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Full text of "On early English pronunciation, with especial reference to Shakspere and Chaucer V5"

Second Series, XXVII. 



dfarlg (KmjM Iprmrratdatiait,. 

■.jShaiflpm" ani dfkuar. 

CONTAINING AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CORRESPONDENCE OF 

WRITING WITH SPEECH IN ENGLAND, FROM THE ANGLOSAXON 

PERIOD TO THE EXISTING RECEIVED AND DIALECTAL FORMS, 

WITH A SYSTEMATIC NOTATION OF SPOKEN SOUNDS BY 

MEANS OF THE ORDINARY PRINTING TYPES. 

INCLUDING 

A BE-ABEANGEMENT OF PEOF;' F. J. CHILD'S MEMOIES ON THE LANGUAGE OF 

CHATTCER AND GOWEE, EEPRINTS OF THE EAEE TEACIS BY SALESBUEY ON 

ENGLISH, 1547, AND WELSH, 1567, AND BT BA8CLEY ON FRENCH, 1531, 

ABSTEACTS OF SCHHELLER's TEEATXSE ON BAVARIAN DIALECTS, AND 

■winkles' s low geeman and fbiesian dialecticon, and 
peince l. l. bonapaete's towel and consonant lists. 



ALEXANDER J. ELLIS, 

F.B.S., F.S.A., F.C.P.S., F.C.P., 
VICE-PRESIDENT, TWICE PRESIDENT, OE THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
MEMBER OE THE, MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY, FORMERLY SCHOLAR OE TRINITY COLLEGE, 
CAMBRIDGE, B.A., 1837. ■' 



PART V. 

[pp. l*-88* 1433-2267.] 

EXISTING DIALECTAL AS COMPARED WITH WEST SAXON 
PRONUNCIATION. 



With two Maps of the Dialect Districts. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED EOR THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 
THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY, AND THE CHAUCER SOCIETY, BY 

TRUBNER & CO., 57 and 59, LUDGATE HILL. 

1889. 

Price Twenty-five Shillings. 



ENGLISH DIALECT DISTRICTS, by Alexander J. Ellis, 1887. 




1 West Longitude East Longitude 1 



G-eorge Tkilip ASon,Zctidon.&Zwerpaol 

To illustrate Alex. J. Mlis's " Existing Phonology of English Dialects," 

and "ENGLISH DIALECTS— THEIR SOUNDS AND HOMES." 



LOWLAND DIALECT DISTRICTS, by J. A. H. Murray & A.J. Ellis. 




XcnLgLtude Tfest 4 . pf ■ ft^enwidi 



B-edrga-Thiixfi >A SorL,.LoruL0n.~<£Zifrani out 



To illustrate Alex. J. Ellis's "Existing Phonology of English Dialects," 

and "ENGLISH DIALECTS — THEIE SOUNDS AND HOMES." 



(Btorlg (BtojM 8f*xt £jwfeig. 

COMMITTEE OF MANAGEMENT: 
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TREASURER; HENRY JB. WHEATLEY, ESQ. 
HON. SEC: W. A. DALZIEL, Esq., 67, Victoria Road, Finsbury Park, London, N 

HON. SEC. FOR AMERICA : Prof. F. J. CHILD, Harvard Coll., Cambr., Mass., U.S.A. 
ALEXANDER J. ELLIS, B.A., F.R.S. Rev. Dr. RICHARD MORRIS, M.A. 
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Rev. Prof. J. E. B. MAYOR, M.A. Dr. W. ALDIS WRIGHT, M.A. 

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(With power to add Workers to their number). 

BANKERS: 

THE UNION BANK OF LONDON, 2, Princes Street, London, E.C. 



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The Publications for 1864-1871 (one guinea each year, save those for 1866 now half 
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3. Lauder on the Dewtie op Ryngis, etc., 1556, ed. F. Hall. 4$. ,, 

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17. Parallel Extracts from 29 MSS. of Piers the Plowmak, ed. Rev.W. Skeat. Is, [In print.] „ 
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23. Dan Michel's Ayeneite of Inwyt, 1340, ed. Rev. Dr. R. Morris. 10s. Qd. [In print.] 

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ON 



EAELY ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION, 



"WITH ESPECIAL REFERENCE TO 

SBAKSPERE AKD CHAUCER, 

CONTAINING AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CORRESPONDENCE OF 

WRITING "WITH SPEECH IN ENGLAND, FROM THE ANGLOSAXON 

PERIOD TO THE EXISTING RECEIVED AND DIALECTAL FORMS, 

"WITH A SYSTEMATIC NOTATION OF SPOKEN SOUNDS BY 

MEANS OF THE ORDINARY PRINTING TYPES. 

including 

a re-arrangement of prof. f. j. child's memoirs on the language of 

chaucer and gower, reprints of the rare tracts by salesburt on 

english, 1547, and welsh, 1567, and by barcley on french,. 1521, 

abstracts of schmeller's treatise on bavarian dialects, and 

Winkler's low German and friesian dialecticon, and 

prince l. l. bonapabte's towel and consonant lists. 



ALEXANDER J. ELLIS, 

F.R.S., F.S.A., F.C.P.S., F.C.P., 

'VICE-PRESIDENT, TWICE.PRESIDENT, OP THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

MEMBER OF THE MATHEMATICAL SOCIETY, FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF TRINITY COLLEGE, 

CAMBRIDGE, B.A., 1837. 



PAET V. 

[pp. l*-88* 1433-2267.] 

EXISTING DIALECTAL AS COMPARED WITH WEST SAXON 
PRONUNCIATION. 



With, two Maps of the Dialect Districts. 



LONDON : 

PUBLISHED FOR THE PHILOLOGICAL SttCIETY, 
THE EARLY ENGLISH TEXT SOCIETY, AND THE CHAUCER SOCIETY. 

TRUBNER & CO., 57 and 59, LUDGATE HILL. 
1889. 



HERTFORD : 

Printed by Stephen Austin and Sons. 



ERRATA. 



p. 20, 1. 20, read or f . 
p. 32, 1. 5, read La (« ). 

,, dt. par. 1, read uba'ut dat. 
p. 37, 1. 19 from bottom, under Do., for *Bland£ord read *Cranborne. 
p. 45, par. 6, last word, read aeks)BB. 
p. 47, note 6, first line, read the (d). 
p. 57, line 3 from bottom, No. 904, read vdyxaT. 
p. 58, line 3, read 923*. 
p. 65, par. 0, 1. 8, for Potter read Trotter. 

,, par. 10, 1. 3, readbut (win-ik«n). 
p. 66, 1. 1 and 2, for Potter, read Trotter, 
p. 80, East Dorset cwl., 1. 2, read Cranborne, and 1. 5 dele and. 
p. 85, joke on (srtj) last line, read Bd)s)a - d. 
p. 94, 1. 10, read — L (mujui). 
p. 109, 1. 6, read Miss M. A. Firth. 

p. 111. Authorities, Np. add fDaventry, tFarthinghoe, fHelmdon, tLong 
Buckley, tSilverstone, °Slapton, tSyersham, tTowcester, fWatford, 
tWeedon, tWood Burcote, t Woodford, 
p. 113, paragraph B, line 1, read a nonagenarian widow about 94; line M, read 

Malvern Wells. 
p. 114, 1. 30, read Clavekdon, Wi. (5 w.Warwiek). 
p. 129, 1. 15 from bottom, read may have possibly, 
p. 131, 1. 4, read Pasingworth. 

,, 1. 6, read "Shadoxhurst. 
p. 133, dt. par. 3, read n)dt! Boq. 
p. 136, last bine but one, read Eev. J. W. Rumny. 
p. 140, No. 422, read ' vomited.' 
p. 157, 1. 9, read Mr. Shelly's 
p. 162, No. 646, read bao'yi 6 . 
p. 163, 1. 2, read mEE'k)'n. 

p. 175, Area, 1. 2, after Br., add outlying parts of Wo. 
p. 183, 1. 2 from bottom, read dro'wndid. 
p. 186, No. 702, read uth. 

p. 194, line B, read Chackmore, and line T, read Tyrringham. 
p. 199, line S, read n-by-w. 
p. 201, for 125 ont, read 194 on». 
p. 217, 1. 23, read H. P. Tollemaehe. 
p. 222, 1. 31, read degradation. 
p. 225, 1. 6, read dE"»n. 

p. 235, 1. 3, read Henley-on-Thames in Ox. and 1. 4, read Penn, Bu. (3 e-by-n. 
High Wycombe). 

E.E. Pron. Fart V. * 



VI ERRATA. 

p. 248, note, col. 2, lines 1 and 2, read pl&s, meed. 

p. 249, 1. 10, read 10 s. 

p. 253, note, col. 2, 1. 1, read of which la. has («,) and Nf. (« ). 

p. 255, 1. 4, read — Pt. ; notes, col. 2, 1. 1, read was also. 

p. 278, 1. 1, read s.Nf. 

p. 279, 1. 3, read Tuddenham. 

p. 315. Boundaries, 1. 5, read Featherbed ; 1. 7, read Mam Tor, and 

Authorities, Ch. 1. 2, ra«? Tintwistle ; La. 1. 2, rajrf Royton. 
p. 332, under Leyland, for 1887 read 1877. 
p. 345, under Charley, read 10 nw.Bolton. 
p. 347, No. 222, add at end, or from old Fr. hure, head of a man or an animal, 

especially a shaggy boar' s head. 
p. 352, 1. 11 from bottom, and Authorities, La. 1. 2, read Goosnargh. 
p. 354, col. 2, 1. 9 from bottom, read dlur)B. 
pp. 360, 361, 362, and 363, read Lezayre. 
p. 362, notes to Lezayre dt., par. 1, read or (■abs.'ut). 
p. 363, 1. 3 from bottom, read — P pEriket. 

p. 375, 1. 10 from bottom, 13. vii, read noon, corrected on p. 405, notes, par. 13. 
p. 387, 1. 12, last word, read Bradley. 

p. 409, 1. Authorities, St., 1. 2, after Longport insert tLongton. 
p. 421, West and South Cheshire owl., 1. 1, dele Churton. 
p. 425, 1. 8 from bottom, read Db. 
p. 435, 1. 4, add „ under t\ and in lines 12 and 13 from bottom, that is, in 

Nos. 4 and 5, transpose A and the „ above it. 
p. 436, par. 15, Nos. 1 and 3, read Wud, fa'«l. 
p. 442, No. 39, read kja'wm. 
p. 443, par. I-, 1. 1, read — B gj». 
p. 445, 1. B,for 3 e. read 6 e. 
p. 447, last line, read reen. 
p. 449, 1. 2, for 71, read 76. 
p. 472, 1. 8, after Coalbrookdale for St. read Sh. 
p. 524, No. 331, read final (t). 
p.' 529, 1. 2, insert J. after Rev. 
p. 567, 1. 4 from bottom, read vans. 
p. 572, 1. 4, read itssT. 
p. 606, 1. 7 from bottom to No. 49, add — . 
p. 607, in par. xl, 1. 7, second No. 0, add — 
p. 718, under XJ: for snub read sneb. 
p. 738, note 46, last number, read 153. 
p. 747, line 1, read 12 sw. 

p. 748, in title, and 1. 1 of poem, for Gbey read Gray. 
p. 755, 1. 5 from bottom, read Kc. 
p. 824, last line but one of small print, read of I, T, 

In the Consonantal Index there are a few evident displacements, and the 
following misprints, read under G- 13 gnagan, under SO- 220 sceephirSe, under 
-T- cetel, under -W 371 streaw. Omit 90 blawan under -J). 

There are possibly many other slight errors which have escaped observation. 
For the comparative correctness of a text of such great complexity as the present, 
I am much indebted to the vigilance of the printer's reader, Mr. Wood, 
who also read the four preceding Parts, and, in many districts, the scrupulous 
care of Mr. T. Hallam. 

A. J. E. 



CONTENTS. 



.Errata, v, vi. 
Contents, vii to xvi. 
Notice, xvii to xx. 
Preliminary matter, l*-88*. 

I. Note on the Relation of this Treatise to preceding Chapters, 2*. 
II. Key to the Maps of the English and Lowland Dialect Districts, and List 
of the Principal Abbreviations used, 3* to 6*. 
Introductory Remarks 3*, Abbreviations of positional words, and 
two-letter abbreviations of the Names of Counties 4*, List of 
Divisions, Districts, and Varieties 4* and 5*. Other abbreviations 
frequent in use 6*. 

III. Comparative Specimen (cs.) in received orthography 7*. 

IV. Dialect Test (dt.) in received orthography 8*, notes on every word 8* 

to 16*. 
V. Classified Word List (cwl.) 16*. I. Wessex and Norse 16* to 22*. II. 
English 22*. III. Romance 23* and 24*. Notes on Constructions 
and Intonation appended to the original word list 25*. Index to the 
English words in the cwl. referring each its number 25* — 29*. 
Consonantal Index to the Wessex and Norse Division of the cwl. 
30*, 31*. 
VI. Alphabetical County List 32* to 67*. Introd. 32*. England 32* to 
63*. Isle of Man 63*. Wales 63* to 64*. Scotland 64* to 67*. 
Ireland 67*. 
VII. Alphabetical Informants List, and Index of ail the Names mentioned in 
this Treatise 67* to 76*. 
VIII. Table of Dialectal Palaeotype 76* to 88*. 

Text, 1-835. 

Introduction, 1-9. 

Problem of this treatise 1. Method of solution 1-4. Chief Helpers, Principal, 
Staff and Students of Whitelands Training College, C. C. Robinson, J. G. 
Goodchild, Thomas Hallam, Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, 4-5. Palaeotype, 5. 
Geographical Districts in place of Dialects, 5-8. Plan of the Work, 8-9. 

The Celtic Border, 9-15. 
Ancient, about a.d. 577, according to J. R. Green, 9. His location of the 
Saxon settlements, 11. After Treaty of Wedmore, a.d. 878, p. 11. 
His location of the Ealdormanries, 12. — Modern, at the present day 
through Ireland, England and Wales, and Scotland, 12-15. 

The Ten Transverse Lines, 15-22. 

1. The n. sum, 15. 6. The s. hoose, 19. 

2. The s. soom, 16. 7. The n. tee, 20. 

3. The reverted ur, 17. 8. The s. sum, 21. 

4. The s. teeth, 18. 9. The n. soom, 21. 

5. The n. theeth, 18. 10. The L. line 21. 

The Roman Wall, 22. 



V1U CONTENTS OF PART V. 

I. The Southebn Division ot English Dialect Distbicts, 23-187. 

Introdtjction, 23. 
D 1, 2, 3=CS. or Celtic Southern, 24-36. 

D l=w.CS.=wst Celtic Southern, 25-31. 

Introd. 25. Vallancey's Tola Zong, 26. Casteale Cudde's Lamentation, 
28-29. Forth and Bargy ewl. 30. 

D 2=m.CS.=mid Celtic Southern, 31-35. 

Introd. 31. Two Interlinear Fm. dt. 32 ; Swansea Example, 33 ; Pm. 
cwl. 34. 

D 3=e.CS=eastern Celtic Southern, 35-36. 
Introd. 35. Gowerland cwl. 35. Collins's Gower words, 35-36. 

D 4 and 5=MS.=The Mid Southern, 36-110. 

D 4=w.MS.=western Mid Southern, 37-91. 

Introd. 37-38. Table of initial and final /or o, * or z, sh or zh, 38-41. 
The reverted (b) and (t, d, n, l), 41-42. Towels and grammatical con- 
struction and Varieties, 43. 
Var. i. Middle or Typical Form in Wl. 44-60. 

Phase I. Christian Malford cs. 44. Phrases and sentences, 

48 ; cwl. 49. 
Phase II. Chippenham, Akerman's "The Hornet and the 

Bittle," 51-54, cwl. 54-68. 
Phase III. Tilshead, 58, anecdote and dt. 68, cwl. 59. 
Var. ii. Northern or Gl. Form, 60-68. Three Interlinear cs. for Vale 
of Gloucester, Tetbury, and Forest of Dean, 60-65. Forest of 
Dean and Aylburton sentences [for Potter read Trotter], 66. 
Gloucester Town pron. 64, note. Gloucester cwl. 66. 
Var. iii. The North Western or e.He. Form, 68-75. Ross, 68. Three 
Interlinear cs. from Ledbury, Much Cowarne, and Eggleton, 
69-73. Miss Piper's EggUton specimens, 74. 
Var. iv. The South Eastern or Do. Form, 76-84. Hanford dt. 76. 
Two Interlinear cs. from Cranborne and Winterborne Came, 
76-80. East Do. cwl. 80-83. "Western Do. cwl. 83. 
Var. v. The Land of Utch (pronoun for T), 84-86. Joke on TJtch, 85. 

Montacute dt. 85, cwl. 86. 
Var. vi. The South "Western or Sm. Form, 87-91. The Axe-Yarty 
district, 87, and cwl. 88. "Wedmore sentences, 89. Worle 
cwl. 90. 

D 5=e.MS.=eastern Mid Southern, 91-110. 
Introduction, 91-92. 

Var. i. Ox. Form, 92-94. "Witney dt. 92. w.Ox. cwl. from Duck- 
lington, Leafield, Witney, 93. 

Var. ii. The Be. Form, 94-96. Steventon dt. 94. Hampstead Norris, 
part of cs. 95. "Wantage cwl. 96. 

Var. iii. Ha. and "Wi. Form, 96-108. West Stratton, East Stratton, and 
Burningham's words, 96. Southampton to Winchester cs., 
97. Andover, 98-107, with two pronunciations of a farmer's 
letter in Punch, 100. Colloquial sentences, 104, and cwl., 
104. Isle of Wight, with cwl., 107. 

Var. iv. Sr. and Ss. Form, 108, with cwl., 109. 



CONTENTS OF PART V. IX 

D 6, 7, 8=BS. or border of South as against Midland and East, 110. 
D 6=n.B8.=northern Border Southern, 111-121. 

Introd. 111. 

Var. i. Wo. Form, with Worcester dt. and Hanbury dt. 112. s.Wo. 

owl. from Abberley, Bawdier, Bengeworth, Buckland, Droit- 

wich, Eldersfleld, Saleway, Worcester, etc. 113. 
Var. ii. s.Wa. Form, Claverdon dt. 114. s.Wa. cwl. from Butler's 

Marston, Kineton, Pillerton Priors, Stratford-on-Avon, and 

Tysoe, 115. 
Var. iii. Banbury Form, with cs. 116. Shenington dt. 117. Banbury 

cwl. 118. 
Var. iv. sw.Np. Form from Ashby St. Legers, Badby, Byfield, Towcester, 

Watford cwl. 120. 

D 7=m.BS.=mid Border Southern, 121-128. 

Introd. 121. Handborough a. cs. 123; i. dt. 124; e. Phrases, 125; d. 
cwl., 127. 

D 8=s.BS.=southern Border Southern, 128-130. 

Introd. 128. Information from Wargrave, Hurley, Hurst, 129, and from 
Chobham, Chertsey, Leatherhead, Croydon, 130. 

D 9=ES.=East Southern, 130-145. 
Introd. 130. 

Var. i. East Sussex Form, 132. Two East Sussex Interlinear dt. from 
Markly and Selmeston, 133. East Sussex cwl. from Cuckfield, 
Eastbourne, Leasam, Markly, and Parish's Glossary, 134. 

Var. ii. North Kent Form, 136. Introd. 136. Faversham cs. 137. 
Faversham Phrases, 139. Faversham cwl. 139. 

Var. iii. East Kent Form, Introd. 141. Wingham dt. 142. Folkestone 
Fishermen, Introd. 142, dt. 143. East Kent cwl. from 
Folkestone, Margate, Thanet, Wingham, 144. 

D 10, 11, 12= WS. or West Southern Group, 145. 

D 10=n.W"S.=northernW"est Southern, 145-155. 

Introd. 145-147. West Somerset cs. 148. Examples Zord Popkam, 151. 
The Devil and the Coffin, 152. Why a Washerwoman Married, 153. West 
Somerset cwl. 153-165. Phonetic Version of Ruth, chap. i. 698, No. 5. 

D ll=s."WS.= southern "West Southern, 156-170. 
Introd. 156. 

Var. i. North Devon, 157. Iddesleigh cs. and notes, 157-159. North 
Molton dt. and Phrases, 160. North Devon cwl. from 
Iddesleigh and North Molton, 161. 
Var. ii. South Devon, 162. Dartmoor cs. 162. South- West Devon cwl. 

164. Devonport dt. 166. Millbrook, Co. Dialogue, 167. 
Var. iii. Camelford, Co. dt". 168. Cardy'nham, Co. dt. 169. St. Colomb 
Major dt. 169. 

D 12=w."WS.=-western West Southern, 171-174. 

Introd. 171. Marazion, Jachy Tresise, 172. West Cornish cwl. 173. Scilly 
Isles, 174. 



X CONTENTS OF PART V. 

II. The "Western Division op English Dialect Districts, 

175-187. 
Introd. 175. 

D 13 =S"W.= South Western, 175-180. 

Introd. 175. Lower Baehe Farm dt. 176. Doekhw specimen, 177. Mr. Stead's 
w.He. and e.Br. notes, 178. Ed. 179. Mo. 179. n.He. owl. from Lower 
Bache Farm, Docklow, Hereford, Leominster, and Ludlow, Sh. 180. 

D 14==]SlV.=Nortli Western, 181-187. 
Introd. 181. Illustrations, Pulverbach, Miss Jackson's Betty Andrews, 
183-184. Eve's Seork, 184. m.Sh. cwl. rearranged from TH.'s account 
of Sh. pron. in Miss Jackson's Word Book, 184. 

III. The Eastern Division of English Dialect Districts, 

188-289. 
Introd. 188. 

D 15="WE.="West Eastern, 189-195. 

Introd. 189. Aylesbury Dialogue, 190. Chackmore dt. 191. s.Bu. Aylesbury 
and Wendover cwL 192. n.Btt. Buckingham, Chackmore [misprinted 
Clackmore], Hanslope, and Tyrringham [misprinted Tyrinham] cwl. 194. 

D 16=ME.=Mid Eastern, 195-225. 
Introd. 195. 

Var. i. Hertfordshire, 197. ' "Ware cs. 197. se.Ht. cwl. from Ware, 

Hertford, and Stapleford, 199. Ardeley or Yardley dt. 200. 

ArdeleyWood End cwl. 201. Welwyn dt. 202. Hitchin dt. 

203. Harpenden cwl. 203. Hatfield, cwl. 203. 
Var. ii. Bedfordshire, 204. Introd. 204. Batchelor's Bd. rules and 

sentences, 204-206. Bidgmont dt. 206. Mid Bd. cs. 206. 

Mr. Wyatt's sentences, 208. Bd. cwl. from Batchelor, 

Dunstable, Bidgmont, and Bedford, 209. 
Var. iii. Huntingdonshire, 211. Introd. 211. Gt. Stukeley dt. and cwl. 

211. Sawtry and Holme notes, 212. 
Var. iv. Mid Northamptonshire, 213. Introd. -213. East Haddon cs. 

213, and phrases, 214. East Haddon cwl. 215. Hannington 

dt. 216. Harrington dt. 217, and cwl. 217. Lower Benefield 

dt. 218. Mid Np. cwl. from Islip, Northampton, and 

Telvertoft neighbourhoods, 219. 
Var. v. Essex, 221. Introd. 221. Gt. Dunmow abridged cs. 222. 

Maldon dt. 223. Essex cwl. from various unnamed places, 224. 

D 17=SE.=South Eastern, 225-248. 
Introd. 225. 

§ 1. BeV. A. J. D. D'Orsey on London Town Speech, 226. 

§ 2. Walker (1792-1807) and Smart (1836) on London Speech, 227. 

§ 3. Errors in London Speech in 1817, 227. 

} 4. Dickens's London Speech, 1837, 228. 

{ 5. Thackeray's London Footman's Speech, 1845-6, 229. 

§ 6. Tuer's Cockney Almanac, 229. 

§ 7. Baumann's Londonisms, 230. 

§ 8. TH.'s London Observations, 231. 

§ 9. JGG.'s East London Pronunciation, 233. 

§ 10. Eural Speech from Bu. Ht. Mi. 234-236. 
Australasian South Eastern, 236-248. Introd. 236. Mr. McBurney's 
article in the Lyttelton Times, New Zealand, 237. Mr. McBurney's Table 
of Australasian Pronunciation, 239-248. 



CON TENTS OF PART V. 



D 18=NE.=Nortli Eastern, so-called in opposition to D 17=SE. 

248-259. 
Introd. 248. 

Var. i. Mid Cb. dt. 249. Sawston, Cb., dt. 250. Wood Ditton, Cb., 

dt. 250. March dt. 251. Wisbech cwl. 252. 
Var. ii. North-eastern Northamptonshire cwl. from Peterborough, 
Ailesworth, Castor, Eye, Peakirk, Bockingham, Stamford, 
Li. ; Wakerley, Werrington, Wryde, Cb. 254. 
Var. iii. Rutland. Cottesmore dt. 255. Oakham dt. 256. Rutland 
cwl. from Cottesmore, Oakham, and Stretton, 256-259. 

D 19=EE.=East Eastern, 259-289. 
Introd. 259. 

Var. i. nw.Nf. Form, 262-263. nw.Nf. cwl. from King's Lynn, 
Swaffham, and Hunstanton neighbourhoods, 262. Narborough 
dt. 263. 

Var. ii. ne.Nf. Form, 263-272. Stanhoe dt. 264. Stanhoe cwl. 
264-268. Notes from Bev. P. Hoste, with Words and 
Phrases noted, 268-269. Examination of Forty's pron. 269. 
Notes and sentences by TH. 272. North Walsham dt. 272. 

Var. iii. s.Nf. Form, 273-279. Mattishall, Kimberley, and East Dere- 
ham cs. 273-275. Kirkby-Bedon cwl. 275. Examples from 
neighbourhood of Norwich, I. from Br. Lomb ; II. from 
Mrs. Luscombe ; III. Farmer 1 a Dialogtte, from anonymous 
passenger ; IV. from Eev. T. Bumingham ; V. from AJE. ; 
VI. from TH., m. and s. Norfolk [misprinted Norwich], 
276-278. Gt. Yarmouth dt. 278. s.Nf. cwl. from Buxton, 
Diss, East Dereham, North Tuddenham, Norwich, Thetford, 
Wymondham, 279. 

Var. iv. e.Sf. Form, 279-287. Framlingham, Woodbridge, and Stow- 
market cs. 279-281. Southwold cwl. and sentences, 281-285. 
Orford dt. 285. e.Sf. cwl. from Moor's Suffolk Words, 286. 

Var. T. w.Sf. Form, 287-289. Pakenham cs. 287. Differences of 
w. and e. Sf. 288. 



IV. The Midland Diyision of English Dialect Districts, 
290-493. 

Introd. 290-296. Boundaries, 290. Area, 290: Sections, 290. Districts 
and Groups, 290. Character, 290-296. Vowel Forms, 290-293. («, «„ « ), 
290. («e'u), 292. (»'i, a'i, a'u), 293. Consonant Forms, 293-295. (r), 293. 
(h), 295. Constructional Forms [the, -en, I ami], 295-296. Peculiar 
Words Shoo, shoo], 296. Negative Character, 296. 

D 20=BM.=Border Midland, 296-315. 
Introd., Boundaries, Area, Character, 296-298. 

Var. i. South Li. Form, 298-302. Friskney sentences, 298. Billing- 
borough examples, 299. South Li. cwl. 299-302. 

Var. ii. Mid Li. Form, 302-310. Lord Tennyson's poems, w. examina- 
tion, 302-306. Northern Farmer Old Style, 303. Northern 
Farmer New Style, 304. Halton Holegate dt. 306. Test 
sentences, 307. Fragments of Spilsby Talk, from Mrs. 
Douglas Arden's note book, 308. Mid Li. cwl. 309. 

Var. iii. North Li. Form, 310-315. Introd. 310. Treatment of ou in 
Mr. Peacock's Glossary, first edition, 311. n.Li. dt. 312. 
Winterton cs. 312. n.Li. cwl. 313. 



XII CONTENTS OF PART V. 

D 21=s.NM.=southem North Midland, 315-329. 

Introd. 315-317. TH.'s peculiarities of notation, 316. Three Interlinear cs. 
for Stalybridge, Glossop, and Chapel-en-le-Frith 317-321. Chapel- 
en-le-Fnth dt. 322. se.La. and nw.Db. cwl. from Rochdale, Oldham 
(itrudsm) Patricroft, Hope "Woodlands, Edale, Peak Forest, and Stalybridge, 
322. Chapel-en-le-Frith cwl. 323-329. Principal Variants for Combs 
Valley, 329. 

D 22=w.NM.=-western North Midland, 329-351. 

Introd. 329-331. Four Interlinear cs. for Var. i. Skelmersdale ; Var. ii. 
Westhoughton ; Var. iii. Leyland, and Var. t. Burnley, 332-339 ; Var. iv. 
Two Interlinear dt. for Blackburn and Hoddlesden, 339 ; Var. vi. Old Colne 
Valley, recent changes, 340, dt. 341. 

Var. i. Ormskirk and neighbourhood cwl. 342. 

Var. ii. Bolton and "Wigan cwl. 343. 

Var. iii. Chorley and Leyland cwl. 345. 

Var. iv. Blackburn cwl. 346-350. 

Var. v. Burnley cwl. 350. 

D 23=n.NM.=northern North Midland, 351-363. 

Var. i. The Fylde, 352. Introd. 352. Two cs. in parallel columns 

for Poulto-n and Goosnargh, 354. Poulton Phrases, 357. 

Wyersdale dt. 358. The Fylde cwl. 358-360. 
Var. ii. The Isle of Man, Introd. 360. Three Interlinear dt. for 

Lezayre, Peel, and Bushen, 361. Isle of Man cwl. 363. 

D 24=e.NM.=eastern North Midland, 364-408. 

Introd. 364-366. Eight Interlinear cs. from Huddersfield (notes 378), Halifax 
(notes 384), Keighley (notes 386), Bradford (notes 390), Leeds (notes 396), 
Dewsbury (notes 404), Rotherham (notes 404), Sheffield, 367-377. 

Var. i. Huddersfield and neighbourhood, 377-382. Introd. 377. Notes 

to Huddersfield cs. 378. Marsden dt. 379. Upper Cumber- 
worth dt. 380. Huddersfield and neighbourhood cwl. 380. 
Var. ii. Halifax and neighbourhood, 382-384. Introd. 382. Halifax 

cwl. from Crabtree, 383. EHand dt. 384. Notes to Halifax 

cs. 384. 
Var. iii. Keighley, 384-388. Introd. 384. Extracts from cs. by TH. 

and CCR. compared, 385. Notes to cs. 386. Keighley 

cwl. 387. 
Var. iv. Bradford, 388-394. Introd. 388. "Windhill dt. 389. Calverley 

dt. 390. Notes to Bradford cs. 390. Bradford and Windhill 

cwl. 391. 
Var. v. Leeds and its neighbourhood, 394-402. Introd. 394. Comparison 

of Bradford and Leeds, 395. Leeds refined form, 396. Notes 

to Leeds cs. 396. Leeds and neighbourhood cwl. 397-400. 

Notes to Leeds cwl. 400. "Wakefield cwl. 401. Wakefield 

printer's orthography, 403. 
Var. vi. Dewsbury, 402. Barnsley dt. 403. Notes to Dewsbury cs. 404. 
Var. vii. Rotherham and surrounding Tillages, 404. Notes to Rotherham 

cs. 404 
Var. viii. Sheffield and neighbourhood, 405. 
Var. ix. Doncaster, 405. Doncaster cwl. 406-408. 

D25=-vr.MM.=-vrestern Mid Midland, 408-424. 

Introd. 408. Four Interlinear dt. from Bickley, Sandbach, Leek, and Combs, 
411. Notes to these dt. 412. Four Interlinear cs. and with variants in 
a fifth, from Tarporley, Middlewich, Shrigley, Goyt (variants), and Burslem, 
413-420. Notes to these cs. 420. "West and South Cheshire cwl. 421. 
North Staffordshire cwl. 422. South Cheshire or Bickley, cwl. 422-424. 
Phonetic Version of Ruth, chap, i., p. 4598, No. 4. 



CONTENTS OF PART V. XU1 

D 26=e.MM.=eastern Mid Midland, 424-447. 

Introd. 424. Eight Interlinear Derbyshire cs. from 1 Bradwell, 2 Taddington, 
3 Ashford, 4 Winster, 5 and 6 Ashbourne (two), 7 Brampton, 8 Bepton, 
426-438. Seven Interlinear Derbyshire and east Staffordshire dt. from 
1 EcMngton, 2 Barlborough, 3 Bolsover, 4 South Wingfield, 5 "West 
Hallam, 6 Brailsford, 7 Flash, St., 438-441. Further Examples, all 
observed by TH. from 1. Middleton-by-Wirksworth, 2. "Wirksworth, 3. 
Idridgehay, 4. Flash, 5. Alstonefield, 6. Eartington, 7. Bokover, 441-442. 

Var. i. Northern South Peak cwl. 442. 

Var. ii. "Western Derbyshire and East Staffordshire cwl. 444. 

Var. iii. Eastern Derbyshire cwl. 445. 

Var. iv. Southern Derbyshire cwl. 446. 

D 27=EM.=East Midland, 447-451. 

Introd. 447. Nottinghamshire dt. 448. Other Examples dictated to TH. at 
Bingham and Mansfield, 449. Fragments of two Bingham cs. 449. Nt. 
cwl. 450. 

D28=w.SM.=-western South Midland, 451-459. 

Introd. 451. Four Interlinear dt. from 1. Ellesmere, 2. "Whixall, 3. Hanmer, 
4. Farndon, 452-454. 
Var. i. North Shropshire cwl. 455. 
Var. ii. Detached Flint cwl. 456. 
Var. iii. South Cheshire cwl. 457. 
Var. iv. Welsh Flint and Denbigh cwl. 458. 

D 29=e.SM.=eastern South Midland, 459-493. 

Introd. 459-463. Forms of negatives, 461. Table' of varieties, 462. Five 

Interlinear cs. from 1. Cannock Chase, 2. Dudley, 3. Aiherstone, 4. 

Waltham, 5. Enderby variants, 463-471. Eight Interlinear dt. from 

1. Edgmond, Sh., 2. Eccleshall, St., 3. Burton-on-Trent, St., 4. Lichfield, 

St., 5. Wellington, Sh., 6. Coalbrookdale, Sh., 7. Darlaston, St., 8. 

Belgrave, Le., 471-476. Additional Illustrations from Market Drayton, 

Sh., Edgmond, Sh., Eccleshall, St., Haughton, St., Burton-on-Trent, St., 

Barton-under-Needwood, St., Darlaston, St., "Walsall, St., 476-478. 

Var. ia. North-east Shropshire and North-west Staffordshire cwl. 478. 

— Var. i*. "West Mid Shropshire cwl. 480. — Var. is. East Mid 

Staffordshire cwl. 482. 

Var. ii«. Mid East and South East Shropshire cwl. 483. — Var. iii. 

South Staffordshire cwl. 484. — Var. He. North Worcestershire 

cwl. 485. 

Var. iiia. East Warwickshire cwl. 487. — Var. iiiJ. West Warwickshire 

cwl. 488. 
Var. iv«. Leicester cwl. 489-493. 



V. The NoBTHEEir Divihion of EirausH Diaxect Disibicts, 
494-680. 
Introd. 494. 

D 30=EK=East Northern, 495-537. 

Introd. 495. Variations described, 497. Market Weighton and Marshland 
contrasted, 497. Ten Interlinear cs. from 1. Mid Yo., 2. South Ainsty, 
3. North Mid Yo., 4. New Malton, 5. Lower Nidderdale, 6. Washburn 
Biver, 7. South Cleveland, 8. North-East Coast, 9. Market Weighton, 
10. Holderness. Introd. 499-602. Text, 502-513. Notes, 613-519. 
Four Interlinear dt. from 1. Danby, 2. Skelton, 3. Whitby, 4. The Moors, 



XIV CONTENTS OF PART V. 



with notes, 519-521. Three Interlinear dt. for South-East Yorkshire, viz. 

1 East Holderness, 2 Sutton, 3 Goole, 522. 
Var. i. Mid Yorkshire cwl. 523-526. 

"Var. ii. North-East Yorkshire cwl. 527-528. 

Var. iiia. Market Weighton cwl. 529-532. 

Var. iiii. Holderness and Var. iv. Snaith cwl. 532-537. 

D 31="WN.= West Northern, 537-637. 

Introd. 537. The Edenside Speech-sounds, 639-543. Varieties, 543. 

Var. i. Craven, etc. 544-549. Introd. 544. Comparison of OCR. 

and JGG.'s versions, 544-547. Chaucer's " Strothir," 647. 

Three Interlinear dt. for 1. Hurst, 2. Giggleswick, and 3. 

Skipton, 548. 
Var. ii. Lonsdale. Introd. to and at before infinitive, 549. Peacock's 

and Stockdale's Song of Solomon, chap. ii. Interlinear, 

550-553. Broughton-in-Furness dt. and Phrases, 553. 

The transition from (wQ to (a), 554. 
Var. iii. Westmorland s. of the Watershed, 555. 
Var. iv. Edenside, 555. 
Var. v. 'West Cumberland, 556. 
Var. vi. South Durham, 556. 
Twenty-Two Interlinear cs.; from D 30, 1 Mid Yorkshire ; from D 31, Var. i. 

2 Muker, Yo. ; 3 Hawes, Yo. ; from Var. ii. 4 Cartmel, La. ; 6 Coniston, 
La. ; from Var. iii. 6 Casterton, We. ; 7 Dent, Yo. ; 8 Sedberg, Yo. ; 

9 Kendal, We. ; 10 Long Sleddale, We. ; 11 Orton, We. ; from Var. iv. 
12 Kirkby Stephen, We. ; 13 Crosby Ravensworth, We. ; 14 Temple 
Sowerby, We. ; 15 Milburn, We. ; 16 Langwathby, Cu. ; 17 EHonby, 
Cu. ; from Var. v. 18 Eeswick, Cu. ; 19 Clifton, Cu. ; 20 Abbey Holme, 
Cu. ; from D 32, Var. i. 21 Carlisle, Cu. ; 22 Knaresdale, Nb. Introd. 
657-563. Text, 563-594. Notes, 595-602. Traditional Names of Places 
in Edenside, 602-607. Seward's Dialogue for Burton-in-Lonsdale, Yo., 
Introd. 608. Text, 608-616. Notes, 615. Weardale and Teesdale, namely, 
Stanhope dt. and variants, 617-619. 

Var. i. Form a. North Craven cwl. from Burton-in-Lonsdale, Chapel- 
le-Dale, Horton-in-Upper-Ribblesdale, with Muker for com- 
parison, 619 to 623.— Form b. North- West Horn of Yo. 624. 

Var. Ha. North La. cwl. Lonsdale south of the Sands, 626. 

Var. ii*. Furness and Cartmel, Lonsdale north of the Sands, 627-629. 

Var. iii. Dent and Howgill cwl. 630-633. 

Var. iv. Edenside cwl. 633. 

Var. v. West Cumberland cwl. 634. 

Var. vi. Weardale and Teesdale cwl. 634-637. 

D 32=NN.=North Northern, 637-680. 

Introd. 637. Varieties, 640. The Burr, 641 to 644. Three Interlinear cs. 
for 1 South Shields, 2 Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 3 Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
645 to 652. Twenty-Two Interlinear dt. ; for Var. ii. 1 Edmondbyers ; 
2 Lanchester ; 3 Annfield Plain ; 4 Bishop Middleham ; 6 Kelloe ; 6 
Sunderland; for Var. ui. 7 and 8 Hexham (two) ; 9 Haltwhistle; for Var. iv. 

10 Stamfordham; 11 Whalton ; 12 Newcastle; 13 North Shields; for 
Var. v. 14 Rothbury; 15 Snitter ; 16 Harbottle; 17 Warkworth ; 18 
Alnwick ; 19 Whittingham ; 20 and 21 Embleton (two) ; for Var. vi. 22 
Wooler, 653 to 669. The Notes to No. 17, Warkworth, include Ned White, 
a yarn, 666. 

Var. i. Brampton, Cu., cwl. 669-672. 
Var. ii. South Shields, Du., cwl. 672-674. 
Var. iii. and iv. contrasted in s.Nb. cwl. 674-677. 
Var. v. Warkworth Nb. cwl. 678-680. 



CONTENTS OF PART V. XV 

VI. The Lowland Division of English Dialect Districts, being 

CHIEFLY THOSE LTLNG IN SCOTLAND, 681-820. 

Introd. 681-709. Eight Interlinear es. for 1 Bewcastle, Cu. ; 2 Hawick, Ex. ; 
3 Edinburgh, Ed. ; 4 Stranraer, Wg. ; 5 Arbroath, Fo. ; 6 Keith, Ba. ; 
7 Wick, Cs. ; 8 Dunrossness, Sd., 682-697. Five Interlinear versions of 
Euth, chap, i., for 1 Teviotdale ; 2 Ayr; 3 Buchan; 4 s.Cheshire; 
5 w.Somerset, 698-709. 

D 33 = SL. = South Lowland = Dr. Murray's Southern Counties, 

709-723. 
Introd. 709. Phonetics, 710-712. Unaccented syllables, 712. Bewcastle 
cs. 682, 684. Hawick cs. 682, 684'. Teviotdale Euth, chap. i. 698. 
Melville Bell's Teviotdale sentences, 714. Dr. Murray's arrangement of 
the Scotch Hundredth Psalm, 715. Hawick cwl. 716-721. Liddesdale 
Head cwl. 721-723. 

D 34=e.ML.=eastern'Mid Lowland=Dr. Murray's Lothian and 
Fife, 723-728. 

Introd. 723. Melville Bell's Lothian sentences, 724 ; his Fife sentences, 725 ; 
and Lothian and Fife numerals, 726. Chirnside dt. 726. Mid Lothian 
cwl. 726. 

D 35=w.ML.=western Mid Lowland=Dr. Murray's Clydesdale, 

728-747. 
Introd. 728. Melville Bell's Clydesdale sentences, 730. Kyle, Ay., dt. 731. 
Tarn 6 1 Shunter, edited from photolithographed facsimile of MS., 

phonetically transcribed and annotated, 731-741. 
Western Mid Lowland cwl. 742-746. Loeh'winnoch notes, 747. 

D 36=s.ML.=southern Mid Lowland=Dr. Murray's Galloway 
and Carrieh, 747-751. 

Introd. 747. Phonetic transcription of Burns' s Duncan Grey, 748. Southern 
Mid Lowland cwl. 749. 

D 37=n.ML.=northern Mid Lowland=Dr. Murray's Highland 
Border, 751-755. 

Introd. 751. North- West Fifeshire dt. 752. Neighbourhood of Perth dt. 
753 ; ditto cwl. including words from Enga, 753. 

D 38, 39, 40«=NL.=north Lowland=Dr. Murray's North Eastern 

Group, 755. 
D 38 = s.NL. = southern North Lowland = Dr. Murray's Angus, 

755-763. 

Introd. 755. Arbroath cs. 684. Two Interlinear dt. from 1 Dundee, and 
2 Glenfarquhar, 758. Dundee Miscellaneous Notes and Phrases, 759. 
Notes to Glenfarquhar dt. 769 ; ditto to Dundee dt. 760. Glenfarquhar 
cwl. 760-763. 

D 39 = m.NL. = mid North Lowland = Dr. Murray's Moray and 
Aberdeen, 763-785. 
Introd. 763. Peculiar use of (ai, a'i, B'i), 766. 

Pronunciation in Cromar, 766-768. On (» u ), 767. Cromar Examples 
by Mr. Innes, 1. The Meeting, 769 ; 2. Yule-tide, 770 ; 3. The 
Fight, 773. Notes to 2 and 3, 775. 
Melville Bell's sentences, 777. Eev. W. Gregor's Notes and Phrases, 
777. Mid North Lowland cwl. 779-785. 



XVI CONTENTS OF PART V. 

* 

D 40=n.!NL.=northem North Lowland=Dr. Murray's Caithness, 

786-788. 
Iutrod. 786. Wick cs. 683, No. 7. Wick cwl. 787. 

D 41 and 42 =IL.= Insular Lowland, 788-790. 

Introd. 788. Kepresentation of (th, dh), 789. 

D 41=s.IL.=southern Insular Lowland, 790-814. 

Introd. 790. Mr. Dennison's Paety Toral's Travellye pal. and trans- 
lated, 791-798 ; annotated, 798-802. John Gilpin translated into the 
oldest existing form of Orkney by Mr. Dennison, 802-809 ; annotated, 810. 
Orkney cwl. 812-814. 

D 42 =n.IL.= northern Insular Lowland, 814-820. 

Introd. 814. Parable of the Prodigal Son translated by Mr. Lanrenson, 
816. Parable of thb Sower translated by Dr. L. Elmondstone, 817. 
Shetland cwl. 818-820. 

A Few Results, 821-835. 

Local varieties of speech, 821. Dialect as here understood, 822. Probable 
value of West Saxon or Wessex letters, 823. Treatment of short vowels, 
823. Examination of the words tabulated in Part I. 291, with supposed 
long t pron. as (ii), 825. Double treatment of long vowels by shortening 
and fracturing, 826. Ws. diphthongs, 829 ; consonants, 830. The letter 
E, 830. Initial S, F, TH, CN, 832. Dialect groups, 834. Peculiar 
constructions, 834. Peculiar words, 835. 



NOTICE. 



After fourteen years' delay I am at last able to produce Part V. 
of my Early English Pronunciation, containing the relation of the 
present to the past pronunciation of our language as exhibited 
in " The Existing Phonology of the English Dialects." A glance 
at the Table of Contents, the Alphabetical County List, p. 32*, 
and the Alphabetical List of Informants, p. 67*, will I trust 
sufficiently explain the cause of the delay. The work I found 
myself involved in was far greater than I had contemplated, 
and the difficulty of obtaining intelligible information on which 
reliance could be placed far exceeded my anticipations. The list 
of Informants will shew how large a number of persons came 
forward to help me. It will also shew that I am more especially 
indebted to a very few of these, whom I have mentioned on 
pp. 4 and 5, and far the foremost among them as regards the 
number of places from which information was obtained (over 500), 
accuracy of report in the system of notation here adopted, trust- 
worthiness of detail and length of time during which he worked, 
was Mr. Thomas Hallam, of Manchester. "Without his un- 
flagging diligence, and his many excursions to gain phonetic 
knowledge during nearly twenty years, the account I have been 
able to give of the Midland Division and its adjacent regions 
would have been very deficient, instead of presenting remarkable 
fullness of detail. Next in order, and though far inferior in the 
number of places, in no respect inferior in the importance of his 
contributions, and in correctness of detail obtained by extra- 
ordinary diligence, was Mr. J. G. Goodchild, whose work in 
D 31, comprising Cumberland, "Westmorland, and North-west of 
Yorkshire, leaves scarcely anything to be desired in minute ac- 
curacy and repeated careful verification. 

I have endeavoured in the lists of 1145 places from which, 
and 811 persons from whom, I obtained information and assist- 
ance, to specify every case, but I cannot hope to have been 
perfectly successful. To every one, however, named and un- 
named, and especially to the natives themselves, from whom the 
information was ultimately obtained, but whose names are only 
occasionally mentioned, I tender my grateful thanks. To them is 



XV111 NOTICE. 

due the value of the present volume as an authentic document, 
for future philologists to consult. 

Finally I have sincerely to thank the three Societies — the 
Philological Society, the Early English Text Society, and the 
Chaucer Society — and in connection with them Dr. P. J. Purnivall, 
the indefatigable Honorary Secretary of the first and Director 
of the other two, and of other literary societies, who is so well 
known by his labours in Early English, for enabling me to print 
and publish these researches. The extent and the consequent 
expense of my work have greatly exceeded my anticipations. I 
have in every instance studied brevity and compression, and I 
believe the results could not have been legibly printed in smaller 
space, while it seemed important in the interests of philology 
generally, and English philology in particular, to secure the in- 
formation obtained, which is becoming rapidly irreplaceable. It 
might perhaps have been 'possible with a few years more work 
to reduce the bulk of this volume, but considering that I was 
75 on 14 June, 1889, I did not think it safe to delay. If however 
health and strength allow, there will be a brief Part VI. containing 
a summary of the whole work, a consideration of the observations 
of other scholars, and an index of such matters as have not been 
otherwise indexed. 

In conclusion, I add some dates concerning my Early English 
Pronunciation, of which the present investigation forms a part, 
as I wish to preserve them in connection with an undertaking 
that has occupied me for so many years. 

1848, June, first attempt at writing Pronunciation of English in the 

dialectal pronunciation from dicta- xvi th century, the foundation of 

tion, being Duncan Gray, p. 748. my E. E. P. — Oct. Began the 

1859, Feb. 14, on this (Valentine's) MS. of E. E. P. 

day I discovered in the British 1868, Aug. First dialectal information 

Museum Salesbury's "Dictionary for this book written from dictation 

in Englyfhe and Welfh — where- at Norwich, pp. 275-7. 
vnto is prefixed a little treatyfe 1869, Feb. Publication of E. E. P., 

of the englyfhe pronu»ciacion of Part I. For dialectal collections, 

the letters," 1547, which was the see I. 277 and 291. — Aug. 

origin of my paper in 1867, and Publication of E. E. P., Part II. 
hence of the whole of my work 1870, April. Paper on Glossic to the 

on Early English Pronunciation Ph. S., printed entirely in Glossic 

(E. E. P.) and the present inquiry in the Transactions, with Key to 

into dialectal phonology. See III. Universal Glossic. This is the 

743-794. " Alphabet in my English Dialects 

1866, Dec. Paper on " Palaeotype, — their Sounds and Somes, for 
or the representation of Spoken the English Dialect Society, and 
Sounds for philological purposes it has been used in many of that 
by means of the Ancient Types," Society's publications. 

to the Philological Society (Ph. 1871, Feb. Publication of E. E. P., 

S.). This was the alphabet Part III., with a Notice starting 

which made my E. E. P. and my systematic enquiry into the 

investigations of Dialectal Pho- Pronunciation of English Dia- 

nology possible, as no new types lects, and giving a table of 

were required. "presumed Varieties of English 

1867, Feb. Paper to Ph. S. on the pronunciation." In a reprint of 



NOTICE. 



XIX 



this, widely circulated, containing 
a Key to Glossic, and called 
"Varieties of English Pronun- 
ciation," I suggested the forma- 
tion of an English Dialect Society, 
which has subsequently done good 
work. 

1872, April and May. Papers on 
Diphthongs to the Ph. S., incor- 
porated in E. E. P., Part IV. 

1873, Feb. Paper on Accent and 
Emphasis to the Ph. S., incor- 
porated in E. E. P., Part IV.— 
May, Paper on Final E to the 
Ph. S., to form part of E. E. P., 
Part VI. — Sept. First edition 
of the Comparative Specimen (cs.), 
p. 7*, used for collecting informa- 
tion on dialectal pronunciation. 
Of this I have printed below 104 
translations. 

1874, Jan. Paper on Physical Theory 
of Aspiration to the Ph. S., incor- 
porated in E. E. P., Part IV.— 
March. Paper on Vowel Changes 
in English Dialects to the Ph. S. 
—Dec. Publication of E. E. P., 
Part IV. 

1875, March. Paper on the classifica- 
tion of the English Dialects to 
the Ph. S. — June, second edition 
of cs. 

1876, March. Lecture on Dialects to 
the London Institution, when 
my first large Dialectal Map was 
drawn and shewn, leaving a 
blank from the Wash to Sussex. 
— July to Sept. Going over the 
whole of Prince L.-L. Bona- 
parte's Dialect Library, and 
making extracts for this work. — 
Dec. The London Institution 
Lecture repeated at Norwood. 
These lectures were most im- 
portant preliminary work for the 
investigation. 

1877, Mar. Paper on Dialectal Phono- 
logy to the Ph. S. — Oct. Issue 
of my original Word-Lists (wl.) 
suggested Dy the last paper. Of 
this I have printed below 112 re- 
arrangements as a cwl. or classified 
word list. — Nov. and Dec. Ob- 
taining dialectal information at 
Whitelands Training College. 

1879, Jan. Two lectures on Dialects 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, with the 
large map reconstituted and gaps 
filled in, whence I got much 
information for N. cuv. — Feb. 
Issue of my Dialect Test. Of 



this I have printed below 116 
translations. — April and May. 
Two reports to the Ph. S. on 
the state of my investigations. 
1880, Oct. Lecture on "English Dia- 
lects — their Sounds and Homes," 
to Working Men's College. 

1880, Dec. Paper on Dialects of South 
of England to Ph. S. 

1881, June. Obtaining supplementary 
dialectal information from White- 
lands Training College. 

1882, April. Paper on the Dialects of 
Midland and Eastern Counties 
to the Ph. S. — May. Paper on 
the " Delimitation of English and 
Welsh " (that is, the present 
Celtic Border, p. 12) to the Cym- 
rodorion Society. 

1883, March. Paper on the Dialects 
of the Northern Counties to the 
Ph. S. — May. Repeat Lecture on 
"English Dialects — their Sounds 
and Homes," to the College for 

• Men and Women. — Nov. Paper 
on the Dialects of the Lowlands 
of Scotland (Mainland) to the 
Ph. S. 

1884, April. Paper on the Dialects 
of the Lowlands of Scotland 
(Insular) and of the Isle of Man 
to the Ph. S. 

1885, May. A Report to the Ph. S. 
on the Dialectal Work I had done 
since 19 Nov. 1883. 

1886, May. First (published) Report 
on Dialectal Work to the Ph. S. 

1887, May. Second (published) Report 
on Dialectal Work to the Ph. S. 
— Nov. First proofs of this Part 
V. received, the first draft having 
been completed. 

1888, May. Short report to the Ph. 
S. on the state of the work. 

1889, May. Final report to the Ph. 
S. announcing the practical com- 
pletion of Part V. atpress. — June. 
Last proof of Part v . received. 



To account for some of the delays 
and gaps I may mention that in 1874, 
April, I wrote my treatise on Algebra 
identified with Geometry, and in June, 
my treatise on the Quantitative Pro- 
nunciation of latin, and that in 1875, 
June, I published the first edition of 
my translation of Helmholtz on the 
Sensations of Tone ; in 1876 my tract 
on the English, Dionysian and Sellenic 
Pronunciations of Greek, and in 1881 



NOTICE. 



two papers on the Computation of 
Logarithms for the Royal Society 
(Proceedings, vol. 31, pp. 381-413) ; 
in 1880, Mar., my laborious History 
of Musical Pitch for the Society of 
Arts; in 1885, April, my account of 
the Musical Scales of Various Nations, 
also for the Society of Arts, and in 
July the second edition of my trans- 
lation of Helmholtz, all works re- 



quiring much preparation and often 
lengthy investigations, and hence 
greatly interfering with other work. 
I had also five Presidential Addresses 
to prepare for the Ph. S. and deliver 
in 1872, 1873, 1874, 1881, and 1882, 
each of them occupying much time, 
and three of them involving consider- 
able correspondence. 



Alexander J. Ellis, 



25, Argtli, Road, Kensington, London, 'W. 
15 June, 1889. 



PBELIMmABY MATTEE. 



I. The Kelation of this Treatise to Preceding Chapters. 
II. Key to the Maps, and List op the principal Abbreyia- 

TIONS USED. 

III. Comparative Specimen (cs.). 

IV. Dialect Test (dt.) and Notes. 

V. Classified "Word List (awl.). With Index. 

VI. Alphabetical County List. 

VII. Alphabetical Informants List, and Index to all the 
If ames of Persons mentioned in this Treatise. 

VIII. Table of Dialectal Palaeotype. 



E.E. Pron. Part V. 1* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[I- 



I. NOTE ON THE RELATION OF THIS TREATISE TO 
PRECEDING CHAPTERS. 

Eakly English Pronunciation, Part V, Chapter XI. continued. § 3. The 
Existing Phonology of English Dialects. 

The above gives the true relation of the present investigation, forming Part V. 
of my ' Early English Pronunciation,' to the four preceding parts. 

In 1874, when the portion of Chapter XI. § 2, Natural English Pronunciation, 
contained in Part IV. pp. 1243-1432, was printed, it was intended to include in it 
the present § 3. But my subsequent labours have resulted in such a development 
of the whole subject that what was originally meant to be merely a brief illus- 
tration, occupying only 30 pages of manuscript in the original draft of my Early 
English Pronunciation, made in 1867, before any part was printed, has become 
a substantive and unexpectedly complete treatise, which must therefore bear a 
separate title. 

This again has conditioned many changes. In Part IV. § 2, No. 3, p. 1248, 
I gave a sketch of the proposed arrangement of § 2, which in 1874 had already 
much increased in extent and character from the jejune table of contents of 
Chapter XI. prefixed to Part I. This whole arrangement, and hence also the 
allusions to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte's versions of the Song of Solomon, p. 1246 e, 
and p. 1374 a, must be considered as cancelled. The versions of the Song of 
Solomon published by the Prince, and written by the best authorities he could 
procure, were admirable when made, as opening out the whole question of 
English Dialects in a comparative form ; but when I endeavoured to utilise them 
for the present investigation, I found it impossible to determine the pronunciation 
from the orthography with any approach to the necessary accuracy, and hence I 
have been reluctantly compelled to pass them by altogether. 

The Dialectal Alphabet, § 2, No. 3, Part IV. pp. 1252-1265, was also 
premature. This section is practically superseded 1) by the new table of 
Dialectal Palaeotype, that is, the modification of palaeotype which the experience 
of dialectal work has shewn to be necessary, with little or no reference to foreign 
languages, which will be given at the end of this preliminary matter, and 2) by 
the table of Approximative Glossic prefixed to my abridgment of this treatise, 
made for the English Dialect Society, and called English Dialects, — their Sounds 
and Homes; in which Glossic is used as an approximate representation of 
dialectal sounds sufficient for readers, who, not having made a study of phonetics, 
are contented with general conceptions, instead of the scientific accuracy aimed at 
in palaeotype. 

Even the section on Vowel Fractures and Junctures, Part IV., pp. 1307-1317, 
although mostly sound, requires slight modification after my subsequent far wider 
experience, as will appear in detail hereafter. 

Hence I erect Part V. into an independent treatise, under its own separate 
title, " Existing Phonology op English Dialects," 



IJ -] PRELIMINARY MATTER. 3* 



II. KEY TO THE MAPS OF THE ENGLISH AND LOW- 
LAND DIALECT DISTRICTS, AND LIST OF THE 
PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS USED. 

The Maps themselves are loose, and kept in pockets in the cover, 
for greater ease of reference. 

The bounding lines op the Districts are drawn in red over 
Philip & Son's convenient little maps, but on account of the 
smallness of the scales (that of England being about 57 miles to 
the inch, and that of Scotland about 42 miles to the inch), the 
boundaries could be only roughly laid down. They had been, 
however, all previously traced out on maps of 4 miles to the inch, 
and will hereafter be indicated in words as accurately as the infor- 
mation hitherto obtained allows. 

The Country considered lies east and south of the Celtic 
Border marked CB, commencing in Ireland, and passing through 
"Wales and Scotland. 

The six principal Divisions, Southern, "Western, Eastern, Mid- 
land, Northern and Lowland, are bounded by thick lines, and, 
being sufficiently indicated by these positional names, are, to 
prevent overloading the maps, not further marked. 

The forty-two Districts, in each of which a sensible similarity 
of pronunciation prevails, are bounded by continuous lines, 
numbered with bold figures, in the order in which they will be 
treated, and are named positionally in the following list. 

Varieties, or parts of Districts separately considered, are not 
entered on the map, but are numbered with small Roman 
numerals, named and roughly located on the next two pages. 

The Characters, principally phonetic, by which Districts and 
Varieties are distinguished, are fully detailed and illustrated in the 
following pages. 

The Ten Transverse Lines, passing from sea to sea, and limiting 
certain dialectal usages, are represented on the map by broken 
lines, which, when the Transverse Lines coincide during any part 
of their length with the boundaries of Divisions or Districts, 
are expressed by small cross-lines. The Transverse Lines are 
numbered with small figures in ( ), and when two or more of them 
are partially coincident with one another, all the corresponding 
numbers are annexed as (1. 2), (4. 5), (8. 9. 10). 

The names of these ten lines are as follows : 

(1) the north sum. (6) the south hoose. 

(2) the south suum. (7) the north tee. 

(3) the reverted ur. (8) the south sum. 

(4) the south teeth. (9) the north suum. 

(5) the north theeth. (10) the south Lowland. 

The meaning of these names is fully explained in a special 
section below. 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[II. 



Abbreviations used in the following List. 



B, b. Border. 
C Celtic. 
D District. 
Div. Division. 



E, e. East-em. 
I Insular. 

L Lowland (Scotch). 
M, m. Mid, Midland. 



N, n. North-ern. 
S, s. South-em. 
V Variety. 
W, w. West-em. 



TwO-LETTEE AbBBEVIATIONS OP NAMES OP COUNTIES CONSIDERED. 



Ab. Aberdeenshire. 

Ar. Argyll. 

Ay. Ayr. 

Ba. Banff. 

Bd. Bedford. 

Be. Berks. 

Br. Brecknock. 

Bt. Bute. 

Bu. Bucks. 

Bw. Berwickshire. 

Cb. Cambridge. 

Cc. Clackmannan. 

Cd. Cardigan. 

Ch. Cheshire. 

Co. Cornwall. 

Cr. Cromarty. 

Cs. Caithness. 

Cu. Cumberland. 

Db. Derby. 

Df. Dumfries. 

Dm. Dumbarton. 

Dn. Denbigh. 

Do. Dorset. 

Du. Durham. 

Dv. Devon. 

Ed. Edinburghshire. 

El. Elgin. 

EE. East Riding of To. 

Es. Essex. 



Fi. Fife. 

Fl. Flint. 

Fo. Forfar. 

Gl. Gloucester. 

Gm. Glamorgan. 

Ha. Hampshire. 

Bd. Haddingtonshire. 

He. Hereford. 

Ht. Hertford. 

Hu. Huntingdon. 

Kb. Kircudbright. 

Kc. Kincardine. 

Ke. Kent. 

Kr. Kinross. 

La. Lancashire. 

Le. Leicester. 

Li. Lincoln. 

Lk. Lanark. 

LI. Linlithgow. 

Ma. Isle of Man. 

Mg. Montgomery. 

Mi. Middlesex. 

Mo. Monmouth. 

My. Moray. 

Na. Nairn. 

Nb. Northumberland. 

Nf . Norfolk. 

Np. Northampton. 

NB. North Biding of To. 



Nt. Nottingham. 

Or. Orkney Isles. 

Ox. Oxford. 

Pb. Peebles. 

Pm. Pembroke. 

Pr. Perth. 

Ed. Badnor. 

Ef. Eenfrew. 

Et. Rutland. 

Ex. Boxburghshire. 

Sc. Scilly Isles. 

Sd. Shetland Isles. 

Se. Selkirk. 

Sf. Suffolk. 

Sg. Stirling. 

Sh. Shropshire. 

Sm. Somerset. 

Sr. Surrey. 

Ss. Sussex. 

St. Stafford. 

Wa. "Warwick. 

We. Westmorland. 

Wg. Wigtonshire. 

Wl. Isle of Wight. 

Wl. Wiltshire. 

Wo. Worcester. 

Wx. Wexford. 

WE. WestEidingof To. 

To. Yorkshire. 



List of Divisions, Dtsteicts and Varieties, with their Names. 

I. S. Div. 

D 1 to 12. 



D 1. w.CS. 

That is, S on C ground, 
shewn on the map by the 
CB pointing to I in margin, 
representing the position 
of the se. of Wx. in Ire- 
land, opposite Aberystwith 
Cd. Dialect in existence 
a century ago, but now 
extinct. 

D2. m.C8. 

In sw. Fm. 

D 3. e.CS. 

In sw. Gm. 

D 4. w.MS. 
V i. Wl. 
ii. Gl. 
iii. e.He. 
iv. Do 



v. Utchland. 
Merriott, Montaeute, and 
about a dozen villages 
between the railways w. 
of Yeovil Sm., where the 
personal pronoun I is called 
vteh. 

vi. n. and e. Sm. 

D 5. e.MS. 

V i. Ox. 
ii. Be. 

iii. Ha. and Wi. 
iv. s.Sr. and w.Ss. 

D 6. n.BS. 

V i. Wo. 
ii. s.Wa. 
iii. Banbury, 
iv. sw.Np. 

D 7. m.BS. 
In m. and s. Ox. 



s.BS. 



D8. 

Containing s. London and 
suburbs in Be. Sr, and 
ne.Ke. 

D 9. ES. 

V i. e.Ss. 
ii. n.Ke. 
iii. e.Ke. 

D 10. n.¥S. 

In w.Sm. and ne.Dv. 

DU. s.WS. 

V i n.Dv. 
ii. s.Dv. 

iii. e.Co. 
D 12. w.WS. 

In w.Co. and Sc, modern, 
varied, not dialects proper. 

II. W. Div. 
D 13 and 14. 



II.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



5* 



D 13. SW. 

In Mo. He. Rd. ands.Sh. 

D 14. NW. 

In m. and se.Sh, 

III. E. Div. 
D 15 to 19. 

D 15. WE. 

In m. and n.Bu. 

D 16. ME. 

V i. Ht. 
ii. Bd. 
iii. Hu. 
iv. m.Np. 
t. Es. 

D 17. SE. 

Containing n. London and 
suburbs in Bu. Mi. and Ks. 

D 18. NE. 

V i. Cb. 

ii. ne.Np. 
iii. Et. 
D 19. EE. 

V i. nw.Nf. 
ii. ne.Nf. 

iii. s.Nf. 
iv. e.Sf. 
T. w.Sf. 

IV. M. Div. 

D 20 to 29. 
D 20. BM. 

The whole co. of Li. 

V i. s.Li. 
ii. m.Li. 

iii. n.Li. 
D 21. 8.M. 

V i. se.La. 

ii. nw andn. Peakof 
Db. 
D 22. w.M. 

V i. Ormskirk. 

ii. BoltonandWigan. 
iii. Chorley&Leyland. 
iv. Blackburn, 
v. Burnley, 
vi. Old Colne Valley. 
D 23. n.NM. 

V i.TheFyldeinm.La. 
ii. Ma. 

D 24. e.NM. 

Mostly in WR. 

V i. Huddersfield. 
ii. Halifax. 

iii. Keighley. 
iv. Bradford, 
v. Leeds. 



vi. Dewsbury. 
vii. Botberham. 
viii. Sbeffleld. 
ix. Doncaster. 
D 25. w.MM. 

V i. e.Ch. 
ii. m.Cb. 
iii. w.Ch. 
iv. n.St. 

D 26. e.MM. 

V i. s.Peak of Db. 
ii. w.Db. 

iii. e.Db. 

iv. s.Db. 

D 27. EM. 

The whole co. of Nt. 

D 28. w.SM. 

V i. nw.Sh. 

ii. detached or Eng- 
lish Fl. 
iii. w.Ch. 

iv. Dn. and se. of 
main or Welch Fl. 
D 29. e.SM. 

Y iiz.ne.Sh.andnm.St. 

b. wm.St. 

c. em. St. 

iia. me. ands.Sh. 

*. s.St. 

e. n.Wo. 
iiia. e.Wa. 

b. w.Wa. 
iv. Le. 



V. N. Div. 
D 30 to 32. 
D 30. EN. 

Mostly in NR. and F.R. 
V i«. m.To. 

b. York Ainsty. 
e. Northallerton. 

d. New Malton. 

e. Pateley Bridge. 
/. WashburnRiver. 

iia. S.Cleveland. 
b. ne. Coast and 
Whitby. 
iiia. Market Weigh - 
ton. 
b. Holderness. 
iv. Goole & Marsh- 
land. 
D 81. WN. 

In WR. Cu. and We. 

V i. n. Craven and nw. 
Mining Dis- 
tricts of Yo. 
iia. s.Lonsdale. 



iii. n. Lonsdale. 
iii. s.We 
iv. Edenside. 
i.e. basin of River Eden in 
Cu. and We. 
v. w.Cu. 
vi. s.Du. 
D 32. NN". 
V i. n.Cu. 
ii. n.Du. 
iii. Hexham or sw. 

Nb. 
iv. Coalfields or se. 

Nb. 
v. m.Nb. 
vi. n.Nb. 



VI. L. Div. 

Chiefly after Dr. Mnrray, 
-whose names of districts 
are given in Italics. 
D 33 to 42. 
D 33. S L. 

Southern Counties. 
With a different s. boun- 
dary. 

V i. English. 
In n.Cu. and nw.Nb. 

ii. Scotch. 
In e.Df., Se. and Rx. 

D 34. e.ML. 

Lothian and Fife. 

In Bw. Cc. Ed. Fi. Hd. Kr. 

LI. and Pb. 

D 35. w.ML. 

Clydesdale. 

In Ar. n.Ay. Bt. e. and s. 
Dm. Lk. Rf. 
1) 36. S.ML. 

Galloway and Carriek. 
In s.Ay. w.Df. Kb. Wg. 

D 37. n.ML. 

Highland Border. 

In nw.Fi. w.Fo. w.Sg. 

e.Pr. 

D 38. s.NL. 

.Angus. 

In e.Fo. and m. and s.Kc. 

D 39. m.NL. 
Moray and Aberdeen. 
In Ab. Ba. e.Cr. El. n.Kc. 
n.Na. 

D 40. n.NL. 

Caithness. 
In ne.Cs. 



The following were not 
treated by Dr. Murray. 

D 41. s.IL. 

The Orkneys. 
D 42. n.IL. 

The Shetlands. 



6* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[II. 



Other Abbreviations in Frequent Use. 



abl. 

ace. 

adj. 

adv. 

AJE. 

ans. 

aq. 

art. 

b. 

CCE. 

cs. 

CO. 

cwl. 
d. 

D. 

dat. 

def . art. 

dia. 

diet. 

diff. 

diph. 

t 
DSS. 

dt. 

EEP. 

ex. 

freq. 

gen. 

gl- 

imp. 

imp. t. 

imper. 

ind. 

indie. 

inf. 

io. 

JAHM, 

JGG. 

LLB. 

lw. 

N. 

nom. 
nwl. 



obs. 

occ. 

orig. 

orth. 

pal. 

par. 

pc. 



pf. 



ablative. 

accented, accusative. 

adjective. 

adverb. 

A. J. Ellis, the author. 

answers. 

answers to question's. 

article. 

border, (preceding a date) born. 

Mr. C. Clough Robinson. 

comparative specimen-s. 

county. 

classified word list. 

(preceding a date) died. 

Dutch. 

dative. 

definite article. 

dialect-s-al. 

dictate-d, dictation. 

differ-ent-ence. 

diphthong-s-al. 

dialectal pronunciation. 

dialectal speech, or speaker-s. 

Dr.J. A. H.Murray's Dialects 
of the South of Scotland. 

dialect test-s. 

Early English Pronunciation. 

example-s. 

frequent- ly. 

generally, genitive. 

glossic, or written in glossic. 

imperfect. 

imperfect tense. 

imperative. 

indefinite. 

indicative. 

infinitive. 

informant's orthography. 

Dr. James A. H. Murray. 

Mr. J. G. Goodchild. 

H.I.H. Prince Louis- Lucien 
Bonaparte. 

list of words (as distinguished 
from the wl. and cwl.). 

old Norse. 

nominative. 

numbered word list, that is 
with sounds expressed by the 
numbers sent with the wl. 

observe-d, observation-s. 

oceasional-ly. 

original. 

orthography. 

palaeotype-d. 

paragraph. 

post card, with an answer to 
the question it contained. 

perfect. 



pf. t. 

pi. 

pp. 

pre. 

pro. 

pron. 

prp. 

prt. 

pf, 
pwl. 



rec. 
ro. 



rp. 



sb. 

Bg- 

sim. 
so. 

sp. 

spec. 

TH. 

unacc. 

v. 



vb. 
vn. 
vv. 
wd. 
wl. 

Ws. 



perfect tense. 

plural. 

past or passive participle. 

preposition. 

pronoun. 

pronounce-d, pronunciation-s. 

present participle. 

present tense. 

past tense. 

partial wl., one in which less 

than half the words had 

their pron. assigned, 
received, 
received orthography, or that 

commonly used, 
received pronunciation, or that 

of pronouncing dictionaries 

and educated people, 
received speech, with the 

grammar as well as pron. 

that educated people speak, 
substantive, 
singular, 
similarly. 

some kind of systematic or- 
thography. 



specimen-s 

Mr. Thomas Hallam. 

unaccented. 

version-s, or translation-s of cs. 
or dt. into dialectal speech 
or pron. 

verb-s, verbal. 

verbal noun. 

vivd voce. 

word-s. 

word list, as issued in Oct. 
1877. 

Wessex, and West Saxon, 
both the country and lan- 
guage, literary Anglo- 
Saxon of the Southern type. 

words noted from speakers, 
chiefly by TH. in his 
travelling note books. 

(following a number) years, 
as 1 y. = ten years ac- 
quainted with the dialect. 



To shew where places not on the 
Maps of the Dialect District are to be 
found, they are referred to places on 
those maps, thus : 

i nw. Lancaster =4 miles measured in 
a northwesterly direction from Lan- 
caster, and so in other cases. 



m -] PRELIMINARY MATTER. 7* 

III. COMPARATIVE SPECIMEN. 
referred to in the following pages as cs. 

This was constructed in Sep. 1873 by JAHM. and AJE., for the purpose of 
obtaining dia. renderings of familiar words in various connections and some cha- 
racteristic constructions. A second edition was prepared in June 1875. It has 
been broken up into 15 short numbered paragraphs, and a title (0.), for convenience 

of rapid reference. The present copy in ro. will serve as a key to the numerous 
versions and extracts which follow. The paragraphs cited are always numbered 
to correspond with this copy. . 

(0.) "Why John has no Doubts. 

(1.) "Well, neighbour, you and he may both laugh at this news 
of mine. Who cares ? That is neither here nor there. 

(2.) Few men die because they are laughed at, we know, don't 
we ? What should make them ? It is not very likely, is it ? 

(3.) Howsoever these are the facts of the case, so just hold your 
noise, friend, and be quiet till I have done. Hearken ! 

(4.) I am certain I heard them say — some of those folks who 
went through the whole thing from the first themselves, — that did 
I, safe enough, — 

(5.) that the youngest son himself, a great boy of nine, knew 
his father's voice at once, though it was so queer and squeaking, 
and I would trust him to speak the truth any day, aye, I would. 

(6.) And the old woman herself will tell any of you that laugh 
now, and tell you straight off, too, without much bother, if you 
will only ask her, oh ! won't she ? — 

(7.) leastways she told it me when I asked her, two or three 
times over, did she, and she ought not to be wrong on such a point 
as this, what do you think ? 

(8.) Well as I was saying, she would tell you, how, where and 
when she found the drunken beast that she calls her husband. 

(9.) She swore she saw him with her own eyes, lying stretched 
at full length, on the ground, in his good Sunday coat, close by 
the door of the house, down at the corner of yon lane. 

(10.) He was whining away, says she, for all the world like a 
sick child, or a little girl in a fret. 

(11.) And that happened, as she and her daughter-in-law came 
through the back yard from hanging out the wet clothes to dry on 
a washing day, 

(12.) while the kettle was boiling for tea, one fine bright 
summer afternoon, only a week ago come next Thursday. 

(13.) And, do you know?, Inever learned any more than this 
of that business up to to-day, as sure as my name is John Shepherd, 
and I don't want to either, there now ! 

(14.) And so I am going home to sup. Good night, and don't 
be so quick to crow over a body again, when he talks of this that 
or t'other. 

(15.) It is a weak fool that prates without reason. And that is 
my last word. Good b'ye. 



8* PRELIMINARY MATTER. C* V ' 



IV. DIALECT TEST. 

referred to in the following pages as dt. 

This was constructed in Feb. 1879, in order to have a short specimen which 
contained an example of almost all the Ws. categories in the following cwl. 
No V., in which all the words occur separately. Here every word is numbered, 
and to each are added long notes, especially addressed to persons not much 
acquainted with phonetics, shewing the speraal points to which attention should 
be paid, and how J;o give the information required. These notes are here 
retained as forming a succinct and unsystematic conspectus of the principal 
varieties of English dialectal pron. In printing the versions, the numbering of 
the words has been abandoned, but the whole has been broken up into 7 short 
paragraphs to facilitate comparison. It is here printed in ro. to serve as an 
interpretation of all the v. that follow. 

(1.) So 1 I 8 say, 3 mates, 4 you 5 see 8 now 7 that 8 I ( 2 ) am 9 right 10 
about" that 12 little 13 girl" coming 15 from 16 the" school 18 yonder. 19 

(2.) She 80 is 81 going 22 down 23 the(") road 2 * there 26 through 26 
the(") red 27 gate 28 on 29 the(") left 30 hand 31 side 32 of 33 the( 17 ) 
way. 34 

(3.) Sure 36 enough, 38 the ( 17 ) child 37 has 38 gone 39 straight 40 
up 41 to 42 the( 17 ) door 43 of( 33 ) the( 17 ) wrong 44 house, 45 

(4.) where 46 she (») will 47 chance 48 to ( 42 ) find 49 that ( 12 ) 
drunken 50 deaf 61 shrivelled 52 fellow 63 of ( 33 ) the(") name 54 of( M ) 
Thomas. 65 

(5.) "We 56 all 67 know 66 him 59 very 60 well. 61 

(6.) Won't 62 the( 17 ) old 63 chap 64 soon 65 teach 66 her 67 not 68 
to( 42 ) do 69 it 70 again, 71 poor 72 thing! 73 

(7.) Look! 74 Isn't 75 it ( 70 ) true? 76 

Notes. 

*»* The number of the wd. in the following cwl. is put at the end of each 
note, preceded by — . 

1. So. Note whether s or z. Note all occur in older books, but at present 
whether o has a vanishing So after it only uteh, utchy, have been recorded at 
as in London. Mark the various frac- Merriott and Montacute, near Crew- 
ture sounds, frequently used in the kerne, S. Somersetshire. — J 52. 
north, as ee, ay, or oo, followed by a 3. say. Note whether s or z. Ob- 
in China. — 1, 73. serve whether do is inserted, as Zo I do 

2. I. Attempt in a note to indicate zay, this is general when s becomes z ; 
the first element of this diphthong, the and then observe the vowel in do, which 
second is almost always ee. The first is generally unemphatic as a in China, 
may be the sound of the italic letters Note whether ay has or has not a 
in father, pass, pat, p«t, nut, cut, pull, vanishing ee after it as in London, 
call, pop, or some foreign sound. Ee- Note whether it is pronounced with a 
ference to any named European Ian- in father, followed by ee, that is, as the 
guage will be intelligible. Or this English-Greek at, German ««', French 
pronoun may not be a diphthong at all, at, or English aye =yes. Mark if the 
but the simple vowel in father, fall, ay be very broad like e in there. Mark 
folly. These distinctions are all cha- if my is sounded like see, or almost like 
racteristic. Also note if ic, itch, itchy, seer without a trill, or almost like the 
utch, utchy, 'ch (as 'ch am, 'eh , ould, first syllable of Sar-ah also without a 
'eh , ill=J am, Iwould. I will), ise, es, trill. — 261. 

us, have ever been heard for I. They 4. . mates. Use mates, makes,~mar- 



IV.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



9* 



rows, sou, bo's, butties, boys, ehums, 
according to the district, but select the 
word most familiarly used in a good 
sense as companion or fellow-worker. 
In mates or makes mark the long a, 
which may have all the varieties of ay 
in say, noted in No. 3, which see. Soce 
and bo's offer no difficulty, but in 
butties or ehmns mark (by an accent, 
as ti, to be explained) whether the sound 
is between « in but and « in put, so 
that but nearly rhymes to foot. This 
is the Lancashire u, see No. 15. In 
boys, the diphthong requires attention, 
it may have its usual sound, or rhyme 
to pies (in which case it must be treated 
as I in No. 2), or be made up of oo 
and ft?.— 737. 

5. you. Note whether you, ye, or 
'e is used. If you, whether it rhymes 
to too, toe, or now. You is here plural, 
note whether it is also commonly used 
for the singular, or whether thou is 
commoner (and if so, whether thee is 
used as the nominative), or whether 
thou is used to some classes and you to 
others. Usage differs much. — 435. 

6. see. Note whether s or z. Ob- 
serve whether do is inserted, as you do 
zee, which is generally the case when z 
is used ; see No. 3. Note whether ee 
has quite a uniform sound or whether 
it seems to begin with i in sit and then 
to glide up to ee. Note if it is sounded 
like say, with or without a vanishing 
ee. The form of eh ! very closely 
united to ee, is common. Mark whether 
it is followed by « as in seer without a 
trill.— 428. 

7. now. A word of very numerous 
forms. The ow maybe a simple vowel, 
as in too, tor, taw, or may even be as 
in near, ne'er, without the trill. It is 
commonly a diphthong in which the 
last sound is uo and the first the vowel 
in foither, pass, pat, pet, pate, nut, cur, 
pot, toll, or some foreign sound. The 
second element may also he ee, while 
the first is a in father. The second 
element may even be French u, and 
then the first may be u in cur, or broad 
French eu, German o nearly. The ow 
is also very often a triphthong, a short 
sound of i or e or at being prefixed, as 
mow, neow, naiow. — 643. 

8. that. Observe that the word is 
unemphatic and must be pronounced 
accordingly, the emphatic form No. 12 
is reckoned as a different word. The 
unemphatic vowel is generally like a in 
Chino, or e in pocket, or a in principal, 



ocean, or »' in it. Note whether the th 
is entirely omitted. Also whether it is 
replaced by «°. — 177. 

9. am. Use am, is, are, or be, ac- 
cording to the habit of the district, 
always selecting an uneducated person, 
such as an old native man or woman, 
because all young people have been 
taught to use am. If am or *'« is used, 
it generally reduces to -»», -z, being 
run on in the same word with I, which 
may have all the.sounds of No. 2 ; but 
in case -m is used, I is very often pro- 
nounced as a in fall, or o in folly. Note 
particularly the districts where / are 
occurs, and observe where it is used 
emphatically, as "I are to wait," or in 
answers, as " Are you to do it ? Yes I 
are." Note whether the r is pro- 
nounced, or whether the whole word is 
not like a in for. When unemphatic, 
as Tre, note whether the whole sound 
does not rhyme to fire without a trill. 
Especially note the use of be, and 
whether he be is also used. Note 
whether the several forms are all oc- 
casionally used in the district, and if so 
which is the most frequent. Note 
whether we am, you am, are ever used, 
as we'm, you'm, especially when fol- 
lowed by to as "you'm to go home." 
Note the use of the negative forms I 
aint, I baint, beeiint, etc., it baint, it 
aiut, 'taint, tent, tyent, ehent, etc. Note 
whether we is, you is, they is, are used. 
All these forms are highly character- 
istic— 391. 

10. right. First mark the r, 
whether it is trilled with the tip of the 
tongue as in Scotch or Italian, or 
whether the tip of the tongue is merely 
raised without being trilled as fre- 
quently in London and Spain. Note 
if the effect is produced by a rattle of 
the uvula at the back of the mouth as 
in Paris, or else by the same accompa- 
nied by a considerable closure of the 
lips as in Northumberland. Note also 
if the effect is produced by turning the 
tongue up so as almost to point down 
the throat as in Dorsetshire, or by re- 
tracting the tongue very much as in 
Oxfordshire, both sounds being very 
harsh and but slightly if at all trilled. 
Then as to igh, note whether gh is pro- 
nounced as a guttural, as in Scotch, 
and if so whether the guttural is the 
German eh in ieh or that in aoA, or the 
last with the lips much closed, and if 
the i is then as in nick or neck. If 
the gh is not pronounced, note if the t 



10* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[IV. 



has any one of the sounds of I No. 2, 
or of the vowels in see No. 6, as any 
such sound may occur. — 459. 

11. about. Note the a unaccented, 
whether it is like a in China, idea, or 
whether it is distinctly the short of a 
in father,- as in Italian. Note that the 
ou may hare any of the sounds of ow in 
now No. 7, and when it sounds like oo, 
note whether the vowel is long or 
short, or of middle length.— 650. 

12. that. The word is here em- 
phatic. See No. 8. Note whether 
the a is as in London cat or pass, or 
a in father, or the same short or of 
middle length. Note whether th has 
its usual sound, or is t (often the case 
after the t of about) or d, or is omitted 
altogether. — 177. 

13. little. Note whether I or d is 
used, or the tt omitted altogether as 
We. If tt is omitted, note the sound 
of » either as one of the diphthongal 
forms of No. 2, or as a in father. Note, 
when tt is sounded as t or rf, whether i 
is as in skittle, or as ee in n«edle, or as 
a in father.— 682. 

14. girl. The word girl is com- 
mon, but in some districts is replaced 
by weneh, lass, maid, mouther, or is 
not so frequently used as any one of 
these words. Note which word is most 
common and use it, hut give also the 
pronunciation of the other words, if 
used. For girl, note whether the r is 
trilled or is pronounced as in one of 
the ways named in right No. 10; if 
not, note whether it rhyme to sal or 
Bell, or curl, ptarl; and if the r is the 
Dorsetshire r (see No 10) , note whether 
it rhyme to hurdle, with inserted d. 
For weneh note if it rhymes to drench, 
pinch, branch (with a in eat). For 
lass note if it rhymes to gas or pass. 
For maid note especially if it has the 
sound of a in father followed by $e, very 
distinctly, or any other sound of ay in 
No. 3. For mauther, note if th is 
sounded as in rather, or omitted alto- 
gether. — 758. 

15. coming. For first syllable, 
note if it rhymes to hum, or loom or 
loam, or is the short sound of the two 
last, or something between these two 
short sounds, nearly u in pu/l, but 
thicker (Lancashire u). For the second 
syllable (and all participles in -irig) 
note whether no has its received sound 
of «a, or whether another g seems to be 
added, or whether it sounds as the 
words ink or in ; if it ends in » (as is 



usual), note whether the » is like i in 
in, e in wooll««, o in motion, t^" In 
the phrase " They were dansin^ and 
such A&nsing I never saw," note 
whether the two ings would be pro- 
nounced alike ; they are sometimes 
different, and that is very characteristic. 
—603. 

16. from. For / note if it is ever 
or generally v, or th as in throw. If 
th is used, note whether -om rhymes to 
a very broad a sound like French ^, 
German ii, or almost a in cat. If / 
remains, note whether -rom be not 
pronounced as the last vowel described, 
or whether the word sounds like fy in 
stuf/y, or like fee, fay. If / becomes 
v, note if the r does not become the 
Dorset r described in No. 10. If fir, 
vr remain in any form, note whether 
-om (as the word is unemphatic) rhymes 
to the last syllable of bottom. Note 
also its emphatic form, and whether in 
either form m is not often omitted as 
fro'.— 58. 

17. the. The definite article is 
very characteristic. Note whether th 
remains as usual, or becomes d, or is 
omitted altogether. In each case note 
the sound of e like a in China, or y in 
pithy, or ee in prith«« ; and note 
especially if the latter vowels are used 
when th is omitted. Note particularly 
whether the vowel is omitted altogether, 
and then whether th keeps its usual 
sound before a following vowel as in 
th-arm for the arm, or becomes th' in 
th'in (as it is convenient to write the 
acute sound), forming a hiss, before 
consonants, as th'-mun, in one word. 
In these latter cases note whether the 
th or th' is not assimilated to d or t 
after a word ending in d or t, causing a 
suspension of the t or d, by the tongue 
remaining a sensible time against the 
palate, which may be conveniently 
written a" or l\ as at i door. Note 
also particularly whether the does not 
always become a suspended f when it 
is possible, as when it follows another 
word, as frnm-t school, or, when this 
is not possible, whether it becomes just 
perceptible by a dull kind of minute 
thud, due to trying to speak without 
moving the tongue from the palate, as 
t man, i ass (not toss) =the ass. This 
is the regular form in Cumberland, 
Westmorland, Durham and Yorkshire. 
See examples in the Test after from 16, 
dou-n 23, through 26, on 29, '/ 33, 
before child 37, after to 42, before old 



IV.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



11* 



63. The proper marking of the definite 
article is important. — 231. 

18. school. Note whether the 
initial letters are always sounded as sic, 
or sometimes as sh. Note whether the 
Towel is as usual 55, or becomes yoo, at 
French u, or ee followed by a in China, 
or ee or y followed by u in dull, or by 
French eu. Note whether the usual 

00 is begun with the mouth open, 
giving the effect of a high a in China 
preceding the oo ; this sound may be 
conveniently written 66 as skool. Note 
whether oo does not receive one of the 
sounds of ow in now No. 7, like the 
word scowl. Note also whether the 

001 does not become weel or will, so 
that the word sounds like squeal or 
squill. — 560. 

19. yonder. Note if this word is 
ever used as yonder, thonder (with th 
in then), or inder. If not, use out 
there, and treat out as in about No. 11, 
and there as No. 25. Also if the school 
yonder is not used, employ yon school, 
and then notice whether yon is pro- 
nounced with y or th in then, or acute 
th' in th'm, as th'on (see No. 17). The 
form inder should be especially noted, 
if ever heard in the district, even oc- 
casionally. — 394. 

20. She. The feminine personal 
pronoun is very important. It usually 
has sh preserved, with ee when em- 
phatic, as in sheet (with one of the 
sounds of ee in see No. 6, or ay in say 
No. 3), but when unemphatic becomes 
shy in slushy, or ehsia in iuehsia, and 
the vowel is frequently entirely omitted 
in rapid speech, so that only the sh of 
hush ! remains. But the forms shoo, 
oo, ow, uh, generally written shoo, hoo, 
how, her, are also used. For shoo note 
whether it ever sounds like shoe, shoh, 
shuh. For hoo note whether h is ever 
heard unless the word is very emphatic, 
and whether the oo is not the 66 ex- 
plained in No. 18. For how or ow 
note which of the sounds of ow in now 
No. 7 is used. For her or better uh 
(the u in cur without any trill of an r 
after it), note whether it is ever pro- 
nounced with an r after it, even before 
a vowel, as uh iz. not uh riz, with 
emphatic iz. Note also if him iz or 
mee iz are ever said. Note also when 
the form she is used, whether sh ever 
changes to zh or s in division (French 
J), when the word is emphatic. — 412. 

21. is. First note the use of the 
forms is, be, are, see No. 9. Next see 



whether in unemphatic forms the » or 
a are not omitted, as she's, she're. 
Give the emphatic forms also. — 482. 

22. going. First note whether a- 
is commonly inserted, as she's a-going, 
where this a- is pronounced as in 
a-bout No. 11. Note whether the 
form go or gang or gan is used. For 
go note the o, whether it rhymes to toe 
or too or hay, and for the second 
syllable -ing, not only see No. Id, but 
observe if the two syllables go-iug do 
not coalesce, sounding like g prefixed 
to wine (with any sound in No. 2), or 
wain (with any sound in No. 3), or 
win, very short. — 67. 

23. down. This may have any of 
the sounds of ow in now No. 7, or ou 
in about No. II. It is a very cha- 
racteristic word, especially when ow 
has the sound of a in father or a in cat 
lengthened, followed or not by short ee 
or short oo, or a in China. — 658. 

24. road. For the >• consult right 
No. 10. The oa may be pronounced 
with a short oo after it, as it is often 
in London, and then the oo may be 
lengthened and the oh shortened till 
the word sounds like roh-ood or nearly 
rowd, and then the ow may receive any 
of the sounds of ow in now No. 7. 
These are London forms. It is more 
common to add a short u or a in China 
as roh-ud, and then the oh is sometimes 
broadened to French o in homme or to 
awe in awed as raw ud. But also very 
commonly the oh falls into oo followed 
by this ii, as rooiid. And the sound is 
still more complicated by inserting a w 
as rwooiid. Note what form is used, 
and whether simple rohd raud ra/id or 
short rod are employed, and sometimes 
one of the forms of a in mates No. 4. 
The word is very variable and cha- 
racteristic. — 104. 

25. there. First for th, note if it 
has its usual sound, or if it falls into d, 
and occasionally into / after a word 
ending in t. Then as to r final, observe 
whether it is trilled strongly as in 
Scotland or weakly as mostly in Eng- 
land. Also whether it is not trilled at 
all, and then whether it is a mere 
vowel as often in London, or a raised 
stiff tongue, or a Dorset or Nor- 
thumberland untrilled r, see No. 10. 
The vowel varies much. It often be- 
comes a very thin ay, almost an ee, 
rhyming nearly to wear or seer. Some- 
times it rhymes to tar. With the 
Northumberland r it may become o, 



12* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[IV. 



and with the Dorset r it may become 
uh in cur — 223. 

26. through. First for thr, note 
whether tr is used with a trilled r, and 
next whether dr is used with a reverted 
or retracted r, as explained in No. 10. 
Also observe if fr is used, generally 
with e in there. Next note whether 
the gh is a guttural, or is replaced by/. 
Then note the vowel whether simple 
as oo in too, oe in toe or w in cut, or 
Lancashire w (No. 16), or diphthongal 
having one of the sounds of ow in 
No. 7.-634. 

27. red. Note the r as in No. 10. 
Note the vowel, which may be usual, 
or as reed spoken long or short, or rid, 
or like raid or rad-dy. Particularly 
note whether the vowel is transposed 
and an aspirate prefixed, like herd with 
the Dorsetshire r, No. 25. Or if the 
aspirate is prefixed to the same r with- 
out transposition as hred. — 352. 

28. gate. Note all the changes of 
vowel as in mates No. 4. The word is 
generally very characteristic. It may 
also be yate, pat or yet. — 346. 

29. on. This does not vary much, 
but note the vowel when usual or like 
French o in homme, or like the short 
of one in bone, or like an, with the a of 
father shortened. — 543 

30. left. Observe whether t is 
pronounced. Note whether the vowel 
is e in pet, or a in pat, or t in pit. 
—749. 

31. hand. First note whether the 
aspirate is used, and make a note as to 
the habits of the district in using or 
not using the initial aspirate both at 
right and wrong times. Next note 
the d, sometimes t, and often omitted. 
Lastly see if the vowel is « in cat, a in 
father at full length or shortened, aw 
in awn, or o in on. —43. 

32. side. The long < may have 
any of the sounds of No. 2. Note 
especially whether it is a in father, or 
a diphthong consisting of uh in cur, 
followed by short ee. — 492. 

33. of. Note whether / is pre- 
served ; it is usually v, but is not un- 
frequently entirely omitted, especially 
before the, so that of the becomes U-thu, 
or even simply ulh, or uth' with acute 
th' (No. 17). Often the word is a 
short oh, as th thu or Uh te. — 525. 

34 . way. Note whether the w ever 
becomes v. Observe the same possible 
varieties of ay as for say No. 3. The 
sound of ay in say is however often 



different from that of ay in way in the 
same district. — 262. 

35. sure. Note whether s remains 
or becomes sh. Note the r as for 
there No. 25. Observe the vowel, 
whether as oo in poor, you in your, ew 
in ewer, French », or French eu, or 
whether it becomes one of. the ow 
diphthongs as in now No. 7. — 969. 

36. enough. Note also the form 
enow, and say whether in this district 
enough is used with singular and enow 
with plural nouns, as bread enough, 
apples enow, or whether one form is 
always used, and if so which. For 
enow note the different forms of now 
No. 7, and also the use of enew, or the 
French « or French eu. For enough, 
first note whether the guttural remains 
or is changed into /. If gh is German 
or Scotch ch in loch, observe the vowel, 
whether simple as u in cut, o in cot, or 
the same preceded by y; or whether 
ew in ewer, or distinct ee followed by 
indistinct o in cot, or the French « or 
eu. For / observe whether the vowel 
is « in snuff, ew in ewer, or French « 
or eu, or ee followed by a in China, or 
y followed by « in dull, or by French eu. 
—579. 

37. child. Note whether child or 
bairn is ever used when speaking of a 
girl merely. If not, use in the trans- 
lation some of the words in No. 14, 
but if child is used in the district in 
any sense, observe its pronunciation. 
First note the eh, whether as in cheese, 
or chaise, that is sh, the last is very 
characteristic. Next observe whether 
d is omitted. Then see if the vowel is 
diphthongal, having one of the forms 
of No. 2, or simple, as in chilled, or 
shield. In all cases note the form of 
the plural, childer, childern, chooldern, 
children or chillern, with the pro- 
nunciation of eh and vowel as betore. 
If only bairn is used, note the sound of 
air as in there No. 25. — 466. 

38. has. This is in the unemphatic 
form, and hence probably omits ha, 
sounding simply as -z hung on to the 
preceding word. Note however also 
the emphatic form, and whether h is 
pronounced (see hand No. 31), and if 
* is ever s or always z. Then note the 
value of the vowel, as a in mazzard, 
« in buzzard, t in lizard, e in fez. 
Also note particularly whether it is 
customary in the district to say the 
child have, and if so note the A and 
vowel of have especially. Please con- 



IV.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



13* 



jugate as in the district : I have, thou 
hast, he has, we, you, they, have, and 
the same negatively. — 159. 

39. gone. Notice especially whether 
a- is inserted, as the child has a-gone, 
as this is very characteristic. If so, 
note whether this a is pronounced as 
a in China. For gone note the vowel 
as o in on, or aw in awn, or as in in, 
pen, been (short), or with y prefixed to 
these vowels, or as very short i in in 
followed by very short a in China. Or 
again with a in father or the same very 
short. Also observe if the habit of the 
district is to use has go-ed, has went, 
has been and gone, or been simply with- 
out either has or gone. — 121, 

40. straight. First observe whether 
the guttural gh is heard as Scotch or 
German eh in loch. Next as to the 
initial sir, observe the r as in right 
No. 11, but especially whether the t is 
pronounced thickly by bringing the tip 
of the tongue quite against the teeth 
as for th, forming the dental t, which 
may be written st'r, a pronunciation 
highly characteristic in words beginning 
with str, or tr, or ending with -ter as 
■wafer, buffer, and if this is usual in 
the district, it should be noted care- 
fully. Note also whether t' passes 
quite into acute th' No. 17, as 
sth'raight, wath'er, buth'er, or whether 
in the last two words it is not 
altogether omitted as wah-er, bu-er. 
Then for the vowel in straight, note 
the forms of a in mates No. 4, or ay in 
say No. 3, and especially the diphthongal 
form of a in father followed by short ee. 
—265. 

41. up The vowel may be as 
usual or somewhat thicker, but note 
the Lancashire u (see No. 1 5), which is 
highly characteristic. Note also French 
eu. $g" It is particularly necessary to 
distinguish « in dull from « in full, or 
from Lancashire a (No. 15). Dialect 
writers, following the usual ortho- 
graphy, use u for all three sounds. 
Great confusion thus arises. It is 
believed that « in dull is never found 
within the district bounded on the 
south by a Hne from the N. of Shrop- 
shire to the S. of Lincolnshire, and on 
the north by a line from Silloth in 
Cumberland to Hartlepool in Durham, 
but information is much wanted for 
the districts adjacent to these boun- 
daries. The distinction has strong 
dialectal significance. — 632. 

42. to. Note if at is ever used for 



to before the infinitive, see No. 67. 
Note the vowel, as oo in too, oe in toe, 
ew in tew, French u or eu, all especially 
when emphatic, or in to and fro, where 
are you going to ; and the unemphatic 
form of « in China. Observe also how 
it coalesces with the following the. 
—556. 

43. door. Note the r as in there 
No. 25. Note the oor as in oar, as in 
drawer, or as in nor, or as mower, poor, 
or the same shortened, or as ewer, or 
as in deer, c«r, or French s«V or swur, 
or with the Lancashire 66, No. 18, or 
as ow. — 606. 

44. wrong. First as to wr-, note 
if the w is omitted (as is generally the 
case) or is pronounced as wtt with the 
a in China, or as a v as vrang. Next 
as to ng, note if another g is added on 
to the end as ngg, or whether the word 
ends in nk. The vowel is very cha- 
racteristic, note the usual o in wrong, 
or the short of a in father, or a in cat, 
or « in rung,' or Lancashire short a 
(No. 15). This word with the next is 
sufficient to determine whether the 
district is to the N. or S. of a line 
passing from Cockermouth in Lanca- 
shire to the mouth of the Humber in 
Yorkshire — 64. 

45. house. First notice the aspirate, 
whether it is used, No. 31. Particu- 
larly notice the vowel in all the forms 
of ou in about No. 11, and ow in now 
No. 7. This and home are the most 
characteristic words we have. How is 
home pronounced ? See sounds of Nos. 
22, 39, 58, 62.-663. 

46. where. Note the wh especially, 
and say whether the h is ever pro- 
nounced before or after the w, as it is 
very desirable to determine the limits 
of the pronunciation of wh proper. 
Next notice whether when A is not 
pronounced, w ever falls into v, as is 
often asserted to be the case. Lastly 
note where wh becomes/. For the r 
see there No. 25. For the vowel, de- 
termine whether it is in air, ear, iar, 
nor, drawer. — 224. 

47. will. Being unemphatic this 
will probably be run on to the pre- 
ceding word as simple -I, thus she'll. 
But also note which of the emphatic 
forms as wil or wul, and perhaps wol 
or wool, or even Sal, is used in the 
district. —469. 

48. chance. Very possibly this 
word may not be used in such a phrase 
in the district. Use the word employed, 



14* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[IV. 



as hap or happen or mebby (may be) for 
chance to. The h and a in the first 
two words treat as in hand No. 31. 
But the word chance is sure to be used 
in some sense, so please to note its 
sound, and especially if ch is as in 
cheese or chaise. The -ance may be 
variously pronounced, as a in father 
long or short, a in pass long or short, 
a in cat long or short, all these six 
sounds being heard from educated 
people. But a may also be as in all, 
or have one of the sounds of long i, 
No. 2.— 841. 

49. find. First as to the final d, 
often omitted, see hand'So. 31. Notice 
whether the word is like fined, with 
one of the sounds of long », No. 2, or 
like finned ; it may be also like /and 
or fund, fan or fun, with a as in hand 
No. 31, or » as in up No. 41, or with 
o in fond. — 477. 

60. drunken. Notice the form 
drucken, much used in Scotland. Notice 
whether dr- is pronounced with the 
tongue against the teeth as for Ih, thus 
d'r, see straight No. 40 for a similar 
t'r. Notice also whether this is com- 
mon in the termination -d'er as rid'er 
bladd'er, and whether it passes into th 
as blather in the district. These are 
very characteristic pronunciations. As 
to the vowel, observe whether it is u 
in sank, or the Lancashire u, Kos. 15 
and 41. In some districts, where every 
one is in the habit of drinking, the 
word drunken is objected to. Then 
use the common word, but as I have 
drunk must be used, also give the 
sound of drunk. — 804, 613. 

61. deaf. Note the vowel as usual 
or rhyming to reef, stiff, or fractured 
as ee or ay followed by the a in China. 
—355. 

52. shrivelled. This may not be 
a common word, and may be unknown 
to the informant in the dialect, although 
it is sure to be known in other connec- 
tions. In this case wizened, weazen, 
withered, or dried up may be used. 
But if shrivelled cannot be given, take 
any word beginning with shr- as 
shrammed, shred, shrewmouse, shriek, 
shrike, shrill, shrimp, shrink, shroud, 
shrub, shrug, and state whether shr- 
or sr- is used in speech. It is par- 
ticularly desirable to know how far the 
sound of sr- extends. For the r see 
right Ho. 10.— 760 

53. fellow. Note whether / or v. 
For the last syllable note whether the 



word ends in a distinct oh or rhymes to 
seller, with the r merely a vowel, see 
there No. 25, or whether it is like the 
Egyptian fellah.— 297. 

64. name. The vowel may have 
any of the forms of a in mates No. 4, 
or gate No. 28. The word is also often 
like neeum, neeam, nyem, or even nan. 
—21. 

55. Thomas. Use whatever name 
is commonest in the district. If Thomas 
is kept, note whether th- is ever dif- 
ferent from t. For the first syllable 
note whether the vowel is that in pot, 
ham, or the Lancashire u Nos. 15 and 
41. For the second whether it is 
ever different from us in omnibiw. 
—770. 

66. We. This vowel may have all 
the sounds of ee in see No. 6, and the 
sound like very short London way 
should be especially noted. Note if we 
is ever used for us in the district, as 
after we (John Gilpin), laughed at we, 
give it we. Note also if us is used for 
we, as us saw she, us told he, for we saw 
her, or we told him. — 293. 

57. all. Note if the 11 is omitted. 
Note the vowel as in fall or father, or 
ay followed by a in China, or whether 
the word sounds like yell. — 335. 

58. know. As this is plural, we 
being the nominative, note whether it 
has the plural in -en as we known, or 
in -s as we knows, and explain which 
is used in the district, or if we know is 
commonest. Similarly note you and 
they know, knows, or known. We 
known is sometimes used for we have 
known, or we knew. This must not be 
confused with we known, meaning we 
know. But it is best to note whether 
it is used. For the initial kn- note 
whether k is ever sounded as k, or ever 
indicated by using an A or t or el, 
instead of k, or is entirely omitted. 
Then note the vowel, whether as in 
owe, awe, father, fate, or o followed by 
short bo, or the awe, ah, ay, followed by 
short a in China. Note whether do is 
inserted between we and know as we do 
know, and if so, how do is pronounced, 
see end of notes on say No. 3, and see 
No. 6. The use of we doh know for 
we don't know, should be noted, but 
not confused with we do know. Note 
also whether the word know is super- 
seded by ken, and the sound of the 
vowel in ken. In this case take some 
other word beginning with kn- as 
knife, knuckle, and ascertain whether 



IV.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



15* 



k is entirely omitted or pronounced, or 
indicated by A or t or d.— 92. 

59. Mm. Note particularly whether 
the form en or un or simple '» is used, 
as we do know '». If him is used, 
note if A is ever heard, 1) when the 
word is unemphatie, 2) when emphatic. 
Note the vowel, whether im, em, urn. 
Note if we know urn, or we knows 'm, 
could mean indifferently we know him, 
and we know them. — 470. 

60. very. Note particularly whether 
the v changes into w. If possible, 
ascertain whether it is a perfect w, or 
rather a v spoken without allowing the 
underlip to touch the upper teeth. The 
r between the two vowels also requires 
attention. Note if it is entirely omitted 
as ve-y, va-y, or only represented by 
raising the stiffened point of the tongue 
towards the roof of the mouth without 
touching it, or slightly advancing the 
uvula ; both forms occur, and it is de- 
sirable to know how far they extend. 
If the r is trilled, note which of the 
r's in right No. 10 is used. The first 
vowel may be as in sherry, or Harry, 
or father, and the second may be as in 
sherry or China. — 885. 

61. well. Note whether the w 
becomes v. Note the vowel whether 
as in tell, or wheel rather shorter, or 
whether a short a in China or y in 
sherry is inserted after either of these. 
—266, not 244. 

62. won't. Note if o is pronounced 
as in don't, h«nt, awe, taint, or o in 
d»n't followed by a in China, or oo 
followed by a in China, or ee so fol- 
lowed. Note also if the forms winna, 
winnad (before a vowel), wunna, wonna, 
winnut, are employed. Note if w is 
entirely omitted, thus 'on't or 'don't. 
Note also the various forms of don't, 
which includes those of on't in won't 
and also divv'nt, etc.-— 541. 

63. old. Note whether both I and 
d are pronounced or either I or d 
omitted. Vowel as in owed, hole, got, 
awe, father, ee followed by a in China. 
Or whether o has not one of the sounds 
of now No. 7.-326. 

64. chap. This word is pretty sure 
to be used, but, if not, use man. Ob- 
serve whether eh is as in cheese or 
chaise, and whether the vowel is as in 
cat, in father or the same shortened, or 
in got.— 364. 

65. goon. Observe whether s or z, 
or even eh. Observe the vowel especially, 
which may be ee, yoo, French « or eu, 



or ee followed by So, or by a in China, 
or w in dull or French eu. — 564 

66. teach. Observe vowel as in 
reach, or aitch. If, as is very com- 
monly the case, learn would be used in 
this sense, mark the vowel as in urn or 
darn or ay followed by short o, and 
note the r (No. 26). If teach is not 
used in this sense, teacher will certainly 
be known, and its pronunciation should 
be given.— 183. 

67. her. Observe whether h is 
pronounced, and what is the nature of 
the r, see there No. 25. See also the 
her for she No. 20, and note whether 
she is not used in its place as won't he 
teach she. Observe if the usual sound 
of her in teach her or learn her is the 
same as er in teacher or learner, and 
note if it is a in China, or how it 
differs from it. — 447. 

68. not. Note vowel as in pot, 
pat, put, or nut, and whether the t is 
sometimes d. — 110, ii. 

69. do. Note vowel as in loo, toe, 
new or French u, or ee followed by 
French a. Observe whether div is 
used before it, as div it, or whether do 
and it are not contracted into one word 
as dit or did. Note whether to before 
the infinitive do is sometimes at, pro- 
nounced ut, especially in such phrases 
as J am the man that was able to or at 
do it, something at eat, go at see him, 
and write the pronunciation of these 
phrases. This use of at is highly 
characteristic. — 586. 

70. it. Observe whether, when 
not run on to do (No. 69), it be- 
comes et, ut, hit, het, hid. Also state 
whether its is ever used, as in over 
Us or it eyes, or over the eyes of 'un. 
—489. 

71. again. Note the last vowel as 
in gain, or hen, in, or ee followed by a 
in China. — 144. 

72. poor. Note r as in there No. 
25, and vowel as usual or as in oar, or 
like French » or eu. — 866. 

73. thing. Note whether acute th' 
in th'in, see No. 17, or flat th in then, 
or t simply is used. Note the vowel 
as in in or hen. Note ng as pure, or 
with an extra g added, as nk or as «. 
If the simple « is not used in thing 
alone, note whether it is not used in 
nothing, something, and write pronunci- 
ation of these words. — 480. 

74. look. Note the vowel as in 
soon, No. 65, or else as long oo in loose, 
or long oh, or short u in full or « in 



16* PRELIMINARY MATTER. [*?., V. 

dull. Note also such phrases as loo' 76. true. Observe tr as in straight 

thee for look thou. — 658. No. 40. The vowel may be oo or 

75. isn't. Note whether any of the you or ee followed by uo or French 

forms beant, aint, ar'n't, izna, iznad, u, or some variety of these sounds. 

innut, etc., is used 482. — 436. 



V. CLASSIFIED WOED LIST 

referred to in the following pages as owl. 

Finding that the cs. did not contain sufficient examples of some categories, and 
that the few examples of rather important cases were often ingeniously evaded by 
my informants, I constructed a "List of Words of which the pron. is wanted," 
and issued large numbers of it to clergymen in different villages where informa- 
tion was wanted. The greater number of these were not returned, but sufficient 
reached me to be of much service. This old word list is referred to as wl. and 
should be distinguished from the present cwl. It was stated to be a selection 
from the word lists in Dr. Sweet's History of British Sounds, and was arranged 
in his order, which, however, was found inconvenient for reference in practice. 
It was printed widely on 7 quarto pages, leaving space for informants to write in 
the pron. Half of the 8th page was occupied with questions on idioms and in- 
tonation. These are reproduced at the end of the cwl. as shewing the chief points 
beyond pron. on which it was attempted to gather information. 

The following cwl. then contains all the words in the wl., cs. and dt. and a 
very few others. Those marked * did not occur in the original wl. Those 
marked t were in the cs., and those marked J in the dt. The words are numbered 
throughout for ease of reference. 

Many other words were given to me by kind informants, most of which 
will be introduced hereafter. But on making out a complete list for my own 
use, it became so unwieldy that it appeared better to confine the cwl. within 
the above limits. As much difficulty will undoubtedly be felt by many readers, 
(judging by the difficulty I have myself experienced,) in assigning any given word 
to its class, an index is added containing the English words in the usual alpha- 
betical order of dictionaries, with the number of the wd. in the cwl. annexed. 

All the old wl. and all the local lw. which I have used will be reduced to this 
order. The pron. is throughout given in pal. and, when the words considered 
occur in this list, their numbers are prefixed as sufficient explanation. When 
they do not, they are placed in the position they would have occupied, if they 
had occurred in the cwl. , and — is prefixed to shew that they have no number, 
and then the ordinary spelling is annexed in [], in which also any explanation or 
observation is inclosed. 

The order and classification, which differ considerably from those in the 
original wl. , are arranged on the following principle. The lists are divided into 
three sections, headed i. Wessex aud Norse, ii. English, hi. Romance. 
The words in each list are grouped in classes dependent on the vowel of the 
original language in what corresponds to the accented syllable in received English. 
The words in each class are arranged in order of the letters which follow that 
vowel. Only when all these letters are the same in two or more words are the 
preceding letters taken into account, and then the order is reckoned from the 
vowel backwards. Strictly alphabetical order is followed for these letters, for 
which purpose J), t! will each be taken as the two letters, t, h. 

i. "Wessex and Nobse, Nos. 1 to 712. 

This section contains only such words as can be referred with considerable 
certainty to prototypes existing in Wessex literature, (that is, books in the 
language of King Alfred, as distinguished from the Northymbrian forms,) or in 
Norse as represented by Icelandic. To the latter a small capital n is subjoined. 



V.] 



■PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



17* 



When no such prototypes are known, or when there is difference of opinion 
respecting the etymology, even when the class of words is clear, the words are 
placed in Section ii., English. 

The Wessex or Norse words are placed first in Roman letters, and the arrange- 
ment is by the vowels they contain, which are placed in capitals at the head of each 
class, long vowels being distinguished by a following acute accent. As the change 
which takes place in the vowel depends frequently upon its occurrence in an open 
or closed syllable, as presently defined, these are distinguished thus : A- open 
short A ; A: closed short A ; A- open long A ; A: closed long A. The vowel, by a 
mechanical rule which is sufficiently, but not absolutely correct, is said to be in an 
open syllable, 1) when it is final, and i) when it is followed by a single consonant 
which is itself followed by a vowel, and to be in a closed syllable, 3) when it has 
one or more consonants after it at the end of a word, and 4) when it has two or 
more consonants between it and a following vowel in the middle of a word. 
In the Wessex words the orthography of Prof. Skeat in his Etymological 
Dictionary is usually followed, but when his differs from Ettmuller's (except in 
that author's peculiarities) the latter is sometimes preferred. I disclaim all 
responsibility for the orthography, which I could not verify by documents. 
Conjectural forms are excluded. Hence I have not, with Dr. Sweet, distinguished 
two forms of ffl, E, 0. 

The Wessex and Norse forms, placed first, are printed in Roman letters, fol- 
lowed by a comma; the corresponding English is in italics. But some little 
words as a, the, to, I he we, was, had are occasionally prefixed, and thou sub- 
joined, in Roman letters, to shew the part of speech or part of the verb, and only 
when these are insufficient is the part of speech subjoined in Roman letters. 
Verbs are generally cited by their infinitive moods, but occasionally other parts 
are introduced either in their proper order, or placed in [] after the infinitives. 
Such parts are sufficiently shewn by these prefixes, which of course do not form 
part of the translation. Sometimes the English word is still so ambiguous that 
a synonym or explanation has to be prefixed or subjoined, also in Roman type. 



A- 

1 swa, so thus * J 

2 gemaca, a make com- 

panion 

3 bacan, to bake 

4 tacan, to take 

5 macian, to make^ 

6 gemacod, was made 

7 sacu, the sake 

8 hafa, have thouf 

9 behafa, behave thou 

10 haga, a haw 

1 1 maga, the maw 

12 saga sagu, a saw 

13 gnagan, to gnaio 

14 dragan, to draw 

15 agi n, awe 

16 dagian, to dawn 

17 lagu, the lawf 

1 8 kaka n, a cake 

19 talu, a tale told 

20 lama, lame 

21 nama, a namef% 

22 tama, tame 

23 same, same similarly 

24 scamu, shame 

25 manar, of the mane of 

an animal, gen. of 
mon n 

E.E. Pron. Part V, 



26 wanian, to wane 

27 cnapa, a knave 

28 hara, a hare 

29 aron, we or they are* J 

30 caru, a care*, see 320 

31 i. late, ii. lsete, late adv. 

32 baftian, to bathe* 

33 hra'Sor, rather 

34 latost, lastf 

35 awel, an awl 

36 J>awian, to thaw 

37 clawu, a claw 

A: 

38 also, as*f 

39 cwam, he earned 

40 camb, a comb 

41 Jancian, to thank 

42 and, and*f 

43 hand, a hand J 

44 land, the land 

45 wand, a want mole, 

animal*, see 114, 
769 

46 candel, a candle 

47 wandrianr, to wander 

48 sang, he sang 

49 hangan, to hang *f 

50 tange, the tongs 



51 mann, a man 

52 wann, a wan 

53 caana, a can 

54 wanta n, to want t 

55 ascan, ashes of a fire 

56 wascan, to wash f 

57 assa, an ass 

'A: or O: 

68 i. framii. from,/ra»t+ 

59 i. lamb ii. lomb, lamb 

60 i. lang ii. long, long 

61 on i. gemang ii. ge- 

mong, among 

62 i. Strang ii. strong, 

strong 

63 i. gej>rang ii. gejrong, 

throng 

64 i. wrang ii. wrong, 

wrong fj 

65 i. sang ii song, a song 

66 i. J>wang ii. ]>wong, a 

thong 

A'- 

67 ic gk, I go 

68 ma,momoreinnumber* 

2* 



18* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[T. 



69 na, no never, see 122 

nan 

70 ta, a &>« 

71 wa, woe 

72 hwa, w^o interroga- 

tive t 

73 swa, so like as t+ 

74 twa, <wot 

75 stracian, to stroke 

76 tade, a toad 

77 hlaford, a lord 

78 agan, to osce=to own 

79 agen, his own t 

80 halig daeg, a holiday 

81 i. lane ii. lone, a lane f 

82 fines, once*f 

83 mfinian, to moan 

84 mara, more in size 

85 sare, tore sorely 

86 ate, o«to 

87 claVSas, oMAm t 

88 elfiftian, to e/oM« 

89 bfiSir n, bothf 

90 b]fiwan,too7owaswind 

91 mfiwan, to mow 

92 cnawan, to Anowtt 

93 snawan, to mow 

94 crfiwan, to crow t 

95 j>rfiwan, to throw 

96 sawan, to sow seed 

97 sfiwel, the soul 

98 cnawen, has known 

99 Jrawen, has thrown 

100 sawen, has sown seed 

A': 

101 fie an o«i 

102 ficsian, toasA't 

103 acs6de, he as&ed*t 

104 r&d, a road% 

105 rad, he »oo> 

106 brad, *roarf 

107 hlfif, a loaf 

108 dag, aow^A 

109 lag, low 

110 i. nahtnauht.noM^A*, 

ii. nfit, «o< t J 

111 ante, he o«^A< f 

112 hal, Aafo 

113 hal, wAofet 

114 mfil, »»ofo a body 

mark, not the 
animal, see 45, 769 

115 ham, a homei 

116 hwam, whom, interro- 

gative only 

117 an, «f one * 

118 ban, Ao»« 

119 gfin, ioyo* J 



120 agan, a^o, i.e. past 

by*t 

121 gegan, has gone 

122 nan, i. mods, ii.no adj. 

1 23 nan J>ing, nothing 

124 stan, a sfc>n« 

125 anlice, only t 

126 fir, an oar 

127 has, hoarse 

128 >as, *Ao«e 

129 gfist, & ghost 

130 bfit, a*oo< 

131 gat, a, goat 

132 hat, Ao< 

133 wrat, I w«f« 

134 fig, an oe<A 

135 cl&S, a eloth 

136 aw«er=ahwae'Ser, i. 

either, ii. or, see 
213 se'g-Ser 

137 nawSer = nfihwse'Ser, 

i. neither, ii. nor*f, 
see 214 naegSer 

138 feeder, a father f 

139 draege (in draege-net), 

a «Vay 

140 hsegel, the hail 

141 nsegel, a n«>7 

142 snsegel, a snail 

143 tsegel, a foil 

144 ong83gen, again^X 

145 slsegen, is slain 

146 ma3gen,»iai«strength 

147 brsegen, the brain 

148 fseger, fair adj. [not 

/aiV sb., Fr. foire, 
after 921, from 
Lat. feria, after 
887.] 

149 blsese, a blaze 

150 lsesest, least t 

151 Uetan, to let or hinder 

152 wseter, water 

153 sseterdsg, Saturday 



M: 

154 baec, the o«&*f 

155 j>aec, the thatch 

156 gla?d, ^/«d* 

157 hrafn, a »-a»en 

158 setter, after 

159 hasfS, he has * t 

1 60 aeg, an egg 

161 dseg, a day t 

162 t6 dseg, fo-<% * f 

163 lseg, he lay 



164 mseg, he may f 

165 ssegde, he said 

166 msegden, a maia* 

167 dsel, a dale 

168 tselg, tallow 

169 hwsenne, wfon t 

170 hserfest, harvest 

171 baerlic barley 

172 gaers, <?rass 

173 W83S, he wasf 

174 aesc, an asA tree 

175 faast, fast, firm 

176 set, al*f 

177 Jast, that* ft 

178 gnset, £»ai 

179 hwaet, whatf 

180 ba;*, toA 

181 paeS, a.p«<A 

182 see', the sea 

183 tae'can, to teach f 

184 laVdan, to had 

185 rse'dan, to read 

186 brae'do, breadth 

187 lae'fan, to /«a»e 

188 hnae'gan, to neigh 

189 wae'gan, to weigh 

190 cae'ge, a &ey 

191 hae'lan, to heal 

192 mae'nan, to mean 

193 clae'ne, clean 

194 ae'nig, any* t 

195 mae'nig, many 

196 waVron, we were 

197 cse'se, a cheese 

198 las 'tan, to fel allow, 

see 288. 

199 blee'tan, to bleat 

200 hwse'te, wheat 

20 1 hae'ften, the heathen 

202 hae'ta, heat 



203 sprae'c, speech 

204 dse'd, aV?ea" 

205 Jirse'd, thread 

206 rae'dd, he read 

207 nse'dl, a nceoVe 

208 83'fre, ever * t 

209 nse'fre, never * f 

210 clse'g, clay 

211 grse'g, grey 

212 hwaeg, wAcy 

213 segSer = sehwaeder, 

either, see 136 
awSer 



V-] 



FKELIMINAKY MATTER, 



19* 



214 nffi'gtter, neither* f, 

see 137 HawSer 

215 tse'hte, he taught 

216 dse'l, a deal portion 

217 se'lc, each 

218 scse'p, a sheep 

219 slse'p, a steep 

220 scse'phirfte, a shep- 

herd* f 

221 ite'xfear sb. 

222 hse'r, the Aair 

223 beer, there f J 

224 hwae'rhwar, where-f-% 

225 fke'sc, ./fesA 

226 mse'st wiosf 

227 wse't, w«*t 

228 swse't, sweat 

229 braVS, breath, pro- 

perly = odour 

230 faVtt,/a<, adj. 

E- 

231 be, the* ft 

232 brecan, to break 

233 sprecan, to speak f 

234 cnedan, to knead 
236 wefan, to weave 

236 fefer, a/wer 

237 Megan, a chil-W«»» 

238 hege, a hedge 

239 segel, a sail 

240 gelegen, has ?ai'« 

241 regen, rain 

242 twegen, twain 

243 plegian, to plat/ 

244 wela, «>««, argumen- 

tative adv.*f, see 
266. 

245 melu melo,ff»«ai flour* 

246 cwene cwen, i. queen 

ii. quean 

247 wenian, to wean 

248 mere, a mare 

249 werian, to wear 

250 swerian, to swear 

251 mete, meat 

252 cetel, a WWe f 

253 netele, a »e<^« 

254 lcSer, leather 

255 wefter, a wether sheep 

E: 

256 streccan, to stretch * f 

257 ecg, an edge 

258 secg, sedge 

259 wecg, wedge 

260 lecgan, to lay 

261 secgan, to say f J 



262 weg, a way t J 

263 on weg, away * f 

264 eglan, to ail 

265 streht, straight t J 

[see 923, to which 
dia. forms seem to 
be related]. 

266 wel, well, adv. in a 

good manner* J, 
see 244. 

267 geldan, to yield 

268 eldest, eldest 

269 self, self* t 

270 belg, i. bellows, ii. 

belly 

271 tellan, to tell*f 

272 elm, an elm 

273 men, men f 

274 bene, a bench 

275 stenc, a stench 

276 bencan, to think t 

277 drencau, to drench 

278 wencle, a wench 

279 wended, he we«<*t 

280 endlufon, etemi 

281 leng«, length 

282 strengS, strength 

283 merg, mmy 

284 berscan, to thresh 

corn 

285 cerse, cress vegetable 

286 herwe, a harrow 

287 besm, a besom broom 

for sweeping 

288 lettan lse'tan letan, to 

let permit, see 198. 

E- 

289 ge, ye 

290 he, he t 

291 be, thee 

292 me, oto t 

293 we", we t 

294 fedan, to feed 

295 breded, was bred 

296 gelefan, to believe 

297 felagiN, a/«Kow*t 

298 felan, to feel 

299 grene, green 

300 cepan, to top 

301 geheran, to hear 

302 gemetan, to meet 

303 swete, sweet 

304 betel, a 4«;We mallet, 

see 499 

E': 

305 i. h£h ii. heah, high 

306 h&rSe, A«grA< 



307 i. neh ii. neah, MiyA 
30S ned, need sb. 

309 sped, speea* sb. 

