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L n 



r. JOHN'S S40ABB. 



Preface v 

Eosebian Canons xxvii 

On Ancient Obeex MSS. of the New Testament xxxvi 

On Ancient Versions xxxviii 

On Critical Editions xxxix 

Authors and Editions qooted xl 

Introductory Note to the Gospels xlii 

The GOSPEL according to St. MATTHEW 1 

The GOSPEL according to St. MARK 93 

The GOSPEL according to St. LUKE 130 

The GOSPEL according to St. JOHN 205 



The present Edition of the Greek Testament is the result of a design formed many 
years ago, and suggested by the following considerations : — 

The history of the Criticism and Interpretation of the Sacred Text of the 
Evangelical Scriptures during the present century is distinguished by certain 
remarkable characteristics. 

By the blessing of Divine Providence singular benefits have been bestowed 
upon the present generation, for the elucidation of the inspired Volume. 

The Manuscripts of the New Testament have been collated with greater 
labour and accuracy than formerly; the various readings thence derived have been 
recorded with more minute exactness and precision; and if all has not yet been 
achieved in this respect that may be requisite — and doubtless much still remains 
to be done — yet new aids and instruments have thus been supplied to the biblical 
student, which were not accessible in former times. Transcripts, some of them 
in facsimile, of the most ancient Manuscripts have been published; early Versions 
have been recovered and printed. The researches of Travellers, Historians, and 
Chronologers, have shed new light on the sacred page. Indeed it must be confessed, 
with thankfulness to the Divine Author of Scripture, that the present age enjoys, 
in certain respects, greater privileges for the due understanding of Holy Writ 
than were ever conferred by Almighty God on any preceding generation since 
the revival of Letters. 

On the other hand, some features of a different kind present themselves to 
our notice. 

In one remarkable respect the history of the Criticism and Interpretation 
of the New Testament in our own times bears a striking resemblance to that of 
the Old Testament among the Jews. 

What could be more praiseworthy than the diligence of the Masoretic Critics 
in collating the Manuscripts and revising the Text of the Old Testament ? With 
unwearied patience and scrupulous fidelity they registered every letter, and the 
frequency of its occurrence, in the pages of the ancient Scriptures. 

Yet, it is well known, with all their indefatigable labours for the guardianship 


of the letter of the Sacred Volume, they were not ahle to preserve its spirit. Side 
by side with the fruits of the minute diligence of the Masora, grew up, like weeds 
in a fair garden, the aberrations of the Cabbala. 

We may recognise a parallel here, in the history of the New Testament, in 
Christian times and in our own day. 

It cannot be denied that Christendom is indebted to one Nation of Europe 
more than to any other, for critical contributions to the sacred Text of the New 

Without undervaluing the labours of Biblical Critics in other countries; 
without disparaging what has been done in America; without forgetting what has 
been effected in our own country, particularly by the publication of the Alexan- 
drine Manuscript and the Codex Bezae, and by the learned labours of English 
Scholars who have published Critical Editions of the Greek Testament; we must 
freely confess that the palm for industry in this sacred field is specially due to 
another nation. The Masorites of the New Testament are from Germany. 

But having made this acknowledgment, we are constrained to add, that if 
Christendom has had her Masora from Germany, she has had also her Cabbala. 

The fact is too clear to admit a doubt. It is recognized and deplored by some 
of the most pious minds in that country '. Contemporaneously with great benefits 
contributed to the elucidation of the sacred text by collation of Manuscripts, 
by discovery or re-examination of ancient Versions, by rich stores of illustration 
from History, Chronology, and Topography, we have to lament, with feelings of 
disappointment and with forebodings of alarm, that the cause of Biblical Criticism, 
as a high and holy Science, qualifying men for the discharge of the duties of life, 
and for the enjoyment of the bliss of eternity, has not made progress, — but has 

1 e. g. Tholueh, die Glaubwurdigkeit der Evangelischen Geschichte, pp. 8 — 13. A graphic 
picture of the ever-varying and fantastic forms of modern exegesis has been drawn by a recent 
writer, Arnoldi, in his remarks on the Commentaries upon the Gospel-narrative of the Miraculous 
Feeding, Matt. xiv. 21, as follows. " Ein Eingehen auf die wunderlichen Wegdeutungen des Wun- 
ders, wie sie in der protestantischen Exegese gang und gabe sind, halte ich fur uberflussig. Der 
Evangelist gibt das Pactum, wie die ganze Haltung der Erzahlung zeigt, fur ein Wunder aus. Leug- 
net man dessen Inspiration und lasst man ihn fallen, so ist nicht abzusehen, wo das Ende der mdg- 
lichen Hypothesen ist. Ehe die letzte widerlegt ist, haben zehn neue das Tageslicht erblickt, und 
wer sie widerlegen will, hat mit einem phantastischen Heerhaufen zu thun, der nirgends Stand halt. 
Darum gehen wir in der Kegel auf dergleichen nur da aus, wo irgend ein besonderes Interesse an der 
Sache ist. Fur unsere Stelle wird es genugen, mitzutheilen, was De Wette fiber dieselbe sagt; 'Als 
Geschichte, iin Sinne des MeferentetC (er meint den Evangeltiten) ' genommen, widerstrebt das 
Wunder selbst derjenigen Ansicht von Jesu Person, welche hohere Erafte in ihm voraussetzt' 
(womit una also gestaltet wird, dieselben auch nicht vorauszusetzen, und doch evangelische Christen 
zu sein !), ' weil h. eine schopferisch vermehrende Wirkung auf todte Stoffe, ja auf Eunstproducte 
(Brod) angenommen werden musste' (was dem Herrn natfirlich zuviel zugetraut ware !), 'und weil 
man die Vermehrung der Speisestficke, sei sie unter den Handen Jesu oder der Jfinger geschehen, 
sich gar nicht zur Anschauung bringen kann' (dieselbe daher auch nicht stattgefunden hat, q. e. d.)." 
See also Kdknit, Internal History of German Protestantism, p. 174, Edinb. 1856. 


greatly degenerated, and appears to be tending still further downwards in a 
more unhappy declension. 

In evidence of this fact, let any one read with attention, by way of specimen, 
the critical comments, which have been recently published in that country, on one 
of the most solemn, beautiful, and affecting histories, — such as, it might have been 
supposed, would have disarmed all cavil in Christian readers, and have melted 
doubt into adoration, — the evangelical narrative by St. John of that stupendous 
miracle of Christ, the prelude of the transactions of the Great Day, — the raising of 
Lazarus from the dead. 

These various criticisms on that narrative are inserted in the present volume 
by way of example and warning ' ; and they clearly demonstrate the fact, that 
there is scarcely any error, however puerile or preposterous, which may not find its 
advocates among persons enjoying high literary and scientific advantages for the 
interpretation of the New Testament, and be gravely propounded by them with an 
air of superior intelligence, as a true exposition, to be received by the world in the 
place of ancient interpretations of Holy Writ. 

We have also to deplore, that the field of sacred Hermeneutics has lately 
too often been made an arena of fierce fightings and uncharitable disputations. 
It seems to be no longer the province of Editors of the New Testament to hand 
down the sacred deposit of ancient, uniform interpretation, illustrated by clearer 
light, and confirmed by the solid support of a sound and sober criticism. Rather 
it would appear, that their function now must be, to bite and devour one another. 
In those recent expositions, to which we refer, there is no unity of teaching. One 
Expositor combats another ; one Edition would supersede another, by outbidding 
it with novelties and paradoxes. The Text of Scripture has been made an 
occasion of personal disparagements and disdainful sarcasms. It seems to have 
been thrown among its interpreters as an apple of discord; Zion is changed 
into Babel, and the City of Peace is distracted with the strife of tongues. 

Can there be any real progress, can there be any maintenance of truth, when 
they who profess to expound it are not animated by a spirit of charity, and have 
no consistency of exposition 2 ? 

' See below, pp. 250, 251. 

* We much need the counsel of St. Augustine, for right exposition of Scripture, who says (De 
Doctr. Christ, iii. 1), " Homo timens Deum, voluntatem ejus in Scripturis Sanctis diligenter inquirit. 
Et ne amet certamina pietate maneuetut; prtemunitus etiam scientia linguarum, ne in verbis locu- 
tionibusque ignotis h»reat ; prsmunitus etiam cognitione quarundam rerura necessariarum, ne vim 
naturamve earum que propter similitudinem adhibentur, ignoret ; adjuvante etiam Codicum veritate, 
quam solera emendationis diligentia procuravit ; veniat ita instructus ad ambigua . Scripturarum 
discutienda atque solvenda." 

Ibid. ii. 62: — "Sed hoc modo instructus divinarum Scripturarum studiosus, cum ad eas 
perscrutandas accedere coeperit, illud apostolicum cogitare non cesset, Scientia inflat, charitat 
adificat (1 Cor. viii. 1). Ita enim sentiet, quam vis de iEgypto dives exeat, tamen nisi Fascha 
egerit, salvum se esse non posse. Pascha autem nostrum immolatus est Christus (1 Cor. v. 7), 
nihilque magis immolatio Chriati nos docet, quam illud quod Ipse clamat, tanquam ad eos quos 
in jEgypto sub Pbaraone videt laborare, Fenite ad me qui laboratit et onerati ettie, et ego reficiam 
toe. Tottite jugum meum euper vos, et diecite a me, quia mitit turn et humilis eorde, et invenietit 

viii PREFACE. 

These evils are not confined to the range of exposition; they menace Scripture 
itself. There is scarcely any portion of the New Testament whose Inspiration, 
Genuineness, and Veracity, has not been impugned by some one or more of these 
Biblical Critics. Some would expunge this portion of the sacred canon, some 
would cancel that, till at last, if they are to be indulged in their arbitrary caprices, 
Christendom would hardly be permitted to possess a fragment of the documents 
of Christianity. 

We may observe a gradual decline in the Science of Sacred Interpretation 
ever since the middle of the last century. We find its origin in a sceptical unbelief 
of what is mysterious and supernatural, and in a cold and heartless attempt to 
account for the miraculous phenomena of the New Testament by natural causes. 
And when Rationalism had done its work, and had revolted the minds of reason- 
able men by its own irrational hypotheses, then the Evil Spirit, who is ever on the 
alert to assail the foundations of Holy Writ, changed his mode of attack, and drew 
off his forces in a different direction ; and having formerly .endeavoured to subvert 
men's faith by rationalizing what is spiritual in Scripture, would next endeavour to 
destroy them by spiritualizing what is rational, and by dissolving the facts of 
sacred History in a haze and mist of Mythology. 

This mode of warfare has effected its purpose. It has numbered its victims 
by thousands. And now we are threatened and attacked by a form of evil still 
more subtle and dangerous. It is more subtle and dangerous, because it professes 
a love for the Gospel and a zeal for Christianity ; it presents itself as an Angel of 
Light ; it pretends to abhor Rationalism, and to detest the mythical theories which 
have sapped the foundations of Scripture. It speaks fair words of Christ; and yet 
it loves to invent discrepancies, and imagine contradictions, in the narratives which 
His Apostles and Evangelists have delivered of His Birth, His Temptation, His 
Miracles, His Agony, His Sufferings, His Resurrection and Ascension. It accepts 
the doctrines of the Gospel, and yet arraigns its documents; it professes re- 
verence for Christianity, and contravenes the Inspiration and Veracity of the 
records on which Christianity rests. 

Thus, in fact, it has come to pass, that a great part of the rising generation 
of Christendom is now reduced to a condition little better than that of the Prodigal 
Son in the Gospel; it longs for the food of the soul; it yearns for sound and 
wholesome expositions of Holy Scripture ; it hungers for the bread of its heavenly 
Father's House; but it is too often constrained to satisfy the cravings of its appetite 
with husks. 

These results inspire serious apprehensions for the future. 

In politics, the abuse of liberty entails its forfeiture. Licentiousness engenders 
despotism. And so, in spiritual things, the abuse of Scripture has strengthened 
the cause of those who would forbid its use. Rationalism has been the best ally of 

requiem animabut vestris. Jvgum enitn meum lent ett, et sorcina mat levis ett (Matt. xL 28 — 80) : 
quibua, nisi mitibus et humilibus corde, quos non inflat scientia, sed oharitas tedificat ? " 


Rome. And now Christendom lies almost a captive at the feet of two of her worst 
enemies, whose end is one and the same, although the means by which they would 
attain it are different. They who treat Scripture as a common book; they who deny 
Scripture to be true ; they who pervert its sense, and supplant that sense by a 
meaning of their own, virtually destroy Scripture, and make common cause with 
those who would withhold Scripture from the people. They imitate the great City, 
the mystical Babylon, which kills the two Witnesses, namely, the Two Testaments, 
and casts their dead bodies in the street ' : 

« Hinc movet Euphrates, illinc Germania bellum." 
Hence we now see, that, even in an age when Bibles are most plentiful, we are in 
danger of losing the Bible as the Bible ; that is, as a Divine, and not a human 
composition ; — as the Rule of Faith and Practice, — as the inspired Word of God, 
by which we shall be judged at the Great Day. 

What .are the sources • of these evils, and whence may the remedy be 
derived ? 

If the New Testament is the work of the Holy Ghost, the causes are not 
hard to find. If Scripture is to be believed, we are sure, upon its authority, that 
no one can rightly interpret Scripture without the aid of the Holy Spirit, by Whom 
it was written. The Holy Spirit is a Spirit of gentleness, concord, and love. He 
will not dwell amid the strife of tongues. He will not reveal Himself to those who 
do not approach His own Book in a reverent and loving spirit. " Mysteries are 
revealed to the meek V " The secret of the Lord is among them that fear Him, 
and He will show them His covenant \" " Them that are meek shall He guide in 
judgment; and such as are gentle, them shall He learn His way 4 ." But " He re- 
sisteth the proud'." He hides His mysteries from "the wise and prudent 4 ," 
that is, from those who esteem themselves such, and "lean on their own understand- 
ings '." " Quaerenti derisori Scientia se abscondit'." " He turneth wise men back- 
ward, and maketh diviners mad '." If men will not receive Him as little children, 
then a just retribution awaits them. If they will not be children in simplicity, 
they will be made children in ignorance ; they will fall into childish errors, and 
become babes in knowledge ; " professing themselves wise, they will become fools ,0 ," 
and their folly will be manifest unto all men 1 ', through their arrogance in 
parading it before the world, and in vaunting of it as if it were wisdom '*. 

Eev. xi. 7, 8. 

* Ecclus. iii. 19. 

* Ps xxv. 18. 

Ps. xxv. 9. 

* James iv. 6. 1 Pet. v. 5. 

' Matt. xi. 25. 

Prov. iii. 5. 

* Lord Bacon. 

• Isa. xliv. 25. 

Kom. i. 22. 

" 2 Tim. iii. 9. 

11 The words of St. Augustine concerning himself are very instructive to an Expositor of 
Scripture : — " Cum primo puer ad divinas Scripturas ante vellem afferre acumen discutiendi quam 
pietatem quserendi, ego ipse contra me perversis moribus claudebam januam Domini mei. Gum 
pulsare deberem ut aperiretur, addebam ut clauderetur. Superbu* enim audebam qu&rere quod 
nisi hutnilu non potest invenire." {Aug. Sermon 1L 6.) 

On the necessity of holiness of life to a right understanding of Scripture, see Athanas. pp. 77. 
361, and Oregor. Nazian. Orat. xx. p. 883, fiavkti IcoXoyos ycvicrOai; ras cwoXas <£t;Wcrc- npafo 
brtficuTW $€wpuK. See also ibid. p. 495. 

VOL. I. a 


Is there such a thing as the visible Church Universal, to which Christ 
has promised His presence and His Spirit ? Are there such words as the follow- 
ing written in the New Testament ? " Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the 
end of the world '." " The Comforter shall teach you all things, and guide you 
into all the truth V " The Church of the Living God, which is the pillar and 
ground of the truth 3 ." In a word, has Christ done, or has He not done, two 
things ? Has He, or has He not, given us Holy Scripture by the Inspiration of the 
Holy Ghost ? And has He, or has He not, delivered Scripture to the keeping of 
the Church Universal, and appointed her to be its guardian and interpreter ? If 
He has done these things, it is not only folly and presumption, it is a sin against 
Him and against the Holy Ghost, to say that any of the Books, or any portion of 
the Books, which have been received, as divinely-inspired Scripture, by the consen- 
tient voice of the Church Universal, is not inspired by God, but is a human 
composition, blemished by human infirmities. And it is vain to expect that any 
real progress can be made by the agency of those, who commence their work with 
an outrage against Christ and the Holy Spirit, by denying the inspiration and in- 
errancy of writings delivered by Them. 

So, again, it is an illusory hope, that any advances can be made in the work 
of sacred interpretation, by the instrumentality of those who reject the Expositions 
of Scripture received by the consent of ancient Christendom, and who propound 
new interpretations invented by themselves, at variance with the general teaching 
of Scripture as received by the Catholic Church 4 . Rather, with our own Re- 
formers *, if we hope to maintain the truth, and to guard " the faith once for all 
delivered to the saints *," and to advance the Redeemer's Kingdom upon earth, let 
us have ever before our eyes, in interpreting Scripture, the formularies of faith 5 
delivered by the Church Universal, as representing the true sense of Scripture ; 
and let us not readily imagine, that any text of Scripture can be properly bent by 
us to bear a sense at variance with those standards of faith. 

Is it indeed true that there is such a Divine Institution as an Apostolical 
Ministry, appointed by Christ for the preaching of the Word and administration 
of the Sacraments ? Is it true, that the illuminating and sanctifying graces of the 
Holy Ghost are vouchsafed to those who humbly seek for them, by appointed 
means, at the hands of that ministry ? If so, it is certain, that no appliances of 
Literature and Science, and no labour in collating Manuscripts and examining 
Versions, no skill in Languages, no familiarity with the results of researches 
Historical, Chronological, Geographical, Antiquarian, nor any amount of toil about 
the letter of Scripture, will avail us for the attainment of a knowledge of the spirit 

1 Matt, nviii. 20. * John xiv. 26 ; xvi. 18. ' 1 Tim. iii. 15. 

4 Arnold*, in his Preface to his Edition of St. Matthew, thus deplores the loss sustained by his 
own country in this respect :— "Dass man, so zu sagen, die ezegetische Tradition unterbrochen hat, 
Bind die bedeutendsten Schatze des gediegensten theologischen Wissens unbeniitz liegen geblieben." 

* See Reformatio Legum, i. 18 : — " Summa fidei capita, e sacris Scripturis clarissimis desumpta, 
et in Symbolis breviter comprehensa, in ezponendo sacras literas ob oculos perpetud habeantur, ne 
quid contra ea aliquando interpretemur." ' Jude 8. 


of Scripture, if we set at nought the means of grace which God offers us for our 

All those instruments of Literature and Science are, indeed, necessary for 
the right interpretation of the original Scriptures ; and it would be fanatical to 
imagine that we can dispense with any of them. But it is no less fanatical to 
rely on them as sufficient. God must open our eyes, if we are to see "the 
wondrous things of His law ' ;" in His " light we shall see light V 

The preceding paragraphs have not been dictated by any other spirit than 
what is congenial to the study of those Scriptures, which have been received from 
the Spirit of love. The Church of England owes too much to the learning of 
Germany to regard her with any other feelings than those of affectionate esteem ; 
and on the still higher grounds of religious truth and concord, she longs for 
union with her. In the sixteenth century, Germany and England fought the 
great battle of the Reformation side by side. They shed their blood as allies 
and martyrs in that holy cause. We have received much from her ; we owe her 
a debt of gratitude ; we owe her our love and our prayers. Above all, we owe her 
the truth. And we should not be paying the debt of love we owe her, if, in- 
stead of speaking to her the truth, we addressed her in flattering words, and 
beguiled her with fair speeches, and deceived her by cozening assurances, as if 
the fruits she is now gathering in the field of sacred Criticism were sound and 
healthful to the soul, and not rather bitter as wormwood; beautiful, it may be, 
externally to the eye of unregenerate reason, but loathsome as poison to the 
healthful palate of faith; specious, it may be, in colour to a superficial glance, 
but when grasped by the hand, full of dust and smoke and ashes, like apples 
plucked from the sterile shore of the Dead Sea. 

Let us pray and labour for her recovery. At any rate, let us not " put bitter 
for sweet, and sweet for bitter '," and dignify with the name of progress that which 
ought to be wept over as decline. Let us not be guilty of the sin of singing songs 
of adulation and joining in a dance of triumph amid the ruins of the Christian 
Jerusalem. Let us rather lay our hand upon our mouth, and sit down with Jere- 
miah in sorrow. 

By no merit of our own, but by the gracious goodness of God, we possess 
Colleges and Cathedrals which have been schools of the prophets ; nurseries of 
sacred learning. We possess a National Church, which holds in her hands the 
true Canon of Scripture as received by the Church Universal; and which does not 
allow Holy Scripture to be rudely torn by discordant Teachers and irreverent 
Critics, but delivers to us the Creeds of Christendom and her own formularies 
of faith, as an authoritative guide to check our rash speculations, and to control 
our froward wills in obtruding our own caprices as dogmas of Holy Writ \ 

1 Ps. cxix. 18. * Ps. xxxvi. 9. ' Isa. v. 20. 

4 See above, p. x, and oar Ninth and Twentieth Articles, and the Canon " de Concionatoribus," 
a.d. 1571 : — " Tnpritnis videbunt Concionatorea, nequid unquam doceant pro concione quod a populo 
religiose teneri et credi velint, nisi quod consentaneum sit doctrine Yeteris et Novi Testamenti, 
qnodque ex ilia ipsa doctrina catholici patres et veteres episcopi collegerint." 
a 2 


Let us guard these privileges ; let us not degrade the biblical criticism of 
England to the miserable condition of doubt and diversity, of distraction and 
despair, in which that holy Science now lies prostrate in Germany. Rather let us 
endeavour, by God's grace, meekly and humbly, wisely and charitably, to elevate 
the Exegesis of Germany to the standard of primitive Christianity ; and so assist her 
in recovering her ancient dignity, and in consecrating her learning and sanctifying 
her labour, and rendering it more conducive to the maintenance of the truth, and 
to the extension of Christ's kingdom, and to her own glory and felicity in time and 
eternity. Then we may have a reasonable hope, that, with her assistance, the 
evils which now threaten Christendom may be averted ; the torrent of unbelief and 
superstition, which seems ready to overwhelm us, may be stemmed and turned 
back ; and we may see new fields reclaimed, and gladdened with rich harvests. 

Such considerations as these have prompted the design, which has now been 
executed in part, and which is here presented to the public. 

A few words are requisite concerning the Text of this Edition. 

It has been already observed, that the present age possesses special advantages 
in the collations that have been recently made of Manuscripts of the New Testa- 

But it must not be forgotten, that it is one thing to possess Manuscripts and 
collations of them, and another thing to use them well. Indeed it may sometimes 
happen, that the very abundance of Manuscripts, and consequently of Various 
Readings, may become an occasion of error ; and so, by a misuse of our advantages 
in this respect, the Text of the New Testament may be depraved and corrupted, 
rather than emended and improved. 

There is some reason to fear that this may be now the case. Certain canons 
of criticism, as they are called, have been propounded by Griesbach and others, 
as directions for the use of Manuscripts of the New Testament. These canons 
contain true principles ; but it may well be doubted whether great evils may not 
arise, and may not already have arisen, from an overstrained application of them. 

For example ; " Proclivi lectioni preestat ardua." This is an excellent rule, if 
rightly used; for no one can doubt that an easy reading was more likely to be sub- 
stituted by a transcriber for a difficult one, than a difficult reading for one that is 
easy. But this rule requires much caution in its application. 

There are many concurrent circumstances to be considered, which may modify 
and neutralize it, and render it wholly inapplicable. For instance ; it must also be 
inquired, whether the difficult reading is supported by the testimony of ancient 
Versions and Fathers ; or whether it stands on the authority of only one or two 
Manuscripts of a particular family. 

To force readings into the text merely because they are difficult, is to adul- 
terate the divine text with human alloy ; it is to obtrude upon the reader of Scrip- 
ture the solecisms of faltering copyists, in the place of the Word of God. 

Again; it is doubtless true that special deference is due, on the ground 
of superior Antiquity, to the Uncial Manuscripts of the New Testament. No one 

PREFACE. xiii 

can question, in the abstract, the soundness of the principle propounded by 
Bentley, revived by Bengel, and recently applied by Lachmann. But the very 
application of the principle, without adequate restraints and correctives, has 
proved, in the judgment of many candid and reflecting persons, how dangerous 
a true principle of criticism may become, when applied beyond the proper limits of 
its applicability. 

The Uncial Manuscripts are of greater antiquity, as far as ink and parchment 
are concerned, than the Cursive Manuscripts of the New Testament. The consent 
of all the Uncial Manuscripts, or of a majority of them, is of paramount authority. 
But we do not know that some of the Cursive Manuscripts may not be transcripts 
of Uncial Manuscripts still more ancient than any we now possess ; and, therefore, 
to adopt the readings which are found in two or three Uncial Manuscripts, to the 
exclusion of the testimony of the Cursive Manuscripts, may be to corrupt the Text 
while we profess to correct it. 

Besides, the Uncial Manuscripts are comparatively few, — and only represent 
the witness of a few places. But the Cursive Manuscripts are very numerous, and 
come to us from all parts of the world ; and, therefore, to confine ourselves to 
the testimony of the Uncial Manuscripts, may be to prefer the witness of a few 
particular Churches to that of Christendom. 

Let, then, the Uncial Manuscripts have all honour due ; and it can hardly 
be doubted, that wherever that honour is rightly paid, it will be found to be more 
or less authorized by a concurrent testimony of Cursive Manuscripts. 

It is also true, that the Manuscripts of the Greek Testament may be classified 
in Families. And, eventually, when they have been carefully examined, such an 
arrangement, according to Recensions, may be made. But it is premature, before 
such an examination has been faithfully and scrupulously completed, to prefer the 
readings of those particular Manuscripts which belong, as it is supposed, to one 
favoured class, and to reject others, because they are not of the same pedigree, or 
because they do not seem to us to bear an affinity to those of that class on which we 
ourselves, in the exercise of our critical prerogative, may have been pleased to confer 
certain privileges of rank and nobility. Yet, on this principle,. some of the Editions 
seem to have been constructed which profess to give an improved Text of the Greek 

Some other illustrations of a similar kind might be added. Suffice it to say, 
on the whole, that though the canons of criticism which have been applied to the 
revision of the Text of the New Testament are of unquestionable value, yet great 
circumspection is necessary, lest, by a vicious application of them, we do more to 
mar the sacred Text than has yet been done by their means to improve it. 

The Text of the present edition is not a reprint of that hitherto received in 
any impression of the New Testament. The Editor has endeavoured to avail 
himself of the collations of manuscripts which have been supplied by others, and to 
offer to the reader the result at which he has arrived after an examination of those 
collations. He has not thought it requisite or desirable to lay before the eye a 


full apparatus of various readings. It would have swollen the volume to too great 
a bulk, and have occupied the place reserved for exposition. Besides, that im- 
portant work has been done, or is now in course of being done, by others. And 
to their labours ' he would refer those, who are desirous of ascertaining the process 
by which the text of the present Edition has been formed. 

At the same time, he feels it his duty to state, that (whether rightly or 
wrongly, is left to the judgment of others) he has not deviated so far from the 
text commonly received, as has been done in some recent editions. And he cannot 
forbear adverting with satisfaction to important evidence which has come to light 
since the commencement of the printing of this Volume, and which has confirmed 
him in the principles he had adopted of caution in deviating from the received text. 
A seventh Edition of the New Testament is now in course of publication under 
the Editorship of a learned person, to whom the present age is deeply indebted 
for his labours in collating manuscripts, and publishing Transcripts of early copies 
of the New Testament, Constantine Tischendorf. It will be found, on examination 
of the prospectus of that seventh Edition *, that he frankly confesses that he has 
been led to follow too implicitly the lead of certain favourite manuscripts in his 
earlier editions. And the fact is, that in his new seventh edition he abandons 
his former readings, and generally returns to those of the received text, in more 
than a hundred places in the Gospel of St. Matthew alone '. 

With regard to the Notes which accompany the present Edition, the Editor's 
design has been to recover some of the expository teaching of ancient Christendom, 
which seems almost to have disappeared from its proper place in the critical 
exegesis of the New Testament. If it be asked, why he has laid so much stress on 
the interpretations of Christian Antiquity, and why the names of ancient Expositors 
occur so frequently in the following pages, he had rather answer that question in 
the words of others than in his own ; 

And first, with regard to the Apostolical Fathers, — for example, Clemens 
Romanus, Ignatius, Polycarp, — he may refer to the words of Archbishop Wake 4 ; 

"1. They were contemporary with the Apostles, and instructed by them. 
2. They were men of an eminent character in the Church, and therefore such as 
could not be ignorant of what was taught in it. 3. They were careful to preserve 
the doctrine of Christ in its purity, and to oppose such as went about to corrupt it. 
4. They were men not only of a perfect piety, but of great courage and constancy, 
and therefore such as cannot be suspected to have had any design to prevaricate in 
this matter. 6. They were endued with a large portion of the Holy Spirit, and, as 

1 See below, p. xxxix. * See below, p. xxxix. 

' They will be found as follows : in Matt. ii. 13 ; iii. 1 ; iv. 23 ; v. 11. 13. 32 bis ; vi. 5. 16. 33 
viL 14; viii. 10. 13 bis, 25 j ix. 1. 8, 9. 11. 17, 18; x. 7. 10. 14. 19. 23. 33; xi. 23; xii. 85. 48 
xiii. 1, 2. 15. 24. 80. 57 ; xiv. 18. 18. 22. 25, 26 ; xv. 4. 14, 15 ; in. 19 bis, 22, 23 ; xvii. 14 ; xviii. 29. 
35; xix. 3 bis; xx. 16. 17. 26. 31. 33 bis, 84 bis; xxi. 2. 4. 7 bis, 11. 28; xxii. 13. 30 bis, 43, 44 
xxiii. 4. 18; xxiv. 1. 7. 80. 49;. xxt. 1, 2 bis, 4. 6. 17. 20. 22; xxvi. 23. 86 bis, 44, 45. 59. 69 
xxvii. 2. 11. 16, 17. 28. 34, 85. 47 ; xxviii. 8. 15. 18, 19. 

* Jip. Wake't Translation of the Writings of the Apostolical Fathers, p. 110. 


such, could hardly err in what they delivered as the Gospel of Christ. 6. Their 
writings were approved by the Church in those days, which could not be mistaken 
in its approbation of them." 

Dr. Waterland writes as follows on this subject ' ; — 

" 1 . The ancients who lived nearest to the Apostolical times are of some use to 
us, considered merely as contemporary writers, for their diction and phraseology. . . 
2. A further use of the ancient Fathers is seen in the letting us into the knowledge 
of antiquated rites and customs, upon the knowledge of which the true interpreta- 
tion of some Scripture phrases and idioms may depend. 3. They are further useful 
as giving us an insight into the history of the age in which the sacred books (of the 
New Testament, I mean) were written. 4. The ancientest Fathers may be exceed- 
ingly useful for fixing the sense of Scripture in controverted texts. Those that lived 
in or near the Apostolical times might retain in memory what the Apostles them- 
selves or their immediate successors said upon such and such points. — Their near- 
ness to the time, their known fidelity, and their admirable endowments, ordinary 
and extraordinary, add great weight to their testimony or doctrine, and make it a 
probable rule of interpretation in the prime things. 6. It deserves our notice, that 
the Fathers of the third and fourth centuries had the advantage of many written 
accounts of the doctrine of the former ages, which have since been lost ; and there- 
fore, their testimonies also are of considerable weight, and are a mark of direction 

to us, not to be slighted in the main things 6. There is one consideration 

more, tending still to strengthen the former, and which must by no means be 
omitted ; namely, that the charismata, the extraordinary gifts, were then frequent; 
visibly rested in and upon the Church, and there only." He adds * : " A very par- 
ticular regard is due to the Public Acts of the Ancient Church appearing in Creeds 
made use of in baptism, and in the censures passed upon heretics. It is not at all 
likely that any whole Church of those times should vary from Apostolical doctrine 
in things of moment ; but it is, morally speaking, absurd to imagine, that all the 
Churches should combine in the same error, and conspire together to corrupt the 
doctrine of Christ." And Bp. Bull says ' : " Religio mihi est eritque contra tor- 
rentem omnium Patrum S. Scripturas interpretari, nisi quando me argumenta 
cogunt evidentissima — quod nunquam eventurum credo." 

To this it may be added, that, while it is freely allowed that Modern 
Expositors enjoy some advantages which were not possessed by the Ancient, and 
that the works of the Ancient Writers cannot be read profitably without sobriety 
of judgment, yet it is also certain that the Ancient Interpreters are never charge- 
able with some errors which impair the value, and mar the use, of some Modern 
Expositions. They are never flippant and familiar. They are not self-conceited and 
vain-glorious. They are never scornful and profane. They handle Scripture with 
reverence. Their tone is high and holy; produced by careful study of Scripture, 
with humble prayer for light to the Divine Author of Scripture. They reflect 
some of that light, and spiritualize the thoughts of the reader, and raise them 

' On the Use and Value of Ecclesiastical Antiquity, Works, v. pp. 268-333 j p. 260. 
* P. 265. • Def. Fid. Nic. i. 1. 9. 


to a serener atmosphere, and do not depress them into the lower and more obscure 
regions of clouds, which hang over the minds of those who approach Scripture 
with presumption and irreverence, and which disable them from seeing its light, 
and, much more, from unfolding it to others. 

In reciting the interpretations of ancient writers, he begs it to be understood 
that he does not profess to give in every case their very words, or a literal version 
of them. He has frequently abridged and condensed them, — but in no case, he 
trusts, has he misrepresented their sense. Where their names occur without any 
mention of the particular treatise from which their words are quoted, it may 
generally be inferred that they are from a commentary on the passage in ques- 
tion. In other cases the treatise has been specified from which the citation is 

There is another source from which the present Commentary is partly 
derived — the Theological Literature of the Church of England. In some respects 
the Divines of England have enjoyed advantages for the doctrinal exposition of 
truth, which were not possessed even by the Fathers themselves. As St. Augustine 
often observes, the cause of Truth is cleared by means of Error. Orthodoxy gains 
by the oppositions of Heresy ; and the heresies which have arisen in Christendom 
since the times of the Fathers have stimulated and constrained the faithful student 
of Scripture to examine more closely the truths which the Scriptures teach. Thus 
from time to time disseminations of false doctrine have afforded occasions and 
means for the clearer elucidation and stronger confirmation of the Truth. They 
have shown the inexhaustible riches of Scripture, in the never-failing supply of 
antidotes against ever-varying forms of error. 

It was observed long since by Lord Bacon ', that one of the best Commentaries 

1 " That form of writing in divinity, which in my judgment is of all others most rich and precious, 
is positive divinity, collected upon particular texts of Scripture in brief observations, not dilated into 
common-places, not chasing after controversies, not reduced into method of art ; a thing abounding in 
sermons, which will vanish, but defective in books, which will remain, and a thing wherein this age 
excelleth. For I am persuaded, and I may speak it with an absit invidia verbo, and no ways in 
derogation of antiquity, but as in a good emulation between the Vine and the Olive, that if the choice 
and best of those observations upon texts of Scripture, which have been made dispersedly in sermons 
within this your Majesty's island of Britain by the space of these forty years and more, leaving out 
the largeness of exhortations and applications thereupon, had been set down in a continuance, it had 
been the best work in divinity which had been written since the Apostles' time." (Bacon, Adv. of 
Learning, p. 268.) 

The following admirable remarks from the same source may find a proper place here. Lord 
Bacon thus speaks (Adv. of Learning, p. 267, ed. 1828) :— " The two latter points, known to God 
and unknown to man, touching the secrets of the heart and the successions of time, do make a 
just and sound difference between the manner of the exposition of the Scriptures and all other books. 
For it is an excellent observation which hath been made upon the answers of our Saviour Christ to 
many of the questions which were propounded to Him, how that they are impertinent to the state of 
the question demanded; the reason whereof is, because, not being like man, which knows man's 
thoughts by his words, but knowing man's thoughts immediately, He never answered their words, but 
their thoughts. Much in the like manner it is with the Scriptures, which, being written to the 
thoughts of men and to the succession of all ages, with a foresight of all heresies, contradictions,, 
differing estates of the Church, yea, and particularly of the elect, are not to be interpreted only 

PREFACE. xvii 

on Scripture might be extracted from the writings of English Divines. Especially 
is this true of those who were imbued with a spirit of reverence for the works 
of Christian antiquity, and who applied the teaching of the Fathers to the exposi- 
tion of Holy Writ, and to the refutation of the errors of their own times. Who 
can excel Hooker and Bishop Andrewes in expounding the words of St. John ? 
Who more able than Bishop Sanderson to apply to cases of conscience the rea- 
sonings of St. Paul ? 

An explanation perhaps may be necessary of the reasons for which some of the 
materials in the following Commentary have been adopted. 

The best instrument of Education is Holy Scripture in its original language. 
It alone of all books in the world addresses itself to the whole man. It exercises 
his memory, strengthens his reason, controls his passions, informs his judgment, 
regulates his conscience, sanctifies his will, enlivens his fancy, warms his imagina- 
tion, cherishes his affections, stimulates his practice, quickens his hope, and ani- 
mates his faith. 

But those purposes are impaired and frustrated, if an Expositor of Scripture 
confines himself to verbal criticism, and material facts of history, chronology, and 
antiquities. These are necessary, and have not been neglected in the following 
pages. But something more is requisite. And in an Edition designed for the use 
of Students in Grammar-schools and Colleges, and Candidates for Holy Orders, the 
Expositor would seem to be robbing them of the most precious part of their Chris- 
tian inheritance, and despoiling them of that discipline which is most conducive to 
exercise and spiritualize the highest faculties of their moral and intellectual being, 
if he limited himself to critical and archaeological disquisitions, and did not supply 
them with some food derived from Scripture and ancient Authors, for the hallowing 
of their affections, and for elevating their imaginations, and for nourishing their 
piety and animating their devotion ; and for enabling them to see and recognize 
with joy, that Holy Scripture supplies the best discipline for the mind, as well as 
satisfies all the aspirations of the soul. 

In the illustration of the phraseology of the New Testament, special use has 
been made of the Version of the Septuagint, which has been happily called by 
Professor Blunt "the viaduct between the two Testaments 1 ." Here the Editor is 

according to the latitude of the proper sense of the place, and respectively towards that present 
occasion whereupon the words were uttered, or in precise congruity or contexture with the words 
before or after, or in contemplation of the principal scope of the place ; but have in themselves, not 
only totally or collectively, but distributively in clauses and words, infinite springs and streams of 
doctrine to water the Church in every part ; and therefore, as the literal sense is, as it were, the main 
stream or river, so the moral sense chiefly, and sometimes the allegorical or typical, are they whereof 
the Church hath most use ; not that I wish men to be bold in allegories, or indulgent or light in 
allusions ; but that I do much condemn that interpretation of the Scripture which is only after the 
manner as men use to interpret a profane book." 

' Cp. Valekenaer in Luc. i. 51. " Gwecum N. T. conteitum rite intellecturo nihil est utilius 
quam diligenter versasse Alexandrinam antiqui Foederis interpretationem (i. e. the LXX), e qud und 
plus peti potent ausilii, quam ex veteribut Scriptoribus Gracis simul sumtis. Centena reperientur in 
N. T. nusquam obvia in scriptis Grscorum veterum, sed frequentata in Alexandrina Yersione." 
VOL I. b 

xviii PREFACE. 

indebted to Mr. Grinfield's valuable works, and to the excellent Lexicon of 

The Ammonian Sections have been marked in the Text of the Gospels in 
this edition, and the Eusebian Canons relating to them have been prefixed; the 
use of which, as forming an Evangelical Harmony, and indicating at a glance the 
correspondence of the Evangelists where they concur, and their independence where 
each stands alone, cannot be too strongly commended to the student. 

These prefatory remarks may be closed with some observations, suggested by 
the circumstances of the times, on the substance and language of the New Testa- 

Much has been recently said on the Inspiration of Holy Scripture. 

It may be submitted for consideration, whether it would not be wiser to 
abstain from disquisitions upon modes and degrees of Inspiration, as a subject 
beyond the reach of our finite faculties. 

If it be said, that this would be too diffident a course, let it be observed that it 
is no other than that which was pursued by our Blessed Lord Himself in His 
dealings with the Old Testament. He received, and delivered to the Christian 
Church, all the Books, and every portion of the Books, of the Old Testament, as 
the Word of God'. 

But though He has solemnly declared that every part of the Old Testament is 
inspired, He never vouchsafed to say a word concerning degrees of Inspiration. 

Indeed, it seems 'to be a contradiction of terms, to speak of degrees in what is 

In the act of inspiration the Holy Spirit did not impair the human faculties, 
much less did He destroy the personal identity, of those whom He inspired. 
Inspiration was a mental and spiritual Transfiguration. On the Mount of Trans- 
figuration, the disciples saw " two men talking with Jesus, which were Moses and 
Elias '." Moses was not changed into Elias, nor Elias into Moses ; nor were they 
transmuted into some third person different from either. But they " appeared in 
glory." They were transfigured. So in Inspiration. Peter is not changed into 
Paul, nor Matthew into John. They retain their personal identity, distinguishable 
by men. They appear in glory. They are transfigured. 

This work of Transfiguration is a Mystery. It is like other mysteries, where 
that which is human touches, and is blended with, the divine. We feel a similar 
process going on in our own being. We all know that, we are free agents, and 
we are all conscious that we need and receive divine Grace. But where our Free- 
will ends, and where divine Grace begins, who can say ? The fact we know, the 
modes and degrees we cannot analyse ; we confess our ignorance, we adore the 
mystery ; we do not discuss it, but we act hourly upon the consciousness of the 
fact, as a law of our moral being. 

May we not even say, that the Mystery of Inspiration bears some likeness 

1 Matt. xvii. 3. Lake ix. 80, 31. 


to the highest of all mysteries, in which the human is joined with the divine, the 
Mystery of the Incarnation itself? There, in that mystery, is the union of God 
and man in One Person, without any confusion of substance. But who will venture 
to attempt to draw the line, where God's work begins and man's ends, in the Person 
of Christ ? Who will venture to speak of modes and degrees of inspiration there ? 
The mystery dazzles the eye, it baffles all our faculties of analysis. And yet, like 
the mid-day sun, at which we cannot gaze, while it blinds us with its glory, it alone 
enables us to see; all would be dark without it. It is the central orb of Chris- 

So it is, in a certain sense, with Inspiration. We cannot define its degrees. 
It would seem to be our wisdom to decline the attempt, to confess our ignorance, 
and to act on what we know. We know that " holy men of God spake as they were 
moved by the Holy Ghost ' ;" and that therefore the Scriptures, which the Holy 
Ghost has given by them, are " the things ' that are able to make us wise unto 
salvation, through faith which is in Christ Jesus." 

This may be proved by arguments external and internal. And since it may 
be proved, it can never be granted that there are any, even the least, errors or 
inaccuracies, in the New Testament. If one man imagines that there are two or 
three inaccuracies, another person, equally learned, may allege that there are four 
or five; and so on, indefinitely, till at last the claim of the Scriptures to be 
regarded as the Word of God, and the Rule of Faith, is destroyed. 

It is indeed true, that the Apostles and Evangelists, whose instrumentality 
was used by the Holy Spirit, in dictating Scripture to the World, were not infal- 
lible in practice ; they were men, and liable to err. The Scriptures themselves 
record their errors. The unerring Word records errors of those who were employed 
by God to write it. St. Paul says, in the Epistle to the Galatians, that St. Peter 
" was to be blamed," and " walked not uprightly \" The Epistle to the Galatians 
is a part of Holy Scripture, and we are sure that the Apostle Peter erred, because 
the Holy Ghost, writing by St. Paul in Holy Scripture, affirms that he erred ; 
and relates what his error was \ 

In fact, the fallibility of those by whose agency Scripture was written, and 

' 2 Pet. i. 21. ' to M^era, «c.r.X. 2 Tim. iii. 15. * Gal. ii. 11. 14. 

4 Cp. Augustm. Epist. ad Hieron. zl. : — " Itaque et ipse Petrus vert correctus est ; et Paulus 
vera narravit : ne sancta scriptura, que ad fidem posteris edita est, admissa auctoritate mendacii, tota 
dubia ntutet, ac fluctuet. Non enim potest aut oportet litteris explicari, quanta et quam explicabilia 
mala consequantur, si hoc concesserimua." 

Ep. bcxxii. : — " At enim," says the ohjector, " satius est credere, Apostolom Paulum aliquid vere 
non scripsisse, quam Apostolum Petrum non recte aliquid egisse ; 

" Hoc si ita est, dicamus, (quod absit,) satins esse credere, mentiri Erangelium, quam negatum 
esse a Petro Christum, et mentiri Begnorum librum, quam tantum prophetam, a domino Deo 
excellenter electum, in concupiscenda atque abducenda more aliena commisisse adulterium, et in 
marito ejus necando tarn horrendum homicidium. 

" Imd verd, Sanctam Scripturam, in summo et celesti auctoritatis culmine collocatam, de veritate 
ejus certus ac securus legam ; et in ea homines vel approbates, vol emendates, vel damnatos reraciter 
diacam , ootids quam, facta humana ne dum in quibusdam laudabilis excellentise personis aliquando 
credere timeo reprehendenda, ipsa divina eloquia mihi sint ubique suspecta." 


the inerrancy of Scripture written by their agency, constitute together the 
essence of Inspiration. We do not say that God is inspired. No ; God is infal- 
lible, and inspires. But we say, that the writers of Scripture are inspired, because 
they, being fallible men, were preserved from all error, and led into all truth 
necessary for us to know for our everlasting salvation, by the Inspiration of the 
Infallible God. 

If, therefore, to our fallible senses, there seems to be any error in Holy Scrip- 
ture, we are sure that the cause of this seeming error is not in Him Who wrote 
what is written, but in us, who read what He wrote. 

We may adopt here the language of one, who has treated this question with 
his wonted clearness, and whose words deserve to be well weighed at the present 
time, St. Augustine; 

" I confess that I have learnt to pay this deference to the Books of Scripture, 
and to them alone, that I most firmly believe that none of their writers has ever fallen 
into any error in writing. And if I meet with any thing in them, which seems to 
me to be contrary to truth, I doubt not that either the Manuscript is in fault, or 
that the Translator has missed the sense, or that I myself have not rightly appre- 
hended it. The books of other writers I read in such a spirit, as not to deem a 
thing true because they think it so, however holy and learned they may be, but 
because they are able to persuade me of its truth by the authority of Scripture, or 
by probable inference from it. Nor do I imagine that you differ from me here, or 
desire your own books to be so read, as if they were writings of Prophets and Apos- 
tles, to doubt concerning which, whether they are altogether free from error, is 
impiety 1 ." 

And, again, he says, " we must take care to approach the reading of Scrip- 
ture with such a spirit of reverence, as rather to pass by what we cannot under- 
stand, than to prefer our own sense to the Truth V 

And, again, "I owe this free servitude solely to the Canonical Scriptures, 
so that I follow them alone, with the persuasion that their writers have not fallen 
into any error V 

These words were addressed to St. Jerome, who speaks in the same spirit, — "I 

1 Aug. Epist. ad Hieron. lxxxii. : — "Ego enim fateor charitati true, solis eis scripturarum libris, 
qui jam canonici appellantur, didici hunc timorem honoremque deferre, ut nullum eorum auctorem 
tcribendo aliquid erratte Jirmissime credam. At si aliquid in eifl offendero, quod videatur contrarium 
reritati, nihil aliud quam vel mendosum esse codicem, vel interpretem non assecutum esse quod 
dictum est, vel me minime intellexisse, non ambigam. Alios autem ita lego, ut quantalibet sanctitate 
doctrinaque prsepollearit, non ideo verum putem, quia ipsi ita senserunt, sed quia mihi vel per illos 
auctores canonicos, vel probabili ratione, quod a vero non abhorreat, persuadere potuerunt. Nee te, 
mi frater, sentire aliquid aliter existimo ; prorsus, inquam, non te arbitror sic legi tuos libros Telle, 
tamquam Frophetarum et Apostolorum; de quorum scriptis, quod omni errore careant, dubitare 

. xxviii. : — "Agendum est igitur, ut ad cognitionem divinarum scripturarum talis homo 
accedat, qui de Sanctis libris tarn sancte veraciter estimet, ut potius id quod non intelligit, transeat, 
quam cor suum proferat veritati." 

* Ep. lxxxii. : — " Tantummodo scripturis canonicis hanc ingenuam debeo serritutem ; qua eas 
solas ita eequar, ut conscriptores earum nihil in eit omnino erraue non dubitem." 


know that I regard the Apostles in a different light from other writers ; the former 
always say what is true ; the latter, as men, sometimes err '." 

Let us pass from the substance of Scripture to its language. 

Much has been written in modern times on what is commonly called, though 
perhaps not very correctly, Verbal Inspiration. 

Words are symbols of things. The words of Scripture are the instruments 
used for the conveyance of a knowledge of the things of God to the mind of man. 
And in order that the things of God may be rightly conveyed to the human mind, 
it is necessary that the verbal symbols should correctly represent, as far as human 
language can represent, what is in the Divine Mind. And if we say that the writers 
of the New Testament were not under the control and direction of the Holy Spirit 
in their use of words, we do in fact deny their inspiration. How Jar this control 
and direction extended, it would be presumptuous to attempt to define. St. Paul 
wrote the Epistle to the Romans, and Tertius wrote the Epistle to the Romans 2 ; 
they wrote the same thing, but not in the same way. Tertius was not inspired, — 
St. Paul was. Tertius wrote as a mechanical instrument in the hand of a man ; 
St. Paul wrote as a free agent in the hand of the Holy Ghost. And St. Paul 
affirms that the words which he writes in his Epistles, are " not words which man's 
wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth '." St. Paul therefore, we are 
sure, was under the guidance of the Holy Spirit in his words as well as thoughts, 
in the letter as well as in the substance of what he wrote for the teaching of the 
Church of Christ, and in that which was received as canonical Scripture by her, 
to whom Christ promised His own presence and that of the Holy Ghost. 

It is alleged, indeed, by some, that a theory of Verbal Inspiration (if we must 
use the term), is inconsistent with the facts of the case, as presented to us in the 

How, it has been asked, can we account for the fact, that we have different 
recitals from different Evangelists of the same Discourses of our blessed Lord, 
if the Evangelists were under the control of the Holy Spirit in their use of words t 
How is it that we have different accounts of the words used by Him in the Institu- 
tion of the Lord's Supper ? How is it that we have various reports of the inscrip- 
tion written by Pilate on the cross ? 

In strictness of speech, we must say that not one of the Evangelists gives us 
the exact words of Christ. He conversed in Syro-Chaldaic, and they wrote in Greek. 

But the fact, that they sometimes give different — but never contrary — reports 
of the same sayings of our blessed Lord, is not at variance with their inspiration as 
to words. Rather we may say, it is characteristic of it, and confirmatory of our 
belief in it. 

1 St. Rieron. ad Theophil. Ep. vol. iv. p. 337 :— " Scio me alitor habere Apostoloe, alitor reliquos 
Tractatores ; illos semper vera dicere, istos in quibusdam, ut homines, errare." 

See also St. Jerome's master, Qregor. Neman, p. 60, and Hooker, quoted below, p. 109. 
* Bom. xvi. 22. ' 1 Cor. ii. 18. 

xxii PREFACE. 

The mind of Christ is divine. The Holy Spirit, and the Holy Spirit alone, 
knew what was in the mind of Christ '. And Holy Scripture was not written to tell 
us merely that which Christ taught by means of words, which are human coinage, 
but what was in the inner treasury of Wisdom of Him Who is Divine *. If the Holy 
Spirit had given us but one verbal account of Christ's sayings, He would have given 
a far less clear view of Christ's mind than we now possess. This arises, not from 
any imperfection in the working of the Spirit, but from our imperfection, and from 
that of the instrument to be used by the Spirit for the conveyance of a knowledge 
of Christ's mind to us, — namely, human language. He has given to us a fuller 
knowledge of that mind, by presenting its sense to us in different points of view; 
just as a Painter gives us a clearer idea of a human countenance or a landscape, by 
representing it to us from different sides. He has given us, so to speak, a pan- 
oramic view. For example ; if we had but one account of the Institution of the 
Lord's Supper, we should have a far less complete notion of what was in the Divine 
Mind of Him Who instituted it, than we have now by reason of the varieties of 
expression, by which the Holy Spirit represents in the several Gospels the Divine 
thoughts which were in the Mind of Christ at its institution. 

The same may be said of the various reports we read of Christ's Discourses. 
Their varieties are like so many contributions from the Hand of the Divine Author 
of Scripture, making human language less inadequate than it otherwise would be, 
to give us a revelation of what was in the mind of Him Who uttered them. 

But it may be said, Pilate's words are not like the words of Christ. How is 
it that we have different accounts of what Pilate wrote on the cross ? 

To this question we may reply by a sentence which is never to be forgotten 
by the reader of the Gospels : " Qui plum dicit, pauciora complectitur ; qui pauciora 
dicit, plura non negat." The several accounts are quite consistent with each 
other, and doubtless the Holy Spirit had good reasons for their varieties 8 . If the 
Evangelists had been mere servile copyists, they would have done what any legal 
clerk or notary might do, and have given us one and the same transcript of the 
words written by Pilate. They have not done this ; and they thus suggest to the 
candid and humble inquirer, that there may be good reasons for their varieties, in 
this and other cases ; and though he may not be able to discern those reasons, he 
will not therefore deny that they may exist. Some reasons, however, he may see ; 
and if they serve only to prove to him the limited powers of his own mind, they 
will not be without their uses, as exercises of his humility, his faith, and hope for 
a better and happier time, when his faculties will be enlarged, and his vision clari- 
fied, and he will know even as he is known 4 . 

But, it may perhaps be asked; Suppose that the diversities in question are 
consistent with Inspiration, how are we to account for the resemblances in the 
Gospels, if they were written by divinely-inspired persons ? These parallelisms, it 
is to be observed, are in Greek ; and they are in records of our Lord's discourses 

■ 1 Cop. ii. 11. 16. * Col. ii. 8. 

* See note below, p. 279. ' 1 Cor. xiii. 12. 

PREFACE. xxiii 

not spoken in Greek, but in Syro-Chaldaic. They are parallelisms of translation. 
Therefore, it is alleged, they show that the writers must have copied one another's 
words, or have transcribed from some common document. And neither of these 
suppositions, it is added, is reconcileable with a belief in Inspiration. 

In answer to this objection, it may be said, that the process in question is not 
properly described as one of copying. It is one of Repetition. 

Now, if we carefully study the operations of the Holy Spirit of God, in His 
dealings with men, we shall find that one of His principles of action is Repetition. 

God doubled the dream to Pharaoh, as Joseph declared to him, for greater 
certainty '. He often repeated by one Prophet what He had said by another. He 
revealed the future to Daniel by successive visions, representing the same events *. 
In St. Peter's vision the sheet was let down thrice '. In the last Gospel the word 
"Amen" — the word of assurance, — never stands singly; it is used about twenty- 
five times, and always twice at a time. 

The repetition of the same words by the same Spirit, in the different Gospels, 
is altogether in harmony with what we know of the working of the Holy Ghost *. 

Indeed we may say on the whole, that the Diversities in the Gospels, and also 
their Repetitions, may be accounted for on the supposition of their Inspiration, and 
that they never have been explained by any other theory. 

Our Blessed Lord promised to give the Holy Spirit to them who were sent to 
preach the Gospel. He forbad them to premeditate when they were brought 
before kings'; and He assured them that He would give them 'o mouth' as well 
as wisdom of heart, which none would be able to resist, " For it is not ye that speak, 
but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you*." Or, as another Evangelist 
expresses it, " It is not ye that speak, but the Holy Ghost T ." 

If they were to be thus furnished with words by the Holy Spirit for preaching 
the Oospel orally to a few persons in particular places and times, shall we imagine 
that they were not equally qualified by the same Spirit for preaching the same 
Oospel in writing to all ages and countries of the world t 

It has also been alleged, that the existence of Various Readings in the New 
Testament is a proof that the writers could not have been under the control of the 
Holy Ghost in their use of words. Why, it is asked, if they were under His 
guidance, have we not received a stereotyped edition of the New Testament ? 

To this question we may reply by another. It is allowed that the substance 
of Scripture is from God. Why then have we not a stereotyped Creed ? Why has 
God allowed Heresies to arise, perverting the sense of Scripture ? Why has He 
permitted so many various readings, so to speak, of that one sense which is 
confessedly from Him? All these things are trials of our vigilance and faith. 
They are parts of our moral probation in this world. And if the various readings 
of the sense of Scripture are quite consistent with a belief — as assuredly they are 

1 Gen. xli. 32. » Dan. ii. 81—45 ; vii. 8—7. * Acts x. 16. 

* See further on this subject, below, p. xlvii. ' Luke xxi. 12. 14, 15. 

• Matt. x. 20. ' Mark xiii. 11. 

xxiv PREFACE. 

— in the Inspiration of that sense; so the various readings of the letter of 
Scripture, which may he confined within much narrower limits than those of the 
sense, and are of comparatively little importance ', are quite compatible with a 
belief that the writers of Scripture were under the direction of the Holy Spirit 
in the letter, as well as the sense. 

It has not pleased Almighty God to preserve to us the original autographs of 
the Gospels. Various Readings of the Sacred Text existed even in the second 
century. No Manuscript of the first, second, or third century is now known to 
exist, and only four or five Manuscripts that are still extant can be assigned to a 
date prior to the seventh century. After all the labours of Collators and Critics, 
we shall never be sure that we have the precise words of the Apostles and 
Evangelists in every minute particular. 

If then we are disposed to be over-captious, if we desire to busy ourselves with 
scrupulous curiosity about mint, anise, and cummin, we may say that we have not 
the authentic language of Scripture; and that we cannot cherish the persuasion 
that we have in the New Testament the words of a message dictated by the Holy 

But, when we come to examine the evidence of the case, we find, that, after 
the elimination of manifest errors of copyists, and after the application of the rules 
of sound criticism to the revision of the Text, the verbal discrepancies of our 
Manuscripts of the New Testament are so slight and trivial, as scarcely to be of 
any account. 

Besides, these discrepancies, being such as they are found to be, are of 
inestimable value. They show that there has been no collusion among our wit- 
nesses, and that our Manuscript copies of the Gospels, about five hundred in 
number, and brought to us from all parts of the world, have not been mutilated or 
interpolated, with any sinister design, that they have not been tampered with by 
any religious sect, for the sake of propagating any private opinion as the Word of 
God. These discrepancies are, in fact, evidences of the purity and integrity of the 
Sacred Text. Tbey show that the Scriptures which we now hold in our hands, in 
the nineteenth century, are identical with those which were received by the Church 
in the first century as written by the Holy Ghost. 

Indeed, the Various Readings of the Text of Holy Scripture are a striking 
proof of God's providential care watching over the Text of Holy Scripture. For 
whence do they arise? From the vast number of ancient Manuscripts of the 

1 See the observations of a very eminent scholar, L. C. Valckenaer, on this subject in his note 
on Luke i. 54 : — " De millenis Lectionibus codicum MSS. observetur hac occasione, maximam earum 
partem nihil aliud esse, nisi diversam pronunciationem Librariorum, at and c, 01 and t, prster cetera, 
promiscue pronunciantium. Magna pars Lectionum perexigui est momenti, et ejusdem generis, cujus 
hsec est ; perpaucao dantur, inter millenas, quae sententiam valde immutent ; nulla omnino, quae ullo 
pacto noceat auctoritati divine horum scriptorum, aut Beligionem ulla parte labefactet." 

Ibid. ix. 44 : — " In universum observetur, inter millenas illas varias lectiones e Codd. scriptis 
N. T. collectas, qua adeo videntur nonnullis terriculo, admodum paucas dari, quae alicujus sint 
momenti; multd adhuc pauciores, quae sensum immutent. Pleneque omnes sunt scribarum aberra- 
tiones, leves admodum ; ortae autem saepius e differentia quadam pronunciandi, et paene indignse quae 
a nobis tanto studio annotentur." 


Scriptures, a number far exceeding in amount that of any other ancient Book 
in the world. If there were only a few MSS. of the Scriptures, there would 
be few Various Readings ; and " if there was only one Manuscript, there would be 
no Various Readings at all 1 ." And then how precarious and uncertain would 
be the foundations of our faith ! 

1 The remarks of Dr. Bentley on this subject cannot be too generally read at the present time, when 
from the recent collations of MSS. some may be staggered by the vast multitude of Various Headings 
in the sacred text : — 

" If there had been but one Manuscript of the Qreeh Testament at the restoration of learning 
about two centuries ago, then we had had no Various Beading* at all. And would the Text be in a 
better condition then, than now we have 30,000 ? So far from that, that in the best single Copy 
extant we should have had hundreds of faults, and some omissions irreparable. Besides that the 
suspicions of fraud and foul play would have been increased immensely. It is good therefore, you'll 
allow, to have more anchors than one ; and another MS. to join with the first would give more 
authority, as well as security. Now chuse that second where you will, there shall still be a thou- 
sand variations from the first, and yet half or more of the faults shall still remain in them both. 

" A third therefore, and so a fourth, and still on, are desirable; that by a joint and mutual help, 
all the faults may be mended : some Copy preserving the true reading in one place, and some in 
another. And yet the more Copies you call to assistance, the more do the Various Beadings multiply 
upon you : every Copy having its peculiar slips, tho' in a principal passage or two it do singular service. 

" And this is fact, not only in the New Testament, but in all antient books whatever. 

" It is a good Providence and a great blessing, that so many Manuscripts of the New Testament 
are still amongst us, some procured from JEgypt, others from Asia, others found in the Western 
Churches. For the very distances of places as well as numbers of the books demonstrate, that there 
could be no collusion, no altering nor interpolating one Copy by another, nor all by any of them. 

"In profane authors (as they are call'd) whereof one Manuscript only had the luck to be 
preserv'd, as Velleius Paterculus among the Latins and Hesychius among the Greeks, the faults of 
the scribes are found so numerous, and the defects so beyond all redress, that notwithstanding the 
pains of the learned'st and acutest critics for two whole centuries, those books still are and are like 
to continue a mere heap of errors. 

" On the contrary, where the Copies of any author are numerous, tho' the Various Beading* 
always increase in proportion, there the text, by an accurate collation of them made by skilful and 
judicious hands, is ever the more correct, and comes nearer to the true words of the author. In the 
Manuscripts of the New Testament the variations have been noted with a religious, not to say super- 
stitious exactness. Every difference, in spelling, in the smallest particle or article of speech, in the 
very order or collocation of words without real change, has been studiously registered. 

" Nor has the text only been ransacked, but all the Antient Versions, the Latin Vulgate, Italic, 
Syriac, JEthiopic, Arabic, Coptic, Armenian, Gothic, and Saxon ; nor these only, but all the dispersed 
citations of the Greek and Latin Fathers in a course of 500 years. What wonder then, if, with all 
this scrupulous search in every hole and corner, the varieties rise to 30,000 P when in all antient 
books of the same bulk, whereof the MSS. are numerous, the variations are as many or more; and yet 
no Versions to swell the reckoning ? 

" And yet in these and all other books, the text is not made more precarious on that account, but 
more certain and authentic. 

" The present text was first settled almost 200 years ago, out of several MSS. by Bdbert Stephens, 
a printer and bookseller at Paris, whose beautiful and (generally speaking) accurate edition has been 
ever since counted the standard, and followed by all the rest. Now this specific text in your doctor's 
notion seems taken for the sacred original in every word and syllable ; and if the conceit is but spread 
and propagated, within a few years that printer's infallibility will be as zealously maintained as an 
Evangelist's or Apostle's. 

" Dr. Mill, were he alive, would confess that this text fix'd by a printer is sometimes by the 
various readings rendered uncertain, nay is proved certainly wrong. But then he would subjoin, That 
the real text of the sacred writer does not now (since the originals have been so long lost) lie in any 
single MS. or Edition, but is diapers' d in them all. 'Tis competently exact, even in the worst MS. 
now extant; nor is one article of faith, or moral precept either perverted or lost in them; chuse as 
VOL. I. C 

xxvi PREFACE. 

As was observed above, it bas not pleased Almighty God to preserve to 
us tbe Original Autographs of the Apostles and Evangelists. But He has pre- 
served to us many hundreds of ancient Manuscripts of the New Testament written 
in all parts of the world. And may we not say, that He has thus given us a 
stronger assurance of the integrity of the Text of the New Testament, than even 
if we had the Autographs themselves ? 

For it might be alleged, that the Autographs were not genuine, or that they 
had been tampered with; and it would not have been an easy task to refute such 
an allegation. But what are these countless ancient Manuscripts coming to us 
from every quarter of Christendom? Guardians of the Text of Scripture, Wit- 
nesses to us of its purity in all essentials, in which they all agree. And, in the 
comparatively insignificant minutiae in which they differ, they afford the means, 
by their number and variety, of adjusting these differences, and of settling the 
True Text of Scripture. And as it is the province of the Church of Christ to 
protect and declare the true sense of Scripture, so it is the office of a sound 
and sober Criticism to defend and promulge the true letter of Scripture; and 
by its means we may rest assured that in reading Scripture we are receiving 
divinely-inspired doctrine, and are not reading words which man's wisdom teacheth, 
but words which the Holy Ghost teacheth '. 

Thus it appears even from the Various Readings themselves, that the letter 
of Scripture, no less than the substance, has been guarded and authenticated by 
the power and goodness of God. 

One word, in fine, concerning that letter. 

Some appear to disparage the style of Scripture as barbarous. Some apo- 
logize for it as the work of illiterate and unlearned men. Surely these notions are 
false and dangerous. The diction of Scripture, it is true, is not the language 
of any other composition in the world. The Greek of the New Testament is not 
the Greek of Xenophon, Plato, or Demosthenes. It is a language of its own. 
And we need not scruple to affirm that, in precision of expression, in pure and 
native simplicity, in delicacy of handling, in the grouping of words and phrases, 
in dignified and majestic sublimity, it has no rival in the world. 

The more carefully it is studied, the more clearly will this appear. " Nihil 
otiosum in Sacra ScripturaV' Every sentence — we might almost say every 
phrase — is fraught with meaning. As it is in the book of nature, so is it in the 
pages of Holy Writ. Both are from the same Divine Hand. And if we apply 
to the language of Holy Scripture the same microscopic process, which we use 
in scrutinizing the beauties of the natural world, and which reveals to us exquisite 
colours and the most graceful texture, in the petals of a flower, the fibres of a plant, 

awkwardly as you can, chuse the worst by design out of the whole lump of readings. But the lesser 
matters of diction, and among several synonymous expressions the very words of the writer, must be 
found out by the same industry and sagacity that is used in other books ; must not be risk'd upon 
the credit of any particular MS. or Edition, but be sought, acknowledg'd, and challenged wherever 
they are met with." (Bentley, Discourse on Freethinking, pp. 90—97. Cambridge, 1743.) 
1 1 Cor. ii. 13. * Origm. in Bpist. ad Eoman. c. 1. 


the plumage of a bird, or the wings of an insect, we shall discover new sources 
of delight and admiration in the least portions of Holy Writ, and believe that 
it may be one of the employments of Angels and beatified Saints, in another state 
of existence, to gaze on the glorious mysteries of God's Holy Word. 




In the middle of the third century Ammonius divided the Gospels into Sections, for the pur- 
pose of constructing a Harmony, in which the four narratives might be combined. 

The numbers which denote these Ammonian Sections are often found in the margin of 
MSS. of the Greek Testament. 

In the following century the celebrated Historian of the Church, Eusebius, Bishop of 
Csesarea, drew up the Tables which are commonly called his Canon*. In these, the Ammonian 
Sections are so distributed as to show in a tabular form what portions of the other Evangelists 
correspond to that Gospel which stands first in order in each Canon. They exhibit as follows : 

I. Sections found in all the/our Gospels. 
II. Sections common to three ; Matthew, Mark, and Luke. 

III. „ „ „ Matthew, Luke, and John. 

IV. „ „ „ Matthew, Mark, and John. 
V. Sections common to two ; Matthew and Luke. 

VI. „ „ „ Matthew and Mark. 

VII. „ „ „ Matthew and John. 

VIII. „ „ „ Mark and Luke. 

IX. „ „ „ Luke and John. 

X. Sections in which each several Gospel contains matter peculiar to itself. 

The numbers of the Canons were subjoined by Eusebius to the Ammonian Sections ' as 
they stood in the margin of a Greek copy of the Gospels ; hence they became generally known 
and used. 

> In his Epistle to Carpianos j which may be seen in Bp. 'O tmnos, 4y $ ol Sio, Aowat, 'I«aVr»|j. 

LlofcTt edition of the N. T. p. iv. It is as follows :— 'O SAtoroj, iy f wtp\ rlymy Uaaros ain&y ISlus Iriypa+ty. 

„. .. _, .. . ., ... . _ , , Afci) nty oh i) ray irorrray^ray Kcwirav irtiBtoir 1) Si 

EwrrfJJa* I^-v if>n|T* •»•*♦» *- XvfW X*lf». acuph , airS , Sityvris, f„„, «J«. if frior* r»y rtacipvy 

'AMMQNI02 pAr i 'A\t(aySptbs, »oAAV> Its flubs, (piXo- tiiayyikiur bpiBpis tij wpixtirat Kara /lipos, ipxi/ifos ftri 

rorlar Kol inrouSV fl<rcernox&>t, rb Sid rtaaiftty v/iir Kara- rov npirrov, tiro, Stvripov, (col rplrov, Kal Ka9c{q> wpoliiy Si' 

KiXonty tbayy4\u>y, t? itarA KarBiuoy t«j ipuxjxiyovs ray tkov /m'xjm rov r4\ovs rov /SiflAiou. KaB" iKaaroy Si ipiBpiby 

Xoiway tbaryytkiariy wtpiKonis vapaBtU, is <{ &rdym}s ffu/i- fanxrwtcfmrii Sid Ktyyaffdptm wpiKterai, SijAovira 4y irolt) rity 

0t)ru rby rrjs ixokovBlas tlp/iby ruy rptay SuvpBaprirm, taoy S4xa nar&yuy Kttpuyos t ipiBftbt rvyxirti. ohy tl piy A', 

M ry S^f i T>jf iunryyiottts. "Ira Si owfoiyov kal tou tw SqAoy Its 4y rf tpirrtf tl Si B', iy t# ttvrifxf xol oStm 

kowwr 81' tkov ai/ueris rt xol tlpfiov, tlSiyai Ix"* 'robs (to9«{flt pixP' T »»' titm. tl oly ara*ru(a> iy ri ray rtoaipm 

oUtlovs tKiorov tbtryyiXiffrov r&rovt, iy oT« Kara ray abray tbarrytKltiy iwoiorSt)irort, fiovKifBttris twtorrjyai rtyi <p fhikti 

iiyixBriaea <pt\aX4iBat tbrtiy, 4k rov worlifutros rov vpotipi\- Kf<pa\al<f, Kal yy&yai rlyts tA irapaw\4\aux tlp^Kcuri, xol robs 

fiiyov irSpbs tl\i)<p&is iupoppas, naff iripar /ttSoSoy Kcw6yas olmlovs 4y iniirrai riwovs tiptiy, 4y ots Kara riiy abr&y 

Una rby ipiS/ibv SuxipalA aoi robs bwortrceyfi4yovr r)y4x9s}ao», fit Mx'U mpiKOWtis IwaXafiitv rby wpoKtl. 

*- « ( — " -'--■ '"-'- '- - T - - 1 '*- 1 "*-- v -- '-'-* -*-' '* ' -" Kartyi, %y 

•Tirp pXy 

iy i /tiy stptrros wtpiix'i 4j>ifyu>4» 4y off t« wapairKfyrta aucrav iptfpby, 4wt(irr4)aos rt alrrby lySoy iy rf ho 

tlpt)Kao-wolr4o-o-apts,Kar8ajos,KipKos,AovKas,'lo>iyyns. f) Sio rov Ktyyafidptus bwoOTintlmrts inrofiifikriKoy, I r 

'O Stvrtpos, 4y 9 ol rpiis, MotOoToj, KipKos, Aovkus. tv8tis 4k r&y 4*1 iut&wov rot Kayiyos wpoypmbin, bwiaoi xol 

'O rpiros, 4y $ ol rptts, MoTfloiot, Aovkcls, 'Ittdyyqs. rlyts t4 wapair\4)cta tlp/4\Kturur iwto~rf)o-as tt Kal 

tvayytklttp iptSfUHS rots iy raj Kcwiyi $ 4*4xtis 
. . ■Kapcuctifiiyots, 4n(irt)o-os rt abrobt tySoy 4y rots 
4 ol Sio, KartoMS, Wipxos. olxttots iiedWou tharrytXiov rtwois, ri mpawKfom Xiyonas 

•O iffSofus, iy f ol Sio, MarBaios, 'tedVrqs. ttpt)fftu. 

•O KySoot, iy f ol Sio, Aowrat, Ma>c<». Then follow the X Ckmont. 



In some MSS. they appear as placed by Eusebius ; in others, the Ammonian Sections 
alone are found in the margin, while at the foot of the page those numbers are repeated with a 
short Table of the Sections in the other Gospels which correspond. 

This latter plan has its convenience that the Sections are mentioned, not in the order of 
Matthew (or whichever Evangelist happens to be first in each particular Canon), but in con- 
nexion with each Gospel. 

An inconvenience has been found in using the Tables as they generally stand, when the 
student wished to compare a Section in one of the Gospels with the others, unless the Section 
be in St. Matthew, or in that Gospel which stands first in those parts of the Table which do 
not comprise the first Gospel. 

Thus, if we would compare the 74th Section of St. Luke (as there marked on the margin) 
with the other Evangelists, we have to search for that number through the first Table, where 
we find it between 260 and 269, and we then see that it corresponds to 276 in Matthew, 158 in 
Mark, and 98 in John. 

In order to remove this inconvenience, an endeavour has been made ' to arrange the Canons 
in such a manner as will combine the advantages of a Table, and of seeing the Sections 
of each Gospel arranged in its own order. 

For this purpose, the Greek numerals being exchanged for those in common use, the 
Canons are here repeated, as often as is necessary, so as to allow each Gospel to take the lead : 
thus Canon I. is given four times, with the Sections of each Gospel in their own order; 
Canons II., III., and IV. are given three times ; Canons V., VI., VII., VIII., and IX. are 
given twice. 

By means of the Sections and Canons thus arranged, the reader is able at once to com- 
pare parallel statements in the Gospels. They also show to the eye the transpositions, &c, of 
events as narrated by the different Evangelists, and what each Evangelist has in common with 
all the others, or with how many of them, as well as peculiar to himself. 

For greater facility of reference, the Greek numerals (used by Eusebius) have been ex- 
changed for those in modern use, and will be found in the text of the present Edition. 

For examples of the use of these Canons (which are of great value to the student of the 
Gospels), the reader may turn to Luke xi. 1 — 4. He there sees '" in the margin ; he turns 
to Table V. in the order of Luke (see below, p. xxxiii.), and at 123 he finds Matt. 43, and he 
thence learns that the parallel Section will be found marked 43 in order in the text of St. 

Again, in the text of John xviii. 28 he sees ™, and thence knows that this Section 
will be found in all the other Evangelists; and by turning to Canon I. (in the order of 
St. John), No. 1 76, he sees where the parallel Sections are in the other Gospels. 

1 This suggestion was first made in Afettrt. Bagster't handsome Edition of the Greek Testament ; from which some of the 
above paragraphs are derived. In the present Volume, the numerals of the Sections are transferred from the margin to the 
text, where they are enclosed in brackets. 



Canon I, containing the IF. Qospeh. 

Mat. Mar. La. 




La. Jno. 

Mat. Mar. La. 


Mat. Mar. 






19 69 

284 166 266 


320 200 






21 85 

284 165 266 


320 200 






93 49 

289 170 275 


325 204 






94 17 

291 172 279 


326 206 






94 74 

294 176 281 


326 205 





119 234 100 

295 176 282 


328 206 





121 238 21 

295 176 282 


331 209 





122 239 77 

300 181 286 


332 210 





129 242 86 

300 181 286 


334 212 





129 261 88 

302 183 287 


335 214 





189 260 141 

304 184 289 


336 215 





139 260 146 

306 187 290 


336 216 





166 260 20 

306 187 290 


343 223 





166 260 48 

310 191 297 


348 227 





166 260 96 

313 194 294 


349 228 






74 98 

314 195 291 


852 231 





162 269 122 

314 196 291 


352 231 





166 266 65 

315 196 292 




166 266 63 

318 199 800 


Canon II 

, containing III. t 

lospels (Mat., Mark, Luke 






Mar. La. 











69 36 











79 144 











83 95 











83 206 











86 96 











87 98 











91 99 











93 101 







. 114 




96 102 


136 5 









96 217 


187 ' 









99 197 


137 5 








190 1 

06 196 


138 S 








192 1 

06 216 


143 i 








193 3 

07 121 


143 S 








198 1 

07 818 


144 S 








194 1 

08 152 


146 i 








194 ] 

08 219 


148 5 








195 1 

09 220 


150 5 








198 1 

10 221 


161 S 








199 1 

11 173 







201 1 

12 222 


154 5 





203 I 

14 270 


42 i 






205 1 

16 224 


160 5 



Mat. Lu. Jno. 

Canon III., containing III. Gospels (Mat., Luke, John). 


Lu. Jno. 


La. Jno. 


La. Jno. 


63 lid 


119 80 


119 61 


66 87 


119 114 


119 76 


68 118 


119 148 


119 87 


68 189 


119 8 


119 90 


211 106 


119 44 


119 142 

Mat. Mar. Jno. 

Canon IV., containing III. Gospels (Mat., Mark, John). 

Mar. Jno. 


Mar. Jno. 


Mar. Jno. 


Mar. Jno. 

77 63 


125 187 


168 162 


201 192 

116 91 


126 160 


174 107 


203 183 

116 186 


169 98 


178 70 


207 186 

126 128 


161 72 


180 103 


207 187 

126 133 


161 121 


188 164 


211 208 

Canon V., containing II. Gospels (Mat., Luke). 

Mat. La. 

Mat. La. 



Mat. La. 

41 66 

60 171 



184 120 

43 123 

61 64 



138 168 

46 163 

65 172 



156 67 

47 134 

66 66 



158 226 

48 191 

68 106 



162 161 

49 160 

78 108 



175 200 

51 69 

84 111 



182 187 

53 126 

86 109 



182 189 

54 64 

93 146 



183 198 

55 170 

95 160 



187 199 

57 61 

96 182 



197 272 

58 60 

96 184 



213 236 

















































Canon VI., containing II. Gospels (Mat., Mark). 

Mat. Mar. 

Mat. Mar. 

Mat. Mar. 

Mat. Mar. 

Mat. Mar. 

160 76 

202 113 

252 147 

288 169 

880 208 

163 78 

214 120 

254 149 

290 171 

887 217 

165 80 

215 124 

260 162 

292 173 

341 221 

169 84 

224 181 

263 163 

298 179 

347 226 

173 89 

246 140 

275 167 

805 186 

350 229 

180 100 

247 142 

282 164 

309 190 

189 103 

250 146 

286 167 

311 192 

Canon VII, containing II. Gospels (Mat., John). 

Mat. Jno. I Mat. Jno. I Mat. Jno. I Mat. Jno. 
5 83 19 82 120 82 207 101 

19 19 I 19 84 185 216 

Canon X., Matthew m 

















37 138 77 109 
50 141 19 69 

166 94 74 
98 116 40 

n I, containing the IV. Gospels. 

116 129 

116 131 

116 144 

234 100 

121 211 238 21 


122 220 289 

129 220 261 88 

139 87 260 141 

189 87 260 146 

139 244 260 141 

139 244 260 146 

156 274 260 20 

156 274 260 48 

156 274 260 96 

158 276 74 98 

162 280 269 122 

165 284 266 66 

165 284 266 63 



J DO. 
































































































































































35 130 82 

36 131 76 
38 136 78 

'., containing III. Gospel* (Mark, Mat., Luke). 
Mar. Mat. Li 

42 271 230 
44 137 167 

79 164 144 
83 168 96 
83 168 206 



. 99 

































































































































































160 278 263 

Mas. Mat Jno. 
8 18 26 
26 117 93 

67 160 61 
77 161 88 

Canon IV., containing III. Gospels (Mark, Mat., John). 

Mat. Jno. 


Mat. Jno. 


Mat Jno. 


Mat Jno. 

161 63 


216 137 


287 152 


821 192 

204 91 


216 160 


298 107 


823 188 

204 136 


277 98 


297 70 


329 186 

216 128 


279 72 


299 103 


329 167 

216 133 


279 121 


807 164 


883 208 


Canon VI., containing II. Gospels (Mark, Mat.). 

Mar. Mat. 

Mar. Mat. 

Mar. Mat. 

Mar. Mat. 

Mar. Mat. 

Mar. Mat 

65 148 

80 166 

120 214 

147 262 

169 288 

208 330 

68 152 

84 169 

124 215 

149 264 

171 290 

217 837 

71 154 

89 173 

126 44 

152 260 

173 292 

221 841 

72 167 

98 100 

131 224 

153 263 

179 298 

226 347 

73 159 

100 180 

140 246 

157 276 

185 306 

229 360 

76 160 

103 189 

142 247 

164 282 

190 809 

78 163 

113 202 

145 250 

167 286 

192 311 

Canon Till, containing II. Gospels (Mark, Luke). 
Mar. Lu. i Mar. La. i Mar. La. I Mas. La. i Mi 

Canon X, Mark only. 


Lu. Mat. Mar. Jno. 

Canon I, containing the IV. Gospels. 

116 98 96 111 














































































































































































































318 199 176 


35 149 66 

36 163 69 

41 114 24 

42 116 25 



8*2 130 86 

Canon II., containing HI. Gospels (Luke, Mat., Mark). 


Mat Mar. 


Mat. Mar. 





Mat Mar. 


69 47 


94 86 





286 166 


74 49 


123 84 





281 163 


79 29 


88 141 





203 114 


82 63 


194 108 





296 177 


83 64 


264 166 





296 177 


86 66 


116 26 





301 182 


143 67 


137 44 





816 197 


168 83 


76 • 62 





817 198 


170 86 


199 111 





312 193 


94 86 


116 26 





308 189 


172 87 


81 102 





823 202 


174 91 


72 22 





338 218 


176 93 


190 106 





842 222 


178 96 


179 99 





839 219 


82 63 


263 148 





840 220 


83 64 


168 88 





344 224 


86 66 


248 143 





346 225 


198 107 


192 106 





858 232 


121 82 


178 96 





864 233 


122 88 


193 107 





32 39 


194 108 





229 136 


196 109 





164 79 


198 110 




Lu. Mat Jno. 

Canon HI., containing III. Gospels (Luke, Mat., John). 

Lu. Mat Jno. 

119 112 61 

119 112 76 

119 112 87 

119 112 90 































Mat Jno. 
lip 164 
97 106 

Canon V., containing H. Gospels (Luke, Mat.). 

Lu. Mat 







Lu. Mat 

Lu. Mat 

57 166 







181 231 

205 266 

59 61 







182 96 

207 261 

60 68 







184 96 

212 262 

61 67 







187 182 

213 267 

62 126 







189 182 

215 231 

64 61 







191 48 

226 168 

66 66 







193 105 

229 270 

69 102 







194 34 

231 272 

71 104 







198 183 

335 213 

73 107 







199 187 

272 197 

81 132 







200 175 

105 68 







202 256 

Canon VIII. containing II. Gospel* (Luke, Mark). 

Lu. Mar. 

Lu. Mar. 

Lu. Mar. 

Lu. Mar. 

Lu. Mar. 

23 12 

27 28 

89 66 

103 97 

335 230 

25 14 

28 17 

91 61 

247 136 . 

27 16 

84 48 

100 76 

277 216 

Canon IX., containing II. Gospels (Luke, John). 

Lu. Jno. 

Lu. Jno. 

Lu. Jno. 

Lu. Jno. 

Lu. Jno. 

Lu. Jno. 

30 219 

274 227 

803 186 

807 100 

340 213 

341 226 

30 222 

274 229 

803 190 

312 182 

840 217 

262 118 

274 231 

307 182 

312 186 

341 221 

262 124 

303 182 

307 186 

312 190 

341 223 


Canon X., Luke only. 


















Canon I., containing the IV. Gospels. 




Mat. Mar. 




Mar. Ln. 



Mar. Lu. 




296 176 




96 116 



200 802 




141 60 




96 116 



200 802 




284 166 




189 260 



204 810 




284 166 




189 260 



206 811 




284 166 




96 116 



205 313 




310 191 




139 260 



206 814 




166 82 




139 260 



209 816 




220 122 




172 279 



210 818 




800 181 




181 286 



216 817 




220 129 




183 287 



216 819 




220 129 




176 281 



214 824 




274 166 




187 290 



212 821 




278 168 




196 291 



223 829 




209 119 




196 291 



227 832 




133 87 




184 289 



228 833 




98 96 




194 294 



231 336 




98 96 




187 290 



831 836 




280 162 




196 292 




289 170 




199 300 

Canon HI., containing III. Gospels (John, Mat., Luke). 

Mat. Lu. 


Mat. Lu. 


Mat Ln. 


Mat Ln. 


Mat Ln. 

1 14 


7 6 


112 119 


Ill 119 


Ill 119 

7 6 


111 119 


112 119 


69 63 


112 119 

1 14 


64 66 


112 119 


90 68 

1 14 


112 119 


112 119 


90 68 

112 119 


146 92 


97 211 


112 119 

Jno. Mat. Mar. 

Canon IV., containing III. Gospels (John, Mat., Mark). 











Mat Mar. 











823 208 











329 207 











829 207 











321 201 











833 211 


Canon VII., containing II. Gospels (John, Mat). 
Jno. Mat. , I Jno. Mat. I Jno. Mat. I Jmo. II 

Canon IX., containing II. Gospels {John, Luke). 

Jno. Lu. 

Jno. Lu. 

Jno. Lu. 

Jno. Lu. 

Jno. Lu. 

Jno. Lu. 

113 268 

182 818 

190 808 

217 840 

223 841 

231 874 

124 869 

186 803 

190 807 

219 80 

225 841 

182 808 

186 807 

190 813 

221 841 

227 874 

182 807 

186 818 

218 840 

222 80 

229 874 

Canon X, John only. 

















































































On this subject see Wetetein, Prolegomena, p. 8, #c. Home's Introduction, ii. p. 94, $c. 
Scholz, N. T., vol. i. p. xxxviii. ; vol. ii. p. xxi. Tischendorf, Prolegom., ed. 1849, p. Ivii. ed. 
1856, pt. ii. Alford, Proleg., p. 83, and the valuable work of Tregelles on the Greek Text of 
N. T. pp. 129— 174. 

A Alexandrine, of I Vth or Vth century, in British Museum, London ; a facsimile pub- 
lished by C. G. Woide, Lond. 1786. Folio. 

B 1. Vatican, of IVth or Vth century; in the Vatican at Borne, No. 1209. No accurate 
collation yet published. An Edition, grounded upon it, has been printed, but not 
published, by Cardinal Mai 1 . Gp. Tregelles, pp. 156. 172. 
2. Codex Basilianus ; see on the Apocalypse. A transcript published by Constantine Tischen- 
dorf 'in his " Monumenta Sacra." Lips. 1846, pp. 409 — 431. 

C Codex Ephraem Syri rescriptus (Palimpsest), in Imperial Library at Paris. Num. 9. 
Vth century. Published by Constantine Tischendorf. Lips. 1843. 

D 1. Codex Bezce, Greek and Latin, of Vlth or Vllth century!, contains the greater part of 
the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles ; in the University Library at Cambridge. A 
facsimile published by Kipling, Cantabr. 1793. Fol. 
2. Claromontanus, Greek and Latin, of Vlth or Vllth century; at Paris, in Imperial 
Library ; contains St. Paul's Epistles, except Rom. i. 1 — 7. Published by Tischen- 
dorf in 1852. 

E 1. Basiliensis, VUIth or IXth century ; contains the Gospels, with the exception of some 
portions of St. Luke. 

2. Laudianus, Greek and Latin, of Vlth or Vllth century ; in the Bodleian Library at 

Oxford ; originally from Sardinia ; contains the Acts of the Apostles. Published by 
Heame, Oxon. 1715. 

3. Sangermannensis, nunc Petropolitanus, of Xlth century ; a transcript of Codex D 2 ; 

contains St. Paul's Epistles, except 1 Tim. i. 1—6. 15. Heb. xii. 8—13. 25. 
F 1. Codex Boreeli, now in the Public Library at Utrecht ; contains the Gospels, except 

some portions of St. Matthew and St. Mark. Cp. Tregelles, p. 1 66. 
2. Augiensis, IXth century?; purchased by Dr. Bentley in 1718, and now in Trin. Coll. 

Library, Cambridge ; contains the greater part of St. Paul's Epistles ; resembles 

" Codex Boernerianus," G 3. Cp. Bentlefs Correspondence, p. 805. 
F a. CoisUnianus, at Paris; contains fragments of N. T. ; Vllth century; published by 

Tischendorf, Mon. Sacr., pp. 403—405. 
G 1. Seidelii Harleianus, Xlth century ; in British Museum ; contains the greater part of 

the Gospels. Cp. Tregelles, p. 159. 

2. Angelica Bibliothecm, at Rome, IXth century; contains Acts and Catholic Epistles. 

3. Boernerianus, IXth century, at Dresden; contains the greater part of St. Paul's 

Epistles. A transcript published by Matthcei. Misense, 1791. 4to. See above, 
F 2, and below, A. Cp. Tregelles, p. 165. 

< " Monstravit mihi," says Tischendorf, N. T., p. lviii., Quse editio, brevi opinor proditnra, quamquam non erit ejus. 
"Angelas Mai anno 1843, volumina impressa quinque, quo- modi ut ipsum Codicem eccnratissime exprimat, magnopere 
mm quatuor Vetua quinto Novum oontinetur Testamentum. tamen varias Codici* lectiones snpplebit" 


H 1. Seidelii, postea La Crozii et Wolfii; Xlth century; now at Hamburgh ; contains the 
greater part of the Gospels. Gp. Tregelles, p. 163. 

2. Mutinensis, IXth century ; contains the greater part of the Acts of the Apostles. 

3. Coislinianus, from Mount Athos; Vlth or Vllth century; contains portions of St. 

Paul's Epistles ; now in Imperial Library at Paris. A transcript published by Mont- 
faucon in Bibl. Coisliniana, pp. 253—261. Paris, 1715. 
I 1. Cottonianus, Vlth or Vllth century; in British Museum ; contains portions of St. Mat- 
thew and St. John. Published by Tischendorfm Mon. Sacr., pp. 12—20. 

2. Angelicas Bibliothecas Romance ; in the same volume as Codex G ; contains St. Paul's 


3. Mosquensis, IXth century ; from Mount Athos ; contains Catholic Epistles. 

K 1. Cyprius (brought from Cyprus in 1673) ; written in IXth century; now in Imperial 
Library at Paris ; contains the Gospels. 
2. Mosquensis, IXth century ; contains St. Paul's Epistles. 

L Paris. N. 62, VHIth century; agrees generally with Codex Vaticanus; contains por- 
tions of the Gospels. Published by Tischendorf in Mon. Sacr., pp. 57 — 399. 

M Paris. Codex Campensis N. 48, Xth century ; four Gospels. 

N Vindobonensis, Vllth century; in Imperial Library at Vienna; contains Luke xxiv. 
Published by Tischendorf, Mon. Sacr., pp. 21—24. 

(Scholzio) Montefalconii ; contains Luke, cap. xviii. 

(Tischendorfio), Codex Mosquensis; contains fragments of St. John. Published by Mat- 

thsei as Cod. 15. Rigse, 1785. 

P Guelferbytanm 1, Palimpsest, Vlth century; contains fragments of the Gospels. Pub- 

lished by Knittel. Brunov. 1762. 4to. 

Q Guelferbytanus 2, Palimpsest, Vlth century; contains fragments of St. Luke and St. 

John. Published by Knittel. Brunov. 1762. 4to. 

R (Scholzio) Tubingencensis, Vllth century ; contains part of St. John, cap. i. Published 

by Beuss. 

R (Tischendorfio) Neapolitanus, Palimpsest, VHIth century. 

S Vaticanus, No. 354, Xth century ; four Gospels. 

T Borgianus, Vth century ; contains John vi. — viii. ; now in the . College of the Pro- 

paganda at Rome. Published by A. A. Georgius. Rom. 1789. 4to. 

U Nanianus, Biblioth. Venet. St. Marci. IXth or Xth century : Gospels. 

V Mosquensis Biblioth. S. Synodi, VHIth or IXth century : parts of the four Gospels, 

collated by MatthcBi. 
W Parisiensis; in Imperial Library ; Vlllth century : ixth and xth chapters of St. Luke. 

Published by Tischendorfm Mon. Sacr., pp. 51 — 56. 
X Olim Lanshutensis, nunc Monacensis; IXth or Xth century: parts of the four 


Y Biblioth. Barberin. Bom., VIHth or IXth century: fragments of St. John xvi. — xix. 

Published by Tischendorf in Mon. Sacr., pp. 37—50. 
Z Dullinensis, Palimpsest of Vlth century ; contains the greater part of St. Matthew. 

Published by Barrett, Dublin, 1801. 4to. Cp. Tregelles, p. 166. 
r Tischendorfii, nunc Bodleianus, IXth century ; contains St. Mark, the greater part, and 

St. Luke, and fragments of St. Matthew and St. John, 
r Vaticanus, contains fragments of St. Matthew, published by Tischendorf, Mon. Sacr., 

pp. 25—36. 
A Sangallensis, Greek and Latin, IXth century ; of the same age and family as Cod. 

Boernerianus ; contains the greater part of the four Gospels. Published in facsimile 

by Bettig, Zurich, 1836. 4to. 
8 Tischendorfianus ; in Public Library at Leipsick ; Vllth century ; contains fragments 

of St. Matthew. Published by Tischendorf, Mon. Sacr., pp. 1—10. 
A Tischendorfii, nunc Bodleianus, VHIth century; contains St. Luke and St. John. 


The Cursive Manuscripts of the Gospels alone that have been already collated amount 
to more than Five Hundred. 

For an account of them see Seholz, Proleg. N. T., vol. i. pp. xliv. — xcvii. On those of the 
rest of the N. T., see ii. pp. iv. — xliv. Tischendorf, p. Ixxv. Scrivener, collation of MSS. of 
N. T., pp. x. Ixxiv. Home's Introduction, vol. ii. p. 133, &c. 

In addition to these are to be mentioned the numerous Evangelistaria, more than 200, 
containing portions of the Gospels, see Seholz, i. p. xcviii., and the Lectionaria, about 20, 
containing Lessons from the Acts and the Catholic Epistles, and 300 from the Epistles of 
St. Paul. Seholz, ii. p. xl. 


I. JEgyptiacos. 

1. Coptic, or Memphitic, of Illrd century. Published by Wilkint. Oxon, 

1716. 4to. 

2. Sahidie, or Thebaic, of Illrd century. Published by Ford. Oxon, 1799. fol. 

3. Basmuric, Illrd century; fragments. Published by Engelbreth. Havnise, 

1811. 4to. 

II. ^Ethiopica. 

1. IVth century. Published by Bode. Brunsv. 1792. 

2. "Published by T. P. Piatt. 

III. Arabicw.— IVth and Vth centuries. Published by Erpenius. Lug. Bat. 1616. 4to. 

See further, Tischendorf, p. lxxviii. 

IV. Armenica. — Vth century, from Syriac ; and accommodated to Latin Vulgate in Xllth 

century. Published at Venet. 1805. fol. Mosquie, 1834. 

V. Georgiana.— Vth and Vlth centuries. Published at Moscow, 1743. fol. ; also, 1816. 

VI. Gothica. — IVth century, made by Ulphilas, Bishop of the Goths, from Greek Byzantine 

MSS. Portions published by Zahn. Lips. 1805. Mai, Milan, 1819; 
at Leipsick, 1836, and in AIM ' Mignis Patrologia. Tom. xviii. 

VII. Latvm. 

Itala sive Vetus. Published by Sabatier. Bemis, 1 739. 3 vols. fol. Bianchini, 
Bom. 1 749. 2 vols. fol. : for the Gospels ; cp. Tischendorf, p. lxxxiii. 

The nomenclature which combines all the ante-Hieronymian texts under the 
name of Italic is not correct. 

The Latin Versions consist of (1) the old Latin, as in the Codices Vercellenis, 
Veronensis, and Colbertinus ; (2) the revised text of Upper Italy, as in tho 
Codex Brixianus ; (3) another revised text, as in Codex Bobbiensis ; and 
(4) the Vulgate of St. Jerome. Cp. TregeUes, p. 170. 

Vulgata sive Hieronymiana, IVth century. Published at Borne, 1590 and 

The Codex Fuldensis, of Vlth century, was collated by Lachmann. The 
Codex Amiatinus (of the Vulgate), of the Vlth century, in the Laurentian 
Library at Florence, has been published by Tischendorf. Lips. 1851. 

On these Versions, see Tregelles, pp. 100—103. 114. 170. 

VIII. Persicee. Published by Wheloc and Pierson. Lond. 1657. 

IX. Slavonica, IXth century. 

X. Syriacw. 

I. Peschito (or literal), Ilnd century. Published by Schaaf. Lug. Bat. 1709, 

1717. 4to. 


2. Cureton, of the greater part of the Gospels except St. Mark. Illrd century, 

from the Nitrian Monastery in Egypt, now in British Museum. Cp. Tre- 
gelles, p. 160. This Version will shortly be published, with an English 
translation and notes, by the Rev. William Cureton, M.A., Canon of 

3. PMloxmiana (so called from Philoxenus, the Monophysite Bishop), Vlth 

century. Published by White. Oxon, 1778— 1803. 

4. Heracleensis, revised by Thomas of Heraclea, in VHth century. See 

Tischendorf, p. Ixxx. 
Hierosolymitana, Vlth century. 


Erasm. Basil, 1516, 1519, 1522, 1527, 1535. 

Comphtensis, in the fifth Volume of the Complutensian Polyglot; printed in a.d. 1514, 
and published at Complutum or Alcala, in 1520. 

Stephen*. Paris, 1546, 1549, 1550, 1551. 

Beza. Genev. 1565, 1576, 1589, 1598. 

Elzevir, commonly called the " textus receptus." Lug. Bat. 1624. 

Fell. Oxon. 1675. 

Mitt. Lond. 1707. Roterod. 1710, by Kuster. 

Bentley. On his proposed edition, see Bentley"s Correspondence, pp. 503 — 530 and passim, 
and Tregelles, 57—78. 

Bengel. Tubing. 1734. 

Wetstein. Amstelodami, 1751, 1752. 2 vols. fol. 

Griesbaeh. 1st ed. 1774 ; 2nd ed. 1796—1806. 

Matthwi. Riga, 1782—1788. 12 vols. 

Alter. Vienna?, 1786, 1787. 

Birch. 1788—1801. 

Seholz. Lips. 1830—1836. 2 vols. 4to. 

Lachmann. 1st ed. 1831 ; 2nd ed. Berolin, 1842—1850. See TregeUes, pp. 97—115, and 
Titehendorf, pp. xli. — xlvii. 

Tischendorf. Lips. 1841. Two at Paris, 1842. 

His first critical edition appeared at Leipsick, 1849 ; with copious Prolegomena. See 
there, p. xli., for his own account of his editions. 

His seventh Edition, now in course of publication (1856), is intended to present a complete 
conspectus of all the critical subsidia, as yet available, for the revision of the Text of the New 
Testament ; 

The following extracts from the prospectus are of importance, as indicating the present 
views of the learned Editor : — 

" Auf Grand dieser dokumentlichen Vorarbeiten, wie sie wohl noch nie fur eine Neutest. 
Ausgabe unternommen worden sind, wird zum ersten Male ein solcher kritischer Apparat 
dargeboten, der fiir alle aufgenommenen Lesarten, ohne Ausnahme die Zeugnisse fur und 
wider enthalt, so wie auch die Angabe aller anderen Lesarten, die in den griechischen 
Unzialhandschriften gefunden werden, oder sonst irgend beachtenswerthe Auctoritat fiir sich 

" Der Textconstituirung ist die grosste Sorgfalt und Gewissenhaftigkeit gewidmet worden. 
Forgesetzte und immer tiefer eingehende Beobachtungen haben den Herausgeber zu mancher 
Aenderung der/ruhern Enischeidungen ge/iihrt ; namentlich hat er die Bevorzung einiger unserrn 
atietten Zeugen aus triftigen Grimden leschrdnken zu miissen geglaubt. 


" In diesem Betrachte gewahrt die neueste Ausgabe eine gewiss willkommene Forderung 
kritischer Studien dadurch, dass sie sehr haufig eine Andeutung der Entacheidungsgriinde 
iiber die einzelnen Lesarten entbalt." 

Alford. Lond. 1855 — 6. Second Edition. 3 vols. 

Bloomfield. Lond. 1855. Ninth Edition. 2 vols. 

To these may be added, — 

Scrivener, F. H., collations of about Twenty MSS. of the Gospels. Camb. 1853. 
Tregelles, S. P., on the Printed Text of the N. T. Lond. 1854. 



A Lapide, Cornelius, In Evangelia. Lugd. 1732. Folio. 

Alford, Henry, B.D., Greek Testament. 3 vols. 1855—6. 

Ambrose, St., Ambrosii Opera. 4 vols. Paris. 1836. 

Amphilochii, St., Opera. Paris. 1644. 

Andreas, St., Cretensis, in St. Amphilochii Opera. 

Andrems, Bp., Works. Oxford. 11 vols. 1841—1854. 

Arnoldi, M., Commentar zum Evangel, h. Matthaus. Trier. 1856. 

Athanasius, St., Opera. Ed. Bened. 2 vols, folio. Patavii. 1777. 

Aug., St., Augustini Opera. Ed. Benedict. 12 vols. 8vo. Paris. 1836. 

Barrow, Isaac, D.D., Works. 6 vols. 8vo. Oxford. 1841. 

Basil, St., Basilii Cresar. Opera. Ed. Paris. 1721. 3 vols, folio. 

Bede, Venerabilis, in N. T. Ed. Giles. Lond. 1844. 

Bengel, J. A., Gnomon N. T. 2 vols. Tubingae. 1835. 

Beveridge, Bp., on the Thirty-nine Articles. Oxford. 1840. 2 vols. 

Bingham, Joseph, Origines Ecclesiastics. London. 1834. 8 vols. 8vo. 

Birks, T. R., Howe Evangelicse. Lond. 1852. 

Bloomfield, S. T., D.D., Greek Testament. 2 vols. 8vo. Ninth ed. 1855. 

Browne, Professor, on the Thirty-nine Articles. London. 1850. 2 vols. 

Bruder, C. H., Concordantia Novi Testamenti. Lips. 1842. 4to. 

Bull, Bp., Works. Ed. Burton. 7 vols. Oxford. 1827. 

Burgon, J. W., Plain Commentary on the Gospels for Devotional Beading. 4 vols. Oxford. 

Buxtorf Johannes, Synagoga Judaica. Basil. 1680. 
Casaubon, Isaac, Exercitationes Baronianse. Genev. 1654. 
Catena Aurea in Evangelia. In Aquinatis Opera. Tom. iv. and v. Ed. Venet. 1775. 

, English Translation. Oxford. 1843. 

in St. Matthsei et St. Marci Evangelia. Ed. Cramer. Oxon. 1840. 

in St. Lucse et St. Joannis Evangelia. Ed. Cramer. Oxon. 1841. 

Chemnitu, M., Harmonia. Lyseri et Gcrlmrdi. 3 vols, folio. Hamburgh. 1704. 
Chrys., St., Chrysostomi Opera. Ed. Savil. Eton. 1613. 8 vols, folio. 
Clemens Alexandrinus, St., Opera. Ed. Potter. 2 vols, folio. Oxon. 1715. 
Clemens Bomanus in " Patres Apostolici." 
Cosin, Bp., on the Canon of Holy Scripture. Lond. 1672. 


Cyril, St., Alexandria, Opera. Lut. Paris. 1638. 

Alexandrin., in S. Lucam. See Mai. 

, Hierosolym., Opera. Ed. Venet. 1763. 

Davidson, Samuel, LL.D., Introduction to New Test. Lond. 1848. 

J)e Wette, W. M. L., Handbuch zum N. T. Leipzig. 1845. 3te Auflage. 2 vols. 8vo. 

Elz., Elzevir Edition of Nov. Test. Grsec. Lug. Bat. 1624. 

Epiphanii, S., Opera. Ed. Petavii. 2 vols, folio. Colon. 

Eusebii Historia Ecclesiastica. Ed. Burton. Oxon. 1838. 

Eusebius in St. Lucam. See Mai. 

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Ford, James, Commentaries on the Four Gospels. 4 vols. Lond. This work, although not 

used by the Editor, is specified here on account of its importance. 
Glassii, Salom., Philologia Sacra. Amst. 1711. 4to. 
Gregory, St., Gregorii Magni in Evangelia, in Opera, Vol. i. pp. 1436—1663. Ed. Paris. 

1705. 4 vols, folio. 
Grey. Nazian., St., Gregorii Nazianzeni Opera. Ed. Bened. Paris. 1778—1840. 2 vols. 


Thaumaturg., Opera. Paris. Ed. 1721. 

Greswell, E., Harmonia Evangelica. Oxon. 1 834. 

Grinfield, E. W., Editio Hellenistica N. T. et Scholia Hellenistica N. T. Lond. 1843—8. 

4 vols. 8vo. 
Grotiut in " Poli Synopsis Criticorum.'" 
Guerike Einleitung in das N. T. Leipzig. 1843. 

Hengetenberg, Christologie. Translated by Keith and Arnold. Lond. 1847. 
Hilary, St., Hilarii Opera. Oberthur. 4 vols. Wiceberg. 1785. 
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Hooker, Ed., Works. 3 vols. 8vo. Oxford. 1841. 
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Irenceus, St. Ed. Stieren. Lips. 1853. 2 vols. 8vo. 
Jackson, Thomas, D.D., Works. 12 vols. Oxford. 1844. 
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Kuvnod, C. T~, Novum Testamentum Grsecum. Ed. Lond. 1834. 3 vols. 
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Lardner, Nathanael, Works. 5 vols. 4to. Lond. 1815. 
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Lond. 1854. 
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Light/oot, John, D.D., Works. 2 vols, folio. Lond. 1684. 
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Lucke, F., Commentar iiber d. Evang. d. Joannes. 3te Auflage. Bonn. 1 840. 
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Mai, Angelo, Cardinal, Patrum Collectio Nova Vaticana. Romae. 1844. Vols. ii. and iv. 
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Mede, Joseph, Works. Lond. 1677. Folio. 
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VOL. I. e 


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1847. 2 vols. 3rd edition. 
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Waterland, Daniel, D.D., Works. Ed. Van Mildert. Oxford. 1823. 11 vols. 8vo. 

Webster, W., and Wilkinson, W. F., Greek Testament. Vol. i. Lond. 1855. 

Westeott, B. F, on the Canon of N. T. 1855. 

Wieseler, Karl., Chronol. Synops der Evangelien. Hamburgh. 1843. 

Williams, Isaac, B.D., on the Gospels. London. 1843; and the Author's other works "on 

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Grammatik des N. T. Sprachidioms. 6te Auflage. Leipzig. 1855. 


I. On the Composition and Order of the Four Gospels. 

In recent times, endeavours have been made to trace the origin of the Gospels, either (with 
Sender, Lessing, Eichhorn, and others) — 

1. To some primitive Aramaic document ; or (with Sehleiermaeher) 

2. To fragmentary narratives, anterior to their composition. 

But these theories have no historic foundation; and have not led to any satisfactory 

It is well said by Rosenmuller ', " Equidem ingenue fateor, hanc de origine Trium Evan- 
geliorum, ac de archetypo quodam Syro-Chaldaico eorum fonte (urevangelio) hypothesim mihi 
semper fuisse suspectam. Etenim ut taceam, earn omni historico testimonio esse destitutam, 
non video cur Matthseus, testis oculatus et pars rerum gestarum, alieno subsidio ad Commenta- 
rium suum componendum indiguerit." 

Besides,— St. Matthew was one of those who had the promise of Christ, " The Comforter 
shall teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance whatsoever I have said unto you V 

The testimony of Christian Antiquity is clear and consistent, that 

(1) The four Gospels were delivered by the Holy Spirit to the Church of Christ through 

the instrumentality of those persons whose names they bear. 

(2) They were written in the order of time in which they are now placed. 

(3) These four Gospels, and they alone, were received from the beginning as divinely 

inspired histories of our Blessed Lord. 

On these points see Origen* : iv tw irpuntp t&v ei? to Kara MarOalov, tov SkkXt}- 
ataarttcbv <f>v\drT<op icavova, fiova reaaapa elvai evayyeXia paprvperai ( ' ilpvyevrfi) 
&S4 7ro)9 ypdtfxov "'/2s iv irapaioaet futdwv vepl t&v reaadpwv eiayyeXuov, a ical fiova 
dvavTippTfTa ieTiv iv tj} xnrb tov ovpavbv itacKiftriq. tov Oeov' ori irp&rov fiev yeypairrai. to 
Kara rbv irork TeXtbvrjv, Sarepov oe dtroaroXov 'Itjaov Xpurrov, MarOalov, iKBeStoKora ainb 
tow dnrb 'IovSaur/iov trtaTtvaaai,, ypdftfiacriv 'EBpalicois <r wt€t ay fievov Sevrepov 8k to 
KaTaMdpKov,ax;neTpo<! v<pt]yrjaaTO airrw, iroujaavra- bv ical vibv iv rj} Ka0o\ucr} iirtaToXy 
hut. tovtcov d>fioXoyr)ae <pdtrKtov, ' ' Aaird^erai vpJa.% r) iv BaBvX&vt o-uvetcXeKrri, ical Map/cos 6 
vjo? ymi \ Kai TpWov to KaTt\ Aovkclv, to vtrb IlavXov eircuvoiifievov evayyeKwv, Tol<t dirb t&v 
idv&v ireirotitKOTa- eiri iraai to Kara 'Iwavvriv" Cp. Aug. de Consens. Evang. i. 4. 

And St. Jerome says * : " Ecclesia, quae supra petram, Domini voce, fundata est, quatuor 
flumina paradisi instar eructans, quatuor angulos et annulos habet, per quos quasi Area testa- 
menti et custos legis Domini lignis immobilibus vehitur. 

" Primus omnium est Matthosus publicanus, cognomento Levi ; qui evangelium in Judaea 
Hebron sermone edidit, ob eorum vel maxirae causam, qui in Jesum crediderant ex Judceis, et 
nequaquam Legis umbram, succedente Evangelii veritate, servabant. 

*' Secundus Marcus, interpres apostoli Petri, et Alexandrinae ecclesiae primus Episcopus : 
qui Dominum quidem Salvatorem ipse non vidit, sed ea, quse magistrum audierat prsedicantem, 
juxta fidem magis gestorum narravit quam ordinem. 

" Tertius Lucas medicus, natione Syrus Antiochensis, cujus laus in evangelio* ; qui et ipse 

> i. p. 48. » John xiv. 26. ' »p. Euseb. ri. 26. 

♦ 1 Pet. v. 13. » Prooem in Matt., vol. It. p. 3. • 2 Cor. riii. 18. 



discipulus apostoli Pauli in Achate Boeotiaeque partibus volumen condidit, qusedam altius 
repetens : et ut ipse in prooemio confitetur, audita magis quam visa describens. 

" Ultimus 'Joannes Apostolus et Evangelista, quern Jesus amavit plurimum, qui supra 
pectus Domini recumbens purissima doctrinarum fluenta potavit, et qui solus de cruce meruit 
audire, ' Ecce mater tua? Is cum esset in Asia, et jam tunc haereticorum semina pullularent 
Gerinthi, Hebionis, et ceterorum qui negant Christum in came venisse, quos et ipse in Epiatola 
sua Antichristos vocat ', coactus est ab omnibus pene tunc Asise Episcopis et multarum Eccle- 
siaruin legationibus, de divinitate Salvatoris altiils scribere, et ad ipsum (ut ita dicam) Dei 
Verbum non tarn audaci quam felici temeritate prorumpere. Unde et Ecclesiastica narrat 
Historia, cum a fratribus cogeretur ut scriberet, ita facturum se respondisse, si indicto jejunio 
in commune omnes Deum deprecarentur, quo expleto, revelatione saturates, illud prooemium e 
ccelo veniens eructavit, ' In principio erat Verbum, et Verbum erat apud Deum, et Deus erat 
Verbum ; hoe erat in principio apud Deum V " 

(4) Two of the Gospels (the first and last) were written by Apostles ; the other two 

were written under the direction of ApoBtles ;— that of St. Mark in connexion with 
St. Peter ; that of St. Luke, with St. Paul. 

(5) The former three Gospels having been publicly received and read in the Churches of 

Christendom, were solemnly sanctioned by St. John, who added his own Gospel to 
complete the Evangelical Canon. Cp. below, p. 206. 

(6) They were read in the Church as of equal authority with the writings of Moses and the 

Prophets, and as inspired by One and the same Spirit, Who had spoken in the Old 
Testament, and Who was given by the one and same Lord, the Everlasting Logos 
or Word, Jesus Christ. 

"The Logos,'" (the Son of God,) "the Creator of all things, Who sitteth upon the 
Cherubim, and holdeth all things together, after that He was manifested to men, gave us the 
Fourfold Gospel, which is held together by one Spirit "." 

" Qui Prophetas ante descensionem suam pnemisit, Ipse et Apostolos post ascensionem 
suam misit. Quicquid Ille de suis factis et dictis nos legere voluit, hoc scribendum illis tanquam 
suis manibus imperavit V 

" Spikitus Sanctos est qui in Vetere Testamento Legem et Prophetas, Novo verb 
Evangelia et Christi Apostolos inspiravit; et ideo quae sunt Novi ac Veteris Instrumenti 
Volumina quae secundum majorum traditionem per Ipsum Spiritum Sanctum inspirata creduntur 
et Ecclesiis Christi tradita," &c. ' 

See also the very ancient Canon of Scripture ' : " Licet varia singulis Evangeliorum 
Libris Principia doceantur, nihil tamen differt credentium fides, cum Uno ac Principali Spibitd 
declarata sint in omnibus omnia de Nativitate, de Passione, de Resurrectione, de Conversatione 
cum discipulis suis, et de gemino Ejus Adventu." 

For a Catena of ancient Testimonies to their Inspiration, see South, It. S. v. ad fin., and 
Lee on Inspiration, Appendix. G. 

The Editor may be permitted to insert what has been written by him on this subject in 
another place ' ; 

The Christian Church, looking at the origin of the Four Gospels, and at the attributes 
which God has in rich measure been pleased to bestow upon them by His Holy Spirit, found a 
prophetic picture of them in the Four living Cherubim, named from heavenly knowledge, seen 
by Ezekiel at the river of Chebar *. Like them the Gospels are Four in number ; like them 
they are the Chariot of God Who sitteth between the Cherubim ' : like them they bear Him on a 

1 1 Job. ii. 18. 22. (Opp. t. iv. p. 674):— "Tangam et Novum breviter Testa- 

* Joh. i. 1. mentum. Matlhaut, Marcuf, Lueat, et Joanne; quadriga 

* & Ireneeui, iii. 11. Cp. Hi. 1. Domini et vernm Cherubim, quod interpretatur tcienliee mul- 
4 Aug. de Cons. Et. i. 64. iitudo, per totum corpus ocnlati sunt, scintilhe emicant, dis- 
4 Ruffin. in Symb., p. 26, ap. S. Cyprian, ed. Amst. 1691. currant fulgura, pedes habent rectos et in sublime tendentes, 
Ap. South, R. S. i. 3!)4— 6. terga pennata et ubique volitantia. Tenent se mutuo, sibique 

n the Canon of Scripture. Lect. vi. 

ti SpiritQs perduxerit." 
Cp. William on the Study of the Gospels, pp. 6—20. 
• t 1 j hax. 1 5 xvifl. 10. 


winged Throne into all lands : like them they move wherever the Spirit guides them : like them 
they are marvellously joined together, intertwined with coincidences and differences ; wing in- 
terwoven with wing, and wheel inwound with wheel ; like them they are full of eyes, and sparkle 
with heavenly light ; like them they sweep from heaven to earth, and from earth to heaven, and 
fly with the lightning's speed, and with the noise of many waters. Their sound is gone out into 
all lands, and their words unto the end of the world '. 

Further, the Ancient Church recognized the Four Gospels in the Four Living Creatures 
of the Apocalypse, seen by St. John in heaven, and crying Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, 
which was, and is, and is to come '. 

These expressions have a special use, in assuring us of the important fact, that although 
other writings were then extant, pretending to evangelical authority, yet it is clear from her 
language *, as now cited, that the Church of Christ rejected those writings, and recognized 
four Gospels, and four only. 

And these four Gospels were identical in name, in form, and in matter, with those received 
by ourselves at this day. 

In further evidence of their fourfold character, we may observe that one of the earlier 
Christian writers employed himself in making a " Harmony of the Gospels," and from the 
name * (Diatessaron) which he gave to his work, it is certain, that four Gospels, and four only, 
were then received by the Church. 

If we trace the four Evangelical streams back toward their source, we find that they are 
all derived, through Apostolic channels, from Christ Himself. 

The author of the first Gospel, St. Matthew, was an Apostle of Christ*. He wrote* 
for the special use of his own countrymen, and of the Christian Church of Jerusalem, the 
mother of all Christian Churches, which was first governed by St. James, the Lord's brother, 
and continued to flourish during the earlier part of the second century '. The first written 
Gospel, then, be it remembered (that is, the first Evangelical Record of Christ's miracles, 
preaching, death, resurrection, and ascension), was composed for the use of that country in 
which our Lord's life was passed. The Gospel was first offered to the Jews. And the fact 
that St. Matthew's Gospel is designed for Jews, is a strong evidence of its priority. It was 
circulated in that city in which our Lord suffered. This is a striking proof of the confidence 
of the Apostles in the truth of Christianity. They did not shrink from inquiry, but challenged 
and courted it. This Gospel, so written, was received as Scripture by the Christian Church 
at Jerusalem. And this reception and public reading of St. Matthew's Gospel, as not only 
a true history, but as divinely inspired, in the Church of Jerusalem at that period, is one of 
the strongest evidences that could be given of its Veracity and Inspiration. 

St. Mark wrote his Gospel under the dictation of the Apostle St. Peter*, who calls him 
his son ' in the faith : and it is observable, as in full accordance with this account of the 
authorship of these two Gospels respectively, that from St. Matthew's Gospel " alone we learn 

1 F*. rix. 4. Yet it has been said that the Gospels ate i. e. the Syro-Chaldaic, or Aramaic. See above, note, p. xliii. 

" mere fragmentary document*." Each of the four Evan- and Iren. iii. 1, and Aug. de Cons. Ev. i. 4. 8. Cyril, 

gelical Cherubim is perfect in himself; and each is harmoni- Hierol. Cat. 14, p. 212. 

ously fitted to the fourfold group, and lends his aid to the ' Till Hadrian's time. Euteb. Dern. Evang. iii. 5. 
other three, and contributes to the perfection of the whole; • Iren. iii. 10. 6. Euteb iii. 39; vi. 14 (from Clem. Alex.) 

and to the glory and motion of the fourfold car on which the Demon. Evang. iii. 5. Hieron. Script. Eccl. c. i. and c. 8. 

Spirit rides throughout the world in all time. This double Tertullian. adv. Marcion. iv. 6. Euthym. Zygab. i. p. 16. 

perfection,- individual and corporate,— absolute and relative, Epiphan. Uteres, li. 4. St Peter says (2 Pet. i. 15), "I will 

—is one of the divine characteristics of the Gospels. Apart endeavour that after my departure (jut* tV i^v f(otoy) 

of their perfection consists in what is called by some their ye may have these things in remembrance." This may be 

fragmentary character, viz. in their not superseding one an- compared with a passage of Irenaut, iii. 1, pub. tV nirpov 

other. icol IWaou'EHOAON Miptos b iw0rnht «ol ipunnm^t M. 

* Rev. iv. 4—11. See the authorities cited in the Author's rpov, col avrot rb. faro TUrpov rnipwraAfitra yty/mpiit ii/uv 
Lectures on the Apocalypse, Lect. iv. pp. 1 14 — 136. wapaSiSmce. 

1 See also Origen ap. Euseb. vi. 26, u6ra riaaapa. Homil. • 1 Pet. v. 13. 

in Luc. p. 832. Euteb. iii. 26, 47(0 trrpamit. '• Matt. ix. 9, compared with Mark ii. 14. Luke v. 27 ; 

4 ration, scholar of Juttin Martyr. See Euteb. iv. 29, on and Matt. x. 3, compared with Mark iii. 18. Luke vi. 16, 

his lHatettaron. On the Harmony of Theophilut Antiacne- whence Euteb. Dem. Ev. iii. c. 6, says well, MotOoTo* tavrov 

nut, see Hieron. ad Algas. iv. p. 197- trniKirdti fiior. The whole passage of Euteiiiut deserves a 

* Euteb. iii. 24. 5. Hieron. Prooem. in S. Matt careful perusal. 

* In the first instance, in the Hebrew dialect of his country, 


that the Evangelist belonged to the despised class of Publicans, while it is not he, but another 
Evangelist (St. Luke '), who tells us the honourable fact that Levi left all, rote up, and followed 
Christ. And in like manner the infirmities of St. Peter are recorded with the most circum- 
stantial fulness in the Gospel of Marcus his son '; but we are left to gather our knowledge of 
his virtues and of the praises with which he was honoured by his Divine Master, from the 
other Gospels. 

St. Luke's Gospel, as Christian antiquity testifies *, was written under the eye of St. Paul, 
who was made an able minister of the New Testament*, by knowledge given him above measure, in 
visions and revelations of the Lord*; and to St. Luke's fidelity St. Paul bears testimony, when 
he speaks of him as the beloved physician ', who alone is with him ', and probably, as the brother 
whose praise is in the Gospel throughout all the Churches '. 

St. Paul was the Apostle, St. Luke the Evangelist, of the Gentiles '. The same spirit 
was in them both. Hence, in St. Luke's Gospel especially, there is a rich storehouse of 
comfort and hope for all who sit in darkness and the shadow of death. Here the good Samari- 
tan, Christ Himself, pours oil and wine into the wounds of the broken-hearted. Here He 
calls them home in the parable of the Prodigal. Here He accepts them in the Publican. 
Here He visits them in Zacchseus. Here He pardons them in the penitent thief". 

The fourth and last Gospel, which waB written at or soon after the close of the first 
century, is also from an Apostle — St. John. 

Thus all the four Gospels are seen to be due to Christ's Apostles, who received special 
promises from Him that He would send them the Holy Ghost to teach them all things, to bring all 
things to their remembrance, and guide them into all truth ", and of whom it is said, that when He 
had ascended up on high, He gave some Apostles, and some Evangelists, for the edifying of His 
Church ". Thus we behold the four Evangelical streams, when traced upward, issuing from the 
Apostolic wells which spring up from the One Divine Fountain of living waters, Who said, 
Whosoever drinketh of the water that I shall give him, shall never thirst ; but the water that I 
shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up unto everlasting life ". 

The last Gospel, as we have said, was written by St. John. He was the disciple whom 
Jesus loved "; he was the disciple who leaned on His breast at supper, when He instituted the 
Feast of Love, in which the Church will show forth her Lord's death till He come "; he was the 
disciple to whom Jesus said on the Cross, Behold thy Mother, and who thenceforth took lur to 
his own home ". 

The other Apostles were taken away, one after the other, by violent deaths, — by the cross, 
by the sword, by wild beasts, and by the stake. St. John survived them all. He was miracu- 
lously rescued from the furnace ", and at length died a natural death, at the age of above a 
hundred years ". The other Apostles were sent to Christ by force ; St. John tarried till Christ 
came for him, and gently took him to Himself. Theirs was the martyrdom of death, his the 
martyrdom of life. 

The beloved Disciple of the Incarnate Word was providentially preserved to a great old 
age, not only to refute the heretics who denied the Lord that bought them, and to convince us 
of the Divinity of the Uncreated Word Who was in the beginning with God, but also to 
complete the witness of the Written Word, and to vindicate its Inspiration from the forgeries of 
false teachers, and to assure us of its fulness and divine character. 

In confirmation of this assertion, let us now refer to a fact, attested by ancient and 
unexceptionable witnesses ". Towards the close of his long life, copies of the three Gospels of 

1 Luke v. 28. '• John iv. 14. » John xiii. 23. 

' See Dr. Ttwtuon, pp. 154—8. The Editor cannot men- '» 1 Cor. xi. 26. " John xix. 27. 

tion Dr. Totvnton't work, without commending it to the sto- " From the cauldron of boiling oil, under Domitian. 7>r- 

dent of the Gospels. "" tullian. Prescr. Hajr. 36. S. Polycarp. in Victor. Catena, 

' Iren. iii. 1. Tertullian adv. Marcion it. 2; iv. 6. S. ap. Feuard. Irtn. iii. 3. Colel. Patr. Ap. ii. 205. 

Hieron. Script. Eccl. c. 7> " Eutebii Chronicon. Hieron. Vir. Illust. IX. Comment, in 

♦ 2 Cor. iU. 6. ' 2 Cor. xii. 7- Matt. xx. 22 j he died anno etat. 120, according to Auet. 

« Col. iv. 14. '2 Tim. iv. 11. Inc. cited in next note. 

« 2 Cor. viii. 18. Chrytot. HomiL in Act. i. Hieron. Vir. •» Clem. Al. ap. Euseb. vi. 14. Etuet. in. 24. Eviphm. 

Illust. 7. Euseb. vi. 25. Hter. Ii. 5. Hieron. Script. Eccl. c. 9. in Matt. Prooem. 

» Origen ap. Euteb. vi. 26. Victorin. in Apocalyps. Bibl. Patrum Max. iii. 418. Auet. 

»• See 7Wn«on, pp. 181— 196. /new/, apud Chrysost. Montfeucon. via. 132, Appendix. 

11 John xiv. 26; xvi 13. " Epb. iv. 11. Auet. Inc. ap. Augustin in Joann. " Compulsus Joannes ab 


St. Matthew, St. Mask, and St. Luke, which at that time, we are informed, had been 
diffused throughout Christendom, were publicly brought to St. John, in the city of Ephesus, 
of which he was the Metropolitan, by some of the Bishops of the Asiatic Churches ' ; and 
in their presence St. John openly ' acknowledged these three Gospels as inspired, and, at their 
request, composed his own Gospel in order to complete the Evangelical Record of the Life and 
Teaching of Jesus Christ. 

The second Evangelist St. Mark authenticated the first, St. Matthew, by repeating much 
of his gospel ; so, the third St. Luke guaranteed the first and second ; the fourth, St. John 
omitted much that the preceding three had related, and related much that they had omitted ; 
and so canonized them '. 

Let it be remembered, that the three earlier Gospels were at that time received by the 
Church as inspired ; and if St. John had not been fully persuaded of their Inspiration, — he, 
who writes to others, Beloved, believe not every Spirit, but try the Spirits whether they are 
of God*, — would not have approved them as inspired, as he did, but he would have rejected 
them as falsely claiming to be divine. 

Nor, again, acknowledging them as divine, would he have presumed to add his own Gospel 
as the consummation of theirs, unless he had been also sure that what he himself wrote was 
dictated by the same Divine Spirit Who had inspired the other three. 

It is also clear, that, by composing his own Gospel as the complement of the three pre- 
ceding ones, he has given an infallible assurance to us, that we, who have the four Gospels, 
possess a complete, divinely inspired, History of our Lord's Ministry. 

Thus we find that all the Gospels are brought together into One. They come to us 
through the hands of St. John. 

What better witness could we have or desire, of the oneness, the fulness, the integrity, and 
the Inspiration of the Gospels, than the Beloved Disciple, who was specially qualified to under- 
stand divine things, by the unsullied purity of his life, even from his youth, who leaned on our 
Lord's breast at supper, and drank in heavenly truth from His Divine lips ; and to whom Jesus 
Christ gave the most endearing pledge of His confidence and love, by commending to him His 
Mother from the Cross ? 

Who, again, a more faithful and competent Authority in this solemn matter, than that 
Apostle, whose life appears to have been prolonged by Christ beyond that of all his Apostolic 
brethren, for this purpose, that he might comfort Christ's widowed spouse, the Church ; that 
he might take her also, if we may so speak, to his own home ; and vindicate against false 
teachers the Divine honour of her Lord ? 

May we not, therefore, safely say, that by the hands of the beloved disciple, Chhist Him- 
self has set His seal on the Gospels ; and that in receiving them through the hands of him who 
leaned on our Lord's breast at supper, we receive them from the mouth of Chhist \ 

II. On the verbal coincidences in the Gospels. 
1. It appears from ancient testimony, that the Gospels were written by Divine In- 
spiration, in order to be publicly read in the Christian Church in every age and country of the 

Asia: Epiacopis soripsit . . Legerat Evangelia trium Evange- Dei, lib. xi. cap. ii. ed. Paris, 1838. vol. vii. p. 439.—" Ipsa 
listarum et approbaverat fidem eorura et veritatem," and the Veritas, Decs Dei Filius, bomine assumpto, non Deo con- 
next note but one. sumpto, eamdem constituit atque fundavit fidem, nt ad hominis 

1 See the passages collected by Archbp. Uuher, Original of Deom iter esset homini per hominem Deum. Hie est enim 

Bishops and Metropolitans, p. 63. Oxf. 1641. mediator Dei et hominam homo Christns Jesus." — {Ibid. cap. 

1 Theador, Mopmett. (who flourished in the end of the iii.) " Hie prius per prophetas, deinde per Se Ipsum, postea 

* ' entury) says (in Catena in Joann. Corderii, Mill, per Apostolos, quantum satis esse judicarit, locutus, etiam 

N. T. p. 198, ed. 1723), irjntrcy Olwdjo-uj) fiji 4At|9«(ai Scripturam condidit, qua; C 

Toil ytypatpiras, t(pri<rt Si 0pax^ a TapaAeX«i4>0ai (to?i Tpttrlv simse auctoritatis, cui fidem habemus de his rebus quas igrio- 

tiayyt\urraUy M tobtoij xap2icA7)<rii I3i\(p*v (if rjj 'Aertj) rare non expedit, nee per nosmetipsos nosse idonei sumus." 

tyirero ravra & pikurra IwayKcua xplrft xpoj SiScurKaKlcw, And again : — 

iropaAjAt yi/uVa Si op? to«» Aonroij (tvayyt\urrcus) yptyai " Distincta est a posterioribus libris excellentia Canonic* 

purl arovVlfs- b vol vrroiriKtv. auctoritatis Veteris et Non Testamknti, qua: Apostolo- 

* See further below, p. 206, for a reply to objections made rum confirmata temporibus, per successiones Episcopales et 
to the above assertions. propagationes Ecclesiarum tanquam in sede quadam subli- 

* 1 John iv. 1. miter constitnta est, cui serviat omnis fidelis et pins Intel - 
» Hence the admirable words of S. Augutt. in Dt Civitate lectus."— S. Augvitin. c. Faustum, ii. c. 9. 


2. And that they were so read, wherever Christianity was received. 

The commands of St. Paul, that bis own Epistles should be thus read 1 , and the fact 
that the Scriptures of the Old Testament were read in the Synagogues and in the Church, 
confirm the testimony that the Gospels were read in the Church as soon as they were 

3. What had been written by any preceding Evangelist in his Gospel could not be 
unknown to his successors ' ; 

It is well said by St. Augustine \ — " Quamvis singuli (Evangelists) suum quendam nar- 
randi ordinem tenuisse videantur, non tamen unusquisque eorum, velut alterius prsecedentis 
ignorans, voluisse scribere reperitur, vel ignorata prsetermisisse, quae scripsisse alius invenitur ; 
sed sicut unicuique inspiratum est, non superfluam operationem sui laboris adjecit." 

4. The Holy Spirit, in the Old Testament, for the sake of greater assurance, often repeats 
by one prophet what He had said by another ; and so it is in the Historical Books of the Old 
Testament. This is proved by Dr. Tovmson ', who says, — " The Holy Bible abounds in quota- 
tions, but they are introduced in a way which is peculiar to Revelation. When a Prophet 
mentions one of his own holy brethren, as when Ezekiel names Daniel, or Daniel Jeremiah, — 
when they mention them they do not quote them, and when they quote them they do not 
mention them '" 

On the principle of reiteration as characteristic of Divine Revelations, see Gen. xli. 32. 
Acts x. 16 ; and above, p. xxiii. The Prophetical Books of Daniel and the Apocalypse abound 
with examples of it. 

5. It is probable a priori that the Holy Spirit would adopt a similar practice in the New 
Testament to that which He had employed in the Old. And we find it so in fact. 

By means of the second and third Evangelists, St. Mark and St. Luke, He warrants 
the truth and genuineness of the first Gospel. This He does by repeating much of its 
contents. In the mouth of two or three witnesses every word is established. Thus the Evan- 
gelists became joint vouchers for the truth of the genuine Gospels, and, at the same time, joint 
opposers * of the spurious ones, which were obtruded on the world. 

The fourth Evangelist, St. John, pursued a different course for doing the same thing ; he 
declared his approval of the foregoing Gospels, not by repeating, but, for the most part, by 
omitting, what they had related, and by supplying what they had omitted '. 

The same is true of the Apostolic Epistles ; they also are, as it were, entwined one 
with another in a loving embrace of words and sentiments. And the Inspiration of one aids 
in proving the Inspiration of all. 

St. Peter, in his first Epistle, repeats parts of the Epistle of St. James. In his second 
Epistle he recognizes as Scripture all the Epistles of St. Paul*, and incorporates a great 
part of the Epistle of St. Jude. St. John, in his Epistle, responds to the first of St. Peter, 
and interweaves the same thoughts and words in all his three Epistles. 

This mutual intertexture is a remarkable characteristic of the Books of Scripture. 

All the Epistles of the New Testament, as well as all the Gospels, cohere together, 
and confirm each other. 

Further ; as the beloved disciple, the blessed Evangelist and Apostle, St. John, whose 
life was prolonged far beyond that of any other writer of the New Testament, authenticates the 
Gospels, so he canonizes the Epistles likewise, by his silence. 

If what had been taught in them had been erroneous, he would have raised his voice 
against it. But, by abstaining from entering on those great and sublime doctrines handled by 
St. Paul and St. Peter, by St. James and St. Jude, in their Epistles, and by confining himself 
to the Doctrine of Christian Love, St. John showed his approval of what they had taught, and 

■ 1 Then. t. 27. Col. iv. 16. Cp. 2 Cor. i. 13. « Cp. Lee on Inspiration, p. 320. 

> Cp. Juttin Martyr, Apol. 1—63. Epist ad Diognet. ii. « Compare Towmon'i Works, p. 229; and Dr. Owen'* Ob- 

Tertullicm, ApoL 39. Prater. Herat. 36. Ady. Marcioiu servations on the Four Gospels, p. 109. 

iv. 5. ' See below, p. 206, and cp. Totcruon, pp. 15, 16. 

. > De Consens. Ev. L 4. • 2 Pet. iii. 15, 16. See Lectures on the Canon, VII., 

« p. exxxh— cxlvii. VIII., IX. Guerike, Einleitung, p. 460. 


that it is all-sufficient, without any Additions or Developments, provided it be bound together 
and encircled by the zone of Love. 

Thus the Unity of plan, on which the Gospels and Epistles are written, bears witness 
to their derivation from One and the Same Spirit \ 

And this Plan is similar to what the Holy Spirit had adopted, in dictating the Books 
both historical and prophetical of the Old Testament. 

In fine, we thus trace the agency of the same Divine Hand in the Sacred Volume, whose 
component parts were given to the world by the ministry of different persons, living in different 
countries, from time to time, at intervals throughout a period of about fifteen centuries ; and 
whose subject-matter extends over no less a time than forty centuries ; and, indeed, reaches 
from the Creation of the World to the Last Day. 

III. On the Dates of the composition of the Gospels. 

The most ancient testimony on this subject is that of Irenceus c. Hseres. iii. 1, which 
seems, at first sight, to intimate that St Matthew's Gospel was written when St. Paul was 
at Borne, i.e. not before a.d. 61. 

But this is at variance with other statements ; particularly with that of Clemens Alex- 
andrimts (in Eusel. iii. 24), who relates that St. Matthew first preached to the Hebrews in 
their own tongue, and that when he was about to go into foreign parts, be published his Gospel 
in his vernacular tongue, so as to compensate for the lack of his personal presence by writing. 
And there is reason to believe that he left Judsea in or about the twelfth year after the 
Ascension. Cp. Clemens Alexand. Strom, vi. p. 636. Grabe, Spicileg. i. p. 67. Apolloniue ap. 
Booth, Reliq. Sacr. i. p. 484. 

But perhaps the text of Irenceus ought to be so punctuated and interpreted, that he may 
be understood to speak of the Greek text of St. Matthew, as follows ; — 'O ph> Stj Mardalos 
iv tow 'EBpaloK rp l$ta 8ia\iicT<p axrr&v (i. e. he preached and wrote to the Hebrews in 
their own tongue), koX ypa<f>i)p igrjpeyicev EvayyeXiov, row IHrpov ical rod HavKov iv 
'Peofirj evarfye\t£ofieva>v, ical OefieTuowrwp rrjv y EKicKr)criav (i. e. and he also put forth (e'£) to 
the world his written Gospel, in Greek, when St. Peter aud St. Paul were at Borne, and were 
founding the Church there). 

Thus, perhaps, the discrepancies of ancient testimony, with regard to the date of St. 
Matthew's Gospel, may be explained. Those which assign an earlier date to it (e.g. Cosmos 
Alexandrinus, Isidore of Seville, Theophylact, and Euthymim, quoted by Lardner, Credibility, 
xi. p. 375), are probably speaking of the Hebrew edition of it. And this, probably, was 
published before a.d. xLvr ; and those authors who speak of a later date, are referring to the 
Greek edition of it. And this, it would seem, from the words of Irenseus, was published at 
Borne, about a.d. lxiii. For why should he connect its publication with St. Peter's and 
St. Paul's preaching in that city, unless that publication bad some relation to the place where 
they preached ! 

But probably it was published at an earlier date elsewhere. 

If the expressions in St. Matthew, ch. xxvii. 8 (" That field was called the field of blood 
unto this day"), and xxviii. 15 ("this saying is commonly reported among the Jews until this 
day 1 "), are rightly supposed to indicate a considerable interval of time between the events 
specified and the date of composition, it may be suggested as not improbable that these notices 
may have not been in the Hebrew edition, and may have been added in the later edition, the 
Greek, where they now are. 

2. We find that St. Mark adopts, in many cases, the Greek of St. Matthew, and therefore 
St. Matthew's Greek Gospel must have been published before the death of St. Peter, under 
whose direction St. Mark's Gospel was written ; and St. Matthew's Greek Gospel is uniformly 
cited by the Fathers as his. 

3. The Gospel according to St. Mark was dictated at Borne by the Apostle St. Peter, 
and was published by St. Mark, and afterwards preached by him at Alexandria \ Epiphanius ' 

n the Canon of Scrip- > Athanat. Syuops. Sacr. Ser. ii. p. 56. Kirch, p. 1 1. 
' Hsr. U. 61. 



says that St. Mark wrote immediately (eiiffixi) after St. Matthew. See further below, 
p. 93. 

4. St. Luke's Gospel is an introduction to his other work, the Acts of the Apostles, 
which is not continued beyond a.d. 63. See below, p. 130. 

5. St. John published his Gospel about the end of the first century. See below, p. 206. 

IV. Introductory Note to St. Matthew's Gospel. 

On St. Matthew's name see ix. 9. As a proof of the genuineness of his Gospel, it may be 
observed, that the Author adds to the Apostolical name of Matthew the adjunct of TeXd>vt)<i 
(x. 3), which none of the other Evangelists do ; and that they do not join his former profession 
with the Apostolical name of Matthew as he does (ix. 9), but with that of Levi. He mentions ' 
indeed that Matthew, when called by Christ, arose and followed Him (ix. 9) ; but not, as St. Luke 
does, that Levi left all and followed Him, and made a great feast for Him in his own house '. 
In his Apostolic Catalogue Matthew is placed after Thomas, before whom he is ranked by 
St. Mark and St. Luke*. 

These are internal evidences confirmatory of the ancient testimony which ascribes the first 
Gospel to St. Matthew ; and they are indications also of the Author's modesty. It has been 
observed, that the Author faithfully records speeches in which the Publicans are ranked with 
sinners and heathens 4 , — another evidence of his humility, and of his gratitude to Christ for 
choosing himself, a member of that despised class ; and a proof of the truth of Christianity, 
which could convert the world by such instruments as the world most despised *. 

The following paragraphs from St. Chrysostom' may serve as introductory to this 
and the other Gospels : — 

" You may ask, why, when there were so many disciples of Christ, two only of the Apostles 
wrote Gospels, and two of their followers ; — for one (St. Luke) was a disciple of St. Paul, and 
the other (St. Mark) a disciple of St. Peter; and with John and Matthew they wrote the Gos- 
pels? — Because they did nothing for vain-glory, and all for edification. What then, you may 
say, was not one Evangelist enough? — Yes. But here is a strong evidence of truth. The 
Writers are four ; they do not write at the same time or at the same place, or after conference 
with each other, and yet they speak as it were with one mouth. But, you may say, this is not the 
case, for oftentimes they disagree . . . But here also, we say, is a proof of truth. For, if they 
had agreed literally, their adversaries would have said that they wrote by collusion. But now 
these slight seeming discrepancies rescue them from such a suspicion. But in the main things 
which concern our eternal life, and which constitute the preaching of salvation, there is not the 
slightest divergence among them. And what are these ? That God became man ; that He 
wrought miracles ; that He was crucified, buried, rose again, ascended, and will come again to 
judge, and gave saving commandments, and delivered a Law not contrary to the Old Testament ; 
that He is the Son of God, the only-begotten, and one substance with the Father ; and other 
articles like these. In all these they agree. 

" Do not be perplexed, if they do not all relate every thing in the history of Christ's 
Miracles ; but one of them recounts one incident and one another. For if one had narrated 
every thing, the others would have been superfluous ; and if each had narrated things wholly 
independent and special to himself, the present evidence of agreement would not have been 

" Therefore they narrate many things in common, and yet each narrates some things 
peculiar to himself. 

