them with bullets without a pretense of indictment, accusa- 
tion or trial. For almost two years this condition of anarchy has 
prevailed in Germany. 

It is because of this unbelievable medieval tyranny and despot- 
ism that the whole civilized world with one accord has turned 
its back upon Germany in outraged shame and disgust and is 
refusing to have any relations with the men who have seized the 
reins of power, prostituted government, trampled upon Chris- 
tianity, and destroyed all the ideals for which liberty and civiliza- 
tion stand. 

It is as false as false can be that ours is in any sense a Jewish 
question, as Hitler and his brigand band in all their speeches are 
persistently attempting m and out of season to make it appeat. 

True, the Jews were the first viaims of this reign of terror. 
Thousands were murdered, in one of the most hideous pogroms 
ever known. Other thousands were plunged Into prisons or con- 
cetitration camps, again without accusation or trial, where many 
of them were either beaten or starved to death, or driven to 
suicide. No one will ever know the extent of that ghastly record. 
Their desperate families are still vainly begging to learn what 
has become of them. Germany has been converted into a hellish 
charnel house for its Jewish minorities whom it is its avowed 
purpose to annihilate. 

If there were nothing else, this would be a question that con- 
cerns all humanity, regardless of race or creed. But gruesome 
as rhis is, it is but a small part of the story. What shall be 
said of the destruction of Organized Labor at the command of 
the munition- makers and industrial barons to whom the Hitler 
regime owes its ascent to power and in whose interest it has 
reduced the wages of Labor almost to the starving point, in order 
to accomplish that, and it has destroyed the Unions, imprisoned 
their leaders and confiscated their hundreds of millions of dollars 
of propert}^ That is the reason why Organized Labor the world 
over is embarked upon this boycott. There is not a Labor Union 
in a civilized country that has not joined this movement. And 
yet with twenty million or more Union men and their families 
engaged in this struggle we are calmly told that this is a Jewish 
boycott. 

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This is Christianity's struggle in which the Jews are an in- 
significant factor. They constitute less than one per cent of the 
German population, less than four per cent of ours, and less 
than one per cent of the population of the worid. 

The claim is nothing short of fantastic. This boycott covers 
the entire wotld and is growing day by day more intense, It is 
quite as pronounced and effective in South Africa, Egypt, Finland 
and South America as in this country. Does anyone suppose that 
the Jews alone could have created such havoc in the export busi- 
ness of Germany as is shown even by the garbled figures of exports 
that it puts forth? It has lost fully one-third of its export business, 
and the fight has just begun. 

In the very near future I expect to attend a Confe fence in 
Europe where it Will be more completely organized and a central 
bureau established for the interchange of information, and to 
supply information as to countries where substitute merchandise 
of all kinds can be secured. Mr. Rabinowitz established such a 
research bureau in out organization and it is working most 
effectively. American manufacturers are largely getting the benefit 
of these substitutions, though they will get more of thera as time 
goes on. 

What is to become of the Christian Churches, Catholic and 
Protestant, if these atheists and pagans now in control have their 
way? They, Hitler, Muller, Rosenberg, and their ilk dare not 
be as open, outspoken and ruthless in their methods as with the 
Jews, but their brazenly announced purpose is to destroy Chris- 
tianity and to set up in its place what they falsely label a "German 
Christian Church," under the cover of which they propose to 
scrap the old and parts of the New Testament; to place the 
churches and all religion under the control of the Government 
and to diaate what shall be their creed and how they shall 
practice it. 

It would indeed atgue poorly for the spiritual reaction of the 
world if it were to idly submit to this desecration of everything 
that is sacred. Every day is adding to the sight that the revolt 
is growing. The Government may and doubtless will soft pedal 
and perhaps pretend to modify its program against the Catholic 
Church until after the Saar plebiscite, but in the end thete is the 
cruel determination to destroy religious freedom and to force 
the destruaion of the present religions and to esablish in their 
place a new Pagan faith under the domination of the State. 

There are only two alternatives by way of revolt against this 
shattering of all our ideals of human liberty and of racial and 
religious freedom: 

One is war against this cruel, outlaw tribe, which is unthinkable. 

The other is pointed out by the Covenant of the League of 
Nations — in its provisions for imposing what it calls "economic 

UO 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

sanctions" against the offenders — which is analogous to and 
merely another phrase for the boycott. 

Unfortunately, those salutaty provisions of the Covenant of 
the League have never yet been invoked, and yet they point the 
road to averting war, for there are few countries whose govern- 
ments could continue to exist if barred from reciprocal trade. 

The honor and dignity of our country are involved in this 
boycott movement. Among other things it is our answer to the 
vile, lying, seditious propaganda that the German Government is 
spreading broadcast throughout the country, sowing the poisonous 
seeds of race-hatred in every nook and corner of the hand. If 
you have not read the startling disclosures of the McCormack 
Congressional Committee that is now investigating this subject, 
I advise you to do so. The evidence shows a worse condition 
than the traitorous conspiracies of that same Government on 
account of which a number of the members of the German 
Embassy were expelled from this country prior to the sinking 
of the "Lusitania" and shortly before we severed diplomatic 
relations with Germany. 

The proof is overwhelming and unanswerable. Only a pitiful, 
weak-kneed Secretary of State would have tolerated such violations 
of our neutrality and such a conspiracy against our peace, order 
and security and the rights of our citizens. Not even a word of 
protest has been uttered. Imagine what Great Britain, with its 
line traditional self-respect and sense of justice and protection 
toward its citizens, would have done under like circumstances. 
Every mother's son of these hundreds of alien recreants who have 
been sent here for that purpose would have been shipped out of 
the country, and the German steamship lines that are landing 
these men on our shores, and tons of seditious, libelous, con- 
taminating literarure that they are dumping upon us, would long 
since have been denied entry to our ports. That is what should 
be done with the companies anyway, although no newspaper is 
willing to say so because of the advertising patronage that they 
distribute. They have been the purveyors and distributors of 
propaganda- money that has been used to pollute the minds of 
our people. 

For many months it has been known to the Administration that 
the country was being infested by German spies; that military 
drills were being held here — in German uniforms — and that 
in innumerable other ways our neutrality was being violated. But 
our State Department has been so concerned lest we offend the 
tender sensibilities of the present Nrzi regime which personally 
conduaed the wholesale murders of Jews and the unexampled 
historic slaughters of June 30, 1934, and lest our citizens lose 
another precious opportunity of throwing more millions into the 
gutter by making further Trade Agreements that would be mere 

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Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

"scraps of paper" like the others, whenever they feel so disposed, 
that not a word has been uttered and not one of these swarms 
of spies and conspirarors has been deported or otherwise inter- 
fered with. 

We are having lists taken of American Jews who are so wanting 
in dignity and self-respea as to travel on these ships, so that all 
of us may know who they ate. 

