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Full text of "Oliver Hazard Perry Class Frigates: United States Navy"

Oliver Hazard Perry Class 
Frigates 

United States Navy 



PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. 
PDF generated at: Tue, 20 Oct 2009 15:34:38 UTC 



Contents 



Articles 



Introduction 



1 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 1 

Oliver Hazard Perry 1 1 

Frigate 13 

Perry Class Frigates 23 

USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7) 23 

USS Mclnerney (FFG-8) 25 

USS Wads worth (FFG-9) 28 

us S Duncan (FFG- 10) 30 

USS Clark (FFG- 11) 32 

US S George Philip (FFG- 1 2) 34 

US S Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG- 13) 36 

USS Sides (FFG- 14) 39 

USSEstocin(FFG-15) 41 

USS Clifton Sprague (FFG- 16) 43 

USS John A.Moore (FFG- 19) 45 

USS Antrim (FFG-20) 47 

USS Flatley (FFG-21) 49 

USS Fahrion (FFG-22) 51 

US S Lewis B . Puller (FFG-23) 53 

USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) 55 

USS Copeland (FFG-25) 57 

USS Gallery (FFG-26) 59 

USS Mahlon S.Tisdale (FFG-27) 61 

USS Boone (FFG-28) 63 

US S Stephen W. Groves (FFG-29) 66 

USS Reid (FFG-30) 69 

USS Stark (FFG-31) 71 

USS John L.Hall (FFG-32) 76 

USS Jarrett (FFG-33) 78 

USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) 81 

USS Underwood (FFG-36) 85 



USS Crommelin (FFG-37) 87 

USS Curts (FFG-38) 92 

USS Doyle (FFG-39) 95 

USS Halyburton (FFG-40) 97 

US S McClusky (FFG-4 1 ) 100 

USS Klakring (FFG-42) 103 

USS Thach (FFG-43) 105 

USS De Wert (FFG-45) 108 

USS Rentz (FFG-46) 110 

USS Nicholas (FFG-47) 114 

USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) 119 

USS Robert G.Bradley (FFG-49) 122 

USS Taylor (FFG-50) 124 

USS Gary (FFG-51) 126 

USS Carr (FFG-52) 129 

USS Hawes (FFG-53) 133 

USS Ford (FFG-54) 135 

USS Elrod (FFG-55) 137 

USS Simpson (FFG-56) 140 

USS Reuben James (FFG-57) 145 

USS Samuel B.Roberts (FFG-58) 150 

USS Kauffman (FFG-59) 155 

USS Rodney M.Davis (FFG-60) 160 

USS Ingraham (FFG-61) 164 

Construction Sites 167 

Bath Iron Works 167 

Todd Pacific Shipyards 178 

Power Plant and Propulsion 180 

General Electric LM2500 1 80 

Azimuth thruster 182 

Controllable pitch propeller 184 

Stabilizer (ship) 185 

Aircraft 187 

SH-2 Seasprite 187 

SH-60 Seahawk 193 



Armament 204 

Otobreda 76 mm 204 

M2 Browning machine gun 210 

Phalanx CIWS 223 

Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes 231 

Mark 46 torpedo 232 

Mark 50 torpedo 234 

Mk 13 missile launcher 236 

RlM-66 Standard 237 

Boeing Harpoon 243 

Penguin (missile) 249 

Electronics and Countermeasures 252 

AN/SPS-49 252 

AN/SPS-55 254 

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie 256 

AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite 257 

Mark 36 SRBOC 260 

References 

Article Sources and Contributors 261 

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 265 

Article Licenses 

License 271 



Introduction 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 





USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG 7) underway in the Great Lakes 




Class overview 


Name: 


Oliver Hazard Perry 


Builders: 


-^ Bath Iron Works 

-> Todd Pacific Shipyards San Pedro 

Todd Pacific Shipyards Seattle 

Australian Marine Engineering Consolidated 

Bazan 

China Shipbuilding 


Operators: 


United States Navy 
Royal Australian Navy 
Armada Espanola 
Republic of China Navy 
Royal Bahrain Naval Force 
Egyptian Navy 
Polish Navy 
Turkish Navy 


Preceded by: 


Broofe-class frigate 


Subclasses: 


Adelaide-class (Australia) 
Santa Maria-class (Spain) 
Cheng Kung-class (Republic of China) 


Built: 


1975 - 2004 


In commission: 


1977 - Present 


Completed: 


71 


General characteristics 


Type: 


Frigate 


Displacement: 


4100 long tons (4200 t) full load 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 



Length: 


408 ft (124 m) waterline, 
445 ft (136 m) overall, 
453 ft (138 m) for "long-hull" frigates 


Beam: 


45 ft (14 m) 


Draft: 


22 ft (6.7 m) 


Propulsion: 


2 X ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
— > variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — > azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 


Speed: 


29+ knots (54+ km/h) 


Range: 


4500 nmi (8300 km) at 20 knots (40 km/h) 


Complement: 


176 


Sensors and 
processing systems: 


Radar: ^ AN/SPS-49, ^ AN/SPS-55, Mk 92 fire control system 
Sonar: SQS-56, SQR-19 Towed Array 


Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 


SLQ-32(V)2, Flight III with sidekick, 
^ Mark 36 SRBOC 
-^ AN/SLQ-25 Nixie 


Armament: 


One single-arm Mk 13 Missile Launcher with a 40-missile magazine that contains — > SM-IMR anti-aircraft 

guided missiles and Harpoon anti-ship missiles. Removed from the U.S. Navy ships starting in 2003, due to 

the retirement of the SM-1 missile from American service 

Two — > triple Mark 32 Anti-submarine warfare torpedo tubes with — > Mark 46 or — > Mark 50 anti-submarine 

warfare torpedoes 

One — > OTO Melara 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

One 20 mm — > Phalanx CIWS rapid-fire cannon 

Eight Hsiung Feng II SSM or four HF-2 and 4 HF-3 supersonic AShM, plus 2 Bofors 40mm/L70 guns on 

Taiwanese vessels only) 


Aircraft carried: 


Two LAMPS multi-purpose helicopters (the — > SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I on the short-hulled ships or the — > 
SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III on the long-hulled ships) 



The Oliver Hazard Perry class is a class of — > frigates named after the American Commodore — > Oliver Hazard 
Perry, the hero of the naval Battle of Lake Erie. Also known as the Perry or FFG-7 class, the warships were designed 
in the United States in the mid-1970s as general-purpose escort vessels inexpensive enough to be bought in large 
quantities to replace World War Il-era destroyers. Fifty-five ships were built in the United States: 51 for the United 
States Navy and four for the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). In addition, eight were built in the Republic of China 
(Taiwan), six in Spain, and two in Australia for their navies. Former U.S. Navy warships of this class have been 
sold/donated to the navies of Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, and Turkey. 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 




• SH-2 Seasprite landing on ORP General 
Tadeusz Kosciuszko 



Design and Construction 

The ships were designed by the — > Bath Iron Works shipyard in Maine 
in partnership with the New York-based naval architects Gibbs & Cox. 

The Oliver Hazard Perrv-class ships were produced in 445-foot (136 
meter) long "short-hull" (Flight I) and 453-foot (138 meter) long 
"long-hull" (FUght IE) variants. The long-hull ships (FFG 8, 28, 29, 32, 
33, and 36-61) carry the larger -^ SH-60 Seahawk LAMPS III 
helicopters, while the short-hulled warships carry the smaller and 
less-capable — > SH-2 Seasprite LAMPS I. Aside from the lengths of 
their hulls, the principal difference between the versions is the location 
of the aft capstan: on long-hull ships, it sits a step below the level of 

I the flight deck in order to provide clearance for the tail rotor of the 

longer Seahawk helicopters. The long-hull ships also carry the RAST (Recovery Assist Securing and Traversing) 
system for the Seahawk, a hook, cable, and winch system that can reel in a Seahawk from a hovering flight, 
expanding the ship's pitch-and-roll range in which flight operations are permitted. The FFG 8, 29, 32, and 33 were 
built as "short-hull" warships but were later modified into "long-hull" warships. 

American shipyards constructed Oliver Hazard Perry-class, ships for the U.S. Navy and the Royal Australian Navy 
(RAN). Early American-built Australian ships were originally built as the "short-hull" version, but they were 
modified during the 1980s to the "long-hull" design. Shipyards in Australia, Spain, and the Republic of China have 
produced several warships of the "long-hull" design for their navies. 

Although the per-ship costs rose greatly over the period of production, all 51 ships planned for the U.S. Navy were 
built. Some Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships are planned to remain in American service for years, but some of the 
older ships have been decommissioned and some scrapped. Others of these decommissioned ships have been 
transferred to the navies of other countries, including Bahrain, Egypt, Poland, and Turkey. Several ot these have 
replaced old Second World War-built American destroyers that had been given to those countries. 

The Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were designed primarily as anti-aircraft and anti-submarine warfare 
guided-missile warships intended to provide open-ocean escort of amphibious warfare ships and merchant ship 
convoys in moderate threat environments in a potential war with the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact countries. 
They could also provide air defense against 1970s- and 1980s-era aircraft and anti-ship missiles. These warships are 
equipped to escort and protect aircraft carrier battle groups, amphibious landing groups, underway replenishment 
groups, and merchant ship convoys. They can conduct independent operations to perform such tasks as surveillance 
of illegal drug smugglers, maritime interception operations, and exercises with other nations. 

The addition of the Naval Tactical Display System, LAMPS helicopters, and the Tactical Towed Array System 
(TACTAS) gave these warships a combat capability far beyond the original expectations. They are well-suited for 
the littoral regions and most war-at-sea scenarios. 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 



Notable combat actions 

Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates made worldwide news twice during 
the 1980s. Despite being small, these frigates were shown to be 
extremely durable. During the Iran— Iraq War, on 17 May 1987, the — > 
USS Stark was attacked by an Iraqi warplane. Struck by two Exocet 
anti-ship missiles, thirty-seven American sailors died in the deadly 
prelude to the American Operation Earnest Will, the reflagging and 
escorting of oil tankers through the Persian Gulf and the Straits of 
Hormuz. Less than a year later, on 14 April 1988, the USS — > Samuel 
B. Roberts was nearly sunk by an Iranian mine. No lives were lost, but 
10 sailors were evacuated from the warship for medical treatment. The 
U.S. Navy retaliated four days later with Operation Praying Mantis, a one-day attack on Iranian oil platforms being 
used as bases for raids on merchant shipping. Those had included bases for the minelaying operations that damaged 
the USS Samuel B. Roberts. Both frigates were repaired in American shipyards and returned to full service. The USS 
Stark was decommissioned in 1999, and scrapped in 2006. 




USS Stark listing to port following an air attack 



Modifications 



United States 

The remaining American "long-hull" Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships are being modified to reduce their 
operating costs. The Detroit Diesel Company electrical generators are being replaced with more modern Caterpillar, 
Inc. -made diesel engines and the ships' Mk 13 single arm missile launchers and magazines have been removed from 
all U.S. Navy active frigates because the primary missile that it was meant to fire, the Standard missile SM-IMR, has 
outlived its service life 



[1] 




-^ USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60) after the 

reinoval of her foredeck — > Mk 13 missile 

launcher. 



It would supposedly be too costly to refit the Standard Missile 
SM-IMR missiles, which had a marginal ability to bring down 
sea-skimming missiles. Another reason for withdrawing the SM-IMR 
from the American ships is to focus the supplies of these missiles to 
American allies, such as Poland, Spain, Australia, Turkey, and the 
Republic of China (Taiwan), which need them most. (Possessing no or 
few other guided-missile warships in their navies.) 

With the removal of their — > Mk 13 missile launchers the American 

Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships also lose their Harpoon anti-ship 

missile capability. However, their Seahawk helicopters can carry the 

much shorter-ranged Penguin anti-ship missile, delivered far from the 

ship by helicopter. The "zone-defense" anti-aircraft warfare (AAW) capability has vanished, and all that remains is a 

"point-defense" type of AAW armament. 

The U.S. Navy plans to update the Oliver Hazard Perry-class warships' — > Phalanx CIWS to the "Block IB" 
capability, which will allow the Mk 15 20 mm Phalanx gun to shoot at fast-moving surface craft and helicopters. The 
remaining Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships are also to be fitted with the Mk 53 DLS "Nulka" missile decoy system, 
which will be better than the presently-equipped chaff (SRBOC, Super Rapid Blooming Offboard Chaff) and flares 
at guarding against anti-ship missiles. 

On June 16, 2009, Vice Adm. Barry McCullough turned down the suggestion of Mel Martinez to keep the Perrys in 
service, citing their worn out and maxed out condition. 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 



Australia 

As part of a major project of improvements, a one billion Australian dollar moderization project for the Royal 
Australian Navy (RAN) Adelaide-class, guided-missile frigates is in progress. This project will include enhancements 
to both their weapons and other equipment. The costs of the project will be partly offset, in the short run, by the 
decommissioning and disposal of the two older frigates. HMAS Canberra was decommissioned on 12 November 
2005 at naval base HMAS Stirling in Western Australia and HMAS Adelaide was decommissioned at that same 
naval base on 20 January 2008. The first of the upgraded frigates, HMAS Sydney, returned to the RAN fleet in 2005. 
Some of the new features include the ability to carry and fire the SM-2 version of the Standard missile, an eight-cell 
Mk-41 vertical launch system (VLS) for Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles, enhanced air-search radars, and enhanced 
long-range sonar systems. Each of the four frigates to be upgraded have the work at the Garden Island shipyard in 
Sydney, Australia, with the modernizations lasting between 18 months and two years. These frigates are planned to 
be replaced starting in 2013 by three new Hobart-class air warfare destroyers equipped with the AEGIS combat 
system. However, the third of those destroyers will not be commissioned until 2017, at the earliest. 



Turkey 

The Turkish Navy has commenced the modernization of its G class 

frigates with the GENESIS (Gemi Entegre Sava§ tdare Sistemi) 

combat management system. The first GENESIS upgraded ship was 

delivered in 2007, and the last delivery is scheduled for 2011. The 

"short-hull" Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates that are currently part 

of the Turkish Navy were modified with the ASIST landing platform 

system at the Istanbul Naval Shipyard, so that they can accommodate 

the S-70B Seahawk helicopters. Turkey is planning to add one 

eight-cell Mk 41 Vertical Launching Systems (VLS) for the Evolved 

Sea Sparrow missile, to be installed forward of the present — > Mk 13 

missile launchers, similar to the case in the modernization program of 

the Australian Adelaide class frigates. There are also plans for 

new components to be installed that are being developed for the Milgem class warships {Ada class corvettes and 

F-lOO class frigates) of the Turkish Navy. These include modern Three-dimensional and X-band radars developed 

by Aselsan and Turkish-made hull-mounted sonars. One of the G class frigates will also be used as a test-bed for 

Turkey's 4,500-ton TF-2000 class anti-aircraft warfare (AAW) — > frigates that are currently being designed by the 

Turkish Naval Institute. 




F-490 TCG Gaziantep is a G class frigate of the 
Turkish Navy 



Operators 

• gH Australia {Adelaide class): The Royal Australian Navy purchased six frigates. Four of them were built in the 
United States while the other two were built in Australia. They are being upgraded since 2005, with the addition 
of an eight-cell Mk 41 VLS with 32 Evolved Sea Sparrow (ESSM) missiles, and the Standard Missile SM-2, plus 
upgraded radars and sonars. 

• ^ Bahrain: The — > USS Jack Williams (FFG-24), a gift of the American government in 1996, and re-christened 
the Sabha. 

• ^J Egypt {Mubarak class frigates): Four Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates were transferred from the U.S. 
Navy. 

• Q Pakistan: 6 to be transferred , FFG-8 Mclnerney to be transferred to Pakistani Navy in August, 2010. 



Poland: Two frigates were transferred from the U.S. Navy in 2002 and 2003. 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 

• ^1 Republic of China {Cheng Kung class): Taiwanese-built. Eight ships equipped with 8 Hsiung Feng II 
anti-ship missiles, PFG-1 101 and PFG-1 105 now carrying 4 HF-2 and 4 HF-3 supersonic AShM. Rest of the 
ships in the class will change the anti-ship mix upon their major overhaul. 7 out of 8 ships addes Bofors 
40mm/L70 guns for both surface and anti-air use. 

• ^^ Spain {Santa Maria class): Spanish-built: six frigates. 

• IM Turkey (G class): Eight former U.S. Navy Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates have been transferred to the 
Turkish Navy. All eight are undergoing extensive modernization, and they are now know as the G Class frigates. 
The Turkish Navy modernized G Class frigates have an additional Mk-41 Vertical Launch System capable of 
launching Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles for close-in, as well as their longer-range SM-1 missiles; advanced 
digital fire control systems and new Turkish-made sonars. 

• ^m United States: The U.S. Navy commissioned 51 FFG-7 class frigates between 1977 and 1989. As of early 
2008, 30 long-hull Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates remain in active service. 

On May 11, 2009, the first International Frigate Working Group met in Mayport Naval Station to discuss 

maintenance, obsolescence and logistics issues regarding Oliver Hazard Perry-class ships of the U.S. and foreign 

• [11] 
navies. 

The Oliver Hazard Perry Frigates 



Ship Name 


Hull No. 


Builder 


Commission- 
Decommission 


Fate 


Link 


U.S.-built 


— ► Oliver Hazard Perry 


FFG-7 


^ Bath Iron Works 


1977-1997 


Disposed of by scrapping, 
dismantling, 21 April 2006 


[12] 


— ► Mclnemey 


FFG-8 


Bath Iron Works 


1979- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[13] 


— ► Wadsworth 


FFG-9 


— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 


1978-2002 


Transferred to Poland as ORP 
Gen. T. Kos'ciuszko (273) 


[14] 


— ► Duncan 


FFG- 10 


— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle 


1980-1994 


Transferred to Turkey as a 
spare-parts hulk 


[15] 


-^ Clark 


FFG- 11 


Bath Iron Works 


1980-2000 


Transferred to Poland as ORP 
Gen. K. Pulaski (272) 


[16] 


— ► George Philip 


FFG- 12 


Todd, San Pedro 


1980-2003 


Stricken, to be disposed of, 24 
May 2004. 


[17] 


— > Samuel Eliot Morison 


FFG- 13 


Bath Iron Works 


1980-2002 


Transferred to Turkey as — > TCG 
Gokova (F 496) 


[18] 


— ► Sides 


FFG- 14 


Todd, San Pedro 


1981-2003 


Stricken, to be disposed of, 24 
May 2004. 


[19] 


-^ Estocin 


FFG- 15 


Bath Iron Works 


1981-2003 


transferred to Turkey as TCG 
Goksu (F 497) 


[20] 


— ► Clifton Sprague 


FFG- 16 


Bath Iron Works 


1981-1995 


transferred to Turkey as TCG 
Gaziantep (F 490) 


[21] 


built for Australia as 
HMAS Adelaide (FFG 01) 


FFG- 17 


Todd, Seatde 


1980-2008 


Decommissioned, to be sunk as 
diving & fishing reef 


[22] 


built for Australia as 
HMAS Canberra (FFG 02) 


FFG- 18 


Todd, Seatde 


1981-2005 


Decommissioned, to be sunk as 
diving & fishing reef 


[23] 


— > John A. Moore 


FFG- 19 


Todd, San Pedro 


1981-2001 


transferred to Turkey as TCG 
Gediz (F 495) 


[24] 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 



— * Antrim 


FFG-20 


Todd, Seattle 


1981-1996 


transferred to Turkey as TCG 
Gire.«im(F491) 


[25] 


-^ Flatley 


FFG-21 


Bath Iron Works 


1981-1996 


transferred to Turkey as TCG 
Gemlik (F 492)) 


[26] 


— > Fahrion 


FFG-22 


Todd, Seatde 


1982-1998 


transferred to Egypt as Sharm 
El-Sheik (F 901) 


[27] 


-* Lewis B. Puller 


FFG-23 


Todd, San Pedro 


1982-1998 


transferred to Egypt as Toushka (F 
906) 


[28] 


-^ Jack Williams 


FFG-24 


Bath Iron Works 


1981-1996 


transferred to Bahrain as Sabha 
(90) 


[29] 


-^ Copeland 


FFG-25 


Todd, San Pedro 


1982-1996 


transferred to Egypt as Mubarak 
(F911) 


[30] 


-> Gallery 


FFG-26 


Bath Iron Works 


1981-1996 


transferred to Egypt as Taba (F 
916) 


[31] 


-^ Mahlon S. Tisdale 


FFG-27 


Todd, San Pedro 


1982-1996 


transferred to Turkey as — > TCG 
Gokceada (F 494) 


[32] 


— > Boone 


FFG-28 


Todd, Seatde 


1982- 


Naval Reserve Force, Acdve since 
1998 


[33] 


—> Stephen W. Groves 


FFG-29 


Bath Iron Works 


1982- 


Naval Reserve Force, Active since 
1997 


[34] 


-^ Reid 


FFG-30 


Todd, San Pedro 


1983-1998 


transferred to Turkey as TCG 
Gelibolu (F 493) 


[35] 


-^ Stark 


FFG-31 


Todd, Seatde 


1982-1999 


Disposed of by scrapping, 
dismantling, 2 1 June 2006 


[36] 


-^ John L. Hall 


FFG-32 


Bath Iron Works 


1982- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[37] 


— > Jarrett 


FFG-33 


Todd, San Pedro 


1983- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[38] 


— > Aubrey Fitch 


FFG-34 


Bath Iron Works 


1982-1997 


Disposed of by scrapping, 
dismantling, 19 May 2005 


[39] 


built for Australia as 
HMAS Sydney (FFG 03) 


FFG-35 


Todd, Seatde 


1983- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[40] 


-^ Underwood 


FFG-36 


Bath Iron Works 


1983- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[41] 


-» Crommelin 


FFG-37 


Todd, Seatde 


1983- 


Naval Reserve Force, Active since 
2003 


[42] 


-^ Curts 


FFG-38 


Todd, San Pedro 


1983- 


Naval Reserve Force, Active since 
1998 


[43] 


-* Doyle 


FFG-39 


Bath Iron Works 


1983- 


Naval Reserve Force, Active since 
2002 


[44] 


— > Halyhurton 


FFG-40 


Todd, Seatde 


1983- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[45] 


-^ McClusky 


FFG-41 


Todd, San Pedro 


1983- 


Naval Reserve Force, Active since 
2002 


[46] 


—> Klakring 


FFG-42 


Bath Iron Works 


1983- 


Naval Reserve Force, Active since 
2002 


[47] 


— > Thach 


FFG-43 


Todd, San Pedro 


1984- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[48] 


built for Australia as 
HMAS Darwin (FFG 04) 


FFG-44 


Todd, Seatde 


1984- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[48] 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 



-^ De Wert 


FFG-45 


Bath Iron Works 


1983- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[49] 


-^ Rentz 


FFG-46 


Todd, San Pedro 


1984- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[50] 


-^ Nicholas 


FFG-47 


Bath Iron Works 


1984- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[51] 


-^ Vandegrift 


FFG-48 


Todd, Seatde 


1984- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[52] 


-^ Robert G. Bradley 


FFG-49 


Bath Iron Works 


1984- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[53] 


— > Taylor 


FFG-50 


Bath Iron Works 


1984- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[54] 


— > Gary 


FFG-51 


Todd, San Pedro 


1984- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[55] 


— > Carr 


FFG-52 


Todd, Seatde 


1985- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[56] 


-^ Hawes 


FFG-53 


Bath Iron Works 


1985- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[57] 


— > Ford 


FFG-54 


Todd, San Pedro 


1985- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[58] 


-^ Elrod 


FFG-55 


Bath Iron Works 


1985- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[59] 


— > Simpson 


FFG-56 


Bath Iron Works 


1985- 


Naval Reserve Force, Active since 
2002 


[60] 


— > Reuben James 


FFG-57 


Todd, San Pedro 


1986- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[61] 


-^ Samuel B. Roberts 


FFG-58 


Bath Iron Works 


1986- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[62] 


-^ Kauffinan 


FFG-59 


Bath Iron Works 


1987- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[63] 


— > Rodney M. Davis 


FFG-60 


Todd, San Pedro 


1987- 


Naval Reserve Force, Active since 
2002 


[64] 


— > Ingraham 


FFG-61 


Todd, San Pedro 


1989- 


Active in service as of 2009 


[65] 


Australian-built 


HMAS Melbourne 


FFG05 


Australian Marine Engineering Consolidated 
(AMECON), Williamstown, Victoria 


1992- 


Active in service as of 2009 




HMAS Newcastle 


FFG06 


AMECON, Williamstown 


1993- 


Active in service as of 2009 




Spanish-built 


SPS Santa Maria 


F81 


Bazan, Ferrol 


1986- 


Active in service as of 2009 




SPS Victoria 


F82 


Bazan, Ferrol 


1987- 


Active in service as of 2009 




SPS Numancia 


F83 


Bazan, Ferrol 


1989- 


Active in service as of 2009 




SPS Reina Sofia 


F84 


Bazan, Ferrol 


1990- 


Active in service as of 2009 




SPS Navarra 


F85 


Bazan, Ferrol 


1994- 


Active in service as of 2009 




SPS Canarias 


F86 


Bazan, Ferrol 


1995- 


Active in service as of 2009 








Republic of China-built (Taiwa 


nese) 






ROCS Cheng Kung 


FFG-1101 


China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 


1993- 


Active in service as of 2009 




ROCS Cheng Ho 


FFG-1103 


China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 


1994- 


Active in service as of 2009 




ROCS Chi Kuang 


FFG-1105 


China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 


1995- 


Active in service as of 2009 




ROCS Yueh Fei 


FFG-1106 


China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 


1996- 


Active in service as of 2009 




ROCS Tzu I 


FFG-1107 


China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 


1997- 


Active in service as of 2009 




ROCS Pan Cftao 


FFG-1108 


China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 


1997- 


Active in service as of 2009 





Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 



ROCS Chang Chien 


FFG-1109 


China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 


1998- 


Active in service as of 2009 




ROCS Tien Dan 


FFG-1110 


China Shipbuilding, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 


2004- 


Active in service as of 2009 





Further reading 

• Bruhn, David D., Steven C. Saulnier, and James L. Whittington (1997). Ready to Answer All Bells: A Blueprint 
for Successful Naval Engineering. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-227-7. (Operating a Perry 
frigate) 

• Friedman, Norman (1982). U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. 
ISBN 0-8702 1-733-X. (Contains material on frigates and Perrys in particular) 

• Levinson, Jeffrey L. and Randy L. Edwards (1997). Missile Inbound. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 
1-55750-517-9. (Attack on the USS Stark (FFG 31) ) 

• Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf . 
Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5. (Mining of the USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG 58) ) 

• Snow, Ralph L. (1987). Bath Iron Works: The First Hundred Years. Bath, Maine: Maine Maritime Museum. 
ISBN 0-9619449-0-0. (The origin and construction of the Perrys, from the design shipyard's point of view.) 

• Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987-88 . Annapolis: 
Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3. 

External links 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates at Destroyer History Foundation 

• Official U.S. Navy Fact File: Frigates 

• FFG-7 OLIVER HAZARD PERRY-class: by the Federation of American Scientists ^^^^ 

[721 

• MaritimeQuest Perry Class Overview 

[731 

• Labor 'inherited Navy nightmare': Fitzgibbon 

References 

[I] Burgess, Richard R. (September 2003). " Guided Missiles Removed from Perry-class Frigates (Sea Services section: Northrop 
Grumman-Built DDG Mustin Commissioned in U.S. Pacific Fleet) (http://www.navyleague.org/sea_power/sep_03_34.php)". Sea Power 
(Washington, D.C.: Navy League of the United States) 46 (9): 34. ISSN 0199-1337 (http://worldcat.org/issn/0199-1337). OCLC 3324011 
(http://worldcat.org/oclc/3324011). . Retrieved 2008-09-22. 

[2] Navy has few FFG options to fill LCS gap (http://www.navytimes.com/news/2009/06/navy_lcs_gap_061609w/) 

[3] http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/mk-41-naval-vertical-missile-launch-systems-delivered-supported-updated-02139/ 

[4] Undersecretariat of Turkish Defence Industries: GENESIS modernization program (http://www.ssm.gov.tr/en/projeler/mebs/prjgrpc3/ 

pages/genesis d.aspx) 

[5] Turkish Navy official website: GENESIS modernization program (http://www.dzkk.tsk.mil.tr/turkce/Modernizasyon. 

asp?strAnaFrame=Modernizasyon&strlFrame=GENESlSProjesi&intSelect=l) 
[6] MK 41 Vertical Launch Systems for Turkish Navy : Naval Forces : Defense News Air Force Army Navy News (http://www.defencetalk. 

com/news/publish/navy/MK_41_Vertical_Launch_Systems_for_Turkish_Navy 120015502. php) 
[7] MK 41 Naval Vertical Missile Launch Systems Delivered, Supported (updated) (http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/ 

mk-41-naval-vertical-missile-launch-systems-delivered-supported-updated-02139/) 
[8] EMS: Turkey Requests MK41 Vertical Launch Systems (http://www.deagel.com/news/ 

FMS-Turkey-Requests-MK-41-Vertical-Launch-Systems_n000004036.aspx) 
[9] Official Website - Frigates (http://www.paknavy.gov.pk/frigate.htm) 
[10] Pakistan to get refurbished warship from US (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/World/Pakistan/ 

Pakistan_to_get_refurbished_warship_from_US/rssarticleshow/3615200.cms) Times of India, October 19, 2008 

[II] Mayport hosts frigate working group (http://www.beachesleader.com/articles/2009/05/22/beaches_leader/news/ 
doc4al63ec72453d680518247.txt) 

[12] http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG7.htm 
[13] http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG8.htm 
[14] http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG9.htm 



Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 



10 



[15 


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www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 0. htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 1 . htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 2. htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 3. htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG14.htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 5. htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 6. htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 7. htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 8. htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG 1 9. htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG20.htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG2 1 . htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG22.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG23.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG24.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG25.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG26.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG27.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG28.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG29.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG30.htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG3 1 . htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG32.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG33.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG34.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG35.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG36.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG37.htm 

www. nvr.navy. mi 1/nvrships/ detail s/FFG3 8. htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG39.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG40.htm 

www. nvr.navy. mi 1/nvrships/ detail s/FFG4 1 . htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG42.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG43.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG45.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG46.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG47.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG48.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG49.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG50.htm 

www. nvr.navy. mi 1/nvrships/ detail s/FFG5 1 . htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG52.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG53.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG54.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG55.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG56.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG57.htm 

www. nvr.navy. mil/nvrships/details/FFG5 8. htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG59.htm 

www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG60.htm 

www. nvr.navy. mi 1/nvrships/ detail s/FFG6 1 . htm 

www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor 

www.insidethedangerzone.com 

www.destroyerhistory.org/coldwar/oliverhazardperryclass.html 

www. destroyerhistory. org/index. html 

www. navy.mil/ navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=4200&tid=1300&ct=4 

www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/ffg-7.htm 

www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/oliver_hazard_perry_class_overview.htm 

www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/01/02/2130118.htm 



Oliver Hazard Perry 



11 



Oliver Hazard Perry 



Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry (August 2, 1785 — 
August 23, 1819) was born in South Kingstown, Rhode 
Island, the son of Captain Christopher Raymond Perry 
and Sarah Wallace Alexander. He was an older brother to 
Matthew Calbraith Perry. As a boy, he lived in South 
Carolina, sailing ships practicing for his future career as 
an officer in the US Navy. He served in the War of 1812 
against Britain, and earned the title "Hero of Lake Erie" 
for leading American forces in a decisive naval victory at 
the Battle of Lake Erie. The city of Perrysburg, Ohio, 
Perry County, Kentuckyand its county seat Hazard, 
Kentucky, the borough of Perryopolis, Pennsylvania, 
Perry County, Pennsylvania, Oliver Township in Perry 
County, Pennsylvania, as well as the village of 
Perrysburg, New York and its the surrounding township 
are all named after him. 



Biography 

Through his mother. Perry is descended from Scotland's 



national hero, William Wallace 



[1] 




Oliver Hazard Perry 



Educated in Newport, Rhode Island, Perry was appointed 

a midshipman in the United States Navy on April 7, 

1799. During the Quasi-War with France, he was 

assigned to his father's frigate, the USS General Greene. He first experienced combat on February 9, 1800, off of the 

French colony of Haiti, which was in a state of rebellion. 

During the First Barbary War, he initially served on the USS Adams and later commanded USS Nautilus during the 
capture of Derna. 

At Perry's request during the War of 1812, he was given command of United States naval forces on Lake Erie. He 
supervised the building of a small fleet at Dobbin's Landing in Presque Isle Bay in Erie, Pennsylvania. On September 
10, 1813, Perry's fleet defended against an attacking British fleet at the Battle of Lake Erie. Perry's flagship, the USS 
Lawrence, was destroyed in the encounter and Perry was rowed a half-mile through heavy gunfire to transfer 
command to the USS Niagara, carrying his battle flag (reading "DONT GIVE UP THE SHIP", the final words of 
Captain James Lawrence). Perry's battle report to General William Henry Harrison was famously brief: "We have 
met the enemy and they are ours; two ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop." 

His victory opened Canada up to possible invasion, while simultaneously 
protecting the entire Ohio Valley. It was one of only two significant fleet 
victories of the war, along with the Battle of Plattsburgh. 

In 1819, during an expedition to Venezuela's Orinoco River Oliver Hazard 
Perry died of yellow fever contracted from mosquitos 

Perry's battle flag 



DONT GIVE UP 

THESHIP 



Oliver Hazard Perry 



12 




while aboard the Nonsuch. He was 34 years old. Perry's remains 
were buried in Port of Spain, Trinidad, but were later taken back to 
the United States and interred in Newport, Rhode Island. After 
resting briefly in the Old Common Burial Ground, his body was 
moved a final time to Newport's Island Cemetery, where his 
brother Matthew C. Perry is also interred. Monuments to Perry are 
located in Front Park at Buffalo, New York and Perry Square in 
Erie, Pennsylvania, and Perry's Monument at Put-In-Bay, Ohio. 



Further reading 



The final words of Captain Lawrence painted onto the 
USS Lake Erie, seen here during a 2008 missile launch 

^ • Langguth, A. J. (2006). Union 1812. -The Americans Who 

Fought the Second War of Independence. New York: Simon & Shuster. ISBN 0743226189. 



External links 

• Perry @ the National Park Service 

• Perry @ the Naval Historical Center 



[2] 



[3] 



[4] 



Perry's account of the Battle of Lake Erie 

"Log of the Battle of Lake Erie" by Sailing Master William Taylor 

US Brig Niagara 



[6] 



[7] 



[8] 



Commodore Perry IPA by Great Lakes Brewing Co 
Information about the epic battle painting by Julian O. Davidson 
Perry Monument, Buffalo Historical Markers and Monuments website 



[9] 



References 

[1] Skaggs, David Curtis. "Oliver Hazard Perry: Honor, Courage, and Patriotism in the Early U.S. Navy". US Naval Institute Press, 2006. P. 4 

[2] http://www.nps.gov/pevi/HTML/Perry.html 

[3] http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/cl2/commodore_perry.htm 

[4] http://www.hillsdale.edu/personal/stewart/war/America/1812/Naval/1813-Erie-Perry.htm 

[5] http://www.brigniagara.org/log.htm 

[6] http://www.brigniagara.org/ 

[7] http://www.greatlakesbrewing.com/beerProfile.php?beer_id=00000018 

[8] http://www.battleoflakeerieart.com 

[9] http://www.andrle.com/markers/mark072.htm 



Frigate 



13 



Frigate 













/^^ 




1?' 




^^^ 


^^^M 

^^^M 






^^eSS^^^s^:- y-^T-T- 


^^5° 




Sailing frigate and its rigging 







A frigate (pronounced /fngtt/) is a warship. The term has been used 
for warships of many sizes and roles over the past few centuries. 

In the 17th century, the term was used for any warship built for speed 
and manoeuvrability, the description often used being "frigate-built". 
These could be warships carrying their principal battery of 
carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks (with further 
smaller carriage-mounted guns usually carried on the forecastle and 
quarterdeck of the vessel). The term was generally used for ships too 
small to stand in the line of battle, although early line-of-battle ships 
were frequently referred to as frigates when they were built for speed. 

In the 18th century, the term referred to ships which were usually as long as a ship-of-the-line and were 
square-rigged on all three masts (full rigged), but were faster and with lighter armament, used for patrolling and 
escort. In the definition adopted by the British Admiralty, they were Rated ships of at least 28 guns, carrying their 
principal armament upon a single continuous deck - the upper deck, while ships-of-the-line possessed two or more 
continuous decks bearing batteries of guns. Frigates did not carry any guns (or have any gunports) on their lower 
decks; confusingly, the lower deck was often referred to as the "gun deck" in the British Navy (in the American 
Navy, it was usually called the "berth deck"), even for frigates, where it did not carry any guns or have gunports. 
Both types could (and usually did) additionly carry smaller carriage-mounted guns on their quarter decks and 
forecastles (the superstructures above the upper deck). Technically, rated ships with fewer than 28 guns could not be 
classed as frigates but as "post ships"; however, in common parlance most post ships were often described as 
'frigates', the same casual misuse of the term being extended to smaller two-decked ships that were too small to stand 
in the line of battle. 

In the late 19th century (beginning about 1858 with the construction of prototypes by the British and French navies), 
the armoured frigate was a type of ironclad warship and for a time was the most powerful type of vessel afloat. The 
term 'frigate' was used because such ships still mounted their principal armament on a single continuous upper deck. 
The later 19th century battleship thus developed from the frigate rather than from the ship of the line. 

In modern navies, frigates are used to protect other warships and merchant-marine ships, especially as 
anti-submarine warfare (ASW) combatants for amphibious expeditionary forces, underway replenishment groups, 
and merchant convoys. But ship classes dubbed "frigates" have also more closely resembled corvettes, destroyers, 
cruisers and even battleships. 

The rank Frigate Captain derives from the name of this type of ship. 



Frigate 



14 



Age of sail 




Boudeuse, of Louis Antoine de Bougainville 



Origins 

The term "frigate" (Italian: fregata; 

Spanish/Catalan/Portuguese/Sicilian: fragata; Dutch: "fregat") 
originated in the Mediterranean in the late 15th century, referring to a 
lighter galleass type ship with oars, sails and a light armament, built for 
speed and maneuverability. 

In 1583, during the Eighty Years' War, Habsburg Spain recovered the 

Southern Netherlands from the rebellious Dutch. This soon led to the 

occupied ports being used as bases for privateers, the Dunkirkers, to 

attack the shipping of the Dutch and their allies. To achieve this they 

developed small, maneuverable, sail-only vessels that came to be 

referred to as frigates. Because most regular navies required ships of greater endurance than the Dunkirker frigates 

could provide, the useful term 'frigate' was soon applied less exclusively to any relatively fast and elegant sail-only 

ship, such that much later even the mighty English Sovereign of the Seas was described as 'a delicate frigate' after 

modifications in 1651. 

The navy of the Dutch Republic was the first regular navy to build the larger ocean-going frigates. The Dutch navy 
had three principal tasks in the struggle against Spain: to protect Dutch merchant ships at sea, to blockade the ports 
of Spanish-held Flanders to damage trade and halt enemy privateering, and to fight the Spanish fleet and prevent 
troop landings. The first two tasks required speed, shallowness of draft for the shallow waters around the 
Netherlands, and the ability to carry sufficient supplies to maintain a blockade. The third task required heavy 
armament, sufficient to fight against the Spanish fleet. The first of these larger battle-capable frigates were built 
around 1600 at Hoorn in Holland. By the later stages of the Eighty Years War the Dutch had switched entirely 
from the heavier ships still used by the English and Spanish to the lighter frigates, carrying around 40 guns and 
weighing around 300 tons. 

The effectiveness of the Dutch frigates became most visible in the Battle of the Downs in 1639, triggering most other 
navies, especially the English, to adopt similar innovations. 

The fleets built by the Commonwealth of England in the 1650s generally consisted of ships described as 'frigates', 
the largest of which were two-decker 'great frigates' of the third rate. Carrying 60 guns, these vessels were as big and 
capable as 'great ships' of the time; however, most other frigates at the time were used as 'cruisers': independent fast 
ships. The term 'frigate' implied a long hull design, which relates directly to speed (see hull speed) and also, in turn, 
helped the development of the broadside tactic in naval warfare. 

At this time a further design evolved, reintroducing oars to create the galley frigate such as the Charles Galley of 
1676 which was rated as a 32 gun fifth rate but also had a bank of 40 oars set below the upper deck which could be 
used to propel the ship in the absence of a favourable wind. 

In French, the term 'frigate' became a verb, meaning 'to build long and low', and an adjective, adding further 



confusion. 



[3] 



Under the rating system of the Royal Navy, by the middle of the 18th century, the term 'frigate' was technically 
restricted to single-decked ships of the fifth rate, though small 28-gun frigates were classed as sixth rate. 



Frigate 



15 




Classic design 

The classic sailing frigate, well-known today for its role in the 

Napoleonic wars, can be traced back to French developments in the 

second quarter of the 18th century. The French-built Medee of 1740 is 

often regarded as the first example of this type. These ships were 

square-rigged and carried all their main guns on a single continuous 

upper deck. The lower deck, known as the "gun deck", now carried no 

armament, and functioned as a "berth deck" where the crew lived, and 

was in fact placed below the waterline of the new frigates. The new 

sailing frigates were able to fight with all their guns when the seas 

were so rough that comparable two-deckers had to close the gun-ports 

on their lower decks (see the Action of 13 January 1797, for an 

example when this was decisive). Like the larger 74 which was developed at the same time, the new frigates sailed 

very well and were good fighting vessels due to a combination of long hulls and low upperworks compared to 

vessels of comparable size and firepower. 

The Royal Navy captured a handful of the new French frigates during the War of the Austrian Succession 
(1740—1748) and were impressed by them, particularly for their inshore handling capabilities. They soon built copies 
and started to adapt the type to their own needs, setting the standard for other frigates as a superpower. The first 
British frigates carried 28 guns including an upper deck battery of twenty-four 9-pounder guns (the remaining four 
smaller guns were carried on the quarter deck) but soon developed into Fifth Rates ships of 32 or 36 guns including 
an upper deck battery of twenty-six 12-pounder guns (with the remaining six or ten smaller guns carried on the 
quarter deck and forecastle). From around 1778, a larger "heavy" frigate was developed with a main battery of 
twenty-six or twenty-eight 18-pounder guns (again with the remaining ten smaller guns carried on the quarter deck 
and forecastle). 

Royal Navy frigates of the late 18th century included the 1780- vintage Perseverance class, which measured around 
900 tons burthen and carried 36 guns; this successful class was followed by numerous other classes that measured 
over 1,000 tons burthen and carried 38 guns. 

In 1797, the US Navy's first six major ships were 44-gun frigates (or "super-frigates"), which actually carried 
fifty-six to sixty 24-pounder long guns and 36-pounder or 48-pounder carronades on two decks, and were 
exceptionally powerful and tough. These ships were so well-armed that they were often seen as equal to smaller 
ships of the line and, after a series of losses at the outbreak of the War of 1812, Royal Navy fighting instructions 
ordered British frigates (usually of 38 guns or less) to never engage American frigates at any less than a 2:1 
advantage. USS Constitution, preserved as a museum ship by the US Navy, is the oldest commissioned frigate afloat, 
and is a surviving example of a frigate from the Age of Sail. Constitution and her sister ships were created in a 
response to deal with the Barbary Coast pirates and in conjunction with the Naval Act of 1794. The six ships when 
built had a distinctive building pattern which minimized "hogging" (in which the centre of the keel rises while both 
ends drop) and improves hydrodynamic efficiency. The hull was designed so that all the weight from the guns was 
upon the keel itself. Joshua Humphreys proposed that only live oak, a tree that grew only in America, should be used 
to build these ships. The method was to use diagonal riders, eight on each side that sat a 45 degree angle. These 
beams of live oak were about two feet wide and around a foot thick and helped to maintain the shape of the hull, 
serving also to reduce flexibility and to minimize impacts. These ideas were considered revolutionary in the late 
18th and early 19th century. A three-layer method was used in which the planks along the sides of the hull were laid 
horizontally across the ribs, making a crossing or checker board pattern. The sides of the ship could be as thick as 25 
inches, and were able to absorb substantial damage. The strength of this braced construction earned USS 
Constitution the nickname "Old Ironsides". 



Frigate 



16 



Role 

Frigates were perhaps the hardest-worked of warship types during the Age of Sail. While smaller than a 
ship-of-the-line, they were formidable opponents for the large numbers of sloops and gunboats, not to mention 
privateers or merchantmen. Able to carry six months' stores, they had very long range; and vessels larger than 
frigates were considered too valuable to operate independently. 

Frigates scouted for the fleet, went on commerce-raiding missions and patrols, conveyed messages and dignitaries. 
Usually frigates would fight in small numbers or singly against other frigates. They would avoid contact with 
ships-of-the-line; even in the midst of a fleet engagement it was bad etiquette for a ship of the line to fire on an 
enemy frigate which had not fired first. 

For officers in the Royal Navy a frigate was a desirable posting. Frigates often saw action, which meant a greater 
chance of glory, promotion, and prize money. 

Unlike larger ships that were placed in ordinary, frigates were kept in service in peacetime as a cost-saving measure 
and to provide experience to frigate captains and officers which would be useful in wartime. Frigates could also 
carry marines for boarding enemy ships or for operations on shore. 

Frigate armament ranged from 22 guns on one deck to 60 guns on two decks. Common armament was 32 to 44 long 
guns, from 8- to 24-pounders (3.6 to 11 kg), plus a few carronades (large bore short-range guns). 

Frigates remained a crucial element of navies until the mid- 19th 
century. The first ironclads were classified as 'frigates' because of the 
number of guns they carried. However, terminology changed as iron 
and steam became the norm, and the role of the frigate was assumed 
first by the protected cruiser and then by the light cruiser. 

Frigates are often the vessel of choice in historical naval novels due to 
their relative freedom compared to ships of the line (kept for fleet 
actions) and smaller vessels (generally assigned to a home port and less 
widely ranging). For example the Patrick O'Brian Aubrey— Maturin 
series, C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower series and Alexander Kent's 
Richard Bolitho series. The motion picture Master and Commander 
features a reconstructed historic frigate, HMS Rose, to depict Aubrey's 
frigate HMS Surprise. 



The fictitious, but representative, ironclad frigate 
USS Abraham Lincoln, from Jules Verne's the 
novel Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea 




Frigate 17 

Age of steam 

Vessels classed as frigates continued to play a great role in navies with 
the adoption of steam power in the 19th century. In the 1830s navies 
experimented with large paddle steamers equipped with large guns 
mounted on one deck, which were termed 'paddle frigates'. From the 
mid- 1840s frigates which more closely resembled the traditional 
sailing frigate were built with steam engines and screw propellers. 
These 'screw frigates', built first of wood and later of iron, continued to 
perform the traditional role of the frigate until late in the 19th century. 



^ 


jl 


. 






^ 




u 


'^"■■-, 


j^ 








fey* 


y^J'Sjl 


■ 



French paddle frigate Descartes 

From 1859, armour was added to ships based on existing frigate and I 

ship of the line designs. The additional weight of the armour on these 

first ironclad warships meant that they could have only one gun deck, and they were technically frigates, even 
though they were more powerful than existing ships-of-the-line and occupied the same strategic role. The phrase 
'armoured frigate' remained in use for some time to denote a sail-equipped, broadside-firing type of ironclad. 

Towards the end of the 19th century, the term 'frigate' fell out of use. Armoured vessels were designated as either 
'battleships' or 'armoured cruisers', while unarmoured vessels including frigates and sloops were classified as 
'unprotected cruisers'. 

Modern Age 
Second World War 

Modern frigates are related to earlier frigates only by name. The term "frigate" was readopted during World War II 
by the Royal Navy to describe a new type of anti-submarine escort vessel that was larger than a corvette, but smaller 
than a destroyer. The frigate was introduced to remedy some of the shortcomings inherent in the corvette design: 
limited armament, a hull form not suited to open-ocean work, a single shaft which limited speed and 
maneuverability, and a lack of range. The frigate was designed and built to the same mercantile construction 
standards (scantlings) as the corvette, allowing manufacture by yards unused to warship construction. The first 
frigates of the River class (1941) were essentially two sets of corvette machinery in one larger hull, armed with the 
latest Hedgehog anti-submarine weapon. The frigate possessed less offensive firepower and speed than a destroyer, 
but such qualities were not required for anti-submarine warfare. Submarines were slow, and ASDIC sets did not 
operate effectively at speeds of over 20 knots. Rather, the frigate was an austere and weatherly vessel suitable for 
mass-construction and fitted with the latest innovations in anti-submarine warfare. As the frigate was intended purely 
for convoy duties, and not to deploy with the fleet, it had limited range and speed. 

The contemporaneous German Flottenbegleiter ("fleet escorts"), also known as "F-Boats" were essentially 
frigates. They were based on a pre-war Oberkommando der Marine concept of vessels which could fill roles such 
as fast minesweeper, minelayer, merchant escort and anti-submarine vessel. Because of the Treaty of Versailles their 
displacement was officially limited to 600 tons, although in reality they exceeded this by about 100 tons. F-boats had 
two stacks and two 105 mm gun turrets. The design was flawed because of its narrow beam, sharp bow and 
unreliable high pressure steam turbines. F-boats suffered relatively heavy losses and were succeeded in operational 
duties later in the war by Type 35 and Elbing class torpedo boats. Flottenbegleiter remained in service as advanced 
training vessels. 

It was not until the Royal Navy's Bay class of 1944 that a British design bearing the name of frigate was produced 
for fleet use, although it still suffered from limited speed. These frigates were similar to the United States Navy's 
(USN) destroyer escorts (DE), although the latter had greater speed and offensive armament to better suit them to 
fleet deployments. American DEs serving in the British Royal Navy were rated as frigates, and British-influenced 



Frigate 



18 



Tacoma class frigates serving in the USN were classed as patrol frigates (PF). One of the most successful post-1945 
designs was the British Leander class frigate, which was used by several navies. 



Guided missile role 




OLIVER HAZARD PERRY Cla?^ tUSA) 



NEUS7RASHIMT Class (RUiS'-fa) 




The introduction of the surface-to-air missile after the Second World 
War made relatively small ships effective for anti-aircraft warfare 
(AAW): the "guided missile frigate." In the USN, these vessels were 
called "Ocean Escorts" and designated "DE" or "DEG" until 1975 - a 
holdover from the World War 11 Destroyer Escort or DE. British Navy 
maintained the use of the term "frigate." Soviet Navy used the term 
"guard-ship" (cxopojKeBOH Kopa6jii.). 

From the 1950s to the 1970s, the USN commissioned ships classed as 

guided missile frigates which were actually AAW cruisers built on 

^^4^ destroyer-style hulls. Some of these ships — the Bainbridge-, Truxtun-, 

' ^^^■^■f -*"-^C» California- and Virginia- classes — were nuclear-powered. These were 

larger than any previous frigates and the use of the term frigate here is 

much more analogous to its original use. All such ships were 

reclassified as guided missile cruisers (CG / CGN) or, in the case of the 

smaller FarragMf-class, as guided missile destroyers (DDG) in 1975. The last of these particular frigates were struck 

from the Naval Vessel Register in the 1990s. 

Nearly all modern frigates are equipped with some form of offensive or defensive missiles, and as such are rated as 
guided-missile frigates (FFG). Improvements in surface-to-air missiles (e.g., the Eurosam Aster 15) allow modern 
guided-missile frigates to form the core of many modern navies and to be used as a fleet defence platform, without 
the need for specialised AAW frigates. 



U FAyETTL Class (francftj 



HALJFAJf; CUss (Canada) 

Modern frigates 




Anti-submarine role 

At the opposite end of the spectrum, some frigates are specialised for 
anti-submarine warfare (ASW). Increasing submarine speeds towards 
the end of the Second World War (see German Type XXI submarine) 
greatly reduced the margin of speed superiority of frigate over 
submarine. The frigate could no longer be slow and powered by 
mercantile machinery and consequently postwar fiigates, such as the 
Whitby class, were faster. Such ships carry improved sonar equipment, 
such as the variable depth sonar or towed array, and specialised 
weapons such as torpedoes, forward-throwing weapons such as Limbo 
and missile-carried anti-submarine torpedoes such as ASROC or Ikara. 
Surface-to-air missiles such as Sea Sparrow and surface-to-surface 
missiles such as Exocet give them defensive and offensive capabilities. 
The Royal Navy's original Type 22 frigate is an example of a specialised ASW frigate. 

Especially for ASW, most modern frigates have a landing deck and hangar aft to operate helicopters, eliminating the 
need for the frigate to close with unknown sub-surface threats, and using fast helicopters to attack nuclear 
submarines which may be faster than surface warships. For this task the helicopter is equipped with sensors such as 
sonobuoys, wire-mounted dipping sonar and magnetic anomaly detectors to identify possible threats, and torpedoes 

or depth-charges to attack them. With their onboard radar helicopters can also be used to reconnoitre 
over-the-horizon targets and, if equipped with anti-ship missiles such as Penguin or Sea Skua, to attack them. The 



HMS Somerset ot the Royal Navy. Type 23 

frigates are leading anti-submarine warfare 

frigates. 



Frigate 



19 



helicopter is also invaluable for search and rescue operation and has largely replaced the use of small boats or the 
jackstay rig for such duties as transferring personnel, mail and cargo between ships or to shore. With helicopters 
these tasks can be accomplished faster and less dangerously, and without the need for the frigate to slow down or 
change course. 

Further developments 

Stealth technology has been introduced in modern frigate design. 
Frigate shapes are designed to offer a minimal radar cross section, 
which also lends them good air penetration; the maneuverability of 
these frigates has been compared to that of sailing ships. Examples are 
the French La Fayette-cla&s, with the Aster 15 missile for anti-missile 
capabilities, the German F125 class and Sachsen class frigates and also 
the Turkish Milgem type corvettes and TF-2000 type Frigates with the 
MK-41 VLS. 

The modern French Navy applies the term frigate to both frigates and 

destroyers in service. Pennant numbers remain divided between 

F-series numbers for those ships internationally recognized as frigates 

and D-series pennant numbers for those more traditionally recognized 

as destroyers. This can result in some confusion as certain classes are referred to as frigates in French service while 

similar ships in other navies are referred to as destroyers. This also results in some recent classes of French ships 

being among the largest in the world to carry the rating of frigate. 

Also in the German Navy frigates were used to replace aging destroyers; however in size and role the new German 
frigates exceed the former class of destroyers. The future German F125 class frigate will be the largest class of 
frigates worldwide with a displacement of 7,200 tons. The same was done in the Spanish Navy, which went ahead 
with the deployment of the first Aegis frigates, the F-lOO class frigates. 

Some new classes of frigates are optimized for high-speed deployment and combat with small craft rather than 
combat between equal opponents; an example is the U.S. Littoral Combat Ship. 

Gallery 




De Zeven Provincien class frigate. 



ggg^ 



HMSSwa/eofthe 

River-class, the original 

modern frigates 




HMS Monmouth, a 

British Type 23-class 

frigate 



USS Vandegrift, an 

American — » Oliver 

Hazard Perrv-class 

frigate 




HMAS Darwin, an 

Australian Addaide-clasi, 

frigate 



HMCS Regina, a 

Canadian Halifax-clsiss 

frigate 



Frigate 



20 




ARC Almirante Padilla, a 

Colombian Padilla-class 

light missile frigate 



J^Pi 



INS Shivalik, an Indian 

under-construction 

5/irva/i^-class frigate 




Surcouf, a French La 
Fayette-c\a.ss frigate 



F22 1 Hessen, a German 
Sac/iie«-class frigate 



HNLMS Van Speijk, a 

Dutch Karel 
Doorman-class frigate 




BAP Maridtegui, a 

Peruvian Lupo-class light 

frigate 



Yugoslav Navy frigate 
VPBR-34 "Pula" 



Neustrashimy class 
frigate from the Russian 

Navy 



Spanish Alvaro de Bazan 
class frigate 



See also 

• List of frigate classes 

• List of frigate classes by country 

• Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald 

• United States Navy 1975 ship reclassification 



Lists 

Note that Algerian, Tripolitan and Tunisian sail frigates are listed under Turkey. All Italian city-state frigates are 
listed under Italy. 



Sail frigates 
(1640-1860) 


Steam 

frigates 

(1830-1880) 


Modern frigates 
(1940-present) 


Current 
frigates 






Australia 


Australia 


Austria 


Austria 










Canada 


Canada 






China 


China 


Croatia 






Croatia 


Denmark 




Denmark 




Egypt 


Egypt 










Finland 




France 


Germany 


Germany 


Germany 


Germany 




Greece 


Greece 


Greece 








India 



Frigate 



21 









Iran 


Italy 


Italy 


Italy 


Italy 






Malaysia 


Malaysia 








Montenegro 


Netherlands 






Netherlands 






New Zealand 


New Zealand 






Norway 


Norway 






Pakistan 


Pakistan 


Peru 


Peru 


Peru 




Portugal 


Portugal 


Portugal 


Portugal 


Romania 


Romania 


Romania 


Romania 


Russia 


Russia 












Singapore 


Spain 


Spain 


Spain 


Spain 


Sweden 








Turkey 




Turkey 


Turkey 


United Kingdom 


United 
States 


United States 


United States 


United States 






Republic of China 
(Taiwan) 


Taiwan 




Yugoslavia 


Yugoslavia 





References 



Bibliography 

• Bennett, G. The Battle of Trafalgar, Barnsley (2004). ISBN 1-84415-107-7 

• Constam, Angus & Bryan, Tony, British Napoleonic Ship-Of-The-Line, Osprey Publishing, 2001 184176308X 

• Gardiner, Robert & Lambert, Andrew, (Editors), Steam, Steel and Shellfire: The Steam Warship, 1815-1905 
(Conway's History of the Ship series). Book Sales, 2001 

• Gresham, John D., "The swift and sure steeds of the fighting sail fleet were its dashing frigates". Military 
Heritage magazine, (John D. Gresham, Military Heritage, February 2002, Volume 3, No. 4, pp. 12 to 17 and p. 
87). 

• Rodger, N. A. M. The Command of the Ocean, a Naval History of Britain 1649-1815, London (2004). ISBN 
0-713-99411-8 

• Lambert, Andrew Battleships in Transition, the Creation of the Steam Battlefleet 1815-1860, published Conway 
Maritime Press, 1984. ISBN 0-85 177-3 15-X 

• Lavery, Brian. The Ship of the Line, Volume 1: The Development of the Battlefleet, 1650—1850. Annapolis, Md.: 
Naval Institute Press, 1983. ISBN 0870216317. 

• Lavery, Brian. The Ship of the Line, Volume 2: Design, Construction and Fittings. Annapolis, Md.: Naval 
Institute Press, 1984. ISBN 0870219537. 

• Mahan, A.T., The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1660-1783, Cosimo, Inc., 2007 

• Marriot, Leo. Royal Navy Frigates 1945-1983 , Ian Allan, 1983, ISBN 0-71 10-1322-5 



Frigate 22 

• Rodger, N.A.M. The Command of the Ocean, a Naval History of Britain 1649-1815, London (2004). ISBN 
0-713-99411-8 

• Sondhaus, L. Naval Warfare, 1815-1914 

• Winfield, Rif. The 50-Gun Ship. London: Caxton Editions, 1997. ISBN 1840673656, ISBN 1861760256 

• Lavery, B. Ship. Dorling Kindersly, Ltd (2004). ISBN 1-4053-1 154-1 

External links 

• Michael Philips, Notes on Sailing Warships , 2000. 

rsi 

• Frigates from battleships-cruisers.co.uk - history and pictures of United Kingdom frigates since World War II 

[91 

• Frigates from Destroyers OnLine - pictures, history, crews of United States frigates since 1963 

• The Development of the Full-Rigged Ship From the Carrack to the Full-Rigger 

References 

[1] Henderson, James: Frigates Sloops & Brigs. Pen & Sword Books, London, 2005. ISBN 1-84415-301-0 

[2] Geofrrey Parker, The Military Revolution: Military Innovation and the Rise of the West 1500-1800, p. 99 

[3] Rodger, N.A.M: The Command of the Ocean - a Naval History of Britain, 1649-1815. Allen Lane, London, 2004. ISBN 0-7139-941 1-8 

[4] Archibald, Roger. 1997. Six ships that shook the world. American Heritage of Invention & Technology 13, (2): 24. 

[5] Archibald, Roger. 1997. Six ships that shook the world. American Heritage of Invention & Technology 13, (2): 24. 

[6] prinzeugen.com "Frigate: An Online Photo Album". (http://www.prinzeugen.com/FRlND.htm) Retrieved on: 11 February 2008. 

[7] http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/genl.htm 

[8] http://www.battleships-cruisers.co.uk/frigates.htm 

[9] http://www.destroyersonline.com/usndd/fftypes.htm? 

[10] http://www.greatgridlock.net/Sqrigg/squrig2.html 



23 



Perry Class Frigates 



USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7) 




USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7) underway during a Great Lakes cruise. 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 



10 March 1973 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Bath Iron Works 
12 June 1975 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



25 September 1976 
17 December 1977 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



20 February, 1997 
3 May 1999 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



NS Mayport, Florida (former) 
Don't Give Up the Ship 



Nickname: 
Fate: 



Gallant Leader 
Scrapped 



Displacement: 



General characteristics 



4,100 tons (4,170 t) fuUload 



Length: 
Beam: 



445 ft (136 m) overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — ► azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus SH-2 detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted maintainers 



USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7) 24 

Sensors and -^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 

processing systems: — > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 

CAS and STIR fire-contxol radar 

AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan -^ Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. Note: Unlike other 
Perry-class frigates, USS Oliver Hazard Perry was not equipped with a Vulcan Phalanx CIWS when 
built. 



Aircraft carried: 1; — > SH-2 Seasprite helicopter (ship was to have capability for two helicopters, but never carried more than 

one due to flight deck and hanger size limitations) 

USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7), lead ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for — > Oliver Hazard Perry, American naval hero, who was victorious at the 1813 Battle of Lake Erie. 
Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works on 30 October 1973 as part of the FY73 program, Oliver Hazard Perry was laid 
down on 12 June 1975, launched on 25 September 1976, and commissioned on 17 December 1977. She was ordered 
as PFG-109 but was redesignated as FFG-7 in the 1975 fleet designation realignment on 1 June 1975, before she 
was laid down. Decommissioned on 20 February 1997, in Mayport, FL under the last Commanding Officer, CDR 
Robert F. Holman, USNR. Stricken on 3 May 1999, Oliver Hazard Perry and scrapped in December 2005 in 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7) was the first ship of that name in the U.S. Navy. 

For other ships named for Perry see: USS Perry. 

External links 

• Photos of USS OUver Hazard Perry (FFG 7) ^^^ 

• MaritimeQuest USS Oliver Hazard Perry FFG-7 pages 

• NVR FFG-7 ^^^^ 

• FFG-7 Internet Links 

References 

[1] http://www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor/pic-ffg7.shtml 

[2] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/oliver_hazard_perry_page_l.htm 

[3] http://www.usnavylinks.com/FFG-7 



USS Mclnerney (FFG-8) 



25 



USS Mclnerney (FFG-8) 




Career (US) 



Ordered: 



27 February 1976 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Bath Iron Works 
16 January 1978 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



4 November 1978 
15 December 1979 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Mayport, Florida 
"Fast, Fearless, and Gallant" 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

—t variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-> AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 

AN/SLQ-32 



USS Mclnerney (FFG-8) 26 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Mclnerney (FFG-8), second ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, is the first 
United States Navy ship named for Vice Admiral Francis X. Mclnerney (1899—1956). Ordered from — > Bath Iron 
Works on 27 February 1976 as part of the FY75 program, Mclnerney was laid down on 16 January 1978, launched 
on 4 November 1978, and commissioned on 15 December 1979. 

1980s 

Mclnerney s mission is to provide multi-threat protection for military and merchant shipping, amphibious task forces 
and underway replenishment groups. During her first two years of service, Mclnerney was the US Navy test platform 
for the LAMPS MK-III(SH-60B helicopter) anti-submarine warfare system and the Recovery Assist, Secure, and 
Traverse (RAST) system. Her efforts during this period earned her a Meritorious Unit Commendation. 

Mclnerney'^ first major deployment to the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean began in November 1982. During 
this deployment she embarked a LAMPS Mk-I (SH-2 Seasprite) helicopter detachment. Mclnerney made brief port 
visits to Tangiers, Morocco, and Catania, Sicily and supported the Multi-National Force in Beirut, Lebanon (earning 
her the Navy Expeditionary Medal). After transiting the Suez Canal, Mclnerney operated in the Indian Ocean and 
made port calls to Karachi, Pakistan, Columbo, Sri Lanka, and Mombasa, Kenya. She also crossed the equator 
enroute to Diego Garcia. Following this deployment, Mclnerney operated in the Caribbean and visited Port Limon, 
Costa Rica and Tela, Hondurus. She received the Coast Guard Operational Meritorious Unit Citation for her efforts 
in law enforcement during this period. 

In October 1984, Mclnerney deployed again to the Middle East in the midst of the Iran/Iraq Tanker War. She had 
now been fitted with the Phalanx CIWS and also carried a LAMPS Mk-I (SH-2 Seasprite) helicopter detachment. 
During this deployment she visited ports in United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Pakistan, and Palma, 
Spain. Mclnerney returned from this cruise in March 1985, and conducted law enforcement operations and other 
fleet exercises. In May 1986, Mclnerney began a year-long overhaul (extended Selected Restricted Availability) in 
Boston, MA. During this yard period she received the AN/SQQ-89(V)2 Anti-Submarine Warfare Suite, fin 
stabilizers, and the Single Audio System. The RAST equipment was also reinstalled and made operational. 

In August 1988, Mclnerney was underway for her third deployment — this one to the Mediterranean. This 
deployment was highlighted by Mclnerney being awarded the COMSIXTHFLT "Hook 'Em" Award for excellence in 
Anti-Submarine Warfare and a Meritorious Unit Commendation. Mclnerney returned from the Mediterranean in 
February 1989, and departed for the Northern Atlantic in the spring of 1989. Anti-Submarine Warfare operations led 
the Mclnerney above the Arctic Circle, and Mclnerney returned to Mayport in May 1989. 

