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The Counter-Boycott is the Only
Defensive Weapon against Hitler-
As only one hundred thousand copies are
being distributed at this time, after read-
ing this book please pass it on to your
friends. Your attention is especially di-
rected to the Preface, which accurately
outlines the issues in this campaign.
Issued by the
Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League
to Champion Hirnian Rights
729 Seventh Avenue
New York, N. Y.
Price 25 cents
II nai / MiiumuviMJ
The Counter-Boycott is the Only
Defensive Weapon against Hitler-
ism's World-Threat to Civilization
Selected Speeches jrom World Leaden
of Public Opimon
'Public ophnon as the jone.
the Boycott as the weapon, will
break the power of Hitlensfn/'
Issued by the
Non-Seaarian Anti-Nazi League *
to Champion Human Rights
729 Seventh Avenue
New York, N. Y.
Price 25 cents
11^ If-HAK At AUtlllN lit N I li»n
NON-SECTARIAN ANTI-NAZI LEAGUE
To Champion Human Rights, Inc.
729 Seventh Avenue
New York, N. Y.
Hon. James W. Gerard
Hon. Fiorello H. LaGuardia
Hon, Arthur S. Tompkins
Dr. Abba HiUel Silver
Col. Theodore Roosevelt
Dr. A. Coralnik
]. David Stern
Mrs. Mark Harris
Acting Chairman, Executive
Bernard G. Richards
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Hon. George Gordon Battle
Hon. James M. Beck
Hon, James W. Gerard
Hon. Arthur S. Tompkins
Rev. John Haynes Holmes
Rev. Edward L. Hunt
Hon. Frank P. Walsh
Oswald Garrison Villard
Hon. Leopold Prince
Mrs. Mark Harris
Hon. M. Maldwin Per tig
Dr. A. Coralnik
E. N. Kleinbaum
J. David Stern
Dr. Abba HiUel Silver
Jacob Fish man
Dr, Benjamin Dubovsky
Allie S. Freed
J. George Fredtnan
Siegfried F. Hartman
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface , 1
We are Bound to Speak Out!
Address by His Grace, The Archbishop of Canterburyj at Queen's
Hall, London, June 27, 1933 9
No Concessions to this Kind of Germany
By Sir Ausren Chamberlain, M.P. (Extract from Speech in
House of Commons, April 13, 1933) . 11
Liberal Principles in Danger
By Sir John Simon, Secretary of State for Foreign Affair*
(London), April 13, 1933 . , . . U
Child Victims of the New Germany
By Lady Violet Bonham-Carter, London, December 20, 1933 . . 15
Getting Rid of the Old Testament
By Rev. James N. Gillis, Editor, "The Catholic World," Novtm*
ber 23, 1933 . . U
Civilization Against Hitlerism
By Hon. Samuel Seabury, at Madison Square Garden, New York,
March 7, 1934 20
A Liberars Attitude toward the Nazis
By Prof. Raymond Moley, Editor, "Today," at Madison Square
Garden, March 7, 1934 39
The Nazi Assault on Organized Labor
By William Green, President, American Federation of Labor, at
Dinner, February 14, 1934 . &2
Labor's Stake in the Struggle
By Dr. Abba Hillel Silver, Address at Dinner to Wiliam Green,
President, A. F. of L., February 14, 1934 58
Nazi Peace with Jews Unthinkable
By David A. Brown, Publisher, New York, October 20, 1934 . 41
An Orgy of Suppression
By Walter M. Citrine, President, International Federation of
Trade Unions and General Secretary, British Trade Union Con-
gress. Address, October 19, 1934 . , , 4€
TABLE OF CONTENTS™ Contmued
A Vital Challenge to Christians
By Dr. Paul Hutchinson, Editor-in-Chief, "The Christian Cen-
tury," Chicago, May 21, 1934 129
Germany Has Forfeited Respect of Mankind
Speech by Hon. Bainbridge Colby, Secretary of State in President
Wilson's Cabinet, at Battery Park, New York, May 10, 1933 . .13^
Love of Justice
Address by Hon. Bainbridge Colby at Madison Square Garden,
March 7, 1934 - 134
SELECTED ADDRESSES AND WRITINGS BY
Civilization's Only Weapon against Hitlerism
Address at Dinner to William Green, President, American Fed-
eration of Labor, New York, February 14, 1934 55
Address at the Annual Memorial Service of the Jewish War Veterans,
Park Avenue Synagogue, May 27, 1933 76
Radio Address, Broadcast over Station WEVD to the American Fed-
eration of Labor and Other Workers, April 22, 1934 . . . , 84
Address at the Maccabean Chanukah Celebration, Madison Square
Garden, New York, December 16, 1933 . . . . . . . . 89
Radio Address, Broadcast over Station WOR in answer to Address
of Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, May 16, 1934 98
Address before the Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Associations,
Hotel Pennsylvania, New York, December 13, 1933 .... 103
Address at Public Dinner, New York, October 17, 1934 109
The Olympic Games and Nazi Germany
Letter to Avery Bruadage, September 26, 1934 115
The Question of Trading with Germany
An Open Letter of Protest to Hon. Cordell Hull. Secretary of
State, September 29, 1934 125
In this enlightened era a nation which was once a leader among
the civilized peoples of the world cannot revert to barbarism with-
out its reverberations being heard and felt all around the world.
The leaders of the Nazi regime are self-confessed advocates of
bruteTorce, reaction and ruthlessness. Their contempt for law
and their destruction of all civilized conceptions of justice and of
all other ideals speaks through all their utterances and all their
works. The echoes that are heard from other countries were in-
evitable and they are surely not surprised wdien they hear their
standards and practices desctibed in terms of medieval rule and
While the Nazis, blind to the refinements of a progressive age,
may content themselves with shouts and exclamations^ marching
orders and bugle calls, with barbaric yelps and all accompanying
noises oi a revived mihtarism, civilization with a sharpened sense
of responsibility will speak in her own way with dignity of style
and impressiveness of form. It may be one of the sad compensations
of the moral collapse of Germany that the literature of freedom
and justice is constantly growing in volume and intensity of pur-
pose. Already have the Nazi rulers and despoilers of all that is
sacred in human life been condemned in many thousands of
books, pamphlets, speeches, sermons, magazine and new^spaper
articles published in all languages. Their leaders in the scientific,
literary, musical and other branches of the cultural world whom
, they have outlawed and whose properties they have confiscated
solely because of their race, have been eagerly received and shel-
tered by an appreciative world.
Not an outstanding voice has been raised in their defense. The
increasing volume of the protests of all mankind, finding its most
concrete and eifeaive form in the boycott against German goods
and services must before long lead to a collapse of the vicious,
callous political philosophy that now dominates the German Reich.
The material collected in this volume consists of Addresses b)'
outstanding men and women, leaders in world-affairs. It has been
selected from among many hundreds of speeches, protests, and
denunciations of the atrocities and continuous, increased petse-
coitions by the Nazi regime, from the day it assumed power down
to the present time. These protests reflect the outraged cry of
civilization against the many wrongs that are being perpetrated
through the enslavement by Germany of its people and its sad
reversion to the horrors of medieval times.
The chief purposes of this publication are:
1. To demonstrate to the world that an eltective substitute
for the horrors of war has at last been found, through the boycott,
to hereafter prevent a Nation, whether or not it is a member of
the League of Nations, from racial and religious pogroms and
persecurions, from trampling upon' its helpless minorities, and
ilMiyrnfrtii".r t •--•'< *i Aim mm ufNi m».
from otherwise defying and outraging humanity. It would be
effeaive as ro nine of every ten Nations, including also the coun-
tries of Asia, Africa and Sourh America. That is more than can
be said of the League. It is an ideal, peaceful way of enforcing
the "economic sanctions" expressly provided foe by the Covenant
of the League of Nations, which the latter has been unable to
It would be particularly effeaive against a great Nation that
has reverted to barbarism and would thus be cut off from com-
mercial relations with other nations until it mends its ways. It
would require no Government action. Irs success would depend,
of course, upon the extent to which it is actively supported by
wo rid- sentiment.
Notwithstanding the many pious protestations of Der Fuehrer,
rhe proofs are overwhelming that Germany is preparing for war,
and directing all her energies to that end. AH that these protesta-
tiens mean is that she is not yet ready. Nothing short of economic
bankruptcy and the consequent inability to buy the necessary raw
materials, can save the world from that catastrophe. The downfall
of the Hitler regime, brought about by economic stress as the result
of the boycott, and that alone, will accomplish that result. It is
therefore the highest duty of all peace-loving peoples to contribute
to that end — lest the world be plunged into an abyss from which
civilisation cannot survive.
2. The success of such a remedy would rescue Christianity and
the cause of racial and religious freedom from the domination of
the Stare which now threatens to engulf and destroy it. It would
ensure the continued separation of Church and State, and would
render impossible the continuation or repetition of Germany's vast
foreign propaganda campaigns, spreading among our people the
poisonous germs of race and religious hatreds such as that from
which America is now suffering.
The German Government is manifestly bent upon the destruc-
tion of all religious freedom and the ultimate rigid regimentation
of all religious belief by the State; the placing of the Churches
under the iron heel of the State, with the Scriptures rejeaed and
a pagan form of worship substituted as prescribed by the Reich.
If there is, at the moment, comparative quiet on the Catholic
Front, this respite will continue only until after the approval of
the Saar plebiscire. Until that crisis is past the conflia over the
determined attempt to strike down existing religious beliefs will
be soft pedaled. The significance of the so-called "German Chris-
tian Church" as part of the plan for the gradual conversion of
the German people to the Atheistic views of Dr. Rosenberg is
confessed in his writings. This is what will happen to Christianity
as soon as the present storm blows over, that will permit applying
the screws to the brave men who are engaged in the desperate fight
that is now going on.
Dr. S. Parkes Cadmaii, one of America's most eminent Protes-
tant divines, thus accurately summarizes tfie situation;
'Those who steadfastly Intend this shameful thing are not to
be disiuadtd by present failure. They can be counied on to con-
tinue their agitation^ which will in future, as in the past, be
characterized by violence, propaganda and the exaltation of in-
competence and narrow nationailsric sectionalism.
"hi its simplest terms, the struggle in Germany is to deter-
mine .whether State worship in modern form, racialism and
nationalistic extravaganzas shall take the place of a spiritual and
universal religion, which has always found at least some degree
of expression in the Christian churches — both Catholic and
^^ Opposition to the new^ Nazi religion. Dr. Cadman declares,
"is not simply an affair of a few religious leaders but is rooted
in the deepest convictions of the laity as well,
"Despite the shameless and lying propaganda which has as-
siduously shown only one side of the issue and has sought at
every point to deceive the German church people concerning
the real issues at stake, the facts have penetrated to a very con-
siderable proportion of the church members with consequences
that are increasingly serious for the future of the Nazi move-
ment/' he adds.
Promises Only W^ords
Promises t)f "conft-ssionul freedom and the liberty to preach,"
which have been made by the Nazi leaders to the pastors, are
empty wotds^ Dr. Cadman writes. By the Nazi leaders "it has
been understood that this freedom must be made to comport
with the new Nazi ideology and the 'Weltanschauung' of its
high priests led by the unspeakable Rosenberg.
"Less pressure has been put on the Roman Catholic Church in
the Third Reich in recent months because the Nazis do not wish
to lose the plebiscite in the Catholic Saar region. Hitler and his
lieutenants, however, have sent up 'trial balloons' proposing the
unification oj Catholics and Protestants into one Reich church.
"The effect of this has been to drive the Catholics and Prot-
estants into a united movement which has the peculiar character-
istics of being designed to marshal their respective forces to
achieve a continued separateness! They are consequently closer
together in spirit than heretofore,"
For the period I allowing the Saar plebiscite in January, 1935,
Dr. Cadman predicts increased aggressiveness on the pari of the
"The repressions, restrictions, intimidations, arrests, unscrupu-
lous spying and vicious misrepresentation which have charac-
terized the activity of the Reich Church is only a prelude to
what will come in February, 1955, If the Nazis have their way.
If by that time they have not learned the ultimate futility of
their planned course of coercion, there will be seen In Germany
a 'Kulturkampf far more serious than that from which Bismarck
was compelled to draw back after bitter disillusionment in the
In the beginning, Dr. Cadman continues, Catholic and Protes-
A1 AU^tlH ntH I tM«*
quently was nut widely known in German church circles)
aroused a moral condemnation which was not sectarian, but
which does credit to the finer instincts of both Catholic and
Protestant Christians in tiie Reich/'
The resistance offered by German Christians to the Nazi
church leaders has been characterized by "heroism,"
3, Another equally important purpose of this publication is to
disprove, demonstrate and set at rest for all time the utter falsity
and absurdity of the widespread, constantly repeated German
propaganda that the ever-increasing, world-wide boycott of Ger-
man goods is a ]ewish movement. This is not and was at no time a
Jewish question, although the Jews were the first victims and have
been in proportion to their numbers the greatest sufferers from
the reign of terror and lawlessness that now holds the German
people in its grip. But these horrors were followed in rapid
succession by other and more numerous groups, of which Organ-
ized Labor and the Catholic and Protestant Churches are out-
The Jews constitute less than one per cent of the world's popu^
lation and less than four per cent of the population of the United
States. It goes without saying that they alone could not have
created a fraction of the havoc that has already been inflicted upon
Germany by the boycott.
As illustrating the baselessness of the claim, the world mem-
bership—about 17,000,000— of Organized Labor, which is but
one of the many faaors participating in this boycott, alone num.
bers more than the total Jew^ish world-population.
Cable messages issued from time to time by the vast German
Propaganda Ministry, as though emanating from German Jews,
purporting to deprecate the boycott, are quite understandable
when we realize the terroristic conditions under which they are
put forth. They shed a flood of light upon a situation that renders
such pronouncements possible.
The boycott is the only weapon that has resulted in such slight
amelioration of the persecutions as have taken place, With the
press completely gagged and free speech made a crime, it is the
only channel through which world-opinion can be made known in
Germany. Persuasion is worse than useless. They are deaf to the
cries of humanity. Appeals to their pocket-books alone give them
The German Jews must be made to realize the fact that they
are not the only group concerned in this movement. Christianity,
Organized Labor, Women, the Masons and others have an equal
stake. If World Jewry were to withdraw from participation in
this world-wide boycott tomorrow, w^hich is not for a moment
conceivable, it would go on all the same— until civilized govern-
ment and religious freedom are reinstated in Germany. Their
withdrawal would have as much effect on the situation as that of
Neither the pogroms nor the St. Bartholomew's Day slaughter
of June 30, 1934, have been or will ever be forgotten. No amount
of suppression of the news of actual conditions and no more
millions hereafter squandered in propaganda will mislead the
world as in the past or will reinstate Germany to a place in the
Family of Nations; nothing short of the destruction of Hitler-
ism, and all for which it stands^ could accomplish that purpose.
The uprising by Labor and the intensive boycott of German
goods which it is prosecuting here, in Great Britain and many
other countries, is readily comprehensible in the light of a state-
ment made by Mr. Walter M. Citrine, who is the President of the
International Federation of Trade Unions and Secretary of the
British Trade Union Congress, in an Address a few weeks ago at
the Annual Convention of the American Federation of Labor at
San Francisco, in which he cites the German Statistical Society,
an official German body, as authority for the statement that under
the Hitler regime —
"German wages have reached the lowest level in 50 years.
The official records show that only 1% of the workers receive
an average weekly wage of more than $13.50, while 50% re-
ceive between $3.50 and |7.30 and 131/2% receive less than
Added to these elements are the Catholic and Protestant
Churches and clergy and the tens of millions of their members,
to whom the attempted seizure and control of their Churches by
the State, the destruction of rehgious freedom, and the placing
of Christianity of all sects under the iron heel of Government,
has forced many more millions to adopt the boycott as their only
weapon of defense.
When we supplement these many victims by the protests of
the women of the world who have been outraged by the loss of
their freedom, their exclusion from business, and the position to
which they have been relegated as "breeders of children" and
household drudges, and the Masonic Lodges and Orders that
have been exterminated and their property confiscated, the con-
tention that this is a Jewish boycott becomes farcical.
This is the spontaneous revolt of humanity of all creeds and
races, and the boycott is its only practical and effective form of
The supporters of the boycott must above all things be ever
on the alert in the purcliase of merchandise to detect the innu-
merable frauds, evasions and trickery that are being employed to
deceive the public into the purchase of German goods under
false pretenses. Our laws specifically provide that every imported
article i as well as the container in which it comes, must be plainly
and conspkt-iously stamped with the country of origin.
It would require pages to describe the various forms of de-
ception that are being practiced. German goods are being re-
,,t ir-iiAn Ai AiiriiiN urNt mn
shipped from Holland, Oechoslovakia, Poland and other parts
of the world camouflaged under the names of those countries.
German brands are being obliterated and names of cities and
provinces, instead of the country of origin, are being used. Where
parts of an article are made in Germany, the name of that country
is being omitted, and in many cases the word "Germany," in-
stead of being conspicuously placed on the article, is either con-
cealed or printed in such small type and so illegibly that it is
difficult to find it.
Unrestricted "dumping" is another favorite device that is be-
ing resorted to by Germany in its desperation. This is accom-
plished not only by selling goods below cost but by the acceptance
in Germany at par for the payment of goods of so-called "blocked-
marks" that are worth about 40 cents on the dollar.
Another means adopted by the importers, some of whom, to
our shame and humiliation be it said, are Jews, is the purchase
in this country and especially in diis City, mainly from one of our
greatest banks, of discredited German bonds that have defaulted
on their intetest at about 20 cents on the dollar, and the use of
those bonds in Germany at par toward paying for merchandise.
These are a few only of the many means employed, for the
success of which the laxity of our Government Departments is
largely to blame. But for the trade resistance to German goods
at any price, throughout the country, ihese methods would render
competition by our manufacturers impossible. It is none the less
a grave indiament of our Treasury Department to whom our
manufacturers have the right to look for the proteaion that they
are not receiving.
If there are any Americans — which I doubt— to whom Getman
trade is more important than human life and the future of civili-
zation, or who labor under the delusion that we shall lose business
that is worth retaining through the boycott, let them remember
that out total world-exports amount to only 6% of our gross
income, and of this trifling percentage less than one- half of one
per cent goes to Germany; that they have been paid many times
over with out own money, and that our dealings with that country
have cost us billions of dollars in their dishonored and worthless
obligations. America would have been vastly better ofi if it had
no business or financial relations with Germany since the war.
The boycott has already stimulated the manufacture in this and
other countries of many lines of merchandise formerly imported
from Germany, and will do so in increasing volume as time goes
on. From a material standpoint, the boycott has proven to be a
blessing instead of the handicap that was shortsightedly pre-
diaed of it.
The unfortunate efforts oi our inept State Departm^ent to pull
down our protective barriers in the hope of increasing our export
trade, by agreements at the expense of our home manufacturers,
should be brought to an end. It evidences a revival of the dis-
astrous "free trade" policies that cost us so dearly in the past.
This letting down of the bars would flood our markets with for-
eign goods made by pauper labor at the expense of our home
factories, and of our standards of living. Any trade agreement
that might be made with Germany would be especially unfortunate
— ^in the light of our past experiences with that country, and for
the further reason that what she mainly wants from us are raw
materials for war purposes, which ir is our highest duty to prevent
her from getting, so far as lies within our power.
There will, of course, always be a substantial amount of inter-
national exchange in articles that we cannot produce, such as tea,
coffee and the like, for the goods that these countries are unable
to manufacture; but it is not true, as stated in the title of the
advertised forthcoming Address of the Secretary of State, that
"international trade is indispensable to full and stable prosperity."
Nothing could better illustrate the depths of depravity to which
the Hitler regime has sunk in its unconscionable warfare to exter-
minate its Jewish minorities and to spread broadcast race and
religious hatreds than the trial now in progress in Berne, Switzer-
land, at the time this pamphlet goes to press.
When Henry Ford's "Dearborn Independent," many years ago,
published and circulated the spurious "Protocols of the Wise Men
of 2ion," which had long before been overwhelmingly demon-
strated to be clumsy forgeries, he was dragged into Court by
Mr. Untermyer, in behalf of Herman Bernstein, in an aaion for
hbel brought in the Federal Court of the Southern District of
New York, on account of such publication.
In order to escape trial Mr. Ford then confessed that these
so-called "Protocols" were forgeries that had been imposed upon
hjm, and manfully issued a public apology. Long before that
time, in 1921, the "London Times" exposed these forgeries. And
yet the Stretcher newspapers aaively and persistently aided and
abetted by the Hitler government in and out of season, knowing
that they were forgeries, and after their full exposure, continues
to pubhsh them under the proteaion of that Government! What
more convincing evidence of malice and mendacity could there be!
Whilst this pamphlet represents only an infinitesimal fraction
of the ever-enlarging literature of the indictment of Hitlerism, it
contains sufficient illustrations of damning evidence against Nazi
misrule and oppression, showing the cruelties and the wrongs
that this regime has visited on the various liberal groups within
the State, upon progressive elements, organized labor, women, who
are subjeaed to a new form of slavery and innocent children of
dissident groups whose sufferings cannot be adequately visualized.
The Nazi attacks upon Christianity and rehgious freedom and
1 Ah A I Aim I IN tilNHIliJ
upon every form of independent thought and aaion are here
If it be true, as published in London on apparently high author-
ity, that the Nazi Government is beseeching thirty of its German-
Jewish refugees who were engaged in commerce in Germany, to
return to that country, I cannot conceive of any self-respecting Jew
considering any such plea. It would be a base betrayal of his per-
secuted fellow-Jews in Germany.
The public addresses here reproduced and especially the
speeches of Mr. Untermyer, were heard at gatherings attended
by hundreds of thousands of men and women in all parts of the
country, by millions over the nation-wide broadcasts, many of
whom are eager to help in resisting the unspeakable menace of
Hitlerism. It is in answer to the demand of many of those who
have heard and read these addresses that a seleaed few are now
being made available for wider circulation.
The addresses of Mr. Untermyer are notable not only for the
consummate manner in which he assembled the facts, the great
skill of the advocate and pleader for a noble cause, the persua-
siveness and eloquence with which the case is presented; they
should become memorable by teason of the circumstances under
which he had called into being this world-wide movement and has
piloted it through its stormy career which has now encircled all
the world and which in the end should prove the undoing of
Na^i domination. Few instances in history have shown such com-
plete identification of a man with a movement. This is the case
with Mr. Untermyer and the boycott, which was first given
tangible form through his address delivered in Boston in April
of 1933. It was subsequent to that that the movement took or-
ganized form as a world movement with Mr. Untermyer's as-
sumption of the leadership as the President of the Non-Sectarian
Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human Rights and of the World
Conference in July, 1933, at Amsterdam, Holland, over which he
presided. Many men of eminence in various countries represent-
ing different races and creeds became associated with the work,
and supporters in many cities have lent strength and vigor to the
furtherance of the work.
As this book goes to press another Non-Sectarian World Con-
ference is to be held at London on November 25th to intensify
and coordinate the boycott between the various countries at which
outstanding leaders of every race and creed and of organized labor
from ail parts of the world will be represented.
New York, Noyember 1st, 1934.
'^WE ARE BOUND TO SPEAK OUT"
By His Grace The Archbishop of Canterbury
From an address delivered at Queen's Hall
]mie 27, 1933
I AM not going to rehearse afresh the facts which have them-
selves so eloquently appealed to us all. They are all familiar.
We all know how at this moment, as we sit here in peace
and security, the members of the Jewish Community in Germany
are being driven from all the State services, from posts which
they have acquired by right of their capacity in the law, in medi-
cine, in the Universities, even, as Mr. Garvin once said, from the
concert room where music was once supposed to be the common
language of all mankind. Even if they are allowed to remain
in business or profession, they are increasingly deprived of any
clrances of maintaining a livelihood, and I would ask you to
think because this is what has been increasingly brought home to
myself from what I hear about the condition of affairs in Germany,
of the families now in hiding from persecution and proscription
in all the streets of German cities, suffering agonies of apprehen-
sion and of humiliation; and I think with particular indignation
■ of what I have heard about the treatment of Jewish children, for
in the schools in Germany they are being kept apart from other
children as if they were somethmg uncfean. Imagine the effect
upon those children, themselves having had borne in upon them
at the most tender stage of their livts'that they are not fit to be
associated with other Germans, and imagme still more the effect
upon the German chiidren of the non -Jewish race in being thus
at the very start of their lives educated in contempt and scorn of
Now I do not wish to dwell upon these facts, but if it be true
that on this scale injustice is abroad violating these elementary
instincts of our common humanity, then it is impossible either
here, or, I should have thought, in any part of the civilized world,
for those citizens to whom these things are part of the heritage
which they most constantly prize, to remain silent. They are
bound to speak out if only for the relief of their own conscience.
It is, of course, true that we have no desire to interfere with
the laws of other nations, and yet in spite of that I feel bound
to recall to my memory the words which were spoken in 1882
at a great meeting of protest against similar treatment of the Jews
in Russia, words spoken by one who had then and deserved a
great place in the life of our English folk, the late Cardinal Man-
ning. These are his words:
■'The laws of humanity, of nature and of God are the foun-
dation of all other laws, and if in any legislation these are
violated all other Nations of Christian Europe, indeed of the
whole commonwealth of civilized man, would instantly acquire
a right to speak aloud."
We Are Bound to Speak Out ■ By Archbishop of Canterbury
It is that right chat we feel bound to exercise here in London
this evening. Yea, I think we may go further. We are learning
slowly, bur I hope surely, that the nations of the world are one
community. What other hopes have we of this momentous Con-
ference now assembled in London unless that truth can be not
only held, but applied: for everyone knows that not only in the
behef, but in the application of that fundamental truth, to which
w^e have been driven quite as much by economic necessity as by
our own thoughts in the enforcement of that great principle, lies
the only hope' of the restoration of the prosperity of the world.
What does i^t mean? It means that the concerns of the one Nation
are the concerns of all ; that the spirit, the tone of mind the tend-
encies that operate in one Nation have necessarily their cffeas
upon all ; and therefore, if anything occurs on a large scale which
offends the common Instinas of anything that can be called a
community of Nations, every member of that community is con-
I want to make this clear — that we are not here because we have
been pressed and prompted by members of the Jewish community.
It is true that we have a great, deep, and just sympadiy with the
Jewish community and an admiration for many of the great
qualities which it has shown throughout the long history of the
world, but we are here not because they pressed and prompted us,
but because our hearts already go out to them in obedience to
the same common principles of our humanity. I should like also
to make it even more abundantly clear that we are not assembled
out of any kind of hostility to the Gteat German Nation. Our
regret is that what is happening in Germany with regard not only
to the Jewish community (but very specially to them) affeas us
with the sense that just as we were trying to be fair and just
to them, they have brought in a new element of doubt and aliena-
tion. Therefore, it is not because of any enmity with the German
people, but because of the very strength of our desire to be
friendly that we have felt bound to come together this evenmg
and I hope with unanimity to pass this Resolution.
''NO CONCESSIONS TO THIS KIND OF
By Sir Austen Chamberlain
Extract from Speech in House of Commons, ApH^ 13, 1933
I AM not going to enter into a discussion of the internal
happenings of Germany except insofar as they are applicable
and pertinent to a Debate on Foreign Affairs. What is
this new spirit of German nationalism? The worst of the all-
Prussian Imperialism, with an added savagery, a racial pride,
an exclusiveness which cannot allow to any fellow-subject not
of "pure Nordic birth" equality of rights and citizenship within
the nation to which he belongs. Are you going to discuss
tevision with a Government like that? Are you going to discuss
with such a Government the Polish Corridor? The Polish Corri-
dor is inhabitated by Poles; do you dare to put another Pole
under the heel of such a Government? I beg the Right Hon,
gentleman to beware of what he is doing. After all, we stand
for something in this country. Our traditions count, for our
own people, for Europe and for the world. Europe is menaced
and^ Germany is afHicted by this narrow, exclusive, aggressive
spirit, by which it is a crime to be in favour of peace and a crime
to be a Jew, ^ That is not a Germany to which we can aiford to
make concessions. That is not a Getmany to w^hich Europe can
afford to give the equality of which the Prime Minister spoke.
That is more than he ever promised. I understood that the
promise made by the Five Powers was of equality of status, to be
reached by stages. Before you can afford to decide, -or to urge
others to decide, you must see a Germany whose mind is turned
to peace, who will use her equality of status to secure her own
safety but not to menace the safety of others ; a Germany which
has learnt nor only how to live herself, but how to let others
live inside her and beside her.
1^ ■*(! Ar AiiniiN utN I
"LIBERAL PRINCIPLES IN DANGER"
By Sir John Simon
Secretary of State jor foreign Affairs
From a Speech Delhered in the House of Commons
April 13, 1933
I DESIRE to say a word on a matter which the Right Hon,
Member for Eppitig dealt with at the end of his very im-
pressive and moving speech, namely, the special concern
which we have at the present time with regard to the news
as to the treatment of Jews in Germany, This debate has been
especially useful, because it has expressed the deep, general and,
I might say, universal feeling that is entertained in this country
on the recent treatment of Jews and other minorities in Germany.
I do not think it would be out of place if I say now, speaking
as a Member of the Government, that it would be a profound
mistake for anyone in any country to imagine that this feeling
is either limited to or instigated by members of the Jewish
community. On the contrary, it Is a spontaneous expression and
it Is an inevitable expression of the attachment which we all feel
to the principle of racial toleration. My Right Hon. friend the
Member for Darwen (Sir. H. Samuel) said, quite truly, that it
was a Liberal principle. So it is. It is a claim which many of
us who have great attachment to that general outlook may fairly
make. It is one of those principles which in past times has
been a subject of controversy in our own political life and in
which, in the broadest sense, Liberal opinion has championed
It is also one of those things which have entered into the
traditions of the whole of the British people. To-day there is
no distinction between any of us, whatever our party affiliations
may be, and we cannot conceive that civil iibert>^ upon which
the progress not only of great nations but of neighborly relations
so often depend, are nor gravely menaced by the matters to
which attention has been called to-day. It is not a Jewish outlook
and it is not merely the outlook of a section or of a party; it is
what may truly be called the Anglo-Saxon outlook. It is the
outlook of those who have inherited traditions which have been
common to England and Germany alike, I make these observa-
tions knowing well the responsibility which rests upon the Gov-
ernment In such a matter, and I do not believe that we should
be expressing the feelings of the country if I did not associate
myself with what has been said on this subject to-day.
CHILD VICTIMS OF THE NEW GERMANY
By Lady Violet Bonham-Carter
Address Delivered in London^ England ^
December 20, 1933
I WANT to make clear my profound conviaion that this
Is not a matter which concerns the Jewish community alone.
It concerns all who believe in justice and in our common
humanity. It concerns all who care for mental and spiritual
freedom; and it concerns all who care about the welfare of
children and their happiness.
It is, as Lord Cecil has said, a challenge to civilization. I
want to say — speaking not for myself alone, but for countless
others who, like myself, though outside the Jewish community,
are deeply stirred by these terrible events — we wish to stand
by your side in taking up this challenge.
I can truthfully say that nothing within my political memory
has ever moved me more deeply to horror and indignation than
recent events In Germany. We, in this country, have looked on
with dazed astonishment at this nightmare. We have seen
libraries burnt. We have seen monuments erected to murderers.
We have seen faith and race perseaited and proscribed, thought
and art forbidden unless confined in the strait-jacket of State
We have seen Germany banish and despoil many of her
greatest and most distinguished sons, men whose high achieve-
ments in every field of endeavour have brought her honour
throughout the world. And these are perhaps the happiest.
For countless nameless ones are sufiering imprisonment and
worse to-day, are suffering gross and cruel injustices, simply
because they happen to be what we here should call Liberals,
or to belong to the Jewish race and persuasion.
I suppose if this were Germany most of us would be behind
barbed wire. I can only say for myself that I should be ashamed
to be anywhere else.
If these are the first-fruits of the new faith called German
Christianity — a faith which, in order to fulfill all Aryan require-
ments, has, I beheve, transferred the cradle of our religion from
the Lake o£ Galilee to the Norwegian Fiords — all I can say Is
that It does not confine itself to an attack on the historical
foundations of the Old Testament. It is an outrage and a
violation of the spirit of the New. It runs counter to every
concept that was ever held or taught by the great and gentle
Founder of the faith to which I belong.
But that these pedantic barbarities shotild be extended in their
scope to children— this is difficult for us here to realize or to
imagine. I have here a letter from a German-Jewish child —
a boy of 13^— the son of a Jewish father and of a Christian
1!|T' ::[ MIT; I'lR
German Child Victims ■ By Lady Bonham-Carter
mother. He was brought up as a Protestant. He was, until
lately, in a school in a southern German provincial town. He
is now, I am glad to say, safe in Paris.
"I was the only Jew in my class" (he writes), "Until Easter
I was a Protestant, then they found out that my father was a
Jew and so I became one. After that everything was different.
No one would be friends with me. No one would answer me.
In school no one would sit next to me. They all used to want to
before^ as I was the best in the class and they all wanted to crib.
Now I had to sit all alone on the back bench. At first I was
frightfully unhappy^more so as the masters who always used
to like me could not stand the sight of me any more. When
they came Into the classroom everyone had to jump up and with
right hand outstretched shout 'Heil Hitler!' I did too — or I
didn't. I don't know. If I did then the whole class would shout
'The Jew Is profaning our greeting!' And If I didn't the master
shouted 'You wait you Marxist bastard!' Then I was ordered to
shout 'Heil Hitler!' alone three times. The whole class laughed.
I was so afraid, I wanted to cry. And then I used often to be
late so that I shouldn't have to shout 'Heil, Hitlet!' The master
used to give me extra work to do as a punishment. He wrote
in the class book, 'For Jewish slovenliness.'
"Once I did not know the answer — I used always to know
before — so he asked me if the only thing I could do was 'Fires
and murders like my father.' Once when 1 could not answer,
the history master said I should be slaughtered like father. I
tried to pull myself together, but tears used to sometimes come
and then they used to say I was a dirty coward like the rest
of the Marxists. The worst thing of all was in the "breaks' in the
courtyard. We children of Jewish and Matxist parents had to
go into a corner of the courtyard by ourselves. Then there was
always trouble. The others shouted nasty things at us and threw
stones. Once I defended myself so they hit me and bullied me
fearfully. Those in charge didn't even, come near.
"At singing it w^as worse still. I had to learn the text of the
Horst Wessel Lied and the other songs and then I had to say
them alone. Again they used to laugh and shout horrid things.
'Tn drawing I had to do nothing but swastikas. Once I got
detention because I drew a crooked one. Then the master wrote
in his book, "Fot ridiculing the German symbol.'
"Before I used to be the best pupil. Now I was the worst.
Whether I got something right or wrong, I always got the worst
marks. I was the scapegoat for everything."
This is an authentic letter, and what it describes is not an
exceptional case. I daresay that there are many such.
Can anyone who has a child of their own even dimly imagine
what they would feel if their child were being daily subjected
to such bewildering injustice and humiliation?
But what is more important than the suffering of the parents
is the suffering of the children, and not their suffering alone —
though it is difficult at times to see past that — but the effect that
such experiences must inevitably produce on their nature, on
their whole outlook, on ail that delicate structure that goes to
make up what we call character.
German Child Victims • By Lady Bonham-Carter
Science (always a day behind the fair) is telling us now
what mothers and poets have always known — that these early
years of awakening and unfolding are perhaps the determining
factor in all that is to come:—
"These first affections,
These shadowy recollections
Which, be they wdiat they may.
