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Full text of "NHTSA NCAP 0008: 1975 Ford Torino"


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Report No. (To be assigned by NHTSA) 



DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST METHODOLOGY 
FOR EVALUATING CRASH 
COMPATIBILITY AND AGGRESSIVENESS 

TEST REPORT 2 

197 5 FORD TORINO-TO-NHTSA 

TEST DEVICE 



Contract DOT-HS-7-01758 




FINAL REPORT 



Document is available to the public through the 
National Technical Information Service, 
Springfield, Virginia 22161 



Prepared for: 

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION 
NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20590 



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Prepared for the Department of Transportation, National Highway 
Traffic Safety Administration, under Contract No. DOT-HS-7-01758 . 
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Depart- 
ment of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. 
The United States Government assumes no liability for the contents 
or use thereof. 



^+ 






TECHNICAL REPORT STANDARD TITLE PAGE 



1. Report No, 



2. Government Accession No 



4. Title and Subtitle TEST REPORT #2, 1975 
FORD TORINO-TO-NHTSA TEST DEVICE 



7. Author (s) 

R. Yee, R 



Cropper, S. Davis 



9. Performing Organization Name and Address 

Dynamic Science, Inc. 
A Talley Industries Company 
1850 West Pinnacle Peak Road 
Phoenix, Arizona 85027 



3. Recipient's Catalog No, 



5. Report Date 
March 1979 



6. Performing Orgn Code 



8. Performing Orgn Rpt Ho 
8316-78-106A 



in. Work Unit No. 



12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address 
U.S. Department of Transportation 
National Highway Traffic Safety 

Administration 
Washington, D.C. 20590 



11. contract or Grant No 
DOT-HS-7-01758 



13. Type of Report and 
Period Covered 

TEST REPORT 
May - Sept 1978 



14, Sponsoring Agency Code 



15. Supplementary Notes 

Test No. 3 and 4 of a Series of 8 Tests 



16. Abstract 

This report presents the results of two full-scale, head-on 
collisions between the NHTSA Test Device and 1975 Ford Torino 
four-door sedans. The objective of these tests was to help 
establish a test methodology for evaluating crash compatibility 
and aggressiveness. The Test Device is a unique honeycomb 
faced, load-measuring tool which is adaptable to both moving 
barrier and fixed barrier collisions. 

Data contained in this report include graphical and tabular 
presentations of vehicle deformation, Test Device load cell 
data, vehicle and simulated occupant acceleration, velocity 
and displacement values, dynamic displacement of string poten- 
tiometers, and restraint survival distances. Also included 
are tabular summaries of occupant injury criteria, exterior 
and -interior static vehicle deformation, and restraint system 
loads and vehicle descriptions. Data for a 40-mph fixed Test 
Device collision is compared to that for an "equivalent " moving 
Test Device collision. 



17. Key Words 

Fixed Test Device, Moving Test 
Device, Compatibility, Aggres- 
siveness, Ford Torino 



19. Security Classif. 
(of this report) 



Unclassified 



18. Distribution Statement 

Document is available to the 
public through the National 
Technical Information Service, 
Springfield, Virginia 22161 



20 . Security Classi f . 
(of this page) 

Unclassified 



21. No. Pages 
226 



22. Price 



Form DOT F 1700 .7 (8-69) 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 

2.0 TEST METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE 5 

2.1 VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 5 

2.2 FIXED TEST DEVICE TESTS 5 

2.3 MOVING TEST DEVICE TESTS 9 

3.0 DATA ACQUISITION 15 

3.1 DATA ACQUISITION METHODS 15 

3.2 INSTRUMENTATION 1*7 

3.2.1 Test Vehicle Instrumentation 17 

3.2.2 Test Vehicle Occupant Instrumentation . . 19 

3.2.3 Moving Test Device Instrumentation. ... 19 

3.2.4 Fixed Test Device Instrumentation .... 20 

3.3 PHOTO-INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS 25 

3.3.1 Fixed Test Device Photography 25 

3.3.2 Moving Test Device Photography 25 

4.0 SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS 28 

4.1 TEST SUMMARY: FORD-TO-TEST DEVICE TESTS .... 28 

4.1.1 Fixed Test Device Test 28 

4.1.2 Moving Test Device Test 39 

4.2 VEHICLE STRUCTURAL RESPONSE 4 

4.3 TEST DEVICE SUMMARY 54 

4.4 OCCUPANT KINEMATICS 8 6 



V 



TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTD ) 

Page 

5.0 TEST FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT 104 

5.1 GENERAL 104 

5.2 FACILITY AND EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION 106 

5.2.1 Test Track and Guidance System 106 

5.2.2 Tow System and Velocity Control 106 

5.2.3 Abort System 106 

5.2.4 Master Control System 107 

5.2.5 Fixed Impact Barrier 108 

5.2.6 Midrange Impact Site. 108 

5.2.7 High-speed Photography 108 

APPENDIX A - CAR-TO-TEST DEVICE CRASH ANALYSIS A-l 

APPENDIX B - CALCOMP PLOTS, TEST 3, 197 5 FORD 

TORINO-TO-FIXED TEST DEVICE B-l 

APPENDIX C - CALCOMP PLOTS, TEST 4, 197 5 FORD 

TORINO-TO-MOVING TEST DEVICE C-l 

APPENDIX D - CALCULATION OF RESTRAINT SURVIVAL 

DISTANCE (RSD) D-l 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure Pa ? e . 

1-1 Moving Test Device Configuration . 3 

1-2 Fixed Test Device Configuration 4 

2-1 Monorail Impact Facility 8 

2-2 Data Acquisition - Vehicle-to-Fixed Barrier 

Tests 10 

2-3 Data Acquisition - Vehicle-to-Moving Test 

Device Tests 14 

3-1 Vehicle Accelerometer Instrumentation 18 

3-2 Typical Instrumentation Model (B5) 21 

vi 



Figure 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CQNTD ) 

Page 



3-3 197 5 Ford Torino/Test Device Honeycomb 
Interface and String Potentiometer 
Locations 

3-4 Moving Test Device Instrumentation 23 

3-5 Fixed Test Device Installation and Strain 

Gauge Location . * . . « 

4-1 Pre-test Vehicle Configuration - Test 3 37 

4-2 Post-test Vehicle Configuration - Test 3 . . . • 37 

4-3 Pre-test Vehicle Configuration - Test 4 38 

4-4 Post-test Vehicle Configuration - Test 4 . . . . 38 

4-5 Pre-test Bumper Match - Test 3 4 2 

4-6 Post-test Bumper Match - Test 3 4 2 

4-7 Pre-test Bumper Match - Test 4 43 

4-8 " Post-test Bumper Match - Test 4 43 

4-9 Post- test Driver Compartment - Test 3 49 

4-10 Post-test Driver Compartment - Test 4 49 

4-11 Post-test Passenger Compartment - Test 3 . . . • 50 

4-12 Post-test Passenger Compartment - Test 4 . . . . 50 

4-13 Post-test Fixed Test Device Configuration - 

Test 3 55 



4-14 Post-test Moving Test Device Configuration - 
Test 4 

4-15 Test Device Load Cell Forces on Row A for 

Test 8316-3 

4-16 Test Device Load Cell Forces on Row B for 

Test 8316-3 

4-17 Test Device Load Cell Forces on Row C for 

Test 8316-3 

4-18 Test Device Load Cell Forces on Row D for 



Test 8316-3. . . ■• • 61 

vii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONTD ) 

Page 
Figure — 

4-19 Test Device Load Cell Forces on Row A for 

Test 8316-4 

4-20 Test Device Load Cell Forces on Row B for 

Test 8316-4 

4-21 Test Device Load Cell Forces on Row C for ^ 

Test 8316-4 

4-22 Test Device Load Cell Forces on Row D for 

Test 8316-4 

4-23 1975 Ford Torino/Fixed Test Device Load 

Distribution at 25 msec. 

4-24 197 5 Ford Torino/Fixed Test Device Load 

Distribution at 56 msec 

4-25 197 5 Ford Torino/Fixed Test Device Load 

Distribution at 90 msec 

4-26 197 5 Ford Torino/Moving Test Device Load 

Distribution at 23 msec 

4-27 1975 Ford Torino/Moving Test Device Load 

Distribution at 32 msec 

4-28 1975 Ford Torino/Moving Test Device Load 

Distribution at 43 msec 

4-29 Strain Gauge Data - Row B Horizontal Beam. ... 76 

4-30 Dynamic Crush During Collision for Fixed ^ 

Test Device - Test 3 

4-31 Dynamic Crush During Collision for Moving 

Test Device - Test 4 

4-32 Comparison of Total Load Cell Force From 
Fixed Test Device Load Cell and Vehicle 
Accelerometer Data for Test 3 

4-33 Comparison of Total Load Cell Force From 
Moving Test Device Load Cell and Vehicle 
Accelerometer Data for Test 4 

4-34 • Comparison of Load Cell Force-Deflection 

Characteristics for 197 5 Ford Torino »« 



vin 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (CONTD ) 

Figure Page 

4-35 Car Interior Intrusion Versus Exterior Car 

Crush 87 

4-36 Car Exterior Crush and Interior Intrusion 

Versus Time for Fixed Test Device - Test 3 . • . 88 

4-37 Car Exterior Crush and Interior Intrusion 

Versus Time for Moving Test Device - Test 4. . • 89 

4-38 Centroid of Load Cell Force for Fixed Test 

Device Test. . • 90 

4-39 Centroid of Load Cell Force for Moving Test 

Device Test 91 

4-40 Pre-test Driver Position - Test 3 92 

4-41 Post-test Driver Position - Test 3 92 

4-42 Pre-test Passenger Position - Test 3 93 

4-43 Post-test Passenger Position - Test 3 93 

4 r 44 Pre-test Driver Position - Test 4 94 

4-45 Post-test Driver Position - Test 4 94 

4-46 Pre-test Passenger Position - Test 4 95 

4-47 Post-test Passenger Position - Test 4 95 

4-48 1975 Ford Torino - Driver Profile - Test 3 • . • 100 

4-49 1975 Ford Torino - Passenger Profile - 

Test 3 101 

4-50 1975 Ford Torino - Driver Profile - 

Test 4 ^02 



4-51 1975 Ford Torino - Passenger Profile - 
Test 4 



103 



IX 



LIST -OF TABLES 

Table Page 

1-1 Summary of Car-to-Test Device Test 

Conditions * 2 

2-1 Vehicle Description - Fixed Test Device 

Test ♦ • 6 

2-2 Vehicle Description - Moving Test Device 

Test , . . 7 

2-3 Crash Test Summary 8316-3 11 

2-4 Crash Test Summary 8316-4 13 

3-1 Data Requirements 15 

3-2 Occupant Instrumentation ♦ . 20 

3-3 Camera Locations - Fixed Test Device 26 

3-4 Camera Locations - Moving Test Device 27 

4-1 Crash Test Summary 29 

4-2 Summary of Car Test Data 30 

4-3 Summary of Pre-test Engine/Bumper/Firewall 

Characteristics 31 V- 

4-4 Summary of Pre-test Dummy Position Data 

Characteristics 31 

4-5 Summary of Post-test Observations 32 

4-6 Injury Criteria Summary 34 

4-7 Chronology of Crash Events 35 

4-8 Pre- and Post-test Dimension Measurements. ... 41 

4-9 Car Exterior Profiles and Static Crush for 

Test 3 44 

4-10 Car Exterior Profiles and Static Crush for 

Test 4 45 

4-11 Car Interior Profiles and Static Intrusion 

for Fixed Test Device Test 3 46 



x 



LIST OF TABLES (CONTD ) 

Table Page 

4-12 Car Interior Profiles and Static Intrusion 

for Moving Test' Device Test 4 47 

4-13 Steering Wheel Displacement Values 48 

4-14 Summary of Car Accelerometer Data for Fixed 

Test Device Test 3 51 

4-15 Summary of Averaged Car Accelerometer Data 

for Fixed Test Device Test 3 51 

4-16 Summary of Car Accelerometer Data for Moving 

Test Device Test 4 52 

4-17 Summary of Averaged Car Accelerometer Data 

for Moving Test Device Test 4 52 

4-18 Summary of Car String Potentiometer Data for 

Fixed Test Device Test 3 53 

4-19 Summary of Car String Potentiometer Data for 

. Moving Test Device Test 4 53 

4-20 Summary of Maximum Load Cell Data for Fixed 

Test Device Test 3 56 

4-21 Summary of Maximum Load Cell Data for Moving 

Test Device Test 4 56 

4-22 Summary of Grouped Load Cell Data - Test 3 . . . 57 

4-23 Summary of Grouped Load Cell Data - Test 4 . . • 57 

4-24 Summary of Moving Test Device Accelerometer 

Data 73 

4-25 Comparison of Total Force From Load Cell and 

Accelerometer Data - Fixed Test Device 73 

4-26 Comparison of Total Force From Load Cell and 

Accelerometer Data - Moving Test Device 7 3 

4-27 Summary of Fixed Test Device String 

Potentiometer Data 74 

4-28 Summary of Fixed Test Device Strain Gauge 

Data 74 



XI 



LIST OF TABLES (CONTD ) 

Table Page 

4-29 Summary of Moving Test Device String 

Potentiometer Data '75 

4-30 Summary of Moving Test Device Strain Gauge 

Data 7 5 

4-31 Fixed Test Device Honeycomb Crush Profile, ... 78 

4-32 Moving Test Device Honeycomb Crush Profile ... 79 

4-33 Frontal Stiffness of Cars as a Function of 

Crush Distance 8 5 

4-34 Occupant Response Data Summary ' . 96 

4-35 Summary of Restraint System Data 97 

4-36 Summary of Occupant Restraint Survival 

Distance (RSD) 99 

5-1 Test Equipment List and Function 104 



Xll 



1.0 INTRODUCTION 

A series of eight full-scale crash tests was conducted to 
establish a test methodology for evaluating vehicle crash compat- 
ibilities and aggressiveness. The objectives of these tests were: 

• To obtain the necessary data for establishing appro- 
priate criteria for evaluating vehicle aggressiveness 
of intermediate, subcompact, and lightweight subcom- 
pact-size cars. The vehicles tested were all 1975 
model cars which included Honda Civic CVCC, Volvo 244DL, 
Ford Torino, and Plymouth Fury. 