310 hel, a heel 

311 ten, ?e« 

312 her, here 

313 hercnian toAearfen.t 

See 695 hyrcnian 

314 geherde, he heard 

315 fet, feet 

316 next, next 

EA- 

317 fleagan, to flay 

318 hleahen,has/awoAea'*t 

319 geapian, to gape 

320 cearian, to caref, see 

30 caru 

EA: 

321 geseah, he sawf 

322 hleahhan, to laugh 

323 feaht, has fought 

324 eahta, eight 

325 wealcan, to walk, 

properly to full 

326 eald, oldfl 

327 beald, bold 

328 ceald, cold 

329 fealdan, to fold 

330 healdan, to holdf 

331 sealde, he sold 

332 tealde, he told* 

333 cealf, a calf 

334 healf, A«Z/ 

335 eall, alt ft 

336 feallan, to/a« 

337 weall, a wall 

338 ceallian, to call * f 

339 earn, I am* 

340 geard geord, i. a court 

yardf ii. a s<«>& 
311 mearh, marrow * % 

342 earm, an arm 

343 wearm, warm 

344 beam, 4«!Vw* J 

345 dearr, I dare 

346 geat a gate, door-way, 

not road=gata n 

EA'- 

347 heafod, the head 

348 eage, the eye f 

349 feawa,/«wf 

EA': 

350 dead, dead 

351 lead, lead metal 



20* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[V. 



352 read, red% 

353 bread, bread 

354 sceaf, sheaf 

355 deaf, deafl 

356 leaf, &«/ 

357 J>eah, though % 

358 ne&h, hi>A. See 307 

ii. neh 

359 neahgebur, neigh- 

bour f 

360 team, a teawt 

361 bean, a &?«» 

362 glean, to slay 

363 ceap, e/;««^ 

364 ceapman, chap*% 

365 near, near, compara- 

tive of 358 noah, 
nigh 

366 great, great t 

367 >reat, threat 

368 dea'S, <fe«<A 

369 sleaw, sfoui 

370 hreaw, row 

371 streaw streaw stre6w 

streu strea, straw 

EI- 

372 ei N, aye f 

373 >eiN, theyf 

374 nei n, «»y 

375 reisa N, to ;««'« 

376 beita n, to Sa»< 

EI: 

377 steik n, a sieai 

378 reikr N, w««A 

379 heill n, hail 

380 Jeim n, thetn * f 

381 sveinn u, a swain 

382 Jeirra n, <A«V 

EO- 

383 seofan, seven 

384 heofon, heaven 

385 beneoiSan, beneath 

386 eowe, a <w« 

387 i. neowe, ii. niwe, 

newf 

EO: 

388 meolc, milk 

389 geolca, yott of eggs 

390 sceolde, should f 

391 eom, I am * f J 

392 geond, yon*f 
393. begeondan, beyond 



394 geonder, yonder * * 

395 geong, yow«? * 

396 i. weorc ii. were, 

wor&, sb. See 694 
wyrcan, vb. 

397 sweord, a sword 

398 steorfan, to starves 

be cold 

399 beorht, bright f 

400 eornest, earnest 

401 geornian, to yearn 

402 ieornian, to learn f 

403 feorr,/ar 

404 steorra, a star 

405 heoi"$, the hearth 

406 eortSe, the earth 

407 feorSling, a farthing 

408 cneow, fie Anw f 

EO'- 

409 be6, a bee 

410 he6, Aoo, she La*t J 

411 Jreo fem. and neat., 

J»rt mas., three f 

412 seo, sAe 1 1 

413 de6fol, the devil 

414 fle6ga, afiy 

415 le6gan, to We, fib 

416 deore, dear adj. and 

a deer 

417 ce6wan, to chew 

418 bre6wan, to brew 

419 e6wer, yo«r * t 

420 fe6wer,/o«r 

421 feowertig, forty 

EO': 

422 se6c, sick ill *t 

423 be6h, thigh 

424 hre6h, row^A,see654* 

425 leoht, light 

426 fe6htan, to fight 

427 be6n, to i« f 

428 seon, to see t 

429 feond, a fiend 

430 freond, a friend 

431 be6r, Seer 

432 fedrSa./oartA 

433 bre6st, breast 

434 be6t, he i«ai 

435 e6w, you t J 

436 trefiw, true % 

437 treowft, ttuth 

EY- 

438 deyja n, to <f ie t 



EY: 

439 treysta n, to trust t 



440 i. wicu wice ii. wuce, 

a week f 

441 sife, sieve 

442 ifig, ivy 

443 frigadseg, Friday 

444 stigel, a stile 

445 higian, to hie 

446 nigon, «j»«t 

447 hire, her * t 

448 bise, these t 

449 gitan, to get obtain 
460 tiwesdseg, Tuesday 
451 siwian, to sew 



452 ic, Xt t 

453 cwic, quick* f 

454 wicce, witch 

455 licgan, to We down t 

456 gif, if f 

457 miht, the might 

458 niht, the night f 

459 riht, right J 

460 wiht, a weight 

461 gelihtan, to alight 

462 gesihS, the sight 

463 tilN, ««*t 

464 hwile, which 

465 i. swilc, ii. swyle, 

suchf 

466 cild, a cAiMf .j: 

467 wilde, wild 

468 cildru, children 

469 willan,to «>t'W*t 

470 him, Aim * J 

471 timber, timber 

472 scrincan, to shrink 

473 blind, AWnrf, adj. 

474 rind, the rind 

475 wind, the wind 

476 bindan, to i«'«rf 

477 findan, to find t 

478 grindan, to grind 

479 windan, to wind 

480 J>ing, a ««»? * 1 1 

481 finger, a .#«yer 

482 is, is* ft 

483 his, his*f 

484 bis, <A('s f 

485 bistel, a thistle 

486 gist, yeast 

487 gistrandaeg, yesterday 

488 git, ye« 

489 hit, it « t 



v.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



21* 



I'- 

490 bi, by near t 

491 sican, to sigh 

492 side, a side * f 

493 drifan, to drive 

494 tima, timef 

495 hwinan, to whine * f 

496 fren, iron 

497 arisan, to arise 

498 writan, to write 

499 bitel, a beetle insect*, 

see 304 



500 gelic, likef 

501 wid, wide 

502 M,ftve 

503 lif, life 

504 cnif, a knife 

505 wif, a «>«/« 

506 wifman, a woman f 

507 wifmen, women 

508 mil, a mife 

509 hwil, wAi'fo 

510 min, mine my*f 
611 win, wine 

512 spir, a spire steeple 

513 wir, a wire 

514 is, iee 

515 wis, wise 

516 wisd6m,. wisdom 

517 iw, a yew 

0- 

518 bodig, a body*f 
619 ofer, over*f 

520 boga, a bow weapon 

521 fola, a foal horse 

522 open, open 

523 hopian, to hope 

624 woruld, the world 

0: 

625 of, i. o/*t{, ii. <#*t 

526 cohhettan, to cough 

527 bohte, he bought 
628 bohte, he thought 
529 brohte, he brought 

630 wrohte, he wrought 

631 dohtor, a daughter f 

632 col, a coal 
533 dol, dull 

634 hoi, a hole 

635 folc,/oitt*f 

636 gold, gold 

537 molde, mouWearth 



538 wolde, would 
639 bolla, a bowl cup 

540 hollegen, Ao% 

541 wol nat, won't*\X 
642 bolt, bolt 

543 on, o»*tJ 

544 J>onne, i. than ii. 

then*t 

545 hoppan, to Aop 

546 for,/or*t 
647 bord, a board 
548 ford, a/ora" 

649 hord, a hoard treasure 

650 word, a wordf 
551 storm, a storm 
562 corn, corn 
653 horn, horn 

554 kross n, a cro»» 

O'- 

555 sco, a shoe 

556 to, to t 

557 t6, foof 

558 16cian, to look% 

559 m6dor, mother 

560 sc61a, a scAool*i 

561 bl6ma, a ifoom flower 

662 ih6na, the moon 

663 m6nandaeg, Monday 

664 s6na, »oo»| 
566 n6su, nose 
566 6J>er, other 

667 fffit 6J>er, t' other* 'f 

568 br6Sor, brother* 

O': 

569 b6c, a book 

570 t6c, he <oo/t 

571 god, goodf 

572 blod, the blood 

573 fl6d, a>od 

574 br6d, brood 

575 st6d, he stood 

57 6 wodnesdaeg, Wednes- 

day 

577 b6g, a bough 

578 pldg N, a plough 

579 gen6g, enough f J 

580 t6h, fouyA 

581 sohte, he sought 

582 col, coo/ 
683 tol, tool 

584 stol, stool 

585 brdm, broom, the 

plant, not 287 

586 d6n, to dof 
687 gedon, rfonef 
588 non, noon 



689 spdn n, a spoo» 

590 fl6r, the floor 

591 m6r, a moor 

592 sw6r, he «««»•« t 

593 moste,. he must 

594 b6t, boot 

595 f6t, /oo< 

696 rot, root 

697 sot. sooZ 

598 soft, scofA 

u- 

599 abufan, above 

600 lufu, foi>« sb. 

601 fugol, a. fowl 

602 sugu, a sow pig 

603 cuman, to co«/«t+ 

604 sumor, the summer *f 

605 sunu, a sonf 

606 duru, the doorf 

607 butere, butter 

U: 

608 ugglig N, ugly 

609 full,/ u Z/t 

610 wall, wool 

611 bulluca, a bullock 

612 sum, «om«t 

613 druncen.has<f>«nA:f J, 

see 804 

614 hund, a hound 

615 pund, a pound weight 

616 grand, the groundf 

617 gesund, sound in 

health 

618 wund, a wound 

619 funden, was found '+ 

620 grunden, was ground 

621 wunden, was wound 

622 under, ««rf«- 

623 fundon, they/o«M«'*t 

624 grandon.theyyrownrf* 

625 tunge, the tongue 

626 hungor, hunger 

627 Sunnandteg, <Sk«- 

<%»t 

628 nunne, a «i<» 

629 sunne,the sun 

630 wunnen, was won 

631 Junnresdseg, TAkj - *- 

oJ«y 

632 upp, up ft 

633 cuppa, cap 

634 >urh, arow^Aft 

635 wuriS weord, worth 

636 fin-Sor, further 

637 tusc, a fes* 



22* 



PRELIMINABT MATTER. 



tv: 



638 busca N, to busk make 

ready 

639 dust, dust 

W- 

640 cu, a cow 

641 hu, how\ 

642 >u, Mom 

643 nu, wow t J 

644 sucan, to suck 

645 dufa, a dove 

646 bugan, to bow, bend 

647 ule, an owl 

648 tire, oar 

649 Jiusand, thousand 

650 abutan, aooK**}; 

651 wMutan, w»(Ao«tf*t 

652 cutSe, could 

653 buton, *Mi=beut 

XT': 

654 scrud, a throud 
654* i. rub, ii. rug, iii. 

ruw, rough, see 424 

655 ful, /o«? dirty 

656 rum, room 

657 brun, brown 

658 dun, downfl 

659 tiin, a town any in- 

closure 

660 bur, a bower =room 

661 scur, a shower 



662 oV«s 

663 hus, AoMetJ 

664 16s, a louse 

665 mus, a mouse 

666 husbdnda, husbandf 

667 fit, ow*t 

668 prfit, ^irowrf 

669 uncuti, w»eo«<A 

670 bu« N, booth 

671 muS((MO»<A 

672 s<r6", south 



673 mycel, )M«cA f 

674 dyde, he <?tf t 

675 diygan, to dry t 

676 lyge, a lie falsehood 

677 dryge, dry adj.* 

678 dyne, a din 

679 cyrice, a, church 

680 bysig, oms;/-)- 

681 bysigu, business • f 

682 lytel, little f J 

Y: 

683 mycg, a midge . 

684 brycg, a bridge 

685 brycg, a ridye 

686 bycgan, to buy 

687 flyht, & flight 

688 byldan, to outfc? 

689 ynce, an inch 



690 gecynd,- a *»«<* 

691 mynd, the mind 

692 gyngest, youngest*^ 

693 synn, a sin 

694 wyrcan wyrcean, to 

work Tb. See 396 
weorc, sb. 
696 hyrcnian,toAe«r£«»t. 
See 313 hercnian, 
and 710 hy'rcnian 

696 gebyrd gebeord, birth 

697 bebyrgan, to bury 

698 myrgtS, mirth 

699 wyrhta, a wright 

700 wyrsa, worse 

701 fyrsta ./Srs* 

702 yrfS % wilh*i 

703 pytt, a pit 

704 fyxen, a »»*<!» 

T'- 

705 so/ N, the sky 

706 hwy', w>Ay t 

707 JreOty'ne, thirteen 

708 ahy'nan, to Aire 

T': 

709 fy'r, a fire 

710 hy'rcnian,toAe«r£e»t. 

See 313 hercnian, 
and 695 hyrcnian 

711 1/s, lice 

712 my's, mice 



ii. English, Nos. 713 to 808. 

This section contains words of which the precise prototype in Wessex or Norse 
is unknown ; words of disputed origin ; words derived from foreign sources, except 
Romance ; words formed within the language itself, of which the origin can only 
be conjecturally, or cannot even be probably, assigned ; slang or familiar words, 
etc. For want of a better plan, these have been arranged according to the vowel 
(or if several, the first vowel) they contain in the accented syllable, following the 
received orthography. Then the rest of the arrangement is alphabetical as in 
Section I. The differences of long and short, open or closed, are of course 
unnoted, as the original form is unknown. The headings of classes are in Roman 
capitals as before, Dut are distinguished from the last by a following period (.), 
and the absence of the hyphen (-) and colon (:) marking open and close. 



A. 

713 bad 

714 lad 

715 pad 

716 addle, i, adj. and ii. 

vb. 

717 &jade 

718 trade 

719 a tadpole 



720 a fag 

721 to fag 

722 a drain 

723 a dairy 

724 bald 

725 a sale 

726 to talk * f 

727 jam preserve 

728 sham 

729 a frame 



730 a canter 

731 wanton 

732 happen * t 

733 to scare 

734 to darn 

735 smash 

736 a lass • f 

737 a mate J 

738 to prate f 

739 mouther girl 



v.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



23* 



740 a wave 

741 a mace 

742 lazy 

E. 

743 to scream 

744 the measles 

745 to cfearf 

746 to breathe 

747 to endeavour 

748 i. fledged ii. unfledged 

749 /«/»•{ 

750 to % 

751 ^>«r< 

752 />•*«, peevish fit* f 

I. and Y. 

753 to tickle 

754 a pi^ animal 

755 & filbert nut 

756 a shrimp 

757 «»y 

758 ajirfft 

759 fit, suited 

760 shrivelled**; 



0. 

761 a foirf 

762 oakum 

763 roam 

764 to coddle 

765 Ji)A»*t 

766 moidered bewildered 

767 a wotsef 

768 coke 

769 a wofe animal*, same 

as 45, not 114 

770 Thomaa*% 

771 fond 

772 a bonfire 

773 a donkey 

774 a £>»«y 

775 a So<% 

776 goodbye* 

777 *Aop 

778 n/or<* 

779 or<« remnants 

780 to jostle 

781 a botherf 

782 & pother 

783 poultry 

784 to bounce 

785 to lounge 



786 to rfoww 

787 to »0tM« 

788 to /out 

789 a row noise 

790 a gown 

791 »%* 

TJ. 

792 a squabble 

793 a A«y 

794 &jug 

795 a »Arw^ 

796 blue* 

797 squeaking* + 

798 queer* f 

799 «c»# of head 

800 «c«W of boat 

801 »■«»» liquor 

802 »•«(» queer 

803 to jump 

804 drunken adj. accus- 

tomed to getdrunk*, 
see 613. 

805 curds 

806 fuss 

807 />km 

808 topui 



in. Romance, Nos. 809 to 971. 

This section comprises words taken from the French, Latin or any language 
derived from the Latin. Properly speaking the arrangement should have been 
by the Anglo-Norman forms of words, that is, those used in England by speakers 
of Norman-French. Failing this, the old French forms should have been 
adopted. But in both cases insuperable difficulties presented themselves. The 
late Mr. H. Nicol endeavoured to arrange the words by their English sounds in 
the xvith century, but this would have had to be conjectured in many words. 
Hence I have adopted the modern French forms in almost all cases ; for the few 
old French forms which I could not avoid, I am indebted to Prof. Skeat's 
Etymological Dictionary, and disclaim the responsibility for them. Latin, and 
in one case, Spanish, forms have also been given. , The arrangement is by the 
vowels as in the former sections, the Romance word coming first, is followed by 
(■•) if modern, and (...) if old French, ( — ) if Latin, and (-) Span, if 
Spanish. The class headings are in capitals followed by ( •• ). No distinction of 
long and short, open and closed, could be made with any certainty, and hence no 
such distinction has been attempted. 



A- 

809 habile •• able 

810 face- &faee 

811 Tp]a.ce"& place 

812 lacet--a lace 

813 bacon -bacon 

814 macon •■ a mason 

815 facta— facts f 

816 fade adj •• to fade 

817 radis •• radish 



818 &ge»age 

819 rage •• rage 

820 g&i- gay* 

821 Aelai- delay 

822 mai" May 

823 baie •• bay of the sea 

824 chaiere... a professor's 

and hence any chair 

825 gaif ..waif 

826 aigle--an eagle 

827 aigre-.fa^er 



828 aigu ■ ■ ague 

829 gain • • gain 

830 train" train 

831 destraindre.-to dis- 

train 

832 insure •• a mayor 

833 paire --a pair 

834 chaise •• a chaise 

835 raison •• reason f 

836 saison ■■ season 

837 laisse --a leash 



24» 



-PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



F- 



838 traiter-'to treat 

839 balle-i. a bale ii. a 

840 chambre-.a chamber 

841 chance •• a chance % 

842 planche •• a pfo»/c 

843 tranche •• a branch 
814 tranchee-.a trench 

845 ancient a»ci>»* 

846 chandelier •• chandler 

847 danger •• danger 

848 changer •• to change 

849 etranger •• a stranger 

850 danse-.a <fo««! 

851 tante-.an aunt 

852 nappei'OQ-- an npr«» 

853 bargaigner.-to bar- 

gain 

854 baril -a. barrel 

855 carotte •• a carrot 

856 part •• a part 

857 cas --a casef 

858 bras - brace 

859 chasser •• tocteehimt 

860 pSte-. paste 

861 tater-to taste 

862 sauf-sa/et 

863 chauffer- to chafe 

864 a cause •• because f 

865 faute -fault 

866 pauvre- poor J 

E- 

867 thS-teo 

868 geai.-a/ay 

869 veau --veal. 

870 beaute ■• beauty 

871 agreer •• oyree 

872 chef -chief 

873 effrei ... v. fray 

874 reine ... a rein of a 

horse 

875 feinte-.a/omi 

876 deintie ... a dainty 

877 heir . heir 

878 celeri-- celery 

879 femelle •• > /e«Mfl& 

880 exemple ... example 

881 sens -sense 

882 pensee-'joaBsy 

883 dent de k<m- dande- 

lion 



884 apprenti •• ffjopraitfee 

885 verai .. very • t J 

886 ireie -friar 

887 clerge ■ • clergy 

888 certain ■ ■ certain f 

889 cesser "to cease 

890 b&te- beast f 

891 fgte -feast 

892 neveu - nephew 

893 fleur. v /foHwingarden 

894 decevoir •• rfemVe 

895 recevoir -receive 

896 bevre . bever la- 

bourer's drinking 
time 

I •• and T •• 

897 delice -delight 

898 nice ... nice 

899 niece -niece 

900 prier--/way 

901 hx-Jine 

902 mine--a »«*'»« 

903 diner •• i. to dine, ii. a 

dinner 

904 yiolette •• a #*ofef 

905 riote ... a riot 

906 vipere- a, viper 

907 tns Spanish tf/iee 

908 axis- advice 

909 brise •• irase 

910 gite -joist 

911 citerne • • cistern 

912 riz •• rice 

O.. 



926 spolier ... to spoil 

927 tronc.-a <n«»A 

928 once •• anownceweight 

929 concombre-.ewramAer 

930 longe-.a loin 

931 jongleur •• a juggler 

932 a mont •■ amount 

933 front ••/»<>»< 

934 bonte..*o««<y 

935 contree-.«)«n<) - iy 

936 fonts •• baptismal/on I 

937 coq •• a cock 

938 comiere-- corner f 

939 clos-cfose i. adj. ii. 

adv. f iii. sb. 

940 cotte-eoaif 

941 fou- -fool 

942 boucher •• butcher 

943 toucher --to towA 

944 allouer •• to allow 

945 vouer-.to vow 

946 mouiller •• to moil 

947 bouillii-" to boil 

948 boule--a fo>M>J ball 

949 moule •• a mould or 

form, not 537 

950 souper •• supper f 

951 couple •• couple 

952 course -i. coarse, ii. 

course 

953 cousin.. cousin 

954 coussin "CMsAion 

955 doute •• doubt f 

956 couvrir •• to cover 

957 employer •• to employ 

958 froyer--to/»oy 

959 conyoyer.-to i. con- 

vey, ii. convoy 



913 coche...a <wcA 

914 broche •• a brooch 

915 etofte-stuf 960 

916 ognon -onion 961 

917 rogue -rogue 962 

918 foible -feeble, adj. 963 

919 oignement...oe«<»ie«< 964 

920 point - point f 965 

921 accointer •• to acquaint 966 

922 boisseau •• bushel 967 

923 etroit ••«<»•«**, see 265 968 
923* moite •• jwot'si 969 

924 choix •• choice 970 

925 yarn- voice f 971 



quai- quay 
gruan - gruel 
nam -mews 



quietus — quiet f 
suif •• suet 
huile-'OiV 
fruit -fruit 
suite -suit 
huitre •• oyster f J 
stir -sure 
juste ••/«»( • f 
flute -flute 



Y.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



25* 



Notes on Constructions and Intonation, appended to the 

ORIGINAL wl. 

[The informant was requested to underline the grammatical form which is 
common in his district ; disregarding pronunciation.] 

I am. thou am. he am. we am. you am. they am. — I are. thou art. 
he are. we are. you are. they are. we ar'n. you ar'n. they ar'n. [The three 
last were intended for the West Midland verbal plural in en, but were generally 
confused by informants with arn't.]— I be. thou bisfc. he be. we be. you be. 
they be. we bin. you bin. they bin. [The three last referred to the Sh. 

?lural bin for are, but were generally confused with been used for have been.] — 
is. thou is. he is. we is. you is. they is. — I was. thou was. he was. 
we was. you was. they was. — I were, thou wert. he were, we were, you 
were, they were, we wer'n. you wer'n. they wer'n.— we ha'n. you ha'n. 
they ha'n. [The six last referred to the West Midland verbal plural in -en, but 
were generally misunderstood.] — him is. him be. — they goes, we goes. — he 
does, he doth, he do. he walketh. he live there. — thou (underline if used 
generally, and distinguish by underlining whether it is used to children, husband 
and wife, servants, friends, lovers). — T do walk. 1 have a-walked. I be or 
am a-going. — she was •washing on a washing day (underline the two -ings if 
distinguished) — thease thick (=this, that, of shaped things), this that (of shape- 
less things).— dat man dere (=that man there). — t' man. th' man. 'e man. — 
theirselves. theirsells. theirsens. — I doh {for I don't). I will (for I shall), 
he shall (for he will). I would (for I should), he should (for he would). — to 
can, to could (as he won't can do it, he didn't used to could), he didn't ought. — 
at eat [meaning the Danishism in parts of D 31, for to eat], to home. 

Try to characterise the nature of the singsong of the speech, underlining as 
may be, rough, smooth, thick, thin, indistinct, clear, hesitating, glib, whining, 
drawling, jerking, up and down in pitch, rising in pitch at end, sinking at end, 
monotonous. 

Give any singular pronunciations of words not mentioned; and any information 
respecting your dialect that you will have the kindness to impart. 



Index to the English "Words in the cwl. referring each 
to its Number. 

bargain 853 
barley 171 
barrel 854 
bath 180 
bathe 32 
bay 823 
be 427 
bean 361 
beast 890 
beat, pt. 434 
beauty 870 
because 864 
bee 409 
beer 431 

beetle, mallet 304 
beetle, insect 499 
beg 750 
behave 9 



A 


allow 944 


at 176 




am 391 


aunt 851 


able 809 


among 61 


away 263 


about 650 


amount 932 


awe 15 


above 599 


ancient 845 


awl 35 


acquaint 921 

addle 716 


and 42 


aye 372 


any 191 




advice 908 


apprentice 884 


B 


afford 778 


apron 852 




after 158 


are 29 


back 154 


again 144 


arise 497 


bacon 813 


age 818 


arm 342 


bad 713 


ago 120 


as 38 


bairn 344 


agree 871 


ash 174 


bait 376 


ague 828 


ashes 55 


bake 3 


ail 264 


ask 102 


bald 724 


alight 461 


asked 103 


bale 839, i. 


all 335 


ass 57 


ball 839, ii. 



26* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



IT- 



believe 296 
bellows 270, i. 
belly 270, ii. 
bench 274 
beneath 385 
besom 287 
bever 896 
beyond 393 
bind 476 
birth 696 
blain 237 
blaze 149 
bleat 199 
blind 473 
blood 572 
bloom 561 
blow, as wind 90 
blue 796 
board 547 
boat 130 
body 618 
boil 947 
bold -327 
bolt 642 
bone 118 
bonfire 772 
booby 775 
book 569 
boot 594 
booth 670 
both 89 
bother 781 
bongh 577 
bought 527 
bounce 784 
bounty 934 
bow, weapon 520 
bow, bend 646 
bower 660 
bowl, cup 53rt 
bowl, ball 948 
boy 791 
brace 858 
brain 147 
branch 843 
bread 353 
breadth 186 
break 232 
breast 433 
breath 229 
breathe 746 
bred 295 
breeze 909 
brew 418 
bridge 684 
bright 399 
broad 106 
brooch 914 
brood 574 
broom, plant 585 
brother 568 



brought 529 
brown 657 
build 688 
bullock 611 
bury 697 
bushel 922 
business 681 
busk 638 
busy 680 
butcher 942 
but 663 
butter 607 
buy 686 
by 490 

O 

cake 18 
calf 333 
call 338 
came 39 
can, sb. 63 
candle 46 
canter 730 
care, sb. 30 
care, vb. 320 
carrot 855 
case 857 
cease 889 
celery 878 
certain 888 
chafe 863 
chair 824 
chaise 834 
chamber 840 
chance 841 
chandler 846 
change 848 
chap 364 
chase 859 
cheap 363 
cheat 745 
cheese 197 
chew 4 1 7 
chief 872 
child 466 
children 468 
choice 924 
church 679 
cistern 9 1 1 
clay 210 
clean 193 
clergy 887 
close 939 
cloth 135 
clothe 88 
clothes 87 
coach 913 
coal 532 
coarse 952, i. 
coat 940 
cock 937 



coddle 764 
coke 768 
cold 328 
comb 40 
come 603 
convey 959, i. 
convoy 969, ii. 
cool 682 
corn 552 
corner 938 
cough 526 
could 652 
country 936 
couple 951 
course, 952, ii. 
cousin- 953 
cover 956 
cow 640 
cress 286 
cross, sb. 554 
crow 94 
cucumber 929 
cup 633 
curds 805 
cushion 954 



dainty 876 
dairy 723 
dale 167 
dance 850 
dandelion 883 
danger 847 
dare 345 
darn 734 
daughter 531 
dawn 16 
day 161 
dead 350 
deaf 355 
deal 216 
dear 416 
death 368 
deceive 894 
deed 204 
delay 821 
delight 897 
devil 413 
did 674 
die, vb. 438 
din 678 
dine 903, i. 
dinner 903, ii. 
distrain 831 
do 586 
done 587 
donkey 773 
door 606 
doubt 955 
dough 108 



douse 786 
dove 645 
down 658 
drain 722 
draw 14 
dray 139 
drive 493 
drunk 613 
drunken 804 
dry, adj. 677 
dry, vb. 675 
dull, 633 
dust 639 

B 

each 217 
eager 827 
eagle 826 
earnest 400 
earth 406 
edge 257 
egg 160 
eight 324 
either 136, i. 213 
eldest, 268 
eleven 280 
elm 272 
employ 957 
endeavour 747 
enough 579 
ever 208 
ewe 386 
example 880 
eye 348 



face 810 

facts 815 

fade 816 

fagsb. 720, vb. 721 

faint 875 

fair, adj. 148 

fall 336 

far 403 

farthing 407 

fast 175 

fat 230 

father 138 

fault 865 

fear, sb. 221 

feast 891 

feeble 918 

feed 294 

feel 298 

feet 316 

fellow 297 

female 879 

fever 236 

few 349 



*] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



27" 



fiend 429 
fight 426 
filbert 755 
find 477 
fine 901 
finger 481 
fire 709 
first 701 
fit 759 
live 502 
flay 317 
fledged 748, i. 
flesh 225 
flight 687 
flood 573 
floor 590 
flout 788 
flower 893 
flute 971 
fly, sb. 414 
foal 521 
fold 329 
folk 535 
fond 771 
font 936 
fool 941 
foot 595 
for 546 
ford 548 
forty 421 
fought 323 
foul 655 
found, pt. 623 
found, pp. 619 
four 420 
fourth 432 
fowl 601 
frame 729 
fray, vb. 958 
fray, sb. 873 
fret 752 
friar 886 
Friday 443 
friend 430 
from 58 
front 933 
fruit 966 
full 609 
further 636 
fuss 806 

G 

gain 829 
gape 319 
gate 346 
gay 820 
get 449 
ghost 129 
girl 758 
glad 156 



gnat 178 
gnaw 13 
go, prt. 67 
go, inf. 119 
goat 131 
gold 536 
gone 121 
good 571 
goodbye 776 
gown 790 
grass 172 
great 366 
green 299 
grey 211 
grind 478 
ground, pt. 624 
ground, pp. 620 
ground, sb. 616 
gruel 961 

H 

hail, sb. 140 
hail, vb. 379 
hair 222 
hale 112 
half 334 
hand 43 
hang 49 
happen 732 
harrow 286 
harvest 170 
has 159 
have, imper. 8 
haw, sb. 10 
he 290 
head 347 
heal 191 
hear 301 
heard 314 
hearken 313, 695, 

710 
hearth 405 
heat 202 
heathen 201 
heaven 384 
hedge 238 
heel 310 
height 306 
heir 877 
her 447 
here 312 
hie, vb. 445 
high 305 
him 470 
hire 708 
his 483 
hoard 549 
hoarse 127 
hold, vb. 330 
hole 534 



holiday 80 
holly 540 
home 115 
hoo = she 410 
hop, vb. 545 
hope 523 
horn 553 
hot 132 
hound 614 
house 663 
how 641 
hug, 793 
hunger 626 
husband 666 



1452 
ice 614 
if 4-56 
inch 689 
iron 496 
is 482 
it 489 
ivy 442 



jade 717 
jam 727 
jay 868 
John 765 
joist 910 
jostle 780 
jug 794 
juggler 931 
jump 803 
just 970 



keep 300 
kettle 252 
key 190 
kind, 690 
knave 27 
knead 234 
knew, pt. 408 
knife 5l>4 
know 92 
known, pp. 98 



lace 812 
lad 714 
lain, pp. 240 
lamb 59 
lame 20 
land 44 
lane 81 



lass 736 
last 34 
late 31 
laugh 322 
laughed 318 
law 17 
lay, inf. 260 
lay, pt. 163 
lazy 742 
lead, metal 351 
lead, vb. 184 
leaf 356 
learn 402 
leash 83? 
least 150 
leather 254 
leave, vb. 187 
left 749 
length 281 
let, permit 198,288 
let, hinder 161 
lice 711 
lie, sb. 676 
lie, vb. fib 415 
lie, vb. be recum- 
bent 455 
life 503 
light 425 
like 500 
little 682 
load 761 
loaf 107 
loin 930 
long 60 
look 558 
lord 77 
lounge 785 
louse 664 
love, sb. 600 
low 109 

M 

made, pp. 6 
maid, sb. 166 
main 146 
make, vb. 5 
make, sb. 2 
man 51 
mane 25 
many 195 
mare 248 
marrow 341 
mason 814 
mate 737 

mauther=girl 739 
maw 11 
may, vb. 164 
may, sb. 822 
mayor 832 
maze 741 



28* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



tv. 



me 292 
meal 245 
mean, Tb. 192 
measles 744 
meat 251 
meet, vb. 302 
men 273 
merry 283 
mews 962 
mice 712 
midge 683 
might 457 
mile 508 
milk 388 
mind 691 
mine, pro. 510 
mine, sb. 902 
mirth 698 
moan, vb. 83 
moe = more, in 

number, 68 
moidered 766 
moil 946 
moist 923* 
mole, animal 769 ' 
mole, mark 114 
Monday 563 
moon 562 
moor 591 

more,in quantity 84 
most 226 
mother 559 
mould, form 949 
mould, earth 537 
mouse 665 
mouth 671 
mow 91 
much 673 
must, vb. 593 
my, pro. 510 

N 

nail 141 
name 21 
nay 374 
near 365 
need, sb. 308 
needle 207 
neigh 188 
neighbour 359 
neither 137, i. 214 
nephew 892 
nettle, sb. 253 
never 209 
new 387 
next 316 
nice 898 
niece 899 
n'gh 307, 358 
night 458 



nine 446 
no, adv. 69 
no, adj. 122, ii. 
noise 767 
none 122, i. 
noon 588 
nor 137, ii. 
nose 565 
not 110, ii. 
nothing 123 
nought 110, i. 
now 643 
nun 628 

O 

oak 101 

oakum 762 

oar 126 

oath 134 

oats 86 

of 525, i. 

off 525, ii. 

oil 965 

ointment 919 

old 326 

on 543 

once 82 

one 117 

onion 916 

only 125 

open 522 

or 136, ii, 

orts 779 

other 566 

ought, pt. Ill 

ounce, weight 928 

our 648 

out 667 

over 519 

owe 78 

owl 647 

own, adj 79 

oyster 968 



pad 715 
pair 833 
pansy 882 
part 856 
paste 860 
path 181 
pert 751 
pig, animal 754 
pit 703 
place 811 
plank 842 
play, vb. 243 
plough 578 
point 920 



pony 774 
poor 866 
pother 782 
poultry 783 
pound, sb. 615 
prate 738 
pray 900 
proud 668 
puss 807 
put, vb. 808 



quay 960 
quean 246, ii. 
queen 246, i. 
queer 798 
quick 453 
quiet 963 

E 

radish 817 
rage 819 
rain 241 
raise, v. 375 
rather 33 
raven 157 
raw 370 
read, inf. 185 
read, pt. 206 
reason 835 
receive 895 
red 352 

rein, for horses 874 
rice 912 
ridge 685 
right 459 
rind 474 
riot 905 
road 104 
roam, vb. 763 
rode, pt. 105 
rogue 917 
room 656 
root 696 

rough 424, 654* 
row, noise 789 
rum, adj. 802 
rum, sb. 801 

S 

safe 862 
said, pt. 1 65 
sail, sb. 239 
sake 7 
sale 725 
same 23 
sang, pt. 48 
Saturday 153 
saw, sb. 12 



saw, pt. 321 
say, vb. 261 
scare 733 
school 560 
scream 743 
scull, of head 799 
scull, of boat 800 
sea 182 
season 836 
sedge 258 
see, vb. 428 
self 269 
sense 881 
seven 383 
sew 451 
sham 728 
shame 24 
she 412 ■ 
sheaf 354 
sheep 218 
shepherd 220 
shoe 555 
shop 777 
should 390 
shower 661 
shrimp 756 
shrink 472 
shrivelled 760 
shroud 654 
shrug 795 
sick 422 
side 492 
sieve 441 
sigh 491 
sight, 462 
sin 693 
sky 705 
slain, pp. 145 
slay, inf. 362 
sleep, sb. 219 
slow 369 
smash 735 
snail 142 
snow, vb. 93 
so = like as 73 
so = thus 1 
sold, pt. 331 
some 612 
son 605 

song 65 ; 

soon 564 
soot 597 
sooth 598 
sore, adv. 85 
sought, pt. 581 
soul, 97 
sound, adj. 617 
souse, vb. 787 
south 672 
sow, as seed 96 
sow, sb. 602 



v.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



29* 



sown 100 


thatch 155 


tusk 637 


speak 233 


thaw 36 


twain 242 


speech 203 


the 231 


two 74 


speed 309 


thee 291 




spire 612 


their 382 


XT 


spoil 926 


them 380 


ugly 608 
under 622 


spoon 589 


then 544, ii. 


squabble 792 


there 223 


uncouth 669 


squeaking 797 


these 448 


unfledged 748, ii. 


star 404 


they 373 


up 632 


starve 398 


thigh 423 


us 662 


steak 377 


thing 480 




stench 275 


think 276 


V 


stile 444 


thirteen 707 


veal 869 


stone 124 


this 484 


very 885 
violet 904 


stood 575 


thistle 485 


stool 584 


Thomas 770 


viper 906 


storm 551 


thong 66 


vixen 704 


straight 265 


those 128 


voice 925 


strait 923 


thou 642 


vow 945 


stranger 849 


though 357 


"W 


straw 371. 


thought 528 


strength 282 
stretch 256 


thousand 649 


waif 825 


thread 205 


walk 325 


stroke 75 


threat 367 


wall 337 


strong 62 


three 411 


wan 52 


stuff 915 


thresh 284 


wander 47 


such 465 


throng 63 


wane 26 


suck 644 


through 634 


want,sb. =mole 45 


■suet 964 


throw, vb. 95 


want, vb. 54 


suit 967 


thrown, pp. 99 


wanton 731 


summer 604 


Thursday 631 


warm 343 


sun 629 


tickle 753 


was 173 


Sunday 627 


till 463 


wash 66 


supper 950 


timber 471 


water 152 


sure 969 


time 494 


wave 740 


swain 381 


tiny 757 


way 262 


swear 250 


to 556 


we 293 


sweat 228 


toad 76 


weak 378 


sweet 303 


to-day 162 


wean 247 


sword 397 


toe 70 


wear 249 


swore 592 


told 332 


weave 236 




tongs 60 


wedge 259 
"Wednesday 576 


T 


tongue 625 


tadpole 719 


too 557 


week 440 


tail 143 


took 570 


weigh 189 


take 4 


tool 583 


weight 460 
well, argumenta- 


tale 19 


t'other 567 


talk 726 


touch 943 


tive, 244 


tallow 168 


tough 580 


well, in good state, 


tame 22 


town 659 


266 


taste 861 


trade 718 


wench 278 


taught 215 


train 830 


went 279 


tea 867 


treat 838 


were 196 


teach 183 


trench, sb. 844 


wet 227 


team 360 


trice 907 


wether 265 


tell 271 


true 436 


what 179 


ten 311 


trunk 927 


wheat 200 


than 544, i. 


trust 439 


when 169 


thank 41 


truth 437 


where 224 


that 177 


Tuesday 450 


whey 212 



which 464 
while 509 
whine 495 
who, in questions, 

72 
whole 113 
whom,inquestions, 

116 
why 706 
wide 501 
wife 505 
wild 467 
will, vb. 469 
wind, sb. 475 
wind, vb. 479 
wine 511 
wire 513 
wisdom 516 
wise 515 
witch 454 
with 702 
without 651 
woe 71 
woman 606 
women 507 
won, pp. 630 
won't 541 
wool 610 
word 550 
work, sb. 396 
work, vb. 694 
world 524 
worse 700 
worth 635 
would 538 
wound, sb. 618 
wound, pp. 621 
wright 699 
write, vb. 498 
wrong 64 
wrote, pt. 133 
wrought, pt. 630. 

T 

yard, inclosure, 

340, i. 
yard, stick, 340, ii. 
ye 289 
yearn 401 
yeast 486 
yesterday 487 
yet 488 
yew 517 
yield 267 
yolk 389 
yon 392 
yonder 394 
you 435 
young 395 
youngest 692 
your 419 



30* PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



IT- 



Consonantai. Inmx to the "Wessex and Nobse Division of the 
classified- "woed llst. 

The preceding index will generally, but not always, suffice to refer to the 
numbers which in any future cwl. point out a dialectal alteration, if any, of the 
initial consonant or consonantal combinations, but not so for medial or final 
combinations. Hence the following index has been constructed to shew a few 
of the initial, and most of the medial and final combinations winch may be re- 
quired for study. Only the most interesting cases are cited. 

Only Ws. and Norse consonants are given, and the words are cited only in the 
original spelling. 

The Capital Initials mark the consonants selected, and hyphens are used thus 
C- initial, -C- medial, -C final, in this order. 

C- 190 Cffl'ge. 197 cas'se. 285 cerse. 300 cepan. 466 cild. 468 cildru. 
679 cyrice. 690 gecynd. -C- 2 gemaca. 3 bacan. 4 tacan. 5 macian. 
6 gemacod. 7 sacu. 183 tse'can. 232 brecan. 233 sprecan. 440 wicn wice 
wuce. 491 sican. 558 16cian. 673 mycel. 679 cyrice. -C 101 ac. 154 
baec. 155 baec. 452 ic. 453 cwic. 500 gelic. 669 boc. 670 toe. -CC- 
256 streccan. 454 wicce. CE- [meaning C before, and hence affected by 
a following E] 320 cearian. 328 ceald. 333 cealf . 363 ceap. 364 ceapman. 
-CO- 260 lecgan. 261 secgan. 455 licgan. 686.bycgan. -CG 257 ecg. 
258 secg. 259 wecg. 683 myeg. 684 bryeg. 685 hryeg. CN- 27 cnapa. 
92 cnawan. 234 cnedan. 408 cneow. 504 cnif. -OS- 102 acsian. 103 
acsode. C"W- 39 cwam. 246 cwene cwen. 

-D- 76 tade. 138 feeder. 385 beneoSan. 518 bodig. 559 m6dor. -D- 
32 baSian. 33 hraSor. 87 claSas. 88 chvSian. 90 blawan. 136 awSer. 
137 naWSer. 201 hae'Sen. 254 leSer. 255 welSer. 568 br6$or. 652 cuSe. 
669 uncu'S. 670 buS n. 671 muS. 672 su«. -D 134 a«. 135 claS. 
180 bseS. 181 paeS. 229 brae'S. 368 dea$. 698 soS. 702 wyS. -DN- 
576 wodnesdaeg. DIl- 613 druncen. D"W- 533 dol dwol dwal. 

F- 297 felagi n. 298 felan. -F- 8 hafa. 9 behafa. 187 l»'fan. 235 
wefan,. 236 fefer. 296 gelefan. 347 heafod. 383 seofan. 384 heofon. 
413 de6fol. 441 sife. 442 ifig. 493 drifan. 519 ofer. 599 abufan. 600 
lufu. 645 dufa. -F 456 grf. 502 fif. 503 lif. 504 cnif. 505 wif, 
506 wifman. 507 wifmen. 525 of. -FR- 208 ie'fre. 209 nse'fre. 

G- 267 geldan. 289 ge\ 486 gist. 487 gistrandieg. 488 git. -G- 10 
haga. 11 maga. 12 saga aagu. 12 gnagan. 14 dragan. 15 agi n. 16 
dagian. 17 lagu. 78 agan. 79 agen. 139 drsege. 140 ha?gel. 141 nsegel. 
142 snsegel. 143 tsegel. 144 ongsegen. 145 slsegen. 146 msegen. 147 
bra3gen. 148 fseger. 188 hnse'gan. 189 wee'gan. 190 cae'ge. 237 Megan. 
238 nege. 239 segel. 240'gelegen. 241 regen. 242 twegen. 243 plegian. 
317 fteagan. 348 e&ge. 414 fle6ga. 415 le6gan. 443 frigada3g. 444 stigel. 
445 higian. 446 nigon. 620 boga. 640 hollegen. 601 fugol. 602 sugu. 
646 bugan. 675 drygan. 676 lyge. 677 dryge. -G 80 halig daeg. 108 
dag. 109 lag. 160 seg. 161 daeg. 163 laeg. 164 maeg. 165 saegde. 
166 maegden. 194 ae'nig. 195 mse'nig. 210 clae'g. 211 gra?'g. 212 hwae'g. 
213 ae'gSer. 214 nae'gSer. 262 weg. 263 on weg. 264 eglan. 577 bog. 
578 p!6g n. 579 genog. GE- [meaning G before and hence affected by a 
following E] 319 geapian. 340 geard geord. 346 geat. 389 geolca. 392 
geond. 393 begeondan. 394 geonder. 395 geong. GN- 13 gnagan. 178 
gnaet. GR- 366 great. 

H- 489 hit. -H- 318 hleahen. -H 305 heh heah. 306 heh«e. 307 
neh neah. 321 geseah. 357 >eah. 358 neah. 423 )ie6h. 424 hreoh. 580 
t6h. -HH- 322 hleahhan. 626 cohhettan. -HD 462 gesibS. HE- 77 
hlaford. 107 hlaf. 318 hleahen. 322 hleahhan. HN- 188 hnae'gan. HR- 
157 hraefn. 370 hreaw. 424 hre6h. 685 hryeg. -HT- 111 ahte. 215 
tae'hte. 324 eahta. 426 fe6htan. 461 gelihtan. 527 bohte. 528 bohte. 
529 brohte. 530 wrohte. 531 dohtor. 581 s6hte. -HT 110 naht nat. 265 
streht. 323 feaht. 425 le6ht. 457 mint. 458 niht. 459 riht. 460 wiht. 



V.] PRELIMINARY MATTER. 31* 

687 flyht. HW- 72 hwa. 116 hwam. 169 hwaenne. 179 hwaet. 200 
hwae'te. 224 hwae'r hwar. 464 hwilc. 495 hwinan. 509 hwil. 706 hwy\ 

-K- 18 kaka n. -K 378 veikr n. 

-L- 19 talu. -LC- 325 wealcan. 389 geolca. -LC 217 se'lc. 388 meolc. 
464 hwilc. 465 swilc. 535 folc. -LD- 329 fealdan. 330 healdan. 331 
sealde. 332 tealde. 467 wilde. 537 molde. 538 wolde. -LD 326 eald. 
327 beald. 328 ceald. 524 woruld. 536 gold. -LDR- 468 cildru. -LP 
269 sett. 333 cealf. 334 heatf. -LG 168 taelg. 270 belg. -LM 272 elm. 
-LN- 541 wol nat. -LT 542 bolt. 

-M- 20 lama. 21 nama. 22 tama. 23 same. 24 scamu. -MB- 471 
timber. -MB 59 lamb lomb. 

-N- 25 manar, 26 wanian. -NO- 41 bancian. 276 bencan. 277 drencan. 
278 wencle. 472 scrincan. -NC 274 bene. 275 stenc. -ND- 46 candel. 
476 bindan. 477 findan. 478 grindan. 479 windan. 619 funden. 620 
grunden. 621 wunden. 622 under. 623 fundon. 624 grundon. -ND 42 
and. 43 hand. 44 land. 45 wand. 429 fe6nd. 430 fre6nd. 473 blind. 
474 rind. 475 wind. 614 hund. 615 pond. 616 grand. 617 gesund. 
618 wund. 690 gecynd. 691 mynd. -NDL- 280 endlufon. -NDR- 47 
wandrian. -NG- 49 hangan. 50 tange. 481 finger. 626 tunge. 626 
hungor. 692 gyngest. -NG 48 and 65 sang. 60 lang. 61 on gemang. 
62 Strang. 63 gejirang. 64 wrang. 66 ]>wang. -NG£) 281 leng%. 282 
strengtS. -NNR- 631 Jrannresdaeg. -NT- 54 wanta n. 

-R- 248 mere. 249 werian. 250 swerian. 301 geheran. 606 dura. -R 
312 h6r. 365 near. -RC 396 weorc were. -RCN- 313 hercnian. -RF- 
170 haerfest. 398 steorfan. -RD- 314 geherde. -RD 547 bord. 548 ford. 
549hord. 550 word. -RD- 406 eofSe. 432 fe6r$a. 636 furSor. -RD 405 
heorS. 407 feorSling. 635 wiitS weord. -RG 283 merg. 341 mearh. 697 
bebyrgan. -RGD 698 myrgft. -RD 696 gebyrd gebeord. -RH 634 burh. 
-RHT- 699 wyrhta. -RHT 399 beorht. -RM 342 earm. 343 wearm. 551 
storm. -RN- 400 eornest. 401 geornian. 402 leornian. -RN 344 beam. 
552 corn. 553 horn. -RS- 285 cerse. 700 wyrsa. -RS 172 gaers. -RSC- 
284 berscan. -RST- 701 fyrsta. -R"W- 286 herwe. 

S- 412 se6. 422 se6c. -S- 149 blaese. 150 Itesest. 375 reisa n. 497 
arisan. 565 n6su. 617 gesund. 649 fusand. 680 bysig. 681 bysigu. 
-S 127 has. 128 bas. 173 wass. 482 is. 483 his. 484 >is. 514 is. 
515 wis. 516 wisd6m. 662 us. 663 hus. 664 lus. 665 mus. 711 l/s. 
712 nay's. -SB- 666 husbonda. SC- 24 scamu. 218 scaj'p. 220 scae'phirde. 
354 sceaf. 390 sceolde. 555 sco. 560 sc61a. 661 scur. 705 scy"N. -SC- 
55 ascan. 638 busca n. -SC 174 sesc. 225 flas'sc. 637 tusc. SCR- 472 
scrincan. 654 scrud. -SM 287 besm. SP- 309 sped. 512 spir. SPR- 
203 sprse'e. 233 sprecan. ST- 377 steik n. -ST- 593 m6ste. -ST 34 
latost. 129 gast. 175 fasst. 226 mae'st. 433 breost. 639 dust. -STEL 
485 Jistel. STR- 75 stracian. 282 strengS. 371 streaw. SV- 381 syeinn. 
SW- 1 swa. 73 swa. 228 swa3't. 397 sweord. 465 swilc. 592 sw6r. 

-T- 31 late Uete. 34 latost. 151 laetan. 86 'ate. 198 lse'tan. 199 
blae'tan. 200 hwae'te. 202 hie'ta. 251 mete. 252 cetele. 253 netele. 
302 gem^tan. 303 sw6te. 304 betel. -TER- 152 waiter. 153 saeterdaag. 
607 butere. p- 36 fawian. 223 >ae'r. 231 be. 291 be. 357 beah. 373 
>ei n. 382 >eirra N. 423 beoh. 480 bing. 484 bis. 485 >istel. 544 
fonne. 631 \ unnresdaeg. 634 burh. 642 bu. 649 >usand. -p- 566 6ber. 
J)R- 205 >rs'd. 367 >reat. 411 J>reo. pW- 66 bwang. TW- 74 twa. 

V- 378 veikr N. 

-~W- 35 awel. 36 Jawian. 37 clawu. 90 blawan. 91 mawan. 92 
cnawan. 93 snawan. 94 crawan. 95 brawan. 96 sawan. 97 sawel. 98 
cnawen. 99 brawen. 100 sawen. 349 feawa. 386 eowe. 387 neowe niwe. 
-W- 417 ceowan. 418 bre6wan. 419 eower. 420 feower. 421 fe6wertig. 
450 tiwesdaeg. 451 siwian. -W 369 sleaw. 370 hreaw. 370 streaw streaw 
streow streu strea. 408 cneow. 435 e6w. 436 treow. 517 iw. WR- 
64 wrang. 133 wrat. 498 writan. WU- [that is, W affected by a following 
TT] 610 wull. 618 wund. 

-XT 316 next. 



32* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



VI. ALPHABETICAL COUNTY LIST. 

The counties of England, Isle of Man, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, are 
taken in this order. 

The counties in each country are taken in the alphabetical order of its full 
name (not of the two letter abbreviation, as on p. 4*), each headed by its number 
in the countries (supposing that all the counties were enumerated, which is not the 
case in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, because all do not speak English), together 
with its two letter abbreviation and full name, and a statement of the number of 
places from which information was obtained, and of the districts over which it is 
distributed. 

Within each county are ranged all the names of places from which information 
has been received, in alphabetical order, preceded by the number of the district 
in which it is contained, and by the initial letter, or letter and number, by which 
it is referred to in the following Alphabetical Informants List, VII. An asterisk * 
shews that the information received is given, or at least spoken of in the work 
itself. It will be seen that a very large number of places named are not further 
spoken of. It must not, however, be supposed that the information received was 
therefore valueless. Far from it. It was often incomplete, and often difficult to 
interpret, but it always helped to bridge over the spaces left between places from 
which more complete or more easily interpretable information was given, and 
without this I should have had the greatest difficulty in assigning the boundaries 
of my districts. 

After the name, its local pron. is occ. given, and if, as is most frequently the 
case, the place is not on the small maps of the dialect districts annexed, the 
distance and direction from a place actually on the map is added in ( ). When 
the place is on the maps, its name suffices, for a whole county on this small scale 
is easily looked over. The places, or their position (for they are often so in- 
significant as not to be marked on many maps), can thus readily be found on any 
county map. 

Afterwards follows a description of the nature of the information, employing 
the abbreviations explained on p. 6*. If several pieces of information have 
reached me from the same place, they are often numbered as (1), (2), etc., but 
these numbers are generally omitted if the informant is the same. 

At the end of each piece of information, when referred to in the book, is added 
the number of the page on which the information is given or spoken of, preceded 
by the letter p. in case another number comes just before, but not otherwise. 

When the information is given in the book, the indications of its origin are 
here abbreviated as much as possible, the page where it is cited furnishing the rest. 

In VII. I give a list of informants referring to the county in this list, or to the 
place by means of the numbered initials. Many of these obliging informants 
have passed away since they so kindly assisted me. Others have changed their 
address, and I have no means of discovering them. But to each and all I give 
my most hearty thanks for the trouble they have taken, often great, and the time 
they have spent, often very long, in helping me to render this account of English 
local pronunciation as complete as it now appears, a result perfectly impossible 
without a great cooperation. 

England. 
I. Bd.= Bedfordshire, 16 places, all itt D 16. 



16. A. Ampthitt (:annt«l) (7 ssw. Bed- 
ford) and 4 or 5 m. round, wl. io. by 
Mr. J. Brown, Dunstable Road, 21 y. 
who says " the ■ old-fashioned native 
dialect is comparatively rare." 

*16. b. Bedford and neighbourhood 
and the county generally, (1) T. 



Batchelor's book 204, (2) cs. and 
phrases from Mr. J. Wyatt, 206 to 
209, cwl. 209, (3) cwl. from Mr. 
Bowland Hill 209. 

*16. r>. PumtabU (5 w.Luton), wn. 
by TH-, 209. 

16. E. Sdworth (12 se.Bedford), dt. 



?!•] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



33* 



io. with notes and wd. from Mrs. 
Buttenshaw of the rectory. 

16. p. Flitwiek (:flit*k) (9 s-by-w. 
Bedford) wl. io. by Rev. T. W. D. 
Brooks, vie. 

16. a. Girtford (7 e.Bedford) wn. by 
TH. 

16. Hi. Harrold (8 nw.Bedford) dt. 
io. notes and lw. by Rev. J. Steel. 

16. h2. Satley Cockayne (:kokin 
:aetli) (12 e.Bedford) full wl. io. by the 
Rev. E. Brickwell, rect. 

16. M. Melchbourne (10 n.Bedford) 
dt. io. by Mrs. F. H. Bolingbroke, of 
the vicarage. 

*16. E. Sidgmont (10 ssw.Bedford), 



dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss 
Susan Wheck, of Whitelands, 206. 

16. si. Sandy (8 e.Bedford), wn. by 
TH. 

16. s2. <Sftamiroo*(7nnw.Bedford), 
wn. by TH. 

16. Tl. Thurleigh (.•ttmrk'r) (6 
n.Bedford), wl. and dt. io. by Rev. B. 
Trapp, vie. 

16. t2. Tilbrook (12 nne. Bedford), 
wn. by TH. 

16. t3. Toddington (;tAA - «nten) (6 
ene.Leighton Buzzard) wl. and dt. io. 
by Major Cooper Cooper, T. Manor. 

16. tr. Tipper Dean (11 n.Bedford) 
wn. by TH. 



2. Be. = Berkshire, 14 places in D 5 and 8. 



5. B. Bueklebury (6 ne.Newbury) 
dt. io. by Rev. W. M. Wallis, Rose- 
lands, for Be. between Thames and 
Kennet rivers. 

*5. c. Cholsey (12 e.Wantage) dt. 
io. with letter from Mr. W. Brewer, 
national schoolmaster, at "Wallingford 
adjoining, obtained through Mrs. 
Parker, Oxford, 96. 

*5. d. Denchteorth (:dentj«th) (3 
nnw.Wantage) wl. and lw. io. by Rev. 
C. H. Tomhnson, vie. 10 y., 96. 

5. e. Hast Sendred (4 e.Wantage) 
letter and wds. io. by Ven. Archd. 
Pott, Clifton Hampden, Ox. (3 ese. 
Abingdon, Be.). 

*5. Hi. Hatnpstead Norris (7 nne. 
Newbury) cs. io. by Mr. W. B. Banting, 
LLB. and AJE., 95. 

*8. h2. Hurley (9 nne. Reading) dt. 
io. by Mrs. Godfrey, 129. 



*8. h3. Hurst (5 e.Reading) dt. io. 
by Rev. A. A. Cameron, for the 
Loddon river valley, 129. 

5. k. Kintbury ' (rkimbri) (6 w.New- 
bury) from Rev. W . Campbell, vie. 

5. si. Stanford-in-the- Vale (5 nnw. 
Wantage) dt. io. from Mr. W. Cleverley, 
and dt. io. from Miss Collins, both 
through Mrs. Parker, of Oxford. 

*5. s2. Steventon (6 ne. Wantage) 
and neighbourhood dt. glossic by Mrs. 
Parker, of Oxford, from Mr. B. 
Leonard, 94. 

5. 83. Streatley (:striitli) (9 nw. 
Reading) wl. io. by Rev. John Slatter, 
vie. 15 y. 

*5. wl. Wantage lw. io. from Mr. 
E. C. Davey, F.G.S., 96. 

*8. w2. Wargrave (5 ne. Reading) 
lw. aq. w. by Mr. T. F. Maitland, 129. 

8. w3. Windsor wn. by TH. 



3. Bu.= Buckinghamshire, 19 places in D 15 and 17. 



*15. A. Aylesbury (:jee'jlzbur») (l)wl. 
io. but partly pal. by AJE. from diet, 
of Mr. J. Kersely Fowler, 192 ; (2) 
specimen pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. R. R. Fowler, 190; (3) wn. by 
AJE. from labourer, 1881, 192 ; wn. 
by TH. 192. 

15. b1. Bu., probably the part near 
b. of Bd., pal. w. by AJE. from Mr. 
J. Wyatt (see Bedford, Bd.). 
*lo. b2. Buckinghamwn.'bjT'H..,194. 
*15. cl. Chaekmore (1 wnw.Buck- 
ingham) dt. noted by TH., 191 ; wn. 
by TH. 194 (where it is misprinted 
Clackmore). 

17. c2. Chalvey (name omitted on 
p. 189) (1 n.Eton), letter to LLB. from 
Mr. A. Henry Atkins, 1875. 

E.E. Pron. Fart V. 



17. c3. Cheddington (7 ene.Ayles- 
bnry) notes by LLB. 

15. B. Edlesborough (:EdibBre) (10 
ene.Aylesbury) wl. io. by. Rev. 6. 
Birch, vie. 12 y. 

15. o. Great Kimble (5 s.Aylesbury) 
lw. io. picked up on the Chilterns by 
Rev. E. K. Clay, vie, communicated 
by Mr. J. K. Fowler (see Aylesbury). 

17. Hi. Hambleden (4 w.Great 
Marlow) lw. by Rev. W. H. Ridley, 
rec. 60 y. 

*15. h2. Hanslope (10 nne. Bucking- 
ham) wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Cox, of Whitelands, native, 194 
(see Wendover). 

17. l. Zangley (3 e.Eton), letter in 
1875 to LLB. from Rev. W. D . Scoones. 

3* 



34* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



m< 



16. Ml. Marsh Gibbon (7 ssw.Buck- 
ingham]), letter on the pron. of the 
school there by a man of 90, by Mr. 
G. Parker, Oxford. 

15. m2. Marsworth (6 e. Aylesbury) 
letter from Key. F. W. Bagg, vie. (see 
Wingham, Ke.). 

■ 17. p. Perm (3 e.High Wycombe), 
letter from Bev. J. Grainger, vie, 
235. 

15. si. 8towe (3 nnw.Buckingham) 
note by TH. 

• 15. s2. Swantowne (8 se. Bucking- 
ham) lw. by Bev. M. D. Maiden, vie. 
10 y. 



*15. T. Tyrringham with Mlgrave 
(13 ne.Buckingham) [misprinted Ty- 
rinham, p. 194] wl. io. and letters from 
Bev.- J..-T*rver, rect., 194. 

*15. wl. Wendover (5 sse. Aylesbury) 
(1) wl.'pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Beeby, of "Whitelands, native of 
Northampton, but since 8 years old 
living at Aylesbury and Buckingham, 
192 : (2) wn. in 1884 by TH. from 
labourers of 82 and 63 and others, 192. 

15. w2. Winslow (:wfasloo) (6 se. 
Buckingham) with (s), heard by TH., 
who was told by a fellow traveller that 
the dialect was "very broad." 



4. Cb.= Cambridgeshire, 15 places, all in D 18. 



*18. cl. Cambridge m. by TH. 

*18. c2. Cambridgeshire generally, 
(1) dt. pal. 1879 by AJE. from diet, 
of Mr. J. Perkins, M.A., Downing 
Coll., 249; (2) notes by Bev. Prof. 
W. W. Skeat. 

*18. c3. Chatteris (9 nw.Ely) wn. 
by TH. 253«f, and note from Bev. 
Sidney A. Smith, vie. 

18. e. My wn. by TH. 

18. H. Haddenham (6.sw.Ely) note 
by Bev. J. M. Freeman. 

*18. m. March (12 nw.Ely) dt. io. 
and aq. by Bev. J. Wastie Green, rect., 
251, and wn. by TH. 

18. p. Pampisford (:paanz«) (6 sse. 
Cambridge) reported by TH. from 
Prof. Skeat. 

*18. si. Sawston (5 sse.Cambridge) 
dt. pal. from diet, by TH., 260. 



18. s2. Shelford (4 S.Cambridge) 
wn.byTH. 

18. s3. Soham ■ (5 se. Ely), note 
from Bev. J. CyprianBust. 

18. wl. Whittlesford (6 s-by-e. 
Cambridge) wn. by TH. 

18. w2. Willingham (8 nnw.Canw 
bridge) wn. by TH. 

*18. w3. Wisbech (:wisbiti) dt. and 
wl. io. with letters, 252, by Mr. 
Herbert J. Little, Coldham Hall, 252 ; 
and wn. by TH. 253. 

*18. w4. Wood Ditton (3 sse.New- 
market) dt. and wl. with sentences pal. 
by AJE. in 1879 from diet, of Miss 
Walker, of the vicarage, 251. 

*18. w5. Wryde (9 ene.Peterbro' 
Np.), a farming district 2 e.Thorney 
village, and in Thorney parish, wn. by 
TH., 254. 



5. Ch.= Cheshire, 32 places in D 21, 25, 28. 



25. Al. Altrincham (8 wsw.Stock- 
port) (1) wl. and dt. io. by Mr. J: C. 
Clough, then Principal of the Agri- 
cultural College, Aspatria, Carlisle, 
native ; (2) notes from JGG. and TH. 

*25. aZ. Alvanly (:AA-v'nli) (7 ne. 
Chester) wn. by TH. 421. 

*25. A3. Ashton (7 ene.Chester) wn. 
byTH., 421. 

25. a4. Audlem (:AAkm) (6 s.Nan1> 
wich) wn. by TH. 

*25. Bl. Beeston (9 se.Chester) wn. 
by TH. 421. 

*25. b2. Bickley (6 nnw. 'Whit- 
church, Sh.) (1) dt. pal. by AJE. from 
dictation of Mr. T. Darlington, native 
of Burland (6 ne.Bickley), author of 
Folk-speech of South Cheshire, and wl. 
in gl., 411, 422 ; (2) version of Euth, 
chap, i., 698, No.- 4. 



25., b3: . Boivdon .(.16 ■ ene.Buncorn) 
wn: by TH. " 

• *2§.1< b4. Broxton (9 sse.Chester) 
wn. by TH., 421. 

25. -b5. Buerton . (6 v s-by-e.Nant- 
wich) wn. by TH. 

*28. cl. Churton (6 S.Chester) wn. 
by TH. 457 (wrongly referred to D 25 
on p. 421). 

25. c2. Congleton (11 ene.Crewe) 
wn. byTH. . > 

*28. e. Eeclestm (.-EklistBn) (2 s. 
Chester) wn. by TH., 457. - 

*28. f. Farndon (^farn) (7 S.Chester) 
dt. in so. by Mr. E. French, native, 
and wn. by TH. 452, 457. 

*25. g. Great Neston (10 nw. 
Chester) wn. by TH:, 421. 

*25. Hi. Hatton Seath (4 se. 
Chester) wn. by TH., 421. 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



35* 



*25. h2. Helsby (8 ne.Chester) to. 
by TH. 421. 

25. k. Knutsford (15 ese.Runcorn) 
m. by TH. 

25. l. Lymm (11 ene.Runcorn) wn. 
by TH. 

26. Ml. Malpas (13 sse.Cheater) lw. 
by Mr. T. Darlington, and -wn. by 
TH. 

25. m2. Marbury (7 sw.Nantwich) 
wn. by TH. 

*25. m3. Middlewich (7 n.Crewe) 
cs. pal. by TH. from diet., 413. 

25. m4. Mobberly (9 wnw.Maccles- 
field) dt. io. by Mr. Robert Holland, 
of Norton Hill, Halton (2 ese. Runcorn) 
to represent m.Ch., but really repre- 
senting e.Ch. 

25. m5. Mouldsworth (6 ene. 
Chester) wn. by TH. 

*25. n1. Nantwich wn. by TH. 
421. 

25. n2. Northenden (4 w.Stock- 
port) phrases noted by TH. 



25. n3. Northwich (lln.Crewe) 
wn. by TH. 

*25. p. Pott ShrigUy (4 nne. 
Macclesfield) cs. pal. by TH. in 1874 
from diet, of a native, 413. 

*25. si. Sandbach (4 ne.Crewe) dt. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of a native, 
411; TH. also noted the forms of 
negative canna Conner in Manchester 
City News, 26 March, 1881. 

*28. s2. ShochUch (14 w-by-s. 
Nantwich) wn. by TH. 457. 

•21. s3. Stalybridge, situate half in 
La. and half in Ch., formerly " all oe 
nearly all the town was in La., which 
see, 317. 

21. s4. Stockport wn. by TH. 

*25. t. Tarporley (9 ese.Chester) 
cs. pal. by TH. from diet, of a native of 
Burland (3 wnw. Nantwich and 7 sse. 
Tarporley), 413, 421. 

*2o. w. Waverton (4 se.Chester) 
wn. by TH., 421, 



6. Co.=Cornwall, 19 places in D 11 and 12. 



•11. cl. Camelford (14 w.Launces- 
ton) dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Ada HOI, of Whitelands, 168. 

•11. c2. Cardy'nham{iene.~Bodi.Tam) 
dt. by T. H. Cross, 169. 

12. g. Gwennap (3 ese.Redruth) (1) 
dt. io. by Rev. Saltren Rogers, vie. ; 
(2) wn. by TH. 

11. Ll. Landrake (8 ese.Iiskeard), 
let. from vie. unnamed. 

.11. l2. Zanivet (3 sw.Bodmin) dt. 
io. by the late Mr. T. Q. Couch, 
author of the Glossary of Polperro (9 
ssw.Liskeard) . 

11. l3. Lanreath (7 sw.Liskeard) 
wl. io. by Rev. R. Boiler, rect. 

•12. Ml. Marazion (3 e.Penzance), 
specimen pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. "W. J. Rawlihgs, Downes, Hayle 
(6 ne.Penzanee), 172. 

•11. m2. MUlbrook (22 1 sse.Launces- 
ton) spec. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. J. B. Rundell, 167. 

11. pi. Padstow dt. io. by Hon. 
Mrs. Prideaux Brune, Prideaux Place. 

12. p2. Penzance cs. pal. by AJE. 
from diet, of Mr. "W. Noye and then 



from Mr. W. Rawlings (see above ic'1), 
but not used, 171. 

11. p3. Poundstoclc (12 nnw.Laun- 
ceston) dt. io. by Rev. P. D. Dayman, 
vie. . • > 

11. si. St. Blazey (3 ne.Sfc Austell), 
wl. and dt. io. b'y Miss A. B. Peniston, 
of the vicarage, 6 y. 

•11. 82. St. ■ Columb Major (10 
wsw.Bodmin) and 10 m. round by Mr. 
T. Rogers, 169. 

11. s3. St. Goran's (6 s. St. Austell) 
also written Gorran, Goram, dt. io. by 
Rev. C. R. Sowell, vie. 

11. 84. St. Ive (4 ne.Liskeard) dt. 
io. by Ven. Archd. Hobhouse, rect. 

12. s5. St. Just (7 w.Penzance) dt. 
io. by Rev. H. S. Pagan, vie. 

11. s6. St. Stephen's (l n.Launces- 
ton) dt. io. and aq. by Rev. E. S V T1 
Daunt. 

12. s7. St. 5<i<Aia»'s(4sse.Redruth). 
dt. by Mr. W. Martin, Pfinhalvar East, 
churchwarden of St. Stithian's. 

11. T. Tintagel (13 n.Bodmin) dt. 
io. by the Rev. Prebendary Kinsman, 



7. Cu.= Cumberland, 15 places in D 31, 32, and 33. 



•31. A. Abbey Sohne or Holme 
Cultram (12 nne.Maryport) cs. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Rev. T. EUwood, 
562, 563, cwl. 634. 



•33. b1. Bewcastle (16 ne.Carlisle) 
to Longtown (8 n.Carlisle) pal. -by 
JGG. from a native, 682, 684, 693. 

31. b2. Borrowdale (7 s.Keswick) 



36* 



Preliminary matter. 



[VI. 



wl. and dt. io. by Rev. Percy C. 
"Walker, tic. 

•32. b3. Brampton (9 ene.Carlisle) 
cwl.. pal. by JGG. from diet. 669. 

*32. cl. Carlisle (1) C8. pal. by 
JGG. from diet, of Mrs. Atkinson, 
562, 563, 602 ; (2) aq. from Messrs. 
Coward, Harkness, Payne, Murray, 
and Dickinson about the s. b. of D 32. 

*31. o2. Clifton (2 e.Workington) 
es. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. 
J. N. Hetherington, 562, 563. 

*32. d. Dalston (4 ssw.Carlisle) cs. 
pal. November, 1873, by AJE. from a 
native maid servant, but not used, 562rf. 

•31. e. Mlonby (6 nw.Penrith) cs. 
pal. by JGG. 562, 563, 600. 

31. h. Sale (:jal) (14 ssw.Cocker- 
mouth) wl. from Rev. W. Sidney 
Pratten, vie. 

Holme Cultram, see Abbey Holme 
above. 

•31. k. Keswick cs. pal. by JGG. 
from diet, of Mr. "W. Postiethwaite, 
562, 563, 600. 

•31. lI. Langwathby (:la*qijnb») (4 
ne.Penrith) pal. 1876-7 by JGG. from 
diet, of Miss Powley, 561, 563, 600. 



•33. l2. Zongtown (8 n.Carlisle) 
cs. io. by Rev. R. D. Hope, native, 
vie. of Old Hutton (4 n.Kendal), We. 
See under Bewcastle, 682, 693. 

31. p. Penrith, notes on m.Cu. and 
a translation of A. Craig Gibson Joe 
and the Jolly Jist, pal. January, 1873, 
by AJE. from diet, of Mr. William 
Atkinson, an excellent authority, but 
this early work sadly wants revision, 
and as I have not been able to recover 
Mr. A.'s address, I have been obliged 
to pass it over. 

31. r. Savenglass (13 w.Coniston, 
La.) notes by Rev. H. Bell, vie, which 
enabled me to complete the s. hoose 
line 6 through s.Cb. 

31. s. South Cumberland, corre- 
spondence with Rev. E. H. Knowles, 
of St. Bees, Cu., and his friends con- 
cerning the use of at and to. 

31. w. Workington, cs. io. and wl. 
io. with many letters from Mr. W. 
Dickinson, author of the Cu. Glossary. 
As I was unable to have an interview 
with Mr. D., I have been obliged to 
pass over this work. 



8. Db.= Derby, 67 places in D 21, 25, 26. 



*26. Al. Ahaston (lAA'vestijn) (3 
ese.Derby) wn. by TH. 446. 

•26. a2. Ashbourn (10 sw.Matlock 
Bath) two cs. pal. by TH. from diet. 

426, 427. 

•26. a3. Ashford (8 ese.Buxton) 
with Bakewell (2 se.Ashford) cs. pal. 
by TH. from diet. 427. 

*26. a4. Ashover (5 ssw. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 427, 445. 

*26. Bl. Bamford (12 ne. Buxton) 
wn. by TH. 442. 

*26. b2. Barlborough (7 \ ene. Ches- 
terfield) dt. pal. from diet, by TH. 
438. 

•26. b3. Belper wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. b4. Bolsover (iba'wzrar) (5 
e. Chesterfield) wn. and dt. pal. by TH. 
from diet, of a native, 438, 442, 445. 

*26. b5. Bradwell (:brad-ij) (9 
ne.Buxton) cs. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of natives, 427, and wn. 442. 

*26. b6. _Br<M7s/orrf(7nw.Derby)dt. 
pal. by TH. from a native, 438. 

*26. b7. Brampton (3 w.Chester- 
field) (1) wn. by TH., (2) cs. io. by 
Rev. J. M. Mello, rect., with observa- 
tions on the same by TH., and (3) cs. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of natives, 

427, No. 7, 



26. b8. Brampton Moor, near 
Brampton, wn. by TH. 

•26. cl. Castleton (10 ne.Buxton) 
wn. by TH. 442. 

•21. o2. Chapel - en -le- Frith (5 
n.Buxton), (1) the Song of Solomon 
complete in his own original so. trans- 
lated by TH., and Chaps, i. and ii. in 
pal. and gl. compared with Taddington, 
which see ; (2) cs. from personal know- 
ledge by TH. with variants for places 
in the neighbourhood, and notes on 
the use of thou and (kh), 317, and dt. 
322; (3) Parable of the Prodigal Son ; 
(4) complete cwl. from personal know- 
ledge with the minute distinctions 
which TH. prefers, 323 to 329. 

•26. c3. Chellaston (4 sse.Derby) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

•26. c4. Chesterfield wn. by TH. 
427. 

♦26. c5. Codnor (5 ene.Belper) 
lw. io. by Rev. H. Middleton, vie 
445. 

*26. 06. Codnor Park (5 ene.Belper) 
wn. by TH. 445. 

•25. o7. Combs Valley (3 nw.Buxton) 
notes by TH., see Chapel-en-le-Prith, 
and dt. from personal knowledge, 
411. 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



37* 



26. c8. Orich (4 n.Belper) notca by 
TH. 

*26. c9. Cromford (1 s.Matlock 
Bath) wn. by TH. 444. 

26. Dl. Derby, wn. by TH. and 
also by AJE. 

*26. d2. Doe Hill Station (7 s. Ches- 
terfield) wn. by TH. probably belong 
to Codnor Park, Ilkestone, etc. 445. 

*26. d3. Dore (8 nw. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 427. 

*26. d4. Dronfield (5 nnw.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 445. 

*26. d5. Dronfield Woodhouse (6 nw. 
Chesterfield) wn. by TH. 427. 

*26. El. Fekington (6 nne.Chester- 
field) dt. pal. by TH. from a native, 
438. 

•21. e2. JSdale (7se.Glossop) wn. by 
TH. 317, 322. 

*26. e3. Eyam (10 ene. Buxton) wn. 
by TH. 442. 

*25. p1. Fernilee, near Combs 
Valley, wn. by TH. 411. 

26. f2. Foolow (9 ene.Buxton, 1 
e. Eyam) wn. by TH. 

*21. ol. Glossop cs. pal. by TH. 
from a man born 3 miles off, 317. 

•25. g2. Goyt,Dale c/(3nw.Buxton) 
cs. pal. from personal knowledge by 
TH., whose father resided there from 
TH.'s childhood, 321, in the notes to 
Chapel-en-le-Frith, and 414. 

26. g3. Great HucMow (8 ene. 
Buxton) wn. by TH. 

*26. Hi. Hartington (10 wnw.Mat- 
lock Bath) joke pal. by TH. 441. 

•26. h2. Hathersage (12 ne.Buxton) 
and 3 or 4 miles round, wn. by TH. 
442. 

•26. h3. Heanor (5 ese.Belper) wn. 
by TH., and dt. in gl. by Mrs. Parker, 
of Oxford, from diet. 445. 

*26. h4. ffigham (7 s.Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 445. 

•26. h5. Holmesfield (6 nw.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 427. 

*21. h6. Hope Woodlands (10 se. 
Glossop) wn. by TH. 317, 322, and in 
note to Chapel-en-le-Frith, 321. 

*26. il. Idridgehay (4 wnw.Belper, 
and 4 s. Wirksworth, to which region it 
belongs) wn. by TH. 441, 444. 

*26. i2. Ilkeston (8 se.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 445. 

26. l. Little HucMow (7 ene. 
Buxton) wn. by TH. 

*26. Ml. Matlock Bath, wn. by 
TH. 444. 



*26. m2. Middleton-by- Wirksworth 
(2 sw. Matlock Bath), a mining village, 
said to speak more broadly than at 
"Wirksworth, wn. by TH. 441, 444. 

26. m3. Middleton-by-Toulgrave (7 
nw.Matlock Bath) wn. by TH. 

*26. m4. Milford (2 s.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 445. 

•26. m5. Morton (8 nne.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 445. 

*26. n. Norton (7 nnw.Chesterfield) 
Iw. io. by Rev. H. H. Pearson, vie. 
445. 

*26. o. Old Brampton (3 W.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 427. 

•21. p. Peak Forest (5 ne.Buxton) 
wn. by TH. 322. 

•26. ft. Quarndon (3 nnw.Derby) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

•26. b.1. Repton (6 sw.Derby) (1) 
lw. io. by the curate, name not 
mentioned, and TH.'s observations on 
them ; (2) cs. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of a native, 427 ; (3) wn. by TH. 446. 

•26. e2. Bipley (3 ne.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 445. 

26. si. Sandiaere (:sEn - diske) (8 e. 
Derby) wn. by TH. 

•26. s2. South Wingfield (5 nne. 
Belper) dt. 438, and wn. both by TH. 

•26. s3. Stenson (4 ssw.Derby) wn. 
by TH. 446. 

•26. s4. Stretton (6 s.Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 445. 

•26. s5. Sutton (3 ese.Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 445. 

•26. Tl. Taddington (5 ese.Buxton) 
(1) Song of Solomon, chaps, i. and ii. 
in gl. and pal. by TH. ; (2) cs. pal. 
by TH. and corrected by a native, 
426, 427. 

•26. t2. Ttdeswett (:ttdzB) (6 ene. 
Buxton) wn. by TH. 442. 

26. t3. Twyford (5 ssw.Derby) wn. 
by TH. 

•26. v. Unslone (4 nnw.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 445. 

•26. wl. West Hallam (6 ne.DeTbj) 
dt. by TH. from diet. 438, 439. 

*26. w2. Whittington (2 n.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 445. 

•26. w3. Winster (3 nw.Matlock 
Bath) cs. pal. by TH. and corrected 
by natives, 427, also wn. by TH. 

•26. w4. Wirksworth (:wase) (3 
ssw.Matlock Bath) lw. io. with notes 
by Dr. Spencer T. Hall, and wn. by 
TH. 441, 444. 



38* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[YI. 



9. D v. = Devonshire, 21 

4. A. Axminster (8 se.Honiton) cs. 
io. by the late Mr. G. P. B. Pulman, 
not used because I had no w. 

11. Bl. Barnstaple, cs. io. by Mr. 
W. F. Bock, native, pal. in 1873 by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. D. H. Harris, 
native. 

11. b2. Bigbury (12 sw.Totness) 
phr. noted, 1876, in gl. by Mr. J. B. 
Eundell. 

11 Ts3.Burrington(10sse Barnstaple) 
characteristic wds. and phr. io. by Mrs. 
Davis, of the vicarage, native. 

*11. cl. Challaeombe (9 ne. Barn- 
staple) wds. and phr. obtained from 
Anne Eidge, native, cook to Eev. J. 
P. Faunthorpe, see notes to Iddesleigh, 
158. 

11. c2. Colyton (7 se.Honiton) dt. 
io. by Mr. W. H. H. Sogers. 

Dartmoor, see Plymouth. 

•11. d. Devonport dt. pal. from 
Messrs. J. Tenney and J. B. Eundell, 
166. 

11. e. Exeter (1) wl. gl. by Mr. N. 
W. Wyer, collected 1873-7; (2) dt. 
io. with aq. by Mr. E. Dymond, F.S.A. 

11. h. Sarberton (2 sw.Totness) 
m. by AJE. 1 and 2 Sept. 1869, 
written in the glossotype of the period 
and pal. 23 July, 1878. This was my 
first attempt to write English peasant 
speech from hearing. I stayed with 
Mr. J. Paige, little Inglebourne, 
Harberton, and listened while he con- 
versed with his labourers, and then 
wrote down the sounds on my return 
to the house. I was not very success- 
ful, and the notes made have therefore 
not been used. 

*11. il.ii?(fe«fej^A(:«dil»)(15s.Barn- 
staple) (1) wl. io. written by Eev. J. P. 
Faunthorpe, Principal of Whitelands 



places in D 4, 10, 11. 

Training Coll. from the diet, of his 
housemaid ; (2) cs. pal. by AJE. from 
the dictation of the same housemaid, 
Mary Anstey, native, who had not been 
many months from Dv. 157. 

11. i2. Instow (5 w-by-s.Barnstaple), 
from Eev. W. F. Dashwood Lang, 
rector. 

11. Ml. Modbury and 6 m. round 
(10 sw.Totness) dt. io. by Miss Green, 
of the Vicarage. 

10. m2. Morebath (8 n.Tiverton) 
nwl. and dt. io. by Eev. S. H. Berkeley. 

•11. Nl. North Molton (12 e-by-s. 
Barnstaple), (1) wl. io. by Mr. E. H. 
S. Spicer, B.Sc, of that place, (2) by 
Mr. J. Abbot Jarman, pal. by AJE. in 
1877, dt. 160, cwl. 161. 

11. »2. North Petherwin (14 nw. 
Tavistock) dt. io. by Eev. T. B. 
Taunton. 

11. pi. Parracomb (11 nne.Barn- 
staple) nwl. taken from n.Dv. servants 
by Miss Wakefield, of the Eectory. 

•11. p2. Plymouth (1) cs. gl. for 
Dartmoor, (2) Iw. gl., (3) wl. gl. (4) 
dt. gl., (5) numerous printed papers 
and much correspondence from 1868 
onwards, all five from Mr. John Shelley, 
native of Norfolk, but long resident 
in Plymouth, 163 to 166. 

11. si. St. Maryehurch (2 n. 
Torquay) dt. by Eev. G. H. White, 
with words and phrases by Miss Miles. 

11. s2. Stoke (1 nw. Plymouth) nwl. 
by Eev. H. G. Wilcocks, Stoke 
Cottage. 

11. wl. Warkleigh (8 sse. Barn- 
staple) wl. io. by Mrs. W. Thorold, of 
the Eectory, 30 y. 

11. w2. Werrington (12 nw. Tavi- 
stock) dt. io. by Eev. E. W. Margesson, 



10. Do.=Dorsetshire, 14 places, all in D 4. 



4. b1. Bingham's Meleombe (7 sw. 
Blandford, near Meleombe Horsey) 
nwl. and dt. io. by Eev. Canon Bing- 
ham. 

4. b2. Blaekmore, Vale of (11 sw. 
Shaftesbury) wl. io. with notes and 
letters by Eev. John Smith, Kington 
Magna, rect. 

4. b3. Bradpole (:bRsefpool, :bR8ef 1) 
(1 ne. Bridport) wl. io. and notes by 
Eev. Canon Broadley, vie. 

4. e4. Bridport, wl. by Mr. T. A. 
Colfox, native, Westmead, Bridport. 



*4. c. Cranborne (12 ene. Blandford, 
.and wrongly referred to Blandford on 
p. 37) cs. by Mr. Clarke, Gen. Michel, 
and Mrs. Clay- Kerr- Seymour, 75-84. 

•4. eI. Hast Zuheorth (:IalaEth) 
(12 ese.Dorchester, on Purbeck hills) 
wl. io. by Eev. Walter Kendall, vie. 80. 

4. b2. East Morden (7 sse.Bland- 
ford) wl. io. by Eev. T. Pearce, vie. 

*4. h. Sanford(i nw. Blandford) dt. 
pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. Clay- 
Kerr-Seymour, see 75, dt. 76, cwl. 80. 

4. si. £Aerior»<!(16wnw.Blandford) 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



39* 



dt. io. with notes and letters by Rev. 
0. W. Tancock, school. 

4. s2. Sturminster Marshall (6 se. 
Blandford) phrases by Mr. C. Xegan 
Paul, formerly curate there. 

4. s3. Swanage (7 s.Poole) note by 
Mr. Paige, artist. 

4. wl. Walditch (1 e.Bridport) notes 
by Mr. W. G. Stone, lOy. 

*4. w2. Whitchurch Canonicorum 
(5 wnw. Bridport) (1) transcripts of 
letters and articles in Pulman's Weekly 
News, Crewkerne, written in glossic 



with great care by Mr. N. "W. "Wyer, 
from dictation of John Taylor, a small 
freeholder, but doubts having arisen of 
the trustworthiness of Taylor's Dorset 
pronunciation, they have been re- 
luctantly cancelled; (2) wn. by the 
same, 83. 

*4. w3. Winterbourne Came (2 sse. 
Dorchester), by Rev. W. Barnes, the 
Dorset poet (see p. 75), cs. in so. with 
numerous letters of explnnation, from 
which it was pal. by AJE. 76 ; list of 
Do. words with initial (f) or (v), 38. 



11. Du.=Durham, 31 places in D 31 and 32. 



*32. Al. Annfield Plain (8 nw. 
Durham), dt. from Rev. Dr. Blythe 
Hurst, vie. See Collierley, 653. 

31. a2. Aycliffe (5 n. Darlington) 
pc. from anonymous vicar. 

•31. Bl. Bishop Auckland (20 
wsw.Hartlepool) (1) pc. and letter from 
Rev. R. Long ; (2) dt. by Mr. J. Wyld, 
master of the workhouse, 617. 

*31. b2. Bishop Middleham (8 
sse.Du.) (1) pc. and letter from Rev. 
C. A. Cartlege, vicar, who introduced 
me to dialect speakers, 653. 

*31. b3. Bishopton (5 nw. Stockton) 
pc. by Rev. C. H. Ford, vie. 644. 

*32. cl. Clickeminn (spelling un- 
known) (10 w.Durham, in Lanchester 
par.) dt. pal. by A JE. from Mr. Robson, 
bailiff, introduced by Canon Greenwell, 
653, No. 2. 

•32. c2. Collierley (11 nw.Durham, 
containing Dipton and Pontop) dt. io. 
by Mr. Hugh Leslie, see aI, 653. 

32. D. Dalton-le-Dale (6 s.Sunder- 
land) pc. from Rev. T. T. Allen, vie. 

*31. El. Easington (9 e. Durham) dt. 
io. by Miss E. P. Harrison, of the 
rectory, 617. 

*32. e2. Edmundbyers (17 wnw. 
Durham) dt. io. with notes by Rev. 
W. Featherstonehaugb. (-ha'f), rect. 
653. 

31. g. Greatham (:griitem) (6 ne. 
Stockton), pc. from Rev. J. MacCartie, 
vie. 

Hart, see Easington. 

31. Hi. Hartlepool, pc. from Rev. 
E. R. Ormsley, rect. 

*31. h2. Heathery Cleugh (:kliuf) 
(27 w.Durham) dt. io. by Mr. Dalton, 
schoolmaster, 617. 

•32. k. Kelloe (6 se.Durham) (1) 
pc. from Rev. W. S. Kay, vie, (2) dt. 
pal. by AJE. from R. Heightley, 653. 

*32. Ll. Lanchester (7 nw.Durham) 



wl. io. by Rev. J. Dingle, vie, and 
see cl, 653. 

•31. l2. Lower Teesdale, near Stock- 
ton, cs. pal. by AJE. in 1876 from 
Mrs. Alfred Hunt, 617. 

•31. Ml. Middleton-in- Teesdale (30 
wnw. Stockton) on the Tees (1) wl. io. 
by Rev. J. Milner, vie, 634, and 
notes by JGG. 

31. m2. Monk Hesledon (5 nw. 
Hartlepool) pc. from Rev. R. Taylor, 
vie 

31. B. Syhope (3 s.Sunderland) pc. 
from Rev. W. Wilson, vie 

31. si. St. Andrew Auckland (1 
s. Bishop Auckland, see b1) pc. from 
Rev. R. Long, vie 

■•31. s2. St. John's Weardale (24 
wsw.Durham) wl. pal. by JGG. 634 

31. s3. Seaham (4 s.Sunderland) pc. 
from Rev. W. A. Scott, vie 

31. s4. Sedgefield (10 sse.Durham) 
pc. from Rev. J. P. Eden, rect. 

32. s5. Shincliffe (2 sse.Durham) 
pc. from Rev. G. P. Bulman, rect. 

•32. s6. South Shields from Rev. 
C. Y. Potts, wl. in gl. 672, and cs. 
in gl. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. 
T. Pyke, native, 645. 

•31. s7. Stanhope (18 wsw.Durham) 

(1) pc. from Rev. C. Clayton, vie, 
and letter from Rev. C. Cosbey, curate ; 

(2) dt. io. with notes by Mr. W. M. 
Egglestone, 617 to 619. 

•32. s8. Sunderland (1) dt. io. by 
Mr. E. Capper Robson, Esplanade ; 
(2) full wl. by late Mr. Tom Taylor, 
native ; (3) letter from Mr. "W. Brockie 
with local song of ' ' Spottee ' ' and notes ; 
(4) dt. pal. by AJE. from Mr. Taylor 
Potts, 17, Derwent Street, Bishop 
Wearmouth, 653. 

31. t1. Trimdon (8 se.Durham) pc. 
from Rev. R. Simpson, curate-in- 
charge. 



40* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



32. t2. Tyneside, 6 or 8 miles each 
way, dt. io. and MS. glossary of 
Tyneside words by Rev. Blythe Hurst, 
vie. of Collierly, see a1 and c2. 

31. wl. Witton-le-Wear (10 sw. 

12. Es.= Essex, 25 

16. b1. Black Nbtley (9 Tme.Cheims- 
ford) aq. from Rev. T. Owen, rect. 

*16. b2. Bradfield (9 ene. Colchester) 
dt. io. by Rev. L. 6. Hayne, rect. 
221. 

*16. b3. Braintree (.-braintri) (10 
nne.Chelmsford) wn. by TH. 221. 

16. b4. Brentwood (:borntj«d) (7 
ne.Romford) and 4 m. round, wl. io. 
by Mr. Arthur H. Brown. 

*16. b5. Brightlingsea (8 se.Col- 
chester) dt. and notes by Rev. Arthur 
Pertwee, vie, to illustrate Tendring 
hundred, 221. 

16. c. Chelmsford (:tjEmzfed) pron. 
of name obs. from a native by TH. 

16. El. Elsenham (15nw.Chelmsford) 
wl. by Rev. J. Whateley, vie. 15 y. 

*16. b2. Essex, various places, wn. 
by TH. 224. 

16. ol. Great Chesterford (3 nw. 
Saffron Walden) wn. by TH. 

16. g2. Great Chishall (7 w.Saffron 
Walden) wl. io. by Mrs. Saraita Kent, 
wife of a principal farmer, obtained 
through Rev. S. S. Lewis, Corpus 
Christi College, Cambridge. 

16. g3. Great Clacton (13 se.Col- 
chester) dt. io. by Mr. 6. Woodfall, 
certificated teacher. 

*16. g4. Great Dunmow (9 nnw. 
Chelmsford) cs. pal. by AJE. in 1873 
from diet, of Mr. J. N. Cullingford, 
native, 222, and phr. pal. from diet, of 
Mr. Roderick (see Ware, Ht.), together 
with wn. by TH. 221. 



Durham) pe. from Rev. J. F. Hodgson, 
vie. 

31. w2. Wokingham (12 wsw. 
Durham) aq. from Rev. R. H. Gray, . 
rect. 

places, all in D 16. 

*16. g5. Great Boston (8 sse.Saffron 
Walden) wn. TH. 221. 

16. g6. Great Baling (14 nw.Maldon) 
aq. from Rev. T. W. Elvington, vie. 

*16. g7. Great Shalford (15 nnw. 
Maldon) aq. from Rev. H. B. Philip, 
vie, and wn. by TH. 221. 

16. h. .HenAam (6 s.Saffron Walden) 
wn. by TH. 

16. i. Ingatestone (10 ne.Romford) 
lw. from Mr. N. W. Wyer. 

*16. m. Maldon, dt. pal. by AJE. 
from Miss "Wing, of Whitelands, 
formerly pupil teacher there, 223. 

16. n. Newport (4 ssw. Saffron 
Walden) wn. by TH. 

*16. pi. Paglesham (5 ne. Southend) 
dt. io. by Mr. J. F. T. Wiseman, the 
Chase, 221. 

*16. p2. Panfield (13 nnw.Maldon) 
dt. io. and aq. by Rev. E. J. Hill, 
rect., with wn. by TH. 221. 

*16. b. Bayne (12 nw.Maldon) aq. 
from (anonymous) rect., 221. 

*16. si. Southend, lw. by LLB. and 
Mr. Ph. Benton, WakeringHall, 221-2. 

*16. s2. Stanway (3 w.Colchester) 
dt. io. by Rev. E. H. Crate, Rose 
Cottage, 221. 

*16. s3. StebUng (Bran End), (11 
n.Chelmsford) wn. by TH. 221. 

16. T. TO«arferf(16nnw.Chelmsford) 
lw. compiled by Rev. Prof. Skeat, 
Cambridge, from the pron. of his cook, 
native, and pal. by AJE. from Prof. 
S.'s reading. 



13. Gl.= Gloucester, 26 places in D 4 and 6. 



6. Al. Ashchurch (3 ne.Tewkesbury) 
wl. by Rev. H. S. Warleigh, rect. 
10y., and wn. by TH. 

*4. a2. Aylburton (4 wnw. Berkeley) 
phr. from Miss Trotter, and cwl., 66 ; 
see Coleford Gl. (name misprinted 
Potter on 66). 

4. Bl. Berkeley, Vale of, cs. io. 
from Mr. J. H. Cooke, of that place, 
25y., obtained by Mr. Bellows for 
LLB. J 

4. b2. Birdlip (rbanl^p) (7 ese. 
Gloucester) wn. by TH. 

4. b3. Bishop's Cleve (3 n.Chelten- 
ham) wn. by TH. 



4. b4. Bisley (3 e.Stroud) wl. io. 
from Rev. T. Keble, vie. 

4. b5. Bristol wn. by TH. 

4. b6. Broekworth (4 ese.Glouoester) 
wn. by TH. 

*6. b7. Buckland (11 ene.Tewkes- 
bury) wn. by TH. from native railway 
porter, who resided there till 25, p. 1 13. 

4. ol. Cheltenham (:tiEltnBm) wn. 
byTH. V * ' 

*i. c2. Cirencester (:sisitBB.) wl. by 
Miss Martin, of Whitelands, pal. vv. 
by AJE. 66, and wn. by TH. 

*4. c3. Coleford (9 nw.Berkeley),. 
representing the Forest of Dean, from 



•vi.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



41* 



Mr. R. D. Trotter (misprinted as 
Potter on 66), cs. 60, phr. 66, cwl. 66. 

4. c4. Compton A bdale (8 se.Chelten- 
ham) dt. io. by Rev. H. Morgan, vie, 
assisted by Rev. "W. H. Stanton, rect. 
of Hazleton (9 ese.Cbeltenham) and 
Rural Dean, representing the Cotswold 
hills Gl. 

4. Dean, Forest of. See Ooleford. 

*6. e. -Z?JriK#<ora(18ne.Cheltenham) 
wn. byTH. 113. 

4. r. Fairford (23 ese. Gloucester) 
wn. by TH. 

*4. 6. Gloucester Vale and Town, 
vv. from Mr. J. Jones, cs. 60, cwl. 66. 
Town, wn. by TH. 

4. Hi. Highnam (2 wnw.Gloucester) 
wn. by TH. 

4. h2. Succlecote (3 e.Gloucester) 
wn. by TH. 

6. k1. Kemerton{5 ene. Tewkesbury), 



on spike of Gl. projecting into Wo., 
words noted by Rev. J. I. Mercier, 
3 months. 

4. k2. King's Wood (4 ene.Bristol), 
representing the colliery region of 
King's Chase or King's Wood, cs. io. 
by Samuel Griffith. 

6. L. Long Marston ot-Marston Sicca 
(21 ne.Cheltenham) note by TH. 

4. m. Maisey Hampton (6 ese, Ciren- 
cester) wn. by TH. 

*6. s. Shenington (5 wnw.Banbury), 
locally in Ox., (1) lw. from diet, by 
TH. 118, (2) dt. pal. by AJE. from 
Miss Harris, of Whitelands, 117, 118. 

*4. Tl. Tetburg (8 sse. Stroud), from 
Miss Frampton, cs. 60, cwl. 66, wn. 
byTH. 

6. t2. Tewkesbury, wn. by TH. 

*4. w. Whiteomb or Witeomb (5 ssw. 
Cheltenham) wn. by TH. 66. 



14. Ha. = Hampshire, 'with "Wi.= Isle of "Wight, 13 places in 
D 4 and 5. 



*5. A. Andover (1) lw. io. by 
E. S. Bewly, see Stowmarket, Sf. ; 
(2) specimens taken down by Prof. 
Schroer, 98 to 107. 

4. B. Broughlon (10 wnw.Win- 
chester) wl. by Rev. S. Lee, rect. 

*4. cl. Christchurch notes in letter 
from Lady "Wolf to LLB., see also 
Iford below, 75. 

5. c2. Corhampton (10 se.Win- 
chester) lw. from Rev. H. R. Fleming, 
vie. 

*5. e. Fast Stratton (8 nne.Win- 
chester) dt. io. by Rev. S. E. Lyon, 
vie. 96. 

*4. I. Iford (1 w. Christchurch) wl. 
io. by Mr. W. W. Farr, representing 
the part, of Ha. w. of the Avon, 75. 

5. si. Northwood (inanthwd) (2 s. 
Cowes, Wi.) wl. and dt. io. by Rev. 
C. E. Seaman. 

4. n2. Nursling (.-naslin) (12 sw. 
Winchester) wl. by Rev. H. C. Hawtrey. 

4. k. Singwood (7 n.Christchurch) 

15. He. = Herefordshire, 

13. A. Almeley (:a ] mislii) (8 s-by-e. 

Presteign, Rd. and He.) from the 

(unnamed) vie. who said Eardisley 

(2 sw. Almeley) is called (arslii). 

13. d1. Dinmore (7 n-by- W.Here- 
ford) wn. by TH. 

*13. d2. Docklow (5 ese.Leominster) 
cs. and other specimens in so. by Mr. 
R. Woodhouse, Newhampton, 30 y. 
obtained by LLB. 177. 



by AJE. from diet, of a carter in 
service of Messrs. Moore and Moore, 
native, 15 y. away. 

*5. si. Shorwell (:shan'i,, :shoB.'i.) 
(5 ssw.Newport, Wi.) wl. io. from 
Mr. James Titmouse, schoolmaster, 
14 y. continuously, through Rev. R. 
Broughton, vie. 107. 

*5. s2. Southampton to Winchester, 
so called on p. 97, see below Win- 
chester to Southampton, so called on 
p. 91, cs. from diet, of Mr. Percival 
Leigh, 97. 

*5. wl. West Stratton (7. ne.Win- 
chester) dt. io. from the late Dr. A. C. 
Burnell, native, 96. 

5. w2. Wight, Isle of, generally, 

(1) wds. by Rev. R. N. Durrant, 
Arreton Vic. (2 se.Newport, Wi.) ; 

(2) wds. and letter from Mr. C. Roach 
Smith, F.S.A., of Stroud, author of the 
Isle of Wight Glossary. 

*5. w3. Winchester to Southampton, 
see above s2. 

17 places in D 4 and 13. 

*4. E. Eggleton (8 ne.Hereford) cs. 
and spec, both in a peculiarly keyed 
orthography by Miss Anna M. Ford 
Piper, obtained in 1875 by LLB. 69 
to 75. 

*13. h. Hereford and its neighbour- 
hood, (1) cs. in so. by Mr. James 
Davies, solicitor, of that town, obtained 
by LLB. ; (2) cs. in the 1847 phono- 4 
typy of Ellis and Pitman [see Part IV* 



42* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



pp. 1183-1186] by Mr. Joseph Jones, 
bookseller, transliterated into pal. by 
AJE., obtained in 1875 by LLB. 
I was not able to use either version ; 
(3) wn. TH. 180. 

*4. Ll. Ledbury (12 e.Hereford) cs. 
by Rev. C. Y. Potts and Mr. J. C. 
Gregg, 69-73. 

13. l2. Leintteardine (1 1 nnw.Leo- 
minster) wn. by TH. 

*13. l3. Leominster wn.b.TH. 180. 

*13. 1,4. Lower Bache Farm (3 
ene.Leominster) (1) lw. in io. and aq. 
by Mr. G. Burgiss, native, farmer, 
obtained through LLB. ; (2) wn. and 
dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of Messrs. 
T. and J. Burgiss, brothers of Mr. 
G. Burgiss, 176, 180. 

13. 1,5. Lttcton (:lak'n) (5 nw.Leo- 
niinster) note by Rev. A. C. Auchmaty, 
Lueton House, 4 y. 

*4. m. Much Cotvarne (9 ne Hereford) 
cs. in 1847 phonotypy written in 1847 



by Mr. J. Jones (see Hereford above) 
from diet, of Mr. Herbert Ballard, 
10 y., pal. by AJE., obtained by LLB. , 
see also Eggleton, given at p. 69 ; (2) 
wu. by TH. from Mrs. S. Griffiths, 
native, b. 1816, given on p. 73, notes 
to C. 

*4. b. Rose (1) letter from W. H. 
Green to LLB. 68 ; (2) wn. by TH. 
68. 

13. si. Stockton (2 ne. Leominster) 
wn. by TH. 

4. s2. Stoke Edith (6 e-by-n. 
Hereford) wn. by TH. 

4. u. Upton Bishop (4 ne.Ross) dt. 
by Mr. Havergal. 

13. wl. Wacton (7 e.Leominster) 
wn. by TH. 

13. w2. Weobley (7 sw. Leominster) 
cs. io. written by a farmer, communi- 
cated to LLB. by Rev. C. J. Robinson, 
of Norton Canon (10 nw.Hereford), 
and by him referred to Weobley. 



16. Ht.=Hertfordshire, 32 places in D 15, 16, and 17. 



16. Al. Anstey (14 ene.Hitchin) 
from Rev. T. T. Sale, rect. 

*16. a2. Ardeley or Yardley (8 
e-by-s.Hitchin) dt. io. with aq. by Rev. 
C. Malet, then curate, and wn. from 
several old natives by TH. 200, 201. 

15. b1. Berkhampstead (10 w.St. 
Albans) notes obtained by LLB. 

16. b2. Bishop' s Stortford (:stA'fed) 
(11 ne.Hertford) pron. of name ob- 
tained by TH. 

16. b3 . Boxmoor (7 wsw. St. Albans) 
note from Rev. A. C. Richings sent 
to LLB. 

16. b4. Braughing (:braf*n) pron. 
of name obtained by TH. 

*16. b5. Buntingford (ibanjfut) (10 
nne.Hertford) wn. by TH. 201. 

*17. b6. Bmhey (2 se. Watford) 
from Rev. W. Falconer, rect., 235. 

16. p. Furneaux Pelham (ll nne. 
Hertford) phr. by Rev. W. "Wigram, 
vie., with notes by Mr. Roderick, 
rect. 

16. ol. Gilston (5 e.Ware) notes 
from Rev. J. L. Hallward, rect. 

16. o2. Great Gaddesden (7 wnw. 
St. Albans) notes by LLB. 

16. g3. Great Hormead (13 e. 
Hitchin) dt. io. from Rev. J. S. F. 
Chamberlain, vie, representing the 
" Wilds of Herts." 

16. Hi. Hadham (7 ne.Hertford) 
wn. by TH. 

*16. h2. Harpenden (4 n-by-w.St. 



Albans) dt. io. from Mr. T. Wilson, 
Rivers Lodge, 203. 

*16. h3. Hatfield (6 wsw.Hertford) 
wn. by TH. 203. 

16. h4. Hemel Hempstead (5 w.St. 
Albans) note by LLB. 

*16. h5. Hertford wn. by TH. 
199. 

*16. h6. Hertford Heath (2 se. 
Hertford) wn. by TH. 

*16. h7. Hitchin dt. by Mr. C. W. 
Wilshere, the Frythe, Welwyn, pal. 
from indications by AJE. 203. 

17. K. King's Langley (6 sw.St. 
Albans) note by LLB. 

15. Ll. Little Gaddesden (10 nw. 
St. Albans) note obtained by LLB. 

15. l2. Long Marston (16 wnw.St. 
Albans) note obtained by LLB. 

*17. n. Mickmansworth (3 sw. 
Watford) note sent to LLB. by Mr. 
W. H. Brown, national school master, 
and note by LLB. 235. 

*16. si. St. Albans, wds. from Mr. 
R. R. Lloyd, 8y., 235. 

16. s2. Sandridge (3 ne.St. Albans) 
dt. notes, and lw. all in io. by Rev. J. 
Griffith, of that place. 

16. 83. Sawbridgeworth, called 
(:saepsBrd) by old people (10 e-by-n. 
Hertford) (1) wl. and dt. io., and notes 
by Mrs. John Barnard, Spring Hall, 
12y., and (2) note by TH. from Prof. 
Skeat, who give (isaapsu). 

*16. 84. Stapleford (3 nnw.Hertford) 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



43* 



(1) dt. io. by Key. D. Barclay, rect., 
and (2) wn. by TH. 199. 

15. t. Tring (14 wnw.St. Albans), 
note obtained by LLB. 

*16. wl. Ware cs. and lw. pal. in 
1876 from diet, of Mr. J. "W. Roderick, 
197 to 200, wn. by TH. 199. 

16. w2. Watford, note by LLB. 
*16. w3. Welwyn (1) wl. pal. by 



AJE. from diet, of Miss Foxlee, of 
Whitelands, not usable, 197 ; (2) dt. 
io. with notes and phr. by Mr. C. W. 
Wilshere, of the Frythe, 202. 

16. w4. Weston (5 e.Hitchin) wl. 
io. by Bey. A. C. Boberts, yic, as- 
sisted by Mr. M. R. Pryor, Manor 
House, native. 



17. Hu.=Huntingdoiisliire, 21 places, all in D 16. 



16. A. AUonbury (4 nnw.Hunting- 
don) lw. io. by Bey. B. Conway, yic, 
assisted by Mr. 6. Johnston, of 
Broughton (5 ne. Huntingdon). 

16. bI. Godmanehester (1 se.Hun- 
tingdon) wn. by TH. 

16. o2. Great Gatworth (9 w.Hun- 
tingdon), from Bey. E. C. Purley, 
yic. 

16. o3. Great Gidding (10 nw. 
Huntingdon) wn. by TH. 

16. o4. Great Paxton (4 ssw.Hun- 
tingdon), from Bev. H. I. Nicholson, 
of that place. 

*16. g5. Great Stukeley (2 nnw. 
Huntingdon), (1) wl. and dt. io. by 
Miss Mary E. Ebden, then of the 
vicarage, with numerous notes pal. by 
AJE. 211 ; (2) wn. in 1881 by TH. 
from "W. Johnson, b. about 1803, 
farm labourer, and James Valentine, 
b. 1806, to whom TH. was introduced 
by Miss Ebden, 211. 

16. Hi. Hamertm (8 nw.Hunting- 
don), from Bev. D. G. Thomas, rect. 

16. h2. Hilton (4 se.Huntingdou), 
from Rev. T. Carrol, vie. 

*16. h3. Holme (10 nnw. Hunting- 
don), (1) wl. io. from Bev. W. A. 
Campbell, rect., representing the 
drained fen about Whittelsea Mere ; 
(2) wn. by TH. 212. 

16. h4. Houghton (:h6wt'n, :hoot'n) 

18. Ke.=Kent, 16 

*9. cl. Charing (6 nw.Ashford) dt. 
from Miss Croucher, of Whitelands, 
136. 

9. c2. Chatham, a wd. from Mr. S. 
Price, see Montacute, Sm. 

9. d. Denton (7 nw.Dover) from 
Bev. C. J. Hussey, rect. 

*9. pi. Faversham (8 wnw.Canter- 
bury) cs. written by Rev. H. Berin, 
pal. by AJE. in 1873 from diet, 
of Mr. H. Knatchbull-Hugessen, of 
Provender, with phrases and lw. 137 
to 141. 



(3 e.Huntingdon), from Bev. E. A. 
Peck, rect. over 50 y. 

16. h5. Huntingdon, wn. in 1881 
by TH. 

16. K.1. Keyston (12 wnw.Hunting- 
don), from Bey. J. P. Goodman, reet. 

16. x2. Kimbolton (9 wsw.Hunting- 
don) wn. by TH. 

16. L. Little Stukeley (3 nnw.Hun- 
tingdon) wn. by TH. 

16. o. OldFletton(l S.Peterborough, 
Np.) wn. by TH. 

16. p. Pidley (7 ne.Huntingdon) 
wl. io. by Rev. R. W. Close, 2y., as- 
sisted by Mr. "W. Mason, Somersham, 
(which see) representing e.Hu. 

16. si. St. Ives (5 e.Huntingdon) 
wn. 1873 and 1882 by TH. 

*16. s2. Sawtry (9 nnw.Hunting- 
don), (1) dt. io. by Miss Ebden, of 
Great Stukeley, (which see) from diet, 
of a maid servant, 212 ; (2) wn. by 
TH. in 1881 from J. Harlock.b. 1800, 
to whom he was introduced by Miss 
Ebden, 212. 

16. s3. Somersham (8 ene. Hunting- 
don) dt. io. by Mr. W. Mason (see 
Pidley, which it adjoins). 

16. s4. Staneley (8 wsw.Huntingdon) 
wn. byTH. 

16. s5. Stilton (12 nnw.Hunting- 
don), (1) dt. io. from Rev. Thomas 
Hatton, rect., (2) wn. by TH. 

places, all ia D 9. 

*9. f2. Folkestone Fishermen, at. 
glossic by Mr. R. Stead, master of the 
Grammar School, Folkestone, 143. 

9. k. Kent county generally, wn, 
by TH. 

*9. Ml. Maidstone note by AJE. 
from Mr. Streatfleld, native, Bank- 
house, 131, 1. 13. 

*9. m2. Margate lw. by Mr. Basil 
Hodges, 20 y., 141. 

*9. K. Bolvenden (12 sw.Ashford) 
lw. and dt. io. from Rev. J. W. Rumny, 
yic. misprinted Ramsay on p. 136. 



44* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



*9. si. Shadoxhurst, mispelled 
Shadshurst, on p. 131, 1. 6 (3 ssw. 
Ashford) dt. io. by Rev. C. T. Rolfe, 
136. 

9. s2. St. Nicholas (5 wsw.Margate) 
wl. and notes pal. by AJE. from diet, 
of Miss Peckham, of Whitelands, 141, 
144. 

*9. s3. Sheerness, nw. point of Isle of 
Sheppy, note by Miss Lowman, native 
of Ha., who had been all over it, 137. 



9. s4. Strood (1 W.Rochester) note 
by Miss Calland, of Whitelands. 

*9. s5. Stoke (6 nne. Chatham, be- 
tween Thames and Medway) lw. and 
dt. io. with aq. by Eev. A. E. Harris, 
136. 

*9. s6. Stourmouth (5 nw. Sandwich) 
notes by Rev. R. Drake, rect., 141. 

*9. w. Wingham (6 e.Canterbury) 
dt. io. by Rev. F. "W. Ragg, for the 
Highlands of Kent, 142. 



19. La. = Lancashire, 61 places in D 21, 22, 23, and 31. 



23. Al. Abbeystead (7 se.Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 

Ashton-under-Zyne,see Stalybridge. 

*22. Bl. Blackburn (1) wn. and dt. 
pal. by TH., cwl. 346, dt. 339 ; (2) 
lw. io. by Mr. T. Fielding in cwl. 346, 
this list comprised also words from 
several other places mentioned below, 
very valuable at first, but superseded 
by TH.'s work afterwards. 

23. b2. jBteApoo£(15wnw.Preston) 
from H. Fisher, Mus.D. 

*22. b3. Bolton (1) wl. by Mr. Ch. 
Rothwell, M.R.C.S., 40y. to 50 y. 343 ; 
(2) wn. by TH. ; (3) lw. io. by Mr. T. 
Fielding, see b1. 

*31 . b4. Broughton -in- Furness 
(:bra'«t"n i rli'mes) (8 ssw.Coniston) 
wn. and dt. pal. from diet, by TH., 
dt. and phr. 553, cwl. 627. 

*22. b5. Burnley (1) cs. pal. 1875-6 
from a native by TH. 332 ; (2) cwl. by 
Mr. T. Healey, of the Science and Art 
Department, with wn. by TH., form- 
ing a cwl. 350. 

21. b6. Bury, Miss ffarington's cs. 
(see Leyland) read to me in 1873 by 
Eev. Mr. Langston, sometime curate 
of Bury, but I was unable to make use 
of it. 

*31. cl. Cark-in-Cartmel (5 e-by-s. 
Ulverston), wn. in 1881 by TH. es- 
pecially from Betty Butler, b. 1797, 
near Grasmere, but her speech was too 
mixed to be trustworthy, cwl. 627. 

•31. c2. Gaton (4 ene.Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. given in wl. 626. 

*22. c3. ChorUy (10 nw.Bolton) wn. 
by TH. 345. 

22. c4. Clitheroe lw. io. by Mr. T. 
Fielding, see Bl . 

*22. c5. Cliviger Valley (2 sse. 
Burnley) wn. TH. 350. 

•31. c6. Cockerham (6 s-by-w.Lan- 
caster) wn. by TH. 626. 

•22. c7. Colne Fa?fey(6nne.Burnley) 



from Mr. Hartley Stuttard, through 
Mr. John Shelly, 340, 341. 

•31. c8. Coniston (1) cs. originally 
written io. by Mr. Eoger Bowness, 
b. 1804, with aq. and explanations 
from Rev. T. Ellwood, of Torver (2 
ssw.Coniston), afterwards pal. from 
Miss Bell, native, 558, 563, 597 ; (2) 
wl. io. by Rev. T. Ellwood, pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Miss Bell ; (3) wn. 
by TH., the last two, 627. 

31. d. Dalton (5 sw. Ulverston) wl. 
io. by Rev. John Atkinson, Rydal, 
Ambleside, occasioning, on account of 
some anomalies, a long correspondence, 
and Rev. T. Ellwood's obtaining a 
partial wl. from Mr. T. Butler, solici- 
tor, native, who had known the place 
intimately for 45 years, and who de- 
cided against the anomalies. 

22. e. Earlestoum (8 sw.Wigan) wn. 
by TH. 

21. pi. Failsworth (4 ne.Manches- 
ter), phrs. noted from ' Ben Brierley' 
in his public readings, by TH. 

*22. f2. Farrington (3 s.Preston) 
wn. by TH. 345. 

*23. f3. Fylde district, see 352 for 
full account ; note from Mr. T. Cum- 
berland, Harburn, St. (3 sw.Birming- 
ham, Wa.), not used. 

23. ol. G-arstang (:gjaa-stin) (lOnnw. 
Preston), note by TH. attached to next. 

*23. o2. Goosnargh (-.guuzner). (5 
nne.Preston), (1) cs. pal. by TH. from 
diet, of Mr. E. Kirk, native, 354 ; (2) 
wn. by TH. 359. 

22. Hi. Salliwell (2 wnw.Bolton) 
wn. by TH. 

•22. h2. Haslingden (7 ssw. Burnley) 
wn. by TH. 346. 

•31. h3. Heysham (:iis«m) (4w-by-s. 
Lancaster) wl. by Rev. C. Twenlow 
Royds, rect. 12 y., cwl. 626. 

22. h4. Higham (3 nw.Burnley) lw. 
io. from Mr. T. Fielding, see Bl. 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



45* 



*31. h5. Sigh Nibthwaite (7 n. 
Ulverston) wn. by TH. 627. 

Higher Walton, see Walton-le-dale, 
wl, below. 

*22. h6. Hoddlesden (4 sse.Black- 
burn) dt. pal. 1879 by TH. from diet, 
of native, 339, and wn. 346. 

*31. h7. Sornby (8 ne. Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 626. 

*23. k. Kirkham (8 w-by-n.Preston) 
wn. by TH. 359. 

*31. l1. Lancaster, wn. by TH. 
626. 

22. l2. Leigh (9 ene.St. Helens). 
Rev. J. H. Stanning, curate in charge 
in 1873 said the gh was pron. as a 
guttural ; places of the same name were 
in 1875 tailed (:lE'ith) in Ch., and (:lai) 
also written Lye in Ke. 

*22. l3. Leyland (5 s.Preston) cs. 
pal. 1877 from Miss ffarington, with 
remarks by three other natives, 332, 
337, and wn. by TH. 345. 

•31. l4. Lower Solher in Cartmel 
(5 e.Ulverston) cs. pal. 1877 by TH. 
from diet. 558, 563, 596<?. 

21. Ml. Manchester (1) wl. io. by 
Mrs. Linnaeus Banks, acquainted with 
the dialect from childhood ; (2) note by 
JGG. ; (3) nwl. io. by Rev. J. C. 
Casartelli, M.A., St. Bede's, Man- 
chester College, for the environs. 

22. m2. Mellor (2 nw.Blackburn) cs. 
pal. 1876 by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. 
Coulter, native, but long absent, and 
I felt that my appreciation was inac- 
curate, hence I have not used it. 

21. m3. Moston (4 ne.Manchester) 
nwl. by Mr. G. Milner. 

*31. Nl. Newton -in -Cartmel (7 
ene.Ulverston) note by Mr. J. Stock- 
dale, writer of the translation of SS. 
chap. ii. for Lonsdale n. of the Sands, 
reproduced on p. 550. 

*31. n2. Newton -le- Willows or 
Newton-in-Makerfield (4 e.St. Helens) 
wn. by TH. 342. 

*21. ol. Oldham (1) lw. from Mr. 
T. Fielding, see b1 ; (2) wn. by TH. 
322. 

*22. o2. Ormskirk (7 se.Southport) 
wn. by TH. 342. 

*21. pl. Patricroft (4 W.Manchester) 
wn. by TH. 322. 

•22. p2. Penwortham (:pEn - tfrdmn) 
(1 sw.Preston) wn. 1877 by TH. 
from Mr. Kirk, see Goosnargh, of 
which he was a native, though he had 
resided 60 years in Penwortham. 



*23. p3. Poulton-U-Fylde (13 nw. 
Preston) cs. first by Mr. Bellows sent 
to LLB., not used, and second pal. 
1876 by TH. with phrases, 354, 
357. 

*22. p4. Prescot (3 wsw.St. Helens) 
wn. by TH 342. 

23. p5. Preston, wn. by TH. 

31. a. Quernmoor (3 ne. Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 

21. Hi. Soyton (2 nnw.Oldham) wn. 
by TH. 

*21. e2. Sochdale and neighbour- 
hood, wn. by TH. 322. 

22. si. Sabden (5 nw.Burnley) lw. 
from Mr. T. Fielding, see b1. 

*22. 82. Samlesbury (:8am*zbi3ri)(4 
ene. Preston) wl. io. by Mr. w. 
Harrison, F.S.A., Samlesbury Hall, 
representing the parishes of Blackburn, 
Preston, and "Whalley, 346. • 

*22. s3. Skelmersdale (:skJEnrrcrzdtl) 
(7 nnw.St. Helens) cs. pal. 1878 by 
TH. from natives, 332 ; wn. by TH. 
342. 

31. s4. Skerton (1 nw.Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 

*21. s5. Stalybridge (1 e.Ashton), 
half in La. and half in Ch. (which 
see s3) cs. pal. 1876 by TH. from Mr. 
J. Marsland, 317. 

*31. u. Ulverston (:us"n) (1) cs. io. 
by Mr. Pearson, native, obtained by 
Rev. T. Ellwood, but I was not able 
to interpret it satisfactorily; (2) wn. 
by TH. 627. 

•22. wl. Walton-le-dale, or Higher 
Walton (2 se. Preston) wn. by TH. 
345. 

*22. w2. Warrington wn. by TH. 
3'42. 

*22. w3. Westhoughton (:a'«t'n) (5 
wsw.Bolton), this represents the Bolton 
neighbourhood, cs. pal. 1876 with wn. 
by TH. 332, 343. 

*22. w4. Whalley (3 s-by-w. 
Clitheroe) lw. io. by Mr. T. Fielding, 
see si, and Mr. W. Harrison, 346. 

•22. w5. Wigan (:wigm) and neigh- 
bourhood, (1) wn. by TH. 343; (2) 
wl. io. from Wigan to Ashton in 
Makerfield (4 s.Wigan), by Sir J. A. 
Picton, F.S.A., Sandy Knowe, Waver - 
tee (3 ese.Liverpool) 50 y., during 
which the dialect has much changed. 

*22. w6. Worsthorn (2 e.Burnley) 
wn. by TH. 350. 

*23.w7. Wyersdale{6ese.'La.-a.<sa&teT) 
dt. and wn. by TH. 358, 359. 



46* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER, 



[VI, 



20. Le.= Leicester, 19 places in D 29. 



29. A, Ansty (3 nw.Leicester) m. 
by TH. 

29. b1. BarUstone (10 w-by-n. 
Leicester) wn. by TH. 

29. b2. Barwell (:barel) (2 ne. 
Hinckley) wds. by Rev, R, Titley, 
rect. 

*29. b3. Belgrade (1 n. Leicester) 
nwl. and dt. by Miss Charlotte Ellis, 
who has lived near Leicester all her 
life, 472, 489. 

*29. b4. Birstall (3 n.Leicester) 
wds. from Miss Allen, 489. 

29. b5. Blaby (5 s-by-w.Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 

*29. c. Cottesiach (:ka-tesbati) (10 
se.Hinckley) wl. by Key. J. S. Watson, 
rect. 489. 

*29. b. Enderby (4 sw.Leicester) 
variants by Miss E. Hirst, of White- 
lands, from the Waltham cs. 464, and 
wn by TH. 

*29. o. Qlenfield (3 wnw.Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 489. 

29. h. Sarby (14 ne. Lough- 
borough) wds. by Eev. M. 0. Norman, 
rect. 

29. i. niston-on-the-Hill (8 ese. 
Leicester) wn. by TH. 

*29. l1. Leicester (1) cs. in gl. with 
aq. by the late Mr. Geo. Findley, not 
used, see 464 ; (2) wn. by TH. from 



Mr. Findley, 489 ; (3) letter from Mr. 
W. Napier Reeve, F.S.A., 35y., saying 
he could not see in my wl. any word 
"of which the pron. in Leicester is 
different from rec. pron., I am," he 
added, "an Essex man. I have been 
in this town 35 years. I have been 
often struck with the few provincialisms 
among the people of this county com- 
pared with those of Essex" ; (4) for 
town and neighbourhood a few notes 
from J. H. Chamberlain, Small Heath, 
Birmingham, having been 20 years 
there and 40 in Leicester. 

*29. l2. Loughborough wn. in 
1878-9 by TH. 489. 

*29. Ml. Market Harborough (14 
se.Leicester) wn. by TH. 489. 

29. m2. Mount Sorrel (6 n.Leicester) 
wn. by. TH. 

29. n. Normtmton (3 sse.Ashby-de- 
la-Zouche) from Miss Green of the 
rectory. 

*29. s. Syston (5 nne. Leicester) full 
wl. pal. by AJE. from Miss M. A. 
Adcock, teacher at Whitelands, 489. 

29. t. Thurcastm (4 nnw.Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 

*29. w. Waltham (16 ene.Lough- 
borough, in the horn of Le.) cs. pal. 
by AJE. from Miss H. Bell, of White- 
lands, see also e above, 464. 



21. Li. Lincolnshire, 55 places in D 18 and 20. 



20. Al. Aisthorpe (6 nnw.Lincoln), 
aq. by Rev. T. W. Bury, rect. 

20. a2. Alford (10 se.Lonth), 
note by Mrs. Williams, see s2 below.- 

20. a3. Axholme, Isle of (4 to 18 
n.Gainsborough) lw. io. by Mr. Stand- 
ring, of Working Men's College. 

20. b1. Barnoldby-le-Beck (:bAAn«bi) 
omitting le Beck (4 sw. Great Grimsby), 
full wl. and dt. io. by Rev. Morgan G. 
WatHns, M.A. 

*20. b2. Barrowby (2 w. Grantham) 
wn. by TH. from a native then living 
at Newark, Nt. 299. 

20. b3. Beekingham (11 nnw.Gran- 
tham) aq. from the (anonymous) 
vicar. 

*20. b4. Biltingborough (13 e. Gran- 
tham, and 6 m. round), full wl. cor- 
rected w. by AJE. from Mr. T. 
Blasson, surgeon, b. 1833, native and 
constant resident, 299. 

20. b5. 2%2o» (3 nne.Gainsborough), 
aq. from Rev. J. S. Cockshall, vie. 



20. b6. Bracebridge (2 S.Lincoln) 
aq. from Rev. C. C. Ellison, vie. 

*20. b7. Brigg or Glanford Brigg 
(17 w.Great Grimsby) (1) wl. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. E. Peacock, 
F.S.A., Bottesford Manor, author of 
the Manley and Corringham Glossary, 
b. 1833, with a dt. pal. by AJE. from 
the wl. 312, 313 ; (2) wn. by TH., see 
Spilsby. 

20. b8. Brocklesby (8 wnw. Great 
Grimsby), note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. cl. Caistor(ll wsw.Gt. Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. c2. Coningsby (:k«( 1 -n*n - sb») (10 
wnw.Boston) wl. and dt. io. by Rev. 
Canon Wright, rect. 