Are yet the fountain-light of all our day.
Are yet the master-light of all our seeing."
In what dark colours will these unhappy children see life?
How can they trust a system which has failed them so cruelly
from the outset? How can they believe in gentleness or gener-
osity who have not even known justice?
Children instinctively give back to life what life has given
to them. What sort of a world are these children going to
build.^ How can these child-victims of blind racial persecution lay
the foundations of that new order of International brotherhood
and understanding which, we are told and truly told, is the only
hope of the future?
We are not here to denounce these things, which we are,
alas! powerless to prevent, but to consider what help we can
give, what first-aid we can render to its viaims.
I have no fear that the faith and the courage of the Jewish
race will fail. They have carried it high through the centuries,
a torch which no suffering could quench. But the faith of a
child, the courage of a child, is a candle just lit. It must be a
Our first duty surely is to try and remove as many of these
children as possible from surroundings in which they can ohly
grow up warped and bruised and embittered by injustice, and to
replant them in a soil in which they can grow to freedom and
Imagine just for one moment that your child — the child you
most dearly love — has been removed from your care and placed
outside the reach of your protection — that it is suffering injustice^
humiliation, desolation such as most sheltered children can, thank
Heaven, not even imagine, that it is in dire need of help.
As you would wish it to be proteaed, comforted, and saved,
30 I ask you to help others now.
GETTING RID OF THE OLD TESTAMENT
By Rev. James M. Gillis
Editor, The Catholic World
Address Broadcast Over Station WLWL, November 23» 1933
THERE is an ancient pagan maxln^, "Whom the gods would
destroy, they first make mad." And it does really seem
that those who are bent upon self-destruction commence
by losing theit wits.
One of the maddest ideas that has evet been exhibited to the
world that has witnessed so much lunacy is that of certain
Na^i Christians in Germany who have declared their intention
of doing away with the Old Testament. The reason alleged is
that the Old Testament is Semitic - — or to speak more accurately,
Jewish. The anti- Jewish movement has gone so far in Hitler's
Reich that some of the extremists, following the discredited
Ludendorff, want to get rid not only of the Old Testament but
the New, not only of Judaism but Christianity as being Jewish
in origin and ethos. The Ludendorff element is more courageous
and consistent than those who dare go only half-way in their
determination to get rid of all that smacks of Judaism. For
every book in the New Testament, as well as in the Old, was
written by a Jew. St. Luke, St. Mark and St. Paul were Jews of
the Dispersion, that is to say, Jews of other countries than
Palestine, but they were none the less Jews.
The Apostles were Jews as truly as the prophets; Peter and
Paul and James and John were quite as Jewish as Abraham,
Isaac, Jacob and Moses. And if we must introduce the Sacred
Name of Jesus into this ridioilous business, there was not one
drop of any blood but Jewish in the veins of the Son of Mary.
So, once these anti -Jewish fanatics get going, if they have the
audacity to be consistent, they will have to thrown away the New
Testament with the Old. If they eliminate everything Jewish
from their religion, they will have to get rid of our Saviour
Himself, and His Mother and His foster father and all His
friends, apostles and first disciples.
And if they get rid of Our Lord, whom will they put in His
place? Ludendorff, who probably is mad — in the original sense
of the word — that is insane — has the answer. He suggests a
new god, or rather an old heathen god dug up out of the grave
in which he had lain for some 1,400 years — the god Wotan,
otherwise Woden, for whom our Wednesday (Wodensday) was
named in heathen times. Wotan, by the way, had one peculiar
charaaeristic in Teuton and Scandinavian mythology. He was
the god of the wind^ — perhaps we may say the god of the big
wind; and as such I should say an appropriate choice for the
Hitlerites; if Hitler won't be jealous of a god who can blow
harder and longer than he.
Getting Rid of the Old Testament • By Rev. J. M. Gillis
Also Wotan, like all the other heathen deities, demanded and
received human sacrifice. Perhaps the extreme bigots like Luden-
dorff plan to offer him human sacrifices once again — and doubt-
less the human sacrifices would be Jewish men, women and
children. I wouldn't put it beyond him. One of the marks of
a bigot is that he thinks he does a service to God when he
persecutes his fellow-men.
Speaking of human sacrifice — when the primitive Christians
were persecuted in Rome and in other parts of the Empire, they
were thought to be Jews. And die Romans had reason to con-
sider them Jews, for in fact most of them were Jews. When
St. Paul went out into the Gentile world, though he considered
himself to be by the divine call apostle to the Gentiles, he
always preached first in the synagogues, and the first Christians
were Jews. The earliest martyrs in consequence, not only at
Jerusalem but at Rome, were Jews. Indeed, the first three popes,
if not the first four popes, were Jews,
In the text of the Roman Mass even to this day we have
reminders that our remotest ancestors in the Faith were Jews;
to say nothing of the introductory parts of the Mass (taken
generally from the Old Testament and hence Jewish) . When
we come to the Canon, the sacredest part of the Divine Liturgy,
we speak of "Our Father Abraham," and of Melchisedech, the
high priest, who offered sacrifice for Abraham.
To put the matter briefly and pointedly — we Christians con-
sider ourselves to be direct and legitimate heirs to the Jewish
religion. Our faith began in Judaism, and to this day is steeped
and saturated with Judaism. It may be that a good many Jews
don't know how Jewish is the Christian religion, but there is no
excuse for a Christian's not knowing that we have inherited a
very great deal of the Jewish tradition and the Jewish spirit.
We use the Jewish scriptures, we honor the Jewish heroes, the
Jewish parriarchs, prophets, sages and kings. We claim Isaiah
and Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel, no less than Matthew, Mark,
Luke and John, We hold that the Old Testament written
before Christ is just as divinely inspired as the New Testament
written after Christ.
NoWj therefore, we have and can have no sympathy and no
agreement with those who try to dejudaize Christianity. To
eliminate the Jewish element from our faith would be to tear
up and throw away the roots of the Christian religion.
But what do the madmen in Germany know about all this?
Even those who do not go the full u^ay with Ludendorff in his
demand that a heathen deity be replaced upon the altars from
which he was dethroned more than a thousand years ago; even
those who speak merely of lopping off the Old Testament as
Jewish and retaining the New Testament as Christian, are like
,,MiMfr4*>titf nt irKAfi At AUuiiN (UN mm
Getting Rid of the Old Testament ■ By Rev. J. M. Gillis
all fanatics, ignorant. In faa, I think it a feasible proposition
chat ignorance is the cause, or at least the sine qua non of
I am ashamed to say that I meet from time to time evidences
of ignorance in this matter even on the part of out own Catholic
people. Some of them don't know or at least rightly appreciate
our Jewish originj and some of them are ignorant of the purity
and the majesty, the beauty and the high spirituality of die
Jewish religion. Perhaps we can't blame them altogether. The
Jews they meet are for the most part not good specimens; they
are apostate Jews, and an apostate does no credit to the religion
which he has abandoned. We ought to know that from our
apostate Catholics, Almost always they hand out ready-made
explanations of their apostasy. Renegades, Hke all other sinners,
have some httle conscience left; and so they feel it necessary
to excuse themselves to their friends and neigitbors; to givt a
good account of themselves to those who want to know why
they left their old faith. They cook up plausible statements;
they say they didn't like the manners or perhaps even the morals
of the clergy; they objected to the znoney at the door; they
didn't Hke this and they didn't like that — they couldn't believe
this and they couldn't believe that. They manage to fool the
outsider (perhaps) ; they manage to fool themselves (no doubt!)
but they don't fool those who are "in the know." Their real
difficulty is not the creed but the commandments; what drives
them out is not the morals of the clergy, but their own morals;
it isn't the money at the church door that is the real obstacle to
their faith, but the money in their own pockets — money that has
no right to be there. We know them; they are a shame to
us: especially when they don't actually secede from the chutch
once and for ail, but tag along with us, more or less. We have
to take the blame for them, though they are not really ours.
Therefore, we ought to know what to think of lapsed, fahen
away, apostate Jews. They, too, are a bad lot. But we have no
more right to judge the original, beautiful, pristine, pure Jewish
reUgion by them than our critics have a right to judge Catholicism
from corrupt politicians, or bootleggers or gangsters who happen
to have what is called a Catholic name. We Catholics have
suffered so much for the sins of bad Catholics that we should be
the last persons in the world to condemn Judaism for the sins of
bad Jews. We demand that our faith be judged on its own merits.
We ought to judge Judaism on its own merits.
And that brings me back to what I reaJly meant chiefly to
say: these ignorant Nazi Christians who talk of throwing the
Old Testament overboard, dorit know the Old Testament, With
the possible exception of the New, there is no literature extant
superior to or equal to the Old Testament. It is superb, mag-
Getting Rid of the Old Testament • By Rev, J. M. Gillis
nificent, eloquent beyond all description; it is sweet and strong,
it dips down deep into the heart of man — even into the heart
of God. I have often quoted a sentence from the famous English
novelist, John Cowper Powys who wrote of the Psalms of David,
*' (They) are the most pathetic and poignant, as well as the most
noble and dignified of all poetic hteratute. The rarest spirits
of our race will always return to them at every epoch in their
lives for consolation, for support and for repose."
What Powys says of the Psalms, may be said of the entire
It is a familiar and indubitable faa that the greatest writers
of prose and of poetry in every language have fed upon and
developed their genius upon the literature of the Bible — and
that those whose style has been distinguished for dignity, grandeur
and power, have particularly steeped themselves in the Old
Just by way of a sample, let me read you one or two seleaions.
Here is a passage out of Ecciesiastes, not ostensibly a poem, like
the Psalms, but was there ever poetry tliat could surpass this
richly beautiful prose?
''Remember thy Creator in the days of thy youth, before the
evil days come, and the years draw nigh, when thou shalt say,
I have no pleasure in them ; before the sun and the moon and the
stars are darkened, and the clouds return after the rain; in the
day when the keepers of the house shall tremble, and the strong
men shall bow themselves, and the eyes shall be darkened, and
the doors shall be shut in the street; when one shall rise up at
the voice of a bird, and all the daughters of music shall be
brought low; yea, they shall be afraid of that which is high,
and terrors shall be in the w^ay ; and the almond-tree shall blossom
and the grasshopper shall be a burden, and desire shall fail;
because man goeth to his everlasting home and the moutncrs go
about the streets; before the silver cord is loosed or the golden
bowi is broken, or the pitcher is broken at the fountain, or the
wheel broken at the cistern, and the dust returneth to the earth
from whence it came, and the spirit return to God who gave it."
These passages and a thousand others of superb beauty, of
power, of righteous wrath, of pathos, and pity and consolation,
were written by Jews under divine inspiration and these are what
certain Nazis are stupid enough to wish to throw away. When
race fanaticism goes to that extreme, it shows itself for what it is
If it be only a myth that pagan gods made men mad as a pre-
liminary to destroying them, it is no myth that the true God
may destroy men who deliberately cultivate the madness of race
KMIVfM**!** "^ '►
CIVILIZATION AGAINST HITLER
By Samuel Seabury
Address Delivered at the Mddison Square Garde??,
March 7, 1934
THE meeting which brings us together is no ordinary occa-
sion. We have discussed a momentous issue: the Cause
of Civihzation against Hitlerism.
What then is civilization?
Generally, we recognize it as an advanced stage of social
development and of the forces in society which make for human
As history attests, civilization springs from a background of
tradition and knowledge which have inculcated among those
who live within the zone of its influence the habits of order and
the observance of the laws of reason, and secures to them the
guarantees of freedom.
Multiple factors have entered into its creation; myriad are
the benefits to mankind which flow from its development.
Western civilization, for example, has created a social conscious-
ness that recognizes individual liberty, the freedom to live, to
work, to think, to speak, to write and to publish, and the free-
dom to give the fullest expression to human personality.
It builds its development upon laws embodied in the cus-
toms and habits of the people and in the ideals visioned by a
moral sense which makes men sensitive of the rights of others
and conscious of tiieir obligations to one another.
The two faaors which have most impeded the march of civi-
lization — the two gravest evils which man through the ages has
inflicted upon his fellows — are religious persecution and war.
These are the twin plagues which the peace, happiness and
future development of mankind require shall be extinguished.
Disregard our social inheritance, renounce the principles of
liberty and freedom which civilization has attained, and you
break the bonds which hold civilization together and usher in
an era of savagery and barbarism.
Strong as our civilization is, the lesson of history, as well as
recent events, admonish us that civilization has in it elements
of uncertainty and insecurity. It cannot exist unless the individuals
and states within the zone of its influence recognize their depend-
ence upon the observance of rules that ate necessary for the
orderly development of social life.
Just as no individual can disregard the other members of the
community in which he lives, so no civilized state can disregard
the other states in the world of which both are a part.
Those interested in the cause of civilization should beware
of the advance of barbarism, manifesting its approach through
religious persecution and race hatred.
Civilization Against Hitler : By Samuel Seabury
Yet these are the banners under which Hitlerism is seeking
to make its advance.
A great state and the rule over a great people have been seized
by a tyrant whose grip is as firm as his policies ate wicked.
These policies have manifested themselves in unspeakable op-
pression and acts of cruelty. They threaten not only the extermi-
nation of the liberty of those who live under his rule, but the
liberty, integrity and independence of neighboring states.
In the addresses which have been made this evening, you have
heard the testimony of witnesses who represent different schools
of thought, and who, in various spheres of action, are the accred-
ited leaders of those for whom they have assumed to speak.
Collectively, these witnesses voice not only the cultural, political,
academic and religious views which are basic in our civilization,
but they have enunciated what I verily believe to be the true
verdia of American pubHc opinion.
The views thus expressed have not dealt with prophecy, but
with facts. The faas have disclosed what has happened in Ger-
many and the outrages which have been perpetrated during one
year of the Hitler regime.
The witnesses you have heard tonight have detailed events,
the occurrence of which has shocked the moral sense of man-
kind and wliich are peculiarly distressing to those of us who
cherish the American ideal, because these events strike at the
basic principles which underlie human freedom.
Not only do these events distress us in this respea, but they
reveal the commission of cruelties and of outrages upon those
who are near and dear to a group of our own citizenship— a
group which have contributed much to the upbuilding of our
institutions and constitute an element in our country whom we
delight to acknowledge as our partners in American citizenship.
The hideousness of the events, their promise of further oppres-
sions and their menacing character, threatening the very foun-
dations upon which Western civilization rests, justly alarm all
those who are interested in the advancement of that civlhzation
and are opposed to its being disrupted by the precipitation of
another fiery ordeal of battle which these Hitler taaics, if not
These events thus create the issue upon the determination of
which momentous consequences depend, and involve no other
question than the Cause of Civilization Against Hitlerism.
Other States may in their present stage of development have
extended their state powers unduly over the consciences and
the rights of their own citizens, but the Nazi state has gone fur-
ther in that its basic idea is the deification of force, the dogma
of race and the discrimination against all who are not of that race.
The test by which the Nazi state determines whether the rights
imiv^Min V HI- rmAh A( AumiN m n i inn
Civilization Against Hitler ■ By Samuel Seabury
of men shall be recognized is made dependent not upon the aaion
or conduct of the individual, not upon his merit or the lack of
it, but solely on the race from which he has sprung.
Thus Hitler, in a spirit of nationalistic egoism, outlaws the
brotherhood of man, proclaims those of his race alone the chil-
dren of a common father and discriminates against all others.
Recognizing that the attributes of the God whom mankind recog-
nizes are too catholic and comprehensive to fit his narrow category,
he creates his own god— a god fashioned in the hideous imaee of
The facts which many speakers have so eloquently presented
CO you to-night attest that the multiple tyrannies, oppressions, bru-
talities, cruelties and injustices, in their various forms and mani-
festauons, are all destructive of the cause of civihzation, and are
all indications of an aggressive Hitlerism which hurls its defiance
at the world.
Others have spoken to you of specific aas which Hitlerism has
perpetrated. Let us inquire what is the thought which has
ptompted these aas. From what have they sprung, and what is
the progtam of which they ate a part?
We must look for a moment at the historical events which
preceded the advent of Hitler to power, and the ideology to
which he has since committed the Gerroan people.
The HohenzoUerns abdicated on November 9, 19I8. A Soviet
regime intervened. It did not givt satisfaction. A national as-
sembly, representative of all classes of. the community, met at
Weimar on February 6, 1919, and adopted the Weimar Consti-
tution m August of that year. That constimtion rested upon the
broadest principles of democracy and justice. In its preamble
the people of Germany pledged themselves "to renew and to
establish its federation on the sole bases of liberty and justice,
to serve the cause of peace within and without, and to promote
Time will not permit detailed comment upon this remarkable
Suffice it to say that it proclaimed the German Federation a
Republic with its supreme power vested in the people. It fa-
voted the cause of peace and encouraged education and inter-
national good will. Foreign conquests were proclaimed uncon-
stitutional. The army and navy were proclaimed the "defence
force," and could not be otherwise employed without a breach
of the Constitution. It etected the standard of brotherhood in
the place of the old order of special privilege. The right to
trade and the right to work was insisted upon indeed, the right
to an opportunity to work was expressly provided for. It laid
upon sound principles the foundations for the administration of
justice and guaranteed the rights of all, irrespeaive of race, creed
• Civilization Against Hitler • By Samuel Seabury
or sex. It surrounded personal liberty and freedom of opinion
with constitutional safeguards and secured the right of public
meeting. It treated a man's person and his home as sacred and
recognized his right ro emigrate to foreign countries. Art, science
and the teaching and development of each were made free from
social conttol, and the state recognized its obligations to pre-
serve these rights from interference by individuals, groups or
The Constitution of Weimar rested on the firm foundations of
social justice, economic freedom and the common good. That
Constitution was adopted in 1919. It represented the opinion
of post-war Germany and it visioned an era of peace andf good
will. Had it been given effect, it would have meant much to man-
kind, but other forces intervened. I have no time to trace them.
Suffice it to say that on Oaober 18, 1933, four days after Hitler
had led Germany out of the League of Nations and the Disarma-
ment Conference, Hitler proclaimed: "Germany wants nothing
but peace," and that she rejeaed every policy of force.
His every act since that time, as well as his previous utterances,
show that his statement was false.
In his book "My Battle" ("Mein Kampf"), he said: "It is
necessary, then, for better or worse, to resort to war if one
wishes seriously to arrive at pacifism. In reality, the humanitarian
and passive ^idea will perhaps be excellent on that day when the
man superior to all others will have conquered and subjugated
the world first of all in such a measure that he becomes the sole
master of this earth. First, then, the battle, and afterwards — per-
haps — pacifism."
Stop for a moment and consider the imphcations of this utter-
Peace is not to prevail until the man whom Hitler regards as
"superior to all others shall have subjugated the world," in such
a measure "that he becomes the sole master of this earth."
Thus were the enlightened ptecepts of the Constitution of
Weimar nullified and trampled under foot, and thus was ushered
in the era of tyranny and violence for which Hitler has consistently
The menace to the world from this attitude clearly appears
from another utterance contained in Hitler's book. I quote it:
"Not until the Germans have realized that they must engage in
an aaive and final conflict with France will it be possible to
bring the fruitless struggle to a conclusion — on condition, how-
ever that Germany sees in the extermination of France a means
of providing her people with the necessary room for expansion
* * *". And Hitler goes on to add: "There are ei£:hty million
Germans in Europe today. This policy will be recognized as the
correa one when, in less than one hundred years from now, the
|tt4tVrH*tH V itr mAhAIAimilN IIINIItlTi
Civilization Against Hitler - By Samuel Seabury
Contineat of Europe is inhabited by cwo hundred and £fty
Not only has the Constitution of Weimar been scrapped, but
the mask has been torn aside and Hitler appears openly proclaim-
ing that his group represents the men superior to all others and
that a preliminary to the advent of peace is the subjugation of
the world by them, and that they shall be recognized as the
earth's sole masters.
Not only does he proclaim this as an ultimate end, but he points
out that Germany— that is, the Hitler Germany — "sees in the ex-
termination of France a means of providing her people with the
necessary room for expansion."
According to Hitler, the lines of other national states are to
be eliminated by war and conquest and in less than a hundred
years the continent of Europe is to be inhabited by 250,000,000
Germans, acmated by the Hitler lust for power, accomplishing
its purposes by the Hitlerized processes of violence and cruelty,
until the German power shall have "subjugated the world" and
become "the sole master of this earth."
Since that time, the policy of Germany has been to arm, and
while it disguises the groups that it keeps equipped for battle,
they include not only the regular army, but the Prussian Police!
the Black Shirts, the Black Coats, the Steel Helmets and others^
an aggregate force of over a million men, A million men, ready'
when their leader shall give the signal, to commence the work
of "the extermination of France" and "the subjugation of the
Then, and then only, will the ideal of the Hitler state be
reahzed^a state repressive of the personalities within it, aggres-
sive, threatening and ruthless to all who are without it.
In order to appreciate the activities of the German national
socialistic government for which Hitler speaks one must under-
stand its ideology.
The basic idea underlying the whole program of tyranny is
the German conception of the state, its powers and funaions.
It IS a natural development of a school of German political phil-
osophy and is the rock upon which the Hitler regime is founded.
Hitler not only enthrones this instrument of oppression, which
he calls a state, as tyrant and despot over all who hve within it,
but he threatens, by its power, the existence of other states and
gives express notice that its purpose is to exterminate each and
every state which refuses to make way for the march of Hitlerism.
Force and fear— the power to use fotce and the capacity to
inculcate fear and terror among others — are the distinaive at-
tributes of the state which Hitler has created. Indeed, the over^
shadowing pre-eminence which has been accorded government by
force and fear in the Hitler state excludes a consideration of fun-
Civilization Against Hitler : By Samuel Seabury
damental polidcal, social and economic principles, because, in
the light of that false pre-eminence, these principles find neither
room nor occasion for expression.
This view makes of the state an instrumentality of oppression,
which kills the power to formulate ideals for the future and
lifts a sordid materialism into the seat of power, cteates an
antagonism between law and justice, divorces the government
from any connection with self-government and so paralyzes human
endeavors as to render them incapable of giving expression to
those qualities which, under free conditions, are among the glories
It is this degraded conception which visualizes the state as
the sole source of civil and moral obligadon, crushes truth, makes
Injustice inevitable and kills the seed from which alone can
germinate ideals that hnd their most exalted expression in reli-
gious, ethical and philosophical endeavors, and in an art and
iiteramre worthy of the world's best traditions.
In this Hitlerized state all intelleaual and cultural activities
are formulated, standardized and co-ordinated so as to flood the
country, and mislead the people, with a false propaganda, favor-
able to the ideal of the Nazi state, and all attempts to correct the
raisimprcssions so creattd are suppressed and punished.
The publicity and the attempt to mould public opinion favor-
able to the program of the government is made by the Ministry
of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda.
Thus the press is entirely under governmental control, so that
every editor is, in effect, a public official whose utterances are
dictated and controlled by the state. Broadcasting is likewise
controlled and enlisted in the cause of governmental propaganda.
Advertising is taken over by the state. A black list is established
fof books and many are upon the Hitler Index. The government
not only diaates to the libraries what they may collect, but upon
occasion the Nazi state directs the burning of books. Vain effort:
You can no more stay the progress of the truth by reducing to
ashes the form in which it is expressed, than you can imprison
it behind iron bars.
The Nazi state controls the life of every citizen. Education
and training for the young are directed in the same way; it has
become the privilege of the few and is dominated by the teachings
o( the Nasi state. Jewish youth is denied the benefits of education.
Great scientists, artists and teachers whose reputations are world-
wide, have been driven from Germany because of racial tests
which have been applied.
The administration of justice in Germany has been debased
by providing for the determination of issues not in accord with
law or justice, but solely upon the racial group to which the
,,„,„,,„„,,¥ tir i»-y*i» Ai AuniiN (itN I mu
Civilization Against Hitler * By Samuel Seabury
Doctors, lawyers, judges, members of all the learned professions
and cultural groups who are not of the favored race have been
Representatives of trade unions and all who dissent from the
philosophy and practices of the Nazi state are equally proscribed
and discriminated against. The heads of the unions, like other
dissenters, have been herded in concentration camps.
The assets and funds of the labor unions collected for unem-
ployment relief have been confiscated and stolen by the Nazi state,
Women have been driven from industry and denied every
vocation except those within the home and the bearing of children.
All the great social fellowships — teligious, culmral, charitable,
scientific and political — which abound in every civilized state,
have been converted into agencies of propaganda for Hitler ism.
The Nazi state, however, does not limit itself to the suppression
of cultural and social groups or fellowships, but subjects the
private life of the individual to the same measure of contro!. It
insists not only upon the regimentation of the actions of men,
but their religious beliefs as well.
The academic freedom which prevailed in German universities
has been stamped out and their educational institutions, formerly
great centres of learning and culture, have likewise been converted
into agencies of propaganda for Hitlerism,
The attempts of the Nazi state to subjugate the intellect and the
religious beliefs of the people have received their most effeaive
resistance from the churches. There was resistance in the fields
of science, Hteratute and art, but it was unorganized or came from
individuals whose organizations had been destroyed. The influ-
ences of the Catholic Church and the Protestant Churches were
too strong to be so easily disposed of and other methods of
accomplishing the same purpose were resorted to. The great
Catholic Church preserved its independence and loyalty to its
traditions by refusing to worship at the Hitlet shrine. As a
result, the Catholic ptess has been rigidly censored and is dis-
criminated against by the Nazi state. The Protestant Churches
have been reduced to mere cogs in the political machine and are
forced to teach the principles of Hitlerism as if they were the
precepts of religion.
The outrages to which the Jewish people have been subjeaed
have been inhuman, uncivilized and barbarous.
Every method which ingenuity, cruelty and perversity could
devise to harass and oppress the Jews has been resorted to.
The Jews constitute the majority of those who have been
herded in the concentration camps, whete they have been subjected
to every cruelty and indignity.
As long as the Jew remains in Germany he is denied the right
to participate in wholesome, decent, civilized life. While the
Civilization Against Hitler - By Samuel Seabury
Jew remains in Germany it is the new religion of the Nazi state
that he shall be persecuted and oppressed. He is penahzed in
every activity he may exett.
Slavery without any mitigating circumstances must be the lot
of the Jew who remains in Germany while the Nazi state is in
power. And yet laws have been enacted in Germany which
forbid the Jews to go elsewhere. Forbidden to leave Germany,
they are outraged and oppressed while they stay. Prisoners to
the Hitler state, denied the right to expatriate themselves, they
must continue to remain under the Hitlet regime and suffer the
persecutions and cruelties incident to it.
Forbidden to live elsewhere, penalized while they remain, the
Jewish populations of Germany are the galley slaves in the Nazi
ship of state.
What can we say of such a state and the evils that it has pro-
duced except what Garrison said of slavery: that it is the "sum
of all villainies."
Not content with the slaughter of the innocent within its own
realm, Hitlerism has created agencies throughout the world
tiirough which it spreads false and malicious propaganda against
the Jews, the only purpose of which is to stir up strife and
create race hatred and prejudice.
In the discriminations against, and the persecutions of, the
Jews, other people must not be so short-sighted as to conclude
that they ate not also affected. Persecution of one is an injury
to all. Let us not forget that, in the language of our own James
Russell Lowell, 'Tn the gain or loss of one race, all the rest
have equal claim/'
In the fanaticism whicii has characterized the Nazi zeal, they
have even rewritten the Psalms of David so that, instead of their
giving an expression to an appreciation of the fatherhood of
God — the very negation of the idea of racial discrimination- — -
these Psalms shall hereafter in Germany hymn the Hitler hate
against the race which produced them and clothed them in gar-
ments of beauty which they have worn through the ages,
Hitlerism is determined to establish its supremacy in Germany
and throughout the world, even though, in order to accomplish
this result, it must pass over the corpse of civilization.
The public opinion of the world will stop this advance.
Hitlerism shall not pass over a highway strewn with the wrecks
of western civilization. It shall not pass that way — no, not until
the stars have darkened and the sun has set in the heavens,
never to rise again.
The reason why Hitler cannot succeed is that a force greater
than he will overcome him. The force that shall overthrow him
is the public opinion of the world. The public opinion of the
world rules the world. It has toppled kings from their thrones
i,^,v^H*M V •••- ii-WAn A I AimiiN urN I IIMt
Civilization Against Hitler • By Samuel Seabury
and reduced great empires to dust and ashes. It has brought
vain-glorious tyrants to the block or sent them to exile. It is
a force strong enough to overthrow Hitlerism, its armies, its
satellites, its bigots and fanatics. But public opinion must be
aroused. It must be organised. The emergency is great; the
need fot immediate aaion vital. It must be crystallised at once
and it must find expression in a boycott against Hitlerism — a
boycott as wide as civilization and as powerful and as strong as
Other tyrants have often been overthrown as the result of an
opposition led by individuals, but Hitlerism must be confronted
by the atoused public opinion of the world, which will condemn
it to the everlasting infamy which it merits.
Public opinion as the force, and boycott as the weapon, will
break the power of Hitlerism. It will clear it from the pathway
of the developing and advancing civilization which it obstruas
and thus accord to the world the only opportunity it has for
the preservation of world peace.
A LIBERAL'S ATTITUDE TOWARD
By Raymond Moley
Address Delivered at the Madison Square Garden,
March 7, 1934
r 1 ^HE modern world is built upon nations and the modern
I nation is built upon the principle of unity. Unity in a
-*- nation comes from one of two things — the tie of common
blood or the tie of common rational principle.
In the building of the American nation through the trials of
colonial infancy, through its expansion over the continent and,
still more significant, through its population from all of the
peoples of the world, there was no choice in its means of unity.
Its people did not have common blood. ThereforCj it had to build
its unity out of common principle.
What is this principle, then, which to us muse mean a unify-
ing reality as deep as blood? It is the principle of social justice in
the face of obvious external differences. The very basis of
social justice is that freedom of worship should be recognized,
that freedom of expression should be guaranteed and, more
latterly, that the right to enjoy the produas of labor and the
riches of nature's bounty should be justly protected. Religious
and political justice has been followed by the building of the
principle of economic justice.
I have no illusions about the nature of justice. Its expression
comes in part from the revelation of divine wisdom. But such
is the nature of the world that its definition comes along from
the hard necessities of human living. If we cannot have justice,
we cannot have life. That is the American creed.
If we believe that creed, which is fundamentally based upon
the superiority of principle over common origin, based upon the
faith and, I believe, now the scientific truth that physical externals
of origin are unimportant factors in the fabric of civilization, we
- cannot believe and we cannot tolerate as a principle of national
unity for ourselves, the barbaric delusion that blood relationship
is the chief principle that must govern civilization.
That is my faith as a libetaL
When this nation was born, the world was old. Everywhere
were civilizations based upon different principles than ours. But
we displayed our experiment in the face of a grim and hard
world; we challenged the cynical old age of Europe and Asia.
We defended this principle with blood and treasure. Behind
the barricades of our faith, we have tried and are trying more
than ever to put into economic life the reality of our conceprions
of justice for all — all Americans.
A certain minor public official, whose name is unimpottant,
Liberal's Attitude Towards Nazis - By Raymond Moley
Liberal's Attitude Towards Nazis * By Raymond Moley
was confronted some time ago by a demand that in view of the
sacred principle of asylum established and cherished in this
country from its origin, certain citizens of Germany should be
admitted to this country. He replied that the demand was backed
merely by a few small groups along the Atlantic Seaboard, and
that he, as a public official, representing the nation, was not
impressed. I want the answer to this assertion to be clear and
It is not a small group or a special interest or even a group
of special interests that is concerned in this question. It is the
whole American people. And with regard to the specific cmestion
that that public official was discussing when he made that state-
ment, public opinion broke the bonds of callous bureaucracy and
put this country on record once and for all on the question of
asylum. That issue has been settled and settled in the only
possible American way.
Burke said in his immortal argument before the English Parlia-
ment in behalf of the colonies that "In order to prove that the
Americans have no right to their liberties, we are every day
endeavoring to subvert the maxims which preserve the whole
spirit of our own. To prove that the Americans ought not to
be free, we are obliged to depreciate the value of freedom itself;
and we never seem to gain a paltry advantage over the Americans
in debate, without attacking some of those principles, or deriding
some of those feelings, for which our ancestors have shed their
What Burke said of the attitude of British liberals toward
Americans is precisely what must be said now of the proper
attitude of American liberals toward justice and freedom in Ger-
many. We cannot find excuses for what Hitler has done without
at the same time finding reasons why our faith in our country
is a hollow pretense. We cannot whittle away the guilt of Hitler
by asserting that he is speaking for a grear nation's rights without
repudiating the distinction that makes the United States a nation
itself. Here is our chance to square our eloquent pretensions with
And so as an American who cherishes the liberal principles
that hold us together as a nation, I abhor and detest the barbaric
reversion that is Hitlerism. I believe that an American cannot
excuse it without impugning his own principles. He has the
right to expect his government to share in his abhorrence and
to lend what legal aid it can to those who have suffered from
This threat is not to one religion alone. It is a threat to every
religion — to the spirit of religion itself. It is not merely a denial
of right to a minority of Germans. It is a denial of the rights
of all minorities.
It is not merely a battle in behalf of Jews. It is a fight for
the integrity of American principle.
I hate Hitler and Hitlerism not only because they have denied
justice to fellow human beings. I hate this thing because it is
the enemy of my country, of my faith and of my right to be free.
lAfi Al AMOMN III Nl tl1i>
NAZI ASSAULT ON ORGANIZED LABOR
By William Green
Address delivered at the testimonial dinner in his honor,
February 14, 1934
PEOPLE of every age have been compelled to sacrifice, strug-
gle and fight for the preservation of human rights and the
exercise of freedom. They lose sometimes when through
political manipulation despotic appeals are made to passion, feel-
ing and racial sentiment. It is when these uncertain and danger-
ous characteristics of mankind are mobilized that tyrants win and,
as a result, exercise autocratic control through the power of gov-
In these modern days the hope of the oppressed people, in a
state where a tyrant rules, lies in the development of an aroused,
keen, sensitive international conscience. When the public opinion
of mankind becomes aroused in opposition to intolerance and in-
justice, the victims of misrule become encouraged to fight for the
enjoyment of their individual rights and for the recognition of the
broad principle of human brotherhood.
The masses of the people have ever cherished the principles of
democracy, freedom and justice as a priceless heritage. They do
nor wish nor do they ever expect to enjoy special privileges. Their
economic, industrial and social salvation lies in the enjoyiTient of
free and unrestricted opportunity to organize for self-helpfulness,
to participate in the civic and political affairs of the Nation and
to freely use their political and economic power so that they may
establish a social and poUtical order wliich makes for human bet-
It is because of the devotion of the working people to the doc-
trine of human rights and human freedom that they were shocked
when they learned of the atrocious treatment which, under the
Hitler regime, has been accorded working people and the Jewish
residents of Germany. The aroused feeling which was created in
the minds of the working people throughout the world was re-
flected in the artion taken by the British Trade-Union Congress,
the Trade-Union organizations of Holland, Belgium, Czecho-
slovakia, Switzerland, Spain, France, The International Federation
of Trade-Unions and the American Federation of Labor, repre-
senting the working people of the United States and Canada.
These Trade-Union organizations are the accredited instrumentali-
ties through which the voice of Labor, in the countries named, is
given expression. Their feelings were aroused, their sensibilities
shocked when they learned that through a seizure of political
jpower in Germany the Hitler regime had launched a campaign of
brutal perseaition against the Jewish people and had destroyed
the democratic Trade-Unions of Germany, imprisoned the ofEcers
Nazi Assault on Organized Labor * By William Green
of these Trade-Unions, confiscated their property and raided their
offices and headquarters.