" St. Luke tells us the cause why he was induqed to write (i. 4). St. John does not declare 
the reason of his own writing ; but the tradition which has come down to us from our fathers 
is, that inasmuch as the three other Evangelists had dwelt mainly on the subject of the Incar- 


> Mark ii. M. Lake v. 27. * Matt. ix. 1 1 ; xi. 19 ; xviii. 17 ; xxi. 31, 32. 

* Luke v. 27, 28. » Cp. Euseb. Dem. Evangel, iii. 6. Kpiphan. Hteres. ii. 61. 

» Matt. x. 3 j iii. 18. Luke vl. 18. * In Matth. init. 


nation, and there was some danger lest the doctrine of the Divinity of Christ should be passed 
over, he applied himself to the writing of his Gospel ; and this is evident from history, and from 
the preamble of his Gospel. 

" St. Matthew is said to have composed his Gospel at the instance of Hebrew converts, 
and to have written in the Hebrew tongue. St. Matthew, writing for Jews, declares that 
Christ is from Abraham and David. St. Luke, writing for all, deduces the Genealogy from 

" We may also show the harmony of the Gospels from the testimony of the World which has 
received them. We may show it even from the Enemies of truth. For many Heresies sprang 
up after they were written ; and these Heresies are hostile to the Gospels ; and yet some of 
them have received them all, and others have cut away parts of them from the residue, and 
receive the rest. But if the Gospels had been inconsistent, those Heresies, which teach what 
is contrary to the Gospels, would not have received them; nor would those heresies which 
receive only a part have so argued from that part, that the part itself proclaims its own 
affinity with the rest. For, as if you were to take some flesh from the human side, you find 
there nerves, and veins, and bones, and arteries, and blood, and (so to speak) a specimen of 
the whole bodily organization in its integrity, so it is with the Gospels. In each part you see 
the texture of the whole , ." 

As to the order of events in the Evangelical History, it is certain that the Evangelists did 
not intend to relate them in exactly the chronological sequence in which they occurred. 
St. Aug. observes on this point', that, as it is no man's power to choose in what order he will 
remember the things he has once known, so it is probable that the Evangelists thought 
themselves obliged to relate events in that order in which it pleased God to bring them to their 
mind. That is, the Holy Spirit acted on their minds in bringing things to their remembrance*, 
and also in suggesting them in such an order as might be most conducive to the purpose with 
which the several Gospels, respectively, were written. 

The following paragraphs are in part derived from Augustine (De Consensu Evan- 
gelistarum, passim) : — 

"Christ is our King and Priest. The Evangelist St. Matthew more fully declares in 
his Gospel, and dwells on more constantly, those things which concern Christ's Kingly character 
and office. He begins his Gospel with tracing Christ's Genealogy from David the King, by 
a line of Kings. Here wise men come from the East to do homage to the King of the Jews, 
whose birth strikes fear into the heart of Herod the King. 

" St. Luke dilates more on what belongs to Christ as our Priest. He alone mentions the 
relationship of Mary to the wife of Zachariah the Priest. He relates the Angelic Vision to 
Zachariah ministering in the Priest's office. He describes the sacrificial offerings made for 
Christ, an Infant, in the Temple (ii. 22 — 24). He oftener than the rest reveals to us Christ 
in prayer (see on chap. v. 1 6), and intimates to us the mediatorial office of Him Who ever liveth 
to make intercession for us '. 

" We therefore concur with those, who, in interpreting the Vision of the Four Living 
Creatures in the Apocalypse, which represent the Four Gospels *, assign the Lion, the King of 
all Beasts, to St. Matthew; and the Ox, the Sacrificial Victim, to St. Luke. The Apocalypse 
itself says, " The Lion of the Tribe of Judah n prevailed", and thus designates the Lion as 
symbolical of Christ our King. 

" St. Mark follows St. Matthew, and relates what Christ did in His Human Nature, though 
without special reference to His functions as King or Priest, and is therefore fitly symbolized 
in the Apocalyptic vision as Man. 

" These three Living Creatures — the Lion, the Calf, the Man — walk on the earth. The 
first three Evangelists describe specially those things which Christ did in our flesh, and relate 

1 Chry$. in cap. i. * De Cons. Ev. ii. 21. the Ox. In Ezek. z. 14, Cherub, Man, Lion. In Rev. v. 7, 

' John xiv. 26. * Heb. vii. 25. Lion, Calf, Man. The Royal, the Sacerdotal, the Human in 

• Rev. iv. 1. It is observable that, in the three passages Christ is presented to the sight in a various order at various 

where these symbols occur in Holy Scripture, the three other times ; but the contemplation of the Divine Nature is reserved 

symbols interchange their order, but the Eagle is always always to the last. 

last. Thus, in Ezek. i. 10 the order is, the Man, the Lion, • Rev. v. 5. 


the precepts which He delivered on the duties to he performed by us while we walk on earth 
and dwell in the flesh. But St. John soars as an Eagle above the clouds of human infirmity, 
and reveals to us the mysteries of Christ's Godhead, and of the Trinity in Unity, and the 
felicities of Life Eternal; and gazes on the Light of Immutable Truth with a keen and 
steady ken. 

" The first three Evangelists inculcate the practical duties of Active Life : St. John dwells 
on the ineffable mysteries of the Contemplative : the former speak of Labour, the last of Rest: 
the former leads the Way, the last shows our Home. In the former we are cleansed from 
sin, in the last we enjoy the beatific Vision promised to the pure in heart, who will see God. 

" He who is the last in order declares more fully the Divine Nature of Christ, by which 
He is Equal to and One with the Father \ and in which He made the World ' ; as if this 
Evangelist, when he reclined on the bosom of Christ at Supper, had imbibed in a larger stream 
the mystery of His Divinity from His- lips. 

"This Evangelic Quaternion is the fourfold Car of the Lord", upon which He rides 
throughout the world, and subdues the Nations to His easy Yoke. The Mystery of His 
Royalty and Priesthood, which was foretold by Prophecy, is proclaimed in the Gospel. The 
same Lord Christ, Who sent the Prophets before His Descent from heaven into this 
world, has now sent His Apostles after His Ascension. He is the Head of all His Disciples; 
and since His Disciples have written those things which He did and said, we are not to affirm 
with some, that Christ Himself wrote nothing. They wrote, as His members, what they knew 
from the dictation of Him who is their Head. Whatsoever He willed that we should know of 
His own Words and deeds, this He commanded them to write, as it were, by His own hand. 
Whoever, therefore, rightly comprehends the fellowship of Unity, and the Ministry of His 
Members acting harmoniously in different functions under their Divine Head, will receive what 
he reads in the Gospel from the narration of the Evangelists, with no other feeling than if he 
saw the very hand of Christ Himself, which He has in His own body, performing the act of 

" In the first three Evangelists, the gifts of active virtue, — in the last, St. John, those of 
contemplative, shine forth. To one man it given by the Spirit the word of wisdom ; to another the 
word of knowledge by the tame Spirit *. One drinks wisdom from the bosom of Christ ; another 
man is raised to the third heaven, and hears unutterable words *. But as long as they are in the 
body, all are absent from the Lord' 1 . And all who believe with good hope, and are written in the 
Book of Life, have this promise reserved to them,—/ wUl love him and mani/ett Myeelfto him'. 
In proportion as we make greater progress in knowledge and intelligence in this mortal 
pilgrimage of life, let us be more and more on our guard against two devilish sins, Pride and 
Envy. Let us remember, that as St. John elevates us more and more to the contemplation of 
the Truth, so much the more does he instruct us in the sweetness of Love. That precept is 
most healthful and true, — The greater thou art, the more humble thyself, and thou thaU find favour 
before the Lord*. The Evangelist who reveals to us Christ more sublimely than the rest, he 
also shows us Christ washing His Disciples' feet "J" 

• ch. x. 30 ; xiv. 9, 10 ; nii. 22. > ch. i. 1,2. » 1 Cor. xii. 8. • 2 Cor. in. 2-4. 

> Ps. xriii. 10 ; lxxx. 1 ; xc 1. Ezek. i. 10—24. ' 2 Cor. v. 6. « John xiv. 21. • Ecctus. Hi. 18. 

* Mainly from Aug. de Conaen. Evang. j. " John xiii. 5. Aug. de Com. Et. it. 20. 



!• ("nr) * ^BIBAOS yowew? *Itj<tov Xpurrov viov JaviS viov 'Afipadfi. a Luke s. », «». 

2 " ' bfhnrt\CK tov 'lo-aeuc* 'itraaK 8k eyannfae tov 'IouctofS' 'IoucoifS iisTj/ 

EvayyUiov] A word u«ed by tbe LXX for Hebr. rnte} (*e- 
sorah), der. from i^p| (oasar), ' flesh,' ss representing some good thing 
in bodily reality, mnd so Tery descriptive of the good tidings of Emma- 
nuel, God manifest in tbe flesh (1 Tim. iii. 16). Hence St. Ignat. 
(Phil. 5), wpoc+vymu n siayyMa, it aapxl 'In<r«S. Cf. e. 9. 
We find the word Euoyyt'Xio applied to the Gospels early in the 
second century. Justin, Dial. c. Trypb. c. 100. Apol. i. 66, is diro- 
fur«a»i«u»w 3 xaXiirai •b*yyl\ia. Cp. /re». iii. 1. 11. On 
the use of the word liayyiXto* in the Gospels see on Mark x. 29. 

Kara Marflaiorl On the antiquity » f ">>« title see Bouih, R. S. i. 
405. Etutb. iii. 24 has MuTCaios ypa^jj vapaioi* re tar' li- 
•rdr i iayytXiov. The preposition xa-ra prefixed to the names of 
the Evangelist shows that there is one only Gospel of living water 
flowing by four Evangelic streams : as Oriaen says in loan. t. S, to 
6ia Tiaaipcu is Io-ti» iiayyi\iw. Cp. Oral, and Hammond 
here, and Valet, in Luc init p. 4, and Meyer, p. 34. 

Ca. I. L fil0\ot 7u/n»t] ss nf)ta -eg (septa tohdoth), a 
genealogical roll, Gen. ii. 4, where the LXX has fiifiXot yisioiut 
in the singular : it was a ' formula solrnnis,' hence the absence of the 
article, -cp (septa- = 0/flXos), is used for a letter, 1 Kings xxi. 8 ; for 
a deed of sale, Jerem. xxxii. 11; for a writing of divorce, Deut 
xxiv. 1. Cp. Patrit. ii. 46. 

" There seem," save Hilary, " to be four genealogies in the four 
Gospels. 1. In St. Matthew, from Abraham. 2. St. Mark, from God 
the Holy Ghost. 3. St. Luke, from Adam. 4. St John, from 

— 'Ineuv] 'Ittaait, i. q. Hebr. yrtnj (yehosiua), from ytjtei 
(servant). Cp. Matth. i. 21. 

— Xp,(TToi] XpiffTov, i. q. Hebr. rr^p (mashiah), •Messiah,' 
from root mashah, ' unxit,' anointed in the threefold office of King, 
Priest, and Prophet. On the personal name Jena, and the official 
title of Ckritt, see Bp. Pearson on the Creed, Art ii. p. 130, 2. 
150— 2.— See A hp. Letghton, vol. ii., for an exposition of the first nine 
chapters of St. Matthew. 

— Aavii\ On the orthography see Winer, 42. 

On thc Gknmalogim — On this Genealogy l in St Matthew 

w found in Patrit, 

JoKp'h »er< 

p. 14— 104. The conclusions of Pairitim are as follows; 

from Holy Scriptures ai 
the same llneaite, and it 

Fathers that Mary and 
is probable that their marriage 
to him, according to the Law, as 

o Dr. Mill, U. 102-218, and Rev. Lord Arthur Hint* oi 

— „~J, 1853. Williams on the Na'ivlty, p. 103-120. Burgoo, \ 

13. The subject Is thus dismissed by Mruer, p. 42:-" Lux. S, 24. 
Joseph, ein Sohn Elf$ genannt. Auch diese Different la«.t sich ni 

That in all probability this Genealogy inserted hen was tran- 
scribed thence. 

That St. Matthew cannot hare introduced at the beginning of 
his Gospel a document which could be refuted from those tables. 

That our Lord was often addressed as Son of David (Matt ix. 
27; xv. 22), and that the Jews, in all their cavils against Him, never 
denied that he was the Son of David. (Cp. Matt. xx. 30 ; xxi. 9. 15. 
John i. 45.) 

That St Matthew wrote for the Jews, and before St Luke. 

The first thing to be proved to the Jews was that Jesus mtKingot 
the Jewt ; and to show this, St. Matthew would refer to public genea- 
logies of the royal race. It seems, therefore, most probable that the 
genealogical table inserted by the first Evangelist would be the official 
pedigree of Christ And this corresponds with what we find in St 
Matthew's Genealogy. 

The principle on which it is constructed is one not of direct per- 
sonal descent by natural generation 1 , but of royal succession from 
David to Jechonias ; that is, during the whole period of the Jewish 
Monarchy to the Captivity ; it is a Tsble of Kings. 

And the names inserted after Jechoniah are the names of those 
who would have reigned if the Monarchy had continued, and who 
were Kings of the Jews de jure though not de facto. 

Why then, it mav be asked, was another Genealogy added by 
St Lukk? (iii. 23—38.) Because it would be satisfactory to know 
that the Son of Mary descended by her husband in a direct per- 
sonal lineage from David. This is what appears to be shown in the 
Genealogy given by St. Luhs, who wrote with St Matthew's Genea- 
logy before him ; and so Jesus is proved both by public right and 
by personal lineage, to be, by his mother's husband, the Son of 

According to their grammatical construction, Ijoth the Genealo- 
gies (i. e. that in St Luke iii. 23-38, as well as that in St. Matthew) 
appear to be Genealogies of Joseph ; and if they were not designed to 
be hit, the Evangelists would never hsve so presented them to the 
reader that he could hardly fail to mistake them for his. 

The Manichssans objected to St. Matthew's Genealogy, that it did 
not prove Christ to be the Son of David ; because it is traced from 
Joseph, who was not the natural father of Jesus. The same objection . 
had been made hv Celsus and Julian 4 . Now how did the Ancient 

" *- L! - objection ? Not by saying that Jesus was proved 

■ 1>y his mother's side, by the Genealogy of St. 

.__, tiy would have done, if St. Luke's Genealogy 

had been the Genealogy of Mary '. 

Maria Hefere, und also Luk. 3, 24. Joseph als Schwiefersohn des Ell 
aufgefiihrt werde, 1st cine eben so grundlou, sur Erxwingung der Har- 
monic rrfundene Hypothese, wie die des Juliut African., dass Matth. den 
lignUicken Vater Joseph's nenne, Lukaa aber seinen nach dem Levirat- 
Ttxhte ge^etxlickcn Vater {Huou. M.) oder umgekehrt" tSchlHtrm.). 

» This stetement Is not contravened by St. Matthew's use of the word 
rytrv^r.. This word iylrrrtat, like its equivslent Hebrew T> (ualadh), 
is not limited to natural procreation, but has a far wider signification, and 

generation, but adoption, or other succession (<rp. Hammond, p. 8). Hence 
in St. Matthew's list »• find, v. Ii, Je»iah iytrryn Jechoniah, and v. 12, 
Jechoniah (cp. Jer. xzii. 28, S#; xiill 5, 8) ryOnprt SalathleL And 
St. Matthew, in v. 18 and in v. 20. applies this word to generation by the 
Holy Okoit. This has been clearly shown by many, e.g. Mill, p. 173, 
and by Lord Arthur Berstu In bis Volume on the Genealogies, pp. 41 

» See further note on I. It. 
< Origtn, c. Cels. ii. Curil, c. Julian, viii. 

• Besides, not Hell, but Joakim was the father of Mary. See Xptpham. 
haw. 78, and Romtk, R. 8., tt. 1M. 

2 ST. MATTHEW I. 3—5. 

c on. S8. 27, *c. 8e eryewrftre tov 'lovSav /cat roi>s dSeX^ous avrou' 8 ' 'lovSas 8e eyefwijcre rov 
d NuT 7 12 *°/>*s * a * T °»' •Za/w ck rfjs 9dp.ap' $a/>6s 8£ eyewrfo-i tov 'Ec-pap.' 'Ea-poip. 
eRutiTi'ir'' ^* iyewrjcri rov 'Apdp.' ii, Apap 8e ey€wr)a , € top 'ApwaSdfi' 'ApivaZafi 81 
},"""• '• ,0 • eyewrjo-e rov Nacurow' Naaa-aciv Se iryiwrfa-e tov XakpioV 6 * SaXpAw St? 

Indeed, the opinion that St Luke's Genealogy is that of il/ary 
u unknown to Christian Antiquity i ; and ia as novel in it* origin 
it it at variance with sound criticism *. 

That bulk Genealogies are Genealogies of onr Lord by Joseph 
the husband of Mary. 

That Joseph was the son of Jacob or of Heli, either 
by adoption * ; or 

Because Jacob and Heli were either whole brothers * or half 
brothers, and because on the death of one of the two brothers 
without issue the surviving brother married his widow*, who 
became the mother of Joseph by this second marriage ", and 
so he was called the Son of Jacob and the Son of Hell This 
opinion may be represented thus : — 
Matthan Estha Milchi 

ez familia Salomons Matthani ex familia 

ortus genuit moz NalhanicA, 

Melchi uxor, qui ex Estha 

Matthani vidua procreavit 
Jacob, Mnlier Hki.i, qui -*■"* 

ixore ducta v' ' " * ' " 

li fratris sui ul 


■logy of St. Matthew is ._ 

Kmq (see v. 6, where David is twice called 6 
BaaiXiift). That of St. Luke is the derivation of his origin from 
David as a man. And this his human, and personal, and direct 
derivation from David, and also from Abraham, harmonizes with 
St. Luke's plan in tracing our Lord's pedigree further backward, 
even to the first man, Adam, the father of the human race. And 
so St. Luke suggests the reflection, that He who is the promised 
Seed, the Son of David, the King of the Jews, is also the Second 
Adam, is the Saviour and Restorer of the whole family of man. 
Enough is stated in Holy Scripture 7 to show that Mary, as well as 
Joseph, was of the House of David. But it was no part of the Divine 
plan to bring forth the Blessed Virgin from her retirement. She was 
ia-almah, the Virgin 8 , — an example of all Virgins, — and, as her name 
Almak intimates, teduded from public view. It is most in harmony 
with this plan, to suppose, — as the grammatical construction of the 
Genealogies constrains us, — that neither of these pedigrees are hers, ex- 
cept so far as, by the ties of a common origin and by the bond of Holy 
Matrimony, she was Joseph's, and what was his was hers, and what 
was hers was his, and that, consequently, as Christ, her true Son 

Hill p. 183."Po(V.r iL 
Fathers ever supposed ths 

ided in the 15th century by some Romanist Divines, 
thought) to the Blessed Virgin, and was thence, 

. <■ ., v y 80me Proliant Theologians. Cp. 


t. Luke 

' Meldorratys and sc 

» Tne Mamchffiin objection was considered by SI. Aug. c. Faust. Manich. 
xxlii. 7, 8. St. Aug. answers 

That Joseph Is called by the Holy Ghost " the husband of Mary"— 
" habens earn conjugem contlnenter non concubitu sed affectu non com- 
mlxtione eorporum, sed eopulatlone, quod est charius, animarum," that the 
Holy Ghost, who calls him ' the husband of Mary,' related that Mary " non 
ipsius concubliu sed de Spiritu Bancto conceplsse." See also his Serin. SI. 

That the Holy Spirit affirms • he sees! of David, ac- 

cording to the flesh. Gal. ill. 8, 9. Rom. 1. 3. 2 Tim. li. 8. and yet born of 
a r train; and that therefore Mary His mother wis of the lineage of David. 
This m»y also be presumed from the fact in Luke I. 27. 82; li. 5. that 
Msry, though ryireos goes up to Bethlehem to be registered. Oreo. Thau- 
malurg. (early in the third century) says. p. IS, i, iyia wapSe'rot U itVuvr 
Aa£t6 ervyxsix «ai ji)v B«0At«p trutpita tVAmrro «<u t«S 'IwrM uri 
yium las an #*i«Aiipot, Numb xxxvi. s. 8. Ruth Hi. 11) .MtM^emrro. 
Cp. Albanas. c. Apol.inar. p. 7J8. Leo if. 8erm. xxlx. p. 87, ■• electa Virgo 
de Semine Abrahae et radice Jesse." Cp. Roulk. R 8. 1. 354—356. Hence 
SI. Jerome says, " It may be asked why the genealogy of Christ is traced 
through Joseph T We reply, that it is not usual to trace genealogies from 

of Hegesippus in Roulk, R. S., p. 213. Bustb. IH. 82, 

Joseph and Mary were of Me same lineage, in Palril. li. 16—17. 48. 
» See Aug. «u. Ev. II. 5, de Cons. Ev. li. 2 and 3, and Serm. 81, 

* For the argument that Jacob aud Eii were whole brothers, see be 
» ivryoVSoevve*. Cp. Matt xiii. 24. Deut. xxv. 5. Gen. xxxvi! 

• See Julian. African, (an. 220) ap. Routh. R. S. IL pp. 288. 839. 
353. Bustb. i. 7; vi. 31. SI. Jerome tA loc. Justin. quKSt. ad ortho 
66. Greg Nazian de Geneal | • ■ <ya, EiayyeAurrirs or 

186*-7oi. s" " """' * " """ " """"" *"' 
father of Jos< 

id Jacob as the legal parent. 

s Hence the Angel calls Marjr Joseph's aife (I. 20), aad the Holy 8pirlt 
does not scruple to say « yon it (Luke iL 27. 41. 43), nor to record Mary's 

according to the flesh, owed and paid filial obedience to him who 
waa united by holy Matrimony to his mother *, so what belonged by 
royal and personal heritage, to his mother's husband was due to Him 
who was her first-born and only Son. We know, from the testimony 
of St. Matthew and St Luke, that Christ was bom of her, and that 
she was a virgin, and that she was of the seed of David according to 
the flesh. But, as far as she is concerned individually, Christ, like 
his great prototype Melchizedek, is aytusaXoyrrrot (Heb. vii. 8) in 
Holy Writ 

God's ways are not man's ways. Mom would have expected 
a genealogy of Maty. And if the Gospel had been dictated by stem, 
such a genealogy would assuredly have been given. But the Gospel 

haa once been proved, by logical deduction, that the Gospel is of 
God, Reason should make way for Faith, and should wait patiently 
for the time when Faith will be perfected in fruition, and Reason 
will rejoice in that perfection, for Faith is Reason in Glory. 

Hence, then, an argument may be derived for the Inspiration 
of the Evangelists. The eagerness with which many, in modern 
times, have endeavoured to wrest aside the words of the Gospel, in 
order to make one of the Genealogies to be the Genealogy of Mary, 
and the questions more modestly, but yet anxiously, pat by the an- 
cient Fathers,— Why it pleased God to trace the Genealogy of Christ 
through Joseph alone, at the same time that He revealed the fact 
that Joseph waa not the natural father of Christ, afford plain proof 
that if men had been the framere of the genealogies, they would either 
have deduced our Lord's human orioia through Mary, or, if at all 
by Joseph, not by Joteph alone. 

3. Qapap. 6. 'Pa X «'0— 'Povfl] " Why," says Chrytostom, " hav- 
ing begun the genealogy with mem, doe* he make any mention of 
teamen ? and why, if he names women, doe* he pass by the most 
illustrious, such as Sarah and Rebckah, and enumerate* some famous 
for ill ? One of these was born of unlawful wedlock, another a 
harlot 10 , and the third was a stranger; and he introduce* also the 
wife of Uriah." " And this was so designed," says Jerome, " in order 
that He who had come for the sake of sinners might, being born of 
sinner*, blot out the sins of all, and because He came not now a* a 
Judge, but a* a Physician, to heal our diseases." And Jerome (in 
Jovinian. p. 165) suggests another reason ; viz. that these women 
were type* of the Heathen world, recovered from sin and misery, and 
espoused as a Church to Christ II . 

words d warty em, il. 48. Hence SI. Aug. (Serm. li. 16), in reply to those 
who made objections to the genealogies " quia * per Joseph,' et non per 
Mariam. numerantur. ' Non," inquiunt, ' per Joseph dehuit f ' Quare non f 
Numquid non erat muriius Marls:? Scripture enim dlclt 'Noli timer* 
accipere Mariam conjugem tuam : quod enim in ill* natum est ds Spiritu 
Sancto est.' Et tamen paterna el non aufertur smctoritas, cum jubetur 
puero rumen imponere; denique et Ipsa Virgo Maria, br- x -"-' 
quod non ex ejus complexu et concubitu conceperit Cr J - 
palrem Christ! dicit." This has been well stated by l 
studies and reputation entitle his opinion to special 
matters), and by other Expositors as follows ; 


Christus ex ei quam Josephus In matrlmonio retinuerit {Grotius) 
si ea vis est Legis, ut partus vlduse ex agnato defuncti viriennceptus I 
jus defuncti succedat non aliter quam si ex Ipsius renltura ortum i 
(Grot, and Spalalensis) (et proles a fratre genlta, 

perquem suscepta est, sed iiliv ' - 

defuncti, »lde Gen. xxxviii. 9. 

sequla atque opera ■ illi f rantitit • i ■« expectari possunt a Alio in 
nls constituto. Quod si ublque gentium adoptivi liberl ex ejus g 
velut Insitl sunt, nobilitaie censentur, quantb jusiius omnia Ji 
litis, Joseph!, ac promiasiones Divinae Ipsius Majoribus facta:, ad ' 

naturalis nee tantum putatitius neque adoptlvus, sed reipsa proprius ac 
legitimus, ipsi legitime natus ex uxore, quae ipsl legiilmo matrlmonio 
Juncia est, Ideoque una erat cum Josepho caro, Deo legitime operante, qui 
nihil non legitime operatur, cujus libera domlnio non subtrahit uxorem 
maritl auctorttai. Cum autem succedat jure Gentium in patemam hasre- 
-"■ *- qui sollus publicBB ranuetestimonio Alius habetur, quanio 


v n Matthasus'd 

Henealogia condenda, non nuda Mariar, qt 
Regnl non potuit." {Lucas Brugrusis.) 
>° That Kahab here mentioned was Me 

•»«■ As Bengt 

ows that St. Mi 

where said In t 

d married ouri ..... ...... 

estranged from Him, and had committed 
was the Church ; but ahe left her Father'* 

ST. MATTHEW I. 6—15. 

eycvvrjfxc tov Bob£ ck ttjs 'Paxd/3' Boo£ 8c iyewrjcre tov *HpV)8 e*e tjjs 
'Povd' V2/J178 8k eya>vr)<r€ tov 'ItaaaC' 6 f 'Ieao-al 8e eyevvrjo-e tov Aavih 
tov /JcuriXea' JavtS 8c 6 /JaorXcvs iyewrjae tov 2o\op.£>va cVc tt/s tow Ovplov' 
1 * Hokofubv 8k eycvvrjo-c tov 'Po/Joa/r 'PofSoap, 8c eycvvjjo-e rbv 'Afiid' 'Afiia. 
8c ey£wqo-€ tov '•do-a* 8 h '^lo-a 8c eyhnrqat tov 'Iwo-a^ar 'Iwca^aT 8c eycv- 
rtyo*c tov 'Iotpdp.' 'Iwpap. 8c eycvvr/o-c tov '0£iav 9 ' '0£uxs 8^ eyewr/o'e tov 
'Itaadap: 'Itoddap. 81 eycvvrjo-e tov *-4x a £* *-^X a £ ^ eyewrjce tov 'EZfitdaV 
10 k 'E£e#cias 8^ eyewr)o~€ tov Mavaxrcrfj' MavewroTjs 8c eyewrjae tov 'jlfuav' 
'Afuov 8k eyiwqae tov 'Imo-iav' u ''Iwo-ia? 8c iyewrjae tov 'Ic^oviav /cat 
tows dScX<£ovs avrot), eVl ttjs /Acrowceo-ias Baj8iAa>vos. la m Merer, 8£ ttjv fteroi- 
Kco-iov Ba^SuXoivos, 'Ic^ovias eycvvr/cre tov XaXaOujX' SaXadu^X 8e eyevvrjcre 
tov Zopof3df3e\' 1S ZopofSdfieX 8e eyevvrjcre tov 'A^lov8' 'Af3i.ov8 8e eyevvrjcre 
tov 'EXiaKei/i* 'EXtaxcl/x 8k iyewrja-e tov 'A£,<op' u '.4£a)/3 8e eyewrjcrc tov 
XaScoK' 2a8o)K 8k eyevvrjcre tov 'A^cip' 'Ayel/i 8k iyewrfae tov 'EXiouS* 
15 'EXiovS 8c eyevvrjcre tov 'EXce^a/?* 'EXea^a/a 8e eycvvr/cre tov Marddv Mar- 

ti 17. 12. 

2 Bun. 12. 24. 

gl Kings 11. ( 
ftH. 31.S1J. 

2 Chron.' 14. I. 

2 Kings's. 16, : 
2 Chron. 17. 1. 

1 2 Kin'ifi 15. 7 

2 Chron.' 26.' 23 
& 27. 9. k 28. 
k 2 King! 20. i 
ft 21. 18,24. 

1 Chron. 3. 14, 1 

1 2 King! 23. 3 
34. & 24. 6. 

1 Chron. 3. 15, 

2 Chron. 36. 1, 

6. 'Q0t&] Laehnumn, Tuck, and othen hare 'Ia>/9r)a, on good 
MS8. authority : but the reading of the LXX it not lightly to be 
abandoned. Besides 'lufini is inconsistent with the Hebrew etymon 
TjS, and seems to have arisen from a supposed connexion with 'l«»0. 
See below, v. 10, where 'A^<it, for 'A/uo>v (rta»), seems to be due 
to a similar confusion with 'A fiat, the name of the Prophet and of 
Isaiah's father. 

6. Aavti Tin flaaiXia] The King, a clue to the design of this 
Genealogy, showing the Royalty of Christ, Messiah the King. 

8. 'lupifi ii] The Evangelist omits three names here, Ahaziah, 
Joash. and Atnaziah, 2 Kings viii. 25. 1 Chron. iii. II. 2 Chron. 
xxii. 1 ; zxiv. 27 (Jerome), because the race of Jehoram was min- 
gled with the seed of Jezebel, 2 Kings viii. 16. 26, therefore its me- 
mory is blotted out from the Genealogy of Christ, even to the third 
generation. Three generations were omitted intentionally, and thus 
there became fourteen generations. (Hilary.) Cp. Surenhut. p. 126, 
who shows that it was not unusual for the Hebrews to omit names 
designedly (see above, v. 3) in their genealogies, as in Ezra, cap. vii., 
compared by 1 Chron. i. 3— 1 5, five generations are omitted. See also 

— 'OJM Uzziah, called also Azariah (help of God), 2 Kings 
xiv. 21. 1 Chron. iii. 12, for God had mercy on him, and did not 
destroy him when he profaned the sanctuary, 2 Chron. xxvi. 21. 
Surenhia. p. 126. 

in >. 'i r-.i d other*, 'A>i«<« ; see above on 'Q/8q4, 

e father of Salathiel, 1 

e as Jechoniah the son of 

Joaiah ; but was the qrantuon of Jotiah by Joakim or Jeconiah. 
Cp. I Chron. iii. 15. 2 Kings xxiii. 34; xxiv. 2 Chron. xxxvi. 
(2) To this St. Jerome replies, that under the same word Jechoniah 

Jechoniah, and end 
n CnmtTa 

o be understood; and thus the foui 

The second tetsarodecad begins will 
niah = Joakim. The third begins witl 
! " - ; ^__:_, .V (3) $ j„ 

Judssis ad gent 

Ii. 15. DeCon_._ 

tit-roiKuriai] i-wi (see Hark 

house (Ps. xlv. 10), was espoused to Christ, and became the mother of 

Perhaps, alto, in this men Hon of Thamar, Rahnb, mi Ruth, in our Lord's 
Genealogy, we may see here an evangelical protest, by anticipation, against 
the novel dogma of the original and actual sinleiineas of Vary, grounded 
by some on the plea that He Who was without sin could only be born of 

> This is to be' explained thus. Joilah had four sons, Johanan, Ell- 
akim = Joakim, Zedeklah = Mattaniab, Joahai = Shallum. The Jeeho- 
nlih/iril mentioned by the Evangelist Is the same as Ellaklm or Joakim, 
who was the father of Joachln, or Jechoniah (or Jeconiah) the ueond roen- 
ti.H»«i hv th. Ev»nm.i!«t. It Is observable, in confirmation of this view, 

randson of Josiah, Is called also 'I»a\ifiov by 
r some M88. of the LXX, in 2 Kings xxlv. 6 

I, "p.Hi, miHtrvet, p. 70— 72. 

> Sinnhmt. (p. 129) supposes that St. Matthew here omits the children 
or Joaiah, and passes on to his grandion: and that by oitA^ovc he means 
hit unclea (see Gen. xili. 8; xix. 7), who are placed after him, because 
Jeconiah waa king 4«/ore his uncle Zedekiah, 2 Kings xxiv. 17 ; but it is 
sot certain (observes Arnoldi) that Zedekiah, in 1 Chron. iii. 16, Is not the 

la from Onttne. " Mini certissimum est, a Matthteo 

Regnum obtinnerunt, quod erat riiv ratroyitut, prl- 

grationie, which began under Joakim, 2 Kings xxiv. 7. 2 Chron. 
xxxvi. 6, was repeated at several times, Jer. Iii. 28—30. He does 
not call it ulxjtaKmaiat : for (1) That was not effected then ; 
(2) though the city was dettroyed, yet the family of David , to which 
the promise was given, was only r«mor*<? ; (3) and though Salathiel 
waa born after the migration, yet not after the seventy years' captivity. 

— Ba/3i»X£*ot] On this use of the genitive, tee x. 5. rTiner, 
G. G. p. 169. 

IS. <y<wi|0-s] i. e. by adoption, or other legal assumption : not 
by natural procreation ; for Jeconiah had no natural successor in the 
royal line (Jer. xxii. 30), but the regal line of Solomon terminated 
with him" (cp. St. Basil, iii. p. 362, and Bengel here), and the royal 
inheritance passed into another channel, derived through Nathan from 
David 4 , to whom it was divinely promised that there should be no 
failure of royal progeny, but no such promise of perpetuity was ever 
made to Solomon. Salathiel, or SheaUiel (Ezra iii. 2. 8 ; v. 2), who 
followed Jeconiah, was son of Neri (Luke iii. 27). 

— Zopo/So0.n] i.e. the royal teed sj} (zero) at Babylon (Chrya.); 
and the prince of or head and leader of the Jews on their return from 
captivity (Hagg. i. 1. 12; ii. 2. Ezra ii. 2; iii. 2. 8; v. 2. Nch. 
xii. 1), and so a remarkable tvpe of Christ. (Mill, p. 158.) From 
Zorobabel the family of David starts, at it were, afresh ; it branches 
out into two linea by the two sons of Zorobabel, Abiud (in St. Matt, 
i. 13), and Bhesa (in St. Luke iii. 27). Zorobabel, here (and in 
Luke iii. 27, and in Ezra, Nehemiah, and Haggai), called the son of 
Galathiel, is called the ton of Pedaiah in 1 Chron. iii. 19, probably 
by a levitate marriage. Cp. Mill, 138, 139. 

18. 'Ap.ouoJ Perhaps Hodaiah (1 Chron. iii. 24). See further 
on Luke iii. 27. 

IS. MaT0.ii>] Perhaps the same aa the M« T 0iT in St Luke iii. 
24, whose name is written MaT0d» in tome MSS. and by some of the 
Fathers, Aug. qu. 46, in Deut., Greg. Naz., and Emjtltan. See the 
authorities quoted in Mill, p. 77. 189-192. tiervey, 129, 130. 
Patrit. ii. p. 80. 82. We now see another reason why the Genealogy 
of St. Lukb was added to that of St. Matthew. 

It was necessary to show that Joseph waa the ton of David. 
St Matthew traces David's line through Solomon. 
But that line ended in Jeconiah, in the captivity. 
And yet we see that Jeconiah haa a successor assigned him by 
St Matthew, viz. Salathiel. 

Jechoniam; apeniatimt 

'iberis mortuo /« 
thielem, caput ' 

Lucas, privatum hominem, Matthieus autem 

est, a Luca jut ManguinU, a Mattheeo jut succes- 

Regem dignitatem, spectatum; quod jus, sine 

iia, et si qui alii erant a Salomonis poateris, ad Sala- 

js plenior est, quam M 

iri a ae personal, sed generis tummam brevit 

-Kdiat tret memorise causa digestamaatia ape... ,-- ._ — 

Joramum Regem et Oaiam, qui Ataxias, Achaxism, Joam, Amaziam, 
silentio transmittit, nempe ut ordinl ad memorise facilitatem instituto 
consulat : quod in Juris tuccetslone demonstranda parum refert. Nam, 
ut did solet, *<wm HteredU ma kara mem ut. At qui vaturaUm seriem 
sequl velit, quod Tacit Lucas (earn enim ob causam, a Daridt ad Sala- 
thlelem usque, privata: fortunes homines memorat, ne ab eo ordine disce- 
dat) eum decet de gradu ad gradum, qui sanguis ducit, progredl, quod 
eum feclsse non dubttamus. At si quls tempore recte putet a Zorobabele 
adChr i v -.debit secundum Id quod plerumque accidlt, totum id tern- 

ST. MATTHEW I. 16—20. 

0av 8e iyewrjcre rbv 'IaKtitfr M 'laie<Hj8 8e eyannjcre rbv 'Iwo-ij^, rbv aVS/xx 
Mapias, ig ^s eyewr^ 'iHSOr.?, 6 Xeyd>ei/os XPIXTOS. 

(-|-) 17 nS.<rat ovv ai yeveal d.7rb ' lius /lavtS ya>eal 8eKar4crcrap€$' 
ical airb Aavth eius rjjs p.erou<€<rias BafivXavos yeveaX 8€#caW<r<ra/>€s* icat diro 
t»js fieroiifeo-ias Ba/3vX«5i'os «u$ tow XPI^TOT, ycveal 8eKaT«ro*a/aes. 

«•».«. (_|_) 18 Tov Se 'Jqo-oG Xpiarav i) yeve<ris ovnus ^v. nvrjoTcvdcuri}? yap 
tjjs fiTjrpbs avrov Mapias t»j> *I(0(rq<j>, wplv ^ awekdew avrovs, evpedrj iv 

h. 1. yatrrpX e\ov<Ta e*e nVevftaros ayiov. (4") 19 ° 'I(»<rri^> 8e 6 dU'ij/j avrrjs, 8t> 
/ccuos Aj», Kal ftij 0iko)v avrrjP Sety/iarwrat, ifiovkijdri \d9pa arrokvcrat. avrfpr 
20 rawra 8e avrov h>Qvp.t\Q&no<i, iSov ayyeXos KvpCov icar ovap i^dirrj avr$ 
Xeytov, 'Io>crr)<f>, vids JaviS, ft^ <fx>f3T)0jj<i irapakafieiv Mapiap. rrjv ywaiKa. <rov, 

DamtTt line ? From the Genealogy of St. Lukb, who 
him from David, through David's (on JVW*a«. 

The two Genealogies coalesce for two generations, i. e. in 
Salathiel and in his son Zorobabbl. But then they diverge 
again in two lines by Zorobabel's two sons Abiud and Rheaa. 

Now it may be that as David - ! line by Solomon failed in 
Jeeoniah, and was to be supplied from David's line by Nathan 
given by St Luke ; so perhaps Zorobabel's line through 
Abiud (which St. Matthew gives) may have failed likewise, 
and was to be supplied by Zorobabel's line through Rhesa 
given by St. Luke. 

There seems to be some intimation of such a failure. As 
David's two lines coalesce in Salathiel, just above Zorobabel, 
so Zorobabel's two lines seem to coalesce in Matthan or Mat- 
that (see note on v. 13), just above Jacob, the grandfather 
of Joseph. 

Or suppose that Matthan and Matthat are not identical. There 
are two lines from Zorobabel. And it might have been alleged 
that Joseph was not tale heir of Zorobabel and David, if it 
had not been shown, as it is shown by the Genealogy of St. 
Luke, added to that of St Matthew, that both lines terminate 
in Joseph. 
The following diagram will illustrate what has now been said. 

Matthan (St Matt) 
Matthat (St Luke) 

Jacob Heli's widow 

16. 'laxitfi H Ifintiat rot 'Ia><r>id> '] who is therefore called by 
the angel * Son of David,' M, Acuta, i. 20. Cp. Luke i. 28. By 

virtue of his marriage with Mary, Joseph is called by the Holy Spirit 
arhp Uaplat (i. 16. 19), and she is called his wife (i. 20), and the 
kutband is head of the wife (Ephes. v. 23), ' ' ' l * " 

jut palenum over her offspring ; and God authorized this by giving to 
Joseph the paternal office of imposing tie name on her Son (i. 21). 
Cp. Lnke ii. 41. 48. Consequently, her first-born and only Son had 
an hereditary claim to Joseph's privileges, whatever they were, by 
virtue of Joseph's descent from ' David the King ;' and therefore the 
angel says (Luke i. 32), God shall give him the throne of kit father 
David. (Cp. Aug. Serm. 51.) We no where read that Joseph had 

t tradition that Joseph 

name is assigned by some to Jacob 
_.. , .. Cp. Mill, p. 189. PalrU. p. 101. 
_ __..!« (de Fid. Orth. i». 14) says that Melcht and 
brothers ; that Panther was the father of Barpanther ; and ~ 
father of Joaklm, the father of Mmrf. 


fob his fal 

il generation, or that the Blessed T 
er; therefore the direct line of Dai 
sd in Christ Cp. Oltkauten on Luke iv 
' ro-aoic] 
generations, but all the generations recite* 
Winer, G. Q. 101.) 

tiKariaaapit, fourteen — twice seven; a number, in Scrip- 
ture, symbolizing completeness. The sixth seventh brings as to 

It is observable, that the number fourteen may be expressed in 
Hebrew by letters which make the word David, m- (Surenhus. 
p. 143.) 

The three fourteens, or six sevens of this Genealogy = forty- 
number which had been already distinguished in Holy Writ 

7i ytWic] origin, not simply birth. [Meyer.) 

livtiarivOttoiit] Why was our Lord conceived of a Virgin 


That the lineage of Mary might be shown through the Ge- 
nealogy of Joseph. 

That she might not be stoned aa an adulteress. 

That in her flight to Egypt she might have a protector 
and comforter. 

The martyr Ignatius, the disciple of St John (ad Ephes. 19), 
adds another reason, that his birth might be concealed from 
the devil. (Origen, Horn. 6, in Luc, and St. Jerome,) Com- 
pare also the words of Ckrgt. God concealed from the Jew* 
at first that Jesus was bom of a Virgin. He kept the mystery 
as it were in shade for a time, as He did other mysteries, 
which He revealed more fully by degrees. If after our Lord 
had wrought so manv miracles as He did they were loth to 
believe that He was bom of a Virgin, it is not probable that 
they would have received this truth before those miracles 
were wrought Even Joseph, a just snd good man, required 
the evidence of an angel to convince him (and his convic- 
tion, and his consequent reception of the Virgin as his wife, is 
the strongest assurance thst could be given us for our convic- 
tion). " Hence the Apostles in their preaching did not begin 
with proclaiming our Lord's birth from a Virgin; and the 
Virgin herself kept it in reserve for a time; she said even to 
her Son, ' Thy Father and I have sought thee, sorrowing.' 
(Luke ii. 48.)*' (Ckryt.) St Ambrose adds (m Luc. I), 
" Maluit Dominus quosdam de sua g ' 

— Hs pudore, dubitare." 

i general lone, quam d 

state the fact, but not kow it was done We know not bow He who 
is infinite was in the womb, how He who comprehends all things was 
conceived by a woman. Do not inquire how such things were done, 
but receive what is revealed, and do not repine for what is concealed. 
iCkrut.) A salutary caution is given by Greg. Naz. (Orat. xx. 
p. 382): iKoU* yinnw ri wS« M * w.p.ipydjoi, — _•! li 
iro\vwpayfioviit, naym aoi iroKvwpaytiovSi t6 Kpdfia V^ V X9* * a ' 
amuarot " On the Incarnation of our Lord," see Barrow, Ser- 
mons 23 and 24. 

19. iUam ] " Ssepe in N. T. ubi aliquis tUam p»# (ttadik) 
dicitur plures omnind virtutes comprehend! solent." Vortt, de Hebr. 
p. 56. Cp. Luke i. 6; ii. 25. Acts x. 22. 

20. ItoiJ rrjri {kinnek). 

— Snap] No communications by dreams are mentioned in the 
N. T. except those to Joseph at the beginning of the Gospel, ii. 13. 
19. 22, and to the Magi, ii. 12, and to Pilate's wife, a Gentile, xxvii. 
19 (cp. liengd on Acts xvi. 9). 

— uldt Aautl] See v. 16. " Recognoace quod promissum est 
domtti David (Isa. vii. 13, 14) de qua tu es et Maria, et vide impletum 
in ea." (Glott. Ord.) *^ 

Celsus (ap. Origen. i. 

8) says! and'sotte r^mui 

> On the number fortf-txo, often signifying In Scripture a time of trial 
leading to rest, see on Rev. xL i, J; xlL 14; xill. «. 

ST. MATTHEW I. 21—25. H. 1. 

to yap iv avrg yonnfihf «e IZVcu/iaTos itmv ayiov' 21 v Te'£erai 8e vu>v, koL 
KaXeVets to ovo/ia avrov Itjcrovv, avros yap trtucret to* 7 Xad*' avrov d?ro tow 
afiapruov avrS>v. a Tovro 8c oXoi* yeyovtv, iVa irXvjpotQj} to prjOkv xmo Kvpiov 
8ia rov irpotfrqrov Xeyovros, a q 'l8ov, 17 irapOevos iv yacrrpX €^ei, /cat 
Tt£eTcu vtoi», #cal leaXcVovo-t to ovop.a avrov 'E/x/xavoviyX* o cart, fitOep- 
{iTjvevofievov, Mzff rjfiwv 6 Oeos. " dieyepdel? 8e 6 'Io><rr)<f> airb tov vttvov 
iiroirjcrev a>s vpoa-era^ev avrw 6 ayyeXos Kvpiov, teal Tra/>e'Xa/Se Tr)** yvrawea 
avrov' M ical ovk iyivoKrteev avrrfv eus 08 ereice tov vld»> avrijs roc irpayroroKovc 
ical cicaXeo-e to oVo/xa avrov 'IHXOTN. 

II. * * Tov St} 'l^crov yewqOevros iv BydXeefi r»}s 'lovSaias, ev 17/tepai? 

p Lake 1. SI. 

Act«4."l2. &10. 
43. Si 13. 38, 39. 

act what His Ni 
He, /j 

Td dyo/ui — (litaumawl See below, v. 25 and v. 16. 
ae of «o\iI» rd owtia lee Fbrrf, de Hebr., p. 349 
. Thou shalt give Him this name, and He shall be in 

ipse, by Himself, and no other, shall save His People, not (as 

ijr will suppose) from their temporal enemies the Romans, but 

i their deadly foes, their own situ. Cp. Aug. de Coos. Ev. ii. 2. 

— TOTo't] "Caso recto, semper habet emphasim— hlc maxi- 

mam." (Bengel.) " Ipse, solus, nemo alius." 

22. I»« tW.^] That it might receive \UfuU tni final accom- 
plishment ; intimating that though other previous results may have 
emerged from the prophecy, they were only partial, prelusive, and 
preparatory to this fulfilment, which was the aim and end of the pro- 
phecy. The Ira is not therefore sV/JaTucoV, but preserves its true 

The emphatic word in this formula is HAHPQ6Hi, intimating 
that now the Prophecy, which had been gradually mounting to this 

Ciint, had attained its zenith, or culminating point' 1 . In strictness of 
nguage, an action is already done in the counsels of God be/ore He 
utters a prophecy that it will be done. " Non res sunt propter pro- 
phetias, 6ed prophetic propter res." (£«e. Brug.) But prophecies 
are God's promises to man. God is here speaking to men. And 
He says that such an event happened in order that a prophecy, 
which concerned Christ, might be fulfilled visibly to us, and so we 
might believe that Jesus is the Christ. 

On the consistencey of this with Human Freewill, see on Acts 
iv. 27, and cp. Spanheim, Dub. Evang. 33. 

28. q TrapSirot] So the LXX, a conclusive argument against 
all Jewish objections to St Matthew's translation of this text, Isa. 
vii. 14 ». Cp. Justin M. c Tryph. § 67. Iren. iii. 21. 

Besides, the word mj^sn [ha-almah) — from root rfys (alam) 'to 
hide," ' to keep at home,' as Eastern virgins were kept, and therefore 
rendered a-roKfwtpoi by Aquila — is well translated h irapoivm, which 
is more descriptive of the Blessed Virgin than Betulali would have 
been, for it denotes youth, as well as virginity *. 

The article A, Hebr. n, is to be observed, the Virgin. " mag- 
nam habet emphasim, Virgo per excellentiam docta." ( Valck. p. 19.) 
" Insignia ilia Virgo cuius Filius erat contriturus semen serpen tit." 
(C4ia». Phil. p. 319.) " Singular* ilia Virgo." (Cp. Aua. Serai. 191.) 

Tax Virgin.-— The Prophet Isaish, speaking in the spirit, had 
a vision of the Virgin as present who would conceive and bear a Son, 
Emmanuel, God with us. He sees before him the Messiah 9 , a most 
satisfactory proof to the House of David, then menaced by enemies, 
that it would not be destroyed ; whereof, also, the Prophet gave astu- 
ance by bringing with him his own son, whose name, Shearjashub 
(vii. 3), though it spake of captivity,— which was to come to Judah 
from that very power, Assyria, to which the faithless king of the 
honse of David, Ahaz, now looked for help instead of to God,— yet 
spoke also of return from captivity, " a remnant shall return •." 

The Prophet goes on to say, 15, 16, " butter (milk) and honey shall 
he eat until he knows to refuse the evil and choose the good," that is 
(aa Irenams, Jerome, Chryt., and Basil explain it), though He is 
" Emmanuel," "God with us," yet He shall be also an infant, and 
have a human body, and (not be born, like the first Adam, ia/ull 

Lee on Inspiration, pp. 103. 388. 
to use another figure; the Ancient Prophecies concerning the 
are like beautiful fault, which either (I) received a partial 
' ' preparatory events, which kept up 
hope and faith of the believer, In 

infusion, from lime to time, in 
the memory of them, and refrei 

the coming Deliverer, till they «.=.= ... j..™ .,. «. — »..-., ... 
n i»r# , »r jtli- fulness of all in all. See further below, 

infusion, in 

> For the LXX Version" was made' by Jews, and was read" 
gognes {TertulUan, Apol. 18. Cf. OrinJUId, Scholia 

Dub. E 

Uian, Apol. 18. Cp. i 

_w on Isa. vii. 

. Bp. Pearson On the Creed, art. iii. pp. 31 
New Test. Quotations of the Old Test. 
Version, see Brinjttld, ed. Hellen. p. 

. 17. S3, 

I. 132. 



» See Theodore! and Chros. In Isa. vii. Athanos. de Incarn. pp. 3 
Jerome, iii. 70, who well expounds the prophecy thus : " O domus I 
non mireris ad rel novitatem, si Virgo Deum pariat, qui tantam h 
potestatam ut multo post tempore noseilurus, to nnnc llberet invoci 
There was a punishment to Ahai the King for his stubbornn si. He s 

manhood, but) pan through infancy and childhood, and gradually 

St. Matthew fitly refers to this prophecy, in speaking of the 
birth and infancy of Christ, " God manifest in the flesh." The Pro- 
phet, having the Virgin and her Divine child before hie eyes, natu- 
rally makes the growth of the Messiah from birth to years of dis- 
cernment the measure of time of an event then about to happen. He 
turns to Ahaz, and says, " Before the child bom of the Virgin shall 
know to reject the evil and choose the good, the land which thou 
abhorrest, i. e. thy enemy's land, shall be forsaken of both its kings." 
(Cp. Vitringa on Isaiah, 1. c.) This destruction did take place in a 
very few years afterwards (2 Chron. xxviii. 5. 2 Kings xv. 29), and 
so was a proof of the truth of the prophecy, and a pledge of its fulfil- 
ment in the Virgin and in Christ of the House and Seed of David. 
Though St. Matthew traces onr Lord's Genealogy through Joseph to 
David and Aliraham, yet he takes care that we should not suppose 
that He was the son of Joseph «a-ra aapxa, by stating, at the same 
time, that He was born of a Virgin. 

— naXioovot to isoua a.™ 'EuMarouqX] i. e. He shall be (see 
on v. 2 and ii. 23) Emmanuel, ^rtUQfi ' God with us ;' i. e. God, not 
united to any one person among men already existing, but God in ut, 
i. e. in the common nature of us all. See Hooker, v. Iii. 3, and so He 
is Jesus, or Saviour of the World. Tertullian c. Jud. 1. St. Je- 
rome (in Isa. vii. 14). The deliverance of Ahaz. and of the kingdom 
of David is ascribed by the Prophet to Christ, who even then proved 
Himself God with His People, and would afterwards show Himself 
to he the Saviour of all. 

iylrmoKni airri)» tut oS] " Non sequitur, ergo post." 

(Bengel.) ' 


not the first duty of a student of Holy Scripture to know when to be 

Obs. One Joseph was appointed to be a guardian of the Saviour's 
human body before his first birth from the Virgin's womb. Another 
Joseph was appointed to be a guardian of it before His Resurrection, 
or second birth from the Virgin tomb (Matt, xxvii. 57—60. Luke 
xxiii. 50. John xix. 41). And both one aud the other Joseph is 
called oi^p tUato, in Holy Writ (Matt. i. 19. Luke xxiii. 50). 

D and others, and so Vulg. " filium suum primogenitum." Cp. 
Luke ii. 7, and so Jerome, who says, " From this passage some have 
imagined (Helvidius, Jovinian, and the Ebionites), most erroneously, 
that Mary had otier children, whereas it is the practice of Scripture 
to designate as the firstborn that child who is born first, not that child 
who is followed by other children. See my treatise against Helvi- 

la kept by the Western 

not see the Sign i it should appear many sges afterwards ; but the efects 
of the Sign should be felt by the house or David, even in the age of Ahax. 
Emmanuel, yet un-eorn, should deliver It. And the truth, now revealed, 
thai He should be born or a Virgin of that house, was a sure pledge that 
the house of David would not perish. 

s Foranexcellentmoderneipoiition.seeffmeffeaoere.Christol.i. pp.11. 
45, ind Patiil. II. 139—146, who alto refutes the opinion recently pro- 
pounded by some, that the Jews did not expect the Heuiah to be born of 
a rtroin. And see Justin M. c. Tryph. ff 18. 67. 

' See St. Jtromt here, and adv. Helvidium, torn. iv. para J, pp. 130— 
142. Aug. de Catech. Bud. 40, and Serm. 188 and 191. 

s See also Bp. Pearson On the Creed, art. iii. on the term innfrinx, 
p. 326 Ckemnilii Harmon, cap. vii. and Glass. Phil. Sacr. pp. 319 and 452, 
and Dr. W. H. Mill, p. 309. Pasrll. il. p. 125. f— '•-- -—— — » •• 

a" in Sea. vii 
1. 23. Psa. h 


212-249 ; ii. 32. 234. Dr. MM, 224— 236, and the 

10 For a full discussion of this question, set 
pp. 280—291, and the comparative tables Inserted 

xviii. 15, 

ST. MATTHEW H. 2, 3. 

'HpwSov rov ySaortXews, iSow, fidyoi airb avardkiov irapeya>ovro els 'lepocrokvfia, 
Xeyoires, 2 b Uou earw 6 rebels ^Sao-iAeus TW 'JovScuan' ; et8o/AO» yap avrov 
tov aaripa iv rfi dvaroky, nal yjkdofiev irpo<TKwr\<rax avrcf). 8 'AKovcra? oe 

Chureh in esrlv time* on the 25th Dec., and that day 

eeived by the Eastern Church at the middle of the fourih century, 

--'- — '- -u called 6io<pa»ia, •yssrs'SXi ' "" -—■"---'- 

l . The word Epiphany a 

afterwards to be applied to the day of the arrival of the Magi, and of 
Christ's Baptism, t« Syta dtira {Greg. Naz. p. 677), and the word 
eioipavta was also applied to that day. See Hippolyt. homily with 
that title, and Greg. Thauinaturg. p. 30*. 

As to the year, see on ii. 20. 

On the place of the Nativity see Justus Martyr (c. Tryphon, 
§ 78), who describes it as a cave near the village of Bethlehem, and 
says also that the Magi coming from Arabia found Him there {in 
<nrnW» tiW iiinnuf rf,* *£p.ns). which Jerome calls (ad Eustoch. 
and ad Paulin) "tpecm Salvatoris." Cp. Origen c Cels. i. 51. Euteb. 
v. Const, iii. 41. 43, who speak of a cat*. 

— BnOXis'tt] Drrt— rrj, ' the house of bread,' of the Living Bread 
that came down from heaven {Greg. M. Horn, in Ev. i. 8); called 
also Bethlehem Ephrata (Ruth i. 2; iv. 11. Mic. v. 2) for its/«r- 
tiliiy; snd Bethlehem Judah to distinguish it from a Bethlehem in 
Zabulon {Jerome), six miles 8. of Jerusalem. 

— 'Hpiitov rov /3.] made king by Roman influence, particularly 
of M. Antony, and called ' Herod the Great' {Joseph. A. xiv. 11. 18). 
On his history and character, see Joseph. A. xiv. — xvii. Oasaubon, 
Exc. Baron. Art. 3—5. MM, p. 335—342. 

— tidyoil Maol Not such as were known among the Greeks ss 
professors of Magical Arts (see Origen c. Celsum, i. p. 35), but such 
as those whose title before the time of Zoroaster was Magh or Magus 
(whence jg in Jerem. xxxix. 3), the sacerdotal caste of the Medes 
and Persians ', dispersed in the dva-roXA and called Mayooaaiot by 
" • ■ ' 1094, -' -' !J "' — - ! " ■*-'-'- " * 

ilaters, but hsting idolatry, iiewXa 

_ the Persiant were favoured generally for their freedom from 
Idolatry, and their hatred of it), and were chosen as the d-wapx'h or 
first-fruits, of Gentilism, to behold and worship Christ. 

Cp. Casanbon, Exc. Baron, ii. num. 19, who regards them as 
toparcks; see TertuUian, adv. Jud. 9, ad Marcion. iii. 13, " Magos reges 
fere habuit Oriens," and they were of the sacred caste. Cp. Spun- 
ketm. Dub. Ev. ii. 20. Cp. Mill, p. 331—342. and Dissertation in 
Patrit. ii. p. 309. Williams on the Nativity, p. 121—139. 

We find them described ss three in leo M. (a.d. 450), d. 88: 
" Tribus Magis Stella nova: charitatia apparuit ;" and p. 90, " adorant 
in tribus Magis omnes populi Universitatis Auctorem. 

On the time of their visit, see on chap. ii. 11. 

On the Epiphany, see Aug. Sermones, 199—204. 

The Fathers are divit 
Perhaps both opinion 
(a. ismost likely), tk 

■ diri dt>aT0\u»\ Though, probably, of Persian origin, yet it 
not therefore follow that they now came directly from Persia. 
" ■' ....... pi n i on between Persia and Arabia 1 . 

ue, viz. that, being of Persian extraction 
they came now from Arabia. 
_ _ie prophecies of the Old Testament seem to point that way. 
Ps.lxxii.10. Isa.lx. 1-7. Also, 

The gifts which they bring. Isa. lx. 6. 

Perhaps their visit to the Prince of Peace was typified by that 
of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon (1 Kings x. 1. 2 Chron. ix. 1). 

Time will show whether these fiayoi tiro dsaroXms were 
typical of the poo.Xst* awd oWtoXS, nXi'ov in Rev. xvi. 12. 

— Tapiyirorro] After the Circumcision and Presentation in the 
Temple {Bengel). Cp. on v. 11. 

— 'lipoao\»ua] St. Matthew onlv uses 'Iipev<ra\t,u once, in 
quoting Christ's words, xxiii. 37. St. Mark never. St. Luke rarely 

tains, p. 890, the ancient Tradition (sanctioned by Hippolyt., Athanas., 
Jerome, Amhrote, Aug.), which fixed the Nativity on Dec. *5 ; see also 
Bp. Pearton. Minor Works (ed. Churton), i. pp. 153-16*. 

Nativ. Ii. p. 352, ed 

it. ad Greg. Naxian. Orat. 

rili.p". 662." Chris. Horn, de 

in Nataii Domini, Serm.' 184— 

Nativity, pp. 80— 91. 

t. 29. /i 

>•• Works, v. 404-411. 
It Is ouservaoie that the Prophecy concerning Messiah the Prince de- 
livered in the East, by the Prophet Daniel, who was Prime Minister of the 

to him who was of the 
Id seem) by Almighty 
instrument in God's 

Hist v. 13. Patrlt. II. 352. Joseph. 

t according to the prophecy 
lumb. xxiv. 17), and ft was 

jy might learn Christ's Ns- 

tlvity from the Gentiles ; and the Wise Men are led by It to Judaa, that 
the Priests being interrogaied by them where Christ was to be born, might 
be left without excuse Tor Ignorant- - - 'SI Jerome ) " Magi 

per atellam, plseatores per places adducuntur." {Bengtl.) 

s KepUr, Muster, and Ideler, Handbuch der Chronologie, U. p. 410. 
Winer, ileal- W. II. p. 5*3. Wiettler, p. «». 

in Gospel, often in Acts. St John never in Gospel; four timet 
in Apocalypse, where he never uses 'lipoaoXv/ia. {Patrit. ii. 

2. sttoutr abroZ -riv drrtpa] I. The main reason which led 
them to believe that the Star they taw was the Star of a King bom 
in Judaa, was the persuasion then prevalent in the Eastern world *, 
and grounded 

On the prophecy of Balaam, Numbers xxiv. 17, delivered in 
the East'; and more, 

was to be born in Judaa, should arise at that time and have universal 

II. That his appearance would be signified by a Star, would have 
been suggested by Balaam's prophecy ; and the name Bar-mohba, or 
Son of a Star, given by the Jews to one of their false Messiahs 
{Euteb. iv. 6), shows the prevalent expectation in this respect 

III. What the doTi, pot Star teas. 

It has been supposed by some 8 to have been a conjunction of 
Planets. But this is a groundless conjecture >. The luminary is not 
called aWfMw, a constellation, but do-nip, a single star; and it it 
described as standing over the house where the young child was 
(v. 9), and primitive testimony calls it a new star. St. Ignat. (ad 
Ephes. 19) says io-riip in oipanef IXa/iuV»», i-s-ip wdm-av -roiv 
daripat, xal £ « i> < or /i d » wapstx" H Kamornt airrou. So Chrys. 
and Aug. c. Faust, ii. 5. who says that it was crested at the Nativity. 
Cp. Protev. Jacob. § 21. It is called 'lingua caW by Aug. (Serm. 
in Epiph.) 

In the History of the Old Testament we have a similar in- 
stance of a luminous moveable body created in the Pillar of Fire 
(Exod. xiv. 24) to lead the People of Israel through the wilderness to 
the promised land. See Chrys. •» 

There is a remarkable confirmation of St. Matthew's account 
in Chalcid. in Tiuueum, in the edition of St. Hippolytus by Fabrir 
cms, p. 325. 

A miraculous sign in the heavens was a fit harbinger of the 
birth of Him who made the heavens (Col. i. 16), ss also of his death 
(xxvii. 45), and so it will be at his Second Coming to judge the 
world (xxiv. 30). Cp. Arnoldi. 

IV. A question arises, How is it that the Star has not been no- 
ticed by heathen writers t 

" ippose this to be so, then it may be replied, that if (a* appears 
he case) the Magi were the first-fruits of the Gentile World 
' inst, and the Star appeared to them as such, it is probable 
lanifcsted specially and singly to them. 
God often reveals to somejrhat He conceals from others at tl 
9 place, at the same tin: 
>le to Balaam, but it wi 
; and by thifcontrast God revealed to B 

of Elisha did not see the horses and chariots ar 

coming to 

The Angel in the way was not at first 
to the sss (Num. xxii. 23) on which he 

master till his master prayed that his eves might be opened (2 Kings 
vi. 17). The sound in the heavens was heard by those who journeyed 
with Saul (Acts ix. 7 ; xxii. 9), but the words were articulate to 
Saul alone. Thus God showed that they were addressed to him. 
The darkness at the Crucifixion seems to have been local at Jeru- 
salem ; intimating to them at mid-day that they were then spiritually 

7, 28. MM, pp. 312. 360—372, where this 
is deserving attention. " This star 

marked the place where the young t 

" And why did It sppear f to penetrate the insensibility of the Jews, and 
to take sll excuse from them, if they would not receive Christ He Who 

to invite the world to His worship, and to be adored in 8e» and Land, He 
begins with opening a door to the Oenlilei, in His desire to teach Hit own 
people by means of strangers. For since the Jews would not attend to 
what their own Prophets had said concerning His Advent, He brought 
foreigners from afar in quest of the King of the Jews, who hear first from 
the language of Persia what they would not learn from their own Pro- 
phets; In order that if they are disposed to listen they may have a strong 
motive to obedience; but If they are contentious, they may be without 
excuse. Observe also, God In His condescension teaches us by things 
familiar to us. He teaches the Msgt by the stars with which they were 
conversant. He calls us by our occupations. So St. Psul presetted to the 
Athenians by an Inscription from their altar ( Acts xvii. 23). and by a verse 
from their PoeU (Acts xvii. 28), and instructs the Jews from the rite of 
circumcision, and from their own sacrifices. 

"And when God has taught us by our own occupations, He raises us 
higher, if we listen to Him, as He did those wise men. whom He first 
taught by a star, and afterwards by a vision (verse 12). As Solomon says, 
"'— * * "rise man and he will be yet wiser (Prov. ix. »).*" 

ST. MATTHEW H. 4—11. 

'HpcuS^s 6 /tacriXevs irapaxdr), koX vacra 'Iepocrokvpa fier avrov' 4 ical aw- 
ayayiav waWas tovs dpxtepeis kou ypa/i/xarets tov Xaov, eTrwddvero nap avrwv, 
vov 6 Xpiorbs yewdrai ; (^) 6 Oi 8e eiVoi/ avr(£, \Ej/ BrjdXeep, tijs 'lovSatas* 
owTw yap ycypawrai 8ta tou irpcxfnjrov, 6 c Kat cry BrjdXeep., yfj 'lov8a, J, 
ovSaua? eXa^to-T^ et eV tois ^ye/too-iv 'lovSa* eic crov yap e^cXcvVeTa. 
^yov/nevos, octtis Troiuavel to** XadV /now top 'IcrpaijX. (-|-) 7 Tore 
"H/xuotjs Xd#pa KaXecras tovs aayovs, rjupCfioMre trap avrwv rov xpovov tov 
<fMwofia>ov aarcpos* 8 ical ire/j^ras avrov? eis Bi/flXce/x, eiVe, Ilopevdemes 
aicpi.fia><s efeTouraTe irepl tov nutSiov, iirav 81 evprjre, dirayyttkari p,oi, oirw? 
fedyw ikOwv irpoa-Kvvrja-ai avrw. 9 Ot 8e dfCovo-aiTCS tov /SacriX&ws, iiropev- 
$r)o~av ical t8ov, o cUrrrjp, o»» cTSov A* t# draToXfl, Vpoijyej' avrovs, «t>s i\0o>v 
€<m) iirdva ot Jjv to ^018101^ 10 iScWes 8c tov darcpa, e^dpiyo-av x a P av h € ~ 
ydXr/i/ o-^oSpa, u d »cal eX06We$ tus t^v oIkUw, eTZov to irat8ioi' ueTa Mapwt? f, 

8. jTapoxflij] Lest be, an usurper, should be diipowetied by the 
rightful king. And Jerusalem was troubled with him, (l) as fearing 
bis anger; (2) as ill prepared for the severe discipline of the Messiah's 
coming (Mai. iii. 2,3; iv.l). (CS/^.) 

— 'Ii poo-oXv/ia] Feminine form, lii. 5, and to Jotephut and Pkilo. 

4. ipx<«P«'«l A word suggestive of the confusion now intro- 
duced into the nominations to the office of High Priest, when the 
True High Priest came from heaven to " purify the tons of Levi." 
Instead of one High Priest for life, there were many High Priests, 
- d succession (Mai. iii. 3). As Spanheim 
•■-vrq confusa, Christo exhibito. 
.bitum, Herodis et Romanorum 

They who had held the office and the deputies of the High 
Priest were now included in the term. 

Also (aa some suppose) the Heads of the twenty-four itpnpi- 
plat, or courses of Priests >. 

— ypapnaTiU] onp to (sopaWt'nt) scribes learned in the Law of 
Moses and the Prophets, and called w|ii>oi • by St. Luke *, probably 
Memberi or Assessors of the Sanhedrim (LiyhtfoU ii. 422. 652), who 
supposes them to have been Levitts, and Masters of colleges and 
schools (1. 439. 469. 654.) 

— »o5 i Xp. ysw-iTo.] What is his birthplace? (See Winer, 
p. 238.) 

8. oi ii «Txorl They could send others to Christ, but would not 
go themselves, like msny of the builder* of the Ark, who provided a 
refuge for others, but were themselves drowned by the Flood. (Aug. 
Senn. 373. 374). The Jews carry the Scriptures, but do not believe 
them. "Codicem portat Judams, undo credat Christian us 4 ." (Aug. 

Micah v. 2. Grin/, f. _. 
f here the scribes deny* what Micah 

is elsewhere, the Holy Spirit, speaking in the New 
' -ie «**« (and not the letter) of What had been 


and thus prepares us to under* 
regarded as a literal quotation, bi 

the Old T« 

Bethlehem Ephrata" by its 

Bethlehem Judah •" (for Ephrata was now obsolete), 

iderstand that His words are not to be 

spoken by Him, through the 
He begins with calling 
•' ** ihlehem Jt 

intr, R«al-W. U. p. 271. Cp. Palrit. 1L 354, 355, win 

1. ii. p. 2 

itnpered with by ui 
lvl. Famel — " 

. \ The Holy SpirU ai 

with an oi 

i SO. 

{ the expositl 
toS mwfVrnni is a remarkable exemplificati 

offlclalJriciaEir- - « r SI Muthew'sage ....,._ . 

may serve to confute the cavils of some against the Holy Spirit dealing 
with His own Prophecies in a similar way In the Gospels, particularly in 
the first and second Chapters of St. Matthew. Indeed, we may suppose 
that the Spirit who deigned to speak by Balaam and a Caiaphas, guided 
here the words of the authorized Expounders of Scripture at Jerusalem in 
this interpretation, which He adopts by St. Matthew as His own. 
s On yv 'Iov*» see Winer , O. O. 104. 

r And the Jews themselves and the Cbaldee Paraphrase applied this 

. Cp. John vii. 42. And their exceptions against 

•■ 'n them to be or OaliUe (and not of Bethlehem), 

„ — - J>f taut days who, in this prophecy of Micah, 

o be remembered that, in Micah's 

ferred to Jerusalem, and its 
capital. And so it was little. 
(what then seemed very improbable) its fi 
for "out of thee shall go forth One to be a timer in isn 
* -t ' if Old, from the Days of Eternity. 

being eclipsed by those of the 
•' " : — *■ -as inspired to predict 
grandeur and glory, 
it in Israel ; and Hit 
lings forth are from of Old, from the Days of Eternity." 
Thus the Holy Ghost proclaimed by Micah the human birth 
and the Eternal Generation of Christ'. 

Thus also He speaks of the greatness of Bethlehem, then small 
in the world. 

Now that the prophecy is fulfilled, and now that Bethlehem, 
once little, is now become more great than it was even in the age of 
David, the Holy Spirit delivers the sense of His own prophecy, as 
spoken of old by Micah, and says, " Thou, Bethlehem Judah (so 
small and despised by men), art by no meant the least among the 
princes of Judah 1 ." 

8. iv -roti nyiMoViv] Micah has AlepM, thousands. But the 
word is here elevated to a higher meaning, i. e. to Alupnim, leaden ; 
not without reference to the nyoifti m who was to come forth from 
Bethlehem and rule the Rulers ( ffengst.), being no other than King 
of Kings and Lord of Lonls. This was a very natural modification *. 
For the Israelites were distributed into Alaphim, families or thou- 
sands, which were presided over by Princes of thousands (Exod. 
xviii. 21. Num. i. 16. Judg. vi. 15). Hence the Head* of families 
are fitly put for the families themselves. He who was the Head of 
the thousands was rightly called the Head of the Rulers themselves, 
and the City iu which He was born was pre-eminent among them >*. 
10. o-dxMpa] Thiy". 
" iUItwlw. <* ' 
>f the Fathers 
Lord waa still in t 

§ 78, and Aug. Set 

oriente ducebat, abscondebatur in stabulo, agnoscebatur in coeio. do 
Greg. Nyiteu. in Natal., and Chemnitz, cap. x., and others in Patrit. 
p. 340. Emeb., Epiphan., Theopiyl., suppose that Mary had removed 
to a Aoioe in Bethlehem, and Eusebiu, (Qu. ad. Stephan. Mai 16) 
and Epiphan. (lucres. 51) are of opinion that the Parents returned to 
Bethlehem often, on account of the wonderful events there revealed to 
them. Cp. on ii. 22, a passage cleared up by this consideration. 
And this is probable, and that the Visit of the Magi at Bethlehem 

s Compare Poecct: I. p. 134, and Lifkl/eot, i. 440. Bertgrtnbere, 
Christol. 916, who well says, '• The apparent contradiction that Micah calls 
Bethlehem ' tmatl,' the Evangelist 'bg no wuans tmaU,' has been satis- 
factorily explained by ancient and modem Interpreters. : 
ad loc. <• «& to «WeM.»r, cir.** «I, iAU y. to «™u.vo. 

and Mickaelie, ' Parvam vocat Michteas, n. 

wUnimi parvam Mattbaeus. respiciens nstivitatam Messise. 

• Meter, p. 66, charges St. Matthew or hit fc-ou/afo 

« iX* X urrn, 

11 The following is from Chrt: " The iU 

which Ihey sa 

them forth on their journey, then they are received by the Jews— their 
people and King— who introduce to them the Prophet, the written Word 
of God," " which teaches them concerning what had appeared. And time 
they are brought to Bethlehem, and then the star reappears and goes 
before, and leads them by the hand in broad daylight, that they may be 
assured that the star is not an ordinary one. and brings them to Bethlehem 
to the cradle of Chri.t. Thus they received an additional assurance of 
faith, and they rejoice greatly because they have found what they had 
sought, and have become messengers of the truth, and have not journeyed 
in vain. The star stood over the head of Christ, showing that He who was 
bom is Divine, and it invites and induces them to fall down and worship. 

" Here also let us recognise a prophetical figure of what would after- 
wards take place,— that the Gentiles would come to Christ, and anticipate 
the Jewa in coming to Him. Let us arise, and (though kings and people 
are troubled, and conspire against Christ) hasten to Bethlehem,— IheTiouae. 

ST. MATTHEW E. 12—16. 

rf}$ /U.17T/00S avTOV, kcu it€<t6vt€s irpocr&cvvrjcrav airrS, Kal avoi£avre<i tov? 
0T)<ravpov? avrtbv, TrpocrqvtrfKav avrtp %5>pa, -\pvcrbv Kal XCfiavov Kal crfivpvav. 
13 Kal x/jiflxaTUT-tfares kwt ovap pr) ayaKap/rat. irpos 'HpciBrjv, 81 aXXr/s ohov 
avex<t>pr)<rav ei*s Tr}? -)(cipav avruv. 

18 'Avax<t>pr)(ravT(ov 8c avrStv, Ihov, ayycXos Kvpiov <f>aiverai Kaf ovap Ttp 
'la)crfi<f>, Xeyav, *Eyep0el$ irapdkafie to 7rat8io»> Kal t^v pxfripa avrov, Kal 
t^evyc cis ^Jyiwrroj', Kal t<r0i ckci eiws av ewrw <xoi' /xeXXei yap 'HpebBrjs frr/reiv 
to 7rat8ibi' tov diroXccrai avrd. w '0 8c iyepOels irapeXafie to 7raiSioJ' Kal 
t^p firjrepa avrov wktos, Kal avextoprfcrev cis ^Ityvwrov 16 Kal jjv ckci ciws 
tt/s TeXevrfjs 'Hpdthov, Xva irXrjpatdjj to pnqdkv xnro Kvpiov hva tov * irpotyfrov, 
\eyovro<s, 'E£ Aiyvtrrov €Ka.keo~a tov vlov fiov. 16 Tore 'Hpatoqs, &u>v on 

ni a^er the Presentation in the Temple (whirh wu forty days after 
the birth), and so />ao(iiw (quest. Amphiloch. 36). For 

The Parents would not have taken the child Jesus to Jeru- 
talem for the Presentation (Luke ii. 22) after the alarm of Herod had 
been excited by the Magi. 

" ' " ~ot have 

■e extended hit cruelty to children of two 
t> have been immediately after the 

year, old (v. 16). 
The flight in 
ViaH of the Magi (j 

. ... inifestation in the Temple 

Immediately after the Presentation, the Parents and the child 
Jesus returned to Nazareth. See on ii. 23. Luke ii. 39. 

It seems, therefore, that the sequence of events was thus : 

Presentation in the Temple. 

Return to Nazareth. 

Return to Bethlehem (probably on the occasion of one of the 

great annual Feasts at Jerusalem). 
Visit of Magi. 
Flight to Egypt. 

Settlement at Nazareth. Cp. Patrit. ii. 328—331. 
— Tto-oVriv ■xpoaiKvvnvav — tmpa — o>vfu>av] With divine 
honours. (Patrit. p. 344—319.) Their Gifts were symbolic and 
prophetical, m f}aoi\ti, gouadr, eot li -ri6vt;£o/iiya>. ti|» anipvan, 
At U tine, XtpavivToK K Therefore their gifts, whether consciously 
on their part or no. symbolize severally to the faithful of all ages, 
His Sovereignty, His Divinity, His sufferings. (Mill, p. 378. Cp. 
Ruutk, R. S. iv. 43.) 

In fact the Magi • did three things : 

Thev fulfilled in part a prophecy concerning Christ. Pa. lxxii. 
. 10.15. 'I».lx. *~ * * > 

They themselves had a prophetical character. They prefigured 
Heathendom coming to worship Christ. And if they were of royal 

race (as seems probable), they t .; > <■ .■ * . 

tion ofall Kings to C l! " 

And (as subseqi 

symbolical and prophetical character. 
O..IJ .!«.!r u ;« A .11 »k.» i. 

able), they were prophetical of the future subj'ec- 
Christ, aa King of Kings and Lord of Lords. 
iquent events have shown) their offerings had a 

it costly to be given to Christ 

(—signify „ 
the Universal Lord. 
Frankincense- -the fragrant incense of Prayer offered through 
Him and by Him as our Great High Priest, within the veil 
(Levit. xvi. 12, 13) before the mercy-seat of God, in the 

Myrrh— " they did it for His burial." He bad myrrh pre- 
* "" " the Croa (Mark xv. 23), and myrrh for 
His body in the tomb (John xix. 39). 

— " they d 
Ml to Him 

• Cp. Ire*, ill. 9. Origtn, c. Cell. 1. 60, whet 
" Aurum regi, thus Deo, myrrham defuncto." 
Oreo. Ihom. x.), " Auro Regem, thure n*um. m 
Andthe verse. " Myrrham homo, R< 

AndXmJf.Serm 3( 
m, myrrh* mortalem prasdi 
um, susripe thura Deui." 
itory or their VUit, including the Murder of the chil 
rnd the flight Into Egypt, is discarded aa a fable not 

fails and legei 
And the follow 
on the N. T. (/ 
haften Chatakler i 

legendary schools, 
mowing language 
T. Vkird ed. Golt 

children a 

Afejer'. Critical and Exegetlcal Comi 


„ Erzahlung tit, wie tie dasteht, nlcht als v/irkliche Hi»- 

torie. sondern all sinnige judenchriilliche Sage liber die unbekinnte 
Kindheit Christl iu beiraihten, wobei um so weniger au ermitteln ist, ob 
und wie Uberhaupt etwas GeschlchtUches zu Grande liegt, all die ganze 
Geschfchte sehr leicht aus dem Jtldlschen GUuhen an die Ersclielnung 
einei Sterns bet oer Gebiirt des Messias («. Fabric. Cod. pseudepigr. 1. 
p. SM f. Sthotttf. II. p. 531. Bertmotdt Chrlstol. { 14. S/ra«« i. p. J72M, 
wclcher G lau be wahrscheinlich Num. Jt, 17, seinen Grundhatte (Schoettg. 
11. p. 151 f.), so wie »us der Messianischen Erwartung, das< fremde VBlker 
„..,.-.,, .,-_ ..„. =11 brlngen wUrden (Pi. 7J. Jes. 60), wie auch 
«.-i„..i.._k. ..„ iem 0ttm gekomni,. ^ lrfn 

it scbon reiche Tempel 

mythisch entwicki 

nothwendig und erfahrungimaaaig die tceltlMt Bemchtrmackt wider den 
erschienenen Messias in die Schranken iritt (vriil. Luk. 1. 51 f.), mit List 
and gewaltzam, wie vergeblich (Kindermord In Bethl.)." 

Thus their act was like a Creed. In their prostration and pre- 
sents, the Heathen World fell down and did homage to Christ, yet an 
Infant at Bethlehem, and they presignified the Time when all Nations 
will fall down before Him sitting on His judgment-seat and Royal 
Throne at the Great Day. 
IS. duvys sit AtrvwTot-1 

The Infant Jesus by His Divine Power makes all things ever 
mighty and wise in this world minister to Himself. Augustus Caesar, 
the Heathen Master of the World, had ministered to the evidence of 
His Messiahship at Bethlehem by the imperial decree that all should 

And now Egypt is made to minister to Christ (cp. Chry.). 

Eoypi, the nurse of Ancient Learning and the ancient enemy of 
God's People, now made the asylum of Him who wu born King of 
the Jews, — flying from Judaea itself. 

The Ancient Fathers saw here a partial accomplishment of the 

nhecy, lea. xix. 1. And there was an ancient tradition, "idol* 
?gypto ad ingressum Christi corruisse *." 

On the bearing of this action on the much controverted subject 
" de fuga in penecutione," see Athanas. Apol- d « fog* « ui * § 12 . 
p. 255. Cp. Luke iv. 30. John viii. 59 ; xi. 54. Acts ix. 25*. 

IS. W w\t|p«bp to pnoio] Not i-ro tov wpod>nTou, but rd 
pn»i» iwdKupiou ita too wpodMrroi;, i. e. The Holy Spirit hero 
declares by St Matthew what had been in His own mind when He 
uttered those words by Hosra, xi. 1. And who (hall venture to say 
that he knows the mind of the Spirit better than the Spirit Himself? 
Seel Cor. ii. 11. 
S A 

The Holy Spirit applies it to Christ; and He thus teachea 

To regard Christ aa One with His Church • in all ages of her 
history. In the persecution of the literal Israel in Egypt, He teaches 
us to see a persecution of Christ 7 . In all their affliction He was 
afflicted, and the Angel of His presence saved them (lea. lxiii. 9). 
He was with them in the Exodus, and led them through the Red 
Sea: they drank of that Spiritual Rock that followed them, and that 
Hock was Christ (1 Cor. x. 4—9). They were in Him, and He in 

to regard what is said by the Holy Spirit concerning the literal 
Israel as God's Son, as having a prelusive reference to what is de- 
clared in the Gospel concerning the only-begotten Son of God ; and 
to see, under the guidance of the Holy Spirit speaking in the Gospel, 

Thus, in His dealings with His own Prophecies, the Holy Spirit 


i the plan of the present Edition to specify with frequency 
i allegations as these, with the names of those who urge 
samples of ihem are necei»ary, by way of camion, and 

nailed in works widely cir- 

de Ineara. S3, p. so, and cp. 31. Jerome, PallaMtu, and 
others quoted by a Lapide. 

• The following ii from Carvi. " Wherefore this double flight f that of 
the wise men to Persia f lhat of she child to Egypt! The nrat-that the 
wise men might be preacheri of the truth to their own country. The 
second, becauie if our Lord had remained, and had fallen into Herod's 
hand, and not been killed, it might have been lug.eited by some that He 

i* 9 chUd, but the young child ; nor does he say, My wife, but kit mother; 
for the birth had now taken place, and Joseph's suspicions were dispelled ; 
and the Angel reveals thecauie of the flight,— Herod is about to seek his 

Obierve, alio. Joseph is not perplexed by this, but takes the child and flies 
into t'gjpt accordingly." 

• At and by means of the Passover— prefiguring Christ, from Egypt the 
land " in qua primum occaslone agni salutiferum Crucls slgnum et Paacha 
Domini fuerat pneformatum." {Leo It. Serm. xxxll.) 

• One of the txegetical canons of Tickoniut, approved by Auguitine, ill. 
100—103. And so Bengel, '•Totm Christus caput et corpus est." 

' Cp. Acta Ix. 4, 5, " Why persecute!! thou Hi t" 
» Hence St Jrromi (in Hoi J '<-** - » «* 

And Orotitu says (I. a), " 

le Evangelist cil 
is and other pi . 
sd of History Is unbroken." 

ST. MATTHEW II. 17—23. 

hrenaiyQti viib rav fidyotv, idvfuodr) Xiav, /ecu airoortLXas avelXe. ndvras tows 

vatSas tows b> Brjdkekp Kal ev iraa-i rots 6omhs awn}?, otto Sierous Kal>- 

repta, Kara, rbv xpovov ov r/Kplficacre irapa rS>v fidytov. 17 Tore iirforjpcbdr} to 

pt)6cv Sia "lepe/xiow tow vpotpqrov, Xeyovros, 18 f $o>»"r) cV 'Papa rJKov<rdr), tia.n.u. 

Oprjvos Kal K\at/d/xos, kcu 6Bvpp.b<s 7roXws, 'Pa^X /cXcu'owcra ra 

T€Kva awT^s, «al owk ^0eXe vapaicXrjdrjvai, on ovk eiat. w TcXew- 

Tt)<ravTo$ ok tow 'ELptahov, tZov, ayyeXos KvpCov tear ovap tpawerai t$ 'Ia>o~fj<f> 

hf * Alywrrtp, * Xeytov, 'EyepOel? vapakafie to waiSibv Kal rtjv pryrdpa avrov, gExod.4. w. 

Kal iropcvov eis yf/i» 'Itrparjk' TCcVr/Kaca yap ol Cryrovvre? ttjv tyvfflv tow 

watSCov. 21 'O Bk eyepdel? irapeXafie to iraihiov Kal Tip pryrdpa avrov, koX 

IjXdev el? y^v 'itrparjjX' M axovcras &, ori '^/oxcXaos /Sao-iXewei eVl ttJs 'Iow- 

Saias airl "HpcuSow tow irarpbs awrow, tyofiijdri cicei mrdddeui' ^i^/tiaricrdel? 

8% Kar* ovap, avex^prjo-ev eis Ta /xe/917 tjjs raXiXaias, ® Kal iXdav Karanajcrtv 

ets iroXif Xeyofiarrjv Nafeped, oVats irhqpatfrj} to prjOkv 8ta tow irpotfyrjTav h , ©rt hin.11. 1. 

Na£a>pa2o<s KXift^o-eTai. zeen.s.8. 

opens to at new lighu u to their meaning, lights wAk* we could hire 
never have hoped to receive. 

16. Toin ■wattat — owd tuToit] The mafet, from the child who wu 
two years old. Cp. 1 Chron. xxvii. 23 '. 2 Chron. xxxi. 16. Herod 
might bare supposed that the Star wu significant of the child already 
barn, and not to be born, and therefore might hare extended the range 
of hit cruelty in time (cp. Patrit. p. 381 ), at he did iu place by 
killing thote in all the rmon$ near (opia) Bethlehem (t. 16), u well 
at Bethlehem itaelf. For a valuable ancient exposition see Basil 
Seleucen. 37, p. 188. The following, slightly modified, it from 
Ckrys. * " Why wu Herod allowed to perpetrate this murder? Why 
did Christ fly, and suffer these children to be slain ? Why did the 
Angel deliver Peter from prison, and thus expose the keepers to 
death ? Christ wu not the cause of slaughter, but the cruelty of the 
king was. Remonstrate with Herod, not with God. But why did 
God allow this ? What shall we say, but what may be always replied 
to such questions? There are many who act unjustly, and no man 
can be injured but by himself. How can we say that these children 
were injured in being cut off by death? they who were so soon 
brought to a placid harbour of everlasting peace ! This is part of the 
answer, not the whole, which is well known to Him who ordereth 
these things. And remember, that Herod, who perpetrated this 
wicked deed, wu soon called to his account, and died a wretched 
death, u you may have read in the history of Josephus." On the 
murder of the Innocents, it is beautifully observed by Leo M. 
(Sens, xxxi.), " Constat, ne ullum Ei tempus esset absque miraculo, 
ante usum lingua* potestatem Verbi tacitus exerebat, et quui jam 
diceret. Sutite panmlot venire ad Me (xix. 14), talium enim est reonum 
eatorum, nova gloria coronabat Infantes, ut disceretur neminem 
divini incapacem esse sacramenti, quando etiam ilia atu gloria: apta 
esset martyrii." On Christ's love for Infants see ibid. Serm, xxxvi. 
p. 90. See also Bp. Taylor, Life of Christ, sect vi. 

17. tots ixXnpwf'il Then, and not till then, the prophecy (Jer. 
xxxi. 15) received itajjWt mi final accomplishment. 

It had been partially and provisionally verified in the first in- 
stance in the murder of the children of Judasa, particularly of the re- 
gion where Rachel, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin, wu buried, 
(Gen. xxxv. 17—20; xlviii. 7) by the Babylonians'. 

But it wu now fully accomplished, and no other fulfilment wu 
to be expected. 

The Holy Spirit, speaking by St. Matthew, teaches us ben and 
elsewhere in these first two Chapters 4 , that the Prophecies spoken by 
Himself in the Old Testament are not exhausted at once, but have a 
perennial flow on through successive ages till they arrive at their 
height and spring-tide in Christ*. His Coming is the consummation 
for which all History prepares the way, and toward which all Pro- 

Deo prophets mentrm fuisx, ut quod de Israele dlcebatur rtcliit (and we 
may add, plenlus, imo plenissime) in Christum convenint." See also Mill, 
p. 411. 

ro«M and ethers (cp. Meier, p. 74) against this 
e at Bethlehem, on account of the eilenee of 
"- "'" --•* had been solidly confuted 
. - SM-fc». 

. . _, , ... - committed by personal in- 

1 to a private interpretation of the prophecies concerning the Metsiah, 

in favour of rttpatim and or R<mu ; and the reasons of worldly policy 
which unhappily led him to speak in flattering and equivocal language 
concerning Christianity (see on Acts xivi. M), would induce him to sup- 
press any evidence iu favour of the true King of the Jews (cp. Arnold!). 
» In these ethical extracts the Editor does not profess to give always a 

> Cp. Psa. exxxvii. 8, 9, and the Chaldee Paraphrase on Ja. xxxi. 15; 
xl. 1, and Mill, pp. 402-407. 
. « see I. Mj li. ». Cf. vili. 17; xli. 17; alii. 35 ; xxl. 4; xxvti. 9. 35. 

a As Lord Bacon says (Adv. of Learning, li. p. 101 ), •• 1) 
being of the nature of their Author, with whom a Moats* 
Vol. I. 

mable specimens of Prophetic Interpretation which are given by the 
Holy Spirit in these two Chapters of St Matthew, we learn to read 
History and Prophecy aright. 

20. Ti6«(*aoi] A gentle war of saying— Herod it dead. Tha 
Plural for sing, showing lenity ana forbearance, particularly in speak- 
ing of the dead. Cp. Glau. Phil. Sacr. p. 421. Winer, 158. Meier 
here. See below, ix. 8; xxvii. 24. 

Herod died just before the Passover, a. v. 750*. 

Our Lord was, probably, then more than a year old; and, 
efbre, his birth wu not later than A.u. 749. 

A similar result is obtained from Luke iii. 1. 23, where Our 
Lord is said to have been about thirty years of age in the fifteenth 

Our Lord's Death took place in the consulate of the two 
Gemini >, a.u. 782. His Ministry (it is probable) commenced when 
He wu thirty years old, luted three years and a half*. Therefore 
He wu born a.u. 748 or 749. 

The common era Anno Domini (due to Dionysius Exignua 
A.D. 525, and thence called the Dionysian era), which makes the first 
year from the Incarnation to coincide with A.u. 754, begins about 

88. 'Apx'*" *] Nine ye*™ afterwards banished by Augustus to 
Vienne, in Gaul; when Judisa became a Roman province u an 
apanage to Syria. < Joseph. A. xviii. 1.) 

— /Sao-, iwij Not King o/— , but set /Sa<r.Xt»s«» 1*1— . (See 
Joseph, xvii. 13) The iwl, cancelled in some MSS., ought not to be 

— .otofMen i «" dwtXe.T.-— a«.ix«.f»>«r«r «] It hu hence been 
alleged by some (e. g. Meyer) that St Matthew wu not aware of 
what is mentioned by St. Luke, viz. Joseph's and Marv's previom$ 
abode at Nazareth (Luke i. 26 ; ii. 4). But this is groundless ; 

It wu very natural that Joseph and Mary (though formerly 
resident at Nazareth in Galilee) should now desire to settle at Beth- 
lehem Judah, the city of David, on account of the prophecies con- 
nected with it — and the marvel of which it had just been the scene — 
in the history of the new-born child, who wu to sit on the throne of 
Ait Father David, and whom therefore they might well wish to bring 
np in the City of David. See above on ii. 11. 

The word A-riXerw alto, used here, intimates a departure from, 
and aViYupiio'ti' may imply here a return to, a former abode—Naza- 
reth. For this sense of d»«x»/>n»<>' see ii. 12 ; iv. 12. 

— TaXiXalot] Where a "King of the Jews" would not be 
so much an object of jealousy to the ruling powers u in 

years before the death of Augustus Ca 

A.o. 767(r«c«i. Ann. 1. 3. S«e«i.. Tibe,. -», ... 

to the fifteenth year of Tiberius corre»ponds with A. i 

since our Lord wu then thirty years old, he wu b 

'• On this subject see Wieuler, Chronol. Synops. p. «7, who pli 
Nativity in a. o. 750. Oretwtir, Dissertations, x. vol. I., who pli 
Lordt birth on April 5, a. o. 750. OieuUr, Ch. Hl.t J JO. Mill 
who observes that the year of Rome 750 Is the year at which tl 
tradition Axes the Nativity. C««toa, F. H. ii. App. p. 138, plao 
the spring of B.C. 5 = a.o. 749. 

On the time of year in which our Lord wu bom, see John L 14 

ST. MATTHEW m. 1—9. 

ITT, (-a-) 1 *Ev 8e rat? ^/zepais eWfais nrapaytverai 'Iomim^s 6 fiainurrr)? 
icqpvcro-tav ev Ty iprfp-tp ttjs ^ovSaias, 2 »cai Xtfytw, AferacociTe, ■^yywce yap 
ij ySatriXcta * t£i' ovpavStv (-f-) 8 b 05ro« -ya/o €<jtu> o pqdws 8ta 'Htratov rov 
irpotfnjrov \eyovTOS, Qtavri fioaJVTOS iv rjj ip-tjpttt, 'ETOi/x-ao-are Tr)** 
oSov KvpCov, eutfeias woieiTe ras rpifiov? aitrov" (-*£•) 4 ^Ivtos 8e 6 
"IwdWr/s c etx € T ° S'Sv/ia avrov diro rpi^tav nap.rp\ov, *cal ^gjpijj' Sep/xariVr/f 
ncpl tt)v ocrtfwv avrov' 17 8c rpotfti) avrov fjv d a/c/>i8e<? ical * /xAt ayptov, 

6 r Tore igeiropcvero 7r/>os avrw ' Itpotrokvpa, #cal iratra 17 'lovSaia, koi ira<ra 
»} ireplxo>po<; rov 'IopBdvov, 6 #cal ifiairrttovro iv t$ 'IopSdvy iroraptp vn 
avrov, i£opo\oyovpevoi ras apaprias avrStv. (-,-) 7 'Ififtw 8c 7roXXovs Ttw 
•PaptcraiW teal Xa&hovKauov ipxopevov? eVl to f&airrurpa avrov, etirev avrofc, 
g rewTJpara i)(i%vG>v, Tts weSet^ec v/iiV tftvytiv dirb rfjs b /AeXXovcrr/s opyrjs ; 
8 7rowjVaT€ o5i> Kapwbv aijiov rrjs peravoiay 9 ical /ii) Sd^re Xeyew eV eavrot?, 
1 JJarepa e^opev rov 'Afipadp' Xeyot yap vpw, ori SvVarai 6 ©cos eVc twv 

who wen to be disabused of their notion of local Deities, and to be 
taught the Unity of God, uw fiaetXtia tax, OsoD. See below, iv. 7. 
And on the true character of the Kingdom of Heaven, or Christian 
Church, at distinguished from the Kingdom! of Earth, and from the 
temporal Kingdom expected by the Jews, aee Daniel ii. 44 ; vii. 14. 
27 ; our Lord*. Parables, xiii. 11-52. Cp. MeaVt Work*, p. 103. 

8. oStm] St. John's words concerning himaelf (John i. 23); and 
cp. on Matt. xvi. 1& 

— Kvplov] Jehovah, Christ Bemgtl, Bp. Lonsdale. 
4. avrdt it] Although he was so great, yet such was his (are and 

garb,— in which he resembled Elijah, 2 Kings i. 8. 

— Mt/fia] Here (says CArys.) was an invitation to the Jews, be- 
holding in St John's garb and appearance an image of the great 
Elias (2 Kings i. 8), sn<f being reminded of his character and history 
in contrast with the effeminacy of his own age. 

— ixpitit] A common food in the East, Lerit xi. 22. itm. ii. 
29; vi. 30. St Jerome (in Jovlnlan. ii.) : " Locustas prisei edebant, 
vel elixas Tel tostas et in pollinem redactas ; imo Tel sole Tel sale et 
fumo duratas in totum annum eervabant" 

6. t£fwo P iiiiTo] They were excited by the wonder, that after so 
long an interval of silence a Prophet had risen up among them; for 
the grace of Prophecy had ceased, and was now revived after a long 
time : and the burden of his prophecy was strange, net concerning 
battles, and pestilences, and famines, and Babylonians, and Persians, 
snd the taking of their city, and other such things as they had heard 
from the old Prophets — but the kingdom of heaven, and the punish- 
ments of Hell. (Chrys.) 

— iram] "major vel magna pars." GHam. Philol. 8. p. 882. Or 
" some from alt parti of — ." (Bemad.) Exod. ix. 6 ; xxxii. 8. 
Mattviii. 34. Phil. iv. 13. 

— 'lopldmv] 'lopiavnt as pr, either from TT (yarad) desamdit 
(Reland, Pal. iii. 63), or from ^r (yor), Jtuviu^tmi rj {Dan), its 
source at the foot of Lebanon. (Jotepk. A. xv. 13.) 

7. *api<ralmi> «oi 2aoAV.woJi.i-] On these sccU see LuAt/oei, I 
654. John, Archaol. § 317—320, Bp. Lonedate, and Al/ord here. 
The Pharisees did not submit to John's Baptism, Luke vii. 31. 

— yuviriara i X 'tyS,.\ Cp. Ps. lviii. 4. Isa. xiv. 29. Matt, 
xii. 34; xxi. 31,— with an allusion perhaps to the A<ptt dpxalot, 
whose progeny some among them are called, John viii. 44, 45. 

9. Mi «"£.|t. \.] Let not this be your lota. "Sic Don debetis 
placen vobis." {Bengel ) Cf. Winer, Q. O. 540. 

— ik T<i» X<0«w Tou-raw] In the desert by the river's side,—" nt 
ex gleba Adauium." (Beng.) 

And so God did. For, as Joshua, the type of Jesus, took up 
twelve stows from the bed of the same river Jordan (Josh. iv. 1—9), 

. ii. Na{»paio< «Xii«ii<riTa.] 

A prophecy no where found literatim in the Old Testament 
But (as has been already seen, i. 22; ii. 15. 17) the Holy Spirit 
in the New Testament gives the seme of the Prophecies spoken by 
Himself in the Old, and not always the exact words K 

And therefore St Matthew does not refer here to any one Pro- 

" be shall be a , and be known to 
be,"— remarkably fulfilled by "the title on the Cross. 
But how was Christ VatrnpaTot? 

As (he Branch or Neteer from the root of Jesse (Isa. xi. 1 ; 
where see Jerome * and Vilringa, and cp. Is. xiv. 19). And 
though the word for .Branca in other prophecies* is not -xfi 
(netter), but mpj (tmemah), yet Neteer expresses the tenet of 


ould fl< 

And from this word Netter, or branch, the City N«J«pl» 
derived its name, " quia urbs florida et virgultit consita.' See 

And the Holy Spirit teaches us, that by settling at Maori 
the city of branehet, He whose " Name is the Branch" t 
fulfilled an ancient prophecy that He should be called Na£w- 

Tbis word, derived by the enemies of Christianity from an ob- 
scure village of despised Galilee. Nazareth, was inscribed as 
His title on the Cross 7 , and was applied in contempt to the 
followers of Christ (AcUxxiv. 5), «ho gloried in it 8; and 
Christ applied it to Himself/ l " " ' 

Ch. III. L •Io.a'rvnt i /JairTi<m(«] So called by Jote, 
xviii. 5. 2. Heathens were baptized on reception into Judaiso 

T-U- u. !.._.:.:__ .1.. I ._.._>.. .1..^, tDa j jj^y nOW ncK 

began to preach in the wildemem of Judesa (cf. Luke i. 
.«, , .... u ; , vurn baptized near Bethany (John i. 28), and in the reeion 
about Jordan (Luke iii. 3), and at ^fiioa, near Salim (John iii. 23). 

2. paoi\.ia ■<£,, oiipoi.ii.] A phrase used only by St Mat- 
thew. St Mark and St Luke, writing more especially for Gentiles 

See Jerome ad Pammach. Ep. S3, pp. 252- JM, who si 
Isition on these Prophecies by saying, "ex his perspicuu 
Bvangelisiss in intrrpretstione Trterum Scrlpturarum t 
- Cp. Saras***, pp. 1.KI, 

. Jerome says, also, ad Pammach. p. 151, " E 

et jvowr**. de virgi Ejus ereseef 

>r. xiiii. i; MxiU 15. Zech. Ul. 8; vi. 11. 

n of Vefmptuot from Nettr, 

• The other derital 

a Nazarhe, but Is contrastec 

Cp.JOrt,p. __ 

The etymology ^jj (<M>(a«r), 
recommend it. Job vii. 10. Psa : 
7 The names Jem. drill. JSmm 

ii. 14. Isa.xxvil.5. 

jlesst t\Be*iet.) 
Iv. 10; tL14; xxvt ». 

» Cp. Hammond here, pp. 11, It, and Jmck-n, On the Creed, >L Ha- 
iti, " He turned aside Into the pans of Galilee (Matt, it 11), to tha place 
of Christ's conception : and thus by his doubtful resolution, ihe will of the 
Lord which he had spoksn by the Prophet, is fulfilled ; to wit, that Christ, 
from the place of his conception and education, should be called Nmna- 
rmtu; a name in their Intendment that sought to fasten it first upon him 
of disgrace and scorn, but by the disposition of the Almighty a known title 
of greatest honour, convicting such as used it otherwise, tvrn whilst they 
spake it, of blasphemy. For this city's name, it is by interpretation, the 
city of plants. Whence if tbe Jew captiously demand, Was U ever heard 
Hal aw* prophet should arise out of Nazareth I We may answer (as our 
Saviour did Pilate), 'Infidel I thou hast said it, though unwittingly, as 
dying for the people : for didst 

Caiaphas thy predecessor c id 

now, ,n« should grow out of the root of Ishall What if thou canst 
not revile this Jesus whom we preach, but thou must acknowledge him 
Hanotxeri smrculus Me. m smrculariut ille, or permen illud, the Plant, 
the Branch)' For though the objector meant to disgrace him, yet <iod 

had ordained his glory as well out of his enemf " ' 

- » - «• i« out of the mouths of babes V— - 
ill. And it is very suitable tothewa>so 
ambiguous words or speeches unto the 
raiting that 

o disgrace him, yet nod 

>, uicwt him neither good nor 
God's uroridence to suggest by 
hearsr, conceits quite 

rnirary so ueir meaning tnat uwerea inera. 

» Buxtarf, hex. Tel. p. 4*8. Light/oot an John Iii. and her*. 


klOatv rovrctv iyeipai tckvo. t£ 'Afipadfi. 10 "HStj 8k rj aijivr) irpb? rrjj/ pi£av 
twv SevSpoiv Kelrcw i vav aftv hevhpov fi'ff ttolovv Kapirov koXov iKKoirrercu, J] 
net* as irO/> ySaXXerat. (-£•) ll k '-Byw /*€v v/*as rSawrl^w h> vSan €ts ywavouw * 
6 Se oTricrai p.ov ip\6fievo9 i<rxyp6rep6$ fiov iarCv 08 ovk ei/xl ircapo? tcI 
uiro&ty/iara fiaardaatr 1 atYros u/ias fiairrUra *b> IIvevfiaTi ayup k<u trvpi' A ! 
(-£-) 12 m 08 to wtiW »• T# x e V" «*>roS, ical huutaOapu-t rr)v aXwva avrov, m 
Kal arwdgei. rbv triTCy avrov eis Tr)i> attoBr^Ktp> avrov, " to oe a^ypov KaraKavcrei n , 
irvpi da-ySeWy. 

(-*■) 1S ° ^ot* irapaywerai 6 'It/o-ovs airb rrjs TaXiXaias «rt tov 'lophdvrjv » 
wpos rbv 'Ioxwvrfv, tow fiavTurdfjvax iir avrov. M 'O Sc SterccoXva' avrov, 
Xeyeov, 'Eyio xpttav e\a> tnrb Sov fiairrurd'qvai, Kal Si> *PXQ irp6\ fte ; 1S cwro- 
Kpi$el$ 8c 6 'Iijo-ovs etwe irroos avrov, *A<f>es apri' ovtcj yap npiirov iarlv fipXv 

and set them op an the western bank 1 there for a. memorial, to Jesus, 
the true Joehua, after His baptism in the same river, began to choose 
His twelve Apostles (see on x. 3) from obscure and unlearned men, 

ty that hath foundations, whose builder is Ood. (Hob. xl. 10.) ' 
And so, daily, Ood raises up children to Abraham from stones 
of the desert (/re*, iv. 7. 2), when by His grace He softens the stony 
heart of the heathen, who worship stocks and stones, — and of the in- 
fidel, and turns them to Christ. (Jenmt.) Aug. in Joan. 42. 5. We 
become Abraham's seed by faith, but are chanced into the Devil's by 
unbelief. (Hilary.) 

10. <•'£/»*—«••>«•] A warning of judgment Cp. Luke xiii. 7. 
Qna. Horn, in Ev. xx. 9. 

if. s»] Hebr. j, denoting the instrument ; B*Vri, with water only, 
without the Spiritual grace to be given by means of water in the 
Baptism instituted by Christ. Cp. Acts 1. 5 ; xi. 16 ; xix. 4. Greg. 
Horn, in Ev. vii. 3. 

— Iirxvporipot mo"] For I call to repentance, bnt He remits sin. 
I preach the kingdom of heaven. He bestows it. I baptize with 
water. He with the Spirit also. (Raban.) On the difference of the 
Baptism of John and the Baptism instituted by Christ, see Acts 
xix. 4. Aug. c lit Petil. ii. 82—37. Cyril, in John i. 26. Patrit. 
H. p. 450—453. 

— 4»oi.|«oTa /3o<rroVa.] " Servns ejus esse." Pbrsf, Adsg. N. T. 
815. St. Luke says, iii. 16, \vo-oi to* Iparra rS,u v-*olr\nuTw». 
" If," says Aug. de Consens. Ev. ii. 12, " there is any real discrepancy 
between the two expressions, then we may be sure that the Baptist 
Used them both ; but if he only meant to express our Lord's greatness 
and his own littleness, then the ....... . 

same sense is preserved, whethi 
thus considered, they i 

To purify, illumine, transform, inflame with holy fervour and 

instruction, that in reading the Scripti 
mind of the speaker." 
— wvf>(] "Spiritu Sancto, Illoque ieneo. 

ml, and carry upward (as Elijah 
of An), — a prophecy ■ _! " ' 
■ Spirit descei " 
Catech. 3, p. 

is carried up to heaven in a chariot 

There is also a threefold baptism with fire, says Jei 
... With the fire of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost. 
2. With the fiery trials of this life. Luke xii. 49. 1 Pet i. 7 ! 

iv. 12. See on Mark ii 


IS. of to tt(» — avrov] On th 
Winer, p. 134. As Bengel observes, the pronouns bring out the great 
truth, that no one has the judicial fan but Christ ; that it is Hit fan, 
and in Hit hand. 

The Baptist— greater than a Prophet— passes from a view of 
the First Advent to a vision of the Second. Chritt has come as Sa- 
viour; but He is seen by him coming as Judge. His fan is in His 
hand ; the Vi.ible Church Universal, the World itself, is His thresh- 
ing-floor, in which wheat and chaff now lie mingled together ; He 

Md John point to them t (Bemgel. 
I. Aug. (Serm. 4. 31, p. 37), " Ecc! 
lomluum quo. non potest purga~ 
iltimui Ventilator qui fall! non 

dominie* antequam veniat 
233, p. 1408, " Quantum e>t hoc quod 

> Cp. p. 687 and ep. Jmtrote in Lnc. ii. 83. Aug. In Job. iv. 11. 
« The Author of the Sermon in St. Aug. Appendix 135, 1, says, 
The Holy Spirit who had been present with Christ In His mother's 
omb, now .hone around him in the water ; He now sanctifies the water, 
ho tht* puri/t'd Maty," a strong testimony against the modem dogma 
sat sbe was exempt tram original sin. 

C»r»i. here) that 

It hss been supposed by some of the Fathers 
our Lord inttiMei the Sacrament of Baptism at H 
Water was sanctified by His Baptism In to; when th 

e from the other by the fan of His 

people the 
e Judge, lest they should imagine that Christ, submitting to 
jonn s baptism, was inferior to John. " Observe," says City,., "after 
baptism, he immediately speaks of the fan of judgment, in order that 
you might not imagine that Baptism is enough, without good fruit. 
For every free that bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down and 
cast into the fire. Let none of us, therefore, be chaff, tossed about 
with the wind, not puffed away by temptations, nor separating 
ourselves by schism, but remaining on the threshing-floor of the 
Church. Let us also remember that, on the Christian floor, the 
grain may become chaff and the chaff grain. God now tries the grain, 
aud is long-suffering toward the chaff, that we may escape the fire, 
and inherit heaven. " In area sunt viatona, in Aomeo victora." 

— i x »eor] Not merely chaff (x"oSe) yta (note) 'stubble,' 
' stalk,' but the tUpula also, and indeed all that is not grain. 

Chaff alone would have been of little use for heating the «\i- 
A in the T ' 

fiapot, or oven, but stubble, ckc. was commonly used ii 

in East for 

. of Ge- 
henna. And hence a warning is implied by the Baptist, that what- 
soever it not good grain will be cast into it at the Great Day. 

He also compares the Visible Church, which is the world, to 
an area, or threshing-floor, where chaff and grain, — bad and good, — 
now lie mingled together, till He who will winnow them shall come. 
And thus He teaches patience, constancy, charity, zeal, and fear*. 

IS. o 'InooSs— pawTKrOtjva.] Why did Jesus come to be bap- 

" To sanctify Water to the mystical washing away of sin." 
See Ignat. Eph. 18, Ti/o to Simp naiaplan. Hence St. Cyril 
Hieronl. (Cat 44, p. 45), n yfo<rt to pi-rrtit M a ^awTi»9fi« oirot, 
and Jerome (adv. Lucif. p. 293), "Dominus lavacro 

(p. 538), " He' who was baptized as 

He came to baptize water by being baptized in it 4 . 

He came to the Baptism of His servant in order that we, who 
are Christ's servants, should rejoice to come to the Baptism of our 
M"ter. {Aug. in John. Tract v. 3.) 

And thus, by obedience and humility 


o fulfil all righteout- 

and humility, t 
n Disobedience to it." (Chryt.) See on v 

„- .., 17. 

14. iy<4 YP"' a * «X»] And therefore they who were baptized 
rith John's baptism were afterwards baptized into Christ, Acts xix. 

And the Baptist himself was baptized into Christ, if not "bap- 
tismo/iintMis" (as some of the fathers have thought), yet "baptismb 
fiaminie," in his mother's womb (Luke i. 15), and "baptismo son- 
gniitis," as a Martvr for Christ ». 

15. dvoKptStis] A word censured as a solecism by the Gramma- 
rians. (See Phrynich. Eclog. p. 40.) Such Barbarisms as these, dis- 
tinguishing the Greek Testament from all other books of its age, place 
it in a position of its own, and render its triumph over the learning 
and eloquence of the world more wonderful and illustrious. 

— if it apri] See v. 14. 

of the ~ 

so (it b 

ty of Hi< own B 

imuted the Leviticsl shadow of the Pass. - ..-«,... 

ol L Hi F-.-fts • <>t hasbeen^thought) byiome, 

Baptism (John III. and Iv 

it soon after this, Chrut did administer His 

.._,. . _. ,. , , though it was not made imperative o» ail till 

the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost, when the New 
Law was fully promulgated, and the Old ceased to oblige. 

» Hence Oreg. Nats. p. 887, lays, " / hme need," «rc. So spake the 
Av X w to Him who is the Light ; the Voice, to the Word; the friend, to 
the Bridegroom: He who was greater than all who had been bora of 
woman, to Him Who is the Firstborn of every ereaSure; John, to Cubist. 
And Christ replied, Suffer It to be so «o», for He knew that He would 
afterwards baptise the Baptist. And I 
see St. mppolftui, I p. »«J. Ortg.T, 

Jobn 1. 32. 33. 

ST. MATTHEW IE. 16, 17. IV. 1, 2. 

trkrfpSt&ax tratrav SiKouoavvrjv. Tore u$vq<riv awrw* (-y-) w F fiairrurdtis 81 
6 'lT)<rov$ €w0v$ avifJrj airb tow uSaros* Kal iZov, ave^x^ 7 l a ' <u/ <*&*$ °* ovpavoi, 
Kal etSev q to JlraJ/ia tow ©6oS KarafSaLvov, axrcl irtpurrepav, Kal ipxofifvov 
iir ovtov' ,7 icat iSou, r ^wei) eic raw ovpavwv, Xeyovcra, * OSrds «rTU> d Tids 
rtVTi.T8." jiov d dyewrijTOS, a* $ evSomjo-a. 
coiM *is SS " ^* (tt) i * ■^° TC ° '^ or °2s avyx^V € * s T 9" *pyh-° v vnh rov nvevfiaros, 

i.rt?5. l i.ta* c ' V€ipa<rdr)pau. vvb tow Aiafiokov. (-£) 2 ical JtfOTewtras r/fiepa? Tecra-apaKovra 

— wXijoio-ai — «.«.] Quoted by Ignatius ad Smyro. i. p. 431. 
See on v. 17. 

16. 4n«y0i|<rai> oi oApawt] The heavens, which had been shut 
by the sin of Adam are now opened at tbe baptism of Christ (Greg, 
tfaz.p. 688). 

The opening of the Heavens, the Descent of the Holy Ghost, 
and the Voice from braTcn, designating Chriit, now thirty Tear* of 
age, a* the well beloved Son of God, were not only miniitenaf to His 
Baptism, as such, but to this His public Ordination, and Inauguration 
in His Ministry, by the visible Unction of the Holy Ghost lighting 
upon Him (Isa. lxi. 1 and Luke iv. 21), and bvan audible commission 
from God for the public performance of His prophetical office of 
preaching tbe Gospel. Cp. Bp. Pearson, Art. ii. p. 178. 185. 

— <1«1 wspie-rtpa.] ../.aruu iMtt says St Luke, iii. 22. 
"-t by any hypostatic union of the Holy Spirit with - "— ' ' '— 

. kl- ..'-.'.r .1.- ;__;_:kl. ;-fl *.r ,k~ U.t.. 

transitory appearance, might contemplate the invisible and eternal 

Aug. compare* this manifestation to the flame which appeared to 
Moses in the bush >. 

Also, by the appearance of a Dove at Christ's Baptism, the 
Holy Spirit may have designed to remind the world of what took 
place at the Creation. The word used in Genesis i. 2, to express the 
moving of the Holy Spirit on the face of 
is n^rrjy (merachepheth). 

" flutter with a tremulous o 

a dote does" (cp. Deut xxxii. 11), and to prepared the way for this 
manifestation of the Holv Ghost at the ' 
Creation in the Baptism or Christ 

e inauguration of tho New 

the Old World— tbe return of the Dove to the Jri, with trie Olii 
Branch in it* mouth, was the signal of the cessation of God's wrath, 
and the return of peace to tbe world, so the Dove was now visible as an 
emblem of reconciliation and peacein Christ (Epb.ii. 11— 17. Col. i. 20). 

The Dove, also, is an emblem of those grace*, the fruits of the 
Spirit (Gal. v. 22), which are given in Baptism,— love, joy, holiness, 
and peace 4 (Matt. x. 16), and which are to be cherished by all who 
are baptized into the mystical body of Christ*. 

The distinct appearance of the Holy Ghost at Christ's Bap- 
tism, together with the Voice from heaven, " This is My beloved 
Son." brings out clearly the distinctness of each of the Three Persons 
of the Ever Blessed Trinity, and was an appropriate prelude to 
the fuller Revelation of the Doctrine of the Ever Blessed Trinity, 
in Whose Name the whole world is now to be Baptized, according to 
the institution of Christ 

Tbe Mystery of the Trinity is shown in the baptism of Christ 
The Lord is baptized ; the Spirit descends in the likeness of a Dove ; 
the Voice of the Father is heard, bearing witness to His Son. And 
tbe Dove settles on the Head of Jesus, Test any one should imagine 
that the Voice was for John, and not for Christ (Jerome) and in 
order that we might know that at our own Baptism the Holy Spirit 
descends on us, and that we are bedewed with the unction of celestial 
glory, and are made the Sons of God by adoption «. (Hilary.) 

17. A Yl* *ou o Avow,,™] He is supposed by men to be Joseph's 

ton ; but He is the Son of Mi (not Wt, but iio»), and He is My 

iya-wtrrit. My Only Son (St. Hippol. p. 263. St. Athanas. adv. 

Arian. iv. 29. Paint, ii. p. 488). 

— iMokiim] Not simply in a present sense. See zii. 18 ; xvii. 

sage, "Spiritua Del fere- 
Grey. Sen. p. 688. 

I Cp. St. CftU. Hieroml. p. 46. The Fathe 

> In the tract Chaaieah, it Is said on this pa 
batur super aquas, at Colmmia." 

» With C*r,i. here. Ambrose on Luke ill. SJ 

* Hence S/. Cl—vml Horn. fr. vilL Huipw . ... .. _„_„„ 

"Ayier, ooe-tc mi vov IlaipOj. K«i touto ir tv»w Utpumpit ttofteyf To 
■vie- {ioy ai.c.'.r i*.' ai i X oM, «<m- '/ucam M oOarw Qrwip* 

JoW weoUium, tra p vtVi)o-g tow olitnt, eoX toS aoparov ty r\y twiyvn- 

> In reference to the event recorded here by St. Matthew, the Aiabisn 
impostor had a doie which lie taught to fly to his ear, and from which he 
pretended to derive inspiration ; and so he bare witness to tbe truth of this 

-"-'••■• s. Trinltatis, et doeumentum quid fl.t, 

n oon 8ihi baplisatus est Christus." (Btngel.) 

certain sense, Mankind was baptized in Christ : for. ai 

'«' ' e. Arian. 46. p. MS), "Christ declares that He 

"■— '*-•• " 19). When He had—- 

Ch. IV. t iwi toD n*e«>.rrot] (he Spirit ; the Holy 8pirit On 
tbe distinct personality and Divinity of the Holy Ghost see Atiumae. 
Epist ad Serapion. p. 618—540. and j>. 557 ; and for a refutation of 
the most prevalent errors on His Nature and Person, Greg. No*. 
Orat xxxi. p. 556. Bp. Peartm, On the Creed, Art. viii. p. 575. 

— Iptj/iov] Later curiosity has specified the desert of Qiarantama 
(between Mount of Olives and Jericho) a* the scene of tbe Tempta- 
tion ; just aa it has fixed on a certain Mountain as the Mountain of 
Beatitudea, for the scene of tbe &r«o« on the Mount, and on Mount 
Thabor for the Transfiguration, tec. But the Holy Spirit has left all 
these matters, in Christ's History, uncertain ; probably with the aamo 
design that He had in not mentioning the burial-place of Moses,— vix. 
' J — tinst Superstition. (Cf.Beugelw ~" ■ ' 

to guard at 


Mark L 12, and Mkkaelis and Webster here, 
for the opinion that tbe Temptation was in the desert of Arabia. 

— wnpao-0rjra<] Why was He tempted ? " Ideo," says Aug. in 
Ps. lx. " tentatus est Christus ne vincatur i Tentatore Chriatianua." 
And because the trial of earth it necessary for the triumphs of heaven. 
" Quando tentaris cognosce quia paratur Corona. Tolle Martyrum 
cruciatus, tulisti beatitudinea." (Ambrose, in Luke if.) Our Lord 
is tempted immediately after His Baptism ; showing that the Devil 
attacks those who are sanctified, and that he desires particularly to 
gain a victory over them. (Hilary.) Thou hast received arms (ram 
God's armoury, not that thou shouldest fly, but fight He does not 
restrain the troop of temptations hastening to assail thee, in order 
that thou mayest learn by resisting them through Grace, that He ha* 
made thee stronger than they ; and in order that from a sense of danger 
thou mayest live humbly, and not be elated by thy gift*; and that 
the Tempter may learn, by finding thee proof against temptation, that 
tbou hast renounced him and his works, and that by resisting tempta- 
tions thou shouldest acquire more strength to resist, and that from tbe 
eagerness of the Tempter to rob thee of thy spiritual blessings, thou 
shouldest learn their value, and the value of those other benefit* 
which are still reserved for thee. (St. Chrys.) On the History and 
doctrinal import of the Temptation see Iren. v. 21. Leo M. S 
xxxviii.— -xlvii. p. 98. Bp. Andrems, v. - 

'mL X1X ' 

9. 558. .Chemnitz^ Har- 

a the Nativity,~p7mll 260. ~ 

-~5 Aio/SoXou] If Christ, the Second Adam, was to be 
■ **• is (Hebji. 18; i iv. 15), it m " 

tempted, in order to be Tike us (Heb. ii. 18; iv. 15), it 

the first Adam was, by the Devil ; for He could not be te ...,.._ 

icithiu. " Tentari Christus potuit," says Greg. M., Horn. i. xvi. " ted 
Ejus mentem peccnti delectatio non momordit Ided omnia diabolic* 
ilia Tentatio/uru non turns fuit." 

2. vno~r,ioat flu. -ri<r<r. S. iwilvaoi] Cp. Luke iv. 2, oix t<pa Y » 
oiiip. Motes and Elias were enabled to fast Forty Days, " potestata 
extrinsecus data," Christ " potestate propria," which He did not 
choose to exert beyond that time, and so presented Himself in the 
infirmity of manhood to the Tempter. He was an kungred*. 
'• Christ," says Greg. Naz. p. 538, "hungered aa man, and fed tbe 
hungry as God. He was hungrv as man, and yet He ia the Bread of 
Life. He was athirst as man, and yet He says, Let him that is athirst 

Matdonat. here, who observe* : ' 

Lord as Man was baptized in Jordan, 

Him. The Word wat not anointed by the Bpir . ,• t 

• l», in order that the miction than 

„ upon all." (Ps*. xlv.»; exxxiU.1.) 

i excellent Exposition In Iren. v. 11. 

Dcerds thus; ■■ He was weary, and Is our Rest: He was weighed 
sleep, and jet is buoyed on the sea. He pays tribute, and !■ a King ; 
ie is called a Devil, and cuts out devils ; prays, and hears prayer ; weeps, 
nd dries our tears; is sold for thirty pieces of silver, and redeems tbe 
orld ; Is led as a sheep to the slaughter, and is the Good Shepherd ; la 
mte like a sheep, and is the Everlasting World ; Is the M»n of sorrows, Kid 
eals our pains : is nailed to a tree, and dies upon it, and by the tree re- 
ores us to lite: has vinegar to drink, and changed water to wine; laya 
nwn His life, and takes it again ; dies and gives life, and by dying destroys 
eatb." W,m. Nox. p. 438.) 
» Observable is the recurrence of Portt flows In the History of Christ 

He was forty dajs before the Presentation in the Temple, forty days in 
ie wilderness before His entrance on His Ministry, forty days after HI* 
lented Himself in the Heavenly Temple to God. 

our Flesh which He had 
received by Him mlaht tie 
jg, ............... 

Resurrection before He p 

renvois to God. 
in of probation 


ST. MATTHEW IV. 3—15. 13 

Kal vuKras reo-aapaKovra varepov iveCvacre. 8 Kal vpoareKOcju avr£ 6 irtipa- 

tfi>v eXirev avrai, El Tibs el rov Geov, elire IVa ol Xtdoi ovtol aproi yevtavrai. 

*'0 8e avoKpideU dire, reypamai, b Ox>K in aprip fiovcp £r;o-eTai 6bD.ut.s.». 

avOpatiros, dXX' 4v iravrl /}if/xan iKvopevop.evat Sia <TTo/u.aT05 Geov. 

8 Tore. irapa\ap.f$dvei avrbv 6 AuLflokosi eU Tqv aytav irokiv, Kal lanrja-tv avrbv 
eirl to trrepvytov rov lepov, 8 Kal Xeyei avnp. El Tibs eX tow 6eov, ySaXe o-cavrov 

/caToi* yeypairrai yap, on "rots dyyeXois avrov evTeXciYai wepl o-ov, « p*- »>• ". "• 

Kal iirl xtip&v apovcri <re, nyirore irpoo-Kotlijjs irpbs \l0ov rov iroSa 

aov. J¥ E<fn) avrcS 6 'It/covs, UaXw yeypairrai, d OvK eic7reipacreis Kvpiov dDeut.«. is. 

top OeoV crov. 8 JJakt-v TrapaXafifSavet, avrbv b JLafiokos ct? o/aos tnpr/Xbv 

)dav, Kal SeCievvcrw avr$» irdtras ra$ /JeuriXeias rov Kocrfiov koX rrjv hotjav avrS>v, 

9 Kal Xeyci avrtp, Taura iravra o"oi Swaw, ew rrco-wv irpoaKwrjajj^ /iot. 10 jToYe 

Xeyei avr$ o 'It/o-ovs, "2Vaye dirurto p.ov, Xarava: yeypairrai yap, 'Kvpiov J^J"*, 8 ' "' 
rov Geov <rov irpoo-Kvvijo-eis, Kal avrcp fiovw XarpeuVei?. (4r) u Tore 
axf>tT)o-w avrbv 6 Jid/SoXos, /cal tSov, ayyeXoi irpooijkdov Kal Siijkovow avrrp. 

(it) 12 ' '^Kovo-as 8^ Sri 'Iadwr)^ irapehodi), * aveya>py\crev cis t^j/ raXtXatav L"k"l'i»! 4 i). 
(?It) 1S KQ* Karaknratv rfjv Na^apeO, ikdatv Kartpicqcrev ei$ Katj>apvaovfi r^v J^mlV. 4 ' 
irapa$a\a<T<riav, iv bplot,<i Zafiovkotv Kal Ne<f»6a\elfi, u Iva ir\r)po>0j} rb prjdev 
Bia 'Haratov rov irpo<fnjrov, Xeyovros, 15h r^ Zafiov\<l>v Kal yrj Necf>6a- hi.«. 9. i,*. 

auie, whereby. 

4. ysypawi 

Ute Virtutit. 

5. A Tiipa7iai/] Pirticiple for noon. A common Hebrew ute. 
See riii. 33. Grot, end Glaa. Ph. S. p. 342, end Arnoldi. 

— tl Y1.J* il to* e«ov] If thou art indeed what thou watt 
lately proclaimed to be by the Voice from heaven at Thy bap- 
tiam (iii. 17). How can that be, lincc Thou •uffcmt hungerl In 
what eenae then art Thou Tiot 0«oS ? Tbia ia what Satan would now 

He begina with flattery, and, at he had done, and done auc- 
ceaafnlly, with the fint Adam, by a temptation from the appetite 

He proceed!, at with our fint Pirenta, by a temptation of •pi- 
ritual pnde, Vain-Glory, and Ambition — " Ye tkall he <u aodt, 
knotting good md evil." (Gen. iii. 1—15.) 

— ilwi lua — yirmrrai] 7»o in order that ; and at a mean and 
Seezri.20. Mark v. 10. Wmer,299. 

" Vicit adTenarium tettimoniia Legit, 

„ larit, ut et not pugnr *"' ' — ' 

ceremua, Ob hoc te ten tar i permitil 

Eiut erudiremur ezemplo." {St. Leo, . ^ 

Chriit quenchea the false Scripture dartt of the Devil with the 
shield of Scripture. (Jerome.) And note, that hit quotations are an 
from the Law of God, to thow the invincibility of Obedience to Hit 
commandmenta. " Oar Lord defeati the Tempter, not by Miracle*, 
but by Scripture. He routt him by what all may wield, — the word 
of tie Spirit,— which it the won* of God. Heuce learn the value of 
Scripture, and the impotence of Satan againat it." (Origm, on Luke 
iv. Cp. Grtg. Horn, in Ev. xvi. S.) 

— i» -warri pAuan] Every thing that He appoint, for that pur- 
pose, — at manna and quails in the desert. On iv (not is!) aee 
Winer, G. G. 347. 

6. xi> Ayiar ToXivl Jerusalem, still preaei 
its holiness in its modern name. ( Winer, R.-W. 

— ro vripvyior] The article ri indicate* toi 
kind ; and therefore -wrtpiyio* cannot mean a pt 
nor would there be any special 
It rather signifies the apex of the 
the Temple 1 . If" -l — ' 

God, cast Thyself . 

of God, Thou mayest be adored by the assembled Priests and People 
in Thy Father's House. 

ihing single 

m> understood. 

fies the apex of the fastigitim, airman, or tympanum of 

If to, the appeal would be,-If Thou art the Son of 

aelf down into the court below, that if Thou art the Son 

,. il, or Lent Fast, see SI. Jerowtr hm. Ana. Ep. 

•d irnsK. ». Or,,,. M. Horn. I. 18. Bp. Gunning', History of the Lent 
Fast, pp.46— «0. S00-MS, Oxf. 1845. Bingham, xxi. I. 

Htgaipfnu (in Butt. It. 23, and South, R. S i. 210. JS»), in his account 
of the martyruom of St. James : there, also. It ii evidently a pointed 
eminenre ; and it would seem that a person there standing would be visible 
and audible to a large concourse of people, such as we may suppose col- 
lected In the court of the Israelius,— <m|0i iwl rb sTipvyioK nv ispov. in 
anAr ;}» t»4*o»i r t, noX 1 liixowrri mm, ii pijuara vaFTi T<f Xai-impi- 
yior = ixpwrlpw In Bttpch. The Schol. on Arutoph. Av. 1110 says, 
T«« nir Upmr irriyat «T«pi «oi arrovt nOovan. 

« Cp. Hookrr. 1. if. S. It has b*en supposed by some (see a Lapide 
here), that when it w»s known >m fee»»ef! that the Second Person of the 
Blessed Trinity designed to unite Himself with tome other Nature, the 
Eril Angels were env us t at He did r - -.**? the nature of Angels (Heb. 
it Id), and that some of them fell through Envy and Pride, while, on the 

Satan liea in wait in " high and holy 
he tempt Here to Spiritual pride. (Glott. IL.. -„., 
6. 0a'\i cr. ic.- yiypawTat yip] out Otgrclfdovm. 

This it the language of the Devil, who desires that we tl 
fall. Observe, he n * "' lt . . 

' ead 
ialt '_ _ 

9. id. 

Observe also, the Devil expounds Scripture falsely ; for if the 
from the Psalm (xci. II) which he quotes, refer* to Christ, be 
-• u - "-•■-•—".— *-« — againathi " """ 

re added what there follows ag 

st himself,— "Thou thalt 

ioi] SaUn 
is due to Si 

V. tdv Tiffoy wpoafcvi/nrrnv poll 
■hipped. Hence Idolatry. It is due to Satan's Pride (by which he 
fell * from heaven), craving adoration on earth. 

10. Sarara] jiy (.Satan), Adversary. See Zech. iii. 1. Our 
I/ord reserves Me name for the Tempter when he claims adoration, 
and thus declares the Satanic character of Idolatry. 

— wpoo-irovtie-iK — XoTptrio-««] Deut. vi. 3, where the original 
signifies literally, ' thou shalt/iur and eerve.' But, since the Tempter 
bad claimed worship as an outward sign of awe, onr Lord ute* a word 
which signifies adoration. As to Xariiivrjiic, the LXX often render 
the word -ny (to serve) by \arp,im (Exod. iii. 12; iv. 23). 

12. drrWatl " Decrescente Joanne crevit Christus." (Bengel.) 

— ra\,\alap] Then very populous. Jaeepk. B. J. iii. 2. 10. 7. 
IAgktfoot, ii. S6. St. Matthew here pastes over the event* narrated 
in John i. 37 ; iv. 47. 

18. Karpapvaovp] from "CJ (eapkar), vicus, and DTtS (noham), 
consolatio, Ymplov wapaxXno-iuv (Hetyc.), villa contolationis 
(Hieron.). Cp. rTtiwr, R.-W.. p. 210 >. And therefore KoqW 
»aoi>p, the reading of B, D, T, Z, it preferable to Kawipnsov/t. 

14. Xua TrKiipuOjj to pnAivJ That the prophecy which, at far a* 
the mournful part of it is concerned, was in tome degree verified in the 
abduction by Tiglalh Pileser (2 Kings xv. 29), and by the religious 
debasement of those cities, might now have its J*U and final 
light of the Gospel of Bedemption, dif- 
' Christ and Hit A pottles who were Gali- 

eontrary, the Good Angels rejoice in God's act of Love, though the nature 
of Man la thereby exalted above their own (Luke ii 14). But Satan and 
Hit Angels, in their nature, are ever at work to pervert the honour due to 

"Capernaum erat norentissima Galilee dvitas, in flnibus 8abuloni- 
tarum et Naphthalitarum, ad mare Galilee sita. v. Ligktfoot Hor. Hebrr. 
et Talm. in /oh. u. 12, p. 13». Quo accuratius autem hujus ucbit, que 
Christo domicillum preburrat, situm detcriberet Evangelista, addidit 
Tt<¥ T*pntaXMnri*r, mnrilimam, sltam ad lacura Geiinesaret. 

" Lacus Gennesaret, j \iprn Tnrnamprr, Luc. ». 1. JotrpM. B. J. UL 
S5. longus firit, anctore Josepho 1. I, cerrtum stadia, latin stadia quadra- 
ginta, Joh. vi. 1: xxi. 1. dkitur SoAaava rr}? Tifitptaoot a civlutibua 
Genntsaret et Tiberiade, adjacentlbus ; et eaAiwra rij« TaAiAaw infra v. 
18. et simpliclter eaAoroa Till. 24. Lacus autem. kiprn, vocatur eaAaffa-a, 
mare, more Hebreorum, qui non modo mare, sed etiam lacum nominare 
Solent o», 1 Regg. x.UI. S2." (JTuta.) Cp. IFtarr, R.-W. I. 407. 


n Mirk 10. 28. 
Luke 18. 28. 
o Mark 1. 19, 20. 

p Mark 1. 23. 
ch.v. S3. 

ST. MATTHEW IV. 16—25. V. 1. 

Xel/x, oSbv daXacra-qs, tripav rov 'lopSdvov, Ta\i\aCa rutv ldvu>v 
16 '6 Xaos 6 Ka8r)fievo<: iv o-kotci <£«« el&ev ficya: Kal tois ko^ 
ijl/xei'oi? eV X<*Pf *<" <r*ct^ Bo.vo.rov $e>s dvcVetXcv aurots. 

(•U-) 17 k '^7ro Tore TJp$a.TO o 'Irjcrov? Krjpvo-aew koI keycw, M eravoeiTr 
rjyyucev yap 17 fiacriXeCa toh' ovpavutv. 18 ' Hc/auraf aw Sc 7ra/ja TrjV fldXao-ow 
<r>}5 raXtXatas, ctSe Suo d8eX<£ov?, 2Lp.a>va rov keyofievov Mrpov, koX 'AvSpiav 
rov aSektfnv avrov, ySdXWras ififofikijorrpov cis t»)v ddkao-o-aV Ijaav yap 
aXieis. (-n-) w /cat Xcyci aurow, Jevre 6nUra> /xov, Kal " irovrjo-ot ifias akteU 
av$pa>Tra)v. * * 01 8c eu0e'<ws dr^cVrcs ra SiKTva ■rjKoXou'flr/o-ai' aural. (^-) 21 °koI 
vpof3<k eKeWev ctSev dXXou? Svo dScXt^ou?, 'laKvfSov rov rov ZefiehaCov, ko.1 
'Iaidwrjv rov dSeX^ov avrov, eV Tcp 7tXouj> uctoL ZefHeSaiov rov irarpos avrStv, 
KaTa/m£o»ras rd Sum/a avrtav, Kal eKakco-ev avrouV M ot 8c" d/dcais adores 
to ttXoiov Kal tw rtaripa avr£>v r)Ko\ovdr)o-av aurw. 

Or") a p -K** irepvfjycv 6 'Iijcrovs ohrjV rrjv raXiXaiav, Stoacr/ccuv eV raw ow- 
aywyais avrS>v, /cat icrjpvcrcrwv to evayyeXiov t»)s /Sao-iXeta?, Kal dcpawevwv vaa-av 
vocrov Kal rracrav fiakaicUw iv to> \aa>. ** Kal d^X^ef 17 d»ca») avrov ets 0X171/ 
Tr}** Svpiav Kal irpocrrjveyKav at/r<£ waWas tovs kok£>s e^ovra; iroutiXatt voo-ovt 
Kal fiacrdvois o-we^o/teVov?, Sai/tunaljo/xcVov?, Kal a - eXi7»'ia£o/AeVov? ) Kal irapa- 
XvrucovV Kal idepdirevo-tv avrovs. a q Kal vjKoXovflrjou*' avra7 o^Xoi ttoXXoI 
otto tijs raXtXaias Kal JerttwrdXews, Kal 'Iepoo-oXvfuav Kal 'lovSaias, Kal tripav 
tov 'lopSdvov. 

V. (-fr) l 'iSaw 8c tows o^Xow?, avifir) eis to opos* koI KaOiaavTos avrov, irpocr- 

16. W> ea\aa<ri)t J Dyj tttti !««. ix. 1, the accuutire M» may, 

„ „ „ , _ , jr it may ha»e the force of an adverb, 

ai iripav (prop, an accuaativc) and {n^. Other ezplanatiooa are 
giren in WWr, O. O. 206. Af<yer Interpreta it temmrdt. 

— ri'fw] Tjy anderatood here by aome (Bem/el, Ktm.) to mean 
jiurfa, not (rau. 1 Bnt it aeemi to retain here ita usual meaning 
(teeiv. 25; six. 1. Mark iii. 8. John i. 28; iii. 26), and to refer 
to onr Lord's miraclea and teaching in Paraa, where, in fact, our 
Lord began His ministry, being baptized there (John i. 28; iii. 26), 
at Bethany, in Ptreu. 

17. flaviXtla t£» oiparuv] The fifth, anWeraal, and hea- 
venly and everlasting kingdom, foretold by Daniel (ii. 44 ; rii. 14. 
27), which is to supersede all kingdoma of the earth, and to destroy 
all that resist it. See on iii. 8. fte». ». 10. 

18— SS. wspiTa-ratv] See the Homily of Greg. M. in Evang. i. 
5, p. 1461. 

18. tit, itiX <pois\ He chose three pain of brother* ; building the 
Gospel on the foundations of natural affection ; and He sent out His 
Apostles and Disciples two and two. See x. 2—4. Mark vi. 7. 
Luke x. 1. So He had laid the foundation* of the Law on two 
Brothers — Moses and Aaron. 

19. d\iil« in6(»lrruv] Luke T. 10, drfptivovt lorp Imyp&r 
in the aaynuti of the Gospel, to be drawn through the aea of the 
world, and enclosing both bad and good fish, and at length to be 
drawn to the shore— when the separation will be made. Matt 
xiii. 47. 

Our Lord a 

oratorem." {Aug. in Joan. tr. 7. 1 Cor. i. 

Christians are 
enclosed in the .... 

is suggested by TertuUian (de Baptism. 

Nos piscicull secundum IxViv Nostrum ('Iqtrovv x- 6toS vlor) 

SS. Tiptqyir— SXn* r. r.] On the reading, cp. ix. 85. Mark 
vi. 6, and see Bloom/. Made, p. 67, and Prideaux, Connex. i. 406— 

— avnaymyaXt] 8<x>onLuVeWA6,Bp.Loiudale,»ndAlfordhem. 

— 6VnrivM> twu] ' working miracle*.' Whenever God in- 
troduces a new Revelation He works miracles; thus giving pledges 
of Hi* power, to those whom He requires to receive His Laws. 
Chryt whose remarks here may serve aa a reply by anticipation to 
Hume > objection to the evidence from Miracle*. 

— vaaav] ' every kind of." 

84. v d«>q a.] See on Rom. x. 16. 

— 0avaW<] fida-amt, ' tondutone,' perhaps from Hebr. jitj 
(baton), probavit, thence any trial, torture, or pain, and fiaaarta-r^, 
xviii. 34, tartar. 

the iatuortXonnm of the Oospel were merely afflicted with 

ordinary diseases, is refuted by the facts — 

That they are distinguished from such persons bv Christ Him- 
self, see Matt. x. 1. Luke iv. 40. Mark iii. 15 ; xvi. 17. 