20. c3. Growle (14 n-by-w.Gains- 
borough) aq. from Rev. F. W. White. 

*20. e. Epworth (8 nnw. Gains- 
borough) cs. pal. by AJE., described, 
and why rejected, on p. 312, see w2. 

20. pi. Faldingworth (10 ne. Lincoln) 
aq. by Rev. W. S. Mackean, pro. rect. 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



47* 



20. f2. Fillingham (9 se.Gains- 
borough) note from Rev. J. Jenkins, 
rect. 

*20. f 3. Friskney (3 sw-by-s.Wain- 
fleet) nwl. with rules and ex. io. by 
Eev. H. J. Cheales, vie. 298. 

20. r4. Fulstow (7 n.Louth) lw. by 
Eev. Alex. Johnson, vie. 

20. ol. Gainsborough, aq. by Eev. 
W. J. "Williams, vie. 

20. g2. Glanford Brigg, see Brigg. 

20. o3. Grantham (:gra'ntham) cs. 
io. by Mr. Cockman, national school- 
master, read to AJE. by Miss Cockman, 
of Whitelands, but as both were London- 
ers and she was uncertain on some points 
I was obliged to pass it by. 

20. o4. Great Coates (2 w. Great 
Grimsby) note by Mrs. "Williams, sees2. 

20. g5. Great Grimsby note by Mrs. 
"Williams, see s2. 

*20. Hi. Salton Holegate (6 nw. 
Wainfleet) dt. and many specimens and 
notes pal. in April, 1881, from diet, 
of Mrs. Douglas Arden, 306 to 309. 

20. h2. Saxey(6 nnw. Gainsborough) 
aq. from Eev. J. Johnston, vie. 

20. h3. Sealing (3 w.Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. "Williams, see s2. 

20. h4. Sorbling (13 e.Grantham) 
wl. by Mr. H. Smith, representing 
"the parts of Kesteven" in sw.Ii. 
299. 

20. h5. Sorneastle (17 e.Lincoln) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. k1. Keelby (6 w.Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see s2. 

20. k2. Killingholme (8nw. Great 
Grimsby) note by Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

20. k3. Kingerby (15 e. Gains- 
borough) phr. from Eev. W. A. Cottee, 
vie. 

20. Ll. Laeeby (3 sw.Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. "Williams, see Scartho. 

*20. l2. Lincoln, see Spilsby for 
wn. by TH. 309. 

*20. l3. Louth (1) Tennyson's 
Northern Farmer New Style rendered 
in gl. by Mr. T. "Wemyss Bogg, 
surgeon, then of that place, see 
Somerby below, and p. 297 ; (2) wn. 
by TH., see Spilsby, 309 ; (3) wl. by 
Mr. W. E. Emeris ; (4) note by Mrs. 
"Williams, see s2. 

20. Ml. North JECykeham (:atkwn) 
(4 ssw.Lincoln) wl. by Eev. F. T. 
Cusins (:Muzinz), 9 y. 

20. n2. North Kehey (14 wsw. 
Great Grimsby) note from Eev. "W. J. 
Chambers, vie. 



20. si. Saxby (10 nne.Lincoln) aq. 
from Sev. C. W. Markham, rect. 

20. s2. Scartho (2 s.Great Grimsby) 
wl. and dt. io. by Mrs. "Williams, of 
the rectory. In relation to the s. 
hoose line 5, Mrs. "Williams informed 
me that (uus) was said at Killing- 
holme, Ulceby, Thornton, but (a'ns) 
at Brocklesby, Keelby, Great Coates, 
Stallingborough, Healing, Louth, Al- 
ford, Spilsby, Horncastle, Caistor, 
Great Grimsby, Laeeby, Scartho, 
Waltham, which see in this list, thus 
completing line 5. 

*20. s3. Scatter (8 ne.Gainsborough) 
wl. corrected w. by AJE., written 
by Eev. J. P. Faunthorpe, native and 
resident till 15, Principal of "White- 
lands Training College, to whom I 
am indebted for the great assistance 
rendered by its teachers and students, 
313. 

20. si, Scunthorpe (15 nne. Gains- 
borough, in parish of Frodingham) full 
wl. by Mr. Bernard Dawson, C.E. 
Mr. Peacock (see Brigg), who lives 
3 s. Frodingham, says it is full of 
miners, and that he should not trust 
any one's pron. unless he knew his 
birth. Hence I have thought Mr. 
Peacock's wl. p. 313, safer. 

20. s5- Skellingthorpe (4 W.Lincoln) 
aq. from Rev. E. P. Armstrong, vie. 

*20. s6. Sleaford (16 w.Boston) wn. 
by TH. 309. 

20. s7. Snitterby (11 ene.Gains- 
borough) note from Rev. E. E. 
Warner, rect. 

*20. s8. Somerby (22 e-by-n. Lincoln) 
representing the dialect from Horn- 
castle (17 e.Lincoln) to Spilsby (27 e. 
Lincoln), here I received great assist- 
ance on 23 March, 1881, from Lord 
(then Mr.) Tennyson, detailed 302 to 
306, who introduced me to Mrs. 
Douglas Arden, see hI. 

*20. s9. Spilsby (8 ne.Wainfleet) 
(1) wn. by TH. from Rev. W. 
Jackson, 309 ; (2) note from Mrs. 
Williams, see s2. 

20. slO. Springthorpe (4 e.Gains- 
borough) note from Rev. E. L. 
Blenkinsopp, rect. 

20. all. Stallingborough (4 nw. 
Great Grimsby) note by Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

*18. sl2. Stamford wn. by TH. 
from a man of 60, and again from 
a Rutland man who may not be trust- 
worthy, 254. 

20. Tl. Thoresway (10 sw.Great 



48* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



Grimsby) aq. from Bev. G. Maule, 
rect. 

20. t2. Thornton (12 nw.Great 
Grimsby) note from Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

20. trl. XJleeby (10 nw. Great 
Grimsby) note from Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

20. u2. XJsselby (18 e-by-n.Gains- 
borougb) aq. from Itev. A. Bower, vie. 



20. wl. Waltham (4 s-by-w. Great 
Grimsby) note from Mrs. Williams, 
see s2. 

*20. w2. Winterton (22 wnw. Great 
Grimsby) cs. pal. 1874 from diet, of 
Bev. J. J. Fowler, of Hatfield Hall, 
Durham, curate of Winterton in 1870 ; 
and this version was also read to me 
by a maid servant from Epworth, 
which see, 312. 



22. Mi. = Middlesex, 7 places in D 17. 



*17. A. Ashford (7 sw.Brentford) 
note by Bev. F. B. Dickinson, 235. 

*17. B. Bromley (5 e.Charing Cross, 
London), representing e.London, wl. 
by JGG. 233. 

*17. e. Enfield (5 e.Barnet), (1) 
note by Mr. Joseph Whitaker, F.S.A., 
White Lodge, 15y., (2) note by Mr. J. 
H. Meyers, editor of Enfield Observer, 
(3) wn. io. from the chief mason, by 
LLB., 235. 

*17. h1. Sanwell (2 nnw. Brentford) 
note from Miss E. Coleridge, of the 
rectory, 235. 



*17. h2. Sarmondsworth (7 w. 
Brentford) lw. from Mr. Lake, school- 
master. 

*17. L. London wn. in various parts 
of the metropolitan area at very various 
times, by TH. 231. 

*17. s. South Myms (3 nnw.Barnet) 
notes from Bev. P. F. Hamond, vie. 
236. 

*17. w. Willesden (5 nne. Brentford) 
letter from Bev. J. Crane Wharton, 
vie. to LLB., and note from LLB. in 
Meyer's Enfield Observer, 28 Sep. 
1875, p. 235. 



23. Mo. = Monmouthshire, 3 places in D 13. 



13. cl. Caerleon or Llangattoek (2 
ne.Newport) aq. by Bev. H. Powell 
Edwards, vie. 

*13. c2. Chepstow lw. io. with long 
note, through Dr. J. Yeats, 179. 

*13. l. Llanover (12 w-by-s. Mon- 
inonth) cs. read to me by Lady Llanover 



in the presence of LLB., and variants 
suggested by LLB. from his own ob- 
servations and communications by Mr. 
Meredith, 179. 

13. p. Pontypool (8 nnw.Newport) 
aq. by Bev. J. C. Llewellin, vie. 



24. M.= Norfolk, 51 places in D 19. 



County, see Norwich. 

*19. a. Ashill (:ashel) (12 n.Thet- 
ford) notes by TH. 262. 

19. nl. Binham (4 se.Wells-next- 
Sea) wn. by TH. 

19. b2. Braneaster (7 w.Wells- 
next-Sea) wn. by TH. 

*19. b3. Burnham (:baan»m) West- 
gate (4 sw.Wells-next-Sea) wl. io. by 
Mr. C. H. Everard, Eton Coll., 28 y., 
p. 264. 

*19. b4. Buxton (9 n.Horwich) wn. 
by TH., who here had the misfortune 
to lose bis note book containing the 
details of the pron. of numerous places 
visited in 1883, p. 278. 

19. c. Congham (.-koqgBm) (6 ene. 
King's Lynn) nwl. by Bev. Canon 
Kersley, LL.D., rect. 

19. Dl. Diss (15 e-by-s.Thetford) 



wn. by TH. in 1881, with example, 
278, from a farm-labourer, native. 

19. d2. Ditehingham (12 sse. 
Norwich) wl. and phr. from Bev. W. 
Skudamore, rect., assisted by Bev. H. 
Frere, native of s.Nf. 

*19. d3. Downham Market (10 s. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

•19. E. East Dereham (15 w-by-n. 
Norwich) (1) cs. io. with aq. by Mr. 
G. A. Carthew, of Millfield in 1873 ; 
(2) wn. by TH. 273. 

19. p. Fakenham (8 s.Wells-next- 
Sea) wn. by TH. 

19. ol. Gaywood (2 e.King's Lynn) 
wn. by TH. 

*19. o2. Great Dunham (14 ese. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. o3. Great Yarmouth (:jaam^th) 
nwl. and dt. io. by Bev. J. J. Kaven, 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



49» 



D.D., then of the school house, with 
notes made vv. from him by AJE. in 
1879, this represents s.Nf. and nw.Sf. 
gen. 278. 

19. h1. Hardingham (13 w-by-s. 
Norwich) wn. by TH. 

*19. h2. Heaeham (:»ttBm) (12 nne. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. h3. Hempton (9 s."W"ells-next- 
Sea) wn. by TH. 

19. h4. Hemsby (6 n. Great Yar- 
mouth) wl. io. by Bev. H. "W. Harden, 
vie. 

*19. h5. Holme-next- Sea (13 w. 
"Wells-next- Sea) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. h6. Hunstanton St. Edmunds, 
close to Old Hunstanton (12 nne.King's 
Lynn), wn. by TH. 262. 

19. i. Ingham (14 se.Cromer) wl. 
by Bev. G. Sharley. 

*19. xl. Kimberley (10 wsw.Nor- 
wich) cs. pal. in 1873 from diet, of 
G. Ashby, native, but absent 33 years, 
and then gardener to LLB. 273. 

*19. x2. King's Lynn, wn. by 
TH. 262. 

*19. k3. Kirby Bedon (3 se.Nor- 
wich) lw. pal. in 1868 by AJE. from 
diet, of Miss Cecilia M. Day, of the 
Vicarage, his first attempt at writing 
dialect from diet, with additions from 
her sister, Mrs. Luscombe, and Mr. 
Keith, 275 ; cs. io. with aq. by the 
same. 

*19. Ml. Marham (8 se. King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. from J. W. Little, 
gardener, 45, then at "Wisbech, Cb. 262. 

*19. m2. Mattishall (:msets'l) (11 
wnw. Norwich) cs. pal. by AJE. from 
Miss Buckle, of "Whitelands, 273. 

*19. m3. Middleton (3 se.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 261, 262. 

*19. nI. Narborough (9 se.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262, and dt. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of a labourer, 
aged 70, p. 263. 

19. n2. North Elmham (13 sse. 
"Wells-next-Sea) wn. by TH. 

*19. n3. North Tuddenham (11 nw. 
Norwich) wn. by TH. 279. 

•19. n4. North Walsham (-.wAlsBm) 
(13 nne.Norwich) wl. and dt. io. by 
Mr. Baker, J.P. 272. 

*19. n5. Norwich (1) wn. by TH. 
from a native living in Db., also 279 ; 
(2) street cries pal. by AJE. in 1867, p. 
277 ; (3) wl. io. by Eev. G. P. Buck ; 



(4) various ex. pal. from diet, by AJE. 
from Dr. Lomb, 276, Mrs. Luscombe, 
277, Anonymous passenger, 277, and 
from letter of Bev. T. Burningham, 277. 

*19. ol. Old Hunstanton (13 nne. 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. o2. Ovington (:9V*qt«n) (12 nne. 
Thetford) wl. io. representing 3 n. and 
3 ne. of Watton (11 ne.Thetford) by 
Eev. C. J. Evans, rect. 12 y., native 
of Norwich. 

19. r. Bingstead (13 w-by-s.Wells- 
next-Sea) wl. io. by Mr. Everard 
Kitton. 

*19. si. Snettisham (:snEts«m) (10 
nne.King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. s2. Stanhoe (.-sta'ne) (8 sw. 
Wells-next-Sea) full wl. pal. in 1877 
by AJE., dt. pal. by AJE. 1879, both 
from diet, of Eev. Philip Hoste, native, 
50 y., in 1877, but then rect. of 
Farnham (10 wsw.Guildford, Sr.), 
with many notes and illustrations given 
me in two long visits, with an exami- 
nation of Forby, 264 to 272 ; (2) wn. 
by TH. 272. 

19. s3. Stoke Ferry (13 sse.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 

19. s4. Stow (9 ssw.King's Lynn) 
wn. by TH. 

*19. s5. Swaffham (13 se.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. Tl. Terrington St. Clements 
(4 w.King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. t2. Thetford wn. by TH. 279. 

19. t3. Tivetshall (:tits«l) (17 ene. 
Thetford) name noted by TH. 

19. t4. Tuttington (12 n.Norwich) 
wl. io. by Eev. J. Gostle. 

19. wl. Walsingham (:wA'lziqgjam) 
(3 s."Wells-next-Sea) name noted by 
TH. 

*19. w2. Warham (2 se.Wells- 
next-Sea) wl. io. by Eev. C. T. Digby, 
264. 

19. w3. Watton (11 nne.Thetford) 
wn. by TH. 

19. w4. Wells-next-Sea, wn. by 
TH. 

*19. w5. Wiggenhall St. German's 
(4 ssw.King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. w6. Witton (9 se.Cromer) notes 
by Eev. F. Procter, vie. 

*19. w7. Wolferton (6 nne.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. w8. Wymondham (:windBm) 
(9 sw.Norwich) wn. by TH. 278. 



E.E. Pron. Part V. 



50* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



25. Np. = Northamptonshire, 52 places in D 6, 16, 18. 



*18. a1. Ailesworth (5 W.Peter- 
borough) in Castor parish, wn. by TH. 
from a labourer b. 1808, p. 254. 

*6. a2. Ashby St. Legers (3 n. 
Daventry) wn. by TH. from a native 
shepherd b. 1845, and another b. 1805, 
p. 120. 

*6. Bl. Badby (2J ssw.Daventry) 
m. by TH. from persons b. 1807, and 
about 1831, p. 120. 

16. b2. Blisworth (4 ssw.Northamp- 
ton) note by TH. 

*16. b3. Brixworth (6 n.Northamp- 
ton) wn. by TH. 219. 

*6. b4. Byfield (8 nne.Banbury) (1) 
from Eev. F. H. Curgenven, rect. 4 or 
5 y. ; (2) wn. by TH. especially from 
a native farm waggoner, b. 1803, p. 120. 

*18. cl. Castor (4J W.Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. 254. 

*16. c2. Clay Coton (6 w.Naseby) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*6. d1. Daventry (12 w-by-n. 
Northampton) wn. by TH. 120. 

16. d2. Denton (6 ese.Northampton) 
wn. by TH. 

16. d3. Duston (2 W.Northampton) 
from Eev. Peake Banton. 

*16. El. Hast Haddon (7 mr. North- 
ampton) cs. wds. and phr. pal. by AJE. 
in 1873 from diet, of G. S. Hadley, 
railway porter, 213 to 216. 

*18. e2. Eye (3 ne.Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. from a carpenter, b. 1822, 
and a widow, a cottager, b. 1829, 
p. 254. 

6. p. Farthinghoe (:fardhin;oo) (5 
e-by-s.Banbury) wn. by TH. 

*16. d. Great Houghton (:a'«t"n) 
(3 ese.Northampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

16. hI. Hackleten (5 se.Northamp- 
ton) wn. by TH. 

*16. h2. .Ha»»i»4r<e»(6nw."Welling- 
borough) wl. dt. io. with lw. and aq. 
by Miss Downes, of the rectory, 216. 

*16. h3. Hardingstone (2 sse. Nor- 
thampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

16. h4. Hargrove (9 ene.Welling- 
borough) dt. and notes from Eev. E. 
S. Baker, rect. 

*16. h5. Harrington (:ar«nten) (5 
w.Kettering) wl..and dt. io. by Hon. 
and Eev. H. P. Tollemache, rect., and 
Miss Tollemache, 217. 

*6. h6. Helmdon (9 e-by-n.Ban- 
bury) wn. by TH., who says the dialect 
is similar to that of Towcester (which 
see), 120. 

16. il . Irchester, formerly (:aa - tjistn) , 



now (:89-ti*stB) (2 se-Wellingborough) 
wn. by TH. 

*16. i2. Islip (:A"tslip) (8 e. Ketter- 
ing) wn. by TH. 219. 

6. l1. Long Buckley (5 ne.Daventry) 
wn. by TH. 

*16. l2. Lower Benefield (ibEniflld) 
(14 nnw.'Wellingborough) wl. and dt. 
io. by Eev. E. M. Moore, rect., and 
Mr. C. H. Wykes, schoolmaster, and 
the dt. afterwards pal. by TH. from 
the dictation of Mr. Wykes and various 
wn. from the same, 218, 219. 

*16. l3. Lowick (7 ene.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*16. Hi. Nether Heyford (6 w-by-s. 
Northampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

*16. n2. Northampton (1) wn. by 
TH., and (2) notes from Miss Eva 
Chapman, of "Wnitelands, who knew 
the town speech only, 219. 

*16. o. Oundle (12 ne.Kettering) (1) 
notes from Mr. J. Cunnington, Tansor 
Lodge, and Mr. H. St. John Eeade, 
school house, (2) wn. by TH. 219. 

*18. pi. Peakirk (5 n.Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. 254. 

*18. p2. Peterborough notes of town 
pron. from Miss E. Furness, of White- 
lands, and wn. by TH. 254. 

*18. n. Rockingham (8 n. Kettering) 
wn. by TH. from a native, b. 1814, 
and others, 254. 

*16. Bl. Sibbertoft (3 n-by-w. 
Naseby) wn. by TH. 219. 

6. s2. Silverstone (12 ssw.North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 

6. s3. Slapton (11 sw. Northampton) 
dt. io. by Eev. Philip Lockton, rect. 

*16. s4. Stanion (6 nne.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

♦16. s5. Sudborough (7 ene.Ketter- 
ing) wn. by TH. 219. 

*6. s6. Syersham (11 e.Banbury) 
wn. by TH. 120. 

18. t1. Thornhaugh (8 w-by-n.Peter- 
borough) dt. io. from Eev. J. Jenkyns, 
rect. 

*16. t2. Thrapston (8 e.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*6. t3. Towcester (8 ssw.North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 120. 

18. u. XJfford (7 nw. Peterborough) 
note by Eev. T. Paley, rect. 

*18. wl. Wakerley (14 w. Peter- 
borough) wn. by TH. from a farm 
labourer, b. 1806, p. 254. 

*6. w2. Watford (5 nne.Daventry) 
wn.by TH. 120. 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



51* 



*6. w3. Weedon (4 se.Daventry) 
wn. by TH. 120. 

*16. w4. Welford (12iroe.Daventry) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*16. w5. Wellingborough wn. by 
TH. 219. 

*18. w6. Werrington (3 nnw.Peter- 
borough) wn. by TH. 254. 

16. w7. West Sadden (7 ne. 



Daventry) from Rev. G. L. W. 
Fauquier, vie. 

6. w8. WoodBurcote (10 ssw.North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 

*6. w9. Woodford (7 ssw.Daventry) 
wn. by TH. 120. 

*16. t. Yelvertofthwlvtvt) (8 nne. 
Daventry) wn. by TH. in 1886 from a 
farm waggoner, b. 1812, p. 219. 



26. NT). = Northumberland, 25 places in D 32. 



32. Al. Acklmgton (tee-klintsn) (7 
sse.Alnwick) notes from Mr. Middletou 
H. David, Hauxley Cottage. 

•32. a2. Alnwick (I) at. io. from 
Rev. James Blythe; (2) dt. io. from 
Mr. R. Middlemas, solr., 654, 656, 
668 ; (3) Alnwick vowels, by Mr. G. 
Thompson, 668. 

32. A3. Ancroft (a 1 nkra 1 ft) (4 s. 
Berwick-upon-Tweed) wl. io. and aq. 
from Rev. J. Henderson, 30 y. 

*32. b1. Baekworth (5 ne.Newcastle) 
wl. by Mr. G. B. Foster, see Pitmen's 
speech, 674. 

*32. b2. Berwick-upon-Tweed, cs. 
pal. by AJE., from Mr. G. M. Gunn, 
645, 652. 

*32. b3. BirtUy (9 nnw.Hexham, 
spelled Birkley in the parish registers) 
wl. io. with notes by Rev. G. Rome 
Hall, 674. 

32. d. Doddington (13 s. Berwick- 
upon-Tweed) wl. and aq. from Mr. 
J. F. Rea, 17 y. 

*32. B. Embleton (6 ne.Alnwick) 
(1) dt. io. for the agricultural popula- 
tion by Rev. M. Creighton, vie. ; (2) 
dt. io. for the fishing population up to 
Bamborough (14 n.Alnwick) bjr Rev. 
C. K. Green), both on 655, 656, 668. 

*32. p. FaUtone (19 nw.Hexham), 
note in 1878 by JGG. 644. 

*32. Hi. Saltwhistle(li-w. .Hexham) 
dt. io. with aq. by Rev. W. Howchin, 
654, 656, 664, No. 9. 

*32. h2. JS r ar*o«fe(17wsw.Alnwick) 
dt. io. and notes by Dr. F. T. Richard- 
son, 654, 656, 664, No. 16. 

*32. h3. Hexham dt. pal. in 1879 
by AJE. from Messrs. J. Wright and 
Dobson, 654, 666, 663, Nos. 7 and 8. 

*32. x. Knaresdale {\T sw.'B.eHa&m) 
cs. pal. 1876 by JGG. from diet, of 
Mr. Jacob Bell, 563, 602, No. 22. 

32. m. Morpeth wn. by AJE. 

*32. n1. Newcastle-on- Tyne cs. pal. 
1879 by AJE. from writing of Mr. 
W. H. Dawson, and reading of Mr. 
T. Mitcheson, and Mr. T. Barkas, and 



conversations with J. Bryson and R. 
Young, miners, and Mrs. Ferschl, 645, 
650, and dt. pal. 1879 by AJE. from 
Mr. W. Lyall, 654, 656, No. 12. 

*32. n2. North Shields dt. pal. 
1879, by AJE. from Mr. J. S. Eding- 
ton, Symes Walk, 654, 656, No. 13. 

*32. k. Bothbury (11 sw. Alnwick) 

(1) cs. io. with aq. from Rev. Dr. 
Ainger, rect., written in 1873 from 
old men of 86 and 72, but it could 
not be properly interpreted even w. ; 

(2) dt. io. by Mr. C. H. Cadogan, 
Brenchburn Priory, Morpeth ; (3) wn. 
February, 1879, by AJE. from J. 
Ramsey, procured by Dr. Ainger, 678 ; 
(4) dt. pal. by AJE. from Mr. A. 
Scott, 654, No. 14. 

*32. si. Snifter (12 wsw. Alnwick) 
pal. by AJE. from Mr. T. Allen, 
of Whittingham, 654, No. 15, serving 
also for w3. 

*32. s2. Stamfordham (ista'norttm) 
(12 nw.Newcastle) dt. io. by Rev. 
J. F. Bigge, vie. 654, No. 10. 

*32. T. Tyne to Wansbeck Bivers, 
that is, the coal-fields, for the Pit- 
men's speech by Rev. Hugh Taylor, 
of Humshaugh (:hwmz"ha'f), 40 y., 
revised by Rev. J. Taylor and Mr. 
W. B. Forster, see b1, p. 674. 

*32. wl. Warkworth (6 se.Aln- 
wick) dt. and wl. both paL by AJE. 
from Mr. T. D. Ridley, 654, No. 17 ; 
Ned White, a yarn, pal. by AJE. from 
the same, 666 ; owl. 678. 

*32. w2. Whalton (5 sw.Morpeth) 
dt. io. by Rev. J. Walker, rect., from 
notes by Mr. R. Bewick, 654, No. 11. 

*32. w3. Whittingham (f w.Aln- 
wick) (1) note by Rev. R. W. Good- 
enough, vie. ; (2) dt. io. by Mr. W. 
Dixon, 656, No. 19, see also si. 

32. w4. Woodhorn (6 ene.Morpeth) 
notes by Rev. E. N. Mangin, vie. 

*32. w5. Wooler (I) dt. io. by Mr. 
M. T. Culley, 655, No. 22; (2) dt. 
pal. by AJE. from Mr. T. Kirkup, 
655, No. 22, and 669, No. 22. 



52* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



(2) part of a cs. pal. in 1873 by AJE. 
from the diet, of Mr. Francis Miles, 
son of the rect. 449 ; (3) part of a cs. 
pal. in 1879 by TH. from a native, 
449 ; (4) wn. by TH. 450. 

27. b3. Blyth (6 nne.Worksop) aq. 
from Rev. Ch. Gray, vie. 

*27. b4. Bulwell (4 nnw.Notting- 
ham) dt. pal. from a retired labourer 
by TH. 448. 

*27. El. East Retford (7 ene.Work- 
sop) (1) dt. pal. by TH. from the lock- 
keeper at the Chesterfield Canal, 76, 
who had been there 44 years, and his 
father 56, p. 449 ; (2) wn. by TH. ; 

(3) a note from Rev. A. J. Ebsworth, 
vie. 

27. E2. Eastwood (8 nw.Notting- 
ham) wn. by TH. 

27. P. Finningley (7 ese.Doncaster, 
To.) wl. and aq. from Rev. G. H. 
"Woodhouse, rect. 

27. o. Gringley (5 wnw. Gains- 
borough, Li.) aq. from Rev. G. H. 
Scott, vie. 

27. K. Kirkby-in-Ashfield (4 sw. 
Mansfield) wn. by TH. 

27. l. Laxton (10 nnw.Newark) wl. 
by Rev. H. A. Martin, 19 y. 

*27. Ml. Mansfield dt. andwn. pal. 
1879 by TH. 448. 

*27. m2. Mansfield Woodhouse (2 n. 



27. Nt.= Nottinghamshire, 25 places, all in D 27. 

27. Bl. BecMngham (2 wnw.Gains- 
borough, Li.) aq. from Rev. D. 
Hooke, vie. 

*27. b2. Bingham (7 e.Nottingham) 
(1) lw. by Mrs. Miles of the Rectory ; 



dt. pal. by TH. from a 
native, 448. 

27. m3. Mattersey (9 ne."Worksop) 
wds. by Rev. J. M. Lewes. 

27. m4. Misson (9 nw. Gains- 
borough, Li.) aq. from Rev. I. N. 
Baldwin, vie. 

27. m5. Misterton (5 nnw.Gains- 
borough, L.) aq. from Rev. G. Swift, 
vie. 

*27. wl. Newark dt. pal. by TH. 
from a butcher, native of Caunton (5 
nw.Newark), 449, and wn. by TH. 

27. n2. North Carlton (4 n.Work- 
sop) aq. from Rev. J. Foxley, rect. 

27. n3. North Wheatley (12 nne. 
"Worksop) from Rev. T. C. B. 
Chamberlain, vie. 

*27. n4. Nottingham dt. pal. by 
TH. from a native of Widmerspool 
(7 sse.Nottingham), and wn. by TH. 
450. 

27. b.1. Ralcliffe (4 e.Nottingham) 
full wl. io. by Rev. J. Cullen, vie. 4 y. 

27. b2. Bempstone (9 S.Nottingham) 
wl. by Rev. G. Pope. 

*27. si. Southwell (5 w.Newark) 
wn. by TH. 450. 

27. s2. Sutton (7 ne.Worksop) aq. 
from Rev. J. Farmer, vie. 

27. wl. Walesby (8 se."Worksop) 
lw. by Rev. R. Poeklington, vie. 

*27. w2. Worksop dt. pal. 1879 by 
TH. from the porter at the canal wharf, 
56, a native of Blyth, see b3, which he 
left at 9, and wn. from the same, 
449. 



28. Ox. = Oxfordshire, 22 places in D 5, 6, and 7. 



5. A. Alveseot (:8elsh«t) (6 sw. 
"Witney) wl. by Rev. F. C. Marshall, 
rect. 2 y., assisted by an unnamed lady 
who had been there all her life. 

*6. Bl. Banbury (1) cs. by Mr. T. 
Beesley, 116 ; (2) lw. by his uncle, 118; 
(3) wn. byTH. 118 ; (4) dt. io. by Mrs. 
P. Bradshaw, jun., Wykham Mills. 
All (1, 2, 4) refer to about 6 m. round 
Banbury, encroaching on Ox., Bu., 
Va., which belong to D 7. 

*7. b2. Blackthorn (11 ne.Oxford) 
wd. pal. by TH. from diet, of Mrs. 
Angelina Parker, 122, 127. 

5. cl. Charlbury (itjAAlberi) (12 
nw. Oxford) from Rev. C. F. West, vie. 

5. c2. Chastleton(li sw.Banbury 
dt. io. from Miss Whitmore Jones, 
Chastleton House. 



*5. d. Ducklington (:dak'lt'n) (1 s. 
Witney) wl. and dt. both io. from 
Rev. "W. D. Macray, rect. pal. w. by 
TH., who noted other words from 
J. Brain, then 81, since deceased, 
93. 

7. e. Unshorn or Eynsham (:eens«m) 
(5 nw.Oxford) specimens from diet, in 
glossic from Rev. "W. "W. Skeat, sent 
me in MS. but afterwards printed in 
Mrs. Parker's Oxford Glossary, and 
wn. by TH. 

*7. pi. Freeland (4 ene.Witney) 
wn. by TH. 127. 

•7. f2. Fringford (:fr»qkfBRD) (15 
nne.Oxford) wl. and dt. io. with aq. 
by Rev. C. Coker, 123. 

•7. a. Greys (2 nw.Henley-on- 
Thames) wl. and dt. both io. by Rev. 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



53* 



N. Pinder, rect. 17 y., representing 
10 m. round, 122. * 

*7. h1. Bandborough (7 nw. Oxford) 
cs. and dt. glossic with many letters 
and explanations by Mrs. Angelina 
Parker, author of the Oxford Glossary, 
■with wn. by TH. from Mrs. Parker, 
123-128. 

*7. h2. Henley-on-Thames (22 se. 
Oxford) from vicar, 235, where it is 
wrongly attributed to Bu. 

*7. h3. Bolton (5 e.Oxford) lw. 
glossic by Mrs. A. Parker, 127. 

•7. i. Islip (5 n-by-e. Oxford) dt. io. 
by Mr. J. W. F. Walker, obtained by 
Mrs. Parker and wn. by TH. 127. 

*5. lI. Leafteld (4 nw. Witney) wn. 
from old natives by TH. 93. 



5. l2. Lew (3 sw.Witney) wds. pal. 
by TH. from diet, of Mrs. A. Parker. 

5. M. Milton (8 nw. Witney) wn. 
from a working man by TH. 

7. o. Oxford City, At. io. byMr.W. 
H. Allnutt, procured by Mrs. A. Parker, 
with notes by TH. 

*7. si. Sonning (4 ssw.Henley-on- 
Thames) dt. io. by Miss Slade, school- 
mistress, obtained by Mrs. A. Parker, 
122. 

7. s2. Stonesfield (5 nne.Witney) 
note by TH. 

7. t. Tiddington (8 e.Oxford) note 
byTH. 

*5. w. Witney, dt. by Mrs. A. 
Parker and TH. with wn. from natives 
by TH. 92, 93. 



29. Ku.= Rutland, 5 places in D 18. 



*18. c. Cottesmore (4 nne.Oakham) 
wl. and dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. T. E. Cattell, native, to whom I 
was introduced by Miss Kemm (see 
Oakham), 255, 256. 

18. e. Empingham (6 e.Oakham) 
from Rev. Lovick Cooper, rect. 

*18. o. Oakham (:uu - k<3m) town, 
full wl. io. partly pal. by AJE. from 
diet, of Miss Kemm, native, a teacher 



at Whitelanda Training College, 
Chelsea, 256. 

*18. s. Stretton (7 ne. Oakham) wl. 
and dt. both io. from Bev. Edward 
Bradley (" Cuthbert Bede ") rect. 
256. 

18. v. Uppingham dt. and notes 
from Mr. H. Chandler, West Bank. 

18. w. WAitwell (4 e.Oakham) lw. 
io. from Bev. J. Breechen, rect. 



30. Sh.= Shropshire, 39 places in D 13, 14, 25, 28, 29. 



14. b1. Basehureh (7 nw.Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 

29. b2. Bolas Magna (6 n. Welling- 
ton) wn. by TH. 

14. b3. Bridgenorth, notes by TH. 

*14. cl. Church Pulverbach (7 sw. 
Shrewsbury) (1) cs. in gl. by Miss G. 
Jackson, author of the Shropshire 
Wordbook ; (2) specimen pal. by AJE. 
from her diet. ; (3) lw. with pron. pal. 
from her diet. ; (4) wds. taken from 
TH.'s account of the pron. prefixed to 
her Wordbook, and revised by her, with 
examples, 183 to 187. 

14. c2. Clee Sills (7 ne.Ludlow) 
wn. by TH. with note on the verbal 
plural in -en. 

13. c3. Clun (22 ssw. Shrewsbury) 
notes by TH. 

*29. c4. Coalbrookdale (4 s. Welling- 
ton) dt. by Bev. F. W. Bagg, native, 
472. 

14. c5. Carve Bale, from Wenlock 
Edge to Ludlow, wn. by TH. 

14. c6. Craven Arms (7nw.Ludlow) 
wn. by TH. 



29. o7. Crudgington (4 n-by-w. 
Wellington) wn. TH. 

*29. El. Edgmond (6 ne.Wellington, 
1J w.Newport) dt. pal. by TH. from 
a native, and wn. 471, 476, 478. 

*28. e2. Ellesmere (7 ne.Oswestry) 
wn. and dt. pal. by TH. from a native 
b. 1809, p. 452, 465. 

14. f. Ford (5 W.Shrewsbury) nwl. 
from Miss Hawkins, Dinthill. 

28. Hi. Badnall (4 n-by-e.Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 

*29. h2. Eodnet (:odnit) (10 nnw. 
Wellington) wn. by TH. 478. 

*28. h3. Eordley (13 nnw.Shrews- 
bury) wl. io. by Bev. J. W. Moore, 
rect. 455. 

*29. i. Xronbridge, wn. by TH. 
483. 

14. lI. Llanymyneeh (15 wnw.S.) 
aq. on CB. by Bev. N. E. Price, rect. 

14. l2. Longville (11 w.Bridge- 
north) wn. by TH. 

*28. l3. Zoppington (:loptten) (10 n. 
Shrewsbury) wl. by Bev. J. W. Davis, 
M.A., 25 y. p. 455. 



54* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



•13. Li. Ludlow wn. by. TH. 180. 

*29. Ml. Madeley (5 ase. Wellington) 
wn. .by TH. 483. 

*29. m2. MarketDrayton(:diit'n) (17 
ne. Shrewsbury) wn. by TH. 476, 478. 

14. m3. Much Wenlock (10 se. 
Shrewsbury) wn. by TH. in 1880. 

*29. Hi. Newport (8 ne. Wellington) 
(1) full wl. io. by Mrs. Burne, Loyn- 
ton Hall, Edgmond, whose daughter 
assisted Miss Jackson in her Sh. 
"Wordbook, and (2) wn. by TH. 478. 

25. n2. Norton-in-Hales (20 ne. 
Shrewsbury) wn. by TH. 

14.o. Oswestry (:hodjestrt) according 
to Eev. W. Walsham How, of Whit- 
tington, Sh. ; wn. by TH. 

25. pi. Pipegate (6 ne. Market 
Drayton, see m2, just on ne. horn of 
Sh.) wn. by TH. 

28. p2. .rW*(l3n-by-e.Shrew8bury) 
wl. by Yen. Archdeacon Allen, Tic, 
14 y. 



*29. si. Shifnal (7 ese.Wellington) 
wn. by TH. 483. 

14. s2. Shrewsbury wn. by TH. 

*28 v. Upton Magna (4 e.Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 455. 

*29. wl. Wellington (:wEWtran) wn. 
and dt. pal. by TH. from a working 
man, 472, and wn. 483. 

*28. w2. WeUh Frankton (3 sw. 
Ellesmere) wn. by TH. 455. 

*28. w3. Wem (10 n-by-e. Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 455. 

28. w4. Whitchurch (Wrme.Shiews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 

14. w5. Whittington (2 ne.Oswestry) 
full wl. by Eev. W. Walsham How, 
26y. 

•28. -w6. 7Fftia;aB(13n.Shrewsbury) 
dt. io. with explanations from Eev. J. 
Evans, vie, a very old resident, but 
a Welshman, not a native, 452. 

*28. t. Torton (7 n. Shrewsbury) 
wn. by TH. 455. 



31. Sm.= Somersetshire, 26 places in D 4 and 10. 



*3. A. Axe-Yarty district by the late 
Mr. G. P. E. Pulman, s.Sm. 87-89. 

4. si. Bath, cs. gl. by Mr. 0. 
Galbraith, written on the spot by a 
long resident, but when I, who had 
resided in Bath two years, attempted 
to pal. it, I was so often brought to 
a standstill, that I was only able to use 
it as a lw. 

10. b2. Bishop's Hull (1 w-by-s. 
Taunton) cs. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Eev. Wadham Williams, author of a 
glossary, but as he was a native of 
e.Sm. I have preferred Mr. Elworthy's 
version, see Wellington. 

3. b3. Burtle Turf Moor (8 ne. 
Bridgewater to centre of Burtle Heath 
on the river Brue) wds. and phr. by 
Miss Westmacott, sent through Mr. 
P. H. Dickinson, of King's Weston, 
Somerton (4 ene. Langport). 

*4. ol. Castle Cary (^ksri) (10 se. 
"Wells) wl. io. by Mr. Boss, resident 
above 80 y. 89. 

4. o2. Chard (12 sse.Taunton) wl. by 
the late Eev. Henry Thompson, vie. 

4. c3. Chedzoy (:tjBdn) (2 e. Bridge- 
water) from Mr. G. "Winter, resident 
50y. 

*4. c4. Combe Down (:kuum) (2 s. 
Bath) wl. by Mr. C. Daubeny, The 
Brow, 89. 

4. c5. Compton Dando (6 w. Bath) 
note by Eev. C. M. Christie, 4 months 
resident. 



4. 06. Crewkerne (11 s-by-e.Lang- 
port) dt. io. with notes by the late Mr. 
G. P. E. Pulman (d. 1880), author of 
"Eustic Sketches." 

4. c7. Croscombe (3 e. Wells) wl. io. 
by Mr. James Eossiter. 

4. B. East Harptree (12 sw.Bath), 
from Eev. C. H. Nutt, 25 y. 

4. H. High Ham (3 n.Langport) 
from Eev. C. D. Crossman, 2J y. 

*4. l. Langport (da'mprsRT) words 
collected in 1877 from a native servant 
by Mrs. Dawes, then of Newton House, 
Surbiton, 89. 

*4. Ml. Merriot (9 s-by-e.Langport) 
cs. and wl. by Mr. G. P. E. Pulman, 
87, 88. 

10. m2. Milverton (6 w.Taunton) 
cs. io. by Mr. H. Eandolph, surgeon, 
resident 42 y., procured for me by Dr. 
Prior (see Corsham, Wl.) . I have found 
it quite impossible to determine the 
pron. from this writing. 

*4. m3. Montaeute (.-manikiu) (8 sse. 
Langport) pal. in 1880 by AJE. from 
Messrs. G. Mitchell -and S. Price, 
84-86. 

4. Nl. Naihea (:na'tzt) (16w-by-n. 
Bath) from Eev. J. Johnson, rect. 3J y. 

4. n2. North Wootton (2 se. Wells) 
from Eev. Owen B. Tyler, vie. 30 y. 

4. si. Sutton Mallet (4 e. Bridge- 
water) wds. by Eev. A. Tarrantou, 
representing 7 e. Bridgewater, obtained 
by Miss Westmacott, and sent through 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



55* 



Mr. F. H. Dickinson, see Burtle Tuxf 
Moor. 

4. s2. Swanswiek (:swanzwjk), the 
spelling Swainswick is a literary revival 
(2 ne.Bath), note by Rev. John Earle, 
rect. 20 y. 

10. t. Taunton es. io. by Mr. 
Cecil Smith. I have found it im- 
possible to determine the pron. from 
the spelling. 

*4. wl. Wedmore (7 wnw.Wells) 
phr. procured from a friend by Mr. 
C. A. Homfray, Manor House, 89. 

*10.-w2. Wellington (6 wsw. Taunton) 
(1) pal. by AJE. in 1874, 1875, and 
1885, from diet, of F. T. Elworthy, 
cs. 148 ; (2) specimens 151 to 153, 



cwl. 153; (3) from Mr. E.'s West 
Somerset Grammar, version of Ruth, 
chap. i. 698, No. 5. 

West Somerset, see Wellington. 

4. w3. Winemton (15 se. Wells) 
pal. by J66. from diet, of Mr. Roberts, 
native, who had known the dialect 
30 y., but was then living at New- 
biggin, Cu. On account of Mr. R.'s 
long residence in the North, this care- 
fully pal. wl. was found untrustworthy, 
and could not be used. 

*i. w4. Worle (2 ne.Weston-super- 
Mare) nwl. with long explanatory letter 
from Rev. W. F. Rose, vie., referring 
to the whole of nw.Sm. 90. 



32. St. = Staffordshire, 51 places in D 25, 26, 29. 



*26. Al. AlstonefieU (lA'rsfild) (9 
e.Leek) including Narrowdale (2 n. 
Alstonefleld) wn. by TH. 441, 444. 

25. a2. Alton (:d«t'n) (10 sse.Leek) 
wn. by TH. 

25. a3. Audley (:B'tdlt) (6 nw. 
Stoke-upon-Trent) wl. io. and aq. from 
Mr. G. Till, 11 y., but notwithstanding 
explanations I was too uncertain of the 
meaning of his symbols to use it. 

*29. b1. Bartm-u,nder-NeedwooA{b 
sw.Burton-on-Trent) lw. by the late 
Mrs. Willoughby Wood, of Hollyhurst, 
482, and pron. of a carol, 477. 

25. b2. Betley (6 wnw.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wl. and dt. io. from 
Miss E. Toilet, from observation made, 
1820-50. 

25. b3. Biddulph (:bid'l) (9 n.Stoke) 
wds. from Rev. F. Elmes. 

25. b4. Blylhe Marsh (7 se.New- 
castle-under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 

29. b5. Bradley (4 ssw.Stafford) 
wl. and phrases io. by Rev. R. L. 
Lowe, vie. 

*25. b6. Burslem (3 n.Stoke) cs. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of one native, 
and corrections by another, and wn. 
414, 422. 

*29. b7. Burton-on- Trent dt. pal. 
by TH. from diet, of a native, 471, 
and wn. and exs. 477, cwl. 482. 

*29. cl. Cannock Chase (e. of Cannock 
Town c2, and w. of Lichfield) cs. pal. 
by TH. from diet, of a native, 463, 
and wn. 480. 

*29. c2. Cannock Town (9 sse.Staf- 
ford) wn. on a market day by TH. 480. 

25. c3. Cheadle (:tpid'l) (9 ese. 
Stoke) wl. by Rev. R. Watt, rect., 
and wn. by TH. 



*29. c4. Codsatt (5 nw. Wolver- 
hampton) just on b. of Sh., wl. by 
Mr. E. Viles, of Codsall Wood, 484, 
and dt. pal. by TH. from a man of 69. 

•29. Dl. Darlaston (3 wsw. Walsall) 
dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of a native, 
472, and also the anecdote of the Wake 
Beef pal. by TH. 478,andwn. 461, 484. 

25. d 2. Denston (12 sse.Leek) wn. 
by TH. 

*29. e1. Eccleshall (7 nw.Stafford) 
wn. and dt. pal. by TH. 471, 476, 478. 

29. b2. Enville (10 ssw.Wolver- 
hampton) wl. by Mr. E. Bennett, of 
the Schoolhouse, which is close by the 
b. of Sh. Wa. and St. 

•26. pi. Flash (7 nne.Leek) dt. pal. 
by TH. from a native, 438, additional 
ex. 441, and wn. 444. 

*25. p2. Froghall (9 e.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

*29. Hi. Hanbury (6 nw.Burton- 
on-Trent) wn. and part of a dt. pal. 
by TH. 482. 

*29. h2. Haughton (4 sw.Stafford) 
wn. by TH. in 1882 from Powell, b. 
1798, and his wife, the latter a native, 
and says there is no difference between 
the speech of Bradley and that of 
Haughton, 477, 480. 

*29. b3. Hopwas (:op'i3z) (2 wnw. 
Tamworth) wn. by TH. 482. 

*25. Ll. Leek, dt. and wn. by TH. 
411, 422. 

*25. l2. Leek Frith (4 n.Leek) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

29. l3. Leigh (11 se. Stoke) wn.by TH. 

*29. l4. Lichfield, wn. and dt. by 
TH. from a native, 472, 482. 

*25. l5. Longport (2 n.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 422. 



56* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



25. l6. Zongton (3 se.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 

25. m. Madeley (4 wsw.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) m. by TH. 

29. h. Newborough (7 w-by-n. 
Burton-on-Trent) nwl. by Rev. J. P. 
"Wright, vie. 8 months. 

25. o. Oakamoor (12 e.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 

*26. r. Boeester (15 ese.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 422, 444. 

25. si. £Ae»o» (1 n.Stoke) full wl. 
by Dr. J. B. Davis, F.R.S., F.S.A., 
materially assisted by Mr. Levi Stanway, 
Eegistry St., Stoke, and wn. by TH. 

29. s2. Stafford, wn. by TH. 

25. s3. Stoke-itpon- Trent and neigh- 
bouring villages, wn. by TH. 

26. s4. Stoke Gutter Farm, about 
5 ne.Leek, on the way from Leek to 
Flash and past the Roaches, wn. by 
TH. shewing the division between 
D 25 and D 26. 

29. s5. Stone (:stuun) (7 s. Stoke) 
wn. by TH. 

29. s6. Stretton (8 ssw.Stafford) wl. 
and dt. io. by Rev. J. W. Napier, vie. 

*29.Tl. 3'«»»«w«,wn.byTH.482. 



•25. t2. Tunstall (imm.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

*29. t3. Tutbury (4 nw.Burton-on- 
Trent) wn. by TH. 482. 

29. t/1. Upper (or Over) Arley 
(13 sw.Dudley, Wo.) note by Rev. 
C. J. 'Wilding, vie, who said there 
was only one St. man resident there. 

29. v2. TTttoxeter (12 ne. Stafford) 
wn. by TH. 

*29. wl. Walsall wn. by TH. 461, 
478, 484. 

*29. w2. Wednesbury (3 sw.Walsall) 
wn. byTH. 461, 484. 

*29. w3. West Bromwich (5 ssw. 
Walsall) wn. by TH. 461, 484. 

*29. w4. Willenhall (3 e.Wolver- 
hampton) wn. by TH. 461, 484. 

25. w5. Wolstanton (:unsj'tBn) (1 
nne.Newcastle-under-Lyne) nwl. by 
Mr. W. Field, Brighton Road School, 
Croydon. 

*29. w6. Wolverhampton, wn. by 
TH. 461, 484. 

*29. w7. Wootton (If ssw.Eccle- 
shall) wn. by TH. 478. 

*29. t. Toxall (6 nne.Lichfield) wn. 
by TH. from a native, 482. 



33. St. = Suffolk, 12 places in D 19. 



19. b1. Boyton (13 e-by-n.Ipswich) 
note from Rev. G. 0. Hoste, rect. 

19. b2. Bradwell (jbrsed'l) (7 nnw. 
Lowestoft) note by Rev. J. Walker, 
rect., "13 years resident, but does not 
profess acquaintance with the dialect." 

*19. p. Framlingham (13 nne. 
Ipswich) cs. pal. in 1880 by AJE. 
from diet, of Mr. J. B. Grant, native 
of Kettleborough, 279. 

*19. ol. Great Beatings (4 ne. 
Ipswich) wn. by TH. 281. 

19. g2. Great Finborough (:f»nbr«) 
(10 se.Bury St. Edmunds) full wl. io. 
by Rev. W. V. Etching, 16 y. 

19. h. Semingstone (6 n. Ipswich) 
lw. by Rev. T. Brown, rect. 54 y., 
who says: "what between railroads 
and education the Sf. dialect is fast 
dying out." 



*19. o. Orford (:AAf«d) (4 sw. 
Aldborough) including Sudbourne (1 n. 
Orford) and neighbourhood, dt. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. C. Davis, 285. 

*19. p. Pakenham (5 ene.Bury St. 
Edmunds), pal. in 1873 and 1886 by 
AJE. from diet, of Rev. C. W. Jones, 
vie. native, 287. 

*19. si. Southwold (11 ssw.Lowes- 
toft), full wl. from diet, of Miss C. M. 
Mallett, teacher at Whitelands, native, 
281. 

19. 82. Stowmarket (13 ese.Bury St. 
Edmunds) lw. partly in gl. by Mr. E. 
S. Bewley, 15 y. 

19. v. Vfford (10 ne.Ipswich) wl. 
io. by Mr. F. C. Brooke, 60 y. 

19. t. Yaxley (20 ene.Bury St. 
Edmunds) notes in 1873 from Rev. 
H. Sewell, vie. 



34. Sr.=Surrey, 13 places in D 5, 8. 

*8 c3. Chobham (8 nnw. Guildford) 
note by Rev. J. J. Jewan, vie, more 
than 50 y., 130. 

*8. c4. Croydon wl. by Mr. W. 
Taylor Malleson, Duppas Hill, 11 y., 
130. i 

5. El. Elstead (:selsted) (7 sw. 



*5. cl. Charlwood, called (itioled) 
by old people, (6 ssw.Reigate) wl. and 
ex. io. by Rev. T. Birmingham, then 
rect., more than 50 y., 109. 

*8. c2. Ohertsey (18 w.Croydon) 
from Rev. R. Marshall Martin, 3 y., 
130. 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



57* 



Guildford) from Rev. I. R. Charles- 
worth, rect. 

6. e2. Ewhurst (8 se. Guildford) 
notes by Rev. J. Mount Barlow, rect. 

5. ol. Godalming (4 sw. Guildford) 
note from Mr. J. W. Sharpe, Charter- 
house. 

5. g2. Godstone (9 sse. Croydon) wl. 
by Rev. G. T. Hoare. 

5. h. Saslemere (12 sw. Guildford) 
note by Mr. T. J. Ellis. 

*8. l. Leatherhead (7 nw.Reigate) 
note in a letter from Mr. Alfred W. T. 
Martel to LLB. 130. 



*5. o. Oehley (8 sw.Reigate) wl. 
pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Jane 
Sayers, of "Whitelands, and of Miss 
M. A. Firth, 109 (where the name is 
misprinted 'Forth'), and lw. and notes 
from Rev. T. P. cm Sautoy, Oxford, 
rect., 12 y. 

*5. s. Stoke (1 n.Guildford) wl. 
pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mies Jane 
Slyfleld, of Whitelands, 109. 

*5. w. Weald of Surrey s. of 
Reigate ; the Weald extends into Kent 
and Sussex, nwl. and dt. io. by Dr. 
Clair Jas. Grece, Redhill, Reigate, 109. 



35. 8s.=Sussex, 19 places in D 5, 8. 



9. a. Ashbumham (:eshlm»Bm) (10 
nne.Eastbourne) note from Rey. J. R. 
Munn, vie. 50y. 

9. Bl. .Ba«fe{6nnw.Hastings), wn. 
l>yTH. 

5. b2. Bolney (:boom) (12 n-by-w. 
Brighton) lw. and notes by Mr. Alfred 
Huth. 

9. b3. Brighton, wn. by TH. 

5. cl. Compton (8 nw. Chichester) 
note from Rev. Harry Peckham, 25 y. 

*8. o2. Cuckfield (9 se.Horsham) (1) 
wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss 
A. Sayers, of Whitelands, 134; (2) 
wd. by Archd. Fearon, native. 

5. e1. Martham (:aRthsm) (5 ne. 
Chichester) note by Rey. E. Kelly, 
vie. 

*9. e2. Eastbourne, wl. pal. by AJE. 
from diet, of Miss Francis, of White- 
lands, 134. 

9. e3. Etehingham (18 ne.East- 
bourne) note by Rev. W. H. Eley, rect. 

5. k. Kirdford (:kaafu'd), a nearly 
extinct pron. (10 w-by-s.Horsham), 
wl. by Miss Cole, of the rectory. 



9. 1,1. Leasam or Leesham (8 ne. 
Hastings) wl. from Miss Bessie Curteis. 

9. 1,2. Lewes, name noted by TH. 

*9. M. Markly (8 wnw.Battle) dt. 
with aq. and notes by Miss Anne M. 
Darby, 133. 

9. p. Pasingtcorth (ipses'nweth), 
wrongly spelled on p. 131, 1. 4, but 
rightly 1. 14 (14 nnw.Eastbourne and 
4 e.Uckfield), notes from Mr. Louis 
Huth, Pasingworth Hawkhurst. 

*9. s. Selmeston (8 nw.Eastbourne) 
dt. io. by Rev. W. D. Parish, author 
of the Sussex Glossary, 133. 

5. t. Twineham (10 nnw.Brighton) 
from Rev. W. Molyneux, rect. 

9. wl. Weald of Sussex (n.Brighton) 
lw. from Mr. Somers Clarke, jun., 
Belgrave Mansions, Grosvenor Gardens, 
S.W., 30y. 

5. w2. West Wittering (6 sw. 
Chichester) from Rev. W. D. Under- 
wood, vie. 

*5. ^3. Wisborough Green (8 wsw. 
Horsham) lw. from Rev. W. A. Bartlett, 
vie. 109. 



36. ¥a.= Warwickshire, 23 places in D 6, 29. 



*29. Al. Allesley Gate (4 w. Coventry) 
wn. by TH. 487. 

*29. a2. Atherstone (12 n. Coventry) 
cs. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. R. 
S. Knight, 14 y., 464, and wn. by 
TH. 487. 

6. bI. Bearley (4 nnw.Stratford-on- 
Avon) wn. by TH. shewing southern 
speech. 

•29. b2. Bedworth (5 nne.Coventry) 
wn. by TH. 487. 

*29. b3. Birmingham, often (:brom- 
BdxBm, br« - bra-) full wl. by Mr. 
Samuel Timmins, 488. 

*29. b4. Brandon (5 ese.Coventry) 



wn. by TH. from a native then at 
Leamington, 487. 

*29. b5; Bulkington (6 ne.Coventry) 
wn. by TH. in 1880 from a native and 
bis mother, in whose lifetime the pron. 
had changed, 487. 

*6. b6. Butler's Marston (:maas'n) 
and 6 miles round (10 s-by-e.Warwick) 
wl. io. by Rev. E. Miller, 115. 

*6. cl. Claverdon (5 w.Warwick) 
wn. and dt. by TH. from a native, 114. 

*29. c2. Coventry refined town 
speech, wn. by TH. 487. 

•29. c3.. Curdworth (:kard«th) (7 
ne.Birmingham) wl. and dt. io. by 



58* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



Mr. J. Montague Dormer, Dunton 
Hall, Minworth (:min«th), 28 y. 
488. 

•29. B. Elmdon (7 ese.Birmingham) 
wl. by Mr. F. J. Mylins, of the rectory, 
488. 

•6. xl. Kineton (:kjint«n) by work- 
ing men, (:ka'int'n) by the middle class 
(9 s-by-e. "Warwick) wn. by TH. from 
a native, US. 

6. k2. Knowle (10 nw. Warwick) 
wl. io. by Kev. J. Howe, vie. 40 y. 

*29. i. Leamington (2 e.Warwick) 
wn. by TH. from a native, 488. 

*29. n. Nuneaton (9 nne.Coventry) 
wn. by TH. 487. 

•6. pi. Pillerton Priors (7| se. 
Stratford-on-Avon), now united with 
Pillerton Hersee to form one parish, 
wn. by TH. from a native labourer, b. 
1819, 115. 

*29. p2. Polesworth (14 n-by-w. 
Coventry) wn. by TH. in 1879 from 



elderly resident natives and habitual 
dialect speakers, 487. 

29. si. Saltley (2 ene. Birmingham), 
a mere suburb, wn. by TH. from 
people in the street. 

29. s2. Sherborne (3 ssw."Warwick) 
wl. io. by Kev. "W. Grice, shewing 
practically rec. pron. 

*6. s3. Stratford-on-Avon (1) cs in 
so. by Mr. G. H. Tomline, school- 
master, made for LLB. who passed it 
on to AJE., who did not succeed in 
palaeotyping it; (2) wn. by TH. in 
1880, 115. 

*6. t. Tysoe (11 se. Stratford-on- 
Avon) (1) wl. by Mrs. Francis, of the 
vicarage, completed from diet, by TH. ; 
(2) wn. by TH. in 1886 principally 
from a man b. 1802, and Ms wife b. 
1809, p. 115. 

•29. w. Warwick wn. by TH., the 
general effect on the ear being quite 
Midland, 488. 



37. "We. = "Westmoreland, 10 places, all in D 31. 

of Mr. Joseph Steel, 660, 663, 599, 
633, No. 12. 

•81. L. Long Sleddale (6 n.Kendal) 
cs. pal. 1875 by JGG. from diet, of 
Bev. T. Clarke, 559, 563. 

*31. x. Milium (5 nnw. Appleby) 
cs. and wl. pal. by JGG. while residing 
there two years with the assistance of 
natives, 661, 563, 599, 633. 

*31. o. Orton (11 ne.Kendal) (I) cs. 
pal. by JGG. from diet, of J. Dover, 
560, 563 ; (2) wl. io. by Bev. C. Holme, 
superseded like A. by the work of JGG. 

31. s. Shop (9 wsw.Appleby) note 
by JGG. that Mr. Hindson, of Xirkby 
Lonsdale, b. 1800, remembered hearing 
(kh, ktoh) in use near this place in 
1818. 

•31. t. Temple Sowerby (6 nnw. 
Appleby) cs. pal. by JGG., and finally 
revised 1877 from diet, of Mrs. Atkinson, 
of Winderwath, 561, 563, 599, 633. 



31. A. Appleby cs. io. with aq. by 
Bev. C. Holme, native of Orton (9 
ssw. Appleby), several years in Mr. 
Richardson s school at Appleby, repre- 
senting m.We. This careful work, 
over which Mr. Holme and I spent 
much time in 1873, has been entirely 
superseded by JGG.'s work. 
. •SI. cl. Casterton (10 se.Kendal, 
and 2 ne.Kirkby Lonsdale) cs. pal. 
1875 by JGG. from a native, 558, 
563, 597rf', No. 6. 

•31. c2. Crosby Savensworth (6 sw. 
Appleby) pal. 1875 by JGG. from 
dictation of Mr. J. Dover, 560, 563, 
599rf, No. 13, 633. 

•31. xl. Kendal (1) cs. pal. by 
JGG. from diet, of Mr. Joseph Brown, 
559, 563, No. 9 ; (2) wl. in glossic by 
Mr. J. Brown himself. 

•31. k2. Kirkby Stephen (9 sse. 
Appleby) pal. 1876 by JGG. from diet. 



38. "WL- "Wiltshire, 18 places, all in B 4. 



4. A. Aldbourne (:aab«RN) (8 se. 
Swindon) wl. io. from Mr. T. H. 
Chandler, jun., who spent the greater 
part of his youth there. 

4. ol. Calm (6 n.Devizes) (1) nwl. 
Bev. G. H. "Wayte, Bonehill, Tam- 
worth, 30 y. ; (2) nwl. Bev. "W. 
"Wayte, 30 y., his brother. 

•4. c2. Chippenham (8 nnw.Devizes) 



from JGG., Hornet and Beetle, 51, 
cwl. 54. 

•4. c3. Christian Malford (10 nnw. 
Devizes) pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Bev. Arthur Law, cs. 44; phrases, 48; 
cwl. 49. 

4. c4. Corsham (7 n.Trowbridge) 
from Dr. E. C. A. Prior, Halse 
House, Taunton, es. pal. from diet, by 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



59* 



AJE. Dr. Prior introduced AJE. to 
Eev. A. Law, whose cs., p. 44, 
superseded this one. 

4. c5. Corsley (8 ssw. Trowbridge) 
from Mrs. G. M. E. Campbell, Corsley 
House, 50 y., wl. io. and notes. 

4. d. Damerham (idsenrisRBm) (9 s. 
Wilton) wl. io. by Eev. W. Owen, 
vie., assisted by bis schoolmaster, a 
native. 

4. e. Bast Knoyle (13 w. Wilton) 
wl. from Eev. 11. N. Milford, rect., 
12 y. 

4. K. Kemble (4 sw. Cirencester, 61.) 
wn. by TH. 

4. m. Maddington (.-maed'nton 
maaRnt'n) (7 n.Wilton) wl. io. from 
Eev. Canon Bennett, vie. of Shrewton 
(1 n.Maddington). 

4. o. Orcheston (:os'n) St. George 
(10 sse.Devizes) wl. io. from Eev. 
Gorges Paulin Lowther, rect., from 
70 y. to 80 y., then 85. 



4. p. Purton (5 nw.Swindon) (1) wl. 
io. for 4 m. round by Major Purton, 
Purton House ; (2) wn. by TH. 

4. si. Salisbury (3 w-by-s. Wilton) 
to Warminster (16 nw. Wilton) (1) wl. 
io. 1877 by Mr. T. H. Chandler, 
Eowde ; (2) dt. 1879 written from his 
diet, by his son. 

4. s2. Seend (4 w.Devizes) wl. io. 
by Eev. A. B. Thynne, vie. 

4. s3. Sopworth (izsep-uth) (18 n. 
Trowbridge) wl. io. for 4 m. west 
and 10 m. east of Swindon, by Eev. 
Joseph Buckley, rect. 

*4. T. Tilshead (8 sse.Devizes) from 
Miss L. H. Johnson, MocMying and 
dt. 68, cwl. 59. 

4. w. Wilton wl. and dt. by Mr. 
Edward Slow, coachbuilder, and con- 
stant resident. 

4. T. Yatesbwy (usetsburi) (7 nne. 
Devizes) wl. io. from Eev. A. C. 
Smith, rect., 50 y. 



39. Wo. = Worcestershire, 25 places in D 6, 13, 29. 



*6. A. Aiberley (8 saw. Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. 113. 

*6. b1. Bengeworth (a suburb of 
Evesham on the opposite side of the 
Avon) wn. by TH. 113. 

*6. b2. Bewdley ^bta'wdli) 3 sw.Kid- 
derminster) wn. in 1880-1-2 by TH. 
especially from a nonagenarian, about 
94, full of vivacity, reading and sewing 
without spectacles, when young a maker 
and seller of ling brooms, 113. 

6. b3. Birt's Morton (6 s. Great 
Malvern) wn. from a native by TH. 

•29. c. Cradley (ikreedli) (9 ne. 
Kidderminster) wn. from native hop- 
pickers by TH. 485. 

*6. dI. Broitwieh (6 ne-by-n. 
Worcester) wn. by TH. 113. 

•29. r>2. Dudley (on an island of 
Wo. locally in St.) cs. by Mr. E. Woof, 
procured by LLB. 463, 464. 

6. d3. Dunley (5 ssw. Kidderminster, 
between Abberley and Stourport) wn. 
byTH. 

13. e1. Eastham (10 sw.Kidder- 
minster) wl. and dt. io. by Eev. H. 
Browne, rect., see Tenbury. 

*6. e2. Eldersfield (9 s. Great 
Malvern) wn. in 1880 by TH. from a 
native b. 1801, left at 13 and resided 
since in m.Wo. 113. 

6. e3. Evesham, dt. and wn. by TH. 
from a market gardener. 

*6. al. Great Malvern, wn. by TH. 
113. 



•6. e2. Great Witley (9 sw. 
Kidderminster) wn. by TH. 113. 

•29. Hi. Sagley (6 ene.Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. 485. 

*6. h2. Hanbury (6 wsw.Eedditch) 
dt. and wn. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Turner, of Whitelands, native, 
112, 113. 

6. h3. Martlebury (3 sse. Kidder- 
minster) dt. with aq. from the Misses 
Haviland, of the rectory, and wn. by 
TH. 

6. x. Kidderminster, wn. by TH. 
from natives. 

*6. m. Malvern Wells and Link, wn. 
by TH. see Gt. Malvern, 113. 

*6. si. Saleway (8 sw.Eedditch) 
wn. by TH. in 1880 from a native, 
113. 

•29. s2. Selly Oak (14 ene. Kidder- 
minster) wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, 
of Miss Sadler, of Whitelands, a 
native, and wn. by TH. in the neigh- 
bourhood, 485. 

*29. s3. Stourbridge (6 ne.Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. who found the 
speech quite Mid. 485. 

6. s4. Stourport (4 ssw.Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. who said the 
speech had " the southern ring." 

13. T. Tenbury (:tEmbrari) (16 wsw. 
Kidderminster) dt. io. by Miss Sweet 
(now Mrs. Chamberlain), author of 
"A Glossary of West Worcestershire 
Words with Glossie Notes by TH.," 



60* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI: 



and wn. by TH. in 1880 from Miss 
Sweet and others. [This was acci- 
dentally omitted in giving the account 
of D 13.] 



6. tr. Upton Snodbury (6 e. Worcester) 
note per Eev. J. Wright, Tic. 

*6. w. Worcester (I) it. pal. byTH. 
112; (2) wn. byTH. 113. 



40. Yo. = Yorkshire, 93 places in D 24, 30, 31. 



24. A.. Armitage Bridge (:eeBmt«di) 
(2 s.Huddersfield) nwl. by Mr. Thomas 
Brooke, 45 y. 

24. b1. Barnborough (6 w.Doncaster) 
pc. from Eev. "Wilmot W. "Ware, rect. 

*24. b2. Barnsley dt. pal. 1887 by 
TH. from diet, of a native, 403. 

24. b3. Birkenshaw (7 sw. Leeds) 
wn. by TH. 

•31. b4. Black Burton or Burton- 
in-Zonsdale, To. (32 nw.Keighley) on 
b. of La., on the Greta, Seward's Dia- 
logue translated by Mr. J. Powley, and 
pal. by JGG. 608 to 616, also cwl. 619. 

*24. b5. Bradford (1) cs. written in 
gl. by CCE. 367, notes 390 ; (2) words 
from Preston's Poems, 391 ; (3) wn.by 
TH. 

24. b6. 2}«>tfA«rt<m(3nne.Pontefract) 
pc. from Eev. G. Haslam, vie. 

*30. b7. Burton Constable (7 ssw. 
Hornsea) wn. by TH. incidentally 
mentioned on the middle of p. 301. 

Burton-in-Zonsdale, see Black Bur- 
ton. 

*24. cl. Calverley (6 wnw.Leeds) 
dt. pal. 1887 by TH. from a native, 
390. 

24. c2. Campsall(6 nnw.Doncaster) 
pc. from Eev. Edwin Castle, vie. 

*31. c3. Cautley, a hamlet in the 
township of Sedberg (41 nw.Keighley), 
on b. of "We., (1) cs. pal. 1876 by 
JGG., used as variants to the cs. for 
Sedberg, notes No. 8, p. 559, 698 ; (2) 
portion of a wl. pal. by JGG. from 
the diet, of Mr. Law, then 60, a 
regular old dalesman, in whose house 
JGG. lived some weeks, left incomplete. 

*31. c4. Chapel-le-dale (29 nw. 
Keighley) wl. pal. by JGG. 619. 

31. c5. Clapham (16 n.Clitheroe, 
La.), extracts from a cs. pal. 1887 by 
TH. from W. Metcalfe, native. 

Dacre, see Lower Nidderdale, p. 500. 

*30. Dl. Danby-in-Cleveland (15 
se.Middlesborough) wl. and dt. both 
io. by Eev. J. C. Atkinson, author of 
the Cleveland Glossary, dt. 519, 521, 
cwl 527. 

*31. d2. Sent town (27 n-by-w. 
Clitheroe, La., 12 ese.Kendal, We.) 
cs. and wl. pal. 1876 by JGG. from a 
native, cs. 558, 563, 598, cwl. 630. 



*24. r3. Dewsbury (6 w.Wakefield) 
(1) cs. written in gl. by CCE. with 
notes, 367, 404; (2) cs. io. by Mr. 
M. Eidgway, 37 y., sent to LLB., who 
communicated it to AJE., with CCE.'s 
notes on his orthography. 

*24. d4. Doncaster, wl. pal. by 
AJE. 1877 and 1882 from Dr. John 
Sykes, who kindly came to town twice 
for the purpose, 406. 

30. d5. Drax (5 nw.Goole) 2 pc. 
from Eev. S. H. Hooper, vie. 

30. e1. Mast Haddlesey (11 wnw. 
Goole) pc. and letter from Eev. J. ST. 
Worfold, rect. 

*24. e2. East Hardwick (2s.Ponte- 
fract) pc. from Eev. G. Eel, vie. ; 
alluded to, 405d. 

*30. e3. Mast Holderness, se.To. 
dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. 
Stead, 522. 

*24. b4. Elland (3 sse.Halifax) dt. 
pal. 1887 by TH. from a native, 384. 

*31. el. Giggleswick (i w.Settle, 
19 n.Burnley, La.) dt. pal. 1887 by 
TH. from diet, of a native, 548. 

*24. o2. Golcar (2 w.Huddersfield), 
see 377rf. 

*30. g3. Goole and Marshland dt. 

Sal. by AJE. from diet, of the late 
:ev. Dr. W. H. Thompson, 522. 

30. h1. Hackness (5 W.Scarborough) 
wl. io. from Eev. Thomas Cheese. 

*24. h2. Halifax (1) cs. written in 
gl. by CCE. 367; notes 384; (2) 
Parable of the Prodigal Son translated 
by CCE. in Part. IV. pp. 1400 to 
1405 ; (3) wn. by TH. ; (4) cwl. from 
J. Crabtree, 383. 

30. h3. Hatfield (6J ne.Doncaster) 
pc. and letter from Eev. G. Haydon, 
vie. 

Hawes, see Upper Wensleydale, u6, 
below. 

24. h4. Haworth (3 sw.Keighley) 
wn. by TH. 

*30. h5. H oldemess district, forming 
se.Yo. from Hull to Spurnhead, and 
n. to Bridlington: (1) cs. pal. by AJE. 
from Eev. Henry Ward, 501, 502, 618, 
who also gave me a version of Launee 
and Speed, not used. The assistance 
of Eev. H. Ward was obtained by the 
late Eev. J. E. Green, the historian ; 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



61* 



(2) dt. for East Holderness, see above 
e3 ; (3) cwl. made from wl. furnished 
by Messrs. R. Stead, F. Ross, and 
T. Holderness, the three authors of the 
Holderness Glossary, 532; (4) TH.'s 
visits to examine (thr- dhr-) and 
absence of article, 501. 

*24. h6. Bolmfirth (6 s.Hudders- 
field) nwl. by Mr. A. Beardsell, 40 y., 
380. 

*30. h7. Hornsea, TH.'s examina- 
tion of (thr- dhr-), 5014, c. 

*31. h8. Eorton-in-Mbblesdale (19 
n-by-e.Clitheroe, La., 21 ene.Lan- 
caster, between Ingleborough and 
Penyghent Hills) wl. pal. by JGG. 
from a native, 619. 

*31. h9. Sowgill(S ene.Kendal,We.) 
wl. pal. 1876 by JGG. from Mr. Best, 
a native, who called on AJE. also, 630. 

*24. h10. Huddersfleld (:«,d«zfad, 
:«dhi!zf«l) (1) cs. written in g], by CCR. 
367, 378; (2) wl. by Messrs. Dowse 
& Tomlinson, and Miss Mercy Hibbard, 
380. 

*30. Hll. Hull (1) wn. by TH. 
5014, e; (2) wl. io. by Rev. Canon 
Simmons, Dalton Holme (:dAAt'n 
:oom, :«1). 

•31. Hl2. Burst (8 W.Richmond) 
dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of a native, 
548. 

31. i. Ilkley (5 nne.Keighley) wl. 
pal. by JGG. from dictation of Mrs. 
Rest, not used. 

*24. k. Keighley (:kiikjhl», :kiithl») 

(1) cs. written in gl. by CCR 367 ; notes 
386 ; (2) fragments of a cs. pal. in 1887 
from a native by TH. 385; (3) wl. 
pal. by JGG. from Mrs. Foster, 387 ; 
(4) wl. io. by Mr. Septimus Brigg, for 
town of Keighley and up the valley of 
the Aire as far as Bradley (6 nnw. 
Keighley), misprinted Bradford, 387. 

*31. l1. Laithkirk (20 nw.Rich- 
mond) cs. and wl. io. by Rev. W. 
Robinson Bell, vie, interpreted by a 
cwl. by JGG. pal. from diet., this 
applies to the nw. horn of To. 624. 

*24. l2. Leeds (1) cs. written in gl. 
by CCR. with notes, 367 ; notes, 396 ; 

(2) refined town form, 396 ; (3) full 
wl. written in glossic, 397. 

*30. l3. Leven (6 wsw.Hornsea) 
wn. by TH. described p. 501 b, e. 

*30. l4. Lofthouses, see Lower 
Nidderdale, 600. 

*30. l5. Lower Nidderdale, contain- 
ing Lofthouses (16 nw.Harrogate), 
Ramsgill (14 nw.H.), Pateley Bridge 
(1 1 nw.H.), Greenhow Hill (10 nw.H.), 



Dacre (8 nw.H.), cs. written in gl. by 
CCR. 500, 502, 516. 

*24. Ml. Manningham, suburb of 
Bradford, wn. by TH. shewing use of 
(u ) 365, which Dr. Wright thinks to 
be a mistake, 389. 

*30. m2. Market Weighton (:wiit'n) 
(9 w.Beverley) (1) cs. io. by Mr. J. 
Kirkpatrick, who also gave specimens ; 

(2) another cs. by Mr. H. Dove ; (3) 
glossic transcription by CCR. ; (4) cs. 
and wl. pal. 1877 by AJE. from read- 
ing of Rev. J. Jackson Wray, cs. 501, 
502, 517 ; spec. 497, 498 ; cwl. 529. 

*24. m3. Marsden(7 sw. Huddersfleld) 
(1) nwl. by the curate (unnamed), as- 
sisted by Mr. R. Bamford, School 
Terrace ; (2) printed specimen sent by 
Mr. Adshead, then of Pendleton, La. ; 

(3) dt. and wn. by TH. 379, 380. 
Marshland, see Goole at o3. 

•31. m4. Middlesmoor (14 w-by-n. 
Ripon) cs. written in gl. by CCR., a por- 
tion given under Upper Nidderdale, 544. 

*30. m5. Mid Yorkshire, district 
defined, 499, cs. written in gl. by 
CCR. 502, 513 (repeated 557, 563), 
and full wl. also written in gl. by 
CCR. 523. 

*30. m6. Moors, The, meaning 
Whitby, Malton, Pickering (7 n-by-e. 
Malton), or the east part of North 
Riding, dt. io. by Rev. J. Thornton, 
vie. of Aston Abbot, Aylesbury, 519. 

Muker, see Upper Swaledale, v5, 
below. 

*30. h1. New Malton cs. written in 
gl. by CCR. considered a subdistrict of 
his Mid To., see above m5, 499 last 
line, 500, 502, 516. 

North Craven, see above, Burton- 
in-Lonsdale, b4 ; Chapel-le-dale, c4 ; 
Horton-in-Mibblesdale, h8. 

•30. n2. North East Coast, district 
defined, p. 600, No. 8, cs. written in gl. 
by CCR. 502, 517. 

*30. n3. North Mid Yorkshire, 
district defined, 499, No. 3, cs. written 
in gl. by CCR. 502, notes 515 ; this is 
for the ordinary rural speech ; CCR. 
gave also a cs. in refined rural form. 

31. n4. North of Richmond, refined 
phase, cs. written in gl. by CCR., 
apparently as a reminiscence of the 
pron. of an individual mentioned in 
CCR.'s Leeds Glossary, p. xiii; being 
a refined form, it is omitted here, as 
was the refined form in n3 above. 
The peasant speech of which this was 
a refinement was probably the same 
as that of Laithkirk above, l1. It is 



62* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



5 



made remarkable by the frequent use 
of (a) as (ggt net ta bi req 9V sg'ikmi 
e paant 9z dh»s) ought not to be wrong 
of= on such a point as this, (l»9 - in 
s^xitrt 9t W9al liqth atsp- 9)t' gtaa'und 
tloos biv)t' uus d99r »v iz g99'«d S99nda 
k99t d99'wn et ka»n9r 9 ran l99n) lying 
stretched at whole length atop of the 
ground close by the house door in his 
good Sunday coat at corner of yon 
lane. 

*24. o. Osset (4 w. Wakefield) wn. 
by TH 365. 

Pateley Bridge, see Lower Nidder- 
dah. 

30. p. P<wM«0tfo»(12e-by-s.York) 
(1) wl. io. by Miss Lucy Singleton, 
Great Givendale House; (2) full wL 
io. by Dr. T. Wilson, more than 60 y. 

Ramsgill, see Lower NidderdaU, lS 
above. 

*31. r1. Richmond wl. io. by Mr. 
George Bell, noticed p. 544a. 

30. r2. Sipon to Thirsk (taking 
-arts of CCR.'s Mid and North Mid 

o., above m5 and n3), wl. io. by 
Mrs. Uoyd, Hazelcroft, Ripley (7 s. 
Ripon). 

24. p.3. Ripponden (5 sw.Halifax) 
wn. by TH. from two shepherds. 

24. r4. Rossington (4 se.Doncaster) 
pc. from Rev. J. W. Scarlett, rect. 

*24. r5. Rotherham, cs. written in 
gl. by CCR. 367, 404. 

24. r6. Roundhay (3 ne.Leeds) nwl. 
by Mr. F. M. Lupton, 27 y. from birth. 

*24. si. SaddUworth wl. io. by Mr. 
G. H. Adshead, 380. 

*31. s2. Sedberg (31 W.Richmond) 
cs. pal. 1876 by JGG. from diet. 559, 
563, 598. 

30. S3. Selby (10 nw.Goole) pc. 
from Rev. F. W. Harper, vie. 

*24. 84. Sheffield (1) cs. so. by Prof. 
Parkes, procured through JAHM. and 
friends, 367, 405 ; (2) notes on vowels, 
405. 

30. s5. Skeffling (4 se.Patringtou, 
near Spurn Head) wl. io. from Rev. 
H. Maister, vie, all his life. 

*30. s6. Skelton-in-Cleveland (16 
wnw. Whitby) dt. io. with long notes 
by Mr. I. Wilkinson, read to me by 
Mr. J. W. Langstaff, of Stanghow 
(3 sse.Skelton), 519, 521. 

*31. 87. Skipton (8 nw.Keighley) 
(1) cs. written in gl. by CCR. extracts, 
544 ; (2) dt. pal. 1887 by TH. 648. 

*24. s8. Slaithwaite (4 sw.Hudders- 
field), see 377, var. i. 

*30. s9. Smith (6 w-by-s.Goole) (1) 



wl. io. by Rev. J. W. Norman, 533 ; (2) 
pc. from Rev. C. E. Stores, vie. 

*30. slO. South Ainsty, defined 499 
No. 2, cs. written in gl. by Mr. R. Stead 
and pal. by AJE. 499, 502, 514 No. 2. 

*30. sll. South Cleveland district 
defined 500, cs. written in gl. by CCR. 
600, 502, 516 No. 7, the n.Cleveland 
has been spoiled dialectally by the iron 
works. 

24. sl2. South 0«tra»((lJse.HaUfax) 
wn. by TH. has only («) as noted, 365. 

*30. sl3. Sutton (3nne.Hull)dt. io. 
by Mr. E. French, then of the lead 
works, 167 Church St., Hull, see Ch. p. 
522. 

*30. sl4. Swine (5 nne.Hull) wn. 
by TH. from a native of Hull, who 
had resided 20 or 30 years at Swine, 
alluded to, 501 b, c. 

24. t1. Thornton (5n.Halifax) wn. 
byTH. 

24. t2. Tiekhill (7 s.Doncaster) pc. 
from Rev. Charles Bury, vie. 

*31. ul. Upper Craven with Tipper 
NidderdaU, cs. written in gl. by CCR. 
extracts given, 544. 

*24. v2. Upper Cumberworth (6 
sse.Huddersfield) dt. and wn. pal. 1881 
by TH. from diet. 380. 

*31. c3. Upper Mining Dales, i.e. 
Swaledale and Arkengarthdale, cs. 
written in gl. by CCR. extracts given, 
544. 

*31. c4. Upper NidderdaU, cs. 
written in gl. by CCR. extracts given, 
644. 

•31. u5. Upper SwaUdaU or Muker 
(16 w-by-s.Richmond) cs. pal. 1876 
by JGG. from many natives 557 (where 
it is called Upper SwaUdaU), 563, 
695 (where it is called Muker), extracts 
544, and cwl. also by JGG. 619 ; JGG. 
likewise gave a translation of Launce 
and Speed, which was transcribed into 
his own gl. by CCR. and re-rendered 
by JGG. 1878, but as the example is a 
bad one it is not given. 

*31. u6. Upper WensUydaU or 
Hawes (20 wsw. Richmond) cs. pal. 
1876 by JGG. from a native, 557, 563, 
596, all No. 3 under Bawes. 

30. wl. Waghen or Wawne (4 se. 
Beverley) wl. io. by Rev. G- Wilkin- 
son, 35 y. 

*24. w2. Wakefield wn. by TH. 
incorporated with a cwl. deduced from 
Mr. w. S. Banks's printed List of 
Words, 401. 

*30. w3. Washburn River region, 
lying between the Wharfe and the 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



63* 



Nidd, remarkable for use of (th) for 
def. art., cs. written in gl. by CCR. 
500, 502, 516, all No. 6. ' 

*30. w4. Whitby (1) dt. and wl. 
both io. by the late Mr. P. K. Robin- 
son, druggist, author of the Whitby 
Glossary, dt. 519, 521, cwl. 527 ; (2) 
dt. io. for this included in the Moors, 
by Rev. J. Thornton, 519, 521<f. 

*24. w5. Windhitt (3 n.Bradford) 



dt. pal. by AJE. from Dr. J. Wright, 
native, 389. 

York Ainsty, see South Ainsty above 
slO. 

30. t. York City refined speech, 
used by tradespeople and best class of 
inhabitants of rural market towns ; cs. 
gl. by CCR. and Mr. Stead, but 
omitted as not being genuine dialect, 
see remarks on Leeds refined form, 396. 



41. Ma. =Isle of Man, 3 places, all in D 23, Var. ii. 



•23. xl. Kirk Christ Zezayre (2 
w. Ramsey) dt. pal. by TH. from diet. 
of a native, and wn. 361, 363. 

*23. K2.- Kirk Christ Rushen (4 w. 
Castletown) dt. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of natives, 361, 363. 



23. k3. Kirk Patrick (2 s.Peel) 
wn. by TH. from diet, of Mrs. E. 
Corphey, b. 1856, native, wife of in- 
formant for Kirk Christ Lezayre. 

*23. p. Peel dt. and wn. in 1881 by 
TH. from natives, 361, 363. 



Wales. 

36 places in D 2, 3, 13, 14, 28, or in no district. 

Observe "aqCB." means "Answers to Questions respecting the Celtic Border." 
means, not considered in this book, because the peasants do not habitually 
converse in English. 



43. Br. =Bbeconshibe. 
4 places in D 13. 

13. Bl. Brecon, aqCB. from Rev. 
D. Griffith, vie. 

•13. b2. Breconshire, eastern or 
English-speaking part, with w.He. wl. 
by Mr. R. Stead, see Folkestone, Ke. 
178. 

13. b3. Builth (13 n.Brecon) aqCB. 
from Rev. A. J. Coore, vie. 

13. c. Crickhowel (12 ese.Brecon) 
aqCB. from Rev. B. Somerset, rect. 

45. Cm. =Cabmabthbn. 
1 place in no district. 
0. c. Carmarthen cs. and wl. of 

Welsh-English of 1830 by the late 
Mr. W. Spun-ell, author of a Welsh- 
English Grammar and Dictionary. 

47. Dn. = Denbighshire. 
4 places, 3 in D 28, 1 in no district. 

28. c. Chirk (9 ssw^ Wrexham) 
aqCB. from Rev. T. H. Simpson, vie. 

*28. h. Holt (5 ne. Wrexham) aqCB. 
from Rev. H. Wray, vie, note from 
Mr. E. French (see Sutton, Yo.), and 
wn. by TH. 458. 

0. b. Euabon (5 sw. Wrexham) 
aqCB. from Rev. M. Edwards, vie. 

*28. w. Wrexham aqCB. by Rev. 
D. Howell, vie, and wn. by TH. 458. 



48. Fl.=Flint. 

8 places, 5 in D 28, 3 in no district. 

*28. nl? Bettisfield (6 sw.Bangor, de- 
tached) wn. by TH. from a native, 456. 

*28. b2. Bretton (3 sw.Chester, 
main) wn. by TH. 458. 

0. p. Flint, aqCB. from Rev. E. 
Jenkins, vie. 

*28. h1. ffanmer (5 wsw.Bangor, 
detached) wn. 456, and dt. pal. by TH. 
from a native, 452, and dt. io. by Mr. T. 
Bateman, of Arowry, a hamlet in Han- 
mer, and letter from Rev. M. H. Lee. 

*28. h2. Eawarden (6 ese.Flint, 
main), aqCB. from Rev. S. Gladstone, 
rect., dt. io. from Mr. Spencer, school- 
master, and wn. by TH. 458. 

28. h3. Mope (5 se.Mold, main) 
aqCB. by Rev. J. Rowlands, vie. 

0. h. Mold (6 s.Flint) aqCB. by 
Rev. Rowland Ellis, vie. 

0. N. Nbrthop (3 s.Flint, main) 
aqCB. by Rev. T. Williams, vie. 

49 . Gm. = Gl AMOBGANSHIRE . 

3 places, 1 in D 3, 2 in no district. 

*3. o. Gowerland, dt. io. and note 
from Rev. J. D. Davies, 13J, 35. 

0. L. Llantrissant (10 nw.Cardiff) 
aqCB. from Rev. J. Powell Jones, vie. 

0. m. Merthyr Tydvil, aqCB. from 
Rev. John Griffith, rect. 



64* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



51. Ma. = MONTGOMERYSHIRE. 

9 places, all in D 14. 

14. b1. Berriew (3 nw. Montgomery) 
aqCB. from Rev. Joseph Baines, 
vie. 

14. b2. Buttington (2 ne.Welshpool) 
aqCB. from Bev. J. Lewis, vie., and 
note from Key. D. Phillips Lewis. 

14. p. Forden (3 n.Montgomery) 
aqCB. from Rev. J. E. Vise, vie. 

14. a. GuilsfieU (2 n. Welshpool) 
aqCB. and note from Eev. D. Phillips 
Lewis, vie. 

14. k. Kerry {2 ese. Newtown) aqCB. 
from Rev. W. Morgan, vie. 

14. L. Xlandrinio (8 nne. Welshpool) 
aqCB. from Rev. E. B. Smith, rect. 

*14. M. Montgomery, aqCB. and 
letter containing much information on 
the CB. from Rev. F. W. Parker, 
rect. 14*, 183c. 

14. s. Snead (5 se.Montgomery) 
aqCB. from Rev. G. 0. Pardoe, 
rect. 

14. w. Welshpool, tiqCTi. from Rev. 
J. S. Hill, vie. 



52. Pm. = Pembrokeshire. 
4 places all in D 2. 
*2. B. Bhds and Daugleddy Hundreds, 
the two sw. peninsulas of Pm. (1) Rev. 
J. Tomhs, rect. of Burton (3 n.Pem- 
broke) sent me a dt. 32, printed lecture 
and notes; (2) Mr. P. T. Elworthy 
sent notes, 34 ; (3) notes from Mr. E. 
L. Jones, master of Brooklands School, 
Sale, Manchester, native of Tenby, 34 ; 
(4) dt. from diet, by Mr. W. Spurrell, 
32, with specimens of Narberth Speech, 
34 ; (5) notes from Ven. Archdeacon 
Edmondes, of Warren, 34. 

53. Rd. = Radnorshire. 
3 places in D 13. 

*13. b. Boughrood (18 sw.Presteign, 
at the extreme s. of the county) aqCB. 
from Ven. H. de Winton, Ajrch. of 
Brecon and vie. 179. 

13. L. Llanddewi Ystradenny (11 
wsW.Knighton) aqCB. from Rev. L. 
A. Smith, vie. 

13. n. New Badnor (7 sw.Presteign) 
aqCB. from Rev. J. Gillam, rect. 



Scotland. 

39 places in D 33 to D 42. 



64. Ab. = Aberdeenshire. 
3 places in D 39. 

*39. A. Ab. generally (1) numerals 
from Mr. Melville Bell's Visible Speech, 
726 ; (2) sentences from the same, 777. 

*39. b. Buehan district, (1) Ruth, 
chap. i. pal. by Dr. JAHM. from diet. 
698, No. 3 ; (2) nwl. by Dr. Findlater, 
779 ; (3) words selected from J. Alex- 
ander's Johnny Gibb of Gushetneuk, 
779. 

*39.c. Cromdr district, MS. phonetic 
account by the late Mr. Samuel Innes, 
died about 1866, given me by Mr. T. 
H. Ridge in 1872, partly read to me 
in 1883 by Jane Morrison, native of 
Tarland, in Cromar, servant of Sir 
Peter Lumsden, and fresh from Tar- 
land, who knew Mr. Innes by name ; 
(1) his account of the pron. 766 to 
768 ; (2) his examples, The Meeting, 
769 ; Yule-tide, 770 ; The Fight, 773 ; 
Notes, 775. 

56. At.=Atrshire. 
.. 6 places in D 35 and 36. 
*Z5.*±. Ayr, Ruth, chap. i. pal. by 



Dr. Murray in his DSS. p. 240, with 
cwl. from it, 698 No. 2, 742. 

*36. c. Coylton (6 ese.Ayr) (1) cwl. 
io. representing the district of Kyle, 
742; (2) dt. io. with notes pal. by 
AJE. 731, both by Rev. Neil Living- 
stone, Free Church, Manse. This 
might be put to x2. 

*35. Kl. Kilmarnock, phonetic trans- 
cription of Burns's Tarn o' Shanter 
by Messrs. Thomas Lang (then of 
Kilmarnoch), Carstairs Douglas, R. 
Giffen, and others, pal. with notes by 
AJE. 731-741. This might be put 
to x2. 

*35 and 36. k2. Kyle, (1) W. 
Simson's words (printed) 742; (2) a 
word from Miss C. G. Hamilton. 

*36. N. New Cumnock (15 ese.Ayr.), 
Burns's song of Duncan Gray, written 
1847 by me in my extended phonotypic 
alphabet of that year, from the diet, of 
John Lowe, and pal. from the original, 
748. 

*35. o. Ochiltree (:oo-kh'ltri) (11 e. 
Ayr) nwl. by Mr. D. Patrick, 1877, 
then in Edinburgh, but knowing the 
dialect "all his life," 28 y., 742. 



VI.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



65* 



57. Ba. = Banffshire. 
1 place in D 39. 
*39. k. Keith, by Rev. "Walter 
Gregor, native, see 683, No. 6, (1) cs. 
written io. and pal. by Dr. Murray, 
684, 695; (2) cwl. pal. from Mr. 
Gregor's dictation by AJE. 779 to 
785 ; (3) notes and phrases dictated at 
the same time as (2), 777 to 779. 

58. Bw. = Berwickshire. 
1 place in D 34. 
*34. c. Chirnside (9 wnw.Berwick- 
npon- Tweed) by Bey. George Wilson, 
Free Church, Glenluce (15 w.Wigton, 
dt. and nwl. in io. pal. by AJE. from 
indications, both 726. 

60. Cs. = Caithness. 

1 place in D 40. 

*40. w. Wick (1) cs. pal. 1874 by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. A. Meiklejohn 
and Revs. J. Sinclair and R. Macbeth, 
683, No. 7, 684, 696 ; (2) wd. from 
Miss C. G. Hamilton. 

64. Df. = Dumfriesshire. 
1 place in D 36. 
*36. t. Tynron (14 nw.Dumfries) 
notes and lw. in 1868 by Mr. James 
Shaw, 749. 

65. Ed. = Edinburghshire or Mid 

Lothian. 

1 place in D 34. 

*34. e. Edinburgh (1) cs. pal. by 
JAHM. from diet, of Mrs. Ch. Murray, 
native, 683, No. 3, 684, 695, 726d; 
(2) Lothian sentences from Mr. Mel- 
ville Bell's Visible Speech, 724; (3) 
numerals from the same, 726 ; (4) 
Central Scottish from Dr. Murray's 
DSS., pp. 144 to 149, may belong to 
D 34, 35, 36, or any part of Mid 
Lowland, as the words are not dis- 
tinguished, 727. 

67. Fi. =Fifeshire. 
2 places in D 34 and D 37. 

*34. f. Fifeshire generally, (1) sen- 
tences from Mr. Melville Bell's Visible 
Speech, 725 ; (2) numerals from the 
same, 726. 

*37. N. Newburgh-on-Tay (8 wnw. 
Cupar) dt. io. with notes by Rev. Dr. 
Alex. Laing, 752. 

E.E. Pron. Part T. 



68. Fo. =Forfarshire. 
3 places in D 38. 

*38. a. Arbroath cs. written in io. 
by Mr. W. J. Anderson, pal. by Dr. 
J. A. H. Murray, 683, No. 5, 684, 
695. 

*38. B. Brechin nwl. by Mr. J. 
Guthrie, Royal Bank of Scotland, 25 y., 
760. 

*38. d. Dundee (1) dt. pal. 1881 by 
AJE. from diet, of Miss Begge, then 
of Whitelands, 758, with notes and 

Ehrases from the same, 759 ; (2) notes 
y Mr. G. Clarke of the West End 
Academy, 760. 

69. Hd. = Haddingtonshire or East 

Lothian. 

1 place in D 34. 

*34. l. Linton (5 ne.Haddington) cs. 

io. by Mr. J. Teenan, really gen. D 34, 

almost identical with 684, No. 3, 

Edinburgh. 

71. Kc.= Kincardineshire. 
1 place in D 38. 
*38. G. Glenfarquhar (11 w-by-s. 
Stonehaven) from Mr. J. Ross, M.A., 
Rector of the High School, Arbroath, 
Fo., native, (1) notes, 756; (2) dt. 
so. 758 ; (3) nwl. with aq. and long 
explanations, 760. 

73. Kb. = Kirkcudbrightshire 

(:kirkuu - br»). 

1 place in D 36. 

*36. K. Kirkpatrick-Durham (:k«l- 

pee-tr«k) (5 n. Castle Douglas) nwl. by 

Rev. W. A. Stark, 6 y., 749. 

74. Lk. = Lanarkshire. 
1 place in D 35. 
*35. G. Glasgow and Clydesdale 
generally, (1) Clydesdale sentences from 
Mr. Melville Bell's Visible Speech, 
730, 742; (2) wl. io. by Mr. John 
Alexander, then of Glasgow (:gleski!), 
50 y., 742. 

77«. Or. = Orkney. 
forming one county with Shetland, 
here separated as 775, and placed 
after Se. = Selkirk, because they 
have been placed in separate dis- 
tricts; 1 place in D 41. 
*41. s. Sanda, northern isles, the 
residence of Mr. W. Traill Dennjjapn, 
who in 1880 published his Orpadian 
Sketch Book, out of which has been 

5* 



66* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VI. 



taken Paety Toral's Travellye, with 
the pron. corrected by himself w. in 
Aug. 1884, p. 791 to 802, and he also 
wrote and dictated to me w. his trans- 
lation of John Gilpin into older Orkney 
speech, Jnne, 1888, p. 802 to 811. 

78. Pb. =Peebleshire. 
1 place in D 34. 

*34. p. Peebles co. generally, 
numerals from Mr. Melville Bell's 
Visible Speech, 726. 

79. Pb. = Perthshire. 
1 place in D 37. 

*37. p. Perth, or neighbourhood, 

(1) dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Misses Miles, Pollar and Kidd of 
Whitelands in 1881 ; (2) words from 
Enga pron. by the same, both 753. 

80. Bp. = Renfrewshire. 
1 place in D 35. 
*35. l. Zoehwinnoch (:lokh - emakh) 
(12 sw.Renfrew, misprinted 6 sw. on 
p. 747) words and phrases contrasted 
with Ochiltree, Ay. by Mr. David 
Patrick, 747. 

82. Ex. = B0XBTJRGHSHIRE. 

6 places in D 33. 
*33. h. Hawick (1) pron. abstracted 
from Dr. Murray's DSS. 710 to 713; 

(2) cs. written in pal. by Dr. J. A. H. 
Murray, native, 682 No. 2, 684, 694 ; 

(3) Euth, Chap. i. pal. by Dr. JAHM. 
from his DSS. p. 241, Teviotdale 698, 
No. 1 ; (4) Teviotdale sentences from 
Mr. Melville Bell's Visible Speech, 714; 
(6) numerals from the same, 726 ; (6) 
Scotch Hundredth Psalm, from Dr. 
JAHM.'s DSS. 715; (7) South Low- 
land cwl. from DSS. increased by 
communications from Dr. JAHM. 716 
to 721 ; as all of these are based on 
Dr. Murray's authority, they are all 
classed under his native place. 

*33. L. ZiddesdaleSead, near Thorli- 
shop (12 s-by-e.Hawick), cwl. pal. by 
JGG. from Mr. Jackson, 75y., 721. 

33. R. Roxburgh Town (17 nnw. 
Hawick) cwl. pal. by JGG. from diet, 
of Mr. D. Eoss, then of Milburn, but 
25 y. from birth ; not intended for publi- 
cation and not printed. 

33. t. Teviotdale Head (& ae.Ramicb) 
cwl. pal. by JGG. from Mr. Linton, 
Lewisburn, Plashetts (24 nw.Hexham, 
Nb.), 20y., not intended for publication 
and not printed. 



33. t. Yetholm (rjaath'm) (8 se. 
Kelso, 1 m. from the Nb. b. on the 
road to Wooler, a great gypsy settle- 
ment) from diet, of Mr. T. Kirkup, 
M.A., native of Wooler, 15y., for 4 
of which he was a pupil teacher in 
Yetholm, (1) a wl. partly corrected in 
pal. by AJE. from his dictation ; (2) 
dt. pal. by the same from the same ; 
neither used, see p. 655 d. 

83. Se. = Selkirkshire. 
*33. Selkirk (:saelkrik, :sselkrit) wl. 
pal. by JGG. from diet, of Mr. J. 
Mitchell, of Howgill Castle, Milburn, 
We., native, but 25 y. absent from 
Scotland ; not printed. 

77*. Sd. = Shetland. 

4 places in D 42 ; this forms one county 
with 77a Orkney, which see after 
74 Lk. 

*42. d. Dunrossness, southernmost 
point of mainland Sd. (1) cs. written 
in io. by Mr. David Cogle, fisherman, 
native of Cuningsborough, and pal. 
by AJE. from the diet, of Miss A. B. 
Malcolmson, of Lerwick, 683 No. 8, 
684, 696 ; (2) in print " Shetland 
Fireside Tales by G.S.E." (Mr. G. 
Stewart, of Edinburgh, native of 
Dunrossness), given me by Mr. Cogle, 
818. 

42. l. Lerwick, (1) Parable of the 
Prodigal Son in Sd. speech, written 
in io. by Mr. Arthur Laurenson, of 
Lerwick, and pal. by me from diet, of 
Miss Anna B. Malcolmson, 816 ; (2) 
nwl. by Mr. A. L. of which the 
principal words were pal. by me from 
the diet, of Miss A. B. M. 818. 

42. s. Shetland generally, (1) MS. 
Glossary of words collected by Mr. 
A. Grant, and sent to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte,, who lent it to me ; (2) "A 
Shetland Letter" communicated to me 
in MS. by Prince LLB., and translated 
by Mr. A. Laurenson, but as it has 
not been read to me, I have not used 
it ; part of it is printed in the 'Zetland 
Directory and Guide,' 1860. 

*42. u. Vnst (1) MS. Glossary of 
words collected by Dr. L. Edmondstone 
with the pronunciation of several 
marked by Walker's symbols, belonging 
to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, who lent 
it to me ; (2) in print ' The Parable of 
the Sower,' Matth. xiii. 3-9, trans- 
lated in 1858 by Dr. LE. for Prince 



VI., VII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



67* 



LLB., and communicated by him with 
Annotations to the Philological Society 
of London, 20 June, 1878, p. 817. 

86. Wo. = Wigtownshire. 

2 places in D 36. 

*36. a. Glenluee (glsnlyy^) (15 w. 
Wigton) nwl. by Eev. George Wilson, 



Free Church, Glenluee, who went over 
every word with his deacon, James 
McCulloch, 68, native, whose father 
kept up the dialect well, 749. 

♦36. s. Stranraer (25 w-by-n. 
Wigton) cs. pal, by AJE. from diet, 
of Messrs. W. Boyd, M. Armstrong, 
and E. Caddow, 683, No. 4, 684, 
695, 749. 



Ireland. 



117. Wx. = Wexford, co. 
1 place in D 1. 
•1. r. Forth and Bargy baronies, 



letter from E. Hore, and from printed 
matter by Eev. William Barnes, pp. 
25-30. 



VII. ALPHABETICAL INFOEMANTS LIST AND INDEX 
OF ALL THE NAMES MENTIONED IN THIS 
TEEATISE. 

This consists of two distinct parts given for convenience in one alphabetical 
arrangement. The first is a reverse index to the Alphabetical County List VI., 
enabling the reader to refer back from the informant s name to his contribution. 
The name in roman letters is followed by the usual two-letter abbreviation of 
the name of the county in italics with M, W, 8, I prefixed if it belongs to the 
Isle of Man, Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. This refers at once to the Alpha- 
betical Counties List, VI., which is arranged first in countries, and then in 
counties. Then follows the initial, numbered if necessary, which refers to that 
given under the name of the county in VI., and immediately points out the place, 
whence the information was derived, and whence all the necessary particulars 
can he found. When more than one county is referred to, a — is interposed. 

The second part contains those names which are not introduced in VI. because 
they could not be conveniently referred to a specified place in a county. These 
for distinction are printed in italics with generally an indication of the matter 
for which any name is cited, and the page where it will be found. When the 
name also belongs to the first part, only the indication is printed in italics. 

The names of all persons or books mentioned in my treatise from which I 
have directly derived information are thus given — errors excepted. The names 
of those from whom my informants derived their knowledge, though occasionally 
given in the text, are generally not inserted in this list, although there are a few 
exceptions, as no rule could be conveniently observed in inserting or omitting them. 

The names of some of the books used are also given, and it may be assumed 
that I have consulted every important book on dialects that has appeared (p. 54), 
although not specially named.- These I did not consider it necessary to specify. 
See the Bibliography published by the English Dialect Society and its own 
publications. The peculiar character of this treatise consists in unprinted and 
hitherto uncollected sources of information on which it is founded, and it is to 
those from whom I procured it that this Alphabetical List mainly relates. 



Adcock, Miss M. A. Le. 

*s. 
Adshead, G. H. Yo. m3. 

si. 
Agrieola's wall, 22. 
Ainger, Eev. Dr. Nb. r. 
Alton, W. General View 



of Agriculture in the 

Co. of Ayr, 729a. 
Akerman's 'Hornet and 

Beetle,' pal. 51 to 54. 
Alexander, J. SLk. g. — 

and see Gibb, SAb. s. 
Alfred King, 2. 
Allen, Ven. Archd. Sh. 

p2. 



Allen, Grant, 'Are we 
Englishmen V 9 note. 

Allen, Miss. Le. *b4. 

Allen, T. Nb. *sl. 

Allen, Eev. T. T. Du. d. 

AUnntt, W. H. Ox. o. 

Auchmaty, Eev. A. C. 
He. l5. 

Anderson, W. J. SFo. A. 



68* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VII. 



Anonymous, vie. Co. il. 

— vie. Du. a2. — 
rector. *Es. b. — vie. 
He. A. — vie. Li. b3. 

— servant. Li. *e. 

— passenger. Nf. *n5. 

— vie. Ox. h2. — 
curate. To. m3. 

Anstey, Mary. Dv. *il. 

Arden, Mrs. Douglas. Li. 
Hi. s8. 

Arnold, M., his pron. of 
'fate,' 33*. 

Armstrong, Eev. E. P. 
Li. s5. 

Armstrong, M. SW 7 ^. s. 

Ashby, G. iV/l k1. 

Atkinson, Mrs. Cu. cl. — 
We. T. — Act - assistance 
for Edenside names, 
555d, 603c. 

Atkins, A. H. Bu. c2. 

Atkinson, W. Cu. p. — 
his assistance for Eden- 
side names, 603c. 

Atkinson, Eev. J. La. d. 

Atkinson, Eev. J. C. To. 

Dl. 

B 

Bainbridge, J. Cu. B. — 
his assistance for Eden- 
side Names, 603c. 

Baines, Eev. J. WMg. b1. 

Baird, II. = Nathan Hogg, 
156d, 158c, 159a\ 

Baker, E. S. JVJ. n4. 

Baker, Eev. E. S. Np. h4. 

Ballard, H. He. *m. 

Baldwin, Eev. I. N. Nt. 
m4. 

Bamford, E. mPo. m3. 

Banks, Mrs. L. La. Ml. 

Banks, "W. 8. Po. *w2. 

Banting, "W. B. £«. *h1. 

Banton, Eev. P. Np. d3. 

Barclay, Eev. D. Ht. s4. 

Barkas, T. P. Nb. *n1. 

Barlow, Eev. J. M. Sr. e2. 

Barnard, Mrs. J. Ht. s3. 

Barnes, Eev. W. J)o. 
*w3.— IWx. f. printed 
25, 26, 30— on f, v, and 
s, zin S. 38 to 41. 

Bartlett, Eev. "W. A. Ss. 
w3. 

Batchelor, T. .Bo". *b. 
ararf Ais ' Orthoepical 
Analysis,' 204-209 (all 
in print). 



Batsman, T. WEI. Hi. 

Baumann, H. his London- 
isms, 230. 

Beardsell, A. To. *h6. 

Beeby, Miss. Bu. *wl. 

Beesley, T. jun. Ox. *b1. 

Beesley, sen. O*. *b1. 

Begge, Miss. SEo. d. 

itefe, _Dr. on 'v,w,' 132. 

Bell, A. M. SAb. A.— 
&Erf. e.— SFi. p.— 
(Si*. a.—SFb. p.— 
&&*;. h. — A«« ' Visible 
Speech ' sentences, 714, 
724, 725, 730, 777, «»«" 
Numerals, 726. — m>iscs 
Buchan version ofButh, 
698*. 

Bell, G. To. *b1. 

Bell, Miss H. Le. w. 

Bell, Eev. H. Cu. B. 

Bell, Jacob, JT*. x. 

Bell, Miss M. A. X«. *c8. 

Bell, Eev.W.E. To. *l1. 

Bellows, J. <?/. Bl.— 
ia. p3. 

Bennett, Eev. Canon, Wl. 

M. 

Bennett, E. St. e2. 

Benton, Mr. Ph. £«. *sl. 

Berin, Eev. H. Ke. pi. 

Berkeley, Eev. S. H. Dv. 
m2. 

Bewick, E. Nb. *w2. 

Best, — To. h9. 

Best, Mrs. To. i. 

Bewly, E. S. Ha. A.— 
S/. s2. 

Bigge, Eev. J. P. Nb. *s2. 

Bingham, Eev. Canon, 
Do. Bl. 

Birch, Eev. G. Bu. e. 

Birhet, W. his help for 
Edenside names, &0Zd. 

Blasson, T. Li. *b4. 

Blenkinsopp, Eev. E. L. 
Li. slO. 

Blythe, Eev. J. Nb. a2. 

Bogg, T. W. Li. *l3. 

Bofingbroke, Mrs. F. H. 
Bd. m. 

Bonaparte, Prince L.-L., 
his help, 5. — Gl. a = 
(ii), 64. — on Nb. burr, 
643a, 644a.— Be. *h1. 
Bu. c2, o3, L. — Es. 
*s\. — Gl. Bl.— .Ha. 
*cl. — He. *r»2 *b h 
*l4 m b vr2.—Ht. Bl 
b3 g2 h4 k l1 l2 *b 
t w2. — La. p3.— Mi. 



*E w. — .Jfo. *l. — Nf. 
■al.—Sr. l. — Wa. s3. 
— JFo. *d2.— To. d3. 
— /S-SW. 8 u. 

Bower, Eev. A. Li. u2. 
Bowness, E. La. c8. 
Boyd, W. SWg. s. 
Bradley, Eev. E. Bu. s. 
Bradshaw, Mrs. jun. Ox. 

Bl. 

Brain, J. Ox. *n. 
Brandreth, E. L. obtains 

Jane Morrison's help, 

764c. 
Brigg, S. To. k. 
Breechen, Eev. J. Bu. w. 
Brewer, W. Be. *c. 
Brickwell,Eev.E. Bd. h2. 
Broadley, Eev. Canon, Do. 

b3. 
Brockie, "W. 2)«. s8. 
Brooke, F. C. Sf. v. 
Brooke, T. To. a. 
Brooks, Eev. T. W. D. 

.Bo", p. 
Broughton, Eev. E. ITo. 

si. 
Brown, Eev. A. H. Es. 

b4. 
Brown, J. Bd. A. 
Brown, Jo. We. xl. 
Brown, Eev. T. Sf. h. 
Brown, W. H. IT*, b. 
Browne, Eev.H. Wo. El. 
Brune, Mrs. Prideaux. 

Co. pi. 
'Brut y Tywysogion,' on 

the Flemings in Fm. 24. 
Buck, Eev. G. P. Nf. n5. 
Buckle, Miss. Nf. *m2. 
Buckley, Eev. Jo. Wl. s3. 
Buller, Eev. E. Co. l3. 
Bulman, Eev. G. P. Du. 

s5. 
Burgiss, G., with T. and 

J. He. *l4. 
Burne, Mrs. Sh. si. 
Burnell, Dr. A. C. Ha. 

wl. 
Burningham, Eev. T. Nf. 

h5. — Sr. ol. — Ha. 

example about 1828, p. 

96a". — on Sr. and Ss., 

108c. 
Burns, R., Tamo' Shanter, 

pal. 732. — Duncan 

Gray, pal. 748. 
Burton, Sir F., on 'de = 

the' in Ke. 132. 
Bury, Eev. T."W. Li. Al. 
Bury, Eev. Ch. To. *t2. 



VII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



69* 



Butler, Betty, La. cl. 
Butler, T. La. d. 
Butler, Tobias, recites 

Forth speech, 28. 
Buttenshaw, Mrs. Bd. e. 

C 
Caddow, B. SWg. s. 
Cadogan, C. H. Nb. b. 
Calland, MiBS. Ke. s4. 
Cameron, Bev. A. A. Be. 

*h3 
Campbell, Mrs. G. M. E. 

Wl. c5. 
Campbell, Bev. W. Be. x. 
Campbell, Bey. "W. A. 

Su. h3. 
Campbell, Ld. his ' Life 

of Judge Sale,'' 64. 
Carr, W., on theNb. burr, 

father of Mrs. Ferschl, 

651a. 
Carrol, Bev. T. Su. h2. 
Oarthew, G. A. Nf. *e. 
Cartlege, Bev. C. A. Du. 

*b2. 
Casartelli, Bev. J. C. La. 

Ml. 

Castle, Bev. E. To. c2. 
Cattell, T. E. Ru. c. 
Chamberlain, J. H. Le. 

Ll. 

Chamberlain, Bev. J. S. F. 

fl*. g3. 
Chamberlain, Mrs. (form- 
erly Miss Sweet) Wo. t. 
Chamberlain, Bev. T. B. 

Nt. n3. 
Chambers, Bev. W. I. 

Li. n2. 
Chandler, H. Ru. v. 
Chandler, T. H., jun. 

Wl. A. 
Chandler, T. H., sen. 

Wl. si. 
Chapman, Miss E. Np. 

n2. 
Charlesworth, Bev. J. B. 

Sr. El. 
Chaucer, his ' Strothir,' 

547. 
Cheales, Bev. H. J. Li. 

*r3. 
Cheese, Bev. F. To. h1. 
Christie, Rev. C. M. "Sm. 

c5. 
Clarke, A. Y. 0. Do. *c. 
Clarke, G. SFo. j>. 
Clarke, S. Ss. wl. 
Clarke, Bev. T. We. l. 
Clarke, Mrs., her (E'spren) 



as compared with her 

grandmother's (eBpren), 

genesis of Eastern (e'«), 

196«*. 
Clay, Bev. E. K. Xw. o. 
Clay-Ker-Seymour, Mrs. 

Xo. *c *H. 
Clayton, Bev. C. Du. s7. 
Cleverley, *W. Xe. si. 
Close, Rev.R.W. Su. p. 
Clough, J. C. Ch. Al. 
Cockman, Mr. and Miss. 

Xi. o3. 
Cockshall, Bev. J. S. it. 

b5. 
Cogle, D. SSd. d. 
Coker, Bev. C. Ox. *f2. 
Cole, Miss. Ss. k. 
Coleridge, Miss E. Mi. 

Hi. 

Collins, Rev. J. 35. 
Collins, Miss. X«. si. 
Colfox, T. A. Do. b4. 
Conway, Bev. R. Su. A. 
Cooke, J. H. Gl. b1. 
Cooper, Major C. Bd. t3. 
Cooper, Rev. L. JJ«. e. 
Coore, Rev. A. J. WBr. 

b3. 
Cc^, Sir 7T. S., his 'Sa. 

Glossary,' 99. 
Corphey, Mrs. E. Ma. 

k3. 
Cosbey, Rev. C. Du. s7. 
Cottee, Rev. "W. A. X*. 

x3. 
Couch, T. Q. Co. l2. 
Coulter, Mrs. La. m2. 
Coward, Messrs. Cu. cl. 
Cox, Miss. Bu. h2. 
Crabtree, J. To. h2. 
Crate, Bev. E. H. Es. 

*s2. 
Creighton, Bev. M. Nb. 

*E. 

Cross, T. H. Co. *c2. 
Crossman, Bev. C. D. 

8m. h. 
Croucher, Miss. Ke. *ol. 
Cullen, Bev. J. Nt. b1. 
Culley, N. T. Nb. *wo. 
Cullingford, J. N. Es. 

*g4. 
Cumberland, T. La. vZ. 
Cunnington, J. Np. o. 
Curgenven, Bev. T. H. 

Np. b4. 
Curteis, Miss Bessie. Ss. 

Ll. 
Oust, Son. and Rev. S. 
C, his destruction of 



dialect at Satley 
Cockayne, Bd., 209. 
Cusins, Bev.F.T. Li. n1. 

D. 

Dalton. Du. *h2. 
Darby, Miss A. M. Ss. 

*M. — her description of 

(b), 131. 
Darlington, T. Ch. *b2 

Ml. — his Folkspeech of 

South Ch. 698. 
Daubeny, C. Sm. *c4. 
Daunt, Bev. E. S. T. 

Co. s6. 
Davey, E. C. Be. *wl. 
David, M. H. Nb. Al. 
Davies, J. Se. h. 
Davies, Bev. J. D. WGm. 

*a. 
Davis, C. Sf. *o. 
Davis, Bev. J. B. St. si. 
Davis, J. W. Sh. *l3. 
Davis, Mrs. Dv. b3. 
Dawes, Mrs. Sm. l. 
Dawson, Bernard. Xi. s4. 
Dawson, W. H. iW. *n1. 
Day, Miss C. M. Nf. k3. 
Dayman, Bev. P. D. Co. 

p3. 
Dennison, W. T. /SOr. s. 
DeWinton,Arch. WRd. b. 
Digby, Bev. C. T. Nf. 

*w2. 
Dickens's London Speech, 

228. 
Dickinson, Bev. F. B. 

Jfi. *A. 
Dickinson, F. H. Sm. 

b3. si. 
Dickinson, W. C«. cl w. 
Dickson J. R., on the Nb. 

burr, 642. 
Dingle, Bev. J. X«. *l1. 
Dixon, W. Nb. *w3. 
Dobson, — . Nb. *h3. 
Dormer, J. M. Wa. *c3. 
X' 0rse«/ on London errors 

of speech, 226. 
Douglas, Carstairs. SAy. 

Kl. 

Dove, H. To. m2. 

Dover, J. We. c2, o. — 
Am assistance for Eden- 
side names, 603. 

Downes, Miss. Np. *h2. 

Dowse, J. P. Fo. *h10. 

Drake, Bev. E. Ke. *s6. 

Drury, Rev. W. on the 
disuse of Manx, 360. 



70* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VII. 



Dunn, Rev. J. W. Nb. 

wl. 
Dun-ant, Eev. E. N. Sa. 

w2. 
Dymond, E. Dv. e. 

E 

Earle, Bev. J. 8m. s2. 
Ebden, Miss M. E. Su. 

g5, *s2. 
Ebsworth, Bev. J. Nt. 

El. 

Eden, Eev. J. P. Du. s4. 
Edington,J.S. Nb. *n2. 
Edmondes, Ven. Archd. 

WPm. ». 
Edmondstone, Dr, L. 

SSd. v. 
Edwards, Eev. H. P. Mo. 

cl. 
Edwards, Eev. M. WDn. 

K. 

Eel, Eer. G. To. e2. 
Egglestone, W. M. J)w. 

*s7- — 'his Bessy Pod- 

Icins ' for Weardale, 

Du. 617. 
Eley,Eev."W.H. Ss. b3. 
Ellis, A.J. Cu. v.—Db. 

Dl. — -Df. h. — Li. e. 

— J0f. *n5.— Nb. M. 
Ellis, Miss C. Le. b3. 
Ellis, T. J. Sr. s. 
EUis, Eev. Eo. WFl. m. 
Ellison, Eev. C. 0. Li. 

b6. 
Ellwood, Eev. T. 20.— on 

' at ' and ' to ' forming 

the infinitive, 550. — Cu. 

*A. — La. *c8 D v. 
Elmes, Eev. F. St. b3. 
Elvington, Eev. T. W. 

Us. g6. 
Elworthy, F. T. 8m. b2 

*w2. — WPm. B. — o» 

/, v and s, z initial in 

8. 38 to 41. — version 

of Muth, chap, i., 698. 
Emeris, "W. E. Li. l3. 
'Enga,' author of, 753. 
Evans, Eev. C.J. Nf. o2. 
Evans, Eev. J. Sh. w6. 
Evans, Dr. A.B.,on -en, 

i&ld. 
Evans, Dr. 8., on verbs 

in -en, 463. 
Evans, Miss, her 'Molly 

and Biehard,' 34. 
Everard, C. H. Nf. *b3. 



Fagan, Eev. H. S. Co. s5. 
Falconer, Eev. W. St. 

*b6. 
Farmer, Eev. J. Nt. s2. 
Farr, W. W. Ha. *i. 
ffarington. La. b6 *l3. 
Fauquier, Eev. G. L. W. 

iVp. w7. 
Faunthorpe, Eev. J. P., 

Principal of Whitelands 

Training College, who, 

with the students,greatly 

helpsme, 4. — Dv. il. — 

Li. s3. 
Fearon, Ven. Archd. 8s. 

c2. 
Featherstonehaugh, Eev. 

W. Du. *b2. 
Ferschl, Mrs. Nb. *n1, 

*«« Cam 
Field, "W. «. w5. 
Fielding, T. La. *b1 b3 

c4 h4 ol si w4. 
Findlater, Dr. SAb. B. 
Findley. Le. l1. 
Firth, Miss M. A. Sr. o. 
Fisher, Dr. H. Za.' b2. 
Fleming, Eev. H. E. Ma. 

c2. 
Florence of Worcester on 

Flemings in Pm. 24. 
Forby, Bev. B., examina 

tion of his pron. of East 

Anglia with Bev. Ph. 

Hoste, 269 to 272. 
Ford, Eev. C. H. Du. 

*b3. — on the Nb. burr, 

644*. 
Foster, G. B. Nb. *b1. 

Foster, Mrs. To. k. 
Fowler, Eev. J. J. Li. w2. 
Fowler, J. K. Bu. A a. 
Fowler, E. B. Bu. *a. 
Foxlee, Miss. St. w3. 
Foxley, Eev. J. Nt. n2. 
Framjiton, Miss. Gl. t1. 
Francis, Miss. Ss. e2. 
Francis, Mrs. JPa. t. 
Freeman, Eev. J. M. 

Cb. h. 
French, E. <7A. •v.—To. 

*slS.— WDn. h. 
Frere, Eev. H. Nf. d2. 
Froude on Australian 

Speech, 237. 
Furness, Miss E. Np. 

*p2. 
Fynmore on v, w. 143a. 



G 

Galbraith, 0. 8m. b1. 

Geraldus Cambrensis on 
Flemings in Pm. 24. 

Gibb, Johnny, J. Alex- 
ander, author of, SAb. 

B. 

Gibson, A. C. Cu. p. 

Giffen, B. 8 Ay. k1.— 
r»»8«rf Dr. Murray's 
Ay. Buth, 698, a«rf 
AJE.'s " Tarn o' 
Shanter," 732. 

Gill, Alex, old Li. Speech, 
310o. 

Gillam,Eev.J. WBd. n. 

Gladstone, Eev. S. WFl. 
h2. 

Godfrey, Mrs. Be. *h2. 

Goodchild, J. G. a chief 
helper, 4. — Line 7, p. 
20o\— Xi»s8, p. 21*.— 
Line 10, p. 22a. — on 

. (u , r) 291d, 294*.— 
his paper on ' Tradi- 
tional names of Places in 
Edenside,' 539, 602.— 
observes ' stone dyke ' n. 
and s. of Kirk Oswald, 
555. — on the Nb. burr, 
643.— Ch. Al. — Cu. 
*Bl, *b3, *cl, *e, 
*k, »Ll.— Du. *s2. 
— Mi. *B. — Nb. *F, 
*k.— 8m. vrZ. — We. 
*cl, *c2, *Kl, *k2, 

*L, *M, *0, S, *T. 

Wl. *c2. — To. *b4, 
»o3, *c4, *d2, *h8, 
*h9, i, *K, *Ll, *s2, 
*r/5, *u6.— /Site. L, B, 
T.— SSe. 8. 

Goodchild, L. on the Nb. 
burr, 643a. 

Goodman, Eev. J. P. Hu. 
xl. 

Goodenough, Eev. E. W. 
Nb. w3. 

Gostle, Bev. J. Nf. t4. 

Graham, Mrs., for Eden- 
side names, 603c. 

Grainger, Eev. J. Bu. *p. 

Granige's use o/(th), 19a. 

Grant, A. SSd. s. 

Grant, J. B. Sf. p. 

Gray, Eev. Ch. Nt. b3. 

Gray, Eev. E. H. Du. 
w2. 

Grece, Dr. C. J. Sr. w. 

Green, Eev. C.E. Nb. *B. 



VII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



71* 



Green, Eev. J. E. To. 
h5 — his Celtic border 
and location of Anglo- 
Saxon tribes, 8 to 12 — 
his 'Making of England,' 
182c. 

Gregg, J. C. He. *l1. 

Green, Miss. Dv. Ml. 

Green, Miss. Le. n. 

Green, W. H. He. H. 

Green, Eev. J. W. Cb. *m. 

Greenwell, Eev. Canon. 
Bu. cl. 

Gregor, Eev. Walter. 
SBa. k — his Banffshire 
Glossary, 683, No. 6. 

Grice, Eev. W. Wa. s2. 

Griffith, Eev. D. WBr. 

Bl. 

Griffith, Eev. J. Ht. s2. 
Griffith, Eev. J. WGm. m. 
Griffith, E. D. WBr. b1. 
Griffith, S. <??. k2. 
Griffiths, Mrs. S. JT«. *m. 
Gunn, G. M. Nb. *b2.— 

on the Nb. burr, 643. 
Gupta on English coronals, 

42». 
Guthrie, J. SJb. b. 



Hadley, G. S. Np. *e1. 

Hadrian's wall, 22. 

ifafe, Judge, called (iil) t» 
Gloucester, 64c. 

Hall, Eev. G. Eome. JV4. 
*b3. — on the Nb. (ce^, 
638<r. 

Hall, Dr. S. T. Db. w4. 