It was because of this inhuman and indefensible action practiced
by the Hitler administration that these Trade-Union organizations,
almost all of them, declared in favor of an economic boycott upon
German goods and German service. Every man and woman who
loves liberty and who places human rights above and beyond ma-
terial rights will approve and applaud the action which these eco-
nomic, democratic organizations, representing the working people
of so many nations throughout the world, have taken.
The indictment against the Hitler regime in Germany is direct
and amazing. The facts justify the charge that defenseless, law-
abiding, upright Jewish citizens of Germany were subjected to
most cruel persecution because they were Jews — and for no other
reason. The working people of Germany who had built up their
Trade-Unions and had acquired Trade-Union property were forced
to witness the destruction of their Trade-Union institutions while
their leaders were thrown into prison, not because they had com-
mitted any crime but merely because they had been identified with
the bona fide Trade-Union movement of Germany.
Under this policy of ruthless extermination directed against
Trade-Unions 86 buildings serving as headquarters of the National
Trade-Unions, 233 local peoples' houses, directly or indirealy
connected with the German Trade-Union movement, 16 health
centers, with more than tw^o thousand beds and 4 Trade-Union
schools were confiscated by the Government. These 339 build-
ings represented a monetary value of 260,000,000 marks or $100,-
The German Labor Bank, with 240 branches, representing a
total value of 80 million marks, w^as forcibly taken over by the
Nazi storm troopers. The confiscatory policy of the Government
did not stop there. The German Consumers Society, which had
established 46 cooperative factories composed of four million
members and which had acquired property and a treasury amount-
ing to 240,000,000 marks or nearly $100,000,000, was seized by
the Government. One hundred and tw^enty-six newspaper dailies
and 84 printing establishments belonging to the Social-Democratic
Party, representing a value of 80,000,000 marks, were taken by
the Government. Added to this was the labor, sport and culture
movement with its numerous institutions, homes and theatres,
which had been built up and established as a paralleling activity
of the Trade-Union movement.
The accumulated property of the German Labor movement,
which amounted to 700,000,000 marks or $270,000,000, was
forcibly seized under the pretense of coordination. Reliable
information shows that a great part of this property has been
totally destroyed. The "peoples' houses" in Leipzig, Breslau
I M i iw i wi i
Nazi Assault on Organized Labor - By William Green
and Nuremburg, furnishings, libraries and otlier valuables were
thrown into the streets and publicly burned. Safes, belonging
to the Trade- Unions, were opened and robbed of their contents.
Recently a so-called "New German Labor Code," entitled
"The Law for the Organization of National Labor," was pro-
mulgated. The Hitter administration, through the operation of
this law, undertakes to create a relationship bers^^een employer
and employee based upon the complete domination and control
of industrial ownership and industrial management.
This so-called Labor Code is revolutionary and reactionary.
It completely annihilates Labor Unions, prohibits strikes and
terminates collective bargaining, as well as the right to organize.
The new set-up created by this Labor Code provides for a
system of shop councils which it is intended will function under
the supervision of governmental labor trustees, Subjea to cer-
tain exceptions, the employer is clothed with authority to hx
wages and working condirions upon his own initiative although
the workers are accorded the nominal but meaningless right to
appeal to the state.
The structure of Trade-Unionism erected in Germany upon
the initiative of the workers and which always was regarded
as the bulwark of the liberties of the German workers has been
completely destroyed. A new industrial and economic order
which, in operation, subjeas die worker to industrial manage-
ment control reduces the worker to an industrial status approxi-
mating slavery. Not only have the German workers suffered
the loss of millions in money but they have been robbed of their
economic power and influence, the only weapon which free
labor can use in establishing decent wages and humane con-
ditions of employment.
While giving consideration to these faas we must bear in
mind that in Germany, as in the United States, Great Britain
and other countries, large numbers of Jewish people are mem-
bers of Trade-Unions and for that reason it h reasonable to
conclude that they sufiered double persecution, the persecution
whicli was direaed against them because they were Jews and
that which was directed against them because they were mem-
bers of Trade-Unions. Because of the cultural and social inclina-
tion of the Jewish race the Jewish workers found an opportunity,
as members of Trade-Unions, to give expression to their idealism
and pursue their quest for education. They appreciated fully
the value of association with the cooperative societies, the Trade-
Union schools and health centers. Through the complete
annihilation of these educational and cultural instrumentalities
set up by the Trade-Union movement of Germany many Jewish
working people have been denied the only opportunities wliich
Nazi Assault on Organized Labor ■ By William Green
were available for self- advancement and for the promotion of
the common good.
It appears, from authentic reports received, that all the fury
of racial hare towards the Jewish population of Germany reached
a climax when the election of Hitler became an assured fact.
Immediately there followed a campaign of persecution against
Jewish people residing in Germany which, when the true record
is written, will stand as a blot of shame against Hitler and
those associated with him in control of the German government.
Hitler, through his campaign addresses, campaign literature and
public manifestoes, is largely responsible for the persecution
which has been visited upon the Jewish people in Germany.
He came into power singing his song of hate. Its refrain was
echoed by those whose feelings and passion had been aroused
against a race which has given to the world men of mighty
intellect and genius.
The annihilation of the Trade-Unions and the persecution of
the Jewish people will be regarded by all liberty-loving people
as the transcendent sin committed by the Hitler Administration.
The working people of our own country recognize and sup-
port the right of die citizens of Germany, as well as of all other
nations, to establish their own form of government and to
formulate their own political and governmental policies. It
should be respected by all those who claim it as a right for
themselves. In voicing a protest, therefore, against the ill treat-
ment of the Trade-Unions and Jewish people of Germany,
Labor entertains no thought of interference in the political
structure or the political policies of the German Nation. Science,
invention and improved methods oi transportation and com-
munication have brought the nations of the world into closer
contact and closer relationship. The people of one nation are
more nearly the neighbors of another now than ever before.
Our concern, therefore, in the indefensible action taken against
Trade -Unions and the Jewish race by the Hitler government is
rhat of a neighbor who insists that if neighborly relationship
and neighborly intercourse are to be maintained the Hitler gov-
ernment must observe those standards of national ethics due
It is the apparent purpose of the Hitler regime to drive the
Jewish people out of Germany, through the application of the
economic and discriminatory pressure. One may well inquire
why such a policy is pursued by those in cliarge of a govern-
ment made up of people who have prided themselves upon their
culture. Why should the Jewish people, who belong to a race
which has made a record in the contribution h has made to
science, education, literature .and art be subjected to cruel, in-
defensible treatment in the Homeland where they had cast their
ilf It-MAM Al AUhllN lUNItMn
Nazi Assault on Organized Labor • By William Green
fortunes and where they had served their Government in a dis-
tinguished way both in peace and in war' They constituted a
small minority of the German population. Their conduct had
been above reproach. They were law-abiding citizens respect-
ing the authotity of the state. They constituted no menace to
the existing order. Their helpless condition ar this time appeals
to the sentiments and sympathies of all people who are influenced
by sentiments of humanity.
The answer to all of this is: They are persecuted only because
they ate Jews — just as working people in Germany, are per-
secuted because they are Trade-Unionists.
The working people throughout the world responded in ac-
cordance with the lofty ideals and fine traditions of Trade-
Unionism and the Trade-Union movement. These organizations
of Labor are founded upon the broad principle of brotherhood
and fraternity. They will not countenance or tolerate those
primitive instincts of racial hate which consign a man or woman
to punishment of the most distressing kind merely because he
belongs to some other race, speaks a different language or em-
braces a different creed. This is a cardinal principle of the
American Federation of Labor. The question of race or creed
has no place in the policies, principles or membership of this
great economic institution.
Moved by the highest motives of human welfare and inter-
national good-will, the American Federation of Labor expressed
its opposition to the policy of persecution directed against the
members of the Trade-Unions and the Jewish people of Ger-
many. It could not remain silent and be true to Its own tradi-
tions, principles and policies. The men and women of Labor
who attended this Convention realized that merely voicing a
protest would not, of itself ^ be sufficient. The action of the
central figure, who shaped and directed the destinies of the
German Government, made it clear that any appeal ro his heart,
conscience and judgment would have no effect. The opinion of
Labor must, of necessity, be brought home to him in some more
definite and convincing way. For this reason the American
Federation of Labor decided by unanimous vote that "the Ameri-
can Federation of Labor join with other public-spirited organiza-
tions in our country in officially adopting a boycott a [gainst Ger-
man-made goods and German service, this boycott to continue
until the German government recognizes the right of the working
people of Germany to organize into bona fide, independent trade
unions of their own choosing, and until Germany ceases its op-
pressive policy of persecution of Jewish people."
In placing this boycott upon German go'^ds and German
service Labor disavows any disposition or intention of niterfering
in the internal affairs of the German governmen: Sut will call
Nazi Assault on Organized Labor ■ By William Green
upon working people and their friends, at home and abroad, to
apply it until the working people of Germany are made free to
organize into their own Trade-Unions, and until the Jewish
people, residing in Germany, are accorded the equal right, with
other German citizens, to enjoy all the rights and privileges to
which they are morally, legally and poHticaliy entitled.
^ It-HAA At AimilN OtNIIMM f
,,„,ypf,^, IV iif II- KARA) Aim I IN Utm IH>1
LABOR'S STAKE IN THE STRUGGLE
By Dr. Abba Hillel Silver
Address Delivered at the Testimonial Dinner to Mr. William
Green, President of the American Federation oj Lab Off
February 14, 1934
IT is gratifying to note the very positive leadership which
Mr. Wilham Green, President of the American Federation
of Labor, has been giving to the anti-Nazi boycott move-
ment in the United States. The testimonial dinner which is
being given to him by the Non-Sectarian Anti-Nazi League, in
which so many prominent citizens are participating, is a just
and fitting recognition of his courageous and far- sighted labor
statesmanship. Mr, Green was among the £rst in this country
to realize that Naziism is as fatal to the interests of labor as to
those of the Jewish group in Germany. The same bloody hand
which laid w^aste the Jewish community also destroyed all the
agencies and institutions of mumal help and proreaion which
organized labor had established in Germany over a period of
many years, outlawed its unions, scattered its forces, imprisoned
its leaders, confiscated its funds and reduced the working men
to a condition of feudal vassalage.
This, of course, was the prime objective of the Nazi move-
ment. That is why it was so heavily financed by the big indus-
trialists, bankers and manufacturers of Germany. The bogey
of Communism which the skillful Nazi agitators raised was a
ruse and a camouflage. The German Republic was never seri-
ously threatened by Commimism. It was the rising power of
organized labor and the clear trend towards socialization of
industry which the hard-pressed and frightened magnates of
Germany were passionately eager to check and which they suc-
ceeded in checking. At least for the time being. , . . For
no such victory can long endure at this late day. Those pur-
blind industrial rulers of Germany wdio have succeeded in de-
stroying the only free institutions whereby the progress of the
people could have been assuted through peaceful ways of evolu-
tion have laid up for themselves a bloody day of reckoning.
It is a commonplace of Jewish history that the reaaionary
forces of a country which are aligned against the Jew are also
aligned against the working classes. The fortunes of our people
throughout the w^orld have been linked up always with the
progress of freedom and political and economic liberalism. Wher-
ever these ideals flourished, the position of our people was
Wherever they were suppressed, its position became insecure
and frequently desperate. Similarly the fortunes of labor are
linked up with the progress of these great social ideals. Those
Labor's Stake in the Struggle * By Rabbi Hillel Silver
who attack them attack also the security and rights of labor. It
is, therefore, no accident of history that Naziism, which is the
implacable foe of the Jewish people, is also the implacable foe
of organized labor.
It is well to remember that the whole of modern anti-Semitism
is to be traced back to Bismarck's Germany. It was after Bis-
marck turned reactionary and broke with the liberals, that the
signal was given for a concerted attack upon the Jews in Ger-
many as a means of undermining and discrediting liberalism
and socialism. It was from Bismarck's Germany that modern
anti-Semitism, spread to Austria-Hungary, France and Tzarist
Russia. There is not an argument which the Nazis used in their
fourteen years of vicious anti- Jewish propaganda after the World
War that was not first propounded by the henchmen of German
political and economic reaction fifty years ago. The present
Nazi leaders borrowed their entire ideology from the writers,
journalists, politicians and theologians who did the dirty work
for Bismarck half a century ago — During, Marr, Rohling,
Even the definitive program of the Nazis for exterminating
the Jews from the life of the country was formulated in scien-
tific detail at that time — the removal of all Jews from public
office and from the educational system of Germany, their exclu-
sion from the press and from all economic activity and their
disfranchisement. In the same way the international aspect of
Nazi anti-Semitism was anticipated by the German reactionaries
fifty years ago when they convoked the first international con-
gress against Jews at Dresden.
Every reactionary movement has used the Jew as the pivot in
the fulcrum for dislodging liberal and progressive ideas and
institutions. The enemies of the Third Republic in France
stigmatized it as Jewish. Tzarist Russia pogromized the Jew
because it claimed that he was responsible for the revolutionary
movements which were undermining the regime. Hitler attempts
to eradicate democracy by declaring that it is fundamentally Jewish
and not Germanic. . , .
Fascism is a deliberate and conscious effort to restore mankind
to that system of ideas and social organization which prevailed
in the days before the French Revolution. If it triumphs in
the world, it will also restore our people to the status which
it occupied in pre-Revolutionary days ™ political and economic
rightlessness and defenselessness. Instead of free men intrenched
in inahenable human rights, we shall become members of a
disfavored minority group in an hierarchic system of feudal vas-
salage — exactly the position which we occupied in the Middle
Ages. It was the doctrines of the French RevoIution-^Liberty,
Labor's Stake in the Struggle * By Rabbi Hillel Silver
Equality, Fraternity — which opened for us the doors of oppor-
tunity in Europe and which made the Nineteenth Century for
the Jews of Western Europe the Golden Age of their history.
Fascism will again shut these doors against us. It has already
shut them in Germany. Lacking the basis of economic idealism^
Fascism must find some other social ideal as its basis. It can
find it only in an intensified nationalism or racialism. Strong
nationalism and raciahsm always spell strong anti-Semitism. They
are intolerant of ail minority groups.
The Jewish people is, therefore, fighting in self-defense against
this rising tide of poUtical reaalon, national chauvinism and
racial intolerance. But other groups, too, must wage a similar
defensive war against this self -same menace, particularly trade
unions which are the first to succumb whenever Fascism triumphs.
It is, therefore, most logical that in the attack upon Hitlerism
and Fascism, organized labor should form one unified front with
the hosts of Israel against the common foe. For every anti-Semite
is, under the skin, an enemy of freedom and of the working class.
NAZI PEACE WITH JEWS ALONE
By David A. Brown
THE press of this country has lately carried a story from
England indicating that the Jews of that country would
discontinue the boycott if Germany were to restore all
political and civil rights to the Jews. We question that any such
statement has been made by any authoritative Jewish group. Yet
the story is news and will be carried throughout the length and
breadth of this and other lands.
Months ago. In an article dealing with all the forces that have
been boycotting German made goods and German services, the
writer stated: "No separate peace can be made by Hitler and his
Naxi gang with the Jews, for the boycott is not and never has
been a Jewish boycott, regardless of the fact that Hitler, Goebbels,
and the others of the Na^i ilk would try to have the world believe
that only Jews were engaged in boycott activities."
The boycott is so far-reaching at the present time that it would
be difficult to name any group in any country not actively engaged
in boycotting something of German make. It would be difficuk
to name any group that has not been outraged by Nazi enaa-
ments and the development of Hitler's philosophy. Starting with
the^ destruction of Jewish life in Germany — the foundation upon
which Hitler built his Nazi army— carried out so brutally, so
inhumanly, so completely, that a whole world was shocked, fol-
lowed in rapid order by the destruction of the labor unions in
Germany, confiscating all their property including miUions of
marks in the labor union treasuries and the imprisonment or mur-
der of praaically all union leaders.
The propaganda from Germany ignores entirely the reaction
of organised labor throughout the entire world to this unjust,
unprecedented, cruel, insane action of madmen, crazed by the
power of which they became possessed. That there were many
Jews in the labor ranks in Germany goes without saying. But
there were millions of Germans in the labor unions of that coun-
try of which the Jews could have been only a handful.
Labor throughout the world, their sense of justice outraged,
began the boycott of German- ma de-goods the moment news was
flashed to them of the aas perpetrated against their brother-
union-workers. They did not wait for an official boycott to be
invoked. Nor did the Jews the world over hesitate to boycott
Germany the moment Hitler came into power. Had there never
been an organized boycott movement In any country of the world,
the hurt, shocked and outraged peoples of the world would have
refused to buy goods made-in-Germany, for that would have been
Nazi Peace with Jews Alone Unthinkable, by D.A.Brown
the natural human reaction toward a government guilty of atrocities
far greater than Germany was ever charged with during the
The organization of the boycott movement only developed when
it was realized that there could be no other method of bringing
home to the German people the resentment of the rest of the
world toward Hitler, his Nazi followers and their brutal treat-
ment of all who would not goose-step with them.
There followed in the wake of the Nazi attacks upon the Jews
and union labor, a series of acts that further shocked the world:
bonfires built to burn millions of priceless books, by writers who
had helped make the Germany of yesterday, and the cruel perse-
cution of such writers who remained in Germany whose philosophy
was not in harmony with the Nazi conception of a Hitlerized
This insane act of Hitler added to the boycott movement every
booklover, every lover of justice and fair play in every country.
The destruction of a free press and free speech added millions
more to the boycott army and an outraged press — some of which
tried to be neutral, awakened to the danger of what was being
done in the name of a new political philosophy — not only joined
in the boycott movement, but publicized the barbaric aas of a
barbaric government, which again added to the boycott army.
Offenses against the artistic world — musicians, painters, sculp-
tors, singers, actors-— were such that they too had special reason
for resentment and they have expressed themselves in no unmeas-
ured terms in every corner of the globe. Educators, professional
men, lawyers, the judiciary, doctors, engineers, scientists, all have
been hurt to the quick by what has happened to those of their
respected and respective professions in Germany, and they would
be less than human if they did not use the only weapon possible^ —
that of boycott.
Women throughout the world have protested against the nar-
row rut to which the women of Germany are confined — to provide
the fodder for poison gas, guns, aeroplanes, for the future wars
for which Hitler is preparing. This is to be their main occupation
and in this manner Germany has turned the clock back by at
least fifty years. The women of the world who have fought hard
and sacrificed much to gain step by step their rights for which
women have striven these many years, will not take lying down
this attempt to deprive the millions of women in Germany of
those gains which have come to them after years of desperate
Women who In the past, in every part of the world, have looked
with favor on the made-in-Germany mark, today refuse to buy
any article bearing that mark, and many refuse even to shop
in a store that sells German-made goods. When the women joined
Nazi Peace with Jews Alone Unthinkable, by D.A.Brown
the boycott movement, they became a force to be reckoned with,
which all the propaganda from Germany that the boycott Is purely
a Jewish boycott, will not affect in the shghtest.
Another large and powerful group that has joined the boy-
cott movement is composed of those in this and other countries
who invested money in the numerous German securities that
were sold by hundreds of millions after Germany passed through
its currency debacle and went on the gold basis. Since Hitler
came into power, these securities (to use a Wall Street expression)
have practically fallen out of bed. This is due endrely to the
manner in which Germany has dishonored its obligations. Practi-
cally ail of these securities have defaulted on principal and inter-
est payments and this holds true not only of securities of the
government, state and city, but even German corporation securities.
German securities, governmental and otherwise, arc selling on
the market today at about forty cents on the dollar, or at about
It is a well known fact that a large proportion of these securities
were held in this country, particularly by those of German birth
and those of German descent. The only hope for these bond-
holders lies 'm the complete overthrow of Hitler and his political
philosophy, for it is recognized that the longer he remains in
power, the greater the depreciation of these securities. Should
he remain in power long enough, it is believed. Hitler will find
some way of refusing to pay these hundreds of miUions in their
The sooner Hitler is out of power, the sooner these bonds and
other securities will have a value that will represent the cost of
these bonds to their owners. Boycott is the only effective course
and you may rest assured that the large number who are suffer-
ing rhe loss of principal and interest are fighting along these lines.
There is another group, whose numbers run into the millions,
in every country in rhe world, who see such dangers in a Hitler-
ized Germany that they are willing to go to any length to destroy
Hitler's power and to bring sanity back into the lives of the Ger-
man people. This group is comprised of those who have definitely
committed themselves to peace, who are basically and funda-
mentally opposed to war.
Long before Hitler came into power, and since, there has been
a rattling of sabers and the menace of war. His many speeches,
even though he talk of peace, are interpreted as threats of war.
The withdrawal of Germany from the League of Nations was
interpreted throughout the world as a preparatory step for war.
The formation of the Storm Troops and the youth movement in
Germany is recognized by the countries of Europe as an addi-
tion to the German army limited by the Versailles Treaty. The
manufacture of munitions, poison gas, small and large guns, aero-
Nazi Peace with Jews Alone Unthinkable, by D.A.Brown
planes, parts for submarines in Germany at the present time and
since Hitler's rise to power, all point toward preparation for
war and a constant threat to the peace of the world.
These peace lovers today regard the purchase of any item
made~in-Germany on par with the actual purchase of war mate-
rial and no sane person could or would charge a peace lover with
helping Germany to carry out her threat. These millions of high-
minded advocates of peace are boycotting and advocating boycott
as the only means of bringing the supporters of Hitler to their
I have left the most important boycott group to the last —
those who have been affected by the religious philosophy of the
Nazis. The attempt on the part of Hitler to substitute a pagan
religion for Christianity has met with aggressive resentment by
CathoHcs and Protestants all over the world.
Christianity refuses to be nationalised within Germany and is
fighting, yes, boycotting — openly and unafraid — Hitler's own re-
ligion, a religion of bigotry, fanaticism and inhumanity.
The imprisonment and persecution of great religious leaders,
both of the Catholic and Protestant faiths, have been protested
against by all religious groups and all religious organizations. The
Pope, speaking for the Catholics of the wotld, has upon many
occasions expressed his outraged feelings at the attempts being
made to regiment Catholics and the Catholic religion and at the
persecution of religious leaders of his faith.
Hundreds of millions of Catholics and Protestants scattered
throughout the world, openly and publicly resentful of what is
happening to their Christian brethren in Germany, have only one
concrete method of sending the message of their resentment to
Germany — and that is through the boycott of German-made goods
and German services. Hitler may cry out time and again that this
is a Jewish boycott, but he is fooling no one other than himself.
Hitler at the present moment is confronted with a boycott from
within and a boycott from without. From without Germany the
boycott is limited to things material. But within Germany it is
political, social and spiritual.
The laboring masses in Germany, though outwardly resigned,
are boycotting, with unconquerable spirit, Hitler's hypocritical
notions of national welfare — notably his glorification of suffering
under the sign of the swastika. The underground ferments, fuelled
by resentment against fettered minds and souls, is a silent seething
boycott which must sooner or later erupt and destroy Hitlerism.
The Reichswehr and the storm-troops are shot through with
rebellious brooding hosts, mercenary soldiers who, though com-
paratively well fed, keenly sense the misery of millions of their
dear ones. Others conceal pent up feelings of revenge for the
recent massacre of their fathers, brothers and comrades. If Hitler
Nazi Peace with Jews Alone Unthinkable, by D.A.Brown
were to call these men to arms against his "enemies,*' he would
probably be met with a boycotting resistance so ominous that his
very "throne" might tremble.
Intellectually, too, there is a boycott within Germany. The
handful of creative minds that have remained in Germany are
lacking the inspiration amid the barbaric sterilities of Naziism.
All mental effort being concentrated on hate for this or that un-
yielding group, the minds of thinking men and women simply
cannot funaion constructively. And that type of automatic boy-
cott is supremely damaging to the immediate future of Hitlerism,
It is unthinkable that Jews anywhere would make a separate
peace with Hitler. Not even if Hitler were to say to the Jews
of the world that he would give back to the Jews every right that
has been taken from them — political, social and economic. Even
though he were to invite back into that country all those who
left. Even though he would offer to compensate them for the
enormous economic loss they have suffered and to reimburse
them as far as it is humanly possible for such mental and physical
suffering as they have had to endure under his regime.
The Jews would refuse to make a separate peace because their
sense of justice is an integral part of the Jewish religion and
Jewish philosophy. The Jews would demand that the wrongs
perpetrated upon all the groups in Germany first be righted before
they would consider the acceptance of any peaceful gesture that
might come to them from the Nazis.
The Jews are a part, even though a small part, of the entire boy-
cott movement and will remain faithful until victory shall have
crowned the efforts of all those who are figliting for a reborn
Germany that will resemble the Germany of the past — a Germany
respected by the world.
"AN ORGY OF SUPPRESSION"
Extracts from an Address Delivered at the Annual Convention
oj the American Federation of Labor at San Francisco, Calif.
on October 19, 1954- ,
By Mr. Walter M. Citrine
(General Secretary of the British Trade Union Congress and President
of the International Federation of Trade Unions.)
IT is not my duty to talk to you about any of the many eco-
nomic problems which are facing the trade-union movements
of Europe, There is one outstanding, overriding question
which has engaged the serious attention not only of the British
Trade Union movement, but of the whole of the continent of
Europe. The institutions which have been built up after centuries
of sacrifice, after cenuiries of toil on the part of millions of ob-
scure and unknown workers are now threatened with destruction.
Their safety is menaced in a degree which I think transcends
anything in our previous history. Democratic institutions which
some of us had believed had become deeply rooted in the con-
sciousness of the people have crashed within the last few years.
I know to some of you here it may seem rather remote, sitting
in the security of this magnificent civic building, protected and
safeguarded as you are by the Constitution of the country to which
you belong, it may seem to you that there is no possibility what-
ever of this poisonous growth of Fascism being able to develop
in countries like your own^ with an age-long democratic tradition.
I would remind you of the fate of the German trade-union move-
ment, a movement which a few years ago represented over five
million conscious, intelligent and understanding trade-unionists,
a movement which in its real estate, in its great printing offices,
in its great halls and meeting houses, pointed the way to many
of our movements in the direction of creating real stability. Who
would have thought two years ago that that movement, led by
some of the most competent, the most sincere, the most able
Labor leaders that the world has produced in the Labor Movement
would have been destroyed in a comparatively few months.''
Who would have thought that in Europe today we would have
had in eleven countries a dictatorship established of a more or
less tuthless character?
I say, therefore, that although we feel strong and confident in
the power of our Institutions to resist this menace, the price of
liberty still is eternal vigilance, even on the part of those of us
who feel secure.
In the last hundred years there has been a steady emergence
of democratic institutions. The world over has witnessed a steady,
progressive movement in the direction of representative institu-
tions. The trade-union movement the world over has made a
striking contribution In that respect. Our branches, our councils,
An Okgy of Suppression • By Walter M. Citrine
our committee rooms, have been the training gtound in which
many of the eminent statesmen of the world have learned the
true purposes and meaning of democracy. Our movement very
likely has made political democracy a reality. Our movement, as
this convention has witnessed, is steadily traversing along the
road, bestrewn with obstacles as it is, of industrial democracy,
and that movement, that tendency of one hundred years, is now
in these countries that I have mentioned being reversed.
Your President, in the invitation which he sent to me, asked
me to describe to you the operation and the development of Fas-
cism. Before doing so I want to state something which may be
regarded by some as in the nature of a plaritude or truism that
scarcely requires iteration. The trade-union movement as a volun-
tary association of the workers, organized together for the pur-
pose of raising their standatds of life and securing some measure
of control over their conditions of life, of necessity can only exist
and function in an atmosphere of freedom. I apply that to every
form of dictatorship, no matter what its color may be. I don't
care whether it is a brown dictatorship, a black dictatorship ot a
red dictatorship. In its essence the trade-union movement as we
have understood it is an organization which has been built up
by the sacrifice of our people and it can only function as it pro-
tects these instruments in their behalf in an atmosphere of free-
Wherever dictatorship comes, dictatorship must by the very
nature of things, if it is to be complete, crush all opposition. That
is the reason why you have found the same methods and the same
tactics in country after country where the dictatorship has been
erected. That is why intellectual freedom is no longer possible,
because intellectual freedom represents a danger to the dictator-
ship. That is why professors of the universities and of the high
schools and the teachers who are training the young must be
members of the ruhng party, must be true" and loyal to the dic-
tatorship. That is why the great cooperative movement, as an
instrument of the consuming and production side of labor must
similarly be subjected and destroyed.
Communist dictatorship, like the Fascist dictatorship, is essen-
tially something against which the great voluntary trade-union
movement must strive. From the practical point of view, Com-
munism has ceased to become in the majority of the countries of
Europe at least a serious factor which might menace the strength
of the working class. There was a time when the Communist
movement was regarded as an inherent part of the working class
movement. A process of disintegration, a system of day in and
day out vilification of the trade-union officials and leaders, the
pouring of contempt upon the very instrument of trade-unionism,
all these things have led to a period of disillusionment and in
An Orgy of Suppression • By Walter M. Citrine
few countries today would the Communists be regarded as any-
thing more ot less than violent and rabid opponents of the move-
ment which we have ereaed. The disillusionment has meant that
there is now no real danger of our movement being misled.
Fascism today is the danger. Fascism, because of the great wealth
it can command, because of the reactionary forces which it can
enroll behind it has become the danger. Fascism, as you know,
arose in Italy, It spread to Germany. It spread to Austria. Its
record is everywhere the same. Everywhere it is a record of sup-
pression, of brutality and terrorism. It has stamped out personal
and political liberty in a way that we would not have dreamed
would have been possible.
When we turn to the construaive sphere its spacious promises
of a new era have almost every one of them been falsified. It has
proved to be a record of failure and of futility, and none oi us
should ever lose the opportunity of emphasizing that. It has cre-
ated an unrest on the continent of Europe, which, if it continues,
must inevitably lead to world-wide war. I shall give you the
reasons for all these statements in a few moments.
Is it any coincidence that in Italy, in Germany and in Austria,
the funds of the Fascist parties in those countries have been de-
rived from reactionary employers? Is that any accident? Or does
not this really mean in its essence a struggle on the part of those
employers, faced by the democratic movement of Labor, advanc-
ing under popular suffrage nearer and nearer to power, to try to
wrest that power from them by armed force?
Now let us pass to Germany. The growth of Nationalism came
through the feeling of national humiliation on the part of the com-
mon people, a feeling generated in very great measure by the
consequences of the Treaty of Versailles, the effect of which, as
you know, was to rid Germany of its colonies, of Alsace and Lor-
raine, to drive the Polish corridor right into the center of its
Eastern territory, and hand this section over to the Poles. Foreign
troops were on German soil until 1929. Then there were economic
causes, such as the payment of reparations, the loss of shipping,
the inflations which you remember so well when the German
mark was not worth the paper on which it was printed, when
the fortunes of the middle class in Germany, a most significant
faaor, were almost completely wiped out because of the inflation.
Then there came the wage cuts in the latter years of 1931 to
1933j the cuts in unemployment benefits, and last, but not least,
the existence of six and a quarter million unemployed in Germany.
Who would have believed that Germany could have sustained
six and a quarter million unemployed without revolution? It is
no wonder that there should be serious dissatisfaaion. Politically
there was a multiplicity of parties in Germany, Democracy was
brought almost to stagnation. Again you will see this is a vety
An Orgy of Suppression • By Walter M, Citrine
significant point. Twenty-seven political parties were appeahng
for the suffrage of the electorate. How could anything else arise
except a weak coalition between party and party, with the exist-
ence of private armies like the Nazis, the Nationalists, the Social-
ists, the Communists, and so on. People were mardiing about the
streets in arms, with all the possibilities necessary for violent
outbreak. No wonder there was a feeling of pessimism.
And in these citcumstances Hitler, with his exttavagant ptom-
ises, formed what he called the Nationalist Socialist party. He,
too, was going to establish Socialism, but it was going to be
National Socialism and should have no connection with an inter-
national movement. How Hitler got power is known to most of
you, and I do not propose to deal with it except to say that after
he had formed a government in conjunction with the Nationalist
patty in Germany he then started to swear into all the key posi-
tions in Getmany all his own reliable Nazis. Praaically every one
of the leading police officials in Germany was sent away on in-
definite leave and while he was away the Nazis put their own
men in. Then they swore in as auxiliary poHce three hundred
thousand Nazis who were given the authority of the State to shoot
their opponents. And you know the German policeman usually
resembles a miniature arsenal, more than anything else because
he has three sets of weapons.
Perhaps you think I am exaggerating, General Goering, as
Minister of Prussia, published a notice which appeared in the
press of the wotld in which he said that not only must all police
shoot on the least provocation, but those who fail to exercise the
power would be held responsible to him. That was an open
invitation to the wholesale murders which subsequently took place.
In February, 1933, this was the state of affairs in Germany.
The International Federation of Trade Unions, which had its
meetings and offices in Berlin, called a special meeting of its
executive on February 18. I presided over that meeting, and the
purpose of that meeting was to find out from the German trade
unionists what they were really doing and what they intended to
do to meet what was quite obviously the growing danger of a
Fascist outbreak. We spent several hours in discussing the mat-
ter and I laid down this, that the principle of the International
Federation of Trade Utiions prescribed autonomy for every one
of its constituent units. I said: "We, as International Executive,
have no right to tell the Getmans what they shall do in this con-
tingency; we have no right, who ourselves are not required to
take the risk, we who shall be secure in our own different capitals,
have no right to tell other men what they shall do." I said further:
''When all that is said and done, the German trade-union move-
ment represents one of the most powetful movements in the
International Trade-Union Movement and I implore you, as
l»Mlu«Hbi 1 V nr 1 1 n A(i A I Ai iti 1 1N ul N i mu
An Orgy of Suppression • By Walter M. Citiune
representative and responsible men, to tell us in what way we
can help, what we can do. Is there any direction whatever in
which we can give you backing and support in this crucial period?"
Well, what were we told? We were told — and this is the first
time I have ever stated it publicly, but I thuik it is necessary to
say it in order that you shall at least understand that everything
was ready^thar despite the assistance of six and one-quarter mil-
lion unemployed German trade-unionists, they were determined
to put up the maximum possible means of resistance, that the
button™that was the expression — the button only had to be
pressed and the working class movement would offer that re-
Then you know what happened. On the 2Sth of February,
there came the Keichscag fire and tliere was a wave of feeling
throughout Germany against the alleged Communist and Socialist
incendiaries. That fire, as subsequent events have shown, was
in all probability started by the Nazis themselves in order to
give them the time-worn pretext that so many forces have adopted
in this world — I think you call it a frame-up — to give them the
opportunity of arresting and imprisoning their opponents. None
the less, there was a wave of feehng hostile to the trade-union
movement at that period as a consequence of that fire. They had
no chance of stating their case. Their newspapers were suspended.
The police were put upon the platform of every private meeting.
The reports of their meetings were suppressed, they were not
allowed to send out to their own press their leaflets and their
posters, and as you know, the Government completely monopol-
ized everything until it was impossible in any public way for the
German Trade Union Movement to get its message over to its
Then came the election of March 5, with the German people
dragooned, intimidated, many of them brougiit from hospitals in
beds in order to vote for Hitler and his supporters. And I admire
the German working class for even under those circumstances
there were still seven million people ready to vote against the
Na^is. With his 43 per cent of German voters who voted on
that occasion, Hitler was able to become the largest party, and by
a coahtion of his friends, the Nationalists, who had been helping
him at the instance of President Hindenburg, there was launched
an orgy of suppression in which every section of the community
which was known in any shape or form to hold an independent
opinion was persecuted with a barbarism that must have been
indescribable. The Jews in particular were selected for this sort
of treatment. They were the people who, togethet with the
Matxists, it was said had brought Germany to the vetge of bank-
ruptcy. They were the people who had cornered the finances of
the country and who were in control of the large department
An Orgy of Suppression ■ By Walter M. Citrine
stores. And was it any wonder that at the direct instigation of
the Na^i officials the Jews were most brutally beaten and tortured?