• To investigate the Dynamic Science segmented load cell 
Test Device concept for sensitivity to measure the 
basic types of aggressiveness, namely, architectural, 
mass, and structural aggressiveness. 

A summary of the car-to-Test Device test conditions is shown 
in Table 1-1. This test report presents the results of Tests Num- 
bers 3 and 4, head-on collisions between the NHTSA Test Device 
and the 197 5 Ford Torino four-door sedans. 

The Test Device is a unique honeycomb-faced load-measuring 
tool which is adaptable to both moving barrier collisions (see 
Figure 1-1) and fixed-barrier collisions (see Figure 1-2) . The 
barrier face of the Test Device is made up of 40 six-inch-thick 
energy-absorbing aluminum honeycomb modules, each individually 
connected to load cells. At selected locations, 6 string poten- 
tiometers were added to record honeycomb dynamic displacement. 
The Ford car was first crashed into the fixed Test Device (Test 3), 
and then a similar model was tested into the moving Test Device 
(Test 4). The closing speed for the moving Test Device tests was 
selected to give the same energy change (AE)* as in the corres- 
ponding fixed Test Device test. (See Appendix A for determina- 
tion of equivalent closing speed for moving Test Device colli- 
sions. ) 



*Note: This and subsequent moving Test Device tests used equal 
energy absorption AE instead of equal velocity change (AV) as 
the equivalent speed criteria. 



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2.0 TEST METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE 

This section presents a brief description of the test method- 
ology and procedures used for conducting the car-to-Test Device 
head-on collisions . 

2.1 VEHICLE DESCRIPTION 

The vehicles used in these tests were both 1975 Ford Torino 
four-door sedans. Tables 2-1 and 2-2 present the incoming vehicle 
inspection performed on each car used for the fixed and moving 
Test Device tests , respectively. 

For the tests to be conducted, two Part 572, male 50th per- 
centile Alderson anthropomorphic dummies (GFE) were in the two 
front seating positions of the car. Each occupant was properly 
restrained with the vehicle's lap and shoulder belt restraint 
system. The seat tracks were welded in their midposition with 
the seat back latches secured to prevent breakaway and rotation. 
Test weights for the Fords were determined by averaging test 
weights of cars used in other crashes. All collisions were head- 
on with no lateral offset distance between car and Test Device 
face. 

2.2 FIXED TEST DEVICE TESTS 

The Ford-to-fixed Test Device test was conducted at the bar- 
rier impact facility (see Figure 2-1) with the centerline of the 
test car in line with the centerline of the fixed Test Device 
face. The vehicle impact velocity (see Table 1-1) was controlled 
to within ±1 mph. 



TABLE 2-1. VEHICLE DESCRIPTION - FIXED TEST DEVICE TEST 



Contractor: Dynamic Science, Inc 

VIN no.: 5K27H182053 

NHTSA No. : 
Year: 



Contract No. : 
Make: Ford 



DOT-HS-7-01758 



1975 



Auto Trans: 
Pwr Brakes: 
Pwr Seats: 




Co lor: White/Blue Vinyl Top Model: Torino 4-Door 



Pwr Windows: yes 

Tinted Glass; (yes) ■ 

Radio: b e ^\ 

Clock: yes ( n °) 

Tire Size: HR78-14 ply Rating: 4 



Pwr Steer ing : 
Auto Speed Cont: 
Anti Skid Brake: 
Air Conditioning 
Rear Window Dcf. 
Brakes: drum: 




Seats: Bench:_ 
(front) 

Bucket : 



Split 
Bench 

Split 

Back 

Bench 



V7ards Radial 



Bias Ply: 



Steel 

Belted: 



Radial 



Mfg. & Line: 

Eng. Total 351 
/ Type: V-8 Cylinders: 8 Displt CID 



Trans, # Fwd . Speeds: 



Shipping Weight : 41881b 



Odometer : 62 f 048 miles 



Dealer (name, address, and phone number) 
Canyon Ford 
2600 Grand Avenue 
Phoenix, Arizona 



Remarks (list additional accessories not listed above) 



Date of Manufacture: 2/75 Dynamic Science No . : 640 Date Received: 2/78 

Tilting Steering Wheel: yes ( no ) ToLescoping Steering Wheel: yes V. no 



Fuel Capacity: 



Restraint System 



(from owner's manual) 

. Std. 3-point Production Belts 



"Space Saver" Sparc Tire 



yes 



is the vehicle stock throughout? Describe: No , removed rear window prior to 
testing to meet weight goal. 



Does vehicle show evidence of prior Occident history? Dcscr l be : Yes r replaced fron t 
right fender and front windshield due to previous damage. 



3. Does vehicle show any significant corrosion? Describe: No 



4. Check condition of the front bumper and frmne 



Okay 



TABLE 2-2. VEHICLE DESCRIPTION - MOVING TEST DEVICE TEST 



Contractor! Dynamic Science, Inc. 
VIN no.: 5A27H125599 



Contract No. : 

Make: Ford 



DOT-HS-7-01758 



NHTSA Vo. : 

Year: 1975 



Color: Dark Blue 



Auto Trans: 


(yes- 


no 


Pwr Brakes: 


(yesj 


no 


Pwr Seats: 


yes 


( no ) 


Pwr Windows: 


yes 


( no ) 


Tinted Glass: 


yes 


( no J 


Radio: 


(yes) 


no 


Clock: 


yes 


0») 


Tire Size: 


* 


PI 






Steel 


Bias Ply: 




Belted 



Pwr Steering: lye si 

Auto Speed Cont: yes 

Anti Skid Brake: yes 

Air Conditioning: (yog 

Rear Window Uef.: yes 
Brakes: drum: R disc: F 



Mode 1 j Torino 4-Door 



Seats: Bench 
(front) 



Bucket : 

Split 
Bench : 



split 
Back 
Bench : 



Ply Rating: 



Front: Dayton Steel Radial 
Mfg. & Line: Rear: Uniroyal StPPl RpI fpH Radial 
Eng. Total 351 



Trans, # Fwd . Speeds: 



X Radial X /Type : V-8 Cylinders: 8 Displr CID 

Shipping Weight: 4180 lb Odometer: 31995 miles 



Dealer (name/ address, and phone number) 
Olsen Chevrolet 
Williams, Arizona 



Remarks (list additional accessories not listed above) 
*FR-GR78-14 and RR-HR78-14. 

Date of Manufacture: 11/74 Dynamic Science No , : 604 Date Received: 1/78 

Tilting Steering Wheel: yes fno) Telescoping Steering Wheel: yes I no 

Fuel Capacity:_^ 

(from owner's manual) 

Restraint System std « 3-point Productio n Belts 



"Space Saver" Spare Tire 



yes 



Is the vehicle stock throughout? Describe: 



Yes 



2, Does vehicle show evidence of prior accident history? Describe: No 



3. Does vehicle show any sigri 



any sigrii f j cant cor rosion? Describe: N°_ 



4. Check condition of the from bumper and frame: D Added front bumper guards 



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The test vehicle was instrumented with 16 accelerometers, 1 
string potentiometer , 6 seat belt loads, and an impact sensor. 
The test vehicle was placed at the head of the test track facing 
the barrier where it was attached to the tow and guidance system. 
The fixed Test Device was instrumented with 40 load cells, 6 
string potentiometers, 2 strain gauges, and an impact sensor. 

Upon completion of the pre-crash checkout of the instrumen- 
tation, the vehicle was towed to the specified test speed and re- 
leased from the tow system just prior to impact. The data from 
the test vehicle was transmitted to the data acquisition center 
via umbilical cable with telemetry as a backup. The data from 
the fixed Test Device was transmitted by umbilical cable only 
(see Figure 2-2) . In order to achieve the weight goal outlined 
in the test plan, the rear windows of the test vehicle were re- 
moved prior to testing. "See Table 2-3 for a crash test summary 
of the fixed Test Device configuration. 

2.3 MOVING TEST DEVICE TESTS 

The Ford-to-moving Test Device test was conducted at the mid- 
range station of the crash track facility (see Figure 2-1) with 
the centerline of the test car in line with the center of the 
moving Test Device face. The vehicle impact velocity of each test 
vehicle (see Table 1-1) was controlled to within ±1 mph. 

The test vehicle was instrumented exactly the same as the ve- 
hicle used in the fixed Test Device test with the abort bottle 
placed inside the trunk of the vehicle. This was done for safety 
reasons. The test vehicle was placed at the head of the test track, 
facing the barrier. The moving Test Device was instrumented the 
same as the fixed Test Device with the addition of 2 longitudinal 
accelerometers and an additional strain gauge attached to the frame 
rails of the moving Test Device. The moving Test Device was placed 



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Test No 



TABLE 2-3. CRASH TEST SUMMARY 8316-3 
8316-3 Contract DOT-IIS-7-0 17 58 



Test Date 



May 9, 1978 



Time 1000 



Temperature 83 °F 



Test Configuration Front- to- Front , Head-on 

Vehicle No. 1 (A) 1975 Ford Torino 4-door Sedan 

Vehicle No. 2 

VEHICLE DATA 



(B) Fixed Test Device 



Test Weight (lb) 

Impact Angle (deg)* 

Offset Distance 
(in.) 

Impact Velocity 
(mph) ** 

DUMMY DATA 

Type 

Locations 



Restraints 



INSTRUMENTATION 

Number of Data 
Channels 

Number of Cameras 



Vehicle A 
4550 







40.52 



Part 572 AJdcrson 



LF (Driver) - #' 759*** 



RF (Passenger) - # 760 
Lap/Shouldor Belt 



*** 



Lap/Slum Idor licit 



4 1. 



Vehicle B 

>100,000 



180° 



None 



None 



48 



*with respect to tow track centerline facing fixed barrier 
**Speed trap measurement. 
**Aldcrson Dummy Serial No. 



11 



at the barrier end of the track. See Table 2-4 for a crash test 
summary of the moving Test Device configuration. The rear window 
of the Ford was not removed for this test. 

Both vehicles were attached to the tow and guidance system. 
After the pre-crash checkout of the instrumentation, the vehicles 
were towed to the specified test speed and released from the tow 
system just prior to impact. The data from the test vehicle and 
moving Test Device were transmitted to the data acquisition cen- 
ter via umbilical cable with telemetry as a backup (Figure 2-3) . 



12 



Test No 



TABLE 2-4. CRASH TEST SUMMARY 8316-4 
8316-4 Contract DOT-IIS-7-01758 



Test Date 



May 16, 1978 



Time 1422 



Temperature 88 



(A) 1975 Ford Torino 4-door sedan 



Test Configuration Front- to-Front , Head-on 

Vehicle No. 1 

Vehicle No. 2 (D) Moving T est Device 

VEHICLE DATA 



Test Weight (lb) 

Impact Angle (deg) * 

Offset Distance 
(in.) 

Impact Velocity 
(mph) ** 

DUMMY DATA 

Type 

Locations 



Restraints 



INSTRUMENTATION 

Number of Data 
Channels 

Number of Cameras 



VEHICLE A 
4550 



0° 



29.55 



Part 572 AJderson 



LP (Driver) 



759 



*** 



RF (Passenger) - It 760*** 



Lap/Shoulder F3clt 
Lap/Shoulder Belt 



4 I. 



VEHICLE D 
4002 



180 



29.55 



None 



None 



53 



*With respect to tow track centerline facing fixed barrier 
**Speed trap measurement. 



* * * 



Alderson Dummy Serial No. 



13 



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14 



3.0 DATA ACQUISITION 

3.1 DATA ACQUISITION METHODS 

The overall plan for obtaining the necessary data is outlined 
in Table 3-1. The table defines the test parameter, measurement 
method, and recording method used during the conduct of this pro- 
gram. 



TABLE 3-1. DATA REQUIREMENTS 



Test Parameter 
Impact Time 



Measurement Method 

Contact switch sig- 
nal impressed on 
millisecond time base 



Photo- 
Magnetic Written graphic 
Tape Log Analysis 



X 



Approach Velocity Tow cable velocity 

sensor 



x 



Impact Velocity 



Rebound Velocity 



Speed trap entrance 
and exit signals 
from speed trap 

Calculated from high- 
speed film analysis 
and compartment 
accelerometer data 



X' 



X 



Test Device and Accelerometers , un- 
Vehicle Accelera- bound strain gauge 
tion Measurements type • 



Test Device 
Honeycomb Crush 



String potentiometer 
and direct linear 
measurement 



X 



X 



X 



Stress in Test 
Device frame and 
Horizontal Beams 



Strain gauges 



X 



Forces on Test 
Device Honeycomb 



Load cells 



X 



^Velocity is also measured by electronic counter. 



15 



TABLE 3-1. DATA REQUIREMENTS (CONTD) 



Test Parameter 



Measurement Method 



Vehicle Structural Direct linear mea- 
Deformation surement 



Photo- 
Magnetic Written graphic 
Tape Log Analysis 

X 



Vehicle Static 
Crush 



Direct linear mea- 
surement 



X 



Vehicle Static 
Crush 



Film analysis 



Restraint Survival Direct linear mea- 
Distance surement 



Steering Column 
Intrusion 



Direct linear mea- 
surement 



X 



Firewall Intrusion String potentiometer 

and static measure- 
ments 



X 



X 



Fuel Leakage 



Observation and 
timed measurement 



X 



Windshield Reten 
tion 



Direct measurement 
and observation 



X 



Occupant Head and Triaxial accelerom- 
Chest Acceleration eters 



X 



Occupant Femur 
Loads 



Load cells 



Seat Belt Loads 



Load cells 



Vehicle Weight by Direct pre-test mea- 
Wheel surement using 

balance scales 



Ballast Weight 



Balance scale 



X 



16 



3 - 2 INSTRUMENTATION 

3.2.1 Test Vehicle Instrumentation 

The test vehicle contained two Part 572 anthromorphic dum- 
mies positioned in the left and right front seating locations. 
Prior to each test use, the dummies were inspected and adjusted 
to meet the torque and characteristic requirements for these de- 
vices. Sixteen structural accelerometers and one string poten- 
tiometer were installed on the vehicle and consisted of the fol- 
lowing (see Figure 3-1) : 

1. A biaxial (X, Z) mount located on the left rocker panel 
near the B-pillar to measure accelerations of the 
occupant compartment . 