One of the most despicable incidents of many years in our 
public life is furnished by the candidacy for Governor of a man 
who is apparently seeking to attract support by aligning himself 
with and bidding for the support of a group (most of whom are 
not themselves citizens) that is seeking votes on the platform of 
race and rehgious barred. He cannot hope for other support. 
Having been repeatedly rejeaed by the major political parties as 
a candidate, he must know that he has as much chance of election 
as a "snowflake has in hell." His candidacy is doubtless based 
on the fact that all three candidates of the major parties are Jews 
and to capitalize that coincidence. Apart from the fact that he 
is ludicrously unfitted to fill that exalted post, I do not for a 
moment believe that any self-respecting voter, be he German- 
American, Irishj or what-not, will so desecrate the franchise as 
ro encourage its use to assist this small un-American group of 
bigots in their futile efforts to make a demonstration of political 
strength. 

It is simply inconceivable that a man who has been so honored 
by his fellow- citizens should become a tool in such an ignominious 
cause. He is doomed to be the ridiculous flop that he deserves 
to be, for our citizens of German birth and ancestry are amongst 
the most loyal outstanding people, and will not lend themselves 
to this disgusting scheme of this gtoup of the Friends of New 
Germany, who are thus seeking in this prostitution of the ballot 
to out-Hitler Hitler in this country. 

The whole sickening performance is nauseating beyond words. 
■ Weak and futile attempts, without a shred of basis, have been 
recently made from time to rime, emanating from the Hitler 
regime and its agents here, as an excuse for the torture and 
persecution of the Jews, to link them with the Communists, and 
with as much basis as the fantastic "Aryan" myth, w^hich is the 
ourgrowth of a strange combination of ignorance and mendacity. 
Lest well-meaning but uninformed people be deceived it is high 
time to take note of these inventions. 

There is no link whatever between the Jews of America and 
the Communist Party. 

There is a wholesome stamte in this State, under which Gitlow 
was convicted of anti-American aaivities during the War, making 
the advocacy of the overthrow^ of Government by force a crime. 
There should be a Federal statute to the same effea, including 

112 




Addresses by Samuel Untermyer 

a provision that the use of the mails for any such purpose be 
made punishable as a felony. 

Here is a brief summary of the facts: 

The Communist Party has 26,000 members in the United 
States. There are about 2,000,000 Jews in the City of New York. 
The total Communist vote in the last election was 27,644. 

There is a vastly larger proportion oi almost every other na- 
tionality connected with the Communist Party than of Jews. They 
constitute less than 3%. 

The official head o/ that Party is Earl Browder. He is not 
a Jew, but a native-born American and of non-Jewish ancestry. 

The head of the International Labor Defense, which, whilst it 
has Communist leanings and leaders, does not admit that it is a 
Communist organization but does most of tlie Communist defense 
work, is William L. Patterson, a native-born Negro. 

Clarence L. Hathaway is a leading figure in Communist circles 
and was the contact man with the Soviet Union. He is an 
American-born Nordic and a man of education. 

William Z. Foster, who was titular head of the Party until 
about a year ago when he became ill, is a narive-born Nordic, a 
college graduate, and either a Prorestant or a Cathohc. 

Another important fig are is Isaac Ferguson, who is the at- 
torney for the "Left Wing" in Chicago and represents Communist 
groups. He is an educated man and is also a Nordic— either a 
Protestant or a Catholic. 

The Communist weekly is "NEW MASSES." Their Business 
Manager is William Browder, a brother of Earl Browder. 

The head of the Workers' International Relief, the left-wing 
relief organization, is Alfred Wagenknecht, of German or Ameri- 
can origin, but at all events a Nordic and not a Jew. 

The local attorney down South in the Scottsboro case is George 
Chamlee, a Nordic, an "educated man and at one time Attorney 
for the State of Tennessee. He is not himself a Communist but 
is erroneously rated among that group because he has defended 
a Negro. 

Leo Gallagher, Los Angeles attorney, went to the Reichstag 
trial. He is a native-born and a Catholic by birth. 

Charles Garland, who gave his entire inheritance, about two or 
three million dollars, to the Garland Fund that has contributed 
large sums to Communist activities, is not a Jew. In point of 
faa, there are very few Jews connected with the Communist 
Party. 

One of the outstanding figures is Joseph R, Brodsky, who is 
Chief Counsel for the Labor Defense, (which is not itself a Com- 
munist organization. Its chief purpose is the defense of workers 
in difficulty because of their working-class activities), but is not 
officially a member of the Communist Party. 

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■^ 



The head of the local office of the International Labor Defense 
in New York is named Stevens. 

As to the left-wing labor unions, Biedenkapp — not a Jew — 
a naturalised American citi2en, is head of the shoe industry 
Union. 

In the Food Workers' Industrial Union, two of the leaders 
are Jews^-Cranberg and Rubin — but, on the odier hand, the 
most aaive people on the capitalistic side of the industry are Hke- 
wise Jews. 

Mr. Louis Rittenberg, in the August 17th, 1934, issue of the 
American Hebrew, vouches for the statement that of the over 
2,000,000 Jews in New York City only 2,000 are connected in 
any way with the Communist Party, and that of the Central 
Committee of that Party, composed of 29 members and 6 alter- 
nates, there are not more than 4 or 5 Jews. Whilst the Jews 
constitute about 30% of the population of the City of New York, 
the Jewish membership is considerably less than 3%. 

If time and space permitted, I could go on indefinitely with 
statistics, conclusively disproving this charge, which is not only 
intentionally false but malicious. 

The magazine "FORTUNE," in its September, 1934, number, 
has collected interesting and informative data covering this entire 
subject. The charge reminds me of the recent book by Eli2abeth 
Dilling, called "The Red Network" containing a "Who's Who" 
of radicals in the Communist ranks that lists 1,450 names, 
including Mrs. FrankUn E). Roosevelt, General John F. O'Ryan, 
Newton D. Baker, many other equally well-known men and 
women of hfe-long antagonism both to Communism and 
Socialism, including my humble self. And yet that is the sort 
of material on the basis of which the Hitler regime seeks to rank 
Jews with Communists. 



U4 



THE OLYMPIC GAMES AND NAZI GERMANY 

Letter to Avery Brundage 

September 26, 1934. 
Avery Brundage, Esq., 
President, American Olympic Association and his 

Associate Members of the Executive Committee 

of that Association, 233 Broadway, 

New York City; 

Dear Sirs: 

Although I happen to be a Jew, I am not addressing you 
solely or mainly in that capacity, but as an American citizen 
and as President of the Non-Sectarian Ann-Nazi League to Cham- 
pion Human Rights, which, as its name indicates, is a distinaly 
non-seaarian organization and which numbers among its officers 
and directors the following among other non-Jews of great 
distinction : 

Hon. James W. Gerard, Vice President 
Hon. Fiorello H. LaGuardia, Vice President 
Hon. Arthur S. Tompkins, Vice President 
Col. Theodore Roosevelt, Vice President 
Hon. James M. Beck, Director 
Hon, George Gordon Battle, Director 
Rev. John Haynes Holmes, Director 
Rev. Edward L. Hunt, Director 
Oswald Garrison Villard, Director 
Hon. Frank P. Walsh, Director 

On behalf of this organizarion, I beg herewith to submit to 
your Committee the following epitome, as briefly expressed as is 
possible within the limits of space permitted for such a communi- 
cation, of the reasons why we protest against the holding of the 
Olympic Games of 1936 in Germany: 