I have no time to give you instances, instances that are on record
for ail who care to see. All that I can say is that my manhood
is revolring when I think of an elderly Jewish Rabbi, eighty years
old, dragged out of his synagogue and beaten in the streets. J
say my manhood is revolting, and I hope every other decent citizen
feels as I do about it.
The attitude toward the trade-unions in the early days of the
dictatorship was indefmite. There seemed to be some possibility
that Hitler would not attempr at that stage to dissolve the trade-
unions. Wc had a meeting in Brussels of the International Federa-
tion of Trade Unions to wdiich I asked the German representatives
in particular to be invited. I am sorry to say that they did not
come. I am sorry to say that despite the greatest effort on our
part by telegram, by letter and by personal word, not one of the
trade-union representatives in Germany attended our meeting
and we had to reach our decisions alone.
It was quite clear that the Government was holding us per-
sonally responsible, as prominent representatives of the Socialist
party and the trade-unions in Germany, I say this, which I have
not said publicly previous to this time. They actually sent over
to Great Britain and to certain other leading European countries
a representative of the German press, who is a Socialist. He
came direct with a message from General Goering, the Prime
Minister of Prussia, saying that if only the trade-unionists of
Great Britain and elsewhere would cease their criticism of
the Na^i Government the 172 Socialist and Labor papers and
trade-union journals which have been suppressed would be allowed
once again to start. That was the message that was brought to us,
and there is not the slightest doubt about it that the message was
authentic and came from the sources I have described. We knew
what that meant. They were not content merely with holding as
hostages individual German trade-unions, but they wanted to use
that as a means of silencing the conscience of the trade-union
movement of the world.
My friends, they failed. They were terms that we could not
accept, and as a consequence we definitely declined to have any-
thing to do with such a proposal. The German trade-union officers
were seized on the 2nd of May, many of their leading officials
among them. One of the most respected men I have ever met, a
man in a position comparable with that of your President Green,
President Leipart, the head of the German trade-union movement,
whose leg had been broken twelve months before in a compound
fracture and who for six months had been limping about to out
various meetings, who was in a delicate state of health, was
dragged from his office to a Nazi barrack in one of the principal
tJMtVkHMltV lit- ir dAtt Al AlltJlIN HI N 4 inu
An Orgy of Suppression ■ By Walter M. Citrine
streets of Berlin, dragged into a cellar and compelled there, by
force, to bend his left leg backwards and forwards, they thinking
that was the best way of torturing him, and finally, like Christ
of olden days, had a wreath put around his head. That is what
happened to the President of the German Federation of Trade
Unions. That represents the mental point of view of the Fascist
movement. It has no respect whatever for a life of service to the
working class, a service given by a man of irreproachable character,
who was treated in that abominable fashion.
He was not alone. There have been many others arrested and
thrown into prison for a few weeks and out for a few weeks
without a chaige of any kind. There is no need for me to elaborate
further into this German Na^i terror. All I can say is that his-
tory is repeating itself and there, as in Italy, the struggle with the
churches is taking place, not only with the Catholic Church, but
with the Protestant churches. It is finding Hitler demanding that
his representatives and his nominees shall occupy the prominent
positions in those churches. He wants to use the church not as
an instrument of the conscience of the individual, not as an in-
strument for the purification and preparation for another life,
he wants to use it as an instrument of the State to still further
intimidate the German people.
Economic nemesis is overtaking Germany. In the first six
months of their external trade last year — and I am now talking
about a country which was the largest export country in the world
two years ago, they had an adverse trade balance in the fitst six
months of theit trade despite the faa that they have cut down
their imports of $65,000,000. The gold reserve of Germany has
almost entirely disappeared. The railways last year, in 1933, suf-
fered a loss of $117,000,000. The tax yield on tobacco, on sugar,
and indeed on every State monopoly has fallen materially and
And what has happened to the workers? Again we have diffi-
culty in getting accurate statistics, but the figures which I am
giving you now are compiled from the German ojEcial statistical
bureau itself, which in turn took these figures from what is
called the German Labor Front. The German Labor Front repre-
sents the apology for a trade-union organization which has been
inserted and imposed in the German economic system. These
are the figures translated into dollars of German wages at the
present time. Less than 1 per cent of the German workers receive
more than $13.50 a week. Fifty per cent of the German workers
receive from $3.50 to $7 per week. Thirteen and one-half per
cent receive $3.50 per week or less. There are 2,500,000 more
workers now engaged in industry according to Hitler. He has
reduced unemployment, so he says, by 2,500,000, and yet despite
that the gross amount of the German wages bill is down 10 per
An Orgy of Suppression ■ By Walter M. Citrine
cent, despite the fact that there are 2,500,000 more wage earners.
Let me give a specific example. In Ktupps in 1932, 35,647
people were employed. In 1933, there were more than 43,409
people employed. In 1932, the wages paid on that similar number
of men was $17,250,000. In 1933, it had fallen to $16,750,000.
Now that specific example which I give you supports the general
conclusion, namely, that German total wages have declined, and
the figure which I gave you of 10 per cent is an authentic figure
taken from Germany's own statistics.
It cannot be a coincidence that the trade in Germany has de-
clined more in its overseas aspect, its export trade, than any other
country in the wotld in the last thirteen months. That cannot be
an accident. That is definitely associated with the diaatorship.
Wages in Germany today are lower than they have ever been for
the last fifty years, and Germany, instead of being one of the
high wage countries in Europe, is now rapidly becoming one
of the lowest.
Your President, on Tuesday of last week, uttered words which
represent, I hope, the spirit and the meaning of all that the
American Labor Movement stands for. He said: "No group of
red-blooded men will submit to tyranny. Labor has never sub-
mitted and it never will,"
Our third means, and I am proud to know your convention
adopted it, is the boycott. We launched the boycott in the early
stages, and the efiectiveness of that has been attested to by the
German Minister, Dr. Scliacht. He said only recently that the
boycott has been one of die most potent means of bringing down
the over-seas trade of Germany. That is the only way by which
finally the Governments of these countries can be taught that
Fascism does not pay. They are doing their level best to gener-
ate the feeling of war in their countries. When I came to this
country the first thing I got was a copy of a Montreal paper and
on the front page was a speech by Mussolini, accompanied by a de-
cree which he imposed, under which children from eight years of
age up to the age of thirty- one are to be given an intensive and con-
tinuous military training. The Italian children for years have been
taught to sing of the days when they would capture Daimatia,
of the days when they could cross the Nice and rescue from the
French that little town. In the same way the German children are
being taught that their destiny lies in the glorification of war. Re-
member, every Nazi leader has attested to the faa that there
must be conflia some day and that Germany must conquer the
world. That is the prospect held out to us. We have to fight this
menace by every means in our power.
I know it is a long time since the last great war took place. The
memories of that time are receding, they are getting dim. The
American public, although they may have lost many of their
lIHtv/tritill f *.l H « AH A I Aim I IN MPNMBW
An Orgy of Suppression - By Walter M. Citrine
bravest and finest men, have not experienced a condition where
the planes went circling overhead, dropping bombs indiscrimi-
nately over towns and killing and maiming people who had fled
to their cellars. You did not experience that. Would we be safe
in saying we would not experience it if another war came?
There is no nation in the world that has stood for peace more
consistently than has the American Republic. The American Re-
public, through its great President, uttered one of the greatest
sentences, whatever its realization may have been, that has ever
been uttered. He said of the last war: "This war is to be a war
to end war, to make the world safe for democracy." Is the world
safe for democracy? Are the possibilities of war further away than
they were before Fascism came, or has Fascism brought the
dangers of that war nearer to us? I say the facts that I have given
to you alone, apart from your own meeting, ought to leave no
doubt in your minds.
And I am reminded of the words of the gteat immortal Lincoln
whose memory lives m the minds of millions of people outside
of these shores. This nation was engaged in a vital conflict which
finally put the seal on the abolition of slavery, and established the
Declaration of Emancipation. In one of his addresses, the Gettys-
burg address, I think it was, looking over the graves of those
who had fallen in that great struggle, he said: "Let us here highly
resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain and that this
great nation under God shall have a new birth of freedom, and
that government of the people, by the people and for the people
shall not perish from the earth."
How true the apphcation of those words come inro our situation
as we see it today! It is to that task that the trade-union movement
of Europe and your fellow trade-unionists have set their hands.
They cannot accomplish much without your virile assistance, your
material, your moral and yout financial help. It is to you we
look, and my purpose in coming here is to try if I possibly can
to show you that our struggle is your struggle, that the battle of
democracy is being fought in Europe and may be decided in
Europe. I come to you for help. I cannot believe that you will
ADDRESSES BY SAMUEL UNTERMYER
Civilization's Only Weapon Against Hitlerism
(Address read at the Testimonml Dinner to Mr. Willmm Green,
President, American Federation of Labor, February 14, 1934.)
There are some respeas in which our Government has been
unpardonably lax in enforcing the legal protection to its own
industries to which they are entitled, and has thereby retarded
our efforts to exclude contraband German-made goods from
entry into this country, thereby playing directly into the hands
of this outlaw Government. Our customs law provides that
there shall be plainly and conspicuously marked, or branded,
upon every article imported into this country and upon the con-
tainer m which it is enclosed, the name indicating the comitry
of origin. That does not mean the city or county or othet
political subdivision of a country, but the country itself.
This law is being deliberately violated and evaded by German
importers and by the retail shops that handle their goods, with
the knowledge of our Customs authorities, under a ridiculous
order of the Treasury Department. As a result of this palpable
evasion, our American shops are flooded with German-made
goods smuggled into our country bearing obscure, unreadable,
wilfully misleading, instead of conspicuous, markings as the law
requires, or with no markings at all. Some of these camou-
flaged or hidden marks are such as "Made in Bavaria," "Made
in Saxony," and other States, Provinces or cities with which
many of our people are not familiar as being parts of Germany
or located there. Since the German States have been abolished
there are no longer even such political subdivisions. They are
fictitious. These marks are a fraud upon our consumers. And
yet all our efforts to induce the Customs audiorities to protect
our consumers against these frauds have thus far proved un-
availing, so that it has now become necessary, to our shame
and humiliation be it said, to appeal to the courts to protect
the American public against our own Government. That ruling
of the Treasury Department, made under a previous Adminis-
tration and adhered to by this, is simply grotesque.
The Postal Authorities have been equally derelict in failing
to protea our mails against scurrilous, seditious literature printed
in Germany in the German and English languages and smuggled
into this country by the tons by German ships flying the pirate
flag of the Swastika, and circulated broadcast by the millions of
copies, assaihng our institutions, attacking our citizens on the
score of their race, and maligning our President,
The day we are commemorating in honor of our great, souh
ful, martyred President, whose heart bled in sympathy with the
oppressed, and whose love of mankind was the greatest asset
of any nation in modern history, reminds us that we have no
occasion to be proud of the halting, inactive, do-nothing atti-
I lilt AH A I MtnniH inu\ mn
Addresses by Samuel Untermver
tude of our present government in the face of the world disaster
and disgrace of Hitierism. When we turn to the unexampled
record of acliievement and service by our country under the
inspiration of that grand soul in forever wiping out the foul
stain of slavery, and when we reflect with just pride upon the
many instances in our history when we have had the courage
to intetvene with solemn and effective protest against race and
religious cruelty and persecution perpetrated by other countties
against their minorities, we should bow our head and blush with
shame at our cowardice and apparent callousness in this great
This reign of terror has now lasted for almost one year with
ever increased inrensity and ingenuity of cruelty, and we have
not lifted a finger beyond the merest idle and meaningless ges-
tures. It is poot consoladon in the midst of such humiliation
to remind ourselves that there were times when our country
showed a very different spirit. We have at least proud memories
of a past to console us and perhaps yet to speed us into action.
Out action against Russia and other countries had far less pro-
vocation. It is late, but not yet too late, for us ro redeem
ourselves, open up our secret diplomatic archives and pubHsh
the official reports. We now demand to know the truth and
the whole ugly truth, so that our people may get some faint
conception of the horrors that have been inflicted upon tens of
thousands, of the murders, suicides and other crimes, and the
intolerable sufferings that have been perpetrated upon these
600,000 loyal German citizens of Jewish faith or ancestry, and
to which they have been and are being day by day subjected,
solely because their ancestors were, or one of them was, of
Jewish blood. In that way we should be able by one fell stroke
to pull down the house of cards that this vast German-paid
propaganda bureau has built around us. We have the facts.
Why continue to suppress them and thus become a party to
the floods of falsehoods that are being constanty fed to our
people? With the dissemination of these official lies the time
for maintaining these niceties has passed.
Since our Government apparently will not protect our manu-
facturers and consumers, why should they not protect them-
selves, the manufacturers by conspicuously labeling their prod-
ucts "Made in America," and the consumers by buying Ameri-
can goods. As the result of intensive investigation we find that
there is nothing Germany manufactures tliat we cannot dupli-
cate here ii given tariff' proteaion.
Fortunately, the liberty- loving American people, irrespective
of creeds or races, as well as the gieat masses of the Jewish
people, realize the crisis and are proving the effectiveness of
this defensive Boycott as the only conclusive answer to the
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
cruel Hitler boycott of the unfortunate German Jews, the exter-
mination of all labor unions and the attempt to destroy the
Christian Churches. This effectiveness is evidenced by the havoc
that is being wrought to Germany's export business all over the
world. For six months after our campaign began and until it
had been organized and put into full swing, the German Gov-
ernment was able to camouflage the figures, but tJiat is no longer
possible, as is evident from the November and December remrns.
They have now reversed and belied their previous boasts and
representations and are crying that because of the Boycott they
are forced to tepudiate their obligations and are unable to pay
the interest on their debts due America. In point of fact that
argument is as false as was the other. They had defaulted
on their debts long before there was a boycott. History tells us
that they are chronic inairable debt repudiators.
World opinion cannot reach into Getmany. The masses of
its people have no conception of the opinion the world holds
of theif brutal and reckless crucifixion of their minorities, nor
of their attempts to destroy the Christian Churches, and the
freedom of religious worship, nor of the wicked, seditious propa-
ganda they are conduaing all over this country against our estab-
lished instimtions, nor of the assaults upon the freedom of and
disfranchisement of all womanhood. With a press gagged, bound
and censored as never before in modern history, and with all
criticism of the Government and freedom of speech punishable
as a capital crime, by death, there is only one language that can
be conveyed to the German people or that they can be made to
understand. When their factories are closed and their workmen
discharged because the world has tutned its back upon them, and
as a result Germany cracks, as it will economically, then and only
then will the masses of its people, v/ho have been kept in
Ignorance of what has been happening, demand to know the
reason the world refuses to deal with "them, and will rise and
destroy their false leaders.
As a lifelong open and aggressive champion of organized
labor for the past 54 years, from the days when such champion-
ship was a reproach, I am thrilled and proud to have lived to
see the day when the dream that labor is to come into its own
is about to become a reality. Through the NRA we are on the
threshold of a new economic era, of which the step now being
taken is a mere entering wedge and which will eventually
secure for labor a more just share of the wealth it creates. The
peaceful struggle has just begun. I venture the prediction that
the present codes signahze the dawn of a new charter of liberty
and justice for the toilers.
By the sa.me token that the old economic ordet in industry
is about to be reversed and regulated competition and coopera-
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
tion are to take the place of compulsory ruinous competition
among employers, so is the atrocious fraudulent company-union
to be abolished, the right of labor to combine for its protection
to be enforced by law and all the long-denied demands of an
advanced socal state are to be written into our statures.
At last we are to reaH2e the outlawry of child labor, that
was denied us by the Supreme Court: the minimum living wage,
the inauguration of old age and unemployment insurance and
kindred reforms, that will bring about the substitution of a
real Democracy for the cold and narrow Bankocracy that has
until now ruled the land and has molded our laws to register
the selfish demands of concentrated capital, as opposed to the
recognition of human rights. No longer shall the labor of
human beings be treated as a mete commodity regulated solely
by the economic laws of supply and demand. The wear and
tear and depreciation that have always been conceded to capital
as applicable to the mechanical machine as a legitimate part
of the cost of business, are at last to be applied to the human
It is, therefore, with enthusiasm that I endorse and applaud
each and every one of the ten planks of the sound and humane
platform publicly announced a few weeks ago as embodying
the demands of labor by our honored guest as President of the
American Federation of Labor.
Strange indeed it is that at this epochal stage in our history,
when our country is going forward by leaps and bounds to-
wards the goal of social and economic freedom, we should
find ourselves forced, in the interest of common humanity, to
take up the cudgels in denunciation of the medieval policies
of a foreign country that has reverted to brutal savagery, and
the most inhuman industrial, racial and religious persecution
of modern times, by a Regime that has seized and is prostitu-
ting the government of a people that was once regarded as
amongst the most cultured of the nations, but that now has
ruthlessly severed all the ties that bound it to civilizationj and
has reverted to an unrecognizable state of barbarism.
The proper limits of rhis address will not permit of even a
brief summary of the many counts going to make up the terrible
indiament against this band of cruel Sadists, masquerading as
a Government, that constitutes the Hitler Regime, and of the
reason why the entire civilized world should, with one acclaim,
regardless of Race or Creed, refuse to recognize Germany under
its present despotic rule as a member of the family of nations.
Suffice it to say here, that bearing on the widespread extent
of this Anti-Semitic program of the Nazi Government, figures
have been collated and published by the Chairman of the German
Relief Fund of rhe Joint Distribution Committee, showing that
up to December last 120,000 Jews had been deprived of their
occupations in various fields of endeavor, and that, including
members of the families of those ousted, the total number thus
without means of livelihood was 175,000. The report also
showed that in many instances businesses owned by Jews were
being boycotted, and portrayed the indescribable plight of Jewish
children in German schools.
Let me here emphasize the fundamental fact that lies at the
basis of our Boycott campaign, that although the German citizens
of^ Jewish birth and ancestry, who have been imbedded in the
soil of their native land for more than a thousand years before
the^ Teutonic Invasion, and who freely shed their blood for
their fatherland, are the immediate victims of this nightmare,
their tragic plight is only one of the many phases of this mad
onslaught upon civilization. That outbreak of racial and reli-
gious bigotry, horrible as it is, is not more serious in its effects
than are other phases of the reign of terror that is convulsing
and threatening to destroy Germany. The 550,000 Jews thus
murdered, starved, beaten or disfranchised and deprived of all
the opportunities to earn a living, or thrown into vile concen-
tration camps and driven to suicide, constiuite, after all, less
than one per cent of the population.
The point I want to make is that, incredible as are these
atrocities, this is not primarily a Jewish question. Orher equally
revoking crimes and misdemeanors are proven against the Hitler
Regime, on their own confession, that alike directly affect all
humanity. Those of us who refused to believe the reports of
the Belgian atrocities have but to hear one per cent of whar
the Jews are enduring, and their doubts will be dispelled. And
yet the full extent of the gruesome tragedy can only be con-
jectured. The hideous facts will never be permitted to be told
but we know enough to sicken our souls, and to turn away in
horror from these fiends in human form, whose fanatical joy
is in torture.
Reverting to the uprooting of the labor unions, we now
know that the exclusion of all Jews from the unions of Ger-
many so as to destroy their opportunity to earn a livelihood
and thus to intensify and prolong their agony, was a mere
Satanic prelude to the destruction of the unions themselves. Why,
you may well ask, have these unions, that are the developments
of generations of social progress, been thus wantonly annihilated
and outlawed? The Jews are being crucified upon the grotesque
pretext that there is to be a new race founded in Germany,
having only pure Aryan blood, as though there were or could be
such a thing. It is a fantastic pretense born in ignorance and
dishonestly pursued in defiance of all hisrory. The Germans of
North Germany are of an entirely different strain of blood from
UMiU»Hiin * Uf IMAN A( AimilN U» H H««»
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
those of South Germany, Neither has at most more than a
smattering of Aryan blood, if any, as have the Jews. The thing
wouid be a huge joke if it were not tragic in its effects.
It is a logical reaction to these absurd myths and vagaries
about Aryan and Nordic blood now sought to be implanted
into the German consciousness that at least the beauty-parlor
industry should be thriving in Germany to such an extent and
has so alarmed this Opera Bouffe Government that it has felt
called upon to issue an official warning against the rate at which
brunettes are being converted by these beauty parlors into
peroxide blondes to meet the Nordic requirements. Whether
this decree is to apply to men as well as women does not appear
from the cable despatches. Why not? Sterilization of all per-
oxide blondes should be the next step. But imagine if you can
the consternation of the fond parents when the progeny fails
to abide by the peroxide test. Gilbert and Sullivan in their
most palmy days never wrote anything quite so funny.
The underlying reason for the destruction of the German labor
unions, although no more exaisable, is more understandable than
its wicked persecution of its Jewish citizens. The labor unions
were suppressed upon the command of the ammunition manu-
facturers and the industrial barons of big business who financed
the Hitler campaign. They are responsible for the rise of
Hitlerism to power and are the real rulers of the present regime.
It is upon the demand of these industrialists that every trace and
vestige of social freedom and democracy in Germany has been
annihilated; and banished liberty of speech and of the press have
converted that benighted country into the most cruel, bigoted
despotism on earth. We shall have to go back more than 1,000
years in the world's history to find its like.
These industrial barons have decreed thi^ enslavement and
destruction of labor, which has so valiantly fought for the freedom
which it has achieved. Under the inspired leadership of organ-
ized labor, Germany had become the pioneer country of the
world in advanced social legislation. All this now bids fair to
be undone. The serfdom of labor is again enthroned in that
savage regime. That is one of the many reasons w^hy it must be
The same industrial overlords are fomenting war for their
own profit, and have suppressed organized labor, the better to
coin blood-money out of the sweat of the wotkers, They are
merely attempting in a bigger, more daring and more ruthless
fashion, with Hitlerism as their pliant and willing tool, what
the trusts and big business have been doing to our labor until
their reign was ended by the advent of President Roosevelt and
the New Deal.
Herein lies also the greatest peril to the success of our NRA.
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
This is not so apparent in the East as in states such as Cali-
fornia from where I am writing you now. Nor is the revolt
against the concessions to organized labor in its relation to the
NRA on the surface so general among the great corporations
controlled from the East, as among the smaller business men
in the West and South. As I see the situation the battleground
will be in this State, after the Federal Government has estab-
lished the constitutionality of the law in the courts, in which
I believe it will succeed but only as an emergency measure. If
it has not by the time the emergency has passed become so
firmly imbedded in the roots of business as to continue on its
own momentum, I fear that it will not survive. It has its
perils, chief of which is its encouragement of trusts and monop-
olies. How it can enthrone them as it is doing by legalizing and
strengthening these cartels and at the same time putsue them
under the anti -trust law is to me a paradox. It means the
maintenance of a vast bureaucracy to police the business of the
entire world; and yet the experiment is well worth trying.
Some of the many other counts in the staggering indiament
against the Hitler Regime remind us of the wisdom of the trite
adage that "Whom the gods would destroy, they first make
mad." What, for instance, can be the motive for this relendess
war against the Christian Churches in Germany? Its avowed
objective is said to be to bring about the substitution of a
so-called German State Church in place of the present Cathohc
and Protestant Churches. The separation of church and state
?,nd the freedom of the church from state control has heretofore
been the proud boast of the German people. In South Germany
the Catholics are in the majority; in North Germany the Luth-
erans and other Protestant churches prevail; but they have all
had their own laws and forms of religious creeds and private
government, free from the control of the state. Why is it now
being attempted to destroy that independence and to revive and
substitute paganism in its place?
The reason, if it can be so dignified, is as cheap, trivial,
bigoted and fantastic as is the pretext for the persecution and
annihilation of the Jews. The two are intimately associated.
The thought that the Old Testament, and parts of the New
Testament, teach that Jesus was born a Jew of the House of
David, and that his mother was a Jewess, is intolerable to these
fanatics, And so they have actually decreed that these parts
of the Bible shall be eliminated. In order to efiea that elimina-
tion, the Government has accordingly decided that there shall
be a new bible and a new church.
But here these gentlemen reckoned without their host when,
drunk with their btief power, based upon the suppression of the
popular will, they stupidly imagined that it was only necessary to
UMIWt-HMI < Mr l»JiH»i *.! AMttllM Ml N I IMn
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
order the clergy to change their deep-rooted conviaions over-night
to suit the crack-brained notions of these mad heretics. Never
in modern times, or since men went to the stake for their beliefs,
have the clergy more proudly demonstrated their wilhngness to
suffer for their conviaions.
One of the most heartening recent evidences of the courage
and independence of our own clergy was its protest published
on January 29th by "The American Committee on Religious
Rights and Minorities" against the present campaign of the
German Government to make all Christian churches subordinate
to the State, and the persecution of Jews, and in which Germany
was denounced in unmeasured terms. The protest was signed
by the leading men of the Catholic clergy and the Protestant and
Jewish ministries, but mainly by outstanding membets of the
Christian clergy. It was a fit corollary to the document issued
almost a year ago by 1,200 of the outstanding members of the
The following is quoted from the recent protest:
"Whether or not the first reports of physical mal-treatment
were exaggerated there certainly were many attacks upon
Jews. Far more serious, however, is the announced determina-
tion of the Government to eliminate a vast majority of the
600,000 Jews in Germany, and the larger part of others who
were counted Jews on account of mixed Jewish and Gentile
ancestry, from the political, commercial, professional and cul-
tural life of the nation. The evidence of this is clear and
based on official statements of Government authorities.
"Any man would rather suffer some physical injury than
be ruined or driven out of his profession, and thus deprived
of the means of support for himself and his family. The re-
sultant suffering to women and children is worse than assaults
upon men. Peculiarly trying is the fear of Jewish children
who are compelled to live in an atmosphere of fear and hat-
red which dooms them to an abnormal life.
''No nation in he modern world * * ^' * can afford
to alienate the confidence and good-will of the civilized world
as Germany is now alienating it. It is far more serious, how-
ever, when, as in Germany today that is the official and
avowed policy of the Government, to deny to a whole class
of its people their equal rights as citizens on account of thek
Jewish citizenship, and then virtually to order Christian
churches to become an instrument in the carrying out of
It is no easy matter to hnd out what is happening in this
struggle that is surging beneath the surface and is fairly con-
vulsing Germany. Every bit of news, or so-called news, that
trickles through, has been so doctored and censored by the vast
government propaganda bureau under the direction of that arch-
fiend Goebbels, Minister of Propaganda, and his atheist colleague
Dr. Alfred Rosenberg, who now openly denounces Christianity,
that we learn of only the merest f taction of the tottures being
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
inflicted upon recalcitrants. No record is kept of the thousands
upon thousands who are being murdered in and out of the
concentration camps, or of the suicides or of the deaths by
I wish it were as simple a matter to seaire anything like
equally wide publicity for the American side of the story as
is being accotded by the American press day by day to the
vast output of the German Propaganda Bureau. Of late even
the National broadcasting companies have been virtually closed
to the discussion of the boycott. They call it "controversial,"
as though all important discussion is not in a sense conttoversial.
Radio control should be vested in the Government. Super-
vision is not sufficient. It does not supervise. It is too much
power to entfust to ptivate control.
For years I have pointed to Mr. William Randolph Hearst
as the most clear-sighted statesman of the present generarion.
I am more than ever confirmed in that view. And yet the
Hearst papers that have always justly earned and enjoyed a
nation-wide reputation for independence, fot social advancement
and race and religious liberty, have done themselves no credit
and have not added to their reputation by prominently print-
ing, at great length on Sunday, January 28th, a long lauciatoty
interview on Hitler and his alleged accomplishments, being
another of the many outputs of the tireless, distorted German
The author of that particular output is the present Vice-
ChanceUor^ Capt. Franz von Papen. The article, like all the
others emanating from that bureau, is mainly charaaeristic fot
what it suppresses rather than for anything it says.
So true to form is it in its bogus historical review of those
accomplishments, that not one word is uttered concerning its
crucifixion and avowed determination to exterminate the Jews,
that has so profoundly shocked and stirred the hatred and con-
tempt of the people of all lands. Equally eloquent is its silence
over the attempt to supplant the Christian Churches by the
New German State Church that is to scrap the Bible and des-
troy all freedom of religious worship and beliefs. Nor is there
a word about disfranchisement of womanhood and their exclusion
Here is the dishonest and cavalier way in which Captain von
Papen discusses the destruction of labor unions and the enslave-
ment of labor:
"Dissolution of labor unions and employers associations
follows The owner will again become the undisputed
leader of his undertaking; there is no longer to be collective
responsibility; on his (the employer's) shoulders rests the
responsibility for the weal and woe of the workers."
May God help the workets!
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
Is it any wonder that in our country. Great Britain and every
other country where labor is organized, a Boycott has been
declared and is being prosecuted by the labor unions against
German-made goods, and against all relations with that enslavedj
The writer of that article is, by the way, the same Captain
von Papen who was anached to the German Embassy at Wash-
ington at the time we severed diplomatic relations with Germany,
and who was, together with a numbet of his associates, uncere-
moniously expelled from and kicked out of our country before
we severed these relations, for having been discovered by our
Secret Service Agents betraying our hospitality and criminally
conspiring to violate our neutrality.
That "ttifling circumstance" has not been forgotten.
Underneath a false propagandist appearance of peace and
order presented by the censorship picture, Germany is today
an armed camp, virtually ruled by military law, with coutts of
justice as a mere "blind" to carry out political administrative
It is only a few days since the publication of incidents that
escaped over the rigid censorship, of which the following are
a few iUustrations:
In Munich the public ptoseaitot, on behalf of the Govern-
ment, demanded sentences of eight months each in jail for
three Catholic priests accused of ''spreading attocious stories
about conditions in Germany" — which meant telling the truth.
In Berlin on January 5th, Stuttgart's political police arrested
t^^o Catholic priests, Fathet Dangelmeier of Metzinger and Father
Smrn of Waldheim and sent them to the concentration camp
at Kehburg. The police accused one priest of saying Mass for
six Communists as they were about to be beheadedT the other
priest was charged with having actually dared to hold a meeting
of young Cathohcs on an evening when Chancellor Hitler was
addressing the nation over the radio "thus tending to deflect
attention from Hitler's remarks."
The Nazis were reported to be futther incensed when they
learned that the Bishop of Mayence had ordered Catholic Churches
of his diocese to fly the church flag instead of the Nas:i banner.
Hundreds of such instances might be cited. They are a mere
small fraction of the thousands that are occutring, the news
of which is suppressed by the stern edicts of the Minister of
Propaganda — that "Knight Errant of religious 'toletanceV' Dr.
During the present month a Jewish butcher named Ludwig
Froheimer, wide-eyed with fear, was hustled into Court at Wies-
baden and confessed that he had actually been guilty, as he had
been all his life, of having slaughtered a steer in Kosher fashion.
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
Chancellor Hitler had decreed that no Kosher meat may be
prepared in Germany, (no one knows why, except his fiendish
hatred that prompts to make life more and more unbearable
for his persecuted victims) . He had likewise decteed that such
meat could be imported only under restrictions so drastic that
German Rabbis are urging vegetarianism as the only salvation
for the orthodox Jews — for which they will ptobably be punished
Until recently, anti-kosher arrests had all been for the crime
of smuggling in kosher meat. Froheimer was the first to be
arrested for actual kosher butchering, which has existed and
been recognized, and approved, and the use of which has been
lauded in Germany, and for that matter all over tlie world,
for untold centuries. It is universally admitted to be a health
measure and is prescribed by the Bible, Here is what the Nazi
judge said to this wtetched offender:
"You placed an alien law, namely the Talmud, above German
law. Since this is the first offense I sentence you to two months
Meantime the Ministry of Justice was in chaos in Berlin as
weary German jurists who had scarcely slept for weeks had
rushed to completion the "code Hitler," a complete new body
of penal laws.
"Race stamps this code" said Nazi Codifier Helmuth
Nicolai, "Our whole new legal system is constructed on the
cornerstone of race. There are two kinds of justice. The
Nordic or Teutonic is something one feels. The conscience
of the racially pure Teutonic tells him what is right and what
is wrong. The Oriental has no conscience, being of mixed
race. He does not perceive what is right as clearly as does
Was there ever such drivel dispensed in the sacred name
of justice? It would be excruciating comic-opera if it were
not such ghastly tampering with human lives,
Jewish lawyers and judges who had been permitted to resume
their offices have been again thrown out of the courts in East
Prussia, while Jewish lawyers in Berlin were warned that they
should refrain from appearing ia court.
No wonder Mr. Michael Wilhams, editor of the Common-
weal, and President of the Calvert Association, who is a member
of the committee appointed by the "American Committee on
ReHgious Reports and Minorities" to go to Germany and investi-
gate conditions there, after spending weeks in Berlin interviewing
members of the Hitler Government and leading professional and
business men, both Getman and American, as well as Protestant,
Catholic and Jewish leaders, reported on his return that the
Nazi atrocities perpetrated upon the Jews are the worst known
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
"So far as the persecution of the Jews is concerned," says
Mr. Williams, "I am positive that those in the best position
to know the facts, the foreign newspaper correspondents in
Berlin and the American consular officials, agree that there
was, and that there continues to be, a persecution of Jews
which, in its extent surpasses any record of persecution in
Jewish History, for it goes deeper and is more inclusive in
its intent to absolutely ehminate the Jewish portion of the
German Nation, than any other outbreak of the kind.
"One of the most prominent German political leaders told
me that he believed tirat while the world outside of Germany
might palliate the physical violence perpetrated upon the Jews
during the first days of the Nazi rule as understandable, even
if deplorable, that when the Nazis delberately undertook to
write into the fundamental iaw of the land, measures out-
lawing all Jews, including Germany's most patriotic citizens,
they made a mistake comparable only to the invasion of
Belgium at the outbreak of the World War. For several hun-
dred thousand young Jews there is no future, as long as the
present regime retains its present position."
From his personal investigations made within a few months
after the outbreak of the Jewish atrocities, Mr. Williams re-
ported the then recorded deaths and serious casualties from the
Nazi troopers' attacks on the Jews at 3,300 of which 300 cases
resulted in death and at least 3,000 in serious injury and that
it began with a veritable massacre and continues to the present
day with more refined, but nonetheless cruel, forms of murder
and extermination by Germany of its minorities.
That is what the German Government calls an "internal affair"
with which other countries are not concerned and against which
they have no right to protest.
If that be true, the World War was indeed fought in vain.
These people are heretics and atheists at heart although tliey
have not, until recently, dared openly avow it, to what were
once a God-fearing people. They not only have no rehgious
beliefs, they have no veneration or respect for religion. Their
ambition seems to be to tear up by the roots and destroy all
faith. Whilst they dare not use the same brutal methods of
persecution against the terror-stricken Christians because they
constitute 99% of the Nation, as they have used to exterminate
the Jewish minority, their assaults upon the religious convictions
of the Protestants and Catholics are nonetheless intolerable.
In an article recently published in The Commonweal, by the
eminent writer Mr, George N. Schuster, he reviews and analyzes
the struggle that is now under way in Germany between the
Government and the Catholics.
