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Full text of "Notes on Cavalry Employed in Upper Burma From October 1886 to October 1887"

SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, Spring 2004, ISSN 1479-8484 

Editor's Note: 

Colonel Heyland's observations on army horses and cavalry regiments in the final 
stages of the Third Anglo-Burmese War was originally published as a chapter (XVII) 
in History of the Third Burmese War, 1885, 1886, and 1887, in 1889. The 
organization of transport and mobile field forces was a significant problem for British 
forces in the early months of the war. In December 1885, for example: 

"[S]ome 199 royal elephants and 300 ponies from the Manipur Cavalry in 
Mandalay were brought into the Transport Department of the Field Force, 
but of these half the elephants were without mahouts or only half trained, 
and half of the ponies were unserviceable. In addition to these, ponies 
were purchased in Upper and Lower Burma as fast as they were brought 
in. The Expeditionary Force in its equipment being devoid of animal 
transport, it was also devoid of gear, so gunny-cloth pads were made for 
the elephants, and the ponies' backs were covered with a rough gear on 
the same principle as that used in the Punjab. In efficient as it was, this 
improvised transport was found to be a great boon, and enabled 
moveable columns to march unencumbered with coolies." 

(History of the Third Burmese War, 1885, 1886, and 1887, Calcutta: Superintendent 
of Government Printing, 1887, I.43). 

This account thus remains a critical source on an otherwise obscure topic of 
Burma's colonial history and Burmese resistance to British imperial expansion. 



M. W. C. 



Notes on Cavalry Employed in Upper Burma From October 

1886 to October 1887 



Colonel Heyland 
1 st Bo. Lancers 

Regiments Employed 

Four Regiments of Indian Cavalry were employed: 



29 



30 



COLONEL HEYLAND 



TCeUH-kt3- 



iji Hiirtfc LiiKcri. 



Slhl^NBalCavliliy. 



ti^nt Cavalry 



Uft:l*dii,il*lt- 






From Mnttrirt. 
lBth t |.gHi InfL 1[(I 

Sept, i£s&. 



CtJ.jrr.rJVs., 

■Gift mwi 5;r-!l Eflp- 
tumlxir i-BBO, 



j!fnd!rV!('- 

n<> ami ith (>:- 



(rrvntfj.Ti!l(-.Li"i=-l- LiLiur i S-ii&, 



i^lBKiibaytjinccn: 






£Tnc:;.jrir.. 



2 



4J6 



5S0 



5=? 



55* 



*rt* 



•1 



347 



*W 



ass 



ilrmcO. at 
RanjjpMah 



£ 



Arrived at ports fin 

Lrrj'.ViiliL)-. 



ajnrl, ?Htk *ni ! a+tfi, 2$k ami ; JPnhu, Srrrl Oct, i&ATi. 



i ; !^| 



1P.-.I1 and. iSr'n 
SaptMtiMr 



till, fith, ?Lti 

tllll-lf |«S& 






ifitli Siptam- T-[yirhmu h loth Oct, iSS*, 
bcr nnJ irt -"^nya.in, tift , r » 
OrtOlwr i3$fi. A-iu, 32th „ ,. 

MiiliklliUv, ijLli ,. „ 



ic*li, 14H1. sHiOrtalMr, 
i r'hnr,! j',1', -"'In it! &. 



mi, ird, o*lij 
1 : ;' : 1 n |9 1 ^Ih 

OdtiiLcf jS&i 



Myinp^-n. 'jthj SijtTi, 
IXUti, ZlSt lull JjLft O6- 



All siledar regiments, excepting the Madras Lancers, who are mounted by 
Government. 

As each detachment reached Rangoon, it was forwarded as early as possible 
by Irrawaddy flats, — one steamer between two flats to the nearest place on the 
Irrawaddy to the post to which it was ordered. 

As the steamers were only allowed to run at night, some detachments took 10 
days and upwards on the river voyage ; but, as it was generally feasible to land half 
or even all the horses at night for a walk, and a roll on the ground, the animals soon 
recovered from the effects of their sea-voyage. 

The distribution of all four regiments at first was as follows : — 

1st Madras Lancers to the Minbu district to Pagan and Pokoko. 

7th Bengal Cavalry to the Mandalay district. 

3;d Hyderabad Contingent Cavalry to Ye-u and Shwebo districts. 

1st Bombay Lancers to the 3rd and 4th Brigades or the Myingyan and Ningyan 
(Pyinmana) districts. 