2. A biaxial (X r Z) mount similar to No. 1, but on the 
right side of the vehicle. 

3. A biaxial mount (X , Z) located on the rear floor struc- 
ture over the rear axle. 

4. A biaxial mount (X, Z) located on the upper centerline 
of the firewall in the engine compartment to measure 
acceleration of the forward section of the passenger 
compartment. 

5. A biaxial mount (X, Z) located on the centerline of the 
rear axle to measure acceleration of the rear drive 
train and rear suspension assembly. 

6. A single mount (X) located on the top of the engine 
block in a protective case to measure acceleration of 
the engine. 

7. A single mount (X) located on the front frame cross- 
member in a protective case to measure axial accelera- 
tion of the front frame. 

8. A triaxial mount (X, Y, Z) located near the vehicle 
center of gravity on the drive tunnel at the longitu- 
dinal C.G. to measure acceleration of the compartment. 

9. A single mount (X) located in a position similar to 
that in No. 6, but on the bottom of the engine. 



17 



CD f + VERTICAL 

(X) + LONG 
(Z) 




IMPACT 



VEHICLE ACCELFROMETER 
LOCATIONS AND PHYSICAL COORDINATES 



MAXIMUM 
EXPECTED READINGS 



NO. DESCRIPTION OF LOCATION X A * Y** Z** LONG* LAT* VERT* 



Rocker panel, near B- 
pillar behind driver's 
scat 



98 



27 



15 



Rocker panel near B- 
pill.ar behind passen- 
c|cr ' s scat 



98 + 27 



15 



Conterline of rear deck 
above rear axle 



58 



27 



Centerlinc of firewall 
at A-pillar inside 

online compartment 

Centerlinc of rear axle 



155 



-3 +33 



55 



Enqinc block (Top 
centcrLine) _ _ 
Front crossrncinber 



120 



+29 



171 







50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


50 


100 


100 


100 


100 


200 


200 



8 Lonqitudinal center of 
gravity of car. 



117 



16 



50 



50 



50 



9 Engine block (Bottom 

cent e rli no) \ 29 

10 String Potentiometer 13 2 



200 







24 



15 in. 



*In G. 
**Refere"nce points: 

X - Direction - Centerlinc of rear bumper 

Y - Direction - Center] i.ne of vehicle - left centerline (-) , 

riqht centerlinc (i) 
Z - Direction - Ground level 



Figure 3-1. Vehicle Accelerometer Instrumentation 

18 



10. A string potentiometer installed on the interior fire- 
wall to measure the intrusion of the firewall into the 
occupant compartment. 

11. A tape switch mounted onto the forwardmost portions of 
the car to record impact. 



3.2.2 Test Vehicle Occupant Instrumentation 

The following test dummy instrumentation was installed for 
the driver and right front passenger positions: 

1. A triaxial accelerometer mount located in the head to 
measure its acceleration. 

2. A triaxial accelerometer mount located in the chest 
cavity to measure chest acceleration. 

3. A femur load cell mounted in the femur of each leg to 
measure femur loads. 

4. Two seat belt load cells were mounted onto the lap belt 
with an additional seat belt load cell mounted onto the 
shoulder belt for each of the two front occupant re- 
straint systems. The lap belt load cells were mounted 
on each side of the occupant. 

The instrumentation requirements for the dummy occupants are 

given in Table 3-2. 

3.2.3 Moving Test Device Instrumentation 

The moving Test Device was instrumented with 40 load cells, 
6 displacement string potentiometers, 3 strain gauges, 2 acceler- 
ometer s, and 1 tape switch. Their purposes and locations were as 
follows: 

1. A load cell mounted between each honeycomb module and 
Test Device rigid face to measure impact forces. 

2. A string potentiometer displacement transducer mounted 
at selected honeycomb locations to measure dynamic 
honeycomb displacement. 



19 



TABLE 3-2. OCCUPANT INSTRUMENTATION 



Maximum 

Occupant Accelerometer and Load Cell Locations Expected Readings 

Description of Locations Long Lat Vert Long* Lat* Vert* 

Driver head accelerometer XXX 200 100 200 

Passenger head accelerometer XXX 200 100 200 

Driver chest accelerometer XXX 100 50 100 

Passenger chest accelerometer XXX 100 50 100 

Driver left and right femur 300 

load cell lb 

Passenger left and right 3000 

femur load cell lb 



*ln G 



3. A single (X) accelerometer mounted on the longitudinal 
frame rails (mounted on each side) to measure acceler- 
ation of the Test Device. 

4. Two strain gauges mounted on selected horizontal impact 
face beams to measure strains developed in the front 
structure due to the impact force. 

5. One strain gauge mounted on the right side of the Test 
Device longitudinal frame rail to measure strain in the 
vehicle frame structure. 

6. One tape switch mounted onto a selected honeycomb module 
to record the time of impact. 

Figure 3-2 defines the typical instrumentation honeycomb 
module; Figure 3-3 describes the location of instrumentation on 
the Test Device impact face; and Figure 3-4 shows the location of 
the instrumentation on the Test Device vehicle structure. 



3.2.4 Fixed Test Device Instrumentation 

The instrumentation on the fixed Test Device was the same as 
on the moving Test Device except that the strain gauges and accel- 
erometers on the Test Device frame were deleted (Figure 3-5). 

20 



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Vr.lUCLK 1 Nf-TKUMLNTATJON 
LOCATIONS AND PHYSICAL COORDINATES 



NO. 
AIR 



A2L 



so 1 

SO 3 

" 4 a1 

*Ref 
X 
Y 

Z 



DESCRIPTION OF LOCATION X' 



11AX1MIIM 
LXI'irCTKD ROAD IN OS 



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lost Hcvico Afcol'.M om- 
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rinht r. O.ln 

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erpnee Points: 
Direction - P.r.-ar Lnd of Test Device? 

Direct 3 on - Center line of Test Device - Loft C L (-), Riqht Q" ( + ) 
d i r'.-:t i or - Or mind I.-^vel. 



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— 


7H 


4 


?1_ 


7 Vio U in . /in. 

1V0 rib ' 


- -- 



Figure 3-4. Moving Test Device Instrumentation 

23 



2. 25 




FIXED BARRIER 
IMPACT FACILITY 



" x 60" x 3/8" STEEL PLATE 
) REMOVABLE HORIZONTAL BEAMS 

L 



Figure 3-5 . 



Fixed Test Device Installation and Strain Gauge 
Location. 



24 



3.3 PHOTO-INSTRUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS 

3.3.1 Fixed Test Device Photography 

Six high-speed (four 1000 fps and two 500 fps) cameras and 
one panning (24 fps) camera were used as shown in Table 3-3 for 
the fixed Test Device/moving vehicle tests. 

The panning camera documented the instrumentation, pre-test 
and post-test configurations, pre-test and post-test dummy posi- 
tions, and the Test Device and vehicle crush profiles. 

3.3.2 Moving Test Device Photography 

Six high-speed (four 1000 fps and two 500 fps) cameras and 
one panning (24 fps) camera were used as shown in Table 3-4 for 
the moving Test Device/moving vehicle tests. 



25 



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27 



4.0 SUMMARY OF TEST RESULTS 

This section of the report presents the results of the Ford- 
to-Test Device crash tests performed under Task 4. Copies of in- 
strumentation data traces (Calcomp plots) are included in Appendix 
B for Test No. 3 and in Appendix C for Test No. 4. 

4.1 TEST SUMMARY: FORD-TO-TEST DEVICE TESTS 

A summary of pertinent pre-test and post-test Test Device 
conditions are given in Tables 4-1 through 4-7. Pre-test and 
■post-test views of crash configurations are shown in Figures 4-1 
and 4-2 for fixed Test Device tests and in Figures 4-3 and 4-4 
for moving Test Device tests. 

Test weights for each vehicle were determined by weighing 
each wheel of the car to obtain a total weight. The vehicle was 
then rotated 180 degrees and the weighing procedure repeated to 
obtain an average weight for the vehicle. 

Compartment and engine acceleration was determined by an 
averaging of accelerometers located near the B-pillar of the ve- 
hicle and the top and bottom of the engine block (see Figure 3-1) . 

Maximum mutual dynamic crush data, as well as the chronology 
of events for each vehicle, were determined by high-speed film 
analysis. Maximum dynamic crush on the car was determined by sub- 
tracting 6 inches of honeycomb crush from the maximum mutual dy- 
namic crush for each test, 

4.1.1 Fixed Test Device Test 

In the fixed Test Device test, the Ford impacted the alumi- 
num honeycomb modules at a speed of 40.5 mph, causing approxi- 
mately 31 inches of static crush to the vehicle. The final speed 



28 



TABLE 4-1. CRASH TEST SUMMARY 


Test No. 




7 


8 


Test Date 




June 13., 1978 


June 16, 1978 


Time 




1242 


1119 


Temperature 




101° F 


95°F 


Test Configuration 


Front- to-Front 
Head-on 


Front- to-Front 
Head-on 


Vehicle A 




1975 Plymouth Fury 


1975 Plymouth Fury 


Vehicle B 




Fixed Test Device 


Moving Test Device 


VEHICLE A DATA 


Test Weight 
Wheel (lb) 


by 


LF-1224 RF-1236 
LR- 984 RR- 995 


LF-1221 RF-1235 
LR-1021 RR- 967 


Total Weight 


(lb) 4439 


4444 



Longitudinal C.G. 
(from center of 
front axle) (in. ) 



52.5 



52.5 



Impact Angle 


(deg)* 








Offset Distance 


(in.) 








Impact Velocity 
(mph) ** 




40.73 


58.02 


OCCUPANTS 


Type 






Part 572 Alderson 


Part 572 Alderson 


Locations 






LF (Driver) -, #759 
RF (Passenger) - #760 


LF (Driver) - #759 
RF (Passenger) - #760 



Restraints 



Standard Production Standard Production 
Lap/Shoulder Belt Lap/Shoulder Belt 



Number of Data 
Channels 



INSTRUMENTATION 



Vehicle A - 41 
Vehicle B - 48 



Vehicle A - 41 
Vehicle B - 53 



Number of Cameras 



*With respect to tow track centerline facing fixed barrier 
**Closing speed from speed trap measurement. 



29 



TABLE 4-2. SUMMARY OF CAR TEST DATA 



VEHICLE: 1975 Ford Torino 4-door Sedan 



Vehicle Parameter 



Car Test Weight Qb) 

Overall Vehicle Length/Width 
(in.) 

Car Speed (mph) 

Final Speed (mph @ msec) 

Coefficient of Restitution 

Velocity Change (mph @ msec) 

Maximum Compartment Accelera- 
tion (G @ msec) 

Maximum Engine Acceleration 
{G @ msec) 

Maximum Dynamic Crush (in.) 

Maximum Static Crush 

• Hood Level (in.) 

• Between Bumper/Hood (in.) 

• Bumper Level (in.) 

Maximum Post-test Intrusion 
(in.) 

Maximum Mutual Dynamic Crush 
(in.) 

Maximum Individual Load Cell 
Force (klb @ msec)*** 

Maximum Total Load Cell Force 
(klb <? msec)*** 

Normalized Maximum Force* 
(lb/ lb) 

Vehicle Damage Index** 



Test 3 
(Fixed 
Test Device) 

4550 

218.1/79.3 

40.5 
-6.6 <a 152 

0.16 
47.1 @ 152 
-48.2 @ 66 

-79.9 @ 52 

37.8 (F) 

30.4 
30.6 
31.8 

8.1 

43.8 (F) 

12.36 @ 58 
(B7) 

108.5 @ 56 
23.8 
12FCAW9 



Test 4.-- 
(Moving 
Test Device) 

4550 

217.8/79.3 

29.6 
-1.9 @ 115 

0.12 
31.5 @ 115 
-44.6 @ 61 

-116.6 @ 40 
36.5 (F) 

30.3 
29.3 
31.0 

4.3 

42.5 (F) 

9.79 @ 44 
(C5) 

99.9 @ 43 
22.0 

12FCAW9 



(F) = Film Data 

*Maximum total load cell force/car test weight. 
**Refer to SAE J224A 
***Some load may have been lost due to load cell contact with 
backing plate (see Figures 4-32 and 4-33). 



30 



TABLE 4-3. SUMMARY OF PRE-TEST ENGINE/BUMPER/FIREWALL 
CHARACTERISTICS 


Test NO. 


3 






4 


Type of Test 


Fixed Test 


Device 


j Moving 


Test Device 


Impact Velocity 
(Closing, mph) 


40.5 






59.1 


Engine 


Size (CID) 


351 






351 


Engine 


Weight* (lb). 


891 






891 


Engine 


Height/Width (in.) 


23/24 






23/24 


Bumper 


to Engine (in. ) 


30.8 






30.6 


Engine 


Length {.in. ) 


28.0 






28.0 


Engine 


to Firewall (in. ) 


33.0 






33.0 


Bumper 


to FirewaLl (in. ) 


63.8 






63.6 


*Includes engine and rigid 
drive train. 


attachments 


such 


as transmission and 




TABLE 4-4. SUMMARY OF PRE-TEST 
CHARACTERISTICS 


DUMMY 


POSITION 


DATA 



Seat Range (in. ) 

Seat Position* (in.) 

Front Seat to Firewall 
(in.) 

Forehead to Windshield 
(in.) 

Torso to Steering 
Wheel** (in.) 

Left/Right Knee to 
Dash Panel (in. ) 



Test 3 
Fixed Test Device 

Left Right 
Front Front 
Occupant Occupant 

5.3 5.3 



Test 4 
Moving Test Device 

Left Right 
Front Front 
Occupant Occupant 

5.3 5.3 



2.6 



26.8 



20.4 



13.8 



2.6 



26.8 



20.3 



18.8 



2.6 



27.0 



21.4 



13.5 



2.6 



26.8 



21.1 



18.4 



5.5/5.1 8.5/8.3 



5.8/5.1 7.8/7.8 



*From rearmost position to midpoint 
**To dash panel for RF passenger. 