He likens the struggle of the past nine months to a battle
where the only weapons are rifles and Maxim silencers and says
it is impossible to spend months in the country without getting
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
one glimpse of what is a great, fearful and bitterly contested
"The Catholic population," he says, "is hardly aware of
what is going on, since all discussion of conflict which appears
in the Nazi press tnakes it appear as if a few recalcitrant
'political priests' were misrepresenting the pure doctrines of
the new Germany. A seal has been placed upon the lips of
the priests; at least one hundred members of the regular and
secular clergy have been put in jail, but only one has been
permitted to be brought to trial.
'Today the material advantages gained in nearly 60 years
of effort have been almost completely lost. Practically all
positions they (the Catholics) once held in the ministry^ judi-
ciary and the various administrative organizations are now
occupied by others. Even more Impressive is the wholesale
loss of smaller government jobs in cities, towns and villages.
A whole thousand burgomasters were fired in Westphalia
"As to the CathoHcs unfortunate enough to be wholly or
pardy _ of Jewish blood, the only thing left for these people
to do is to go off somewhere and die.
"Less obvious but more important is the change in the
spiritual ministry of the church; religious journalism is today
almost a thing of the past in Germany. Catholics still possess
a number of daily papers but everyone of these is patently
dying of inanition More dangerous still is the threat
to the educational program of the church. Today every young
German who expects to get on in the world must become a
member of the official Nazi 'political education' group. , . ,
There were whole months during which the activities of the
Hider-Jugend (Hitler Youth) were so arranged as to render
impossible church attendance on Sundays; Catholic parents
said to me bitterly that they found themselves wishing their
children had never been born."
Mr. Schuster concludes as follows:
""Against it (The Hitler Government) Catholicism, Protest-
antism and Judaism must stand allied, cost what it may. So far
the spoils of battle have gone to the Nazis but it is ultimate
victory which alone counts. The lot of German Catholics
will not be easy — indeed it may enlist the outraged sym-
pathies of the world — nevertheless I do not believe in the
permanence of bogus faiths."
Just a word here about the platform of the New German
State Church as outlined by Dr, Rcinhold Krauss, leader of
the so-called German Christians in Berlin, which he summarizes
(1) That all non- Aryans should be removed from office in
the German Protestant Church (there are at least 30 Jews who
are Lutheran pastors in the Reich) ;
(2) The establishment of separate "Ghetto" Churches for
racially Jewish parishoners of Christian Churches who are Chris-
tians but partly of Jewish ancestry.
(3) The exclusion of the Old Testament from the Bible on
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
the ground that it is a Jewish document. (Dr. Krauss is re-
ported to have given deep offense to hundreds of pious Germans
by charaaerizing the Old Testament as "a colleaion of tales
by cattle dealers and pimps.")
(4) The elimination of the Apostle St. Paul and other "in-
feriority complex" passages from the Bible, including all refer-
ences to the crucifixion of Jesus.
In other words all the present Christian religions and beliefs
are to be scrapped and emasculated and a new Nordic Pagan
Faith is to be substituted.
There is still another feature to this Hitler campaign which,
to my mind, far transcends in importance to America and Ameri-
can citizenship ail the crimes that are being perpetrated by the
Hitler Regime within its own boundaries, and all its assaults
upon the liberty of its own people. Whilst this reversion of a
once great Nation to the savagery of the Dark Ages is by no
means the "internal affair" that the Nazi Government claims
it to be, but is on the contrary a great international concern that
is a challenge to humanity, in the end it more directly affects
its own people. The aspect of the Hitler activities to which I
wish now briefly to revert, constitutes a wanton violation of our
American neutrality and a direa assault upon our institutions.
This is a grave indictment of a Nation with which we are
supposed to be at peace, but it is one that is overwhelmingly
established by the faas in our possession, which it is proposed
to bring to the attention of Congress in an investigation that
has already been demanded by a Senate Resolution that is now
The grave offense charged against the Hitler Government is
that of a country-wide seditious propaganda conducted on our
shores with the aid of German ships and seamen, and German
emissaries, directly aimed at undermining the loyalty of our
13,000,000 American citizens of German birth or ancestry, sow-
ing and spreading widecast the seeds of racial and religious bigotry
To that end organizations have been formed under the names
of "Friends of New Germany" and other names such as "Storm
Troops," "Blue," "Brown" and other "Shirts." Tons of cir-
culars, newspapers, magazines and other literature from Germany,
published and printed in German and English, have, as before
stated in another connection, been smuggled into this country
on German ships and scattered by German agencies into every
corner of the land. Other newspapers, printed in German and
English, are being published in various parts of this counrty,
bitterly assailing our Government and its President and calling
upon American citizens of German birth or descent to embrace and
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
introduce into our laws the un-American treasonable docttines of
The alarming extent to which this constantly increasing and
distorted Government-paid flood of propaganda is unconsciously
impregnating and influencing the Ametican Press, is becoming
day by day more apparent and more dangerous. It must be
checked or counteracted if our traditional liberty-loving protection
of the oppressed is to survive.
There are gratifying signs from the belated action of our
Departments of State and Labor that we are at last to be
aroused from our Rip Van Winkle slumbers, at least to the
extent of making possible an asylum for the crucified German
Senator Borah has admirably characterized this persecution as:
"A wicked and blasphemous exhibition of diseased minds."
And has declared on the floor of the Senate:
"That the upholding of American principles is our sup-
reme duty, a duty we cannot disregard" and that "we need
not be dismayed, but we cannot be unconcerned. The right
to worship according to the dictates of one's conscience, the
right to freedom from persecution on account of race, are
parts of that political liberty, that freedom from oppression
which is the life-blood of democracy."
At this time we may profitably take a leaf out of our history
of the action of our Government over 80 years ago, when
Kossuth, the Hungarian Patriot, as the result of his struggle
for the pohtical and religious freedom of his country, barely
escaped with his life when he was driven out of Hungary and
escaped to Turkey where he was held captive at the request
of the Hungarian Government. We ah recall with a thrill of
pride in Our Country how we sent our battleships for Kossuth
and his little band of patriots, how Kossuth was welcomed by
Congress and was presented to the President by that great lawyer
and elocpent statesman, Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State,
in one of the greatest of his many famous speeches, in which he
used these memorable words:
"Gentlemen, there is something on Earth greater than
arbitrary or despotic power, and that is the aroused indigna-
tion of the civilized world."
How true that is of the present situation and what a con-
clusive answer to the absurd contention that the slaughter and
persecution of the German Jews is an "internal affair."
"The American Hebrew" in its issue of January 26th, reminds
us that a generation later that same exalted principle was uttered
by President Harrison, when in 1891, referring to remonstrances
made by the United States to Russia because of the May Law
in force against the Jews, he said in his message to Congress;
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
"The banishment, whether by direct decree^ or by the less
certain indirect methods of so large a number of men and
women IS not a legal question. A decree to leave one country
IS m the nature of things, an order to enter another ~ some
other. This consideration, as well as the suggestions of
humanity, furnishes ample ground for the remonstrances
which we have presented to Russia."
_ We are tiow told that there is an intensive propaganda lobby
in Washington that is directing its activities toward kiUing the
Tydmgs Anti-Nazi resolution in the Senate Committee on Foreign
Affairs. "The American Hebrew" reports on what it says is the
most trustworthy authority that Senators are being personally
assured by messages coming from the German Embassy at Wash-
ington that the preamble setting forth the Anti-Semitic campaign
in Germany as described in the Tydings Resolution is contrary
to the facts and that the Jews in Germany are in no way the
object of Government persecution. A more brazen, audacious
falsehood it would be mipossible to conceive. It flies directly in
the face of all of the official pronouncements of the Nazi Govern-
ment itself, of the hundreds oi censored reports from the dis-
tinguished American correspondents, and can only be characterized
as a piece of unexampled audacity and effrontery. This Embassy
propaganda is said to dare to make the silly threat that if the
Tydings Resolution should be passed by the Senate, it will mean
that Germany will break off relations with the United States and
that that incident might possibly be followed by a war between
the two nations. The Senatots are said to be also flooded with
telegrams and letters from the Nazi propaganda sources throudi-
out the country. ^
'The most disheartening part of the report," says the same
reliable authority, "which comes from the same sources in
Washington is that the Senators, in the face of the facts as
known to the entire world, and as confessed, and in fact
boasted by Germany, is that almost all of the Senators accept
the word of the German Embassy as facts, and most of them
are almost totally ignorant of what the Nazi Government has
Writing editorially of the attitude of the Senators, with regard
to these threats the same authority says:
'They (the Senators) have heard vaguely of the dismissal
ot professors, and the exclusion of artists from the theatre
and he cmema, but they seem totally unacquainted with the
economic restrictions and persecutions that make the life of
Jews in Germany humanly unbearable.
"What the Senators who have been approached by agents
from the German Embassy fear most is the threat that favor-
able action on the Tydings Resolution will be followed imme-
diately by a break in our relations, by the Reich, and possibly
by war. ^ ^
"What we have written here is calculated merely to call
the attention of the country to the type and character of this
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
one phase of the Na^i propaganda which is leveled to destroy
the Tydings Resolution."
Other phases of this daringly false propaganda are pointed out
_ "(1) Newspapers in this count ty are being fed with mate-
rial bearing a Berlin datehead It is so obviously German
propaganda that at times 'I wonder/ says Mr. David A,
Brown, 'how it passes the editorial desk."
"(2) Special articles sent from Europe, and in many cases
written in this country, presenting in the most favorable light
all that Germany has done, and making favorable compari-
sons of the Revolution in Germany with that in Russia.
There is no point of similarity between the two.
"(3) A Speakers Bureau of English speaking men and
women is maintained here, all of whom are well trained
speakers, and who travel the width and breadth of the land.
This portion of such addresses is purely Anti-Semitic."
Says Mr. Brown of that work, "I consider the work of the
speakers bureau the most effective and at the same time the
most dangerous phase of their activities in the United States.
These lecturers are appearing before Clubs, Societies, Churches,
Fraternal Bodies — in fact before any group that will give them
a hearing. They make no charge for the services of their
speakers or for their traveling expenses, and they even ofc
to assist in the publicity attached to a meeting of this kind.
"(4) In addition to the publication of five propaganda
newspapei's printed in Germany and distributed here, there
are several printed in English and likewise distributed here.
Anyone reading them would at once realize that they are
Nazi sheets to the core, but much material has been furnished
either directly by Germany or by Nazi headquarters in America.
"(5) There are being published in America, and also being
sent by Germany, large quantities of leaflets, booklets, and
pamphlets, printed both in English and in German that reek
"(6) The Nazis, realizing the possibilities within the high
schools and colleges of this country, are making use of such
students as will lend themselves, to carrying on a subtle cam-
paign of Anti-Semitism. They are presenting (lying) statis-
tics to show that the Jews predominated the professions of
Germany; and that unless the youth of this land takes steps
to prevent it the Christian youth here will find itself in a
second rate position, entirely ignoring the fact that the Jews
are but 3% of the total population of this country.
"(7) Every German Consular office in the United States
has a propaganda bureau, having definite instructions to use
their offices for German propaganda purposes; that the Con-
suls and their staffs shall be available at all times to carry out
the instructions of the Propaganda Bureau in Berlin, and its
counterpart in this country."
It is further charged that among other propaganda activi-
ties radio speakers are employed or secretly subsidized, who,
in the course of their news presentation of the day to vast
audiences manage to introduce an item or two of pure, un-
adulterated German propaganda, and that one or two of the
regular news announcers over the radio are at present under
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
ment'LTof^b'"l§ '" '^' ^"^ '''^''^ ^^ '^' ^^'"^^^ Govern-
ment or of the Nazi organization in this country
liven moving pictures," says Mr, Brown "are not free
from this msidious propaganda, mainly in the form of news -
eft T"''''^ outstanding events throughout the word No
news-re l^TrSn'^V? m"'"'^^ H'' "^^^ '^ ^^^^^^ "^ ^i--
newsieels, and that holds true of events favorable to Ger
many takmg place m this country. This seems stran/e when
you consider that these news-reels have n vc^dc^'fte "^^^
All this leads to the problem of how best to combat this
taken by the Hitler Regime toward undermining and evenruallv
destroying the existing Chnstian religions, was die appoiZem
a few days ago by Hitler of Alfred Rosenberg, one o hL
closest fnerids and leaders, and one of the ori^^al and mo
Poli :n "'^^ -^t.Semices. as head of the so4lled 'Fordgn
Pol cy Division and Government supervisor of the church bodfes
Following and in line wfrh the vicious activities of Reich
nl c2 "v'' '"'^ '^' J"^^"^^ ^^ P^-^^^ -'^ clergymen he
placing of this supreme power in the hands of Dr Lsenbet^L'
IS the most significant step yet taken toward disrupting fhe S
an Churxhes and tl.e Catholic and Protestant religions and sub-
stituting Pagamsm or the '^Nordic-Germanic Cidt "
-Let It be remembered that Rosenberg is the author of the
widely read book 'Jhe Myth of the Twentieth Century ' in
which he decries and denounces Christianity, ^'
I quote verbatim from an inspired official cabled propagandist
report from Ber m on February 2nd, headed: ^'A N^ew^ Ge'tn
•■ ■ 'u^ ^' \^'^'' "^''^^ ^ ''German- Heaven and a docma
replacing the Bible with Nordic myths ... was env^a^ed tod^v
as an equal of Protestantism and Catholicism. ^ ^
"Since July 30, when about 100,000 Hitlerites had di\
avowed Christianity in Eisenach and declared^h ir respon"
s^biluy for our Germanic origin before the divine reaht7d^e
movement has grown apace." ^^vme reantj, tne
The Eisenach resolution reads:
"We are adherents of a Germanic faith which derives its
feolr m"^u ^'T ^^^V"^^^'"^^ inheritance of the German
people. We a I confess that resting in divine reality we are
esponsible with our Germanic origm before this divineTealhy
and before our people for a German-born faith." ^'
From this it would seem that Odin and Balder and Freya
and other German gods, are to be placed back on the throne
irom which they were driven by advancing Christianty
A leader in the movement recently said that Naziism and
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
Christianity are incompatible. "Germany's great aim," he said,
"must be one people, one Reich, one religion, one church. The
one religion, of course, can be only a Nordic-Germanic one.
The Narional Socialist revolution must become transformed into
a heathenish- Germanic one; then only will the revolution have
achieved what we all hope for."
On the fifth of this month a meeting was held at Berlin of a
congress of the "Germanic Research Society," consisting of noted
German professors. The censored cable reports say that at that
"It was agreed for the most part that Christianity was not
meant for Germans,"
The delegates represented "The Pagan Teutonic Faith Move-
ment" of Dr. Alfred Rosenberg, the new philosophic diaator
of the New Germany. That movement was the sole topic of
discussion. The religious correspondent of The Frankfurrer Zeit-
ung was permitted by the propagandist censor of the Empire
to say of the movement as follows (which would indicate that
the Government was behind the movement) :
"The movement at heart Is anti-Christian. Christ and
Christianity as a whole are denied."
Dr. Johann von Leers, the official Nazi Culture Leader, and
a personal friend of Dr, Rosenberg, was among the most out-
spoken in the conference. "Christianity," he said, "is a com-
position of inferiority and Jewish philosophy." He demanded
abolition of Christianity outright, and return to pte-historic light-
bearer worship. He said the trend was toward a national, not
a universal religion.
Dr. Neckel, of Berlin, presented a dissertation lasting hours
to prove his contention that Christianity triumphed by the most
On January 22nd, Professor Karl Adams, of Tuebingen Uni-
versity, before The Catholic Youth Society in Stuttgart, delivered
a sermon in which that great Catholic savant illuminated the
bitter conflia now proceeding between the Catholic clergy and
the Nazi Government authorities in South Germany. Not one
Berlin newspaper published any account of the sermon. In the
course of his grave denunciation of the German Christians (the
name of the Rosenberg Nazi movement within the German
Protestant Church) Professor Adam said:
"If that is the German faith movement as based on biology,
then for us Catholics it is superstition. Has German history
ever been able to point to men like Peter and Paul? The
German Christians know^ nothing about Prophets, They know
only myths, fairy tales and sagas."
"It was after this bold sermon," says the cable dispatch, "that
the Stuttgart Police broke up the parade of the Catholic Youth
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
Last November, John Elliott, writing for the New York
Herald Tribune from Berhn, presented a graphic word picture
of this moveriient to oust the existing Christian Churches. Among
other thmgs he said: ^
-Tarslfal and Zarathustra are struggling these days for
mastery of the German Protestant Church. The opposing
factions and the Evangelical Modernists organized in thf
faoTJ^^''^''''^ League which aheady has more than
3 000 clergymen on its roils, and the Nazi radicals, who
Hn«.nfM 'S^l '" TJ'^*" P^"^^^" Christian Church with
Hossenfelder, B.shop of Brandenburg. The Modernists stand
tor the Christian spirit of humanity The Nazi extremists
represent the worship of blood, force and gratification of No^^lc
Hitlerisra and Christianity are incompatible on at least two
gfounds, says Mr. Elliott:
th.'V.i J^'^ internationalism of Christianty is in conflict with
the fanatic nationalism that animates the Hitler movement.
Upon the appeal of Archbishop Erhng Eidem of Sweden and
he B: hop of Chichester to Reich Bishop Mueller to dislodge
beLdn'rt'r^'' for the sake of preserving the connectifn
Rkhon w f'?r ^^'T'^ ^""^ '^''^ Protestant Church abroad,
Bishop Hossenfelder replied: 'We German Christians believe
that It IS more important for us to share the faith of Ger-
Xr ^'ople. "'' '' ^'"''" ''"^''^ ^''^ '^' ^^^^^^^^^ '^f
''(2) The glorification of the Nordic-Germanic race as
Sng of Chris"''" ""^"^^ '' '^""^"^^^^^'>' ^^P^-^^ - ^he
The Evangelical Modernists see in the movement of the Nazi
radicals the entering wedge for the introduction of heathenism
d.at would make of German Christianity a revised form of ancient
Germanic Wotan worship advocated by General Erich von Luden-
Qorlt and his ilk.
There can be no question that the triumph of Na^iism and
the enforced substitution of Pagan religion, to be known as the
German Church, under rigid State control, means the destruc-
non of Chnstiamty in Germany, and that just as the Russian
Communists tried for years to introduce Communism into other
countries, just as the Hitler Government is now spreading its
anti-Semitic propaganda in our countty and in other lands and
IS spendmg tens of milions of dollars for that purpose, so' will
he campaign be waged to spread paganism and unbelief in our
and other lands.
Permit me, in conclusion, to appeal to organized labor, throuRh
our honored guest, to now gWt to your boycott resolution the
active force, life and vitality into which they are capable of beinc.
ff Z'f /' IT ^'^^'' rf;;^-oiighout the length and breadth
of the land. This you can do by urging, not only upon your
membership, but upon all of the workers of the country, and par-
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
ticularly upon their families, that they carefully scrudnize all
of their purchases, so as to ptotect themselves against the many
forms of fraud and evasion that are being practiced, and that
they refuse to buy Getman goods or to patronize German ships
or shipping or to deal with any shop or merchant that handles
Such action would eventually automatically compel all shops
that ate seeking their patronage to permanently display signs
announcing that they cio not buy or sell such goods, and at
the same time stimulate the sale of goods made in Ametica,
and thus give much needed employment to our labor. Wher-
ever necessary further tariff protection to that end should be asked
Anothet step in your campaign that would be ec|ually potent
would be to support the stevedores and others who are con-
nected with the loading and unloading of German ships that
are most active agents in smuggling into our country and dis-
tributing products and seditious contraband literature against
American institutions, in their refusal to handle such goods.
I do not believe that any patriotic American Union or non-
union worker would refuse to respond to such an appeal, ot
would take the place of one who so refused. You can thus be
the most important factor towards smashing the present despot-
ism that has outlawed all organized labor in Germany, and
which is now engaged in a dastardly campaign to destroy Christi-
anity and to enthrone virtual Paganism in its place.
I repeat, for the reasons above stated, that this is not primarily
a Jewish question. It is the intimate concern of all humanity.
As stated by Mayor LaGuardia in a speech in New York City,
after strongly assailing Hitlerism, and endorsing the boycott of
German goods, and after pointing out that he was a Vice-President
of the organization of which I am the President:
"The Nazi problem is not a religious question but a grave
International problem. The boycott was a decisive and active
stand against Hitlerism which at the same time fits in per-
fectly with the program dedicated to the prevention of war.
To be against Hitler is to be for the people of Germany.
To be against Hitler is to be for the peace of the world."
Address at the Annual Memorial Service of the
Jewish War Veterans, New York, May 27, 1933
%ersary of your organization last year, have the Jewish War
Veterans met to celebrate this glorious, inspiring anduZty
Kr: wTh'T""''/ '""'^ l----ndering^cond\.ons. Nev
before ha^^e they been forced to sit helplessly by as witnesses to
the crucifixion of their unoffending brethren upon avatar of
oba^^nd Hef '"'; "" ^^^^"^^^ ^^ ^^-- ^-- ^--n into
oblivion and destroyed centuries ago by the onward march of
civilization and the brotherhood of man.
When we reflect that of these 550,000 German Jews (which
mcludes men women and children, old as well as yLng) upon
whom these diabolical tortures and persecutions are being per
the supteme sacrifice," and 35,000 were seriously wounded-
many thousands of them permanently-in the cLse of their
ungrateful country, one begins dimly lo visualize someth ngo
mans inhumamty to man," when human being are mrnedlnto
beasts of prey by the wild fury of brutal fanaticism
tYcty page of Germany's history and of ours, and of that of
other countries bears eloquent, unimpeachable' witness aga n'
the foul libels behind which these savages seek to hide th s
come against dvilization^that the Jew fs not Ae mo t Jova
patnotic^and self-sacrificing citizen to^his own country'wLeXr
h^ver^CjA ^^ '^'' ^"' ""V"^' ' ^'''^ glance at the part the Jews
have played in our own history. We may well hold up our heads
Droad' tH '" '"' "^ T^"^^ "^ ''' ^"^ ^^^-Id be intensely
TetJ '^'"'''''JT I^"' "' '" ^^^^^ patriotism has been
the gtnding star of the American Jew. In all the wars of the
Repubhc his deeds have cast their fragrance of heroism and
the NatioT' ''"' ^'^' '* ''' "^"^''''y ^"^ ^^^^^ ^-^^1« 'f
Beginning with the Revolutionary period: Manuel Mordecai
Noah, CoL Isaac Franks and Major Benjamin Nones weTe ImS
de-camp on the staff of General Washing/on. Nones was a French-
man fired by the sentiments that enlisted Lafayette. A private
under Pulaski, he attained the distinaion under Baron D^eKalb
of Major commanding a legion composed in large measure of
Hebrews. At Beaufort. Washington /corps of Jewish volunteer
fought under General Maultrie with indomitable valor '^^''
the^™!^'^^'" ^ w/^' 'PP''^'^ ^"^ ^^^"^^ ^° ^^^ '^^ colonists in
the Revo utionary War it was a Jew, Haym Salomon, who most
generously responded. He immediately subscribed ^300,000 to
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
the cause, and in all gave $658,007.13, not a penny of which has
ever been repaid to his heirs. That was a great fortune in those
Within the last few years there has been considerable discus-
sion in Congress over a Bill introduced in the Senate to repay the
heirs of Haym Salomon the money loaned by him to finance the
War against the British. Accompanying this Bill was a Senate
resolution enumerating Salomon's patriotic donations to Robert
Mortis. Besides his conttibutions, he supplied Congiessmen and
officers of the Army and of the Government with the means of de-
fraying their ordinary expenses, among whom were Jefferson,
Madison, Lee, Steuben, Mifflin, Sinclair, Wilson, Monroe and
Mercer. He sacrificed his fortune for the cause.
Will it be said that such a man was not a patriot? He was
captured by the British, thrown into prison and died before he
himself could take any steps to secure reimbursement for the
wealth he had expended, leaving his wife and four small chil-
dren in want.
Nor was Haym Salomon by any means the only Jew who un-
seliishly sacrificed his fottune for independence. Among the
signers of the bills of credit for the Continental Congress in 1776
were Samuel Lyon and Benjamin Jacobs of New York, Benjamin
Levy and Isaac Moses of Philadelphia. Herman Levy, another
Philadelphian, repeatedly advanced money for the support of
the Atmy in the fiefd. Manuel Mordecai Noah of South Caro-
lina not only served in the Army as an officer on Washington's
staff, and with General Marion, but gave $100,000 to further
The story is told, and it is authentic, based upon an unpub-
lished letter of Jared Sparks, that at the outbreak of the Revolu-
tionary Wat a Mr. Gomez of New York proposed to a member
of the Continental Congress that he be permitted to form a com-
pany of soldiers for service. The member of Congress remon-
strated with Mr. Gomez on the ground that he (Mr. Gomez)
was then 68 years of age; to which Mr. Gomez replied that he
"could stop a bullet as well as a younger man."
Mordecai Sheftall was appointed Commissary-General of the
troops of Georgia in 1777. Soon thereafter he was also appointed
Commissary to the Continental troops. When the British attacked
Savannah in 1778, SheftalFs name appears as one of the most
patriotic of the defenders, besides contributing large sums of
Major Benjamin Nones, a Jew of Bordeaux, France, served
with signal success on the staffs of both Washington and Lafay-
ette. He became Major of a legion of 400 men composed largely
of Jews, and fought in nearly every battle of Carolina.
Among the many Jews in the War of 1812 who fought for
IIMK/^Mwtt . '•( ihiAb * 1 milislHI H »
Addresses by Samuel Untbrmyer
mL'"^"V^'P"'','^' ^''''- C°'- N^'^'^n Meyers, Capt Meyer
Moses Adjutant Isaac Meyers, Samuel Noah, Isa;c Me tz Ben
jamm Grat., Dav.d Metzler and Judah Touro distinguished'rhem-
After the Revolutiotx Touto went to the then French territotv
of Louisiana, setthng in New Orleans in 1802. During Andrew
Jackson s memorable defense of that city, after the Terdtory had
'eTforZe"e°nr*'/f^' ^"'"' '^^■™' ^'^ had "m/sLd f
e^eit tortune, entered the ranks as a common soldier and was
severely wounded, being given up for dead. ^^'
The history of the War with Mexico also sparkles with the
achievements of the American Jew. Genera '^Davd T^^Leon
At' Mnn?"' t" '^'t' "' ^°"«'^"^- f- ^^^ gaiiantty and abmty
son wS; ^r-,Hr^S^''?»^ ^™^ complimented in peT
son by General Taylor for his dauntless heroism. ^
tJtt r*'' ° *' ^'^-^ "^"^ "S-''^ bear overwhelming witness
VoL ..r T '? "^"'f "''"^"^ ""^ '^"'^^^ «'de. The 1st New York
S Th. h ?"^ ''i"' '-"^ "°^^ *^" °"-'-l^ composed of
Jews. The highest rank attained by any of them during the Ci.^
ZZT.rT''^ ^l ^/"^'"'^ Kneffler; who enlisted "a the 79th
ervfre th r r"'''' i"^^''"^ "^ ^ P'ivate, and rendered such si.nal
In the political movements for the abolition of slavery the Tews
ook a leading part. The first official call to or^m^e^^^^
ion movement was signed by four Jews of th? Cleadet of
the German population of Chicago.
pJr^^i^l^^^^^ political movement, Dr. Edward Moritz of th^
Philadelphia Demoh-at, Rabbi Samuel M Isaac aTeacher.r^d
^ditox of the Jewish Messenger, Rabbi liebmanAlle^r a Detroit
fmon. th^'' 'I'^'^'^'^f^^ -d Dr, Felsenthal in Chi g^we e
among those who sowed the seeds of liberty "^
Rabbi Morals, on account of his anti-slavery sentiments wa.
eleaed an honorary member of the Union League ClurofPhna
delphia, an honor which he shared with Rev. Dr. Dav^d E nhorn
who, in 1856, had come to pro-slavery Baltimore from Aus^^^^^^
where his temple had been dosed against him by th^ImS
Government on account of his alkged^revolutionary^^orts From
cal, Dr. Einhorn poured forth shot and shell from the Old Testa-
aZrofT'^U ^^^'^ ^^™-f ?^^^ ^'^^^'y -^ the time sen -ng
™ t l-Li' '"'?"'' "^'^'^ ^^^'^^" °^t ^^ ^^^e city and his
return prohibited under martial law.
Dr. Einhorn in Baltimore, and later in Philadelphia, did as
Addresses by S.amuel Untermyer
much as any man in his day to create public sentiments which
If we inspect the muster rolls of the Spanish-American War
here again we find over 5,000 Jews who volunteered and oilered
their lives on the altar of their country.
It may not be generally known that the first Philippine standard
lowered in the Philippines was captured by Sergeant Motris J.
Cohen of Funston's regiment, who afterwards fell In the chatge
at Caloocan. Jacob Wilensky, a mere lad of sixteen, was killed
in the first skitmish of Col. Roosevek's Rough Riders. The first
American soldier to fall in the attack on Manila was a Jew, Ser-
geant Maurice Jusch of the Ist California Volunteers, a regiment
containing over 100 Jews.
And who dares detract from the achievements of the Jew in
the great World War? A phalanx of upwards of 250,000 strong,
these sons of Israel, all American citizens, battled for their Coun-
try on land and sea, in the ait and under the sea. Though con-
stituting but 3% of the population, over 5^ of their number
were in the fighting forces of the Nation. Available statistics dis-
close that nearly 20% of the entire Jewish contingent in the great
conflict were volunteers. In the army alone, nearly 10,000 Jews
held commissioned rank.
Outstanding deeds of heroism credited to the Jewish soldiers
are far too numerous to recite here. It was Sergeant Max Gold-
stone who crawled into the enemy machine-gun nest, from which
perilous position in the thick of the fight he directed the Ameri-
can artillery fire until the enemy was forced to retreat.
The name of Battling Benjamin Blaustein will be forever en-
shrined amongst the heroes of the Fighting 69th Regiment.
Wherever the story of the "Lost Battalion" is chronicled there
must be told how, after messenger upon messenger seeking to
bring relief to the despairing troops, sped to certain death, it was
Abraham Krotoshinsky, a little Jewish tailor from the Bronx,
who volunteered and saved the day.
Not less than 1100 citations for valor were awarded to men
of the Jewish faith. Of these, 723 were conferred by the Ameri-
can command, 287 by the French, 22 by the British, and 46 by vari-
ous others of the allied commands. The Congressional Medal of
Honor, of which only 78 have thus far been awarded, were con-
ferred on three Jewish soldiers. The Distinguished Service Cross
is worn by at least 150 American Jewish ex-service men. The
French Medaille Militaire by 4 American Jews, and the Croix
de Guerre is known to have been awarded to 174 Jews in the
American Expeditionary Forces.
With about 14,000 casualties and 3,000 Jews who gave up their
lives, where is the man so bold as to deny to the Jews the courage
ttuHtt **i ** I IWh
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
X^on'?" '^°'^" '" *' '''^'"'' °^ *' '°"""y °f '^'^ birth or
The thrilling story oJ Libbj Goldsrone, who at the aoe of 88
years, led a parade in the city of Pittsburgh, Pa„ in 1917? to help
he Liberty Loan Drive, is well known. This daughter of Isracf
an American patriot to the core, died in Pittsburgh in 19J2 at
in the World War, and another 14 grandsons awaiting service
rn concentration camps throughout the country ^
of seven s^oT K'°^'°u °^ ^'''^^'"' ^'^ ^""'y- >^ *« '"^^her
ot seven sons whom she gave to the country of her adoption
every one of whom saw active service in the World War '
.Jt-^J^'t ^u' ^''^''"' "' *' U""=d States, originally or-
tion oi tl e slanderous aspersion upon Jewish patriotism was
atigmentcd at the close of the Spanish-American^ War b^' J^^'
who had served with distinction m that conflia, and still ater
^Jewish survivors of tlie World War, now con^prises an organ
izaton of more than 22,000 active members dbtributed in 70
centred' i^a ? *'°"«'°"' *^ ^°^""''- ^^"^ -"cities are
01 the Jew aod fight Bis battle wherever unjusdy assailed"
or Arl Irt i " ^"T"" P'^?^' ^^"'^ ^^ P^^^^ Nordic
fh. r!^ V / ' '^"^^ '^'' ^^ ignorant rack! arrogance on which
tpl d an/'"'f?"^';! ""' ^"'^ "^ ""^ °^-^ P^--^-l bur now
at^ur>:^e^:ad^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^- -^- ^^^3^ P-^^<i
JewS ovef 25?:^ """"'' ^^"""^ ^' ^'^ ^^^^^ P^^^ ^^^
Ar^nmlSif^ ''^''^"^' ^^' ^'^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ absurd Nordic or
, "Puiity of German stock is sheer nonsense. Eastern Germany
IS said to be about 60% Slavic population. Southern GerSanv
IS about 40% Celtic. Naturally the Na^i drive is in the
perdous region of racial megalomania. Surely the Nazi mus?
w/ste"n'w^d''¥ ^'"^ r "^ P"^^ "^^--1 stocb in th
|^Sr.^s;\^^l/~^^ C..C T
?t!^7i^XS;,^''- ''-'''' '-'^ -' Croati^L'^tth^
In conclusion, let me quote from Mark Twain's euloev of rhe
Jews m his book ''Concerning the Jews":
"According to statistics, the Jews constitute but one per cent
of the human race. * * * Properly the Jew ought hfrdly to
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
be heard of; but he is heard of — has always been heard of.
He is as prominent on this earth as any other people, and his
commercial importance is absurdly out of proportion to the
smallness of his bulk. His contributions to the world's list of
great names m art, science, music, literature, finance, medicine
and abstruse learning are and always have been grotesquely
out of proportion to his numbers. He has made a wonderful
fight in this world, in all the ages; and he has done it with
his hands tied behind him. * * * The Egyptian, the Babylonian
and the Persian arose, filled the planet with sound and splen-
dor^ then folded his tent and passed away. The Greek and the
Haman foUow^ed. Tliey made a vast noise, and they are gone.
Other peoples have sprung up and held their torch for a timCj
but it burned out, and they now sit in twilight or have van-
ished. The Jew saw them all, beat them all, and is now what
he always was, exhibiting no decadence, no infirmities of age,
no weakening of his parts, no slowing of his energies, no dull-
ing of his alert and aggressive mind. All things are mortal
but the Jew, all other forces pass, but he remains. What is
the secret of his immortality?"
How then date these brutal, upstart savages, masquerading for
a brief day on the World stage have the brazen effrontery to chal-
lenge the courage and patriotism of the Jew in the face of all
To our glory be it said that there is no spark of revengefulness
or vindictiveness in the Jewish character. I'hroughout all the
centuries of persecution to which our race has been subjected we
have ever evidenced a forgiving spirit. We have never struck a
blow except in self-defense, and then all too rarely and only when
driven to desperation, with our backs to the wall.
Perhaps we would have suffered less but for our lack of fight-
ing spirit, except as patriots in the defense of our native or adopted
country. There our heroism and spirit of self-sacrifice are bound-
less and are written large in the histories of all countries.
In the present emergency we have at last found in the eco-
nomic boycott an effective weapon whereby we can make common
cause in the interest of huixianity and against all assaults, not only
upon our religious beliefs but upon those of other creeds, and
upon organized labor and democracy. That is the holy cause in
which we are now embarked, and with every promise of success.