Holding these Games in Germany in 1936 would violate the 
economic boycott and cultural isolation which the civilized world 
has been forced to employ against the brutalities of the currenr 
regime in Germany. The abuses of Jewish, Catholic, Labor, and 
Liberal individuals and organizations that have been the avowed 
policy of the Third Reich have been nowhere more exhaustive 
than in the realm of sports. The restriction against Jewish 
athletes have not abated one jot m the fifteen months since the 
German Government solemnly undertook to eliminate such mea- 
sures, but have on the contrary been extended with machine-like 
precision to include every field of sport and skill within the scope 
of Olympic competition. The Olympic ideal of fair play and 
good sportsmanship irrespeaive of creed, color, race, and social 
condition, constitutes a criminal utterance in Germany today for 
which large numbers of innocent citizens have been exiled, ex- 

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The Olympic Games • Letter by Samuel Untermyer 

propriated, tortured and slain. There is no reason for partici- 
pating in these games in Berlin for twenty-one nations have not 
agreed to compete there in 1936 and a congress can be readily 
arranged to select a site more harmonious with Olympic ideals. 
The anarchic character of the Third Reich, symbolized by the 
wholesale slaughter of June 30th, makes it a grave responsibility 
to send thousands of young people there. There is a serious 
moral problem involved in accepting the hospitality of a nation 
either so poor or so dishonest that it defaults on every just 
financial obligation. Large sectors of the democratic and sport- 
loving American people will be deprived of participating in or 
visiting a Berlin Olympiad, out of respect for solemn pledges 
they have made to refrain from trafHc of any sort with Germany. 
Before entering upon a detailed statement of our reasons for 
urging you to refuse to patticipate in the games at Berlin in 
1936 we beg herewith to submit a copy of the Resolution that 
was unanimously adopted at the meeting of the first American 
Youth Congress, held at the New York University on August 
16, 1934: 

"(A) To oppose the 1936 Olympic Games in BerHn and 
demand that the American Committee rescind their decision 
to send a team to the Olympic Games in Berlin; 

"(B) That American athletes boycott preparation for the 
Berlin Olympiad." 

The organizations that voted on this resolution represented 
2,000,000 young Americans of all faiths, races, creeds and poli- 
tical views. Accompanying (marked "A") is a list of the 79 
organizations that patticipated at that meeting. 

In addition to the above, many non- Jewish organizations; in- 
cluding the American Federation of Labor, have endorsed the 
boycott of German goods and services and may thereby be fairly 
assumed to be opposed to the participation of our country in the 
Olympic Games to be held in Germany. 

At the meeting of the International Olympic Committee, held 
in Vienna, June 7, 1933, the President asked the German 
delegates if they would guarantee the observance of the articles 
in the Chatter dealing with the Otganizing Committee and the 
Rules of Quahfication, just as they had been guatanteed by the 
Governments of countries where preceding Olympiads had been 
organized, and tliat the application of the Olympic Rules dealing 
with the Committee of Organization and the qualificadons of 
participants would be sctupulously observed, even though certain 
limitations of our International Rules should seem to be incon- 
sistent with recent orders laid down in Germany, 

To that question His Excellency, Dr. Theodore Lewald, the 
then President of the German organization, who has since been 

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The Olympic Games ■ Letter by Samuel Untermyer 



uncovered as having perpetrated the heinous crime of having 
had a Jewish grandmother, replied, with the consent of his 
Government: =h * -^ * 

"3. As a principle, German Jews shall not be excluded from 
German teams at die Games of the Xlth Olympiad," 

After this declaration Mr. Garland, American representative 
of the National Olympic Committee wished to have it known that 
the American Olympic Committee, who were desirous of having 
the United States strongly represented at the next Olympic Games 
in Eufope, would have had to give up participation altogether if 
German-Jewish athletes had not been assured the same terms as 
membets of the same faith in othet countries. 

Subsequently, at a meeting of the American Athletic Union 
of the United States, at its annual convention, held in Pittsbutgh 
on November 20, 1933, resolutions on this subjea were passed, 
of which a copy is hereto annexed, marked "B". 

Among other purposes, I desire by this protest to call to your 
attention the following epitome of the gtoss abuses and breaches 
of faith perpetrated by the German Olympic Committee and the 
sports' officials of that country of the pledges that were made, 
subsequent to June 7, 1933, when those pledges were made: 

ABUSES OF GERMAN JEWISH ATHLETES AFTER 
JUNE 7, 1933 

1933 

July 1"— The Reich Committee on German Youth Associations 
abolishes Jewish student organizations, barring Jewish stu- 
dents from youth houses. 

July 6— Jews prohibited from being life-savers in Breslau. 
A new educational law limits the attendance of German- 
Jewish students at universities to IY2 per cent of the total 
enrolment; the administration of every institution is granted 
the right to admit less than the legal quota without explana- 
tion; East European Jewish students are completely banned, 
no matter how long their parents may have resided in 
Germany. 

July 9 — None but Aryans and Nazis permitted to join Greater 

German Chess Ass'n. 
July 28 — The Nazi political police order the dissolution of 

the Jewish Students Association of Tliuringia. 
July 29-™Jewish Boy Scouts Association in Piimasens, the 

Palatinate, dissolved and its funds confiscated. 
August 3— All Jewish student homes in Wurzburg, Bavaria, 

occupied by Nazi troops, confiscated and appropriated for 

the use of the troops, while the Jewish Student Association 

was ordered dissolved. 
August 7 — Municipality of Dobetndorf in Nuremberg forbids 

Jews to remain in towns near Nuremberg; Jews forbidden 

to use public baths and swimming pools. 
August 22^State Commissar orders Jews barred from Wann- 

see, Germany's largest bathing and swimming resort. 

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August 24 — Government forbids German-Jewish Maccabee 
team of 100 athletes to participate in the world Maccabiade 
10 be held in Prague. 

September 18 — Bergzabcrn and Coepingen municipalities bar 
Jews from fishing. 

September 23 — The presidium of the All-German Writers As- 
sociation order the exclusion of all Jewish writers. 

October 3 — Commissar of Justice Frank, in an address at the 
Ail-German Jurists Convention in Leipzig, declares that 
further anti-Jewish laws are unlikely, but those enacted will 
remain, 

October 10 — The Rotweiss, Berlin's most exclusive tennis club, 

bars Jews. 
October 13 — The Nazi press voices threat that Germany will 

withdraw from League of Nations if further effort is made 

to force recognition of German Jews as a minority group. 
October 14 — -"Hagibor" Jewish sports association, is declared 

illegal and its property confiscated. 
October 24 — Nazi student association orders ban on Jewish 

coaches. 

November 23 — The Red and White Tennis Club having ex- 
cluded all Jews, announces the expulsion of members of 
Jewish origin and those who are married to descendants of 
Jews, and declared that foreigners, regardless of race, will 
not be accepted as members. 

December 1 — Nazi sport units given free hand to accept or 
reject non-Aryans; only Nazis permitted on executive 
bodies. 