That they act and speak as possessed with evil spirits, srioa* 
Citrisf addresses as distinct from the persons possessed by them, and who 
give to those persons supernatural power, see Mark v. S — 15 ; ix. 25. 

That when the devils go out of a possessed person, they enter 
into other creature*, Mark v. 12. 

The Devils had a clearer knowledge of Christ than was shown 
by others, even His disciples (viii. 29. Mark iii. 11. Cp. Aruddi, 
p. 138), at the beginning of His Ministry. 

As to the allegation, that if men were possessed with devil* 
ch ease* would be frequent in other countries 

That Satan exerted his power with extraordinary energy 
in our Lord's age and country, because be knew that " the 
stronger than he" was come. And he was permitted by 
Christ to put forth his power then with extraordinary forces 
that by collision with him, in his fiercest fury, the power 
and mercy of Christ, in casting him out, might be men 
manifest, gracious, and glorious. 
It ha* sometime* been urged against the truth of these posses- 
sions, that they are never mentioned by St. John (Metier, p. 115). 
But St. John's silence is a proof of their truth. The other Gospels 
were read in tbeChurrh, and were current in the world, when St. John 
wrote ; and if any thing further had been requisite, concerning these 

fore in this matter, as in many others, is the silence of approval. See 
John vii. 20 ; viii. 48, 49. 52 ; x. 20, 21. 

The article to d 

, by our Lord; but „ . 

country, distinguished from -rd wioW, or the level ground, where He 
had just been, and which He had left, to ascend the opet. So h 
ipnuot is not the wilderness, but open pasture land, distinguished 
from n wdX.t, or inhabited places (see on Luke xv. 4. John vi. 10); 
and n wtrpa is not any particular rock, but stony soil, opposed to 
good ground, vii. 24. Luke viii. 6 ; ix. 28. 

The Law had been given from a mountain. So now the Gos- 
pel, but without the thunder and lightning of Sinai. The Law had 
also blessings and cursings on two opposite mountains (DeuL xxvii. 
13). The Gospel at its delivery has one Mountain— of Beatitudes. 

From Luke vi. 12—49, it would appear that our Lord had gt 

up to an elevated and sequestered place in order to retire from the 
crowd and to pray, before He chose His Apostles, and in order that 
He might then instruct them in Hi* doctrine, before He aent them 

> Tent, Hebr. 230. And so Catauton interprets It in John 1. 

ST. MATTHEW V. 2—18. 

rjkffov dincp ot fiaOryral outoS* (-y-) a Kal avoifjas to oro/xa avrov, ISiftacrKa/ av- 
tovs, Xey<w*», s * Ma/captoi oi wrw^ * T $ irvevfiaTV on avT&»*» eoru' tj fiacriXeia r5>v 
ovpavtav. (-§£-) 4 b fiQjcapu>i oi ircvOowrer ori avrol irapaKKifd^aovrat. (-^-) fi c /aa- 
KcLpiat. oi ir/oaeis* ort avrol KXr;/>oi>o/XT/tTovca Trjv yr\v. (-£-) ' d fiaKdpioi. oi Trcuwres 
Kal So/wires tt)»» BueauxrwrjV ort avrol \opTao-6Tjo-ovTai. (-?-) 7 * fMucdptoi ol 
ikeijlAover on avrol e\er)dijcrovTa.t. 8 ' fuucdpun oi KadapoX tq KapSia' ori avrol 

TW «9cbl> OxflOPTCU. 9 ' pM.KO.pLOL oi (IpTfjVOTTOLOL" OTl OVTol Vtol ©COV KktjdrjO-OVTaL' 

10 h /icucdpLoi oi SeSukryftevoi o^ko* StKaioo-wr/s" on avrw ecmi' 17 fZao-iXela 
T&v ovpavwV (-£-) u ' fiaKaipLOL core, orav cW«Sio-wcru> v/xas Kal 8mu^<uo-i, Kal 
(vtrtaax nav irovqpov /5r//xa naff vpxav, ^revSo/nevoi, epacc e/xov. 13 k XaCperc 
Kal dyaXKiaxr$e, otl 6 p.ur$bs vpxov woXvs ev rots ov/oavois' ovrta yap i8uo£av 
Tovs rrpo^ifras tovs too vfwc. 

(-H") 13 ' 'T/neJs care to aXas tjjs yr/s' eav & to aXas p,a>pavdj}, br riVi 
akurdija-erat ; el? ovSev IcryytL eri, et /xt) fikrjdrjvai Ifw, Kal Karawareicr^at 
wo raw avOpdnrcav. (-£-) u ■ 'T/xeis e'trre rb $a»« tov Kocr/xov. ov SvVarat 
ttoXis Kpv/3y)vaL iirdvta opous Kei/xeViy* 16 " ouSe kolovo-l \vyyov kol tlBIoo-lv 
avrov V7rb t6i» /xoSum*, aXX' «irl rr)i> Xvxvmw koI Xo/xttci Tracr* rots cV r# 
oucCa. 16 ° Ovrw Xa/xi/VaVco rb ^£9 v/iwv ZfiirpoarOeu rav avdpwmv, omus 
tckutru' v/x<i»> rd KaXd e/oya, xal oo£oct<ucti top irarepa vpMV tov eV toi« 

(4r ) 17 p ^? vopMrtfrt, ore ijXfloi' KaTaXvtrax toi» vop.ov t) rovs wyxx^ifras* 
ovk ^X^of KaraXvatu, dXXd v\t)pa>o-aL. (^-) l8 s 'ApJ^v yap Xeyw v/xu>, ews 
av wapek&Q 6 ovpavbs Kal 17 y^, lo>Ta Iv ^ /iia Kepala ov /W7 vapekOy airb tov 

stem, n, 11, 

P.. M. 13. 

1 Pel.S. 8— 11. 
h 1 Pet. S. 14. 

2 Tim. 2. iS. 
S Luke 0. M. 
I Pei. 4. 14. 
k Luke 8. 23. 

Acu™. 32.' 
ch. 23. 34. fcc. 
1 M.rk 9. 30. 
Luke 14. .14. iS, 
m Phil. 2. 13. 
n Mark 4. 21. 

*8. 4.Vl0.4. 
q Luke 16. 17. 

forth to preach. In theae reapecta Hit conduct wa» speciaHy exem- 
plary to those who hold office in the Church. 

The toto vioivoc (not tie plain, but a level place) in Luke n. 
17, it quite contittent with ri iyn of St Matthew, and is a circum- 
stance added by St. Luke. Our Lord went up il< -ri ion, and He 
chote a totoi weJtrdt in it, in order that He might instruct His 
disciples who were seated near him. Cf. Maldomt. and Brngtl here, 
and on Luke ri. 17. On the relation of the two Evangelical narra- 
tives, see further on Luke ri. 20. 

Christ had four places of spiritual retirement from the bustle of 
the world— all, in a certain sense, exemplary,— 

a, finally, Ascension. 

>, (type of Church, for Teaching, Miracles). 
den of Oethsemane, Agony. 

3. t.t)_... , _. 

4. The Garden of Oethsemane, Agony. 
8. irotfat to o-tous airoi] He who before had opened the 

mouth of noses and all the Prophets, now opens Hit own mouth, — 
He who had taught the world by Hem concerning Himself, now 
teaches in His own Person— God with us (John x. 8. Heb. i. 1. 
Gregor. Moral, iv. 1), and He delivers in the Sermon on the Mount 
a perfect Code of Christian Duty. (Jug. on Serm. in Mon. 1.) See 
also Leo M., Serm. xcv. p. 181 «. 

3. nanaotoi] " Has octo Christi Beatitudines sunt quasi octo 
Christi Paradoxa;" and St Ambrote (de Offic. i. 6) says, a Inde in- 
cipit Beatitudo divino judicio unde arumna aatimatur humano." 

— i, /3o<ri\.ia t. o.] In all the Beatitudes, the Kingdom of Heaven 
is promised in a form corresponding to the grace which is beatified. 
Aug. (de Serm. in M.), who asks (on Ps. xciii.), " Regnum calorum quo 
emitur? Paupertate. regnum ; dolore, gaudium ; labore, requies; vili- 
tate, gloria; morte.viU;" "adde(saysa£a».)luctu,consolatio; esurie, 
satieua; miseratione, misericordia ; munditie.viaio; pace, filiatio Dei." 

St. Amhroee adds (in Luc. ri.), that there seems to be a gra- 
duated scale here of grace and glory. 

And this seems to be done with a silent reference to the pro- 
misee of the Law. 

To prevent misconceptions as to the nature and ends of His otns 
promises in the Gospel, he promisee the kingdom of keavtn,— not an 
eatia/y Canaan. 

He then speaks of irapaWXnon. 

Of inheritance of yp,— with reference to the promised land of 

see JmtUn M., Apol. 

of this Sermon, and its rr 

!. 15, 16. Cp. Ant. ill. 14»2 «iq. Bp. Andrnm, v 
Harmon, li. Bp. Totlor', Life of Christ, Beet, xii 
rity, pp. 420 — 160. Burgtn, p. 83, and Trench. 

w On the Nativity, pp. 420 — IN. Bvrfan, p. 83, a 
this subject, see the excellent remarks of St. In 
where It la shown that Christ Is the .' ' 

Children of God,— true Israel, a 

6. cX. Tie y««] tie land ; i. c. of promise, 01 tne 
11; cxlii. 5): for, Earth is the land of the dm 
living. CyH2, in Isa. lviii. Jerome 
Cp. 2 Pet. iii. 18. Rev. xxi. 1—27. 

9. «\i,»tifforroi] i. e. be and be owned to be — (ii. 23), even by 
the children of the world. 

ofthe/rwi V (Ps.xxivu. 
- dmg; heaven of the 
Aug. Serm. liii. 2—6. 

13, 14. S\at 

(/jit] Salt to purify the earth, to seasot 
1 to God. (See on Mark ix. 49.) Light to enlif 

He calls them the salt of the earti,— of thee r , 

sin. Not that the Apostles could deliver it from this corruption, but 
when it was delivered by Christ, they were to keep it in a healthy 
state. Hence He teaches those virtues which, most difnthe in their 
nature, are conducive to the general good and common salvation of 
all ; and that not by flattering, but by making the wound smart, if 
necessary, aa salt does. He reminds them also of their own peril con- 
sequent on the greatness of their commission. Others msy fall and be 
forgiven ; but if the Teacher falls, his punishment is extreme. If the 
salt bath lost its savour, ftc" (Mark ix. 50.) "If the I * 

>«.) "Quo sue sal condietur? 

Tin not.] tie bushel of the houi 

17. wAnpuo-ut] Christ fulfilled the law ana tne rropnets, try 
obedience, by accomplishment of Types 1 , Ceremonies, Rites, and 
Propheries, and by explaining, spiritualizing, elevating, enlarging, and 
perfectiug the Moral Law, by writing it on the Aearr, and by giving 
grace to obey it *, as well as an example of obedience, by taking away 
its curse ; and by the doctrine of free Justification by Faith in Hiss. 
self, which the Law prefigured and anticipated, but could not give. 

18. iuiu] Hebr. ]Qp (Amen). Troth. Is. lxv. 6. It had 
been used in the LXX for Hebr. rg»» in 1 Cbron. xvi. 86. Neh. v. 
18, and elsewhere. St. Luke usee rfXuffut for it, ix. 27. or roi, xi. 51. 

No one in the N. T. ventures to say 'Am**, Alyes i """ *"•• 

Hb only who is 

6). In the last Gospel— that of St. 
riably repeated, — never in any other. 
— ISto] a nod, the least letter of the alphabet: 

in — the word 'Atu^ ii inv* 
inula, 1 

U said to abrogate the Law.— 

9 sed perAciendo." {Mold 
Ano. *»ySj "Ante Christi 

ttjueet et>m«i." 

Adventum Lex jneebtt non juvttat; post, 

t Exod. 20. IS. 
Deut. 5. 17. 
u 1 John 3. 15. 


b Dent. M. 1. 

ST. MATTHEW V. 19—31. 

vofiov, eius av irdvra yhrtyrax. ( *-) 19 r *Os edv oZv \v<rg piav twv eVroX&w 
Tovrotv tS>v ikaxfoTtoV, Kal &ut>d£y ovrto tovs avOpairovs, cXa^wrro? KKrfdrjcrerat 
iv rfj fiacrtXeia ratv ovpav&v os 8* av iroujo-g Kal Si8a^, ofiros /teyas kXtj- 
Bvjcrerax iv rp fiacrtXeia raw obpavav. * ' yleyw ya/> v/ilV, ori cac /xi) trtpur- 
aevarg r) Sucaxoovvr) vpsav irktlov rov ypap.pariiav Kal $apuraio>v, ov f.17 
elo-tfXtfrjTe eis t^v fiacriXelav rav ovpavav. 21 ''Hkovo-aTe ort ippeffit] rots 
ap^aioK, Ov <f>oveuarei<;, os 8' dv <f>ov€vo~g, a/oxo? lara* T# KpCrreu B " 'i5ya> 
8e Xeyw v/up, ori ira? 6 bpyttppevos t$ dSeX(fop avrov eiKiJ, 2vo)(os carat tjj 
KpUnv os 8' di> €17777 t<£ dSeXr/xj* avrov, paxd, evo\o$ carat r$ aweSpujtT 
os 8' ov eurp, /u.<upc, cvoxos corai cis t>)i> yiewav rov wvpos. M '.Ed*' ovV irpo<r- 
<fxpw> TO StuooV aov ori to dvcruKrrqpiov, Kaxii p.vr)<r0j}$ ori 6 d8eX<£os «xot» 
c^ci tI Kard aov, " d^es ckci to hStpov trow ep.irpocr6ev rov dva-uurrrfpCov, 
Kal vwaye, itpanov 8iaXXdyr/0<, r$ dSeXr/xjJ trov, Kal Tore ekOatv irpocrfepe to 
hatpov aov. (-y-) ^ T *Ia#t evvotov r$ diriSuccf* <row Ta^u. «»s orov cT /tcr' 
avrov cV ttj oSw* prjirori ae iraoaSfp 6 diriSwcos r$ tcpiTQ, Kal 6 K/JlTTfS ae 
wapaZqi t$ vwr/peVfl, Kal cis <f>v\aKr)v Pk-qdrqcrrj. * x 'Ap.r)v Xeyca trot, ov p,r) 
i£ek0j)S eKeWev, ews dv diroS&Js tov eo-)(a.Tov Kohpdvrrjv. (-f-) w y *HKOvo~aT€ 
ori ipprjdi), Ov /xot^euo-cis. * * *Eya> 8e Xeytu v/xu', ori 7ras 6 fikeirtov ywaiica 
irpbs to im$vp,r)<rai aur^y, ^fSiy ip.oi)(€vcrcv avrrjv h> tq KapSta avrov. ® *JSi 
8e 6 6<f>0aXp6<i aov 6 Sefibs ctkoi'SoXi^ci o-«, cifeXe avroj' Kal ySdXe awo oflv 
<rvp,<f>€pet, yap <roi Iva airokryrat Iv tSv pekatv <rov Kal /xi) oXov to o~ci)/Ad <rov 
f$kr)djj eU yievvov. M Kal ei ^ oe^td am; x«*/> o-Kav8aXtJ« a-c, Zkkoijiov avr^v 
Kal )3dXc dirb wov' crv/x^epa yd/3 <70i iva drrdXi/Tai ti> twi» p.€ka>v <rov, ical 
p.ri SKov to o-w/na o-ov fikrj&j} els yicwav, 

8c, ori os dv d7ToXva|y t^v ywatKa avrov, Soto avrp diro- 

thing still leu, ape* litem. Cf. Procop. Giz. 1 Sun. ui. 2, tA 

Xa-rroiia.,.. (lTi<m.) In the Hebrew Bible there ue above 66,000 
Toda. — " Colligi bine potest integritu Scripture, nam Scriptnra nisi 
intetra esset non posset perspici impleta." (Bagel.) 

19. iXn'xwTot— Aiiyat] An intimation, perhaps, that there will 
be different degrees of glory in a future state. See the use of (3n<r. t. 
o. in v. 20, and cp. on z. 15. Accordingly as we treat the Word 
of God, so will God treat us. Cp. John xrii. 6. 11. Rev. iU. la 

21. Tolt a>x«'"«l *> *»»» ^ oW (dry*.. r*eop*., ArWdbn., 
Beng.), at the beginning of God's written Revelation; contradistin- 
guished from 4m«». 'to whom I now tpeok faee to face 1 .' Our Lord 
not only opposes the Pharisaic corruptions of the Decalogue, but He 
unfolds it. He gives the kernel of it, its spirit, in opposition to those 
who dwelt only on the letter ; for the letter (i. e. taken alone) killetb, 
but the Spirit (added to it) giveth life. (Rom. vii. 14. 2 Cor. 
iii. 6.) 

23. t;j koiVii] The Dm Mithpai, or inferior court (of twenty- 
three judges), distinguished here from the Superior Tribunal of the 
Sanhedrim (of seventy-two judges'). Our Lord says, that the ratio 
of ipyh and its penalties is to contumelious words and their penal- 
ties, what the ratio of the former court is to the latter. And above 
all is the Tribunal of yitma rov wupot, — for more contemptuous 
expressions, — how much more for malignant Actional Against them 
He sets a double fence, by condemning passionate teorrfs and angry 
thought*. f 

— »»|>0 The mention of an Oriental word pUucd in the first 
clause, and of the Sanhedrim, where crimes of blasphemy were 
punished, make it probable that there is a reference to the Hebrew 
mto (mora*), apostata. Cf. Mintert in v. 

*— l«x« •!«] liable to come to — . Winer, G. O. 191. 

— yiiwav] tr>| (eatt>>). D*i3n Hintum, the valley at the foot of 
Moriah, and in which Siloa flows (Jerome on z. 28), on the East of 
Jerusalem, desecrated by the idolatrous fires of Moloch (Jer. vii. 31. 
Isa. xxx. 33), and called Topheth, from Tupk, the tympanum tiled to 

■ See Aug. Retr. I. «. and Ckryi.. Hilar., and T**op* S 
> On these courts, see Jottpk. B. J. 1. SO. *. Ant. Iv 
ionet. here. B-xtorf, Ui Talmud, p. 514. 
» Of vrhich Milton writes thus »ccnrately. Par. Lost I. 

drown the cries of children there immolated. 

the LXX havejat'.»*« ; " the type of hell ».' 

Cp. Joshua xviii. 16. 

28. HS,p W \ Thy corlan. Mark vii. 11. 

— 6vs-ia<rr>!pioiil the brazen altar, before the Porch of the 
Temple,— not called pap.6* (Mede, p. 390). He does not say. If Most 
hast aught against thy brother, but if he haa aught against thee: that 
the harder duty of reconciliation may be laid on thee. (Jerome.) 

28. ru amofoat] The word of God. (Aug. Serin, x). and rrix.) 
to Roman Law. The Plaintiff might ' in jus rapere ;' the 
(before the Magistrate, 
when law must take its course. 

26. Iwt ay] never. Cf. v. 22. See Jerome here, and Ambr. in 
Luke vii. 69, and below on xii. 32 ; xviii. 34. Such as God finds us 
at our Death, such will He judge us at the last Day. (St. Cyprian, 
de Mortal. 2.) " In what things I find thee, in those thinga will I 
judge thee," were words of Christ Himself. See Grade, Spicileg. i. 
p. 14 327, and St. Hippolyt. Fragment, printed by the present Editor, 
p. 307. See also Chry. here ad iv. 24,— a protest against the notion 
that pardon for the dead can be obtained by works and prayers of the 

28. (ViSi/M^s-ai] A new doctrine to the Pharisee*, who con- 

29. 1 1 ii i *>6o\«ot ] If the love of a brother or wife, or chil- 
dren intercepts our view of the true light, we ought to renounce it. 
Hence the High Priest might not defile himself for his Father or for 
his Mother (Levit xxii. 10), that is, he must know no other affection 
but that of Him to whose worship he is dedicated. (Jerome.) 

8L ifpnvn] Perhaps the connexion may be, He bad said cut 
off hand, pluck out a right eye, and they might imagine, therefore, 
that they might be allowed to put away their wives. He corrects 
this. For the hardness of their hearts Moacs permitted the Jews to 
put away their wives, but if they did so, they were to give a bill of 
Divorce. (Deut. xxiv. 1. Jer. iii. 1. Matt. xix. 9. Mark x.2.) 
Our Lord allows a man to put away bia wife for one cause, and one 
only. Our Lord reminds His hearers of the former law, which He 
doe* not destroy, but correct (Gtrjts.) Moses did what he did, not 
to concede divorce, but to prevent murder. (Jeroase.) The Gospel 


orshlpped In 

JUbba and her watery plain 

Nor co 

.us Jtelghbourhood. the wisest heart 

Of Solomon he led by fraud to build 
HU temple right against the Temple of God, 
On that oDDrobrloua hill, and made hia grove 
t valley of Hinnom, Topeil thence 
" the type of UtU. 

lid black Get 

ST. MATTHEW V. 32-41. 

trrdtnov. M *Eyat 8e Xeyo> v/tuT, ori 8s av <MroXvo|jt tt)j- yvvcuKa. avrov, 
irapacrbs Xoyov iropveCas, iroiel aMfv /tioi;(atx0ar not os iav airoXekvparrjv 
yaprfoj), /toi^arai. w c Ilakiv rficovaraTe Sri ipfrjdij tois apyaLoix, Owe iirtop- 
joja-eis, dtaroSwcms 8^ t<£ Kvpup tows o/mcovs <rou. M d 'Eya» 8c Xeyw v/uv /xt) 
ofiocrai oX<u$* /iTjre cV T«p ovpavai, Sri dpovos iarl tov ©cow* m e fwfrc eV 777 
yj5» 6Vi viroirdSioV «m t<2i> iroSwv avrov* /u-ifre eis 'IcpotroXv/ta, ori irdXts ecrri 
tov fxeydkov /Jao-tXerus. * /i.i^T€ eV 777 Ke<f>aX§ crov o/xdof/s, on ov SiWcrai 
fiiav rpi)(a \cviajv fj fiekaivav iroirj<rat. w *Eor<u 8*; 6 Xdyos v/xa>i>, t»al i>at, 
06 ov* to 8^ irtpurtrbv tovtoiv etc tov irowjpov icmv. w ''HKovo-are ori ippijdr), 
'0<f>6aXfibv fori 6<j>da\fiov, ical oSoVra oVi-l 080W05. * 8 '-Eyw 8c \eyat 
vfta* /xt) dvrurnjvai. t$ irovtjptp' Ott) dXX' octtis ere pairia-ei iirl rfjv SctftaV crov 
cruiyova, arpetyov avr£ ical tt)i> aXkrjv *° ical Ttp 04\ovtC aroi Kpi&fjvai, /cat 
rof \vr5tvd <rov \afiew, d<^cs avrtp #cat to ipAruiv (-f-) 41 h xai ocms o-e 


Deut. 19. 11. 
Lev. 24. JO. 
g Ptot. 20. 22. 

h Dent. 13. 8, 10. 

of Christ not only commands husbands to live at peace with their 
Wires, bat lays the guilt of adultery at their door, if the wife, being 
divorced, marries another; and tolerates no other cause of divorce but 
fornication on the part of the wife." {Hilary.) 

— iwoa-riaion J The words used by the LXX. in Deut. zziv. 1 
are nrrp Trp (sepker ceritkuth) a bill of cutting' off from, rod. 
ITTj (<ira*.), abscidit (cf. Ii ' 
Lord is speaking concerning 
4 mensa et ton. See v. 32. 

32. vapiKTOt \6you wouniai] Adyot = TJT, verbnm, negotiant, 
cava. Torse, Hebr. 373. 

It is generally supposed by Divines of Rome that iwoXi- does 
not here signify to divorce, in its strict sense of severing the vinculum 
matrimonii (which they suppose to be in all cases indissoluble), but 
means only to separate a memta et ton >, and that Matrimony is in all 
cases pronounced indissoluble by our Lord in Mark z. 11. Luke 
zvi 1§« 

But the conversation here with the Pharisees is concerning divorce 
a vinculo ; and i-wo\ua is used in the natural sense of dissulutio vin- 
culi, as expressed in the bill of Divorce (Deut. zxiv. 1), see above, 
T. 31 ; ana the exception contained in -rapucrit Xoyov Tropvtiat, 
is repeated by our Lord in Matt. ziz. 9. And it cannot be supposed that 
any thing taught by our Lord in the " Sermon on the Mount hat been 
repealed. On comparing the passages of the three Evangelist* above 
quoted on this subject, and also the words of St. Paul (1 Cor. vii. 
10, 11), it appears that m no com does our Lord advise. Divorce ; 

And that in only one case (ropnia) does He tolerate it * ; 

And in no case does he permit a person to marry a woman who 
has been divorced*. 
voui a. poixa<F0ai] by tempting her to contract a second marriage. 

— St iar iwo\i\«niiiti» yann<rp] not to* throA., i. e. he who 
marries a divorced woman is guilty of adultery. 

But if a woman is divorced, does she not eease to be ik* wife of 
him from whom she is divorced ? liow then can he who marries her 
be guilty of adultery) 

The reason seems to be, that a hope of union with another 
man who it not her husband, is the main thing which makes a woman 
unfaithful to him who it her husband. Take away that hope, and the 
principal cause of adulteries is removed. There is the roof of the 
ertV; and our Lord, in His Sermon on the Mount, goes to the root of 
evil, by condemning all such unions as adulterous. 

Besides, by marrying her he preclude! her return to her hus- 
band. See further on ziz. 9. 

84. p4 iuocai SXuc] i.e. tponte tui. 

Do not voluntarily proffer, much leas vainly protrude an oath. 
" Non antes non affectes non appetas jusjurandum." Cp. Aug. Serm. 
307, 308, and de Mend. 15. 

Our lA>rd here again goes to the root of the evil, as seenjn the 
teaching and practice of the I " 

Bellarmine de Mmi 
I Divines; but som. 
in it. See a Lapiden 

Psalmist says, " all they that sw 
(Psa-lxiii. 12.)' 
37. mtpfiujroi-rm. U tot • 

But this does not prohibit a person from being ruwni, on a 

?-ave and solemn occasion ». For, as the Holy Spirit says by St. 
aul, An oath for confirmation is to men an end oftrife. (Heb. vi. 
16.) Strife is an evil, and so an Oath arises from what it evil, v. 37, 

But the evil may be, and ongbt to be overcome with trood : for an 
Oath, on such an occasion, is an appeal to God«, as Omnipresent, 
Omniscient, and Omnipotent, and as the searcher of all hearts, and 
the Future Ju.lge of all men; i.e. it is an act of Divine Worship, 
as the Prophet Jeremiah teaches (Jer. iv. 2), and therefore the 
" ' ■ ■■ " - -— — -»r by Thee shall be am-iended." 

evnoov] See last note. It is also 

from irreverence; and so in every 

sense Is U tov wovnoov, i. e. it is from the Evil One who is the author 

39. lift a»rio-ri>»m ™" vov»p»] On the use of the negative, for 
the take of comparison, see on Matt. iz. 13. Do not retaliate, 

The Levitical law of 'retaliation (Exod. zzi. 24. Dent ziz. 21. 
Levit. zxiv. 20), though strictly just in itself, waa often abused for 
the gratification of vindictive patsiont, and for the infliction of evil at 
such, and not for the repression of crime for the sake of society. 
This is what our Lord forbids ; He commands to check all private 
feelings of personal hatred and revenge, and to make private sacrifices 
on all occasions in a spirit of forbearance, patience, meekness, and 
love, though (as our Lord teaches. Matt, xviti. 15—17. Luke zvii. 3) 
a regard for public justice, and the welfare of society and of the 
offender himself, may render it necessary (as it docs) to restrain and 

Thus, for the Law of Retaliation as then practised by the Jews, 
Our Lord substitutes the Law of Love. 

This and the following precepu (see St. Aug. de Serm. D. i. 59) 
are to be understood aa having regard " ad praparationem cordis, non 
oatentationem opens." Some conform to the Utter of these com- 
mands, without being animated by the spirit of them. " Multi," says 
Aug. i. 58, " alteram mazillara pnsbere noverunt, diligere vero cum 
a quo fcriuntur ignorant." But we must pray and strive to be ani- 
mated by the spirit, and then we shall not contravene the letter. 

— So-rit on pavlau] i. e. not only do not retaliate an injury, 
but be prepared rather to bear more injuries. " Si quis te percuaserit, 
noli tu perrutere, sed para te adhuc percutienti," S. Aug. de Serm. 
Dom. i. 56, i. e. be ready to suffer in a good cause. Our Lord did 
not thereby forbid to take legal means of self protection or remon- 
strance (John zviii. 23. Acts zxii. 25). But He taught by precept 
as by ezample, " non solum in alteram mazillam cadi pn salute 
omnium sed etiam crucitiai." St. Aug. ibid. 

40. xiTira-Varwi-T x"*» *""> Hebr. njfY| (certonett), the 
inner garment, rewto; Mtuw, ijj (ieged), the outer robe, "toga 
Romanis, pallium Grawie." St. Luke inverts the order, vi. 29. You 

cp. nip («■»«) to 

I nj$.« 

• Hence the tin of the Jew 

swearing rashly and 11) 

od's Supremacy, and s 
dieted in obedience to 

le creatures With the honour due to God." (Jerome.) 
tring it tlmilsr to that of taking awav life. It it main 
ng in a Court of Juttice it an occation of atsertiu 

See Bp. Anircxes, De 'urejurando Theolog. DispuUtlo, 1591. and 
atechUtlcal Doctrine, p. 2S9, and 8ermnnt, v. 70-82. Dr. Barrow, 
ermon iv.. vol. i. p. S30. Bp. Coiim, on Keel. Courtt, pt. S. Bp. Sanderson, 
le Juramenti Obfigatlone, vol. iv. S44 (ed. Jacobton, Oxford 1854), and 

I Lev. 19. 18. 
Eiod. M. 12. 

k Luke 6. 27, 8 
Rom. 12. 14, 2C 
1 Pet. S. 9. 
Luke 23. 34. 

1 Cor. 4. IS. 
1 Luke 6. 35. 

m Luke 6. 32. 

Lev. 11.44. 
ft 19. 2. 

* 20. 7, W. 

1 Pet. 1. IS, 16. 

ST. MATTHEW V. 42—48. VI. 1—6. 

ayyapevo-et pikiov kv, vwaye per avrov Bvo. 42 T$ atTotWi <re SiSow iral 
tov dekovra anb o~ov Zaveuracrdai py airooTpa<fyj}$. (-y-) a l 'H/covo-are ort 
ipprjdr), *Ayairij<T€t$ tov w\r)o~iov <rov, koX /xtcnjcrct? rbv ixOpov <rov. 
** k 'Eyot 8*j \eyot vpiv, dyairare tows tydpovs ipStv, euXoyetVe tows koto- 
pcapivovs vpa<;, koXus voielre rots purovcrw vpas, koX vpoae&^aOe xnrkp t&v 
im)pca£6vTo>v vpas tal 8igmc6W<uj' ipd? * 5 ' oiros yevrjo-de viol tov irarpbs 
ipwv tov £v ovpavolr on tov rjXtov avrov dvariWet iirl irovrjpovs ical ayaOovs, 
koX ySpej^et iirl Sucatou? koX d&btovs. (4t) * 6 m 'Eav yap dyamjarrre tovs oya- 
7iwras u/uta?, TiVa purBbv €)(ere ; ow^l icol oi TeXwvai to auro ttoujucti ; 47 " Kat 
coe aanrdorrja-de tov? dScX^ovs v/tap povov, ri irepuraov iroUirc ; ovyi kox 
oi i&vucol to avrb ■nourvo-w ; *• ° "EtrfcrOe ovv vptls reXctoi, ctamp 6 war^p 
ipmv 6 iv tow ovpavot? rcXetds ecrri. 

VI. (-^) * n.poo-i)(€T€ tv)V SiKau>crvvr]v vpwv py iroUiv epirpoaOev twv 
dvdpanrwv, wpos to OeaOijvai owTOir el Be prrye, purdbv owe e^ere vapd t$ 
warpl ipStv t$ iv Tots ovpavovs. 9 * *Otcu> ovv iroij}? iKeqpoovvrjv, prj <raX- 
irurgs eptrpoo-dev crov, a>orre.p oi viroKpvral irourva-w iv Taw o-vvayatyals ieat 
eV raw pvpais, oira>$ ho£ao~QS>o~u> xnrb tS>v dvdpannav dp-qv Xeya> vpiv, direxovcri 
toj' purdbv avr£>v. 3 5oS 8e ttomwitos iketfpoavvrjv, py yvarat -q apurrtpd 
o-ov Tt ttoici ^ Sc^ia o-ov. 4 b oiros ^ <row ^ i\erjpoo~vvT) iv t$ Kptmrfr koI 6 
iraTqp cov 6 /Skeirav iv t£ Kpimrqi, avros a77 , oSwo"ci o*oi. 6 Kal orav irpoo'- 
cu^p, ouk etr^ Stcnttp oi wroKpi/rai' ort ^iXouo'U' iv Tats oTwaywycus *cal a> 
Tat? yojvtai? Ttov irXaTtuav ior&res irpo&evxeo'dcu, orrws <f>ava>cri tois dvdpdt- 
w-ois. '^/x^i' X*5yw w/tw, or* air€x ov <u tw purdbv avr&v. 6 2u 8t^, otov 
irpoo-ev)(Q, elo-e\de eU to Ta/it€ioi» o-ou, Kal /cXetcra? TJ71' dvpav aow, npoo-evtjai 

fruition of Hit doriout Godbe»d hereafter. Ephee. ». 1. 1 Pet. i. IS. 
1 John ii. 1. ^Mtny immgine what u here rommauded to be impot- 
liile. But Christ never commands impouibilitiea ; but He preacnbea 
•uch kind of perfection is waa attained bj David in the cats of Saul 

te comforta and advantages — " decedere 

must be ready to sacrifice private c „ 

de tuo ipaius jure" (see Aug. 1. c. i. 59), for the sake of charity and 
peace. This precept does not require nor permit any one to sur- 
render what is not ail own yitmk or l/id-rtov, viz. public rights, much 
leas Ckrutian principle* arid Ckrutian truth ; for which we are to 
contend earnestly ( Jude 3), and of which we are not to diveat ourselves, 
or to allow any one to strip us— for then we should be naked indeed 
(Re». iii. 17, 18). 

41. So-Tit oi tkyyapiiio-tt] "Ayyapot, a Persian word for a royal 
courier 1 , who had authority to press horses, &c. into bis service in 
execution of his mission'. The word trni^t (angaria) (whence 
avania and avanie, in Ital. and FrA is used in the Talmud for any 
forced work. If any one presses the* to do him service, — especially 
if he hat a public claim on thee for duty, — do not contend, but do it 

The word ayyapiim is applied by the Evangelists to Simon the 
Cyrenian, pressed into the service of bearing the cross of Christ. 
Matt, xxvii. 32. Mark xv. 21. Thit is our ayyaptvua, to bear 
cheerfullr the cross of Christ, and follow Him to Calvary. 

42. tm oItowtj <rt tttou] u Omni petenti, non omnia petenti, utid 
del quod dare iuste et honette potts. Omni petenli dabit, quamvit 
non semper id quod petit dabit, et aliquando melius aliquid dabis 
cum petcntcm injutta correxeris." (St. Aug. de Serm. in M. i. 67.) 

et pecunia tua varabit et Deus tibi non redditurus est: sed cum 
id ex prccepto Dei facis, apud Ilium qui hcc jubet infructuosum 
esse non potest." (St. Aug. ibid. i. 68.)* 

44. dya-wi-rt rout «xfy»«] This is the Chrittian ' Lex Talio- 
nis.' Be not overcome of evil, but overcome evil with good. (Rom. 
zit. 21.) 

40. Swat yiniadt] that yon may become. 

— ft>t'X"] ror <"'i the popular word, still in use in Greece. So 
flpoxh for iii-rot, pouvit for spot, d/api (from 6\f/apiov), for (y8vt, 
and numerous other words used in the New Teti., instead of the 
more refined forms, and still surviving in the vernacular Romaic. 
See Preface to St. Luke. 

46. Ti\»i>nil The Jewith tubalternt and lessees of the Roman 
publicani. and therefore doubly odious to those of their own nation. 
The Talmud classes them with thieves and assassins, and regards 
their repentance as impossible. 

48. tW0i-^rt°A«iot] We who are created in Ood's image/and 
restored in Christ, and made partakers of the divine nature in Him, 
are bound by the conditions of our creation, redemption, and saoctiti- 
eatton, to endeavour to bo like Him here, that we may have the 

Ch. TT. 1. JiKaioavvrj*] hutitiam, Vulg., applied to outward 
arts of righteousness ; specially to almsgiving. See Dan. iv. 24, 
where njJT$3 (b'Uidkak), i. e. iv oinuowwn, is rendered by LXX and 
Theodotio'n'«» tXtn^oo-wait. Cp. 2 Cor. ix. 10, where ctxauxrinn 
seems to have a similar tense. It is alto used in LXX for ipri 
(chesed), i. e. mercy, e. g. Prov. xx. 28. Ita. lxiii. J. 

Here the general word JtKaioauvn appears to be used by our 
Lord as introductory to precepts on its two special branches, Alms- 
giving and Prayer. 

— w,>ov to] i. e. with that intention. We are to be seen to do 
good, but not to do good to be seen. Cp. v. 16. Gal. i. 10. 

5. nh a-aXwio-nv] The reference seems to be to the use of Trum- 

some great thing. Num. x. 3, &c. Pt. lxxxi. 3. 2 Kingt ix. 13. 

— trroxpirai] iwoKpix^t, properly a kutrio or actor who iwoupl- 
»Tai t» x°R<r- ■• e - '• an interlocutor with the chorus; and wears a 
mask (witoo-arwiiov, nertoaajn), Bnd plait a part. Hence the word is 
applied in Christian Ethics to those who "tegunt tub perm ma quod 
nmi, et ottentant in pertoni quod non eunt." (Aug.) On the ute of 
the word uToxpiTi,, in the N. T. see below, xxiii. 13. "He follows 
up the metaphor. The hypocrite acts a part on thit world t stage, to 
be seen of men; but your Theatre it to be the Omniscience of God 
your heavenly Father, and the pretence of the World and of Angela 
at the judgment to come. If you wish to be glorious, conceal your 
good deeds here, and they will have a brighter crown hereafter." 
(St.Ckry,.) '■ He calls them iy - ' 
pretending to pray to God, they 
God it the hearer not of words bt 

8. iii'i ynrrm] much lest let it hold the trumpet to thy mouth, — 
nuuriu XaVbW (Tkeopi.). 

4. t» xiivwtu] Observe the article here tnd v. 6, not a secret 
place merely, but u secret, — shutting out all worldly considerations. 

6. a'w<xovo-i] ' id quod iii debttur.' On the use of aVo wo 

look around for the p 

ST. MATTHEW VI. 7—14. 19 

Ttp varpi trov r»p tv t$ /cpvnrtf • koX 6 irartjp crov, 6 pTkemuv iv t«£ KpxmrS, 
<x7ro8wtr« «xoi & t£ (fxwtptp. (-") 7 c Ilpoorevxo/xcvoi oe pi) ^8aTToXoy^<r»jTC, sStoi™'*""; 
aknrcp oi idvucoC' Soicovcn. yap, ori o» rp iroXvXayia avratv elcraKovcrOTJcrovrau 
8 p^ oJv 6pouD0j}Te awrots* otSe yap 6 varrfp vpxov, S>v xpeCap ex. €T€ ' W P° 
tov v/tas airtyo-at avroV. 9d Owra)s oJv irpocrev)(€o-0€ vpeis* Ildrep rf/xcav odLukeii. j. 
6> tow ovpavois, aytacrdrpra* to ovojxd crov. 10 i\0era) 7) fiacriXela, crov. 'yeirq- « Heb. is. «. 
ftyrfti to OeXrjpA <rov, <&s «* ovpavcp tea! iirl yijs. n 'tw aprov rjputv tov fLukeii.'s. 
etnovenov 80s ijpu' o-vf/xepov. 12 g jca. at^es ijpiV to. o^iXnjfiara rftuov, a>s *cal |i-»k« »■«• 
^ptus a<f)CefjLG/ tow o^eiXerais ^pw*>. 1S h Kal pi) eto-cvey^s i?pa« eis ireipacrfwv, J^ f 7 6 ; Jj; 
dXXa pvoui «7pas awo tow vovrjpov. (£) M ' 'Eav yap d^jre toi« dv0p<u7ro»s fec'Ll'k'I.' 

which Joseph retired to weep. See also in Exod. viii. 3, nd passim. 
The Fathers give also & figurative sense to this precept, e. g. St. Am- 
brose (Cain and Abel, e. 9) thus : Enter into the lecret ->---•— '-> 

, „ ..._.: Enter into the secret chmmber (to 
, r-roa>) of thine own mind wherever thou art, (hut the door thereof 
against the world, and commune with God. So St. Jerome, •* Claude 
ostium, et mente on, uU faciebat Anna mater Samuelis. Hoe ora- 
titmi* cubiemtum," sari St. Ambrose, " ubique tecum ett." We may 
rater the «f*vwrdv orchamber of our own hearts, even in a crowd, — "e't 
ubique aeeretum est, cujui arbiter nnllui eat niai solus Deut." " Qui," 
aa St. Cyprian de Orat. says, " non vocis sed cordis auditor est." 

7. w-poo-anxduavoi ph /SoT-roXoytjiT»iTi] " /Sottov dicitur fuisse 
Poeta quidam fuisse qui mulu inaniter garriebat eademque molet- 
tisaime inculcabat" (Mintert in v. Cp. Suidtu in v.) Hence fta-rro- 
Xoyslr, to use vain repetitious ; to repeat for repetition's sake. 
Our Lord repeated the samo words in prayer in His 
Matt zzri. 44. He teaches ut here that til 
nee of the lips. 

in the utterance of the lips, but in the colloquy of the heart with 
God ; and by his own practice in His Agony He instructs us that the 
affection of the heart is stimulated and sustained by the ministry of 
the lips saying the same words. 

8. etes yap] But lince God knows what we need before we ask, 
why should we pray? Not to inform Him, but to exercise outselves 
in communion with Him. (CSryi.) We are not narrators, but sup- 
pliants. It is one thing to inform the ignorant, and another thing to 
beseech the Omniscient. (Jerome.) 

9. oSr—t oir wpoos i%'<r9i] Our Lord here, by this Prayer— (cp. 
the Benediction, Num. vi. 23. Deut xxvi. 13),— 

Authoriies/bna of prayer '. 

Delivers a particular form of prayer to be used, and 

To serve as a pattern for the subject and order of our desires 
and prayers ; and > therefore at a guide for our practice. 

As the Decalogue is in two table*, to the Lord's Prayer it in 
two parts ; nuking together term petition!,— the first three relating to 
Ood, the latter four to man. (Aug.) Bp. Andrew*), v. p 3K1. 

— n«'T.p hnm»\ Not vparipf. He lays the Foundation of 
Prayer in Love. If God it our Father, we thould honour Him as 
His children ; and if He it the father of as (Am""), we thould love 
one another at brethren. Let us remember also, for our comfort and joy, 
Who it is that authorizes and encourages us to use these words, — the 
Son of God, co-equal and of One Substanee with the Father. 

— ay,ac«Hrm to itwp«] Svopa, Hebr. c$ (Stem), hat a com- 
prehensive meaning. See Mede, p. 5. It signifies whatever belongs 
to God,— His Essence, Attributes, Honse, Dar, Word. Ministers, ate. 
See Exod. xxiii. 21. Levit. xxiv. II. 16. 1 iiam. xvii. 45. Ps. viii. 
1; XX. 1.7; xlv 10; cxiii. 1; cxlviii. » J i. 11. 14. 

This is to be our first aim and desire in all things — the glory of 
God. (Carjn.) 

10. yiswtftfro)] •» hy angelt in heaven, to by us on earth. 

> And m" the Lord's Prayer" i , 

In Forms of Prayer among the Jews. See rttringe de Synagog. U 
LteW' and SckeeU/en, pp. sl-es. Cp. on vL St. 

' On this Prayer tee Ttrtultimn de Orations, p. 139, Paris 1693, who 
calls the Lord's Prayer " Brevlarium Evangelii," and St. Cyprian de Ora- 
tions Dominica, p. 3»5, ed. Ven. 1728. Aug. de Serm. M. it 4-8. and 
Senn. M-48, "ad Cnmpetentes poit ■ymbolum traditum." Oieoor. 
tteutn. in de Orat. Domm. Orietm, wtpl tix^l, i- 1M. and Si. Ciril. 
HitroMltm. Calech. K, p. 329. Bp. Anirnxt, v. 350—476, who calls it 
"a compendium of faith,* and Mtit, 1—18. 

> " Paam petl mandat, quod solum fidelibus neetuarium." {TtrtulUan 

< It has been said by many learned modem Interpreters, that enoeVm 
Is derived from i iwtoiva i)m«>« [to-morrow), and cannot come from iwi 
and oixrU. tot it would be erovorut. 

Hnt thU nnlninn dm not mm tatitmctOTy. 

Matt. vi. 34, to pray o^uom for to- 

trom M and ovoU, may be compared with rs-ioytooc, 
mwm, rriorm, <Vup«ot. rriovooc, where the vowel t Is not elided. 

And ao the Ancient Church understood the phrase; e.g. C*r«». 
men* iwX ri|r obo-iav ttuPainvn, and Basil, reg. brev. 233, ib» ionv 
ro> .pit ri, ettuspor fVhr rp oiaij ipi,, xpynpnorr*. Ttteopk. M 
ri oiaio «oi mtw» *in«p*i), and Sutmtm. and SuUat, and Bttmol. It. 
» V. Tg ewrif npim ippiimr. 

So alto St. CerU. Murotol. p. S29, speaking of dally bread in a spiritual 

11 tov apTer—To* txtowriov] Bread— the Hebrew rjnS a 
synecdoche for " quicquid ad vitsm sustentandam utile est" Gen. 
x'liii. 25. 81. 84. 

The word itrinie.oo, a new word, at Onowt observes (de Orat.), 
peculiar to the New Testament, and marking the newness of the pre- 

wtpuwe-ioe (superfluous), and is contrasted with it and tignifies what 

ence ; hence dprov iwiovctot is * the tame at -pn rjrrt (tehem 
hmV) in Agur't prayer. Prov. xxx. 8; and this petition appears to 
be derived from it. (Mede.) 

The Fathers understand by this bread, the spiritual food of the 
Word and Sarramenti. Tertullian. de Oratione 6, "Panem Spi- 
ritualiter intelligamut, Chrittut enim jpanis nosier." " Hunc panem 
quotidie nobit pottulauint," sayt St. Cyprian, de Orat. Dom., at the 
Manna in the wilderness (Cp. John vi. 33.) So the English Cate- 
chism, — "all things that be needful fur our toult and bodies." 

18. to i<pnkiiparra\ 'a>iiVat retpondet verbo Chald. et 
Syr. pjo), quod non modo valet dimittere, relinquere, tinere, ted 
etiam condonare, remiitere, et tunc ei fere jungittir jfm, 6<ptl\>iaa, 

donare, remittere, Hebr. rr>0', ut ap. to« o" Ps. xxv. 18, adiiv Tdc 
dpapriat tun,- add. Num. xiv. 19. Ies. Iv. 7. Voces itn et ytl 
etiam de peccatie titurpantur, v. Bmtorfii Lex. Talm. p. 714 t. et 
Vorttiue de Hebraism. N. T. p. 74 ss. hinc et ap. Luc. xi. 4. pro 
<S<pu\ijuoTa legitur ipupriat, et infra v. 14. dq)ttAquaTa com- 
mutatur cum ts^s»t«o«t«." (Kuin.) Hence St Augustine argues 
against the Pelagians, that no one is without sin. S. Aug. de Peccat 
ii. 10, and c Epist Parmen. ii. 10. St. Cyprian (de Orat. Dom.) 
savs, " hinc docetur peccare ae quotidii." 

18. iii) sioiWyxwcl Quoted by St. Polyearp. Phil. 7. God 
tempts no one (Jamet l. 13; rp. de Aug. Serm. on M. ii. 9); but He 
sometimes permits the Tempter to trv the faith and patience of His 
servants, aa Job (i. 12; ii. 6). and our Lord Himself (iv. 1). We 
are taught to pray here that God would not lead us into Temptation, 
i. e. allow us to ma into it—" Ne nos induei patiaris." (Tertullian) 
— (though the Tempter may be allowed to attack us), much less go in 


_ -_ of grace, and of watchfulness against Satan, and of 

er for the Holy Spirit,— Christ's own praver in His Agony. 8ee 
" See Bp. Andrewe; v. 45& 467, on this text. 

po5] the i 

eked o, 

use it always tignifies moral evil ; whereat a-ourd* 

physical evil only. 

The Doxology Sri e-oS—Ap4» is not found in the oldest MSS. 
and was probably added in the beginning of the fourth century 1 , 
from the primitive usage of Christian Churches in reciting the 
Lord's Prayer in their public Liturgies. 

Mr. Humphry (on Actt xxi. 14) and Prof. Blunt (on the Chris- 


•r rit yVvrft ««T«T«<r<ro>cro«, and so the 
e ths Athenian ed. of £utktm. 1842. p. 110. 
iiou ui me Western Church has sufrsubttanliaUs. 
Justpk Mtdi's excellent Essay, p. 123, who observes t 
be thus paraphrased, rbr «>roi- iHuiv, p'n a-apiovo-io 

the Jews it was not usual to pray for the things ot the murroar. See alto 
Bloomf., Alford, and Arnolti. 

» " I'mittunt hare verba codd. Grseei, panel i quidrro, aed nrseatantlsalmi, 

serunt, et singulas ejus partes dlligenter illustrarunt, inter qnos antlquis- 
almi %mi Tertulltanu. et Cyprianus. Orlgenes quoque, qui omnes hujut 
orationis senuntias sln»ularf libe' r, , , - . T 1. p. 226 as. ed. de 

la Rue) pertractavit, et diserte Indlravii, quibusnam rebus codices Lucae, 

isil ^ . 

Hleioaolymluna.) in ^tl.iopiea, Armenica. 
nui Apoatolorum, el apud Chrytottomum. Si 
s, ut OrUsooekhu In CommenUr. Crlt. ad h. 1. r 
chito exdpias, probara potest 

itaim ad Grstcos libroa iuniores, cum vulgar! lextu conaonantes, recog- 
Itam esse. Adstipulor igitur OrUstaekio, eui hate doxologia seculo iv. 
w Chr. N. e Hturgut Irrepsisae vldetur." (JTaia.) 

These facts show that we have now Greek M8S. of the New Test,. , 

1 Tim. 6. 
Heb. 13. 

ST. MATTHEW VI. 15—34. 

Ta irapairrdtfiaTa avrStv, dsfnjcrei. <cal iptp 6 Ilar^p vpJap 6 obpdptor 1S k idv 
hk /xt/ d^rc tow dvQpiimovi ra vapavrmpaTa awiw, ovSe 6 Ilar^p vptap 
axfyqa-ei ra vapairrdpaTa ipStv. (-^-) 16 ' "Otov 8e ptjarevtjTe, pf) yu>«r0e 
axrtrep ol imoKpvral, aKvQpomoL' aufxtvLtpvcri yap ra vpoaaura avro>p, oVa»s 
<f>a.vm<ri. tois avOpwrovs vt)<rrevoPT€$. dprfp Xeya» vptv, ori dir^ovo-i top /xt<r- 
0op av7W. 17 2v 8e, irqoreuoiv, dXtti/nu cow T^y Kt<f>a\i)P, Kal to irpoaomov 
crow vtyai' 18 oVa>? /m) ^<u^? tois avdpanroui vrjarcvwv, dXXa t$ IlaTpi aov 
t$ cV r$ Kpvnr$' kcu 6 Ilarqp <rov, 6 /8X«roiv a* t$ Kpvnr<p, airoSwra <rou 

19 m M^ dT)<ravpl£ere drjo-avpovs iirl t»js yr\<i, owov o-»)s *cal /3/xwo-is 
afavitfii, koX owov KXeVrat Stopv&trovtrt Kal Kkiwrovaf (-£•) * dT)<ravpi£ere 
hk vpu> 0T)<ravpovs ip ovpaptp, owov ovre o-»)s owe fSpu>cri<; a^avi^ei, Kal oVow 
<cXenrat ou hiopvaaovaw owSc* Kkiwrovaw 21 ©7row yap ecru' 6 (h)o-avpb<i 
vpatp, ixel «rrai Kal 17 Kaphia. ipotv. (■§-) ffl ° 'O Xi^os tow a-(opar6<i ecTU> 
6 6<f>0a\p6$. iav otv 6 6<f>da\po<; aov airkov* $, Skov to awpd o~ov <fxoT€u/bv 
eitrrat* a eav 8c 6 6<f>0a\p6<s o~ov wopijpbs ■§, Skov to cal/xd o*ow o-kotcwop 
lunfVii"* * <rTOt * e * ^ TO ^* s TO *" °" ' °" k ot°5 **<rn, T0 o-»coto5 woaop. (-£-) ** ° OvSel? 
1 John 1 is, i«. Swarat 8wo*l KvpCois SowXewew ^ yd/j top eva punjaet, Kal top irepov dya- 
irqo~€C ^ cv6s avdegerai, Kal tow eripov Kara<f>povijo~€t.. Ov hvvao-de 8e^» 
pLuie it. t». 8ovXev6U> Kal papwpy.. (-^-) ^ p Awl. tovto Xcya> v/tu>, /i.^ pepipvare rg tyvxfi 
1 piTl's?"??' vpaiv, ti <fxiyi)T€ Kal rl irirjre, pifBk t$ o-upari. vpStv, Tt ivBvotjo'de. *ovxl 
I'iuL ». jj. t? V"W w^**o" €oti Tt}$ rpoifn}?, Kal to o-w/ia tou evovparos ; x ' ipfikapaTe 
W.°i47 8 '»V' «5 Ta 7reTC«'d Tow ovpavov' ore ov OTtdpovo~iv, ovfe dipi^ovaw, ovhe o~w- 
dyova-iv eU airodyKav Kal 6 irarf/p vp£>v 6 ovpavuos rpdiftei avrd' ov% ipel<s 
paXkov 8ux.<f>epere avratp ; v * ti? Be i£ ipiop pepippwp Swarai irpoadelpai 
iirl rr/p rjkiKlav avrov irffxyp eVa ; M * »cat irepi eV8w/i.aT05 n pepipvaTe ; icara- 
pdderc rd xplpa tov dypov ira><i av$dpei' ov Koiruj., ovBk prfizv M Xcyw 8e 
u/i.u>, ori ovSc SokopMP h> vdajf rg o~6£q avrov ircpiefidkcTo aiv Iv rovrtav 
30 " eihk top xo/JTov tow dypov, cnjpepov opra Kal avpvop €is KkLfiapop ^aXXo- 
ftcpov, 6 0e6v owto>5 dp<f>Uppvo-u>, ov iroWq paXKop vpds, oKiyovwrroi ; 81 * pr) 
ovp pepipprjo~r)Te Xeyovrcs, ti <f>dyo>pev, ij ti ■nuoptv, ?j ti irepifiakwpeda ; 
82 TrdtTa yd/5 Tawra Ta 6^107 im&yrei' ot&e yap 6 iraTT)p vpJap 6 ovpdvto? ori 
XPVfcre tovtosp dirdprap" M y ^citc 8c npcorop T7jp fOao-iXciap tov ©cow <cal 
„. TrfP hutaioovprjp awrow, Kal TavVa irdvra irpooredrfo-erat vpur u p-q oZp px.pi- 

t Luke 12. XS. 
t Luke 12. 27. 

a Luke 12. 28. 
x Luke 12. 29, 

two Church, p. 38) well compare 2 Tim. i». 18, where 8t Paul adopt* 
the substance and order of the last two petition! in the Lord's Prayer 
xeUh the Domlogy. 

16. 8to» rnffTivtp-i] Our Lord is speaking here of private fasts, 
not of fasts imposed by public authority. Fasting was prescribed by 
the Old Law; but witf. the exception of the annual fast on the day of 
Atonement (Ler. xvi. 1—34 ; zxiii. 27—29. Cp. Numbers xxix. 7), 

<e.jg. the Pharisees') fasted twice a week (Monday'and Th'uiwUv)* 
Luke xriii 11. (Lightfoot.) He anticipates that His disciple* tntt 
fast On the duty, design), and proper meaning of fasting, see Basil, 
De Jeiunio ii. p. I — 15. 621. 

22. 6a,»a\n6,dw\o 
lucernas ridere tmmera 

..«w, ,.„. ,uc j.u. 7 v. v.«» m*a in the way of obedience to His Law K 

24. /xa/xora] From 8yriac k>jiqo (mamwuma), ridta ; which 

appears to be deriyed from jtarr (ibnos), abundance. " Non dixit, 

qui mabet divitias sed qui tervit divitiis; q_ui divitiarum serrus est 

Christian Utur.rie.7 '" "" ' ' " """ "" ™ """"" 

' See Bp. Samd^nn rPrartrct. de Obligat Conse. 11. i II, »ol Ir. p. 31 », 
caUrf°^OT*'lnc7udei i »1T* °' • ,u ' po ** ,_<,r « ood •»«««•<•. P™perly so 
SI. Btrnard. •• Ut ocuIum sit rtmp Urn, ituo sunt neeessaria, char'itL in inten- 

26. ffi lupntrart] Our Lord does not forbid prorident fore- 
thought (cp. 1 Tim. t. 8), as was imagined by the Euchites ("qui vole- 
bant semper sCx"'"'" et nunquam laborare"), against whom St. A»- 
gwUine wrote his book "de Opera Monachorum s (vi. 797; xi. 446). 
" Dominus," says St. Aug., " propter exemplum loculos habuit." 
But he forbids anxious, restless, and distrustful solicitude about 
earthly things. — and this He does by seven considerations. 1. The 
care which God shows for our life and our bodies (see Chry. and 
Jerome). 2. For the inferior creatures which exist for our sake. 
3. Because all our care is vain without God. 4. From a considera- 
tion of the flowers and grass which God clothes and adorns. 5. Be- 

i and heathen 

6. B 


y thing necessary to them who seek first His Kingdom. 
t sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. Cp. Phil. iv. 6. 

rpotprjt] id food, to u ivou/ia-rot, iit clothing. 

80. <i< kW/3ok>»] * clitwnns, furnus,* the kiln ; from MjjS {lebhe 
nah), later. From lack of timber in Palestine, xoprot, &c was 
used as fuel. See above, Hi. 10. 

M<Aot, ii, tic rhr &Aor *iviu>' «pimj 
otroc aw «u a pMJmw ova ix'po'i. 


pvyjarjre eis rt)v avptoV i) yap avpiov pcpipvijo-ei cavr^s* apicerov rg i)pepa 
ij kolkio. avrijv. 

VII. (4r). 1 **f>? Kpivere, Iva pt) Kpidrjre. 2 h> $ yap tcpipan Kptvere, » 
Kpi&tjtrecrde Kal a* $ fierpw perpelre perprjOijcrerat, vpiv. (-^-) 3 b Ti 8«; /JXtf- J 
irct* to Koip<f>o<; to a* t$ b<f>6akpa> tov dSeX^ov o*ou, t^f Se e» tw ctw 6<f>0a\pa> \ 
Bokov ov Karavocis ; 4 ^ ir5? epets t# dSek<f>a> o-ow, *^L^€s eK/JdXa> to ko/m^os I 
dirb tov 6<f>6aXpov aoV Kal iSov, 17 80K09 eV t<5 6<f>0a\pa> crov ; & xmoKpurd' 
eic/Sa\c irpanov tt)v Bokov Ik tow 6<j>6akpov <rov, Kal totc 8uty8Xo/»eis iiefiaXelv 
to Kapfos iic tov 6<f>dakpov tov dSeX^ov o*ov. (-£-) 6 M^ 8a>rc to dyiov tois 
kwi' ftijoe fidkrfre tovs papyapiras vpwv ipirpoaOev rwv yoipmr piytton 
KarairarqdUMTW avrovs «V toJs 7roo-li' avreSv, Kal arpafyhn&i pij£<o<riv vpds. 
("-) 7 c ^itcitc, Kal 8o0r/o-6rai v/iiV tiyreire, koI evo^o-ere* Kpovere, koI dvotyyj- c 
o-erat v/xiy, 8 wet? yap 6 a«w Xapfidvei, Kal 6 £>jTa».v evpiarKci, Kal t# Kpovovri 
avovfja-erau 9 d ^ Tt? eaTic ef v/naw avOpanros, ov idv ainj<rg 6 vlos avrov 
aprov, prj \L60v itriBwcrei avrw ; 10 Kal ed*» l^w alnjcrg, pr) 6\f>iv iiriBtocrei 
avr<p ; 1J * ei ovV v/acis, irovtfpol oWes, otSarc Bopara dyaOd 81S0W1 rots e Lak 
tc'kvoi? v/naw, rrdtrw /xaXXop 6 irarr/p vpStv o ev tois ovpavob} Sworei ayadd 
Tot? atTovo-w avrdv. (-y-) 12 f Ilavra ovv oo*a av dchtyre Iva irouocriv vpiv oi 
avdpomoi, ovtw Kal vpeis iroiciTe avrotr oJros yap cotw 6 vopos koI oi *[«t- 
wpo<jnJTai. ?xto 

("T") 13 ' -Eio-e'X^ere Sid 1-^5 otcj^s iruXiys' ort irXaTcia ^ iruXi^, Kal evpvxa>po<> 
17 6805 ^ dirdyov<ra els T^y dircuXeuu', Kal iroXXoi eto*ti' 01 € , urcpx6pa'oi 8i* 
avr^s* u ort aT€K7 17 iruXij, Kal TeffkippJinj 17 680s 17 d7rdyovo*a ci? 1171' frtf^v, 
Kal 6Xiyoi eio-li' ol evpioTcoire? airnjv. (-^-) 15 h IIpo<re)(eT€ Bk dvo tow i/»ev8o- j»™j 
. irpotfnjTtov, otrwcs epxpvrai irpos v/tds ei> iv&vpao-t, irpofidroiv, e<ra>6ev 8e ^^ 
curi Xvkoi dpnayes. 16 ' 'il7ro twi' KapirS>v avrotv iinyv<o<re<r6€ aurovs* (-y-) fiifri 
o-uXXeyouo-u' a7rb ducavdaiv (jra<f>v\r)v, fj dno TpifJokoav avKa ; (-^0 17 ' ovra) ^ uk ^ 
trdv SevBpov dyadov Kapjrous KaXovs Troie? to 8c <rairpbv 8ev8pov Kapirov? 
ironypovs iroiei. 18 k ov 8vf arai SivBpov dyadov Kapirovs irovr)povs iroieiv, ovhe k Lui 

cch. 21.22. 

M»rk li. 24. 
Luke 11. 9. 

Join. H. 13. 

84. m<<»M^«' «<"■*«] So C, B. G, L, S, V, tnd other M8S.— 
uotTi iairrijt, j. e. to-morrow will Uke care of ittelf ; to dtoorrilm 
with geuit. Matth. G. O. § 326. 

— h Kaxia] not h -wowipiu, or malitia, but vatatio or mrumna, — its 
burden of rare and sorrow. See Terlullian c. Marcion. ii. 24. Jerome, 
Epiat. 147, and above, v. 18. Cp. Gen. xlvii. 9. 

Thi» adage is found in the Talmud Berachot, fol. 9. 2. Vortt, 
deAd.g. N.T.p. 806. 

Here it may be observed, that our Lord adopts and spiritualizes 
several proverbial sayings in succession, which were known to the 
Jews. (See on verses 2, 3. 6 of the next Chapter.) In the same manner 
aa in the Lord's Praver (see above, vj. 9). He adopted and spiritualized 
petitions from the Jewish Liturgy. He thus exemplified His own 
precept concerning new wine and new bottles (Matt. ix. 16, 17), and 
on bringing out of the storehouse things new and old (xiii. 52). In 
all those cases He animates the old letter with the new Spirit of His 

Ch. VII. L ^ KphiTi\ Quoted by St. Polyearp, Philipp. 2, 
p. 507, who also cites v. 3. 10. On the meaning of this precept, see 
barrow's Sermon xx. vol. i. p. 431. 456. 

2. in « Mt'Tfiif ] iv preserves its usual sense here, t* what measure, 
large or small, or just the contrary. On this adage, which is found in 
the Talmud Sola, cap. i. see ForsV, p. 801. 

8. *ip<pos] " Pestuca, stipula, palea quse in oadot facile involat" 
(o Lapide) " opponitur IokiZ trabir This proverb was already fami- 
liar to the Jews. See Talmud Erachin, c. 2, and Baba Bathra, c. 2, 
and see next note. 

6, awe] By xvMt St. Aug. understands ' impugnatoree veriutis ;' 
by yo'<»<, ' contemptores.' Both were among the unclean animals of 
theXevitical Law (Lev. xi. 1—7) ; on whose moral signi6.ance see 
W. Jones of Nayland, Zoologia Ethica, vol. ii. p. 115, ed. 182t>. See 
also his Serm. xxix. on this text. This, like most of our Lord's pro- 
verbial sayings, appears to have been already current among the Jews. 
See Vornt. de Adag N. T.. p. 780, ed. Lips. 1778, cap. i. of Mischar 
Happeninim.— " Ne projiriatis margaritas coram porcis, et ne tradatia 
sapientiam ei quf : — ~* r — •— - : -— - : — *' 

As to our Lord's use of heathen proverbs, tee oi 

1L i/uult, trovtipoi] Scripture does not commend itself to the 
world by speaking well of mankind ; more wonder is it that Scripture 
has been received by men as God's word. (Cp. Bettg.) 

12. -warra our] ovv is not here illative ; or if so, it depends on 
what has preceded generally concerning moral duty, and to introduces 
a summary of universsl application (.Glass, Philol., p. 534), and cor- 
responds to Hebr. jjj (ladien), and is used in transitions, as John ix. 

— fral On this use of 7m see Mark vi. 25; ix, 30. Winer, 
p. 301. It is the *o of modem Greek. 

otro'v te~ri» i »in<n «r«ii oi w/>ciipi]Tai] i. e. the turn of the re- 
vealed will of God,— which among the Jews was known by the name 
" The Law and the Prophets." Luke xvi. 16. See Matt. xi. 13 ; 

if the gate appears from 

., ...... Lot and his daughters in 

Sodom ; Noah and seven persons in the Flood ; Caleb and Joshua in 
the Wilderness; and from our Lord's saying, "Many are called but 
few chosen" (Matt. xx. 16). 

"The gate is straight; let the knowledge of its straightness 
stimulate our energies. And though the gate is straight, and the path 
narrow, yet not such it the city — the heavenly city — to which it leads," 
•rsinHirvXif.oexv***". (C*rj».) 

— Tt> rttii*-] Observe ti>, the life : that which alone deserves to 
be called life. "Vita enim prasens non est vita, sed potius mors." 

15. uVivJowpod>i)Tuvl false teachers. See on Rom. xii. 6. Titut 
i. 12. ICor. xi. 4; xiv. 6. 

16. i-wi tS>» K«pw£..l i.e. from the fruits of tteir teaching; not 
from their acts alone, because acts seemingly virtuous are often 
nothing more than the Sheep's clothing in which the wolf wraps him- 
self in order that he may deceive and devour the Sheep. See J3p. 

31, on 1 Tim. iii. 16, vol. i. p. 244. " Non 
bliis neque exfloribus," says St. Bernard, ep. 107, " sed exfructu 
>r bona malave dignoscitnr." 
}. oi *ii«iTatJ Christ does , 

and others inferred), oi 

good it produc 

. a good tree cannot be- 
)r that man has no free 

.aid; but that while it is 

a consequence and proof of its good- 

n Luke 13. M, S5. 

ch. J4. 12, 41. 
* Tim. 2. 1». 
p Luke 6. 47,48. 

i Mirk i. », J7. 

ST. MATTHEW VH. 19—29. VIII. 1—4. 

Set/o'pov crairpov Kapirov? koXovs irotew. 19 ' irav ha&pov /xt) irovovv napnov 
Kakov iKKoirrcrcu, Kal el's irvp /JaXXerai. ™ apaye airb rStv Kapvwv avrw 
emyvuiorearOe avrovs. 

(thO 21 m Ov was 6 Xeytav pxtt, Kvpte, Kvpie, eio-eXeuo-erai eis T^y ficurikelav 
raw* ovpavotv, aXX' 6 ttouav to dekrjfia tov irarpos /tow rot) A* oitpavois. 
(-y-) 22 " JToXXol ipovcri pot iv eKeivg rj} -qfiepa, Kvpie, Kvpu, ov r$ a£ ovopan 
vpoe<fn)T€va-afi€v, Kal rat cr^J ovopart, SaiftoVia ifefiakopev, Kal r&> cr<ji ovo/xart 
Swdfieis iroXXds inovqaapev ; a ° Kal Tore o/ioXoyi^nu avrols, or* ovSe*rore 
eyr/an- v/nas" awox^pein aw' e/*ov 01 ipyatflptvoi. tt)i> avopiav. (-^-) ** p Has 
ovV ocrns aKovei /xov rows Xoyovs tovtovs koI irotei avrovs, opouacro) avrbv 
dvhpl (fypouLfj.0), oaris <pKo86p.7)cre rrjv outtav avrov tfjrl. tt}? irerpaV ** Kal 
Karefiy) r) fipo)(r), Kal fjjkdov 01 Trora/iol, Kal envtwav oi avupoi, «cal irpoa- 
4iK<rov rg owaa £kc\vq, Kal owe iirea-e Tcdepekiano -ya/> «rl rrji* verpav. 
26 q Kal was 6 okovW /iov rovs Xoyovs tovtovs, Kal /*^ n-otan- avrovs, opouo- 
0ijo~€Tai dvBpl po>p^>, ooris <pKo86pi)<T€ tt)V oikIov avrov t?7rl t*7»> appoV 2S ' ical 
Kare/Si} 17 flpoxq, Kal l)\0ov oi vorapol, Kal ewevcrav oi dvepoi' koI vpoa- 
eKoxjtav tq owaa eK€ivQ, Kal enwr Kal fy r) irraioas avrrjs peyaktf. (-^-) 28 'Hal 
eyevero, ore awerikeaev 6 'Iijovvs rovs Xoyovs rovrovs. i$€ir\r}o~<rovTO oi 
0^X01 cwl rp 8t8a^ avrov* a "^i» yap SiSao'Ka'v avrovs a»s i$ovaiav k\<nv t 
Kal ovx &>? °' Tpapparel^. 

VIII. (-^-) x Kara^SaVri * 8-1 avr^ ewro rov o/oovs, iJkoXov^o-ov avra) o^Xoi 
iroXXot* 3 Kal iSov, Xeirpos vpoaeKdotv vpoaeicvva, avrw, Xeywv, Kvpie, lav 
dikys, SwacraC p.e KaQapUrax. 8 Kal c/creifas rr)y X 6 */* 01 V x l' aTO a-vrov 6 'Itjo-ovs, 
\eya>v, GrfXo), Ka0apUr6r)Tir Kal evdicas €Ka6apCcr0r) avrov ^ Xeirpa. 4 b Kal 

nen, »nd cannot be called good, if it does not bring forth good 

22. i, i«(rn if ^«>?] the great day. Mai. iii. 17. Luke x. 12 ; 

— TrpoHptrriitrauiv] frreacktd. See 15. Balaam and Caiapha* 
prophened. Pharaoh and Nebuchadnezzar Iram the future by dreams. 
Judaa (among the Apottlea) worked miracles with a traitors mind. 
Such things are permitted for a manifestation of God's power, for the 
conviction of sinners, and for the edification of others. (St. Jerome.) 
" They will sit to Me." Observe, having concluded His sermon. 
He presents Himself as our Judge, and describes the Judgment to 
come. So He said to His disciples, " Rejoice not that the spirits are 

z. 20). He teaches us that faith will not profit us without works, no, 
nor miracles. Hence St. Paul, " If I have faith so as to move moun- 
tains, and know all mysteries, but have not charity, it profiteth me 
nothing" (1 Cor. xiii. -2). Let us ther — --'<--.•--■■■ ■ 

iniquity, and let us not consider oursel 
not work miracles now. We shall be ta 
judgment on that account, when God will not require of ui 
butholiness. (C*rjr».) 

"Hi •>! tif, wirpa,\ tie Rock,aa distinguished from rh» «/u»oi- 
(26). 8ee above on v.l. " Mystice petra est Christus; unde Glossa 
•life cdificat in Christo qui quod audit ab illo farit.'" (d Lapid.) 
St. Jerome, says, "Christ built His Church upon a Rock Petra (Malt 
xvi. 18), and from this Petra, Peter (Petrus) derived his name. See 
Rom.ix.83. 1 Pet. ii.8. lCor.x.4. The found.tion which the Apo»tle 
laid as a Master builder (1 Cor. iii. 10—16). is the one Lord Jesus 
Christ. On this solid and firm foundation the Church of Christ is 
built But all doctrines of Heresy are built on the sand, which is 
floating and cannot be consolidated ; and they are built only to fall." 
Cp. on Matt xvi. 18 ». 

28. ««1 iyin-ro] This Hebraism, so often repeated by the Evan- 
gelist St. Matthew (see ix. 10; xi. 1; xiii. 53; xix. 1; xxvi. 1; cp. 
Tbraf, p. 601), served continually to remind the Jewish and Hellenistic 
reader of the connexion of the Gospel History with the narrative of 
the Old Test It would be difficult to find any other Books in the 

A propnrcy verified Id 

t of the waves and st 

if his r>ge <u 
k. So far frc 

from being injured, she i 

World where it occurs in the si 

>r as in the two Test*- 

Christ did what hi 

— oix «t ol I>a/iMaTttc] There » 
Between Christ and the Scribes. 

In the mbject of teaching : Christ taaght concerning grave spiri- 
tual matters; the Scribes, ou frivolous trifles and superficial forma- 
"•' (See the Talmud, patnm.) 

•■ Not to the Scribes. 

....... tauchtai the Divine Lai 

Christ in His teaching sought only the glory of God ; the Scribea, 

Christ rave divine orace to his hearers ( if they were humble), to 
receive and do His Word. 

Christ's doctrine wa» perfect; that of the Scribea erroneoua and 

Ch. Till. 2. Xsrpot] Our Lord enforce* Hit Sermon by a 

Miracle; and begins with healing that disease (Leprwy) which waa 
regarded by the Jews as almost tneuraUe, and was specially a type of 
em. Cp John, § 189, where it it shown that leprosy waa infectious 

S. "iO-iito aiVoii] To show that He waa above the Lew. which forbad 
contact with leprosy (Num. v. 2. Lev. xiii. 46. Tertultian adv. Mar- 
cion. iv. 9) ; and to prove that He is the Source of purification even to 
what is most unclean, whether in body or soul. He stretched out His 
hand and touched the leper, to show that He is not subject to the Mosaic 
law, but superior to it. Elisha did not touch Naaman the leper, but con- 
formed to the strictness of the law, and sent him to Jordan to wash, 
the leper ; and thus shows that He heals not at 
, ,- i.- i , _ -. — j err< j unclnn by 

a servant, but a Lord ; for His hand was 
touching the leper, but the whole body of the 
touch of that holy l„nd. (St. Ckryt.) See 

' Voln' propter Ph« 

" imperat propter Arium 

r8nri] " Volo; magna potestas." (Beng.) " Didt 

' a" (who said that Christ was a mere man) ; 

" (who denied His equality with the Father); 

s, then interpreted ai 


Xc'yct avr$ 6 'It/o-ous, "Opa p.-qhevl eiwfls, aXX' viraye, c (reavrbv Scifov to> Upei, c 
icol irpo<reveyKov to Sapov o irpoo-era£e Ma>v<rf}<;, as pxtpropvov avrois. J 

("ir) * d .Eio-cX0dWi 8c aur<5 eis Kafapvaovp, irpo<rfj\6fv aurcS cKaToVra/>j(os» d 
trapaKoKhtv avrbv 6 <cal Xe'yaw Kvpie, 6 irais fiov /JeySX-r/rai cV t# oiKtji. irapa- 
Xvrucos. Sewers /Jao-avifrj/icvos. 7 kcu Xeya avr^ 6 'liyo-oOs* 'Eya> eX^wv dcpa- 
irevcra) airoV. 8 * k<u airoKpidels 6 cjcaTovra/j^os i<fn), Kvpie, owe eipl Ikclvos * 
IVa p.ov tnrb ttjv areyt\v eto-cX^s" aXXa povov elite. Xoya», Kal lad-qo-erai 6 
7rcus /xou. 9 f Kal yap cya> avdpayiros ei/u vwo i£ov<rtav, e\<»v xnr ipavrbv t 
crrpaTubras' Kal Xe'ya» tovtoi, IIopevdijTi, »cal iropeverat' Kal aXXw, "Ep\ov, 
Kal cpxerav Kal ra 8ovXg> /xov, IIoir)<rov tovto, Kal irotel. 10 * '.d/covo-as 8^ « 
6 'Jr/o-ous idavpaae, Kal elire tois okoXov#ov<to', 'Aprjv Xeya» v/iip, ovSe a> 
ra 'Io-parjk roo-avr/jv irurrtv evpov. (") u h yleya> 8^ v/ny, art ttoXXoi awo J 
avarokutv koX Svo-patv -ijgovo-t, Kal dvaKXiOyjcrovrai pera 'Aflpaap Kal 'lo-aaie 
Kal 'IaKatft cV rjj /Jaa-iXeia to»v ovpavutv, ia ' oi 8e viol r»)s /8a<rtXeias eKpkqd^- », 
o-ovrai as to o-/cotos to i^wrepoV cVcd carat 6 KXavfytos Kal 6 fipvypbs Tail' cl 
ooovroif. (-£) 1S k Kal elirev 6 'Itjo-ovs t«j> eKaTovrdpxQ' "Twaye, Kal a>s em- * 
arevo-as yevtf&jjro) aou Kal Idd-q 6 7raTs avrov cV t# <3/>a eKeivQ. 

(-fj-) w Kal eXdaV 6 '.fyo-oSs cis t^p oIkCov Ilerpov, cT8e Tip irevOepav avrou 
/Se/SXij/xcVr/v *cal irvpia-aovaav l5 *cal rftf/aro rrjs x €t P 0,i a vr^5, «al axfnJKev 
avrrju o irvperos' Kal rfycpdr) Kal BirfKovet aur^J. 16 'O^ias 8c ycvoficVijs 
irpoo-rfveyKau avrat SatfioftCofieVovs iroXXows* *cal efeySaXc Ta irvevpara Xoyai, 

" tangit propter Muiicharam " (who uid that Christ had not human 
flesh, but was only a phantom). Ambnte in Luc. t. 12. 

" Prima miracula," says Beng., " confatim fecit, ne videretur cum 
labore facere, posteaquim auctoritatem sibi constituent, numtm into 
dnm adhibuit salutarem." 

4. M .i*'-i »»!*] 

To gire a lesson against vain-glory. 

To teach humility. 

To avoid giving offence to His enemies by exciting their envy 
and jealousy. 

To allow them time to examine calmly into the evidence of Hit 
. works and claims. 

To weau them from their carnal and earthly notion! of the Ma- 
rial ; and to teach them what the true character of the Messiah was 
to be, via. one of meekness and suffering aa well at of power and of 

Not to expose the person healed to persecution as a disciple of 

But yet the miracle was to be made known in an orderly manner 
by an appeal to the Priests who were legally appointed to examine the 
criteria of the case (Levit. xiii. 2; xiv. 2; xv. 19. 21), and who might 
thus be satisfied that He was not at variance with the Law, but revered 

And since they were, for the most part, hostile to Jesus, their tes- 
timony would be of greater value ; and if they were candidly disposed, 
they would thus be led to acknowledge Him to be what He professed 
to be, and what His works proved Him to be. And He would pre 
them the opportunity of originating the acknowledgment of His 
Power, insead of having it forced upon them by others. 

— sit nafiifiou avToic] for a testimony that thou art really 
cleansed ; and in order that they may testify to that effect ; and recog- 
nize me to be the Christ; and (adds CKrgt.\ " for a witness agaixti 
them, if they will not believe. — which Christ foresaw would be the 
case; and as a witness fur He, that I have done My part that they 
should believe." 

5. wpoffqAOiv aSird Ik.] He came by others whom he sent. 
See Luke vii. 9. " Non absurde Matthteus, per alio facto accessu 
Centurionis ad Dominant, compendio dicere voluit accessit ad Kum 
Ontario." (Aug. de Cons. Ev. i. 20. and see CAryt. here.) And it is 
common with Hebrew writers, especially to speak of a thing as dime 
by him who orders others to do it. (See Kuin. and xxvii. 26.) 

This Centurion at Capernaum was a figure and precursor of the 
Gentile World coming to Christ, and received by Him (Am,. Serm. 
62),— a forerunner of the Centurion at Ccsarea. Cornelius (Acts x. 1). 

6. o *«>«] He don not say oWXot, but, as in Latin, tmer, servant. 
See Luke vii. 3. 

8. ilirl \6yui] The centurion had a just notion of Christ's power. 
He did not tar, Prog to God, and my servant will be healed, but 
apeak the word only. And our Lord greatly commended him, whereas 
Martha, who said, *' 1 know whatsoever thou shalt ask of God, He 
will gire it Thee" (John xi. 22), was reproved, a* having spoken 
amiss; and Christ thus teaches that He Himself is the Source of 
Blessings (Chrt/t.), which He could not be unlets He were God. 

9. Into 2£o v <ria»] If I, who am tmdrr authority (i.e. of the ' tri- 

bunus legionis' and of the 'imperator'), command and receive ready 
obedience from my soldiers, how much more Thou, Who hast no 
. . . . , ^ minister* (Diseases, the Elements, 

&c), and they will 

,„ " ' .] 


id. i 

iers, how 

1 Thy i 
obey Thee? 
" Who," says St. Aug., lib. de Genes, e. 

? In wondering 
admire, He admires for our good, 
that we may imitate tbe Centurion's Faith. Such movements in 
Christ are not signs of perturbation of mind, but are exemplary and 
hortatory to us. ' See a similar expression, Mark vi. 6, <0atyia£t 

— oitl in -rii 'lo-fMiiA] Christ did not enter the Centurion's 

house, but his servant was healed by Him, present in majesty, but 

absent in body. So to Israel indeed, and to them alone, He showed 

* 1 — cn -- u u -* — theOentilet He was preached by others. 

ving, " A people that I have not known 

shall serve Me" (Ps. xviii. 43). The Jews taw and crucified Him; 

the Gentiles ieorrf and believed. (Cp. Aug. 8erm. 62.) 

18. ol viol T.0.] A Hebraism. Cf. on ix. 15. 

indeed such. The 

of the kingdom, those who rely on their carnal d 
Abraham, and do not acknowledge Me to be the Son of Abraham, in 
whom all Nations are to he blessed, they will be excluded from the 
glory of the royal palace, and cast into outer darkness. 

— a nXauiiiot Kal o /Joiry^rii ] the weeping, &c. ; that which alone 
deserves the name; being more doleful than any other anguish, — both 

bac riti d<_ „. __... 

(Bemg.). See the opposition in n M. vii. 14. 

15. 8d>aT«] This was on the Sabbath-day. See Mark i. 29. 
Luke iv. 38; and thus He taught His disciples at first privately that 
it was lawful to do good on the Sabbath— the people did not bring the 
Sick till sunset. See Mark i. 32. 

— dintoMt] By His touch He not only quenched the fever, but 
restored her to perfect health. This no human physician could have 
done. After a fever a long convalescence ensues before health returns. 
But in the rate of Christ it was with Diseases as it was with the Sea. 
After a storm there is a swell before the Sea sinks into a calm. But 
the fury of the Sea by a word to perfect calm, as He 

;- the cure and her 

did the rage of the fevc 
to Him, thus proving' 

IB. oilri'ac] "scl. &0a<, [quod addit Marc. xi. 11.1 ysw/ifrtit, 
twrpen, Marc i. 32. addit : Sri iiu i gXiov, ted ir-a-ip* est Hebr. 
TV, et de omni tempore pomeridiano adhibetur. Duas fuisse Hebneis 
vetperas, decent loci Exod. xii. 6. Levit. xxiii. 5. Matt. xiv. 15; 
una fuit ab hori IX, nostra pomeridiana tenia, usque ad horam sextam, 
altera ab hora nostra sexta, usque ad noctis principium, dip in lirripa, 
qua: etiam simpliciter dil/ia et ia-ripa direbatur, et hoc quidem loco 
altera ilia pars temporis pomeridiani intelligi debet, ut Luc. xxiv. 29, 
•1." iKuU) 

— iroMout] See how, as it were, with a single word tbe Evangelists 
•ail over a sea of miracles I And that it might not seem incredible 

1 Ilk. S3. 4. & 

1 Pet. J. 24. 

n Luke 9. 59, SO. 
o 1 Kings 19. 20. 

p Mark 4. 37. &c 

89. 9. & 107.29. 

ST. MATTHEW Vffl. 17—26. 

koX ttama.% tov% KaKcas exoiras idepdvevo-eV 17 ojtcos ir\7}pa>8y to ptjdkv Sto 
'Haaiov tov vpotfyrjrov Xeyoiros, ' ^Lwto? Ta$ &<r0evclas rjfimv IXa/Se, 
*cal Tci? voo-ovs ifidcrTao-ev. 

18 'loan' 8*1 6 'Itjo-ovs ttoXXovs 0^X0^ ire/M avrov, ejceXewev <MreX#eu> 
1. els to ttipav. (■%-) 19 m Kal wpoaekOav efs ypafiuaTtvs, elirev avr$, JtoaovcaXe, 
aKo\ovdijfra> <roi ojtov eav dirip-^. *° Kal Xeyei avrtp 6 'Iyo-ovs, Al aA&Weices 
<f>a>\eov<; e^ovct, Kal to. irereiva tov ovpavov KaTaoTcr/vciWets, 6 Bk Tibs tov 
avdpdmov ovk k\u irov TTfv Kc<f>akr)v kXlvtj. 21 " "Erepos Sk tu>v uadyjribv 
avrov eTnev avral, Kvpie, ° imrpetfiov /xoi irparov airekOelv <cal Odxf/at, tov itwripa. 
/xov. ffl 6 8e 'It/o-ous Xeyei avrw, 'Atcdkovdei uoi, Kal d<^€? tow? veKpovs ddxjtai. 
tovs eavraiy veKpovs. (-* ) M Kal p e^/JaWi avr$ eis to irXoibi' rfKokov&ijo-av 
aural ot p,a0i)ral avrov. M <cal iSov, cracr/tos fteyas eyevero a> t# dakda-vQ 
ware to irXoibv KaXvWeo-flat V7rb tSv KvpaT<ov avros 8** CKadevSe ^ ical 
irpoo~€\d6vre$ ol nadrjral rjytvpav avrov, Xeyovres, Kvpie, aaaov, diroWvfteda' 
26 *cal Xeyei avroZs, Tt SeiXoi care, 6X*y6Vwrroi ; q Tore eyepffels iirerifirfo-e 

that to Urge a number should be healed in so ahort a time, the Evan- 
gelist introduces the Prophet Isaiah witnessing that so it should be. 
(Ckry,.) Thus Prophecy becomes History. 

17. ewrmt wXiipmtln] From this citation of Isa. liii. 4 compared 
with 1 Pet. ii. 24, it appears that some of the prophecies of the Old 
Test, have a double sense, — physical and spiritual ; and that the Holy 
Spirit in the New Testament has enabled us to see new lights, which 
otherwise would be only partially discerned, in those Prophecies. Cp. 
Surenhus. p. 222. 

— {Aa/9»~ iflaaraaw] "\aftflatnii respondet Hebr. MS, quod at 
*— ui h. 1. respondet /fao-ragx*, non tan turn notat, ferre, per/erre, 
r. Exod. 
>lexandrini liabent 
if hoc modo 

etiam depelUre, auferre. toUtrt, ut h. 1. v. 40. xv 
:i». 7. Levit x. 12 Numb. xiv. 8, ubi Alex 

A<fiaip,t,- Terbum 0aoTaJ.ii. hoi 
ubi in nonnull. cocid. pro ifiaai 
(Kuh.) Thus Christ is not only o 
sufficient Atonement. On alpmv in 
19. .I«] 

at e glostemate lcgttur 
r Vicarious Proxy, tut 
similar sense see on John 


ov6ii<r«] This Scribe saw the crowds following Christ on 

account of His miracles, and appears to hate hoped for some worldly 
advantage from Him. This man's temper is to be inferred not so 
much from his words as from our Lord's annter to them. Christ 
read his heart, and replied from it. You think perhaps that you will 
derive some worldly advantage from following Me ; but do you not 
see that I have no resting-place, no, not even so much as the birds of 
the air? 

Observe here generally, that we may often ascertain the disposi- 
tion of those whose conversations with Christ are recorded in the 
Gospel, not so much from their otnt trords as from Hit rrplm to 
them. He answered not their words, but their thoughu. (St. Ckryt., 
who refers to Matt. xii. 47. John vii. 7 ; i. 47. Luke vii. 22.) 

20. ol dXuiMKu] Our Lord would not draw any to Himself by 
promises of worldly ease. " Semis Christi nihil prater Christum 
label " says St. Jerome, ad Heliodor. i. ; and we may add " nihil otW." 

""- ~TS^. " 

— HI Tios -i 

it He is 

Son of Man nV »E«X"'< He who bein 8 sbove *'* nM »» ken on 
Him man's nature — the Second Adam. A proper name (applied by 
Daniel vii. 13 to the Messiah. 8ee on Matt. xvi. 13), which Christ 
applies to Himxlf (cp. Lightfoot, i. 537) 
Incarnation and its consequences. " Con 
De Cons. Evang. ii. 1, "quid miseric 
nobis; et velut mysterium commendans ado 
•uc, uomen hoc sarpius auribos nostris insinuat.' 
22. X«y.i] So B, C; not «!»•». There m 
between the slwsr of these persons and the X 
. 19 20. 

■koXou'Osi tiot] "Hoc dixit ei," says St 

ix. 60), " cujus 

,._ Luke 
The person here de- 
Christ had already said, 

Follow Me." (Luke ix. &$.) Our Lord, when He had called him, 
what would happen to his father; and our Lord, by 
(Luke ii. Si. 

our Lord, by precept 

-- — (Luke ii. 51. M— 

Follow Me." Hence we may be 
e parent was infringed by obeying Christ But, 
as St ^morose says (lib. vii. in Luc. ix. 59), "Pi ' 

iw what would happen to his fat 
example, taught filial love and 
6), and yet He had aaid, " Folio 

Yes; if h. ra abset 
dWa,ln i 

u it not unnatural in 

sepulture prohibetur, ut intelligai 

Our Lord shows the — ' : — - 

mediately, a 

' tubordinating It 

i posthabenda 

of burying the dead (see Tobit xii. 12), and especially a dead 

The strength 

•«<■« brtf-- --- 

See also below, xii. 46—50, where our Lord illustrate* in His 
own conduct to His mother what He teaches here. And see the 
comment of St. Augustine on Luke ix. 59; and cp. Luke xiv. 26. 

— <5<pn tovc vikoovv] Suffer those who have not been called by 
Me, who are as yet dead (John v. 25) in trespasses and sins; who 
have not risen to /i/« in Me,— suffer tiem to bury their dead, not Mg 
dead : for Mv dead live— they never die. But 1 am The Life ; there- 
fore follow thou Me: and "go thou and preach the Gospel" (Luke 
ix. 60) ; preach it to them who are dead, and so raise them from that 
which is indeed death, — raise them from the grave of the soul, instead 
of following others to that of the body. 

23. to] Observe to. Cp. v. 18.^rXoIoi.. " Jesus habebat tcholam 
ambulantem." (Bengel.) This school a ship,— sometimes near shore, 
where the people stood ; sometimes in calm, sometimes in storm, — 
an emblem of the Church. 

24. •rutr/iot uiyax] He permitted the storm to arise to try the 
faith of His disciples, and in order that by quelling it He might prove 
His Divine power. 

— WoWi] was sleeping. He fell asleep to exercise the faith of 
His disciples, it apo iv vupairpoiv duXdvirroi tt<ri (Tkeopkyl. on 
Luc. viii. 23). 

And to combine (as usual) a proof of His Manhood with the evi- 
dence that He was now about to give of His Godhead, so that they 
might never think of the one without being reminded of the other. 
See on John xi. 35. 

He was asleep. We have a type of this action in Jonas, who 
slept when the others were in peril, and was awakened and rescues 
those trfo were labouring in the storm, by the mysterious action of 
His own self-sacrifice. (Jerome.) The Church is a ship, and bean 
s, and is tossed by the winds and waves of 
to the ship. A st 


_._ __ - awake, are 

shipwreck ; not that Christ sleeps, but He is slumbering in ut by 
reason of our sleep. But where faith watches, there is no fear of 
wreck from the powers of this world. (St. Hilary.) 

28. oatrov] A msrk of truth,— the Evangelists describe their own 
weaknesses. They were ambitions. 4c. before Pentecost The Holy- 
Ghost changed their hearta. (Cp. Bengel.) 

28. t{ ti,\ol SOTS, 
came to Christ ; but it 

-oil They had tome faith, for they 

faith, for they awoke Him. They 

the power and love of 

had led them into the 

They did not yet understand that while He slept as man, yet as 

' If, then, it Is not safe to spend even so 
ir the burial of a parent, to the neglect of 
ball we be if we allow slight and trivial mat- 
id and burled, from the death or sin to a lira of righteous- 
1 Laiarus from the tomb, then we shall be Ilia disciulaa 

ST. MATTHEW VIII. 27—34. IX. 1—5. 

rots dvefiois koI rjj daXdaoy, Kal eycVero yakijvj) fieydkr). w oi 8e dvOptairoi 
idavfjuwav, Xeyovres, JTora7rds eWu> oSros, ori »cai oi dvefioi. #cai tj ddkacrcra 
wraKovovariv avra". 

28 r jKal iXOovri avr$ eis to 7reoai> eis Tr/p x^P av ™ v TepyeoTjv&v, vmjvrr)- 
o~av avr§ 8uo Sai/u.ov(.^d/i€VOt, eVe tow pv^pximv iicpxop-evoi, xaX«roi \iav, &<rre 
/*•>) l<rxyew Ttvd irapekdeiv 8id t>}s oSow exeu^?. ^ Kai i8ov, cKpatjav Xeyoircs, 
Ti 17/xu/ Kal o-ol, *Iiqo~ov, Tie tow ©cow ; ijXfles 58c w/j6 Kaipov fta(rav£<rai 
^/ias ; w t}i> 8^ fuiKpav air atnw dyeXiy x 0l P a>v woXXw /JooTco/i.eVrj' 8l ol 
8c Satfiofc; vapeKaXow avrbv, Xeywres, El e»c/3dXXeis 17/ias, imrpapov rjiuv 
airckdeiv eis Trji> dyikifv tS>v xoiptav. w ical ctTrev avrois, 'Tirdyere. oi $*) 
e^eXfloVres d7rr}X0oj' eis t^v dyikifv t5>v xoCpuV koI IBov, wpp^ae irao-a 
■f) ayeXr/ r&v xoipav Kara, tov Kprjpvov eis tj/p Oakacrcrav, Kal avidavov cV 
tois vSao-uc. M oi 8£ f}6o~KOPT€$ e<f>vyov, Kal dircXtfoVres eis Tr/v irdXiv dflTyy- 
yciXap irdvra, koI ra ratv 8ai/tovi^o/xeV<uv. M ' #cal iSov, irao-a 17 iroXis i$rj\6a> 
eis <rvvdvrrj<nv r§ 'Itjow koI iSoVres avrbv, irapeKaKvrav oVa>s ftera/Sy diro 
t£v 6/jwdj' aurwi/. 

IX. (-£) J 'Kal e/xySas eis to irXoiov Zuiripacre, *cal fjkdev eis T^y ISCav 
irokw. 2 b Kal i8ov, irpotrefapov awry 7ra/3aXwriKbj' eVi icXiVrjs /3e r 3\r)p.£vov 
r Kal i8a»y 6 'Iijo-ovs T^v iriarw aura)**, etwc t$ irapakimKai, Odpo-ei, t4kvov, 
oufxeovrai o-oi ai dfiaprCai <rov. 8 icai i8ou, tivcs twv ypap.p.aT€<av etirov cV 
cavrois, OStos /Skao-fa/iei. * d ical i8a»y 6 'Iiyo'ows toIs eV^w/*t;o*eis avrwi', 
clire/, 'Ivari v/ueis€ irovrjpd cV tous /capSiais v/i.wi' ; 6 ti yd/3 eori*' 

Mark IS. 1 
Luke «. 22, 

a 11. 17. 

_ _.. _. 1 Uod, in order tbat ™ »<»» fc^iio™ th»t th. 

Chritt ii perfect man and perfect God. 

Why are ye so fearful, O ye of little faith 1 By theae word. He 
rebuket all irregular, impatient, and irreverent way» of endeavouring 
to extricate ounelvet from difficultiet ; and if we can neither row nor 
aail. He teaches u< to tit atill in quietneu and confidence, and wait 
till He ariaet and calm* the Btorm. 

27. oi aripaxoi] The tailon, not disciples. Some allego {Meyer, 
184) that this is at variance with Mark v. 41. Luke viii. '&, u if the 
remark might not have been made by many. 

28. rioyio<qM«] This seems to be the true reading fc»>, called 
Tatapntuo by St. Mark v. 1, and St. Luke viii. 26, who mention 
only one demoniac, " quia ille nobilior et famosior," says 8t. Aug:, de 
Cons. Ev. ii. 24. So Chrys. These circumstantial differences (not 
contradictions) show independence of knowledge, and are evidences of 
truth. See further on Mark v. 2. Luke viii. 31. 

29. t( q M Tii xai sol] See on John ii. 4. 

— irpo tracpov] i. e. before the day of Judgment. The devils 
believe and tremble. (James ii. 19.) As yet the Evil Spirit has 
great liberty and power in the world. He is called the Prince of this 
world ; the God of this world : the Prince of the power of the air. 
(John xiv. 30. 2 Cor. iv. 4. Eph. ii. 2 ; vi. 12, I Pet. v. 8.) 

But when the xaipoc is come, he will be cast into the Lake of 
Fire^Rev. xx. 10. Matt xxv. 41), and there pawtoVrvriTa, (Rev. 

. 23. Joteph Medt, Discourse Iv. 

lean, it was not lawful for Jews to 


1. 10). 

Cp. Aug. de Civ. Dei, i 

p. 23—25, and Lu 

ii. 31. 

30. xo'P""] which, being 
keep. \Lightfoot') 

SL tTriTfJtd/oi'] *■ Nec in porcorvm gregem 

a Dei 

poteststem nisi earn de Deo impetraaset ; 
babeat." (Tertullian, de fugl 2.) 

32. lip/iJitri Traoa i iyi\ii] How great was the multitude of 
devils cast out from this one man by Christ, since they were able 
to fill this herd of swine, and drive them down into the deep ! See 
here a visible proof of the power and fierceness of Satan and his asso- 
ciate fiends, who will hurry all that give entrance to them into their 
hearts, with furious impetuosity into the gulf of the Lake — the Lake 
of Fire. If the contemplation of this awful spectacle can save a single 
•out from everlasting death, let no one question the merciful design 
of this stupendous miracle, by which the devils themselves are made 

authorized by the best MS8. testimony. Qadma is mentioned by 
as the principal town of Peraea, and as a Greek city (hence the 
Bell. Jud. Iv. 8, J. Ant. xlil. IS, S ; xvll. IS), and as sixty 

im Tiberias. {.Jouph. vlt. 6S.) Cp. Stanley on Palestine, 373. 

ua is mentioned by the same writer as on the eastern frontier of 

nd is called a city of Arabia by Ori/en. {Joteph. Bell. Jud. iii. 3, 3; 

f Origen (in Jc 

in. torn. iv. vol. i. 239, U 
e of the Miracle. 

ministerial to the display of Christ's power, and to the publication of 
a warning against their own deadly designs. 

84. irapsaoXtoav 5x« /itra/Jp] An example of eervile fear. 
Contrast the case of the Samaritans and the consequences (John iv. 
40). Fear is the beginning of wisdom (Frov. ix. 10), but perfect love 
casteth out fear. (1 John iv. 18.) 

— Mar waXiv] Capernaun 
2. Ttir wiotii> avruy] As i 
ly St. Mark, ii. 3, 4. Luke v. 

shown by the circumstances mentioned 
. 17—20. 
r roi] dtpimrrai ss ddteivrat. Luke) 
vii. 47, 48. 1 John ii. 12, Thy sins have been already forgiven. The 
Work precedes the Word ; an evidence of Love and Power in the 
Agent and Speaker, tikvov, a word of condescension and love, sug- 
gesting that Our Lord saw the operation of faith in the paralytic him- 
self, who, with his shattered frame, would not have consented to be 
borne to the roof, unless he had believed that Christ was able to heal 
him. " Mira humilitas Christi," says St. Jerome, "filium vocat, 
quern sacerdotes non dignabantur attingere." 

3. /8\oo-(pn/»ti] i. e. usurps the prerogative of God. See below, 

4. ldii» o 'Iqo-ovt rat i*Bvp.v<Tin] The Pharisees accused Him of 
blasphemy because He forgave sin, for God only can do that But He 
proved Himself God ; for He knew their thoughts. God alone reads 
the heart (Jer. xvii. 10 ; xx. 12); and by healing the body, He who 
sees the soul proves that He is able to heal the soul. By the same 
power as that with which I read your thoughts, I have healed his soul. 
(Cp. Jerome here.) And so by what was visible He establishes what 
was invisible. The Pharisees perhsps thought Him a deceiver, be- 
cause He professed to act upon what was imieible, the soul, and did 
not act upon what was visible, the body. And therefore He heals the 
body which they could see, in order that all may know tbat He can 
heal the soul which they cannot see. 

At the same time He thus teaches that the cause of disease is nit, 
and that when that is destroyed, the body will enjoy angelic health 
and beauty. 

5. ti yap eWm luKoTiarspov] It is easier to heal the body than 
the soul ; and therefore I have proceeded to do what is the more diffi- 
cult work of the two, i. e. to heal the soul. 1 have forgiven his si 

But you do not believe that I can do that. You even " 

blasphemy for professii 

He st 

ahich he 

job : Mid he 
See Bloomfield, E: 
details. Probably the 

trict of Gadara and t.„ 

have belonged to Gadara and some to Gergesa. The 

well as other dec •— •'-' ™ •-•< — >— ■— "■ '-■> — 

the Evangelists. 

fMarkl. 15, it. 

ST. MATTHEW IX. 6—13. 

cvKOTTtoTepov, eiVeiV, 'Atfreanral <rov ai apapriaC t) elircu>, "Eyeipc, Kal irepi~ 
irdrei ; 6 IVa 8k eiSrJTc, oti igovo-lav k\ei 6 Tios tow avdpamov ivl tt/s yr/s 
a<fnevat apapriai — rore Xeyet T«p ira/jaXvriKfp, — 'EyepdeU &pov <rov rfjv KhJanyv, 
koX vttay*. eis top oTkoV <rov. 7 Kal eyepdel? airfj\0a> as tov oZko*> avrov. 
8 tSoVres 8^ oi o;(Xoi iOavpacrav, koX cSo^acav top ©eof tov 86vra i£ov<ruw 
TOULvrrjv tois avdprinrotG. 

(— ) 9 ' Kal 6 'It/otovs iieeWev, etScv avdpumov Ka&qpA-POV km to 
reXaJf cov, Mardaiov \eyop*vov, Kal Xeyei avr<£, 'Aieokovdei fiou Kal avaoras 
TjKoXov&jrre/ avraJ. (-^-) 10 f Kal eyevero, avrov avajceifUvov k» tq oucia., koX 
ISov, iroXXol Tfkwvai ical apaprtakol eX#6Vres owav€K€u>ro rip 'Irjaov Kal tois 
padrfraxs avrov. n Kal ISoVres oi Qapuraioi. elirov rots padryrais avrov, Atari 
pera. g ra>v tcXcdiw Kal apaprcakap io~0Cet, 6 StSao-KaXos vpatv ; (-^-) 12 6 8k 
'It)<rovs aKowo-as etrrev avrois, b Ov -)(pdav eypww oi loyyovre^ iarpov, dXX' 
oi KaKbts fyoprer — ,3 iropevdares 8k pddere ri iarw, '"EXeov 64\a>, koX ov 
6vo~CaV — ov yap 1j\0ov KaXerrai SiKatovs, aXXa k apapratkovs. 

while you accuse Me of it. And therefore, tta illtjrt, in order that 
you may know that 1 can do it, 1 will do what it more easy, but it 
visible, 1. e. give health to the body, that you may know by thia out- 
ward sign that the inward act it done. 

6. l£o volar {gii i Tioi ToD avinmrov iwl -r^t yrjt] Hence 
St. Athanatius demonstratra the Divinity of Christ, Adv. Arian. iii. 
4, p. 438. Christ forgives sins not only as God, by His Omnipotence, 
but as Son of Man ; because He has united man's nature to Hit own, 
and in that nature hat fulfilled the law, and perfected obedience, and 
to merited to receive all power on earth (Matt, zzviii. 18) in that 
nature; which power He now exercises at Mediator, and will con- 
tinue to exercise, till all enemies (Satan, Sin, and all their power* 
and adherents) are put under Hit Feet. At Son of Man He ever ex- 
ercise* this power of forgiving tin on earth, by meant of the Word 
and Sacraments, and by the Ministry of Reconciliation (2 Cor. v. 18, 
19), and by whatever appertain! to what it called " the Power of the 
Keys." " Per cos dimittit (Dominus) peccata." says St. Ambrose on 
Luke v. 20, " quibut dimittendi tribuit potetutem." See Bp. An- 
drea*, Sermon ix. vol. iii. p. 263. 277—279. 

Besides, by laying that tint are forgiven " upon earth," our 
Lord reminds ut that after death there it no more place for re- 
pentance and forgiveness, for then the door it shut (Tkeophyl. on 

- iytpQiit api* voir i-qy xXfonv] Here was a visible sign 
ble grace. He who restored health to the body, and gave - 
of of the 1 : - v "<-- " •■— -•-"-—• 

he lay 

proof of the restoration by enabling bim to carry that whereon h 
bedridden, thus proved manifestly to all that He had by His 
railed him from that tick-bed of tin on which he lay, a paralytic in 
tout. He thus gave visible evidence of His power to work invisible 
cure*; i. e. to give birth and health to the toul by Hit divine power, 
working in and by the meant of grace. " Surge, excussa paralysi, et 
ut id probes toti populo porta tectum tuum, ut jam curatus a Me por- 
tet eum, qui te paralyticum pauld ante portavit" (d Lap.) 

Paralysis is regarded by Divines at a type of that spiritual state 
of bedridden incapacity and impotence which it railed acedia 

Who alone can enable the soul 
vii. 24,25 >. 

9. TiXimor] Probably at or near Capernaum, where he collected 
port-duties and customs from those who traversed the lake. 

— MarVatoii] i.q. rrnp (Mattiah), i. e. donum Dei, i. q. Or. ©«o- 
tmpot. See Mark ii. 4. See the wisdom of the Apottle. He does 
not ditguise his former life, as a publican, but calls himself br the 
name which he afterwards bore (Matthew), whereat the other fivan- 

S lists veil it with another name, Levi (Mark ii. 14. Luke v. 27). 
r eroni«.) In a like spirit in the Apostolic catalogue he calls himself 
atthew the publican,— which they do not ; thus he identifiet him- 
self with the Matthew here called by Christ, and named Levi by the 
two other Evangelists. See on x. 3. Hence it it clear that Levi and 
Matthew are not (at some suppose) two different persons, but two 
different names of the lame person. The difficulty which some have 
imagined in the mention of Matthew here without any note of his one- 
nest with Levi; and in the mention of Levi by the other two Evai 
listt without any note of his oneness with Levi, will dii 

the moral consideration! ttated above, combined with 

that all the Ootpelt were dictated by one Spirit, and form on 
whole, of which the component parti mutually illmtrate one another. 


That mode of Interpretation which seven one Gospel from 
another can never lead to any good result. 

Some Sceptict (Porphyry and Julian) object here that it was irra- 
tional for a man to rise and quit his calling immediately at the bidding 
of another. But many miracles had been wrought by Christ and seen 
by the Apostles before they believed. And the radiance and majesty 
of the hidden Deity beaming in our Lord's countenance might easily 
draw many even on the first aspect ; for if there it to much power in 
the magnet and in amber to attract object! to them, how much more 
could the Lord of All draw to Himself whom He would ! (Jerome.) 
Observe our Lord calls him from the receinc of aatom, that it, from 
the midtt of hit worldly business, as He called Saul from the heat of 
persecution. A signal proof of divine power. (Ckiye.) 

10. t£ oU-ia] St. Matthew's. Observe his modesty. He does 
not mention that this tnu hit own house, and that he made a iovn 
psyaAif, great featt for Chritt (at 8t. Luke relatet, t. 29, pp. Mark 
ii. 15) ; whence it appears that he left much to follow Chritt But 
of this he says nothing. 

18. oi xptiau] It is not a shame, but a glory, for a Physician to 
be surrounded by the tick. He is not contaminated by their 
sickness, but healt it Which, therefore, it the true Phytician? 
You, or Chritt? All men are morally diseased and need the 
Phytician of Souls (see Isa. liii. 4 — 16); and therefore the sense 

be well, as ye Pharisees do, have no need, fed no want of, have 
no desire for, My healing care, — 'non Me egetit;' but they who 
are Sick," i. e. ore lentible of their sins. See note on next verse 
and on Luke xv. 7. oi XP<' a * 'x "" 1 wrupoiat. The words oi 
XP'iar fvova-ir, signifying, do not feel the want, are used precisely in 
tint way bv the LXX in Prov. xviii. 2, oi> ](piio> «X" ooiptai 
Mtfa <pp»£». for otTrtt) (to yahphoU), non delectatur. 

13. Topti.0tVri< pae'tTi] You have come here to teach the Law, 
go and team it 

— t\fo»] Hot. vi. 6 Ufa (chtted), which you Pharisees limit to 
external acts, of almsgiving, to the body ; but it is an affection of the 
heart, showing itself generally in acts of mercy and tenderness and 
love both to body and soul. Tixh. and Lachmann prefer «\iot, the 
■ruler form. 

— «oi vi (Wfav] i. o. more than sacrifice ; and so that sacrifice it 
a vain abomination without it A Hebrew use of the negative, in 
order to bring out more forcibly the need and value of (it* one thing, 
which is contrasted with, and preferred to, another good in itself, and 
even prescribed by God, as sacrifice was. Cp. 1 Sam. viii. 7. Prov. 
viii. 10. Jer. vii. 22. Joel ii. 13. John vi. 27. Luke xiv. 12. 36. 
Heb. viii. 11. 1 Cor. i. 17. " Comparativua sarpe ita circumtcribitur, 
ut alterum et quidem inferius ex duobus comparatis negetur. alteram 
affirmctur, cui excellentia tribuenda est." See Olau. PhiL Sacra, 
D. 468 (lib. iii. tract v.1. 

t of Christianity, see 

m] I have not come to call these 

itelvet righteous, but those who eonfrts themselves sin- 
So o-otpoi and cuvcroi, those who think them- 
t. xi. 25. Luke x. 21. 1 Cor. i. 19. See also 

selves wise. (Matt 
on Luke vii. 48«.) 

— ov yip t,\«oy—inap-rt\oM Cited bv Clem. Rom. it 2. thus : 
i li .I™ St, woXXd ri -ri.ra tv" ip»>"'» (Isa. liv. 1). 'Kr.>. 
ii Tpad>4 My, 'oi yip i)X(foi>— ap.apriekobt,' whence it appears 

reqnent n»e In sacred criticism, that "opinio hominum 
smltiir *(<"««. g p. 699. e.a.), as herr, they »(, 
■m are Mtaiot, are called tUaux.. Thus 8t Paul. 1 Cor. 
■ •fmlUhneu of prtachnu/,' 1 e. wbat was oenueltd 
, Cp. Gal. I. «. See also a similar use of verbs, Mark 

ST. MATTHEW IX. 14—30. 27 

14 Tore irpoo-epxpvrcu avr$ oi uadrjral 'Itadm/ov, Xeyovres, ' Atari r^xeis *cal i M«k t. it, &c. 
oi $a/)«rau)i mjoTevopev iroWa, oi Be fiaOijraC <rov ov wjorevovo-i ; 1S koX * >»• "• 
eurey aurols 6 'Irjtrovs, Mtj Bvvavrat, "oi viol rov wpA\5tvo<i rrevdew, i<f> oown'ohns.**. 
/ter avraiv earu' 6 wfufttos; ; iXevaovrai Be rjpApai, ©rav drrap6% air avrStv 
6 wfi<l>Co<;, Kal "rdre vr)OTevo~ovo-u>. 16 OvSels Si- iirtfidWei iirCfikypa pdicovs n a<-uis.*,s. 
ayvdtfxtv eni ifiaru^ ira\au£- atpei yap rb irkqpotpa avrov airb rov ifiariov, >cor.r. 5. 
KOi x£pov o-yurpA, ywenu. 17 ovSe! /JaXXovo-w otVov v«bv el's ao-Kovs iraXaiovV 
€i 8*- ftifyc, pr/fyvwrai oi acrxol, Kal 6 olvos t-KxeiYat, Kal ol cutkoI airoKovvrav 
aXka. fSdkkovcriv olvov veov eh aoveovs kou>ov%, ko\ ap^orepot. oinmjpovvTat. 

Olf) 18 ° Tavra avrov XaXovcros avrots, ISov a/rvw elo-ekdtav irpocreicvvet. Mirk 5. it, **. 
avr£, \eyatp, "Ori 17 dvyvrqp pov apri erekevrrjo-ev a\Aa i\6wv eirides rr/v 
Xelpd aov en avrrjv, koI faqo-erai. ,9 «al iyepOeU 6 'Jr/o-ovs ^KoAovflr/o-ev 
avr$, teal oi padijral avrov. 

20 p Hal i8ov, ywrf aifioppoovcra BwBexa errj, irpocrfkdovaa omcrdev, rj^/aro p mm* 5. m. 
tov KpaairiBov rov Ipariov avrov, 21 ekeye yap ev iavrg, eav povov di/»a>/xai 
tov ipariov avrov, o-toOijo-opat,. ^ b Be 'Iijo-ovs eVwrrpatjkis Kal i8a»v avT/jv, 
eTire, Gdpcrei, dvyarep' , ^ mores o~ov o-eacoKe ue. Kal eo~&(h\ 17 yw^ <Mro q Luke r. so. 
Tijs <upas hteivrp. a r Kal e\9a>v 6 'Irjaovs els riyy oIkCov tov apxovros, xal f££ ^ 
iSau' tov? avXiyra? ical tov ox^ov 0opv/3ov(tevov, Xeyei avrotv, ^ * 'Avaxutpeire' Ya^'m!\o. 
ov yap airidav€ to Kopdavov akka icadevBei' Kal KareyeXtav avrov. ^ ore 
Bk e^epK-qdrj 6 S^Xos, eurekdcav eKpartjo-e rrjs xeipbs avrj\$, koX rfyipdti rb 
Kopdcruov. x xal e$rj\0ev 4) (fnjp-r/ avrt) cis oXt;v rr^v yfjv iKeurrjv. 

(•x) " Kal rrapdyovri ixeWev t^J 'Iijo-ov r/KoKovdrjaav avry 8vo tv<^Xoi, 
KpaXflines Kal \eyovres, 'EKeqaov rffion;, ' vU AavtB. a i\66vri Be eU rrfv J ch j ,5 j l M - * 
oixlav trpoailjXOov avr$ oi Tv<f>\ol, Kal \eyet avrois 6 'liyo-ovs, Utarcvere ort L U "ei8.'M;».' 
8vVa/tai tovto irovrjo~ai ; Xeyoww avry, Nal, Kvpie. ® rore ij^faro rmv 
ofyOakpJuv avrStv, \4yutv, Kara r>)i> rrUrru/ v/xaiv yevrfirfr<a ipAV M <cal av- 
eipxdrfo-av avr&v oi 6<f>0akfioi' Kal ivefipip.yjaaro avroi? 6 'Ii^o-ov?, Xeyoiv, 

that the writer regarded the Gospel of St. Matthew u Scripture no 
lew than Itaiah. 
14. ol «o»i,to1 'iMavvoul According to Luke v. 33 the Pharuea. 

Some Critics (De Wette. Meyer) v " 

Erangeluta it wrong. But Mar 

alleged that one of the two 

k (ii. 18) inform, u. that bulk are 

. Whatifwehadair/afiraayWirf? The 
the Four would then perhaps disappear. 
ir Faith. The Fifth Gospel will be the 


'jj (bene laehathumah). The 

But thcr are left 
coming of Christ. 
IS. oi ploi T«5 
Hebrew jj (6e»), so«, is often 
follower, Ac. So i-loi pcurtUlm, Matt »iii. 12 :. 
tovtov, Luke zri. 8 ; zz. 3s ; ol bIoI bpZv, Mut. zii. 27. (Cp. Zerh. 
iz. 13, and see Ford, de Hcbr. cap. xzit., and below, Matt, xxiii. 15, 
and on Luke z. 6. John zvii. 12.) Our Lord answers St. John's 
disciples by referring to their Msster's words (John iii. 29), " He 
that hath the bride is the bridegroom, but the friend of the bride- 
groom (i. e. their Master, John) rejoiceth to hear the bridegroom's 

By His Incarnation the Son of God hi 
mused to Himself a Church ; and as long as He was present ii 
dy on earth the c 

i ; and as long as 
if the bridecham 

re fast, but celebrate at 

16. pa'«o« ay 

Luke, r. 36. has i*ip\„ua X^atUm kouwv. 

17. iaxoin iraXaiovt] " utres veteres," sfo'w. See Judges iz. 4. 
13, "doliorum loro — utres veteres, Pharisci ; nori discipuli ; finum 
Ersncelium." (Beta) " My disciples ha»e not yet been made new by 

the Holy Spirit, and 1 1 

12.) • 


deal with thei 

oo much to I 

i perfect condition. He thus bequeaths ■ 

t Sited to 
law to His 

with gentleness " (Ckrn.) See also Jerome here. 
18. a t(«<X0<iv| So C, D, E, M, X, and other MSS. and Vcr 

sions. Others «\8ii» or its «\6<i». There is a force in the preposi- 
tion «!•. Our Lord was sitting at meat in St. Matthew's house 
(v. 10). The ifiX'"' entered the house in quest of Him ; and our 
Lord rose *p (v. 19) from table, to go with him, and heal bis 

*20. \al IM, y»»^] See further on Mark v. 25. " 8tatuam 
hujus mulieris et Domiuum earn unantis suo dvo mansisse narrat 
Euseb. Tii. U." (Beng.) 

— fiAorol According to the law of Moses (Lev. zv. 19), whoever 
touched a woman with an issue of blood was unclean She touches 
Christ to be made clean. And our Lord said, " Daughter, thy faith 
made (not will make, but hath already made) thee clean." 


of the leper, viii. 8. 
See Nur 

S Kparwttou] the frii 
■at law also. {Beng ) 
auXnros] Concerning hired moui 

38. Christ ob- 

Jerem. iz. 17. Eccles. zi 

24. oi ydp iwiBav.] See Theophyt. on Luke viii 52. " He 
says this because He was about to awake her, as from a sleep ;" for 
death is only a sleep when Christ calls and says " Arise." Cp. John 

the Gospels:— , , 

The daughter of Jairus; here dead, but not carried out of the 
house. (Cp.T«ark v. 22. Luke viii. 4l.) 

The widow's son at Nain ; dead, and being carried to the grave. 
(Luke vii. 11.) 

Lazarus ; dead, and buried. (John zi. 39.) 

Lastly, Himself. , 

These appear to be mentioned in order to show Christ s power 
over death in every form; and also to show that He has provided 
means in His Church for reviving the soul in every stage of ipiriiwU 
mortality by His Divine Virtue acting in and by thow mean.. Cp. 
John v. 25. Eph. ii. 1. 5, 6. It is observable that He connects this 
power with Hi. own Resurrection. (John xz. 22—24 ) 
80. «»!ftMM*r«To] See M.rk i. 43; ziv. 5. John zi. 3a He 

y Mark 6. 6. 
I-uke IS. J2. 
ch. 4. S3. 
a Murk 6. M. 
Nan.. 17. It. 
Zach. 10. i. 

ST. MATTHEW IX. 31—38. X. 1—3. 

° 'Opart, pr/Sels ywatrKeru. 81 oi 8e i£ekdovre$ 8ie<frrjpurav avrbv b> ok-g tq 
yjj iiceivQ. 

32 T Avt&v Bk i£tpxoin£voiv, iSow, irpooyveyKOP awr$ dvdponrov Koxftbv, Sai/io- 
vitjopcvov. M koX €K§\r}0evTo^ tow SaipovCov, ikdkrjtrev 6 Koxf>6r Kal iOav- 
fiaa-av oi o^koi, keyovres, OvSeirore i<f>dvrj ovrots eV t$ 'Iaparjk. M w Oi 81 
$a/3tcrauH tkeyov, x 'Ev rw apxpvri t£>v Baufiovltav thcfidkkei Ta Sai/ioc ia. 

("S") M T £<« irepvfjyev 6 'Iijo-ows Tas iroXet9 iraVas leal ra? Kcu/xas, ZiZaa-Kwv 
iv Tats onwayftryais avrotv, Kal Krqpvo-o-cav to evayyekvov r»j? ySao-iXetas, #cal 
depairevatv -naxrav v6<rov Kal irao-ov (idkaiciap. (-^-) M "'/Sow 8« tows o^Xovs 
»• ioirkayxyCadr] irepl avrSxv, ort, %o~av ia-Kvkpivoi *cal ipptfipJvoi, turret irpofiara 
fLT] expvra troipiva. (-£) w " Tore Xeyei Tois /ta^r-Tois awrow, 'O /tei> depurpbs 
woXws, oi 8e ipydrai okiyov x Beijdrfre owv tow icvpCov tow Bepurpov oirtus 
iKpakj} ipyaras el? top ffcpurpov awrow. 

X. (-^-) * *Kal irpoo-Kakco-dpevos tows 8<u8e-ca paOrjra.% avrow, e8ft>/ce*> 
awrois itjovo-lav irvevp.drwv aKaddprmv, wore e/c/JaXXcu* awra, Kal Oepairevew 
iraaav vocrov Kal iraaav /xaXa/cuu>. (-£) 2 b Twp 8e SaiStxa dvocrrokaiv ret 
ovofiard iart Tawra* irpano? Xlpw 6 keyopevo? Iler/jos, kcu '.dpS/scas 6 dSeX^os 
. awrow* 3 'Ieucw/3os 6 tow Zefiehalov, Kal 'I(i>dwr)$ 6 a8eX<£os awrow* $iXmt»tos, 
ital Bapdokopa'io'i' 8G>/xa$ *al Mardatos 6 TeXaM^s* \ZaJca»/Jos 6 tow 'Ak<f>aiov, 

charged them with rebuke, because they had low notion! of the Mes- 
siah's Kingdom, and thought that He would aspire to worldly fame 
and glory. See on viii 4. 

8L ol <M «*;tX0<wrst tuQfaura,] Glory i. not to be obtained by 
aeeking for it, but by declining it. "Sequentem fugit, fugientem 

85. *ol Tm «riifi«t] Not only the townt but the village*, in order 
that men may learn not to despite what it little and lowly ; and not 
•eek only to preach the Word in Urge cities, but take care also to 
•ow the teed of the Gospel in small hamlets. (Thtophyl. in Mark 

86. itntXayx'tadti] OTrXdyY'™ •• tbe word by which the LXX 
render mprri {radtanum), mumncordia, Pror. xii. 10, which it con- 
nected with on} (venter), whence probably the word or»Xa'yx»<» *•» 
suggested to the LXX. Cp. Gen. zliii. 30. 1 Kings iii. 26; and 
see tbe excellent remarks of Vontiut, de Hebr. N. T., p. 85—37. 

This use of <rxAayx"1"M<>" and <rw\iyx'" i* limited to the 
LXX and N. T. It bespeaks connexion between Hem. and separation 
of Mercy may well 

nets the Gospel with 
nt against the Mar- 
ne from tbe other, 


compotitions. Singula 
u.™ • wuguage of their own. 

87. Sifiia/iot] By the word ha 
the Law, which was tbe ieed-tim». 

agaimt the other. See John W. 38. 
. . J "Videquantisintpreces!" (Bemg.) 
c/SdXp] At the Hebrew rfyp and u>tj not only signifies 
* See Matt, xiii' 52. Mark i. 12. John x. 4. 

34, 0a\t1i/ iip<|i>i|v : but perhaps there 

rncere but emittere. See Mi 

Luke x. 35. Matt " 

some reference to the divine impulse which 

nable of themselves to labour in so great 

them feel and say Va miki n turn eva»gelicavero ! (1 Cor ix. 6 ) 

Ch. X. 1. tiuKtv airrolt] Be gave. Mark the difference between 
Christ and all others who exercised miraculous power. Christ it the 
Author of it, others Recipients ; He tbe Source, they only streams 
and channels of grace. 

— IZomla, nwaenw] ' Genitirus objecti.' See on Luke 

'». tmttxa dT00T6\m,] See the Liitt in Mark iii. 16. Luke Ti. 14; 
and cp. on Acta i. 13. The number Twelve (3 X 4) in Scripture seems 
to be significant of perfection and universality'; and the Twelve 
Apostles were regarded by the ancient Church as typified by the 

See therefore here, nol 
proof of divine power. 

1 "Hi sunt oprratii," tajri Aug. In P«a. llx., 
quadrati orbit partes ad ndem Trinitallt voce 
meaning of Number, in Holy Scripture dewrvet more 
than it has received In recent timet. <• God doeth all tr 
meature and weight. " (Wisdom xl. SO.) Prom an indi 
it would appear that a !■ an arithmetical Symbol of wl 

prophecy; L e. a I 
mlttendi ei 

God doeth all thing, in numbrr and 

hat Is created : e. g. as in Israel, the people of Qod : and in the 
J h» Jerusalem, Hev. xxi. 14 (cp. BUr, Symbolik i. 201, and 

i Up. P—rton, On the Creed, Art. ii. p. 14J. Joshua, or /ems, the 

Twelve Sons of Israel (cp. M 

Twelve wells at Elim. (Exod 

perhaps by the Twelve 8tonee of the Urim and Tliummim 

breastplate of the High Priest, the type of Christ (Exod. xxviii. 15 — 
21) ; the Twelve Loaves of shew-bread ; the Twelve ' Exploratorea ' 
of the promised land, the type of heaven ; the Twelve Stone* taken 
from the bed of Jordan *. They seem also to be represented by the 
Twelve Stan in the crown of the Woman in the Wilderness, tbe 
Church on Earth (Rev. xii. 1), as well as by the Twelve Founda- 
tions • of the Church glorified. (Rev. xxi. 14. See Eph. ii. 20.) 

These types of the Apostolic body are irreconcileable with the 
notion of a Supremacy in any one of the number. See on v. 2, and 
xvi. 18. 

— i-ro<rTokmi>\ dwooroXot it used by the LXX for the Hebrew 
rnVqj (diduak), (Ligklfoot), which does not signify a messenger simply, 
but one who executes the office of him by whom he is tent. 

— wpirot 2(»aw] St. Peter is always first in all the catalogues 
of the Apostles ; as Judas is alwavs last ; and (says Aug.) " As Stephen 
was first among the Deacons." (See on Acta vi. 5.) 

Cp. Oen. xlvi. 8, wparroVoKoc 'Po»flii».— The twelve Apostle* 
are the twelve Patriarchs of the Spiritual Israel, and the relation of 
St. Peter to the other Apostles appears to be similar to that of Reuben 
to his brethren : a relation of primacy, not of supremacy. He was 
" primus inter para, non tummut tupra inferiorei." 

Suppose, for argument's sake, that this privilege of primacy w*» 
to detcend to the successors of St. Peter; and suppose also tha't the 
Bishops of Rome are St. Peter's successors, — yet, as Reuben the first- 
born was deprived of his birthright because he went up to his father** 
bed (Gen. xlix. 3. 1 Cbron. v. IV so, if the Bishop of Rome put* him- 
self in the place of Christ, as it be were kutbaad * of Christ's Spouse 
the Church, he forfeits whatever privilege may belong to him on the 
ground of his supposed succession to St. Peter. 

Christ calls Judas, the last of tho Apostles, ' the Son of perdi- 
tion' (John xvii. 12). And there is a Power which site in tbe 
Christian Church, and is called in Scripture ' the Son of Perdition* 
(2 Thess. ii. 2-4). And if he who calls himself the Successor of St. 
Peter, the first of the Apostles, imitates that Power, then it may be 
that in him may be verified the saying, " he that exalteth himself 
shall be abased •, ' " and many that are first shall be last ;" and he 
that claims to be Peter may prove to be Judas. 

8. BapOoXofiaioe] from 1} (bar), i. q. ben,filiut, and <p}n (to/not), 
supposed by some to be the same as Ptolemy (see Winer, Lex. p. 140, 

Son of Nun, begins his office at the banks of Jordan, where Christ Is bap- 
tised, and enters upon the public exercise of His prophetical office. He 
chooseth there twelve men out of the people to carry tr-' — - — - 

foundation ttona in the Church 
Joundaliont of Ike watt of the hot* 

» It is supposed by some (e. g. 
in the High Priest's breastplate (I 
mentioned as the IS eW\tot U 
19, SO. See above, on lit. 9, and 1 

4 See Barrow, On the Pope's Si 

■e HUtwelre Apoetles, those 

(Rev. xxi. 14). 

e e s?milar U to'those 
ified, in Rev. xxi. 

in the Constitutions of 

ry X., in one of their general Synods." Sext. Decret. L tit. vt 

ST. MATTHEW X. 4—15. 

Kal Acf3f3aio<; 6 iwucKrf0€K ©aSSaios' 4 c XCfiav 6 KavavCrrfs, Kal 'lovSas 
6 'Ia-Kapuurrjsi, 6 Kal napaBovs ai/roV. 

Oir) 5 Tovrovs d tows SwSeKa dweoTciXo' 6 'Iifa-oxh, napayyelXas avrots, 
Xeyav, Eh oSbv idvatv fir) aveXdrjre, Kal ei*s irokw XafiaparStv fir) eLcrikdrjrt, 
6 iropeveade 8e fiSXkov irpbs t«x npofSara to. anoKooiKtrra oikov 'lcrpar)k, 
(-5-) 7 * iropevoficvoi 8e Krjpva-crere Xeyoires, *Ort rfyyiKW r) fSacriXeCa twv 
ovpavwv. 8 'Acrdfvowras Oepanevere, vexpov? iyclpere, Xenysovs Kodapitfrc, 
Saifiotaa eK/SaXXere* Bapeav iXafSere, Scopeav Sore. 9 ' Afj) KrrjoTj&de -xfivabv, 
(irfhe apyvpov, firjhe ^ahcbv, eis ras £aWs u/taiir 10 fir) irqpav eis 686*', fir/Sk 
Svo xvrS>va$, firjBk wroShjfiaTa firjhk pd/OSow af tos * yap 6 ipyart)? ttjs rpo$f}s 
avrov eariv. (-fr) u h ets ^i» 8* &» wdXtv ^ K&fir\v eurekdrfTC, itjerdcraTe rts 
eV avrp a£ids earr Koucet /xeiVare, eiws ay ecfe'X&jTe. (-£) 12 eitrepx^fievot 8e 
els t»)v oIkCov, acmdtracrdt avrrjv. 1S ' Kal eaf /i,eV $ 17 otKta d£ta, i\6er<o 
r) eipr/vrf vp,5>v in aimjv k ecu* 8e /*>) # a£ta, ^ elprjvr) v/i&v npb$ v/tas eW 
arpaifnjTto. (jf) u 'Kal os eav /xi) 8e£rjTat v/x&s, /tijSe o.kov(tq tovs Xdyovs wftfiv, 
i^epxpfiefoi. rrjs oi/ctas ^ ttJs jrdXews eVceiVr/s, m iKTivd$aT€ rbv Kovioprbv ro>v 
iro&wi' vfiwu. ls ■ *Afir)v Xeya> v/iu>, ° aveKTorepov eorat y# SoBofimv Kal To- 
fioppbtv iv rjfiepa KpCcrea>s, ^ 177 irdXet iKeivg. 

h Mark 6. 
Luke 9. 4. 

1 Luke 10. 

Luke 9. 5. * 
10. 10, IS. 
m Neh. i. IS. 

I. 12, 84. 

note) and Bartholomew is thought by tome J to be the same as Na- 
thaniel of Cana in Galilee, which it Winer'* opinion ; and then the 
relation of the name Nathanael to Bartholomew would be the same as 
Simon to Barjona, 

— Qwfiat] Hebr. ohn (tern), i. q. Gr. tittuot, geminus, 'a 
twin.' John zi. 16; xx. 24, and Ligktfoot in loc. 

— o TiUn|iJ Obeenre 8t. Matthew') humility in preserving this 
title, which it not added to hit name by the other Evangel ieti ; and 
alto in putting himtelf after St. Tbomat. (Jerome.) Cp. Hark 
18. Luke ri. 15, and tee above ix. 9. 

Thit addition (o T»\»»i)t) it alto a confirmation of the genuit 
new of St. Matthew't Ootpel ; and it it an argument that thit Gospel 
in itt Oretk form it from St. Matthew himtelf. It well became 
the charity of othert (e. g. of St Hark and St. Luke) not to add thit 
appellation (a publican) to a brother'! name ; and it alto well became 
the humility and thankfulnett of the Apostle and Evangelist St. Mat- 
thew, to add it, in evidence of hit Matter's love and condescension 
to himself, and as an encouragement to others. 

— 'A\<paiov] Probably the same at KXtowat 1 , Luke xxiv. 18. 

— Baaoatot] Probably the same name at Judat, from rrrin 
(jsoJo*), taudavit*. and by thit name, as well as by hit name Leb 
bat (from 2% leb, heart), Jude, the brother of James, was diatin- 

lished from'judas the traitor. Cp. Routh, R. S. ii. 26. Dr. Mill, 

guished fr 
Diss. ii. p. 

4. KamatiTtK] or rather Kararoiot, from B, C, D, L, and Vulg. 
Not ' Canaanite,' nor * Cananite,' but, as St. Luke renders it, ZijX»- 
t4< (Luke vi. 15), from KJJ (iaitiio), 'a zealot,' cf. Pt. lxix. 9, t e. 
a person zealous for the glory of God. Cf. Jerome in Caten. Aur. in 

On the character of the tttXaral in this sge, see Joteph. B. J. iv. 
6. 3 (cf. Wetetein and Hammond here). If Simon was one of that 
class, he had much to unlearn (like Saul) in the school of Christ 

— 'lo-Kapitmit] from «}^| (tieA, vir) and rrt«-jj (Keryoth) a city 
of Juda. Jot. xv. 25. See Gloss and Remig. on xxvi. U. 

— o TrapaioAt] a mild word for irpoiom. " Eligitur et Jadat," 
says SU Ambroee, on Luke vi. 16, "non per impruden tiara, sed per 
providentiam. Quanta est Veritas quam nee adversariua Hinister 
■nfirmat ! Christus voluit deseri, ut tuo socio desertut moderate 
ferat :" and to show an example of toleration, and that Hit Word and 
Sacramenu " be effectual because of Chritt't institution and promise, 
although they be ministered by evil men " (Art xxvi.). Cf. Greg. 
Naaanx. p. 712, and note on Acts viii. 36, and cp. on Acts vi. 5, the 
rase of Nicola* the Deacon. 

5. Toirovt -roin tiitxa] Among these twelve, half were three 
pairs of brothers. See above iv. 18. 

— Mr I0,£w] Way to the Gentiles. (Meyer.) See iv. 15. It 
wat not till after His Crucifixion by the Jews and His Resurrection, 
that our Lord taid, ' Go and teach all nation:' He sends His Apos- 
tles first to the Jews, that they might not plead that they rejected 
Him because He sent His disciples to the Gentiles and Samaritans. 

' See B. Nttton on St. Barthol.'t 
. SZS. See further on, John I. 43, ana Mint 

' See Papist, GalUnd. i. p. S19; below or 
Xttnat : the rt in njfj {Hatepka) being ha 
uek, whence Wo**, the psssover. Cp. below on xll. 46, ai Roulh, It. 8. 

1«. 107. SIS. 2I». 255. 280, 281. 279, 280, he is called the father of St- 
eon, and the brother of Joseph {Sunt. Ui. II). MM, Diss. il. 2J6, 257. 
olrU. iLp. 44. Arnoidi onxU.47. 

— S«uop«.t«k] for the reason of this see Jerome iv. 195. 

8. dwosdv jdri] A warning against simony. (Greg. * Hot. in Ev. 
i. 4.) " Gratia vocatur quia gratu datur." (A no.) 

9. m4 KrAanaSi] By this chsrge He would thus make them 
free from suspicion of avarice ; and He would relieve them from 
all worldly anxiety, and teach them to devote themselves wholly 
to the preaching of the Word ; next He would prove to them Hit 
own power : and therefore He afterwards asked them, When 1 sent you 
without purse and scrip and shoes lacked ye any thing ? (Luke xxii. 35.) 
For He intended to send them forth as teachers of the world, to live 
the life of Angels without secular distractions. 

He also gave this charge in order to teach othert the duty of 
maintaining the Ministers of the Gospel (for the labourer is worthy of 
his hire) ; and therefore maintenance is a debt due to the teachers 
from the taught (Chryt.) 

Hence the Apostle says, ' Let him that is taught in the word 
ito him that teacheth, in all good things' (Gal. vi. 6) ; 
rbo tow spiritual thing* to others should reap their 
Cor.ix. fl). (Jerome.) ^ ^ 

10. unil I 

XiTiras] which w 

a, especially by 

Winer, R.-W. i. , . 

— M>)'< iwoiriMOTa] i. e. ealceoi; but He allows eaveaXta (Hark 
vi. 9). toleat, i. e. coverings merely for the tole of the foot and fastened 
with IpoVrsv, or thongs serosa the instep. Cp. Acts xii. 8, vvooqe-at 

— /xqcU puBtovt] This is the reading of 12 uncial and 
sive MSS., and is received by TVtol. for Elz. !1 °*~ s 
(vi. 8) has Tra pnoii 
Luke (ix. 3) ' 

s received by Tiech. fo ... 

" arp.<r.» .1. ooo» .1 p4 p&fito, M bW St 
pa/Soon. The sense it the same in all. They 
_.., they are not to procure any thing : 'ne mini- 
' (Aug. de Cons. Ev. ii. 30) ; not even to li, 
_> ."?._« _u:. h m M it were not hi n| , ( R _ 

this Jordan"). They at _ 
nrcioas one (nh tcrnanaQt). 
take it (alpuv), but nothing 
r and love of Christ, " Who 


Tbey among them who have one ms 
more. They are to depend on the poi 

is their Rod and their Staff to comfort . .,. 

If all of them were to go without a pafiiot at all, our Lord 
would probably have specified the paptot particularly in the ques- 
tion which He afterwards put to Hit Apostles, " When I sent you 
forth," &e. See Luke xxii. 35 ». 
18. 4 ilpqrn s>£»] Therefore Prayers and Benedictions are not 
' ugh they may not take effect in behalf of those for whom 

they are designed ; the 
and return with a blesi 

d to the good of him w 

On the use 
vi. 22. Deut. xxi. 
lxvi. 1. 
IS. dmrroTipor] Hence it 

Church of God, sec 
Luke x. 6. Hooker, V. xxv. 2 ; T. lxx 

i offers them, 

!. g. Hilary. Take no pur*. We are to have no venal affections in the 
lUcharge of our Ministerial office. Our Apostleship Is not to be made a 
rade. Take no scrip. We must leave behind us ail anxiety about worldly 

p Luke 10. 3. 
torn. 16. 1». 
q eh. 23. 34. 
Hob. 22. 1». 

r Mark 13. 9. 
Luke 12. 11. 
Art. 11. 1. 
ft 25. 23. 
s Luke 12. 12. 
ft 11. 14, 13. 
t Mark 13. 11. 
Act! S. 4. 
2 Pet. 1. 21. 
u Mlcah 7. 5, e 
Luke 21. 18. 

l Luke 6. 40. 
John 13. 1«. 
ft 15. 20. 
ach. 12.24. 

ST. MATTHEW X. 16—30. 