Mode of Employment 

Each regiment was of course at once broken up into numerous detachments of any 
strength from a squadron to 25 sowars, some detachments being 200 miles or more 
distant from Regimental Head-quarters; and as these detachments were constantly 
changed and attached to columns marching through the country, months sometimes 
passed without the Commanding Officer of the regiment or the Adjutant hearing of 



NOTES ON CAVALRY 31 



them; indeed frequently these two officers were separated for weeks from each other 
by the exigencies of the service. 

It speaks well for the discipline of the Native cavalry of the expedition under 
such circumstances that everywhere they did good service and were spoken of in 
high terms by all officers, Military and Civil, and by general officers under whose 
orders they served. 

The points connected with the use of cavalry in Upper Burma which appear 
most prominent are — 

(a) The excessive mortality amongst horses (vide tables attached). 

{b) The excellent health enjoyed by the cavalry, fighting-men, and followers as a 
rule throughout the whole year under reference, even when undergoing considerable 
exposure during the wet season. 

(c) The extraordinary moral effect produced by the big horses on the Burmans, 
accustomed as they are only to 12-hand ponies — "Devils on big horses" — " Kala 
Tasaymah Muddeeyah Minbo Mah," as they called our Indian horsemen. 

(d) The excellent forage nearly everywhere obtainable throughout the year, 
whether kurbee, or grass, green or dry. 

(e) The efficient Commissariat arrangements which never left the horses and 
ponies without their grain, nearly always the best gram, nor the men and followers 
without as much of the best rations as they required. 



Mortality Among Horses 

Referring to (a), the cause of the great mortality amongst horses no doubt will receive 
or has received the attention of Veterinary Surgeons with a view to the future 
employment of cavalry in Upper Burma or beyond its frontier, and it seems 
reasonable to suppose that the prevention of the disease or diseases which has or 
have killed by this time (16 th November 1887) nearly half the 2,092 horses which 
reached Upper Burma in October 1886 will not be difficult if proved to be due to the 
use of green fodder, as it probably will be, as it is comparatively an easy matter to 
feed on hay or dried kurbee at permanent posts, and to export from India 
compressed forage at a moderate cost as soon as the rail to Mandalay supplements 
the river way. 

It is worthy of notice that the Burmans always feed their ponies and cattle on 
kurbee (Jowaree stalk) whenever they can get it, chopped very fine, and not given, 
as in India, simply broken. The Burmans are very skilful in chopping the kurbee stalks 
into very fine chaff with their dahs, and invariably at the conclusion of a march 
commence to chop whatever forage is available. Our cavalry and transport drivers 
might well take lessons from the Burmans in the care of their bullocks and ponies, for 
indeed a thin animal, the property of a Burman, is rarely, if ever, seen. 

The loss amongst fighting-men and followers of the cavalry force by death 
and invaliding is as follows : — 



32 



COLONEL HEYLAND 



The loss amongst fighting-men and followers of the cavalry force by death andinvaHJ- 
ina; is as follows : — 





E»«»>tH Oniciss. 


Native Rapks, 




1'YnrAOW *Ra, 


TS5<hme-:jt4. 


Kiitti In 

action. 


!DidtJ uf 


bmlE&cd. 


K 1:1*1 In 


] H«l of 

di-. ,. .- 


liiviitiiSi'd^ 


Killed In 


S22 ^yu 


]st Madras LantCrS . , 
7lh Ben gal Cavalry 
3rd H, C. CuvatfJ 
Est Bombay Lancers 


... 


™ 


2 


Vi'Dund*, 
1 

3 

2 
a 


4 

»4 

> 


s 
4 e 

27 


1 
Z 


4 
9 
"4 
3 


7 
10 

7 
3 


Total 


+IA 


2 


8 


2S 


107 

• 


3 


30 


4t 



Burman Dread of Cavalry 

Numerous instances have occurred of large numbers of armed dacoits becoming 
utterly panic-stricken at the mere sight of a few horsemen and of their flying without 
the slightest attempt at resistance. Knowing this, no wonder need be felt on perusing 
the bulletins recording petty encounters with dacoits, when the slaughter of the latter 
by a few sowars appears incredible to people unacquainted with the Burman dacoit. 
It requires a hard heart and strong sense of duty, but neither courage nor skill, to slay 
or wound with lance or sword any number of terrified, unresisting men when caught 
flying in the open. 