31 



TABLE 4-5. SUMMARY OF POST-TEST OBSERVATIONS 

VEHICLE: 1975 Ford Torino 4-door Sedan 

Test No. 3 (Fixed Test Device) 

Dummy Contact Points: Left Front Right Front 

Head . Dash Panel and Top Dash Panel 

of Steering Wheel 



Chest Steering Wheel Hub None 



Knees ; Knee Bolsters. Glove Compartment 



Glazing: Windshield cracked and 50 percent retained 



Doors: Required tools to open all doors 



Seat Belt Anchorages: Okay 



Restraints: Okay 



Fuel Leakage: None 



General Observations: Radiator leakage. Oil from differential 
leaked out when drive line broke. Exhaust pipe was bent. Honey- 
comb modules B5 and C5 were pulled off when hood latch on vehicle 
pinched aluminum and tearing off module from Test Device face. 
Dash panel on passenger side separated from firewall. Rear of 
vehicle rotated counterclockwise 3-3/4 inches. Vehicle rebounde d 
3 inches from impact location. Front bumper rotated upward. 



32 



TABLE 4-5. SUMMARY OF POST-TEST OBSERVATIONS (CONTD) 
VEHICLE: 1975 Ford Torino 4-door Sedan 
Test No. 4 (Moving Test Device) 

Dummy Contact Points: Left Front Right Front 

Head Dash Panel Dash Panel 

Chest Steering Wheel None 

Knees ; Knee Bolsters, Glove Compartment 



Glazing: Windshield was cracked and was 80 percent retained 



Doors: Required tools to open all doors 



Seat Belt Anchorages 



Okay 



Restraints: Okay 



Fuel Leakage: None 



General Observations: Radiator leakage. Exhaust pipe was bent* 



Honeycomb module Dl was pulled off by car. Modules CI, D2, and 



A10 were sheared off by car at impact. Passenger dash panel was 



destroyed by striking of occupant's head on dash. Centerline of 



vehicle was on centerline of monorail after test. Front bumper 



rotated upward. Vehicle pushed Tes t Device 21 feet past impact 
location before stopped by technicians. 



33 



TABLE 4-6 



INJURY CRITERIA SUMMARY 



Occupant Position 



Left Front 



Right Front 



TEST 3 (FIXED TEST DEVICE) 



HIC 

Head G* @ msec 

CSI 

Chest G* @ msec 

Femur Load (lb) 

RSD (in.)** 



1824 @ 94-116 

112.2 @ 106 

942 @ 200 

84.5 8 90 
Left Right 

-1407 -1635 
Pre Post 
13.5 13.3 



1691 @ 88-122 

113.0 @ 109 

668 @ 200 

58.8 @ 98 
Left Right 
-807 -1173 
Pre Post 
13.7 13.2 



TEST 4 (MOVING TEST DEVICE) 



HIC 

Head G* @ msec 

CSI 

Chest G* @ msec 

Femur Load (lb) 

RSD (in.)** 



765 @ 80-127 
75.4 @ 102 
518 @ 200 
58.8 @ 89 

Left Right 
-2169 -1588 

Pre Post 



10.7 



9.8 



1211 @ 89-118 

1060 @ 109 

326 @ 200 

40.5 @ 90 
Left Right 
-692 -609 
Pre Post 
9.5 8,4 



*3-msec clip. 
**RSD computed with 7-msec time shift to correct for honey- 
comb crush of Test Device. 



34 



TABLE 4-7. CHRONOLOGY OF CRASH EVENTS 



I 



VEHICLE: 1975 Ford Torino 4-door Sedan 



Time 

(msec) Test 3 - Fixed Test Device Event 

Impact (visual) 

18 Right front fender starts to deform 

20 Left front fender starts to deform 

31 Driver starts forward motion 

32 Hood starts failure 

62 Passenger starts forward motion 

82 Driver hits steering wheel with chin 

96 Driver hits dash with head 

101 Passenger hits dash with head, driver starts rebound 

104 Maximum mutual dynamic crush (43.8 in.), passenger 
hits dash 

105 Vehicle rebound begins 
114 Rear wheels leave ground 
120 Passenger starts rebound 
175 Maximum pitch angle 4.6° 
183 Driver recontacts seat 
206 Passenger recontacts seat 
297 Rear wheels touch ground 



35 



TABLE 4-7* CHRONOLOGY OF CRASH EVENTS (CONTD) 



VEHICLE: 1975 Ford Torino 4-door Sedan 



Time 

(msec) Test 4 - Moving Test Device Event 

Impact (visual) 

12 Hood buckles 

14 Left front fender starts to deform 

24 Honeycomb module A10 sheared off 

29 Honeycomb module D2 sheared off 

35 Honeycomb module Dl sheared off 

55 Driver begins forward motion 

56 Passenger begins forward motion 
65 Windshield cracks 

78 Maximum mutual dynamic crush (42.5 in.) with pitch 
angle 1° 

88 Driver hits dash panel 

91 Passenger hits dash panel 

115 Vehicles separate, Test Device begins rebound 
131 ' Passenger begins rebound 

140 Driver begins rebound 

238 Passenger recontacts seat 

240 Driver recontacts seat 



36 




Figure 4-1. Pre-test Vehicle Configuration - Test 3, 







Figure 4-2* Post-test Vehicle Configuration - Test 3 



37 




Figure 



4-3. Pre- test VehicLe Configuration - Test 4 




Figure 



_. 
4-4. Post- test Vehicle Configuration - Test 4 



NOTE: TEST DEVICE PUSHED HACK BY CAR APPROXIMATELY 21 FEET 



38 



of the Ford was -6.6 mph, giving a total velocity change of 47.1 
mph. 

The maximum dynamic crush on the car was 37.8 inches at 104 
milliseconds, with a pitch angle of 4.6 degrees. Rebound of the 
Ford off of the face of the fixed Test Device caused the rear of 
the car to rotate 3.8 inches counterclockwise from the barrier 
centerline. The Ford rebounded approximately 3 inches from the 
initial impact point , pulling off honeycomb modules B5 and C5 
with the structure of the car. 

4.1.2 Moving Test Device Test 

In the moving Test Device test, the Ford impacted the alumi- 
num honeycomb module at a closing speed of 59.1 mph, causing 
approximately 30.5 inches of static crush to the vehicle. The 
final speed of the Ford was -1.9 mph. The final speed of the Test 
Device was -5.3 mph. The total velocity change to the car was 
43.7 mph. 

The maximum dynamic crush on the car was 36.5 inches at 78 
milliseconds and a pitch angle of 1.0 degree. Moving Test Device 
tests conducted under this program have been adjusted to give the 
same AE for moving barrier collisions for a similar fixed barrier 
collision (see Appendix A) . Upon impact of the moving Test De- 
vice with the Ford, the moving Test Device was pushed back by the 
car approximately 21 feet before being manually stopped by test 
personnel. After impact, the Ford appeared to remain stationary 
near the impact location, putting the remaining energy from the 
collision into pushing the Test Device backwards. Since the Test 
Device has no sheet metal deforming around the tires and the Ford 
was 550 pounds heavier, the energy transmitted by the Ford caused 
the Test Device to be put in a free wheeling state in the reverse 
direction of travel. The centerline of the Ford remained in line 
with the centerline of the track after impact. 



39 



Vehicle data, including all pre-test and post-test measure- 
ments and summaries of vehicle accelerometer and string poten- 
tiometer data, are discussed in Section 4.2. Test Device data, 
including summaries of load cell, string potentiometer, accel- 
erometer, strain gauge data, and honeycomb crush profiles, are 
discussed in Section 4.3. Occupant response data is discussed 
in Section 4,4. 

4.2 VEHICLE STRUCTURAL RESPONSE 

This section of the report presents data on the Ford's struc- 
tural response to the collision with the fixed and moving Test De- 
vices. This includes pre-test and post- test measurements made at 
selected locations on the vehicle r steering wheel displacements, 
vehicle exterior and interior profiles, and accelerometer data. 

Static crush measurements of the Ford for both fixed and 
moving Test Device tests are shown in Table 4-8. Pre-test and 
post-test bumper match-ups are shown in Figures 4-5 through 4-8. 
In both tests, the car deformed uniformly with the flat surface 
of the Test Device, Since the closing speed for the moving Test 
Device test was selected to give the same change in energy (AE) , 
the crush measurements were very similar for both tests. 

Exterior profiles are given in Tables 4-9 and 4-10. Measure- 
ments for the frontal exterior profile of the Ford were made at 
three levels: the hood level, 'the bumper level, and a level be- 
tween the hood and bumper level. In both tests, the bumper of the 
Ford rotated upward due to the force of impact. The rotation of 
the front bumper guards caused concentrated loads to be recorded 
by the Test Device's load cells. 

Vehicle interior intrusion profiles and steering wheel dis- 
placement values are given in Tables 4-11 through 4-13. Compart- 
ment intrusion is shown in Figures 4-9 through 4-12. In both tests 
the dash panel became detached from the frame of the car and the 

40 



TABLE 4-8. PRE- AND POST-TEST DIMENSION MEASUREMENTS 




vehicle: 1975 Ford Torino 4-c 


loor Sedan 


















(Fixed 


Test Device 
Test 3 


Test) 




(Moving 


Test Device 
Test 4 


Test) 






Pre- 


test 


Post- 

LS 


test 
RS 


Difference 

L5 RS 


Pre- 


test 


Post- 

LS 


test 

RS 


Diffe 
LS 


rence 




LS 


RS 


LS 


RS 


RS 


A 


118.1 


117.8 


108.9 


109.1 


9,2 


8.7 


118.1 


117.6 


110,3 


112.2 


7.8 


5.6 


B 


46.5 


46.4 


25.0 


22.5 


21.5 


23.9 


46.0 


46.6 


22.3 


22.0 


23.7 


24.6 


C 


53.6 


53.8 


53.6 


53.9 


0.0 


-0.1 


53.4 


53.6 


53.8 


53.8 


-0.4 


-0.2 


D 


218.2 


218.0 


187.5 


185,5 


30.7 


32.5 


217.5 


218.0 


186.4 


188.0 


31.1 


30.0 


I 


36.6 


36.6 


36.5 


35.6 


0.1 


1.0 


36.6 


36.6 


36.0 


36.1 


0.6 


0.5 


G 


102.4 


102.3 


101.5 


101.5 


0.9 


0.8 


102.1 


102.1 


102.0 


102.8 


0.1 


-0.7 


L 


116.6 


116.6 


116.0 


115.8 


0.6 


0,8 


116.5 


116.8 


115.8 


115.4 


0.7 


1.4 


M 


135.5 


135.5 


133.5 


132.8 


2.0 


2.7 


135.4 


135.5 


134.1 


134.0 


1.3 


1.5 


N 


24.4 


24.4 


24.4 


24.4 


0.0 


0.0 


24.4 


24.4 


24.4 


24.4 


0.0 


0.0 





51.8 


51.8 


54.0 


53.4 


-2.2 


-1.6 


51.8 


52.0 


53.0 


52.9 


-1.2 


-0.9 


P 


31.5 


31.4 


32.5 


33.4 


1.0 


1.0 


30.5 


31.4 


31.1 


31.8 


-0.6 


-0.4 


Q 


12.9 


12.9 


13.1 


12.4 


-0.2 


0.5 


13.1 


13.4 


12.8 


12.3 


0.3 


1.1 


R 


13.3 


13.5 


13.9 


• 13.3 


-0.6 


0.2 


13.5 


13.8 


13.3 


12.9 


0.2 


0.9 


Z 


79.2 


79.1 


51.5 


47.4 


27.7 


31.7 


78.8 


79.3 


48.4 


49.1 


30.4 


30.2 



Note: All measurements in inches 



41 




Figure 4-5- Pre-test Bumper Match - Test 2. 



* " ' ' ■' ■+-*** 




Figure 4-6. Post- test Bumper Match - Test 3 



Dof oo\^ 




Figure 4-7. Pre-teat Dumper Match - Test 4 




Figure 4-8. Post-test Bumper - Test 4. : ^°^ 



43 





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47 



TABLE 4-13. STEERING WHEEL DISPLACEMENT VALUES 



VEHICLE: 1975 Ford Torino 4-door sedan 









Displacement 


(in.) 






Wheel 
Location 


(Fixed 
X* 


Test 3 

Test Device) 

Y* Z* 


(Movir 
X* 


Test 4 
ig Test 

Y* 


Device) 
Z* 


Top 


+1.8 - 


-2.5 


-3.6 


-2.8 


+2.3 


-3.4 


Hub 


-2.3 


+ 0.1 


-1.3 


-2.1 


-1.9 


-2.4 


Bottom 


+2.3 


+ 1.0 


-1.3 


0.0 


-0.1 


-2.7 



*Reference for X, Y, Z measurements are the rear bumper 

( + forward), vehicle centerline (+ right), and ground level 

(+ up), respectively. 



areas that were struck by the occupants 1 heads were severely dam- 
aged. In the moving Test Device test the occupant compartment in- 
trusion was l£ss severe than in the fixed Test Device test due to 
the fact that some of the energy was used in pushing back the 
moving Test Device after impact. In the fixed Test Device test, 
the steering wheel rim was bent forward and downward by the left 
front occupant, which exposed the steering wheel hub. This was 
the cause of large pulses seen on data from the driver's chest. 
The left front occupant of Test 4 caused less damage to the occu- 
pant compartment compared to Test 3, again due to the energy trans- 
fer. 

A summary of Ford accelerometer and string potentiometer data 
for both tests is given in Tables 4-14 through 4-19. Refer to Fig- 
ure 3-1 for their locations in the vehicle. Compartment acceler- 
ometers and engine accelerometers were averaged to obtain a more 
representative picture of what was occurring at those locations. 
String potentiometer data was used to measure firewall intrusion 
in the occupant compartment. However, if the peak intrusion does 
not occur at the location where the measurement was taken, the 
readings will be low compared to the post-test static measurements. 