(•^•) 16 p 'l8ow, iyw avoareKkw vpas a>s irpof3ara iv (Utrtp \vk<uv yu/eade 
oZv t^poVtpot m oi o<j>ei<;, /cat d/cepaioi &»s at irept-crrtpai. (■%-) 17 4 Upocre^ert 
8e diro tow avdptotreov irapaS<a<rovcn yap vpJxs; eis o-wveSpta, Kal eV rats ow- 
ayeoyats awTW fuurriytoaova-w wpas- 18 r Kal eui ^yepoWs 8«* Kal $ao-tXets 
ax$TJ<r€<T0e eV«Kev ipov, eis [uxprupuav awroi? Kal tois idvetrw. (-£-) 19 " ora*' 
Se irapahtZSxrw wpas, fir) fi€pifivr]cn)Te mSs 17 ti XaXiyonyre 8o0rprerai yap 
wpi»> eV iicetvjj rg <5pa, ri XaXijo-ere. M ' ow ydp wpcts care 01 XaXoiWes, dXXa 
to Uvewpa tow irarpbs vfubv to XaXowV eV wpiV. 21 " HapaSwo-et 8e* dScX^os 
dZeXtfmv els davarov, Kal irarr)p reievor Kal iirava<rn}<ro$>Tai reicva iirl yovels, 
ical Bavarwa-Qvcrw awrovs. ^ x Kal ecrea-de fiurovfievoi tVb rravrotv 8td to 
ovofid pow* 6 8«- wiropetVa? eis TtfXos owros <ra>0rj<rerai. (£) M ' *Oto»' 8e* 
Skwkwo-«' wpas eV t# TrdXet TawYfl (ftevyere eis t^v aXXr/i'. dpi)i' yap Xeyw 
wpiV' ow p^ TcXeaiyre Taj troXeis tow 'lo-pa^X, liws av 1X00 6 Ttos tow avdptu- 
irov. (-E-) 24 " Owk cart fw.6rjTr)s wrkp rov StSdo-KoXoi', owSc SowXos wirep t6»» 
Kvpvov awrow. 25, apKeroi' T«p padTjrg, Xva ybrryroA a»? 6 StSdo-xaXos awrow, 
Kal 6 SowXos ws 6 Kwpto? awrow. (-£•) 22t tov oiKoSecnrdrrp' JBccX£e/JowX eireKa- 
* Mark 4. 22. Xeo-a»>, 7rdo-G> paXXov tows oikuikows awrow; x b Mr) owV <f>oflr)dr}Te awrows* 
f pmA m. ("if) ou 8«n' yap icm KCKaXwpp^ov, S owk airoKakv^Orjo-erai.- Kal Kpwwrbi', S ow 
yvaa-OrjcreTat,. (-£-) w o Xt?ya> wplV cv tq o-kotio, eiirare •If Tcp <f>a>Ti' Kal t et? 
to o3s aKowere, Kiypw^aTC cn-l T«uy 8a>para>i>. * Kal p^ <fwfiela-de arrb tS>v 
airoKTea>QVT<av to o-wpa, tJ)i» 8c tyvyrp fir) hwap.evu>p diroKrctVai* fofirjBrjTt 
8e paXXov rov Swapa/ov Kal ^rvxrjv Kal aS>p.a diroXcVai eV yeewg. ^ Ow^l 
e Luke 21. is. ^° <rrpovOCa a(T(rapLov trtoXetrai ; Kal IV e?^ awra>f ow ireo-etrat eirl T^y y7»» 
i^samVi^ii. tt^*" T °w JTaTpos wpaii/. M c 'Tp,Stp 8e Kal at Tpt^es ttJs K€<^aX^s irao*at r)pi6p.rj- 

in another world. In the words of Hooker (App. bk. t. p. 571), 
" Degreea in wickedneu haye answerable degrees in the weight of 
their endless punishment." See below, x\. 22. 24, and Luke xii. 47, 
48. St. Jerome c. Jovinim, and Bp. DuWt Sermon on that subject, 
8erm. tiL vol. i. p. 168, and see above, v. 19 ; below, zziii. 15. 

16. -wpofUvra \» in. Xi.«<oc] He thus prophesies what they will 
bare to encounter; and He will prove his own power, when the 
sheep overcome the wolves, and not only are not destroyed though in 
the midst of wolves, but change the wolves into sheep. This they 
were to do, though they were but twelve in number, and though the 
world was filled with wolves. Let us thence learn, that as long as we 
an Christ's sheep we shall conquer, although many thousand wolves 
rage about us ; but when we begin to be wolves we shall be destroyed ; 
for we lose the aid of the Shepherd Who came not to feed the wolves, 
but the sheep. (Cina.) 

This is quoted from memory by Ckmtns R. ii. 5, who adds some 
words, probably from oral tradition. Ai'yic i Kupiot, !<rio6e mi 
aopia i» pioix \i«wv d-woxpidth li i Tlirpot aurip \iyti, lit oi» 
tia<rwa,<d^a,iii> ol kvKot ri dpvla; elirti. o 'iqirovt t» lUrpw, 
Ml) <poPtt*emaai> ra apvia Toirv Xukoki ptrA to dvotaniit airrd- 
Kal v>(lt /ill tpofiiiatt toA< d-roKTiirorrat iiuiit Kal fH|Jiv i/llv 
(ir.(i<ir<roTipo», Lnc. xii. 4, 5) iwoai'mi wouT>' dAXA <po0ilaO, 
Tin firrd to a-woOarriii iuat Ixovra i£ovvia» ifrvxijt xal amfiarot 
ToC fJoAitv ilt yltvvaii -rvpit. 

— yinfffli] become. 

— i<p„t — -*„. t <,-r,pttt) See Gen. hi. 1; viii. 8 and II. We 
may learn something from the Tempter (cp. Luke xvi. 8), as well as 
from the Holy Spirit. 

It is said that the serpent shows his wisdom in guarding his head, 
whatever other part of his body is struck. So let us be ready to sacri- 
fice any thing but our faith ; or, let us guard our head Christ. (Hilary, 

ultet." (Aug. Srrtn. 64\) The innocence of the Dove is shown in 
likeness to the Holy Ghost. {St. Jerome.) 
80. ol AaXowmt] " Similis usus articuli. Joh. vi. 63." (Benp.) 

— i\\A -ri n»>tua] An argument for the Inspiration of the 
Writers of the New Testament. See John xiv. 26. 

83. <pi£yiT«] It was a question discussed in early times, whether 
' fuga in perserutione' was under any circumstances allowable. 7Vr- 
tnUtan (de fuga in perserutione) argues that our Lord's permission 
was only temporary ; but this is contravened by St. Jerome (Catal. 
°--i. in •»—-••-■■ » " ' " •-■■ "»— : : - r....-._v ...,.t.. 

Script in TertuUian). See al 

i. (Orat. i. in Julian.), and th 

thimrs. Take not two Unlet— It 

Take'no il«i ; as It was sai/to 
the place whereon thou standei 
»3). Nor a iff; tm Christ to 
(Isa. zL 1), and His Bod and SI 

excellent directions on the subject in St. Aikanamu (Apolog. de fuga 
sua, p. 258—266 ; cp. a Lapide). The answer seems to be given in 
our Lord's words : " The hireling fleeth because he is a hireling, and 
careth not for the sheen." (John z. 13.) " The good shepherd giveth 
bis life for bis sheep. (John x. 11.) If a person has a flock com- 
mitted to his care, and that flock will be scattered or torn by wolves, 
if he flies,— then he must not fly. See St. Ana. Ep. 218 ad Honorat. 1 
ii. 1260—2. Cp. 2 Tim. iv. 10. Acts viii. 1 ; iz. 25 ; xiv. 6 ; xv. 38. 
— rqv dXXtiv] t4»> tie other, the nezt, — showing that there will 
always be some other to fly to. 

_ * " 'I<rp«nX, «« o» Jxej,] 


:y sense, you will m 
before I come to j 

ondary and larger seuse,- the Missionary Work of tl 
* ' ' "" e till the Second Comic 

lings,' all preparatory to, and 
consummated in, the Great Coming of Christ. Cp. on zvi. 28. 

85. BiiX{»0o«X1 The Deity of the Ekronitee was called by them 
rarto (Bual-zebub), ' Lord of ilies,' L q. Giit dwo/iviot or pviayoot 
(2 Kings i. 2) ; and this name was in ridicule and contempt changed 
by the Israelites to bit bjj (Baal-zebel), ' Dominus stercoris,' and 
thence applied to the Prince of the Devils*. 

Hitherto our Lord has given precepts to His Apostles for the 
discharge of their duty. He now supplies motives, viz. : 
His own example. 

God will display the truth of the Gospel and His own glory even 
by means of those who persecute them. 
God is more to be feared than man. 
God rare* for the least of his own. 

And will give them reward and honour in the presence of the 
Holy Angels. 

87. tVt vies- ewuaTaw] On the roofs,— flat (cp. Acts z. 9), used 
for public proclamations (Isa. xv. 3. Jer. ziz. 13 ; zlviii. 88), and 
other similar purposes. See on Luke v. 19, and the passages quoted 
in John, Archeof. § 34. Winer v. ' Dock: 

80. in—oi wstrsira.] You may buy rwo sparrows for an 'as,' 
and yet not one of the two falls. &c. No bodily change or chance is 
to be feared by those who are Christ's, since even our hairs are all 
numbered by the power and love of Him Who preserves US. (Hilary.) 


may be illustrated from the hlatory of Polneerp, Martyr. 
600, and Archbishop Laud, whom Grotius advised to 

1. Vlenn. 1814, interprets it 

ST. MATTHEW X. 31—42. XI. 1—3. 

/xeWt et<rC. 31 yJq ovv <fx>f3r}dr}T€- iroKkcov arpovdUav huuf>ipere u/tets. n d Has a 
oZv oorts 6/toXoy»f tret h> e/x-ot €fiirpo<rdev rS>v avOpdmosv, ofioXoyrjcrot Kayot * 
h> avr$ efiirpocr6a> tov I7ar/)d? /tow tov h> ovpavou;. (-^-) S3 octtis 8' &j> R 
apvri<nfrai /tie poo-Bof t£>v avdpamwv, apvrjaropai. avrov Kayio efiirpoadev 
tow ITaTods /tow tow h> ovpavovi. (-^-) M e Mr/ vo/tun/re art i$Xf?oi/ fSaXdw • 
eipijvrjv em rrjv yfjv. ovk JjXdov fSaXelv elpqvrjv, aXXd paxaipav. x JjXdov 
yap Sudoral avdpanrov Kara tov irarpbs avrov, kcu, Ovyaripa Kara ttjs iirjrpb? 
awrr/s, Kal vvfufav Kara ttjs irevOepa* avrijs. x ' *cat ex&pol tov avdpwirov t 
oi oIkuikoi avrov. (-y-) "''O <f>i\a>i> varepa ^ pnyripa wire/) e/te ovk eort /tow g 
a^tos* KOt 6 <fnXa>v vtbv ^ dvyaripa xmkp ipk ovk ecrri /tow defies. w h xat t> 
&S ow Xa/tySdvei tov oravpbv avrov Kal ajcoXovdel oirio-a /tov, ovk cart /tow L 
<*£*os. (^) ** ' 'O evpotv tt)v ^nryr^v avrov diroXeVet avrqv koI 6 anoXeara<; tt)v «■ 
^vyrjv avrov eveKev e/xov ev/wjo-et avrqv. (-£•) 40 k "O S^d/ta/os v/tds e/ii J 
Several* Kai 6 e/te Se^d/tcvos Several tov dTrooTetXaird /te. (-y) 41 l 'O Se^d- £' 
/tevos vpotfrqTijv eis oeo/ta irpotjnjrov fuo-dbv irpotfrfrov Xrjxperav Kal 6 Sexd/tcvos * 
Sucatof ets ovo/ta Sucaiov piadbv Sucaiov Xifi/wrai. (^) 42 Kat os cap ttotutq h 
eVa t5v piKpctv tovt(ov ironjpiov y^v\pov fiovov, cts ouofia fiadryrov, ap,ijv Xeyco 
w/ttV, ov /f>) a-iroXio-Q tw pMrdbv avrov. 

XI. (•!£•) 1 Kal eyeVero ", ore eriXearev 6 'I^o-ows ^uvrdararmv rots SwScKa « 
/taft/raxs awrow, /tere/Si; cKeWev, tow StScurKetf icat K7)pvao-ew eV Tats irdXeo"tv 

(^) 2 'O b 8^ 'JcuaWi^s. dicowaas eV t^5 Seo-fuarrjpCtp tol ipya tow X/motow, J, 
iripstyas 8td t£v p.a6rjr!ov avrov, etirar awr^», 8 ^w cT 6 c e/>xd/to>os, ^ ercpov f, 

69. i» i/!o/] Something more thin 'confeM Me.' ii> ghowt the 
ground on which the confrnion ran. Cp. Luke xii. 8. 

34. ftii foftiair" bti iiX8<i»] This may appear paradoxical and at 
variance with the Angel's aong (Luke ii. 14). But our Lord'a detign 
waa to educate Hie duciplet by hard Maying, (Ckryt.), who adda, " JVo 
one ahould be able to ur that He had 'flattered them by toft speeches. 
He would, as it were, exaggerate the evils they might expect to see. 
Hera was a proof of His power, in that they who heard these things 
from Him received Him as their Lord, and were able to convert others. 
Christ was no ansae of the miseries He predicted as consequent on 
His coming ; but the wickedness of men was. And yet as the manner 
of Scripture is, He speaks of Himself as doing these things. So it it 
said, ' He gave them eyes that they should not see '" ( Gzek. xii. 2. 
John xii. 40). Lest they should expect perfection in this world. He 
describes the result of His coming, viz. strifes, schisms, seditions, con- 
troversies, wars. — the consequence of man's sin and the devil's malice. 
See below on xviii. 7. Though the Song of the Angela waa ' Peace 
on earth' (Luke ii. 14), yet in the same chapter we read that He was 
set for the fall as well as the rising of many (Luke ii. 34). His Gos- 

Sl is a savour of death to some and of life to others (2 Cor. ii. 16). 
e is a stone of stumbling to the disobedient as well as precious to 
them that believe (1 Pet ii. 7, 8). This is the condemnation, that 
Light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than 
light, because their deeds were evil (John iii. 19). 

88. Xaufian, Tim <rravpi» airroi] au-rov, its cross, as I shall 
carry Mj cross. Every one has his own cross to carry ; aa crimiuals 
did when led to crucifixion. 

Our Lord thus prophecies the manner of Hit own death. (See 
below, xx. 19.) 

He knew what He would do and what He would suffer; and 
this is ever to be borne in mind in interpreting Hit words. They 
must be explained from a consideration of Hit Dirine Prescience. He 
has all things before Him in o-riy^p xf""""'- Often, if viewed merely 
with regard to what wai known only to His discivlei on the occasion 
when they were uttered, they will teem dim and obscure. But time 
explained them ; and the Holy Ohost enabled them to understand 
them (see John xii. 16) ; and if we forget this we shall often mitt 
their true meaning. See on John iii. 22, and at end of that chapter; 
Ti. 68, 54. 

89. i tif>»r] Not ' he that findeth,' but he that ' hath found,' or 
mined — i. e. he that hath made every provision for bis worldly com- 
fort, and to appears to Aaee gained the treasure of which he was in 
quest— his life ; and he who baa sacrificed his life for Christ shall gain 
it for ever. ivpioKm it used thus Rom. iv. 1. Cp. Luke xii. 19, 20. 

4L tit oroua Trpotprrrov] i.e. 'qui, quatcnua, et prophets.' 
(Vort, Heb. 740.) But tit ri imita is more forcible than It t» 

■ Greg M. (Rom. in Ev. i. X0) 
parbon, " etii fructnm ulmus non 
tans hate ipsa sua effielt quod bene 

of love to, and, at it 
iii. 20), ' 
He who 

only Hi. 

True Prophet (a 

mentt), shall partake in the rewa r 
many to righteousness" (Dan. xii. 3). The prophet to be received 
may be an unworthy person — a Judas. Our Lord, foreseeing this, 
save that the offim it to be regarded, and not the person ; and that yon 
will not lose your reward if you receive a prophet, though he who ia 
received it unworthy. (Jerome, Hilary. Cp. Article xxvi.) Receive 
him in the Afanw of a Prophet, not for the sake of any secular nre- 
worldly consideration, but because he it a prophet, 

though ni 

Ta 42."ii« ,, Ti» m«P»*] l"*pi*> '• 9.- |*d* (*«*«). «*. » «W», 
as distinguished from ri (rai), overt, a master. Co. xviii. 6. 10. 
The third case here mentioned — whoever doet the least act of kind ■ 
nets to one of the leatt of my disciples, in "" 
my disciple— shall not lose hit reward. 

Ch. XI. 8. iv t» tivntmiplw] Probably Macharut, on the 
southern frontier of Penes. Joseph, Ant. xiv. 5. 2; xviii. 5. BelL 
Jud. i. 8. 2; iii. 3. 3. 

— -ri ipya] the Miracles. Cp. Luke viii. 18. 

— XpidTouj "opportune scribit Christi non Jem, quia -ri ipya 
eum esse Mesnam prnbant." (Calmet.) 

— wi/uuVae ^L& t»» i.tfllvii/1 o.« B, C, D, P, Z, A, Ho E, P, 
O, K, L. M, S. U, V, X (Elz.) ; but it was much more likely that 
tid should have been altered by copyists into duo than duo into did. 
Many modern expositors have supposed that St John, now a prisoner, 
wavered in faith, and put thit question in doubt But thit notion it 
altogether alien from the tenour of the narrative, and irrecoticileable 
with the wordt of Chritt (tee on v. 7), and at variance with the expo- 
titiont of the Ancient Church*. Meyer, indeed, who adopts the 
modern notion (p. 216, 217), refert to Tertsilian adv. Mardon. iv. 5 
(cf. de Bapt c. 10) for that opinion ; but the tense of that passage is 
ambiguous. The following ancient testimonies may suffice. 

" John does not put this questiou from ignorance, for ha himself 
had proclaimed Chriat to be the Lamb of God. But as our Lord 
asked concerning the body of Lazarus, ' Where have ye laid him?* 
(John xi. 34,) in order that they who answered the question might, by 

• See Carat, here. Aug. Se 
Orei. horn. In Ev. vi. 1, and 

St. Be til, Beleuc. p. 179. 


d 111. 29. 18. 

ft 33. 4—6. 
ft 42. 7. 
John 11. 23. 

I.uke 4. 18. 
Jamea 2. S. 
flsa. 8. 14, li 

ch. 13. 57. 

g Luke 7. 24. 
h ch. 14. 5. 
ft 22. 16. 

ST. MATTHEW XI. 4-10. 

irpoa-Soicwpev ; 4 KaX aironptdcis 6 'lr)<rov$ etira> avrois, IIopevOfVTes airayyei- 
Xare 'Ioxivirg, & aicovere /cat /JXeVeTtr s d tv^Xoi avafSkenovcri, kcu. x«"»Xot 
irepiirarovcri' \eirpol Kadapit,ovrai, kcu komJxh. ducovovov vcKpol iytipovrat, /cat 
' 7JTa)vol euayycXi^oiTat. 6 rrat paxapios i<mv os eay /*^ ' crKavSakurdfj ev 
ipoi. 7 * Tovrcav 8e iropevopcvav, rjp£a.TO 6 'iT/crows Xeyeiv rots o^Xois wept 
'Iwawov, Ti i&jkdere ets t^p eprjpov 6ed<rcurdai ; KaXapov wro avcpov <raXcv- 
'• opcvov ; 8 *AWa ti i£q\8erc iBeiv ; dvdpomov h> /xaXcucot? tftartots -r)p<f>ir- 
eaptvov ; iZoii, 61 ra paXcuca <f>opowre$ cV rots oucots rwv fSaai\£o>v elcrCv. 
9 'AXka Tt i$q\der€ tSetV ; irpo<fyijrtjv ; vat, Xeyw v/atV, Kat h irepuro-orepov 
irpo<fnjrow oStos ya/j eort wept ov yeypairrai, (tt) 10t 'l8ov, #fya> airo- 
o-TcXXo) tov dyye\6v pov irpo irpocra>irov trov, os KaTao-fteuocret 

their own answer, be led to faith, to Jobo, now about to be slain by. 
Herod, tends his disciples to Jesus, in order that by this occasion 
they who were jealous of the fame of Jesus (ch. ix. 14. John iii. 26) 
might see His mighty works and believe in Him, and that while their 
Master asked the question by them, they might hear the truth for 

John had no doubts concerning Christ. In the Baptist the Law 
is at it were in prison ; it* office is now done, and it sends its disciples 
to the Gospel, in order that they who do not believe, may see the 
proofs of its own savings in the tcorla of Christ. And St. John thus 
provides for the faith of his disciples by sending them to see Christ's 
miracles, by which they would be convinced that his own testimony 
to Christ was true, and that they were not " to look for another.'' 
{Hilary.) ▼. 4. Our Lord refer* to His own miracW and dim not 
give a direct answer to the express 

•a whom He warn* 

of St. John, but to the 
warn* by the word* 
If these word* bad 
how could our Lord 

been applicable to St John, a* some imagine, bow could our Le 
have given such an eulogy of St. John at He immediately proceeds 
do ? (Jerome.) 

The design of thi* mission and history wat to show the nature of 
St. John's own office, rtr. that it was temporary, transitory, and 
manuductory to Christ ; and to declare also the nature of the Evidence 
on which Christianity rest*, viz. the might)/ tcorla of Christ. 

Our Lord give* the clue to this, the true interpretation of the 
passage, when He says to the Jews (John v. 33), " Ye sent unto 
John and he bare witness unto the truth; but I receive not JMV witness 
(ttjk fiaprvpiav) from man : he was indeed that burning and shining 
lamp which 1 kindled in the world (o Xvyvoc. not to <pit), and ye 
were willing for a season to rejoice in his light ; but the witness 
which I have is a greater witness than that of John ; the Work» which 
My Father has given Me to finish,— the works themselves that I am 
now doing, they bear witness of Me that the Father hath sent Me." 
Cp. also John x. 37, 38. 

We find (Luke vii. 18, 19) that St. John's disciples came to 
him in the prison and showed to him of Christ's miracles. It was no 
questioning or doubt in hit own mind, but it was the announcement 
of these miracles which was the occasion of his sending to Jesus. 
And it was providentially ordered, that at the very time when John's 
messengers arrived, our Lord was engaged in working those miracles 
by which He showed His divine mission, and fulfilled the prophecies 
concerning the Messiah. (See Luke vii. 21 and Isaiah xxxv. 6; 

Christ put it into the heart of John in prison to send to Him, 
and to send at this time, in order to show more clearly the true 
ground of belief in Christ. St. John the Baptist— the greatest of 
those icho had been born of women — the divinely-appointed precursor 
and herald of Christ— comes, in the person of His disciples, to Christ 
—to Christ working the works of the Mf~ !L «>--> = 
fulfilled." He sits at Christ's feet, 

comes to the <p«t ; the aW4 0o£. 

the irpottiouot comes to the 'Otis ; the K, 
the twinkling of the a)«<ra>opot, or mo 
effulgence of the Divine HXiot,— thi 
risen Sun of Righteousness. 

John had said of Christ, " He must increase, but I must decrease" 
(John iii. 30), i. e. my light mutt wane and vanish, being absorbed 
in His. Thus he finishes his mission, by bringing all men, as far as 
he is able, with his last breath to Christ. And thus in this history 
we see a Divine Essay on the Evidences of Christianity. The ground- 
work of our faith is in the Works of Christ. There is the founda- 
tion of our belief. Hence St. John the Evangelist says at the close 
of the last Gospel (John xx. 30), " Many other signs truly did Jesus 
in the presence of His Disciples which are not written in this book ; 

he Messiah. And now " bis joy it 
and hears His word. The \ix»°* 
"«.<?>nies ^ y«, 

n the full 

o the Kp. 
•tar, is lost in tf 
roXi) aq>' Gtfrov. 

■ SI. Ambrose says well on Luke vii. 19, "Misit 
hrlstum Johannes, ut tnpflememlmm icitntia conieqi 
ido Legia Chrlatut est." See alto Tknpksl on Luke 

from St. John a message, at 
the BaptM wavered in bit i 
his constancy. Our Lord, tb 

ixpoaltion from ancient authori- 
iwd. Thry might imagine 

imprisonment had shaken 

■e are written that ye might believe that Jesus it the Christ, the 

Son*, and that believing ye might have life through His name." 

id if it be asked why we believe that the Gospels in which 

reply, — Because theat 

in the presence and or 

the persons of multitudes of people ; and because the Gospels wen 

published in the age and country wherein those works are affirmed ii 

'lave been done ; and because they i 

Work* are described as having been performed 


that and other countries by the Church of ( 

for receiving them ; 
,...._. very 

:ountries by th 
1 and death f< 

. rhich gladly suf- 
fered persecution and death * ! — — '*— * v — ' — 

were at length received as tr . . _ 

the Church for receiving them — the Empire 

they have been so received even to this dsy ; ana oecause tne more 

they are examined the more they prove themselves to be true. 

The sending of his disciples to Jesus was the crowning act of 
St John's ministry. He thus guarded against a schism between hit 
own disciples and those of Jesus; he bequeathed his disciples to 
Christ; he bad prepared the way for Christ in the desert; be now pre- 
pare* it in the prison ; and the happy result of this mission is inti- 
mated in those touching words (Matt xiv. 12), " His disciples took 
up the body of John and buried it, and came and told Jesus.*' 

3. i ipx6us*n] Hjrt (Habba), i.e. the Messiah, whose Coming was 
expected from the beginning. Gen. xlix. 10. See particularly Ps. 
cxviii. 26, " Blessed » He that cometh." Cp. Is. xxxv. 4. Mai iii. 1. 
John vi. 14. Heb. x. 37. 1 John v. 6. John xi. 27. Cp. ix. 39; xii. 
46. See Glass. Philol. p. 434. Vorst. de Hebr. p. 713. 

— TpoaioKanir] may we, should we look for — ? the conjunctiva 

4. a-wayytlXari] Eng. Version, ' show John again.' It is hardly 
necessary to remark, that 'again' does not here mean 'a second time,' 
but represents the preposition, d-wi — oVoyyiiXori, ' Go bach and re- 
port to him.' He does not refer them to His own words, nor to 
those of His disciples and the people ; but to the testimony of their 
own tenses, ' Go and report to John what ye. His disciples, hear with 
your own oars, and see with your own eyes.' 

5. Tvibkot] Our Lord here repeats the substance, and not the pre- 
cise words, or several prophecies concerning the Messiah ; to which he 
adds a caution derived from another prophecy foretelling that to some 
He would be a rock of offence. (Is. viii. 14.) On this mode of deal- 
ing with prophecy see Surenhus. p. 227. 

The same may be said of the prophecy of Malachi iii. 1, quoted 
by our Lord, v. 10. 

It is to be remembered generally, that our Lord as the Great 
Prophet held in His hand the " Kev of the House of David" (la. 
xxii. 22. Rev. iii. 7) ; the " Key of Knowledge" (Luke xi. 52) ; one 
use of which was to unlock Prophecy ; and therefore in quoting the 
prophecies He often inserts words, or modifies them, in order to make 
their sense more plain to the hearer. 
ve/itW] He would n 

• John in the 

John's disciples, lest he should be suspected of flattery and collusion, 
—He waited till tbeir departur- «•--»-■ " "■ 

le presence oi 
and collusion 

, .- --.,— jltitude concerning John, — 

thoughts suggested by the sound of John's message, of which they did 
not penetrate the anus, — by an appeal to their otra acts. He first telle 
.i l-. t . — (> an j tnen wn>t ne ^ 

What v 
planted in th. 
wind of dou 

the wilderness to i 
■eak and watery faith, a 
J u - - Rock. 

effeminate disposition. No; for be preached in the wilderness; and 
when he went into a King's house, it was not in soft clothing, but in 
the hairy garb of an Elias ; it was not to partake of the dainties of the 
Court, but constantly to speak the truth, and boldly to rebuke vice ; 

r which he is 

he had acted, and how they themselves had behaved to Mm. What wi 
ye out for to >ee t Not an Inconstant aid vacillating man. Nolan 
shaken by the wind. But a man of inflexible re-olution and invinei 
courage. What went ye out into the wildemes* 10 see r Not a mac 
effeminate temper. Not a sycophant who would flatter me tot hone 
gain. No; his rigorous fare, hia aim]' 

found him refute this notion. If he h 

the court, and not in the desert. But what w 

the very place in = ■. 

ST. MATTHEW XI. 11—21. £ 

Tyv 6&6v o~ov Zpirpotrdiv <rov. (-") u *Apnp> Xeya> vp.iv owe tfyifyeorat 
*h> yew/jims ywaut&v ptltfav 'IcoaWou tov fOaimoTov 6 8^ pueporepos e»» 
rp /SacrtXeta Tftiy ovpav&v pdtjcov avroviovw (•*£) 12 '^jt6 8£ Ta»> r)fiep£>v 
'lotawov tov fiaiTTurTov itos a/ori ^ fiacn\e(a t&v ovpavotv {SiaXjerau., koi 
/Staoral apirdtpvariv avrqv. Q£) 1S HaWes ydo oi irpotfnJTau. /ecu 6 po/xo? eca? 
'Itoawov irpo€<fnJT€va-av u k /eat, ei deXere Scfacrdat, avrds e'emv 'HXias 6 tJEVi /; 
pekkatp Zpxco~dcu. 15 'O i^tw 3ra d/eotW, d/covereo. (^-) 16 ' TtVt 8e ofioixoam i Luke 7. si. 
T^i' ya'cdi' ravrrjv ; 'OpoCa ecrrt 7rat8iot? ef dyo/ocus Ka0r) pivots, kcu irpoo~<f>a>- 
vov<ri toi? eratoots avrSiv, 17 «ai \4yownv, B.vkqcrap.a> vpu>, kcu owe dtpxtf- 
traa-de iOpyjinjcrapeu vpu>, /eat owe e/cdt/>acrf?e. 18 iJX0e yap "Iwctw^s fwyre 
iaduav pyre irwcov /eat Xeyovcrt, Acupoviov l^ei. 19 ^X&v 6 Tibs tow dv- 
dpmrov iadiav /eat irlvotv /eat Xeyoverw, 'iSou, avdpwros <£dyos /eat ou'OJroTifs, 
tcXmiw c^iXos /eat apaprcokav. Kal iSucauofrr) 17 cro<f>Ca. airo ra>v reKvcov aurr/s. 
(^) ^ m Tore rjptjaTo bvtt&itjuv raq 7re»Xets, & ats eytvovro at irXctorat 8 wd/tets m Lake r. m. 
avrou, art ow perevaqcrav, a Ouat o*oi» XopaJQv, ovai croi, JBijtfcraiSdj', on 
et ei; Ti/ogi /eat StSana eya>ovTO at 8wd/*eis at yew>ft€*>at & vfuV, WXat 

imb, and there prophesied of Chrilt by 

u typified by Eliu, one of the greatest of the old Prophets. 

(Greg. M. 1. c. Cp. a Lapide.) 
— i U umpoTtpot] He that if leu than John. There Kema to 
be a contrast between ytavnrol yi/vaixuv and the peraon who ia here 
proclaimed bletted, aa born not of the fleah, but of Ood, and of a Virgin 
(see Cyril. HieroeoL Cat. 3, p. 42) ; and also a eon traat between o 
PajrrittTh*, 6 irps^irrin (Luke vii. 28) and the o if -r$ /3a«iX«ia 

a fiixporipot is understood by some of the Fathers 1 

■iit Himtelf; and this interpretation so commended is not 

• set aiide. Cp. John i. IS. 27. 30. " He that cometh 

, i time) ia preferred before Me" (Matt. iii. 11). 

And there ia something in farour of this interpretation in the words 

who hare been begotten by human faiktrt from 


a, which Christ 

haa appeared ai 
John the Baptii 

A those springing from human parent! 
ut do not suppose that he is greater 
than 1 am. I am not yivinrnit yvrantZv, but 0ioi, and though after 
him in the Gospel (because he is my precursor), yet I am greater than 
he ; and so nutporipot, and yet elder ; greater, iiitlmr, but leas. Rom. 
ix. 12. 

But in a secondary sense i puKpi-rtpm may be applied to every 
Christian who has been born of God (John i. 10; iii. 3—8), and haa 
•ten Christ fully set forth in His crucifixion and ascension, and haa 
received the graces thence ensuing, and felt the fulness of the blessings 
vouchsafed by God in the paaiXiia tm oiparuv. or Christian 
Church; for (as Makkmat. says) "minimum maximi majus est 

And by reason of the greatness of these gifts, he who is less than 
John, ia yet, by being in the Kingdom of Heaven fully opened, greater 

/ 1 -j a t um \ than John the Baptist, who saw these things as yet 

(Cp. Matt. xiii. 16. Luke x. 23.) And see how this saying 

Ilea and explained in the graces poured ou those who had 

been baptized by Join, and afterwards received the full outpouring of 
the) gift of the Holy Ghost when they were baptized in the name of 
Ckrut, and were confirmed by the laying on of the hands of him who 
calls himself the least of the Apostles,— St. Paul (Acta xix. 6) ; 

.!._ i L— u:_ _i._ .t . — -f jjjj p ro p| 

n anew of the 

■at (Hetyek.), suffers violence, and 
te who ttrive for entrance (vii. 13, 
14. Luke xiii. 24). St. Ambrote, in Luc. xi. 5, " Vim facimue Do- 
mino, non compellendo, sed flendo; non provocando injuriis, sed 
laerymia exorando. O beata violentia, 4c. Hax sunt anna fidei nos- 

Propbet ; yea, I say unto you, and more than a Prophet. . 


e tiwts 

fieri viotenliam docuit? Ergo baereditatem iustorum rapiamut per 
panitentiam," and by earnest prayer, " Hasc Deo grata en est," Ter- 
tullian (Apol. 39). Hence our Lord saya (vii 13, 14), ay m,i J« ff 9« 

13. i'««t 'Ioavyov] Cp. Luke xvi. 16, the emphatic word ia they 
prophetied, i. e. as concerning something/Ware : i. e. they prophesied 
of Me and My kingdom. But now He that waa to come u come. 
Hence the dignity and blessedness of John, who was chosen to pro- 
claim His coming. " Usque ad Johaunem Lex; ab eo Evangetium." 
Cp. Athamu. de Warn. xl. p. 65. 

14. si BiX.t. tifaoBai] Our Lord knew that they looked for 
Elias iu person, and therefore He endeavours to correct their error. 
So the Angel had said to Zacharias, the father of the Baptist (Luke 
i. 17), that John would eomo in the power and spirt* of Eliaa, i. e. 
not in his person : and St. John had denied that he waa Eliaa (John 
i. 21). See below on Matt xvii. 11, 12. 

16. iuoia mtloit] A Hebrew adage (see Forst de Adag. 
N. T. p. 813). By the children many interpreters understand the 
Baptist and our Lord. But this seems harsh. The ytna itself ia 
said to be buoia ■waitloit, and the querulous murmur of the chil- 
dren, complaining that others would not humour them in their fickle 
caprices, ia compared to the discontented centoriousness of that gene- 
ration of the Jews, particularly of the Pharisees, who could not 
be pleased with anv of God's dispensations, and rejected John and 
Christ, as they had done the Prophets before them. The sense 
therefore is, Ye are like a band of wayward children, who go 
on with their own game, at one time gay, at another grave, and give 
no heed to any one else, and expect that every one should conform to 
them. You were angry with John, because he would not dance to 
piping ; and, with Me, because I will not weep to your dirge. 

iect the ffood CO _. 

._.-., -. _._ (Luke vi 

19. Kal (advertatne, as Hebr. \ van, and yet) itiKaimtn] itnala 
iXoyiVeq. (Euthym.) 

These wayward children cannot be pleased ; but all who are really 
uriee children of God, although they may be called bale* by those who 
think themselves wise men, approve all the methods, however various, 
of Divine Wisdom, and profit by them, and press into the kingdom 
of heaven. Cp. Luke vii. 29, o{ nUx. li ik aim aa» ri» &,6r, 
0airn«e*Vr<t -re fiamaua 'Iaamw. 

8L Xopalh] Near the Sea of Galilee, about two miles from 
Capernaum. (Jerome.) It ia observable that the very names of these 
cities denounced br our Lord have perished; and that their precise 
site is unknown. Cp. Robiruon, On Palest, iii. 294. 

— Bi|e<raiod»J i.q. "n«l (6»ytt) domus, et nryg (ttayada) piscatio, 
venatio;" the town of St. Peter, Andrew, and Philip, a very appro- 
priate name for those who were to become "fiehen of men." 

Our Lord bad worked wXitsrav oWmuv in Chorazin and 
Bethsaida ; and yet there is no mention in the Gospels of any miracle 
performed by Him there. How much is recorded, and yet how much 
is left unnoticed by them 1 John xxi. 25. 

Chorazin and Bethsaida were on the Sea _ of Galilee. Hence He 
compares them with Tyre at 

i Cargi., I 
•rttucke, A 

p. K0), Aug., mierg, Tknp»,l., and a! 

34 ST. MATTHEW XI. 22—30. XII. 1—6. 

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much more doet it ditfer from the yoke and burden of tin. Rom. H. 
17. 2 Pet. ii. 19. 

On this text see Bp. Sanderion, iii. 366. The following it from 
Chryt. " Come otf ; not tbia man or that man, but all, all that labour 
and are heavy laden, all that are in distress, and in sin. Come, not 
that I may condemn you, but release you : come, because I desire 

C' salvation, and I will give you rest. Come, take My yoke, and 
My burden ; and be not fearful, when you hear of a yoke, for it 
is easy; nor of a burden, for it is light But how is this compatible 
with what He said before ? Straight is the gate, and narrow is the 
way, which leadeth to life. (Matt. vii. 14.) Because straight it is, if 
we are lukewarm and listless ; but if we obey Christ's precepts, and 
follow His example, the yoke oeeomes easy. And how are we to do 
this? By meekness. And therefore our Lord begins His divine 
Sermon, Blessed are the poor in Spirit (Matt. v. 2), thus you will 
find rest for your soul. Hence St. Paul calls his own afflictions a 
light burden, and (2 Cor. iv. 17. Cp. Rom. viii. 18. 35), on the other 
band, no yoke so hard, no burden so heavy as that of sin." Cp. 
Zech. v. 7, a 

80. l»yit x^<l«T*t— aWrfe* iXoaV"! C P; »•*■ *■ %?< "T" 8 
yoke shall be taken away, because of the anointing." The Fathers 
compare the yoke of Christ to a bird's plumage, which is indeed a 
weight to it, but enables it to soar to the sky. " H« sarcina," says 
Aug. Ser. xxiv. de Verb. Apostoli, " non est pondus onerati, aed 
i.'l7).' # He recoroiies ala voUturi." 

Lord's knowledge extended to covtirtgencia, i. e. to what would have 
d, if something else had happened. See 1 Sam. xxiii. 10— 13, 

ng what would ! l * : * r * — ■ J L ' J '" £r..;s~a- 

g. wAft. 
pp. 82-86. 

38. Kocpapeaoupl "Beatior quum Chorazin (pnesentia Christi), 
aed ex peoeato infebcior; ideo cum Sodomis confertur non Tyro 
mpmliiiaa ». t. oipumi. Nam Dominus a coilo ipsumque adeo 
calum se illuc habi latum contulerat." (liengel.) 

26. i^ofioXoyoifiui] The LXX use this word for rnVl (iodiai), 
" landavit, celebravit, plorifieaat." Cp. Luke ii. 38. Ct 2 Sam. xxii. 
SO. Vortt de Hebr. p 173. Some interpreters suppose that this verse is 

abdidisses ab illis revelasses his" (see Winer, Gr. Or. p. 60S, and 
compare Rom. vi. 17). but this seems to be a distortion of the words. 
The sense is, I acquiesce in all thy dispensations, and praise thee 

Our Lord does not say that God denied means of salvation to 
any; but He thanks Him, because He has revealed to the Apostles 
what He has hidden from the Pharisees (Jerome), and thus punisltes 
pride and rewards meekness. He thus teaches the proud, that if they 
will become humble they will be able to see the wondrous thinm of 
God's law, and so escape the punishment due 


n all His w 

God as Supreme Ruler over all, and blc 

whether of judgment or of mercy, and therefore He adds, oStok 
iyin-ro ivtotia ifnrpocOio iron, and He thus teaches us to submit 
our will and judgment to God's will and judgment in all things, and 
to say. " O Lord God Almighty, true and righteous are thy judg- 
ment*" (Rev. xvi. 7). " Great and marvellous are thy works. Lord 
God Almighty ; just and true are thy ways, Thou King of Natmu." 
(Rev. xv. 3; xix. 2. Rom. xi. 22.) 

— nd,u» k. o-.l Those who think themselves wise. Cp. on ix. 
13, and 1 Cor. i. 20. Aug. (Sri-m. Ixvii. and Ixviii.) "nomine $a- 
piextium et prudenlium niperbot intelligi ipse exposuit" 

— vnwioiv] Those whom the world calls such, and who are 
«|tio. <rp «. -'- ' " ~'~ v " 

iv JIaT»»nl Hrnex, ,. ...,„ „, B „.„ „_, „.„„...„. .„„ 
Test, before the Incarnation, is not 

27. ovii -ro, n«T«>«] Hence 
God who was revealed in the Old ' 

iv. 6, who shows that all Divine Revelations 
Christ, the Word of God. (Cp. xiii. 52.) 

88. tot {nyov nou] Yoke and burden. A metaphor from cattle 
ploughing and canying— an emblem of Christian life— especially the 
ministerial. las. xxxn. 20. Ecrlus. vi. 24, 25, and see on Acts xxvi. 
14. Christ has a yoke and a burden for all, but it is very different 
from the yoke and burden of the Law, Acts xv. 10. Gal. v. 1, and 

Ch. XII. L tois vifflaoi) On the e-dflSaro, diirr.p. r _ 
great Sabbath ; and therefore the argument of our Lord on t) 
casion applies & fortiori to ordinary sabbaths. 

— rtWitr oTayunt] which it was lawful for any one to do on an 
ordiuary day. See Dent xxiii. 25. The Pharisees do not blame the 
disciples for the act, but for doing it on the Sabbath. 

8. -rl i-woiuot Auvtt] When he fled from Saul to Abitneleeb, the 
priest at Nob, a city of the priests (1 Sam. xxi. 6). 

4. aprovt Tq< W0o6i<rtwt] The 'duodecim panes propositionia,' 
a Hebraism, r^TJJon dttJ (lekem hammarecetk), i. e. ' panes ordi- 
nis,' from their being set on the Holy Table in the Tabernacle before 
God, and sometimes called man DTO (lehem kappanyim)," the loaves 
• .!.•_ .„ . , >30 ), f, •- 

ly r - 
a (Levit. xxiv. 
the name of the twelve tribes, 
;rived their sustenance in body 

es," rendered by the LXX (Exod. x 

nade afresh every Sabbath t 
nd an acknowledgment tha 

,nd soul from Him whose ej . 

8. Itjsstt) who ought to be most > 


&8e. — 7 d Ei 8** eypouceiTe ri iariv, " ¥ E\eov $e\a> Kal ov 0v<riav," owe ov 
Karthucd&are tovs a*>ai/ru>v$. 8 Kvpios yap iart rov arafJfZdTov 6 Tlos tov 

(^■) 9 * Kal fiera/8a$ itceWev, fjkOev €ts Tip owayaryrpr avratv- 10 ' Kal iSov, 
avBpwiro? ty rrjv X"/* 41 ^ <uv £"?/ x "'" Ka * €m)parrt)aav avrbv, Xeyoircs ei 
efrcm Tots (rdftfiacn Oeparrcvew ; Iva Kartjyopnjtrwaw airrov. u "0 8<* eTira> 
awrow, Ti? coral *?£ v/t£v avOpamos, os Ifei vpofiarov ev, koI eav ipirco-Q 
rovro Tot? crdfifiaxrw eis &66wov, ov\l /cpanjcrei avro »cai iyepel ; ™ iroo-ip 
ovv huufyepei avOponros irpofidrov aare e£eo~ri toIs o-dfifiao-i KaXoJs iroieiV. 
13 Tore Xeyev T<p dvQpomqt, "Etcreivov t^v X 6 */"* °" 01 '' Ka * i&rtwt? koI airecaT- 
ecrrddrj vytrjs &s 17 oXXt/. (^-) u B '.EfeX^dWes 8*5 01 ^apuraioi, <rvp.f$ovku>v 
ekafiov Kwr airrov, oVa>s avrbv avokecrcacrw. (™) ls 'O 8e 'It/o-ovs yvovs 
dve)(<t>py)(rev iiccWcv. Kal rjKo\ov0Tjo-av airrji o^Xo! iroXXot, /tat idepdirevcrev 
avrovs irdvrar 16 *<u hrerip.T)crev avrols tVa py <f>avepbv avrbv voujaroKrur 
17 oWs irkrjpa>&jj rb pnqdev 8ta 'Ho-afov tov irpotfrfrov, \eyovros, l8h 'l8ov, 
6 irats p.ov, ov -Qpiricra' 6 ayairr)r6s p.ov, ets ov evhoKritrev 17 
^ rv X 1 ? f ow ' &rfo~<o rb trvtvp.dp.ov iif avrbv, Kal Kplcriv tois idveanv 

f Luke 13. 14. 
ft 14. 3. 
John 9. 18. 

in labouring on the Sabbath, I, who am greater than the tem| 
give sanctity to it, can excuse my dieciplet. 

Chrht had not interfered to prevent His disciples from plucking 
the corn. Therefore their act fu Hit, and in censuring them the 

t. 18. 

the Lord and Master of the Sabbath. 

S. • riot tov d»bV>ii»oi«} Because I also am the Son of God, 

therefore I am the Giver of the Law. And he who gives a law can 

w with it. Thisjs another assertion of Christ's Divinity. 

o Luke vi. 5) is called in the 

a in a singular manner for our 

km Kvtfcjltw^^ 

if the argument by Jerome and 

Yon break the Sabbath in the temple by slaying victims, and by 
offering them on the wood heaped up on the altar ; and yon circum- 
cise children on the Sabbath days, and so (according to your own alle- 
gations) break the law of the Sabbath, in your desire to keep another 
law. But the laws of God never contradict each other. (Jerome.) 
Observe the circumstances here : — the place, the temple ; — the persons, 
the priests;— the time, the Sabbath;— the act itself, they profane;— 
and this they do, not from any special necessity, as David ; but 
habitually, every Sabbath, and yet they are guiltless. And if they an 
blameless, much more are those who are with He; for I am the Lord 
of the Sabbath. 

In St. Mark the argument rests on a common principle of huma- 
nity. The Sabbath was made for man. But here He speaks of Him- 
self, the Lord of the Temple, the Truth and not the Type. He who 

evil, but preceptive also, commanding to So 
He refers them to the practice of the priest* ani 
their Scriptures, " I will have mere* and not 

oquinng them to abttaui from 
ing to do good. And therefore 
meats and God's own saying in 

iere» and not tacrijwe " (Hoe. vi. 6. 

.. _,. Thus He gave additional life to the Law. For the 

season was now come in which they were to be trained by a higher 
discipline. (Chrye.) He calls Himself the Son or Man, and His 
meaning is— He whom ye suppose to be a mere man is God. the Lord 
of the Sabbath, and has power to change the law, because he gave it 
(Hemig.) He calls Himself the Lord of tie Sabbotk,—* prophetic 
intimation cleared up by the event, that tbe Law of the Sabbath 
would be changed, as it has now been under the Gospel, not by any 
alteration in the p roporti o n of time due to God, but in the position of 
the day ; by the transfer of it from the seventh day of the week to the 

1L wpo/Ja-rov in] " i», enjua jactura non magna." (Seng.) You 
to preserve your property, though it be only a single sheep, profane 
the Sabbath, according to vour own sense of the terms; and yet you 
charge Me with profaning it when I restore health to your brother ; 
which I do with much less labour than you ran draw a single sheep 
from a pit. (Jerome.) Ye are evil interpreters of the Law, who say 
that 1 ought to rest from good deeds on the Sabbath. In the Sabbath 

of Eternity we shall rest from evil, but doing good will be our Sab- 

oXAn. See on Acts i. 6. 

IT. Swiss wXqpaOq ri itfiiy] A remarkable specimen of the 
nanner in which tbe Holy Spirit, speaking by the Evangelists, deals 
■nth the Prophecies of the Old Testament in order to interpret them. 

Lord, is as follows 
does not say o ooSXot 
Person, but 6 watt n 

■wXii'pwtijj to pifiin is the form used by the Evangelists when 
inn process of Divine Exposition is performed. It is, a* it were, the 
title of an Evangelical Targum or Paraphrase. See above on li. 28. 
The elucidation of the prophecy (Isa. xlii. 1), as explained by our 
For the Hebrew nfi} (atari), ' my servant,' He 
which would be derogatory to His Divine 
here wait offers a double sense, servant 
, 13. 26 ; iv. 27. 30.) And it is one of the 

felicitous circumstances (may not they be called providential ?) which 
mark the formation of the LXX Version, that in this prophecy con- 
cerning Christ it was enabled to use a word (wait) which might sug- 
gest the double sense of the word, pre-eminently significant of Christ, 
in Whom were united the obedience of the servant and the deaf- 
ness of tbe son. (Cp. Heb. Hi. 5.) For the Hebrew ^ri|pr^* 
[e&mah-bo), ' I will lay hold on him, in order to support him (see Pa. 
lxiii. 8, especially Ps. lxxxix. 21. Isa. xli. 10), He savs oV vpi-rtaa, 
'whom I have laid hold on or chosen, My delight,'' For D ' $; i y 
«5|^tJ YJH (** y uim baantt mitkpat) in Isa. xlii. 4, ' till 'He 
establish 'justice on the earth,' He says, tax an ix/SdXn tit rtxot rq> 
xoi'irio, ' till He bring forth judgment to victory,' so that no further 
conflict will remaiu, T. e. His judgment will not only be true, but vie- 
Again (in v. 21) He says t«J oVo><it> for \rrtirfp (uleOoratko), 
i. t./or Hit Law, which would have given an unintelligible sense to a 
Gentile unacquainted with the old covenant 

Tbe next modification toVn for d^si (iynJ*), ithmdt, was almost 

a necessary moi 
ing, would not 
which it had ti 

o a Greek or Gentile ear hai 

__ ._ the Hebrew familiar with the 

Gen. x. 5. See Medt't Essay, p. 272). 

Thus the Holy Ghost speaking by the Evangelist vindicates our 
Lord from the cavils of the Pharisees, as described in this chapter, 
and shows that His meek and pacific, and yet wise and victorious 
conduct in dealing with His enemies, corresponded with that pre- 
dicted of the Messiah ; and He teaches those who required to be 
taught, that the prophet teas there speaking of tbe Messiah, as indeed 
the Chaldee paraphrast understood him to do. 

From this passage and others we perceive the reasons why our 
Lord and the Evangelists did not always cite the LXX Version of the 
Old Testament, nor give a literal version of their own. Their pur- 
pose was to give the mn> which was in the mind of the Spirit when 
He wrote the Prophecies. And since the Prophecies had been spoken 
in other times long past, and to a single people, and since the Evan- 
gelical Interpretations of the Hebrew Prophecies were designed for 
all ages and nations of the world, therefore to accomplish their pur- 
pose of conveying tbe asaw, it was necessary for them often to give 
a paraphrate rather than a version of them. In fact, the mode in 
which the ancient Prophecies are explained in the New Testament, 
displays the most perfect exemplification of the critical rule, 
" Nee verbum verbo curabis reddere/idiii 

Id Testament (e. g. 

ST. MATTHEW XII. 19—32. 

awrayyeXct. 19 Ovk iptaei, ovhe K/javydcrer ovSe aKovo-ei tis iv 
rots irXaTCiais t^v <j>o>vtjv avrov. * KdXauop o-vvTeT/nutt€vo»» ov 
(caTeafti, Kal \lvov Tv<f>6fievov ov af&itrev tfais av CK/SdXp eis vikos 
t^v Kpiariv. 21 Kal t$ dvduan avTov e'fli'i; eXiriovcri. 

(-!£) a ' Tore trpo(rt\viydy\ avr$ SatuoviCducpos, tv^Xos Kal kw^os, Kal i0epd- 
irew€i> avrdv wore tw tv^Xo»» Kal Kaxfibv ko.1 XaXeu> Kal fikeirew. (^) M Kal 
i£CoTavro irdWes ot oxXoi, Kal e\eyov, Mifrt ovrds «?cm»> 6 vios JavfS ; 
(ir) 24 k Oi 8e $apL<rauot d^ovo-aires, etirov Ovros owe eVc/JdXXa ra Sat- 
fiovia, ei p.r) ev t$ BeeX£e/JouX apypvrt. r£>v SaifiovCmv. (^) M .Ei8g»s 8*; 
6 'jtyo-ous rets ev^u/iijo-cts avriav cTirev avrois, Hacra /Sao-iXeta ueour&ura 
Kaff eavrfjs ipr/fiovTat, Kal iracra irdXts ^ oiKta ft€pur0€ura Kaff eavrqs 
ov arradrjaerai.. ^ Kal ei 6 ^arapas tov Xaravav CK/SdXXei, e«£' eavrov euc- 
pio-drj' irm ovv ovafajo-erai tj ftacriXcia avrov ; w Kal a eya» eV BeeX£e/8ouX 
€K{3aXka> ra Saiudcia, ol viol vuwv eV Tivt <?K)SdXXovcri ; 8ia tovto avrol vu«j> 
eVojrat k/mtoi. a Ei 8«) eV irvevfian ©eov eya» CK/SdXXa ra Sai/idvut, a/ia 
tydaxrev i<f>' vuds 17 fiaariKeCa tov ©eov. ^H iro>s SvVaTai tis 6icreX0eiV 
ci? Ti)i> oIkuhv tov ur^vpov, Kal ra o-Kevr) avrov hiapnacrax, iav ut/ irp&rov 
8>jcrp tov uryypov ; Kal totc Ti)i> oikuzp avrov hiapirdaiu M 'O fir/ &v ucr* 
eaov kot eaov eori* Kal 6 «■>) awdyotv uer" eaov o-Kopm£ei. (^) 81 ' Jia 
rovro Xey<u vuu/, iracra duapria Kal pKacrtjyqfiia d<f>c(h)o-€Tat, rots avOpcbirois' 
17 8^ tov UvevaaTos ^SXacr^uta ovk d^c^crerat tois avdpuynoi'i. ffi Kal os 
ai> eiirp Xdyov KaTa. tov Tlov tov ov^owttov, d<^c^crerai avr^I' os 8* dv 

SO. xaXa^im] " Qui pecemtori Don porrigit n»nnm, nee porttt 
onui fimtris, quumtum cmlamum coofringit ; qui scintillam fidei con- 

m confringtt ; qui 

..... m eztinzuit ' — ' ' 

84. BiiAriPovXl See abore, ~ 



24. B.Ari^Xl See abore, z. 25. 

27. i») Hcbr. 2, 4y, u»(4. See Forrf. Hcbr. 211 Cp. Matt W. 1 
with Luke iv. I. 

— ol viol u/u£»] Your disciple*. ThU ii the more modern inter- 

tation, and Acts ziz. 13. U, is quoted in behalf of it; but this 

im conclusive. For there the devils were victorious. 

jf the Fathers interpret this of the Apostles, as follows : — 

The Pharisees ascribed the works of God to the power of the 
Devil. Our Lord does not answer their words, but their thoughts, in 
order that even thus they might be constrained to acknowledge the 
power to be Divine of Him who saw the secret* of their hearts. And 
He asks this question, " By whom do your sons cast them out?" — 
your sons, the Apostles, concerning whom He said fziz. 28), " Ye 
shall (it on thrones Judging the twelve tribes of Israel." (Jerome.) 
Observe His mildness. He did not say, By whom do My Apottlet 
cast them out? but By whom do your sons? — in order that they 
might be brought to the same mind with the Apostles, whom He calls 
their ww. For the Apostles had received power from Him to cast 
out devils (Matt. z. 1), and it does not appear that the Jews had 
brought any such charge against them. And the Apostle* were taken 
from among the Jews, and yet they listened to Christ and owned Him 
as their Master ; therefore " they shall be your judgei" i. e. condemn 
you of inconsistency, and unbelief, and of envy and malice against 
Me. (CTryt.. Hilary.) 

28. t<p9avu>) texit, with an idea of surprise : an Hellenistic use 
of the word preserved in modem Greece. Bee Koray, 'Atokts, iii. 
646. ' If / by the Spirit of God;' or, as it is in St. Luke, ' If I by the 
" -*<->-■■> ...» . , .. .. • • „ j Egypt acknow- 

was written. Ezod. 

He would attract them to Himself. Why do you cavil at the bW 
inga which are now offered to you? Why resist God'* gracious 

finger of God,' — that finger which the Magician! 
ledged (Ezod. viii. 19), and by which the law i 
zziv. 12. Deut. iz. 10. (Jerome.) Observe His 

: ; and because I am 

you the blessings preannounced by the r ., „_. 

ghostly enemy Satan is now cast out by Me. (Chiy.) 
We ought not to thir' ' " ' 

and because 

think ourselves secure. Our ghostly enemy is 
by his conqueror, and be is the " Prince 

:_ _..,.. .,— _ (Jonn M J, Eph jj J ( 

.... ie Temptation, wh ' 

-"Get thee hence, Satan" (Mi 

ist entered ms Douse snd spoiled his goods, — that is, 
m from his grasp, and subdued us to Himself, and made 

' They who sin thus (uys Athanaaiut) refe 
Devil ; they Judge God to be the Devil ; and thi 
more in Hi* work* than the Evil Spirit. See Ji 

e work of God to the 
ie God to have nothing 

not in heart with Me in My conflict with Satan, he will be treated by 
Me as an enemy ; and whosoever does not gather with Me,— that is, 
labour with Me in the spiritual harvest for the salvation of soul*, scat- 
ters the ears of corn which he ought to bind into sheaves to be housed 
in My bam. This is to be compared with Mark ix. 40. Luke iz. SO. 

This is another answer to the objection of the Jews. Satan is 
on one side, I on the other. He rebels against God; I invite all 
men to him. He holds men captive, I release them. He preaches 
idolatry, I the worship of the one true God. He tempts to sin, I lead 
to virtue. {Jerome. Ctry$.) How then can I be thought to work with 
him and he with Me? He ia not with Me, and therefore is against 
Me. He gathereth not with Me, and therefore scattered!. He ssva, 
indeed, in another place, " He that is not against us is for us" (Luke 
iz. 50. Matt. iz. 40), but these two sayings are not contrary. Here 
He is speaking of one opposed to Him in heart and hand ; there of 
one who was with them in tpirit though not in person ; for he cast 
ont devil* in Christ's name. (Cp. CAryi.) 

8L n»ii/M"Tot fl\a<rd>f|M><<] i. e. ooamat the Holy Ghost. Cp. 
Matt-z. l,ifoo<r;<.w«»MOT<„. 1 Cor. iz. 12, i£<W« i M 5». 

It is observable that both in St Matthew here (xii. 31. 32), and in 
St. Mark (iii. 28, 29), our Lord says, 'sin and blasphemy' in the first 
member of the sentence, but only speaks of p\atr<pi\uia in the latter 
member of the sentence, as irremutibte 1 . The question, therefore, 
which has been argued by Divinea* concerning sin against the Holy- 
Ghost may perhaps be properly reduced, as far as c< 
this place, to an enquiry concerning the natu — ' " 
the Holv Ghost 

The Blasphemv against the Holy Ghost, of which our Lord here 
speaks, is that whicn ascribes to Beelzebub the Prince of the Devils, 
and enemy of God and Man, works done by the Spirit of God for the 
salvation of man and the glory of God *. 

Again. Blasphemy against the Holy Ghost is greater than blas- 
phemy against Christ as man, because the Holy Ghost did not take 
the nature of man ; and Christ as man is inferior to the Holy Ghost 
Athanat. contra Arian. p. 358; iv. pp. 561—567. 

From this passage it is rightly inferred, that the Holv Ghost is a 
Penon, and that He is God. See St. Cyril in Caten. Luke xii. 3, 
and Bp. Pearton, On the Creed, Art. viii. 

8L «*« i(pit)n<r>ra,] i. e. is very unlikelv to obtain forgiveness. 
Not that it never can. Set Aug. Retract, i. 19, " de nullo quamvi* 
pessimo in hac vita desperandum est;" and Ambrote, de Poenit ii. 4. 
But inasmuch a* it grieves the Holy Ghost, and provokes Him to 
withdraw His grace from the soul and leave it to itself, it is almost a 
suicidal act; and it is impossible, humanly tpealaim, to renew such an 
one to repentance. (Heb. vi 4—8.) But with God nothing is im- 
possible. (Matt zix. 26. Matk z. 27.) Cp. Aug. Serm. lzzi. da 
Sera, in Monte i. 22. and see the note on Mark vi. 5. 

82. xara roi Xloi t. Mpirwov] He who speaks a word against 
the Son of Man, being offended by My outmtrd appearance, seeing 

e i LapUe here and O 
e St. Mark iii. 30. : 

ST. MATTHEW XII. 33—40. 

elirg Kara tow Uvev/iaros tow ay'wv, owe acfteffrja-erai aur<5 owre eV towt^» 
t# auLW owe eV t# /teXWri. (^) w m *H irouj<ra.T€ to SeVSoov koX6v, ical J 
tov Kapirbv airrov xaXoV ^ irovqawre. to ha/Bpov aairpbv, xal tw Kapnov 
avrov aa-npoV e**e yap tow Kapnov to Bevhpov yuwo-Kerai. M " rewrjfiara « 
e^ihvwv, 7Tois 8wa<r0e ayada XaXew, irovqpol ojt€s ; «c yap tow irepurcrev- L 
ftaTos t^s KapSias to arofta XaXei. (^-) M 'O dyaflos avdpamos e/c tow ayadov 
0r)o~avpov eKftdkket, ayada: ko\ 6 irovrjpbs avBpoynos 4k tow irovqpov Orjcravpov 
eTc/SaXXei irovrjpd. (™) M Jeyco 8« vpv, ori irdv /y^/xa apybv, o iav \ahj<r<n<rw 
ol avOpomoi, d7ro8wcrowcri ire/»l awrow Xdyov eV yp-epa KpUrear *? «c yap rav 
Xdycdv o-ow 8u<ato07J<rg, koi 4k tZv \6yo>v <rov KaTaSucao-frqtrQ. 

(^■) M Tot€ air€Kpi$r)<rdv Twes t£v€Oiv koX iapurauav Xeyoires, 
JiSdcncaAe, 04\ofiev anb crov <njp*iov iSeiV. (■*£) M ° 'O Be anoKpidels elwev » 
awrots, Teved vovrjpa koI ftoi^aXls arffieZov emCr/rev kcu arjiuiov ow So&jo-erai L 
awrp, €t /x^ to OTjiteiov 'lava, tow irpotfrqrov. 40 p "ila^rep yap fy 'lavas 4v J 

it I am supposed to be the carpenter'* son, and to hare June* end 
tee end Juda* for My brethren, he may be forgiven ; bnt he who 
M My mighty work*, and revile; Me who am the Word of God, and 
forking by Me, are the works 

aayi that the work* of the Holy Spirit, 

of Beelzebub, hai no forgiveness (Jen , 

— opts ifTtp ut'XXtitrri] Some have hence inferred that 

not forgiven in this world may be forgiven in another. But this 
inference contradicts the general teachinfi of Scripture. (St -Luke xvi. 
26, and note. John ix. 4. Heb. iii. 13; ix. 27.) The Gloss, on 
this passage says, " hence is refuted the heresy of Origen, who said 
that after many ages all sinners should obtain pardon;" and St 

>,« f-1, ill 901 _.'._ J-.. ZA. .1. _J_ .!.-_.. Tk„ 

Mark says (ch. 

phrase taken together signifies nunquam, and 
" 9 Talmud. See Vontiut de Hebr. p. > 

aken together signifies m 
'— ~" "-- " ttitu de 

/x., Ep. i. 2 
the Hebrev, 

a Hebraism found in 

> i, ■ 

w qMs (plain), according' as it is 
used with certain pronouns, signifies both ' this world' and ' eternity,' 
Hence the similar use of aim* in the N. Test. i.e. 6 aitwofrrot, this 
present world; o <•!»■> i/citvov, that world which is to come; sit to* 
«U»«, for the world, the future world, that which is na-r' »£oyi)» the 
world for which we ought to prepare ; its -rots alums, for all ages ; 
hence almnn, everlasting. See Matt zzv. 46. 

33. TMiirrnTi] Cp. John viii. 53. Indicate, agnoscile, fatemini ; 
•Iirirri. (Euthym.) It is a rule often applicable to the diction of the 
N. Test, that "verba qua facere significant umitionem facti signifi- 
care." Cp. Olast. Phil. Sacr. p. 370. 

Ye accuse Me of working by Beelzebub. But if the devil be 
evil, he cannot do good works, so that if My works are good the devil 
is not the doer of them. (Jerome.) A tree is known by it* fruits, 
not the fruits by the tree. The tree is the cause of the fruit, but the 
fruit is (he proof of the tree. But ye reverse this. Having no fault 
to find with the fruit, ye pass sentence against the tree, saying that I 
hare a devil. (Chry,) ' * 

Since a good tree bringeth forth good fruit, and a corrupt tree 
bringeth forth evil fruit (Matt vii. 17), therefore (voiiio-aTi) recoo- 
nixe my works as gooil ; or, if you will not do this, prove Me to be 
evil, and therefore My works evil, for a tree is known by its fruit*. 

means of Beelzebub 


td of the Old Serpent, how therefore 

, at is good? No wonder, therefore, that you, being 

the children of tho devil, revile the Son of God, and make Him an 

He then describes the punishment of evil words. 
36. prifia apyow] apyit here is not simply otiotus, as a person at 
leisure, — much less as a person who enjoys seasonable leisure in order 
that he may work,— but a* one who will not work when he ought to 
work ('qui opus detrectaf). Cp. 2 Pet i. 8, ook ipyoit oiii 
inipirovt, and Eph. v. 11. 

" Otiamm verbum," says Jerome, " est quod sine utilitate et 
loquentis dicitur et audientis, si omittit teriii de rebus frivolU loqua- 
mur;" and therefore a person is guilty of pipa-ru ipya, who omits 
to use speech for it* proper purpose of edification to men and of glory 
to God, and abuses the best member that he ha* (Ps. cviii. 1) in 
ottering words of levity, impurity, or outrage against God and calumny 
against man. How much more one who disseminates them by the 

> Something like the notion derived from this text, and propagated by 
some in our own days, that our Lord was crucified on a TWMojr, and 
therefore the observance of Good Friday is unicriptural, was broached and 
exploded in ancient limes. See Bp. Peaiion, p. 488 j a Lapide in loc. 
The following is from Kmin. " Duas t — - v 6I — ' — 

— iwotiiaouo-i i-iol airrou Xo'yov] This anomaly of Syntax, 
found sometime* in classical authors [Matth. Gr. Gr. §§ 310. 562), is 
of frequent occurrence in Hebrew (Gen. ii. 17. Exod. xxxii. 1. 
Ezek. xxxiii. 2. John xvii. 2. Acts x. 38), and is very useful in 
order to bring out the prominent idea (here pi)pu ipy&r) at the 
beginning of the sentence. 

Here it may be observed generally that most of the anomalies of 
language in the New Testament, which at first may offend the taste 
of the classical reader, are Hebraisms consecrated by use in the Old 
Testament, and are doubtless designed to remind him of the connexion 
of the New Testament with the Old, and to show that both Testa- 
ment* are distinct from other books, and are from One and the 
same Hand. And they are admirably contrived to facilitate the 
grouping of ideas, and for presenting them in the best form and with 
the brightest colouring to the reader. They may indeed be called 
tolecumt, when measured by the standards of human Philology; but 
they are aioee those standards, and are to be referred to the rules of 
another and higher Grammar— the Grammar of Inspiration. 

88. »->»<••«•>] i. e. A-rd -roD o&patoi (see xvi. 1. Mark viii. 11 ) ; 
such as was given under Moses by the pillar of cloud, the thunders at 
Sinai, the manna in the wilderness, or in fire as by Elias, or with 
thunder a* under Samuel. They require a sign, — a* if the miracles 
they had seen were no signs. (Jerome.) Well may He say i»i- 

39. potvaXh] adulterant: because it bad forsaken God and joined 
itself to other* in spiritual harlotry. (Jerome. ) 

— enusiov ou duBiiaiTai] i. e. none in answer to their demands 

gratify their curiosity (cp. Herod'* case, Luke xxiii. 8) ; ai 

thai which ah'all be given (hail not be from 
and will not persuade 

, but from the i, 

believe, but condemn their unbelief. 
But did not Christ give other a-npiia? Yes; but not to thi 
curiosity of a wicked and adulterous generation. See Mark vi. 5 
Luke xxiii. 8. 

But was the resurrection (typified by Jonah) given in an*wer t< 
a challenge from that generation ? Ye*. See xxvii. 40. Mark xv 
29. John ii. 20, 21. 

In preaching before 

In offering himself 
ship — an argument for th 

In his burial and resurrection after three day*. 

On the parallel between Jesus and Jonas, see Cyril, //teres. 
Catech. xiv. p. 213. 

Our Lord sometimes speaks of Hi* resurrection as to take place 
on the third day (cp. Matt. xvi. 21; xvii. 23; xx. 19. Mark 
x. 34. Luke xviii. 33; xxiv. 7); and sometimes as to take place 
after three day (Mark viii. 31. Matt. xxvi. 61 ; xxvii. 63). These 
periods therefore are coincident. This is explained from the Jewish 
mode of reckoning time, according to which any portion, however 
short, of the period of twenty-four hours was reckoned as a vvx0>i- 
litpov. See below, xvii. 1, and Hieron., Thenphyl., Aug., and Bp. 
Pearton On the Creed, Art. v. pp. 488. 492, and the notes 1 . " I have 
treated more fully," says St. Jerome, " on this passage on my com- 
ment on the Prophet Jonah. I will now only say, that thi* i* to be 
explained by a figure of speech called synecdoche, by which a part ia 
put for the whole ; not that our Lord waa three whole days and three 
night* in the grave, but part of Friday, part of Sunday, and the whole 
of Saturday are reckoned as three days. 

The days of Christ's i ' " • •• ■ . 


eiplicatur usque ad 

."..,... * ~=«. -Ji. 17, 18. Deut. xiv. 

b. M. 12. It. Vid. Relandi Antlqq. Hebr. iv. 40. 
■orum loquendi consuetudinem, et hie Ipse locus 
quoque patet quod ut probe Relandui 1. h. mo- 


2 Chron. ». i, 
Luke 11. 31. 

• Luke 11. 24. 

ST. MATTHEW XII. 41—50. 

TQ KOlXia TOV ICr/TOVS T/jets 7)iiepas Kal T/OCIS VVKTa$, owtws «<7T«U 6 Tios TOW 

avdpairov iv tq KaphCa rij<s y>Js T/aeis 17/16/009 /cat T/oeis wwras. 41 q *4i/8/)€s 
JNiveviTai ava<mj<rovT(u eV t# /c/>«m /tera ttjs yeveas Tavrgs, ical KaTeucpi- 
vovaiv avrtjv on fierevotja-av cts to Kr//>vy/ia 'low* /tal i8ov ■jrXeioi' 'Iwva 
58e. 42 * Baaikiaaa. Norov eycpdrjo-erai eV 777 KpUrei fiera tjjs yeveas TavYr/s, 
Kal Karaicpivei aimjv on JjkOeir e'/c t«2v vepdrav ttjs y»js eueovo-ai r^v a-cxjnav 
Hokopjovo's' Kal Ihov, vkeiov Sokofwvos S8e. (^) M * *OVav S^ to oKadaprov 
irvevfia ifjikdy airb tow dvBpcairov, 8Up\€rai 8t* avuhpav roiratv Zrjrovv avd- 
iravcrw, Kal ov\ eu/novcei. ** Tore Xe'yei, 'Eirurrp&lMa els tw oTkoV /xov o^ev 
i$f)\0oV Kal i\8bv evpUrKet oyokaXpvra, <re.<rapo>pJvov Kal KCKoo-fnjfiivoV 
• 4fi 'Tare iropeverai Kal 7ra/>aXa/j,/Savei \uff iavrov cma Ircpa -nvevfiara vovrf- 
porcpa iavrov, koI elo-ekOovra KaroiKtl iicei' Kal yiverai. ra Zoxara rov 
avdpmirov ixeivov xeipova twv irpatTOiv. Ovtws Ibrat Kal rj} yeve£ ravrg tq 

(™ ) 46 " "En 8^ tturov XaXoOjTos Tots o^ois. Ihov, -fj prfnjp Kal 01 dSeX^oi 
avrov eianj/cewai' e&o, ^rjTovVres avr$ XaXfjVcu. 47 etwe oV Tts avr<j>, *lhov, 
r) iirjfrqp crov Kal ol dSeX^ot o-ov efta eonj/cao-t, Jr^rowres aot XaXf/Vai. w 'O 
8e awoKpidels etire t$ eiiroVrt avr<f>, Tis eoriv 17 ft-V^lP fiov ; koI Tives eio-lv 01 
dSeX^oi ftov ; 49 Kal e7rreu/as t^v x 6 '/ >a a vT°v «« tovs futBrfra^ avrov, etVep, 
'l8ou, ^ P-tJttjp p.ov Kal ol aZek<f>oi fiov' M ootis yot/j av irovqojj rb ^eXi/fia 

in mercy 

Here i« an observable instance of the tiles of the Gospels in con- 
firming the Old Testament. Our Lord here refers to the wonderful 
history of Jonah, swallowed and disgorged by the fish. He treats it 
as a true history to be understood in its plain sense, and expounds the 
meaning of it, hitherto unrevealed, viz. that it was not only a history, 
but also a prophecy, a typical representation of Himself, — of His own 
wonderful Death, Burial, and Resurrection. Cp. the testimony of the 
Holy Ghost, speaking by the Apostle St. Peter, confirming the his- 
tory of Balaam and the ass. (2 Pet. ii. 15.) 

By this specimen of Divine exposition, Our Lord suggests to all 
readers of the Old Testament the belief, that whatever they may now 
find there difficult to be understood, will one day be explained, and 
perhaps be seen to be prophetic and typical of the greatest mysteries 
of the Gospel ; and that in the mean time it is an exercise of their 
'"' " * a trial of their humility, — a divinely appointed instrument 
>ral probation. And it is because they are -* " — 

And it' ..., ,. 

histories as those of Jonah and Balaam are the best 
lgth of our faith. 
" yijt] Jonah's soul as well as body was Iv if 

tests of the str 

40. Kaptia .... ,-,., ..__ ..... , .„ 

koi\ ia rov kit-tow (Jonah ii. 1 ). Therefore the xapiia yijt may be 
what St. Paul calls -ra Ka-rartpa tS« v5« (Eph. iv. 9. 1 Pet. iii. 19. 
See the passages of the Fathers, quoted by Bp. Fearmn, Art. v. pp. 
443 — 450), and this appears to be spoken of our Lord's human 
soul descending into Sheol or Hades. 

42, Baa-iXie-e-a Notob] Observe the absence of the article. See 

— wipaToiK -rrjt yi«l Hebr. yyjn rtferj or T^J {apim or kettatk 
kaarelt), Ps. ii. 8; lxv. 8, and /xurim. 

48. ariipur toxi.ii] The opposite* of Paradise, and striking 
witnesses of man's sin, which ia the physical as well as moral wild- 
ness and desolation (cp. OUhauten here). 

44. oUop «io»] " Suum puut; i£^\9o». quasi non ejectus." (Betig.) 

— svpiaasi o-Yo\<i{oirral " Vacuam Deo, Deique gratia, ideoque 
aptam ut fiat domus Diaboli, nam Nihil agere est male agere." 
And it was swept and garnished like an untenanted lodging, ready to 
be let to the first comer. 

40. o0t<m to-roi if ys»s£ t.] The evil spirit had been cast 
out of the Jewish Nation when they received the Law; and he 
walked in the wilderness of heathenism. But the heathen would 
believe in God, and the Devil be cast out of them and return to 
the Jewa whom he had left, and the last state of that Nation is 
worse than the first ; for they are now beset by a larger number of 
evil spirits, when they blaspheme Christ in their synagogues, and so 
they are in a worse condition than when they were in Egypt itself, 

Jusdam Joseph, iii. Maria Saloi 

llsiss et Jacob! (confer Matt, xxvil. 56, et 

iv. Maria Magdalena. (We may add v. Mart i 

"IitK quatuor in evsngelio reperiuntur. 
fllil erant lids malerterss Domini. Jacobus, qt 

a, Cleophse sire Alphsri u 

<copi et Apostoll, et Slmonii et Thadei et 

before the Law. Accordingly the calamities which befel the Jews 
under Vespasian and Titus, were far more grievous than any in 
Egypt, Babylon, or under Antiochua. (.Jerome.) A warning to those 
who speak softly of Judaism, as it is now. We must pray for the Jews, 
and even the more fervently, because Christ has taught us to detest 

46. 4osXe)of] Compare Matt. xiii. 55, where his brethren are 
called James and Joses and Simon and Judas, and these were sons of 
a Mary. See Matt, xxvii. 56. Some of the ancients imagined that 
these were children of Joseph by a former marriage. (Eutei. ii. 1.) 
But the more probable opinion is that they were consobrini, or eon- 
sins of Christ (Easeb. Hist. iii. 11) ; sons of the Mary who was the 
sister of the Blessed Virgin and wife of Cleophaa or Alphseus. See 

» q pifrnp aw] " Non spernit 

» generatur." {Greg. A 

"Qui Christi/i 
quasi enim parit eum quern in corde ai 
ejus vocem amor Domini in proximi m 
Moral, in Evang. i. 3, p. 1445.) 

His mother was perhsps moved by a spirit of vain glorv, and 
came to draw Him from preaching ; to display to the multitude the 
power she had over One who could work so great miracles. (Tkeaphp- 
lact. on Mark iii. 32.) Hear what He says, because His mother and 
His brethren were eager to show that they were related to Him, and 
were vain-glorious on that account. (St. Chryt. on ch. viii. 20.) 
Hence we learn that it was of no benefit even to have borne Christ 
in the womb, and to bring forth that Wonderful Offspring,— without 

He uttered these words, not aa if He were ashamed of His 
Mother, or denied her to be His Mother, but to show that her 
maternity was of no benefit to her unless she did her duty. 

glory. For she desired to show the people tt 

authority over her Son. Observe her folly* ana mem, ior wncu wey 
ought to have come in and listened with the multitude, and if they . 
were not willing to do this, to await the conclusion of His Discourse, 
then to address Him, they call Him out, and do this in the pre- 

sence of all, betraying excessive ambition, at 
they can command Him. (Oji.) 

There is but one true nobility, that of c 

. of obedience to God. This 

is greater than that of the Virgin's relationship to Christ. Therefore 
when a woman in the crowd exclaimed, " Blessed is the womb that bare 

re vel A genti! 

n Cleophss Joi 
ilia vel alia a 

Church in liit age. of the aurtnse mow esfojeri *a an article of fa 
that of the exemption of the Blessed Virgin from original and acta 


tow HaT/oo? /tow tow h> ovpavols, awrds /tow dSeX<£6s /cal dSeX<£/) Kal p.rfrt\p 

XTTT. ( ™) * * 'Ev S^ tq ripcpq. CKtury igekdojv 6 'I^aows ano Tr/s 01/tia?, », 
iicddTjTo irapa tt)v dakaxrcraV 2 Kal awrj)(0rf<rav w/>os avrov o^Xoi iroXXoi, 
wore awroi' eis to rrkotov ipftavra KafrrjaOat.' /tat was 6 o^Xos iirl tw alyiaXov 
eianJKCL. s Kal ikakrjcrev avrois woXXa. eV Trapafiokais, keytov, T8ou i£rj[kd€V 
6 (FireCpotv tow <nreip€ur * Kal eV Ttp cnreipew awrov, a /US' «r€0-€ iraoa tt/v 
oSw, Kal ^X0€ to irerewa. ical Karifaytv awra. 6 *.4XXa 8e ivetrev cm to 
rrerpot&r), onov ovk tl\ti yrjv irokkrjv. Kal evflews igavereike, 8ta to /t^ ej^eiy 
/3at?os yijs* 6 ijXtow 8e dvarei'Xai'ro?, eWawfumo-ft;, Kai, 8ia to ut) r^civ /Stta?, 
i^qpavdt). 7 *4XXa 8e eirarcv iirl tos aKavda? Kal av£/3r)<Tav at axavdai 
Kal direirvi^av awra. 8 *j4XXa Bk eireorev em rr)v yrjv rr)v KaXrjv Kal eSiSow 
KapTrov, 6 /tev «caToi», t> 8c i&JKovra, o 8e rpvaKovra. 9 'O extw ^» Ta ** owew, 
tiKoverco. 10 Kal irpoarek&ovres ol fioOr/rat elirov avr&J, Jtan eV irapa/SoXais b 
XaXeis avrois ; u b 'O 8e airoKpi$eU elirev awrois, oti w)tiV SeSorot yvutvai \ 

it whicl 

Thee, and the pap* that Thou hatt sucked; He did not say She i» 
not My Mother, but if she desires to be blessed let her do the will of 
God ; He said, yea, rather, blessed are they that bean the word of 
God, and keep it (St. Luke xi. 27). Chrys. 

See also St. Aug. (in Joan. Tract x.) " Mater mea quam appel- 
latis felicem, inde felix est quia verbum Dei audit non quia in ilia 
Terbum caro factum est, sea quia custodit ipsum Terbum Dei, per 
quod facU est et quod in ilia caro factum est"* 

How many women have blessed that Holv Virgin and her womb, 
and hare desired to be such a mother as she was ! What hinders 
them? Christ has made for us a wide way to this happiness: and 
" ;; the way of Obedience, this 

._.. ot the throes of parturition. 


Ch. XIII. 8. in jrapafcKaU] Hebr. crtrtp (meshalim), from 
root Wp (mashaC), to compare, make like. See Ps. xlix. 12. Isaiah 
xiv. 10 ; xlvi. 5, and from the frequent use of comparisons in short 
pithy sayings among the Orientals (see the Talmud, passim. Cod. 
Berachoth, Cod. Schabbath, &c.). The word inashal often signifies 
some sententious adage, apophthegm, or speech (a!vi>«, iiroKoyut), — 
and therefore Balaam • prophecy Is so called \ Numb, xxiii. 18 ; xxiv. 
15. Cp. Isa. xit. 4. 2 Chron. vii. 20 ; and Job's speech, xxvii. 1. 

The word irapafioXii had been applied by the LXX to the Pro- 
verbs of (1 Kings iv. 32, sXdXna. T ,,„r X .X.'« Trapa^Xrit) ; 
but the Proverbs are inscribed xapoiuiai, which is a more general 
term. See John xvi. 25. 

— lioi s£qX0ff] See Oem. Rom. § 24, p. 101. 

This Chapter mav be described as containing a Divine Treatise 
on the Church Militant here on earth. The Parables in it form a 

whole, representing the true nature of the fiaviKslc 
the Christian Church as far as it is visible. 

That of the Sotcer (v. 3), explained by Christ Himself (Matt, 
xiii. 18. Mark iv. 14. Luke viii. 11). exhibits Christ going forth 
to sow the Seed of the Word, and the various reception of the same 
divine seed by various persons, according to their disposition and 
tempera, and their resistance or non-resistance to the temptations of 
the World, the Flesh, and the Devil ; and it brings out the doctrine 
that we must take heed how we hear (Luke viii. 10), and receive with 
meekness the engrafted Word. (James i. 21.) 

That of the Tares and Wheal (v. 24) accounts for the existence 
of Evil in this world, and declares that it is not from * God. at the 
same time that it assures us of God's perfect goodness, and of His de- 
sire and design (short of compulsion) that the whole world should be 
saved ; for as our Lord declares, " the Field is the World,"— that is, 
in His Will and design the Church is co-extensive with the World ; 
it assures us also of the preservation of Good, and of the continuance 
of the Church Visible unto the End ; and of the future, full, and 
final Victory of Good over Evil, and of the everlasting reward of 
Virtue, and eternal punishment of Sin. 

It therefore warns us not to be staggered and perplexed by the 
temporary triumphs of Evil, or of Heresy and Schism in the Church, 
and of Vice in the World. It inculcates the duties of Faith, Sted- 

ring and to overcome evil with good. 

That of the U rain of Mustard-seed 
owth of the Gospel from very small beginnings throw 
lole world, and of the reception of Gentile Nations b 

shadow, as birds of the air flock to, and nestle in, the branches of a 
tree. And it calls attention to the marvellous and continued propa- 
ing that it is from God, and will ever 
protected by rlis Omnipotence and Love. 

gation of the Gospel, as indicat 
be protected by His Omnipotet 

That of the Leaven Jv. 33) calls attention to human agency,— 

especially to that of the Outre*, — symbolized by the woman emplo, . _ 
as God's chosen instrument in this divine work of evangelization, and 
it reminds all and each member of the Church of their missionary 

These Parables being prophetic, are designed to afford evidence 
ef the truth of Christianity ; and they have given, and will ever con- 
tinue to give such evidence, by their gradual accomplishment in the 
diffusion of the Gospel of Christ. 

The Parable or the Treasure found in the field (v. 44), intimates 
that God, of His own accord, discovers the truth to persons engaged 
in doing their duty, ^"they have such dispositions as would lead them 
to sell all for the truth's sake. 

The Parable of the Pearl (v. 45) indicates that if men seek for 
truth, with a readiness to sell all for it, they will certainly find it 

Both these Parables inculcate the duty of forming and cherish- 
ing such a temper as would dispose us to purchase Truth at any cost, 
and not to sell it at any price. 

The Parable of the Draw-net (v. 47) intimates the use made bv 
God of the Fishers of men, to draw the Net of the Gospel through 
the sea of this world -, and teaches, that in this net— i. e. in the 
Church Visible on Earth— then are and ever will be, some of every 
land, bad fish mingled with good; but that at last the net will be 
drawn to shore ; and then, at the end of the world, a severance will 
be made for ever of the good from the bad, and some be saved and 

"On the last (or seventh Parable)," says Alexander Knox*, 
" that of the Net, I need not dwell. Like the Seventh Seal and the 
Seventh Trumpet in the Apocalypse, it apparently does little more 
than mark the final close." 

But this may be added, that it declares 

That the present mixed state of the Visible Church will continue 
to the end. 

That the Missionary work of the Church will also continue to 

That there is a judgment to come. 

These truths— inculcating the Christian duties of charity, pati- 
ce, zeal, faith, hope, and watchfulness, are propounded in the last 
rable as being of special importance and requiring continual atten- 

1 present mixed and imperfect 

th, than 

of the Church in 

when cleansed from all taint and blemish in hea' 

teach us to lay very great stress on the performance of present duty, in 
order U> future glory. 

9. o Jx»» mra dmwsti.] A solemn saying, showing man's great 
proneness to inattention, and the absolute necessity of attention to 
Christ's words, and therefore often repeated by our Lord on earth 
and even from heaven, after His ascension. See Matt xi. 15 ; xiii. 
43 ; and Rev. ii. 7, " He that hath an ear," &c. Rev. ii. 1 1. 17. 29 ; 
Hi. 6. 13. 22. 

1L iutu tiiorai] Faith, therefore, and knowledge of troth, are 


Volume, pp. S20-S2J. For 

J Cp.' Iren. Iv. ». 

8 Remains, i. p. 4*5, where are sasne 
tries. Cp. .4*0. QosssttaMatth. Lift- 

ST. MATTHEW Xm. 12—29. 

to pvarrrjpui t>}s /JaoxXeias rtov ovpavStv, eWvois 8i ov SeSoroi. (™) la c ooris 
yap lj(«, hodrja-erai avr# Kal irepio-o-cvdrjo-erat: oart? 8e ovk ej(et, Kal & e^a, 
apfhjcrerai, air avrov. (^) w Jia tovto ev irapaftokai? avrots XaXeS* art 
/JXeirovres, ov /JXeVovox, Kal aKovovre? ovk okovovotw, ovSc awtovan. u d Kal 
avairkrjpovrai avrot? ^ irpo<frr)Tcia 'Haatov if Xeyowa, 'Anoyj aKovcrere, 
ital ov fii) <rwi»^Te' Kal /SXcVovtcs /JXe't/fCTC, Kal ov /t^ tSi/TC. 
18 iira-^vvdrf yap 17 naphia tov Xaov tovtov, Kal tois wo*l /Japetas 
ij/covo-av, Kal tow? 6<f>da\p.ov<; avrtav eKa/t/tv(raV pijirore iSaicri 
Toi? 6<f>$a\fiots, xal T015 tualv okovo'wo'i, Kal t^ Kaphia o-vv£>o~t, 
Kal imo-Tpe^aio-i, Kal idacapai avTOt/s. (^) 16, 'T/ta>v 8e /uucd/uot 
01 6<j>9a\fiol, on /JXeVovor Kal to «5to v/x&v, ot» drovei. 17 'Apyv yap Xeyw 
ipZv, Sri iroXXol irpo<fnJTai Kal Sucaiot hrcBvprt\crav i8av & /JXeVere, Kal ovk 

• elSoV koI axovaai a drovere, koI ovk 17/covcrav. (■^•) 18 f "Tfteis ovv cucovaaTe 
rr)v ttapaflok-fpr tov aireipovros. 19 Jlavros aKovovros tov Xoyov ttj*} $acrtXaa<j 
Kal /t^ awievTos, ipxera-i 6 irovq/jos Kal aptraXja to ia-irappivov ev rg KapBu/. 
avrov' o&Vos eoriv 6 wa/w, t^v 68ov OTrapeis. * ■ *0 8e Art to irerpaoTj 
o~irapcl$, ovVos eoriv 6 tw Xoyov aKovov, koI evflvs uera yapa? XapfSdvav 
avrov 21 ovk l^et 8e pi£av ev eavr$, dXXa irpoo-Katpos eorc yew/ievr/? 8e 
0\l\}i€<0<s •}) Suoy/iov 8ta tov Xoyov, evflvs OTcavSaXiTJerai. a '0 8i els tos 
d/cdvf?as cnrapels, ovros cotiv 6 tov Xoyov okovo>v, Kal 17 pApipva tov atavo? 

. tovtov, Kal 17 dwaT^ tov irXovrov o-v/Mrviyei tov Xoyov, Kal OKapiros ytverot. 
28 'O 8e eVl t»)v y>jv t»)v koX^v o-irapels, ovVds eariv o tov Xoyov okovcov 
Kal a-wianr &s 8^ Kapirofopei, Kal troiei 6 p.h> hcarov, 6 8« c^kovto, 6 8^ 

0»») ** "ilXXi^v irapafioXrjv vapddrjKtp avrots, Xcywv, 'fipoiwdrj ^ ftaariXeCa 
t5v ovpavav avBpwiHp anrdLpovri. koXov cnrippa ev t^) dy/9^> avrov* 3S eV 8^ 
t^J Kadevhcw tovs avdpavnovs, ^X^cv avrov 6 e)(dpos, Kal coTreipc ^avta dvd 
fiecrov tov o-irov, koI airrp\6fv. * "Ore 8»1 ifiXaar^arev 6 \6pro^, koI Kaprrbv 
iiroirjo-e, Tore iifxtytj Kal to {t^dvia. ^ wpoo-eX^ovres 8^ 01 SovXot tov oiko- 
Scottotov, eTirov avral, Kvpie, ov^l koXov aneppa ccnrcipas »iv t$ o-y dy/»y ; 
irodev ovv rj^ci (ji^dvta ; * 'O 8c €^77 avrois, 'ExQpbs avOpanros tovto iirolrio-ev. 
Oi 8^ SovXot etrrov aur^J, QcXcts o5v direXdovres o-vXXe^wfiev avrd ; ^ 'O 

Ood'i gi/2» to be (ought by prayer. Hence the ignorance and folly of 
the teue, i. e. of those who deem themselves so, such as Scribes and 
Pharisees, and all who are like them ; and hence Christ spake in 
parables, which would be intelligible to all who pray for grace to un- 
derstand them, but not to those who despise Him and esteem them- 
selves; and thus the Parables were designed as a moral trial and 
risible manifestation of men's tempers, whether they are fit for the 
Kingdom of Heaven, which these parables describe. 

— pwriipia] pvOTiiniov either from Gr. /iva>, jitpverrai, daudo ; 
or (as Casaubon and others suppose) from Hebr. -ujijjtp (mufur), from 
root irt^ (satfar), ocrattaetf ; hence something which is involved, or 
concealed, or symbolized by something external, as the soul in the 

14. ^ TooAifTiia 'Haatov] Isa. vi. 9. The verbs are imperative 
in the original, here they are future (as also Acts xxviii. 26). This 
deserves notice, as explaining this and other similar prophecies, where 
the sin of man tetmt to be represented as due to the will of God. The 
Holy Spirit here teaches us how these prophecies are to be under- 
stood, viz. as Divine declarations of thefiUure; and He confirms the 
LXX interpretation, who had already rendered them in this way, 
and whose words He adopts here literatim. 

By employing here and in other places the LXX, and in not 
' ove, xii. 18), He shows that the sense given in 

the former 

He intimates, that though it 

racist Kllaim. I. Halach 1 (tftlckh 

Is quod tritid erst non absimile, verum aegi 

sub v. Lolch, oder TelUorm. Latin Loliut 

US. Uifinvtrau] " Ergo Dens eos sanare vokerat:' (Beng.) 
19. oStov] It is observable that all the Evangelists use the mas- 
culine gender here, i.e. they consider the perton as eovrn ; that is, 
the tea is not responsible for the use made of the seed ; but the 
perton who receives the seed it responsible, and is therefore identified 
with it: the seed passes into him, is moulded up with him, and 

and takes Ait. See Mark iv. 16. 18, ol <rwnp6uimi, and Lukeviii. 
13, ol M wmat. 
28. J.Jimal 'Talmudici nominant, tr^ (»«mi)V J 
wheat, and which may also bejvclaimed in 

,te wheat, and which may also be reclaimed into wheat 
26. i(pam Td J.Jina] The Tares were apoami. This, 
ined with v. 30, supplies an answer to those who say that he; 

with the 

may be destroyed by force if they are known to t 
Aug. Qu. in Matt. qu. 2. In such a rase, if they 
they are indeed to be separated by the wholesome exercise of Church 
Discipline from Communion with the Church in holy offices (see 
Matt xviii. 17. 1 Cor. v. S. 9. Article xxxiii), and therefore this 
parable gives no countenance to the Enutian * theory that all Church 
power consists merely in persuasion. On the other hand, they arc 
not to be eradicated from the soil, because, through the frailty of 
human judgment, what may seem to be £i£artu. tarn, may not be 
£i£dvia, and wheat may be rooted up as tares ; and because what are 
now degenerate wheat, may one day become good wheat, and be 
gathered as such into the garner of heaven. (Cp. Jerome here.) 

»"•)» "genus Gears;, i. 154. Vr.twroi*. See also Trent*, p. »1. 

" See Winer, « Cp. Hammond on the Power of the Keys, I. p. W. * 

«/«s>. Firg. Prelect. vU. t». Anki. Poll, On Christian Sovereignly, p. I 

ST. MATTHEW XHI. 30—38. 

8e cfa, Ow prfirore trvXkeyovres to t,dp.via, iicpi&oTjTe a/ta avrots tov a-lroV 
80 h arfkre owavi-dveoticu a/i^wrepa p*xP l T °v fepurpov, /cat b> kcu/x£ tow h 
Oepurfiov ipa> tois depurrah, SvXkegaTe irpwrov to £i£dvui, ko.1 0770-aTe awra 
ets occr/tas woos to Karaxavo-at avra, tw 8«! o-itoi' avvaydyere eis Tr}»» ewro- 
flr/icr/*' /tow. 

(tt) Sl '*-<lXXi7i» irapafto\r)v vapidijKev avrois, \eywv, 'Opota i(rru> i) fiaon* ' 
Xeia t£v ovpavatv kokkq oxedwecws, ov Xa/Saiv avOpamo? ecnrapev iv t$ dy/D<£ 
awrow* ffi & fiiicporepov pev iari ttavrwv t<ov oTrepparmv, orav Sk av^qO^, 
peitpv t&v Xaxavotv iari, koI yivertu ZevZpov, wore e'Xfleu' to treruva tow 
ovpavov teal Kwracncqvovv b> tois /cXdSois awrow. 

(^) M k ".AXX^ irapafioXriv iKdhjaev awTois' 'OpoCa early 17 fSacnXela twv k 
ovpavatv ^vp-if, yv \af3ovcra ywq iveKpxnjiev eis dXewoow o"dVa t/jio, &>s 08 
Qvp-toOr) okov. 

(™) ** Tawra irdWa eXaXT/o-ej> 6 'Ii/cows eV irapa)8oXais tois o^ois" ical 
X<t>/>ls iraoaySoX^s owe c'XaXct at/rots' M ' cwrws vktjpwd^ to /Di^eV 8«x tow 1 1 
vpojnfrov \4yovros, 'Avoiga> iv irapa r 3o\at<s to o*rd/ta /tow ipevgopat 
K€Kpvppeva dirb KaTa/JoX^s Koa-pov. 

(tt) x Tore atfxls tows oxXows, ^Xf?«» ets t^v oi/aai> 6 'Ii/o-ows* ical irpotrijXdov 
awr$ oi padrfral avrov, Xeyoires. ipwov rfpiv rrjv irapafioXr/v t£>v £(,£aj/iW 
tow aypov. ** 'O 8k airoKpiOeU eTrra> awrois, 'O cnreCpotv to koXov cnrippa 
iarw 6 Tios tow avdpwirov Xm o 8k aypbs iariv o Kovpor to 8e koXov » 
OTreppa, oorot eio"o/ oi wtol r^s /8ao-iXe«as* to & tjljivia, eloiv oi viol tow f 

e Dnwnet; 

with which we may compare the worda of the Baptist concerning the 
Chaff and the Wheat, Matt. iii. 12, Lake iii. J 7, which were gene- 
rally awociated bv the Fathers with these parables » ; see foot note. 

Among English Divines we may refer to the words of Hooter, iii. 
1. 8 and 10, " Our Saviour compareth His Church unto a field, where 
Tares manifestly known and seen by all men do grow intermingled 
with good corn, and even so shall continue till the full consummation 
of the world. God hath ever, and ever shall have, some Church Visible 
upon earth. The Church of Christ which was from the beginning is, 
and continueth unto the end. Of which Church all pans have not 
been always equally sincere and sound." 

And, again, lx»i. 6. " The (Visible) Church of God (on earth) 
(i.e. as far as it is an object for the sense and judgment of man) may 
contain them which are not indeed His, yet (by reason of their out- 
ward profession of Christ) most be reputed His by us, that know not 
their inward thoughts. 

— — _— r , ling mixture of Vice 

i, Light with Darkness, Truth with Error, as well and 
openly known and seen as cunningly cloaked." 

So Bp. Patrmm, On the Creed, art. ix., " Within the notion of 
the Church (Visible on Earth) are comprehended good and bad, 
bang both externally called. For the kingdom of heaven is like 
onto a Field, in which wheat and tares grow together unto the har- 

grow togethi 

"' sea, and gathered of 

1 lip wheat and chaff. 

Catholic- J:J — : — ' 

*t; like unto a Net tl 
every kind ; like 

I conclude, therefore, aa the ancient Catholics did against the 
tists, that within the Church, in the public profession and external 
Communion thereof, are contained persons truly good and sanctified, 
and hereafter saved ; and, together with them, other persons, here- 
after to be damned." 

See also Bp. Beveridge and Profiteer Browne, on Article xxtL 

i See particularly the doctrinal and practical instruction deduced from 
them by SI. JuguiUm. in bis works againit the Donstinti, particularly in 
vol. ix. ed. Benedict. See alio, e. g. Sermon lxxxvill. SI, 11. p. 6S7. Some 
passages are quoted in TktopkUm Angllcanut, part i. ch. il., e. g. as f " 
lows "—St. Jug. Iv. 497 (addressing the Donatiau), says, " ToUra 

• gentes diflundkur, quam acrum n 

ilm Inter Irilicum, vel In hlc unitatis an 

frumento, vel intra rttiu verb! et saeramenti tanquam m 
bonU inclusos, usque ad tempos mtnit aut ventilation* au 
anus, ne propter illoe ei 

Vol. I. 

speak of it aa a tree, Simtpis nigra >. 
38. Zvmv] ' fermentum,* from r iu>, ' ferveo,' sour dough. Hebr. 
yijn (chamete), so called from its acid and fermenting quality, whence 
it had been employed figuratively in the Old Testament (Hosea vii. 
4) for what diffuses itself. 

— o-dra Toi'a] o-aTw. Hebr. nff (awtfi), g of an epbah. 

— I« oD il^iSn SXop] Till the whole ephah (the same site aa 
the Bath) of the world be leavened. " Sanctificatur enim per Ecclesias 
velut quoddam fermentantis officium Scripturarumque doctrinam." 

junctive £i<p<«0f) shows th_. .... ._ 

85. toS wpo<pirToi>l From Ps. lxxviii. 2, at.— u ^» ra „»,,„. „„ 
Matthew here follows the LXX in the former part of the quotation, 
but in the latter P yjV rrtTft nj^H (abiwa ekidotk minnv-kedent), 
where the LXX have <p9iy£ofiat TpoBKtinaTa in-' *<>xn*, he haa 

l :..ii_ i._. 1 ively, tptiliopai (a 

>« of living waters'! 

tpvuitira iiri aaTo/SoX^i uoaiuxi. See 5areiOw. pp. 245, 2-1 

iroperly applied to Him wh( 

Ixxviiith Pwlrn, 

., .. the Wildemesa. 

with the solemn appeal, "Hear My Law, O My 

r appropriate in the mouth of God. And in the 

historical records are called parabke and dark sayings 

(from rad. in, macro), ivrUitrrpa. 

.... jc questions seems to be given by the Holy 

r passage applying those words to Christ. Christ 

its by Asapn. Christ calls on His people to hear His Law. And 
historical records of the Ancient Church are dark sayings, for 
they are T»irot tiayyiXtou. As St. Paul shows (1 Cor. x. 11), they 
are figures of the jiaaiXtla tov ouoavou, symbols of the Christian 
Church : not only true Histories, but Prophetical Parables in action *, 
and so they belong to the same system of Divine Teaching as the 

ily appropriate 

(ckidoth), piercing word 
The solution of the 

Christ: the Holy Spirit applies to Christ a passage oi 
Israel, " Out of Egypt have I called my Son.' See abo 
respect, also, their history is parabolical, and la so tre 
Spirit In the Or — ' 

42 ST. MATTHEW XIII. 39—55. 

5o5T ><• »• Ilovrfpov. w ' 6 8« i\Opbs 6 aireipa? owto eoTtv 6 Jid/3oXo«r 6 8e* fltyoMTfios 
owriXcia tov atwvos «rrir ot oe $eptorai ayyekai daw. ^"tlamp ovv 
o-wXXeyerai to £i£apta Kal irw/»t KaraKaierai, owra>s eoTat e* ttj tywTeXt-ip tov 
auuvos towtov 41 diroareXeT 6 Ttos tow dvBpamov tows dyye'Xovs avrov, 
icai <rvXX*f£bvo'U' ck tjjs /Sao-iXetas avrov irdvra to. oxeu'SaXa, *cal tow? irot- 

och.8.u. owras T7V avopiav, 42 °koI fiakovo~w awrows «is t^v Kafiwov tov irvpor 

;,£•»• '*•*• €K€t eoTai 6 K\av6fib<s Kal 6 /8/>wyfios Taw ooovrtw. 4S|, Tot€ ol ot/caio* 
iKXafixj/ovo-iv <»? 6 ^Xios €i> t^ fiao-iXeia tov JIot/oos awiw, 'O e^ftn* «5ra 
aKOveif, djcowerai. 

*smj'.*" 4 ' 44, iIaXa' 6/Aoi'a eorli' 17 /SacriXeta toV ovpavwv 0i)O~avp$ K£K/>vu/ieVa> ci» 

T<f» dyp$' tv evptov dv$ponro<s eicpwpe, Kal airb Tt}s x a f°* s avr ov wrdyei, Kal 
irdvra 00-a ej^ct ?ra>Xet, Kal dyopdXju tov dy/oov iiccivov. 

tPior. s. I!. ** 'HaXtv 6/xoia eorli' tJ fiao-tkeCa tov oipavatv dvdpanrat ipiroptp faryrovvTi, 

KaXovs fiapyapiTa.'i' 46 os evpatv eva iroXvripov papyapvrt\v, dtrekdoiv ireirpoKt 
irdvra 00-a eT^e. Kal rjyopao-ev avrov. 

47 IlaXu' 6uotd eorlv 17 fiacriXela t£>v ovpavav aayrprQ fiXijfaicrft els rrjv 
OdXaao-av, Kal ck iravrbs yeVows owayayovoy ** rjv, ore ew\r)pa6rf, dvaf&i,- 
fido-awes iirl tov aiytaXov Kal KaOCcravrts crweketjav to, KaXd els dyyeia, to 8^ aairpa efiw efiakov. 49 *Ovra»s eVrrai eV T77 owreXeta tov auSros* 
i^ekcvaovrai ol dyyeXoi, Kal d<j>opiovai tows irovrjpov? «c pAaov tuv BucaUav, 

1 ThewS. 7-10. M ' KO * fiaXovaiv awrows €is ttjv Kapivov tov irvpoW iicti eorat 6 kXov^uos 
koi 6 /8/>vy/i6$ tov oSoVnuv. S1 ilcyei avrois 6 'l^o-ovs, Xwqican ravra 
irdvra ; Xeyovow avr^J, Wot, Kvpu. 52 'O 8£ elirei' avroi?, Jid tovto iros 
y/oa/tuoTev? padrjT€v$€i$ el% ttjv /3ao-i\eCav tSsv ovpavatv o/iotos torty dvdpdtirip 
olicoBeoiT&rQ, 00T15 cK/SaXXei e/c tow drjcavpov avrov Kaiva /cat rraXaid. 

63 Xal eyeVero, ore irdkcaev 6 'Iijo-ows to? iraoa/SoXd? towtos, pergpev 

Luk«4. V' *" tictidar (-T - ) M ° koi ikdtov els ttjv irarpC8a avrov, eSiSac/tej' awrows eV TJ7 
owaywyjj awiw, «Sot« £»orXi;o*o^o"^ai awrows *toi Xeyew, Ilodev rovrip 17 

v John 6. «. ao<f>ia avrt) koi at Swa/ieis ; M v Owj( owV^s ^otw 6 tow t4ktovo% wtos ; ow^t 

Huk6.s. ^ piJTTjp avrov XeycTOi Maptap, Kal ol dSeX^ol awrow 'Icmcw/Sos «at 'Iwo^s 

spoken PsnUet of this chapter; tad the Mine woidi m*y be applied 
to both, " I will open mjr month in Parable*." 

4t TO*t 4yWX«« airoS] «•. Angel., the Angeli belonging to 
Olrtrf. He is therefore God. 

_«iS»i«Xoj qfihmon*. ■wp.vKopiiaTa, «<ij«, <*.«rfk», Hebr. 
Wyp, ofhmdiaUum, a •eandal, or cauae of .tumbling and of sin. And 
o*a»ioX.iJ«., to caun to (tumble or tin. 

For an excellent account of theae words, see Forat. de Hebr. pp. 

44—08. ei|ffo«poD] Christ u the treasure hid in the field ; He is 
hid in the field of Holy Scripture, where He is presignified by types 
and parables. {Inn. fv. 26.) On these parables see the Horn, of 
Orta. At. in Erang. i. 11. p. 1473. 

48. Ka»(o-arr«l 'studivse.' {Bern.) 

S3, ypapnartit— «oi»o tud -wa\aia] A scribe, v. q. fto (sopier), 
( Torsi, de Hebr. p. 83) , a teacher (iro<po<) connected with nryrj (sexier), 
a book, i. e. an interpreter of the sacred Volume. Christ in His 
Parables, precepts, and prayers did not disdain to arail Himself of 
what was already received in the world. He built His religion on the 
foundation of the Old Testament, and also on the primeval basis of 
man's original constitution and nature rightly understood *. And He 
teaches His Apostles and Ministers not to reject any thing that is 
true, and therefore of God; but to avail themselves of what is old, in 
teaching what is new, and, by teaching what is new, to confirm what 
Is old ; to show that the Gospel is not contrary to the Law, and that 
both are from One and the Same Source (cp. /res. iv. 9), in harmony 
With Nature (see Irm. iv. 13). and that One and the same God is 
Author of them all. God the Father is the Original of all ; and God 
the Son, the Eternal Logos, Who manifests the Father by Creation 
and by Revelation,— Who made the World and Who Governs it,— 
is the Dispenser and Controller of all. 

The necessity of this precept has been shown in the history of 

»' against theManichasans, In vol. x. 

the Marcionite'and Manichcan * controversy, and in the erroneous 
teaching of some in more recent times, who either, on the one side, 
would set aside Revelation on the plea that Reason is sufficient 4 , or, 
on the other side, would disparage Reason as if it were superseded 
by Revelation*. 

" The Apostles," says Jerome, " 

re like Christ's notaries, who 

registered His words on the tables of their hearts, and draw out from 
that storehouse of doctrine tlungi new and old, proving what they 
preached in the Gospel by testimonies of the Law and the prophets; 

•e Bride • 

the Canticles. ' At our gates are all manni 
laid up foi 

p for thee, O my 

of pleasant fruits, new and old, which I have 
beloved ' (Cant vii. 13)." 

58. /usTJi/>M>] " Finem fecit labitandi Capernaumi. Deinceps ab 
Herode agiutus" (et ab incelis rpretus et ut ceteris predicant) 
" minus uno loco mansit." (Bengd.) 

84. WO0M To&Ttf v o-o«)ia] Strange blindneaa in these Nszarenes ! 
They wonder how Wisdom itself has wisdom, and how Power itself 
has power. But here was its cause, they deemed Him the Carpenter's 
Son. But their error is our safety ; for thus His humanity is proved. 

85. b raVroMt ■,!«] Mark vi. 3, & rivrm*. Cf. Soxomtn. vi. 2, 
who relates that when a Christian was scoffingly saked by a heathen. 
What the carpenter's son was doing? he answered that He was 
making a coffin for Julian. 

— ii pjjrnp] Hence we may infer that Joseph was dead. 

— Mapian, 'laxiafSot] " Has sic Dominant quasi nil habersnt 
nisi iioi»ea." (Bag.) 

— oi <U.X<poi] See above, xii. 46. " 'ld«.0p* (i.e. minor) «->l 

'\oitmi auctores Epistolarum Canonicarum Simon vel Simeon 

success* fratri Jacobo in Epieeopatu Hieroaolymitano." EuA. iii. 11 
(ILapide). Cp. Eunb. iv. 22. 

JoKt here seems to be the same as Joaes in zxvii. 56. It is pro- 

4. iv. Works, vol. iv. 76. 141. 

ST. MATTHEW XHI. 51—58. XIV. 1—15. 

/cat XIluov kcu "lovSas ; w #eat at dSeX^al avrov ov^t iracrcu wpos ijftas 
etcri ; irodev ovv rovrej) Tavra waWa ; w w /eat eo-/cav8aXt£ovro & avrcp. (^) 'O J 
8c 'Ii7crovs etjrev aureus, Ovk Icm Trpotjrrjrrjs a/n/xos, et fU7 ev tt} irar/)i8l J 
avrov, /cat ev tj5 otictia avrov. M * Kal ovic eVotijcrev e*/cet Swa/teis iroXXds * 
Std ti)v diricrrtav airrebv. 

XIV. (ir) ' a *-E>' eKetv^ T<p Kaiptp rj/covaat 'H/xuSijs 6 Terpdpxfs tt)v aKofjv » 
*Irjuov, 2 ical etire rots irauriv avrov, Ovrds ecmv 'loidwr?? 6 fiairrtomj? 
avros rfyipdr) diro TtSv vticpmv, /cat Std tovto at Swctfieis evepyovcrtv eV avrcp. 
(tt) 3 b 'O yap 'HowSt/s /c/wrr/cras tov 'itaawrp/, eS^crev avrov /cat etfero ev <f>vhucg, \ 
8ui 'HptaSvdZa ttjv ywauea •ftXiVirov tov dSeXc^ov avrov* 4 eXeye ydp avrop 6 
*I(odw7js, Ovk efeort crot exetv avnjv. 5 c JKat deXaiv avrov dfro/cretvai, e<f>o- I 
fhjdr) tov o\\ov, on &»s irpo<fyrjrt)v avrbv et^ov. (^) 6 Pevecrteuv 8e dyopevatv l 
tov 'HpcaSov, dtpxtfo-aro tj Qvydn\p ttjs 'H/xuStdSos eV tc3 /tc'crai, /cat ijoccre 
rep 'Hpda&Q' 7 odep p&ff opKov atftoXayijcrev avrfl Sovvat & edv alrrjaitfrai. 
8 'fl 8e vpof$if3ao-0elo-a. iirb Trj? fvqfrpos avrqs, ^ds /tot, c^crtv, eu8e eVt mvaKt 
rr)v m<f>aXrjv 'Iwdwov tov /Janrwrrov. 9 £at ikvmqdr) 6 /JaoxXevV 81a. 8e 
tovs opicovs, Kat tovs onsvava/eetfLcVovs, e/ceXevcre Sovvat* 10 /cat Tr4 r i*jta<; direice- 
</>dXio-e tov 'Iadwrfv ev tq (ftvkaicQ. n Xat -rjvex&T) 17 K€(f>aXr) avrov eVt irtva/a, 
Kal ihodrj t$ Kopaaup' *eat rjveyiee tq [njrpl avrijs. 12 JKat irpocreX^ovres 
01 ftacfyrat avrov ^pav to crw/xa, Kat edaxf/av avrd' /cat eX^dvres dmfyyetXav 
t«T 'Ii70"ov. (^) ls d JKat a/cowcras 6 'Xi^odvs, dvexwpqcrcv eKeWev ev irXotcu a 
ets epyj/iov tottov Kar IBCav" Kat ttKoutravrcs 01 0^X01, ^KoXov^i)<rav avnp ire^ J< 
dir6 t£v irdXeov. 

14 " Kat i£ekOa>v 6 'Ii^crovs etSe iroXuv o^Xov, /cat ^oTrXay^vtcrc^ «r* avrots, e 
#eat idepdirevcre tov? dppd>crrov<s avrwv. (-f-) ls 'Ot/rtds Se yevo/teV^s, irpoo~' * 
^X^ov avrcj 01 fiadTfrai avrov, Xcyovres. "Epquos cortv 6 toVos, /cat ^ alpa 

Tgtble that the four pemot here named were wna of Cleopn or 

Ch. XIV. 1. "Hptoim £ TirpafiY'l'] Antipaa, or Antipater, ion 
of Herod the kin;, by Malthace, a Samaritan woman. (Joseph. Ant. 
xviii. 1. 9.) Tetrarch or ruler of Galilee and Penea. (Ibid. 
xrii. 8.) He had married the daughter of Aretae, King of Arabia, 
but deserted her for Herodias, daughter of Ariitobulm, ton of Herod 
the Great (Jotpk. Ant. xviii. S), and wife of Pkilip 1 , ton of Herod 
the Great by Mariamne (Joteph. ibid.). If a man died childleaa, hit 
brother was commanded to marry his wife and raise up seed to bis 
brother (Deut xxv. 5). But if not, not. But Herod took to himself 
the wile of his brother, who had a daughter by him, and therefore 
John reproved him. (Chiyt.) 

Philip was alive at this time ; and Herodias had issue then living 
* : - - 10 that Herod was guilty of adultery. Sec Joteph. Ant -- !: - 

by him ; « 
6, 7. After 
(wTi/ua, Mark vi. 29 ; , 

s death she commanded his dead body 
... «... xW i 2) to be cast out in con- 
— r ._. , ta for the fact recorded in con- 
nexion with it by the Evangelists. Josephus relates that the army of 
Herod was destroyed by Aretas, his father-in-law, on account of the 
outrage committed by Herod Antipas on his daughter, and that the 
current opinion among the Jews was that this destruction was a retribu- 
tion on him from heaven for the murder of the Baptist (Ant xviii. 7). 
S. Tratoir] "Amid, et familiaribm nil : -raiaiv id. qd. loiKoit, 
AiXmt, ut 2 Esr. i. 32. 1 Mace. i. 6. Etenim ab Hebrsris ams 
dicuntur non modo ii, qui proprie servi sunt, sed etinm homines liben 
et ingenni, ministri principum, regum, ac civitattim Orientis. Hinc 
_. . ,^ = ^ modo Tertunt raU t g,,,, XT jii_ 03. 

o Symmachus habet io5\o«, modo 

interpretes Graci veteres 139 mo 
Jos. i. 7. 13, quo posteriori loco 
0.'\ot, ut Estb. ii. 18." (Kmin.) 

8. i3n«i>] The aorist, not for plusq. perf. But the vi 

r takes 

time, bound him, &c. Cp. 

John the Baptist, whi 
rebuked Herod and Herodias, as Elijah did Ahab and Jezebel. 
(Jerome, A ug. de Cons. Ev. ii. 44.) 

6. ityoir] More than esteemed him as a Prophet; held him as a 
treasure ; so that in killing him Herod robbed them. Cp. xxi. 26. 46. 

Phillppo, tetrarcha 

Mppiu h. 

t Trachonittdfs, cujus is 

6. ytMo-tW Ayouiyuf] Cp. Gen. xl. 20. C 
iy.i, see Luke xxiv. 21. Acts xix. 38. 

' OvydTtip] Called Salome. Joteph. Ant X' 

, ,_ 1 /^ n •• "*■ » - ■ 

r _._ ith the Oath of Ahasuerus, Est v. 3—6; 

vii. 2, and with the promise of Solomon, 1 Kings ii. 20, " Esto He- 
rodis juramentum nobis exemplum in cautelum ; esto illud Salo- 
monis in imitationem, et meminerimns juramentum, sic inde6nite 
prolatum, cum sua justs, exceptione tantum esse semper intelligen- 
dum." See also .SWersoii'i " date of a Rath Vow," v. pp. 61—74. 

10. «ai wi'uitat] Probably at or near Machaerus. On the history 
see Wiesefer, p. 244. and above, xi. 2. 

— «wi K> d>d\i<ri] A proof that John was not the Christ Cp. 
John xix. 36. (Iieng.) 

IS. iirnyyiknv tv> 'liio-oi] Observe how the disciples of John 
had been conciliated by Jesus. They came and told Him of their 
Master's death. They take refuge with Him. They had been con- 
vinced by the answer which our Lord hsd given them, and the cala- 
mity which had happened to their Master was to them a providential 
corrective. (Chry.) See above on xi. 2—14. 

13. If rXola tit Iptinor toVoh KttT liian] From a comparison 
of this passage with Luke ix. 10 and John vi. 1, it appears that our 
Lord crossed the lake (iirijABt nipav -rijt Oakdaant, says St John, 
vi. 1), and that the place to which he crossed wss called Bethmda. 
It has been supposed by some that this was the same as the town so 
called of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, which was near Capernaum on 
the swat side of the Lake, but this is not consistent with the nar- 

The well known Betbtaida of Peter and Andrew (John i. 44) 
would hardlv have been described by St Luke, as tim Bethsaida is, a* 
i wo'Xiv Kakounivn RnQeaiti, and it it 

should be more than one place called Betk-taida (i. e. the place of 
fithing) near the lake. And there was on the northern shore a town 
called Bethmda, or JvHat. (Joteph. Ant. xvii. 2. 1 ; Bell. Jud. ii. 9.) 
Hence St Matthew's expression, i.ix"" 1 "' iKttOsr, i.e. he 
retired from Capernaum and its neighbourhood ; and went over the 
Sea to a more sequestered place. This was in the Spring, a little 
before the Passover. John vi. 4. Cp. on Luke ix. 10. 
15. i>n*te< «<rru> i toVos] Our Lord's Miracles of feeding iba 

Herode exheredaros, \ 

< Bieron. c. Rufin. iii. 42. Nictpkor. 1. 19. 


fch. IS. 36. 
*J6. M. 
Mark 6. 39. 
Luke 9. 14. 
f Mark 6. 4*. 
Luke 9. 17. 

ST. MATTHEW XIV. 16—30. 

^817 rrapf)\0€V airokv<rov tows oxXows, iva direkOovres cis tos *r<»ttas dyopd- 
a-axriv eawTois /J/xuuaT<x. 16 'O 8e 'Itjo-ows ciVcc awrots, Ow ypzuw expww 
airckdeiv 8dYe avrois w/acis <£ayeiV. 17 Ot 8e Xeyowa-U' awr<p, Owe ex. ! 10 ' 
<58e ei /mj ware d/wows fat 8wo ix^was. w 'O St- clW, Sc/jctc' ftoi awrows 
<58e. 19 f Kal *ceXeucras tows oxXows dvaKXifljjVat eVl tows x<fywows, kafUciv tows 
wore a/DTows Kal tows 8wo ix^* 5 ' dra£Xet/»as els tw ow/kwov ewXayijo-e *cal 
xXdcras cShmcc Tots fun^r/rais tows dprows, 01 8e fiadrjral tois oxXois. * f -Kai 
<-<fxiyov iraWeSi «al i)(oprdtr(h)<rav. Kal $pav to ircpwrtrewov t<2v Kkturfiarwv, 
8<uSeKa Ko<f>Cvov$ irXif/jeis. 21 Ol 8e iaOiovre? Ijaav dvSpes «o*et iroTOKiaxiXiot, 
X<u/ols ywaucStv Kal tratZ'uav. Q£) n Kal cw0ea>s i)vdyKO<rfv tows /taftyras 
iixfifjpai els to •n-Xoioi', Kal irpodyew avrbv cis to irepav, lias o5 aTroXwo-jj 
tows oxXows. Oif ) M h Kal diroXworas tous oxXows, dpe/fy els to o/oos *aT tSiav 
irpo<rcv£a<r0ai. (-£) 'Ot|»tas 8c ycvo/icVjjs /xovos tjV cVccu "* To 8c irXoibi' 17017 
fiea-ov tjjs ^aXao-OT^s ^v fSaaavt.C6p.cvov xnrb rS>v Kvudrav Jjv yap cVavrios 
6 aveuos. M rcrapry 8c <f>vkaicjj t»js w*cros d?rf}X0e «/>os awrows trepvaarmv 
eVl ttjs flaXdcrorjs. * Kal iSojtcs awrw 01 uaBryral eVl r^v 0dka<raav ire/>t- 
iraTowVra irapaxdrjerav, Xcyoircs ori tyxmacrpa. «m* Kal otto tow <£o/8ow 
enpagav. v EvOiats 8c cXaX^o-ci/ awrois 6 'Jrja-ows, Xcywv, Baptntre ey<u 
ei/u, /xiy <£o/?cio-0c. (y) a 'AnonpideU 8c awry 6 iler/jos eiVc, Kw/nc, ct 
o-w ct, KcXewo-oV ue ir/ws o-e eXfeiV eVl tA wSara. a '0 8« ctiref, 'EX^c. Kal 
Kara/Has aw6 tow irXotow 6 ITcVpos, TrepieTrdTr)<rev iirl to wSaTa, iXdetv irpos tov 
*Ii70*ow* ** pkeirotv 8e tov dvefiov Icrxypov i<f>ofiij0r), /cal d/o^a/ia/os »caTa7rowi- 

re wrought in atm&fanMtt(Ke here and below, zt. 33); 

partlr to make the miracle more evident and impressive, and partly, 
it is probable, to ranest to them that the tame God Who, Hinuelf 
invisible, had fed their forefathers with miraculous sustenance for 
is now come in human form to visit 

His people. 

20. ix<VTdo-8i|<r«1 vo P T«Jo M a. (ft 
already used by the LXX for rjiy , w 

zxzvii. 19; liz. 16, and patriot, especially in reference to satiety 
e.g. zvii. 15, xopTurSttsojuai iv t« llttp 

vo«Ti<r8i|<ro»] YopTatoM«> (from voprot, «w) had been 
used by the LXX for fog, latuUm fiat, Ps. xvii. 14, 15; 

The manner of the act baffles 


xzzvii. ... .._. 

from the Divine bounty, _ . „ , 

■ri)» io^av Sua. Ps. cvi. 9. The word so used seems to suggest that 
those so fed are the Sheep of God's pasture, and that He vouchsafes to 
be their Shepherd (Ps. zxiii. 1), and so is very appropriate when 
applied to those who are fed by Christ the Good Shepherd (John 
X. 14). 

Christ blesses and breaks, and what is blessed and broken be- 
comes a ' seminarium ' of food for the multitude. So the spiritual 
food of the Word of the Old Testament, when its mysteries are 
brought forth by Christ and broken for nourishment, feeds the 
Nations. Observe, the multitude are fed by Christ through the 
Ministry of His Apostles. (Jerome.) 

TV-. r.u- ... ^.«„ „ ur intelligence, it was not that 

: ; but fragments succeed fragments 
eases, whether on the table, or in 

io receive it, or in the mouth of those who eat it, 

I know not. Wonder not that fountains gush forth, or that wine 
streams from grapes, or that all the riches and plenty of the world 
flows in an unfailing stream. The Author of the universe was dis- 
played by this abundant increase of bread. His invisible will acts by 
visible operation, and the Lord of heavenly mysteries executes the 
miracle of what was present to the eye. The Power of Him who 
works transcends all nature, and the mode of that Power transcends 
all intelligence, and we have nothing left but to adore. (Hilary.) 

— iroipfmirel Here is a difference between our Lord's miracles 
and that wrought by Moses. The manna was only sufficient for him 
who gathered it, and it could not it kept.—Theophgl. in Marc. vi. 

On the word «o'o>ii»oc see below, xvi. 9. It is observable, that 
the word «oo)i»vt (on which see xvi. 9) had been used by the LXX 
in describing the drudgery of the Israelites in Egypt in gathering day 
to make bricks, Ps. Ixxxi. 7. As St. Ambrote says, Luke ix. 17, 
" Populus <)ui ante latum in eopKmU colligit. hie jam vita: cotlestis 

2t tfipn »<r<i wsvraxiirWAiot] Our Lord's Miracles were also 
Prophecies. He had said to His Apottha, " Give ye them to eat" 
(v. 16). Thus He had prefigured the dispensation of the Spiritual 
food, His Word and Sacraments, by the ministry of the Apostles and 

And thia uriroculout prophecy had a remarkable fulfilment in 
what is said Acts iv. 4, " Many of those who heard the word be- 
lieved, and the number of the men (tit iripZ,) was about five thou- 

tand." See Hilary here, who refers to the Acta, under the title " in 
libro Praaon." 

82. V-t oS] while ; 

28. i*ipn — 26. i 
meaning of this act h 

ascendit relictis turbis Dominus orare in monien 
solus post Resurrectionem ascendit in ccelum et il 
•--'■'- T - '- portans discipulos, id er' *"- 

Quarta vigilia noctis finii 

videtur ambulare super omnes minora mans, noc esi super omnes 

hujus sibcuIi principatus ... sub ejus pedibus totam hujus sstculi 

rabiem subjectam. — See also Aug. Serm. 76, and cp. on John vi. 


After that our Lord has dispensed the food of life to the world 
in the Word and Sacraments ministered by His disciples He has 
ascended up into heaven alone to pray for His Church, and thence 
He looks down upon her tossed on the waves, and He will come 

26. rirapTv ataXaxji] Formerly the Jews had divided the night 
into three watches. (See Bwrtorf, Lex. Talmud, voc. rrnont) But 
when Juda-a became a Roman province, they adopted the Roman 
division into four watches. (Lipt. de Milit Rom. p. 123.) The 
LXX had already used oivXaxq in the sense of watch. (Exod. 
xiv. 24^ 

" The fourth watch, i. e. the last," soys Jerome Our Lord will 

come to our aid at the end of the world. 

He allows His disciples to be tried by dangers that they may be 
taught patience, and does not come to them till morning that they 
may not expect to be delivered at once, but may hope for deli- 
verance if they have perseverance and faith. (TheophyL in Mark 

Thus Christ deals with His Church, typified by the Apostolic 
ship. He leaves her from time to time to be tossed by the waves of 
this world, and to be assailed by the blasts of the evil one, and He 
will return to her in the fourth watch of the night The first watch 
of the night was the age of the Law, the second of the Prophets, the 
third of the Gospel, the fourth of His glorious Advent, when He will 
find her buffeted by the spirit of Antichrist, and by the storms of the 
world. And by Christ's reception into the ship, and the consequent 
calm, is prefigured the eternal peace of the Church after His second 
coming. (H&ry.) 

— wso.wotm *>1 ttj, OoXaVo-qt] In v. 26 we have Iwl -HJ» 
6i\a<r<rai> Trirnrarovtrra. The former expression indicates the act 
Iking over the sea toward the disc 
forcibly the fact of His walking 

His feet. This is what made thi 

spirit" Cp. ivl in iv. 5 ; yii. 24 ; xix. 28. 

walking over the sea toward the disciples ; the latter brings out 
ircibly the fact of His walking on the sen— as a pavement 
under His feet This is what made them afraid, and say, " it is a 

ST. MATTHEW. XTV. 31—36. XV. 1—8. 

£e<rdat, ex/safe \eyoiv, Kvpie, cracrov p.e 31 evBiax; 8e 6 'Jqtrovs eVcreiW rrjv 
Xetpa eVeXa/Sero avrov, ital Xeyet avr<£, 'OXiydVurre, ei$ ri cSiorcuras ; 
(^f) ffi Kat ifi^dvrwv avrwv eis to irXoiW, e/coVaow 6 aVe/ios. M ' Oi 8c 
eV t$ TrXotp eXfldvres vpocreicvvrjcrav avr$ Xeyovres, 'A\i)0m OeoS Tlos et 

(^•) M Kal Staire/sacrai/res •>}X0oi> et? rrfv yrjv rawrjcraped. M kcu imyvovre? 
airbv oi ai>8oes tov toVov eVeeiVov, airdoraXav eis oXip r^v wcpCxopov eKeivrjv, 
KaX irpoayveyicav avnp TrdVra? tows kokcSs c^oirac;, M ical irapeK^Xovv airbv, 
iVa /aoVop a\j/oiVT(u tow KpacmdBov tov ipxiriov avrov* *at 00*01 TJxfiavro 8i€o-a>- 


XV. (^?) ' * Tot« vpocripxovTat. t$ 'Iijcrov oi «wro 'Iepo<rokup,o>v Tpap.ftaret^ 
/eat Qapuraiot, Xeyo*res, a JiaTi oi fiaOr/raC trov vapa^aivovon, rrfv irapdZocrw 
raw irpeo-fivrepuv / ov yap punwrcu Tas x"/ 9 ** ovt£i» oraj> a/oro? ia-Oioxriv. 
*0 8e" anoKpiOeh elrfev avrots, Jtarc ical v/xeis irapafiaCvere rt)v eVroX^v tov 
8«ov 8ia tJ)v TrapdBocciv vpJav ; * b '0 yap Oeos cVerct'XaTo, Xeywv, Ttua tov 
rtaripa Ka\ rrjv /irfrepa- /cat, 6 /ca/coXoywi' iraripa ^ firjripa 6avar<j> 
TeXevTaVw 5 u/ieis 8e Xeyere, *Os ov eiir*/ t$ irarol ^ t# firjrpl, Awpov, o iav 
i£ e/xov d><f>€krfOy<i — zeal ov a^ riprj<rQ rbv iraripa avrov ^ t^v pijripa avrov* 
6 »cal riKvpanrare rrfv cvrokrjv tov Oeov 8ca tt/v rrapdhocrw ifiav. 7 'Tiroicpirai, 
KoXais irpoe<fnjr€v<r€ irepl vow? 'Hcrafd? Xeycov, 8c 'Eyyi£ei /tot 6 Xao's 

b Exod. SO. 12. 
l>vut. 5. 16. 

it about to fall on the ground. 

SL jXiyoirtffTi] It is of no nw to be near Christ in person, un- 
less we are near Him by faith. If we are near Him by faith no storm 
can drown as. It is not the Tempest, but our own weakness of faith 
which is to be feared ; therefore our Lord does not calm the storm, 
but takes hold of Peter's hand. And He brought the Apostle to the 
ship as a Bird brings its young on its wings to the nest, when it has 

attempted to fly before its ** J : -•---' - '" 


Peter was enabled by Christ to walk on the sea; to the risen 
bodies of the Saints will be enabled by Christ to fly upwards and 
« u . n; M :• .k. .;• l in,-. : T> 17, 

a of this world, and walks amid its 
storms, lie treads the wine-press atom, Isa. lxiii. 3. He alone is 
the Redeemer of the world, and all who are saved are redeemed by 
Him alone. Peter sinks without Christ • (Cp. Hilary.) 

Peter is the image of weak faith, staggered by the storms of this 
world ; but after he had received the gift of the Holy Ghost, he who 

.-. ..-_ .:..- - »..„. . ...... - ..-«-. .--• d by 

■e like a fluent w. 

76 K 

m and the fear of death. (Cp. Aug., Serm. 

n they who imagine 
"e walked on 

St Peter walked on the set 
our Lord had not a true human ooqt, occause nc wmiaeu on me 
waves, explain how St Peter also walked on the waves, who certainly 
had a real body. (Jeraaw.) 

88. upavriiov ti>5 l/iarlov] The word Kpavrttou had been 
employed by the LXX to designate the fringes, rnO£ (kmepkoA), 
trimp, of the garment, which were to be made of purple, according to 
the law (Numb. xv. 38. Deut xxii. 12), to remind the wearers of 
the law, especially of the Sabbath. See below, xxiii. 6. 

Observe Christ's miraculous power thus exerted here and on 
other occasions (ix. 20) by the skirts of His clothing (Ps. exxxiii. 2) 
in connexion with the prophecy (Malachi iv. 2) which speaks of 
"healing in His snaps; the word 'ttnass' being used by the He- 
brews to describe the hems or fringet of the garments. 

Consider also its connexion with Zech. viii. 23, " They shall 
take hold of the dart (upaeirtota) of Him that it a Jew,"— a, pro- 
phecy specially applicable to faith in Christ 

Ch. XV. 8. -raoiAxrir] Partly the rrjjg (eaiiala), tradition; 
from <qg (asU*/), to rtetmt; and called w. \pi<rPvripm because it 
was pretended by the Pharisees and other Rabbis of the Jews that it 
had been orally delivered by God to Moses on Mount Sina, and 
thence handed down by oral tradition to their own times ; partly the 
oral precepts which were afterwards embodied in the Talmud (or 
Dotirim), from root "jpj (lamadh), to track ; which at first consisted 
of the Mitina (about a.d. 219), i. e. the oral repetition of the Law 
(from njjp simuA, to repeat) ; and to which was afterward added 

1 On this t«t-(v. 9), "teaching for doctrintt tl 

«■,"— see Bp. SmtUrxm't 8 rmon ad Clerum (Serm. v. vol. it p| 
8), who shows its spplieatlon to those who, 
Either of their own authority impose Rites and Ceremonies at 

(about A.D. 600) the Gtmarak, or the complement*)*, root ipj 
(ffamar), to finish, of the Mishna. See Buxtorf, Synag. Judaic, 
cap. iii. p. 69. 

— Brar Aprov iaiimait] tpror i<r9iu», i. q. Hebr. orr) te^, said 
of eating food generally. Mark iii. 20. Luke vii. 33 ; xi v.* 16. 

3. wauaooo-ir VMM 1 """ — *— J - v — * v 
delivered by God ; bu 
posed to God's L«w. 

4. rtpa] rt/tn (from rim, pendo, to pay), in Scripture does not 
mean merely homage and salutation, but succour, support by alms 
and offerings; thus the Apostle says, "Honour widows that are 
widows indeed" (1 Tim. v. 3) ; " and let the presbyters who rule 
well be counted worthy of double ioaoar " (1 Tim. v. 1 7), i. e. stipend. 

— eaua-ru Ti\ti/TiiTs»] A Hebraism from Levit xx. 9, where 
LXX has Oarira BavaToiaim, and Exod. xxi. 16, o icmcoXoywr 

sT'SfipewlT. q. «o^d» T ("jj^ T See'xxv1i!'6 T 1«ark vii. 11. It it 
a gift, — an offering consecrated to God, and therefore I cannot apply 
it to vour benefit The sense is,— that in which thou mightest have 
been benefited by me has been vowed and hallowed to God as a Gift 
to Him: and therefore cannot without sacrilege be alienated from 
Him and applied to thy use. And it will be matt profitable to thee 
also, being so applied as a gift to God. Thus they taught hypocrisy 
■-"■-'-— * * — J — the mask of piety to "- J 


apotiopent after oto>iXt|tfpv, at 


— xal oi ah TifiiSo-n] And, through your tradition, he thall not 
honour his father,— although God commands, " Honour thy father." 
Cp. Mark vii. 11, where the construction is similar. 

7—9. 'Ho-at«] Is. xxix. 13. Cp. Mark vii. 6. 7, where the prophecy 
is cited with the same variation from the LXX as here by St Mat- 
thew, i. e. t. ». i. a. for Jieavnwrit irrakaaTa iiSpmvm* ral 
titaataXtat. The original of Isaiah signifies " the reverence with 
which they regard Me is only a human command," i. e. their religion 
is based on human commandment, and not on My Law. They sub- 
stitute human traditions for divine commands. Our Lord gWei the 
tente of the prophecy ; and addi, that such worship is vain. See 
Surenhut. p. 24$. Such explanations and additions coming from 
Him, Who it the Author of the Law, are to be regarded at already 
pre-existing in His Mind when He gave the Law, and are implicitly 

is of Church Communion ; or, 

Affirm things to be mnlaw/ml, which cannot be proved so to be, and 
1 the plea of men alleged unlawfulness, separate from the Church, and 

Luke 6. 39. 
g Mark 7. 17. 
h eh. 16. ». 

ST. MATTHEW XV. 9—28. 

ovros t$ CTOftttTt avr&v, #cat rots x c *^ €<r * /*' *"*.*£» ^ ^e icaphCa 
avrStvtroppo) direct air* c'f4°^' 9 H'O-i'ijv'Be o~4{5ovTai /te, 8i8acr»covTcs 
e . SiSao-KaXtas evraX/tara avdpwircov. 10 d Kal irpoo-KakeacdfLevos tw oxXoi>, 
diref avrois, \<4K0V€Te *ca* o-wicrc. u Ov to eio-€px6fievov «« to ord/ta Kotvot 
tw avOpoiirov, aXXa to iiaropevofievov Ik rov ordftaTos, tovto koivoi Tov 
avOpanrov. (^) w Tare 7rpoereX0dVres oc pxtdrfraX avrov eliroi' avr$, OtSas, 
art oi $apicraioi dicd/a-aiTes tov Xoyov i<rKavBaXUr6rf<rav ; 1S ' '0 8c diro- 
K/>t0els eTire, JIao-a <fnrreia tjv ovk i<f>vrev<rev 6 Harr/o fiov 6 ovodVios ck/x£&>~ 
drjtrerai. (^) u tr A<f>er€ avTOvV oSiryoi euri tv^Xoi rv<f>\uv tv^Xos 8c tv^Xop 
eav 681777;, afufwrepoi cis fiodwov irecrovvrai. (^f ) 1S B 'AwoKpiBels 8c 6 Her/oos 
ct7rev avrtji, $pdcroi> ■qp.'tv tt)v irapafSo\r)v ravrrpr. 16 h 'O 8e '.Tr/ows cTttcp, 
'AKp,r)v Kal v/iets aovveroC care; 17 OvV« vociYe or. ira*» to €unropev6p.€vov 
cis to ord/ta cis tt)v /coiXtav X a> P f *> Ka * € * s ujuhpStva c/cjSdXXcrai ; w ' to 8c* 
iKTropevop-eva «c tow ordfiaTos cVc tt/s Kaphias 4£epxer<u* kok&vo. kowoX tw 
avBptawov 19 k ck yd/j -rijs JcaoStas i^epxpvrai StaXoyuruol irovrfpoi, <£oVot, 
/toixeuu, iropveiai, kXoitcu, xfievhofiaprvpCcu, f3\acr<jn}pCac 2° Tavrd cart to 
Koipovira rov avdpomov to 8e avwrrois X*/ 9 * 7 "' ^ayeiv ov *eou>ot t6v dvdpumov. 

21 ' Hal £gt\0a>v itceWaf 6 'I170-0VS, avexuprjo-ev cis to /*e/yr; Tv/oov ical 
iuScTjvos. K Kal i8ov, yv^Tj XavavaCa airb twv opuw kKtwtav c£eX0ovora, 
iKpavyatrev avr$ Xeyovaa, 'E\er)<rov /xe, Kvpu, vie JautS, ^ dvyarrfp fiov 
jca/cas Sat/iovi^erat. a< 8i ovk airacpid-q avrj/ Xoyov. Xat irpocrek66pT€$ 
oi fiadryral avrov ripdnav avrov, Xeyoires. '^lirdXvaov avrr)v, ort Kod^ct ovurdev 
■ffpLwv. (^) * *0 8^ aTTOKpiOeh etirev, Ovk dTreoraXijv ei /u.'t) cis to. irpofiaTa to 
diroXbiXdra oucov 'Iarpaijk. (™) ^ 'fl 8e eMovcra irpoa&cuvei. airr^ \eyovo~a, 
Kvpie, fJorfOei. uoi. ^ 'O 8^ diroKpidets et'Tfei', Ovk ^ot* koXov Xa/ScSc tov aprov 
rtav retcvojp, Kal /SaXcu/ m tois KwapCois' w 'H 8^ etrrc, Nat, Kvpte ko\ yap to 
Kwdput ecrdUt, airb to>v \pixCa>p rZv iriirrovrav airb ttjs Tpairc^T/s to»v KvpUov 
avT<0v. a Tore airoKpidel? 6 'It;o-ovs etjrci' avry, */2 yvVai, fieyaKrf crov 17 

U. koiiwi] «oi»i», aVaSoprof, Hemch. xoirit but been aned in 
the tenw of wk/mh in the book« of the Maccabees. 1 Mace. i. 47. 
62, in connexion with the war of persecution waged by Antiochus 
Epiphanes against the Jews, in requiring them to r»t nrim'i flmh. 
and other unclean meals. Our Lord 

not intend to disparage the 
ta as it had been defined by 
Himself in the Levitical Law, which had an intrinsic, moral, and 
spiritual meaning, now corrupted and obscured by its Teachers, who 
laid stress only on external acta. Bat He designed to show that the 
•ottm; of all uncleanness is the Aeart, and that unless that is cleansed, 
all outward cleanaings are vain. 

14. floflww] " foTeam, et metaphor, interitum ;" a pit-fall, more 
properly than a dite*. See Isaiah xxiv. 17, 18, where the LXX has 
floflwrot for nriB (pahatk), * pit, of destruction ; a pit-fall set by 
hunters for wild animals. 

15. vapafioXn] enigma. See above, xiii. 3. 

16. aV(u.S»] in, Hmck. • even to this point, dx/ii : used in this 
sense by Xmaphtm and Polgbiiu. (See Awn.) 

82. Xavayala] of Canaan, Hebr. rj^ (CSmaow), i. q. merootor, 
and an appropriate name for those who lived near the coast and led a 
antile life.^ St. Markhcre (vii. 26) reminds his Gentile readers 

, had been polluted by 
UBociate sins (cp. Psalm xliv. 12) ; and St. Matthew 
s by the word Xararala that Christ would receive 
if those seven nations of Canaan (cf. Acts xiii. 19), 
xterminated by their forefathers at God's command. 

because they were so called by the Jews, w ... 

27. vol, Kopn, «ai yip] Tea, Lord, thou h 
right to take the children's bread and prns it to 
dogs eat of the crumbi that fall from their masti 
therefore have not bread, but only crumbt ; and do not girt me even 
them ; but let me pick up what fall* from the table. A beautiful 
image of the humility of the faithful Gentiles, hungering and thirsting 

e dogs. 

imsge of the humility of the faithful Gentiles, hungering and thirsting 
for the least fragments of the Gospel which dropped from the table of 
the Jews who despised it. Cp. Ps. lxix. 23. Acts xxviii. "~ 

rejecting the I 
David, and by 

Tiv] She showed humility by not 
Ik, by calling Christ the °— * 

When our Lord had taught His disciples concerning the differ- 
' " . . 'Ve kingdom of 1 

'entUe$ go ye not?" (Matt. x. 5.) He do< 
id the border, nor did He go to preach, as ap 

...... _---_. . . , — appears from Mark vii. 