December 4^Colonel Ernst Roehm, Coraraander-im Chief of 
the Storm Troops and Cabinet Minlsterj issues new ruling 
which bars Jews from participation in sport activities, 

December 10 — Hermann Wilhelm Goering, Premier of 
Prussia, issues an edict barring "non-Aryan" horsemen and 
drivers from participation in horse shows or tournaments. 

December 22 — Berlin.^Association of Life-Savers expels Jew- 
ish members: no Jews may henceforth be engaged as life- 
savers on any public bathing beach. 

December 2y^Sport Groups in Berlin expel all Jewish mem- 
bers. The Deutscher Turnverein orders ail its affiliates to 
expel their Jewish members. 

In Mayence, all Jews expelled from skung club, 
Nuremberg. — In New Year's greetings to his readers, 
Julius Strelcher, chief Nazi official of Franconia, asks for 
annihilation of Jews in 1934. 

1934 

January 19 — In an article in Maerkischer Adler, Wilhelm 
Kube, leader of Nazi fraction in Prussian Diet, declares that 
Jews must be eliminated from every sphere of German life 
without exception. 

February 6 — Stettin.^Property of all Jewish lodges is confis- 
cated by local Nazi party orgaruzation. 

February 11 — Police President Rheydt, of Gladback, issued 
orders forbidding, until further notice, the calling of any 
meeting by any Jewish association, including sports clubs. 

118 



The Olympic Games - Letter by Samuel Untermyer 

February 19 — Bavarian political police Issue order dissolving 
the Maccabee and the Organization of Jewish War Veterans 
In Bavaria, the only Jewish sports group theretofore toler- 
ated in the Reich, and providing tliat any new clubs formed 
must be under supervision of the Nazi sports commissar. 

March 2— Police in various parts of Reich raid B'nai B'rith 
lodges, confiscate their property, and arrest Benno Walter, 
vice-president. 

March 4 — Police raid Berlin headquarters of B'nai B'rith and 
confiscate documents. 

March 5 — Stettin. — Authorities return confiscated B'nai B'rith 
building to Jewish community for use as a school only and 
not for athletic purposes, declaring that building is no longer 
property of B'nai B'rith. 

March 12 — Bavarian Government orders dissolution of Ba- 
varian Jewish Sports Association, the only sports group 
theretofore tolerated and under government supervision, 
upon the baseless pretext that "other Jewish organizations 
are hiding behind the Sports Association," 

April 9 — At direct request of Hi der Youth Movement, Com- 
mittee of Jewish Youth Organizations warns Jewish youth 
groups that they are forbidden to wear any kind of uniform 
and that they must have special permission of Plltler Youth 
leadership to make excursions to frontier zones or abroad. 

May 31 — University authorities announce that Vandalia, Hei- 
delberg student corps, has been expelled from Federation of 
Heidelberg student societies and from two general unions 
of German students because it has "refused to oust Jewish 
students and those of Jewish descent, and that no Heidelberg 
student will henceforth be allowed to join the Vandalia 
group." 

June 20 — Authorities confiscate, without explanation, property 
of Jewish Labor Associadon of Prussia, and sports affiliates. 

I cannoc here begin to recapimlate or describe the number or 
(::xtQnz of the insults and immiiiations to wliich the German Jews 
have been and are being subjected in connection witii this sub- 
ject. Suffice it to say that it will be impossible for any self- 
respecting Jew from any part of the world to enter Germany 
or to subject himself to the degradation that would be involved 
in his participating in the Olympiad of 1936 in that country, 
either as a contestant or an observer. 

The application of the "Aryan" paragraph of the German law 
would also exclude the participation of negroes, such as Metcalfe, 
who are connected w^ith American amateur sports. It would also 
exclude American Indians, Asiatics and teams from natiotjs whose 
dominant bloodstrains are not within the grotesque definition of 
"Aryan" as evolved by the present German Government, which 
is the laughing-stock and subject of contemptuous derision of the 
entire civilized world. 

Permit m„e also to call attention to the essential fact that your 
authority to investigate conditions in Germany applied only to 

119 



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The Olympic Games - Letter by Samuel Untermyer 

the Jewish situation and that it did not take into account the dis- 
criminating and destructive action against German Organized 
Labor, the confiscation of its vast properties on account of which 
ahnosr every labor organization in the civilized world has ofTicially 
boycotted German merchandise; nor did it take into account the 
action taken against the Catholic Youth groups which, it seems 
to me, must necessarily prevent those elements from participating 
in the International Games if held in Germany. 

The pledges given you by Herr Tschammer von Osten, the 
special Olympics miiiister, you yourself termed "very peculiar" 
when you learned that they were not to be made pubhc in Ger- 
many. You will not be surprised therefore to learn that you had 
scarcely taken ship when a new decree was promulgated (Sep- 
tember 22) categorically forbidding Jews to take sports or exer- 
cises in a body. Your own familiarity with the nature of athletic 
activity will acquaint you with the paralyzing effect of such a 
prohibition on sports of every sort; this final measure shuts down 
every prospect, even a verbal one, of just treatment for a single 
Jewish athlete in Germany, And with the perspective of com- 
plete forgetfulness, with which the German Government has 
enshrouded its pledges of fifteen months ago, officially given to 
the International Olympic Committee, what weight is to be at- 
tached to von Osren's individual promise given sotto voce and 
sub fosa? 

The unsporrsmanlike and humiliating condition now imposed 
is in and of itself so grave an affront to the Jewish athletes that 
it automatically bars every self-respecting Jew from participation. 
How any fair-minded representative of your organization could 
permit himself, by voting for this resolution, to become a party 
to any such insult to his fellow-members is inconceivable. 

Frankly, I was surprised and shocked at the argument put 
forth by you in favor of holding these Games in Berlin, as re- 
ported in this morning's Herald Tribune. 

As I see it, there is not the remotest analogy between your 
supposititious case of Japan in 1940 and the situation that con- 
fronts American participation in the Berhn Olympiad. If in 
1940 it should appear that the Japanese Government has de- 
ptived its own citizens of their Japanese rights of citizenship and 
has heaped upon them every conceivable torture and form of 
persecution merely and solely because they were white, and ex- 
eluded them from participating in sports, I doubt whether we 
w^ould hesitate long about refusing to take part in a meeting in 
Japan. 

How any impartial person who has not been thoroughly in- 
fected with the poisonous virus of anti-semitism can for a moment 
expect Jews to participate in these Games, in the face of this 
record, is impossible to imagine. 

120 




The Olympic Games ■ Letter by Samuel Untermyer 

The decision to participate in these Games would necessarily 
mar, if not destroy, the harmony and freedom from racial and 
religious distinctions that have heretofore marked the career of 
American sportslife. Nothing more unsportsmanlike than such 
an award has ever been known in sports citcies. 