Hallam, T., a chief helper. 
4. — Lines l and 2, pp. 
16, 17.— on M. and _E. 
%' 1820, 190S.— specta; 
«!«r^ in Es., 221. — o» 
(« ), 291c. — e» verbal 
plural in -en in the 
Fylde, 'So'Id. — on (u , u) 
in s. To. 365. — on Mid- 
land negatives with 
omitted ' not, ' 461a", 
470tf\ — on the presumed 
(thr-, dhr-) in Holder- 
ness, 501. — Bd. *d a si 
s2 t2 u.— Be. w3.— 
Bu. *a*b2*c1 sl*wl 
■w2.—Cb. c1*c3e*mp 
*sl s2 wl w2 *w3 *w5. 
— Ch. Al *a2 *a3 a4 
*b1 b3 *b4 BO *cl c2 *E 
*f *a *h1 *h2 k l m1 



m2 *m3 m5 *sl n2 n3 
*p *sl *s2 *s3 s4 *t *w. 
— Co. a.—Bb. *Al *A2 
*a3*a4*b1*b2*b3*b4 
*b5 *b6 *b7 b8 *cl *c2 
*c3 *c4 *c6 *c7 c8 *c9 
d1 *d2 *d3 *d4 *d5 
*e1 *e2*e3*f1f2*g1 
*o2 o3 *Hl *h2 *h3 
*h4 *h5 *h6 *il *i2 l 
*m1 *m2 m3 *m4 *m5 
*o *p *a *e1 *b2 si *s2 
*s3 *s4 *sa *Tl *t2 t3 
*u *wl *w2 *w3 *w4. 
— Es. *b3 c g1 *g4 *g5 
*g7 h n *p2 *s3.— Gl. 
Al *b2 b3 b5 b6 *b7 cl 
c2*epgh1h2lm*st1 
t2 *w. — He. d1 *h l2 
*l3 *l4 *m *k si s2 wl. 
— Ht. *a2b2b4*b5h1 
*h3*h5*h6s3*s4*w1. 
Hu. Gl g3 *g5 *h3 h5 
k2 los1*s2 s4 s5.— Ke. 
k. — La. a1 *b1 b3 *b4 
*b5 *cl *c2 *c3 *c5 
*c6 *c8 e p! *f2 g1 *g2 
Hi *h2 *h5 *h6 *h7 
*k *Ll *l3 *l4 *n2 
*ol *o2 *pl p2 *p3 
*p4 p5 a b.1 *r2 *s3 
s4*s5*u*wl *w2*w3 
*w5 *w6 *w7. — Le. a 
Bl b5 e *G I *l1 *l2 
*m1 m2 t. — Li. *b2 b7 
*l2 *l3 *s6 *s9 *sl2.— 

Mi. *L.— Nf. *A Bl 

b2 *b4 *d1 *d3 *e p Gl 
*g2 h1 *h2 h3 *h5 
*h6 *k2 *m1 *m3 *n1 
n2*n3*n5»o1 *sl*s2 
s3 s4 *s5 *t1 *t2 t3 
wl w3 w4 *w5 *w7 
*w8. — Np. *Al *a2 
*b1 b2 *b3 *b4 *cl 
*c2 d1 d2 *e2 f *g Hi 
*h3*h6 i1*i2l1*l2 
*l3 *n1 *n2 *o *p1 
*p2 *b *sl s2 *s4 *s5 
*s6 *t2 *t3 *wl *w2 
*w3 *w4 *w5 *w6 w8 
* W 9 * Y .—Nt. *b2 *b4 
*e1 e2 k *m1 *m2 *n1 
*n4*s1*w2.— Ox. *b1 
*b2 *d e *p1 *h1 i *Ll 
L2 M o s2 T*W. — Sh. Bl 
b2 b3 *cl c2 c3 c5 c6 
c7*e!*e2h1*h2*il2 
*l4 *m1 *m2 m3 *n1 n2 
o Pl *sl s2 *c *wl *w2 
*w3 w4 »t.— St. *a1 



a2 b4 *b6 »b7 *cl »c2 
c3 c4 *Dl d2 *e1 *f1 
*f2*h1*h2*h3*i,1*l2 
13 *l4 *l5 l6 m o *b si 
s2 s3 s4 s5 *Tl *t2 *t3 
v% *wl *w2 *w3 *w4 
*w6 *t.— Sf. *Gl.— 
Ss. Bl B3 l2.— Wa. 
*Al *a2 Bl *b2 *b4 
*b5 *cl *o2 *k1 *l 
*n *pl *p2 si *s3 *t 
*w.— Wl. k p.— Wo. 
*A *Bl *b2 b3 *c *d1 
d3 *e2 e3 *g1 *g2 Hi 
h3 k *m *sl *s2 *s3 s4 T 
*w.— To. *b2b3 b5*b7 
*cl c5 *e4 *g1 h2 h4 
*h5*h7*h!1 *h12*k 
*l3 *m1 *m3 *o b3 *s4 
*s7s12*s14t1*u2w2. 
— Ma. *Kl *e2 k3 *p. 
— WBn. *uw.— WFl. 
*Bl *b2 *h1 *h2. 
Hallward, Eev. J. L. Ht. 

Gl. 

Hamilton, Miss C. G. 

SAy. k2. 
Hamond,Eev.P. F. Mi. s. 
Harden, Eev. H. "W. Nf. 

h4. 
Harkness, C«. cl. 
Harper, Eev. P. "W. To. 

s3. 
Harris, Eev. A. E. Ke. 

86. 

Harris, D. H. Bv. Bl. 
Harris, Miss. Gl. *s. 
Harrison, Miss E. P. Bu. 

*El. 

Harrison, W. La. *s2, 

*w4. 
Haslam, Eev. G. To. b6. 
Hatton, Eev. T. Hu. s5. 
Havergal, — . He. u. 
Haviland, Miss. Wo. h3. 
Hawkins, Miss. Sh. f. 
Hawtrey, Eev. H. C. Ha. 

n2. 
Haydon, Eev. G. To. h3. 
Hayne, Eev. L. G. Es. 

*b2. 
Healey, T. La. *b5. 
Heightley, E. Bu. *k. 
Henderson, Eev. J. Nb. 

A3. 
Hetherington, J. N. Cu. 

c2. 
Hibhard, Miss Mercy. To. 

*HlO. 

Higden, S. on Flemings 
inPm. 24a - . 



"72« 



PRELIMINARY MATTKB. 



[VII. 



Hill, Miss A. Co. *cl. 
Hill, Rev. E.J. Es. *p2. 
Hill, Rev. J. S. WMg. yr. 
Hill, R. Bd. *b. 
Hindson, — . We. s. 
Hirst, Miss E. Le. e. 
Hoare, Eev. G. T. Sr. 

o2. 
Hothouse, Ven. Arch. 

Co. s4. 
Hodge, Rev. W. H., his 

b. ofw.Co. 136$. 
Hodges, B. Ke. *m2 
Hodgson, Rev. J. F. Du. 

wl. 
Holderness, T. To. *h5. 
Holland, E. CA. m4. 
Holme, Eer. C. TFe. A o. 
Homfray, C. A. Sm. wl. 
Hooke, Rev. D. Jft. Bl. 
Hooper, Eev. S. H. To. 

d5. 
Hope, Eev. E. D. Cu. 

l2. 
Hore,E., on Forth and 

Bargy pron. 25, 26. 
Hoste, Eev. Ph. Nf. *s2. 
Hoste, Rev. G. 0. Sf. Bl. 
How, Eev. "W. Sh. o w5. 
Howe, Eev. J. Wa. x2. 
Howchin, Eev. W. Nb. 

*Hl. 

Howell, Rev. D. WDn.vr. 
Hunt, Mrs. A. Du. *l2. 
Hurst, Rev. Dr. Blythe. 

Du. *a1 t2. 
Hussey, Rev.C. J. Ke. d. 
Huth, A. (S*. b2. 
Huth, L. <&. p. 



Lines, S. SAb. c. 



Jackson, Miss G. Sh. *cl. 

Nl. 

Jackson, — . SRx. l. 
Jarman, J. Abbot. Dv. 

Nl. 

Jenkins, Rev. E. 7F2<7. p. 

Jenkins, Rev. J. Xi. p2. 

Jenkyns,Rev. J.Np. t1. 

Jenner, H., citations re- 
specting the Flemings 
in Fm. 24c. 

Jewan, Rev. J. J. Sr. c3. 

Johnson, Rev. A. Li. f4. 

Johnson, Rev. J. Sm. Nl. 

Johnson, Miss L. H. Wl. 



Johnston, Rev. J. Li. h2. 

Johnston, G. Hu. a. 
Jones, Rev. CW. Sf. *p. 
Jones, E. L. ?TP»». R. 
Jones, J. Gl. a. 
Jones, Joseph. He. H, 

*M. 

Jones, Rev. J.P. WGm. L. 
Jones, Miss Whitmore. 
Ox. c2. 

K 

Kay, Rev. "W. S. Du. x. 
Keble, Rev. T. Gl. b4. 
Keith, Mr. Nf. x3. 
Kelly, Rev. E. Ss. b1. 
Kemm, Miss. Ru. o. 
Kendall, Eev. W. Do. 

*Bl. 

Kent, Mrs. Saraita. A. 

g2. 
Kersley,Rev.Canon. .STjf.c. 
Kidd, Miss. SFr. p. 
Kinsman, Eev. Preb. Co. 

T. 

Kirk, E. La. o2, p 2. 
Kirke, Rev. Dr. R., on the 

Nb. burr, 644a. 
Kirkpatrick, J. To. *m2. 
Kirkup, T. Nb. *w6.— 

SRx. y. 
Kitching, Eev. "W. V. 

*/. g2. 
Kitton, Eev. E. Nf. p.. 
Knatchbull-Hugessen, H. 

Ke. *p1. 
Knight, E. S. ZTa. *a2. 
Knowles, Eev. E. H. 

C«. s. 



Lackington's 1817 London 

Errors of Speech, 227. 

Laing, Eev. Dr. A. SFi 

N. 

Lake, — . Mi. h2. 

Lang, Thomas. 5L4y. xl. 

Lang, Eev. W. F. Dash- 
wood. Dv. i2. 

Langstaff, J. "W. To. s6. 

Langston, — . La. b6. 

Latham, Dr. R. G., 
on Folkingham Speech, 
299a\ 

Laurenson, A. SSd. l. s. 

Law, Eev. A. on'fv,sz,' 
initial, 38 to 41. — Wl. 
*o3. 

Law, — . To. c3. 



Lee, Eev. S. Ha. b. 
Lee, Eev. M. H. WFl. 

Hi. 

Lees on the Nb. burr, 

643a. 
Leigh, P. Ha. «s2 *w3. 
Leonard, B. Be. *s2. 
Leslie, H. Du. *c2. 
Lewes, Eev. J. M. Nt. 

m3. 
Lewis, Eev. 8. S. -Es. o2. 
Lewis, Eev. D.Ph. TTJfy. 

b2 a. 
Lewis, Eev. J. WMg. b2. 
■ Linton, — . SRx. t. 
Little, H. J. Cb. *W3. 
Little, J. "W. Nf. *Ml. 
Livingstone, Eev. Neil, 

SAy. c. 
Llanover, Lady, Jlfo. *l. 
Llewellin, Eev. J. C. Jfo. 

p. 
Lloyd, E. E. fl*. *sl. 
Lloyd, Mrs. To. r2. 
Lockton, Eev. Ph. Np. 

s3. 
Lomb, Dr. Nf. *n5. 
Long, Rev. R. Du. b1, 

si. 
Love, J. SAy. ». 
Lowe, Rev. R. L. St. b5. 
Zouw, Jf. .4. 108o*. 
Lowman, Miss. Ke. s3. 
Lowther, Rev. G. P. Wl. 

o. 
Lumsden, Sir P., for Jane 

Morrison, 764c. 
Lupton, F. M. To. B.6. 
Luscombe, Mrs. Nf. *x3. 

*n5. 
Lyall, "W. Nb. *n1. 
Lyon, Rev. S.E. .Ha. *B. 

M 

Macbeth, Rev. R., collects 
speakers for Wick and 
Stranraer, 683, No. 7. 
«C«. w. 

MacBurney on Austra- 
lian speech, 237-248. 

MacCartie, Rev. J. Du. o. 

MacKean, Rev. W. S. Li. 
Pi. 

Macray, Rev. W. D. 0a;. 

*D. 

Maister, Rev. H. To. s5. 
Maitland, T. F. Be. *w2. 
Malcolmson, Miss A. B. 

reads Shetland to me, 

6S3d.—SSd. l. 



VII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



73» 



Maldon, Eev. M. D. Bu. 

s2. 
Malet, Eev. C. Ht. a2. 
Malleson, W. T. Sr. c4. 
Mallett, Miss C. M. Sf. 

*sl. 
Mangin, Eev. E. N. Nb. 

w4. 
Margesson, Eev. E. ~W. 

Dv. w2. 
Markham, Eev. C. "W. 

Xi. si. 
Marshall, Eev F. C. 0*. 

A. 

Marsland, J. La. *s5. 
Martel, A. W. F. Sr. i. 
Martin, Eev. H. A. Nt. l. 
Martin, Eev. E. M. Sr. c2. 
Martin, Miss. Gl. *c2. 
Martin, W. Co. s7. 
Mason, W. #». p s3. 
Maule, Eev. G. Li. t1. 
Mearns, Jos., on the Nb. 

burr, 643a. 
Meiklejohn, A. SCs. w. 
Mello, Eev. J. M. Db. 

b7. 
Mercier, Eev. J. I. Gl. 

Kl. 

Meredith, — . Mo. L. 
Merivale, his b. of wCo. 

156. 
Metcalfe, "W. To. c5. 
Meyers, J. H. Jf». E. 
Michel, Dan, on 'fv, s z ' 

initial, 38 io 41. — has 

no ' de' for ' the' in 

Ke. \Z\d. 
Michel, Gen. Do. *c. 
Middleton, Eev. H. Db. 

*c5. 
Middlemas, E. Nb. *a2. 
Miles, F. Nt. *b2. 
Miles, Miss. Dv. si. 
Miles, Miss. SPr. p. 
Miles, Mrs. Nt. *b2. 
Milford, Eev.E.N. Wl. 

E. 

MUler.Eev.E. Wa. *b6. 
Milner, G. ia. m3. 
Milner, Eev. J. Du. *m1. 
Mitchell, G. 8m. *m3. 
Mitchell, J. SSe. s. 
Mitcheson, T. Nb. *n1. 
Molyneux, Eev. W. <Ss. t. 
Moor, E., 'Suffolk Words,' 

cwl.from, 286. 
Moore, Eev. E. M. Np. 

l2. 
Moore, Eev. J. W. Sh. 

*h3. 



Moore and Moore, Messrs. 

Ha. K. 
Morgan, Eev. H. Gl. c4. 
Morgan, Eev. "W. WMg. 

K. 

Morrison, Jane. SAb. c. 

Mouatt, P., on the Nb. 
burr, Gi2d. 

Mulgrave, Ld., in Forth 
and Bargy, 2Bc. 

Munn, Eev. J. E. Ss. a. 

Murray, Dr. J. A. S., 
helps with my cs. ld. — 
draws Celtic border in 
Scotland, 8c, 14. — 
names of his helpers 
for CS., lie. — partly 
anticipates Line 7, p. 20. 
— his b. of England and 
Scotland not Line 10, 
p. 21. — on theNb. burr, 
643.— his DSS. 681 — 
his Scotch Hundredth 
Psalm, pal. 71S. — Cu. 
cl.— To. si. — SAb. 
■B.—SAy. K.—SEd. e. 
—SFo. a.—SEx. h. 

Murray, Mrs. Ch. S.Ed. 

E. 

Mylins, F. J. Wa. *e. 

N 

Napier, Eev. J. W. St. 

86. 
Nicholson, Eev. H. J. 

Hu. <j4. 
Norman, Eev. M. 0. Le. 

H. 

Norwood, Eev. J. W. To. 

s9. 
Noye, W. Co. *p2. 
Nutt, Eev. C. H. Sm. E. 


Ormsley, Eev. E. E. Du. 

Hi. 

Owen, Eev. T. Es. b1. 
Owen, Eev. "W. Wl. d. 



Paige, — . Do. s3. 
Paige, J. Dv. h. 
Paley, Eev. F. Np. v. 
Pardoe, Eev. G. 0. 

WMg. s. 
Parish, Eev. W. D. Ss. s. 



Parisian uvular r, 642J. 
Parker, Mrs. A. Be. c 

si s2.— Db. -bZ.—Ox. 

b2 e h1 h3 i l2 o w. 
Parker, Eev. F. W. 

WMg. *m. 
Parker, G. Bu. Ml. 
Parkes, Prof. To. s4. 
Patrick, D. SAy. o.— 

Paul, C. Kegan. Do. s2. 
Payne, — . Cu. cl. 
Peacock, E. Li. *b7 s4. 
Peacock, B. B., Song of 

Solomon, Chap. ii. in 

Lonsdale s. of the Sands, 

S50«\ 
Pearce, Eev. T. Do. e2. 
Pearson, — . La. v. 
Pearson, Eev. H. H. 

Db. n. 
Peck, Eev. E. A. Hu. 

h4. 
Peckham, Eev. H. Ss. 

ol. 
Peckham, Miss. Ke. s2. 
Peniston, Miss A. B. Co. 

si. 
Perkins, 3. Cb. *c2. 
Pertwee, Eev. A. Es. 

*b5. 
Philip, Eev. H. B. Es. 

*g7. 
Philip and Son's maps, 7. 
Picton, Sir J. A., on Forth 

and Bargy, 27. — La. 

w5. 
Pinder, Eev. N. Ox. *a. 
Piper, Miss A.M. F. He. 

*E. 

Pitmen's pit talk, 650c'. 
Pocklington, Eev. E. Nt. 

■wl. 
Pollar, Miss. SPr. p. 
Poole, J., 25, 29. 
Pope, Eev. G. Nt. b2. 
Postlethwaite, W. Cu. k. 
Pott, Ven. Arch. Be. e. 
'Potter,' a misprint for 

'Trotter' on p. 66, lines 

1 and 2. 
Potts, Eev. C. T. He. 

*-Ll.—Du. *s6. 
Potts, Taylor. Du. *s8. 
Powell, — . St. h2. 
Powley, Miss Mary. Cu. 

Ll. — her assistance for 

Edenside names, 603. 
Powley, J. To. b4. 
Pratten, Eev. W. S. Cu. 



74* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VII. 



Preston, R., his Bradford 
poems, 39 Id. — his re- 
marks on dialectal ortho- 
graphy, 388o". 

Price, S. Ke. c2. — Sm. 
*m3. 

Price, Key. N. E. Sh. l1. 

Prior, Dr. R. C. A. Sm. 
y&.—Wl. c4. 

Procter, Rev. F. Nf. w6. 

Proctor on the Nb. burr, 
643a. 

Pryor, M. B. St. w4. 

Pulman, G. P. E. Dv. 
a. — Sm. a c6 *m1. 

Purley, Eev. E. C. Eu. 
g2. 

Purton, Major. Wl. p. 

Pyke, T. Du. *s6. 

E 

Eagg, Eev. F. W. Du. 
n.2.—Ke. vr.—Sh. c4. 

Randolph, H. Sm. m2. 
aven, Eev. Dr. J. J. 

Nf. *o3. 
Bawlings, W. J. Co. 

*m1 p2. — Aw *. of w. 

Co. 156b. 
Eea, J. F. JVJ. d. 
Reade, H. St. John. iVp. 

o. 
Eeeve, W. N. X*. Ll. 
Richardson, Dr. F. 22. — 

iV*. *h2. 
Eichings, Eev. A. 0. St. 

b3. 
Eidge, Anne. .De. *cl. 
Eidge, T. H. SAb. c. 
Eidgway, M. To. d3. 
Eidley, Eev. W. H. £w. 

Hi. 

Eidley, T. D. Nb. *w1. 

Roberts, Eev. A. C. Et. 
w4. 

Roberts, Sim. w3. 

Robinson, C. Clough, a 
chief helper, 4b, — on 
Ith) for 'the,' 19.— on 
(«) in sTo. 365*. — on 
To. dialectal ortho- 
graphy, 403. — To. *e5 
*r>3 *h2 h10 *k *l2 
*l5 m2 *m4 *m5 *n1 
*n2 *n3 n4 *r5 »s7 
*sll *ul *c3 *u4 u5 
*w3 y. 

Robinson, Rev. C. J. Ee. 
w2. 

Robinson, F. K. To. *w4. 



Robinson, J., his assist- 
ance for Edenside names, 

603«. 
Eobson. Du. *cl. 
Robson, J. Ph. on the Nb. 

burr, 642a. 
Robson, E. C. Du. s8. 
Rock, W. F. Dv. Bl. 
Roderick, J. "W. £<. p 

•wl. 

, Rev. S. Co. a. 
,T. Co. *s2. 
i, W. H. H. Dv. 

C2. 
Rolf, Rev. C.T. ie. *sl. 
Roscoe, Mrs., for Manx, 

361*. 
Rose, Rev. "W. F. £m. 

*w4. 
Eoss, — . Sm. *cl. 
Eoss, D. SRx. B. 
Eoss, F. To. *h5. 
Eoss, 3. SKc. a. 
Eossiter, J. Sm. o7. 
Eothwell, Ch. La. *b3. 
Rowlands, Rev. J. WFl. 

h3. 

Rev. C. T. La 

h3. 
Rumny, Rev. J. W. Ke. 

b2. 
Eundell, 3. B. Co. *m2. 

— D«. b2, d. 
Bust, Eev. J. C. Cb. s3. 
Russell, very Rev. C. W., 

on Flemings in Pm. 24. 



Sadler, Miss. Wo. *s2. 
Sola, G. A., on Australian 

Speech, 237. 
Sale, Eev. T. T. Et.- a1. 
Sayers, Miss A. Ss. *c2. 
Sayers, Miss J. Sr. o. 
Scarlett, Eev. "W. To. b4. 
Scoones, Eev. W. D. 

.B«. L. 
Scott, A. Nb. *b. 
Scott, Eev. G. H. JW. o. 
Scott, Eev. "W. A. .»«. 

s3. 
Seaman, Eev. C. E. Ea. 

Nl. 

Seward, Wm., his dialogue 
for Burton-in-Lonsdale, 

To., pal. by JOG. 608. 
Sewell, Eev. H. S/. t. 
Septimius Severus's wall, 

22. 
Sharley, Rev. G. Nf. i. 



Sharpe, J. W. Sr. ol. 
Shaw, James. SDf. i. 
Shelly, J. Dv. *p2.— La. 

c7. 
Shroer, Prof. JJo. *A. 
Simmons, Rev. Canon. 

To. Hll. 
Simpson, Rev. R. Du. 

Tl. 

Simpson, Rev. T. H. 

WDn. c. 
Simson, AV., i)ro». of 

Kyle, Ay. 729, 742.— 

SAy. k2. 
Sinclair, Rev. J. SCs. yr. 
Singleton, Miss L. To. p. 
Skeat, Eev. "W. "W. Cb. 

o2 p.— £«. t. — Et. s3. 

— Ox. B. 
Skudamore, Eev. "W. Nf. 

D3. 
Slade, Miss. (te. *sl. 
Slatter, Eev. J. .Be. s3. 
Slow, E. JFZ. w. 
Slyfield, Miss J. Sr. s. 
Smart on London errors 

of speech, 227. 
Smith, Eev. A. C. Wl. y. 
Smith, Cecil. Sm. t. 
Smith, C. E. Ea. w2. 
Smith, Rev. E. B. WMg. 

L. 

Smith, H. Li. h4. 
Smith, Rev. J. i?o. b2. 
Smith, Rev. L. A. WRd. 

L. 

Smith, Rev. S. A. Cb. c3. 
Smith, Sir T. on Li. speech, 

310. 
Smith, W.C. obtains Dun- 

rossness es, 683. 
Smith, W. E. and Son's 

maps, 7. 
Somerset,Rev.B. WBr. c. 
Sowell, Eev. C. R. Co. s3. 

— his b. of wCo. 166. 
Spencer. WFl. h2. 
Spicer, R. H. S. .»«. n1. 
Spurrell, W. WCm. c— 

W.Pm. B. . 
Standring, — . Li. A3. 
StanforoVs maps, 7. 
Stanning, Rev. J. H. La. 

1.2. 
Stan way, L. 5*. si. 
Stark, Rev. "W. A. 8Kb. 

K. 

Stead, R. -Ke. f2.— Jo. 
*e3 *h5 »sl0 t.— 
WBr. *b2. — e» («) in 
To. 365. 



VII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



75* 



Steel, Rev. J. Bd. h1. 
Steel, Jo. We. k2. 
Stewart, G., ' Shetland 

Fireside Tales,' 814. 
Stockdale, J. La. Nl. 
Stoekdale, J., Song of 

Solomon chap. ii. in 

Lonsdale n. of the 

Sands, 550. 
Stone, W. G. Bo. wl. 
Stores, Rev. C. E. To. s9. 
Streatfield, — . Ke. *m1. 
Stuttard, H. La. *c7. 
Sweet, Dr. H. 2. — his 

'Eomic,' 99*. 
Sweet, Miss (now Mrs. 

Chamberlain) . Wo. t. 
Swift, Rev. G. Nt. m5. 
Swinburne, A., on the 

Nb. burr, 642c. 
Sykes, Dr. J. To. *d4. 



Tancock, Rev. 0. W. 

Do. si. 
Tarver, Rev. J. Bu. *T. 
Taunton, Rev. T. B. Dv. 

n2. 
Taylor, Rev. Hugh. Nb. 

*T. 

Taylor, J. Dv. w2. 
Taylor, Rev. R. Du. m2. 
Taylor, Tom. Du. s8. 
Teenan, J. SBd. b. 
Tenney. Dv. *d. 
Tennyson, Lord. Li. 88. 
Thackeray's, W.M.London 
Footman's Speech, 229. 
Thomas, Rev. D. G. Mu. 

Hi. 

, G. Nb. *a2. 
-Alnwick Vowels, 668. 
Thompson, Rev. H. &». 

c2. 
Thompson, Rev. Dr. W. 

H. To. o3. 
Thornton, Rev. J. Fo. m6. 
Thorold, Mrs. W. 2>«. 

-wl. 
Thynne, Rev. A. B. Wl. 

s2. 
Till,"G. St. A3. 
Timmins, S. Wa. b3. 
Titley, Rev. R. Le. b2. 
Titmouse, J. Ha. si. 
Tollemache, Hon. and Rev. 

H. F. and Miss. Np. 

h5. 
Toilet, Miss E. St. b2. 
Tombs, Rev. J. WPm. a. 



Tomline G. H. Wa. s3. 
Tomlinson, Rev. C. H. 

Be. *d. 
TomUnson, G. W. To. 

*HlO. 

Trapp, Rev. B. Bd. t1. 
Tregellas on Cornish in- 
tonation, 171. 
Trotter, Miss (misprinted 

Potter on p. 66). Gl. 

*a2. 
Trotter, R. D. (misprinted 

Potter on p. 66). Gl. 

*c3. 
Tuer's ' Cockney Almanac,' 

229. 
Turner, Miss. Wo. h2. 
Tyler, Rev. 0. B. Sm. 

n2. 

U 

Underwood, Rev. W. D. 
Ss. w2. 



Vallancey, Dr., 25 to 27. 
Viles, E. St. *c4. 
Vise,Rev.J.E. WMg. v. 

W 

"Wakefield, Miss. Dv. pi. 
Walker on London errors 

of Speech, 227. 
Walker, Rev. J. Nb. 

*w2. 
Walker, Rev. J. Sf. b2. 
Walker, J. "W. F. 0*. i. 
Walker, Miss. Cb. *w4. 
Walker, Rev. Percy C. 

Cu. b2. 
Wallis,Rev.W.M. Be. b. 
JFa&A. 25d. 

Ward, Rev. H. To. *h5. 
Ware, Rev. W. W. To. 

Bl. 

Warleigh, Rev. H. S. Gl. 

Al. 

Warner, Rev. R. E. Li. 

s7. 
Watkins, Rev. M. G. Li. 

Bl. 

Watson, Rev. J. S. Le. c. 
Watt, Rev. R. St. c3. 
Wayte, Rev. G. H. Wl. 

ol. 
Wayte, Rev. W. Wl. cl. 
Welter, Sam, his ' we,' 

132. 



West, Rev. C. F. Ox. cl. 

Westmacott, Miss. Sm. 
b3 si. 

Wharton, Rev. J. C. Mi. 
■w. 

Whateley, Rev. J. Ss. e. 

Wheck, Miss S. Bd. *R. 

Whitelands Training Col- 
lege, great assistance 
from the Principal, Bev. 
J. P. Faunthorpe, 4 
Teachers, MissesAdcock, 
Kemm, Mallett and 
Martin, an6i2S Students, 
Misses Beeby, Begge, H. 
Bell, Buckle, Calland, 
Chapman, Cockman, Cox, 
Croucher, Firth, Foxlee, 
FraneiSjFurness, Harris, 
Sill, Hirst, Kidd, Low- 
man, Miles, Peckham, 
Pollar, Sadler, A. 
Sayers, J. Sayers, Sly- 
field, Turner, Wheck, 
and Wing, see these 
names. 

Whitaker, Jo. Mi. e. 

White, Rev. F. W. Li. 
03. 

White, Rev. G. H. Dv. 
si. 

White, Ned, a yarn, 666,. 

Wigram, Rev. W. Ht. p. 

Wilcocks, Rev. H. S. 
Dv. s2. 

Wilding, Rev. J. St. vl. 

William of Malmesbury 
on Flemings in Pm. 24. 

Williams, Rev. T. WFl. 

Williams, Mrs. Li. a2 

b8 cl q4 g5 h3 ho xl 

k2 l1 l3 s2 s9 sll t2 

vl wl. 
Williams, Rev. Wadham. 

Sm. b2. 
Williams, Rev. W. J. 

Li. Gl. 
Wilkinson, Rev. G. To. 

wl. 
Wilkinson, I. To. s6. 
Wilshere, C. W. Ht. h7 

w3. 
Wilson, Rev. G. SBw. 

c.—SWg. a. 
Wilson, T. Ht. *h2. 
Wilson, T. D. To. p. 
Wilson, Rev. W. Du. a. 
Wing, Miss. Ss. *M. 
Winter, G. Sm. c3. 
Wiseman, J.F.T. Ss. *pl. 



76* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VII., VIII. 



■Wolf, Lady. Ma. *ol. 
Wood, Mrs. Willoughby, 

St. *Bl. 
Woodfall, G. Us. o3. 
Woodhouse, Rev. G. H. 

m. f. 

Woodhouse, R. Me. *d2. 
Woof, R. Wo. *d2. 
Worfold, Rot. J. N. To. 

El. 

Wray, Rev. H. WBn. 

*H. 



Wray, ReT. J. Jackson. 

To. m2. 
Wright, Rev. Canon. Li. 

c2. 
Wright, J. Nb. *h3. 
Wright, Rev. J. Wo. 

v. 
Wright, Dr. J. To. Ml 

*w5. — on (») i» <So«<A 

To. 365«. 
Wright, Rev. J. P. St. 

N. 



Wyatt, J. .Brf. *b— Bu. 

Bl. 
Wyer, N. W. J)o. *w2. 

— -D». E. — Es. i. 
Wykes, C. H. Np. l2. 
Wyld, J. Du. *b1. 



Yarranton, Rev. A. Sot. 

si. 
Yeats, Dr. J. Jfo. *c2. 



VIII. TABLE OF DIALECTAL PALAEOTTPE. 

The palaeotype laid down in Part I. pp. 1 to 1 2, even when extended as in 
Part IV. pp. xii to xiv, proved insufficient for the differentiation of the 
minute shades of sound heard in dialectal speech. Hence it became necessary 
to construct an entirely new table. 

All sounds are represented by "old letters," whence the name palaeotype 
iraAaioi rfaroi, but in order to obtain signs enough these ancient types embrace 
1) direct small or "lowercase" roman as (e), 2) the same "turned" as (»), 
3) the direct italic and small capital (e e), and 4) their inversions (a a), and 
sometimes even black letter as (e 3) A few "digraphs" are also admitted, 
especially with (h), as (th sh), a hyphen preceding the (h) when it is not initial, 
but has to have its usual sense. ' Modifiers ' are extensively employed as in 
(e l , e„ u*, u 6 , a, kj, tj tj), etc. These alter the value of the preceding letter 
in a definite direction, and are explained hereafter separately, and also in con- 
junction with the modified letters. All these letters, digraphs, and modified 
forms are then arranged in alphabetical order by the ordinary large capital letters 
which are not otherwise phonetically employed. The letter A, for example, 
refers to all modifications of the type a and its diphthongal combinations as 
(a, a 1 , a 1; a,, a E — ah, ai, a'i, a'u, a'y, — a, ah, — a, a 1 , — «, «uu). 

No attempt is here made to give any phonetic theory, for which see much of 
Part IV., and also my article on Speech Sounds in the Eneyclopadia Sritanniea, 
1888, vol. 22, pp. 381-390, which uses palaeotype, and my Speech in Song 
(Xoyello), or Pronunciation for Singers (Curwen), both of which use glossic. 
But as a matter of convenience I prefix the table of Mr. Melville Bell's vowel 
system reduced to pal. and numbered. 



Mr, Melville Bell's Visible Speech Vowel Table. 
» narrow, w wide, nr narrow round, wr wide round. 



TONQUE 

Height. 


Tongue Back. 


Mixed. 


Tongue Front. 


Hioh 

Low 


n w nr wr 
1 ce 2b 3u 4« 
5a 6a To 8o 
9ce 10a 11a 12o 


n v> nr wr 
13t Hy 15u 16wh 
17o 18ah 19 oh 20 oh 
21 oh 22 ao 23 ah 24 oh 


» w nr wr 
25i 26i 27i 28 y 
29e 30e 31 » 32 ce 
33e 34 as 35 ah 36seh 



These will be spoken of as Bell's No. 1, 2, 3, etc., though the numbers are 
mine, and merely annexed for convenience of reference, and to shew in the briefest 
manner the position of the tongue and lips assigned by Mr. Bell. 



VIII.] PRELIMINARY MATTER. 77* 

Quantity. — (1) Vowels. Six grades of length are recognised. Very short as 
(a 3), ordinarily short as (a a), medial length, lying between short and long, 
as (a a'), long as (aa as), drawled as (aa aa'), extremely long as (aaa aaa). 
Ordinarily only two lengths are written, short and long, as (a aa). To indicate 
a succession of two shorts of the same Mnd introduce the break as (a;a). TH. 
has always recognised the medial length as (a), and in all his numerous con- 
tributions to this book medial rowels abound, greatly to the exclusion of long 
(p. 316). Hence to him, and those who agree with him, the long vowel (aa) 
represents a much longer sound than it does to me. In s. Lowland the vowels 
are generally medial, and when lengthened are very long, thus thief thieves are 
(thif thiivz), which might be written (thiif thiiivz), but for convenience are 
usually written (thif, thiivz). Similarly in Italian and Spanish, the vowels 
are ordinarily of medial length, and may be emphatically shortened or lengthened 
according to the feeling of the moment, without disturbing signification. 

(2) Consonants. — Some consonants, as (s, f, z, v), can be continued indefinitely, 
and in point of fact are generally lengthened in the pause. As a rule this is 
not noticed in writing. But TH. constantly marks it, see p. 316, and all the 
examples in D 21, D 26, (pp. 317-329, 426-447). See also Dr. Sweet's 
observations, IV. 1145. In this case, if the final consonant is voiced, as (hiz), 
the buzz is often not continued very long, but is followed by an indefinitely long 
hiss, thus (hizs') as (hiz 1 ) would be uncomfortable to the speaker. If the final 
consonant be a mute, it cannot be lengthened, but is only suspended, that is, the 
organs of speech are retained in their positions, and a silence ensues until the 
position is ordinarily released on flatus, or another vowel, thus (stop 1 ) properly 
means a silence after (p), but would ordinarily imply the release on flatus as 
(stop'p'). Sometimes, however, even when final the mute is neither suspended 
nor audibly released, and would then be marked thus (stop!). Between two vowels 
the mute is thus usually split up, thus stopping is pron. as (stapiq), with no pause 
between the end of the first or beginning of the second syllable, really (stapipiq), 
or a suspension may be inserted as (stap'piq), which is not usual in English 
except in compound words as hoppole (hap'pool), but not (hap'p'pool). When 
a different consonant follows, only the first glide on to the (p) is heard, as upshot 
(apishat) . In all these cases, except in special phonetic discussions, I avoid the 
use of the mark of suspension. But the suspended ft") for the is always marked, 
p. 317*. 

In the following list only the short vowels and the short consonants are given 
as headings, but examples to both short and long vowels are often annexed. 

Diphthongs. — Two or more different vowels written in juxtaposition are to be 
pronounced in separate syllables, as (keeas) chaos, but they are usually separated 
in some way, as (keeps, tee-as) . When however they glide on to one another, 
one of them bears an acute accent, as (ai), and the two form a 'diphthong,' 
and similarly three vowels form a triphthong, as (eaw). The combination in 
each case consists of a single syllable. The vowel bearing the acute accent 
has then the principal stress. Occasionally each element may have equal stress, 
and then two acute accents are used, as (ia), distinct from (ija, ia, ia), but even 
in this case there is felt to be only one syllable. When the vowel with the stress 
is long, the acute is placed on the first of the two representative letters, as (aai), 
and when it is medial, the medial grave accent fuses with the diphthongal acute 
accent into a circumflex, thus (a'i) becomes (Si), which type will be constantly 
found in TH.'s contributions below. As English printers have usually only 
(a e i 6 u d e » 6 u) with acute accents, the acute accent for other vowels is 
placed after the vowel, as (a'i, aa'i), and the grave is printed after it separately, 
as (A'i, a"»). It is sometimes convenient to indicate the class of a diphthong 
without completely analysing it. Thus we may not know whether (a'i, ai, a'i) 
were the diphthong reafiy uttered, but may be sure that it was something like 
one of them, then (a'i) is used, the acute accent being separated, and the second 
element indefinite. Similarly (a'u, o'i, i'u, a'y, a'n, e'u, i'u, i'«, o'n, u'b) are 
employed for unanalysed diphthongs, the (') being separate from (a, e, i, 0, u) ; 
but this meaning of the separate acute accent is confined to the case when it 
follows (a, e, i, o, u) . Hence (ai, a'i) must be strictly distinguished, the first 
diphthong being thoroughly analysed and definite, the second entirely unanalysed 



78* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VIII. 



and indefinite, but forming a class ; {a'i) however is also an analysed form, the 
accent being separate through a typographical necessity. As a rule only un- 
analysed diphthongs are given in the following list, though the principal analysed 
forms will be found in their proper places. 

The length of the first element of a diphthong is generally very material. It 
is usually short, as (ai), but occasionally lengthened, as (ai, aai), generally with 
an appreciable difference in pron. or meaning. But the length of the second 
element does not alter the character of the diphthong, any more than the length 
of the final consonant alters the value of the syllable. TH., however, generally 
marked the quantity of the second element as medial when he observed it to be 
lengthened, as (ai). I have usually not retained this lengthening, considering it 
quite inessential, and arbitrary, being in fact constantly admissible in the pause, 
without any intention to alter the Bound, see p. 316. 

Elocutionary alterations and intonation are mostly left unmarked, but an 
inverted period before a word indicates emphasis corresponding to the usual 
italics; thus, he told me, he told me, became (hi toold -mii, -hii toold mi). In 
monosyllables emphasis generally conditions some alteration of sound. 

*,* The long phonetic discussion on received pron. in Part IV. pp. 1090 to 
1167 will be regularly cited, and pp. 1265 to 1357 should also be consulted. 

When the numbers of pages referred to are above 1000 they are in Part IV., 
when under 1000 they are in this volume, — unless the number of the part is 
specially added. The italic letters a, b, e, d annexed here and elsewhere indicate 
that the passage referred to is in the first, second, third, or fourth quarter of the 
page ; and if the page is in double columns, unaccented letters refer to the first, 
and accented to the second column. The reader will find it convenient to mark 
the quarters of pages on a separate piece of paper cut the length of the printed 
matter, excluding the head-line, and after folding in half, and then again in half, 
and lettering it, apply it to the book ; it will be found to save much time in 
finding a passage in pages so crowded with matter as those of this book. 

The mode I have adopted, and found to work well in writing is as follows : 
The small roman letters are written as usual. The small italic letters are once 
underlined as usual. The small capitals, instead of being doubly underlined as 
usual, are written as ordinary letters with an acute accent below, as ?=a, 
except when they have tails, and then a stroke is written above as/y=i y. 
Black letters are doubly dotted below. The turned letters are thus represented 



Turned a c e b t i 


j r 1 i 


M V 03 


Printed B o 9 s. t J 


t i I i 


H A a> 


"Written « p 9 s a jf 


r r i r 


Ut i) a) 



A. (a a 1 aj a ( a, a R — ah aA a'i a'u 
a'y — a ah. — a a 1 — u ■buu). 

(a) Bell's No. 6 short (a) in German 
mann, and perhaps in English chaff, 
lass, ask, bath, dance, 1148 ; medial 
(a) common in Midland that; long 
(aa) in ah, father, mamma, part (the 
r not sounded), 539c. 

(a 1 ) a higher form of (a) approaching 
(ae). This is generally used in place 
of (ah) as more suggestive, but it 
has not the certain position of the 
latter, 695a. 

(a,) between (a, a), used especially 
by JGG., see 539e, generally con- 
fused with (a), but JGG. considers 
that it differs in quality from the 
short of a in father. 

(,a) or (a) with an advanced tongue, 
1147c', between (a, as), and not 



materially different in effect from 
(ah, a 1 ), 601*. 

(a,) semi-nasal form of (a),mild nasality, 
often heard in American long t, as I 
find (a ( i fa,ind). 

(a R ) the simultaneous pron. of (a) and 
(n), 42*. 

(ah) Bell's No. 18, not materially dif- 
ferent in sound from (a 1 , p.), used 
principally for an affected thinness, 
1148c. Sweet makes it the sound 
in eye, better, but the last is not 
usual in educated speech. 

(ai) a conventional form for French 
chawt, but (a) is altered in quality 
by the altered position of the uvula 
in nasalisation, see (a) p. 86* below, 
and 1123a". 

(a'i) unanalysed diphthong used where 
tie first element has not been de- 
termined; when analysed it may take 



VIII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



79* 



the forma in (hi, hi, a'i, js'i, ee'i, 
a'i, a'i, ao'i, as), and the first element 
is sometimes lengthened, 1100, col. 2. 
It may even be nasalised as (a ( s). 
Five forms are heard in D 38, 
757c, - d, see also D 25, Tar. iv. 
p. 410. 

(a'u) unanalysed diphthong, used where 
the second element approaches (u) 
and the first element has not been 
determined ; it may take the forms 
in (au, a«, a'», e'w, se'w, a'u, a'«, 
a>'w, 6u, du, a'», a'u), 1153, col. 2. 

(a'y) unanalysed diphthong where the 
second element approaches (y) or 
French u. The first elementmay 
vary, as in (a'i, a'u). We find (a'y), 
536'. 

(a) Bell's No. 10 between (a, a), 
1116«, 115-2(T. 

(ah) Bell's No. 23, is to him the Irish 
sir, and first element of the Irish 1, 
and the oral element of French en ; 
Sweet gives no example. 

(a) Bell's No. 11, all, bawl, an (a) 
approaching to (o), 1116 col. 1, 1122 
col. 1, and 539o*. 

(a 1 ) or (a) with a raised tongue, not 
unlike (o), 353a, b. 

(e) Bell's No. 2, as a in parental, 
China, the commonest form of un- 
accented indistinct vowel, frequently 
serving as the second element of a 
diphthong, 11 22 J', 640o*. Bell's 
examples are dungeon, motion, con- 
sciows, abandon, cupboard, avoir- 
dupoise, hono«<r, bellows, sb. Sweet 
gives no example, but uses Bell's 
No. 17, my (a), in this sense finally. 

(«uu) a form of (uu) heard perhaps in 
the north, 636a", No. 640. 

JE. (sb seh). 

(a?) Bell's No. 34, the rec. English 
short vowel in bat, which approaches 
closely to (e) ; and is generally re- 
placed by (a 1 , a, a) in dialects ; long 
in the local pron. of Bath (ibseseth). 

(aeh) Bell's No. 36, which he hears in 
the first element of Cockney out and 
L. .Til ; and Sweet in open German 
Gotter. I can give no example. 

B. (bb.bh). 

(b) bee iay Jow, gl«eb, b&be baiy, a 
voiced (p), 1113. 

(b ( ) a kind of defective (m) said to 

exist in We. 1113a - , 560, No. 13. 
(bh) German w, Hungarian v , modern 



Greek $, (v) uttered without touching 
the upper teeth with the lower lip, 
1101 to 1103. 

C. (o, oh, o'«). 

(o) Bell's No. 12, common English 
short o in a closed syllable, hop hob 
hot hod hock hog, unused in most of 
Europe, where it is replaced by (o) ; 
very like (a), which is also peculiarly 
English, but verging towards (o), 
1116, 540e. The symbol (a) is used 
because the small cap. (o), which 
would naturally have been used, is 
too like the lower case (o). 

(ah) Bell's No. 24, which Bell conceives 
as Cockney ask and Irish not. 
Sweet gives no example. AJE. does 
not know the sound. 

(a'i) educated form of boy toy joy, 
occasionally (a'», aa's), 1117*. 

D. (d ,d d,— dj db db, dw— d 

dj Db.). 

(d) in «*o roa* ploaWing pleading, the 
tip of the tongue at a sensible 
distance behind the gums, English 
'coronal' (d), voiced form of (t), 
1095, 1113. 

(,d) French and general continental d 
with the tip of the tongue advanced 
to the gums, alveolar d, 1095, heard 
in some English dialects, but almost 
only before (r, r°), which then become 
(,r, t ), 542J. 

(dj retracted (d), the tip of the tongue 
Drought as far back as possible 
without reversion, so that its edge 
(not underside) touches the palate, 
and the tongue forms a spoon-shaped 
hollow at the back part, a mild form 
of reversion, 41rf. 

(dj) contraction for (,d,zh, d,zh) or 
(djzhj), heard in judge, 1154A', 542, 
usually analysed as (dzh), as it was 
in the three first Parts of E.E.P. 

(dh) the tongue brought fully against 
the teeth in English, the ih in they 
breathe, typing, 1098a, 1122a*. 

(dh,) the (dh) with the tongue some- 
what retracted, Spanish d in Maa"ria". 

(du>) labialised (d), an attempt to utter 
(d) and (w) simultaneously, 1115, col. 
2, frequent English dwell, generally 
confused with (dw). 

(d) reverted (d), that is, (d) spoken with 
the underside of the tongue against 
the palate, 1095, 1096, 42, see (d,). 

(dj) = (Dsh) or reverted (dj), 41. 



80* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VIII. 



(ch) the tinder part of the tip of the 
tongue brought against the teeth, 
theoretically assumed to exist in D 4, 
see 41. 



E. (e e 1 e a e° — &e 4&s eii U eA 
euu eu — e e l e l — ««* iei ee'j 
^&i iH l — e Ej — B* e'm — 9 a 1 
ah — a 1 a l ah — a a 1 a R — a'* 
a'o 3?u). 

(e) Bell's No. 30, as I hear it from 
edncated southern Englishmen in bet, 
bed, pen, 1106, col. 1, 539d, generally 
replaced by (e) provincially. Bell 
considers that it is used only in un- 
accented syllables, and that (e) is 
the sound in accented syllables. 
Sweet agrees with me. The long 
form (ee) as in fair, care, pear, but 
only before r in received English, 
sounding (feeu, keeB, pees). 

(e 1 ) the tongue of (e) being raised, 
hence approaching closely to (e), 
1107, col. 2 

(ej) the tongue of (e) being lowered, 
approaching closely to (e), hardly 
distinguishable from (e 1 ), 1107, col. 2. 

(e°) an indistinct form of (e) approach- 
ing («), but reminding the nearer of 
(e), 721 J, c. 

(6b) common provincial fracture, differ- 
ing only in length from the next. 

(ecu) real sound of air without the trill, 
(ee) is also common provinoially, 
see (e). 

(en) the (e) very short and the (ii) 
long, 538c, 595»', considered by the 
natives as (ii) parallel to (iii). 

(Si) common diphthongising form of 
(e). 

(eA) French vi», see (a), p. 86*. 

(euu) the (e) very short and the (un) 
long, 638, 1. 3 from bottom, a 
substitute for (uu), see also 556c, 
parallel to (eii). 

(ew) a mincing form of (a'u) common 
in D 9, p. 137m", and London. 

(e) Bell's No. 29, when lengthened, is 
the sound in name without any 
vanish, Fr. fee long, i\4 short, 1107. 
Murray considers it opener than Fr. 
fee, 710, No. 4. The long sound 
must be distinguished from (ee'j) 
with the vanish. 

(e 1 ) the tongue of (e) raised, and hence 
approaching closely to (i), 1107, 
683J, 756c, and scarcely distinguish- 
able from (i,), 595S. 



(e x ) the tongue of (e) lowered, ap- 
proaching closely to (e), 1107, 683J, 
697e. 

(eev) a low form of (ee) or (ee) tending 
towards (e), usually written (ee^, 
682, last line. 

(e'et) more distinctly ending with (i) 
than London (ee'j), 1108a?, 1109. 

(ee'j) the London (educated) long (ee) 
with the 'vanish,' the diphthong 
ending in an indefinite approach to 
(i), which is not of constant value, 
1111, col. 1. 

(e''a,) this diphthong is here usually 
written (i^aj), 542a. 

(e'i 1 ) a diphthong scarcely distinguish- 
able from (i,i), which is here generally 

"WT1TTPT1 *)4-l/* 

(e) Bell's No. 33, the Fr. b&e short, 
Italian open e, common short 
English e in closed accented syllables 
in provincial, and as some hold in 
rec. sp., see (e) above, and 1106c. 

(ej), a still deeper form than (e), but 
not yet quite (se), 1108c, 711, No. 6. 

(s e ) a variation of (e) in the direction 
of (e) for which (c,), or lowered (e), 
is used, 6836, No. 3, 1. 

(e'm) a very common form of (a'u) 
heard in D 10 and D 19, pp. 146a, 
277*, 278c, 279rf, 287o*. 

(9) Bell's No. 17, the fine « of an 
educated Londoner in closed accented 
syllables as cat «p, replaced pro- 
vinoially by (a), 1094, col. 2. Bell 
conceives it to he French que, which 
I take as (si). Sweet has German 
Gabe, which I conceive as («). 
Murray cannot distinguish open 
unstressed (e, 9), 683a. I do not 
really distinguish unstressed (b, 9). 

(o 1 ) an (9) raised towards (i), 146S. 

(oh) Bell's No. 21, he puts down as 
"provincial sir," and Sweet simply 
as sir ; I do not know it as different 
from (a). 

(s) Bell's No. 31, Fr. eu in pew as 
distinct from eu in people, which 
is (ce) ; it does not seem to occur 
precisely in English, but only in 
some variant written (»,), 146c, 
541a. Bell conceives (?) as Fr. «ne, 
which I take as (y) and Sweet as (1). 

(a 1 ) a higher form of (a), 711, No. 12, 
721», c. 

(»]) a deeper variant of (9), but not 
quite (oe), 146c, 541 under (09), 
595«'. 

(ah) Bell's No. 35, which he gives to 
French bearre (but this seems rather 
(ce) to me) , and Sweet to Swedish for. 



VIII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



81* 



(a) Bell's No. 5, the ordinary deep 
provincial form of the natural vowel 
in accented close syllables, as cut, 
bad, 1094, col. 2, but Bell and 
Sweet consider it to be the received 
form, which I take as (o). 

(a 1 ) a higher form of (a), supposed to 
be the Scotch, 711, No. 8. 

(a R ) the simultaneous pron. of (a) and 
(r), 42. 

(a'i) a very common provincial form of 
the diphthong (a'i). 

(a'o) a diphthong beginning with open 
lips for (a), closing gradually to the 
position for (o), 734. par. 9. 

(a'w) one of the commonest provincial 
forms of (a'u), not very distinguish- 
able from (6«). 

F. (f fh }). 

(f) a hiss with the lower lip against 
the upper teeth, sometimes replaced 
by (ph), in which the teeth are not 
touched, 10994. 

(fh) lips and teeth as for (f), back of 
tongue as for (u), Bell's theoretical 
form of NL. /used for wh, 758a. 

(j) a modifier used in (tj dj) = (t,sh, 
d L zh), to indicate an approach to (tj 
dj), and also somewhat laxly in 
(kj gj) to represent the Sanscrit 
explodent form of (tj dj), supposed 
to occur in English, 1119c, d. 

<*• (g gj— gh gj gjh grh— gw 
gtch. g). 

(g) tx&mgag,gig, filing, 1113, 1154a. 
(gi) the sonant form of (dj) existing 

in Sanscrit, and by Godwin re- 
cognised in English, 1119, col. 1. - 

(gh) guttural buzz, the back of the 
tongue coming close to the soft 
palate, as in German Ta^e ; not 
English. 

(gj) an attempt to pronounce (g) and 
(i) simultaneously, palatalised (g), 
at one time very common in received 
sp., now almost disused, except in 
the word girl (gjoal) . 

(gjh) palatal buzz, German koni^e, 
distinct from (gh), often confused 
with (j), but not an English sound, 
and not even used in L. where (kjh) 
is common. 

(grh), the uvula is flapped during the 
pron. of (gh), Ar. j, often heard in 
Holland, but repudiated by better 
speakers, very like the Nb. burr, 
see (r). 

E.P. Pron. Part V. 



(gw) an attempt to pron. (g) and (u) 
simultaneously, labialised (g) heard 
in^xano, 1115, col. 1. 

(g«>h) labialised guttural buzz, tongue 
for (gh) and ftps for (u), German 
Buge, not an English sound, though 
(ku>h) occurs in L. 

(o) retracted (g), that is with the 
contact between the back of the 
tongue and soft palate as near the 
throat as possible ; as JGG. considers 
that (x), the mute form of (g), is used 
in D 4, p. 52. v. 23, 24, 25, and 
p. 57, No. 773, he should have 
admitted (o) in p. 51, v. 4 (bse'onNeT) 
bayonet ; but the use of (k, g) in 
English seems very questionable ; (k) 
is common in Arabic j, but (a) is 
unknown. 

H. (h 'h. 'h h Hh HTh). 

(h), (1) when not initial and not pre- 
ceded by a hyphen or turned period, 
as in (thin, ants, shii, vizhun) etc., 
thin, the, she, vision, is a modifier, 
so that it must be considered as 
forming part of the same letter as the 
preceding sign ; (2) when initial or 
preceded by a hyphen or turned 
period, as (Mi, pot'ha'us, mis-hse-p) 
he, potAouse, misAap, it is a new 
letter representing the unanalysed 
aspirate of which (h Hh Hjh) are 
analysed forms, 11304'. 

('h) voice, is contracted to (') when 
sufficiently unambiguous, and then 
represents any obscure, indefinite, 
and short voice sound, 1128c'. 

('h) flatus, audible but unvoiced breath, 
1128*', contracted to (') when 
following another letter, as (top') 
top. 

(h) jerked utterance of following vowel 
or flatus, 11304' ; before a vowel the 
singer's aspirate, or entirely voiced 
Indian aspirate, 1134, 1138^. 

(Hh) contraction for (H'h) or jerked 
flatus, not necessarily prominent, the 
usual theoretical aspirate, 5424, c. 

(Hjh) a smartly jerked emission of 
flatus or strong aspirate, 1130c'. 



I. (i i i'a — i i, i 1 i' — ii »yi — »! «V 
— ii&! ^e &ii — in — i). 

(i) Bell's No. 25, the long (ii) is com- 
mon on the continent, and is supposed 
to occur in eat, tea, meeting, but 
here is frequently simply (it) ; the 

6* 



82* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VIII. 



short (i) in closed accented syllables 
is not recognised as English, and is 
replaced by (i) ; even in open short 
syllables (i) is rare, 1098c 1 , 540. It 
occurs however in L. 710c. 

(i) very short sound of (i), the vocal 
form of (j), 536', par. 3, diph- 
thongising with the following vowel, 
regular Welsh form. 

(i'a) nnanalysed form of a common 
dialectal diphthong, varying as {{fa, 
«a, i«, Uv), the last being the ree. 
sound of ear when the r is, as usual, 
not trilled, 1099c. 

(i) Bell's No. 26, in : it, bib, pin, silly, 
the regular sound of English short i, 
540, but TH. useB (i,) when it occurs 
in open unaccented syllables, con- 
sidering the tongue to be somewhat 
retracted, 316c; Bell makes no such 
distinction ; Sweet considers pity to 
have (i t ). 

(»,) a sign used by TH. explained 316c 
not distinguished by me from un- 
stressed open (i), which see. 

(i 1 ) a high form of (i), which I cannot 
distinguish from (i). 

(i') SL. close form of (is), 710, 
No. 3. 

(«'i) inchoant diphthong, (i) commenced 
too deep as (i) and gradually raised 
to (i) during speech, 293 ; this is the 
Midland form and seems to be what 
Sweet writes ij, which he analyses as 
(ii 1 ) for received English. 

(tyj a diphthong arising from begin- 
ning (y,) with the mouth too open, 
heard in D 19, p. 261a. 

(i x ) a lowered form of (i) lying between 
(i, e), which Sweet hears in pity 
and is common dialectally. 

(V) L. close (in) as written on 682a', 
No. 3, usually written (i'). 

{{fa) a peculiar northern fracture, in 
which both elements are distinct, 
542a. 

(»,e°) JGG.'s form of {{'), nib, e. 

{{ t i) here the first element is deeper 
than (i) and approaches (c), so that 
JGG. often wrote («'i l ), which see, 
541c; it differs from (»'i) in being 
nearer (<?i). 

(i u ) doubly lowered (i), representing 
the sounds generally written i in 
Ab. which sound to me among (i, 
e, 9, a, «), folly discussed in 767, 
see also 695a" and 756a\ 

(i) Bell's No. 27, which he assigns to 
German «ber and Sweet to French 
l«ne, both of which I take to be 
to- 



J- (J 'j— * A— j). 

(j) a modifier, indicating that the 
preceding consonant is palatalised, 
or that an attempt is made to 
pronounce (i) simultaneously with it, 
as in (kj, gj, lj, nj), 1115. Sweet 
calls this palatalisation " front 
modification," because he terms (i) 
a "front vowel." 

(']') indefinite palatalised voice, heard 
in the 'vanish' of (ce'j) for long a 
in the pause, 1111, Sweet writes ei 
and analyses (eij) . 

(j) the true consonantal sound in ye 
yield yet yacht, German j, the true 
consonantal form of (I), 1149a 1 , 542c. 

(jh) the palatal hiss of (j) heard, at 
least occ., in Aew Aue ifughes Auge 
.flume, but often replaced by .simple 
(j), not unlike (gjh, kjh), 1149, 
col. 2. 

(r) the Midland gentle r described in 
293a' and 294, not materially different 
from (r , r°) and other imperfect, 
because unflapped or unbilled, forms 
of (r), see under B. 

K. (k kj kh kj kjh kw ktvh. k). 

(k) common guttural mute in caie, 
sacft, picking ; there is a habit some- 
times of jerking out the following 
vowel as (kHom) come, heard in 
Ireland and Germany, 1140a', and 
some insist on slight flatus inter- 
vening as (kjham), which regularly 
occurs in the pause as (ssekph) = (ssek') 
sack, neither practice is generally 
heard from educated speakers. 

(kj) explodent form of (tj) as con- 

. ceived by Mr. Godwin and found in 
India, 1119c. 

(kh) the German ch in &eh, still heard 
in Lowland Scotch and occ. in 
Northern English. 

(kj) palatalised (k), or an attempt to 
pronounce (k) and (i) simultaneously, 
1115. 

(kjh) palatalised hiss, an attempt to 
pronounce (kh) and (i) simultane- 
ously ; German ieh, xecht, heard in 
Lowland, 542c, 711a', not to be 
confounded with (jh) or with (sh, 
shj). 

(kw) labialised (k) or an attempt to 
pronounce (k) and (u) simultaneously, 
usual qu in j«ality, jwantity , eywalise, 
question, 1103, col. 2, 1116. 

(kwh) an attempt to pronounce (kh) and 
(u) simultaneously, final in German 



Till.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



83* 



aach, bucA, and initial in Lowland 
Scotch, written as initial quh, 1 1 15S', 
711(*. 
(k) retracted (k), see (g), p. 81*. 

L. (1 '1 ,1— Hi, lhh, lj — ? Zh— 

I— L— 1). 

(1) common English low, Re, owl, aisle, 
dweSing, 1146c, 542c, the tip of the 
tongue resting on the hard palate 
some way from the gums, coronal (1), 
and the sides of the tongue slightly 
flapping. 

('1) syllabic (1), the voice being sus- 
tained during position, this notation 
is adopted as clearer than Bell's (11) 
or my equivalent (1'} . Compare (lit'l, 
li'tll, litT). 

(,1) alveolar (1), the tip of the tongue 
resting on the gums, common conti- 
nental I, 542c. 

(lh) flated (1), that is, with flatus sub- 
stituted for voice, generated in some 
dialects, and supposed by Bell to 
occur regularly before (p t k), as 
(helhp) or (hellhp, mellht, millhk) 
help, melt, milk, 542rf. 

(lhh) unilateral (lh), the breath being 
ejected from the right side of the 
tongue only, as in Welsh lh.ll. 

(lj) palatalised I, an attempt to pro- 
nounce (1) and (i) at the same time. 
Italian gl may be generated in 
English million as (mtl-lj-ron), 
1115. 

(?) the Polish gutturalised barred /. 

(lh) the flated {I). 

([) the gradual glottid, the edges of 
the glottis being open when begin- 
ning to speak and gradually closing, 
1 129c'. 

(l) reverted I, the under part of the 
tongue being turned to the palate 
generated by action of preceding 
(b), 42d, and sometimes used inde- 
pendently, 143c. 

(i) glottal r peculiar to Danish, but 
held to have been heard in the 
Cockney speech by Donders, 1099c 1 . 

SI. (m 'm mh k). 

(m) an orinasal resonance of voice 
while the mouth ia in the position 
for (p), 1148, col. 2; the tongue 
should obstruct the cavity of the 
mouth as little as possible, or (n, q) 
may be generated, for which the 
opening of the lips is not necessary. 

('m) syllabic (m) in schis»» chasm 



(siz'm kaez'm) ; this symbol preferred 
as more distinct than Bell's (mm) or 
my (m'), 1148<? and 1108a". 

(mh) flatus passed through the nose 
while the mouth is in the position 
for (p), thought by Bell to occur 
bef ore mutes, but not heard by me, 
1141a, 1148c'. 

(k) turned small capital m, a lip trill 
with compressed lips, a defective 
utterance of (r) usually taken for 
(w), 665, line 1, formerly written 
(m) or turned m. 

N. (n 'n p. — nil nj — n). 

(n) orinasal resonance of voice while 
the mouth is in the position for (t), 
as in no, own, manner, 1095, the 
mouth is generally open, but it is 
not necessary that it should be so, 
see (m). 

fn) syllabic (n) so written in prefer- 
ence to Bell's (nn) and my (n') for 
lengthened (n), in open, sunken 
(oop'n, soqk'n), 1108rf. 

(,n) the alveolar continental « with the 
tip of the tongue quite on the gums, 
1095c 1 . 

(nh) flatus through the nose and in 
the mouth in the position for (t) ; 
this was once used initially for kn- 
throughout England, and is still so 
used occ. in Cu. 542a'. 

(nj) palatalised (n), an attempt to pro- 
nounce (n) and (i) at the same time, 
Italian and French gn, Spanish fi, 
Portuguese nh ; may be generated 
in English (an-nj-jun) onion, 1151, 
col. 2, see (qj). 

(n) reverted (n), the mouth being in 
the position for (t) during the ori- 
nasal resonance, generated by a pre- 
ceding (r) in D 4 and D 11, see 42. 

0. (o o u — oh oob oa o» — o o u 
o 1 — oh oo'w). 

(o) Bell's No. 8 Italian open (o), dif- 
ferent from, but often confused with 
(o), and common in our dialects, 
540c. 

(o„) may indicate an endeavour to pro- 
nounce (o) with the lip aperture of a 
(u), see 11165', and may occur in 
dialects ; it might also be written 
(ow) on Sweet's principle of ' over- 
rounding.' 

(oh) Bell's No. 20, conceived by Sweet 
as French homme, which I hear as 
(o), conceived by Bell as American 



84* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[Till. 



stone, which I hear as (o), and Low- 
land note, which I also hear as (o). 
Bell considers it to be unaccented o 
in history, victory, which seems to 
me pedantic. 

(6ob) a compound dialectal fracture, 
the rec. pron. of oar, with vocalised 
r, now usually called (aa'b), and 
formerly quite (6m), 1099a'. 

(oa) conventional sign for Fr. on, 
see (a). 

(ow) see (o u ) above, and (to), p. 86*. 

(o) Bell's No. 7, as long in owe, no, go 
without the 'vanish,' see (oo'w), it 
is not found short in accented closed 
syllables in English, it resembles 
the Italian close o, and may certainly 
be used for it, 1152, 540. 

(o u ) the tongue as for (o) with the lip 
rounding as for u, 682«V No. 2, 
generally written («,). 

(o') an (o) with a raised tongue and 
rather more closed lips, and hence 
closely resembling («), so that (uj 
is generally written in diphthongs, 
541a", 683o, No. 3, 1. 

(oh) Bell's No. 19, conceived by him 
as Fr. homme, see (oh) and when 
nasalised as (ohi), French on. Sweet 
gives no example. 

(oo to) or (oo) with the vanish, that is, 
with a tendency as it is lengthened 
towards (u, «), 1152, col. 1, con- 
ceived as (<5ou) and often written 
(ou) which to me altogether perverts 
the sound. Sweet writes ou and 
analyses (6ow) = (6o„). 

CE. (oe (Bj — (ba — as as'u — a> as 

33). 

(ce) Bell's No. 32, intermediate to (o, 
e), Fr. eu in vewf pcwple, German 
short o in becke, distinct from (») or 
eu in peu, and German long o in 
Goethe ; thought to occur in English, 
541S, but this is doubtful. 

(03^ a variant of (oe) greatly resembling 
(« ), and similarly used as a trans- 
ition from («) to (a) in Nb. 638c, 
see also 721e. 

(csa) the Fr. orinasal un, but the 
analysis cannot be properly made on 
account of the modification of the 
oral cavity by releasing the uvula ; 
to an Englishman it sounds rather 
as (ha), that is, (a) withFr. nasality. 

(as) Bell's No. 1, the sound heard on 
opening the mouth wide while pro- 
nouncing (u), 292c. 

(te'u) results from commencing (u) with 



too wide an opening of the lips, see 
292c. TH. writes (,a u) for this sound. 

(a>) Bell's No. 22, in first erst third,- 
when r is entirely lost, not materially 
different from (39), but with a 
somewhat more provincial effect, 
1156, most noticeable in diphthongs. 
Up'i, »'») the forms of (a i, a'n) in 
D 4, p. 66a, (ao'yi) the form of (a'u) 
inD 11, p. I56d, 158c. 

(03) Bell's No. 9, which he hears in 
L. wp, and Sweet in Cockney park ; 
I once imagined it was the D 4 
sound in first, which I afterwards 
wrote (f'B.„st) and now write (fanst), 
42c. I do not know the sound. 
I take the L. up to be (zp), see the 
words on 718 under V:. 

(a>) a form of (a) with the sound of 
(aa) running through it, continually 
spelled aw oy dialect writers, 43c, 
under 0'. 



P. (p-ph). 

(p) as in pope, stopping 



it may be 



initially (pH, pj, p[h) and finally in 
the pause (p l ) with, or (p!) without, 
a recoil, see 1111, col. 2. 
(ph) the flated form of (bh), the breath 
as it is usually emitted for cooling hot 
liquids, used for (f) in Hungarian, 
and possibly = mod. Gr. (p. 

Q. (q— qj qj). 

(q) nasal resonance of voice in the 
position of the tongue for (k) which 
excludes oral resonance, 1123c ; 
the lips are usually open, but this 
is not necessary, as oral resonance 
is entirely prevented. 

(qj) the probable Sanscrit form which is 
confused generally with (nj), I12id, 
corresponding to (ki, in). 

(qj) palatalised (q) is by some con- 
ceived as the proper French pron. 
of gn, which I take to be (nj) as it 
certainly is in Italian. 



E 



,r„ — rh 



(r .r k t r, r° v r c 

,rh rh ; — r r — rw — i e 

'b — ah — t — Jt). 
(r) a sharp beat produced by allowing 
emitted voice to flap the tip of the 
tongue, and this is the true 'trill' 
as heard in Italy, in Scotland, in 
Wales, and in Sh. ; the strength 
and length of the beat vary much, 
but when there is no beat, there is 



VIII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



85* 



some substitute, as (r c ), now common. 
Enumerated kinds, 294. Simple (r) 
is constantly written for any kind, 
and the particular kind is often 
specified in a note, but is not always 
known ; but real (r) is the exception 
in English. 

(.r) strongly napped L.-Scotch (r). 

(,r) the tip of the tongue advanced 
quite to the gums, during the flap, 
used after ( v t) in dialects. 

(r,) with retracted instead of reverted 
tip of the tongue, which approaches 
the hard palate ; the tongue however 
retains the spoon-shaped hollowness 
of (r) towards the throat, ild; (b) 
has usually been printed instead of 

(0- 

(r°) the Northern buzzed r, described 
542, last line but one. 

(,r°) the same as (r°), but with the tip 
of the tongue advanced towards the 
gums, used after (,t) in Northern 
dialects. 

(r ) the buzzed r of the East of 
England, the tip of the tongue 
almost in the (d) position, but not 
touching the palate, a mere im- 
perfect (d) ; a degradation of (b, b ), 
at times very difficult to distinguish 
from(ts), 1098 J, 189c, 222a. 

(,rj advanced alveolar (r ) used after 
(,t) in dialects. 

(rh) flated (r), flatus instead of voice 
being used to produce the trill ; it 
probably does not occur in English. 

(,rh) Hated (,r). 

(rh,) flated (r,) a milder form of (Rh), 
which is usually written, 42. 

(r) uvular r, the beat or interruption 
of sound being produced by the 
flapping of the uvula, which is 
brought to lie over the top surface 
of the tongue ; it is possible to make 
this trill very hard, and even metallic 
as in Paris, 642 * ; its usual effect is 
like (gh). 

(r ) the uvular rise, a stiffened uvula 
which does not flap as in (r), 642c. 

(no ) the (r) labialised, by bringing the 
lips nearly into the position for (o), 
the full Kb. burr, of which there 
may be several kinds, 641o\ 

(b) reverted (r), the under surface of 
the tip of the tongue turned to the 
hard palate, and the flap indistinct 
and less sharp than for (r) ; some 
deny that it is ever trilled, 23*, 41, 
apparently combined with vowels 
(a, a, a), etc. 42*. 

(r ) untrilled (b), this form is chiefly 



recognised by natives who consider 
that (b) is never trilled, because the 
effect of the trill is so different from 
that in (r), 23*, 53«. 

('bJ the syllabic (r ) for which (aa) is 
usually written, 42. 

(Rh) flated (r), the common initial r in 
D 4, p. 42a. 

r) Irish r written („r) on 1232c. 

[i) permissive (r), that is, where r is 
written, either (b) or (vt) may be 
pron., but the first is more usual, 
1099c, 1163a, 189c. 

S. (s ( s sh shj ph srh sh). 

(s) common s in see, cease, missing, 
1104c', a pure hiss, with no voice. 

(,s) the tongue for (s) is advanced close 
to the gum in making the hiss in 
cats, 1105a, line 3 ; LLB. hears 
this, and not (,t,s) in the Italian z. 

(sh) 'concave swish,' hiss with the 
tongue retracted and hollowed, in 
she, leash, wisAing, 1117 to 1121. 

(shj) ' convex swish, the upper surface 
of the tongue is convex to the palate ; 
this seems to be the High German 
a in st, sp initial, where ' concave ' 
(sh) with a hollow upper surface of 
the tongue is not admissible ; (tj) 
may be taken as (tjshj) as well as 

(.*.*)• 

(,sh) an advanced (sh), which may be 
heard in catch (k8e,t ; sh), written 
(ksetj), where LLB. hears only dsh), 
1117 to 1121. 

(srh) voiceless Polish rz, tongue in the 
position for (sh) and the tip slightly 
trilled, 295a, line 4. 

(«h) 'reverted swish,' made with re- 
verted tongue, that is, (sh) as affected 
by a preceding (a), 41c. 

T. (t t' ,t t — tj th th, tj tie— T 
— tj ih). 

(t) as in taught, tatting, with the 
tendency in some speakers to (te, 
t[, t|h) when initial, 1095, and (f) 
final in the pause, 1111, col. 2. 

(f) suspended (t) used for the definite 
article in the North, 18*, 20*, 
especially considered, 317*. 

(,t) alveolar t, with the tip of the 
tongue against the gums, used before 
r, then pron. (,r), in many English 
dialects, 542*, see ( l d). 

(t,) retracted (t), see (d,), 41a\ 

(tj) as in cheese, catch, having, a 
contraction for ( t t sh, t,sh) or (tjshj), 
see (dj), 1154*', 642*. 



86* 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VIII. 



(th) dental hiss, as in thin breaiA ■pith 
nothing, the tongue fully against (not 
between) the teeth, 1097a". 

(th,) alveolar hiss, the tongue on the 
gum, Spanish z, scarcely distinguish- 
able from (th). 

(tj) palatalised (t), an attempt to utter 
(t, i) at the same time, 1115. 

(te>) labialised (t) as in <«;ine, an 
attempt to utter (t, u) at the same 
time, 1115. 

(t) reverted t, with the under surface 
of the tongue against the palate, 42c. 

(tj) reverted (tj) formed of (Tsh), 41 d. 

(Tn) an attempt to say (th) with the 
under surface of the tongue against 
the teeth, 41c. 

TJ. (u u — U u' u 1 — U fi fc XL — 

uh. &u Wj Ui Ajdi &«!8 

■&{a.— tj). 

(u) Bell's No. 3 ; when long as (uu) in 
too f cod pool ; it does not occur short 
in an accented closed syllable in 
English, but often occurs snort in an 
open unaccented syllable as influence 
to-day to-night, 1097a", 5i0d; found 
medial in L. (buk) book, see (uu). 

(ii) very short diphthongising initial 
(u) used where (w) is now employed, 
1103, 543* under (w). 

(«) Bell's No. 4, the common short oo 
in an accented syllable, Ml good, 
distinctly different from (u), 1114c', 
where read («,) for (u ). 

(«') the form in which (%') is usually 
written, 711, No. 10. 

(«') a higher form of («) almost (u), 
53, par. 8, 554c. 

(« ) peculiar Midland transition sound 
from (a) to (u), described, 291c, and 
compare, 292a, 365, 554. 

(,«„) the sound of (« ) with the tongue 
more advanced. 

(,m u) TH.'s sign for my (os'n), 292c, 
used on 327, under 0'. 

(«h) Bell's No. 16, which he assigns 
to unaccented -«re and American 
do, but Sweet to val««. 

(uu) Midland inchoant diphthong com- 
mencing with (») and passing on to 
(u), probably Sweet's uw, which he 
analyses as (uuw), that is («) passing 
into an 'overrounded' («), see (iju). 

(«i) a low form of («), scarcely distinct 
from (o 1 ) the high form of (o), which 
see, 291c, 389J, 540a'. For a long time 
I confounded this with (« ) under 
one sign and hence some errors in 



Part IV., thus (w ) on p. 1107a", 

1114c', should be («,). 
(«]') a peculiar fracture heard in D 33, 

so written on 682a", but written (u) 

on 711, No. 10. 
(i,a : ) a Northern fracture similar to 

(«!&,), 542a. 
(k«,8) JGG.'s form of («'), 721c. 
(«!u) Northern inchoant diphthong 

commencing with («,), almost (o 1 ), 

and ending with (u), 494c, 5ild, 

595J. 
(«) Bell's No. 15, Bell and Sweet both 

consider it to be Swedish u ; it may 

be conceived as (y) with more flavour 

of (u) in it. 

V. (YA). 

(v) the voiced form of (f), a buzz, with 
the lower lip firmly placed against 
the teeth, the despair of Germans 
who use (bh), 1101, col. 2. 

(a) written like Greek ij, the sign of 
French nasality ; the four French 
nasals in cm vin un on are conven- 
tionally represented by (aA eA ceA 
oa), but the relaxation of the uvula 
necessary for nasalisation prevents 
any exact reference of oral to ori- 
nasal vowels, 1123, col. 2. 

"W. (w vrh. WT° w , w iv]). 

(w) a peculiarly English buzzed con- 
sonant with nearly closed lips, which 
are compressed in the middle but 
inflated on each side by the emitted 
voice, the back of the tongue raised 
as for (u) ; the side inflations dis- 
tinguish (w) from (bh), and the buzz 
from (ii), 1091 to 1094 ; used for (v) 
in some dialects, 132o, 143a. 

(wh) flated (w), that is, with unvoiced 
breath through the same position, 
which makes next to no hiss, only 
a blow, see the long discussion, 1125 
to 1145, 543c. 

(wr°) initial wr still heard among old 
people in the North, 543c, the oldest 
form was perhaps itw) or labialised(r) . 

[id) mark of labialisation, that is, of 
closing the lips more or less during 
the sound, or nolding the position of 
the previous letter, as in (k«>, gw>, 
tw, aw), that is, an attempt to pro- 
nounce (w) at the same time with 
(k g, t d) respectively ; it may also 
be used with vowels to indicate 
greater labialisation, or more than 
tie normal closure of the lips, thus 
(o«e)=(o u ), which see. 



VIII.] 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



87* 



('to) the indefinite Toioe sound ('h) 
labialised, which therefore ap- 
proaches to (u) and forms the 
'vanish' of (oo), see (oo'w), and 
1152, col. 1. 

(wj) palatalised labialisation, or an at- 
tempt to pronounce (u, i) or (y) with 
the preceding letter, as (nwji) or 
(nyi), French nuit, 1115a'. 

T. (y y, — y y^ — x). 

(y) Bell's No. 28, the sound of French 
«, German «, which are perhaps not 
quite the same, lying intermediate 
between (i) and (u). The presumed 
transitional sound from (u) to (y) is 
(a?'u). Perhaps pure (y) does not 
occur in our dialects. 

(y,) a modification of Fr. u in a di- 
rection not precisely ascertained, 
admitted in D 10, p. 146, D 11, 
p. U6d, and D 19, p. 261a. 

(y) Bell's No. 14, said by Melville 
Bell to be heard in the last syllable 
of houses and -shire, a peculiar sound 
used in 540*, and stated to lie be- 
tween (i, «), compare (in) ; it is 
commonly transcribed [iy) by me, see 
756<Z and 767c. 

(«/,) a variant of (y), the value not 
precisely ascertained, 560a. 

(y) Bell's No. 13, Bussian H (jerr) 
according to Bell, and "Welsh « 
according to Sweet. 

Z. (z x z — zh t zh zhj zrh — ah). 

(z) the buzz of (s) produced by laying 
on the voice in the (s) position, as in 
zany his whizzing; often preceded 
when initial by an (s) in German as 
(szii) sie, and followed by an (s) in 
the pause in English as (hizs) his, 
11 22c' 1104<?. 

(,z) the voiced form of (,s), which see, 
according to LLB. the voiced Italian 
z generally taken as (,d,z). 

(zh) the buzz of sh, initial in Fr. je 
(zha), in English occurs only between 
two vowels as in division, measure, 
and where it has been recently 
developed except in S. dialects, 40a', 
1118. 

(,zh) advanced (zh), this may be 
the second element of (dj) usually 
assumed to be (dzh), 11546'. 

(zhj) voiced (shj), convex tongued (zh), 
this also may be the second element 
of (dj). 

(zrh) voiced Polish rz, the tongue as 
for (zh) and the tip trilled, 295a. 



(zh) reverted (zh) with the under 
surface of the tip of the tongue 
against the palate, occurs in (dj= 
Dzh), 41c. 

Numerals (' x „ g * 5 i). 

(') with a higher tongue, or appre- 
ciated as a higher sound, 1107. 

(,) with a lower tongue, or appreciated 
as a deeper sound, 1107, often used 
as a mere diacritic. 

,,) doubly lowered, see (i n ) p. 82*. 

g) is used for the Arabic £ or bleat 
which it greatly resembles in shape ; 
it is produced in the glottis, and may 
be considered as an exaggerated 
catch or (;). 

( 4 ) rounding by palatal arches, as in 
a parrot's (p'«'s) puss, lll4ct . 

( 5 ) with pursed and protruded lips, 
158c, 322a*. 

(l) unilateral palatal click used to start 
a horse with in England, usually 
spelled cl'ck ; there are several other 
clicks represented by turned numerals, 
or by aid of { below, 725, No. 17. 

Points (,;':.•' ' — .. •• .• \ 
..• '.. V .-. <• :.). 

(' ) preceding a vowel, the clear glottid, 
11291/. 

(;) the check glottid or Arabic hamza, 
regularly used when a word begins 
with a vowel in German, not usual 
in English, 1130, 725a', 730a", used 
instead of musical accent in Danish. 

(!) indicates the absence of glide or 
recoil after a mute, see p. 77* on 
length of consonants. 

(:) after a vowel or syllable, denotes 
secondary stress ; before a word 
indicates that it would begin with a 
capital letter in received spelling. 

(.) period, before any letter, indicates 
that it receives a peculiarly vigorous 
utterance ; it is only used in phonetic 
discussions as (.r) Lowland r. 

( • ) after a vowel or syllable, denotes 
primary stress, and before a word 
emphasis, as (tn prize-nt u pre-z'nt) 
or (te prizen't B prez*'nt) to present 
a present. 

( ' ) after or before another consonant, 
= ('h), that is, voice in its simplest 
form independent of the position of 
the organs ; in former Parts much 
used where (b) is now written by 
preference, see ('1, 'm, 'n). 

(') after another consonant =('h), 



PRELIMINARY MATTER. 



[VIII. 



flatus in its simplest form, recoil 
after mutes, as (iwp'), not usually 
written but left to be inferred. 
( , ) slight nasality, not so marked as 
in French, often found with (a) as 

Marks of intonation rarely used. 

(..) low level tone, Chinese low (pHsq). 
(•• ) high level tone, Ch. high (pHJq). 
(.■) rising tone, Ch. high (shaq). 
(•.) falling tone, Ch. high (kHoeoe, 

kHiu, km). 
(..•) rising from low level tone, Ch. 

low (shaq). 

. . ) falling to low level tone, Ch. low 

(kHceoe) . 

.•) fall and rise, used in Norwegian 

and Swedish. 

.) rise and fall, Ch. (fu-kjen shaq). 



• ) stop voice suddenly at high pitch, 

Ch. high (shu!-, zhi!-, njipi - ). 

. ) stop voice suddenly at low pitch, 



Ch. low (shu!. zhi!. njip!.). See end 
of last entry. 

As a rule intonation is not marked, 
but it may be roughly indicated by the 
above signs, which may immediately 
follow the vowel, or be printed in a 
line over the words. Or the ordinary 
level of speech being represented by 
5, and four degrees of lower pitch by 
12 3 4, and four degrees of higher 
pitch by 6 7 8 9, without the assump- 
tion of any definite intervals, a line 
of figures over the words would give 
a tolerable notion of intonation. But 
there are obvious difficulties, first in 
hearing the intonation naturally from 
native dialect speakers, and next in 
appreciating it when heard, and hence 
it is not attempted in this treatise. 
See Mr. Melville Bell's Visible Speech, 
p. 82, and his Principles of Elocution, 
5th ed. (Werner, New York). For 
the attempts of Steele and Merkel, 
see my paper on Accent and Emphasis, 
in the Trans, of the Philological Society 
for 1873-4, pp. 129-135. 



Accents (' 



J- 



(') marking the short glide and the 
stress syllable in ordinary diphthongs, 
p. 77*. 



(") marking the slur or long glide 
of the Italian diphthongs as (i"o, 
miE"i) written with —, an incon- 
venient sign, on 1131*. 

(,) after a letter only, mark of retrac- 
tion of the tongue from the lips 
towards the throat, see (r„ th,) . 

( ' ) over or after a vowel marks medial 
length as (a, o'), after a continuous 
consonant marks lengthening as (s'), 
after an explodent marks suspension 
of the organs of speech for a sensible 
time, as (tf) for the definite article, 
317* ; see also p. 77*. 

(,) before a letter only, mark of 
advanced tongue, see (,t, ,r), the 
tongue in this case coming close to 
the gums, 1120, col. 2. 

( „) before a letter only, very advanced 
tongue quite up to the teeth, 1120, 
col. 2. 

Cm) ^P °f tongue between teeth, but 
not protruded, written (t) on 11206. 

Signs ( ) ; L t + i &)• 

( ) ) ' divider ' marks the end of a word 

and the beginning of the next, when 

the two words run on together as 

one ; it is a guide to the eye in 



()) 'break,' shewing that there is no 
glide between the letters between 
which it occurs, 1131, see both ) j 
used on 149, line 1. 

(l) preceding a letter indicates that 
that letter is very faintly uttered, 
see Part II. p. 419 note. 

( { ) following a consonant, as (t J) = 
English tut, or (Jh) independently, 
1128*', indicates a click made by 
smacking the interior parts of the 
mouth in the air already there with- 
out either inspiration or expiration. 

(+) glide of any sort, > from a wide 
to a narrow, < from a narrow to a 
wide, opening of the mouth, 1130a". 

(j) with inspired breath, 1128a', (';) 
inspired flatus, and (jf, jr hf) in- 
spired flatus through the lip position 
for (f) varied in the second case by 
raising the tongue for (r ), the lazy 
negative of Dundee school-boys, 
760«. 

(j) trilled, when transcribing Bell's 
orthography, who writes the equiva- 
lent of (r,^) for (r). 



END OP FBELIMINABY MATTER. 



THE 



EXISTING PHONOLOGY 



ENGLISH DIALECTS 



COMPARED WITH THAT OF WEST SAXON SPEECH. 



FORMING PART V. OF " EARLY ENGLISH PRONUNCIATION." 



THE EXISTING 

PHONOLOGY OF ENGLISH DIALECTS. 



Introduction. 

The object of this treatise is to determine with considerable 
accuracy the different forms now, or within the last hundred years, 
assumed by the descendants of the same original word in passing 
through the mouths of uneducated people, speaking an inherited 
language, in all parts of Great Britain where English is the 
ordinary medium of, communication between peasant and peasant. 
This limitation excludes those parts of Wales and Scotland where 
Celtic is habitually spoken by the natives. Ireland has also been 
excluded, except in the south-east of Co. "Wexford — an old English 
colony — because it has otherwise a comparatively recently imported 
speech. The exact limits are marked on the Map by the GB or 
Celtic border, and traced in words below. Of course the oldest 
form of English existent within these limits was itself imported 
from North Germany, modified by Old Norse and subsequently 
Old Norman, which was a form of Old French modified by Old 
Norse. And equally of course the immigrants aboriginally spoke 
differently, so that there was not really one original form for any 
word within the whole limits thus described. 

To solve this problem perfectly every word used by native 
peasants in every part of the country should have its pron. 1 observed 
and written phonetically. But this was obviously impossible. 
Hence a selection of typical words had to be made. Before in- 
vestigating it was naturally impossible to make a proper selection, 
but without some sort of selection no investigation could have been 
commenced. At first I tried any collections of words I could 
obtain. Then finding how vague, defective and redundant these 
were, with the help of Dr. J. A. H. Murray, author of DSS. and 
editor of the new English Dictionary, I constructed in 1873 a 
Comparative Specimen (referred to as cs. and given in the Pre- 
liminary Matter No. III.), containing at least many typical words 
and constructions, run into sentences. This then I endeavoured to 
get "translated" into the idiom and pronunciation of the place. 

1 See list of abbreviations in frequent use, pp. -4* and 6*. 
E.E. Pron. Fart T. [ 1433 ] 92 



2 INTRODUCTION, 

Constantly complaints came to me from correspondents in different 
parts of the country that " our people don't speak so." Of course 
they did not. That was inevitable, and indeed intentional. But 
the intention was also to have the idiom corrected, at the same 
time that the pron. was assigned, and this was seldom attempted. 
Notice of my attempt was given in the Athenceum and Academy, 
and numerous ladies and gentlemen who were familiar with 
dialectal speech gave me their assistance. But there was great 
difficulty in expressing their meaning through lack of phonetic 
knowledge. Fortunately many were able to give vivd voce readings, 
and most kindly laboured hard to make me understand the sounds, 
while I wrote them in palaeotype. Their names and work are 
recorded in the Alphabetical County List in the Preliminary 
Matter No. VI. In other cases I endeavoured by written questions 
to obtain a clue to the sounds. But this was heavy and laborious, 
and the result was not satisfactory on the whole, although the 
versions of my cs. thus obtained were the nucleus of my work. 

Finding that the words I wanted particularly were often in- 
geniously avoided in the translations given, and that the idiom 
presented great difficulties, in Sep. 1877 I got out Word Lists 
(referred to as wl.), following the order and etymology in Dr. 
Sweet's History of British Sounds. This step indicated a further 
advance in the conception of the problem. The Wessex, or literary 
Saxon form of King Alfred's time, was now, where possible, 
adopted as the language of comparison, even for those Midland and 
Northern regions, where different forms of Low German were 
originally spoken. In some instances of course this comparison 
could not be made, and the word had to be referred to a Norse or 
French form, or classed as of unknown origin. We had now a 
standard of comparison. The problem then assumed this form, 
given the Wessex vowels (or consonants, but the vowels were most 
important) of certain words, to find their dialectal equivalents in 
different parts of the country, and this is the form under which its 
solution is attempted in this treatise. The order and classification 
used by Dr. Sweet, proving inconvenient for rapid reference, I 
subsequently modified this list, and it finally assumed the form of 
the Classified "Word List (referred to as cwl. as distinct from the 
preceding wl.) given in the Preliminary Matter No. V. 

"With this wl. I gave a list of the principal sounds to be 
observed, with their glossic representation and a number attached. 
I regret to say that these proved useless and confusing. I could 
seldom rely upon the figures given. Some unfortunate misprints, 
arising from extending the list of sounds, increased the perplexity 
of many correspondents, and the result was that where I was 
unable to obtain viva voce or palaeotypic information, I had the 
same difficulty as before in interpreting the informants' orthography 
(here referred to as io.), and occasionally the still greater difficulty 
arising from the wrong use of numbers. Still I managed to obtain 
a very considerable amount of local information from all parts of 
the country by means of these wl., over which many of my 

[ H34 ] 



INTRODUCTION. 6 

informants gave themselves an immense amount of trouble, for 
which I cannot be sufficiently grateful. About 1700 of these lists 
were sent out, chiefly to the clergy in those parts of the country 
from which information was most needed, and of these about 500 
were returned with some though often very little information. 

In 1879 I tried the use of a much shorter specimen called the 
Dialect Test (referred to henceforth as dt.), containing only 76 
independent words, which exemplified all the principal classes, or 
rather would have done so if my informants had not constantly 
avoided or changed some of the important words. This dt. with 
the words numbered and the original notes designed to draw my 
informants' attention to the points of the investigation and to 
record the pron. to a considerable extent without having to acquire 
the use of a systematic orthography, is given in the Preliminary 
Matter No. IV., and has been of much service. 

These three modes of obtaining information were necessarily 
addressed to educated people who did not speak dialect naturally, 
and hence had only more or less observed what was said, and 
imitated it as well as they could. They all spoke " received 
speech" (abbreviated to rs.) in " received pronunciation" (abbrevi- 
ated to rp.), and endeavoured more or less successfully to impart 
their impressions of dialectal pron. (abbreviated to dp.) by means of 
"received orthography" (abbreviated to ro.). Here were many 
possible sources of error. 1 ) The sounds may have been wrongly 
appreciated. 2) The sounds may have been wrongly imitated. 
3) The rp. adopted by my informants may have been different 
from my own, for there is no such thing as a uniform educated 
pron. of English, and rp. or rs. is a variable quantity differing from 
individual to individual, although all its varieties are " received," 
understood and mainly unnoticed. 4) There are many dialectal 
sounds which are not recognised at all in rs. and which hence 
required more than ro. to represent, so that my informants fre- 
quently used combinations of letters which are not in ro., and 
these they generally did not attempt to explain or frankly declared 
to be inexplicable. 5) There was my own conjectural interpre- 
tation of my informants' orthography, which was at first very 
venturesome and unsatisfactory to myself. The hours, days, and 
sometimes months and years which I have spent over endeavouring 
to avoid these sources of error would be in themselves sufficient to 
account for the delay in completing this treatise. 

But why not go to the peasantry at once ? Why not learn from*' 
word of mouth, so that the errors would be limited to the writer's 
own appreciation ? "Where possible, this mode of obtaining in- 
formation has been followed. But I have myself been able to do 
so in very few cases. There are many difficulties in the way. 
First the peasantry throughout the country have usually two 
different pron., one which they use to one another, and this is that 
which is required ; the other which they use to the educated, and 
this which is their own conception of rp., though often remarkably 
different from it, is absolutely worthless for the present purpose. 

[ 1435 ] 



4 -INTRODUCTION. 

If I, having no kind of dialectal speech, were to go among the 
peasantry, they would of course nse their "refined" speech to me. 
I have therefore not attempted it. But I have occasionally been 
able successfully to obtain information from domestic servants, 
from railway porters, and principally, through the kind cooperation 
of the Principal, from the students at "Whitelands Training College 
in Chelsea. These last were young women generally about twenty 
years old, fresh from the country, who, though they now spoke 
rs. very well, had been from earliest childhood accustomed to the 
speech of their own districts, or had learned that of other districts 
by long teaching of natural dialect speakers in national schools. 
To the interest taken by the Rev. J. P. Faunthorpe, the Principal, 
in my work, the help from the teachers themselves, and the willing 
assistance of the students, I am indebted for information which has 
cleared up many difficulties and helped me to fill up many gaps. 

But my chief aid in this way has come from three important 
sources. 1) Mr. C. Clough Robinson (henceforth referred to as 
CCR.), author of a Leeds Glossary, and subsequently of the Mid 
Yorkshire Glossary (the latter published by the English Dialect 
Society), a natural dialect speaker, acquired my glossic in personal 
interviews with me, and was of the utmost assistance in phonetically 
rendering the pron. of South and Mid Yo. 

2) Mr. J. G. Goodchild (henceforth referred to as JGG.) a 
Londoner, who had been many years employed on the Government 
Geological Survey, and had thus been constantly in the society of 
dialect speakers, having acquired a knowledge of my palaeotype 
(verified by many personal interviews between us), was able to 
furnish me with wonderful phonographs, so to speak, of the pron. 
in Cu. "We. and nw. Yo., which he had again and again verified by 
the speakers themselves. 

3) Mr. Thomas Hallam (henceforth referred to as TH.), a native 
of n. Kb., a natural dialect speaker, for many years a book-keeper in 
the Canal Department of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Railway Offices at Manchester, having acquired the nse of my palaeo- 
type in great perfection, as verified by many personal interviews 
between us, has rendered me the most important services in the 
Midland Counties, La. Ch. Db. St. in especial, and in various other 
counties of England, as will be seen in the lists Nos. VI. and VII. 
given in the Preliminary Matter. Blis position in connection with 
the Railway Offices gave him facilities for travelling over these 
regions, and. as he has been helping me for fully twenty years, 
there has been time for collecting and imparting great stores of 
information. His method of proceeding was this. On arriving at a 
station he would inquire where he could find old and if possible 
illiterate peasants, whom he would " interview," gaining their con- 
fidence, and then noting their peculiarities of pron. in his note books 
(now more than lxx. in number, a goodly Septuagint), using palaeo- 
type, which he wrote most accurately. In the same books he entered 
all passing pron. which he heard, forming the " words noted " 
(abbreviated to wn.), which are so frequently referred to hereafter, 

[ 1436 ] 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

reduced to the form of my cwl. Also, making acquaintance -with, 
native dialect speakers, he obtained numerous cs. and dt., most of 
which are given below, and thus enabled me to illustrate dialectal 
pron. in a most unexpectedly accurate manner over about 22 
counties ; for the exact enumeration see the Alphabetical County 
List, and Informants' List in the Preliminary Matter, Nos. VI. 
and VII. 

A large number of the names there recorded recall to me long 
correspondence or lengthy personal interviews, and I beg to return 
to all my informants grateful thanks for their help, which has 
made my work possible. 

Finally I wish to record my obligations to H.I.H. Prince Louis- 
Lucien Bonaparte (henceforth referred to as LLB.), who, though he 
was able only on one occasion to take down a portion of a cs. in 
pal. himself, yet procured me many versions of the cs. from others, 
and a large amount of incidental dialectal information. To him I 
owe especially my first conceptions of a classification of the English 
Dialects, and he has been throughout a warm sympathiser and a 
ready helper. Possessing a large collection of English dialect 
books, consisting of various specimens, besides those versions of the 
Song of Solomon made for himself, and all the best glossaries, with 
many of his own notes in travelling, he allowed me to examine 
them all, and abstract what was needed, so that I was made 
thoroughly acquainted with all that had been done before, and saw 
how necessary it was to treat of the pron. separately. 

To clothe all these sources of information in a proper garment, 
which would admit of accurate comparison, a sufficiently copious 
phonetic alphabet was necessary. The palaeotype used in Parts I. 
to IV. of EEP. was of course adopted. But the direct investiga- 
tion of living speech has rendered, numerous additions or modifi- 
cations necessary. Hence I have considered it advisable to prefix 
to this treatise a new table of Dialectal Palaeotype (in the Pre- 
liminary Matter No. VI1L), containing all the signs employed in 
this treatise in an order which can be readily referred to, so that 
no reader can have any difficulty in ascertaining the value of any 
symbol he meets with. Great peculiarities will generally be 
specially explained where they occur, and in the Table of Dialectal 
Palaeotype (which for that purpose has been printed last) references 
will be given to these explanations. The use of pal. of course re- 
quires much careful study to understand it thoroughly and read it 
easily, but I must assume that this work will be used by readers " 
who are prepared to study. There is no help for it. If the sounds 
were merely uttered to them without being fixed by signs, they 
would forget or confuse them immediately. I do not add a general 
treatise on phonetics. Much can be gathered from the discussions 
in Part IV. of EEP., and a condensed account of the theory of 
phonetics, with a long list of my palaeotype symbols, drawn up by 
myself, will be found in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 22, or 
part 86, pp. 381-390, published 1887. 

There is so much difficulty in limiting the conception of a 

I " 3 * 1 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

dialect, so as to distinguish it from a language, that I have thought 
it best not to attempt distributing the English language into pre- 
cisely defined dialects, but to take the range of country where 
English is acknowledged to be spoken by peasants to one another 
in some one or other of its forms, and then to divide it into districts 
■where the form of speech can be tolerably well defined. Hence 
the first thing is to lay down the limits assumed for English as 
against Celtic. This is a division of entirely unrelated languages, 
differing in sound, vocabulary, grammar and history. But this is 
the only case in which all these four points will have to be con- 
sidered. This is a treatise on the existing phonology of the 
English dialects, meaning simply peasant speech. Hence, when 
the area of English is once determined, the geographical divisions 
must depend mainly, if not always, entirely on pron., with the 
least possible admixture of considerations founded on vocabulary 
and grammar (indicated in the note appended to the cwl. in 
Preliminary Matter No. V. p. 25*), and none at all on history. 

The first broad points in the phonology of English which struck 
me were the treatment of "Wessex TJ and U' (capital letters will 
always be used, as in the headings of the cwl. in the Preliminary 
Matter No. V.), of the letter R, and of the definite article. To my 
surprise I found that the lines separating these different treatments 
could be traced completely across the country from sea to sea, and 
hence I obtained Ten Tbansvebse Lines, which form the first 
broad phonetic distribution of English speech. I had hoped indeed 
that they would form the basis of the ultimate districts. But I 
gradually found that this was not the case, so far as the treatment 
of TJ, XT' was concerned, for reasons which will be best explained 
hereafter ; but in other respects the transverse lines do really limit 
divisions and districts. 

Then by tabulating and comparing, especially by means of the 
cwl., I obtained Six Divisions, with sufficiently distinct differences 
and characters, to which I give the geographical names of Southern, 
"Western, Eastern, Midland, Northern, and. Lowland, the last being 
almost entirely in Scotland. The characters by which these are 
distinguished will be given in detail hereafter. 

Then commenced the more difficult task of separating these 
Divisions into such Disteicts as had a considerable claim to be 
considered uniform in the pron. they used, and were sufficiently 
distinct from their neighbours. The difficulty was to make these 
districts wide enough, by resolutely refusing to be led away by 
small differences. Properly speaking there is no uniformity. Not 
only will a practised ear tell the village in a district from which a 
speaker hails, but a more accurate examination will shew that 
families in the same village do not speak exactly alike, nay, that 
the individual members of the same family will have generally 
some differentiating peculiarity. My information, however, seldom 
went into such fine details, although that obtained from Messrs. 
Goodchild and Hallam often reaches the stage of individualism. 
My first attempts almost always erred in making the districts too 

I 1438 1 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

small, but finally I left very few small districts, because, among 
other reasons, of the difficulty in determining their boundaries with 
the information at my command, and contented myself with mostly 
large districts, in which I recognised Varieties only roughly 
located, and not always accurately or completely characterised. 

The result of this has been to divide the whole country into 42 
numbered districts, of which 21 contain 89 varieties. In eight of 
these varieties I have even distinguished 19 subvarieties. Thus 
stated, the distribution appears rather complex, but the complexity 
will disappear on examination. The whole of these 10 Transverse 
Lines, 6 Divisions, and 42 districts, with the Celtic Border, are 
clearly shewn in the little maps of England and Scotland, drawn 
from my instructions by Messrs. George Philip and Son, and given 
with this treatise, and the Key to these maps in the Preliminary 
Matter No. II. indicates the position of the varieties and sub- 
varieties. In the subsequent pages each District and Variety will 
be considered in the order of their numbers, and their numbers will 
be placed at the head of the pages. Hence the reader, after 
having consulted the map which gives him the number of the 
district, and the key which shews the number of the Variety, can 
immediately turn to the page containing the information. 

In the course of tracing the boundaries, or of giving the infor- 
mation, I shall have frequently to refer to places whose names are 
not on the maps here given, and indeed are often difficult to find 
on any but the large maps of the Ordnance Survey. But it is 
necessary that the reader should have a good conception of their 
situation on the little maps which have the districts marked on 
them. This is effected thus. Take the village of Harrold referred 
to as "Harrold, Bd. (8 nw. Bedford)," that is, Harrold (not on the 
map) is in Bedfordshire, 8 miles to the north-west of the town of 
Bedford (which is on the map). Any series of county maps will 
then enable the reader either to find the name or the exact locality. 
I have found G. Philip and Son's penny county maps of England 
and Scotland very useful, but they are not on a uniform scale. 
"W. H. Smith and Co.'s maps (on the uniform scale of 4 miles to 
the inch) will enable the reader to follow all the boundaries of 
districts here given. Stanford's Railway map of three miles to 
the inch, and the Ordnance maps, may be further referred to if 
necessary, but Philip's and Smith's are the most convenient, as I 
have found by extensive use. 

This geographical distribution, which was not possible until 
information had been obtained from all parts of the country, and 
the limitation of the investigation to phonology now existing 
either in absolute use of living people or in their memories, form 
the two distinctive characters of this treatise. It was necessary 
for this purpose to localise information, and hence to reject almost 
all printed books, which generally refer to very vaguely denned 
or, more accurately speaking, undefined areas. This localisation, 
except when I could secure the assistance of my three chief 
informants, was very difficult to procure. No doubt many local 

t H39 ] 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

readers will object to some of my lines of demarcation, or to the 
sounds themselves attributed to certain classes of words. This is 
really inevitable. I have not swept the country, and most of my 
brooms so far as I went were not of perfect construction. I can 
only say that I have done my best, and at my advanced age, after 
twenty years' work on the subject, the main point was to secure 
what had been gained, and leave corrections to future workers. 

The present plan of this enlarged treatise, as distinguished from 
that in Chap. XI. § 2, No. 3, which has been cancelled, is as follows. 

At the commencement is placed a quantity of Preliminary 
Matter, paged with a star, as 1*, 2*, etc., to which the reader 
will have constantly to refer. 

The contents already sufficiently indicated consist chiefly of the 
means for procuring information, the geographical representation of 
the dialectal districts by maps, with their key, the lists of my 
informants, and the table of Dialectal Palaeotype. 

In the work itself, after this Introduction, I proceed direct to 
the Celtic Bobdee, which I give in two forms : first, as the late 
Mr. Green conceived it to be in a.d. 580, after the Low Germans 
had been in England about 130 years, with his supposed distri- 
bution of the different tribes ; second, as results from inquiries 
made by myself in Wales, and Dr. J. A. H. Murray in Scotland. 
Ireland I consider for present purposes as entirely Celtic, with 
the exception of the little peninsula containing the baronies of 
Forth and Bargy in Co. Wexford. This Celtic Border, which is 
boldly drawn on the maps, will be immediately very carefully 
described in words, so that it can be readily followed on any maps 
of Great Britain. It limits to the west and north the country 
considered in these pages. 

After this follows an account of the Ten Tbansvebse Lines, with 
a verbal description of the route taken by each, shewing the belts 
of different pronunciation into which they divide the country. 

Then I consider the S. div., giving its boundaries and general 
character, followed by the districts or D. 1 to 12 which it contains. 

Each district is treated thus. 

It is first numbered and then named. The exact Boundaey, as 
well as it can be ascertained, is next given, followed by the Aeea 
it occupies, expressed in terms of counties or parts of counties. 
Then come the Authoeities or list of places from which information 
has been received, with a rough indication of its nature. These 
names refer to the Alphabetical County Lists in the Preliminary 
Matter Ho. VI., which contain detailed information. Then is 
given the general character of the whole district and an account of 
each variety. Finally come the Illotibations, consisting generally 
of cs., dt. and cwl., but occasionally others, where fortune favoured 
me. The main scientific interest, however, centres in the cs., dt. 
and cwl., because the different pron. of the same words are thus so 
easily compared. Occasionally I give many cs. or dt. belonging to 
one district, and even to different districts, in an interlinear form, 
which furnishes a remarkably easy method of comparison. 

[ 1440 J 



THE CELTIC BORDER. 9 

The other divisions and districts are treated in the same way 
precisely. 

Although this has a very "complete and systematic appearance, I 
do not disguise from myself the real incompleteness of the whole 
exposition and the great desirability of using it merely as a nucleus 
round which the results of other investigations may be grouped. 

Finally there will be a Section on Results, shewing how modern 
dialectal phonology is related to the ancient "Wessex form in par- 
ticular. This section especially shews the bearing of the present 
investigation on my complete work. It will necessarily involve 
the philological question of the alteration of pronunciation in the 
descent of various languages from one source, for the divisions of 
English pronunciation are in fact only the illustrations on a small 
scale which can be observed in actual process of growth, of the 
changes which in a large scale have been going on within dif- 
ferent families of languages throughout the world. 

The Celtic Boeder. 

This is considered under two aspects, ancient and modern. The 
Ancient is that which divided the immigrant Low Germans from 
the resident Celts after the first period of conquest had subsided 
and settlement proper began. The Modern is that now existent. 

Ancient. — About a d. 408 tho last Roman forces were withdrawn 
from Great Britain, and probably in the same year the Low German 
invaders, who will here be collectively termed Saxons,, though 
they consisted of many different tribes, began to appear. They are 
however generally credited with having first landed in a.d. 449. 
These different tribes were constantly fighting with the Celts, but 
after the battle of Deorham (a village near Bath, Sm., overlooking 
the valley of the B. Severn, a.d. 577), when half the country had 
been conquered, there was more settlement than conquest, and the 
different invading tribes rather contended with each other for 
supremacy, than fought against the "Brut" or Celts. At' this 
time Mr. J. R. Green {Making of England, p. 203) apportions the 
country roughly between Saxons and Celts as follows, by a lino 
running nearly n. to s. from the Firth of Forth to the English 
Channel. The details of this line are mainly conjectural, and in 
default of precise information, Mr. Green follows co. b. in a great 
measure. But as the division corresponds to an existing contrast 
of dialects — on the e. side older Saxon with subsequent Danish 
influence, on the w. side later Saxon with Celtic influence — it is 
convenient to describe it, in such a way that it can easily be followed 
on the maps. This opportunity is also used for localising the 
various invading tribes to the e. according to Mr. Green, 1 and of 
giving two groupings of a much later date. 

1 Mr. Green considers that the British in an article headed " Are we English - 

were entirely exterminated or driven to men ?" (Fortnightly Beview, 1880, 

the w., so that the population to the e. vol. 28, new series, pp. 472-487), says 

was purely Saxon. Mr. Grant Allen, (p. 485), " A small body of Teutonic 

f Uii ] 



10 



THE CELTIC BORDER. 



This ancient Celtic border •which, to prevent confusion, is not 
laid down in the maps, begins on the Firth of Forth on the w. b. 
of Ed., and passes w. of Pb. and Ex. to w. of Nb. and Du. Along 
s. of Du. Mr. Green places the s. b. of the Berenicians that ex- 
tended on the e. side n. to the Firth of Forth. On the w. side 
were Strathclyde in Scotland and the Cumbrians in England. 

The old Celtic border then continues first w. of n.Yo., and then 
through To. to the e. of the great forest of Elmete, which extended 
down to Sherwood in Nt. and Db. It then turns w. and n., and 
afterwards s. again, in order to run on the n. and w. side of Db., 
and then to the w. of St., till it had to go suddenly e. in order to 
skirt the great forest of Arden in "Wa. 1 Having done so, it resumes 
its n. to s. direction, passing through "Wo. until it strikes the K. 



immigrants descended some time about 
vth century and onward, to the Eastern 
shore of South Britain. They occupied 
the whole coast from the Forth to the 
Isle of Wight, and spread over the 
country westward, as far as the central 
dividing ridge. Though not quite free 
from admixtare with the aborigines, even 
in this limited tract, they still, remained 
relatively pure in their strongholds, and 
they afterwards received a fresh Teutonic 
reinforcement by the Danish invasion. 
Westward of the central line they con- 
quered and assimilated the aborigines 
upon whom they imposed their language 
and laws, but whom they did not ex- 
terminate. In the extreme west and 
in Ireland, the Celts long retained their 
language and nationality undisturbed. 
During the middle ages the English 
people formed by far the most powerful 
body in the island, and even now they 
have imposed upon all of it their name 
and language. But since the rise of the 
industrial system the Celts have peace- 
fully recovered thenumerical superiority. 
They have crowded into the towns and 
seaports, so that at the present day only 
the rural districts of Eastern England 
can claim to be thoroughly Teutonic. 
The urban population consists for the 
most part of a mixed race. Moreover, 
since intermarriage is now so very 
frequent, it seems probable that almost 
all English families, except those of the 
stationary agricultural class in the East, 
have some small proportion of Celtic 
blood. In the upper classes, where 
numerous intermarriages are universal, 
this proportion is doubtless everywhere 
very great. Out of Britain the Celts 
have it all their own way." And again 
(p. 487) : " We may sum up the result 
here indicated, in a single sentence.: 



though the British nation of the present 
day is wholly Teutonic in form, it is 
largely and even preponderantly Celtic 
in matter." It seemed proper to give 
these results ; but they do not affect 
this investigation. On the e. people 
do not speak a language shewing Celtic 
influence in either grammar or prom 
On the w. pron., but not grammar, 
betrays Celtic influence. This is not 
an ethnologic treatise. Difference or 
similarity of language are no guarantees 
of difference or similarity of race. 

1 Rosalind. Well, this is the forest 
of Arden. Touchstone. Ay, now am 
I in Arden ; the more fool I : when I 
was at home I was in a better place ; 
but travellers must be content. — As 
you like it, Act 2, Sc. 4, speeches 
6 and 7. Lord Byron, speaking of the 
soldiers at Waterloo, says: "And 
Ardennes waves above them her green 
leaves, Dewy with nature's tear drops, 
as they pass," Childe Harold, Canto iii. 
st. 27, and the commentator in Moore's 
ed. 1833, vol. 8, p. 144, says : " The 
wood of Soignies is supposed to be a 
remnant of the forest of Ardennes, 
famous in Boiardo's Orlando, and im- 
mortal in Shakspere's As you like it." 
Probably many schoolboys have thought 
the same, as I did fifty years ago also. 
But Arden, joined as a parish with 
Temple Grafton, is only 5 w. Stratford- 
on-Avon, Wa., and Henley-in-Arden 
only 7 nnw. Stratford, and I certainly 
agree with Sharpe's Gazetteer that 
this Arden " probably is the true 
original of Shakspere's Forest of 
Arden." It was a forest he was 
thoroughly well acquainted with, and 
geography was a trifle to him. Besides, 
where did " the Duke " of As you like 
it abide ? 



[ 1442 ] 



THE CELTIC BORDER. 11 

Severn near Gloucester. It reappears on s. of Gl. opposite the end 
of the Forest of Dean, and going e. to avoid the great Forest of 
Selwood, passed on southwards through w.Wl. and e.Do. to the sea 
near Portland. 

The Saxon settlements on the e. of this b. -were according to Mr. 
Green as follows : 

Eeremcians in s Scotland, Nb. and Du. with capital Bamborough( 1 2 ne. Wooler) , Nb. 

Beirians in Yo. with capital York. The large marsh at the junction of the 
Ouse with the Humber, and the great forest of Elmete to the w., were uninhabited. 

Lindiswaran in Li. , except the great marshes near the Wash. The n. of Li. is 
still known as " the parts of Lindsey. " 

Snotingas, a tribe of Angles settled on the edge of Sherwood, Nt., and extended 
to the valley of the R. Soar (say to Loughborough, Le.) 

Eecscettan or Peak-settlers, a tribe of West Angles, inhabited Db. and were 
separated both from Yo. and Nt. by Sherwood and Elmete forests. 

West Angles, excepting those last mentioned, settled in St. 

Gyrwas, or marsh-dwellers, settled w. of the Wash. 

South Angles were in s.Np. 

East Angles were in Nf. and Sf. 

Middle Angles were in Le. 

llwiccas, a West Saxon tribe, settled in Gl. along the R. Severn. 

Wilscetan, also a West Saxon tribe, were in Wl. 

Gewissas, another West Saxon tribe, settled in the Isle of Wi. and Ha. 

Middle Saxons occupied Mi. 

East Saxons were in Es. and Ht. 

South Saxons in Ss. 

Jutes, who are recognised by Mr. Green, although their existence is doubtful, 
are placed in Ke. The Weald of Ke. and Ss. co. was occupied by the great forest 
of Andreda, which separated the Kentmen from the South Saxons. 

At a later period the Berenicians and Deirians were united as Northumbrians, 
and one of their kings, Ethelfrith, wrested Ch. and s.La. from the Celts, by the 
victory of Chester a.d. 613. For lack of information Mr. Green leaves these 
countries under Northymbria, for 62 years (from 613 to 675), till the revolt of 
Wulfhere king of the Mercians (that is, dwellers on the Marc, or border, of Wales 
answering to our Midlanders) brought them under Midland influence, which their 
language still shews most strongly, having nothing Northynibrian in it. 

In Mr. Green's posthumous work, The Conquest of England, 1883, 
p. 112, there is a rough sketch, entirely unrevised, of the state of 
England at the treaty of "Wedraore (7 w. Wells, 8m.) between 
King Alfred and Guthrum the Dane, after the battle of Edington 
(7 sw.Wells) in 878. The Danes then withdrew from Sm. and 
the sketch-map gives the following divisions : 

1. Bernicia extends on the e. from the Forth to s. of Du. 

2. Banish Northumbria covers Lonsdale s. of the Sands m.La. and all Yo. 

3. Banish Mereia takes in Db. Nt. Li. Ru. Np. forming the districts of the 
Five Boroughs, Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Stamford in s.w.Li. and Nottingham. 

4. Kingdom of Guthrum comprises Nf., 81, Es., Mi., Ht., Bu., Bd., Cb., Hu., 
in fact all my E.div. 

5. English Mereia takes all the co. w. of the Danish Mereia and e. of Wales, 
as far s. as the Avon and Thames, and hence includes Gl. 

6. Kingdom of Kent occupies all my D 9 = ES. 

7. Wessex occupies all my D 4 and 5, with the exception of Gl. 

8. West Welsh is my D 10 and 11. 

The second, third, and fourth of these divisions constitute the Danelaw or portion 
of England then ruled by the Danes. 

Finally Mr. Green left another unfinished sketch of a map of the 

[ 1443 ] 



12 THE CELTIC BORDER. 

" great ealdormanries " or lord-lieutenancies ( Conquest of England, 
p. 316) which were created from 955 to 988. This map, then, forms 
a later grouping which must necessarily have had an effect on the 
dialects and which is therefore reproduced. 

1. Northumbrian Ealdorm comprising the former Bernicia and Danish North- 
umbria. 

2. Cumbria containing Cu. 

3. West-Moringa Land containing We. 

4. The Ealdarmanry of Mercia from the Kibble La. e. of the Severn through 
Ch., St., Sh., "Wa., Wo., He., and Gl. to the Thames. 

5. The Five Boroughs (as above explained) replace Danish Mercia. 

6. The Ealdormanry of Mast Anglia comprises Nf., Sf., Cb., Hu.., Bd., Ht. 

7. The Ealdormanry of Essex comprises Es., Mi., Ox. 

8. The Ealdormanry of the Eastern Provinces comprises Ke., Sr., Ss. 

9. The Ealdormanry of the Central Provinces contains Wl„ Ha., and Isle of Wi. 

10. The Ealdormanry of the Western Provinces contains Sm., Dv., Co. 

11. The Ealdormanry of Mercia contains s.La., Ch., St,, Sh., Wa., Wo., He., 
and 61. 

These original settlements of the tribes and the various settlements 
that followed, to which have to be added those resulting from the 
Danish and Norman conquests, sufficiently account for the existence 
of great diversities of local speech, and at the same time point to the 
gradual formation of the divisions S, W, E, M, N here adopted from 
an actual examination of existing local habits of speech. But it is 
no part of the work of this book to check the above statements in 
any way. Whatever their errors may be, they were made con- 
scientiously to illustrate the best general conception that Mr. Green 
could form, with the aid of the imperfect materials he possessed. 

Modern. — The modern Celtic Border in Great Britain, drawn on 
the map and marked CB., divides those who speak English from 
those who speak Celtic. But it has here been extended to Ireland 
so as to include the old colony of Forth and Bargy, which, like sw. 
Pm. and Gowerland in "Wales, was an English settlement from 
which the Celts were excluded. 

The modern CB. therefore begins in Co. Wx., Ireland, and then 
on the map passes by sea to Pm., Wales, and then by sea to Gm., 
Wales, then again by sea to Mo., whence through Wales to El. 
Afterwards it passes by sea w. of Ma., but east of the Isle of Arran, 
to Bute in Scotland, which country it traverses in a ne. direction to 
Cr., whence it passes again by sea to ne. of Cs., and by sea to the 
w. of the Or. and Sd. This gives the general run of the line which 
will now be particularised. The Welsh line was determined by 
AJE., the Scotch by JAHM. 

An English-speaking place is one in which the uneducated, or 
only elementarily educated people speak with each other habitually 
in English. The line through Wales, with the exception of the out- 
lying districts in Pm. and Gm., about which there is no trouble, 
was drawn from the answers of clergymen of the parishes along or 
near the supposed route in answer to the following questions : 

" 1 . Is Welsh or English generally spoken by the peasantry about [the place 
addressed] to one another P 2. If Welsh, where is the nearest English-speaking 

C 1444 1 



THE CELTIC BORDER. 13 

place to the east? 3. If English, does it resemble in pronunciation the 
English of [the neighbouring English co.] ? Or is it simply book-English ? " 
To which for s.Wales I added, " 4. If mixed, how often have you Welsh services 
or sermons?" 

The complete answers which I received are given in my paper 
" On the Delimitation of the English and Welsh Languages," 
originally published in T Cymmrodor, vol. v. pp. 173-208, and 
reprinted in the Transactions of the Philological Society for 1882-3-4, 
Part II. App. II. The names of the clergymen who so kindly 
assisted me will be found in the Alphabetic County List under the 
"Welsh counties considered. Other particulars will be given when 
treating of D 13 and 14. Here I simply give the line as accurately 
as I was able to draw it, beginning with the detached districts, 
including the Irish portion. 

Ireland. — The line which separated English from Irish in the xn th and sub- 
sequent centuries, till, in the xvm th, it was merged into the Cromwellian English 
spoken in the surrounding district where Irish had became disused, begins on the 
s. coast of Wi., Ireland, at the head of Baunow Bay (13 sw. Wexford), and passes 
nearly in a straight line to Wexford, following the borders of the baronies (or co. 
divisions, corresponding to English hundreds) of Bargy in the w. and Forth in 
the e. This line cuts off a peninsula at the se. angle of Ireland. It then passes 
by sea across St. George's Channel. 

2. South Wales, Pm. — The CB. cuts off the two sw. peninsulas of Pm., con- 
taining the hundreds of Rh6s and Daugleddy (rhoos, daYgledh-r), Pm. I take 
the line assigned by my informant, Rev. J. Tombs, rector of Burton (3 n. Pembroke), 
as the probable boundary of the original or very early Saxon colony. It begins at 
Newgate Bridge (6 ese. St. Davids), the ne. corner of St. Bride's Bay, and proceeds 
in ne. direction to Ambleston (7 nne.BTaverford West, and 1 J ne.Trefgarn), and then 
turns se. to pass by Lawhaden and Narberth (9 e.Haverford West) going in nearly 
a straight line just e. of Ludchurch (10 ese. Haverford West), to fall into 
Carmarthen Bay near Amroth (anrroth), 5 ne.Tenby, at the se. extremity of the 
co. Mr. Tombs says that he thinks no line can now be drawn between Anglicised 
Welsh and the border of the early colonists, though it was perhaps possible 100 years 
ago. It will be observed that this line cuts off two peninsulas separated by 
Milford Haven and the R. Cleddau (kledh-ay). The CB. then proceeds by 
sea to 

3. The Peninsula of Oowerland, in sw.Gm. My informant, Rev. J. D. Davies, 
of Llanmadoc Rectory (14 w. Swansea), says that the following 17 parishes have 
spoken English for centuries (I merely give the distances from Swansea, direction 
fromw. tosw.): l.Cheriton 13; 2, Llanmadoc 14; 3, Llangenydd 15; 4, Rhos-sili 
16J; 5, Llandewi 14 ; 6, Knelston 13 ; 7, Reynoldston 12 ; 8, Port Eynon 13 ; 9, 
Penrice 11; 10, Oxwich 11; 11, Nicholaston 10; 12, Penmaen 9; 13, Lower 
Llanrhidiau 1 1 (Upper Llanrhidiau 8 does not speak English) ; 14, Ilston 7 ; 
15, Penard 7 ; 16, Bishopston 6 ; and 17, Oystermouth 4. These parishes all lie 
on the peninsula and their inland boundary is therefore part of the modern 
CB. It starts from the mouth of a streamlet which runs into the Burry River 
estuary in Carmarthen Bay, 2 s.Penclawdd (penklau-dh) railway-station, which is 
8 wnw.Swansea. The boundary runs up this streamlet over Welsh Moor and 
Pengwern Moor nearly in a straight ese. direction to Myer's Green, 1 s. Mumbles 
Station (3 sw. Swansea) on Swansea Bay. The CB. again passes by sea through 
the Bristol Channel to the estuary of the TJsk, Mo. 

4. Here the Welsh and English part of the CB. begins. 

Mo. Start from the confluence of the Ebbw (eVu) and Usk, about 2 S.Newport 
on the Bristol Channel. Keep on the e. bank of the Ebbw, w. of Newport, e. of 
Risca (6 nw.Newport), and w. of Pontypool, (10 sw.Tredegar), to the junction 
of the greater and lesser Ebbw, or Ebbwy-fawr, and Ebbwy-fach (eVuy vaur, 

[ 1«5 ] 



14 THE CELTIC BORDER. 

eb-UT vakh), and take the e. bank of the lesser Ebbw, leaving Mo. near Brynmawf 
(branmaur) Br., meaning a ' big hill.' 

Br. Proceed nearly n. to just w. of Llangattock and Crickhowell = Welsh 
Crughywel (krYg-ha'u - el). Then go e. of Tretower, on the high ground to the 
e. of the River Bryn, turning slightly to nw. up to Talgarth (12 sw.Builth), and 
then probably still on the high ground on the w. of the wye pass e. of Gwendwr 
(gwEndur) and Llangynog (lhhanga nog), but w. of Builth (bY-alhht) to the Wye 
about 3 ne. of Builth. 

fid. Cross the Wye and proceed nearly directly n. through Ed., which is almost 
entirely English, just e. of the railway, leaving Rhayader-Gwy and St. Harmon's 
(both about 18 w.Knighton) on the w. 

Mg. Continue to go nearly n., leaving Llanidloes (lhhanid - 16es) (11 sw.Newtown), 
on w., but Mochtre and Penstrowel (3 and 5 w. and sw. Newtown) on e. Then 
go slightly ne. by Manafon (8 nw.Montgomery), and Castell Caer Einion (4 wsw. 
Welshpool), w. of Guilsfield, 2 n. Welshpool, and e. of Llansantffraid flhhan- 
santfraid) (8 n. Welshpool), but w. of Llandysilio (lhhandasrlio) (7 n. Welshpool), 
turning n. to enter Sh. 

Sh. The line seems to pass directly n. to Llanymynecb. (IhhanamanEkh) (5 
S.Oswestry), and thence to Oswestry, and on to just w. of Chirk (5 n. Oswestry). 

Dn. The line then makes a gentle sweep to the e. and passes e. of Ruabon 
(rhiuaVon) to Wrexham, through which it passes and deflects to the ne., but turns 
more n. as it enters PI. 

Fl. The line passes nearly n. through Fl., leaving Hope (8 se.Flint), on the e., 
andbothMold (6 s.Flint),andNorthop (3 s. Flint), on the w., reaching the R. Dee, 
at 2 se.Flint, halfway between Flint and Connah's Quay. 

The line again passes through the sea w. of I. of Man and e. 
of the I. of Arran to Bt., and the Gaelic and English b; commences. 