For instance, at Alegun in the Pokoko district on the 12th December 1886, 50 
lances attacked over 700 dacoits who had taken up a strong position within a walled 
enclosure; at the approach of the cavalry at a gallop the dacoits at once took to flight 
in all directions, and the result recorded was over 200 dacoits killed and wounded, 
and subsequent enquiries have proved that this number was by no means over- 
estimated. 

Again, on the 1st April 1887, 30 lances and 17 mounted infantry attacked 700 
dacoits in a strong walled position at Taungdwingyi, and in pursuit the dacoits 
suffered very severely with no casualties on the attacking side. 

At Tebya on the 5th December 1886, only 30 lances attacked 200 dacoits, 
killing a large number. 

Besides numerous instances in which the strength of the enemy, although 
great, was not known — 



at Yemethin on the 19th December 1886, 

near Meiktila on the 1st January 1887, 

at Watchokin on the 29th January 1887 

and at other places needless to mention, the slight of a few sowars was sufficient to 
put to flight large bodies of dacoits. 



NOTES ON CAVALRY 



33 



Hiittkly insanities among form (tttcMing vjfiteri' chargers) in ist Madras Lancers 
from itt Oetober i$36 h at Qdober i8Sj. 



Dm. 


§ 
^ 


1 

■='-f 


2 

a 


i 

in 


i 


J 
i 


I 

•7 


a 

s 

1= 

1 


1 

n 

1 


StauffM. 


SqtttirtcT and Oc- 
SnlifT. 


(SS5 


CO 




- 






i 




1 1 




JTavGmfc*r ■ 


H 


... 






14 




z 


< 


'7 




E"E«mksr 


i. 








IP 




3 


i 


*4 




\vmvy 


:SS7 








M 




J 




M 




Ta^uiTf t 


if 








6 


■i. 




i 


J 




March . 


». 








& 


6 


4 




12 




ipn . 


?■ 




.„ 






S 


1 


i 


" 




fc% . 


fi 








'0 


t 


4 




Zf 




jut . . . 


ft 




■ 




j 


' 






3 




Jpiljf ■ ■ - 


" 




„. 




... 


3 


I 




5 




ajpjwt ■ « 


II 








... 


] 






I 




SijBpIiet , , 


hi 








ig 


--, 


i 




M 




Total 




IO 


1 


.., 


Si 


2D 


as 


5 


ru.3 





Regimen*, landed nt Rsn rjrjr.fi — ijriS, ?i|tli ana MSlh Seweuilwr i6Sr5. 

Sir^-i^:!: in horSfii LeT[ Siadia — JJ7&. 

Kieocived drift uf Iioiraea in 1SS7 of 115. 



34 



COLONEL HEYLAND 



Monthly Casualties a?no«g horses {including officers' chargers) infth Bengal Cavalry f; 
ist October 1886 to isi October iSSf, 



rem 



DiT«. 


1 


11 

u 
-! 

"^ 5i_" 

D 


1 
< 


a 


1 


| 

a 


i 

s 

a 
5 


i 

§ 

a 





Rxh^BKI, 


September and Oc- 
Itiber, 

PJuvcmber - • 

Decemhei 


[EW 


7 


,., 


; 


5 


H. 


t 
3 


»■ 


to 
5 


In May Isst surra b™l«; 

rr.i? ;ii iiTns [ SLmultan r!.Mi\- 
ly at Ytw^nn, Sflmwik, 
AraCClf, Feylda T161T 

Mandalay, unet iutsc- 
quenlly aL Zijjafciin. 


JiLduavy 


lBBj 




... 


,., 


3 




1 




A 




February 


IT 




... 




5 


P,, 






6 




Martli 1 > 


,;. 


... 


... 


... 


3 




1 


2 


6 




April ■ + 


., 




,., 


... 






a 


... 


a 




May 

June • ■ 


" 




I 


5 

'7 


... 


,- 


■2 


.» 


3 

■a 




July . . . 


?a 




... 


*3 


4 




3 

1 


::: 


61 




SetiEembct . 


nk 






[2 


e 




3 




S3 




ToTAt 




7 




... 


30 


1 


1 ( 1 


2 


(ja 





Regiment brsaed ai Rari«oc.ii— 13th and 30th September I88& 
Strength in horses Lett [i»cli»— SJ3> 
R.*cc.vct! draft ai horses in iSSj of 69, 



Monthly Cttmaltits anting kerses (including ejjtttrt chargers) in 3rd Contingent Hydera- 
bad Cmalryfnm ist October tSS6 tfi tit Octoier iS&f. 