There is nothing either "internal" or "political" about the 
grave problems of equality, Americanism and decent sportsman- 
ship that confront your organization. The unprovoked massacre 
and persecution by a government of a country that was once 
civilized, of Its innocent minorities merely because of their race 
or creed, has never been regarded by the world as an "internal" 
or "political" affair. It is an affront to all humanity. The dis- 
crimination, amounting to virtual exclusion, against their and 
your own members from equal participation in the international 
games, because of conditions affealng them, that tender it im- 
possible for them to participate with dignity or on equal terms, 
is so repugnant to our conceptions of true sportsmanship that for 
your organization to submit to such conditions, or to "pussy-foot" 
on the subject, would be a gratuitous degradation for you, in 
which your fellow-citizens would share, and one that I hope you 
will spare us and yourselves. 

After all, barbaric Germany is not the only country on earth 
in which to hold these Games. The atmosphere would be less 
contaminated and purer in almost any other country on earth 
that might be selected. 

Very truly yours, 

Samuel Untermyer. 



Enclosures 



"A' 



List of organizations participating in First American Youth 
Congress: 

American Country Life Association 

American Red Cross 

Associated Office & Prop. Emergency Employees 

American Youth Hostel Assn. 

Associated Workers Clubs and Cultural Fed. N. J. 

Association of Lithuanian Workers Nat. Youth Com. 

Association of Unemployed College Alumni 

Boy Scours of America 

Broadway Tabernacle 

Brooklyn College Anti-War League 

Brooklyn College Social Science Club 

CCC Boys' Protective League 

Collective Youth 

Columbia Social Problems Club 

Columbia Spectator 

Communist Youth Opposition 

121 



^mm99m 



The Olympic Games • Letter by Samuel Untermyer 



Congress Club, University of Oregon 

Cooperative League 

Cooper Union Night School of Engineering 

Council of Social Agencies, Royal Oak, Mich, 

Farmer-Labor Political Federation 

Fellowship of Reconciliation 

Honorary Square Economics Society N. Y. -U. 

Inquiry Club^ University of Pittsburgh 

International Workers Order 

Labor Sports Union 

Ladies Garment Shipping Clerks Union 

League for Industrial Democracy 

League for Political Education 

Nation^ The 

National Farmers Holiday Assn. 

National Furniture Workers, Inc. 

National Municipal League 

National Pioneer Council 

National Recreation Association 

National Spartacus Youth League 

National Student Federation 

National Student League 

National Women's Christian Temperance Union 

National Youth Committee Young Circle League 

Negro Educational Club 

N, Y. District Normal Student League 

N. Y. State Youth Com. Against Child Labor 

N. Y. Summer School for Workers (FERA) 

N. Y, U. Anti-War Committee 

N. Y. U. Student Liberal League 

Passaic County Youth Congress 

Pioneer Youth Camp 

Progressive Club, University of N. Hampshire 

Rocky Mount. Regional Council YMCA 

Russian Nat'l Mutual Aid Society 

St. James Presbyterian Church Youth Council 

St, Lawrence College Theological Seminary 

Student Christian Movement Mid. Atl. States 

Student Council^ Brooklyn College 

Student Council, C. C. N, Y. 

Telegraph Messenger Union 

Transient Camps (FERA) 

United Amstern Press Assoc. 

United Ukrainian Toilers, Youth Section 

Walther League 

War Resisters League 

Why Club of Smith College 

Workers Laboratory Theatre 

Young America 

Young Communist League 

Young Falcons 

Young Liberators of N. Y, 

Young Liberators of Md. 

Y.M.C.A. (National Council) 

Young Negro Cooperative League 

Youag People's Socialist League 



122 



The Olympic Games • Letter by Samuel Untermyfe 



Young People's League Against Marxism 

Y.W.CA. (New Jersey) 

Youth Clubs of Finnish Fed. 

Youth Committee Aiding of U.T.W, 

Youth Committee of T.U.U.C. 

Youth Incorporated 

Youth Section Strike Relief Knit Goods Union 

RESOLUTION PRESENTED TO THE AMATEUR ATH^ 
LETIC UNION OF THE UNITED STATES AT ITS 
ANNUAL CONVENTION HELD AT THE WILLIAM PENN 
HOTEL IN PITTSBURGH ON MONDAY, NOVEMBER 
20, 1933 

WHEREAS sport is the greatest, if not the only true democ- 
racy in the world, all therein being equal, irrespective of 
race, color, religion or social or financial conditions, and 

WHEREAS both the Amateur Athletic Union of the United 
States of America and the American Olympic Association 
were founded and exist upon these basic principles, and 

WHEREAS the Olympic Games of 1936 were awarded to the 
City of Berlin by the International Olympic Committee, and 

WHEREAS it is our understanding and belief that, at the time 
of such award, the German Olympic Committee, representing 
itself and also the Organising Committee of the 1936 Berlin 
Olympic Games^ accepted the games upon the basic principles 
of sports competition as herein referred to and reiterated its 
continued adherence to said principles as late as June of 
1933, and 

WHEREAS it is believed and is common and universal knowl- 
edge, that the German Olympic Committee and the Berlin 
Organizing Committee, under and by reason of the decrees 
and directions of the Government of Germany, have violated 
the Code of the Olympic Games and the fundamental ideals 
of sports competition in that they have deprived Germans 
of Jewish descent or belief from the rights of Olympic com- 
petition, if not by direct restriction, certainly, indirectly, by 
the withdrawal from them of the rights of German Citizen- 
ship and of a reasonable opportunity to train, prepare for and 
take part in sports competition in general and in the Olympic 
Games in particular. 
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Amateur 
Athletic Union, as a member of the American Olympic Asso- 
ciation, about to be assembled at its quadrennial meeting in 
Washington, D. C, instruct its delegates thereto to call upon 
said American Olympic Association^ to resolve that the 
American Olympic Association through the members of the 
International Olympic Committee to the United States of 
America, namely Colonel William A. Garland, General Charles 
E. Sherriil, and Commodore Ernest Lee Jahncke, Jr., give 
notice to the International Olympic Cominlttee, and through 
it, to the German Olympic Committee, to the Berlin Organiz- 
ing Committee and to the German Government, that neither 
the American Olympic Association ot the members thereof, 
nor the American Olympic Committee to be organized for 
the Olympic Games of 1936, will certify any athlete of the 

123 



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The Olympic Games • Lhtter by Samuel Untermyer 



United States of America for competition in the Olympic 
Games of Berlin, until and unless the position of the Ger- 
man Olympic Committee, of the Organizing Committee of 
Berlin and of the German Governmentj Is so changed in fact 
as well as in theory so as to both permit and encourage Ger- 
man athletes of Jewish Faith or heritage to train, prepare 
for and participate in the Olympic Games of 1936; 
AND WHEREAS the relations between the athletes of Ger- 
many and of the United States of America have been, are 
and should continue to be friendly, cordial and cooperative, 
and the desire and expectation of American athletes to com- 
pete in the Games of 1936 has been and is keen and en- 
thusiastic, 

THEREFORE, BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Ama- 
teur Athletic Union urge upon the American Olympic Asso- 
ciation that there be impressed upon the International 
Olympic Comraltteej and> through it, upon the German 
Olympic Committee, the Organizing Committee and the Ger- 
man Government, that the plea of the athletes of the United 
States be taken not as one of threat or bitterness but as one of 
concern and desire that a way be found for Germany to 
satisfy the world, that all and not merely some of the funda- 
mental principles of the democracy of sport and of the 
Olympic Games are and wdll continue to be dominant. 