1990s 

Mclnerney deployed to the Middle East in January 1991 and was awarded her second "Hook 'Em" Award after a 
brief ASW operation in the Mediterranean Sea. Mclnerney then entered the Persian Gulf in support of coalition 
forces against Iraq. Mclnerney performed in every warfare area during the conflict, including convoy escort, mine, 
anti-air and anti-surface operations. Mclnerney earned the Navy Unit Commendation, the National Service Defense 
Medal, the Southwest Asia Service Medal with Bronze Star, the Kuwait Liberation Medal (Saudi Arabia) and the 
Kuwait Liberation Medal (Kuwait) for her wartime service. 



USS Mclnerney (FFG-8) 27 

The ship returned from the Middle East in July 1991 after escorting more than 50 merchant vessels through the 
mine-swept waters to Kuwait ports. Her continued, proven prowess earned her the Battle "E" for efficiency, and the 
COMNAVSURFLANT ASW Award, designating her as the top AN/SQQ-89-configured ASW platform on the East 
Coast. Mclnerney & humanitarian efforts include assisting the tug Taurus in the Jacksonville Operating Area, 
transferring a wounded merchant seaman during the Tanker War, rescuing Sailors from the sinking motor vessel 
Jenneastar in the Mediterranean and escorting merchant ships carrying needed supplies to the ports of Kuwait 
through mine-swept channels in the aftermath of Operation Desert Storm. 

In 1999, the USS Mclnerney participated in the UNIT AS 40-99 deployment to South America. 

2000s 

Mclnerney completed a highly successful SOUTHCOM Counter-Drug Operations Deployment in November 2001. 
The highlight of the deployment was a drug bust of an Ecuadorian fishing vessel in which nearly 10 tons of cocaine 
were seized. For her efforts throughout the deployment, Mclnerney was awarded the Humanitarian Award and the 
Coast Guard Meritorious Unit Commendation. 

On September 13, 2008, Mclnerney intercepted a 59-foot self-propelled semisubmersible carrying 7 tons of cocaine 
off the coast of Guatemala. Four Colombian drug smugglers were captured aboard. The cargo had an estimated street 
value of $187 million. 

On October 5, 2009, Mclnerney left Mayport Naval Station on its final deployment. 

Pakistan Transfer 

In September 2008 the US Congress approved selling the frigate to Pakistan with a delivery date of August 2010. 
Sighting the Foreign Assistance Act and the Arms Export Control Act, Pakistan is considered a "major non-NATO 
ally", able to receive older unneeded US military equipment. Additionally, the 32 year old frigate will be given a 65 
million dollar refurbishment including anti-submarine capability paid for with foreign military aid provided by the 
U.S to friendly countries. The ship will be inactivated by the US Navy on August 31, 2010 in preparation for 

the transfer to Pakistan. 

External links 

[71 

• USS Mclnerney official website 

ro] 

• navsource.org: USS Mclnerney 

[91 

• navysite.de: USS Mclnerney 

• MaritimeQuest USS Mclnerney FFG-8 pages ^^"^ 

References 

[1] McCullough, Amy. " Sailors, Coasties nab cocaine- stuffed sub (http://www.navytimes.com/news/2008/09/navy_cocaine_091608w/)". 

Navy Times. September 17, 2008. Retrieved on September 17, 2008. 
[2] http://www.news4jax.com/news/21202523/detail.html 
[3] Bush okays anti-submarine frigate for Pak (http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Politics/ 

19-Oct-2008/Bush-okays-antisubmarine-frigate-for-Pak) 
[4] U.S. to transfer frigate to Pakistan navy (http://www. stripes. com/m/article.asp?section=104&article=64056) 
[5] Pakistan to get refurbished warship from US (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/World/Pakistan/ 

Pakistan_to_get_refurbished_warship_from_US/rssarticleshow/3615200.cms) Times of India, October 19, 2008 
[6] Scutro, Andrew, " Subs, frigate on Ust of ships being retired (http://militarytimes.com/news/2009/07/navy_shipinactivation_072109w/)". 

Military Times, July 21, 2009. 
[7] http: // w w w . mclnerney . navy .mil/ 
[8] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0708.htm 
[9] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG8.HTM 



USS Mclnerney (FFG-8) 



28 



[10] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/mcinerney_ffg8_page_l.htm 



USS Wadsworth (FFG-9) 




USS Wadsworth (FFG-9) underway. 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



27 February 1976 

-^ Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



13 July 1977 
29 July 1978 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



2 April 1980 
28 June 2002 



Struck: 
Homeport: 



23 July 2002 

San Diego, California (former) 



Fate: 
Badge: 



Transferred to Poland and renamed ORP General Tadeusz Kosciuszko 




Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 



Displacement: 
Length: 



4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 
445 ft (136 m). 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 



Speed: 



2 X ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and - 
variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods for 
maneuvering and docking. 

29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 



5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



USS Wadsworth (FFG-9) 



29 



Complement: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -^ SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 



Sensors and 

processing 

systems: 

Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 

AN/SLQ-32 



Armament: 



Aircraft carried: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for —> Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four —> .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard anti-ship/air 

missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Wadsworth (FFG-9), third ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for 
Commodore Alexander S. Wadsworth (1790-1851). 

Ordered from — > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, CA on 27 February 1976 as part of the FY75 program, 
Wadsworth was laid down on 13 July 1977, launched on 29 July 1978, and commissioned on 2 April 1980. 
Decommissioned on 28 June 2002, Wadsworth was handed over to Poland the same day and commissioned as ORP 
General Tadeusz Kosciuszko , after Tadeusz Kosciuszko an American Revolutionary War hero in the United States 
and an independence hero in Poland. She was formally decommissioned from the US Navy on 23 July 2002. 

Wadsworth portrayed the USS Reuben James in the 1990 film The Hunt for Red October. 



External links 



[1] 



navysite.de: USS Wadsworth 
MaritimeQuest USS Wadsworth FFG-9 pages 
NVR FFG-9 '^^^^ 



[2] 



References 

[1] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG9.HTM 

[2] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/wadsworth_ffg9_page_l.htm 



USS Duncan (FFG-10) 



30 



USS Duncan (FFG-10) 




USS Duncan (FFG-10) comes about near San Diego, California. 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



27 February 1976 

— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



29 April 1977 
1 March 1978 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



15 May 1980 

17 December 1994 



Struck: 
Homeport: 



5 January 1998 
Long Beach, California (former) 



Fate: 



Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 

General characteristics 



Class and type: — ► Oliver Hazard Pe/ry-class — ► frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -» azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enUsted, plus -» SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enUsted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Duncan (FFG-10) 31 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Duncan (FFG-10), fourth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class of guided-missile frigates, was named for 
Vice Admiral Donald B. Duncan (1896—1975). Ordered from Todd Pacific, Seattle, WA on 27 February 1976 as part 
of the FY75 program, Duncan was laid down on 29 April 1977, launched on 1 March 1978, and commissioned on 15 
May 1980. Decommissioned on 17 December 1994 and stricken on 5 January 1998, Duncan was sold to Turkey on 5 
April 1999 for use as a parts hulk. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Duncan FFG-10 pages '^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/duncan_ffg_10_page_l.htm 



USS Clark (FFG-11) 



32 



USS Clark (FFG-11) 




A starboard bow view of the guided missile frigate USS Clark (FFG-11) underway. 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



27 February 1976 
— > Bath Iron Works 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



17 July 1978 
24 March 1979 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



9 May 1980 
15 March 2000 



Struck: 
Homeport: 



15 March 2000 
Norfolk, Virginia (former) 



Fate: 



Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 

General characteristics 



Class and type: — > Oliver Hazard Pe/ry-class — ► frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draft: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Clark (FFG- 11) 33 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Clark (FFG-11), fifth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for 
Admiral Joseph James "Jocko" Clark (1893-1971). Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works on 27 February 1976 as part of 
the FY76 program, Clark was laid down on 17 July 1978, launched on 24 March 1979, and commissioned on 9 May 
1980. Decommissioned and stricken on 15 March 2000, she was handed over to Poland that same day to become the 
Polish Navy's Gen. K. Pulaski, after Kazimierz Pulaski, a Polish soldier who fought in the American Revolutionary 
War. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Clark FFG-11 pages ^^^ 

• Ussclark Blogspot 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/clark_ffg_ll_page_l.htm 
[2] http://www.ussclark.blogspot.com 



USS George Philip (FFG-12) 



34 



USS George Philip (FFG-12) 




USS George Philip underway during sea trials in 1982 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



27 February 1976 

— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



14 December 1977 
16 December 1978 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



10 October 1980 
15 March 2003 



Struck: 
Homeport: 



24 May 2004 

San Diego, California (former) 



Fate: 



Stricken, to be disposed of 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — > Oliver Hazard Perrj-class -^ frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — ► azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-> AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS George Philip (FFG-12) 35 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS George Philip (FFG-12), sixth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named 
for Commander George Philip, Jr. (1912-1945). Ordered from Todd Shipyards, San Pedro, CA on 27 February 1976 
as part of the FY76 program, George Philip was laid down on 14 December 1977, launched on 16 December 1978, 
and commissioned on 10 October 1980. Decommissioned on 15 March 2003, as of June 2003 George Philip is in 
reserve at Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance Facility Bremerton, WA. 

The George Philip was expected to join the Portuguese Navy in 2006, together with her sister ship — > Sides, but the 
Portuguese Navy dropped the offer and chose two Dutch Karel Doorman-cla&& frigates instead. 

The George Philip was expected to join the Turkish Navy in the summer of 2008, together with her sister ship — > 
Sides, but the Turkish Navy dropped the offer. 

References 

77;/,? article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[171 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS George Philip FFG-12 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/george_phiiip_ffg_12.htm 



USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) 



36 



USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) 




USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



27 Febi-uary 1976 
— > Bath Iron Works 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



4 December 1978 
14 July 1979 



Acquired: 
Commissioned: 



I August 1980 

II October 1980 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



10 April 2002 
23 July 2002 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



San Diego, California (former) 
The past is prologued 



Fate: 



sold to Turkey on 1 1 April 2002, renamed TCG Gokova (F 496) 

General characteristics 



Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — ► azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -^ SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) 



37 



Electronic wai-fare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: 



Aircraft carried: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan -^ Phalanx CIWS; four —> .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for -^ Harpoon anti-ship missiles and —> SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 

capable of landing SH-2, SH-3 and SH-60 but was never modified to carry LAMPS (ie "poop deck")Lack of 
funding for NRF ships. 



USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13), the seventh — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigate, was named for Rear 
Admiral Samuel Eliot Morison (1887—1976), one of America's most distinguished naval historians, who wrote more 
than 40 books on naval history. 

On 1 1 April 2002, Samuel Eliot Morison was decommissioned and transferred to Turkey, where she was renamed 
TCG Gokova (F 496) and joined the other G class frigates (— > Perry class) that the Turkish Navy has acquired from 

the United States. 

Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 




USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) 38 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

MOT 

is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Samuel Eliot Morison FFG-13 pages 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/samuel_e_morison_page_l.htm 



USS Sides (FFG-14) 



39 



USS Sides (FFG-14) 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 




USS Sides entering San Francisco harbor in 2002 



27 February 1976 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 

7 August 1978 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



19 May 1979 
30 May 1981 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



28 February 2003 
24 May 2004 



Homeport: 
Fate: 



NS San Diego, California (former) 
Stricken, to be disposed of 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class -^ frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — ► azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -^ SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Sides (FFG-14) 40 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Sides (FFG-14) is a — > Oliver Hazard Perry class guided-missile frigate of the US Navy. 

The eighth ship in the class, it was named for Admiral John H. Sides (died 1978). Ordered from Todd Shipyards, San 
Pedro, California, on 27 February 1976 as part of the FY76 program. Sides was laid down on 7 August 1978, 
launched on 19 May 1979, and commissioned on 30 May 1981. Sides escorted tankers through the Straits of Hormuz 
during the Tanker War and participated in Operation Praying Mantis, the retaliation for Iranian mining operations.[l] 
The Sides was also part of the Surface Action Group under USS Vincennes when Iran Air 655 was shot down. 
Decommissioned on 28 February 2003, Sides is currently laid up in reserve at Naval Inactive Ships Maintenance 
Facility Bremerton, Washington. 

Sides was expected to join the Portuguese Navy in 2006, together with her sister ship — > George Philip, but the 
Portuguese Navy dropped the offer and chose two Dutch Karel Doorman Frigates instead. 

Sides was expected to join the Turkish Navy in the summer of 2008, together with her sister ship — > George Philip, 
but the Turkish Navy dropped the offer. 

Further reading 

• Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987-88 . Annapolis: 
Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[191 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Sides FFG-14 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/ffg-14.htm 

[2] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/sides_ffgl4_page_l.htm 



USSEstocin(FFG-15) 



41 



USS Estocin (FFG-15) 




USS Estocin underway in the Caribbean Sea 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 



27 Febmary 1976 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Bath Iron Works 
2 April 1979 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



3 November 1979 
10 January 1981 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



3 April 2003 
3 April 2003 



Homeport: 
Fate: 



Norfolk, Virginia (former) 
Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 



Displacement: 



General characteristics 



4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-> AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USSEstocin(FFG-15) 42 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Estocin (FFG-15), ninth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for 
Captain Michael John Estocin (1931—1967). Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works on 27 February 1976 as part of the 
FY76 program, Estocin was laid down on 2 April 1979, launched on 3 November 1979, and commissioned on 10 
January 1981. Decommissioned and stricken on 3 April 2003, Estocin was on the same day transferred to Turkey as 
that nation's TCG Goksu (F 497). 

Estocin (FFG-15) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Estocin FFG-15 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/estocin_ffgl5_page_l.htm 



USS Clifton Sprague (FFG-16) 



43 



USS Clifton Sprague (FFG-16) 



—*.* 




USS Clifton Sprague (FFG-16). 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 



27 February 1976 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Bath Iron Works 
30 July 1979 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



16 February 1980 
21 March 1981 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



2 June 1995 

4 September 1997 



Homeport: 
Fate: 



Mayport, Rorida (former) 
Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 



General characteristics 



Displacement: 



4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 
Propulsion: 



22 ft (6.7 m) 

2 X ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
-^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -» azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — ► SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Clifton Sprague(FFG-16) 44 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-2 LAMPS I helicopters 



USS Clifton Sprague (FFG-16), is an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-c\?i&& guided missile — > frigate of the United States 
Navy, the tenth ship of that class. She was named for Vice Admiral Clifton A. F. Sprague (1896—1955), hero of the 
Samar action of the Battle of Leyte Gulf, where he received the Navy Cross. The unclassified citation was in the 
wardroom until shortly before decommissioning. Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works on 27 February 1976 as part of 
the FY76 program, Clifton Sprague was laid down 30 July 1979, launched 16 February 1980, and commissioned 21 
March 1981. Decommissioned 2 June 1995 at NAVSTA Mayport, Florida, she was transferred to Turkey on 27 
August 1997 as that nation's TCG Gazantiep (F 490) and then immediately modified into a G class frigate by the 
Turkish Naval Yard. She was stricken from the US Navy register on 4 September 1997. 

Clifton Sprague (FFG-16) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[211 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Clifton Sprague FFG-16 pages 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/clifton_sprague_ffg_16_page_l.htm 



USS John A. Moore (FFG-19) 



45 



USS John A.Moore (FFG-19) 




USS John A Moore (FFG-19) 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



28 Febmary 1977 

— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



19 December 1978 

20 October 1979 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



14 November 1981 
1 September 2000 



Struck: 
Homeport: 



1 September 2000 

San Diego, California (former) 



Fate: 



Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 

General characteristics 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — > azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -» SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 

AN/SLQ-32 



USS John A. Moore (FFG-19) 



46 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two -> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — ► Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan —> Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for —> Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS John A. Moore (FFG-19), eleventh ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was 
named for Commander John A. Moore (1910—1944). Ordered from Todd Shipyards, San Pedro, CA on 28 February 
1977 as part of the FY77 program, John A. Moore was laid down on 19 September 1978, launched on 20 October 
1979, and commissioned on 14 November 1981. Decommissioned and stricken on 1 September 2000, she was 
transferred to Turkey as that nation's TCG Gediz (F 495). 

John A. Moore (FFG-19) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 



References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication. 



is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 



[24] 



External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS John A. Moore FFG-19 pages 



[1] 




TCG Gediz (F495), former USS John A. Moore 



References 



[1] tittp://www. maritimequest.com/warstiip_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/john_a_moore_ffgl9. htm 



USS Antrim (FFG-20) 



47 



USS Antrim (FFG-20) 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 




28 February 1977 



Builder: 

Laid down: 



—> Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle, Washington 
21 June 1978 



Launched: 
Acquired: 



27 March 1979 
20 August 1981 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



26 September 1981 
8 May 1996 



Fate: 
Struck: 



Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 
4 September 1997 



Career (Turkey) 



Acquired: 
Status: 



27 August 1997 

Active in service as of 2009 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate 



Displacement: 
Length: 



4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 
453 ft (138.1m), overall 



Beam: 
Draft: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 



Speed: 



2 X -> General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
-> variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — > azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 
Complement: 



5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus ^ SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radai" 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Antrim (FFG-20) 



48 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



Armament: 



Aircraft carried: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two -> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for -^ Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan -> Phalanx CIWS; four ^ .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
2 X ^ SH-2 LAMPS helicopters 



USS Antrim (FFG-20) was the twelfth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates. She was 
named for Rear Admiral Richard Nott Antrim (1907—1969). Ordered from Todd Pacific, Seattle, WA on 28 February 
1977 as part of the FY77 program, Antrim was laid down on 21 June 1978, launched on 27 March 1979, and 
commissioned on 26 September 1981. 

Decommissioned on 8 May 1996, she was transferred to Turkey on 27 August 1997. She was stricken from the U.S. 
Naval Vessel Register on 4 September 1997. 

TCG Giresun (F 491) 

The ship serves in the Turkish Navy as TCG Giresun (F 491). 

On 16 March 2009, TCG Giresun, along with HDMS Absalon successfully prevented a pirate attack on the 
Vietnamese cargo ship MV Diamond Falcon from succeeding in capturing the target ship. 

References 

[1] " Dan Mach, Tho Nhi Ky cung giai ciJu tau hang Viet Nam (http://vietbao.vn/The-gioi/ 

Dan-Mach-Tho-Nhi-Ky-cung-giai-cuu-tau-hang-Viet-Nam/20836583/159/)" (in Vietnamese). Viet hao.com. 16 March 2009. . Retrieved 24 

March 2009. 
[2] " Vietnamese Cargo Ship Rescued From Pirates - Turkish Army (http://news. momingstar.com/newsnet/ViewNews. aspx?article=/DJ/ 

200903 160327DOWJONESDJONLINE000073_univ.xml)". Morningstar.com. 16 March 2009. . Retrieved 24 March 2009. 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG20.htm). 



External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Antrim FFG-20 (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/ 
frigates/pages/an trim_ffg_20_page_l.htm) 




List of the Turkish Navy Equipment 



USS Flatley (FFG-21) 



49 



USS Flatley (FFG-21) 







Career (US) 



Ordered: 



28 February 1977 



Builder: 

Laid down: 



—> Bath Iron Works 
11 November 1979 



Launched: 
Acquired: 



15 May 1980 
8 May 1981 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



20 June 1981 
11 May 1996 



Fate: 
Struck: 



Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 
10 October 2001 



Career (Turkey) 



Acquired: 
Status: 



27 August 1998 
Active in service as of 2009 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate 



Displacement: 
Length: 



4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 
453 ft (138.1m), overall 



Beam: 
Draft: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 



Speed: 



2 X -> General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
-> variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — > azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 
Complement: 



5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus ^ SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radai" 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Flatley (FFG-21) 50 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



Armament: 



Aircraft carried: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four —> .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Flatley (FFG-21) was the thirteenth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates. She 
was named for Vice Admiral James H. Flatley (1906—1958), a leading Naval Aviation tactician from World War II 
who flew the F4F Wildcat in the Battle of Coral Sea and subsequently commanded the VF-10 Grim Reapers taking 
them into combat for the first time. 

Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works on 28 February 1977 as part of the FY77 program, Flatley' & keel was laid down on 
13 November 1979. She was launched on 15 May 1980, and commissioned on 20 June 1981. Decommissioned on 11 
May 1996, she was sold to Turkey on 27 August 1998. 

TCG Gemlik (F 492) 

The ship immediately underwent conversion into a Turkish G class frigate. She serves in the Turkish Navy as TCG 
Gemlik (F 492). 

Flatley (FFG-21) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Flatley FFG-21 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/flatley_ffg21_page_l.htm 



USS Fahrion (FFG-22) 



51 



USS Fahrion (FFG-22) 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 




28 February 1977 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle, Washington 
1 December 1978 



Launched: 
Acquired: 



24 August 1979 
29 December 1981 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



16 January 1982 
31 March 1998 



Struck: 
Homeport: 



31Mai-chl998 
Mayport, Florida (former) 



Fate: 



Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 

General characteristics 



Class and type: 
Displacement: 



— > Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 
4, 1 00 tons (4,1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 
Propulsion: 



22 ft (6.7 m) 

2x —> General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
-^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -» azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — ► SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Fahrion (FFG-22) 52 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Fahrion (FFG-22), fourteenth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for Admiral Frank George Fahrion (1894—1970). Ordered from Todd Pacific, Seattle, WA on 28 February 
1977 as part of the FY77 program, Fahrion was laid down on 1 December 1978, launched on 24 August 1979, and 
commissioned on 16 January 1982. Transferred to Egypt on 15 March 1998 as that nation's Sharm El-Sheik (F 901), 
she was formally decommissioned and stricken on 31 March 1998. 

Fahrion (FFG-22) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[271 

is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Fahrion FFG-22 pages 

• GlobalSecurity.org FFG-22 ^^^ 

See also 

• List of United States Navy ships 

• List of ship launches in 1979 

• List of ship commissionings in 1982 

• List of ship commissionings in 1998 

• List of ship decommissionings in 1998 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/fahrion_ffg_22_page_l.htm 
[2] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/ffg-22.htm 



USS Lewis B. Puller (FFG-23) 



53 



USS Lewis B.PuUer (FFG-23) 




USS Lewis B. Puller (FFG-23) 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



28 February 1977 

— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards Los Angeles Division, San Pedro, California 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



23 May 1979 
15 March 1980 



Acquired: 
Commissioned: 



1 March 1982 
17 April 1982 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



18 September 1998 
18 September 1998 



Homeport: 
Fate: 



San Diego, California (former) 

Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Pe/ry-class — ► frigate 



Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— > variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -» azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -> SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Lewis B. Puller (FFG-23) 54 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Lewis B. Puller (FFG-23), fifteenth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for Marine Lieutenant General Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller (1898—1971). Ordered from Todd Shipyards, San 
Pedro, CA on 28 February 1977 as part of the FY77 program, Lewis B. Puller was laid down on 23 May 1979, 
launched on 15 March 1980, and commissioned on 17 April 1982. Decommissioned and stricken on 18 September 
1998, she was transferred to Egypt the same day as that nation's Toushka (F 906). 

Lewis B. Puller (FFG-23) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

r2si 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Lewis B. Puller FFG-23 pages ^^^ 

• GlobalSecurity.org FFG-23 ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/lewis_b_puller_page_l.htm 
[2] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/ffg-23.htm 



USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) 



55 



USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) 




USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) 



Career (US) 



Name: 
Ordered: 



USS Jack Williams 
28 Febmai-y 1977 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



^ Bath Iron Works 
25 February 1980 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



30 August 1980 
19 September 1981 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



13 September 1996 
13 September 1996 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Mayport, Florida 
Guardez Bien 



Nickname: 
Fate: 



The Arky 

transferred to Bahrain, 1996 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Pe/ry-class — ► frigate 



Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— > variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) 56 

Sensors and -^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 

processing systems: — > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 

CAS and STIR fire-contxol radar 

AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Jack Williams (FFG-24), sixteenth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for Pharmacist's Mate Second Class Jack Williams, who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for 
his heroism in the Battle of Iwo Jima. 

Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works on 28 February 1977 as part of the FY77 program. Jack Williams was laid down 
on 25 February 1980; launched on 30 August 1980; and commissioned on 19 September 1981. 

Decommissioned and stricken on 13 September 1996, she was transferred to Bahrain the same day and 
recommissioned as the BANS Sabha (90). 

Jack Williams (FFG-24) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[291 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• USS Jack WilUams FFG-24 ^^^ page at NavyVets.com ^^^ 

[31 

• navsource.org: USS Jack Williams 

[41 

• navysite.de: USS Jack Williams 

• MaritimeQuest USS Jack Williams FFG-24 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.navyvets.com/group/ussjackwilliamsffg24 

[2] http://www.navyvets.com 

[3] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0724.htm 

[4] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG24.HTM 

[5] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/jack_williams_page_l.htm 



USS Copeland (FFG-25) 



57 



USS Copeland (FFG-25) 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 




USS Copeland (FFG-25) 



28 February 1977 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 
24 October 1979 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



26 July 1980 
7 August 1982 



Decommissioned: 
Renamed: 



18 September 1996 
Mubarak (F 911) 



Struck: 
Homeport: 



18 September 1996 
San Diego, California 



Fate: 



transferred to Egypt 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class ^ frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — ► azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29-1- knots (54-1- km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -^ SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Copeland (FFG-25) 58 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Copeland (FFG-25) was the seventeenth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class of guided-missile — > frigates 
in the United States Navy. She was named for Rear Admiral Robert W. Copeland (1910—1973). 

Ordered from — > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California on 28 February 1977 as part of the FY77 program, 
Copeland was laid down on 24 October 1979, launched on 26 July 1980, and commissioned on 7 August 1982. 
Decommissioned and stricken on 18 September 1996, she was transferred to Egypt the same day as that nation's 
Mubarak {¥911). 

Copeland (FFG-25) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

77;/,? article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Copeland FFG-25 pages '^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/copeland_ffg_25.htm 



USS Gallery (FFG-26) 



59 



USS Gallery (FFG-26) 





> - 

USS Gallery (FFG-26) 




Career (US) 
















Ordered: 


28 February 1977 


Builder: 


-^ Bath Iron Works 


Laid down: 


17 May 1980 


Launched: 


20 December 1980 


Acquired: 


10 November 1981 


Commissioned: 


5 December 1981 


Decommissioned: 


14 June 1996 


Struck: 


14 June 1996 


Homeport: 


Mayport, Florida (former) 


Fate: 


Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 


General characteristics 


Class and type: 


-> Oliver Hazard Perry-class -^ frigate 


Displacement: 


4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 


Length: 


453 ft (138.1m), overall 


Beam: 


45 ft (13.7 m) 


Draught: 


22 ft (6.7 m) 


Propulsion: 


2 X ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
-^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x AuxiUary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -» azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 


Speed: 


29+ knots (54+ km/h) 


Range: 


5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 


Complement: 


15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — ► SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 


Sensors and 
processing systems: 


-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 


Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 


AN/SLQ-32 



USS Gallery (FFG-26) 60 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Gallery (FFG-26), eighteenth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for three brothers: Rear Admiral Daniel V. Gallery (1901—1977), Rear Admiral William O. Gallery 
(1904-1981), and Rear Admiral Philip D. Gallery (1907-1973). Ordered from -^ Bath Iron Works on 28 February 
1977 as part of the FY77 program. Gallery was laid down on 17 May 1980, launched on 20 December 1980, and 
commissioned on 5 December 1981. Decommissioned and stricken on 14 June 1996, she was transferred to Egypt on 
25 September 1996 as that nation's Taba (F 916). 

Gallery (FFG-26) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[311 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Gallery FFG-26 pages ^^^ 

• GIobaISecurity.org FFG-26 ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/gallery_ffg26_page_l.htm 
[2] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/ffg-26.htm 



USS Mahlon S. Tisdale (FFG-27) 



61 



USS Mahlon S.Tisdale (FFG-27) 




USS Mahlon S Tisdale (FFG-27) 



Career ((US)) 



Ordered: 



23 January 1978 



Builder: 



Laid down: 



— > Todd Pacific Shipyards Los Angeles Division, 
San Pedro, California 

19 March 1980 



Launched: 
Acquired: 



7 February 1981 
22 October 1982 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



27 November 1982 
27 September 1996 



Struck: 
Homeport: 



20Febmary 1998 

San Diego, California (former) 



Fate: 



Disposed of through the Security Assistance Program (SAP) 

General characteristics 



Class and type: — ► Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— > variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -» azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -» SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



USS Mahlon S. Tisdale (FFG-27) 62 

Sensors and -^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 

processing systems: — > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 

CAS and STIR fire-contxol radar 

AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 cahber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Mahlon S. Tisdale (FFG-27), nineteenth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, 
was named for Vice Admiral Mahlon Street Tisdale (1890-1972). Ordered from Todd Shipyards, San Pedro, CA on 
23 January 1978 as part of the FY78 program, Mahlon S. Tisdale was laid down on 19 March 1980, launched on 7 
February 1981, and commissioned on 27 November 1982. Decommissioned on 27 September 1996 and stricken on 
20 February 1998, she was transferred to Turkey on 5 April 1999 as that nation's TCG Gokgeada (F 494). 

Mahlon S. Tisdale (FFG-27) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[321 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Mahlon S. Tisdale FFG-27 pages ^^^ 

• GlobalSecurity.org FFG-27 ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/mahlon_s_tisdale_page_l.htm 
[2] http://www.globalsecurity.org/miIitary/agency/navy/ffg-27.htm 



USS Boone (FFG-28) 



63 



USS Boone (FFG-28) 




USS Boone (FFG-28) passing the Statue of Liberty, Fleet Week, New York 2002 



Career (US) 



Name: 



USS Boone 



Namesake: 
Ordered: 



Vice Admiral Joel Thompson Boone, M.D. 
23 January 1978 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



-> Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle 
27 March 1979 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



16 January 1980 
15 May 1982 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Mayport, Florida 
Brave Man, Brave Ship 



Fate: 
Badge: 



Active in service as of 2009 




General characteristics 



Class and type: 
Displacement: 



— > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate 
4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 



Length: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 



USS Boone (FFG-28) 



64 



Beam: 


45 ft (13.7 m) 


Draught: 


22 ft (6.7 m) 


Propulsion: 


2 X — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and — > 
variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — > azipods for 
maneuvering and docking. 


Speed: 


29+ knots (54+ km/h) 


Range: 


5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 


Complement: 


15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 


Sensors and 

processing 

systems: 


^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 


Electronic 
warfare 
and decoys: 


AN/SLQ-32 


Armament: 


As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard anti-ship/air 

missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 


Aircraft carried: 


2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Boone (FFG-28) is the twentieth ship in the United States Navy's — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided 
missile — > frigates. 

The frigate was named for Vice Admiral Joel Thompson Boone, M.D. (1889—1974). FFG-28, the first U.S. ship to 
bear the Admiral's name, was ordered January 23, 1978, launched 16 January 1980 by — > Todd Pacific Shipyards, 
and commissioned 15 May 1982. She has since racked up numerous awards and commendations. 

USS Boone is assigned to Destroyer Squadron 14 and was the recipient of the 2005 DESRON 14 Battle "E". On 16 
February 2007, Bunker Hill was awarded the 2006 Battle "E" award. [1] 

Boone is homeported in Mayport, Florida, and is a member of the Navy Reserve. 



References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication. 



is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 



[33] 



External links 

• USS Boone Official site ^^^ 

• navsource.org: USS Boone 

[4] 



[3] 



navysite.de: USS Boone 
MaritimeQuest USS Boone FFG-28 



[5] 



USS Boone (FFG-28) 65 

Further reading 

• Milton F. Heller III (2000). The Presidents' Doctor : An Insider's View of Three First Families. Vantage Pr; 1st ed 
edition (August 2000). ISBN 0-533-13159-6. 

References 

[1] http://www.navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=27895 

[2] http://www.boone.navy.mi1// 

[3] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0728.htm 

[4] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG28.HTM 

[5] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/boone_ffg_28_page_l.htm 



USS Stephen W. Groves (FFG-29) 



66 



USS Stephen W.Groves (FFG-29) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS Stephen W.Groves (FFG-29) 



Ensign Stephen W. Groves (1917-1942), U.S. Navy officer and Navy Cross recipient 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



23 Januai-y 1978 
— > Bath Iron Works 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



16 September 1980 
4 April 1981 



Commissioned: 
Homeport: 



17 April 1982 
Mayport, Florida 



Motto: 
Nickname: 



Dirigo (I Direct) 
Stevie G 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — ► Oliver Hazard Perry-c\s&s —> frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29-1- knots (54-1- km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus —> SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Stephen W. Groves (FFG-29) 



67 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



Armament: 



Aircraft carried: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan -^ Phalanx CIWS; four —> .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for -^ Harpoon anti-ship missiles and —> SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS IH helicopters 



USS Stephen W. Groves (FFG-29), twenty-first ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > 
frigates, was named for Ensign Stephen W. Groves (1917—1942), a naval aviator who was posthumously awarded 
the Navy Cross for his heroism at the Battle of Midway during World War II. 

Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works on 23 January 1978 as part of the FY78 program, Stephen W. Groves was laid 
down on 16 September 1980, launched on 4 April 1981, and commissioned on 17 April 1982, Commander Philip A. 
Bozzelli commanding. 

On 28 August 2005, she sailed from her then-home port of Pascagoula, Mississippi, along with sister ship — > John L. 
Hall (FFG-32) under threat from Hurricane Katrina; Naval Station Pascagoula is now closed as a result of Hurricane 
Katrina. 

As of 2006, she remained active, assigned to Destroyer Squadron 14 and home-ported at Naval Station Mayport, 
Florida. 

Stephen W. Groves (FFG-29) is the first ship of that name in the U.S. Navy. A previous ship named for Ensign 
Groves, destroyer escort USS Groves (DE-543) was cancelled in 1944 prior to completion. 




The Stephen W. Groves (FFG-29) as seen at sunset in Key West on 
22 July 2007. 



References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[341 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 



External links 

• USS Stephen W. Groves official website 

• navsource.org: USS Stephen W. Groves 

[3] 



[1] 

[2] 



navysite.de: USS Stephen W. Groves 

MaritimeQuest USS Stephen W. Groves FFG-29 pages 



[4] 



USS Stephen W. Groves (FFG-29) 68 

References 

[1] http://www.groves.navy.mil/ 

[2] http://www.navsoiirce.org/archives/07/0729.htm 

[3] http://navysite.de/ffg/FFG29.HTM 

[4] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/stephen_w_groves_ffg29_page_l.htm 



USS Reid (FFG-30) 



69 



USS Reid (FFG-30) 




USS Reid (FFG-30) 



Career (US) 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



23 January 1978 

— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



8 October 1980 
27 June 1981 



Commissioned: 
Decommissioned: 



19 February 1983 
25 September 1998 



Nickname: 
Fate: 



Reidski 

transferred to Turkey, 1999 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-c\e&% -^ frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-> AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 

AN/SLQ-32 



USS Reid (FFG-30) 70 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Reid (FFG-30), twenty-second ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for Sailing Master Samuel Chester Reid (1783—1861). 

Ordered from — > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California on 23 January 1978 as part of the FY78 program, 
Reid was laid down on 8 October 1980, launched on 27 June 1981, and commissioned on 19 February 1983. 

On on 18 August 1990, Reid fired the first shots of Operation Desert Shield when she fired across the bow of an Iraqi 
tanker who had refused to change course when ordered. 

Decommissioned and stricken on 25 September 1998, she was transferred to Turkey on 5 January 1999 as that 
nation's TCG Gelibolu (F 493). 

The Reid's unofficial nickname Reidski, used during the 1980s, came into use as the Reid found herself, more often 
than not, playing on the side of the "orange" team during fleet exercises. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Reid FFG-30 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/reid_ffg_30_page_l.htm 



USS Stark (FFG-31) 



71 



USS stark (FFG-31) 




USS Stark (FFG-31) 



Career (US) 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle, Washington 
24 August 1979 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



30 May 1980 
23 October 1982 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



7 May 1999 
7 May 1999 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Mayport, Florida (former) 
Strength for Freedom 



Fate: 



Disposed of by scrapping - dismantled June 21, 2006 

General characteristics 



Class and type: — > Oliver Hazard Perrj-class -> frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

-> variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — ► azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Stark (FFG-31) 



72 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two -> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — ► Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan —> Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for —> Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Stark (FFG-31), twenty-third ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for Admiral Harold Rainsford Stark (1880—1972). In 1987, Iraqi jet fighters attacked the USS Stark under 
disputed circumstances. 37 Americans sailors died as a result. It is the only successful anti-ship missile attack on a 
U.S. Navy warship. 

Ordered from — > Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle, Washington on 23 January 1978 as part of the FY78 program. 
Stark was laid down on 24 August 1979, launched on 30 May 1980, and commissioned on 23 October 1982, CDR 
Terence W. Costello commanding. Decommissioned on 7 May 1999, Stark was scrapped in 2006. 



Missile attack 

The USS Stark was deployed to the Middle East Force in 1984 and 1987. Captain Glenn R. Brindel was the 
commanding officer during the 1987 deployment. The ship was struck on May 17, 1987, by two Exocet antiship 
missiles fired from an Iraqi F-1 Mirage plane during the Iran— Iraq War. The plane had taken off from Shaibah 

at 20:00 and had flown south into the Persian Gulf. The fighter fired the first Exocet missile from a range of 22.5 
nautical miles, and the second from 15.5 nautical miles, at about the time the fighter was given a routine radio 
warning by the Stark. The frigate did not detect the missiles with radar and warning was given by the lookout only 

[41 

moments before the missiles struck. The first penetrated the port-side hull; it failed to detonate, but spewed 
flaming rocket fuel in its path. The second entered at almost the same point, and left a 3-by-4-meter gash — then 

[41 

exploded in crew quarters. Thirty-seven sailors were killed and twenty-one were injured. 

No weapons were fired in defense of Stark. The — » Phalanx CIWS 
remained in standby mode, — > Mark 36 SRBOC countermeasures were 
not armed, and the attacking Exocet missiles and Mirage aircraft were 
in a blindspot of the defensive STIR (Separate Target Illumination 
Radar) fire control system, preventing use of the ship's — > Standard 
missile defenses. The ship failed to maneuver to bring its weapons 




batteries to bear prior to the first missile impact 



[4] 



Stark listing following two hits by Exocet 
missiles 



On fire and listing, the frigate was brought under control by its crew 
during the night. The ship made its way to Bahrain where, after 
temporary repairs by the tender USS Acadia (AD-42) to make her 

seaworthy, she returned to her home port of Mayport, Florida, under her own power. The ship was eventually 

repaired at Ingalls Shipbuilding in Mississippi for $142 million. 



USS Stark (FFG-31) 



73 



The question of whether or not Iraqi leadership authorized the attack is 
still unanswered. Initial claims by the Iraqi government (that Stark was 
inside the Iran— Iraq War zone) were shown to be false, so the motives 
and orders of the pilot remain unanswered. Though American officials 
claimed he had been executed, an ex-Iraqi Air Force commander since 
stated that the pilot who attacked Stark was not punished, and was still 
alive at the time. 

Citing lapses in training requirements and lax procedures, the board of 

inquiry relieved Captain Brindel of command and recommended him 

for court-martial, along with Tactical Action Officer Lieutenant Basil 

E. Moncrief. Instead, Brindel and Mondrief received non-judicial punishment from Admiral Frank B. Kelso II and 

letters of reprimand. Both opted for early retirement, while Executive Officer, Lieutenant Commander Raymond 

Gajan Jr. was detached for cause and received a letter of admonition. 




A view of external damage to the port side 



1990s 

Stark was part of the Standing Naval Forces Atlantic Fleet in 1990 before returning to the Middle East Force in 
1991. She was attached to UNITAS in 1993 and took part in Operation Support Democracy and Operation Able 
Vigil in 1994. In 1995, she returned to the Middle East Force before serving in the Atlantic in 1997 and in 1998. 

Stark was decommissioned on May 7, 1999. A scrapping contract was awarded to Metro Machine Corp. of 



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 7 October, 2005. The ship was reported scrapped on June 21, 2006 



[7] 



Casualties 




toij mill -sraKsi^ ipumivr'isa 



^1 



USS Stark memorial in 
Mayport, Florida 



USS Stark (FFG-31) 



74 



USS Stark casualties 


SN Doran H. Bolduc, 
Lacey, WA 


RMSA Dexter D. Grissett, 
Macon, GA 


FCCS Robert L. Shippee, 
Adams Center, NY 


BMl Braddi O. Brown, 
Calera, AL 


FC3 William R. Hansen, 
Reading, MA 


SMSA Jeffrey C. Sibley, 
Metairie, LA 


FC3 Jeffrey L. Calkins, 
Richfield Springs, NY 


GMG3 Daniel Homicki, 

Elizabeth, NJ 


OS3 Lee Stephens, 
Pemberton, OH 


SN Mark R. Caouette, 
Fitchburg, MA 


OSSN Kenneth D. Janusik, 

Jr., 

Clearwater, FL 


BM2 James R. Stevens, 
Visalia, CA 


SN John A. Ciletta, Jr., f 
Brigantine, NJ 


OS3 Steven E. Kendall, 
Honolulu, HI 


ET3 Martin J. Supple, 
Jacksonville, FL 


SR Brian M. Clinefelter, 
San Bernadino, CA 


EMCS Stephen Kiser, 
Elkhart, IN 


EC 1 Gregory L. Tweady, 
Champaign, IL 


0S3 Antonio A. Daniels, 
GreeleyviUe, SC 


SMI Ronnie G. Lockett, 
Bessemer, AL 


ET3 Kelly R. Quick, 
Linden, MI 


ET3 Christopher DeAngelis, 

t 
Dumont, NJ 


GMMl Thomas J. 
MacMuUen, 
Darby, PA 


SN Vincent L. Ulmer, 
Bay Minette, AL 


IC3 James S. Dunlap, 
Osceola Mills, PA 


EW3 Charles T. MoUer, 
Columbus, GA 


EW3 Joseph P. Watson, 
Ferndale, MI 


STGSN Steven T. Erwin, t 
Troy, MI 


DSl Randy E. Pierce, 
Choctaw, OK 


ET3 Wayne R. Weaver, 
II, 

New Bethlehem, PA 


RM2 Jerri B.Farr, 
Charleston, SC 


SA Jeffrei L. Phelps, 
Locust Grove, VA 


OSSN Terrance Weldon, 
Coram, NY 


QMCS Vernon T. Foster, 
Jacksonville, FL 


GM3 James Plonsky, 
Van Nuys, CA 


IC2 Lloyd A. Wilson, 
Summerville, SC 




SMSN Earl P. Ryals, f 
Boca Raton, FL 




t Buri 


ed in Arlington National CemetE 


;ry 



See also 

• KAL 007: The Search in International Waters for the role of the USS Stark 



Further reading 



Levinson, Jeffrey L. and Randy L. Edwards (1997). Missile Inbound. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 

1-55750-517-9. 

Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987-88 . Annapolis: 

Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3. 



USS Stark (FFG-31) 75 

References 

[1] http://www.jag.navy.mil/library/investigations/USS%20STARK%20BASIC.pdf 

[2] Desert Storm at sea: what the Navy really did by Marvin Pokrant (http://books. google. fr/books?id=erVzmflT2MIC& 

printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage&q=&f=false), P43. 
[3] Stephen Andrew Kelley (June 2007) (PDF), Better Lucky Than Good: Operation Earnest Will as Gunboat Diplomacy (http://www.ccc.nps. 

navy.mil/research/theses/kelley07.pdf), Naval Postgraduate School, , retrieved 2007-11-09 
[4] Formal Investigation into the Circumstances Surrounding the Attack of the USS Stark in 1987 (http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/ 

reading_room/65 . pdf) 
[5] Fisk, Robert (2005). The Great War For Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East. Knopf Publishing. 
[6] " Navy Forgoes Courts-Martial for Officers of Stark (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. 

html?res=9B0DE6DD1439F93BA15754C0A961948260)". The New York Times. 1987-07-28. . 
[7] Naval Vessel Register. STARK (FFG 31) (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG31.htm). Accessed April 4, 2007. 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG31.htm). 

External links 

• Photos of the damaged Stark (http://www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor/pic-stark.shtml) 

• Host page for PDF version of report: Formal Investigation into the Circumstances Surrounding the Attack of the 
USS Stark in 1987 (http://www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/reading_room/65.pdf) 

• US Navy's Damage Control Museum (http://www.dcfp.navy.mil/mc/museum/STARK/Stark3.htm) page on 
the USS Stark 

• navsource.org: USS Stark (FFG-31) (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0731.htm) 

• Information on Operation Earnest Will (http://eightiesclub.tripod.com/id344.htm) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Stark FFG-31 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/ 
frigates/pages/uss_stark_ffg_3 l_page_l .htm) 

• Memorial Site for USS Stark casualties (http://www.americanmemorialsite.com/stark.html) 

• NPR The Story Radio Interview with OS2 Gable May 15 2008 (http://thestory.org/archive/ 
search_media ?review_state=published&start. query :record:list:date=2008-05- 15 23:59:59&start. 
range:record=max&end.query:record:list:date=2008-05-15 00:00:00&end.range:record=min&month:int=5& 
year:int=2008) 

• NPR The Story Radio Interview with Michael Tooker June 9 2008 (http://thestory.org/archive/ 
search_media?review_state=published&start. query :record:list:date=2008-06-09 23:59:59&start. 
range:record=max&end.query:record:list:date=2008-06-09 00:00:00&end.range:record=min&month:int=6& 
year:int=2008) 



USS John L. Hall (FFG-32) 



76 



USS John L.Hall (FFG-32) 



Career (US) 



Owner: 




USS John L. Hal! (FFG-32) 



Admiral John L. Hall, Jr. 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



23 January 1978 
-^ Bath Iron Works 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



5 January 1981 
24 July 1981 



Commissioned: 
Homeport: 



26 June 1982 
Mayport, Florida 



Motto: 
Nickname: 



Semper Victores (Always Victorious) 
"The Johnny" 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: 
Displacement: 



— > Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 
4, 1 00 tons (4,1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 
Propulsion: 



22 ft (6.7 m) 

2x —> General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
-^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -» azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — ► SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS John L. Hall (FFG-32) 77 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS John L. Hall (FFG-32), twenty-fourth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, 
was named for Admiral John L. Hall, Jr. (1891-1978). 

Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works, Bath, ME on 23 January 1978 as part of the FY78 program, John L. Hall was laid 
down on 5 January 1981, launched on 24 July 1981, and commissioned on 26 June 1982. 

On 28 August 2005, she sailed from her home port, NS Pascagoula, Mississippi, along with sister ship — > Stephen W. 
Groves under threat from Hurricane Katrina. 

As of 2007, she remains active, commanded by Commander Augustus P. Bennet, assigned to Destroyer Squadron 
14, and homeported at NAVSTA Mayport, Florida. In August 2008, while underway to avoid Tropical Storm Fay, 
the scheduled change of command occurred with Commander Derek La van assuming command of the vessel. 

John L. Hall (FFG-32) is the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[371 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• USS John L. Hall official website 

[21 

• navsource.org: USS John L. Hall 

[31 

• navysite.de: USS John L. Hall 

• MaritimeQuest USS John L. Hall FFG-32 pages ^"^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.hall.navy.mil/ 

[2] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0732.htm 

[3] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG32.HTM 

[4] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/john_l_hall_page_l.htm 



USS Jarrett (FFG-33) 



78 



USS Jarrett (FFG-33) 




USS Jarrett (FFG-33) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 



Vice Admiral Harry B. Jarrett 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



23 January 1978 

-^ Todd Pacific Shipyards Los Angeles Division, 
San Pedro, California 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



llFebruai-y 1981 
17 October 1981 



Acquired: 
Commissioned: 



27 May 1983 
2 July 1983 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Naval Base San Diego 
Valens Et Egregius 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: 
Displacement: 



—> Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 
4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1 m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 
Propulsion: 



22 ft (6.7 m) 

2 X -» General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and - 
variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods for 
maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 

processing 

systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — ► SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Jarrett (FFG-33) 79 



Electronic 
warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



Armament: 



Aircraft carried: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four —> .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard anti-ship/air 

missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



— > USS Jarrett (FFG-33), twenty-fifth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for Vice Admiral Harry B. Jarrett (1898-1974). 

Ordered from — > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California on 23 January 1978 as part of the FY78 program, 
Jarrett was laid down on 11 February 1981, launched on 17 October 1981, and commissioned on 2 July 1983. 

Operation Desert Storm 

During Desert Storm in 1991, Jarrett was involved in a friendly fire incident with the /owa-class battleship Missouri. 
Allegedly, Jarrett' & Phalanx engaged the chaff fired by Missouri as a countermeasure against two incoming Iraqi 
Silkworm missiles (also known as a Seersucker). Some stray Phalanx rounds struck Missouri, one of which 
penetrated a bulkhead and embedded in an interior passageway of the ship. Another round struck the ship on the 
forward funnel passing completely through it. One sailor aboard Missouri was struck in the neck by some flying 
shrapnel and suffered minor injuries. Some are skeptical of this account, however, as Jarrett was reportedly over two 
miles away at the time and the characteristics of chaff are such that a Phalanx normally would not regard it as a 
threat and engage it. There is no dispute that the rounds that struck Missouri were fired by the Jarrett and that it was 
an accident. It is possible that a Phalanx operator on Jarrett may have accidentally fired some rounds manually. 
However, no evidence to support this theory has ever been discovered. 

One of the Iraqi Silkworm missiles crashed into the sea without being intercepted. The other - heading towards USS 
Missouri - was successfully intercepted by a British Sea Dart missile fired by HMS Gloucester. 

Current Status 

As of early 2007 the Jarrett remains active, assigned to Destroyer Squadron 1 and is homeported at San Diego, 
California. 



Jarrett (FFG-33) is the first ship of that name in the US Navy. She was also the first US Navy warship to be 

cor 

[4] 



[21 [31 

commanded by a woman. Commander Kathleen A. McGrath, from 18 December 1998 until 4 September 2000. 



References 

[1] USS Missouri Frequently Asked Questions (http://www.factplace.com/mightymo.htm#Guli^ 

[2] http://www.news. navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=8392 

[3] http://www.jarrett.navy.mil/coc/cos.shtml 

[4] http://arlingtoncemetery.net/kmcgrath.htm 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG33.htm). 



USS Jarrett (FFG-33) 80 

External links 

• USS Jarrett FFG-33 official webpage (http://www.jarrett.navy.mil/) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Jarrett FFG-33 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/ 
frigates/pages/jarrett_ffg33_page_l.htm) 

• GlobalSecurity.org FFG-33 (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/ffg-33.htm) 



USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) 



81 



USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) 




USS Aubrey Fitch { FFG-34} 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 



Admiral Aubrey Fitch 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



23 January 1978 
— > Bath Iron Works 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



10 April 1981 
17 October 1981 



Acquired: 
Commissioned: 



1 October 1982 
9 October 1982 



Decommissioned: 
Struck: 



12 December 1997 
3 May 1999 



Homeport: 
Fate: 



Mayport, Florida (former) 
Disposed of by scrapping, dismantling 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric —> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) 82 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for —> Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34), twenty-sixth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, 
was named for Admiral Aubrey Fitch (1883—1978). 

Ordered on 23 January 1978 as part of the FY78 program, Aubrey Fitch was laid down on 10 April 1981 at Bath, 
Maine, by the — > Bath Iron Works; launched on 17 October 1981 sponsored by Mrs. Francesca Fitch Ferguson, the 
granddaughter of the late Admiral Fitch, and was commissioned at Bath, Maine, on 9 October 1982, Commander 
Floyd A. Weeks in command. 

The ship was decommissioned on 12 December 1997 and stricken on 3 May 1999. 

1982 

After commissioning, Aubrey Fitch remained at Bath for another five weeks completing her outfitting, propulsion 
plant examination, and crew inspections. In mid-November, she made the passage from Bath to her home port, 
Mayport in Florida, where she spent the remainder of 1982. 

1983 

Early in January of 1983, the guided-missile frigate embarked upon her shakedown cruise to the vicinity of 
Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. The warship returned to Mayport during the middle of February and then launched into a 
series of trials, qualifications, and certifications preparatory to her final acceptance by the Navy. She completed final 
acceptance trials late in May and entered the yard at Bath Iron Works for a three-month, post-shakedown 
availability. Aubrey Fitch completed repairs and returned to Mayport in September. In October, she commenced 
refresher training out of Guantanamo Bay. 

The guided-missile frigate was so engaged when United States military forces invaded the small Caribbean island 
nation of Grenada on 25 October in response to a power struggle between leftist factions that endangered the 
stability of the region as well as the lives of United States citizens attending the medical college there. Aubrey Fitch 
interrupted refresher training to conduct patrols in defense of the base at Guantanamo Bay against possible hostile 
action by Cuba as a result of the conflict in Grenada where Americans found themselves fighting Cuban "advisors" 
and "construction workers." 

Early in November, however the warship completed refresher training and assumed tactical control of Aquila and 
Taurus for the purpose of testing the feasibility of operating guided-missile frigates and guided-missile hydrofoil 
gunboats together in the same task organization. Demands attendant to the continuing American presence in 
Grenada, however, overtook the experiment and sent Aubrey Fitch and her two consorts south to the tiny republic. 
Duty in the waters adjacent to Grenada lasted until mid-December when the warship returned to Mayport. 



USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) 83 

1984 

Aubrey Fitch began 1984 in her home port. Later in January, she embarked upon a normal schedule of training 
operations in the West Indies. That employment occupied her through the month of May and into June. On 22 June, 
the guided missile frigate put to sea to become a unit of NATO's Standing Naval Force, Atlantic, based at Plymouth, 
England. That deployment included visits to a number of ports in northern Europe as well as training evolutions in 
the Baltic Sea. Early in the fall of 1984, the NATO force visited American waters and made calls at Charleston, 
Savannah, and New Orleans. Late in November, the warships visited Aubrey Fitch's home port in Florida. Early in 
December, the NATO force headed back to Europe, leaving Aubrey Fitch at Mayport. 

1985 

The warship opened 1985 much the same way as she did 1984. After concluding holiday leave and upkeep at 
Mayport during the first half of January, she returned to sea for the usual training exercises, equipment operation 
certifications, and ASW helicopter landing qualifications. These and similar evolutions alternated with periods in 
port for routine upkeep and availability occupied her time during the first five months of the year. In June, Aubrey 
Fitch began providing escort and plane guard services for America and Saratoga when the carriers put to sea to 
conduct landing qualifications. 

Near the end of June, she put to sea for special operations off the west coast of the Isthmus of Panama. She transited 
the Panama Canal and then operated from the base at Rodman, Panama during July, August, and part of September. 
After passing back through the canal in mid-September, Aubrey Fitch arrived back at Mayport on the 21st. Repairs 
took up the remainder of September as well as October and November. She concluded her restricted availability with 
sea trials on 5 and 6 December and, after a brief round trip to Charleston and back, settled into the usual year-end 
holiday routine. 

1986 

The relative inactivity of holiday standdown carried over into the first three weeks of 1986. On 21 January, Aubrey 
Fitch put to sea for a week of ASW training in the Bahama Islands. On 28 January, she interrupted her return voyage 
when the Space Shuttle Challenger exploded soon after launch. From her position just 50 miles southeast of Cape 
Canaveral Aubrey Fitch rushed to the scene of the tragedy and began recovering debris. She collected several tons of 
material which she later delivered to Cape Canaveral to be inspected as a part of the investigation into the cause of 
the disaster. From Cape Canaveral the guided-missile frigate returned to Mayport and remained there until the 
second week in February. On 10 February, Aubrey Fitch resumed training operations out of Mayport, and she 
continued so employed until the beginning of April at which time the warship began preparations to deploy to the 
Persian Gulf. 

On 4 June, Aubrey Fitch stood out of Mayport in company with Talbot to rendezvous with Nicholson and Semmes. 
She and her traveling companions then laid in a course that took them across the Atlantic Ocean and the 
Mediterranean Sea, through the Suez Canal, and around the Arabian Peninsula to the Strait of Hormuz. Aubrey Fitch 
and her consorts arrived at Bahrain in the Persian Gulf on 8 July. The guided-missile frigate spent the next four 
months conducting patrols and escorting merchant ships in the strategic— and troubled— waters of the Persian Gulf, the 
Gulf of Oman, and the northern portion of the Arabian Sea. No untoward events marred her sojourn in the region, 
and she concluded her assignment on 30 October by turning her responsibilities over to USS Sampson. Retracing her 
outward-bound voyage via the Red Sea, the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean, Aubrey 
Fitch steamed into Mayport on 4 December. Post-deployment standdown took up the remainder of 1986. 

[1987-1997] 

Aubrey Fitch spent March through July of 1995 touring Western Europe, including Bermuda; Brest, France; Rota, 
Barcelona and Ibiza, Spain; Casablanca, Morocco; Gibraltar, Portsmouth & Liverpool, UK; Lisbon, Portugal; 



USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) 84 

Amsterdam, Netherlands; Derry & Portrush, Ireland and Rosyth, Scotland. Aubrey Fitch was decommissioned on 12 
December 1997 and towed to the former Philadelphia Naval yard as part of the inactive reserve fleet. She was 
stricken on 3 May 1999, Aubrey Fitch was transferred to Metro Machine Corp. for scrapping, on 26 March 2004. 

Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) was the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[321 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• hazegray.org/danfs/: USS Aubrey Fitch 

• MaritimeQuest USS Aubrey Fitch FFG-34 ^^^ 

• GlobalSecurity.org FFG-27 ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.hazegray.org/danfs/escorts/ffg34.htm 

[2] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/aubrey_fitch_ffg_34_page_l.htm 



USS Underwood (FFG-36) 



85 



USS Underwood (FFG-36) 



USS Underwood underway in the Caribbean Sea in 2006 


Career (US) 




m= 








Namesake: 


Captain Gordon Waite Underwood 


Ordered: 


27 April 1979 


Builder: 


-» Bath Iron Works 


Laid down: 


30 July 1981 


Launched: 


6 February 1982 


Acquired: 


14 January 1983 


Commissioned: 


29 January 1983 


Homeport: 


Mayport, Florida 


Fate: 


Active in service as of 2009 


General characteristics 


Class and type: 


-^ Oliver Hazard Perry-class -> frigate 


Displacement: 


4, 1 00 tons (4,1 70 t) full load 


Length: 


453 ft (138.1 m), overall 


Beam: 


45 ft (13.7 m) 


Draught: 


22 ft (6.7 m) 


Propulsion: 


2 X — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and -^ 
variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods for 
maneuvering and docking. 


Speed: 


29+ knots (54+ km/h) 


Range: 


5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 


Complement: 


15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -^ SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 


Sensors and 

processing 

systems: 


-> AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 


Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 


AN/SLQ-32 



USS Underwood (FFG-36) 



86 



Armament: 


As built: 




One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 




two -> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for -^ Mark 46 torpedoes 




one Vulcan -» Phalanx CIWS; four -> .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 




one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for -> Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -> SM-IMR Standard 




anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 




Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 


Aircraft carried: 


2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Underwood (FFG-36), twenty-seventh ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, 
was named for Captain Gordon Waite Underwood (1910—1978). 

Ordered from — > Bath Iron Works, Bath, ME on 27 April 1979 as part of the FY79 program. Underwood was laid 
down on 30 July 1981, launched on 6 February 1982, and commissioned on 29 January 1983. As of December 2006 
she remains active, assigned to Destroyer Squadron 14 and homeported at Mayport, FL. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 



External links 



Official website 



[1] 



• MaritimeQuest USS Underwood FFG-36 pages 



[2] 



GIobaISecurity.org FFG-36 



[3] 




Undeni'ood passing under the Cape Cod Canal 
railroad bridge, June 2006 



References 

[1] http://www.underwood.navy.mil/ 

[2] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/underwood_ffg36_page_l.htm 

[3] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/ffg-36.htm 



USS Crommelin (FFG-37) 



87 



USS Crommelin (FFG-37) 




Sailors aboard Crommelin man the rails as the ship passes Ihe Arizona Memorial in Pearl Harbor, 12 May 2004. 



Career 



Namesake: Lieutenant Commander Richard Crommelin 

Builder: -» Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



30 May 1980 
2 July 1981 



Commissioned: 
Homeport: 



18 June 1983 
Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 



Motto: 



Fate: 



"Munus Bene Factum" 
(Job Well Done) 

Active in service as of 2009 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class -> frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 
Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and - 

variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric —> azipods for 
maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and — ► AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 

processing — ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 

systems: CAS and STIR fire-control radar 

AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Crommelin (FFG-37) 



Electronic 
warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two -^ Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for -^ Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan -^ Phalanx CIWS; four -^ .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for ^ Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard anti-ship/air 

missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 




USS Crommelin (FFG-37), twenty-eighth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class of guided-missile — > frigates, 
was named for five brothers: Vice Admiral Henry Crommelin (1904—1971), Rear Admiral John G. Crommelin (died 
1997), Captain Quentin Crommelin (died 1997), Commander Charles Crommelin (died 1945), and Lieutenant 
Commander Richard Crommelin (1917—1945). Crommelin (FFG-37) is the first ship of that name in the United 

States Navy. 

Ordered from Todd Pacific Shipyard, Seattle, Washington on 27 April 1979 as part of the Fiscal year 1979 program, 
Crommelin was laid down on 30 May 1980, launched on 2 July 1981, and commissioned on 18 June 1983. 



Operational history 

Crommelin was assigned to Destroyer Squadron 9 and reached its homeport of Long Beach, California in August 
1983. 

In 1985, Crommelin was assigned to the USS Constellation carrier battle group and deployed to the western Pacific 
and Indian Oceans. During this deployment, Crommelin became the first FFG to successfully engage a high-speed, 
maneuvering target with missiles. It was also the first ship to complete an operational deployment with the LAMPS 
MK 111 weapon system. In June 1986, Crommelin received the first Chief of Naval Operations LAMPS MK 111 
Safety Award. 

In the summer of 1986, Crommelin was awarded every departmental and divisional excellence award and won its 
first Navy "E" award. In 1987, Crommelin was assigned to Destroyer Squadron 13 and began an accelerated 
deployment with the Constellation battle group. Crommelin was the first FFG to deploy with two LAMPS MK 111 
helicopters embarked. Crommelin was assigned to Commander, Middle East Force from 1 July to 25 August 1987, 
earning a Meritorious Unit Commendation and Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal for the convoy escort of the first 
five reflagged Kuwaiti tankers in Operation Earnest Will. 

On 1 January 1988, Crommelin was reassigned to Destroyer Squadron 9, and on 6 March 1988, the ship received a 
second consecutive Navy "E" award. Upon completion of its second availability period at Todd Pacific Shipyard, 
Crommelin was deployed in March 1989 again to the Persian Gulf. In October 1990 Crommelin was deployed in 
support of joint service, counternarcotics operations in the Central, South American, and Caribbean theater. 



USS Crommelin (FFG-37) 

Crommelin was awarded the Joint Services Meritorious Unit Award for its performance during this deployment. In 
1991, Crommelin received the Navy "E" as well as its fifth consecutive warfare excellence awards for anti-air and 
anti-surface warfare, navigation and seamanship, damage control, engineering, and communications. On 1 
September 1991, Crommelin shifted homeports to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and joined Destroyer Squadron 31. 

Crommelin completed a second four-month counternarcotics deployment in the Central, South American and 
Caribbean theater from November 1992 to March 1993. Upon return to its homeport of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 
Crommelin was assigned to Commander Naval Surface Group, Middle Pacific. 

From 6 July to 14 December 1994, Crommelin was assigned to the USS Kitty Hawk battle group in the Western 
Pacific for Korean contingency operations. There, Crommelin received the Meritorious Unit Commendation Award 
for the prosecution of a Chinese Han class submarine. Upon completion of this deployment she underwent 
dry-docking SRA-5 at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard, following which she began the cycle for her 1996 Western 
Pacific deployment with the USS Carl Vinson battle group. 

After a three month work up cycle, Crommelin deployed with the Carl Vinson battle group on 20 May 1996. This 
deployment took Crommelin and her crew back to the Persian Gulf for a variety of missions, including escorting 
ships through the Straits of Hormuz, patrolling the Northern Persian Gulf, and conducting maritime interception 
operations. Crommelin returned from that deployment on 20 November 1996. 

Following WESTPAC 96, Crommelin entered SRA-6 from January to March 1997. Crommelin received upgrades to 
all major weapons systems as well as the engineering plant. Following this availability, Crommelin and her crew 
began yet another work up cycle to prepare for her fifth deployment to the Persian Gulf as part of the U.S. 5th Fleet. 
Crommelin departed Pearl Harbor on 21 February 1998. During this deployment Crommelin distinguished herself by 
setting a Fifth Fleet record for number of vessels boarded and tonnage of illegal Iraqi petroleum seized and diverted. 

Crommelin completed a demanding nine week private sector SRA in early 1999, where she made major repairs and 
upgrades throughout the ship. Immediately following the SRA, Crommelin aggressively entered the 
inter-deployment training cycle and proceeded to set numerous records throughout her training. Chief among these 
was condensing what is normally a twelve week training cycle into nine weeks. Other achievements were completing 
cruise missile test qualification on the first day of training and completing engineering qualification with 100% of 
drills and 28 of 29 evolutions graded as "satisfactory". 

With her training cycle complete, Crommelin departed Pearl Harbor on 24 August 1999 for a three month 
deployment to the Eastern Pacific in support of counter narcotics operations. During this deployment, Crommelin 
steamed 77 of 92 days, flew more than 350 mishap-free SH-60B flight hours, and was a key player in four major 
cocaine seizures. Upon her return to Pearl Harbor on 24 November 1999, Crommelin immediately began the work up 
cycle for her next deployment with USS Abraham Lincoln battle group in August 2000. 

In February 2000, Crommelin was awarded the Battle "E" for Destroyer Squadron 31 as well as each of the four 
command excellence awards. Other accomplishments included the 1999 Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet 
Retention Excellence Award, 1999, Commander Naval Surface Forces Pacific (COMNAVSURFPAC) Surface Ship 
Safety Award, COMNAVSURFPAC Self-Sufficient Ship of the Quarter Award (Q4 FY99 and Q2 FYOO), and the 
distinction of being the first Pearl Harbor ship to hoist the Enlisted Surface Warfare Specialist Pennant. 

During WESTPAC 2000, eighteen non-compliant vessels were boarded by Crommelin's Visit Board Search and 
Seizure Team, twelve were found to be smuggling petroleum products from Iraq and diverted to friendly ports for 
disposal of the ships and their illegal cargo. On the eve of the homecoming from deployment, Crommelin received 
her second consecutive Battle Efficiency Award. 