24. The woman came to Him, not He to her. Observe, the Evan- 
gelist calls her a ' Canaanile ;' reminding us of those godless Nations 
of Canaan who had subverted even the laws of Nature ; and so by her 
very name he displays the wonder and proclaims the greatness of her 
faith. The Canaanites had been ejected from Canaan that they might 
not pervert the Jews ; and now this Oanaanite comes forth from her 
own land to seek Christ, who came to the Jews and was rejected by 
them. (Cp. Ckry.) 

See also an evidence here of the divine inspiration acting on the 
heart of St. Matthew. He tells his Jewish readers that Christ had 
mercy, love, and praise for this poor woman, whom he calls — not as 
the other Evangelists do, a Gentile — but a Canaanite, i. e. descended 
from those whom their ancestors were commanded by God to destroy. 

In proportion as the woman's supplication became more intense, 
so our Lord's remonstrance became more strong. Heat first was silent; 
then He calls the Jews His sheep, and says that He was sent only to 
them ; then He calls them His children, and the Gentiles dogs. And 
on this rebuke the woman frames her reply ; she shows patience and 
faith, although she might seem to be treated with scorn. Let them 
be children and I a dog ; yet, as such, I am not forbidden to eat of the 
crumbs which they let fall. Our Lord had foreknown that she would 
answer thus ; and therefore He at first refused, and rebuked her, in 
order that He might bring out her faith and humility as an example. 
His silence and reproof were like the silence and reproof of one who 
is desirous of revealing a hidden treasure to the eye. 

The Jews boasted themselves the children of Abraham and de- 
spised the Gentiles -, she calls the Jews her masters and herself a dog; 
and thus the became a child of God. O woman, great is thy faith 1 

He delayed the gift in order that He might utter at once this 
speech, and place a crown of glory on the woman's head. See then 
here the blessed reward of faith and humility and perseverance in 
prayer. (Ckry$.) 

This miracle was prophetic The woman of Canaan in the heathen 
regions of Tyre and Sidon is typical of the Gentile World coming to 

ST. MATTHEW XV. 29—39. XVI. 1—6. 

ttmtus' yevrjQqrot trot, m fleXeis* koI m£0tj ^ Ovydrtfp awrjjs dirb ttjs <5pas 

(«r) » » Xa j iteraffaf hetWcv 6 'Jr/trows, ^Xfle trapa ttjv $akaur<rav t^s TaXt- n 
Was* Kai, drajSds €ts to opos, hcddrfro eVecb w °Kal irpo<rf)\dov avr# oxXoi o 
voXXol, «xoiTes petf* eawrwj- x-^ows, tw^Xows, kotows, kwXXows, Kal erepous 
woXXowV Kai Zppiipav awrows irapd tows woSas tow 'I^o-ow, Kal iOepaTrevcrev 
owrowr 81 ware tows oxbows OavpAa-ai, /fteWras Ktw^ows XaXowvras, kwXXows 
vyw-is, x^tavs irepiTraTowVras, Kal rwc/>Xows ftXenovrar Kai e'Sofaow tov ©ew 
'loparjX. M p 'O 8e" 'Jr/cows, irpoovcaXeo-dpcvos tows na&rpu? awrow, dire, p eVl top o\kov, ori 17817 -q/iepai Tpeis irpocrfievovcri poi, Kal owk 
9(ouopi ti (ftdycacri,' Kai diroXwo~ai awrows i^otcis ow #cX<w, prjirore iitkvd<o<riv 
eV Tfl o8tp. ' 3S Kal Xeyowo-o/ awry oi paft/ral awrow, JTddev 17/uv & iprjfiia 
aproi to&ovtoi, a»ar« \opTa<rax o)(kov too-ovtov ; ** Kal Xeyei awrois 6 'lijo-ows, 
iloo-ows a/wows ^(erc ; 01 8** etn-ov, '.Eirrd, Kal oXiya ix^8ia. M Kal eVe'Xewo-c 
Tots oxXots avaireo-€U' iirl t^v yqv. M Kal \afZ<av tows enra dprows Kal tows 
iX^was, ewxa/MOTjfcras ocXao*e, Kal e8a>K€ tois fJLadrjraU awrow, ol 8^ aaflr/ral 
t$ oxXo>. " q Kal etjtayov iraWcs Kal €XPpTaa-drf<rav Kai ypav to vepicro-evov q 
Taw KkacryMTtav eirra tnrwpiSas 7rX^p«s. * Ql 8c i<r$iovr€S Ijcav rerpaKur- 
XiXun dVSpes, X 6 '/ 3 ' 5 ywaucStv Kal irai&ltov. 

89 Kal diroXwo-as tows oxXows, dve/fy eis t<» irXotbi', Kal ijXi9ei> eis to. opux 
AfaySaXd. XVI. (-{fr) * Kal irpoo~eX0dVres oi Qapuraiot Kal £a88ovKaiot, 
ireipd£oi/res eVr/paVrr/o'aj' avrbv (rtf/uiov «k tow ovpavov iirt&eltjai. awrois. 
(■^) 2 'O 8« diroKptdels elTrev awrois, 'Ot/rtas yevo/to^s Xeyerc, JBwSia, irvppdCei 
yap 6 owpavds* ' Kal wpwi, Hypxpov ^iiotv, mippaXfi- yap arvyvdCatv 6 
ovpavos. 'TiroKpvral, to /x^v vpocromov tow ovpavov ywtaaKen hiaKpivuv, 
Ta 8e o-TffUta twv Katpiav ow BvvaorOe ; (^) 4 * Tcved- irovrjpa. Kai /tbixaXls J, 
o^fieiov imlflrei' Kai oTfpciov ow Bod^o-erai avrjj, el p/g to aijuetov *I<ava tow 
vpo<fyt]Tov. Kai Karaknroiv awrows dir^Xde. 

5 b Kal «X^oit€s 01 fiadrp-al awrow eis to itipav, iireXddopro dprows XajSeu'. * 
(-fir) 6 'O 8c 'Ii/o-ows etwev awrois, 'Opart Kai irpoo-exere dtrb t»}s Cwp^s twv 


Cbrut, rad tlumkfiilly accepting the crumbs which fall from the 
children** table, and therefore welcomed and accepted by Christ, 
while the children of the kingdom are caat out (Cp. Hilary.) 

82. i^upo* iy<if] three days to them waiting on Me. Se e on 
Mark viii. 2. 

SS. i-oOir Ammt *•> if»tM'9] An objection has been made to this 
narrative by some (Da Wette, and even ScMiiermacher). It is alleged 
" ' '* : '- - repetition or loose tradition of the narrative of the 

former miraculous feeding (Matt. xiv. 13). It is said that the Apostles 
could not have used such language as they do here, after they had 
been witnesses of, and even partakers in, the former miracle. 
The answer has been mven bv anticipation to this objec 
in the wilderness — 

, , , er and food, of which thejr had I 

partakers. Even after the Manna. Moses himself doubted concerning 
the possibility of a supply of flesh. (See Numb. xi. 21—23.) The 
Apostles in the wilderness of Galilee art as yet children of the literal 
Israel in the wilderness of Arabia. And even after this teoamd mira- 
culous feeding, to which Our Lord refers (Matt. xvi. 7 — 10), they are 

sail a 

,y Him. 

„_ „ _. — Matthew's veracity do not 

appear to have perceived that if the Apostle 8t. Matthew 1 had intended 
to invent, or to disguise the truth, instead of to relate it honestly and 
fully, he would have magnified the effects of the miracle on the minds 
of the disciples, and he would no* have recorded what was not credit- 
able to himself and his brethren — their unbelief. But by showing us 
that even after the miracle was wrought once, and even twice, they 
were still de-vM-rwi and d\iyoVt<rToi. He gives us a striking proof 
— the more striking because a silent one— that he has told the truth, 
and has exaggerated nothing in the history of Christ's works. 

It is observable also that in the Second Miracle the numbers fed 


culously twice in the 
i supplies (manna and 
wilderness miraculous! 

wilderness, and fi 

quails). So our » 

miraculously (vice. And the p 

If the second narrative had been 

former, the number would have inci 

See another argument for their 

87. r-rupltat] See on 

89. MayJaXdl St 1 
w>u6d, a region a little North of Tiberias, on the 1 
Sea of Galilee, perhaps the birth-place of Mary M 
Aug. read MayioW, which is found in the old Sj 
in B, D, and is received by Ttaas. 1*56, and has 
See the MSS. in Rev. xvi 16. 

Ch. XTI. 1. SaoaouKaio.] As far as we know from the Gospels, 
the Sadducees attacked Christ Himself only twice (Beng. Cf. xxii. 
23) ; but after the Ascension they were bitter enemies of the doc- 
trine of the Resurrection (Acts iv. 1 ; v. 17) — a silent evidence of its 

— o-q/aitov Ik rev oiaanov] A sign from heaven ; as much as to 
say that the Miracles he had wrought were only from eortt, and not 
so great as those wrought by Motet, who gave bread from heaven ; and 
by Eliot, who went up into heaven. 

2. duWac ytnuimt] Cp. J'tin. N. H. xviii. 35. Firy. Georg. 
i. 425-455. 

4. <r.i«.Iov bi *.l 
But hereafter He \ 
the heaven as a scroll, a 

presence will be like lightning. But the time fc 
yet come. (Chryt.) 

— Imta toS wpoiprrrou] See above, xii. 39. 
8. {vpt|«] Our Lord commanded His Disciples t< 

all that the Scribes and Pharisees command while si 
seat (Matt xxiii. 1—3), i. e. while teaching in h 
accordance with his writings. 

e signs is not 

n not only, in each case, in the goodnet 

LokoO. 18. 
f eh. 14. J. 
g John 6. M. 

*n. i7. 


$apuraia>v koi SaShovKaCotv. (■££) 7 Oi hk Siekoyitovro h> eavrois Xeyovres, 
"On d/wovs ovk eXd/Jo/xe/. 8 IVovs Sk 6 'Irjaovs eiVev avroT$, Tt SiaXoyi£eo-0e 
eV cavrots, bXiyoVwTToi, ori dprovs ovk e'Xd/Sere ; 9 e ovW voeiYe, ovBk uvrjfio- 
vevere tows ware a/wows t«Sv irevroKiaxiXMitt', Kal 7roo-ovs KO<f>tvov$ eXd/Serc, 

10 d ovSc^ tovs ewrd d/orov? tow TerpauaaxOiUov, Kal wwa? o-rrvpiSas eXd/fere ; 

11 irfis ov weiTC, on oi wc/ol apron/ eTiroi> vfuv irpo<rcxcw airb t>js Sv/it/? t£v 
tapuraiatv Kal Sa88ovKaiwv ; 12 Tore avtnJKav, Sri ovk elrre irpoofyew airb 
rrjs t,vfiri% tov aprov, dXXa drro Tr}? StSa^-rjs rS>v $aptcrauav Kal SaZSovKaiwv. 

(^) 1S * 'E\0o)v 8e 6 'Ir)<rovs eis Ta uepr; Kaurapeia? rijs ^tXirnrov, rjpwra 
tows nadrp-as avrov, \4y<av, Tiva fit Xeyovaiv oi dvdpomot eTvai top Tlov tow 
avdpcbirov ; u 'Oi 8e etiroi', Oi /ic> 'Jauiymjv tov Bairrurrqv, dXXoi 8e 'flXXav, 
ereooi 8e 'Iepefiiav, ^ eVa raw irpofjnjratv. l6 .deya avrois> 'Tfieis 8e riVa fie 
Xeyere etrai ; 16 g Kal airoKptdel? %ip.<av Uerpos elire, 5v et 6 Xptorbs, 6 Tibs 
tov ©eov tow fccovTOs. (^) 17 h Kal airoKpidtis 6 'lijo^ows elirev avr$, MaKapvosi 
eT, SCp-av Bap 'lava, ort (rapt; Kal atfia ovk direKaXwJre o-ot, dXX" 6 Ilanjp fiov 
6 eV tois ovpapots* 18 Kayai 8e am Xeya>, ort o*v eT ilcroos, Kal eVl toutq t$ 


. _. Thus He gives the rule to be observed by the people. If any 
of the Clergy teach what is false, it is the duty of the people wpov- 
sysi* diro rqt {vpnt, at the same time that they observe and do what 
the ministers of Christ preach in His Name and in accordance with 
His word. 

9, 10. KOiplvout — (Tiri/piiSatJ All the four Evangelists use the 
Word koAumh in connexion with the former miracle (Matt. xiv. 2U. 
Mark vi. 43. Luke ix. 17. John vi. 3) ; and the two Evangelists 
(Matt xv. 37 and Mark viii. 8) use the word a-rvpittt in the latter 
case. And now, in this question, our Lord preserves the same dis- 
tinction ; which would well have been retained in the English ver- 
sion. Here is another proof of the diversity of the two miracles. 
See above, xv. 32. 

Chryt. well asks, on cap. xv., " Whence is it that the fragments 
in this latter miracle are fewer than in the former, although they who 
ate were not so many ? It is either because the basket (oxueit) in 
this miracle is larger than in the former (ko>h>ov), or that by this 
point of differtnee they might remember the two tevtral miracles 1 
Wherefore also our Lord then made the number of the *o<£iwi to be 
equal to that of the diicipta, but now He makes the awupitit to be 
equal in number to the hams." See Mark viii. 19. 

How much more of sound criticism is there in these remarks 
than in the pretences to acumen which have 
modern scepticism torturing the text 
found the Miracles of Christ I See on 

The «o>tvoc is used by the Septuagint once for Hebr. -rr* (dWA), 
Ps. lxxxi. 6, which seems to have been a vessel capable of holding 
liquids (three vom or eongii), probably a metal or eathenware jar. 
(Cp. Judges vi. 19.) The Jews were noted for their use of copkini 
(see Juvenal, iii. 15; vi. 542), which they carried with them for the 
preservation of clean meats and drinks free from contamination. 

And the word aitvpit (Lat, sporta, sportula) appears to have been 
of juncus or vimen and palm-leaves, and not suited for liquids. The 
fret that they had with them so many ntyiwi and <rwvpiin (perhaps 
each of the Apostles had one for his own use) seems to indicate that 
the places where the miracles were wrought were not very lofty. In 
fret the words to Spot are little more than a negation ; i. e. they sig- 
nify ground raised above to irilior. or plain (see on v. 1); and this is 
confirmed here by the circumstance that women and children were 
present sa well as men, some probably aged, in great numbers. 

12. {vp>K rot dp-rou] On the inferences to be derived from this 
narrative, see on Luke xxii. 38. 

18. Kaioapn'ac rift 4i\hrrov] Casarta PhiUppi, a town at the 
foot of Lebanon, near the springs of Jordan, so called from Philip, 
Tetrarch of Iturea, who named it Casarta (formerly Paneas, Josepk. 
Ant xviii. 3. Euseb. vii. 17), in honour of Tiberius Cesar ; and also 
to distinguish it from the other more celebrated Cewarea on the sea- 
coast (formerly Tunis Stratonis), and named Ca-sarea by Herod the 
., . , . ., « , ._ .1 . 1$ f Juo^, j, ow 

Scripture in 


honour of Augusti 

there now of Rome ! 

.■)» TloV rev irepi-wou] By saking, " Whom say men that /, 
the Son of Man, am ?" He shows how earnestlv He desires that men 
hould confess His Incarnation, thence proclaiming His divinity. 
No one hath ascended into heaven but the Son of Man, who is in 
ren" (John iii. 13). Ckrys. 

I. oliiin, '\mimnp k.t.V] Cp. above, xiv. 2. Luke ix. 7—9. 
21), 21. The people imagine Thee to be one of these persons 
dead, and (as the people think) 

mThii; a belief wVch" 

is to have arisen from Deut. xviii. 15. 18. 

It is to be observed that the Jews entertained two false notions 
concerning the Messiah. 

First, that He was to be a temporal Prince and Saviour. 

Secondly, that he was to be a man only, and not God. And one of 
the strongest arguments against the Socinian heresy may be founded 
on the horror felt and expressed by the multitude at the announce- 
ment of His claim to be God, — a proof that our Lord made that 
claim ; that He professed Himself to be God, and required the people 
to accept Him as nothing less. Cf. Blunt on the Early Church, 

in risen from the dead 
Living God. Thou who 

16. o Tide toS e.oi tov tviTot] Not a 
as the people imagine, but the Son of the 

art also Son of the Living Ood, or (as St Luke expresses it, ix. 20) 
the Christ of God. 

We must remember, that He who is the .Son of God is also the 
Son of man. The confession of one of these truths without die 
other affords no hope of salvation. (Hilary.) 

17. Zffuw Bap 'I»»o] /Jap, the Chaldaic form used by the Pro- 
phet Daniel (the Prophet to whom our Lord had alluded in Hit 
question ; see Dan. vii. 13, and note here on v. 18), for the Hebr. js 
(Ben), or Son. 

This confession, that I, who am Son of Man, am also the Son of 
God, is as true as that thou, Simon, art the Son of Jona. 

— »«p£ <cal al»ia] Humanity in iu weakness, and aa distin- 
guished from God. Gal. i. 16. Eph. vi. 12. 

18. •& «I Dirpot, „ai 4x1 Tf£™ -- — '- 
iKiXnalav] On this passage it 
Rome, that it contains a promise u> ot. jrcicr. 

That he is described by Christ as the Rock on which He would 
build the Church, 

That a Rock is something permanent, and that the Rock on 
which the Church is built must be as enduring aa the Church itself; 
and that therefore this promise to St Peter is also a promise that St 
Peter would have successors, and is also a promise to them (see Mal- 

That the successor of St. Peter is the Bishop of Rome, 

That the promise here made by Christ to St Peter is made to 
the Bishop of Rome. 

But, these words of Christ are recorded by St Matthew alone. 
St Mark and St Luke stop at the confession of St Peter, adding 
only that our Lord enjoined them not to tell any one this thing. 

Hence it appears that the aim of our Lord's inquiry was to elicit 
a true confession concerning Himself. " Whom do men say that / 
am? The world is in error on this point Some call Me John the 
Baptist, and by other human names ; but whom say ye that I am ? — 
ye, My Disciples, in this the third year of My Ministry, — ye who 
have heard My words and seen My works ?" 

This was the mata design of our Lord's question. The Evan- 
gelists St Mark and St Luke omit the words in St Matthew 
concerning St Peter (see further on St Mark viii. 29. Luke ix. 18), 
which they would hardly have done, if the declaration of St. Peter's 
privileges, and not of our Lord's Person and office, had been the 
scope of the conversation. 

Its end and aim is not Peter, but Ckrist. Here is the clue to the 
interpretation of our Lord's words to St Peter, " On this Rock I will 
build My Church." And hence we are led to believe that the Rock 
is Christ. 

We are brought to the same conclusion by other considerations ; — 

Our Lord introduces Himself here as " the Son of Man." 
'the Son of Man,' am?" This title " Son 
Christ in only one passage of the 014 

" Whom say i 


trerpq. chkoSo/xtjo-o) /*ov ttjv iKKkrftrlcw, /ecu irvhai $8ov ov Karurxucrovaiv 
avrrj?* 19 ' k<u Sacra <roi to? ickeU rfjs fiacrtXetas t&v ovpavav' kcu o eav 8170775 j0 bn j*. 2s. 

Testament (Dan. vii. 13) ; therefore our Lord may here be supposed 
to allude to that passage, when He asks, " Whom say men that I the 
Son of Man (Bar-Enoth) am ?" And there was something very ap- 
propriate in the transition from speaking of Himself as Bar-Enoth. 
to speak of Peter as Bar-Jona, who had acknowledged Him to be 
Bar-Elohim as well as Bar-Enoth. Now in the book of Daniel the 
kingdom of the Son of Man is compared to a stone which becomes a 
great Rock (Tar, the Chaldaic for Hebr. to (Ttur); see Dan. ii. 36), 
and lasts for ever, and is called the kingdom of the God of heaven. 
(Dan. ii. 44.) 

Here we see a prophetic representation of our Lord's words to 
St. Peter, on this Rock (i. e. on Myself, the Son of Man, confessed 
also to be Son of God) I will build My Church, My Kingdom, which 
is the kingdom of the Living God, and it shall last for ever : and I 
will give to thee the keys of that kingdom. 

Our Lord speaks of a ■nirpa, or Rock. Now this title Rock is 
one which is reserved in the Old Testament to the Almighty. The 
languago of Holy Scripture, from beginning to end, is, " Who is a 
Rock save our God ? rf (2 Sam. xxii. 32. Ps. xviii. 31.) "God only 
is my rock." (Ps. lxii. 2. 6, 7 ».) As far as the word Rock is used 
in the Old Testament figuratively as a support, a foundation, or a 
basis to build upon (as it is used by our Lord here), it is used of God, 
and of Him alone. 

The language of the New Testament is similar. He who builds 
on ChruCt words, builds on a Rock (Matt vii. 24, 25. Luke vi. 48. 
Cp. 1 Pet. ii. 4, 5). And St. Paul says (1 Cor. iii. 11), " Other 
foundation can no man lay than that which lielk (Kitrai),"— i. e. not, 
it laid, as the Apostles are laid on the foundation, but which lielk by 
its own spontaneous act, as the foundation — Jxsus Christ ; i. e. He 
who is Jbsus as Man, and Christ as the Son of the Living God;— 
which is St. Peters confession here. 

As Greg. Xazian. says, p. 556, our Lord is Mt atSpAwov ttd 
ToV 'Atdfi, «<•> ttd ri)» HapSi'vov— Xpitrrit ii ttd T>|» BioxijTa- 
Xf>(a-i« yo» aSi-if rtjt arOpTornrot, trapovata o\ou to5 xfi' 1 ' 

The relation of St Peter and the other Apostles to this one 
foundation, Jesus Christ (i. e. Christ confessed to be both God and 
Man) is distinctly marked in the Holy Scriptures, both of the Old 
and New Testament ; 

In the Old Testament die Apostles were typified bv the Twelve 
Stones taken from Jordan (see above on x. 2), as also by other 
emblems (see ibid.) signifying their duodenary character and co-ordi- 
nate power as respects one another. 

But there is 

figures a tupremac_ t 

Church. All the Old Testament types of the New Testament 
Church are disturbed by the theory of such a supremacy. 

In the New Testament, the actual relation of the Apostles to the 
one Foundation Jesus Christ, and to each other, is clearly stated ; e. g. 

Christ is the Vine, they all are Branchet. (John xv. 1—5?) 
He is their Matter, they are all Brethren. (Matt xxiii. 8.) He dis- 
courages all thought among them that one of them should be greatest. 
(Matt, xviii. 1. Mark ix. 34. Lake ix. 46 ; xxii. 24.) Christ pro- 
mises them Twelve Thrones. (Matt. xix. 28. Luke xxii. 30.) The 
Church is built on the foundation of the Apostles and Prophets (not 
on one Apostle). Ephes. ii. 20, Jesus Christ being the Head Corner- 
atone, on Whom or in Whom («» ■») the whole building fitted toge- 
ther groweth into a holy Temple in the Lord, on Whom ye are 
builded together. 

There are twelve itart in the crown of the Church militant sojourn- 
ing on. earth (Rev. xii. 1), and Twelve foundatim-ttona in the wall of 
the Church glorified in heaven. (Rev. xxi. 14.) And if Peter, who 
is one of these Twelve Stones, is taken from the other eleven and 
made to be their foundation, the whole structure is disturbed, and 
the whole fiibric falls. Hence St. Paul calls himself not a whit be- 
hind the verv chiefest Apostles (2 Cor. xi. 5 ; cp. 28), and in nothing 
(he says) am t behind the very chiefest Apostles. (2 Cor. xii. 11.) 

But, it may be asked, can iwi -rai-rn -rii tti-rptf be rightly 
interpreted as equivalent to sV ipav-ru, i. e. on Myself 1 

1 Cp. Deal, xxxii. 4. IS. 18. 30. 1 Sam. if. 1. J Sam. xxii. 3, S. 47 ; xxlli. 3. 
Ps. xix. 14; xxviil. 1; xixl. S. 3; xlil. 9 i lxxi. 3. 26: lsxviil. 35. In 
the Lord Jehovah is the Rock of Ages. Cp. Isa. "• ' " 

changed : " Is there a Qod I 

s On the demon»traiive i 
Kit, see Matt, r ~ 

* Cp. Chemnl.-, _ ... , , .-„, . ... r . , .... „.„ 

text, and Schottlgtt, p. 143, and particularly Dr. Jaekton on the Creed, 
book Ul. ch. viii. vol. ii. p. 249. 

* See the clear exposition given by SI. Aumutim, Sera, lxxvi. vol. v. 
p. 395. See also Serm. cxllx. and Tract, in Johan. cxvill. exxiv. "Petra 

r. || 470, 471. 

m. Id est super Meipntn, 
Super Me atdiflcabo te, non 

i, dicens. Tu es Chrlstus Fillus Del vivl, atll/lcabo Be, 

.iamMenm. Id est < - i' mm F .Hum Del rw.ardincabo Ecclui 

■" " ■* And then SI. August 

i super Petnun, sed (L e. 

We have a reply to this question in the Baptist's words concern, 
ing himself, and in our Lord's own words concerning Himtelf; 

St. John says, Matt iii. 3«, oBtov «<rr.»,— he is there speaking 
of himtelf. Our Lord says. Destroy this Temple, tovtov toV moV 
(John ii. 19) ; this He said of Himtelf. Whoso falleth on Mi. stow 
(Matt xxi. 44), toS™. -rot A.Bor-.-this He said of Himtelf. If any 
one eata of thit bread. toDtov tit ipiov (John vi. 5), — this also He 
said of Himtelf (m* also r. 58). 

So in the present sentence, — on this Rock, M rairtf ttj wirpa, 
— He is speaking of Himself*. 

Again : the pronoun ovtov, thit, may be used to signify a third 
person, and it may be applied by the speaker to designate himtelf! 
but it is doubtful whether any passage can be cited from the New 
Testament where it is used to specify the person to whom the person 
using it speaks. Now our Lord is speaking to Peter. Here, then, 
we see another evidence that Peter is not thit Rock. 

What He says is this : " I Myself, now confessed by thee to be 
both God and Man, am the Rock of the Church. This is the founda- 
tion on which it is built" And because St Peter had confessed Him 
as such. He says to St Peter, " Thou hast confessed Me, and 1 will 
now confess thee ; thou hast owned Me, I will now own thee. Thou 
art Peter;" i. e. thou art a lively stone, hewn out of, and built upon 
Me, the living Rock. Thou art a genuine Petrot of Me the divine 
Petra. And whosoever would be a lively stone, a Peter, must imitate 
thee in this thy true confession of Me the living Rock ; for upon this 
Rock, that is, on Mnelf believed and confessed to be both God and 
Man. I will build My Church*. 

In contravention of this exposition two objections have been 
made. It is alleged, — 

That our Lord did not speak in Greek, but in Aramaic or Syro- 
Chaldaic, and used the same word Cepha in both members of the 
sentence ; i. e. that He said, Thou art a Cepka, and on this Cepha I 
will build My Church. 

But this cannot be proved; for it is as probable that our Lord 
said, Thou art Cepkat, and upon this Cepha I will build My 

And if the name Petros in the New Testament means a Rock, 
and if our Lord bad intended to say that Peter is the Rock of the 
Church, then the Holy Spirit writing by St Matthew would have 
said, au tl IIsTpoc, nui iwi -rourip t» wirpa oUoiottiaim pov Tr)*> 
sVaAuafan. But by changing the word from Petros to Petra, He 
shows that Petros is not the Rock of the Church •. 

The Holy Spirit has also declared in what sense Simon Bar-Jona 
wss called Cephat. For He records our Lord's saying, when the 
Apostle was first called (John i. 43), o-6 .1 Slump i vlit 'lams, ii 
»Ai|flrian Kndtsn, and there the Holy Spirit adds, 5 ipunvtitrat 
IH-rpot, i. e. which word Cephat is to be interpreted a ttone. 

I do not say that Petros never signifies a Rock in profane authors, 
but it never has that sense in the LXX or the Greek N. T. ; but no 
one doubts that Petra there and elsewhere signifies a .Roe*. Petra is 
a Rock ; but, as Maldonatut allows (one of the ablest Roman Catholic 
Expositors, p. £17), " n«'T|io« pro rape et Atticum et raram est" 

Another objection is, that th" «*-•— — '- *■- -'- '-' 

But tl 

e Fathers do this', and 

not true. No doubt some 
they who do so, do not always do so. Some of them say that the 
■wirpa of the Church is the faith of St Peter; others, that the 
wsTfio is Christ, confessed to be God and Man 8 , which is equivalent 
to, but a more clear assertion of, the other opinion. Some of the same 
Fathers who sometimes call Peter a Rock, vary in opinion on this 
point. The record which Auguttme in the fifth century gives of his 
own practice is remarkable, vix. that in his earlier expositions he had 
applied the words to Peter, but in his later ones to Christ'. And 
many of the Fathers place St Paul on a par with St Peter 10 . St. 

stabili radice fun ...._, 

Petra, hoc est Christo, cum Apostolie vocabulun 

see on Matt vii. 26. And in his note here St. Jerome says, Christ 

gave the name Petrut to Simon, who believed in Christ the Petra. 

How could St. AugKMtine have written this, if he bad received as an 
Article of Faith that the Rock of the Church Is St. Peter, snd that the 
Bishop of Rome i« St. Peter's si 

p. 398. 

< Cf. Glau. Philol. Sacr. p. 928. 

7 E.g. Grrg. Natian. p. 691, i 
Tiji 'Exk\ii<tw r, '■— 

spurious ?e. g. all the flrat three cited here by Ma 
fumed Papal Decretals did much tor this Exposition. 

• See some of them collected by Sp. Andrew*,, Tortura Tortl, p. 234, 
and by Bp. Beveridgr on the xxxvUth Article, pp. S82-S84. And in the 
Editor's TknpMlu. Anglian*!, pp. 248, 244, and p. 121 Ed. I8S0. And 
on the subject generally, see Barn* on the Pope's Supremacy, Works, 

T '» Aug. Retract, i. 21. See TheopkU. Anglic, p. 144. Ed. 1830. 
i» Thus Ln, Bishop of Rome, in the fifth century (Serm. lxxix. p. 163). 

) ST. MATTHEW XVI. 20, 21. 

ivl r>Js yijs, corai BeScfievov iv rots ovpavols, /eat 6 eav Xua^s &rl tt)s yrjs, 

ris'so « r1 " at XeXw/W.O'OV eV TOtS OVpCWoU. $£■) M k ToT« SlCOTClXaTO tow fia&rjrais 

!"w. I? - . avrov LVa /u^Scvi ewnuo-u', oti ovtos cotu' 6 Xpurros. 21 ' '-^iro rare rjp£a.To 6 'lr)<rov$ Ztucvvtw rots /xa&yreu? ovtov, ore Set avrov 

And 5(. ^s»Aros« says, in Luc. is. 20," Petra est Chrittut: etiam dis- 

Auguttine't exposition in this » 

;, fidei nrmiUtem.' 
k hu been cited already, 
age in Theodoret, 

, in ^Cor. ii 

There it a remarkable 
p. 182, who says, "Other foundation can no man lay than this 
(Christ). This foundation was laid by Peter, or rather by our Lord 
Himself, for when Peter had said (Matt. xvi. 16), Thou art the 
Christ, the Son of the Living God, our Lord says, On this Rock I 
will build My Church. Do not, therefore, call yourselves by the 
names of men. for the foundation is Chribt." And in England, even 
in the eighth century, the greatest divine of the Saxon Church, the 
Venerable Bede, says (in M*rc- Hi), "Idem Grace sive Latine 
Petrus quod Syriace Cephat. Et in utraque lingua nomen a Petri. 
derivatur; hand dubie quin ilia de qua Paulus ait (1 Cor. 

' Petra er 

m Christum, 


largitus est nomen. Cujus alludens etymologic , 

es Petrus et super banc Petram cdificabo Ecclesiam meam.' " And 
what is still more remarkable, this exposition has been adopted by 
the most powerful of all Popes, Gregory VII. Hildebrand, who, as 
Cardinal Baronius relates (ad ann. 1080, vol. xi. p. 704, and see 
Matth. Paris ad A. 1077), when he deposed the Emperor Henry IV., 
sent a crown to Rudolphus, with the inscription, in a hexameter verse, 
"Petra dedit Petro, Petrus diadema Rodolpho," where the Petra of 
the Church is distinguished from Peter, and is Cbrist 

18. oUeoopiin. /uoS rf,, Uu\ n ata,] ' I will build of Me the Church: 
This confirms the last note, and is a protest against all encroach- 
ments on the supremacy of Christ. Observe, our Lord does not say 
oUotounaa) -rt\u inn' t««\i/o-i'ai», nor does He say ti|» i««Xqo-iav 
aiov. But He says Mou -rh* i««Xii»1«». This seeming solecism 
was probably designed to bring out more clearly His own supremacy, 
against all other claims. Do not think that the Church I will build 
is the Church of thee, or of any man. It is not the Church of thee, 
but of Mi. It is not the Church of a human Petrut, but of the 
Divine Petra : not the Church of Simon Bar-Jona, but the Church 
of Christos Bar-Enam, and of Christos Bar-Elohim. 

— s«X»o-ia»] The word 'E«icAq<rla had been used by the LXX 
for the Hebrew Vjj (Jcahal), connected with Greek *a\tm, Latin 
Calendar, and Eng. Call. Root Hebr. ttp (hoi), vow. A congregation, 
e. g. Deut. ix. 10 ; xviii. 16, and passim, and also for the Hebrew 
JTT» (edhah), an Auemllu, particularly of Rulers, Ps. lxxxii. I. In 
the N. T. it signifies more than an Attemblu convened for a special 
purpose ; it denotes a permanent visible socter*. as is shown by the 
present passage where it first occurs. Cp. Matt xviii. 17. See 
Hooker, iii. f. 4. Bp. Pearton on the Creed, art. ix. Our Lord 
here, and in xviii. 17, speaks prophetically of a Society to be founded 
hereafter by Himself; and the Holy Spirit, in recording His words, 
uses prophetically the word Ecdetia, by which that Society would be 
known in all ages and countries of the world. 

— wiXai Siou oi KuTurxua-ova-iv nirrije] wi/Xa» 3nou, te. its 
counsels, power, and terrors. See Job xxxviii. 17. Ps. ix. 13; 
cvii. 18. Isa. xxxviii. 10. Grinfield, p. 102. There is an allitera- 
tion in the words VrQ Tjtf (thaare theol). The gate* of a city 
were the places in which councils were summoned to deliberate on 
stratagems of war, Deut. xxv. 7. Lam. v. 14. Estb. iv. 2. And 
from which the army issued against the enemy ; and therefore the 
promise of Christ here assures the Church, which is a city built on 
Himself, that Hell shall not prevail against her, either by secret 
guile or open force. As Bengel observes, there is a * Metaphor* 
Architectonics' throughout, in ' porta,— adificabo. — duvet.' 

— nmo-xvootx"'] prasvaUhunt contra. See Luke xxiii. 23. 
That these words contain no promise of Infallibility to St Peter, 

is evident from the fact that the Holy Ghost, speaking by St. Paul 
in Canonical Scripture, says that he erred (Gal. ii. 11—13). And 

ApMtelaiui .meruit prtnetpatum." So St. Ambrou', de Splr.' 13. 
"Net Paulut Inferior Petro ;— cum primo quoque (telle eonferendus, et 
nuttl itcundut ; nam qui >e imparem nescit. Tacit «qu»ien>." So Petrut 
Cluoiaeut (A.D. 1147) contr. Petrobus. Bibl. Patr. Colon, xlll. J21. 1, 
calls «t. Paul ••Summutpoti Christum Ecclrslas Maaitter :" and thus both 
9t. Peter and St. Paul are called Kopwpaut In the same sentence by 
Bulkfrn Zoo. Prsef. ad 8 Luc. nwik» ty K p»*a,' ¥ «vwp- 
UMrtoU xai aurUhum. .cMwtf or) ««i rfrnov tov Kop»*aio» Haeaof 
and all the Apos'les are called Ko/waWat by Tktopkoiaet, in 8. Luc. x. 

•», ScorpUc. ... ... 

Ilium Ecelttia reliquiae." S.Copnau, de Unit. Eccles. p. 107, ■•Apoatolis 

'■ — — -.._-. i_ — -..— potestatetn tribult."-p. 108, 

st cojus a singulis In solidum 

that they do not contain any promise of Infallibility to the Bishop of 
Rome is clear, among other proofs, from the circumstance that Pope 
Mberius (as Athanasius relates, Historia Arian. 41, p. 291) lapsed 
into Arianism, and Honorius was anathematized of old by Roman 
Pontiffs as an heretic See Liber Diurnut Rom. Pontif. Houth, Scr. 
Eccl. Opusc. p. £07. 515, 516, and the recently-discovered Philoso- 
phumena of St. Hippoluiut, Scholar of S. lreurus, proving the same 
thine, pp. 284-292L 

19. ociral After My Resurrection. Cp. John xx. 22, and Ascen- 
sion, Eph. iv. 8. 

— t«i kXsii rtft paviktiat t. oip.] In Holy Scripture, ant 
are badges of power and trust ; and are given, as such, to stewards, 
treasurers, wardens, &c., who have power of excluding and of ad- 
mitting, of keeping in custody, and also of opening stores and dis- 
pensing them. See Isa. xxii. 22. Rev. i. 18; iii. 7; xx. 1. Luke 
xi. 52. 

In a primary and personal sense, St Peter, in reward for hit 
good confession of the true faith in Christ, received and exercised 
the power of the keys ; for after the Ascension he was the first among 
the Apostles to admit into the Church by the ministry of the Word 
and Sacraments, the Jewish converts (Acts ii. 14. 36) ; and also 
Cornelius the first-fruits of the Gentiles (Acts x. 34—48). And 
Peter himself notes the fulfilment of Christ's promise to himself 
(Acts xv. 7). 

In a secondary and general sense the promise is made to the 
Church, and specially to all who hold and profess the faith of Peter, 
and are called to the office of dispensing the Word and Sacraments, 
and of exercising the ministry of reconciliation (2 Cor. v. 18, 19) '. 

— 5 Jar Ham — o iir Xvojrtl The same power was given to 
the other Apostles, Matt xviii. 18, John xx. 23, whence it appears 
that the figure is derived from binding or loosing the chain of those 

are imprisoned by sin. (Cp. Luke iv. 18. Rom. vi. 18. 22.) 

st tootet from the gi "" ' '" " * ' "' "" "" »»-■--< 

(Acts ii. 38; xxii. 16. 

He oi'urfs by means of His Ministers when He withholds the 
means of grace from those who despise them, or are in open and' 

a . : - _-j ... ...._ <■_._ "— mun ion with the Church 

her Bishop to absolve from Oaths ; on which see Bp. Sanderton de 
Juramento, PrssL vii. vol. iv. p. 346. 

80. Z»a Miioiri tlwMO-t] Because (as St Peter's words showed, 
v. 22) the Apostles were not as yet fully schooled in the doctrine of 

- Because Christ knew that they would forsake Him in His suffer- 
ing, and because the Faith of those to whom they had preached would 
be greatly imperilled by their desertion. 

Because He would not exasperate His enemies, but allow them 
longer time to see and consider the evidence of His works. 

Because He was now about to tuffir the greatest indignities, 
which would make belief in His Deity a difficult matter, and would 
expose those who saw Him suffer, to the danger of sinning against 
Htm as God by greater blasphemy ; and because Faith in His Deity 
would be easier after His glorious Resurrection si " 

lib. i. " Dtcis, super Petrum fan- 
tasia; licet Id lpsum in alio loco super oranea Apottolot flat, et 
res regni ralorum acctpiant, et super eos ex etauo Ecclesi* forti- 

!lur." S.BmtU, Const. Momut. 31. rao-i m^ra^nul 

3i»aVKaAoi« voptfyet io-wr itovaiar naX tovtov otuuIot ro eWpeir a*ar- 
to< «•'. Aii«t» «nrs» sntm. S. ^»«*r<«e, in Psalm xxxviii. "Quod Petro 
dicltur, eastern Apostolis dlcitur." S. August. Berm. xli. " Numquld istas 
rlaves accepit Petrus, et Paulus non accept! I Petrus aceepit, et Joannes 
et Jacobus non accepit et ccteri Apostoll t Aut non sunt ista; in Ecclest! 
rlaves ubl peccata quotidie dimlttuntur t " Serm. ccxev. "Has rlaves non 
•saw ■■•« sed uniiat accepit Bccletiai." See also Serm. cxviil. and exxiv. 

S. Lea, i.D. 4M. Serm. Ul. p. SS, ed. 1700, "Transivlt in oUv Apn- 
tolot Jus potesutis illlus et ad omnet Ecclolac Princines decreti hujus con- 
stitute eommeavit. Sed non frustra uni eommendatur, quod omnibus 
intimetur." Serm. de Nailv., " Hate clavium poteitas ad omutt etiam Apos- 
tolos st Erclnia: Pnssules est translata. Quod autem sigillailm Petro sit 
comniendata, ldeo factum est quod Petri exemplum omnibus Ecctesiss 
Pastoribus fuit propwitum.'* 

Hooker, VI. Iv. 1. Bp. Audrewtt, Tortura Torti, p. M. AfMoa, de 
Mlnlsterio Anxlicano, v. 10. Hammond here, p. «4. Barrow on the Pope'a 
Supremacy, vi. pp. 107 - 1 10, de PoUttaU Clavium. Vol. iv. p. SO, aoieh 
is more full than his Bnetitk Treatise on the Power of the Keys, v. MS. 
ad. Oxon, 1818. TkeopUI. Anflican. chaps, xii. and xlU. 

ST. MATTHEW XVI. 22—28. XVII. 1. 

airfkOeiv cis 'Iepo<r6\vfia, Kal iroXXd iradeiv avb raw Trpeo-fZxrrepatv /ecu dp^- 
ixpiwv teal ypap.p.ari<av, kcu. dwotcravdfjvai, Ktu tq rpiry i)p.£pa. iyepdrjvai. 
(^) ffl Kal irpoo-XafZopevos avrov 6 Ilerpo^, rjp^aro hnnp^v avr# Xeywv, 
*IX«<us o-oi, Kvpie ov foj ecrrai <rot towto. M 'O oe crrptufxU tltire rep Ilerpip, 
"Tiraye owCcra aov a-arava., OTcdVSaXoV p-ov el* or* ov <f>povel$ ra tov Oeov, 
aAXa tol ratv avOpawatv. (^') ** m Tore 6 'Ir/o-ovs etire toIs ua/jfyrais avrov, 
JSi rt? #*f Xci oviaro) /xov ikdtxv, airapvr)ou<rdw eavrbv, Kal apart* tov cnravpbv 
avrov, ical <x*oXov0eiT<i> /*oi* M 8s ya/> civ c'A^ T^v f^c avrov crwcrai, 
diroXetra av^JI' , '• 6s 8* dv dwoXeoy r^v ^mx^v avrov eVc/ccv c/aov, evpirjcrei. 
avrjv. * ri yap cu^eXeirat dvOpamos, iav tov Koapov okov kc/jSt/o-jj, Trjv 
Bk ^vyjfv avrov (fliumdj) ; ij ri Swo-ei av6pa>iros dvrdWaypa rqs V"W ? 
airow ; (4r) w p MeXXei yap 6 Tlds tov avOp&nov l/o^eo-flai eV Tfl 8o£p tov 
Uarpos avrov '/xerd ra»v dyyeXwi/ avrov* r #cal Tore diroScuo-et htdortp Kara 
Trjv irpatfjiv avrov. (^) * 'Aprjv Xeyw, etcri rives £8« «jot£t€s, otTives ov 
/*■») y€uo~<avrai Bavdrov, eus &v iScucrt tov Tiov tov' avdpanrov ipxop-evov ev rg 
/Jao-iXeia avrov. 

XVII. * Kal lied* i)p.4pa<; t£ irapakapfUdvei, 6 'Jgcrovs tov Ilerpov Kal 
*IaK<afiov ko\ 'Iotdwrjv tov d8eX<£ov avrov, ical avaufxpei avrovs eis o/oos w/njXov 

Mark 8. 34. 
* 14. 17. 417.M. 

n ch. 10. 39. 
Mark 8. 35. 
John II. IS. 

o Mark 8. 38. 
Luke 9. 15. 
p ch. 16. 64. 
Hark 8. 38. 
Luke 9. 26. 
qDan. T. 10. 
Zech. 14. 5. 

They are to bo taught that yet He would «uffer the greatest 
indignities aa man. 

Accordingly, after the Ascension, they tint endeavoured to per- 
suade the world, 

That Hi * ' 

That Christ should eufer, i 
here.) See above on xvi. 14? 

(Cf. 1 

- A-roK-ravtirjvai] Our Lord doe* not yet say <rra»pmdn»ai. 
Thia wai to be revealed hereafter (Matt. zx. 19). But He had eug- 
aeeted it in what He had required, and was about to require again 
from Hit Disciples, viz. opoi tov arauoov xatt" huipar «al ixo- 
XovCttv air* (Matt. x. 38; xvi. 24. Mark viii. 34. Luke ix. 23; 
air. 27). 

— vf tplti) hlilpq] St. Mark has here (viii. 31), /iit4 rpiiv 
iliipat. See above, xii. 40. . 

84. 7Xi»« o-ot] "propitiut tit tibi I" tXiw, Uaot, IXAaxotiat 
' by tome Lexicographers with Uapdt (see Parnate); 
L _ _j.i »»._. -p. on Rom. iii. 26, 

" Adverurie !" Thou who just 

-3. iwayt iwiam fiov varaval " A 
now wert a lively Stone in My Church, art now doing 
the wvAai Star, and even of their Prince himself, by dissuading Me 
from suffering death, by which 1 shall overthrow the Enemy, and 
give life - "-- ""■-—*- 

>°rli U of 


re our bleated Lord here keep* up the 
a Stone: thou who wert jutt m — l ** 
-■■ntfar Slate, art now by thy cama 
%ee below, xviU.f/ 

__ _ r __ i] He must take up ku own cross : as I 

have just spoken of My death (Matt xvi. 21). See below.xx. 19, — " 
cp. Iren. iii. 18, 12, who thence refutes the heresy of the Docettt. 
"■-■■•-■- • tent with rebuking Peter ; He proceed 

g. Thou sayest, be it far from Thee I. ... , 

. ... . _, _.„ , t thou wouldest destroy thyself if thou 

couldest restrain Me from suffering; and if thou art scandalized with 
My death; and thou canst not be saved, unless thou art prepared to 
follow Me, thou must not expect a crown of glory, because thou 
hast confessed Me; this is not enough ; thou mutt take up thy crust, 
i e. be content not only to suffer, but to die the most shameful death 
—to follow Me. 

Christ will have a voluntary service from us : He does not eom- 
> follow him, but He says, " If any one u witling 
And then He sett before us the misery of not follot 
Him; and the glorious rewards, far exceeding the 
following Him. (Cp. Carjrt.) 

86. t7 yip] Quoted by Ignatius ad Rom. vi. p. 388. 

pel us to f< 
follow Me." 


It. 4 

i. tl»'f TIM*- 

avVpta-rov] He again refers to Daniel vit. 13. 
This prophecy, like mani 

88. tiof Ti«t— fiaatXtla avrov] This prophecy, like many 
other*, hat a progressive and expansive character. It unfolded itself 
by degrees and at interval* ; it put forth bud* and blossoms, but it 
will not be in its full bloom of Accomplishment till the Great Day. 
Ita first germination was in what immediately follows, viz. the Trans- 
figuration (Matt. xvii. 1 — 6). Ita season of blossoming was in the 
manifestation of Christ'* power and majesty in the punishment of 
His Enemies by the means of the Roman Armies, Christ's Legions 
called Caster's, at the siege and fall of Jerusalem. Another stage 
toward fulfilment may be observed in the revelation of Christ's -' — 
to St. John in the Apocalypse. But its full manifestation will 

our Lord's Seamd Coming In glory, for the Unwenal Judgment. 
Thie it evident 

From what He hat just said, tie Son of Man email come in tie 
glory of Hie FaUer, with His Angel*, and then (hall He reward every 
man according to hi* work* ; 

iparUon of the parallel passages in St Mark (viii. 38) 

_.. of death (cp. John viii. 52); i.e. shall not feel it „, 

for I will take away its sting and will taste death for them (Heb. 
ii. 9); they will not taste its bitterness until I come again in 
glory; and 

They shall not taste of that which alone ought to be called death, 
viz. ' the teeond death,' the death of the eoul (Rev. xx. 14). 

Thus they will not taste of death till I come. 

Much less will they taste of it then. They will fall asleep in Me, 
and rest in peace in Paradise as to their souls, till I come again in 
My kingdom. And when I come again in glory, then their bodies 
will be raised and reunited to their souls, and they will enjoy the 
full consummation of Mia* bora in body and soul, in My kingdom 

The signification of la* aV here may be compared t 
in Matt. i. 25 (where see note). 

ii. 20), He will n< 

sr be absent from Hit 

le say* (xxviii. 20), He wil 

Disciples, even to the end of the world; i . 

from them after it, for then, both in body and soul, they will bo 
"ever with the Lord" (1 The**, iv. 17). 

" I toque," says St. Ambroee, in Luke ix. 27, " si volumus mortem 
non timere, stemus ubi Christus est : vita tua Cbristus est : ipsa eat. 
Vita qua: mori nescit" And Orttfen here, " Tbey that stand whei* 
Jean* stands, are they who have the foundation of their soul* resting; 
upon Jesus ; and they shall never taste of death. The word until 
doea not fix any time when that shall be which wai not before ; for 
he that once sees Christ in His glory, shall by no meant after that 
taete of death." See also on John viii. 51. 

.6* Wpat I£] So Mark ix. 2. St. Luke says 
This mav serve to illustrate the modes of ex- 
it described. See 

of the 

Ch. XVII. L 

wo-il rinipai dicr 

pression by which our Lord'* rest in 

above, xii. 40. 

The Transfiguration was a type and glimpse and 


it Father 

the number of perfection an 

— " after <w days." ■ 

eaUbatkal number; s 

eternal Sabbath, in which we may hope to be transfigured with Christ. 
(Cp. Tkeopkyl. in Marc, ix.) Some have also connected with then 
the ancient opinion that after six millenary period* typified by the 
Hexameron of Creation, the Eternal Sabbatk will en.ue. 

" Our Lord was transfigured ;" says Jerome, " not that He lost 
His form and aspect, but He appeared to Hi* apostle* as He will 
appear to all at the Dsy of Judgment" 

— Spot] In Galilee; perhaps Tabor. (St. Jerome in Epitaph. 
Paula and St. Cyril, Cateche*. xii.) Some have supposed that this 
was a fulfilment of Isaiah's prophecy, xxxv. 2. Dr. Robineon (Pales- 
tine, iii. 221) thinks that the Transfiguration took place on s moun- 
tain to the N.n. of the Sea of Galilee. But see above on ch. v. 1. 

52 ST. MATTHEW XVII. 2—12. 

icar' tblav, 2 koX perepop<f><a6rj epvpoo-dev owtSv, ical eXap/»e to irpo<r<oirov 
avrov m 6 ^Xio?, ra 8k Ipdrut avrov eyevero Xev/ca. w? to ^a>s. 3 Kal i8ov, 
&f>0r)o~av avroU MwvcttJs #cal 'HXta? iter' avrov oT/XXaXovVres. 4 'AiroicpiOels 
he 6 IleVpo? eTirc tw 'Itjo-oi), Kvpu, kolKov icrnv •fjp.a^ 58c elVat' ei de'Xcts, 
troutjcrwpev 58c roei? otojvoV col fLtav, #cal Mwiwrp /xtat>, /cat fuav 'HXia. 
sv Eti avrov XaXovVro?, ISov, ve<f>ekif (fxareivrf evea-Kiacrev avrovV k<u tSov, 
^artr) eVc rj}$ v€<f>ckr)<;, \eyovo~a, OvVos eo-TW 6 Tio? /uov 6 dyamjTbs, eV <5 
evSoK^o-a* avrov d^overe. 6 Kal aKov<ravT€$ ol pjjJthjfral eireo~ov iirl irpoaonrov 
avrmv, koI i<fK>{bjdr)<rav vfyohpa. 7 Kal irpoarekdav 6 'Itjo-ovs ^aro avrtov, 
Kal eXirev, 'Eyep&ryre, Kal p.t) <f>ofiel<rd€. 8 'Evdpavre; 8k tovs 6<f>da\povs 
avraw ovSeVa eTZov, el fir) rbv 'It;o*ovV povov. 

9 Kal KaTa/Hawovrav avrmv eK tov opous, eWreiXaro avroi? 6 'lr)<rov$, Xeycav, 
Mtjhevl eimjre rb opapa, eiws ou 6 Tib? tov dvOpamov 4k veKpwv avaorj}. 
(-|f ) 10 Kal em\pwrt\<rav avrov ol padyjral avrov, \eyovres, Ti ovv ol Tpap- 
partis \eyovo~w, on 'HXtav 8ei i\9elv irpanov ; n 6 8k 'Iijo-ovs airoKpiOels 
etirev avroU, 'HXta$ pkv epxerai irp&rov, koI airoKaTaoTjjo-ei. irdvra' 12 \eyta 
Be iplv, an. 'HXias ffif) ?p\de, koI ovk eireyvtao-av avrov, dXX* evo'vqarav eV 

8. nrrtftopipmBii] In order to give them * glimpse of Hit future 
glory. He had been speaking to them of tuftriny— Hit own and 
tbeirt. Hit Passion ni at hand, and He endeavours to confirm their 
faith in Hit Messiahship, recently confessed by St. Peter, who was 
blessed for that confession, and to sustain their courage under those 
sufferings, by a view of Hit divine glory, and of the glory of the 
bodies of the Saints in a heavenly state. 

On this subject tee Leo M. Serai, xtriv. p. 179. 
S. Maaiiaitt k«1 'HAi'atl The Representatives of the Zate and of 
the PropheU; to show their union with, and subordination to, Jbsto 
Christ and the Gospel ; and that He is the Christ of whom Moses 
and the Prophets did write. " Motes et Elias," tays St. Ambroee on 
Luke ix. 30, " hoc est Lex et Prophetia cum Virbo." Moses had not 
been permitted when alive to enter the Land of Promise, but here 
we see him brought into it, to do homage to the true Joshua. 

No man knew where the 600V of Moses was (Dent xxxiv. 6). 
But God here unites it to that of Elias and of Christ Our bodies 
may be scattered to the winds, and lost to men. But God knows 
where they all are ; and will bring them all again at the last Day. 

Moses was de»d, Elias alive; Christ the Life, the Son of the 
Living God, is the Lord both of dead and living (Rom. xiv. 9). 

Hence we see that thev who have keen faithful to Him on earth, 
though they be dead, yet they live in Him, and retain their personal 
identity. Perhaps also the Holy Spirit thus intimates the doctrine of 
mutual recognition in a future state. 

Another purpose of this manifestation was to show that Jesus was 
not Elias (see Matt xvi. 14), nor one of the old Prophets, but supe- 
rior to all— and to Moses ; and therefore the Mes>ias, the Son of God. 

"Why," says Caryi., "did He bring hither Moses «nd Elias?" 

First, because men said that He was Elias, or one of the old 
prophets. He conducts the chief Apostles (to4v xapuipaiout), to the 
Mount that they may see the difference between the Prophets and the 
Lord of the Prophets. Next, that they might understand that Christ 
is not, as some imagine, contrarv to the Law and the Prophets ; and 
that when He claims to be equal with the Father, He does not con- 
travene them. Next, that they might learn that He has power of life 
and death ; and therefore He brings forth Moses who had died, and 
Elias, who had never seen death. Next, that they might understand 
the glory of the cross ; and that He might quell the fear of Peter, 
shrinking from the cross, and might elevate the thoughts of the rest. 

For Moses and Elias spake of His 

accomplish at Jerusalem by death. F 
Elias as examples of suffering in the 
reward in glory." 

4. «■!»«] o-Ktivi). from p^j (jAocaaii), kabitavit, whence 
Skeekinak. St Peter desired to remain there, and to retain Moses 
and Elias. He had heard Christ's prophecies concerning njfhring ; 
Moses and Elias conversed with Christ concerning His death (Luke 
ix. 31). Peter shrunk from that (see Theophjl. on Luke ix. 33) ; he 
was entranced, and enraptured with the present glory ; he wished to 
enjov that. And he puts Moses and Elias on a par with Christ. But 
as St Mark adds (probably from St Peter"s own dictation), he knew 
not what he said, for they were afraid (Mark ix. 6). 

" Thou errest, O Peter," says Jerome, " and knowest not what 
thou sayest. Speak not of three tabernacles, tince there it but one 
tabernacle, that ~ 


w of God, and of consequent 

made, that of the Gospel, in which the Law and the Prophets 
enshrined. The Voice from heaven says, ' This it my beloved 
,' they (Moses and Elias) are Hit servants. 2. 

In order that it might be known that the Voice (' Hear ye 
Him ') referred to Christ, as soon as it was uttered Moses and Elias 
disappeared, and Christ alone remained to be heard. Observe, the 
cloud was a bright cloud ; not like that from which the Law was given 
on Sinai. (St. Ckrys.) Observe also thst Christ remained after tho 
cloud had passed away. After the cloud which hung over the Law 
and the Prophets has been withdrawn, both are revealed and illumined 
in the Gospel. (Cp. St. Jerome.) 

6. rxpiXr,] St Peter had spoken of a »*.i»ii. The Cloud it 
Christ' t <r«n»n— His Skeekinak. Cp. the history of the Cloud of the 
divine Pretence at the Tabernacle and Temple, Exod. xl. 34. 1 Kings 
viii. 10 ; and see Rev. xi. 12; xiv. 14—16. 

— oStov— avroi axoitrt] Not Moses and the Law, nor Elias and 
the Prophets; but Christ and the Gospel. The voice came from 
•rereii. See 2 Pet i. 17, 18, who refers to the history at well known 
to the Church. 

— Ayarnrot] My beloved. Observe, this Voice was uttered 
after they had been speaking of His death (Luke ix. 31). An answer 
from heaven to the objections of tome who argue that the doctrine of 
the Atonement, which represents Christ as suffering the Just for the 
unjust (1 Pet. 'Hi. 18), h .rreconcileable with God's attribute of Lore. 
"God is Love" (1 John iv. 16), and God the Father so loved the 
world that He gave His only begotten Son to redeem it (John iii. 16. 
1 John iii. 16; iv. 9). But God the Son loved su, and gave Himself 
freely for us (John xv. 13. Gal. i. 4 ; ii. 20. Ephes. v. 2— 2.V Rev. 
i. 5, 6). I tag down My life of Mvtelf. No one taketh it from Me. 
Therefore doth My Father love Me (John x. 17, 18). The Father 
lovetk the Son, and hath given all things into His hand (John iii. 35). 

8. >Im4 -rot'Uaoi, aim] Moses and Elias vanished; Christ 
was left alone. The Law and the Prophets were for a time, but the 
Gospel remains for ever to the end. " Finis Legis Christus; Lex et 
Prophetia ex Verbo ; que autem a Verbo cosperunt in Verbo desi- 
nunt" (Ambrose, in Luc. ix. 36.) 

9. iwomi] " Ne condiscipulis quidem." (BemjeL) 

10. 'HA in* est iXdtin vow-rov] The reason why the Disciples 
tpoke of Elias seems to be, they had heard that Elias should come 
before the Messiah. But they had just seen Elias. Could therefore 
their Master, who had appeared before Elias, be the Christ as Peter 
had owned Him to be ? (Eramm in Paraphras.) 

The Jews and some of the Fathers affirm that Elias will appear 
in person before Christ's Second Advent to judgment (Mai. iii. 23, 
24; iv. 5. Cp. Roteum. here). Bitkop Andmoa says (contra Bel- 
larmin., cap. xi. p. 255) that this opinion was derived from the read- 
ing in the LXX in Mai. iv. 5, to» B^Iti,*, the Tiihlnle, which is 
not in the original Hebrew ; and from the reading in 2 Kings ii. 1 
and 11, «t sit Toy ovpmn&i, which is not a correct translation of the 
original, but passed from the LXX into the writings of the Greek and 
Latin Fathers of the Church. On this point however it teems better 
iwtvuv. See Theopkylact and others on Mark ix. Ormen and 
C»i>s. in Matt xvii. Hilary, cap. xx. in St Matt Lactant. vii. 16. 
St. Aug. de Civ. Dei, xx. 29, and in Joh. Tract iv.: "Quomodo 
duo adventus, sic duo pnrcones : hoc erit in secundo adventu Elias, 
quod in primo Joannes. 7»ae Elias per proprietatem Elias erit, nunc 
per tmUitudinem Elias era/;" and Oregon, Moral, in Job xi. 9; 
xiv. 1 1 ; xx. 25 ; and Horn. vii. and xxix. in Evangel. See further on 
Luke i. 17, and above on Matt xi. 14. 
1L Awo«aTa<mio-«i] On this word see on Acts i. 6. 

In his edition of St Luke, Ix. IS, se 

id Ufmr for «<*>», see Mr. FUWe collation and nc 


avrfp Sou rj$ekt)<rav ovto> k<u o Tibs tov avdpuirov /te'XXci Trdo-xeiv vrr' av7w. 
18 Tore o-vvTjKav ol fiaOrp-al Sri vepl 'Iaxtwov tow fiairrurrov cTttcv avrois. 

(ir) 14 * ^ a * ik66vr<uv avrwv irpbs tov oj(kov, irpocnjXOev avr£ avOpanros; £ 
yovtnrerav avrbv, 1S Kai Xeywv, Kvpie, eXerjow p.ov rbv vtbv, ori o*eX>7i'id£erai 
Kai kcucws vacryiv iroXKd/as ya/> mirrei eis to t/v/j, koi ttoXXokis eis to v8a»/>* 
16 Kai irpocnjveyKa avrbv Tois paOrp-als <rov, Kal ovk r}8wqdr)o-av avrbv depa- 
ircvoTU. 17 'AiroKpiOtls Bk 6 'Ir/o-ovs eTirev, */2 yeved owmttos tal 8t€orpap.p.evT), 
ciws irdre eo-o/iai /u,e0* vfiaiv ; b liws ttotc avei-opai ipatv ; <f>epere /xoi avrbv <S8e. p 
18 JKol iirertp.Tjo'ev avr$> 6 'Itjo-ovs, Kal i$rjk8ev aw avrov to 8ai/ioviov Kal iOepa- u 
ireudr) 6 irais dtrb tt}s w/ws eKeivr/s. (^) 19 Totc irpoo-ekdovres ol pa&rpral t$ 
'Itjo-ov kot' ihiav etrrov, Alia, ti ypeh ovk t/Swj^tjucv iic/Hakeiv avrd* ; ^ *0 Zk 
'Itjcrovs elirev avrots, Jta ttjv dmo-ridv v/nSv afirjv yap \eya>, c edv e^T* « 
viarw <us kokkov o-ivdrrcas. ipelre Trp b/jei TovTfjt), Merd/fyfli evrevflev e*Kei, Kai » 
ficTafhjcreTai,, Kal ovSev dSvvarrjo-ei 21 Tovto 8*j to yevos ovk iiciropeverai, 
el fir} ev irpoo-evxfi koi vrjareia. 

(ir) B 'Avaorpefoiievav Bk avrov ev tq .TaXiXaia, etirev avrois 6 'Itjo-ovs, 
d McXXei b Tibs tov awOpanrov irapaZihocrdai ct? ^tipa*; avOpdiratv, a Kal d 
aTJ-OKrevovo-iv avrbi', Kai T77 T/31TJ7 "fjpcpa eyepdrfo-erai' koi ikvmjdrjo-av o-(f>68pa. 

(H) 24 'EX^oVrop 8e avrav eis Ka<f>apvaovp., irpoafj\6ov ol ra SiSpa^/xa 
\ap.f&avovTf.<; t^> Ilerptp, koL elwov, *0 8i8do-KaXos vfiaiv ov reXei * rd 8i8/aa^/xa ; « 
25 Xeyci, Nai. Kai ore eio^Xdev eis 7171' oIk'uiv, vpo€<f>0ao-ev avrbv 6 'Iiyo-ovs, * 
\eywv, Ti cot 80K61, ^ifKuc ; 01 /8ao-iXeis T^s y^s dirb twoi' \ap./3dvovcn rekr) 
$1 ktjvo-qv ; dirb tSdv vltav avr<av, •§ dirb tSv dXXor/oicm' ; * yleyei avr^J b 
Ilerpos, 'Airb rutv dXkorpUav. ¥ E<fn] avr^ 6 'Iyo-ovs, "Apaye iXevdepoi eio-if 
oi vioi* w ' iva 8e /u,^ o-KavSaXia'ai/xcp avrovs, iropevdeh cis dakao-o-av /SaXe r 
ayKurrpov, Kai tov avafiavra irparov lyOvv a\pov kol dvoi^as to aro/xa avrou «' 
ev/y^aeis araTrjpa' hc&vov Xa/8wv, 80s avrots dvri c/iov koi o-ov. 

x 4avva«qv<i»] Another proof of St. Hatthew't honesty. 

<i -vim* a»««-«i 

iur Lord rebukea the Jew* here pul....,, ._. 

in Him and in His Divine Power. (Jerome, Hilary, CkryioK., Tkeo- 

•d rebukea the Jew» here publicly for their want of faith 

fit;/.) The fruit, He tells them, it not to much in Hia Apoatlea a 

to themaelvea. llnfeM you have 
willing) to heal you. And He 

.. .. - _5<roi •warra &v»aTa rm iriffTii/- 

And therefore the father, feeling himself corrected by Chriit, 
. ir,a-r,iu. Kiipi., 0««0ii mow Tp i-rieria (Mark ix. 24). 
But leat the Apoatlea should imagine that there was no fruit 

themselves, He also rebukea them ; but in 

a Him. 

84. oi TiX«i] Doe* He not pay? 
the payment, though binding on the a 

te (v. 20). 
apirit, and »<zn3ioS<» 
a effect*. 

— t« lilpa-xjia] Half a atater (or tetradrachm), and the same 
as the half of ike tkekel, ^gfj, due annually from each Jew a little be- 
fore the Passover; whence the time of this miracle * ' 
The Temple-rate 

acle may be c 
by public pi 

lia, cm. i. 
for the n 

x of the Temple and 

_. r , .. , ....J, red heifer, shewbread, &c. See 

Exod. xxz. 13; xxxviii. 26. Joteph., AnUq. iii. 8. BeU. Jud. vii. 6. 
Ant. xriii. 12; and Winer, Lex. tt. Sektl and Staler 1 . This 
Temple-rate was afterwards sequestered by the Romans, and under 
v =— , r — j .„ .u. -„!.-i at Ro,,^ jf^pk, B. J. vii. 6, 6. 

be people of line], for the 
uuoy, uii wu applied to the mlniitry of tho 
{Hilar, and Jmbrou ad Justum, EpUt. vU.) 
and the Tempi*, innpkelacl.) 

96. ol 0avt\tU r$t ytjt] fjwnjto? (malche erete), as diatinguiahed 
from God, the King of Heaven, Pi.'ii. 2. (Roeenm.) 

The sense is : If the kings of the earth do not receive tribute 
from their children, how can the King of Heaven receive this tribute 
to the Temple from He, His Son? If the children of earthly kings 
are exempt from tribute, how much more I ? But in order that we 
may not be supposed to despise the law, pay the tribute ; which 1 do 
not give it as due from Me, but in order to strengthen and correct the 
weakness of others. (Theopkyl.) 

— Ti'Xu] toll for wares, k^ko-ov, oapitation-tax, and for land; 
here a poll-tax. 

87. piki iyKiorpof] Not a net, in order that the miracle might 
be more apparent A wonderful combination of Miraculous and 
Prophetical power. Not one fish among many caught in a net, but 
one fish, and that the firet, caught by a hook, was to bring in it* 
(not belly) the mm, and that the precite sum required for 

i] that cone* up from the deep to obey Me. Cp. P*. 

a] Some Expositor** who endeavour to ex- 

by its sale. 

Lord must have been w 

.-- J£) 
Christ and Hi* Die 

viiFs''""''' " 

— si/»i» 

plain away this miracle (Inge. 

That our Lord meant only that St Peter would catch a fish and 
obtain a stater by its sale. 

That our Lord must have been without money at the tim< 
or He would not have commanded St Peter to go tr *'■- — — 

That our Lord rebuked St Peter for rashness in saying that He 
paid the tUpax/i*. 

That it it not mid that Peter caught the fish and found the 
money in its mouth. 

The first of these allegation* i* refuted by the word* of the 
Evangelist, taken in their plain grammatical sense. 

On the second we may aay that our Lord ahowed Hia Divinity by 
reading Peter's thoughts, and by levying tribute on the deep, and by 
His power and prescience with regard to the fish. And that He paid 
the tribute in this way, not because He had no money, but rather be- 
cause Ho had money, and because while doing an act of obedience to 

the time. 

to treat the whole at 


ily one itep (which ha* been 

a Mark 9. 33-37. 
Luke 9. 46-48. 

ST. MATTHEW XVm. 1— 10. 

XVm. 0\r) 1 'Ev iiceurQ tq <apa irpo<rrj\6ov oi pAt&ryral t$ 'lrj<rov, keyovres, 
* Ti's apa peitjtav iarlv ev rjj fSao-iXeia r<av ovpavStv ; 2 Kal irpoo-Kakeo-dfievo? 
6 'lr)(rov$ iratZLov, eortjo-ev avro ev pAvtp avrwv, i Kal elver, 'Apyv \eya> ifiiv, 

poilj. i. ' eav fit) orpatfnjre kou yevr)o-0c m ra iraiBCa, oi py elo-ekBryre el? r^v fiacrikeiav 
ratv ovpavStv. * *Ocms ovv raireivatarei eavrbv <us to iratBiov tovto, ovtos 
icrnv 6 peitjtav ev rg fiao-iXeia t<ov ovpavStv * #ceu &s ea»» Segrjrcu vau&iov 
tqwvtov ev eirl r<j> bvopari pov, ipe S^erof (^) 6 6s o* av o-Kovhakurg eva 
rS>v (j.iKp£>v Tovrcav w irurrevovroiv €i$ ipe, crvptfxpet, avr$ iVa KpepcurBfi 
pvko? ovucos ctti tw rpdxqkov avrov, Kal KaTairovrtcrdfi ev t$ irekdyei t^? 

Bom."'**. - 6aka.<r<rq<i. 7 b Oval t$ koot-ig) dwro to»> o-kou^oXoiV avdyicr) yap ecmv ekdeiv 
to o-KaVSaXa" wXtjv oval tg> avOpunrtp iiceCva hi oS to cr/caVSaXov ep^erau 

uaIu'.'x.It?' (wO 8 c -Ei 8e i? X 6 */* <row ^ ° ,ro, '5 ^ov <r«ai>8aAi£€» ae, hacotyov avra «al 

& is. 2J-24. £<£\ € ^ wo g.,,0. Ka \^ v <rol e'orij; eurcXdciV as rr/v ffinpr p^oXo? ^ icvXXov, ^ ovo 
X«pa? ^ 8vo iroSas c^oira /3\r)0T)vai els to wv/> to aimvtov. 9 Kal el a 
o<£0aX/*ds o-ov o-KavSaXt^ei ae, e£eXe avrov Kal /SaXc dwo ow KaXoV aot 
.fori povo<f>0akpov els Ttjv (faffv eurekdew, ij ovo d<j>0akpovs e)(ovTa (Sk-qOrjvai. 
eU rrjv yeewav tov vvpos. Q™.) 10 'Opart prf KaTafypovqajfre evas rwv p.ucpa>v 

bnman aathoritjr u man. He would ihow, by »applying the money 
not from the common parse, or from any other ordinary source, but 

the Two Natures, Divine and Human, in His One Person. 

Doubtless oar Lord, Who obeyed the Us for Han, had paid 
the tribute (which was an annual one) in former years ; and St Peter, 
knowing this, answered as he did, rai, net. 

°' " "" * '" ' ' te Miracle was done. No; he 

altitude for 

e tribute (which was an annual one) in for 

lowing this, answered as he did, Hal, yet. 

St. Matthew does not say that the Mir . „ ..„ 

leaves that to be supposed. There is something sublime in 
aporiopaii. He had just been relating the glories of Christ's Tt 
figuration, and His victory over the Evil Spirit in one of his fiei 
forms, and he had recorded our Lord's rebuke to the multitude 
want of faith. He supposes his reader to be so awe-struck and im- 
pressed by what he himself has seen, and heard, and written of 
Christ, that he deems it needless to say, and he does not suppose that 
any one will require to be told, that what Christ spake was done. 
And yet many now demand this, and are called intelligent and 
candid men ! Not so the truly wise. By his reverential silence, 
St, Matthew shows his own faith, and exercises that of the reader 
in Christ, Who is the Word, and by Whom all things were 

The pi 

Ch. XVIII. L „..•&.,] greater than the rest See xi. 11 ; 
xiii. 82 ; xxiii. 1 1. Ephes. Hi. 8. GW Phil. 8acr. p. 274. 

2. wa.Mor] Mark ix. 36. Supposed by some to have been 
Ignafoa, but this is refuted by Bp. Pearson (Vind. Ign. xii. p. 627, 
ed. Churion). 

6. 9KU*ta\fon) Cause to stumble, i.e. to sin.— <r K &,ta\o<, is 
used by the LXX for ejgto (moists) a trap, from root ejp> (yatath), 
and for Irttfyj (micissoO, from rad. V*J (caOal), liinbavit, a 
stumbling-stone ; which is the sense of aK w»a\o, here. In Church 
matters, says Jul. Kom. apud Athanat. (c. Arian. p. Ill), oi Xoyaw 
i»«««git s»t<», i\Ki n>»u 'AwoffroWoi, ««2 ewwo* toi 
pi, vKartaktltt* Em t6» uucpmr mutton yip, and then he 

i»] MyZ) 

y may be despised by the 

world. See 

— WKrrsKoVrsw tl« lul] So Tio-riiut, i», and w{»-t« ,l», 
and in. This use of the preposition is derived from that of the 
Hebrews. Font, de Hebr. pp. 668— 677. Latin Ecclesiastical writers 
do not distinguish between Credo »'» and Credo with a dative (see 
Bp. Peortm on the Creed, Art. i.); and the difference made between 
the two by Aug. (Joh. Tract 29), " Credimus Paulo sed non credi- 
— is 4. Paulum," and Ruffinut (in Expositione Symbol.), "hie prss- 
""*■"" ~* '"'* " ' — *-ns secernitur," is derived from 

i in Epist. ad Philemon. 

ro Fcedere phrasis Groxa 

positionis syllsbi (in^ Creator a 

« of Mm explains the sense of the important and co 
sge of St. IrmtuM. m. 3, "Ad banc EcclesUm hw 
vemre Ecelsslam;" Le. U Is ceraaia that every Church 

de Petro, Paulo, aliisque Sanctis usurpatar, 
sed de Deo outturn," and it is used often concerning Christ, as here — 
a proof of His Divinity. 

— mvXos dvixdc] A mill-stone too heavy to be turned by kand 
(see xxiv. 41), and requiring the power of an o"*oc to turn it 

St Mark (ix. 42) has X.tU poAuot. 

Consider the aptness of the expression, Man puts a stumbling- 
stone in his brothers way, and he who does so had better have a 
mill-stone about his own neck. 

On the punishment of naTuromujim, see Cataubon, Sueton. 
Octav. 67. 

7. oiai—a*6} M = ra (««). See LXX in Exod. ii. 23. 

" If it is necessary that offences must come, why, it may be said, 
does Our Lord commiserate the World, and not rather stretch out 
His hand to avert them ? 

" He became Man for us, He took the form of a servant and 
endured the worst sufferings for our takes ; He did all that it became 
Him to do for our salvation. And therefore He laments for the 
wicked, who will not be healed by Him ; as a Physician bewails a 
sick man, who will not follow his advice, and be whole. In the latter 
case, however, there is little use in the commiseration, but here die 
denunciation of future Woe may excite the sinner, and heal him of 
his sins. And we are not to imagine that Christ's Prophecy brings 
the offences. No ; the offences foreseen are the cause of the Pro- 
because He foretells them; but He 
come. Because many would choose 
He forewarned us of the fact But 
why does He not remove offences or avert them ? For whose sake 
ought He to do so? For the sake of those who are hurt by them. 
But they who are hurt, are hurt by their own fault ; and others are 
not hurt by them, but win glory by them : as Joseph and Job did, 
and all righteous men do. Offences are stimulants to the good. 
They make us watch, and quicken our steps, and walk warily. 
They try us ; they distinguish the evil from the good. 

" If evil does not arise through fault of our own wills, why do 
men ever reprove their servants or their children? Evils proceed 
from our evil will and evil acts. Men enquire what is the origin of - 
evil ? but no one who lives well will ask this question. They who 
lead vicious lives entangle themselves in these perplexing subtleties, 
which we solve not by words but deeds. For no one sins by neces- 
sity. If sins were necessary, our Lord would never have said. Woo 
to him by whom the offence cometh ! Our Lord commiserates those 
who choose to be sinners. And He proves to them that sins are not 
necessary, by commanding us to cut off a right hand if it offends us, 
or causes us to sin." (Ckryt.) 

— dvayxn iarij Not absolutely, and per te, bi 

1, dWxdsKToV tor.. Cp. 1 Cor. xi. 19, tt'l nlni- 

8. ii — trirareaXftu ail " Qui »M a totmdalo non eavet, aliis stms- 
aVi&objicit" ICf-HOng.) 

— «aXdi>— 4] Good to enter in halt; and better than, &c, 
FritKhe, Afeuer, Winer : but thephrase seems rather to be derived 
from the Hellenistic use of the LXX, Gen. xxix. 19; xlix. 12, where 
« is the Hebrew jnj (AmoUi), It is good, rotter, dec. 

agree with this Church. Cp. the JUilar-, 8. Hippolytus, tec. pp. 19 
on the »tue of iWrym), wbich has km much misunderstood. 
See also on x. 34, and on Luke xlL 49. 


rovrtiv Xeyo> yap ifiw, ort *oi dyyeXoi avrS>v iv avpavois 8ia wavrbs /JXt> 
vov<n to vpocrcavov tov JTarpos /tow tow eV ovpavoU. n e *HX0e yap 6 Tlos 
tow ivdpanrov oStcrai to dwoXwXos. (^) 12f Ti v/up Sokci; eo»» yevrjrai ran. 
avQpamy CKarbv irp6/3a.Ta, ical vXavrjOfi IV 6<f avrStv, ovyi, d^els to evcvij- 
Kotrmxwia, iirl to o/hj iropeudels £»yr« to irkavwpevov ; ls ical tap yeVijTat 
evpeiv avro, apr/v \4yco vp.1v, ori \aipei iir avr$ paXXop ■}} ewl rot? evevrj- 
Kovraarvia tois /t^ ireTrXai^/acVois* u ovtcus owe cot. dekypa cpirpoaOev 
tov JTar/oos v/aSv tov eV ovpavois Iva arrokrjTax ef? rail' putp&v Tovratv. 
(J» ) is « '£«^ g^ apaprrjaiQ eis o-«! 6 d8eX<£os trow, vVaye ical eXeyfo*' avrov 
ptTa£u a-ov ical avrov povov (^r) 16 h eaV o-ou aKovcrg, eVepSijo-as tw dSeX^oV 
•xov eav 8c ft^ olkovctq, irapdka/He pera o~ov ert eVa i) 8uo, tva eVl o-To/^aTos 
Swo papTvpav ^ rpiotv o~Ta$j} irav pfjpar 17i «£av 8e irapaKovcrg avrtav, 
eive ry c/cjcX^o-ta* edv 8c ical T»jjs CKicX^orids vapcucovcrg, ecrra> croi, wanrep 6 iOvi- 
/cos koI 6 tcXwwjs. (^-) 18 k '.4/ii)y Xeytu w/*a», o«xa eav S^oT^re eVl t^s y»js, earat 
SeSe/iera eV t$ ovpavqi, ical oo*a cav Xi/oTjre eVl ttjs y»js, eorai \ekvpa>a eV t£ 

f Luke is. 4, He. 

g Lake 17. J, 4. 
Lev. in. 17. 
h Deut. 19. 15. 
John 8. 17. 
! Cor. 13. 1. 


10. ol iyytXoi avrfivl i. e. the Angels appointed by God to 
miniiter to them (Heb. 1. 14. P.. xxxiv. 7; xci. 2), though sent 
forth to do God's errands, as Hit iyytKoi or messengers upon earth, 
yet they always enjoy the beatific vision of His countenance in 
heaven* ; wherever they are, they carry their blessedness with them. 
(Oregar. Bernard, ap. Muldtm.) 

ayytXot is used by the LXX for the Hebrew ir^e (mof ale), 
which also signifies a mettnger. 

Our Lord here shows the dignity of every Christian, however 

. _ — ;„i!_ -r ,i i. wn0 aulno t defend themselves when in 

e them on account of the Angels who 
S) ; and St. Paul applies the same argu- 

Ministry of Angels toward* the Faithful, see Bp. BuU, Serm. zii. 
do. 289— 326. 

•t sacrifice what is 

soul, for it has vi Angel assigned it by God. (Je 

Our Lord excites us to be zealous for the salvation of others, 
however poor and despised they may be. He stimulates us to this by 
His own example. Observe the order of His precepts. By saying 
that no one can enter the kingdom of heaven, except he become as a 
little child, He brings down our pride. By telling us that offences 
must needs come, He excites our vigilance. By pronouncing Woe on 
him by whom the offence cometh, ne teaches every one to take heed 
not to be a cause of stumbling to others. By commanding us to cut 
off whatever offends us, or makes us to sin, He makes our salvation 
easy ; and by ordering us not to despise those who may offend us, or 
any, however humble, He makes us more eager in promoting the sal- 
vation of others. And He presents us the example of the Angels, 
and His own example and that of His Father for our imitation, in 
order to stimulate our zeal. {Ckiyt.) 

1L to iwoKwKit] Observe to. And since Infants are a part of 
the lost world, Christ came to save Ikem: hence an argument for the 
Baptism of InfimU. 

12. t4 tvsrn«orrai»Wa] The Son of Man has set an example of 
tender regard fur a single soul. He left the ninety and nine (the 
Angels of whom He had just been speaking) to seek and save the 
human race, which is but as a single sheep of His fold. See Irmaiu, 
Hilary, Ambrote, and others, cited by a Lapide. Join iropivdiit 
with iirl ti o>n. 

18. x al l>" st* «i«TiS /taWor] He does not say w\lov, but 

of the recovery and restoration of the one lost sheep. His joy is 
ratlter directed to that particular sheep, than to all the rest : and 
why? Because that particular sheep is now delivered from that con- 
dition of misery, over which he had so much grieved, and because it 
is restored to the company and condition of the other sheep, who 
have not strayed, and in whom He joys to much. 

Our Lord here speaks xa-r' &»0pm-*ov, and by a mode of speech 
common in Scripture He transfers human feelings to God Himself. 
Cp. Luke xv. 7. 

14. oi* iar, SsXiwm] Not, 'it is not the will;' but He is m- 
Killing that any should perish : <ra>r« Oi\u «-«©>«. (1 Tim. ii. 4), 
He desires all to be saved. 

15. duapriot) sit] A Hebraism— h^ followed by ) 

16. s»l arofurrot] ^fa (al-pi), the attestation,— as the cause of 

n explained away as a 

wlfatt. v.J. 

* On the mode and m 

confirmation. Cp. Deut. xix. IS. 2 Cor. xiii. 1. John viii. 17. 
Heb. x. 28. 

— »«V fiona] TJ5 or ret, ». j. = every thing. 

Our Lord had commanded His disciples not to give offence, and 
to cut off what is most dear — to separate from our nearest friend! — if 
he offends us, i. e. causes us to sin. But lest they should proceed 
hastily and haughtily in this matter, He prescribes the course which 
they must pursue in the exercise of discipline. He calls the sinner 
their brother, and commands them to deal with him privately at first, 
and if he hearkens to them and confesses his sin, then He does not 
say,' Thou hast inflicted punishment or obtained satisfaction, but thou 
katt gained thy brother. And the more refractory he may be, the 
more eager thou must also be as a patient and tender physician for the 
restoraiion of his spiritual health. If one remedy fails, try another, 
and another. Take with thee one or two more, that it may be mani- 
fest that thou art ready to do all on thy part that may conduce to 
amendment and restoration. But if he will not hear them, tell it to 
the Church — that, through fear of being cast out of Church by excom- 
munication and of the binding in heaven, consequent on it, he may 
be so shamed, and lay aside his malice. Our Lord threatens the 
sinner with these punishments, in order that he may repent and escape 
them. Hence He does not cut off the sinner at once from the Church, 
but establishes a first, a second, and a third tribunal, in order that if 
he refuse to hear the first, he may hearken to the second or the third, 
and if he have no reverence for that, he may stand in awe of the 
future judgment of God. (Ckry$.) 

17. -rji IxxXneia] Spoken prophetically. 

prepared His Apostles for the use of this word ., 

xri. 18), the Visible Society of His faithful people. He had informed 
them who were to bear office publicly in it for the exercise of godly 
discipline therein (cp. 1 Cor. v. 9. 1 Tim. v. 20) in Hia Name and 
for the general good*. 

— o itlviKot | Observe i. Not a heathen man, who may be a 
good man in his way, but as the heathen in hit keatkenum. 

18. 8e-« ia» Xve-irrs] He does not say Avhti — the power was not 
ren yet See on xvi. 19. The following authorities on this sub- 

r Lord had already 


Ordering of PriaU, in the Book of Common Prayer of the United 
Church of England and Ireland. " Receive the Holy Ghost for the 
Office and Work of a Priest in the Church of God, now committed 
unto thee by the Imposition of our Hands. Whose sins thou dost 
forgive, they are forgiven ; and whose sins thou dost retain, they are 
retained. And be thou a faithful Dispenser of the Word of God, and 
of His Holy Sacramento; in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost Amen." See also the Forms of Absolution 
in Morning and Evening Prayer ; the Order for the Holy Commu- 
nion ; and the Office for the Visitation of the Sick. 

Homily on Common Prayer, p. 330 (ed. 1822). " Absolution 
hath the promise of forgiveness of sins." 

Abp. Crunmer on the Power of the Keyes, Catech. p. 202. " God 
hath given the keyes of the kingdom of heaven, and authority to for- 
gyve sin, to the ministers of the Church. And when the minister 
does so, then I ought stedfaatly to believe that my sins are truly 
forgyven me." — Compare Craumer's Works, iv. p. 283, ed. Jen- 

Hooker, VI. iv. 1. " They that have the keft of the kingdom of 
heaven are hereby signified to be stewards of the house of God, under 
whom they guide, command, and judge His family. The souls of 
men are God s treasure, committed to the trust and fidelity of such as 

vol. X. p. IS 
1.4, and As..... 
Works,.!, p. SO, ee 


avpavto. Ox) u ' HaKw Xeyco wfttV, ort iav 8wo i/iaw crufwjfxunfo-ftxru' eirl tjjs 
y>?9 ire/jl iravro? wyody/u.aros 08 iav atrrjcftHfai, yatjo-erat awrois iraod tow 
ilar/ods fiow tow & ovpavoW * 08 yap €wri 8wo ^ rpei? awijy/icVoi els to 
e/Aov oVo/xa, «cei ei/u eV /xeo-^> awjw. Oir) 21 m Tore trpao-ekdtav awr$ 6 fferpos 
etjre, Kupie, itoo-oki? dttaprr/o-et el? e/ie^ 6 aScX^ds ftow, k<u axfnjcra) awTtp ; 
liws emaKis ; a .4eye* awrtp 6 'Jrjo-ow?, Ow Xeyw coi ei&>9 ewrdVew, dXX' €»s 
efioofii)KOPTdia<i hrrd. (•£) a Jia rowro ai/xouuftj 17 /Sao-iXcta t&v ovpavcjv 
ai>0pa>ira) /WiXei, 05 iJfle'Xrjo-e crwapat Xoyov ftera. T«iv SowXtw awrow* M dp£a- 
fteVow ok awrow owaipcw, irpooiqv€x$ri awrtjJ el? d^eiXenjs /xvpiW raXdWan*' 

25 B p.17 I)(oito? 8e awrow diroSowVai, eWXewo-ei" awrov 6 Kwpio9 awrow irpadrjpai, 
ical t^v ywauca awrow ical to re'/cva, Kal tawa ckra et^e, #cat diroSofftp-ai* 

26 •aio-iiv otv 6 80OX09 wpoo-eiewVet awrtp, Xeyaw/, Kvpix, fiaKpodvurjcrov eV* e/un, 
#cai irdVra cot dwoScuo-w ^ oTrXayxi'to , 0€i9 8c 6 *n/pios tow SowXow eVcetVow 
direkvo-ev avrbv, koX to SdVeiow atfrrJKev aural. a 'E£ekdo>v ok 6 80SX09 eiceu-09 
eSpcv eva raw o-wSowXaH/ awrow, 69 w^eiXcv avr$ cxarof oiqvdpia, teal Kpanfaas 
awrbi' iirvvye, Xeyai*. 'Airooos ef ti o^ctXets. M Ilea-av oJv 6 owSowXo? awrow 
ei? rous iro8a? awrow Trapc/cdXei awrov Xey<a»>, MaKpodvp-rjcrov iv ifiol, Kal 
airoo<i>o-a> o~ou M *0 ok ovk rjOekev, dXXd direXdaii* efiakev awrov et*9 <j>v\aicr)v 
«i>5 oS dwo8$ to Q<f>€i\6p,a/ov. S1 "iSoi^cs 8e 01 owSowXoi awrow rd yevo/icpa 
ikwr^dTjo-av cr<f>6opa, koX ikdovre? Bteo-dtfytjo-cw r^> Kvptw awiw irdVra rd 
yev6[i€va. ^ Tore 7rpoo-KaXeo-d/xa'05 awrop 6 Kvpios awrow Xeyci aura), JouXe 
wovrjpe, iraaav Trfv 6<f>€t\r)v iiceurqv oUfyfJKa cot iwel fra/ocKaXeo-df /te M owk 
ISet #tal o-e cXe^aat r6v owSowXdv o-ow, «s Kal eya» o-e r/\er)o-a ; u koX 
opyurdels 6 icwpios awrow irape'Sco/co' awrbv tois jSaorai/io-Tais ews ou diro8^> 

mint render a itriet account for the verr leut which ii under 

"" ^ofcr, VI. ir. 2. " Whether the/ 1 " 
ever i» done by wmy of orderly and latcfid 
self hath promised "to ratify." 

" The Print gives pardon, not as a King, nor yet as a Messenger, 
1. e. not by way of authority, nor yet only by declaration ; but as a 
mihkum gives health, i. e. he gives the remedies which God appoints." 
\Bp. Taylor on Repentance, x. § 4.) 

Bp. Sparrow, Rationale, p. 14, ed. 1704. " If our confession be 
serious and hearty, this absolution is effectual, as if God did pro- 
nounce it from heaven : so says the Confession of Saxony, and Bohe- 
mia, and the AugBbnreh Confession (ri. xii. xiii.);" and so says St. 
Ckrywthm in his Fifth Homily on Esay, " Heaven waits and expects 
the Priest's sentence here on earth; and what the servant rightly 
binds or looses on earth, that the Lord confirms in heaven." St 
Augustine and St Cyprian, and general Antiquity, say the 

Authority delegated to him from God Himself, to absolve and acquit 

y0 iS."T» Ho] vfa. ./tbey do His will and ask wit 

in Christ's Name, and if what they ask is according to His Will 

19. •«■» Ho] viz. i/ they do His will and ask with faith and charity 
in Christ's Name, and if what they ask is according to His Will and 
expedient for them. See John 

— ovn<pwrnomot M 
hearts and voices, especially in publi 
tion of it in St. lanatim fad Ephe 
■mptofiorloit *»— *• 

A beautiful word expressive of the holy music of 

„:.u_ : i-i:- Compare the eloquent exposi- 

. ^ iv.) : to d£>owM«o-r»» &h&w 
"£'"»• otrrmt s-vnip/uoff-rai ™ i-riOKoirw 
et' tia touto in oporoia v/tuv nil a u u <J> c» * » 
't aiiTai* tcaX ol KO.T* ivipa ti X°P° 
Irrn Ip&iionota XP«M<i e«oSXo^o»rn 
A3i|Ts i» fury pta tta 'li|»oS Xptorou ™ IlaTfil. In «ai u/i£ 
iitoioy, cat fatyiimoKmu ti' ■> iv -rpioot-ri ul\ii Sura* tov uio 
aurou. vpnoifiov ovv iortp v/uat iv apu/Aw itrortfri tlvai Xru xa 
Oioi wdrroTS /uiWynrs. 

80. tie to lui, omua] i. e. not in their own name, or according 
to their own devices, or for their own glory, much less in a spirit of 
strife and division ; but with yearnings of love to Me and of 

uion ; but with yearnings of love to He and of union 

. the manner appointed by Me in the unity of My Church, 

and in obedience to My law, and for the furtherance of My glory. 

""" and Chry. he- 

with Me: 
and in ot 

•7 M 

the use of tit to ino/ia (stronger than i» t» it _,_ 
taining the idea of love to, and of incorporation into, see on 
xxviii. 19. 

On the meaning of the phrase to " do at 
Name," see Dr. Barrow, Sermon xxxiii. vol. ii. 

us. {Chry,.) 

82. t£aoM»Korra'iNt iwrst] The number teren in Holy Scripture 
is used to signify completeness -, and the multiplication of 70 X 7 here 

times mm is used to express the fulness of 

(Gen.iv.24). And for bringing in of forpne- 

nen of sins into the world there are ten times sere* generations from 
Adam to Christ See on Luke iii. 23— 38. (Hilary mi Aug.) 

But here the number is teventy timet teren, the number of yean 
from the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem unto Christ, who brought 
in the forgiveness of sins (Dan. ix. 24). 

88. Ua-ri, Jnra>«.] About 1,260,000th part of the pvpia 
t«Wt« (v. 24). 

In order to show the easiness and necessity of forgiveness, our 
Lord had introduced His own example, whence it appears that even 
if we forgive our brother teventy timet sewn, i. e. an indefinite number 
of times, our clemency is not so much as a drop of water compared 
with the ocean of Goafs goodness to us, without which we must be 
condemned hereafter. And now observe the difference between men's 
against *» and oar trespasses against Qod. The former_aro 


to ten thousand talents. Thediffer- 

appears from the difference of the pertomt, as well 

* the sin. Consider also the 

public and private, spiritual 

and temporal, from God. (Chryt.) 
-' -n i<p.ik,i,] tZ t, has be 

. .• o Tt : you owe, therefore ,_ T . . ...„,„. .. „.,-, .. 

mention the petty hundred pence. Therefore he does not say o ti. 
but si ti. — And thus the force of the parable, teaching the duty of 
equitably receding from the rigid enforcement of rights, is more 
clearly seen. Cp. Al/brd. 

84. fiaoanoraU] See above, iv. 24, toiv Ban., "non modd en- 
torfsoa.." (Beng.) 

Obterve, past sins renee to the unforgiving. Cruelty to other* 
cancels the grant of God's merry to us. 

Among men, the party who sues his debtors at law does not 
decide the cause; but God is not only our Creditor, but our 

— tmt ol dwooul " torquendum donee solvissct" 8ee «. 30. 
The 10,000 talents was a sum that never could be paid (CSsry..), 
and therefore this expression cannot be taken to intimate that sin, 
not repented of and not forgiven in thit life, will be forgiven ken- 
after. See above,.v.26;xii. 32. 


vav to 6<f>€iX6fievov avrw. K Ovrta Kal 6 Ilanjp fxov 6 iwovpdvko? troirjaret. 
vyM>, iav py atfnjre ckootos t# &Bek<f>$ avrov airo r&v icapSuav v/xaiv ra 
irapairr&p.ara avrov. 

XIX. (^p) 1 *Kal iya>ero ore thekeo-ev 6 'Ii)<rm><: tov? Xoyov? tovtovs, 
fienjpa/ airb tijs raXtXata?, koi •rJXtfe*' ei? rd o/ota rrjs 'lovSatd? rtipav rov 
'iopBdvov 2 Kat t/koXov&jo-oi' avr$ o^Xoi iroXXor kcu, idepdmvo-cv avrovs 
*?K€i. 8 JKat rrpoarjkdov avr<p ot Qapuraloi, ireip&Xovres avrov Kal Xeyoire? 
avr$, ei ijjcorw avQpumtp airokvcrai rrfv ywalica avrov Kara, itaxyav airCav ; 
4 b 'O St- awoKpiOeU etirev avrot?, Ovk avtryvarre, ori 6 wowycras air* d/j^s 
a/Hro' Kat 0i}Xv iiroCtjacv avrovs, s c koi etwee, "EvtKtv rovrov KaraXeu/»ei 
avdpcawos rov wardpa Kal rrfv pyrtipa, Kal Ko\\r)0TJcrerai. rjj yv~ 
vatKt avrov- Kat iaovrai oi 8wo ei? adpKa fiiav ; 6 ware ovkcYi eiVt 
8vo, dXXa. cd/>£ /*ia* 6 ovv 6 ©eo$ awiJ^ev^ev, avdpanro? prj ^wpi^erw. 7 d .4e> 
yovo-w avr$, Ti ovv Ma>v<rt)S eWctXaro Sowai (ZifSkiov avoaraa-lov, Kal 
aitoXvarai avrrjv ; 8 Aeyu avrots, *Ort .Mwuo-r}? irpo? rrfv crKXrjpoKapSiav vp.wv 
iTrirp&jjev v/xiV diroKwai rds ywauca? v/iur aw' a.pyy\<; St- ov yeyovev ovrot. 
(™ ) 9 • il^yw 8*- vp!w, ori Ss av diroXuo-jf ttjv ywauca avrov, /t^ «m wop- 

b 0.n. 1. jr. 
ft 5. i. 
Hel. J. IS. 
c Gen. 2. 24. 
Kpbet. 5. 31. 
1 Cor. 8. 16. 


CH. XIX. L to opia K 

An exposition of this chapter to 
Naziam. Orat xxxvii. p. 645. 

— Ti>m> tov 'iopoavov] i. e. He ei 
the ermfina of Judca. See Mark 
any region tad of Jordan — 
469; and Amoldi, p. 484. 

8. w..p«« 

diniree. (Ma „., 

Why then didst thou 

X.] On this circuit in Peraa tee Note 
12 will be found in Ortg. 

it then didst thou forbid it before? If He repeated what He 

before said, they would urge against Him the authority of Moses. 


Observe the wisdom of our Lord. He did not directly reply in 
the negative, but He began with showing them the original ordini 
of God, and that His own teaching is in harmony with it; and 

only from creation 
only aays that God made 
commanded that the 
If God 

should be coupled with the one woman. 
rilling that the man should put away his wife and 
marry another, He would have made several women when He made 
one man : but by the terms of Creation as well at original Legisla- 
tion, God declared that one man should continually dwell together 
with one woman, and never be put asunder. Observe also how our 
Lord expresses this : " He that made them in the beginning made 
them male and female; they sprang from one root and form one 
body, for He says they twain shall be one flesh (or rather joined into 
— ■— n). He represents it as a heinous sin to despise this Legis- 
for He says. What God hath joined together, let not man -— 

may be supposed tc 

joined togetht , 
liege against Me the authority of Moses 
I, I show 


how you here the Goo! of Moses, 
confirm what I say by priority of time ; for in the beginning God made 
them male and female. This law is the older law, though it may 
teem to vou to be now first enacted bv Me. And it was enacted with 
much solemnity ; for God brought the woman to the man, and not 
only so, but commanded him to leave father and mother for her sake ; 
and not only to come to her, but to cleave (KoAXqSqrat) to her, 
— showing by the word used the indinolubitiiy of the bond ; and He 
proceeds to reiterate the law by His own authority, — "Wherefore 
they are no more twain, but one flesh." As then it is a sacrilegious 
thing for a man to mangle his own flesh (Lev. xxi. 5), to it it un- 
lawful for him to put away his wife. (CW) 

" " " » aMw] = -ifl % if (<* <** dabkar), which was 

in opposition to the st 
de Syn. Jud. c. 29. 

bi Sckammai. See Buxiorf, 

4. ipcn nai 8ijX»] which it laid only of Man (Gen. i. 27), not of 
any other animal. 

Polygamy was first introduced in the family of Cbm by Lantech 

the sirtt from Adam (Gen. iv. 19), and " * l 

murder (Gen. iv. 23), and God doe* not 
beyond the first generation. 

Vol. I. 

For illustrations from the LXX of these Tenet 4—12, tee 
armJUd,m. 117, 118. 

5. «I»i».] i. e. by the mouth of Adam. Gen. ii. 24. It is evident 
that God spake by Adam ; for how could Adam then know, except 
by divine inspiration, that a man would have a fatker or uietker to 

— «oXXq6*»Tai] " pro Hebr. pjj (dabhai), lettit;" to cleave. 
Ruth i. 14. Prov. xviii. 24. " Arctistimo amoris oVtKiao conjunzetur 
cum eft. copulatus." Cp. 1 Cor. vi. 16, KoWa/itm -rp itofvn. Rev. 
xviii. S, ««oX\ij(*ijoor oi aiuurriai «xf ▼*• ovoatoi. 

— ill arapxa piav] sit = Hebr. \ The words are more expressive 
than vap( fti'a or iv caput fiia, and literally rendered from the Hebr. 
-rrj^Jt 1*5$ (le-iaiar eckad), joined into one, so as to be no longer twain, 
but one. Cp. Gen. ii. 24. On similar uses of tit, tee Vont. Hebr. p. 680. 
•U to £vom«, xviii. 20. 1 Cor. xv. 45, M. m .It uVvv> £&<""• 

The LXX have inserted the wordt o\ tie, which are not in the 
original ; and our Lord approves the insertion at giving the true sense. 
Observe oi here, ' the two.' Marriage is only ' inter duos ;' a protest 
against Polygamy. 

8. S-x»piI«T«.] What God hath joined together let not man put 
asunder. Man oViet put asunder when he divorces hit wife, with de- 
tire of marrying another. (Jerome.) 

7. iviTiiAaTo] Moses did not command abeolutdy to do so, but 
only permitted it (v. 8), and ex kmotkai, i. e. on supposition of a re- 
solve to divorce a wife, he ordered that it should not be done hastily 
and passionately by mere word of moutk, but in a set form, with a 
written document properly prepared, attested, and executed before a 
magistrate ; in order to give time to the husband to consider what he 
was doing, and to secure evidence to the wife that she bad not left her 
husband of her own accord. See Vitrmga, de Synagog. Jud. c. xl. 
and above, v. 31. 

8. wpdt T*> oKknpoKaptia*] irpbt = Hebr. toj (propter, contra) 
— i. e. lest you in your cruelty should rid yourselves of your wives 
by violent meant (tee on v. 31, 32) ; lest vou should maltreat your 
wife. " He permitted divorce to avoid homicide." (Jisrosw.) There- 
fore the permition to which you appeal is a proof of your cruelty ; 
that which you plead as your excuse it a proof of your tin, and an 
evidence of your own degradation ; and if you were children of God 
it would not exist 

— iwiTpidrtv] a correction of aV<Tt(Xaro. 

9. S< oV dwoXvffy] See above, on ch. v. 31. Our Lord admits but 
one cause of divorcing a wife— fornication. And here we must under- 
stand, that if a woman leaves her husband on this single cause, for 
which divorce is allowed, she ought to remain unmarried, or be re- 
conciled to her husband, either reformed or to be tolerated, — rather 
than marry another. And the Apostle adds, " Let not the husband put 
away his wife" (see 1 Cor. vii. 10 — 15), — intimating briefly in the 
case of the husband the same course as he had commanded in the 
case of the wife. St. Aug. (de divers, quest. 83). See also Hermat 
PaOor. ii. Mand. iv. GoncU. Eliber. can. 65. Neoceaar. can. 8. 
Epipkan. Hsret lix. Laetanl. Inst. vi. 23. 

Our Lord tays, that he who takes to wife a woman that hat been 
divorced by her husband is the cause of her adultery, for he gives her 
occasion to sin ; and if he did not receive her, she might return to 
her husband. (S. Clement Ala. Strom, ii. p. 507.) 

A wife may be put away for fornication ; but a man who puts 
away hit wife for fornication may not marry another daring her life. 
And it it said by our Lord, that he who marries an adulteress it 



I ». 5%.' 

k Eiod. 20. 18. 

ST. MATTHEW XIX. 10—21. 

veia, teal yaiMJa-g akkijv, fioi-yarav koX 6 anokekvyMnfif yafirjawi /xot^arau 
(tt) 10 Aeyovo~w avr$ oi fiadryral avrov, El ovtojs ^oto» ^ airta tow avdpdnrov 
fiera ttjs ywaucos, ov o-vp.<\>epei ya/xi/o-ai. u M 8^ cXjtcv avrois, Oi vaWcs 
X<»povcri rov \6yov rovrov, aXX* of$ SVSorar ,3 eloi ya/> cvpovxot, oituvcs 
• 4k KoiXia? fwrrpos ky&vrfiy\(Ta» * ovW icai €io-u> evvov^ot, otTives evvovx** 
a-d-qa-av wro rwv ivdpdmav kclC elcrw evvov\ov, oiTives ein/ov\urav eavrovs Sta 
r^v fSaa-tXeCav raw oipav&v. *0 Swa/i«vos x<apeu> ^wpeirw. 

(-") 1S Tore irpocnjvfydri avr<p iraiSta, iVa ras x € V >a 5 ^*"*^ avrois jcal npocr- 
ev^rfrav oi Be* fiadrp-al hrerCfii)<rav avroi?. lih '0 Bk 'liio"ovs elirev, *A<frere 
ra. iraiSia, Kal ftr) /coAuere avra &0ea> ir/xfe /*r rfii* ya/> toioutojv &7TU» 
17 fiaartXeta twv ovpav&v. ls Kal t?m0€ls avroi? T05 x*'/* 15 CTopcuQ") eK&Bev. 

(■*£•) 16 ! Kal iSov, «f$ irpotrekdiov etirev avry, Aibdo-Koke aryade, ri ayadbv 
irouqarta, Xva k\a> £gmJh' al(i>vu>v ; 17 *0 8t* elircv avr$* T( ftc eparras wept rov 
ayaOov ; eh icrnv 6 ayaOos, 6 Geo 1 !. El he $4\et<s ci<? tt)j> {drip dccAiteu', 
Tqpt)<rov to? throXds. w k yl^yct avT$* iloux? ; 'O Si 'Iijaovs etn^ To, ov 
<}>ovev<rei.r ov fiotxcvVetr ov /eXe'i/reis' ov t/revSo/ia/OTv/oiyo'ets' 
191 rt/ia top varepa xal rr^v p.t\r£pa' kou, dyan-^aeis rov irXijo-to** 
o-ov &»$ a-eavrov. m Aeyei avr$ 6 veavio~Ko<s, llama ravra &fn)\aidp.rjv 4k 
woViyros ftoV ti er* vcrrepta ; (^) 21 m *2S^i» avrop 6 'Iiyo-ovs, 22t d£kei$ ri- 

buid, he who mirriet her mikei hinuelf one fleeh with an adultereu, 
and to it a partner in adultery, and cauaet her to commit adultery. 

The aentence of our Lord ia, that a wife is not to be put away 
except for fornication, and that she who is put away is not to be mar- 
ried to another. (Jerome, Epist xix. pro libris suis adT. Jovin.) 
We pronounce that man to be an adulterer who puts away hit wife 
for any cause tare fornication ; but we do not therefore absolve from 
the taint of this tin (' non hnjut peccati labe defendimus') him who 
hat put away hit wife for fornication and hat married another. No 
One can deny that he it an adulterer who hat married a woman 
whom her husband hat put away for fornication. {Aug. de Conj. 
Adult 1.9. 12; ii. 16.) 

— /uotyarai] In Matt T. 82, our Lord says wont mirrriv poi- 
Vwrfai. TTiis hat been explained by the use of the Hiphil form for 
Kal (d Lapidt) ; but both are very consistent The man who divorcee 
his wife and marries another commits adultery, inasmuch at he unite, 
himself to another woman while he has a wife living ; and he maket 
her commit adultery, — that it, he exposes her to the danger of doing 
so, by tempting her to unite herself to another man while the hat a 
husband living,— and to, at far as in him lies, maket her an adul- 
teress. "Apud Deum," tayt Grotfw (in Marc. x. 11), "adultorii 
crimine tenetnr, qui expulus praebet adultorii o«-- ** 

10. 4 «Ma] the ease. Hebr. rn^s (d&rak). 

Cp. 1 Pet _- _ 

to5to» riii Xoyoi), vit celibacy : , 

He rivet certain examples. Cf. 1 Cor. vii. 2. 7. 9. 17. 

IS. livovxoi] iiroux<n, Hebr. DTJ (lori), from tTQ («Bai), 
'abscidit* (Gemi.); and thence, — because tiroivpi were often 'cu- 
bicularii,' — it signifies a chamberlain, and in such catet it not to be 
taken in the literal signification. 

The word ,iyoi X ot had been already used by die LXX for 
Mil, Iy«i», a lord of the bedcha v - 

ing Potiphar, who was m , _, _. 

and cp. xl. 2. 7, concerning the chief butler 

1 Sam. viii. 15. Esth. i. 10. 12. 15. In Oen. xxxvii. 36 and Its. xxxix. 7 

the LXX use vwaimr, and so mark the difference of meaning. 

Thus it appears that the phrase ivvovvurnv iairrouc does not 
mean literally bv amputation (heaven forbid?), but bv the extirpation 
of sensual thoughts. They who act upon this literally give occasion 
to those who traduce creation, and encourage the heresy of the Mani- 
chtsant, and fall into the sin of ihote among the Gentiles who violate 
themselves. (Ckryt., doubtless with reference to the can of Origen.) 
See Eu*b. vi. 8. Epipkun. Her. lxiv. 3. 

The phrase («i». sarroet) in this verte sirnifiet alto those, both 
men and women, who abstain from married life and its cares, that 
they may attend with more assiduity on the service of the Marriage 
Chamber and Court of the Heavenly King. (Cf. Isa. lvi. 3 to 
which passage probablv our Lord alludes.) Cp. Greg. Nax., p. 658, 
who says, tJ uiy/n tm» vot/iaTtcvv ib<iabx<*» crritaai r6v koyor, 
IHKpAf xal inafyor \6yov. 
18. yraMa] r . He_had vindicated the righto of Marriage, and now 

14. A<ptTt to -raiiia] On this text, at an argument for Baptism 
of Infants, see St. Aug. Serm. 174, quoted below on Mark x. 14. 
Cp. Luke xvUi. 17. 

— tw toiovtmv] " Si tali**, multo magis ipeorum (L e. infan- 
tium)." (Cp. Aw.) 

18. tit] emphatically: for he was an tpx m * (Lukexvili. 18). 

17. rl n> ipurfv w„.l roS iyatoi] This appears to be the true 
reading, and is received by Ob Lackm., Ti*ek., and Alf. from B, D, 
L, and it is found in Syriac Omtton, and in Origen, Even., Jerome, 
Aug., and others, for rl /is Xtytit dyaVw; Cp. Mark x. 17. Lnke 
xvi'ii. 18. See next note. 

— lit ianu i iyofWt] This alto appears to be the right reading, 
and is given by B, D, L, and Syr. Cureton, and received by Tuck. 
1856JOT oMtiv iya»ie, .1 M n sit. 

The b iyaSit is God. Cp. 1 Pet iii. 13, rh ipat i irtwtWtaf 
iiy tov dyaffoii /uturral yun,a9i ; St Matt gives our Lord's 
answer to the (/nation ; the other two Evangelists to the addrttt of 
the young man. The tense it, " Do you ask me concerning the good 
tlat you should do in order to have life t There it One Who it good, 
— the good — God. He it the sole Source of good, and you need not 
any other Instructor but Him ; and you must comply with Hit Law, 
and not rely on yourself, but pray for His gnat in order to be enabled 

„ __, ._ _. , se higher in your thoughts of Me and call 

Me, not Rabbi, but God ? " Commodissime igitur," tayt Aug, de 
Cons. Ev. ii. 63, " intelligitur utrumque dicium Quid diets Me 
bonum 1 et Cur interrogas Me de bono V (Cp. Aug. de Trin. i. 13.) 

" Some blame thit young man at a hypocrite ; but we read in St 
Mark that our Lord looked on him and loved him (Mark x. 21). 
Hit fault was that he doted on hit possessions, which got the mattery 
over him. Wealth it a powerful tyrant, and blights many virtues. 

"But why did our Lord say 'none ia good? Because be came 
to Him merely as a man — as a human teacher ; He therefore tstsct 
as a man ; for He often replies to the Oumgkt* of Hit hearers. When 
He tayt ' None is good,' He does not deny Himself to be good (heaven 
forbid I). He did not say, * I am not good,' but ' None ia good.' 
No man is good — much lots in comparison with God. He thus ele- 
vates his thoughts and detaches him from earthly good, and fixes hit 
mind on God, and teaches him what is the essence and source of good, 
and to a*eribe honour to Him. So when He said, 'Call no man 
father on earth' (Matt xxiii. 9), He was speakint in et 
with God, and teaching ua what it the fait principle of a 

■ching ua 

what ia the fait principle of all thing*. 
The young man thowed no amall eagerness for good ; for when others 
ctrne for temporal blessings, he came to ask concerning eternal life. 
Hit mind was like good and fertile ground, but it was overgrown with 
thorn* which choked the teed." (<?*ry».) 

18. ouayo, " " ■ 


Christ tc r _— __ 

2L illftm TtXawt tlvtu] If yon desire to be ; at much a* to 
say that at ret he ia not to, although he says t< sti iensit ; -ra'Xaiot, 
for Hebr. 'p^n (tamim), integer, uaed by the LXX of Noah, Gen. 
vi. 9; of Job, i. I. Our Lord command* all Hit Diaciplea to be 
tsXsioi, v. 48; and so St Paul. (Cf. 1 Cor. xiv. 20. Col. L 28.) 
' the command here given was designed to reveal the young man 

ST. MATTHEW XIX. 22—30. XX. 1, 2. 

Xcurc ehtu, wrarye, irto\r)cr6v <rov rb\ xmap^ovra kcu. 8o« utwxois, »cal l£e« 
dijo-avpop h> ovpav$' kcu. Scvpo cucokovOei /not. (■*£ ) K '4»cow<ras 8e? 6 veavi- 
o-ieo? top Xoyoi/ airrjkde Xwirow/ievos* iji> ya/> ^o>i» icrrjpaTa iroXXd. 

* * 'O 8** *It/o-ows cTire tois padr/rdis awrow, 'Apr)v \ey<o vpu>, art SwotcoXjbs 
trXowcrxos eiotXeworerai «$ rrjp fiacriXelav rmv bvpav&v. * Ilakw 8e Xtfyw 
iftw, €VKOTr<aT€p6v iari KaprpXov Sia rptnTTJparos pa<f>£8o$ ButKOelv, •*} ir\ov<nov 
cis t^v fiauriXeuw row ©eov do-eX0eu>. a './xKouVavres 8£ ol paJdifraX efewXijcr- 
ffowo <r<)>6Spa Xtfyovres, Tt« opo SwVarat <ra>0r}vai ; a ° 'E/x^8Xe/»as Sc 6 
'It/o-ows etn-ev awrot?, ITaoa avOpdmois rowro aSwVaroV «!oti, iraoa St! 8e£ 
TrdVra Swrnrd. w p Tore cmoKpideU 6 Jlerpos eTira> awry, 'l8ow, ■q/xei? eu^rj- 
*co/zg> iraVra, icat riKo\ov0yo-ap& aw' ti apa ccttou iJfiiV ; (^) a q 'O 8« 
'Iijo'ows ctirev awrois, 'jx/avgw Xey« w/aIV, ort w/u,e« ol djcoXou^o-awes ftoi, ev ry 
waXtyyevcori^ orav Kadtcrg 6 Tids tow avdpamov iirl Opovov 80^5 awrow, 
(■fr) Kadurecrde koX v/xcis «rl SwSe/ca Opovovs, Kpivovres; ras SwScko. <£uXas 
tow *I<rparp\. (^p) • Kal iro$ oorts atfyfJKG/ oiia'a?, *) aSeX^ovv v) dSeXr/xzs, 
■J) traxlpa. rj prjrcpa, t) ywauta rf TCKva, ?j aypovs, eveicev tow oVo/xaros pov, 
hcaTovratrkaxriova Xijt/wrrai, kcu. {an/v aubviov Kkijpovopij<r€u (■£) • 'ZToXXoi 
8e €<rovrtu irpanoi la^arot, #cal litr^aroi irpSnoi. XX. (™) ' 'OpoCa yelp 
iarw rj fiacriXeia t«w ovpavatv avQpmtip otKoSecnrorp, oaTts l$r}\0a> apa 
vpat purdaxrao-Oai ipydras eis t6v dfureXfiiva awrow. 2 2vp<f><0irq<ras 8k pera 

pM«rk 10.28,6c. 
Luke IS. U, fte. 


to biauelf. The young nun's onravJaXov *i» his wealth, his beset- 
ting sin wis covetousness ; ud oar Lord touches him to the quick by 

Who trieth the very hearts and reins. And, like a good physician, 
He applies the special remedy adapted to this particular ewe. (Cp. 
«ri. 25, 26 ; xriii. 8.j " Pnsceptum est particulare, ad idiosyncruiam 
hujus (rather ear lalu) anims accommodatum." (Bmg.) 

The general inference therefore is that all Christians are so to 
hold every thing they have, that they may not be sorry but rejoice to 
surrender it, if Christ requires the surrender, or if it retards or 
impedes them in following Him. See further on Luke zii. 33. 

Pelagius argued from our Lord's words that no rich man could be 
aaved unless he sold his possessions snd gave them to the poor. But 
this notion was refuted by Aug., Ep, ad Paulinum. (See a Lapide, 
and cp. Acta v. 4. 1 Tim. vi. 18.) And on the solvability of the 
rich, see Clan. Ala., " Quis dives salvetur?" ii. p. 935. 

84. «!«qXo»l To express an devmrrov, or impossibility, the 
Rabbis used to say, " It is easier for an Elephant to pass through a 
needle's eye." See Talmud, Berachot fol. 55. Bavamezia, fol. 38. 
Font, de Hebr. p. 764. The camel and needle are found in the 
Koran, Sur. 7- 38- Our Lord use* the word Camel as perhaps better 
known to the hearers and readers of His Gospel; and on account of 
the form of the Camel, the hump on its back being an apt emblem of 
worldly wealth as a heavy load and impediment to entrance through 
the narrow gate— the needle's eye— of life. 

If a rich man cannot enter the kingdom of God any 
" " ^ . - ji- .i -i-i. _. 

pass through the eye of a needle, then no rich man could be 
saved. Bat Isaiah says (Tx. 6) that the cameU of Hidian and Ephah 
ehall come with their girts and offerings to Zion; and they who before 
were crooked and bent and distorted enter its gates ; so those camels, 
to which the rich are compared here, when they have cast off the load 
of their worldliness, may by the Divine clemency enter the straight 
gate which leadeth into life. {Jtrom*.) It is not a sin to be rich, 
for how can a man give largely without means? But it is a sin to 

et wealth and to dote upon it. (Hilary.) 

- du\tU?i> — (IviXSiivJ Such appears to be the true reading. 

J - l n paubuj tinuah one thing (the n "^ 

, -- a with the Divine aid, for which 

they ought therefore to pray. (Ckryi.) 

88. f, t p »aAiyy.»«<r/o.l At the new birth of the saints at the 
Resurrection,— in the new Jerusalem. (See 2 Pet iii. 13. Rev. iii. 
12; xxL 2. 5.) That waXiyvu/trfa is commenced in, and typified 
by, the Regeneration or new birth in the Church Visible on earth 
(Tit. iii. 5), cp. on Rom. viii. 22; and see Aug. de C. D. xxv. 5. 

With the phrase l» rjj woXiy. 3-ray, cp. Mark xii. 23, i> if 

— Sr«» koBi'itt,— «a6(«ir6i] Observe, He uses the aerwe when 
speaking of Himself ; the middle voice, of His Apostles. (Bmg.) 

— 1»1 SMiko flpomvr, KpiWrit] Not that the Apostles are 
not 6rst to be judged by Christ. See Rom. xiv. 10. f ~ 
1 Cor. iv. 3, 4. 2 Tim. iv. 8. " Ineunte Judicio stalma 
36. 2 Cor. v. 10), turn, absoluti, emndetuiu:' (Bemf.) 

: (Luke x 
They w 

seats of glory and dignity 
h speaks of Thrones being 
'ge is equivalent to rtignmg. 

be tet to judge, i. e. 

in His Kingdom. 

set, &c. Cf. Rev. iii. 21, and iv. 4. To judge is equivalent to nignkig. 

SeeRev.xx.4. Wisdom iii. 8, upmoiaiv Mt>ti,K a l,parn<rouat\aS,¥. 

K.plrtu>, Wf (AajAat), to judge, signifies often to rule. Hence 
the Sufitet of Carthage, properly DnpfW (thopietim), Judgtt, were 
Magistrates. So the Israelitish Judgtt. 

We are not to suppose (says Aug. de Civ. Dei, xx. 5) that only 
twelve persona are to judge with Christ But by the perfect number 
twelve, is signified the whole number of those who shall judge. 
Otherwise, as Matthias was elected into the place of Judas, the 
Apostle Paul, who laboured more abundantly than they all, should 
have no place to judge. But He shows that he, with the rest of the 
saints, is numbered among the Judges when He says, Know ye not 
all judge Angels? 1 Cor. vi. 3. Cp. Aug. Serm. 351. 

a tfpo'vouv] He says iaiixa, although Judo* would forfeit 

le person is, quam de personarnm statu; 
m hoc habere propositum premium, ut 
udicio super sedem sessurus sit" (Mai- 

Greg. Mar. 

sentem justitiam, et non tarn de personis, quam de pc 

quasi dicat Apostolorum qflcium hoc b 1 *" 

qui eo bene fuitetut fuerit, m Judicio su 

He tells Peter that they should sit on fteehe Thrones. He does 
not promise iim One Throne by himself. Let the Bishop of Rome, 
who claims to be Peter's Successor, admit all other Bishops to be 
<rw»6|«woi with himself; or else let him fear that he may forfeit his 
throne by covetousness,— as Judas did. 

— iiima tpvXat T. 'I<rpoiiX] The 

condemning them for not believing what you believe, i. 
(Jerome.) Cp. Matt xii. 27. 

The whole Visible Church. (Aug. de Civ. Dei, xx. fi.) See Rer. 
vii. 4—9, and xii. 12. 

By the word iraXiyymota, our Lord had drawn off the minds 
of the Apostles from earthly hopes to spiritual joys ; and He now 
speaks of the heavenly Jerusalem, the Israel of God, in which the 
Apostles will hold high places, and therefore their names are said to 
be written on the foundation stones of the heavenly city (Rev. 
xxi. 14). 
89. *«] Even the poorest of the poor. 

— eUfetl Some recent Editors transpose ■ ,, . 

but against the majority of MSS. and the structure of the sentence, 
which is one of ateent first and then of detcent. 

a] Some expunge y vralxu, at if i 
the balance of MSS. and the U 

- oUlai] Some recent Editors transpose oUUt to follow iypoit, 
it the majority of MSS. and the struct 
lucent first, and then of detcent. 


i is, that all must be left i/Christ so requires— a condition im- 
plied in iWiv toS ioofunot uoo. And see Mark x. 29. Luke xiv. 
26; xviii. 29, and therefore yiwaixs has peculiar force. 

"all Christians are brothers and 


— Uaroira-wluxalma) For 
sisters in Christ. 
30. upmroi] notolwpiToihere.asitisin 

.16. See note there. 

Cr. XX. L iuirtXSm] The Visible Church of God had been 
already compared to an oVa-iXaw cn$ (kerem), in the Old Test Is. 
v. 1—7. Cant viii. 12. 

8. ovn<pmrncat— U inrapio* rh> iuipar] The Lard ii d*- 

60 ST. MATTHEW XX. 3-15. 

ratv ipyarmv e/e Syvaplov rqv -qpApav airiaretXev avrovs ei? rbv ap,Tre\a>va 
avrov. ' Kal ££ek0h>v irepl rpirqv Stpav ct8cp aXXovs eaTwras iv tq dyopq. 
dpyovW * lecucciVois ctvev, 'Tirdyere ical w/xcis eis rbv dfiireKStva, koX o idv 
$ Bucavov, Bwarw vp.ur s oi 8c airrjKBov. Ilaktv i£ekda>v irepl €KTi)P Kal evdrqv 
tapav iiroCrja-ep ao-at/ras. 6 Ilepl hk rrjv epBeKarrjv apav igekOwv ctpev 
aXXovs cotStos apyovs, Kal Xeyei auroi?, Tt S8e earqKare oXip Tip rjfidpav 
apyoC ; 7 Aeyowrw avr<p, "Otu o vSels ^/ta? ep.urdm&aTo. Aeyei. avrois, 'Ttt- 
ayere *al v/xei? ei? roc d/x7rcXa>va, zeal & cav ■§ Bucaxov hqifteotie. 8 '(hjiuK Bk 
yevop.cirq<;, Xcyei 6 Kvpux rov d/tweX&ij'os t$ hrvrpoirtp avrov, KaXecrov tovs 
ipydras, Kal dwoSos avrois w p.ur6bv, dpfa/xevo? ewro rati' iaydrav ews 
tSv irpatrtav. 9 Kal eX06Wes ot ire/jl t^v cvScKaVr;!' a/joc cXa/Sov dra Si^vd- 
/otov. 10 *EX0dWes 8e oi trpSnoi eVduurai> ori irXctova Xip/ioirar ical ekafiov 
Kal avrot ova. Srjudpiov. n Xafiovres 8c eyoyyvdov icard tov otKoScoTrorov, 
12 Xeyoires, *Oti ovrot ot ca^aTOt /*' wcav iirovrjcrav, Kal to-ovs ^/u,u/ avrov? 
irrovr)<ra<; rots jSacrrdo-ao'i to fidpos ttjs ^ucpa? tat rov Kavcrtova. 1S 'O 8c 
■ Rom o ii anoKpuSeU dire? e»»l avraij', 'Erai/je, ovk dSuccu o-e o«x* Srjvaotbv o-wetftuvrjo-ds 
b"S," !'iifi. P* 1 » W fy )0 *' T0 o" 01 ' Ka * vwaye 0eXa> tovt$> t<£ iaydr^ SovVat at? Kal cot. 
pto».M.». 15 • ^ ov#f ££ €<7T £ ^ ot WO ti)o-at o 0eXa> cv rots eaots; b 4) 6 o^aX/tds crov 

scribed u agreeing with thoM only who were hired fint for a apeciflc 
inm, a denariiu, or drachma, by the dag : the usual rate of wages for 
a day's labour (See Tobit v. U Her. vi. 6. Tacit. Ann. l. 17.) 
To the others he promises to gire S ia, r, iixatm (ver. 4), and they 
enter his terrice in a trustful spirit, on these terms. 

3. «.i ifiXoow] On this Parable, 1—16, see Ckrye. v. 708. 
Orat 101>. creg. M. Homil. i. 19, p. 1510. Almighty God has been 
ever going forth, eren from the beginning of the world, to call men 
into His Vineyard, that of the Visible Church. 

This He did in the scTeral successWe dispensations of the various 
Hours of the WorWs Day. Adam was called at daybreak ; then 
Noah; then the Patriarchs; then Moses and the Prophets; and last 
of all the Apostles and Evangelists ; and the Gentile World by the 
Gospel preached at the eleventh hour, the xuipot io-yaroi (Heb. i. 2. 
1 Pet. i. 5. Acts ii. 17. 1 John ii. 18) of the world's existence. 
" Extrema hora, salvatoris adventus." {Jerome, iv. \69.) 

— rpirno &pau] Nine o'clock. On the division of the Roman 
day, see Martial iv. 8. They had gone to the iyopa, and waited 
there, in order to be hired. 

7. Xiyomri* airrm, "On oMii't] Therefore, they would have gone 
into the Vineyard with the Brst, if they had been called. God not 
only knows how men act, but how they would have acted, under 
given circumstances. The readiness with which many of the Gen- 
tiles embraced the Gospel, when offered, is a very favourable circum- 
stance for the case of those to whom it was not offered. The case of 
Oomeliue (Acts x.) shows what the great men, soldiers of the Cornelia 
gent, the Scipios, &c. would have done, /the Gospel had been offered 
them. May we not say the same of Cicero, Horace, and many othen? 
Hence may we not hope that Christ's merits may extend to them ? 

10. t A • /oral Tischendorf and others read not wXtiov, but »A tiora, 
which has the best authority, and is more suitable than trXiTor, as sig- 
nifying an indefinite expectation of more, without any right to, or 
even anticipation of, any one particular greater sum. 

lL tyoyvi-Jor] A word already used by the LXX for Hcbr. 
m (raghan), to murmur from discontent and in rebellion. Ps. cvi. 
25. Isa. xxix. 24. " They that were called of old," says Jerome. 
i. e. the Jews, " envv the Gentiles, and are grieved at the grace of 
the Gospel ;" as if the prize was impaired by its being imparted to 
others. This is prophetic of the jealous spirit of the Jews toward the 
Gentiles. See Acts xiii. 45, 46, and particularly 1 Thess. ii. 16, "for- 
bidding us to preach to the Gentilee, that they may be saved." 

16. (tytfoXpdt wofnpot] 0<i«a»ot . invidui, see Deut. xxviil. 54. 

Prov. xxiii. 6. The Jews had an evil eye, being grieved at the call 

of the Gentiles to salvation. Therefore the Jews are rejected, as the 

Parable declares. The first shall be last, and the last first The 

Jews, from being the head, are become the tail ; and we Gentiles, 

from being the tail, are the head. Deut. xxviii. 13. 44. (Jerome.) 

The scope of the Parable seems to be as follows :— 

St Peter had heard our Lord's answer to the young man, " Sell 

all that thou hast, and give to the poor, and follow Me, and thou 

shalt have treasure in heaven" (xix. 21. Mark x. 21. Luke xviii. 

22); and he inferred therefrom, that he himself and his brother 

Apostles, who had done what Christ comi " 

do, Le. had left all and followed Christ, 

' eir work: and he asks, What si " ' 

Our Lord tells him in ee. % 

le. 8. Ckr t t. Introduces a remark of genenl 
"--■■'-. "We must remember that the 
' "" ' is in pressing ever? 

but every one who makes sacrifices of worldly advantages for His 
sake, win have an abundant reward hereafter (v. 29. Mark x. 29— 
31. Luke xviii. 29, 30), and yet He warns him that at that Day, 
many who are now first shall be last, and many who are last be first 

For (He adds) the Visible Church on earth is like a Vineyard. 
And then He recites the Parable (xx. 1—16), at the close of which 
He says that the first shall be last, and fie last first Observe the 
article ol with trpmroi and with ie-goToi, showing that the words 
refer to two particular classes — i. e. the Jem and the Gentilee — a special 
case, illustrating the general proposition in xix. 30. 

The one Denariue given to all cannot mean eternal Salvation ; for 

Eternal life is never represented in Scripture as wage* due for 
work ; but as the free gift (x«f <<) of God in Christ ; and 

The last are not represented as saved ; and 

There will be no murmuring in heaven (v. 11). 

Rather, the one Denarius, given to all, represents, that there will 
be a oreo* difference at the Last Day. For, if the last receive a. 
Denarius for one hour, whereas the first receive the same sum for 
twelve hours, it is evident that the last do in fact receive twelve 
times as much as the first; for it comes to the same thing — and 
the difference is equally marked — whether men receive the same 
wages for different times of work, or different wages for the same 
time of work. And so the first are last and the last first 

As to trorfe, — all that any can claim as a right is an earthlu 
coin, a miserable denariue, the wages of a day-labourer on aorta. 
And the award of this one sum to all is a proof of the equal impo- 
tence of all human works, to merit heaven as wages due. 

Besides this, the very fact of having a murmuring spirit is itself 
a punithment. Envy disqualifies for heaven, 
" Invidus alterius macrescit rebus opimis, 

Imidia Siculi non invenere tyranni 

. o-d»)_thine 

d go thg wag (e. 14), depart from Me. 

Further, these first hired labourers boast of their own works. 

" We have borne the burden and heat of the day." Cp. the language 

of the elder brother in the Parable, Luke xv. 29. And so the Jews, 

themselves unto the righteousness of God (Rom. x. 3), and have not 
attained to the law of righteousness (Rom. ix. 31) ; but the Gentilee, 
who have trusted in God, have attained to the righteousness ot faith 
(ix. 30). And so the first are last, and the last first 

Thus the Parable is prophetic of an important fact in the history 
of the Church ; viz. that among those who were first called (viz. the 
Jews), many would be last: and that among the last called (viz. the 
Gentiles), many would be first 

Thus also our Lord prepares His disciples for what He ia about 
to reveal to them more rally, viz. that their Master Himself would 
suffer much from the Jews (see xx. 18). He Himself, the First would 
teem to be last He cheers them by what He has just said, and exhorts 
them not to be staggered, and cast down, though they themselves, 
who hsd left all to follow Him, should suffer as He was about to 
suffer. For in due time, they who suffered with Him should be 
rewarded, and all His enemies, who might now seem 

onsidn toe general scope of th 
t, and not be overscrupulous 

of the whole, 

ST. MATTHEW XX. 16—27. 

irovrfp6s iarw, ort eyia ayaOos eipi ; 16 c Ovrcas eaovrai ol eax<*-TOt, irpSnoi, 
Kal ol wpwTot. lo^aTor ttoXXoi yap eio-i kXtjtoI, okCyot Be eVcXexTou 

(™ ) 17 d Kal ava/3au>(DV 6 'Iijaovs eU 'Iepoaokvpa irapeXafie tow? BdBeKa 
padtyra^ Kar IBCav ev rg 68$, ical eta-ey avrois, ,8 'iBov, avaf3al.vop.ev els 'Iepo- 
croXvpa, Kal 6 Tibs tow avdptawov vapaBod-qaerai rots dp^iepevo-i Kal ypappa- 
T€u<ri, Kal KaraKpivovtriv avrbv Oavartp, 19 ' #cai irapaBacrovcriv avrbv tois 
eOveaiv eis to ipirattjai koI pacmytoa-ai. Kal crravpSxrav koI rj} TpCrg -qpepq. 

(w) ^ ' Tore irpooJjXOev avrtp ff prjfrqp Ttav vluv ZefSeBaCov //.era. twv vum' 
avrrjs, irpoo-Kwov<ra koI alrovard ti Trap' avrov. 21 'O he etirev awry, Ti 
oVXeis ; Aeyet, avr<jJ, fJiwe uca Kadi<ra><rw ovroi oi Svo uiot /xov, cis e*c Sefiwi' 
txov *cai els 4£ eva>vvpxav trov, ev rj) fiacrikeia o~ov. ffi ' ' 'AiroKpifiels Be 6 'Itjo-oSs 
etirev, Ovk otBare ti airelarde. Avvacrde view to ironjpiov, o eyw peXXco rrivew, 
Kal to fidimo-pa, o eyi> /Hairri&opat,, fiaimcrdfjvai ; Xeyovcrw avr<w, Awdpeda. 
28 Kal Xeyei avroi?, Tb /i«v irorqptov pov nUcde, koI to f&dimcrpa, o *?y<» 
f$airrC£opAU, fSaTrncrOTJo-eade to Be Kadicrat. ex Be£ta>v pov Kal i£ evavvpaP 
pov, ovk ecmv epbv Bow at, aXX* of? r/TolpaoTai virb tov JTaroos pov. 
Oir) M h Kal okovowtc? oi S«ca ■tf/avaKrqo-av irepl rmv Bvo dBeX<f>a>v ^ ' 6 Be 
'Jrjo-oOs irpoo-Kokeo-dpevos avrovs eXrrev, OtSare, ori oi apxpyres rav idvZv 
KaTOKvpvevova-w avratv, Kal ol peydXoi KaTegovcndfavaiv avrav a ov\ ovtcds 
Be earai ev vpur dXX* os ecu* Oekg ev vpiv peyas; yevea-dai, earw ipa>v 
Bulkovos, % Kal 8s eav Bekg ev vplv etvai irpwros, «jt<» vpav SovXos. 

d M«rk 10. 32. 
Lake 18. 31.' 

Mil 12. IS. 

ch. M. 39, 42. 

g ch. M. 39, 
John 18. II. 

for a time, be punithed; and to the Brat be lut, and the lut 

This appears to be the primary scope of the Parable. 
SubordmatelT, it may be applied to 

aoaf, in the . 

i- i. 49). 

xt is reproTed for aakior tl Jotoi h\uu ; 

He should rather hare tnuted, as the labourers did (v. 4), that the 

Incidentally also St. Peter is 

■elves aggrieved by the introduction of the Gentiles into the 
rard, andby their participation in its blessings, and boasting of 
. . ,_ in. ■-- . —j ondemn^ it i« set forth as 

a warning against all envy a _.. ...... 

ness and all repining against God's tree and gracious dispensations. 
17. irapAap.] He took them aside. 

19. vTaupiaai] Our Urd reveals the future by degrees, as His 
" ' ' s. in proportion as they 

es in the doctrine of Hi 
in proportion 

n that the Son of Man should be lolled (xvi. 21), i 

He had 

■aid that His Dixmln must take up the Ooss ui& follow Him (x. 

xvi. 24) : and thus He had prepared them gradually for the revelat 

which He now makes to them at almost the close of His Ministry, that 
He Haaelf should be delivered to the OmtiUa (Romans) to be mocked 
and teowrged and crucified. How natural is all this ! Here is one of 
the many silent proofs of the Truth of the Gospel History, as well as 
of the long-suffering, wisdom, and tenderness of Christ 

SO. 4 tuirmil For their father, Zebedee (as appears tram Mark 
i. 20) bad been left with the hired ae 

the request (e. 22, 23). 

8L 1* «■•£ ii»l See 2 Sam. 
2 Chron. xviii. 18. 

S3. worw/).o»l See xxvi. 39-42. John 
used by the LXX for cto (cos), a cup of 
lxr». 8). 

xvi. 6. 1 Kings it 19; xxii. 19. 

- Pairriaiid] Luki 

drunk; the Bapt — ! - " 

Cf. I I 

._. SO. The cup 
Red Sea of His 
see Luke 

surrering or wrath (Pe. 
the bitter water to be 

through. Cf. I Cor. : 
The pi 

of Job ., 

28. to ni» iroriipidv /tov iri'i<rt>s] The one, St Ji 
first of the Apostles to drink the cup of suffering; the ot 
who survived the rest, drank me largest and dee 

It James, was the 
„. mother, St John, 


Our Lord here describes the two kinds of Christian Martyrdom ; 
and all Christians must be prepared for one or the other of them. 
Every one must be a James or a John. Cp. St. Greg, in Luc 
-xi. 9: '"" - J -— — - ■'■ -- —._.■!_..- -. :_ 

Eccleaia vivimus, martyrii palmam t 

Duo quippe s 

martyrii genera, imum in mente, alind in mente aimul et actirae. 
Itaque esse martyres possumus, etianui nullo percutientium ferro 
trucidemur. Mori quippe a penequente, martynum in aperto opere 
est; ferre vero contumelias, odientem diligere, martyrium est in 
occulta cogitatione. Nam q^uia duo not martgrK genera, unum in 
occulto opere, aliud in publico testator Veritas, qua Zebedad Alios 
requirit, dicens : Pottttu hibere eaticem, ovei* ego bUnturut turn ? 
Cui cum protinus responderent (Matt xx. 22), Pommut, illico 
Dominus respondet, dicens: Calicem ouidem meant bibeti*. Quid 
enim per calicem, nisi dolorem passioms accipimus? De quo alias 
dicit : Pater, ri fieri potctt, traneeat a me calix itte (ib. xxvi. 39. 
Marc. xiv. 36). Et Zebedci filii, id est Jacobus et Johannes, non 
uterque per martvrium occubuit, et Umen qudd uterque caliotm 
biberet, audivit Johannes naroque nequaquam per martyrium vitam 
finivit, sed tamen martyr extitit ; quia pasaionem, quam non suscepit 
in corpore, servavit in mente. Et noa ergo hoc exemplo sine ferro 
esse possumus martyres, si patientiam veraciter in amino custodi- 

— -ri ti «a»J»oi] Observe the actiee voice ; and cp. xix. 28. 

— eovvtti] i. e. It is not for Me to give, but it u for Me to adjudge ; 
it is nota boon to be gained by solicitation, but it will be assigned to 
those for whom it it prepared, according to certain laws prescribed by 
God. Cp. Baril. Seleue. Orat xxiv. p. 134, who says naitarux 
aOKor i Vportn, oil <f>i\ortutat x*P'*pa' * K tcaropBioftiTwr, ovk ij- 
olTiiffiwt 4 ioent. Is not mine to give. It does not depend on 
the giver, but on the recipient. For there is no respect of pertont 
with God, but he who is most worthy, not in person, but in practice, 
will receive it from Him. (JeroaM.) No one will sit at Christ's 
right hand and left No saint or apostle. No, not any Angel or 

1. Why then does He speak of such a session ? He conde- 
their weakness, and replies according to their notions. They 

J that the Apostles would sit on twelve thrones, and they did 

not understand that saying, but claimed the primacy for themselves. 
What He says is this : Ye will tufer for My sake. But this will not 
entitle you to the chief place. Others may suffer more than yon. 
And every man will be rewarded according to his works. We are not 
however to imagine that Christ will * 

that day" (2 Tiro, iv. 8). 
than St Paul, is, I suppose, manifest to all. (CAryi.) 
84. ol AW] Observe St. Matthew's ingenuousness, r 

d He proposes His own practice u a pattern. 
King of heaven, and condescended to become 

great things we lose them; by not seeking them we gain them. 
What is lower than the Devil ? And how did he become so? By 
self-exaltation. And how are we enabled to tread him under foot? 

By humility. {Chtjt) 

ST. MATTHEW XX. 28—34. XXI. 1—5. 