Scotland.- — The line now traverses Scotland, dividing the existing 
Gaelic speakers and existing Lowland speakers, that is, speakers of 
English in Scotland. This was determined by Dr. Murray for his 
work on "The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland" 
(pp. 231-6), with the assistance of the gentlemen named below. 1 
This line gives "the outside limits of the Gaelic, that is, every 
district is included in which Gaelic is still spoken by any natives, 
regardless of the fact that English may be spoken by the majority 
of the people." The following account of this Scotch portion of 
the CB. was revised by Dr. Murray. The line is traced from s. to n. 

Jit. After passing through the sea from Fl., w. of I. of Man, and e. of Arran 
and Cantire, the CB. commences on land in Bt. and traverses the middle of the 
I. of Bt. and the adjacent channel. 

1 Rev. Wm. Ross, of Chapelhill Taylor, of Crathie, 9 ene.Braemar, 

Manse, Rothesay, Bt., but a native Ab.), for Ab. 

of Cs., for Cs., and co. n. of Moray Rev. Neil McBride, of Glenisla, 17 

Firth and islands and coast of the nw. Forfar, Fo., for nw. Fo. and ad- 

Clyde. jacent parts of Ab. and Pr. 

Rev. Colin Mackenzie, of Ardclach Rev. Samuel Cameron, of Logierait 

(8se.Nairn,Na.),andRev.JohnWhyte, (6n.Dunkeld),Pr.,Rev.Dr.Macdonald, 

Moyness (12 se.Inverness, In.), for Na. of Comrie (20 w.Perth), Rev. Hugh 

and El. McDiarmid, of Callander, Pr., for the 

Rev. Walter Gregor, of Pitsligo adjoiningpart of Pr. 

(:pitslirgo), 5 wsw.Fraserburgh, Ab., Rev. W. Mackintosh, of Buchanan 

and James Skinner, Esq., factor to (23 wsw.Stirling, for w. Sg.). 

the Duke of Richmond, for El. Rev. Duncan Campbell, of Luss 

and Ba. (12 nnw.Dumbarton, Dm.), on w. coast 

Rev. Robt. Neil, of Glengairn, 11 of Loch Lomond, for the dist. between 

ne.Braemar, Ab. (through Rev. Dr. Loch Lomond and Loch Long. 

I Ui6 J 



Line I.] THE TEN TRANSVERSE LINES. 15 

Ar. The CB. then continues in a ne. direction by the se. coast of Ar., just w. of 
Dunoon (9 sse Inverary), skirting the Firth of Clyde to Loch Long, through the 
middle of which it passes. 

Dm. The CB. turns e. and enters Dm. just n. of Gorton (17 nw.Dumbarton), 
and passes e. through Glen Douglas to the w. shore of Loch Lomond at a point 
9 nnw.Dumbarton, where it crosses Loch Lomond. 

Sg. The CB. enters Sg. just n. of the Eowardennan Inn (19 n.Dumbarton and 
22 W.Stirling), and crosses Sg. in an ene. direction. 

Pr. The CB. passes se. of the Trossachs to Aberfoyl (7 sw.Callander), and 
thence to Callander, whence it passes through Glen Artney to Comrie (14 ne. 
Callander), and crossing Glen Almond, goes just s. of Amulrie (9 nne. Crieff ), after 
which it follows Strath Braan through Birnam Wood to Dunkeld. The line then 
passes in a nne. direction over Mt. Blair, where the b. of Ab. intersects the b. of Fo. 

Ab. Entering Ab. by Mt. Blair the CB. goes in a n. direction to meet the Dee 
about 4 e.Braemar,and follows the Dee to 2 e.Crathie and Balmoral, and then 
suddenly turns nnw. to go to Strathdon, also called Invernochtie (7n.Cratbie), when 
it turns a little nw. 

Ba. The CB. enters Ba. about 6 ne.Tomantoul and skirts the R. Livet on the 
w. to b. of El. 

El. The CB. crosses the Spey nearly at right angles (2 s.Inveraven), Ba., which 
is 12 nne.Tomantoul, and passes through El. in a wnw. direction crossing the 
Knock of Brae Moray (15 sw.Rothes, El.), and proceeding nw. to Na. 

Na. The CB., continuing its nw. dir., crosses the Findhorn R. at right angles, 
and goes on to Ardclach (8 sse.Nairn),andreaches the Moray Firth about 3 w.Nairn. 

Cr. The CB. crossing the Moray Firth cuts off the extreme ne. of Cr. containing 
the town of Cromarty, and then the line again takes the sea past the e. coast of 
Ross and Sutherland and part of Cs. 

Cs. The CB. reappears on land at Clyth Ness, Cs., 10 ssw.Wick. It proceeds 
in an undulating line to the n. of Harpsdale (15 wnw.Wick), and through Hallkirk 
(16 nw.Wick) to the River Forss, which it follows to the sea 5 w.Thurso. 

The line then takes to the sea again, leaving the Or. and SI. groups to the e., 
and after passing them, ceases to exist. 



The Ten Teansveese Lines. 

These are marked by broken lines on the map, except when they 
coincide with any border marked by a continuous line on the map, 
and then the broken parts are drawn through this line and at right 
angles to it in order to shew the coincidence of the two lines. Most 
of the Transverse Lines during part or all of their course so coincide 
with other boundaries. They are numbered on the map by numbers 
in ( ), corresponding to those used in this description. 

Line 1. — The n. sum line or northern limit of the pron. of the 
word some, "Ws. sum, as (sam) or (sam) in s. England. The pron. 
(sam) reappears n. of line 8. 

Proceed from n., follow the CB. to Chirk on b. of Sh., which enter between 
Ellesmere soom, that is, which says(swm) (7 ne. Oswestry), and Oswestry swot, that is, 
■which says (sam) or (sam). Thence it passes se. running w. of Hordley soom (6 ene. 
Oswestry) ande. of Whittington«wOT(2ne. Oswestry), s. of Wems55m(13e. Oswestry) 
and Yorton soom (2 sw.Wem) and just w. of Hadnall soom (4 nne. Shrewsbury), 
going s. between Shrewsbury sum and Upton Magna soom (4 e.Shrewsbury) to 
the Severn at Atcham. Then it follows the Severn to the b. of the co. 

Wo. On entering "Wo. pass just e. of Bewdley (3 wsw.Kidderminster), mixed 
soom and sum but chiefly soom, and Dunley (5 ssw. Kidderminster) mixed, and 
proceed in a se. direction to 

Wa. Stratford-on-Avon. Continuing se. to pass just n. of Kineton (8 ese. Strat- 
ford) mixed, much, soom, through Fenny Compton (probably) to the b. of the co. 

[ H47 ] 



16 THE TEN TRANSVERSE LINES. [Lures 1, 2. 

Np. Enter Np. just n. of Byfield (16 wsw. Northampton) mixed, and turn n. to 
coincide with Line 3 for a little way passing e. of Weedon (8 W.Northampton) 
toom, and e. of Daventry soom and going through Long Buckley to Watford 
(18 W.Wellingborough) soom to w. of East Haddon (14 w. Wellingborough) sum. 
Then quitting Line 3, turn ene. passing by Brixworth (6 n. Northampton) and 
Hannington (5 nw.Wellingborough) both mixed, when turn ne. and go between 
Islip (8 e. Kettering) mixed and Thrapston (9 e. Kettering) mixed to the b. of the 
co. about 2 s.Hemington (11 sw. Peterborough) probably sum. 

Hu. Enter Hu. just n. of Great Gidding (10 nw. Huntingdon) sum and go just 
s.of Sawtry (9 nnw.Huntingdon) soom. Then, crossingthe Great Northern Railway, 
probably turn ne., passing just n. of Bamsey (9 nne. Huntingdon) and enter 

Cb. Pass just n. of Chatteris (10 nw. Ely) mixed and turning ne. go e. of March 
and w. of Wisbech mixed to the edge of the co., and then proceed by nw. b. of Nf . 
to the sea. 

For the line as far as Sawtry I am almost entirely indebted to 
TH., who with great pains took a phonetic survey of this part 
of the country. The rest of the route to March and Wisbech and 
nw.Nf. I owe to other informants, checked, however, by TH., as 
shewn in the next Line 2. 

The use of (a, a) for U is of course a modernism and an encroach- 
ment, hence we may expect to find that it is not a sufficient mark 
of a difference of district, because all other characters may remain 
and the modern (a) may have only partially prevailed. Also inter- 
mediate forms may prevail arising from the encroachment being still 
incomplete. It will be found that both anticipations are fulfilled. 

Line 2. — The s. sddm line or southern limit of the pronunciation 
of the word some as sddm (swm) in England ; for the n. limit see 
Line 9. 

Sh. As far as the sc. h. of Sh. lines 1 and 2 coincide. 

Wo. Directly that the n. sum line enters Wo. there is a mixed district s. of it, 
where soom is more or less frequently heard, and the intermediate som (som) is 
also found. It occupies the whole of s.Wo., Gl., and even n.Wl. Proceed 
direct s. from Bewdley, w. of Stourport, to the Malvern Hills, and continue by 
Bedhill or Bedmarley d'Abitot to the s. b. of Wo. 

Gl. Enter about 8 wsw. Tewkesbury, pass more or less to the w. in order to 
leave Newent (8 nw.Gloucester) to the e., and go s. to Dursley (14ssw.Gloucester). 

Wl. Take a sweep s. of Tetbury (16 s.-by-e. Gloucester) and proceed e. and ne., 
going s. of Malmesbury (14 w.Swmdon) and Purton (4 nw. Swindon). 

Ox. Thence go ne. through a corner of Be. to Witney (10 wnw.Oxford) and 
Bicester (11 nne. Oxford). 

Bu. Thence pass through Buckingham and w. of Stony Stratford (7 ne. 
Buckingham) to d. of Np. 

Np. Going mostly just w. of the border, sweep just s. of Thrapston, and join 
the n. sum line again at the b. of Hu. 

Hu. and Cb. Through Hu. to past Sawtry (9 nnw.Huntingdon) the s. soom 
coincides again with the n. sum line, and both pass between Great Gidding 
(10 nw. Huntingdon) sum and Sawtry soom. But then the s. soom line runs 
eastwards, s. of Bamsey (9 nne.Hnntingdon). 

Cb. It enters s. of Chatteris (9 nw. Ely) and runs ne. to b. of co. 

Nf. The line enters Nf. just s. of the new Bedford Rivers, at the s. of the 
Bedford Level, about 24 s.King's Lynn, and pursues rather a winding course 
through w. Nf., s. of Downham (10 s.King's Lynn) and Swaffham (13 se.King's 
Lynn), and e. of East Dereham (23 ese.King's Lynn), where it turns n. for about 
6 m., and then, after running s. of Fakenham (8 s.Wells-on-Sea), turns nw., and 
falls into the sea between Hunstanton (13 nne.King's Lynn) and Brancaster. 

[ 14*8 ] 



Lines 2, 3.] THE TEN TRANSVERSE LINES. 17 

For this line I am wholly indebted to the "phonetic survey" of 
the adjacent parts made by TH. ( who has visited expressly 
numerous villages along the route here laid down (30 places in 
Norfolk only), and has himself heard the not unfrequent use of 
s66m and similar words between the n. sum and s. sodm lines, and, 
especially in Nf., has observed the use of the intermediate som. It 
would be probably quite impossible to determine the line more 
accurately. 

Here we have examples of the incomplete assertion of (a, a). It 
will be observed that Line 2 runs in general much further south 
than line 1. It is only to the n. of line 1 that the old state of 
things remains, and to the s. of line 2 that the new state has fully 
asserted itself. The intermediate country between Lines 1 and 2 
is mixed, with one or the other form of U fully asserted, or 
transitional, a new form, as (som), which indicates the influence of 
(a, a) upon («) being heard. What it is particularly necessary to 
guard against is the supposition that (o, a) is the "correct" form 
because "received"; it is only a modern form. Even in rp. the (a) 
has not fully asserted itself, full (f«l) is itself an example ; and we 
find in the (u) regions an apparently perverse habit to say (fal). 
The pron. of full, and of similar words, is merely a mark of the 
conflict, which has been left standing. 

Like 3. — The Eeverted ur (e) line or n. limit of the pron. of r as 
(e) or (r y ) in England. Sporadically and through natural defects of 
pron., reverted ur (h) may be heard still more northerly, and even to 
the w. in D 13. But it ceases to be the regular pron. at this limit, 
and even in D 9 the ur (b ) frequently sinks into the common received 
vocal er (r ) ; while in 1) 6, 7, the tongue is often merely retracted 
(r,) or even Midland (f), instead of reverted (e). It is probable that 
originally the line really commenced at the mouth of Bannow Bay 
in Ireland, proceeding along CB. to Wexford, and then to Pm. and 
Gm. But in none of these plaees can reverted ur (e) now be traced 
with certainty. Hence the line must be taken to begin in England. 
The map however by the serrated line shews that the reverted ur line 
is supposed to have begun in Wexford. 

61. Start in England from the month of the Wye on the Severn E. and proceed 
n. by the w. b. of Ol. till you meet the b. of He. just e. of Monmouth. 

He. Then run in a nne. direction so as to leave lloss, Ledbury (13 e. Hereford), 
and Much Cowarne (8 ne.Hereford), on the e. At Much Cowarne turn more to 
ne., leaving on the w. Stoke Lacy (9 ne.Hereford), Pencombe (lOnne.Heref.)and 
Bromyard (13 ne.Heref.), which are in D 13, and then turning still more to the 
e. pass near Whitbourne (7 w.-by-n. Worcester) to the b. of the co. 

Wo. Afterwards proceed more n. to Bewdley, then turn e. and pass n. of 
Kidderminster and s. of Stourbridge, Hagley, Cradley and Selly Oak (3 S.Bir- 
mingham), and probably n. of King's Norton to the border of 

Wa. Where turn se. and pass n. of Packwood, going e. of Henley-in-Arden and 
Claverdon, but s. of Warwick and s. of Southam to the b. of 

Np. opposite Braunston (13 wnw.Northampton), and pursue that b. to the n. 
as far as Watling St. by Crick. Then go se. joining the n. sum line 1 between 
Watford and East H addon, but leaving it at the angle se. of Weedon and passing 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1449 ] 93 



18 THE TEN TKANSVERSE LINES. [Lines 3, 4, 6. 

just g. of Blisworth to the b. of the co. by Hartwell. Pursue this b. to the s. 
and w. till just e. of Brackley (17 sw. Northampton) it reaches the b. of 

Ox. The line is now so ill known or indistinct that I have been obliged to 
assume the b. of Ox. as its limit to the Thames at Henley, whence it follows the 
w. and s. banks of the Thames to the sea. Of course through the metropolitan 
area this line is a mere fiction and shews only what it once may have been. In 
the part adjoining the Thames the reverted ur (r) sinks to the vocal r (r ). 

The great difficulty of obtaining information renders much of the 
course of this line rather doubtful. Through "Wa. and Np. it has 
been taken as coinciding with the b. of D 6, which at any rate 
cannot be far wrong. 

Line 4. — The s. teeth line, or s. limit of the use for the definite 
article of a suspended (t v ), commonly written t in dialect books, or 
of the hiss (th) as heard at the end of teeth. It is possible that 
cases of tee (t x ) occur sporadically just s. of this line by assimilation, 
as they more frequently occur between lines 4 and 5, but in 
D 24=e.NM. tee (t) is the rule. The word teeth is chosen because 
it contains both (t) and (th). 

Oh. Line 4 begins on the Dee, about 2 sw.Ohester, and passes just within the 
s. b. of Ch., e. of Farndon (7 s. Chester) and w. of Malpas (12 ese.Chester), 
reaching the co. b. at 'Wirswall (2 n. Whitchurch, Sh.) ; it pursues the b. for a few 
miles, but at Surley Dam, 1 s.Combermere Abbey, it passes e. round to the n. of 
Audlem, then goes s., traversing the ne. horn of 

Sh. just w. of Norton in Hales, and turning se. at 12 ene. Stone, enters 

St., through which it passes to the e. to Stone, and then sweeps round to 
Eocester (14 ene. Stoke), on the w. b. of Db., along which it runs to the se. 

Db. Just s. of Eepton (8 sse.Derby) the line cuts across the tail of Db., which 
projects between St. and Le., and then runs again along the s. b. of Db. 
to Nt. 

Nt. and To. The line seems to pursue the w., s.,and then the e. b. of Nt. to its 
n. extremity, after which itpursues the b. of Yo. and Li to the Humber, and 
then runs along the s. b. of Yo. to the sea. In Nt. (dire) is the rule, yet not only 
do (t\ th) occur, though not frequently, but there is a frequent assimilation, 
probably of (th) to (s) before (s). See D 27. 

Line 5. — The n. theeth (dhiith) line, or n. limit of the use of the 
(dh«, dhi) and the hiss (th) in conjunction with suspended te (V) as 
the def. article, till the returns to the north of line 7. 

Ma. The line begins at n. of the Isle of Man and proceeds by sea to 

La. which it enters at Cockerham 6 s Lancaster, and passes in an ese. dir. just 

a. of Over "Wyersdale (6 se. Lancaster) and then follows the b. of La. to about 

9 nne.Burnley. 

To. It then enters Yo. and runs e. apparently to about Burley (8 n.Bradford), 

where it joins the s. house line 6 (to be described presently), and follows that line 

to the w. b. of Li. Then it runs along the w. b. of Li. to the Humber, following 

line 4 already described. 

The whole line from the b. of La. and across to Burley is 
necessarily very uncertain. But it seems to pass between Skipton 
on the n. and Keighley on the s., a distance of 8 m., which this 
line bisects, and hence it is probably not far wrong. 

This line is here assumed to be the n. limit proper of the use of 

[ 1450 ] 



LINKS 5, 6.] THE TEN TRANSYERSE LINES. 19 

the hiss (th) for the definite article. But n. of this line CCE. says 
that in former years he has traced this form (th) through the whole of 
Craven in rare occasional use, which has not influenced any printed 
account of the dialect. He has also heard of the (th) as being in 
use east of Skipton, To., straggling nearly to Harrogate, although 
s. of this line it is quite unknown, and he thinks that it exists 
also a little w. of Ripon. This (th) is by far the most heard 
about "Washbourn River (D 30, 10 cs., No. 6, intro.) between 
Skipton and Harrogate. In all these places except the last, the 
usage is so slight that it has not crept into print, but in the last 
it has been printed in a newspaper contribution by Mr. Granige, of 
Harrogate, a local historian. 

Line 6. — The s. hoose line, or s. limit of the pron. of the word 
house as hoose (huus), which is also the n. limit of the pron. of 
house as any variety of (ha'us), of which those in the M. div. are 
numerous and singular. 

Ma. The line begins on the west at sea at the n. of I. of Man, in which the 
English uses house. 

Cit. On the mainland, the line begins at the mouth of the Esk R. by Ravenglass 
(17 sse.Whitehaven), and proceeds s. of that river on the watershed up to the 
Wry Nose Fell, on the b. of Cu. and We. So close is the division here, that, 
as I am informed, at Gosforth (5 nnw. Eavenglassl they say coo (kuu) and at 
Bootle (5 sse. Eavenglass) they say cow (k6u). But the real Gosforth pron., as 
we find mostly to the n. of it, may be (a^u). 

La. The line then follows the Brathay R. on the n. b. of La. to the head of ■ 
Windermere, and descends down its w. shore to Newby Bridge (7 ne.Ulverston), 
at its extreme s. It then sweeps round, in a way which has not been accurately, 
traced, but is certainly some distance n. of Cartmell (5 e. Ulverston) house and 
crosses the Winster E., which forms the e. b. of La., probably opposite Wither- 
slack (7 ssw.Kendal). 

We. The line probably passes just s. of Witherslack, n. of Milnthorpe 
(6 s.Kendal) hoose, and n. of Kirkby Lonsdale (10 se.Kendal) house, going in a 
ne. direction and crossing the Lune E. about Middleton (8 ese.Kendal). 

To. The line enters Yo. just s. of Sedberg (8 e.Kendal) hoose, and n. of Dent, 
(13 ese.Kendal and 4 sse.Sedberg) house, which is a very close and sharp div. The 
line then runs through Garsdale along the Clough E. to the w. b. of the North 
Iiiding of Yo., which it probably pursues to the Wharfe E. The line probably 
pursues the Wharfe R. to Burley (7 ne.Keighley), and then passes just s. of that 
river, s. of Otley (9 nw.Leeds) hoose, and n. of Leeds and Harewood (6 n.Leeds) 
house (haus), and then bending se., passes e. of Aberford (9 ene. Leeds) 
house (haas), and passes w. of Selby hoose. Then taking a more s. direction it 
passes w. of Snaith (6 s. Selby) hoose. After this it seems to go nearly s., and 
passes e of Doncaster and Rossington (5 se. Doncaster), both house, and turning 
at once to the e. passes probably along the b. of Nt. to the b. of Li. at the s. of 
the I. of Axholme in the nw. of Li. between the Old Don and the Trent Rivers, in 
which both hoose and house (huus h6us) are heard. 

Li. The line probably enters Li. about 3 n.Gainsborough, where the b. of Li. 
turns suddenly to the s. The passage from about Selby, Yo., up to this point has 
been difficult to trace, but the information is very precise through Li. The 
line going e. passes n. of Blyton (4 ne. Gainsborough) house, and s. of Scotter 
(7 ne.Gainsborough) hoose, and then passes s of Redbourne (11 ne. Gainsborough) 
hoose, and n. of Waddingham (11 ene. Gainsborough) house, the last two being 
adjoining parishes. Then it turns suddenly ne. and passes to the n of North 
Eelsey (15 ene. Gainsborough) house, and to the s. of Howsham (16 ne.Gains- 
borough) hoose, the last two being also adjoining parishes. Moreover, the North 

[ 1451 ] 



20 THE TEN TRANSVERSE LINES. [Lines 6, 7. 

Kelsey folk look down on the Howsham folk for saying a coo (kuu) for a cow 
(kou), and probably conversely. After this the line proceeds in a ne. direction 
s. of TJlceby (10 nw.Great Grimsby), and s. of Killingholme (9 nw. Great Grimsby), 
both hoose ; but n. of Brocklesby (8 wnw. Great Grimsby) and of Stallingborough, 
(5 wnw. Great Grimsby), both house, to the sea, 6 nw. Great Grimsby. 

I am indebted for the Li. information to a large number of persons, especially 
clergymen, whose livings were in the neighbourhood. It is remarkable how little 
aware those who live only a very few miles off this line are of this great difference 
of pronunciation. Most Li. people hardly believe that in any part of Ii. hoose is 
now said, while Mr. Peacock of Brigg, author of the Manley and Corringham 
Glossary, did not seem to know that any other pron. but hoose was current in Li. 
And in the neighbourhood of the n. of Nt. I have several times been altogether 
perplexed by being told that hoose was said, when subsequent visits to the place by 
TH. shewed that this was not the case. 

Of course (huus) is the older form, and all the forms of (ha'us) 
are very modern. Hence the treatment of TJ' is not sufficient to 
mark dialects. The transitional form between (uu, a'u) is (Aiu), 
■which will be discussed in D 31. . 

Line 7. — The n. tee line, or northern limit of the use of suspended 
(V) or t', which may be conveniently called tee, for the def. art. 

Cu. The line commences on the w. in Morecambe Bay, Solway Frith, at 
13 W.Carlisle, passes just s. of Kirk Bampton (7 w.Carlisle), then turns in a s. 
dir. as far as about 2 s. of Sebergham (9 ssw. Carlisle), after which it turns ne. 
and passes e. of Southwaite- (7 sse. Carlisle) and Coathill (5 sw. Carlisle) to just s. 
of Fort, where it reaches the Eden B. by Hornsby, up which it proceeds in a se. 
direction to Kirk Oswald, 14 se.Carlisle, and immediately turns nne., forming an 
acute angle with its former course, passes over Croglin Fell, when it again bends 
through sw.Nb.,and passing s. of Alston (20 ese. Carlisle), it re-enters Cu., where, 
after goings, for a little way, it turns e. at Bother Fell (4 s. Alston) to the b. of Nb. 

Du. The line enters Du by the heights on the n. side of Weardale, and passing 
n. of Stanhope (18 wsw.Durham) and Walsingham (over Skaylock Hill), runs 
probably to the se. yet n. of Witton le Wear and Bishop Auckland to Merrington 
(6 S.Durham), and then sweeps to the e. and afterwards ne. past Bishop Middleham 
(7 sse. Durham) and Trimdon (8 se.Durham), but n. of Sedgefield (10 sse. Durham), 
passing along the Skern E. to the railway, when it turns suddenly n. and passes w. 
of Hart and Easington (9 nnw. Hartlepool), and w. of Seaham (5 sse.Sunderland), 
to fall into the sea about Byhope (3 sse.Sunderland). 

For the commencement of this line through Cu. to Sebergham 
I am indebted to the Eev. T. Ellwood, for the part from Sebergham 
to s. of Alston I am indebted to the observations made by JGG., 
and for the part which passes through Du. to the answers kindly 
given by many clergymen along the route, and a visit made by 
myself to one of them at Bishop Middleham. Dr. Murray had 
first drawn attention to the importance of this line as the separation 
of the Danified from the non-Danified N. (DSS. p. 86 note); but he 
commenced it at Allonby, avoiding the sinuosities by Kirk Oswald, 
and lost it at Stanhope (18 w-by-s.Durham). It was to try and recover 
the lost line that I sent out a series of questions to the clergymen 
of the neighbourhood. But it should be observed that the custom 
of speech is very mixed at "Wigton and Silloth (10 sw. and 18 
wsw. Carlisle, Cu.) and that neighbourhood, although prevailingly 
(t'). So it is also about Dalston and Wreay (:rie) s. of Carlisle, but 

[ 1452 ] 



Likes 8, 9, 10.] THE TEN TRANSVERSE LINES. 21 

there (dhc) prevails. But from Port and Kirk Oswald onwards the 
line is sharper. 

Line 8. — The s. sum line in n. England or the s. limit of the pron. 
of some as any variety of (sam, sam), on travelling from Scotland 
into England. 

Cu. The line begins on the w. by the Solway Firth, probably at the mouth of 
the Esk (6 nw.Carlisle), and proceeds in a ne. direction over Beacon Hill (14 
ne.Carlisle) and s. of Bewcastle (16 nne Carlisle) to the w. b. of Nb. 

N6. The line then turns suddenlys. and passes w. of Haltwhistle (14 w. Hexham), 
and e. of Knaresdale, Nb. (17 sw.Hexbam) . 

Cu. The line re-enters Cu. iust w. of Alstone (20 ese. Carlisle) , and then striking 
the n. tee line 7, coincides with it throughout the rest of Cu. and throughout Du. 

For the Cu. part of this line I am indebted to JGGK, the remainder 
results from many communications, together with some personal 
observations. 

Line 9. — The n. s66m line, or the n. limit of the pron. of some as 
any variety of (sum) or even mixed with varieties of (som) on 
proceeding from the M. co. to Scotland. 

Cu. Through Cu. this line coincides with Line 8. 

Nb. But on reaching Nb. it sweeps in a direction at first e. and at last n. round the 
base of the slopes of the Cheviot Hills, passing 4 w. of Bellingham (:beHndrem) 
(1 3 nn w.Hexham), 4 w. of OtterbarnontheRedeR. (18 nnw. Hexham), and 2w. of 
Harbottle (which is 17 wsw.Alnwick), and goes n. to the Cheviot Hill itself 
(8 sw.Wooler) on the w. b. of Nb., at the source of the rivers Coquet and Till. 
Then it proceeds in a ne. direction 2 s. of Wooler to fall into the sea about Bam- 
borough (12 n.Alnwick), the ancient Bebbanburg, the former capital of the 
Saxon Kiugdom of Bernicia. 

Line 10. — The L. line is the limit between L. Scotch and N. 
English speech, and is not precisely coincident with the political 
boundary of England and Scotland. 

Cu. Through Cu. the line coincides with the two previous lines 8 and 9. 

Nb. As far as the Cheviot Hill the line coincides with line 9. But after 
quitting the Cheviot it proceeds in a nw. direction along the w. border of Nb. to 
the Tweed, down which it runs in a ne. dir. till it reaches Wateadder "Water, the 
w. b. of the Liberties of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and 2 n Berwick. 

Bw. Locally in the Scotch co. of Bw., but politically an independent territory, 
Berwick-on-Tweed and its Liberties, extending 2 to 4 miles into Bw., are 
linguistically part of England, and the L. line passes round the w. and n. of them 
to the sea about Marshal Meadows, 3 nnw.Berwick-upon-Tweed. 

It will be observed that this line of the separation of L. and N. 
En. does not coincide with the line given by Dr. Murray (D. of 
S. S. p. 25 note, and map). His L. line proceeds n. from Gretna, 
Df., to the w. of Langholme, Df., crossing the Esk E. to meet the 
Scotch range of the Cheviots, along which it continues to the ene. 
into Ex. as far as Peel Pell, Nb., and then runs in an ese. direction 
to the Eede E., just west of Otterburn (18 nnw.Hexham), where 
it intersects my line 10, which it then pursues for the rest of the 
way. This throws a portion of Df. and Ex. known as Canobie and 
Liddesdale linguistically into England. He says that the dialect 
spoken in this region "is still quite distinct from that of the rest of 

[ 1453 ] 



22 THE TEN TRANSVERSE LINES. [Lnra 10. 

Df. and Ex., and is rather that of Cu. than L. Scotch." This will 
he considered hereafter. At any rate it does not agree with the 
information I have received from other quarters. Taking the Nb. 
slopes of the Cheviots, which would thus be included in England, I 
am told that it is chiefly traversed by Scotch, that is L., shepherds. 
Indeed, JGGr. — who was for a long time quartered in this very 
region, with a companion, both on Geological Survey duty, and for 
lack of houses had to sleep in a caravan, where his rest was often 
disturbed at night by the cattle creeping under and using the floor 
as a back scraper — says that it was difficult to meet any but a 
Scotchman there. The whole parish of Falstone, on the Worth 
Tyne (20 nw.Hexham), which lies in the middle of this district, 
with its 57,000 acres of moorland, had in 1841 only 560 inhabitants 
spread all over it. And Plashetts, 4 miles further to the nw., on 
the North Tyne, together with Felstone, mustered only 222 in- 
habitants in that year. Dr. Frank Eichardson, a physician, living 
in 1879 at Harbottle (17 wsw. Alnwick), at the foot of the Cheviots 
(certainly of that part which Dr. Murray also admits to be L.), 
writes: "I think you will not be wrong in considering that the 
Scotch occupy the entire hill country in these parts. The Cheviots 
are entirely inhabited by Scotch families, who rarely descend into 
the low countries." The Cu. portion which *I include in L. 
has many more inhabitants than the Nb. portion. Bewcastle, 
6 nne.Carlisle, may have 2000, and Longtown, 8 n.Carlisle, may 
have 1200 inhabitants. But, as we shall see, their speech has all 
the characters of L., and does not even resemble that of Carlisle, 
much less any district s. of the n. tee line 7. 

The Eoman "Wall. — In connection with these lines 8, 9, 10, the 
position of Hadrian's or the Picts' "Wall is noteworthy as pointing 
to a separation of races before the advent of the Saxons. This wall 
was built by Agricola a.d. 79 to 85, and repaired by Hadrian 
a.d. 121, and Septimius Severus a.d. 208. The following are the 
places through which it runs from w. to e., with their distances 
and directions from C.=Carlisle, H.=Hexham, and N.= Newcastle. 

Cu. It commences w. at Bowness, 12 wnw.C, and goes through Drumburgh, 
9 raw. C, and Beaumont, 4 nw.C. It then turns se. by Grinsdale, 2 nw.C, 
bending on the s. of the Eden R., sweeping just n. of C. and going in a ne. 
direction by Stanwix (1 n.O.), crossing the Esk, to Wallby (4 ne.C), Wallhead 
(5 nne.C), Old "Wall (6 ne.C), Newtown (8 ne.C), Walton (9 ne.C), Banks 
(11 i ne.C), and Upper Denton (14 ne.C), when it enters Nb. 

N1>. It enters near Thirlwall (17 w.Hexham), passes by Wall Town (15 w.H.), 
Burnhead (12J w.H.), where it turns slightly ne., by Carrow (7 nw.H.), whence it 
passes near Carrowhrough and deflects slightly to se., crossing the North Tyne at 
Citurnum, between Walwick (5 nnw H.) and Brunton (4 n-by-w.H.), and goes by 
Halton Shields (5 ene.H.) and Harlowhill (8 ene.H.), after which it runs nearly 
ese. towards Newcastle, by Heddon on the Wall (7 wnw.N.) into N. itself, through, 
which it passes and runs to Wallsend, 4 ene.N, where, as the name implies, it 
terminates. 

The course through Cu. is only slightly to the s. of lines 8, 9, 10. 
But in Nb. it does not correspond to any dialectal division. 

[ 1454 ] 



D 1.] THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 23 

I. 

SOUTHEEN DIVISION OF ENGLISH DIALECT 
DISTEICTS. 

Boundaries. 

Ireland. The n. b. commences at sea in Bannow Bay, and coin- 
cides with the Celtic Border, p. 13, and thence to the sea by 
Wexford, and then by the sea to Wales. 

Wales. The n. b. coincides with the CB. through Pm., and Gm., 
and thence passing by sea again enters England. 

.England. The line passes by the reverted ur line 3, from the 
Bristol Channel across England to the south bank of the Thames, 
and n. of Ke. and Sheppy to the sea. 

Area. All of England and its islands s. of this boundary, except 
the Channel Islands, where Norman French is still spoken. 

Character. The one ancient character which runs more or less 
persistently through the modern 8. div. is the reverted (e) or retracted 
(r,), the parent of the point-rise or untrilled (r ) or vocal (b), which 
still permeates received speech. In north Germany it is replaced 
by the laryngal (t) and the uvular (r). But I believe that the reverted 
(e) is the true ancient form. The peculiar hollowness and roughness 
of effect, which once heard is easily recognised, is due to the hollow 
formed by turning the tip of the tongue up and back so as to point 
down the throat, and oppose the under (instead of the upper) Burf ace 
of the tip to the hard palate. This (e) may or may not be trilled. 
The trilled form has not been generally recognised, but is quite pos- 
sible. But the untrilled form (e ), for which here for convenience 
(k) alone will be generally written, is most characteristic, and seems 
to blend in a singular manner with the preceding vowel, altering 
its quality and rendering it difficult to be recognised, almost to the 
same extent as in nasalisation. The long rough untrilled voice 
form here written (he) for greater intelligibility is probably nothing 
but the prolonged voiced consonant itself ('e '), Naturally when 
(t, d, 1, n) follow (b), they are also reverted, as (set bed, hend, gasi) 
hurt, heard, earned, girl, for the alteration of the position of the 
tongue would otherwise be extremely inconvenient. I feel that 
reverted (t, d, e, l, s) are the regular old Ws. forms whence have 
descended our peculiar English "coronal" (t, d, r, 1, n) as dis- 
tinguished from the continental "dental" or rather "alveolar" 
( v t, v d, v r, X n). The Indians always represent our sounds by their 
"cerebrals" (suprd Part IV. p. 1096, col. 1). It is evident that 
the English sounds are merely imperfect utterances of the reverted. 
This reversion of (b) prevails still over the whole 8. div. but the 
older main characters, as shewn in D. 4, all of which were probably 
characteristic of the whole division, fade out gradually to the e. of 
D. 4, and become complicated with other characters to the w. 
The reader is referred then to D. 4 for an account of the full 
characteristics of 8. div. 

[ 1456 ] 



24 



THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 



[D 1, 2, 3. 



D 1, 2, 3 = CS. or Celtic Southern, 

That is, the Southern forms of English on Celtic territory, con- 
stituting a group by themselves. They occupy the portions of 
Ireland and Wales to the s. of the CB. 

During the xnth century parties of Englishmen migrated 
evidently from "Ws. regions, hut under Norman guidance, and took 
possession of three peninsulas previously occupied by Celts, 1 ) the 
extreme se. of Wx. in Ireland, 2) the extreme sw. of Pm., 3) 
Gowerland in Gm. Tradition says that, at least in Pm., they were 
accompanied or reinforced by Flemings who had been driven out 
of the Low Countries by floods. 1 The people of "Wx. believe that 
of the little band of 140 knights and 300 infantry, who came there 
with Strongbow in 1164, the infantry were recruited from the 
Flemings in Pm. and Gm. s But in the xnth century the dis- 
tinction between Flemish and "Ws. must have been slight, and the 
"Ws. element must have predominated, for Higden in the xivth 
century finds the people speaking " good enough Saxon." At the 
present day Wx. presents no peculiarity, although a century ago, 
it was truly S. English. But Pm. and Gm. still possess remnants of 
the old forms. It is notorious that emigrants preserve the traditions 
of the old speech longer than the old country. In this case each 
settlement was surrounded by speakers of an unintelligible language. 
Hence the settlers scattered over a small extent of country were 
necessarily in constant communication, undiverted by other habits 
of speech. Consequently they preserved the old language with 
only natural changes. 1 regard these districts then as presenting 
remnants of a very old dialectal form, and hence place them first. 
But, as will be presently seen, they are now so worn away that 
their relation to S. cannot be properly felt unless D 4 be studied first. 



1 1. "William of Malmesbury, 1095- 
1143, " Gesta regum anglorum," ed. 
T. Duffus Hardy, Hist. Soc. ed. 1840. 
Lib. iv. § 311, p. 493, a.d. 1091, 
" Flandritis in patria illorum [i.e. of 
the Welsh] collocatis." Lib. v. § 401, 
p. 628, " Flandrenses omnes Anglise 
accolas eo traduxit." 

2. Banulph Higden (d. 1367), "De 
rebus Britannicis et Hibernicis, ed. 
Th. Gale, Oxford, 1691, p. 210, 1. 
" Flandrenses ... ad oecidentalem 
Wallise partem apud Hauerford sunt 

translati Flandrenses, . . ditnissa 

jam barbaria, Saxonice satis prolo- 
quuntur," or as Trevisa translates, 
" speketh Saxonlych ynow." 

For the three next citations I am 



indebted to Herbert Jenner, Esq., 
F.S.A., of the British Museum. 

3. Geraldus Cambrensis, b. 1147, in 
Pm., 'Itinerarium Cambria?,' lib. i. 
ch. xi. de Haverfordia et Bos : " gens 
hsec originem a Flandria ducens." 

4. ' Brut y Tywysogion ' (under year 
1105, translation sent by Mr. Jenner), 
" that nation seized the whole cantred 
[f eaniref= hundred] of Bhos . . . and 
was derived from Fuandrys." 

5. ' Annales Cambria? [under date 
1107, Florence of Worcester makes it 
1111], " Flandrenses ad Bos venerunt " 

s The Very Eev.C. W.Bussell, D.D., 
paper read at the Dublin meeting of the 
British Association, 1857. Dr. B. does 
not give his authorities. 



[ 1456 ] 



D 1.] THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 25 



Dl = w.CS = western Celtic Southern. 

Boundary. The CB. in Ireland and the sea on the se.Wx. 

Area. The baronies of Bargy on the w. and Forth on the e. in 
the se. corner of Wx., Ireland. 

Sources of Information. All that is known of the dial, as it once 
existed is contained in " A Glossary with some Pieces of Verse of 
the Old Dialect of the English Colony in the baronies of Forth and 
Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, formerly collected by Jacob 
Poole, of Growtown, Taghmon [9 w.Wexford in the adjoining 
barony], County of "Wexford, and now edited, with some Intro- 
ductory Observations, Additions from various sources, and Notes 
by William Barnes, B'.B., author of a Grammar of the Dorsetshire 
Dialect," London, J. Kussell Smith, 1867, pp. 139. With which com- 
pare the older paper of Sir J. A. Picton, F.S.A., "Baronies of Forth 
and Bargey, County of Wexford, Ireland : an Inquiry into the Origin 
and Philological Relations of the Antique Dialect formerly spoken 
in this district ; read before the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of Liverpool, 1 866." This gives much additional information, but the 
subject is not looked at phonetically. Though the dialect is ancient, 
we meet with it in a modern form, affected by Celtic influences. 
The orthography is modern, and the words were written from dicta- 
tion evidently by persons unaccustomed to a systematic representation 
of sound, and like all such, not thinking it necessary, or not being able 
to explain the orthography they used. Hence many inconsistencies 
and probably double uses. Dr. Vallancey published his paper, 
reprinted by Mr. Barnes, in Mem. Irish Acad. 27 Dec, 1788. Mr. 
Poole, whose glossary is the foundation of Mr. Barnes's book, col- 
lected his words in 1823-4. Mr. Edmund Hore, author of the 
Forth and Bargy address to Lord Mulgrave in 1860, was of this 
century, and kindly wrote a letter to a friend of his for me on 
5th Oct., 1873, shewing by numerous examples that the old pron. 
had died out. "The Barony Forth dialect," says he. "was dying 
fast at the close of last century. It was in extremis by 1825, and 
in the present year, 1873, I am confident that there are not half a 
dozen young persons of and under 25 years, who understand a 
sentence of it. I have scarcely met one who did not laugh, and admit 
his ignorance of it. I was born in 1801, and my schoolmates never 
used a word of it between each other, except when in want of one 
to convey their meaning. They learned it, however, as children 
do, from their seniors, spoke it, with a mixture, to them, and hence 
it became more weakly by degrees, and would have expired in a 
shorter time, only that it was the language of the illiterate alone." 
I felt therefore that it was useless searching further among the 
people. I was unable to hear Mr. Hore read, and he was apparently 
unable to make his pronunciation clear by writing, saying to his 
correspondent Mr. Walsh, " I have not sufficient confidence in 
myself to finish the task " of writing the pron. of a lw. which I had 
sent him, " and therefore leave you to do the Glossic." This was 

[ 1457 ] 



26 THE CELTIC SOtJTHEKN. [D 1. 

tantalising, for lie adds: "A stranger, or more correctly a person 
who has not heard the dialect from the lips of an old Forthian, has 
only such knowledge of its pronunciation as Moderns have of the 
ancient pronunciation of the Dead Languages. A stranger reading it 
after the manner of English is as near the true sounds as he ■would be 
in reading French with the English sounds. The letter A had in- 
variably the sound of A in the English word father." To this he 
added in the preface to the Address (Barnes, p . 1 1 3 ), " Double ee sounds 
like e in me ; and in most words of two syllables the long accent is 
placed on the last," and also directed the reader to speak slowly. 

Under these circum stances we have to divine the pron. v from the habits of 
different persons in writing dialects, of which I have had a great and unsatisfactory 
experience, and I have by no means felt certainty in phonetically rendering the 
isolated words and short extracts which follow. Thus a, e, i, o, « are assumed as 
(a, e, i, o, u), not distinguishing (e, e) or (o, o, o). But this is uncertain, as 
persons constantly write u for (w, a), as we do in dull, bull, without any indication 
of the change. In Pm., however, it seems certain that (u) is still occasionally 
heard. For digraphs I take ee, oo, aw = (ii, uu, aa). I am not so sure of au ; it 
may have been used of (an) or (6b). As for ie, it seems to have been sometimes 
(ai) and sometimes (ii). But aa, oa, ea are the greatest stumbling-blocks. 
Most dialect writers use them for (Sen, 6on, tin) or some such forms. Here, how- 
ever, I have generally taken (aa, oo, ee) as the sounds, not distinguishing (oo, oo) 
or (ee, ee) even when long, as all is utterly conjectural. There may have been 
two diphthongs (ao'i, a'i), but they are hopelessly confused by the writer, yet ay, 
ai, aay, aai, were almost certainly (ai, aai), but for safety I use unanalysed (a'i). 
As to ow, I use unanalysed (a'u) as a general expression, though I think (aa'u, e'u, 
a'u) at least likely. But o» often quite puzzles me. It may be (on, e, u, u, au). 
For the consonants I assume r to be (n), because the dialect is Southern, and dr 
is used for thr, but it may have become fully (r) under Celtic influence, centuries 
ago. The th, dh seem to be occasionally (th, dh), but also (toj, dm) or (th, Jh), 
and dh final was perhaps (dtiq). Lh, rh were possibly (1h, rh), but may have 
been (lh, nh), as these sounds seem still to occur in 8. The postaspirates are 
probably all Celtic in origin, being frequent all over Ireland. The / when 
replacing (wh) may have been a strong (wh) misheard, but as (f) occurs in 
Aberdeenshire, probably under Celtic influence, it must be accepted ; fh may be 
simply an exaggerated or postaspirated f. The gh I attribute to the scribal 
habits of the writer. I cannot think (kh) occurred even 100 years ago. Mr. 
Barnes unfortunately frequently "regulated" the spelling of his authorities — 
Vallancey's certainly, for I have compared the original, and Poole's probably — so 
that we have not by any means the words as those who heard them tried to 
represent them, which greatly increases my difficulty, as I have to conjecture 
what is meant by Mr. Barnes's conjecture as to the meaning of the original 
spelling. But assuming these values of the letters, we find on going through 
Mr. Poole's Vocabulary as printed and enlarged by Mr. Barnes, as decidedly 
characteristic : initial dr for thr implying (dk) or reverted (») ; initial z, v, ssh, 
for *, /, sh, and ieh («tj) for the pronoun I; (a'i) in tail, main, brain, rain, 
twain, eight, they, (ii) for long I', ¥', which is very old. All these (except 
the last) also characterise D 4, so that the S. character of I) 1 is established. The 
particulars are put in the form of a cwl. below, p. 30. 

Illustrations. 

1. Extract from Vallancey's A Tola Zong (1) (a Joo-la zoq) 
Fade teil thee (2) — fartoo zo hachee (3) ? 
"Well, gosp, c'hull be zeid (4) ; mot thee fartoo, an fade (5) 
Ha deight ouz var gabble (6), tell ee zin go t' glade (7) ? 
Ch'am a stouk, an a donel ; (8) wou'll leigh out ee dey (9) 
Th' valler w' speen here (10), th' lass ee chourch-hey (11). 

[ 1458 ] 



Dl.] 



THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 



27 



Conjectural pronunciation. 

fadt aid dhi — faEtuir zo atjir ? 
wel, gosp, tjel bi zaid ; mot dhi fas - tu ? «n fadt? 
ha diit «z vaH gab'l, tel i ztn goo te gladt. 
tjam a stouk un b duirnel ; -vroBl Hi aut i dai ; 
dhB Tal'BE wb spiin hiia, dh' las i tjaittj hai. 



ZVaM*to*on <rad Commentary. — (1). 
^i» oW *<»»£. Old, commonly loses its 
d, and becomes (ool). Then a fractural 
(j) is prefixed, forming (jool), which 
form occurs in the Bride's Portion 
(Barnes, p. 102, 1. 2). The additional 
a making (loo-lv), is perhaps solely due 
to the following z, before which the / 
was lengthened by the speaker, and then 
the (v) was inserted by the literariser. 

(2). What ails thee? I consider the 
original fade teil, to be an error for 
fadt eil, the reporter, Dr. Vallancey, 
1 788, having been misled by the running 
on of a t after fad to the following 
vowel. The/«rf for what, may be also 
a mistake of the transcriber. Although 
(f ) for {wh) occurs in Aberdeenshire, it 
is very likely that Dr. Vallancey may 
have misheard (wh) as (f ) . The rest of 
the stanza contains many un-English 
words, and is omitted with the exception 
of the last words. 

(3). Whereto [i.e. wherefore) so agee? 
The fartoo is evidently where-to on the 
analogy of fadt for what. Agee out 
of sorts, "ill-tempered." Sir JAP. 
suggests Old French hachee, which 
Roquefort translates "peine, fatigue, 
penitence," supposing that Old French 
formed part of the language of the 
original settlers, adducing core heart 
fr. cosur, benisons blessings, meihies 
wives and families fr. mesnie, poustee 
power fr. poste [? posteis " un grand 
seigneur, un homme puissant"], mire 
wonder fr. mirer, avanet arrived fr. 
avenir [?]. Whence hachee really comes 
is unknown, and I am far from sug- 
gesting that it is the same word as agee, 
which translates it so well. 

(4). Well, gossip, it shall be said. I 
^ake ei here to represent (a'i). 

(5). But thy wherefore and what. 
Mot is translated by but in Dr. V.'s 
glossary, but he translates this passage 
as " you ask what ails me and for what.' ' 



(6). Have dight (or prepared) us for 
gabble. I doubt whether gh was a 
guttural in Dr. V.'s time. The pro- 
nunciation of ouz (as Dr. V. writes, Mr. 
Bames has ouse) is conjectural. Observe 
for with southern v- in var. 

(7). til the sun go to valley. The sin 
is thorough Devonshire. Glade is trans- 
lated valley by Mr. Hore in the address 
to Lord Mulgrave, Icel. gW&r, bright 
shining. Vou see the suu set through 
an opening only. 

(8). I am a stock and a fool. Cham — 
ich-am, is a regular old Southern form. 
Stouk I suppose to have been meant 
for sto-uek, that is (st6«k), a stock or 
blockhead, and donel is unknown. Sir 
JAP. suggests Irish dona, a poor un- 
fortunate fellow. Dr. V. translates 
dunce, and Sir JAP. a simpleton. 

(9). Will lie (i.e. idle) out the day. 
The pronunciation of won' 11 is quite 
doubtful. I take it for wol, that is, will. 
Sir JAP. considers it w'oul we will. 
Leigh is translated "idle" by Dr. V. 
Mr. B. compares " to lake " or play, 
ags. lacan, but this would hardly give 
anything written leigh. Dr. V. trans- 
lates "idle." Poole's glossary has leeigh 
to laugh, with which it may be related. 
The use of ee i or " the " is regular. I ley 
gives the Southern pronunciation (da'i). 

(10). TheUmgerw-espendhere. Fuller 
mayhavebeen an error for vuller = fuller. 
Dr. V. translates " more, longer in 
time." Sir JAP. suggests value. Speen 
for "spend" is like een for "end." 

(11). The less in church-hay. TTay 
aninclosure,withregularpronunciation. 
Sir JAP. says, "The meaning of this 
is, I suppose, that the churchyard on 
Sundays and holidays being the great 
mart for gossip, the time in telling the 
story now would be so much saved at 
the Sunday meeting." 

The rest of the text is so difficult, and 
evidently corrupt, that it is passed over. 



[ 1459 ] 



28 



THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 



[Di. 



2. Casteale Cudde's Lamentation 
for loss o' his Cuck at vas 
ee-took be a vox. 

Recited by Tobias Butler, 1823. 

Original. 

1. 

Te nypor^s aul, come hark to mee, 

Faade ee-happen'd me lautest 

Gooude Vreedie, 
Mee cuck was liveen michty 

•well, 
Dhicka die fan ich want to a 
mile. 

Ho ro ! mee cuck is ee-go (his), 
Neen chickes hav hea ee-left 

vatherless, 
To fho shall ich maake mee 

redress ? 

2. 
As ich waant draugh Bloomere's 

Enough, 
Ich zide [a] vethers o' mee cuck, 
Aar was nodhing ee-left mot a 

heade, 
"Which maate mee hearth as coale 

as leed. 



3. 
'Cham afear'd ich mosth cress a 

Shanaan, 
And lea a pariesh o Kilmannan, 
Mee pigges, mee geearthes, nor 

nodhing threeve, 
Lickweese mee been deeth in aar 

heeve. 

4. 
Zimaan Haay is a wicked man, 
Hea pryet ich mought na ha 

chicke or hen, 
Ar aany noor dhing at woode 

comfoort mee, 
Fan ich aam in this miseree. 

■ 5. 
Mizluck mye lhygt on Tarn 

Busheare, 
Hea zed mee cuck view in a aare. 



kastee-1 (') kudz ( 2 ) lamentershan 
foE los o hiz kwk, Bt wbz i- 
tetk bi b voks( 3 ). 

(Barnes, pp. 102 to 106.) 

Pronunciation. 
1. 

rina'ipoEis( 4 )aaBl( 6 ),kuumhaaEk 

te mii, 
fMt i-hap'nd mi laatest guuBd 

VBiidir, ( e ) 
mi kwk wbz Kvii'n miiti weI, 
dhik-^C) da'i fan «'ti want tu b 

mEl( 8 ). 

hoo eoo ! mi kuk «'z i-goo ! (he's) 
niin tp'kiz hav hee( 1 ) i-toft 

vaadheEles ('), 
tu foo ( 9 ) sh«l itj mttk mi 
rinses- ? ( 10 ) 
2. 
az »tjwantDEa'u(") :bluumee*ses 

knuk, 
itj zid( 12 ) [i] vedh'OEzC) b mi 

kuk; 
&e( 13 ) wbz nodh - »'q( 7 ) i-lef mot 

b hiid ('), 
wht'tj mat mi haEti( 14 ) bz kool 
ez liid ( ls ). 

3. 
tjam afii'sd *'tj most]; kses b 

:shanan* ( 16 ), 
Bn lee b pasi-sh b tMrnanan 1 (") 
mi p*'g - «s, mi giieBTHp's, nos 

nadh-»q (') DHEiiv ( 18 ), 
Kkwirz mi biin diith in e's 

hiiv ( 19 ). 

4. 
rziman- :ha'i iz b w«k - ed man, 
hee paa'ret *tj moBt nB ha tjik 

oe hEn ( M ), 
be ani nuuE ( 20 ) dhiq (') Bt w«d 

komfuu'Et mii, 
fan( 21 ) *ti am in dhj's mtzexii*. 

5. 
mt'zluk' ma'i lHait( 22 ) on :tom 

:bushee - E, 
hee za'id mi kuk vliu in b SeBBC 3 ). 



[ U60 ] 



Dl.] 



THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 



29 



Lhaung life to Misteare Heed- 
forth an his vamilee, 

Lhaung mye thye live in pros- 
peritee ; 

He zide hea'de help me udh o' 
hoan 

To hint dhicke cursed vox vrom 
Bloomere's lhoan. 



lHAAqliiftu :mistee - E :EeedfoEth 

■en iz vamilii - ( M ), 
lHAAq ma'i dha'i liiv in pros- 

peititir ; 
hee zaid hee-d help mi udHj v) 

hoon (*>) 
tu h«nt dhik kansed voks vsom 

:bluumee - Eis Lnoon ( 26 ). 



Notes. 



1. Casteale, Castle. The pronuncia- 
tion (kastee'l) is doubtful. It is im- 
possible to say that Mr. Poole would 
have written consistently, or what 

?honetic analogies would strike an 
rishman 60 years ago. The ea is 
now, and was then, generally (ee) or 
(ee) in Ireland. Mr. P., like other 
dialect writers, often uses it I think for 
(iiu), but probably he used it in both 
senses, for few dialect writers are 
consistent. This is stated to be a nick- 
name. 

2. Patrick Codd is given as the 
man's real name. 

3. ' Cock that was i-taken by a 
fox.' 

4. 'Neighbours,' the (p) occurs in 
other districts. 

5. As ' aul ' could hardly have been 
used for the ordinary pronunciation of 
'all,' I have assumed it to be a-ul, 
which agrees with Southern usage. 

6. ' what happened [to] me last 
Friday.' The rhyme requires (dii), 
but (da'i) would have been expected ; 
see cwl. p. 30, No. 161. 

7. th, dh in F. and B. writing 
generally mean (tHj, dul or postaspi- 
rated t, d. But here and there (dh) is 
a dialectal change from (th). I think 
dh means to imply (dh), or at least its 
Celtic substitute (Dh). 

8. Written mile, where the last letter 
seems to have been misread for I, as 
many writers make 11 resemble le. In 
Poole's glossary mele, mell occur for 
flour, and Mr. Barnes inserted mile 
from this passage. 

9. That is (whoo) for whom. 

10. " Make my redress," instead of 
"apply for" or "go for." Tobias 
Butler, who recited this in 1823, may 
have been in error. The verse is 
throughout so faulty that this was 
probably often the case. 

11. Interpreting au as (a'u), but this 



is quite uncertain, drough may have 
been written, and meant merely for 
(dkuu), as I have had sent to me many 
times by informants. 

12. zide would be ' said,' as given in 
the glossary, hence this must be an 
error for zede^iee'd, that is, saw. 

13. For (dhe's.), a regular Forth 
form. 

14. Here I suppose the -th indicated 
only a strong final flatus, which is 
written as (t). 

15. 'There was nothing i-left but 
the head, which made my heart as cold 
as lead.' In cold the d is omitted as 
in yola old. In this example the instead 
of (i) often becomes (b). 

16. ' I am afraid I must cross the 
Shannon.' I feel doubtful about the 
pron. of (kres) and (Shanan-). 

17. ' And leave the parish of Kil- 
mannan.' Kilmannan is a parish in 
Bargy (6 sw. Wexford). 

18. ' My pigs, my goats, nor nothing 
thrive.' The insertion of »• in geearthh 
for ' goats ' may be right, for such inser- 
tions occur in w.Sm. But on the other 
hand it may be entirely due to the 
transcriber. In threeve, th must be an 
error for d or dh, as the thr- regularly 
becomes (dk-) or (dhb-). 

19. ' Likewise my bees die in their 
hive.' Observe (likwii-z, hiiv), (biin) 
as a plural in » and (diith) as the Ws. 
verbal plural in -eth. 

20. ' He prayed I might not have 
chick or hen or any other thing.' 
Observe (pitai'et) ending in t. Compare 
maate for made in stanza 2. Observe 
(nuuBB) for another (sometimes spelled 
anoor, and then another for other. 

21. Fan of course represents (whan 
when). 

22. I have taken Ih to be a post- 
aspirated /rather than the voiceless (lh). 

23. 'He said my cock flew in the air.' 
Here zed is apparently an error for zide, 



I 1461 ] 



30 THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. [D 1< 

just as zide was miswritten before for of a in (iidh), the effect of (dH) which 

zede, see note 12. The last two lines can only be shewn on the following 

of this stanza are missing in Barnes, vowel, and the sound of hoan, which 

p. 102. I assume here to be (hoon) and not 

24. The (v-) in this Latin word is (h6en), just as in lhaung I took au 
doubtful, see introduction to D 4. to = (AA). 

25. ' Out of hand.' Here several 26. " To hunt this cursed fox from 
things are uncertain, the pronunciation Bloomer's land." 

3. Forth and Baboy cwl. 

Collected from the glossary and specimens in Mr. Barnes's book. The spelling 
there used is placed first in Italics, and then the conjectured pron. in pal. 
Observations are included in [ ]. The numbers refer to the cwl. on p. J 6*. 

i. "Wessex and Norse. 

A- 4 laake tak. 5 maaJte mak. 6 maate madt. 14 dra DRaa. 18 eaahe kak. 
19 taale tal. 21 naame nam naam. — gaam gaume gam [game]. — glade glad 
[glade, valley]. [In all these words I feel that aa, au may have meant (ae, ee). ] 
A: 40 fchime kiqa'im. 43 hoan hoon. 44 loan loon. 53 coon koon. 67 ess es. 
A: or 0: 58 warn VRam. 61 amang vmaq. A'- 67 goan goun [going], 
72 fho fHjoo. 73 zo zoo sae zoo zuu see [the last form is anomalous]. 82 oanct 
6B - nes. 86 oates 6ets. 94 eroowe latuu [?]. 95 drowe draugh droo. A': 

— laady laadi [lady]. 108 doaugh dhoaugh dough doo. 115 hime hyme ha'im. 
117 oan oon. 118 bane baan. 124 sthoan stepon. 

J&' — aahe aak [ache]. 138 valher vaadlma. 141 niel na'i'l. 141 tyel 
ta'i'l. 144 agyne ega'in. 146 mhyne mHa'in [main, very]. 147 bryne bRa'in 
[the y spelling in these last four words seems to indicate (a'i) with certainty]. 
152 waudher wadHKR. .55: 155 deteh dstj. — bhlock bHlok [black]. 
156 glaud glad. 161 die dey daaily da'i da'ili. 165 zide, za'id. — smaal smaal 
[small]. 179 faade fadt. M'- — leache leeti [physician from Stanyburst 
1577, misprinted leech in glossary]. 187 have lea lesv lee. 194 aany ani. 

— erroane enoo-n [errand]. 200 whet wheet. M': 211 gray grey gRa't. 

— meale meel [a meal]. 217 eareh eesTi [ever-each, every]. 218 zheep zhiip. 
223 oar thaare aaR dhaaR. 224 far faR. 

E- 231 ee i [and] a v [compare omitted consonant in the D 40]. 238 hey hye 
ha'i. 241 rhyne Rha'in. 242 twine Iwy twa'in twai. 245 mele mell meel [meal, 
flour]. — brimel bRtmel [bramble]. 251 maate meBt. — vether vedhisR [feather]. 
E: 260 laaye lai. 262 wye toyse wa'i wa'iz. 263 awye Bwa'i. 266 w«a/ 
wal. — <fcK del [delve]. 279 waant wSent [?]. — speen spiin [spend]. — am 
ziin [to send]. — een iin [an end]. E'- 296 behave belee-v. 301 heereen 
heireen hiiRirn ha'iRirn [hearing, the second form is still heard in D 4, hut is 
dying out]. E': 305 heegh hii. 

EA: 324 ayght a'it. — ayghieen a'itirn. 326 yole yola jool joolu. 328 cole 
khoal kHTOol. 330 houle ha'ul [?]. 346 y«o< JEet jiBt [f]. EA'- 347 ^««nfe 
had. 348 «« iin [eyes]. EA': 350 deed diid. 351 leed Hid. 352 re«Z Riid. 
353 Srwrf baud. 358 neeghe nii. 359 nyporie na'iporis. — retm rhyme Riim 
Eha'im [cream]. — ayenst erenst. — Ihotcse lhause lowse loos la'us [? loose]. 

— eeth eefe iith iif [easy]. 

EI- 373 <Aye dha'i. 874 naay na'i. EI: 379 haailha'il. 380 aam eem 
[(am, em) f]. 

EO: 388 mulhe malk [orf (rn'ii) see D 10]. — barrm banm [barm =yeast]. 

— hearth heeRtiq [heart]. 406 eart eard eeRT eeRD. EO'- 409 been bhn 
[bees]. — Jleen fliin [flies, Mr. Barnes says 'fleas,' but that is impossible}. 
411 dhree dHRii. 412 shoo shuu. EO': 436 drue (Ihruu [? (tHRau)]. 
ET- 438 dee dii. EY: 439 thrist tMR«st. 

I- 443 vreedie VBiidir [seep. 29, note 61. I: 452 ieh «'ti [and in compo- 
sition eha cham ehas chood choote chull=l have, am, was, would, wot, will]. 
455 lee lii [hence to idle, and then spelled leigh]. — michty mii'ti. — deight 

[ 1462 ] 



D 1, 2.] THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 31 

diit. 458 neeght nieght niit na'it. 460 waaight wait. 470 aam e'm [see 380]. 
475 weend wyeene wiind wa'in [? Vallancey gives weend only]. 480 rfAi«y dhiq 
[(dHiq)?]. — zhip zhip [ship]. — dhurth dHSRT] [dirt]. I'- 492 ««<fe 
zeed [taking ««' as a mistake for «]. 493 dhreeve dmuiv. 494 deem diim. — 
peepeare piipeeR [piper]. 496 eeren iiBen. I': 502 veeve viiv. — hye ha'i 

Shay, and also 238J. 510 my ma'i. — leen liin [linej. 515 veezer viizBR [f 
wii'ZBR), otherwise this is the only case where w=v], 
O- 518 buthee bodhee bothige butHpi- bodirir. O: 531 doughtere da'utee-R, 

— cawl kAAl [? (kool) a colt], 552 eoorn kuuRN. 553 hoorn huuRN. O'- 
655 shoon shunn pi. 564 zoon zvam. 565 nize niz nkiz niz. 566 anoor annua 
[another]. O': 571 gooude goouness guuud guuenes. 572 blcoed bluusd. 
579 eenew iniu - . 697 zoot zuut. 

17- 599 aboo sbuu. 603 coome kuum. 605 zin zin [common in D 11]. 
606 dher dHaR. U: 609 valler [? misprint for vuller] valeR, ? vwIbr. 612 
zim zim. 616 greoune gRea'un. 629 zin zin. U'- 640 keow kea'u. 648 oor 
uur. 650 about abut sbea'ut [?]. 

U': 658 deown dea'un. 662 ouse ouz nz ? 663 heouse hea'us. 667 outh udh 
titr boh, udho BdH)s [out of]. 671 meouth mea'uth. 

Y- — heeve hiiv [hive]. — tee sii [rye]. 679 choureh tjaRtj [? tj«Rti], 
T: 684 burge b»Rdi. — hele hel [Pa Mil]. 690 keene kiin. 701 vurst voRst. 
Y'- — £«<*« kiin [kine, from ws. cy" plural of 240]. 705 skee skii. 

— theene tine tHpin [tine]. Y': — breede baud [bride]. 

n. Ensush. 

A. — kaayle ka'il [kail]. E. — lear leeR [empty]. — »£««« skyne 
skain [skein]. O. — poul pa'ul [poll of the head]. — mot mot [but], 
U. — ««fe< a'qket [unkid]. 

m. Romance. 

A" 810 faaee fauee fas. 812 Ja»<* las. 813 bawcoon bakuun. — pyh 
pa'il [... paele, a pail]. — plaague plag [plague}. 820 ^aaye gai. 827 oa^w 
esgBR. — gryne gna'in [grain]. 835 raaison Ra'izoo*n. 

E •• 885 veree veRii - . — feyer fa'is [a fair]. 890 beasthes beestejis. 
I- and Y-. — pee pii [a mag-pie]. 900 pry pRa'i. — gimlie diimlt 
[chimney], 

O" — faaighe fythe fa'i fa'ith. — geint dja'int [joint]. 925 vice vais. 
937 cuck kuk. 947 bile ba'il. 956 Atixr kivBR. U" 960 Ai« ka'i. — waaite 
wa'it [wait] 



D 2 = m.CS. = mid Celtic Southern. 

Boundary. The CB. in Pm. and the coast sw. of it. 
-4rai. The two peninsulas to the sw. of Pm., formerly known 
as " Little England beyond "Wales." 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List under Pm., Rhos and Daugleddy, 
information from Rev. J. Tombs, Mr. Elworthy, Mr. E. L. Jones, Mr. W. 
Spurrell, and Archdeacon Edmondes. 

Character. The S. reverted (r) according to Mr. Elworthy, who says the dial, 
is "most like a book version of w.Sm.," see D 10, and thinks he heard some (yj), 
though Rev. J. Tombs says there is nothing like it there. Mr. Tombs also thinks 
the r is " not materially different from the Welsh r," fully trilled (r), and that 
Pm. speech is very different from a Sm. or n.Dv. But initial dr- accepted by 
Mr. Tombs in three, Mrough, throw, iAreaten, implies (dr-). The (a'i) for 
JEG, EG, initial (z-) for (s-), though only preserved among old speakers, and 
of (ei) perhaps (a'i) for 1', the use of (iin) for him, and of (dhiiuz) as one of the 
forms of this, the (a-) before the past participle, are all of them S. forms. The 

[ 1463 ] 



32 THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. [D 2. 

only words I have heard are 3 or 4 pron. by Mr. Elworthy. Hence I give the 
original spelling in the following ewl. The indications respecting the value of 
short U have been most diverse. It will be seen by the at. furnished by Mr. 
Spurrell, from dictation of a Castle Martin man, that short U is invariably («) or 
(u) . Mr. E. L. Jones says it is " never " like the La. («i), but ' ' always " as a in 
rec. back (a, a). As Zoonday occurs in a subsequent specimen, I endeavoured to 
clear up the matter, without much success. Mr. Tombs gave (9, a) in love, 
come, sammer, son, batter, «gly, some, drank, ander, tongue, hanger, Sanday, 
nun, sun, but allowed (a, u) in full, cup, dast. Archdeacon Edmondes, of 
Warren, close to Castle Martin, says that a girl in his service speaks of " carr'ing 
things oop, taking in loonch," but her parents come from Narberth. Under these 
circumstances it seems that (u) still exists, but is not general. It is of course a 
mark of antiquity, and for this reason I assume it in the older form of D 1. 
There is no trace of it in D 3. For D 4 see the s. soom line 2, p. 16. Mr. Tombs 
or else Arch. Edmondes admits v for / in /air, /arm, /ast, feed, /iddle, /our, 
#>x, /lail, from, /urrow ; (vseqk) for spark is known to Mr. Thomas ; and they 
admit z for s in say, self, seven, sick, six, soon, son, /Sunday, and lastly that the/ 
and s remain in /ace, /ail, fa\\ v., /alse,/ar, /at,/ault, /riend, not very regularly, 
and in sad, sand, saw, song, so, such, sweet, swallow, swine, still less regularly. 
As to ow, Mr. Tombs does not admit (eu), but Archd. Edmondes hears caoo (kew, 
ks'a, kse'a P) 

1. Two Interlinear Pembeoeeshibe dt. 

T. written in io. by Eev. J. Tombs, Hector of Burton, Pm. , and pal. conjecturally 

by AJE. 
S. written in a phonetic alphabet by Mr. Spurrell from the diet, of Mr. and Mrs. 

Thomas, Castlemartin, Pm. 

(1) T. zoo eY za«, ba'miiz, xb zii nia'w ez eY bi Be*t eba'ut -dat 
S. zoo ei zaa», ba'*z, jae zii neu aez eYlm 'rdit aeba'ut dhset 

T. l*'d'l maid kamm vBom dhB [skuul] 

S. l«d'l [liid'l] maaid humm [gwimh] Yrom dhae skuul [skuuld] 

T. a'ut dheea. 
8. eut dheer. 

(2) T. shiilz algwam dia'wn dht? shooed dheeE, Dsia'w dire E«d 
S. shiilz ae gwaam d6eoi dhae rcioaed dheer, dhru dhae r*d 

T. gee't pen dhe lift han zeid e dire wiiz. 

S. gaat pon dhae ltft haend [liaen ?] zeid o dhae waa». 

(3) T. shuuE enou dhe tjM hev e-gon sTE&Yt [ap te] dhe 
S. shuur eneu dhae tjeil[-d] haev ae gon straait wp tae dhae 

T. duuE « dhe EAAq [ha'ws] 
S. duur ov dhae roq heus 

(4) T. wees (waaE) shi ul le*kl« fem [dhat] DBaqkin diif (d»f) 
S. weer shii ul leikb" fein dhset drMqk'n d»f 

T. sE«V'lt £e1b hi dhe neeem e :tomes. 
S. skrwqk felae bei dhae n&em o :tomB3S. 

[ 1464 ] 



D2.] 



THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 



33 



(5) T. [yd aaI] tiaaz iin [veej] weI. 
S. ■wii efel tiaaz iin ver» wel. 



(6) T. [wont] dh« aaI [tjap suun] laEif bb. not te duuU egen, 
8. wunt dhi aaul tgaep suun laarn ai not tae duult sege'n, 



(7) 



T. puuraB dhtq ! 
S. puur dh*q ! 

T. [l«k!] been't [it] rafu? 
S. luuk beent *t triu ? 



Notes to T. version. Words in [ ] 
were not filled in by Mr. T. and are 
supposed to be in (dialectal) rs. Mr. 
T. s spelling may be seen in the cwl. 

1. So say. The initial (z) is heard 
only from old people. — I be is more 
heard in the n. and I am in the s. of 
the district. — right. The pron. (ei) is 
adopted from Mr. Jones, who says it is 
most like the Cockney a in fate, which 
sounded to the Tenby schoolchildren in 
Mr. Matthew Arnold's pron. like their 
own pr. of fight. — boys now about. I 
have interpreted Mr. T.'s ou, ow, eow 
as (a'u, ia'u) using the unanalysed form. 
The triphthong @a'u) possibly occurred 
in D 1. "We find (ea«) in M. But 
Mr. Spurrell's version points to its 
meaning (ew). — from. I adopt (it) 
everywhere on Mr. Elworthy'sauthority. 
Initial it is probably aspirated as in Mr. 
T.'s rho-ad. His dr for thr implies 
(db), and perhaps tr would be (tr). 
But I leave (r) in Mr. Spurrell s 
phonetic writing. — that (dat) is very 
peculiar. Its appearance and present 
gradual disappearance may be compared 
with D 9. That the should not be 
similarly affected is singular. — little, 
(ltd'l) is found elsewhere. — maid, going 
(a«) in (maid, gwain) is regular S. — 
from (vEom) is regular S., but the other 
forms from, throm, which Mr. T. has 
heard, seem to be foreignisms. 



4. where. I considered Mr. T.'s 
written wh to be an accident for w. 
He says, however, that h is "very well 
and correctly used generally speaking ; 
it is occasionally but rarely omitted 
where it should be heard ; but still 
seldomer inserted where it should not 
be ; these are, I think, faults of recent 
growth." 

4. shrivelled, (shr-) seems to be a 
difficulty. In this word (sr-) is used, 
in others (shs-r-), see — shrub before 
543, and shrimp 766 in cwl. infrd 
p. 35. 

6. we all know him (wi aaI iuaz 
iin). " We is sometimes heard as the 
objective case, and us as the nomina- 
tive, but rarely ; and this usage has 
grown up within the last twenty-five 
years [dated Mar. '79] by the advent 
of English navvies into the district to 
form the railways ; many such have 
married and settled here, and the 
natives have partly followed their usage 
sometimes." The usage is common in 
Do. The form (nAAZ) for the pi. is 
common S. (iin), which Mr. T. writes 
ihn as in German, is the regular S. 
en (en), from Ws. hine, the true ace, 
for which the dative him has been 
substituted in rs. 

6. thing (dhtq) is old. 

7. is not. I be is heard more in 
the n., I am in the 8. of the district. 



2. Example given at the Swansea meeting of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Society, 1861 : 

"I'ze a gwaaing to zell zum vish to buy zum vlesh vor that 
blezzed day zoonday." 

This Mr. T. thinks "unmistakably Flemish." It is "unmistakably" S. But 
I'ze, as thus written for JT is, is the N. form, and is of course an error. There is a 
possibility that it stands for ees be (iis bi). In a cutting from a Carmarthen news- 
paper I fhid /'s regularly used for i", as "I's so [=«»«;, the distinction (aa, «o) 



E.E. Pron. Part T, 



[ 1465 ] 



94 



34 THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. [D 2. 

is heard with difficulty], I's tell, I's cud, I's hasn't, I's goin, I's did, I's 
isn't, I's does, I's has, I's propos, I's thinks, I's has, I's was," where I'a is 
simply an old S. (iis) =1, and only in "I's goin" is the verb omitted. Aman who 
left Narberth about 1864 told Mr. Spurrell he had heard (eiz thiqks) for I think. 
This is very doubtful. I cannot get any other confirmation of the use of such a 
form. Mr. E. Lloyd Jones, a Tenby man, never heard it. And oo in noonday is 
also N. Perhaps, using (u) as in the dt. from Mr. Spurrell, we may read (iiz bi . 
B)gwain tB zeI zwm Tish tra bao'i zam vlEsh vsr dhat bLEzed dai zwnda'i) . 

Pm. Classified Voed List. 
Compiled from words furnished me from different quarters, distinguished by initials. 
Ed. From Archdeacon Edmondes of Warren (4 sw.Pembroke), in answer to 

questions. 
El, Prom Mr. Elworthy after a visit to Tenby, communicated w« 
Ev. From Miss Evans's "Molly and Richard" in Chambers's Journal, quoted as 

Pm. in Rev. J. Tombs's lecture. Her spelling is put first in Italics and 

the pal. follows. 
J. From Mr. E. Lloyd Jones, native of Tenby. 
N. Words from Narberth furnished by Mr. Spurrell of Carmarthen. 
T. From Rev. J. Tombs, rector of Burton (3 n.Pembroke). His own spelling is 

pnt first in Italics and the pal. follows. 
Th. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas of Castlemartin (5 wsw.Pembroke), obtained w. by 

Mr, Spurrell and written in his phonetic alphabet here transliterated. 

I. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 21 T. naame neeBm, Th. neaem. A: 43 T. han' han. A: or 0: 
58 T. worn rom throm from rom throm [but the speaker had Welsh blood]. 
64 T. ratmgiAAqTh.. roq. A'- 67 T. agwaayin' Bgwain. 73 T.zozoo[(z)used 
only by older people]. 92 T. we Jcnaows wi nAAz [see 98]. 98 Ev. hnawed 
ns-id [P nood]. A': 104 T. rho-ad rh6oBd [Mr. T. does not acknowledge (b.) ], 
Th. r<ioaed. 123 Ev. nwvthin nAAthin. 

M- 138 Ev./«^tterfeedhBE,T.veedhBr. — Ev.spairfspaid [spade]. 141 Ed. 
nail. 142 Ed. snail. 143 Ed. tail. T. aghen sgen- . 146 Ed. main. 147 Ed. 
brain, 148 Ed. vair. 152 Th. wee-ter. M: 160 Ed. dai. 161 Ev. to 
daay. 162 Ed. tB dai. 164 Ed. mai. 166 Ed. maid, T. maayd maid N. maid. 
177 T. dat dat [Mr. T. says, "d for th was a characteristic mark in 1860, fast 
disappearing"]. M'- — El. jEth [heath, as well as 405 hearth] JEfel 
[HeaihfieldJ. _ZE': 224 T. whair wharr ween war. 

E- 231 tha dhB. E: 261 zay zai. Th. zaai [used only by older people], 
Ev. may sai. 262 waey wai. 265 strayet strait. E'- 297 T. fellah flah 
fEl-B fla [?]. EA: 326 T. awle ool, aa«l. 332 Ev. tould tdosld? 335 
Th. oosel. 346 T. ga-at geest. EA'- — El. rafen [heifer]. EA'; 

352 T. rirfrid. 365 T. deef diff diif dif. — Ev. yasy jee-zi [easy]. EO: 
392 [not used]. 394 [not used]. 402 T. lame. Urns [teach]. 405 El. JEth 
[also used for heath, see under .33'-]. EO': 427 hain't beent \be not, for is 
not\ 428 T. see zii [z used only by old people], 436 trew triu [rhymes to 
new], 

I- 447 hur ur hBB. bb. — yis jis [yes]. I: 452 J. Th. e*. 459 J. Th. 
rifereit. 469 ool ul. 470 T. ihn in iin [P"L 477 T.Jlne' fa'in. 480 T. thing 
dhiq [" flat th as in then among old people "] 484 El. dhiiuz [a distinct form of 
this]. P- 492 T. zidez&K[z used only by old people]. 

O- — N shwv'l [shovel]. O: — T. shwrub shBrab [shrub]. 543 T. 
'pan pBn. O'- 560 Th. skuul skuuld. O': 578 Ev. pleugh pliu. 579 
snaf an6u [sing, and pi.] 

TJ- 603 T. cummin" kanyin, foimin. 606 T. doore dura.. XI: 613 Th. 
dr«qk'n. — skr«qk [skrunk]. 632 Th. «p. 633 Ed. kup. 634 T. dreow 
DBi6u, Ev. throu thra'u, f drau ; Th. dhru. U'- 643 T. neow nia'u, Th. neu. 
V: 658 T. deown dia'un, Th. deun. 663 Th. hews. 667 T. out a'ut ? 

T- 682 liddle lid'l. Y': 709 Th. vo'ir. 

[ 1466 ] 



D 2, 3.] THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. 35 

n. English. 

E. 749 T. lift lift. 

I. and Y. 756. T. shur-rimp shurrmp. 760 srivoUt srtv'lt [often heard by 
Mr. Tombs, not known by Mr. Thomas]. 
0. 791 T. bouiese b6iz ba'uriiz [?]. 

m. BoMAlfCE. 

A •• 866 T. poour puuim. 

E •• — T. Ed. crawtur krAAtBB [creature]. 

•• — TZv.jouin dja'ujin [join]. 



D 3 = e.CS. = eastern Celtic Southern. 

Boundary. The Gm. CB. and the Bristol Channel. 
Area. The 17 En. speaking parishes of the peninsula of Gower- 
land, Gm., enumerated under Gm. CB. p. 13c. 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List, Ghn. Gowerland. 

Characters. Reverted (r) inferred from (DB.au) through, (z) initial in place of 
(s), ('n) for him are all distinctly S. The dialect seems to have been greatly 
worn, as my informant, the Kev. J. D. Davies, alters the spelling of but few 
words in the dt. and says that the others are in rs. No specimen has been 
printed. Not having been able to find or obtain any complete specimen of the 
dialect, and Mr. Davies's dt. being very defective, I merely add the words in the 
cwl. form. 

Goweblaki> Classified "Wokd List. 

Containing the words supplied to me by Rev. J. D. Davies, giving his spelling 
first, followed by the conjectural pron. in pal. 

I. "WeSSEX AMD NoBSE. 

A'- 67 gwain gwsen [going]. 73 zo zoo. 

.33- 144 agen BgE-n. 

E: 261 zay zai [possibly (zee)']. E'- 297 fellah fain. EA: 326 aula* AAld. 
EA': 355 defe diif. EO: 392 [not used]. 394 [not used] EO': 427 
bean't bewit [is not]. 428 ze zii. 

I- 447<r«K. I: 470 n 'n [after verbs]. I'- 492 zide zeid [?]. 

V- 606 dceur dan [probably, Mr. Davies says, like the French sceur (soecer)]. 
V: 634 through (mta'w f) [may be (druu)]. 

T- 682«n»l. 

m. Bomance. 

A •• — gracieuse grasha?z. 
E • • — preeieuse preshiawi. 

In the Philological Transactions for 1848-50, vol. 4, p. 222, is 
a list of 68 Gower words, given by Bev. J. Collins, with no 
explanations of spelling. Of these the following are common words. 
I do not trust myself to give the pronunciation. 

Srandis (brandrith), iron stand for pot or kettle. Cammet (cammed), crooked. 
Eddish, wheat stubble. Hay, an inclosure attached to a dwelling. Main, strong, 
fine (but here said of growing crops). Nommet, noon -meat, luncheon. Plym, 
plump, full. Peert, lively, brisk. Quapp, to throb. Bathe, early. Beremouse, 

bat. Snead, handle of scythe. Songulls (songles), gleanings. 

[ 1467 ] 



36 THE MID SOXJTHEK.N. [D 3, 4, 5. 

The following are Southern or "Western : 

Gaffle, entangled, Sm. Cham, earthenware, Co. Clit, stifi, sticky. Dreshel, 
(drashel), a flail. Evil, a three-pronged fork. Fleet, exposed in situation, Sm. 
Flott (float), aftergrass, Dv. Fomt, tumbled. Frithing, wattled fence, to frith 
a fence, Dv. Nesseltrip, small pig in a litter. Ovice (ovia), eaves of house, Dv. 
Flanehe, hoarded floor, Do. Furty, to turn sulky. Quat, to press down or 
flatten, Do. Show-y, to clear (of weather), the verbal termination -y common. . 
Soul, cheese, butter, etc., as eaten with bread. Slade, a valley, ground sloping to 
the sea. Sul (zul), a plough. Suant, regular, working smoothly, Dv. Toit, 
small straw seat, Dv., frisky, Co. Want, a mole [the animal]. Wimble, (wine), 
winnow. 

Of the other words I am not so sure. 

Angletoueh, warm. Bumbagas, bittern. Charnel, place in roof for hanging 
bacon. Seal, litter of pigs. Dotted (f doted), giddy, of a sheep. Dome, damp. 

Firmy, to clean out (-y is S.). Flaairing, an eruption like erysipelas. Fraith, 
freespoken, talkative. Flathing, a dish made of curds, eggs, and milk. Gloy, 
refuse straw after the "reed" has been taken out. Gloiee, sharp pang of pain. 
Seavgar, heavier (so also near-ger, far-ger). Somraeh, harness collar made of 
straw. Kittybags, gaiters. Zipe, matted basket of a peculiar shape, lefts, a 
lout. Noppet, Nipperty, lively, convalescent. Eyle, angle in the sea. Riff, a 
scythe sharpener. Seggy, to lease (the -y is S.). Semmatt, a sieve made of skin 
for winnowing. Shoat, a small wheaten loaf. Stiprog, a mode of fastening a 
sheep's foreleg to its head by a band of straw or witny. Susan, a brown earthen 
pitcher. Sump, any bulk that is carried, Sf . Slade, ground sloping to the sea. 
Tite (toit), to tumble over, N. Vair, a weasel or stoat. Wing, a willow. 
Weest, lonely, desolate. Wash-dish, the titmouse. 

Hence, although vocabulary is a very uncertain test, the dialect 
has a clearly S. character, agreeing with the small evidences 
furnished by pron. 

D 4 and 5 together form the MS. = Mid Southern 

Group. 

This was the principal seat of the Wessex tribe, and the 
strongly-marked peculiarities tend to shew that the people have 
preserved much, although they have altered much of the original 
pron., more marked on the w. side than on the e. Although no 
strict line can be drawn separating the two, yet the peculiarities 
die out so rapidly to the e. that I have thought it best to divide 
the group into two districts, by a rather arbitrary, nearly direct 
n. to s. line, which is the best I can draw. D 4 on the w. must be 
regarded as the typical form of S. speech. It is not quite uniform, 
but nearly so. 

Boundaries. The n. and s. b. of D 4 and D 5, the w. b. of D 4 
and the e. b. of D 5. 

Area. All "Wl., Do., and most of GL, with n. and e.Sm. ; most 
of Be., all Ha. and "Wi., s.Sr. and w.Ss. ; with narrow slips of 
e.He. and w.Ox., and the extreme se. corner of Dv. 

Character. Phonetically, reverted (e) or retracted (r,), and (db-) 
for thr- ; (z, v) initial for (s, f) in "Ws. words, but not in Romance 
words ; the use of (d«) for -ffiG and EG- ; the broad (a/*, a/w) for 
I', TJ'. Grammatically, J be for lam; a becoming (•b) before past 
participle. All these are subject to slight variations. 

[ 1468 ] 



P 4, INTKOD.] the mid southern. 37 



D 4 = w.MS. = western Mid Southern. 

Boundaries. Do. Begin on the English Channel just w. of Axmouth (20 e- 
by-s. Exeter), on the Axe R. Proceed in a n. direction e. of Colyton (20 e-by- 
n. Exeter), through Tarcombe (22 ne. Exeter). 

Sm. Enter Sm. a little w. of Buckland St. Mary (8 s. Taunton), and e. of 
Otterford (7 s. Taunton), and keeping e. of Wellington (6 sw. Taunton), and w. 
of Thurlbeer (3 se. Taunton), proceed nearly to Taunton, then n. to just e. of 
Kingston (4 nnw. Taunton), when it deflects to nw. and follows the Quantock 
Hills to the Bristol Channel at East Quantock Head. 

Bristol Channel. Proceed along the coast of Sm. and 61. to just opposite the 
mouth of the river Wye. 

61. Cross the Bristol Channel and follow the reverted ur line 3 to just 
opposite Monmouth. 

Me. Continue along the reverted «r line 3 in a nne. direction, w. of Boss, 
Stoke Edith (6 e<-by-n. Hereford), and Much Cowarn (9 ne. Hereford), but e. of 
Bromyard (10 ese. Leominster), and then passing w. of Whitbourn (14 e. 
Leominster), enter 

Wo. Continue in nearly a straight line to Bewdley (3 se. Kidderminster), 
where quit line 3 and return suddenly s. along the Malvern Hills in a nearly 
direct line to the s. b. of Wo. by Staunton (7 wsw. Tewkesbury), then turning 
e. pass s. of Eldersfield (6 wsw. Tewkesbury), into 

Ql. Go through Tewkesbury and proceed direct e. to Moreton-on-Marsh (19 e. 
Tewkesbury), and continuing e. to the w. b. of Ox. Then turn s. along the 
w. b. first of Ox. and then of Be. as far as Hungerford (24 w-by-s. Reading), and 
then continue in a n. to s. line through 

Ma. Passing just w. of Andover to Nursling, just at the n. point of South- 
ampton Water, and then to the sea near Lymington (10 e. Christchurch), and 
turn w. along the coast to the starting-point by Axmouth. About Lymington 
and Christchurch there is no dialect. The line is intended to avoid the whole of 
Wi., which is all in D 5, but accidentally it appears on the map as if a small 
portion of Wi. belonged to D 4. The whole line from the w. b. of Ox. is very 
uncertain for want of sufficient information, but it cannot be far wrong either way. 

Area. All "WI. and Do., n. and e.Sm., most of GL, the extreme 
se. of Dv., and small parts of \r .Be., and w.Ha. 

Authorities. See the Alphabetical County List, under the following names, 
where * means w. per AJE., t per TH., J per JGG., || in so., ° in io. 

Dv. "Axminster. 

Do. "Bingham's Melcombe (or Melcombe Bingham), "Blackmore Vale, *Bland- 
ford, "Bradpole, "Bridport, "East Lulworth, "East Morden, *Hanford, "Sher- 
borne, "Starminster-Marshall, "Swanage, °Walditch, || Whitchurch Canonicorum, 
|| Winterbourne Came. 

Ql. *Aylburton, "Berkeley, tBirdlip, tBishop's Cleve, "Bisley, fBristol, 
tBrockworth, fCheltenham, *f Cirencester, *Coleford (= Forest of Dean), 
"Compton Abdale, fFairford, tGloucester Town, 'Gloucester Vale, tHighnam, 
tHucclecote, "King's Wood, tMaisey Hampton, fTetbury, tWhitcomb. 

Ma. "Broughton, "Christchurch, "Iford, "Nursling, *Ringwood. 

Me. ||Eggleton, *Ledbury, ||tMuch Cowarn, "tRoss, fStoke Edith, "Upton 
Bishop. 

Sm. || Bath, "Burtle Turf Moor, "Castle Cary, "Chard, "Chedzoy, "Combe 
Down, "Compton Dando, || Crewkerne, "Croscombe, "East Harptree, "High Ham, 
"Langport, *Merriott, *Montacute, "Nailsea, "North Wootton, "Sutton Mallet, 
"Swanswick, "Wedmore, IWincanton, "Worle. 

WI. "Aldbourne, "Calne, J Chippenham, *Christian Malford, *Corsham, 
"Corsley, "Damerham, "East Knoyle, fKemhle, "Maddington, "Orcheston St. 
George, "fPurton, "Salisbury to Warminster, "Seend, "Sopworth, *Tilshead, 
"Wilton, "Yatesbury. 

[ 1«9 ] 



38 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



[D 4, IntroD* 



It mil be necessarily impossible to give all the information received from so 
many places. My best help has come from Christian Malford, Chippenham, and 
Tilshead, and as n.Wl. seems the most typical form of D 4 =w.MS;, I shall examine 
this part of the district at great length. The use of these numerous sources of 
information is necessarily to shew the continued prevalence or the change of any 
form of speech. Indeed without this large body of evidence, it would have been 
totally impossible to map out the district even roughly with any degree of accuracy. 
Hence my investigation is greatly indebted to those who have furnished some clue 
to the prevalent speech sounds, even when it manifestly became impossible to give 
their communications at length. 

Character. 

Consonants (f v, s z). The conspicuous feature of D 4, which, 
most strikes the visitor from any other part of England, is the use 
of (v, z) initial in place of (f, s). But undoubtedly for "Ws. words 
(v, z) were the original forms, just as to this day (z) initial is the 
received form in Dutch where z is written, and High German 
where f is written in German. In both, however, the pron. when 
no vowel or voiced consonant precedes is (sz-), thus High German 
tie sehen is (szi z««-otl) they see. The (f, s) are later developments, 
and seem to have been introduced by the Normans, for as a general 
rule, to which even at this late period there are very few excep- 
tions, and those chiefly in words familiar to particular districts, 
" Ws. words have (v, z), and Romance have (f, s)." This custom 
once prevailed over the whole s. of England from Ke. to Dv. It 
has altogether disappeared in Ke. and Ss., and has almost dis- 
appeared in Ha. and Be. But it is rarely lost in D 4, and in D 10, 
12. In order to test the prevalence of the rule just given, I 
examined all the words in question in Dan Michel's Ayenhite, which 
is in Kentish of the xivth century, and the words in Mr. Elworthy's 
lists attached to his Dialect of West Somersetshire, and then I sent 
lists of most of them to Rev. W\ Barnes for Do., and Rev. A. Law 
for "WL, requesting them to mark the words for (f v, s z, sh zh, th 
dh), etc. The result is given in the following table, where the 
words in Usual spelling are arranged in alphabetical order under 
appropriate headings, and against each word is written the sound ' 
of the letter used, /, v, s, s, etc., or vf, zs, when sometimes one 
letter and sometimes the other is heard, adding M for Dan Michel 
for Ke. in xivth century, D for Do., "W for "WL, and S. for w.Sm., 
in the order from e. to w. An * points out Er. or Romance words. 



F noriAiu 

*fable/DS 

*face/DS, »W 

*facia/S 

•fact /DWS 

•factory/ D8 

*fade/S 

fag v S 

•fail/MDWS 

fain adj . / S 

•faint /S 

fair adj. /DWS, »M 

*fairs./DS 



•faith/S 

fall vb. v MDWS 

fallsb./D 

fallow v DWS 

•false/ DS, v M, s/W 

*fame/DS 

•family/ DS 

•famish / D 

fan v MS 

far v MD"WS 

fare /DWS, «M 

*farm/DS 

•farmer/ DS, v W 

•farrier/ DS 

[J470 ] 



farrow v WDS 

farther v S 

farthing ti MDWS 

•fashion /S 

fast vb. adj. v M 

fast adj. adv. v S 

fast sb. / S 

fat (vat) sb. v M 

fat adj. /DW, vlH, v/8 

•fate /DWS 

father /D, v MW, v/S 

fathom v S 

•faucet /S 

*fault/DS,«W 



D 4, Intkod.] 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



39 



♦favour /MS 

♦fawn sb. / S 

*f awning S 

fear/D, v W, 0/8 

fearless S 

*feast/MDS, 0/W 

feather »MS 

•feature /S 

*f ebruary / S 

fed» M 

fee/S 

•feeble /MDWS 

feed v M 

feel v MS 

feet MS 

•feign vb./S 

fell/M 

fell sb. v M 

fell (in sewing) v S 

felloe DS 

fellow /DS, 0MW 

*felon/MS 

feltoDW, 0/S 

♦female /S 

fennel S 

•fence / S 

*f erment / S 

fern v S 

*ferret/DS, v W 

ferrv/DS 

ferule S 

•fervent /M 

fester /D, M, i/S 

fetch 1; DWS 

fetters M 

fetlock S 

*fever/MDS, 0/W 

few MDWS 

fiddle v MDW, 0/ S 

fidget /S 

field MDWS 

fieldfare S 

fiend M 

fifth « M 

fife/ 8 

*fig/DV, 0/S 

fight »MW,/D,«/S 

*fignre/MS 

*filbert S 

fill MDWS 

film S 

•philosophy / M 

♦filter /S 

filth/DS, i>M,«/W 

fin * S 

goldfinch v 8 

find MDWS 

*fine/DS, 0W. 

*finger v MDWS 

♦finish/ DS 

fir^S 



fire MDWS 
firkin, v S 
firm/S 

first MDW, v/8 
fish MDW, 0/ S 
fist DWS 
fit/S 

fitch (polecat) /S 
five MDWS 
*fix/S 
flag S 
flagon, S 
*flail v DWS 
*flame/S 
flange S 
flank S 

flannel /D, W, 0/S 
flare S 
flask/ S 
flat/S 
flatter «/M 
flaws S 
flax« S 
flayed M 
flea S 
*fleam/S 
fled«>M 
fledged S 
fleece v DWS 
♦phlegmatic / M 
flesh MDWS 
flew S 
•flinch /M 
fling/D, 0W, v/8 
flint v MS 

♦flippant (elastic) /S 
flitch S 
flock DWS 
♦flog S 
flood MS 
floor v DWS 
•flour/ MDS 
flow S 

♦flower /MDW 
♦flue/S 

•fluent (said of quickly 
running water only) / S 
flush v S 
flute /S 
flutter S 

fly vb., sb. MDWS 
foal « DWS 
foam S 
foe v M 
fog S 
fold v DWS 
folk MS 
follow M 
♦folly /M 
♦fool/M 
•foolish /M 

[ "71 ] 



foot MDWS 
for MDWS 
•forage /S 
forbear MS 
forbid v MS 
force/ DS, 0/W 
ford v DS, 0/W 
fore S 
forehead S 
•foreign/ DS, « W 
•forest/DS, W 
forgive MS 
♦forge /D, v W, 0/S 
fork DWS 
forlorn M 
•form/M 
•form (bench) / S 
forsake MS 
forsooth M 
forswear M 
forth M 
forth DWS 
fortnight S 
•fortunate o S 
fortune /S 
forty MDW, 0/S 
forward WS 
foul/D, »M 
found MDWS 
•foundation /S 
•fountain / S 
four MDWS 
f ourfoot S 
fourth M 
fowl MDWS 
fox0MW,/D, 0/S 
•fracas / S 
♦fraction / S 
♦a-fraid 0/S 
•frail/ S 
frame /S 
•fray/S 
freak/ S 
free MDWS 
freedom M 
freehold S 
freeze S 
•frequent /S 
fresh /D, WS 
fret/W, 0/S 
Friday DWS 
•fried /S 
friend MDWS 
fright S 
•frill /S 
•fringe 0/ S 
fro' 0S 
♦frock S 
frog/D, 0WS 
frolick v S 
from MDWS 



40 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



[D 4, Intbod. 



•front/ S 

frost v MDWS 
froth v DWS 
•fruit/ MS 
•fryJngs/M 
*fry/D,</S 
full » MDWS 
•fuller sb./S, vM 
fumble/ D, «>W, i/S 
•funeral /D 
•furbish v 8 
*furli>S 
furlongs S 
furlough v S 
•furnace /MS 
furrow v DWS 
further v S 
furze v DWS 
•fusty/ DS, « W 
•physic /M 
physician /M 

F Final. 

(o means not pronounced.) 

•bailiffeS 
calf/DW, v 8 
half /DW, » S 
•handkerchief o 8 
herself o S 
himself o 8 
leaf/DW, *S 
life/DW, rS 
loaf /DV, » S 
•plaintiff o S 
roof/DW, r S 
sheaf/ DW, *S 
turf (taw) S 
wife/DW, »S 

GH Final. 

cough /S 
dough (occ.) / S 
enough o S 
plough o S 
slough o/S 
though /S 
through o 8 
tough /S 
trough o 8 

S Initial. 

(s=z, S, before & Imn o w 
except as below.) 

•sabbath * D 
sack z D"WS 
•sacrament * D 



sad z MWS, * D 
saddle z DWS 
•safe »M,«f 
•sage sBz WS 
said z MDWS 
sails M 

sailor a D, z WS 
•saint za M 
sale z DWS 
sallow z S 
salt z MDWS 
sand z DWS 
sap z MS 
sat z S 

Saturday z MDWS 
•save * M 
I saw z DS 
a sawz S 
say z MDW 
scrape s D 
sea » D, z M 
sedge z DWS 
see z MDWS 
seed sb. z MS 
seek z M 
seem s D, z WS 
•segment z S 
self z MDWS 
sell z MDWS 
sendz M 
•sentence » M 
•sergeant * M 
•sermon a M 
•servant a D 
•serve s MW 
•sessions a D 
set z MDWS 
settle z S 
seven z MDWS 
sew vb. z DWS 
sick z MDWS 
side z MDWS 
sieve z DWS 
sift z DWS 
sigh * D, z WS 
eight z M 
silver z MDWS 
•simple s M 
sin z M 

since s D, z WS 
sinew z S 
sing z MDWS 
•single » MD, z WS 
sink z DWS 
sin * D, z WS 
•sir * D, z S 
Bister * D, z MWS 
sit z S 
•site z S 
six z MDWS 
•sire * DWS 

[ 1472 ] 



sketch iD, (8 

almost two syllables] 
skill «D 
slack «M 
slay s M 
sleep » M 
sly s M 
small s M 
smell s M 
smith a M 
snail * M 
snow 8 M 
sozMW 
sob z M 
•sober s M 
soft z M 
sold z M 
some z DMW 
son a D 
songzM 
soonz MW 
sooth z M . 
sorrow z M 
•sort 8 S 
sought z M 
soul z M 
sour z M 
south z M 
•sovereign * W 
sow vb. z M 
sparrow s M 
spring a D 
string s D 
•subtle s M 
such z MW 
suckz M 
•suffer * MD 
•sugar sh S 
sul (plough) z M 
•sum » MD 
summer z MW 
sun z MD 
Sunday z M 
•sup « M 
•supper z W 
•sure zA W, sh S 
•sustain s M 
swallow z M 
swear z M 
sweat z MW 
sweep z M 
sweet z M 
swift z M 
swine z M 
sword z M 

SH Initial. 

share (part) *A DW 
share (of a plough) zh ah S 
shave sh DW, zh sh S 
she zh W 



D 4, Introd.] 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



41 



sheaf sh D, zh W, zh sh S 
shear sh D, zh W, eh sh 8 
shepherd zA "W 
shoot sA W 
should «A W 
shred sA D, zh WS 
shrew zh S 
shriek sh D, «A 8 
shrimp sh D, zA S 
shrink sh D, «A 8 
shrivel sh D, «A 8 
shroud sh J), zh W 
shrove sh D, «A "W 
shrub sh D, «A WS 
shrug z S 

TH Initial. 

thatch v 8 

thick *A S as distinguished 

from (dhik) this 
thief th 8 
thin th S 
thing dh "W 
thirsty <2A "W 
thistle d S 



though (dha») dh "W, 

(thAAfWA S 
thr- dr WS, not M who 

has yr. 
th- dA S except in the 

above cases 

TH Final. 

sheath/ 8 
moth/ 8 
cloth /S 
tooth/ S 

V iNrnAi. 

•value / 8 (f ali) [common] 

•variety » M 

•veal dh 8 (dlua'd) [some- 
times] 

•venial v M 

•venom v M 

•very dh S 

•vestments v M 

•vetches <2A S (dhatjes) 

•vice v M 

•victuals / S (fat'lz) 
[common] 



•vile v M 

•village/ S (fa-lidi) [com- 
mon] 
•villain v M 
•vouch dh 8 (common) 

Y FnUI. 

(o means omitted.) 

above o S («buu-) 

cleave (klEi)/S 

curve b 8 

give o S 

have « 8 

heave/ S 

leave / S 

lieve/o 8 

•serve (earn wages) o S 

themselves o S 

valve (yalb) 4 S 

-ive o S [ = (i, if) never (iv) 
common in : expensive 
abusive native laxative 
active destructive de- 
ceptive 



(e). The most important character of the S. dial., the reverted 
or retracted (k, r,), is, as has been mentioned, not confined to this 
district, but spreads more or less strongly over the whole 8. div. 
Its nature was explained supra, p. 23, together with the way in 
which it affects a subsequent t, d, r, I, n, which were probably 
originally reverted. But I think, although I have not been able to 
verify the conjecture, except by private trial, that it also affects (sh, 
zh ; th, dh), converting them into (sh, sh ; Th, Dh). In this case (sh, 
zh) would be spoken with the tongue quite turned back, a true 
" cerebral" (sh, zh), and in (ih, Dh) the under part of the tongue 
tip would be brought against the teeth. The (sh, zh) would occur 
in the diphthongs (tj, dj), or (ish, Dzh), in place of the ordinary 
(tj, dj). These forms would probably arise from the convenience 
of the tongue remaining in its reverted condition. The most 
doubtful are (Th, Dh), because we do not find thr- initial, that is, 
(dIlr-), but the easier dr- (db-). The (tj, dj) are however almost 
necessary in such combinations as hwchard (haBTjBBD) for Eichard 
and orchard, and hurdge (baBDjh), bridge. And in the same way it 
would be easier to say (aBTh, wsbdM) earth, worthy, than (asth, 
watudhi), the last word usually omits the (b). In process of 
time, however, especially as the dialect advances eastwards, the 
actual reversion ceases, and the effect is pretty well produced 
by retracting the tongue, and arching its back so as to allow 
a hollow to exist behind the raised tip and the raised back of the 
tongue. Towards the w. and n. of the district there seems to my 
ear to be no such retractive tendency. JGKr., however, regards re- 
traction as the typical formation. In the E. div. we shall find (truu, 
trad) through, thread, which probably point to an original but 

[ 1473 ] 



42 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, IntboD. 

now lost (tbIiuu, teIied). This retraction accompanied with 
hollowing is further refined by omitting the hollowing, so that we 
have merely a raised tip of the tongue, producing the coronal 
English (t d r 1 n), etc., which are so distinct from the continental 
( v t v d v r Jl v n) that they must evidently have had a different genesis. 
"We shall meet with ( v t) before ( r) in the M. and N. div. Now the 
English coronal form was the only one acknowledged by Mr. Gupta 
(Part IV. 1096b', 1137c') for Indian pronunciation of the Sanscrit 
cerebrals, so that the same refining system has gone on in both 
countries, but in our own dialects we have all the stages (b r, r, 1 
tj t) now coexistent. This (k) is constantly flated when initial, and 
often transposed with an (h) prefixed, as (hasd, hcas), red, run, 
from (bIted, Ehair). 

Another very important character of this (e) is its amalgamation 
with a preceding vowel. In fact, it seems to give a new series of 
vowels (a B a a a e ), etc., and even (ii B ee B uu B ). "With regard to the 
first, it was a great difficulty with me how I was to represent such 
words as her, hum, and for some time I thought that they had 
merely vocal ('e ), thus (h'E b'E n), but I latterly came to the 
conclusion that there was a preceding vowel followed by an amalga- 
mation of the vowel with a+a K (e). "What that vowel really was, 
however, I found so difficult to determine, that I finally adopted 
different hypotheses as I heard different speakers. I have used 
(ar, 9E, be), and JGG. writes (be, bur). But latterly I have 
fallen hack on (an) accented, and (be) unaccented, whether rightly 
or not I cannot quite make out. "With this explanation, however, 
this sign will suffice, and it must be left to actual audition during 
a long period and with, many speakers, for good phonetists to 
determine the best representative of the actual sound. I have not 
met with any instance in D 4 and 5 of the introduction of an (e) 
after a vowel which was not justified by the orthography, but in 
D 10 and 11 there seem to be some cases, there to be noted. 

"With regard to the complete series of sounds (ibsei), etc., it 
was only on the close of a second revision of his wl. taken from his 
stepmother, that JGG. (although he had been familiar with "Wl. 
dialect from childhood) recognised that they invariably took the 
place in her pronunciation of the usual (t d. n r 1), etc., just as 
these in English and in the pron. of continental languages by 
Englishmen invariably replace the continental ( v t ^d ^n 4 r v l), etc. 
For myself I had not observed it, although it seems to me most 
probable. In JGG.'s Chippenham wl. and spec, therefore the 
complete substitution is made, but as in those specimens which I 
took down from native speakers, I only detected (b), and the other 
letters when juxtaposed, and therefore as it seemed to me assimi- 
lated, I have thought it best to retain what I wrote from their 
diet., although I have now, in the course of many years, come to 
the conclusion that my former appreciation was probably erroneous 
and ought to be amended in this direction throughout. And the 
same is probably the case for my (sh zh tj dj), which in the S. 
div. should prob. be («h ssh tj dj). The final, (p) is frequently lost 

[1474 J 



D 4, Inteod.] the mid southern. 43 

after (l, n). The ending of the present participle, modern -ing, was 
ancient -ande, hence the (-•bit, -*n) now heard, really arises from 
the omission of (d) after (n), and not from the use of (n) for (q). 

(h). In D 4 and 5, as well as in almost all our dialects, (h) is 
naturally omitted, but with no hiatus to indicate the speaker's 
knowledge that it is absent. My authorities differ very much as 
to its presence. It seems decidedly used when (hint-) is employed 
for (ah-). 

The other consonants have no peculiarity. There is for example 
no use of (b d g) for (p t k), parallel to (v z) for (f s). 

Vowels. The following gives the principal characters of the 
vowels, for details see the various cwl. that follow. 

A- is often represented by (ie), reduced to (fo in it'), and finally to (ii 1 ii), as in 
name (Niem Niom Nrem Nit'm Niim), or else (e l a m ee) as (s^ran NeemNeem). The 
former prevails over the m. and n. part of the district, (ii) being especially prevalent 
in towns, e.g. in Gloucester, and (en) in rural districts. 

A: varies from (se) to (a 1 , ah), but hardly reaches (a). 

A' is normally (&a), whence (ixe, tio), but it varies. 

-JIG and EG are normally (ai) not (a'i eft), but this falls locally into (se'i a'tEE), 
and sometimes into simple (ee), and similarly for Fr. ai. This (ai) sound is a very 
strong mark of the w. forms of S-, but it is not peculiar to D 4. 

I', in contrast to this clear (at), has (a'i, ao't) or (di), which strangers hear as 
(a'i) and write oy. 

I generally hear as (o) , but JGG. only hears it as (o) . The latter sound, being 
the modern received form, is always given me by people of education. But it is, 
I think, a modernism or misappreciabon. 

0' is properly (uu), but occasionally (a) and rarely (a>), a sound of (a) with (aa) 
running through it which I have heard only from Mr. Law in the words EY : 
439 TK.a>s, 0' 567 todheB, 587 tsdavn, U 604 zamreR, 627 zamdi, T 673 majti, 
U 804 DRmqk'n, • • 950 zajpp'R, and in no other words. JGG. has, however, 
quite recently observed what I suppose is the same sound. 

II is regularly (a), but there is a trace of M. («) as far 8. as Purton (4 nw. 
Swindon, wl.), see s. soorn line 2, p. 16. 

V is regularly (a'w, a>'«) not (ku, du). 

In grammatical construction, that which strikes a stranger most is 
7" he for I am, the prefix («) before the past participle, as (a'ijv 
ada-n) I)have a-done ; and the periphrastic form I do go for the 
simple I go, together with the curious Use of the nominative for the 
objective case, and sometimes the converse. Remarkable survivals 
are first (vri) for hine, the true ace. of he, for which the dative 
him is substituted in rec. sp. This (via) is very widely spread in 
the S. div., and is also used where it is said in received speech, on 
account of the general use of he applied to inanimate objects ; and 
secondly, in a small district of Sm. hereafter described as the Land 
of TJtch, the forms (atf, Etjir) for the personal pronoun I, which in 
old writers is the usual mark of our S. dialects. But these are 
forms which cannot be more than alluded to. For vocabulary, see 
the printed Glossaries, which, however, must generally be used 
with great caution. 

Varieties. Over such an extensive tract of country there must 
necessarily be many slight varieties, some of which are mentioned 
in the preceding table of vowels. But I have not been able to 
mark out any sharply-defined varieties or subdistricts. I find it, 

[1475 ] 



V 


ii. 


V 


iii. 


V 


iv. 


V 


T. 



44 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D4,T ii 

however, necessary- to draw attention to six different varieties or 
forms, which, on account of the importance of this district, I 
proceed to illustrate at considerable length. 

V i. The Middle or "Wl., typical or standard form of D i, of which three 

phases are given, Christian Malford, Chippenham, and Tilshead, all 

from vv. information. 
The Northern or Gl. form. 
The North- Western or e. He. form. 
The South-Eastern or Do. form. 
The land of Utch, or region of the continued old use of (Etj, strii-) for 

the first personal pronoun. 

V vi. The South-Western or Sm. form. 



Var. i. The Middle oe Typical Form in Wl. 

Phase I. Christian Malford (11 nnw.Devizes), "Wl. 

Rev. Arthur Law, son of the Rector, whose curate he became (he is now rector 
of Daunteey, 4 nne. Christian Malford), was born there and lived in constant 
communication with the peasantry, entering heartily into their mode of speech, 
which he acquired with remarkable accuracy and fluency. He wrote a version of 
my cs. in io. and kindly came to London on two occasions (in 1874 and 1878) on 
purpose to work it over with me w. As this was the foundation of my knowledge 
of D 4, 1 add the whole cs. as he rewrote it, with additions, to give it more of the 
character of a "Wl. peasant's speech. And as it departs so much from the original 
in the Preliminary Matter, No. III. p. 7*, I add a slavishly literal interlinear trans- 
lation. Some separate sentences written from his diet, are annexed with notes 
and a cwl. 

0. wa'«s :djon se'«vz non)B da'wt. 

why John has ne'er)a doubt. [The peasant would probably say,] 

z)dhii want d)naw waV :djon hii zi zaaKD'w ba'wt dhak)«B 
dost)thou want to)know why John be so certain about thick)e'er 

dhEq, waV dhEn aV)l tEl)i. 
thing, why then I'll tell)ye. 

1. wal, wot hi lsefm [1ee£hi] et 'sfi vbe, dhs gasT zs'Kz ? aa ! 
well, what be (you) laughing at I for, the great sillies ? ah 

B)mBd) lse'af humdh on)i, *'f)i ma^h t«, «t)wat a'*' dB)tEl)e. 
ye)mote=may) laugh both of)ye, if)ye mind to, at)what I do)tell)ye.. 

•a 7 * djl)uat kiiur ! t)f)«nt no odz to •a'*', nv naa'tod* Ms 
I do)n't care ! it)is)nt no odds to I, nor nobody else 

ez)rc)naMZ on. 
as)I)knows of. 

2. t)wu)unt k«l)B tjaep b*n fkesz] ^dra) lse'wf set)un, a'i) 

it)will)not kill)a chap being [because] ye)do) laugh at)him, I) 

d«)lot)'n) ! t»nt hr/ikli. 
do)allot)him, it)is)not likely. 

[1476 ] 



D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 45 

3. wat aV b* gwoin to)TEl)i, b(wevbb, bi tbtiu.)bz evbe aft 
what I be going to)tell)ye, however, be true)as ever I 

■wkb baaBEND. db.BE [cUw'b] na'w ! zb cLjez ba'sd kwaV - Bt, 
were born. there now ! so just bide quiet, 

■en Ixb 'aft spe"e«k. 
and let I speak. 

4. weI, aft b.a / »BED)«m zai, bjwevbb, un zam)B dhaY van* 
wel, I heard) them say, however, and some) of they very 

vaak to, «z)zid)»t TTBin)db.« vas cUibbzei/vz, &i)hai* ! 
folk too, as)see'd)it fromjthe first theirselves, igh-high ! 

•dhaet)i)d«d teu naf — 
that)I)did true enough — 

5. db.Bt)dhB)jEqg«'st zan izE'U, B)gast bwoi v)nsfin, nawd)*z 

that)the)youngest son his-self, ajgreat boy of)nine, knowed)his 

veecUibbz vuois Bz)zimnd)Bz evbb i)ha7BBD)Bn, dbaw 
father' 8 voice as)soon)as ever he)heard)him(=it), though 

[dhaV] t)wBB zb) konr»kBl) la 7 *]!, laa blEs)i, t)wBB)z 
it)were so) comical like. Lord bless)ye, it)were)as 

Bhweeki be. bseae'sli bz) B-v , E)kBd)b«, bat - ii nawd)'n, 
squeak-y and bawl-y as) ever)could)be, but he knowed)him(=it), 

be. ii)'l speek db.8 TBtiuth aaE)B dee* (daY), a'i)! waass)in 
and he)'ll speak the truth e'er)a day, I'll) warrant)Mm 

[waaEin))Bii]. 
[warrantjhimj. 

6. «n dh)a'wl;d)wmBri BEZE - lf, 'l)tEl Eni on)i, Bz)sTEse'«% 
and the)old)woman herself will)tell any of)ye, as)straight 

voKBd bz Eni dhEq, afi)l •waaEui))Br, «f)'l seks)Br. 
forward as any thing, I)'U warrant)her, if[you]'ll askjher 

7. Itostwafiz be tEld -afi -weh a'i aekst)BE tuu)BE)DEii ta'imz 

leastways her telled I when I asked)her two)or)three times 

aa-vBE, BE)dfed-, vn. •zhii)d na«, it 8se)bh u'l, e'« dB)lot) 
over, her)did, and - she)would know, if e'er)one will, I do)allot) 

Br, wat dB)dbjsqk)oii)t, ai? 
her, what do[you]think)of)it, eh f 

8. weI, Bz)a , «)vBE)B)za« - «n [zseVia], BE)D)tEl)i wBr)BE 
well, as)I)were)a)saying, her)would)tell)ye where)her 

yafuo. dh«k)BE SBa>qk'n biBS ez)BE di)kseae'Bl Bs)EzbBn. 
found this)ere drunken beast as)her do) call her)husband. 

[ 1477 ] 



46 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

9. daBld)*f)«R d«d)'nt tEl tfi bz BB)ziid)Bn BBZE'lf. "-(Uibb) 
dashed)if)her did)not tell I as her)see'd)him herself. "-there) 

i)w:ra," BB)zEd, "lid. daftm i)wBB •wii)»z bEs klaaz on, 
he)were," her)said, "laid down he)were with)his best clothes on, 

bz t*ps* bz evbb)b kBd)bii, B)kwd)'nt waeg *'ze - 1£ noo tfu. 
as tipsy as ever)he could)be, he)could)not wag his-self no how. 

«)wBB)klas ap Bgrn dhB ddBB)B)dh« a'ws et)dhi)kaBNBB 
he)were)close np against the door)of)the house at)the)corner 

B)dhi lAm. 
ofjthe lane. 

10. B)-wBB)B)b8388'l*n Bn)B)skM>838e - lm, blEs)i, vBB)ael)dhi 
he)were)a)bawling and)a)squalling, bless)ye for)all)the 

■W3SL la'*'k)« z»k tja'il BB)B)kaet B)miauBt«i." Bn)Bs) 
world like)a sick child or)a)cat a)mewing." and)her) 

sekst tuu)eE)DEii on)Bm, be zEd, bz)w3Bd)bnt vaB» vas 
asked two)or)three of)them, her said, as)were)not yery far 

aaf, bh "dliee Elpt aV v<rt)Bn ih)m,"BB)zEd, "«n dhaY bRaat) 
off, and " they helped I fetch)him home," her)said, " and they brought) 

Bn sel BdhBBT)Bsktt>rnt vaBmBB rpafiks v* , l," be zecI, " wbb 
him all athwart)asquint farmer Kke's field," her said, "where 

s'i dB)ba'»d, ■en dhas dhBYLfofW." 
I do)bide, and there they)left)him." 

11. sen dhset [dhEk] -was., A)nEsfv ? bz zhii)Bn)aB dset-BB Iee 
and that [thic] were, do[you]know? as she)and)her daughter[in]law 

kamd *n dbuu dhi beek riaaD, -waB)BB bin B)seq*n sfifb 
come'd in through the back yard, where)her [had] been a)hanging out 

dhi klaaz te DEaV. 
the clothes to dry. 

12. «n)BB)-wanted te bW*l dbi k«t'l tbe tee. "»t g*d a't Eel) 
and)her) wanted to boil the kettle for tea. "it give' d I all) 

bv)b TaEN," be ZEd, " Bn mtad a 7 * zwrat Bm&rs sel aaves. 
of)a tarn," her said, "and made I sweat almost all over." 

ibil :djAenz dbras, B)Bd)B dpiwbiloa dbaat on)ra, vbb)b 
Bill Jones there, he)had)a dubious thought ofjhim, for)he 

tEld a'« ez)i)zid)Bn Bba'wt vaVs Bklcrk «n dh^aet'Brn&Bn, 
telled I as)he)see'd)him about four o'clock in the)afternoon, 

[ 1478 ] 



D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 47 

cn)i)wBE main voiracb'sh dhEn. ^(d Tvaatt pratT* naV zEb'm 
and)he)were main forwardish then. he)d walked pretty nigh seven 

maVl «lo - q dhe Bhaad, en)i)was)Bz da'wsti)«z eybb Eni 
mile along the road, and)he)were)as dusty)as ever any 

dhEq. a'i nEVBB zid noo z*tj dhEq bvAitb." laa hlEs)i ! 
thing. I never see'd no such thing afore." Lord 1 " 



tyw'B)B wlitek vg&w kam nEks dhaBzd«, «n)«) , 'va'«u zamrBB 
it)were)a week ago come next Thursday, and)a)fine summer 

aetuBn&im tuu, t)wBB. 
afternoon too, it)were. 

13. an)tEl)i wat ! a'i nEVBB ha'ieBd noo mfeR)B)dhles)5eB 
and)tell)ye what! I never heard no more)of)this)here 

djob til tie d6ei. , en)'B)dA)«nt kfeB wma)i3 duu be naa, 
job till to-day and)I)do)n't care whether)I do or no, 

aa - )lak)» ! 
ah)look)ye. 

14. , Bn)dhuE)a'« bi gtootn fem te heeje hit u za>p - p'B, ze)gM 
and)there)I bi going home to have)a bit of supper, so)good 

mUt, OT.)du)un)i bii z-e kw'k t« lee'«f)«t)« tjaep ugten- 
night, and)do)not)ye be so quick to laugh)at)a chap again, 

WEn)«)dB tEl)i)u em dhEq. 
when)he)do tell)ye)of any thing. 

15. ■Bn)dh8et)s sel afi got tB)zai tu)t. gtid hWi. 
and)that)is all I [have] got to)say to)it, good b'ye. 

Notes. The figures refer to the paragraphs of the above cs. 
%* Perhaps thoughout (t d tj dj n 1) thould have been (t d tj, di, n l). 

2. Being (bin) for because is used by 7. She. Observe emphatic ( - zhii) ; 

older people. compare (-zhii a?vz)'n) - she has)him with 



4 and 13. Seard, this is the form (iBE)zVgot)'n)she's - gothim. — Know. 
sed by older people, see D 1, cwl. 301, This has its regular form, but the final 
(ii'KoD) is the result of education. The («) is dropped in ('a'i du'n naa, -a'» naa 



(h) is heard only when the word is na'wt BbaVt)it) I don't know, I know 

emphatic, and is gentle even then. nought about it, and even the (a) is 

5. Bawly, cats are said to (bsese b1) changedinpar.ll(d)nEE?)^o(yoM)MoM). 
in n.Wl. 10. Athwart, by itself, means across 

6. in (a'«l)d)wm - Bn) old woman the d a field at right angles to its sides, 
separates from the (1) and is made part (BdhBBT vskwint) athwart asquint, is 
of the next word ; (d) is dropped in («e diagonally, from one corner straight to 
bi VtfRi, a'wl) she be very old. the next but one. 



[ 1479 ] 



48 THE MID SOUTHERN. 



[D4, Vi. 



Phrases and sentences originally heard from peasants, and dictated 
by Bev. A. Law. 



1. (maV hEd bint kVk* DBE / *sh'lz v)gu>&m), my head beat like 

flails a-going. 

2. (d#)'nt)i shout ta'wsBDZ dhu hafuz'n), don't ye shoot towards 

the houses. 

3. (to hee)e bit on)t), to hare a bit of)it. 

4. (i)w'E B)tj8emp«h tit •a'i), he was chaffing at me. 

5. (i d«'d DKa'w iz hEd back vn kwk'ld), he did throw his head back 

and gargled. 

6. (bhBs)«m ! «'t)s « hand meet's tv kam apza'/dz w^n), bless 

him ! it's a hard matter to come upsides [right way up] 
with him. 

7. (i)z nee-tli ka'wl), he's naturally cold. 

8. (e peen a'i hsed odha'E'T dhe smibz), a pain I had across the 

sinews. 

9. (a'i)l tEl)i sfu b wuz saaED), I'll tell)ye how I was served. 

10. (i)z got he voduB dba bfes), he has to fodder the beasts [horned 

cattle]. 

11. (dbi3B)z)B pees'l)^ l*'t'l odz»z), there's a parcel of little odds 

and ends. 

12. ("zhii heevz b vrau gtld)m), she has a very good one. 

13. (go so'ls'd, afil mfek injkwaVree'sh'n), go quickly, I'll make 

inquiries. 

14. (i)z vbb* baed na'rtemz), he's very bad night-times. 

15. (dhaet)s this ma'm on)Bm), that's the mind [intention, bent of 

mind] of them. 

16. (a'« dhaat a'*)sh'Bd)'8 daVd *n)dh« na'*t), I thought I should 

have died in the night. 

17. (ha , «ld)'Bn ta'it), hold him tight. 

18. (wan)«n) ena^dh'Eo, tuu)en)B t)a>dbBB), one and another, two 

and a t'other. 

19. (dAwn)os ? wat^d? a'i, Jiai)«t?) don't us = we? what 

should? aye, is - )n't it ? 

20. (a'i bi zaBtih zhauBB ; t'l)a'»)v «darn), I am certain sure ; till 

I've done. 

21. (we m&BB n«B dhtes), no more than this. 

22. (t)fe)nt n« odz be ria'w), it is not no odds to yon, it is no 

business of yours. 

23. (bo'« dh« zim on)t), by the seem [appearance] of it. 

24. (dhaek)s a'w aV spEl fa'*V), that's how I spell five. 



I 1480 ] 



D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 49 



Chbistian Malfobd cwl. 

Containing the words from the preceding examples and some others given me by 
Mr. Law. Probably all the (t d ti dj sh n 1 r) should be (t d ti di «h N h r) 
See supra, p. 23. 

i. "Wessex and Nokse. 

A- 1 zv. 5 mt'tsk. 6 nu'ad. 8 ts hee [to hare]. 17 Iee [the older sound 
was (laa), and Mr. Law himself, who used to be called (laaj, is now called (Iee)]. 
21 nium. — fo'jR [fare]. 34 lE'sst. A: — seed' 1 [saddle]. 39 kamd 

[come'd].' — zsen [sand]. 49 aqin [hanging]. 54 want. 56 w6ish. 

— kset [cat]. 

A: or 0: 58 vram [weak form]. 60 uhvq [along]. 64 roq [generally, occ. 
(raq)]. A'- 67 gwoin [going]. 69 naa noo no. 72 Iiuub [when standing 
alone, otherwise (uu)]. 73 zi zb [weak forms]. 74 tuu. 77 laa [for Lord ! is 
an exclamation]. 79 a'wn. 81 liun. 84 musR. 87 klaaz. 89 buusdh. 
92 nau, [but (d)nEE) do you knowP]. 94 kRa'u. A': 102 aeks sekst. 104 
ahaad. 107 lasf. — zhroov [shrove]. Ill aat. 113 huubI [A half sounded]. 
115 mm. 120 Bg«B. 