48 




Figure 4-9* Post-test Driver Compartment - Tost 3 




Figure 4-10. Post-test Driver Compartment - Test 4 



49 




Figure 4-11. Post-test Passenger Compartment - Test 3 




Figure 4-12, Post-test Passenger Compartment - Test 4 



SO 





| TABLE 


4-14. SUMMARY OF 
FIXED TEST 


CAR ACCELEROMETER DATA 
DEVICE TEST 3 


FOR 


I VEHICLE: 


1975 Ford Torino 


4-door 


Sedan 






Max: 
1 Accelej 

Accelerometer A 
_ Number ,(G) 


Lmum Minimum 
ration Velocity 

Time V Time 
(msec) (mph) (msec) 

65 -6.5 153 


Maxi 
Displa 

S 
(in.) 

+ 46.2 


mum 
cement 

Time 
(msec) 


I IX 


-45.0 


105 


1Z 


+ 16.3 


71 


-3.1 


141 


-2.6 


200 


1 2X 


-51.9 


66 


-6.6 


151 


+ 46.5 


105 


2Z 


-19.0 


88 


-2.4 


141 


+1.6 


88 


■ 3X 


-48.8 


66 


-6.2 


142 


+49.0 


108 


32 


-50.0 


70 


-4.8 


90 


-5.5 


200 


■ . 4X 


-93.3 


67 


-8.6 


173 


+ 43.0 


90 


■ 4Z 


+ 53.8 


63 


-1.2 


40 


+ 0.03 


47 


a 5X 


-72.7 


84 


-7.8 


147 


+50.7 


101 


I 5Z 


-27.5 


82 


-3.7 


97 


-1.7 


127 


6X 


-83.8 


57 


-3.1* 


69 


+33.7* 


62 


J 7X 


-95.4 


56 


-3.4 


161 


+37.0* 


110 


8X 


-48.7 


81 


-6.8 


153 


+47.0 


106 


1 8Y 


-21.3 


82 


-2.2 


87 


-1.8 


200 


8Z 


-47.1 


83 


-1.5 


162 


+ 3.3 


152 


■ 9X 


-87.4 


52 


-2.8* 


171 


34.0* 


99 


See Figure 3-1 for def 
m *Data invalid because 


inition of accelerometer numbers, 
of rotation of accelerometer. 


| TABLE 4-15. SUMMARY 

DATA FOP 


OF AVERAGED CAR ACCELEROMETER 
> FIXED TEST DEVICE TEST 3 




Maximum 
Acceleration 

A Time 
(G) (msec) 


Minimum 
Velocity 


Maj 
DispJ 

S 
(in.) 

46.3 


cimum 
Lacement 


b Accelerometer 
■ Number 


V 
(mph) 

-6.6 


Time 
(msec) 

152 


Time 
(msec) 


Average of IX 
m and 2X 
| (Compartment) 


-48.2 66 




105 


Average of 6X 
■ and 9X 
| (Engine) 


-79.9. 52 




-2.6* 


169 


33.8* 


67 


— *Data invalid be 


cause of rotation 


of acce 


lerome 


ter . 





51 



TABLE 4-16. 



SUMMARY OF CAR ACCELEROMETER DATA FOR 
MOVING TEST DEVICE TEST 4 



VEHICLE: 1975 Ford Torino 4-door Sedan 





Maximum 
Acceleration 


Minimum 
Velocity 


Maximum 
Displacement 


Accelerometer 
Number ' 


A 
(G) 

-44.6 


Time 
(msec) 

61 


V 

(mph) 

-2.1 


Time 
(msec) 

116 


S 
(in.) 

+25.6 


Time 
(msec) 


IX 


89 


1Z 


-21.6 


78 


-2.1 


90 


+ 1.5 


78 


2X 


-44.7 


60 


-1.7 


114 


+25.8 


88 


22 


+ 26.1 


61 


-2.7 


106 


+1.9 


83 


2X 


-49.4 


57 


-1.8 


104 


+27.2 


80 


3Z 


-28.1 


81 


-2.2 


119 


+0.9 


200 


4X 


-101.8 


56 


-4.4* 


134 


+ 24.4 


63 


4Z 


+87.5 


52 


-1.7 


48 


+ 8.5 


200 


5X 


+88.3 


54 


+0.7* 


89 


+ 3.4* 


200 


5Z 


-30.8 


57 


-2.9 


59 


+0.4 


165 


6X 


-96.3 


42 


-12.2* 


54 


+18.3* 


44 


7X 


-129.1 


46 


+ 3.7* 


55 


+43.8* 


200 


8X 


-42.0 


64 


+ 0.5* 


114 


+37.4* 


200 


8Y 


-18.6 


56 


-0.9 


76 


-0.8 


172 


8Z 


-34.0 


67 


-3.1 


114 


-2.8 


200 


9X 


-141.4 


40 


-6.2* 


53 


+ 17.5 


43 



See Figure 3-1 for definition of accelerometer numbers. 
*Data questionable due to rotation of accelerometer. 



TABLE 4-17. SUMMARY OF AVERAGED CAR ACCELEROMETER 
DATA FOR MOVING TEST DEVICE TEST 4 



Maximum 
Acceleration 



A 
(G) 



Accelerometer 
Number 

Average of IX 
and 2X 
(Compartment) -44 . 6 

Average of 6X 
and 9X 
(Engine) -116.6 



Time 
(msec) 



61 



40 



Minimum 
Velocity 



V 
(mph) 



-1.9 



9.1* 



Time 
(msec) 



115 



54 



Maximum 
Displacement 



S 

(in.) 



25.7 



17.9* 



l 



*Data questionable due to rotation of accelerometer 



Time 
(msec) 



89 



44 



52 



TABLE 4-18. SUMMARY OF CAR STRING 
POTENTIOMETER DATA FOR 
FIXED TEST DEVICE TEST 3 



Displacement Potentiometer 
(Number). (Location) 



SP7 



Firewall 



Maximum Dynamic 
Displacement 



D 
(in.) 

8.5 



Time 
(msec) 

199 



TABLE 4-19. SUMMARY OF CAR STRING 
POTENTIOMETER DATA FOR 
MOVING TEST DEVICE TEST 4 



Displacement Potentiometer 
(Number) (Location) 

SP7 Firewall 



Maximum Dynamic 
Displacement 



D 
(in.) 



Time 
(msec) 



Data System Failure 



In Test 4, the string potentiometer data for the vehicle was lost 
because of the difficulty in placing the string potentiometer in an 
area that would not be disturbed during the crash impact. 

In both tests, since the amount of crush was high, rotation of 
engine accelerometers (Nos. 6 and 9) occurred giving erroneous ve- 
locity and displacement peaks. In addition, displacement data from 
the accelerometer located at the front crossmember of the car (Lo- 
cation 7) was suspect, also due to the rotation of the accelerom- 
eter during impact. 



53 



4.3 TEST DEVICE SUMMARY 

This section of the report presents a summary of data gath- 
ered from the fixed and moving Test Devices. This includes sum- 
maries of load cell, string potentiometer, strain gauge, and 
accelerometer data, and post-test honeycomb profiles for both 
fixed and moving Test Device tests. 

Post-test Test Device configurations for fixed and moving 
Test Device tests are shown in Figures 4-13 and 4-14. 

A summary of peak values of load cell data is shown in Table 
4-20 for Test 3 and Table 4-21 for Test 4. These were the maxi- 
mum measured forces for each load cell along with its correspond- 
ing time recorded during the event. Tables 4-22 and 4-23 present 
a summary of grouped load cell data for each test. The front face 
of the Test Device was divided into six areas of loading. These 
data show which areas of the car tended to be more aggressive. 
Load cell forces for individual load cells are shown in Figures 
4-15 through 4-2.2. These plots also show the relative lateral 
symmetry of car data recorded with the Test Device face. Some 
load may have been lost during the period 50-63 msec in Test 3 
and 28-53 msec in Test 4, due to load cell contact with the back- 
ing plate (A4, A5, A7 , B4 , B5, B7) . 

A load cell distribution at selected time intervals for the 
car/Test Device interface for each test is shown in Figures 4-23 
through 4-28. These values are shown for forces over 1,000 
pounds at a particular time segment. Any location with a value 
below 1,000 pounds was not considered an aggressive part of the 
car at that particular time frame. Calcomp plots of all load 
cell data by columns and grouped load cell summations are shown 
in Appendix B for Test 3 and Appendix C for Test 4. 



54 



f 









sawd 



■ ■ ■ ■ 

h rv*ff 

09' 

/J 






Mr* 



IT9M 



f j- 



Hi; -Y 



i w.. — C5 . 






Figure 4-13. Post-test Fixed Test Device Configuration - Test 3 







^■%^t 



Figure 4-14* Post-test Moving Test Device Configuration - Test 4 

55 






TABLE 4-2 0. SUMMARY OF MAXIMUM LOAD CELL DATA FOR FIXED 
TEST DEVICE TEST 3 

Parameter Right Half of Car Left Half of Car 



Load Cell' (No.) D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 Dl 

Force (klb) 0.3-5 4.57 2.23 1.79 2.11 1.92 2.16 2.25 4.37 0,56 

Time (msec) 75 65 49 56 26 60 61 59 59 69 

Load Cell (No,) CIO C9 C8 C7 C6 C5* C4 C3 C2 CI 

Force (klb) 1. 15^5. 90 2.97 3.20 3.11 5.38 2.63 2.60 4.27 0.60 

Time (msec) 28 63 61 61 55 61 56 21 67 50 

Load Cell (No.) B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5* B4 B3 B2 Bl 

Force (klb) 1.84 2.94 2.93 ** 5.13 5.25 9.54 2.64 2.78 1.32 

Time (msec) 30 27 55 58 48 52 58 26 27 . 56 

Load Cell (No.) A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 Al 

Force • (klb) 1.05 2.39 2.70 8.50 5.43 3.09 8.56 2.58 2.89 1.07 

Time (msec) 28 24 58 44 55 60 44 63 29 22 



^Honeycomb module pulled off from impact with car 
**12. 36 (maximum measured force). 



TABLE 4-21. SUMMARY OF MAXIMUM LOAD CELL. DATA FOR MOVING 
TEST DEVICE TEST 4 

Parameter Right Half of Car Left Half of Car 

Load Cell (No.) D10 D9 D8 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 Dl 

Force (klb). 0.24 1.37 2.78 2.12 1.95 2.32,2.41 2.30 2.60 2.58* 

Time (msec) 56 57 40 28 42 43 ' 42 45 38 52 

Load Cell (No.) C10 C9 C8 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 CI 

Force (klb) 0.51 6.48 2.58 1.48 3.45 ** 3.41 2.77 3.42 4.96 

Time (msec) 37 25 17 50 44 44 44 22 23 24 

Load Cell (No.) B10 B9 B8 B7 B6 B5 B4 B3 B2 Bl 

Force (klb) 0.89 3.28 3.29 5.76 5.10 8.18 9.47 2.69 2.89 2.26 

Time (msec) 24 22 22 22 43 45 45 21 18 18 

Load Cell (No.) A10 A9 A8 A7 A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 Al 

Force (klb) 0.41 6.40 2.82 6.31 3.75 7.23 8.28 2.13 5.81 1.89 

Time (msec) 17 50 50 20 43 35 50 26 47 80 

* Honeycomb module pulled off from impact with car. 
**9.79 (maximum measured force) . 



56 



TABLE 4-22. 


SUMMARY OF GROUPED 


LOAD CELL 


DATA - 


TEST 3 




Right Side 


Center of 


Left Side 


Parameter 


of Car 




Car 




of Car 


Load Cells (No.) 


D8 - D10 


& 


D4 - D7 


& 


Dl - D3 8c 




C8 - CIO 




C4 - C7 




CI - C3 


Force (klb) 


15.30 




21.58 




10.21 


Time 


64 




61 




59 


Load Cells (No. ) 


B8 - BIO 


& 


B4 - B7 


& 


Bl - B3 & 




A8 - A10 




A4 - A7 




Al - A3 


Force (klb) 


12.25 




49.93 




12.40 


Time (msec) 


26 




52 




28 


TABLE 4-23. 


SUMMARY OF GROUPED 


LOAD CELL 


DATA - 


TEST 4 




Right Side 


Center of 


Left Side 


Parameter 


of Car 




Car 




of Car 


Load Cells (No.) 


D8 - D10 


& 


D4 - D7 


& 


Dl - D3 & 




C8 - CIO 




C4 - C7 




CI - C3 


Force (klb) 


8.66 




26.07 




12.05 


Time 


25 




44 




23 


Load Cells (No. ) 


B8 - BIO 


& 


B4 - B7 


& 


Bl - B3 & 




A8 - A10 




A4 - A7 




Al - A3 


Force (klb) 


12.85 




49.92 




13.74 


Time (msec) 


22 




43 




23 



In the fixed Test Device test, the maximum total load cell 
force recorded was 108,490 pounds at 56 milliseconds after impact 
and the maximum individual load cell force recorded was 12,36 
pounds on module B7 at 58 milliseconds. This was caused mostly 
from the bumper guard on the passenger side of the vehicle ro- 
tating upwards. Most of the loads were caused by the bumper and 
the bumper guards hitting rows A and B simultaneously, with row D 
seeing small loads from the hood, and columns 1 and 10 seeing very 
small forces. Loads recorded on row C were caused by engine/ 
radiator area of the car. Modules B5 and C5 were pulled off the 



57 







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71 



face of the Test Device when the hood latch grabbed the honey- 
comb- material. 

For the moving Test Device test, the total load cell force 
recorded was 99,940 pounds* at 43 milliseconds after impact and 
the maximum individual load cell force recorded was 9,790 pounds 
on module C5 at 44 milliseconds. Loads recorded during this test 
were smaller than those in Test 3, mainly because of the energy 
loss in causing the moving Test Device to rebound. As in Test 3, 
most of the loads were caused by the bumper and bumper guards on 
rows A and B, with row D seeing small loads from deformation of 
the hood. Honeycomb modules CI, D2, and A10 were sheared off of 
the Test Device face from impact. Module Dl was pulled off by 
deforming sheet metal of the car. 

Accelerometer data recorded from the moving Test Device are 
given in Table 4-24. Accelerometers were located on the right 
and left frame members of the Test Device and were averaged to 
give acceleration, velocity, and displacement curves for the Test 
Device. This data was used in comparing the total force from 
both load cell and accelerometer data for both tests, which is 
presented in Tables 4-2 5 and 4-2 6. 