From 18 April 2001 to June 2001, Crommelin was dry-docked at Pearl Harbor Naval Shipyard for Dry-dock 
Selected Restricted Availability. In January 2002 Crommelin received the 2001 COMNAVSURFPAC Surface Ship 
Safety Award. 



USS Crommelin (FFG-37) 90 

From 12 May 2004 to 12 November 2004, Crommelin was deployed to the SOUTHPAC AOR in support of the war 
on drugs, conducting counter-narcotics operations in the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. In that time, she became 
the most second most successful counter-narcotics ship with the seizure of 44806 lb (20324 kg) of cocaine, including 
26,369 pounds from the Belize-flagged vessel San Jose on 23 September 2004. She held that record until the bust of 
the Panamanian flagged motor vessel Gatun off the coast of Panama in March 2007, carrying approximately 
428451b (19434 kg) of cocaine. During this deployment, America's Battle Frigate also participated in exercises 
UNITAS-04 and PANAMAX-04, training the Navies and Coast Guards of various Central- and South-American 
countries in counter-narcotics and counter-terrorism tactics at sea. 

From 5 May 2006 to 15 September 2006, she participated in CARAT-06, along with Salvor, Tortuga, Hopper and 
USCGC Sherman. In that time. Task Group 73.1 trained the Navies of several Southeast Asian countries in Maritime 
boarding and counter-terrorism tactics. Upon returning to home port, she entered an intensive dry dock period and as 
of May 2007, is preparing herself for continued operations in the wars on terror and drugs. 

In November 2007 Crommelin Deployed to the Southcom AOR insupport of CounterNarco-Terroism Ops 
(CNT-OPS). On Christmas Eve 2007 Crommelin Stopped a 'go-fast' drug runner near the coast of Columbia carrying 
5,200 lbs of cocaine. The Crommelin boarded close to 20 vessels involved in drug running operations during her 7 
month deployment. Nearing the end of the deployment the Crommelin was awaiting the arrival of the USS George 
Washington into the Eastern Pacific AOR for a refueling operation. As the 2 ships came alongside each other the 
GW had a major fire break out onboard damaging 92 spaces onboard as well as shuting down part of their nuclear 
reactor. She quickly made for San Diego to conduct repairs while the Crommelin was left short on food and even 
lower on fuel. The Crommelin had to make an emergency stop in Mexico to refuel both food and fuel to make it 
back to Hawaii in June 2008. After a successful deployment Crommelin entered dry dock in October 2008 for repairs 
to keep her operational throughout the next decade. 

Ship's crest 

The colors blue and gold are traditionally associated with the U.S. Navy. The three interlaced chevronels represent 
the Crommelin brothers after whom the ship is named. The two winged chevronels refer to the air exploits of 
Lieutenant Commander Richard and Commander Charles Crommelin who served and died as Naval aviators. The 
central chevronel over which an anchor is placed alludes to the surface ship career of Vice Admiral Henry 
Crommelin, the oldest and first to serve of the brothers. 

The linked chevronels suggest the strength and determination of U.S. naval forces in their efforts to regain enemy 
held territories of the Pacific Ocean throughout World War II. It was in this effort that the Crommelin brothers so 
distinguished themselves. 

The rampant sea lion is a symbolic creature associated with valor at sea; its head and mane are scarlet for courage 
and its body is gold for zeal and achievement. The scarlet sword recalls the fierce conflict of the Pacific war. The 
wings and silver collar with blue cross signify some of the decorations the brothers received, such as the Navy Cross, 
the Silver Star and the Distinguished Flying Cross. 



USS Crommelin (FFG-37) 



91 



References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel 
Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public 
domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/ 
nvrships/details/FFG37 .htm). 

External links 

• Official website (http://www.crommelin.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Crommelin (http://www.navsource.org/ 
archives/07/0737.htm) 




Crommelin outward bound past Diamond Head, 
May 2004 



united-states-navy.com: USS Crommelin (http://www.united-states-navy.com/ffg/FFG37.HTM) 

USS Crommelin Alumni Association (http://www.ffg37.org) 

MaritimeQuest USS Crommelin FFG-37 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/ 

us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/crommelin_ffg_37_page_l.htm) 



USS Curts (FFG-38) 



92 



USS Curts (FFG-38) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




- — >. T>w«- - 



i 



USS Curts (FFG-38) 



Admiral Maurice Curts 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



27 April 1979 

— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



1 July 1981 
6 March 1982 



Acquired: 
Commissioned: 



2 September 1983 
8 October 1983 



Homeport: 
Fate: 



Naval Base San Diego 
Naval Reserve Force, Active 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class -^ frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — ► azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -» SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Curts (FFG-38) 93 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Curts (FFG-38), twenty-ninth ship of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile — > frigates, was 
named for Admiral Maurice Curts (1898-1976). 

Ordered from — > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California on 27 April 1979 as part of the FY79 program, Curts 
was laid down on 1 July 1981, launched on 6 March 1982, and commissioned on 8 October 1983. As of 2007 she is 
on active service, assigned to Destroyer Squadron 1 and homeported at San Diego, CA. 

1980's 

Her first years in commission were focused on anti-submarine warfare (ASW) operations and Curts was the first 
pacific fleet unit with the complete SQQ-89 ASW suite. The ship received the meritorious unit commendation for 
tactical proficiency in the tracking of Soviet submarines in 1987. 

In 1988, Curts received the armed forces expeditionary medal for serving with the USS Missouri battle group during 
Operation Earnest Will in the north Arabian Sea and the gulf of Oman. Additionally, Curts changed homeport to 
Yokosuka, Japan, becoming one of the first two FFG's to join the Forward Deployed Naval Force (FDNF). Curts 
was first to bring the lamps MK III helicopters to Naval Air Facility, Atsugi. 

Operation Desert Storm 

On 24 January 1991, during Operation Desert Storm, the ship and her embarked navy and army helicopters captured 
an Iraqi garrison on Qaruh Island in the northern Persian Gulf, taking the island and custody of 51 Iraqi prisoners. 
Curts destroyed two mines, sank an Iraqi minelayer and provided support to combat helicopter operations during the 
battle of Bubiyan Island. The ship received the navy unit commendation for her exceptional operational 
performance. 

1990's 

Upon return from combat operations in June 1991, the ship became an important part of Operation Fiery Vigil 
rescuing numerous refugees to safety when mount Pinatubo erupted near Subic Bay, Republic of The Philippines, 

In 1993, Curts was upgraded with the 4100-ton class modification, extending her stern another eight feet and 
enhancing her combat capabilities. CMrf.v joined independence battle group to participate with the Japanese Maritime 
Self-Defense Force in joint anti-submarine warfare exercise MAREX and later that year the ship deployed to the 
Persian Gulf conducting 89 boardings of merchant vessels in the Red Sea as part of United Nations sanctions 
enforcement against Iraq. Curts material and operational readiness was rewarded with the battle efficiency award for 
1994. 

In 1995, Curts participated in major joint exercises with units of the U.S. Navy and Japanese Maritime Self-Defense 
Force (JMSDF), and later with the navies of Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand for 1996 cooperation afloat for 
readiness and training (CARAT 96). 



USS Curts (FFG-38) 94 

In 1997, after nine years of forward presence as part of seventh fleet, Curts departed Yokosuka, Japan for a homeport 
change to San Diego, California and in October 1998 Ct/rfj joined the Naval Reserve Force (NRF). 

2000's 

In 1999 the ship would deploy on a six-month counter-narcotics deployment to the eastern pacific and Caribbean Sea 
in the southern command area of operations. Curts' aggressive pursuit of drug traffickers led to the interception of 
over 5 tons of cocaine. During carat cruises in 2001 and 2003, Curts conducted multi-lateral exercises with the 
navies of Singapore, Thailand, Brunei, and the Philippines to continue promoting international training and 
cooperation. 

In 2004 Curts again deployed to southern command on a six-month counter-narcotics deployment and received 
national notoriety for the largest maritime seizure of cocaine (12 tons) in history. The ship received the U.S. Coast 
Guard Meritorious Unit Commendation for her outstanding performance during deployment. 

On 16 February 2007, Curts was awarded the 2006 Battle "E" award. [1] 

Curts (FFG-38) is the first ship of that name in the US Navy. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[431 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• MaritimeQuest USS Curts FFG-38 pages ^^^ 

• GlobalSecurity.org FFG-38 ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/curts_ffg_38_page_l.htm 
[2] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/ffg-38.htm 



USS Doyle (FFG-39) 



95 



USS Doyle (FFG-39) 




USS Doyle (FFG-39) 



Career (US) 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



-^ Bath Iron Works 
23 October 1981 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



22 May 1982 
21 May 1983 



Homeport: 
Nickname: 



Mayport, Florida 
Valiant Mariner 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class -> frigate 

Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

-^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric ^ azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus —> SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-> AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Doyle (FFG-39) 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two -> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — ► Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan —> Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for —> Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Doyle (FFG-39) was the 30th ship to be constructed in the — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class of guided missile — > 
frigates of the United States Navy. The Doyle was named after Vice Admiral James Henry Doyle (1897-1982) Vice 
Admiral Doyle was most known for his contributions during the Korean War as Commander Amphibious Group 
One. 

Her keel was laid down by — > Bath Iron Works Corporation of Bath, Maine, on 23 October 1981. She was launched 
on 22 May 1982 and commissioned on 21 May 1983. 




accessdate=2007-08- 17}} </ref> 




References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/detaiIs/FFG39.htm). 



External links 

• www.doyIe.navy.mil (http://www.doyIe.navy.mil/), official USS Doyle website 

• MaritimeQuest USS Doyle FFG-39 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/ 
frigates/pages/doyIe_ffg_39_page_l.htm) 



USS Halyburton (FFG-40) 



97 



USS Halyburton (FFG-40) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS Halyburton (FFG-40) 



Pharmacist's Mate Second Class William D. Halyburton, Jr. 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle, Washington 
26 September 1980 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



13 October 1981 
7 January 1984 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Mayport, Florida 

Non sibi, sed Patriae (Not for self, but for Country) 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — ► Oliver Hazard Perry-c\d&s —> frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

-> variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SJJ-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Halyburton (FFG-40) 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Halyburton (FFG-40), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named 
for Pharmacist's Mate Second Class William D. Halyburton, Jr. (1924—1945). Halyburton was posthumously 
awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism while serving with the 5th Marines, during the Battle of Okinawa. 

Construction 

Halyburton was laid down on 26 September 1980 by the — > Todd Pacific Shipyards Co., Seattle Division, Seattle, 
Wash.; launched on 13 October 1981; and commissioned on 7 January 1984. 

Operations 

Over its commissioned service, Halyburton earned numerous Battle 'E' awards for combat readiness. Halyburton was 
also one of the escorts for the USS Constitution on July 21, 1997 as "Old Ironsides" celebrated her 200th birthday 
and her first unassisted sail in 1 16 years. 

As of 2008, Halyburton is homeported at NS Mayport, Florida, and is part of Destroyer Squadron 14. 

In April, 2009 the Halyburton was part of a U.S. Navy rescue mission off the Horn of Africa where the captain of the 
U.S. -flagged merchant vessel Maersk Alabama was held captive by pirates in a lifeboat. U.S. Navy SEALs brought 
the standoff to an end by shooting and killing three of the four pirates. The fourth was on board the USS Bainbridge 
at the time of the shooting, negotiating the hostage's release, and was taken into custody. 

Constable's Dues ritual 

On July 16, 2009, Halyburton visited the Port of London, mooring in South Dock, West India Quay for three nights. 
On Saturday 18th, she became the first non-British ship to take part in the Tower of London's Constable's Dues 
ritual. Dating back to the 14th century, it involved the crew being challenged for entry into the British capital, 
mirroring an ancient custom in which a ship had to unload some of its cargo for the sovereign to enter the city. 
Commander Michael P Huck and Ship's Officer LCDR Tony Mortimer led the crew to the Tower's West Gate, 
where after being challenged for entry by the Yeoman Gaoler armed with his axe, they were marched to Tower 
Green accompanied by Beefeaters, where they delivered a keg of Castillo Silver Rum, representing the dues, to the 
Tower's Constable, Sir Roger Wheeler. 

Commander Huck said: "Halyburton and her crew are honoured to be invited to take part in a tradition with such rich 
history. It is an excellent opportunity for my crew to not only enjoy London culture, but to be an active part of it." 

He admitted neither the cask nor the rum was actually cargo from the ship. 

"The wine cask has been provided to us by the Tower authorities," he said. "It will actually be filled with Castillo 
Silver Rum. Unfortunately, since we do not typically carry alcohol on-board, that was also provided to us." 



USS Halyburton (FFG-40) 99 

References 

[1] " American captain rescued, pirates killed, U.S. official says (http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/africa/04/12/somalia.pirates/index. 

html)". CNN. . Retrieved 2009-04-12. 
[2] " US ship in ancient Tower ceremony (http://news.bbc.co.Uk/l/hi/england/london/8157286.stm)". BBC News. 2009-07-18. . Retrieved 

2009-07-18. 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG40.htm). 

External links 

• USS Halyburton official website (http://www.haIyburton.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Halyburton (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0740.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Halyburton (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG40.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Halyburton FFG-40 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/ 
us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/halyburton_ffg40_page_l.htm) 



USS McClusky (FFG-41) 



100 



USS McClusky (FFG-41) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS Mca«.s/t)' (FFG-41) 



Rear Admiral C. Wade McClusky 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 
18 October 1981 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



18 September 1982 
10 December 1983 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Naval Base San Diego 

Persistent, Courageous, Victorious 



Nickname: 
Fate: 



Mighty Mac 

Active in service as of 2009 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-c\as,^ — ► frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS McClusky (FFG-41) 101 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS McClusky (FFG-41), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Rear Admiral C. Wade McClusky (1902-1976). In the Battle of Midway, then-Lieutenant Commander McClusky 
led USS Enterprise's air group, which sank the Japanese carriers Kaga and Akagi. 

McClusky was laid down on 18 October 1981 by the — > Todd Pacific Shipyards Co., Los Angeles Division, San 
Pedro, Ca.; launched on 18 September 1982; and commissioned on 10 December 1983 in Long Beach, California, 
Commander Lynch in command. 

Important Events 

1986 — Involved in the patrolling of Taiwan International Waters during Chinese large scale exercises in region. 

1991 — Changed homeports to Yokosuka, Japan; assisted in Operation Fiery Vigil, the evacuation of civilians 
from the Philippines during eruption of Mount Pinatubo. 

1992 — The ship visited Vladivostok, Russia, the first ship to do so after the break up of the Soviet Union. 
1996 — After three Persian Gulf Deployments, 15 Bilateral exercises and over 40 port visits, McClusky departs 
Yokosuka for homeport shift back to San Diego. 

2000 — First Counter Narcotics Ops — numerous busts and drug seizures 

2002 — Counter Drug Ops, and Rescue of Richard Van Pham, Shift ISIC from Destroyer Squadron 7 (DesRon 7) 
to DesRon 1 . 

• 2003 — INSURV and Battle "E" Winner — Counter Drug OPS 

As of 2009, McClusky is commanded by CDR Mark Lakamp. 

References 

77;/,? article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• USS McClusky official website ^^^ 

• navsource.org: USS McClusky 

• united-states-navy.com: USS McClusky 



[3] 



MaritimeQuest USS McClusky FFG-41 pages ^^^ 



USS McClusky (FFG-41) 



102 




USS McCto^ty (FFG-41) 



References 



[1] http://www.mcclusky.navy.mil/mam.html 

[2] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0741.htm 

[3] http://www.united-states-navy.com/ffg/FFG41.HTM 

[4] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/mcclusky_ffg41_page_l.htm 



USS Klakring (FFG-42) 



103 



USS Klakring (FFG-42) 



Career 



Namesake: 




Rear Admiral Thomas B. Klakring 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Bath Iron Works 
19 February 1982 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



18 September 1982 
20 August 1983 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Mayport, Florida 

Freedom Through Vigilance 



Nickname: 
Status: 



Special K 
Naval Reserve Force, active in service 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 



Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draft: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric —> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 

AN/SLQ-32 



USS Klakring (FFG-42) 104 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two -> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — ► Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan —> Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for —> Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Klakring (FFG-42), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Rear Admiral Thomas B. Klakring (1904—1975), who was awarded three Navy Crosses as commander of the 
submarine USS Guardfish (SS-217) during World War II. 

Klakring was laid down on 19 February 1982 by the — > Bath Iron Works Corp. Bath, Maine; launched on 
18 September 1982; sponsored by Beverly Bohen, a niece of R.Adm. Klakring; and commissioned on 20 August 
1983 at Bath, Commander Leonard O. Wahlig in command. 

As of 2006, Klakring is homeported at NAVSTA Mayport, Florida, and is part of Destroyer Squadron 14. In March 
of 2008 and 2009, the ship was the subject of protests in Sevastapol, Ukraine when it visited the port for five-day 
"friendly" visits.^^^ 

Klakring participated in Operation Earnest Will in the Persian Gulf in 1987 as the first air-capable, air-embarked 
ship. Klakring participated in Operation Prime Chance in the Persian Gulf during the "Tanker War". Klakring is one 
of the surface combatants in Larry Bond's 1993 technothriller Cauldron. 

References 

[1] The Times, "US Frigate's 'Friendly Visit' Gets A Furious Reception", March 26, 2009. 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG42.htm). 

External links 

• USS Klakring official website (http://www.klakring.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Klakring (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0742.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Klakring (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG42.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Klakring FFG-42 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/ 
us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/kl akring_ffg42_page_l.htm) 




Klakring in the Pacific, 2002 



USS Thach (FFG-43) 



105 



USS Thach (FFG-43) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS Thach in the Persian Gulf, 2003 



Admiral John Thach 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 
6 March 1981 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



18 December 1982 
17 March 1983 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Naval Base San Diego 
Ready and Able 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — ► Oliver Hazard Pe/ry-class — ► frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

-> variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -» SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

-> AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 

-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 

CAS and STIR fire-control radar 

AN/SQS-56 sonar. 

AN/SQR-19 Towed Array Sonar System 

^^^ AN/SQQ-89 ASW Integration System 



USS Thach (FFG-43) 106 

Electronic warfare aN/SLQ-32 Mk36 SRBOC Decoy System ^^^ 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Thach (FFG-43), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Admiral John Thach (1905—1981), a naval aviator during World War II, who invented the Thach Weave dogfighting 
tactic. 

Thach was laid down on 6 March 1981 by the — > Todd Pacific Shipyards Co., Los Angeles Division, San Pedro, Ca.; 
launched on 18 December 1982; and commissioned on 17 March 1983. 

Thach mission is to provide anti-air, anti-surface, and anti-submarine protection for carrier battle groups, naval 
expeditionary forces, replenishment groups, convoys, and other military and merchant shipping. The new direction 
for the naval service remains focused on the ability to project power from the sea in the critical littoral regions for the 
world. 

Success in the warfare environment of the 1990s and beyond will require thorough evaluation, rapid 
decision-making and almost instantaneous response to any postulated threat. The systems aboard Thach have been 
designed to meet these demanding and dynamic prerequisites, and to do so with minimum human interface. The 
LAMPS MK III video data link system brings state-of-the-art computer technology to the warfare arena, as well as 
integrating sensors and weapons to provide a total offensive and defensive weapons system. 

In addition, computers control and monitor the gas turbine engines (the same engines installed on DC- 10 aircraft) 
and electrical generators. Digital electronic logic circuits and remotely-operated valves are monitored in Central 
Control Station which initiate engine start and result in a "ready to go" status in less than ten minutes. 

The heart of the ship, though, is the crew. High technology systems demand skilled technicians and professional 
leadership to be effective. The concept of "minimum manning" means, simply, that with professional sailors, Thach 
can meet the challenges of modem naval warfare with approximately half the crew found on other ships comparable 
size and capability. 

In late 2006 while deployed to the Southern Pacific, Thach caught fire as she attempted to put out a fire on a drug 
smuggling ship. 

As of 2008, Thach is captained by Commander David W. Haas, homeported at San Diego, California; and is part of 
Destroyer Squadron 7. 



USS Thach (FFG-43) 



107 



References 

[1] (http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/ffg-7.htm), FAS . 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG43.htm). 



External links 

• USS Thach official website (http://www.thach.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Thach (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0743.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Thach (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG43.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Thach FFG-43 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/ 
frigates/pages/thach_ffg_43_page_l.htm) 

• Navy Times Article 4 Mar 2008 re: incident during drug interdiction (http://www.navytimes.com/news/2008/ 
02/navy_thach_sack_022908/?source=nletter-?_AdditionalEmailAttributel?0D/) 

• Navy. mil March 2006 article on Bahamas goodwill mission (http://www.news.navy.mil/search/display. 
asp?story_id=25878/) 




USS De Wert (FFG-45) 



108 



USS De Wert (FFG-45) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS De Wert (FFG-45) 



Hospitalman Richard De Wert 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Bath Iron Works 
14 June 1982 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



18 December 1982 

19 November 1983 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Mayport, Florida 

Daring, Dauntless, Defiant 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — ► Oliver Hazard Perry-c\a&s —> frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— > variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS De Wert (FFG-45) 109 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS De Wert (FFG-45), an — > Oliver Hazard Ferry-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Hospitalman Richard De Wert (1931—1951). De Wert was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his 
heroism while serving with the 7th Marines during the Korean War. 

De Wert was laid down on 14 June 1982 by the — > Bath Iron Works, in Bath, Maine; launched on 18 December 
1982; and commissioned on 19 November 1983. 

As of May 2009, De Wert is captained by Commander Sean G. McLaren; she is part of the Atlantic Fleet's Destroyer 
Squadron 14 and homeported at NS Mayport, Florida. 

On 16 February 2007, De Wert was awarded the 2006 Battle "E" award. [1] 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[491 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• USS De Wert official website ^^^ 

• navsource.org: USS De Wert 

• navysite.de: USS De Wert ^^^ 

• MaritimeQuest USS DeWert FFG-45 pages ^"^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.dewert.navy.mil/ 

[2] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0745.htm 

[3] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG45.HTM 

[4] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/dewert_ffg_45_page_l.htm 



USS Rentz (FFG-46) 



110 



USS Rentz (FFG-46) 




USS Rentz (FFG-46) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: Chaplain George S. Rentz 

Builder: -» Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



18 September 1982 
16 July 1983 



Commissioned: 30 June 1984 
Homeport: Naval Base San Diego 



Motto: 
Fate: 



Dread Nought 
Active in service as of 2009 



Badge: 




Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class -^ frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 
Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and - 

variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods for 
maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29-1- knots (54-1- km/h) 



USS Rentz (FFG-46) 111 

Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 

Sensors and -^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 

processing — > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 

systems: CAS and STIR fire-control radar 

AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic AN/SLQ-32 

warfare 

and decoys: 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard anti-ship/air 

missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Rentz (FFG-46) is an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class of guided missile — > frigate, of the United States Navy, the 
40th ship to be constructed of its class. The Rentz was named after World War II Navy Chaplain George S. Rentz 
(1882—1942). Chaplain Rentz was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for selfless bravery following the loss of 
USS Houston in the Battle of Sunda Strait. He was the only Navy chaplain to be so honored during World War II. 

History 

The keel of the Rentz was laid on 18 September 1982 at — > Todd Pacific Shipyards in San Pedro, California. She was 
launched 16 July 1983, and commissioned at Naval Station Long Beach on 30 June 1984 under the command of 
CDR Martin Jules Mayer (b. 1944). In attendance were survivors of the Houston, as well as Chaplain Rentz's 
surviving daughter. 

In December, 1985, The USS Rentz moved from Long Beach, California to its current (2007) location in San Diego, 
California. Following initial shakedown cruises and operations, Rentz was assigned to the USS Ranger aircraft 
carrier group. As part of that group, the ship regularly cruised the Southern California Operations Area off the coast 
of San Clemente Island with a pair of fuzzy dice dangling above the ship's computerized helm. During "breakaways" 
after underway replenishment (UNREP) at sea, Rentz blasted the Beach Boys song "Little Deuce Coupe" as its 
inaugural "UNREP breakaway song." 

On 5 November 1986, Rentz was part of an historic visit to Qingdao (Tsing Tao; W'B;) China — the first US Naval 
visit to China since 1949. Rentz was accompanied by two other ships, the Reeves and Oldendorf. The visit was 
officially hosted by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) ("After 37-year absence, U.S. vessels visit 
China," New York Times Nov. 6, 1986, Sec. A, p. 3). Previously, the USS Dixie was the last ship to moor in China, 
departing in 1949 when the communists forced the Americans to leave the Chinese mainland. 

In July 1987, Rentz was sent to the Persian Gulf as part of Operation Earnest Will. Her primary duties consisted of 
escorting commercial vessels through the Strait of Hormuz. Rentz has been deployed to the Gulf numerous times 
since 1987. 



USS Rentz (FFG-46) 112 

Commanding Officers 

June 30, 1984 - 1987(?) Commander Martin Jules Mayer, USS Ranger aircraft carrier group. 

May 1994 - July 1995: CAPT Robert E. Johnston Destroyer Squadron 21 (San Diego) 

2005 - April 2006: Commander Dominic DeScisciolo, Destroyer Squadron 21 (San Diego). 

April 2006 - April 2008 : Commander Mark Johnson (Destroyer Squadron 21 and Destroyer Squadron 1). 

April 2008 - November 2009 : Commander Dave Glenister, Destroyer Squadron 1 (San Diego). 

November 2009 - forward : Commander Jeffrey Miller, Destroyer Squadron 1 (San Diego). 

Awards 

[21 

• "outstanding food service" in the Pacific Fleet, 1997 Ney Award winner "Small Afloat." 

[31 

• "outstanding food service" in the Pacific Fleet, 2000 Ney runner-up "Small Afloat." 

[41 

• 2003 Mobility Energy Efficiency award from the Federal Emergency Management Agency. 

About the Ship's Crest 

The colors blue and gold are traditionally associated with the U.S. Navy. The vertical trident represents the sea god 
Neptune. The crossed missiles indicate the type of ship "Frigate with Guided Missiles." The cross on the shield 
symbolizes the ship's namesake. Chaplain Rentz. The motto "Dread Nought" tells all to have no fear for the ship is 
watched over by higher powers. 

References 

[1] Nguyen, Lisa. " Martin Mayer Collection (AFC/2001/001/49389), Veterans History Project (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/diglib/vhp/bib/ 

49389)". Library of Congress. . Retrieved 2008-09-18. 
[2] http://www.seabeecook.com/today/news/archive.01/cook0027.htm 
[3] http://www.seabeecook.com/today/news/cook0083.htm 
[4] http://wwwl.eere.energy.gOv/femp/services/awards_fewm2004.html#mobilorg 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG46.htm). 

External links 

• USS Rentz official website (http://www.rentz.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Rentz (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0746.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Rentz (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG46.HTM) 

• USS Rentz at Destroyer History (http://www.destroyerhistory.org/desron21/ussrentz.html) 

• Rentz Everything2 Writeup (http://www.everything2.com/index.pl?node_id=1338000&lastnode_id=124) 

• U.S. NAVY HELO CREW RESCUED BY USS RENTZ, COMNAVAIRPAC Press Release 1997: PR97-015 
(http://www.airpac.navy.mil/news/prl997/pr97-015.asp) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Rentz FFG-46 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/ 
frigates/pages/rentz_ffg46_page_l.htm) 

• Defense Visual Information Center (search for "Rentz") (http://www.dodmedia.osd.mil/) 



USS Rentz (FFG-46) 

Gallery 



113 



USS "Rentz" (FFG-46) 




CV-61 ) 



Putting out fire set by cocaine 
smugglers 



Ecuadorian refugees rescued by 
Rentz 



Returning to San Diego 



USS Nicholas (FFG-47) 



114 



USS Nicholas (FFG-47) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS Nicholas (FFG-47) 



Major Samuel Nicholas 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Bath Iron Works 
27 September 1982 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



23 April 1983 
10 March 1984 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Norfolk, Virginia 
"Carrying On A Proud Tradition" 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: 
Displacement: 



— > Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 
4, 1 00 tons (4,1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 
Propulsion: 



22 ft (6.7 m) 

2 X — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
— > variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -» azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — ► SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Nicholas (FFG-47) 



115 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for —> Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan —> Phalanx CIWS; four -> .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — ► Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — ► SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Nicholas (FFG-47), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate, was the third ship of the United States Navy to 
be named for Major Samuel Nicholas, the first commanding officer of the United States Marines. A third-generation 
guided missile frigate of the Oliver Hazard Perry class, she was laid down as — > Bath Iron Works hull number 388 
on 27 September 1982 and launched 23 April 1983. Sponsor at her commissioning there on 10 March 1984 was the 
same Mrs. Edward B. Tryon who sponsored DD 449 in 1942. 

Nicholas was designed to provide in-depth protection for military and merchant shipping, amphibious task forces, 
and underway replenishment groups. Her 453-foot (loa) hull displaces 4,100 tons and her gas turbine power develops 
41000 shp (31000 kW) for a single screw, giving a top speed of 29 plus knots. 

Since her commissioning, Nicholas has deployed to the 
Persian Gulf, Mediterranean and North Sea, as well as 
participating in maritime interdiction operations and 
various fleet exercises. During her first four years as a 
commissioned vessel, she earned three Battle 
Efficiency "E" awards, and the Battenberg Cup as the 
best ship in the Atlantic Fleet. She earned the Top Ship 
award from Commander Battle Force Sixth Fleet 
during her first deployment to the Mediterranean. 




USS Nicholas during her Acceptance Trials in 1984. 




Standard Missile Shot against supersonic target in Puerto Rico 
OPAREAS 1984 

earned her first Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal. 



During her first years, Nicholas was part of Destroyer 
Squadron Six in Charleston, South Carolina. Her sister 
ships in DESRON SIX included -^ USS Taylor and 
O'Bannon, which barkened back to the World War II 
Fletcher-class destroyers Nicholas, Taylor, and 
O'Bannon. These ships had such distinguished records 
in World War II, especially in the Solomons Island 
campaign, that Admiral Halsey ordered all three ships 
present with USS Missouri at the Japanese surrender in 
Tokyo Bay. 

In July 1987, Nicholas, together with DESRON SIX 
sister ship Deyo, deployed with the Iowa Battleship 
Battlegroup to the Mediterranean and Persian Gulf She 



USS Nicholas (FFG-47) 



116 



When hostilities with Iraq broke out during the Gulf War on 17 January 1991, Nicholas was serving in the extreme 
Northern Persian Gulf as an advance Combat Search and Rescue platform, more than 70 miles (110 km) forward of 
the nearest allied warship. During the first few weeks of the war she distinguished herself in action by attacking Iraqi 
positions off the coast of Kuwait, capturing the first of 23 Iraqi prisoners of war, sinking or damaging seven Iraqi 
patrol boats, destroying eight drifting mines and successfully rescuing a downed USAF F-16 pilot from the waters 
off the Kuwaiti coast. Nicholas also escorted the battleships Missouri and Wisconsin during naval gunfire support 
operations near Khafji off the coast of the Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. 

In her 1993 six-month deployment, Nicholas conducted 
operations in the Red Sea, Mediterranean, Ionian Sea 
and Adriatic Sea. This deployment was in support of 
the United Nations sanctions against the governments 
of Iraq and the Former Republic of Yugoslavia. During 
these operations, she safely conducted over 170 
boardings of merchant vessels to inspect for illegal 
cargo shipments. 




ATACO area of Combat Information Center(CIC) 



USS Nicholas (FFG-47) 



117 




In 1995, Nicholas deployed to the Adriatic and was 
assigned to the Standing NATO Force Atlantic, again 
operating in support of United Nations resolutions in 
Operation Sharp Guard. She intercepted over 120 
vessels in enforcing sanctions against the Former 
Republic of Yugoslavia. Additionally Nicholas located 
and rescued 16 Albanian citizens from a capsized 
fishing boat. 

The 2001 deployment took Nicholas to the 
Mediterranean and Persian Gulf. While in the 
Mediterranean, she conducted numerous boardings in 
support of United Nations sanctions. On 1 1 September, 
Nicholas sortied on an emergency basis from Valletta, 
Malta and conducted sustained underway operations 
until returning to her home port of Norfolk, Virginia six 
months later. 



WCOareaofCIC 




Libya's nuclear weapons program. 



The year 2003 saw another deployment for Nicholas. 
During this historic deployment she hosted 
COMNAVEURCENT, Ambassadors and many high 
ranking dignitaries in St. Petersburg, Russia. Later she 
became the first warship to enter Neum, Bosnia since 
1917, and the first U.S. warship ever. While there, 
Nicholas hosted the Bosnian Tri-Presidency and 
numerous government and military officials. 

Nicholas operated as the sole US warship in the 
Mediterranean for her six month deployment and acted 
as a surrogate for the Argentina ship Sarandi, 
enhancing international relations and building new 
alliances. She participated in multiple exercises and 
operations and achieved historic distinction when she 
tracked and assisted in the interception of a merchant 
ship loaded with nuclear centrifuges bound for Libya. 
US Government officials directly linked the 
interception of this vessel to the abandonment of 



Nicholas has earned the Combat Action Ribbon, Southwest Asia Service Medal (with three bronze stars). Armed 
Forces Expeditionary Medal, the NATO Medal, Kuwait Liberation Medal, Armed Forces Service Medal, Sea 
Service Ribbon (with seven bronze stars). Meritorious Unit Commendation, a Coast Guard Meritorious Unit 
Commendation (with O for Law Enforcement), and six Battle Efficiency "E" awards as top ship in her squadron. 

She continues today to be ready for the next call her government makes on her, allowing another chance to live up to 
her motto of "Carrying On A Proud Tradition." 



USS Nicholas (FFG-47) 1 1 8 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• USS Nicholas official website 

[21 

• navsource.org: USS Nicholas 

[31 

• navysite.de: USS Nicholas 

• MaritimeQuest USS Nicholas FFG-47 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.nicholas.navy.mil/ 

[2] http://www.navsoiirce.org/archives/07/0747.htm 

[3] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG47.HTM 

[4] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/nicholas_ffg_47_page_l.htm 



USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) 



119 



USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) 



USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) launching a missile, circa 15 March 1996. 


Career (US) 








ii 








Namesake: 


General Alexander A. Vandegrift 


Builder: 


— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle, Washington 


Laid down: 


13 October 1981 


Launched: 


15 October 1982 


Commissioned: 


24 November 1984 


Homeport: 


Naval Base San Diego 


Motto: 


Exercitatus, Conservatiis, Paratus 


Nickname: 


Dandy Vandy 


Fate: 


Active in service as of 2009 


General characteristics 


Class and type: 


— > Oliver Hazard Perrj-class — > frigate 


Displacement: 


4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 


Length: 


453 ft (138.1 m), overall 


Beam: 


45 ft (13.7 m) 


Draught: 


22 ft (6.7 m) 


Propulsion: 


2 X -> General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x AuxiUary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 


Speed: 


29+ knots (54+ km/h) 


Range: 


5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 


Complement: 


15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -> SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 


Sensors and 
processing systems: 


^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radai" 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 


Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 


AN/SLQ-32 



USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) 120 



Armament: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) is an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate of the United States Navy. The ship was 
named for General Alexander A. Vandegrift (1887—1973), 18th Commandant of the Marine Corps. 

Vandegrift was built at — > Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle, Washington, launched on 15 October 1982, and 
commissioned on 24 November 1984. 

The ship's inaugural cruise began on 5 January 1987. During the course of this around-the-world cruise, she sailed 
three oceans, seven seas and visited four continents. The plank owners also crossed the International Date Line, 
Equator, Greenwich Meridian, and sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Suez and Panama Canals. 
Vandegrift conducted operations with USS Kitty Hawk in the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean. These operations were 
highlighted by an air and sea power demonstration for President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan. Port visits 
included Pearl Harbor; Subic Bay in the Republic of the Philippines; Karachi, Pakistan; Mombasa, Kenya; Maxime, 
France; Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico; and St. Croix and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Vandegrift returned home 
to Long Beach in June, 1987. 

The ship's second deployment began in June, 1988, returning her to operations in the Persian Gulf shortly after the 
cease-fire between Iran and Iraq. Vandegrift's mission while on patrol in the northern Persian Gulf focused on 
providing protection and logistic support for joint forces in the area. Vandegrift also participated in numerous 
Earnest Will missions, escorting U.S. and reflagged Kuwaiti tankers. Port visits included Pearl Harbor; Subic Bay, 
Republic of the Philippines; Bahrain; Pattaya Beach, Thailand and Hong Kong. Vandegrift returned home in 
December, 1988. 

The ship's third deployment to the Persian Gulf began in March, 1990. Vandegrift patrolled the Northern Persian 
Gulf and conducted Earnest Will escort missions. As the senior ship on station in the Persian Gulf during the 
invasion of Kuwait, Vandegrift served as the Anti-Air Warfare Commander and Electronic Warfare Coordinator. 
Vandegrift participated in Operation Desert Shield's Maritime Interception Operations with units from United 
Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and France. Ports of call included Pearl Harbor; Subic Bay; 
Phuket, Thailand; Singapore and Hong Kong. 

Vandegrift returned home after an extended deployment in October, 1990. On 22 April 1992, Vandegrift began her 
fourth deployment to the Persian Gulf. Vandegrift participated in exercises with India, Qatar and Pakistan, helping to 
strengthen U.S. relations in that area. Ports of call included Doha, Qatar; Dubai, Jebel Ali and Abu Dhabi, United 
Arab Emirates; Karachi, Pakistan; Phuket, Thailand; Goa, India; Bahrain; Hong Kong; Singapore and Guam, and 
earned the Chief of Naval Operations LAMPS Helicopter Safety Award. Vandegrift returned home on 22 October 
1992. 

Vandegrift changed homeport to San Diego in February, 1993, and earned the COMNAVSURFPAC Food Service 
Award in March, 1994. The fifth deployment to the Persian Gulf began on 25 October 1994. Vandegrift's mission 
was the enforcement of U.N. sanctions against Iraq in the Northern Persian Gulf. The most memorable event was 
conducting a non-permissive boarding of a sanctions violator on 25 December. During the return transit, Vandegrift 
played host to a major diplomatic reception in Muscat, Oman, to better diplomatic relations. Ports of call included 
Sasebo, Japan; Manila, Republic of the Philippines; Jebel Ali, United Arab Emirates; Bahrain; Singapore and Hong 
Kong. Vandegrift returned home on 25 April 1995. 



USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) 121 

On 19 November 2003, the frigate became the first US warship to enter Vietnamese waters in 30 years, when she 
made a four-day port call at Ho Chi Minh City. 

The ship's decorations include the Meritorious Unit Commendation, National Defense Service Medal, Armed Forces 
Expeditionary Medal; Southwest Asia Service Medal, and five Sea Service Ribbons. 

As of 2006, Vandegrift is based in San Diego, California. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG48.htm). 

External links 

• USS Vaniiegn/f homepage (http://www.vandegrift.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Vandegrift (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0748.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Vandegrift (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG48.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Vandegrift FFG-48 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/ 
us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/vandegri ft_ffg48_page_l.htm) 

• In pictures: US frigate's historic Vietnam visit (BBC News) (http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/in_depth/ 
photo_gallery/3283263 . stm) 



USS Robert G. Bradley (FFG-49) 



122 



USS Robert G.Bradley (FFG-49) 




USS Robert G. Bradley (FFG-49) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 
Builder: 



Lt. Robert G. Bradley 
— > Bath Iron Works 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



28 December 1982 
13 August 1983 



Commissioned: 
Homeport: 



30 June 1984 
Mayport, Florida 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — ► Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

-^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -» SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Robert G. Bradley (FFG-49) 123 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Robert G. Bradley (FFG-49), an — > Oliver Hazard Perrj'-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy 
named for Lieutenant Robert G. Bradley (1921—1944), who was awarded the Navy Cross posthumously for his 
heroism on USS Princeton (CVL-23) during the Battle of Leyte Gulf. 

Robert G. Bradley's keel was laid down by — > Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine, on 28 December 1982. She was 
launched 13 August 1983; commissioned 30 June 1984. Ship is homeported in Mayport, Florida. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[531 

is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 



USS Robert G. Bradley official website '^^^ 



External links 

• us 

• [2] 

• navsource.org: USS Robert G. Bradley 

• navysite.de: USS Robert G. Bradley 

• MaritimeQuest USS Robert G. Bradley FFG-49 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.bradley.navy.mil/ 

[2] http://www.bradley.navy.mil/Site%20Images/Ship_Pic.jpg 

[3] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0749.htm 

[4] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG49.HTM 

[5] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/robert_g_bradley_ffg49_page_l.htm 



USS Taylor (FFG-50) 



124 



USS Taylor (FFG-50) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS Taylor (FFG-50) refuels from USS John F. Kennedy {CW-bl) 



Commander Jesse J. Taylor 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Bath Iron Works 

5 May 1983 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



5 November 1983 
1 December 1984 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Mayport, Florida 
Proud Defender 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — ► Oliver Hazard Perry-c\s&s — ► frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— > variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — > azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Taylor (FFG-50) 125 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Taylor (FFG-50), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Commander Jesse J. Taylor (1925—1965), a naval aviator who was awarded the Navy Cross posthumously for his 
heroism in the Vietnam War. 

Taylor's keel was laid down by — > Bath Iron Works Corp., Bath, Maine, on 5 May 1983. She was launched 5 
November 1983, and commissioned 1 December 1984. 

Participated in Operation Earnest Will in the Persian Gulf in 1988. 

As of 2005, Taylor is homeported at NS Mayport, Florida, and is part of Destroyer Squadron 24. 

In August 2008 Taylor entered the Black Sea "conducting a pre-planned routine visit to the Black Sea region to 
interact and exercise with our Nato partners Romania and Bulgaria". It joined ships from Poland, Germany and 
Spain, f" 

References 

[1] " Russia suspends military cooperation with Nato (http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/aug/21/russia.nato)". Guardian. 2008-08-21. 
.Retrieved 2008-08-21. 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG50.htm). 

External links 

• USS Taytor official website (http://www.taylor.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Taylor (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0750.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Taylor (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG50.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Taylor FFG-50 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/ 
us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/taylor_ffg50_page_l.htm) 



USSGary(FFG-51) 



126 



USS Gary (FFG-51) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS Gary (FFG-51) 



Commander Donald A. Gary 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California 
18 December 1982 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



19 November 1983 
17 November 1984 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Naval Base San Diego 
"Freedom's Foremost Guardian" 



Nickname: 
Fate: 



"Two Guns" 

Active in service as of 2009 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric — ► azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— ► AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonai-. 



USSGary(FFG-51) 



127 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



Armament: 



Aircraft carried: 



As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for -> Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan —> Phalanx CIWS; four -^ .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for -^ Harpoon anti-ship missiles and —> SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. **However, the 
Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher has been removed (as with all other US Navy frigates) due to the 
weapons system becoming obsolete. 

2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Gary (FFG-51) is an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate in the United States Navy. She was named for 
Commander Donald A. Gary (1903-1977). 

Gary was laid down on 18 December 1982 at San Pedro, CA, by the — > Todd Pacific Shipyards Co., Los Angeles 
Division; launched on 19 November 1983; and commissioned on 17 November 1984. 

History 




USS Gary (FFG-51). 



Recent news 

Gary is homeported at Naval Station San Diego, CA as of July 2007, 
when the USS McCampbell replaced her at Yokosuka Naval Base in 
Yokosuka, Japan and part of Destroyer Squadron 15 and the U.S. 
Navy's Forward Deployed Naval Forces. 

On 9 February 2007 Gary docked at the Cambodian port of 
Sihanoukville. It is the first time since the Vietnam War that an 
American warship has docked in Cambodia. 



Gary has an active VBSS team onboard to facilitate its new homeport with Maritime Interdiction Operations, 
anti-drug, and anti-smuggling missions. 



External links 

USS Gary official website 



[2] 



Yokosuka Naval Base Community Website 
navsource.org: USS Gary 



[3] 



[4] 



[5] 



[6] 



[7] 



navysite.de: USS Gary 

MaritimeQuest USS Gary FFG-51 pages 

USS Gary leaves Cambodia after historic visit 

ro] 

U.S. ship makes historic return to Cambodia 

mi 

Eye on the Fleet Photo Gallery 
USS Gary News ^'"^ 

This article includes text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. This article includes 
information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public 



domain. The entry can be found here 



[53] 



USSGary(FFG-51) 



128 



References 



[1] http: 

[2] http: 

[3] http: 

[4] http: 

[5] http: 

[6] http: 

[7] http: 

[8] http: 

[9] http: 



//www. desronl5.navy.mil/ 

//www. gary.navy.mil/ 

//www. yokosukabase.com 

//www. navsoiirce.org/archives/07/0751. htm 

//www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG51.HTM 

//www. maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/gary_ffg5 l_page_l.htm 

//stripes. com/article. asp?section=104&article=42540&archive=true 

//stripes. com/article. asp?section=104&article=42461&archive=true 

//www. navy. mil/ view_single.asp?id=42992 



[10] http://www.yokosukabase.com/News/tabid/79/articleType/CategoryView/categoryld/33/USS-Gary.aspx 



USS Carr (FFG-52) 



129 



USS Carr (FFG-52) 



Career (US) 



Name: 




USS Carr (FFG-52) 



USS Can- 



Namesake: 
Builder: 



Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Paul H. Carr 
— > Todd Pacific Shipyards, Seattle 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



26 March 1982 
26 February 1983 



Commissioned: 
Homeport: 



27 July 1985 
Norfolk, Virginia 



Motto: 
Nickname: 



Courage, Will, Determination 
Unofficially, The Carr-Toon or the Carr-tel 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — ► frigate 

Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — > General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

-^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -^ SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-> AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Can- (FFG-52) 130 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32 
and decoys: 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 
Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Carr (FFG-52), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-c\?i&& — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Paul H. Carr (1924—1944). Carr was awarded a posthumous Silver Star for his heroism on 
the destroyer escort Samuel B. Roberts during the Battle off Samar. 

Carr was laid down on 26 March 1982 by the — > Todd Pacific Shipyards Co., Seattle Division, Seattle, Wash.; 
launched on 26 February 1983; sponsored by Mrs. Goldie Carr Bensilhe, GM3 Carr's widow; and commissioned on 
27 July 1985, Commander Robert J. Home in command. 

Service history 
Operation Earnest Will 

Carr's original homeport was Charleston, S.C. Her first operational deployment was to the Persian Gulf, where Carr 
was involved in Operation Earnest Will, escorting re-flagged oil tankers through the Strait of Hormuz. While 
Commander, Destroyer Squadron 14, was the senior officer present. Commander Wade C. Johnson, the captain of 
the Carr, was the next senior officer in the area and was routinely assigned the duties of Convoy Commander during 
escort missions. During one of these, Iranian small boats approached the tankers and were chased off by bullets from 
Carr's deck-mounted — > M2 .50-caliber machine guns and the Bushmaster 25mm chain gun on the starboard main 
deck. 

Bonefish disaster 

Carr returned to Charleston in late March 1988, and 31 days later, was ordered underway to replace another ship that 
had been unable to get underway. Sent to sea to conduct anti-submarine exercises with the aircraft carrier John F. 
Kennedy and submarine Bonefish. On 24 April, 1988, Carr was first on the scene to help rescue the crew of the 
attack submarine Bonefish, which had suffered a battery fire while submerged. Deploying her 26-foot whaleboat and 
five inflatable life rafts, Carr helped rescue 89 of the Bonefish's crew, using the whaleboat, life rafts, its embarked — > 
SH-60B Seahawk of Helicopter Squadron (Light) 44, and the SH-3H Sea King helicopters from the John F. 
Kennedy. The ship communicated to the land-based Commander, Atlantic Fleet watch center using the Joint 
Operational Tactical System's (JOTS) "opnote" capability. Crew muster lists were sent ashore as rescued crew 
members where identified. For her professionalism in the rescue, the Carr was awarded a Meritorious Unit 
Commendation. 



USS Can- (FFG-52) 131 

Exercises in the Caribbean 

In October 1988, Carr made a port visit to Tampa, Florida, at the request of the local Navy League chapter, mooring 
at Harbor Island pier. Public tours were held for several days in celebration of Navy Week, honoring the Navy's 
birthday. The commissioning commanding officer. Captain Robert Home, was stationed at MacDill Air Force Base 
in Tampa and was there to greet the ship. 

In March 1989, Carr was sent to Fleet Training Group, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, for Refresher Training (REFTRA). 
While the ship conducted exercises in all departments, Mikhail Gorbachev was making a visit to Havana, Cuba. 
News crews from NBC, headed by Henry Champ, and ABC, by Bob Zelnic, each spent a day aboard Carr to observe 
the training. 

In summer 1989, while the Carr was heading to the Puerto Rican Operation Area (PROA) for the Middle East Force 
Exercise (MEFEX), both of the ship's laundry washers broke down. With the permission of the Squadron 
Commodore running MEFEX, the Carr's Seahawk helicopter flew into Naval Station Roosevelt Roads, PR, and the 
Supply Officer purchased a household washing machine from the Navy Exchange. The washer was unboxed on the 
ramp at the airfield, loaded in the helicopter and flown to the ship, where it was plumbed in to the water system and 
served as the crew laundry for the next several weeks. 

Hurricane Hugo 

On 1989-09-18, Carr sailed from Charleston to be on station off the Naval Station Mayport for the week to provide a 
practice flight deck for the SH-60B Seahawk squadrons. That night, an officer of HSL-44 came aboard and informed 
the captain that the helicopters would be flying to Georgia the following day in preparation for the impending arrival 
of Hurricane Hugo. On the morning of Sept. 19, Carr entered Naval Station Mayport and moored, awaiting further 
instructions. At midnight on the 19th/20th, Carr got underway and headed south to the Strait of Florida to avoid the 
storm. Once the hurricane was safely past, the captain ordered the ship to sail towards Charleston. 

Carr was the first Navy vessel to return to the port of Charleston the morning after Hurricane Hugo made landfall 
there. Carr remained anchored for three days, unable to enter port, as essentially all navigation aids were moved or 
destroyed by the hurricane. One of the Coast Guard ships at anchor sent a small boat to the USCG Station in 
Charleston, taking along Carr's Sonar Technician Chief Petty Officer Steven Hatherly. STGC Hatherly made his 
way to the Naval Station, where he phoned most of the crew's families and reported their status to the ship via 
bridge-to-bridge VHF radio that evening. From their anchorage, the crew could easily see the bridge between the Isle 
of Palms and the mainland in the air, as well as the demolished houses along the shore. Local television stations were 
returning the transmitting and the crew had little to do besides consider the condition of their famiUes and 
possessions ashore. 

Carr was ordered to proceed to Naval Station Mayport. Arriving the next morning, the local community had staged 
relief supplies to be taken to Charleston. The next day, Carr was directed to return to her homeport. Upon arrival, 
there were no shore services, so the Engineering Department kept the engineering plant on line to provide power, 
air-conditioning, fresh water and other support services. Crew members were dispatched, during the day, to assist in 
the clean up of the Naval Station, the Naval Weapons Station and the local community. As time permitted, they also 
helped each other's families secure their belongings and clean up their homes. For this response the natural disaster, 
Carr was awarded the Humanitarian Service Medal. 



USS Can- (FFG-52) 132 

Change of command and return to the Persian Gulf 

In early October, the first formal ceremony of any type at the Naval Station held was the change of command for 
Carr, with Commander Edward "Ned" Bagley, III, USN relieving Commander Wade C. Johnson, USN. The Change 
of Command was held in the morning and that afternoon. Commander, Destroyer Squadron 4 held their change of 
command. 

On 31 October, Carr sailed from Charleston for her second operation deployment, assigned to the Commander, 
Middle East Force. En route the Persian Gulf, Carr made port visits to the Azores, Palma Majorca, Spain, then 
transited the Suez Canal. During this deployment, Carr spend the first half assigned to tanker escort duties in the 
Strait of Hormuz. The later part of the cruise was spent operating in the Northern Persian Gulf, conducting electronic 
surveillance and early warning duties for the units operating to the south. Carr left the Persian Gulf the end of March 
1990 and returned to Charleston a month later. 

As of 2005, Carr is homeported at NS Norfolk, Virginia, and is part of Destroyer Squadron 2. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• USS Carr official website ^^^ 

[21 

• navsource.org: USS Carr 

[31 

• navysite.de: USS Carr 

• MaritimeQuest USS Carr FFG-52 pages ^"^^ 

References 

[1] http://www.carr.navy.mil/ 

[2] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0752.htm 

[3] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG52.HTM 

[4] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/carr_ffg_52_page_l.htm 



USS Hawes (FFG-53) 



133 



USS Hawes (FFG-53) 




USS Hawes (FFG-53) 



Career ((US)) 



Namesake: 



Rear Admiral Richard E. Hawes 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Bath Iron Works 
26 August 1983 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



18 February 1984 
9Februai-y 1985 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



Norfolk, Virginia 
"Ever Ready, Ever Fearless" 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class -^ frigate 

Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 70 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draught: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

— ► variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 



Speed: 
Range: 



29-1- knots (54-1- km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 

Sensors and 
processing systems: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-> AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 



AN/SLQ-32 



USS Hawes (FFG-53) 134 

Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two —> Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and -^ SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class.Mark 13 launcher 
was removed from Hawes in 2004. 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 

USS Hawes (FFG-53) is a later model — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile — > frigate. She is named for 
Rear Admiral Richard E. Hawes (1894—1968) who was twice decorated with the Navy Cross for submarine salvage 
operations. 

The contract to build Hawes was awarded to — > Bath Iron Works 22 May 1981, and her keel was laid 26 August 
1983. She was launched 18 February 1984, delivered 1 February 1985, and commissioned 9 February 1985. 

On 12 October 2000, USS Hawes was involved, along with USS Donald Cook (DDG-75), in providing repair and 
logistics support to the USS Cole (DDG-67), shortly after she was attacked in Aden, Yemen. 

As of 2006, Hawes is homeported at NAVSTA Norfolk, Virginia; she is part of Destroyer Squadron 26. 

On 28 April, 2008, Commander Kristen E. Jacobsen became the commanding officer of the USS Hawes. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[571 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• USS Hawes official website 

[21 

• navsource.org: USS Hawes 

[31 

• navysite.de: USS Hawes 

• Boothbay Register story, 6/24/1999 ^"^^ 

• MaritimeQuest USS Hawes FFG-53 pages ^^^ 

References 

[1] littp://www. hawes. navy. mil/ 

[2] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0753.htm 

[3] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG53.HTM 

[4] http://boothbayregister. maine. com/ 1 999-06-24/navy_ship. html 

[5] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/hawes_ffg53_page_l.htm 



USS Ford (FFG-54) 



135 



USS Ford (FFG-54) 













C^ 


F ^^^1 




^g 


EJfe='" 


^ "■^^^j^^^Hs^^B 


— ^^^ 


m^- ■ '. ■■.■•^--■■-. 


Career 








iH 




Name: 


USS Ford 


Namesake: 


Gunner's Mate Patrick 0. Ford 


Builder: 


-^ Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, CaUfomia 


Laid down: 


11 July 1983 


Launched: 


23 June 1984 


Commissioned: 


29 June 1985 


Homeport: 


Naval Station Everett, Washington 


Motto: 


Tenacious 


Fate: 


Active in service as of 2009 


General characteristics 


Class and type: 


-^ Oliver Hazard Perry-class -» frigate 


Displacement: 


4100 long tons (4166 1) full load 


Length: 


453ft(138m)o/a 


Beam: 


45 ft (14 m) 


Draft: 


22 ft (6.7 m) 


Propulsion: 


2 X ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
variable-pitch propeller 


Speed: 


29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph)+ 


Range: 


5000 nmi (9300 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph) 


Complement: 


15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -> SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 


Armament: 


• 1 X -> OTO Melara Mk.75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

• 2 X -> Mk.32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for -^ Mark 46 torpedoes 

• 1 X Vulcan ^ Phalanx CIWS 

• 4 X .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns 


Aircraft carried: 


2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Ford (FFG-54) 136 

USS Ford (FFG-54), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-c\?i&& — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Gunner's Mate Patrick O. Ford (1942—1968). Ford was awarded the Navy Cross posthumously for his heroism as a 
patrol river boatman in the Vietnam War. 

Ford was laid down by — > Todd Pacific Shipyards Corp., in San Pedro, California on 11 July 1983. She was 
launched on 23 June 1984, and commissioned 29 June 1985, captained by Commander J. F. Eckler. 

On 16 February 2007, Ford was awarded the 2006 Battle "E" award. 

Ford completed a Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) deployment starting May 4, 2007 and 
returning home on September 20, 2007. Ford made port visits to Japan, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, 
Indonesia, Saipan, and Guam. 

References 

[1] Surface Force Ships, Crews Earn Battle "E" (http://www.navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=27895) 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG54.htm). 

External links 

• USS Ford official website (http://www.ford.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Ford (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0754.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Ford (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG54.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Ford FFG-54 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/ 
frigates/pages/ford_ffg_54_page_l . htm) 



USS Elrod (FFG-55) 



137 



USS Elrod (FFG-55) 




Career (US) 



Name: USS Elrod (FFG-55) 

Namesake: Major Henry T. Elrod 



Ordered: 
Builder: 



22 May 1981 
— > Bath Iron Works 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



21 November 1983 
12 May 1984 



Commissioned: 
Homeport: 



21 September 1985 
NS Norfolk, Virginia 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: —> Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 
Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138 m) 
45 ft (14 m) 



Draft: 22 ft (6.7 m) 

Propulsion: 2 x -» General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 bhp (31 MW) through a single shaft and ■ 

controllable pitch propeller 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots 
5,000 nm at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -» SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 

Armament: 1 x OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

2 X Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for -» Mark 46 torpedoes 
1 X Mk 15 Vulcan ^ Phalanx CIWS 
4 X .50-caliber ^ M2HB machine guns 



Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60B LAMPS III helicopters 
Motto: War Ready to Preserve Peace 



USS Elrod (FFG-55) 138 

Nickname: Hammerin ' Hank 



USS Elrod (FFG-55), an — > Oliver Hazard Ferry-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Captain Henry T. Elrod (1905—1941), a Marine aviator who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his 
heroism in the defense of Wake Island in World War II. 

Elrod was built at the — > Bath Iron Works in Maine, and was commissioned on 18 May 1985. The ship was 
originally home ported in Charleston, SC and shifted to Norfolk, VA in March, 1995. Elrod has completed five 
deployments to the Persian Gulf, three to the Mediterranean Sea, and one to the Adriatic Sea, and has participated in 
numerous operations in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Caribbean Sea. 

Elrods third Persian Gulf deployment followed Operation Desert Storm and supported aggressive air and surface 
surveillance operations. Elrod conducted naval exercises with units of Gulf Cooperation Council nations to 
strengthen and further develop the bonds that were forged during Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The ship 
participated in TEAMWORK '92, NATO's Arctic Ocean anti-submarine exercise, and Operation Sharp Guard, in 
support of multi-national enforcement of United Nations sanctions and embargoing war materials to the Balkans. 
Elrod demonstrated America's commitment to her NATO allies by providing a presence among the Standing Naval 
Forces Mediterranean (SNFM) and Standing Naval Forces Atlantic (SNFL) during Operation Enduring Freedom. 
Recently, Elrod completed another NATO deployment in 2004 in support of Operation Active Endeavor, and helped 
protect the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece, in Operation Distinguished Games. 

Elrod crew members have served with pride and distinction as ambassadors of America and spokesmen for the US 
Navy, hosting official and unofficial visits for foreign military, business and civilian dignitaries throughout the 
world, including Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Spain, Bulgaria, Turkey, Israel, 
Greece, Italy, France and Croatia. Elrod has sailed the major oceans of the world, transited the Panama and Suez 
canals, crossed the equator and the Arctic Circle. 

In addition to a reputation for operational readiness and fighting skills, Elrod has earned a reputation for community 
support and participation in charitable projects. The ship has been recognized for the crew's contributions by 
designation as a Presidential "Point of Light". Elrod has also earned numerous awards during her commissioned 
service, including the Joint Meritorious Unit Award, Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation, Coast Guard 
Meritorious Unit Commendation, Armed Force Expeditionary Medal, several Battle Efficiency Excellence Awards, 
Secretary of the Navy Energy Conservation Award, Armed Forces Recreation Society Award and various 
departmental and mission-specific awards for excellence. 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 

[591 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

• USS Elrod official website 

• navsource.org: USS Elrod 

[31 

• navysite.de: USS Elrod 

• MaritimeQuest USS Elrod FFG-55 pages ^"^^ 



USS Elrod (FFG-55) 



139 




Elrod underway, January 2004 



References 



[1] http://www.elrod.navy.mil/ 

[2] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0755.htm 

[3] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG55.HTM 

[4] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/elrod_ffg_55_page_l.htm 



USS Simpson (FFG-56) 



140 



USS Simpson (FFG-56) 




Career (US) 



Namesake: 
Ordered: 



Rodger W. Simpson 
22 Marcli 1982 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— > Bath Iron Works 
27 February 1984 



Launched: 
Acquired: 



31 August 1984 
13 September 1985 



Commissioned: 
Homeport: 



21 September 1985 
NS Mayport, Florida 



Motto: 



Fate: 



Attaquer en Vigueur 
("Attack with Vigor") 

Naval Reserve Force, Active in service as of 2009. 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-class — ► frigate 



Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 

Length: 453 ft (138 m) 



Beam: 
Draft: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

^ variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -j azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus air detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted maintainers 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
-^ AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



USS Simpson (FFG-56) 141 

Electronic warfare AN/SLQ-32V5 with Sidekick 
and decoys: ^ Mark 36 SRBOC 

^ AN/SLQ-25 Nixie 



Armament: As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four —> .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. Currently: 1 x ^ 

OTO Melara Mk 75 mod 2 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

2 X ^ Mk 32 12.75 in (324 mm) triple-torpedo-tube launchers for Mark 46, -^ Mark 50, and Mark 54 

torpedoes 

1 X Block IB Mk 15 Phalanx 20 mm CIWS 

2 X Mk 38 25 mm cannons (only while deployed overseas) 
8 X mounts for crew served weapons 

Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60B LAMPS III helicopter 



USS Simpson (FFG-56) is an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile — > frigate of the United States Navy, 
named for Rear Admiral Rodger W. Simpson. 

History 

Simpson was laid down at — > Bath Iron Works, Maine, on 27 February 1984, launched on 31 August 1984 sponsored 
by Mrs. Gloria Fowles-Simpson widow of Rodger W. Simpson and commissioned on 21 September 1985 in 
Newport, Rhode Island, Cmdr. H. Wyman Howard Jr. in command. The ship was delivered 13 September 1985. 
BIW plans called for delivery to occur 9 August 1985, but that date slipped due to an extended strike at Bath Iron 
Works that began 30 June 1985. Simpson was homeported at Naval Station Newport until switching to Naval 
Station Norfolk on 31 March 1994. Simpson moved to Naval Station Mayport in July 2001. 

In January 1986, Simpson participated in search and recovery operations following the Space Shuttle Challenger 
disaster. 

Beginning January 1988, Simpson's first overseas deployment was to the Persian Gulf as part of Operation Earnest 
Will, to escort reflagged Kuwaiti oil tankers during the Iran— Iraq War. On 17 April 1988, Simpson took part in 
Operation Praying Mantis, the U.S. response to the mining of the — > frigate — > Samuel B. Roberts, which hit an 
Iranian M-08 mine on 14 April 1988. 

On 18 April, Simpson, along with Wainwright and Bagley, destroyed Iranian naval and intelligence facilities on the 
oil platform Sirri in the Persian Gulf. Later that day, the ships encountered the Iranian Kaman Class (Combatte II 
type) missile patrol boat Joshan, which launched a — > Harpoon missile. Simpson immediately returned missile fire, 
striking Joshan in her superstructure. Joshan was then sunk by combined gunfire. Simpson was awarded the Joint 
Meritorious Unit Award and the Combat Action Ribbon for this operation, and the Armed Forces Expeditionary 
Medal for the deployment. 

Simpson is one of two presently commissioned ships in the US Navy to have sunk an enemy vessel with her 
shipboard weaponry (as opposed to aircraft). Another is the USS Constitution} 



USS Simpson (FFG-56) 



142 



1990s 

20 February 1990, Simpson rescued 22 crew members from MV Surf City, a reflagged Kuwaiti tanker carrying $9 
million in naphtha and gas oil. Surf City was transiting near the Iranian island of Abu Musa when it exploded killing 
two and forcing the crew to abandon ship. According to Central Command, Simpson was not escorting the tanker, 
but was monitoring its progress from 3 nautical miles (5.6 km) away and responded immediately to rescue the 
crew. The fire was so intense that US ships could not approach it and Surf City would bum for two weeks. At the 
time it was feared to be the result of an attack or a mine, but the NTSB later determined it to be an accident. 

In March 1992, during Simpson's third deployment, Simpson and USS Normandy (CG-60) escorted 
USS America (CV-66) and two supply ships into the Persian Gulf. At the time, Iraq was refusing to comply with UN 
weapons inspection and the ships departed the Persian Gulf in early April after inspections resumed. 

In August 1993 on Simpson's fourth deployment she was again assigned to America's battlegroup. During the 
deployment Simpson participated in Operation Deny Flight and Operation Provide Promise in the Adriatic Sea and 
U.N. Operation Continue Hope off Somalia. Simpson returned to homeport in February 1994 

In May 1994, Simpson was one of the ships enforcing United Nations sanctions on Haiti. 

Simpson deployed to the Caribbean Sea for counter drug operations in late 1994 and again in February 1995. 

In November 1995, Simpson deployed to the Mediterranean joining the United States Sixth Fleet NATO's Standing 
Naval Force Atlantic. Simpson operated in the Adriatic Sea enforcing UN arms embargo against Croatia and 
Bosnia-Herzegovina and participating in Operation Sharp Guard. Simpson returned to Norfolk 8 May 1996. 



[11] [12] 



[11] 



2000s 

Capt. Gerald F. DeConto, Simpson's commanding officer from September 1998 to April 2000 was killed at the 
Pentagon during the September 11, 2001 attacks 



[14] 



In July 2002, Simpson responded to Malpelo Island to medevac a wounded Colombian Marine who had received 
three gunshot wounds. 




Simpson arriving in New York Harbor, October 

2004 prior to removal of Mk 13 launcher, but 

after removal of the STIR missile guidance radar. 