(t£) ^ k wnrep 6 Tibs rov avdpwrov ovk Tjkde Buucovtj&fjvai, oXXa Suutavrjaui, 
KaX Sowai ji)v iftvxqv avrov Xvrpov avri iroXkSw. 
"" (if) * ' ■&" cWo/jcvo/xcvtMV avrov airo 'Icpi^a ^Ko\o60rj<rev avrtp o^Xo? 
•jroXvs. " k<u IBov, 8v*o rv^Xol nafrrjpevoi irapa rr)V 6&6v, ajcov<rarres or* 
'Ii/o-ovs irapayei eicpagav Xcyovres, '■EXtfrjow tj/xas, Hv/M6, vioe JavtS* 31 *0 
8c" o^ko* iirertfiijo-ev avrots, Iva o-uinrjcroMrw 61 8e /xeI£oi> eKpa£ov, \eyovre;, 
'E\er)<rov ■q/xas, Kvpie, vtos JavfS* M Kai ora? 6 'It/o-ovs i<jxM*T)<r€v avrovs, 
»cal ctirc, Tt fleXere irovq<ro> v/iiV ; n Aeyov<rw avr$, Kvpu, Iva avoiydStcrtv 
rjpxav oi 6<f>$a\p.oL ** $irXayx>'iO'0€i« ^ ° 'lijo-ovs ^raro tuv 6<j>0akp*>v 
avrutv Ka\ evdeoK avefikoftav avrcav oi o^daX/xol, icol ^KoXouftjotwf avr$. 

XXI. (t£) * *Kat ore iJyyMrai' cfe 'Icpoo-oXv/ta, ical ^Xflov €19 BtjOiftayfj 
irpbs to 6/jos t«Sv i\awv, Tore 6 'Jrjo-ovs aircoraXc Svo /ia&jTas, 2 Xeyw 
avrots, IIop€v(h)T€ cts tt)*' K<ap.t\v Tt\v airevavri vpMV, ko\ evdim evprjtrere 
ovov SeSe/icVr/v, ical iraXov /xer' avrrJT Xvo-ojtcs ayayere /xou 3 KaX eaV n? 
v/u,u> eiirp n, epure, "Ort 6 Kvpios avrwv x/octai' ^ei* evOims hk avoareket 
avrov?. (^) 4 Tovro 8c o'W yeyovei', wa tr\rjpo}0§ to piy^eV 81a rov irpoxfnjrov 
Xcyowos, * b EfiroT€ t# Ovyarpl 2t,dv, 'l8ov, 6 /Sao-iXevs o-ov e/>x*> 
toi 0-01 irpavs, Kal cVtj8e/3r/Ka>$ eVl ovov, Kal iraiXoi' vibv v?ro£v- 

88. X«rpw d»rf] X«»o» i. the word used by the LXX for 
JVTB (pidkyon), a ransom (Exod. xxi. 30), from root m? (pa<MaA), to 
nay a raiuom, for which Xuraovo if used in numerous puMget by the 
XXX: Exod. xiii. 13. IS; xxxir. 20. Ler. xix. 20TxxTii. 29. 
Numb, xriii. IS. 17. Deutvii.8; ix.26. P.. xxv. 22 ; xxri. 1 1 ; 
xxxi. 5. Is*, li. 1 1. Jer. xt. 21. Cp. 1 Pet i. 18, 19, which supplies 
the best comment on this pssssge, ov tpdaproU, ipyvpiu 4 xe u ""y 
iXi>Tp«49.|Tt, dXXd Tisif oIm«ti, it iumv i/impm xal 
itrrtXov, Xpta-rov. Avti<od is also something more ; it is purdkast 
mom for some great benefit: See Qntius, de Satisfivctione Christi, 
p. 162. A divine assertion of the doctrine of the Atonement ; the life 
of Christ was given by Him as a price by which mankind ia ramomed 
from the captivity and slavery of sin and death, and for the purchase 
of a glorious liberty and of life everlasting. The LXX use also the 
word yp (copier) for XvTpoo, in the sense of covering an offence. 
(See Exod. xxi. 26; xxx. 10. 16.) And the Mercy-seat, as ooeermg 
■' ' k (the figure of the Church), and as that on which God reposes 
rcy between the Cherubim, is called rnbs (eotwretf), Exod. 

mb? (eotwretf), 
xxv. 17 — 22, or covering, and also IXao-rifpiov (Heb. ix. 15), and is I 
■e by Christ See Rom. iii. 26, Si 




— irri toXXmvI Why does He not say wdvrar P That would 
be true ; see Heb. If. 9. Rom. viii. 32. 1 tim. ii. 6, i tot* iarri, 

But the Sacrifice was not yet offered; when it had been, it would 
declare its own nature; and the Apostles would proclaim it He 
makes His gracious revelations to them by degrees. (See xvi. 
xxvi.2.) Cp.or ' "° ' --« « -- ! * J 

. on xxvi. 28, npl wo War Uxorinirow, and see how 
i-oXXoi and wdrric are equivalent, Rom. v. 12 — 19. 
ma. nil .*-wofnvonhti>r aurmii] At first sight there seems to be 
a difficulty in reconciling this narrative with that in St Luke (xviii. 
35—43) and St. Mark (x. 46—52), which see. 

The solution seems to be as follows : 

Our Lord on entering Jericho sees a blind man by the wayside 
begging (Luke xviii. 35—40). St Luke says that our Lord paused 
after a time and healed him. St Luke then poet bade to give an 
account of Zacchcus, who was anxious to see Jesus as He was entering 
Jericho (Luke xix. 1). And St. Luke recounts how our Lord spends 
the night in the house of Zacchssua, probably at Jericho, and leaves 
the city for Jerusalem. 

It seems probable that St Luke desired to describe and put 
together the whole history of the blind man's cure, and so anticipates 
the result by a prolepsis common in Scripture, and that in fact the 
blind man was not healed immediately ; but that our Lord tried his 
faith by postponing his cure till the next day, and that when our Lord, 
after His sojourn with Zacchcus, was going out the next day from 
Jericho, the same blind man, now attended by another blind man 
who had heard of.our Lord's intention to go that way, and who had 
perhaps been invited by the other blind man to join him, was sitting 
near the gate' which led out of Jericho toward Jerusalem (see Matt 
xx. 29, 30), and that both were Hen healed. 

See further on this subject the note on Mark x. 46, and on the 
situation of Jericho see on Luke xviii. 85. 

In confirmation of the above remarks, it may be observed that 
nothing is more striking in sacred history (compared with human 
annals) than the practice of Anticipation and Recapitulation (see 
xxvi. 6). It belongs to the nature of the Divine Author of Scripture 
(• c3» xal i ij» Kal o ipxiH'Mt, Rev. i. 4), to Whom all time is pre- 
sent at once. Holy Scripture, to be rightly understood, must be read 

and interpreted accordingly. One of the Rabbis says well, " Non est 
prius, aut posterius, in Scnpturi." (A. Jareki, in Gen. vi.) 

A similar instance of finishing of a subject may be seen in St. 
Matthew's narrative of the withering of the fig-tree (xxi. 20), which 
he connects with the remarks of the Disciples upon it, although those 
remarks were not made till the next day. (Mark xi. 200 

See also a remarkable instance of Anticipation in St. Luke, iii. 
19, and another xix. 45. By a similar prolepsis Mary is said, in John 
xi. 2, to have anointed Jesus, though the anointing aid not take place 
till afterwards (xii. 8). See also Matt xxvii. 52, 53. 

3L ol ei p.tXio, ficoalov] A proof of faith. The blind men sate 
Jesus with the eye of faith, and prayed to Him as their Saviour, 
— while the world, who could see His person, saw Him not And 
yet the blind world, which did not see Jesus, rebuked the blind men 
who saw and worshipped Him; but they were nothing daunted by 
the rebuke, but cried to Him the more earnestly. Thus the blind 
recovered sight ; and they who saw became blind. John ix. 39. 

Comp. the case of the faithful woman who alone touched Him 
(though it was but by the hem of His garment), while the profane 
crowd which pressed on Him touched Him not (ix. 20). 
84. ftuVa-rs] He touched them as Man, and healed them as God. 

Ca. XXI. L ort ftyyio-a* sit 'UpoaiXuuxt] This day seems to 
have been the tenth day of the month Abib or Nisan, on which the 
paschal lamb was to be taken up (Exod. xii. 1 — 5). 

The true Paschal Lamb therefore now goes to Jerusalem to 
those who would slay Him; and to that city where alone the Pass- 
over could be sacrificed. He thus shows that He ia the true Past- 
over, and that He laid down His life willingly (John xviii. 1). 

For Homilies on Palm Sundag (•«« to fluto), see "" ■"--»- 
ii. p. 251 and 301, and St. Methodius, p. 430. Cf. not 

— Bne+ayij] M«|TT3 {bsth-phoge) " locus grossorum,' the plate 
of Figs, at the foot of the Mount of Olives, to the west of Bethsny. 
Among the Rabbinical Writers the term Bethphage is applied to a 
District (see Light/hot) stretching from the Mount of Olivet to Jeru- 
salem. See further on xxvi. 6. 

— Spot -ran iXaiav] g rwrj Wj (har-hazxeythim), (Zech. xiv. 4,) 
five furlongs east of Jerusalem (Acts i. 12. Joseph. Ant. xx. 8), and 
separated from it by the brook Kedron (Joseph. B. J. v. 2). 

2. «»Mqv] Bethphage. 

4. xi it,iiv did too wpoanrrou] 1st. lxii. 11. Zech. ix. 9. 
" Solent Scriptores N. T. ex duobus vel pluribus Iocis allegatis unum 
contexere." (Glass. Philol. Sacr. p. 960.) "Prophetam autem in 
singulari vocat, ut pulcherrimam vaticinionum barmoniam insinuot, et 
ornnes prophetas una Spiritu locutos fuisse ostendat" See on Mark i. 2. 

fi. Tp tvyarpi SiaWl Jerusalem. Cp. lsa. xlvii. 1. Jer. xlvi. 24. 
Ps. exxxvii. For*, de Hebr. 499. 

— wpaOt] Zech. has *jp (ons), poor, rendered woaDt by LXX. 

— AW] The riding on in Ass was a sign of peacefuluets ; as 
opposed to the use of the horse, the emblem of War ; and a rebuke to 
the Jewish spirit, which in defiance of the Divine command not to 
multiple horses, put their trust in chariots and in aorsw (Ps. XX. 7), 
i. e. in worldly strength, and not in the Name of the Lord. See Bp. 
Sherlock On the Prophecies, Diss. iv. 

Contrast this peaceful entry of our Lord, riding on the foal of on 
am, with Hit majestic appearance (as described in Ps. xlv. 3—6) aa a 
Conqueror. King, and God ; and also as displayed in the Apocalypse, 
riding on the White Ho r se conquering and to conquer (Rev. vi. 2; 
xix. 11), tt King of kings and Lord of lord*. 


yiov. (t£) • c Jlopevdams 8e ol pad-iyral, kcu ironfc-aires Ka0w irpotreragev 
avroi? 6 'It/ctovs, 7 ijryayov rr)v ovov k<u tov ircoXov, ko.1 cireOyKav iirdva airruv 
ra iftarta avrov, kuX imeicaSurty htavta avrav. * A '0 8k flXewrros ox^os 
earptaa-cw tavrSw ra i/xarta h rjj 68<3' dXXoi 8e enomov ickdBovs owro r5tv 
hh&pwv Kal icnrptovwov h> tq 68ep. (^) 9 * Oi 8e o^Xoi ol vpoa.yovrf.% Kal 
ol dKoXovdovVre? acpafaov, Xtfyoires, 'ilo-awa rep vicp JavtS* evkoyrjiUvos 6 
ipfXPftevos in ovofian Kvpiov 'fla-awa iv rots vi/aarois. 

(fjf) 10 Xal ao«Xc?6Vro? avrov as 'Icooo'oXvfia, eacitrftj ircUra ^ iroXi? Xe- 
yovcra, T« «?crTU> ovros ; u f Ol St- o^Xot ikeyov, Ovros «mv 'Igcrovs 6 w/jo- 
c/nyrrjs, 6 d*ro Na&ped rtjt raXiXai'as. 

(t*-) 13 g Kal elcrrjkdfv 6 \fycrovs «s to Ic/jo** tov 6eov, *cat e^ejSaXe •jrdvras 
rov» ircuXovVra? Kal dyopa^on-as ev T<3 le/o<3, kcu rds T/>a»re£as Ttov KoWvfiicrrwv 
Karearpoffe, Kal rds KadSpas tov iroAovvratv rd$ irepiorepdr 1S h Kal Xeyei 
avrats, Teypairrai, *0 o?ko? /tov gTkos ir/>oo"ev;e>}s itXiyt?ifcr€TOi, v/ieis 
8<1 avrov iiroujoxtre o-rrr/Xaioi' X^crraw. (™) 14 Kal vpocrrjkdov avrct) rvc^Xol 
#cal ^coXot ev tc3 t€/K<j, Kal iOepdireuo-cv avrov?. (-^r) 1S ' MSoVres 8c oi ap)(iep€?<s 
Kal ol ypafifianU to Qavfiaxria a cVowjac, Kal tov* watSas Kpd£oiras a* T<3 
Upcp Kal Xeyoiras, 'fUrowva. rep vltp JautS, ^yavditrrja-av, 16 j Kal cTttov avrcp, 
'^Kovets Tt oSrot Xeyowu'; 'O 8t> 'Irjcrovs Xeyct avrois, Nat* ovSeVore di>- 
eyvorre, "On ck o-TOfiaros vrjirCatv Kal c?i?Xa£oVr<t>i' Karj)pria<a aluov ; 


Lake 19. 41 

>t exprax add*- 
ge«*); u>d the 
ut He does not 

— ivo», kcu -*£i\or] The conjunction «oi doet not 
tion here ( Vont. Hebr. 382), but explanation (epexegeaia) 

phnae may be rendered thus : — " He is thy Kins, but Hi 

come to thee riding on a hone, but on an Ma ; ana not an ass of full 
age and she, which might be a noble creature, but even on the foal of 
an ass." Such is thy Messiah— in Hit meekness and humility ! 

7. <ir<0q«» — Tit luarim] For illustration of this usage, see 
2 Kings ix. 13. Otinf. p. 128. £i^/oof, i. p. 977. 

— iwtK&»iau> iitiya airii-] On the garments (TUopkji. 
Euthym.), not (as some hare imagined) on the ass and its colt; for 
He rode only on the foal. (See John xii. 16, and Mark xi. 2. 4. 7.) 

This act was typical and prophetical ; see JumUm Martyr c Try- 
phon. S3. 

He thus prophesied that the Gentiles would come to Him ; for 
the colt symbolized the Gentile Church, which was unclean before 
it received Christ, Who sat upon It and sanctified it (Orys.) The 
ass, which had been tamed, was a figure of the Jewish people, which 
had received the yoke of the law; the foal of the ass on which none 
had ever sat, was the Gentile world. Christ sent His Apostles to 
both,— to one the Apostle of the circumcision, to the other the 
Apostle of the Gentiles. (Jerome.) 8t Matthew, who wrote for 
the Jew. is the only one of the Evangelists who mentions the ass. 
The Hebrew nation, if it repents, will be saved by faith ; and (as the 
m/bUum the colt) it will be converted to Christ, when the fulness 
of the Gentiles is come into the Spiritual Sion. (Rom. xi. 25.) Tie 
lord Aaii need of both. 

Thev imitate the holv offices prescribed for 
-J. «1- 
2 Jtucc. x. / ; ana see further on John xii. 13. 

9. "Qvavtxi] HrrrfBtfn (Hotkian-m), tarn now ; from Ps. cxvfii. 
25, 28, which formed part of the great Hillel (i. e. Ps. cxiii.— cxviii.), 
or song of praise then sung. Tbey acknowledge Him as Jenu 
(Jekodma, Jedma) or Saviour, and as Son of David and King; and 
as coming in the Name, i. e. with the power of, the Lord, JeAorak. 

Perhaps the use of the solemnities of the Feast of Tabernacles on 
this occasion may have been providentially ordered as an intimation 
that their God and King was now manifest in the Tabernacle of 
Human Flak. (John i. 14. Rev. vii. 15 ; xxi. 3.) See John vii. 53. 

It is observable that our Lord made His triumphal entry into 
Jerusalem on a Sunday, the Sunday before His Passion. He then 
showed Himself as King, Saviour, and Conqueror, and rode on the 
foal of the ass (the type of the Gentile world; see on Mark xi. 2. 
John xii. 14) into Jenualem, the city of God. Well might the 
Psalmist in the Spirit, hearing with die prophetic ear the future 
Hosannas of hia own city at the triumphal entry of his own Son and 
King <—t Pa. cxviii. 24. 26), exclaim, " This is the Day which the 
hard hath made (the LoreTi Day), we will rejoice and be glad 
in it" And may not this event be among those that were prophetic 
of the sanctity, dignity, beauty, and glory of the Christian Sunday? 

On the events of the Holy Week, beginning with Palm-Sunday, 
see Dean StauAope', Holy Week, and William,' Holy Week, p. 24, 
&c. : and Adame, Rev. W., Warnings of Holy Week. See on v. 1. 

IS. sit ri lioov] St Matthew appropriately proceeds from the 
triumphant entry to speak of our Lord's visit to the Temple — Hia 
"-'--- '- His own Capital — and thus brings out more clearly * l 
the Withering of the Fig-tree, typical of the destrucl 
m,— nourishing with the luxuriant foliage of a hypocrit 

of Jerusalem, — nourishing 

foliage of a hypocritical 

show of Religion in the Services of the Temple, but barren of 

— iv T«» Ispip] The osier court (not the vait or sanctuary) in 
which the money-changers had erected their booths. 

— Ko\Xv0«nW] the jtipnoTiaW, ' numnudarii ;' those who ex- 
changed larger sums into smaller («oXXv/3oi or xipua-ra), for the 
convenience of those who had to pay the half-shekel or Temple-rate 
(see above, xvii. 24, and Mitkna de Siclis, cap. i. col. 7), or to buy 
doves (see Luke ii. 24. Levit. i. 14 ; v. 7), or other victims. 
" Auxerat emporium appropinquans Pascha." (nVwan.) See fur- 
ther on John ii. 14 — 16. 

— rtt TrtpKrrtpit] the doves; for oblations. 
The Priests sold doves and victims to the people who 

the Temple for sacrifice; and they acted also as mone ' 
change money, in order that the people might buy, a 
those who had none. Our Lord overturned the seats (cathedras or 
chairs) of those who told dove*. The Dove is an emblem of the 

Holy Spirit The seat is the place of teaching. " ' **-- 

• ' " ' " " '"■ of the Spirit, and w 1 ^ 

» as money-changers, to 
ght buy, and to lend to 

seats of all who sell the gifts oi 

io make a traffic of 

ing of spiritual grace for mosey. He is ever entering into the Temple 
of His Father the Church, and casts out from His Church Bishops, 
Priests, Deacons, and laymen, — both sellers and buyers, who trade in 
spiritual things; for it is written, Freely ye have received, freely 
give. Matt x. 8. (Hilary. Jerome.) 

Deacons who do not well dispense the funds of the Church, but 
grow rich from the poor man's portion, are the monev-changers ia 
Christ's Temple, whose tables Christ overthrows. Bishops, who in- 
trust Churches to unfit persona, are they who sell doves,— that is, 
spiritual grace— whose seats Christ overthrows. (Origen.) 

15. air n A a. ok Knarmt] ' Speluncam latronum.' The term 
Ap«r4t, Hebr. y~$ (parilt), is a general term for a factious and 
lawless person in word and act 

These words are not only descriptive of the then state of the 
Temple, but are prophetic of its/Wan desecration by the bands of 
factious robbers and assassins {Xvo-ral, <ri«aoioi),who would oocupythe 
Temple during the siege. It is remarkable that Josephus (Ant v. 12) 
uses the word Xnernl when speaking of them. Cp. Surenhue. p. 263. 
Fbar holy House is deserted by Me ; it is left for desolation. 
Comp. the remarkable words of Tacitus, Hist v. 13, concerning the 
Temple of Jerusalem at the siege : " Brpaeut repente oW«*r» fores, 
et audita major humant Vox, Excedere Deoe." 

14. ■wpo<rjkBo»-^rvi>M] F " 
and then dispenses royal gifts to — r , 

16. ovii-roTt d»iy»«>T»— mbm) for Kmrnprlam al~- , ~- ...„~— 
(Ps. viii. 2) has * 575? (ynadta ox), Le. ' Thou hast found, esta- 
blished, ttrength: Our Lord adopts the tense already given by the 
Jewish Translators, the LXX, aa the correct one, as showing that the 

" 1 praise ; and that the worship of Himself it 

ttrength of the weak is 

-' — rth. Cp. Mede, j™. «,,—»». —». 

U <rTo>aTot] From the mouth; for it was not done by their 
; but by divine power giving articulate toundi to lisping 
es ; a figure of the Gentile world then stammering in infancy, 
>on about to sing with faith. It was also a cheering encourage- 
ment to the Apostles. That they might not doubt whether, being 
illiterate men, fliey might be enabled to preach, God gives eloquence 
to babes. Remark the contrast Infant* ting ptaise to Christ, like 

m Mark 11. 17, 


Luke 20. 1, fee. 

ST. MATTHEW XXI. 17—29. 

(w) 17 *°* Karakiiraaf avrovs i£r}\da> lfo» ttjs n-oXew? els Brfiavlav, Kal 
rjvkUrOrj iiceZ 

18 k Up&rfa? St; hravdyav ets t^v irdXti', hreLvaae 19 Kal iSwj/ <ru#c^i» /uav 
em tt}s 68o9, •rJXflei' eV avrip, Kal owSe? eSpe* eV avrp, ei /x^ ^vXXa flavor 
koX Xeya avrg, MijKeri or. <rov Kapmb? yhnjrai els top auuva* ical i^qpavdi) 
irapaxp/fjiia "q <rvicfj. * Kol ISoWes ol [iadr)Tal iOavpAurav Xeyoires, Ua>s 
irapaxprjiia iiJTjpdvdr) 77 o~vktJ' (^f) 21 'AiroKpi£el? 8e 6 'I^o-ovs eTirev avrois, 
'il/A^v Xeyw v/iiv, cav t^re rt'unw Kal p.r) Buucpidrjre, ov \iovov to tjjs othc^s 
irovrjo-ere, dXXd KOV tg> o/oct tovt$> etinjTe, *ApQr\n Kal fSkqdtjri. els rrfv Odkour- 
<rav, yeprjcrerac (f£) a ' Kal iravra oou av ainjarjre eV rj) irpotreuxJQ irurreu- 
oires, Xr/^eo-fle. 

(tt) m m Kal eXdoVri awr$ els to icpou, irpoo~rj\6ov- <lvt$ SiSao-Koiri oi 
apx<.epei<i Kal oi irpco-fivrepoi. rov Xaov, XeyovTes, 'Ei> irota i$owria ravra 
woiets ; Kal tis eroi ISwkc ttji' igovaiav ravrqv ; M 'Airoicpi$els 8k 6 'jfycrovs 
eXnev avroTs, 'Epomjo-o) u/xas Kaya> Xoyoi' eva* ov eai> eimrre' ftoi, Kaya u/ui> 
e/w3 eV iroia i£ovo-(a ravra irouit' M to f3dimcrp.a 'Iwdwov iroOev fjv ; e£ 
ovdopov, ^ e£ avdpwiroiv ; Oi 8k 8ieXoyi£oiTO wap eavrois, Xeyoires, "'Ea*' 
€iva>fia>, e£ ovpavov, ipei rfpXv, Atari ovv ovk iirurreva-are avrw ; ^ cap 8e" 
CMTtu/iev, ef dv&pamtav, — <f>of3ovp,eda rbv o\kov, iraires yap ej^cnHn rw 'Iohuwijv 
a>? irpo<fytjTrjv. ^ Kal avoKpiOarre? tS 'Itjorov etirov, Ovk otSafiev. *E<fnj 
avrois Kal avros, OiBk eya» Xeyw «/!«> eV fl-ota c^ovo-ta ravra irota*. (^f) a Ti 
8*5 w/u.a' 8ok6i ; "Avdpamos et^e Tciwa 8vo* Kal irpoa-eKdwv r$ wpuna), etire, 
T4kvov, wrayt o-rjfiepov ipyd(ov eV t^5 ap.irek£>vi fiov. a 'O 8e airoKpi9el$ 

the Angela in heaven ; and men reject Him. Christ it the Author 
of nature. He makes children speak wisdom in harmony with pro- 
phecy, while wise men become fools. (Chryi.) Holiness makes 
babes into men ; and sin makes men into babes. Some reckon the 
Raising of Lazarus, or the giving of sight to one bom blind, or the 
Transfiguration, as the greatest of our Lord's Miracles. But it seems 
to me that nothing was more marvellous than this. One man, then 
•o despised in their eyes, that He was afterwards delivered to be cru- 
cified, did what He now does, while the Rulers rage against Him and 
see their gains destroyed. He ejects a multitude and overturns their 
tables and their seats, and does what a large force could hardly 
have done. Certainly a flame of fire and starry brightness flashed 
d the Majesty of the Godhead I 

a His eyes, 

l<, irTf5X«i»— BqvWH 8eeonxxvi.6. "Exurbe 
ditcmit, ut omnem affectati regni terreni suspicic-- — * ■ 
Prcclari ad h. 1. notavit Mkkaclu, templum 

His face. 

Ii, pnesertim cum plus quam decies centena millia, 1 
festi Paschatos, Hierosolymis commorarentur ; eum vera hs 
sione non usum esse, scd e templo, et ipsa urbe, discessisse." {Kuin.) 
He went to Bethany. In the great city of Jerusalem— His own 
Metropolis— the Kins of the Jews and of Heaven itself has not where 
to lay His head, but He goes out to a small village in the suburbs for 

18, 1& vvinji)— i£iipo'»e>i] A Parable and Prophecy in action. 
" Quod ezsecrationem ipsam et consilium Christi ileum ezsecrantis 
attinet, monent interpp. voluisse Jesum, qui per signa et symbols 
suam jloctrinam adumbrare solebat, actione symbofica (cujusmodi 
actionea Orientalibus frequentes sunt, les. xz. 2 sqq.) depingere 
immtneiM Judaorum aritium, quod pietatis fructus ferre noluissent, 
coll. Luc. xiii. 6 sqq. et ad hoc pncsignificandum eum elegisse arbo- 

quas neque fructus ferret, neque promitteret ; et parabolam Luc. 1. 1. 
notatam, disripuloa consilium Christi ficum exsecrantis edocuiase." 
{Kuin.) See also below, notes on Mark xi. IS. 

Our Lord withers a fig-tree, the most succulent of trees, in its 
full luxuriance of leaf, and near the public road, and thus the miracle 
was more striking. He here manifests His punitive power in order 
that the disciples may learn that He is able to wither the Jews who 
crucify Him. But He would not show this punitive power on any 
rational creature. The Evangelist St Mark (xi. 13) says it was not 
yet the time for figs. But the Jewish people was here represented, 
and it teas the time to look for the fruit of fiu'th there. (Cp. St. Chrvt.) 

We here see a proof of our Lords goodness. When He e — 
eised His Mercg ' 

when He displayed the severity of His future judgment, it was done 
upon a Tree, in order that the danger of unbelief might be shown 
without damage to those whom He had come to redeem. (Hilary.) 

not sin, and have no feeling of punishment And this barren fig-tree, 
withered by Christ's word, bears fruit for ever in the garden of Holy 
Scripture by the warning it gives against hypocritical ostentation and 
luxuriant uufruitfulness. 

He was an hungered— showing His humanity, and that He 
yearned for the salvation of believers, and was grieved for the unbe- 
lief of Jerusalem. In the Fig-tree we see the Jewish Nation, stand- 

the Way— for it was pi 
— and He came to it and found i 
leaves of religious profeasii 

ilantcd by the Wayside of God's Law 

ilay of the Law, and v 

without the good fruit of works. He savs to 
fruit of thee for ever.' And it was withered, h 
" ■ which Christ h 
ind He therefore 

fruit for which Christ hungered. Our Lord was uoing to His cruci- 

"-'■- — J ^le therefore confirmed the minds of His disciples by this 

His power. If He had so willed He could have withered 

His enemies, who were about to crucify Him, but He waited for their 
salvation by Repentance. 

19. /ticu/] And so more conspicuous ; and 
salcm (of which the tree was a type) in the w 

— si pi, (pv\Xa «Jw>] The leaves proved that it had received 
the sap of divine grace, enabling it, morally speaking, to bear fruit 
also ; and so its own foliage condemned it for barrenness of fruit. 

— jiiiKtTi] He hungers as Man, and withers the tr ' 

,. ... ., . . _.„.. _ Man, ___ 

Whenever He gives signa of Human infirmity, 
Divine Power ia always near. 

2L ii* «X1 T « »;«ti»] The leafy and barren fig-tree, 
looked so fair and flourishing, waa withered by the breath of 
in order to teach the Apostles to have faith in Him ; and to 

proof of Hi* 

_-.„ „ torching rage ol 

Nation, now seeming to flourish in prosperity and po 

could blaat it in a moment, and would wither it if it c 

forth fruits of Repentance. Let not therefore the Disciples of 

lourish in prosperity and power, yet He 
, and would wither it if it did not bring 
Let not therefore the Disciples of Christ 

— t» San toutco] of Olives, far from the Sea. Cp. Zech. xiv. 4. 

The moving of mountains, i. e. of impediments 

is characteristic of Faith. . See 1 Cor. xiii. 2. Job ix. S. 
34. in] Not more— one will suffice— though yom have assailed 

2CT &v6ptrro* slxs TtVra tio] In ibis and the next Parable our 
Lord connects the reception of the Gentiles with the rejection of the 

ST. MATTHEW XXI. 30—44. 65 

etrrev, Ov 0ekar vorepov 81 fierapekijOels, airfjkBe. M Kal irpocrekdotv Ttp erepy 

etnas coo-avnus. '0 8«* airoKpiBel? etirev, ° \Eyd», icv/h? ical ovk dmjXfle. 81 Tts • Luke r. », to. 

ck tSv Bvo iiroCijo-e to dektjfia tov irarpos s Aeyovo-w a.vr<p, 'O irp&ros. Aeyei 

avrots 6 'Ir/o-ovs, 'Aprfv Xeyta, art ot rek&vai koX at ttopvax rrpodyovcnv 

iftM<s ets ttjv fiacnXelav tov Geov- K p 1j\de yap irpb<s v/tds 'Iowwrfi kv 6B$ p Lnk « »• ». »• 

Sucatoavvr/s, Kat ovk iirurreva-aTe aur^J- ot 8«; rekavcu Kal at iropvai iirUrreva-av 

avrep* vuets 8e tSdvrcs ov p.€T€fj^ekr)9rjre. vorepov, tow Triarevcrat avrtp. 

(rw) ^ q¥ AWr)v TrapafioXrjv aKovo-are' *AvQpmrro% fy oiKoSccnroT^?, ocrris o Mark 12. 1. 
i<fwrev<rev afiireXava, Kal <j> avrQ irepu!Or)Ke, k<u ajpvtjev ev avra> \-qvbv, '»»■ «• '• 
Kat <pKo86fir)cre iripyov, koI e£e8oro avrdv ye<opyol<s, koI direSr/'/iT/o-ev. M *Ot« Sit'i.'ii, «. 
81 jjyyurcv 6 feat/Do? to>v Kapnutv, direcrreiXe tovs SovXovs avrov wpos tows 
yecapyovs, kafieiv tow? ko/ottovs avrov. M Kat XajSdVres oi yeatpyol tovs 8ov- 
Xovs avrov, ov u«h> eSctoav, ov 8tj atrdiereivav, ov Be <?Xt0oj6dXr;o~av. x Hakw 
direoretXev akXov^ SovXovs irXetovas t«Sv irpdnrotv koI iiroCrjcrav avrots aio-av- 
to»s. w "Tarepov 81 dire'crreiXe wyoos avrovs tw viov avrov, Xeytui', 'Evrpairq- 
o-ovrat rov viov /tov. w * Ot 8t* yeapyol, iSdvres rov vibv, etirov ev cavrois, » «»• »•• »• 
OvYds cortv 6 kXtj/wvouos* Bevre, airoKreCvatfiev avrov, itat KaTaa^cofLev tt)v ,ohn "• M - 
JcXr/povoutav avrov. M Kal \a/36vTe$ avrov itjefiakov e£<a tov afiirekaivos, 
/cat aireKrewav. i0¥ OTav ovv ekdy 6 Kvptos tov d/iTreXwi'os, ti iromja-ei tois 
yeapyols ixeivoK ; * l Aeyovaw avr$, Kokovs *ca*c5s dwoXecret avrovs, Kat 
tov d/xTreXwi/a eK8<uo*erat dXXots yetapyols, otrtvcs dwo8<wo-ovo-ti' avr^J tovs 
Kapiroi>s h> tois icatpots avr5i». *• ' ^ieyct avrots 6 'Iijo-ovs, OvBeirore aveyvane » *»• » »• **• 
iv rat? ypaxftais ; Aidov ov direSoKt/xao-av 01 otKoSo/xovvres, oStos JJSei'i 1 '; 
iyevyOrj ets Ke^aX^v ywvtas* irapa. KvpCov iyevero avrrj, Kal co*ti rS£.V««. 
OavfiacrTr) iv 6<f>0akp.oZ$ 17/iwv. 4S Jtd tovto Xeyw v/xtv, ort dp&fcrerai 
cu^' v/taiv ^ fiao-tXeia tov 0«ov, Kat 8oftjo-€Tat eft'et irotowri tovs ic a/nrovs , Iiai B . , s . 
avr^s. ** ' Xai d mo-av eirl tov kidov tovtov, o~w0kao-$qo-€Tai.' i<f>' ov b* av Elk. »cm'm». 

SO. t« «ti>«] So 7Vwi. and othen on good MSS. nuthority for 

SL i-piTotJ So the mott and beet MSS. and Veraiona, among 
which the old Srriac Curettm. And notwithitanding the ingenious 
observations of Trtgellet (pp. 106—108), this reading cannot, I think, 
he set aside for o tirripot, or A liurtpm, or o io-yaTot, which pro- 
bably arose from a transposition of the paragraphs {v. 29), i ot i-ro- 
upttiU— M«To,.,\iil'.it d<rq\eii>, and (r. S») o as <t»o«(— oiit 
iirijXfio, a transposition which was very likely to occur, because 
both clause* begin and end with the same words. Besides, it might 
be thought reasonable by tome that the invitation should be made 
firtt to those who represented the Pharitett. Hence another occasion 
for transposition. 

— wpeavovviv u«iat] Show you tie wag. 

88. Mi? J tji (nVseraet), way, track, doctrine. Hence h Hit, tie 
way nr' iFovtiJ. the Ootpel (Acts xix. 23). 

88. d^sAira] See above, zx. 1. Cp. Isa. v. 1-7. Pi. hax. 

84. toot doiXow] The Propheta. (See Luke xiii. 84.) Servants 
— whom they beat as Jeremiah, or killed as Isaiah, or stoned as 
Naboth and Zechariah. whom ti 
altar. Read the E 

le porch and th 
and tee what th 

pistle of St. Paul to the Hi 
tenants suffered (Heb. ».). {Jerome.) 

— nowovtl as rent See Luke zvi. 5. 

89. if <• tov atnXwti] A prophecy that He would suffer with 
out the gate (Heb. xiii. 12). 

48. XioW] This quotation finds a very appropriate place here, 
being from the same Psalm (cxviii. 22) at the language of Hotawta, 
which had just been addressed to Christ (See above, e. 9.) He 

a Stone. 

— lit KKpakti* yavias] This expression is synonymous with 

- -. ... : _ r._i. :: A __j i n- t jj g (occurring 

xxviii. 16, where 

lit expression 
l>. ii. 20, and : 

alto in Bamab. Epist c. vi.), there quot 

the Hebr. it mo 13H, to which the Hel 

Ki&. ymriai here it tantamount, since on there refers to the iead- 

potmt, or angle, where two walls meet Now a tUme so placed may 

aerve to bind the two walls, with which it it united, together; and 

hence the metaphor is highly suitable, since Chi ' ' 

reintheN.T. Wowth 

at uniting Jewt and Gentiles in Himwdf, to at to form one Body, — 
the Church of the faithful, — it m -xarra 4 oUoiofiii ovvapfioXoyov 
liimi au£«i fit no* Syior ir fivplif, Eph. ii. 21. This view is con- 
firmed by Euthym., who (after dtyt. and other ancient Fathers) 
explains: xaOdwio ixttvot (o Xtiot) •*' iairrca ovtiil Toi'xout 

dm A oo if (Jews and Gentiles) xal avirnnl tia T^t tit alrriw 
■wioTttas. The same view it expressed in nearly the same words 
by Theophylaot. So alto Origen ap. Catenam in Matt, Oxon., 
p. 176 (ed. Cramer) : ymula kirrl iroyitpoxiiffif tio rolx—r to ii 
lapaijK Xrj/i/ia (read Xi'inua. and comp. Rom. xi. 5) «ai Tin IBuip 
-rXriovua, lit £► svy««OT«*i> A Xitfot Xpia-Tdt x^» ymviar woifioat . 

The head of the Comer. Christ is become the Corner stone, 
that He may join the two Walls of the two People* (Jewt and Gen- 
tile*) in Himself. See Ita. xxviii. 16. 1 Pet ii. 6. (Jerome.) 

— «5t„1 A Hebraism, nh {zoti), hex, derived through the LXX 
(Pt. cxviii. 22). The feminine refers to the whole subject, not (a* 
Meyer 1 ) to yaiia or K<«)aXii. Cp. John xvii. 3; and see Font, de 
Hebr. pp. 282—287 ; and Kuin. : " Hebrei fesmininum tcpiut ponere 
solcnt pro neutro, et banc loquendi rationem secuti sunt quoque 
vtterpp. Alexandrini. 1 Sam. iv. 7, pro nttJT^ > est -roiavrq pro TO«o5To• 
ib. xi 2, pro ntftp, if tai-nf Judd. xix. 80, r»*rj, in oBrir Gen. 
xxiv. 14, pro nj, to toirrtf' Pt. xxvii. 4, filar gJTqva'/iqv irapa 
Kuplot, Tavrq* i«Jirnj»if Hebr. «ti« et nrrtH." 

44. i wuir] The unbeliever ttumble* at Christ, and it shattered 
to piecet ; and the Stone will crush him and winnow him like chaff by 
its judicial power at the Great Day. 

— Tor \i6or toDto»] i.e. MytHf. (See above on xvi. 18.) He 
'-- "■- •' ihecy of Daniel (at in the words 

vable th • 

word it 
ke a fan and winnow him away like chaff, 
it out without handi (Dan. ii. U— 44) fe X«i 

jngdomt are d 
By become XtTTortpa dyuoov Ir dXovi, i. 
Cp. Matt iii. 12, oS to trim i. r. x» 

Venion, from th* Old Tettament Into the New, m 

Col. 3. 10, 12. 
Hev. 3. 4. ft 16. 
15. & 19. 8. 

d el.. 8. 12. 

* IS. 42. 
eh. 2$. 30. 

• eh. M. 1«. 

f Hark 12.13. He 

Luke 20. 20, fee. 

ST. MATTHEW XXL 45, 46. XXII. 1—15. 

iretrp, Xue/tr/o-ci avrov. (*r) ** Kat a/covo-ame? oi apx^pels koI oi $a/»«rawi 
tos irdpa/JoXds avrov, eyvwrav ori wept avraV Xcyci* ** " Kal £t/tov»t€s avrov 
K/MxrrJo-ai, i<f>ofoj(h)o~av tovs oxXovs, cVciS^ a»s rtpotyiyrtyv avrov d^ov- 

XXII. (^-) * Kal airoKpiBeis 6 Tt/oovs vakw direr avrois ev irapaftokais, 
\eytov, 2 * 'fl/ioubdi) ff fiaatXeia r5>v ovpavtav av0pa>irq> fiacriXe?, ooris cVotr/o-c 
ydp.ov<; r$ vi$ avroxr 8 Kal dTreoreiXc tovs SovXovs avrov KaXecrai tovs kckXt/;- 
/xeVovs ei? tovs yd/xovs - Kal owe rjdekov i\deiv. * b IldXiv airtareiXev dXXovs 
SovXovs, \eyav, Elware tois KCKXry/ieVois, 'ISov, to apurrov fiov 'qroiiuura, oi 
ravpoi fiov teal Ta o-iTiora rtdvueva, koX rtavra Irot/xa- Sevre cts tovs ydfxovs. 
5 Oi Sc a/icXT/o-aKres dirjJXflov, 6 tio> €is tw iSiov aypbv, 6 Sc cis tt)v qivopuw 
avrov. 6 Oi 8c Xomtoi Kparqo-avns tovs SovXovs avrov vflpurav #cal aviicrtivav. 
7 Kal d/covo-as 6 /8a<riXevs &pyur6-q' Kal ire/xi/»as rd arparevuara avrov, 
dir<uXco-e tovs <f>ovel<s eWvovs, »cai tt)v woXa' avraV evdirprjae. 8 Tot* Xcya 
tois SovXois avrov, 'O /aci* yd/xos erottios cony, oi 8e #c«cXr//i,eVoi owe ijo-av 
d£iot. 9 Ilopevecrde oZv iirl rds 8«£o8ovs toV oS<£v, Kal oo-ovs cav cv/jt/tc, 
KoXcVarc cis tovs ydaovs. 10 Kal ijjekdovres oi SovXot e/ceiVoi cis rds 68ovs, 
owyyayov. irdvras oo-ovs cSpov, irovijpovs re Kal ayadovv Kal cVXrjo-flif 6 
yd/ios avaKtifxaxav. (^) u c £io-cX^a»f 8« 6 /JaarXcvs 0cdoao-0ai tovs dvaK«- 
ucvovs, etScy eVcct avBpumov ovk (vBeSvuivov cVSvua yduov 12 Kal Xcyci avr$, 
'Eralpe, irw eioTjXflcs e&Sc ti^ ej(Wf cvSvaa ydfiov ; *0 8c" i<j>ip.a>0r). 13 d Tore 
ctwci' 6 /SaatXcvs tois StoKovots* Jtjo-oitcs avrov «ro8as Kal xelpa? apart avrov 
Kal CKjSdXcrc cis rb (tkotos to i^drepov €Kel carat 6 KXavd/xos Kal 6 ^Spvytios 
tow oSdwtw u * iroXXol yd/> cio*t kX^toI, 6Xiyoi 8c ckXcktoi. 

(^) 1S f Tore iropc vtfcWes oi $a/)wratoi ovuftovkiov eXafiov, o7rais avrov 

Ch. XXII. 2. ivotnoi y&pavt] See ix. 15. The word ydjio' 
trad been uaed by LXX for a Marriage Fearf nn^hj (rnnUa*), from 
root nrnf (MoUal) 6iM, Geo. xxix. 22. Either 'ii. 18. 
On this Parable see Onw. Af. Horn, in Ev. xxxviii. 
Almiihtr God has made a Marriage Featt for our Lord Jeena 
Chriat and Hit Church, which is gathered both from the Jew* and 
Gentilea; and He has tent Hii aervanta, Mo«t and th» Prophet*, 
and other tervantt, the Apoatlea. Hia armies are the angels ; or the 
Roman armies, under Vespasian and Titus, sent to destroy Jerusalem. 

10. ■woonpoit «ai AyaBoi*] Such is the state of the Visible Chun* 
on earth, a mixed company (see xiii. 3. 30), containing good and bad. 
" Area in undis dilurii, Eccleaise typum gessit ; in hac Ecclesia nee 
mali sine bonis, nee boni sine malia, (Greg. M.) 

1L irtana yiftou) For irlvpa yaiuxi: On this use of the 
genitive for an adjective, see Luke xvi. 9, pawmrat altxiat. 
James i. 25, ixpoaTin 4rtXq<r M o»qt. 2 Theu. ii. 3. oVVpairof 
djiapriat. Heb. i. 8, paffiot ivHutxtov. 2 Pet ii. 1, aipiaiit 
«r<oX < i«. 2 These, ii. 9, rtpara f.itovs. Matt. xxiv. 15, 
fiSlKuyua iaiwidffiwv. Cp. on Acts ix. 15, itKiiot ixXoytjt. Acts 
vii. 2, e.d> d<i£.,t. See Font, de Hebr. p. 247. G&ij». PhU. Sac. 
p. 260, and 257. 599, and Schroeder. Inst. Hebr. p. 227, " Hebraic! 
amant conatruere duo substantiva, quorum posterius adjectivi locum 
teneat." Exod. xxix. 29. 1 Sam. i. 11. Jerem. xii. 10V Humphry 
«nActsxxvi.25. ™ 

The htvpa yi/too is a Marriage Robe, which the King had 
provided for his gueato (cp. Zeph. i. 8), as was customary at Eastern 
audiences and entertainments. See RoKnmutler here, and the pas- 
sages in Trench on the Parables, pp. 227, 228. 

18. <*-«( il«ii«.t iit ».', t X a* Ittufia yipov;] How earnest 
thou in hither, although thou hast not on an {► tvua yi/tov ? 

What is represented by the wedding garment ? Many eminent 
Expositors say it is some inward affection, faith, or charity. Cp. 
Aug. Semi. xc. vol. v. pp. 7(«— 706. 

r. . .i:- j . — m t he u, adequate reply to the question. 

he Visible Church on Earth, in which are 

_ ...._ „ jee v. 10). No doubt, all the good will be 

m the bad, when the King comes in to see the guests, i.e. 
. i-. __ « _ j .t; e «had been described 

But this docs n< 
The Parable represents the V: 
bad mingled with good (see e. 
severed from the bad, w" 
at the Last Day. And 

bv our Lord in many other Parables, viz. the Wheat and the Tares, 
the bad fish and the good fish (see Matt. xiii. 30—48). 

But the aim of the present Parable is to represent a particular 
form of badness, viz. the rrftual to wear the wedding garment, pro- 
vided and appointed by the King for the guests, there were bad 
and good in the Quest-chamber; and bad " ---■'•■ • 

u well as good had on the 

Therefore the Wedding-garment c 

a be good, and yet 
' wearing it. 
hing which bad 

for all; it was one which all may and must wear, and by which they 
would be distinguished from all others, as wearing the livery of th 
King; but which did not of itself make the bad U ' 
he who did not wear it was condemned as bt ' 
It must therefore be si 

Christian faith as , 
duly received. Particularly 
the means of spiritual grace. 
The question, therefore, 

means Baptism, as the germ of all 

Friend, how earnest thou in hither 
not naving a wedding garment?" may be understood as specially 
addressed to those who, bearing the Christian Name, and who, by 
virtue of certain articles of Christian Belief that they hold, are, so 
far, members of the Visible Church ; yet reject the visible signs and 
means of spiritual grace, provided for, and prescribed to, all by the 
Great King, viz. the holy Sacraments. 

And, considering the title the Quakers have token for them- 
selves, that of " Friendt," may we not be allowed to say that this 
question has a solemn and awful sense in reference to them, " Friend, 
how earnest thou in hither, not having a wedding garment?" 

The white Marriage-Garment provided in the ancient Church * 
to be worn in Baptism, when the soul is espoused to Christ, may bo 
referred to as illustrative of this interpretation. And so this parable 
is applied to the Baptismal Robe kept pure and unsullied, or if sullied 
bv sin, washed by penitential tears and in the Blood of Christ, by 
Clemens R. ii. 6, >d> ni, Tq^iiax^iy to 0<ri-Ti<r M a dysir «u 
ipiatrror nil *ti-ot8if<m ii<r«X.«r6>i8a lit to paniXuor Toi 
e<ov; and St.' Cyril (Hieros. p. Sand p. 39, and p. 12), who call* 
Baptism irivata <pmr,i,6,. Cp. St. Paul ad Gala' ::: ' ' 

14. woXXoi yip i 

iffers the Marriage-Garment to all, and yet 
ly refuse it, and prefer their own clothe* ! 

ides, even of those who have the Wedding-Garment, some an 

described as wornpol. Therefore oAiyoi J«A<«-roi. The xXnroi, or 
Ecclesia visiUlis, is numerous, but how few are the chosen ! 

15, 16. QapiaaZoi — MiTd Taw 'Hpmttasin] They hated one 
another : the Pharisees, under pretence of teal for Jehovah, being 
eager to rebel against Rome ; the Hcrodians profaning the things of 

r own Church, mentioned In K. Edward VI.'s Prayer Book*. Bp. Gibs—'* 

Cp. St. Paul ad Galat iii. 2>. 
xXirToi] Chriat commands to baptise M 


iraryiZevaoHnv iv \6y<p. 16 Kal dnooTeWovcriv avr$ rovs p.a0Tjra<; avrtov, 
/tera rutv 'HpaiouLVtav, Xeyovre?, JiSdaTcaXe, oiSa/iei/ on dX^ftfs el, Kal rip 
bSbv tov Beov ev akrj$eia Stoaoveei?, Kal ov pekei <roi irepl ovSe-o?, ov yap 
/JXeVei? eis irpo\romov dvBpwtiav 17 etw^ ofo tj/u.u', n troi Sokci ; Z£e<m Bovvai 
ktjvo-ov Koto-apt, tj ov ; w IVovs & 6 'It/o-ovs Tr}** irovtjpiav avrStv, dire, Ti ue 
ir€ipd%ere, wroKpvrai ; •* imBeC^are /tot to vopiarpa tov Ktjvoov oi 8e wpoo-- 
jveyicav avr^J orfvdpiav. ao Kal Xeyet avroi?, Two? 17 cIkwv avrt) Kal 17 «rt- 
ypa*M; 21 'Aeyovow avrcS, Kaioapos. Tore Xeyet awrot?, '^iroSore 00V to 
Kalo-apo% Kaurapi, koI to tov ©eov r$ 0€ep. 2a Kal dKovcra*>res idavpaxrav 
koI abates avrbv dirfj\0ov. 

* h 'Ev €K€iirQ t§ vjpcpa irpoafjkdov avrcp ZaoSovKaloi, oi Xeyoi/re? 
pit) Avax dvdoracnv, Kal irnipanjo-av avrbv, * X*5yo»Te5, JioaovcaXe, 
Maivo-i}? et7rec, 'Edv ns airoQavQ p.r\ Zyvv tIkvo, in pev- 
<T€t 6 aSeX^os avTov rtfv yvvalKa avrov, Kal dvacTijo-ei. o-irtppa 
t^J a$e\<f>a> avrov. K *Hcrav 8k irap* 17/xiV iirra. d8eX<*W' ital 6 irpanos 
yaprjcratt ereXevnyo-e, Kal /u/j) ^o>f anrippa d<fnJKC Tr)** ywawta avrov Tcp 
dSeX<£<5 avrov* •* 6/xotw? ical 6 ocvreoos, Kal 6 TpiVos, eo»? ra»» eflrd. •" "Tore- 
po*» 8£ irdWtui* airidave koI 17 yw-i). ** 'Ev rp oSv avaordo-ei, riVos t&v iirra 
iorat ywtj ; irdvre? yap io~)(OV avrtjv. ** 'AiroKptOeU 8k 6 'lijo-ovs ctirev 
avrois, ITXawo-^e, /x^ eiSoVe? rds ypa^ds, prjoe tj\v 8wap.1v tov 0eov' x iv 
yap tq dvaordcrei ovre yapovo-w, ovre iKyapitpvrav AXX' a»s ayyeKot rov 
©eov ^1/ ovpava euri. il Ilepl 8k Ttf% dvaorao-ew? tSxv viKpwv, ovk aveyvcoTe 
To pi)$h vp!iv wrb tov 0eov, \4yovros, ^''Eyd elpt 6 0«os 'Afipadp, 
Kal 6 Qeoy 'Iq-aaK, Kal 6 Qeb*? 'laKwfi ; ovk Iotiv o ©eos 8eo* vtKp£>v, 

b Hark It. 18, 


Luke JO. 27, He. 

Am* Hi. 8. 

Exod. i. «, 16. 

Acu 7. 32. 

Heb. 11 

God, under plea of loyalty to Herod and to Rome; bat they con- 
spired together against Christ, who confounded them both by the 

Observe Herodiani, a Latin termination, showing connexion with 
tie Gentile world. So Chrudani, a word first heard in a Gentila 
city (Acta x\. 26). 

17. if«m] A dilemma. If He says No, the Herodians will 
•cense Him as a rebel against Casar. If Yet, the Pharisees will 
condemn Him as a traitor to God, whose Prophet and Son He pro- 
fesses to be. But see how He turns the horns of the dilemma against 
them both ! 

— «qwro»] 'onttim;' «xuci<po\«.o», a poll-tax. (Hayek.) 

— KaiVap.] i. e. Tiberio. 

W. MpiffMO to5 miwov] The money in which the Tax is to 
be paid. Not a Jewish shekel but a Roman coin ; a Denarius having 
Caesar's image ; sometimes combined with heathen emblems, ana 
showing that you are under his rule. "Ubicunque numisma regis 
alicujus obtinet" (says a Jewish writer, Maimonid. in GezeUh. 
t. 18), " illic incolx regem istum pro domino agmocunt." 

30. Tt'wv h alK6>»] He answers them by what they had in their 
hands, and with which they transacted their daily affairs— the cur- 
rent coin of the country— proving by its currency the subjection of 
their country to him whose coin it is. 

SL awoooTa] They had talked of giving tribute to Canar, as if 
tribute was a boon I He corrects them by prefixing a preposition, 
a-rd,— He does not say, irira, but iwd-iori.— not dait, but rtddilt. 
Tribute is not a qi/i, but a due. Render, therefore, tribute of your coin 
to Crsar; and tribute of yourselves^-coined in the Divine Mint, and 
stamped with the Divine Image and Superscription (Gen. i. 26. 27 ; 
ix. 6. 1 Cor. xi. 7) to Cesar's God. Teriullian says (de Idol, xv.), 
" Reddite imaginem Cassari quae in nummo est, et imaginem Dei Deo 
qua in homine est." Cp. Aug. in Joann. Tract, xl. 9, and xli 2; 
and Bp. Andrew*, " On giving Cesar his Due," v. p. 127—140. 

The Pharisees had sent their disciples with the Herodians pre- 

nu-ing for Him a double snare, that if He answered according to the 

mion of the Herodians, the disciples of the Pharisees might accuse 

im ; but if He replied in their favour, then the Herodians might 

sign Him. But He, as God, knew their thoughts, and, as His 

custom was, replied to them out' of 
— " "-— u> Cesar, but render, — 

allege that He si 
things of God to 

1 their dues." — And when you hear that you 

mouths. He does not 
aue." And lest they should 
subjected them to man, He adds, " And render the 
of God to God." So St. Paul (Rom. xiii. 7), " fle*f«- unto 
sir dues." — And when you hear that you are to render the 
things of Cesar to Cesar, you are to understand that our Lord means 
you are to render those things which are not prejudicial to holiness ; 
for the surrender of any thing that is sacred is not Cesar's tribute, 
bat Satan's. (C&ryt.) 

Bender to Cesar.— Then T&eruu, under whom oar Lord was 
crucified. — Render to Cesar his due, tribute, custom; and to God 
Hi* own,— namely, tithes and offerings. (Jerome.) 

22. dir^X»o»] And yet they could afterwards accuse Him at/br- 
bidUing to give tribute to Cesar ! See Luke xxiii. 2. 

24. Mc*i><-v* atwi»] The reference is to Dent, xxr. 5, of which 
the substance is here given, not the exact words. 

This method of quoting, common among the Jews, deserves 
attention, as showing that our Blessed Lord, and His Apostles and 
Evangelists, followed the practice usual among the Jews in cf" 

Holy Scriptun 

sometimes in a compendious form, rather than the exact words. See 
Surenkui. and above on Matt. ii. 23. 

29 — 32. fiq tiloVit -rile 7poo>dt] See Iren. iv. 5. 2, who thence 
argues against the Gnostics, that the God of the Old Testament it 
the same as He Whom Christ reveals as His Father in the New. 
Cp. Beveridge and Browne oi 

God calls Himself the God of Abraham ; and Abraham consists) 
iham's body must rise again in order 

_„ {Tkeophyl. in Marc, xii.) 

He proves also that Abraham's soul is still alive ; for God calls 

iself his God, and He is the God of the Kmng, and so is inferred 

urrection of the body, which, together with the soul, had done 


•■> .. 

The Eternal "I am" calls Himself their God, therefore they 
will exist /or ever. (Cp. Hilary, Origen.) 

God after their death desiring still to be called their God 
thereby acknowledged that He had a blessing and reward for them 
still, and consequently that He will raise them to another life in 
which they may receive it. Bp. Pearson on the Creed, Art. xt 
p. 702—712. 

" Nam no* etistenti beneficia tribui non possunt. (Rosenm. ) 

In this question the Sadducees were not content with putting a 
case of three or four husbands, they speak of seven, m order to throw 
ridicule on the doctrine of the Resurrection. Since they plead Mosea 
and the Law, He shows that their Question proceeds from ignorance 
* * " ' " " 1 that through ignorance of Me yoo 

that you know not 

of Scripture. It is not wonderful tnat through iff 
should tempt Me, since your question proi — 

God's power nor Word. If you knew God, 

nothing is impossible with Him. And then He shews them from 
Scripture that they who are departed are still alive; for God says, I 
am (not I was) the God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Jacob ; I am the 
God of them yet living. And He describes the manner of the Resur- 
rection, — they do not marry nor are given in marriage, but are as 
the angels of God in heaven. Being as the angels they do not 
marry. The fashion of this world passeth away. 1 Cor. vii. 31. 

the Sadd 

q Pi. 110. 1. 

Acts 1. !«. 

Hi. M. 

1 Cor. 15. »5. 

ST. MATTHEW XXII. 33—46. XXHI. 1—7. 

dXXa tfiivroiv. M k Kal oKOvaavrts oi o\koi i£eirhjo-o~ovTo iirl tq StSa^ 

(fr) M1 Oi Bk $a/>wratoi aKovo-avres art i(f>Cfitocre tows SaBBovKcuovs, ow- 
TJxdrjo-cw art to awro, M Kal itrt\pdirn\vG> els c£ avrSv, po/uko?, ireipafaav avrbv 
koI \4ytav, x Jt8ao~KaXe, iroia eWoXJ) ueyaXif iv t$ vo/xw ; w m *E<^ awr$ 
'Jtyo-ows, '.iyainjo-eis Kwoio»> toc ©coV crow, iv oX# tjJ Ka/>8ta crow, jccu 
ev oX# t$ »/»wx^ o-ow, #cat ev oXfl t# Stapota o~ow. * ^wny eorli' 17 
/teyoXi/ Kal wptorr] throhj. " * Aevrcpa Se 6/xota awr^, 'Ayairyo-eis top 
ir\r)<rCov o-ow at? (reavrov. *°°'Ev towtois tois 8wo"lv aroXats oXos 6 
vo/ios KpcpaTtu KaX oi irpotfyrjrai. 

(^£) 41 p SwTjyfievojv 8k rS>v ^apuraiav, iirripartjo'ep awrows o 'Iijo-ows 
42 Xeyaw, Tt wuu> Sokci ircpl tow Xpurrov ; rivo% wtds eort ; Xeyowo-iv awr£, 
Tow JavtS. a Aeyei awrois, lTais oSv JawtS ev irvewaaTt Kvpiov avrhv koXu 
\eyotv, ^^Etirev 6 Kvpios t$ Kvpitp fiov, Kddov Ik 8eftwi> /tow, «<as 
aw 0«S tows imports o~ov viroiroSiop rStv iroSSip (row; 45 El otv JawtS 
KaXet awrow Kvpiov, irais wtbs awrow cart ; (^) 46 Kal ovSel? iZvvaro awry 
a7roKpi8rjvai Xoyov ow8e irokpyo-i tis aw occur/? tjJs ijacpas eVc/jamjo-ai 
awTow otwccTt. 

XXHI. (^jp) * Tore 6 'Jtytrows ^XaXi/o-c tois o^Xois *cal tois padrfrabi awrow 
3 Xey<ui>, '£7rl ttJs Mcdwctccos KaOeSpa? iKadiarav oi .Toa/i/iaTCis Kal ot $apwcuot,' 
3 rraVra o5w ocra ecu' er7r<ucrtt» wau/ rqpeiv, rrjpclre Kal irotciYe Kara 8e^ to troya 
awraij/ /i^ iroieiTe, Xeyowo-i ya/o Kal ov iroiowo*f (^) 4 * Seo-ftewova-i yap <f>oprCa 
fiapca Kal Svo-/8aoraKTa, Kal iirvnOdaxrw iirl rows eS/iows twi/ avOpanroiv t^j 
1. 8e 8oktwX^» awrali' ow ^Aowo"i Ka>»Jo-ai aura. (™) 5 b IlaVra 8^ to c/3ya avratv 
irotowai w/oos to deadrjvai tois dJ>0/lXM^ols• irXaTwcowct 8c to ^vKaKrqpui avrwv, 
Kal /xeyaXwvowtrt to KpaoireSa rStv t/taruuv awraii^ 6 c <£iXowcn Te t^v w/wuto- 
KXMruiw «y tois Seturots, Kal tos irpayTOKadehpia? cv Tais owayayyats, 7 Kal 

85. MitiKot] The only puuge in St. Matthew where the word 

He it called ypa^ar.ln by St. M«k, xii. 28. 

>\i|] /uyd&ti, ipecially »o. (Heb. x. 21; 

precept," he might disregard the rest ; tee , 
Apostle teaches Uiat if a man wilfully and h 

the breach of any one « 

ii. 10, where the .. 
ally allows himself 

The offering of sacrifice was by many regarded as the paramount 
duty, as being placed first in Leviticus. (See Bode on Mark xii.) On 
this was founded the Gloss of the Corban (see above, xv. 6) ; and to 
this our Lord replies, v. 37. 39, from Deut. vi. 5, and approves the 
opinion of the scribe, Mark xii. 33, to iyirwa» k.t.X. »\ • lit Itm 
voVtw* t»» oXoicav/iaTUV «ai tw BvctAu, — more than all the 
burnt-offerings and the sacrifices prescribed, as I well know, in the Law. 

87. i<t>n o,lr£ i 'Iqaon] So E, F, Q, H, K, M, S, V, and others, 
not & ii 'I. ilirt» airi. 

88. aim «<"-'» 4 n*y. «. wpi.J So B, D, L, Z. and other MSS. 
and ancient Versions, among which the Syriac Cureton ; and this 
appears to be preferable to the reading aCrq i«rl wpwrq xai 

40. SXot i DOftat Kfii/iarai k. ol irpoA^Tai] All the Scripture 
hangs. On vo>. «. *?., as equivalent to the whole Scripture, see vii. 
12 ; xi. 13. Ktiiparat in ting, and after i/o>ot, the reading of B, D, 
L, Z, Vulg., Syr. Cureton, &c., seems preferable to the other reading 
Kfluewrai at the end of the sentence. The Lavyer had asked what 
was the great commandment in the Law. Our Lord recites the 
j . ._ w j,i co hangt til the Law, and the Prophett 

44. rfwsv o Kupiot] i. e. Jehovah said to A donai. (Ps. ex. 1.) 
Cp. Ps. ii. 4, where for Adonai tlie Chaldee Paraphrase has VPffr} 
(meymra), die Eternal Aoyot, or Word of God; from root to£ 
(<smar), dixit. Cp. Acts ii. 34, where St. Peter applies the same 
prophecy to Christ ; and see on John i. 1. 

Ca. XXIII. 8. iirl rij. M«Sff,'». ««e.-oV>« .««'9.<ra»l Umvatmt 
Kaiiipat. Observe the alliteration rr^Q lXftO (mothab moeheh). 
UaSttm, the aorist, denoting continuance. Cf. seoVwqva, iiL 17, 

i conformity 

xvi. 6—12, and St. Aug. (in 8. Joann. Evang. Tract xlvi. 6) :' 
" Multi quippe in Ecclesia commoda terrena sectantes, Ciristum 
tamen pradicant, et per eos vox Christi auditur : et sequuntur oves, 
non meroenarium, sed vocem Pastoris per mercenarium. Andite 
mercenarios ab Ipso Domino demonstrates : Scriba, inquit, et Pha- 
rueri eathedram Moyri tedent : qua igitur dicmt, facite ; qua aureus 
faciunt, faeen nolite. Quid aliud dixit, nisi, per memmarioe vocem 
PattOTu audite ? Sedendo enim eathedram Moyri, legem Dei decent: 
ergo per illos Deus docet. Sua vero illi si velint docere, nolite 
audire, nolite facere. Quod enim facit male, non pradirat de cathedra 
Christi : inde Uedit unde mala facit, non unde bona dieil." 

Hence also an argument may be derived for the Integrity of the 
Hebrew Text of the Old Testament Our Lord refers His disciples 
to the Scribes as the guardians of the Sacred Volume. He recognizes 
it as existing in their hands. Cf. Lud. Vw. in Aug. De Civ. Dei, 
viii. 39 : " Scribe erant, qui sacrorum librorum literam docebant, nee 
ab ea recedebant latum culmum." 

The Pharisees had conspired with their enemies the Sadduceea 
against Christ as Herod and Pontius Pilate were made friends at the 
crucifixion. But what more meek and benign than Christ 1 He had 
been tempted by the Pharisees ; and yet to maintain the honour of 
the priesthood and the dignity of its name He exhorts the people to 
submit to them, not in regard of their works, but their doctrine (as 
far as it was taught from the chair of Moies, i. 
Law of God). (Jerome.) 

isistently with th 

mXaxTiipia] The texts of Scripture embroi- 

, :ries (called TephUlim, from Tephtllah, prayers); 

amuleti of parchment which were braced with leather thongs over the 
arms, the heart, and the eyes (Deut vi. 4—10; xi. 18—20. Exod. 
xiii. 9. 16). Cp. Joteph. Ant iv. 8. ffieron. in Exek. xxiv. 17. 
Buxtorf. Lex. Talm. p. 1743. Goodwin, Moses and Aaron, i. 101. 
Lightfoot, i. 944. John, Arclurol. § 320. 

— n%ya\i*nvi t« KpdW.Ai] They make their Fringes of an 
exorbitant size. The *odmla (teibith) differ from the rfx/Au-nlpic, 
being attached as fringes, of purple, to the garment (Numb. xv. 38. 
Deut. xxii. 12); whereas the 4>*Wnfpta were parchment strip* 
bound over the arm, &c with strings. See John, Arch, g 122. 


rovs acnracrfiovs ev rats dyopais, kou KaXetcrOai, vrrb tS>p avdpdmav pafifil, 
pafifiL (™) 8 'T/x€is oe /x») Kkrjdrjre pafZfZL" d els yap cora* ifiStv 6 StSourxaXos, 
irdWcs Be vuets dSeX^i core 9 * #cat varipa py KaXeo-r/re vpJav iirl rfj? yrjr 
eU yap i<mv o IlaTrjp v/xaV, 6 eV tois ovpavois - 10 p.-qBe' kX^^t* KadrjyTjTw 
eU yap vpjav i<rru> 6 KadTjyrjrris, 6 Xpurros. (^-) u f 'O Bk pxtfjiav vpatv carat 
v/xap Suikovos. 12 * 'Ootis St* ityoScra eavroj/, Tairewadijo-erat.' koI ocms 
TaTreu/wcm eavroi*, {nJKod^a-erat. 

(^) 1S h Oval Se v/xiV, rpa/i/xareZs icai Qapuraioi, wroKpvrai, ori Kareo-Oiere 
rots ouaas tui' ^pa>v, ko\ 7rpo<j>do-ei. fiaxpa irpoaev^ouevot' 8td tovto fojifteo-de 
mpura-oWepov Kptfia. w ' Oval vuiV, rpafifiarelst ical $apio-atot, wroKpvrai, 
art KkeUre tt)*» fiaaiXeiav ratv ovpavStu e/iirpoa-dev rutv avdpdnrwv v/icts ydp 
ovk ewrepxeo-de, ovBe rovs cicrcp^o/xeVovs do^iere t-ureXtfeu*. (^) ls Oval v/xu>, 
Ppauuareis Kal fPapuraibt, inroKpirai, ori irepwyere tt)v daXacrcrav koI t»)v 
fripav, troiyja-ai eVa irpotrqkvrov, Kal orav yevrp-at, iroievre avrov vio*» yeewrys 
oWXdrepoi' v/xajv. 16 k Oval v/xuc, o&rpyol tvo^XoI, ol Xeyovres, *Os cu* 6[i6<rg 
ev ro? i/oop ovSeV «me, os S* av 6fio<rg ev rep xP v<r V T0V " ao ''» o^ciXct. 17 u&ipol 
Kal tv<£X<h, tis yap p-eitfiiv l<rr\v, 6 xpvo-os, ^ 6 va6s 6 dyu££&w> tw xpvaov ; 
18 ko4, os cd** 6p6<rQ eV to7 0v<rui<rn)pup, ovBev iariv, os 8' 4v o/tdoTj eV t$ 
Swpw to") iirdvcj avrov, o^ctXei. 19 ' uapol Kal Twftkoi, ri yap p,ei£ov, to Bapov, 
ff to 6vo~UMmjpu)V to ayidCov to hatpov ; * 'O oSv 6/xdo-as «V T6JJ 6varuurrr)pLa> 
ouvvet ev avra^, Kal eV iracri tois iiravta avrov* 21 ro Kal 6 o/xdaas eV to» vao^ 
6p.vvei ev avroy, Kal cv rojt KaToi.icja'avTi avrov 22 " Kal 6 d/i-daas eV rop ovpavtp 
duvvet eV rop dpov<p tov Qeov, ko\ eV t«7 koBtj/Uv^ eirdvot avrov. 

(™) <23 ° Oval v/xie, Ppauttarets Kal ^apiaaloi, wroKpvrai, vn, diroteKaTovre 

f eh. SO. 26, 17. 

g Lak* 14. 11. 
ft It. 14. 

i Luke 11. 4J. 
in. «. 6. 
flcah 6. 8. 
er. M. IS, 18. 

7. ^iftM] 'yj, JMjf A/«<»r. iliiiW, from root 35, mi = great; 
at Magitter from maomu, fkiyat. 

8. m4 kXi,8t"] Let not this be your ambition to be to eoZfed. 

— lit o 4t W«a\ot 1 80 TitckcndorftaA Alford for i. o KaenyvT^t, 
and, it Kerns, rightly. There is but one, the only Magitter or Teacher, 
Who inspires all true wisdom and enables yon to receire it He Who 
tt the Wisdom of God. Cp. St. Amputtm't Treatise de Magittro 
(i. 187), in which this argument it handled. 

9. Kal warifa uli xakiaiiTt] These prohibitions are to l ' 

stood from the practice of the Pharisees, who did not teach t 
to look up to (Sod the sole Author of all good, but, in theiri 
desire of human glory and worldly titles, drew off the homage of the 
people from God to thenuttvet, and usurped His place in the popular 
mind. Cp. 2 Cor. i. 24. James iii. 1. 1 Pet. T. 8. 

That man may be said to call *o mem lather upon earth, who does 
all his actions at in God's sight, and the language of whose life is, " Our 
Father which art in heaven. Hallowed be Thv Name !" (Cp. Origen.) 

10. KaSqvtrTtitl The Pharisees claimed to be itnyol (Rom. li. 
19), and are called i'.,™ -r v tf.\ol by Christ (xx. 14; xziii. 16. 24), 
a warning to those who encroach upon the province of others in 
exercising spiritual directim—aWorftiofwiiiKowoi (1 Pet iv. 15), 
and particularly to those who usurp dominion over the conscience, or 
submit their conscience unreservedly to the will of others. See Bp. 
Samlenon, vol. iv. 62 ; de Conscient Pncl. iii. § 67. 

— i X|»>Tiii] Our Lord now began to use the word Xpur-rof in 
speaking of Himself. (See xvi. 20. Markix.4.) In the Gospels, when 
the word stands alone or with 'Iitvovc, except in such cases as Matt 
i. 1, Mark i. 1, John i. 17: xvii. 3, it generally has the article, 
but in the Epittla it is generally without the article. 

The declaration that Christ alone is their Master and Guide is a 
plain declaration of the Divinity of Christ St Paul says, Who is 
Paul, who is Apollos, who it Cephas? are they not Minister! or Ser- 
vants, not Masters? (1 Cor. iii. 5.) He means that we ought to 
know Him Whom we call Father, above all ; God, the great cause of 

all Teachers and Fathers. And by adding that one it ' l *" " 

Christ, He equals Himi"- ' J - * — ■— «'-•—-» 

iself to God, and makes Himself one with God 

to bv making himself lea. 

li. obai] Used by the LXX for the Hebrew in or <*i. 
Lord had begun with Nine Beatitudes (Matt v. 3—11). He now 
concludes with Eight Woes. 

bwoKi>nat\ Our Lord repeats this word seven times here 

(tv. 13, 14, 15, 23, 25, 27, 29). On the term Hypocrity applied to 
the Pharisees, not only as deceiving others, but as deluding them- 
selves, being blinded by their evil passions ; whence they are called 
blind guides (v. 16 ; see also xxiii. 26), see Bp. ButUrU Serm. on 
Jan. 30, and note in Christian Institutes, iii. pp. 48, 49. 


— xal wp.l And this too ye do,— making long prayers for a pre- 
text (Phil. i. 18} of religion ; that is, ye add hypocrisy to rapacity, 
and therefore will receive greater damnation. 

— TipttrtroTipov] " Qui bono abutitur ad malum ornandum magis 
iudicatur." (Bern.) 

18. ■ayxKT.tWc...] The word used by LXX for Hebrew -|i (ow), 
from -w (.our), commomri (Exod. xii. 48, 49 ; xx. 10, and pamm) ; 
and applied specially in our Saviour's time to the two classes of con- 
verts to Judaism, i. e. (1) the Proselytes of the Gate, •»* n|> who 
were not circumcised; and (2) the Proselytes of Righteousness, 
pT^ n), who were circumcised and alto baptized. Cf. Jain, ArchcoL 

r.X«fat (John xvii. 12. 2 Then. 

son of death ;' i. e. " spiritu inferni 
commotum et alios ad internum secum trahentem, et digmun pemit 
inferni, iisque afficiendum." Cp. above on ix. 15 and on xvii. 12. 

— ivw\iriQO¥ v*iw] The Pharisees made proselytes for their 
own advantage ; and these proselytes, seeing the vices of those who 
converted them under a semblance of pietv, became worse than before, 
and even than their masters (cp. JtromrS, Or because, having teen 
your sins, he relapses into heathenism and becomes worse than before. 

Twice at muck a child of Hell. Hence we may infer degrees of 
punishment hereafter proportioned to degrees of sin. (Origen.) So 
Aug. Serm. 161. 4 : " Due habitationet sunt, una in igne tsterno, 
alia in regno eterno : ibi omnes cruciabuntur, minus ille, plus ille. 
He then cites x. 15 and this text, and adds, " alii duplo alii simplo." 
See above on x. 15. 

18. tc» iap v ] Their own gift was counted by th 
self-righteousness of more worth than the divine hon 

28. d-rodixaToirri] " dvooiKa-rovv, verbum Alexandrine dialecto 
scriptis Atticorum non legitur, respondet Hebr. 
decimal arigere, decimetre, 1 Sam. viii. 15. Heb. 
.... . »r«, Gen. xxviii. 22, b. 1. est, t^» ««K<rri|i> TtXsT», 

ut dixit Jotepk. Ant iv. 4. Judasi sscerdotibus dare debebant decimas 
omnium frugum, vid. Lev. xxvii. 30. Num. xviii. 21. Deut xiv. 22. 
Pharisssorum ii, qui non ex sacerdotum ordine erant, ut inprimia 
sancti et pii advertus Deum viderentur, hanc legem diligentutime 

"T* ' 

i counted by them in 

»im« i. n rtvv-ei i Neane. 

negligerent virtutet, q^uarum studium et exercitafjo longe majorii 
momenti esset" (Kutn.) 

Mint, anise, and cummin are the teatoning of food, and not the 
substance. Our Lord approvet the observance of what it least, but 
command! to keep what it chief, that is, "judgment, mercy, 


p Luke 11. 39. 

ch. 15, JO. 
Mark 7. 4. 

2 Chron. M. 2 
ft 36. 16. 
Neb. 9. 26. 

x Gen. 4. 8. 
2 Chron". 24. 21, 


to rfhvo<rpA>v Kat to avrfOov Kal to Kvpwov, Kal atyqKaTe to. fiapvrepa tow 
vofiov, Typ Kpicrw koI tow ekeov Kal ttjv wCtmv ravra he I8« iroojom, Kaucelva 
fir) a^io'cu. (^) ** 'OSiyyol rv<f>\oi, oi SivXt^ovres tow Katvama, t^v he" Kaprjkov 
KOLTamuovrts. (^) M p Oval w/xtV, TpappaTtv; koI #apurau>i, wroKpvrai, art 
Kadapltjere to 2£<oda> rov iranjpiov Kal rq? irapo\\i{Zos, icru&ev hi yepov&w 
i£ apnayrj? #cal dStxux?. * q QapuraZe rwf>ke, Kaddpurov irpanov to thros tow 
Trorqpiov koI ttjs irapoifiChos, wa yevryrai Kal to eKTos ovtSi' K<tdap6v. 

(vO ^ r Oval v/to/, Tpap.p.a.Tm Kal Gapuratoi, wroKpvral, on irapopoid^ere 
Ta^>ots K€KovuipJvoL<;, oirive? etjcudev pa/ <f>aivovrai ajpaloi, eaatdev he yepovcrtv 
oareav vtKpS>v koI 7rdo-i7? aKadapa'utf • ovrco Kal w/xtn$ e^otdev ph> <j)aCve<r0e 
Tot? avBpomovi Sucaioi, ecrwOev hk pjecrroi e<rre wroKpCaeats Kal avoplas. 
(^) * ' Oval wini/, TpappaTtt<i koI QapicraZot., xmoKpiral, oVi oucohopelre row* 
rcupov? t<ov irpo<fn)TS>i>, Kal Koapevre ra pvrjpela raw hucauav, x Kal Xt*yere» 
jBi rjpeda iv Tat? -qpipai,? r&v iraripoiv r)po>v, ovk av rjpeda kowovoI avr&p 
iv T«p at/tan tcui* irpo^njrS>v 31 ' <5ot€ paprvpelre eavrots, on wioi care r&w 
<fx>vcv<rdvT<i>v tows Troo^i/ras. (^r) w Kal w/tcts ir\t)p<o<raTe to pJrpov rav 
irariprnv vpwv. M ""Otf>et.s, yewrjpara e\ihvwv, inu? (fnvyrjTe airb rrjs KpUreoiS 
T^s yeewr)? ; (?£) M T Jtd towto iSow, r*yt2> aiToo-reXX© ir/005 w/xds irpotjrqras 
Kal ao<f>ovs xal ypappareh, Kal i£ avrtav aTroKrevelre koI oTavp&crere, Kal 
4$ avTciv patmywo-ere iv rais oTwaywyalV v/xa»j>, Kal hid>£ere diro irrfXews ct? 
ttoXw, ^ * oVeos eX^p *?<^' v/xas irdf at/ia hUatov iicxwopevov em rfj? yfjs, dirb 
alpaTos "AfSek rov htKaCov litu? row at/xaro? Zayaplov vlov Bapa^iov, bv i<fx>~ 

M. itSXfJprTM] The Valrate rightlr render* it emo&nfet, strain- 
ing out, ttrsining of. In Amos vi. 6, the LXX have viWrat 
iivXtaninoy o\o¥ 1 —\. e. wine so carefully strained and filtered that no 
unclean animalcula could find their way into it so as to be swallowed 
by them. Buxtoif, Lex. Talmud, p. 516. 

This was the practice of those who professed extraordinary sanc- 
tity. See Talmud in cap. Schabbath, "colant vinam per linte*;" 
and Maimtm. de cibis vetitis, apud Vbrtt. de Hebr., p. 771. 

. "Irridet," says St. Hilary, " Christus srribarum in colandis 
cnlicibus diligentiam quorum in glutiendis camelia easet incuria." 

27. KiKOK.a^.Von] xoria. "calct dealbatu" white-washed. So 
toIys KtmpMuioi (Acts xxiii. 3). Cp. Demosth. 36, 16 ; 689, 24. 
And see Poeodt, i. 154, and Wehtein here. The graves were usually 
whitewashed in the month Adar {March), (cp. Litihtf. and Schoctt- 
gem,) in order to guaH persons from contracting pollution by proxi- 
mity to the dead, see Numbers xix. 16. 

The ceremonial ordinances of the Law were instituted for the 
sake of the moral law, i. e. for mercy and judgment ; so that the 
former were of no use without the latter. He speaks thus to show 
that even before the Gospel, these ceremonial ordinances were not 
the main requisite, but were subordinate to moral duties. And this 
is what the ancient Prophets often teach, e. g. Micah vi. 8. Hos. vi. 6. 
We ought to be Temples ;— how often are we but Tombs ! (Ckryi .) 

39. -ru<povs — n*, m tla] Ye build their tombs and adorn their 
monuments, but do not imitate their example; ye disobey their 
precepts, and slight their warnings, and rebel against their God, 
Who has sent you His Son, to Whom all the Prophets bear witness. 
And thus ye show yourselves the children of those who killed the 
Prophets, and are even worae than your fathers, because you add 
hypocrisy to impiety. Woe, therefore, to yon Hypocrites ! 

SO. fluifo] " Pro t)pii> in pluribus ct optimis codd. h. 1. et paulo 
post legitur fiu»8a, quam Imperfecti formam recte in textual rece- 
perunt Grieebachiui et Matlhai. Attici enim veteres rari dixerunt 
«A"I» pro no, tea Alexandria et communis dialectus banc Imper- 
fecti formam sibi tanquam propriam vindicavit. vid. Jos. v. 1. Neh 
i. 4. ii. 11. Matt. xxv. 3S al. Maris: ft; irri -ro5 iW, 'Att.- 
««t- «h>i». 'E\ksn«M. n (Amu.) 

81. 6«t« ^aprupitTi') Ye call them, who killed the Prophets, 
your Falkert; and rightly, because re imitate their acta; and are 
therefore their children. Cp. v. 45. Rom. iv. 11, 12. He therefore 
identifies them with their fathers, and charges them with their 
fathers' sins. See v. 35, or <<po»v(r«Ti, « killed even Zacharias. 
Cp. John vi. 32, " Moses gave yiu not," &c. 

84. tii Toiro] There is a remarkable similitude between this 
passage and 2 Eedras i. 28—33. (Beng.) (Cp. Luke xi. 49.) 

— pa<rTiy<»<r<Ti if rait o-vnaymyaU] See on Acts xxvi. 11. 

85. Zaxapiou v\oi Bapavi'ov] Cf. Lake xi. 51. 
Among the various opinions that have been addi 

this Zacharias, the most probable is, that our Lord refer* to the 
Zacharias who was the son of Jehoiada the Priest, and was slain by 
command of King Joaah, whom he had rebuked for his sins, and for 

se of the Lord, our Lord describes it 

The books of the Chronicle* being regarded as the conclusion of 
the Historical Canon of the Old Testament, and the sum and colophon 
of all Jewish History (" Instramenti Veteris Epitome," says S' 

m ad Paulin.), o 

iting the history of the Martyrdom 

of Genesis, comprise* 
all Jewish History as narrated in the Inspired Canon of the Old 
Testament (cp. Bp. Gain on the Canon, p. 13), and therefore com- 
bines the " Acts and Sufferings of all the Martyrs " whose blood 
" crieth from the ground" to God, aa did that of Abel and Zachariah. 
(Gen. iv. 10. 2 Chron. xxiv. 22.) 

The dying words of Zachariah seem to be prophetical of oar 
Lord'* allusion to hi* Martyrdom; and our Lord (in Luke xi. 51) 
appears to refer to those dying words, vol, \iym iuu>, KJ^TijOri- 

The word* of Zachariah were spoken in the TempU where hi* 
blood was shed. Our Lord, the true Zacharia* (from -qj, motor, 
rtoordatuifitU, and a; Jehovah), or Remembrancer of God, and the true 
Son of Barachiah (from Tpj, bank), benedueit, and pr (j*h), or Son 
of the Bleued (see Mark xi v. 61 ), takes up those word* in the Temple, 
and predict* its doom there. 

Amu. well says. "Jesus igitur, ut significant on '- l — : 

im, et ultimam cssdem, a 

Zacharias. Altare etiani nocentibus, n 
asylum et tutela erat vid. Exod. x 

ouoque prophetam jussu JoYakimi trucidatum esse, coll. Jet. 
!l ss. 2 Paral. xxxvi. 4 as. sed, quod probe notandum, non 
tu* est at Zacharias /iituJu to raoi Kal tov 9ve-iao-- 

And alluding to this oar Lord says, itfi|ri|9ijot€Ta« (Luke xl. 51). 

> Par numerous insunces of person*! fumrpot am»ng the Jews, see 
Grofiiu here. Surenkut. p. »2. 01—. Pbilol. PairU. de Evan*-. It. p. 4*. 

ST. MATTHEW XXHI. 36—39. XXIV. 1—3. 

vewrar* /btera£w tow vaov Kal tow 6v<ruumfptov x dprjv Xeyeo, on ij^ei 
Tawra irdvra *?ui Tr)v yevtav ravrtyv. (^-) w y 'Iepovo-akyp., 'lepovo-akyp, i) 
dwoirreicowo-a tow? irpotjurjfTas, Kal Xtflofiokovo-a tows direcrrakpevovs irpbs avrqv, 
iroo'oucis rj0*kr)<ra iirurwayayetv ra reicva trov, ov rpoirov iirurwdyai 6pvi<; 
to voo-tria. awri)? wiro Ta? irripvyas, koX ovk rjdekijcraTe ; K 'I&oi>, dtftierai 
w/iu> 6 ol/cos vpmv * ipr/pos. ® ™ .4eya> ydo w/xiV, Ow /*tj /i€ iSiyre dw' dort, eius 
av ciTnyTC* Evkorfqpevos 6 ip\6pevos cv ovopart, Kvplov. 

XXIV. ( y) x * Kal i^ikdmv 6 'Itjo-ow? iwopevero diro tow icpou* #eat irpo<r- 
ijkdov oi pafrtyral awrow tfiuSetfai awry Tas o«co8o/bids tow Uoow. 2 'O 8e 
'Ii/o-ow? elira' awrois. Ow fiXeirerc irdvra Tawra ; dpr/v Xeyot vplv, ov pi) axfxdjj 
&>8e \i$os iirl \Wov, os ov fearaXw^rjo-erai. (^) 3 8e awrow eVt 
tow o/sows rSaf ihiuov, irpocrrjkdov awrcp 01 padrjral Kar tZlav, Xeyovres, Eiirk 
17/xiV, irvrt Tawra curat ; /cat ti to o-rj/xeiow t^s otjs irapowias, Kal ttJ? 

y Luke IS. 84, 55. 
Deut. 32.11,11. 

cause, at Abel ' the rightec 

,' the good shepherd, slain by his brother 

his priestly office, his preaching, and in his death, was « type of 
Christ Himself. The words, ' Son of Barachiah,' mean ' Son of the 
Blessed,' and this was a name of Christ Himself (see Mark xiv. 61 ). 
Barachias (says Jerome) signifies 'Blessed of the Lord;' and the 
righteousness of Jehoiada the Priest is expressed by this Hebrew 
word. And in the Gospel used by the Nazarenes we find ' Son of 
Jehoiada,' instead of ' Son of Barachias.' 

Our Lord had just been uttering malediction! against the hypo- 
crisy of the Scribes and Pharisees ; and He now intimates that they 
who suffer for the truth are children of " the Bleued" and that He 
Himself Whom they were about to put to death as accursed,— for, 
cursed is he that hangeth on a tree (Gal. iii. 13. Deut xxi. 33), is the 
'Son of the Bleated; and had been typified in His testimony and His 
sufferings by all the Martvrs of the Old Testament, from Abel to 
Zacharias, the Son of the Blessed ; and that His own murder would 
be the crowning sin which would fill up the cup of God's wrath to 
the brim, and make it overflow with vengeance upon them. And 
He concludes with saying that they should not see Him till they 
acknowledge Him to be ' the Son of Barachias,' and say, " Blisseo 
is He that cometh in the Name of the Lord" (see v. 39). For an 
interesting inquiry into this text, see Dr. Jackson on the Creed, 
book xi. ch. xliii. vol. xi. pp. 256—287. Cp. Light/out, i. 2040 ; ii. 
237- 436. Thilo, Codex. Apoc. N. T. lxiv. 

38. -raSra wdrr«] See on xxiv. IS. It may be asked why the 
blood of Abel and Zechariah. which was not shed by the Jews of that 
generation, should be required of it ? Because they, who in their 
conduct to the Apostles imitate Cain and Joash, are considered as 
one and the same generation with them. (Jerome.) 

Our Lord encouraged and comforted His disciples, by showing 
diem that whatever they might suffer, no less had been suffered by 
saints of old. And He warned the Jews, by predicting that as 
the persecutors of the ancient Saints were destroyed, so would they 
be punished also. They who see how others have been chastised for 
tin, and yet commit the same sin, or worse, will suffer worse punish- 
it man those whose examples they have been permitted to tee. 


. 'ispouaaXhu, 'Icpouo-aAiJM] This repetition of the name 
warts intense love. (Chrys.) 

-»«««] 'How often r For Christ came to the Jews in 
Moses and the Prophets, and in the Angels themselves, ministering 
to their salvation in every age. (Origen.) 

— ippts -ra poavta] Not only because He would have covered 
her with His Wings, but (as Aug. says, Serm. 264) "quia gallina 
propter infirmitatem pullorum ipsa infirmatur, et infirmatur cum 
pullis, et Dominus propter infirmitatem nostrum et Ipse susceptione 
caxnis infirmari dignatus est" Cp. 2 Esd. i. 30. He derives the 
image from the bird who most loves her offspring, and from the 
language of the Prophets and Psalms, which speak of the people being 
safe under the wings and feathers, i. e. the providence and protection 
of God. Pt. xvii. 8 ; lvii. 1 , lxi. 4 ; xci. 4. What Christ then pro- 
phesied has already come to pass ; who can deny it ? And as surely 
will His other prophecies be fulfilled. As surely as, according to His 
prophecies, Jerusalem has been destroyed, so surely, therefore, will 
He come again to judgment. (Chrys.) 

88. o otxot vmmv I particularly the Temple; your holy House, 
which wot God's House, but is now become your house, by being 
made ' a den of thieves,' that is now left to you, being deserted by 
Goat. See on xxiv. 15, and above, xxi. 13. 

The Veil of the Temple was about to be rent in twain; and 
though after the Ascension the Apostles still resorted to it for prayer, 
yet in fact the virtue of the daily sacrifice ceased (Dan. ix. 27) at the 
Crucifixion, when the Type was merged in the Antitype, and when 

k -rip <». Hine Zacharias 

iterpp. ad Marc. Ii. M. Wolfium in Curli 

~" Mosquensis : Zavopuu. ti t»» ■*-»- 

--•— * Par. 1. 1, Jolaiue, h. 1. s 

the Jewish Temple became the Cenotaph of the Law, and the Chris- 
tian Church was made the Oracle of God. 

89. ou n» pi liirrt] You will not know Me, before you welcome 
Me as the Messiah, and adore Me as God. You may crucify Me as 
Man, but that is because you are blind, and see Me not. But in order 
to see Me, you must look at Me with the eye of faith; you must 
•worship Mo as God. And this will be, when with broken hearts and 
weeping eyes, you " look on Him Whom you have pierced." Zech. 
xii.10. Johnxix.37. Hos.iv. 3. 

— i&Xoyriiityo* — Kvpiou] The solemn salutation of the Messiah 
(Ps. txviii. See xxi. 9). A reference to the name Bapayuit, men- 
tioned v. 35. 

What He says is this, — Unless ye repent, and confess Me, of 
whom the Prophets wrote, as the Son of God Almighty, ye shall not 
see My face. The Jews have now time given them for repentance ; 
let them confess Christ to be the Blessed One Who cometh in the 
Name of the Lord, and they will see His face. {Jerome.) 

The Jewish Nation has ceased to be God's household; and 
remaining in the obstinacy of unbelief, they will not behold Christ 
till they bless Him coming in the name of the Lord. (Hilary.) 

Ch. XXIY. L t At oUoiofiit toD iipou] Whose solidity and mag- 
nificence is described by Jatejthus, B. J. v. 5. Antiq. xv. 14. 

As Bengel observes, the word intimates that the work 
of building was even then going on (cp. John ii. 20). " Fortaase 
magis opus fervebat, ob P"-t« -"•>•"■ "' #*«,„, - 

it, lie was prophesying its 

said to the Jews, " Your house is left di 

ties, surprised by such au announcement, ct . 

buildings of the Temple ; as if in doubt whether so much glory could 
fade. He therefore proceeds to predict its entire destruction. Ye 
are surprised at the announcement — but not one stone will be left on 
another. The Apostles appear to have then supposed that the day of 

Jerusalem's destruction would b- "■- ■"-» -* " ! - ° J n — ! — 

They imagined this would Ik 

see Me henceforth, till ye sa„ _. 

of the Lord" (xxiii. 89). But our Lord corrects this notion by 
saying, " The end is not yet" (xxiv. 6). 

On former occasions, Jerusalem had been restored from time to 
time, and the Temple had been rebuilt ; but He now predicts that 
the next destruction would be total. [Chryt. v. 16.) 

8. t£» sAaiuf] Observe, that the Siege began at the />&»* where 
this prophecy was delivered, i. e. the Mount of Olives (see Josepkus 
B. J. v. 2 and 3); *^ 

And, at the time, the Passover (Ibid. vi. 9. 3.), 

And that many hundreds were destroyed by the same death as 
they were now about to inflict upon Christ, viz. Crucifixion (Ibid. 

Titus, the Son and successor of the Roman Emperor Vespasian, 
regarded himself as the executioner of God's Judgment on Jerusalem. 
The destruction of the Temple was a more striking fulfilment of 
Christ's prophecy, because it was effected by Roman soldiers in 
opposition to the orders of Titus, who wished to spare it And the 
woes with which Jerusalem was visited were more remarkable, as 
being brought about by the agency of one who was distinguished for 
clemency, and was called " delicia: humani generis." — Vespasian, hit 
father, who began the Jewish war, seems also to hare been specially 
raised up by God to be the minister of his purposes against Jerusa- 
lem ; and it is observable that he alone of the Roman Cfesars was 
permitted to bequeathe the Empire to his sons. Cp. Dr. Jackson on 
the Creed, Book I. xxiii. and Serm. vi. vol. vi. p. 169. For the pas- 
sages of Josephus which illurtrato this prophecy, sec Grinfield, SchoL 
Hellenist pp. 60. 63, and Whitby, Notes to Chap. xxiv. 

b Pascha instant.'' While theywL , 

ts destruction. Because our Lord had just 
i," therefore the Apos- 
e and show Him the 

to because He had said, ' 

habuit, et Judaeis, qui Christi estate pluriraum studii genealogist impende- 

Som« Critics recklessly cut the knot by saying, " Wahrsbeinlleb hat 
Jesus selbst den vateruohen Ntmen gar nleht genannt." Meter ad loc. Ird 
Ed. p. JW. 


ft 7. S». ft It. I, 


• owreXeias tov <ua>vo$ ; 4b Kal avoicptdds 6'It/o-ovs etvev avrois, /JXeVere 
/tij Tts v/x-a? irXanjtrp* s iroXXoi yap i\evcrovT<u iirl T$ wopm /xov, Xeyovres, 
'Eyw ci/xi 6 Xpiards' *cal ttoXXovs irXcwrjo-ovo-i. 6 c MeXXr/o-erc 8*} okov&v 
TroXc/biov? Kat cucoas TroX^fwuv opare, /«) dpo&rOe S« ya/> TraWa yevinBav 
dXX' ow7rw corl to tc'Xos. 7 'Eyepfrqo-erai, yap Zdvos inl e$vo$, icat fSaxriXeCa 
eVl fiao-ikeCav, Kal ecromai ki/iol /ecu Xoi/nol, «al trcicr/iol Kara toVovs* 8 irtura 
8e rawra dp^r) dtBivav. (^) 9 d TdT€ irapa§(ocrovcru> v/tas ci? AXm/hp, *ral 
<mtokt€j'ovo-u' u/xa?, jcol i(r€<rd€ fiuToviuvoi \mb irdvraiv r&v idvStv Zta. to 
ovofid ftov (^) 10 koI Tore o~Kav8a\i<r0yo~ovrat ttoXXoi, koX aXXrJXovs irapaZa- 
<rov<ri, koX purq<rov<rw dXXrjXovr II koX ttoXXoi t/revoW/>o<£>}Tcu eyepdrjaovrat,, 
Kal ir\avij<rov<n ttoXXovs* 12 Kal, 8ia to trkqdvpdrjvai. rqv avofiiav, ipvyrj- 
(rerai tj aydirrj rmv irokkatr 13 6 8e VTro/newas eis TeXos. oCtos <r<adr)<r€Tax. 
(f£) u Xal Kr)pvx0y<rerai. tovto to evayycXiof tt/9 /JaciXeias eV oX# tjJ oucov- 
/teVrj, as iiaprvpiov iracri toi? £dv€o~i, koI totc ij&t to tcXos. (^r) 1S * *Ora»» 


erea ~ •"„ jud 

f which thai judgment was a type, viz. 
coming to judge the world. 

The Apostles, indeed, then supposed that the taking of Jeru- 
salem, and the end of the world, and Christ's coming to judgment, 
would be simultaneous (cf. e. 6) ; 

It is to be observed, that several Future Events, however 
distant from each other, seem to be represented by Prophecy as con- 
temporaneous, till one of them is near, and detaches itself from the 

Future Evenit in Time may be compared to distant objects in 
place. In a mountainous country, two ridges of hills rising the one 
above the other, are seen in the horizon almost as one, although there 
may be many miles between them ; and it is only when the spectator 
arrives at the summit of the first ridge that he is aware of the chasm 

Kerning the first Advent had b« 

n of Christ in the world, then tl 

te Second Advent became more distinct 

Advents seem to be blended together in 

But when the predictions concerning the first Advent had been 
accomplished by the manife 
prophecies concerning **■- ™- 

Yet even then th< 
to be blended with His com 
the judgment of Jerusalem was a type, and is so treated by Himself 
in the present Chapter. 

It is only in the Scriptures written after the taking of Jerusalem 
(viz. the Revelation of St John) that the transactions of the Great 
Day stand forth alone in all their grand and awful majesty. And as 
there is a gradual process of clearing up in the prophecies concerning 
the coming of Christ, so is there a similar process of elucidation in 
the successive prophecies concerning the coming of Anti-Christ. And 
there is reason to believe that the prophecies concerning the coming 
of Anti-Christ will be brought to a climax at about the same time as 

v. 11. 

6. TaVral all that I predict 

— oSwm tori to ti'W] Cp. Mark xiii. 7. 10. Luke xxi. 9. Our 
Lord, therefore, did not predict (as some have ventured to say) that 
He would come again to judgment immediately. He said the con- 
trary, as here ; nor did His Apostles afterwards. See 2 These, ii. 2. 

8. ipxh sVliViso] Observe the word <Mu.ii (pains of parturition) 
as very appropriate and significant; because the circumstances of the 
World on the eve of Christ's coming will be like those of a woman 
in travail (see 1 These, v. 3), and because after them the New Crea- 
tion will be born,— the iraXiyy.., via (see xix. 28) will ensue. 

Lest the disciples should be absorbed in dwelling on the punish- 
ments in reserve for the Jem, and suppose that they themselves would 
be exempt from suffering, our Lord warns them of coming woes and 
trials for themselves (v. 9 and 12), and thus stimulates them to watch- 
fulness and courage. And in order to show that the calamities which 
would overtake the Jews were divinely-appointed judgments for their 
sins. He specifies not only wars, but famines and earthquakes ; and 
adds, " Verily I say unto you, all these will come upon this genera- 
tion,"—!, e. for their cruelty to Himself. And lest the Apostles 
should imagine that the Gospel would be imperilled by these calami- 
ties, He says, " Be not terrified." (Cktys.) 

The nous of which our Lord here speaks are to be understood 
both literally and figuratively ; there will be famines of bread, and 
also of " hearing the Word of God." (Amos viii. 11.) So also with 
regard to pestilences and earthquakes there will be false teachers, 
" whose word eats as doth a canker" (2 Tim. ii. 17), and commotions 
of the world, and falling of many from the faith. (Jerome.) 

1L \f/t»ioirpo<priTai\ Cp. t>. 24. Here was one main cause of the 

miseries of the Jews. They had killed the true Prophet and the true 
Christ, Who bad come for their salvation ; and, for a retribution of 
their sin, they were deceived by fab* prophets and faUe ChrisU, to 
their own destruction. (See Acts v. 36 ; xxi. 38. Joseph. B. J. ii. 
13. 4 ; vii. 11. 3.) They rightly expected that the Messiah would 
appear at this time ; and that He would come to His Temple, for so 
the prophets had foretold; but they knew Him not; and because 
they expected the Messiah and had not known Him, they were more 
eisily deluded by impostors professing to be Christ; and they ima- 
gined it impossible that Jerusalem should ever be taken by the 
Romans, and even to the last believed that the Messiah would inter- 
fere to save them and to destroy their enemies. 

12. -rii, o»i>H lawlessness. Ct Zech. v. 8, where the LXX 
use the word for nyqr) (risheah), wickedness. Sometimes they use 
it for -%$ (sheker), falsehood, lying. 

In proportion as the end approaches, errors will increase, terrors 
will increase, iniquity and infidelity will increase, and the darkness of 
hatred among brethren. (St. Aug. in Joan xxv.) 

— run *oXAw>] of the world. 

18. o At vrosuiwc a. r.] Intimating that many would fall 

14. roOro ro tvayyt\to»\ Not St Mattkew'i Gospel, as Dt 
Wette objects, who charges the Evangelist with forgetting himself 
here. The Gospel is present to our Lord's eye here and xxvi. 13, as 
the great purpose of His coming into the world. 

Our Lord predicts a threefold struggle— from open enemies, 
from impostors, from false brethren. See St. Paul's declaration, 
2 Cor. vii. S; xi. 13. And yet He assures them that so far from the 
Gospel being extinguished by this conflict, it will be preached every 
where {v. 14) ; but Ho does not say it will be believed every where. 
It will be preached as a witnaa,— a witness to those who reject it, — 
it will be preached to their condemnation. Those who believe will 
be like witnesses against those who do not believe, and will condemn 
them. (Ckryt.) 

Observe how many difficulties beset the Gospel. Deceivers, 
Roman armies, Famines, Plagues and Pestilences, and Earthquakes, 
Tribulations, Treachery, Hatred, Dissensions, Failure of Love, 
Abundance of Iniquity ; and yet the Gospel triumphs, and will be 
preached in all the world. (Chtyi.) 

The Preaching of the Gospel throughout the world is a sign of 
Christ's coming to judgment (Jerome.) 

18. 3ra» our Mijts to /SdiXvyfta rrjt fpqpiio-lMT, T " 

Aa».^X tov wpoipnrov, iarm It -riita dyiai] rii™ iyiot is the 
«tyrr (hak-kodesh), " the Holy Place" (fcxod xxvi. S3 ; xxviii. 29. 35, 
It, or part of the Temple where the Golden 
1, and called rj^piy (makom), or ftaee rarr' 

),-i.e. thew . 
Altar of incense, &c. stood, a 
i^oxh', in Isa. xxvi. 21, rendered by the LXX ri Syion. 

ptiKvypa, or aboninatio, is the Hebrew yg$ (tnekkett), which 
signifies an unclean thing (Lev. vii. 21 ; xi. 10. 13. 41, 42), and is spe- 
cially applied to denote an object of idolatrous worship (1 Kings xi. 
5. 7. 2 Kings xxiii. 13. 2 Chron. xv. 8), or an act of uncleanness and 
idolatry (Jer. iv. 1 ; xiii. 27. Ewk. v. 11). 

fpiiwunc, or desolation, is the Hebr. rtyfl (ikemamak), which 
signifies a devastation that causes astonishment and awe. 

PliXuyua ipq/iuiriMt is a Hebraism for fltikvyjia 

desolating abomini 
xxii. 11. 

On this use of the genitive 

" the abomination of 


oZv tSiyre to /JSc'Xvy/ta r!}? e/jrj/i-Twcrcw?, to prqdbt o*wt Japt^X tow irpo^nyrav, 
eoros a> toV^) aytw, 6 avayu/attricoiv voeira,— " Tore 01 6> tt} 'JovSaip fevyi- 


ailed PtfXvyMa Vimm""* «wl ""J 6vo-iaor>ipioi>. Op. Grinfield 
here, j>. 152. 

Bat the reference to Daniel made by our Lord in thii His pro- 
phecy concerning Judaea and the World, shows that Daniel's predic- 
tion was not yet exhausted, but was to hare a further accomplish- 
In Jerusalem, and also 
In the Church at large. 

With * - *- 

Luke xxi. 20, speaking of 

to a different circui — * 

Our Lord also 
disciples that they _, 

------- -«.toi»."(». 16)7 

and warning to His 
that be in Judma 

_ , „ --jd specially in our Lord's 

eye, is ix. 27 *, which first speaks of the cessation of the daily sacri- 
fice ; and, literally interpreted, proceeds thus : " and upon the wing 
of abominations (i. e. upon the abominable wing), the desolator," and 
it is added, that it (i. e. God's wrath) shall flow, or be poured out 
upon the desolator. 

This seems to be further described in Dan. xii. 11, which speaks 
of the taking away of the daily sacrifice, and of the abomination that 
maketh desolate bemg let up, where the LXX and Theodotion use the 
words afterwards employed here by St. Matthew, ptiKvyua «Vn«<o- 
«m. Their original here is Dtjir) yipq), i. e. the abomination that 
maketh desolate. 

To what particulars in the siege of Jerusalem does this Prophecy 

The daily sacrifice was taken away in the siege of Jerusalem (see 
Joseph. B. J. vi. 2), three years and a half after the beginning of the 
war; and this was done by the factious zealots among the Jews them- 
selves, headed by John, who had seized the Temple under plea of 
defending it and the city. (See Joseph. B. J. v. 6. 1, and t. 3. 1 ;. cp. 

What, then, is the wing of abomination that maketh desolate, — 
upon which the divine anger was poured ? 

A Wing (Hebr. canaph) is an emblem of covering, and defence, 
and love (see Ps. xvii. 8; xxxvi. 7. Ruth ii. 12); and Gods pre- 
sence rested in the Temple, in the Holy of Holies, on the Mercy- 
seat, upon the Ark, between the Wings of the Cherubim. (Exod. 
xxv. 2(1 ; xxxvii. 9. 1 Kings viii. 7.) 

Hence the figure of a Wing is " allocutio admodum familiaris," 
applied to the Schechinah, or Divine Presence, by other Jewish 
writers. See Sckoettgen, p. 208 ; e. g. " Nidus est Templum, Israelites 
sunt puUi quibus mater insidet, et gentiles conversi sub alas Schechinsj 
veniaae dicuntur." 

And just before our Lord delivered this prophecy, He had said, 
" O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, how often would I have gathered thy 
children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her 
wings (Matt, xxiii. 37), but ye would not !" 

It is observable that He adds, as a consequence of their refusal to 
be gathered under His wings, " henceforth your house," i. e. specially 
your Temple, is left unto you lonpoi, desolate." Your Holv House ; 
that House of which He had said (xxi. 13), " My house shall' be called 
the house of Prayer, but ye have made it a den of thieves;" ye have 
polluted it, made it to become abominable ; that Holy House which 
waa once the House of God, but being made a den of thieves, is now 
o'ucos bum*, your bouse, the house of you, is left to you desolate, being 

deserted by God (see Theoph. on Luke xii' *" -* 

(XnvTai, Joseph. F 
Mitt. xxi. 13.f 

Therefore " the Wing of abomination that would make desolate " 
" it power to which the " 
looked for shelter and defence, instead of taking refuge 

is that power to which the Jews in their trouble ai 

in the Siege 
» under the 

Wings of the Cherubim and the Wings of Cbrii 

Our Lord prophesies here, that this abominable and desolating 
Wing would be in the Temple, in the Holy Place (Matt. xxiv. 15. 
MarC xiii. 14). 

Now we find that in Holy Scripture the word Wing is often used 
for a military power, on account of its rapid flight, whether for aggres- 
sion or defence, and because it is, as it were, overspread to shelter 
those for whom it fights. See Isa. viii. 8. Jer. xlviii. 40 ; xlix. 22 ; 
and Ps. xci. 4, concerning the Lord of Hosts. 

Hence, also, in other languages, the aim or wings of an army. 
The Wing therefore of which our Lord speaks is that Army of Zealots 

whom the Jews themseiv< 

invited to defend them 

• rjpthp D^y0 rp? ^ The tXX and Theodotion 

follows: »«1, «i Tb Ivor, 0WA*yHa tm- tpnmio^o. So 
Is, " the desolator thatl corns on the abominable wing," but 
e word 'desolator' is put in apposition with ' 

against the Romans, and to whom they resorted for help, and under 
whom they took refuge and shelter, and which stationed itself and 
hovered and brooded, as it were, with an abominable wing over the 
Holy Place during the Siege, and defiled it with all manner of abomi- 
nations; by whose agency the daily sacrifice ceased and waa taken 
away. (See Dan. ix. 27. Josephus, B. J. vi. 2; x. 11. 30.) 

Josephus appears to confirm this interpretation, for he remarks 
(B. J. iv. 6. 3) that there was an ancient saying then current, that the 
city would be taken and the Temple destroyed when it had been 
denied by the hands of Jews themselves. And this exposition of 
Daniel's prophecy — for such it appears to be — was adopted even by 

**- v ~' *•- defiled the Temple under pretence -' J -'--"— ! - 

c » „. " 1— Chrirtol. 

(Joseph. B. J. i 

istol. 708, 709.) 

* their 

"Christian' Nations? ~ Their (Hi- 


! same principle is applicable 

•fia iptifiwatut has ever been from wiiuin. 

The interpretation to which these considerations lead is also con 
led by what He had just said concerning Zacharias, the son of 
achias. They had profaned the Temple with his innocent blood 
Hi. 85. 2 Chron. xxiv. 20, 21). And all those things there roen- 

j , to come on this generation. And fitly ; because they were 

same sin— in defiling the City and Holy 


The people had refused to shelter themselves under the Wings of 
the Lord of Hosts, and under the Wings of Christ ; under which 
they would have been secure from their enemies, for He would have 
" defended them under His Wings, and they should have been safe 
under His Feathers " (Ps. xci. 4), as Med* well says (p. 298) : " The 
Wing of abominations (Dan. ix. 27) overwhelmed not the city of 
Jerusalem, until Christ had long laboured in vain to gather them 
under His iWings as a Hen gathereth her chickens." But they would 
not have Jehovah, the Lord of Hosts, for their God ; they chose to 
flee for refuge to the wings of those who changed God's Holy House 
: -'- - Den of Thieves ; they made them to be, as " "--'-- "■ ' 

been in part fulfilled by the setting up of the Bishop of Rome 

upon the Altar of God in St Peter s Church, in order that, there sit- 
ting, he may be adored — on his inauguration to the Papacy, and by 
the " gross and grievous abominations " (Hooker) of nis heretical 
doctrines * and idolatrous worship which he enforces aa terms of com- 
munion, and so makes the Church desolate. Cp. 2 Thess. ii. 3. 
lation in the Church 

(2 Thess 

The word 
called "■ 


*> , 

n Scripture means an idol ; and it is 
it is placed in the temple made deso- 

place, that is, the Church, and shewing itself as God, we ought to flee 
from Judan to the mountains, that is, the everlasting hills, where is 
the light of God. 

We ought also to be upon the house-top (i. e. for prayer and 
meditation), where the fiery darts of the wicked cannot reach us, and 
not to come down from thence, nor to turn back for those things 
which we have left behind. And we ought to meditate in the spiritual 
field of Holy Scripture, that we may reap fruit therefrom. (Jerome, 
Hilary, Beds, in Mark xiii.) 

16. A««4\ toS Tpo.pirr.ol Our blessed ¥ ~" - v - ~- 1 — «- 
phet, here gives the title, "tie Prophet," U 

by anticipation all who, like Porphyry in an , 

~~ J — -"«■— reject the Book of Daniel, or ascribe it to another and 

— b Amy unto tarn twiiTca] Probably a reference to the words of 
the Angel to Daniel (ix. 25), " Know therefore and understand." 

16. ipiicy/Toio-o*] Not only those in Jerusalem, but they in 
Judaa also were to fly. The Christians did flee to Pella beyond 
Jordan, and so were saved (see Eustb. iii. 5. Epipkan. Her. 29, 30); 
whereas, on the contrary, many hundreds of thousands of Jews 
resorted to Jerusalem (against our Lord's warning, Luke xxi. 21) for 
protection and for the Passover. See above, v. 2, and the summary 
in Euseb. iii. 5, and his remarks. 

This warning was very necessary, for after that the Xnaral and 
orToffiooToi had for some time established themselves in the Holy 
Place, they would not allow any one to quit the city. (Josephus, 
B. J. v. 12.) 

le Works of Bsngstsntire, HaperniA 

of Daniel, see also Bp. Butter-, 
•« — » pp. 64-72, In reply ti 
ft, and Dr. Trsfstles ot 


J Job SO. S3. 
Luke It. 37. 

.;»«. is. 10. 

Kick. SS. 7. 
Joel 2. 31. 


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(^•) * j o7rov yap ecu* $ to irrSpa, ckci (rvva^d^aovrat. 01 acroi. (^) ^ k JSv- 

17. /i4 KaTajSaiWru apai] But let him flee without iny regard 
to his goods, i. e. with all expedition. 

For the spiritual meaning of this and the following vane, see on 
Luke xvii. 31. 

18. to ludTia] his pallium, or outer garment . 

19. -rat. i, y a «-rpl) See Jotephut, B. J. T. 10. 13, IS; vi. 3. 
Euteb. iii. 6, 7, for the horrors of the siege— especially with re- 
gard to mothers and children. Cp. Deut xxviii. 53—58. 

30. aaffiu-na] A prophecy that this would be the rase with some. 
He speaks to them at vet as Jeun who scrupled to travel more than 
2000 cubits on that day. (See on Acts i. 12.) Similarly (Lu 
Xxii. 36) He speaks of buying a tword,~~ not that the Apostles 
Christ were to go armed, — but to si 
would be exposed, in which other l 

which they 
procure weapons of 

Besides, even though they themselves might have no scruple to 
travel on the seventh day, yet others would be unwilling to assist 
them in their flight on that day, on which the gates of cities in Judsa 
were (hut (Cp. Nehem. xiii. 19—22.) 

On the spiritual sense of w. 19, 20, see Jerome, iv. 198. Greg- 
M. Horn. i. 12: " Videte ne tunc qiueratis peccata vestra fugere, 
quando jam non licet ambulare. Ne tunc quaeramus ad bene agendum 
vivere, cum jam compellimur de corpore exire." 

These warnings may be understood both literally and spiritually. 
Woe unto them that are with child, i. e. loaded with a heavy burden, 
and not able to escape from their pursuers. Woe also to the souls 
which are yet in travail with the rudiments of faith. (Jerome.) 
Woe to them that are with child : by these we may understand per- 
sons who are loaded with worldly hopes ; and by those who give suck, 
persons who enjoy what they have desired. (Aug. Psalm xxxix.) 

Pray that your flight may not be in the winter or on the sabbath, 
i. e. that you may not be embarrassed by earthly impediments. (Aug. 
Qu. Ev.) 

As far as this refers to the taking of Jerusalem, this might well 
be their prayer, that they might not be prevented by the law of 
sabbatical rest or winter's "cold from fleeing to the mountains. And 

happen when we are in this unhappy 

./light, i. e. our death, may n< 
state of spiritual wf-'~ ' 

From various passages of Holy Scripture it has been inferred 
that the Church will have to sufler three years and a half of severe 
suffering before the end. See Bede here. 

— o!ik ir jmaSq traaa <ra>£] i. e. nulla. A double Hebraism, 
orTOi = <w«(Ps. cxliii. 2. Jer. ix. 13; li. 43. Luke i. 37). Rom. 
iii. 9, oi> mrr** : iii. 20, IP Ipyw, r 6^ou ov tiKaimOm, 
<raaf. ( Forsf. Hebr. p. 529. Sekroeder. Inst. Hel 
Phil. Sacr. p. 463.) 

And on the use of <ra>£ = TiD| for homo, see Font, de Hebr. 

— til II Totn ixXtirrovt] Lest any should object, as the heathens 
did, that these calamities were due to the preaching of Christianity, 
He says that those days of affliction should only be ekorleved for the 
sake of Christians ; and if it were not for these Christians, all the 
nation of the Jews would perish. 

Observe that the Evangelist St. John has recorded none of these 
predictions, lest he should seem to write prophecy from history ; for 

iebr. p. 316. Ohm. 

of Jeruule 

for a long time after the destruction of Jerusalem. But these 
ies are written by the Evangelists who di< " " " 
'■ ofwWthey 

dour of the prophecy might s 

died before the taking 
wrote ; so that the sj-*— 
brightly. (CSsrys.) 

24. teaouai] A Hebraiam— i.ooW, i. q. Hebr. mj (nathan), to 
give, used for to thtm (Deut xiii. 1. Joel ii. 30. See Acts ii. 19, 
Ham Tiparo.). Cp. Ephes. i. 22; iv. 11. Vont. Hebr. p. 167. 

26. Mid, l» nry ipA/it?) Our Lord passes from the destruction of 
Jerusalem to the times a little preceding His own Second Advent 
And these prophecies are addressed not only to the Apostles, but to 
us. He declares the characteristics of that future coming, which will 
not be like the first coming at Bethlehem, in a comer of the world 
known only to a few, but glorious and universal. Among the signs 
of His approach will be signs and wonders of Deceivers. He is here 
speaking of Antichrist and his ministers. And observe, He does not 
say,— Go out, and believe not, i. e. be not misled by those false won- 
ders. But, Go ye not out after them ; for there is great delusion 
where are the signs of delusion. But these signs will be only local. 
The wonder of Christ's presence will be universal. It will be like 
lightning, which requires no preannouncement, but shows ittelf to 
who are sitting in houses and secret chambers in the tv-'- 1 ' 1 " — -' 
eye. (CTrj».J 

If any would persuade you that Christ is to be found in the wil- 
derness of incredulity and sceptical Philosophy, or in the secret 
chambers of heresy, believe them not ; the faith of Christ shines from 
east to west in the Catholic Churches of the world. It is absurd to 
look in a comer for Him Who is the light of the World. (Jerome.) 
Our Lord teaches us that He Himself is not limited to any par- 
ticular place, or visible only to certain individuals, but that He is 
like lightning shining from East to West. And lest we should be 
ignorant where to look for Him, He proceeds to add, that wheresoever 
the Body is. the Eagles will be gathered together; calling His Sainta 
~ ' ing, as it were, to Him, the Body, by a spiritual flight 

n r, 28. 

Eagles, soaring 
(Hilary.) See 

By the " si 

the obscure and . , ., 

lightning," He may designate finit. the manifestation of His Church, by 
which He note comet and shows Himself in the clouds and darkness of 
this world (Aug. Quant Ev.), and teccmdly. His Coming to Judgement 

A very interesting Exposition of this and the succeeding pro- 
phecies will be found in St. Aug. Epist. 199, and in his Work de 
Civiiato Dei, lib. x- ' * 

Kni He adds that wher- 


He calls Hi 
in the parallel passage of St Luke xvii. 37. The reasoi 
tones os by His death. His body is cr£pa (o ««{<>), h 
•a~r£«a (o -rirrrn). . The com doth not quicken except __ _ 
the earth and die (John xii. 24), and then it brings forth much fruit 
By His/ufl we rite, by His death we lire. Christ's vvias is our 
o-ii/uo ; and here is an answer to the objection which has been made 
to our Lord's saying, viz. that Eaglet do not feed on oVarf bodies. 
But to Christ's Body, which is Himself, in His Church, His Word, 
His Sacraments — all who are the Eaglea of the Gospel will be 
gathered together, as the Eagle haateth to its prey (Job ix. 26) ; they 
will flock to Him with eagles' wings (Deut xxxh. 11); and they that 
wait upon Him shall renew their strength, and mount up with wings 
as Eagle. (laa. xl. 31), even to heaven itself. 

The following may be cited in support of the above exposition : 
The congregated Eaglet arc the assembly of Saints and 
Martyrs. (Chryt.) Christ is called the Great Eagle (Rev. xii. 14), 
and Christians are compared to Eagles because they partake in the 
royalty of Christ (Cp. Origen here.) Eagles are the Saints whose 
youth is renewed like the Eagles' (Ps. ciii. 5) ; and who, according to 
the saying of Isaiah (xl. 31), mount up with wings as Eagles, that 
they may ascend to Christ (Jerome.) In Christ we are renewed 


#60)$ Sc ftera rrjv Okitjiiv twv r/ixeprnv iiceivcav 6 -qXios crKorur&ijcrercu, ical -q 
o-eXrjw) ov Sucre* to ifreyyos awry/s, ical ot dare/*? ireo-ovvrai airb tov ovpavov, 
ical at Siwu/iets w oipavutv <raXev(hj<rovT<u. M ' Xal Tore t^air/a-erai to > 
crrffteiov tov Ttow tow avOprnvov iv t$ avpav$' (™) ical Tore Kotyovrai iratrai 
at <f>v\al t^s yijs, ical ot/wrai tov Tlhv tov avOpaiirov ipxofta/ov iiri t&v 
v&fxkiov tov ovpavov ftera Swdfte<oi ical 86£t)$ iroXXjJs' 8l m ical cwrocrreXti " 
tow? dyyeXows awrow ftera .crdkinyyos (fwvrjs /teyaXr/s, ical etnorwd^ova-L rowg ' 
(•kXcktows awrow eic Taij> rco-o-dpmp avifttav, air axpav ovpavmv eius anpatv 

32 '-4iro oe rijs ctwict/s ftaSere tt)v irapafSokijv orav rfit} o xXdSos awnjs 
yevryrai, awaXos, ical Ta </w/XXa €K<f>vg, ywunarKere oti. iyyvs TO tfepos* M " owrw n 
ical vfteis, Stop tSr/re irdWa Tawra, ytvucricere oti, iyyifc icrrw, hrl dvpaxs. 
84 ° 'Aftjfv yjy<a iftw, ov /bw; irapiKdr) rf yevea avrtf, ea>5 av irdvra Tawra yirqrax. J, 
35 p '0 oipavbs ical 17 yrj 7rapeXevcroi>rai, ol 8e Xoyot ftov oil ftrf irapc\0<o<rt. 

(»M) 36 q jj € pj 8^ ^5 4ffUpa<i eiceuT/s ical Tty? <apa<i owSels oZ8o», — owSe ol 


M»rk IS 30, 
,uke 21. 32, 3 
ch. 4. 19. 

like Eagles, and cast off the plumage of our old age (i. 
man). (Jmbnteinhake xvii.) Christ's Body^ crucified 

the old 

, - that of 

said, 'My flesh is meat indeed' (John vi. 55). The 
hich fly on the wings of the Spirit, flock to this body. 

ody the Eagles are "gathered 
come in the flesh (1 John it. 2). They fly to Him as to a dead body, 
because He died for us, so all the Saints fly to Christ wherever He is, 
and hereafter, as eagles, will be caught up with Him in the clouds. 
iSt. Aug. Quast Ev. in loc. TheophyL and on Luke xvii. and in 
Eutlem. Zyg. in Luke xvii. 37. Greg. Moral, xxxi. 53.) And as 
the Eagle bears its young on its wings, so the true children of Christ 
will mount with Him on Eagles' wings to heaven, Dent, xxxii. 11. 
Exod.xix.4. (Chrye.) 

Eagles are said to snuff the smell of a body even across the ocean, 
and to fly to it. How much more ought we and all the flock of 
believers to hasten to Him Whose light shines from East to West I 
By ike term "*-»-" -- - =• - - •« =-=-■ 

wrov re eapa i«u k.t.a. i-mn-io-rir lit ataitnryyaie Mod, lit 
tap¥<popian nal wap* ire*iriS»>. 'AlTili yap iniuan torn 
lutalon en ii^nXavv TaU dpiTais xal /Soff.Aiicovt, «£j»a H 

aifia iypaiit i MaT0at<», on which nearly the same words are 
repeated by Euthymius, adding, that Christ is -rpoipi, WMUftartir^ 
-ritrotoirm* 4sri» ««1 {•$ «!...«. (£>%>•>. iT^oi. in Luc 

"0»o« rd ■wriita i -^nvr Ivriir, 3wow o vUt xo5 Aripmwov, 

wtKpou MttftilMH, ltdun-K ol o-apKofiopm ipvut Iw' avrd 0>f'povra(, — 
«<rr« xal tvv vlov roS <U00»irov toJ di' 4/iat i»icpa«irrot ical 
•V*' avpavov (paw^rrot woVrsc •! <yiM vvn>x e '>< r <» rr «'- (Theupkfl. 

The modern notion that Jerusalem is the rrasi, and the drroi 
the Konuns, ban been rightly rejected by Meytr, p. 398. 

89. ivHi'm] " Non ad nostrum computum, sed divinum, in quo 
dies mi lie sicut unus dies." Ps. zc 4. 1 Pet iii. 8. ((Won. Phil. 
8acr. p. 447.) Hence the whole interval between the first Advent and 
the second, is called in the Scriptures the lot Hint (cp. 1 John ii. 18. 
Acta ii. 17. ICor.z. 11. Phil. iv. 5. Heb. i. 2. James v. 8. 1 Pet 
iv. 7), ia-xdri) bpa, and the Judge is described as at the door. So it 
is also in the mind of the Church. For example, in the Creed, after 
" He ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God the 
Father Almighty," we say immediately, " from thence He shall come 
again to judge the quick and the dead." So the Holy Ghost writet. 
And we ought to read Prophecy with the same mind as that with 
which it is written. 

The iMi'm is connected with what has immediately preceded, 
which by many of the Fathers (e. g. Ckrye.) Is regarded as a descrip- 
tion of the Antichristian persecution in the last days, immediately 
before the second Advent of Christ 

Besides, observe iicu'rav,— tioee days, i. e. those great days of 
trial, whenever they may be, — *---'-- '- ' : "-' "- **■-* — * 
Day, the Day of Judgment, 
They who (like Meyer 
bom v. 34, that our Lord represents His second coming as mi 
not merely neglect all these considerations, but contradict the express 
words of Scripture. See xxiv. 6. 2 Thess. ii. 2. 2 Pet iii. 8, 9. 

— i HKwt 0KoTiatnarrmi] See Mark xiii. 24, and on Luke xxi. 
25. Rev. vi. 12 ; viii. 12. The** Prophecies appear to have a double 

First, to describe commotions and woes at Jerusalem, and the 
signs physical and political (Joteph. B. J. vi. 5. 3. Euseb. iii. 8) 
before its destruction ; 

And secondly, troubles, alarms, and defections in the Church 
before the End. The sun shall 

of Christ's Truth shall be dimmed, the lunar orb of the Church 
shall be obscured by heresy and unbelief, and some who once shone 
brightly as stars in the firmament of the Church shall GUI from their 

P 30. <rnu<ie« tov YloS too a^ fi iiro U ] (i. e. Ytiv t. &., CRau. Phil. 
Sac 250.) Unbelieving men ask Me for a sign from heaven (xii. 88 ; 
xvi. 1), they shall then see one, and mourn at the sight It is sup- 
posed by some that this sign will be the crass. The sign of the Son 
of Man is the cross shining more gloriously than the sun. Christ 
comes to judgment bearing his wounds, and showing the manner of 
his ignominious death, that Sin may be self-condemned. Then the 
tribes of the earth will wail because they pierced Him whom they 
ought to have adored (Zech. xii. 10. John xix. 37), and did not profit 
by His death for them. He mentions the Cross to be revealed here- 
after in glory, that His diseiples may not be ashamed of the cross 
here. {Hilary, Jerome, Ckryi.) They ask for a sign from heaven, — 
they shall then see Me coming from heaven. 

— tpuXai rvt yv*] Observe yijt,— »• »• the children of this world 
as contrasted with those of Heaven. So in Rev. xi. 10, " they that 
dwell on the eartk" are they who dote on earthly things, and have not 
their hearts, Aeir treasure, and their conversation, in heaven. (Cp. 

aL^oot dyyiAoi/c] See Rer. vii. 1. 

38. <hro ii Tth <r«xir>] Though these are heavenly things, yet 
you may learn wisdom concerning them from a common shrub on 

— t4* trapafioMr] its parable,— the parable it is designed to 
teach. Thus our Lord reminds us, that every thing on earth, how- 
ever lowly, has to attentive minds its appropriate moral— id parable 
—concerning the kingdom of heaven. See Matt. vi. 28. 

— t« <p»AAa] it$ leaves. 

83. iyyit iiruj He is near, and even at the door. See v. 30; 
cp. James v. 9. There is something solemn in the brevity of the 
phrase, without the nominative expressed. 

84. 4 yi.ii aSrn] This, like most other expressions in mis pro- 
phecv, has a double sense. 

First relative to Jerusalem destroyed by Christ coming to judge 
it about forty years after this was said, — and 

Secondly, to the world at large ; 

As to the first, it affirms that the generation of the literal Israel 
then living would not pass before the woes here predicted would fall 

As to the second, it declares that the spiritual Israel, " the one- 
ration of them that seek the Lord" (Ps. xxiv. 16, where yirsa is' used 
by LXX. So Ps. lxxii. 5, yi»a r£» v\w* oov), would not pats 
away, — i.e. that the faithful seed of Abraham would survive, and 
that the blessings of the Gospel would be preserved intact, not- 
withstanding all trials and sffiictions of the Church, even to the End. 

The generation of the Church will survive the world ; but all 
other generations, especially that of the trilitt of the earth, will pass 
away. (Otto**.) - 

The generation of the faithful, notwithstanding all the afflic- 
tions which he has described, will remain constant even to the end. 
(Cp. Matt xvi. 18.) Our Lord says, "heaven and earth shall 
pass away," to show that His Church is dearer to Him than the 
elements, whose Lord He is. She is more precious in His eyes than 
any creature ; for all the creation will be dissolved, but the Church will 
remain unimpaired. (Carj*. Theophyl. in Luke xxi. Mark xiii.) 

Christ's words have been already fulfilled in great measure. 
From what is past, let us believe the future. (Chryt.) 
36. »,.«] See Rev. ix. 15. 

— oiH o\ iyyiKoi — si vM b Tta-rip uov fiwot] which does not 
exclude the Son of God as the AgmUa imagined. Christ does not 
know it as Man, and it is not His office to declare it, as Son of God. 
See on Mark xiii. 32. 

By saying that the Angels do not know it, He checked the dis- 

76 ST. MATTHEW XXIV. 37—51. XXV. 1. 

r Luke 17. 26. ayycXoi TWV OvpOLvSiV, €1 /X^ 6 HaTJJp ttOW pW. (™) " ' */2<Tir€p 8*; OU 

Gen.^6. s-s. ijuepat tow Nwe, ovrws Iotox Kal 17 trapovo-ta row Tiow tow avQpdmov M atoirep 
yap Ijo-av h> rais T//xepais rat? Trpo tov /carcucXua-fiov rparyovres koI ttLvovths, 
yaftowVres koI €Kyafu£ovTes, axpi ^S 17/W/oas ewr>)X0€ Na>e 6is Tip Kifianbv, 
89 Kal owe bpnaaav eius ^X&v 6 KaraxXwrruos Kal ijpo' airatra?, ovrws ecrrat 

• Luke 17. S6. Kal ^ TtapOVCTia TOV TlOV TOV OvQpomOV. (^) 40 * ToTC Si/0 «TO!Tat 0» T$ 

aypm, 6 cts irapaXa/x/JaVerat, Kal 6 els altera*. 41 Swo aXifdowo-ai a> r$> 

p.v\(ovL, p.Ca irapaXaa/SaVerat, Kal p.ia d\f>ierai. 

jtak's-'w, ss. (fr) 42 ' rpryyopcvre ovv, ori ovk oiSare iroia <Spa 6 Hvptos vpMV epxerav 

2 Pe^T'i'o*' *' (it) * 3 ° * KC * 1 ' ^ yivmo-Kere, oti €i flSei 6 oiKoSeoTronys iroiiji <f>vkaKj} 6 KXermfS 

Rct?3.V 9 ' cpx e^a, '' ^yp r iyopi/jo'€i' av, Kal ovk av etao~e 8wpvyfjvat Tr/v oIkuu> avrow* 

44 Sta towto Kal w/xeis yCv€o-0e erot/xot* on, $ <5pa ow Sokcitc, 6 Tios tow 

▼ Luke is. «, avdpdnrov tpyerau (™) w T Ti*s apa early 6 irwrros SowXos Kal <f>povi.p.os, tv 

KaTeo~TT)o~€i> 6 Kwpios awrow «rl 1% depairetas avrov, tow StSoVai avrots rrfV 

rpojnfv iv Kaipy ; (^) 46 x /xaKapios 6 SowXos ckcipos, ov eX0a»> 6 rcwpios avrow 

ewpi/o-ei irotowVra owr<us' 47 y d/i/r)i/ Xeyw v/iiv, ori cttI irao-t tois wrdpxovo-iv 

avrov KaraoTr/o-ei avrov (^) 48 eai> St* cmtj/ 6 kokos SowXos ckciVos 6* tj5 

KapBia avrow, Xpovifta o Kwptos /wow eX&u', ** Kal apfrryrat rvirnw tows ot»'- 

SowXows awrow, €o-0i# Se Kal mvp pcTa rStv pedvovratv, *° ^[£et 6 Kwptos tow 

SowXow tKtivov kv 17/xepa ^ ov irpoaBoKf, Kal h> <upa y ou yifwo-ka, 5l *Kal 

Sixoro/xiyo-a avrov, Kal to fiepos; avrov pera. rStv wroKpiratv ftfo-cr ckci ccrrai 

6 KXaw0/xos Kal 6 y8pvy/ios tSp oSoWgw. 

XXV. (^f ) x * Tore 6ft,ouo0TJa-erai. 17 fiao-tXela rStv ovpavtov ScKa irapdevois, 

s Rev. 16. IS. 
t eh. »5. II. 

Luke 22. 29, SO. 

1 ch. S. 12. 
& IS. 42. 
ch. 23. SO. 

riplee from defiling t 
inquisitive concerning 
and aeuons are in the Father's own power, and they are not there- 
fore for the Son to reveal. It is in this sense only that He says 
that they are not Imoum Ay Him. (Chryt. citing Luke x:22.) . 

The Arians say that the Son cannot be equal with the Father, if 
the Son does not know what the Father knows. To whom we reply 
that by the Son all things were made (John i. 8) ; and therefore all 
times are made by Him, and all things are delivered to Him of the 
Father (Matt. xi. 27), and all the treasures of wisdom are hid in Him 
(Col. ii. 3). And when He says it is not for His Apostles to know 
the times and seasons which the Father has put in His own power 
(Acta i. 7), He intimates that He Himself knows them ; but it is, not 
expedient for the Apostles to know them, in order that, beii 
uncertain when the Judge will come, we may so live 
we were to be judged on that day. (Jerome ; see v. 4 

VI. NS.1 He thus describes the tuddemea of His 
Apostle, 1 Thess. v. 3, 4. But how is it that He speaks i . .... 
of those days and yet compares them to two periods of luxury ? Be- 
cause such will be the condition of the world, there will be great 
excess, and surfeiting, and debauchery, and insensibility, imaginary 
"peace and safety," and yet great tribulation, especially to the godly, 
as Noah and Lot 8uch will be the times of Antichrist [Chrye. ) 

40. T<nr« tio] Hen may make the same profession of faith, but with 
different heart*. The mill represents the world of secular labour; 
the housetop a life of contemplation ; the field a spiritual office in the 
Church. {Aug. Ps. xxxvi. exxxii. Quast Ev. Cp. Ambrwe, in Luke 

From all ranks of life some will be taken and some lea (C»ryt., 
who compares Exod. xi. 5.) 

Hen may labour side by side in the field, but not be rewarded 
together at the Harvest Let no one, therefore, plead their profession 

7 day as 'if 
. So the 


Observe the fire$ent tense (irop<iXo^^a«Toi) in these prophecies 
— denoting Certainty. 

48. ypiryofofM " &»* «»"* " yon are at your death, such will 
you be at the day of judgment ; and therefore, since Death is near, 
Judgment is near ; therefore, watch." 

46. xio-rot jovXoi xal oV<wi/iov] Called olxotonot by St Luke, 
xii. 42; and these sentences specially concern the oUorouot, or 
lewanh of Chrisfs Mysteries,— the Bishops and Pastors of the 
Church. See St. Ambroee in Luke xii. 49, and Theopkyl. on Luke 
xii. 42. Observe o ■». i. k. <p., faitkfulneu is prudence. 

Our Lord here is speaking concerning the proper use of worldly 
substance, and of reason, power, graces, and all other talents common 
These words are specially applicable to Evil 
it they possess, whether wisdom, or 
Md. Hence T 

office, or riches, for the general weal. Hence He requires of them 
prudence and fidelity. He speaks also to the Clergy, and to the 
Bich. If, when the Clergy spend larger sums for Christ, you are 

5r all His goods. Who can 
conceive tne oiesseaness oi sucn an exaltation ? (Chryt.) 

The layman is a steward of his own property, not less than he 
is who dispenses the offerings of the Church. As the priest is not 
authorized to scatter as He chooses what you offer for the poor, 
neither are you justified in so dealing with your own wealth. For, 
although you received it as an inheritance from your parents, yet all 
your wealth is the property of God. And if you exact from others an 
account of your offerings to them, will not God require, with much 
greater accuracy, a reckoning of His bounties from you ? Do you 
suppose that He will tolerate waste there? No! what He has com- 
mitted, He has entrusted on this condition, that you should give to 
others their meat in due teuton. He has confided it to yon in love, 
as an occasion for the manifestation of your own love, and that He 
might thus kindle the love of man for man, and make it burn more 
warmly. (Ckryt.) 

He here warns you of the severe punishment due to uncharitable- 
ness and self-indulgence. Do you imagine that you have any thing 
of your own ? No ! what you nave you hold in trust for the good of 
the poor. Could not God immediately take it from you? Yes; but 
He graciously lends it to you that you may gain eternal glory by 
chanty. Think not, therefore, your property to be yours, but give 
to God His own. He hath lent it to you as a talent, that you may 
trade with it for Heaven. Nothing more offends Him than neglect 
of our brother's salvation. Thus we forfeit our own. God will be 
wroth with the evil servant, and command him to be cut asunder : 
for God makes love the characteristic of His own disciples : and if a 
man really loves, He will have a tender care for the things of him 
whom He loves. (Chryt., who quotes 1 Cor. x. 24; xiii. 3. Rom. 
xv. 2, 3. Phil. i. 23, 24. John xxi. 15, as inculcating the duty of 
zeal for the salvation of others.) 

48. x*>o»'J" o «<ipios] On the proper temper of mind to be 
cherished with regard to these prophecies, concerning the Second 
Advent see St. Auguttine't admirable Epistle (excix.) to his brother 
bishop, Hesychius, deserving the careful attention of all students of 
prophecy. " Veniet dies" (he says, Serin, xlvi.) " quo cuncta addu- 
centur in Judicium. Et llle dies, si aaculo longe est, nnicuique 
homini, vita sue ultimus, prope est Utrumque latere Deus voluit 
Vis non timers diem occultum ? Cum venerit, inveniat te paratum." 

«L oiyoTOM>t<rii] See 1 Sam. xv. 33. 2 Sam. xii. 31. 1 Chron. 
xx. 3. Dan. ii. 5; iii. 29, "supplicium in diif/vgovt conveniens," 
(Bengal), and for those who make divisions. And yet it cannot 
mean " utterly dettroy," or annihilate; for he is described afterwards 
as having his part with hypocrites, where is that dreadful weeping, 
and that endless gnashing of teeth. 


oTtu/cs Xa/JovVat ras Xa/x7raSas avratv i£rj\0ov ets awcu>n70"a' tow wp<j>Cov. 
2 b Hare Bk fjo-av i£ avrutv <f>povt,poi, koX ir«T€ papal' s atru'es papal 
Xafiovcrai ras Xafi7raSa5 avrov ovk tkafiov puff iavrotv tkcuov * al hk <j>p6vt.poi 
tTKafiov cXaiov e»> rots dyyetois avrav perd toh> Xa/Lt7ra8coi' ai/rwv. 5 Xpovi- 
tpvros 8e tov wp<f>Cov, brvtrraJ^av iraxrai ttal iicddevSov. 6 c Mi<rq% 8e wktos 
Kpavyfi yeyova/, 'l8ov, 6 wp<j>lo<i l/o^erai, e£epx«0"0e «5 dvdvri)o-w avrov. 
7 Tore i)y€p6r)rrav •irdcrax al irapOivot, «ceu>ai, koX iKocrprfcrav ras Xa/wrdSas 
avrav. 8 .4* & papal rats foov'ipois ctirov, Jore r)pu/ he tov c'Xatov v/xwv, 
ort at Xa/X7ra8cs Tf/x«t>j> crfievvvvTai. 9 'AireKpCdTjo-av hk al <f>p6vLpot, Xeyovcrai, 
Mtjirore ov pi) aptcecrj) rjptv xal ipur iropeveade paXKov irphs tovs iraiXovVra?, 
#cat dyopdarare eavrats. 10 d 'Airep^opevav 8k avrav dyopdaat, Jj\$ev 6 
wp<f>Cor koX al eroipoi elcrfj\0ov per avrov d<s tovs ydpovr koX e'fcXeia - ^ 
^ 0voa. n 'Torcpop 8k cpxovrai teal al Xourat irapdevoi, keyovcrai, Kvpic, 
Kvput, avoigov rfpa/. 12 e 'O 8*! airoiepidcU etirev, 'Apqv Xeytu v/up, ovk oI8a 
v/aS.?. 1S 'rpr/yopelre ovv, or* ovk oioWe t^v r/pepav oihk r»)*> <u/3av, ei> $ 
6 Tios tov dvOpatrov . ep^erat. (^) 14 "'Slawtp yap avdpamos dvoSrjpav 
CKaXeo'e tou? iSiovs SovXovs, *ai vapehaicev avrot? tci wrdp^ovra avrov, 
(™) 15 teal $ /xtV IScufce 77wre TaXaira, $ 8^ 8vo, $ 8*? tv, i/cdoTa Kara rrjv 
IBlav bwapw, teal dire&TJpr)tTev evfcW 16 IlopcvOtU 8k 6 ra irevre raXavra 
kafiav tlpydaaro iv auroi?, »cal ivoCrfa-O' aXXa wore raXapra. 17 b "/2a-avVws 


M«rk IS. SS, SS. 
Luke 21. 36. 
1 Cor. IS, IS, 

b 2 Pet. J. 18. 