I 



124 



THE QUESTION OF TRADING WITH 
GERMANY 

An 0[>en Letter of Protest to Hon. Cordell Hull, Secretary oj State 

September 29, 1934, 
Hon. Cordell Hull, 
Secretary of State, 
Washington, D. C. 

My dear Sir: 

Supplementing the various persistent rumors that have been 
floating around all parts of the country and that have reached our 
organization, of active negotiations between tepresentatives of 
the Gertnan Government and your Department looking to a 
trade-agreement for the exchange of merchandise, I received 
yesterday a telegram of which the following is a copy: 

■'FIVE GERMAN COTTON MERCHANTS REPRESENT- 
ING GERMAN GOVERNMENT ARRIVING TOMORROW 
STEAMER BREMEN FOR PURCHASE LARGE QUANTITY 
OF COTTON AGAINST PAYMENT IN GERMAN MER- 
CHANDISE PROCEEDING WASHINGTON." 

These reports, if true, are now sufficiently definite to justify 
us in entering a formal and emphatic protest against any such 
agreement or any further negotiations looking in that direction, 
as contrary to the best interests of the country. 

The Non-Sectatian Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human 
Rights, of which I am President, reflects the views of millions of 
American citizens against any commercial treaty or agreement 
with Germany at this time, for many reasons, of which rime and 
space permit me to summarize here only a few. 

In this connection you are reported in the New York papers 
and the Dow- Jones news-ticker of the 20th inst,, and in other 
publications, as having made the extraordinary and unfounded 
statement, in referring to the boycott by this country of German- 
made goods, that as an example of practical economics: 

"if such measures are resorted to by citizens of this country 
it will result in the loss oj approximately $>.Q0 in exports for 
every Dollar's worth of goods kept out of the United States," 

Your colleagues at the Commerce Department could have in- 
formed you of the glaring inacairacy of the assertion on which 
your statement to the press of the country was based. Last year, 
for instance, this country sold to Germany only $1.15 of goods 
for every dollar^s worth of goods bought. In 1932 the ratio was 
$1.18 to $1,00. In 1929 it was $1.19 to $1.00. By what process 
of arithmetic, reasoning or economics that is converted into a ratio 
of $5.00 to $1,00 it v/ould be interesting to have explained. 

I am sure you appreciate also that a purchaser is one who 
pays for what he buys, and that die type of customer who buys 

125 



<.M« < v.» ikaAB *i AlJBilM MfcHHfiIti 




Trading with Germant • Letter by Samuel Untermyer 

only with funds borrowed from the seller—which he subsequently 
refuses to repay — is not valuable ro the country from which he 
buys. 

The uniform result of our past experience in commercial and 
financial transactions with Germany, ever since the War, has 
been disastrous to us. When Germany has not defaulted upon 
its solemn obligations, or repudiated them, we have been paid 
either in "stage- money" or depreciated currency. Even while 
we were pouring our billions into the securities of German In- 
dustries in return for worthless bonds, they have kept that money 
and given us worthless or depreciated money in return. 

Your apparent efforts (if these rumors be true) to force Ger- 
man-made machinery, gloves and other goods upon our market, 
manufactured by workmen whose former standards of living 
have been destroyed and their wages reduced to considerably 
less than $1.00 per day — through the annihilation and confiscation 
of the properties of the Labor Unions at the cozumand of the 
Industrial Barons who financed the Hitler regime into power, and 
rule the government, are not likely to succeed. 

All the agreements you may choose to make that would strike 
down all pro teal ve tariffs would not overcome the righteous, 
country-wide "trade- resistance" against German goods. The out- 
raged Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Labor Unions and women 
cannot be compelled to buy them. 

In your statement you characterize this as a "racial or political 
boycott," which indicates how little you understand the scope 
of this movement. This boycott is a spontaneous uprising of all 
civilization^-nor merely in this country but throughout the world 
— against the revival of medieval savagery, spreading from South 
Africa, Egypt, South America, around the globe to Finland. It 
is, in a sense, analogous to the "economic sanctions" provided for 
by the Covenant of the League of Nations against countries that 
violate their agreements. It is the only effective weapon yet de- 
vised as a peaceful substitute for war. The "Blue Eagle" that is 
being used in connection with our NRA is another form of boy- 
cott. 

It is evident from your public statements that you are also 
unaware of the extent to which this boycott has stimulated the 
"Buy American" campaign in this country and in the founding 
and expansion of industries here that are already successfully 
manufacturing all kinds of goods that were formerly imported 
from Germany. 

Your views on the refusal of Americans to purchase Nazi 
goods, as a protest against the persecution by the Third Reich 
of its helpless minorities, sounds very much like quaHfied approva! 
of the Hitler- Schacht policy that has thus far resulted in the 
repudiation by Germany of more than a billion dollars' worth of 

126 



Trading with Germany • Letter by Samuel Untermyer 

bonds owned by American investors; has deprived the latter of 
some $70,000,000 annually due them as interest on their hold- 
ings, and has caused a decline in the market value of American 
owned German bonds of almost one-third of a billion dollars. 

I assume you must be aware that many thousands of Americans 
are being forced to forgo the payment of interest rightfully owing 
them on their German bonds, whilst Germany, pleading poverty 
as the reason for her default, has at the same time been vastly 
increasing her purchases of war supplies in this and other coun- 
tries, and has employed her funds that should have been devoted 
to the payment of interest on her debts toward the repurchase of 
her dollar-bonds from us at gteatly depreciated prices. 

The contendon of Dr. Schacht, which you seem to accept at 
its face value, that Germany's inability to meet payments on her 
legally contracted debts has been caused by the boycott of Ger- 
man goods, is as baseless and fantastic as other theories pro- 
pounded by the leader of the Third Reich. The German National 
Socialist Party proclaimed its policy of repudiation by a special 
law — long before the boycott. Ours is a purely defensive boycott, 
as a small measure of protection and reprisal against the murder, 
torture and persecution to which Germany has subjected its inno- 
cent minorities — solely because of their race — and against its 
policy of religious fanaticism directed against Catholics and Jews. 

As indicating that there has been no let-up in this policy of 
persecution, this morning's cables from Berlin, reprint an official 
order signed by Dr. Seller, Nazi President of the Duesseldorf 
Medical Association, published in the "Reichwart" directing phy- 
sicians to boycott the entire medical staff of the Duesseldorf 
Hospital for having failed to vote in favor of Hitler as Reichs- 
fuehrer in the plebiscite of August 19th- That, among thoiisands 
of other incidents, illustrates this "free plebiscite" and the secrecy 
of the election. 

While European creditors have been proteaed by the energetic 
aaion of their governments, our Government has confined its 
aaivities on behalf of the American public holding defaulted Ger- 
man bonds to the dispatching of eloquent notes which the Hitler- 
Schacht combine has uniformly dealt with in a manner reminis- 
cent of the treatment which Bethmann-Hoflweg accorded the 
Treaty guaranteeing Belgium's neutrality some two decades ago. 