Simpson deployed with HSL-44, Det. 10 as part of NATO's Standing 
Naval Forces Atlantic on 22 September 2004 returning 20 December 
2004. Simpson visited New York City 12 October 2004 during this 
deployment. Simpson's — > Mk 13 missile launcher was removed 
sometime in 2005 prior to her next deployment. 



USS Simpson (FFG-56) 



143 



On 3 January 2006, Simpson deployed with HSL-42, Det. 9, joining 
Standing NRF Maritime Group 1 and participated in a number of 

international naval exercises in the North Sea, Norwegian Sea and 

ri7i 
Eastern Mediterranean Sea returning to Mayport 24 June 2006. 

On 5 October 2007, Simpson deployed with HSL-46, Det. 7, to the 
western Pacific for counter narcotics operations returning April 2008. 
During the deployment Simpson captured 16 metric tons of cocaine. 
On 29 November 2007, Simpson interdicted a self-propelled 
semi-submersible (SPSS) capable of carrying 5-8 metric tons of 
cocaine. The sub was sunk by its crew, but the crew was captured and 



turned over to Colombia, 



[18] 




Simpson and Algerian frigate El Kirch, June 
2006, after removal of missile launcher. 



As of 2008, Simpson was homeported at Naval Station Mayport, Florida, and is part of Destroyer Squadron 14. 
Simpson has been part of the Active Naval Reserve Force, Category A since 2002. 



[19] 



Notes 

[I] Maritime Quest (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/simpson_ffg_56_data.htm). 

[2] NVR (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG56.htm) lists commissioning as 20 September 1985 while Ships history page (http:/ 
/www. simpson.navy.mil/site pages/history. aspx) lists 21 September 1985. DoD image captions such as lmage:USS Simpson (FFG-56) 
during commissioning.jpg list 9 November 1985 leading some websites to use that date for commissioning. 

[3] BATH IRON STRIKERS TAKING A HARD LINE; John Milne, Globe Staff Boston Globe. Boston, Mass.: 27 August 1985. pg. 37 

[4] Commander, Naval Surface Force, Atlantic. Simpson (http://www.cnsl.surfor.navy.mil/Fact Flles/SlMPSON.pdf). 

[5] " USS SIMPSON (FFG 56) (http://www.surflant.navy.mil/FactFiles/simpson.pdf)". Naval Surface Force Atlantic. . Retrieved 
2009-05-07. 

[6] USS Constitution Timeline. US Navy, http://www.ussconstitution.navy.mil/historyupdate.htm (accessed 1 June 2008). 

[7] Captain and Massachusetts Man Die in Persian Gulf Blast; Mary Curtius, Globe Staff and Tina Cassidy, Contributing Reporter. Boston 
Globe. Boston, Mass.: Feb 23, 1990. pg. 2 

[8] NTSB. Safety Recommendation M-92-22 through -24 (http://www.ntsb.gov/recs/letters/1992/M92_22_24.pdf). 29 April 1992. 

[9] U.S. CARRIER STIRS TENSION IN GULF; MARK THOMPSON - Knight-Ridder News Service. The Oregonian. Pordand, Or.: Mar 14, 
1992. pg. A. 10 

[10] BUSH WITHDRAWS FORCES, CITING IRAQI COMPLIANCE; Stewart M. Powell Hearst News Service. Seattle Post - Intelligencer. 
Seattle, Wash.: Apr 1, 1992. pg. a.2 

[II] Navysite.de FFG-56 (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG56.HTM). History. 

[12] NORFOLK-BASED CARRIER HEADING TO SOMALI COAST. Richmond Times - Dispatch. Richmond, Va.: Oct 28, 1993. pg. B-4 
[13] U.S. Patrol Craft to Tighten Haiti Embargo; Shallow-Draft Vessels Will Try to Intercept Coastal Traffic; Risk to Navy Personnel Rises. 

Thomas W. Lippman. The Washington Post (pre-1997 Fulltext). Washington, D.C.: 27 May 1994. pg. a.31 
[14] Mayport Mirror. Ensign Rebecca L. Rebarich. Honoring Fallen Sailor, Former Simpson CO (http://www.mayportmirror.com/stories/ 

102804/may_usssipmpson001.shtml). 28 October 2004. 
[15] US Navy. Simpson Rescues Wounded Colombian Marine (http://www.news. navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=2867). 29 July 

2002. 
[16] US Navy. USS Simpson Returns From Deployment (http://www.navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=16349). 16 December 2004. 
[17] Mayport Mirror. USS Simpson Is Back In Town (http://www.mayportmirror.com/stories/062906/may_usssimpson001.shtml). 29 June 

2006. 
[18] Mayport Mirror. USS Simpson, HSL-46 Detachment 7 Are Back (http://www.mayportmirror.com/stories/041008/may_USSsimpson. 

shtml). 09 April 2008. 
[19] " DesRon 14 (http://www.cdsl4.surfor.navy.mil/default.aspx)". U.S. Navy. . Retrieved 2008-03-06. 
[20] United States Navy Naval Vessel Register. FFG-56 (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG56.htm). 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG56.htm). 



USS Simpson (FFG-56) 144 

See also 

• List of ship launches in 1984 

• List of ship commissionings in 1985 

• List of United States Navy ships 

External links 

• USS Simpson official website (http://www.simpson.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Simpson (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0756.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Simpson (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG56.HTM) - History section appears to duplicate 
old versions of the official Simpson web site Pre-1998 history (http://web.archive.org/web/20000530010318/ 
www.spear.navy.mil/ships/ffg56/ussbio.htm) 1998-1999 history (http://web.archive.org/web/ 
200007091 82423/www. spear.navy.mil/ships/ffg56/98history. htm) 2000 history (http://web.archive.org/ 
web/20010807193653/http://www.spear.navy.mil/ships/ffg56/) 

• History of the Frigate (http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/ffg-7.htm) 

• Maritime Quest - Simpson (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/ 
simpson_ffg_56_page_l .htm) 



USS Reuben James (FFG-57) 



145 



USS Reuben James (FFG-57) 



Career 



Ordered: 







'U^H 


1 


1^^ 


--»«■ 




Bj 


pp 


^:-- . 


m 

M 


^S 


^ 


# 

k''- 




J 




-^■^ 




-_-,w ■.,-: 



22 March 1982 



Builder: 

Laid down: 



-^ Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California 
19 November 1983 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



8 February 1985 
22 March 1986 



Homeport: 
Status: 



Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 
Active in service as of 2009 



Badge: 




Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-c\?&% —> frigate 



Displacement: 
Length: 



4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 
453 ft (138.1m), overall 



Beam: 
Draft: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 



Speed: 



2x —> General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
— > variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -^ azipods 
for maneuvering and docking. 

29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 
Complement: 



5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -» SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 



USS Reuben James (FFG-57) 146 



Sensors and 
processing systems: 



-^ AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 
— > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 
CAS and STIR fire-contxol radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 



Electronic warfare 
and decoys: 

Armament: 



AN/SLQ-32 

As built: 

One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 cahber naval gun 

two — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

one Vulcan — > Phalanx CIWS; four — > .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and —> SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) 

Note: As of 2004, Mkl3 systems removed from all active US vessels of this class. 



Aircraft carried: 
Motto: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 
"Back With A Vengeance" 



USS Reuben James (FFG-57), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class guided missile — > frigate, is the third ship of the 
U.S. Navy named for Reuben James, a boatswain's mate who distinguished himself fighting the Barbary pirates. Her 
crew totals 201 enlisted, 18 chief petty officers and 26 officers. 

Ship history 
1980s 

The contract to build Reuben James was awarded on 22 March 1982 to — > Todd Shipyard of San Pedro, California. 
Her keel was laid on 19 November 1983, she was launched on 8 February 1985, she was delivered to the Navy on 3 
March 1986 and commissioned a few days later on 22 March. She was faster than 30 knots (30 mph; 60 km/h) and 
powered by two gas turbine engines. Armed with anti-air and anti-ship missiles, an automated three-inch (76 mm) 
gun, an anti-missile defense system, and two — > SH-60 Seahawk anti-submarine helicopters, Reuben James was 
tasked with hunting submarines as well as battle group escort and maritime interception. Reuben James joined the 
Red Stallions of Destroyer Squadron Thirty-One in June 1987. 

Assigned to Mideast Force on her maiden deployment, Reuben James participated in twenty-two Operation Earnest 
Will convoy missions, serving as the convoy commander's flagship on ten of those missions. As a unit of the Pacific 
Fleet Anti-Submarine Warfare Readiness Squadron, she was a key participant in the continuing research and 
development of anti-submarine tactics and equipment, a fitting role in tribute to the men of the first Reuben James. 

1990s 

[21 

On 10 September 1990 Reuben James was reported to be in Vladivostok, U.S.S.R. 

In August 1991, Reuben James moved from Long Beach, California to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. On 1 October 1998, 
she joined the "Ke Koa O Ke Kai", Destroyer Squadron Thirty-One. 

On a WestPac deployment in 1995-1996, the ship's rudder fell off. The ship docked in Bahrain for repairs. 

2000s 

Reuben James participated in the CARAT 2000 exercises, including phases in the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, 
Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore. The first phase of CARAT began in the Philippines on June 14 and the final phase, 
conducted in Singapore, ended September 22. CARAT 2000 demonstrated U.S. commitment to security and stability 
in Southeast Asia while increasing the operational readiness and capabilities of U.S. forces. The exercise also 
promoted interoperability and cooperation with U.S. regional friends and allies by offering a broad spectrum of 



USS Reuben James (FFG-57) 147 

mutually beneficial training opportunities. 

In Malaysia, CARAT 2000 encompassed two weeks of extensive training to promote interoperability between U.S. 
naval forces and the Royal Malaysian Navy and Army. The Strait of Malacca was the setting for several exercises. 
These included anti-submarine warfare, anti-air warfare and gunnery exercises. One of the exercises was a final 
battle problem, or night encounter exercise. The two navies' task groups steamed together in formation for more than 
25 hours. The Malaysian-U.S. naval task group was divided into two opposing forces. The Blue Forces consisted of 
Reuben James, Germantown, Mount Vernon, and the Malaysian ships, KD Sri Indera Sakti and KD Lekir. The Blue 
Forces were supported by U.S. helicopters from Helicopter Squadron Light 37, Detachment Four, from Hawaii. The 
Orange Forces consisted of the frigate — > Sides, the Malaysian ships, KD Perkasa, KD Laksamana Tun Abdul Jamil, 
and a U.S. Navy P-3C Orion aircraft. USS Columbus, homeported in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and USS Helena, 
homeported in San Diego, also joined the task group in individual phases. 

For nine months from July 2002 to April 2003, Reuben James deployed to the Persian Gulf and participated in 
Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom as part of the Abraham Lincoln Battle Group. After 
serving approximately six months in theater, Reuben James started to make its way back to Pearl Harbor. At a stop 
in Brisbane, Australia the ship was turned around to go back to the Persian Gulf and the deployment was extended 
indefinitely. Finally, after an extended deployment of almost nine months, the Abraham Lincoln Battle Group was 

[71 [SI 

relieved by USS Nimitz- This deployment was extremely long, breaking a number of records, including the 
longest deployment ever for a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier. 

In July 2003, Reuben James hosted the Japanese destroyer JDS Shimakaze (DDG 172) for exercises in Pearl 

[91 
Harbor. On 23 October 2003 the crew of the Reuben James dressed ship and manned the rails to render honors to 

President George W. Bush as he toured Pearl Harbor and visited the USS Arizona Memorial. 

From February to April 2004, she deployed to the Eastern Pacific in support of counter-drug operations. 

Between July and December 2004, Reuben James went through an extensive modernization and maintenance 

[131 
program, ensuring that she will always be ready to respond when the mission bell tolls. In October 2004, Reuben 

James participated in PASSEX exercises with the French frigate FS Prairial (F 371). 

As part of Expeditionary Strike Group 3 (ESG 3), Reuben James deployed on 15 February 2006 on a WESTPAC 

[141 

mission to the Persian Gulf in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom . The strike 
group also consisted of Amphibious Squadron (COMPHIBRON) 3, the 11th Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special 
Operations Capable), USS Peleliu, the guided-missile cruiser Port Royal, the guided-missile destroyer Gonzalez, the 
amphibious transport dock Ogden, the dock landing ship Germantown, Tactical Air Control Squadron(TACRON) 
1 1, and the "Black Jacks" of Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron (HSC) 21.^^^^ 

En route to the Persian Gulf, Reuben James stopped in New Caledonia. The strike group relieved USS Tarawa on 
station in early April 2006 and began its mission of conducting maritime security operations. During operations, 

[171 

Reuben James performed services such as providing medical assistance to Sri Lankan fishermen and rescuing 

[1 SI 

Kenyan sailors. Expeditionary Strike Group 3 was relieved on 9 July 2006 and Reuben James returned to Pearl 
Harbor in August, 2006. 



USS Reuben James (FFG-57) 148 

Cultural references 

Reuben James appeared in the 1990 movie, The Hunt for Red October (although her appearance in the film was 
anachronistic given that she was commissioned about a year after the events in the film), and played a significant 
role in the book Red Storm Rising, both by Tom Clancy. The Reuben James is one of the few US Navy ships in film 
history to actually portray herself. 

[191 
Woody Guthrie wrote the song "The Sinking of the Reuben James" about USS Reuben James (DD-245), the first 



U.S. warship lost to enemy action during World War 11 which was torpedoed by the German submarine U-552 while 
on convoy escort operations. He performed the song with Pete Seeger and the other Almanac Singers. The 
Guthrie song has an original tune for its chorus, but its verses are set to the tune of the song "Wildwood Flower". 



See also 

• List of frigates of the United States Navy 

• Abraham Lincoln Battle Group 

• Current United States Navy ships 

References 

[I] " Ship's History (littp://www. reuben-james.navy.mil/liistory.litm)". www.reuben-james.navy.mil. . Retrieved February 21 2007. 
[2] " Still Asset Details for DNSC9102252 (http://www.dodmedia.osd.mil/DefenseLlNK_Search/Still_Details. 

cfm?SDAN=DNSC9102252&JPGPath=/Assets/1991/Navy/DN-SC-91-02252.JPG)". DefenseLink. . Retrieved 2007-04-22. 
[3] " Destroyer Squadron Nine (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/desron9.htm)". globalsecurity.org. . 
[4] " Home From the War: Paul Hamilton, Reuben James, Cheyenne, VP-47, HSL-37 Return (http://www.news.navy.mil/search/display. 

asp?story_id=7291)". news.navy.mil. . 
[5] " First Hawai'i troops heading home from war (http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2003/Apr/10/ln/ln04a.html)". 

honoluluadvertiser.com. . Retrieved February 21 2007. 
[6] " Pearl warships to join carrier groups in Gulf (http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2003/Jan/22/ln/ln01a.html)". 

honoluluadvertiser.com. . Retrieved February 21 2007. 
[7] " Last Pearl ship returns from Iraq duty (http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2003/Jul/29/ln/lnl3a.html)". honoluluadvertiser.com. 

. Retrieved February 2 1 2007. 
[8] " Ships Returning to Pearl Harbor (http://findarticles.eom/p/articles/mi_pnav/is_200304/ai_3616318712)". Commander Navy Region 

Hawaii. . Retrieved February 21 2007. 
[9] " Reuben James Crew Says 'Sayonara' to Friends (http://www.navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=8708)". news.navy.mil. . Retrieved 

February 21 2007. 
[10] " Bush greets vets, pupils in whirlwind O'ahu visit (http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2003/Oct/23/br/br02p.html)". 

honoluluadvertiser.com. . Retrieved February 21 2007. 

[II] " Reuben James Heads to Central America (http://www.news. navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=11840)". news.navy.mil. . Retrieved 
February 21 2007. 

[12] " Reuben James Returns to Pearl Harbor (http://www. news. navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=13 104)". news.navy.mil. . Retrieved 

February 21 2007. 
[13] " Reuben James Sails with Pride After Successful INSURV (http://www.news. navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=18524)". 

news.navy.mil. . Retrieved February 21 2007. 
[14] " Peleliu ESG WESTPAC 06 Deployment (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/lha-5-westpac06.htm)". 

www.globalsecurity.org. . Retrieved February 25 2007. 
[15] " ESG 3 Deploys in Support of Global War on Terrorism (http://www.navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=22247)". news.navy.mil. . 

Retrieved February 25 2007. 
[16] " USS Reuben James Visits New Caledonia (http://www.navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=22778)". news.navy.mil. . Retrieved 

February 25 2007. 
[17] " USS Reuben James Assists Fisherman in Arabian Sea (http://www.news. navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=23288)". 

news.navy.mil. . Retrieved February 25 2007. 
[18] " USS Reuben James Rescues Kenyan Sailors (http://www.news. navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=24386)". news.navy.mil. . 

Retrieved February 25 2007. 
[19] http://www.geocities.com/lilandr/kantoj/usonanglaj/ReubenJamesl.htm 
[20] http://www.cds3 1. navy. mil/history. htm 



USS Reuben James (FFG-57) 149 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG57.htm). 

External links 

• USS Reuben James official website (http://www.reuben-james.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Reuben James (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0757.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Reuben James (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG57.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Reuben James (FFG-57) pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/ 
us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/reuben_j ames_ffg57_page_l.htm) 

• CARAT at GlobalSecurity.org (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/carat.htm) 

• USS Reuben James at WikiMapia (http://www.wikimapia.org/#y=21350409&x=-157943706&z=19&l=0& 
m=a&v=2) 

• Crew List at navysite.de (http://navysite.de/crew. php?action=ship&squad=false&starty=1985&endy=2001& 
ship=FFG 57) 

• WWE Divas Tour Pearl Harbor (http://www.news. navy. mil/search/display. asp?story_id=16868) 

• Helicopter Squadron Light 37 official website (http://www.mcbh.usmc.mil/HSL37-New/main.html) 



USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) 



150 



USS Samuel B.Roberts (FFG-58) 




Career (US) 



Namesake: 
Builder: 



Samuel B. Roberts 
-> Bath Iron Works 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



21 May 1984 
8 December 1984 



Commissioned: 12 April 1986 
Homeport: Mayport, Florida 



Motto: 
Fate: 



No Higher Honor 
Active in service as of 2009 



Badge: 




Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry-c\s&s — ► frigate 



Displacement: 4,100 tons (4,170 t) full load 
Length: 453 ft (138.1 m), overall 



Beam: 
Draught: 



45 ft (13.7 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and - 

variable pitch propeller; 2 x Auxiliary Propulsion Units, 350 hp (.25 MW) retractable electric -> azipods for 
maneuvering and docking. 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 



5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) 151 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — > SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Sensors and — > AN/SPS-49 air-search radar 

processing — > AN/SPS-55 surface-search radar 

systems: CAS and STIR fire-control radar 
AN/SQS-56 sonar. 

Electronic AN/SLQ-32; -^ Mark 36 SRBOC 

warfare 

and decoys: 



Armament: IxOTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

delivered with IxMk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for — > Harpoon anti-ship missiles and — > SM-IMR Standard 

anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine) currently removed 

Ix 

2xMk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 

IxVulcan ^ Phalanx CIWS 

4x.50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 

Aircraft carried: 2 x ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) is one of the final ships in the United States Navy's — > Oliver Hazard Perry class 
of guided missile — > frigates (FFG). The ship was severely damaged by an Iranian mine in 1988, leading U.S. forces 
to respond with Operation Praying Mantis. 

Commissioning and namesake 

The frigate was named for Samuel B. Roberts, a Navy coxswain who was killed evacuating US Marines during the 
battle of Guadalcanal in 1942. FFG-58, the third U.S. ship to bear the coxswain's name, was launched in December 
1984 by — > Bath Iron Works (BIW) and sponsored by the wife of Jack Yusen, a sailor who served in World War II 
and in the battle of Leyte Gulf on the former Samuel B Roberts (DE-413). Put in commission in April 1986 under 
the command of Commander Paul X. Rinn, the ship racked up numerous awards and commendations even before its 
first deployment. 

1988 deployment and mine strike 

The frigate deployed from its home port in Newport, Rhode Island in January 1988, heading for the Persian Gulf to 
participate in Operation Earnest Will, the escort of reflagged Kuwaiti tankers during the Iran— Iraq War. The Roberts 
had arrived in the Persian Gulf and was heading for a refueling rendezvous on April 14 when the ship struck an 
M-08 naval mine in the central Persian Gulf, an area it had safely transited a few days previously. The mine blew a 
15-foot (5 m) hole in the hull, flooded the engine room, and knocked the two gas turbines from their mounts. The 
blast also broke the keel of the ship; such structural damage is almost always fatal to most vessels. The crew fought 
fire and flooding for five hours and saved the ship. Ten sailors were medevaced for injuries sustained in the blast, six 
returned to the Roberts in a day or so. Four burn victims were sent for treatment to a military hospital in 
Germany ,and eventually to medical facilities in the United States. 



USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) 



152 



When U.S. divers recovered several 
unexploded mines, they found that their 
serial numbers matched the sequence on 
mines seized the previous September aboard 
an Iranian mine-layer named Iran Ajr. Four 
days later, U.S. forces retaliated against Iran 
in Operation Praying Mantis, a one-day 
campaign that was the largest American 
surface engagement since World War II. 
U.S. ships, aircraft, and troops destroyed 
two Iranian oil platforms used to control 
Iranian naval forces in the Persian Gulf, 
sank one Iranian — > frigate, damaged 
another, and sent at least three armed, 
high-speed boats to the bottom. The U.S. 
lost one Marine helicopter and its crew of 
two airmen in what appeared to be a night 
maneuver accident rather than a result of 
hostile operations. 




In 1988, an Iranian M-08 mine made a 25-foot (8 m) hole in the hull of the — * 

USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58), forcing the ship to seek temporary repairs in a 

dry dock in Dubai, UAE. 





• 

r 

r 



Closeup of the — > Roberts' damaged hull. 



Repairs 




MV Mighty Servant 2 carrying inine-damaged 
Roberts on3l My 1988 



On 27 June 1988, Roberts was loaded onto the Mighty Servant 2, a 

semi-submersible heavy-lift ship owned by Dutch shipping firm 

r3i 
Wijsmuller Transport and carried back to Newport for $1.3 million. 

The frigate arrived at BIW's Portland, Maine, yard on 6 October 1988 

for repairs. The repair job was unique: the entire engine room was cut 

out of the hull, and a 315-ton replacement module was jacked up and 

welded into place. She undocked 1 April 1989 for sea trials. Roberts 

returned to service after a ceremony on 16 October 1989 after 13 

months of repairs. She was completed three weeks ahead of schedule at 

a cost of $89.5 million, $3.5 million less than expected. By 

comparison, USS Princeton set off a bottom moored mine diu^ing the 



USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) 153 

1991 Gulf War and its repair cost $24 million. However, she was not directly struck by the mine and the cruiser's 
displacement is nearly twice that of Roberts. The mine that nearly sank Roberts had an estimated cost of $1500. 

After repair 

Roberts would make her second deployment in 1990 for Operation Desert Storm and Operation Desert Shield. On 28 
March 1991, she returned to Newport after conducting operations with the Red Sea Maritime Interception Force 
working cooperatively with an international force of ships to enforce U.N. sanctions against Iraq. The frigate alone 
conducted over 100 boardings of merchant ships to prevent cargo shipments to or from Iraq. 

On 30 August 1991, Joseph A. Sestak took command of Roberts, which was named the Atlantic Fleet's best surface 
combatant in the 1993 Battenberg Cup competition. 

"Sammy B", as the ship is sometimes called, is homeported in Mayport, Florida. 

Sources 

• Annati, Massimo Al diavolo le mine RID magazine. Coop. Riviera Ligure, Italy, n. 6/2005 

• This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government 
publication, is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 



Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf . 

Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger Zone: The U.S. Military in the Persian Gulf 1987-88 . Annapolis: 



Further reading 

• Peniston, Bradley (2C 
Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5 

• Wise, Harold Lee (2007). Inside the Danger 
Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-970-3. 

External links 

rsi 
USS Samuel B. Roberts official site 

navsource.org: USS Samuel B. Roberts 

navysite.de: USS Samuel B. Roberts 

Samuel B. Roberts narrative and timeline 



[121 

Photos of Samuel B. Roberts during February 1986 sea trials 

[131 

Photos of Samuel B. Roberts being commissioned in April 1986 

Photos of Samuel B. Roberts being hauled from the Persian Gulf to Newport, R.I. aboard Mighty Servant 2 in 

1988 ^^'^^ 

MaritimeQuest USS Samuel B. Roberts FFG-58 pages ^^^^ 



USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) 154 

References 

[I] Liewer, Steve, "Teamwork Saved Stricken Warship", San Diego Union-Tribune, 19 April 2008. 

[2] Love, Robert William. History of the U.S. Navy. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1992. ISBN 0811718638 p. 787 

[3] NO HIGHER HONOR: Timeline (http://navybook.com/nohigherhonor/timeline.shtml) 

[4] NO HIGHER HONOR: Photos: FFG 58 under repair at Bath Iron Works (http://navybook.com/nohigherhonor/pic-ffg58repair.shtml) 

[5] Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gh// (http://www.navybook.com/ 

nohigherhonor). Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5. 
[6] Annati 

[7] http://www.history.navy.mil/wars/dstorm/dsmar.htm (PD-USN) 
[8] http://www.roberts.navy.mil/ 
[9] http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0758.htm 
[10] http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG58.HTM 

[II] http://www.nohigherhonor.com 

[12] http://www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor/pic-ffg58new.shtml 

[13] http://www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor/pic-ffg58commissioning.shtml 

[ 14] http://www. navybook.com/nohigherhonor/pic- servant. shtml 

[15] http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/samuel_b_roberts_ffg58_page_l.htm 



USS Kauffman (FFG-59) 



155 



USS Kauffman (FFG-59) 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 




USS Kauffman 



Vice Admiral James L. Kauffman and Rear Admiral Draper L. Kauffman 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



-> Bath Iron Works 
8 April 1985 



Launched: 
Cormnissioned: 



29 March 1986 
28 February 1987 



Homeport: NS Norfolk, Virginia 

Status: Active in service as of 2009 



Class and type: 



General characteristics 

• Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate 



Displacement: 4, 1 00 tons (4, 1 65 t) full load 

Length: 45 3 ft ( 1 3 8 m) overall 



Beam: 
Draft: 



45 ft (14 m) 
22 ft (6.7 m) 



Propulsion: 2 x — ► General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 

controllable-pitch propeller 

Speed: 29+ knots (54+ km/h) 



Range: 5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 

Complement: 15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus -* SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 

maintainers 



Armament: 



Aircraft carried: 



One OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun; one Mk 13 Mod 4 single-arm launcher for Harpoon 
anti-ship missiles and — ► SM-IMR Standard anti-ship/air missiles (40 round magazine); two Mk 32 triple-tube 
(324 mm) launchers for —> Mark 46 torpedoes; one Vulcan -> Phalanx CIWS; four .50-cal (12.7 mm) 
machine guns. 

2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



Motto: Toujous en Vedette ("Always in the Lead") 

Nickname: Special K 



USS Kauffman (FFG-59), an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate, is a ship of the United States Navy named for 
Vice Admiral James L. Kauffman (1887—1963) and his son, Rear Admiral Draper L. Kauffman (1911—1979), both 
experts in sub-surface naval missions. 



USS Kauffman (FFG-59) 156 

Kaujfman was laid down on 8 April 1985 by the — > Bath Iron Works, Bath, Maine; launched on 29 March 1986; 
sponsored by Mrs. Elizabeth Kauffman Bush the daughter of Vice Admiral James L. Kauffman; and commissioned 
on 28 February 1987 at Bath, Maine, Commander John C. Dranchak, USN in command. 

As of 2009, Kaujfman is captained by Commander Dale. W. Maxey, USN, homeported at NS Norfolk, Virginia, and 
assigned to Destroyer Squadron 26. 

Milestones 

Note: the milestones are extracted from the official command histories [1] and no other sources. The set of command 
histories available is not complete, resulting in the partial record following. 

1988 [2] 

• 6 January — 28 May: 4100 ton modifications by — > Bath Iron Works in Bath, Maine 

• 12 August: BM3 Kerekgyarto died instantly when the Slewing Arm Davit broke from its mount and fell on him. 

1989 [3] 

• 7 April: Commander Ronald C. Bogle, USN relieves Commander John C. Dranchak, USN 

• 31 May — 10 November: Maiden deployment, Med 3-89 

• 4 — 7 August: Sevastapol, USSR port visit 

• 13 September — 3 October: NATO exercise Display Determination-89 

1990 [4] 

• 9 January: presented with Battle 'E' 

• 15 January — 15 March: ships restricted availability, #1A gas turbine generator and the Mk. 75 76mm gun mount 
are replaced 

• 8—15 June: BALTOPS-90 

1991 [5] 

• 5 April: Commander James H. Chapman Jr., USN relieves Commander Ronald C. Bogle, USN 

• 26 April — 26 October: deployment, MEF 2-91 

• 4 June — 16 September: Middle East Force (MEF) operations in the Persian Gulf 

1992 [6] 

• 6 January — 21 February: counter narcotic operations, Caribbean Sea 

• towed a vessel that had lost propulsion 250 NM to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 

• rescued the crew from the striken 237 feet (72 m) coastal freighter Ramsli just before she sank 

• 2 August — 23 October: Ships Restricted Availability (Drydock), by — > Bath Iron Works Bath, Maine 

• 15 September: presented with Battle 'E' 

• 18 December: Commander James F. Deppe, USN relieves Commander James H. Chapman Jr., USN 



USS Kauffman (FFG-59) 157 

1993 [7] 

• 1 1 March — 8 September: deployed, Med 2-93 

• 29 April — 18 June: Operation Deny Flight in the Adriatic Sea, Operation Maritime Guard 

• 22 June — 17 August: Maritime Interdiction Operations enforcing United Nations sanctions agains Iraq, North 
Red Sea 

• 7 November: provided assistance to the Argentine frigate ARA Granville (P-33) while in port at Roosevelt Roads 
Naval Station, Puerto Rico 

• 9 November — 6 December: counter drug operations, Caribbean Sea 

1994 [8] 

13 May — 3 June: Maritime Interception Operations enforcing United Nations sanctions against Haiti 

6 June: Homeport shift from Newport, Rhode Island to Norfolk, Virginia 

1 July — 1 August: Operation Support Democracy, Haiti with 3 US Army OH-58 Kiowa helicopters 

5 — 6 July: rescued 787 migrants from Haitian waters, transported to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 

20 — 21 July: towed the Motor Vessel Valerie I from the south coast of Haiti to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba 

9 September: Commander David F. Britt, USN relives Commander James F. Deppe, USN 

1996 [9] 

• 24 April: completion of an extended ships restricted availability period beginning September 1995, including 
installation of Mod 6 to the Mk 92 Guided Missile Fire Control System 

• 8 July — 24 August: counter drug operations, Caribbean Sea 

• 20 September: Commander John A. Kunert, USN relives Commander David F. Britt, USN 

• 10 — 31 December: Operation Carib Shield - counter drug operations, Caribbean Sea 

1997 [10] 

• 1 — 17 January: Operation Carib Shield - counter drug operations, Caribbean Sea 

• 4 March — 24 June: ships restricted availability (drydock) by Norfolk Shipbuilding and Drydock Company 

1998 [11] 

• 6 March: Commander George J. Karol II, USN relieves Commander John A. Kunert, USN 

• 13 March — 11 September: deployed, Med (originally tasked to Middle East Force) 

• 12 October — 11 December: planned restricted availability 

1999 [12] 

• 27 August: Commander Rigoberto Saez-Ortiz, USN relieves Commander John A. Kunert, USN 

• 15 — 18 September: sortied for Hurricane Dennis 

2004 [13] 

• 15 July — 22 September: ships restricted availability, installed Mk 53 "Nulka" Decoy Launching System (DLS) 

• 31 August: Commander Kenneth A. Krogman, USN relieves Commander John P. Gelinne, USN 

Commanders 

Note: unless otherwise referenced, information has been sourced from the official command histories [1]. 

• 28 February 1987 [14] — 7 April 1989: Commander John C. Dranchak, USN 

• 7 April 1989 — 5 April 1991: Commander Ronald C. Bogle, USN 



USS Kauffman (FFG-59) 158 

• 5 April 1991 — 18 December 1992: Commander James H. Chapman Jr., USN 

• 18 December 1992 — 9 September 1994: Commander James F. Deppe, USN 

• 9 September 1994 — 20 September 1996: Commander David F. Britt, USN 

• 20 September 1996 — 6 March 1998: Commander John A. Kunert, USN 

• 6 March 1998 — 27 August 1999: Commander George J. Karol III, USN 

• 27 August 1999 — (unknown): Commander Rigoberto Saez-Ortiz, USN 

• May 2001 (est) — 28 February 2003: Commander Mark Reagan Hagerott [15] 

• 28 February 2003 [15] — 31 August 2004: Commander John P. GeUnne, USN 

• 31 August 2004 — (unknown), at 30 September 2005 [16]: Commander Kenneth A. Krogman, USN 

• at 27 November 2006 [17] and at 12 March 2007: Commander Chris Rhoden, USN [18] 

• at 7 April 2008 [17] and at 16 November 2008 [19]: Commander Robert Cepek 

• present: Commander Dale. W. Maxey, USN [20] 

References 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here 

External links 

[211 

• USS Kauffman official website 

[221 

• navsource.org: USS Kauffman 

[231 

• navysite.de: USS Kauffman 

• MaritimeQuest USS Kauffman FFG-59 pages ^^"^^ 




Kauffman in Souda Bay, Crete, 2002 



References 

[I] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg59.htm 

[2] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1988.pdf 
[3] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1989.pdf 
[4] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1990.pdf 
[5] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1991.pdf 
[6] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1992.pdf 
[7] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1993.pdf 
[8] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1994.pdf 
[9] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1996.pdf 
[10] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/1997.pdf 

[II] http://www.history.navy.miVshiphist/k/ffg-59/1998.pdf 
[12] http://www.history.navy.miVshiphist/k/ffg-59/1999.pdf 
[13] http://www.history.navy.mi1/shiphist/k/ffg-59/2004.pdf 

[14] http://www.defenseimagery. mil/imagery. html#guid=cba0d952a8092ael973c6997ed8efb9c5b2b5el6 
[15] http://www.spongobongo.com/em/em9683.htm 



USS Kauffman (FFG-59) 



159 



[16] http: 

[17] http: 

[18] http: 

[19] http: 

[20] http: 

[21] http: 

[22] http: 

[23] http: 

[24] http: 



//www. defendamerica.mil/articles/sep2005/a093005tj2. html 

//www. uscarriers.net/ffg59history. htm 

//www. defenseimagery. mil/imagery. html#guid=fbfc2ab445e466285768ffd96dfalcldlad7d046 

//www. navyleague.org/public_relations/Nov08/112108-Broward-County-Veterans-Salute-USS-Kauffman-16Nov08.php 

//www. kauffman. navy. mil/pages/CO. aspx 

//www. kauffman. navy, mil/ 

//www. navsource.org/archives/07/0759. htm 

//www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG59.HTM 

//www. maritimequest.com/warship_directory/us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/kauffman_ffg59_page_l. htm 



USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60) 



160 



USS Rodney M.Davis (FFG-60) 



Career 



Name: 




USS Rodney M. Davis 



Namesake: 
Builder: 



Sergeant Rodney M. Davis 

-^ Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California 



Laid down: 
Launched: 



28 October 1982 
11 January 1986 



Commissioned: 
Homeport: 



9 May 1987 
Naval Station Everett, Washington 



Motto: 
Nickname: 



By Valor and Arms 
The RMD. "Ruin My Day", Repair Me Daily, Rodney M. Different, Rodney M. Difficult 



Fate: 



Active in service as of 2009 



General characteristics 



Class and type: 
Displacement: 



— > Oliver Hazard Perry-class —> frigate 
4100 long tons (4166 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453ft(138m)o/a 
45 ft (14 m) 



Draft: 
Propulsion: 



22 ft (6.7 m) 

2 X ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
variable-pitch propeller 



Speed: 
Range: 



29 knots (54 km/h; 33 mph)+ 

5000 nmi (9300 km) at 18 kn (33 km/h; 21 mph) 



Complement: 



Armament: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — ► SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted 
maintainers 

• 1 X ^ OTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caUber naval gun 

• 2 X — > Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for -^ Mark 46 torpedoes 

• 1 X Vulcan ^ Phalanx CIWS 

• 4 X .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns 



Aircraft carried: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 



USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60) is an — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate of the United States Navy named for 
Marine Sergeant Rodney M. Davis (1942—1967), who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his 



USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60) 161 

heroism in the Vietnam War. 

Rodney M. Davis was laid down on 28 October 1982 by the — > Todd Pacific Shipyards Co., Los Angeles Division, 
San Pedro, Ca.; launched on 1 1 January 1986; and commissioned on 9 May 1987. 

The ship was homeported at Yokosuka, Japan for several years while assigned to Destroyer Squadron 15. As of 
2005, Rodney M. Davis is homeported at NS Everett, Washington, and assigned to Destroyer Squadron 9. 

History 

On 28 April 2001 a Law Enforcement Detachment (LEDET) assigned to the Rodney M. Davis, with later assistance 
from the US Coast Guard Cutter Active (based in Port Angeles, WA) made the largest cocaine seizure in maritime 
history when they boarded and seized the Belizean F/V Svesda Maru 1,500 miles south of San Diego. The fishing 
vessel was carrying 26,931 pounds of cocaine. 

In the summer of 2005, Davis participated in the 1 1th annual Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) 
exercise. CARAT is an annual series of bilateral military training exercises designed to enhance cooperative working 
partnerships with several Southeast Asian nations. Ensuring freedom of the seas by increasing maritime security 
efforts in the region is a primary focus of the CARAT series. 

In the summer of 2006, with the help of the crew from the Rodney M. Davis, 1 1 tons of creosote logs were removed 
from the beaches of NAVMAG Indian Island. The project was completed with no labor cost, due to the support of 
the Davis crew on this shoreline enhancement project. Removal of creosote contaminant source from the beaches 
enhances shoreline habitat and marine water quality. 

2006-2007 Deployment 

Davis departed Naval Station (NAVSTA) Everett for a deployment to the Southern Pacific, November 28, 2006. 

On March 3, 2007, Sailors from Davis participated in two community relations (COMREL) projects during the 
ship's visit to Panama in February. The Davis Sailors' COMREL efforts included visits to local orphanages and 
maintenance/improvements at a library in the Cinco de Mayo district of the city. Sailors spent their day cleaning, 
repairing, and painting chairs and cabinets at the Eusebio Morales Library. Five more Davis sailors visited a local 
orphanage, Hogar Divino Nino, to spend time with infants and toddler orphans to give them some much needed 
human contact. The Davis sailors took diapers, formula, baby wipes and other child care supplies to aid the staff at 
the orphanage. The two groups reassembled at another orphanage, Nutre Hogar, to hand out Spanish-language 
Disney movies to the children, which were part of a generous donation made through the Jacksonville, Fla., area 
office of the United Service Organizations (USO). 

Davis completed her transit of the Panama Canal on March 25, 2007 from the Caribbean Sea to the Pacific Ocean. 

The Sailors of Davis completed their third community relations (GOMEL) project in Panama City, Panama on April 
3, 2007. During the ship's three-day port visit, 21 members of the crew spent a day helping to improve Hogar Nuevo 
Pacto, a home for abused children in Panama City. The crew raised $1,100 in donations to pay for supplies and 
improvements for the home. Davis sailors bought equipment to repaint the inside of the house, as well as groceries, 
new shower curtains, bed sheets, and light fixtures for the children's living areas. The home, previously U.S. military 
housing, was greatly in need of some modernization and assistance from able hands. Despite rainy weather outside, 
the crew spent the day productively inside, painting hallways and bedrooms, installing conveniences like toilet paper 
dispensers and toothbrush holders in the bathrooms, and replacing lights and correcting electrical safety problems. 

On the evening of April 19, 2007, Davis intercepted the fishing vessel Mariana de Jesus in international waters. The 
33-foot vessel was overcrowded with 31 migrants. Davis gave the migrants food and water and they were all 
examined by the ship's medical personnel. Some were treated for mild dehydration and headaches, but overall they 
were found to be in good physical condition. The migrants were then transferred to the El Salvadoran Navy. 



USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60) 162 

On April 23, 2007, the Costa Rican Coast Guard vessel Juan Rafael Mora (JRM) and Davis intercepted the fishing 
vessel Kuerubin with 61 Chinese migrants, all of whom were transferred to the JRM. Davis was tasked to ensure 
their health and safety was maintained by providing food, water, and medical supplies. All were malnourished and 
dehydrated for they had been without food or water for four days. 

The frigate returned to Everett naval base on June 12, 2007 after a six-month deployment in the war on drugs. 

The first maritime seizure of liquid cocaine occurred April 25 when the Davis located the fishing vessel Emperador 
from Ecuador in the Eastern Pacific. A Coast Guard law enforcement team boarded the Emperador and located 
3,850 gallons of liquid cocaine. Each gallon of the liquid is the equivalent of 1.3 kilograms of processed cocaine. 
The Coast Guard boarding team detained the 17 crewmembers of the vessel. Sixteen of the crewmembers were from 
Ecuador, and one of the crewmembers was Colombian. The Coast Guard boarding team and crew of the Davis 
transported the vessel to Guayaquil, Ecuador, for further examination by officials from the Drug Enforcement 
Administration and Ecuadorian authorities. The majority of the liquid cocaine, 3,600 gallons, was turned over to 
Ecuadorian authorities for destruction. 

Rodney M. Davis was again underway in late spring, 2008. In the 

course of conducting workups for a fall deployment, the Davis was 

ordered to participate in RIMPAC 2008 off Hawaii. While docked in 

Pearl Harbor prior to the exercise, an unusual helicopter detachment ^ 

embarked the Davis. For the first time in 10 years, USS Kitty 

Hawk (CV-63) was in Hawaii. She had been the Navy's only forward 

deployed aircraft carrier until that spring, and she was on her way to 

San Diego to crossdeck Carrier Air Wing Five to USS George 

Washington (CVN-73) prior to her decommissioning. Onboard Kitty 

Hawk was a detachment from HS-14 out of NAF Atsugi, Japan. The I I 

detachment went underway with RMD for the entire exercise, 

providing a force multiplying ASW capability to a ship that was soon surrounded by "enemy" submarines during the 
exercise. The RMD/HS-14 Team performed flawlessly, easily allowing her to claim the title of "most deadly" ASW 
ship in the exercise task group. 

2008-2009 Deployment 

While on patrol in the Eastern Pacific Ocean, units assigned to the U.S. Navy's 4th Fleet and the U.S. Coast Guard 
intercepted a fishing vessel carrying more than 4 metric tons of cocaine, December 5. The combined team of USS 
Rodney M. Davis (FFG 60), with embarked Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron Light (HSL-43) Det. 2, and U.S. 
Coast Guard Law Enforcement Detachment (LEDET) 106 intercepted the fishing vessel in an early morning 
interdiction, capturing nine suspected narcotics smugglers and the large cargo of cocaine with an estimated import 
value of $90 million. A search of the vessel revealed the large amount of cocaine. The narcotics were seized under 
the authority of the US Navy and the Coast Guard LEDET. The coordinated actions of the U.S. Navy, U.S. Coast 
Guard and Joint Interagency Task Force-South (JIATF-S) were instrumental to the successful interdiction of 
narcotics. 

Rodney M. Davis, homeported in Everett, Wash., returned from its 6 month CNT deployment on April 21st 2009 
during which it was operating in Latin America under the operational control of U.S. Naval Forces Southern 
Command (NAVSO) and U.S. 4th Fleet, conducting counter illicit trafficking operations in support of JIATF-South, 
U.S. law enforcement and U.S. and participating nations' drug control policy. 

Rodney M. Davis is also supporting the U.S. Maritime Strategy by conducting theater security cooperation (TSC) 
events in the Caribbean and Latin America. TSC encompasses a robust strategy that includes military-to-military 
exchanges, multi-national exercises and training, diplomatic port visits, community relations activities and Project 



USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG-60) 163 

[21 

Handclasp distributions. 

References 

[1] COAST GUARD, NAVY TO OFFLOAD 9,000 POUNDS OF COCAINE; 250 GALLONS OF LIQUID COCAINE (http://www. 

piersystem.com/go/doc/586/ 177337/&printerfriendly=l) 
[2] USS Rodney M. Davis Intercepts 4.5 Metric Tons of Cocaine (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2008/12/ 

mil-08 1209-nnsOl .htm=2) 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG60.htm). 

External links 

• USS Rodney M. Davis official website (http://www.davis.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Rodney M. Davis (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0760.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Rodney M. Davis (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG60.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Rodney M. Davis FFG-60 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/ 
us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/rodney_m_davis_ffg60_page_l.htm) 



USSIngraham(FFG-61) 



164 



USS Ingraham (FFG-61) 




The USS Ingraham in 2008 



Career (US) 



Namesake: 



Captain Duncan Ingraham 



Builder: 
Laid down: 



— ► Todd Pacific Shipyards, San Pedro, California 
30 March 1987 



Launched: 
Commissioned: 



25 June 1988 
5 August 1989 



Homeport: 
Motto: 



NS Everett, Washington 
Heritage of Gallantry 



Status: 
Badge: 



Active in service as of 2009 




General characteristics 



Class and type: 
Displacement: 



— ► Oliver Hazard Perry-class -^ frigate 
4,100 tons (4,165 t) full load 



Length: 
Beam: 



453 ft (138.1 m), overall 
45 ft (13.7 m) 



Draft: 
Propulsion: 



22 ft (6.7 m) 

2 X ^ General Electric LM2500-30 gas turbines generating 41,000 shp (31 MW) through a single shaft and 
controllable-pitch propeller 



Speed: 
Range: 



29+ knots (54+ km/h) 

5,000 nm (9,300 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h) 



Complement: 



15 officers and 190 enlisted, plus — ► SH-60 LAMPS detachment of roughly six officer pilots and 15 enlisted men 



USS Ingraham (FFG-61) 165 



Armament: 



1 xOTO Melara Mk 75 76 mm/62 caliber naval gun 

2 X Mk 32 triple-tube (324 mm) launchers for — > Mark 46 torpedoes 
1 X Vulcan ^ Phalanx CIWS 

4 X .50-cal (12.7 mm) machine guns. 



Aircraft carried: 
Nickname: 



2 X ^ SH-60 LAMPS III helicopters 
"The Ham" or The Mighty "I" 



The USS Ingraham (FFG-61), the last American — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigate to be built, was the fourth 
ship of the United States Navy to be named for Captain Duncan Ingraham (1802—1891). 

The USS Ingraham was laid down on 30 March 1987 at the — > Todd Pacific Shipyards Co., Los Angeles Division, 
San Pedro, California. She was launched on 25 June 1988. 

As of September 2009, Ingraham is commanded by CDR Matthew Ovios, USN, is homeported at NS Everett, 
Washington, and is assigned to Destroyer Squadron 9. 

On 6 January 2008, the destroyer USS Hopper, the guided-missile cruiser USS Port Royal, and the frigate USS 
Ingraham were entering the Persian Gulf through the Strait of Hormuz when five Iranian motor boats approached 
them at high speed and in a reportedly threatening manner. The American ships had been in the Arabian Sea 
searching for a sailor who had been missing from the USS Hopper for one day. The U.S. Navy reported that the 
Iranian boats made "threatening" moves toward the U.S. vessels, coming as close as 200 yards (180 m). The U.S. 
Navy ships received a radio transmission saying, "I am coming at you. You will explode in a couple of minutes." 
While the American ships prepared to open fire, the Iranians abruptly turned away, the U.S. Navy officials said. 
Before leaving, the Iranians dropped white boxes into the water in front of the American ships. The American ships 
did not investigate the boxes. Officials from the two countries differed on their assessments of the severity of the 
incident. The Iranians claimed that they were conducting normal maneuvers, whereas American officials claimed 

r2i 

that an imminent danger to American naval vessels existed. 

On 29 September 2009, the Ingraham was sent to American Samoa to assist in the recovery efforts following the 
2009 Samoa earthquake. 

See also 

• United States-Iran relations 

References 

[1] " CO's Bio (http://www.ingraham.navy.mil/site pages/CO.aspx)". United States Navy. . Retrieved 2009-18-09. 

[2] " Iranian boats 'harass' U.S. Navy, officials say (http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/meast/01/07/iran.us.navy/index.html)". CAW. 

2008-01-07. . Retrieved 2008-01-07. 
[3] " Hawaii Guard, Navy bound for American Samoa (http://www.navytimes.com/news/2009/09/guard_samoa_093009w/)". Navy Times. 

2009-10-01. . Retrieved 2009-10-01. 

This article includes information collected from the Naval Vessel Register, which, as a U.S. government publication, 
is in the public domain. The entry can be found here (http://www.nvr.navy.mil/nvrships/details/FFG61.htm). 



USS Ingraham (FFG-61) 166 

External links 

• USS Ingraham official website (http://www.ingraham.navy.mil/) 

• navsource.org: USS Ingraham (http://www.navsource.org/archives/07/0761.htm) 

• navysite.de: USS Ingraham (http://www.navysite.de/ffg/FFG61.HTM) 

• MaritimeQuest USS Ingraham FFG-61 pages (http://www.maritimequest.com/warship_directory/ 
us_navy_pages/frigates/pages/ingraham_ffg6 l_page_l .htm) 

• Video of January 2008 incident in the Straight of Hormuz (http://www.defenselink.mil/dodcmsshare/ 
briefmgsUde/320/080 107-D-6570C-00 1 . wmv) 



167 



Construction Sites 



Bath Iron Works 



Bath Iron Works (BIW) is a major 
American shipyard located on the Kennebec 
River in Bath, Maine. Since its founding in 
1884 (as Bath Iron Works, Limited), BIW 
has built private, commercial and military 
vessels, most of which have been ordered by 
the United States Navy. The shipyard has 
built and sometimes designed battleships, — > 
frigates, cruisers and destroyers, including 
the Arleigh Burke class, which are among 
the world's most advanced surface warships. 

Since 1995, Bath Iron Works has been a 

subsidiary of General Dynamics, the 

fifth-largest defense contractor in the world 

(as of 2008). During World War II, ships built at BIW were considered to be of superior toughness, giving rise to the 

phrase "Bath-built is best-built. " 




History 

Bath Iron Works was incorporated in 1884 by General Thomas W. Hyde, a native of Bath who served in the 
American Civil War. After the war, Hyde bought a local shop that helped make windlasses and other iron hardware 
for the wooden ships built in Bath's many shipyards. He expanded the business by improving its practices, entering 
new markets, and acquiring other local businesses. 

By 1882, Hyde Windlass eyeing the new and growing business of iron shipbuilding; two years later, it incorporated 
as Bath Iron Works. On February 28, 1890, BIW won its first contract for complete vessels, two iron gunboats for 
the U.S. Navy. The Machias, one of these 190-foot (58 m) gunboats, was the first ship launched by the company. 
(Historian Snow (see "Further Reading") says the gunboat was commanded during World War I by Chester Nimitz, 
an assertion that is not supported by Nimitz's biographers.) 

In 1892, the yard won its first commercial contract for a steel vessel, the 2,500-ton steel passenger steamer City of 
Lowell. In the 1890s, the company built several yachts for wealthy sailors. 

In 1899, General Hyde, suffering from the Bright's Disease that would kill him later that year, resigned from 
management of the shipyard, leaving his sons Edward and John in charge. That year the shipyard began construction 
of the Georgia, the only battleship to be built in Bath. The ship dominated the yard for five years until its launching 
in 1904, and was at times the only ship under construction. The yard faced numerous challenges because of the 
weight of armor and weapons. In sea trials, the Georgia averaged 19.26 knots (35.67 km/h) for four hours, making 
her the fastest ship in her class and the fastest battleship in the Navy. 

The company continued to rely on Navy contracts, which provided 86% of the value of new contracts between 1905 
and 1917. The yard also produced fishing trawlers, freighters, and yachts throughout the first half of the century. 

At peak production during World War II (1943—1944), the shipyard launched a destroyer every 17 days. 



Bath Iron Works 



168 



In 1981, Falcon Transport ordered two tankers, the last commercial vessels built by BIW. 

In 1988, the -^ VSS Samuel B. 

Roberts (FFG-58), commissioned two years 

earlier at Bath, survived a mine explosion 

that tore a hole in its engine room and 

flooded two compartments. Over the next 

two years, BIW repaired the Roberts in 

unique fashion. The guided missile frigate 

was towed to the company's dry dock in 

Portland, Maine, and put up on blocks, 

where its damaged engine room was cut out 

of the ship. Meanwhile, workers in Bath 

built a 315-ton replacement. When it was 

ready, the module was floated south to 

Portland, placed on the dry dock, slid into 

place under the Roberts, jacked up, and 

welded into place. By surviving a hit that Naval Sea Systems Command engineers thought should have sunk her, 

the Roberts validated the penny-pinching design of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class, the U.S. Navy's largest 

post- WWII class until the Burkes ; and validated the Navy's against-the-odds decision to have picked BIW to design 

it. 




MV Mighty Servant 2 carrying mine-damaged Roberts on 3 1 July 1988 



In 2001, BIW wrapped up a four-year effort to build an enormous concrete platform, the Land Level Transfer 
Facility, for final assembly of its ships. Instead of being built on a sloping way so that they could slide into the 
Kennebec at launch, hulls were henceforth moved by rail from the platform horizontally onto a moveable dry dock. 
This greatly reduced the work involved in building and launching the ships. The 750-foot, 28,000-ton dry dock 



was built by China's Jiangdu Yuchai Shipbuilding Company for $27 million 



[4] 



Notable ships built 



Lightvessels 

• Nantucket Lightship 66 

• Nantucket Lightship 106 
y/rg/n/fl-class battleship 

• USS Georgia (BB-15), launched in 
1904 

Chester class cruiser 

• USS Chester (CL-1) World War I 
Smith class destroyers 

• USS Flusser (DD-20) World War I 

• USS Reid (DD-21) World War I 
Paulding class destroyers 

• USS Paulding (DD-22) World War I 
Rum Patrol 

• USS Drayton (DD-23) World War I 

• USS Trippe (DD-33) World War I - 
Rum Patrol 



r**^(j-.i,^~.;j.j,ji(,.->'J-ii 




USS Chester was the first United States cruiser of the numbering series used 
through the first half of the 20th century. 



Bath Iron Works 



169 




• USS/oMeff(DD-41)WorldWarI- 
Rum Patrol 

• USS Jenkins (DD-42) World War 1 
Cassin class destroyers 

• USS Cassin (DD-43) World War 1 - 
Rum Patrol 

• USS Cummings (DD-44) World War 1 

- Rum Patrol 
O'Brien class destroyer 

• USS McDougal (DD-54) World War 1 

- Rum Patrol 
Tucker class destroyer 

• USS Wadsworth (DD-60) World War 
1 

Sampson class destroyers 

• USS Davis (DD-65) World War 1 - 
Rum Patrol 

• USS Allen (DD-66)^^^ World War 1 - Attack on Pearl Harbor 
Caldwell class destroyer 

• USS Manley (DD-74)'^^^ World War 1 - Guadalcanal Campaign - Operation Flintlock - Battle of Saipan - 
Philippines campaign (1944-45) 

Wickes class destroyers 

• USS Wickes (DD-75)^^^ World War 1 - 
Destroyers for Bases Agreement 

• USS Philip (DD-76)^^^ World War 1 - 
Destroyers for Bases Agreement 



The last of the "four-stack" destroyers, USS Pruitt, being launched from Bath Iron 
Works in 1920. 



USS Woolsey (DD-??)^^^ World War 1 

USS Evans (DD-78)^^^ Destroyers for 

Bases Agreement 

USS Buchanan (DD-131)^^^ 

Destroyers for Bases Agreement - St. 

Nazaire Raid 

USS Aaron Ward (DD-132)^^^ 

Destroyers for Bases Agreement 

USS Hale (DD-133)^^^ Destroyers for 

Bases Agreement 




Two of the seven Bath Iron Works destroyers transferred to the Royal Navy in the 
Destroyers for Bases Agreement. The outboard ship made the St. Nazaire Raid. 



• USS Crown/n.y/!/eW(DD-134) 
Clemson class destroyers 

x[8] 



[7] 



Destroyers for Bases Agreement 



USS Preble (DD-345)'^ Attack on Pearl Harbor - Guadalcanal Campaign 

USS Sicard (DD-346)'^^ Attack on Pearl Harbor - Battle of Empress Augusta Bay 

USS Pruitt (DD-347)f^^ Attack on Pearl Harbor 



Bath Iron Works 



170 



Thetis class patrol boat 

• USCGCAMrora(WPC-103) 



[9] 



USCGC Calypso (WPC-104) 
USCGC Daphne (WPC-106) 
USCGC Hermes (WPC-109)' 
USCGC Icarus (WPC-1 10) 
U-352 



[9] 
[10] 



[10] 



[10] 



sank 



USCGC Perseus (WPC-1 14)' 



[10] 



x[10] 



sank 



• USCGC Thetis (WPC-1 15)' 
U-I57 

Farragut class destroyer (1934) 

• USS Dewey (DD-349)^"^ Attack on 
Pearl Harbor - Battle of the Coral 
Sea^^^^- Battle of JVIidway- 
Guadalcanal Campaign - Battle of the 
Eastern Solomons - Battle of the 



r 


M..U..k»[.i 


'- 




s% 






^ 




rfriiJifc^iwi " 



Philippine Sea 



[13] 



USCGC Icarus (WPC-1 10) delivers prisoners from U-352 to Charleston Navy 
Yard on 10 May 1942. 



IVIahan class destroyers 

• USS Drayton (00-366)^^"^^ Battle of Tassafaronga'^^^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) 

• USS Lam.von (DD-367) Battle of Tassafaronga - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - sunk in test Aft/e of 
Operation Crossroads 

Somers class destroyers 



USS Sampson (DD-394) 
USS Davis (DD-395) 



[14] 



[14] 



[14] 



Invasion of Normandy 



• USS /oMeff (DD-396) 
Sims class destroyers 

• USS Sims (DD-409)f^^^ Battle of the Coral Sea^"^ 

• USS Hughes (DD-410)^^^^ Battle of JVIidway^^^^ - Battle of Santa Cruz^^^^ - Naval Battle of Guadalcanal^^^^ - 
Philippines campaign (1944-45) 

Gleaves class destroyers 

USS Gleaves (DD-423) invasions of Sicily, Italy and Southern France 
USS Niblack (DD-424) invasions of Sicily, Italy and Southern France 

[21] 

USS Livermore (DD-429) invasions of North Africa and Southern France 

[211 

USS Eberle (DD-430) invasions of North Africa and Southern France 
USS Woolsey (DD-437)^^^^ invasions of North Africa, Sicily and Italy 

[21] 

USS Ludlow (DD-438) invasions of North Africa, Sicily, Italy and Southern France 

[221 

USS Emmons (DD-457) invasions of North Africa, Normandy, Southern France and Okinawa 

r22i 

USS Macomb (DD-458) invasions of North Africa, Southern France and Okinawa 



Bath Iron Works 



171 



x[23] 



Fletcher class destroyers 

• USS Nicholas (DD-449) 
Guadalcanal campaign - Philippines 
campaign (1944-45) - Korean War - 
Vietnam War 

• USS O'Bannon (DD-450)^^^^ Naval 

[241 

Battle of Guadalcanal Guadalcanal 
campaign - Naval Battle of Vella 

[251 

Lavella - Philippines campaign 
(1944-45) - Korean War - Vietnam 
War 

x[23] 




Nicholas holds the United States Navy record for battle stars with 16 from World 
War II, 5 from the Korean War and 9 from the Vietnam War 



[25] 



USS Chevalier (T>D-A5\) 

Guadalcanal campaign - Naval Battle of Vella Lavella 

USS Strong (DD-467)^^^^ Guadalcanal campaign 

1231 
USS Taylor (DD-468) Guadalcanal campaign - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Korean War - Vietnam 

War 

USS De Haven (00-469)^^^^ Guadalcanal campaign 

USS Conway (DD-507) Guadalcanal campaign - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Korean War 

Guadalcanal campaign - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Surigao Strait - 



USS Cony (00-508)^^*^^ 

Korean War 

USS Converse (DD-509) Guadalcanal campaign - Battle of Empress Augusta Bay Battle of Cape St. 



George^^^^ - Battle of the Philippine Sea^^^^ ■ 

x[26] 



Philippines campaign (1944-45) 



USS Eaton (DD-510) Guadalcanal campaign - Philippines campaign (1944-45) 

USS Foote (DD-51 1) Guadalcanal campaign - Battle of Empress Augusta Bay - Philippines campaign 

(1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa 

USS Spence (DD-512) Guadalcanal campaign - Battle of Empress Augusta Bay - Battle of Cape St. 

[2S1 11 ^1 

George - Battle of the Philippine Sea - Philippines campaign (1944-45) 

USS Terry (DD-513) Guadalcanal campaign - Battle of the Philippine Sea - Battle of Iwo Jima 

USS Thatcher (DD-5 14) Guadalcanal campaign - Battle of Empress Augusta Bay - Battle of the 

[131 

Philippine Sea - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa 

USS Anthony (DD-5 15)^^^^ Guadalcanal campaign - Battle of the Philippine Sea^^''^ 
x[26] 



Battle of Okinawa 

[13] 



USS Wadsworth (DD-5 16) Guadalcanal campaign - Battle of the Philippine Sea - Philippines campaign 

(1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa 

USS Walker (DD-517)^^^^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa - Korean War - Vietnam War 

USS Abbot (DD-629)^^^^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) 

USS Braine (DD-630)^^^^ Battle of the Philippine Sea^^^^ - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of 

Okinawa 

USS Erben (DD-631)'^^^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa - Korean War 

USS Hale (DD-642)^^^^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa 

USS Sigourney (DD-643)^^^^ 

Strait 

USS Stembel (DD-644)^^^^ 



Guadalcanal campaign - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Surigao 



Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa - Korean War 

Philippines campaign (1944-45) 
Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Vietnam War 
Vietnam War 
USS Knapp (DD-653)'"''' Battle of the Philippine Sea^''^ - Philippines campaign (1944-45) 



USS Caperton (DD-650)f^'^^ Battle of the Philippine Sea^^^^ 
USS Cogswell (DD-651)^^^^ Battle of the Philippine Sea^^^^ ■ 
USS Ingersoll (DD-652)^^^^ Philippines campaign (1944-45)^^^^ 



Bath Iron Works 



172 



USS Remey (DD-688) 
of Okinawa 



[30] 



Battle of Saipan - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Siirigao Strait - Battle 



[30] 



USS Wadleigh (DD-689)'""' Battle of Saipan 

USS Norman Scott (00-690)'^"^ Battle of Saipan 

USS Mertz (DD-691)^^°^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) 



HhuLu^ KK-li1>HJ '[liL-rtinkin<iull'ln^-i(lenL. 



Allen M. Sumner class destroyers 

• USS Barton (DD-722)^^^^ Invasion of Normandy 
- Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Korean War 

• USS Walke (00-723)^^^^ Invasion of Normandy ■ 
Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of 
Okinawa - Korean War - Vietnam War 

• USS Laffey (00-724)^^'^ Invasion of Normandy - 
Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of 
Okinawa - Korean War - preserved National 
Historic Landmark in Charleston, South Carolina 

• USS O'Brien (00-725)^^^^ Invasion of 
Normandy - Philippines campaign (1944-45) - 
Korean War - Vietnam War 

• USS Meredith (DD-726)^^^^ Invasion of 
Normandy 

USS De Haven (00-727)^^'^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa - Korean War 
USS Mansfield (DD-728)^-^'^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Korean War - Vietnam War 
USS Lyman K. Swenson (DD-729)^^'^ 

Vietnam War 

x[31] 




Maddox fires upon three P-4 torpedo boats during the Gulf of Tonkin 
Incident 



Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Battle of Okinawa - Korean War - 



USS Collett (DD-730)^ ^ Philippines campaign (1944-45) - Korean War 

USS Maddox (DD-73 1)^^^^ Battle of Okinawa - Korean War - Gulf of Tonkin Incident - Vietnam War 

USS Hyman (DD-732)^^^^ Battle of Okinawa - Korean War 

USS MannertL. Abele (00-733)^^^^ Battle of Okinawa 

USS Purdy (00-734)^^^^ Battle of Okinawa - Korean War 

USS Robert H. Smith {YiM-l^f"^ Battle of Okinawa 

USS Thomas E. Eraser (D]VI-24)^^^ Battle of Okinawa 

USS Shannon {TtM-lsf"^ Battle of Okinawa 

USS Harry F. Bauer (D]VI-26)^^^ Battle of Okinawa 

USS Adams {T)M-2lf'^ Battle of Okinawa 

USS Tolman (T)M-2%f'^ Battle of Okinawa 

USS Drexler (DD-741)^^^^ Battle of Okinawa 



Bath Iron Works 



173 



x[32] 



Gearing class destroyers 

• USS Frank Knox (DD-742)^"'^ World 
War II - Korean War - Vietnam War 

• USS Southerland (DD-743)^^^^ World 
War II - Korean War - Vietnam War 

• USS Chevalier (DD-805)^^^^ Korean 
War 

• USS Higbee (DD-806)^^^^ World War 
II - Korean War - Vietnam War - 
Battle of Dong Hoi 
USS Benner (DD-807)^^^^ World War 
II - Vietnam War 
USS Dennis J. Buckley (DD-808)' 
Vietnam War 



J33] 



USS Agerholm (DD-826) 
War - Vietnam War 



[33] 




Korean 



[33] 



Agerholm launched an ASROC anti-submarine rocltet armed witli a nuclear depth 
bomb during the Swordfish test of 1962 



USS Robert A. Owens (DD-827) 

1331 
USS Timmerman (DD-828) (Experimental ship completed with aluminum superstructure and 

high-horsepower engines) 

USS Myles C. Fox (DD-829)^^^^ Vietnam War 

USS Everett F. Larson (DD-830)^^^^ Vietnam War 

USS Goodrich (DD-831)^^^^ 

USS Hanson (DD-832)^^^^ Korean War - Vietnam War 

USS Herbert J. Thomas (00-833)^^^^ Korean War - Vietnam War 

USS Turner (DD-834)^^^^ 

USS Charles P. Cecil (DD-835)^^^^ Vietnam War 

USS George K. MacKenzie (DD-836)^^^^ Korean War - Vietnam War 

USS Sarsfield (00-837)^^^^ Vietnam War 



J33] 



Korean War 



USS Ernest G. Small (DD-838) 

USS Power (DD-839)^^^^ Vietnam War 

USS Glennon (00-840)^^^^ 

[33] 

USS Noa (DD-841) Recovered astronaut John Glenn in Friendship 7 on 20 February 1962 

[33] 

^ Korean War - Vietnam War 

J33] 



USS Fiske (DD-842)L- 

USS Warrington (00-843)^- 

USS Perry (DD-844)^^^^ Vietnam War 

USS Bausell (DD-845)^^^^ Korean War - Vietnam War 

USS Ozbourn (DD-846)^^^^ Korean War - Vietnam War 

USS Robert L. Wilson (00-847)^^^^ Vietnam War 

x[34] 



USS Witek (DD-848) (no overseas deployments - used exclusively for ASW research) 
USS Richard E. Kraus (DD-849)^^'^^ Vietnam War 
Dealey class destroyer escorts 



[35] 



USS Dealey (DE-1006)' 
USS Cromwe«(DE-1014) 



USS Hammerberg (DE-1015) 



[35] 



[35] 



Bath Iron Works 



174 



[36] 



Mitscher class destroyers 

• USS Mitscher (DL-2)^^^^ 

• USS John S. McCain (DL-3) 
Vietnam War 

Forrest Sherman class destroyers 
USS Forrest Sherman (DD-931) 



Vietnam 



USS£)M/7o«f(DD-941)' 
USS Bigelow (DD-942)f"^ 
War 

USS Hull (DD-945)^^^^ Vietnam War 
USS Edson (00-946)^^^^ Vietnam 
War 

USS Somers (DD-947)^"^ Vietnam War 
Charles F. Adams class destroyers 



USS Charles F. Adams (DDG-2) 
USS John King (DDG-3)^^^^^ 
USS Sampson (DDG-10)^^^^ 
MSS Sellers {BT)G-nf'^^ 
Farragut class destroyers 

USS Dewey (DDG-45)^^'^^ 



[37] 



USS John Paul Jones (DD-932) 



[37] 



x[37] 



USS Barry (DD-933) 
War 

USS Manley (00-940)^"^ 
War 

x[37] 



Vietnam 



Vietnam 




[38] 



USS Preble (DDG-46) 
Leahy class cruisers 



[39] 



Vietnam War 



USS Leahy (CG-16) 



[40] 



USS Harry E. Yarnell (CG-17) 



[40] 



[40] 



Vietnam War 



[41] 



The second Cold War destroyer built by Bath Iron Works was named for the 
grandfather of Republican 2008 presidential candidate John S. McCain III. 