The economic downfall of Hitlerism and the liberation of civili-
zation from its hateful yoke are nearer at hand than is generally
realized, through the world boycott of German goods, ships
Let us take a look at present-day faas and figures, as refleaed
by the German gold standard and gold reserve. There is some-
thing farcical in her pretense of maintaining a gold standard.
With her interest and other obligations dishonored, Friday's
[May 25, 1934} Reichsbank statement showed a beggarly ratio
of 4.65^ of gold reserve against her outstanding note circulation,
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
which is virtually no gold reserve whatever. Even this measec
dve' leifJ^U I ^''' ^8°./^ mdicating the growing, destruc-
tive effect of the boycott and that Germany is now tterablin?
on the verge of economic collapse, ^
iA?^fi-f7 /" ^°^'^ ''°"'"S= °^ ^'^'^"day last with those of
May 28th of the years 1932 and 1933, here are the figures:
1932— 856,284,000 marks
or about one-eighth of what they were two years ago. She is at
the lowest ebb since the War, v.hen she repudiated her entire
outsmndrng currency. If she were to pay a fr^action of the nter
hopSLS^nsfcr '"' ="-^ ^^ ^-' ^'- --■'' b^
Since January 5th of this year her gold holdings decreased
from 389,190,000 marks by 242.259.000 marks, or b/ bou 60%
Not even that grand-past-master in finandal juimlerv Dr'
Schacht, can much longer maintain the pretense of Slvency or
keep a straight face whilst he prates about the gold standard"
And yet her solvency could be restored almost overnifiht when
bl'trv an^r"'/" '^'"t" l-r midnight madness of^eS
bigotry and fanaticism and return to the fold of civilization She
has only to restore civic and religious freedom to the Je*; and
ehgious freedom to the Catholics and Protestants and to return
will be well. The world is not interested in her internal affair,
or the extent to which her own citizens may see fit to "ur^'^d
their freedom but the heinous crimes she is perpetrating upon he
aZrf'°^Tf r '°K« '''''' P'''"^ ^^'^ boundaries of interna
affairs. They have become the concern of the entire world.
onTL", ^™^?uP^P'^ ^'^ "°' permitted to know that they are
on the verge of bankruptcy, or what is happening to them World
news and world-opimon that are inimicaYcannot reachltrCer
many, with its gagged press and suppressed freedom of speech
Their rulers know full well the economic debacle that conWs
efSn/ oTe y*^^'^™-^ "- turning their backs upo, and
retusmg to deal with them under existing conditions
fhe riw if "^"^ °".5 ?f^'°"' ^""^ P^f^^tant brediren and with
the Labor Unions and JMasonic Lodges of the world we are per
forming a great service for the masses of the German people
If we succeed m cracking and overthrowing the Hitler regime
we will have rescued Germany from the frenzy that is inevifaWv
driving It into war, and will have restored its people to s^ky
S mlii! '° ^'"''^'^"'"a ^^' ^^"ifices that we
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
In conclusion, let me again repeat what I have so often said,
that this is not a Jewish question, heartrending as is the plight
of our fellow-Jews. The service in which we are engaged fat
transcends the limitations of any one race or sea. It is a service
that embraces all humanity.
tUERBII . (If t*.*** *• AMUnW H*=M* IB*
Address Broadcast Over Station WEVD to .the
Workers of the United States, April 22, 1934
I UNDERSTAND that this Radio Address, urging active
participation in the boycott of Gertnan goods, ships and
shipping to which I have gladly consented to devote the
intermission in the splendid concert we are now holding in
Carnegie Hall, is more particularly directed to the workers of
There is one aspect of this situation to which I must call your
special attention. It is this: The impression is studiously, but
I am glad to say unsuccessfully, sougiit to be created that this
boycott is directed against or includes our own German-American
merchants and shop-keepers. I need hardly say to you that this
is a wicked falsehood. We have no quarrel with them, whatever
may be their views or sympathies. Our campaign is strictly
confined to goods made in Germany. It does not concern persons
or their nationality.
Besides, we know that there are 100 German-American citizens
who hate Hitler and everything for which he stands, and who
love American conceptions of fair-play, for every one bigot and
fanatic who is opposed. Let no one deceive you on that score.
We have the same contempt for a man who would boycott a
shop because it is run by a German as if it were boycotted
because it was run by a Jew.
You are, of course^ familiar with the faa that this is a purely
defensive boycott, which the American Federation of Labor and
other labor organizations of this country and of Great Britain,
and, in iaa, nearly all over the world, have declared against all
German goods, ships and shipping because of the ruthless desttuc-
tion by Germany of all Labor Unions and of the social system
built up by the Unions through a generation or more of struggle,
and because of the horrible persecutions it has practiced and is
continuing, with ever increasing bitterness and intensity, upon
its own loyal citizens, solely because they are Jews, or of remote
Jewish ancestry in whole or in part.
Thanks to the destruction of the Unions and to the confiscation
of their funds, the workers of Germany ate now back, chained
by the yoke of serfdom to the employers where they were before
they began to enjoy the fruits of social freedom earned by their
This was to have been expected. Hitler is the tool and spokes-
man of the munitions manufacmrers and other industrial barons.
They financed his campaign, and in return he is doing their
bidding in suppressing the voice of labor. His newly organized
puppets, which he calls "Labor Fronts," are squarely under the
Addresses by Samuel UntermyeR
heels of theit masters, and there they will remain until rescued
by the collapse of his government and the reassertion by the
people of their rights, which nothing can avert short of the war
towatd which he is bending all his energies.
The destruction of a free press and of freedom of speech —
which is now a capital offense — and the rigid prohibition of any
party or other organization to oppose any of the policies of this
despotism, have hushed the voice of the people and relegated
it to the dim memories of the past. The workers are now slaves
of a great State machine that rolls over and crushes them, so that
the expression of their individual opinion is no longer possible.
All German citizens who are Jewish artisans and workers iiave
been batted from the Labor Unions, no matter how long their
service and how useful, patriotic, law-abiding and inoffensive they
may be. It is a brutal and wholly unnecessary act of despotism
and injustice to these loyal citizens who shed their blood in the
defense of their country and to their children and children's
children. It is an outrage upon civilization and humanity.
The strucmre of Trade Unionism, which has always been re-
garded as the bulwark of the liberties of German workers, has
been completely annihilated. As Mr. Green, who is one of my
authorities for many of these statistical statements, very aptly
said, in one of his recent speeches:
"A new industrial and economic order which, in operation,
subjects the worker to industrial management control, reduces
the worker to an industrial status approximating slavery.
Not only have the German workers suffered the loss of millions
in money, but they have been robbed of their economic power —
the only weapon which free labor can use in establishing
decent wages and humane conditions of employment."
In the Address I made a few moments ago before the concert
audience in Carnegie Hall, I referred briefly, within the limit
of time allotted me over the radio, to a few incidents illustrating
the nonchalant and apparently unsympathetic and non^helpful
attitude of our Administration toward the situation in Getmany.
I bow to no man in my admiration and affection for our great
President. He has been confronted with problems fully as great
and as anxious as those that were encountered by our lamented
President during the World War, and has unfortunately but
necessarily been compelled to rely for the solution and the details
of the questions with which I am now concerned upon members
of his Cabinet^ and especially on his antiquated-minded, reac-
tionary Secretary of State. The latter seems more interested in
vainly trying to resurtect his exploded World Economic Confer-
ence and hopeless Disarmament negotiations, in which Germany
has been tagging along, laughing up its sleeve and with its
tongue in its cheek, than in hearkening to the voice of humanity,
in obedience to the great traditions of our Nation.
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
It IS generally believed that because of the unlimited and well-
deserved confidence of Congress in our President, it is likely to
leave in his hands the negotiation of new tariff treaties, having for
their purpose the extension of our export trade. If it were pos-
sible for the President, with the burdens upon him, personally
to negotiate such treaties, I think we would all feel safe. But
with such negotiations entrusted to the present Secretary of State
I am frank to say that I, for one, would feel most unsafe just now
whilst the German governmentj although refusing to pay its debts,
or even the interest on them, has had appropriated and otherwise
provided over 30,000,000 Marks for this year to continue and
extend the existing vicious propaganda, most of which is being
spent in this country, and witii which the German Ambassador,
the Embassy and the various Consuls in this country are more
The Secretary of State is reported to be negotiating one of
these treaties with Germany. The principal items of that treaty
are reported to be cotton, copper and other materials entering
into and to be used for the purpose of manufacturing war muni-
tions, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles, and of equipping
Germany to destroy the peace of the world and to embark upon
what will perhaps be the most destructive war of all time.
In a cable dispatch of the 12th inst., from Prague (it would
not have passed the German censor) from Frederick T. Birchall,
one of the most distinguished and experienced of foreign cor-
respondents, we find the following declaration made by Dr. Paul
Hertz, former Parliamentary Secretary of the German Socialist
"If the Un'ned Slates gninfs Germany credits for raw mate-
rials in any large quantities the United States will be respon-
sible for the next war in Europe. Aiost of the world has
already accepted this as certain.
"Without a foreign Joan — or credit for raw materials, which
amounts to the same thing — Plitier in Germany is doomed.
With the aid of a foreign loan Hider may continue for some
years, A continuance of his regime would simply imply the
steady rearmament of Germany. With armaments completed
the time will arrive for carrying out that part of the Nazi
program involving the incorporation in the Reich of neighboring
territories containing large numbers of Germans. That surely
will mean war.
'The only country that can supply on credit such raw mate-
rials as Germany now requires in quantity, but cannot pay for,
is the United States."
The latest budget nominally allots 30,000,000 Marks to the
Department of Propaganda — actually, however, the Department
gets bet^^een 50,000,000 and 60,000,000 marks from the radio-
broadcasting service which formerly went to the Department of
Posts and Telegraphs and now goes into the propaganda coffers,
Addresses by Samuel Unteelmver
which accounts for the 80,000,000 marks (or $32,000,000)
appropriated this year for propaganda, to which I have referred.
As evidencing the pace at which rearmament is going on in
Germany, and to which we are contributing, our Foreign Policy
Association has coUeaed interesting statistics:
The Storm TrooperSj sometimes referred to as "Hitler's Private
Army/' are now estimated at about 2,500,000 men. This army
possesses an aviation scpadron!
Tlie French dossier on German reartnament reports that —
"The German rulers have almost completed the reorganization
for war of the entire industrial, material and human resources
of the Reich."
The best proof of the intensive preparations of Germany within
its own borders is offered by the recent increases in the prices of
munitions stocks of German firms :
In 1932, the shares of the Berlin Karlsruhen Industrie Werke
were quoted at from 16 to 58. In 1933, they were between 55
and 95- During the same period the stock of the Bayerische
Motoren Werke, manufacturers of airplane engines and trench
mortars, ranged from 24 to 64 in 1932. During 1933, it varied
between 67 and 140. The I. G. Chemical combine was Hsted
in 1932 at between 81 and 108, and in 1933 at 95 to 148.
Another indication of the scale on which war preparations are
being conducted in Germany, In which we are actively assisting
and are now asked to be the principal factor, is the great increase
in the importations by the Reich of raw materials used particularly
for war purposes, such as copper, cotton, nickel, manganese, iron,
aluminum, wood and wood-pulp.
Is our Nation made up of guileless children that, la the face
of what is going on, they are willing to pay any attention to
Hitler's absurd and insincere professions of peace, when everyone
at all familiar with world affairs must realize that that nation is
feverishly and enthusiastically preparing to plunge the world
into the greatest w^ar the world has ever known and that in that
way only does their present government expect to hold its despotic
If our Government furnishes the credits with wdiich to bring
this crowning disaster upon the head of civilization, its respon-
sibihty will be beyond words.
Use your influence in every direction to stop this foolhardy
enterprise. We owe something to humanity. If we cannot im-
prove our economic position without precipitating such a catas-
trophe, we deserve to go to the wall.
Greatly as I admire the President, it is my sincere hope and
prayer that he will make no trade treaty with Germany. There
is nothing we can contribute to sucli a treaty except war materials.
With their semi-pauper labor they can manufacture merchandise
Addresses by Samuel Untermy£R
in ordinar)^ commerce so much cheaper than we can that any
exchange on that basis would result only in destroying and clos-
ing our faaorieSj just as they are about to revive.
If the treaty contemplates furnishing mainly war materials and
taking in return manufactured products that will compete with
our manufaaurers, what is to become of the latter?
I have always felt that the wisdom of making such sacrifices
to extend our export trade is more than doubtfuL After all, our
exports amount to only 6% of the total business of the country,
"We would be better off, if necessary, to reduce oar production to
that extent, if our consumers cannot absorb it^ than to open wide
our doors to the destructive competition that would result from
the reduction of our tariffs.
However that may be, let us, who entered upon the destructive
World War to end Wat and to "make the World safe for
democracy," avoid the furnishing of sinews to a country that
could not put itself in condition to wage war without our active
The main object of civilization just now should be, not to
build up the Hitler regime, but to destroy it, so far as that is
possible within the rules of international law; and the way to
break that power peacefully is through economic sanaions, of
which the boycott is the most powerful
Does experience teach us nothing? If we had kept out of rhe
World War, as we should have done, and our Government had
forbidden our ammunition-makers to sell to the belligerents, as
humanity dictated, we would have saved untold lives and billions
of dollars, and all the misery of this depression would have been
Is it not high time that civilised countries reckon lives above
dollars, and that we take the lead among the nations in prohibiting
the sale of arms and ammunition to foreign countries for war
purposes? If necessary, let the Government take over all the
plants. Anything is better than to continue responsible for the
butchery and savagery of war.
We prattle a lot in high-sounding phrases about the iniquity
of war, but lack the moral courage to take the only step that
would end it.
Address at the Maccabean Chanukah Celebration,
Madison Square Garden, December 16, 1933
THIS year's Chanukah has a far wider and deeper signifi-
cance for World Jewry than at any time in the past. I
need not remind you that the purpose of this traditional
holiday is to commemorate the heroism of the Maccabees of old.
Over 2,000 years ago, Judas Maccabeus and his small band of
sturdy Jews courageously faced the invading herds of Syrians and
successfully repulsed them. This triumph for the Maccabees
insured the survival of the Jewish people and their culture that
was gravely threatened by that invasion. It is this holiday of
"Chanukah," or the "Feast of Lights," that marks this joyous
Coming at this, the greatest crisis in our long existence, this
celebration is an inspiring symbol of the solidarity that is the
greatest need of the Jewish people in this, the most cruel and
unprovoked assault upon their existence in the long history of
Judaism, To meet it as it should be met and conquered, calls for
the revival of the militant Maccabean spirit of the Jews. That
this spirit is not dead but merely slumbering has been repeatedly
demonstrated in the past, but I will admit that, except among the
great masses of our people in this country, prosperity' has deadened
our fighting spirit. Our so-called "high^brow," ultra-prosperous
leaders have become ''pussy-footers," though always generous,
well-intentioned and loyal to the cause of Judaism — according to
their dim lights.
They have forgotten that our dauntless-spirited, persecuted
downtrodden people have never gotten anything except by fight-
ing for it. An incursion into the history of the Maccabees may
give them some of the courage they need in this crisis.
Let them recall that upon the result of the 2,000-year-old
struggle between the Maccabees and the Syrians depended the
survival of the Jews, — but the issue was not any more grave
than it is today. They at least had the alternative of accepting
assimilation at the hands of their oppressor or of fighting for
their perpetuation in the face of tremendous odds.
Mathatias, spurred on by his valiant nons, was the guiding
force in arousing the Jews of that time to an understanding of
the peril that faced them. It was this handful of Maccabees that
was responsible for saving Jewish civilization.
Despite its small si2;e, Palestine is wonderfully rich in historic
associations, Not a hill or valley, not a town or village
throughout the whole country that does not possess proud and
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
sacred traditions which run back into the dim and distant past.
Jerusalem, as you probably know, was an old city when Egypt
began to flourish, and was already ancient when Rome was
founded. The early records of Palestine go back many thousands
of years, to the time when all of Europe was covered with
enormous forests inhabited by wild men just emerging from
their rough Stone Age.
If anything could permeate Hitler's dense ignorance of history,
as when he chatters about the Germans being "Aryan," it would
be useful to him, if anything could penetrate his bigoted, fanatical
anti-Semitic hatred, if he were to grasp the full significance of
this Feast of the Lights.
The home of the ancient Maccabees, in the village of Mo din,
is well-known to us. Its site is now occupied ^by an Arab
village, called Midien, about seven miles east of Ludd. The
village is located in the foothills of Judea in a rather out-of-the-
way, but not inaccessible spot. It was here, according to history,
that the Maccabees lived and died. It was in this village that
old Mathatias, the father of the five patriot sons, raised the
standards of revolt against the Greek Syrians and started the
series of conflicts that have gone down in history as the Maccabean
A second landmark m that War is the pass of Upper Beth
Heron. As its name signifies, this is a narrow pass in the Judean
mountains, on the road from the coast to Jerusalem. The modern
village of Beth-Ur is situated on a hill overlooking the pass. It
was at this point that Judas decided to meet the Greeks, under
the leadership of Heron. When the enemy's army came in sight,
"foot-soldiers, cavalry and slave-metchants, as numerous as the
sands at the shores of the sea," Judas' little band were frightened
at their display of power. But Judas reminded his men that
they were fighting for their lives and laws and that they should
draw inspiration and courage from the justice of their cause. The
soldiers responded with a will, and swooped down from the
hillside upon the enemy. The Greeks were completely routed;
only a few hundreds remained of the thousands that had ventured
into the pass.
A third landmark of the Maccabean Wars is the village of
Enmaus, called by the native — Amwas. It is located in the^ hills
about seven miles directly south of Modin. It was here that
Judas Maccabeus, by a brilliant feat of generalship, outwitted the
the Syrian commander Gorgias and won a tremendous victory.
After some preliminary skirmishes with the Greeks, Judas and
his little army of only 6,000 men retired to the mountains of
Judea, believing that the Greeks would be afraid to pursue him
there. The Greek general with 40,000 trained troops encamped
west of the village of Enmaus. When Judas learned of the
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
location of the Greeks, he came down from the mountains and
took his stand on the south side of the village, with his right
flank resting on the Judean hills.
The Greek general, Gorgias, then decided to surround Judas
and his pitiful handful of soldiers; and so, in the dead of the
night, he took some picked men, and by a roundabout way over
the hills, reached the right flank of the Jewish encampment. To
his surprise he found the camp utterly deserted. Judas had left
campfires burning in order to mislead the Greeks and had dis-
appeared. Gorgias, thinking that Judas might have escaped to
his favorite retreat in the hills, wheeled about and started in
But what had happened to Judas? Instead of retreating before
the Greeks into the mountains, he had marched west and had
come around the rear of the Greek camp which had remained
at Enmaus. After a bloody engagement in which they lost
heavily, the Greeks decided to abandon the camp and retreat to
the coast. Judas then followed at their heels and tutned what
would have been an otderly retreat into a veritable rout. Nor
did he call his men back until they had pursued the Greeks
almost to the gates of Jamnia and Ashdod. Then he came back
to the deserted camp of the Greeks and set it on fire.
When Gorgias returned from liis search of Judas' army in
the mountains, he saw his camp in flames and the Jewish army
drawn up in front of it ready to give him battle. The Greek
soldiers were so paralyzed with fear that they refused to hght.
They turned and fled, leaving Judas undisputed master of the
field, and Judas now had his path clear all the way up to Jerusalem.
He left several detachments of soldiers to guard the various
mountain passes, while he himself took the bulk of the army
with him to Jerusalem and there re dedicated the Temple to the
service of the true God.
Whilst we are gathered here tonight to celebrate that victory,
the Feast of Lights means more to us than the mere commemora-
tion of that glorious ancient event. It serves not only to remind
us of our present difficulties, but it is a call to arms for the
exercise of the courage and resistance against great odds that
animated our forefathers over 2,000 years ago. Not for many
generations has the festival of Chanukah had the meaning that
it holds for us this year. Antiochus Epiphanes was the enemy
in the days of the Maccabees. His unworthy descendant, Adolf
Hitler, is our arch- foe today. The success of our efforts in com-
batting Hitler involves, in a sense, the use of weapons that
served Judas Maccabeus. The Maccabeans succeeded because they
did more than utter pious wishes for the salvation and regenera-
tion of their people. With their backs against the wall they
fought bravely and continuously until the enemy had been van-
UNIVfhMM f M^ |>.«»M *1 *M!«HK »»^»H
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
quished. That must be the keynote of our struggle today. A
struggle no less significant in its bearing upon the future of our
race than was the battle of the Maccabees against the Greek
The only difference is that the weapons of warfare have
changed. Instead of physical force we are driven to the economic
counter-boycott of Germany as our only defense against the cruel
campaign of persecution, having for its admitted ultimate ob-
jective the extermination of all German Jews solely because they
are, or their ancestors were, Jews,
Although the German Jews are the immediate viaims of this
unspeakable campaign of sadist horrors of a loyal, patriotic,
inoffensive people, solely because of their race, the fight this time
is more than a Jewish fight— it is a struggle in which the Hitler
regime is arrayed on one side and all world-civilization on the
other. The ourcome of that struggle means vastly more to non-
Jewish Americans and to American institutions; to the Christian
religion, and to all womanhood regatdless of race or creed, than
it means to the Jews of Germany, or even to the Jews of the
Let me develop my meaning more plainly. It is now an estab-
lished fact, of which we have overwhelming evidence, that this
country is being overrun with seditious Nazi propaganda, the
purpose of which is to sow the seeds of race-hatred among our
people. Just as Russia unsuccessfully tried to spread the doctrines
of Communism in America and other parts of the world, so the
Hitlet regime, with its swarms of agents now covering this coun-
try, is seeking to implant the poison of anti-Semitism.
The Russians were for years refused recognition by us because
of this campaign, and when finally tecogni^ed it was upon the
exptess agreement that they would not again seek to invade our
shores with Communist emissaries or propaganda.
Germany is recognized by our Government and has an alleged
Ambassador, who is really a propagandist in disguise and is
violating our neutrality and hospitality. Are we to lend our
encouragement and support to a country that is thus seeking to
undermine our institutions?
Has not this country already suffered sufficiently at the hands
of Germany to make it plain that it is to our interest to cease
having anything to do with her? That is one reason why I say
that this is not a Jewish question, but one in which all Americans
are still more deeply concerned.
If any evidence further than that which Ambassador Luther
furnished in his recent address at Columbia University were
required to demonstrate that this man is a pernicious propagandist,
it is abundantly furnished by what he said from this platform
at the so-called "German-Day" celebration on December 6th,
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
where the circumstances of his appearance and what he said were
so deeply resented that it required a substantial section of the
New York police force to ptotea him and to prevent a riot.
It would, by the way, be interesting to know upon what pre-
tenses and representations so good and guileless an Ametican as
Secretary Roper was lured into taking part in that unpatriotic
meeting, surrounded by anti-Semitic swastika emblems, and thus
attempdng to lend it respectability and apparent official sanaion.
He had no business there.
Before referring to that part of Dr. Luther's speech, to which
I feel that the American people should take the deepest offense,
let me draw your attention to a few pieces of unconscious humor
in which that gentleman indulged, which demonstrated an amazing
want of a sense of humot and a false conception of the gullibility
of the American people. He said:
"I ask you your firm resolve to study the truth about Germany
and not to be satisfied with incomplete reports whose correct-
ness is often contradicted and inherendy questionable."
Does he take us for a pack of ignorant fools? Is he not aware
that we know what is happening in the wotld? Whete can we
get "the truth" about Germany, except as it trickles through over
the most tigid censorship the w^orld has ever known, cabled from
its own vast propaganda service in Berlin, presided over by its
Minister of Propaganda?
Our complaint is that we do not get the truth, and that the
German propaganda bureau garbles and suppresses the facts.
Now then where are we to get or "study the truth"?
And what does he mean by "incomplete teports"? We are
fairly flooded with this dishonest and distorted "news." And
whose reports are they?
The picture that is being made of Germany in this country is
one that is drawn by the German Government itself. The Ameri-
can correspondents there are under the most rigid control. We
are literally fed upon German fables, except that now and then
someone escapes from the horrors of that country to the safety of
neutral soil from whom we learn at times a little of the truth.
But who will evet know the unspeakable cruelties, mutder, sui-
cides, starvation and other crimes visited upon our unfortunate
When the Belgian atrocities were reported in our press rhere
were many of us who refused to believe that such things were
possible even in war in our 20th-Cenmry civilization. Now we
know better, and that there is nothing in the way of refinements
of cruelty of which these Sadist brutes, inspired by race hatred
and the joy of witnessing torture, are nor capable. Is there not
something either demoniacal or delightfully naive in this man,
Addresshs by Samuel Untermyer
representing a country that has destroyed a free press and freedom
of speech, calmly inviting us to "study the truth"?
Do you realize how many newspaper offices have been closed
and their presses silenced? And how many Jewish editors of
those papers have, without rhyme, reason or excuse, except that
they were Jews or of remote Jewish ancestry, been ousted from
their own properties, without compensation had them literally
confiscated and supplanted by Nazi editors, until there is not now
m Germany a newspaper that dares print a line contrary to the
commands of the Government, and that all of them are mere
servile Government "mouthpieces" who dare not print the truth,
under penalty of long imprisonment?
Under these circumstances this appeal of the Ambassador is
an insult to our intelligence and a flagrant evidence of insincerity
The crowning instance of unconscious humor and downright
dishonesty is the following delicious bit from that same gentleman ^
"I pray you to he^irken attentively to the great peace dcclara-
rion of Chancellor Hitler."
"Peace declarations," indeed! From this "Mad Dog of Europe,"
who is giving every energy and planning on a scale" never before
known toward plunging Europe into another war; who is violat-
ing every word and line of the letter and spirit of the Treaty of
Peace, and practically daring the Allies to bring him to terms.
He has converted all of Germany into a war camp.
But the gem of the collection is the following:
/'Germany asks for peace, domestic tranquillity ('tranquiUity *
mmd you)— the right to regulate her own affairs accordine
to her own wishes."
This right of Germany to regulate "her own affairs according
to her own wishes" refers, of course, to the atrocious and inhuman
persecution by Germany of her Jewish citizens; to her right, with^
out reason or excuse, to murder, rob, torture and disfranchise
those of Its own citizens who have been for centuries imbedded
m her soil, because they are in a hopeless minority, unarmed and
unable to defend themselves,^with the avowed purpose of ex^
termmating or driving them into suicide or starvation, and without
the protest or interference of the civilized world.
No country has any such right. The claim is contrary to
international law and to all the dictates of humanity. Such tor-
tures and crucifixion of an innocent, law-abiding minority of its
citizens, without rhyme or reason, is not an "internal affair.^' It
is an international crime. No man who entertains such views of
human relations or of the rights of minorities is entitled to be
received or retained as an Ambassador to this country. Nations
have again and again protested against such treatment by a coun-
try of its minorities, far less cruel than that to which Germany
has been forced to confess.
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
To use "German Day," which has been for generations cele-
brated in this city as the anniversary of the time when the first
Germans landed in America, is a prostitution of the day and a
gross offense against the German-Americans who are among our
most valuable citizens. They are a peace-loving, law-abiding and
justly recognized influential section of American life.
What, then, shall we say of a Sadistic, non-American organiza-
tion in this country, supported by the money of the German
Government, setting up all over tlie land "Silver Shirts," "Storm
Troopers," "Steel Helmets," "Fronts" and the like, that has
violently seized unlawful control of the machinery of the rem-
nants of these old patriotic German- American societies, driven
out thousands of their oldest and most respected members, and
attempts to use the remnants to breed race hatred?
And what shall be said of another movement, financed by the
German Government, under the name of "Friends of New Get-
many/' which has, as have many other bodies of this propagandist
movement incorporated under the laws of our States, had the
hardihood to use, in the furtherance of their seditious conspiracy,
a sea! having imprinted upon it the flag of the United States, and
over it the swastika emblem, that dares assure American citizens,
on the authority of the German Government, that they will
be received in Germany as German citizens, and that thereby
encourages and actually provides for a divided loyalty by our
citizens? Yet, amazing as it seems, that is the situation.
As an essential part of this propaganda, a number of news-
papers have been started or acquired by these propagandists.
One of them, the "Deutsche Post," in an editorial in its issue of
June 15, 1933, on the front page, prints an appeal in which it is
demanded that all Germans in this country be united in a strong
political organization which is to be called "The German Ring."
In that issue, the headquarters of the foreign Nazi groups in
Hamburg made the announcement and laid down the rule of
what the friends of the Hitler movement in the United States
are to accomplish:
"It is the purpose of this association to propagate German
national socialism. Members of this association musS be citizens
of foreign countries."
What does that mean but that American citizens are to propa-
gate on American soil the disfranchisement of Jewish-American
citizens? That is precisely what we are today tolerating. How
long is it to be permitted to continue? I hope not long after
This is followed by the statement that German nationals are
not to join the association. The purpose of this precautionary
advice is manifest. It is to avoid deportation.
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
The order continues :
"It is the duty of the association to prepare for our party
members in foreign countries the possibility to get connection
with foreign aurhorities, foreign newspapers, and influential
In the August number of the same pubUcation, new appeals
are made to Americans of German descent to enter politics in
the United States. The appeal reads, in part;
"To be in politics means to join the fighting troops of the
Friends of New Germany and cooperation in forming a bul-
wark of a united German America."
In another paragraph is the following:
"The National Sociahsts' work in foreign countries is the
unification of all Germans whether they belong to the Party
or not. There is only one condition, and that is that every Ger-
man is willing to cooperate according to the tendency and the
ideas of the National Socialist Government. It is therefore
necessary to strain all efforts toward the formation of State
organizations and other directing organizations. This has to
be done in closest cooperation with the National Socialist groups
in all places concerned. The Steel Helmets have already put
themselves under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, ivhich in
itself means cooperation in foreign countries also. All state and
local groups of the Nazi Party in foreign countries receive at
the same time parallel instructions by the foreign department
of the Nazi Party in Hamburg, The Steel Helmets will give
identical orders in due time."
The appeal is signed:
"BUND DER AUSLANDSDEUTSCHEN,
Aaivg member of the Presidium."
of the Foreign office."
If the investigation that will be demanded of the new Congress
is granted, I think it can be shown that the present "Friends of
New Germany," "Fronts," "Steel Helmets" and the like, with the
aid of the old despised KU KLUX KLAN, constitutes a criminal
conspiracy against the sovereignty and neurrality of our country.
Ifj as Dr. Luther claims, the w^holesale butchery and every other
form of refined cruelty of which human fiends can conceive,
practiced upon a helpless minority of its own citizens, constitutes
an "internal affair" of Germany, how will he explain the intrusion
of the horde of agents of his country into our land and the
carrying on here of its seditious activities from one end of the
country to the other?
The Chairman of the "German Day" celebration in this build-
ing proposed and the "packed" audience passed a resolution
unquahfiedly condemning the action of Mayor O'Brien in refusing
permission for the holding of an earlier celebration of German
Day in an armory belonging to the City of New York at which
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
a German emissary named Spanknoebel (who was placed by the
German Government at the head of this "Friends of New Ger-
many" movement in this country), was to be the chief speaker.
This is the same Spanknoebel wliO; after promising to appear
before the Mayor to explain the purpose of the meeting, fled the
country rather than subjea himself to an examination and is now
hidden somewhere, a fugitive from justice, under an indictment by
the Federal Grand Jury in this District.
Why should the Mayor of the city permit city property to
be used for this vile propaganda against our institutions? I bow
to no man in my championship of free speech. I am quite
willing that Jew-haters, Communists and other bigots and crack-
brains shall howl themselves hoarse — U they have the money
with which to hire a hall for that putpose^ — but why should the
City lend its property, free of cost, for such purposes?
The temper of the meeting was well illustrated by that arrogant
and asinine resolution.
This war into which civilization has been driven is a purely
defensive war. The world did nothing to seek or provoke it-
Its duration depends upon rhe will of the aggressor. Whenever
Germany restores its disfranchised minority, reinstates the men
in the professions whom it ruthlessly cast out, reopens its schools
and labor-unions to all regardless of race or creed, reinstates
freedom of religious belief and observance among the Christian
Churches J abandons the attempts to destroy the emancipation of
women, and discontinues its seditious and anti-Semitic propaganda
in this country, then, and not undl then, will this war end. Then,
and only then, will Germany be fit to reenter the Family of
Nations, where all will be forgiven and then the Prodigal Son
will be welcomed back into the fold. For we realize that these
fiendish crimes against civilization are not primarily the work
of the German people but of their false and faithless leaders who
have led them into this morass where the world regards them
Answer to an Address of Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels^
Delivered over Station WOR, May 16, 1934
PROBABLY the most amazing speech that has ever come
over the Trans-Atlantic cables was that of Friday, May
13th by Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels, the German Minister of
Propaganda, from the Sportspalast in Berlin.
On page 6 of next morning's issue of the New York Times
there were two cable reports from BerliOj one headed:
"GOEBBELS UTTERS THREATS TO JEWS
Germans Will Vent Rage if the Boycott Continues,
He Says in 'Last Warning' Speech. Assails
The other heading reads:
"NAZI POLICE STOP PROTESTANT RALLY
Break up Meeting in Berlin Suburb when
Bismarck's Nephew Assails Violence.
Disperse Hymn Singers."
In that speech Dr. Goebbels is reported as having said to his
"All Germany is aware of the fact that If part of the out-
side world continues the anonymous boycott against German
goods this is due to our own Jewish fellow-citizens."
Pray, what is there "anonymous" about it? The action taken
has been pursuant to innumerable formal resolutions of nation-
wide organizations throughout the w^orld,
"If," said he "the boycott were carried to lengths actually
endangering our economic situation, it would nt)t mean that
we would let the Jews go free. No! The hatred of the Ger-
man people would first of all vent itself on those who can be
grabbed in the homeland.
"If," he continued, "the Jews imagine that the bloodless
course of the German revolution gives them the right to dis-
port themselves again in their habitual impudeiice and arro-
gance and provoke the German people, let them be warned not
to tax our patience too severely.
"We have spared the Jews." (It would be interesting to know
how, when and where they have been "spared." Or what he
means by "bloodless revolution" as applied to the pogrom of
last year, or to the tortures worse than murder since then.)
"But if they think they can reappear on the stage and In the
editorial office, or if they imagine they can stroll along the
Kurfuerstendamm as if nothing at all had happened^ let them
take my words as a last warning.
"German Jews must conduct themselves in Germany in a
manner befitting 'guests.' They will be left alone by us if they
will quietly and modestly retire within their four walls and
if they will refrain from putting forth a claim to equal worth
and equal rights with Germans. If they do not, they will have
to blame themselves for the consequences," (Does that mean
that they can no longer walk the streets?)
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
The cable report continues as follows:
"Dr. Goebbels was almost as unsparing, if not so contemptu-
ous, of Catholicism. He charged that Catholic pulpits were be-
ing used as screens for 'Centrist politics,' and he admonished
'Militant Churchmen' to have regard how their activities were
viewed by the German people. He paid his compliments to
Cardinal von Faulhaber of Munich."
Reverting to the subject of the Jews, Dr. Goebbels further said:
"We expect every reader, party member, storm trooper and
worker to report to us every case of Jewish shamelessness in
the last months and weeks," (What does he mean by that
"Let every man," says he, "watch them on the streets, in
the open, in cafes and restaurants, in tlieir professions and on
voyages, every place where the Jew is to be found individually,
but especially where tliey appear in crowds. You cannot pos-
sibly miss them."