1 1 ■ iV. 


i 

> 


e 5 

If 

1 

in"? 

D 




Kl 


1 


i 


s 

1 

5 


n 
S 

S 
1 


4 
4 

il 


ftKAiUM. 


September Jind Oc- 

fcvhfil^r 


■ r 


2 




... 




: 


3 




5 




[JieCinftbec 


■ 








1 




5 




6 




J;irtuary 


t88j 


... 










1 




1 




Fitruiary 


„ 


... 






3* 




2 


C 


37 




MaYch. . * ■ 


,. 








61 




... 


I 


& 




April . + 


71 


... 


... 




2 


1 


£ 




i 




Ma>' . + 


PI 




... 








3 


... 


3 




Jnisi? 


Jl 


... 


... 








3 


I 


4 




;-.ii , 


„ 


... 




.,. 


28 




' 




29 




kugusi . ■ 


W 


... 




... 


* 




1 


1 


SJ 




SeptcmSici « . 


ft 






70 




IIS 




1 as 




Totai 




2 


... | 291 


1 


37 


4 


I aSs 



R«!JLmfDt limited at Riragffnu— jth, 61h, jtJi and 9U1 OctoW [SSr5. 
Strtngih in llorsiiS Ee Et [iidiii— iiSJ, 
RoneiTeJ draft of t™*es io i3®7 if j2. 



NOTES ON CAVALRY 



35 



Monthly Casualties anietig karats [including officers' chargers) in ist Bomhay Lancers 
/rem rst October tH86 to iff October i88f. 






D.\TE, 




1 


< 


1 




g 

1 

a 

8 


i 
i 

i 


-a 
K 


H 


RlMWiKKI. 


September lfl i] Oe. 

1 :-, 
HofembcT , 

December . , 


esss 


£> 


... 






-" 


i 
■ 


] 

2 


2 


Invading i officer's 
th.irger. 


January 


1BS7 


... 






4 




2 


[ 


7 




February , ' . 


« 




I 


,.. 


£ 








3 




March 


3 i 








£ 






I 


3 




Apil . 


KJ 


... 






4 




I 


] 


6 




1% , . . 


» 


... 


4 








... 


... 


4 




Jui* . 


PI 


... 


8 









3 


... 


Ifi 




Jufly . 


17 


... 






3 






"■ 


3 




August 


n 




5 




4 




i 




10 




><>:■■■..■.:'•>! , 


>■ 








1(3 






... 


io 


Including 3 officers' 


Total 




3 


[8 




4* 




9 


5 


S6 


on last dayo[ SupteYuber, 
s)«n»5 34 easels si kuaiji 
during September. 



Rcj-iment ianded at Ration— 1st October 1SS6. 
Strength ir. nurses leEt ] ndi.t— 5:i:S. 
Received draft of horses in 1S87 of— None, 



Total Monthly CwmlLhs S m**g iW (mcMing 9#««" cA-i^rrJ (« the ,zl Madwt 
Ameers, 3rd G™U*gsnt HydemHi Csimlry, and ?ik Bengal Camk-y, rst Bombay 
Lancers, f ram /si October iSS6 ta isi Octo&tf iSSf. 



Date, 


s- 


i 

H 

SI 


4 


i 

in 


6 


| 

i 

-d 

a 


■ ■ 
i 

J 
id 
B 

A 

S 


si 


1 


ftR^..EKi p 


ScptcrfLbcf and Qc 
tobuT. 

Hovertiber 


1SS6 


=R 






14 


1 


5 

S 


2 


3S 




B ■-!!■■! ''•■'• . * 


7. 


.. 


.„ 




*5 




S 


■1 


33 




JjrtiiTJ i 


188, 








18 




J 


■ 


95 




Fsltfiiary 


I' 




1 




4S 




a 


a 


=::; 




March . . 1 


M 


.1. 


,., 




SS 


6 


!: 


4 


S3 




April . 


» 




,., 




ft 


a 


7 


& 


24 




Jlsy . 


n 




4 


5 


■& 


1 







* 




June- « 1 ■ 


,, 




9 


I? 


6 


' 


7 


1 


4> 




Ha . . . 


,, 






se 


31 


3 


S 




JS 




August 


11 




S 


S3 


33 


' 


3 


1 


66 




Septritibei . 