USS Worden (CG-18) 
Belknap class cruisers 

USS Belknap (CG-26)^'^^^ 
USS Josephus Daniels (CG-27) 
USS Wainwright (CG-28)^'^^^ Vietnam War 
USS William H. Standley (CG-32)f'^'^ Vietnam War 
USS Biddle (CG-34)^'^'^ Vietnam War 
Garcia class frigate 

USSG/over(FF-1098)f'^^^ 
Brooke class frigates 

USS Talbot (FFG-4)f'^^^ 
USS Richard L. Page (FFG-S)^"^^^ 
USS Julius A. Purer (¥¥0-6)^"^^^ 
Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigates 

-^ USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7)f'^'*^ 



USS Mclnemey (FFG-8) 



[44] 



Bath Iron Works 



175 



[44] 



USSaarA:(FFG-ll) 

USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) 



[44] 



USS Estocin (FFG-15) 



[44] 



USS Clifton Sprague (FFG-16) 
MSS Flatley (¥¥G-2\) 



[44] 



[44] 



[44] 



USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) 
USS Gallery (FFG-26)^'^^ 
USS Stephen W. Groves (FFG-29)' 
USS John L. Hall (FFG-32) 



[44] 



[44] 



USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) 



[44] 



USS Underwood (¥¥0-36) 



[44] 



[44] 



USS Doyle (FFG-39) 
USS Klakring (FFG-42) 

x[44] 



[44] 



x[44] 



x[44] 



USS Dewert (FFG-45)' 
-^ USS Nicholas (FFG-47)^' 
-^ USS Robert G. Bradley (FFG-49)'' 
^ USS Taylor (FFG-50) 
^ USS Hawes (FFG-53) 
^USS£/rorf(FFG-55) 

— > USS Simpson (FFG-56), launched August 31,1984. One of four U.S. Navy ships in commission to have 
sunk an enemy vessel with shipboard weaponry, the others being the USS Constitution, 
USS Porter (DDG-78), and USS Carter Hall (LSD-50), 

— > USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58), launched in 1984 and repaired after being punctured by a mine in 1988 
^ USS Kauffman (FFG-59) 
Arleigh Burke-class destroyers 

USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51), commissioned July 4, 1991. 

USS John Paul Jones (DDG-53) 

USS Curtis Wilbur (DDG-54) 

USS Johns McCain (DDG-56) 

USS Laboon (DDG-58) 

USS Paul Hamilton (DDG-60) 

USS Fitzgerald (DDG-62) 

USS Carney (DDG-64) 

USS Gonzalez (DDG-66) 

USS The Sullivans (DDG-68) 

USS Hopper (DDG-70) 

USS Mahan (DDG-72) 

USS Decatur (DDG-73) 

USS Donald Cook (DDG-75) 

USS Higgins (DDG-76) 

USS O'Kane (DDG-77) 

USS Oscar Austin (DDG-79) 

USS Winston S Churchill (DDG-81) 

USS Howard (DDG-83) 

USS McCampbell (DDG-85) 

USS Mason (DDG-87) 

USS Chafee (DDG-90) 



Bath Iron Works 176 

USS Momsen (DDG-92) 

USS Nitze (DDG-94) 

USS Bainbridge (DDG-96), launched in 2005 

USS Farragut (DDG-99) 

USS Gridley (DDG-101), launched in 2006 

USS Sampson (DDG-102) 

USS5'fereff(DDG-104) 

USS Stockdale (DDG-106) 

USS Wayne E Meyer (DDG-108) 

• ZMrnvvfl/f-class destroyers 

• USSZMmwa;f(DDG-1000) 

External links 

• Bath Iron Works website 

• USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) under repair at BIW's Portland dry dock 

Geographical coordinates: 43°54'16"N 69°48'53"W 

Further reading 

• Eskew, Garnett Laidlaw (1958). Cradle of Ships. New York: Putnam. ASIN B0007E5VY4. (First general history 
ofBIW.) 

• Peniston, Bradley (2006). No Higher Honor: Saving the USS Samuel B. Roberts in the Persian Gulf . 
Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-661-5. (Describes the construction of a — > Perry-class guided 
missile frigate, the training of its precommissioning crew at BIW, and the complex repair job that returned it to 
duty.) 

• Sanders, Michael S. (1999). The Yard: Building a Destroyer at the Bath Iron Works. New York: HarperCollins. 
ISBN 0-06-019246-1. (Describes the construction of USS Donald Cook (DDG-75) at BIW.) 

• Snow, Ralph L. (1987). Bath Iron Works: The First Hundred Years. Bath, Maine: Maine Maritime Museum. 
ISBN 0-9619449-0-0. (The definitive work on BIW from 1884-1987.) 

• Toppan, Andrew (2002). Bath Iron Works (Images of America: Maine). South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. 
ISBN 0-7385-1059-9. (Historic and contemporary photos of BIW.) 

References 

[I] See Peniston, Sanders, Snow. 

[2] http://www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor/pic-ffg58repair.shtml No Higher Honor: FFG 58 Repair 

[3] http://www.gdbiw.com/company_overview/history/default.htm 

[4] " Bath Iron Works picks Chinese firm (http://www.highbeam.com/doc/lPl-17538952.html)". United Press International. 1998-09-14. . 

Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
[5] Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.l03 
[6] Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.276 
[7] Fahey, James C. The Ships and Aircraft of the United States Fleet Ships and Aircraft ( 1939) p. 17 
[8] Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.212 
[9] Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.380 
[10] Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War//Doubleday & Company (1968) p.383 

[II] Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Wara/ripi o/WoWfi( War //Doubleday & Company (1968) p.ll4 

[12] Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.55 
[13] Tillman, Barrett Clash of the Carriers (2005) ISBN 978-0-451-21965-5 pp.301-306 
[14] Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World Wac//Doubleday & Company (1968) p.ll8 

[15] Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.l40 
[16] Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.l26 



Bath Iron Works 



177 



[17: 
[18: 

[19 

[2o: 

[21 

[22: 

[23 
[24: 
[25 
[26: 

[27: 
[28: 
[29: 

[3o: 

[31 

[32: 

[33 

[34: 

[35 

[36: 
[37: 
[38: 
[39: 
[4o: 

[41 

[42: 

[43 

[44: 

[45 

[46: 



Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.54 

Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.74 

Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.l22 

Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.l28 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.l29 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.l32 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p. 135 

Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.l27 

Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.l48 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War //Doubleday & Company (1968) p. 138 

Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.l53 

Oftsie, R.A., RADM USN The Campaigns of the Pacific War United States Government Printing Office (1946) p.l59 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p. 141 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.l43 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) pp.146-7 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.l48 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p.l50 

Silverstone, Paul H. U.S. Warships of World War // Doubleday & Company (1968) p. 152 

Blackman, Raymond V. B. Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.458 



Blackman, Raymond V. B 
Blackman, Raymond V. B 
Blackman, Raymond V. B 
Blackman, Raymond V. B 
Blackman, Raymond V. B 
Blackman, Raymond V. B 
Blackman, Raymond V. B 
Blackman, Raymond V. B 



Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.435 

Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.439 

Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.437 

Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.432 

Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.431 

Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.429 

Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.456 

Jane's Fighting Ships (1970/71) p.452 
Clement, Janet Ann, LT USNR "The FFG-7 Program: A Shipbuilding Status Report" United States Naval Institute Proceedings (June 1981) 
p. 109 
http://www.gdbiw.com/ 
http://www.navybook.com/nohigherhonor/pic-ffg58repair.shtml 



Todd Pacific Shipyards 



178 



Todd Pacific Shipyards 



Todd Pacific Shipyards Corporation was founded in 1916 as the 
William H. Todd Corporation through the merger of Robins Dry Dock 
& Repair Company of Erie Basin, Brooklyn, New York, the Tietjen & 
Long Dry Dock Company of Hoboken, New Jersey, and the Seattle 
Construction & Dry Dock Company. The Seattle shipyard could trace 
its history back to 1882, when Robert Moran opened a marine repair 
shop at Yesler's Wharf. This shop became the Moran Brothers 
Shipyard in 1906 and the Seattle Construction & Dry Dock Company 
at the end of 1911. 




— > USS Halyburton (FFG-40) and other ships 

under construction at Todd Shipyards in Seattle, 

1983. 



Todd has performed building and maintenance work for, among others, 
the U.S. and Royal Australian Navies, the United States Coast Guard, 

and the Washington State Ferries. Its headquarters and operations are ' ' 

on Harbor Island at the mouth of Seattle's Duwamish Waterway. 

Todd's shares trade on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol TOD. 

The 105-foot-long hull of Disneyland's Mark Twain Riverboat was built at Todd Shipyards in San Pedro, California 
in 1955. 



Divisions 

• Seattle Division, Seattle, Washington. (47°35'10"N 122°21'25"W) 

• Los Angeles Division, San Pedro, California. (33°45'1 1"N 

1 18°16'48"W) Formerly Los Angeles Shipbuilding & Dry Dock 
Corporation, closed in 1989 following completion of its — > Oliver 
Hazard Perry class frigate contract and after failing to win an 
Arleigh Burke class destroyer contract. Property is now part of 
the Port of Los Angeles, and has been completely converted into 
Berth 100 / West Basin Container Terminal. 

• San Francisco Division, Alameda, California. (37°47'N 122°17'W) 
Opened 1901, by United Engineering Company, later named 
Bethlehem- Alameda Shipyard, then Todd San Francisco Division, 
1949. Now closed. Documented by the Historic American 
Engineering Record as United Engineering Company Shipyard, 
survey HAER CA-295 ^'^^. 

• Mostly used as a repair or conversion facility 




Master of Ceremonies and Vice President of 
Todd Pacific Shipyards Corporation, Hans K. 

Schaefer, speaks during christening and 

launching ceremonies for the guided missile 

frigate ^ USS Reid (FFG-30) at the Todd Pacific 

Shipyards Corp., Los Angeles Division, 1981. 



Todd Pacific Shipyards 179 

External links 

• Todd Pacific Shipyards homepage 

• Todd Pacific Shipyards - FAS.org 

• Todd Shipyard's Graving Dock Named to Seven to Save List 

ro] 

• Todd Shipyard's Graving Dock preservation efforts - Contains inks to historical background about Todd 
Shipyards Corporation. 

References 

[1] GlobalSecurity.org. Todd Los Angeles Division (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/san-pedro-todd.htm). 

[2] Port of Los Angeles. Container Facilities (http://www.portoflosangeles.org/facilities_Container.htm). Shows an aerial view of Berth 100, 

the former location of Todd - San Pedro. 
[3] GlobalSecurity.org. Todd San Francisco Division (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/facility/alameda-todd.htm). 



[4] http: 

[5] http: 

[6] http: 

[7] http: 

[8] http: 



//hdl. loc.gov/loc.pnp/hhh.ca3 043 

//www. toddpacific.com 

//www. fas.org/man/company/shipyard/todd.htm 

//www. preservenys.org/7S05_toddshipyard.html 

//www. preservenys.org/7S05_toddshipyard_updates. html 



180 



Power Plant and Propulsion 



General Electric LM2500 



The General Electric LM2500 industrial and marine turboshaft gas 
turbine is a derivative of GE Aircraft Engines' CF6-6 aircraft engine. 

Current versions of the LM2500 deliver 33,600 shaft horsepower 
(25.1 MW) with a thermal efficiency of 37 percent at ISO conditions. 
It has been used in various applications such as in U.S. Navy warships 
(as well as those belonging to other navies), hydrofoils, hovercraft and 
fast ferries. As of 2004, more than one thousand LM2500 gas turbines 
have been in service for more than 29 international navies 



[1] 




An LM2500 on ^ USS Ford (FFG-54). 



Many of the military LM2500 installations place the engine inside a 

metal container of the same dimensions as a standard 40-foot (12 m) intermodal shipping container - 8 feet (2.4 m) 
wide, 8.5 feet (2.6 m) tall, and 40 feet (12 m) long. The containerized LM2500s may be designed for easy removal 
from their ships if the air intake ducting is shaped appropriately. 

The LM2500+ is an evolution of the LM2500, delivering up to 40200 shp (30000 kW) or 28.6 MW of electric 
energy when combined with an electrical generator. Two of such turbo-generators have been installed in the 
superstructure near the funnel of Queen Mary 2, the world's largest transatlantic cruise liner, for additional electric 
energy when the ship's four diesel-generators are working at maximum capacity or fail. Celebrity Cruises uses two 
LM2500H- engines in their Millennium-class ships in a COGAS cycle. 

The LM2500 is license-built in Japan by Ishikawajima-Harima, and in Italy by Avio, and in India by Hindustan 
Aeronautics Limited. 

The LM2500/LM2500H- can often be found as turbine part of COD AG or CODOG propulsion systems or in pairs as 
powerplants for COGAG systems. 

The latest development in the LM2500 family is the LMSIOO. The LMSIOO offers superior value not available in 
other 80 - 160 MW gas turbines, including high part -power efficiency, cycling capability without impacting 
maintenance intervals, 10 minute starts, dispatch reliability, turndown and load following capability and low mass 
emissions. 



General Electric LM2500 



181 



History 

The LM2500 was first used in US Navy warships in the Spruance class 
of destroyers and the related Kidd class, which were constructed from 
1970. In this configuration it was rated to 21500 shp (16000 kW). This 
configuration was subsequently used into the 1980s in the — > Oliver 
Hazard Perry class frigates, and Ticonderoga class cruisers. It was also 
used by one of People Republic of China's Type 052 Luhu Class 
Missile Destroyer (Harbin 112) acquired before the embargo. 

The LM2500 was uprated to 26500 shp (19800 kW) for the Arleigh 
Burke class destroyers, which were initiated in the 1980s and started to 
see service in the early 1990s, and the T-AOE-6 class of fast combat 
tanker. 

The current generation was uprated in the late 1990s to over 30000 shp 
(22000 kW). 



Related engines 



General Electric also offers a larger engine, the LM6000. While similar 
in configuration, the LM6000 has up to twice the power output of 
current models of LM2500. 




A heavy lift lowers the main propulsion module 

into the hull of USS Bunker Hill (CG-52) during 

construction at Ingalls Shipbuilding. The module 

consists of two General Electric LM2500 gas 

turbine engines and a Westinghouse gear 

reduction unit. 



See also 

• LM6000 

• LMSIOO 

• Rolls-Royce_Trent#MT30 



External links 

• Official site (GEAE) 



[2] 



FAS information page on US Navy LM2500 usage 



[3] 



References 

[1] "GE Marine to Supply IHI with LM2500 Gas Turbines to Power Japan's 15DDG AEGIS Destroyer" (http://www.geae.com/aboutgeae/ 

presscenter/marine/marine_20040506.html). GE Aviation Press Release. May 6, 2004. 
[2] http://www.geae.com/engines/marine/lm2500.html 
[3] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/eng/lm2500.htm 



Azimuth thruster 



182 



Azimuth thruster 




An azimuth thruster is a configuration of ship 
propellers placed in pods that can be rotated in any 
horizontal direction, making a rudder unnecessary. 
These give ships better maneuverability than a fixed 
propeller and rudder system. Primary advantages are 
electrical efficiency, better use of ship space, and lower 
maintenance costs. Ships with azimuth thrusters do not 
need tugs to dock, though they still require tugs to 
maneuver in difficult places. 

There are two major variants, based on the location of 
the motor: 

1 . Mechanical transmission, where a motor inside the 
ship is connected to the pod by gearing. The motor 
may be diesel or diesel-electric. Depending on the 
shaft arrangement the mechanical azimuth thruster are divided into L-drive and Z-drive. An L-drive thruster has a 
vertical input shaft and a horizontal output shaft with one right-angle gear. A Z-drive thruster has an horizontal 
input shaft, vertical shaft in the rotating column and a horizontal output shaft with two right-angle gears. 

2. Electrical transmission, where an electric motor is in the pod itself, connected directly to the propeller without 
gears. The electricity is produced by an onboard engine, usually diesel or gas turbine. Invented in 1955 by Mr. 
F.W. Pleuger and Mr. F. Busmann {Pleuger Unterwasserpumpen GmbH), ABB Azipod was the first product using 
this technology. 

Types of mechanical azimuth thrusters 

Mechanical azimuth thrusters are available as fixed installed, retractable and underwater-mountable. Mechanical 
azimuth thrusters are available with fixed pitch propellers (FPP) and controllable pitch propellers (CPP). 

1. Fixed installed thrusters are used for tugs, ferries and supply-boats. 

2. Retractable thrusters are used as auxiliary propulsion for DP-vessels and take-home propulsion for military 
vessels. 

3. Underwater-mountable thrusters are used as DP-propulsion for very large vessels such as semi-submersible drill 



rigs. 



Azimuth thruster 



183 



History 

The first azimuth thrusters, using the mechanical 
Z-drive transmission, were built by HoIIming in 
Finland in the 1960s under the Aquamaster brand 
name. The business was later sold to Rolls-Royce, 
after the merger of Finnish shipyards into Finnyards. 

Later, subsidiaries of ABB, also based in Finland, 
developed the Azipod thruster, with the motor located 
in the pod itself. This kind of propulsion was first 
patented in 1955 by Pleuger of Germany. 

See also 

• Azipod 

• Pleuger rudder 

• The Voith-Schneider marine propulsion system can 
also quickly change the direction of thrust. 

External links 

http://www.oysthrusters.com 
http://www.youtube.com/user/OYSthrusters 
http ://w w w . schottel . de 

[3] 



Ang. 9, 1955 F. w. pleuser etal 2,714,866 

DEVICE FOS PR&PELLIWG A SHIP 
Filed r=b. 19, 1961 2 si,..U.S>,«el 1 




F IG. 3 ''' f^-^^--^ ^ <^-" 



ATTORNETJ 



Ulstein Aquamaster azimuth thrusters 
Rolls-Royce pic, including videos of operation 

Ml 

Propulsion system for LNG Carriers , Google Answers thread, April 2003 

7990 - World's first podded propulsion system , ABB 

Azimuth Thrusters , Ship-Technology.com 

Azimuth Thrusters Types and Configurations , Thrustmaster of Texas 

[SI 

Flowserve , L-drive Flowserve Pleuger thruster from flowserve.com 

[91 
Youtube , movie azimuth thruster L-drive from flowserve.com 

http://www.hrp.nl", hrp.nl 

http://www.steerprop.com, Steerprop Azimuth Propulsors 



m. 



U.S. Patent 2714866 ' ' from 1955 



References 

[1] http://www. google. com/patents ?vid=27 14866 

[2] HoUming Group - History (http://www.hollming.fi/english/history_business.html) 

[3] http://marine.rolls-royce.com/Azimuthing-thrusters-for-marine-vessels/ 

[4] http://answers. google. com/answers/threadview?id=l 86174 

[5] http://www.abb.eom/global/seitp/seitpl61.nsf/0/364634347b7f8355cl256f550048ebd07OpenDocument 

[6] http://www.ship-technology.com/contractors/propulsion/azimuth.html 

[7] http://www.thrustmastertexas.com/products/azimuthThrusters.html 

[8] http://www.flowserve.com/vgnfiles/Files/Literature/ProductLiterature/Pumps/pss-90-8.l-e.pdf 

[9] http://www. youtube. com/watch?v=PzjFEe47bzA 



Controllable pitch propeller 



184 



Controllable pitch propeller 



A controllable pitch propeller (CPP) or variable pitch propeller is a special type of propeller with blades that can 
be rotated around their long axis to change their pitch. If the pitch can be set to negative values, the reversible 
propeller can also create reverse thrust for braking or going backwards without the need of changing the direction of 
shaft revolutions. 



Aircraft 

Such propellers are used in propeller aircraft to adapt the propeller to 
different thrust levels and air speeds so that the propeller blades don't 
stall, hence degrading the propulsion system's efficiency. Especially 
for cruising, the engine can operate in its most economical range of 
rotational speeds. With the exception of going into reverse for braking 
after touch-down, the pitch is usually controlled automatically without 
the pilot's intervention. A propeller with a controller that adjusts the 
blades' pitch so that the rotational speed always stays the same is called 
a constant speed propeller. 

The most common type of controllable pitch propeller is hydraulically 
actuated; it was originally developed by Frank W. Caldwell of the 
Hamilton Standard Division of the United Aircraft Company. This 
design led to the award of the Collier Trophy of 1933. [1] 




One of a C- 1 30 Hercules' four controllable and 
reversible pitch propellers 



Ships 

Controllable pitch propellers (CPP) for marine propulsion systems 
have been designed to give the highest propulsive efficiency for any 
speed and load condition. When the vessel is fully loaded with cargo 
the propulsion required at a given ship speed is much higher than when 
the vessel is empty. By adjusting the blade pitch, the optimum 
efficiency can be obtained and fuel can be saved. Also, the controllable 
pitch propeller has a "vane"-stance, which is useful with combined 
sailing / motor vessels as this stance gives the least water resistance 
when not using the propeller (eg when the sails are used instead). 

While it is true that a fixed pitch propeller (FPP) can be more efficient 
than a controllable pitch propeller, it can only be so at one rotational 
speed and the designed load condition. At that one rotational speed and 
load, it is able to absorb all the power that the engine can produce. At 
any other rotational speed, or any other vessel loading, the FPP cannot, 
either being over pitched or under pitched. A correctly sized 
controllable pitch propeller can be efficient for a wide range of 
rotational speeds, since pitch can be adjusted to absorb all the power 
that the engine is capable of producing at nearly any rotational speed. 




A ship's controllable pitch propeller 



Controllable pitch propeller 



185 



The CPP also improves maneuverability of a vessel. When maneuvering the vessel the advantage of the CPP is the 
fast change of propulsion direction. The direction of thrust can be changed without slowing down the propeller and 
depending on the size of the CPP can be changed in approximately 15 to 40 seconds. The increased maneuverability 
can eliminate the need for docking tugs while berthing. 

A reversing gear or a reversible engine is not necessary anymore, saving money to install and service these 
components. Depending on the main engine rotational speed and the size of the CPP, a reduction gear may still be 
required. A CPP does require a hydraulic system to control the position of the blades. A CPP does not produce more 
or less wear or stress on the propeller shaft or propulsion engine than an FPP. Therefore this will not be an argument 
to choose between an FPP or a CPP. 

Most ships that wouldn't take a CPP are large vessels that make long trips at a constant service speed, for example 
crude oil tankers or the largest container ships which have so much power that a CPP is not yet designed for them. A 
CPP can mostly be found on harbor or ocean-going tugs, dredgers, cruise ships, ferries and cargo vessels that sail to 
ports with limited or no tug assistance. 

At the moment the range of CPP goes up to 44000 kW (60,000 hp). 

See also 

[21 

• Document from Wartsila 

References 

[1] http://www. time. com/time/magazine/article/0,9 171, 7542 15, 00. html ?promoid=googlep 

[2] http://www.wartsila.com/Wartsila/global/docs/en/ship_power/media_publications/brochures/product/propulsors/cpp.pdf 



Stabilizer (ship) 



This article refers to the nautical term. For other uses, see stabilizer. 

Ship stabilizers are fins mounted beneath the waterline and emerging 
laterally. In contemporary vessels, they may be gyroscopically 
controlled active fins, which have the capacity to change their angle of 
attack to counteract roll caused by wind or waves acting on the ship. 

The bilge keel is an early 20th century predecessor. Although not as 
effective at reducing roll, bilge keels are cheaper, easier to install, and 
do not require dedicated internal space inside the hull. 

External links 

• Arcturus Marine - manufacturers of ride control, thrusters, digital 
stabilizers and integrated hydraulics 

[21 

• Blohm + Voss Industries - manufacturers of ship stabilizers 

• Halcyon International - manufacturers of ship stabilizers 
including gyro-stabilisers 

[41 

• Naiad Marine - manufacturers of roll stabilizers, stabilization at 
anchor systems, interceptors, bow and stern thrusters, integrated 
hydraulic systems 

• Rolls Royce manufacturers of ship stabilizers 



Fin Stabilizer 
(sin ip front view) 




Location and diagram of retractable fin stabilizers 
on a ship. 



Stabilizer (ship) 



186 



Seakeeper Inc. - manufacture of stabilization products for ships 
including control moment gyro roll stabilizers 

Ship Dynamics - manufacturers of ship stabilizers inc. first active 
gyroscopic stabilisers, interceptored foils (patented), control 
systems 

roi 

Sperry Marine - manufacturers of ship stabilizers 
Pinfabb - manufacturers of ship stabilizer control 
Foure Lagadec - manufacturer of ship stabilizers 




Photograph of a ship's stabihzer. 



References 



[1] http: 

[2] http: 

[3] http: 

[4] http: 

[5] http: 

[6] http: 

[7] http: 

[8] http: 

[9] http: 



//www. thrusters.com/products/stabihzers.shtm 

//www. bv-industrie.de/products/stabilizers/ 

//www. halcyon, net.au/ 

//www. naiad. com 

//www. rolls-royce.com/marine/products 

// w w w . seakeeper. com/ 

// w w w . shipdy namic s . com/ 

//www. sperry-marine.com/gyrofin/Index. asp 

// w w w . pinfabb . com/stabihsers_control. htm 



[10] http://www.fourelagadec.com/eng/dm_stabilisateurs_marine.html 



187 



Aircraft 



SH-2 Seasprite 



SH-2 Seasprite 




SH-2F Seasprite of the US Navy 



Role 
Manufacturer 



First fliglit 
Introduction 



Primary user 
Unit cost 



Variants 



ASW helicopter 
Kaman Aircraft Corporation 



2 July 1959(HU2K-1) 
December 1962 



United States Navy 
$16 million (SH-2F) 



SH-2G Super Seasprite 



The Kaman SH-2 Seasprite is a ship-based helicopter with anti-submaiine, anti-surface threat capability, including 
over-the-horizon targeting. This aircraft extends and increases shipboard sensor and weapon capabilities against 
several types of enemy threats, including submarines of all types, surface ships, and patrol craft that may be armed 
with anti-ship missiles. It was developed for the United States Navy beginning in the late 1950s. 



SH-2 Seasprite 



188 



Design and development 



To meet its requirements for a fast, all-weather utility helicopter the 
US Navy held a competition in 1956. Kaman's K-20 model was 
selected as the winner. Kaman was awarded a contract for four 
prototype and 12 production HU2K-1 helicopters in late 1957. The 
Kaman design featured four blades on the main rotor and three blades 
on the tail rotor with a single General Electric T58-GE-8F turboshaft 
engine. Trials ran for a few years and the helicopter entered service in 



late 1962 



[2] 




When the aircraft numbering system was changed in 1962, the 
HU2K-1 was redesignated the UH-2A and the HU2K-1U was 
redesignated UH-2B. The UH-2 was primarily deployed aboard 
aircraft carriers in a Search-and-Rescue (SAR) role. The airframe 
continued to undergo upgrades, such as the addition of external stores 
stations. Beginning in 1968, remaining UH-2s were upgraded to use 
two T58 engines 



A UH-2A on plane guard duty hovers over the 
USS Kitty Hawk in March 1966. 



[3] 




The UH-2 was selected to be the airframe for the interim Light 

Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) helicopter in October 

[31 
1970. LAMPS evolved in the late 1960s from an urgent requirement 

to develop a manned helicopter that would support a non-aviation ship 

and serve as its tactical Anti- Submarine Warfare arm. Known as 

LAMPS Mark 1, the advanced sensors, processors, and display I 

capabilities aboard the helicopter enabled ships to extend their 

situational awareness beyond the line-of-sight limitations that hamper shipboard radars and the short distances for 

acoustic detection and prosecution of underwater threats associated with hull-mounted sonars. H-2s reconfigured for 



A UH-2C aboard the USS Hancock between July 
1968 and IVIarch 1969 



the LAMPS mission were redesignated SH-2D 
USS Belknap (CG-26) in December 1971. 



[3] 



The first operational SH-2D LAMPS helicopter embarked on the 



The full LAMPS 1 system was equipped on the SH-2F. The SH-2F was delivered to the Navy beginning in 1973. 
This variant had upgraded engines, longer life rotor, and higher take-off weight. In 1981, the Navy ordered 60 
production SH-2Fs. Beginning in 1987, 16 SH-2Fs were upgraded with chin mounted Forward Looking Infrared 
Sensors (FLIR), Chaff (A1RB0C)/Flares, dual rear mounted IR scramblers, and Missile/Mine detecting 
equipment. 

Eventually all but two H-2s then in Navy inventory were remanufactured into SH-2Fs. The final production 
procurement of the SH-2F was in Fiscal Year 1986. The last six orders for production SH-2Fs were switched to the 



SH-2G Super Seasprite variant 



[4] 



Operational history 

SH-2Fs were utilized to enforce Operation Ernest Will (July 1987) and later Operation Praying Mantis (April 1988) 
and Desert Storm (January 1991) in the Persian Gulf region. The added countermeasures and equipment gave the 
SH-2F's enhanced survivability while taking on more surface related combat tasking in an environment of limited 
submarine threat. The SH-2F was retired from active service in October 1993, at roughly the same time that the 
Navy retired and/or sold the last of its (Viet Nam era) Knox Class Frigates that could not accommodate the newly 
acquired (and larger) SH-60 Sea Hawk. 



SH-2 Seasprite 189 

New Zealand 

Prior to receiving SH-2Gs, the RNZN replaced its Westland Wasps with SH-2Fs. RNZN Seasprites have seen 
service in East Timor. RNZAF also has six Kaman SH-2F Seasprite training helicopters. They are stationed at the 
RNZAF Ground Training Wing (GTW) at Woodbourne near Blenheim 

Variants 

YHU2K-1 

Four test and evaluation prototypes. 

HU2K-1 

Utility transport helicopter, powered by a 1,250-shp (932-kW) General Electric T58-GE-8B turboshaft engine. 
Initial production version. Later redesignated UH-2A in 1962. 88 built. 

UH-2B 

Utility transport helicopter. 102 built. 

UH-2C 

UH-2A and UH-2B helicopters fitted with two General Electric T58-GE-8B turboshaft engines. One former 
UH-2A acted as a prototype and was followed by 40 conversions from UH-2A and UH-2B. 

NUH-2C 

One test and evaluation helicopter. One UH-2C helicopter was equipped to carry and fire, AIM-9 Sidewinder 
and AIM-7 Sparrow III air-to-air missiles. 

NUH-2D 

Redesignation of the NUH-IC test and evaluation helicopter. 
HH-2C 

Search and rescue helicopter, armed with a single Minigun in a chin-mounted turret. Six conversions. 
HH-2D 

Search and rescue helicopter, without any armament or armor. 67 conversions from UH-2A and UH-2Bs. 
SH-2D 

Anti-submarine warfare helicopter, 20 conversions from earlier models. 
YSH-2E 

Two test and evaluation helicopters, fitted with an advanced radar and LAMPS equipment. 

SH-2F 

Anti-submarine warfare helicopter, powered by two 1,350 shp (1,007 kW) General Electric T58-GE-8F 
turboshaft engines. Improved version. Conversions from SH-2Ds and earlier models. 

YSH-2G 

1 SH-2G prototype converted from an SH-2F. 

SH-2G Super Seasprite 

Anti-submarine warfare helicopter, powered by two 1,723 shp (1,285 kW) General Electric T700-GE-401 
turboshaft engines. 



SH-2 Seasprite 190 

Operators 

SI New Zealand 

• Royal New Zealand Air Force 

• No. 6 Squadron RNZAF (Naval Support Flight) 
^a United States 

• United States Navy (SH-2F retired in 1993) 
See SH-2G Super Seasprite for SH-2G operators. 

Aircraft on display 

• The only remaining U.S. Navy HH-2D, bureau number 149031 / callsign "Copyright 14", is currently on display 
outside at the American Helicopter Museum & Education Center in West Chester, Pennsylvania. 

• An SH-2F, bureau number unknown, is on outside display at the National Museum of Naval Aviation on board 
Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida 

• An SH-2F is on outside display at the intersection of Tow Way Road and Quentin Roosevelt Blvd aboard Naval 
Air Station North Island, Coronado, California. 

• An SH-2F is preserved in the Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum. 

• The cockpit section of an SH-2F, is on display in Hangar Bay 104, Marine Corps Base Hawaii. Home of the U.S. 
Navy's oldest LAMPS Mk III squadron HSL-37, "THE EASYRIDERS". 

• SH-2F, bureau number 151321 is currently on display at the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in 
McMinnville, Oregon. 

Specifications 
UH-2A 

Data from Carrier Aviation Air Power Directory 

General characteristics 

Length: 52 ft 2 in (15.90 m) 

Rotor diameter: 44 ft in (13.41 m) 

Height: 13 ft 6 in (4.11 m) 

Disc area: 1520.53 sq ft (141.26 sq m) 

Empty weight: 6,100 lb (2,127 kg) 

Max takeoff weight: 10,200 lb (4,627 kg) 

Powerplant: Ix General Electric T58-GE-8B turboshaft, 1,525 shp (1,137 kW) 

Rotor systems: 4 blades on main rotor and 3 on tail rotor 

Performance 

Never exceed speed: 150 knots (278 km/h, 173 mph) 
Maximum speed: 141 knots (162 mph, 261 km/h) 
Cruise speed: 120 knots (138 mph, 222 km/h) 
Range: 582 nmi (670 mi, 1,080 km) 
Service ceiling: 17,400 ft (5,305 m) 



SH-2 Seasprite 191 

SH-2F 

[7] 
Data from The Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft 

General characteristics 

Crew: 3 (Pilot, Co-pilot/Tactical Coordinator (TACCO), Sensor Operator (SENSO)) 

Length: 52 ft 7 in (15.9m) 

Rotor diameter: 44 ft in (13.41 m) 

Height: 15 ft 6 in (4.72 m) 

Disc area: 1520.53 sq ft (141.26 sq m) 

Empty weight: 7,040 lb (3,193 kg) 

Max takeoff weight: 12,800 lb (5,805 kg) 

Powerplant: 2x General Electric T58-GE-8F turboshaft, 1,350 shp (1,007 kW) each 

Rotor systems: 4 blades on main rotor and tail rotor 

Performance 

Maximum speed: 143 knots (165 mph, 265 km/h) 

Cruise speed: 130 knots (150 mph, 241 km/h) 

Range: 366 nmi (422 mi, 679 km) 

Service ceiling: 22,500 ft (6,860 m) 

Rate of climb: ft/min (m/s) Armament 

Missiles: Non-US aircraft carry a variety of guided missiles, including the AGM-65 Maverick (often used in the 

anti-ship role) and dedicated anti-ship missiles. 

2 Mk 46 or Mk 50 torpedoes 

See also 

Related development 

• SH-2G Super Seasprite 

Comparable aircraft 

• -^ SH-60 Seahawk 

• Westland Lynx 

Related lists 

• List of military aircraft of the United States 

References 
Bibliography 

• Andrade, John M. U.S. Military Aircraft Designations and Serials since 1909. Midland Counties Publications, 
England, 1979. ISBN 0-904597-22-9. 

• Donald, David; Daniel J. March (2001). Carrier Aviation Air Power Directory. Norwalk, CT: AIRtime 
Publishing. ISBN 1-880588-43-9. 

• Donald, David; Jon Lake (2000). The Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. NY, NY: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 
0-7607-2208-0. 

• Eden, Paul. "Kaman SH-2 Seasprite", Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft. Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 
1904687849. 



SH-2 Seasprite 192 

External links 

roT 

• Kaman Aerospace Seasprite page (manufacturer) 

• List of all SH-2 helicopters used by Polish Air Force 

• SH-2 Seasprite on GlobaIsecurity.org 

• SH-2G Super Seasprite page on Naval-Technology.com 

• SH-2F Seasprite on Naval Officer Ray Trygstad's site 

ri3i 

• Kiwi Aircraft Images: Kaman SH-2 Seasprite 

ri4i 

• Seasprite Central 

References 

[I] Donald, David ed. "Kaman H-2 Seasprite", The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Barnes & Noble Books, 1997. ISBN 
0-7607-0592-5. 

[2] Apostolo, G. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters. Bonanza Books, 1984. ISBN 0-517-439352. 

[3] Frawley, Gerard The International Directory of Military Aircraft, Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2. p. 100. 

[4] Eden2004, p. 219. 

[5] " RNZAF - 6 Squadron (http://www.airforce.mil.nz/about-us/squadrons/6-squadron/default.htm)". Royal New Zealand Air Force. . 

Retrieved 2008-08-25. 
[6] Donald and March 2001, p. 52. 
[7] Donald and Lake 2000, p. 215. 

[8] http://www.kamanaero.com/helicopters/seasprite.html 

[9] http://militarypedia.corran.pl/wiki/Kaman_SH-2_Seasprite_w_Wojsku_Polskim 
[10] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/sh-2.htm 

[II] http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/sea_sprite/ 
[12] http://www.raytrygstad.com/home/navalofficer/sh-2f.html 
[13] http://www.kiwiaircraftimages.com/seasprite.html 

[14] http://seaspritecentral.50megs.com/Index.htm 



SH-60 Seahawk 



193 



SH-60 Seahawk 



SH-60 / MH-60 Seahawk 




U.S. Navy SH-60F with external fuel tank. 



Role 



Manufacturer 
First fliglit 



Introduced 
Status 



Primary user 
Produced 



Unit cost 



Developed from 
Variants 



Multimission maritime helicopter 



Sikorsky Aircraft 
12 December 1979 



1984 

Active service 



United States Navy 
1970s— present 



USD$28 milUon (MH-60S) 



[1] 



UH-60 Black Hawk 

HH-60 Jayhawk 
Mitsubishi SH-60 



The Sikorsky SH-60/MH-60 Seahawk is a twin turboshaft engine, multi-mission United States Navy helicopter 
based on the airframe of the United States Army UH-60 Black Hawk and a member of the Sikorsky S-70 family. The 
most significant modification is a hinged tail to reduce its footprint aboard ships. 

The U.S. Navy uses the H-60 airframe under the model designations SH-60B, SH-60F, HH-60H, MH-60R, and 
MH-60S. Able to deploy aboard any air-capable — > frigate, destroyer, cruiser, fast combat support ship, amphibious 
assault ship, or aircraft carrier, the Seahawk can handle antisubmarine warfare (ASW), undersea warfare (USW), 
anti-surface warfare (ASUW), naval special warfare (NSW) insertion, search and rescue (SAR), combat search and 
rescue (CSAR), vertical replenishment (VERTREP), and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC). All Navy H-60s carry 
either the Lucas Western or Breeze Eastern rescue hoist for SAR/CSAR missions. 



SH-60 Seahawk 



194 



Design and development 
Origins 

During the 1970s the US Navy began looking for new helicopter to replace the Kaman — » SH-2 Seasprite. The 
SH-2 Seasprite was used by the Navy as its platform for the Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) Mark 1 
avionics suite for the maritime warfare and a secondary search and rescue capability. Advances in sensor and avionic 
technology lead to LAMPS Mk 11 suite, but the SH-2 was not large enough to carry the Navy's required equipment. 
In the mid-1970s the Army was evaluating of the Sikorsky YUH-60 and Boeing-Vertol YUH-61 for its Utility 
Tactical Transport Aircraft System (UTTAS) competition. The Navy based its requirements on the Army's 
UTTAS specification to decrease costs from commonality. Sikorsky and Boeing-Vertol submitted proposals for 
Navy versions of their Army UTTAS helicopters in April 1977 for review. The Navy also looked at helicopters 
being produced by Bell, Kaman, Westland and MBB, but these were too small for the mission. In early 1978 the 

[21 

Navy selected Sikorsky's S-70B design, which was designated "SH-60B Seahawk". 



SH-60B Seahawk 



[4] 



The SH-60B maintained 83% commonality with the UH-60A. The main changes are corrosion protection, more 
powerful T700 engines, shifting the tail landing gear 13 ft forward, replacing left side door with fuselage structure, 
and adding two weapon pylons. Other changes included larger fuel cells, an electric blade folding system, folding 
horizontal stabilators for storage, and adding a 25-tube pneumatic sonobuoy launcher on left side. Shifting the tail 
landing gear reduced the footprint for shipboard landing. 

Five YSH-60B Seahawk LAMPS 111 prototypes were ordered. The first 
flight of a YSH-60B occurred on 12 December 1979. The first 
production version SH-60B achieved its first flight on 11 February 
1983. The SH-60B entered operational service in 1984 with first 




operational deployment in 1985 



[3] 



SH-60B Seahawk. 



The SH-60B LAMPS Mk 111 is deployed primarily aboard -> frigates, 
destroyers, and cruisers. The primary missions of the SH-60B are 
surface warfare and anti-submarine warfare. 



The SH-60B carries a complex system of sensors including a towed 

Magnetic Anomaly Detector (MAD) and air-launched sonobuoys. Other sensors include the APS-124 search radar, 
ALQ-142 ESM system and optional nose-mounted forward looking infrared (FLIR) turret. It carries the — > Mk 46, 
-> Mk 50, or Mk 54 torpedo, AGM-114 Hellfire missile, and a single cabin-door-mounted M60D/M240 7.62 mm 
(0.30 in) machine gun or GAU-16 .50 in (12.7 mm) machine gun. 

A standard crew for a SH-60B is one pilot, one ATO/Co-Pilot 
(Airborne Tactical Officer), and an enlisted aviation systems warfare 
operator (sensor operator). Operating squadrons are designated 
Helicopter Anti-submarine Light (HSL). 

The SH-60J is a version of the SH-60B for the Japan Maritime 

Self-Defense Force. The SH-60K is a modified version of the SH-60J. 

The SH-60J and SH-60K are built under license by Mitsubishi in 
[6] [7] 



Japan. ^ 




A Seahawk waits above the ground to evacuate a 

simulated casualty as fellow MARSOC operators 

bring the Marine on a stretcher. 



SH-60 Seahawk 



195 



SH-60F "Oceanhawk" 

After the SH-60B entered service, the Navy began development of the SH-60F variant to replace the SH-3 Sea 

[81 
King. Development of this variant began with the award of a contract to Sikorsky in March 1985. An early 

SH060B was modified to serve as a SH-60F prototype. The company was contracted to produce seven SH-60Fs in 

January 1986 and the first example flew on 19 March 1987. 

The SH-60F serves as the carrier battle group's primary anti-submarine warfare (ASW) and search and rescue (SAR) 
aircraft. It hunts submarines with the AN/AQS-13F dipping sonar, and carries 14 sonobuoys. The SH-60F carries the 
Mk 46 torpedo and a choice of cabin-mounted machine guns, including the M60D, M240, and GAU-16 for defense. 
Standard crew complement is one pilot, one copilot, one enlisted tactical sensor operator (TSO), and one enlisted 
acoustic sensor operator (ASO). 

The SH-60F first entered operational service in 22 June 1989 with Helicopter Antisubmarine Squardron 10 (HS-10) 
at NAS North Island.^'"^ SH-60F squadrons will shift from the SH-60F to the MH-60S beginning in 2009, they will 
be redesignated Helicopter Sea Combat (HSC). 



HH-60H "Rescue Hawk" 

The HH-60H was developed beginning in September 1986 with a 
contract for the first five helicopters. The variant's first flight occurred 
on 17 August 1988. The HH-60H was developed in conjunction with 
the US Coast Guard's HH-60J. DeHveries of the HH-60H began in 



1989. The variant earned initial operating capability in April 1990 



[9] 




An HH-60H deploying a SAR swimmer. 



Based on the SH-60F, the HH-60H is the primary combat search and 

rescue (CSAR), naval special warfare (NSW) and anti-surface warfare 

(ASUW) helicopter. It carries a variety of defensive and offensive 

sensors making it one of the most survivable helicopters in the world. 

Sensors include a FLIR turret with laser designator and the Aircraft 

Survival Equipment (ASE) package including the ALQ-144 Infrared Jammer, AVR-2 Laser Detectors, APR-39(V)2 

Radar Detectors, AAR-47 Missile Launch Detectors and ALE-47 chaff/flare dispensers. Additionally, airframe 

improvements in engine exhaust deflectors provide infrared thermal reduction reducing the threat of heat-seeking 

missiles. The HH-60H can carry up to four AGM-114 Hellfire missiles on an extended wing using the M299 

launcher and a variety of cabin and port window mounted guns including M60D, M240, GAU-16 and GAU-17/A 

machine guns. The standard crew for a Rescue Hawk is one pilot, one copilot, and two door gunners. HH-60H are 

operated in Helicopter Antisubmarine (HS) squadrons with a standard dispersal of four F-models and three 

H-models. 



MH-60S "Knighthawk" 



SH-60 Seahawk 



196 



The Navy decided to replace the venerable CH-46 Sea Knight 
helicopter in 1997. After sea demonstrations by a converted UH-60, 
the Navy awarded production contract for the CH-60S in 1998. The 
variant first flew in 27 January 2000 and it began flight testing later 
that year. The CH-60S was redesignated MH-60S in February 2001 to 



reflect its planned multi-mission use 



[10] 




ir 



I 



An MH-60S Knighthawk conducts VERTREP 



The MH-60S is based on the UH-60L and has many naval SH-60 

ri2i 
features. It is deployed aboard amphibious assault ships and fast 

combat supply ships. It has two missions: troop transport and vertical 

replenishment (VERTREP), but can also perform search and rescue 

(SAR). The MH-60S has no offensive sensors but can carry the ALQ-144 Infrared Jammer. The MH-60S will, in the 

near future, deploy with the AQS-20A Mine Detection System and an Airborne Laser Mine Detection System 

(ALMDS) for identifying submerged objects in coastal waters. The S-model is the first US Navy helicopter to field 

the glass cockpit where-by the flight data information is relayed to pilots using four digital screens rather than 

electromechanical gauges and dials. The primary means of defense is with the M60D, M240 or GAU-17/A guns. A 

"batwing" refit (Armed Helo Kit) based on the Army's UH-60L was developed to accommodate Hellfire, Hydra 70 

2.75" rockets, or a larger guns or cannon. 

The MH-60S is unofficially known as the "Knighthawk", reflecting its role as the designated successor of the Sea 
Knight, though this name was formally disapproved in favor of the "Seahawk" name. A standard crew for the 

"Knighthawk" is one pilot, one copilot and two others depending on mission. With the retirement of the Sea Knight, 
the squadron designation of HeUcopter Combat Support Squadron (HC) was also retired from the Navy. Operating 
MH-60S squadrons were re-designated Helicopter Sea Combat (HSC). 

UnHke all other Navy H-60s, the MH-60S is not based on the original S-70B/SH-60B platform with its 
forward-mounted twin tail-gear and single starboard sliding cabin door. Instead, the S-model is a hybrid, featuring 
the main fuselage of the S-70A/UH-60, with large sliding doors on both sides of the cabin and a single aft-mounted 
tail wheel; and the engines, drivetrain and rotors of the S-70B/SH-60 



[16] 



In July 2009, the Republic of Korea requested eight MH-60S helicopters, 16 GE T700-401C engines, and related 
sensor systems to be sold in a Foreign Military Sale. 



MH-60R Seahawk 

The MH-60R was originally referred to as "LAMPS Mark III Block II 
Upgrade" when it began development in 1993. Two SH-60Bs were 
converted by Sikorsky for the project. The first modified SH-60 made 
its maiden flight on 22 December 1999. These conversions, designated 
YSH-60S, were deUvered to NAS Patuxent River in 2001 for flight 
testing. The production variant was redesignated MH-60S to match its 
multi-mission capability 



[18] 




An MH-60R conducts sonar operations. 



The MH-60R is designed to combine the features of the SH-60B and 
SH-60F.^'^^ Its sensors include the ASE package, MTS-FLIR, an 

advanced airborne fleet data link, and a more advanced airborne active 1 

sonar. It does not carry the MAD suite. Pilot instrumentation will be based on the MH-60S's glass cockpit, using 
several digital monitors instead of the complex array of dials and gauges in Bravo and Foxtrot aircraft. Offensive 
capabilities are improved by the addition of new Mk-54 air-launched torpedoes and Hellfire missiles. All Helicopter 
Anti-Submarine Light (HSL) squadrons that receive the Romeo will be redesignated Helicopter Maritime Strike 
(HSM).f^^^ 



SH-60 Seahawk 197 

The Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), HSM-41, received the R-model aircraft in December 2005 and has begun 
training the first set of pilots. In 2007, the MH-60R successfully underwent final testing for incorporation into the 
fleet. As of August 2008, the first 11 combat-ready examples equipped HSM-71, a squadron assigned to the USS 
John C. Stennis (CVN-74). According to Lockheed Martin, "secondary missions include search and rescue, vertical 
replenishment, naval surface fire support, logistics support, personnel transport, medical evacuation and 
communications and data relay." 

Variants 
US versions 

YSH-60B Seahawk: Developmental version, led to SH-60B.f^^^ 
SH-60B Seahawk 

[211 

NSH-60B Seahawk: Permanently configured for flight testing. 

SH-60F Oceanhawk 

NSH-60F Seahawk: Modified SH-60F to support the VH-60N Cockpit Upgrade Program.^^^^ 

HH-60H Rescue Hawk: 

YSH-60R Seahawk: 

MH-60R Seahawk: 

YCH-60S "Knighthawk": 

MH-60S "Knighthawk": 

Export versions 

• S-70B Seahawk: Sikorsky's designation for Seahawk. Designation is often used for exports. 

• S-70B-1 Seahawk: Anti-submarine version for the Spanish Navy. The Seahawk is configured with the 
LAMPS (Light Airbone Multipurpose System) 

• S-70B-2 Seahawk: Anti-submarine version for the Royal Australian Navy, similar to the SH-60B Seahawk in 
US Navy operation. 

• S-70B-3 Seahawk: Anti-submarine version for the Japanese Maritime Self Defence Force. Also known as the 
SH-60J, the JMSDF ordered a total of 101 units, with deUveries starting in 1991. 

• S-70B-6 Aegean Hawk: the Greek military variant which is a blend of the SH-60B and F models, based on 
Taiwan's S-70C(M)l/2. 

• S-70B-7 Seahawk: Export version for the Royal Thai Navy. 

• S-70C(M)-l/2 Thunderhawk: Export version for the Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy. 

• S-70A (N) Naval Hawk: Maritime variant that blends the S-70A Black Hawk and S-70B Seahawk designs. 



SH-60 Seahawk 



198 



Operators 

• United States Navy 

Operational US Navy squadrons 

SH-60B 

[22] 



[24] 



HSL-37 "Easyriders" 
HSL-40 "Airwolves" ^^^^ 
HSL-42 "Proud Warriors" 
HSL-43 "Battle Cats" ^^^^ 
HSL-44 "Swamp Fox" ^^^^ 
HSL-45 "Wolfpack" ^^^^ 
HSL-46 "Grandmasters" ^^^^ 
HSL-48 "Vipers" ^^'^^ 
HSL-49 "Scorpions" ^^°^ 
HSL-51 "Warlords" 
HSL-60 "Jaguars" ^^^^ 
HSL-84 "Thunderbolts" ^^^^ 




MH-60S "Knighthawk" with tail and rotors 
folded on the USS Mount Whitney. 



SH-60F/HH-60H 

HS-4 "Black Knights' 
HS-5 "Nightdippers' 
HS-6 "Indians" ^^^^ 



[33] 
[34] 



HS-7 "Dusty Dogs 
HS-10 "Warhawks 
HS-11 "Dragonslayers 
HS-14 "Chargers" 
HS-15 "Red Lions" 



.. [36] 
.. [37] 
M [38] 



[39] 



.. [40] , 



HS-75 "Emerald Knights" ' "' (US Navy Reserve) 

HCS-4 "Red Wolves" ^"^'^ - redesignated HSC-84 in 2006 
HCS-5 "Firehawks" - disestablished in 2006 
VX-31 "Dust Devils" 

MH-60R 

• HSM-41 Seahawks f"^^^" 




MH-60S Seahawk hoisting up a SAR swim pair. 



HSM-70 Spartans 
HSM-71 Raptors 



[43] 
[44] 



• HSM-77 "Saberhawks' 
MH-60S 



[45] 



HSC-2 "Fleet Angels 



HSC-3 "IVIerlins 



M [46] 



.. [47] 



HSC-8 "Eightballers" 

HSC-9 "Tridents" '^^^^ redesignated from HS-3 on 1 June 2009 

HSC-12 "Golden Falcons" ^'^''^ redesignated from HS-2 on 6 August 2009.^^°^ 



HSC-21 "Blackjacks 
HSC-22 "Sea Knights 
HSC-23 "Wild Cards' 



" [51] 



.. [52] 
[53] 



SH-60 Seahawk 



199 



M [55] 



HSC-25 "Island Knights 
HSC-26 "Chargers 
HSC-28 "Dragon Whales 
HSC-85 "High Rollers 



M [54] 



„ [56] 



., [57] 



[58], 




Non-US operators 

san Australia 

• Royal Australian Navy - received 16 S-70B-2 Seahawks/''"^ and has 
16 S-70BS in service as of 2008.^^'^^ 

• No. 816 Squadron RAN 
B3 Brazil 

• Brazilian Navy - 4 S-70B Seahawks to be delivered in 2009. 
^= Greece 

• Received 1 1 S-70B-6 Aegean Hawks,^^°^ and has 1 1 S-70Bs in 
service as of 2008. 

• Japan 

• SeeSH-60J/K 
^~ Spain 

• Spanish Navy - received 12 S-70B-1 Seahawks and has 12 S-70Bs in service as of 2008. 
^1 Republic of China (Taiwan) 

• RepubHc of China Navy - received 21 S-70C (10 S-70C(]V[)-1 and 1 1 S-70C(]V[)-2) ThunderhawksJ*^^^ and has 19 
S-70CS in service as of 2008^^^^ in 701st and 702nd Hehcopter Squadron (Light).^^^^ 

^Si Thailand 

• Royal Thai Navy - received 6 S-70B-7 SeahawksJ'''^^ and has 6 1VIH-60S Seahawks order. ^""^^ It has 6 S-70Bs in 



An SH-60J on the hangar deck of the Japanese 
Asagiri class destroyer JDS Umigiri (DD-158). 



use as of 2008 
I Turkey 



[59] 



Turkish Naval Forces - has received 8 S-70B-28 Seahawks with 17 more on order. It has 7 S-70Bs in use as of 



[66] 



2008 



[59] 



Specifications (SH-60B) 



Data from Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory, Navy fact file, and Sikorsky S-70B 

General characteristics 
Crew: 3-4 

Capacity: 5 passengers in cabin or slung load of 6,000 lb or internal load of 4,100 lb for -B, -F and -H models 

and 1 1 passengers or slung load of 9,000 lb for -S 

Length: 64 ft 8 in (19.75 m) 

Rotor diameter: 53 ft 8 in (16.35 m) 

Height: 17 ft 2 in (5.2 m) 

Disc area: 2,262 ft^ (210 m^) 

Empty weight: 15,200 lb (6,895 kg) 

Loaded weight: 17,758 lb (8,055 kg) 

Useful load: 6,684 lb (3,031 kg) 

Max takeoff weight: 21,884 lb (9,927 kg) 



SH-60 Seahawk 200 

• Powerplant: 2x General Electric T700-GE-40 1 C turboshaft, 1 ,890 shp ( 1 ,4 1 kW) take-off power each 

Performance 

Maximum speed: 180 knots (333 km/h, 207 mph) 
Cruise speed: 146 knots 
Range: 450 nmi (834 km) at cruise speed 
Service ceiling: 12,000 ft (3,580 m) 

Rate of climb: 1,650 ft/min (8.38 m/s)Armament 

Up to three — > Mark 46 torpedos or — > Mark 50 torpedos, 

AGM-1 14 Hellfire missile, 4 Hellfire missiles for SH-60B and HH-60H, 8 Hellfire missiles for MH-60S Block 

III. 

AGM-1 19 Penguin missile (being phased out), 

M60 machine gun or, M240 machine gun or GAU-16/A machine gun or GAU-17/A Minigun 

Rapid Airborne Mine Clearance System (RAMICS) using Mk 44 Mod 30 mm Cannon 

See Main Article: U.S. Helicopter Arrnament Subsystems 

See also 

• List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons 

• US Helicopter Armament Subsystems 

Related development 

Sikorsky S-70 

UH-60 Black Hawk 

HH-60 Pave Hawk 

HH-60 Jayhawk 

Mitsubishi SH-60 

Piasecki X-49 

Sikorsky S-92/CH-148 Cyclone 

Comparable aircraft 

• Boeing-Vertol YUH-61 

• Kamov Ka-27 

• Harbin Z-9 

• NHINH90 

• Westland Lynx 

Related lists 

• List of helicopters 

• List of military aircraft of the United States 



SH-60 Seahawk 201 

References 

Sources 

• A 1 -H60CA-NFM-000 NATOPS Flight Manual Navy Model H-60F/H Aircraft 

• Donald, David ed. "Sikorsky HH/MH/SH-60 Seahawk", Warplanes of the Fleet. AlRtime, 2004. ISBN 
1-880588-81-1. 

• Leoni, Ray D. Black Hawk, The Story of a World Class Helicopter, American Institute of Aeronautics and 
Astronautics, 2007. ISBN 978-1-56347-918-2. 

• Tomajczyk, Stephen F. Black Hawk, MBI, 2003. ISBN 0-7603-1591-4. 

External links 

• S-70B Seahawk page on Sikorsky.com 

• SH-60 fact file ^^^^ and SH-60 history page on US Navy site ^^^^ 

• SH-60 ^^^\ HH-60H ^^"^^ MH-60S pages on Globalsecurity.org ^^^^ 

• "U.S. Army/Navy Signs 5-Year Production Contract for UH-60 Helicopters" (also HH-60M & MH-60R) ^^''l 
Sikorsky, December 12, 2007. 

References 

[I] MH-60S Knighthawk (http://www.deagel.com/Tactical-Support-Helicopters/MH-60S-Knighthawk_a00050801 l.aspx), Deagle, , retrieved 
2008-10-05 

[2] Leoni 2007, pp. 203-4. 

[3] Sikorsky S-70B Seahawk (http://www.vectorsite.net/avs70_2.html), Vectorsite.net, 1 July 2006. 

[4] Eden, Paul. "Sikorsky H-60 Black Hawk/Seahawk", Encyclopedia of Modern Military Aircraft, p. 431. Amber Books, 2004. ISBN 

1904687849. 
[5] Leoni 2007, pp. 206-9. 
[6] Mitsubishi (Sikorsky) SH-60J (Japan) (http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Helicopter-Markets-and-Systems/ 

Mitsubishi-Sikorsky-SH-60J-Japan.html). Jane's, 17 April 2007. 
[7] Mitsubishi SH-60K Upgrade (http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/jau/jau_0953.html), Jane's, 1 1 June 2008. 
[8] Leoni2007, p. 211. 
[9] Donald 2004, pp. 158. 
[10] Donald2004, pp. 159-160. 

[II] Helicopter Sea Combat Wing, Pacific (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/helseacombatwingpac.htm). 
GlobalSecurity.org 

[12] Donald2004, pp. 160-161. 

[13] SH-60 Seahawk fact file (http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=1200&tid=500&ct=l), US Navy, , retrieved 2008-10-05 

[14] Sikorsky SH-60 Seahawk helicopter. Fact File (http://sikorsky.com/sik/products/military/seahawk/index.asp). Sikorsky, checked 

2008-10-05 
[15] Airscoop (http://www.history.navy.mil/nan/backissues/2000s/2003/nd03/HTML pages/airscoop.htm), US Navy, 2003, 
[16] MH-60S Knighthawk — Multi-Mission Naval Helicopter, USA (http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/mh_60s/). Naval 

Technology, , retrieved 2008-10-05 
[17] "Korea — MH-60S Multi-Mission Helicopters" (http://www.dsca.mil/PressReleases/36-b/2009/Korea_09-27.pdf). US Defense Security 

Cooperation Agency, 22 July 2009. 
[18] Donald 2004, pp. 161-162. 
[19] Donald 2004, p. 161. 
[20] "MH-60R Helicopter Departs Lockheed Martin To Complete First Operational Navy Squadron" (http://www.lockheedmartin.com/news/ 

press_releases/2008/0730si-mh-60r.html), Lockheed Martin, July 30, 2008. 
[21] DoD 4120-15L, Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles (http://www.dtic.mil/whs/directives/corres/html/4120151.htm). 

DoD, 2004. 
[22] http://www.mozeyoninn.com/Aircraft/MilPhoto/CAW/HLS37/HSL37.htm 
[23] http://www.hsl40.navy.mil/ 
[24] http://www.hsl42.navy.mil/ 
[25] http://www.hsl43.navy.mil/ 
[26] http://www.hsl44.navy.mil/ 



SH-60 Seahawk 



202 



[27] http://www.hsl45.navy.mil/ 
[28] http://www.hsl46.navy.mil/ 
[29] http://www.hsl48.navy.mil/ 
[30] http://www.hsl49.navy.mil/ 
[31] http://navyreserve.navy.mil/Public/Staff/Centers/Forces+Command/Centers/Helicopter+Reserve+Wing/Centers/HSL-60/ 

WelcomeAboard/ 
[32] http://www.history.navy.mil/insignia/hsl/hsl84.jpg 
[33] http://www.hs4.navy.mil/ 
[34] http://www02.clf.navy.mil/hc2/ 
[35] http://www.hs6.navy.mil/ 
[36] http://www.hs7.navy.mil/ 
[37] http://www.hslO.navy.mil/ 
[38] http://www.hsll.navy.mil/ 

[39] http://www. navy. mil/homepages/hs 1 5/redlions.html 
[40] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/navy/hs-75.htm 
[41] http://navyreserve.navy.mil/Public/Staff/Centers/Forces+Command/Centers/Helicopter+Reserve+Wing/Centers/HCS-4/ 

WelcomeAboard/MissionAndHistory/History.htm 
[42] http://www.hsl41.navy.mil 
[43] http://www.hsm70.navy.mil 
[44] http://www.hsm71.navy.mil/ 
[45] http://www.hsl47.navy.mil/ 
[46] http://www.hsc2.navy.mil/ 
[47] http://www.hsc3.navy.mil/ 

[48] http://www. nets. navy. mil/homepages/hs3/HS3_Intro. htm 
[49] http://www.hs2.navy.mil/ 

[50] HS-2 Transition Page (http://www.hs2.navy.mil/transition.html) 
[51] http://www.hsc21.navy.mil/ 
[52] http://hsc22.ahf.nmci.navy.mil/ 
[53] http://www.hsc23.navy.mil/ 
[54] http://www.hsc25.navy.mil/ 
[55] http://www.hsc26.navy.mil/ 
[56] http://hsc28.ahf.nmci.navy.mil/index.html 
[57] http://www.hsc85.navy.mil/ 
[58] Leoni 2007, pp. 250-256. 
[59] "Directory: World Air Forces" (http://www.flightglobal.com/assets/getasset.aspx?ItemID=26061). Flight International, 11-17 

November 2008. 
[60] Leoni 2007, pp. 274-277. 
[61] Leoni 2007, pp. 303-304. 
[62] Leoni 2007, pp. 292-98. 
[63] Taiwan Air Power, ROCN S-70C(M)-l/2 page (http://www.taiwanairpower.org/navy/s70cm.html). Taiwanairpower.org, update April 

12, 2008. Retrieved Sept. 15, 2009. 
[64] Leoni 2007, pp. 304-305. 
[65] Up to $246M for 6 Royal Thai Navy MH-60S Helicopters (http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/2006/04/ 

up-to-246m-for-6-royal-thai-navy-mh60s-helicopters/index.php#more) Defense Industry Daily 
[66] Leoni 2007, pp. 306-13. 