String potentiometer and strain gauge data for each test are 
presented in Tables 4-27 through 4-30. String potentiometers were 
placed at selected locations on the Test Device to measure dynamic 
crush of the honeycomb. The displacement measured on the honey- 
comb is an indication of the dynamic crush at one particular point 
on the honeycomb modules, in all cases, the center of the module. 
Since the vehicle striking the honeycomb is not a uniformly flat 
surface, the crush measurement at the center of the module is not 
necessarily an indication of crush to the remainder of the alumi- 
num honeycomb. Strain gauge data was used to see how typical 
loads would affect key structural members in bending on the Test 
Device. Figure 4-29 shows typical strain gauge curves for the 



*The actual force may have reached 169,000 pounds (see Figure 4-33) 



72 



TABLE 4-24. SUMMARY OF MOVING TEST DEVICE 
ACCELEROMETER DATA 


Accelerometer 
Number 


Maximum 
Acceleratipn 

A Time 
(G) (msec) 

-41.5 41 

-44.7 45 

-42.2 45 




Minimum 
Velocity 

V Time 
(mph) (msec) 

-5.2 154 

-5.4 200 

-5.3 156 


Ma: 
Displ< 

S 
(in.) 

20.9 

21.2 

21.1 


>cimum 
acement 

Time 
(msec) 


AIR 

A2L 

Average of 
AIR and A2L 


79 
77 

78 




! TABLE 4-2 5. 


COMPARISON OF TOTAL FORCE FROM LOAD CELL AND 
ACCELEROMETER DATA - FIXED TEST DEVICE 


Parameter 


Test Device 
Force Data* 

108,490 

56 




Test Device 

Acceleration 

Data** 


Engine/Car 
Acceleration 
Data*** 


Force (lb) 
Time (msec) 


NA 




194 


,900 
66 



*Sum of 40 load cells. 
**Average of test device accelerometers 1 and 2 times test de- 
vice weight. 
***Average of car accelerometers 1 and 2 times car weight plus 
average of engine accelerometers 6 and 9 times engine weight. 





TABLE 4-2 6. 


COMPARISON OF 
ACCELEROMETER 


TOTAL FORCE FROM LOAD CELL AND 
DATA - MOVING TEST DEVICE. 


Parameter 


Test Device 
Force Data* 

99,940 

43 




Test Device 
Acceleration 
Data** 




Engine/Car 
Acceleration 
Data*** 


Force (lb) 
Time (msec) 


168 F 900 
45 


169,700 
49 



*Sum of 40 load cells. 
**Average of test device accelerometers 1 and 2 times test de- 
vice weight. 
***Average of car accelerometers 1 and 2 times car weight plus 
average of engine accelerometers 6 and 9 times engine weight 



73 



TABLE 4-27. " SUMMARY OF FIXED TEST DEVICE 
STRING POTENTIOMETER DATA 











Maximum 


Dynamic 


Displacement 


Displacement 


Potentiometer 


D 


Time 




(Number ) 


(in.) 


(msec) 


Individual 


Units 




• 


SP1 


@ 


A3 


3.7 


89 


• 


SP2 


@ 


A8 


3.6 


81 


• 


SP3 


@ 


B5 


1.9 


108 


• 


SP4 


e 


C2 


2.4 


107 


• 


SP5 


@ 


C6 


3.4 


80 


• 


SP6 


@ 


C9 


2.4 


182 



TABLE 4-28. SUMMARY OF FIXED TEST DEVICE STRAIN GAUGE DATA 



Strain Gauge 



(Number) 
SGI 



SG2 



(Location) 

Row B 
Front Beam 



Row C 
Front Beam 



Maximum 
Strain 

(u in. /in. 

2343 



568 



Maximum 
Stress 
(psi) * 

70,290 
17,040 



Maximum 
Time 
(msec) 

61 



57 



tress = Strain x E (E = 30 x 10 6 for steel) . 



most highly stressed member. The maximum allowable (yield) strain 
was 3350 pin. /in., which is quite adequate for the strain data 
recorded for this test. At the end of the test series involving 
the Ford vehicle, it was noted that small localized bending of the 
high strength horizontal beams of row B occurred where the load 
cells attach to the Test Device. The bending of the material was 
due to the fact that the aluminum impact plates were subjected to 
high torque loads when struck on the outer edges of the plate. 
For the next series of tests, the front face of row B beam will be 
rotated 180° in order to maintain a flat surface for the load cells 



74 



TABLE 4-29. SUMMARY OF MOVING TEST DEVICE 
•STRING POTENTIOMETER DATA 



Displacement 
Potentiometer 
(Number) 

Individual Units 

o SP1 @ A3 

• SP2 @ A8 

• SP3 @ B5 

• SP4 @ C2 

• SP5 @ C6 

• SP6 @ C9 



Maximum Dynamic 
Displacement 


D 

(in.) 


Time 
(msec) 


3.9 


141* 


4.7 


141 


-3.6 


162** 


4.2 


50 


2.9 


60 


3.5 


69 



* Questionable data. 
**Data system failure 















TABLE 


4- 


30. SUMMARY OF 


MOVING TEST 


DEVICE STRAIN 


GAUGE DATA 


Stra 


tin 


Gauge 


Maximum 
Strain 
(y in. /in. ) 


Maximum 
Stress 
(psi)* 


Maximum 


.(Number) 




(Location) 


Time 
(msec) 


SGI 




Row B 












Front Beam 


2425 


72,750 


49 


SG2 




Row C 












Front Beam 


848 


25,440 


46 


SG3 




Right 
Frame Rail 


-554** 


16, 620 


38 



*Stress = Strain x E (E = 30 x 10 6 for steel) 
**Questionable data. 



75 



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Figure 4-29. Strain Gauge Data - Row B Horizontal Beam 



76 



The aluminum honeycomb crush profiles for fixed and moving 
Test Device tests are presented in Tables 4-31 and 4-32. Refer 
to Figures 4-13 and 4-14 for a view of the post-test configura- 
tion of the honeycomb. Most of the bottoming out of the honey- 
comb occurred at rows A and B, where it was struck by the bumper 
and bumper guards. In Test 3, honeycomb modules B5 and C5 were 
pulled off of the vehicle at rebound while modules C4 and C7 were 
pulled out by rotation of the bumper. In Test 4, modules CI, D2, 
and A10 sheared off the Test Device face at impact and module Dl 
was pulled off the Test Device face at rebound. 

A comparison of dynamic crush from accelerometer data and 
film analysis for each test is shown in Figures 4-30 and 4-31. 
Since the vehicle does not act as a rigid body during the test, 
and vehicle accelerometer data is only representative of one loca- 
tion in an elastic body (at the B-pillar of the car) , this data 
tends to be consistently higher than the data from film analysis. 
The data from film analysis is considered more accurate since a 
visual measurement of crush versus time is taken. 

Total load cell force data and calculated inertia force from 
accelerometer data is shown in Figure 4-32 for Test 3 and Figure 
4-33 for Test 4. Since the fixed Test Device is not instrumented 
with accelerometers , the inertia force was calculated using the 
car data, namely the vehicle's averaged accelerometer data along 
with its test weight. In this case, the engine and car mass were 
considered as separate masses, since their dynamics during the 
event are different. The total inertia force was calculated by 
using F = ma for the engine and car mass separately, and adding 
the two together. In the moving Test Device test, the inertia 
force can also be calculated using accelerometer data from the 
Test Device. In this case, the Test Device is considered a rigid 
body. Figure 4-34 shows the load cell force-deflection charac- 
teristics for both tests. The vehicle rate of stiffness as load 
is applied is given in Table 4-33. 



77 




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Car interior intrusion is plotted against exterior dynamic 
crush of the vehicle in Figures 4-35 through 4-37. Dynamic in- 
terior crush was measured by means of a string potentiometer lo- 
cated along the centerline of the vehicle. A difficulty sometimes 
occurs during impact when outside influences interfere with the 
displacement of the string potentiometer, causing misleading data. 

A crash pulse may be monitored on the Test Device face to 
determine the "hard" points on the vehicle. Figures 4-38 and 4-39 
show where on the Test Device face the centroid of the total load 
cell force was acting, as a function of time. 

4.4 OCCUPANT KINEMATICS 

This section of the report presents the results of dummy re- 
sponse during the fixed and moving Test Device collisions. This 
includes peak values for each occupant's head, chest, and femur, 
restraint survival distance, and restraint system summaries. 

In evaluating occupant response data, it must be remembered 
that, because of the high crash speeds, pulses measured by each 
occupant are very high and may exceed FMVSS 208 Standards. Fig- 
ures 4-40 through 4-47 show pre-test and post-test configurations 
of the occupant for each test. A summary of occupant response 
data is presented in Table 4-34 with restraint system data pre- 
sented in Table 4-35. 

In both tests, the left front occupant's head and chest made 
contact with the steering wheel and dash panel. In Test 4, the dam- 
age to the steering wheel and dash panel was less severe than in 
Test 3. The driver's head in Test 3 had a maximum longitudinal dis- 
placement of 76.6 inches at t = 130 milliseconds, while in Test 4, 
the maximum longitudinal displacement was 47.3 inches at t = 111 
milliseconds. Post-test observations showed that both driver femurs 
made contact with the knee bolsters, causing severe damage to the 
area. In both tests, the driver's chest struck the steering wheel 



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COLUMN LOCATION 
LEFT SIDE OF CA R RIGHT SIDE OF CAR 
COLUMN 4 COLUMN 5 COLUMN 6 COLUMN 7 




-16.50 -8.25 +8.25 +16.50 
a) Horizontal Centroid of Load Cell Force 



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TIME - MSEC 

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100 



Figure 4-38. Centroid of Load Cell Force for 
Fixed Test Device Test. 



90 



100 



COLUMN LOCATION 
LEFT SIDE OF CAR RIGHT SIDE OF CAR 
COLUMN 4 COLUMN 5 COLUMN 6 COLUMN 7 




-16.50 -8.25 +8.25 +16.50 
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100 



Figure 4-39. Centroid of Load Cell Force for 
Moving Test Device Test. 

91 




Figure 4-40, Pre-test Driver Position - Test 3 




Figure 4-41. Poat^test Driver Position - Test 3 

92 










Figure 4-42. Pre-test Passenger Position - Test 3. 




Figure 4-43, Post-test Passenger Position - Test 3 

■ 

93 




Figure 4-44- Pre-test Driver Position - Test 4 




Figure 4-45. Post-test Driver Position - Test 4 



94 




Figure 4-46. Pre-test Passenger Position - Test 4 




Figure 4-47, Post-test Passenger Position - Test 4. 





TABLE 4-3 4 


. OCCUPANT RESPONSE DATA SUMMARY 




VEHICLE 


: 1975 


Ford Torino 














Fixed 


Test Device (Nc 


). 3) 


Moving Test Device (No 

Left Front Right F 
Occupant Occupa 


- 4) 




Left Front 
Occupant 


Right Front 
Occupant 


ront 
nt 




Maximum 

Value 

(G) 


T 
(msec) 


Maximum 

Value 

(G) 


T 
(msec) 


Maximum 

Value 

(G) 


T 
(msec) 


Maximum 

Value 

(G) 


T 
(msec) 


Head 


















X 


-160-3 


89 


-102.7 


107 


-55.0 


92 


-126.5 


91 


Y 


-30.4 


114 


+ 42.6 


108 


-22.6 


104 


+ 54.7 


91 


Z 


+98.2 


100 


+ 62.2 


111 


+ 64.6 


101 


+ 58.0 


98 


R* 


112.2 


106 


113.0 


109 


75.4 


102 


106.0 


109 


HIC 


1024 @ 


94-116 


1691 @ 88-122 


765 @ 80-127 


1211 @ 


89-118 


Chest 


















X 


-85.8 


88 


-49.5 


100 


-58.7 


88 


-36.4 


87 


Y 


-42.1 


93 


+ 38.5 


100 


-26.9 


86 


+ 28.9 


88 


Z 


-10.7 


125 


+ 25.3 


91 


-16.6 


99 


+ 12.8 


75 


R* 


84.5 


90 


58.8 


98 


58.8 


89 


40.5 


90 


SI 


924 e 


200 


668 @ 200 


518 @ 


200 


326 e 


200 




Maximum 

Value 

(lb) 


T 
(msec) 


Maximum 
Value 
(lb) 


T 
(msec) 


Maximum 
Value 
(lb) 


T 
(msec) 


Maximum 
Value 
(lb) 


T 
(msec) 


Femurs 


















LF 


-1407 


66 


-807 


101 


-2169 


74 


-692 


77 


RT 


-1635 


78 


-1173 


87 


-1588 


89 


-609 


45 


*3-msec clip. 



96 



TABLE 4-35. SUMMARY OF RESTRAINT SYSTEM DATA 
VEHICLE: 19 75 Ford Torino 4-door sedan 



Fixed Test Device- (No. 3) 

Left Front Occupant 

Peak Shoulder Belt Load 
Peak Left Lap Belt Load 
Peak Right Lap Belt Load 

Right Front Occupant 

Peak Shoulder Belt Load 
Peak Left Lap Belt Load 
Peak Right Lap Belt Load 

Moving Test Device (No. 4) 

Left Front Occupant 

Peak Shoulder Belt Load 
Peak Left Lap Belt Load 
Peak Right Lap Belt Load 

Right Front Occupant 

Peak Shoulder Belt Load 
Peak Left Lap Belt Load 
Peak Right Lap Belt Load 

instrumentation failure >100 msec 



Load @ 


Time 


(lb) 


(msec) 


1411 


@ 86 


1297 


@ 86 


1868 


@ 81 


1761 


@ 110 


2149 


@ 101* 


1852 


1 9.1 



1323 


e 


86 


966 


§ 


70 


1753 


@ 


73 


1429 


@ 


103 


1678 


§ 


80 


1533 


@ 


80 



97 



hub, which showed little sign of yielding and caused high acceler- 
ation values to appear. ' Since the energy transfer in Test 4 was 
different, the damage to the driver compartment was less severe 
and the occupant responses were less severe. 