Our Lord proceeds to inculcate still farther the need of com- 
ticating to the spiritual and temporal good of others. The Vir- 
must hare oil in their lamps. (Cftryi.) 

By the Virgins He means all in the Visible Church; by the wise 
who have oil, those who have faith and works ; by the foolish who 
have lamps but no oil, those who appear to confess God with the 
' e wise, but do not maintain good works. (Je- 
lled Virgins, because the souls of Christians are 
sm as chaste Virgins to Christ (2 Cor. xi. 2), and 
ig of the ~8un<t>tot from heaven, Rev. xxii. 17. 

faith as the wise, but do noY maintain 

They are called Virgins, because the souls of Christians are 
espoused in •—-*■— r -~" "-•- '-- -■ «>---■ «««■- ~i «> - •• 

Comp. Millon'i beautiful Sonnet " to a Virtuous young Lady, 

— sit airnvriio-ivl On these nuptial rites, see Jain, Archseol. 
§ 154. Judges xiv. II. Ps. xlv. 15, cf. Isa. Ixi. 10. 

3. \an*ada* — tXmov] The lamps being probably of earthen- 
ware (terra eotla), fitly represent men, who are icrpixiya «r»ui|, 
tarihen vaxlt (2 Cor. ir. 7), and ret have the tmuuret of the gifts of 
the Holy Spirit, the pure and holy oil (1 John ii. 20. 27) of spiritual 
grace, which, duly cherished, sheds forth the light of good icorkt 
(2 Pet i. 3. 8), which are the fruit of the Spirit, for the glory of 
God (Matt. v. 16). " Blessed are the dead that die in the Lord, 
even so saith the Spirit, for their wonb do follow them" (Rev. xiv. 
13). Their lamp never goes out, but bums more brightly in Para- 
dise, where they wait in patience and joy, like wise Virgins, for their 
Lord till He comes from heaven, to lead His Bride to the Marriage. 
Rev. jrix. 7 ; xxi. 2. 9; xxii. 17. Cf. Greg. Nazia*. Or. xl. pp. 728, 

which we ought to hare the treasure of s good conscience. The wed- 
ding is the institution of a glorious immortality. The delay of the 
Bridegroom is the time of repentance. The sleep of those who wait 
is the rest of believers, and the temporary death of all, in the time of 
repentance. The shout at midnight is the uncertainty of the last 
trump. The taking of the lamps is the resumption of our bodies. 
Their light is the manifestation of good works. The wise Virgins 
are they who have the opportunities given them of working out their 
salvation, and hare prepared themselves for the coming of their Lord. 
The foolish are they who hare only thought of present and worldly 
• J n for the Rest ! l 

things, and hare made n 

flurrection, when n 

one will be benefited by the works of snother. 
proride oil for its oum lamp. 

5. (VwrraEw «al JraUtvoov] They fell asleep in death. {Hilary.) 
" Dormire enim mori est." So Greg. M. 1. c. " expectantium somnus 
eredentium quies est" Cf. I Thess. v. 10. 

6. piam *i ovK-rot] Suddenly, ss it were at midnight, when all 
are in a sleep of security, the Advent of Christ will be proclaimed by 
the shout of angels and the sound of the trump. It is a tradition of 
the Jews that the Messiah will come at midnight, as the destroying 
Angel came to the Egyptians. (Jerome.) 

— tVfidtiot] " Christus, die jndicii tanquam fur in nocte" 
{Greg. M.).— ipxirai is not found in some ancient MSS. and 
Versions, and may perhaps be a subsequent addition. 

8. «1 Xap-rAt.t w» o-/H»m>rrat] i. e. they had died in a careless 
"' 'le condition, and their lamps were gone out, and now it was 

too late to ask for oil : " Excesserat emendi tempus, n« 
die judicii locus erit pomitentias." (Hieron.) 

9. un-roTt oi /it) dpxlari »/«!» koi i««»] " Non possunt in die 
judicii aiiorum virtutes aliorum ritia sublevare." (Hieron.) 

— wop.) ti is added by Elz^ but is not found in A, B, D, G, H, 
K, S, V, and other MSS. 

No one in the other world will be able to be an advocate for 
those who are delivered up for judgment by their own works. No 
one, however charitably disposed, wiU plead for us then, not because 
no one will be willing, but because no one will be able. This is what 
Abraham intimates in the parable (Luke xri. 29). And although 
after our death we ourselves may be charitably disposed, as the rich 
man was for the salvation of his relations, this will be of no avail. 
He had neglected the beggar at his gate in his lifetime, and he could 
do nothing for his brethren or himself after bis death. (Ckryt.) 

12, ovk o'tia ifiHt] " Quid prodest voce invocare Quern operibut 
neges? Novit Dominus qui sunt Ejus (2 Tim. ii. 19) et qui Eum 
ignorat, ignorebitur ab Eo." At the Great Day, every one will be 
rewarded according to his works. And although men may be as 
Virgins, both in purity of body and in the profession of the true faith, 
yet if they have not oQ, they will not be acknowledged by Christ 

(Greg. M.) 

— on oi)K oMots t4» rifiipan] " Latet ultimus dies, ut obser- 
ventur omnes dies." (Aug.) 

— ir ]J— spx'-rat | omitted by A, B, L, X, and some other MSS. 
and Versions. 

14. ittpwwot avotnitme] Christ, in leaving this world at His 
Ascension, gave gifts to men (Eph. iv. 8), and now in Heaven dis- 
penses talents to each severally, of which, when He comes again, He 
will require an account 

Compare the Parable of the Pounds (Mine), Luke xix. 11— 
28, and see notes there. Some of the most remarkable points of 
difference between these two Parables are as follows, 

That of the Talents was spoken to the disciples ; 

That of the Pounds to the Multitude when they drew near 

._ the Parable of the Talents, all men are represented as slaves 
(toi\ot) of Christ, called simply AvBpmm, and among them He 
distributes His goods ; and they who do not improve His gifts, but 
bury them in the ground, are cast out into outer darkness. 

In that of tho Pounds, Christ, here called an ivOpuwot tiymiit, 
selects ten servants who are contrasted with His ito\itoi — the citi- 
zens of Otis world, who hate Him, and oppose His claims to the 
Kingdom ; and the judgment of the unprofitable serrant who hides 
his pound in a napkin, and the reward of the faithful who remain 
steadfast in their Lord's absence, notwithstanding the opposition of 
the world, is combined with the destruction of all His enemies who 
Duld not hare Him to reign o> 
14—30.1 On this Parable « 

14—80.1 Oi 
9, p. 1463. 

le see the Homily of Greg. M. in Evang. 


Rev. I. 7. 

Horn. 14. 10. 

1 Cor. 5. 10. 
Eiek. S4. 17, M. 
cb. 1». 49. 
r. 1 P.t. 1. 4, 9. 
Hob. 11. 16. 

ST. MATTHEW XXV. 18—41. 

». so. ical 6 rd bvo eKepBrjae Kal avros aXXa Svo. 18 l 'O Be rb ev \afia>v direkdav 
wpvtjev 4v tq yjj, Kal drreKpwfte rb dpyvptov rov KvpCov avrov. w Mera 8£ 
yjpovov irokvv epyerox 6 Kvptos ruv BovXmv ixeivesy, koI awaipet per avrov 
Xayov. ** KaX irpoaekOiav 6 rd vevre rakavra \afia>v, irpoayveyicep aXXa 
irdvre TctXawa, \eytov, Kvptc, vevre rakavra pot Trapd8<i>Ka<y tSe, aXXa vane 

», »o. rdXaira eicepSr/o-a 4v avrots. 21 J "Efa awry 6 icvpuvg avrov, E?, SovXe dyafle 
Kal mark, 4vl bkiya ijs maro?, 4vl vokkS>v o-e Karaarrjaw eiaekde ets r^i* 
\apdv rov Kvpiov o~ov. ^ Ilpoaekdav Be koI 6 ra Svo rdXapra kaficiv, elire, 
Kvpte, Bvo rakavra pot irapeoWas* i8e, aXXa Svo raXayra itcepBrjcra err* 
avrots. ^ "JE^ avT$S 6 kv/hos avrov, JEv, SovXe dya6^ Kal vurre, eirl oXiya 
■rjs irwrros, «rl iroXXoiv o~t Karaarrjaa, eiaek$e eis rr)i* x a P av TO *> itvpiov <rov. 

* w UpoaekOwv Be ical 6 to Iv toXoktov ciXi^a»s, €tVe, Kvpte, eyvuv ere art 
crKkrjpbs el dvdptairos, depttpv otrov ovk eairapa<s, Kal awdyav o$tv ov BteaKop- 
vtaar M ical <f>ofir)0el<>, direkdup eKpwfia to rakavrov aov 4v rjj yfr *8e, «?>(«« 

». 22. T0 q-^ 26 » 'AnoKptfels g£ £ Kvpws avrov elvev avr£, Hoviqpk Bovke ical 
oKvrjpk, r)Bei<s on depiXjut otrov ovk ecnreipa, ical awdyat odev ov BteaKopviaa' 
27 eSct ovV o-e fiakelv rb dpyvptov /tov rots Tpaw€#Taw ical «X0&»> eyw 6co- 
fii.adp.riv av rb 4pbv aw roicy * apare ovV air* avrov to raXavroi', koI Sore 

». t$ cj(o»^-i ra 8«ca TaXaira. (^-) M ' T^5 yap ej^ovrt iravrl Bodrjcrerai, ical 

si irepurcrevdrjcreTav dirb Bk rov pr) k\ovros ko\ o ej(€i apdrfcreraA dif avrov. 

fi (^) w m ^^ T01 ' *Xpelov Bovkov exfidXere ei? rb cricoros rb e£(&repov acei 
carat 6 icXav0/i,os Kal 6 fipvypbs ratv oBovrtov. 

*■ '• (^) 81 " *Otov 8^ *^&V ° T' 1 " * T °v dvdpanov cc rj} B6$g avrov, ical irdvres 

}• Jf • oi dyiot dyyeXoi /ict' avrov, Tore Kadiaet eirl dpovov B6$r)s avrov, K ° ical 
awa\dy]aerax epirpoadev avrov irdvra ra l^i^* Kal d<f»optel avrovs dw' dXX?f- 
Xov, caairep 6 iroiftr)v a^pi^ei rd irpofiara dirb rav epUfxav M ical arrjaei, 
rd piv irp6/3ara 4k 8e£i£>v avrov, ra Bk ipi<f>ia e£ evuvvpav. M p Tore ^pet 
6 /faonXevs rots ex Be^wv avrov, Jevre, oi evkoyqpevoi rov Uarpos /tov, kkr/po- 
vop-qaare rr)v T\roipaapevr\v vpw fiaaikeiav dirb Karafiokf)? Koapov M q eirct- 
vao-a ydp, Kal eBcaKare pot <f>ayeiv eSiifaaa, Kal evoriaare pe fevo? ^f/t^v, 
Kal awrjydyere pe' M yv/ai'bs, Kal irepte/3d\ere pe- i)aBevr\aa, koI iireaKstyaaBA 
per ev ifntkaicji rjprjv, Kal ijXBere irpos pe. w Tore airoKpidr)aoprat avr^J ot 
StKatot, Xeyoires, Kvpie, wore ae etBopev treunavra, Kal eOpeifiapev ; 17 Sumatra, 
Kal brortaapev ; x wore Be ae etBopep $evov, koI awrjydyopev ; r) yvpvbv, 
Kal ireptefUdXopep ; " ttotc Be ae etBopev daOevfj, rj ev <f>v\aicg, Kal rjjkdopev 
irp6$ ae ; 40 ' Kal diro/cpi^cts o $aaiXei><: epel avroU, 'Apr)v Xeyta vpw, 4<f>' 
oaov eiroirjaare kvl rovrav rStv dBe\<f>a>v pov rtav ekayjxrTwiv, ipol eirotrjaare. 

41 * Tore epet koI to!? 4$ evatvvpatv, Ilopeveade air 4pov ot Karr/papevot 
€ts to irvp rb alebvtov to rfrotpaapevov t$ AiafSoXw koI toi? dyyeXot? avrov* 

90. l<m\ Some M8S. tdd it. 

24. eipl\mv— AiMomiMt] * Hebrew prorerb (tee Font. p. 822). 
tutaKepntim ii the Hebrew t^ (/Mnutt), or nnri (otto*), 
(Ruth iii. 2). Cheld. fj^ (oerw), 'Tentaare,' 'nnnire,' to wm- 
mw. Dao.ii.35. 

88. d»/3q«</t] See on Luke xix. 20. 

86. iwpi] *«»«, <p»yi, »<ii.».». (Plutorm.) 

Obierve, it is not only the tinner who ia cut into outer dsrk- 
nen, but he also who does not do good. Nothing is to pleasing to 
God at edification. Let us listen to the warning while we have 
time; let ua have oil in our lamps, and improve our talents in the 
salvation of others, and for the glory of God. (Oryt.) 

87. Tolt TpoTjJJrais — toVb] This question of our Lord may 
throw tome light on the question concerning the lawfulness of tumy. 
On which tee Bp. Andmett, " De Uturit," ed. 1629. Bp. Smdtrttm, 
" Case of Usury," ii. 132, iii. 121 ; t. 127. Groruu, in Luc. vi. 34. 
GerhanTt Loci Theol. yi. p. 645. Poeock't Life, p. 346. One of 

- » — -t.IIt... 

i profitable by their wool. 

8L iym) Omitted by B, D, L. 

.heir milk, their offspring. Mot to goats ; they repretent tm/nri^W- 

— of life." Emtltim. adds iwxmtia, in opposition to the sweet and 

■ant sacrifice of holy and charitable deeds. See Phil. W. 18, 

\» ibmtlat Bwiav iixrii*. — also iai\y,ia in opposition to 

tity and holiness of life. "Ipsi mali demones ktrd rjnprte 

chastity and holiness of life. 
Hebrsit dicuntur." (itoans.) 

84, 88. t.0r,,<A luXoynMiw— i*'li 

rt, m ivAoyn^KKH — twttmva yoo] See St. Aug. 
aerm. itiu. « and be. 9, and Dr. Barrme't Sermon xxxi. vol. ii. p. 153, 
" On the Duty and Reward of Bounty to the Poor." 

4X. to -rip to al&,io¥] lie fire, that ia everlasting; much 
stronger than trip almnor. 

— to irSp to alimov to rrrotpavfihov rm Au/MXi*] 

In verse 34 He describes the joys of hearen as a rXupow>fi(a 
prepared for men by God even from the beginning. But the paint of 
bell arc not described at prepared for men, but for the Devil and hit 

Angels. God designs eternal happine 
misery by their own acta, 

; they incur e 

ST. MATTHEW XXV. 42-46. XXVI. 1—7. 

43 yap, koX ovk iSaKan /tot tftaytTv eSii/Vr/o-a, koI ovk hrvrixrari /t€* 
43 ffros; r)p.rp/, kcu ov owrjyayeri pe yv/tvds, #cal ov rrepiefSakere /te ao~6a>r)$ 
Mat h* <f>v\aicfl, teal ovk hnurKetyturQi fie. u Tore airoKptdrja-ovrai kcu avrol, 
keyovres, Kvpie, wore o~€ etSo/tcp travaivTa, r) Sti/wira, r) £a>ov, r) yvfivbv, r) 
■atrdanj, r) «h> <f>v\aicfl, kcu ov BurjKovrjcrafia/ crot ; ** Tore airoicpUhjcrerat avrots, 
Xeytav, *Afir)v \eya> vfilv, i<f> ocrav ovk iiroinjo-are a>l rovratv t£>v iXa^Larcov, 
ov8c e/tol ivou/jo-are. 46 ' Kal airekevo-ovrai ovrot as koKxutw auoviov, ot 8e * D ; 
Succuoi <is {a*^v cuoi'toi'. 

XXVI. (~) 1 * Eat eyavro, ore h€ktaa> 6 'Ir/crovs iraWas tovs Xoyovs » 
tovtovs, elvf rots fiaBrytaus avTov, 2 OtSare on /tera 8vo r)fi4pa$ to irajoya 
ytVerar ical d Tids tov avOpdairov irctpaotSorat els to oTavpmdrjvau (— ) 8b Tore b 
awr)x$rjo~av oi dpxtepets kcu oi ypa/x/tarets Kal ot irpeo-fSvrepoi tov Xaov A 
ew t^v avXTjv tov ap-)((&pi<i><i, tov \eyop,a>ov KaXdfai, * Kal o-wefSovkevo-avro 
.iW tov Tiycrow SoXcj Kparqo-oiai Kal airoKreCv<oo-w fi c i\eyov 8e, Mr) a> tq c 
MopTQ, wa fir) dopvfios yartfrax a* Ttp Xae£. 

(^) 6 d Tov 8e 'It/ctov yampJvov h> Br/Oavia ev oIkvo. SCfuavos tov \errpov, <i 
7 rrpoo~r)k6a> avrc-> ywr) akafSaarpov fivpov expwra f3apvrip.ov, Kal KaT^av * 


44. <lTo«^ieri<roi^«i] Some M3S. add avrsj, but the balance of 
evidence is furainBt it. 

d it used by our Future Judge to 


46. alowiov] The nine word ii used by 01 
describe the duration of heavenly joa» and of hell 
xx. 10. Dan. xii. 2, where the word alunot is used twice in the 
LXX as it is here by our Lord. In the original the word oMs 
(olami) is used twice. Indeed, our Lord's words here are a solemn 
iteration of those in Dan. xii. 2, xoWoi tiS» KaHtvtirrtn am- 
VI l}e w I ai, ol piy <i< J«>n» aiiaviov, ol Jl alt al<rX""l» aiiiftor. 
The punishment of hell and the joys of heaven are both of them 
eternal. (Aug. de Fide et Op. 15 ; de Civ. Dei, xix. 11 ; xxi. 8—11. 
Grtg. Moral, xxxiv.) 

The word aUt» (as was observed above, xii 32) corresponds to 
the Hebrew oMs (olam), which appears to be derived from the unused 
root d^j (alam), to conceal ; so that the radical idea in aUu>, at used 
in Holy Scripture, is indefinite time ; and thus the word almu comes 
to be fitly applied to tiis world, of which we do not know the dura- 
tion; and also to the world to come, of which no end is visible, 
because that World is Eternal. This consideration may perhaps 
check speculations concerning the duration of future Punishments. 
What the sense of the Christian Church has been on this subject we 
know from its sentiments expressed concerning Origen, who denied 
their Eternity. (See T»«op»y. here.) Cf. j&mik&h Felix. § 35. 
St. Aug. de Spiritu, c. 56. Lad. vii. 21. Pmper. de Vit. Cont ii. 
12, and Si. Hippotylui, Philosophumena, p. 338, and de Universo, 
p. 221, ed. Fabric. St. Clem. Bom. i. 25. Cf. Dr. Horhery', Trea- 
tise on this subject Works, vol. ii. 7—273, ed. Oxf. 1828. 

OH. XXVI. 2. to wa« 
root nptj (paeak), t 

T. TOB (peeak), trantitw, from 
t (Exod. xii. 11 >). As the sufferings of 

A Lord, the Lamb of God, were typified by the death of the 

Paschal Lamb, a bone of which was not to be broken, and whose 
blood was to be sprinkled on the door-posts of the houses that the 
destroying Angel might paa over them when he smote the Egyptians 
and delivered Israel, it is not surprising that some of the Greek and 
Latin Fathers connected the Pauover with the word mw™, to 
eufer, and with the sufferings of Christ, the true Passover, Whose 
blood reconciles us to God, and saves us from everlasting death, and 
">r us life eternal. Almighty God is the Author of Lan- 


After His description of the last Judgment, and of future rewards 
and punishments, our Lord speaks of His own Passion. Thus He 
suggests the question,— If such glory is in store for you hereafter, 


entis NUan, post a 

mentis Nisan, ci 

why should you fa 

that after two days I < 

days is Ike Panover, and the Son of Man shall be delivered, showing 

that what would take place was a Mystery, a FeMmal celebrated for 

the miration of the World ; and that His Passion is our Liberation 

from innumerable woes ; by mentioning the Pauover, He reminds 

them of the deliverance of old from Egypt. 

He thus showed alto that all that He suffered He foreknew ; and 
that He suffered by His own will. (Ckryt., and on v. 17.) 

8. apxt'pimt, toS \tyonitou Kaid<pa] It was necessary to record 
his name ; for the high-priests were now frequently displaced by the 
Romans, and others put in their room. (See Jotepk. B. J. xviii. 2.) 
Annas had been deposed A.D. 14 by Valerius Gratut ; then Ismael 
was appointed ; then Eleazar, son of Annas ; then Simon ; then (a.d. 
26) Joseph or Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas, to the year A.D. 36. 
{Joeepk. Ant xv '" ^ 

ft ..A S.. -T ^ Tpj „u^,„ v/ui.... |~- 

entunes when tbev endeavo , ... 

be taken (Johnx. 39). 
But at the time when they had desired not to take Him, via. at the 
Passover (cp. Luke xxii. 6), then He willed to be taken, and they, 
though unwilling, took Him (Eutkym.) ; and so they fulfilled the Pro- 
phecies in killing Him Who is the true Passover, and in proving Him 
to be the Christ (Cp. Leo, Serm. lviii. Tkeopkyl. in Marc. xiv. 2.) 

e Death oi 

: the J 
the Pamocer in order to inspire terror into a larger number of 
then collected at Jerusalem, and for a salutary example ' 
(Rom.) They now desire to deviate from their usual 
But God does not allow them to do so — in order that tl 
Christ may be more public and illustrious. 

— u.1, fapvflos] Wot because it was a koly mawon. 

Hence it appears that they had no religious scruples against trans- 
acting judicial business at the Passover. 

6. tou li 'Inaoi yiwptMw] Here is an instance of recapitulation. 
See above on xx. 29. This incident took place some days before our 
Lord's betrayal, but St Matthew introduces it here to mark the eow- 
tnwr between Afory and Judas. Judas murmured against ber (John 
xii. 4) because she had bestowed on our Lord the offering of this 
precious ointment which might have been sold for ttree kundred pence 
(Mark xiv. 5). and He sells his Master for Ikirtf piece, of silver, or 
tixig pence. See xxvii. 3, and on Mark xiv. 5. 

— i» BqfJaWa] the Place of Dates, of Palms; tee above, Matt 
xxi. 17; hence the /Jala tpowUmv (John xii. 13) strewed in our 
Lord's path the following day. 

— Siitmwt tov XtwpoS] Not that he was a leper then, bat who 
kad been a leper; and perhaps he had been healed of his leprosy by 
Christ, at Matthew it called the Publican (x. 3), though he had 
been called by Christ from being a Publican to be an Apostle. Cp. on 

7. yiwiil Mary, the sitter of Martha and Lazarus. John xii. 2—8. 
«.?» i . o( t i^ mtttt ayyum mupotixo*. 

Urselitarum domos prctsriiet, 

" Denique w&o\* 
turn, quod septsm diet 
mentatis, vld. Deut. xvl. 6. Exod. ] 
iptum vocsbstur ri ajvpa v. 17. 4 

raelitarum ex JBgypto migraturonini, defem 
igelus mortis, ASgyptiorum primogenitos 
'— • -*-* interpp. ad Ex. 1. c. 

Judel vi 

a i(i*Mr Li 

unde et festum 

ytVtovot positum est pro ayeovax, maitari, ctlterari, stque retpondet Hi 
rrttoyrt 2 Kegg. xxiU. 12, ubl Alex, tin tyeri*n to uiox* nm." 

fDeut. 15. 11. 
John 12. 8. 
gch. 18.20. 

Hark 14. 10, 

uke 22. 8, ftc. 


• eirl rfjv Kt<f>dkr)v avrov dvaKCLfiewov. 8 e 'iSoVres 8^ oi /ladrp-al avrov, ijyavaK- 
rrjaav, Xeyoircs, Els ri 17 diraXeia avrt) ; 9 rjhwaTO yap tovto wpadrjvat, 
iroXXov, ical SoOrjvai toTs irrtoxois. 10 IVovs 8£ 6 '.frjo-ovs eTirci> avrois, Ti 
koVovs irapexere rg ywauct; epyov yap koXov elpyacraro cis e/xr n f 7rdVroT€ 
yap tows irrcox<ws ex«"c ficfl* eavraiv * ejii 8e oi 7rdVrore c^cre (f£) 12 /Ja- 
Xovo*a ydp avrq to pxpov tovto cVl tov o'tuftards /*ov, wy>os to evraxfndaat 
fie iirovqaev 13 d/Mjv Xcya> vp, oirov eav tcqpvx&jj to cvayyeXiov tovto cV 
<5X$> t$ Koa-fMi), XaXifdrja-erat. koX iirovqa-ev avrq els p.vqp.6o~wov avr»}s. 

(iet) M h Tore 7ro/>ev0€is ets twv owSe/ca, 6 Xcyd/xcvos 'lovSas 'Io-Kapuarqs, 
irpos tovs d/>xi€/>«s, ls cTire, ' Tt dikeri pxti Sowar., rcdyw vp!w irapaBcoa-m 
avrov ; Ol 8e eorqo-av avT$ TpuiKOvra dpyvpuv 16 Kal aire totc e£r/T€t 
evKaiplav Xva avrov irapaZtp. 

17 Tp 8c trpuyrg rStv atpfUDV irpoafjkdov oi /xa%ral t$ 'It/o-ov Xeyoircs, 
IIov fle'Xcis eroi/ido-tu/AcV crot <f>ayeiv to wdoxa ; 18 'O 8c cTircv, 'Tirdycre els 
rqv iro\iv irpbs tov Seu-a, Kal ctiraTe avraJ, 'O 8tSao~KaXos Xeyei, 'O Kaipos 
p,ov iyyvs cori, wpbs o-€ irotw to Ttaxrya /xcrd tow jiafrqrSiv fiov. 19 Kal 
iirovqo-av 01 ua#rjTal &»s owera^ev avrois 6 'Jrjo-ovs' Kal rfronuurav to iraaya. 

20 j 'Oi/uas 8c yevopevqs aviicevro ficrd Tan* 8<u8eKa* (|£) 21 Kal, io-diovrav 
aj/rw, eTn-ev, \4fur)j' Xeyw vuiv, on cts ef v/iav ira/oaSwo-ctfie. (™) a Kal 

(Euthym.) " Unguenta optime aervantur in alabastrit." 
xiii. S\) "Nardi parvus onyx.'' ' * " '" '" 
"- '— L - in Mark xiv. i 

., _ .,. .,..._.. - ... . . ,_. 1. N.H. 

"NariiparvuBonvxelicietcadum." (flbnrf. Od. iT. 12. 17.) 
Sec further on Mark xiv. 3. 

8. li-ruXiial A fit question for the tilot iirmXilat, John xrii. 12. 

11. liti H oi vavToTi Iyiti] How then could He afterwards say 

to His Apostles, " I am with you always?'* Matt xxriii. 20. Be- 

Aorfy, which she has anointed. 
>e Diesent and carnally in the Holy 
His Church even till He 

saying be designed a 

will not always have My 

Can He then be said w> uc pra 
Eucharist, which is to be celebrated 
cornel (1 Cor. xi. 26.) An/ 
caution against such a notif 
was now about to institute ? 

IS. »p6t to Irraip.] to embalm Me, from a divinely vouchsafed 
instinct and presentiment of My death ; a reward for her love. 

18. lioyyt'Aior— oAe. tco icoo-pa] When St. Matthew wrote and 
jntluhed this prophecy, the Gospel was not preached in the whole 
world, and it was not a century old. But it has now been preached 
for eighteen centuries, and has been circulated in many hundreds 
of Versions in the principal languages and countries of the world ; 
and in this fulfilment of the prophecy we see an evidence of its 

IS. «oTF|«ra»] An allusion to the words of the prophecy, Zech. 
xi. 12 (Scholrf.), "they weighed for myprios.'* See below, xxvii.9. 

— Tpt&Koirra Apyipia] thirty meheU; the price of a slave. 
Exod. xxi. 32. (Jerome.) Comp. also the tale of Joseph by his 
brethren, Gen. xxxvii. 28. 

Judas wished thus to compensate in part what he thought he had 
lost by the effusion of the ointment (Jerome.) See on xxvii. 3. 

Rationalist Interpreters object that the conduct of Judas is in- 
credible in selling his Master for so paltry a sum ; but they forget 
that when Satan has entered into a man's heart he triumphs over his 
victim by infatuating him, and making him sell his birthright for a 

to be legendary, because if it bad been true, the 

would never have come to embalm the Body." Into that contempt 
has Rationalism brought the name of Proleitant ! 
17. tv *<>«T!i r£v ilifiay) See on Mark xiv. 12. 

They reckon the beginning of the day from the evening. They 
come on the fifth day of the week. Our Lord ate the Passover in 
order to show, even to the end, that He did not contravene the Law. 
He has no place of His own where to lay His head, and therefore He 
sends to norne oersons unknown. (CArys.) 

■i »d<TYa] This and other passages, — xxvi. 19. Mark 
16. Luke xxii. 7,8, 11, 13, 15,- pro- '*— — " ' "■ 


icipation would have been 

. Lord did 

the paschal meal by one day, for 
l a breach of the Law which He 



us ccenam Paiebaler 

Ihareieentes et cum lis facientes, etlam hoc an 

came to fidfil. As TertMian says (e. Marc. iv. 39), " Legis de- 
structorem qui concupieratetiam in Pasrha servare ! (Lukexx 15 " v 

But He ate the paschr 1 * — * '"' "' "- - ' 
prescribed 6« the Law, i. e 

mb with His Disciples on the day 

., ., __ the 14th of Nisan, in the evening. 

"(Exod. xii. 6. 17, 18. Deut xvi. 6. Lev. xxiii. 5. Numb, xxviii. 16!) 
On the difficulty supposed to arise from John xviii. 28, see note 
i that passage. It may be objected, " Was not Christ Himself the 
uePauovcrl" (1 Cor. v. 7.) And being so, why did He « " 

ot suffer as the Passover, on the day at 

_ ., the day appointed by the 

Levitical Law for killing the Passover, i. e. on the 14th of Nisan, as 
He did? f - 

See Routh, R. S. i. 160. 168, 169 ; and 
St. Hippolytw and the Church of Rome, p. 67, 68, note. 

Our Lord instituted the Blessed Sacrament in commemoration 
of His own death on the day when the Lamb was killed ; and He 
spoke of His Body as already broken, and of His Blood al 
for the sins o' ' ' ' ' ' " ~ ' - " 

Disciples, ' Take, eat, this 

lay when the La 

y broken, and ol 

i My Body ;' s( 

then offered Himeelf, for no one eatt what has not first been 
." And it is well said by Remigiia, " If the Paschal Lamb was 
.„; of Christ, how was it He did not suffer on the day when the 
Paschal Lamb was killed,— i. e. on the 14th day of the month ? The 
fact is, He did institute the mysteries of His Flesh and Blood on that 
night, and on that night He was seized and bound by the Jews, and 
so consecrated the commencement of His sacrifice." 

His agony in the Garden may rightly be called a part of Hia 
Passion. The cup of His Pasaion (c. 39) was then presented to His 
lips, He suffered then by anticipation. He then said, " My soul ii 
sorrowful tmto death" (Matt. xxvi. 38), and, " the Hour is come." 
Matt. xxvi. 45. Mark xiv. 41. John xii. 23; xvii. 1. 

Perhaps also it may be said that, in a special sense, our Lord, 
by suffering from Thursday at Gethsemane, to Fridav on Calvary, 
fulfilled the command that the Passover should be slain between the 
two evenings. (Exod. xii. 6. Numb. ix. 3; xxviii. 16.) 

IS. iroii to Td>x<0 A Hebraism. See Vomt. p. 163. St Luke, 
xxii. 11, has <p<Sy» t. t. 

20. d»<««iTol reclined,— « deviation from the attitude prescribed 
Exod. xii. 11. God had commanded the attitude of standing in the 
reception of the paschal meal ; the Jewish Church having come to 
the Land of Promise, and being there at rest, reclined at that festival, 
and our Lord conformed to that practice, — a proof that positive com- 
mands of a ceremonial kind, even of Divine origin, are not immutable 
if they are not in order to a permanent end. See Hooter, iii. x. and 
iii. xi. and iv. xi., and Bp. Sanderson, Prelect iii. vol. iv. p. 54, 55; 
ii. 159; iii. 285. 301. 
— u.tA tH, imttKa] Cp. Mark xiv. 17. Luke xxii. 14. It ia 

J L ~ **"- Fathers that Judas, whose sin was not yet 

— take of the Holy Eucharist. See the 

Bp. Taylor, Life of Christ, Disc xix. 

John xiii. 3d, and Bengal here, and Williams, 

i« fapatmau /as] Observe how tenderly He deals 

generally supposed by the Father! 
public, was admitted to partake 
authorities in d Lap. and Bp. j 

&4S5, and 
olv Wee! 

in, qn&d novlluninm hujns mentis uno die citius consUtuiuent, 
» adeo meniera per unum diem prim incepissent, eosque Jesum, qui 
ton suam instantem prserideret Joh. ml xx *,*- 

turn." (Kuin., so also Botenm.) On the other hand, see 
ng. lib. UL diss. 50. 


Xvirov/u.a'ot <r<f>6Spa, rjp^avro Xcycu' avr<£ «caaros avran', Mtjti cytu eiiu, Kvotc ; 
(ir) M k '0 8e cwroicoiflels cTirci', '0 e/i,^3ai/»as /act c/aow ci> t$ rpvpkua ttjv xe«/>a, 
oStos /ac TrapaZaxrf.1. M '0 tieV Tlds toS avOpcoirov inrdyei, ' kclOox; yeypairrai 
irepl avrov' oval Bk t$ avOpwircp eKelvw, Bi oi 6 Tlos toO avOpwirov irapaZi- 
Sorac (^) koXov ^v avr$ ei owe eyewrfdr) 6 Sv0pamo<i oeciVos. (^f) ^ '-47ro- 
Kpidels he 'lovSas 6 TraoaSiSovs auTo^, ctire, Mr/To ey<u ei/u, pafifiC ; \eyei avrp, 
J?w ctn-a?. 

(t*-) * m 'EatiiovTtav he avrZv, \a/3<av 6 'li/crovs tov aprov, /cat ewXoy»j<ras, 
eicXao-e ical c8i'8ov rots (laOr/rais, Kal etire, Adfiere, r^aycre, toDto coti to cra>/xa 
/tow. (tt) ^ Kal XafSwv to worqpiov, Kal €v\apurnj<Ta$, ehwKev awrois, Xeytu*', 
Hicrc ef avrov 7r<£Wcs, * tovto y<£/o cart to af/xa fiov, to ttJs kcui^s Siaf^r/Kr/s, 
to 7T6/>1 iroXXtwi' €Kxyv6p.€vov as axf>€(riv afiapTuav. ^ " ileya) 8c u/xiv, oti ov 


m Mark 14. I*, 


Luke 21. 19, 10. 


with the traitor. Before sapper He 

not say, ke will betray He, hot " out 

an opportunity for repentance; and Y 

that He may save one. And when He produced no effect on his 

sensibility by this indefinite intimation, yet, still desirous of touching 

his heart, He draws the mask off from the traitor, and endeavours to 

rescue him by denunciations. (Ckrvt., and on «. 26.) 

28. -rpopUa] See Ps. xli. 9; fv. 18. The word TovfiXlou had 
been always used by the LXX for Hebr. rnrp (kearah) ; from root 
(not used) tjj (boor), ' to be deep ;' cp. Lat. trulla. 

26. ai, slwav) yes. Exod. x. 29. See xxvi. 64, and Beng. there. 
Mark xv. 2, ai Xly.„. 

26. toii 0(ito»] The one and same loaf for all ; probably one of 
the loaves or cakes provided for the Paschal meal. 

He had already prepared them for this action by saying (John 
vi. 35), 'Ey<i liwi 6 i A f T«. t«. J.i} t : and 51, 'EyA .tjui o 
'Ap-rot o JA», ««1 A 'AoTot S» 'EyA j<J<r. 4 <rdV>£ mo» «ff-rl» «•> 
'Ey<i 4»<r» wir ip -rij. Toi K<i<rMOi> J»ijt : and 58, o tpiym touto, 
T«r oi>to> JiJMTa. ii« to» aiara. See Notes on that chapter of 
St John. 

Besides, this consecration of bread and wine had been already 
prefigured by Melchizedeck, the Priest of the Most High God, the 
type of Christ (Ps. ex. 4. Heb. vii. 1—15) before the Law; who 
blessed Abraham, and who brought forth bread and wine (Gen. xiv. 
18),— the first mention of bread in Holy Scripture. And so, in a 
certain sense, the mysteries of the Gospel were before the Law, — ss 
the priesthood of Melchizedeck, the tvpe of Christ, was before that of 
Aaron, who was blessed in Abraham (Heb. vii. 7—9) by Melchi- 
xedeck, and so was inferior to him. Hence & Jerome thus speaks : 
" After the typical Passdver was over, and He had eaten the flesh of 
the Lamb with His Apostles, He takes bread, which strengthens 
man's heart, and passes to the true sacrament of the Passover, in 
order that as Melchizedeck the Priest of the Most High God had 
done when He offered bread and wine, so He Himself might repre- 
sent the truth of His own body and blood." 

— tiKoyt'iirat, i«Xo<ji) Luke xxii. 19, and 1 Cor. x 

ri Band uoo) to iiwip Swim k\i*hmoi>. 

He brake the bread " post benedictionem ; contra transubstan- 
Accidau enim, quale post benedictionem panem esse 

Historia Transubstantiationis 

24, sivo- 

Acctdau enim, quale post 
i potest frangi." (Bmg.) 
s subject see also Bp. Coiin, 

- lUtov 


', but v. 

re the other once for all 

is distributing the one to 
to all. (Humphry.) 

— XatfiTi, <*iayiTi] This He said 

the Levitical sacrifice prefiguring His death into an Evangelical 
Sacrament representing that Death, and in order to perpetuate the 
memory of His death, and to convey the benefits of it to all faithful 
receivers, to declare and strengthen their federal union as members 
with Christ their Head, and with each other in Him ; to heal the 
wounds, and satisfy the hunger of their souls ; to invigorate and re- 
fresh them with Divine virtue and grace flowing from Himself, God 
Incarnate, and to preserve their souls and bodies to everlasting life. 

If o. 

> clause of this sentence \t 

i be understood corporeally, the 
if the bread was literally 

, and gave them what 
«d entire after thev 

Utter ought t 

', iding 

they did eat, and remained with 

had eaten, and afterwards died on the cross. Compare St. Pi 
language, 1 Cor. x. 4, " They all drank of that Spiritual Rock that 
followed them : and that Rock wot Ckrittr 

8t Paul in that chaptergives a divinely inspired exposition of 
our Blessed Lord's words, " The Cup of Blessing which we bless, is it 
not the Kvivauria, commwncaiio, of the Blood of Christ? The Bread 
which we break" (the Apostle does not scruple to call it Bread after 
consecration), " is it not the «oi»«r"~ -* ,u - t»— i- -' '■!■-•' » "-- 
we being many are one Bread and 
of that one Bread " (1 Cor. x. 17). 
Vol. 1. 

On the true sense of the words see Hooker, V. lvi. " Christ as God 
and Man is that true Vine whereof we both spiritually and corporally 
are Branches. The mixture of His bodily substance with ours is a 
thing which the ancient Fathers disclaim. . . . And (V. lvi.), " The 
Bread and Cup are His Body and Blood, because they are cause* 
instrumental, upon the receipt whereof the participation of His Body 
and Blood ensueth. Every cause is in the effect which groweth from 
it. Our souls and bodies quickened to eternal life are effects, the 
cause whereof is the Person of Christ; His Body and Blood are the 
true well-spring out of which this life floweth. . . . What merit, force, 
or virtue soever there is in His sacrificed Body and Blood, we freely, 
fullv, and wholly have by this sacrament ; and, because the Sacrament 
itself is but a corruptible and earthly creature, must needs be thought 
ilikely instrument to work so admirable effects in men, we ar- 

which He giveth 
(V. lv.8),"Thei 
of the sacrificed Body of Christ, bounds of efficacy unto life it knoweth 

none, but is infinite in possibility of application.' 

28. touto— to nlud uou] The sense in which these words were 
spoken is explained by the Holy Spirit thus paraphrasing them (Luke 

I 25) : 


S. Caniea'visest,a< 

the soul of the faithful 

for then what has been shed once is 

receiver, of whatsoever age or country he may be, and so tbe fountain 

opened at Calvary is perennially flowing in the Church. 

AtaW*n is tbe Hebrew n«Tj (berilh), a covenant, perhaps from 
root »n} (Aoru), to cut, from the slaying of victims in the ratifying of 
covenants by sscrifice, Gen. xv. 10. Exod. xxiv. 8. Heb. ix. 20 ; 
and specially applicable to the New Covenant of the Gospel, all the 
blessings of which flow from the death of the One, Heavenly, Holy 

He calls it the new covenant, because the Evangelical Sacrament 
succeeds to, and supersedes the Levitical sacrifice, now become old 
and ready to vanish away (Heb. viii. 13), as the husk and the blossom 
vanish when the fruit succeeds. 

The Cup in the Holy Eucharist is appointed for the conveyance 
of the blessing of remission of sins in the new Covenant,— that is the 
Covenant of Urace,— ratified between God and Man by the shedding 

.e blood 

f Christ 

Either then Christ did what w 


_ ..__. z it (which it would be 

impiety to imagine) when He gave the Cup as well as the Bread to 
His Disciples, and commanded them all to drink of it (xxvi 27), 
"and they all drank of it" (Mark xiv. 23) ; or else the benefits of 
the New Covenant are not fully conveyed when the Cup is not admi- 
nistered to the people. 

Cp. Bp. Com, Works, iv. 319—330, " On Communicating in one 

It may be asked. Why should the Holy Spirit have given vary- 
ing reports of the words used by Christ in the Institution of the Holy 
Eucharist? (Cp. Matt xxvi. 26—28. Mark xiv. 22—24. Luke 
xxii. 19, 20. 1 Cor xi. 23. 25.) The reason seems to be that He 
designed to afford Hat full sense of the words by paraphrasing them in 
different ways. He has dealt with them in the New Testament as He 
has treated prophecies delivered by Himself in the Old (see above, 
ii. 23) ; and by presenting them in various outward forms He has 

given us a clearer view of the one inward sense But which of the 

Apostles or Evangelists would have ventured to do this without the 
Inspiration of the Holy Ghost? 

— »o\Xi»l i. e. ofl. See Isa. liii. 12, cp. with v. 6. Dan. xU. 2. 
2 Cor. v. 15. Matt xx. 16 ; and above, note on xx. 28. Rom. v. 15. 
18, 19; viii. 29. As St. Auqtutine observes, Civ. Dei, xx. 23, Abraham 
is called (Gen. xvii. 5) a father of man; nations ; and in Gen. xxii. 18, 
all nations are blessed in him. So Tit is for any one whatsoever 
(John vi. 50). Cp. Glaa. Phil. Sacr p. 887 ; and fornw's Sermons 

• Murk 14. 31— 


prj mat air apri Ik tovtov tow ycvrjaoTos ttjs dpirekov, ea>s t»js rfpcpas eVceu^s, 
orav avrb iriwn peff vpuv kowov ev ry /SacriXeta tov Ilarpoi pov. 

(^) w ° Kal w/xjojoxuf es, i$rj\0ov el? to o/jos tow c'Xaiw. (™) 81 Tore Xeyei 
awrois 6 'Ir/o-ows, IIcutcs wucis o-rttU'SaXMrflrjowfle h> ipol eV T77 jtwctI Tavry 
yeypairrai. yap, 'Jlarafw top troipiva, Kal obao-Kopirio-O'qo-e.Tai to 
irpofiara rfjs iroCpvys. (f£) 82q Mcra Se to eyepdrjvai pe, irpod£<a w/ms 
els Tip raXiXaiav. (^) M 'AiroKpidels ok 6 Ileroos dircy awr$, M 7raW cs 
(TKOJ'SaXMrftjo-ovTot eV trot, eya> ovSeWre o-KavSaXior&jcro/iai. M r *E<^r; avr<5 
6 'Itjo-ows, 'Apyv Xeyw am, on eV TavYrj tjJ wktI, iry>li> aXixropa <jxovrjo-at,, 
rpls diraprnjay pe. (^) K Aeyet awr$ 6 Hct/jos, K&V 8e# /xe ow crol diro- 
daveiv, ov pij <re airapvqtropai. 'Opoiots Be Kal Traires oi padryral etirov. 

(*r) x ' Tore ep^erai per avrlav 6 'It/o-ows «5 \atpiov \eyopevov re0<rt)~ 
pavet, Kal Xeyci tois /xa0r/rais, KadCa-are avrov, ea>s 08 dTreXfwi' irpoo-evtjapai, 
€K€?. (™) " ' Kal vapakafiav tov Her pov ical tows 8wo wlows ZefieBalov, 
rjpiaro \wrelo~dat, Kal dBrjpovelv. (^) M Tore Xey« avrois 6 'lijaows, Ileoi- 
Xvttos iorw ^ ^tvyyi pov «us davdrov pea/are &Bc, *al ypnyyopevre per ipov. 
(^r) ^ ° Kal irpoekdwv piKpov, eirea-ev iirl irpoo~<oirov avrov, irpoo-evxopevo? 
Kal Xeycav, (Jy) ndrep pov, ei Bwarov «m, irapeKdero) dir ipov to irorrjpiov 
tovto' irXrfv ofy <"? fy® Beka, dXX' a»s ov. Ott) *° Kal ey>x«"ai w/jos tows 

'hen the Kingdon 

29. Stw airo ir(ra /UI6' v^iuv xaivo'v] See above, xix. 28. 

Our Lord did eat and drink with them after Hi« Resurrection 
(John xxi. 12), in one case to give proof of Hia Resurrection, 
another in the Holy Eucharist (Luke xj' '" " " "" 
was come more nearly by the glorr of Hi 

Thus St ChryM. : " He had spoken of His crucifixion, He now 
speaks of His Resurrection ; and assures them that they will see Him 
apin, and be with Him. I will then drink with you the fruit of the 
Tine new ; that is, I will do it in a new manner ; not having any 
longer a body liable to suffering, but an incorruptible body, and one 
that does not require nourishment Why, then, did He eat and 
drink with them ?— to assure them of His Resurrection." 

And further; He made all ihingt new (Rev. xxi. 5) by His 
Resurrection. He here promises them a participation in the joys of 
the New Jerusalem (Rev. xxi. 1), concerning which He says, Ye 
shall eat and drink at My Table in My Kingdom (Matt. viii. 11. 
Luke xxii. SO. Rev. xix. 9) at the Marriage Supper of the Lamb, 
when they will sing a new Sonp (Rev v. 9 ; xiv. 8), and dwell in the 
new heavens and new earth (2 Pet iii. IS). 

See also on Luke xxii. 16. 

80. «^«i(ia»T«t] Psalms cxvi. — cxviii., the second part of the 
great hymn of praise or Hallel ; the former part (Ps. cxiii. — cxv.) was 
sung before the Paschal feast. 

Observe how the use of the Psalms is commended to the Church 
by Christ Cp. below, xxvii. 46. 

81. yiypa-K-rai] Zcch. xiii. 7, from LXX. Cp. Strain, p. 279. 

82. -rpoofu)] as your Shepherd. " Verbum pastorale." (JBeng.) 
Cp. e. 31, troiuhu — irnoBaTa. John x. 4. The promise now riven 
wis fulfilled Matt, xxviii 7. 

84. AKiKTopa] Rare, but not unknown at Jerusalem. (Light- 
foot.) Before a cock crows, i. e. about midnight The AXiK-ropo- 
<pm»la (Mark xiii. 35 ; xiv. 30), or ucond crowing, was later, but 
before rait. 

86. *• | ii is excluded by some Editors ; but it is found in the 
majority of MSS., - J 
iug an extenuation 
Matthew;— as tnu< 
did the same. 

86. r«9ff«M<"»"H On the western foot of the Mount of Olives, and 
on the east of the Brook Kedron. The name is from Hebr. pi (jott), 
torcular or press, and Jiy$ (ihemen), oleum ; e. g. the Olive Prea. 

The Prea, in which Olives were crushed and bruised, is used in 
Holy Scripture and in the Christian Fathers as an emblem of trial, 
distress, and agony (Isa. lxiii. 3. Lam. i. 15. Joel iii. 13). See 
also St. Aug. Serm. xv., where he compares the Church to a Torcu- 
lar, an Olive Press, in which by the crushing of trials and persecutions 
the dark amurca or lees are separated from the " Oleum mnditatU." 
Therefore there was something in the name of Gethsemane very fit- 
ting for the place in which the Man of Sorrows was bruised by His 

y, from which flowed those precious drops which proved the reality 

is Manhood, and the intensity of His love. 

A few words here on the Names of principal places in our Lord's 
History. Christ was born at Bethlehem. The Bread of Life was first 


that the cemetery of strangers i 
ma, or Field of Blood, lieu a i 

given to the world at Bethlehem, the Home of Bread. (See Matt 
ii. 1.) The Man Whose Name is JVefssr, the Branch, grew ut> at 
Nazareth (see on ii. 23), whose name, derived from its brandling 
shrubs and trees, may have shadowed forth that circumstance in His 
life. He chose His Apostles to be fishers of men from Betk-eaida, 
the House of Fuhing (tee xi. 21 ; xiv. 13). He dwelt at Capernaum 
(iv. 13), the town of Consolation. He healed the impotent man at 
Beth^tda, the House of Mercy (John v. 2). Beth-any, the place of 
Palm Dates, speaks of the palms and hosannas of His tr v_ ' - "~ ' 

ito Jerusalem on Palm Sunday,and of the Victory and triumphal glory 
f His Ascension. In Beth-phage, the House of Figs, we may sea 
memento of the warning that He gave to Jerusalem and the World 

by the withering of the Barren / 

the Press of Oil is witness of His 

ig that 1 „ 

by the withering of the Barren Fig-tree. And now 

" "" itness of His agony in which it pleased 
eakesi (lea. Hi'. 10), that Oil might flo 


o heal 

God to 

_. Golgotha He rofcd , 

33). And on the Mount of Olives Christ w 

He holds forth the Olive branch of Peace 
between God and Man. 

Was there not therefore some providential and prophetical adapta- 
tion in these names to the Birth, Sufferings, and Victory of Him Who 
is the Everlasting Word of God, and became Man for us ? 

88. mpfXtriro? ia-riv] The Soul of our Blessed Lord and Divine 
Head was troubled and sorrowful unto death, and His sorrow baa 
been recorded in Scripture in cc 

Members, might not despair if 
>proach of deat" 

e find ot 


ith, and that we might not be tempted by 
that God has deserted us. (St. Aug. Serm. xxxi.) 
i Ipse, sed anima," says St. Ambrose on Luke xxii. 
■»*. nun sustipiens, sed suscepta, turbatur; anima enim obnoxia 
passionibue, Divinitas libera." Knowing the sinfulness of sin, Christ 
felt proportionably the bitterness of its sting — death. 

Our Lord was v< 

i sorrowful,— 

happy Judas, a! 

ruth of His Hu- 
. lut for the sake of 
for the rejection of the Jews, and for the 

and He says, Let not that be which I speak from human feeling, but 
let that be for which I came down from heaven, by Thy Will. 
(Jerome.) They had said that they would die with Him; and yet 
they are not able to watch with Him. But He pravs earnestly. And 
in order that His grief may be knfwn to be real, His sweat falls to 
the ground, and this in drops as of blood, and an Angel comes to 
strengthen Him. For the same cause He prays; and by saying "if 
it be possible let this cup pass from Me," He shows' His human 
nature ; and by adding " not as I will," He teaches us submission to 
God, even though our Nature draws us in an opposite direction. 
Since His countenance might not give evidence enough to the incre- 
dulous, He adds words and actions, in order that the Sceptic might 
believe that He was really Man and suffered death. (Chrys.) 

89. w\fiv omxI The agony of Christ shows that prayer may be 
lawful and in faith without express promise of obtaining that which 
is prayed for; and also proves the existence of Two Wills in Christ's 



padrfTas, Kal evpicncei avrovs Ka6evBovra<;, koI Xeyet r<p ITer/ow, Ovrtos ovk 
urxya-are piav Stpav ypr/yopfjo-an /tier* ifiov ; (*■£) 41 T yptjyopelre Kal irpoaev- v mux u. j». 
\e<rde, Iva fw) cwrc'X^ijre eis Trei.pao-p.6v to /lev me evua irp66vp.ov, i) 8e <rap$ jfi^jh ^ft' 4 *- 
do-tfenfc. (^) ^ UdXtv eVc Sevreoov direXAup, irpoo~T)v£aTo \ey<av, Ildrtp /*ov, *"•• *•*•*■ 
et ow Swarai tovto to irorqpuw irapekdetv air e/tov, iav p.i) avro iruu, yevrjdrfrto 
to dikrjpd <rov. 43 Kal ikdav evpio-Ktt, avrovs irdkw KadevSovrar Jjo-av yap 
avrwv oi 6<f>0akp,ol /k/tapr/ueVor ** Kal ousels avrovs, a7reX(9a)v rraXu' irpocr- 
rjv$aro iie rpCrov, rbv avrov \6yov diratv. (™) ** Tore cpxerai irpbs tous 
fiaft/ras avrov, ical Xeyet avrots, KatfevSere to Xomtov ical avairavecrde — IZov, 
yjyyucev -ff atpa, /eat 6 Ttos rov dv0ptoirov rrapaStSorat eis X 6 ** ** ap.apT<aKuv. 
(t 2 -) 46 'EytCpeo-Oe, dyatp-ev, tSov, rjyyiKev 6 rrapaSiZovs fie. 

47 " Kal ert avrov XaXowros, iSov 'lovSas ets raw 8<u8e/ra Ijkde, rat tier y Ma* w. 4s. 
avrov o^Xos iroXv? fiera p.a)(<upa>v icai §vX.<uv, arro rcuv apxiepeav Kat trpea-- JJjJjW - 
fivrepotv tov Xaov. (^j-) w 'O 8e irapaStSov? avTov eSaMeev avrois crr}p.eZov, 
yjyotv, *0v av fyCkqcrw, avrds eon* Kpanjo-are avrov. 49 zeal evdeitu? irpoo-- 
ekdatv t$ 'Irjo-ov, eTire, Xaipc, pafSfZ'c Kal Kare^iXr/ae*' avrov. M x 'O oelSiis.'*' 
'It/covs eTirei> avnw, 'Eraipe, i<f> o irdpei ; Tore 7rpoo-eX^dwe5 irrefiaXov Ta? 
^eioas e7rl tov 'Iiyo-ovV, *cal iKparqcrav avrov. (^) S1 y Kal iSov, ets t£v /xerot yJ»>"> »• >o. 
'It/ctov, iicreivas rrfv xelpa, dwe'enrao-e r^v p.a\o.ipav avrov, ko\ irardi; as t&i> Luke "• 50 - 
SoOXov tov apx<*p4<i>s, axf>et\€v avrov rb <uriov. (^) S2 Tore Xeyei avrw 6 
*Iyio~ov%, *Air6orpoji6v o~ov rffv pAxaipav eis tov roirov avr^s* * iraVres ydo j^ n ,-,' - ,* - 
oi \af$6vre<: p-d^aipav h> p-ayaipa atroKovvTai. M *H So/cet? ort ov SvVa/xai 
dori irapaKakeo-ai tov Jlarepa p.ov, koi irapaarrqo-ti. /xoi "wXeiovs ^ SwSeica «J^ n "j«- 17 - 
Xeyettffa? dyyihav ; w Ilais ovV ir\r)pa>02>aiv at ypa<f>ai, * ori ovro» 8el Jj^/ 3 - 7> *°- 
yev€o-$ai; Lai. «.«,«, 

(x) M '-E" ^K€ivg rfj «5/ja etirev 6 'li;o"ovs rots o^Xois. '/2s eirl X^ariyi' 
i&jKOere p.era p,ax<upav Kal $v\a»v (rvXkafielv /xe ; JKa(?* t\p.£pav rrpbs vftds 
€Ka6eC6p.7)V ht,hdo~KO)v eV t$ leow, *cal ovk iKpanjcrari /tie. (^r ) ** * tovto 8e \j£f t \ *' "• 
oXoj> yeyovev, Iva irXrjpoiOwo'a/ at ypa^al twv irpoffrryrav. c ToVe oi pxUhjral e John is. is. 
wdWes d^eVres avrw i<f>vyov. 

(*•) 87 <» (jj g^ Kpanjaavres tov *Irfo , ovv amqyayov irobs Kaidtftav rov d/>x- l^"m m S «* c ' 
tepea, oirov ot ypap-p-arels koI ol irpea/Svrepoi o~wrj[yB y \ iT03f ' (^) M "O Se Jj hn ,8 - '* 1S « 
Uerpos "^KoXou^et avrw dwb p,aKp60a>, eiu? r^s avX^s rov dpxi>ep€(>><>' Kal 
elaekdtbv iao) iKaOrfro /terd raw imjperwv, iheiv to re'Xos. (*?) M Ot 8^ 

Person, viz. His Human Will, and the Dirine Will, which were 
indeed distinct, but not at Tariance with each other ; but were per- 
fectly reconciled by Hit exemplary Resignation. " Non Mea Volun- 
tas, sed Tua ; Suam VolunUtem," sart St. Ambrote on Luke xxii. 
42, "ad iominem retulit; Patru ad divinilaiem." Cp. Aug. in Ps. 
jczxii. and Leo, 8erm. 56; and see Atkamu. p. 1009. "Christ inti- 
mate* here His Two Wills, the one Human, the other Divine ; the 
Human Will from infirmity shrinks from the Passion, the Drone 
Will is eager for it" 

Hence is refuted the Heresy of the Honothelites. 

Bee on Luke ii. 52; and Hooker, V. xl»iii. ; and below, xxrii. 
46, and on John xii. 27. 
4X to /u«r mriSMo] Quoted by Polyearp, Phil. 7. 
45. *a0tiiJiTil St. Ckrm. understands this as spoken trowed. 
(Cp. Zech. 3d. 13. Mark Tii. 9. John rii. 26. Ohm. Phil. Sacr. 
p. 710.) Not so St. Augiutme (de Consens. Etang. iii. 4), who sup- 
poses that our Lotd allowed them to sleep till Judas came. Some 
read the words interrogatively. So Grttweli and Robinson. 

Perhaps they may hare a deeper meaning. Now you may hope 
for sleep and rest, for I am about to die ; to sites) in d»alX for you, 
and so to procure true rest for you here, and eUnul nit for you in 

— Hob— o>apTa>\w| To prove to them that (with all their pro- 
fessions) they would not be able to endure tbe sight of danger, and 
would fly for fear, and mat He does not need their assistance. And 
in order to show that, though all was foreknown by Him and pre- 
ordained, yet that the agents of His death are responsible and guilty, 
He says, ' the Son of Man is delivered into the hands of wicked men.' 
{Cknp.) He adds, ' A rue," i. e. that they may not find as as it were 
terrified; but let us go on willingly to death. He say* this that they 

may see His confidence and joy when He was about to suffer. 

47. 'loueat] Judas came to Gethtemant, and at night, because he 
sought an opportunity to betray Him without the knowledge of the 
multitude. (Cp. m. S. 16. Luke xxii. 6.) 

- - — • : than i<f>iAi|o-f. 

i. 13; xxii. 12. See 

— if 31 & Elx., but 5 hi r . . 

O. tltl Not specified as Ptttr (cp. 
till St. John wrote xt" ! '" J 

of St John's Gospel. 

, . irk xiv. 47. Luke xxii. 
10, an evidence of the comparative late 

<yiX<ov] Twelve legions of Angela, in 

ority from God, Who alone gives commission to 
bear the sword ( Rom. xiii. 4), they shall perish by the sword of divine 
retribution. Cp. Gen. ix. 6. 

88. tittxa Xfyiuvat iyyiK 
lieu of twelve Apostle*. {Jeromt , 

56. toStc— rA v «Bi<"»] The Passion of Christ is the Pleronj* 
of Prophecy. 

57. «pa T <«rr«l See on Luke xxii. 54. 

— KaiaaW] After He had been before Annas. See that inci- 
dent supplied by John 

the President (Numb, 
the High Pri« 

Families, TrptaBiripoi 
drim, cap. 1. SMen d( 

a ; the twenty-four Presidents of the twenty- 
-- ' "- J ipX«P*~«); Heads o' "-" 
. r -_.trr««t. (Cp.Afu*«o( 
de Synedrio. Join, Ardusol. § % 

p. Mukna Cod. S*nhe- 

e Pi. 27. 12. 
ft S3. II. 
Mark 14. 55, & 

fch.27. 40. 
John 2. IS. 
Mark 14. 58, 8 

g In. i». 7. 
ch. 27. 14. 

k Mark 14. 66. 

Luke 22. 55, 56 
John 18. 16, 17, 

Luke 22. 61,62. 


apX'-epti'S Kal ol irpeafivrcpoi, Kal to awihpiov okov, efijrow if/evSo/iaprvpiav 
Kara tow *It)<tov, oVcus BavaTmataaw avrov, w Kal ow^ cfipov Kal, ' iroXkav 
\jiev8ofiapTvptav irpoackdovrotv, ov% cSpov. "T<mpov 8e irpoackdovrts Zvo 
i/rcwSoudprw/>e; 61 cTttoi', (^) O&Vos ei^, f Jwa/iai KaraXwom tw vaof tow 
8eou, Kal 8ta t/jiwi' rj/iepwv otKoSo/x'Tjcrat awrdi>. ffi Kal dvaoras 6 dpxiepev? 
etirev awr<£, OwScv drroKplvt) ti ovtoi gov KaTafxapTvpovo-iv ; 63 g 6 8c 'Irjo-ows 
icruoira. Kal airoitpiOels 6 apxiepevs etirev avrw, 'E^opKiljto <re Kara tow 
©cow tow £a»ros, ow iw*"' cwrps, el <ri «I 6 X/jwttos, 6 Tios tow ©eou. 
(™) w Aeyei avreo 6 'Iijaows, 5w cTira?. irXi)i> Xeyai w/xiv, h air . aprt 
oifie<rde rbv Ttov tow dvdpwirov KaOrj/ievov ck 8e£ia>v rfjs Swdfieas, Kal ep^6' 
fievov iirl twv vefaXav tow ovpavov. (^f ) 6S Tore 6 dp\iepevs htAppq^e rd l/iana 
awrow, \4rymv, ori €/3kao~<fyrjfir)cre, ti cti xpeiav e^o/iev fiaprvpiuv ; i8e, iw 
T^KOwaaTc rr)v /SXao-^riuiap awrow. w ti waiv Sokci ; (™) oi 8e airoKpidevres 
eXirov, "Evoxps davdrov eari. (™) w ToTe eveirrwrav els to irpocrairov avrov, 
Kal eKohfyurav avrov, oi 8c ippdmcrav, m Xeyovres, (™) ' npotfytfrevvov i)p2v, 
Xpurrk, ri% earw 6 7raio*a$ <re ; 

69 k 'O 8e Uct/jos efa> iKadrjTO ev tq ai\fj, Kal irpoarjXdev awral ftid muSto-Ki^, 
Xcyowo-a, Kal o-w ■ijo-^a /icrd 'Itjo-ow tow raXiXaiow 70 6 8e r\pvi\craTo epirpoo-- 
6ev iraPT(ov, \eytav, Ovk ot8a ti Xeycts. (^) 71 'EffeXdoVra 8e avrov els top 
7rwX.wva eTSev awrop dWrj, Kal Xcyei awrots ckci, Kal owVos ^ ftcrd 'It/o-ow 
tow Natfitpaiov w «al iraXip rjpwjo-aTO pxff opKov, ori Owk otSa tw avdpwirov. 
78 Merd p-iKpov 8c irpocekdovres ol cotcStcs etirov t^> iHrpw, 'A\r)$£>s koI 
o*w cf awraij' ct, Kal yap ' ^ XaXid o-ow S^Xov ac 'Trotci. 74 m Totc rjp$aro 
Kara^cyxari^eu' Kal bp.vvew, ort Owk ot8a rw avdpomov. Kal evdeax; aXe/crap 
i<fmvrja-e. (^) 7S Kal ifurjoSr) 6 Ilerpos tow prffiaros tow 'I^aow dpi) kotos 
avT(p, Oti ■ ir/jly dXeKTOpa (fxavfjo-ai, Tpls dvapvrjcqj (ie- Kal i$€K8av c£<u 
cicXauo-e iriKp£><i. 

c. 16. And the repetition i«re shows the eagtrnua of 

Jid it« KMtfji. 

5<rai to» raw] See John ii. 19. Our Lord did not 

68. «E»i>ki!> <r 

answered nothing, 

On the practical in 

vered nothing, being adjured by the High Prii „, 
On the practical inferences from this, as to the legal it/of Oaths 
in Courts of Justice, see Bp. Andrtwa, de Jurejurando, Lond. 1629, 
p. 92 : " Bcllutn et Jusjurandum spontanea, mala sunt ; et ut bona 
aint, iwonTii ease debent, id est, pressa et expressa (ut scite Augut- 
tixw de Juramentis) vel auctoritate deferentis vel saltern duritie non 
credentis." See above, y. 84. 

64. iuVtfffls] As Daniel has prophesied, vii. 13. Our Lord laid 
this itumK&t, i. e. referring to Himself, as in that other reference 
to Daniel, Matt. xvi. 18, iiri touts tj -ri-rpa, «.t.A. Thou, O 
Caiaphas, and ye, O Priests, who sit there to judge Me, will then be 
summoned to stand before My judgment-seat. 

66. a.iVSjdiiEi Ti 1/ioTial St. Mark has it(fifa£, 
The plural appears to be according to Hebrew usage 

John ix. 28; xiii. 4 *-' '" "' ""' 

on John xiii. A) " 

p. 130, and pp. 236, 237. Glau. Phil! Sacr. p. 286." 

The High Priest Caiaphas did what was unlawful for a High 
Priest to do in a private grief (Lev. x. 6; xxi. 10). To him the 
declaration of the Son of Man's coming hereafter to judgment, was a 
worse woe to him than the loss of a son. He, the High Priest of 
God, was conspiring against the True High Priest. Perhaps, also, 
there was something significant in the act, showing that the Priest- 
hood itaelf was now about to be rent from him and the Jewish 
Nation. (Jerome, Chry.) 

— ip\«<r<pnp,,a,—p\ a <r4,wia,] Here is an instance of an use 
of the word Bbuphemy, for assumption of what belongs to another, 
especial y to God, see ix. 3. This use is frequent in the Apocalypse, 
ii. 9 ; xiti 1. 5, 6 ; xrii. 8. For the cause of the High Priest's im- 
putation of blasphemy, see on xvi. 14. 

. . .. -Mge (cp. Mark v. 30. 

I. Acts xviii. 6). " Hebraei" (says Rosenmiiller, 

a plural, numero ij| et nteiD notarunt 

--*'"" Cf. Shroeder. Inst Ling. Hebr. 

Christ Himself had been menaced with stoning (John viii. 59 ; x. 31), 
for what they called blasphemy. But God ordered that the death of 
Him Who was the true Paschal Lamb, should not be by stomas, but 
by crucifixion; a death not usually inflicted by the Jews, but a 
heathen punishment, and yet, wonderful to sav, precisely typified in 
the slaying and death of the Paschal Lamb (Exod. xii. 9), and that 
without the breaking of a bone (Exod. xii. 46). See the parallel 
between the killing of the Lamb and crucifixion, traced by Justin 
Martyr. Dial. Tryphon. § 40. 

69. t£» ixaOuTo] Some Editors read Ik&B. (£*>, but without 
sufficient authority; and the emphatic word here Is not !{■•», but 
iKit),,To. While His Master was standing before the High Priest, 
and undergoing these indignities, he «£•» tniSnro. 

— liia Taidio-Kfi] A special one, for she kept the door. Sea 
John xviii. 17. 

71. iAXif] For the reconcilement of a seeming discrepancy here, 

So the best MSS. Eh. t 

t i. The h 

to all that were there. On this use of avrdt, see Matt. 
Winer, Gr. Gr. p. 133. 

72. MiV Sp«ou] Peter volunteers an oath, and denies Christ with 
one. Our Lord is put on His Oath by the High Priest, and confesses 
Himself to be Christ. See above, v. 63. 

78. v A«Xi« 0-ov] St Peter was now terrified by a woman, and 
was not able to speak his own Syro-Chaldaic language with correct- 
ness, and he denies Christ But afterwards, when Christ was glori- 
fied, and the Holy Ghost was given, he waa enabled to confront and 
confound those who slew Christ, and to convert three thousand Jewa 
from every country under heaven by his eloquence in their language*. 
See on Acts ii. 24-41. 

76. i*\au<r.J Even soon after he had received the Holy Com- 
munion he denied his Master. But he repented, and was pardoned. 
Hence then we may confute the Novatiane, who refuse to restore 
those who fall into grievous sin after Baptism and the Holy Com- 
munion. And St Peter's sin, and the sins of other saints, are written 
in Holy Scripture that we may not be high-minded, but fear; and 
that when we fall into sin we may repent (Cp. Tneophyl., Mark 
xiv. 72.) The grace given in the Holy Communion was improved 
by St Peter into the means of godly repentance ; but it was perverted 
by Judas to his own destruction. It was used aa medicine by the 
one ; and waa abused into poison by the other. 


XXVII. (Tf-) 1 "H/xuias he yevop.evr}<;, crvfi^ovkiov Zkaftov TrdWes oi apx~ 
tepct? Kal oi irpea-fSvrepoL tov Xaov Kara toS 'I^<row wore Oavaraxrai. avrov, 
(™) 2 b Kal hyjo-avres avrov arrqyayov, Kal napehcutcav avrov IIovTup I7iXdr$> 
t$ iTye/xow. 

(™) 3 Tore i8a»> 'Iovhas, 6 7rapa8tSows avTov, on KareKpiOrj, fiera/xeXrjdeh 
aireorpeifte ra rptaKovra dpyvpia rots apx^peva-i Kal rots irpeafivTepois, 
4 Xeyw, "Hpaprov irapahoix; aXfia a$S>ov. Oi he elirov, Ti irpbs 17/tas ; <rv 
o\f/ei. 5 c Kal /5u/»as ra dpyvput iv t$ va§, ave\cipTjo-e, Kal dircXdaip airqy^aro. 
8 * Oi he apxiepels, Xa/SoWcs rd apyvpia, etirov, Ovk e^ecm fiakeiv aura cis 
7W Kopfiavav, iirel ti/xt) aifiards ecrri. 7 2vp,/3ov\u>v he Xafiovres r/yopao-av 
i£ ovt&v rbv dypbv tov xepafieta^, eU Tatjyrjv T019 fa/ois. 8 e Aib ckXtj^tj 
6 aypbs iiceivos 'Aypb? at/taros ecus t^s onqiiepov. 9 f Tot€ iwkrjpatdri to prqdev 

e 2 Sun. IT. M 

a Acts 1. it. 

Cr. XXVII. 8. n»rri> niAd™] The successor of Valerius 
Gratus, a> Procurator of 'Judaea ( Tacit. Ann. xv. 54, " Christus, 
Tiberio imperante, per Pontium Pilatum Procuratorem supplirio 
affectus eat. Joseph. Ant xviii. 4); he held that office from 
A. D. 25 to A. D. 36; he wa» deprived of it for cruelty, and ia said to 
have destroyed himself at Vienne, in Gaul, in the first year of the 
Emperor Caligula. See Euteb. ii. 7, and Bp. Pearson on the Creed, 
Art. iv., who observes, as an eminent act of the providence of God, 
that the full power of Judicature in Judaea (jus gladii) was left in 
the hands of the resident Procurator, which was not usually the 

The Procurator's residence was at Catarea, but he had come to 
Jerusalem for the Passover, to maintain order in the city. 

8. M<Ta«ii\i|0<i<] He does not say ptruvonaat. On the dif- 
ference between true and false repentance, see Bp. Sanderson, iii. 

— to -rpiaxorra Apyipia] trixXoi, or shekels (see above, xxvi. 
15). A shekel was two draAmaa (Gen. LXX. ixiii. 15, 16), or 
two denarii. See xvii. 24, and Winer, Lex. i. 266 ; ii. 445. 

alfiu ABao*] more than an innocent man. I am guilty of his 

p. the ai 

The following, on the death of Judas, from Leo M. (Senno 
lii. p. 121), contains some important historical statements, as well as 
doctrinal truths. " Unde scelestior omnibus, Juda, et infelicior 
extitiati, quern non pomitentia revocavit ad Dominum, sed desperatio 
traxit ad laaueum 1 Expectasses consummationem criminis tui ; 
donee sanguis Christi pro omnibus funderetur peccatoribus, informis 
lethi suspendium distulisses. Cumque conscientiam tuam tot Do- 
— !_! miracula, tot dona torquer—* '"- — '* — '- h '-"-' 

scientias detectus acceperas. 

prehendendum se cum turbis et 
venienti, pacis osculum non ne 


ilo a dextris tuis, iniquitatem, qua 

•m mensuram ultionis excesserat, te paveret ii 

te pateretur tua noma carnificem." 

Judas, a type of the Jews, in his sin and en 

repulit? qui tibi ad 
im (Joan, xviii. 5) coliorte 
Sed homo inconvertibilis, 
secutus es rabiem, et stante 

is tuajudi- 


6. KopPanav] Hebr. ryjj (korban) ; from root yj} (Icarab), appro- 
pinquavit; and in Hiphil snjn (atfcrio), appropinqmare fecit ; i. e. 
obtulit; whence Corban is either an offering (Mark vii. 11) oroWo- 
ir the place where oblations were received, — the Treasury of 

money had been cast into the treasury, tl 

"they bear public testimony against themselves. 

of the betrayal would not have 

of the field they perpetuated its memory to posterity, - 
ty ; and this they did with deliberation — hat 

the Temple, as here. 

If the i 
of the be 



8. iypit aI M «-ro<] Akel-dama. See Acts i. 19. 

— Im] Benoel. Cp. xxviii. 15. In both these cases the clause 
follows an aorist, indicating that the act then begun had been conti- 
nued without interruption till the time of the writing of the Gospel. 
It does not necessarily intimate a long time ; for it was a remarkable 

in the other were not willing, to put an end, even after a short in- 
terval, to what reflected so much disgrace on themselves. It also 
•hows a continuity of knowledge on the part of the Evangelist. 

9. tots swXufwtlii to p»t>at- oid 'Iapaittov] Not now read in 
Jeremiah, but in Zrchariah xi. 12, 13. 

1 The LXX has vommlpur, for 
Hieros. Cat. IS, pp. 188, 189. 

• e. f. Utter, p. 464; and Al/ord, p. M5, 
from Jeremiah, and is probably quoted frt 

ixplanation of which see SI. Cyril, 
says, " The citation Is not 

The Messiah is introduced asking for the wages due to Him a* 
Shepherd of His people ; and the wages paid Him are thirty pieces of 
silver; and Jehovah says to Him, " Cast them to the Potter 1 , a 
goodly price at which I nave been priced bv them !" 

Thus then Jehovah identifies Himself with the Shepherd— the 
Messiah — and speaks of this contempt shown to the Messiah a* an 
insult to Himself. " Then I took the thirty pieces of silver and cast 
them in the House of Jehovah to the Potter.'' 

„ e the tense rather 

._. ibrew Prophecies, which He Himself 

had dictated in the Old Testament (see above, on ii. 23) ; and in this 
oassare He intimates, that though the parties concerned in the present 
_ recorded in the Gospel were Judas and the Priests, yet all 
done by them in the rejection of Christ, was foreseen by 
uw, and was done with " His determinate counsel and foreknow- 
ledge." (Acts ii. 23.) As St. Augustine says, " Pater tradidit Filium; 
Ipse seipsum tradidit pro nobis ; et Judas tradidit." 

But how is it to be explained, that a prophecy written by Zecha- 
riah is ascribed by St Matthew to Jeremiah 1 

If (as some do not scruple to say*) St Matthew had written 
Jeremiah by mistake, such an error as this — in a matter obvious to 
every reader of the Old Testament — would have been pointed out to 
him by those who read his Gospel in primitive times, and the text 
would have been corrected accordingly, and have been so read in the 
Church. For (as Antiquity testifies) St. Matthew published his 
Gospel originally in Hebrew, and afterwards in Greek. The present 
Gospel ia a Translation of that Hebrew original. The error (if error 
it had been) would have been pointed out in theirs/ edition — the 
Hebrew — and would never have appeared in the second edition — the 
Greek. Such errors, committed by Historians and Editors in their first 
editions, are amended in subsequent revisions ; and if this had been 
an error, it would not now stand in the transcripts of the Gospel. 

(Cp. Aug. de Consens. Ev. iii. 7.) 

It is observable, that though the Prophet Zechariah ia three 
times quoted by St. Matthew (xxi. 5; xxvi. 31 ; xxvii. 9), he is 

XoTeTthel&w'T' D0F " ^ 5 *™ :nC *"" - ■"—" " m ~ * 

w Testam. 

n the Gos- 

le Holy Spirit 

istomed to particularize the 

, , lentality He had delivered 

them ; and thus it is probable He intends to teach, that alt prophecies 
proceed from One Spirit, and that those by whom they were uttered 

t only a! 

For a similar reason, it may seem, the Holy Spirit 
estament often combines prophecies spoken by different 
le Old Testament, and introduces them as spoken bj " 

trent Prophets in 
y " the Prophet," 
or oy one oi me iwo Prophets, and treats them as coming from the 
same Author. See, for instance, Matt xxi. 45, in which passage we 
see that a prophecy of Zechariah is coupled with one of Isaiah, and 
both are said to be oid toS » ( .o<p!)Toi<. 8o Matt xxi. 13 is formed 
out of Isa. lvi. 7, and Jer. vii. 11. Cp. Glass. Phil. Sacr. p. 960, and 
Junii ParaUela; and the Psrallela in Mr. Grinfield's Editio Hel- 
lenistica N. T. Lond., 1841 So He speaks of what is written in one 
Prophet (e. g. Habbakuk i. 5), as " written in the Prophets." Acta 
xiii. 40. Again, in quoting two prophecies, written by two Prophets, 
He mentions only one of the two Prophets. See Mark i. 2. 

We may infer from the manner in which the Prophets of the 
Old Testament are treated by the Holy Spirit in the New, that He 
designed to teach us that, as in the Gospel Paul is nothing, and 
Apollos is nothing, so, in the Old Testament, Jeremiah is nothing. 
Zechariah is nothing, but God's ministers, holy men, who ail 
spake as they were moved b» the Holy Ghost (2 Pet i. 21); and 
that there are diversities of gifts, but the same Spirit ; and diversities 

We have similar mistakes In the apology of St. Stephen, Acts vii. 4. 16. 
Various modes have been resorted to or evading this which are not worth 

As to the supposed mistake, in St Stephen's speech, see Note these. 

Luke 2 

h John 18. 37. 
1 Ttm. 6. IS. 
I eh. 28. 63. 

k Mark 15. 6, ftc. 

m Mark IS. 11, 


Luke 23. 18. 


8id 'Iepeptov tow wpwjrfjfrov Xeyoifos, Kal iXafiov to rptaKOvra dpyvpia, 
rrfv rip-qv tow tct i, p.rf ft. evov, bv eVt./XT/o-ai'TO airb viatv 'Io-parjX, 
10 /cat eSaiKav aura, eis top aypbv row xcpaptcos, kolOo. trvverage 
pot, Kvpio<s. 

(W») 11 g «q ge 'Iyo-ovs «ttt> cpirpoo-Ocv tow T^ye/toWs* icol iirtputrqa-ar avrbv 
6 rfyepatv, \4yo>v, 2i> cT 6 fiacrtXevs rasv 'lowSauav ; 'O 8e 'Iiyo-ows 2<fn) avr$, 
2w Xeyeis. Ow) 12 h Kal, eV t$ KanjyopeUrdai. avrbv wrb tow apxitpcatv »cal 
toJi' irpeo-fivrepatv, ' owSev aireieplvaTo. 1S ToVe Xey€t awr$ 6 HiXdros, Owe 
aKoweis -nwa o-ow Karapaprvpovai ; w Kal ow»c av&cptfh) aintp irpbs owSe" 
tv prjpa, wore davpdl/Eiv rbv rjyepova Xtai>. 

(~fr) 1S k KaTa 8e ioprrjv etw(9« 6 r/ycpayv airoXvuv era t$ o^Xo) hio-punv, 
Sj/ T}0eXov (f£) 16 et^o*' 8e Tore SeVutop iir'wrrjtiov, keyopevov Bapafifiav- 
17 Xwrjyp.€va>v owv awTSf, eTrra' awrois 6 JIiXaYos, Tiwi dikere airokvo-a ; 
Bapafifiav, tj *Ir}<row rbv keyopevov Xpiarov ; ,8 ' ^8« yd/>, ori 8id <f>06vov 
irap48o)Kav avrov. (^) 19 Kad-rjpdvov 8e awrow cm tow fi-qparos, direoreiXe 
ir/MS awroi' ^ -yawr) owtow, Xeyowo-a, Mrjoev <rol Kal t$ oucaup e/ceivw, 7roXXd 
yd/> liraOov aijpepov kclt ovap oi avrov. (^) * m Oi 8k dp^iepeis Kal oi 
irpeafivrepoi eireiaav tows o^Xows, Iva alvja-ouvrai rbv Bapafifiav, rbv 81 
'Irjaovv airokia-tnaw. 21 'AironpiOels 8e 6 fiyepav cTirev awrois, Tiva dekere 
airb Ttav 8wo ewroXwcra) w/itu' ; ol 8e cIttov Bapafifiav. (^) a Xeyct awrots 
6 2IiXaros, Ti otv iroujo-w 'Iqaovv rbv keyopevov Xpiarov ; Xeyowow awr$ 

of minietriet and operationa, but it is the same God which worketh all 
in all. (ICor. jii. 6.) 

Again, in the New Testament, the Holy Spirit sometime! cites 
Prophecies which were delivered of old to the world, and of which we 
have no written record in the Old Testament 8ee Jude 14. 

Also, there appears to have been a tradition among the Jews that 
prophecies now read in Zechariah had been in the first instance deli- 
vered by Jeremiah ; for it was a saying current with them, " Zecha- 
riam habuisse Spiritum Jeremiss." (See Surenhtu. p. 282.) And the 
words quoted by St. Matthew were seen by St. Jerome in a copy of 
Jeremiah used by the Nazarenee. See also Rotaan^ " Huic s«- 

On the whole, there is reason to believe l with St. Chrywdnm 
and Etaebius (D. E. x. 5), that the prophecy which we read in Zecha- 
riah (xi. 12, 13) had, in the finl iiutanee, been delivered by Jere- 
miah ; and that by referring here not to Zechariah, where we read it, 
but to Jeremiah, where we do not read it, the Holy Spirit teaches 
us not to regard the Prophets as the Author! of their prophecies, but 
to trace their prophecies backwards and upwards, flowing in different 
channels from age to age, till we see them all at length springing 
forth from the one living Fountain of wisdom and knowledge, — the 
Divine Well-Bpring of Inspiration in the Godhead Itself*. 

Thus this passage, like others in the Written Word of God, 
appears to be set (as the Incarnate Word is set), for the fall and rising 
of many in Israel (Luke ii. 34). They are set for our moral proba- 
tion, which supposes difficulty, " ut fides, non mediocri pramio desti- 
nata, difficuUaU constant " (Terlul. Apol. 21). And so these diffi- 
culties are the leaves and flowers of which the crown of glorv is woven. 
They are set for our fall, if with a partial eye to single difficulties, 
and without due regard to the general evidence and scope of Revela- 
tion taken as a whole, and presuming too much on ourselves, we 
thence take occasion to deny the Inspiration of the Gospels. They 
are set for our riting, if we thence are led to distrust ourselves, and 
to feel the weakness of our own faculties, and our need of divine 
grace, to exercise humility and faith, to recognize the same Spirit 
speaking by all the Writers of Holy Scripture, and to look forward 
with patience and hope to the time when all that is dark in Holy 
Scripture will be cleared away, and we shall see the truth as it is, and 
know even as we arc known (1 Cor. xiii. 12). 

1L «i Xsyittl See xxvi. 64. John xviii. 37 ; and 1 Tim. vi. 13. 

16. BapafiPir] From i| (bar),fiUia, and KJH (abba), pater. They 

Oiau. Philol. 
ch.' Mvii. " 4 

, p. 88, and in Surtnkm. KaTaAA«yi>, p. 280. Cor- 
Zechar. xi. 11 Dr. Jacktat on the Creed, book viiL 
>. Lexicon voc. 'Upqim. Archbuhov Newcomt on 
Henptenbtrg, Chriatoloirle ii. 238. «5. 

"" ■' ■ ............ to ^ 

berg, ChrlstO 

class; thus He speaks of "( 
i. e. the Hagiographa (Luke 
Canticles, Job, Ezra, Estbe 

' Book for all of the same 
i riatmi, ror ail books of the same class ; 
xiy. 43) : vis. Psalms. Proverb., Ecdeiiastes, 
, Chronicles. See Bp. M> on the Canon, 

rejected the True Son of the Father, and chose a robber, who bare the 
name of Father's Son, in His place. 

In some MSS. and Versions there is a remarkable reading here, 
i. e. 'Iqo-ouv prefixed to Barabbas; and this is received by Tuek in 
the text, and approved by Fritxtcke, Meyer, and others. "C< 
ante Origenem habuerunt 'It)<roS» Bapo/3^5»." (Roaenm.) 

If this reading is correct (and it is not improbable), the co 

}. .«•) to. /M^a-rot] The cause itself was heard in 

«, or palace of the Governor, but judgment was pronounced from 
Pnpa, or tribunal, which was in an elevated place outside the pra- 

— n ymh oiroSl Whose n 

Claudia Procula. (Nicepk. i. 30. Evang. Nicod. 2. 
ed. Thilo. p. 522, soq.) 

In the whole hiBtory of the Passion of Christ 
Him but a woman— the wife of a Heathen. 

said to have been Procla, or 

How many things took place that ought to have made the Chief 
iests pause ! Together with the examination and inquiry by Pilate 
me this dream of his wife ; sent to her perhaps because she was 

than her husband, and because, if se... „ 

have been divulged. And not only did the see the vi...... _„„„ 

"""' that very night, because of Christ. Pilate desired to 

might n 

let Him go, but they importuned to have released unto them a 
notable prisoner— one infamous for his crimes — and preferred Barab- 
bas to the Saviour of the World. (C&rys.) 

Observe how many things were done by Christ to deter the Jews 
from this sanguinary deed. They saw Pilate washing his hands ; they 
heard his protest of Christ's innocence ; they saw the death of Judas 
the Traitor, stung in conscience for betraying Him ; they beheld the 
majestic silence of Christ, and yet they prefer Barabbas to Christ, and 
imprecate a curse on themselves and their children. This curse is 
stifl of force upon the Jews even to this day ; as Isaiah says (i. 15), 

" ' prayers, I will not hear: your hands are full 

legacy wh'- v *'-- T — l 

, ,,, lood be ui 


Barabbas the murderer and robber is acquitted by the Jews, and 
Jesus is killed by them. But He is acquitted by ' v - - - ' "■"' - * - '■ ■ 
wife, and is prouou 

e upon us and upon o 

of Pilate's 

But He is acquitted by the voice of Pil 
innocent by Pilate, the Roman Govei 
the Roman centurion to be " truly the 

i. Evang. ill. 7. St. J 

quod nee cum Hebraico nee cum Beptuaginta congruat Transla 
(quod his majus est) errtt in nomine, pro Zecharla quippe 
potuil— 8ed absit hoc de pedissequo Christ) dlcere I" 



Bum faliitatis 

ST. MATTHEW XXVU. 23— 34. 

irdvres, ^Tavpa>0rJTa>. s '0 8i r)y€fuav ifa, Ti yap kokov iirovqcrev ; oi 8e 
vepicro-m enpalpv, Xcyoires, Xravptod^TO)- (^) w 'iSan* 8c 6 HiXdros oti ovSev 
ftM^cXci, aXXa /xdXXoi' Oopvf&os yiverai, *\a/3(ov v8cop airevtyaTo rds x € V >as 
airevavn rov o^Xou, Xeyaw, *A05>6$ ci/xi diro tow at/xaros tov Sucaiov rovrov 
v/ias otyecrde a «ai airoicpideh was 6 Xabs elirc, ° T6 atfta avrov c^' 17/Aas ical 
eVl rd TCKva i^/iwv. (^) * Tore direXvao' avrois rov Bapafiftav, v tov 8e 
'Irf&ovv <f>payekka>cra<; irapehwKcv Iva aravpatdy. 

(t£) w Tore oi oTpari&rai rov iTyeuoVos, vapakafSovres tov *Ir)o~ovv cis to 
wpauTtopiov, crvmjyayov iif avrbv Skr}v rrfv airelpav. w koX tkovo-avres avrbj', 
irepiedrjieav avr$ xXauvoa kokkwtjv, ® ical irXe'faires ar&fyavov i£ clkovQuv, 
hrtdrficav iirl rrjv K€<f>aXr)v avrov, *cal fcdXauop ctti t^v 8e£tdi' avrov, ical 
yow«renjo"avrcs e/ivpoaOev avrov, cVcVat^ov avrtp, Xcyoires, Xaipe, 6 /tWtXcvs 
twv 'IbvSaiW* (f£) ^ /cat c/mjtvotu'TCs cis avrw, ekafiov tov /cdXa/xov, *al 
eVvflTOi' cis r^i' K€<f>akr)v avrov- 81 «al ore eWnai^dv avr$, i££8vo~av avrbv 
rrfv xXa/tiv8a, «al cWSvouv avrbv rd i/uana avrov, *al attrpfayov avrbv cis to 
oravpatcrai. (^-) w 'E^ep^o/tevoi Se , cupov avdpoyirov Kvprjvatov, 6v6fiaTi 
Xifitova' tovtov r/yyapevcrav, Iva apj) tov aravpbv avrov. 

(a*) 33 t |^ j ix^ovres cis roVov Xeyd/tccoj' IbXyofld, o eori Xcyo/ievos Kpaviov 
t6ttos, (t™-) ** ' e8o>*cai> avr$ mciV o£os fierd x°k>?s p*p.iyp£»ov koI yevo-d- 


24. awn/tya-re to. x«'*""] Hi« Aand», but not hit fearf. He 
wu guilty of crucifying Christ, by delivering to be crucified Him 
Whom he pronounced innocent ; and so in delivering up Christ he 
condemned himself. Sense of guilt made him a coward (see John 
xit 12). 

86. ^onyiAXiiffat] as was usually done to slaves he/on cru- 
cifixion. See Ami. here. 

On the time of the scourging tee on Luke zxiii. 16. Cp. John 
xix. 1. 

"♦(layiXXouK vox origine Latina, id. qd. paariyow XX. 19. Joan. 
irant aculeata, ossiculis pecuinis fere catenata, unde 
dixit Horat. Sat. i. 3. 119. Flagellis cadebantur 
vi (liberi virgit) et fere capite damuati, nudi et ad 
ti, antequam io crucem agerentur. Cic Verr. v. 66, 
- - ! — u Romanum, scelus verberari, prope parri- 
i in crucem toilers ? Liv. xxxiii. 3fi, Omju- 
W occiri, multi ctatli, alios verberatos cruci affixit, 
, » conjurationis erant. Val. Max. i. 7, mm verbtrilnu 
multatum ttibfitrc& ad lupplicitm tgil. Pilatus ergo more Romano- 
rum pcenam flagellonim Cnristo in crucem agendo irrogabat Atta- 
men cfim flagellis esset casus, ultima, vice tentabat Procurator, an ad 
commiterationem flectere posset Judaorum animoa, ideoque Jetum 
flagellatum in conspectum populi producebat, sed rurtut eum spes 
fallebat, denuntiabant e[ Canans iram ; banc metuens, eum in crucem 

y was torn by the scourge. But this ' 
that " by Hit stripes we might be healed " (Isa. liii. A). ( Jerome.) 

87. arpaTtanat — nriioav] " Hare. xv. 16 dicuntur ol errpa- 
•nirrai militet preeturiani. t6 m-patrmpior vox origine Latina, est 
damn, palatini* Procurator™. Hoc pratorium fuerat olim regia 
Herodit, in tuperiori urbis parte magnifice exstructa, ex qua aditut 
patebat in arcem Antoniam, templo junctam, vid. Joseph. Ant. xv. 
9. 3. B. J. i. 21. 1 ; v. 4. a Procuratores Romani, qui Caasaret) 
degebant, quotiescunque iis Hierosolymis vemandum esset, hoc pala- 

" Tribunal erat extra pratorium v. 19, abducebatnr ergo Jesus in 

— atiiriiyayot lit' aurdp oXqv 

J ^meoigertut. (Mortem 

sonstabat qui 

viginti quinque militibus, interdum sexcentis, etiam mille, 
majoret erant, vid. Liptiui de Militia Romani i. 4. Joseph. B. J. 
iii 4. 2. Quinque cohortes Ca»are« erant, una Hierosolymis, eadem- 
<roe major, tempore festi Paschatoa, vid. Joseph. B. J. ii. 15. 6 ; v. 6. 8. 
Act. xxiii. 23." (Kum.) 

88. vXipSa] ' Sagam ' ' paludamentum,' a round military cloak 
of dyea wool, fastened on the right shoulder with a fibula, so at to 
cover the left side, and thrown over the other dress. 

— kokki'mivJ As military Imperator, or King — in mockery. It it 
called rop<p6pa by St. Mark xv. 17, and was probably of scarlet, with 
purple clavi, or stripes. See Entrap, ix. 26. Wiser, Lex. i. p. 664. 

it a military Conqueror and King ; He is crowned with thorns, for 
He has a diadem won by suffering, the diadem of the world ; He hat 
a reed in His Hand, for He wields a royal Sceptre, earned by the 
weakness of humanity (see Phil. ii. 8—11). The cross is laid on Hit 
shoulder, for this is the sign of the Son of Man, the trophy of His 
Victory, by which He takes away sin and conquers Satan ; His titles 
are inscribed on the Cross, " King of the Jewt, for He is the Sove- 
reign Lord of Abraham and all hit teed. In all these circumstances, 
at St. Hilary says, He it worshipped while He it mocked. The purple 
it the dress of royal honour ; His crown of victory it woven with 
thorns. At St. Ambrose tayi (in Luke xxiii. 11), "illudtntet, ado- 
Si. Kvptimiw] The Cyrenians, who had now come up to the 
Passover, had a synagogue at Jerusalem. Cp. Acts ii. 10 ; vi. 9. 

— fnyiftwttv] See above, v. 41. Mark xv. 21. His Croat was 
laid on a stranger. The Jewt were not worthy to bear it. (Hilary-) 

— Iva app] Criminals were obliged to carry their own cross to 
the place of execution. It is probable that when our Lord was 
oppressed by the burden, the soldiers, meeting Simon coming from 
the country, pressed him into the service as a Disciple of Jeaus. 

83. roKyota] from red. ^ (galal), volvit; whence the word 
Oilgal, OolgMa, and euphonice Golgotha, a rolling; and Gulgoteth, 
a skull (2 Kings ix. 35), from it* roundness. 

Oolgotha was outside the walls of the city (Heb. xiii. 12), and 
probably on the N.w. of Mount Sion. See WtUiamt, Holy City, 
p. 253. Some Expositors suppose that Oolgotha derived its name 
from its conical form (Reland, PaUest p. 860), and that for this 
reason it is called Kpamon by St Luke, xxiii. 33 ; there it no evidence 
Scripture that it wat a hiU. (Cp. Stasfey, Palestine, p. 454.) 

n that it was called Calvary because it 

sheaded might be seen there, perhaps exposed in ta 

Perhaps by recording the name Oolgotha, the Holy Spirit may 
intend a reference to the words of Joshua the type of Jean, at the 
hill Gilgai, when he circumcised the people (Josh. v. 9), and had 
his camp. " Behold, I have to-day roiled away (Tfiij) die reproach of 
Egypt ; therefore the name of the place is called Gilgai. And by our 
Jeaus at Golgotha the shame and guilt of sin was rolled away from the 
i 1 of Go 5 . am j there— where He wat crucified— was His eontp ;— 

it crucified on Oolgotha, and He ascended 
mio neaven irom me mount of Olives. The Sun of Righteousness 
went down in the wed, and arose to heaven on the east of Jerusalem. 
84. SFot juird yoXqv] oW i<,u«p,iapi»ov (Mark xv. 23),— i. e. 
bitter. Ps. lxix. 21, " sive quod averaaretur malitiam ; rive quia 
volcbat majorem pati sitim in cruce, ut nobis mortificationis vivum 
daret exemplum.*' (d Lapide.) 

Perhaps, that it might not be said by His enemies that He had 
not suffered all the agonies of crucifixion, and that tome drugged 
potion had been given Him by Hit friends to stupifv His senses, and 
to deaden His pain till just Wore He died (see below, v. 48. John 
xix. 28), and so He would not drink. Such potions were often given 
to those who were crucified. See Lightfoot. " Vinum myrrhl con- 
ditum nientem turbat Solebant tupplicio afBciendis porrigere vinum, 
herbis temulentiam procreantibut mixtum, qud minus sentirent do- 

u Pi. II. 7, ftc. 
& 109. U. 
Mark IS. 19, fee. 

W Mark 15. $3, 


Luke 13. 44. 


Iievos ovk -rjOeke irvew. (™) x Xravpaa-avre<s he avrbv, hiepepia-avro to 
ifiaria avrov, /JaXXoires kkrjpov Iva ir\r)po>$f} to prjdev wrb tow irpo<f*qrov, 
' Aiep-epioavro ra. i/xarta pov eavTois. »cal eVi tov lp.artcrp.6v p.ov 
e/3aXov /fX^/oov w Kal Kad-qpevoi, errjpow avrbv iicei, (™) w ical eiredijKav 
iirdvw ttjs /cc^aX^s avrov tt)j' alriav avrov yeypappAvqv, OTTOS E2TIN 
IH20T2 O BASIAETS TflN IOTJAIiiN. (^) « Tore aravpovvrat ovv 
awry 8uo X^crral, els eie Se^uuv Kal eh i£ eva>vvpo>v. 

(?r) ^ ° Oi 8e ira.pairopev6p.evoi ej3\ao-<ln}p.ow avrbv, KivovVres tos *ceo^aXas 
omto)v *° koX \eyovres, Y '0 leaTaXvW tov vow kcu e»> rpurlv rjp.epai<; oIko- 
So/taw, o-Sxrov o~eavr6v el Tibs eX tov 8eov, Kardfirrfii airb tov oravpov. 
(™) 41 'OpoUas 8*; ical oi apxiepeis ep,iral£ovres, pera. rotv ypapparewv Kal 
irpeofSvripatv, ekeyov, 42 *.4XXovs eootoev, eavrbv ov hvvarai oStoav el ySao-i- 
Xevs 'Iopaijk eori, Kara^drot vvv airb tov oravpov, Kal irurrevoopev iir 
avrw. i3 ireiroiQev eirl tov Qeov, pvo-do-da vvv avrbv, el dekei avrov, eXire 
yap, *Oti Oeov elpi Tios. (tt) ** To o* airb ical ol X^orai, ol ovoravptodevres 
avr6}, tove&dflv avrov. 

(™) 4S w 'Airb he eicrq% ayaas okotos eyevero em. iraoav rr)v yrjv ecus <S/oa? 
ewdrrj^. (^f ) 46 irepl 8k rqv ewdrr/v a>pav avef36r)oev 6 'Iifoovs <f>a>vf} peyakfj, 
\eyav, 'H\l, 'H\l, Xapa. oafiaxdavL ; rovr eorv See pov, Bee pov, Ivari pe 

m subire volebit, vi 

lores. Tr. Sanhedrin c. 6. Dixit R. Ckasda : qui dueitur ad mortem, 
ei datur btUndum granum turis in jmado vmi, ut distrahatur mens 
ens, quia dictum est Prov. rai. 6, Date marram perituro, et vinum 
Slit qtd ntxt amaro ammo." Meriliiia. Cataubomu, Exercitt 
Antibaron. xri. 80. " Jenu vero, qui doloris 
privari hoe modo nolebat, eed ammo forti fatui 
leriter deguatato, calicem epotare recuaabat." (Kum.) 

86. rraupumirrtt] For a description of the cross and of cruci- 
fixion, see Bp. Pearmm on the Creed, Art. iv. and the Notes. That 
the feet were nailed as well as the hands, see Jtutin c. Tryphon. 97. 
TeriulHa* c. Msrcion. iii. 19. Plant. Mostell. ii. 1. 13. Cp. Ps. xxii. 
17. Lnke xxiv. 39. 

See on Lnke xxiii. 33. 

" Per lignum serri facti snmus ; per crucem liberi." (Aug.) 
" Ut non sibi sed omnibus rinceret Christus, manus in crnce 
..... «... ^ m 4 nw8 ) 

Christi." (Harm.) 

\JU uic rassion oi our Dicsaeu oariour, soo j^eu in. oorui. i. — 
iii. St. Cyril. Hieros. Catech. 13, p. 180—203. Dr. Barrow's 
mon XMii. vol. ii. p. 206, and vol. v. p. 566—603; and Bp. An- 


Sermon r - ---, — - r - - - ---. — 

dnuti Sermons, ii. p. 120—184, and Wtstcott on the Canon, pp. 61 
120, for primitire testimonies concerning it 

— 7»« »X,«,i.0n— «X*po»] not found in A, B, D, E, F, G, H, 
K, L, M, S, U, V— and probably not from St. Matthew. 

86. Oiipovv avroV] They watched Him. The vigilance of the 
soldiers and Priests has proved of great use to us, as giving us clearer 
evidence of ihe Resurrection, and of Christ's power therein. (Jerome.) 

87. oSto. ioT W —U»i*i m -\ See St. Aug. in Joan. xix. 19. 
Thus by Pilate's voice the Gentile World (represented by him 

is Roman Governor) replies to the Jews. " Whether ye will or no, 

lesus is F : — -' '••- * — "-- * - J ' " -•-- ■■-"--- •* ' ' 

praises Gc _., 

It is well said by Dr. Jaehon (on the Creed, bk. vii. c. 32), 
" The first authorized title of ' King of Judah' after the captivity of 
king Zedekiah, was that Inscription written on our Saviour's cross by 
the command of Pilate (the Representative in Judca of Cesar, the 
world's Governor), so that the Jews could not get a change of it in 
any of the three languages in which it was written. That which the 
world might conceive was written in jest, the God of Israel made 
good by making this Jesus, Whom Pilate crucified, both Lord and 
Christ (Acts ii. 36; iv. 10) ; that is, a far greater King than Cesar, 
whom they acknowledge their only king !" 

88. Ho Xt)sTii(] " Nam crux poena 
XnoTM> et sicariorum nomine qui injussu 
( Rosenm.) These rebels and assassins were 
for a public example at that great festival. 

48. «caT«0aT»— «ai wurrius-optv] A false promise. For which 
n from the cross, or to raise Himself from 

the Spi- 

the Passover 

was greater, to come down from the cross, or to raise Himself 
the dead ? He rose again, and ye did not believe. If He had 
down from the cross, ye would not have believed. Perhaps tin 

broken thereby ; they would then that He should come down from 
the Cross. But Christ remains on the Cross in order to destroy the 
Devil, and in order that the world may believe and be saved. (Jerome.) 

Cp. 1 Cor. 

i. 8. 

16, p. 71. 

Luke xxiii. 39. & Aug. de 

48.] Quoted by Clem. 

44. Xjierrai] one of ti ^__ ... _ _. ...„ 

Consens. Evang. iii. 16, and St. Ambrose in Luc. lib. x. For similar 
uses of the plural see above, ii. 20, Acts xvii. 18, and Matt xxvi. 8, 
where it is said that " the disciples murmured," — viz. Judas, one of 
them, did. Acts xiii. 40, " It is written in the Prophets,"— i. e. in 
c«ofthem.Habakkuki. 5. 

In the two Thieves, one blaspheming, the other confessing 
Christ, some of the Fathers see a figure of the " duo populi," the Jew 
and the Gentile, 4p</>oripot yap awjioi (says Theophvt. in Marc 
XV.) «AV 6 pi* i9„Kit .u 7 »»m»», 6 oi louiaUos 0Xa<r4>»pot. 

St. Jerome's remarks here are not unworthy of attention. At first, 
both the malefactors reviled on Him ; but afterwards, one of them 
(Luke xxiii. 39), moved by the prodigies which he saw (the darkness 
and the earthquake, &c.), was penitent, and rebuked the other. So, 
first, Jews and Gentiles reviled Christ ; but now the Gentiles repent, 
and plead with the Jew. 

40. iwi ii sKTn.Jpa. ,™»to« iyiM-ro] i. e. from twelve o'clock, 
when our Lord was crucified, to three, when He expired. 

Concerning this darkness, which could not have been an eclipse, 
the moon being then full, see Jul. African, in Rnuth, R. S. ii. 297, 

298, t), 

ii. 477, and iv. 7. Euseb. Chron. 

Cf. Tertullian, ApoL 21, who appeals for the feet to the Roman 

St. Cyril, Hieron. p. 195, sees here a fulfilment of Zech. xiv. 
6, 7, and Amos viii. 9. 

By -rivai, -H,* ytj*, St. Matthew probably meant fhe Land of 
Judra (Origen, Chrys.\ and see Matt ix. 26. Luke iv. 25 ; so that 
it is not surprising that no mention of it is made in Heathen His- 

At the first Passover the Hebrews had light in their dwellings, 
while the rest of Egypt was dark ; but now, when the True Passover 
is killed by them, they are in darkness; and the light of the Gospel 
is about to be poured on the Gentile world. 

Observe, the F 
iffered th 

receives the fulness of her light fr 
\u»a ora0..x 9 '"'i rs. X 
._, hy hast thou forsaken me 
a order that He might show wi 
ledges the Old Testament (Chrys.) 

Our Lord, with His dying breath, taught us to refer this Psalm 
to the Messiah; it is therefore impiety not to apply it to Him. 

"lit would seem from this, and from Mark xv. 34, 'BX-1, 'BX«I, 
that our Lord used the vernacular, or Syro-Chaldaic words : " H«c 
verba deprompta sunt e Ps. xxii. 1 , et Jesus, banc vocem emittens, 
utebatur dialecto, qua) tunc in Judsa vigebat, stque verba ipsa ut 
Galilaus pronuntiabat Pro 'HXi, HXJ, Hebr. +p, vjg ap. Marc xv. 


ey/ccweXwres ; 47 Tu^s 8c twv eVei cotoJtcuv aKovo-ajTCS ckeyov, *Oti *H\iav 
<fwvel ovros. (^) ** x Kal evdecos Spapav efs e£ avratv, Kal Xafioiv oiroyyov, 
irhjaas tc o^bws Kal irepidels KakdpAp, iirordfr avrov. a Oi 8e Xourol ikeyov, 
"Afe? tS&i/xcv €t £px<er<u 'HXtas craaatv avrov. (™) M '0 8i 'Itjctovs 7raXtv 
Kpatjas (fxovji /leyaXtf. a<jri)Ke to irvevpa. (^) 51 Xal t8ov, to Karatreraa-pAt 
tov vaov i<r\icrdrj cis 8vo awo avot$€v ea>s Karar Kal 17 yij iaeurdr), Kal at 
irerpai io-xta-drjaav, (^-) w Kal to. /xi^j/xeta ave(p)(0vo~ av > Kal iroXXa crtopara 
tu>v Kacoi(i7)fi€vu)v ayuov rjyepBr), ** Kal ifceKdovres 4k t£>v pviqpeitav, /tcra rtjv 
eyepo-iv avrov, elcrrjXdov cis t^v dytai/ 7rdXu>, xal ive<f>avlo-0r)a-av ttoXXois. 

(it) M T '0 8e CKaTovra/>x°5 Kal 01 /act* avrov Trj/aovires tov 'Iijcrovi', tSoVrcs 
tw <TH.o-p.ov Kal to ycvdftcfa, iffM^drjo-av o~<f>6opa, Xcyoircs, '-dXij^aJs ©cov 
Ttos •jJv ovros. 

(it) M **Ho-av Bk ckci ywatKcs froXXal cwro paicpodcv Otatpovo-ai, amvcs ijko- 
Xovflrjo-ai/ t$ 'It/o-ov dwo ttjs TaXtXatas, SiaKovovo-ai avr$, w eV als ijv Mapia 
7) MayBaXrjvr), Kal Mapia 17 tov 'Iaicai/Hov koI 'Iwarj pxfrtip, Kal 17 p-rjrrjp rwv 
vuov ZcfiSaLov. 

^f-) s7 * 'Ot/rtas 8c ycvoftcnjs, ^Xtfe? avOpamos irXowrios aTrb 'Apip.adaCas 
roivofta 'Io>ot)J>, 8s Kal avros cftaftjTCvcre t$ 'Itjo-ov. m Ovros rrpoo-ckdmv 
t<5 JTtXaT(ji», ■ffrja-aro to cra>/xa tov 'Ii/o-ov. Tore 6 UiXaYos CKcXevao' coto- 

34, legitur, 'EXot, 'EX»1; quod at Chald. «rA(t, 'rrjgi Jesus verd 
pronuntiabat, v. ad xxvi. 73, >^j|. Tj^f- Apud Marcum legitur 
\anpi, quia Hebr. et Chald. ecribitur n$>- Pro Hebraico 'Jljatt* 
usua est Jesus Cbaldaico ^Ttt|«f-" (AbMa., Abm.) 

May not this be an argument also for the use of tentacular 
Scriptures ? 

This voice is for our lakes; that we may know that Christ was 
perfect Man, having a human body and human soul, to the last He 
spoke in our name. (Greg. Naz. 543. Atha«at. adv. Arian. iii. 
pp. 478—480.) And that we should never despair, even if God hides 
Hit face from u». For Christ, Who uttered these words, was the 
Beloved Son in Whom He was well pleased ; and with reverence be 
it said, the Father was never more pleased with Him than in this 
His act of humility and perfect obedience. And He was then heard 
(Heb. v. 7), and because He was obedient to death, even the death 
of the Cross, therefore God highly exalted Him, and gave Him a 
Name above every name (Phil. li. 9). 

48. KaKiuw] This is probably the stem of the Saamirot, men- 
" >dbySt. iohnxix. 29, ' " ' - ■" ---■ 

x Ps. 22. 1. 
ft 69. 21. 

Mark IS. St. be. 
Luke 23. 36. 
John 19. 29. 

& ch. 14. S3. 
Mark 15. 39. 

Lake 23. 47. 

s Luke 8. i 
ft 23. 49. 
Mark 19. 41 

a Mark 13 

Luke 23. 

the cross not being high, might be reached by a person 
Dodonaras de Stirp. iv. 19, "Hyssopus caules erigit dodr 
altiores, duros ac hgnosos." See Mmterl and Witter in v. 

60. i<«»7 utyi\ v ] To show that He laid down His life by His 
own will, not from exhaustion of natural force. 

He cried with a loud voice, and thus proved the truth of what 
He had said, No one taketh away My life from Me ; I have power 
to lay down My life, and have power to take it again (John x. 17). 
Pilate, therefore, wondered that He was so soon dead (Mark xv. 44), 
and the centurion was the rather led to believe, because He died 
with power (Mark xv. 39). 

This cry rent the veil of the Temple ; and opened the graves, 
and made the house of the Jews desolate. He showed His might by 
the raising of the dead, and by the quenching of the sun's light, and 
by the earthquake, and by a revolution in the elements. 

He who rent the rocks and shook the earih, could have also 
destroyed His enemies; but in His mercy He spared them, and 
wrought these wonders for their conversion, and yet their hearts were 
hardened. {Chris., Jerome.) 

61. to KarairiTa^c—Uxleen] The Veil of the Holy of 
Holies. " Duo erant templi vela; tateriw, quo velalum erat Sanctum 
Sanctorum, quod Hebr. rtpf, ab Alex. Karawiruofta dicitur, alte- 
rium eiferuu, quod erat ad introitum templi et Hebr. •qijiy, ab 
Alexandrinis xiKu^a Exod. xxvi. 31. 33. 35, a Philone iwitrwa- 

,trrpo» vocatur. Hoc loco intelligi debet illud velum, quod oppanium 
erat Sancto Sanctorum, quod simpliciter Karatrl-rairtta nuncupaba- 
tur, vid. Philo de Vit, Mos. 2, p. 667, C. Joseph. Ant. v. 5. 4." 
See Heb. ix. 3. 

" Velum Templi scissum est, et omnia Legis rovelata mysteria 
ut universis Gentibus proderentur." (Jerome, iv. 176.) " Liber jam 
aditus in Sancta." (BengeL) 

The veil waa rent Thus our Lord showed His power and 
wrath, and at the same time His love. He intimated that what was 
before inaccessible, was now made easy of access, and that Heaven 
would be opened, and that He our Great High Priest would now 
enter the true Holy of Holies. They had said, " If He be King of 
Israel, let Him come down from the Cross;" but He proves Himself 

Vox. L 

rending the Veil. (Chryi., 

62. KtKotfim'oi"'] a Hebraism. xoi/aaaSai = 33^, to sleep in 
death, 1 Kings xi. 43, and «w*ra». Vortt. pp. 199. 202. John xi. 11. 
■\a a-.. .;; Kn. »iii se 1 r„ r ™ so. »i an 

the eighth Resurrection recorded 

— *yi>»l] » protepsu. 
in Holy Scripture. The preceding ones 

1. The Son of the Widow of Sarept 

2. The Shunamite's Son. 2 ""■ 

3. That caused by the bones 

4. Jairaa' Daughter. Mark v. 

5. The Widow s Son at Nain. Luke vii. 

6. Lazarus. John xi. 

7. Christ Himself. 

8. The bodies of the saints,— a rehearsal of the general Resurrec- 
tion consequent on the Resurrection of Christ The Chief Priests 
had said, "He saved others. Himself He cannot save." He hanging 
upon the Cross raised the Saints from their graves, and thus gave a 
sign of the Resurrection. 

The risen Saints enter the Holy City and appear to many— as a 
pledge that all the bodies of the Saints will be raised hereafter, and 
enter the true heavenly Jerusalem. 

Although the graves were opened, yet none of the bodies of the 
Saints arose before the Resurrection of Christ, in order that He 
might be the./Sr»<-tor» from the dead. (Col. i. 18. 1 Cor, xv. 20. 23.) 
They did not appear generally to all persons, but to some chosen for 
that'honour. (Jerome.) 

63. igaXSoVrit] the masculine, after aa/iara, indicating per- 
sonal life and action. Cp. on Mark ix. 26. 

— ayi«¥ woXik] " The Holy City"— Jerusalem, so called here 
by the Holy Ghost even in the History of the Crucifixion. She 

.„ ,i ». i „,:-. . 'God's goodness to her in the 

was still the Holy City, 1 

of the Holy Scripture, and of the Temple 
aich she enjoyed, and still by His mercy r 
y abused by her who had received them, and 

s would,'ere long, 'bring destruction from heaven upon her- 

An important passste with regard to the true doctrine concerning 
particular Chunhes, which make up the Church Visible on earth. 
Every such Church, as long as it retains the Word and the Sacra- 
mento of Christ, is a Holy City, but any one of such Churches may 
be rejected and destroyed for her sins. 

But the Visible Church of God was not destroyed by the taking 
of Jerusalem, nor will the Universal Church ever fail, though any 
one particular Church may. 

— iiwipanaOqoav] Whether they. died again, or were received 
into glory, the Fathers are not agreed. See Aug. Epist. ad Euodium 
99. Theophyl. for the former opinion ; cf. Heb. xi. 40, and Origin, 
Jerome, and others (apud a Lapide) for the latter. 

67. 'Afiiiiaflafos] Probably the native place of Samuel, in Mount 
Ephraim (1 Sam. i. 1), sometimes called Rama nrpT, from Hebr. on 
(rum), elatum esse. 

See further on Luke xxiii. 51. 

For a beautiful Homily on the Burial of Christ, it rS iyltf 
«ai luyiXf (raster?, see S. Epiphan. ii. 259. 

It 16. 21. It 17. 
Mark 8. 91. 

ST. MATTHEW XXVII. 59—66. XXVIII. 1, 2. 

Bodrjvai to era/jut. (^) M JKal Xaficav to ow/ia 6 'Igjo-t)^, h>ervfo£a> airrb 
<TivZ6vi icadapf, w Kal idrjKev avrb eV t«S /caiva! avroS p.vr\\L«.uf, o k\a.r6p.r\cr€v 
eV tq irirpa, kcu irpoo-tcvkUras \Wov piyav tq dvpa top \lvt]\uxov, d.irfjXdet'. 
0?r) 61 '•H" 8e ckci Mapia t) MaySaktjvr), ical 17 akkij Mapia, Ka&qp€vai dir- 
ivavri. tow Taxj)ov. 

(tt) ^ Tq $k iiravputv, ^fris «rrl fiera t^v irapaaKevrjP, o-uvro^iyrav ot 
apxup&s Kal oi <f>api<raiot irpbs nikdrov, ** Xeyoifes, Kvpte, lp.vr\a-Qt\\uv ori 
3 . iieelvos 6 wkavos elVev erc Juc, b Mercl r/>a? rjfiepa? eyeipofiat,. M KeXevcrov 
'' oSV acr<l>a\i.crdfjvai, top rafov Itus t^s Tpirqs ■qficpai, pijiroTe iXdovre* oi 
fiaBrjTal airrov wktos Kk&j/mcriv avrbv, koI eiTraxri t$ Xa$>, 'Hyttpdrj airb tutv 
v€KpS>v koI corai 17 ioyaTT) irkavq xeiptav ttjs ff/xwnys. M *J2^ avrots 6 
HiXaTos, *Ex eTe KovoT<uStai», wrdyere, ao-tfxikUraa-de <us otSare. ** Oi 8^ 
iropevdimei i)a , ^a\icravTo top T<i<f>ov, artftpayicravTes top \idov, fiera r»Js 


XXVIII. (^) * * 'Oi/re 8*1 aafi{Sa.Tmv, tq inufxocncovaj} eis fiiav aafifidTcav, 
Jj\0€ Mapia 7f Mayhakrjvrj, koI 17 oXa.t/ Mapia, Otrnpffcrai top Ttfyov. 2 Kal 

69. o-ikoom «o9apal ffu^aiv it the word wed by the LXX for 
the Uebr. nip (tadkm), and seems to be derived from it, from root 
pij {sadan), to cover. Arab. wool. The LXX sometimes used 
dtfrfnov (Jud. xiv. 13), as St. John does here, xiz. 40, for aiMn. 
Some of the Fathers applied this ««t' ivayaylis to the preparation 
to be made for the reception of Christ's mystical body in the Holy 

By this simple burial of the Lord, a rebuke is given to those who 
cannot dispense with luxury, even in their naves. And, spiritually, 
we may say that whoever receives the body of Christ with a pure 
heart, wraps it in clean linen. (Jerome.) 

60, Kama) New, free from corruption ; and lest it should be 
said that some one of the saints had risen for Him, or had been the 
came of His Resurrection. Cp. Elieha, 2 Kings xiii. 21. (See 

A new tomb, in which none was ever laid. And thence He arose 
to everlasting life, as He had been born from the Virgin's womb. 
(Jerome.) Christ rote from the new tomb, without moving away the 
stone. He who, as man, entered life through the closed gate of the 
Virgin's womb, rose to immortality from a sealed sepulchre. 

— » tj virpa] In the Rock there. On the Holy Sepulchre 
and the Church there built, see S. Cyril of Jerusalem, Cat. 14, 
pp. 211. 216, and the authors there cited in the notes. 

68. i-apaexviiv] The Preparation, i. e. for the Sabbath; hence 
Friday has this name in the Eastern Church, and was observed in 
memory of the Crucifixion, "ab antiquo et ubique," says Routh, R. S. 
iv. 500; iii. 457. 467. 470; iv. 45. 74. 

On the sixth day of the week (Friday) the first Adam was created ; 
and on the seventh day God rested. Christ, the second Adam, He 
who by dying is become to us the Prince of Life, died on the sixth 
day, and on the seventh He rested in the tomb. 

The following are from Authors of the third century. Victo- 
rinus (Routh. iii. 457) : " Dies sextus oaroaorin! dicitur : hoc die, ob 
passionem Domini, aut stationem Deo aut jejunium facimus. Die 
nrptimo requievit ab omnibus operibus luis. Hoc die solemus auper- 
ponere, ut Die Dominico cum gratiarum actione ad panem exeamua : 
ea die reaurrexit qui lucem fecit." St Peter Alex. (Routh, iv. p. 46), 

'lovbaimv iirl Ty vpo&oala tov Kvpiou, r^v ii •vapaatctviiv it* 
to Vfrovdivat avrov inrip hf**v' *rnv yap Kt/ptaKqv ^apjuo- 
<rvmjt buipav Ayo/iiv iin to* avaarawra iv utrrp. 

The Jewiah seventh-day Sabbath died and was buried with Christ, 
and rose again with Him ihe first day of the week, and became the 
Lord's Day. Cp. on xxviii. 1. 

64. vvkto'c] Not in some of the most ancient MSS.; cp. xxviii. 

— irXa»>i] cp. vXavot. v. 63. That will be womTfor as than His 
former -rkavii in calling Himself the Messiah. 

65. mt olbari] " Uti noatia— nam ego quidem de iat* re nihil 
laboro, vos attinet, me nihil epectat." 

66. 4ao>a\ieai>To] A divine dispensation ; that the evidence of 
Chriat'a power in His Reaurrection might be more glorious. 

The more strictly He is guarded by His enemies, the more 
clearly the power of His Reaurrection ia proved by us. (Jerome.) 

It haa been asked, If the stone was sealed and the watch set, how 
was it that the women came to anoint the bodv ? (Mark xvi. 1. Luke 
xxiv. 1.) The sealing did not take place on Friday, but on the Sab- 
hath, the mat Sabbath fxxvii. 62). The women had returned home 

knew any thing of the matter. 

Ca. XXVIII. L ou/i] i. e. " nocte in auroram vergente." See 
Mark xvi. 2, \ia» irpmt. The word dtfri is equivalent to the 
Hebrew 3Ty (ereb), and together with the morning makes the day. 
Gen. i. 5. * 

. — Tji i*t<pm<ricoi<rn] A remarkable expression. The Sabbath 
is illuminated, not taken away, by Christ ; it dawn into the Lord's 
Day, and shines in the whole Church. 

— ti(ov e-aft8dT<.»] pia = wpwrn, TT^l, "non ma tantum, aed 
prima." Vortt. de Hebr. p. 47. See on Acts xx. 7. Thence called 
h Kupioxti, ' dies Dominica' (dimanehe), ' the Lordt Day.' Rev. 
i. 10. Cp. above, note on xxvii. 62. 

i the due observance of the Lord's Day, see the excellent re- 

marks in Serm. 280, p. 3100, in Appendix to Sermons of St. Auaui- 
tine. " Dominicum diem Apostoli et Apostolici viri ideo religiosi 
aolemnitate habendum sanxerunt, quia in eodem Redemptor Noster a 
mortuis reaurrexit, quiqne ideo Ovmixmu appellator, ut in eo, i ter- 
renis operibus vel mundi illecebris abstinentes, tantum dirinit cultilms 
aerviamns, dantes scilicet diei huic honorem et reverentiam propter 
apem Reaurrectionis nostras quam habemns in ilia. 

" Nam sicut Ipse Dominus, Jesus Christus et Salvator, reeurrexit 

paret autem hunc diem etiam in Scripturit Sanctis case solenmm, 
Ipae enim eat primus dies scculi, in ipso formata aunt elementa 
mundi, in ipso & mortuia resurrexit Christus, in ipso de ecelia Spiritua 
Sanctua anper Apoatoloa deacendit Manna in eodem in eremo 
primAm de coslo datum est Ideo sancti doctores Ecclesias decre- 
verunt omnem gloriam Judaici Sabbati in illam transferre, ut qood 
ipsi in figura, nos celebraremns in veritate ; quia hinc erit Requiem 
nostra vera, quando Returrectio merit perpetrate, et remuneratio in . 
anima et corpora aimul perfecta. Observemus ergo diem dominicam, 
et sanctificemus illam aicut annqnia est de Sabbato preceptom." 
(Levit xxiii. 32. 35.) 

Christ resting in the grave consecrated to us the true Sabbath, 
which is rest from sin and rest m Christ ; that we may rise again to 
newness of life here, and to glory everlasting hereafter, for an eternal 
Lord's Day. And therefore Christ Bays, " Come unto Me, — and ye 
ahall find Rett for Your aoule." (See Maear. Horn. 35, " On the Old 
and New Sabbath/' p. 191.) 

On the " case of the Sabbath" see Bp. Sanderson, i '" 

he divine Institu ' * ...,..■ 

Bp. Com, Works, it 
xx. 2. 

— auftfiiTtsw] The Sabbath, or seventh day in the paschal week. 
was a high day. On that day, the second day of unleavened bread, and 
falling on that year on a Saturday, the " — -— -"--' -' " v ' 
was to be waved before the Lord (Lev 

of our Lord's Resurrection, and of ou. — 

xv. 20.) Cp. Hoa. vi. 2, quoted by St. CyriL Uierosol. p 

Pearson, on the Creed (Art v. p. 486), appeara to be of opinion that 

thia year the sheaf was waved on the Pint Day of the week — the 

y of the Reaurrection ; and thia perhaps may be explained by what 
. . ...„..„.,. . ".xxiii. 16. 

ther of Jam 
■bly, the wife of Cleophas or Aiphasua. (Cp. xxvii. 56. 61 
f. 40. ,' ' "" 

> stated by Bp. Patrick on Levit xxiii. I 

4 dXXij Mapfal The mother of James and Joses, and, pro- 
— " ",61. Mark 

On the supposed discrepancy in the history of these events, tee 
«ry». v. 740. Orat 115. 

The women are said by the Evangelists to have come to the 
tomb at different times; this is no sign of error on their part (as is 
profanely alleged by some), but it is a proof of the zeal and love of 
those who could not bear to be long absent from the tomb of their 
Lord. (Jerome.) 


t8ov, o-cicrftos eyivfTO peyar b ayyckos yap KvpCov KarajSd? i( ovpavov, 
irpoo-ekdatv aweicvXure tov XiOov atrb r>Js dvpas, Kal e/cdflrrro eVdW avrov. 
8 c *Hv 8e rf iSea avrov <us darpairi), Kal to cv8v/ia avrov Xcvicov axrel xuuv. 
4 '4ir6 8^ tov <f>6fiov avrov i<rcC<r6r)<rav oi rr/povvrcs, »cal eyevovro oktcI 
v&cpoi (™) 4 'ArroKpiOm & 6 dyyeXos ctirc rats yvvaifi. My fofklade 
vpelr oT8a ya/> ori 'Jrjo-ovv tov coravpaficvov ^tcitc" 6 owe «mv 58c 
riytpdri yap, d Ka(9a»s eiVe Scvrc iSere tov toVov oitov «c«to 6 Kv/jtor 7 koI 
raxy iropeodwrai. curare tois ftaftyrais avrov, ori rfyipdr) airb tS>v vacpav 
Kal i8ov, irpodyet. v/ias ck r^v raXtXatdv ckci avrov otytvde tBov, etirov 
ifuv. (■?£ ) 8 Kal e£eX0ovo-ai Ta^i» airb tov pvrjfLeCov /tcra <f>6fiov Kal ^aaa? 
fieyaXr/s, ZSpafiov airayyciXai rois /taftyrats avrov. (^) 9 \Gs 8e cVoocvovro 
dvayyelhu rots jxadijrai? avrov, Kal iBov *6 'lijo-ovs dVr/vnjcrev avrai<;, 
Xcycov, Xaipert. Ai 8c wpoceX^ovo-ai e/codrqo-av avrov rov? iroSas, Kal irpoo~- 
eicwrja-av ovrf 10 f Tore Xeyei avrats 6 'It/o-ovs, Mi) ^ojScwrfV wrdyere 
dVayyeiXare tow dSeX^oi? jiov, tva airikdao-iv cis r^v raXiXaiav, /cd/cei /tc 

11 IlopevopJvotv 81 avrcSv, i*8ov rives t^s Kovora>8£a$ eXt9dvTcs cis rrjv irdXiv 
dmfyyeiXav rots d^icocvo-iv d-navra to yevd/teva. 12 Kal o-wayQhnt.% fiera 
t«5v irpeo-fivrepotv, o~vp.f3ov\iov re Xa^Sdvres, apyvpia iicava cSaucav tow or/oa- 
rtwrats, 1S Xeyovres, ElvaTe, ori 01 padryral avrov vwcros cMdvres ckXc/kiv 
avrov, tjaatv KoipotpAvmv. w Kal edv d/covo-flr; tovto cVl tov ffyepavos, ^aeis 
wcuro/xev avrov, koI v/luxs d/xe/H/xvovs woirjo-optv. 15 Ol 8c XajSdvres rd 
apyvpui, eirovrjcrav at? c8t8d^^o~av. Kal 8te<jn)p.Ur$T) 6 Xoyos ovros 7ra/od 
"lovSatots p^XP 1 rf* OTj/icpov. 

16 * Oi 8e cvSeica padrjral iiropev&ijaav ei« r^v TaXtXatav, cis to opos 08 
era^aro airroU 6 'Jgo-ovs. 17 Kal iSdvrcs avrov wpoaeKvprjo-av avr^J* ol 8c 


f John JO. 17. 
Heb. «*. II. 

_, , r ,- , u.185 

-~427; lii. 1—103. 

2. <yyiXs<] Our Lord, who u one and the same person, both 
Son of God and Son of Man, according to His two natures, at one 
time shows signs of His greatness, at another of His humility. As 
Man He is crucified and buried, inclosed in a tomb sealed with a 
stone ; but the deeds done in the outer world prove Him the Son of 
God. The sun hiding his face ; the darkness corering the earth ; the 
earth itself rocked by an earthquake ; the veil torn ; the rocks rent; 
the dead raised; the ministry of Angel: Angels attended Him at 
His birth. An Angel was sent to Mary, to Joseph, to the Shepherds. 
He is tempted in the wilderness, and after His victory Angels 
minister unto Him. Now an Angel comes to guard His tomb, and 
by his white raiment intimates the glory of His triumph ; and at His 
ascension two Angels appear to the Apostles and give a promise of 
the second coming of Christ ' 
Angels. (J* 

it to the Apostles and „ _ . 
mini of Christ, when He will appear with legions of 

»t rip \(9o»l ro&rf away. St Matthew goes back to 

an earlier point ; not that Christ might rise, (or He had risen, but 
that they might go in and see where He had lain. 

In the case of Lazarus, the stone was removed before he was 
raised by Christ ; but Christ rawed Ilinuetf, and the stone was re- 
moved afterwards. 

The Fathers observe here an analogy to His birth from the 
Blessed Virgin, " ut ex clauso Virginia utero natus, sic ex clause 
sepulchre resurrexit in quo nemo conditus fuerat, et postquam resur- 
rexisset se per clausas fores in conipectum Apostolorum induxit" 
Cp. Ezech. xliv. 2. (See Greg. M.) 

St. Epiphan. (in 8epul c h. Christ), torn. ii. p. 262) observes that 
Christ arose without breaking the seal of the tomb, — ma-wip iatppa- 

.• _i- _». .•»-_„ ^ wapeii-iKit <pi<r,m U -ropB/wu 

larks, that as forty day after His ' 

md he also i 

He presented Himself in the Temple of the heavenly Jerusalem. 

6. >*•><] emphatic : Let the Roman toldiert fear (v. 4)— not ye, 
— weak women though ye be. 

— io-ravfraiit'iKw] After the Resurrection the Angel came and 
rolled awav the Stone, in order that the women might see the tomb 
empty, and might believe that He was risen. And they were rejoiced 
(«. 8) when tbey saw it, for they were persuaded that no one could 
have taken away the body while the soldiers were watching the grave. 
And the Angel says, I know that ye seek Jesus who was crucified; 

he is not ashamed to speak of the crow ; for this is the 
blessings. (Chrm.) 

6. fiyiptii] Death began with woman; and to w 
announcement is made of Resurrection. {Hilary.) 

— i Kvpiot] Where lay Me Lord : yours and or 
life and death ; and now declared to u ! L ~ " - J 

.. _._. row oip.oei] In Galilee of the Gentilee, 

despised by the Jews ; in Galilee, the scene of His earthly ministry, 
not in Judca ; — an intimation that the Gospel, refused by the Jews, 
would be preached to the heathen. 

8. <£iX9oS»oi] having come out of the sepulchre. St. Matthew 
does not tell us that they had gone in, but this circumstance is supplied 
by St Luke xxiv. 3. 

9. dir>iimi<r>v alrrait] After He had appeared specially to Mary 
Magdalene. (See Mark xvi. 9. John xx. 1. 11— 18.) That previous 
appearance accounts for the readiness with which the women here 
acknowledge Jesus as runt. 

— yaitfsTt] The women receive the reward of their constancy 
and faith ; they were the first to see the sepulchre open, and to carry 
the good tidings of what they heard and saw. And Jesus Himself 
met them, and said, " All hail!" Observe, how our lord elevates 
the weaker sex, which had fallen into dishonour through the trans- 
gression of Eve ; and how He inspires it with hope, and heals its sor- 
rows, and makes women to be messengers of glad tidings to Hit 
disciples. They hold Him by the Feet We may perhaps wish to 
have been with them. And we may hold Christ now by receiving 
the holy eucharist with a pure heart ; and if we are merciful to His 
members, we shall see Him coming with the Holy Angels at the 
great day, and not only receive His salutation, " All hail! ' but hear 
the gracious words, " Come, ye blessed children of My Father, receive 
the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world." 

wTsLaTt— <riwo»] Cp. Justin Martyr c. Tryphon. |§ 17. 108. 

" Veritatem absconderunt, mendacium vendiderunt, mendacium 
caci cards. vanitas vendens veritatem vanitati. Hodieque hoc 
est apud Judssos. Testimonium Martyrum nolunt audire, ut vivant ; 
et testimonium dormientium audiunt, ut pereant Si dormierunt 
custodes, undo potuerant scire quis ilium tulerit? Aut vigilabatis et 
custodire debebab's ; aut dormiebatis, et quid sit factum nescitis." 
(Aug. Scrm. 44 and 129.) 

For an answer, by implication, to this calumny of the Chief 

a, see John xx. 6, 7. 




h eh. 11. sr. iSloracrav. 18 " Kal irpoo-ekdwv 6 'Iijaovs eXdXr/o-ev aurots, Xeytw, 'ESoOtj 
John s. is. ^ 0l w 3,cra i£ov<rla iv ovpavtp Kal eirl yijs. l9 ' IIopeo$evTe.$ dtv iia&rjTevo-are 
£*.?.'£' 1*2.8. waWa ra et9j>>7. jSairri^oires awrous «S to oVo/xa tov IIot/jos icai tov Tlov k<u 
iMuk'ifl'is. tov ayibv HVcv/lmitos, * k Sioao-KOircs avrov? n\ptw irdvra o<ra epereiXd/xr/v 
i«.m. io. ' v/i«'. Kal l8ov, ey«t> fie0* u/x«Hv efytt ircura? ras q/t^oas, «os ttjs o-wrcXcwis 
k Aeu 2. i*. T0 {) aiwvos. 'Ay^-qv. 

(.Leo.Af.aerm , , 

18. tt«6n not) Given to Me as Man ; for u God He had it from 
everlasting. Given to Him it is in virtue of His Incarnation and 
humiliation, and of His perfect obedience as Man (Phil. ii. 8. Acts 
ii. 36 ; xiii. 33. 1 Pet Hi. 22). Given to Him it is for the protec- 
tion of His Church and the subjugation of His adversaries (John 
xvii. 2). Cp. Athanas. c. Arian. Orat i. p. 364, 355, who says, 
" Christ, as Son of Man, is said to receive-, because He has a human 
body, which is by nature capable of reception ; but He Himself as the 
Word possessed all things from the beginning because of His Divinity 
and perfection." This is enlarged upon by Atlmnat. adv. Arianos 
iii. pp. 26. 40. 456. 467. See also St. Basil de Spin tu Sancto, vol. iii. 

This is His Mediatorial Kingdom, which He will e: 

the last Day (1 
under His Feet 

I 1. Heb. x. 13. Bp. Pearson on 

19. irofiiuOiVrav o5»] The ou« is not found in 

E, F, H, K, M, S, V, and may perhaps have been ii 

to mark the connexion Since I, as God-Man, am universal Lord, 

there/ore, go and bring all Nations under subjection to My sway, by 
the ministry of the Word and Sacraments. He Who before His 
Passion said, " Go not ' 
that He has suffered 

i, t »y.f , «GoT 
teachbrnOnTtvoaTi), make disciples of all Nations." 

Here is an assertion of Christ's Universal Sovereignty, and of 
His claim to public homage from all Nations of the World. He now, 
as King of the Universe, demands obedience and honour from All 
Nations ; and hereafter before Him as Judge of the World will " be 
gathered All Nations " (xxv. 32). 

— nadnTiiaaTi] make disciples of. juaOip-ivo'ai is preparatory 
to iiiaoKii*, which marks a continual habit. See the use of the word 
iiaeVsSrai, ch. xxvii. 57. 

— tit to oVo/ua] Not in, but into ; and not Names (plural), but 
into the One Name ; i. e. admit them by the Sacrament of Baptism 
into the privileges and duties of Faith in, and Obedience to, the Name 
of the One God, in three Persons, the Father, and the Son, and the 
Holy Ghost {St. Hieron., St. Cyril. Alex, in Joh. i„ Euthym.), and 
into participation of, and communion with, the Divine Nature. On 

Spona, see above, vi. 9 ; rviii. 20, on sit to ivo/ia. " Christ," »»yi 
Athanas. p. 555, " has founded and rooted His Church in belief in 
the Holy Trinity." 

— kui tov riovl From this junction of the Son with the Father, 
St Athanas. (adv. Arian. ii. 41, p. 402) it l 

de Spintu Sancto, el 

between the doctrine of , _ _ — 

Arianism on the other, see ibid. p. 447. See also Barrow, Defence of 
the Blessed Trinity, iii. 495—619. 

615.) And on die difference 
"'ritheism on the 

iVatia*. t 
p. 292, ' 
plum D 

692. 729, Orat xl. St. Jen 
Patreet Filio ~ ~ 

ii fit; quiim v< 

d on Christian Baptism, see, among 
in St. Hippolyt. i. p. 261, and Greg. 

ri axle destructa novum Trinitatis delu- 

20. nt6" iinau] with you, and with those in whom your Apostolic 
authority to preach and administer the Sacraments will be continued 
to the end, and in whom therefore it will live by My Power. 

— -waaut tov qju spavl ' all the days.' I shall never be absent 
from you a single day ; I shall never be absent in any of the days 
of the greatest trial and affliction of the Church ; but I shall remain 
with her till the last Day, when you will see Me again in bodily 

— <«t] And much less shall I be ever absent from you after it 
{Greg. Nazian. p. 542.) See above on i. 25, and xvi. 28. 

Christ is now with usj hereafter, if we continue His to the end, 

St. John ? They were both present at 

; which St. Mark and St 

Matthew and St John. And He inspired St. 

describe what they did not see. They saw it and describe it by the 
Spirit's aid. And when He was writing by St Matthew He knew 
that He would describe the Ascension by St. Mark and St Luke; 
and when He was writing by St. John He knew that He had suffi- 
ciently described it by them. And St. John takes it for granted as a 
fact well known to the Church. (See John vi. 62; xx. 17.) St. 
Matthew's silence is that of foresight ; St. John's silence is that of 
assent. " And blessed are they who have net seen, and yet have 
believed" (John xx. 29). 


I. (-5-) 1 *APXH tow evayyektov 'Irjtrov Xpurrov, Tiov tow ©cow — 2 <J, S 
yeypairrai iv 'Saatq. t$ irpotfnjrg, 'iSow, iym airocrreWa tov ayye\6v 


On St. Mark's Gospel it may be observed,— 

That tbe narrative coincides in a great measure with that of St. Matthew in substance and in language. 

That eyen in those portions where this coincidence is most exact, certain minute and graphic particulars are 
inserted, which show that the narrator St. Mark was an eye-witness of what he narrates, or received his narrative from 
an eye-witness. (See note on ii. 2, 3.) 

Hence St. Mark is wont to introduce Syro-chaldaic word*, probably tbe very words used by Christ (see on ii. 3 ; 
iz. 23), and abrupt expression!, marking strongly the operations of feeling in the Speakers, especially in their entreaties 
to Christ for aid. (See v. 24 ; viii. 24.) 

He is also frequent in his use of the present tente in the narrative (see x. 16; xi. 3. 7; xii. 13, 14 j xv. 47) — 
placing the events described before the reader's eye. These and other characteristics indicating personal knowledge, 
eagerness of temper ' " " * " .. . .- „«,.,. ...... >,..,. 

St. Mark's Gospel 1 

fully in thii Gospel than in any other. 

Hence it appears that where St. Mark's Gospel coincides with St. Matthew's, this is not because St Mark had not 
the means of writing independently, but because he was convinced from personal knowledge that St. Matthew's Gospel 
was a true account of what he designed to relate (cp. Rotenm. pp. 4. 576), and that he intended to confirm St. Matthew's 
history. The coincidences in St. Mark with St. Matthew are the vouchers of an eye-witness to St. Matthew's veracity. 
And out of the mouth of two witnesses the truth is established. 

St. Mark, who follows St. Matthew, is also followed by St. Luke. Thus the Gospels, like the Living Creatures 
which make in the vision of Ezekiel the Chariot of the Lord, mutually support, and are interwoven with, each other ; 
and (to use St. Jerome's words, ad Paulin. iv. p. 574) they are, as it were, the chariot of God on which He rides, as on 
the Cherubim, throughout the world. 

See further on this subject the General Remarks prefixed to tbe Gospels. 

On St. Mark's personal history :— 

St. Mark the Evangelist was the son of Mary, who received the Apostles in her bouse, as is stated in the Acts, 
xii. 12. At first he followed Barnabas, his uncle, and Paul, as the book of the Acta relates (xii. 25; xiii. 5. 13; 
xv. 37. 39); and he is mentioned by Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians (iv. 10; cp. Philemon 24), and the second 
to Timothy (2 Tim. iv. 11). He was afterwards with Peter at Rome, as Peter's first Epistle shows (1 Pet v. 13), in 
which he calls Mark his son in the Spirit, and from him Mark received the whole history of the Gospel (cp. Routk, 
R. S. i. 13. 37. 40), as Clement relates (Clem. Alex. Hypotypos. vi.) in Rome itself; or, according to Chrysostom, in 
Egypt, at the desire of the faithful, he wrote his Gospel. (Euthymius Zyg. p. 1, ed. Athen. 1842.) 