[67] Taylor, M J H (editor) (1999). Brassey's World Aircraft & Systems Directory 1999/2000 Edition. Brassey's. ISBN 1 85753 245 7. 
[68] S-70B Seahawk Technical Information, 2001. 
[69] S-70B Seahawk Technical Information, 2008 (http://www.sikorsky.com/StaticFiles/Sikorsky/Assets/Attachments/Mission Downloads/ 

S70-064_S70B_TI.pdf). Sikorsky.com. 
[70] http://www.sikorsky.com/vgn-ext-templating-SIK/v/index.jsp?vgnextoid=709f45d57ef68110VgnVCM1000001382000aRCRD& 

vgnextchannel=162f45d57ef68110VgnVCM1000001382000aRCRD&vgnextfmt=default& 

provcmid=bfa955f4a9d98110VgnVCM1000001382000aRCRD&mofvcmid=5albebb600e98110VgnVCM1000001382000aRCRD& 

mofid=4albebb600e98110VgnVCM1000001382000a &movcmid=54b769a3a73a8110VgnVCM1000001382000aRCRD& 

moid=44b769a3a73a8110VgnVCM1000001382000a 

[71] http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=1200&tid=500&ct=l 
[72] http://www.history.navy.mil/planes/sh60.htm 
[73] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/sh-60.htm 
[74] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/hh-60h.htm 
[75] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/ch-60.htm 



SH-60 Seahawk 203 

[76] http://www.sikorsky.com/news_index/l,9599,CLIl_DIV69_ETI435,00.html 



204 



Armament 



Otobreda 76 mm 



Otobreda 76 mm 




Type 


Naval gun 


Place of origin 


1 1 Italy 


Service history 


In service 


1964 - present 


Used by 


See users 


Production history 


Designer 


Oto Melara 


Designed 


Compact: 1963 
Super Rapid: 1985 


Manufacturer 


Oto Melara (1963-2001) 
OtoBreda (2001 onwards) 


Produced 


Compact: 1964 
Super Rapid: 1988 


Variants 


See variants 


Specifications 


Weight 


7500 kg (without ammunition) 
12.34 kg (complete round) 





Shell 


76 mm x 900mm (complete round) 


Caliber 


62 caliber 76 mm 


Elevation 


-157+85° 

speed:357s (acceleration: 12°/s^) 


Traverse 


360° 

speed: 60°/s (acceleration: 12°/s^) 


Rate of fire 


Compact: 85 round/min 
Super Rapid: 120 round/min 


Muzzle velocity 


925 m/s 


Maximum range 


Compact: 20,000 m (HE round at 45°) 



Super Rapid: 30,000 m (HE round at 45°) 



Otobreda 76 mm 



205 



Feed system 



Magazine: 

Compact: 80 ready rounds on gun mount 

Super Rapid: 85 ready rounds on gun mount 



The Otobreda 76 mm gun is a widely used naval artillery piece built by the Italian company Otobreda. A 
vehicle-mounted version known as the Otomatic was built for the SPAAG role, although this was not put into 
production. 

It is capable of very high rates of fire, making it suitable for short-range anti-missile point defence. Its calibre also 
gives it abilities for anti-aircraft, anti-surface and ground shelling. Specialised ammunition is available for armour 
piercing, incendiary and directed fragmentation. A new stealth cupola has been designed in recent years. 

The system is compact enough to be installed on relatively small warships, like corvettes, avisos, or patrol boats. It 
has been widely exported and is in use with 53 navies. 

It has recently been favoured over the French 100 mm naval gun for the new Horizon CNGF frigates. 

On 27 September 2006 Iran announced it has started mass production of a marine artillery gun, named the Fajr-27, 
which is a reverse-engineered Oto Melara 76 mm gun.[l] 




OTO-Melara 76 mm gun onboard F22 1 
Hessen, a Sachsen class frigate. 



On the Norwegian Fridtjof Nansen— class 
frigates, the Oto Melara is equipped with a 
stealth cupola to reduce radar cross section/ 



The OTO-Melara 76mm mounting is seen in 
this photograph of the Japanese Asagiri class 

destroyer Aiog;ri, formerly DD 156, 

renumbered TV 3516, seen here on 28 July 

2008 departing from Portsmouth Naval Base, 

UK. 



Other specifications 

• Cooling: sea water — fresh water for flushing 

• Electrical Power supply 

• 440 V, 3-phase, 60 Hz, main circuit; 

• 115 V, 1-phase, 400 Hz, servo and synchro network 



Users 

Platforms using the Oto melara 76 mm include: 



Otobreda 76 mm 206 

Asia 

gH Australia 

• Adelaide class — > Frigate 
^1 Bangladesh 

• DW Class Frigate 
^" Indonesia 

• Van Speijk class frigate 

• Sigma class corvette 

^C India 
Israel 

• Saar 3 class missile boat 

• Saar 4 class missile boat 

• Saar 4.5 class missile boat 
• Japan 

• Hatsuyuki class destroyer 

• Murasame class destroyer 

• Asagiri class destroyer 

• Ishikari class destroyer escort 

^B Malaysia 

• Laksamana Class Corvette 

• Kedah Class NGPV 

•^ Philippines 

• Jacinto class offshore patrol vessel 
^" Singapore : Republic of Singapore Navy 

• Endurance class LST 

• Formidable class frigate 

• Victory class corvette 

• Fearless class patrol vessel 

mft Sri Lanka 

• Saar 4 class fast missile vessel 

• SLNS Nandimithra 

• SLNS Suranimala 
^™ Thailand 

• Pattani class offshore patrol vessel 

• Ratanakosin class corvette 

• Ratcharit missile boat 

• Chuburi patrol boats 

• Tapi class large patrol corvette 

• Khamronsin corvette 

^1 Republic of China (Taiwan) 

• Cheng Kung class frigate 

• Kang Ding class frigate 



Otobreda 76 mm 207 

Africa 

^ Egypt 

• Descubierta class corvette 

• Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates 

• Ramadan class fast attack missile boats 

• Type- 143 Tiger class fast attack missile boats 

^1 Morocco 

• Descubierta class corvette 

• Floreal class frigate 

• OPV70 Class patrol vessel 

@S South Africa 

• Warrior class strike craft 

• Valour class frigate 

Europe 

I I Belgium 

• Karel Doorman class frigate 
*2 Denmark 

• Flyvefisken class patrol vessel 

• Thetis class patrol frigates 

• Ivar Huitfeldt class frigate (In service from 2012) 

I I France 

• FREMM multipurpose frigate 

• Horizon Common New Generation Frigate 

^M Germany 

• Brandenburg class frigate 

• Bremen class frigate 

• Sachsen class frigate 

• Braunschweig class corvette 

• Gepard class fast attack craft 

•^ Greece 

Elli class frigate 

FACM Class La Combattante IH 

FACM Class La Combattante lEb 

FACM Class La Combattante Ila 

Osprey 55 class gunboat 

HSY-55 class gunboat 

Osprey HSY-56A class gunboat 

Super- Vita 

Jason Class (EST) 

Ireland 

Peacock class patrol vessels 



Otobreda 76 mm 



208 



• Roisin class Offshore Patrol Vessels 
1 1 Italy 

Audace class destroyer 

Durand de La Penne class destroyer 

San Giorgio class amphibious transport dock 

Cassiopea class patrol vessel 

Minerva class corvette 

FREMM multipurpose frigate 

Horizon Common New Generation Frigate 

Cavour 

^J Netherlands 

• Karel Doorman class frigate 
sis Norway 

• Fridtjof Nansen class frigate 

• Skjold class patrol boat 

I I Romania 

• Regele Ferdinand frigate 

• Regina Maria frigate 

^~ Spain 

• Santa Maria class frigate 

• Descubierta class patrol vessel 

• Buque de Accion Maritima (BAM) Class 

BB Turkey 

• Dogan class fast attack craft 

• K1I19 class fast attack craft 

• K1I19-II class fast attack craft 

• Yildiz fast attack craft 

• New Generation Frigate 



North America 

I.*.! Canada 

• Iroquois class destroyer after TRUMP modifications (Canada) 
^m United States 

• fiear-class medium endurance cutter (USCG) 

• Hamilton-class high endurance cutter (USCG) 

• — > Oliver Hazard Perry— class frigate (USN) 

• Pegasus-class hydrofoil (now de-commissioned) (USN) 

|i| Mexico 

• Oaxaca class Offshore Patrol Vessel(Mexican Navy) 

South America 

^J Argentina 




The Mk 75 in use aboard USCGC Gallatin, 2005. 



Otobreda 76 mm 209 

• Espora class frigate 
^ Chile 

• Karel Doorman class frigate 

• Saar 4 class missile boat 

• S 148 class missile boat 

^^ Ecuador 

• Quito class missile boat (Ecuador) 
I I Peru 

• PR-72P class corvette (Peru) 
^B Colombia 

• Almirante Padilla class frigate 

External links 

• Oto Melara products: medium calibres 

• 76/62 Oto Melara Compact Gun Mount ^^^ at Thales Australia 

• Italian 76 mm/62 (3") Compact, SR and USA 76 mm/62 (3") Mark 75 ^"^^ at NavWeaps 

References 

[1] http://www. middle-east-online. com/english/?id=17626 

[2] http://www. otobreda. it/products/products. asp?id=prod_naval_medium 

[3] http://www. adi-limited.com/site. asp?page=147 

[4] http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNUS_3-62_mk75.htm 



M2 Browning machine gun 



210 



M2 Browning machine gun 



This article is about the .50 caliber M2 machine gun. For the .30-06 M2 machine gun, see M1919 Browning 
machine gun. 



Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB 




M2HB heavy machine gun on M3 tripod 



Type 



Heavy machine gun 



Place of origin 



United States 



Service history 



In service 



Used by 



I92I 

M2HB from I933-pi-esent 

United States, and list of users 



Wars 



World Wai- II 

Korean War 

Vietnam War 

Cambodian Civil War 

Cambodian- Vietnamese War 

Falklands War 

South African Border War 

Gulf War 

Somali Civil War 

War in Afghanistan 

Iraq War 



Production history 



Designed 



1918 



[1] 



Manufacturer 



Produced 



Current: General Dynamics, Fabrique Nationale, US Ordnance, and Manroy Engineering 
Former: Colt's Patent Fire Arms Company, High Standard Company, Savage Arms Corporation, Buffalo 
Arms Corporation, General Motors Corporation (Frigidaire, AC Spark Plug, Saginaw Steering, and 
Brown-Lipe-Chappin Divisions), Kelsey Hayes Wheel Company, Springfield Armory, Wayne Pump 
Company, ERMCO, and Ramo Manufacturing 

1933-present (M2HB) 



Weight 



Specifications 

38 kg (83.78 lb), 58 kg (127.87 lb) with tripod and T&E 



Length 
Barrel length 



1650 mm (65 in) 
1143 mm (45.0 in) 



Cartridge 
Action 



.50 BMG 

Short recoil-operated 



M2 Browning machine gun 211 



Rate of fire 



450-575 rounds/min (M2HB) 
750-850 rounds/min (AN/M2) 
1,200 rounds/min (AN/M3) 



Muzzle velocity 
Feed system 



2,910 feet per second (M33 Ball) (887.1 m/s) 
Belt-fed (M2 or M9 links) 



The M2 Machine Gun, Browning .50 Caliber Machine Gun, or "Ma Deuce" is a heavy machine gun designed 
towards the end of World War I by John Browning. The M2 uses the .50 BMG cartridge, and is the source of its 
name (BMG standing for Browning Machine Gun). The M2 was nicknamed Ma Deuce by U.S. Military personnel or 
simply called "fifty-cal." in reference to its caliber. The design has had many specific designations; the official 
designation for the current infantry type is Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Flexible. It is effective 
against infantry, unarmored or lightly-armored vehicles and boats, light fortifications, and low-flying aircraft. 

The Browning .50 caliber machine gun has been used extensively as a vehicle weapon and for aircraft armament by 
the United States from the 1920s to the present day. It was heavily used during World War II, the Korean War, the 
Vietnam War, as well as during operations in Iraq in the 1990s and 2000s. It is the primary heavy machine gun of 
NATO countries, and has been used by many other countries as well. It is still in use today, with only a few modern 
improvements. The M2 has been in use longer than any other small arm in U.S. inventory. It was very similar in 
design to the smaller Browning Model 1919 machine gun. The M2 is currently manufactured by General Dynamics 
and FNH for the United States government. FNH has been the manufacturer since John Browning worked for them 
in the 1910s and '20s to develop the machine gun. [2] 

History 

A variant without a water jacket, but with a thicker-walled, air-cooled barrel superseded it (air-cooled barrels had 
already been used on variants for use on aircraft, but these quickly overheated in ground use). This new variant was 
then designated the M2 HB {HB for Heavy Barrel). The added mass and surface area of the new barrel compensated, 
somewhat, for the loss of water-cooling, while reducing bulk and weight (the M2 weighed 121 lb (55 kg), with 
water, whereas the M2 HB weighs 84 lb). Due to the long procedure for changing the barrel, an improved system 
was developed called QCB (quick change barrel). A lightweight version, weighing a mere 60 lb (27 kg) was also 
developed. 

Design details 

The Browning M2 is an air-cooled, belt-fed machine gun. The M2 fires from a closed bolt, operated on the short 
recoil principle. The M2 fires the .50 BMG cartridge, which offers long range accuracy and good stopping power. 

The M2 is a scaled-up version of John Browning's M1917 .30 caliber machine gun (even using the same timing 
gauges). 

Features 

The M2 has varying cyclic rates of fire, depending upon the model. The M2HB (heavy barrel) air-cooled ground gun 
has a cyclic rate of 450-575 rounds per minute. The early M2 water-cooled AA guns had a cyclic rate of around 
450-600 rpm. The AN/M2 aircraft gun has a cyclic rate of 750-850 rpm; this increases to 1,200 rpm or more for 
AN/M3 aircraft guns fitted with electric or mechanical feed boost mechanisms. These maximum rates of fire are 
generally not achieved in use, as sustained fire at that rate will wear out the bore within a few thousand rounds, 
necessitating replacement. The M2HB's sustained rate of fire is considered to be anything less than 400 rounds per 
minute. 



M2 Browning machine gun 



212 



The M2 has a maximum range of 7.4 kilometers (4.55 miles), with a 
maximum effective range of 1.8 kilometers (1.2 miles) when fired 
from the M3 tripod. In its ground-portable, crew-served role as the 
M2HB, the gun itself weighs in at a hefty 84 pounds (38 kg), and the 
assembled M3 tripod another 44 pounds (20 kg). In this configuration, 
the V-shaped "butterfly" trigger is located at the very rear of the 
weapon, with a "spade handle" hand-grip on either side of it and the 
bolt release the center. The spade handles are gripped and the butterfly 
trigger is depressed with one or both thumbs. Recently new rear buffer 
assemblies have used squeeze triggers mounted to the hand grips, 
doing away with the butterfly triggers. 

When the bolt release is locked down by the bolt latch release lock on 
the buffer tube sleeve, the gun functions in fully automatic mode. 
Conversely, the bolt release can be unlocked into the up position 
resulting in single-shot firing (the gunner must press the bolt latch 
release to send the bolt forward). Unlike virtually all other modern 
machine guns, it has no safety (although a sliding safety switch has 
recently been fielded to USMC armorers for installation on their 

weapons). Troops in the field have been known to add an improvised safety measure against accidental firing by 

slipping an expended shell casing under the butterfly trigger. 




Twin M2HB .50 caliber machine gun during a 
Pre-aimed Calibration Fire (PACFIRE) exercise. 



[7] 



Because the M2 was intentionally designed to be fit into many configurations, it can be adapted to feed from the left 
or right side of the weapon by exchanging the belt-holding pawls, the belt feed pawl, and the front and rear cartridge 
stops, then reversing the bolt switch. The conversion can be completed in under a minute with no tools. 



Ammunition 

There are several different types of ammunition used in the M2HB and AN aircraft guns. From World War 11 
through the Vietnam War, the big Browning was used with standard ball, armor-piercing (AP), armor-piercing 
incendiary (API), and armor-piercing incendiary tracer (APIT) rounds. All .50 ammunition designated 
"armor-piercing" was required to completely perforate 0.875" (22.2 mm) of hardened steel armor plate at a distance 
of 100 yards (91 m), and 0.75" (19 mm) at 547 yards (500 m).^^^ The API and APIT rounds left a flash, report, and 
smoke on contact, useful in detecting strikes on enemy targets; they were primarily intended to incapacitate 
thin-skinned and lightly armored vehicles and aircraft, while igniting their fuel tanks. 

Current ammunition types include: M33 Ball (706.7 grain) for personnel and light material targets, M17 tracer, M8 
API (622.5 grain), M20 APl-T (619 grain), and M962 SLAP-T. The latter ammunition along with the M903 SLAP 
(Saboted Light Armor Penetrator) round can perforate 1.34 in (34 mm) of HHA (high hard armor, or face-hardened 
steel plate) at 500 meters, 0.91 in (23 mm) at 1,200 meters, and 0.75 in (19 mm) at 1,500 meters. This is achieved by 
using a .30 inch diameter tungsten penetrator. The SLAP-T adds a tracer charge to the base of the ammunition. This 
ammunition was type classified in 1993. 

When firing blanks, a large blank-firing adapter (BFA) must be used to keep the gas pressure high enough to allow 
the action to cycle. The adapter is very distinctive, attaching to the muzzle with three rods extending back to the 
base. The BFA can often be seen on M2s during peacetime operations. 



M2 Browning machine gun 



213 



Deployment 



The M2 .50 Browning machine gun has been used for various roles: 

• A medium infantry support weapon 

• As an anti-aircraft (AA) gun in some ships; up to six M2 guns could 
be mounted on the same turret. 

• As an anti-aircraft gun on the ground. The original water-cooled 
version of the M2 was used on a tali AA tripod or vehicle-mounted 
anti-aircraft weapon on a sturdy pedestal mount. In later variants, 
twin and quadruple M2HB Brownings were used, such as the M45 
Quadmount used on the US Ml 6 half-track carrier. Twin or 
quad-mount .50 M2 guns normally used alternating left-hand and 
right-hand feed. 

• Primary or secondary weapon on an armored fighting vehicle. 

• Primary or secondary weapon on a naval patrol boat. 

• Spotting for the primary weapon on some armored fighting vehicles. 

• Secondary weapon for anti-boat defense on large naval vessels 
(corvettes, frigates, destroyers, cruisers, etc). 

• Coaxial gun or independent mounting in some tanks. 

• Fixed-mounted primary armament in World War 11-era U.S. aircraft 
such as the P-47 Thunderbolt, P-5 1 Mustang, and the Korean-era 
U.S. F-86 Sabre. 

• Fixed or flexible-mounted defensive armament in World War ll-era 
bombers such as the B-17 Flying Fortress, and B-24 Liberator. 

• A M2 modified to fire single shots and hold a scope was used by 
Carlos Hathcock as a sniper weapon during the Vietnam War, 
proving the .50 caliber round's usefulness as an effective 
anti-personnel/anti-material round. Carlos Hathcock used his 
modified M2 to create the record for the longest sniper kill, a record 
that stood until the current War in Afghanistan. 




An M2 fired from a rigid-hulled inflatable boat. 




A U.S. Marine mans a .50 caliber machine gun as 
part of a security force during an exercise 



United States 



At the outbreak of the Second World War the United States had 
versions of the M2 in service as fixed aircraft guns, anti-aircraft 
defensive guns (on aircraft, ships, or boats), infantry (tripod-mounted) 
guns, and as dual purpose anti-aircraft and anti-vehicular weapons on 
vehicles. 

The .50 AN/M2 light-barrel aircraft Browning was used in planes had 
a rate of fire of approximately 800 rounds per minute, and was used 
singly or in groups of up to eight guns for aircraft ranging from the 
P-47 Thunderbolt to the B-25 Mitchell bomber. 




A U.S. soldier in Normandy stands guard with the 
M2HB installed on a dual-purpose mounting. 



M2 Browning machine gun 214 

In the dual-purpose vehicle mount, the M2HB (heavy barrel) proved extremely effective in U.S. service: the 
Browning's .50 caliber AP and API rounds could easily penetrate the engine block or fuel tanks of a German Bf 109 

ri4i 

fighter attacking at low altitude, or perforate the hull plates and fuel tanks of a German half-track or light armored 
car. While the dual-purpose mounting was undeniably useful, it did normally require the operator to stand 

[171 

when using the M2 in a ground role, exposing him to return fire. Units in the field often modified the mountings 

on their vehicles, especially tanks and tank destroyers, to provide more operator protection in the anti-vehicular and 

n SI 
anti-personnel role. The weapon was particularly hated by the Germans, whose attacks against otherwise helpless 

stalled motor convoys were frequently broken up by .50 caliber machine gun fire. 

Besides vehicle-mounted weapons, the heavy weapons companies in a WWII Army infantry battalion or regiment 

[211 

were each issued one M2 Browning with tripod (ground) mount. Mounted on a heavily-sandbagged tripod, the 
M2HB proved very useful in either a defensive role or to interdict or block road intersections from use by German 

[221 

infantry and motorized forces. The hammering of a heavy Browning could usually be relied upon to put a German 

[231 

infantry company face-down in the dirt. There are numerous instances of the M2 Browning being used against 

[241 

enemy personnel, particularly infantry assaults or for interdiction or elimination of enemy artillery observers or 
snipers at distances too great for ordinary infantry weapons. 

A quadruple mount of four .50 M2HB guns with a single gunner situated behind an armored housing was used by 
U.S. AA battalions in either a towed trailer or mounted in a half-track carrier (M16 AA half-track). With 200 rounds 
per gun in a powered tracking mount, the guns proved very effective against low-flying aircraft. Towards the end of 
the war, as Luftwaffe attacks grew more infrequent, the quad .50 (nicknamed the Meat Chopper) was increasingly 
used in an anti-personnel role, similarly to the more powerful German 20mm Flakvierling. Snipers firing from trees 
were engaged by the quad gunner at trunk level - the weapon would cut down and destroy the entire tree, and the 

.^, ., [23] [28] 

sniper With it. 

The IVI2HB was not widely used in the Pacific campaign, due to 
several factors, including weight, the inherent nature of infantry jungle 

combat, and because road intersections were usually easily 

[291 
outflanked. However, it was used by fast-moving motorized forces 

in the Philippines to destroy Japanese blocking units on the advance to 

[221 

IVIanila. The quad mount .50 was also used to destroy Japanese 

emplacements. M16 .50 AA Quad aka the 'Meat Chopper' 




The IVI2HB saw service in both Korea and Vietnam. In 2003, during 

the Iraq War, U.S. Army SFC Paul Ray Smith used his IVI2HB mounted on an IVI113 armored personnel carrier to 
kill twenty to fifty enemy who were attacking a U.S. Army outpost. Saving an aid station from being overrun and 
allowing wounded soldiers to be evacuated, SFC Smith gave his life to save his fellow soldiers and was 
posthumously awarded the IVIedal of Honor. 

Commonwealth forces 

Commonwealth use of the IVI2 Browning .50 caliber machine gun (known as the .5 Browning in British and 
Commonwealth service) was limited in the Second World War, though from 1942 it was standard armament on 
US-built AFVs provided under lend-lease such as the IVI4 Sherman, IVI7 Priest, IVI8 Greyhound, or IVIIO Wolverine 
variously used by British, Canadian, Australian, South African and New Zealand units. Nevertheless, the heavy 
Browning's effectiveness was praised by many British and Commonwealth soldiers in infantry, armored, and 

[311 [321 

ordnance branches. IVIany commanders thought the .50 Browning the best weapon in its class, certainly the 

[321 [331 

best of the American weapons, including the Ml Garand and carbine. In North Africa, after Commonwealth 

units began to obtain sufficient parts, manuals, gauges, and ammunition for the new weapon, the .50 Browning was 

[321 

increasingly used, eventually replacing the 15 mm Besa, but in Italy was often deleted from top turret mountings 

[341 

because the mount exposed the operator to low branches and enemy fire. Some SAS units used the aircraft 



M2 Browning machine gun 



215 



(AN/M2) version of the gun, while turret-mounted .5 Brownings were used later in the war in such aircraft as the 
Lancaster bomber. 

After the Second World War, the .50 Browning continued to see action in Korea and other theaters, in aircraft, tripod 
(ground), ground AA (hip-ring), and vehicle mounts. One of its most notable actions in a ground role was in a fierce 
battle with a nine-man SAS team at the Battle of Mirbat in Oman in July 1972, where the heavy Browning and its 

API ammunition was used to help repulse an assault by 250 Yemeni Adoo guerrillas, though the more famous 

[351 
weapon from the battle is a 25 pounder gun. 

.50 caliber Brownings were fitted, with a .30 caliber, in the compact one-man turrets on Ml 13 APCs used by the 
Royal Australian Armoured Corps in South Vietnam. 



M2 as a sniper rifle 

The M2 machine gun has been used in a single confirmed instance as a long-range sniper rifle, when equipped with a 
telescopic sight. Soldiers during the Korean War used scoped M2s in the role of a sniper rifle, but the practice was 
most notably used by US Marine Corps sniper Carlos Hathcock during the Vietnam War. Using an Unertl telescopic 
sight and a mounting bracket of his own design, Hathcock could quickly convert the M2 into a sniper rifle, using the 
traversing-and-elevating (T & E) mechanism attached to the tripod to assist in aiming at stationary targets. When 
firing semi-automatically, Hathcock could accurately hit man-size targets beyond 2000 yards — twice the range of a 
standard-caliber sniper rifle of the time (a .30-06 Winchester Model 70). In fact, Hathcock set the record for the 
longest confirmed kill at 2,250 m (2,460 yd), a record which he held until 2002. 



[36] [37] 



Variants and derivatives 




An M2HB in the French Foreign Legion's 2nd 
Infantry Regiment during an exercise 



M2 variants 

The basic M2 was deployed in US service in a number of subvariants, 
all with separate complete designations as per the US Army system. 
The basic designation as mentioned in the introduction is Browning 
Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, with others as described below. 

The development of the Ml 921 water-cooled machine gun which led 
to the M2, meant that the initial M2s were in fact water-cooled. These 
weapons were designated Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, 
Water-Cooled, Flexible. There was no fixed water-cooled version. 

Improved air-cooled heavy barrel versions came in three subtypes. The 
basic infantry model. Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, 
Flexible, a fixed developed for use on the M6 Heavy Tank designated 
Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, Fixed, and a "turret type" 
whereby "Flexible" M2s were modified slightly for use in tank turrets. 
The subvariant designation Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2, HB, 
Turret was only used for manufacturing, supply, and administration 
identification and separation from flexible M2s. 

A number of additional subvariants were developed after the end of the Second World War. The Caliber .50 
Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, M48 Turret Type was developed for the commander's cupola on the 

M48 Patton tank. The cupola mount on the M48-A3 was thoroughly disliked by most tankers, as it proved unreliable 

r3si 
in service. A cupola-mounted M2 was later adopted for the commander's position on the Ml Abrams tanks. Three 

subvariants were also developed for used by the US Navy on a variety of ships and watercraft. These included the 

Caliber .50 Machine Gun, Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Soft Mount (Navy) and the Caliber .50 Machine Gun, 




M2 Browning machine gun 



216 



Browning, M2, Heavy Barrel, Fixed Type (Navy). The fixed types fire from a solenoid trigger and come in left or 
right hand feed variants for use on the Mk 56 Mod dual mount and other mounts. 

M2 E-50 (M2E50) 

A long overdue upgrade program for existing infantry M2HBs and other M2s currently in U.S. Army service, the 
E50 provides a: Quick Change Barrel (QCB) capability, a rail accessory mount, an improved flash hider and a 
manual safety. 

The E50 designation initially appeared to be within the bounds of the normal U.S. Army designation system. 
However, it later turned out that the term was in fact a developmental project that stands for Enhanced 50, as in 
enhanced .50 caliber machine gun. Developed primarily as a conversion kit for existing weapons, it is likely that new 
production machine guns will be built to this standard. In later U.S. Army briefings, this variant has been referenced 
astheM2E2orM2Al. 




Aircraft guns 

AN/M2 and AN/M3 

The M2 machine gun was widely used during World War 11 and in 

later postwar conflicts as a remote or flexible aircraft gun. For fixed 

(offensive) or flexible (defensive) guns used in aircraft, a dedicated M2 

version was developed called the .50 Browning AN/M2. The AN/M2 

had a cyclic rate of 750-850 rounds per minute, with the ability to be 

fired from a electrically-operated remote-mount solenoid trigger when 

installed as a fixed gun. Cooled by the aircraft's slip-stream, the 

air-cooled AN/M2 was fitted with a substantially lighter barrel, which 

also had the effect of increasing the rate of fire. The official 

designation for this weapon was Browning Machine Gun, Aircraft, 

Cal. .50, AN/M2 (Fixed) or (Flexible). During World War 11, a 

faster-firing .50-inch aircraft Browning was developed, the AN/M3, using a mechanical or electrically-boosted feed 

mechanism to increase the rate of fire to around 1,200 rounds per minute. The AN/M3 was widely used in Korea on 

such planes as the F-86 Sabre and in Vietnam in the XM14/SUU-12/A gun pod, and currently in the Embraer EMB 

314 Super Tucano. 

The XM296/M296 is a further development of the AN/M2 machine gun for remote firing applications, and is 
currently only used in an armament system for the OH-58 Kiowa Warrior helicopter. The M296 differs from 
previous remote firing variants in that it has adjustable maximum firing rate (500-850 rpm), while lacking a bolt 

[391 

latch (allowing single-shot operation). As an air-cooled aircraft gun used aboard a relatively slow rotary-wing 
aircraft, the M296 has a burst restriction rate of 50 rounds per minute; combat firing which exceeds this limit 



U.S. Marines man pintle-mounted M2HB 
machine guns 



mandates a ten-minute cooling period to avoid malfunctions due to overheating 



[40] 



M2 Browning machine gun 



217 



XM213/M213, XM218, GAU-15/A, GAU-16/A, and 
GAU-18/A 

The XM2 1 3/M2 1 3 was a modernization and adaptation of existing .50 
caHber AN/M2s in inventory for use as a pintle mounted door gun on 
helicopters using the M59 armament subsystem. 

The GAU-15/A, formerly identified as the XM218, is a lightweight 
member of the M2/M3 family. The GAU-16/A was an improved 
GAU-15/A with modified grip and sight assemblies for similar 
applications. Both of these weapons were used as a part of the 
A/A49E-11 armament subsystem (Also known as the Defensive 
Armament System). 

The GAU-18/A, is a lightweight variant of the M2/M3, and is used on 

the USAF's MH-53 Pave Low and HH-60 Pave Hawk hehcopters. 

These weapons do not utilize the heavy barrel, and are typically set up 

as left-hand feed, right-hand charging weapons, but on the HH-60 

Pavehawks that use the EGMS (External Gun Mount System) all 

weapons are set up as right hand charge but vary between left and right 

hand feed depending on what side of the aircraft it is on. In this configuration the gun is fitted with a chute adapter 

attached to its left hand feed pawl bracket. Thus, the weapon can receive ammunition through a feed chute system 

connected to internally-mounted or externally-mounted ammunition cans. Originally designed to accommodate 

1,700 rounds, these cans have since been modified due to space constraints, and now hold about half that amount 

with the external cans of the EGMS system holding 600 rounds each. However, many aerial gunners find the chute 

system cumbersome, and opt to install a bracket accommodating the 100-round cans instead. The GAU-18/A began 

to be supplanted by the GAU-21/A in 2006. 




M2 machine gun demonstration for U.S. 
President George W. Bush in 2002 



GAU-21/A and M3P 

The FN produced M3 series is also in U.S. military service in two versions. The fixed remote firing version, the FN 
M3P, is used by the U.S. Army on the Avenger Air Defense System. The M3M flexible machine gun has been 
adopted by the USAF and the USN under the designation GAU-21/A for use on helicopters. 

The M3P is currently being used to upgrade the US Army's OH-58D; replacing the M2 and XM296 .50 cal machine 
guns for the aircraft. 



Users 

The M2 family has been widely used abroad, primarily in its basic infantry configuration. A brief listing of 
designations for M2 family weapons follows: 



M2 Browning machine gun 



218 



Country 


NATO 
Member 


Designation 


Description 


^1 Afghanistan 


No 


M2HB 


12.7 Browning Heavy Machine Gun 


^_ Argentina 


No 


M2HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


lai Australia 


No 


M2HB-QCBf'^^^ 




^J Austria 


No 


usMG M2 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


1 1 Belgium 


Yes 


FN M2HB-QCB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun, used as 
infantry weapon, IFV mounted gun and as tank's AA gun 


1^ Bosnia and 
Herzegovina 


No 






ES3 Brazil 


No 


Mtr .50 M2 HB 
"BROWNING" 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


^■Bulgaria 


Yes 


Mtr .50 M2HB 
"BROWNING" 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


P^ Cambodia 


No 


M2, M2HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


|<i>| Canada 


Yes 


FN M2HB-QCB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


k Chile 


No 


FN M2HB-QCB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


^H Colombia 


No 






?g Croatia 


Yes 






1 ^ Denmark 


Yes 


M/50 TMG 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


7 


12.7 X 99 mm FNH M3M machine gun^"^^^ 


— Egypt 


No 


Known as "DOBSH" 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun, used as Crew 
served infantry weapon, on Ml 13, on YPR-765IFV, on some 
HMMWV and as tank's Commander's/A A gun 


^S El Salvador 


No 






^B Estonia 


Yes 


M2HB QCB 




^— Finland 


No 




Known as 12,7 RSKK 2005 or 12,7 ITKK M2 and only 
operated on Patria AMV vehicles. 


1 1 France 


Yes 


MIT-12,7,MIT-12,7CRC 
(QCB) 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB or FN QCB 


^B Germany 


Yes 


MG50-1,M3M 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB or M3M machine gun 


^^ India 


No 


M2HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun in limited 
quantities 


■? Israel 


No 


D"pQ ("MAKACH") 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun, used as 
infantry weapon, on Ml 13 Armored Personnel Carrier, 
Nammer IFV, on some HMMWV, on tank as external 
coaxial gun and on patrol boats of Israeli Navy 


^^Iraq 


No 






I I Ireland 


No 


Infantry Support, HMG & 
Air Defence. 




1 1 Italy 


Yes 


Browning M2 12.7 mm 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


• Japan 


no 


12.7 mmSffilliiLM2 
(Licensed by Sumitomo 
Heavy Industries) 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun, used as IFV 
mounted gun and as tank's coaxial gun 



M2 Browning machine gun 



219 



^B Lithuania 


Yes 


M2HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun in limited 
quantities 


^C Lebanon 


No 




Mounted on MUTT and M-1 13 vehicles, including some 
MBT's. Also used by infantry. 


^a Malaysia 


No 


50.5 mm M2HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


1 Malta 


No 


M2 Browning .50 HMG 




I'l Mexico 


No 


M-2 HB, 

M-2 E-50 Licence 

produced by SEDENA 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB Machine gun mounted on 
military vehicles 


"The 
Netherlands 


Yes 


MIT-12,7,MIT-12,7CRC 
(QCB) 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB or FN QCB 


!■ New Zealand 


No 


M2HB 


0.50 cal heavy machine gun 


ils Norway 


Yes 


M/50 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


;^ The Philippines 


No 


M2HB 


0.50 cal heavy machine gun 


^ Poland 


Yes 


M2HB-QCB 


Used by Polish special forces 


^1 Portugal 


Yes 


Metralhadora 12,7 mm 
Browning m/55 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


■SW Serbia 


No 


Teski mitraljez M2 


Used alongside M87 heavy machine gun. 


^" Singapore 


No 


12.7mmM2HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun (replaced by 
the newer CIS 50MG firing the same cartridges of the 
M2HB). 


JB South Africa 


No 


M2HB (Licensed by 
ARAM (Pty) Ltd) 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


>• South Korea 


No 


K6 


modified 12.7 x 99 mm Browning M2HB QCB machine gun 
(manufactured by S&T Dynamics) 


^~ Spain 


Yes 


Ametralladora Pesada M-2 
HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


^H Slovenian 
Army 


Yes 


FN M2HB-QCB 


12.7 X 99mm M2HB machine gun; used by infatry and 
mounted on vehicles 


"S Sweden 


No 


Tksp 12,7 (Licensed by 
Bofors) 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


Q Switzerland 


No 


Mg64 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2 HB machine gun 


H Republic Of 
China (Taiwan) 


No 


Browning Caliber .50 M2, 

M2HB 

FN M2HB-QCB 

T90 




^™ Thailand 


No 


■fl-unei 93 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


B Turkey 


Yes 


Browning 12.7 mm M2, 
M2HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2 HB machine gun 



M2 Browning machine gun 



220 



s|= United 
Kingdom 


Yes 


L2A1 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 


L6,L6A1 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2 HB machine gun; ranging gun 
for the L7 105 mm tank gun on the Centurion tank 


L11,L11A1 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun; ranging gun 


L21A1 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun; ranging gun 
for the 120 mm tank gun on the Chieftain tank 


LlllAl^^^b 




^m United States 


Yes 


Browning Caliber .50 M2, 
M2HB 


Browning Caliber .50 M2 Heavy Barrel machine gun 


-= Uruguay 


No 


Browning Caliber .50 M2, 
M2HB 




^S Vietnam 


No 


M2, M2HB 


12.7 X 99 mm Browning M2HB machine gun 



See also 

• MG 131 machine gun, WWII German aircraft-mounted gun 

• List of individual weapons of the U.S. Armed Forces 

• List of crew-served weapons of the U.S. Armed Forces 

• DShK, NSV & Kord 12.7 mm machine guns, Soviet/Russian equivalents. 

• M45 Quadmount 



References 



[45] 



Dunlap, Roy F. (1948). Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press, OCLC 6081851 

George, John B. (1981). Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press, ISBN 093599842X 

Gresham, John D. (December 2001). "Weapons". Military Heritage. Volume 3, No. 3: 22, 24, 26, 28, 30 (John 

Browning's (M2) .50-caliber). 

Hogg, Ian. (2001). The American Arsenal. Ian Hogg, ed. London, UK: Greenhill Books, ISBN 9781853674709 

MCWP 3-15.1: Machine Guns and Machine Gun Gunnery USMC (requires client certificate). Alternative via 

scribd [^^1 

Yeide, Harry. (2004). The Tank Killers. Havertown, Penn.: Casemate, ISBN 9781932033267 

Zaloga, Steven J. (2002). M8 Greyhound Light Armored Car 1941-91. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing, ISBN 

9781841764689 



External links 

Aircraft Gunnery_.50 cal 



[48] 



M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun at Federation of American Scientists 



[53] 



Browning M2HB & M2HQCB (USA) ^^^^ 

M2 .50 cal. Machine Gun ^^^^ at Olive-Drab.i 

Quad-50 M2 .50 cal. Machine Gun ^^"^^ at 01ive-Drab.com ^^^^ 

Video of a CG M2 showing the inner workings as it goes through the firing cycle 

Browning M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun at Gary's Olive Drab Page 

rco] 

Browning M2 HB .50 Caliber Heavy Machine Gun , "Ambush in Mogadishu", Frontline, PBS 



[55] 



M2 Browning machine gun 221 



Preceded by 


Longest confirmed combat sniper-shot 


Succeeded by 


" 


kill 


Canadian Long Range Sniper Weapon (LRSW) .50 




1967-2002 






1.42 mi (2,286 m) 






using .50 BMG by Carlos Hatlicock 





References 

[I] M2 .50 Caliber Machine Gun (hittp://www. globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/m2-50cal.litm) 

[2] http://www.fnherstal. com/index. php?id=249&backPID=306&productID=61&pid_product=233&pidList=306&categorySelector=2& 

detail= 
[3] " Skylighters, The Web Site of the 225th AAA Searchlight Battalion: AAA Weapons in Focus - The M2 .50-Caliber Machine Gun (http:// 

www.skylighters.org/history/mgs/)". Skylighters.org. . Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
[4] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 310-311: the official rate during WWII was 450-575 rpm, but it was 

extremely rare to encounter a M2HB that exceeded 550 rpm. 
[5] DiGiulian, Tony, USA 0.50"/90 (12.7 mm) M2 Browning Machine Gun (2007) Article (http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/ 

WNUS_50cal-M2_MG. htm) 
[6] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 310-311 
[7] Crew Served Weapons lesson plan (http://mcdetflw.tecom.usmc.mil/usmc-mp2006/READ AHEAD/ ADVANCE COURSE READ 

AHEAD/ AD VANCE COURSE OUTLINES/Crew Served Weapons lesson plan.doc) 
[8] Barnes, Frank C, Cartridges of the World, U.S. Army .50 BMG Cartridge Specifications, DBI Books (1989), ISBN 0873490339, p.432 
[9] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 311-312 
[10] M903 Caliber .50 Saboted Light Armor Penetrator (SLAP), M962 Saboted Light Armor (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ 

systems/munitions/slap. htm), GlobalSecurity.org 

[II] Caliber .50 Cartridges (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/50.htm), GlobalSecurity.org 
[12] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 225 

[13] George, John B., Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), p. 404: By World War II, the M2HB had been designated as a dual-purpose 

anti-aircraft and anti-vehicular weapon for motorized, armored, and infantry divisions; the designation "anti-vehicular" included thin-skinned 

and lightly armored vehicles, as it was already recognized by 1940 that the .50 M2 AP round would not be useful against modern medium or 

heavy tanks. 
[14] Bird, James, Recollections of James R. Bird, A Battery, 160th F.A., 45th Inf. Div., Article (http://www.45thdivision.org/Veterans/ 

BirdA160.htm) 
[15] Green, Michael, and Green, Gladys, Weapons ofPatton's Armies, Zenith Imprint Press (2000), ISBN 0760308217, 9780760308219, p. 34 
[16] Bishop, Chris, The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. (2002), ISBN 1586637622, 

9781586637620, p. 86 
[17] Green, Michael, and Green, Gladys, Weapons ofPatton's Armies, Zenith Imprint Press (2000), ISBN 0760308217, 9780760308219, pp. 

32-34 
[18] Yeide, 2004. p. 185 

[19] Burgett, Donald, Seven Roads To Hell, Dell Publishing (1999), ISBN 0440236274, p. 129 
[20] Jarymowycz, Roman J., Tank Tactics: From Normandy to Lorraine, Lynne Rienner Publishers (2001), ISBN 1555879500, 9781555879501, 

p. 212 
[21] Rush, Robert S., GI: The US Infantryman in World War II, Osprey Publishing Ltd. (2003), ISBN 1841767395, p. 33 
[22] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), pp. 225, 311-312 
[23] Henry, Mark R., The US Army in World War II (2): The Mediterranean, Osprey Pubhshing (2000), ISBN 1841760854, 9781841760858, p. 

20 
[24] Abramski, Anthony V. (Pfc), Eyewitness Account ofPfc. Anthony V. Ahramski, Citation In Support Of Congressional Medal of Honor 

Award to 2nd Lt. Audie Murphy at Holtzwihr, France, 26 January 1945 
[25] Wolfe, Clarence B., 1 Kept My Word, AuthorHouse Press (2006), ISBN 1425969518, 9781425969516, p. 68 
[26] The United States Army in World War II, Ch. XXI: Artillery & Armored Units in the ETO, Washington, D.C. : Historical Division, U.S. 

Army (1993), p. 645 
[27] Jarymowycz, Roman J., Tank Tactics: From Normandy to Lorraine, Lynne Rienner Publishers (2001), ISBN 1555879500, 9781555879501, 

p. 212: The M2HB fitted to tanks and M3 half-tracks was frequently employed against German rearguard forces including snipers and 

anti-tank teams, often firing into locations merely suspected of hiding such forces (so-called speculative fire). 
[28] AAA Weapons of the U.S. Army, Part I: The "Quad 50" Machine Gun Mount, 225th AAA Searchlight Battalion (Skylighters) Article (http:/ 

/www. skylighters.org/quad50/index.html) 
[29] George, John B., Shots Fired In Anger, NRA Press (1981), p. 404 
[30] Schmitt, Eric, Medal of Honor to Be Awarded to Soldier Killed in Iraq, a First (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. 

html?res=9C03E7D7123FF933A05750C0A9639C8B63), New York Times, 30 March 2005 



M2 Browning machine gun 222 

[31] Shore, C. (Capt.), With British Snipers to the Reich, Boulder: Lancer Militaria, p. 197-198 

[32] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 35, 145 

[33] Shore, C. (Capt.), With British Snipers to the Reich, Boulder: Lancer Militaria, p. 197-198: They especially liked the "hell's brew" of AP, 

API, and APIT ammunition. 
[34] Dunlap, Roy F., Ordnance Went Up Front, Samworth Press (1948), p. 153: The New Zealand and South African divisions in particular 

loved the big Browning, and were frequently encountered trading for spare parts and gauges. 
[35] Kennedy, Michael Paul, Soldier I: SAS, London: Bloomsbury Publishing PLC (1990), ISBN 0747507503 
[36] " Sniper Rifles (http://www.globalseeurity.org/military/systems/ground/sniper.htm)". GlobalSecurity. . Retrieved 2008-03-24. "When a 

24-year old Marine sharpshooter named Carlos Norman Hathcock 11 chalked up the farthest recorded kill in the history of sniping — 2,500 

yards (1.42 miles, a distance greater than 22 football fields) in February 1967, he fired a Browning M2 .50 Cal. Machine Gun." 
[37] Sgt. Grit (2006). " Marine Corps Sniper Carlos N. Hathcock II (http://www.grunt.com/scuttlebutt/corps-stories/heroes/carloshathcock. 

asp)". . Retrieved 2008-03-24. "Viet Cong shot dead by a round fired from a scope-mounted Browning M-2 .50 caliber machine gun at the 

unbelievable range of 2500 yards (2300 m)." 
[38] Zumbro, Ralph, Tank Sergeant, Presidio Press (1986), p. 92 

[39] M296 .50 cal. (12.7 mm) Machine Gun Article (http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/equip/m296.htm) 
[40] M296 .50 cal. (12.7 mm) Machine Gun 
[41] 6-6 Cavalry aircrews field new Kiowa Warrior weapons system (http://www.army.mil/-news/2009/04/06/ 

19271-6-6-cavalry-aircrews-field-new-kiowa-warrior-weapons-system/). US Army. 
[42] " Light Calibre Weapons (http://www.adi-limited.com/default.asp?page=141)". Adi-limited.com. . Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
[43] Combat Support Wing (december 2007). " Eskadrille 615 st0tter S0vaErnet [Squadron 615 aids the Navy] (http://forsvaret.dk/CSW/ 

Mjoelner/Documents/Mjoelner december 2007.pdf)" (in Danish). Mj0lner. 5. . 
[44] " Manroy Website (http://manroy.co.uk/manroy/)". Manroy.co.uk. . Retrieved 2008-09-08. 
[45] http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/6081851 
[46] https://www.doctrine.usmc.mil/signpubs/w3151.pdf 
[47] http://www.scribd.com/doc/3614458/MCWP-3151 
[48] http://www.liberatorcrew.com/15_Gunnery/01_50cal.htm 
[49] http://www. fas. org/man/dod- 1 l/sys/land/m2-50cal. htm 
[50] http://www.fas.org 

[51] http://world.guns.ru/machine/mg04-e.htm 
[52] http://www.olive-drab.com/od_other_firearms_mg_m2.php3 
[53] http://www.olive-drab.com 

[54] http://www.olive-drab.com/od_other_firearms_mg_m2_quad50.php 
[55] http://www.pureluckdesign.com/videos/Gaul6animation.wmv 
[56] http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/infantry/mg/M2.html 
[57] http://www.inetres.com/gp/military/index.html 
[58] http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/weapons/50cal.html 



Phalanx CIWS 



223 



Phalanx CIWS 



Phalanx CIWS 




Phalanx (Block la) live fire test, USS Monterey (CG-61) 



Type 


Close-in weapon system 


Place of origin 


United States 


Service history 


In service 


1980-Present 


Used by 


See Operators 


Production history 


Designer 


General Dynamics (now Raytheon) 


Manufacturer 


General Dynamics (now Raytheon) 


Produced 


1978^^^ 


Specifications 


Weight 


12500 lb (5700 kg), later models 13600 lb (6200 kg) ^^^ 


Height 


4.7 m 


Crew 


Automated, with human oversight 





Shell Naval - Armor-piercing tungsten penetrator rounds with discarding 

sabots. 
Land - High-Explosive Incendiary Tracer, Self-Destruct. 

Caliber 20 mm 



Barrels 


6 


Elevation 


S/oc/tO.- -10/ +80 degrees 




B/oc/ti.- -20/ +80 degrees 




Block IB: -25 / +85 degrees 


Traverse 


1 ^n / _l1 ^n ^^rrt-^^c-L-^J 



[3] 



-150/ +150 degrees' 



Rate of fire 3,000-4,500 rounds/minute. 
Muzzle velocity 1 , 1 00 m/s 



Effective range classified 



[4] [5] 



Phalanx CIWS 224 

Primary 1 x 20 mm M61 Vulcan Galling gun autocannon.^^^ 

armament 



Guidance Ku-band radar and FLIR^^^ 
system 

The Phalanx Close-in weapon system (CIWS) is an anti-Anti-ship missile system that was designed and 
manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. , now Raytheon. Consisting of a 
radar-guided 20mm Gatling gun mounted on a swivelling base, the Phalanx is used by the United States Navy on 
every class of surface combat ship, by the United States Coast Guard aboard its Hamilton and Legend class cutters 
and the navies of 23 allied nations. Because of their distinctive barrel-shaped radome and their automated nature of 
operation. Phalanx CIWS units are sometimes nicknamed "R2-D2" in the US Navy, after the famous droid from Star 
Wars, and as Daleks in the Royal Navy, after the aliens from Doctor Who. A land based variant known as 
C-RAM has recently been deployed in a short range missile defense role, to counter incoming rockets and artillery 
fire.f^]. 

History 

Developed as the final line of defense (terminal defense or point defense) against anti-ship missiles (AShMs), 
including high-g and maneuvering sea-skimmers, the first system was offered to the U.S. Navy for evaluation on 
USS King (DDG-41) in 1973. It was accepted and production started in 1978, the first ship fully fitted out was 
USS Coral Sea (CV-43) in 1980. The Navy began placing CIWS systems on noncombatant vessels in 1984. 

Design 

The basis of the system is the 20 mm M61 Vulcan Gatling gun autocannon, used since the 1960s by the United 
States military in nearly all fighter aircraft (and one land mounting, the Ml 63 VADS), linked to a Ku-band radar 
system for acquiring and tracking targets. This proven system was combined with a purpose-made mounting, capable 
of fast elevation and traverse speeds, to track incoming targets. An entirely self-contained unit, the mounting houses 
the gun, an automated fire control system and all other major components, enabling it to automatically search for, 
detect, track, engage and confirm kills using its computer-controlled radar system. Due to this self-contained nature. 
Phalanx is ideal for support ships which lack integrated targeting systems and generally have limited sensors. The 
entire unit has a mass between 5,500 and 6,100 kg (12,400 to 13,500 lb). 



Phalanx CIWS 



225 



Upgrades 

Due to the continuing evolution of both threats and computer 
technology, the Phalanx system has, like most military systems, been 
developed through a number of different configurations. The basic 
(original) style is the Block 0, equipped with first generation solid state 
electronics and with marginal capablity against surface targets. The 
Block 1 (1988) upgrade offered various improvements in radar, 
ammunition, rate of fire, increasing engagement elevation to +70 
degrees, and computing. These improvements were intended to 
increase the system's capability against emerging Soviet supersonic 
anti-ship missiles. Block lA introduced a new computer system to 
counter more maneuverable targets. The Block IB PSuM (Phalanx 
Surface Mode, 1999) adds a forward looking infrared (FLIR) sensor to 
allow the weapon to be used against surface targets . This addition 
was developed to provide ship defense against small vessel threats and 
other "floaters" in littoral waters and to improve the weapon's 
performance against slower low-flying aircraft. The FLIR's capability 
is also of use against low-observability missiles and can be linked with 
the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile (RAM) system to increase 
RAM engagement range and accuracy. The Block IB also allows for an operator to visually identify and target 




Block IB Phalanx, displaying the FLIR and 
improved barrel 



threats 



[11] 



The U.S. and Canada are in the process of upgrading all their Phalanx systems to the Block IB configuration. The 
Block IB is also used by other navies such as Portugal, Japan, Egypt, Bahrain and the Royal Navy 



[12] 



In May 2009 the US Navy awarded a $260 million contract to Raytheon Missile Systems to perform upgrades and 

[13] 
Other work on the Phalanx. The work is to be completed by September 2012. 



Operation 

The CIWS is designed to be the last line of defense against anti-ship missiles. Due to its design criteria its effective 
range is very short relative to the range of modern ASMs, from 1 to 5 nautical miles (9 km). The gun mount moves 
at a very high speed and with great precision. The system takes minimal inputs from the ship, making it capable of 
functioning despite potential damage to the ship. The only inputs required for operation are 440 V AC at 60 Hz and 
water for electronics cooling. For full operation including some non-essential functions, it also has inputs for true 
compass ship's heading and 115 V AC for the PASS and tape drive subsystems. 



Phalanx CIWS 



226 




Radar subsystems 

The CIWS has two antennas that work together to engage targets. The 
first antenna, for searching, is located inside the radome on the weapon 
control group (top of the white-painted portion). The search subsystem 
provides bearing, range, velocity, heading, and altitude information of 
potential targets to the CIWS computer. This information is analyzed 
to determine whether the detected object should be engaged by the 
CIWS system. Once the computer identifies a valid target (see details 
below), the mount moves to face the target and then hands the target 
over to the track antenna. The track antenna is extremely precise, but 
can only view a much smaller area. The tracking subsystem observes 
the target until the computer determines that the probability of a 
successful hit is maximized and then, depending on the operator 

conditions, the system will either fire automatically or will recommend fire to the operator. While firing, the system 

tracks outgoing rounds and 'walks' them onto the target. 



A technician checks over the RADAR transmitter 

and microwave assemblies of a Phalanx CIWS, 

most likely a Block 0. The search radar can be 

seen at the top with the vertical, orange-peel 

shaped, tracking radar below it. 



Gun and ammunition handling system 

The Block CIWS mounts (hydraulic driven) fired at a rate of 3,000 

rounds per minute and they could only hold 989 rounds in the 

magazine drum. The Block 1 CIWS mounts (hydraulic) also fired at 

3,000 rounds per minute with an extended magazine drum holding 

1,550 rounds. The Block lA and newer (pneumatic driven) CIWS 

mounts fire at a rate of 4,500 rounds per minute and also had the larger 

1,550 round magazine. The velocity of the rounds once fired is 

approximately 3600 feet per second (llOOm/s). The rounds are 

armor-piercing tungsten penetrator rounds or depleted uranium with 

discarding sabots. The kinetic projectiles are designed to pierce and 

explode an incoming missile's warhead. The ammunition handling 

system has two conveyor belt systems. The first takes the rounds out of 

the magazine drum and to the gun; the second takes either the empty shells or non-fired rounds and routes them back 

to the opposite end of the drum. 




U.S. Navy sailors load tungsten ammunition 

(white sabot at right) and off-load dummy 

ammunition (left). 



Phalanx CIWS 



227 



— 2. 



CIWS contact target identification 

The CIWS does not recognize identification friend or foe, also known as IFF. The CIWS has only the data it collects 
in real time from the radars to decide if the target is a threat and to engage it. A contact has to meet multiple criteria 
for it to be considered a target. Some of the criteria are listed below. 

1 . Is the range of the target increasing or decreasing in relation to the 
ship? The CIWS search radar will see contacts that are out-bound 
and discard them. The CIWS will only engage a target if it is 
approaching the ship. 

Is the contact capable of making a maneuver to hit the ship? If a 
contact is not heading directly at the ship, the CIWS looks at its 
heading in relation to the ship and its velocity. It then decides if the 
contact can still perform a maneuver to hit the ship. 
Is the contact traveling between the minimum and maximum 
velocities? The CIWS has the ability to engage targets that travel in 

a wide range of speeds, however it is not an infinitely wide range. The system has a target maximum velocity 

limit. If a target exceeds this velocity, the CIWS will not engage it. It also has a minimum target velocity limit. 

Any contact below that velocity will not be engaged by the CIWS. The operator also has the option to adjust the 

minimum and maximum limits within the limits of the system. 

There are many other subsystems which together ensure proper operation, such as environmental control, transmitter, 
mount movement control, power control and distribution and so on. It takes 6 to 8 months to train a technician to 
maintain, operate, and repair the CIWS. 




A sailor sits in front of a CIWS Local Control 
Panel (LCP) during a general quarters drill. 



Phalanx incidents in combat 




On February 25 1991, during the first Gulf War, the Phalanx-equipped 
— > USS Jarrett (FFG-33) was a few miles from the 
USS Missouri (BB-63) and the British destroyer 

HMS Gloucester (D96). The ships were attacked by an Iraqi Silkworm 
missile (often referred to as the Seersucker), at which Missouri fired its 
— > SRBOC chaff. The Phalanx system on Jarrett, operating in the 
automatic target-acquisition mode, fixed upon Missouri's chaff, 
releasing a burst of rounds. From this burst, four rounds hit Missouri 
which was two to three miles (about 5 km) from Jarrett at the time. 

ri4i ' ' 

There were no injuries. A Sea Dart missile was then launched from 

the Gloucester, which destroyed the Iraqi missile, achieving the first successful engagement of a missile by a missile 

during combat at sea. 

On June 4 1996, a Japanese Phalanx accidentally shot down a US A-6 Intruder that was towing a radar target during 
gunnery exercises. A Phalanx aboard the Asagiri class destroyer Yugiri locked onto the Intruder instead of the target. 
Both pilots ejected safely. A post-accident investigation concluded that the Yugiri's gunnery officer gave the 



Japanese destroyer Yiigiri 



order to fire before the A-6 was out of the CIWS engagement envelope 



[16] 



Phalanx CIWS 



228 



21st century 
Centurion CRAM 

Seeking a solution to constant rocket and mortar attacks on bases in 
Iraq, the United States Army requested a quick-to-field anti-projectile 
system in May 2004, as part of its Counter-Rocket, Artillery, Mortar 

[171 

initiative . The end result of this program was 'Centurion'. For all 

intents and purposes a terrestrial version of the Navy's CIWS, the i j. , _ 

MO] 

Centurion was developed in record time , with a proof of principle 

ri9i 

test in November that same year, and deployment to Iraq in 2005. 

Currently it protects forward operating bases and other high-value 
sites in and around Baghdad and is deployed by the British in the south 

1211 

of the country. Israel has purchased a single system for testing 

1221 

purposes, and is reported to be considering buying the system to counter rocket attacks and defend point military 
installations, though it's investment in an indigenous system known as Iron Dome has hindered these efforts. 

Each system uses consisted of a modified Phalanx IB CIWS, powered by an attached generator and mounted of a 
trailer for mobility. Armed with a 20 mm M61 Al Galling gun the unit is capable of firing 3,000 or 4,500 M-246 or 
M-940 rounds per minute. In 2008 there were more than twenty CIWS systems protecting bases in the U.S. 

Central Command area of operations. A Raytheon spokesman told Navy Times that 105 attacks were defeated by the 
systems, most of those involved mortars. Based on the success of Centurion, 23 additional systems were ordered in 
September 2008. 





'• '^■- ' !-;-tSr- 


I 




-J 


^-ii^^J^ 


j^j 


Centurion C-CRAM 





[27] 



[28], 



Like the naval (IB) version. Centurion uses Ku-band radar and FLIR to detect and track incoming projectiles, and 

[281 

is also capable of engaging surface targets, with the system able to reach a -25 degree elevation. The Centurion is 

1291 
reportedly capable of defending a 1.2 km/s area. One major difference between the land and sea based variants is 

the choice of ammunition. Whereas naval Phalanx systems fire tungsten armor-piercing rounds, the C-RAM uses the 

M246 or M940 HEIT-SD (High-Explosive Incendiary Tracer, Self-Destruct) ammunition, originally developed for 

the Ml 63 Vulcan Air Defense System. These rounds explode on impact with the target, or upon tracer 



burnout, thereby eliminating the risk of collateral damage, should any rounds fail to hit their target 



[32] [33] 



SeaRam 

Utilising the armament of the RIM- 11 6 Rolling Airframe Missile, and 
based on the mounting and targeting systems of the Phalanx, SeaRAM 
was developed in response to concerns about the performance of 
gun-based systems against modern anti-surface missiles. Designed as a 

1341 

companion self-defense system to Phalanx , the SeaRAM is 
equipped with an 11 cell RAM launcher, and provides defense at a 
longer range. Due to the common mounting, SeaRAM inherits the 
relatively easy installation characteristics of its gun-based sibling, with 
Raytheon stating that "[SeaRAM] fits the exact shipboard installation 

footprint of the Phalanx, uses the same power and requires minimal 

1351 
shipboard modification" . Currently in the trial stages, SeaRAM is 

fitted to the Independence Class Littoral Combat Ship 



[36] 




Phalanx CIWS 229 

Operators 



[371 
Australia 

Bahrain 



I I Belgium 

da^' 
J37] 



Canada^"^ 



~ Egypt'- 

""o~ Israel 

• Japan 

^1 Morocco 

Sm New Zealand^^''^ 

^ Poland^^''^ 

Q Pakistan^^^^ 

^1 Portugal 

Q Saudi Arabia^^^^ 

^1 Taiwan 

^ United States^^^^ 

g^ United Kingdom^^^^ 



Specifications 

(For Block 1 A/B) 

Gun: 20 mm M61 Vulcan Gatling gun autocannon. 

Height: 4.7 m. 

Weight: 12500 lb (5700 kg), later models 13600 lb (6200 kg) ^^^^ 

Elevation +82 to -25 degrees. 

Muzzle velocity: 1,100 m/s. 

Rate of fire: 4,500 rounds/minute. 

Maximum burst size: 1000 rounds. 

Ammunition: 1,550 rounds. 

Radar: Ku band. 

100% Kill distance: Unknown 

Cost: Unknown 



Similar systems 



AK-630, Russian CIWS 
Kashtan, Russian CIWS 
Goalkeeper CIWS, Dutch CIWS 
Meroka CIWS, Spanish navy 
SeaRAM, U.S. missile-based CIWS 
Type 730 CIWS, Chinese CIWS 
Stamp CIWS,Turkish CIWS 



Phalanx CIWS 



230 



External links 

• Official United States Navy Warfighters Encyclopedia CIWS page 



[40] 



[41] 



GlobalSecurity.org fact file 

Raytheon Company Phalanx CIWS product page. 



[42] 



Ground based Phalanx in action (video) 



[43] 



References 

[I] http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2100&tid=800&ct=2 
[2] http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2100&tid=800&ct=2 
[3] http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WNUS_Phalanx.htm 

[4] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/systems/mk-15-specs.htm 

[5] http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2100&tid=800&ct=2 

[6] Thomas, Vincent C. The Almanac ofSeapower I987Na.vy League of the United States (1987) ISBN 0-9610724-8-2 p.l91 

[7] http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/rtnwcm/groups/nns/documents/content/rtn_rms_ps_phalanx_ciws_datash.pdf 

[8] Spacewar.com (http://www. spacewar.com/reports/Phalanx_Has_A_Future_999.html) 

[9] Murdoc online March 20, 2006 CIWS now does surface targets, too (http://www.murdoconline.net/archives/003558.html) 

[10] (http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/products/phalanx/) 

[II] (http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/products/phalanx/) 

[12] Raytheon Awarded Phalanx IB Upgrade Order for Royal Navy (http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/micro_stories. 

pl?ACCT=149999&TlCK=RTN&STORY=/www/story/04-19-2006/0004342799&EDATE=Apr+19,+2006) 
[13] Arizona Daily Star, "Navy Awards $260 Million In Additional Work On Ship Weapons System To Raytheon", May 16, 2009. 
[14] Tab-H Friendly-fire Incidents (http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/du_ii/du_ii_tabh.htm) 
[15] Cable News Network. Japan apologizes for gunning down U.S. plane (http://www.cnn.com/WORLD/9606/04/japan.vessel/). June 4, 

1996. 
[16] The Virginian-Pilot. Human Error Cited In Downing Of Navy Plane By Japanese (http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/VA-Pilot/issues/ 

1996/vp961024/10240334.htm). October 24 1996. 
[17] (http://defense-update.com/newscast/0508/news/news2105_c_ram.htm) 
[18] http://www.navytimes.com/legacy/new/0-NAVYPAPER-910768.php 
[19] (http://defense-update.com/newscast/0508/news/news2105_c_ram.htm) 

[20] (http://www.thefreelibrary.com/First-l-C-RAM+joint+intercept+battery+organizes+for+combat.-a0193035939) 
[21] [http://www.timripley.co.uk/articles/jdw_uk_deploys_c_ram.pdf 

[22] (http://www.spacewar.com/reports/BMD_Focus_Barak_dithered_on_Phalanx_999.html) 
[23] (http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Anti-Qassam_Missile_Defense_Part_One_999.html) 
[24] (http://www.spacewar.com/reports/BMD_Focus_Barak_dithered_on_Phalanx_999.html) 

[25] Murdoc online March 20, 2006 CIWS now does surface targets, too (http://www.murdoconline.net/archives/003558.html) 
[26] "Israel may buy rapid-fire cannon" Jerusalem Post Dec 20, 2007 (http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=l 196847389509& 

pagename=JPost/JP Article/ Printer) 
[27] Analyst: DDGs without CIWS vulnerable (http://www.navytimes.com/news/2008/09/navy_ciws_091508w/). Navy Times. September 

16, 2008 
[28] [http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/rtnwcm/groups/rms/documents/content/rtn_rms_ps_phalanx_datasheet.pdf 
[29] http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/a-laser-phalanx-03783/ 
[30] (http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/ generic/story _channel.jsp?channel=defense&id=news/RAM082709.xml& 

headline=Counter-RAM Systems Target Rockets) 
[31] http://www.navytimes.com/legacy/new/0-NAVYPAPER-910768.php 
[32] (http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/ generic/story _channel.jsp?channel=defense&id=news/RAM082709.xml& 

headline=Counter-RAM Systems Target Rockets) 
[33] http://www.navytimes.com/legacy/new/0-NAVYPAPER-910768.php 
[34] Raytheon. SeaRAM datasheet (http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/rtnwcm/groups/rms/documents/content/ 

rtn_rms_ps_searam_datasheet.pdf). (PDF) 
[35] Raytheon. SeaRAM datasheet (http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/rtnwcm/groups/rms/documents/content/ 

rtn_rms_ps_searam_datasheet.pdf). (PDF) 
[36] Raytheon. SeaRAM datasheet (http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/rtnwcm/groups/rms/documents/content/ 

rtn_rms_ps_searam_datasheet.pdf). (PDF) 
[37] http://www.deagel.com/Ship-Air-Defense-Systems/Mk-15-Phalanx-Block-0_a001641001.aspx 
[38] http://www.deagel.com/Ship-Air-Defense-Systems/Mk-15-Phalanx-Block-lB_a001641003.aspx 
[39] http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2100&tid=800&ct=2 



Phalanx CIWS 



231 



[40] https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/weapons/shiplnch/Guns/ciws.htm 

[41] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/systems/mk-15.htm 

[42] http://www.raytheon.com/products/phalanx/ 

[43] http://www.videotiger.com/vids/amazingmilitarydefensiveweapon.wmv 

Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes 

The IMark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo 

Tubes (]V[k 32 SVTT) system is a pair of 
launchers fitted to warships. Each launcher 
carries three tubes capable of discharging a 
lightweight torpedo like the — > IVIk 46, — > 
]VIk 50 or ]VIk 54. Designed for close-in 
anti-submarine action, compressed air in a 
rear flask propels the weapon; the flask also 
acts as the tube's breech door. Depending on 
the modification (IVIOD) number of a 
particular tube, the mount may be manually 
or remotely operated from stowed to firing 
positions and may also be within the 
structure of the ship. Normal launch is 
electrically initiated by the fire control panel 

located in the combat information center of ' ' 

the ship. All of the torpedoes launched are fire-and-forget weapons. 