M- 138 VEEdhB. 144 Bg(Bn. 146 main. 148 fata [see 709 and 887] . 
150 lisst wa'tz [least wise]. 153 zset'Rdi. — wbr [whether]. — ptjRti 
[pretty, tolerably]. M: 154 baek. — Bd [had, weak form]. — zsed [sad]. 
158 setBR. 159 hsevz. 161 deei [seldom (da»)J. 162 tBdeei [to-day]. 165 ze3. 
166. maid [a little girl, see 758]. 169 we'u ["not quite a dissyllable" and] 
wsn. 173 waR [were, was]. 174 a'jshBn tru ["always with (bo) " ]. 177 dhait 
[also (dhaek)]. 179 wot wat. 

M- 187 Imi [left, did leave]. — zili [silly]. 194 Eni. 196 waaRD)'nT 

Ewere not]. 198 lEt. M': 205 DREd. 208 evbr, ara)Bn [e'er a one], aaa)B 
e'er a]. 209 nE'vBR noR [never a]. 213 a'idhBR. 214 na'tdhBR. 220 
zhEpBRD. 221 v«'r. 223 dhaR, dbi R. 224 waR. 225 vlEsh. 226 mums 
[almost]. 227 wE'«t ["not quite a dissyllable"]. 228 zwst. 230 vset. 
E- 231 dhidhBdh-. 233 speeBk. 236 vcbvbr. 239 zMbr [sailor]. 244 wad. 

— tEh> [tell'd]. — zh»BR [shear]. 251 meet. 252 kit'l. E: — vat 
vEti [fetch], 256 sTRBtj. 258 ze<3j. 260 lsd [laid]. 261 zai zai - *n zae'rin 
[savin] 263 Bwai-. 265 STRse'it. — vjbI [field]. 269 ZElf iza-lf BRZE-lf 
dhBRZE'lvz [self himself herself themselves]. 271 tal. 272 Blnven tru [" always 
with (Bn) "]. — Ms [else]. — Blpt [helped]. — zil [sell]. 278 WEntj [a 
marriageable girl, see 758]. 281 lEqth. — vrEsh [fresh]. 284 DREsh [see after 
735]. — • Bdha'Rt [Bthwart, across from side to side, (Bdha-Rt, Bskwint) athwart 
asquint, diagonally from one corner to the next but one]. — vE'stBR [fester]. 

— bES [best]. E'- 289 i [weak]. 290 ii, v, ' [fead, 'd) he had, weak 
form]. 297 vereR. 298 viBld [felt]. 302 mivt. E: 307 na'i. 312 «'eR. 
313 haRk. 314 ha'»RD [older people]. — Mes [bless]. — ta/it [tight]. 
316 nEks. 

EA- — shiiv [shave]. — vasto vols [fallow]. 320 kSiBR. EA: 322 

lasBf laefin lEEfin [laughing]. 325 waakt [walked]. 326 a'ul-d. 328 ka'wl. 
329 v6ob1. 330 tB ha'uld [(b hoolt) subs.] 333 kae'sf. 334 hseV. 335 sal. 
336 v33'b1. 338 ksese'sl. — zae't [salt]. — shz'BR [share]. 340 jiaRD. 

— vorb [farrow]. EA'- — zhREd [shread]. 347 hEd. 348 a'i-z. 349 
via'M. EA': 354 zhhf. 356 h'sf. 357 dha» dha'«. 359 na'tbBR. — «g<Bn 
[against]. 364 tjsep. 366 gaRt. 367 DREt. 

EI- 372 hi. 373 dhai dhee. EI: 378 weesk. EO- 383 ZEb'm. 
387 nia'««z [news]. EO: 390 zhwd. — zilv'a. — vaRmBR [farmer]. 

402 laRN. 403 vbr. 407 vaRdin. — ztstBR [sister]. 408 na«d [made weak 
from (na») know]. EO'- — VRii [free]. 411 DRii. 412 zhii. 414 vla'i. 

— shuut [shoot]. 420 va'«BR. 421 vaBRTi. EO': 422 z»k. 426 va'«t. 
427 bin [being = because]. 428 zid [see'd]. 430 VREn. 434 best. 435 ja'u 
[not used]. 436 truu. — DRa'w [threw]. 437 TRUuth. EY- 438 da'i. 
EY: 439 TR33S. 

I- 440 wi'iBk. 441 zi'v. 443 vra'td«e. 446 na'in. — in, vn [him, old 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1481 ] 95 



50 



THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i, 



ace. form]. — sine [sinew], 447 br. — eez [yes]. 448 dhitiz. — bit [a 
bit]. 449 got [p.p. of get]. — vid'l [fiddle]. 451 za«. I: 452 a*"*. 

453 kwik. 465 lam [lying]. — zift fsift]. 458 na'it. 463 til. 465 ziti 
siti. 466 tja'il. 469 «'l [will, for (wol)]. 477 va'in. 480 dhEq. — zsq 
[sing]. 481 VEqgBR. — zEqk [sink]. 483 iz. 484 dhiBS dhis. — vish [fish]. 

— zans [since]. — ziks [six]. I'- — ba'id [bide]. 491 za'i. 492 za'id. 

— gid [give' d= gave]. 494 ta'im. 495 wa'in. T: 500 la'ik. 502 va'iv. 
503 laif. 505 waif [generally my (misBs) or (a«l;d)«mBn)]. 506 «m«n. 508 
ma'i'l. 509 wa'i'l. 

O- 519 aavsR. 521 va'ttBl, — bvubr [afore]. — vorw! [forward] 
voRadish [getting forward, tipsy]. — biARND [born]. 524 waRL. — DROot 
[throat]. — TRath [froth]. — vlok [flock]. — odz [odds]. O: 525 aaf 
[off]. — vRog [frog]. — zhrab [shrub]. 528 dhaat. 529 Mtaat. 531 daeTBR. 
535 vaak. 538 «Bd. 541 t)wn'nt [it won't]. 543 on. 544 dhm. 546 vbr 
va'R. — vask [fork]. 548 vann. 560 waRD. — VRas [frost]. — TaRth 
[forth]. — voks[fox]. 0'- 556 d' tB. 557 tun. 558 aa-)lak)i [ah ! look 
ye ! exclamation]. 564 zuund. 567 ta>dhBR. — ta'wRDz [towards]. O': 571 
g»d. — Raf [roof]. 579 naf. 586 a'i ds, a'i du)'nt. 587 Bdarn. 588 
ffiTBRnten. 590 vIw'r. 592 zwaRD. 595 vat. 

U- — «d [wood, not (hud)]. 601 va'wal. 603 kam. 604 zamiBR. 605 
zan. 606 duBR. TJ: 609 vsl. 612 zam. 616 gRa'wn. 619 va'wnd. 
627 zamdi. 631 dhanzdi. — va»B [furrow]. 634 druu. — dhBRsti 
[thirsty]. 639 da'wsti [dusty]. TJ'- 641 a'u, a'wsinndEv'R, aisBmEVBR, 

b;we-tbr. 643 na'u. 650 baut Bba'wt. 651 wi-a«t. 652 kBd [weak form]. 
653 bat. 17': 654 zhra'wd. 658 da'wn. 663 a'us, ha'us [pi. (ha'uzBn)J. 

666 azfam. 667 a'wt. 

Y- 673 ma>ti [greatly resembled (motj)]. 674 did diBd [the latter emphatic]. 
675 DSMfi. 681 oiznis [seldom used]. Y: — vil [to fill]. 691 ma'in. 
692 joqgist. — vaz [furze]. 701 vas. 702 wi, wii. Y'- 706 wa'i, 
Y': — vilt [filth], 709 va'tR. — vUbs [fleece]. — vist [fist]. 

n. English. 

A. — wseg [to wag]. 725 zibI. 726 taak. — vlaen'l [flannel]. 732 
ffip'm. — DRa^sh'l [thresher, flail]. — bsese'sli [bawly, a crying child is 
(bsea3-]in)]. 

E. — zim [seem]. 751 piBRT. 752 fra'st. — miawtin [mewing]. 

I andY. — :bil [Bill]. — kil [kill]. — Bskwint [crosswise, diagonally]. 

— vlEq [fling]. — tipsi [tipsy]. — zap Tsip]. 758 g'R Ri [a long untrillea 
(rJ followed by a trilled (r) and reverted (i,)"much used for a servant. See 166 
and 278]. 

O. — Bklo-k [o'clock]. — djob [job]. 765 :djon. 767 na'iz. — :diaBnz 
[Jones]. 776 gwd ba'i. 781 bodWt [usual word (ksed'l)]. — lot [allot]. 
791 btc6i. 

TJ. 797 skwvwki [squalling]. 798 kwaR [modern (kwiBR)]. — vamb'l [fumble], 
804 DRa>qk'n. 

m. Romance. 

A-. — zaek [sack], 810 vj'bs. 815 fseks. — vlai'l [flail]. — zeedj 
[sage]. — fail [fail]. 835 Reez'n. — waaRND [warrant]. 857 ksBs. 

— msetBR [matter]. 862 zivi, — fseset [fate]. 864 ke«z. 865 vseset. — vs'bIs 
[false]. 

E-. 867 tee. — peen [pain]. 885 vBRi. — fee'r [a fair, market, see 148], 

— vosieR [farrier]. 888 zaaRtin. — saaR [serve]. 890 btBS [pi. (be'Bstiz) 
occ. b»Bs]. 891 vi'st. 893 vla'wBR. — plavtiks [apoplexy]. — VEg [fig], 
901 va'in. — zaqg'l [single]. — zaiz [size]. 

0-. 918 feBb'l. 920 pw6int. 925 vw6is. — komik'l [comical]. — vies, 
[force], 938 kannBR. — va'Rin [foreign]. — vonsst [forest]. — vaBRdj 
vmbrcIi [forge]. 939 Has, klast [occ.]. 940 kihrt. 941 vuubI. 947 btt>a'il. 
950 za>ppBR. — taRn rturn]. 955 da'wt. 

U-. — dj»«-biles [dubious]. 963 kwa'i-Bt. 969 zha'uBR. — vaRBt. 
970 djEZ. — vasti [fusty], 

[ 1482 ] 



D 4, Y i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 51 



Phase II, Chippenham, 9 nnw. Devizes, 

As JGG.'s stepmother (now an elderly lady, who had brought him up) was 
a native of Chippenham, and though long resident in London, kept up her know- 
ledge of the dialect (which she did not use in speech) by visits, and by seeing 
many Wl. people, I requested JGG. to ask her to repeat one of those stories 
with which she used to amuse the children, while he noted it down in pal. As 
she was good enough to consent, the attempt was repeated on many occasions 
during the last few years, and the following fable by Akerman is the result, after 
many corrections. The difficulties in palaeotyping any individual's speech are 
very great ; and of course such minute accuracy as JGG. attempted is liable to 
the perpetuation of individualisms. Still it is very instructive to compare the 
result with the specimen by Mr. Law, just given, as the two places are only four 
miles apart and both must represent a Wl. pron. I must draw attention to the 
constant reversion or retraction as JGG. considers it of the (t d n l b. »h) series 
and of (k) and the conversion of (tj, dj) into (ti, di). I am anxious to express 
my obligations to Mrs. Goodchild for submitting to such a fatiguing trial and for 
venturing to dictate a complete wl. The original spelling from the preface to 
Halliwell's Dictionary is added interlinearly. 

dho aaB N9T on dhe bt* 1 soL\ 

The Hornet and the Bittle, 

dha aan N9T zaT im)9 0L9 isii, — 
a harnet zet in)a hollar tree, — 

■b pnopBE spdyrfBL tc!o 1 9d W9E ii ; 

a proper spiteful twoad was he ; 2 

an)9 meMsiij zaq udyx ii did zex 
and)a merrily zung while he did set 

iz ste 1 ^ vz shaaB p vz)v bae'gBireT : 

his stinge as shearp as)a bagganet, 4 

"oouu ze vdyn vn bs. v ta^D az dj I 
oh ! who so vine and bowld as I ! 

" dj Went efk'-9B D 9 #ops, naE vray ! " 
I vears not bee, nor wapse, nor vly 6 

v "biDQi? ap dhak isii d»d xiim, 
a bittle up thuck tree did clim, 

■bk 8KaaE HT9M D«D lw'k 9T ii ; 

and scarnvully did look at him. 8 

zen ii, "z9E aaE N9X, uu gin dhii 
zays he, "Zur harnet, who giv thee 

■b Eayr tb zeT in dh«k dheB Tsii ? 

a right to zet in thuck there tree ? 10 

vas seaei, dhii zeqz Z9 uiishajr vdyTS, 
vor ael you zengs zo nation vine, 

ay TeL dhii t)iz 9 a'ws u mdyN." 

I tell 'e 'tis a house o' mine." 12 

[ 1483 ] 



52 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

dhu aaE ii9ts xoiwliaNB viii^B tu^ndsIi 
the hornet's conscience yelt a twinge, 

b9T ssaaw Iw'Wd uV iz Loq stE'q 

hut grawin' bowld wi his long stinge, 14 

ze'd ii : " p9ze - *he)srz dha Ije'st iaa 1 
zays he: "possession's the best laaw; 

zoo ib-bE;, dhii *hseT)'nT par 9 klee ; 

zo here th' sha'sn't put a claaw ! 16 

hi aa£ as lAfiY dhs teu t9 ay ! 
be off, and leave the tree to me ! 

dh.8 maKS8N)z gw'D wnrf vbe q diii ! " 

the mixen's good enough for thee!" 18 

Dps dhen, v Yafias.'!?, pseaestn bay, 
just then, a yuckel, passin' by, 

wsz BeksT hi dliE'in dha kraz Ta TBay ; 

was axed by them the cause to try ; 20 

" ee ! ee ! ay zii k'u t)«z ! " ze'd ii, 
"ha! ha! I see how 'tis!" zays he, 

" dbi)9L' nwV'k v viimas mawsb. vbe ay ! " 
"they'll make a vamous nunch vor me!" 22 

iz b*L waz *haaE p, iz STamt'x iiim ol 

his bill was shearp, his stomach lear [empty], 

I 



zoo ap -e sssepT dire xseDLt's pisra^ 

zo up a snapped the caddlin pair. 24 



o • 



MOEAL. 

sesei? ran ez bii ta Laa fXKLdytfv, 
ael you as be to laaw inclined, 

dhYes lj't'i' stoe* braraB «n mays' ; 

this leetle stwory bear in mind ; 26 

vaB If T9 Laa 1 juu ae'emz to gd'a 
Tor if to laaw you aims to gwo, 

juu)l voto'd db8B'»)I, , aeaeliiaz zaaE )«V zoo ; 

you'll vind they'll alius zar'e zo; 28 

juu)!.' miir dh« vii'i « dbiiz frBB tuu, 
you'll meet the vate o these here two, 

dhg)^ tm'k cUm xrfoai wh xaaB K9s tuu. 

they'll take your cwoat and carcass too ! 30 

[ 1484 ] 



D4, Vi.] 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



53 



Notes to the above. 

0. The references are to the number 
of the line. In this transcript an 
endeavour has been made to follow 
JGG.'s notation of the last of his 
many transcripts. In the following 
cwl. as there explained, some compro- 
mises have been made. The letters 
(t d l n b sh) have been used for 
typographical convenience in place of 
(t, d, 1, n, r, sh,), which would represent 
JGG.'s opinion of their formation as 
retracted rather than reverted, but we 
are quite at one respecting the sound. 
Also throughout this example I have 
used (rJ in place of (n) to show ab- 
sence of trill. I am, however, by no 
means clear that there is no trill, 
though the effect of the reverted trill 
(iy) is quite different from that of the 
tip trill (r,i), on account of the dullness 
and indistinctness of the beats. In the 
cwl., and also in recording the pron. of 
other districts, I have used (r) ex- 
clusively for this r, whether reverted 
or retracted, whether trilled or un- 
trilled, because the sound itself is 
certain, and these four differences are 
theoretical. In my own pron. I feel 
that (b) is both reverted and trilled, as 
the form (r) properly implies. 

0. hornet (aaR D NOT), which I should 
prefer writing (aBNBT) . The (aa) says 
JGG. "is not quite pure (aa), there 
is more or less (a 1 ) character about it, 
it is certainly modified before (b ) by 
an upturned tongue. The (r ) is an r 
with the tongue turned tip upwards, to 
the highest part of the palate, so as to 
present a teaspoonbowl-like form to- 
wards the larynx and is not trilled 
wherever I have heard it." JGG. 
has been constantly in the habit of 
speaking to Wl. people. The reverted 
or retracted character of (t d n l) as 
well as (b) on all occasions has been 
introduced here as well as in the cwl. 
as explained to me by him verbally. 
The aspirate (h) says JGG. " seems 
to be rather permissive than obligatory, 
except of course where the word is em- 
phatic, but I have never noticed any of 
the Wl. people inserting an aspirate in 
its wrong place, as Londoners do ; and 
I have been familiar with Wl. talk for 
the last 25 years." 

and the (an dha), " (a, b) in unaccented 
syllables may be simply (a) throughout. 
By (a) I mean my own pron. of the 
vowels in the words, some one's husband 



son or brother comes naming in at 
once."— JGG. 

beetle (btt'naL') : this is a common 
London mispronunciation, if (d, 1) be 
substituted for (p, l). In Mrs. G.'s 
first and second dictation, and as JGG. 
remembered her repeating these lines 
when he was a child, she said (biT'i.'), 
and all my other Wl. authorities give 
(bit'l) both for the mallet and the insect. 

2. spiteful. The long I was origin- 
ally written (a'») in the cwl., and sounded 
to me rather (a'») or (a>'»). But JGG. 
says the first element is " Scotch or 
German long (aa) gliding into a rounded 
(i) almost (y), lips as for (o)," that is, 
properly (o'y„) ; (ay) is here retained, 
because in JGG.'s very last hearing of 
the dictation, this still seemed to him 
the nearest sound, and he has also in 
correcting the proof introduced it into 
the cwl. See D 5, Andover. 

3. while. JGG. did not find a fully 
consonantal (w) or (j), but felt that they 
were really vowels, as in Welsh, and 
hence they are here written (fi, l). 

6. Mrs. G. had (ay be'ant Bf«iaR D o 
biinBR Maps, nBR vla'y), as Mr. Aker- 
man's "I vears not bee" was not 
dialectal. But on the line thus becoming 
two syllables too long, the words bee nor 
have been omitted. 

8. look. The pron. (lm'k) was obtained 
specially. ' ' This («') is neither (u) nor 
(w), but an intermediate vowel," it 
bears the same relation to («)as (»') to 
(i), see (g«'D) 1. 18. These differences 
are hard to catch in isolation, but make 
themselves generally felt in conversa- 
tion. In the proof JGG. introduced 
(k) generally. 

11. all (aeseL 1 , eeT). JGG. says, 
" I cannot quite make out what this 
vowel is ; it is not quite the same as 
the Cu. and We. sound, but seems 
more like (seas). I think it quite likely 
that I should write it (aeae) at one time, 
and ^ee) at another. But I think the 
last is the nearest equivalent I know, 
unless we use (be 86 ), which would ex- 
press my idea of it." This would be 
(ee) inclining to (sese), and might be 
written (ee^. 

14. bold. In this word (ba^LD) 
we meet (a 1 ) a higher form of (a). 
JGG. considers it the same sound as 
the s. Scotch (a) as pron. by Dr. 
Murray. It is a shade of sound which 
I cannot distinguish. See D 5, Andover. 

sting, will not rhyme with twindge 
as Mr. Akerman implies by the spelling 



[ 1486 ] 



54 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 



Mr. A. rhymes lines 7 and 8 of (j) see note 1. 3 white. For (m) 
him dim, but Mrs. G. restoring the JGG. says, "as in the 'early bird de- 
dialect has (ii, -Kiim) ; 1. 15 and 16, serves the early worm,' but the tongue 
Mr. A. has laaw, klaaw, and Mrs. G. is raised more, I should say it is more 
(Laa J KLEE). The older sounds I heard arched." As I write the vowel in the 
from Mr. Law were (laa, klaa), the above words in rs. (a>), generally 
modern (Iee Wee). lines 17 and 18 avoiding (s), except in weak syllables, 
Mr. A. has me, thee, Mrs. G. says this might be (ao 1 ), but from the de- 
dialectally (dy, dhii), and similarly scription it is possibly a new vowel, 
lines 21 and 22. Lines 23 and 24 Mr. — shalt not, probably, though the form 
A. has tear, pair, which Mrs. G. reads (shsei'nt) is very singular, but Aker- 
(LiiBR , pBBRj. Lines 25 and 26 Mr. man's sha'm't is quite unintelligible. 
A. has inclined, mind, Mrs. G. leaves 19. yuchel, a Wl. name for a wood- 
out the last (d). Lines 27 and 28, Mr. pecker. Mrs. G. seems to have con- 
A. has gwo, zo, Mrs. G. reads (gi l 9, zoo) . fused it with yokel a bumpkin. 
This shews how dangerous it is to write 22. munch, with retracted or re- 
dialect in rhyme. Mr. Akerman's verted (n) and the corresponding (sh), 
stories have usually been considered not (mami). The word nunch = lunch, 
first-rate dialect. I found dialectal or noon-food, seems to have been con- 
construction frequently so violated in fused with the more familiar munch, 
them that whole passages might be which, however, is properly a verb. — 
read off perfectly in rs., and I could lear is used for empty, hungry, in many 
not use them at all, for present pur- dialects. 

poses, especially as shades of sound 28. serve you so, the v is regularly 

Were not distinguished. omitted. The word (sau.) is also com- 

16. here (?otr ) ; for the (1) in place monly used for to earn. 



Chippenham cwl. 

From a complete wl., with the words from the Hornet, marked H, in the spelling 
there used, the whole taken down with scrupulous accuracy by JGG. from bis 
stepmother's pronunciation, a work of great labour extending over many days or 
rather years, for the list was entirely gone over and retranscribed many times, and 
finally all doubtful points were re-examined. On the treatment of (t d n l r) 
see note to title of Hornet and Beetle. Here and elsewhere in future (r) and 
not (b ) is written for typographical reasons. See also the same note for (aa) 
or (aa 1 ) and likewise for the use of (a). Also for writing the diphthongal long i as 
(a'y), see note to 1. 2 in the Hornet. The vowel (ii) varied in speech as (««') 
which is used in the Hornet, but I have here used (ii) only for convenience. Also 
(i„ e 1 ) occur, but are nearly identical, and were used by JGG. according as the 
sound seemed to incline to (*) or (e). The series (i i l i ij e 1 e) is practically con- 
tinuous from (i) to (e). On (v, 3D, ao 1 ) see note to 1. 16 of Hornet and Beetle, and 
on (u, i) note to 1. 3. 

I. "W~ESSEX AND NoBSE. 

A- 1 zoo. 3 hiiK [the rural form for all these (ii) is (e'V) nearly (te)]. 
4 TiiK, H T»i'K. 5 miiK, H mii'K. 6 miiD. 7 ziiK. 9 hi/iiv. 10 aa 1 ; 12 
zee zaa. 14 dree. 17 iaa, H Laa 1 . 18 xiix Kzax. [see 3]. 19 ti'o'l* [even 
accent, almost dissyllabic]. 20 Liim Le"a'm [see 3]. 21 Niim Nfo'm. 22 Tiim. 
23 siim. 24 shiim she'Vm. — mEENDzh. 27 Nee t v. 28 bb'r. 29 [(bii) 
been used]. 30 kj'^r. 31 LiiT. 32 biidh. 33 [(zm*h) sooner, used]. 34 
LseffiST. 35 aa. 36 dhaa [(iq^l't) melt, generally used] . 37 klaa and H. 

A: 39 Kam. 40 xuem [not quite (Swam)]. 41 thEqx [(dhEqK) means 
think]. 42 bn. 43 am*D. 44 LseN^D. 45 iLaNT. 46 xseNDaL'. 47 [(sTRee^ 
stray, used]. 48 zaq\ 50 Taqz^z. 51 mam. 53 kaeN. 54 uont. 55 
an^sh^z. 56 tiash. 57 bes. 

A: or O: 58 vnom. 59 Lsem. 60 Loq and H. 61 amaq'. 62 STRaq'. 
64 Roq. 65 zoq\ 66 dhoq\ A'- 67 di g&a, H go^. 69 noo. 70 T«'a. 72 uu. 
73 zoo and H. 74 tuu and H. 75 STRa'k. 76 tkod, H ToVaD. 77 Laa 1 BD. 

[ 1486 ] 



D 4, Y i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 55 

78 a'«N\ 79 [same as 78]. 80 oiijDii. 81 lun". 82 -iiaNS. 83 mw8N\ 
84 mire's.. 85 zbb'r. 86 aaTS. 87 kloosz. 88 tb KLowdh. 89 baadh. 90 
bL««. 91 mw. 92 n«s«. 93 ssaa. 94 kuaa. 95 brim. 96 zaa. 97 sa'wL. 
98 ii n««d, ay did now, ns'mn. 99 drosn. 100 zacm. 

A: 101 <wk, eeKaa'RN TRii. 102 33ks. 103 eesst and H. 104 r««d. 
105 R«aD. 106 bnaaD [not (««)]. 107 loot. 108 D»a. 109 loo. 110 NseT. 
113 iiaL [l is very vocal]. 114 ma'»L. 115 flam. 116 uu. 118 bo'oN. 
119 to gwo. 121 gaaif. 122 nook. 123 Nadhiq. 124 stko'n. 125 onlj,. 
126 [(naajtfn) rower, used]. 127 ios. 128 dhioz. 129 guosT. 130 bao'T. 
131 gao'T. 132 ot. 133 r««t. 134 &rth. 135 Kxoath. 

JE- 138 fiidhe'R fEEdhB'R. 139 dr««. 140 ee'ol ae'iaL\ 141 nbe'ol. 
142 snee'ol. 143 tee'ol. 144 og^'oN. 146 mse'/N. 147 bRse'iN. 148 
fae'iu'R. 149 biii'z. 150 LiasT. 152 uaaTB'R. 153 zaeDB'RD*!. 

-E: 154 baek. 155 dhasTsh. 156 glsbd. 157 Riiv'n. 158 ««tbr. 160 
e eg. 161 Dii. 162 tb Dii. 163 [(wen) laid used]. 164 m<?e. 165 zeD. 
166 mse'iD [almost (ma'iD) with (i) not (*). 168 taela. 169 uen. — H Oops 
[wasp]. 170 aa'RvijST. 171 baaRLi,. 172 grees. 173 tioaz, ii ubbr. 174 
se'ish. 175 teest. 176 st. 177 dhaeT. 178 NajT. 179 war. 180 bEEHh. 
181 pEE'th. 

M'- 182 zii 1 . 183 [(tb Laa'Es) used]. 184 tB m'od. 185 rm'd. 186 
bR^Dth. 187 li'ov, H LijOT. 188 nee. 189 wee. 190 see. 191 iiaL 1 . 
192 mi'aN. 193 Kxe'oN. 194 seN^. 195 mseN^. 196 ubbr. 197 ishiiz. 
198TBLeT. 199 [(tb bEE)=baa, used]. 200 wiit. 201 iidheN. 202 iiT. 

M': 203 [(TEEk) =talk, used]. 205 dred. 206 ii Rti'D. 207 n>DaL\ 
208 evBR. 209 NevBR. 210 kxbe. 211 gree. 212 iiEE. 213 [(aaRN) =e'er 
a one, used]. 215 [(ii TirrshT) =be teached, used]. 216 dubl. 217 sa'Tsh on 
em, bbr B U8N. 218 b ship. 219 SLiip. 220 «hepBRD. 221 tubr. 222 bbr. 
223 dbBBR. 224 wbbr. 225 TLB*h. 226 mo'asT. 227 tieT. 228 ztiet. 
229 bREEtb. 230 fse'T. 

E- 231 [(dbiK, dhaK) used]. 232 bRUK. 233 spiix. 234 nj'bd. 235 ui'bv, 
iiiiv. 236 tutbr. 237 T«h/BL-bLae'iN. 238 EEDzh. 239 zee'ol. 240 leed. 
241 R83 f iN. 243 plee. 244 iieBL. 245 rn^BL. 246 kuiiN. 247 iiiBN. 
248 mBBR. — H obbr [to bear]. 249 ubbr. 250 zubbr. 251 miiT. 252 

K^TOL'. 253 NET8L\ 254 lEdhBR. 

E: 256 [(tB dree a'«T) = to draw out, used]. 257 Epzh. 259 titDah. 
260 Lseae. 261 zee. 262 uee. 263 b;See, e;uEE. 265 STRse'iT. 266 uel\ 
— vi'oL v |D [field]. 267 [(to gi *n) used]. 268 aWDis. 269 zblI 270, 
i. bi'LasijZ, ii. bEie. 271 tel\ 272 emu. 273 meN [not (mm)]. 274 bi,N*h. 
275 siEqK. 276 dhEqK. 277 DR^Nsh. 278 uensIi. 279 ue'nt. 280 Leb'm\ 
281 lEqth LeNtb. 282 STREqtb. 283 moRij, H meRBLii [merrily]. 284 
DR E«b. 285 kRiisez. 286 aR9. 287 b^zam. 288 let. — H zeT [set]. 
• — H bs'sT [best]. 

E'- 289 ii [heard as (it 1 )]. 290 ii [heard as (ii 1 )] and H. 291 dbii. 292 
[fay) used]. 293 uu. 294 tod. 295 bRi,D. 296 b^LtfBV. 298 TiW. 
299 grm'n. 300 K^ap Kip. 301 j'bbr. 302 miiT and H. 303 zuiir. 304 
[(mahLOT) used]. 

E': 305 ay. 306 «yth. 307 [(klaos) used]. 309 spiid [(rut) =rate more 
usual]. 310 ioL\ 311 TeN*. 312 i'bbr, H «bbr j1br . 313 aaRk'n. 314 
i. Ibbrd. 315 tut. 316 Neks. 

EA- 317 [(tb sKiN) used]. 318 leett. 319 gEEp. 320 kj'bbr. 

EA: 321 ziiD. 322. LEEf. 323 ii Ta'«T. 324 ss'i'T. 326 aW. 327 
ba'aLYD, H ba'«L v D. 328 Ka'aL^D. 329 va'»L\D. 330 a'«L\D. 331 za'«L\D. 
332 taW L D. 333 keet. 334 EEf. 335 eel\ H 3383L. 336 tebl\ 337 
ufflabL*. 338 Kffia3L\ — asaelaoz [always]. 339 [(ay bii') used]. 340 Taa'ED. 
341 m«Ra. 342 aa'Rm. 343 flaa l Rm. — H «haaR c p [sharp]. 345 dbbr. 
346 g^T giiT. 

EA'- 347 eD. 348 rfy. 349 v?,«. 

EA': 350 deed. 351 LijD. 352 R!,d. 353 bREED. 354 zhfov. 355 Dif. 
356 L(OT. 357 dhaa dhoo. 359 NiibBR. 360 T/om. 361 Warn. 362 zlee. 
363 Tshiop. 364 Tihsep. 365 n/bbr. 366 gBBRT. 367 DRET. 368 Deth. 
369 sl««. 370 ebb. 371 stree. 

[ 1487 ] 



56 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

EI- 372 ee. 373 dhEE. 374 [(poo) used]. 375 T9 Ra'yz. 376 bse'sT. 

EI: 377 siiix. 378 uiix. 380 dhEE Bm. 382 dhsensR. 

EO- 383 zeb'm. 384 eb'n. 385 [(biloa-) = below, used]. 386 ia'«. 
387 niuu. 

EO: 388 mToi/x. 389 «aax. 390 shui> *haD. 391 [(ay bii) used]. 393 
bi/ae - N v D. 394 »8bn'dbr. 395 »aq\ 396 ubbrx. 397 zmbbrd. 398 sTaaRY. 
399 bR«yT. 400 BBRNis. 402 laaRN. 403 ybbr. 404 sTaaR. 405 BBRth- 
STM9n, Esf-, eef-si&9n [always with stone]. 406 OTRth. 407 vaaRD'N. 408 
[(ii NaaD) used]. 

EO'- 409 bii. 410 [(*bji) used]. 411 dru. — H TRii [tree]. 412 *hii. 
413 DtjTaL'. 414 vidy, H vldy. 415 Lrfy. 416 dIbbr. 417 Tshaa. 418 bRuu. 
419 ibbr. 420 Ya'uBR. 421 faaRTi. 

EO': 422 zik. 423 dhdy-boan. 424 Raf. 425 LdyT. 426 vrfyT. 427 tb 
bii. 428 tb zii and H. 430 trend. 431 Kbbr. 432 Ya'wBRTh. 433 bResT. 
434 i b/ai. 435 »uu. 436 truu. 437 TRUuth. 

EY- 438 da'y. EY: 439 trsds. 

I- 440 iiik. 441 z»y\ 442 dy-vi. 443 YRa'yD*!. 444 STo'yaL 1 . 446 no'*n. 

— H b«L [bird's bill]. 447 bbr. 448 dbisz. 449 geT. 450 TshuuzDii. 451 
zaa [confused with 76 to sow]. 

I: 452 ay H ay. 453 kwjk [(veest) fast, used]. 454 tuTsh. 455 L8ea? 
[confused with to lay], 456 af. 457 mdyT. 458 na'yT. 459 Rdyr H ua'yT. 
460 use'i'T. 462 zdyr. 463 t«l'. 464 uiTsh. 465 zawh. 466 Tsha'yaL^D. 
467 udysi-LD. 468 TshiL'DSRN. 470 [(ii) he used] . — H klim[climb]. 471 
timbBR. 472 »hR#'qk. 473 bMfyN\ 474 RayN . 475 udjN'. 476 brfyN\ 
477 vdyN\D and H. 478 ontijs\T>. 479 ua'yN\i>. 480 dhEq\ — H zaq 

SBung]. — H sts'q [sting]. 481 YEqgBR. 482 »z. 483 iz. 484 dhis, 
ht'ez. 485 dhissL 1 . 486 iasT. 487 »stbrd» 1 . 488 »t. 489 *t [only (t) as an 
enclitic]. — H zeT zaT [sit, sat]. 

I- 490 brfy. 491 zoy. 492 zdyo. 493 DRdyv. 494 Tdym. 495 wa'yN v . 
496 o'yBRN 1 . 498 RayT. 499 biT'L 1 [originally, then as in] H bs^DarA 

I': 500 Ldyk. 501 ua'yD. 502 vdyv. 503 Layf [but (La'yv)aliTe]. 504 Nayf . 
605 uuyf. 506 «m9N. 507 uimeN. 508 mdyai/. 509 uaygL' H udyi,\ 510 
mdyn* H mdyN. 511 udyrt'. 512 spdyBR. 513 ua'yBR. 514 c'ys. 515 uo'yz 
[wiseacre (udyziikBR)]. 516 fiizDam. 517 iuu. 

O- 518 BaDii. 519 »tbr. 520 baa. 621 va'wi,\ 522 aap'ra. 523 aap. 
524 ubbrdol\ 

O: 625 aaf and H [for of]. 526 koaf. 526 boaT. 628 dhaaT. 529 
baasT. 531 DeeTBR. 532 kaal. 533 DSL* [a variant of (a) in direction of (o, o) 
or (a), ?my (h>)]. 534 o«l\ 635 yaaK. 636 ga'«i/D. 537 maW. 538 un. 

— H olb [hollow]. 539 faW. 540 oi/i,. 541 uont. 542 baWT. 543 on. 
544 dheN. 545 op, op. 646 vaBR. 547 buBRD. 549 wbrd. 550 ubbrd. 
551 BtaaRra. 652 kaaRN. — H sxaaR NVB:u [scornfully]. 553 aaRN. 554 

fcllEES. 

O'- 555 shuu. 556 tb. 557 tuu and H. 568 l«'k and H. 559 madhBR. 
560 skuu9l\ 561 DLMMm. 662 m»N\ 563 raoND» l . 564 zu^n. 565 Naaz. 

— Gaaa'iN [growing]. 567 T3)dhBR. 568 bRadb.BR. 

0': 569 bu£K- 570 tu,k. 571 gu,D H ga'D [(u„ » l ) are practically 
identical]. 572 dlsd. 673 tlbd. 674 [(9 «T*h) a hatch, used]. 575 stmd. 
676 feNZD*!- 577 ba'w. 578 pLa'w. 579 \$ra.i [([Ol hardly audible] H Bnaf. 
580 Taf. 583 liiwC. 584 tickaC. 586 D««\ 687 D3>N. 588 otto^n. 589 
sjpuUjN. 590 tlobbr. 592 zubbr. 593 masT. 694 bu^. 695 TU(T. 596 
[(maa'R) used]. 597 zu^. 

IT- 599 boor. 600 Lar. 601 va'«L. 602 za'u. 603 kam. 604 zamiBR. 
605 zaN. 606 d4br. 607 baTBR. 

U: 608 agl'i]. 609 raL. 610 fifei, N [there seems to be a distinct separation 
of («&)]• 611 b»LOK. 612 zam. 613 DRaqk. 614 aW. 615 paW. 616 
gRa'wN . 617 za'uNLD. 618 umn\ 619 va'««N\ 620 gRa'e«N'. 621 iia'«N\ 
622 sndbr. 623 ve'wn\d. 624 gRa«N'. 625 raq\ 626 aqgBR. 627 zaNDt,. 
628 NaN\ 629 zaN\ 630 uaN*. 631 dhozdii dhBBRZDi,. 632 ap and H. 
633 Kap. 634 droo. 635 uath. 636 vbbrdbr. 637 TasK. 639 Da'wsT. 

V- 640 K.a'w. 641 a'«. 642 dha'«. 643 Na'«. 645 doov. 646 ba'w. 

[ 1488 ] 



D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 57 

647 aW. 648 a'ttBB. 649 dha'wzV. 650 ba'wT. 651 fiidha'ttT. 652 kud. 
653 baT. 

U': 654 zhRa'aD. 656 Ra'm. 657 bRa'»N\ 658 da'«N\ 659 raW. 
660 ba'wBR [arbour]. 661 sha'aBR. 662 as. 663 a'«s and H. 664 ta'ws. 
665 ma'as. 666 a>zbaN. 667 a'aT. 668 paa'«D. 671 ma'ath. 672 za'ath. 

T- 673 mamh. 674 did. 675 DRay. 676 Lay. 677 DRay. 679 TshBBRTsh. 
680 bizi,. 681 biz^nes. 682 mtsl", H ljt'l\ 

Y: 684 bRtDzh. 685 RtDzh. 686 bay. 687 vLdyr. 688 zaTsh. 689 
b/aL'D. 690 kdyN. 691 mdyN|D H ma'yN. 692 tsqis. 693 zi,n. 696 
bBBRth. 697 beR«i. 698 mBBRth. 699 RoyT. — H aaR N9T [hornet]. 700 
iias. 701 vasT. 702 ui. 703 piT. 704 viKsh'N. 

Y- 705 sKa'y. 706 ua'y. 707 dhBBRTiiN. 708 tu dyvs.. 

Y': 709 vaiBR. 711 Lays. 712 mays. 

n. English. 

A. 713 baeD. 714 lsbd. 715 pseD. 716 bdl'd Eg. — H kaeDLfo 
[caddling, quarrelling]. 718 trmd. 722 nsae'iN. 723 dae'JRi. 724 baeaeLV 
725 riioL'. 726 TseaSk. 727 Dzhaem. 728 «haem. 729 friim. — H SNaepT 
[snapped]. 732 aepV. 734 Daa'au. 735 smse'ish. 736 lees. 737 miiT. 
738 pRiiT. 740 uiv* uiiv\ 741 miiz. 742 liizi,. 

E. 743 SKRiim. — H LiiBR [lear= empty]. 744 miizaxV 745 TshiaT. 
746 bRiidh. 748 faeDzhD. 749 LefT, Ta Lta'v. 750 baeg. 751 p/BRT. — H 
se'sm [to aim]. 752 vReT. 

I. and Y. 753 T«KaL\ 754 peg. 755 viLOBRT. 756 zhR^mp. — TiiiNDzh 
[twinge]. 757 ta'yni t . 758 gseL\ 759 vst. 760 shivaL\ — H mEKsaN 
[mixen, dungheap]. 

0. 761 lmod. 762 a-xam. 763 [(Raav) rove, used]. 765 :DzhaN. 767 
ne'jz. 768 xa«K. 770 :TaniBS. 771 von'd. 772 boNVdyBR. 773 Dtarsi^ 
774 pari,. 775 b«'b»,. 776 gu'n buoy. 777 sh«p. 778 bvm'-brd. 779 
[(1/avinz) leavings, used]. 781 badhBR. 783 paWTRij. 784 ba'aNS. 786 
Da'as. 787 za'az. 790 ga'wn. 791 bua'y. 

U. 792 skuab«L\ — H ia'aK'L [yuckel, woodpecker]. 793 ag. 794 Dzhag. 
795 shRag. 796 bL'ii 1 . 797 [(sKUAL'in) used). 798 kubbr. 799 skel\ 801 
Ram. 802 Ram. 803 Dzhamp. — maN»h [munch]. 804 DRa>q > K [as (-qk) 
often occurs]. 805 kRadz [en uee]. 806 vas. 807 pt^s. 808 paT, H paT. 

m. Komaitce. 

A- 809 iiboL'. 810 flis. 811 plus. 812 Liis. 813 buVN. 814 miis'N. 
816 fiin. 817 Rsevish. 818 iiDzh. 819 RiiDzh. 820 gEE. 821 Dike. 822 
mee maeae. 824 Tshae'iBR. 825 uEEf. 826 iigaL. 829 gae'iN. 830 TRae'tN. 

— H bsegBNeT [bayonet]. 832 mae-j^BR. 833 pbbr and H. 834 shae'tz, shi'z. 
835 niizV. 836 ziiz'n\ 838 trut. — mi'aL [male]. 840 TshaembBR. 

— H viimas [famous]. 841 TshEEns. 842 plae'qk. 843 hmessh. 844 TReNah. 
845 aeqshBNT. 846 tsjieenbr. 847 DaeNDzhBr. 848 Tshae'/NDzh. 849 STRaeNDzh. 
850 deens. 851 ent. 852 ee - pbrn. — H saa^Kas [carcass], 853 baaRG/N. 
854 b»R8L\ 855 k«rbt. 856 pBBRT. 857 Kiis. 858 bRiis. 859 rahiis. 

— H paeaesin [passing]. — H vm't [fate]. 860 piisT. 861 tust. '■ — H 
NiishaN [damnation]. 862 siif. 863 Tshse'f. 864 bikEEz. — H kEEZ [cause] . 
865 vaaT. 866 p«BR. 

E- 867 Tii. 868 Dzh.EE. 869 viW. 870 biaiv 871 «gaii. 872 
Tshj'af. 874 Rae'tN. 875 fae'iNT. 876 Dae'tNTij. 877 bbr. 878 saeLaRi,.' 
879 ii-meei^. 880 egzaempT. — H Kanshans [conscience]. 881 zeus. 882 
[(LavaLa'yDaL') used]. 883 daBNDiLowN. 884 opReims. 885 vbrj,. 886 VRdyBR. 
887 kLBRDzhBmaBn. 888 zaaRT'N\ — H pBze-shaN [possession] . — H zaaR 
[sieve]. 890 beasT. 891 fi'asT. "892 Nevi. 893 fLa'MBR. 894 dizii-v. 895 
Rtzii-v. 

I-. and Y-- 897 d«LdVT. 898 Nays. 899 niis. 900 pnEB. 901 va'yw, 
H va'yu. — iNKLa'yND [inclined]. 902 ma'yN. 903 DdyN\ 904 vayLaT. 905 
RayaT. 906 vdypBR. 908 BDva'yz. 909 bRiiz. — H spdyrfBL [spiteful]. 
910 Dzhse'is. 911 ztsTBBN. 912 Ra'ys. 

[ 1489 ] 



58 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

•• 913 xaa-rsh. 914 buooTsh. 915 sTaf. 916 a'ytoN. 917 R««g. 918 
viiboL\ 919 se'iNTnreNT. 920 pa'ynt. 921 BkMSe'iNT. — H STdni [story]. 
922 bU]Shai,\ 923 ma'yst. 924 T«h«ys. 925 v«ys. 926 spwofyEiA — STam»k 
[stomach]. 927 TRaqK. 928 Na«NS. 929 XMKimBR. 930 lo'jn. 933 fnaNT. 
935 KaNTE«. 936 fa'«NT. — H puopBB [proper]. 938 kaaRNBR. 939 kl««s. 
940 Kuai H KooaT. 941 t«'l\ 942 bUjTshBR. 943 TaTsh. 944 BLaV. 
945 va'ii'. 947 buayeiA 948 baeV. 950 sa>puR. 951 KapaiA 952 kuors. 
953 kaz'N\ 954 kwsh«'N. 955 Da'«T. 956 kavBR. 958 fREE. 959 kBUVEE. 
961 gr&W. 963 xwdyoT. 964 shfc>T. 965 ae'ioiA 966 iru't. 967 sM't. 
968 Ee'isTBR. 969 sha'weR. 970 Dzhas H Dzh^s. 971 vi^t. 



Phase III. Tihhead, 8 sse. Devizes, in the centre of "Wl. 

Theodulf s hide, Tydulviside, Tidulside, Tyleside, Tilshead, called (:ta-lsBd), 
as I was informed by the then Vicar's daughter, Miss Louisa H. Johnson, who was 
born and had resided there above forty years. She kindly wrote a wl. and dt. 
and on 6 Oct. 1879 called on me to work them over vivd voce. She also gave 
me the example of Hocktying or Hocktide. The custom about 1850 was that on 
the second Tuesday after Easter, the young men tied the ancles of any young 
women they could catch about ; and on the following Wednesday the girls re- 
turned the compliment. The following was the explanation given by old people, 
which I wrote from Miss J.'s diet. Probably every (t d n 1 r) should be (t d l n r), 
but I leave the transcription as I wrote it. 

1. The Peasants' account of the origin of hock-tying or hoctide in 
the village of Tilshead. 

wans dhraB wen bed fook oz wd k«'p on ra kamm ii'n, ran ra robm 
once there were red folk as would keep on a-coming here, and a-robbing 

dh):«qb'sh fook, ran rat last dhai ap en 8et)ram, ran ta'id^m ap 
the English folk, and at last they up and at them, and tied them up 

tra purastiz ran kat dhraE DEots. 
to posts and cut their throats. 

2. Tilshead dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Johnson. . 

(1.) zoo a^i dra zee, mfrats, dhii dra zii na'u, dhrat a!i bi ra'it raba'ut 
dh«'k liit'L maid kamih vrom dhra skiiurai, jonDras. 

(2.) shii)z ragwain da'un dhra roorad dhee'E, deuti dh' bed gfrat on 
dhra l»ft haend za'id ra)dhra wai. 

(3.) shuns ranaf dhra tjE'ild hsev rawE-nt sisait ap tra dhra duras 
ra)dhra roq ha'us. 

(4.) -wees shi)ral mE)bi va'ind dhj'k DBa:qk'n d»f shriv'ld fElra ra)dha 
niram rav :toomes. 

(5.) wi)d sesel naa)n veej weI. 

(6.) wa.)nt dh)aald tjsep zuun laBir shi not tra duu)t ragEn, puuB 
dhEq ! 

(7.) loks, [i)laa - k)i] biira)nt rat teuu ? 

t U9 « 3 



D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 59 

3. Tushead owl. 
Pal. in 1879 by AJE. from the diet, of Miss Johnson. 

i. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 3 hide. 4 tiek. 5 mink. 6 misd. 7 sisk. 12 zee. 13 naa. 14 
rmaa. 17 laa. 18 kirak. 20 limn. 21 niwn. 22 tium. 23 si«m. 24 sMsm. 
36 dhaa. 37 tlaese. A: 40 kuuom. 41 dlraqk. 45 want. 55 eshez. 
56 waa'sh. A: or 0: 58 vrom. 61 Bmseq. A'- 67 guu. 76 tuuBd. 
81 Hen. 83 milium. 84 muuBR . 85 suubr . 86 wats. 87 klaaz. 89 
buu«dh. 92 naa. 93 snaa. 95 droo. A': 104 RtiuBd. 115 huuBm. 
118 buusn. 122 n6o«n. 124 stuusn. 125 on*. 127 Mubrs. 128 [(dham) 
used]. 129 guuBst. 131 guust. 

M- 139 DR&i. 140 haiL. 141 nail. 142 snaiL. 143 taiL. 144 BgEn. 
145. slain. 146 main. 147 hnain. 148 faiR. — Emet [emmet more used 
than ant]. M: 155 dha3tj. 158 set'R - 160 a?g. 163 lai. 164 [(mid) 
pi. (mid'n) used.] 165 zEd. 166 maid. 174. aish. 175 va^st. M- 183 
teeti. 189 wai. 190 kEE [in East Lavington (4 s. Devizes) (koi), possibly (kai)]. 
192 mitsn. 193 kliBn. 197 triiz. 202 hEt. JE': 205 DREd. 207 nid'L. 
213 iidhBR. 218 ship. 225 flesh. 226 muuBst. 

E- 236 fEEVBR. 237 tjilblain. 241 Rain. 242 twain. 243 plai. 252 
kit'L. 253 nEt'L. E: 261 zee. 262 wai. 265 sTRait. 270 bdosiz. 
284 DRfiish. — bast [to burst]. 286 haRB. 287 bizem. E'- 294 viid. 
298 Tii'ld [(vaa'LDiD), felt, as that something is hot]. E': 306 ha'it. 307 
na'i. 314 hii'RD, ju'rd. 315 viit. EA: 321 [(zid) see'd, used]. 322 

heaef. 323 faut. 324 ait. 326 aald. 327 buuBLD. 328 kuuBLD. 329 
tuubld. 330 huuBLD. 331 suubld. 332 tuiiBLD. 333 kaesef. 334 hsesef. 
335 aesel. 336 vaesel. 342 jaaRm. 346 giBt. EA'- 349 viu. EA': 352 
brd. 355 dif. 359 naibBR. 362 slai. 370 Rsea?. 371 sTRaja?. EI- 373 
dhai. 376 bait. EI: 379 haiL. 381 swain. 382 dhaiR. EO: — 
vaaRmBR. 403 vbr. 407 tord'n. EO'- 411 DRii. 413 diTBl. 420 vauBR. 
421 vaunTi. EO': 423 dha'i. 426 vait. 430 viRND. 

I- 447 hBRN [hers, in ITrchfont (4 se.Devizes) (shiiz'n) is used]. 448 dhii'z. 
I: 460 wait. 466 tjaild. 468 tjildtsKn. 481 viqgBR. 484 dhii'z. 485 
dhis'L. 486 [(baaRm) used]. I'- 499 Wt'l [see p. 53, col. 2]. I': 606 
«mBn. 507 winren. 

O- 522 oop'm. 523 hoop. 524 wsrd'l. O: — troo [trough]. 528 
dhaat. 531 dsesetX- 532 kAAl. 536 guuBLD. 537 [(dsRT) dirt, used]. 539 
bool. 545 hop. — TaoJc [fork, "the mouth must be elongated as for a grin"]. 
547 buuBRD. 548 tuubrd. 549 htiUBRD. 552 kaRN. 553 haRN. 554 
knaas. O'- 565 nuuBz. 566 adhBR. O': 577 ba'u. 578 pla'u. 579 
Bno'f [(Bna'u) not heard]. 580 ta'u. 582 kuuBL. 683 tuuBL. 584 stiitreL. 
589 spuuBn. 590 Auubr. 592 suubr. 597 z«t. 

F- 601 va'uBL. 602 za'u. 606 duu'r. U: 609 t»l, vuubl. 610 uu'l. 
TJ: 618 mind. 619 va'und. 634 DRa'u. 635 wath. 636 vaRDBR. . U'- 
641 ha'u [approaching to (hou)]. 642 [(dhii) used]. IJ': 663 ha'us [pi. 

(ha'uz'n)]. 665 ma'us. 

Y- 682 liit'l. Y: — wast [worst]. 701 vasT. Y- 707 dh'RTiin. 
709 yu'ir. 

rr. English. 

A. 722 Duain. 723 deeRi. 742 liBzt. 

E. 743 skr««m. 744 meez'lz. 745 triit. 748 [(flash) used]. 750 bseg. 

I. andY. 754 pEg. 756 shRjmp [= lollipop]. 758 gaR'L [rather a foreign 
word, used for a sweetheart]. 

O. 761 ltiuad. 767 na'tz. 769 [(want) used]. 773 doqki. 774 puuni. 
778 btuubrd. 781 bodhBR. 783 pa'uLTRi. 790 ga'und. — DRa'und [pp. 
(dRa' undid), drown, drowned]. 

IT. 795 slmag. 801 Ram. 802 Ram. 805 kaRDZ. — kaR'LZ [curls]. 
806 fas. 808 pat. 

[ 1*91 ] 



60 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i, if. 

m. Romance. 

A- 809 jebVl. 810 fitss. 811 pl««z [pi. (pleez'n)]. 812 lira. 813 
Muk'n. 817 REdish. 822. mai. 824 tjaiBR. 827 [(tan) fierce, used]. 829 
g&in. 830 TR&in. 836 seez'n. 840 tjambX- 841 trams. 843 biwenti. 
845 senslrent. 847 daendrer. 848 tjamdi. 849 STRsendjBR. 850 dsens. 851 
sent. 852 jaepBRN. 855 kaanat. 856 pEEat. 860 p««st. 861 test. 862 
sib! 864 koz. 865 fvaeset. 866 puuR. 

E- 867 tee. 869 vUbl. 874 Rain. 875 faint. 876 dainti. 877 Mr. 
878 saelsRi. 879 ieemeel. 887 [(paeses'n) parson used]. — faitsr [market]. 
890 [pi. (biisstiz)]. 891 viBst. 892 rum. 893 vla'uBR. 894 ddaee-y. 
895 nisee-v. 

I- andX- 900 pR&i. — fES [fierce ; see No. 827]. 901 va'in. 904 
va'ilit. 910 djist [pi. djistiz]. 

O •• 914 bRuutj. 916 a'inBn. 919 a'intnwmt. 920 pa'int. 921 aekwaint. 
922 bewhel. 923 ma'ist. 924 tja'is. 926 spuuiL. 929 ka'ukBmb'R. 930 
k'in. 936 vdnt. 938 kaRUBR. 939 [(kaoft) croft, used for a close]. 940 
kuu't. 941 fuUBL. 942 bwtjeR. 943 tatj. 947 ba'iL. 948 ba'uL. 950 
sapBR. 951 kap'L. 954 kwshBn. 955 da'ut. 956 kivBa. 

U- 961 gruUBl. 964 zuuit. 965 a'il. 968 a'ist'a. 969 shun'R. 
970 djsst. 

Vae. ii. The Northern on Gl. Form. 

Theee interlinear cs. marked V, T, D. 

V marks the cs. for Vale and Town of Gloucester. It was first written in his 
own orthography by John Jones, Esq., who had known the dialect for 50 years, and 
was afterwards corrected in pal. from his diet, by AJE. He gave XJ = (a) uniformly, 
but TH. in travelling over the district found the M. («, u ) with sometimes (o) 
and of course (s, a), not only in Tewkesbury, Ashchurch (8 n. Cheltenham), 
and Buckland (12 ene.Tewkesbury), which I place in D 6 = w.BS, but also frequently 
in Gloucester, Cheltenham, Bishop's Cleve (3 n.Cheltenham), Brockworth and 
Birdlip (6 se.-by-s. Gloucester), and even in Cirencester, Fairford (8 e. Ciren- 
cester) and Tetbury, so that it would appear that the whole of east Gloucester 
were in the mixed region. Indeed TH. heard (« ) as far s. as Purton Wl. 
(10 sse. Cirencester) . It is evident that a mixture of (a, a, o, u, « ) for V 
does not interfere with the dialect, which is strongly marked. The oldest form 
necessarily had some variety of (u), and hence («, «„) must in this region rather 
be considered as survivals, than as M. encroachments, see supra p. 17. Of 
course (a, a) are recent developments, that is, begun and developed within 
500 years. For (« ) see the introduction to the Midland division. 

T marks the Tetbury cs. It was written in io. by Miss Frampton, daughter 
of the then vicar, and was pal. by AJE. from answers to a very long series of 
questions which she kindly answered. There is, however, always room for some 
doubt where there has not been personal audition. As regards U, Miss Frampton, 
like Mr. Jones, apparently used (a, a), but TH. was informed in September 1885 
by two stonecutters from Tetbury that (u ) generally and a few (o) were the 
sounds there used. The (o) is one of the transitional forms, see Line 2, p. 17. 

D marks the Forest of 'bean or Coleford cs. It was written from the dictation 
of Raymond D. Trotter, Esq., native of Newnham (10 sw. Gloucester), who kindly 
spent many hours with me over it in 1873 in company with his sister, who gave 
phrases from Aylburton on the s. of the Forest. Mr. Trotter visited me again 
about it in 1878. This, and Mr. Law's from Christian Malford are the two best 
w. examples of D 4 which I have personally heard. 

0. V Vale of Gloueester. •wao'i :djon b got nuu' dao'uts. 
T Tetbury. wao'i :djon «)n« dao'uts. 

D Forest of Dean. wso'i idifak doo)'nt dao'Nit. 

[ 1492 ] 



D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 61 

1. V weI, naibwR, juu mi ii m« buu'th laf Bt dixia 

T wal, natbBB, dhii Bn ii mat boo'tb. laef Bt dh«s m'b 

D ao'« zdi ndihs&, juu «n *'m mdi bw'th on)i gsm bz matj bz 

V niuuz b mao'«'n. huu kii'Bz ? dbat's nao'idhtfB jaa nBB 
T niuuz b muao'e'n uu &v kn'B ? dhast b«e)nt j»Vb nBB 

D dbii)st lao'«k Bt dh»s)jjV bz ao'i)v bra b tElcn on)j«, uu d«st 

V dhaoB. 
T dbaa. 

D dlu'qk Bd k*'a v'b dhat ? t)»V)'nt noo odz ! 

2. V viau rook. do da>'«, bikoz dbu bi laft)«t, 
T dhaB bi prEshas viu ez daA'z koz bz eo'u dhB bi lae8eft)Bt, 
D dhBB b/Y'nt mon* bz &e daa'i v'b dhrf« birra. mdid ge'm on. 

V mi dB nau, duu)'nt)os ? wot zhwd mak [mii'k] Bm ? t)ii)'nt 
T wii dB nau, d«0a)nt)as ? wot sh^d miik Bm ? t)ee)nt 
D bso'« dire leo'^ks b dhii, wii dB noow dhdt, d<w>)'nt os ? wot 

V VEsi leo'tklt bii it? 
T Wiili? 

D zhwd mee'k)Bn, mBn ? t)*V)'nt aee'ZBnBb'l nae''w, iz it ? 

3. V eo'uwa'VBB, dhee bi dhB vakts bv dhB hit's, zoo dj«st 
T uusbje'vbb, dbiiz bi dh.B vaekts zb 

D sb juu djEst oold riuu'B djAA, Bn hao'mht b b*t w«'ja>'ttt b 

V bao'u'ld jbb naiz, mB vBEnd, Bn bi kweoV'Bt tBl «/t)v 
T eo'wld jbb djAA, Bn k«'p kwao'i'Bt til ao'«')v 

D nwslES'tBn b mii, til ao'i)v tEld)jB. nao'w ju aask'n b b»t 

V B)dan. aask)i. 
T dan. 

D Bn bao'«d kwao'i-Bt, t*l ao'« b dan. 

4. V eo'» be zaBtin zhuu's, bz eo'« «V'bd Bm za* — zam b 
T eo'«')m zaaten a>'« jii'KD Bm zii — zam b 
D ao'» bi zaaEt'n zhuu'B, bz ao'«')v jii'KD Bm zdi — zam b 

V dhsm vook bz wEnt drod'u dhB wal (wi'l) dh«'q vBBm dhB 
T dhee vaak bz WEnt dbuu dhB wwl dhEq VBBm dhB 
D dha« dhBB vook bz WEnt iraao'w dhB oo'l on't db.BBZE - lvz 

V vast dhBBZE-lvz, -dhat ao'i d*'d zhww'r Bnaf ! 
T vast dhBBzE-lz, — -dhset b d*d zhuu's. -nao'u ! 

D vBBm dh« vast, — •db.dt)s vbb zhww's bz eo'i d*d ! 

5. V bz dhB jaqg«'st zan «'zzE-]f, b gaoBT buoV b nao'ra, nawd 
T dhB jaqgBst zan BzzE-lf , b gaoBT buao'« b nao'ra, nood 
D bz dhB Jaqgest zan i'zzE'lf, b gMdna'bBVBbfio* b nao'ra, noowd 

[ 1493 ] 



62 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V ii. 

V iz vaadhBEz va*s rat wans, dhaw t)waz 
T iz vfflsedhraBz va*s, dhoo t)wa>B 
D iz v«Y'dhBBz taq raz zuun az ra oop'nd iz mao'ttth dhoo t)wBz 

V sb kwam Bn skM>«ek*n, Bn ao'«')d TBast - ii tB sp«ek dhB 
T zb kwii's Bn skM>irki lao'ik, Bn - ii-d trf. dhB 
D zafcf b kweea skweeken va>V's, ran eo'«)d b«k - ii tra speek dhB 

V TBUuth on? dee, A.'i, -dhat * wd, Awa'VBB. 
T TBunth "dhset ra wd. 

D TBu'th on* da*', di 'dhdt ao* id ! 

6. V ran dhra ao'wld wmran bbze-H ral tEl Em on)i raz iz A laflm nao'w, 
T ran dhra ao'wld wmran bbze - 1 wl tix En* ov)i dheet laef nao'w, 
D ran dh)aa'ld unusn bbze-K rad tEl boe)b wan on)i raz iz a giuulran 

V radhao'wt matf bodhraE, tuu, *'f jra)l 
T ran tEl)i slsep AAf w»'dha>'wt muu'a raduu-, *'f)i wl 
D Bn tEl)i Eeo'*t Aif, tuu, w»)ao'ut mEtj on-dBBmrant, if dhii)lt 

V oonli Eks be, wa)nt ra nao'*dhraE ? 
T oon» seks shi — oo' ! want sh*? 

D oon* Eks)raE, di -dhdt rar Ad. 

7. V l««st waiz [En»)a/«] be tawld »t ta so'* weii soV Ekst be, 
T l«*'st waiz be tElt •»'* wEn eo'« sekst shi, 
D lii'st waiz be tEld it -eo'i WEn eo'i Ekst be, 

V tuu be DEii tao'imz ooybb, b did, Bn be AAt)'nt to bi 
T duu be DEii tao'imz be did, -am did)'nt AAt)ra bi 
D duu be DEii tao'imz be moo'E, a* dhdt be did, ran - eoE AAt)'nt tB bi 

V Boq on zatj b piiao'int bz dhis — wAAt dB juu dhiqk [dhEqk] ? 
T saq on sit} lao'ik, wot d)jB dhEqk nao'w ? 
D noo waiz ao'wt on zatj a pao'int bz dbik, w<rt)st '(1011 dbiqk ? 

8. V wal, bz eo'i wraz B)zarin ode)d tEl)i eo'« waos Bn wsn soE 
T wal, bz eo'» wbe ra)zar*h, shii)d tEl)i eo'w wan ran waos be 
D raz eo'i wbz ra)zdrBn "aE)*^ tal)i eo'w was Bn wan be 

V vao'wnd dhB DEaqk'n b««st raz eos dra kill ode azbran. 
T fao'wnd dhra DEaqk'n biirast shii dB ksesel be azbran. 

D veo'ttnd dhra DEaqk'n bi'st raz 'e kaa'ld be mee'stras. 

9. V aoE zwaoED [zoo's] bz ao'u bz be z*d ran w« be awn ao'iz, 
T shi swaas shi ziid im. widh be ao'wn ao'iz, 
D be zwooe raz ras zid ran wi be oo'n eo'»z, 

V B)l8o'rm ZDEEtjt Bt ml lEnth on dhB gBao'«nd, in iz gud 
T ra)lao'fin ao'nt sesel Bloq t'n iz bn'st 
D lao'rBn aaI rat iz lEqkth ralaq dhra gEao'wnd, wi iz best 

[ 1494 ] 



D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 63 

V zandi kwat klooz tB db.B doo'E b dhB ao'ws dao'wn vb dho 
T zandi koo't Bnao'r dhB daw's b dim ao'ws deo'wn n9o'« dhe 
D zandi-gwdm kwat on, djEst bao'« dhB duu'E b dim ao'ws, 

V kaanrat b ,t«ot>bb \een. 
T kaasnBB [ko'm] b jon liin. 

D dao'wn dhao'E bao'*' dh.B koEnBl b jondbbz lee'n. 

10. Y b wbz B)wao'»h*h bwa'«, Br zez, vbe aaI dhB waoELD lao'«k 
T ii wbb B)wao'«mh Bwd«, i warn, (be sesel dhB waoBU) lao'ik 
D b wbz «)ao'wlOT. Bwd« dhaoE, vbe aaI dhB waosLD lao'«k 

V b z»k tjao'*ld, be b b't'l gjeoBL (wEntj) in b vast, 
T b z*'k tjao'»ld be b lj't'l ma«'d seael bv b vBEt. 
D b dog kotjt in b trdp, be b z«k tjao'ild in b vEEt. 

11. V Bn dhat ap'nd bz - aoE Bn be daanra in laa, kam 
T Bn dbis jbb aep'nd bz -boe Bn shiiz daaTBB-lAA, kBtn 
D an dh#t weos djEst bz -am Bn be dAAtBE-LAA, kam 

V DEao'u dhB bak jasn vBBm aq/n eo'wt dim WEt klooz tB 
T deuu dhB bsek jaaBD vebhi b aeq»n ao'wt dhB WEt kloo'z tB 
D dbbo'w db.B jiaED vebci b aqan ao'wt dhB WEt kloo'z tB 

V DE8o'«, on b wosh«h dee. 
T DE9o'«i, on b waeslwn dii. 

D DBa>'«, on b washBn [wesImhl] dd». 

12. V wao'*l dhB kEtBl wbz b bo«l*n vbe tee, wan vao'in bBao'«t 

T BgEn dhB k*'t'l bao'«ld vbe tee, wan fao'm aatBEgnuun 

D wm dhB k»t'l wbz b bao'tlBn vbe tee, won vdmsh bE8o'»t 

V zamBE aatBEnuun oonli b w*k Bguu-B kam nEkst dhaoEzdi. 
T b zamBE b w«k Bgon kam dhaoEzdi. 
D zamBE aatBEnuun, b w»k kam nEkst dhaoEzdi. 

13. V Bn dB ju naw ? so'*' nevBE ju'ed noo muu's naos dh«s b dhat 
T Bn b tEl)i wot, b n«VBE jii'ED tal nB mwa's on)t 

D Bn dBst noou, aoV nEVBE laoBND noo muu's nBE dh»s b dhat 

V dham beznes ap tB tBd««, bz zhuu'E)z maoV ni'mz [neem)z~] 
T ap tB nao'«, bz beuu bz meo'« niim)z 

D dhiBE djob bz zhww'B bz maoV nd«'m)z 

V :djon :znEpBED, Bn ao'» dwa)nt want tu naoVdliBB, dhaoE nao'u 
T :djon :zhEpBET, Bn ao'« da)nB waent tB naoVdhBB, zoodhaoE! 
D :djon :zhEpBED, Bn ao'« doo)'nt w«nt tB noou niidb.BE. 

14. V Bn zoo ao'« bi B)gwa«'n warn tB zapBE, gwd 
T zoo ao'«')m B)gwa«h warn tB zapBE, g««d 

D Bn zoo ao'i bi B)gwdm ram tB a)mi b b«t b zanu't te rat, 

[ 1495 ] 



64 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



[D4, Vii. 



V nao'«t, Bn dwa)nt bi zb kwl t« keaw oovbe b bodi Bgi'n, 
T na>'»'t, Bn decant)* bii zb k«>*k t« kaaw oo'b b bodi vgin, 
D nao'«'t)t)jB, Bn doo'nt bii zoo zhaitp ootbe b tjap, 

V weh b)z B)tAAk«n b dhis dhat be t)adliim 
T -weii i dB taeaek b dh«k b dhsek. 

D wan B tAAks e dbis Br dhdt. 

15. Y «t)s b w««k vuul bz prists Bdha/wt 

T vn dhEn weI tB it. 
D b man. ja)nt noo bstBE wes. b vuul bz da tiik w»)ce'ttt 

V iwzBn . Bn dhat)s mao'i last wa>Bd. gwdbuaw. 

T gwd bua)'«i')tB)i. 

D noo ZEns, b dhdt)s meoV l««st wasd. zoo gwd boo'i t).re. 



Notes to V, Vale and Town of Gloucester. 



Mr. Jones considers his cs. to be a 
fair specimen of the dial, spoken about 
Gloucester in the Vale. In the town 
the use of z- for s- is not so frequent, 
and (th) generally remains as in rs. 
But in the town the sound of (ii) con- 
tinually replaces that of (ee) even 
among educated people. Mr. Bellows 
quotes from Lord Campbell's Life of 
Judge Hale, p. 230, to the effect that 
the judge's name was in Gloucester 
called eel (iil), and that Mr. Bloxham, 
Clerk of the Peace, born near Alderly 
(7 se. Berkeley), near the Judge's 
native place, in summoning the Jury 
in Court, called out (:diiv«d :iil, bv dhe 
siim pliis, biik«R), for David Hale, of 
the same place, baker, and Mr. Bellows 
recollects a farmer telling him that he 
heard Mr. Bloxham say : ' ' Answer to 
your (niim) name, and (siiv) save your 
fine." In a paper called a specimen 
of the Vulgar Speech of the Town of 
Gloucester, reprinted by Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte from the Transactions of the 
Cotswold Field Naturalists' Club for the 
year 1851, many such words occur. 
But they are by no means confined to 
the neighbourhood of Gloucester town. 
They will be found in Miss Frampton's 
Tetbury Specimen, and she gave me 
other instances. The following list 
contains all those in the above paper 
(unmarked), and those given by Mr. 
Jones (marked J), and Miss Frampton 



(marked F) . The words are arranged 
in the usual classes and in ordinary 
spelling, the letter pronounced (ii) being 
italicised. 

A- baker, drake, take, F taken, make, 
made, cradle, F tale, lame, 
J F name [and (naim) F], 
J some, gome, F mane [are, 
fare, as in rec. sp. ware (want)], 
bathe, rather. 

A'- lane. 

AE- blaze, hazle. 

AE: waken, day, F today [exceptional 
and not constant]. 

AE'- F stairs. 

EA- shake, shape. 

A. tradesmen, F trade, James, prates, 
potatoes [(ttituRz)], wave, qua- 
vering, gaze. 

A •• table, face and F, preface, place, 
bacon, paring, case, plate, sepa- 
rate, observation, narration, 
state, paste. 

As regards the series A-, A., A-. 
this reduction to (ii) is merely a variety 
of (tfe, re, *') common in other parts of 
D 4, itself a reduction of (ia), which 
came naturally from (a-), but [ee, ee) 
are also found more in Do. and Sm. 
The intermediate form is (e'a), which is 
given by JGG. as the rural form about 
Chippenham "Wl., where (ii, ii 1 ) are the 
town forms. 



[ 1496 ] 



D 4, V ii.] 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



65 



Notes to D, Forest of Dean. 



0. why, doubts. I have throughout 
represented the first element of the 
diphthongs (a'i, a'u) by (ao) in this 
district. I am not quite satisfied. It 
may he (a>). I long hesitated between 
(oh, ce) and simple (a), which in Do. I 
adopted ; all my hesitation arose from 
study of sounds heard from Mr. Potter, 
Mr. Law and Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour. 
The first element is often medial or long, 
but as I did not mark it at the time I 
leave the vowel short. 

1. say, distinctly (z«»), varying in 
direction of (za'«) , not approaching (zee) . 

— neighbour, the (A'i) effect was very 
strong in this word. — thou dost, the 
(st) is a contraction hereabouts. — this 
here, the (j) is prefixed to («'r) in this 
phrase only. — it is not, (t)»»)'nt) 

tain't, is very common in this district, 
varies as (tjEnt), (it b«'nt) also used. 

2. their being made game of, (Shdi) 
for they not a common pron. in other 
districts but not unknown, they again 
is for their ; (mdid) made is similar to 
(no'im) name, par. 13, but (mi'd) is also 
used like the following (g«'m) game. 

— reasonable, the use of (r) initially 
was thoroughly settled with Mr. Trotter, 
who repudiated (r). — is it, (bii-Bt) 
is not used. 

3. molesting of me, or (mEdlBn wi 
mii) meddling with me. 

4. heard, (jm'rd), the effect of (b) 
on following or preceding (t, d, 1, n) 
converting them into (t, d, l, n) 
was carefully ascertained. — through 
(DRao'«), the (r) before a vowel being 
distinctly trilled, see par. 2, reasonable, 
(thB-) could not be pronounced, and 
hence (tr-) or (dr-) became necessary. 

— first (vast), the (r) is quite lost in 
this word, and in (bast, was, wast) 
burst, worse, worst ; can this arise from 
the retention of (s) instead of retracting 
or reverting it? Thus (vaR«T, vurs,t) 
would be quite possible, and this (s, s,) 
would be distinct from (s), either would 
lead to (sh) as in Sanscrit. But if this 
ever existed, it has disappeared. 

5. a good knob of a boy. 



the first syllable varies as (vi', ve', 
vie'). — I would back -he, the use of 
•he is conditioned by emphasis, other- 
wise (ao'i)d b«k)«n) with the S. hine. 

6. woman, emph. (Hhamun). — e'er 
a one, any one. — guling, the glos- 
saries give this as a He. word for 
sneering. — wonderment, if thou wilt 
only ask her. 

7. leastways, the use of (a't) in place 
of (ao't) shows that the speaker con- 
sidered the termination to be ways and 
not wise. — she told, when (br) is 
used for her = she, the (r) is distinct, 
when for her (as usually written) = he, 
the (r) is lost, (b tsld, br TEld) he told, 
she told, are thus kept distinct with- 
out emphasis, two or three times or 
more, in Aylburton (4 sse.Coleford, 
61.) they use (ene-nt) anent in place 
of ' or more,' meaning ' nearly, close 
upon,' but see anent in Murray's Dic- 
tionary. — what dost, see (dbii)st) 'thou 
dost,' par. 1. 

8. drunken scarcely used, (fad' Id) 
'fuddled' sometimes heard, but if a 
man is not very drunk they say, (ira. 
« bin b aVBn b DRiip) ' he's been having 
a drop,' and if he's very drunk indeed, 
(ira b got)Bt an)Bnt« Rao'its) ' he has got 
it on him to-rights, ' but ' drunk ' itself 
is almost a tabooed word. — beast, also 
(beest) . 

9. lying, they lie, and hens lay, (dhrft 
dB lso'i, Bn Enz dB las) bring out the 
two diphthongs very clearly. — coat, 
(kwat an) 'coat on, since the word 
runs on to (on) but in the pause it is 
(kwo't) in that's my coat (dhat)s mso't 
kwo't). — yonders, the phrase is used, 
but the grammar is not clear. 

10. howling, in the Forest of Dean, 
little babies even howl, andnever whine, 
(hut win - »kBn) is heard at Aylburton. 

11. clothes, Mr. Trotter thought he 
used (kloo'z), but on hearing the differ- 
ence, acknowledged (tloo'z). 

13. name, see made, par 2. 

14. and so I be a-going home to 
havejme a bit of somewhat to eat. The 
(a)mi) was nearly (a3)mi) . 



E.E. Pron. Part V. 



[ 1497 ] 



96 



66 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V ii. 



Phrases from Forest of Dean from diet, of Mr. Potter and Aylburton 
from diet, of Miss Potter. 

1. (bz aaEd bz Hheo'rwBN), as hard as iron [the first aspirate 

omitted as usnal, the second introduced for emphasis]. 

2. (b b»t bv b md*d), a bit of a maid [one growing up to 'woman- 

hood, a(gaEl is a maidservant of about fifteen, a (wEnsh) is 
a grown woman in a good sense]. 

3. (gaB)ewa« wi-Jv), get away with you, said to a dog [this con- 

version of (t) into (r) is very common with get before a 
vowel in numerous districts]. 

4. (a)z bra Bn rat mi on dins Jad), Forest; (iiz bra B)jat-ra mi 

on dhB Jad), Aylburton ; he's been and hit [been a-hitting] 
me on the head. 

5. (so'u guu, n»p*BB), how go (how are you), little fellow. 

6. (uu'z'n aowz'n bii")«m), whose houses be them = are they. 

Compare Sh. 

7. (baBd-dab**n), bird-dubbing, walking down in two companies 

on each side of a hedge and pelting at the birds, which fear 
to leave the hedge on either side. 

8. (raa)z b propBB Boq - k)'n), he's a proper rank-one (?), he's a 

regular deep one. 

9. (ao'*')m gwdin tra aa)mi «)rao'»d), I'm going to have me a ride 

[=to get a lift in a waggon]. 

10. (w)t, lwk)»), wilt thou, look-you. 

11. ( - uu b*st "dhii b dhaoVen), whom art thou a-thou-ing [in a 

quarrel, Forest]. Cao'i beent 9 gwd t in tie bii dhiid Wi dhao'u) 
I am)not a going to be thee'd by thou [Aylburton]. 

12. (b pool'ton ban - Bts), a-pelting walnuts. 

13. (b woo)'nt aas-k'n an-to mii), he won't hearken to me, won't 

do what I tell him. 

14. (ktp dham v«ts st*l), keep those feet still [that is, don't stamp, 

said at a public reading]. 

15. (HEft)'n), heave him or it, (HEft) weight or heavy load, both 

Forest and Aylburton. 

Glotjcesteb cwl. 

V Vale of Gloucester as in cs. 

T Tetbury as in cs. with some extras. 

C Cirencester from wl. given me w. by Miss Martin of Wbitelands. 

D Forest of Dean as in cs. 

A Aylburton as in specimens. 

W Whitcomb (5 ese.Gloucester), wn. by TH. 
Unmarked words belong to the four first-named places and also possibly to A. 

I. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 4 C tltsk. 5 m'rek. 17 V laa, TD Iaa. 18 k'rek. 12 V mtsm 
neem, T niim, D naim, C niom. 22 C t»8m. 24 C sh*«m. 28 C haoR. 
34 V last, D laost, T best. A: 39 VTD [(kstm) come, used]. 45 C ants. 
46 [(16tt) light, always used]. 54 V want, T wsent, D want. 56 V wash wash, 

[ 1498 ] 



D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 67 



f< 



T waesh, C [(bak'n) a small wash]. A: or 0: 58 VT vRBm. 60 Bla-g. 
64 V Roq, T Rag. A'- 67 VXD Bgw&in [a-going], D ao'u gun [how do 
o=do]. 73 VT zoo, D zoo. 75 TD dim, V tuu. 76 C tosd. 79 V asm, 
' ao'an, D ooBn. 81 V leen, D leeen, T liin. 82 wans. 84 VTD mtiuBR. 
86 C tiBts. 87 V klooz, TD H6obz. 89 V buuBth, D bwBth, T b6oBth. 
92 VT nau, D n6ou. 94 VT kRaa. 97 sao'«l. A': 102 VD aks, T seks. 
104 W rood. 113 V wal w»«l, T wwl, D -oobI. 115 VTC warn, D ram. 
118 C buen. 120 V Bguu-B, T Bgon. 122 V nuuu. 124 stuusn. 125 
oonli. 129 C guuBst. 130 C butit. 

M- 138 V raadhBR, T vasas— , D vi'— , ye'—, vie'—, C fsesedhBR. 143 
tkil. 144 V Bgien, T Bgin. 150 V leest, T liiBst, D Hist. 152 C waargR. 
M: 161 V dee, T dii, D da*. 162 V tsdee, T te dii. 163 16i. 166 T maid, 
D maid. 168 C tsealss. 169 VTD wan. 170 C aeaevst. 172 C gRaises. 
174 C eesh. 177 V dhat, D dh«t, [T (dhak) used). 179 V wAAt, T wot, 
D wot. 181 C pffiasth. M- 182 C see. 183 C teeti. 190 kee. 193 
kleen. 194 VT Eni, VD oni. 197 tjiz. 199 C Meet. 200 weet. 201 C 
eedh'n. JET; — sidz [seeds]. 207 nid'l. 210 kl6i. 214 VTD nao'idhBR. 
215 C taat. 218 C ship. 220 VD zhEphuRD, T — t. 223 DC dhaoR dh»R. 
224 VTD waoR. 227 VTD WEt. 

E- 233 V speek, D speek. — jEt [eat]. 252 V kntl, TDC kit'l. 
E: 256 V zDREtit, T sTREtjt. 261 VT zai, D z«i. 262 VTD wai. 265 
W strait. 276 VD dhiqk, VT dheqk. 278 wEnsh [always used for girl in a 
good sense]. 281 V lEnth, DT lEqkth. 284 DREsh. 287 C hiz'm [common 
word for all kinds of brooms]. — T bii'st, D bEst [best]. E': 313 DT 
aaRk'n. 314 V m'rd, TD jii'RD. 315 D Tits, C fit. 

EA- 320 VTD kwjR. EA: 322 V laf, T lsef . 323 fao'wt. 326 VT 
a/wld, D oseld, W 6wld a«ld. 330 V hao'wld, ao'wld. 332 V ta«ld, T trit, D 
tEld. 333 C hesei. 335 T sesel, DV aaI. 338 V kAAl, T kasel, D kaa'l. 
— aaRD [hard]. 343 C waaRm. 346 D glut, W gJEt. EA'- 347 D jEd, 
C rad. 348 VTD ao'iz, C 6i. 349 V Tiau. EA': 354 C Bheei. 365 C ditsf. 
356 C leei. 357 Shku dhoo. 359 T naibBR, D naibBR. 361 been. 366 VT 
gaoRT. 370 C Raa. 371 C STRaa. 

EI: 377 C sttek. 378 T week. EO- 386 C ja>'«. EO: 390 V zhwd, 
T shwd. 394 V jondbr, D wndbrz. 398 [C (klaem) used]. 399 VD bR»'it. 
402 D laoRN, T laaRN. EO'- 411 VTDC dru. 412 [(sob) her, used in 
nom., (shii) in ace.] 420 C rao'uR. 421 C faRti. 421 vo'Rth. EO': 422 
\V zik. 425 C loit. 435 [C ( dhii ) always used, even to superiors, perhaps 
from large quaker community]. 437 VT TRuuth, D TR»Bth. ET- 438 VTD 
da)'i. ET: 439 V TRast. 

I- 440 C week. 441 ziv. 446 C n6in. 447 V a>R [T (shiiz) she's, used]. 
I: 452 VTD ao'i, C 6i [evidently an error of my informant]. 455 VTD leoi, 
C 16*. 459 C R6it [f Ra'it]. 465 SEtj. 467 VTDC tjartld, "W tja"*!. 480 V 
dhiq, T dhsq. 484 VD dhis [T (dhik) used]. 487 JistBsdi. — jat [hit]. 
I'- 495 VT wao'in [D Jao'wl) howl, used]. 496 Hhao'iRN. I': 506 VTDC 
ranun. 510 V mao'in, T m&o'in [and generally (ao'i)]. 

O- 519 T amiR. 524 VTD wsorld. O: 531 daaTBR. 538 VTD «d. 
546 t'r. — [C (pRaq) prong used for fork"]. 547 buu'RD. 550 T weoRD. 
551 C stajun. 552 C kaRN. O'- 559 C madhBR. 564 zuun. 0': 571 
V gad. 577 C boo. 578 C ploo. 579 VT snaf. 586 V dwant, T da)mj, D 
doo'nt [don't]. 587 VTD dan. 592 V zwsord zoo'r [both used], T swaaR, D 
zwoor. 595 C fat. 

XJ- 601 fool. 602 zao'«. 603 W Bkamin. 604 VTD zamBR. 605 VTD 
zan. 606 TD d««BR, V doo'R, W duBR. XJ: 608 C [(oRnBRi) ordinary, used]. 
610 C «1. 612 VTD zam. 615 C poond. 616 VDT gaeo'wnd. 619 VD 
yaoVnd, T fa>'«nd. 627 VTD zandi. 631 dhaoRzdi. 632 VT ap. 633 C kwp. 
634 VD dreo'u, T druu, W thruu. XT'- 643 D nas"u, "Wnau. U': 658 
VTD dso'wn, C doon. 659 C toon. 663 VTD ao'as [pi. (a>'«z'n) C]. 665 C 
moos. 666 VT azbsn [(mee'stBR) used D]. 

T- 673 T matj. 675 VTD DRao'i. 676 C 16i. 682 VT lit'l. T: 690 
C k6ind. 691 C m6ind. 701 VTD vast. V- 705 C sk6i. 706 VTD wao'i. 
T': 709 C f6iR. 712 C miis. 

[ 1499 ] 



68 THE MID SOUTHERN, [D 4, V ii, Hi. 

n. English. 

A. 726 VD tAAk, T tseask. 732 V ap'n, T ffip'n. 738 T pRiit. 

E. 748 C flEsht. 749 W lift. 752 VTD vREt. 

I. and Y. 754 C peg [heard from the old man who called bacon (baik'n)]. 
758 V gja>RL, W gjaRL. 

0. 761 [(baWn) always used C]. 765 :dion. 767 T naiz, 781 T bodhBR, 
791 V buo'i, T buao't, D bii6i. U. 804 V DRaqk'n. 

XT. 804 V DRzpk'n. 

m. Romance. 

A-- 813 C baik'n [heard from an old man]. 814 meesnaR. — C [(bakrt) 
bucket always used for pail]. 824 tjii'R. 835 Reez'n. 857 T kiis. 862 T 
siif. 864 koz. 

E •• - 867 VC tee, TD tee. 878 sotati. 887 [(preses'n) parson, used C]. 
888 VTD zantin. 890 VC beest, T biitsst, D bi'st: 892 C nEvi. 

I •• and Y •• 901 V vao'in, T foo'in. 904 v6ilet. 

•• 916 C aintmz. 920 VT piice'int, D pao'int. 925 VT vais. 929 
koo-ksmbBR. 938 VT kaRntjR, D koRmjl. 939 V klooz [T (Enao'i) anigh, used]. 
940 VD kirat, T koo't. 941 VDT vuul. 947 V boil, TD bse'il. 950 VT 
zapaR. 955 VTD dso'wts. 

U- 964Csuutit. 969 VTD zhuurat, 



Vab. iii. The Nobth-"Western oe East He. Foem. 

As we shall see, all He. is affected by tlie MS. dial., but the 
little slip which runs up from Gl. into He. is so strongly MS. that, 
although there seems to be a little falling oft as we go on, I have 
found it necessary to place it in D 4. The w. b. of this slip is the 
w. b. of the S div. The e. b. is formed by the barrier of the 
Malvern Hills. The first considerable place we meet is Ross on 
the Wye. About this dialect a correspondent signing himself ~W. 
H. Green, who said he was a native of Ross, but whom we have 
been unable to identify, sent a letter in his own spelling to Prince 
L.-L. Bonaparte, from which, in conjunction with notes from Upton 
Bishop, and a very few words given to TH. by Mr. Joseph Jones, 
bookseller, Hereford, the following inferences are drawn : 

Ross Pronunciation. 

z) is used for (s) in so see, some, said say, sow (pig) . 

V) is used for (f) in/rom/md/olk/riend/armer/or/orty/orget q/ended (?). 

lie) is used in late, plagued, place master, translate quakers, implying the regular 

MS, change in A- words, but (seae) is found in clavey a local word = 

mantlepiece. 
(at) is used in say way straight neighbour. 
(a'o) apparently is used in- know and (ua'») in hot/. 
(a) is heard in pert, 
(dhik, dhak) are used, 
(bist) thou art, (aR im) she, he ; (dhii) thou, (ut, ust) wilt, would'st, I be, they 

feen't, I did want. 
All these are strong marks of D 4. 

Going further n., TH. got from Stoke Edith, (grdin faiuR dai lai - i]n) grain, 
fair, day, day, laying and " I told she." But in this latitude at Ledbury, and 
further n. at Much Cowarne and Eggleton, there are very distinct marks of the 
same dialect in the following examples. 

[ 1500 ] 



D 4, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 69 

Three Interlinear He. os. 
from Ledbury, Much Cowarne, and Eggleton. 

L marks the C3. specimen for Ledbury (12 e. Hereford) written by Rev. C. 
Y. Potts, and the late Mr. Gregg, solicitor, both of Ledbury, and pal. by AJE. 
from the diet, of Mr. Gregg. 

C marks the specimen for Much Cowarne (9 ne.Hereford) written in phonotypy 
(see Part IV. 1183 c) by Mr. Joseph Jones, bookseller, of Broad Street, Hereford, 
from the diet, of Mr. Herbert Ballard, Leighton Court, Bromyard, and pal. by AJE. 
As the diphthongs were unanalyzed in phonotypy, I have adopted the forms (o'i, 
e'u) heard by Tfi. when visiting Much Cowarne in 1881. Possibly Mr. Gregg's, 
which I heard as (so'i, ao'w), were meant for the same. 

E marks the Eggleton (8 ne.Hereford), practically the same as the Much 
Cowarne, written by Miss Anna M. Ford Piper, of Blackway, Eggleton, for 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte (who passed it over to AJE.), with an ingenious and 
exhaustive rhyming key to the pron., supplemented by long notes from Miss Mary 
E. Piper and her brother, who considered that the true He. speech began about 
Stoke Lacy, Pencombe, and Bromyard (9 ne. 10 nne. 13 ne.Hereford), slightly 
to the w. of Much Cowarne and Eggleton. From the key and the notes and TH.'s 
Much Cowarne words, the cs. has been pal. by AJE. The difference between 
Ledbury and Eggleton these informants considered to consist chiefly in the greater 
" gutturality " of Much Cowarne, adding that horse is (arts) at Ledbury, but (os) 
in Cowarne. 

The substantial phonetic agreement of all three renderings obtained from such 
widely different sources (notwithstanding some evident dialectal slips which are 
inevitable when writers have not themselves spoken the dialect naturally in their 
youth) shows that the correct pron. must have been fairly reached. 

Miss Piper added some further specimens which are given below with a trans- 
lation interlined. 

0. L Ledbury. wa>'» :djA vn bz noo dao'wts 
C Much Cowarne. wa'i :dja'k a'nt noo da'wts 

E Eggleton. wa'» rdjAAn o)nB got noo mt'sgsvmz 

1. L wal, naibira, juu vn wn mat boo'th la'f Bt dim tin nmuz 
C weI, na*beR, juu «n *'m mat booth on)j« laaf Bt dh»'s «Vr niuuz 
E wee\, naibBR, bwath on dhB vook mai lof rat dbik nluuz 

L b maoVn. uu kjaRZ ? dha^s naoVdhBR »7r nes dhaB. 

C bz a'fde tEl JB. huu de keeR ? dhot)s niidhBR jaR nBR dheeR 

E bz o'i b got. uu keeraRz ? dhot jont JiiBR nBR dhiiBR 

2. L via'm mEn dso'« kAAz dha)H la'ft Bt, 
C fja'w fwaks Ae da'* kos dh.ee de gEt la'ft Bt, 
E dhiiBR jent bat vWu menkja'md bz da'«'z koz dhai bi loft Bt, 

L wi ua'mz, doo'nt as ? wAAt sh'd meek em ? tiant ver* 
C wii dB naw dan bs? wot shud miak ran? it rant ver* 
E wii ha'uz, dwant)es ? wot shwd mfek Bm ? it bjant ver» 

L lso'tklt, iz it ? 
C la'ikli, biitt? 
E la'*kli, bii*t? 

[ 1501 ] 



70 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V iii. 

3. L AASBmE^vBB dhiiz bii dlxi faks B)db.B kees, zoo djast A'wd jbe 
C 'liis^aiz dhiiz)j8r bEnt noo le't'z, zoo juu djEst e'wld jbb 
E o'msbuie-vbb it wbz atoE dhik wa», soo djast o'wd dhe 

L na*z, Bn bi kwao'*Bt t*l eo'« b dan. l«k m'e neo'w! 
C ~aa'u, a'«ld bwA'i, en juu a'*sb.t t*l a'*' 8 dan. aask)* ! 
E na»z, mBn, Bn ho'»sht t*l a'*' bi dan. AAsk'n! 

4. L eo'» bi zaBtih a>7 ii'Ed «m za* — zam b dhEm vooks bz 
C o'» bi shuua a'» je»d Bn sa* — sam o dbjan tjaps az 
E a'i bi shuuBB bz si Wibed •em zki — zam b dha* vook bz 

L wEnt DEaj'w dhB wal dhtq vBom dhB vasst dhBBZEdvz — dha't 
C nawd aaI Bbo'wt it VBom dhB vEst, d*d o'« shuuBlo'r. 

E wEnt deo'w dhe weI dh*q VBom dhB vast dhfBBZE'lvz — dhot 

L eo'*' d«d zeef enaf. 
C 

E e'i did see'i enaf. 

5. L dh«t dhB jaqest zan «'zzE - lf, 8 greet bwA?i b neo'ra, ni'wd 
C ez db.B Ktlest hwifi tzse'l, b jaq)en o neo'm jbb a'uld, nawd 
E dhot dim jaqest bwA'*' izze-H, b gaeeet hwV* 8 no'm, nAttd 

L «'z vee'dhBBZ vfi*s et wanst, dhoo it wbz zoo kwwBR Bn 
C «z fiadhBRZ va'js et wanst, a1 ram* en 

E h«mz v««dhBBZ va«s Bt wanst dhoo b wbz boo kwdeen en 

L skwiiki, Bn so'*)d isast -»m te spiik dhe TEUuth Eni 
C sk«dik*f9'«d, en «m wd)ne tEl noo la'j'z ta noobodi, 
E skwiekih, en o'i vA TEast 'iva. te spiiak dh.8 TE«th an» 

L da», a*', i)'vA. 
C noo b «d)'nt. 

E dai, a«, e't "wd. 

6. L Bn dhB Aid ««mBn beze-U ul tEl Eni on to bz la'fs mo'u, 
C Bn dhB a'tdd «m«n BEsed ul tEl Eni o to tjaps ez iz [wot)s] 
E dhB a'wld «mmi BHze-lf ul tEi En* on dhB bz lofs na'w, 

L Bn tEl to sTBa*'t of, tuu, BdhaoVt matj bodhBE, ir ra)l 
C Bgr»Tun, widho'wt noo fas nAE bodhBE, ii juu 

E Bn tEl dhB STBaVt of, tuu, wdho'wt matj boothBr, ii dhii)dst 

L oon« a a sk be want be? 

C ooni aksBz be, &i, be ul 

E onli a'ks be want be, mat bi ? 

7. L liistwaYz b toold it - mii wEn so'i a'kst be, tuu bb dbu. 
C liist;a*'z be d«d tEl)mi WEn o'i akst be tuu ab dhBii 
E lEstwaYz be tEld it maa WEn o'» akst be, tuu ae i)Bii 

[ 1502 ] 



D 4, V in.] THE MID SOUTHERN. / 1 

L tao't'mz oovbe, be did, Bn -as AAt)'nt tra b» rAAq on dha't 
C ta'»mz e'«TBr, Bn -an d« naw bz weI -bz moost, 

E ta'«mz ovbe, did be, «n "an ad)'nt AAt tB bi raq in dhik 

L pao'wit, wAAt d)ji dh*qk ? 
C wot d)jB tlu'qk ? 

E niBR lures, wot dast dhii dh*'qk ? 

8. L weI, bz eo'* wbz Bzarm, *shii)d tEl)«, eo'w wan «n wm 
C weI, bz a'» wbz Bzarj'n, as wd tEl)jB, a'w 

E wM, bz a'*' wbz Bzafm, as wd tEl)dhB, a'w wiiBE «n wKn 

L be fand dh.B nsaqk'n bii'st be kAAlz be azbBn. 
G be fa'wnd dhB DBaqkBn bi'ast bz be dB kiil azban. 
E be vand dhB DBaqkBn bjast be kAAlz be mon. 

9. L be zoos bz as zin em adh as a'on a>'*z Bla>'*' - *n 
C be d*'d sweeE bz be d*'d sii *'m w*d be a'wn a'*z, Bla'rin 
E be sdoBK bz be sii *'m wth be a'«n a't'z Blar 

L zDBEtjt a't val lEnth on dhB grA'ond in iz zande 
C Bt fwl lanth on dhB gra'*md in iz sand* 

E STEatjt a'at Bt val lEnth on dhB jaaBth in dhot dhiiBB g«d 

L kwoo't, Haas hi dhB eo'ws doo's dao'wn Bt dhB kAABn'l 
C goo-in koot, kloos BgE - n dhB dooR ov iz a'ws bz dB stand 
E zand* kuuBt b *'z'n, klos BgE'n dhB duuBr b dhB a'ws, da'*ni 

L b dha't lee'n. 

C Bt dhB koRnral ov dhat dheeR l<x>n. 

E Bt dhB kaasm'l b randBB la*h. 

10. L b wbz Bwa>'»n»h BwaY, zEZ-as, vbe aaI dhB wasld la>'*k b 
C im wbr wa'mm Bwai-, aE dB sa», var aaI dhB waald la'*k b 
E b wbz waVlm Bwar, sez as, fas aaI dhB uuBEld la'*'k b 

L z*k jaq)Bn ae b l*t'l WEnsh in b vEEt. 

C jaq)Bn az iz bad, ab b lit'l WEntj b a'wl*h. 

E s*k jaq)Bn ae b l*t'l WEntj bz wbz frEtjet. 

11. L Bn dha't a'p'nd bz "be Bn)BE dAAtBB Iaa kam 
C en dhat dheeB did ap'n bz as Bn)BE dAAtBR*'nlAA d*d kam 
E Bn dhot wbz djast bz aE Bn)BB dAAtBE Iaa kam 

L DEaj'w dhB ba'k jasd YRBm a'q-m a>'Mt dhB WEt klooz 
C dso'u dhB gjasdiq aatsr aq - *h a'wt dhB klwaz 

E deo'm dhB bok jaaed wiiBr ad b*h b a - q*h a'wt dhB wseeet klooz 

L tB BB9D'* on b wEsh*h da*, 
C on dhB la'*hz on b wosh*h da*, 
E ts DEa'* on b wEshm da*. 

[ 1503 ] 



72 THK MID SOtTHERN. [D i, V iii. 

12. L wao'«l dbB kEt'l wbz vbeorlm we tii wan vao'iii baaoVt 

C WEn 'dbB kEt'l wbz vhd'ilm fas tii, wan fo'm 

E dbB wo'*ld dbB ka't'l wbz Bbo'&Tin fas tii, wan fa'wi bna'«t 

L zamBE aatBEnuun oon» b w«k Bguu - kam nEkst tbazd*. 

C zamsEz aatBEnuun o'wnli b w*k BgaV kam nEkst tbaazd*. 

E zanras atBsnuun anb' b w«'k Bguu - 'kam nEt dbaazd*. 



13. L Bn d)ri nA'w ! ao'» nEVBB lasnd noo moo'E nBB 
C Bn duu jb naM ? a'« nEVBB iisd noo moos 
E Bn dast dbB ni'ji, bz e'i nEVBE Liend an« iouube nBE db«k 

L b dba't btznt's ap te db«s da», bz zbuu'E bz mat 

C on)t ap tB db*'s iis da», bz sbuuR bz ma'» 

E b dhot dhiiBE btz'ius til t«dd», bz sbuuraB bz ma's 

L nee'm)z :djAAn :sbEpBEd, Bn ao'« doo)'nt wont tu neo'adhBB, 
C n««m)z :djak :sbepBt Bn d'i da)na wont tu niidhBE, 
E niiBm bi :djAAn :sbepBEt, Bn e'» da)nB wont tB nEdhi3E, 

L dhaE nao'u ! 

C zb 'dhEt bi dbB End on)t. 

E dhiiBE na'A, 

14. L Bn zoo so'»)e Bgwee'n warn te sapBE gud.nso'tt, Bn 
C Bn zoo g'i bi vgtvin warn tB av zam zap"BE gwd no'«t, Bn 
E Bn soo e't bi g»arm warn t« zapBE gud no'»t Bn 

L doo'nt bi zo yaast tB ksA'w oovbe b bod» agjVn, wan 

C da)nB bi zb anformBn Iswik be kok o'mvbe b felBB Bge - n, wEn 
E da)nB dhs bi - so hwik te kEA'w ovbr b bod* Bge - n, WEn 

L b tAAks b cQm's dba't b tadbes. 

C *m dB tAik ov dhe's JBr ae dbat dhees. 

E b tAAks b dhtk dbot ae tadhBK. 

15. L it)s b puu'E A.'td bz pree'ts BdhaoVt siiz'n. Bn dba't)s 
C »m bii [«z] b haas bz bii hAAh's b djabBrin Babt'sh. dhot)s dbB 
E *t)s b dAAndBE*q &'ui bz preeBts tcdheVt ZEns. Bn dbot 

L mao'i laast waEd, gwd beo'i. 

C best niuuz a'« b got fBE Ja, e'wld bwA'« ! no'tt o'i mBn teek ma'» 

E bii Taa'i lAAst uubbd, gwd ba». 

L. 

C dam'sk, ae aV sba)nt av noo sapBE — uk it ! 
E 

Notes to L, tbe Ledbury cs. 

1. neigh hour, not used in this way in latedly (dhrao'u) is used, but here he 

the dialect. said (drao'w) not reverting (d r), a mere 

4. through. Mr. G. said that iso- accident, few gentlemen learn to revert 

[ 1504 ] 



D 4, V iii.] 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



73 



(r) before a vowel. As to the th, Mr. 
Gregg gave, through (dhra>'«), throw 
(thrA'u), thistle (diz'l), thin (dhin), thief 
(thif), thick = that (dhik), which 
indicated an inconsistent usage. — safe 
(zeef) meaning sure, but a (zee'f) for 
meat; the word ought to begin with 
(s) theoretically. 

5. aye I would, I becomes (i) under 
such circumstances, the pron. varying 
with the construction. 

6. won't her, her is used for she, and 
the (b.) is felt distinctly, as (want •e) 
would = won' t he. 

9. own (a'on) has a glide from the 
open to the rounded lips, (a) to (o). 
— ground, at first I wrote (a'a„) con- 
sidering the glide to be merely in the 
rounding, as in the last case, but sub- 
sequently (a'o) seemed to express it 
better, the position of the tongue being 



also changed. Similarly growth was 
called (gKA'oth), nearly (gRAVth). — 
that lane, (jon) is found in the dialect 
and might have been used here. 

12. afternoon, Mr. Potts says evening 
would be used, Mr. Gregg just the 
reverse. 

13. shepherd as a name has (sh), as 
an occupation (zh). 

14. / are, this is rare, I be is com- 
mon, he are, he be are never used, Mr. 
G. said that " be is invariably used by 
uneducated people with each of the 
personal pronouns both in the sing, and 
pi.," this is probably too wide an as- 
sertion. In this case (ao'i bii vgwee'n) 
would be more usual, the («-) is pre- 
fixed only to the present, not to the 
past participle. Thou is not found, 
but thee bist, thee wust are constantly 
used. 



Notes to C, or the Much Cowarne cs. 



15. Se is an ass as be always jabber- 
ing rubbish. That's the best news I 
have got for you, old boy. Now I must 
take my dannioh or I shan't have no 
supper. Hook it ! The word danniok 
was not explained, it may mean gaiters 
for which dannack is used in Nf . 

Mr. Hallam obtained in 1881 from 
Mrs. Sarah Griffiths in almshouses at 
Hereford, b. 1816 at Much Cowarne, 
where she lived till 7 and afterwards 
from 10 to 20, the following words, 
which are very fair D 4. 

A- 21 n««m. A: or 0: 64 rdq\ 
A'- 67 o'i bi gwain worn [I am going 
home]. A': 106 b»AAd. M- 138 
fe«mraR. M: 161 do"«, mid'l de~«. 
M'- 200 wit". M'- 218 ship', 
223 dhetm, 224 w?«r. E- 233 



spiik. E: 261 sa 1 *, 262 w&i, — 

fild [field], 279 WEnt. E'- 290 1,299 
gitiin, 314 brd. EA: 322 lof, 
324 a'it', 326 a«ld. EA'- 347 ja'd. 
EA': 350 d?o'd [approaching (d?ad)1. 
EI- 373 dha 1 *. EO': — a'* sid »m [I 
saw him]. I: 452 a't, 458 no'it', 469 
9'iu)nafl won't]. I'- 494 t9"*m. 
O: 531 ttAAteK, 538 ud, — krop [crop], 
552 kA'Rn. 0'- 555 shuu, 559 madlmt, 
562 muun. 0': 587 da'n. U- 603 
Eks'min [a coming], 605 sa'n, 606 dfi^R, 
653 bat'. XT': 663 aW. TJ. —mad' 
[mud]. A-- — pl&'tmsh [plainish], 
841 tpOns, 851 neimt [aunt], — 
gjaRd'n. E-. 892nEv?u. I- 899 nls\ 
•• — bjf [beef], • — noqk'l [uncle]. 
TH. considers that unaccented (i) should 
be written (*,) here and elsewhere. 



Notes to JE, or the Eggleton cs. 



Miss Piper seemed to have no rule 
for (s, z ; f , v) initial and said they 
were used "indiscriminately." She 
wrote with (s) sick, swore, see [ =saw], 
swite [blow], spittal [=spade], swill, 
so, sure, safe, and with (z), say, some, 
/Sunday, sumer, sense ; and sometimes 
with (s) and sometimes with (z) seed 
and zeed, to sow and to zough, cider 
and aider, summut and zummat. Again 
she wrote with (f) /rom, /ar, frechet- 
like, /or, fine, further, /ot [=fetched], 
and with v few, /ather, voice, /ound, 
/ull, /allow, /ield, fetches, /ill, feet, 
victual, /our. Miss Mary Piper found 



these usages correct. If they were, 
they shewed that at this distance from 
the centre the instincts of the dialect 
were no longer felt. 

In the same way in construction Miss 
Piper used hims for his, which seems 
a late development, and Miss Mary 
Piper said was rare. Again him had 
nearly superseded un for the ace. hine. 
Although in the examples, I, he are 
never used for the ace. emphatic, Miss 
Piper considered it common. Miss M. 
Piper, also said that think, thing had 
(dh) and sure, sheep had (zh) . 



[ 1505 ] 



74 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V iii. 

Miss Piper's extra specimens for Eggleton, -with, her translation 
interlined. 

1. mtfSstBB, bii a'i v gw&vin tB ore dhB pii«s unant 
master, am I a going to harrow the piece (of land) opposite to 

dha vols v»ld? 
the fallow fieldP 

2. e'« ko)nB tfiuk dham dhfiBB osez dbo'w dhat dhfiBB jat. 

I cannot take those horses through that gate. 

3. dhi'ratt bjant ZKl-vatjez vasi [buo'w] te za'w dbs v«ld enant 
there are-not seed yetches enough to sow the field opposite 

dhB plok en if be -WBZ aaI Dsosht bz bii in dhB 

the plock (small field) and if they were all threshed that are in the 

hiBn, *lasd ! <a!i da)na dh«qk bz dha*)d yH b wi'skst val 
barn, Lord ! I do)not think that they-would fill a basket full 

«nEf [jsnoV] te jap rat ap fasdBE nuE dike bsrai. 
enough to heap it up further than the hrim. 

4. bz ki yrez ■egwai-in do'joi dhB lain, o'i sii dbe bwa* at dhB 
as I was a going down the lane, I saw the boy at the 

gafBEz op'lz wth dhB bKod-ak, Bn, bo'« gom ! a» d*d 

gaffer's [master's] apples with the broad-hook, and, by gom ! I did 

g«V him b swoVt trth dhB sp*t«l Bo'«t on iz- rad. 
give him a blow with the spade right on his head. 

5. dhiiBB im vmz Blar Bmoq dhB dad-dak en malok diast bz if 

there he was a-lying among the dead-wood and dirt just as if 

b wvz djad. 
he were dead. 

6. b wbz bM, noo vfiBB, b wob)nt jab'l tB rat, Bn o'« tnld Bn bz 
he was bad, no fear, he was) not able to eat, and I told him that 

ii im wd gu Bn sw»l imz viiBS tn dbB brak bz b kwd go 
if he would go and swill his face in the brook that he could go 

atBR dhB stiiBEz Bn foDBB Bm. 
after the steers and feed them. 

7. soo b got on raiz tuu vj't Bn s'i pat «m in dhB kfiBET, Bn 
so he got on his two feet and I put him in the cart, and 

gEn im b kEk tB st«k in dim so'scter [zo'mIbb] kKg, soo bz b 
gave him b keck to stick in the cider keg, so that he 

[ 1506 ] 



D 4, V Hi, iv.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 75 

kwd gEt zamet te DRj'qk at«R iz vitvl. 
could get something to drink after his food [victual]. 

8. me'» umvn Hvkd ebo'wt it, dire wo'»ld ■Br wtbz so'i-in dh« nw'lk, 
my wife heard about it, the while she was straining the milk, 

en, ba'» gosh ! shi d»d gu on ; sr)z aaIj'z fRetjetleVk. 
and, by gosh ! she did scold ; she)s always cross. 

9. e'i mEt naii uwenvook unant dhBm dhiieR o'wz'n v juurn ; 

I met three women [woman folk] opposite those [there] houses of yours ; 

dhai wez v-m&gin ran BmirBktn iquubr naYz neR vo'wwa un&GRT 
they were a chattering and making more noise than four hundred 

monka'rad wd. 

men [man's kind] would. 

10. rtjORiz wez ela-q, en vn aaI tsRHD mtu dhot dhfrBR vo'wld 
Charles was along, and they all turned into that [there] fold-yard 

■b iz'n, nn drstv dire sh«p «htu dire buzi wth o'wbrn. 
of his, and drove the sheep into the shed with ours. 



Yar. iv. The Sooth-Eastern or Do. Form. 

Proceeding s.wards from "Wl. we come to Do. The dialect is 
essentially the same, but at the e. end the (v, z) are less used for 
(f, s), a matter of education. The (a») varies much as (ee'») and 
occasionally even (ii). The A- is rather (ee, ee') than (iv, i) and 
falls into (ee) rather than (ii). The first example, a dt., was kindly 
given me w. by Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour, to whom the dialect was 
very familiar, and represents the pronunciation of her own district, 
Hanford (4. nw.Blandford). The same lady had also assisted Rev. 
E. A. Dayman of Shillingstone (5 nw.Blandford) to fill up a wl., 
which she subsequently went over with me w., see p. 80. 

A cs. was obtained from Mr. Clarke, native of Cranborne (12 
ene.Blandford), and was pal. by me from diet, of Majdr-Greneral 
Michel, being subsequently corrected in a few points by corre- 
spondence with Mr. Clarke, who was Master of the Schools at 
Ringwood, Ha. (19 wsw. Winchester), the dialect of which place he 
found to be the same as his own. This was confirmed by a few 
words I obtained w. from a carter, native of the place, and from 
a wl. furnished by Mr. W. "W. Farr from the comparatively dialect- 
less district about Christchurch (20 sw. Southampton), and other 
indications, so that this strip of Ha. is reckoned dialectally as e. Do. 

Finally the late Rev. "W. Barnes, "Winterborne Came, well known 
through his Do. poems, took great pains with a cs., which he wrote 
in a systematic orthography (see p. 80), and kindly explained by 
correspondence where any difficulty occurred. He also filled up a 

[ 1507 ] 



76 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V iV. 

•wl. for me, -which, is given on p. 80, embracing also the most 
important -words in the Cranborne, Hanford, Shillingstone, and East 
Lulworth (12 se.Dorchester). The Cranborne and "Winterborne 
Came cs. are given interlinearly for more easy comparison. 



Haktobd, Do. 
dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour. 

1 . zoo &>'i dee ztseH, mi laedz, juu de zii na'ou dhset eo'i bi Bhao'et 

ba!oicb dbik dheeit l*t'l ma«d konrcn frem dire skuu'l ap 
Jon'dBE. 

2. shii bi go'n da'own dbe shood deuu dim sbEd girat on dim lh«'ft 

hsend zgo'»d w dike wai. 

3. shim's Bnaf- dbe tj9o'*Lr ksv 13) go'n STEHait ap tu dim dooim 

bv dhrc Ehaq ha'ows. 

4. wees shi m«'d tjaans te vsoVnd dhik dheeE DBHaqk-im dxf 

sbfiHsemd warn tjaep bao'« nee'm bv :Ehttred. 

5. -wii de aal ndou «n taBb'l -weI. 

6. ««nt dhB waLD tjsep sunn lasn shi not te duu «t rag«'n - , puu'B 

szdoul ! 

7. lwk)i dhees ! *'d)'nd-«t tehuu ? 

Notes to Hanford dt. 

1. Say, not (zai). The words in incorrect. Left, the voiceless (lh) was 
J3G wl. 139 to 148, 160 to 166, EG distinct and insisted on. 

237 to 243, 257 to 264, EI 372 to 3. Going, the sound was rather un- 
382, and EY 438, 439, are very certain; I wrote both (go'n) and (gA'n). 
variously treated in this form of the 3. Strait anA 4. Drunken, theaspira- 
dialect ; see these numbers in the fol- tion of (it) was apparently shewn by 
lowing cwl. But in thus pronouncing jerking out the following vowel, other- 
disconnected words some errors may wise Mrs. CKS. seemed to say 
have crept in. Mates not used; (myzon) (Tnhaqkran). 

is a common address even to an old man., 4. Shrammed, properly starved with 

Now, the diphthong sounded between cold. 

(a'«) and (o'») and I think the effect 5. Know, the (oo) was long and dis- 

was produced by commencing the first tinct and almost (oo), the («) was a 

element without rounding, producing full («) ; the effect (oou) was therefore 

(z'o) and then running on to («), giving different from the usually (oo'w) where 

(a'o«), at least I thus, imitated it to («) is not completely reached. Ter- 

Mrs. CKS.'s satisfaction. ribly, i.e. very ; common in all South- 

2. Mood, the (r), not (r), at the be- ern dialects. 

ginning of a syllable, was aspirated; 11. Soul, the word begins with (s) 

when I used (rh) it was recognised as on to which the voice is gradually led. 

Two Inteblmeab East Dobset cs. (see p. 75). 

0. C Cranborne. -wa'* :djoon got noo da'uts. 
~W Winterborne Came. -whao'*' :djon he nuu da'uts. 

1. C -weI, nEEb«B, juu vn ii im'd buu«th laa'f vt dhiiuz niuuz 
W weI, naibtiB, juu «n hii mid. bu'eth la'f ut whot <s>'i 

[ 1508 ] 



D 4, V IT.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 77 

C b rni'm. uu du kiBB ? dha't)s naYdbBr i's. ne 

W da tEl)i. Bn wbot if ja l duu? dba't^s nao'tdhtta Mbe wea. 

C dhes. 
"W dbiBB. 

2. C viiiu mEn de da's, biko - s dhe bi laa'ft Bt, wii du noo, 
"W viuu vook d« dao'i b bi'Bn laa'ft a't, wi de noo, 

C do)'nt as? wot sbiuBld miuk^m ? t)«d)'n veb« la'ikb), 
"W doo)'nt wi ? wbot sh«d miek)Bm ? t)»d)'n vEEi lao'ikli, 

C iz it? 
W *z *t ? 

3. C uuzurvBE dbfBz bi dbB fa'ks B)dbB)ki's. zuu dp'st 
~W ao'wsBmE'vBE t)*z dp'st bz ao'i shBl tEl)i. zuu dj»'st 

C wboold dba'i taq, mist, Bn bi k«>a'rBt t»l a'i)v B)dan. 

"W boold jbb n&'iz, gud ma'n, Bn be kua'i-Bt til ao'i)v B)dan. 

C Hhaa'Rk)!! 
"W ba'skji ! 

4. C a'i bi saBt'n ao'i jibed )biq za«, zam b dhee vooks dbBt 
"W ao'i)m sa'stBn ao'i biBad)Bn zii, zam b dhEm vook dhst 

C wEnt dbuu db.B wu\ dbjq vBom dbB -vast cUibrze - 1vz, dha't 
"W zid dhB huBl a)t VBBm dbB vast tB laa'st. dha't 

C a'i d«d, siBf Bna-f. 
"W so'i d«d, sief Bnaf . 

5. C dhBt dbB jaqest zan izzwli, b gasi biioi b na'in, nood h*z 
W dbBt dbB jaqgBst zan b«zzE-]f, b geosi buo'i b nao'in, nood b«z 

C fEEdhBEZ vois Bt uuns, dboo it was za ktPEBE Bn Bku/lvkm, 
"W faa'dhBEZ va'is Bt uuns, dhoo t)wa)E zb kti&BB Bn skuiiki, 

C Bn a'i)d TEast)'n tB spiek dbB TEUutb Eni dai. aai, 
"W Bn ao'i)d ti«k b*'z 'waoRD »ni Hi. 'dba't 

C a'i wd! 
W ao'i ud ! 

6. C Bn dbB woold wmBn hBBZE-lf «'l tEl Eni)Bv)i dbBt dB laa'f 
"W Bn dbB iioold umBn hBRZEdf ul tEl mi)B)i dbB siem, dhoo 

C na'w, Bn tEl)i STEEE'it oof, tuu, wija'u't 

"W" Juu du laa'f nao'u, Bn tEl)i eo'uTBao'rt, tuu, va'st 

C matj bodbBE ii juu)1 ooni a'ks hBE, oo wo)'nt br? 

W Bna-f. ii mu)l oonli a'ks be, aa l , ao'i "bliiv shi -ol ? 

[ 1509 ] 



78 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D i, V iv. 

7. C li'stwEE'iz shi tuBld it mii, wed. a'i a'kst)BR, tuu be DEii 
W Bt liBst shi tu«ld 'mii, whEn a'i a'kst)BB, tuu be deu 

C ta'wnz oovbe, shi d»d, Bn -shii d«d)'n AA'Bt te bi raq on 
"W tao'imz aavbe, shi d*d, en 'shii AAt)n tB bi matj eo'ut 

C s*tj b puomt bz dh»s, wot)BZ - dhii dh«qk ? 

"W BpBn aitf b puao'int bz "dha't, whot dB •juu dhiqk ? 

8. C weI bz a'i wbz B)zaV - «h 8bii)d tEl)i, a'u waR Bn 
"W weI bz so'i wbr B)z»rBn, shii)d tEl)i hao'u Bn wh««BE, Bn 

C weu bH Ta'und dh.B DRaqk'n bfBS shi dB kaal hBE 

~W whm shi vao'un dhB DRaqk'q biBst bz shi dB kaa'l hBE 

azben. 
W hazben. 

9. C shi zoo'r shi zid)'n wi be oon a'iz b)1ee - mi sTBEtjt 
W shi zubb dhBt shi zid)'n w» be oon ao'iz B)lao'i - Bn B)sTEa'tjt 

C Bt v«l lEqkth on dhB gRa'un, in biz b«BS Zand* 

W oe'ut Bt vul la'qth BpBn dhB gBao'un, *n h»'z bEst zandi 

C kuuBt, kluBS, bii dhB diiBR B)dhB a'us, da'un Bt dhB kABnBR 
~W kuBt, kluBS bii dhB diiBR B)dhB hao'us, dao'un Bt dh.B kaiureB 

C B)dhB liBn JONDBR. 

~W b)joot)be liBn. 

10. C hii wbr wa'imh bwee'I, zes shii, vbe aa! dhB ■wast 
W dhiBR hi wbe, shi zEd, b wh/mpBEBn, vbb aaI dhB waoRL 

C la'ik b ztk tja'ild br)b, lit'l mEE'id B)vBEt'n. 
"W lao'ik Bn a'ihm tjeo'il, be)b frEtvul b't'l maid. 

11. C aal -dha't wbe when shii «n hBE daatsr-m-laa 

W Bn dha't ha'p'md bz shii Bn hBE cIaatbb-hi-Iaa. wbt 

C kam dbuu dhB ba'k j£brd vrom aqsn a'ut dhB wEt 
"W B)kamBn dbuu dhB ba'k ia'BB vebkl ha'qBn ao'ut b dhB wEt 

C kldoBz tB Dsa'i. on b wEEshBn cIeei. 
W klooz tB DRao'i BpBn dhBR woshsn dii. 

12. C wa^'l dhB k«d'l wbr bo'iliin fBE tii uun bsa'it 
~W wheo'il dhB k»t'l wbr Bjbuao'ilBn ver tii uun fao'in bRao'it 

C zamBE aatBEnuun, ooni b wiik Bgww kam nEks dhaRzdi. 
W zamBE a'ftBEnuun, oonli b wik Bguu kam nEks dhafizd*. 

13. C Bn dast dhi noo ? a'i neves la'BNT Eni moo'r dhen dhis b 
W Bn d)i noo ? dha't)s aa : l)z *vbb ao'i Mbbd b 

[ 1510 ] 



D 4, V iv.] 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



79 



C dbaH djob ap te tBdEE'i bz sbuuBB)z ma'i niem iz 

~W dba't djob vBem vast te laa'st, bz tbuu)z mao'i niem iz 

C :djon :sb*pBBD, wn a'i do')nt wAnt te 

"W :djon :sbEpBBD, Bn so'i doo)nt wont t« hiBR thi miter o)t 

C nacdfrer. dhees nan. 
"W nadbBs. dbfer neo'u. 

14. C Bn zuu a'i bi B^wi'Mm wuBm [buBm] to zapar. gwd 
"W Bn zuu ao'i)m B)guu - Bn buem te sapBB. gud 

C na'it Bn do')nt)i bi zuu kmk te ksoo oovbb b bodi ■Bgiran 
W na>'it en doo)nt)i bi ee EEdi te kBoo aavbb b bodi BgiBn 

C wm bii dB taa'k b dh*'s, dba't or tyidboE* 

"W" *f bii ds sp»Yk b -wooed b dhi's, dha't Br t)adbBE. 

15. C t)»z b w««k rouel dbet tja'ts Bdha'ut r«ez'n. 

~W t)iz b n«ni dbat dB tAAk Bdheo'ut «ni gBeo'unz TaE)T. 

C Bn dba 1 t)s ma'i besest wasD. gwd bua'i. 
"W b dha't^s aaI ao'i baV tB zii. gwd Mao'i. 



Notes to W, or Winterborne Came. 



1. at what I do tel ye, or, (ao'i)m 
B)guu-Bn te tEl)i) ; h aspirated in what. 
This variant occurs in another copy 
which Mr. Barnes sent to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte. These variants will be 
marked LLB. in future. 

2. very (oovbr) LLB. 

3. 't is just as I shall tel ye, (dhiz iz 
djist hao'u t)waoR) LLB. good man, 
(mao'i gnd saaI) LLB. hark ye, (haiik'n 
te whot ao'i dra zii) hearken to what I 
do say, LLB. 

4. certain, or (shuu-BR). say, Mr. 
Barnes says Do. (zii), not (zai). Gen. 
Michel gave (zee'i) which Mr. Clarke 
corrected to (zai). safe (sfref) LLB. 

5. great, or rather (ha 1 rd) . father's, 
or (fe«dhBRz). squeaky, or (skuiik'n- 
lao'ik). I would take his word for it, 
(ao'i)d mast hii vet spiiksn dhe TRimth) 
I would trust he for speaking the 
truth, LLB. 

6. laugh, (gliin zuu) sneer so, LLB. 
Mr. B. says he did not catch the mean- 
ing of the original. fast enough, 
(widhaoVt ini shili sha'li) without any 
shilly shally. Gen. Michel said that 
bother was used in the country. Ah, 
I believe she will, (-dha't shi wal) that 
she will, LLB. 



7. at least (inihao'u-) LLB. told me, 
" (tfreld) is nearer than tuald," says 
Mr. B. (tuuld it ao'ut te -ao'i) told it 
out to me, LLB. She oughtn't to be 
much out. (kaa')nt bi mati ao'ut) can't 
be much out, LLB., or (vERi noq) very 
wrong, not (sbaq), which is the rung of 
a ladder, upon such a point as that, 
(in siti a dhiq bz dhis), LLB. What do 
you think? (d).rBdhiqkshika 1 nP) LLB. 

8. as (dlret), LLB. 

9. swore, (vao'ud) vowed, LLB. 
stretched out (sTRa'it so'wt) straight 
out, LLB. close by the door, (iteo'it 
ap agisn dhe du.BR) right up against 
the door, LLB. Of yonder lane (B)dhB 
lren ao'ut joiidbr) LLB. 

10. world, (waoRel), LLB. ailing, 
(zik) LLB. fretful (fREtvul) with (f) 
not (v), or (b lit'l ma'id B)fREt'n) a little 
maid a-fretting. 

11. daughter, or (cketeR). were a- 
coming, (kam) LLB. 

12. that's all that ever I heard of 
that job from, first to last. (a>'i nevBR 
hiBid ini muBR b dhicz djob, dhsn whot 
ao'i) v BtuBld) I never heard any more of 
this jobthan what I've a-toldyou, LLB. 
true as(shuu'RBz), LLB. Idon'twant 
to hear any more of it neither, there 



[ 1511 ] 



80 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V IT. 

now, (ao'i doo)nt wont tv Mbr ini muBR 15. ninny, soft poll, LLB. that do 

nadhBR, zuu dhinR na>'u) I don't want talk without any grounds for it, or (ds 

to hear any more neither, so there now. 1st hiz taq Rhan bvoo'r hiz uit) do let 

14. if he do speak, (whinhidBtaa'k) his tongue run afore his wit, 
when he do talk, LLB, 

Easi Dobset cwl. combined from several sources. 

C Mr. Clarke's Cranbourne (12 ene.Blandford), pal. by AJE. from diet, of 

Major-Gen. Michel. 
H Hanford, from Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour, from diet., rather refined. 
L East Lulworth, (12 se.Dorchester) from Bey. Walter Kendall. 
W Winterborne Came (2 sse. Dorchester) from Bey. W. Barnes, his wl., cs. and 

phonetic part of his Grammar, translating his systematic orthography of 

figures thus : 

long short 

1. she«p pity (ii i). 5. It. a long It. a short (aa l a 1 ). 

2. Dorset«ship(iii),this(ii)hashardly 6. awe dot (aa, o). 

been given me by any others. 7. rope Ml (oo, a). 