That Mark the Evangelist is the same as John Mark of the Acts of the Apostles, and as the Mark of St Peter's 
Epistle and St. Paul's, see Lightfoot, Lardner, Wetstein, Michaelis, Marsh, Rosenmuller, and Meyer, on Mark, p. 1. 
His Hebrew name was John ; and it is probable that he received that of Marcus—* Roman name, in addition, because 
he was designed to have intercourse with the Roman Church, and to write a Gospel for their use ; as Saul took the 
Roman name of Paul because he was to be the Apostle of the Gentiles. See on Acts xiii. 9. 

Hence probably his use of Latin words. (See on ii. 4.) 

If it be asked,— 

Why, if he wrote specially for Roman use, he did not write in Latin ? the answer is, " Romas vix quisquam erat 
Grasce non intelligens " (Grot.) ; and he wrote also for the world at large ; and because (as Cicero pro Arcbia says, § 5) 
the knowledge of the Latin tongue was confined within narrow limits, but Greek was read every where. 

The following are ancient testimonies on this subject:— 

Papias ap. Euseb. H. E. iii. 39, Map/cot pcv ipunvevrris Uirpov ytv6prvos, o<ra ipvnp6vtvo-*v, aKptdas iypa&tv—ovrt 
ifaowrt tov Kvpiov, otirt irapnKokovdnatv aMf, vcrrtpov Si, is i<f>nv, Uirpa. Irenaus, adv. Hoeres. iii. 1, pera rnv tovtov 
(Uirpov na\ IlavXov) i{o&ov, Mapxor 6 pa8rfri)s /cat ippnvtvrijs Uirpov, nal avrdc rb rrapa Uirpov Kt)pvo-a6ptva cyypd(pos mpaSiSaKt. Tertullianus adv. Marcion. iv. 5, " Marcus quod edidit Evangelium, Petri affirmatur, cujus tnterpres 
Marcus. Ccepit magistrorum videri, qua disciputi promulgartnt." Clemens Alex. ap. Euseb. H. E. ii. 15, relates that 
Mark was requested by the Romans to commit to writing the Gospel which Peter had preached to them, and that 
Peter approved the Work to be read in the Church. Origenes ap. Euseb. H. E. vi. 25, OcvTipov Si to koto. Mdpnov 
tbayyiXtov, &s Mrpot lXprryfitraTo airy wotfjo-avra. Hieronymus, Ep. ad Hedibiam, c. 2, " Habebat inierpretem beatus 
Pelrus Marcum, cujus Evangelium, Petro narrante, el illo scribente, compositum est." Epiphan. Haeres. Ii. p. 428, eiSvs 
Si ptra rbv Mardaiov, die6kov8ot ytvdptvot 6 Mdpxor ™ ayua Uirptf iv 'Pffl/15 iirirpmrrai rd fbayytkutv tK.6ia6cu.' ml 
yptyos airoariWerat wro tov ayiov nirpov tit t))v Myvimav yapon. Hieronymus de Viris Illustrious, c. 8, " Marcus 
discipulus et interpres Petri, juxta quod Petrum referenlem audierat, rogatus Roma a fratribus, breve scripsit Evan- 
gelium. Quod cum Petrus audisset, probavit, et eeelesiis legendum sua auctoritate edidit, sicut Clemens in sexto hypo- 
typoseon scribit. Assumpto igitur Evangelic, quod ipse confecerat, perrexit ad Mgyptum, et primus Alexandria Christum 
annuntians, constituit ecclesiam tanta doctrina et vita conlinentia, ut omncs sectatores Christi ad exemplum sui cogeret." 


ST. MAKK I. 3—17. 

/iow irpb irpoo'atirov <rov, os KaracrKCvdo-ci ttjv 680V <rov (-§-) 8 $<mi>i) 
fioavTos iv t-q ipTjiia, ' rr/v 68bv Kvpiov, evdeia% woieiTe 
to? t/h/Jovs avrov — (-^) * eyevero 'Iiodwrjs f$amV{fi>v iv rjj e/tnj/xw, /col 
ta\pv<T<r<av {idimo-pa peravoia? els afaaw dpapruav. s Kai itjeiropevero irpb? 
avrof iracra 17 'IbvSaia \o>pa, «aX ot 'IepocroXvplrai, koX ifiairriCovro irdvres 
iv tS 'lopBdvg irorapw vir avrov, ijjopoXoyovpevoi rds dpaprias avr£>v. 6 *Hv 
8c 'Itodwr/s eVSeSufieVos rpi\a^ Kaprjkov, Kal t,wvy\v deppaTvvrjv wepl t2)v 
6<r<f>vv avrov, Kal i<rdCwv a.KpC8a<; /cal /ac'Xi dypiov, (-f-) 7 Kal iicqpv<T<re \eytav, 
*Epx€Tat 6 loyyporepos pov 6m<rw pov, ov" owe el/il ikovos Kityas Xvcrat tw 
Ifidvra T<av vnoSrjpdrcDV avrov. 8 * 'Eya» /teV ifidirrura v/ias cV vSan, avros 
8e jSaTTTicrci vjnas cV IIvevpaTi dyiip. (-j-) 9 -Kal eyevero iv iiceCvaxs rats 
•ffpepais, Jj\6ev 'Jjjctovs eUro Na.tfl.pkd ttjs TaXiXatas, Kal ifiairri<rdrf wrb 'Iadv- 
vov els tov 'Iop&dvrjv. 10 Kal evde<a% avafiaivov dirb tov voaros cT8e a}(i£o- 
/xevovs tovs ov/javovs, Kal to Ilvevpa mo-el irepurrepdv Karaficuvov iv' avrov 
11 Kal <£<ui^ eyevero in tS>v ovpavSxv, Si) el 6 Tios ftov 6 dyairrjTOS, e^ $ 
evSoKi/cra. (-g-) 12 Kal evOeois to Ilvevpa avrov ckjSoXXci els Tf)i> eprjpov. 
(r~) 13 Kal ^v ckci cV t^ iprfpw r/pepas Teo-o-apdnovra, veipatppevos wrb tov 
Xarava., koX fy perd tSv drjpCiov Kal ol dyycXoi hvqKovow avr£. 

(-^) u Merd 8c to vapaBoOrjvai. tov 'Iomxwtjv, jj\$ev 'Itjo-ovs els ttjv 
rdkiXaCav, Ktipvo-o-vsv to evayyekwv Trjs )8acriXcias tov 8eov, (■£•) ls Kal 
Xeyaw, "Oti ireirX^/xurai 6 Kaipbs, Kal rjyyucep 17 fiacnkela tov Beov* jtcravociTC, 
Kal irioTcverc cv t^5 evar/yekup. 

16 nepkiraT&v 8e irapa ttjv Oakacro~av r^s raXtXata?, cISc Xifiaiva. tcaX'Avhpeav 
tov ahe\<j>bv Xip-avos dp^t/SdXXoi^-as d/JufrtfihrjoTpov iv r§ daXda-crg, Ijaav 
yap dXvels. (-Jf-) 17 Kal eXvev avrois 6 'I^crovs, Jcvre dirurw ftov, Kal trov^o-ta 


J' *' 

Ch. I. 1. ipxh tov ivavyiXtov] St. Matthew and St John, the 
Apostolical Evangelists, begin the Gospel with the Generation of 
Christ; St. Matthew with His Human Generation; St. John with 
His Divine. 

St Luke begins the Gospel with John the Baptist: 8t Mark 
with an appeal to ancient Prophecy. Hence Iretueus thus speaks 
(iii. 10. 6) : " Marcus Interpres et nectator Petri, initium Evangelicm 
1,*; „„^ *-,..;» _:- ir_.-«.'.._ l Evangelii, &c., manifesto initium 


Erangelii fa 

He obs 

ark concludes his Gospel 

prophecy predicting it, 

see also Bede 

in (he therefore regarded 

ice to the words of ancient 

down at the right hand of God/ 

Hence Irenaut shows, against die Gnostic heresies, that the God 
of the Old and the New Testament is One and the Same : " Unus et 
idem Dens et Pater, a Propbetis annuntiatus, ab Erangelio traditus, 
qucm Christian! colimus, et diligimus ez toto corde, Factorcm cali 
et terns et omnium qua in eis sunt." 

On the use of the word ibayytXion Vf St Mark, see below, 

^S. iVHo-afa] Mai. iii. 1. Isa. xl. 3. The Holy Spirit in the 
New Testament often combines two or more prophecies from different 
hooks of the Old Testament, and only specifies on* Prophet by name. 

See above on Matt, xzvii. 9. 

As Bede 1 observes here, all the Prophecies delivered by the Pro- 
phets are from One and the Same Spirit ; and therefore the Evangelists 
do not specify minutely in detail the nonet of the Prophets through 
whom the several Prophecies come : " Quaxunque per eos Sanctus 

4. kyimo 'I»<i»»i|« PaTr T (Ji.»] For an excellent exposition of 
this text showing how John's Baptism was dpvn tiayyikiov, see 
Cyril. Jfieroeot. Cat 8, p. 42. ^ 

condition of its reception, a change of mind and life with a view to 
pardon from Christ And thus he acknowledged that his baptism 
was only temporary and manuductory to the Baptism of Christ, 
which brings remission of sins (see e. 8). (Theopkylact.) Cp. Jerome 
adv. Lucifer, p. 293. 

To speak (says Oregon Naaan. Orat. 39) on the difference of 
Baptisms. Moses baptized in the water, the cloud, and the sea, but 
this was done figuratively. John baptized, not according to the Jewish 
rite, but for the remission of sins, but not with the Spirit Jesus 

of Blood—of Martyrdom for Christ. 

6. nn And below, tr. 33, woXtt SXo. See Matt iii. 5, ttVnt, 

It may suffice to observe here once for all, that the notes on St 
Matthew may be consulted in this and other very numerous parallel 
places which are noted in the margin of St Mark. 

7. b io-xvpoT>(M>«] More emphatic than lo-xvpoTtpot. He who 
is stronger ««t' (Eoyw : — the stronger : and who is stronger than all. 

IS. UttiMu] Matt. ix. 38. 

13. e>M>i<M>] Unhurt by them as Adam in Paradise. (Cf. Job 

v. 22). " *-*- - L ~" * 1 — — " -=-=—-=- --"-- 


it Deutr (Bede.) 
■' i of this i '" 

cident, that our Lord was with the wild 

beaMt, sugg 
Jerusalem and Jericho was the Scene of the Temptat 

It is more probable that it was in the wilderness of Arabia, 
where the Israelites were proved by God forty years. 

Our Lord, the Son of God, was the Head of the Israel of God. 
See Matt. ii. 15, ig Alyi-rrou UaXxra -ri, YldV pov. The literal 
Israel was forty years iv rp ipnuf, our Lord was forty days in the 
wilderness. The Law was given to the literal Israel, but that law was 
disobeyed by the people; and their carcases fell in the wilderness 
(Heb. iii. 17). In the wilderness Christ used the Law as His Weapon 
against the Tempter; and He conquers Satan by it. In the wilder- 
ness Moses and Elias fasted forty days, and Christ fasts forty days in 
'\e wilderness. Perhaps it was in the *i '" ...... 

rabia. And this is not at variance with t 
the Holy Spirit describes His passage from J< 
— SytTo <v tw Tlvivfiari, — irwi tov H*.- 

n»., which may describe a rapi J ' '-• J -- 

"— •-— --' rf elists were c , 

)). Cp. Webeter here . 

15. THrTiini it t. t.l Something more than wivrtu. t. s. — 
Repose your faith in— build your belief on— the Gospel. Cp. VonU 

16. £i>»va] He calls Peter, and afterwards John (v. 19). The 
Fathers regard Peter as the Apostolic ainfaKor vyMurrta:*}*, and 
John as ointJoXov Oimptat, a ' 

JL at " 

the wilderness. Perhaps it was in the susm wilderness; that of 

Arabia. And this is not at variance with the language with which 

Holy Spirit describes His passage from Jordan to the wilderness, 

' " " ' • • _ " ' 0i\\tt airbr -ri 

:h as that by w' ' 

! wo.rr«4 

W, a«D T «— dXuIv] 

Mli« i\„U, I»a dXtfiv 

ST. MARK L 18—41. 



vpa? yevicr&cu aXteis avOpamatv. 1S Kal tvdias a<f>arre$ ra Swcrva avrw, 
rjKokovOr/crav avr$. (•£-) 19 Kal irpo/3a<; eVcci&v 6\iryov r «T8e 'Idica/Hov tov 
tov Ze/SeBaCov, Kal 'Ictdwqv tov dScX^bv avrov, Kal arrows ev raJ irkoiw 
KaTa/m'£ovras ra Sucrva. ^ Kal ev&'cu? eKaXecrev avrovV koi eu^tfvres tov 
rraripa airrGtv Zefi&aiov ev t<G ?rXota juera raiv puxOoyrmv, anrfkOov omo~a> 

' Gm) 21 £<" cio-iro/Devovrai els Ka^aovaov/x* koI evOem tow o-d/J/Jacriv 
ci<rc\<9o>»> ei« rqv o-waya>y>)v e'StSao-Kt? (-£-) M Kal i£c7rhj<r<rovTo iirl rjj 
SiSa^y ovtoS* ^v yo/» SiScmtkov avrovs a>s i£ovo~lav tyov, teal ovx is 01 
rpap,pwreis. (^g) M Kal ijv ev t# owayctyfj avrov avOptimos ev irvevuart 
atcaOdpTit), koi avdicpage ** Xeycov, *Ea, rL Kal <ro\, 'Ii)<rov Na£apr)ve ; 
•rJX&s diroXeVat i^ua? ; otSa o*e tis et, 6 ayios tow ©eov. ^ Kal iirenprja-ev 
avrta 6 'It/o-ovs, Xeywv, ^ipmOr/Ti, «ol l£eXde e£ avrov. M Kal cnrapd^av 
avrov to irvevpa to auciffaprov, #cal Kodfav ^tovp peyaky, i$rp\dev ig avrov. 
27 Kal iffafi/SnijOrjcrav iravres, wore o-vfrjTeiv w/oo? eavrovs Xeyovras, Ti e<m 
tovto ; t« ij StSa^ 17 Katvr) avrr; ; ori /caT' Ifjovo-lav jcal tois irvevpaa-t, rot? 
OKadaproiz iirvreuro-€i, koX vwcucovovo-tv avreG ; ^ 'E£r}\0e 8e r\ aicor) avrov 
ev#vs ei? oXiyv r^v w€pi\apov rrjs PaXiXaias. 

(-g-) ffl Kal ev(9«us ^k rqs oTwaywy^s igekdovres, JpXdov els r^v ouetav 
Sip-tovo^ Kal 'AvSpdov, p.era 'IaK(of3ov Kal 'latdwov. M '.fl Si irev$epa ~Siptavo<i 
KariK€vro wpiavowa' Kal evdeius Xeyovo-tv air$ ircpl avrfjs. 3l Kal irpocr- 
tkdav rjyeipev avr^v, Kparrjo-as r^s x 61 / 005 a vrf}s* koI atfnJKev avrffv 6 irv/oerbs 
€V$€o>s, Kal SirjKovei avrois. w 'OtjfCas Se yevopJvrjs ore «8v 6 ^Xios, e<f>epov 
w/)os avrov iravras tovs kokw? I^ovras, Kal tovs Saijuovt^o/ue^ovs* M Kal 17 
irdXis 0X17 eirujwrf/pJvTj ^v w/065 t^v dvpav. (^) M Kal iOepdirevo-e iroXhovs 
Ka/cais r^ovras irouciXai? vocois, Kal Sat/uovia 7roXXa e£e]8aXe* Kal ovk ^ic 
XaXeu' to Sat/xovta, ori jfSeio-av avrov. 

(*5i) M ^«* 'T/owt €WV\ov Xtav dvaora? i$f)\$€, Kal arrf)\dev ei? iprjpov 
Tonov, KaKei irpoo^rjv\ero. K Kal KareSiwgav avrov 6 2lp.(ov Kal 01 /ter* avrov. 
87 Kal ev/odvrcs avrov, Xeyov<riv avr$, "On ttavrts ok Tflrcmau * Kal Xeyet 
avrots, "Ayapev eis ras exopJvas Ka>pon6\ei<s, tva Kal €K€t Krjpvga, eis rovro 
ydp i&hijkvda. " Kal ijv Krfpva-crwv eis ras o-wayo)yas avrov ets 0X17V r^v 
TaXiXauxv, Kal ra Satjudvia ^K)8aXXo>v. 

(-g-) *• Kal Zpxerai «/>6s avrov Xeiroos irapaKaXov avrbv Kal yowireratv 
avrbv, Kal Xey<wv avraJ, "On cav 0cXflS Svva<rat /xe Kadapiaai. 41 'O 8c 'I^o"ovs 
OTrXayxvio-^els, cKreivas r^v x 6 ') 00 ' '^V raTO avrov, Kal Xeya avr^I, QiK<o, koB- 

88. •» irnvMaTi i«.] u t'» a prison. (See ch. v. 2.) The preposi- 
tion iir is the more appropriate, because Roman prisoners were chained 
to their keepers (see Acts xii. 6), and were thus in their grasp. 

24. la] not from loo., but npn, ah I 

— i ayun] Tkeopkylact observes the force of the definite article 
here. Thou art a uomn aymt, i apttriifrot. 

26. 4»M»e.iTi] See on Matt. «ii. 12. Cf. v. 34. 

In addition to the reasons suggested for this charge, Matt. viii. 4, 
ftiltipi iZ«ir>. it may be observedthat our Lord had special reasons 
for refusing the testimony of devil/, because some countenance might 
thru seem to be given to the calumny of His enemies, that He acted 
in collusion with them, and cast out devils by Beelzebub (Matt xii. 
24. Mark iii. 22). And, lest if the devil's testimony is approved 
when he speaks true (for he sometimes uses truth u a bait, Eathvm.), 
he may more easily deceive when it is false. (See Athanat. Epist. 
Kncycl. p. 215.) Our Lord shows also that though He accepts 
praise from the humble and sincere heart, He is not to be beguiled by 
the flattery of hypocrites from punishing their sins. In like manner 
St. Paul stopped the mouth of the Trui/aa nicWre, who tried to 
conciliate him by calling him the Servant of the Moat High God. 
' taxvi. 16. 

n with St. Mark, especially it 

en altered by * k - -<•—'••■ 

,«] When the Sabbath wi 

84. Sri jlucar] Becmm they knew Him. See above, v. 24- 
The devils, — probably from the defeat of their prince and leader 
Satan, at the temptation, — had a clearer knowledge than men bad of 
Christ's person at this time. (See on Matt iv. 24.) He would not 
allow Evil Spirits to be His preachers, lest He might be supposed to 
be in league with them, instead of having come into the world to 
destroy their power, and to free men from it. 

86. -rout] On the firtt day of the week. It may deserve inquiry, 
whether our blessed Lord did not give some prophetic intimations, 
even before His Resurrection, of the future aanctification of this day 
at the Lord~t Dag. 

87. ai] emphatic. Tloai art the object of their search : a prefer- 
able reading to lirroitri at. 

88. iv OM .»a,«- M oxdx«,«].YOM«i«K=«ry«.a»rf- foi X o^in 
hliipa U 9 ")- Ac" **>. 26. See also Luke xin. S3. Acts xz. 16. 
Christ came to preach to the poor in village/, as well as to the rich in 
towns. Cp. Matt. ix. 35. The words pagan and paganism show the 
nerd of attention to this example. And one of the best tests of a 
Church is,— does it imitate Him in this respect? 

89. tit rat avrayvyat] A preferable reading to iv Tstt am., 
which would hardly have been altered by the copyists to lit t. a. It 
means something more than is the synagogues : He proclaimed the 
glad tidings of the Gomel to the synagogues of the Jam, where 
hitherto had only been heard the voice of Zaw and the Prophett. 
Cp. xiii. 9, «apH<ri»e« «l« am. xiv. 9, <ct|f>i>x0p «»t Koa/wr. Luke iv. 

06 ST. MAKE I. 42—45. H. 1—11. 

apurQiytv 42 Kal dirovros avrov ev64w<s airrjXQa' air* avrov rf Xeirpa i 
ptcrOrj. 43 Kal ip.fjpiprjo-dp.evos avraJ evflews e£e)8aXev avrov, ** Kal Xeyet avnp, 
"Opa firfhevi amjScv curgs, aXX' viraye, ceavrov 8ct£bv t$ Upa, nal irpoar- 
eveyice irepl tov Kadapwruov arov a irpoa-era^e M(oiio-i)$, ei? fiapviptov avrois. 
(lir) ** "O 8c i£ekdwv rfp^aro Kt\pvrrvf.w iroXXa Kal SuujnjixC&ew to» Xoyov, 
wore prqueri avrov ovvao-0ax (jtavepcot; ets ttoXiv ettTeXfctV* dXX' eft» ev iprfpois 
TdVois ^v, Kal Tjpxpvro irpos avrov iravraxpOev. 

II. (-^-) * Kal 7raXiv eio-»}X0e eis Ka<f>apvaoi>fi 8*' ijftepwv Kal ■t)Kov<rdr) on 
ci? oLcdv eVm. 2 Kal ev0ea>? o-vvr\yQT)<Tav iroXXol wore firjuin -yutpdw ttT/8e! 
rd 7roos ttjv Bvpav Kal eXdXei avrois tov Xoyov. 3 .Kal Ipypmax iroos avrov 
iraoaXvriKov t^coovres aipopevov into Teo-o-dpav * Kal /X17 Svvd/xcvoi irpoo~- 
eyyCo~ai avrcw 8id tov o^Xov ewreoreyao'av r^v areyijv 6Vov ^v, Kal e^oov^avres 
^aXalcrt tov Kpaf&arrov i<f> $ 6 iraoaXvriKos KaTeVcctro. 6 'l8fi»v 8e 6 'It/ows 
r^v irlaTLV avrov, Xeyei t$ iraoaXvriK^, Tckvov, d^eWrat aroi ai afiapriai, 
{Tov. 6 *H<rav 8c rives twv Tpap,p.ar4o>v ckci Kaflr/tievoi, koI SiaXoyi^d/tevoi 
ev rats KaoSiais avrStv, 7 Ti ovros ovrw XaXet r S\ao-<jyr)fiia<s ; tis Svvarai 
a<f>ievat. d/xa/wtas ei /xi? ets 6 0eds ; 8 Kal eiders eViyvovs 6 'It/coSs 
t$ irvev/iart avrov ori ovtus avrol 8iaXoyi£ovrai ev eavroi? elwev avrois, 
ti ravra 8iaXoyi£eo"0e ev rats KaoSiais v/xa>v ; 9 Tt «mv evKonxSreoov, ewreiv 
T§ irapa\vriK$, 'A<f>ea>vrat, <roi at dftaprCai, ^ eMreu', cyetoc, S.pov arov t6v 
KodjSarrov, Kal trepMrdrei; 10 *Iva 8e eiSi/Te, ori cfovcriav e^ei 6 Tios tov 
av$pdnrov iirl tjjs yfjs axf>uvai d/xapriav, — Xeyei t^I irapa\vTuc(Z, n ^ol Xeyw, 

/^<*« „ 

"gnriter interminatus cum indiinatione expulit,"— a remarkable ._ 
prenion, showing that nothing of worldly applause wa> sought by our 
Lord from those whom He healed. Cp. Matt viii. 4. 

46. S/){<ito jdipvo-arsiv] Our Lord, by vehementlv and even in- 
dignantly charging the Leper to tell no man, had openly shown («. 43) 
that He had no desire for worldly praise ; and thus He had proved 
that He did not resemble the vain Teachers of the Jewish Nation, 
who loved the praise of men, and to be called Rabbi, Rabbi (John 
xii. 43. Matt «iii. 7) ; and that in His wisdom and charity He 
would not minister any occasion to their envy and rancour against 
Him by any ambitious aspirations of rivalry ; and so He gave us a 
lesson of humility, prudence, and tender consideration for our 

But though it became Him to show no desire for worldly fame, 
but to decline it on His own part, yet it was to be expected, and in- 
deed was requisite,— that the knowledge of His mighty works, being 
the evidence of His mission, should be diffused byotiert; and since 
the diffusion of that knowledge without His consent, and indeed 
against His command, would nave greater effect on the minds of 
many, especially in Palestine, on that very account He did not refuse 
to do works of mercy to those whom He foreknew would divulge 
them against His command, and publish them the more because He 
forbade the publication. (See Mark vii. 36.) 

Perhaps also the Holy Spirit thus designs to teach, that the true 
way to obtain glory is to shun it ; and that in proportion as we decline 
praise here on earth, the more we shall receive it hereafter in heaven, 
when our Father, Who seeth in secret, will reward us openly. (Cf. 

;tvi. 4- 


He had been at 

Cb.II. L tl.oW] At 

8. ym/>iiv fitlli ra xpdv t^» Bipav] i. e. not only the louse was 
not able to contain them ; not even its court-yard and approaches 
were able to do so. On this use of X"P'<* see John xxi. 25. 

These minute notices, which are introduced particularly by St 
Mark in his narratives of our Lord's miraculous works, seem to be 
recorded by the Evangelist with a studied design, lest it should be 
supposed that, because he incorporates so much which is in St Mat- 
thew's Gospel, he was only a copyist ; and in order to show that he 
did so because he knew from ocular testimony that St Matthew's 
narrative was adequate and accurate. 

8. inri Ttaoapmr] i. e. unable to help himself in any respect 
Another minute particular, showing that the narrative is an inde- 
pendent one, and from an eye-witness. 

For other Bimilar minute notices in 8. Mark's Gospel see iv. 38, 
flr avTot swl tjj -rpu^m i-rl -to ntpoaKi (paXaiov KaOiiimy. vi. 39, 
avawooia ovu-roaia, i-rl ™ xKmpi x°f> T V- ▼>»• 1*. «• »>l J»" 
Apron, ix 24, utri iaxpiur, and the whole' of the narrative, ix. 
17—27. X. 16, iva' alrra, Tifliiv rdt X«'/»«« «*' «*»•<»> 
tvXoyri alrra. X. 17, rpoaipa^ur sit Kal yovmrs-riio-af abror. 

Hence also St Mark often gives, and alone gives, the tpsussasa 
verba used by our blessed Lord on certain solemn occasions in the 
Syro-Chaldaic or Aramaic dialect, then spoken in Palestine. See iii. 
17, 0oap,,,y(s. v. 41, Ta\i0d Koipi. vii. 34, iip<paOa. vii. 11, 


St Mark also has shown his independence by relating some 
miracles, and that in a most minute and graphic manner, which are 
not mentioned by any other Evangelist See vii. 32 ; viii. 22. 

4. iriBTiyaaa* t^» ariyi)n Srov tin, irai ifopi^amt] This 
cannot mean (as some interpret it) took off the breastwork (lorka, 
Deut xxii. 8) of the house, and let the man into the court-yard 
(atrium) ; but, as Luke also shows (v. 19), it signifies, took off a part 
of the tiled roof, and let him down through the aperture thus made. 
Our Lord was teaching in a house («lt oimw, 1 re. 1. 2) ; it was not 
approach Him by the door for the crowd (e. 2). 


contiguous house. Perhaps the a-riyi], or roof of tiles, ii 
n opening was made (Luke v. 19), was the covering of tbi 
9d interior colonnade of the atrium or court-yard in which th< 
fere while our Lord was teaching beneath the covering of oni 

it. ii. 63.) St. 

, -, -„. *iU. 12. The 

Attic word is <ncf/uwou« (Afo»rt», /fesyci., Phrgnkh. in v.), called 
*X;«I by St Matthew, ix. 6 ; Hebr. 7Tf*? (mittak), for which «A£r« 
is used in the LXX, and by St Luke, v. 24, xWeW This may 
serve as a specimen of the modifying influence exercised by the 
Evangelists to accommodate their diction to the respective hearers 
and readers for whom their Gospels were primarily written. Other 
Roman words in St Mark are oir«o«X.iiTi«po (vi. 27), £so-t»» (vii. 4), 
X"\k6i>, used for money (Latin <«»), vi. 8; xii. 41, Knnvpii»> (xv. 39). 
On St. Mark's connexion with Italy, and St. Luke's with Acbaia, 
see Orej. Nax. p. 611, and above, Preliminary Note, p. 93. 

7. ti ovTot out«i \o\it p\a<r<b<ip.l«t ) B, D, L, and other MSS. 
have XaXit /9Aaa-a>imti, which is received by some Editors, The 
true reading may be Tt oSrot oBtm JUXsI; Tit t. The word /9Ao<r- 
<pnuit was probably an explanation of XaXti, and thence found it* 
way into the text 

8. avrol — ir (Wrote} tan* seams. There is a peculiar force in 
afoot, bringing out more clearly His Omniscience. 

9. lynpsl This form is commended by excellent MS. authority 
in St. Mark (see iii. 3 j v. 41 ; x. 49), where Eh. has lyitpoi : and 
it is more likely that syiipi should have been changed into iyiipai, 
than etm ver$& : s and ai had the same sound, and were easily con- 

— apo* <rov tov KpajSarro*] Erroneously altered by some into 
apov to» itpipparo* aov. 2o5 is emphatic. Take up tt» bed,— the 
bed of thee, a paralytic, on which thou hast lain, bedridden ; take 
thou up and carry that which has so long carried thee. 

ST. MARK H. 12—26. 


IX. V. 

I u 

eyupe, S.pov rbv Kpafiftarov <rov, Kal viraye els rbv oXkov crov. 12 Kal rfyipdrj 
evddas, Kal d/oas tov KpafifSarov i$fj\$ev h/avriov trdvrmv, wore i£ioTao~dai 
irdvras, Kal Zotjatfiiv rbv 6ebv Xeyovras, "On ovSeVore ovnus ctSo/tcv. 

(-§-) ,s Kal igrjkdf trakiv trapa rr^v daXaaa-av, Kal iras 6 o^Xos rfpxero irpbs 

9 87 avrov, Kal eSiSao-KCv avrovs. w Kal irapdywv e!8e yievtv tov tov 'A\<f>aCov 

Kathjixarov eVl to TeXwvtov, Kal Xeyei avr<3, 'AkoXovOcl fioc koX dvaords 

88 i?koXov0>jo-€v avry. (-£) ls Kal eyevero, ev t$ Karaiceicrdai. avrbv ev ry oIkvo, 

10 28 avrov, ical iroXXol reXawai Kal aftapraiKol o-vvaveKeuro t$ 'Jrjo-ov Kal tois 

n so aaftyrais avrov* ^o-av yap ttoXXoI, koI rJKo\ov6r)<rav avr£. 16 Kal ol Tpap.- 

fiaT€t<s Kal ol *a/oto-aloi ISoVres avrbv io~diovra ftera t£v reXonw Kal afiap- 

Totkcov, i\eyov tow padryraK avrov, Tt on uerd twv rtkuvav koI afiaprcAZv 

18 81 iordiei Kal irwa ; (-§-) 17 Kal aKovo-as 6 'Itjo-ovs Xey« aurois, Ov x/jeiav 

is 88 expvaw ol wrxvovres iarpov, dXX' ol /caxws e^ovTCS. ovk fjkdov KaXe'crai 

14 Sikoiovs, dXXd d/ta/oraAovs. 1B Kal ^forav ot ftadrjral 'Icadwov Kal ol Qapuraioi 
88 vrforevovrer Kal ipxovrai. Kal Xeyovciv avr$, Jiari ol p-adryral 'Ictdwov Kal 

oi t5v $apicraUt>v vrjorevovaiv, ol 8e col Ltadtyral ov vrjorevovcri. ; 19 Kal 

15 84 etirev avrois 6 'Jfycrovs, Mi) SvVai/rat, ol viol rov wfufxttvos, iv $ 6 wfi<f>£o<; 

per avrSv ear., vrjcrrevfw ; "Oaov ypovov p.«ff iavrav c^ovo-i tw wp.<f>iov, 
85 ov Svvavrat vr/oreveiv. * eXeva-oirai 8e ■qp.tpa.i orav drrapd% am avrStv 

6 wfi<f>lo<s, Kal rore vrjorevaovo-w ec ckcu^ Tp ypepa. 21 Kal ovSels 

iirtfikriiia paKovs ayva^>ov eirippdirm iirl ifiarup ira\ai$' ct 8e /x^, aipct 

To irktjpa>[ia avrov to Katvoi' tov iraXatov, Kal ^ci/jof o^Ccrfia ytverau ^ Kal 
17 87 ovSel? fidXket otvov veov els cUtkov? TraXatovs- el 8e /ti), prqcrarv. 6 olvos 6 veos 

tous do-Kous, Kal 6 oTvos ^K^eiTai, Kal ol outkoI aTroXovvrat* aXXd oTpoi' veov 

els daxovs Kaivovs jSkryreov. 
l ' l' (-B") M •&« eyeVero irapairop€V€o~6ai avrbv iv roh vd/H/Hao-i 8id twv crtropC- 

fiav, Kal rjpjjavro ol fiafhyral avrov 686v iroiecv TiXXovres tows ord^vas. 

* 8 s4 Kal ol Qapwaioi iKeyov avr^J, *l8e, Tt n-oiovo'tv eV tois o-dfifiao-w o ovk 

8 8 efeori ; ^ Kal avros IXeyev aurois, OuSeVoTe dveyvwre ti iirotycre Javt8, ore 

« i s«m. n. «. xpciav €a)(€ Kal iireCvacra/ avros Kal ol aer' avrov ; ^ tr£s * eio^X^ev els rov 

4 4 oTkov tov deov iirl 'Afiufflap apxtepim, Kal tovs d/orov? tjjs irpodiveats i<f>ayev, 

14. Aivt»] See Mutt. a. 9. 
It i> proUUa that Levi, on his call by Christ, when he left hit 
old life and engaged in a new one, took a new name (Stopa Kawir) 
Matthew; signifying the Gift of God, and very expressive of a feeling 
of thankfulness for God's mercy to him a publican ; and that in 
leaving all for Christ, he had received a great gift, gained a great 
treasure from God. 

19. m4 ti«*rr«L— wio-riim.] Luke v. 34, uh tiiarit m^aa. 
stlff-riviiv. Conj. Hiphil for Kal. A thing is often said in Scripture 
to be impoaiUe which cannot be done rightly. See 1 Cor. iii. 1. 2Cor. 
xiii. & Acts iv. 16. 20. Gen. xxiv. £0. So conversely a thing is said 
to be done which ought to he done. Heb. v. 4. Rom. xiv. 7. Malachi 

81. xat] Kal introduces an additional reason, and therefore is not 
to be cancelled. 

— /}<k««t ayvafov] Matt. ix. 16. 

— X« ifioy r%. y.l a worse rent ensues. 
88. -rapawoptitabai— iv rolt aippaoi- 

1. Lake vi. 1. Our Lord Himself iraprro 

the path, without touching the corn; but 

itir ■Koit'iv, began to make a way for themselves, TiAXoimt, pluck- 

ing the corn. Therefore the Pharisees did not censure Him bul 

them ; and He did not defend Himself but them. 

88. 4*1 'AB,„t>ap doviipsi-c] In the days of Chief Priest 
Abiathar. On this use of i-wi, see Luke iii. 2; iv. 27. Acts xi. 28. 
St. Mark has been charged with an anachronism >, because this event 

lit] Matt xii. 
seed by, alonir 

tempore Abjalharu pontificil m 

Annahme aber, dais Vater und „.._., „ 

(Ficl. Ant., Smth. tie., Tkiopkft., Bna, Jayun, Htum., Kuinotl u. H 

_■_ . ^ .,_,... ^ ^ , .._ i „ ,_ chron lgi , g . ,. Mi ,. , 

" it eine irrige Angabe naben (vr| 

took place in the 




Priesthood of Ahimelech, the Father of 

■ High Priesthood of Abiathar, as he 


time. Cp. swi ipx''l>'<°* *Avva, Luke iii. 2. But he says that it 
happened 1*1 'A/3<ntfap Apxi'pimt, which indeed intimates that it 
was in the days of Abiathar ; but it rather suggests that he was not 
the High Priest then, and the reference is made to him as a celebrated 
High Priest; and, indeed, he is mentioned in the next Chapter 
of the History, as the High Priest who followed David with the 
Urim and Thummim, when he was persecuted by Saul (1 Sam. ttjj , 
20; xxx. 7). 

The note of Bede on this passage deserves attention. " Qndd 
Dominus Abiathar principem sacerdotum appellat nihil habet disso- 
nantis; ; ambo enim fuerunt illic cum veniens David panes petiit et 
accepit, Ahimelech videlicet princeps Sacerdotum et Abiathar filim 
ejus. Occiso autem Ahimelech a Saole, enm viris domns susb generis 
sacerdotalis octoginta quinque, fugit Abiathar ad David, et eomee 
faeha ett totua ettilii ejut. Postea regnante co snmmi sacerdotii et 
ipse gradum accepit, ac Mo tempore regni illiut in pontifiaitu pent, 
rerant multo majorit exoellentia VMM pater emu efectue eel ; ideoqne 
dignus fuit cuius memoriam Dominus etiam vivente patre quasi 
summi faceret Sacerdotis." 

Zadok and Abiathar are both mentioned as High Priests at the 
same time (2 Sam. xv. 29. 35; xx. 25. 1 Kings iv. 4). It is true 

JM»< isiiri Stella all auf 1. Bam. 11. gebt. Grot, meinte, der Sohn tel 
dCT VlcaHtu das Vateri gawesen. Eben so ungltlcklicb bat man durch 
eine andara Deutung von M helfen wollen ; dann soil as coram sain 
( Welti., Scholz), so steht 1. Sam. 1. 1. feschichtlich antgegen ; soil es aber 
helisen : Mm AUatkar, d. h. da, wo von ihm die Reda tot (11, H. Luk. 
SO. 37), so wldantiaiut dieselbe geschlehtllcha Instans, und dass die 
Worta nicht schon nach union itahen (gegen Mick. u. SnunU- -—«■-- 

d. Mark. p. 58.)" . . . Thus the Old ' * ' — " 

Expositors of Holy Scripture, and tl 

98 ST. MARK II. 27, 28. m. 1—17. 

ovs ovk !£«m <]>ayeiv el /xi) rots Upevai, Kal cSwkc Kal tow oa^ awry ova* ; 
(ir) ^ b Kal ikeyev avrols, Td aafSfSarov 8id to* dvOpomov eytvero, ofy 6 
avdpanros Sid to o-dfifSarov, • anrre KvptM iorw 6 Ttos tov dvOpumov koX tow 

HI. * Kal elcr/X^e 7rdXiv els ti)v awayuryffv, kcu ty eVcet dvQpamos ifrjpau- 
uevtjv €)(Oiv tt)V x 6 */ 3 *" 2 Ka * iroLperrjpow avrov, el tois o*o/8)8ao"t $€paireu<r€i 
avrov, iva Kariffopr\9wrw avrov. 3 Kal Xeyei t$ dvdpwmp T$ i^rjpauaevrfv 
C)(ovti tt/v x e W a ' *Ey*i-pa* «s to ueVov. * Kal Xeyei avrois, *E£eort tow 
<rd/3fiacnp ayadoirovijo-at, tj KaKonoufjcrou ; if/vxriv < r *» " a4 » ^ dwoKrelvai ; oi 8e 
icruuTTQiV' 6 Kal ireoi/JXet/fduevos avrovs /xer' opyfjs, ovWvirovuevos eVl rg 
iratptMra ttJs KaoSias avnwj/, Xeyei tg> dv&pwra>, *22kt€ivov tt)v x^P**- <rov 
kcu, e^eYeive, koi direKareordf^r; ^ x c V avrov. (4J-) 6 Kal i£ek66vres oi 
♦aoicraToi ev&'as /ierd rS>v 'HpaSiaviov o~v/x/3ovXiov irroiow kox* avrov* 
oVa»s avrov dirokia-oxri. 

(-Y-) 7 Kal 6 'It/covs dvex<opr}<r€ fierd t5>v pad-tyrant avrov 7roos t^v dakao-arav 
Kal 7roXv 7rXr/#os diro tt)s PaXiXaia? r/Ko\ov0T)<rav avnw, Kal cwro ttjs 'lovSaias, 
8 Kal diro 'Iepocrokvfuav, Kal dtro rr}s 'iSov/iaias, Kal iripav tov 'IopSdvov, 
Kal oi ireol Tvpov Kal £i§a>va, 7tXtJ0os 7roXu, dKovo-avres oou ivoCei, Ijkdov 
7roos avrov. 9 Kal etTre tois /ia#>jTais avrov iva irkouipiov wpoo~KapTepj} avrtj) 
Sid tw ©xXov iva /ii} OXifSwcnv avrov 10 ttoXXous yd/> i$epdirevo-ev, wore 
eVi7ri7TT€u> avraS iva avrov d^mvrai, cwroi ctxov /xdoriyas. (^) u Kal ra 
irvev/xara rd aucdBapra, orav avrov iffedapow, irpoadmmov avrw koi ZnpaXflv, 
Xeyoira, *0t4 trv ^ o T109 tov 9eov. 12 Kal woXXd iireriua avrots. ?va u^ 
<f>av<-pbv avrbv irorfcracri. ls Kal dvafiaCva. ets to ooos, Kal ir/ooarKaXeirat 
ots ^^cX€v avToV Kal dir^X^oj' woos avr^v. (-5-) M Kal liro'vqo~t StuOCKa, wa 
3o*i fier avrov, Kal wa dirooreXX^ avrovs icrjpvcro-ew, l6 Kal «xetv iijowriav 
Oepavevuv rds vdcrovs, Kal eK)8dXXeiv rd Satp>via- ( " ) 16 Kal imdriKe t§ 
Uluavi, ovoaa Tlirpov 17 Kal 'IdKcjfiov rbv tov Zefie&aiov, Kal 'Iadwqv tov 


b Kxod. M. K. 
Uv.8. 31. 

father AM 

sr Ahimelech. 

Beaidea, we moat not forget that our Lord waa reasoning with 
the Pkarutet. And one of their error* waa to judge of --»*— 

taken by divine „ , , , = 

who ni present with his father at the time, and who (we may 
reaaonablv infer from our Bleawd Lord's words, which arc the Words 
of Him Who knows all History) was a party to his father's act, and 
was afterwards blessed by God in his escape, and in a long and glo- 
rious Priesthood, our Lord obviates the objection of the worldly- 
minded Pharisees, and strengthens his own argument, by reminding 
them that this action took place in the days of one whom they held 
in reverence, aa zealous for the honour of God, and as approved 
and rewarded by Him for his piety. 

There is a similar expression in 1 Mace. ziii. 42, htl Vipmrvt, 
ApX"pi»* /uyiXov «oi <rrpariiyoi Hal vymixim t«» 'IovoWwv, 
"in the days of Simon, the great High Priest and General, and 
Ruler of the Jews," and it dors not intimate that what ia there re- 
corded waa contemporary with his High Priatiood as such. 

Further ; we must remember that the word apxapiin, as uaed 
in the Gospels, has a very wide signification. See on Matt ii. 4. 
And though Abiathar could not be called o a»x<<p>&« at the time of 
David's visit, yet, according to the language of the New Testament, 
he might be termed an dpgupivt even then. In the New Testament 
the word Itptvt is not common j it is used only twice by St. Mark, 
and once by St. John. And dpx«ptfrt haa in the Netc Testament 
nearly the same signification as liptut has in the Old, where the word 
ap X ..p.i t occurs only once in LXX(Lev. iv. 3). Tbus(l Sam. i.9) Eli, 
the father of Hophni and Phineas, is called the Pried (o Itptiv); 
but Hophni and Fhineas, his sons, are at the same time called Priests 
Hifisii, 1 Sam. i. 31 And in the languafre of the New Testament 
Eti would be called 6 apxnpim. but Hophni and Phineas would be 
called aVx'«P«'«. as being of his family. 

Some MSS., in this passage of St. Mark, insert the article 
toS before 'AtftaQap. If this is the true reading, the sense is, that 

may compai 
of Simon, wl 

zxvi. 6, iv plxia Sivanwt to* Xsiroov, 
ot lien a leper, but waa known by that name, 
oo in the Apostolic Catalogue (Matt. x. 3), MaT6a<ot i TiXimt, 
Matthew, tie publican, although he had been called from the seat of 
custom, and from the office of publican to be an Apostle. No objec- 

thc days of Cato the Censor, although Cato was not Censor then. 
For examples of prolepsii in the names of places in Sacred History, 
see Glatt. p. 612, and cp. the notes on Virgil, JEn. i. 2; viii. 361. 

On the whole, such seeming difficulties as these are doubtless left 
in Holj Writ by the Holy Ghost — for moral purposes — to exercise our 
humility and try our faith. If we are disposed to be wise in our own 
conceits, we shall pronounce confidently that they are mutaket ; but 
if we have the spirit of meekness, which is the first requisite to 
wisdom and learning, we shall seek for a solution by patient inquiry, 
with prayer to the Holy Ghost, the Divine Author of Scripture, 
and "in His light we shall see light" And if, for the further trial 
of our faith. He should not vouchsafe to give us a solution now, wo 
shall believe that He may give it to some others after us, and that 
He will give it to ourselves in that day when we shall see the light of 
His countenance, and our knowledge will bo perfected in the sight. 

Ch. III. 6. Tmpini] wmpim is used by LXX for nr£ (caiai). 
Job xvii. 7, i. e. to have a film and dimness over the eye*, to be 
purblind, cf. Gen. xxvii. I ; cp. Rom. xi. 25. Eph. iv. 18. jEnato. i. 
18. Hetgch. i*»pMt,on», irwpXMnmv. 

7. wp«v] altered by some to sit, but without adequate reason or 

a "l2!"iiriTi M al See above, i. 25. 34. 

14. swofi|<rs] Hebr. rn$J (aeak), ' fecit,' the word used to aignirjr 
creation, Gen. i. 7. 11, 12. 16. 25, 26. 31 ; ii. 2— 4 ; iii. 1. 7. 1 Sam. 
xii. 6. " The Lord who made Moses and Aaron," i. e. appointed and 
invested them with power. The word intimates that the power which 
the Twelve exercised was due to Christ, Who created and made them 
to be all that they were as Apostles. See Matt. x. I. 

16. mi switfqxf ri 2l»*rt— niiy>w] Partly to distinguish him 
from the other Simon (e. 18). and nartly to mark him as a 0t^i\m, 
\i»ar in building the Church. St. Mark, who was the son of St. 
Peter in the faith (1 Pet v. 13), and whose Gospel is said to have 
been dictated by St Peter (JSmi. ii. 16; iii. 39. 8w above, Prelim, 


ST. MARK HI. 18—35. IT. 1—3. 99 

dSeXo^ov tov 'Ioucwfiov /cat imOrjicev avrot? ovdaara JBoave/oyes, o eWiv viol 
fSpovT7i<? 18 Kal 'AvSpiav, koi $iXtmrov, Kal Bapdokopaiov, koX MarOauov, ical 
Saifiav, Kal 'Idicwfiop tov tov 'Aktfxuov, kcu ©aSSaibv, koI Xlpcava tov Kava- 
virr/v, 19 kcu 'JovSav 'Io-Kapuorrfv, o? Kal TrapeowKCv avrov. 

(■|-) ^ Kal Ipxovrcu ei? oXkov koX owepx^cu iraXtv o"xXos, wrre pi) ov- 
vaa-dax avrov? fwyS^ aorov <f>ayeZv. M Kal OKovo-avre? oi trap avrov i£rp\dov 
Kparffoui avrov ikeyov yap, art i£4orT}, (-^-) B Kal ot rpap.pM.nU oi am 
'Icpocrokvpav Kara/8aWe? iXeyov, "On BeeX£ej8ovX l^et, Kfl " o*" 1 & t$ apxovn 
Ttov Saipovuav eKjSaXXet ra oatuovta. (-^-) ffl Kal irpoo-Kakeo-dpevos avrov? ev 
irapa/3o\ai<; IXeyev avrots, Hals Svvarat Jarava? Xaravav CKjSaXXetv ; w koI 
eav fiao~i\e£a i<f> eavrrjv pepurfrj}, oi owarat oTadrjvai 17 jSatriXcia CKeivir <2S koI 
eav oucta e^»' iavrrjv pepurdy, oi SvVarai aradrjvai. T) oiTcta iiceurr)' ' x Kal et 
6 £arava? dveoTrj eo^' eavrov Kal pcpepiorai, oi Bvvarai oradfjvat,, aKka tc'Xo? 
l^€t. w OvSet? SvWrai ra o~k€vt) tov Urxypov eicrekOmv ei? r»)v oitciav avrov 
outpvaa-ai, e*av py irp&rov tov Urxypov o^ojr Kal Tore t^v ouetav avrov 
Stapirdcret. (4r) * \4jtt^v Xeyoi v/uv, ©u irdvra atf>edi)o~erat rots vtot? t«5v 
avdpanroiv to. dpapnjpaTa, ical at /3kao~<jyr)pUu ocra? av /3\ao-<fnfpjjo-<no~ur ^ os 
8* av fi\ao-<fyr)pijo-j) ei? to Ilvevpa to dytov, ovk fyei d<£ecriv et? tov aiwva, 
dXX' evo^os ecmv alcuviov dpaprrjpaTos' M ort eXeyov, -nveupa aucddaprov e^et. 
(nj) 31 *E/ox<m^<»* o2v 01 aScXo^ol Kal 17 prjTqp avrov, ical 4£<u eo-mre? airecrretXav 
ff/oos avrov, o^avovvre? avrov. K Kal iiedOrjTO o^Xos ttc/m avrbv, clirov 8e avr$, 
'iSov, 17 prjfrrip crov koI ot aSekcfrol arov Kal ai dScXo^ai aov c^w 1,-qTovcrL ere. 
M Kal avexplOr) avrois Xeya>v, Tt? eariv 17 p'QTrjp pov 1j oi dSeXo^oi jaov ; ** Kal 
ireptffa.&fidp,€vo<s Kvichp tov? ire/ol avrov Kaft/uevov? Xeyet, "iSe 17 pi]TY)p pov 
koI oi doeK<f>oC pov. M *0? yap av Trouqoy to Bik-qpa tov 6cov, o5ro? 
aSeXo^o? ftov Kal dcWXc^i; aou Kal prfrqp iorL 

IV. (-3-) x Kal iraXiv -qp^aro 8i8acrK«v Tra/aa t^v 0aXacrcrav Kal owrfx&*l 
w/oo? avrov o^Xo? ttoXv?, wotc avrov ipfidvra el? to wXoibv Kadfjcrdai. ev Tp 
daXdo'OTg' Kal wa? 6 o^Xo? iroo? t^v ddXaxraav liri tjj? y^? ^v. 2 Kal eStSao-Kev 
avrov? ev irapa^oXai? •jroXXa, Kal eXeyev avrot? eV t/j SiSa^ avrov, 8 'Akovctc 

Note, p. 93), does not repeat St. Matthew's expression, x. '2, wp»i-ot 
£i>av, nor record Christ's words to him, Matt xri. 18. 

17. Boovspyis] a Syro-Chaldaic word from jj (i'oe) ' fihT (the 
s«W> being represented by oo), and toyi (/>«yi»), itrepitu), and by a 
metathesis of the p, ipyit; see Vorsit. Hebr. 479, and Rotatm. 
p. 694. Many modem expositors (referred to by ObAatuen) hare 
supposed that Boanipyit was given as a name of censure (with re- 
practice of CI 
o His Disciplt . 
i, indicated in Scrip- 
ture Dy awjio Ktt.i.0*, Rev. ii. 17; iii. 12. The name was, as it 
were, a Christian name, or baptismal name. 

Thunder is called in Scripture Mp (W), vox; i. e. the Voice of 
God. See Exod. ix. 2a Jer. x. 13. Ps. xxix. 3. And the Law was 
given with thunder, Exod. xix. 16 ; xx. 18 ; and from the throne of 
Ood in the Apocalypse come forth thunderings, Rev. iv. S ; viii. 5 ; 
xi. 19 ; xix. 6. And in Rev. x. 3. 4, the seven Thunders are pro- 
bably the seven inspired Writers of the New Testament, whose words 
St. John wss commanded to seal 

St. James therefore and St John are called Boamerget, as being 

o declare with powor C 

^__ iypdepan, b ii 'Icaaxync iyypa(pat. , _ , 

Their natural temper as sons of thunder showed itself in a desire 

'l<Um6ot iyfidtpm 

to bring down fire from heaven on the village of the Samaritans 
(Luke ix. 54), and in their ambitious request (Matt xx. 21), and in 
St John's appeal to Christ (Mark ix. 38). But these flashes of 
natural heat were changed into golden tongues by divine grace. 
On the names of the Apostles see on Matt x. 2—4. 
18. 'IdxaBov — 'AXipai'oi'] Jama, afterward Bishop of Jerusalem. 
Thaddan, the same as Jude. (Btde.) 

conduct to the Prophet Eliaha. 

«"E*Vti)1 i- •• ♦(»«»» -rapuppontpt. Euthym. Ps. Ixix. 9. 
rat. Photon*. 2 Cor. v. 13, .In i'£<<tt,m««-, «««■ Cp. 

•----=«' lo ,wn«i\s. •--->--* 

to their di ' 

truth. The Evani 

le Evangelist records what tells to 

88. ani\» Xt'yoi] See Matt. xii. 31. 

29. ali«— ul»Wo»] See Matt. xxv. 46. 

— dpaprri/uaTOTl Bo B, C, and manv Versions, for xplrtrnt,— 
and this is the reading preferred by Grotuu, Lachm., Titch., and Atf. 
Not that dfiaprii^o is to be interpreted here ra (for it would be a 
Novatian error to assert that sin is oluniw) ; but as A'aia. has ob- 
served, " anapTTuia in versione Alexandrina respondet Hebraorum 
vocabulis rnron et yity qua) non tantum peccatum indicant, ut rnmn 
Gen. xxxi. 36, pj Ex. xxviii. 38, sed etiam pteeati paoam, ut rMDIT 
legitur Zach. xiv. 19, ps Ps. xL 12. quo posteriori loco LXX habent 
iyafiia : de peccati poena dfiapria quoque occurrit v. not ad Matt 
ix. 2. Recte igitur de peccatore, qui ovk «x«i d^iviv sit toV aluam, 
did potent ivox°* "•"i* <!>»< alotviou d^apniuiirot i.e. suppliers 
arternis obnoxium. Hoc autem ipsum nomen a/idprtium grammatici 
interpretati sunt vocabulis noiait et »dXa<ri«, qua interpretamenta 
"' verd loco voeabuli rarius r 

rentis dfidfrrttpa scripserunt dftapvria." 

38. n ttirrip] See en Matt xii. 46. His Mother and brethren did 
not come in to hear bis discourse, but standing without, sent to Him 
a message desiring Him to come out to them. They wished perhaps 
to participate in His fame, and to show to the people their connexion 
with Him and their influence over Him. But His public duties wen 
not to be foregone or omitted for private respects; and at Son of God 
He knew no other relatives bnt the children of God to whom the 
performance of His will and the promotion of His glory is the first of 
all duties, and the moving principle of their lives. The love which 
Christ bare to His earthly Mother— as shown on the cross^brings 
out in stronger relief the love due to God, by being as nothing when 
compared with it ; and His conduct to His beloved Mother brings 
out more clearly the awful Majestyof His Divine Sonship. 
See on John ii. 4. Luke xi. 27. 

Cr. IV. S. tV t ji iita%v\ St* 0° *"- 3& 


ST. MARK IV. 4^-28. 

Kal kyarero ev t$ oireipeiv, o pJkv erreae xin. vm. 
"<IXXo "" ' 

ISov i£rj\Oa> 6 cnrelpav tov omlpav 

irapa tt)v oSbv, koI ^X#e ra Treretva Kal Kare^ayev avro' " ciAAo de evecrtv 
eVl to wcT/xilScs, ottov ovk et^e Y>?v iroXXgv, xal evdews e£avereiXe, 8ta to /m) 
e^eu> j8a#os y^s* 6 ^Xtov 8»} dvaTetXavros iKavpario-Oiq, Kal Sta. to /t^ exetv 
/5t£av ifrjpdvOr]. 7 Kou aXXo eVetxev et$ Tas OKavlfas, Kal avefh)<rav at a-KavOai 
Kal o~wiirvi^av avro, *cal Kapirbv ovk chance. 8 Kal aXXo eireo~ev eis r^f y»Jv 
r>)v koXt)v, Kal eStSov Kapirbv dva/Satvovra Kal av£avovra, Kal 2<£e/9ev tv 
rpuxKovra, koX tv efrjKovra, koI tv €ko.t6v. 9 Kal IXcycv, 'O e^ow ^ Ta OKOvetv, 
oKovera. 10 *Ot€ 8e« eyevero Karapovas, ly/xorr/o-av avrov ot 7re/>l avrov avv 
Tot? 8<w8eKa rqv Trapafioh/jv. (-£•) u Kal eXeyev avrots, 'T/xtv SeSorat yvSvat 
to ftvorrjptov rf}? /?ao~tXetas tov 8eov, e/caVois 8^ Tots e£«u ev iraoa/foXats 
ra traWa ytverat, l2 tva /JXeVovTes f&kiirao-i, Kal ff>) tSwcrt* ical dxov- 
ovres aKOv<uo"t, Kat fii) cvviwo-f pvjirort. iviarpdrjioKri, Kal a<f>e0y 
ovtois Ta a. 13 Kal Xeyet avrots, Ovk oiSare r^v ira/oa/JoXrjv 
Tavrrjv ; Kat irais 7raous to? wapa/foXas yv<uo~eo-0e ; (£) w 'O aireipa>v tov 
Xoyov OTTCipct. 15 Ovrot 8e ewnv ot n-apa r»)v 68ov, oirov airdperai 6 Xoyos, 
Kal orav aKovawrw, ev0ea>s epxerat 6 Saravas koI atpet tov Xoyov tov eWap- 
pevov ev rats KapStats avrSv. 16 Kat ovrot eto-tv 6/xotws ot eirt Ta irerpioBrj 
cnrei-popevoi, ot orav okovo-gio-i tov Xdyov ci>0€W ftera x<V«is \ap/3cu>ovo-i,v 
avrov, 17 Kal ovk cloven, /at^av ev eavrots. aXXa irpocrKaipoi. ticnv etra yevo- 
fteVi^s ^Xt^ews ^ Stary/tov Sta t6v Xoyov evBion o-KavSaXi^ovrat. 18 Kal aXXot 
etcrlv ot ets Tas oucav^as OTrctpo/tevof oSrot eio-iv ot t6v Xoyov aKovovres. 
19 Kal at ptpipvai tov ataivos tovtov, Kal rf a-irarq tov trXovrov, Kal at irepl 
Ta Xot7rct itriOvpiax do-tropevoptvai crvpitvCyovcri tov kayov, Kal OKapnos yiverat. 
30 Kal oSrot eto-tv ot eni r^v y^v r^v koX^v aira/oevres, omves okovovo-i tov 
Xoyov koI 7rapa8e^ovrat, Kal Kapvo<popov<ru>, ev rotaKovra, Kal Iv e^jjKovra, 
Kal Iv eKarov. • (^-) 21 Kal eXeyev avrots, Jlfi/rt 6 Xvj^vos ipxcrai, tva v7ro tov 
/xo8tov Tc^y ^ vtt6 t^v Kkivtjv, oyj( wa «rl r^v Xv^vtav Te^y ; (-y-) K Ov yap 
iari ti k/>vjttov, o ^av ja^ <f>av€pto$y, ov8e 4y6>ero airoKpxxftov, aXX' tva ets 
<f>avepbv !X#0. M EtTts e^et <5ra okovciv, aKoverw. (-5-) 2* Kal i\ey€i> avrots, 
BXeVere, n aKovere. 'JEv ^ perpqt perpelre, perprjO^a-erai. iplv, Kal irpoorcdy- 
o-erat v/tuv tois aKovovctv. (-^-) * *Os ya/o Av e)(p, 8oft;o"eTai avrcj>, Kal 6s ovk 
e^et, Kal ej^et apOrfarerai. air avrov. 

(•£) * Kal ikeya/, Ovrft>s ^orlv ^ )8ao'tXeta tov ©eov, «s ^av avdpwros flaky 
tov enro/oov em r^s 7^Js, ^ Kal Ka^evSj; Kal eyeiprjrai vvicra Kal rjpepar koI 
6 otto/dos /SXacrravg Kal pytcvvryrai, m ovk otSev avros* ** avroparr) yap 17 
-y^ Kapwofyopei, irp&rov xoprov, etra ora^w, etra irkqprj avrov ev t^» araxy'C' 

8. Mav] See Matt ziii. S. 

4. S jut* !vtv<) Observe the four cue* of the wed : the fint, o»« 
iK.'/Sa^i : the ncond, <ln/3ain »li. 4AX' m n(l£o»« : the third, 
<tW0aiM rai nCfa« i\Ai Kaovdv o« Umi: the fourth, aV 
iSaniiv. tiSFan «ai gapwir ioWi . . . -rtrapTO* pom*, Jiaffa6». 

12. T»a 0X.i'xorritl Ii. vi. 9, 10. The »enie of '/»a here may be 
teen from Matt. ziii. 15. See Rev. xxii. II. Hot. xir. 9. Pa. xviii. 26. 
2 Tim. Hi. IS. 

He spake by Parables — to prove them, and to shotr them to 
others and to themselves, and to recompense them judicially according 
to their respective tempers and moral dispositions ; to reward the 

•My 1 ' 
Phil., p. 221, 222. J5f». Butler, Anal< 

ible, with larger measures of 
34), and to punish the proud and 
' and blindness. See "' 

knowledge and grace 

the wilfully blind by their 

24Z62T ' 

IS. o Xarorat] St Matt (ziii. 19) has i rompot 1 St Luke 
has (viii. 12) i Atdfiokot here,— a variety perhaps designed to show 
the identity and attributes of the person who bean these different 

Bp. Butler, Analogy, pt ii. ch. vi. 
ir.fall My Parables; e. g. those in Matt. 

21. Xvvrot tiiyiTai 
the light fno«r».b is 

order that it may be manifested by men to the world, to His glory. 
Take heed, therefore, 0\<»iti, examine well, what ye hear from 
Me ; i. e. consider it, and digest it well in your hearts [r(, i. q. 8, id 
quod ; St. Luke has Tut, viii. 18), in order that you may preach it to 
others; and may receive more abundant measures of knowledge 
according as yourselves are more attentive in receiving, and faithful 
in dispensing it to others. For as you do this, so your reward will 
be. (Cp. Tkeopkyl., Eulkym., and Bedt). 

24. if w mitpv] "Quantum fidei capacu afferimus, tantum 
gratias inundantis haurimus." (Cyprian.) 

26—29. tta\ tktyp—i 6i0i<rpotl This Parable concerning the 
mysterious and divine growth of tie seed of the Gospel in the 
heart and the world, even to the end, is supplied by St Mark 

When we conceive good desires, we put seed into the ground; 
when we begin to act, we are the blade ; when we finish a good work, 
we are in the ear ; when we are matured in die habit of good, we are 
the full com in the ear. (Qrtg. M., Btdt.) 

ST. MARK IV. 29— 41. V. 1—0. 


(■All* JL.UJS.A. „ ^ 

nil. xiil w orav 0€ irapaoqi 6 Ka/twros, cvdcots diroarcXXei to Speiravov, on irapetmjKev 

6 Qepicrfios. 
1 W ("If") M -K** «Xeye, Twi 6/Aowuo-w/tcv rr)v /8ao-(Xeiav tow ©cow ; ^ ev iro£p 

18 irapafiokfi rrapa/JaXeouev avrr/v ; sl a»s kokkov a-wavem, os, orav airaop «rl t^s 

yijs, pucpoTtpos irwratv rwv <raf.ppA.rxav iari rutv iirl tijs yijs' M Kal orav 

(rirapfj, dva/?aivei, koX yiverat travrtav raw ht^avatv fxtClmv, Kal irotel xXaSovs 

/xeyaXovs, <5ore SvvacrOcu wrb rr)v ctklov avrov to wren/a tov ovpavov Kara- 
34 aiajvow. (^-) w Kal Totavrais 7rapa/8oXats jroXXais e'XaXei avrots tov Xoyov, 

Ka0a>s ^Svvavro aKovetv. (-" ) M x**/ ^ ^* ffaoa/SoXqs ow»c e'XaXei avrois* Kar 

ISiav 8t* tow p,adt]ral<i avrov en-e'Xvc iravra. 
18 ' 93 ' M Kal Xeyct avrow ev eKetvy r# •quepa ot/»tas ycvofxevr/?, Aiek9<ap.a/ eis to 
23 irepav. (-f-) w Kal adores rbv oykov irapakap./3dvowru> avrbv m fy eV t$ 

irXowjr Kal aXXa 8c irXocaoia ijv /ner avrov. w Kal ytverai XatXa^r drcuov 
34 88 ueyaXr/* ra 8« Kv/tara eW/JaXXev as to trXoibi', ware avro 17817 ye/u£ea-#ax. 

98 Kal iji> avros «/ tt} irpvfivy eirl to irpo<rice<j>d\au>v KadevBav Kal 8tcyei/>ovo*iv 

vt 34 avrov, Kal Xeyovcnv aurw, JiSacr/caXe, ov ucXet <roi ori avaXkvpcda ; w Kal 

88 8ieye/>0cl« iirerlpqare r$ avipta, kox five rp daKAcrajj, Suaira, ire^Cp,a<ro. Kal 

89 e/coVao-ev 6 avc/xos, /cal iyevero yaXr/vr; /xeyaXij. *° Kal et7rev avrow, Ti 8«iXot 

87 core ovrw ; irws ovk exere irurrw ; 41 Kal i(f>ofiij(h)o-av <j>6/3ov peyav, koX ekeyov 
irpbs aXXqXovs, T& a/oa oSVos eaTw, ort Kal 6 aW/xos Kal ^ Odkacrcra viraKov- 
ovo-iv auT^J ; 

88 88 V. J Kal iJX&H' «$ to Ttipav rr\<5 Bdkacrcrqs eis t^v \a>pav twv TaZaprqvotv. 

87 2 Kal i^ekdovri, avrw ^k tov trXou>v ev^ews airqvrrjarev avr^I «c twi* p.vrfpxuov 
avdpanros eV ■nvevaaTt a\KoJdapr<a, 8 os r^v KaroiiojiTW etxpr eV Tot9 /u.Kif/tao'i* 
Kal ovSc aXvorco-tJ' ovScU ^SwaTo avrov 8iJo"aj„ 4 Sta to avrov TroXXams trcSais 

88 Kal aXvo-ccri ScSeo-^ai, Kal SicoTrctcr^ai vir' avrov ras aXvorcis, Kal to,? rreSas 
owrerptyBav koX ouSels avrov ut^vc Sa/xao-at. 4 Kal Stafl-avros wktos Kal 
■ffpApajs ev rot? p,vjjfiacri. Kal cv tow opecriv fy, Kpafov Kal KaroKoirrav cavrov 

88 Xiflois. 6 'l8«av 8^ rov Mijo-ovv afl-o p.aKp6$ev eS/oa/xc Kal w/ooo-ocvviyo-ev avr$, 

88 7 Kal Koalas ^a>v^ acyctX^ Xcyei, Ti c/xol Kal o*ol, 'li;o"ov TW tov 8eov tov 

xnjiCaTov ; opKifa <re rbv Oebv, p.ij yue (Haxravio-Qsr 8 eXcye yao avr$, "E^eX^e, 

30 to TTvev/xa to autddaprov, Ik tov avSpwvov. 9 Kal hn\pwra, avrbv, Ti <roi. 

88. irapaM] give* itwlf to the tickle. " Hulte tded gelidi 
melius «e nocte <*«&«" Ftiy. Georg. i. 287; tee below on 

34. JvAwi] •'Dudpulu txplieabat. ItiXiut, explieare. inter- 

prttari, in ven. Alex, respondet Hebr. ty^ Geo. xli. 12. abi wrmo 

* "-■■■-■- ■■■•- m; verbum timplf" *' " 

AquiU Gen. xl'. 8. exprewit H 

■wawa Tpo*i|Tiia ypa<pn* Wat iiriXiatmt oi yiynrai. 
88. it n> if t» tW<ji] They convey Him with them u 

been teaching (iy. 1) — his migratory Church. 

— irXoiapia] Altered by some into -rXoto, but the iWa -r\oi- 
ipta show that oar Lord's Teasel alto was a small one, — a circum- 
stance of interest in the miracle. 

38. to tpoimKbikuior] Probaby the cushion of the steersman. 
See Cratim. ap. Polluc. Onomaot. x. 40. (Kmn.) 

— oatftvoWv] Some of the Fathers give also a spiritual meaning 
to this circumstance. When the storm of Satan's fury raged most 
fiercely against the bark of the Chun-h, Christ was reclining in the 
sleep of death on the wooden -rpovxttpiKaiw of the Cross. But He 
awoke from the slumber of death, and rebuked the waves and the 
winds, and there was a great calm. 

88. stir, tb BaWon] Not by meant of a rod, a* Moses ; or by 
prayer, as Elisha ; or by the ark, as Joshua ; — but by a word. 

— *td>i>»<ro] See i. 25. The Perfect tense, indicating that 
before the word was uttered the work was done. 

— yaA^Ki) 'jicyd&n] At in His Miracles of Healing there was no 
interval of convalescence, but perfect health was restored at once, to 
after the quelling of the storm there was no gradual subsiding of the 

;e Baal, of wl 

............ , i Matt. viii. 

15, a striking evidence of the reality of His Miracle*. 

40. wan ovk lx« T « »'"'»] He rebukes His disciples for not 
having faith ; for if they had had faith they would have known that 
though asleep He could preserve them. {TkeopkpL) How is it ye 
have no faith ? i. e. faith in My divine power, which never slumbers 
nor sleeps (Ps. exxi. 4), and by which 1 can quell the storm which I 
have raited to try your faith. You treat the Son of God as if He 
• - - - " Eliiahtaid (1 Kings xviii. 27)," Peradven- 
ist be awaked."— How it it that you have 
viii. 26. 

Ch. T. t Taiapv'i*] See Matt. viii. 28. 

2, SrBpmim] St Matthew speaks of two, St. Mark and St Luke 
(viii. 28) of one. This one lived at Gadara (see v. 19, 20. Luko 
viii. 27, arno ti< U Ttjt iro\ia>t), perhaps the other did not; and the 
design of the Holy Spirit writing by St. Mark and St. Luke, for 
Romans and Greeks, seems to have been to show the love of Christ, 
by this example, to the Gentile world, to which tr ! - "--"- 
longed, as is intimated by the circumstance that the* 
swine, which was not lawful to the Jews. Cf. Let 
xiv. 8. 

Compare the parallel case of the two Blind men at Jericho. St. 
Matthew mentions two, St. Mark and St Luke only oi 
Mark x. 46. Matt xx. 29. 

7. tiii fit PaomloDt] The devil forces the man i 
devil's feeling and language, the very reverse of the man 
feelings and language ; and to call himself by a devi: 

e. 9), i. e. the devil so possessed the man, at to make hi. . . r 

devil, not at a man ; but as the enemy of man, and specially of him* 
self. This it demoniacal potetmou, and it quite a different thing 


See note 

xtdt the 
m proper 

102 ST. MARK V. 10—31. 


ovopa ; Kal \4yei avr£, Aeyeav ovopa /not, ort vokkoC eV/tev. 10 kox trap- vm. vm. 
eicaXci. avrov TroXXd, iva pr) avrovs awooTcikg efta rijs x ( ^P a ^ " *^ v ^* c ' <l " *° 
iroos t$ o/jet dycXi7 xolpov peyakrf fiocrKopa*)' 12 Kal irapcKokeo-av avrov 81 
01 odt/tovcs Xcyovres, 2Te/ti/*ov r)pa<; eis rovs x°*/> ot ' , *» wo €45 avrovs eiVeX&w/tev. 
13 Kal iwirpcij/ev avrots ev04a<s 6 'lv)<rov$. Kal e^eXflovra ra wvevpara ra 88 
aKodapra elo~i}\0ov eis tows x°V> ou S* k< " ftVO/tijo-ev ^ dyeXtj Kara tov Kprqpvov 83 

eis «)v $aXauTcrav, t)o~ov 8e a>s Sio^iXuh, Kal eVviyovro h> tq 0aXdo*o"}}. u Ol 
Be f36(TKovT€s rovs x°^P ov ^ tyvyov, Kal dinfyyetXav eis ttjv iroXiv Kal el? tows 88 84 
ay/xnfc. Kal i$fj\0ov iSeiv ti eari to yeyovos. ls Kal Zpxovrai u-/>os top 84 86 
'Iijrrovv, Kal dempova-t, tov haip.ovtXfip.wov Kadrjpevov, Kal iparurpevov Kal 
a-oxftpovowra, tov eV^Kora tov Xeyeaiva* koI ifofbjOrjo-av. 16 Kal Sirjyrj- s« 

aavro avrois ol iSdvres, trSs eyevero t$ 8ai/iovi£o/teV(j>, Kal ire/>t ra>v x°^p tM> ' 87 

' 7 Kal rjptjavTO ira/xwcaXeiv avrov direX&tv airb tq>v opiav avrStv. (^jg) 18 Kal 88 

e/tjSatvovros avrov eis to 7rXoibv, iraocKaXei avrov 6 oat/tovto&ls iva $ 
/Ltcr' avrov* 19 6 Se 'Itjo-ovs ovk dt^rj/cev avrov, aXXd Xe'yei avrtw, "TTraye 89 

eis tov oTkoi* (tov 7roos tovs o-ovs, Kal airdyyeikov avrots, ocra aoi 6 Kv/nos 
venoCrjKe, koI i^Xerjo-e' ae. •* Kal d7r>}X0e Kal rjpiaro icr/pvcrcreiv ev rp JcKa- 
trdXei oo-a eVoi7?o-ev avr$ 6 'I^o-ovs* Kal xdvres idavpatpv. 

(-^-) 21 Kal 8unrepdo-avTO<; tov 'It/o-ov ev t$ TrXotw 7rdXiv eis to iripav, 1 40 
awTJx^V °X^ os ffo ^ u 5 *""' avrov koI ^v n-a/>d tt)v Bakturarav. 32 Kal iSov W 41 
epXerat- & toJv apxurway<oy<ov dvd/tart 'Idetpos, Kal Z8a>v avrov mirret ir/sos 
tovs irdSas avrov, "^ Kal 7raocKaXei avrov woXXd Xeya»v, — -"Oti to dvyarpvov « 

/tov ioxara? I^ 6 *' * ,/a ^X^wv iiridjjs avrp rds x t ^P a ^ fa* * orct&jj, Kal £>?crcrat. 
84 Kal dir^X^e jter' avrov* Kal ^KoXov^ct avr^> o^Xos iroXvs, Kal o~wi$kifSov » 
avrov. ** Kal ywiy rts oJca ev pvV« at/xaros eny oaoeKa, ■* Kal •jroXXd 20 48 
iraOovcra wrb troXXSv iarp&v, Kal hawavrjo'ao-a rd 7rap' avr^s irdvra, Kal pt}hh> 
Gt<j>€kr)deUra, aXka. /tdXXov eis to -^et/Dov ^X^ovca, 2i ' a.Kovo~ao~a irepl tov 'Iijo-ov, 44 

eMovou eV t^> o^Xw ovurdev, rjijiaTo tov ipariov avrov ** IXeye yd/o, *Ort 81 
k&v twv t/xarta»v avrov axpwpai, vcadrjcopAiL. w Kal ev^cws i^ijpdvdrj r) Tnjyi) 
tov at/taros avr^s, Kal eyva» r^I crwpaTt, ort tdrat diro r^s ttdVrtyos. *• Kal *• 

cv^c'ws 6 'fiyaovs eViyvovs ev ^avr^J r^v e^ avrov Svvautv efcX(9ovo-av, «irt- 
orpa^cls ev to> o^X^* eXeye, Tts /tov qi/raro twi- i/taruuv ; 81 Kal ekeyov airy 46 

from may phgtical doom. (Cp. on Matt W. 24, and below on ix. 20.) 
See the change of the man after the devil wa» catt out of him. 
er. 15. la 

8. Xty'w'l Xepio (about 6000 toldien). One of the Roman 
words in St Mark'i Gotpel. See on ii. 4. Our Lord uked the quettion, 
not as if He needed to be informed of any thing, but that the by- 
stander! might know that thia one man had become the *-•-=■'-" — 
ahoat of devils. 

The Gentile World was 

- ; — --iir bondi 

His feet 
mentioned by St. Mark alone. 
«i embarking— a preferable reading to 

18. »< •.«■ 

18. irfal, 

18, 19. W i hit' abroi-oiK d<M««] Fearing that the devils 
would return after the departure of Christ But Christ would teach 
him by his almnc* that He was present with him in Divine power, 
by which He had cast out the Legion ; and so would exercise his 

19. i-riyy„\o,] Contrast thia with i. 25. 44. 

e would not allow devils to proclaim what He w 
"io had been delivered fi 

>t allow devils to pi 

and this He dees in Oadara, where 

above, i. 45), and as a prophetical ii 

due time to be preached to all the Ni 
be delivered by l4 ' — '^ ~ a ■. = 

Scribes and Pharisees (see 
i that the Gospel was in 
>f the world, who were to 
Legion of Evil Spirits to 

98. ipxurvimyiiyur] nj^ri Ah {roth kaaxnetetk), from root 
DJJ («■*»), to collect ; ' caput synagogc" (See VUringa, Archisyn. 
Franecq. 1684.) He appears to have been the president of a Colle- 

gium or board, or vestry, who provided for the maintenance of, or 
attendance at, the Svnagogue, and also for the superintendence of the 
Service and the teaching in it 

— o«>M«ri 'Idsipocf The name (not mentioned bv St. Matthew) 
is added by St. Mark for the further proof of the miracle. 

23. on— Ua] Two sentences put together abruptly, and charac- 
teristic of the hurried eagerness of the suppliant father. Cp. a simi- 
larly broken phrase, viii. 24. 

88. rd *ap' airr^A All that could be supplied from htrtl/— all 
her oum resources. She had spent them all ; and had no hope but in 

Christ And when all o , .... 

healed her. An emblem of human nature antecedently to, and inde- 
pendently of, Divine Grace. 

89. htrat] Not liroi, present, but perfect, ' ktu been healed,* 
tanata est — marking the miraculous snddenness of the cure. 

80. iriynin— -^v — igiAbWav] Having perceived tie rrXaw 
that had gone out of Himself. Christ's eye sees invisible grace in all 
its secret operations. He beholds the breath of the Spirit moving 
in the Word and Sacraments', and in the human heart of the recipient. 
We only see its effect* He sees the wind ; we only perceive what is 

order to learn any i 
He had given to the 
healing of many. 

The word om 
fatten oneself eagerly 

might be made manifest, to the spiritual 

ijuoi signifies something more than touch, — to 
to a thing, to ding to it with a desire to derive 

„ _ See M -i M«« *«"••», John rx. 17. 

Our Lord's question with St Peter's reply (e. 31. Luke viii. 45) 
serve together to brills' out the truth, that the worldly crowd which 
familiarly presses on Christ's human body as Afo», throngt Him, but 
it is only the hand of that Faith which believes in His divine power 


a Sit. 8. 4. 

a John 6. 4x. 

67 84 

b John 4. 44. 

ST. MARK V. 32-43. VI. 1—7. 103 

ol padrfral awrow, EXcrret? toi' o^Xov awdkifSovrd ere, *cal Xeyets, Tis /tow 
Tjifiaro ; ^ Kal irepiefiktirero ISeiv rf)v tovto iroeqaaaav. ** 'H Bk ywfj <£o/fy- 
Oclaa km, rpipovaa elSuut o yeyovev iir axrrj} tf\$e Kal irpoaeveaa' avrtp, 
Kal etn-er awr$ iraxrav r^v akijOeiav. u 'O 8e eT7ra> avrp, Svyarep, 17 irUrm 
trow <r«V<UK« <r€, xhraye as eipyjvrjv, Kal la$i vyvqs aim rfjs pdarvyos <rov. 
35 "Etl airrov XaXowVros, ipxpvrai airb tov dpxiawayctyov Xeyoires, "Ort ^ 
dvydrqp aov ami&ave ri eri o-kwXXcis w BiZda-KaXov ; x *0 8e 'Ii)<rov% 
eudibis, aKovaras tov \6yov \akovpevov, Xeyci t$ ap\iavvayary(p, Mrf (fwfiov, 
pxtvov irCareve. w Kal owk axfrrJKev ovSeva avrw awoKokovdrfo-ax ei /*^ JJerpov 
Kal 'Idicaftov koI 'latdwiqv tov dSeX^ov 'latcwfiov. M Kal ep^erai as tw 
oIkov tov apxiowaydbyov, koi decopel dopvfiov, Kkatovra? /cat dXaXd£oiTa? 
TroXXa* • Kal eio-cXflaw Xeyei auroi?, Ti dopvfiexade koi KrXaterc ; to iraiStbp 
ovx diredavev aXXa fcadevSet. 40 kal KareytXav avrov. 'O hk ck/SoXau' 
jravras irapaXapfidvci tov varepa tow iraiStow Kal Tip prtpipa, Kal tow? /tier' 
awrow, Kal elavopcverai ottow ^v to iraiZiov dvaKeipevov. 41 Kal Kpanjaas 
Trjs x ci /°° s T0 " w**8*ow Xeyei awry, Takida kow/u, — cart pe0epp.r)vevop.a>ov, 
To Kopdo-iov, aol Xeyw, eyeipc. 42 Kal ew0e<u? avian} to Kopdawv koX irepi* 
crraTct, ijv yd/> craw SwSora, xal efeoTr/ow CKordaei. /teyaXy. ** Kal Steoret- 
XaTo awrois * 7roXXd, tva ft^Sels yj/tw towto- Kal cTttc So^qvai awry (fmyetv. 

VI. (-y-) ' Kal i$fj\0€v iKefflev, koi Ipyerax els rqv irarpiSa avrov Kal axoXow- 
dovaw ovt$> ol pxrfhyral awrow. 2 Kal yevopJvov aafSfiaTov rjpijaTO iv rjj awayayQ 
StSdaKav Kal iroXkol aKOwovres igeirfojaaovro, Xeyovrcs, H6da> towt^» Tawra ; 
Kal tis 17 ao<f>ia 7) Zodtura axrrS Kal Swa/teis TOiawrat 8ia t5v \€ipav awrow 
ytvovrai ; 3 Ow^ o&Vos ^oru' 6 tcktaw \ 6 wt6s Maptas, a8c\<f>b$ 8e 'laKtuySov 
Kal 'Iwo-iJ Kal 'JowSa Kal 2ip,(>>vo$ ; koI owk cio'lv at dScX^al awrow SSe ir/>6$ 
•^/tas ; Kal eo'KavSaXi^ovro cV awry, (-j-) 4 *BXeye 8i awrow 6 'I^o"ows, "Oti owk 
lor* ir/Jo^T^s dn/ios, d pr) cv rg irarpim b awrow, Kal eV rois avyyevdai, Kal 
iv Tj7 oiKta awrow. s Kal owk ^SuVaro ckci ovhtpiav Svvap.iv iroifjaat, el p.rj 
oXtyocs dppwaroK ewt^els to? x 6 ^ 15 ifepdirevae. (-^-) 6 Kal Idavpatfi Su» 
T^i' aTrio-Tiaw awrwi^ Kal wcpvrjye Tas K<u/xa? kwkX^> 8i8do-Kft>v< 

(-" ) 7 Kal ir/ooO'KaXeirai tows SwScko, Kal rjp£aTO awrows dwoo-reXXew 8wo 8wo* 

to heal the raul and body, that totick* Him, although it touch not 
Hit human body— Hit carnal substance — but only the hem of Hia 
garment ; and that wherever there is such a touch, divine virtue will 
go out of Him by the hem of Hii Garment, to heal. This may be 
applied to those who crave a carnal presence in the Holy Eucharist. 
(Cp. St. AuguMim, Sermones, lxii. 5.) Christ says, ,l Tangentem 

2usro, non prementem; cam premit, Fides tangit Erigite oculos 
dei, tangite extremam fimbriam vestimenti; sufficiet aofsalutem." 
Cp. St. Aug. Senn. ccxlii. and ocxliii. 

It was, indeed, a high degree of faith to believe in Christ's 
Deity, when He was in Human Flesh on earth, and that was the 
faith of Mu woman. Thit example shows indeed that our Lord, when 
on earth, could be touched by faith, and virtue would go out of Him 
responsive to the touch. But it might be thought, that after His 
departure from earth by His Ascension into Heaven He could no 
longer be touched ; and therefore our Lord provides an answer to this 
supposition after His Resurrection by another example. He does this 
in His words to another woman, Mary Magdalene (Ji 
" Touch Me not, for' ----- * 3->" 

Mary Ma 

le trial of faith 

most exquisite 

rcised after the Ascension. Thus 
the case of Mary Magdalene comes in as supplementary to the case 
of the faithful woman before us. See on John xx. 17, fin iu« 

Our Lord, now ministering in the heavenly Temple as our great 
High Priest, is described as dad in a long garment defending to Hit 
feet (Rev. i. 13) ; and Divine Grace descends from the Anointed One 
to the least and lowest of His members, — ss the precious ointment 
upon the head of Aaron, which ran down to the skirts of his clothing 
(Ps. exxxiii. 2) ; and divine virtue goes out of Christ to all who touch 
Him by faith, in Prayer, and in His Word and Sacraments,— which 
are the heme of Hit garment. 

34. s(v <(p«W] Something mor 

• • " " " \ for peace. Gen. xl 

Bftqft (tthatom), for peace. < 

s of the 

40. lV0aXii» wdrrat— sist' a. 
discourage vain curiosity, and to teach a lesson o; 
good; and admitting others, carefully chow 

miracle. The manner in which Christ's mirauca am uuue is crau- 
plary to all, though they cannot exert miraculous power. 

41. TaAi0a> kovmO from M(rty (talOka), puella; <tpip (ami), im- 
perative from o»p (turgere). ' Puella, surge 1' St Mark alone give* 
the iptusima verba uttered by Christ, and probably recited by St. 
Peter, an eye-witness of the miracle (t>. 87) to the Evangelist. 

48. «Iir«~a>ay»T»] To show that she was not only restored to 
life, but to perfect health,— a proof of the miracle. 

Ch. VI. L irarplta] Nazareth. 

8. ouv oSros iWiy o TiVraw] A proof of the manhood of Christ 
" Error hcreticorutn, nostra salus." There is also a truth, more than 
they knew of, in their words. For o«x outov i t<«tco» ; Is He not 
the TiVrtev of the Universe? 

— At,\<p6t] See Matt. xii. 46; sdii. 55. 

6. Wiraro] ovv Sri tnim iaBt^t, dXX' Sri («s>w» fcrivroi. 

Cp. John vii. 7, of moral inability. To show the power and 
necessity of faith, our Lord regulated the exercise of His Omnipo- 
tence according to men's belief in it See ix. 23, where He even 
vouchsafes to invest faith with His own Omnipotence, wdrra twaTa 
t<£ wio-r,vo*Tt. Cf. Matt xiii. 58. In this expression is an evi- 
dence of inspiration. The Holy Spirit alone Who knows the mind of 
Christ, would have spoken thus of His power, and of the laws by 
which He is pleased to limit and control its manifestation. 

6. i9ainaXt] See on Matt viii. 10. 

7. too tio] i. e. Amos; a Hebraism, where the Greeks use ird, 
Luke x. 1. Cp. Gen. vii. 2; xxxii. 16. Num. xvii. 2; xxviii. 21. 
See below, v. 89, 40, mpwivia o-vtnroVia. 

ST. MARK VI. 8—28. 


koI iSCSov avrois efovoaav rwv rrveupdrtav rwv OKaddprtav. 8 Kal 7rapifyyeiXev _. 
avTois, iva pr)8h> alpacriv eis 68ov, ei pr) pd/88ov povov pr) irrjpav, pr) aprov, 10 
fir) cis rip £<mvj7v ^oXkov* 9 dXX' v7ro8e8e/xevovs o-av8aXia, Kal j*t) evSvoT/o^e 
Svo xirava^. (-£ ) 10 Kal eXeyev avrois, "Olrov eav eiWX&yre eis oiKiav, eKei ll 
pivere. ea>s iv efe'X&pre hteWev. (-§-) u Kal o<rot iv /wj 8e'f<uvrai v/xas prj&k M 
OKOvaroMTW vpwv, haropevopevot, httWev iicnvd^are rov x ^ tov woKOTft) 
t£v ttoSwv v/xav, eis paprvpiov avrois. 'Apr)v Xeyeu ipu>, dveKTorepov eorai 
SoBopois r) Topoppois iv r)pepa Kpurecas, r) rjj iroXei itceaqi. (^-,) l2 Kal e£eX- 
0ovres hajpvcrcrov Iva peravorjcrwcri, 1S Kal Saiudvia woXXa l£if3aXkov, koI 
rjXeufwv* ikaMp 7roXXovs dppaorovs koI iOepdirevov. a James*. 

(-£-) u Kal ^Kovcrev 6 /8ao-iXevs \Hpa58r/s, <f>avepbv yap eyevero to ovopx avrov, l " 
Kal eXeyev, ori 'Iwdvvr/s 6 fiamLtfi>v he vtKpmv r)yip6r), Kal 8ta tovto eVe/j- 8 
yovViv ai Swd/tieis iv avr^J. 15 ".4XXoi 8^ iXeyov, *0ri 'HXias eo-riv* aXXoi 
8^ IXeyov, "Ort irpotfyqriijs eWlv, a>s els reSv rtpotyrp-wv. (-"-) 16 '-/iKovVas 8^ 
6 'Hpa>8r)<; etwev, "Ort ov eya* dTreKe^dXio-a 'ladwrfv oStos eoriv, avros rjyipOr) 
he veKpSiv. (-^-) 17 .4vtos yap 6 'Hp&JSr/s dtrooreiXas hepdrrprt tov 'Iwdwrjv, 8 
Kal 18170*61' avrdv ev <f>v\aiey, Sid "Hp«u8id8a tt)v ywauca QikCmrov tov dSeX^ov 
avrov, ori avrr)v eydprfcrev. 18 "EXeye yap 6 'Itudvvrjs r$ 'HptuSfl, *On c ovk ^ Jg 
efeori 0*01 ex €u ' T ^ 1 ' ywaiKa tov a8eX^ov o-ov. l9 'H 8^ 'HpcoStas cVeixei' * »• *'• 
awr^, Kal •^f^eXo' avrov diroKTCii-ai, Kal ovk ijSvVaTo* -* 6 yap 'HpaJSi/s e^o- 
jSctro tov 'IiudwrjV, ctSws avrbv dvSpa hUatov Kal dyuiv, Kal owerrjpci avrov, 
Kal aKovo-a? avrov iroXXd iiroUt. Kal r)hdto$ avrov t)kov€. (-^-) 21 Kal, yevo- 6 
f*€v»;s r)pApa<s evKotpov, ore "HpwSrjs rois d yeveaxbis avrov Seiwvov irroUi. rots * o*"- *•• 
peyurracrw avrov Kal tois x-^-^PX 015 Ka - T0 ^ irp&rois rrjs PaXiXaui$, 22 Kal 
eureXflovoTjs r^s ^vyarpos avr^s 7*9? 'HpwSidSos Kal opxQcrapevr)?, koI dpe- 
<rdar\s r^» 'HpwSp Kal rots o*wavaK«/*evois, et-rev 6 ySao-tXevs r^I Kopatrup, 7 
Alrrjcrov pe t lav Bikrjs Kal Swao) crov -° Kal apocrev airy, "Ori h cav /ue air^crps 
SiiiJorw o-ot lius r)pCcrov$ r^s j8ao*tXeias /tov. ^ 'H 8^ e£eX^ovo*a etire rp pryrpl 8 
avrijs, Ti airija-apai ; r\ 8« eltrc, Tijv Kt<pakr)u 'ladwov tov /Jaimorov. ** Kal 
eiO'eX^ovaa evdem pera, crTrov&fjs irpbs tov /SaoriXca, yrqeraro Xcyovcra, OeXw 
tva /not 8<jJs c^avrijs en-l irivoKi rr)v K€<f>aXr)v 'Iotdwov rov fSaimarov. x Kal 
■n-eptXiwos yevo/icvos 6 /SaoriXevs 8td rov9 opKOvs Kal tovs o-wavaKct/xevovs 9 
ovk r)d£kqo-a> avrr)v dOerrjo-ai. v Kal eidew aTroorctXas 6 /SaoriXevs OTreKov- 
Xdropa etrera^ev h>€)(6r)vax rqv Ke<j>akr)v avrov. a 'O 8^ dn-eXdaiv diKK^pd- w 
Xto-ev avrov ev ry <f>vkaicj}, Kal ^veyKe r^v Kc<f>akr)v avrov iirl mvaKt, koI u 
iSeoKev avrr)v r^J Kopacrup, Kal to Kopdariov cSwkcv avr^v T^ pryrpl avrr)%. 

cidence snd evidence of truth. 

8. x a * K0 '"] money, the Roman «t. St. Lake, writing for the 
Cmvb, in ipyipior, z. 4. See below, zii. 41. 

9. aa^«'^i«] See Matt x. 10. 

IS. <X«i0oi> i\a/«] l«Ti» IXatov irf>4« xairovt i^»'Xi,uo», Kal 
<f>mrit atriov, «ol iXaodriiTot Todfivov. xai (rqpafvii ri <Aiot 
to5 6i«S. ( Tieopkr/l.) The Apoitlei med it to »how by the applica- 
tion of an appropriate visible ugn, that the healing was effected by 
their instrumentality, in the Name of Christ, the Messiah or anointed 
one of God (Ps. ii. 6 ; xlv. 7. Acts iv. 27 ; z. 381, and in His power 
Who had sent them; and because the oil itself was significant of 
God's mercy and spiritual comfort, light, and joy (Euutym., Tkeo- 
pM.), and of grace given to the soul and body in answer to fervent 
prayer. 2 Cor. i. 21. 1 John ii. 20. 27. 

For the bearing of this text on 'EMrtme Unction; see note on 
James v. 14. 

IS. sW <!« tm> *(..] equal to one of the old Prophet*. 

18. U«yt] dktbat, a repeated warning ; met by Herodias with 

. Acts 

he resented John's rebuke, and feared its effects on the people. 
Herod would have killed John before, but he feared the people. 
(Matt. xiv. 3. 5.) 

Another proof of John's unwavering constancy 
courage even unto death. (Cp. on Matt xi. 2—6.) 

— tiKovt] Used to hew— listened to him. 

88. auTijv Ti»t 'Hp.] Of Herodias 
did not scruple to use her daughter- : 

88. if okt^«] Immediately ; lest Herod should relent 

86. wi/uXinrotl Not sorry for his sin, or for John's death, bat 
because he feared the people who held John as a prophet (see on 
v. 20, and Matt xiv. 5) ; and perhaps with a sense of indignity in 
sacrificing the prophet to the malice of Herodias, and in being en- 
trapped bv her wiliness in a revel, exposing him to the contempt and 
hatred of his subjects. 

87. a~ri«e*Xa!Tepa] Suidat, a-wiKavXdrwp, top»<pipot, i. e. i 
mado ; but other glossaries render it Kararaoirot, d madando. 
Executioners were called meculatora. Seneca de Benefic. iii. 25 : 
" Speculalorib— oeeurrit, mitt * deprteari, oho mini, imperaia per- 
agtraU, dixit, tt demit oerviam pornxit." De lrai. 16: "Ontmrio 
npplido prapotitut, oondtrt g/adium tpeculatorem Met." Julius 
Firmicus viii. 26 : " Speculator* facia, qui nudato gladio kommmm 
ampntant ctrvicn." (aim.) 

ST. MARK VI. 29—51. 



29 Kal dKovcrapres oi pa0r)ral avrov Jp\$ov Kal Ifpav to irrwpa avrov, <eat 
ib\)Kav avrb iv pvr/pei^. 

(»?fi) M £<" wvdyovrai oi dtroaroXoi npbs rov *Itj<tovv, koI dirrjyyeiXav 
avr$ trdvra, wra iiro£r)o~av Kal oo~a e8i8a£av. (-?£-) 31 Kal Xeyei aurois, JeDre 
vpas avrol kot' tSuu' eis ipypov tovov /cat avairav€<r$e oktyov "fjaav yap 
oi ipxop-evoi. Kal oi vVdyovres iroXkol, Kal ovSe <f>ayeu> •qvKaipow. & Kal 
airtjXOov eis epiypov tovov t$ irXoup kot ISiav M Kal elSov avrovs vwdyovra^ 
Kal cireyvoKrav avrov iroWot* Kal ?re£r} dirb 7rao-aiv ra/v irdXean' cruvSpapov 
€kci, Kal irporj\6ov avrov?, Kal o-wtjX^ov tt/oos avrov. (-^-) ** Kal itjekOwv ctSev 
6 'Iijorovs iro\w ox^-ov, Kal iav\ayxyCab\} iv avrois, on fjo~av a>s trpofSara 
py expvra iroipeVa* koI rjpiaro SiSdo-Kcu' avrovs woXXa. (-£-) x Kal TJfyq 
«3pas iroXXiJs yevoperjs, irpoo-cXfloVres avr$ oi padifral avrov Xeyovo-iv, "Ort. 
cprqpo% iariv 6 roVos, koI rjSrj apa woXXij, * dirdXvo'ov avrovs, iVa direX&Wes 
eis tovs kvkX<j> dypovs Kal Kwpas dyopdcrcaaiv eavrois d/JTOvs* ri yap <f>dy<i>criv 
ovk expvoriv* w 'O 8e awoKpiOels elirev avrois, Jdre avrois vpeis <£ayeiv. Kal 
Xeyovo-iv avr$, ^xTreXtfdvres ayopdo-apev StaKoo-uuv b\)vaptu>v dprovs, Kal 8a>pev 
avrois <^ayeiV ; x 'O 8e Xey« avrois, Ildo-ovs aprovs e^ere ; wrdyen koI tSerc. 
Kal yvdvrcs Xeyowi, IleVre, Kal Svo i^^vas. M Kal eWra&v avrois dvoKXivai 
Trdvras, o~vpv6aui o~upir6o~t.a, hrl r$ xkcapai \6pT<i>. *°Kal aveirecrov trpacrud 
■npaaruu, dva acarbv Kal dvd irevrrpcovra. 41 Kal \aficov tovs TreVre dprovs Kal 
tovs 8vo i^ft/as, dva/JXetyas eis t6v ovpavbv cvkoyqo-e, Kal KaracXao'c tovs 
aprovs, koX eStSov Tots ftadi^rats avrov, t^a irapadStcrw avrots, Kal rovs 8vo 
iydvax ipJpure irdci. 42 Kal 2<f>ayov irdvre? Kal expprdo-$T)o , av. ** Kal ^oav 
Kkaa-pdrmv hcoheKa KcxftCpovs irXiyoets, Kal dtro twj' i)(d6<»v. ** Kal fjarav oi 
^aydrrcs tovs aorovs wevraKto^iXiot dvSocs. (-|r) 4S ■^ a l ev0«us r/vdyKao-e 
rovs pa$Tjras avrov ip/3i}vai ets to irXotov, Kal irpodyew ci? to ttipav n-pos 
Ify0o-ai8d*>, «as avros dtroXva^ tov oxXov. (-^-) 46 Kal diroTa£dp.€i>os avrots 
dir»jX#€v ets to odos irpoa-eu^aarOai. (-^-) 47 Kal o»/»tas yevopJtnfi Ijv to frXotbv 
«/ fteVa) r^s ^aXewroTjs, Kal avros povos cirl r^s yijs. ** Kal cTSev avrovs 
fSao-avitppa>ov<; h> tw eXavvciv, -Jfv yap o dvc/tos ivavrios avrois. Kal trcpl 
rerdprrjv <f>vkaid)v t^s wktos €p\erai trpos avrovs iKpnrarS>v iirl r^s ^aXdo-OT^s, 
Kal iJfleXe iraptkd&v avrovs. 49 Oi 8c, iSdvres avrov irepwraTovVra e?rl t^s 
$a\dcra7)<i, !8o£av jtdmaarpa chat. Kal dveKpatjav M irdVres yap avrbv cISov 
Kal erapd)((h)o-av. Kal cvdeius cXaX^cc per' avrwv, Kal Xeyei avrois, 8ap- 
owe, eyw eipi, p^ fofttlaOe. (-^-) 61 Kal dvefir) irpos avrovs eis rb ttXoiov, 

88. iviyn»u> ai-roV] See below, 

r, v. 64. *•{]!, i. e. not 

84. if «X8<i»] having disembarked. See ri. 54. 
86. ftpat vo\Xq<] See Matt. xiv. IS. 

40. irpaoriai] " Nomiiutivne Hebnicns." (7/ow. Phil. p. 286. 
The reduplication it for the Greek d»«i. Pbi*. Hebr. p. 312; and 
above on «. 7. 

The word -wpaaid is derived by some from iripat, fcnatni 
(/»o»»oic) ; by others from »paoo», porrxnt. 

It serais rather, like irapaoWoc, to be of Oriental origin, and 
to be formed, by a metathesis of the letter p, from the root DTB 
(poros), or toi^ (porai), to divide or portion out into compart- 
ments ; whence part, partior, and perhaps pratum, a field : wpairiai 
are areola; vmdaria, parter*— '■»» '« «•!«•«■• ,».. .. n ^-/, 7" 
piyt.), in which, as in a gar 
the Apostles, and ripened tuvu nu lunuauin 
almighty power and divine benediction of Christ 

The Holy Spirit, by the use of this word vpaaiai, appears to 
call attention to the fact, that our Lord, Who then multiplied the 
five loaves to be food for five thousand, is the same Divine Person 
Who, in a manner less striking, because more gradual and regular, 
but certainly not less wonderful, ripens all the seeds in all the Oar- 
dens and Orchards, and in all the Vineyards and Meadows of this 

Vol. L 

ir KOit/taTa, Tkeo- 
aeed was sown by the hand of 
•'—*—'— harvest by the 

world in successive seasons, e< 

a dwelt in Paradise, to 

The wpao-mi 

and typify the different Churches which together make up the 
Catholic Church, and an all fed with the Word and Sacraments 
of Christ, ministered to them by Apostolic hands. Cf. Balaam's 
sublime description of the Ancient Church in 
xxiv. 5, and see Oregor. Moral, xvi. 64, at * " 

41. KuTiWXavi — liiiov] He broke anc 
distributing, in repeated acts, the loave* to His 
the multitude, but He «»ipi<Ti, disparted by one act the two fishes to 
all. Cp. below, viii. 6. Matt xiv. 19 has iiwi -rot, paPm-ait 
here; and John vi. 11 has dii'oWi r. p. concerning the loaves. 
But ititov used by St Mark, and St Luke ix. 16, expresses some- 
thing more than the act of giving, and the effect; it describes the 

Cp. on Matt xxvi. 26, 27, with regard to the distribution of the 
elements at the Sacramental Supper. 

45. «.! •/>«•«] See Matt xiv. 22. 

— B»0<rai lav) the other Bethsaida, on the west of the Lake. 

48. CtliXt iraptXViiv] He designed, sad was about to pass by 
them. Cp. Luke xxiv. 28, and &Um., Phil. pp. 699, 700. This 
idiomatic use of Bi'X* remains in the language of modern Greece ; 

flflsXt »a, and more briefly by di 

A silent note of Inpiration. He 
He intended so to do. But what 

out to pass by them. 

_. .this? Whoknoweth 

of Christ but the Spirit of God? (Cp. 1 Cor. ii. 11.) 

106 ST. MARK VI. 52—56. VII. 1—18. 

ical eKoVao-ev 6 dvepos' koI Xiov «e irepuraov ev eavTois c^iwrravro ko.1 idav* xiv. 
paXjov, S2 oi yap awrJKav * «ri Tois a/OTOis, fy yap q xapSCa avrcov iretra- •<*•»• »*• 
patpanj. (-^-) 5S Kal StampdcravTcs Jjkdov iirl rrfv yfjv rtwrfaraper, koi 

54 Kal i%€kd6vra>v awrov Ik tow irkoiov ev#e<»s emyvdVres awrov, M we/ot- 86 
Spa/utovres 0X17V rr)v vepc^apov e/ceivrjv rjp£avro iirl rots K/oajSdrrois tows KaKaJs 
e^ovras irtpufxpeiv oirov tJkovov am occi «m* w koi oVow Ay turetropevero 
as Ktopas ^ uroXct? ^ aypovs, ev rats dyopats IriBow tows do-0evowvras, Kal 
irapacakovv avrov iva k&v tow KpaoireSov tow IparCov awrow ar\>o>vrai f , koI 88^ ^ 
oVoi av rjirrovro awrow i<r<u£ovro. CD - *• ,7 > **• 

VII. (-£) l Kal awdyovrat trpos awrov oi $apuraloi, Koi rives r»v Tpap- i 
pareav, eXtfoVres dirb 'Itpoo-o\vpa>v, 2 Kal iSovres Tivds t£v padrfrSw avrov 
Koivals x^P ' 1 ' t °vt €<rrw dviwrois, iadtovras d/wows. 3 oi yap Qaptxraioi Kal 
fl-dvres oi 'lowSatot edv /tiy irvypj} vM/rwvrat Tas x 6 */" 19 ovk c<r$town, icpa- 
tovVtcs r^v irapa8o<rw to>v irpeo-f&vripwv 4 Kal diro dyopa.% lav p/q /Jaim- 
travTat. ovk iadiovav Kal dXXa iroXXd arriv a irapikafiov Kparelv, fZaimcrpovs 
irorrjpCav Kal feorSv Kal x<*Xkmbv *** kXivSv (^j-) 6 iir&ra itrtpayr£>crw avrov 
oi Qapuraloi Kal oi rpappaTels, Aiari oi padrjrat o~ov oi ircpiirarova-i Kara 8 
rr)v irapdhocnv tS>v irpeo-fivrdpatv, dXXd Koivais x 6 / 00 '"' *o~0iovon t6v aprrov • 
6 *0 8e diroKpideU etirev awrots, "Ori koXSs irpo&frijreva-ef 'Hamas irepl vpatv 1 
rStv {nroKpiTtbv, a>s yeypairrai, OStos 6 Xabs tois x e ^ eo- * /* € Ti/t^, 17 8^ 8 
Kaphia awTuv iroppw dv€\€i air ipov. 7 Mdrfjv 8c arifZovrai pe, 9 
StSdo-Koi'Tes StSacrKaXia? i.vrd\paTa dv$p<oir<ov. 8 'Ajmnrts yap ttjp 
irrokr/v tow ©eow K/jaretTe r^»' irapahoaw raw av$p<l>ira>v, fiairrurpovs ZtorStv 
koX irortjpuav Kal dXXa trapopoia rovavra iroXXd iroteiTe. 9 Xal eXeyev awrois, s 
KaXw? d^erciTC tt^j' 6^*0X171' tow 0€ow, wa r^v TrapaZo&w vpetv rt\pr\aifT€. 
10 Matvvfjs yap elire, Tipa tov iraripa aov Kal t^v prjTcpa o~ov Kal 6 4 
KaKoXoya? iraripa ^ pyrtpa davdr^ TcXewTdTW X1 u/xas 8e Xeyere, 6 
'Eav CMrj; dvOpamos t^» 7raT/ol ^ Tp ptfrpl, Kopfiav* (o cort, 80J/00J'), o cdv e^aM»it.M. is. 
€/*ow d><j}€\rfO^ — 12 Kal owkcti d^tcTe awrov owSev iroi^o-at t^5 irar/ol awrow ^ 
rp prjrpl awrow, 13 dKwpowvres roi' Xoyov tow 8eow t^ irapahoo-ei, vpS>v jj trap- 8 
■eSwKare Kal trapopoia rotawra iroXXd iroteirc. w Kal ir/oocrKaXeo-d/*evo? irdvra 10 
rov o^Xov, eXeycv awrois, 'Axovere pov Trdvres Kal crwiere. 1B Ov86» coriv 11 
cfadev tov dvdpdtirov tloTropevopevov cis avrov, S Swvarai awrov KoivSo-ac 1 
dXXd rd itaropevopa/a air' avrov, hciivd icm, rd Koivowvra tov dvBpwirov. 
16 £t ris l^ci ^ra aKoweiv, aKovero). (^-) 17 Kal ore cio-^X^cv cts oTkov dirb w 
row o^Xow, iirrjparcav awrov ol pad-qral awrow irc/ol r^s irapafioXrjs. K Kal 18 
Xeyei avrois, Owrw Kal tyiet? dorvveroi core ; ov voetre, ori 7rdv to cfw^cv 17 

56. rot* «oo/S<STT»it] '<*«> bed*;' i.e. the bed* to which they 
were confined. 

— Srou— i«I] On this Hebmism Ke Vont. p. 86a Cf. Rev. 
xu. 14. The U,l is emphatic. 

Ch. VII. 8. K,u,ah] Already used by LXX for Hebr. wjb 
(tome), ' unclean,' 1 Mace. i. 47. 62. 

8. iru-yM^l properly, with the fist; aa the LXX Version shows, 
irod.xxi.l8. Isa. lriii. 4 ; the knuckles of one hand ' ' "" ' ■ 

the pal_ .. _., „ ., _. 

Cp. Kuin. who says, " trvyft^ est prop. 

_ ^ _. . _ beingappl 

the palm of the other, so that b? hard rubbing both may be clea 
- ■■- " ' "- - "feiycliw.- x, 

to auyniKktiaSai Ttrin 4 

,ko U <) ej 

drina respondet Hebr. rpw 
adeo i-vypii proprie signrficat maim in pugmim contractu: illud 
ipsum nomen ipy* etiam de robore, foriUudm adhibetur, et homines 
robmti in Bcriptis Rabbinorum dicuntur JWUH ■htm, rid. Bwctorfiu* 
Lex. Talm. p. 483, hinc wvyftp commode 'reddi potest, fortUtr, aacu- 
rati et teduli ; certe Syrus interpres vertit, A.jil »j«-t« q U0 ad. 
Torbio Luc. xr. 8, exoressit etiam adverbium iwiutXvt. Cf. et 

G^ »f|•»tPha.s.p.364. t, 

4. <i»o iyopSt] (so iwi itiwmu, Herod, i. 126) returning home 
from the Ayopa, where they may have come into contact with 
heathens, publicans, and others, whom they regard as unclean. 

— E«<rri»] a Roman word (see ii. 4), tartariorum, J, of the 
Epha, and | of the Kab. See Joirph. Ant. ix. 4. This explanation 
of a Jewish custom (ee. 3— 5) is peculiar to St. Mark, and shows that 
he was not writing only for Jews : and the word £ nrriit, with others 
of like origin in his gospel, suggests that he was writing specially for 
Romans. Cp. on ii. 4. 

— X'<A«i»» 1 " Caute dictum, nam tettaeea frangebaniur." (Awns.) 
" .] mUk, live. The Hebr. ^n. 

9. «caX»t] irony. 
11. K«p/35v] See Matt xxrii. 6, and 
Pococte, i. 231. 

id above, ii. 3, ai 

wcu Bays, l»icib w quua crsa rsreuuDUB coiiaiurus 
xmferre. Non queerit dottnm Dtus de fame parentum. 
•' Multi ut prcdicentur ab hominibus, Ecclciisj conferunt qua 
suis auferunt ; cum misericordia a domestico progredi debeat pietatis 
officio. Sed ut pascendos Scrinrura dicit parentes, ita propter Deum 
relinquendos parentes, si impediant devotas mentis affeetas/' 

ST. MARK VII. 19—37. Vm. 1—5. 


eurvopevofievov ei? rbv avdpatirov ov Bvvarai avrov KowStcrax ; 19 on ovk 
ciaTTOpeverai avrov el<s rr/v KapSiav, aXX* ets tjjv KotXtav, Kai eis rbv a<j>SpS>i>a 
imropeverai, Kadaptfflv irdvra to f$p<6[iara. ^'EXeye 8c, *Oti to ck tov 
dvOpdbirov iKTropevofKvov, eVeiVo koivoi rbv avOptoirov 21 ecrcaOev yap, iic rife 
Kap&vas Tutv dvBpdmav, oi BuiKoyurfiol oi kolkoi iiciropevovTcu, /not^eiai, 7ro/>- 
vetdt, (frnvoi, ffl KXoiral, irXeovegCai, wovrfpCax, 80X09, do-e'Xyeta, d<f>0a\fib$ 
irovripbs, jSXao-^r//utd, wrepij^avCa, d^poavvrf w irdvra. ravra to. irovrjpd 
e<ra>0€v eWopcuerat, kox koivoi rbv avdpoyirov. 

24 Kai £ictWa> dvacrrd<s airfj\0€V ci? ra. p.€06pui Tvpov koi ^iowvos* Aral 
eicreXl9a>v «t9 olicCav, ovocva r}0e\e yvZvat, Kai ovk TjSwrjO-q \a0eiv. M 'Akov- 
cracra yap ywr) irepl avrov, ^s et^e to dvydrpiov avrifc irvev/xa axadaprov, 
Ikdovaa npoo-<hrecre vpbs TOV9 iroSas avrov* (£-) ^ ijv 8^ ^ yw^ '.EXXtjvW, 
Xvpo^owiKura-a. t$ -yever Kai r\pwa avrov tva to Satudviov ck/SoXj/ «c T»j9 
0vyarpbs avrrjs. s '0 81 'Iijo-ovs etn-ev avrp, ¥ A<f>€$ irp&rov yppraa-0TJvai 
Ta reicva, ov ya/> koXov eon Xa/Jetv tov dprov ra>v ritcvav, koi /SaXetv T019 
tewapiois. ™ 'H he dweicpidr) ko.1 Xeyet aura;, Nat, Kvpte, koX yap to. tcwdpia 
VTroKaTw r>Js rpaircfcr)? icrdUt. airb rSxv tyvyibiv twv irai&uav. w Kai cTttcv avr#, 
J id tovtov tov Xoyov vtraye i£ehj\vdc to Sai/Aovtov ck t>}9 dvyarpos aov. 
30 Kai drreXflovo-a cis tov oIkov avrrfc ev/o€ to 8atfw>viov cfeX^Xvflos, Kai t^v 
dvyarepa jSe/SXTj/Uvr/v «rl r^s kXivt/9. 

(-£) 31 Kai irdXtv ige\0i>v ck rutv opUov Tvpov koX JEiSaivos ^X0« 7r/oos t»)v 
0akaao~av rrjs PaXiXaia?, ava fkiarov ra>v opuav AtKanoXecos. w JKat <}>4povcnv 
avTip K(o<j)bv /xoyiXaXov, ical frapoKaXovo'iv avrov tva C7ri0]j aural t^v \itpa. 
38 Kat djroXa^o/utevos avrov diro tov o^Xov kot' iSiav, ifiaXe tov? SafcrvXovs 
avrov eis Ta 5ra avrov, Kai wrvcas ^raTo t^s y\a><r<rrj% avrov, M Kat ava- 
pk&\>a% 6t9 tov ovpavbv icrrevafje Kai Xeyei avroJ, 'E<fxf>a0d, o i<m 8uxvot- 
Xftyri. M Kat ev&a? Strfvoix.dr)a-av avrov at dicoat, ical cXvfty 6 8607109 t^9 
yXwo-OT^ avrov, Kat eXaXet 6pd£>$. (^j) K Kai SteoretXaTo b avrots tva fir/hevl 
ciTr&icriv oo*ov 8^ avro9 SteoreXXero, /taXXov trepurarorepov iiajpvo~o , ov' w Kai 
vire/07r€/oio"0'6)9 iienktfo-orovro Xcyovre9, >KaXft»9 irdvra veirotyite ical tov9 Kwftovs 
irotet axovciv, Kai tov? dXdXov9 XaXetv.* 

VIII. (4r) J "JB" €K€U'ai9 Tat9 rjpxpai<:, irafwroXXov o^Xov ovro9, Kai /*^ 
€x_6vTtav Tt <f>dya>cri> irpocncdkecrdfievos TOV9 pAtfhjTds avrov Xeyct avrot?, 
2 Sv\ay)(yi(pftai eVl t6v o^Xov, oti -781; f)pApai Tpct9 irpocrpevovtri ftot Kai 
ovk c^ovo** Tt <f)dy<acri.' 3 Kal edv dTroXucrw avrov9 vi/oret9 et9 oTkov avrwv, 
iicXvOycrovrai ev tjj 68^5, Ttvc9 yd/o avra>v p.aKp6dev rjitovcri. * Kai diKKpC- 
0T)O-av avr<p ot fiadrfral avrov, Ilodev tovtov9 Swi/o-ctoi Tt9 58e ^pprdorai 
aprav in ipTjfiCa^ ; 6 Kai imjpdtTa avrov9, !Ioa-ov9 f^crc dprov? ; oi hk etirov, 

19. «a0apt{ai> ». t. ppipuTa] Some (e. g. JTauM.) interpret this, 
u equiralent to S (faflauijn, " id quod purgmL" Cp. 2 Tim. ii. 14. 
Other's (e.g. Meyer) read <ra6u(>igut>, and connect it with A<piti>i». 
But it seems rather to mean, " exitu suo puras rclinquens omnes 
cacas" (cp. Btde, a Lapide). Everj thing that cometh in from with- 
out defecates and clarifies itself in its passage tit tov iipitpmva, and 
M leaves pure Train-u t« ffpuftarn, i. e. every thing that is con- 
verted by man into food, and enters into his system. 

2L ■woppua,] See Rom. i. 29. 

84. «M0opia] the confines : he does not seem to have crossed the 

85. Ht—aur^t] On this Hebraism, see Acts xv. 17. 

86. 'EXXuKlt] St. Matthew calls her Xamtaia (xv. 22), to show 
hit Jeteitk readers that the mercies of the Gospel were for those whom 
their forefathers had extirpated. St Mark calls her 'B.Ui|»iv. a 
Syrophcenician, of Tyre, to assure his Gentile readers that Christ 
otters salvation to them, and to every nation of the world. 

— 2vi*y<p<HiiUt<r<r<i] 4>oi«ii/i«i<r<ra from 0oi*iicri, and Xvpo0., 
as distinguished from the Libyan Phoenicians, of Carthage, better 
known to the Romans, and colonists from the Phoenicians of Syria, in 
the mother cities of Tyre and Sidon, whence Hon*, ii. 2. 11, 
" nltrque Pmm serviat nni." 

84. 'Z<p<pa8A] " Imperativus conjugations Ethpael, ta»A£>Z.j . 
dhphathah, I8<pa8a, litera », cum Grace scribatur, in <p muuta, a 

Ch. VIII. 1—8. iw i«bt»] See Matt xv. 32-88. 

— rauiroXkov] Some MSS. and Edd. have iroAi» woXXov. 
But it is less likely that auch a simple expression aa iraKu woXXoir 
should have been altered by Copyists into wa/nroAAow than vice 
veni. On the confusion of vat, and waXi, see Porttm, Eurip. 
Hec. 1169. 

ot] literally, ' there are now three days to them 


ST. MARK VIE. 6—29. 

'Eirrd. 6 Kal irapqyy&Xe t$ o^Xy dvaTrerreiV eirl t>js yifV Kal \a/3a>v tovs xv. 
eWd dprovs evxa/>icrrr)Vas «cXa<rc, Kal e*8i8ov rots fwdfyrais avrov «w irapa- IS 
#£ov Kal irapidrfKOv t$ o^X^*. 7 Kal et^o* ix^vSia dXiya* /cal evXoyr/o-as 
elfl-e vapa$ewai koI aura. 8 "E^tayov 8e Kal exoprdo~0r)o~av' Kal fjpav irepur- 87 
crew/xara Kkaa-pArav eirra tnrv/jiSas. 9<f H<rav hi oi ^aydvres <2>s rerpoKur- ss 
^iXtoi* Kal djreXvo"ev avrovs. 

10 Kal ev0e'<»s efi/Sd? eis to 7rXoib»» /iera t«5v ftadrjrcbv avrov, -Jj\$ev eis to 89 
/*e/nj Aakpavovda. (-£-) n Kal i$fjk$ov oi Qapuraloi, koI ripf-avro trvtiyrtur l 
avr$, £r/rovVres Tap' avrov OTj/ictbv d?rd tov ovpavov ireipd&opres avrov. 
(£-) 12 Kal dvaorevdfas t$ Trvev/iaTi avrov Xeyei, Ti t; yeved avnj arrjfieiov 4 
eVi£r/Tei ; *Ap*iv Xeya> vjtiu>, ei So^r/a-erai 777 yevep Tavrg OTjaeibv. 18 Kal d^els 
avrovs e/xySa? 7rdXii> eis to trXotbc, aTrrj\$ev eis to tripav. 

14 Kal iirekddovro Xafielv dprovr koa ei u^ eVa dprov ovk eT^of /xe6* eavrmv a 
& t# wXoty. (-if-) 1S Kal StctrreXXcTo avrois Xeyaiv, 'Opare, fikeirere dirb ttjs e 
£v/xi?s Tail' Qapicraiav, Kal ttjs frJ/xifS 'H/woSov. (-£-) 16 Kal 8ieXoyi£ovro ir/ods 7 
dXXr/Xovs Xeyoires, *Ori aprovs ovk eloper. 17 Kal ypov? 6 'It/o-ovs Xeyei g 
avrois, Ti 8iaXoyi£eo-0e ori dprovs ovk e^ere ; Owai voeiTe ov8£ owiere ; crt 
iretrojpwfiivrjv * e^erc t»)i> Kap&utv ififitv ; 18 d<jkr?aX/xovs c^oires oi /SXeVere, Kal a en. 
<5ra exoiTes ovk oKovere, Kal ov p.vr\p.ovevere ; w ore tows 7reVre dprovs ixkaaa 
eis tovs trcvraKMTXiXtows, 7rdo"ovs KOfjSiVovs TrXiypeis Kkao-pdrcav rjpare ; Ae- 
yovo~w avr$2, JcuScko. * "Ore 8^ tovs «rra eis tovs Ter/oaKMrxtXtovs, iroo-tov 10 
crrrvpihuv trX^p<u/u.ara Kkaarp.a.r<av -qpare ; Oi he elvov, 'Eirra. 21 Kal i\eyev 
awrocs, Hws ov awUre ; 

(-5-) a Kal Zpxerai eU BrfOoratbdv Kal <jxpovcri.v avr^J tv^Xov, Kal irapaKa- 
Xovo'U' avroi' iva avroi) di/njTai. a Kal e7rt\ay8d/xevos t^s ytipbs tov TV<f>\ov 
ifrjyayev avrov l£&> r^s KWfiTjs, Kal Trrucra? eis rd d/t/xara avrov, C7rt^els rd? 
X«/)a? avr^J, imjpcbTa. avrov el ti /SXeVet ; * Kal dpa/SXc^as cXeyc, BX«ro> 
tovs dv^/xwwovs, ort a»s BevBpa bp5>, irepiirarovvTas. M £lra ttoXu' ivddrjKe 
Tas x 6 */ 3 *? *"■* T °^ s d^^aX/tovs avrov, Kal iiroCrjcrev avrov avaf$\e\}iav koI 
diroKarearddr) Kal cvc/8Xci/>c T^Xavyois dtravra. * Kal d7r«rreiXa» avrov eis oLcov 
avrov, Xeycuv, MrjSe eis t^p Kapyv eice'X^s, fnj8^ €171775 Tivl ev 777 Kcofir). 

(-f-) ^ Kal i$rj\0ev 6 'Ii70"ovs Kal 01 p.adrfraX avrov eis Tas K<o/xas Kaurapetas 18 
ttjs ^iXmtjtov Kal ev 77; 08$ imjpwra tovs fiadryras avrov, Xeyav avrois, Ta»a 
/*^ Xeyovaw 01 av$potiroi eW ; * Oi 8e aTreKpCdrja-av, 'ladwrjv tov /3aimort)v, 14 
Kal dXXoi 'HXiav, dXXoi 8e eVa twv irpo<fyrjrav. " Kal avrds Xeyei avrois, 'Tuets 
8e Tiva /ie Xeyere elvai ; 'AiroKpiBeU hk 6 ileVpos Xeyei avr^J, 3fv et d Xpiords. w 


6. MMovl See on ti. 41. 

8. cnrupHm] nude of rushes and palm leaves. (Bede.) 

10. M'PI AoXiuaimuoa] See Matt. xv. 89. o^.n MayioXo. 
Mark adds therefore to St. Matthew"s narrative, to show his in 
pendent knowledge of the fact. The conversation took place in 
confines of Magdala, toward Dalmanutha. In Matt xv. 21 we hi 
M t' pl) T»|mw «. S. In Mark vii. 24, M s«^ia T. «. 2. 

IS. ivi{)|Tst] seek* a sign in addition to those given it 

— <t oofiiffsxaij si Hebr. oy (»m), n'; often used as 


88—26. it«i i^x'Toi] This miracle so minutely described it 
recorded by St Mark alone. See vii. 32. 

— BirSffoIMr] Supposed by many to be the northern Bethsaida, 
or JtUiai, concerning which see on Matt xiv. 13. Luke ix. 10. 

84. p\i-rm roit a., i. ». i. i., iriffiwoToiKTat] An abrupt ex- 
pression, or rather three sentences, suitable to the case, in which new 
powers of 
literal act 

— e reason why onr Lord worked Sis cure by degrees .. 

be, that He thus brought forth from the man's own lips, for the 
iers of the Gospel, words showing the process of the 
• to glimmering light, and thence to perfect vision. 

96. »q4i 1 1« t. «<4m>i>-J Our Lord had led the blind man out of 

Bethsaida to heal him, and tells him not to enter the village after he 

' l us, that if men will not attend to the 

evidence of the Gospel, and 
those WeMings slightedby '* 

of grace proffered to 
a will be withdrawn from them. If this 
• Bethsaida, then cp. Matt xi. 21. 

87. pi] emphatic, and so placed. 

89. <ri .1 i X,.«rrot) ft has been already observed on Matt 

ri. 18, that 8t Mark, the disciple of St. Peter (1 Pet v. 13, Ipun- 

), does not record our Lord's 

t^v Uirpov. Eux 
words in reply to St Peter. 

The Dmnes of Rome in I 
Kal •*•« Tain) ty irirpa o 
much on the suppontion that c 
tongue, used the same word H 

This supposition js improbabl 

If our Lord bad used the s 
Holy Ghost would have used tv 
reciting our Lord's reply, Matt r. .. . „ 

It is remarkable that St Matthew dot* use a Syro-ckaldaic word, 
1}, pip, in the verse immediately preceding— fiip !■•«. Why then 
did he not go on to write, Se il K<i<pa, «ai iwl tovt* rm K*e>« o. 
It. t. i. ? He ought to have done so,— with reverence be it said, — if 
our Lord used the same word in both members of the sentence, and if 
so much is to be grounded on this ntppottd use of the same word, aa 

ir Lord, speaking in the Syro-chaldaic 
■j (Oepio) for n.rpot and *i-rpa. 

it is unlikely that the 
words, as He does in 

ST. MARK VIH. 30—38. IX. 1—12. 



A ... .~ (-ff ) * Kal iiret Cprfcrev avrots tva pi?8evl \4yuai irepl avrov. 81 Kal ^pfaTo 8t8d- 

S 22 o-kciv avrovs ori 8et tw Tiov tow dvQpdyaov 7roXXd irarMv, Kal diroSoKLpao-drjvai 

awb t£>v "irptarfSvrifKtiv Kal tSv dpxtcpcW Kal ra»v ypapparciafv, ical diroKrav- 

88 Orjvav koX fiera rpets Tjpepas dvaoTijvai* (^-) M koI irappqo-ta tov \6yov 

28 eXdXct. Kal irpoo'XajSdpcvos avrov 6 Ilerpos rjpjjaTo eirtrtpav avr£. M 'O 81 

orto-rpa^els Kal t8a>v tovs pafljrrds avrov etrerip-qae. t$ tlerptp Xeywv, "Tirayt 

birlorw pov, crarava, ori ov t^povets ra tov deov, aXXa to rati' dv$p<air<ov. 

84 (-§-) M Kal Trpoo-KaXco-dpevos tov oj(Xov irw rots pafl^rats avrov ctirev avrots, 
83 *Otms 0«X« biri<r<a pov okoXovOciv dvapvrjo-dcrOa) iavrbv, ical aparo) tov otov- 

85 84 /wv avrov, koI d/coXov0eiTw /tot* M os b yap av 0eXp rip* t/»vx>7v avrov owat, 

airoXccrct avrqv os 8* av airo\icry rr)v eavrov V rw X^ v cv* Ka/ ty°v *»* rov evayye- 

86 26 Xibv, cnucret avrrjv M ri yap <w^cXt/o-cc dvdpwirov, lav Kcpbrjaig tov Koo~pov 

oXov, ical fr/jpuoOj) rr)v t/w^v avrov ; ^ •*} ri Secret avdpwvos dvraXXaypa tjjs 
86 V' V X^ S a ^ T0 *' » (ir) w *^5 y*/° ^" twaurxyvByj pe ical tovs epovs Xoyovs &> r# 
yeve£ ravTQ tq potxaXtSt ical dpaprct>X$, ical 6 Ttos tov dv$pwvov inaiaxyvdrj' 
crcrai avrov, otov 1X00 & rp 8df# tov Harpos avrov perd rwv dyye'Xaiv rav 
88 87 dyuav IX. (-5-) * Kal eXeycv avrots, 'Apr)v \eyo> vptv, oti eicrl rives twv t58e 
«rrr/K©ra>v, oirtves ov pi) yevo*<uvrat davarov, «ws av tSwo-t r^v /SaonXetav rov 
©eov eXijXv^vidv lv 

1 ' 88 2 Xal pe^ Tfpipa<; If irapaXapySavet 6 'liyo^ovs tov iHrpov ical rov 

2 'laica>/)ov Kal rov 'Iotdwrfv, Kal dva^epet avrovs cis opos infrrjXbv kolt tStav 
89 psovov? Kal penpopiJMiidyi ipirpoadev avrwv 3 koI ra tpdna avrov eyivero 

crriX/Sovra, XcvkoI Xiav a»s x^' °^ a yv<uf>eus iirl ri}s yrjs ov 8vvarat Xcvkovoi. 
8 80 4 Kal oi<^077 avrots 'HXtas crvv JlfoivcreT* Kal ijo-av crvXXaXovvres r^» 'Iiycrov. 
4 88 5 -Kal airoKpidtU 6 flerpos Xeyet t^» 'I^o-ov, 'Pa/8^81, koXov ^otw ^pa? £8c elvai* 

Kal iroujo-vpev oncrfva^ rpct?, o-ol piav, Kal Mwvo-ct piav, Kal \HXia piav 6 ov 

6 84 yap ^[8« ri XaXif 077, ^crav ydp €K<f>ofioi. 7 Kal eyevero ve^e'Xij cV«TKid4ovcra 

86 avrots, Kal ijX0e <^a»v^ «k t^s ve^c'Xijs, OvVos e'crriv 6 Tids pov 6 dyairTros. 

8 86 avrov aKovere. 8 Kal igdmva 7repi/8Xci/»dpevoi ovkcti ovScva cI8ov dXXd rov 

9 'liyo-ovv pxtvov ptff eavrSv. 9 KaraySaivdvraiv 8e avrwv otto tov bpov%, 8u 
eoreiXaro avrots iva piyScvl 8«7y»jcrcovra4 a eTSov, ei p^ orav 6 Tios tov dv6pd>- 
irov ck veKpwv dvaarp. (-5-) 10 Kal rov Xoyov iicpdrrjo-av, irpibs eavrov? ot/£>7» 

10 rovvres rt ecrri to ck vacpatv dvao-rrjvai. (^-) n Kal (.Trqpoyrwv avrov Xeyovrcs, 

*0 ri Xeyovo"iv 01 TpappaTtis ori 'HXuiv 8ei i\$elv irpSnov ; ]i . 6 8e diroKpidw 

U etirev avrow, 'HXias p^v i\$o>v vpStrov ditoKadurr^ irdvra, Kal irais yeypairrai 

the Divine* of Rome build from it, making it almost the principal 
among the fundamental doctrinea of Christianity. 

St. Mark, the disciple of St. Peter, as we have seen, is wont to 
introduce Stfru-dtaidaie words into his Gospel (see above, ii. 3), he 
uses four such words in this and the preceding Chapter; and he 
specially notices that two of St. Peter's brother Apostle) were called 
BoanpyU (a Syro-chaldaic name), and explains what it means (iii. 
17). If therefore any additional light was to be derived concerning 
so important a matter as the relation of his master, the Apostle 
St Peter, to the other Apostles and the Church at large, he would 
have introduced here a Syro-chaldaic word. And since he has not 
done so, we have additional proof from St Mark's silence that St 
Matthew's divinely inspired Greek 1 gives a true and full representa- 
tion of our Lord's words to St Peter. 

It is observable that St Mark, and he alone, records our Lord's 
the Twelve when they afterwards argued among themselves 

who of them should be greatest ; which they wi 
have done if our Lord had already settled tl 

very likely 

desires to be first, he shall be 
it of all - (Mark ut. 34, a.'* 

8L Kaitrfaro) See Ml 

88. forays— aaraiii] Observe what it is to be ashamed of the 
1 I have said " divinely inipired Greek ;"— and let me record here a per- 
lasion, that the more attentively the Scriptures are studied, the deeper will 
come the conviction thai the writers of f J ' '" " 

they wrote ; and that they hi 

Scripture have been preset 

,1, » well as in the nttlance of » — 

guided by the Holy Ghost to employ 

cross of Christ. " Oct thee behind Me. Satan," 

Peter. St Mark, the disciple of St Peter, cai .. __ , 

tells to the disadvantage of Peterw-a proof of his veracity, and of St 

1," says our 

carefully r 

,. Cp. Carys. on Matt. xvii. 27, and the remarkable 

passages in Euteb. Theophan. (ed. Lee), pp. 220. 324, 325. 
847 Kal »(.<.«« Wd>iwt] See Matt xvi. 24. 

5t«] = *< 

-r»iwWn.r<.f, (See v. 28.) 
JUu'or] Matt xvii. 10. 
12. i» «oflieTo] " presens indent 

by LXX (Gen. xii. 18) for nr^. 

)t only tl 


d by God according to His 

safes, brings up to 
se and ancient pro- 

— «i rail wit for Svw, how, as often in St. Mark. See 
ii. 26; v. 16; xi. 18; xii. 41 ; xiv. 1. 11; and so used by LXX, 
Deut ii. 7, tiaytmSt w« JtijXo'if. The wSt here depends on ilwav : 
" He declared to them ioto it is written." The sense is as follow* : 

The three disciples are in doubt, — How can Jesus be the Christ ? 
For it is the received opinion of the Jews, that before the Coming of 
■vordi that would belt express the truths which H. mukd or ntealbd 
o their minds. In the words of Hooker (II. vi! 

ould belt express the truths which He revealed or recalled 

- •- "ie words ot Hooker (II. vili. 6), "The Scripture, yea, 

f, is perfect and wanteth nothing that is requisite 

blch God hath delivered the same. 7 ' Cp. his Sermon 


ST. MAKK IX. 13—34. 

oti, Kal 'HXias i\iq\v0€,- koI hroitjorav avrcp ocra ■qdeKt}<rov, icadm yeypamtu 
cV avrdV. 

(4r) u Kal iX.0o>v irpbs rows fiacfyras eZSei> oxXof iroXw ir«/>i avrovs, Kal 
TpafifiaTeU <tv^towto5 avrois. 15 Kal evdccos iras 6 o^Xos i&a>v airrbv c£- 
edafi^tjdri, Kal irpoorpexpvres T\<nt6Xpvro avrov. 16 Kal cVrj/wBrqcre rovs Ipa/i- 
/laTcis, Ti crv^rcire irpds avrovs ; ( -£-) 17 Kal airoKpidel? els c»c tow o\^ov ettr€, 
JiZaa-KoXe, rjveyica rov vlov fiov irpos o~€, expvra irvcvfia dkaXov 18 koI oVov 
av avrov KaraXa/?*/, prfvaei avrov, Kal a<f>pifet., Kal r/oi£ei rovs oSoVras avrov. 
Kal fypaiverac Kal elirov rots fiadrp-aU crov Iva avrb iKfSaXmo-i, Kal ovk to~xy- 
vav. 19 'O 8e airoKpidels avrois Xeye*, */2 yevea. awrtoros, ecu? wore woos v/luxs 
fo-o/iai, ecus wore avi^ofiai v/xcov ; c^e/x-re avrov tt/jos fie* ^ Kal rjveyKav avrov 
irpbs avrov Kal ioiov avrov ev0ea>s to irvevfta eWa/oa£cv avrov, koI ireo-otv iirl 
TTJs yijs CKvXicro acftptfav. 21 Kal iirtjpfaTtja-e rov irarepa avrov, JTotro? x/oovos 
eWU', &»$ tovto yeyovev avrcp ; 'O 8c elW, ck wat8io0ev ffl Kal iroXXcuas avro*» 
Kal eis iru/o e/JaXc Kal el's vSaTa IVa <MroXe<r# avrov dXX' « ti SvVacrat /for/0r/- 
trov fi/jfiv oTrkayxyurOch £<j> i^/xas. a 'O 8c 'It/ctovs elircv at/Tcp to, £i Svvacrat 
moTevcra* irdvra Svpara tcS irurrevovrv M koI cv^ccds Koa£as 6 irarrjp rov trai- 
Siov fiera. SaKpvoiv IXeyc, Jliorcva* Kv/tue /Jor/0et fiov rg avurria. M 'iScW 8c 
o 'It/ctovs oti €Jrurwrpe)(€i. oxXos, iirerCfirjo-e t$ wevfian rep aKadapry, Xeycov 
avrcp, Td irvevfia to aXaXop Kal Ka><f>bv, cya> o~ol eViracrcrcu, e£ek0e i£ avrov, Kal 
p.i)K€TL eicr* Xt?g? cts avrov. * Kal Koa£a? Kal TroXXa oirapafcas avrov i^rjXde- 
Kal iyev€TO cocrcl vck/jos, c3otc itoXXovs Xeyew oti airedavev ^ 6 8c 'Iifcrovs 
K/oanfcras adrov t^s x €l /°°s ijy&pev avrov Kal avtorr). (-£-) * Kal cicrcXt^cJiTa 
avroi' cis oIkoi' oi fia&rjTal avrov iir/jpctrtov avrov Kar iBiav, "O n 17/i.cis ovk 
rjowTJdrjpev CKjSaXeu' avro ; ^ Kal ctirc avroi?, Tovro to yeVos cV ovScpI 
Svvarai i^tkdetv, «i p.rf cV irpoo~€vxo *al vqaTtCa. 

(-^-) * Kal iKeWev i£ikd6vres irapeiropevovro 8ta r^s TaXiXaia?, Kal ovk ^ffleXei' 
«>a rl? yvep* 31 cSiSacnce yap tow jjLafrqras avrov Kal cXeycv avrots, "Ort 
6 Tlos rov avdpunrov irapaoihorai eU x € ^P a ^ avOpunrotv, Kal airoKrevovo~iv 
avrov, Kal dwroKTai'tfels rjj rptrg ^ftcpa avacrnycreTai. w Ol 8^ ^yyoow to 
pTJfia, Kal €<j>of$ovvTo avrov cVcpctir^crai. 

(■*-) 33 ^; a j ^Xc^ev cis Ka<j>apvaovp.- koI iv rp oiKta yevofievo? lirqpwa x 
avrovs, Ti cV rp 68cp irpos cavrovs StcXoy^ccr^c ; (-„-) M Oi ok io-wirtov iroos 

Christ Eliot shall appear. If Thou art the Messiah, how is it that 
" the Scribes say that Elias must 6rst come?" We have just seen 
him in the Transfiguration ; but he is not jet come into the world ; 
and since he who is to be the fumntmtr of the Messiah is not yet 
come, how can it be said that toe Messiah, whom he is to precede, is 
come ? How is it that the Scribes have not acknowledged that either 
the one or the other ' * 

Our Lord's reply is, — The Precursor 
the office of Elias in turning the he 
See Luke i. 16, 17, from Malachi 


turning the hearts of the fathers to the children. 

" "» observed, 

by Christ. 

lv the Elias of tie Gospel "as «>m» *» 
rledge Ckritt. As it foretold 


He it come — and the Scribes have not known, hi 

mixed him ; and what is more, Holy Scripture bears witi 

11 not know Him whose way the Elias of the Gospel 

_, __. ...... ... , „ »t their hands. 

Do not therefore be perplexed. Eliai it come. Christ it come. 
The Scribes say true when they assert that Elias must precede Christ. 
But they have not known the Coming of Elias. And they do not 
know the Coming of Christ. Do not be surprised at this. It has 
been predicted bv the Holy Ghost. In not bunrim) Elias and Chiist, 
tb«.» nmv« lb* Coming of those whom they reject ; for that rejection 
n the Scriptures, which the Scribes have in their hands. 
Ma* alto is come, and thev have done to him what they 
will it be with Christ, Who is come likewise. 
— KatfsW >«yii«nrT<iil i. e. in the Scriptural records of the perse- 
cutions endured by Elijah it is virtually prophesied that his antitype 
the Baptist, who came in his power and spirit, would suffer in like 


15. Mini av-roV i Jt8o/u(3n0n] Perhaps from some remains of the 
Divine Glory of the Transfiguration on His countenance ; as the 
Israelites were dazzled by the appearance of Moses when He came 
down from the holy mount (Eiod. xxxiv. 29, 30. 2 Cor. iii. 7. 13). 
See further below on x. 32. 

17. itiin 


20. Mm auriv-^rd Tviv/un] The masculine participle with the 
neuter noun (Tnti/ia) indicates more forcibly the personal vitality 
and agency of the Spirit, and refutes the notion that these evil spirits 
were mere qualities, or influences, or diseases. See above, v. 4—10, 
and below, ix. 26, and Luke viii. 33. For another use of this com- 
bination, see Matt, xxvii. 52, 53, aiifta-ra iJtXWrr.v. 

] ' He said to him thit.' The ri ii 

the Evangelist to mark more emphatically the reply of our Blessed 
Lord,— probably His very words. Td is used in this wsy Matt xix. 
18, i 'Itfffovt »\nri, oi <poniauv. See Gal v. U, hjrSt ro/iot 

KT/UOV to, Tit «V«t