In each test, the right front passenger's head made contact 
with the dash panel. Post- test observations showed that the knees 
struck and completely destroyed the glove compartment area. In 
both tests, the dash panel became separated from the frame of the 
car from the impact. The passenger's chest loads were caused 
mainly by the shoulder belt restraint system. No visible contact 
was made with the passenger's chest in the occupant compartment. 

Restraint Survival Distance (RSD) criteria is presented in 
Table 4-36. This value was used in efforts to determine relative 
vehicle crashworthiness . Values in this table reflect RSD values 
with and without a 7-millisecond shift. This shift is to account 
for crush of the honeycomb on the Test Device. The vehicle com- 
partment deceleration pulse and restraint system pulse were used 
to compare available compartment space with the space necessary 
to decelerate the occupant. A critical element in calculating 
this value is the relative positioning of the dummy in the occu- 
pant compartment. Figures 4-48 through 4-51 show the pre-test 
and post- test occupant compartments for each test. Refer to 
Appendix D for an explanation of the methodology used to deter- 
mine RSD values. 



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5.0 TEST FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT 



5.1 GENERAL 



The impact tests in this program were conducted at the Mono- 
rail Impact Facility , shown in Figure 2-1. The barrier impact and 
midrange impact sites were used for the fixed Test Device/vehicle 
and moving Test Device/vehicle tests, respectively. 

Table 5-1 describes the test equipment and its function as it 
applies to the test parameters. 



TABLE 5-1. TEST EQUIPMENT LIST AND FUNCTION 



Item 



Manufacturer Model 



Timing Trap Dynamic 
Science 



Oscillograph Bell and 
Howell 



Speed 
Control 



Dynamic 
Science 



Motion 

Picture 

Camera 



Bolex 



None 



5-134 



None 



WP2000 



Beam Scales Western 

High-speed Photosonics 16-lB 

Motion 

Picture 

Cameras 



H-16 



Purpose 



Still Camera Kowa 



Determine impact speed by fur- 
nishing a start and stop signal 
to recording oscillograph. 

Records timing start and stop 
signals from timing traps, 
cable drum drive rpm, and im- 
pact switch. 

Precision control of cable 
drive drum rpm. 

Used to determine vehicle test 
weights . 

Used for side, overhead, bar- 
rier, pit, and on-board film 
coverage as required. 



Panning and documentation. 



Documentary photo coverage. 



104 



TABLE 5-1. TEST EQUIPMENT LIST AND FUNCTION fCONTD) 



Item 



Manufacturer Model 



Purpose 



100 and 1000 Dynamic 
Hz Time Code Science 
Generators 



Stop Watch Brietling 
Containers 



Graduated 
Cylinder 



Anthropo- 
morphic 
Dummies 



Kimes 



Calibrated Starr et 
Steel Rule 



Alderson 



None 



None 



Furnish timing signal for high- 
speed cameras and a 1 milli- 
second timing for velocity de- 
termination. 

Time for collection of fuel 
leak samples. 

Collection for fuel leak sam- 
ples. 

Fuel volume measurement. 



48 in. Precision measurement of veloc- 
ity trap spacing. 

(GFE) To ballast the vehicle and to 
gather occupant response data. 



Dummy and Endevco 

Vehicle 

Acceler- 

ometers 

String Pots Celesco 



12. 5K Load Interface 
Cells 

3K Load Cell GSE 

(Femur) 

3500-pound LeBow 
Load Cell 
(Belt) 

F.M. Multi- Sangamo 
plexor Tape 
Recorder 

Oscillograph Bell and 
Howell 

r Signal Ectron 
Conditioner 



7233C Measures acceleration 



PT-101- Measures displacement 
15 

1210 FS Force on honeycomb modules. 
1210 LT 

2435 Determines femur load forces 
3419 Measures belt loads. 



Sabre Records instrumentation sig- 
III nals. 



5-134 Records real-time quick-look 
data. 

M140 Conditions instrument output 
signal for recording. 



105 



5.2 FACILITY AND EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION' 

The following paragraphs briefly describe the track facility 
and equipment, their function, and mode of operation. 

5.2.1 Test Track and Guidance System 

The test track consists of 1,200 feet of asphalt pavement 
(SN = 75 ±5), 14 feet in width. The length allows sufficient 
acceleration distance to accommodate impact speeds in excess of 
60 mph with sufficient distance remaining to abort the test if 
necessary. Guidance for the test vehicle is provided by a sliding 
shoe attached to the vehicle. The sliding shoe rides on the mono- 
rail embedded in the test track. Prior to impact, the shoe is 
mechanically released from the test vehicle. 

5.2.2 Tow System and Velocity Control 

The tow system consists of a drum-driven endless cable pow- 
ered by a pair of 390-cubic-inch engines driven in tandem driving 
a modified three-speed C-6 automatic truck transmission. The tow 
system can propel a 6,000-pound vehicle into the fixed barrier at 
75 mph or two 4,000-pound vehicles into each other at a closing 
speed of 90 mph. Velocity control is achieved through a manually 
controlled throttle system. A visual readout of speed versus dis- 
tance is provided and compared with the "ideal curve." Velocity 
control under ±0.5 mph is realizable down to 20 mph and ±2.0 per- 
cent down to zero mph. 

5.2.3 Abort System 

Automatic abort capability is provided through the vehicle 
service brakes which are actuated by releasing high-pressure air 
into the hydraulic system. Abort criteria consists of vehicle 
speed, data acquisition and instrumentation system readiness, and 



106 



stability of the vehicle on the test track. The first two cri- 
teria are automatically monitored by the test control system 
while the third criterion is visually monitored by the test con- 
ductor. Manual abort provisions are available to the test con- 
ductor. Upon verifying vehicle speed, the test control system 
automatically deactivates the abort system to preclude an inad- 
vertent test abort immediately prior to impact. 

5.2.4 Master Control System 

The master control system used for impact tests controls and 
monitors all primary system functions that must operate through- 
out a predetermined interval during a test. This includes the 
starting and stopping of the FM multiplexer tape recorder, high- 
speed cameras, and oscillograph, and the control of the power 
winch which propels the test vehicle. The operations of the var- 
ious devices is confirmed, including vehicle velocity and tape re- 
corder speed synchronization, before it passes through a "commit" 
window. When the vehicle is committed, the abort system is dis- 
armed, preventing an accidental abort after the point of no re- 
turn is reached. 

Any system malfunction, including improper vehicle velocity 
up* to the commit window, generates an abort. The control system 
uses the pulse output from the IRIG time base generator as a 
clock with a manual push button defining time zero. The logic 
circuits compare pulse counts from time zero to preset values 
dialed in at the control panel. As each control circuit gets an 
equal comparison, that circuit is turned on. If the self-test 
circuit does not verify, the abort system is automatically acti- 
vated. After a successful vehicle test, the last control circuit 
shuts the entire system down. The manual backup control system 
provides the test conductor with the option of manually aborting 
the test if the need arises. 



107 



5.2.5 Fixed Impact Barrier 

The basic fixed impact barrier consists of a reinforced con- 
crete structure, 6 feet high, 6 feet thick, and 12 feet wide, 
weighing approximately 100,000 pounds and complying with SAE.J850 
This barrier can be fitted with various modules including a flat- 
faced barrier adjustable to angles up to 45 degrees, as. well as a 
pole barrier. This barrier system conforms to the definition of 
a "fixed collision barrier" as defined in Federal Register, Vol. 
35, No. 135, page 11242 (July 14, 1970). 

A camera pit is located immediately in front of the impact 
barrier and is 6 feet wide, 8 feet deep, and 20 feet long. The 
pit is covered with a metal grid which supports the vehicle as it 
passes over, yet allows photographing of the vehicle underside 
when required. Electrical outlets are provided for powering 
floodlights and high-speed cameras. A fixed overhead camera 
tower cantilevered over the barrier test site provides over-site 
photography . 

5.2.6 Midrange Impact Site 

The midrange test site consists of a 40-foot by 60-foot 
asphalt pad. Centrally located within this area is a camera pit 
constructed of reinforced concrete which is 6 feet wide, 8 feet 
deep, and 24 feet long, A metal grid covers the camera pit, 
allowing photographs to be taken of the vehicle underside. A 
movable overhead camera tower is provided for over-site photog- 
raphy . 

5.2.7 High-speed Photography 

Six high-speed 16mm cameras with 100 Hz timing marks and one 
panning camera are used for photographic test documentation. Pre- 
cise field of view monitoring is accomplished by bore sighting 
with the vehicle at the impact site prior to the test. 

108 



APPENDIX A 



CAR-TO-TEST DEVICE CRASH ANALYSIS 



Prepared by 





Jack Beharrell 
Analysis Engineer 
Special Projects 

Department 
5/8/78 



A-l 



1.0 DETERMINATION OF EQUIVALENT CLOSING SPEED FOR MOVING BARRIER 
COLLISION 

• Moving Barrier Collision: 



a tw.nhu [ V 0) - V 0)1 = Tw4 l w 



AV = 



AV(0) ] 



13 



a n 



(1) 



where 



AV^ = velocity change of Vehicle A in moving 
barrier impact (mph) 



V W D 



weight of Vehicles A and 13, respectively 
(lb) 



V A (0) ; V D (0) 



Initial velocities of Vehicles A and B, 
respectfully (mph) 



Av(0) = initial closing velocity (mph) 



Fixed Barrier Collision: 



AV A = V A (0) 



(2) 



where Av^ = velocity change in fixed barrier impact (mph) 
V^(0) = initial velocity of Vehicle' A (mph) 

• Equality Conditions 

The desired equality condition (the same vehicle velocity change 
in the moving barrier and fixed barrier impacts) implies: 



A V n '= AV' 
A A 



3) 



Therefore Equations (1) and (2) result in the following condi- 
tion for the "equivalent" closing speed, AV(0), for the moving 
barrier test: 



AV(0) =. V^(0) 



W, 



<w + w B ) 



-1 



4) 



For W J3 - 4000 lb, and V'(0) = 40 mph, Equation (4) becomes: 

-1 



AV(0) = 4 



4000 



(W -f- 4 000) 



5) 



A-2 



2.0 DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS OF MOTION 

The vehicle-barrier impact was modeled as a system of two 
masses connected by a linear spring. nu represents the mass of 
the barrier test device; m, that of the car. 




AAA/ 




The displacements x, and x^ are measured from the positions 
of static equilibrium. The equations of motion are: 



m.. x, + K (x.. - x 2 ) = 



(1) 



nu x 2 + K (x 2 - x,) = 



(2) 



Substitution of the solutions 



x, = X, cos (JO t, X- = X_ COS (j0 t 
1 1 n 2 2 n 



leads to the normal mode shape 



X. 



P = 



K 



- m. m 4- K 
1 n 



X l K - m W 2 
2 n 



(3) 



The characteristic equation for the system has the solutions 



0) 



= . (o = K I ) 

n l n 2 \ m i m 2 / 



(4) 



A-3 



The solution a> = represents a lateral displacement of the 
system with no spring compression or extension. 

The general solution of the equations (1) and (2) is of the 
form 



x, = B, + B. t + B. cos a) t + B. sin w t 
112 3 n 2 4 n 



x n = B., + B„ t + B., pcos 0) t 4- B, psin us t 
2 12 3 n 2 4 n 2 



X 20 PX 10 X 10 X 20 

where B, = -=-? — , B„ = 1U ^ 



1 1-p' 3 1-P 



V 20 " PV 10 „ V 10 " V 20 



B 2 1-P ' B 4 (1-p) a) 



n 2 (6) 



x in' V l n ' x ?n' V ?n a *^ e ^^ e i n itial displacements and velocities of 
the vehicle and barrier, respectively. We may set x.. = x ?n = 0; 
then B = B = 0. Differentiation of (5) with respect to time and 
substitution of (6) leads to the following relations for the dis- 
placements, velocities, and accelerations of the car and barrier: 



/ V 20 ~ pV 10\ 

X..= |-~ —I t + lTT--i "J sin <*>„ t 

1 V 1 - p ) \ (1-p) a) / n. 



/ V 10 - V 2 0\ 
\(l-p) a, ~ 



T 2 



f V 20 - PV 10^ , + f V 10 " M , in n , 

x = I 1 t + I I p SLn a) t 



f^)-& 



2 v 1 - P / \(i-p) ^ n y n 2 ^ 



A-4 



r-^) 



• = !io — ^10 ._^ — ~~. cos t 

x l 1 - P \ 1 - p / n 2 



■ V 20 - PV 10 + ( V 10 - V 20\ u , 

*2 = 1 - P + I 1 - p / PCOS U n 2 fc (8) 



/ V 10 " V 20\ 

*1 = " ( 1 - p ) \ Sin % t 

/ V 1Q - V 20 ^ 

x 2 = " \ 1 - p J p M n„ Sin V fc 



V, „ - V. 

— W 

2 2 

— J p a) sin o)„ t 

(9) 



Using equations (3) and (4) , the quantities p and 1-p become 



- ~^1 
P m 2 



m.. + rru 
1-p = 



m 



2 (10) 



For the fixed barrier case, the above equations for p and 1-p 
reduce to p=0, 1-p = 1, a) = (§-) ' ; then x, x, x become: (nu = 



n nu 
• V 20 ' 0) 



m 



X l = V 10 ( K" ) Sin ( ^ fc 



X 2 - ° (ID 



x „ /K ,1/2 , 
x . = V, n cos (— ~) t 
1 10 m. 



x 2 = ° (12) 



A-5 



,K , 1/2 . ,K ,1/2 ^ 

1 10 'in, m. 



*2 ° (13) 



3.0 CALCULATION OF EQUIVALENT CLOSING VELOCITIES FOR SELECTED CRASH 
PARAMETERS 



Maintaining selected crash parameters constant for both the 
fixed barrier and. the moving barrier conditions, equivalent vehicle 
barrier closing velocities were calculated. The applicable equa- 
tions and some equivalent closing speeds are summarized in Table 1. 
Table 2 presents a summary of the times of occurrence for selected 
vehicle parameters. It should be noted that the closing speeds may 
be obtained by adjusting either the vehicle speed, the barrier 
speed, or both. 

P is the parameter to be maintained constant. 

Barred quantities refer to moving barrier case. 