In conneaion with your apprehension that our sales to Ger- 
many may be diminished by the boycott (as I note with satisfac- 
tion that they have been and are being affected, though not yet 
quite to the extent of the decrease in other countries), our total 
norma! exports to the Reich have in the past aggregated less than 
6y2% of the total American shipments abroad. Their complete 
elimination, which you seem to dread as the eventuid result of 

127 



L 



Li Alts MM Hfelitifli 



MiM^kli 



Trading with Germany : Letter by Samuel Untermyer 

the boycott (unless the rising tide is stemmed by official announce- 
ments of our Secretary of State), would not affect our foreign 
commerce to any material extent. 

Furthermore, inasmuch as Germany's purchases in the United 
States have in the past almost invariably been paid out of the 
proceeds of loans and credits obtained in this country that are 
now being repudiated — would we not have been better off if we 
had kept our goods? 

Are you not aware of the extent to which our protective laws 
are being evaded, our customs swindled and our manufacturers 
betrayed by the ruse of the camouflaged "blocked" marks? 

Is it possible that in your public discussion of the economic 
theories underlying boycotts, based as they are upon false premises, 
you have in mind diverting the attention of the tens of thousands 
of victimized Americans who hold German defaulted bonds and 
are vainly waiting for the protection of our Government? 

Considering the ethics and wisdom of making another agree- 
ment with a country that holds the record for broken and repudi- 
ated agreements, we ask you also to take into consideration the 
evidence and disclosures already acaimulated by the McCormack 
Congressional Committee of the country-wide seditious propa- 
ganda, sowing the seeds of race and religious hatred, and of the 
many millions of dollars that are being squandered here in that 
dastardly undertaking by a country that refuses to pay its obliga- 
tions to us. The conspiracy against our peace and security, on 
account of which the attaches of the German Embassy were ex- 
pelled prior to the severance of diplomatic relations before the 
War, is not a circumstance compared with what is now transpiring, 

I respectfully insist that, judged by past experiences of our 
dealings with Germany, which have cost us literally billions of 
dollars, the less goods we sell that counrry and the less business 
we do with it, the better off we will be. 
Very truly yours, 
NON-SECTARIAN ANTI-NAZI LEAGUE 
TO CHAMPION HUMAN RIGHTS, 
By Samuel Untermyer, President. 




128 



A VITAL CHALLENGE TO CHRISTIANS 

By Dr. Paul Hutchinson 
Editor-m-Chiej, ''The Christian Ceutury" 

Letter to Chicago Committee for the Defense of Human Rights 
Against Naziism, May 21, 1934 

Dear Friend; 

I am glad to hear that an effort is to be made to inform the 
American public generally with regard to the fmrposes and 
methods of the Chicago Committee for the Defence of Human 
Rights Against Naziism. So many misunderstandings of the work 
of this Committee are current, and so large a portion of American 
sentiment will, I am sure, approve and desire tQ support its 
efforts once these misunderstandings are removed that it is im- 
portant that a direct and unequivocal declaration shi^uid be made 
available. 

Three misunderstandings, in particular, seem to me to be in 
need of correction. 

FIRST, it should be made dear that the campaign which this 
committee — in cooperation with similar bodies in other parts 
of this country and in several European nations — is Conducting 
is not confined to the Jewish community. This is trm^ ^pt only 
in form but in fact. The presence of Gentile names c>n the list 
of committee members, and on the committee of the Women's 
auxiliary, is not a mere piece of window-dressing. It ig a recog- 
nition by these Gentiles — among whom will be fciund both 
Protestants and Catholics- — that the policy officially adopted by 
the present German government in dealing with issugs of race 
and rehgion presents an inescapable challenge to Christians in 
all parts of the world. It must be remembered that the Na- 
tional Socialist party in Germany (the Nazis) has been the 
only party consistently to declare in its platform that it repre- 
sents the application of Christian principles to politics, i^ the 
24th plank of the avowedly immutable platform of the Nazi 
party there is this declaration: "The party as such represents 
the point of view of a posiuve Christianity without binding 
itself to any particular confession." The dangerous I'elation of 
this claim to the principle of religious freedom and autonomy 
has been made abundantly clear within Germany itself since the 
estabhshment of the Nazi state. The Committee for the Defense 
of Human Rights, however, is mainly concerned w^ith only one 
aspect of this issue, namely, the identification of "positive 
Christianity" with theories of racial discriminati(in which, 
should they be accepted generally throughout Christendom, 
would entail the spiritual destruction of Christianity^ ^jtj^ ^he 
repudiation of the most vital and sacred teachings of the 
Pounder of the Christian faith. The Christian membership in 
this Committee, therefore, rests on recognition that the fate 
of Christianity itself is involved in the promulgation of the 
"Aryan dogma" of Naziism. 

SECOND, it should be made clear that the Committee for the 
Defense of Human Rights is not attempting to interfere with 
the right of the German people to establish any foi^m of gov- 
ernment which they may desire. This committee has no quarrel 

129 



lu lieu 1 iHfe 



iliMMIUkli 



Vital Challenge to Christians- by Dr. Paul Hutchinson 



with the German people. On the contrary, it conceives Its pur- 
pose as an effort to help Germany extricate herself from a 
tragic political, social and moral mistake, and thereby to assure 
that nation the great future which the abilities of its people 
should gain for it. The Committee does not presume to pass oo 
questions of political judgment. Whatever the individual con- 
victions of its members the Committee, as such, makes no choice 
between political systems. If the German people wish to estab- 
lish a Nazi government, we hold that to be their privilege. The 
work of the Committee^ therefore, is not directed toward the 
overthrow of the present German government, but toward the 
abandonment of a policy of that government which, we are 
convinced, cannot be maintained without jeopardising a species 
of human rights which constitute one of the most precious pos- 
sessions of modern civilization, and which cannot be destroyed 
without endangering the decencies of normal human society 
under any and all kinds of political organization In every part 
of the world. 

THIRD, It should be made clear that the Committee for the 
Defense of Human Rights is not attempting to conduct, or to 
bring into existence, any official boycott of German goods. 
The movement which this Committee Is attempting to promote 
is purely individual. It makes its appeal to individuals; it asks 
for individual action. Put in simple terms, it is merely an 
attempt to insure that the highest eSect shall be secured from 
the action of those individuals who desire to register their 
personal conviction that the introduction of racialism into 
modern life by the Nazi state is not only an effront to their 
most deeply cherished convictions, but a threat to the peace of 
human society everywhere. We believe that millions of thought- 
ful persons, in the United States and elsewhere, will feel a 
profound distaste to furthering the fortunes of the Nazis so 
long as the Nazis persist in attempting to divide the human 
family on racial lines. What the Committee is attempting to 
do Is to gather evidence of the extent of this individual protest 
against the racial policy of the Nazi government, in order 
that its existence and importance may be made clear to that 
government. 
If these three initial misconceptions can be cleared up, I am 
sure that great numbers of Americatis, not themselves members 
of the Jewish community, will grasp the importance of the work 
of the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights Against 
Naziism, atid will wish to give their support to tliat work. Under 
the conditions now obtaining In Germany, it is impossible that 
any mere verbal protest against the racial policies of the Nazi 
government can register on the minds of the masses of Germans. 
Indeed, were conditions different from what they are, so that the 
circuladon of a free press made it possible to lay such verbal 
protests before the eyes of the German public, there is little 
likelihood that this would accomplish much, since they would 
at the same time be subjected to the constant and mendacious 
anti-Semidc propaganda emanating from ofEcial Nazi sources. 
When this ceaseless Nazi campaign to arouse and maintain race 
hatred is coupled with the absence of a free press — which is the 