The IVIk 32 SVTT, made of fiberglass and aluminum, was originally designed to be weatherproof and capable of 
protecting loaded torpedoes from the elements; however, the tubes required extensive maintenance to do so. 
Beginning with the Spruance-class destroyer, designers placed Mk 32s inside the superstructure, usually within 
spaces that allowed additional weapon storage. In a fully ready condition, these tubes could be trained and fired 
remotely without any direct contact. 

The breech device on the IVIk 32 consists of a high pressure airflask that could be charged and stowed either on the 
tube or separately (on inside mounts only). When installed and with the muzzle cover removed, the tube is fired 
either remotely (electrical) or manually by opening the firing valve and allowing the flask to discharge its "air slug" 
directly into the tube. A small portion of this air operates a retraint latch and the torpedo is ejected clear of the ship's 
side where gravity drops it in the water. 




A crewman closes the breach of a Mark 32 12.75-inch torpedo launcher aboard the 

— ► Oliver Hazard Perry-clsiss guided missile frigate — > USS Curts (FFG-38) during 

anti-submarine warfare operations off the coast of Southern California 



See also 

• List of Naval Weapon Systems 



Mark 46 torpedo 



232 



Mark 46 torpedo 



Designed to attack high-performance submarines, the Mark 46 
torpedo is the backbone of the U.S. Navy's lightweight ASW torpedo 
inventory, and is the current NATO standard. These aerial torpedoes, 
such as the Mark 46 Mod 5, are expected to remain in service until the 
year 2015. In 1989, a major upgrade program for the Mod 5 began to 
improve its shallow-water performance, resulting in the Mod 5A and 
Mod 5A(S). 



[1] 



[2] 



^[l] 




General characteristics, Mark 46 Mod 5 

Primary Function: Air and ship-launched lightweight torpedo 

Contractor: Alliant Techsystems 

Power Plant: Two-speed, reciprocating external combustion; 

Mono-propellant (Otto fuel II) 

Length: 8 ft 6 in (2.59 m) tube launch configuration (from ship) 

14 ft 9 in (4.5 m) with ASROC rocket booster^'^ 

Weight: 508 lb (231 kg)^^^ (warshot configuration) 

Diameter: 12.75 in (324 mm)^^^ 

Range: 12,000 yd (11 km)^^^ 

Depth: > 1,200 ft (365 m) 

Speed: > 40 knots (46 mph, 74 km/h) 

Guidance System: Homing mode: Active or passive/active acoustic homing 

Launch/search mode: Snake or circle search 

Warhead: 96.8 lb (44 kg)^'^ of PBXN-103 high explosive (bulk charge) 

Date Deployed: 1967 (Mod 0);^^^ 1979 (Mod 5) 



A French Lynx helicopter carrying a nik46 
torpedo 




A MK-46 exercise torpedo launched from USS 
Mustin 



[2] 



Yu-7 Torpedo 



[3] 



The Chinese Yu-7 torpedo is said to be based on the Mk 46 mod 1 block 2. Currently the Chinese navy use the 



Yu-7 primarily as an ASW torpedo, deployed on ships and ASW helicopters 



[4] 



See also 

• CAPTOR mine (a sea mine which incorporates a Mk 46 torpedo) 

• MU90 Impact torpedo 



External links 

• Unofficial U.S. Navy Site: MK-46 Torpedo 



[5] 



FAS: MK-46 Torpedo 



[6] 



Mark 46 torpedo 233 

References 

[1] Thomas, Vincent C. The Almanac ofSeapower 1987 Navy League of the United States (1987) ISBN 0-9610724-8-2 pp.190-191 

[2] Polmar, Norman "The Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet: Torpedoes" United States Naval Institute Proceedings November 1978 p. 160 

[3] Chinese Defence Today, "YU-7 Anti-Submarine Torpedo" (http://www.sinodefence.com/navy/weapon/yu7.asp) 

[4] (Chinese language) (http://mil.jschina.com.cn/huitong/missilel.htm) 

[5] http://www.navysite.de/weapons/mk-46.htm 

[6] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/mk-46.htm 



Mark 50 torpedo 



234 



Mark 50 torpedo 



Mark 50 Advanced Lightweight Torpedo 



ll 




y 


M^l 



Mark 50 torpedo being fired 



Type 
Place of origin 



Torpedo 

United States of America 



Used by 



Service history 

United States Navy 



Production history 
Designer Honeywell"^ 

Designed 1974 



Manufacturer 
Produced 



AUiant Techsystems 
1991- 



Weight 



Specifications 

750 lb (340 kg) 



Length 
Width 



112 in (2.84 m) 
12.75 in (0.32 m) 



Warhead 
Warhead weight 

Engine 



HE shaped charge 
100 lb (45 kg)^'^ 

Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion 
System 



Operational 
range 

Speed 

Guidance 
system 



Classified 



40+ knots (74+ km/h)' 



[1] 



Active/passive acoustic homing 



[1] 



The Mark 50 torpedo is a U.S. Navy advanced lightweight torpedo for use against fast, deep-diving submarines. 
The Mk-50 can be launched from all ASW aircraft, and from torpedo tubes aboard surface combatant ships. The 
Mk-50 was intended to replace the ^ ^'"' "'^ "'■ '^■^ fl==f'- r;„ut,„^;„u» * — ^a^ 
replaced with the Mark 54 LHT. 



Mk-46 as the fleet's lightweight torpedo. Instead the Mark 46 will be 



Mark 50 torpedo 



235 



The torpedo's Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System (SCEPS) uses a small tank of sulfur hexafluoride gas 
which is sprayed over a block of solid lithium, which generates enormous quantities of heat, in turn used to generate 
steam from seawater. The steam propels the torpedo in a closed Rankine cycle, supplying power to a pump-jet. 



General characteristics, Mk-50 




Primary function: air and ship-launched Ughtweight torpedo 

Contractor: Alliant Techsystems, Westinghouse 

Length: 2.84 m (112 in) 

Weight: 340 kg (750 lb) 

Diameter: 324 mm (12.75 in) 

Speed: > 85 kn 

Power Plant: Stored Chemical Energy Propulsion System 

Guidance system: Active/passive acoustic homing 

Warhead: approximately 45 kg (100 lb) high explosive (shaped 

[1] 



charge) 

Comparable Weapons 

• Sting Ray torpedo 



References 



[2], 



MK-50 Advanced Lightweight Torpedo ^ ' via FAS 
USA Torpedoes since World War II - navweaps.com 



[3] 



References 

[1] Thomas, Vincent C. The Almanac ofSeapower 79S7 Navy League of the United States (1987) ISBN 0-9610724-8-2 p. 190 
[2] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/mk-50.htm 
[3] http://www.navweaps.com/Weapons/WTUS_PostWWII.htm 



Mk 13 missile launcher 



236 



Mk 13 missile launcher 



The Mk-13 guided missile launching system (GMLS) is a single-arm 
missile launcher designed for use on — > frigates and other military 
vessels. 

The Mark 13 is equipped to fire the -^ RlM-66 Standard, RGM-84 
Harpoon, and RlM-24 Tartar missiles for anti-air and anti-ship defense, 
and is capable of firing the Standard at a rate of one every eight 
seconds. Its 40-round magazine consists of two concentric rings of 
vertically-stored missiles, 24 in the outer ring and 16 in the inner. In 
case of a fire, the system is equipped with magazine sprinkling, CO 
suppression and booster suppression. 




A -^ RIM-66 Standard missile on the Mk 13 

missile launcher aboard ttie tlie Frencii frigate 

Cassard 



The Mkl3 launcher is most typically employed as part of the Mk74 

Guided Missile Launch System, or the Mk92 Fire Control System. Though the launcher was original armament on 
US — > Perry-class frigates (and their derivatives), in order to save costs on an obsolete system, by 2004 all active US 
vessels have had the system removed. It was also fitted on Cassard-cla.ss frigates, as well as the last ten American 
Charles F. Adams class destroyers, the American California class cruisers, the German Liitjens class destroyers and 
Australian Perth class destroyers. 

Because of its distinctive single-armed design, the Mk 13 is often referred to as the "one-armed bandit." 

The Mk-22 guided missile launching system (GMLS) is a variation of the Mk-13 launcher which has only the 



inner 16 round storage ring of the Mk-13 launcher. 



[1] 



External links 

• FAS Mk 13 GMLS ^^^ 



References 

[1] United Defense (Marcii 29 1998). " mlil3-gmls.pdf (http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/mkl3-gmls.pdf)" (PDF). 

Federation of American Scientists Military Analysis Network. . Retrieved April 15 2007. 
[2] Burgess, Richard R. (September 2003). " Guided Missiles Removed from Perry-class Frigates (Sea Services section: Northrop 

Grunmian-Built DDG Mustin Commissioned in U.S. Pacific Fleet) (http://www.navyleague.org/sea_power/sep_03_34.php)". Sea Power 

(Washington, D.C.: Navy League of the United States) 46 (9): 34. ISSN 0199-1337 (http://worldcat.org/issn/0199-1337). OCLC 332401 1 

(http://worldcat.org/oclc/3324011). . Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
[3] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/mk-13-gmls.htm 



RIM-66 Standard 



237 



RIM-66 Standard 



RIM-66 Standard MR 




A RIM-66 Standard MR on an Mk-26 launcher 



Type 
Place of origin 



Medium range surface-to-air missile 
^ United States 



In service 



Used by 



Service history 

1967 (RIM-66A SM-IMR Block I) 
1979 (RIM-66C SM-2MR)^^^ 

United States Navy, Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force, Royal Netherlands Navy, German Navy, Chilean 
Navy, and Others 



Production history 



Manufacturer 



Raytheon and others 



Produced 



1967 Onwards 



Specifications 



Weight 
Length 



SM-2-15581b(707kg) 
15 ft 6 in (4.7 m) 



Diameter 



13.5 in (340 mm) 



Warhead 



blast fragmentation warhead 



Detonation 
mechanism 



radar and contact fuze 



Engine 



dual thrust, solid fuel rocket 



Wingspan 

Operational 
range 



3 ft 6 in (1.1m) 

40 to 90 nmi (74 to 170 km) 



Flight ceiling 
Speed 



> 24400 m (80000 ft) 
Mach 3.5 



Guidance 
system 



SM-2 Block IIIA Command and Inertial midcourse guidance with monopulse semi-active radar homing in the 
terminal phase of the interception. Block IIIB missiles have additionally dual infrared/semi-active terminal 
homing. SM-1 missiles have monopulse semi-active radar homing without command and inertial midcourse 
guidance. 



RIM-66 Standard 238 

Launch Surface Ship 

platform 



The RIM-66 Standard MR (SM-1MR/SM-2MR) is a medium range surface-to-air missile (SAM) originally 
developed for the United States Navy (USN). The SM-1 was developed as a replacement for the RIM-2 Terrier and 
RIM-24 Tartar deployed in the 1950s on a variety of USN ships. It is similar to the RIM-67 Standard 
(SM-1ER/SM-2ER), but has no rocket booster. 

Description 

The Standard missile program was started in 1963 to produce a family of missiles to replace existing guided missiles 
used by the Terrier, Talos, and Tartar guided missile launch systems. The intention was to produce a new generation 
of guided missiles that could be retrofit to existing vessels. 

Standard missile 1 

The RIM-66A is the medium ranged version of the Standard missile and was initially used as a replacement for the 
earlier RIM-24C as part of the Mk74 "Tartar" Guided Missile Fire Control System. It used the same fuselage as the 
earlier Tartar missile, for easier use with existing launchers and magazines for that system. The RIM-66A/B is a 
semi-active radar homing missile like the earlier RIM-24C, but with many improvements that make it more capable 
than its predecessor. The RIM-66A/B Standard MR, (SM-IMR Block I to V) was used during the Vietnam War. The 
only remaining version in service is the RIM-66E (SM-IMR Block VI). In service with Tartar Guided Missile Fire 
Control System equipped vessels and Mk 92 Guided Missile Fire Control System equipped vessels. 

Standard missile 2 

The RIM-66C/D Standard MR (SM-2MR Block I), was developed in the 1970s and was a key part of the Aegis 
combat system and New Threat Upgrade (NTU). The SM-2MR introduced inertial and command mid-course 
guidance. The missile's autopilot is programmed to fly the most efficient path to the target and can receive course 
corrections from the ground. Target illumination for semi-active homing is needed only for a few seconds in the 
terminal phase of the interception. This capability enables the Aegis combat system and the New Threat Upgrade 
equipped vessels to time share illumination radars, greatly increasing the number of targets that can be engaged at 
one time. In the middle 1980s, the SM-2MR was deployed via Mk 41 Vertical Launch System (VLS) aboard the 
USS Bunker Hill, the first U.S. Navy ship to deploy a vertical launcher. VLS is now the predominant launcher used 
with the Standard missile in the U.S. Navy aboard Ticonderoga-cla&& cruisers and Arleigh Burke-cla&& destroyers. 

The SM-1 and SM-2 were continuously upgraded through Blocks (see below). 

The Standard can also be used against ships, either at line-of-sight range using its semi-active homing mode, or over 

Ml 

the horizon using inertial guidance and terminal infrared homing. 



RIM-66 Standard 



239 



Contractors 

Standard missiles were constructed by General Dynamics Pomona Division until 1992, when it became part of the 
Hughes Missile Systems Company. Hughes formed a joint venture with Raytheon called Standard Missile Company 
(SMCo). Hughes Missile Systems was eventually sold to Raytheon making it the sole contractor. 

Operational history 

The Standard missile one became operational in 1968. The missile was utilized by ships equipped with the Tartar 
Guided Missile Fire Control System. The missile saw its first combat use in the early 1970s in the Vietnam war. The 
Standard missile two became operational in the late 1970s and was deployed operationally with the Aegis Combat 
System in 1983. Both Standard one and two were used against both surface and air targets during Operation Praying 
Mantis. On July 3, 1988, USS Vincennes (CG-49) shot down Iran Air FHght 655, an Airbus A300B2, using two 
SM-2MR missiles from her forward launcher. 

Deployment history 

The Standard missile is designated by blocks depending upon their technological package. 

SM-1 Medium Range Block I/II/III/IV, RIM-66A 

The First Standard missiles entered service in the USN in 1967. Blocks I, II, and III were preliminary versions. 
Block IV was the production version. This missile was a replacement for the earlier RIM-24C Tartar missile. 



Deployment 

In the US Navy, RIM-66 Standard was deployed on 
ships of the following classes, replacing RIM-24 
Tartar in some cases: 

• Charles F. Adams class destroyer (Mk74 Missile 
Fire Control) 

• — > Oliver Hazard Perry class frigate (Mk 92 
Missile Fire Control) 

• Kidd class destroyer (Mk74 Missile Fire Control 
SM-1/later New Threat Upgrade for SM-2) 

• California class cruiser (Mk74 Missile Fire Control 
SM-1/later New Threat Upgrade for SM-2) 

• Virginia class cruiser (Mk74 Missile Fire Control 
SM-1/later New Threat Upgrade for SM-2) 

• Ticonderoga class cruiser (Aegis Combat System/Mk99 Missile Fire Control) 

• Arleigh Burke class destroyer (Aegis Combat System/Mk99 Missile Fire Control) 

RIM-66 has also been in service in other navies worldwide, mostly in ships of classes similar to those listed above. 




RIM-66 Standard 240 

SM-1 Medium Range Block V, RIM-66B 

The RIM-66B introduced changes that resuhed in higher reliability. A new faster reacting autopilot, a more powerful 
dual thrust rocket motor, and a new warhead were added. 

SM-1 Medium Range Blocks VI/VIA/VIB, RIM-66E 

The RIM-66E was the last version of the standard missile one medium range. This version entered service in 1983 
with the United States Navy and export customers. The RIM-66E was used by all remaining Tartar vessels that were 
not modified to use the New Threat Upgrade and — > Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates which controlled it with the 
Mk92 fire control system. The missile was retired from USN service in 2003; however it is still widely used abroard 
and is expected to remain viable until 2020. 

SM-2 Medium Range Block I, RIM-66C/D 

The RIM-66C was the first version of the Standard missile two. The missile became operational in 1978 with the 
Aegis combat system fitted to the Ticonderoga class cruiser. The RIM-66D was the SM-2 medium range block I 
version for the New Threat Upgrade. The SM-2 incorporates a new autopilot giving it inertial guidance in all phases 
of flight except for the terminal intercept where semi-active radar homing is still used. This version is no longer in 
service, remaining missiles have either been remanufactured into later models or have been put in storage. 

SM-2 Medium Range Block II, RIM-66G/H/J 

The Block II missile introduced in 1983 with a new rocket motor for longer range and a new warhead. The RIM-66G 
is for the Aegis combat system and the Mk26 missile launcher. The RIM-66H is for Aegis and the Mk41 vertical 
launcher. The RIM-66J is the version for the New Threat Upgrade. 

SM-2 Medium Range Block III/IIIA/IIIB, RIM-66K/L/M 

The RIM-66M is the version of the Standard missile two medium range (SM-2MR) currently in service with the 
USN aboard Ticonderoga class cruisers, and Arleigh Burke class destroyers. The missile is specifically designed for 
the Aegis Combat System and the Mk41 Vertical launch system. The Block III missiles differ from earlier blocks by 
the addition of the MK 45 MOD 9 target detecting device, for improved performance against low altitude targets. 
The Block IIIB missile additionally has a dual semi-active/infrared seeker for terminal homing. The dual seeker is 
intended for use in high-ECM environments, against targets over the horizon or with a small radar cross section. 
The seeker was originally developed for the canceled AIM-7R Sparrow air-to-air missile. All USN Block III and 
IIIA missiles are to be upgraded to Block IIIB. Block IIIA missiles are operated by the Japanese Maritime 
Self-Defense Force on its Kongo class and Atago class Aegis destroyers. Aegis equipped vessels in the Spanish and 
South Korean navies use it as well. The Dutch and German Navies have added it to the Anti-Air Warfare system, 
which uses the Thales Nederland Active Phased Array Radar and Smart-L radar. South Korean KDX-II destroyers 
use the block IIIA with a New Threat Upgrade compatible guided missile fire control system. Block III variants for 
Aegis and arm launchers are designated RIM-66L. Block III missiles for New Threat Upgrade systems is designated 
RIM-66K. Block IIIB missiles were not produced for the New Threat Upgrade. Blocks IIIA and IIIB are the current 
production versions. 

Surface to air variants 



RIM-66 Standard 



241 



Designation 


Block 


Platform 


Notes 


RIM-66A 


SM-lMRBlocklto 
IV 


Digital Tartar 


In Service 1967, Conscan radar seeker 


RIM-66B 


SM-IMR Block V 


Digital Tartar 


Plane scaning seeker 


RIM-66C 


SM-2MR Block 1 


Aegis combat system, Mk26 
launcher 


MK 1 15 blast-fragmentation warhead 
Monopulse seeker for ECM resistance 


RIM-66D 


SM-2MR Block 1 


New Threat Upgrade 


First New Threat Upgrade version 


RIM-66E 


SM-IMR Blocks VI, 
VIA, VIB 


Digital Tartar and Mk 92 Fire 
Control System. 


In service 1983. Version still in service with export customers 
monopulse seeker developed for Standard missile 2. 


Adds 


RIM-66G 


SM-2MR Block 11 


Aegis combat system, Mk26 
launcher 


In Service 1983. 


RIM-66H 


SM-2MR Block 11 


Aegis combat system, Mk41 
Launcher 


Added Thiokol MK 104 rocket motor, increasing range 
High-velocity fragmentation warhead 


RIM-66J 


SM-2MR Block 11 


New Threat Upgrade 




RIM-66K-1 


SM-2MR Block 111 


New Threat Upgrade 




RIM-66K-2 


SM-2MR Block lllA 


New Threat Upgrade 


In Production. 


RIM-66L-1 


SM-2MR Block 111 


Aegis combat system, Mk26 
launcher 




RIM-66L-2 


SM-2MR Block lllA 


Aegis combat system, Mk26 
launcher 




RIM-66M-1 


SM-2MR Block 111 


Aegis combat system, Mk41 
Launcher 


Improved MK 45 MOD 9 target detecting device, for low altitude targets 


RIM-66M-2 


SM-2MR Block lllA 


Aegis combat system, Mk41 
Launcher 


MK 125 warhead. In production. 


RIM-66M-5 


SM-2MR Block lllB 


Aegis combat system, Mk41 
Launcher 


Missile Homing Improvement Program (MHIP), dual IR / SARH seeker, IR 
seeker mounted on side fairing. In Production. 



Table sources, reference material: 



See also 

Aegis combat system 

AGM-78 Standard ARM 

Mk 74 "Tartar" Guided Missile Fire Control System 

Mk 92 Guided Missile Fire Control System 

New Threat Upgrade 

RIM-2 Terrier 

RIM-8 Talos 

RIM-24 Tartar - predecessor 

RIM-67 Standard Extended Range 

RIM-156 Standard SM-2ER Block IV 

RIM- 161 Standard SM-3 

RIM- 174 Standard SM-6 Extended Range Active Missile 



RIM-66 Standard 242 

External links 

ri3i 

• Raytheon Standard missile website, mfr of Standard missiles 

ri4i 

• Navy Fact file - Standard Missile 2 

• NAVAIR War fighters encyclopedia - Standard missile 

• Designation systems.net RIM-66 

• FAS - SM-2 f^^^ 

• GlobalSecurity.org - SM-2 ^^^^ 

References 

[I] United States Navy, US Navy Fact File:Standard Missile (hittp://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2200&tid=1200&ct=2), 
October 11, 2002. Accessed June 5, 2006. 

[2] Raytheon, Raytheon.com (http://www.raytheon.com/capabilities/rtnwcm/groups/rms/documents/content/rtn_rms_ps_sm2_datasheet. 

pdf), March 17, 2009, Accessed August 24, 2009. 
[3] http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-66.html 
[4] Canadian Forces Maritime Command. Standard missile (http://www.navy.forces.gc.ca/mspa_fleet_popups/autopop_exterior_e. 

htm#221irq_ac_pop). Accessed June 5, 2006. 
[5] GlobalSecurity.org - Standard specs (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/sm-specs.htm) Designation systems 

RIM-66 (http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-66.html). 
[6] United States Navy. " Formal Investigation into the Circumstances Surrounding the Downing of Iran Air Flight 655 on 3 July 1988 (http:// 

www.dod.mil/pubs/foi/reading_room/172.pdf)" (PDF). . Retrieved 2007-01-28. 
[7] Raytheon RIM-66 Standard MR (http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-66.html) 
[8] USNI Combat Fleets 2005-2006, Wertheim, Eric; Editor, USN section Naval Institute Press © 2005 
[9] USNI Combat Fleets 2005-2006, Wertheim, Eric; Editor, USN section Naval Institute Press ©2005 
[10] The US Navy - Fact File (http://www.navy. mil/ navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2200&tid=1200&ct =2) 

[II] SM-2 RIM-66 / RIM-67 Standard Missile (http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/sm-2.htm) 
[12] USNI Guide to Combat Fleets: Their Ships and Weapons. 2005-2006 ©2005 USNI Press 

[13] http://www.raytheon.com/products/standard_missile/ 

[14] http://www.navy.mil/navydata/fact_display.asp?cid=2200&tid=1200&ct=2 

[15] https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/weapons/shiplnch/standard.htm 

[16] http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-66.html 

[17] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/missile/sm-2.htm 

[18] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/sm-2.htm 



Boeing Harpoon 



243 



Boeing Harpoon 



Harpoon 




A Harpoon missile on display at 


the USS Bowfin museum at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. 


Type 


Anti-ship missile 


Place of origin 


United States 


Service history 


In service 


1977-present 


Production history 


Manufacturer 


Boeing Integrated Defense Systems 


Unit cost 


US$720,000 


Specifications 


Weight 


1 144-1385 lb (519-628 kg) depending on launch 


Length 


^IfWlAJm) 


Diameter 


1.1 ft (0.34 m) 




Warhead 


487 pounds (221 kg) 




Engine 


rocket engine 


Wingspan 


3 ft (0.91 m) 



Operational 
range 

FUght altitude 



58—196 mi (93—315 km) depending on launch platform 



Sea- skimming 



Speed 

Guidance 
system 



537 miles per hour (864 km/h)(240 m/s) 
Active radar 



Launch 
platform 



multi-platform: 

• RGM-84A surface-launched 

• AGM-84A air-launched 

• UGM-84A submarine-launched 



The Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system, developed and manufactured by 
McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing Integrated Defense Systems). In 2004, Boeing delivered the 7,000th Harpoon unit 



Boeing Harpoon 244 

since the weapon's introduction in 1977. The missile system has also been further developed into a land-strike 
weapon, the Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM). 

The regular Harpoon uses active radar homing, and a low-level, sea-skimming cruise trajectory to improve 
survivability and lethality. The missile's launch platforms include: 

• Fixed-wing aircraft (the AGM-84, without the solid-fuel rocket booster) 

• Surface ships (the RGM-84, fitted with a solid-fuel rocket booster that detaches when expended, to allow the 
missile's main turbojet to maintain flight) 

• Submarines (the UGM-84, fitted with a solid-fuel rocket booster and encapsulated in a container to enable 
submerged launch through a torpedo tube); 

• Coastal defense batteries, from which it would be fired with a solid-fuel rocket booster. 

The missile is comparable to the French-made Exocet, the Swedish RBS-15, the Russian SS-N-25 Switchblade, the 
British Sea Eagle and the Chinese Yingji. 

Development 
Early Harpoons 

The Harpoon was first introduced in 1977 after the sinking of the Israeli destroyer Eilat in 1967 by a Soviet-built 
Styx anti-ship missile from an Egyptian missile boat. Initially developed as an air-launched missile for the United 
States Navy P-3 Orion patrol planes, the Harpoon has been adapted for use on Air Force B-52H bombers, which can 
carry from eight to 12 of the missiles. The Harpoon has been procured by many U.S. allies, especially by the NATO 
countries, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, the United Kingdom, etc. 

The Harpoon has also been adapted for use on the F-16 Fighting Falcon, in use by the USA, Singapore, South Korea 
and the United Arab Emirates. It has been carried by several US Navy aircraft, including the P-3 Orion , the A-6 
Intruder, the S-3 Viking, the AV-8B Harrier 11, and the F/A-18 Hornet. 

The Royal Australian Air Force can fire AGM-84 series missiles from its F-1 1 IC/G Aardvarks, F/A-18 Hornets, and 
P-3C Orion aircraft. The Royal Australian Navy deploys the Harpoon on major surface combatants and in the 
Collins-class submarines. The Spanish Air Force and the Chilean Navy are also AGM-84D customers and deploy the 
missiles on surface ships, F/A-18s, F-16s, and P-3 Orion aircraft. The British Royal Navy deploys the Harpoon on 
several types of surface ship and submarine, and the Royal Air Force uses it on the Nimrod MR2 maritime patrol 
aircraft. 



The Canadian Forces Maritime Command (Canadian Navy) uses 
Harpoons on its Halifax-class frigates. The Royal New Zealand Air 
Force has the capability of carrying the Harpoon on its five P-3 patrol 
planes as its only means of striking surface ships. 

The Republic of Singapore Air Force also operates five modified 
Fokker 50 Maritime Patrol Aircraft (MPA) which are fitted with sonars 
and sensors to fire the Harpoon missile. The Pakistani Navy uses the 
Harpoon on its — > naval frigates and P-3C Orions. The Turkish Navy 

The Canadian frigate HMCS Regina (FFH 334) 

f u , I, 1 J D f uses Harpoons on surface combatants and Type-209 submarines. The 

fares a Harpoon anti-ship missile during a Rim or ^^ j f 

the Pacific (RIMPAC) sinking exercise. Turkish Air Force will operate the SLAM-ER. 

Fifty-seven Harpoons were reportedly sold to the Republic of China 
Air Force (Taiwan). The Taiwanese navy also includes four guided-missile destroyers and several guided-missile 
frigates with the capability of carrying the Harpoon, include the ex-USN Knox class frigates and the locally-built 
derivative of the — > Oliver Hazard Perry class. 




Boeing Harpoon 



245 



Harpoon Block ID 

This version featured a larger fuel tank and re-attack capability, but was not produced in numbers because its 
intended mission (confrontation with the Soviet Union) was, after 1991, considered unUkely. 

SLAM ATA (Block IG) 

This version, under development, gives the SLAM a re-attack capability as well as an image comparison capability 
similar to the Tomahawk cruise missile; that is, the weapon can compare the target scene in front of it with an image 
stored in its on-board computer during terminal phase target acquisition and lock on. 



Harpoon Block II 



In production at Boeing facilities in Saint 
Charles, Missouri, is the Harpoon Block II, 
intended to offer an expanded engagement 
envelope, enhanced resistance to electronic 
countermeasures and improved targeting. 
Specifically, the Harpoon was initially 
designed as an open-ocean weapon. The 
Block II missiles continue progress begun 
with Block IE, and the Block II missile 
provides the Harpoon with a littoral water 
attack capability. 

The key improvements of the Harpoon 

Block II are obtained by incorporating the 

inertial measurement unit from the Joint 

Direct Attack Munition program, and the software, computer. Global Positioning System (GPS)/inertial navigation 

system and GPS antenna/receiver from the SLAM Expanded Response (SLAM-ER), an upgrade to the SLAM. 

Although initially tested from U.S. Navy ships, the decision was made to not procure Harpoon Block II for the U.S. 
Navy fleet. Boeing lists 28 foreign navies as Block II customers, (http:/ / www. boeing. com/ defense-space/ 
missiles/harpoon/docs/HarpoonBlockllB ackgrounder.pdf) 




Harpoon Block II test firing from USS Decatur. 



Harpoon Block III 

Harpoon Block III was intended to be an upgrade package to the existing USN Block IC missiles and Command 
Launch Systems (CLS) for guided-missile cruisers, guided-missile destroyers, and the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet 
airplane. After experiencing an increase in the scope of required government ship integration, test and evaluation, 
and a delay in development of a data-link, the Harpoon Block III program was canceled by the U.S. Navy in April 
2009. Cancellation of Block III however does not preclude the possibility of continued incremental upgrades to the 
Harpoon missile and launching suite in the future. 



Boeing Harpoon 



246 



■[5] 



Operational history 

In 1981 and 1982 there were two accidental launches of Harpoon missiles from US and Danish surface ships. 

In 1986, the United States Navy sank at least two Libyan patrol boats in the Gulf of Sidra. Two Harpoon missiles 
were launched from the USS Yorktown with no confirmed results and several others from A-6 Intruder aircraft that 

[21 [31 

were said to have hit their targets. Initial reports claimed that the USS Yorktown scored hits on a patrol boat, but 

[41 

action reports indicated that the target may have been a false one and that no ships were hit by those missiles. 

In 1988, Harpoon missiles were used to sink the Iranian frigate Sahand during Operation Praying Mantis. Another 
was fired at the Sina class missile boat Joshan, but failed to strike because the Fast Attack Craft (FAC) had already 
been mostly sunk by — > RIM-66 Standard missiles. An Iranian Harpoon was also fired at the guided missile cruiser 
USS Wainwright. The missile was successfully lured away by chaff 

In December 1988, a Harpoon launched by an F/A-18 Hornet fighter from the aircraft carrier USS Constellation 
killed one sailor when it struck the Jagvivek, a 250 ft (76 m) long Indian merchant ship, during an exercise at the 
Pacific Missile Range near Kauai, Hawaii. A Notice to Mariners had been issued warning of the danger, but the 
Jagvivek strayed into the test range, and the Harpoon, loaded with an inert dummy warhead, locked onto it instead of 
its intended target. 

In June 2009 it was reported by a U.S. -based newspaper, citing unnamed officials from the US administration and 
US Congress, that the U.S. government had accused Pakistan of illegally modifying older Harpoon missiles to strike 
land-based targets. Pakistani officials denied this and claimed the U.S. was referring to a new Pakistani -designed 
missile. It was later stated that Pakistan and the U.S. administration had reached some sort of agreement 

allowing U.S. officials to inspect Pakistan's inventory of Harpoon missiles, and the issue had been 



[6] 



resolved 



[12] 



General characteristics 

• Primary function: Air-, surface-, or 
submarine-launched anti-surface 
(anti-ship) missile 

• Contractor: The McDonnell Douglas 
Astronautic Company - East 

• Power plant: Teledyne Teledyne J402 
turbojet, 660 lb (300 kg)-force (2.9 kN) 
thrust, and a solid-propeUant booster for 
surface and submarine launches 

• Length: 

• Air launched: 3.8 metres (12 ft) 7 in) 

• Surface and submarine launched: 
4.6 metres (15 ft) 

• Weight: 

• Air launched: 519 kilograms (1 140 lb) 

• Submarine or ship launched from box or canister launcher: 628 kilograms (1380 lb) 

• Diameter: 340 millimetres ( 1 3 in) 

• Wing span: 914 millimetres (36.0 in) 

• Maximum altitude: 910 metres (3000 ft) with booster fins and wings 

• Range: Over-the-horizon (approx 50 nautical miles) 

• AGM-84D: 220 km (120 nmi) 

• RGM/UGM-84D: 140 km (75 nmi) 




Harpoon Block 11 test firing from USS Thorn. 



Boeing Harpoon 247 

• AGM-84E: 93 km (50 nmi) 

• AGM-84F:315km(170nmi) 

• AGM-84H/K: 280 km (150 nmi) 

• Speed: High subsonic, around 850 km/h (460 knots, 240 m/s, or 530 mph) 

• Guidance: Sea-skimming cruise monitored by radar altimeter, active radar terminal homing 

• Warhead: 221 kilograms (490 lb), penetration high-explosive blast 

• Unit cost: US$720,000 

• Date deployed: 

Ship launched (RGM-84A): 1977 

Air launched (AGM-84A): 1979 

Submarine launched (UGM-84A): 1981 

SLAM (AGM-84E): 1990 

SLAM-ER (AGM-84H): 1998 (deUvery); 2000 (initial operational capabiUty (IOC)) 

SLAM-ER ATA (AGM-84K): 2002 (IOC) 

External links 

ri3i 

• Official Harpoon information — Boeing Integrated Defense System website 

• Detailed information of all Harpoon versions and upgrades — From Encyclopedia Astronautica 

• AGM-84 variants ^^^^ 

• McDonnell-Douglas AGM-84A Harpoon and AGM-84E SLAM ^^''^ 

ri7i 

• FAS Harpoon article 

n SI 

• Global Security Harpoon article 

ri9i 

• Boeing Harpoon Block III Press Release 



Boeing Harpoon Block II Backgrounder 

Royal Netherlands Navy launches Harpoons 

Boeing F/A-18 fires AGM-84 ^^^^ Digital Mihtary Art 



r2ii 

Royal Netherlands Navy launches Harpoons from new frigate HMS De Ruyter (Defense- Aerospace) 



References 

[I] Global Security Harpoon article 

[2] Time (magazine). High-Tech Firepower (http://www.time.eom/time/magazine/article/0, 9171, 961035, 00. html). April 7, 1986. 

[3] Ronald Reagan. Letter to the Speaker of the House of Representatives and the President Pro Tempore of the Senate on the Gulf of Sidra 

Incident (http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1986/32686h.htm). March 26, 1986. 
[4] The New York Times. PENTAGON REVISES LIBYAN SHIP TOLL. March 27, 1986. 
[5] The New York Times. U.S. STRIKES 2 IRANIAN OIL RIGS AND HITS 6 WARSHIPS IN BATTLES OVER MINING SEA LANES IN 

GULF (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DE0DC1038F93AA25757C0A96E948260). April 19, 1988. 
[6] The New York Times / AP. U.S. Rocket Hits Indian Ship Accidentally, Killing Crewman (http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage. 

html?res=940DEEDAlF3AF930A25751ClA96E948260). December 13, 1988. 
[7] The New York Times. U.S. Says Pakistan Made Changes to Missiles Sold for Defense (http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/30/world/ 

asia/30missile.html) August 29, 2009 
[8] Rediff.com / PTI. Pakistan illegally modified Harpoon missile: Report (http://news.rediff.com/report/2009/aug/30/ 

pakistan-modified-missile-to-use-against-india-says-us-report.htm). August 30, 2009. 
[9] The Times of India / PTI. Harpoon missile modification by Pak very serious: US (http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/news/world/us/ 

Harpoon-missile-modification-by-Pak-very-serious-US/articleshow/4957845.cms). September 1, 2009. 
[10] Dawn News, http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/ 

09-pakistan-allows-us-to-inspect-harpoons— szh- 1 1 

[II] India TV News. http://www.indiatvnews.com/main/newsdetails.php?id=3479&pg=index 
[12] http://thenews.jang. com. pk/updates.asp?id=87764 

[13] http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/missiles/harpoon/index.htm 

[14] http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/harpoon.htm 

[15] http://www.designation-systems.net/dusrm/m-84.html 

[16] http://www.ausairpower.net/TE-Harpoon.html 



Boeing Harpoon 



248 



[17] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/smart/agm-84.htm 

[18] http://www. globalsecurity. org/military/sy stems/munitions/agm-84.htm 

[19] http://www.boeing.com/news/releases/2008/ql/080131a_nr.html 

[20] http://www.boeing.com/defense-space/missiles/harpoon/docs/HarpoonBlockIIBackgrounder.pdf 

[21] http://www. defense-aerospace.com/cgi-bin/client/modele. pi ?prod=100076&session=dae. 43 173607. 1227915838. 

bl23k38AAAEAAA87SX0AAAAG&modele=release&prod=100076 

[22] http://www.digitalmilitaryart.com/Modern/Harpoon2D.jpg.php 



Penguin (missile) 



249 



Penguin (missile) 



Penguin 




Type littoral anti-ship missile 

Place of origin gg Norway 



Service history 



In service 



1972 



Production history 
Manufacturer Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace 



Weight 



Specifications 

385 kg (MK2), 370 kg (MK3) 



Length 3.0 m(MK2), 3.2 m (MK3) 

Diameter 28 cm 



Warhead 

Detonation 
mechanism 



120 kg (MK2), 130 kg (MK3) 
delay fuse 



Engine Solid propellant sustainer 

Wingspan 1 .4 m (MK2), 1 .0 m (MK3) 



Operational 34+ km (MK2), 55+ km (MK3) 
range 

Flight altitude sea skimming 



Speed high subsonic 

Guidance pulse-laser, passive IR (MK2), passive IR, radar altimeter (MK3) 
system 



Launch naval ships, helicopters (MK2), fixed-wing aircraft (MK3) 

platform 



The Rb 12 Penguin anti-ship missile (U.S. designation AGM-119), made by Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace 
(KDA) of Norway from the early 1970s and continually upgraded since, is a passive-IR seeker based 

short-to-medium range naval cruise missile. It was the first AShM of the western world with an IR seeker (instead of 
the commonly used active radar technology). 

The Penguin can be fired singly or in coordinated-arrival salvoes. Propelled by a solid rocket engine, it performs 
random weaving maneuvres at target approach and hits the target close to the waterline. Of the western inventory of 



Penguin (missile) 250 

such missiles, it is the only variant that performs a terminal bunt and weave manoeuvre. The modified 120 kg 
warhead detonates inside the target ship by using a delay fuse. 

In its various versions, the Penguin can be launched from a number of different weapons platforms: 

• Surface vessels: Missile boats;its initial application — as well as larger ships 

• Fighter aircraft: certified for F-16 

• Helicopters (certified for the following aircraft): 

• Bell 412 SP 

• Kaman — > SH-2 Seasprite 

• Sikorsky S-70 series (SH-60 Seahawk, UH-60 Black Hawk) 

• Westland Super Lynx 

KDA's successor to the Penguin is the Naval Strike Missile (NSM), offered from 2007 onwards. NSM features an 
imaging IR-seeker, GPS navigation, a turbojet sustainer engine (for much longer ranges: 150+ km), and significantly 
more computer performance and digital signal processing power. 

South African Air Force Mirage Fl AZ armed with Penguin Missiles 

Operators 

ils Norway 

In service with both the Royal Norwegian Navy (since 1972) and Royal Norwegian Air Force (since 1989) 
B Turkey 

In service with the Turkish Navy (since 1972) 
1^ Greece 

In service with the Hellenic Navy (since 1980) 
52 Sweden 

In service with the Swedish Navy (since 1980) 
^a United States 

In service with the United States Navy as the AGM-119 (since 1994) 
^H Australia 

Procured for service with the Royal Australian Navy's Super Seasprite helicopters 
^^ Spain 

In service with the Spanish Navy (since 2003) 
^B South Africa 

In service with the South African Air Force 
Egg Brazil 

Acquired eight missiles for use in Brazilian Navy's S-70B helicopters 



Penguin (missile) 251 

External links 

• Video of ship-launched Penguin Mk2 missiles being test fired in Norway — By the RNoN 22nd FPB Squadron 

• Official Penguin webpage (KDA) 

• Missile. index search — Choose* Development-Country: "Norway", then pick "Penguin" from the results list 
(* direct linking to subpages is not possible at this website) 

References 

[1] Early development of the Penguin was done by the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (NDRE; Norw. FFI) during the 1960s. 

[2] Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace (KDA) was formerly a part of Kongsherg Vapenfabrikk (KV) (1814—1986) and Norsk Forsvarsteknologi 

(NFT) (1987-1994), and is now part oi Kongsherg Gruppen (KOG). 

[3] http://newsite.ipmssa.za.org/images/stories/kb/aircraft/fl/flaz_48_open.jpg 

[4] Diario Oficial da Uniao (https://www.in. gov. br/imprensa/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=3&pagina=47&data=22/12/2008) 

[5] http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mw9f3SQbLJQ 

[6] http://www.kongsberg.com/eng/kda/products/Missiles/ 

[7] http://missile. index. ne.jp/cgi/misearch.cgi?act=cond&lang=en 



252 



Electronics and Countermeasures 



AN/SPS-49 



AN/SPS-49 











AN/SI 


^S-49 on USS Ahraham Lincoln (CVN-72) 


Country of origin 


United States 


Introduced 


1975 


Number built 


200+ 


Type 


2D Air-search 


Frequency 


L band 850-942 MHz 


Range 


250 nmi (460 km) 


Altitude 


up to 150,000 ft 
(45,720 m) 


Diameter 


24 ft (7.3 m) X 14 ft 3 in 
(7.3 mx 4.3 m) 


Azimuth 


0-360° 


Precision 


0.03 nmi range 
0.5 deg azimuth 
(SPS-49(V)5) 



The AN/SPS-49 is a United States Navy two-dimensional, long range air search radar built by Raytheon that is 
capable of providing contact bearing and range. The radar is also used by several other countries, such as Australia, 
Canada, Spain, Poland and Taiwan aboard — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates and Canadian Halifax-class. 
frigates. 



Operation 

First tested in 1965 aboard USS Gyatt (DD-712) and introduced in 1975, the SPS-49 serves as a primary air-search 
radar aboard numerous ships world wide. It is also serves in a complementary role aboard Aegis cruisers with the 
AN/SPY- 1. It is an L band radar operating in the 850—942 MHz band and has a range of 250 nautical miles 
(460 km). The orange-peel parabolic shape of the antenna creates a narrow 3.3° beam reducing the probability of 
detection or jamming. It is also capable of rotating at 6 rpm for long range mode or 12 rpm in short range mode. 
To guard against incoming missiles, default operation of the AN/SPS-49 A(V)1 is at 12 rpm, in order to provide more 
frequent scans. The SPS-49A is capable of full-range detection in either 6 or 12 rpm modes. 



AN/SPS-49 253 

Variants 

AN/SPS49(V)1 - Baseline radar (Various CVN, LHA, LSD and other ships) 

AN/SPS49(V)2 - (V)l radar without the coherent side lobe cancellation feature (— > Oliver Hazard 

Ferry-class frigates) 

AN/SPS49(V)3 - (V)l radar with the radar video processor (RVP) interface (FC-1) (USS Long Beach (CGN-9)) 

AN/SPS49(V)4 - (V)2 with the RVP interface (-> Oliver Hazard Perry-cluss frigates) 

AN/SPS49(V)5 - (V)l with automatic target detection (ATD) (New Threat Upgrade (NTU) ships) 

AN/SPS49(V)6 - (V)3 system with double shielded cables and a modified cooling system 

(USS Ticonderoga (CG-47)) 

AN/SPS49(V)7 - (V)5 system with a (V)6 cooling system (Aegis combat system) 

AN/SPS49(V)8 - (V)5 system enhanced to include the AEGIS Tracker modification kit (Aegis combat system) 

AN/SPS49(V)9 - (V)5 with medium PRF upgrade (MPU) 

c [1] 

Source: 

• AN/SPS-49 A(V)1 - Developed in the mid 1990s. Added radial speed determination on each target, each scan. 
Improved clutter rejection 

See also 

• List of radars 

External links 

• GlobalSecurity AN/SPS-49 ^^^ 

[31 

• Electronics Technician Volume 4-Radar Systems - via Tpub 

References 

[1] NAVAIR warfighter encyclopedia (https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/weapons/SensElec/RADAR/ansps49.htm) 
[2] http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/systems/an-sps-49.htm 
[3] http://www.tpub.com/content/et/14089/css/14089_26.htm 



AN/SPS-55 254 



AN/SPS-55 



AN/SPS-55 




AN/SPS-55 antenna on ^ USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) 
Country of origin United States 



Introduced 


1971 


Type 


Surface-search 


Frequency 


I band (9.05 to 10.0 GHz) 


Range 


greater than 50 nautical miles (92.6 km) 


Azimuth 


1.5° 


Elevation 


-10° to -1-10°, centered on the horizon 


Power 


130 kW 



The AN/SPS-55 is a solid state surface search and navigation radar. It was developed by Cardion Electronics for the 
U.S. Navy under a contract awarded in 1971. It was originally developed for a class of ships known as Patrol 
Frigates, but it was also installed on numerous Cruisers, Destroyers and Minesweepers. It is an I band radar and its 
antenna consists of two waveguide slotted arrays mounted back-to-back. One array provides linear polarization and 
the other provides circular polarization. Polarization is user selectable and the circular polarized array is more 

[21 

effective in reducing returns from precipitation. 

Features 

• Magnetron transmitter 

• Low noise RF receiver 

• Sensitivity time control (STC) 

• Fast time constant filtering (FTC) 

• Sector radiate (SR) 

The effective range of the radar is from 50 feet (15 m) to beyond 50 miles (80 km). It is primarily used to detect 
other ships, coastlines and navigation hazards. 

The "Sensitivity Time Control" automatically adjusts the gain of the RF receiver from low to high based on the time 
elapsed from the last transmitter pulse. This helps to adjust for the fact that near by targets generate a larger return 
than distant targets of the same size. 

The "Fast Time Constant Filtering" helps to remove targets which have a very large range size, like clouds, while 
passing targets with a smaller range size, like ships or aircraft. 



AN/SPS-55 



255 



The "Sector Radiate" allows the operator to turn off the transmitter for any sized pie shaped sector of the antenna's 
360 degree rotation. An operator might want to do this to avoid detection by an enemy receiver which with a known 
or suspected location. 

Platforms 

• Ticonderoga-c\a&s cruisers 

• Virginia-class cruisers 

• Spruance-class destroyers 

• — > Oliver Hazard Perry-class — > frigates 

• Avenger class countermeasure ship 



References 

[1] AN/SPS-55 (http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/an-sps-55.htm) 

at fas.org. 
[2] Electronics Technician Vol 7 - AN/SPS-55 (http://www.tpub.com/content/et/ 

14092/css/14092_52.htm) 



External links 

• GlobalSecurity.org - AN/SPS-55 (http://www.globalsecurity.org/ 
military/systems/ship/systems/an-sps-55.htm) 

• FAS.org - AN/SPS-55 (http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ 
ship/weaps/an-sps-55.htm) 

• GlobalSecurity.org: CG-47 Ticonderoga-class (http://www. 
globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ship/cg-47-specs. htm) 

• Electronics Technician Vol 7 - AN/SPS-55 (http://www.tpub.com/content/et/14092/css/14092_52.htm) 

• NAVAIR warfighters encyclopedia - AN/SPS-55 (https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/weapons/ 
SensElec/RADAR/sps55.htm) 




AN/SPS-55 antenna on USS Nicholson 
(DD-982). 



AN/SLQ-25 Nixie 



256 



AN/SLQ-25 Nixie 




SLQ-25 Nixie aboard USS Iowa (BB-61) 



The AN/SLQ-25 Nixie and its variants are towed torpedo decoys used 
on US and allied warships. It consists of a towed decoy device and a 
shipboard signal generator. The decoy emits signals to draw a torpedo 
away from its intended target. 

The Nixie attempts to defeat a torpedo's passive sonar by emitting 
simulated ship noise, such as propeller and engine noise, which is more 
attractive than the ship to the torpedo's sensors. 

The more modern AN/SLQ-25B includes equipment of the 

AN/SLQ-25A (refreshed variant of the AN/SLQ-25 to include fiber 1 

optic towed cable and COTS equipment) and incorporates a towed array sensor to detect submarines and incoming 
torpedoes. The AN/SLQ-25B also incorporates additional active sonar decoys by receiving, amplifying, and 
returning "pings" from the torpedo, presenting a larger false target to the torpedo. 

Typically, larger ships may have two Nixie systems mounted on the rear of the ship to allow operation singularly or 
in pairs while smaller ships may have only one system. 

Under a joint UK/ US Memorandum of Understanding, the UK MoD and the US DoD are furthering torpedo 
survivability systems. The US is currently working on an Active Source programme called the DCL Technology 
Demonstrator programme and the UK has developed and entered into service the S2170 Surface Ship Torpedo 
Defence system. 



External links 

• http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/an-slq-25.htm 

• http://www.sfu.ca/casr/101-navnixie.htm (available here ) 

• http://www.janes.com/extracts/extract/juws/juws0325.html 



References 



[1] http://web.arcliive.org/web/2004061 20533 14/http://www.sfu.ca/casr/101-navnixie.litm 



AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite 



257 



AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite 



The AN/SLQ-32 is a shipboard electronic warfare suite 
built by the Raytheon Company of Goleta, California. 
It is currently the primary electronic warfare system in 
use by U.S. Navy ships (as of 2007). 




The AN/SLQ-32(V)3 antenna aboard USS Nicholson (DD-982). 



Variants 




The AN/SLQ-32(V)1 antenna aboard USS Bowen (FF-1079). 



Referred to by it operators as the "slick-32", the 
SLQ-32 was conceived in the 1970s to replace the 
AN/WLR-1, which had been in service since the early 
1950s. As originally designed, the SLQ-32 was 
produced in three variants, the (V)l, (V)2 and (V)3. 
Later in its service life, two additional versions were 
built, the (V)4 and (V)5. 

• SLQ-32(V)1 — A simple threat warning receiver, it 
was capable of receiving high-band radar signals of 
the type commonly carried on missiles and aircraft. 
The (V)l was installed on auxiliary ships and small 
combatants such as — > frigates. This variant of the 

system is being phased out as current ships equipped become decommissioned. 

• SLQ-32(V)2 — Initially the most common variant, the (V)2 added the ability to receive surveillance and targeting 
radars. This provided a passive targeting capability for Harpoon missile-equipped ships. The (V)2 was installed 
on frigates, destroyers, and 270-foot (82 m) Coast Guard Cutters. 

• SLQ-32(V)3 — Expanding on the (V)2's capabilities, the (V)3 added active radar-jamming capability. The (V)3 
was installed on various combatants such as cruisers, battleships, large amphibious ships and high-value 
replenishment vessels. 

• SLQ-32(V)4 — Designed for installation on aircraft carriers, the (V)4 consisted of two (V)3 systems, one for each 
side of the ship, tied to a common computer and display console. Additional line replaceable units and software 
were added to support the wide separation of the two antenna/electronics enclosures. 



AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite 



258 



SLQ-32('V)5 — The (V)5 was built as a response to the — > Stark incident in 1987. 
The (V)5 incorporated a compact version of the (V)3 system intended to give 
active jamming capability to the — > Perry class FFG's, which were too small to 
carry a full (V)3. 




Sidekick jamming antenna on 

-^ USS Ford (FFG-54) part of 

(V)5. 




All versions of the SLQ-32, with the exception of the 
(V)4, are interfaced with the -> MK36 Decoy 
Launching System, able to launch chaff and infrared 
decoys under the control of the SLQ-32. The number 
and arrangement of MK36 launchers installed depends 
on the size of the ship, ranging from two launchers on a 
small combatant to as many as ten on an aircraft carrier. 
A growing number of systems are being upgraded to 
incorporate the multi-national MK-53 Nulka system. 



The AN/SLQ-32(V)2 antenna aboard USS Donald B. Beary 
(FF-1085). 



The original modular design was intended to allow 

upgrades of the system from one variant to the next by 

simply installing additional equipment as required. 

Starting in the early 1990s, a program was begun to upgrade all SLQ-32s in the U.S. fleet. Most (V)l systems were 

upgraded to (V)2, and most (V)2 systems were upgraded to (V)3. This was normally carried out during a major ship 

overhaul. 



AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite 



259 



Contract 

The initial procurement process was built 
around a "design to price" concept in which 
the final delivery cost per system was fixed 
in the contract. The SLQ-32 was designed to 
support the protection of ships against 
anti-ship missiles in an open sea 
environment. After initial deployment of the 
system, naval roles began to change 
requiring ships to operate much closer to 
shore in denser signal environments. This 
change in roles required changes to the 
SLQ-32 systems which were added over 
time. With experience gained working with 
the SLQ-32, coupled with improvements to 
the hardware and software, technicians and 




AN/SLQ-32 console aboard USS Iowa (BB-61). 



operators gradually overcame the initial problems. The SLQ-32 is now the mainstay of surface electronic warfare in 
the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard's WMEC 270-foot (82 m) Class Ships. 

Future 

In 1996, a program called the Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System (AIEWS) was begun to develop a 
replacement for the SLQ-32. Designated the AN/SLY-2, AIEWS reached the prototype stage by 1999, but funding 
was withdrawn in April 2002 due to ballooning costs and constant delays in the projects development. It has since 
been replaced with General Dynamics' Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP), which will 
build on the existing SLQ-32 hardware and technology in an evolutionary fashion. 

See also 

• Electronic Warfare 

• ELINT 

• U.S. Navy 

• Raytheon 



External links 

Federation of American Scientists: AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare (EW) system 

Raytheon Poduct Description for the AN/SLQ-32 '^^^ 

[3] 



[1] 



AN/SLQ-32 in the Warfighters Encyclopedia 

AN/SLQ-32(V)5 Data Sheet ^"^^ 

EXHIBIT R-2, RDT&E Budget Item Justification 

Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP) 



[5] 



[6] 



AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite 



260 



References 

[1] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/an-slq-32.htm 

[2] http://www.raytheon.com/products/slq32/ 

[3] https://wrc.navair-rdte.navy.mil/warfighter_enc/weapons/SensElec/cm/slq32.htm 

[4] http://www.raytheon.com/products/stellent/groups/sas/documents/asset/slq32.pdf 

[5] http://www.globalsecurity.Org/military/library/budget/fy2007/navy-peds/2007-0604757n.pdf# 

[6] http://www.gd-ais.com/capabilities/offerings/marketing/sewip.pdf 



Mark 36 SRBOC 



The BAE Systems Mark 36 Super Rapid Blooming 
Offboard Chaff (abbreviated as SRBOC or 
"Super-arboc") is a short-range mortar intended to 
launch chaff or infrared decoys within the vicinity of 
naval vessels, with the purpose of foiling anti-ship 
missiles. Each launcher has four tubes set at a 
45-degree angle, and two tubes set at a 60 degree angle, 
providing an effective spread of decoys and 
countermeasures to defeat radio frequency emitting 
missiles. The SRBOC can also be fitted with the 
TORCH infrared "flare" decoy system. A typical ship's 
load is 20 to 35 rounds per launcher. 

The Mk. 36 SRBOC is in use with 19 navies around the 
world. It is very similar to the NATO Sea Gnat system. 



External links 

• Federation of American Scientists page 

• SRBOC Factsheet ^^^ 



[1] 




Two Mark 36 Mod 7 Super Rapid Bloom Off-board Chaff (SRBOC) 

system launchers aboard the battleship USS Wisconsin (BB-64) 

during Operation Desert Storm. 