(1) P: Initial relative velocity of vehicle and barrier. 

Fixed barrier case: 

Initial relative velocity .= v - V ?n = V in 

Moving barrier case: 

Initial relative velocity = V - V~ n 

The equivalent closing speed is then given by the equal- 
ity: 

*10 - ^20 = V 10 



A-6 



(2) P: Maximum velocity change of vehicle 

Velocity change = AV - V, « - x n ,- . 

u 10 1 final 



V 20 " PV 10 

Av = v io - ( 1- p > 



V 10 - V 20 
1 - P 



Fixed barrier case 
AV = V 1Q 



Moving barrier case: 



AV= ( >° I V2 ? } m 2 
(m + m 2 ) z 



For AV = AV 

V 10 " V 20 = (-\-^J V l 



(3) P: Maximum momentum change of vehicle 
The condition here is 



m AV - m 1 AV 



Therefore the result is the same as in (2) 

m, + m. 



"1 ' lll 2\ 

v io - v 2o = (-is: — ) 



V 10 



A-7 



(4) P: Maximum passenger compartment acceleration (decel 
eration) 



Fixed barrier case: 

From equation (13) 



1 ' 10m, 
max 1 



Moving barrier case: 

From equation (9) 



= (v 



max 



10 



V 20 } 



K (m l + m 2 ) 
m l m 2 



1/2 



m. 



m + m 2 



Equating | x, | ™~ , ^, 

max max 



and | x, | gives 



/m + m \l/2 

v io - v 2o = Psr^ v 



10 



(5) P: Maximum spring crush 



Maximum 



spring crush = | x, - x 2 | 



max 



= V 10 - V 20 



U) 



n 



Fixed barrier case: 

m 1/2 
Maximum crush = V, n (vr-) 



A-8 



Moving barrier case: 

Maximum crush = (V 1A - V n/ J 



m, rru 



1/2 



10 20' \K(m 1 + m 2 ) 



The equivalent closing speed for equality of maximum 
spring crush is then 



V 10 " V 2 



/ m l + 
o - \ m 



m 2 \l/2 



V 



10 



(6) P: Maximum energy absorbed by vehicle 



This calculation is based upon the assumption that all 
the energy of spring compression represents energy ab- 
sorbed by the vehicle. 

1 2 

Energy absorbed = j K (x 1 - x„) 

Maximum energy absorbed is then given by the quantity 



K 



V 10 - V 2 0' 

CO 



Fixed barrier case: 



Maximum energy absorbed = j K 



V 



io Y K 



Moving barrier case: 

Maximum energy absorbed 



i* 



( V 10 - V 20 } (m l m 2 ) 



1/2 



[K(ra 1 + m 2 )] 



1/2 



Equivalent closing speed for equal maximum energy absorp 
tion is then : 



/m + m \l/2 
V 10 " V 20 " ( ^ ) V 10 



A-9 



3.1. TIME OF OCCURRENCE OF MAXIMUM VELOCITY AND MOMENTUM CHANGE, 
MAXIMUM ACCELERATION, MAXIMUM SPRING CRUSH, AND MAXIMUM 
ENERGY ABSORPTION 



From equations (7), (8), and (9), it is apparent that this 
time of occurrence is given by 



4- - n 

(A) t = « 

n 2 



or t = 



2uj 



n 



Fixed barrier case (t = T) 

IT m l 1/2 
T = ^ ( — ) 
2 V K ; 



Moving barrier case (t = t 

1/2 



n 
T = 2 



m l m 2 



K (m, + nu) 



The ratio — = 



m. 



1/2 



m l + m 2 



Values for this ratio for several cars are given in Table 2 



4.0 DYNAMIC TEST CONDITIONS AND VEHICLE DATA 



4.1 DEFINITIONS OF SYMBOLS 



W 2 (m 2 ) 
W x (m ) 



10 



V 



V 



10 



20 



= weight (mass) of barrier test device, 

=' weight (mass) of vehicle. 

= initial velocity of vehicle for fixed barrier case. 

= initial velocity of vehicle for moving barrier case 

= initial velocity of moving barrier. 

A-10 



(jO 



n 



= spring constant of vehicle crush structure* 

= time of occurrence of vehicle parameter maximum (fixed 
barrier case) . 

= time of occurrence of vehicle parameter (moving barrier 
case) . 

- mode shape, 

= natural frequency of system. 



4.2 TEST CONDITIONS 



W 2 = 4000 pounds (moving barrier) 

V 20 = ° 

W 2 ~ °° ^^ xe ^ barrier) 



4.3 VEHICLE DATA 



Vehicle 

Honda 

Ford 

Plymouth 

Volvo 



Weight 
(lb) 

2200 

4550 

4440 

3220 



T \/elocity V]_q 

Fixed Barrier 

Condition 

(mph) 

40 

40 

40 

45 



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APPENDIX B 

CALCOMP PLOTS 
TEST 3 
1975 FORD TORINO-TO-FIXED TEST DEVICE 



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CALCOMP PLOTS 
TEST 4 
1975 FORD TORINO-TO-MOVING TEST DEVICE 



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C-43 



APPENDIX D 
CALCULATION OF RESTRAINT SURVIVAL DISTANCE (RSD) 



Prepared by 





Jack fee. 

Analysis Engineer 

Special Projects Department 

May 8 f 1978 



D-l 



APPENDIX D 
CALCULATION OF RESTRAINT SURVIVAL DISTANCE (RSD) 

1.0 METHODOLOGY FOR CALCULATION OF RSD 

1.1 INTRODUCTION 

A hypothetical air bag restraint system force-deflection char- 
acteristic is used in conjunction with barrier crash test results 
to calculate a relative crashworthiness parameter, the Restraint 
Survival Distance (RSD) . 

The RSD involves the occupant stroking distance (which in- 
cludes the available vehicle interior space plus some portion of 
the vehicle front structure crush which provides occupant ride- 
down) , The degree of vehicle structural ridedown is determined by 
the combination of the vehicle crash pulse characteristic and the 
restraint system force-deflection properties. 

1.2 DETERMINATION OF RSD 

The Restraint Survival Distance (RSD) is determined from the 
following relation: 



RSD = AID - (D p - D c ) (t = fc#) 

where: AID is the available interior occupant stroking distance 
based on vehicle interior dimensions 

t* is the time at which the occupant velocity equals com- 
partment velocity 

Dp is the absolute displacement of the occupant from ini- 
tial crash impact until t* 

D c is the absolute displacement of the vehicle compartment 
from initial impact to t*. This displacement is deter- 
mined from longitudinal, vehicle acceleromcter data at posi- 
tions (1) and (2) for the driver and passenger, respec- 
tively (Figure D-l). 

D-2 



X-i , X- , 2 



4 




J 6] ,0>'FI 





X) + LONG IT 

(Z) + VERTICAL 



IMPACT 




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ID 



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C'~D 



D-3 



The absolute displacement of the occupant (D ) is determined 
assuming the following restraint system deceleration pulse (hypo- 
thetical air bag system) 



TIME - SEC 




Integrating this pulse from to t* gives the occupant veloc 
ity history 

D = V. - 43.47 + 2898t* - 48300t* 2 (.03 < t* < .05) (ft/sec) 

pi - 



D = V. + 77.28 - 1932t* (t > .05) (ft/sec) 
pi - 



Integrating once more gives the occupant displacement history 



D = .4347 + (V. - 43.47)t* + 1449t*^ - 

P i 



16100t* J (.03 < t* < .05) (ft) 

D = - 1.5778 + (V. + 77.7B)t* - 966t* 2 (t > 0.05 sec) (ft) 
pi 



V. is the velocity at impact 



D-4 



The time t* is most easily obtained by plotting the compart- 
ment velocity (obtained from test accelerometer data) and super- 
imposing this curve on that obtained from D above. The time at 
which the curves cross gives t*. The corresponding compartment 
displacement is determined from the test accelerometer data. The 
occupant displacement at time t* is determined from the D rela- 
tion above. 



The Available Interior Distance (AID) is determined for both 
pre-test and post-test compartment geometries under the following 
assumptions : 

1. Knee restraint is located 6 inches forward of occupant's 
knee (horizontal measurement) if there is sufficient 
room in the car. The occupant's knee point is located 
by drawing a line tangent to the knee surface and paral>- 
lel to the knee-joint to ankle-joint line. (The Cal- 
span knee bar was a crushable honeycomb knee padding. 

It is part of the assumed passive air bag restraint 
system.) For the purposes of the AID calculation, the 
knee restraint is assumed to be 10 inches thick and 
capable of crushing 8 inches (both measurements are 
taken horizontally) . The knee restraint remains sta- 
tionary during the collision. 

2. The knee will penetrate 8 inches into the restraint, or 
will translate to a point located 2 inches from the de- 
formed firewall/ whichever point is reached by the knee 
first. This translation is performed under the restric- 
tion that the bottom of the foot remains in contact with 
the sloping part of the firewall (or as close to this as 
possible). Pivoting therefore takes place about the 
occupant f s. ankle bone pivot point. 

3. Having located the occupant's knees by the preceding 
sequence of steps, the occupant is rotated about the 
hip pivot point until either: 

a. The head hits the header or windshield. 

b. The chest hits the dash (steering column is ignored) 

4.. The AID is then the . hor i zontal displacement of the chest 
C.G. from the initial seated position to the position 
when either 3a or 3b above occurs. The chest C.G. is 
located 14 inches above the hip pivot point and 4 
inches forward of the back of the torso. 



D-5 



2.0 DSI-CALSPAN RSD COMPARISON 

An evaluation was made of the similarities and differences 
between the Dynamic Science and Calspan (Reference 1) results of 
fixed-barrier frontal crash tests on presumably identical 1975 
Honda CVCC's. 

Basic to the calculation of the RSD are the occupant and pas- 
senger compartment velocity and displacement time histories. 
These are derived from the respective acceleration profiles. 

Figures D-2 and D-3 show the left and right compartment accel- 
eration, velocity, and displacement histories for the DSI and for 
the Calspan tests. Superimposed on the velocity and displacement 
curves are the occupant velocity and displacement curves for the 
DSI test conditions (initial velocity 40.83 mph) . [The Calspan 
occupant response curves would differ very little from these, 
since both are calculated on the basis of the standardized passive 
restraint deceleration pulse. The Calspan initial velocity was 
40.25 mph. ] 

It is apparent from the acceleration curves ( Figures D-2 and 
D-3) that there is a lag in the DSI acceleration-time history* 
This is largely due to the difference in test configuration. The 
DSI fixed barrier includes a 6-inch-thick layer of aluminum honey- 
comb on the front face. In the DSI tests, initial impact is de- 
fined as the instant of vehicle-honeycomb contact, since the test 
instrumentation detects this contact. 

The occupant velocity "and displacement curves shown in Figures 
D-2 and D-3 were calculated 'on the basis of this initial time in- 
stant. However, the occupant veLocity and displacement equations 
are obtained by integrating the restraint deceleration pulse, 
assuming the initial restraint deployment-triggering signal and 
bag deployment requires 30 milliseconds. This signal would occur 



D-6 



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80 90 



t - MSEC 
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(C) ACCELERATION 



Figure D-2 . 



1975 Honda CVCC - Fixed Barrier Test 
Left Compartment, 



D-7 



40 


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(C) ACCELERATION 

Figure D-3. 1975 Honda CVCC - Fixed Barrier Test 
Right Compartment. 



D-8 



in the DSI test some time later and thus air bag deployment would 
be correspondingly delayed/ 

For purposes of comparison, the RSD's were recalculated 
assuming a 7-millisecond delay in the DSI restraint deployment 
signal. This corresponds to a constant velocity traversal of 
about 5 inches of honeycomb, at 40 mph. This delay produced/ 
changes in t*, the time at which occupant velocity equals compart- 
ment velocity, and a corresponding change in the quantity (D - D ) 

P c 
which appears in the RSD equation. The AID's are not affected, 

being dependent only upon compartment geometry. Table D-l summar- 
izes these results, along with the corresponding Calspan values. 



TABLE D-l. COMPARISON OF RSD's DSI VERSUS CALSPAN - 
1975 HONDA CVCC-TO-FIXED BARRIER 



DSI (D curves not shifted) 

P 

DSI (D curves shifted 7 msec) 

P 

Calspan 



Dr 


iver 


Passer 
Pre 


tger 


Pre 


Post 


Post 


6.2 


15. 5 


6.2 


9.6 


1.5 


10.8 


3.0 


6.4 


1.0 


3.9 


1.8 


4.5 



All values are in inches 



It is apparent that taking the triggering signal delay into 
account produces better correlation between the Calspan and DSI 
tests. It should be pointed out that the use of a • 7-millisecond 
delay is somewhat arbitrary since the actual restraint deployment 
signal is generated on the basis of compartment deceleration. 
Comparison of the acceleration curves of Figures D-2 and D-3 sug- 
gests that a 7-millisecond delay is reasonable. However, the 
comparative results are a good indication of the care that must 
be taken to ensure equivalent test evaluation procedures. 



D-9 



REFERENCES 



1. - CLASSIFICATION OF AUTOMOBILE FRONTAL STIFFNESS/CRASHWORTHI- 
NESS BY IMPACT TESTING, *DOT-HS-801-966 , Calspan Corporation, 
August 1976. 



D-10 



* % 



(M\- Dynamic5denceJtic 

a TALLEY INDUSTRIES Company 8316 



March 20 , 1979 



Mr. Carl Ragland (NRD-12) 
Contract Technical Manager 
National Highway Traffic 

Safety Administration 
Transpoint Building 
2100 Second Street, S.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20590 

Subject: Transmittal of Reproducible Test Report No. 2 

Reference: Contract DOT-HS-7-01758, "Develop Test Methodology for 
Evaluating Crash Compatibilities and Aggressiveness" 

Dear Carl: 

As required by the referenced contract, we are enclosing the 
reproducible and eight copies of Test Report No. 2, covering the 
two Ford Torino tests: 

Test 8316-3 Ford into Fixed Test Device @ 40.5 mph 

Test 8316-4 Ford into Moving Test Device @ 59.1 mph 

If you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me. 

Sincerely, 

Sol Davis 

Manager 

Special Projects Department 

SD:bmv 

Enclosures