3. m«te bet(eeE). " 8. rood It. u short (uu u). 

4. Fr. le long Fr. Is short (a> b). 

Diphthongs 4. 1. (ao'i), 5. 1. (&i), 6. 1. (o'i), 4. 8. (a'u), 1. 4. (sb, 1b). I never 
had the advantage of hearing Mr. Barnes read. 
Note. — The pron. is said to be smooth, clear, and up and down in pitch. 

I. "WESSEX AM) NOBSE. 
When C is placed only after sounds, Mr. Barnes agrees with Mr. Clarke. When 
C is placed before sounds, it gives Mr. Clarke's pr. only. 

A- 3 WL biek, H b&Bk. 4 L tiek, H teesk. 5 W niiek, C misk, 
H meetjk. 6 W mied, H mee«d. 7 H seesk. 10 L aa. 16 H daa'n. 17 W 
Iaa, CL laa. 18 W kiek. 19 WL tfal, H tail. 20 L liem, H lee'm. 21 
niem, C niBm, H neeBm. 22 H teesm. 23 H seeBm. 24 H sheeBm. 25 W 
main. 34 W lest, la'st, laa^t, C lasaast, H he'est. 36 H thoo. 37 L-fclaa, 
H tlaa. 

A: — W ka'g [keg]. — W Rha'm [a rami 39 C kam. 41 W tha'qk. 
43 H. hsend. 45 L wa'nt. 48 W za!q. 50 W toqz. 52 W won. 54 W 
wont, C wAnt. 55 H ees. 56 W wosh, C WEBsh, H wooshi. 57 W a l s, H a?a3s. 

A: or 0: 58 W VRBm, C VRom, H frem. 64 C raq, H Rhaq, Rhoq. 

A'- 67 W «)guu-Bn, C B)g«ra'in [going]. 69 L nuu. 70 L tuu. 72 LC 
uu. 73 zuu H and C, H zoo. 74 tuu. 76 W tued, H toBd. 77 HL laRD. 
79 oon C. 81 W ton, C li'n, H lain. 82 uuns. 84 W muBR, C m6oBR, H 
moBR. 85 W zubr. 86 W tiBts, L woots, H wots, wtiBts, wBts [different 
appreciations]. 87 W klooz, C Ho'obz. 89 W buBth, C buuBth. 92 W noo 
and C, H noow [with (oo) and («) distinct, not a vanish]. 94 kroo C. 97 H 
szo'omI [the word begins with (s) on to which the voice is led]. 

A': 101 W iiook, uek, L wook, H 6Bk. 102 W a'ks, H aa'sk. 104 W 
Rood, H Rhood[(rh) was recognised as wrong]. 106 DRood. 108 W doo. 109 
W loo. 110 Hnot. Ill W AAt, C aaH, H aat. 113 W husl, C w«l. 115 
W huBm, C wu'm, hu'm. 117 WC uun [Mr. B. also writes woone]. 118 W 
buan and L, H bo'n. 119 H go'n, gA'n. 120 W Bguu, C vsuu. 122 nuu, 
C noo [no], nuen [none]. 124 L stuBn, H sto'n. 125 W oonn, C ooni. 126 
Woor. 127WhooBS. 128 H [(dhik, dhee) used]. 129 H gost. — WluBth 
[loth]. — W Rhoo [a row or rank]. 137 WC nadhBR. 

M- 138 W faa'dhBR, focdbBR, LC fEEdhBR. 139 W dra'i, H dree'». 
140 WL ha'iBL, H hail. 141 W na'ieL, H nail. 142 W sna'iBL. 143 W 
ta'iBL, H tail. 144 WH BgiBn, C Bgi'n. 145 sla'in and H. 146 ma'in and H. 
147 bRa'in and H. 148 fEER. 149 H blaiz. 150 W l'rsst, L and C l'rest. 
— W siit [a seat]. 

[ 1512 ] 



D 4, V iv.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 81 

M: 154 WC ba'k. 158 W <**tcsr. 160 W a'g, H asg. 161 W dii, C dai, 
CH dEB'i, L dai, dee. 163 W lit, H lai. 164 HC [(mid) more used], H ma*. 
165 WH ZEd. 166 WL ma'id, C mEE'id, H maid. 169 W whin whEn, HC 
WEn, H whan. ■ — W whiq [a wing]. — ha'ps [hasp]. — wa'ps [wasp]. 
171 W beeRlao'i. 175 W va'st. — W lint [late]. 177 H dhart [(dhik) also 
used, Mr. Barnes says, for shaped objects]. 179 W what, C wot. 180 H beeBth. 

M- 182 W sii, L see. 183 L Uetj. 185 W Riid, H nhiid. 191 W hiil, 
H MM. 192 L rown, H miim 193 W klisn, L kl<wn. — Ifrsn. 194 W ini, 
C Eni. 195 W mini. 199 W bliit. 200 W whiit, L weet. 201 W hiidh'n, 
L mlh'n. 202 L het, H hEt. 

M': 203 L spestj, H spiiBta. — W mind [mead]. 205 W Ditid. 206 H 
BhEd. 208 W iVBR. 209 C neYBR. 210 W klii, H klai. 211 Vgirii. 
212 W whii. 213 "WH a'idliBR. 214 W nao'idhuR, C naidhBR. 215 H taat. 
216 H diisl. 217 W iiti, L «eta. — W gliim [gleam]. 220 W shspBRD, C 
shipBRD. 221 H fee's. 223 W dhinR, C dheR, H dhee'r. 224 W wh«?BR, C 
waR, H wee'r. 225 L vlesh. — W sTRiit [street]. 227 WC wEt. 

E- 232 H bi«k. — W bRiitj [breach]. 233 spiik, C spiek, H sp«k. 236 
H fimiR. 237 W bla'in. 239 W sa'iBL, H sa«. 240 W la'in. 241 W 
Rhain, L Rain, H Rh«in. 243 Wl pla'i, H plai. — W stiil [to steal]. 245 
W miil. 247 W wiin. 248 W mieR, H mee'-n. 249 H wec'R. 250 H avreees.. 
251 W miit, H m»ut. — W sit [to eat]. 252 W kit'l kit'l, C kid'l, H kit'l. 

E: — "W hiiv [heave]. 256 W STRa'trt, C STREtjt [stretched]. 260 H lai. 
261 W zii, C zai ZEE'i. — W trai [a tray]. — W la'g [leg]. 262 W wa'i, C 
weei, H wai wee'«. 263 CW bwee'i. 264 W a'il. 265 W STRa'it, C stree'H, 
H sTRHait [(rh) after (st) replacing (Rh)]. 266 H weI. 269 "W dhBRZE-lvz 
[dhemselvest. 270 H i. bElas, ii. badi. 271 W tad. 272 W ELism. — W 
helBm [the helm]. 273 W mil. 275 H stinsh. 276 W dhiqk. 277 H 
BRinsh. 281 W la'qth, C lEqkth, H laeqkth. 282 H STRffiqkth. 284 LH E-nash. 

— W bast [to burst] . — WzEt [to set], WsEt [a set]. — W bEst, b*Bs [best]. 
E'- 293 W wii. 294 H spiid. 296 W bliiv, H biffiv. 298 W fii'L. 300 

HL kip. 302 H m'liBt. 303 H sw&st. E': — bRiitj [breech], 305 H 

hao'i. 307 H nao'i. 308 H niit. 309 IW spiid. 310 H hii'L. 311 W 
ten. 312 "W hiBR, C iraa, H hiiBR. 314 W Mbrd, C jIbrd, H haRD. 315 H 
fiiBt. 316 Wnsks. 

EA- 317 W fla'i, H flai. — SbI [ale]. 320 C Mbr. 

EA: 322 W leei, la'f, C laa'f. 324 W a 1 it, H ait. 325 H waak. 326 
iioold, LC weald, H wald. 327 W buoold. 328 W kuoold, H koold. 329 W 
viioold, vuueld. 330 W hoold, C whoold. 332 CW tuBld. 333 L kEEf, H 
kaaf . 334 W beet, L hEEf, H haaf . 335 WC aaI, H aal. 336 W vaaI [the 
fall of the year is (iaa1)1 H faal. 337 H waal. 338 W kaa 1, C kaal. 340 W 
lia'RD, C ja'RD. 342 W iBRm, H ja>Rm. 343 LH waasjn. — viBRN [fern]. 

— Ibrn [earn]. 346 W giBt, LH glint gee't. 

EA'- 347 W hid hsd. 348 W ao'iz, C a'iz. — W biBt [to beat]. 349 
WC viuu. EA': 351 W lid. 352 W Rid, H RhEd. 353 W bREd. 355 
W dif, L diif, H ds'f. 357 W dhoo. 359 W naibBR, LC nEEbBR. — W siim 
[a seam]. — W STRiim [stream]. 361 WL b'ren. 364 H tjsep. 365 W niBR. 

— W niit [neat, cattle]. 366 W gaoRT, HC gaRT. 370 H aaa 1 . 371 W 
str««, H STRaa 1 . 

EI- 372 W a'i, C aai, H EE'i. 373 L dhai, H dhEE'i. 374 na'i, H nEE'i. 
375 sheez. 376 ba'it, H bait. EI: 377 H stee'k. 378 W wiik, C week, 
H whe«k. 379 W b.a't'1. 381 W swa'in, H swe«n. 

EO- 383 WzEv'nzEb'n. EO: 388 H m'Lk [as nearly as I could 

appreciate, same as D 10]. 390 C shiuBld. 394 WCH jondbr. 402 W 1'ibrn, 
C la'RN, H laRN. 405 W haaRth. 

EO'- 409 Hbn. 411WHDRii. 412 WH shii [emphatic]. 413 W diVl. 
416 H diiBR. 420 W vao'uBR, H foo'R. 421 H faRti. EO': 424 H Rhaf. 

— W wiil [a wheel]. 427 H bi. 428 WH zii. 430 W fRind, H fRiind. 
431 H biiBR. 433 W bRist. 436 W truu, H trhuu. 

EY- 438 W dao'i, C da'i, H dai. EY: 439 Taast. 

I- 440 W wik, C wiik. 444 W stao'iBL, H stao'il. 446 W nao'in and H, 
C na'in. — W an [him, ace.]. 448 H [(dhiBziBR, dhiiz'm) used]. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1513 ] 97 



82 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V iv. 

I: 432 W and H a>'i, C a'i. 455 H lao'i. 468 W na>'it, C na'it. 459 H 
Bhao'it. 460 wa'it, H wso'it. 465 L siti. 466 tjao'il, C tja'ild, H tjao'iLD. 
467 H wao'iBLD. 468 H tjilduRn. 469 ul [in the Vale of Blackmore (w«l wal, 
wyl)]. — WL Rhim [a rim]. 471 H timbBR. 474 H Rhao'ind. 475 H 
wWnd. 477 H yao'iBnd, H yao'ind. 480 C dhiq. — W Bhiq [a ring]. 481 
H yiqgBB. 484 C dhftsz, H [(dhts-iR) used]. — W kaips [crisp]. — W 
ziks [six]. 

I'- 490 H bao'i. 491 H seo'i. 492 H zao'id. 493 L vxeev, H DBHSo'iy. 
494 ¥H tao'im, C ta'im. 496 H a>'i«RN. 497 W BRha>'iz. 499 L bit'l. 

I': 500 W lao'ikli, C la'iklt. 501 H weo'id. 502 WL yao'iv, H fao'iy. 503 
H lao'if. 504 H nao'if . 505 H wso'if. 506 WL umBn, H «nren. 507 H 
wimin-y6k. — W hai. 508 H mao'il. 509 WH whao'il, C wa'il. 510 C 
ma'in. 511 H wao'in. 512 H speo'i«R. 513 H wao'iBR. 515 H wao'iz. 

O- 519 W aatbr, C oovbr. 520 H ba'ow [see 643]. — W booRD [bored]. 
524 W wa>RL, C wtjrl, H waRLD, [(waRD'i,) not known]. — W DRoot 
[throat]. O: — W gospBl [gospel]. 525 C oof. 526 H kaaf. 531 W 

Haatbr, HC daatBB. 534 W hool. 535 W vook. 536 WH g«LD. 537 W 
muoold. — W hoom [a holm island]. — W halraE [hollow]. 541 C wo)'nt, 
H wnt. 546 WC vbr. — oRtrsd [orchard]. 547 biiooRD, H boBRD. 548 H 
foERD. 550 CH waRD. 551 WH staaam. 552 WH kaaRN. 553 WH 

O'- ' 558 H lwk, i»,Bk. 559 WH ma^dhira. 560 W skuu'l. 561 [L 
(bluuth) used! H bl«i«m. 562 H m»,Bn. 564 H suun. 567 W t)adht!R C. 

O': 569 W bwk, H bti^k. 570 W t«k, H t«,Bk. 571 W gwd. 572 W 
blad. 575 H stolid. 576 W whtmzdi. 579 WH Bnaf. 586 WH duu 
[(doo)'nt, C doVnt) don't]. 587 W B)dsm. 588 WC nmin, H n»,Bn. 589 H 
sp»[Bn. 590 H fl»iBR. 591 H m«jBB. 592 W zubb, C zoo'r. 594 H bw^t. 
595 H f»!Bt. 596 W nhuut. 

TT- 601 W yao'ul. 603 W B)kamBn [a-coming], H komen. 604WzamBR. 
605 W zan. 606 CW duBR, H d6osR. IT: 609 C vol, fuul. 610 H uul. 
612 W zam. 614 H Hhao'«nd. 616 W gREo'un, C gRa'un. 619 W yao'un, C 
va'und. — W nhoq [rung of a ladder]. 625 C taq. 627 WC zandi. 629 W 
san, H zan. 630 W won, H whon. — W hantsmsn. 631 WC dhanzdi. 632 
H ap. 633 H kap. — W tjorz [firs]. 634 WHC druu. 639 WL da'ust. 

U'- 641 hao'a, C a'u, [and] ao'usBniE-yBR, C uuzu)rysR [howsoever]. 642 
[not used generally, except to children or when wrangling]. 643 nao'w, C na'«, H 
na'ow [the diphthong seemed to be made into a triphthong by beginning with the 
mouth open and the tongue in the position for (o) and closing up to («), this is 
what (a'ow) implies ; and so in all other cases ; this triphthong was heard only 
from Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour]. 646 H ba'ow. 647 Hao'al. 648 H [(a'owBN) 
used]. 650 H ba'oat. TJ': 655 W feo'ul, H fa'oed [see 643]. 656 nhuum 
and H. 658 W dao'un, C da'un, H da'own [see 643]. 663 W hao'us, C a'us, 
H ha'o«s [see 643]. 665 H ma'ows. 666 W hazbBn, C azbsn. 667 W eo'ut. 
671 H ma'owth. 672 H sa'owth. 

Y- 673 W matj. 674 W did. 675 W DRao'i, H dbhso'*, C DRa'i. 676 H 
lao'i. 679 W tjEtj, H tisrti. 680 H bazi. 682 WH lit'], C lit'l. T: 684 
HbRHHdj. 685 W Radj, H Bh^dj. 686 Hbao'i. 687 H flao'it. 688 W sitr. 
693 H sEn. 696 WH baRth. 698 WH mERth. 699 W Rha>'it. 700 uus, 
H was. — vaz vaz'n [furze]. 701 WL vast. 704 W viks'n [female fox]. 
Y- 705 WHskso'i. 706 WH whao'i, C wa'i. 707 WthaBtiin. 708Hheo'i'B. 
Y': 709Hfa>'»'R. 711WHla>'is. 712 H mao'is. 

n. Engijsh. 

A. 714 H la?d. 718 W mied. — W ha'isl [bail or backet]. — aWl [a 
rail]. — DBa'iBl [the drail or iron for hitching on the horses to a plough]. — 
:ka>m [Cain]. 725 zivl. 726 tAAk, C taak. — H shfiham. 732 W ha'p'md. 
— W haaRL, haaRD'l, ha'RBl [to hurl, entangle]. — W kla'ps [clast]. 
737 C miBt, H [not used, replaced by (mi zan) even when addressing an old 
man]. — W dj«« [jaw]. 

E. — W kriik [to creak]. — W tiil [a teal]. 744 H msez'lz. 745 W 
tp*t. — W ptit [peat]. 746 W bBiidh. 747 H indee-ysB. 748 flidjd. 

[ 1514 ] 



D 4, V iv.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 83 

— W aavbr whElBm [overwhelm]. 749 H lhift. 750 WL ba'g, H bseg. 

— "WL pa'g [peg]. 752 frEtvul [fretful], C B)vREt'n [a fretting]. 

I. and Y. — "W :RhitjBd [Richard]. — "W smao'iBl [a smile]. 758 H 
gaRL. — W tuajRD'l, tuiRsl [twirl]. 

0. 761 L l&Bd, H bred. 765 "W :djon, C :djoon. 767 "WL na l is, H nao'iz. 
776 W g«d buao'i, C g«d biia'i. 778'W avuBRD. 781 C bodhBR. 791 W 
biio'i, C bu6i, H boi. 

TJ. 797 W skuiiki, C skwi'kin. 798 "W kiietfBR, C kwE'a. 799 L [(pool) 
used]. 801 and 802 Rham. 804 DRaqk'q, C DRaqk'n, H DRHaqkBn. — "W 
ksoRL, kaoRD'L, kaRBl [cnrl]. — "W pa>RL, paoRD'L, paRBL [purl]. 808 H pat. 

m. Romance. 

A ■• 810 "W fies, H faa's. 811 W plies, H plaa's [pi. (plaa's'n) not beard]. 
814 W mies'n. — "W ba'iBl [bail in law]. — "W ma'iBl, [a mail or bag|. 

— W pa'il [pail]. — "W vla'il [flaU]. 819 H Rhaa'di. 820 W ga 1 *. 821 
"W dilai. 822 W mat. 823 "W bai. — W pa'i [pay]. 824 W tjee'R. 826 
"W Mg'l. 827 W iigBR. — W TRa'il [to trail]. — YV Rhiim. 829 ga'in. 
830 H TRain. — "W a'iBR [air]. 832 W mai;BR. 833 H peeBR. 835 
"W Riiz'n, H Rheez'n. 836 W siiz'n, H siiz'n. 837 W liish. 838 YV 
TR«t. — W piBl [pale]. 841 HJaaas. 847 H deendjBr. 849 H sTReendjBR. 

— W kiBn [cane]. 850 L dams, H daans. 851 H aant. — piepBR [paper]. 

— "W dja'iBl [gaol]. 852 H eepBRN. — "W giBRD'N [garden]. — "W 
tjiBRm [charm]. — "W Mbrd [card]. 857 L kiss, H kaa's. 858 H braa's. 
859 H tjaa's. 862 W sief, C si'f. 864 C bikas. 865 H faa'lt. 866 H puuBR. 

— W sta'i [stay]. 

E •• 867 WC tii. 868 YVH djaM. 869 YV viil, H vubI. — "W siil 
[to seal]. 874 "W Rha'in, H Rheen. — "W pa'int [paint]. 875 H faint. 

— "W piil [peal of bells]. 881 sans. 885 W vaRi. 886 H frao'i'R. 887 
H klaRdrx. — H taRb'l [terrible, extremely]. — vas [verse]. 888 W sa'RTBn, 
C saRt'n. 889 siis. 890 W biBst, C bi's [H pi. b've-stBsiz]. 891 H fi'st. 
894 "WH disiiv. 895 "WH Risiiv. 896 biivBR. 

I-a»dY- 899 W mis. 900Hpitai. — W nini [ninny]. 904 HW 
vao'jlBt. 905 Rha>'»-Bt. — YV ao'il psle]. 909 "W bRiiz. 910 H djao'ist. 
912 H Rhao'is. 

O ■• 917 H Rhoog. 920 "W puao'int, C piidint. 922 H bashBl. 924 "W 
tja'is, H tjao'is. 925 "W vaHs, H vao'is. 926 W spuao'il, H spail. 929 "W 
kao'ukBmBR. 930 H la'in. — "W fiioos [force]. 938 "WCH tommm. 939 
"W kliiBS, C klu's. 940 "W kuBt, weestkBt [waistcoat], C kuu't, H k«,Bt. 941 
C fuu'l. 942 "W batjBR. 947 buao'il, C bo'il, H bail. — "W tuso'il [to toil]. 
950 "W zapBR C. 955 W dat'nts C. — "W kRanst [crust]. — W Ra'ut 
[rut, route]. 957 H emplai. 959 "W kBnva'i. 

TJ- 961 HgRuul. — W wkHt [wait]. 963 H kwao'i-Bt. 965 H afl. 
968 Yf so'istBR. 969 HC shuu'R. 970 djist. 

Western Do. 

A few words from "Whitchurch Canonicorum, noted by N". "W. "Wyer, Esq., 
originally written in Glossie. "With the exception of (kuut) cut, the words 
are unimportant, but they serve to continue the Dorset dialect up to the 
Axe-Yarty form, p. 87. 

I. "Wessex and Norse. 

A- 5 inakin [making]. 14 Duaad [drawed=drew]. 17 1&«. A'- 67 
goou. A': 110 n«t. 122 noon. 124 sto'oBn. 
^1- 142 snail, snEEl, sne«l. — prtrti [pretty]. M: 166 maaid. 

— hapsiz [hasps]. 173 waazs. X': 209 narswan [never a one]. 
214 nedhBR. 

E- 243 plai. 251 meet. E: 269 nrize-1. EA: 324 a'it. 326 woold, 
■wol, -wool. 338 kaal. 346 gjet, gjeet, gJERt. EA'- 347 hid. EA': 
359 neebwn, n^ibsR. 363 shiip [cheap]. 371 STRaa. EO: — shaRT [short]. 
EO'- 411 rnui. 

[ 1615 ] 



84 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V iv, v. 

I- — in [hine, him ace. also for hit (ai hen p«t in iin) I can put it in]. 

— Mint [bit]. I: 467 wiild. — iin [in]. — viniid [mouldy]. I'- 
490 baimbai [by and bye]. 494 taiumz. — shiin [shine]. — sa'ivz 
[scythes]. I 7 : 502 va iv. — haa, hai, hee, haagh, haai [hay]. 

0- — smoouk [smoke]. 519 ovur, avBR. 0: trep [top]. 551 staamn. 

— mannin [morning]. 

TJ- 606 <W. U: — wvw&tlul [wonderful]. 631 VBRzdee. 632 cEp ap. 
634 druu. 
Y: — hffl [hill]. — thiitm [thin]. 

n. English. 

I. andX. 758 gBRL. 

0. — stakiq [stocking]. — kaRk [cork]. 

TJ. — kuut[cut]. 

rn. Romance. 

A- — sekta'i-v. — flail [flail]. — plaag [plague]. 820 gee [bright]. 
822 maiu. — p&ai [pay]. 845 anshint. 
E-- 885 vaRi. — teReb'l [terrible]. — saaRvin [serving]. 
I" andY- 900 to praiji. 
•• — moor [move]. 



Yab. v. The Land op Utch fob I, Sit. 

The Elizabethan English writers, when they want to indicate 
a S. peasant, continually use ieh, cham — ich. am, chill =ich will, 
ehud=ich would (see supra, Part I. p. 293 b, e). It is also found 
in D 1, p. 30d. For the existence of this form of the personal 
pronoun I, search was made in Sm., and at last it was found as 
(atj atjii - ) in a very small district, which I have therefore called 
' the Land of Utch.' Through Prince L.-L. Bonaparte and the 
late Mr. Pulman, I found that utch was certainly used in Mbntacute 
(:ma - n«kiu), (4 w-by-n. Yeovil, Sm.), and I was fortunate enough 
to be directed to Mr. George Mitchell, then a vestryman of 
Kensington, marble and stone mason, of 166, Brompton Road, &.W., 
with "manufactories in Belgium, Erance, Italy, and Walton Street, 
Brompton, estab. 1851," but a native of Montacute, and unable to 
read or write till he was 23 years old, together with Mr. Stephen 
Price, son of a dissenting minister and schoolmaster at Yeovil, Sm., 
where he was born, but who had lived at Montacute from 10 years 
old, and had acted formerly as Mr. Mitchell's secretary. On 17 
Aug. 1880, both of them came to my house and gave me the 
following information. The Land of Utch occupied the angular 
space between the two railways which have their vertex at Yeovil, 
Sm., on the b. of Do. The following villages were named as using 
utch, proceeding from Yeovil to the w., all distances measured from 
Yeovil Station. East Coker 2 ssw., East Chinnock 3 sw., Mid 
and West Chinnock 5 wsw., Merriott 7 wsw., Chisselborough 5 
w-by-s., Montacute 4 w-by-n., Martock 6 nw., Norton 5 w., South 
Petherton 7 w-by-n., and possibly Kingsbury 8 nw. In the same 
region (as) is also employed, which Mr. Price thought to be a 
corruption of (atj); (iis) was not known except as meaning yes. 

[ 1516 ] 



D 4, V v.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 85 

There was no knowledge of ice (s'is ?) mentioned by Jennings in his 
Glossary as "common." The ice in Shakspere's King Lear 4, 6, 
240 ice try, one of Edgar's Kentish speeches, is probably I shall, for 
which it is not an uncommon abbreviation. 

Mr. Price gave me the following joke on (atj) which passes 
current in the district. In the Montacute dt. however neither he 
nor Mr. Mitchell used (atj) at all. Another version of this joke 
was given by Miss Ham, a native of Sm., in a letter (dated Clifton, 
30 Jan. 1825) addressed to Jennings, who prints it in his 
glossary ; this I interline in her orthography. 

brEd)n tjiiz, atj)Bv)B)a - d 
bread and cheese, V hare a had 

'n)wot otj)a - d, atj)Bv)B)eet 
that V had, V hate a eat 

'n muuR Btj)«rd, il atj) Bd)«)ra - d 
more 'ch wou'd, V had it 

Mr. Price's version seems more trustworthy and is certainly more 
intelligible. Observe the S. past part. («;a - d, e;eet)=a-had, a-eaten. 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte heard (atjir) from a man of 94 at Cannington 
(3 nw.Bridgewater, Sm.). 



MONTACTTTE, Sm., dt. 

Pal. by AJE. from diet, of Messrs. Mitchell and Price. 

1. zuu a'« dij)zee, man, dhii de)zii na'w dhist a'« bi Ba'j't raba'wt 
dh«k l«d'l mEE'»d uko'imn vRom dh«k)dhees skuul. 

2. as)z ■B)gwEE'«h da'wn dhe nhood dheeE deuu dh,B Bhad gjst 
on dhB lEf an za'»d b dba wai 

3. shuu'a Bna - f dhra tjiil hav Bgo - n STBEE'it ap te dhB dooBB b 
dbe Eoq ha'ws, 

4. wees as)! ma)bi Wthd dMk DBaqkm dEf skeamd tuu'd b»')dhB 
nEEm b :tom9S. 

5. as dB aal noe)n vEBi weI. 

6. uu)nt dhB woold tjap zuun tetftj shii not tB duu it ragii'n, 
puu'E dh«q ! 

7. lok)i ! «d)'n it teuu ? 

Notes. 

1. I (s'i) analysis adopted with hesita- (n.h) initial in all eases of r. — that, 

tion. I seemed often to hear (ao'i) and it Barnes's distinctions of (dhiuz, dink), 

may have been (art). — say (zai) also =ra»««? this, that, "personal,"thatis, 

used. — mates (mEE'rts) according to for things having a definite shape, and 

Price, scarcely used, (sooz) hardly (dhis, dhat) "impersonal," for other 

known, (tjaps) common. — now, Price things (Dorset Grammar, p.21), was 

said (riia'w, d!a'«m), but Mitchell would recognised, although never thought of 

not hear of it ; the diphthong was often before. — maid, (mEE'id, maeartd) both 

(ao'w) to my hearing, and may have been said at times, but (ma'jd) was not 

(a>'«). — right, a strong tendency to admitted; no distinction in meaning 

[ 1517 ] 



86 THE MID SOUTHERN. [ D 4 > V y - 

recognised between maid and girl drunken, there was a difference of 

(gaRi), which was (wEntj), not an in- opinion, as to ('n, in, 'q) in the last 

suiting term. — come ultimately sounded syllable. — deaf, (dif) not used, M. pre- 

(kom), but I thought (kam) was meant, ferred (b aRD b iiBBin tuusd) a hard of 

— thick there, (jksde, iseND's.) also hearing toad, but P. said (b fEluR «z iz 

used, but more Do. aKD b irBRin) a fellow as is hard of 

2. her's, always (aR) before (z), but hearing, would be more regular. — name, 
(shii bi) used. — road, the (rIl) distinct, (nEEm) for (neem) was emphatic, (ni«m) 
but a difference of opinion about (oo, was not admitted. — Thomas = (:tomBS) 
6m, uub), (ahuuBd) seems to me most at Montacute, but (:tamos)at Bradford 
correct, and Price said it would he used (3 wsw. Taunton, Sm.) in D 10. 

by the old people. — there, to say (dhaR) 6. won't, (want) also used. — old 

would be "bad." — red, (haRD) not chap (woold veIbr) also used, with (v) 

admitted. — gate, (gjEt) distinct, (giiat, after (d) but (fElBR) with (f) is the 

giEt) not admitted. — left, (lif) also used. common form. — teach, this word is 

— left hand (lEft hand) also said, the used, and not (Uirn) as I expected ; 

vowel (a) throughout varied as (ah, a ), in Sunday schools (tsetjBR) is always 

but did not reach (a?) ; it was generally used, 

my (a). Notes on other words, dictated by the 

3. child, (tpil) always used by old same: (s)noo, s)iiaR) doest thou know ? 
people, (tja'ildj "not so natural." — doest thou hear ? Alphabet, (sese bii 
gone, (vgwan) also used. — straight, sii dii eei sf dpi artj djaa kaeee aL Em 
(sTRsese'tt STRast) also used. — door, En oo pii kiu aaREstiijiu vii dab'iwu 
(duuBR) not used in Montacute. — wrong Eks wa'i zad avmpas-sn) . Names of 
(raq) has been used. places : Montacute (:manikiu), Tintin- 

4. maybe, chance is not used. — hull (6 se.Langport, Sm.) (:trqo). 

Montacute, Sm., cvrl. 
From diet, of Mr. George Mitchell, native, and Mr. Stephen Price, as above. 

I. "Wessex and Norse. 

A- 8 hav. 21 nEEm [not (niwn)]. A: 43 an. 51 man. A: or 0: 58 
VRom. 64 Roq. A'- 73 zuu. 76 tiiu'd. 84 muuR. 94 nee. A': 104 
Rhood, Rh6oBd, Rhuucd [(Rhuu'd) from older, people]. 110 not. 119 egwEE'in 
Bgwon Bgo - n, [a-going, gone]. 

M- 144 Bgii'n. M: 166 mEE'id mseae'id [not (maid)]. 177 dhrt [weak 
form]. 179 wot. M'- 183 Uetf. 197 tjiiz. Ml: 223 dheeR. 224 warn. 

E- 231 dh« [weak form]. — B;eet [have eaten]. E: 261 zee, zai. 
262 wai. 265 STREE'it. 266 weI. 

EA: 326 woold. 335 aal. 346 gJEt. EA': 352 RhEd. 353 bREd. 
355 dEf [not (dif), but (aRD b ii'Rin) hard of hearing is used]. 364 tjap. 

EO'- 412 shii. EO': 427 bi. 428 zii. 436 truu. • 

I- — Bn 'n [him, ace. form]. 447 aR [her, for she]. I: 452 a'* a>'i, 

ati, otjii-. 459 Ra'it Rha'it. 467 triil. 477 va'ind. 480 dhjq. 482 id)'n 
[is'nt]. 484 (dhiBz) [this, for a shaped! object]. I'- 490 bi [weak]. 492 za'id. 

O: 525 b [weak form]. 538 «d. 541 uu)nt want. 543 on. O'- 556 tB 
[weak form]. 558 loks)i [lookest thee?]. 560 skuul. 564 zuun. 0': 579 
Bnaf. 586 duu. 

TJ- 603 Bko-min [a-coming]. 606 dooBR. TJ: 632 ap. 634 druu. 

TJ'- 642 [(dhii) used]. 643 na'w nao'w na>'«, nia'u. 650 Bba'«t. TJ': 658 
da'an, dia'«n [see 643]. 662 as. 663 ha'us. 

Y- 682 lid'L. 

n. Engiish. 

E. 749 lif lEf lEft. LandY. — dhik (that, for a shaped object) . 0. 
770 tomas [(:tamos) at Bradford in D 10]. TJ. 804 DRaqkin, — k'n. 

ur. Komance. 

A- 866 puuR. E- 885 vefu. TJ- 969 shuu'R. 

I 1618 ] 



D 4, T vi.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 87 



Vab. vi. The South "Western ob Sm. Form. 

The late Mr. G. P. E. Pulman made a certain small portion of 
Sm., Dv., and Do., his own dialect ground. He called it the Axe- 
Tarty district in his " Eustic Sketches" (3rd ed. 1871) and his 
" Book of the Axe," because it is watered by the rivers Axe and 
Tarty, the latter flowing from n. to s. and joining the former about 
Axminster, Dv. 

It forms a little subdistrict, which is not very clearly defined, except on the w. 
Beginning at the mouth of the Axe, it follows the w. b. of D 4 through Dv. to 
Buckland St. Mary, Sm. (7 sse. Taunton), and then turns e. to the n. of Yeovil, 
passing which it turns suddenly s. between Yeovil and Sherborne (5 e.Yeovil), 
in Do. and passes sw. between Mosterton (8 n-by-e.Bridport) and Beaminster 
(5 n.Bridport) to the sea just s. of Charnmouth (6 w.Bridport). This district 
was constantly perambulated by Mr. Pulman, who lived at Crewkerne, Sm., for 
fishing and archaeological purposes, and thus he learned to give great weight to 
a few peculiarities which do not seem to have the importance he attributed to 
them. Thus he distinguishes the district from the rest of Do. by its not having 
(uun, lseg leeg, uup) one, leg, up, which he spells oone, lag or laig, and oop, of 
which Barnes gives (la'g, uun), but (uup) has not been found in any part of Do., 
the nearest approach to it being Mr. "Wyer's (kuut) cut (p. 84, 1. 13). Mr. P. 
seems, from his communications to me, to have heard the word specially from an 
ostler at Henstridge, Sm. (11 ene. Yeovil) ; and this may have been in saying 
(kup) come up to horses, as I heard a farm labourer say in Bu. In going 
through the list of "chief peculiarities" of the district in Rustic Sketches, 
p. xxxiii, I find they represent general Sm. and have been localised in this 
district apparently because Mr. P. was familiar with it and wished to confine his 
information to the places to which he knew it applied. As I give specimens of 
this general dialect, I omit Mr. P.'s list of peculiarities. 

Mr. Pulman was kind enough to give me a cs. and dt. for the 
Axe-Tarty district and cs. professedly for Merriott in the Land of 
TJtch, Var. v., which was only 3 m. from his residence at Crewkerne 
(19 sse. Bridgwater). This Merriott cs. was full of utch, whereas 
the dt. given me from Montacute (p. 85) had none. All three 
were written in the orthography adopted in his Rustic Sketches, and 
unfortunately Mr. Pulman died (3rd Feb. 1880) before I was able 
to go over these versions with him. In this case I think it better 
to omit all three than merely to give my own conjectures. But 
Mr. P. had previously written me a wl. for Merriott which I 
had the advantage of correcting from his diet. (Nov. 1877), 
and this follows. Singularly enough it contains no (atj) at all. 
Moreover Mr. P. said that in Merriott the final (r) became a mere 
vowel, while at Crewkerne it was distinct. In dictating, however, 
he pron. a genuine (e), as I also heard from Montacute. He also 
said that the intonation at Merriott was almost unintelligible beyond 
the parish itself. There was nothing of this in his dictation. 
Hence I attribute his wl. to the whole of his district, and thence 
practically to the whole of Sm., from which he gave no lines of 
demarcation. 



[ 1519 ] 



88 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V vi. 

Axe-Taktt cwl. 

Representing e.Sm. generally, pal. by AJE. from diet, of G. P. E. Pulman, author 
of Rustic Sketches. 

I. "Wessex aud Norse. 

A- 3 beek. 4 tEk. 5 mEk. 6 meed. 8 hEV. 12 zaa 1 . 13 naa 1 . 14 
DBaa 1 . 17 laa'. 18 kEk. 20 l^sm. 21 ni^m. 22 tijBin. 23 sijBm. 24 
shEm. 33 [(zundBR) sooner, used]. 34 las. 37 klaa 1 . A: 39 _[(kam) bsed]. 
40 kwam. 41 (tha'qk). 43 an. 46 ka'n'l. 48 [(ziqd) used]. 54 want. 
55 eeahez [Crewkerne (ashez)]. 56 weesh. 57 a's. A: or 0: 63 DRoq. 65 
zaq. 66 dhaq. 

A'- 67 guu. 70 tuu. 72 uu. 73 zoo. 74 tun. 75 STReek. 76 too'd. 
77 laRD. 80 a-ladee. 81 li,Bn. 84 muua. 86 wats. 87 tlooz. 89 buu'th. 
91 moo. 95 duoo. 96 zoo. A': 101 wak. 102 aks. 107 loov. Ill AAft. 
113 wul. 115 warn. 118 boosn. 122 no'oBn. 123 iiaart. 124 sto'oBn. 125 
oni. 126 wan. 127 huuBRS. 130 bdoBt. 134 wath. 135 klaaHh. 

M- 138 Ta'dhuR [sometimes with f ]. 140 ha'il. 141 na'il. 142 sna il. 
143 tail. 144 BgEn. 146 maa'ind. 148 fa'BR. 150 leant. 152 waadbr. 
153 za^BRdi. — panti [pretty]. JE: 155 dha'ti. — stidi [steady]. 158 
a'-DBK. 160 ig. 161 dee. 163 lai. 164 [(mid) used]. 165 ZEd. 166 maa'id. 
168 ta'laR. 169 WEn. 170 haitv/s. 172 gRa's. 173 wiz, woz [strong]. 181 
pa'th. M'- 182 see. 183 teetj. 185 Roed. 187 hsf. 189 wa'i. 192 meen. 
193 khwn. 194 Eni. 195 mi-ni. 196 weeR. 199 Week. 200 weet. 202 jEt. 
JE': — migd [mead, meadow]. 205 DREd. 207 niiLD. 213 edhen. 215 
[(teetrt) used]. — jeI [eel]. 217 eetj. 218 ship. 219 sleep. 221 fiiBR. 
223 dheeR. 224 ween. 226 mAAst. 228 zwEt. 230 fa't. 

E- 233 speek. 239 sa'il. 241 ra'in. 243 pl6i. 250 zweeR. 252 kid'l. 
253 nit'L. E: 260 za'i [rhymes 262]. 262 wa'i. 265 sTRSeffi'it. 270 

bElis [bellows]. 273 Toeen. 280 Isb'n. 281 liqkth. 282 sTRiqkth. — 

faRN [grin]. 283 maRi. 284 DRa'sh. 285 kRiis. E'- 296 bliiv. 300 

ip. 301 haR. 303 swit [not (♦)]. E': 306 ha'ith. 311 teen. 312 haR. 
314 JaRD. 315 vit [not (i)]. 316 nEks. 

EA- 319 gseaip. EA: 321 [(zld) used]. 322 laf. 324 eet. 325 wsesek. 
326 wal. 328 kuuBLD. 300 hool. 331 zwoold. 332 twald. 333 keesey. 
335 ffiael [sometimes]. 336 Tool. 337 wal. 343 wseseRm. 346 gEt. 

EA- 347 heed. 349 viu. EA': 351 lid. 352 aRD. 355 dif. 358 
na'ist. 361 bam. 366 gaRT. 367 Duet. 370 Raa 1 . 371 sTRaa 1 . 

EI- 372 ee'i. 373 ee. 375 Raiz. 376 b6it. EI: 377 sWk. 378 week. 

EO- 383 zEb'n. EO: 388 m'Lk. 390 shuud. 393 bijE-nd. 402 laRN. 
403 vaR. 406 e'th [rhymes 696 and 698]. 407 vaRd'n. 498 [(nood) used]. 

EO'- 411 DRii. 413 div'l. 414 rla'i. 417 tjAA. 420 va'«R. 421 vaRti. 
EO': 425 lait [instead of (la'it) this exceptional pronunciation prevails for 3 or 
4 miles from Crewkerne (19 sse.Bridgewater). It is properly Do.] 428 zei. 
430 faRnd. 433 bfiist. 434 bii't. 

EY- 438 da'i. ET: 439 taRst. 

I- 440 wik. 441 ziijV. 442 ii{vi. 443 TRa'idi. 449 git, 451 zoo. 
I: 452 a'i. 460 wait. 465 zitj. 466 tjii,ld. 467 wii^d. 474 Ra'in. 
477 va'in. 478 gua'in. 481 viqgBR. — haRN [run]. 484 dhrz. — haRsh 
[a rushj. 485 dhis'l. 487 yEsdee. 488 it. 

I'- [is generally (a'i)]. 496 a'iR. 499 Wt'l. I': is generally (a'i). 502 
va'iv. 504 na'iv. 505 wa'iv. 506 amsn. 507 wimin. — lain [line, Crew- 
kerne exceptional pr., otherwise (la'in)]. 513 wa'in. 

O- 521 vool. 522 oop. 524 waRD'L. O: 531 daeaeTBR. 538 uud. 

— aRtjit [orchard]. 547 duurd. 549 waRD. 551 staRm. 552 kaKN. 553 
hanN. O'- 559 mAAdhBB. 564 zuun. 565 haaz. O': 592 [zWeeRD) 
used]. 593 mas. 

U- 601 va'wl. 602 za'«. 605 sin. IT: 609 vuu'l. 610 uu'l. 611 
balik. 612 zam. 615 pa'un. 619 va'wn. 620 gRa'wn. 621 [(winded) used]. 
629 sin [see 605]. 630 [(wind) used]. 631 dhazdi. 634 druu. 636 vbrdbr. 

TJ'- 640 ka'u. 646 baVi. 652 kuud. U': 670 buu. 

[ 1520 ] 



D 4, V vi.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 89 

Y- 674 diddsd. 675 DRa'u. 682 lid'i. Y: 684 baitdj. 685 audi. 

690 ka'in. 691 ma'in. 696 bE'th [I think I heard (bE[Rth)]. 698 ms'th 

[rhymes 696]. 700 was. 701 fast. — daRsh [a thrush]. Y- 707 
dhaRTiin. Y': 709 va'ia [but see 772]. 

n. EuetisH. 

A. 725 zaeael. E. 744 meez'lz. 745 tjeet. 747 radivBR. 751 piBRT. 
I. andY. — ismtiit [Richard]. 755 vilbod. 

0. 761 lw'd. 772 banfa'iR [but see 709]. 773 Daqki. 778 bvuurd. 779 
aRTS. 790 ga'und. 791 b«>6i. 
U. — kaRD'iz [curls]. 808 pat. 

in. Bomauce. 

A-- 809 jffib'l. 818 aeaedi. 822 majse'i. 824 tjau. 827 eegBR. 828 
eegi. 835 Reez'n. 836 seez'n. 838 TReet. 840 tiimsR. 842 pla'ntj [a 
flooring, not a single plank]. 845 a'nslrent. 847 da'ndjraR. 848 tja'ndi. 849 
STRa'ndjBR. 852 sep'Rn. 853 baRgin. 855 kaRT. — skEs [scarce]. 856 
peeRT. 862 ssesef. 864 kiAZ. 865 fAAt. 

E-- 867 tee. 868 djffiue'i. 869 \ee\. 874 raain. 878 saslBRi. 879 ieemeel. 
883 daendila'i'snt. 888 saRt'n. 890 beest blBst [s. and pi. alike]. 891 feest. 
892 nEvi. 894 dBseev. 895 RBseev. 

I- andY- — 904 la'i-ant [lion]. 910 dja'ist. 

•• 916 a'inJBn. 920 pw6int. 923* mwoisti. 926 spwdil. 929 kja'ukBmBR. 
938 kaRnBR. 940 kwuu't. 942 buutiBR. 943 titj. 946 mwoil. 947 b»6iL. 
950 saptJR. 952 kuus [coarse]. 954 kashin. 

XJ- 967 suut. 969 siuBR. 970 dfist. 

For the remainder of e.Sm. (excluding D 10), JGG-. made a com- 
plete wl., from the diet, of a native of Wincanton (13 ne. Yeovil), 
who, however, had resided long in Cu. After many trials and 
much correspondence, I relectantly found his memory of the dialect 
not sufficiently accurate to be accepted in its details. The other 
contributions I have received were in io., but they are quite sufficient 
to shew that at Langport, Castle Carey (16 ene.Langport) and 
Wedmore (7 w-by-n. Wells), the pronunciation differs insensibly from 
the Axe-Yarty ; while at Combe Down (2 s.Bath) it seems indis- 
tinguishable from Wl. The following examples from Wedmore 
shew the nature of the dialect in the m. of e.Sm. 

Wedmoee, Sm. (18 ssw.Bristol). 

Specimens sent by Mr. C. A. Homfray, Manor House, and pal. rather 
conjecturally by AJE. 

1. (mfesTBE, a'*' brent B-gwarn deuu dire mak.) master, I be-not 

a-going through the muck. 

2. (ta'm dire dura, ut ?) shut the door, wilt ? 

3. (duus)en dhi iiaa dh»k dhaa hos ?) dost-not thou know that 

there horse ? 

4. (cas)Bn ha'm ?) canst-not hear. 

5. (dire lam)z e-va'«R.) the chimney's on fire [I only knew lum as 

a N. or L. word]. 

6. (dhB gaesekom* turad ev « hos b gseltd aV, :gwd)naa.) this frolic- 

some toad of a horse has frightened me, God-knows. [I do 
not know the word 'gaacomey' so spelled, see No. 18.] 

[ 1521 ] 



90 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V vi. 

7. (gii "a 7 * She slab's.) give me the fire-pan [or fire-shovel]. 

8. (She baek« kr«ti vz on dhv klaevvtaek.) the tobacco jar is on 

the mantel-piece. [The last word is given as elavel-toclc in 
"Wright.] 

9. (hsest dhi lwkt *h dhis krok be zii it She teetiz hi dan ?) hast 

thou looked in the pot to see if the potatoes be done ? 

10. (vwdhuR rf«)nt kam who^m it.) father is)not come home yet. 

[I doubt (wh)]. 

11. (ba'*' eno-n.) by and bye. 

12. (dhii)z nAA dhset s)la'«k.) thou) dost know that, (it) is like 

[probably]. 

13. (t)waK dh« z*'stbe, t)waEd)«n :zael.) it)were thy sister, it)were) 

not Sail. 

14. (a'«)l zii it sha3d)«n duu «t ; ut)«n ?) I'll see if (thou) shalt)not 

do it ; wilt)not ? 

15. (iiz, a'« ul, masse-bi.) yes, I will, may-be. 

16. (wa'« duus)«n dof dht klAAdz «n mmd dh«k b'rop ?) why 

dost)not doff (take off) thy clothes and mend this tear. 

17. (Iaa ! weet e lampim!) law! what a stumble [or noise of 

falling, also (lambBR)]. 

18. (g«t ap, xi Duaeaekoioi AAld gseBekBm.] get up you stupid old 

frolicker [to a horse, but the words 'dracomey, gacome ' are 
unknown]. 

19. (duu)ent i tsesek on zoo, zoos.) don't ye take on [trouble your- 

selves] so, companions. 

"Woexe (:waE'i,, :waED'L), 16 w.Bath, cwl. 

Written by Rev. W. F. Eose, vicar in io. and subsequently pal. by AJE., serves 
to show how the dialect is preserved to the Bristol Channel. 

i. Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 3. bi«k. 5 misk. 6 mied. 8 eev. 14 DRaa. — stag [stack]. 21 
nrem. 22 tigm. 23 sism, se«m. 24 shism. 25 mi«n. 28 Ubb. 32 bledh. 
33 E««dh»R. A: 43 han. 44 Ian. A'- 77 laRD. 81 lien. 84 mu«u. 
93 te moo/i. 95 droo. A': 101 wok. 104 Ro'tsd. 128 dhmz. 130 boot. 

JE- — jEk [ache]. — lsedhBB [ladder]. — bUedhua [bladder]. 144 
rcgitra. 146 nwn. 149 blrez. 150 li«s. 152 waadibt. — paim [pretty]. 
M: 155 dhEti. 166 mi«d [probably confused with made]. 170 hsesest. 172 
gRseses. 181 paiaeth. M- — haBDi [ready]. 187 bsf. 192 mhsn. 193 
klftin. 200 whst. M': — bliit [bleak]. 207 mid'l. — jeI [eel]. 218 
ship. 224 wi«R. 

E- — liit [leak]. 248 mitra. 252 kit'l. E: 261 zee. 284 Ditresh. 
E'- 298 Tiil. 301 ha'iB. EA: 326 oo\. 327 bool. 333 Yeet. 334 heel 
335 asajl. 336 vsesel. 342 jamn. 343 wanm. 346 getst. EA'- 347 hiid. 
EA': 355 diif. 363 tjip. 366 gaBT. EI: 378 wiuk. EO- 383 zsv'n. 
385 binE-th. EO: — smBKT [smart]. 407 vaar/N. EO'- 411 DRii. 
EO': 423 dha'i. 428 zii. 

I: 477 va'in. — beha'i-n [behind]. 485 dis'l. I'- — sTuik [strike]. 
I': 502 va'iv. 

O: 534 hAAl. 547 butmD. 551 staBm. 552 kasu. 553 haBN. 554 
kRaas. O'- 564 zuunder [sooner]. O': 579 ina'u - . 

TJ- 605 zan. TJ: 610 id. 612 zam. 629 zan. 631 dhazdt. 634 
druu. 635 wath. 

[ 1522 ] 



D 4, V vi. D 5] THE MID SOUTHERN. 91 

Y- — piil [pillow]. 682 lid'l. Y: 685 Rhadj. 686 bsmdi. 691 

ma'in. 700 was. 701 fast. 

ii. English. 

A. 718 tri«d. 741 miuz. E. — z«m [seem]. 0. — soog [soak]. 
— laBT [a loft]. — poog [poke]. XJ. — kuiid [cud, compare a quid of 
tobacco]. 805 kuaDz. 

in. Romance. 

A-. 811 pliss. — faekot [faggot]. 833 pine. — maenduR [manner]. 
852 jecpBRN. — kaR.[carry]. — kuau [quarry]. E-. 888 saut'n. — 
saB [serve]. 890 Mbs. I« andY-- — haRvtJB [river]. 0-. 938 

kanNBR. XJ- — stad [study]. 

D 5 = e.MS. = eastern Mid Southern. 

Boundaries. Beginning at the w. b. of Ox. just opposite Moreton-on-Marsh 
(19 e.Tewkesbury) and go along the w. b. of Ox. and then of Be. as far as 
Hungerford (24 w.-by-s. Reading) and then continue ia a n. to s. line through 
Ha. passing just w. of Andover, to Nursling at the n. point of Southampton 
"Water and then to the sea by Lymington (10 e.Christehurch). Cross the Solent 
to the nw. corner of "Wi. (and not just e. of it as appears on the map). Bun 
along the coast of "Wi. to the ne. corner of it. Then again cross the sea to 
Selsey Bill, s.Ss. and continue along the s. coast of Ss. to the mouth of the 
B. Adur. Then sweep ne. through m.Ss., e. of Bolney (8 se.Horsham) and w. 
of Cuckfleld (9 ese.Horsham) through East Grinstead (15 ene.Horsham) . Then 
pass through the extreme se. corner of Sr. and proceed in a ne. direction to 
Knockholt (14 s.Woolwich), which is a conjectural point from which no in- 
formation has been obtained. Dialect speaking now ceases on approaching D 8 
in the Metropolitan Area, but we may sweep sw. w. and nw. through n.Sr. keep- 
ing probably s. of Croydon and Leatherhead (12 ne.Guildford), n. of Stoke 
(1 n.Guildford), w. of Sandhurst (10 se. Beading) to Beading. Then proceed 
along the w. b. of Ox. to the projection of Be. into Ox., which cut off, passing 
s. of Cumnor (3 wsw.Oxford) and n. of Appleton (5 sw. Oxford). Then enter 
Ox. and pass w. of Ensham (4 nw. Oxford) and of Handborough (6 nw.Oxford) 
and then go nearly n. to the e. of Charlbury and Chipping Norton (12 nw. and 
17 nnw. Oxford) to a point just e. of Moreton-on-Marsh, the starting-point, to 
which proceed. 

Much of this line is very uncertain for at least a few miles on each side of it. 
The division between Be. and Ox. is altogether uncertain. The sweep through 
n.Sr. may be considered almost conjectural, so great was the difficulty of obtain- 
ing any satisfactory evidence of native dialect. The population is shifting and 
seldom native. But Stoke (1 n.Guildford) was well marked. The e. b. through 
Ke. presented insuperable difficulties, but the line between the mouth of the 
Adur and East Grinstead is tolerably clearly defined. If in the most uncertain 
parts the line be taken 5 to at most 10 miles wide, it may be accepted as a very 
fair boundary. 

Area. Most of Ha. and all "Wi., much of Be., s.Sr. and w.Ss., 
and a small portion of w.Ox. 

Authorities. See the Alphabetical County list for the following places where 
prefixed marks show * w. per AJE., t per TH., || in so., c in io. 

Be. "Bucklebury, °Cholsey, "Coleshill, °Denchworth, "East Hendred, ||Hamp- 
steadNorris, "Kintbury, °Shefford, || Stanford in the Vale, ||Steventon, "Streatley, 



Ha. ||°Andover, °Corhampton, "East Stratton, °"West Stratton, '"Winchester to 
Southampton. 

Ke. No information. 

Ox. °Alvescot, "Charlbury, "Chastleton, tDucklington, tLeafield, 1\Lew, 
tMilton, 5 llfWitney. 

[ 1523 ] 



92 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V i. 

Sr. °Charlwood, °Elstead, "Ewhurst, °Godalming, "Godstone, "Haslemere, 
"Leatherhead, *°Ockley, *Stoke, "Weald of Sr. 

Ss. °Bolney, "Compton, "Ertham, "Kirdford, "Twineham, "West "Wittering, 
"Wisborough Green. 

Wi. "Northwood, "Shorwell, "whole Isle. 

The district is not so well represented as the last. The greater 
number of notes are meagre and imperfect. There were only three 
w., from "Winchester Ha., Oekley and Stoke Sr., a pal. transcription 
of part of a cs. hy Prince L.-L. Bonaparte from Hampstead Norris, 
Be., a pal. specimen and cwl. from Andover by Prof. Arnold 
Schroer, a few notes by TH. in Ox., and some in Glossic by Mrs. 
Parker in Be. and Ox. But these are sufficient to understand the 
notes of the other informants. 

Character. The (e) remains generally quite distinct, the (z,v) 
for (s, f ) initial die out eastward, the (ai) for _5iG, EG is uncertain, 
7" be remains, but the a- before the past participle becomes lost. It 
will be most convenient to consider four varieties or forms, V i. w.Ox., 
Vii. Be., Viii. Ha. and Wi., and Viv. s.Sr. and w.Ss. There is no 
special information from the very small portion of Ke. involved, the 
dial, of which, being so near to the metropolitan area, is probably 
very slightly marked indeed, but does not shew the characteristics 
of D 9. These different varieties cannot be distinctly defined by 
any clear characters, but still there is some amount of local 
distinction. 



"Vae. i. Ox. Poem. 
Witney, dt. 

Originally written in gl. by Mrs. Angelina Parker, then pal. by TH. from her 
diet, and finally corrected by TH. from information obtained by him at "Witney 
Sept. 1884. As the pronunciation of this district is thought very strange at 
Oxford, great pains have been taken to represent it correctly. See the following 
cwl. embracing words from Witney, Ducklington, and Leafield, another primitive 
place, all of which were well examined by TH. This form- of D 5 shews the 
transition from D 4 very clearly. The reverted (») was distinctly noticed by 
TH. after a vowel, but before a vowel he seems not to have felt its difference 
from common English (r, r )', and he also did not notice its assimilating effect on 
adjacent (t d n 1), which is inevitable when (h) is used. But he noted how much 
more marked the reversion was in w. than in m. and s.Ox. I have therefore re- 
tained his notation. There is a great peculiarity in this district. As far s. as 
Witney there is a plentiful sprinkling of (« c , o) in place of (a), but at Ducklington 
(:dak'lten) only 1 s.Witney, this entirely ceases, (a) alone being heard. In other 
respects the dialect at Ducklington is identical with that at Witney. This shews 
that the incursion of («„) into the n. part of S. should not be considered to affect 
the dialect district. (See also D 4, Var. ii., Gl. Form, p. 60. The symbol (« ), 
a variety of («), is especially considered in the introduction to the M. div.) 

1 . sd [saw] e'» sa», m««ts, jb siz na'w «z a'» bi ra'«t ■Bba'wt dhat 
dhaE l*'t'l gjasl [gjaT] uka-mra fram dire skuu'l jand^K. 

2. sr)z ■Bgwa.-m [ygwe-in] da'«n dhe rood [rawd] dhBR' [dhaR*] 
thruu dhi? rEd gJEt [gJEt] I3)dhi3 [an)dhtf] lift and saVd e)dlvB 
wai. 

[ 1524 ] 



D 5, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 93 

3. shuBK vnu i dta tjaVl)z gAAn stra«t w p t«)d3ii3 cIubr b)cQib 
roq' a'ws, 

4. wbb ke)1 mwast la^Tdi fa'md dhat dh^r drw qk''ii dEf l sr&YBld 
fElra T3)dhu n««m v itomes. 

5. wl aaI nooz [nauz] 1 ve« [? var»] we'1. 

6. want dhra owld [awld] tjap' swn laRn as, nat tv dw)t tfg]Vn, 
puBE th«'q ! 

7. lak ! jEat it truu ? 

"Wesi Ox. cwl. 

From the following sources : 

B. wn. by TH. from Mr. James Brain, native of Ducklington, aged 81. 

M. words given in io. by Bev. W. D. Macray, rector of Ducklington, also chiefly 

taken from Mr. Brain, and pal. rather conjecturally by AJE. 
L. Leafield, wn. by TH. from natives of 87, 84, and 74 years old. 
W. Witney, wn. by TH. 

i. Wessex ajtd Noese. 

A- 12 M saa. 14 M draa. 21 BLW neem. 23 BL seem. 24 M shEm, 
shfeem. 33 L rEEdhBR. 37 M thaa. A: 39 M [(kani) used]. A: or 0: 
58 B frtsm, W fram. 64 BL roq', W ro'q. A'- 73 W so sa«. 81 L leen 
[so all his life, 84 years old]. 84 L muBR. 85 M suua. 86 W wats. 89 M 
bo'sdh. 92Lnahu. A': 104 B rood, W rood, rawd. 115BLoom. 118 
W bwan. 124 M sto'Bn, stan. 130 M bo'et. 

M- 138 LW faadhBR. M: 154Bbak\ 155MthEti. 158 L aa-tsr- 
nuun. 161 B dai, L¥ dee. 171 W basis. — L kjahRt. JE'- 192 L meen. 
197 L tjiiz. 200 LW week. M': 223 L dhiBR. 226 BW mwast, M 
moBst. 

E- 233 B speek, dhe spsks [they speaks], W speekin. 241 L reen, W rain. 

— B liB-zin [leasing = gleaning], L leezin, liBzin. 252 L kjit'l. E: 261 
BW sai, L sa'i, sai [new form (s6t)]. — L lsg [leg]. 262 "WL wrf* wa''i, 
B w&i wai. 265 L stra'tt [old form (strait)], W strait. 266 Wwe'1. — W 
fi'ld [field]. 276 W thiq'. 278 L WEnti [used when young, now (gjanl)]. 
E'- 299 L griin. E': 314 L lBRd. EA- 319 M g'rep. EA: 324 
L aitiin, W aiti. 326 BW 6»ld, W also awld. 328 M ko«ld. 329 M 
f6«ld. 335 W aaI. 346 W gJEt, L gJEt, M. gist. EA': 350 L djE'd. 
352 W rsd. 355 W dsf . 359 nai-bsR. — B bjE'm [beam]. 361 W 
bjan. 363 L trap. 364 W trap. 371 B straa, L strAA [old form (straa)]. 
EI- 373 L dhaj, W dha>«. EO- 383 W SEv'm. EO: 394 W jandim. 
395 W req. 396 B waRk. 402 W laRn. EO'- 420 W f&BR. 421 W 
fa l Rti. EO': 428 W si. EY- 438 L do'J. 

I- 440 B wik. 446 no'in. — W peez [pease]. I: 452 W o'». 458 
na'it. 459 BW ra'it. 465 sitti. 466 B tra'ild. 468 B tjildBRN. 477 
W fa'ind. 488 B lit V- 492 W sa'id. 494 L te'tm. I': 500 B 
la a 'kli. 

O- — L drap [drop]. 524 B wbrM. O: 531 BL daa-teR, W 

QAAtBR. 538 B wd. 543 BLW an'. — W kraps [crops]. 551 L sti'sin. 

— B aa' [horse]. O'- 559 W madhBR. 560 W skuul. 562 B mnun. 
564 B sun. 568 W bradhBH. O': 578 L pla l '«. " 579 W Bn» f. 586 L 
dwant [don't]. 

XJ- — L ud [wood]. 603 B kam, W Bka-min. 604 W s» mBR. 605 B 
sa'n, L s^n, W sa'n. 606 BW duBR. IT: 612 W sw m, som. 613 L dr« qk. 
619 L fw n. 629 B san' [compare 605], W s«„n. 632 LW « p, ap. 633 
k« p, kap. 634 W thruu. 636 L farter. XT'- 643 WB na'«. 650 L 
[between (Bba"«t) and (Bb6««t)] W Bba'««t. TJ': 658 W da'wn. 659 W ta'«n. 
663 BW aW. 667 L a'wt. 

Y- W lit'l. 

[ 1525 ] 



94 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V i, ii. 

n. English. 

A. 737 ¥ m«t. E. 749 "W lift. I. and T. 758 W gjanl, gjaT . 
0. 761 M loBd. — L :l« nim [new form (:l« ndtm)]. — W la'st. 791 L 
bwA"i, "W b6i. V. —W te b, tob [tub]. — W dak [a duck]. 794 
W djw^, djog. 803 W dj« mp, djomp. — w gen [a gun]. 804 "W dr« qk'n. 

ur. Romance. 

A- 828 M eegBR. — L pl&'in [plain, unadorned]. — W pleez [please]. 
— Wsaaarat. 862 BW serf. E- 867 W tee. 885 B vari, W vari, vari. 
890 L bJEst [now (best)]. 891 L fJBst. •• — W pomp, p« mp [pump]. 

" " npahsvb 1 



mw ni [money]. 935 L kw entri. 938 BL kA'smm. — W imp 
[impossible]. 947 L bwoi'l. — W kales, [colour]. U-- 970 W dj# st. 

Examples. — B (o'i si dlra)6«ld tjap' i-sterde), I saw the old chap yesterday. 
L (e'i bi 8gwa - in oova. te)E mi s« pi3R). W (am 1 , am', biutifwl am" ! dhEm 
es)kant lit it A't te klam') [ham, ham, beautiful ham ! them as can't eat it ought 
to clam (starve)]. 



Yah. ii. The Be. Fobm. 

Although I have been quite unable to obtain w. communications 
from Be., and the information I have received leave's much to be 
desired, it is sufficient to shew the continuation of practically the 
same dial, as in w.Ox. throughout Be. 

Beginning in the n. I have a dial, test obtained by Mrs. Parker 
for Steventon (5 ne Wantage), and I had others from Stanford in 
the Vale (5 nw. "Wantage), which I could not sufficiently trust. 
The short list of words from "Wantage, corroborated by those from 
Denchworth (3 n-by-w. Wantage), and Cholsey (11 e.Wantage), con- 
tinues the information through the n. of Be. From Hampstead 
Norris (11 se. Wantage) I have a considerable portion of the cs. 
written from diet, by Prince L.-L Bonaparte, from which the 
general character of the dial, can be safely inferred. It will suffice 
to give the Steventon, Wantage and Hampstead Norris specimens. 



a. Steventon (5 ne.Wantage, Be.) dt. 

"Written in gl. by Mrs. Parker from the diet, of Mr. Leonard, both of Ox., and 
pal. by AJE. Mrs. Parker has not marked the reverted, or, as she considers it, 
retracted (e), but I have supplied it to the same extent as before. 

1. Soo a'* sai, AAl)aen)i, jb siz nafu a'*' bira'*t Bba'wt dheet be ltt'l 
gjael Bkanwh from dhe skuuld jsendrat. 

2. shii)z BgwAA-m daftm dta rAAud dhas thruu dhe red gfBt a 
db.B lift and saVd v dire waa'«. 

3. shuuR Bnof dhis tja'ild bv gAAn strait ap tB dire duuB b dh« 
roq a'«s. 

4. war shii)l tj«<mts tB fa'md dhast be draqk'n def, sri'v'ld felB b 
dhB n««m b :tomes. 

5. wii aaI nAA'wz)n veE» weI. 

6. want dh)AA'wld tjap s«n laEN be nset tB duu)t BgjVn, puus thu'q. 

7. lak ! jant it truu ? 

[ 1526 ] 



D 5, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 95 



b. Hampstead Norms, Be., part of cs. 

Written by Prince L.-L. Bonaparte in his own letters from the dictation of 
"W. B. Banting, Esq., hon. sec. of the Newbury District Field Club, by whom it 
was approved when read out; translated into pal. by A.J.E. Most probably 
I should have appreciated some sounds differently, as shewn by the notes, but I 
have thought it right to retain the Prince's own spelling, translated into pal. It 
shews a strong D 5 dialect. 

0. wu'« :djon asz nuu dawts. 

1 . wb1, naarbaa, jot 1 send hii maa* bscVth laa'f set dbis muuz 
oa mv'in. lag 1 ki'is ? dha3t *z n»dh'i Hhn nAAi dhii. 

2. £ruu men da'* kos dhaa* hi laa'ft ast, wii n-ev'u, d«)nt wii ? waat 
sh^d meek am ? t-rcnt vee'ri fa'tklt, »'z at ? 

3. awsamde'vai dhi's aai dhaai vasks 9 dhaai ki's, zoo djest 
nhe'^ld jer na'iz, frend, 83nd bii kweVt til u'i oa dan. aarkn ! 

4. v'i bii zei'tth «'*' Wid am zaai — zam ov dhem vok si 1 went thr* 1 
dhaai uu'l dh»'q vrom dbaai vast dh»jsel*z, — dhast dtd -e'i zi'f enaf. 

5. dhast dhaai jaq-gest zan tssel'f, as g*it bwu'*' o neVn, nw'wd 
iz fee'dhaiz va'*'s aet wens, dbWu et wasz zoo kwai aend skwek'an, 
arad v'i -wad drast en fc? 1 speek dhaai druuth en-*' daa«, aa, -e'i wed. 

6. as'nd dhaai u'wl-d-unrasn Hh^isel* w«l tel en* o-n-* dhast laa'f 
nau, asnd tel ii straa*'t %'»% to 1 , w«)a«t - matj bodb/BT, ii «'l g l n'\i 
asks «i, 9 1 ! wasnt sbii ? 

7. li'stwB'*'z sbii te'wldatmee, wen b'« asksd *t, to 1 aai drii be'imz 
<wvaT, d*d shii, asnd shii d*'d'nt AAt to 1 bii roq on s*'k aai paVnt 
83z dh«s, waat da 1 ii dh*qk ? 

8. wbI aez -e'i wasz as zaWn, shii ed tel ii, bV, wi asnd wen 
shii VBVnd dhaai draqk'n bi'st shii kAAlz n az'basn. 

Notes to Hampstead Norris. 

0. why, the usual MS. diphthong, Mr. B. has whoo. — neither, here again 
differently appreciated as (a'« a>'» a'i (a) is doubtful, Mr. B. has nuther. 
di^j. Mr. Banting wrote whoy, as 2. should, (»*) doubtful. 

usual. — has, this is the strong form. — 3. these, the final (s) probably an 

doubts, analogy would have required error for (z). — the, this (dhaai) is 

(de'ats), see 8 (Wend). difficult to understand, Mr. B. writes 

1. neighbour, the final (i) or glottal th'au thae vachs ov thaw keas, which 
r, which is sometimes written (i) or (r ), is equally puzzling. — noise, Mr. B. nais. 
followed by permissive r, was evidently 4. heard-who-through, Mr. B. hurd- 
at that time the Prince's appreciation oo-throo, the (») is doubtful. 

of (u), the only real r of this district. 5. trust, truth, Mr. B. writes dtrust, 

— you, the appreciation (ja? 1 ) is very dtruth, which were probably his errors, 

doubtful. Mr. B. wrote yough, perhaps (TRastTRUuth)mighthave been expected. 

(ja'w). — both, Mr. Banting writes boweth 8. how-found by the appreciation 

perhaps (b6Bdh) was intended. I do («'»') the diphthong in these words is 

not attribute much importance to Mr. made to resemble the Dv. diphthong. 

Banting's approval of the Prince's Mr. B. writes simply ow. If the Prince 

reading, for as Mr. Banting was not heard him correctly, he must have had 

used to phonetic appreciation, and the a very peculiar pron. of (uu, oo, a'u) not 

Prince was a foreigner, Mr. Banting belonging to the district. The Prince 

would be easily satisfied with a rough was not able to finish writing the whole 

approximation to his own sounds. — who, cs. from dictation, 
the appreciation (hs 1 ) is very doubtful, 

[ 1527 ] 



96 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V ii, iii. 

c. "Wantage, Be., cwl. 

Written by Mr. Darey io., rather conjecturally pal. by AJE. The reverted (e) 
not before a vowel has been supplied, as it was certainly pronounced. I had also 
a considerable number of words from the Vicar of Denchworth (3 nnw. Wantage), 
which so far as they go confirm this list, and a dt. from the schoolmaster of 
Cholsey (12 e. Wantage), which has a suspicious number of initial (z) and other 
doubtful points, hence I can only use these as confirmations on the whole. 

I. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A'- 92 na». A': 118 butsn. 

M- 148 fair. J3: 158 eefttm aatBR. — wops [wasp]. M': 208 am 
b- [e'er a, any]. 209 nam s- [ne'er a-]. 218 ship. 223 dtaE. 

E: 261 zai. 263 Bwai-. 265 straiT. — Bthant [athwart]. E': 312 
isr. EA: 324 aithait. EA': 366 gaRt groT. EO: — em [them]. 
— shant [short]. 407 fandhiq. 

T- — gii [give]. I': — hai [hay]. 0: 538 wd. 552 kaRn. — 
mannrai [morning]. 0': 586 duu)t [do it], dun)na« [don't know]. TJ: 
612 zam)Bt [somewhat, something]. 

n. Enghjsh. 

A. — Eailz [rails]. — maKkst [market]. 

III. Romance. 

A- — pai [pay]. 890 biost. — puuRTBR [porter]. 
Sentences : (doBnt)i) don't you, (wset)s wsent tB gRa'ind ii foR?) what dost want 
to grind he ( =it ?) for ? (jE)nt it, bE)nt it) is not it, be not it, (ankid) dreadful. 

Vae. iii. Ha. and "Wi. Poems. 

The dialect at the north of Hampshire cannot differ much from 
that of Hampstead Morris, Be. The late Dr. Burnell, a native, 
■writing from "West Stratton (7 ne."Winchester), says that the r final 
is fully reverted, that (z) for s initial is very rare, (v) for / he had 
heard in 535 (vooks) folks ; (h, wh) initial were used, 553 morning, 
87 clothes, were (maimm, klaaz), and 304 beetle a mallet, was (bswt'l), 
which is singular, 394 yonder (jandtfB). In grammar / be, he be, 
we am, they am, are heard, not lore. I lives not I do live, he live, 
we lives. The dialect seemed already (1879) much altered, and so 
many inhabitants had been in service in London and elsewhere, or at 
sea and about, that Dr. B. doubted the value of what they told him. 
The man he had reckoned on as his principal authority was ill. 

From East Stratton, which is close by, I got (gw«h, ■enuu - , g(ut) 
going, enough, gate ; Dr. Burnell repudiated the last. 

Towards the s. of Ha. the great towns of Winchester, Southamp- 
ton, and Portsmouth have acted seriously on the dialect, which 
however crops up again in "Wi. 

The Rev. T. Birmingham, when Rector of Charlwood, Sr. (6 ssw. 
Reigate), a Hampshire man, said that in his younger days (b. 1 808) 
the labourer alway put v for /, and 2 for « ; a fallow would be 
a voller (vole ?), and gives the following examples of Ha. at that 
time (I preserve the spelling), "I was a gwine (gwaYn) hoh-um 
(hdovm) to git my kawfee, but set doun under the haLLumun 
(ha: - l'Bm'8n=elm) tree to git out o' th' rah-in (ram). Terrable 
watchet (taEBb'l watjet) a gwine acrass that air veeyuld (viitfld)." 

[ 1528 ] 



D 5, Viii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 97 

Here watohet is wetshod, wet for the feet. He notes waps wapsen= 
wasp wasps, een arnomt—enrm. almost, on-emp=un-eva.'ptj,= empty 
" on-emp that air payul," leer= hungry, empty, = German leer, but 
not derived from it, mid. Eng. laer. (See D 4, p. 52, Hornet, 1. 23.) 

Southampton to Winchester. 

This cs. was written from the dictation of Mr. Percival Leigh, 22 March, 1876, 
who was born in Scotland in 1813, but was taken to Hampshire when a month old 
and had been there constantly since, so that he had known the dialect all his life. 
Mr. Leigh did not use (r), but pronounced in the usual received manner, initial 
(r), final as (b). I have used final (r), because from other sources I know that 
it prevails in Hampshire. Mr. Leigh was also strict in not leaving out (h), but 
admitted that it was sometimes put in. Altogether it seems that this version 
gives rather a refined form of speech, with occasional outbursts of real dialect. 
Towards Portsmouth Mr. Leigh considered the speech as finer still. 

0. was'*' :djon haeaent got noo dso'wts. 

1 . weI, na*bBR, dhii en h«m med buu'th laa'f 9t dhis hii'r niiiz o 
mao'm. huu kee'itz ? dhaet eent nadhoR hii'it nBR dhee'a. 

2. fiii tjaeps daoVz kAAZ dhee bi lasaeft aet, wii nooz, duu'nt)os ? 
wot shwd mii'k «m ? Bt beent veR* lartkli, bii)Bt ? 

3. hao'wsemdEVBR dhiiz hii'a bii dhB rao'us o dhe stoo'rii, zoo 
djEst dhii hoold dh« noo't'z, vrend, en ba>'*'d kwao'rut t«l a>'*)v Bdan. 
dhii b's'n to mii. 

4. ao'» bii saaat'n a>'« hii'Rd em zee zam o dhEm fooks ez went 
druu dhe hool dh«'q frem dhB vast dhBRZEl-vz — dhaet d»d ao'» zeef 
Bnaf - — 

5. dhist dhB jaqgost zan hissEl - f, b gast buo'i o nao'ra nood he'z 
vii'dhoRz vao'«'s Bt wans, thof twez zoo kwee'R en skweeken, end 
so'* wd trast - hii tB speek dire TRuuth En * dai, iis, "dhaet so'* 'ud. 

6. en dh)ool;d)Mm-en hBRZEl f 'l)tEl En'* on)i bz laeaefs nao'w, vn 
tEl)i strait oof, tuu, widhao'wt motj fas, «f juu)l wan-1* aeaesk br, 
oo, want shi ? 

7. leestwa*'z shi toold Bt - mii, wEn so'*' aeaest or, tuu br drii tao'*mz 
waavBR, d*'d)shi, en shii d«dn't AAt tB bi roq on s*'tj b pao'mt bz 
dh*'s, wot dost "dhii th*qk ? 

8. weI bz ao'« wbz b za*'on -shii uA tel)i, hso'w, wee'R an WEn shi 
vao'und dhi draqk-Bn bii'st shi kAAlz hBR haz-bsnd. 

9. shi soor shi saa Bn w* br oon so'*z, B-laron stratjt Bt lul lEqkth 
on dire grao'wnd, in iz gwd zan - d* kwuu't kloos bi dhB duu'R o dhB 
hso'ws, dso'ttn Bt dhB kaeaeRnBR o dhB leen jaeasndoa. 

10. aR wbz skwiire'en BwaY, sez shii, fBR aaI dhB ward'l lso'*°k b 
z*k tjao'ild, br b l»t - l gaal vrEt-Bn. 

11. Bn dhaet haap-'nd bz shii Bn hBR dseae-toR *h Iaa kam druu 
dhB bask kuu'rt frem haeq'Bn so'wt dhB wet klooz to drao'* on b 
wosh'Bn da*. 

12. wao'*l dho kit'l woz Bbao'*lBn fBR tee wan bRaoVt zanreR 
aeaetBRnuun wan - l* b -week eguu - kam nEks dhaRz'd*. 

13. send dast 'dhii noo ? so'* neveR laaRnt noo muu'R nBR dh*'s 
hii'R b -dhast b«'z - nos ap tB tB-da«, bz shuu'R bz moo'« nii'mz :djon 
:shep - BRd on aoV duu'nt wAAnt tB, eedhsr, zoo dhee'R ! 

14. «n zoo ao'» bi gwaoVon whoo'm tB zapBR. gwd nao'j't, Bn 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1529 ] 98 



98 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 



[D 5, V iii. 



duu'nt bii zo kwick tie kroo waansR u tjaep tsgm, wsn rc tAAks o dh»s 
dhspt br tadhuu. 

15. vt)» 9 week fuul isz sez muu'R neR i niid. en dhaet-s mao'*' 
last waR<i. gwd bao'*'. 



Notes. 



0. hasn't got no doubts, or simply Aas 
«o (b noo) or has not got (s not got). 
The vowel (o) was Mr. Leigh's ordinary 
(o) and was not (o) . 

1 . neighbour, Mr. L. gave both (nai-) 
and (naoi-). — thee-him ; thee is used for 
both nom. and ace. ; him is nom. and 
(Hi) emphatic, (en) regular unemphatic 
8. ace. 

2. ain't is most natural, but (beent) 
is also used.— -few with (f) not (v). — 
chaps, Mr. L. varied, apparently un- 
consciously, from (se) to (a 1 ) wherever 
the short sound occurs. — what, simple 
(w) no (wh) . — bain' t or (bii' nt) . The use 
of be in the third singular here and 
elsewhere is doubtful. 

3. rights of the story, ior facts of the 
case, which is not a dialectal expression. 
— thy (dhao'i) emphatic, (dhi) unem- 
phatic.— friend, the (v) is doubtful. — 
adone, the use of (b) before the past 
participle is more frequent than not, 
among the regular old-fashioned people. 

4. say sometimes (zai). — through as 
dictated, but this change of thr- to dr- 
implies that the real change is into (dk-) 
and this is doubtful in Ha. — thing 
(dhiq) is only occasionally used for (th*q) 
—from is more naturally pronounced 
with (f). 

5. voice is not a regular term, perhaps 
(vais) would be said. — though (thof) 
was so dictated, but the (th) is doubtful. 

.The word was said to be not common 
bat still used. — he, emphatic form of 
ace, (tm) unemphatic. — any (Eni), never 



(sen - *). — day (dai) is heard, but not so 
often as (dee). — yes (iis) is the regular 
form, but (yoits) is also used. 

6. old woman, the (d) of (ool) is per- 
ceptibly made the beginning of the 
word (am-Bn), as common in S. — on-ye, 
tell ye, sometimes (jb) is used in place 
of (-i), but this must be a modernism. — ■ 
fuss is the common word, not bother. — 
only (oo - ni) is also used, but (wan-li) is 
more frequent. 

7 and 14. over (waavoit). 

8. saying, also pronounced (see - an) or 
(seen) .— found generally with (v), (f) 
sometimes among the younger. — beast 
or (beest), plural (bii'stiz). — husband 
or (az*bBnd, azbsn), not man. 

9. saw or else (ssea), zsese, sid, sin, 
sii) might be used. — a-laying, a general 
error for a-lying, which would be 
(o-la)'i - on). 

10. world, this pronunciation is not 
very common now. — girl or else (maid) . 

11. law is generally (lsese), but in 
this connection may be (Iaa). 

12. week uncertain, Mr. Leigh at 
first wrote week (wiik), I expected (wik, 
wik), but both wicu and wuce are found 
in Ws. 

13. name's, or (naeaemz) .— shepherd, 
(ship) is used for sheep. 

14. a-going (gao'eBn) is probably an 
error for (Bgwai-an). — this, no (dhik) 
is used in Hampshire, but (dhik-Bn) is 
said in the plural. 

15. says, the word prates is not 
used, (reez'n) is said. 



Andoveb, Ha., specimen and cwl. s 

Prof. Dr. M. M. Arnold Schroer, from Vienna, of the University 
of Freiburg-im-Breisgau, Baden, Germany, who had studied pho- 
netics under Dr. Sweet, and had had much experience in observing, 
analysing, and criticising differences of speech in various parts of 
Germany, and speaks English with an excellent pronunciation, 
having spent the summer of 1887 near Andover, Ha., exercised him- 
self in writing Ha. speech from dictation. His two chief authorities 
were Mr. Benjamin Manning, of Appleshaw (4 wnw.Andover), 
between 40 and 50 years old, who had lived all his life in the 
county and been in constant communication with farm-labourers, 

[ 1S30 ] 



D 5, V iii.] 



THE MID SOUTHERN. 99 



and Mr. Archard, a native of Ha., educated at "Winchester, then 
national schoolmaster at Andover, and consequently in the constant 
habit of hearing dialect, to whom Prof. S. had been recommended 
by Canon Collier, the vicar, as the very man he wanted. Of these 
Prof. S. considered Mr. M. as his chief authority. The number of 
points, however, in which he differed from Mr. A. is considerable. 
Prof. Schrb'er selected as an example a letter originally published 
in Punch (vol. ix. p. 264, 1845) and reprinted in the Eev. Sir 
William H. Cope's Ma. Glossary, p. xii. This was read to him 
by both Messrs'. M. and A., and their pronunciation most carefully 
analysed in Dr. Sweet's revised Eomic spelling {Bound Notation, 
Trans, of the Philological Society, 1880-1, pp. 177-235), with 
which Prof. S. is perfectly familiar. These versions, transliterated 
into pal. from the references to Mr. Melville Bell's notation and 
other indications given in the paper cited, are here annexed, with a 
translation. In the cwl. Mr. M. has been generally followed, and 
some words in his own orthography have been added. In a few 
cases Mr. A.'s pron. is specially noted. 

Prof. S. considers that the Ha. dialect 
' ' is rapidly dying out, and has been so for the last two generations. Even the 
oldest farm-labourers are so much accustomed to educated (London) pronunciation, 
that this certainly influences their natural speech. I attended," he adds, "a 
harvest-home festival at Longstock House, Fullerton (4 s.Andover), and waited 
upon a poor blind old man of 80, who, owing to his blindness, could not always 
know that I was near him or within hearing. Still, though I spent almost the 
whole afternoon in his company, always listening and secretly taking notes, I did 
not find more than a very few peculiar pronunciations, except the general tendency 
of influencing vowels by the reverted r." 

There are several points which will strike the reader in the following spec. 
Prof. Schroer having been, as already stated, a phonetic pupil of Dr. Sweet, his 
appreciation of sounds, as referred to Mr. Melville Bell's scheme, seems to differ 
in some respects from mine. He has been before all things anxious to make the 
most accurate transcription possible of the speech actually under consideration. 
Mr. M.'s own spelling in the cwl. will shew that the speaker evidently thought 
he was saying (ii, ee), while Prof. S. heard only (yy, ee). The (so) which con- 
stantly occurs corresponds in unaccented syllables to my (b), from which, and also 
from (oh), which sometimes occurs, the audible difference is small, though the 
difference of the position of tongue and lips, which determines the symbol, is often 
considerable. Probably most of the words written with (yy'sa), I should have 
heard with (fa, fa, ifa). Those written with (oh), considered as Fr. o in homme 
and answering to short «, I should probably have heard as (o), but both Mr. M.'s 
(oh) and Mr. A.'s (u) in (pohnti, pwntj), punch, in place of (a), are extremely 
strange to me. As regards I' words having (ay), I may refer to JGG.'s use of 
the same symbol at Chippenham (supra p. 51), which I then thought very remark- 
able. The symbol (ao'oh), which is the pal. rendering of Dr. Sweet's sign for 
received London ow, is intended to imply that in Ha. Mr. M. used that sound, 
beginning with (ao) and ending with the rounded form of the same vowel, that is, 
not coming up to (u) or altering the position of the tongue at all, but merely 
partly closing the lips while saying (so). I am accustomed to analyse my own 
utterance of this sound as (a'«<), and do not hear (ao) at all ; in fact, when I first 
heard initial (so) from Mr. Trotter (supra p. 60rf), it had an extremely strange 

Erovincial effect to my ears. This (ao'oh) is, however, not universal. In count 
oth M. and A. give (kwtmt), which I might have heard as (karait), a very 
singular form. This (tia, uua) is the common form of what I, perhaps, should 
have written («e, ifa, time), as (btiuak, sttiuad) book, stood, which I should 
probably have heard and therefore written (brisk, stsJsd). Some other usages 

[ 1531 ] 



100 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V Hi. 

also seem strange, as the diphthong in (nEE'a'z), noise, the advanced high (a) in 
(v,aa l 'B), for, the accented use of (ao) in (paogz, :y'a>mzh'it, haost, yao'bl), pigs, 
Hampshire, hast, able, the use of (ce) in (zoems), sense, the double form of 
(.aaVl, ^-a'l), oil, where (,aa-a') seemed to be an advanced (aa) ending with 
a slight motion of the tongue into the position for (a 1 ) ; the hyphen merely 
separates symbols, so as to form a kind of (a'i) diphthong. 

These observations of Prof. Schroer are, I think, very valuable 
as shewing almost personal varieties of nw.Ha. pron. differing so 
widely as Mr. M.'s and Mr. A.'s, and analysed with the greatest 
minuteness and conscientiousness. I feel greatly indebted to him 
for his kindness in sending them, with long explanations, although 
it was extremely inconvenient for him to do so in time to appear 
in this place. 



Two Andover Pronunciations of Hampshire Farmer's Letteb. 

Written in Dr. Sweet's Romic by Prof. Arnold Schroer and translated into pal. 
by AJE. All the (t, d, 1, n, r) both here and in the sentences and cwl. on 
p. 104 should be (t, d, l, n, e), and hence (tj, dj) should be (ti, dj, =ish, 
Dzh) as at Chippenham (p. 51), but as this was not known till the proof was 
corrected, I considered it safer to let them remain as they are with this 
intimation. 

M. From the dictation of Mr. Manning. 

A. From the dictation of Mr. Archard, when the same for any word as in M., only 

(„) is written. 
T. Literal translation, not the original in Tunch. 

1. M myst'B :pohntj;, z'b, yi joh's [jao'oh] -plyy'&z, z'b, ay by)ao 
A „ pwntj, „ yi j'b " „ „ „ „ 
T Mr. Punch, sir, if you please, sir, I be a 

M ry'aomzh'B vjaa'amohR. 
A ,, ^aa'Bm'B. 

T Hampshire farmer. 

2. M ay rdyts tao jao'oh keoz <fy neo'ohz jao'oh ■h.an.t mdyad may 
A ,, ,, tu zlia ka^tfz „ nicaz iu wont ,, ,, 
T I write to you because I know you won't mind my 

M n«l«t by'aon ao zgolao'sd aon w'l a^kskeVz byy'aod zboelaon 
A ,, ,, ,, ,, ,, 6a\ [w'l] ykskjwwz „ „ 

T not being a scholar[d] and will excuse bad spelling 

M eon ee'1 dhEE'aot [dhyy'aDt]. 
A ,, ce'«1 dhyy'aot. 

T and all that. 

3. M Makeon eo'ohvao dhao pyy'eopao taodh'r myy'eoBksot dday 
A lwkaon ilaveo ,, ,, tiladhao ,, dyy'aoj 
T Looking over the paper t'other market day 

M aot :w«ntjyst'r ay zyyjd [zyd] ao k««nt ao dhao prdyz 

A „ :wyntjystao'B „ zyy „ „ „ „ 

T at Winchester I see'd a count of the prize 

[ 1532 ] 



D 5, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 101 

M kyy'a>t'l)zhjao'oh {tap yn ■lunam. [:lohnaon]. 
A ,, zhua ,, yn :lohnaon. 

T cattle show up in London. 

4. M dy wEE'aontyd tao n-b.ua, wEE'sot ao zaod eobuat ao psogz ; 
A ,, w«l#ntyd ,, nim what ao zed aoMwt ao pygz ; 
T I wanted to know what he said ahout the pigs; 

M iiaz dhso wee'soz eon wee'h dhao Minn vrsom. 

A „ ., -witaz „ -wah'r ,, kohm vrom. 

T whose they was and where they come from. 

5. M dy vao'ohaond aoz ao'oh dhEE's wrf'snt ao ziqg'l paog vksohi 
A dy vao'ohnd „ ,, ,, ,, „ ,, uag vnom 
T I found as how there were'nt a single pig [hog] from 

M :y'aomzh'K [:jaomzh'a] msoq dhao laot. 
A „ aomaoq ,, Mat. 

T Hampshire among the lot. 

6. M jao'oh v&uaz dhEi/aot, ay)d'a zEE'a 1 , aoz wao'l aoz dy 
A jxia nuaz dhyy'aot, ,, dyy'eo'B zyy'aoj, aoz wel „ ,, 
T You knows that, I dare say, as well as I 

M d&a, eon vah'r Irfyk jao'oh beey zdona'ysht yy'aot)ao't 
A „ ,, vsosRy ,, ziia byj sozdonyzhd aot)yt 

T do, and very like you he astonished at it 

M [jaot)aot] zohmaot. tao'l aa l ao'oh)aot)aoz)z'B. 
A zohm't. tel yj so'oh[6w] tyz)z'a. 

T somewhat. Tell you how it is, sir. 

7. M wa'y vao'ohks son ry'eomzh'r hREE'sodz [bByy'aodz] paogz aoz 
A vry xiidks yn „ bByy'aodz pygz)aoz) 
T "We folks in Hampshire breeds pigs as 

M paogz ao'oht)ao ba'y, son d&mt g&a vaotnaon eon aom A«p 

A pygz uat)s) by, „ „ „ „ on „ „ 

T pigs ought)to be, and don't go fattening on them up 

M ty'l dhao kyy'aont wEE'sog. 

A tyl „ „ wy/eog. 

T till they can't wag. 

8. M wa'y zaoz pao'oh'sk so'oht)tso hEE'aov Zyy'aon aoz weo'l aoz 
A wy sez pA«sk uat tu „ ,, ,, wel ,, 
T We says pork ought to have lean as well as 

M vyy'aot, son wa 1 lrfyks uas byy'aokn stryj/sokyd. zyy'eom 
A „ „ wy „ „ „ stryy'aoky. „ 

T fat, and we likes our bacon streaky. Same 

[ 1533 ] 



102 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 6, Y iii. 

M wy kyy'eotl. 

-A- >> >> 

T with cattle. 

9. M w a3. l 'r)z) dhao zosns ^"b rEE'aozn eo stohfaon aon kB aaomn 

A wa'ji)z ,, ,, ,, E > aa 1 zn a stof'n ,, kBaomn 

T "Where's the sense or reason of stuffing and cramming 

M ao tralyk ty'l yy byy'aont yeoT)l tao zyy jao'oht ? [out 

A eo hoks ty'l ao ,, yy'aobl ,, ,, iiat 

T an ox [bullock] til he he not able to see out [out 

M of his eyes, not used] 

A a yz ayz? 

T of his eyesl? 



10. M -wEE'aot jaoz dhao jao'ohs ao ee'1 dhEE'aat Eifaoa vyy'aot 
A what iz „ juuz a 03(e'1 dhyy'aDt yy'zm „ 

T What is the use of all that ere fat 

M [vEE'aot] dj -wEE'aDiits tao nao'oh? im jaoz dhoah'r aoz 
A ,, wiiants tit n&a? „ iz „ ,, 

T I wants to know ? Who is there as 

M jaDts)eot? 
A yy'eots)yt? 
T eats it? 

11. M dhao ^asVl kyy'eok, t'Emaots, maoqg'lz[w'Bzlz) aDn ky'aobydj 
A ,, jia-a 1 ! „ „ meoqg'lw sz'l aon kaobydj 
T The oilcake, turnips, mangelwurzel, and cabbage 

M aoz)aoz wEE'eDstyd aon mEE'eokaon -wyn bwlyk bd [monster] 
A eDz)yz wyy'aostyd yn myy'aokaon whan ,, ,, monst'r 
T as is wasted in making one bullock a monster 

M ohd g&a tao kEE'aDp dRaty v a x vao'oh's rdjn ky'eotl yn 
A wd ,, tw ,, dry ,, voo'b ,, haks'n yn 
T would go to keep three or four fine oxen [cattle] in 

M g&ad kondysh'n. 

T good condition. 

12. M tidy, z'e, dhda-a 1 med djyst)aoz wao'l vaot)ohp 
A ,, ,, dh^a-a 1 mdyt dpi«st)aoz wa'l vyy'aot ,, 
T Why, sir, they might just)as well fat up 

M zdaogz)aon yy'ooh'sz aon BEE'aobohts, dy aon YEE'aoz'nz aon 
A ,, „ BE'aoaz ,, saobohts, „ ,, voez'nz ,, 
T stags and hares, and rabbits, aye and pheasants and 

[ 1534 ] 



D5, Viii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 103 

M pEE'goKdRa^yz vjia'R dhao mEE'aotaoE ao)dhEE'aot. 
A pcEOE'EdBydjyz „ ,, maot's o dhyy'aot. 
T partridges, for the matter of that. 

13. M tao'l aa 1 wEE'aot [taoz] tmyy'aost'r :pohntj, yi zda'd so vlyqaon 
A toe'l yy hat, ,, pwntj yt zded o „ 

T Tell you what [it is], Master Punch, if stead of flinging 

M arwaa-a 1 gi«d pEavnd'E tao fan aa'snd yoeoenaom'lz y'nttt 
A aoway ,, provaond'r tu ,, „ aonaomcE'lz aonta 
T away good provender to turn horned animals into 

M :daonaol daomb'Bts, dhda-a} vrhaz tao gyy bryy'aod son maa'yt 
A ,, rlaomb'sts dhay uaz tu \>yy'(os,tua ,, ,, myy'eot 
T Daniel Lamberts they was to give [bestow] bread and meat 

M aon t'umohts tao :krystaonz aon myy'eok zohm on)aom 
A ,, ,, on :krystyaonz „ ,, ,, a)dhohm 

T and turnips on Christians, and make some of them 

M ao b«/t vaot'E dhsen dhda-a 1 ba'y dhofl^a'd Aiia wka 
A ao lyt'l vyy'aot'E dhaaaon dhay byy dh &yy)& duua miiua 
T a little fatter than they be, they'd do more 

M g&ad ao praa'yshaos zdyt, aon dy)m bao'obn js> n 6h baty 
A gimaA ao prEE'aoshaos zdyt, „ „ bdwnd jiiua "byy 
T good a precious sight, and I'm bound you be 

M dhao zyy'aom pjmaon. 
A o dhao ,, eobyruaon. 
T of the same opinion. 

14. M dj ba 1 , z'e, jao'oh'B baatydjaont z^aa'Evnt idjjian -.grao'ohts. 
A- » M/it, „ *»'r byydjaont ' „ „ :gnmts. 

T I be, sir, your obedient servant, John Grouts. 

Notes to the above Letter. 

1. knows, M. writes (o'y nao'ohz) and 9. bullock, M. says ox is not used in 

says not (niiaz) which is what A. gives ; Ha., but A. gives it. 

but M. says that 'to know' is (tao 11. oil (0303'ylj) in cwl. — making not 

nw«). (myf/aokam) says M., as A. has, it is 

3. looking, an octogenarian at Reden- only the infinitive which is (myy'sA). 

ham (5 nw.Andover and 1 nw.Apple- M. says monster is not used, and Prof. 

shaw) agreed with A. here. S. put a ? against (mEB'aonst'n) as a 

5. found or (vao'ahnd). — M. says possible pron.— /owr is (vao'oh'it), but 
"hog not used," that is in the sense of fourteen is (v,aa"Rtin). — cattle was 
a male pig ; but as a young and as yet oxen in the original, but M. says the 
unshorn sheep, the word is common in word is not used, though A. has it. 
Ha., so that a Hampshire Hog means 13. tell you what, according to M. 
a country simpleton. There is a should have had 'tis appended. — a bit, 
' Hampshire-Hog Lane ' at Hammer- M. says not a little, which A. uses. — 
smith, London, w. bestow is not used says M., but it is 

6. very, M. says the final y is fre- given by A. — you be [of, to be omitted 
quently omitted. according to M.] the same opinion. 

[ 1535 ] 



104 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V iii. 

AnDOVER CoiiOttTJIAL SENTENCES. 

Written by Prof. Schroer from dictation of Mr. B. Manning. See p. 100. 

1. (dhaot hdyv waoz muua dhaon liEEf briiuod), that hive was more 

than half brood. 

2. (t)yy')aont ldyk dhyy'eot), it [=the thing said])is)not like that, 

[=is not so]. 

3. (y yy'aont rr&ua g«lwad), it [referring to a rake] is-not no good. 

4. (yyVs dhyy heost, dhyy)st sto«lst my mEE'a)), yes thon hast, thee 

hast stol'st my maw=heart. [The phrase is said to belong 
to a well-known anecdote, using stol'st for stolen.'] 

5. (gymy dhyk zee'so. wy'tjn ? dhyk)n), give me this saw. which 

one ? this)one. 

6. (dhyy'ao byy'aost so bEE'aod bdoe), thou be'st a bad boy. 

7. (dhyy'aodst [dhyy'aoldst] nee'ao byy wi.ua gwd)an), thee'dst 

[thee'ldst] never be no good one. 

8. (tyz mdyn bEE'aod, z'b), it)is main [=very] bad, sir. 

9. (dy iyy'aont kao'ohnt)aom dhEE'eo ee'o'1 aomaoq), I can't count 

them there all among [mixed up together]. 

10. (way dsiwant jii.ua g&ua h&uam. [w^««m]), why don't you go 

home ? 

11. (Ahuant mEE'ahk sytj)ao ueeVz), don't make such a noise. 

12. (dy ta'l dhy wdt)yz, man !), I tell you what [it] is, man ! 

13. (wjia^'B byy'aost [byst] dhyy gwdwl^n?), where be'st thee 

going? [In (gwdwh!) "the first element low-back-wide, the 
second rather mid-niixed-wide, but certainly labialised by 
the (a). I [Schroer] make it (whx) lower, between (oh) and 
(wh), but more (y) than (oh)."] 

14. (wEE'aot byst gwdyn vaa^'it?), what be'st thou going for? 

[=why are you going?] 

15. («dt)s dhyy wEE'aont ?), what)is [it that] thee want ? 

16. (mdyn smyytjy, mdyn smyy'nt), main (= very) dusty, main smart. 

17. (dy wynt. dy lumi giia bam taondyt), I will)not. I won't go 

home to-night. 

18. (l&askyy yy'r ; y tilald my tuadheo daay), look ye here ; he told 

me the other day. 

19. (yf dhyy wast gwdwh a n tao roksfad, wytj w v ay wwdst gAwa?), 

if thee wast going to Oxford, which way wouldst [thou] go ? 

20. (wytj w^ay wdst aev)yt; A'ot o kia'ld [kao'oha'ld]?), which way 

wouldst [thou] have it ; hot or cold ? 

21. (niyy'aot dhdy mEE'aot), meet thy mate. 

Andovkr cwl. 
from the phonetic observations of Prof. Arnold Schroer, chiefly on Mr. Manning 
and Mr. Archard, who are sometimes distinguished as M and A. Mr. Manning 
also gave Prof. S. a list of many words in the cwl. in his own orthography, 
which I annex in Italics because it serves to shew his own appreciation of his 
own sounds. I preserve even Mr. M.'s division of a word into two. See 
p. 100. 

i. Wessex and Noese. 

A- 1 z««. 3 byy'aok. 4 tyy'aok. 5 myy'aok, mEE'ahk. 6 myy'aod. 8 
l_hEE'a>v. 9 hyiyy'an. 11 mEE'ao. 12 ZEE'ao. 14 dREE'a), is. fa.'. 15 

[ 1536 ] 



D 5, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 105 

[(.aa'afwl, EE'aofwl) awful]. 17 M Iee'so, A l^aa 1 . 18 kyy'aok. 19 tyy'aol, 
tay'l. 20 lyy'aom [more decided dialect], ta'aom [less broad]. 21 nyy'aom, 
nEE'aom. 24 zhy/aom, shyy'aom. 30 kyy'ao'R, kyyV. 33 Kyy'aodhao. 

A: 39 kyy'aom, koym, £«««»* [not much used. M.]. 40 kituam. 41 dhaoqk. 
43 (hyy'eond. 44 lyy'aond. 45 WEE'aont. 46 kyy'aondl. 47 wyyaond'R. 48 
zyy'aog, zohq. 49 yy'aoq. 50 taoqz [doubtful whether ever (tyy'aoqz)]. 51 man. 
55 M EE'aoshyz [never (yy'ao-)], A yy'aoshyz. 56 WEE'aosh [very seldom 
(wy^aosh)]. A: or O: 58 VKaom, vnohm. 60 laoq. 64 REE'aoq. 

A'- 67 giiua, gu. 69 ntiua. 70 t«'««, Tuua, titiua? 72 uua,nyy'u, hitiua. 
73 z«ms. 74 T»«a, trwwa. 76 ttitiad. 77 l,aa''Rd. 78 uua. 79 Mwan. 80 
ol'Rdao'i, aol'ndao. 82 wons, w»w«ns. 84 mtiua. 85 zwwao'R, zeo'ohaoR. 86 
uuata, [usually (waats)]. 87 kl^aa'az, klEE'aoz. 89 htiuain, bEE'aoth. 91mao'oh. 
92 ntiua, nao'oh. 96 zaua [but mostly (zao'oh, zao'ohd, zao'oh/aon) sow, sowed, 
sowing]. 97 z«»'l. 98 M ncsoa'ad [knowed], A ntiuan [known], 99 dRao'ohd. 
100 zao'ohd [but the (z) is gradually giving way to (s) ]. 

A': 101 |_w«««k. 102 aoks, ax. 103 aokst, EE'aokst, eykst, axt. 104 R»«ad. 
106 bRMMad. 113 aua'l. 115 tiuam. 117 uuan. 118 b«w«n. 122 i. ntiuan, 
ii. ntiua. 124 sttiuan. 127 lIiaa'ez. 133 miuat. 

M- 138 (v)fyy'aodh'R. 140 ee'owI. 141 nEE'aojl. 142 snEE'aojl. 143 
tEE'aojl. 144 aogyy'aon aogEE'ara. 146 mayn [rarely (myy'aon, mEE'yn)]. 147 
bayy 'am. 148 VEE'ce'r. 149 blyy'aoz. 152 aatao, wootao [" with voiceless d, 
' Stimmlose lenis,' the pron. (wotao) apparently dialect, (wootao) influenced by 
educated pron., heard both from old country people." AS.] 153 zaot'Rdaay. 

JE: 154 byy'aok. 158 ah ter. 159 EE'aoz, aoz. 161 daay. 162 twdaay. 
163 laay. 164 maay. 165 zed. 166 mEE'aod. — wops [wasp]. M!- 
184 lEE'aod, lee ad. 187 Iee'oov. 189 way. 190 hay. 194 EE'aoni [occ, but 
oftener (ony)]. 195 mEE'aoni, maony. 197 djEE'aoz. 198 lcet. 199 blEE'aot. 
200 wEE'aot. 202 EE'aot. 

M': 203 zbEE'aoHj. 204 ynoWao'd [indeed]. 205 dbjued. 208 M eev'*., 
Aaov'R. 209 M n««v'R, A naov'R. 210 klaay. 211 gRaay. 212 waay. 213 
aydh'R, EE'ahdh'R. 214 no'ydh'R, nEE'ahdh'R. 215 ttiitat. '216 dEE'ao'l. 217 
EE'aotj. 218 M zhyy'aop, A zhEE'aop. 220 M zhyy'aob'Rd, A zhEE'aop'Rd, 
zhjaop'Rd ["the latter rather confirming the pronunciation of M."]. 223 
dhoh'n, dh^a^R. 224 u,aa l "B, A «ooh"r. 226 m»«ost. 227 woet. 228 
zwoet, zwEE'aot. 

E- 231 dhoe. 232 bREE'aok. 233 spy^aok, A spEE'aok, [M makes (spEE'aok) 
he spoke]. 234 nEE'aod. 235 WBE'aov. 236 vEE'aov'R. 238 EE'aodj. 239 
zaa-a'l. 241 r,aa-a n. 243 pl,aa-a l . 244 waa'l. 246 M kwEE'aon, A 
kw,aa-a'n. 248 mEE'ao'R. 249 WEE'ao'R. 250 zwEE'ao'R. 251 M maa'yt, 
A myy'aot. 252 kytl. 

E: 256 zdRyy'aoti, stREs'aoti. 257 EE'aodj. 260 l.aa-a 1 . 261 z,aa-a'. 262 
w^aa-a 1 . 263 aw^a-a 1 , wAA'a 1 . 265 zdaEE'aot, zdRAA'a't. 266 woa'l. 269 
z^a'lf. 271 taa'l, tyy'l. 272 ffla'lm. 273 myy'aon. 274 byy'aontj. 275 
zdyy'aontj, STEE'aontj. 276 dhyqk. 279 WEE'aont. 286 ^'noh'R. 288 loet. 

E'- 289 JEE'ao and Jyy'ao. 290 Lhyy. 291 dhyy. 292 uiee'so [not much 
used. M]. 293 M waa'y, A WEE'ce, wy. 294 VEE'aod, vead. 296 bylEE'aov. 297 
vaol'R. 298 VEE'a'lj. 299 grEE'aon. 300 kEE'aop, keeyp. 301 L Q yy"r. 302 
M myy'aot, A mEE'aot, nieeyt. 303 zwEE'aot, zweeyt. E': 305 {hay. 306 
height. 307 nay. 308 naid. 311 tin. 312 he ere. 314 Lhyy"R<i. — 
blaosn [blessing]. 315 vedte. 

EA- 318 leeft. 320 kyy'ao'R. EA: 321 [(zyd) see'd, used]. 322 ladfe. 
324 ,ayty [eightv]. 326 utm'li, ao'ohld. 330 \\mua'\&, Lhao'ohld. 332 twwa'ld, 
tao'ohld. 333 kd'af. 334 hEEf. 335 eeVI ee'1. 338 kEE'a'l. 339 [(byy) used]. 
340 jyy'ao'Rd, jyy'nd [orchard is (EE'ao'Rtjaod, -aot)]. 342 yarm. 343 wayarm. 
344 tiyy'ld. 346 gee ate. EA- 347 he dde. 348 «'y [pi. (eeVz)]. 349 
fyaoaooh. EA': deedde. 351 lid. 352 REE'aod. 353 bRyy'aod. 355 dyf. 
357 dhao'oh. 359 nayb'R. 360 tee am. 261 bee an. 363 tjyy'aop, tjEE'aop, 
tjep. 366 gryy'aot. 368 d'ath. 371 strdd. 

EI- 373 dhay ["of course not genuine instead of (hyy) the old Southern 
form"]. EI: 380 dhoem, oem ["in (oem) perhaps the old genuine Southern 
form Anglo- Saxon heom, him"']. 

[ 1537 ] 



106 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 5, V iii. 

E0- 384 heb n. 386 yow. 387 iiee'w. EO : 388 mw'lk. 390 shohd, 
shj«d. 392 jam. 394 jeond'R. 396 wwRk, [(w«Rked) worked]. 399 bHiyt. 
402 l l aa I 'Bn. — smyy'Rt [to smart]. 406 ["never heard it used" M]. 
EO'- 409 bay. 412 shy, hy. 419 jao'oh'R. 420 vsoWb. 421 v.aa'ty. 
EO': 422 zyk. 427 baa'V [been (ba'n)]. 428 zaa'V, zy. 430 vreend. 433 
bre'ast. 435 jao'oh. 436 ctWah, dsMU. EY- 438 day [and (d»wa) ? 

died (dayd, daa''yd)]. 

I- 440 M -wdayi., A WEE'aok. 446 noine. 449 gyt [forget ^f'Rgyt)]. 
I: 452 a'y. 455 lay. 458 na'yt, nyy'zot [the latter "most decided dialect"]. 
459 nrfyt. 465 sytj. 466 tfy'ld, tjyj/'ld. 469 [(dy uu'l) I will]. 475 woind. 
484 dhyk [(d%k'n) this one]. 485 thee'seh. — sohns [since]. I'- 490 by. 
492 zdyd. 494 ta'ym. 496 a'y'nn. 498 Brfyt. I': 500 ldyk. 506 |_w««m«n. 
507 wum'en. 

O- — smAA'ak, sm«««k [smoke]. 519 ao'ohvao. 521 vowfel. 522 oop'un. 
524 world. O: 527 bowt. 528 thowt. 529 browt. 531 dEEtao. 532 

koo'al. 534 hoo'dl. 535 Tao'ohk. 536 goo uld. 541 wynt, want. 550 wdrd. 
552 k l as I 'Bn. 553 Lh,aa 1 'Rn. O'- 555 zhoo. 558 lw«k. 559 moother. 

562 rnoo'vM. — month [month]. 564 z&won, zwn. 565 n»««z. 566 ohdh'R 
["but usually (tohdhsoR, tuadhaoR, tao'ohdhaoR) ; I heard an old farm-labourer, 
80 years old, at Longstock (9 nw. Winchester), say (mrfy tohdh'Rz) =my others." 
AS.] 568 bRaadh'R. 

O : hiiudk. 570 tuudk. 571 guwad. 572 blmMsd. 574 hsSiuaA. 575 
sta««d. 576 w&««nzdao, wohnzdao. 578 pLiA, plao'oh. 579 M inao'oh, A nohf 
[which M doubts]. 580 tao'oh. 583 tuwawl. 584 sTuwaojl [' ' that is inverted 
(t) almost like (tj) ; this sound is said to be frequent, though M does not admit 
it in (tm), two, where I heard it distinctly myself, though not always." AS.] 
585 bRiiwam. 586 Ai.ua. 587 dohn. 593 mist. 595 voo'ut. 

XT- 699 ah'boone. 601 vowul. 602 zow, plu. zows. 603 kohm, kooam. 
604 zohm'R. 605 zohn [see 629]. 606 do'er. — »«d [wood]. 17: 609 
v«'l. 612 zohm. 613 dRohqk. 615 pao'ahnd. 616 gRao'ahaond. 623 vao'ohaond. 
625 too'ung. 626 [not used, I bt!a main hungered, M]. 629 zohn [see 605]. 
632 ohp. 634 M dRao'oh, A dr««. 639 dowst. 

XT'- 640 how hu, pi. kow'hoo's. 641 L.ha>'oh. 644 zohk, zwk. 645 duuav. 

— Shiiuam [thumb]. U': 658 dao'ohn. 663 Lhao'ohs. 

Y- 673 mohtj. 675 dRrfy. 680 hyzy. 682 lee'dle. Y: 684 bree'adge. 
685 ru'dge. 688 zohti. 692 johqgaost. 694 weatk. 695 ,aa''Rkn, i hyy'sk. 
700 wos'er, wms. 701 v^a^Rst. 702 vry. Y- 706 way. Y: 709 
vy'er, voy'er. 

rr. English. 

A. 713 bEE'sod, b,a:ad. 714 lEE'aod. 732 so,pn. — a>,py [h a PPy]- 736 
l,aas, lEE'aos. 737 myi/wt, mEE'aot. E. 745 tjEE'a't. 749 M lyft[" which 
I myself heard," AS.], A bns'eoft. I. and Y. 758 gBE'l. 759 vyt. 760 
zhr^v'ld. O. 761 loo'ud. 765 :df&««n. 766 [I believe this word moidered 
to be purely Irish, I never heard it in Ha., M.]. 767 ncECEyz, nEE'a'z. 769 
model, waant. 773 doqky. 774 p«««ni. 776 guuad b«'«y. 783 [poultry is 
not used or they would say powel try, M.]. 791 boscE'y, booe. XI. 796 
bloo"«. 801 rwm. 802 rohm. 804 dr«qkn [compare 613]. 808 poht. 

in. Eomakce. 

A" 810 ve'ass. 811 ple'ass. 813 hyy'sika. 818 EE'aodj. 822 maay, 
moy. 826 EE'aog'l. 828 eegyy. — k90mpl,aynyn [complaining]. 833 pyy'&'x.. 

— pfcia'^z [" (ply^aoz) is probably not genuine dialect"]. 835 R,aa-a'zn. 836 
zyi/eozn. — myy'sost'R. 849 chamber. 841 tjj/y'aons. 847 dainger, doinger. 
849 zdRaondj'R. 850 dyy'aons. 851 os(E ( nt. 852 EE'aop'Rn. 854 baoao'R'l. 
855 kcEca'Rohts. 856 pEE'ao'Rt. 857 kyy'aos. 862 zyy'sA. 864 k^a^aos, 
[shorter (kaos)]. 865 vtEca'lt. 866 poo'R. 

E-- 867 tEE'a 1 . 869 vee'sojI. 874 ryt/sm. 875 VEE'aont. 876 dEE'sonty. 
877 [not used, M.]. 885 voah'B, vao'Ri ["an old man of 80 in Redenham (5 nw. 

[ 1538 ] 



D 5, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 107 

Andover), apparently eager to avoid the dialectal change of (f ) to (v), said (feity)," 
AS.]. 888 sartun [often it is zarttm zure, M.]. 890 byy'aost. 893 vlce'ah'r. 

I- andY- 897 dyldyt. 898 nays. 900 pr,aa'V. 901 vrfyn. 903 ddjn 
[not vulgar]. 904 va'ylcet. 912 ru'ys. O- 913 k&rti. 915 zdohf. 916 
onjaon. 918 fax/Me. 920 poa'^nt. 922 bohshl, bwshl. 923 maist, moin 
de'amp. 924 ehoy'iss. 925 v v aa 1 '^s, vomers. 926 zb 1 aa 1 '#lj, zhma'yi. 929 
kao'ahkaomb'R. 930 l(E<E'yn. 935 kohntri. 939 klwos. 940 Wot. 941 voo'ul. 
942 bohtj'R. 943 titeh. 950 zohp'R. 951 kohpl. 952 koo'us. 

XT-- 965 cece'^jI. — pohnish [punish]. 969 zhw'n.. 970 dja«st. 

Isias op Wight. 

The Isle of Wight may be regarded as part of Ha. dialectally as 
it is politically. Owing to its separation from the mainland, and 
the absence of commercial ports, it has not been so much exposed 
to the influence of great towns as the county generally. The 
MS. form of dial, is strongly marked. The reverted (b) is well 
recognised when final. My information, independent of books, is 
derived from Rev. C. E. Seaman, the vicar of Northwood (2 s.Cowes), 
for the n. of the island, and Mr. Titmouse, schoolmaster of Shor- 
well (5 sw.Newport), for the s. The latter says that initial (z) is 
not frequent, but occurs in (zamist) somewhat, and there is a 
tendency that way in many other words, and also that the tendency 
is generally to use initial (v) for /, as (vaRloq, vog) furlong, fog. 
Mr. T. says that thr- does take the sound of dr- in a very pronounced 
manner, and points to dresher for thresher, but Mr. Seaman does not 
admit this, but introduces an auxiliary vowel, as (th'ru) through. 
The transposition of (k) has not been noticed, I be, we'm going, 
don't its, I've a walked, I do know, are general. Mr. T. (a native of 
Hu.) had been previously a schoolmaster for six years in n.Sm., 
and the Wi. speech struck him as bearing a very strong general 
resemblance to n.Sm. speech. Having some difficulty in inter- 
preting some of Mr. Seaman's spellings, I confine myself to giving 
those words which Mr. Titmouse has re-spelled. 

Shoewell (:shoB'l), 5 sw.Newport, Wi. 

cwl. furnished by Mr. Titmouse, 14 years schoolmaster, pal. conjecturally by 
AJE. The diphthong (a>'«) may be (a'i), but is not (hi). The MS. character 
is very evident from this list. 

I. Wessex akd Noese. 

A- 3 bisk. 4 trek. 5 miBk. 7 stek. 8 hee. 12 saaI [part. (sAAlsq) 
perhaps (l)]. 14 drAAl. 19 titsl. 20 lium. 21 m'rem. 24 shium. 31 list. 
A: 41 thEqk. A'- 70 tuu. 74 ty x [written tue, and Mr. Seaman said that 
it approached Dv. (y,), possibly (tre'u)]. 86 whats. A': 102 aast [asked]. 
108 doo. 115 whdsm. 118 botsn. _S- 138 vasdhnR. M: 155 dha'ti. 
158 aatt'R. 166 mind [the common word, but apparently confused with made]. 
172 graas. 179 wot. 181 paath. M'- 182 see. 183 teeti. 190 kee. 
196 ween. JE': 224 weeR. 

E- 232 briik. 236 feevm. 252 kit'l. E: 265 street. 272 elem. 
284 dra'sh. EA: 323 fa'«t. 342 jfrBRm. 343 waRm. EA'- 349 ["f 
more like v"]. EA': 359 ne«bsR. EO- 386 joo. EO: 393 bijo-nt. 
399 brao'it. 407 faRd'n. EO'- 411 drii. 420 [f as v]. 421 vauti. 
EO': 425 lao'it. 426 fao'it. 

[ 1539 ] 



108 THE MID SOUTHERN. 



[D 5, V iii, ir. 



I- 449 git. I: 458 nao'st. 459 roo'tt. 462 sao'it. 484 [(dhik) used]. 
488 jst. I': 505 \rny wife (mao'i miaia, mso'i eoljd)wmun)]. 506 «n«m. 
0- 521 ftel. 524 waR'ld. O': 597 sat. 
U- 606 dooR [Mr. Seaman (dAABR.)]. 
T: 700 was. 701 fast. 

n. English. 

A. 737 miitst. E. 750 ba'g. O. 767 neo'iz. 772 bomrfao'iR. 773 
daqkt. 

nr. Romance. 

A- 810 fitra. 811 pliss. 824 tjiuR. 851 naant. 852 eepsun. 853 
baRgtm. 854 baR'l. 866 pooR. E" 890 bisst [pi. (bitsstiz)]. 891 fiisst. 
I-. oirfT- 899 nms. 904 yao'iret. 910 djao'ist. 0-- 923 mao'ist. 926 
spao'il. 930 lao'in. 942 batpsR. 944 [I allows it will rain = I think, admit, 
etc.]. 947 bao'il. TJ- 965 ao'il. 968 »'«st«B. 



Vab. iv. Sb. and Ss. Fobm. 

The n. of Sr. will be treated under D 8. The s. of Sr. and w.Ss. 
vary but slightly from the Ha. var. iii. of D 5, but the dialect is 
manifestly dying out. The initial (z, v) have vanished. The (aY) 
for AEGr, EG, scarcely appear, having become (ee', ee, ee), as 
frequently even in D 4. The A- fractures remain generally. 
The I' remains (a**) or nearly so, but as we go eastward becomes 
more confounded, with (a'«, o'«). This last diphthong has been 
constantly given me from other districts, when subsequent viva 
voce information has shewn it to be (a'«, di) or even (a*). Here 
Rev. T. Burningham, then Rector of Charlwood (6 ssw.Reigate), 
wrote aw-i, and hence I give his words with (a'»). In e.Ss. and in 
Ke. most informants give oi, but I have found (a'«) in n.Ke. At 
the same time (a'») so often simulates (p'i) that an unaccustomed 
ear would unhesitatingly give the latter. Mr. Burningham finds 
s Sr. and n.Ss. more mincing than the s.Ss. He says: "It is 
difficult to give a notion of the close, mincing, squeezed-in pro- 
nunciation of the s.Sr. and n.Ss. : ' haaotv much a paaound is that 
raaound of beef?' as also to give the burr of the r's." The aa is 
explained by hay, and the italicised words are closely (heu, peund, 
reund) common in London and n.Ke. " A Sr. man would say 
'rebbit,' a s.Ss. man 'rahbut,' e.g. 'eve a' -got a rahbut in ees 
pawkut' (iijv isgot v rabet in iiz pAAket), I speak of the pronun- 
ciation of 50 years ago. It still prevails among the old, but is 
polished off a good deal among the rising generation by ' educa- 
tion.' " My information from w.Ss. is very meagre, but there 
can be no doubt that it continues Ha. speech with a still further 
falling off of the dialect in the direction of Ke. The separation 
between e. and w.Ss. depends on the use of (d) for (dh) in certain 
words. This is unknown even at Bolney (12 nnw.Lewes) in w.Ss., 
but has been heard from old people at Cuckfield (3 ne.Bolney). The 
commencement of the line at the mouth of the Adur is due to the 
late Mark Antony Lower. In these districts I he remains, but 

[ 1540 ] 



D 5, V iv.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 109 

I are is found in Ke. The owl. on which I rely are those obtained 
viva voce from students at Whitelands, and these I annex, in- 
cluding some other words. 

South Surrey and "West Sussex cwl. 

Pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Jane Sayers, native of Ockley (8 sw.Reigate), 
where she had lived all her life ; Miss M. A. Forth, not a native, but who 
had been always resident at Ockley and had spoken Sr. talk when a child ; 
and Miss Alice Slyfield, native of Reading, who had lived 7 years at Stoke 
(1 n.Guildford), all in Nov. 1877 students at Whitelands. The reverted (b) 
of Miss Sayers was perfect. The C, G, W were pal. by AJE. from indications. 

C Charlwood (:tpred) (6 ssw.Eeigate) from Rev. T. Burningham. 

G words from Dr. Grece's dt. for Weald of Sr. Since Dr. G. marked numerous 

words in his wl. as having the vowels in rs., I have given some of them in ro. 

and in Italics. 

S Stoke ey only y } unmarked > both ° and S - 

W "Wisborough, Ss. (8 sw.Horsham) from Rev. W. A. Bartlett. 

I. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 3 Safe [no {ee'j) vanish]. 5 make[no (ee'j) vanish]. 12 saa [no euphonic 
(b)]. 13 C naa. 17 laa [no euphonic (e)] and C. 20 leeram. 21 neeran and G. 
23 see»m. 24 sheeran and C. 33 raadireR, reedivsR. 36 C thaa. 37 klaa. 
A: 41 C thsqk. 43 a'n [h always omitted], "W hAAnd, G haand. 51 man. 
64 wAAnt. 

A:orO: 58 from. 60 long. 61 umoq. 64 wrong. 

A'- 67 guu and C [(sgwee-n) a-going 0, not S]. 69 noou. 70 toou. 73 
so'ou. 74 two. 76 too'd. 77 Claud. 79 oo'n. 85 C so'obb. 86 watsandC. 
87 tlooz [(tl, dl) for initial el- gl- general]. 92 noou. A': 101 oo'k. 104 

rooBd and G. 106 broo'd, C bitaaa. 107 loo'f. 108 do'ou, C doo. Ill ought. 
115 O oo'm and C, S oom. 122 nan. 123 W nAAthrai. 124 stoo'n and C, 
stan [as a weight]. 131 goout. 

M- 140 ee'l. 141 nee'l. 142 snee'l. 147 bree'n. 152 water. 153 
saMundee. JE: 155 thEti and W. 166 mee'd [(gael) usual, quite London]. 
170 a»vist [no change of (v) into (w)]. 17 1 barley. 172 gEaas andC. 174 «sh. 

JE'- 182 sea. 183 teach. 184 lead. 190 kee. 193 clean. 194 Eni. 197 
cheese. 200 wiit. M': C eeHmn. 215 C taat. 218 ship and C. 219 C 

slip. 224 G weeBB. 226 C mo'oBst. 227 S w4. 

E- 233 speak. 235 weave. 236 fever. 241 C ram. 246 i. queen. 250 
swiisE. 251 meat, W meet. 252 kid'l [common], C kit'l. 254 [C (Imtbr) old 
Sr.]. E: 261 say. 265 stra'it, G street. 272 Erem. 278 [a term of de- 
preciation]. 280 leeb'n. 282 C strsnth. 284 thrEsh and W. 

E'- 296 C bliv. 299 green. E': 310 C hirel. 312 C Her. 314 C 
hiiBEd. 315 fit. 316 nikst. 

EA- 319 gee'p. 320 k&BB. EA: 322 C laaf . 323 fa'wt and C and W. 
324 [tendency to (ait)]. 326 O ood. 330 ood [same as 326]. 333 calf. 334 
half [no h]. 340 jiiard. 343 waabm, C waaEm] . 346 gee't and G. 

EA- 347 Ed. 348 ai. 349 few and C. EA': 355 deaf. 357 though. 
358 S niist [nighest, heard in use]. 360 C tiiem. 361 C biren. 368 death and 
C. 371 straw, C stRaa. 

EI- 373 they [no (d) for (dh) as in D 9]. EI: 377 steak, C stiik. 378 
weak. 

EO- 383 SEb'n. 386 joo. 387 new. EO: 393 beyond, C bijE-nd. 

394 GiendBE. 397 soo'Rd, C suuBBd. 399 ObRait, SbRa'it. 405 aRth. 406 
earth. EO'- 412 she. 413 devil. 414 fly. ill tioo. 420 fooBR. 

EO': 423 thigh. 424 roof. 425 lait. 426 fait. 433 C bKiist. 435 you. 
436 S tEiu, O tRoo, C tEiu. 437 C tEiuth. 

[ 1541 ] 



110 THE MID AND BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 5, Viy; D 6, 7, 8. 

EY- 438 dai [once said (dei)]. 

I- 440 wik, S wiik. 442 C A'ivi. 444 stail. 446 nain. 448 these. 
449 git. 450 Tuesday. I: 452 ai, a 1 *, A'i [often]. 457 C mVit. 458 

nait, S na'it. 459 Rait, 8 Ha' it [and so for I']. 465 siti. ■ 467 tjai'ld 
andC. 469 tjireR, -BRn. 472 SRiqk. 475 wind. 484 this. 487 iisbesdee. 
488 Jit. 