References 

[1] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/mk-36.htm 

[2] http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ship/weaps/mk36-srboc.pdf 



Article Sources and Contributors 261 

Article Sources and Contributors 

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Beetstra, BilCat, Biot, BlckKnght, Blue387, Bobblewik, Bobol92, Brick Thrower, Bryan TMF, CRGreathouse, CeeGee, Chemnitz, Conversion script. Crimson 05, Cynical, Deadbeef4444, 
Degen Earthfast, DocWatson42, Dual Freq, Echoray, Evogol, F1295, Gains Cornelius, Gdr, Goodtimber, Guyfromboracay, Hammersfan, Haus, Hcobb, Hibemiantears, IRelayer, Iceberg3k, II 
palazzo, Jiang, Jimc, Jimp, John Smith's, JohnOwens, Joshbaumgartner, Jowan2005, Knotoic, Koxinga CDF, Kralizec!, Lamjus, Lightmouse, Ligulem, Linmhail, Loren36, MBK004, Mare, 
Marek69, Mark Renier, MarsRover, Masonpj, Mccomb, Mieciu K, Minesweeper, Mizzoul307, MoRsE, N328KF, Nick-D, Numldgen, Nuno Tavares, Open2uni verse, OverlordQ, PRRfan, 
Prodego, Quartermaster, Rabbit994, Radomil, Rama, Res Gestae Divi Augusti, Rich Farmbrough, Rjwilmsi, Ros Power, Russavia, Saberwyn, Sandstig, Seventy Three, Solitude, Someone else, 
SpookyMulder, Stan Shebs, Stargoat, Steelshark, The Epopt, TheGuruTech, TomStar81, TomTheHand, Tonyl, Topory, Travisyoung, Tronno, Trumpet marietta 45750, Two way time, Wongm, 
Wwoods, YUL89YYZ, Yamla, HHKOJiaii 98765, M, 167 anonymous edits 

Oliver Hazard Perry Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=318095634 Contributors: 7&6=thirteen, AKGhetto, AcecombatS, Adam Bishop, Aldis90, AUstarecho, AlphaFactor, 
Amillar, ArchonMagnus, Arienh4, Arjun G. Menon, Arteitle, Auror, AzaToth, Bbsrock, Bcorr, Benhur767, Big Brother 1984, Bkonrad, Bobblewik, Cacafuego95, Carajou, Chrislk02, 
CommonsDelinker, Cremepuff222, Cynical, Cyrus Andiron, D6, Dahveed323, Darthballs, Daverocks, Directorstratton, Dvorak729, EVula, EUiskev, Epbrl23, Everyking, FrancoGG, FrankTobia, 
Galactor213, Ghostmonkey57, Great Scott, Greg the White Falcon, Gregory J Kingsley, Guettarda, Hall Monitor, Hephaestos, IP 66.173.44.202, Ipankonin, Jaxl, JediMasterPeP, Jeffmwalcoff, 
Jengod, Jimwox, Jinian, Jni, Johnpdeever, Jrt989, KFP, Kalki, Kirk, Kralizec!, Kumioko, LeaveSleaves, Lorax, Luna Santin, M dorothy, MBK004, Magnet For Knowledge, Malo, Martial75, 
Maxim, Mayumashu, Minesweeper, Mirwin, Movementarian, MrFish, N328KF, Neutrahty, NewEnglandYankee, Niagara, Nibuod, Niteowlneils, Octopus-Hands, Orlady, Otisjimmyl, Otoolebe, 
Parkwells, PedanticallySpeaking, Piano non troppo, Pmoreland24, Pnoble805, Postdlf, Prodego, Pubdog, QuizzicalBee, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Rmhermen, Rmt2m, Rogerd, 
Rolandgunner5, Ruhrfisch, SGGH, ScooplOO, Scoutersig, Ser Amantio di Nicolao, Severence, Shunpiker, SilverStar, Stan Shebs, Steel, Student7, Suisui, TBone5521, TDS, THEN WHO WAS 
PHONE?, TOO, Tesscass, Thingg, Tiakalla, Triggerpull2, UtherSRG, Waasup, Waveoff, WikiBoyl47, WikiDon, Wikiwag, WildManKY, William Avery, Witan, Write On 1983, Wzevonfan, 
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Frigate Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=319783791 Contributors: 24fan24, Ageekgal, Ahruman, Aldis90, Alureiter, Andrewa, AnnaPrance, Aogouguo, Appraiser, Aqua008, 
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Dicc93, DidiWeidmann, Dlrohrer2003, Dodger67, EVula, EdwardOConnor, Egil, Elizabethreed, Eluchil404, Emoscopes, Everyking, EyeSerene, Faedra, Falcon8765, Finkefamily, Fosnez, 
Frazzydee, Fruitson, Fui in terra aliena, GMan552, Gadren, Gammasts, Garion96, Gaston200, Gdr, Get It, Glenn, GraemeLeggett, H1523702, H20, Hairy Dude, Hamiltondaniel, Haus, Hibernian, 
IMFJ, IW.HG, Ian Dunster, Iceberg3k, Ida Shaw, Ingolfson, Island, J Clear, J.delanoy, JaceCady, Jason Palpatine, Jcmurphy, Jdthood, John Smith's, Jonel, Jooler, Joshbaumgartner, JoshuaZ, 
Julesd, Just Another Dan, KVDP, Kablammo, Kallemax, Karl-Henner, Keeshu, Kerry7374, Kevin Myers, Kieff, Klmodemguy, Kwamikagami, LeoNomis, Lightmouse, Ljnz22, Llywelynll, 
Lradrama, Luk, Lumos3, Lupinoid, MBK004, MWAK, Malo, Mark83, Martocticvs, Mecanismo, Meitavlord2007, Mihalyia, Mliggett, MoRsE, Mrg3105, Mxiong, Mywikieditor2007, N328KF, 
Nakon, Nautical, Nigeltde, Nlkrio, Nonenmac, Nottheking, Nv8200p, Obbop, 0die5533, Opelio, PRRfan, Panairjdde, Paularblaster, Peter Isotalo, Peterlin, Petersam, Petri Krohn, Pibwl, Pil56, 
Pol098, Postcaptain, Profoss, Provocateur, Quadm, Quantumobserver, Rama, Reynoldl2, Rgvis, Rich Farmbrough, Rich257, Rif Winfield, Riotrocket8676, Rjstott, Rrburke, Runcorn, Saberwyn, 
Saenen, Sandstig, Sannse, ScottDavis, Sheml805, Sietse Snel, SilkTork, Sm8900, SoLando, Sobolewski, Sorruno, SpookyMulder, Spot87, Stan Shebs, Svlxv, TKMoreno, The Epopt, The Land, 
The Tom, TheoClarke, Tijuana Brass, Tpbradbury, Travisyoung, Ufim, VatooVatoo, Vgy7ujm, Violetriga, Viv Hamilton, Walle83, Warheitl975, Wetman, Wikil609, Wikid77, Wyatt915, 
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USS Oliver Hazard Perry (FFG-7) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=296831373 Contributors: A. B., Asoprano, Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Dual Freq, EarthPerson, 
Eluchil404, Ffgfred, Florian Adler, Gdr, Harvardlaw, Haus, Iceberg3k, Jinian, JohnTopShelf, MBK004, OffiMcSpin, PRRfan, STB-1, Template namespace initialisation script, WikiDon, 
HtiKOJiaii HyTHH, 16 anonymous edits 

USS Mclnerney (FFG-8) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=319295633 Contributors: A. B., AnAnthro, Batterylncluded, Bcs09, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Btball, CatherineMunro, 
Chanakyathegreat, C!a68, Darkwind, David Newton, Dual Freq, Gadget850, Gdr, Haus, Ipatrol, Lightmouse, MBK004, Maralia, Mtnerd, PalawanOz, Phantomsteve, Rronton, STB-1, Sonicjosh, 
Superfire, Template namespace initialisation script, Travisyoung, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Woohookitty, Wwoods, 47 anonymous edits 

USS Wadsworth (FFG-9) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307472642 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, Colonies Chris, CruiserBob, David Newton, Dbromage, Dual 
Freq, EarthPerson, Ffgfred, Gdr, Halibutt, Harvardlaw, Haus, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mieciu K, OSlNelson, Radomil, Rmhermen, STB-1, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, 
Wwoods, 6 anonymous edits 

USS Duncan (FFG-10) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307472818 Contributors: 5inch50, A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Dual Freq, EarthPerson, Gdr, Geo 
Swan, Harvardlaw, Haus, Lightmouse, Llort, MBK004, STB-1, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, 6 anonymous edits 

USS Clark (FFG-11) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307473032 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, BradlOl, CraigRNielsen, David Newton, Dawkeye, Dual Freq, 
EarthPerson, Gdr, Harvardlaw, Haus, Lightmouse, MBK004, Marshcmb, Radomil, Rmhermen, STB-1, Stefan, Susvolans, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, 12 anonymous edits 

USS George Philip (FFG-12) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=315552807 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Dual Freq, Durin, EarthPerson, Gdr, Get 
It, Harvardlaw, Haus, Jimc, Kateshortforbob, MBK004, Martonosi, Nuno Tavares, STB-1, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, 12 anonymous edits 

USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307473443 Contributors: A. B., Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Bobblewik, CeeGee, David Newton, Dual 
Freq, E104421, Gdr, Harej, Haus, MBK004, Malo, Maralia, N328KF, STB-1, Template namespace initialisation script. The Epopt, TomTheHand, Travisyoung, ViriiK, Vktl83, WB2, Zscout370, 
5 anonymous edits 

USS Sides (FFG-14) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=310044887 Contributors: A. B., Attilios, Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Drutt, Dual Freq, Durin, Falcon8765, Gdr, 
Get It, Haus, Jacobst, MBK004, Mtnerd, Nobunaga24, Nuno Tavares, STB-1, Template namespace initialisation script, 15 anonymous edits 

USS Estocin (FFG-15) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307473927 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, CeeGee, David Newton, Dual Freq, Durin, E10442i, Gdr, Haus, 
Jwillbur, MBK004, STB- 1 , Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, 4 anonymous edits 

USS Clifton Sprague (FFG-16) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307474093 Contributors: Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Daysleeper47, Dual Freq, Gdr, Haus, Hirokun, 
Lightmouse, MBK004, Magnus Manske, Mmerd, Sam Hocevar, Template namespace initiahsation script, TomTheHand, ViriiK, Wwoods, 5 anonymous edits 

USS John A.Moore (FFG-19) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307474470 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, CeeGee, David Newton, Dual Freq, EI04421, Gdr, 
Haus, LeyteWolfer, Life of Riley, MBK004, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, 2 anonymous edits 

USS Antrim (FFG-20) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307474684 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, BradlOl, CeeGee, David Newton, Dual Freq, E10442I, FueGo, 
Gdr, Haus, JWilliamCupp, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mjroots, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, Wwoods, 6 anonymous edits 

USS Flatley (FFG-21) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307474961 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, CeeGee, David Newton, Dual Freq, E104421, Gdr, HJ32, Haus, 
MBK004, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, Wwoods, 10 anonymous edits 

USS Fahrion {FFG-22) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307475207 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Dual Freq, Gdr, Haus, Joshbaumgartner, 
MBK004, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, 4 anonymous edits 

USS Lewis B.Puller (FFG-23) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307475433 Contributors: Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Dual Freq, Durin, Gdr, Haus, Hephaestos, 
Hirokun, MBK004, Template namespace initialisation script, TomTheHand, ViriiK, 6 anonymous edits 

USS Jack Williams (FFG-24) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307475792 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, AP1787, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Cornellrockey, David Newton, 
Florian Adler, Gdr, Harej, Haus, Hirokun, Kanguole, MBK004, Pmsyyz, Rehman Abubakr, Rmhermen, Supersquid, Template namespace initialisation script, Travisyoung, ViriiK, WB2, Wiki 
alf, Wilsbadkarma, Wwoods, 6 anonymous edits 

USS Copeland (FFG-25) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307475998 Contributors: A. B., Arvis21, Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Dual Freq, Gdr, Harej, Haus, 
Hirokun, Jinian, Lightmouse, MBK004, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, WB2, Zscout370, 3 anonymous edits 



Article Sources and Contributors 262 

USS Gallery (FFG-26) Source: http://eii.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307476152 Conthhutors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, David Newton, Dual Freq, Felix Stember, Gdr, Haus, Hirokuii, 
MBK004, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, Wwoods, 3 anonymous edits 

USS Mahlon S.Tisdale (FFG-27) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3 16834944 Contrihulors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, CeeGee, Cla68, David Newton, Dual Freq, E104421, 
Gdr, Haus, MBK004, Nobunaga24, Template namespace initialisation script, ViriiK, 2 anonymous edits 

USS Boone (FFG-28) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320454919 Contributors: A. B., AP1787, Beetstra, Bellhalla, CanisRufus, David Newton, Daysleeper47, Durin, Gdr, 
Harej, Haus, Hirokun, Jim62sch, Jvcdude, Jwillbur, Kumioko, Lightmouse, MBK004, Melesse, MikeyChalupa, Mnusnfc, Seveyl3, Template namespace initialisation script, Toyokuni3, 
Travisyoung, ViriiK, Who, Wiki alf, 4 anonymous edits 

USS Stephen W.Groves (FFG-29) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?oldid=307477657 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, BrokenSphere, David Newton, 
Durin, Falcon8765, Gdr, Haus, Hirokun, Iceberg3k, JKBrooks85, Jvcdude, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mdnavman, Navyl775, Sonarl313, Template namespace inidahsation script, Travisyoung, 
ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wilsbadkarma, Wwoods, 8 anonymous edits 

USS Reld (FFG-30) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3171 19574 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, CeeGee, Chamal N, Cla68, David Newton, Dual Freq, E104421, 
Gdr, Grimmtooth, Haus, Hirokun, Jfurrl981, Kirk, MBK004, NeilFraser, Stan Shebs, Template namespace initialisation script, Travisyoung, ViriiK, 5 anonymous edits 

USS Stark (FFG-31) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=318978334 Contributors: A. B., Alterrabe, Arthena, BbKiser, Bbpen, Beetstra, Beland, Bellhalla, Bert Schlossberg, 
Bobblewik, Buckshot06, Captain Cheeks, Chrisfow, Circeus, CompRhetoric, Darguz Parsilvan, David Newton, Dpv, Dual Freq, DulcetTone, Eaglizard, Echoray, Environnement2100, Evil 
Monkey, FatMatt55, FelineAvenger, F1295, Fvdham, Gdr, Gekritzl, Harej, Haus, Hbdragon88, Hux, Itpastorn, J Clear, Jengod, Jim62sch, Jinian, Kobalt64, Korath, Life of Riley, Ligulem, 
Lurkercowboy, Lyellin, MBK004, MJBurrage, Malo, Maralia, MarsRover, Maurreen, Mhamar, MoRsE, N328KF, Navalhistorian, NekoDaemon, Nonpareility, Nyttend, 0S2Warp, PBP, PRRfan, 
Pepik70, Petri Krohn, Rama, Rfl, Rgable, Rjwilmsi, Rogerd, Rohirrim63, Russavia, Rwendland, STB-1, ScottyBoy900Q, Seanster42, Seaphoto, ShamWow, Sherurcij, StinKerr, Susan Davis, 
Template namespace initialisation script. That Guy, From That Show!, Thatnewguy, Time, TomStar81, TomTheHand, Travisyoung, ViriiK, WB2, Walkchri, Wylleum, Zscout370, 50 anonymous 
edits 

USS John L.Hall (FFG-32) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307478270 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Bachrach44, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Gdr, Harej, Haus, Hirokun, 
Iceberg3k, Jvcdude, Life of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, ViriiK, Wwoods, 12 anonymous edits 

USS Jarrett (FFG-33) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307478440 Contributors: A. B., Ashley Pomeroy, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Chris the speller, Cla68, Dual Freq, Florian 
Adler, Gdr, Gooddmber, Haus, Hougy, Jvcdude, Kimmymarie24, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mackin90, Nabokov, STB-1, TomStar81, Trekphiler, Ukexpat, ViriiK, 1 1 anonymous edits 

USS Aubrey Fitch (FFG-34) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307478827 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, Dual Freq, Gdr, Haus, Hirokun, Lightmouse, MBK004, 
PRRfan, PigFlu Gink, Tis the season to be jolly, ViriiK, Wwoods, Zvar, Basil, 3 anonymous edits 

USS Underwood (FFG-36) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307479322 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, Dual Freq, Durin, Gdr, Haus, Jvcdude, Life of Riley, 
Lightmouse, MBK004, STB-1, Sonarl313, ViriiK, 9 anonymous edits 

USS CrommeUn (FFG-37) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=313720215 Contributors: A. B., Awotter, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Betacommand, Durin, Falcon8765, 
Ffg37navigator, Gaius Comehus, Gdr, Harej, Hirokun, Hornsfan37, Jvcdude, Kumioko, Life of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, Malo, Nobunaga24, PigFlu Gink, Ridernyc, Rjwilmsi, Timneu22, 
ViriiK, Wwoods, 14 anonymous edits 

USS Curts (FFG-38) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?oldid=319077889 Contributors: A. B., BarraganAP, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Cla68, Dual Freq, Gdr, Haus, Jvcdude, Lightmouse, 
MBK004, Mackin90, Maraha, MikeyChalupa, Openskye, STB-1, Scriberius, ViriiK, 5 anonymous edits 

USS Doyle (FFG-39) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307479891 Contributors: A. B., Arvis21, Beetstra, Bellhalla, BradlOl, David Newton, Dual Freq, Florian Adler, Gdr, 
Harej, Haus, Jdlh, Jowan2005, Lightmouse, MBK004, Malo, Porges, STB-1, Saxbryn, Stormwalker628, Template namespace inidalisation script. The Epopt, ViriiK, WB2, Wik, ZekeMacNeil, 2 
anonymous edits 

USS Halyburton (FFG-40) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307480025 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, AP1787, Alai, Alsjrl8, Arvis21, Beetstra, Bellhalla, BigBen212, 
Blackcrowned, Dual Freq, Escottf, Evogol, Florian Adler, Gogo Dodo, Greswik, Haus, Hojimachong, Hux, Jinian, Jvcdude, Lightmouse, Low Radiation, MBK004, Pen of bushido, Rwflammang, 

STB-1, Tentheagle, Tobias Schmidbauer, Torsodog, Toyokuni3, Tridentl3, ViriiK, WacoJacko, Wiki alf, Wmillward, Woohookitty, Wwoods, XavierGreen, 31 anonymous edits 

USS McClusky (FFG-41) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307480382 Contributors: A. B., Beetstra, Bellhalla, Durin, Florian Adler, Haus, Javidan, Jvcdude, Kzollman, Life 
of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mackin90, STB-1, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wwoods, 8 anonymous edits 

USS Klakring (FFG-42) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307480610 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, CaptSquid, Cla68, Debresser, Haus, Jvcdude, 
Life of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, STB-1, SpartanPhalanx8588, Supersquid, TimroUpickering, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wwoods, '^demon, 10 anonymous edits 

USS Thach {FFG-43) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?oldid=307480834 Contributors: A. B., Arvis21, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Chrisweuve, Digitalblister, DulcetTone, Garion96, 
Haus, Jvcdude, Kevin W., Life of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mackin90, Quadell, STB-1, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wwoods, 15 anonymous edits 

USS De Wert (FFG-45) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307481632 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Arvis21, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Flewis, Harej, Haus, Jvcdude, 
Khoikhoi, KomandorskiMaru, Lightmouse, MBK004, MikeyChalupa, STB-1, Sgmclaren, UniReb, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wwoods, 10 anonymous edits 

USS Rentz (FFG-46) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3 18439366 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, AgentBauer535, Alai, Andcipation of a New Lover's Arrival, The, Appletnc, 
Arvis21, Beetstra, Bellhalla, BlurescueARFF, Cla68, CruiserBob, Haus, Hirokun, Jvcdude, JzG, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mackin90, Millerl7CU94, No Guru, Openskye, Quartermaster, ViriiK, 

Wwoods, 9 anonymous edits 

USS Nicholas (FFG-47) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3 17642638 Contributors: A. B., A2Karir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Bluemoose, Colonies Chris, David Newton, 
Haus, Huntster, Jeff3000, Jvcdude, Krahzec!, Lightmouse, MBK004, Maralia, Moorehal, Mtdhryk, Ultraviolet scissor flame, ViriiK, Wwoods, 9 anonymous edits 

USS Vandegrift (FFG-48) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=319505361 Contributors: A. B., AJHalliwell, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Chamal N, Chi, David Newton, Florian Adler, 
Gdr, GreatWhiteNorthemer, Haus, Hirokun, Jacobolus, Javidan, Jfurrl981, Jvcdude, Kzollman, LHOON, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mackin90, Malo, PalawanOz, Stan Shebs, SunKing, Template 
namespace inidahsation script, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wwoods, 14 anonymous edits 

USS Robert G.Bradley (FFG-49) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307482421 Contrihulors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Arvis21, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Blanchardb, Falcon8765, 
Fvasconcellos, Haus, Jackdandy, Jvcdude, KTo288, Lightmouse, MBK004, STB-1, Texansfan07, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wilsbadkarma, Wwoods, 21 anonymous edits 

USS Taylor (FFG-50) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=309385109 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Florian Adler, Haus, Jvcdude, Jwainki, 
Lightmouse, MBK004, Morriswa, Rjwilmsi, STB-1, Thuresson, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wilsbadkarma, Woohookitty, Wwoods, 7 anonymous edits 

USS Gary (FFG-51) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307483996 Contrihulors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Dannyboyumd, Durin, Editore99, Harej, Haus, 
Hulces, Jinian, Jvcdude, Kralizec!, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mackin90, Momarkshirley, Nonsequiturmine, Richl53fish, STB-1, The Epopt, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wikited, Wwoods, 17 anonymous 

edits 

USS Carr (FFG-52) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307484155 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Arvis21, Beetstra, Bellhalla, BradlOl, Falcon8765, Harej, Haus, 
Hirokun, Jinian, Jvcdude, Khatru2, Kumioko, Life of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mattsrevenge, Mgreason, PRRfan, Parsecboy, Phsikes@hotmail.com, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wwoods, Xformed, 3 
anonymous edits 

USS Hawes (FFG-53) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307484347 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Bobblewik, Captain Cheeks, David Newton, 
Florian Adler, Gdr, Harej, Haus, Jvcdude, Lightmouse, MBK004, Malo, N328KF, STB-1, Supersquid, Template namespace initialisation script, The Epopt, ViriiK, Wiki alf, Wilsbadkarma, 
Wwoods, HMKOJiaii HyxHH, 9 anonymous edits 

USS Ford (FFG-54) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307486557 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, BilCat, Dawkeye, Harej, JlsOOOO, JoeSmack, 
Jvcdude, Life of Riley, Lightmouse, Luna Santin, M.nelson, MBK004, Mackin90, Malo, MikeyChalupa, STB-1, Wiki alf, Wwoods, 11 anonymous edits 



Article Sources and Contributors 263 

USS EIrod (FFG-55) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?oldid=307486719 Conlrihutors: Amsmythe, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Duriii, Gparker, Harej, Javidan, Koalorka, Life of Riley, 
Lightmouse, MBK004, OutlSO, STB-1, TomTheHand, Wwoods, 7 anonymous edits 

USS Simpson (FFG-56) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307486910 Contributors: A. B., Anonymous anonymous, Beetstra, Belllialla, Bigfredl05, Bobblehead, Canterbury 
Tail, Ccbond, Comellrockey, Dual Freq, Durin, Fish007cia, Gdr, Gogo Dodo, Harvardlaw, Hut 8.5, J Di, Jinian, Khukri, Koalorka, Konman72, Lestatdelc, Lightmouse, Littleghostboo, MBK004, 
MER-C, Malo, MarsRover, Mervyn, N328KF, Nobunaga24, Nyttend, Obafgkm, Palironsat, Pesco, Phoenix Hacker, RGTraynor, Rjwilmsi, Rlevse, Russavia, Ryanmcdaniel, STB-1, 
ScreaminEagle, Supersquid, Sworah, TomTheHand, Triona, Victorl2, Wiki alf. Will Beback, Wilsbadkarma, Wwoods, XavierGreen, 759 anonymous edits 

USS Reuben James (FFG-57) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307487042 Contributors: 71Demon, A. B., Airwolf, Arch dude, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Bobblewik, Buckshot06, 
Bullzeye, CommonsDelinker, David Newton, Dkastner, Gdr, HDCase, Haus, Isaac Rabinovitch, Jvcdude, Kyriosity, Lightmouse, MBK004, MJCdetroit, N328KF, Odemars, Ravenhull, STB-1, 
Tagishsimon, Template namespace initialisation script. The Epopt, Travisyoung, Wegngis, Wiki alf, Wwoods, 18 anonymous edits 

USS Samuel B.Roberts (FFG-58) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=31 1920134 Contributors: A. B., Aldis90, Armandd, Bbpen, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Benea, Big Blue Marble, 
BilCat, Bobblewik, Chamal N, Cla68, David Newton, Dual Freq, EarthPerson, Fdewaele, Florian Adier, Gdr, Gene Nygaard, GoldDragon, HJ32, Haus, Hugo999, Iceberg3k, Izanbardprince, 
Jfdavis668, Jinian, Joshbaumgartner, Jpgordon, Jvcdude, Life of Riley, Lightmouse, Ligulem, Lurkercowboy, MBK004, MarkHab, Mtnerd, N328KF, Nabokov, Niteowlneils, Orthographer, 
PRRfan, PaulinSaudi, Phyllisl753, Publicus, Rhebus, Rjwilmsi, Russavia, STB-1, Sietse Snel, Stefanomencarelli, That Guy, From That Show!, Verissl, Wachholder, Wiki alf, Wwoods, YanA, 
28 anonymous edits 

USS Kauffman (FFG-59) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=307487729 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Dual Freq, Falcon8765, Fastbean, Harej, Haus, 
Jvcdude, Life of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, Mizzoul307, Mpdaly56, STB-1, Spitfire8520, Wiki alf, Wwoods, 2 anonymous edits 

USS Rodney M.Davis (FFG-60) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=313706227 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Alai, Beetstra, Bellhalla, Chris826, Dawkeye, JoeSmack, 
Jvcdude, Kman543210, Leonard G., Lightmouse, MBK004, New Hampshirite, Psycardis, STB-1, Wiki alf, Wilsbadkarma, Wwoods, 41 anonymous edits 

USS Ingraham (FFG-61) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=319135l99 Contributors: A. B., A2Kafir, Accurizer, Alai, Albyva, Beetstra, Bellhalla, BradlOl, Chris the speller. 
Egotism, Einbierbitte, Falcon8765, Florian AdIer, Gsmgm, Harej, Jinian, JlsOOOO, JoeSmack, Johntex, Jvcdude, Ketonel6, Koalorka, Kralizec!, Life of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, 
Merovingian, Mustang dvs. Mutiny, OhanaUnited, Raven in Orbit, Ray Trygstad, STB-1, Spitfire8520, Supersquid, Wigglepuppy2012, Wiki alf, Wwoods, 23 anonymous edits 

Bath Iron Works Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=319682599 Contributors: Albyva, Bbpen, Bellhalla, Cyberprog, D6, Decumanus, Famspear, Florian AdIer, Flowanda, 
Geronimo20, Gulfstorm75, Haus, HennessyC, Iceberg3k, Jinian, Joshbaumgartner, Julienmanll, Jwillbur, KtrlOl, Kurieeto, Lightmouse, MBK004, MLRoach, Maralia, Michael Hardy, N328KF, 
Neddyseagoon, NightThree, Notheruser, Octane, PRRfan, PaulHanson, Pjmorse, Publicus, RhoUenton, Rich Farmbrough, Rje, Romney yw, SQL, Shannonl, Sizuru, The Epopt, Thewellman, 
Valentinejoesmith, WillOl, Woohookitty, Wwoods, Xnatedawgx, HMKOJiaii 98765, 23 anonymous edits 

Todd Pacific Shipyards Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=261346142 Contributors: Argames, Auntof6, Bdelisle, D6, Dual Freq, Hooperbloob, Jim.henderson, Leithp, 
LostByTheSea, Lukobe, Maralia, McNeight, Mtsmallwood, Rayc, RhoUenton, Safemariner, Scarequotes, Sizuru, Stan Shebs, HHKOJiaii 98765, 4 anonymous edits 

General Electric LM2500 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=317299l4l Contributors: Akinkhoo, Aldis90, Alureiter, Ariganello, Arnoha, Bbpen, BilCat, BlckKnght, 
Cacetudo, DanMS, Dj245, Dual Freq, Duk, Fnlayson, Gene Nygaard, Georgewilliamherbert, Gfha, N328KF, PeterHewett, Piperonal, SD6-Agent, Stan Shebs, TDC, Tenmei, 13 anonymous edits 

Azimuth thruster Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3l0262663 Contributors: Alureiter, Amtiss, Atropos235, BoH, BritishWatcher, Brosen, DynamicDes, Foobaz, 
Gasheadsteve, Haus, Hooperbloob, Humblefool, Islander(Scandinavia), Jamesontai, Jeff3000, Joffeloff, Kenyon, MJBurrage, Marc Lacoste, Master Of Ninja, Maximus Rex, Moshe Constantine 
Hassan Al-Silverburg, Palmiped, Petri Krohn, Potatoswatter, Rjwilmsi, Saarsaether, Securiger, Shatwelw, Skyring, SmokeySteve, Tmoltrecht, Van helsing, Viriditas, Wuhwuzdat, 
Xtrememachineuk, 37 anonymous edits 

Controllable pitch propeller Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=2 87475064 Contributors: Alureiter, Aspects, BilCat, BoH, BradlOl, Denelson83, Dtgriscom, Firsfron, Gwen 
Gale, Hooperbloob, Jollyrogerl31, KVDP, Lahiru k. Nuance 4, Nzd, Pearle, Reedmalloy, Richard Ogley, SetiHitchHiker, SrajanOI, Thomas419ca, Trekphiler, Vardion, Xtrememachineuk, 18 
anonymous edits 

Stabilizer (ship) Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?oldid=3199l9405 Contributors: Alynna Kasmira, Commander Keane, Courtneypb3, Deeplogic, Dj245, Exit2DOS2000, 
Malcolma, Meaglin, SammyOOOl, Subsea, 12 anonymous edits 

SH-2 Seasprite Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3l2619420 Contributors: 62.253. 64.xxx, ANigg, Ahoerstemeier, Alvaro, Arpingstone, Askari Mark, BilCat, BlakJakNZ, 
Blue387, Bobblewik, Buckshot06, Camerong, Carloseduardo, Chris Buckey, Chris the speller, Cobra2492, Colputt, ContiAWB, Conversion script, Corran.pl, DanlOO, David Newton, Diceman, 
Dual Freq, Edwardaggie98, Evil Monkey, Fnlayson, Fratrep, GPS73, Gains Cornelius, Gderbysh, Gene Nygaard, GreyengineS, Groyal, Guaka, Gurch, Hamenw, Hammersfan, Hawkeye7, 
Hydrargyrum, Ian Pitchford, Ingolfson, InterScan, Jigen III, Jvs.cz, Karl Dickman, Kbdank71, Ken Gallager, Leo03, Lturner80, MCheer, Magnus Manske, Mieciu K, MilbomeOne, MoRsE, 
Mtnerd, Navyflyboy73, Nick-D, Noca2plus, Nzseasprite, Paul A, Pearle, Ray Trygstad, Reezerf, Rlandmann, Robert Brockway, Rogerd, Ross.browne, SCDBob, SPUI, Saberwyn, Saxbryn, 
Signaleer, Sm8900, Stahlkocherl, Swbailey97128, Template namespace initialisation script, Thatguy96, Topbanana, Trevor Maclnnis, UPH, WRK, Winstonwolfe, 90 anonymous edits 

SH-60 Seahawk Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index.php ?oldid=319542582 Contributors: A75, ANigg, Alureiter, Alvaro, Amerika, Analayo, ApocalypseNowll5, Ariedartin, Arpingstone, 
BilCat, Binkstemet, Blainster, Bobblewik, Bogdangiusca, Bom2flie, Bryan TMF, Bryanwxup, Captain Cheeks, Carlbush, Carloseduardo, Chinfo, Chris the speller, Chris826, Chwyatt, 
ComplexOI, Conti, Danjwl, David Newton, Deathbunny, Delirium, Dividing, DocKrin, Dual Freq, E2a2j, Ericg, Evil Monkey, Fnlayson, GPS73, Greyengine5, Gurch, Hamiltondaniel, 
Hammersfan, Hulces, IRelayer, Ian Dunster, Interiot, J-boogie, Jiang, Jigen III, JohnOwens, Jumping cheese, Karl Dickman, Kbdank71, Krellis, Leandrod, Lightmouse, Looper5920, LorenzoB, 
Mark Renier, MarLmurphy, MarlowlO, Mattbr, Mcneight, Mets501, Michael Hardy, Mike Beidler, Miq, Mtnerd, Nevyanl7, NevyanSD, Nick-D, Nigel Ish, Night Gyr, Nukes4Tots, PRRfan, 
Pearle, Pretendo, Quartermaster, RadicalBender, Raryel, Rlandmann, Rogerd, Rossami, SEWilco, SPUI, Saberwyn, Sabulyn, Sabumy, Salam32, Sharky2noy, Signaleer, Skalee, Sm8900, Spartaz, 
Suradnikl3, Tannin, Template namespace initialisation script, Thatguy96, The Epopt, The Founders Intent, Thue, ThurnerRupert, Timkeck, Trevor Maclnnis, UPH, Ve3, Vegardw, Victorl2, 
Wafulz, Weemanorpope, Wemher, Xsoundx, YSSYguy, 250 anonymous edits 

Otobreda 76 mm Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=320395887 Contributors: Aldis90, Alureiter, Bob Hu, D.E. Watters, Davel 185, Deon Steyn, Dicc93, Diegofrieden, 
DocWatson42, Dodger67, EI04421, Emoscopes, Ergbert, Evogol, Finlay McWalter, Fireaxe888, Gene Nygaard, Haus, Homan05, Jcmenal, Jim.henderson, Joffer, KTo288, Kallemax, 
Kmoutsatsos, Koalorka, LHOON, Lectonar, Life of Riley, MarsRover, MassRefuge, Maury Markowitz, Moshe Constantine Hassan Al-Silverburg, Nitraven, Nlkrio, Noclador, Numldgen, 
Octillion88, Orcaborealis, Panairjdde, Rama, Rcbutcher, Rebelll8190, Rogercar, RoscO, Saburny, Scoo, Socrates2008, Uchuusenkan, UnexpectedBanana, Victorl2, Volitant Carp, 104 
anonymous edits 

M2 Browning machine gun Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=319717431 Contributors: .45Colt, l3Tawaazunl4, 2T, AR-15(6.8 SPC), Adamrush, Aerialvendetta, 
Ahoerstemeier, Alex.tan, AU.pured, Anomen, Anticipation of a New Lover's Arrival, The, Aodhdubh, AsamslO, Asav, Atratus, Austinwolf, Backslash Forwardslash, Bethpage89, 
Bigdumbdinosaur, Blaine Steinert, Bobblewik, BonesBrigade, Bom2flie, Bossesjoe, Breathstealer, Brian in denver, Buckboard, Bukvoed, COOLDUDEGAMER, Can't sleep, clown will eat me. 
Captain Cheeks, Catgut, Colonies Chris, CommonsDelinker, Crserrano, CynicalMe, D.E. Watters, DMacks, DaddyWarlock, DanMP5, Davel 185, Dawnsky24, Dboyz-x.etown, Deathbunny, 
Delta-2030, DiagraphOl, DocWatson42, Dominic, Donfbreed, Donreed, Downtrip, Dp462090, Eagle3030, Ecthelion83, Edward, El C, EpicDream86, EvilCouch, Falcon8765, Fluzwup, Fnlayson, 
Frexe, Ftl2, GPS73, Gains Comehus, Geeman, Gene Nygaard, Gewhere, Glennwells, GoldDragon, Gothbag, GraemeLeggett, Grafikm fr, GrandelOl, Gravitan, Greyengine5, Hairy Dude, Harald 
Hansen, HarveyHenkelmann, HashiriyaGDB, Hibernian, Hohum, Htra0497, Ian Pitchford, Idsnowdog, Iulian28ti, J.delanoy, Jamesontai, Jeff3000, JidGom, Jimiau, Jjl37, Jkonefal, Jmowreader, 
JohnI, JohnMac777, Jonathan D. Parshall, Joshbaumgartner, Joshuasheam, Jumping cheese, Kablammo, Kadrun, Kafziel, Kaiwhakahaere, Kbdank71, Kelly Martin, Kenyon, Kernel Saunters, 
Kevin W., Kielmanator, Kintetsubuffalo, Khul, Koalorka, Kobalt64, Kross, LWF, La goutte de pluie, Lavenderbunny, Lefty, Lightdarkness, Lightmouse, Looper5920, Lorus77, Lt. Col. Cole, 
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Spacepotato, Spangineer, Spartan-James, Speedstreaml234, Spellcast, Squalla, Squids and Chips, Strongbow, T65k21in, T96 grh, TDogg310, Teh Vice, Tf0002, Thatguy96, Thingg, Thomaskorp, 
Tmackg77, Tom harrison, Tourbillon, Tronno, Tsiaojian lee, Twix2247, UNHchabo, Unirguy42, Una Smith, Until It Sleeps, User name one, Vaughnl2l, Ve3, Vegaswikian, Victorgrigas, 
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Billytrousers, Bjelleklang, BobThePirate, Bobblewik, Brianmarx, BubbleDine, Buckeye6, Cabez, Canterbury Tail, Carbuncle, Charles Matthews, Chris 73, Chris the speller, ChrisO, Chwyatt, 
Cla68, Corpx, Cwsl25, Czyrko, DagosNavy, DarrenC, Dave420, David Newton, Dp462090, Dual Freq, Durin, EX STAB, Ehowell98, Ekimd, Emoscopes, Eyrian, Falcorian, Firemoth, Florian 



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Mmxl, Moink, Mtnerd, N328KF, Nabokov, Night Gyr, Noisy, Nottheking, Numldgen, Nvinen, Occasional Reader, Octane, OgiOlO, Papajohnin, Paul Cyr, PerfectStorm, RFightmaster, 
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Saberwyn, Samw, Sarcastic ShockwaveLover, Smile4Chomsky, Solaran X, SpartanPhalanx, SpartanPhalanx8588, TDogg310, Tempshill, That Guy, From That Show!, The Epopt, The Monster, 
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Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=267612141 Contrihuiors: Aldis90, Alureiter, Avocado, Crowtox, Dual Freq, Kappa, Maralia, 
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Mark 46 torpedo Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3 17479671 Contributors: Adeptitus, Aldis90, Alureiter, Bbpen, Binkstemet, Bobblewik, Borgx, Chen Guangming, 
Christopher Parham, Davel 185, Dual Freq, Florian Adler, Gene Nygaard, II palazzo, Joshbaumgartner, Julian Diamond, Kernel Saunters, Leebert, Life of Riley, LorenzoB, Los688, M.nelson, 
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Mark 50 torpedo Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?oldid=317288824 Contributors: Aerobird, Alureiter, Andrewa, Bbpen, Binkstemet, Bobblewik, Christopher Parham, Davel 185, 
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RIM-66 Standard Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w /index. php?oldid=3 207 845 3 8 Contributors: Aldis90, Apole7, Attilios, BilCat, Bleakcomb, Cerejota, DocWatson42, Dual Freq, Hibemian, 
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Boeing Harpoon Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=318221750 Contributors: 4wajzkd02, Aldis90, Ata Fida Aziz, Avriette, Baumfabrik, Bbpen, Beta34, BilCat, BlaiseFEgan, 
Bobblewik, BoredEngineer, Broken arrow, Bubba hotep. Bunker by, Chase me ladies, I'm the Cavalry, Conversion script, Dabarkey, Darantares, Dave420, Descendall, DocWatson42, Dual Freq, 
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Jimnieken, Jimwilliams57, John, John Smith's, Joshbaumgartner, Karl Dickman, Kermanshahi, Knightwind, Kurokishi, Lightmouse, MBK004, MajesticX, Mare, Mark Renier, Meggar, Mieciu K, 
Modeha, Mongreldog, Moshe Constantine Hassan Al-Silverburg, Mzajac, N328KF, Nabokov, Nejjk, Nuno Tavares, Oaktree b, Oberiko, Octane, Open-box, OrgasGirl, Orville Eastland, Pol098, 
Quintote, R. E. Mixer, Rama, Raryel, Rebelll8190, Riddley, Rjwilmsi, Rlandmann, Sardanaphalus, Scohen93, Sligocki, Smitty, Sortior, StuffOflnterest, Template namespace initiaUsation script, 
The Epopt, TheGerm, ThePointblank, Thue, Tirronan, Tom MacPherson, Travisyoung, Uncleharpoon, VNCCC, Victorl2, Vijaypadiyar, Volcore, Warreed, Wernher, Wjl2, Woody, Wronkiew, 
Yousaf465, ^'^, 1 16 anonymous edits 

Penguin (missile) Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=316539940 Contributors: Aldis90, Andrwsc, Appraiser, Da Joe, Deiaemeth, Duffman, Dybdal, E rik, E104421, Gene 
Nygaard, II palazzo, Ipankonin, Joffeloff, Joshbaumgartner, Jsnx, Karl Dickman, Lao Wai, Los688, Mahe$hdeva, Manxruler, Miq, Nabokov, Nastykermit, Pearle, Rackham, Rlandmann, 
Sandstein, Troy 07, Ulflarsen, WerWil, Wemher, Woody, 21 anonymous edits 

AN/SPS-49 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3 16880282 Contributors: Dual Freq, Engineer Bob, Life of Riley, Lightmouse, MBK004, Matrek, Mizzoul307, Sardanaphalus, 
Thunderbird2, 5 anonymous edits 

AN/SPS-55 Source: http://en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php'?oldid=2 9205 6263 Contributors: Dual Freq, FelliaxOS, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, MBK004, Remmons, Sardanaphalus, 4 anonymous edits 

AN/SLQ-25 Nixie Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=274035376 Contributors: A.R., Alaniaris, Aldis90, Black Falcon, Felix Stember, Joffeloff, MBK004, Mare, Megapixie, 
Mgscox, Sappe, Tom Barnwell 0, Valrith, 6 anonymous edits 

AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w /index. php?oldid=3 2005 687 3 Contributors: A.R., Aldis90, Applehead77, AmoldReinhold, Balloonguy, Brian in 
denver. Dual Freq, Durin, Engineer Bob, Florian Adler, GraemeLeggett, Mare, Mrg3105, Rjwilmsi, Skapur, SlowSam, Vigilius, HnK0Jiaii HyrHH, 16 anonymous edits 

Mark 36 SRBOC Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=3091 1 1872 Contributors: Ageekgal, Alai, Applehead77, Borgx, BusterD, Dual Freq, Gaetano56, Looper5920, Mark83, 
N328KF, Paull776, Sleigh, SpartanPhalanx, 6 anonymous edits 



Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 265 

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 

Image:USS Oliver Hazard Perry FFG-7.jpg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: USS_01iver_Hazard_Perry_FFG-7.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Service Depicted: 

NavyCamera Operator: PHC FRANCAVILLO 

Image:ORP Kosciuszko2.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: ORP_Kosciuszko2.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Katarzyna, Longhair 

Image:USS Stark.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: US S_Stark.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: N1601 

Image:USS Rodney M. Davis (FFG 60) FulLjpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Rodney_M._Davis_(FFG_60)_Full.jpg License: PubHc Domain Contrihutors: 

Mass Communication SpeciaHst 1st Class Daniel N. Woods 

Image:F-490 TCG Gaziantep.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:F-490_TCG_Gaziantep.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: User:Dz.K.K. 

FiletFlag of Australia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Australia.svg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: Ian Fieggen 

File:Flag of Bahrain.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bahrain.svg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: User:SKopp 

File:Flag of Egypt.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Egypt.svg License: unknown Contributors: 16@r, Alnokta, ArseniureDeGallium, BomBom, 

Denelson83, Dinsdagskind, Duesentrieb, Flanker, Flad, Foroa, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, lamunknown, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Ludgerl961, Lumijaguaari, Mattes, Moroboshi, 

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File:Flag of Pakistan.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Pakistan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Abaezriv, AnonMoos, Badseed, Dbenbenn, 

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File:Flag of Poland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?titIe=FiIe:FIag_of_Poland.svg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: User:Mareklug, User:Wanted 

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Bigmorr, Denelson83, Ed veg, Gzdavidwong, Herbythyme, Isletakee, Kakoui, Kallerna, Kibinsky, Mattes, Mizunoryu, NeqOO, Nickpo, Nightstallion, Odder, Pymouss, R.O.C, Reisio, Reuvenk, 

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Institucional de la Administracion General del Estado 

File:FIag of Turkey .svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Turkey.svg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: User:Dbenbenn 

FilerFlag of the United States.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: User:Dbenbenn, 

User: Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User: Tec hnion, User:Zscout370 

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Image:DONT GIVE UP THE SHIP flag.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DONT_GIVE_UP_THE_SHIP_flag.svg License: unknown Contributors: Sagredo, 

Zscout370 

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Rama 

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Image:20000 Abraham Lincoln.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: 20000_Abraham_Lincoln.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Bibi Saint-Pol, Dub, Man vyi, Rama, 

Red devil 666, Sevela.p, 1 anonymous edits 

Image :Lebreton engraving-26.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Lebreton_engraving-26.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Louis Le Breton (1818 - 1866) 

Image:Frigate Class Ships.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Frigate_Class_Ships.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Bkell, Jcmurphy, 3 anonymous edits 

FiletHMS Somerset (F82).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File:HMS_Somerset_(F82).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Conscious, Ian Dunster, Kameraad 

Pjotr, Masturbius, Remember the dot 

Image:Hr. Ms. Tromp (F803).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hr._Ms._Tromp_(F803).jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Royal Netherlands Navy / Koninklijke 

Marine 

Image:HMS Swale K217.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File:HMS_Swale_K217.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: British government serviceman 

Image:HMS Monmouth (F235).jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:HMS_Monmouth_(F23 5 ).jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.0 Contrihutors: 

Tehsaint 

Image:Uss vandergif.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Uss_v andergif.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Dual Freq, Makthorpe, Nuno Tavares, Wwoods, 1 

anonymous edits 

Image:HMAS Darwin (FFG 04).jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:HMAS_Darwin_(FFG_04).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Navy, 

Photographer's Mate Airman Kristopher Wilson 

FiletHMCS Regina (FFH 334) l.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:HMCS_Regina_(FFH_334)_l .jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Balcer, Dual Freq, 

Makthorpe, Shipguy, Tabercil 

Image:ARC Almirante Padilla.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: ARC_Almirante_Padilla.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was 

TKMoreno at en.wikipedia 

File:Shivalik long shotjpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Shi valik_long_shot.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 Contributors: UseriChanakyathegreat 

Image:FS Surcouf.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: FS_Surcouf.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Denniss, Foroa, KTo288, Rama, Rcbutcher 

Image:F221 Hessen-KielerWoche2007.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:F221_Hessen-Kieler_Woche_2007.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: Edog95, 

Rebelll8190 

Image:Hr. Ms. Van Speijk (F828).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hr._Ms._Van_Speijk_(F828).jpg License: Attribution Contributors: Koninklijke Marine/Royal 

Netherlands Navy 

Image:BAP Mariategui Panamas 2004.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: BAP_Mariategui_Panamax_2004.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: U.S. Navy 

photo by Photographer's Mate 2nd Class Kevin R. Tidwell (RELEASED) 

Image:VPBR-34 PulaJPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File: VPBR-34_Pula.JPG License: unknown Contributors: Former Yugoslavian Armed Forces (uploader was 

[http://en.wikipedia.Org/wiki/User:Gaston200 

Image:RFS Neustrashimy (FF 712).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:RFS_Neustrashimy_(FF_712).jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: U.S. Navy photo by 

Mass Communication Specialist Second Class Mike Banzhaf 

Image:Alvaro de bazan.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Alvaro_de_bazan.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: US Navy 

Image:USS McInerney;mciflagfly.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w /index. php?title=File:USS_McInerney; mciflagfly.JPG License: unknown Contrihutors: Makthorpe, Nuno Tavares, 

Wwoods 

Image:USS Wadsworth FFG-9.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: USS_Wadsworth_FFG-9.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Service Depicted: NavyCamera 

Operator: PH2 D. SMITH 

Image: Image417.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?title=File:Image417.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Kathleen. wrightS, OSlNelson, ViriiK, Vyznev Xnebara 

Image:USS Duncan FFG-lO.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?title=File:USS_Duncan_FFG-10.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: 

N0827Camera Operator: PHI PAPPAS 

Image:USS Clark FFG-ll.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Clark_FFG-l 1 .jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: Navy 

Image:USS George Philip FFG-12.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php?title=File:USS_George_Philip_FFG-12.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: w:United States Navy 

photo 



Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 266 

Image:USS Samuel Eliot Morison FFG-13.jpg Source: http://eii.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Samuel_Eliot_Morison_FFG- 13.jpg License: unknown Conlrihurors: Service 

Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: N0577Camera Operator: BATH IRON WORKS CORPORATION 

Image:USS Samuel Eliot Morison (FFG-13) transfers to Turkey.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/!ndex.php?title=File:USS_Samuel_Eliot_Morison_(FFG-13)_transfers_to_Turkey.jpg 

License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was WB2 at en.wikipedia 

Image:USS Sides FFG-14.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index.php ?title=File:USS_Sides_FFG-14.jpg License: PubUc Domain Contributors: w:United States Navy photo by 
Photographer's Mate Airman Andrew Betting. 

Image:USS Estocin FFG-15.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Estocin_FFG-15.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: w:United States Navy photo by 
JournaUst 2nd Class David Rush. 

Image:USS Clifton Sprague FFG-16.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Clifton_Sprague_FFG- 16.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: 
NavyCamera Operator: BATH IRON WORKS CORPORATION 

Image:USS John A Moore FFG-19.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_John_A_Moore_FFG-19.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: 
NavyCamera Operator: BATH IRON WORKS 

Image:TCG Gediz (F 495).jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:TCG_Gediz_(F_495).jpg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy, Photographer's Mate 2nd 
Class John L. Beeman 

Image:USS Antrim FFG-20.jpg Source: http: //en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php?title=File: US S_Antrim_FFG-20.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: 
N0712 

Image:Flag of Turkey.svg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Turkey.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dbenbenn 

Image:USS Flatley FFG-21.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File:USS_Fladey_FFG-2 1 .jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCamera Operator: 
BATH IRON WORKS 

Image:USS Fahrion FFG-22.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w /index. php?title=File:US S_Fahrion_FFG-22.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: 
N1607Camera Operator: TODD PACIFIC SHIPYARDS CORP. 

Image:Naval Ensign of Egypt.svg Source: http: //en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php?title=File:Naval_Ensign_of_Egypt.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: BomBom, Denelson83, Mattes, 
Stunteltje, 1 anonymous edits 

Image:USS Lewis B Puller FFG-23.jpg Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File:US S_Lewis_B_Puller_FFG-23.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: 
NavyCommand Shown: N0808Camera Operator: PH3 YEBBA 

Image:USS Jack Williams;072402.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Jack_Williams:072402.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Makthorpe, Nuno Tavares, 
Schlendrian, Wwoods 

Image: USSCopeland.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US SCopeland.jpg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Arvis21 at en.wikipedia 
Image:USS Gallery FFG-26.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?dtle=File: USS_Gallery_FFG-26.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCamera Operator: 
BATH IRON WORKS 

Image:USS Mahlon S Tisdale FFG-27.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?dtle=File: USS_Mahlon_S_Tisdale_FFG-27.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: 
NavyCommand Shown: N0827Camera Operator: JOl LANCASTER 

Image:USS Boone (FFG-28).jpg Source: http ://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: US S_B 00 ne_{FFG- 2 8). jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy, Photographer's Mate 1st 
Class Michael W. Pendergrass 

Image:Boone Crestjpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Boo ne_Crest.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mnusnfc, 1 anonymous edits 

Image:USS Stephen W Groves FFG-29.jpg Source: http : //en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php'?title= File: US S_S tephen_W_Groves_FFG-29.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: w:United 
States Navy photo by Lt. Jim Miller. 

Image:Steven W. Groves.jpg Source: http ://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Steven_W._Groves.jpg License: unknown Contributors: User:JKBrooks85 

Image:USS Reid FFG30 Underway.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?dde=File: USS_Reid_FFG30_Underway.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Grimmtooth, 1 
anonymous edits 

Image:USS Stark (FFG-31).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Stark_(FFG-3 l).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dual Freq, PMG, Schlendrian, 1 
anonymous edits 

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Service Depicted: Navy 
Image:USS Stark (FFG-31) memorial in Mayport.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Stark_(FFG-31)_memorial_in_Mayport.jpg License: Public Domain 

Contributors: Camera Operator: JIM BRYANT 

Image:USS John L. Hall;ship.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w /index. php?title=File:USS_John_L._Hall; ship. jpg License: unknown Contributors: Makthorpe, Nuno Tavares, Wwoods 
Image: JarrettFFG33.jpg Source: http ://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: JarrettFFG33.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: STG3 Brandon Dempster, SW 

Image:USS Aubrey Fitch FFG-34.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File:USS_Aubre y_Fitch_FFG-34.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCamera 
Operator: BATH IRON WORKS 

Image:USS Underwood FFG-36.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w /index. php?title= File: US S_Underwood_FFG-36.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: w:United States Navy photo 
by Photographer's Mate 2nd Class Peter D. Blair 
Image :Underwood under Buzzards Bay Bridge.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w /index. php?title=File:Underwood_under_Bu zzards_Bay_Bridge.jpg License: Public Domain 

Contributors: United States Navy, Kevin Burke 

Image:USS Crommelin FFG-37.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Crommelin_FFG-37.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Navy, 
Operations Specialist 2nd Class Eric Weber 

Image :FFG37crest.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?dde=File: FFG37crest.jpg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: Durin 

Image:USS Crommelin FFG37.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=FUe:US S_Crommelin_FFG37.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Navy, 
Photographer's Mate 2nd Class Dennis C. Cantrell 

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TERRY COSGROVE 

Image:USS Doyle FFG-39.jpg Source: http ://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:US S_DoyIe_FFG-39.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: 
USS Doyle (FFG-39)Operation / Series: UNITAS 43-03Camera Operator: PH1(AW/NAC) MARTIN MADDOCK, USN 

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Schekinov Alexey Victorovich, Schlendrian 

Image: USSDoyle.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USSDoyle.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Arvis21 
Image:USS Halyburton (FFG 40) does work-ups off the coast of Mayport 2006.jpg Source: 

http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title= File: US S_Halyburton_(FFG_40)_does_w ork-ups_off_the_coast_of_Mayport_2006.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: (U.S. Navy photo by 
Mass Communicadon Specialist 2nd Class Lynn Friant) (Released) 

Image:USS McClusky (FFG-41).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_McClusky_(FFG-41).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy, Photographer's 
Mate 2nd Class Michael D. Kennedy 

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Makthorpe, Wwoods 

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Barker 

Image:USS Thach FFG-43.jpg Source: http: //en. wikipedta.org/w /index. php'?title= File :US S_Thach_FFG-43.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy, Photographer's Mate 2nd 
Class Felix Garza Jr. 



Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 267 

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Joshbaumgartner, Makthorpe, W woods 

Image: CabrilloView.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: CabrilloView.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 2.5 Contributors: Aude, 
Buchanan-Hermit, Dananderson, Rootology, Werewombat 

Image: USSDeWert.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: US SDeWert.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Arvis21 

Image:USS Rentz FFG-46.jpg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: US S_Rentz_FFG-46.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: DanMS, Quartermaster, STB-1 
Image:FFG 46 crest.jpg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: FFG_46_crest.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: unknown 

Image:George S. Rentz ;colorrentz.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:George_S._Rentz;col orrentz.jpg License: unknown Contributors: UserYonatanh 
Image :USS_Rentz_being_built.jpg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title= File: US S_Rentz_being_built-jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown 
Image: Rentz_Underway.jpg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Ren tz_Underway.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: N/A 

Image:Rentz in Qingdao.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Rentz_in_Qingdao.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: US Navy photo DVID #DN-ST-90-06452 by 
PHC Chet King 

Image: Rentz_and_Ranger_Unrep.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Rentz_and_Ranger_Unrep.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: US Navy photo DVID 
#DNSC9400453 by PH3 Layman 

Image: Rentz_vs_Narcotics_Smugglers.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w /in dex.php?title=File:Rentz_v s_Narcotics_Smugglers.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Unknown 
Image: Re fugees_on_a_boat.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fi!e: Refugees_on_a_boat.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: N/A 

Image: Welcome_Home.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Welcome_Home.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 3rd 
Class Johansen Laurel 

Image:USS Nicholas(FFG-47); 074702.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:USS_Nicholas{FFG-47);074702.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Makthorpe, Nuno 
Tavares, Wwoods 

Image:USS Nicholas Acceptance Trialsjpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: USS_Nicholas_Acceptance_Trials.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Moorehal 
Image:FFG 47 1984.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?title=File:FFG_47_1984.jpg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: uploaded by Moorehal 
Image:CIC ATACO.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: CIC_ATACO.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Moorehal 
Image:CIC WCO.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: CIC_WCO.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Moorehal 
Image:bow wave.jpg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Bo w_wave.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Monkeybait, Moorehal 

FiletUSS Robert G. Bradley.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File: US S_Robert_G._Bradley.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Arvis21 at 
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Image:USS Taylor;075003.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?title=File:USS_Taylor;075003.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Makthorpe, Nuno Tavares, Schekinov Alexey 
Victorovich, Wwoods 

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Image:USS GARY.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: USS_GARY.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy, Photographer's Mate 3rd Class Todd Frantom 
Image:USS Carr FFG52.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: USS_Carr_FFG52.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy, Photographer's Mate 1st Class 
James Foehl 

Image:USS Hawes (FFG-53).jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:USS_Hawes_(FFG-5 3 ).jpg License: unknown Contributors: Common Good, Makthorpe, Nuno 
Tavares, Wwoods 

Image:USS Ford (FFG-54) port bow.jpg Source: http: //en. wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: US S_Ford_(FFG-54)_port_bow.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Service Depicted: 
NavyCamera Operator: PHI T. COSGROVE 

Image:USS EIrod FFG-55 Frigate.jpg Source: http ://en. wiki pedia.org/w /index. php?title=File:US S_Elrod_FFG-55_Frigate.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Koalorka 
Image:USS EIrod FFG55.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File:USS_Elrod_FFG55.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: United States Navy, Photographer's Mate 
1st Class Brien Aho 

Image:USS Simpson (FFG 56) port slde.jpg Source: http ://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:USS_Simpson_(FFG_56)_port_side.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy 
photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Coleman Thompson (RELEASED). Original uploader was Koalorka at en.wikipedia 

Image:USS Simpson (FFG 56) sails past the Statue of Liberty.jpg Source: http ://en. wiki pedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File:USS_Simpson_(FFG_56)_sails_past_the_S tatue_of_Liberty.jpg 
License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate 2nd Class Steven J. Weber (RELEASED) 

Image:USS Simpson (FFG 56) and Algerian frigate El Kirch.jpg Source: http ://en. wiki pedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Simpson_(FEG_56)_and_Algerian_f rigate_El_Kirch.jpg 
License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate Airman Patrick W. Mullen III (RELEASED) 

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Image: Coat_of_Arms_USS_Reuben_James.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php?title=File:Coat_o f_Arms_USS_Reuben_James.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: 
Bergfruehhng, Haus 

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Nuno Tavares, Wwoods 

Image:USS Samuel B. Roberts (FFG-58) coat of arms.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php'?title=File:USS_Samuel_B._Roberts_(FFG-58)_coat_of_arms.jpg License: Public 
Domain Contributors: USN 

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Image:USS Kauffman FFG-59.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: USS_Kauffman_FFG-59.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: DanMS, STB-1 
Image:USS Kauffman FFG59.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US S_Kauffman_FFG59.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: U.S. Navy, Paul Farley 
Image:USS Rodney M. Davis ;076005.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php?title=File:USS_Rodney_M._Davis;076005.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Common Good, Editor 
at Large, Makthorpe, Nuno Tavares, PMG, Wwoods 

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Freq, Joshbaumgartner, Makthorpe, Wwoods 

Image:USS Ingraham (FFG 61).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Ingraham_(FFG_6l).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Mass Communication 
Specialist 1st Class Richard Doolin 

Image:Ffg61 crest.gif Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ffg6l_crest.gif License: Public Domain Contributors: N/A 
Image:Biw aerial.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Biw_aerial.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: USN 
Image: USSChesterCLI.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USSChesterCLl.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: STB-1 

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ScottyBoy9000 at en.wikipedia 

Image:HMS Campbeltown and Castletonjpg Source: http://en.wikiped ia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: HMS_Campbeltown_and_Castleton.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ware, C J 
(Lt), Royal Navy official photographer 

Image:USCGC Icarus (WPC-llO).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USCGC_Icarus_(WPC-l 10).jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: US Navy 
Image :USSNicholasDD449.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?tide=File: USSNicholasDD449.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was ScottyBoy900Q 
at en.wikipedia Later versions were uploaded by Mccomb at en.wikipedia. 
Image:Gulf of TonklnKnll060.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gulf_of_Tonkin_Knl I060.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: E.J.Fitzgerald 



Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 268 

Image: Asrocnukel962.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php?title=File:Asrocnukel962.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Tempshill at en.wikipedia 
Image :USSJohnSMcCain DL3.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php?title=File:USSJohnSMcCain_DL3.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was 
ScottyBoyQOOQ at en.wikipedia 
Image:USS Halyburton FFG-40 under construction.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: USS_Halyburton_FFG-40_under_construction.jpg License: unknown 

Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCamera Operator: TODD PACIFIC SHIPYARDS CORP 

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NavyCamera Operator: JOl LEWIS 

Image:USS Ford (FFG-54) Gas Turbine.jpg Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w /index. php?title=File:USS_Ford_(FFG-54)_Gas_Turbine.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Camera 
Operator: PH2 JEFFREY ELLIOTT 
Image:USS Bunker Hill (CG-52) LM2500 modules.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: US S_Bunker_Hill_{CG-52)_LM25 O0_modules.jpg License: Public Domain 

Contributors: Service Depicted: Navy Camera Operator: INGALLS SHIPBUILDING 

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FiletFlag of South Africa.svg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Africa.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp 
FiletFlag of Kenya.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Kenya.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Pumbaa80 

FiletFlag of Belgium (civil).svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Belgium_(civil).svg License: Public Domain Contributors: David Descamps, Dbenbenn, 
Denelson83, Howcome, Ms2ger, Nightstallion, RocketOOO, Sir Iain, ThomasPusch, Warddr, 3 anonymous edits 

FiletFlag of Denmark.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Denmark.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Madden 

FiletFlag of Franccsvg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_France.svg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp, 
User: SKopp, User: SKopp 
File:Flag of Germany .svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Pumbaa80 



Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 269 

File:Flag of Ireland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ireland.svg License: Public Domain Contrihulors: User:SKopp 

File:Flag of the Netherlands.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Netherlands.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Anarkangel, Bawolff, Dbenbenn, 
Fibonacci, Klemen Kocjancic, Madden, Ms2ger, Odder, PumbaaSO, RaakaArska87, Reisio, Rfcl394, SB Johnny, Upquark, Urhixidur, Wisg, Zscout370, 21 anonymous edits 
File:Flag of Norway.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Norway.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Dbenbenn 
File:Flag of RDmania.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Romania.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: AdiJapan 

File:Flag of Canada.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Canada.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:E Pluribus Anthony, User:Mzajac 
Image:USCG Gallatin Mk 75 firing.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: USCG_Gallatin_Mk_75_firing.jpg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: United States Coast 
Guard, PA3 Bobby Nash 

File:Flag of Mexico.svg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Mexico.svg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: User:Nightstallion 
File:Flag of Argentina.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Argentina.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: UseriDbenbenn 
File:Flag of Chilcsvg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Chile.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: UsenSKopp 

File:Flag of Ecuador.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Ecuador.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: B Imbo, Denelson83, Editor at Large, Eleassar, 
EugeneZelenko, Fsopolonezcaro, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Lokal Profil, Ludgerl961, M.C., Madden, NeqOO, Night Ranger, Nightstaliion, Reisio, SkyBon, Srtxg, 
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File:Flag of Peru.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/in dex.php?title=File:Flag_of_Peru.svg License: unknown Contributors: User: Dbenbenn, UseriDbenbenn, User:Dbenbenn 
File:Flag of Colombia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Colombia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp 
Image: Machine gun M2 l.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?titIe=FiIe:Machine_gun_M2_l.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Nemo5576 

Image:Twin M2HB machine gun.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Tw in_M2HB_machine_gun.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: w:United States Navy 
Image:M2 on a RHIB.jpg Source: http://en.wikiped ia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: M2_on_a_RHIB.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Photographer's Mate 1st Class Arlo K. 
Abrahamson 

Image:M2 - 24th MEU.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php'?title= File: M2_-_24th_MEU.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Photographer's Mate 2nd Class Michael 
Sandberg 

FileiBrowning M2HB Normandy.jpg Source: http://en.wikiped ia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Browning_M2HB_Normandy.jpg License: unknown Contributors: Conseil Regional de 
Basse-Normandie /National Archives USA 

Image:M16 MGMC.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?title=File:M16_MGMC.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Bukvoed, Thatguy96 
Image:Cal50 Browning 2REI 2.jpg.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Cal50_Browning_2REI_2.jpg. JPG License: unknown Contributors: davric 
Image:Cal50 Browning 2REI.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Cal50_Browning_2REI.jpg License: unknown Contributors: davric 

Image: Browning M2HB USMC.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Browning_M2HB_USMC.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Lance Cpl. Karim D. Delgado 
Original uploader was Koalorka at en.wikipedia 

Image:Bush and M2JPEG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bush_and_M2.JPEG License: Public Domain Contributors: GLENN WAGNER, CIV 
FiletFlag of Afghanistan.svg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Afghanistan.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: 5ko, Ahmad2099, Avala, Bastique, 
Dancingwombatsrule, Dbenbenn, Denelson83, Domhnall, Flanker, Happenstance, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Lokal Profil, Ludgerl961, MPF, Mattes, 
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FiletFlag of Austria.svg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Au stria. svg License: Public Domain Contributors: UsenSKopp 

FiletFlag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Source: http://en.w ikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina. svg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: Dead-pain, 
Denelson83, DzWiki, Editor at Large, George McFinnigan, Himasaram, Klemen Kocjancic, Kseferovic, MKay, Madden, Mattes, NeqOO, NightstaUion, Quahadi, SKopp, Sojah, Torstein, 
Zscout370, 19 anonymous edits 

FiletFlag of Bulgaria.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Bulgaria.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Avala, Denelson83, Homo lupus, Ikonact, 
Kallema, Klemen Kocjancic, Martyr, Mattes, NeqOO, Pumbaa80, SKopp, Spacebirdy, Srtxg, Ultratomio, Vonvon, Zscout370, 8 anonymous edits 

FiletFlag of Cambodia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Cambodia.svg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: Alexan, Denelson83, Denniss, Herbythyme, 
Himasaram, Klemen Kocjancic, Krun, Mnmazur, NeqOO, NightstaUion, Pixeltoo, VAIO HK, Vzb83, Zscout370, 2 anonymous edits 

File:Flag of Croatia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index.php ?title=File:Flag_of_Croatia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Ante Perkovic, AnyFile, Denelson83, Denniss, 
Dijxtra, Klemen Kocjancic, Kseferovic, Minestrone, Multichill, Neoneol3, NightstaUion, O, PatriciaR, Platonides, R-4i, Rainman, Reisio, RocketOOO, Suradnikl3, Zicera, Zscout370, 5 
anonymous edits 

File:Flag of El Salvador.svg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_El_Salvador.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Dahn, Darwinek, Discospinster, F I a n k e 
r. Jack Phoenix, Jarekt, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Mattes, NeqOO, NightstaUion, Ninane, Reisio, ThomasPusch, Vzb83, Wikiborg, Ysangkok, 16 anonymous edits 
FiletFlag of Estonia.svg Source: http://en. wikipedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Estonia. svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:PeepP, User:SKopp 
FiletFlag of Finland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Finland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp 
FiletFlag of Iraq.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Iraq.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Hoshie, User:MiUtaryace 
FiletFlag of Lithuania.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Lithuania.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp 
File:Flag of Lebanon.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Lebanon.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:llmari Karonen 
File:Flag of Malta.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_MaUa.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Gabbe, Klemen Kocjancic, Liftarn, Mattes, 
NightstaUion, Peeperman, PumbaaSO, Ratatosk, Zscout370, 2 anonymous edits 

FiletFlag of FortugaLsvg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=FUe:Flag_of_Portugal.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: AFBorchert, ALE!, Afonso Silva, Anime Addict 
AA, Broadbeer, Conscious, Denniss, Er Komandante, Flad, FoeNyx, Herbythyme, Jelte, Kam Solusar, Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Mattes, Nick, Nightstaliion, Reisio, Rkt2312, Skatefreak, 
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FiletFlag of Serbia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Serbia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: ABF, Avala, B 1 mbo, Denelson83, EDUCA33E, 
Herbythyme, Imbris, Nightstaliion, Nikola Smolenski, Nuno Gabriel Cabral, R-41, Rainman, Rokerismoravee, Sasa Stefanovic, Siebrand, ThomasPusch, Zscout370, 7 anonymous edits 
File:Flag of South KDrea.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_South_Korea.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Various 

FiletFlag of Slovenia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Slovenia.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:SKopp, User:Vzb83, User:Zscout370 
FiletFlag of Sweden.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Sweden.svg License: Pubhc Domain Contributors: Hejsa, Herbythyme, J budissin, Jon Harald S0by, 
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FiletFlag of Switzerland.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:-xfi-, User:Marc Mongenet, 
User:Zscout370 

File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. svg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Zscout370 
FiletFlag of Uruguay.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Uruguay.svg License: Public Domain Contributors: Klemen Kocjancic, Kookaburra, Lorakesz, 
Mattes, NeqOO, NightstaUion, Pumbaa80, Reisio, ThomasPusch, 5 anonymous edits 

FiletFlag of Vietnam.svg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Vietnam. svg License: Public Domain Contributors: user:Lu'u Ly 

FiletPhalanx CIWS test fire - 081107-N-5416W-003.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Phalanx_CIWS_test_fire_-_081 107-N-5416W-003.jpg License: Public Domain 
Contributors: U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class WiUiam Weinert/Released 

File:Hyuuga 05.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Hyuuga_05.JPG License: Public Domain Contributors: toshinori baba 

Image:CIWS Radar.jpg Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w /index. php?title=File: CIWS_Radar.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCamera Operator: RUDOLPH 
SPENCER 

Image:Phalanx CIWS Tungsten Upload.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.Org/w/index. php'?title=File:Phalanx_CIWS_Tungsten_Upload.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Service 
Depicted: NavyCamera Operator: PHI TINA M. ACKERMAN, USN 
Image:CIWS LCP.jpg Source: http: //en. wikipedia.org/w /index. php?title=File:CIW S_LCP.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Service Depicted: Navy 



Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 270 

Image:JDS Yugiri DD-153.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:JDS_Yiigih_DD-153.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: United States Navy, Photographer's 

Mate 3rd Class Victoria A. Tullock 

Image:C-RAM 3.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:C-RAM_3.JPG License: Public Domain Contrihutors: Original uploader was Falcorian at en.wikipedia 

File:SeaRAM l.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SeaRAM_l.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: US Navy 

File:Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia.svg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: some flag-maker 

Image:USS Curts FFG-38 Mark 32 Surface Vessel Torpedo Tubes.jpg Source: 

http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: US S_Curts_FFG-38_Mark_32_Surface_Vessel_Torpedo_Tubes.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Service Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: 

NieOlCamera Operator: TRENTON JAMES 

Image :Lynx_mk46.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w /index. php'?title= File :Ly nx_mk46.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Cirt, Cobatfor, Denniss, KTo288, Panda 51, Rama, 

Stahlkocher, 2 anonymous edits 

Image:MK46 torpedo launch.jpg Source: http: //en.wikipedia. org/ w/index.php?title= File :MK46_to rpedo_launch.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: United States Navy, Mass 

Communication Specialist John L. Beeman 

Image :Mk50Torpedo.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index.php ?title=File:Mk50Torpedo.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: Cirt, Dual Freq, Durin, Rcbutcher 

Image: Propulsor_MK50.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Propulsor_MK50.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: User:Pud 

Image:Tartar missile.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= File :Tartar_missile.jpg License: unknown Contributors: UsenPibwl 

Image: Standard Missilejpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File:Standard_Missile.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: Service Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: 

N0537Camera Operator: DON MUHM 

Image:SM 2060315-N-4884C-025.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SM_2060315-N-4884C-025.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: U.S. Navy 

Image:Harpoon asm bowfin museum.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Harpoon_asm_bowfin_museum.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Avriette 

FiletWeb 080714-N-8135W-176 harpoon.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Web_0807 1 4-N-8 1 35W- 1 76_harpoon.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: (U.S. 

Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Kirk Worley/Released) 

Image: Harpoon-blDck-II-launch.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index.php ?title=File:Harpoon-block-II-launch.jpg License: Public Domain Contrihutors: uploaded by Wernher 

Image: Harpoonlaunch.gif Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File: Harpoonlaunch.gif License: unknown Contributors: Darantares 

Image: pngnsh60.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: Pngnsh60.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Original uploader was Wernher at en.wikipedia 

Image:SPS-49 Air Searcli Radar antenna.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: SPS-49_Air_Search_Radar_antenna.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Service 

Depicted: NavyCamera Operator: DON S. MONTGOMERY, USN (RET.) 

Image:USS Samuel B. Roberts SPS-55.jpg Source: http ://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:US S_Samuel_B._Roberts_SPS-55.jpg License: unknown Contributors: PHI MUSSI 

Image:USS Nicholson (DD-982) SPS-55 antenna.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Nicholson_{DD-982)_S PS-55_antenna.jpg License: unknown Contributors: 

Service Depicted: NavyCamera Operator: DON S. MONTGOMERY, USN (RET) 

Image:SLQ-25 Nixie aboard USS Iowa (BB-61).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SLO-25_Nixie_aboard_USS_Iowa_(BB-61).jpg License: Public Domain 

Contributors: PHI (SW) JEFF HILTON, USN 
Image:SLQ-32 antenna USS Nicholson (DD-982).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.0rg/w/index. php?title=File:SLQ-32_antenna_USS_Nicholson_(DD-982).jpg License: unknown 

Contributors: Service Depicted: NavyCamera Operator: DON S. MONTGOMERY, USN (RET) 

Image:USS Bowen (FF-1079) SLQ-32 antenna.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Bowen_(FF-1079)_SLQ-32_antenna.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: 
Service Depicted: Navy 

Image:USS Ford Sidekick antenna.jpg Source: http://en.wiki pedia.org/ w/index.php?title=File: USS_Ford_Sidekick_antenna.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Service Depicted: 
NavyCamera Operator: MC3 DOUGLAS G. MORRISON, USN 

Image:USS Donald B. Beary (FF-1085) ANSLQ-32 antenna.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:USS_Donald_B._Beary_(FF-1085)_ANSLQ-32_antenna.jpg License: 
unknown Contrihutors: Service Depicted: Navy 

Image:SLQ-32 console USS lowa.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:SLQ-32_console_USS_Iowa.jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: Service Depicted: NavyCamera 
Operator: PHI JEFF HILTON 

Image:MK36 SRBOC USS Wisconsin (BB-64).jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:MK36_SRBOC_USS_Wisconsin_(BB-64).jpg License: unknown Contrihutors: 
Service Depicted: NavyCommand Shown: N1601Camera Operator: PHC (NAC) JOHN KRISTOFFERSEN 



License 271 



License 



Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported 
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