- 






12 


1 11 




3Q 




143 




Gmn Tot*!. 




*B 


19 


u£ 


3&J 


"3 


1 ^ 


!7 


CS6 





Rcg^icnts landed ,it Rangoon at the enii of ScJUsoiber ana 
Rtcengtli in I10K05 loft India. . *»' 

Roteivad dndtof horsra in IBS? »! . . £ : ? 



36 COLONEL HEYLAND 



General Remarks on the Health of Horses of the Native Cavalry of the 
Expedition 

The loss of horses on the voyage from India was great, considering the very short 
passages from Madras, Calcutta and Bombay to Rangoon, and the fair weather 
experienced by all. There was a smaller percentage of deaths amongst the horses of 
the Indian Contingent to Malta in 1878 in the height of the hot weather, when the 
voyage lasted nearly one month. 

2. Overcrowding and deficient ventilation, want of space behind the horses to 
clean out the stalls, was doubtless the cause of death of 28 out of 2,092 horses of 
the expedition; at first sight not a large percentage, but in reality very excessive, 
considering the short voyages and the exceptionally fine weather (a loss to 
Government of perhaps R 5,000 or R 6,000 or more). Longer voyages, with rough 
weather, would with the same crowding have caused disastrous results. 

3. There has been a marked exemption from colic and diseases of the 
respiratory organs, as compared with India. 

4. There has been a most extraordinary tendency to saddle galls throughout 
the campaign and more particularly during the hot weather and rains, which is quite 
unaccountable to the oldest cavalry soldiers. Wounds and sores are apparently much 
longer in healing than in India; this has been noticed everywhere in Upper Burma. 

5. The disease or diseases which has or have proved so fatal to horses 
during the campaign appears as surra or relapsing fever in the Mandalay districts, 
kumri (paraplejia) in the Shwebo and Yeu districts, kumri and malarious fevers in the 
Minbu and Taungdwingyi districts, anthrax and kumri in Myingyan and Meiktila 
districts. 

6. The most healthy places for horses have been Welaung in the Myingyan 
district, Myotha in Mandalay district, Pokoko and Myaing in the Pokoko district. The 
total loss in horses as per tables from September 1886 to October 1887 has been 
666 out of 2,092, without taking into account drafts of 217 horses received late in the 
season. No records have been kept of ponies owing to constantly fluctuating 
numbers caused by frequent exchange of Indian for Burman ponies. 

7. The symptoms and post mortem appearances of the complaints called 
surra and anthrax appear to have been much the same in the Meiktila and Mandalay 
districts; but owing to the want of a microscope in the former district, the blood has 
not been examined; while at Mandalay the spirillae in the blood was discovered. 
However, there is fair reason for supposing that the disease may not be either 
anthrax or surra, but some blood poisoning closely resembling the latter, but peculiar 
to Burma and due either to malarial poison or to unwholesome grasses, the virulence 
of the disease or diseases varying in different districts greatly; at Lajabin the whole of 
the horses of the detachment of the 7th Bengal Cavalry either died at that post or 
shortly after they were withdrawn. 

8. Of the four Regiments the 7th Bengal Cavalry have lost most heavily from 
surra and do not report one recovery from this disease; whereas at least 75 per cent, 
of the 1st Bombay Lancers at Shanmange and Meiktila have recovered from the 
disease, which Veterinary Surgeon Fowler classes anthrax. 



NOTES ON CAVALRY 37 



9. A great many horses appear to have had worm in the eye, and a good 
many of these cases were also affected with kumri, going some way to prove the 
theory prevalent in India as to the connection between the cause of the two diseases. 

10. It has been noticed that Australian horses have stood the climate of Upper 
Burma far better than other breeds, but up to the present time no reliable statistics 
are available to confirm this statement. However, Arabs, Persians, Beluchees, 
Country breeds, and all other breeds of all ages, colours, sexes, seem to suffer in 
equal proportion, but certainly disease, whether anthrax, surra or kumri, appears 
more frequently to select the strongest and best conditioned animals, and officers, 
both British and Native, have lost a larger proportion of chargers than the other 
ranks; in the ist Bombay Lancers, for instance, seven British officers' chargers and 
nine Native officers' horses have died or been shot for kumri or have died of anthrax. 