130 




Vital Challenge to Christians- by Dr. Paul Hutchinson 

actual condition of affairs in Germany— there is practically no 
chance, while doing nothing more than indulging in verbal pro- 
test, of having that protest from outside Germany register on 
the German mind. Yet, as that distinguished American theologian 
of German ancestry, Reinhold Niebuhr, declared after his return 
from Germany last summer, "Germany must be told." This indi- 
vidualj voluntary boycott of German goods, to be maintained as 
long as the Nazi official policy of race hatred is maintainedj is the 
only efieaive method now open by which Germany can be told. 

The efiertiveness of the boycott has already been demonstrated. 
The unusual organization of the industrial life of modern Ger- 
many, by which praaically a third of the entire German income 
is dependent on exports, makes that nation peculiarly susceptible 
to pressure appUed in this fashion. Moreover, it happens that the 
Nazis were financed in their campaign for power, and are now 
deeply obligated to, the industrial groups which are most con- 
cerned over the status of Germany's export trade. The very viru- 
lence of recent Nazi outbursts against the Jews as fomenters of 
rhe boycott— as, for example, in the wildly inflammatory speech 
delivered by Dr. Goebbels in Berlin on May 13— may be taken 
as evidence of the pressure now being placed on the Nazi gov- 
ernment by these big business interests in behalf of their threatened 
export trade. And this is understandable in the light of the 
figutes whicli show that this export trade has been falling steadily 
ever since the Nazi government was established, and that the 
degree of this decline has been accelerating in recent months. 

We believe, therefore, that the boycott^ — now being maintained 
voluntarily in so many countries — is proving itself to be a method 
by which the Nazi leaders, so contemptuous of criddsm at home, 
are being brought to a position where they will see that it is neces- 
sary for them to reckon with ciiticism abroad. We believe that, 
by maintaining the boycott steadily for a few more months, and 
by enhsting in it all those who see the world-wide implications of 
the Nazi policy of fostering race hatred, the point will presently 
be readied at which the industrial interests oi Germany itself will 
require of their government an abandonment of its policy of racial 
discrimination. Important modifications of that policy have, as a 
matter of fact, already been decreed. It is the intendon of the 
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights to continue its 
efforts antil the entire policy is abandoned. 

One further word of explanation is perhaps required in this 
connecdon. It has been charged in some quarters that radal dis- 
crimination is a feature of modern life almost everywhere, and 
that it takes peculiarly tragic and indefensible forms in the United 
States. To protest against this invasion of human rights in Ger- 
many, accordingly, is held to smack of hypocrisy and self-righreous- 
ness. Our Committee does not deny the presence of race prejudice 

131 



iy^iiiii,itii!ijy.iLii4iyiyiiiiLiLJii 



Vital Challenge to Christians- by Dr. Paul Hutchinson 

and discrimination in this country, nor the threat which tliese 
present to the future of our institutions and our social peace. 
We beheve that it is necessary to protest in some effeaive way 
against what is going on in Germany for the very reason that if 
racial discrimination becomes an official policy of a modern state, 
established in the name of "positive Christianity," and is main- 
tained as such without being effectively denied and challenged, it 
will contribute toward the coming of a day when, in this and 
other countries, the racial discrimination which now persists fur- 
tively may become an open and avowed program for official action. 
And the coming of such a day would witness the destruction of 
the finest ideals of our religion and of our nation. 

It is in view of these deep issues, which affect not only Germany, 
but every nation, and the human family everywhere, that this 
Chicago Committee for the Defense of Human Rights Against 
Naziism asks all Americans to refrain from the purchase of goods 
of German manufacture so long as the fomenting of race hatred 
remains the official policy of the German government. 

Faithfully yours, 

Paul Hutchinson. 




GERMANY HAS FORFEITED RESPECT 

OF MANKIND 



132 



Address of Hon, Ba^n bridge Colby at Defnonstration, 
Battery Park, May 10, 1933 

GRIEVOUS as is the plight of the Jew in Germany today, and 
indefensible and beyond understanding as is the condua 
of the present regime toward German citi:£ens of the Jewish 
race, it is not Germany's treatment of the Jews which constitutes 
the sum or the depth of her offending. 

Germany has sinned against rhe light — the light of civilization. 
She has struck a blow at our common humanity. She stands re- 
vealed to the w^orld today as the ally of evil and the enemy of good. 

It requires no unusual knowledge of history to realize that 
Germany has done itself more injury than all its enemies through- 
out the course of time could have inflicted upon her if massed in 
a single and overwhelming attack. 

"Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad." 

The Germany of today is captained by madmen. She is given 
over to pohcies, both domestic and external, which are policies of 
sheer madness. She is galloping to the brink of destruction. It is 
not far off. 

She has forfeited the respea of mankind and has invited the 
censures which are being heaped upon her by all people, regard- 
less of race, creed or nationality, throughout the world. 

Germany cannot destroy the Jewish race. She cannot even do 
it lasting injury. The power of the Jewish race to endure and to 
absorb injustice is one of the miracles of time. I would have been 
proud to be a Jew had I been born one, 

This German outbreak is but an episode in the centuries-old 
record of the courage and steadiness under affliction of the Jewish 
race. The Jew, even of Germany, which his genius has done so 
much to enrich and elevate, will survive the infamies of the Hitler 
regime, but it is problematical if Germany can survive them. 

One would think that Germany had learned the lesson that it 
cannot defy world opinion with impunity. A decent respect for 
the opinions of mankind becomes all nations. The declaration of 
America's independence affirmed American respea for that opin- 
ion. America has built itself to greatness by shaping its policies 
and directing its conduct with due regard to the approval and 
support of enlightened world opinion. 

And so far as this mighty republic can speak for civilized man- 
kind — and it speaks for a vast section of it — we express to all 
whom our voice may reach the abhorrence which prevails through- 
out America for the present course of Germany. 

133 



rurnnTrrrfftimn 




LOVE OF JUSTICE 



Address ojHon. Bainbridge Colby, Madison Square Garde,,. 

March 7, 1934 

The thousands who crowd this huge auditorium make nn . 

America is speaking tonight— not only for herself but for rivHi 
mion and human brotherhood ' ^'^'^'' 

A great oppression has descended upon mankind A r>.- 

representMive a group of speakers ^ ^ '"^ '''°^'">' 

rhoSv^r;?;e7e:? ""'' '^"^ =^"'°" °^ ?">"- «?--" is -- 

The rn"^h ^'" ^'u"""'.'^ ^^ "^^ ^^° '°^^ ^t and serve it 
liie truth IS mighty and will prevail. 



134