In the article reporting suppression by the Berlin poUce of the
Protestant clergy, the cable reports that when a nephew of Bis-
marck, von Arnim, said in his address — ^''We will not submit to
these acts of violence," the meeting was summarily broken up.
"The speakers," the cable continues, "had been all too obvi-
ously referring to former occasions when the police had sup-
pressed synods and assemblies in other parts of Germany."
You may have observed that more cable news is reported from
Germany in the New^ York newspapers than from all the rest
of Europe combined. This is directly due to the activities of
Dr. Goebbels' widespread propaganda campaign, for which^ in
one way or another, $32,000,000 has been appropriated for this
year, of which $12,000,000 is a ditect appropriation in the budget
and the balance comes from the transfer of the funds derived from
taxes on aeroj^lane and other transportation companies and public
Accurate data as to still further expenditures now being made
in this country is being gathered and will, I am told, be shortly
exposed by the Congressional investigation now under w^ay of
which Hon. John W. McCorraack of Massachusetts is Chairman
and ex-Senator Hatdwick of Georgia is Counsel.
From what I can learn, the revelations of the testimony gathered
by this Committee of the country-wide seditious propaganda to
spread the seeds of race and religious hatred among out people
will startle and shake the country to its very foundations.
When we consider that all the news and mail going into and
coming out of Germany are rigidly censored and that most of
these cables originate directly frotn Dr. Goebbels' propaganda
bureau, it is manifest that this address of Dr. Goebbels was
intended as a daring attempt to intimidate the Jews of America
and of other countries of the world and to warn them that if they
continue to boycott German goods the Jew^s in Germany will be
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
made to suifer^ even though they are in no way responsible and
have no control over such actions.
It is the most darhig and amazing unmasking of the long
campaign of hatred against the Jews and Catholics that we have
had in the entire course of this unspeakable reign of terror of
racial and religious persecution.
Manifestly goaded by the success of the boycott, as the world's
answer to and only effective defensive weapon against Germany's
persecution of the Catholics, Jews and Protestant Churches and
of the anniliilation of the German Labor Unions and Masonic
orders and the confiscation of hundreds of millions of dollars
of their money and properties, this latest revelation confirms our
worst fears and prophecies of the ultimate purpose of the Hitler
Dr. Goebbels continues to refuse to realize that the effectiveness
of this boycott and its constantly growing strength are due
mainly to the fact that it is overwhelmingly no n- Jewish. He is
apparently blind, or pretends to be, to the force of the official
boycott by the British Labor Party, the American Federation of
Labor and practically every Labor organization and Masonic order
in the world. He will not allow for the resentment of the
Catholics and the Protestants in the various countries in which
the boycott is most effective, and that it is even more formidable
in countries like Holland, Belgium, Great Britain, France and
Czechoslovakia and in far-off lands, starting from Egypt and
South Africa to Finland, where there are fewer Jews proportion-
ately than in the United States, constituting here about 5^2 per
cent of the population. It apparently best serves his purpose to
falsely place the responsibility for the boycott upon the helpless,
persecuted German Jews who had no part in it and no mote to
do with it than he himself, and to virtually warn them of the
resumption of the dreaded pogroms of last year (which he has
had in mmd from the beginning and would doubtless long since
have launched but for the fear of world opinion), whilst at the
same time disclaiming any such intention.
His reference to the "bloodless course of the revolution"
(against the Jews) reminds us that, in all, about 3,000 human
beings are said to have been murdered in that pogrom and that
tens of thousands have been wounded and injured.
It would be interesting to know to what Dr. Goebbels refers
when he says — "We have spared the Jews." Spared them from
what? Even those, and their ancestors, who shed their blood for
their country have, in common with all other German Jews, been
disfranchised and deprived of their citizenship; their children
excluded from the schools that they are taxed to support, and
they are not to be members of Labor Unions so that they cannot
work at their accustomed trades. Theit shops are plastered with
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
boycott signs and with warnings against dealing with them. All
professions have been virtually closed to them; they are sub-
jeaed to constant surveillance, insults, beatings, abuse and con-
tumely. Life is made intolerable.
In the same breath in which Dr. Goebbels tells you that
"We have spared the Jews," he warns them that they who were
once citizens and the equals of ail other citizens, many of them
holding positions of trust, honor and distinction, are now "guests"
who cannot walk the streets, but that if they "will quietly and
modestly retire within their four walls, and will refrain from
putting forth a claim to equal worth and equal rights with
Germans," they will be left alone. But if they do not, they will
have themselves to blame for the consequences.
These are all ominous signs oi a determination to exterminate
the German Jews. How much longer, in the face of such amazing
outbursts and danger signals, will the civilized world in this
Twentieth Century stand idly by? h it not high time that, in the
light of these official threats of the coming storm, the Hitler
Government should understand that we will no longer tolerate
this inhuman attitude?
And how much longer will it permit the use of German money,
supplied by that Government, to be used in spreading the foul
seeds of bigotry and hatred among our people?
Can you visualize the psychology of a man in high official
position who, in the face of all that has happened, has the
blindness or hardihood to say to the world— "We have spared the
Jews"? What could the Hitler regime have done that was not
worse than death that it has not done and is not doing?
We refuse to believe that any American, either German born
or otherwise, will support the revolting program outHned by
Dr. Goebbels on last Friday. If there are any such let them
stand forth and subject themselves to the "admiring" gaze of the
Referring to Dr. Goebbels' statement;
"I cannot withdraw the Jewish legislation because the Jews
abroad boycott us"
as though it were the Jews alone, or as though they were the
most important factor. He and his Government know full well
that if there were not many other far more powerful and numerous
factors than the Jews alone, engaged in this boycott, it could not
have assumed its present proportions.
If Germany really wants to "hold out the olive branch" to
the world, as is there intimated, but which I do not for a
moment beheve, it would be eagerly seized and the boycott
ended — but only in one way:
Let Getmany repeal its medieval laws; cease its brutal perse-
cutions; restore equality to its minorities and freedom of worship
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
and belief to all creeds; reinstate Organized Labor to its former
dignity, and return their confiscated properties to them.
In short, let it come back into the fold of civili^ationj and it
would, like the Prodigal Son, be welcomed.
Official threats, such as those by Hitler's Minister of Propa-
ganda, to permanently forfeit the respea of all mankind^ by way
of reprisal for acts for which they are not responsible, will not
avail. The world has at last found in the economic boycott a
powerful defensive weapon against the Hitler regime. We now
know that civilization will not hesitate to use that weapon against
a nation that chooses to become a social outcast against humanity.
The world should feel indebted to Dr. Goebbels for his
incredible exposure. It now knows to what lengths Hitler pro-
poses to descend and what to expect from him.
The preservation of civilisation imperatively demands that the
entire world band together in self-defense, regardless of race or
creed, as though a fatal plague were sweeping over the world or
savage beasts of prey were roaming at large in their midst.
The economic world-boycott now under way, extending into
every corner of the earth, and that alone, short of war, will
accomplish that end. It is evident from the cries of distress
now going up that Germany at last realizes the effectiveness of
There are only 16,000,000 Jews, or less than one per cent
of the world's population. Does Dr. Goebbels really believe
that w^e are so dull as to be hoodwinked by the silly pretext
that the Jews are an important faaor in this boycott? Not for
a moment. It happens to suit his purpose to wreak vengeance
upon those poor defenseless victims on whom the Hitler regime
has its iron heel.
If the German Government had any understanding of world
opinion it would realize that it has already gone too far toward
forfeiting the sympathy that was at one time concentrated in its
favor because of the harshness and injustice of the Versailles
Treaty, and that it is now on the highroad to not only forfeiting
that^ sympathy but of being barred from the Brotherhood of
Address Before die Medicai, Dental and Pharma-
ceutical Associations, at the Hotel Pennsylvania,
December 13, 1933
IAiM here to unfold to you the present condition of the
American boycott of German goods, ships and shipping, and
to urge upon you the importance, in your own interest and
in that of all patriotic Americans of using this opportunity to
patronize and build up the vast American business interests that
are dependent upon your encouragement and support.
Prior to the accession of the Hitler regime to power and its
brural racial and rehgious persecution with the avowed official
purpose of exterminating all its citizens of Jewish birth or ances-
try, its suppression of freedom of speech and of the press and
of every right of liber ty4oving government, I had frequently
expressed myself as opposed to the Versailles Treaty and as
sympathetic with the right of Germany to re- arm lor its proteaion
against assaults, on an equality with tiie Allies.
I felt that the Peace Treaty and the Covenant of the League of
Nations contemplated a gradual disarmament by the nations, in
the course of which Germany would eventually find itself on a
par with other nations — as to defensive armament,
I had also felt that undue advantage was taken of Germany in
the formulation of the Peace Treaty, In that neither the letter
nor the spirit of the "Fourteen Points," on the faith of which
Germany laid down its arms, had been observed in the formal
Treaty, and that the Allies had availed themselves of the fact
that Germany was crushed and unarmed to force unjust terms of
peace upon the latter.
These conclusions were based upon my long familiarity with
the life and customs of cultural Germany and of the marvelous
industry and intelligence of its people, for wliich I had great
All of this is now changed. The old Germany is no longer
recognizable, either in the thoughts or habits of its people —
msofar as they are permitted to express themselves to tht world
over the rigid censorship of a gagged press and the destruction
of free speech, carried to the extreme, so that any substantial
difference with the ruling dictatorship constitutes a capital ofifense
punishable by death. With great sadness and deep regret I have
reached the conclusion that this once proud people, especially its
younger generation, has been converted into a nation of Sadists
and that much of the Allied propaganda of Belgian atrocities
circulated during the War, which none of us believed, was prob-
, ably true. It is as least quire consistent with the horrors that
have been visited upon a loyal, patriotic, law-abiding and un-
Addresses by Samuel Unterj^yer
oflfending people who worshipped their fatherland and who had
been for centuries imbedded in its soil^ before this terrible
catastrophe was visited upon them.
If anyone for a moment imagines that the unbelievable atrocities
perpetrated upon the Jews of Germany have been in the least
abated, or that they are not in fact increasing in the refinements
of cruelty I would like him to see some of the evidence that
has been collected on this subject. True, the difficulties have
been almost unbelievable, because of the rigid censorship of the
press, and the prohibition of free speech, but some of the facts
have trickled through over this censorship and they are horrifying,
as indicaring the sufferings of these innocent, loyal people and
the studied efforts to exterminate them — and all solely because
they are Jews or of Jewish ancestry.
Here is one characteristic incident, related to me recently by
a young writer of great talent from the West. He became
alatmed at the reports of what was happening In Germany,
because his mother was still living there, and took a trip to the
little town in which she lived. Whilst there, one of her neigh-
bors, who w^as a widow with two sons, borh of whom had served
in the German army in the World War, came to his mother's
home in great agony and explained that a few days previously
Nazi soldiers had come to her home and had forcibly taken her
sons away, without reason or explanation. She suspected, from
their arrogant and insulting conduct, that their visit boded no
good, and so, having heard nothing from them after a few days,
she began to make inquiries, the result of which was that two
sealed coffins, said to contain the bodies of her sons, were de-
livered at her place with instructions that under no circumstances
were they to be opened. A courageous man in that community
dared, however, to open the coffins, and was confronred by rhe
gruesome sight of the bodies of the two young men, liaving been so
mangled and emasculated that there was not an unbroken bone
lefr in either body, from the top of their heads to their feet.
There was, of course, no remedy. There is never any remedy
in Germany for any atrocity committed by German soldiers. The
word "Sadists" was invented for such people. They are human
beings turned into wild beasts.
Nobody really knows what is happening to these half million or
more hopeless, defenseless people left to the tender mercies of
these savages. The thousands of cases of murder, insaniry, suicide
and starvation will never be recorded. Nor will the horrors of
the vile "concentration camps" ever be known. Perhaps it is
just as well that mankind shall be kept in ignorance of the
depth of depravity to which that people has descended. We
know sufficient of those unspeakable depths to remind us that
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
of all the tragedies confronting us in life none is greater than
"Man's inhumanity to man.'*
As one of a thousand instances illustrating the extremes to
which the present regime is wdlling to go in suppressing and
punishing all independent expressions of opinion, I call your
attention to an article on page 10 of the New York Times of
November 22nd, headed:
'TX- JUDGE IS JAILED AS NAZI DEFAMER.
GETS 15 MONTHS FOR PUBLISHING JOB APPEAL
THAT SAID JEWS- CHANCES WERE DWINDLING.
AUTHOR GETS LIKE TERM."
The case in question was that of a former judge and a news-
paper publisher. The prosecution was based on an article
written by one of these gentlemen and published by the other —
the editor of a Jewish community paper. The offense consisted
only of a respectful, inoffensive appeal to Jewish employers to
be more solicitious of their co-religionists "whose chances of
fm<^mg employment have been steadily dwindling since the na-
tional revolution." That clause constituted the ^burden of the
offense. The article charged that "Jewish employers have been
evading their duty of employing Jews."
The record shows that ex- Judge Rechnit2 had volunteered for
service at rhe outbreak of the War; had been commissioned an
officer; been severely wounded; had been decorated with the
Iron Cross (both classes), and had finally written a campaign
history of his regiment. Rechnltz's forefathers had lived on
Silesian soil for two centuries and knew no other fathetland
than Germany. The Judge ordinarily assigned to that Court,
and who would normally have presided at the trial, refused to
serve on account of his old association with Rechnitx, who had
served with him in the same Court.
This most recent instance is merely symptomatic. I have had
recounted to me and have investigated hundreds of bloodcurdling
horrors, without reason or exaise and prompted only by race
hatred, bigotry and fanaticism rhat have been, from day to day,
perpetrared upon our people.
To enter into any adequate description of the horrors of the
present governmental persecution of the Jews, merely because
they are Jews; of the thousands of reported suicides and tortures
of the concentration camps and prisons, in which men are con-
fined merely because they are Jews; of the confiscation and
destruction of fortunes honestly gained by generations of thrift
and industry — would require volumes.
The underlying purpose stands not only confessed but is
glorified by Hitler in his book — "Mein Kampf," It is avowedly
the result of years of steady inaiication into the minds and
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
hearts of the German people of the doarine of fanatical hate,
based on that most absurdj false and imaginary race theories
that were ever foisted upon the world. The thought is that by
exterminating the Jews, and preventing the birth of future chil-
dren of mixed blood, the German people will become "pure
Aryan stock." If that mad conception were not so ridiculous
to all who have studied this subject it would be the laughing
stock of the world, as it is to most and will be to all of us
Answering now, directly, the frequently propounded question,
as to whether Germany should be given international equality, I
say, emphatically, no. Her people are ruled by a despot, with
a hand of iron. Liberty is a crime. They are ground down undet
the heel of the most brutal and ignorant dictatorship ever known.
World opinion of her barbarous government and of the savages
who at the moment control it, cannot reach into Germany through
its uncivilized censorship. The German people have no idea
what the world thinks of the reversion of their country to the
"civilization" of the Dark Ages. They delight in cruelty. Such
a people, so ruled, crushed under the heel oi a medieval dictator,
cannot safely be entrusted with armed equality. They have been
taught, and are acting on the theory, that their lives and those
of their childten, and their children's children, are dedicated to
a war of revenge. The faas fly in the face of al! protestations
to the contraty.
Under existing circumstances the present regime has already
been permitted, through the supineness of the Allies, to go too
far in preparing for another war. Every energy is directed to
that end. Hitler's peace professions are as dishonest as have been
his other assurances. In my judgment the mistake that France
is making is in not marching into the Rhine land and taking
possession, until the wanton and defiant daily violations of the
tetms of the Treaty with respea to armaments are terminated
and removed. If she waits much longer she will have herself
only to blame for the tragedy that is about to overtake the world.
Germany can afford to pour our more wealth in modern re-
armament than the countries that pay their debts — for she nor
only does not pay them but does not pretend that she will ever
do so. Her first act was to absolutely destroy the entire currency
of her country and to repudiate her internal debt. Now she has
repudiated her debts to the world whilst she pours hundreds of
millions into new armaments, foreign propaganda to poison
Christendom, and has so lowered the moral standards in her
own country that the former family-loving people of Germany
are no longer recognizable. They have been played upon and
whipped into the fury of wild beasts against their defenseless
fellow-citizens for no understandable reason except theit des-
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
peration at the unjust treatment they have received at the hands
of the Allies.
The events of the past few weeks, even as coloted, distorted
and minimized by the censotshsip through which they have passed,
are but one more demonstration of the contempt of the Hitler
regime for the religious convictions and practices of the Protes-
tants and Catholics in their country. That regime would destroy
religious freedom as it has destroyed individual liberty, and
reduce it to the proportions of a State serfdom. The civilized
countries of the world will be false to theit duty to humanity
to petmit such a tribe of savages and Sadisrs to regain entry into
the Brotherhood of Man.
I repeat^ — a thousand times, NO. Although this "Mad Dog
of Europe" and his satellites have Germany by the throat, crushed
under theit feet, and are venting their long pent-up racial hatted
and fanaticism upon their defenseless, unoffending Jewish citizens
to their heart's content, the security of civilization demands that
they in mrn be kept under the heel of the enlightened nations of
the Earth, until Germany a^vakens to a realization of the enormit}^
of its crimes, forgoes its mad dreams of revenge and installs a
Government representative of the cultured, freedoradoving people
that the Germans were imtii this virus was injected into their
blood. Then, and not until then, will it be time enough to take
up the question of modifications of the Versailles Treaty, on the
basis of the old legal maxim that "he who comes into a Court
of Equity must come with clean hands."
I refrain, at this time, from commenting upon the cheap, false,
garbled and utterly shameless and unworthy statements of Am-
bassador Luther and Mr. Hoffmann, the President of the Steuben
Society, in their attempts on their 'German Day" celebration at
Madison Square Garden on December 6th, ro excuse or apologize
for the most btutal, barbarous regime of modern times.
I expect to deal with the occurrences of that occasion, and the
resolutions there passed, on Saturday evening of this week from
rhe same platform at Madison Square Garden from which those
falsehoods were uttered. I wish, however, to say here that the
views and sympathies of out non-Jewish American citizens of
German birth were grossly misrepresented at that meeting. They
are not apologists for the horrors that continue to be inflicted
upon Getman Jews by Hitler and his satellites. On the contrary,
they abhor and feel that their native land has been disgraced and
outlawed from the brotherhood of nations.
Have you, in all your associations with the millions of these
respected of our citizens met one who has been willing to at-
tempt to defend of excuse it? I know thousands of them who
are among my friends and have yet to hear of one who has not
HlHueBBii.uF »£a*AA« AtMMN HtH M9t
Addressks by Samuel Untermyer
bowed his head in shame or openly denounced this mad reversion
to the Dark Ages, At the proper time I propose to defend
these gentlemen against this propagandist whom I here again
charge with masquerading as an Ambassador and lending his
exalted office to the insulting argument that this unspeakable
campaign of persecution is an "internal affair." Internal affair,
indeed! It is the concern of all Civilization.
Address Delivered on October 17, 1934
THE entire German nation is today suffering under a reign
of terror unequalled in history, in which freedom of speech
and of the press are reminiscences of the dim past and in
which the courts are a mockery of justice and the administration
of the law is a servile tool of the political bandits now in power.
All political opposition is annihilated by the simple method
of standing opponents by the thousands up against a wall and
filling them with bullets without a pretense of indictment, accusa-
tion or trial. For almost two years this condition of anarchy has
prevailed in Germany.
It is because of this unbelievable medieval tyranny and despot-
ism that the whole civilized world with one accord has turned
its back upon Germany in outraged shame and disgust and is
refusing to have any relations with the men who have seized the
reins of power, prostituted government, trampled upon Chris-
tianity, and destroyed all the ideals for which liberty and civiliza-
It is as false as false can be that ours is in any sense a Jewish
question, as Hitler and his brigand band in all their speeches are
persistently attempting m and out of season to make it appeat.
True, the Jews were the first viaims of this reign of terror.
Thousands were murdered, in one of the most hideous pogroms
ever known. Other thousands were plunged Into prisons or con-
cetitration camps, again without accusation or trial, where many
of them were either beaten or starved to death, or driven to
suicide. No one will ever know the extent of that ghastly record.
Their desperate families are still vainly begging to learn what
has become of them. Germany has been converted into a hellish
charnel house for its Jewish minorities whom it is its avowed
purpose to annihilate.
If there were nothing else, this would be a question that con-
cerns all humanity, regardless of race or creed. But gruesome
as rhis is, it is but a small part of the story. What shall be
said of the destruction of Organized Labor at the command of
the munition- makers and industrial barons to whom the Hitler
regime owes its ascent to power and in whose interest it has
reduced the wages of Labor almost to the starving point, in order
to accomplish that, and it has destroyed the Unions, imprisoned
their leaders and confiscated their hundreds of millions of dollars
of propert}^ That is the reason why Organized Labor the world
over is embarked upon this boycott. There is not a Labor Union
in a civilized country that has not joined this movement. And
yet with twenty million or more Union men and their families
engaged in this struggle we are calmly told that this is a Jewish
tl < ill i^«AA A4 AUhHM H^Mn
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
This is Christianity's struggle in which the Jews are an in-
significant factor. They constitute less than one per cent of the
German population, less than four per cent of ours, and less
than one per cent of the population of the worid.
The claim is nothing short of fantastic. This boycott covers
the entire wotld and is growing day by day more intense, It is
quite as pronounced and effective in South Africa, Egypt, Finland
and South America as in this country. Does anyone suppose that
the Jews alone could have created such havoc in the export busi-
ness of Germany as is shown even by the garbled figures of exports
that it puts forth? It has lost fully one-third of its export business,
and the fight has just begun.
In the very near future I expect to attend a Confe fence in
Europe where it Will be more completely organized and a central
bureau established for the interchange of information, and to
supply information as to countries where substitute merchandise
of all kinds can be secured. Mr. Rabinowitz established such a
research bureau in out organization and it is working most
effectively. American manufacturers are largely getting the benefit
of these substitutions, though they will get more of thera as time
What is to become of the Christian Churches, Catholic and
Protestant, if these atheists and pagans now in control have their
way? They, Hitler, Muller, Rosenberg, and their ilk dare not
be as open, outspoken and ruthless in their methods as with the
Jews, but their brazenly announced purpose is to destroy Chris-
tianity and to set up in its place what they falsely label a "German
Christian Church," under the cover of which they propose to
scrap the old and parts of the New Testament; to place the
churches and all religion under the control of the Government
and to diaate what shall be their creed and how they shall
It would indeed atgue poorly for the spiritual reaction of the
world if it were to idly submit to this desecration of everything
that is sacred. Every day is adding to the sight that the revolt
is growing. The Government may and doubtless will soft pedal
and perhaps pretend to modify its program against the Catholic
Church until after the Saar plebiscite, but in the end thete is the
cruel determination to destroy religious freedom and to force
the destruaion of the present religions and to esablish in their
place a new Pagan faith under the domination of the State.
There are only two alternatives by way of revolt against this
shattering of all our ideals of human liberty and of racial and
One is war against this cruel, outlaw tribe, which is unthinkable.
The other is pointed out by the Covenant of the League of
Nations — in its provisions for imposing what it calls "economic
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
sanctions" against the offenders — which is analogous to and
merely another phrase for the boycott.
Unfortunately, those salutaty provisions of the Covenant of
the League have never yet been invoked, and yet they point the
road to averting war, for there are few countries whose govern-
ments could continue to exist if barred from reciprocal trade.
The honor and dignity of our country are involved in this
boycott movement. Among other things it is our answer to the
vile, lying, seditious propaganda that the German Government is
spreading broadcast throughout the country, sowing the poisonous
seeds of race-hatred in every nook and corner of the hand. If
you have not read the startling disclosures of the McCormack
Congressional Committee that is now investigating this subject,
I advise you to do so. The evidence shows a worse condition
than the traitorous conspiracies of that same Government on
account of which a number of the members of the German
Embassy were expelled from this country prior to the sinking
of the "Lusitania" and shortly before we severed diplomatic
relations with Germany.
The proof is overwhelming and unanswerable. Only a pitiful,
weak-kneed Secretary of State would have tolerated such violations
of our neutrality and such a conspiracy against our peace, order
and security and the rights of our citizens. Not even a word of
protest has been uttered. Imagine what Great Britain, with its
line traditional self-respect and sense of justice and protection
toward its citizens, would have done under like circumstances.
Every mother's son of these hundreds of alien recreants who have
been sent here for that purpose would have been shipped out of
the country, and the German steamship lines that are landing
these men on our shores, and tons of seditious, libelous, con-
taminating literarure that they are dumping upon us, would long
since have been denied entry to our ports. That is what should
be done with the companies anyway, although no newspaper is
willing to say so because of the advertising patronage that they
distribute. They have been the purveyors and distributors of
propaganda- money that has been used to pollute the minds of
For many months it has been known to the Administration that
the country was being infested by German spies; that military
drills were being held here — in German uniforms — and that
in innumerable other ways our neutrality was being violated. But
our State Department has been so concerned lest we offend the
tender sensibilities of the present Nrzi regime which personally
conduaed the wholesale murders of Jews and the unexampled
historic slaughters of June 30, 1934, and lest our citizens lose
another precious opportunity of throwing more millions into the
gutter by making further Trade Agreements that would be mere
II iiimi I ill II III nil III Hi
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
"scraps of paper" like the others, whenever they feel so disposed,
that not a word has been uttered and not one of these swarms
of spies and conspirarors has been deported or otherwise inter-
We are having lists taken of American Jews who are so wanting
in dignity and self-respea as to travel on these ships, so that all
of us may know who they ate.
One of the most despicable incidents of many years in our
public life is furnished by the candidacy for Governor of a man
who is apparently seeking to attract support by aligning himself
with and bidding for the support of a group (most of whom are
not themselves citizens) that is seeking votes on the platform of
race and rehgious barred. He cannot hope for other support.
Having been repeatedly rejeaed by the major political parties as
a candidate, he must know that he has as much chance of election
as a "snowflake has in hell." His candidacy is doubtless based
on the fact that all three candidates of the major parties are Jews
and to capitalize that coincidence. Apart from the fact that he
is ludicrously unfitted to fill that exalted post, I do not for a
moment believe that any self-respecting voter, be he German-
American, Irishj or what-not, will so desecrate the franchise as
ro encourage its use to assist this small un-American group of
bigots in their futile efforts to make a demonstration of political
It is simply inconceivable that a man who has been so honored
by his fellow- citizens should become a tool in such an ignominious
cause. He is doomed to be the ridiculous flop that he deserves
to be, for our citizens of German birth and ancestry are amongst
the most loyal outstanding people, and will not lend themselves
to this disgusting scheme of this gtoup of the Friends of New
Germany, who are thus seeking in this prostitution of the ballot
to out-Hitler Hitler in this country.
The whole sickening performance is nauseating beyond words.
■ Weak and futile attempts, without a shred of basis, have been
recently made from time to rime, emanating from the Hitler
regime and its agents here, as an excuse for the torture and
persecution of the Jews, to link them with the Communists, and
with as much basis as the fantastic "Aryan" myth, w^hich is the
ourgrowth of a strange combination of ignorance and mendacity.
Lest well-meaning but uninformed people be deceived it is high
time to take note of these inventions.
There is no link whatever between the Jews of America and
the Communist Party.
There is a wholesome stamte in this State, under which Gitlow
was convicted of anti-American aaivities during the War, making
the advocacy of the overthrow^ of Government by force a crime.
There should be a Federal statute to the same effea, including
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
a provision that the use of the mails for any such purpose be
made punishable as a felony.
Here is a brief summary of the facts:
The Communist Party has 26,000 members in the United
States. There are about 2,000,000 Jews in the City of New York.
The total Communist vote in the last election was 27,644.
There is a vastly larger proportion oi almost every other na-
tionality connected with the Communist Party than of Jews. They
constitute less than 3%.
The official head o/ that Party is Earl Browder. He is not
a Jew, but a native-born American and of non-Jewish ancestry.
The head of the International Labor Defense, which, whilst it
has Communist leanings and leaders, does not admit that it is a
Communist organization but does most of tlie Communist defense
work, is William L. Patterson, a native-born Negro.
Clarence L. Hathaway is a leading figure in Communist circles
and was the contact man with the Soviet Union. He is an
American-born Nordic and a man of education.
William Z. Foster, who was titular head of the Party until
about a year ago when he became ill, is a narive-born Nordic, a
college graduate, and either a Prorestant or a Cathohc.
Another important fig are is Isaac Ferguson, who is the at-
torney for the "Left Wing" in Chicago and represents Communist
groups. He is an educated man and is also a Nordic— either a
Protestant or a Catholic.
The Communist weekly is "NEW MASSES." Their Business
Manager is William Browder, a brother of Earl Browder.
The head of the Workers' International Relief, the left-wing
relief organization, is Alfred Wagenknecht, of German or Ameri-
can origin, but at all events a Nordic and not a Jew.
The local attorney down South in the Scottsboro case is George
Chamlee, a Nordic, an "educated man and at one time Attorney
for the State of Tennessee. He is not himself a Communist but
is erroneously rated among that group because he has defended
Leo Gallagher, Los Angeles attorney, went to the Reichstag
trial. He is a native-born and a Catholic by birth.
Charles Garland, who gave his entire inheritance, about two or
three million dollars, to the Garland Fund that has contributed
large sums to Communist activities, is not a Jew. In point of
faa, there are very few Jews connected with the Communist
One of the outstanding figures is Joseph R, Brodsky, who is
Chief Counsel for the Labor Defense, (which is not itself a Com-
munist organization. Its chief purpose is the defense of workers
in difficulty because of their working-class activities), but is not
officially a member of the Communist Party.
Itiai«*» AtHIMN Ht'MMBt*
Addresses by Samuel Untermyer
The head of the local office of the International Labor Defense
in New York is named Stevens.
As to the left-wing labor unions, Biedenkapp — not a Jew —
a naturalised American citi2en, is head of the shoe industry
In the Food Workers' Industrial Union, two of the leaders
are Jews^-Cranberg and Rubin — but, on the odier hand, the
most aaive people on the capitalistic side of the industry are Hke-
Mr. Louis Rittenberg, in the August 17th, 1934, issue of the
American Hebrew, vouches for the statement that of the over
2,000,000 Jews in New York City only 2,000 are connected in
any way with the Communist Party, and that of the Central
Committee of that Party, composed of 29 members and 6 alter-
nates, there are not more than 4 or 5 Jews. Whilst the Jews
constitute about 30% of the population of the City of New York,
the Jewish membership is considerably less than 3%.
If time and space permitted, I could go on indefinitely with
statistics, conclusively disproving this charge, which is not only
intentionally false but malicious.
The magazine "FORTUNE," in its September, 1934, number,
has collected interesting and informative data covering this entire
subject. The charge reminds me of the recent book by Eli2abeth
Dilling, called "The Red Network" containing a "Who's Who"
of radicals in the Communist ranks that lists 1,450 names,
including Mrs. FrankUn E). Roosevelt, General John F. O'Ryan,
Newton D. Baker, many other equally well-known men and
women of hfe-long antagonism both to Communism and
Socialism, including my humble self. And yet that is the sort
of material on the basis of which the Hitler regime seeks to rank
Jews with Communists.
THE OLYMPIC GAMES AND NAZI GERMANY
Letter to Avery Brundage
September 26, 1934.
Avery Brundage, Esq.,
President, American Olympic Association and his
Associate Members of the Executive Committee
of that Association, 233 Broadway,
New York City;
Although I happen to be a Jew, I am not addressing you
solely or mainly in that capacity, but as an American citizen
and as President of the Non-Sectarian Ann-Nazi League to Cham-
pion Human Rights, which, as its name indicates, is a distinaly
non-seaarian organization and which numbers among its officers
and directors the following among other non-Jews of great
Hon. James W. Gerard, Vice President
Hon. Fiorello H. LaGuardia, Vice President
Hon. Arthur S. Tompkins, Vice President
Col. Theodore Roosevelt, Vice President
Hon. James M. Beck, Director
Hon, George Gordon Battle, Director
Rev. John Haynes Holmes, Director
Rev. Edward L. Hunt, Director
Oswald Garrison Villard, Director
Hon. Frank P. Walsh, Director
On behalf of this organizarion, I beg herewith to submit to
your Committee the following epitome, as briefly expressed as is
possible within the limits of space permitted for such a communi-
cation, of the reasons why we protest against the holding of the
Olympic Games of 1936 in Germany:
Holding these Games in Germany in 1936 would violate the
economic boycott and cultural isolation which the civilized world
has been forced to employ against the brutalities of the currenr
regime in Germany. The abuses of Jewish, Catholic, Labor, and
Liberal individuals and organizations that have been the avowed
policy of the Third Reich have been nowhere more exhaustive
than in the realm of sports. The restriction against Jewish
athletes have not abated one jot m the fifteen months since the
German Government solemnly undertook to eliminate such mea-
sures, but have on the contrary been extended with machine-like
precision to include every field of sport and skill within the scope
of Olympic competition. The Olympic ideal of fair play and
good sportsmanship irrespeaive of creed, color, race, and social
condition, constitutes a criminal utterance in Germany today for
which large numbers of innocent citizens have been exiled, ex-
■ ABAiAiiallH Ht-MMif)
The Olympic Games • Letter by Samuel Untermyer
propriated, tortured and slain. There is no reason for partici-
pating in these games in Berlin for twenty-one nations have not
agreed to compete there in 1936 and a congress can be readily
arranged to select a site more harmonious with Olympic ideals.
The anarchic character of the Third Reich, symbolized by the
wholesale slaughter of June 30th, makes it a grave responsibility
to send thousands of young people there. There is a serious
moral problem involved in accepting the hospitality of a nation
either so poor or so dishonest that it defaults on every just
financial obligation. Large sectors of the democratic and sport-
loving American people will be deprived of participating in or
visiting a Berlin Olympiad, out of respect for solemn pledges
they have made to refrain from trafHc of any sort with Germany.
Before entering upon a detailed statement of our reasons for
urging you to refuse to patticipate in the games at Berlin in
1936 we beg herewith to submit a copy of the Resolution that
was unanimously adopted at the meeting of the first American
Youth Congress, held at the New York University on August
"(A) To oppose the 1936 Olympic Games in BerHn and
demand that the American Committee rescind their decision
to send a team to the Olympic Games in Berlin;
"(B) That American athletes boycott preparation for the
The organizations that voted on this resolution represented
2,000,000 young Americans of all faiths, races, creeds and poli-
tical views. Accompanying (marked "A") is a list of the 79
organizations that patticipated at that meeting.
In addition to the above, many non- Jewish organizations; in-
cluding the American Federation of Labor, have endorsed the
boycott of German goods and services and may thereby be fairly
assumed to be opposed to the participation of our country in the
Olympic Games to be held in Germany.
At the meeting of the International Olympic Committee, held
in Vienna, June 7, 1933, the President asked the German
delegates if they would guarantee the observance of the articles
in the Chatter dealing with the Otganizing Committee and the
Rules of Quahfication, just as they had been guatanteed by the
Governments of countries where preceding Olympiads had been
organized, and tliat the application of the Olympic Rules dealing
with the Committee of Organization and the qualificadons of
participants would be sctupulously observed, even though certain
limitations of our International Rules should seem to be incon-
sistent with recent orders laid down in Germany,
To that question His Excellency, Dr. Theodore Lewald, the
then President of the German organization, who has since been
The Olympic Games ■ Letter by Samuel Untermyer
uncovered as having perpetrated the heinous crime of having
had a Jewish grandmother, replied, with the consent of his
Government: =h * -^ *
"3. As a principle, German Jews shall not be excluded from
German teams at die Games of the Xlth Olympiad,"
After this declaration Mr. Garland, American representative
of the National Olympic Committee wished to have it known that
the American Olympic Committee, who were desirous of having
the United States strongly represented at the next Olympic Games
in Eufope, would have had to give up participation altogether if
German-Jewish athletes had not been assured the same terms as
membets of the same faith in othet countries.