11. Ponies, both Indian and Burman, have suffered very little from kumri, and 
it does not appear at Meiktila or Shanmange, Mahlaing, Welaung and Myingyan, 
that there have been any cases of kumri amongst the Indian or Burman ponies of 
the 1st Bombay Lancers, although at the first three mentioned places there were 
nearly 60 cases of kumri amongst the horses, which was all the more extraordinary, 
as the horses at these places stood under cover in sheds and the ponies generally 
in the open without even the shelter of trees. 

12. Surra, however, in Ye-u and Mandalay districts and anthrax at Pyinmana 
(Ningyin) has been very deadly amongst ponies both Indian and Burman. 

13. Officers of Native Cavalry are generally of opinion that the Indian ponies 
brought over are far superior as baggage animals to the Burman as regards 
hardiness, power and pace when laden. 

14. For the treatment of kumri, firing-blisters, hot sheepskins and various 
other remedies have been tried without the smallest result, and there has as yet been 
no recorded case of a single recovery. The paralysis always appears as paraplegia, 
but, never as hemiplegia, varies much in severity in different cases; some animals 
falling shortly after first attack and never again rising without assistance; others with a 
slight dragging of the hind legs appear no worse for weeks or even months, but are 
always unsafe to ride even when the paralysis is barely noticeable. 

15. For surra at Mandalay doses of strychnia, arsenic and corrosive sublimate 
have been tried with other remedies without giving a single recovery up to date. At 
Meiktila the anthrax cases were treated with carbolic acid and tincture of iodine in Vi 
dram doses of each three times a day; but whether the numerous recoveries from the 
complaint which existed at Meiktila was due to this treatment or to the mildness of the 
disease, it is not possible to say. 

16. A few cases of horses, ponies and goats dying of convulsions only a few 
minutes after first symptoms of disease showed were noticed at Meiktila and 
Shanmange; in one of these, a pony, a post mortem examination showed a number 
of small thin worms about Vi inch long, tapering to a point, at one end, each worm 
imbedded in clot of dark blood in the cellular tissue of the abdominal walls, in the 
sub-peritoneal connective tissue, in the liver, and, in addition to these, numberless 
small white worms resembling thread worms were found mixed with the food in the 
stomach and intestines throughout their entire length. 

17. Goats and sheep appear to suffer much from kumri. At Myingyan, Meiktila 
and other places a very large number of goats were to be seen in September and 



38 COLONEL HEYLAND 



October lying paralysed in the hind quarters and only able to move by dragging the 
hind quarters along the ground. 

18. In one instance, a young kid — born of a mother, which had suffered from 
slight kumri, when two days old, and before it had either eaten or drunk anything but 
its mother's milk — became completely paralysed, but is now able to progress rapidly, 
the fore-quarters dragging the hinder part which trails on the ground; this may be an 
interesting fact to place on record, showing as it does that the germs of the poison 
which cause the paralysis need not necessarily be absorbed directly from either 
grass or water. It is noticeable that goats appear sometimes to recover the use of 
their hind extremities without any treatment, but no authentic case of complete 
recovery has been brought to notice. 

19. The tables attached show the total casualties among horses (not ponies) 
from each disease, each month separately, and it appears that generally July, August 
and September are the most unhealthy for horses in Upper Burma, although March 
and September were apparently the worse months for the Hyderabad Cavalry in the 
Ye-u and Shwebo districts. 

20. All enquiries prove useless to fix the cause of disease upon the water, as 
horses, whether watered habitually from wells, lakes, rivers, appear to suffer alike; 
the germs of poison may more likely be found to exist in the grass, and there is 
strong evidence to support this theory; for instance, it has frequently been noticed 
that all the animals fed off the same bundle of grass collected by the same grass- 
cutter have become affected at or nearly at the same time with kumri; and that when 
the weather and circumstances admitted of proper drying of the grass there was a 
marked decrease in the cases of kumri for some days afterwards and a decided 
increase for days after feeding on wet grass. 

21. At Meiktila and Shanmange, where kumri was disastrous, great care was 
taken under Veterinary Surgeon Fowler's advice to feed on certain upland grasses 
only, carefully excluding marshland grasses, and under the same officer's advice salt 
was given daily to all the animals throughout the rains. 

22. There have been some fatal cases of sunstroke, of which six occurred at 
Rangoon on their way with a draft to join the Madras Lancers in the month of April. 

Exposure to the sun seems to take much more out of horses and men in 
Burma than in India; this fact has been pretty generally noticed by most officers.