Subsequently, at a meeting of the American Athletic Union
of the United States, at its annual convention, held in Pittsbutgh
on November 20, 1933, resolutions on this subjea were passed,
of which a copy is hereto annexed, marked "B".
Among other purposes, I desire by this protest to call to your
attention the following epitome of the gtoss abuses and breaches
of faith perpetrated by the German Olympic Committee and the
sports' officials of that country of the pledges that were made,
subsequent to June 7, 1933, when those pledges were made:
ABUSES OF GERMAN JEWISH ATHLETES AFTER
JUNE 7, 1933
July 1"— The Reich Committee on German Youth Associations
abolishes Jewish student organizations, barring Jewish stu-
dents from youth houses.
July 6— Jews prohibited from being life-savers in Breslau.
A new educational law limits the attendance of German-
Jewish students at universities to IY2 per cent of the total
enrolment; the administration of every institution is granted
the right to admit less than the legal quota without explana-
tion; East European Jewish students are completely banned,
no matter how long their parents may have resided in
July 9 — None but Aryans and Nazis permitted to join Greater
German Chess Ass'n.
July 28 — The Nazi political police order the dissolution of
the Jewish Students Association of Tliuringia.
July 29-™Jewish Boy Scouts Association in Piimasens, the
Palatinate, dissolved and its funds confiscated.
August 3— All Jewish student homes in Wurzburg, Bavaria,
occupied by Nazi troops, confiscated and appropriated for
the use of the troops, while the Jewish Student Association
was ordered dissolved.
August 7 — Municipality of Dobetndorf in Nuremberg forbids
Jews to remain in towns near Nuremberg; Jews forbidden
to use public baths and swimming pools.
August 22^State Commissar orders Jews barred from Wann-
see, Germany's largest bathing and swimming resort.
The Olympic Games - Letter by Samuel Untermyer
August 24 — Government forbids German-Jewish Maccabee
team of 100 athletes to participate in the world Maccabiade
10 be held in Prague.
September 18 — Bergzabcrn and Coepingen municipalities bar
Jews from fishing.
September 23 — The presidium of the All-German Writers As-
sociation order the exclusion of all Jewish writers.
October 3 — Commissar of Justice Frank, in an address at the
Ail-German Jurists Convention in Leipzig, declares that
further anti-Jewish laws are unlikely, but those enacted will
October 10 — The Rotweiss, Berlin's most exclusive tennis club,
October 13 — The Nazi press voices threat that Germany will
withdraw from League of Nations if further effort is made
to force recognition of German Jews as a minority group.
October 14 — -"Hagibor" Jewish sports association, is declared
illegal and its property confiscated.
October 24 — Nazi student association orders ban on Jewish
November 23 — The Red and White Tennis Club having ex-
cluded all Jews, announces the expulsion of members of
Jewish origin and those who are married to descendants of
Jews, and declared that foreigners, regardless of race, will
not be accepted as members.
December 1 — Nazi sport units given free hand to accept or
reject non-Aryans; only Nazis permitted on executive
December 4^Colonel Ernst Roehm, Coraraander-im Chief of
the Storm Troops and Cabinet Minlsterj issues new ruling
which bars Jews from participation in sport activities,
December 10 — Hermann Wilhelm Goering, Premier of
Prussia, issues an edict barring "non-Aryan" horsemen and
drivers from participation in horse shows or tournaments.
December 22 — Berlin.^Association of Life-Savers expels Jew-
ish members: no Jews may henceforth be engaged as life-
savers on any public bathing beach.
December 2y^Sport Groups in Berlin expel all Jewish mem-
bers. The Deutscher Turnverein orders ail its affiliates to
expel their Jewish members.
In Mayence, all Jews expelled from skung club,
Nuremberg. — In New Year's greetings to his readers,
Julius Strelcher, chief Nazi official of Franconia, asks for
annihilation of Jews in 1934.
January 19 — In an article in Maerkischer Adler, Wilhelm
Kube, leader of Nazi fraction in Prussian Diet, declares that
Jews must be eliminated from every sphere of German life
February 6 — Stettin.^Property of all Jewish lodges is confis-
cated by local Nazi party orgaruzation.
February 11 — Police President Rheydt, of Gladback, issued
orders forbidding, until further notice, the calling of any
meeting by any Jewish association, including sports clubs.
The Olympic Games - Letter by Samuel Untermyer
February 19 — Bavarian political police Issue order dissolving
the Maccabee and the Organization of Jewish War Veterans
In Bavaria, the only Jewish sports group theretofore toler-
ated in the Reich, and providing tliat any new clubs formed
must be under supervision of the Nazi sports commissar.
March 2— Police in various parts of Reich raid B'nai B'rith
lodges, confiscate their property, and arrest Benno Walter,
March 4 — Police raid Berlin headquarters of B'nai B'rith and
March 5 — Stettin. — Authorities return confiscated B'nai B'rith
building to Jewish community for use as a school only and
not for athletic purposes, declaring that building is no longer
property of B'nai B'rith.
March 12 — Bavarian Government orders dissolution of Ba-
varian Jewish Sports Association, the only sports group
theretofore tolerated and under government supervision,
upon the baseless pretext that "other Jewish organizations
are hiding behind the Sports Association,"
April 9 — At direct request of Hi der Youth Movement, Com-
mittee of Jewish Youth Organizations warns Jewish youth
groups that they are forbidden to wear any kind of uniform
and that they must have special permission of Plltler Youth
leadership to make excursions to frontier zones or abroad.
May 31 — University authorities announce that Vandalia, Hei-
delberg student corps, has been expelled from Federation of
Heidelberg student societies and from two general unions
of German students because it has "refused to oust Jewish
students and those of Jewish descent, and that no Heidelberg
student will henceforth be allowed to join the Vandalia
June 20 — Authorities confiscate, without explanation, property
of Jewish Labor Associadon of Prussia, and sports affiliates.
I cannoc here begin to recapimlate or describe the number or
(::xtQnz of the insults and immiiiations to wliich the German Jews
have been and are being subjected in connection witii this sub-
ject. Suffice it to say that it will be impossible for any self-
respecting Jew from any part of the world to enter Germany
or to subject himself to the degradation that would be involved
in his participating in the Olympiad of 1936 in that country,
either as a contestant or an observer.
The application of the "Aryan" paragraph of the German law
would also exclude the participation of negroes, such as Metcalfe,
who are connected w^ith American amateur sports. It would also
exclude American Indians, Asiatics and teams from natiotjs whose
dominant bloodstrains are not within the grotesque definition of
"Aryan" as evolved by the present German Government, which
is the laughing-stock and subject of contemptuous derision of the
entire civilized world.
Permit m„e also to call attention to the essential fact that your
authority to investigate conditions in Germany applied only to
skll I IB«
The Olympic Games - Letter by Samuel Untermyer
the Jewish situation and that it did not take into account the dis-
criminating and destructive action against German Organized
Labor, the confiscation of its vast properties on account of which
ahnosr every labor organization in the civilized world has ofTicially
boycotted German merchandise; nor did it take into account the
action taken against the Catholic Youth groups which, it seems
to me, must necessarily prevent those elements from participating
in the International Games if held in Germany.
The pledges given you by Herr Tschammer von Osten, the
special Olympics miiiister, you yourself termed "very peculiar"
when you learned that they were not to be made pubhc in Ger-
many. You will not be surprised therefore to learn that you had
scarcely taken ship when a new decree was promulgated (Sep-
tember 22) categorically forbidding Jews to take sports or exer-
cises in a body. Your own familiarity with the nature of athletic
activity will acquaint you with the paralyzing effect of such a
prohibition on sports of every sort; this final measure shuts down
every prospect, even a verbal one, of just treatment for a single
Jewish athlete in Germany, And with the perspective of com-
plete forgetfulness, with which the German Government has
enshrouded its pledges of fifteen months ago, officially given to
the International Olympic Committee, what weight is to be at-
tached to von Osren's individual promise given sotto voce and
The unsporrsmanlike and humiliating condition now imposed
is in and of itself so grave an affront to the Jewish athletes that
it automatically bars every self-respecting Jew from participation.
How any fair-minded representative of your organization could
permit himself, by voting for this resolution, to become a party
to any such insult to his fellow-members is inconceivable.
Frankly, I was surprised and shocked at the argument put
forth by you in favor of holding these Games in Berlin, as re-
ported in this morning's Herald Tribune.
As I see it, there is not the remotest analogy between your
supposititious case of Japan in 1940 and the situation that con-
fronts American participation in the Berhn Olympiad. If in
1940 it should appear that the Japanese Government has de-
ptived its own citizens of their Japanese rights of citizenship and
has heaped upon them every conceivable torture and form of
persecution merely and solely because they were white, and ex-
eluded them from participating in sports, I doubt whether we
w^ould hesitate long about refusing to take part in a meeting in
How any impartial person who has not been thoroughly in-
fected with the poisonous virus of anti-semitism can for a moment
expect Jews to participate in these Games, in the face of this
record, is impossible to imagine.
The Olympic Games ■ Letter by Samuel Untermyer
The decision to participate in these Games would necessarily
mar, if not destroy, the harmony and freedom from racial and
religious distinctions that have heretofore marked the career of
American sportslife. Nothing more unsportsmanlike than such
an award has ever been known in sports citcies.
There is nothing either "internal" or "political" about the
grave problems of equality, Americanism and decent sportsman-
ship that confront your organization. The unprovoked massacre
and persecution by a government of a country that was once
civilized, of Its innocent minorities merely because of their race
or creed, has never been regarded by the world as an "internal"
or "political" affair. It is an affront to all humanity. The dis-
crimination, amounting to virtual exclusion, against their and
your own members from equal participation in the international
games, because of conditions affealng them, that tender it im-
possible for them to participate with dignity or on equal terms,
is so repugnant to our conceptions of true sportsmanship that for
your organization to submit to such conditions, or to "pussy-foot"
on the subject, would be a gratuitous degradation for you, in
which your fellow-citizens would share, and one that I hope you
will spare us and yourselves.
After all, barbaric Germany is not the only country on earth
in which to hold these Games. The atmosphere would be less
contaminated and purer in almost any other country on earth
that might be selected.
Very truly yours,
List of organizations participating in First American Youth
American Country Life Association
American Red Cross
Associated Office & Prop. Emergency Employees
American Youth Hostel Assn.
Associated Workers Clubs and Cultural Fed. N. J.
Association of Lithuanian Workers Nat. Youth Com.
Association of Unemployed College Alumni
Boy Scours of America
Brooklyn College Anti-War League
Brooklyn College Social Science Club
CCC Boys' Protective League
Columbia Social Problems Club
Communist Youth Opposition
The Olympic Games • Letter by Samuel Untermyer
Congress Club, University of Oregon
Cooper Union Night School of Engineering
Council of Social Agencies, Royal Oak, Mich,
Farmer-Labor Political Federation
Fellowship of Reconciliation
Honorary Square Economics Society N. Y. -U.
Inquiry Club^ University of Pittsburgh
International Workers Order
Labor Sports Union
Ladies Garment Shipping Clerks Union
League for Industrial Democracy
League for Political Education
National Farmers Holiday Assn.
National Furniture Workers, Inc.
National Municipal League
National Pioneer Council
National Recreation Association
National Spartacus Youth League
National Student Federation
National Student League
National Women's Christian Temperance Union
National Youth Committee Young Circle League
Negro Educational Club
N, Y. District Normal Student League
N. Y. State Youth Com. Against Child Labor
N. Y. Summer School for Workers (FERA)
N. Y, U. Anti-War Committee
N. Y. U. Student Liberal League
Passaic County Youth Congress
Pioneer Youth Camp
Progressive Club, University of N. Hampshire
Rocky Mount. Regional Council YMCA
Russian Nat'l Mutual Aid Society
St. James Presbyterian Church Youth Council
St, Lawrence College Theological Seminary
Student Christian Movement Mid. Atl. States
Student Council^ Brooklyn College
Student Council, C. C. N, Y.
Telegraph Messenger Union
Transient Camps (FERA)
United Amstern Press Assoc.
United Ukrainian Toilers, Youth Section
War Resisters League
Why Club of Smith College
Workers Laboratory Theatre
Young Communist League
Young Liberators of N. Y,
Young Liberators of Md.
Y.M.C.A. (National Council)
Young Negro Cooperative League
Youag People's Socialist League
The Olympic Games • Letter by Samuel Untermyfe
Young People's League Against Marxism
Y.W.CA. (New Jersey)
Youth Clubs of Finnish Fed.
Youth Committee Aiding of U.T.W,
Youth Committee of T.U.U.C.
Youth Section Strike Relief Knit Goods Union
RESOLUTION PRESENTED TO THE AMATEUR ATH^
LETIC UNION OF THE UNITED STATES AT ITS
ANNUAL CONVENTION HELD AT THE WILLIAM PENN
HOTEL IN PITTSBURGH ON MONDAY, NOVEMBER
WHEREAS sport is the greatest, if not the only true democ-
racy in the world, all therein being equal, irrespective of
race, color, religion or social or financial conditions, and
WHEREAS both the Amateur Athletic Union of the United
States of America and the American Olympic Association
were founded and exist upon these basic principles, and
WHEREAS the Olympic Games of 1936 were awarded to the
City of Berlin by the International Olympic Committee, and
WHEREAS it is our understanding and belief that, at the time
of such award, the German Olympic Committee, representing
itself and also the Organising Committee of the 1936 Berlin
Olympic Games^ accepted the games upon the basic principles
of sports competition as herein referred to and reiterated its
continued adherence to said principles as late as June of
WHEREAS it is believed and is common and universal knowl-
edge, that the German Olympic Committee and the Berlin
Organizing Committee, under and by reason of the decrees
and directions of the Government of Germany, have violated
the Code of the Olympic Games and the fundamental ideals
of sports competition in that they have deprived Germans
of Jewish descent or belief from the rights of Olympic com-
petition, if not by direct restriction, certainly, indirectly, by
the withdrawal from them of the rights of German Citizen-
ship and of a reasonable opportunity to train, prepare for and
take part in sports competition in general and in the Olympic
Games in particular.
NOW, THEREFORE, BE IT RESOLVED that the Amateur
Athletic Union, as a member of the American Olympic Asso-
ciation, about to be assembled at its quadrennial meeting in
Washington, D. C, instruct its delegates thereto to call upon
said American Olympic Association^ to resolve that the
American Olympic Association through the members of the
International Olympic Committee to the United States of
America, namely Colonel William A. Garland, General Charles
E. Sherriil, and Commodore Ernest Lee Jahncke, Jr., give
notice to the International Olympic Cominlttee, and through
it, to the German Olympic Committee, to the Berlin Organiz-
ing Committee and to the German Government, that neither
the American Olympic Association ot the members thereof,
nor the American Olympic Committee to be organized for
the Olympic Games of 1936, will certify any athlete of the
The Olympic Games • Lhtter by Samuel Untermyer
United States of America for competition in the Olympic
Games of Berlin, until and unless the position of the Ger-
man Olympic Committee, of the Organizing Committee of
Berlin and of the German Governmentj Is so changed in fact
as well as in theory so as to both permit and encourage Ger-
man athletes of Jewish Faith or heritage to train, prepare
for and participate in the Olympic Games of 1936;
AND WHEREAS the relations between the athletes of Ger-
many and of the United States of America have been, are
and should continue to be friendly, cordial and cooperative,
and the desire and expectation of American athletes to com-
pete in the Games of 1936 has been and is keen and en-
THEREFORE, BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED that the Ama-
teur Athletic Union urge upon the American Olympic Asso-
ciation that there be impressed upon the International
Olympic Comraltteej and> through it, upon the German
Olympic Committee, the Organizing Committee and the Ger-
man Government, that the plea of the athletes of the United
States be taken not as one of threat or bitterness but as one of
concern and desire that a way be found for Germany to
satisfy the world, that all and not merely some of the funda-
mental principles of the democracy of sport and of the
Olympic Games are and wdll continue to be dominant.
THE QUESTION OF TRADING WITH
An 0[>en Letter of Protest to Hon. Cordell Hull, Secretary oj State
September 29, 1934,
Hon. Cordell Hull,
Secretary of State,
Washington, D. C.
My dear Sir:
Supplementing the various persistent rumors that have been
floating around all parts of the country and that have reached our
organization, of active negotiations between tepresentatives of
the Gertnan Government and your Department looking to a
trade-agreement for the exchange of merchandise, I received
yesterday a telegram of which the following is a copy:
■'FIVE GERMAN COTTON MERCHANTS REPRESENT-
ING GERMAN GOVERNMENT ARRIVING TOMORROW
STEAMER BREMEN FOR PURCHASE LARGE QUANTITY
OF COTTON AGAINST PAYMENT IN GERMAN MER-
CHANDISE PROCEEDING WASHINGTON."
These reports, if true, are now sufficiently definite to justify
us in entering a formal and emphatic protest against any such
agreement or any further negotiations looking in that direction,
as contrary to the best interests of the country.
The Non-Sectatian Anti-Nazi League to Champion Human
Rights, of which I am President, reflects the views of millions of
American citizens against any commercial treaty or agreement
with Germany at this time, for many reasons, of which rime and
space permit me to summarize here only a few.
In this connection you are reported in the New York papers
and the Dow- Jones news-ticker of the 20th inst,, and in other
publications, as having made the extraordinary and unfounded
statement, in referring to the boycott by this country of German-
made goods, that as an example of practical economics:
"if such measures are resorted to by citizens of this country
it will result in the loss oj approximately $>.Q0 in exports for
every Dollar's worth of goods kept out of the United States,"
Your colleagues at the Commerce Department could have in-
formed you of the glaring inacairacy of the assertion on which
your statement to the press of the country was based. Last year,
for instance, this country sold to Germany only $1.15 of goods
for every dollar^s worth of goods bought. In 1932 the ratio was
$1.18 to $1,00. In 1929 it was $1.19 to $1.00. By what process
of arithmetic, reasoning or economics that is converted into a ratio
of $5.00 to $1,00 it v/ould be interesting to have explained.
I am sure you appreciate also that a purchaser is one who
pays for what he buys, and that die type of customer who buys
<.M« < v.» ikaAB *i AlJBilM MfcHHfiIti
Trading with Germant • Letter by Samuel Untermyer
only with funds borrowed from the seller—which he subsequently
refuses to repay — is not valuable ro the country from which he
The uniform result of our past experience in commercial and
financial transactions with Germany, ever since the War, has
been disastrous to us. When Germany has not defaulted upon
its solemn obligations, or repudiated them, we have been paid
either in "stage- money" or depreciated currency. Even while
we were pouring our billions into the securities of German In-
dustries in return for worthless bonds, they have kept that money
and given us worthless or depreciated money in return.
Your apparent efforts (if these rumors be true) to force Ger-
man-made machinery, gloves and other goods upon our market,
manufactured by workmen whose former standards of living
have been destroyed and their wages reduced to considerably
less than $1.00 per day — through the annihilation and confiscation
of the properties of the Labor Unions at the cozumand of the
Industrial Barons who financed the Hitler regime into power, and
rule the government, are not likely to succeed.
All the agreements you may choose to make that would strike
down all pro teal ve tariffs would not overcome the righteous,
country-wide "trade- resistance" against German goods. The out-
raged Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Labor Unions and women
cannot be compelled to buy them.
In your statement you characterize this as a "racial or political
boycott," which indicates how little you understand the scope
of this movement. This boycott is a spontaneous uprising of all
civilization^-nor merely in this country but throughout the world
— against the revival of medieval savagery, spreading from South
Africa, Egypt, South America, around the globe to Finland. It
is, in a sense, analogous to the "economic sanctions" provided for
by the Covenant of the League of Nations against countries that
violate their agreements. It is the only effective weapon yet de-
vised as a peaceful substitute for war. The "Blue Eagle" that is
being used in connection with our NRA is another form of boy-
It is evident from your public statements that you are also
unaware of the extent to which this boycott has stimulated the
"Buy American" campaign in this country and in the founding
and expansion of industries here that are already successfully
manufacturing all kinds of goods that were formerly imported
Your views on the refusal of Americans to purchase Nazi
goods, as a protest against the persecution by the Third Reich
of its helpless minorities, sounds very much like quaHfied approva!
of the Hitler- Schacht policy that has thus far resulted in the
repudiation by Germany of more than a billion dollars' worth of
Trading with Germany • Letter by Samuel Untermyer
bonds owned by American investors; has deprived the latter of
some $70,000,000 annually due them as interest on their hold-
ings, and has caused a decline in the market value of American
owned German bonds of almost one-third of a billion dollars.
I assume you must be aware that many thousands of Americans
are being forced to forgo the payment of interest rightfully owing
them on their German bonds, whilst Germany, pleading poverty
as the reason for her default, has at the same time been vastly
increasing her purchases of war supplies in this and other coun-
tries, and has employed her funds that should have been devoted
to the payment of interest on her debts toward the repurchase of
her dollar-bonds from us at gteatly depreciated prices.
The contendon of Dr. Schacht, which you seem to accept at
its face value, that Germany's inability to meet payments on her
legally contracted debts has been caused by the boycott of Ger-
man goods, is as baseless and fantastic as other theories pro-
pounded by the leader of the Third Reich. The German National
Socialist Party proclaimed its policy of repudiation by a special
law — long before the boycott. Ours is a purely defensive boycott,
as a small measure of protection and reprisal against the murder,
torture and persecution to which Germany has subjected its inno-
cent minorities — solely because of their race — and against its
policy of religious fanaticism directed against Catholics and Jews.
As indicating that there has been no let-up in this policy of
persecution, this morning's cables from Berlin, reprint an official
order signed by Dr. Seller, Nazi President of the Duesseldorf
Medical Association, published in the "Reichwart" directing phy-
sicians to boycott the entire medical staff of the Duesseldorf
Hospital for having failed to vote in favor of Hitler as Reichs-
fuehrer in the plebiscite of August 19th- That, among thoiisands
of other incidents, illustrates this "free plebiscite" and the secrecy
of the election.
While European creditors have been proteaed by the energetic
aaion of their governments, our Government has confined its
aaivities on behalf of the American public holding defaulted Ger-
man bonds to the dispatching of eloquent notes which the Hitler-
Schacht combine has uniformly dealt with in a manner reminis-
cent of the treatment which Bethmann-Hoflweg accorded the
Treaty guaranteeing Belgium's neutrality some two decades ago.
In conneaion with your apprehension that our sales to Ger-
many may be diminished by the boycott (as I note with satisfac-
tion that they have been and are being affected, though not yet
quite to the extent of the decrease in other countries), our total
norma! exports to the Reich have in the past aggregated less than
6y2% of the total American shipments abroad. Their complete
elimination, which you seem to dread as the eventuid result of
Li Alts MM Hfelitifli
Trading with Germany : Letter by Samuel Untermyer
the boycott (unless the rising tide is stemmed by official announce-
ments of our Secretary of State), would not affect our foreign
commerce to any material extent.
Furthermore, inasmuch as Germany's purchases in the United
States have in the past almost invariably been paid out of the
proceeds of loans and credits obtained in this country that are
now being repudiated — would we not have been better off if we
had kept our goods?
Are you not aware of the extent to which our protective laws
are being evaded, our customs swindled and our manufacturers
betrayed by the ruse of the camouflaged "blocked" marks?
Is it possible that in your public discussion of the economic
theories underlying boycotts, based as they are upon false premises,
you have in mind diverting the attention of the tens of thousands
of victimized Americans who hold German defaulted bonds and
are vainly waiting for the protection of our Government?
Considering the ethics and wisdom of making another agree-
ment with a country that holds the record for broken and repudi-
ated agreements, we ask you also to take into consideration the
evidence and disclosures already acaimulated by the McCormack
Congressional Committee of the country-wide seditious propa-
ganda, sowing the seeds of race and religious hatred, and of the
many millions of dollars that are being squandered here in that
dastardly undertaking by a country that refuses to pay its obliga-
tions to us. The conspiracy against our peace and security, on
account of which the attaches of the German Embassy were ex-
pelled prior to the severance of diplomatic relations before the
War, is not a circumstance compared with what is now transpiring,
I respectfully insist that, judged by past experiences of our
dealings with Germany, which have cost us literally billions of
dollars, the less goods we sell that counrry and the less business
we do with it, the better off we will be.
Very truly yours,
NON-SECTARIAN ANTI-NAZI LEAGUE
TO CHAMPION HUMAN RIGHTS,
By Samuel Untermyer, President.
A VITAL CHALLENGE TO CHRISTIANS
By Dr. Paul Hutchinson
Editor-m-Chiej, ''The Christian Ceutury"
Letter to Chicago Committee for the Defense of Human Rights
Against Naziism, May 21, 1934
I am glad to hear that an effort is to be made to inform the
American public generally with regard to the fmrposes and
methods of the Chicago Committee for the Defence of Human
Rights Against Naziism. So many misunderstandings of the work
of this Committee are current, and so large a portion of American
sentiment will, I am sure, approve and desire tQ support its
efforts once these misunderstandings are removed that it is im-
portant that a direct and unequivocal declaration shi^uid be made
Three misunderstandings, in particular, seem to me to be in
need of correction.
FIRST, it should be made dear that the campaign which this
committee — in cooperation with similar bodies in other parts
of this country and in several European nations — is Conducting
is not confined to the Jewish community. This is trm^ ^pt only
in form but in fact. The presence of Gentile names c>n the list
of committee members, and on the committee of the Women's
auxiliary, is not a mere piece of window-dressing. It ig a recog-
nition by these Gentiles — among whom will be fciund both
Protestants and Catholics- — that the policy officially adopted by
the present German government in dealing with issugs of race
and rehgion presents an inescapable challenge to Christians in
all parts of the world. It must be remembered that the Na-
tional Socialist party in Germany (the Nazis) has been the
only party consistently to declare in its platform that it repre-
sents the application of Christian principles to politics, i^ the
24th plank of the avowedly immutable platform of the Nazi
party there is this declaration: "The party as such represents
the point of view of a posiuve Christianity without binding
itself to any particular confession." The dangerous I'elation of
this claim to the principle of religious freedom and autonomy
has been made abundantly clear within Germany itself since the
estabhshment of the Nazi state. The Committee for the Defense
of Human Rights, however, is mainly concerned w^ith only one
aspect of this issue, namely, the identification of "positive
Christianity" with theories of racial discriminati(in which,
should they be accepted generally throughout Christendom,
would entail the spiritual destruction of Christianity^ ^jtj^ ^he
repudiation of the most vital and sacred teachings of the
Pounder of the Christian faith. The Christian membership in
this Committee, therefore, rests on recognition that the fate
of Christianity itself is involved in the promulgation of the
"Aryan dogma" of Naziism.
SECOND, it should be made clear that the Committee for the
Defense of Human Rights is not attempting to interfere with
the right of the German people to establish any foi^m of gov-
ernment which they may desire. This committee has no quarrel
lu lieu 1 iHfe
Vital Challenge to Christians- by Dr. Paul Hutchinson
with the German people. On the contrary, it conceives Its pur-
pose as an effort to help Germany extricate herself from a
tragic political, social and moral mistake, and thereby to assure
that nation the great future which the abilities of its people
should gain for it. The Committee does not presume to pass oo
questions of political judgment. Whatever the individual con-
victions of its members the Committee, as such, makes no choice
between political systems. If the German people wish to estab-
lish a Nazi government, we hold that to be their privilege. The
work of the Committee^ therefore, is not directed toward the
overthrow of the present German government, but toward the
abandonment of a policy of that government which, we are
convinced, cannot be maintained without jeopardising a species
of human rights which constitute one of the most precious pos-
sessions of modern civilization, and which cannot be destroyed
without endangering the decencies of normal human society
under any and all kinds of political organization In every part
of the world.
THIRD, It should be made clear that the Committee for the
Defense of Human Rights is not attempting to conduct, or to
bring into existence, any official boycott of German goods.
The movement which this Committee Is attempting to promote
is purely individual. It makes its appeal to individuals; it asks
for individual action. Put in simple terms, it is merely an
attempt to insure that the highest eSect shall be secured from
the action of those individuals who desire to register their
personal conviction that the introduction of racialism into
modern life by the Nazi state is not only an effront to their
most deeply cherished convictions, but a threat to the peace of
human society everywhere. We believe that millions of thought-
ful persons, in the United States and elsewhere, will feel a
profound distaste to furthering the fortunes of the Nazis so
long as the Nazis persist in attempting to divide the human
family on racial lines. What the Committee is attempting to
do Is to gather evidence of the extent of this individual protest
against the racial policy of the Nazi government, in order
that its existence and importance may be made clear to that
If these three initial misconceptions can be cleared up, I am
sure that great numbers of Americatis, not themselves members
of the Jewish community, will grasp the importance of the work
of the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights Against
Naziism, atid will wish to give their support to tliat work. Under
the conditions now obtaining In Germany, it is impossible that
any mere verbal protest against the racial policies of the Nazi
government can register on the minds of the masses of Germans.
Indeed, were conditions different from what they are, so that the
circuladon of a free press made it possible to lay such verbal
protests before the eyes of the German public, there is little
likelihood that this would accomplish much, since they would
at the same time be subjected to the constant and mendacious
anti-Semidc propaganda emanating from ofEcial Nazi sources.
When this ceaseless Nazi campaign to arouse and maintain race
hatred is coupled with the absence of a free press — which is the
Vital Challenge to Christians- by Dr. Paul Hutchinson
actual condition of affairs in Germany— there is practically no
chance, while doing nothing more than indulging in verbal pro-
test, of having that protest from outside Germany register on
the German mind. Yet, as that distinguished American theologian
of German ancestry, Reinhold Niebuhr, declared after his return
from Germany last summer, "Germany must be told." This indi-
vidualj voluntary boycott of German goods, to be maintained as
long as the Nazi official policy of race hatred is maintainedj is the
only efieaive method now open by which Germany can be told.
The efiertiveness of the boycott has already been demonstrated.
The unusual organization of the industrial life of modern Ger-
many, by which praaically a third of the entire German income
is dependent on exports, makes that nation peculiarly susceptible
to pressure appUed in this fashion. Moreover, it happens that the
Nazis were financed in their campaign for power, and are now
deeply obligated to, the industrial groups which are most con-
cerned over the status of Germany's export trade. The very viru-
lence of recent Nazi outbursts against the Jews as fomenters of
rhe boycott— as, for example, in the wildly inflammatory speech
delivered by Dr. Goebbels in Berlin on May 13— may be taken
as evidence of the pressure now being placed on the Nazi gov-
ernment by these big business interests in behalf of their threatened
export trade. And this is understandable in the light of the
figutes whicli show that this export trade has been falling steadily
ever since the Nazi government was established, and that the
degree of this decline has been accelerating in recent months.
We believe, therefore, that the boycott^ — now being maintained
voluntarily in so many countries — is proving itself to be a method
by which the Nazi leaders, so contemptuous of criddsm at home,
are being brought to a position where they will see that it is neces-
sary for them to reckon with ciiticism abroad. We believe that,
by maintaining the boycott steadily for a few more months, and
by enhsting in it all those who see the world-wide implications of
the Nazi policy of fostering race hatred, the point will presently
be readied at which the industrial interests oi Germany itself will
require of their government an abandonment of its policy of racial
discrimination. Important modifications of that policy have, as a
matter of fact, already been decreed. It is the intendon of the
Committee for the Defense of Human Rights to continue its
efforts antil the entire policy is abandoned.
One further word of explanation is perhaps required in this
connecdon. It has been charged in some quarters that radal dis-
crimination is a feature of modern life almost everywhere, and
that it takes peculiarly tragic and indefensible forms in the United
States. To protest against this invasion of human rights in Ger-
many, accordingly, is held to smack of hypocrisy and self-righreous-
ness. Our Committee does not deny the presence of race prejudice
Vital Challenge to Christians- by Dr. Paul Hutchinson
and discrimination in this country, nor the threat which tliese
present to the future of our institutions and our social peace.
We beheve that it is necessary to protest in some effeaive way
against what is going on in Germany for the very reason that if
racial discrimination becomes an official policy of a modern state,
established in the name of "positive Christianity," and is main-
tained as such without being effectively denied and challenged, it
will contribute toward the coming of a day when, in this and
other countries, the racial discrimination which now persists fur-
tively may become an open and avowed program for official action.
And the coming of such a day would witness the destruction of
the finest ideals of our religion and of our nation.
It is in view of these deep issues, which affect not only Germany,
but every nation, and the human family everywhere, that this
Chicago Committee for the Defense of Human Rights Against
Naziism asks all Americans to refrain from the purchase of goods
of German manufacture so long as the fomenting of race hatred
remains the official policy of the German government.
GERMANY HAS FORFEITED RESPECT
Address of Hon, Ba^n bridge Colby at Defnonstration,
Battery Park, May 10, 1933
GRIEVOUS as is the plight of the Jew in Germany today, and
indefensible and beyond understanding as is the condua
of the present regime toward German citi:£ens of the Jewish
race, it is not Germany's treatment of the Jews which constitutes
the sum or the depth of her offending.
Germany has sinned against rhe light — the light of civilization.
She has struck a blow at our common humanity. She stands re-
vealed to the w^orld today as the ally of evil and the enemy of good.
It requires no unusual knowledge of history to realize that
Germany has done itself more injury than all its enemies through-
out the course of time could have inflicted upon her if massed in
a single and overwhelming attack.
"Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad."
The Germany of today is captained by madmen. She is given
over to pohcies, both domestic and external, which are policies of
sheer madness. She is galloping to the brink of destruction. It is
not far off.
She has forfeited the respea of mankind and has invited the
censures which are being heaped upon her by all people, regard-
less of race, creed or nationality, throughout the world.
Germany cannot destroy the Jewish race. She cannot even do
it lasting injury. The power of the Jewish race to endure and to
absorb injustice is one of the miracles of time. I would have been
proud to be a Jew had I been born one,
This German outbreak is but an episode in the centuries-old
record of the courage and steadiness under affliction of the Jewish
race. The Jew, even of Germany, which his genius has done so
much to enrich and elevate, will survive the infamies of the Hitler
regime, but it is problematical if Germany can survive them.
One would think that Germany had learned the lesson that it
cannot defy world opinion with impunity. A decent respect for
the opinions of mankind becomes all nations. The declaration of
America's independence affirmed American respea for that opin-
ion. America has built itself to greatness by shaping its policies
and directing its conduct with due regard to the approval and
support of enlightened world opinion.
And so far as this mighty republic can speak for civilized man-
kind — and it speaks for a vast section of it — we express to all
whom our voice may reach the abhorrence which prevails through-
out America for the present course of Germany.
LOVE OF JUSTICE
Address ojHon. Bainbridge Colby, Madison Square Garde,,.
March 7, 1934
The thousands who crowd this huge auditorium make nn .
America is speaking tonight— not only for herself but for rivHi
mion and human brotherhood ' ^'^'^''
A great oppression has descended upon mankind A r>.-
representMive a group of speakers ^ ^ '"^ '''°^'">'
rhoSv^r;?;e7e:? ""'' '^"^ =^"'°" °^ ?">"- «?--" is --
The rn"^h ^'" ^'u"""'.'^ ^^ "^^ ^^° '°^^ ^t and serve it
liie truth IS mighty and will prevail.