I'- 494 taim [C (a'») for I']. I': — dik [ditch]. 503 laif. 505 waif. 
507 amtsn. 508 mail. 509 wail. 

O- 521 foal, C io'obI. 522 open. 524 waRld. O: 526 kAAf. 527 

bought. 528 thought. 529 brought. 630 wrought. 531 daughter, C daateR. 
532 «>«?, C k6oul. 533 O dill.' 536 gold. 546 C iuuvui. 549 fiinnid. 550 
waRd and C. 551 C staRra. 552 corn, C kaRn. 553 horn, C haRn. 

0'- 555 shoe. 559 mother. 562 moon. 564 son. 566 adhBR. 0': 569 
4oo£. 570 iooi. 573 flood. 575 stoorf. 578 plE'w. 579 enough [never heard 
(raia'u)]. 580 tough. . 586 do. 587 done. 588 «oora. 589 spoon. 592 soor. 
594 [sAo«s always said even for boots]. 596 rwt, rat. 597 sat. 

XT- 605 son. 606 duUBR and G. 607 butter. XT: 611 hillock. 613 

drunk. 615 S tuu pan [two pounds]. 618 w«n. 619 f«n. 620 grttn. 625 
tongue. 629 sun. 631 thaazdee. 632 up. 633 cup. 634 through. 636 
faRdb.Br. 

XT'- 640 kE'u [all XT' like this]. 641 C Iie'u [and all XT' like this]. 649 
thE'uzBnd. 653 but. XT': 656 rum. 662 us. 663 n'us, C heews. 665 
mE'ws. 666 «zbun [O (gaqBR) commonly used]. 671 mE'uth. 

Y- 676 lai. Y: 689 build. 691 C m/ind. 700 was and C. 701 fast. 
Y': 711 lais. 712 mais. 

n. English. 

A. 722 dRein. 737 WG meest. E. 743 C skneem. I. and Y. 758 
G gael. O. 761 luu'd, C loosd. 769 mooul. 790 gs'wn, C gE'wnd. 

XT. 808 pat. 

hi. Romance. 

A- 809 able. 810 fee's. 811 plee's. 813 bacon. 840 chamber. 843 
bREnsh. 850 dEns. 852 apron. 854 C banl. 861 tee'st. 

E- 868 C djai. I- and Y ■■ 899 niece. 906 C TA'ipBR. 

0- 913 kuuBtj. 916 iq'n. 919 a'intaumt. 920 pa'int. 926 spa'il. 
929 kE'ukBmbBR. 930 C Win. 934 C bE'anti. 938 C kaRneR. 940 koo't 
and C. 947 ba'il. 948 ba'wl. 

XT- 961 gnuul. 965 a'il. 968 a'istBR. 969 C sMubr. 971 fliut. 



D 6, 7, 8 = BS. or border of 8. as against M. and E., 
forming the Border Southern Group. 

Boundary. This cannot be determined -with great accuracy, and 
will be given for each district separately. 

Area. Extreme n.Grl., most of "Wo., sw. "Wa., most of Ox., extr. 
se.Be., n.Sr., and extr. nw.Ke. This was an area of continual 
conflict and mixture of the S., W., M., and E. populations. 

Character. A mutilated S, which is strongest in the w. and 
gradually fades towards the e. and s., becoming finally scarcely 
perceptible in D 8. 



[ 1542 ] 



D 6.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. Ill 

D 6 = n.BS. = northern Border Southern. 

Boundary. Begin at Bewdley, Wo. (2 w-by-s.Kidderminster), 
and go along the reverted ur line 3 (see p. 17) through "Wo., ¥a., 
and Np. to the b. of Np., which pursue as far as its sw. angle (6 
sw.Banbury), and then cut across the projection of Ox. and proceed 
w. to Moreton-in-Marsh, Gl. (17 ne. Cheltenham). Then continue 
direct w. to the s. of Tewkesbury, GL, and of Eldersfield, "Wo., and 
n. of Staunton along the n. b. of D 4. Here turn n. and pass over 
Red Hill and the Malvern Hills and their n. continuation to the 
starting-point, Bewdley. Although this b. is laid down with much 
minuteness, it is often uncertain, and must be considered to be at 
least six miles broad. 

Area. The extreme n. of GL, most of "Wo. and s. of "Wa., the 
extreme n. of Ox. and sw. of Np. 

Authorities. See the following places in the Alphabetical County List, where * 
means vv. per AJE., t per TH., || in so., ° in io. 

01. "tAshchurch, tBuckland, tEbrington, tFairford, "Kemerton, *fShe- 
nington (locally in Ox.), fLong Marston, fTewkesbury. 

Np. tAshby St. Legers, fBadby, °+Byfield. 

Ox. "tBanbury (part locally in Np.). 

Wa. "Butler's Marston, tClaverdon, fKineton, fKnowle, tPillerton Priors, 
t||Stratford-on-Avon, °tTysoe. 

Wo. fAbberley, tBengeworth, t Bewdley, fBirt's Morton, fDroitwich, fDunley, 
tEldersfield, fEvesham, tGreat Malvern, tGreat Witley, *Hanbury, "Hartle- 
bury, t Kidderminster, t Malvern Wells, fSaleway, fStourport, °TJpton Snodbury, 
fWorcester. 

Character. This complicated district, containing the transition 
from S. to M., is naturally by no means well marked. Except at 
Eldersfield, the use of initial (z, v) for (s, f) seems lost; the (k) is 
inclined to approach (r) when initial, at least all my informants so 
hear it, and Mr. Hallam generally writes (r) only, even when final ; 
and finds only traces of (s) in parts, which fail especially towards 
the e. I be remains, with her for she, and 7, she, we, as emphatic 
forms of the object. It is convenient to distinguish four geo- 
graphical varieties, though the differences between them are small. 
These are Var. i. s."Wo., Var. ii. s.Wa., Var. iii. Banbury, Var. iv. 
sw.Np. The general character of all is A- (eis) as (nemn) name. 
A!=(oo, wa) as (rood, warn, stwan), road, home, stone. _<E: = (ai, 
ei, ee), as (dai, dei, dee), day. EG-=(ai, ei, ee), as (rain, re«h, 
r«#n), rain. EA'=(ib, e«, ei, ee), as (bienz, beenz, gre»'t, greet), 
beans, great. 0=(a) occ, as (drap, starm, kras), drop storm, cross. 
TJ=(a:, u ), as (kam, s« m), come, some. tT'=(9'w, tfu, ate), as (a'u, 
hk'u, dawn), how, now, down. The variations from these normal 
forms are so slight and probably individual that they cannot be 
formulated, but they must be collected from the following cwl. The 
whole district lies in the mixed sum, sddm or som region, and sddm 
prevails more and more as we approach the Midlands. 

Illustrations. A cwl. derived from numerous places for each 
variety, dt. for Worcester, Hanbury, Claverdon, and Shenington ; 
cs. for Banbury. 

[ 1543 ] 



112 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 6, V i. 

Vae. i. "Wo. Fobm. 

WoECESTEE. 

dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of Mr. W. Brown, native, about 42, who had gone to 
Wolverhampton 9 years previously. 

1. di set, tjaps, jb)s« di)m ro'*t' Bbo'wt dbat lit'l wEnsh kamm 
frem &h.v skuul. 

2. as)z gvrra do'wn dim rood dhaB thruu dhe red gje«t on dim 
left and sa'wl b dhis rood. 

3. Ink dhaB ! se)z gAn strait u ]f be dim ddw. «)dh« roq sW. 

4. was a»)l vet* ld*kl» drop olt \_=hol<f\ b dhat 6«ld drw qk'n 
dEff rwjk'ld :tom. 

5. ju aal noo)«m vek" we'1. 

6. w<J)nt dhB <31d tjap sun tEl)Br not tB)kam BgjVn, puB tiu'q ! 

7. luk dhaB ! i)nt it truu ? 

Notes. enough shtrer Bn« f , «A«W tjaild, fellow 

fslB, «<»»« n«em, shrivelled up sriv'ld 
Words omitted : yonder jondw, girl w„p, [with (srimps, sro'ud] shrimps, 
garl, so soo, now no'Uj tp«y we», sure shroud. 

Hanbuet (6 ws-w.Redditch). 

dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Turner, then a student at Whitelands 
Training College. 

1. soo o'« sa«, meets, jb sii na'w dhist 9'*' bi ro'wst Bbo'trt 'dhat 
l»'t'l gjaBl Bkamm fram dire skuul rande. 

2. aB)z b gmn do'wn dhB roo«d dhaB thr&m dhB rEd geect on 
dhB lEft a'nd so'«'d bv dim wa*. 

3. shuBr Bna'w dim tjo'«'ld)z gAn strait ap te dhB duBr bv dire 
raq o'ws, 

4. waB 3b)1 lo'ikli fa'md dhat t«ps« dEf £e1bb bv dhB neBm b 
:tomBS. 

5. wi aaI nooz)im vek waiB. 

6. want dhi a'wld tja'p san tMj be not tB duu it egEn, puuBE 
tWq! 

7. lwkB ! beesnt it truuB. 

Principal variants in the dt. from Hartlebury (4 s-by-e. Kidderminster), sent 
by the Misses Haviland, daughters of the then Hector : 

1. so sn, say saz, see siiz, girl wEntj, where weerar, chance to mEbi ap'n, 

school yonder skuuel jonder. 2. there Thomas :tomBS. 6. old 6wd, soon suuen. 

dheeisr, through thru, gate g]Et, w«y won't ont, feacA laaitN, «jr«i» nemuer. 

weei. 3. enough Bnatf, iz bi, straight 7. i« »o£, bi«nt, true truu. 
streeit, <foor doeur, wrong raq. 4. 

[ 1544 ] 



D 6, V i.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 113 

S."W"OKCESTEHSHIEB Cwl. 

Made Tip from the following sources : 
A Abberley wn. by TH. (r-, -r), doubtful if one (« ), no (z-, T-, h-). 
B Bewdley wn. by TH. mostly from Mrs. Ashcroft, a centenarian, one (z-), («„) 

frequent, occ. verbal pi. in en as (d« n-ju, wi t« k'n, wi)n) do you, we took, 

we have, with the He. form (edh udho'ut) of 'with without.' 
Bg Bengeworth, a suburb of Evesham, Wo., wn. by TH. 
Bu Buckland, 61. (11 ene.Tewkesbury), wn. by TH. 
D Droitwich wn. by TH. 
E Eldersfield, "Wo. (9 s. Great Malvern), wn. by TH. from Mrs. Knowles, aged 

79, native, (dha'i kiip'n) they keep, (kom wi o'i tu plSi) come with I to play, 

many (z-). 
Eb Ebrington, Gl. (18 ne.Cheltenham), wn. by TH. 
G Great Witley, wn. by TH. 

H Hanbury, w. to AJE., the dt. is not included in this cwl. 
M Gt. Malvern and Malvern Hills wn. by TH. 
P from ' quaint words ' by ' a porson,' that is a parson, in s.Wo. from Worcester 

on n. to Chacely on s. and Evesham on e. to Great Malvern on w., pal. as 

well as he could do it by AJE. 
S Saleway (7 sw.Redditch) wn. by TH., no (z-, v-), but (r-, -r), (bb)z, wi)z) 

her is, we has, (rent) ain't. 
W Worcester wn. by TH., no (z-, v-). 

*„* For brevity, when several places are grouped, the medial length of vowels 
has not been distinguished from the short. 

I. "Wessex Awr Noese. 

A- 4 BSBu t«ek, H tesk, E te^k. 5 H met* ai [make hay]. 20 AE leran, 
S Hum, BBu l««m. 21 ABSWBu neem, W neimd [as well as (n«em)], Eb niam. 
23 seem. — P omBR [hammer], A ombBR [compare inserted b in numser, timAer], 
S om«B. — P fees [to fare, a fare]. 33 D raadb.BE. A: — P krob [a 
crab]. 51 P niAn, BW niA'n. A: or 0: 60 SD l« q. 64 D r» q. 

A- 67" AD gwain, W gwein. 77 P laBD. 81 E leen. 92 AD now. 
A': 104 Bu rood. 115 PAWH warn, D worn, Bu oom, W om [also home, refined], 

— S rioon [alone]. 117 AEM wan, W wau. 118 P bwan. 120 D ircrz Bguu 
[years ago]. 122 Bu na'n, H nan. 124 P atwan, AD stoon. 130 P bwat. 

M- 138 A fiadhBR, B fiEdlrer, S feedhuR, D fiedhBR. 141 B na'ilz. 147 
H brain. — WstaRz [stairs]. 152 S weetBB, D w'retBR. JE: 161 PAD dai, 
S la'i, W dai, [in city] del, See, Bu dee. — P op'l [apple]. — P koRt [cart]. 

M'- 182 Wen. 192 P meen. M': 210 P klai [clay]. 211 AS grSi, 

B gr6i. 213 H iidh»R. 218 PD ship. 223 Bu dheBR, BDS dhiBR, Bu dW. 
224 B we'r, S witsn, BuW waR. 

E- 233 BW speek. 241 AB rain. 243 ABESH plai. — P beea [to bear]. 
248PmeeB. 252 A kJEt'l. E: 260 ABBu lai. 261 PABSDsai, Bu sa'i, 
AE zei, W siti. 262 B wfii, W wei, D wSi, [foundations] aaI gjin wS'i [all 
given way]. 263 ABESBu Bwai, M ewei. 265 W strait. E': 315 PH fit. 

EA- 320 P keen. EA: 324 BESHD ait [Mrs. A. said (di sai ait ur 
na'in)]. 326 BS 6«d, EBu owld. 328 B k6«d. 333 kAAf. 335 Bu aal, aaI. 
346 W gjeit [in the city] gjet [in the country]. EA'- 347 SD jad, BuW 
fid, jM. EA': 350 B djs'd. 353 S bra'd. — A kraim [cream]. 360 S 
tiim. 361 P beenz [beans]. 366 A greet. 

EI- 372 B di. 373 ABS dhai, ED dhaH, Bu dha'i, D dhE'i, dhe. EI: 
378 BfA EO- 383EzEv'n. EO: 393 BuD jandBB. 395 Sj« q. — 
P bonm [barm]. EO'- 409 P beez [bees]. 411 AB thrii, E drii. — H trii 
[tree]. EO y : 426 B feit. 428 E zii, S sii. EY- 438 W d«i, D da'i. 

I- 446 E na'in. — G jis [yes]. I: 452 A o'i, D a'i, W di. 458 W 
naif. 459WDra'it. 469 W w«„nt [won't], Bu «t [wilt]. — speI [to spill]. 

— A ran [run], S rw n [H added "donkey boys say (r«„n)"]. — P set [to sitj. 

— E ziks. I'- 490 G ba'i. 494 A te'im. I': — BW ta'idi [tid; 
502 E va'iv. 506 W unven, H a'wl;d)amBn, [a woman, old woman]. 510 
ma'i. — D la'in [line]. 

E.E. Pron. Fait 7. [ 1545 ] 99 



114 THE BORDER SOUTHERN, [D 6, V i, ji. 

0- — S sh« T'l. — D drap [drop]. 0: 525, ii. of. 531 D dAAtsr. 

— D krap [crop]. 551 BuD stanm. 552 Bu kas^n. — BS a's [horae]. — GS 
marnin [morning]. 554 M Bkras [across]. — Ppwast[post]. 0'- 555 W 
sInb'u. 559 GW madhtsR. 564 D sun, H san. 568 B br« dhBK. 0': 573 
D fl« d. 575 H stad. 579 D tmof. 586 S d« s dhii [dost thou]. 587 AH 
dan, S d» n, 588 H nan. 589 H span. 594 H [has no (hnuts) only (shuuz)]. 
595 PH fat. 596 H rat. 597 H sat. 

U- 601 ASB fa'wl, 603 M Bkamin [a-coming], H kam ap [come up]. 

— M th^ndOT. 605 S s» n, D sa'n, ABu son, BD son, D [between] son, s« n. 
606 WD doBB, Eb. duBR. 607 B b« t«r. TJ: 612 8 sw m. 613 B dr» qk. 

— M « nd»rd [hundred], — Bu Aqgrt [hungry]. 632 BW « p, M ap op. 
U'- 643 G no'«, D na"«. 650 E sba'wt. U': 656 G rum. 658 ABESW 
da' mi, Bu da'un. 663 S"W a'«s, D a'«s, a'wz'n [pi.]. 667 D a'«t. 

Y- D m«„fa. 675 dita'i. 679 D tjaKtr. T: 691 ES ma'tnd. — P 
haBNet [hornet]. 

XL. EtffflJSBt. 

— P wogin [wagging]. 0. 767 A natz. 791 H b«o'i. V. — B mw k 
[muck]. 803 M [between] djw mp, djamp. — M kw t. 808 Bu put, D pwt. 

HI. EoMAJfCE. 

A-. 811DpleBS. 820 P gai. "— PD jkU [pay]. — G fail [fail]. — Bu 
tails*. 830 Bu train. 833 A pan. — PS p&ez [please]. 847 D daindrer. 
851 W nant. 

E •• 867 P tee. — B preetj [preach]. 878 P sselBri. — P pars'n, B paasBn. 

1- andY- 898 Bu na'is. 900 P prai. — P sperit [spirit]. 910 P 
dja'ist. — B b«'f [beef]. — P dja'tnt [joint]. 923 P ma'ist. — B n» qk'l. 
930 P la'in. — P kaups [corps]. — EG sort [sort]. 940 P kwat. 947 
A bw6»l. 

TJ-> 970 M djast, I) [between] djast, dra st. 



Vab. ii. s."Wa. Foem. 

Ciaterdon, Va. (5 e.Warwick) dt. 
pal. by TH. from the dictation of S. Job, farm-labourer, b. 1824, native. 

1. a'*' sB'i, ju tjaps, ju sii a'*)m ra'j't' na'« «ba'«t dhat ltt'l wEnsh 
tsmrn from a* skuul jond«r. 

2. ar)z Bgu-Mi ds'wn dh« rood [rdwd] dhiur thruu dhw rad gjrat 
on dire lirft and sa'«d [inclining to (sa«d)] b dh« rood. 

3. lw k iv ! dbs tja J «ld)z gA'n straW « p' tu dire roq eW [direr]. 

4. -wiw ar)l praps fa'jnd dhat drM qk'n, drf, th«h tin aged 
[haggard] ieIb [krE'*t«r] vz dhe kiAl :tom. 

5. wi aaI noo ha vEr« we*1. 

6. "wtt^nt dire OMld tjap mE'«k vr noo hsbvv nex gu dhi'ur BgJEn, 
puOT thiq\ 

1. l« Q k jb ! rant »t tras'u. 

Note. 

This has a very neutral character. I pretty." I find, also (n&m, t&b'l), 

find among the wn. from the same per- name, table, old, and (n§im, tdib'l) new. 

son (jandsr) old, (jandBr)new,etc.,andas Compare following cwl. Job used 

the latter appears in the dt., it is possible (srimps, sra'ud) shrimps, shroud, (shr-) 

that Job was sometimes " speaking being a difficulty. 

[ 1546 ] 



D6, Vii.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 115 

SOTJTH "WaBWICKSHIBE Cwl. 

B Butler's Marston (10 s.Warwick), pal, by AJE. from a nwl. sent by Rev. E. 
Miller, Vicar in 1877, helped out in parts by K. below, Mr. M. considers that 
the speech extends for 6 m. round. This would include Kineton. Stratford 
is only 7 or 8 m. off. As reverted (r) is heard both at Stratford and Banbury, 
I conclude it must exist here and have introduced it. As exceptional pron. 
only were marked, the other pron. in the original wl. must be taken as 
practically in rs. In this case («J would occur only in the words so marked, 
I be is used. 

K wn. at Kineton (9 s-by-e.'Warwick) in 1880 by TH. from a native of 68, who 
had, however, resided many years at "Warwick as keeper of the gate at the 
entrance to the common. Only principal words are given. TH. had not 
noted the reverted (r), but as it was strong in Stratford, I have introduced it. 
/ am used. The pron. seems to have been tainted by Warwick. Also from 
Mrs. Pheasey, lived there 50 years from childhood. 

P Pillerton Priors (8 se. Stratford) wn. by TH., in 1886 from a native b. 1819. 

S wn. at Stratford-on-Avon in 1880 by TH. from an errand boy, native, and G. 
Phipps, a labourer, 20, native, only absent 1} years. But both had so marked 
a town pron. that I give very few words. The errand boy had not even 
reverted (r), but the labourer and the other people in the town had it 
strongly. The labourer used we am. The (w ) was frequent. 

T Tysoe (11 se.Stratford) wn. by TH. in 1886, from natives b. 1802 and 1809, 
I be used. 

I. "WESSEX tJSTD NOBSE. 

A- 3 BP beak. 4 BP teak, K teek, S tetk. 5 BP me«k, T meek. 6 B meed. 
7 B seek. 10 B haa. 12 B saa. 13 B naa. 14 B draa. 17 B laa. 18 T kiek. 
19 B ted. 20 BKPT leem, S l&m. 21 BP nemn, K neem, nevm nivm. — K 
anum [hammer]. 23 BPseBm. 24 Bsheem, T sheriin. 25 B nuhsn. — spiin 
[to spare]. 31 B lest. 35 T aaI. 36 B thaa. A: 39 B kmn. 40Bkuum 
[? confused with combe a hill]. 43 B and. 44 B land. 51 B man. 57 B aas. 

A:orO: 59 B lam. 60Tloq, Iwq. 61T«mMqkst. 64Proq, Troq. A- 67 
B guu, K Bgu-in. 75 B struuk. 76 BT tuud. 77 B 1«rd. 81 B letsn. 84 
B miiBR. 85 B subr. 86 T usts. 90 T bloo. 92 S no«. 93 P snoo. 
A: lOlBtiBk. 102TEks. 104 T rood. HOPnat. Ill B aat. 113 B 
huBl, T wool. 115 B huBm, K 6m, T worn. 117 S WA'n, 1 wan. 118 T bwan. 
120 PT Bguu. 121 P gA'n. 122 T na'n. 123 B nw^thiqk. 124 K stoon, PT 
stwon. 135 Bklath. 

M- 138 B fffidhBR [or (es)], SK faadhBR. 144 B Bgin. — S prw tt 
[pretty]. 

M: 158 PaftOT. 161 KPd«e. 165 B s*d. 169 weu. 172 Bgraas. 174 
B aish[? (E'ish)]. M'- 182 B set. 183 B tcetj. 185 BT reed. 187 P 
Iibv. 192 PT m$Bn. 193 T kleen. 195 T mEni. 196 B wee'R. 200 K 
wiit, TP weet. 202 B heet. M: 215 B ta«t (?). 216 B diel, T dJB'l. 
218 T ship'. 223 B dhiiBR, KPT dhiBr. 224 B wiiBR. 226 B muust. 228 

T SWEt. 

E- 232 briik [but only very partially]. 233 BKPT spe«k. 237 feevBR. 
241 K rE"»n, T rain. 243 KT plee. 251 BT meet. 262 B kit'l, T kJBt'l. 
253 B Et'l. E: 260 K lee. 261 KT see. 262 PT wee. 263 KT ewee. 

268 K Eldist. 270 B i. bslos. 272 B slam. 279 T WEnt. 286 B hare. 

E'- 294 T fiid. 299 KT griin. 300 PT kiip. 301 B jubr, P Ibt. E': 
307 T ndi. 312 B Ubr. 314 K i«rd, T al nd. 

EA: 321 B saa. 322 T laf . 324 T a'it, s'it. 326 F old. 345 T dE'r. 
346 B g«rt geBt. EA- 347 B ied, K ed. EA: 350 B died. 360 P 
tiim. 361 K beenz, P biBn. 363 T [between] tjap tjop, KP tpp. 370 B 
xaa. EI: 378 week. 

EO- 383 T. SEv'm. 315 B bBneeth. 386 BT joo. EO: 388 T milk. 
393 B bija-nd. 394 SP jandBR. 395 PT J« q. 397 B subrd. 402 BP 
laRN, T laLKn, K Io'rn. EO'- 411 KT thrii, T thrti, — K trii. 420 B 

[ 1547 ] 



116 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 6, V ii, iii. 

foojBR. 421 B faitti. EO': 423 T tha'it. 425 B \dit. 426 B fait. 432 
fo'oimth. 433 T bnsst. 434 B b««t. 438 K <& x i [marked as lying between 
(a', «)]. 

I- 443 S Midi. 446 T no'in. I: 452 K «'», P a'i, T o'i. 458 B na'it, 
K [the (a) marked as lying between (a, a)], P na'it 1 , T [between] na'it, na'it. 
469 B«l. 480Tthiq'. — KS r«„n. I'- 490 B bo'i. 492 K sa'id. 494 
K Mim, T ta'im. 496 K aiern. 498 B rait. I': 502 B faiv. 503 T h'ii . 
505 T wa'if. 506 KT union. — T «« [hay]. 

O: 626Bkaaf. 627 B boot. 528 B thaat. 529 B broot. 531 B daotsR, 
KP dAAteR. 547 B bliBKD. 551 B staRm. 652 B kaRN. 553 B haasr. — 
mannin [morning]. 554 P skras. 0'- 659 S modhBR, K madh«r. 562 T 
muun. 564 KP sim. 668 S br« dhuR. 0': 669 T bwk. 579 B ■saau, T 
tfn« f, [plural] vbsl'u. 681 B soot. 686 P dan. 587 KP don [marked as 
lying between (6, a 1 ), another time merely (da'n)], S d» n. 588 TKP nuun. 
589 T spuun. 595 B fat. 597 B sat. 

V- 601 K fe'td. 603 B Ilujsi, KP kam, PS kam. 604 K s« mw. — 
S th«„nd8R [thnnder]. 605 K sdn [as in 587] sw n, TPS s« n. 606 B d6o«R. 
IT: 610 T til. 612 SP s«„m. 632 BKT «j>. 633 BK k« p. 635 wath. 
636BfaRdim. 639 T d« st. TJ'- 640 T kja'«, Pkja"«. 641 K a'w au, 
T o'« ha'«. 648 KT a'««r. 650 T xsba'wt (a'w). XT': 658 KT da'»n. 659 
TSP ta'«n. 663 K a'«s, T [between] a'«s, ews. 666 T » zbira. 

T- 677 Tdra'i. 679 StjaRti. T: 689 Bbild. 690 B blind. 691 BHK 
ma'ind. 700 B was. 701 B fas. 705 B skai. 706 B wai. T: 709 B 
fa'iR, ST fa'iBR. 711 B lois. 712 B mais. 

ir. English. 

A- 718 B tre«d. E. 743 B skrism. 744 B me«z'lz. 751 B puBST. 
0. 761 B ltiwd. 767 B nais. 778 B nfutsRD. 

m. Eomance. 

A- 809 Benb'1. 810 B fess. 811 B pl*BS. 813 B b&k'n, T \>Hk'n. 
814 Bmte'n. 824 B tieeR. 829 B geun. 833 B peeR. — Kpliiz [please]. 
836 BT reez'n. 836 BT seez'n. 837 B Wsh. 852 B Atobrn. 860 T pea'st. 
861 T terat. 862 B serf . 865 B iaat. 

E- 867 BTt<w. 869 Bveel. 888 T saRtin. 889 B sees. 890 B beest. 
891 Bfeest. 894 B dis*«v. 895 B riseev. I- and Y- 898 B nais. 
910 B dja'ist. 

O •• 916 T a'inen. 919 B o'intnvsnt [the distinctions (a'i a'i di) were not 
indicated with sufficient precision in 919, 920, 924, 925, 926, 947, but distinctions 
of a similar kind at least were intended, AJE.]. 920 pa'int. 924 B tja'is. 
925 B v«is. 926 B spa'il. 938 B kannBR. 947 B ba'il. 948 B ba'wl. 952 
B kuBRS. U •• 965 B ail. 969 S shutm. 

Vab. iii. Bakbtjet Foem. 

cs. translated in 1876 by Thomas Beesley, Esq., J.P., F.C.S., native and 
resident, and pal. by AJE. from his indications and from TH.'s wn. The lw. 
which Mr. Beesley sent me was made 40 years previously by his uncle, and he 
had purposely abstained from consulting it, so that this is altogether an independent 
testimony. Mr. B. considers the dialect to extend for about 6 miles round 1 Ban- 
bury, and names the following villages as using the same speech : in Ox., Copredy, 
Wardington, Adderbury, Bloxham, Swalcliff, Tadmarton, Sibford, Shutford, 
Horley, and Hornton ; in Gl. (but locally in Ox.), Shenington ; in Np., Middle- 
ton Cheney and King's Sutton. Mr. B. does not mark the reverted (r), but 
from TH. s observations I have introduced it. Mr. B.'s letters shew that he 
used (a) for short XT, but TH. heard nothing but (« c ) at Banbury. 

0. ws'i :djon aa)nt noo ds'uts. 

1. weI, nEbrat, jau ■en ii ma boo'tb. laaf et dbis ii'B niuuz e maVn, 
huu kii'sz ? dhat)s needhvv. ii'E hot. dhee'B. 

[ 1548 ] 



D6, Viii.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 117 

2. fiuu [fiAA'u] iodk da'«'z, koz dba bii laaft et ; has nooz, 
doo'nt)as ? wat shwd miBk)am ? tr'Ent v»' la'tklt, h*s)«t ? 

3. ha'usBmE - vBB dhiiz bii dhB faks b dhB kiBS, soo djEst oold jbk 
bodhBR, frBnd, Bn kiip ktt>a'*Bt t*l a'* bi [a'*,)v] dan. baski ! 

4. a'» bi saBtm shiuu'a, bz a'* ii'BD Bn s«e — sam b dhee fooks bz 
wEiit thruu dbi whal th«q baV dhBBse - lvz — 'dhat a'*' did shluu'B 
Bnaf. 

5. db.Bt dhB jaqest sail h»zsElf, b grat bua'« b na'ih, nood iz 
fiBclhBRz vo«s Bt wans, dhoo it was soo kwfiBR bii sk«<wk*h-la'*k, 
bh a'«')d trast bii te sp««k dbB truutb ban* [hEn*, heem~\ dee, a.i, 
•dhat a'i hud. 

6. Bn dhB oold htraiBn BBSE'lf b1 tEl han« on)i bz laafs na'w, 
Bn tBl)i street off, tuu, wip'ut mat}, bodhBE «f ju om haks)BE — 
want)shi [wantjBa], dhat;s aaI. 

7. Wst wa'«z be tEld it, - mii wEn a'« bakst be, tuu be tbrii 
ta'wnz oovbe shi did, Bn -as had)nt AAt ts bi roq in sit} v pfia'mt bz 
dh«s'n [dhat-eeE], wot dB juu tbjqk ? 

8. weI, bz a'* wbb BseWn — -as)]) tEl;jB, ha'w, weeE Bn wen sbi 
f«ind dh« draqk'n brest sbi kAAlz be azbtmd [man]. 

9. sbi swee'ED be s«n ivo. wi be oon a'*z, lee-in stretjt Bt fal 
biqkth on dbB gra'wnd in iz gud sande kiiuBt, kloos ba'i dbB diiuBr 
b dbB ha'us, da'wn Bt dbB kiARnBB b dbat ee'E leen. 

10. bii wer Bws'min Br sez, far aaI dhB waRLD la'«'k b s«k tja'«ld 
br b lt't'l gal [lii't'l WEntj] in b frEt [in br tantrBmz]. 

11. Bn 'dhat ap'nd bz -aR an be daa'tBE in laa, kam thruu dhB 
bak jani) from aqih a'«t dhB wEt Hoobz, 

12. wa't'l dhB kEt'l wbz b bua'rlm fBR tee, wau fa'ra bra't't samBR 
aatBRnuun, oon* b w*'k Bguir, kam nEkst thazd*. 

13. Bn, dJB noo? a'« uevbe laBNT noo moo'E nBR dh«'s b dhat b*znes 
ap tB tBd««, bz sMuu'e)z ma'i niBm)z :dp>n :shEpBEi), Bn <afi duu)nt 
wont tu n««dhBE, dhii'R na'« ! 

14. Bn soo e'i bi Bguu-«n [gewenth] wham tB sapBB. g«d na'»t, Bn 
duunt bi sb kw»k tB kroo oo-vbe b bod* BgE-n, weu i tAAks b dh*'s 
dhat be t)adhBE. 

15. *'t)s b week fuul bz preets [tAAks] w«;a'u*t reez'n. «n dhat)s 
ma'*' last wasd. g«d ba'». 



Shenington dt. 

6J w. Banbury, politically in Gil., locally in Ox., pal. in 1881 by AJE. from 
diet, of Miss Harris, native, then a student at Whitelands Training College, who 
knew of Wykes, the policeman, that furnished the lw. to TH., mentioned on 
p. 118. Observe that nere («„) was used for short U. 

1 . soo a** sae'*', bu Q tiz, re so 1 na'w dhBt s'i bi raVt Bba'wt dha't h't'l 
gaEl B-kM m*h from dhB skuul ja'ndBE. 

2. shii)z B-gwm da'«n dh« luu'd dhaE thruu dhB rEd ge't on 
dhs lsft a'nd ss'id b dhB wee'si. 

3. shuuE Bna'w dhB tja'»ld)z gon strae'A w p tB dhB duu'E b dhB 
roq a'«s. 

[ 1649 ] 



1 18 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 6, V Hi. 

4. wi'B shii)'l a'p'n te hfind dha't drw qk'n drf fEltm u dha nfem 
« :t« mos. 

5. wi aaI noo )«n vek weI. 

6. wu )nt dire ool tia'p sun laarar Br na l t be duu)t BgEii, puu's 
th«q ! 

7. luk jii'E ! ee)nt it truu ? 

1. so, never (200), no z for * or « for 3. saw enow, they never use (™« f), 
/. — mates not used. — I be more frequent does not know the distinction of mean- 
than I am. — right, not heard initial ing between enough and enow. 
(rh,Bh). — girl the regular word, though 4. shrivelled not used, they say 
(wentj) is used. The (r) usual. Wykes (shr» bz), so that (shr-) is used, 
rejected girl and only admitted wench. 5. know him, (un) is used, especially 

2. she's agoing, her's not used, it is among the elder people. 

quite foreign to the dial, we, you, 6. old chap, old without d, hut in 

they be, in general use. — Miss H. never (ool/d)tt„mun) old woman, the d is dis- 

heard I are. — hand, h always omitted, joined from I and run on to the follow - 

w used for wh. ing vowel. 

Banbtjet wl. 
From the following sources : 

B Banbury vocabulary by the late. Mr. Beesley, uncle of the Mr. Beesley who 
wrote the cs. on p. 116. It is not quite certain that all the words belong to 
Banbury, There were many repetitions in the list, and sometimes the 
repeated words were not spelled in the same way the second time they occurred 
as they had been the first time. Of course the pron. assigned is greatly 
conjectural. From HB (below) I adopt (a'i, a'u, u a , r). Words not in- 
serted are (eent, ent, jent, bient, eeren), aint, baint, e'er a one, (hiz'n, 
hasn, twattDBiit), his, hers, it were not. 

HB Some of the wn. in Banbury by TH. in 1881 from natives. Some of these 
seem to be rather refined. 

S wn. by TH. in 1875 from "Wykes, a London policeman, but native of Shen- 
ington, confirmed by Miss Harris, a native, in 1881, p. 117. 

ES words from the dt. on p. 117, diet, to AJE. in 1881 by Miss Harris, 
native of Shenington. This village was admitted by Mr. T. Beesley, who 
wrote the cs. for Banbury given above, to be in the Banbury district. I do 
not give the words from the cs., considering his uncle's lw. sufficient. 

I. Wessex and Norse. 

A- — S weak [a wake or feast]. 21 HB nStm, ES niuni. — B honiBK 
[hammer]. — B pib'l [pebble]. A: — B ram [ram]. 43 B hanstof 
[handstaff or handle of a flail, (swiq'l) the other end]. 45 B want. 51 S man. 
56 S wosh. A: or 0: 64 HB roq, ES roq. A'- 67 B guu [(gweenin 
gwmi) going], HB g6w ragu-jn, S gwE-in. 74 S tos'u. 76 B tusd. 79 HB 
6wn. 81 S hhra. 84 HB milBE. 86 S (rets. A': 101 S o'nk' [Miss 
Harris (6«k)]. 102 B aks uks. 104 ES row'd. — B drav [a drove]. 110 
Bnat. Ill Sat'. 113 B whal. 115 B wham, S wa'm, o'tmi [Miss Harris 
did not know the last form]. — B wops [wasp]. 118 B bwan. 123 B 
nathtqk, HB n« th«qk. 124 B stoan, HB stown, S sttan. — B loft (loath]. 

M- 138 B fiaadhsB [spelled feah'therl, S f*«dlreR. — S jE'krat [acre]. — B 
ladhur [ladder]. — B bladhBE [bladder]. 144 B ugB-n. 149 B blizi blo'iz [is 
(blizi), one of the S. infinitives in -y?]. 152 S wi«tuR. -35: — B stidi 
"steady]. — B stom [stem of a tree]. 158 S aLRten. 161 HB d&i. — B steel 
'handle]. — Bhaps[hasp]. 172 Sgraas. — Sdlaas [glass]. — HBSkja'rt. 
cart]. — B rottrat]. M!- 190 B kee. 200 B weet, HB wit. — B 
lEth [heath]. M': 205 B thrid. — B sid [seed]. 218 BS ship. 223 
ES dha*. 224 B wur [where], noo-BR [no-wherej. — B strit [street]. 

[ 1550 -] 



D 6, Viii.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 119 

E- 233 S BspE'ikin [a-speaking]. 243 HB plel. 246 S kieiin. — B eet 
[eat]. 251 B m«?t, S miBt, nwet [Miss Harris says the last is more usual]. 
253 B Bt'l. E: — B fat fatj [fetch]. 261 HB set, S see, ES sas'i. 262 ES 
wse'i. 263HBbw&. 265 ES strce'it. — fiLD [field]. 272 S El«m [Wykes, 
(Elm) Miss Harris]. — B hoop hoopt [help, helped]. 278 S WEntj. — B ind, 
iud [end]. — B nist [nest]. E'- — B iiti [to eke]. 299 HB griin. 
E': 306 B luskth [this form is not found in other words, compare Havelock kmcth, 
supra Part II. p. 477, see below p. 127, No. 306]. 312 ES jiia. 314 B hiiBD, 

HB IBRD. 

EA: — B tiAAf [chaff], tjaa-fin [chaffing]. — B tjAAlz [jowls]. 323 B 
fo'«t. ■ — B tjook [chalk]. 326 ES ool. 334 haapnt, haapBth [halfpenny, 
-worth], S aap'ni. — B BmUB'st [almost]. — B aaIbs [always]. — S na ! RD 
[hard]. 346 B jeest, ES ge't. EA'- 347 B hadhmd [headland], jEd, BH ed. 
EA': 350 B dJEdli [deadly, extremely]. 352 ES rod. 355 ES dsf. — S 
bism [beam]. — B krem [cream]. — B sem [seam]. 360 S tium. 361 
S biBn. 363 B tjEp tjap. — B jap, japt [heap, heaped]. 364 ES tja l p. — 
S Ibr [year]. — B ««st [east]. 366 B grEt. — B eezi [easy]. — B dioo, 
dTAA'« [dew]. 370 B raa. 

EI- 373 HB dhei. EO- 386 S iou. EO: 394 S jandeu. — B haRD 
[herd]. 397 B swaRD. 402 BES laRN. 404 B staR' [' with a rough burring 
sound']. 406 B jEth. EO'- 411 HB thrii. 413 B div'l. EO': — B 
liv [lief]. 425 HB la'it. 428 ES se 1 . 436 ES truu. EY- 438 HB da'i. 

I- 440 B wik. — B hiis [yes]. — B sine [sinew]. 447 S an. — B pe«z, 
S de'jz [pease]. 450 B tjuuzdi. I: 452 HBo'i& A[unemphatic], ESa'i. — 
B bann, S baRD [bird], bi-diz [birdies]. 458 HB na'ft'. 459 HB ra'it, ES 
rai-t. 465 B sitj. — B filer [thiller or shaft horse]. 469 B h«l [will, 
' rhyming wool '] h«t [wilt, ' rhyming with part '], S uji. 470 ES un [weak, old 
people =htne\. 477 ES fo'in. — HB r« n [run]. — B bashop [bishop] — 
B spet [spitj. I'- 492 HB so'id, ES sa id. — gii gin giz [give, gave or 
given, gives J giftBR [gift]. — B bnif [rife, a remnant of (ii) in n (rifr), con- 
fused with brief and so preserved ?] — • HB thaati. I': 502 flB fo'iv. 
506 B ««nBn. — B hE'mskin, HE-rikBRD [haymaking, hayrickyard]. 508 S 
ma'i'L. 

O- — B sho'wl [shovel]. — B rat'n [rotten]. 0: 529 S brat'. 531 
S daa[RttiR. 538 B h«d. 543 B an. 549 B waRD. — B hos [horse]. 554 
B kras, S kraas. — B pusstiz [posts]. — B moots [moths]. O - 555 
HB shcs'u. 557 S tos'u. — BfodhBR [fodder], 559 S madhBR [not with («* )]. 
560 ES skuul. — B guumz gamz [gums]. 564 S sun', ES sun. 566 HB 
« dhBR. — B blo'wz [blows = blossoms]. O': 571 S gw d. — B had [hood, 
peascods (bii dhs peez haded ?)]. — B rad [rod]. 579 HB Bn« f, ES bm'u 
[not with/]. 587 HBS d« c n. 588 HB nos'un, S nun. 595 B fat. 

U- 599 HB Bb« v. — B had [wood]. — B dra'wth [drought]. 603 S 
kamin, ES k« min. 605 HBS s« n. 606 HB Aims., ES duu'R. U: 612 
HB s« m. 619 B fand [?(f« nd)]. — B anfeeR, ansaRtin [unfair, uncertain! 
anka-qg'ld inpo-SBb'l [untangled, impossible]. 626 HB « qgri [hungry]. 631 S 
thazde. 632 HBES ug. 634 ES thruu. 636 B faRdsR. — B ro'osti [rusty]. 
TJ'- 640 B kjo'«, S kja'«. 641 B has'm^EVBR ha' wsbhijEvbr [however]. 643 
ES na'«. 650 HB Bba'wt, ES Bba'wt. U': 658 S da'wn. 663 HBES o'«s', 
S awz'n [houses]. 666 S « c zbBn. 

Y: 684 B bandi. 685 B radj. 689 B bildin bwo'ildin. — B shilf [shelf]. 
— B faz [furze]. 701 B fast. Y- — B sdramd [a-dreamt]. 707 HB 
thBRtii-n. 

n. English. 

A. 727 B djom. — B tjan [a chare]. 737 BmiBt. — B a-kBRD hakBRD, 
S okBRD [awkward]. E. — B zod [letter z]. 751 B piiRT [as (sRluks 
muBR piiRtBr nAR bt did) she looks perter=in better health, nor=than she 
did]. I and Y. 758 ES gaRL. O. 772 B boonfo'in. — B so'wnd 
[swoon]. — B mont [mort=many]. 791 S bo'i. U. — B do'wk [to 

duck]. — B padiu [pudding]. — B tpiun [tune]. 804 ES drw qk*n. 

[ 1551 ]. 



120 THE BORDER SOUTH ERN» [D 6, V iii, ir. 

805 B ksntDZ. — B shEt shstrnz [shut, shutters]. — ES b» t» [butty, 
companion]. 

m. Romance. 

A- — S ttebl [table]. 811 B yUees, HB pleis. 813 S bisk'n. — B 
threel [flail].. 824 B tjiiK. — B pleez [please]. — B eezi. — B mastrai 
[mister]. — B koor [quarry, (as got dhra stwanz from :hoRNtBn kooit) we got the 
stones from Hornton quarry]. — B maiivilz [marbles]. — ES tlaas [class]. 
— B slat, S slttst [slate]. — B saas [sauce]. 865 B fAAt. 

E» 867 BS tee, 8 Ue^ — B fitj [vefch]]. 878 B saluri. — B fEnsm 
[venom]. — B tjari [cherry]. 888 B saatin. — B saav [serve]. — B 
msztsB. 892 B nEvi. 

I and Y •• — B wedth [width]. 901 S fain [Wykes, (fa'in) Miss Harris]. 
910 Bdje'is. 

0" 916 B e'injen e'insn. — B kwo'in [quoin=coin]. — B ne'int 
[anoint, thrash]. — B djo'in [join]. 929 B kjoVkranbeB. 930 B la'in. — 
B kjo'wit [to count]. — B kjownti [county]. — B :hoB.'is [Horace, 'with a 
rough burring sound']. — S ttiBst [toast]. 940 HB kowt. 947 B bo'il bwe'il, 
S boil. — B ro'wt [rut of a wheel]. 956 B kivBB,. U- — B diuuti 
[duty]. — B trivsnt [truant]. — B truurep [tulip]. — B pilpit [pulpit]. 
970 BdjEst. 

VAB. iv. SW.NoBTHAMPTONSHIBE Cwl. 
From the following sources : — 
A Ashby St. Legers (3 n.Daventry). 
Ba. Badby (2 ssw.Daventry) including Daventry and Woodford (6 ssw.D.). Ex. 

(shent, Bdhat'n, wot)s i sei f) shan't, of that kind, what does he say ?. (di d» n 

dhat kwo'it roq) I [have] done that quite wrong, (just to s^ eeaxea via nau 

it)s aa - mEn) used to say a-men and now its ah-men. 
By. Byfield (7 sw.D.). Ex. (in mi ssv'mti t»u) in my 72nd year, (a 1 bi)jB ? bi)jB 

in priti gwd Elth ?) how are you ? are you in pretty good health f 
T. Towcester (11 sse.D.) including Helmedon (7 sw.T.), Syersham (6ssw.T.). 

A man of 60 says when he was a boy, say 1830, A was called (ee). 
W. Watford (4 nne.Da.) and Weedon (i se.D.). A man of 60 who attended 

school at Wbilton (3 sse.Watford) was taught to call A, E (aa, ee). One 

person examined at Watford had (e l) strong. 
All from wn. by TH. from natives in 1881 and 1886. The variants were probably 

due to individual habits, and did not extend over districts. 

I. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 3 W beikt, A b«ek bs'ik [new], bate [bakehouse old], By biuk. 4 A 
tek, By t&sk. 6 A mek, Ba mihsk. 6 By mesd. 18 W kjeik, By kjek. 20 
Ba learn. 21 T neim [villages about Towcester say (ne«mj] ABa n^rni ncim 
[new]. 23 A s£im s£|Bm, By ahm. 31 By l&it. A: 39 Ba ka'm. 66 A 
WAsh. A:orO: 60 A lwq. 64 TBaBy roq, W rw q. 

A'- 67 TWBy gu-in gow-in, ABa g8u, By gwein. 69 Ba n6«. 74 T to'u, 
W tiu. 76 ABaBy tuBd. 81 A lE"in lAm. 82 W w« ns. 84 W iiiublk. 
86 A oata 6»ts [new] By wwts. 92 W now, A noo. 95 By throo. A': 104 
A rood r6«d [new] rUBd, By rood. — W [between] llidi IS 1 ids [lady]. 115 AT 
Sam, TABaBy 6m, Ba turn [new], By oom. 117 T wo'n, A won. 120 By 
eguu. 121 T gA'n. 123 T [between] nothiqk n« thiqk, W nw thiqk. 124 A 
ston', BaBy stli-en, By stiran. 125 W ownli. 

M- 138 TWBaBy faadhw. — By ladhar [ladder]. 142 By sneel. —By 
se«t[aseat]. 152 BywAAtar. JE: 158 Wa|_Rt«LR, A ArtBr, Baatsr. 161 TW 
dei, W di'i, A dE'i dii [the last evidently an importation from Le.], Ba AH, By 
dee. 172 Ba gras'. M'- 190 W kii. 197 ABa triiz. 200 TW wiit 
[villagers], weit, ABa wiat, By weet. _&': 216 A dll, By ds'l. 218 Ba 

ship. 223 A dhiBr dhe»r, Ba dhiiBr dhis^R, By dhiBr. 224 By wiBr. 

E- 233 T spi'ik [villages about (speik)], WABy sp««k. 241 W rS'in, A rE'in, Ba 

[ 1552 ] 



B6,Viv, D7.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 121 

ren, By reen. 243 W pln'U plei. 250 W swee'-bt. 251 Ba mett. E: 260 
W leisrz [layers]. 261 A SE n i, BaBy see. 262 TW wei, W wa'i, A WB n i, Ba 
we, By wee. 263 W Bwei, Ba awee. 278 W WEntj [an offensive term]. 280 
A hsv'm. E'- 299 TBy gran, W griin. 300 ABa kiip. 302 By mi'it. 

E': 305 By o'i. 312 T irar, By iur. 314 W iuRd, TW and, By rerd. 

EA: 324 T a'it, ABa E'it. 326 T 6«d 6wl, BaByW 6wld. . 334 W af. 
335 W aaI. 346 Ba gjeet. EA'- 347 T s'd, WBy ed. EA: 350 W 
ds'd. 353 By brs'd. 360 ABy ttem. 361 BaBy Men, Ba been. 363 ABa 
tap. 366 TAgreit, By greet grat. EI- 373 W dhei dhe. 

EO- 383 T sEv'n, ABaBy sEv'm. EO: 395 ByWA jw q. 396 Ba wark. 
402 W 1brii, By larn. EO'- 411 T thrii, Ba thru. — Batrt'i [tree]. 420 
T foe, By ffosr. EO': 425 A [between] lait 16it, By la'it. 431 TBa bier. 
437 TBy trw'uth. EY- 438 T do'i, A idi, By da'i da'i. EY: 439 
W trw s)mi [trust)me]. 

I- 440 W wiik. 444 A [between] sta'il sto'il. 446 T na'in na'in. I: 452 
TBa di, By o'i. 458 TBy na'it, W na'it, A [between], nait n6it, Ba [between] 
na'it na'it. 459 A [between] ra'it r6it, By ra'it. 466 By tp'i'ld. 469 Ba wfl 
ww l [will]. — W r« n [run]. — W daBt. I'- — [long t Ba (a'i, ai), 
Daventry (a'i)]. 492 A [between] sa'id sa'id, Ba sa'id. 494 TBy ta'im, A 
[between] tA'im ta'im, Ba [between] ta'im ta''im. I': 500 TByla'ik. 502 W 
[between] faa'iv f6iv, By fa'iv. 503 T la'if. 

O: 527 Ba bat. 529 ABaBy brVt, By bro'«t. 631 ABaBy dAAtur. 532 W 
k&«l, A kaa'wl. 543 By a'n. — By a's [borse]. O'- 555 W shuu, By 
shau. 558 By luk. 559 By matUrer. 560 A sknul. 562 A muun, BaBy 
mnun. 566 A « dhBr. 567 By te dhBr. 568 ABaBy brw dh8r. O': 569 
BaBy bnk. 571 A g«d. 586 T d<s'u, W d6«nt [don't]. 587 W don, Ba 
d« n. 588 A nuun, Ba nuun. 594 W bas'ut [occ.]. 

IT- 603 TBykam. 604 A s« msr. 605 T sa'n [and between that and (s6n)] 
WABy sw n, Ba [between] sonz sanz. 606 T dfai r duB[r, By"W direr. U: 612 
"WBy s« m. — T [between] tomb'l, tamb'irtumble]. 615 W pa'«nd. 622 Ba 
K ndisr. 629 Bys« n. 632By« p. 633 T kop', WA kw p, Ba kop k«j>. 636 
ABy fardsr. 639 A d« Q st. U'- 640 Ba kja'wz. 641 A o'«. 643 TByW 
na"w. 648 T a'mlr, W [between], E'«Brn, a'usrn. 650 TWBy Bba'at. U': 
658 TWBy da'wn, W da'Bn, A da'wn, Ba daun. 659 Ba te'»/n. 661 A 
[between] sha'atsr sha'wBr. 663 TABy a'ws, Ba awzBZ a'wziz, By a'wz'n. 666 
Ba !« zbBn. 667 T a'ut, A [between] a'ut E«'t. 668 Bypra'ud. 671 Wmm'sth. 

Y- 677 By dra'i. 679 Ba tjarti. 682 T lit'l. Y- 707 T thartii-n. 
Y: 712 By ma'is. 

n. English. 

A. 726ABatAAk. I. andY. 758 T gjal, gJEirl [refined]. O. 761 
By luBd. 767 T n6iz. 791 By b6i. U. 803 A djw mp. 

HI. EOMANCE. 

A •• — W leibsr [labour, (r) rather strong]. 811 A pleiziz plesz. 822 Ba 
mei. — Ba pE"i peed. — W pletn [plain]. — A m« stsr [master, Mr.]. 
848 W tjeindi. 849 T ju)m)B stremdrer [you are a stranger]. 851 TW aat. 
— W pleet [plate]. E ■• 867 W tii tei, Atii, By tee. 885 By VEri. — Ba 
paas'n [parson]. I •• and Y •• 898 W nA'is, By no'is. 901 T fain fa'in. 

O- — biffbeef]. — T « c qk'l [uncle]. 933 A fr« nt. 940 By kuBt. 947 
Byb6il. IJ-- 963 By kwa'it. 970 A dj« s. 

D. 7 = m.BS. = mid Border Southern. 

Boundary. Start from Little KoUVright, Ox. (19 nw. Oxford). 
Proceed to the e. to the ew. corner of Np. and continue by the b. of 
Np. to the b. of Ox., go se., s. jand n. by the b. of Ox. round to 
Imey (2 s.Ox.). Then pass through Be. to the w. by Kennington, 

[ 1553 ] 



122 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 7. 

"Wootton, and Appleton to the b. of Ox. Proceed n. by tie b. of 
D 5 through Ox., e. of "Witney, w. of Handborough, e. of Charlbury 
and Chipping Norton, to the starting-point. 

At the s. part of the peninsula of Ox. the dialect, however, has 
become so worn out that no b. can be assigned with certainty, as 
the district abuts on the metropolitan area. 

Area. Most of Ox., with a small portion of Be., included in a 
bay of Ox. This is entirely a region of transition from S. to E. 
The dial, forms are uncertain, and become practically lost at the 
s. part. 

Authorities. See the Alphabetic County list under the following places, where 
* means w. per AJE., t per TH., || in so., ° in io. 

Ox. fBlackthorn, ||tEnsham, tFreeland, c Fringford, °Greys, ||tHandborough, 
||Holton, °tlslip, "tOxford, °Sonning, tStonesfield, tTiddington. 

Character. In contradistinction to D 6, D 7 is very homogeneous. 
Mrs. Parker (author of the Ox. Glossary and Supplement published 
by the English Dialect Society) divides D 7 into three principal 
parts. The first two might be called the Handborough (9 nnw- 
Oxford) and the Blackthorn (10 ne.Oxford) varieties, forming mid 
Ox., bounded on the n. by the n. b. of D 7, and on the s. approxi- 
matively by a line through Sandford (3 s-by-e.Oxford) and Thame 
(12 e. Oxford). With these two varieties she was personally well 
acquainted, being a native of Handborough. Mrs. Parker was 
kind enough to acquire the use of Glossie, in order to furnish me 
with information, and to allow TH. to " interview " her, by which 
means I was able to substantiate the accuracy of her phonetic 
spelling. TH. also visited Freeland (close to Handborough), and 
obtained supplementary illustration and confirmation. I give below 
the cs. and dt. and a number of sentences, evidently recollections 
of actual speeches heard by Mrs. Parker (sent me in MS., but 
subsequently printed in Glossie in the Supplement to Mrs. Parker's 
Ox. Glossary), several of which I add in pal. Mrs. P. considers 
that the chief differences between these varieties are that Hand- 
borough says (bJEnt, %weea., wats, bJEnz, ktoat, d»Bnt) ben't, 
going, oats, beans, coat, don't, and Blackthorn has (brBnt, gu-«n, 
fiets, btenz, kuet, duimt). Now these are only constantly inter- 
changeable forms of the same original for each pair. Ws. ate, 
oats, becomes regularly (uats), whence by putting the stress on the 
fijst element only (uets), and by putting it on the second only 
(flats, uats, wats). And so for the other forms. Hence the 
difference is a trifling variety, often found, while there is a sub- 
stantial identity in this respect, and a real identity in others. The 
third or s.Ox. variety embraces all the s. peninsula of Ox. between 
Be. and Bu., with which Mrs. P. was personally unacquainted, but 
she procured me a dt. from Miss Slade, a schoolmistress at Sonning 
(4 sw.Henley-on-Thames), and I obtained another from Bev. N. 
Pinder, rector of Greys (or Botherfield Grays, 2 w.Henley-on- 
Thames), neither of which I can fully interpret, but they are 
sufficient to shew that the speech is a mere variety, differing from 
the other two mainly in indicating a still further degradation, but 

[ 1554 1 



D 7.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 123 

still having an unmistakable S. character. Thus Miss Slade says 
that in 1880 there might be commonly heard (Bra'ut) without, 
(puest puBsti'z) post-s, (neer'n) ne'er a one, (aaternuun) afternoon, 
(aasts) asks, (dhiiz iir , dhat eer ) these here, that there, (hant) 
have not, (ship) sheep, (hos) horse, etc., of which the first three, 
at least, are distinctive S. forms, though the rest are familiar in 
the metropolitan area. And in Miss Slade's dt. she uses (meets, 
skuuld, jender, rded, gtet, street, muest, neran, want) mates, school, 
yonder, road, gate, straight, most, name, won't, which have the 
same character. "Whether (e) is used I could not determine, but 
probably it has faded to (r ) or been entirely vocalised. The 
analysis of (a'i, a'u) could also not be determined. Mr. Pinder 
wrote oy, but as writers of dialect constantly use oy for (a», di, 
a'*), I am very sceptical when I see it. Even in Aylesbury, Bu. 
(see E div. D 15), where Mr. Eowler said (a»), I heard it once only 
from labourers. The whole e. side of Ox. and w. side of Bu. seem 
inextricably mixed up, and I have marked the e. b. of Ox. as the 
b. of the district and group, simply from inability to determine 
where any change takes place. Mr. Fowler, of Aylesbury, con- 
sidered the part of Ox. from Deddington (15 n. Oxford) to just e. of 
Charlton (7 nne.Oxford) to belong to Bu., but the pron. to change 
at Thame (12 e.Oxford), and the s. peninsula of Ox. to be quite 
different. It was only an impression, and he was unable to assign 
his reasons, but this would give Mrs. Parker's Blackthorn variety 
to Bu. and too much of a S. character to the s. peninsula. It is, 
however, provoking not to be able to draw a boundary with certainty 
between dialects so distinct in their development as the 8. and E. 
But it certainly lies between a line on the w. connecting Blackthorn 
(10 ne. Oxford), Islip (4 n-by-e.Oxford), Holton (5 e.Oxford), and 
Henley-on-Thames, and a line on the e. connecting Buckingham, 
Aylesbury, and High Wycombe. Prom Aylesbury to Islip, the 
greatest width, is 18m. Rev. C. Coker, of Pringford (16 nne. 
Oxford), says that he does not consider the difference between Ox. 
and Bu. at that place sufficient to constitute a different dialect, 
and certainly the whole e. side of Ox. is much affected by Bu. 
There is no natural barrier between Ox. and Bu., and the Chiltern 
Hills pass through both. 

Illustrations. A cs. and a dt., both from Mrs. Parker, a series of 
observed sentences written by the same, bringing out the southern 
character of the dialect very conspicuously, and finally a owl. 
furnished by the same lady, with some words noted by TH. 



a. Handboeotjgh cs. 

pal. by AJE. from Mrs. Parker's systematic spelling, assisted by notes, and 
TH.'s observations. 

0. wo'i :djon aant got noo do'irts. 

1. weI, maa-strsR, dhii en ii med bwath en i laaf rat dhis-JBE niuuz 
e ms'tn, uu kii'nz ? dha)s no'rdheB jaa nua dhaaa. 

[ 1555 ] 



124 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 7. 

2. tjEnt nmri mm bz da'j'z kAAz - dhe bi laaft tit, as nooz, 
dwant)as, mBn ? waat shuud meek)Bm ? tjEnt vas la'tk-lt, *z *'t ? 

3. awEVBB dh«'s iz a'w t)waz, soo djEst cold dhii no'«'z, «t ? 
maa - st9K, en bi ktoe'rvt, t»'l aV e dan. h's-Bn - 

4. B'i bii saaE'ten shuu'E a'« jaBn)Bm see — sam b dhee fooks uz 
WEnt tbauu Evri mos - al an)t faam dha fast cUibbse-Ivz — dhat)i)d«'d, 
seei Bnaf • — 

5. dhat dhB l*t - elest bwA'*' izsE'lf, b grat bwVj b na'«n, nood «*z 
faa'dhBBz vwa'j's dhBBEk'l*, dhoo t)waz sb kwii's Bn skMriik'm, Bn 
e'«)d tEast "ii tB spe«k dhB tBuuth [tRuuf J Eni dee, aa, - dhat)i - wd, 
men. 

6. Bn dha ool)d)um.-Bn BRSE-lf wl tEl Eni)Bn)i bz laafs na'w, wn 
tEl)i STReet AAf tuu, men, edha'wt" matj ta-duu, ii juu)1 anl* aks)BB, 
djEst want)eR ? 

7. Eni)a'w be tEld '9'i it WEn a'» akst)BR, oo-vbr Bn oo-va'E BgEn, 
br -did, Bn -aE d»'d)'nt AAt tu be Eoq Bn sitj. b pwa'mt bz cIIms-jbb, 
waat dast •dbii th»qk ? 

8. weI, bz a'i wbz b see'in, •aR)d tEl)dbB, waaR, yrsn, vn a'w br 
fa'wnd dhat dbaaR DRaqk - 'n btest bz be kalz 9E az'bBn. 

9. be swaa'RD be sin i wi br oon <s!iz, \ee-in spsaald aaI Bloq - , in 
iz gud san'd* burnt, kloos ba'* dhB a'ws duu'E, da'wn Bt dbB kAAR- 
nBE e dbat leen Jan'deR. 

10. ii wbz b wiwekin ewee 1 be sez, men, fer aaI dhB waRLD la'ek 
a s»k tjaVld [tja'i'ld], be b b't-1 gjal an dha gH*Vl. 

11. Bn -dhat ap''nd az -aa Bn be :tomz wa'«f kam thruu dha bak 
jaa»d from aq - ra a'wt dhB wst klooz tB dra't, an b wosh'n dee, 

12. wa'al dhB kjj't'l wez b bwd'ilin fBE tee, wan fa'j'n sani sam-BB 
aa»taEn«n anli b w*k Bgoo kam nakst thaszd* [thaz - d»]. 

13. an, dwst noo ? a'« hivbe jaED ne muu'E nes dhj's b dhat 
Wz'nes ap be tBdee, mm, bz shim's bz ma'*' neemz :djon :shEp - BBD, 
Bn a'» dwant waant tu niidhBR, sb dhaaa ! 

14. Bn na'w a'* bi b gweein. oom. tv aa ma'» sap -be. gt«d na'it, Bn 
dwant bi in s»tj b gjal - Bp«'n aRi tv kok-kroo oovbe b bodi BgJE'n, 
men, WEn b tAAks b dlw's dhat be t)adh-BE. 

15. t)*'z b week funl bz pr««ts Bdha'M't ree'z'n. an dha)s ma'» 
laast waED. gwd dee. 

Notes. 

1. master, all the r's not preceding nor did he observe any assimilating 

a vowel are marked (a), for, although effect on t, d, n, I, producing (t, d, 

in Mrs. Parker's own pron. to TH. n, l). like JGG. in D 4 at Chippen- 

they were nearly evanescent, their ex- ham, Mrs. Parker considered the (n) 

istence was clear close to Handborough. to be rather retracted than reverted, 

Before a vowel TH. observed no cases, and always untrilled, that is, (r lc ). 

b. Hasdbobot/sb: dt. 
pal. by AJE. from Mrs. Parker's Glossic. 

1. soo a'» see, meets, jb s*'z na'« bz a'« bi ra'«'t Bba'«t" dhat dhaaE 
ltt"l gjal 9kam - «n fram dhB skuual jan'das. 

2. as-z Bgw«e - n da'wn dhB rood dhaaE thruu dhB TEd'gJEt b dhB 
ltft aand sa'*d b dhs rood. 

[ 1556 ] 



P 7.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 128 

3. sed Bnaf dhB tja'*'ld)z gAAn street ap te dhB duuBE b dire soq 
a'ws, 

4. was se)l vaaa La't'k fa'rad dhat dhii'B. draqk'n drf smuld 
fEl"B b dhB neem. b :tonvas. 

5. as aaI nooz - ii ve[_b« weI. 

6. want dh)ool tjap s«n laaatT as nat te d«)t Bgjiar, puu'E thiq. 

7. jalak ! jEnt it truu ? 

Notes. 

1. mate is often boy (bw>A'i) in the stock, in this district. — there, (dhaan, 
singular, in calling out to several men db.HR, dhii'B) are all used, and similarly 
they would say (e'i see riuu), and not (waait, was, wu'k), for where. — the 
the usual (joo). — as and not that would child's gone, '« means is, has is not 
be used here, compare the mummers used in the dialect ; they say, " is gone, 
rhyme, where (it) means yet, and (jEd) is come, had went or a-went," this a- 
head — («) is used after had, but not after have. 

(hii'RkEmzo'i, bz aant bin it, »• bem . ""fyoneiB frequently used, 

here come I that hasn't been yet, . *■ ^veiled, initial (shr-) unknown 

, . , , i j. >i I \ m this part of the country.—- fellow, 

wi me , gREt JEd to U-\ w*t.) ^ a ^ (r) m , { ^ ^^ £ 

with my great head and my little wit. mie t^^Uh. and north-east. 

— be becomes in the negative (bjEnt, 5. we for us, and us for we, is the 

bEnt). — that, th is sometimes omitted rule. — he, (to) for him and it when un- 

from this word, as (at i ul) =that he emphatic. — learn, but (tee*trBR) with 

will. — little (lirt'l) = very small. — girl, distinct (r). 

" my wench is a usual term of affec- 6. thing, (sam-et, nath-'n, nath-in, 
tion, "wench," by itself would be nath-iqk), etc., are all heard for some- 
offensive. — yonder, yon is not used. thing and nothing. 

2. her, the (r) is always felt ; (shii) 7. (lak, al-ak, dhal-ak, Ink) as ex- 
is used only as an emphatic objective clamations for look there ! but look is 
case. — agoing, (agween-in) is also com- otherwise (l«k). — is not, (Ent) is more 
mon, especially at Combe and Wood- refined than (JEnt). 

e. Haudboeotjgh Phrases. 

All these phrases and many others were printed in Glossic in the Supplement to 
Mrs. Parker's Ox. Glossary after having been supplied to me in MS. 

1. (a'« nEVBr wEnt nuuBB Bna'«°st)Bn), I never went no-where near 

him. 

2. (twad andBB b are), toad under a harrow. 

3. (dlus biiE)z dasht, Bn as AAlas duu dash it), this beer's dashed 

[mixed with some of an inferior quality], and she always do 
dash it. 

4. (dim)i kam »n, m aae d«sh b tee wi as), do ye come in, and 

have a dish of tea with us. 

5. (aaI o'» wAAnts iz faaE duuz, Bn faas duuz a'«)l aa, fss aaI •dhii 

Br Enibodi eIs), all I want is fair dealings, and fair dealings 
I'll have, for all thee or anybody else. 

6. (:pwdni :wdBBD b b*n Bn fel Bpon :Wpot :adBmz, Bn i va'wz Bn 

diklaaEz i)l pal)Bn), Puddingy Woodward has been and 
fallen upon Teapot Adams, and he vows and declares he'll 
pull him. 

7. (»f dhii bigrnst Eni b dha't Egr«v««tm weez jaE, o'»')l kat dhB 

kl««n b tuu th dhB nw'd'l), if thou beginnest any of thy 

[ 1557 ] 



126 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 7. 

aggravating -ways here, I'll cut thee clean a-two in the 
middle. 

8. (bitwiin juu Bn a'i Bn dire gjet pwast), between yon and I and 

the gate-post, i.e. between ourselves. 

9. (mn sez «m bii), they say they are. 

10. (bant)'n ap aster e'i, «l)i), push him up after I, will ye ? 

11. (na dhEn, kjAA, wojs bin b duuin an, na'«?), now then, caw 

[fool], what-hast been a doing of, now ? 

12. A. (dhii hm a'i dhe'i na'if), thee lend I thy knife. 

B. (dhii «t)'nt gijn e'i bak), thee wilt-not give-it I back. 

A. (a'i)l JEt fa'icB Bn flaaa Bn aaI dhB wesiB Bt wan ma'uffBl, 
if ©'* dwant), I'll eat fire and flare and all the world at one 
mouthful, if I don't [a usual boyish asseveration]. 

13. (dhis gra'undjz in sitj bad an, tjEnt noo juus ta boo weet nBE 

wats, a'i thiqks a'i shul plant teetBsz), this ground [field] is 
in such bad heart [condition], 'taint [it isn't] no use to sow 
wheat nor oats, I thinks I shall plant potatoes. 

14. (if dhi gust in oo\ :dan'l :kJEz«z kloos, iz bwl b1 OBNtj dire), if 

thee goest in old Daniel Kearsey's close [field], his bull will 
horn [toss] thee. 

15. (dant stan dhaas b lo-putin Bba'wt, SEt Bba'ut duuin sam«t), 

don't stand there a-lonnging about, set about doing some- 
thing. 

16. (mam Bn dad), mother and father. 

17. maid-servant (if a'i bJEnt nath'n bat b sasvant, a'i bJEnt 

purtz'n), if I ben't nothing but a servant, I ben't poison 
[=an object of disgust], hoy (dhat dhB bist, pwa'iz'n tuu), 
that thou be'st, poison too. 

18. question, is she a respectable woman ? that is, one above the 

position of a labourer ; answer (noo, ses, an Ent b rispE'kteb'l 
tdnrai, nB ihube wbb, a'i bii, aE azbsn wasks Bt dhB seem 
faKm bz ma'in duu), no, sir, she aint [iz'nt] a respectable 
woman, no more than I be, her husband works at the same 
farm as mine do [does]. 

19. (a'i bi sik ran seetid wi dhB vesi -sa'tt b wask, a'* aa)nt SEt 

da'wn dhis jbe blEsid dee, Bn ma'* bak eeks djBst fit te kam 
B)tuu), I be sick and sated with the very sight of work, I 
have-not sat down this here blessed day, and my back aches 
just fit [ready] to come a-two. 

20. (dhis tee Ievz sitj b naasti smak in dhi ma'wth, t)iz wbsbe nBE 

siini), this tea leaves such a nasty smack [taste] in the 
mouth, 'tis worser nor [worse than] senna. 

21. (dhis ru'iz iz Bna - f-tB stani anibodi, e'i)d bz liv bi Bt :bEdlBm 

bz bii jbe), this noise is enough to stun [s. inf. in -y, but 
used with an object, which is unusual] anybody, I'd as lief 
be at Bedlam as be here. 

22. (ma'i ool;d)wmBn)z vgween ta'i-in ap •faB)mB), my old woman 's 

a-going tying up -for me [that is, making sheaves of corn 
into stacks, observe emphasis in for, if it had been ' for me,' 
he would have said (ten 'a'*)]. 

[ 1558 ] 



D 7.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 127 

23. (a'i nooz i wsnt raVt, fort b sez to a'«, b sez, "a'j b sm b ««ndj'l," 

Bn a'i sez, " aav)i faadhBB ?" snu sez, "iis," en a'» sez, " d*d 
b sp««k tu)i, faadhBB?" Bn b sez, "iis, ma'*' wEnti, b did, 
b sez, :dpo, a'» wAAnts)i "), I know he went right [that is, 
to heaven], for he says to me, he says, " I have seen an 
angel," and I says, "have ye, father?" and "he says, 
"yes," and I says, "did he speak to ye, father?" and he 
says, "yes, my wench [term of endearment], he did, he 
says, Joe, I want ye." 

24. (a'i aaIbs th*qks bz ra*t in huks Bn pr««tjm, Bn aaI s«tf th»qz 

bz dhEm bi mEnt fos dh«<? bz kjaant wank), I always think 
as [that] writing hooks and preaching, and all such things 
as them [those], he meant for they as [those that] can't 
work [do manual labour]. 

25. (Leq)s aa)t), let-us have-it. 



d. Hansbobougx cwl., Ox. 

7 nnw. Oxford, with Freeland, a hamlet of Ensham just s. of Handborough, Islip 
and Blackthorn. "Words generally from Mrs. Parker, but occasionally from 
TH. 

B Blackthorn, wn. by TH. from Mrs. P. 

F Freeland, near Handborough, wn. by TH. from Mrs. Waine, Mrs. P.'s 

mother. 
G General in Ox., from Mrs. P.'s lists. 

H Handborough, from Mrs. Parker's lists, but by no means exhaustive. 
Ha Handborough as noted from Mrs. P.'s pron. by TH. ; almost every such 

word is here noted. 
Ho Holton, from Mrs. P.'s glossic. 
I Islip, from Mrs. P.'s glossic. 

I. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 12 HHa saa. 13 HHanaa. 14 H draad [drawed= drawn, drew]. — 
gJEm [game]. 24 HHa shem. — F pib'l [pebble]. — H staaR [to stare] . 30 
H Wan, kien. 33 G ralheR. 36 H thaa. A: — rom [ram]. 43 Ho ond. 
— Ha kja-s'nt [canst-not]. 54 Ha WAAnt, F WAnt. A: or 0: 64 Ha roq. 
A'- 67 Ho egu-in, Ha Bgwltn, 8gw£»n, F vgwe-in. 72 Ha uu. 76 H twad. 
84 6 mumsR. 85 G suubr. 86 Ho uuts, HF wats, HaF wots. 89 H bu>ath, 
bath. 92 Ha noo. A': 113 H wal, al, Ha uY. 115 I 6wm, FHa oom. 
123 G nath'n. ' 124 F stwon, Ho stan. 135 H klaath. 

M- 138 HI faadhen. 148 Ha fa[R. — Ha stains [stairs]. M: 161 
Ha I dE"t FHa dee, 179 F wot. M'- — G r«Hj. 183 G ieeti. 187 
G b«v. 190 Ho kee. 192 HHa mJEn. 200 Ha wrf'it, F weet. 202 Ho jwt. 
X: — Ha mja'd [mead, GJ. — F sid [seed]. 214 naann an «m[ne'er a one 
of them]. 223 Ha dha[R, H dhan, dhan, dhreR, I dhiBR. 224 HwaR, waR, 
wIbr, Ha w4]R. 

E- 233 Ha speek. — HaG taR, tiBRd, tand [to tear, teared, tore]. 248 Ha 
maLR. — H lJEzin, Ha lEzin [leasing = gleaning]. 252 Ha kjit'l. E: 261 
Ha see, s&. 262 Ha we"j. 265 Ha street. 278 F wEnLtsh [perhaps (wEN|_T«h)]. 
280 G lEb'n. E'- 299 Ha griin. E': 306 HaG Ekth (see p. 119, No. 
306). 312 F i«R. 314 HaF jaiRd. 315 HaF fit'. 

EA- — H shEk, shak [shake, shook]. 319 Ha gjaap. 320 Ha ktur. 
EA: 321 F [(sin)=seen, for have seen, used]. 322 Ha laaf. 323 HaG 
fo'«t. — tjook [chalk]. 333 Gkjaaf. — Ha 61t«R [halter]. — shaRTshare]. 
345 F dEER. 346 I gjett, F g]Et, Ho gist, gjeest. EA'- 347 Ha JE'd. 

[ 1559 ] 



128 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 7, 8. 

EA': 350 H djEd. 352 F rsd'. 354 G shef. 356 H M, Ievz. — Ha 
bJEm [beam]. — krEm [cream]. 361 HHaF bjsnz, Ho biBnz. 363 
HaG tjEp. — G eest [east]. 366 Ha grat. — H JEzi [easy]. 371 HHa 

EI: 378 HaFG week. 382 Ha dhaim [theirs, G]. 

EO- 383 G SEb'n. 384 G Eb'n. 386 Ha 100. EO: 394 HaF jandB[R. 
397Hsuurd. 402Hala|Rn. 403 H fan. EO'- — Gfl<*[anea]. 419 
Ha jubi Rn [yours]. EO': — Ha ilt [held]. 427 Ho burnt [be-not]. 434 
HHa bjEt. 437 Ha triif, truth. 

ET- 438_Ha do'i, da'i [marked as lying between them, the first is analogical]. 



I- 440 Ha wik'. 447 Ha aR, w\xa Jhers]. — FG pe«z _, 

452 Ho di, o'i. — Ha lsd [lid]. 466 Ha tjo'i'ld. 468 G titldBRN. 469 H 
wt [wilt], F want. 482 I B)nt [is-not], H bjsnt, Ha biE'nt [probably (bisnt) 
is near enough], Ha jEut, tjEnt. 483 Ha iz'n [stated to be general]. 487 H 
istBRdi. 488 H it. — tit [teat]. — sens [since]. I'- — H gii, gin 
[give, given, gave]. — HF rip [to reap]. 

0- — G rat'n [rotten]. 0: 531 Ha daatBLR. 537 Hma'aldi [mouldy]. 
538 H ui. 543 HaF an. 546 H faR, faR. 547 G buuRD. 549 H uubrd. 
554 G kras. 0'- — g«m [gum of tooth]. 564 Haswn'. 568 F bradhBR. 
0': — Ha brok [brook]. 586 Ho d&Bnt [don't], Ha dwont, F dwant [modern 
(dant)], F d« c s'nt, Ha dwst [dost]. 587 Ha dVn. 590 H Auor. 592 Ha 
swaiR. 595 Ha fut', F fat'. — tath, tith [tooth, teeth]. 

tJ- _ «d [wood]. 603 HaF ksrm. 606 FG dflBR, Ha duB.R. TJ: — 
«lf [wolf]. — G sba'aldBR [shoulder]. — andsRD [hundred]. 623 H fan. 

— emdsR [wonder]. 626 Ha s)oqgri [a hungry]. 632 I or/. — H uiubrn 
[mourn]. — H thasti. TJ'- 643 HaF na'u, F nSw. 648 Ha o'ublHU [ours]. 
IT': 667 F o'wt. 

Y- 675 Ha B)dro'i [a-dry, thirsty]. 676 B lig, ligsteR [a lie, a liar]. Y: 

— shilf [shelf]. 694 F waRk. 700 G was. Y- 706 Ha wo"i. 

n. English. 

A. — kraal [crawl]. — H okBUD, akwid, Ha ak«RD [awkward, stubborn]. 
E. — Ha Eft [to heft, weigh in the hand, from to heave]. I. andY. 756 I 
srimps. 757 H tiini. 758 Ha gjal [sometimes (gjorl), Oxford (gorl). O. 
778 G BfuuRD. 791 Ha bwAA'i, F bwdi. 1J. I djomp. 

m. Bomance. 

A- 810 Ifiss. 814 Ha m«ssntBr. — G treel [flail] . 824 Ha tjisr [G]. 
835 Ha reez'n. — H mastBR [master, MrJ. — Ho gjalBp [gallop]. — Ha 
pant' ni 1 [pantry]. — Ha A'rtj [arch]. — G kjaaR [to carry]- — G KJaafentBR 
[carpenter, Ha (kjaar-)]. 857 Ha kjes. — slat [roofing slate]. 

E-- 867 F tee. — Ha dhBrEkli. 872 H tjEi. — saRv, saR [to serve], 

— GHa mizh.BR [measure]. 891 H biEst, B flEst. 896 HHo beevBR. 

O •• — Ha biif [beef]. 916 G a'inBn. — po'iz'n, pwo'iz'n [poison], 
925 Ha vwA"is [mod. va is]. — G kuBRD [cord]. — Ha puBRk [pork]. 
940 Ho kuBt, Ha kwot, F kwat. — fuuRm [form], 947 Ha bwa'Hin. 955 
Ha da'wts. — Ho mav [move]. 956 G kivBR. 

TJ.. — tribsnt [truant]. 969 shuBR. 



D 8 = s.BS = southern Border Southern. 

Boundaries. Prom Beading, Be., follow the n. b. of D 5 through 
Sr. to Knockholt, Ke., and continue ne. to Grravesend, Ke., then turn 
w. and follow the s. bank of the Thames back to Beading. 

Area. Extreme se.Be. ; ne.Sr., and extreme nw.Ke., embracing 
London s. of the Thames and the adjacent suburbs. 

[ 1560 ] 



D 8.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 129 

Authorities. See the Alphabetical County List under the following places, 
where * means vv. per AJE., t per TH., ° in io. 
Be. ° Hurley, ° Hurst, °* Wargrave, t Windsor. 
Sr. "Chertsey, "Chobham, "Croydon, "Leatherhead. 
Ke. No information from this very small portion of nw.Ke. 

Characters. The composite nature of a very shifting population in 
this district renders the growth of any dialect proper impossible. 
Still in country places and even in the suburbs of London there is 
a slight tang of 8. speech even if it is limited to using / he. At the 
extreme w. of the district adjoining Ox. the S. character is almost 
strong. Thus at Wargrave, Be. (5 ne.Eeading), T. P. Maitland, 
Esq., gave me vv. the words : 

A- 4tetsk. 21 neem. A': 104 r6ud. JE- 142 snu'il. USto'il. M: 161 
dee. E: 261 see. — fiild [field]. EA: 346 geek EO: 394 inden [this is an E 
form, for (janden)]. I: 466 tja'ild. I' 492 sa'td. T- 682 liit'l. A. 737 meat. 
A: — kamplse'int. R is regularly (r). H generally omitted, and also wrongly 
inserted. Usages, I be, her be, I am, I are, we knows-un. 

Prom Hurley (9 ne Reading), and hence close to the former place, 
Mrs. Godfrey, marking the only ' peculiarities ' (that is, differences 
from rs.) she could think of, in a dt. gave me : 

A- 21 neem. EA. 346 glut. EO: 394 EndBR [the (k) is assumed from the 
neighbouring Wargrave, and the (e) confirms the former (»)]. 0: 541 want. 
V- 603 Bkamin. A. 737 meBts. I. 758 gael. Usages, I be, housen, Michael- 
mast, feller. 

From Hurst (4 e.Reading) the late Rev. R. A. Cameron wrote 
(1879) with a dt. : 

" It is difficult to characterise the genuine dialect of the district. The popula- 
tion is very mixed and migratory. The chief characteristics as they struck me 
when coming 40 or 50 years ago from Suffolk were (besides the perverse confusions 
about the aspirates, particularly strong hereabouts), the addition of a short vowel 
sound to all long terminal syllables, as (meets, misteijk, komplesnt) [these words 
were interpreted from Wargrave with (6b), but the last may have been (ee'i). It 
was difficult to see whether Mr. Cameron wrote de or ai. TH. heard (trein, e,it) 
train, eight, from unknown speakers at Windsor, but these were probably London 
importations] ; the dropping of the initial w as («1, khibii) wool, wonan, (b o'«ld 
»men) an old woman ; a peculiar sound of the I, something like the French I 
mouillee as ' feulld, chiuld ' for field, child, but this cannot well be expressed by 
any combination of letters phonetically." Perhaps he meant merely (bI) as (fiBld 



I'irid), but the sound may have been possibly been (bl). There is no sound of 

fin the modern French I mouillee, and hence I have given his own spelling, 
e wrote long i as oi, which Wargrave shews to be (a' ») . The following words 



i in the modern French I mouillee, and hence I have given his own spelling, 
e wrote long i as oi, w" ' 
are taken from the dt. : 

A- 21 neum. A: 43 aend. A: or 0: 64 rseq [probably an error]. A': 104 
roBd. -33- 144 Bgi-n. E: 262 w&i [written wdi, uncertain, might have been 
(wse'i)]. 266 stmt. 266 wsel [doubtful]. EA: 326 a'wld. 346 gest. I: 452 
x'i. 459 ra'rt. 466 tp'ild. 469 «1 [possibly (bI)]. I'- 492 sa'id. 0: 541 
oont. 0'- 660 skiul [?]. 564 swn. V- 603 Bksrmta. 606 duBR. Y- 682 lil 
['sometimes,' very doubtful indeed whether used by natives, (la'il) is a N. form]. 
A. 737 meste. I. 758 gaRl [the (r) is assumed from Wargrave, (meid) written 
maid was said to be commoner]. The rest of the words in the dt. were said to be 
in rp. Usages, I says, I be, she's a goin, bain't, we knows-un, that' en. 

The above shews S. in a still moderately active form in Be., but 
it dies out very rapidly towards Sr., and in Sr. itself the borough 

E.B. Pron. Part V. [ 1561 ] 100 



130 THE BOEDER AND EAST SOUTHERN. [D 8, 9. 

of Southwark and the outlying suburbs seem to have pretty well 
destroyed all trace of dialect. The following is all the information 
I could find. 

Chobham (8n-b-w.Guildford). An incumbent of 50 years could only give E. 751 
(pier t), the (r ) assumed, and the plural homen. Neither form is distinctive. 

Chertsey (11 nne.Guildford). The predecessor of the vicar, that gave me the 
information, had known the place 70 years, but knew "not one peculiarity in 
pronunciation." 

Leatherhead (12 ene. Guildford). Mr. Martel, in writing to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte, said : " It is hard to find distinct traces of provincialism of any sort, 
as the population is so continually changing," but he gave the usages I be, I 
knows, I saw-r-er, drawrmg, sometimes in for ing in the participle, I see (not I 
seen) for I saw, and I were, but in no other person. Of these, I be is distinctly S., 
draw-r-ing, etc., is E. Altogether mixed. 

Croydon. Mr. W. Taylor Malleson, of Duppas Bill, tried hard to find pro- 
vincialisms in the Board Schools, but was not very successful. These are the 
most he could discover, and I have not been able to interpret all satisfactory. 

A'- 90 to 97, he writes with a-ow, which may bear different interpretations, as 
(e», e'w, a'o), thus, 93 (sneo, snE'«, sna'o), and I incline to the second. EA- 319 
geeip, 346 geeit [which are not S. ]. E: 260 ta», 261 sa» [which I think are not 
really S. forms, as they seem at first sight, but an exaggeration of the QSei, eeei) 
that may be heard in ne. London], 285 kriis [a common Londonism]. E': 306 
ho'ith [this is not dialectal, it is a mistaken analogy, and is even "heard from 
educated speakers]. EO': 436 triy, 437 triyth [these seem mistakes for (triu, 
triuth), which are not uncommon ; the diphthong is East Anglian]. I: 472 
suriqk [this is an example of the non-pronunciation of (sh) before (r), and is not 
distinctive. It is also inconsistent with 654 shreoud]. V- 601 sse'w, 602 fse'wl 
[these were written sa-ow, fa-owl, and were said to resemble (se-9'«), an unknown 
combination, but as many dialect writers use aow to indicate what has been found 
to be (se'»), I so interpret ; the sound is, however, not S., but nearest (e«) of Ke., 
or the E. diphthong. In the same way the long I is said to be (ae'i), a very 
common sound in London, but decidedly not S., unless occ. for the at, ay words 
which are not contemplated. This (ee'i) is stated to be a favourite sound in 
Croydon, which is called (:krse'id'n)]. Again, XT': 654 shreoud, 658 deoun, 668 
preoud, look as if meant for (shrio'wd, die'un, prlaud), 'the e very slight,' which 
looks like a well-known M. triphthong. O. 769 mo;il [this must be an accident, 
it is not known in any dialect]. 

The above only betray a very mixed set of speakers. But one observation is to 
a certain extent S., 608 agli, 697 buri, 773 doqki, 785 pooltri, 934 bo'«nti, 935 
kantri, with a clear final (i) not (») or (»j) . It is, however, not a certain criterion. 
Usages, 'I be agoing' is S., but 'I am,' I are,' also heard, are not so. V and 
W are said to be properly distinguished. 

On the whole, therefore, it must be right to characterise D 8 as 
a S. dialect almost entirely obliterated by town influences. It 
forms the s. part of the metropolitan area, or that lying s. of the 
Thames. 

D 9 = ES. = East Southern. 

Boundaries. The w. b. is the e. b. of D 5 and D 8 from the mouth 
of the Adur in Ss. to Gravesend in Ke. The other borders are the 
sea-coast round Ke. and e.Ss. 

Area. Almost the whole of Ke., with e.Ss. It was the supposed 
seat of the Jutes, but the modern speech is a decaying S. form, with 
the exception of a peculiarity of entirely modern growth, subsequent 
to a.d. 1340. 

[ 1662 ] 



D 9.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 131 

Authorities. See the Alphabetical County List, under the following places, 
where * marks w. per AJE., t per TH., || systematic spelling, ° in io. 

Ss. "Ashburnham, tBattle, t Brighton, °*Cuckfield, *Eastbourne, °Etchingham, 
||Leasam, tLewes, "Marklye, "Possingworth, "Selmeston, "Weald of Sussex. 

Ke. *Charing, *Chatham, "Denton, *Faversham, ||Folkestone (fishermen), 
*Maidstone, "Margate, "Rolvenden, "Shadshurst, *St. Nicholas, *Sheerness, 
*Strood, "Stoke, "Stourmouth, "Wingham. 

Character. The general character is that of w.Ss. and Ha., that 
is that of D 5, only still further decayed. Initial (z, v) seem 
never to be used for (s, f). The JZG and EG words have passed 
pretty well into (ee, ee) and in some cases (ii). The (k) remains; 
I have heard it myself from Cuckfield and Eastbourne in 8s., at 
Tunbridge "Wells and Maidstone in Ke., and have had it indis- 
putably recognised at Possingworth and Marklye (14 wnw. and 15 
n. Eastbourne), and in several places in Ke. But it has a tendency 
to degenerate into the ordinary English vocal r, a mere vowel (a, «) 
or a buzz (r ), the form that it retains in London. Rev. Mr. 
Parish (Sussex Glossary) does not notice or apparently acknowledge 
it at all, using ar simply as a symbol for (aa). But Miss Darby, 
of Marklye, graphically and accurately writes, "The roll of the B is 
most peculiar, and I never heard anything like it anywhere. It 
can only be sounded by beginning the sound with the tongue 
straight," that is, in its usual direct position for the preceding 
vowel, " and suddenly curling it round so that the underpart of the 
tongue touches the roof of the mouth," that is, for the consonant 
itself. 

The peculiar character which separates D 9 sharply from the 
adjoining D 5 and D 8 is the pronunciation of the initial th as (d) 
in this, that, the, there, their, theirs, them, then, these, those, they. 
To these words would probably have been added than, thou, thee, 
thj, thine, though, thus, had they been used in the dialect, but they 
have not been heard ; than is always replaced by nor, thou etc. by you 
etc., though thus do not seem to be required at all. Bev. Mr. 
Parish (Glossary, p. 8) says " the th is invariably d," this is not 
the case for the initial th of any other words, so far as I can learn. 
In the middle of words we have d in farming and fur^er, but that 
is common to other dialects. Miss Darby thought she knew it in 
other, either, nei^Aer, but was not able to verify her supposition 
when she tried. In Faversham, Ke., however, Mr. H. K.- 
Hugessen gives (raadrat) another. Final th in with, smooth 
becomes d before a vowel, as (smuud »t, w«d it) smooth it, with it, 
but not regularly, compare (edrn, udewt) within, without. Now 
here some might suppose we had the desired Jutish peculiarity, but 
alas ! there is no trace of it in Dan Michel, who (see pp. 38-41) 
had plenty of initial (z, v), which have since his time entirely 
disappeared. In John Lewis's History and Antiquities as well 
Ecclesiastical as Civil of the Isle of Tenet [that is, Thanet, the ne. 
corner of Ke.], 2nd ed. 1736, he says (p. 35) that "the English 
spoken here is generally very good, only the natives in common 
with the other inhabitants of this part of Kent are used to 
pronounce the th as a A, the o as an a, as an for on [regular S.], 

[ 1563 ] 



132 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V i, 

the * as ee, as Beek for Bike [rather (d»k) lite (dj'tj)], and to say 
who instead of how and how instead of -who [the latter not met 
with]. As for example, Sow is dat man dere f for, Who is that 
man there?" Yet in Thanet at the present day, as among the 
fishermen at Folkestone, I have not been able to discover a single 
instance of this use of d for initial th. But Sir F. Burton (of the 
National Gallery) informed me in July, 1887, that his housekeeper 
from the Isle of Thanet has an old uncle about 80, who always 
says "dat man dere," and knows other old people who do so. 
Hence Lewis is confirmed, and the disappearance is only recent. 
In Thanet the watering-places of Margate and Eamsgate might be 
credited with the restitution of th, but this hardly applies to the 
fishermen of Folkestone. 

Another peculiarity has also developed itself, but is disappearing 
under the influence of education. It is not, however, confined to 
c.Ss. and Ke., but extends along the e. of England from Ke. through 
Es. and Sf. to Nf. inclusive, which form what may be called the 
Land of Wee. This is the replacement of (v) by (w), but not 
conversely. Sam "Weller, who spelled his name "with a we" and 
Cockneys are especially credited, with the interchange. I have 
never yet heard (v) used for (w) in good faith, though I have 
much wanted to do so, but (w) for (v) I have known all my life in 
Ke. Bev. "W. Parish acknowledges it in e.Ss., but Miss Darby does 
not. Now the late well-known traveller Dr. Beke declared that 
the Cockneys and the Trasteverini in Borne pronounced German 
w (bh) in place of both (v) and (w), and that the Cockneys, with 
whose habits he was well acquainted, did not know when they 
were saying one or other, because in fact they said something that 
was neither, but sounded like (w) when (v) was expected, and (v) 
when (w). Now I am perfectly familiar with (v bh w ii), the 
last being the unstressed vowel diphthongizing with a following 
vowel. I can readily and easily distinguish in my own and other 
person's speech vie French, wie German, wee English, ui in Italian 
Gm'do, out French =(vii, bhii, wii, uii, ui). Yet I do not hear Dr. 
Beke's (bh) from those who use (w) for (v). Mr. H. C. Coote also 
affirmed that he knew coachmen {eoechieri) in Borne to say (uEnto) 
for vento. That is possible, but requires investigation. I think, 
however, that they could not say (wEnto). The English (w) is 
a peculiar consonant which I do not find in the rest of Europe. 
The » and w habits of the fishermen of Folkestone will be especially 
referred to on p. 143. 

Although the dialect is tolerably uniform over the whole district, 
it will be convenient to separately consider Vaf. i. e.Ss., Var. ii, 
n.Ke., Var. iii. e.Ke. including the Folkestone fishermen. 

Var. i. East Sussex Form. 

Miss Darby, who lives in a very out-of-the-way place, Marklye, which used to 
be seven miles from a railway-station till 1880, says, " I feel quite sure in a few 
years all these old terms will be extinct. A railway has been opened for the last 
few months within four miles of us [at Heathfield], and already the change is 

[ 1564 ] 



D 9, Vi.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 133 

very great. We have two old men who have worked on the farm in our family 
for many years, one for forty years. He is of an old superior family, but cannot 
read. He said yesterday [dated 15th Oct. 1885] that he was much put out at 
hearing people talk now, and he could not make out ' high words.' His wife, 
who is upwards of seventy and able to write, has much disgusted him bv buying a 
dictionary to keep pace with the times. There are not a dozen people left in the 
parish who speak the real old dialect." Miss Darby's information is checked 
first by Rev. Mr. Parish, both of them having sent me versions of the dt., and 
secondly by the wl. w. given me by two students at "Whitelands, p. 134. 

TWO INTEBIINEAB EAST St/SSEX dt. 

M. by Miss Anna M. Darby, of Marklye (imaRkla'r) (15 n. Eastbourne), pal. 

by AJE. from indications. 
S. by Rev. "W. D. Parish of Selmeston (rsimssn) (6 ese.Lewes), pal. conjectually 

from io., for which no indications were furnished either in writing or in his 

glossary. Only those words which apparently differ from Miss Darby's 

are given. 

1 . M Marhlye. soo bi see, meBts, jb sii nE'u ctat)e bi Bo'*'t BbE'wt 
S Selmeston. mwts, jiu a'«')m [bi] bE'wt 

M daet-e^B liit'l gael Bkrmin from daet-eBB sku«l E'ut jondeit. 
S daet lid'l gaBl d« skuul [omit] jEndBB. 

2. M shii)z BgvrBn Aslua. daet-eBB ri'iBd deBr thruu dB raid g&st on 
S shii)bi gwin dB roBd 

M t)adb.BB soVd B)dB ruBd. 
S dB lift haand -wee. 

3. M shuBB Bno - f d« tfo'«ld bi gAAn ro'«t vgin dB duBE B)da Eoq e'ms. 
S sbuBE)nai 'z- straVt ap tB)de 

4. M wibb. shi)'l aep tB fo'tn daet-eBE draqk dstb. srtVeld tjsep B)d» 
S weBB tjaans fo'*nd daet draqkBn Mbe 

M neBm b :tom. 
S mem :tomos. 

5. M wi aaI nooz im vaBJ weBl [waal]. 
S aal him web» wel. 

6. M wuimt dc <Md tjaep suBn laBn be nevBB ts duu vt noo 
S want oo\ tpp sun tiitj hBE not it 

M moBr, puBE tbiq! 
8 Bgin, poos 

7. M lwk)i deer! bfsnt Bt truii? 
8 [omit] »t 

Notes to M. 
1. I, at the beginning of a sentence little, Miss D. was surprised at Mr. 
(a'i), and (b) in the middle. — be, used, P.'s (ltd'l), which she never heard. 
Mr. P. prefers am ; he be also used. — Mr. P. says " double t is always pro- 

[ 1565 ] 



134 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V i. 

nounced as d, as liddle for little, etc." 4. deaf, Miss D. says, " As regards 

Miss D . inquires what becomes of boMle, this word, I consider it a most peculiar 

■wattle, which are in constant use. thing that it should be called death, 

2. she, her is used for she only im- and it is a very common expression, 
mediately after a verb, as (did)«R.), she 'she is troubled with deathness,' " so 
be gooin, or she's a gooin, optional. — also Mr. P.'s Glossary. Halliwell 
way, w never becomes v. says it is a Suffolk pron. — Thomas, a 

3. enough, with o in cot. — straight = common name, but always abbreviated. 
(street), but (ro'it) is the word that 5. Miss Darby wrote waal, which 
would be used here. — up, pr. (ap), but ought to mean (wesl), but as Mr. II. 
here agin = against, i.e. towards, would Knatchbull-Hugessen at Faversham 
be used. — house, the h is 'dropped said (waal), may have been meant for 
slightly, never put in the wrong place.' the latter. 

Notes to 8. 

1. mates, written rne'uts, similarly 4. chance, as this is written chaance, 
par. 4, name (ntem), written neam. it ought to be (tjeens), which is un- 
Misses Darby, Francis and Sayers likely, but I have no guide but Cuckfield 
have all (neBm). 851 (a'nt), aunt. 

2. road, written road, but Mr. P. 
may have meant (rued) . 



East Sussex cwl. 

Those words in which only the ordinary spelling is given in Italics are supposed to 

be in rp. 
C Cuckfield, w. from Miss Sayers, native, student at Whitelands. 
E Eastbourne, w. from Miss Francis, of London, 8 years at an Eastbourne 

school, student at Whitelands. 
FC Cuckfield, from Archdeacon Fearon, native. 
L Leasam, near Eye, from a numbered wl. by Miss B. C. Curtis. 
M Marklye, given by Miss Darby, in addition to her dt. 
P from Rev. W . D. Parish's Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect, conjecturally pal. 

by AJE. with the help of C and E above. 

i. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 3 CE beisk. 4 CE teek. 5 CE meek. 6 CE meed. 7 CE seak. 9 FC 
biheev. 12 CE saar [even without a following vowel]. 17 CE Iaar [as 12]. 
18 [always called biscuit, even a large Christmas cake is called biscuit at E. and 
Brighton, not at C.]. 20 CE leem. 21 CE neem. 22 CE teem. 23 CE seem. 
24 CE sheem. 33 CE & FC reedhen. 36 CE thAAR. A: 43 CE and, FC 
an. 44 FC Ian. 51 P maan. 66 L wash. A: or 0: 60 CE long. 61 C 
Bmaq, E Bmoq. 

A'- 67 P egwe«'n [a going], s'i guuz [I go], CE & FC guu. 70 CE toe. 
72 CE uu. 73 CE so. 76 CE & FC t6ed. 79 CE dun. 80 FC holndi. 82 
P wanst. 83 FC mden. 84 CE m6e)n)dat [more than that]. 86 P wats. 87 
CE tlooz. 90 CE bloo. 91 CE ma'«. 93 CE sra'u. A': 101 CE ms\. 
102 L ast [inf. and past tense]. 104 FC r<md. 105 FC ro'isd. 106 CE br<nsd. 
108 P daf, CE doo. Ill CE ought. 115 CE hwrn. 118 PCE & FC bo'tra. 
120 P Bguu. 122 P nAAn, CE nan. 124 CE & FC stdim. 125 CE only. 

M- 138 P fiedh.BR, CE feedh.BR. — P laadBR [ladder]. 141 CE nesl. 
142 CE sneel, L [often (snag) or (saee) omitting (1)]. 143 CEteel. 147 breen. 
— P amets [antst. 149 CE bleez. 152 CE water. 153 CE sadeRd*. 

M: 155 CE & FC theti. — P aadeR [adder]. 158 FC aatBR. 161 PLM 
dii. 162 P tsdii. 166 meml. — P wen)as [wain or waggon horse]. 168 P 
tain. — waps [wasp]. — haps [hasp]. 170 CE aRVist. 171 barley. 172 CE 
gwas [common].' M'- 185 CE read. 188 P nakBR. 190 key. 197 cheese. 
199 CE bleet. 200 CE wM. JEt: 203 CE speech. 207 CE niidB|.l [with 

[^ 1566 ] 



D 9, Vi.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 135 

an indistinct (1)]. 218 PCE ship. 223 CE dhlBR [(d) not marked in this word]. 
224 CE weBR. 227 CE wet. 

E- 231 P dn. 232 break. 233 speak. 234 knead. 235 weave. 236 fever. 
239 CE seel. 241 CE ram, M rira. 243 pies. 250 CE s6br [swore]. 251 
C miit, E meet. 252 CE kit'l. 253 CE nettle. E: 261 CE see. 262 CE 
weeB. 264 CE fed. 265 CE streBt. — fild [field]. 272 elm CE [volunteered 
that it was (el'm) in Es.]. — P hiin [a hen]. 281 CE tenth. 282 CE strEnth. 

— niEsli mash [marsh]. 284 CE thrash. 286 L haRRR [and so for all words 
having double rr, as carriage (kaRRR), that is, very much lengthened (r)]. 

E'- 290 CE he. 292 CE me. 293 CE we. 294 GEfeed. 296 P o'i blav, 
E buleev, bilEft [believed], [I believe, parenthetically]. 300 CE kip, kEp [keep, 
kept]. 301CE1BR. E': 305 CE hai [?]. 307CEnai[?]. 308 CE need. 
309 CE speed. 312 CE retsR. 314 Usd. 315 CE fit. 316 CE nsks. 

EA- — P vdIb [fallow]. 319 FC gesp. EA: 323 CE fa'ot. 324 CE 
est. 328CEool. 330 CE oo\ = 328. 333 CE ksesef. 334 CE hseajf. 336 
CE/««. 337 CE wall. 345 CE dare. 346 P gist, CE & FC geut. 

EA'- 347 CE Ed. — haafBR hafBR [heifer]. 348 6i. 349 CE few. 
EA': 350 CE dead. 353 CE bread [but (brE)n)tpiz) bread and cheese]. 354 
CE sheaf. 355 P dEth, CE dEf. 356 CE leaf. 357 CE though. 359 C neehBR, 
E niBbBR. 366 P gaRt. 368 CE death. 369 CE slow. 371 CE strAAR. 

EI- 372 CE [not used]. EI: 378 E week. 380 P dsm. 382 P deeRz. 

EO- 385 CE beneath. 386 CE 100. 387 CE nuu. EO: 388 FC melk. 
394 P jaqsR [? ql CE jandBR jandsR. 399 CE br6it. 400 CE aRnest. 402 
CElaRn. 405CEaRth. 406 CE earth. EO'- — CE^m. 411 CE three. 
412 CE she. 413 CE devil. 414 GE Jty. 415 CE 16i. 417 PCE tjo'u. 420 
PE fa'MBR, C foBR. 421 P faRti. EO': 423 CE thiqh. 424 P braf. 425 
CE lait. 426 foit. 435 CE you. 436 CE triu. 437 CE triuth. EY- 438 
CEdie. 

I- 440 PCE wik. 442 CE 6ivi. 444 CE sto'il. 446 CE noin. — shiin 
[shire]. 448 PCE diiz. 449 CE git. 450 CE tuuzde. I: 452 CE 6i. 

457 moit. 458 n6it. 459 CE r6it. 462 CE s6it. 465 CE & FC siti. 466 
CE tja'ild [?]. 468 CE tjild'n. — klim [climb]. 472 CE sriqk. 473 CE 
bla'in. 475 CE w6ind. 476 CE ba'in. 477 fa' in. 478 gra'in. 479 CE wa'in 
[compare 475]. 483 P hiiz [his, written he's]. 484 CE dis. 485 P sis' 1 ['the 
usual pronunciation of thistle, says Parish], CE this'l. 488 CE jit. — P spst 
[spit]. I'- 490 CE b6i. 493 CE dr6iv. 494 CE t6im. I': 502 CE 

foiv. 503 CE loif. 504 CE noif. 505 CE w6if. 506 CE «mBU [(m6i ool 
d«mBn) my old woman =(m6i misis). 611 woin. 

O- 524CEwaRld. 0: 527 CE bought. 528 CE thought [often (tho'ut) 
L]. 529 CE brought. 531 CE daatBR. 532 CE coal. 533 CE dull. 536 CE 
gold. — krap [crop]. 552 P kaan, CE kARn. — maRnin [morning]. 554 P 
kras. — CE poostisiz [posts]. O'- 555 CE [(buut) is always used, never 
(shuu)]. 558 CEfoo/fc. — fodhBR [fodder]. 562CEmuun. 563 CE Monday. 

— b mant [month]. 564 CE s«n [very short]. 566 CE adhBR [not (adBR)]. 
O': 569 CE book. 570 CE took. — rad [rod]. 577 CE ba'u. 578 CE 
pla'u. 579 CE Bnaf [(enE'«) not known]. 586 P do'snt [don' t] . 588 CE nlyn 
[in afterraoorc, this is St., it was difficult to appreciate]. 589 CE spiyn. 590 CE 
fluBR. 592 P suur. 595 CE fwt. 596 CE rat. 597 CE sat. 

U- 600 CE love. 602 CE sa'w. 605 CE son. 606 CE duBR. 607 CE 
batBR. U; 609 CEfull. 610 CE u\. 611 CE bullock. 613 CE draqk. 

614 P hewnd, CE E'«n. — P me«nd [mound]. 6J5 P pewnd. 616CEgra«n. 
619 CE fa'«n. 620 CE gra'wn. 625 CE t»q. 629 CE sun. 631 CE thanzde. 
632 CE ap. 633 CE kap. — vuur [a furrow]. 634 CE through. 635 CE 
wath. 636 CE faRdBR. 639 CE dust. U'- 640 CE kJE'u [rather rounder, 
approaching (kja'u)]. 653 CE bat. V: 657 CE brE'un. 659 CE tE'«n. 
665 CE mE'us. 666 CE azbBn [but (mEstBR) is usual]. 671 CE nm'wth. 

Y- — P hiiv [hive], biiv [beehive]. 676 CE 16i. 679 CE tjati. 682 P 
lid'l. Y: 689 CE build. — P kEl [kiln]. 690 CE k6in. 691 m6in. 

700 CE was. — P bras'lz [bristles]. 702 P Bdi-n [within]. 703 P pEt. 
Y- 705CEsk6i. — P diiv [to dive] . Y': 711 CE liis, L Ie'usjz. 712 P 
iniis, CE & L mg'usiz. 

[ 1567 ] 



136 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V i, ii. 

ii. English. 

— Probst [rabbit]. 716 P aad'l [stupid], Ed'l [rotten]. 722 P driin, M 
dr'usn, CE dreun. 725 seel. — P klaps [clasp]. 737 P unlet. 741 CE menz. 
E. — PliBB. [lear, empty]. 752 P piiRt. l.andY. 756 CE srimp. 758 
CE ga'l. 0. 761 CE M. 767 CE naiz. 769 C m6«l, E ma'ul. 772 CE 
brafa'iR. 773 CE daqki. 774 P posni, CE pooni. 775 CE booby. 778 CE 
BfiiBRd. 781 CE bother. 787 CE se'ms. 790 CE gE'wnd. U. — jaf 1 
[yuckel or wood-pecker]. — P kwid [a cow's cud]. 799 CE scull of head. 
800 CE scull of boat. 801 CE rum. 805 CE curds. 808 P pat. 

in. Romance. 

A- — P steub'l [stable]. 811 CE pletss. 812 CE less. 813 CE beitem. 

— P fr«el [flail]. 822 CE mee. 824 CE tjeereR. 826 CE eagle. 827 CE 
eager. 828 CE ague. — M griin [grain]. 830 CE train. — M stiren [stain]. 
834 CE shee. 835 CE rez'n. 836 CE sez'n. 845 CE ancient. 847 CE 
(WndreR. 848 CE change. 849 CE stresndreR. 851 C a'nt. 852 CE eepran. 

— ptet [plate]. — P riBt [rate]. 862 CE sesf. 863 CE tjetsf. 865 CE 
fAAt. 866 CE poor. 

E- 867 CE tee. 868 P djA'i. 869 CE veal. — P spaatek'lz [spectacles]. 

— fitjiz [vetches]. — M strisnd [strained]. — M piun [pain]. 876 CE 
deBnti. 878 CE saUuri. 879 CE female. — jaRb [herb]. 887 klaRdji. 
888 saRtin. — P saRV [serve]. 890 CE beest biistiiz [beast beasts, observe 
the change of vowel]. 892 CE nephew. 894 CE deceive. 895 CE receive. 
I- and Y- 899 CE niece. — va'irent [violent]. 904 P vo'ilet, CE v6ilet. 
909 CE breeze. 910 CE dja'is. 911 CE sEstam. 

0-- 913 koBtj. 914 broBtj. 915 CE stuff. 916 CE inran. 918 feeble. 
919 CE naintsd [anointed, beaten]. 920 CE paint [a pint pron. in same way]. 
925 CE vais. 926 P spa'il, CE spail. 928 CE e'wus. 929 CE kE'ukombBr. 
930 CE lain. 935 CE country. 939 CE close. 940 CE koBt. — faRm [a 
form to sit on]. 942 CE batjaR. 947 P ba'il, CE bail. 948 CE ba'wldBR 
ba'«lBR. 952 kuBRS. 953 CE cousin. 954 CE cushion. 955 CE dE'ut. 959 
CE convey. U •• 963 CE kwaiut. 965 CE ail. 968 CE aistBR. 

CE usages, I are, I're, I be, he be, I were, he do, he didn't ought. Intonation 
drawling. 

Vae. ii. North Kent Eokm. 

A student of Whitelands, Miss Croucher, a native, diet, to me a 
dt. for Charing (6 nw.Ashford), but with slight exceptions all 
recollection of the dialect seemed to have left her. The (r) was 
quite cockney. It would, I think, be useless to give the test. 
The Rev. A. E. O. Harris, of Stoke (7 nne. Chatham), also gave 
me observations on a dt. which shews that very little dialect exists 
in the Hundred of Loo between the Thames and the Medway, 
while a settlement of Irish there, about 1845, seems to have much 
influenced pron. H. stated also that very few people used the few 
'provincialisms' he gave. After due consideration I omit these 
as not sufficient. Rev. C. "W. Rolfe, of Shadoxhurst Rectory (4 
ssw.Ashford), marks (me^ts, gsel, kwm*h, frsem, d«, jsender, gu - «h, 
roud, dercr, geBt, street, durcr, wwl, Mer, nfem, web, wuunt) for 
mates, girl, coming [very doubtful] from, the, yonder, going, road, 
there, gate, straight, door, will, fellow, name, very, won't, which 
are probably correct, but says nothing about (k). These indications 
are confirmed by Rev. J. ~W. Ramsay, of Rolvenden (12 sw.Ashford), 
who, however, also omits to notice the (r). The Isle of Sheppey 

[ 1568 ] 



D 9, V ii.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 137 

has no dialect, as I learned from Miss Lowman, a student at 
Whitelands, who had travelled all over it and resided there some 
years. It is a mere soldiers' depot. Merely therefore glancing at 
these, I proceed to the best account of n.Ke. pron. I have been able 
to obtain. 

Mr. Herbert Knatchbull-Hugessen, of Provender, Faversham (8 
wn W.Canterbury), a well-known landed proprietor, who had learned 
the dialect well from his tenants, bailiff and farm -labourers, was kind 
enough in 1873 to spend many hours on several days in teaching me 
the pron. of a cs. written by Rev. Henry B. Berin, then of Biddenden 
(10 wsw.Ashford), to represent the Weald of Kent. This version 
Mr. Berin kindly supplemented by answering, as well as he could, 
more than 60 troublesome questions which I sent him, and finally 
introduced me to Mr. H. K.-H., who was able to give me the pron. 
of his own neighbourhood, and thus convert the version into one 
for Faversham. This was at an early period of my investigations, 
and I was then unacquainted with the S. (it), and consequently 
confused the r with the London (r, r OJ e). In 1880 Mr. H. K.-H, 
in answer to my inquiries, wrote : " On the whole I should say 
that the Kentish pronunciation of the r is distinct and has a burr," 
this identifies it with (b), which I have accordingly introduced 
regularly when not preceding a vowel. When the r precedes a 
vowel, minute examination is required to be sure of the existence 
of a true (b). I have therefore left the received r in those cases. 
And I have not assimilated the adjacent (t d n 1) to (e) as in D 4. 
After the cs. I give a few phrases which Mr. H. K.-H. dictated to 
me, and a cwl. containing wd; which he pronounced to me. With- 
out this kindly help from Mr. H. K.-H. and Rev. H. B. Berin, my 
account of Ke. would have been very imperfect. 



Favebsbam (8 wnw. Canterbury) cs. 
pal. by AJE. from dictation of Herbert Knatchbull-Hugessen, Esq. 

0. d«'s £bb)z waV :djon duent dewt. 

1. waa, miets, ju en ii me boeth lsef set d*s lv& tjset ev maYn? 
uu sets Em* stoles bi dset? dset)s nedhea fet nes dees. 

2. drat ««nt [bmit] toBb'l mm» daV keunt b bt*)«h lseseft set, 
wi noo dset dm e ltt'l diient-wi ? «'•' shwd dee ? dset «<mt [b«ent] 
toBb'l lo'j'kh', iz it? 

3. dset)s eu t)iz ewjevBB, soo ju djest Aid jbb toq en kiip w«st 
t*l a'* e dan. ask*! 

4. a'«)eB sasttn shiiBB a'* fesd em sa«, sam b dem deeE tjseps 
wot b bm thru aaI on it deBsaa'vz from de foEst onset, dset ki 
santmlt did, 

5. dset de jaqgest bo'« «zsaaf, b griit tjaep naVn jvsb. oeld, nood iz 
faadesz wo'jz dirEkb' mtnt't, doo it woz so toEb'l kw&BB, en r»q» 
lo'»k, en ii)l taa)i de triwth dewt en* romsensm ens' daY, i saBtralj 
wiid. 

[ 1569 ] 



138 



THE EAST SOUTHERN. 



[D 9, v a. 



6. Bn d)ool Mmen BEsaa - f '1 taa en« aen «', daet laeaef new plump 
AAf, dewt noo trab'l, ef ju)1 ooai aast)BB, woont)shi ? 

7. liistweez shi kEp aaI on tEl/n aen mii, win a'« aast)Br, shi did 
— Bn shi aed'nt AAt te bii fas ewt bewt d«s ibe djob, th;'qk)sh haed ? 

8. waal bz ■sH wbz b trim aen ji, shii)d taa)i ra'e't AAf, eu shi kam 
Bpon d«s ibe draqkt'n tjap wot shii)z got maes/d tw. 

9. shi swjJbb shi kEtjt aV aen ?'m BEsaa'f lee - m aaI loq du grewn «'n 
«z bEst kwout, tides Bg - /n de dwBK e)de hews, Bt dB fafidBE iind b 
daet 6be rftBd. 

10. ii wbz kasEt'jm on, sez shii, fBB aaI dB wald la'tk b aempBBi 
tja'il, be b ltt'l gael wot)s bin opsEt. 

11. d/s jbb haept wa'«'l d)wmen Bn be daa'tBEmlaa kam tressm 
kraes de baek jasd, weBB dee)d bm haeqm ewt dB tloBZ tB draV on 
woslrm daY, 

12. wa'«'l dB kEt'l wbz vbafi-im feB tii, wan bwwtifttl sames 
aeaetBBnuun, warn b wiik baek kam thazd*. 

13. aen, bBhoo-ldji ! ■di nEVBE tead taal noo m6BB b daet «be djob, 
bz shuBE bz ma'u' niBmz :djaek :shEpBEd, Bn, BnadBE tWq, a'* dtisnt 
wont t« it, deBE new ! 

14. new a'»)l n«p AAf woBm tB sapaE. waa, gud naVt, b Bna'dBB 
ta'*m, w«h b tjaep g«hz taak b d*'s, daet, be t)adhBE, duBnt)i bii in 
s*'tj b toEb'l Em BV B OB* tB kaes* dB SWiM. 

15. »'t)s b tosb'l sili tjaep wot kiips aaI on tjaetBBih Bbe«t Avot a'« 
kAAl raendem. sen new a'«i shae'nt see nB m&BB. gud na^'t. 



Notes. 



2. terrible, the common intensive 
adj . or adv. — on account of, the first and 
last words omitted. — din is within, 
which first assumes the form (udt-n), 
the (wdhrn) of He. 

3. whisht, as 'thewild waves whisht,' 
Temp. 1, 2, 378. 

5. directly minute, immediately, 
common phrase in the district. — 
though it was so terrible queer, and 
ring-y like, and like a ring, and 
he)ll telt)ye the truth, without any 
romancing any day, romancing; the 
people are fond of long romance words 
in this dialect. Observe (sai, dai). 
Mr. Harris also gave (sai) for Stoke, 
calling it Greek oi. 

7. She hadn't ought [ought not] to 
be far out about this here job, [do you)] 
think)she had. The first had without, 
the second with the aspirate. 

8. drunken (draqkin) is drunking, 
that is, playing the drunken man, not 
drunken itself. 

9. further end, certainly the (d) 



must have been assimilated to the two 

(it) as (faRDBE). 

10. ampery, a common word in this 
district, as applied to cheese, mouldy, 
decayed ; to people, weak, bad, sickly. 
Lewis in his Tenet (Thanet) refers to 
Ags. ampre (not in Etmiiller), which 
Bosworth cites from the Liber Medicin- 
alis of Baldus, and explains as ' a 
crooked swelling vein, an herb, sweet 
marjoram, feverfew ; ' others conceive 
it may be the French empire, worsened. 

1 1 . tracing across, tracking, walking, 
across, a phrase actually heard. 

12. only, the word used may, how- 
ever, be-one-y, which must have the 
same meaning. 

13. behold ye! a common phrase for 
'look there.' 

14. dont)ye be in such a terrible hetn 
[devil] of a hurry to carry the sway 
[victory], hem is clearly a euphemism 
for devil, deuce, devilish, damn, dam- 
nation, etc., i.e. exceedingly, it is very 
[or ' hem '] common in this district. 



[ 1570 1 



D 9, V ii.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 139 



Faversham Phrases from diet, of H.K.-H., Esq. 

1. (a'» shael noo dm ra Kt'l, ii a'i kiip gw/n), I shall know within 

a little [soon], if I keep going. 

2. (noo fARm rat aaI), no form at all, common expression, the 

meaning of which was unfortunately not noted. 

3. (ool rEn'ldz), old reynard, (poop), Guy Fawkes. 

4. (d)ool antjmran), the old huntsman. 

5. (gu "sen, w«dj)« !), go - on, will you ! 

6. (war wops prEdrantb), beware of wasp presently. 

7. (thrii jfraRn aafoaz), three-year-old heifers. 

8. (tu draqk), to go about as a drunken man. 

9. (faRnral la'«'z), infernal lies, the first unaccented syllable of a 

word is frequently omitted. 

10. (saf <n ra daet, nathen rat aaI), something of that, nothing at all. 

11. (wani wans), only once, (teVm ran ragE-n), time and again, many 

times. 

12. (i'br stopBR), fox-earth stopper. 

13. (jj'steRdee ran tadhraRdee), yesterday and the other day, i.e. day 

before yesterday. 

14. (i eeat noo kewnt t)AAl), he isn't no account at all, i.e. he is of 

no importance. 

15. (moost dewtedh' duubraas), most (un-)doubtedly dubious. 

16. (*'z eed iz daet eed'l), his head is that [so much] addled. 

17. (w8Rk*n baV griit), working by the piece. 

18. (w*'k«t fsR wasket, trtk en ta'i), each = tit for tat. 

19. (doran ju i'ntraRapt saaf), don't you interfere with self. 

20. (di«R aat ela'«v, srtj ra ti'km), dear heart alive, such a ticking. 

2 1 . (taster ran sksed'l), cross and mischievous. 

22. (j't)s tow, 'sH t«k AAf), it's true I took off =went away. 

23. (neu ran dEn, neu ran tEn), now and then. 

24. («'t)s pr/nt muun la'j't), it's print moon-light, i.e. sufficient to 

read print in. 



Faversham cwl. 

pal. by AJE. from diet, of Herbert Knatchbull-Hugessen, Esq., containing 
almost all tie wd. in the cs. and also many others separately dictated. 

I. "Wessex and Norse. 

A- 4 teuk. 5 me«kmlek. — krisd'l [cradle]. — weBk [wake]. 17 Iaa 
\aa. 19 ted. 21 ni«m. 28 heea. — war [beware of ]. 34 lsesest. 

A: 39 [(kam) used]. 43 haen. 44 lsen. 49 hseq. — ksesent [cannot]. 
64 want. 55 ecsh. 56 wosh. A: or 0: 58 from. 60 loq. 64 rooq. 

A'- 67 gu, gwin [going]. 72 uu. 73 soo. 74 to. 76 tued. 82 wans. 
84 m6eit mGBR. 89 b6Bth. 92 noo, nood [knowed=knew]. 94 kroo. 
A': 102 aast [in infinitive also], 104 r(red. 106 brAAd. — drav [I drove]. 
Ill AAt. 113 d)6ri [the whole]. 115 wobui. 117 wan. 118 bten. 120 
Bguu. 122 noon, noo. 123 natural. 124 stann. 125 ooni, wani. 129 guBst. 
130 bo«t bust. 137 nsR [unempbatic]. 

C 1571 ] 



140 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V ii. 

_ M- 138 faadeR. 140 ee'l. 143 teBl tial. 144 Bgi-n. 147 breen. 148 
few. — Bmet [ant]. 149 blaze. — hiiz'l [hazel]. 150 liistweez [leastwise]. 
JE: 154 bask. — haed'nt [had not], hsed, aed [had]. 158 seseteR. 161 dai. 
164 mee. 166 meed. 169 wEn. — wops [wasp]. 171 baRli. 172 graeaes. 
173 wos. 176 aet. 177 daet. 179 wot. 

&'- 187 leave. 182 wee. 190 key. 194 Eni. 195 mEni. M': — 
sprEd [it spread]. 209 iibvbr. 211 gree. 213 edhBR. 214 nedhBR. — 
miil [meal, food]. 218 ship. 220 shEpBRd [the common word is (ImIcbb), the 
other scarcely ever heard]. 222 Mbr. 223 dewt. 224 weBR wibr. 229 brsth. 

E- 232 briik. 233 spiik. 234 knead. — trad [tread]. 239 sW. 241 
rim. 243 plee [occ. (plai) in the pause]. 244 waa waal. 245 mial. — 
hiilin [bedclothes, i.e. covering]. 248 mare. 249 wIbr. — wiiz'l [weasel]. 
252 kEt'l. 255 wecUibr [never heard with a (d)]. E: — wsb [web]. 259 
wedge. 260 lee [as a hen eggs], lee - in [laying for lying]. 261 sai, sez [says]. 

— f il [field]. 269 saaf. 271 taa, taal, tElin [tell, telling]. 276 thiqk. — iind 
[end]. 281 binth. 282 strEnth. — nEstenEstiz [nest nests]. — set [set]. — 
DEst [best] 

E'- 290 ii. 293 wi. 300 kiip, tap [kept]. 301 Ibr. E': 305 high. 
306 height. 312 *'br. 314 i«Ed. 

EA- 320 k&m. EA: 322 lseaef . 323 fewt. 325 walk. 326 oold. 328 
kteld. 330 AAld. 331 sw6ald. 332 tuold. 335 aaI. 337 wall. 338 koal. 

— solt. — bi«Rd. 340 ja»d. 342 arm. 343 WAEm, — iBRn [to earn 
346 gist geet [first most frequent]. EA'- 347 eed. — aafBRz [heifers 
348 a'i. 349 few. EA: 350 deed. 355 deaf [not (dsth) as in e.Ss.]. 
356 leaf. 357 doo. 359 neebERWwd [neighbourhood]. — biip [heap]. 364 
tjaep. — «'br [year]. 366 griit. 367 thrEt. 368 dEth. 

EI- 372 [age is not used, but is replaced by yes]. 373 dee. EI: 378 wiik. 
380 dem, dBitsaa-vz [their = themselves]. 

EO- 386 loo. 387 nuu. EO: 390 shwd. — doak [dark]. 397 SKBRd. 
399 foRm [farm]. 402 loRn. 403 fas. 406 Ibr stopBR [fox earth-stopper]. 
407 fand'n. EO'- — flii [flea]. — mi [knee]. — frit [free]. 411 thru. 
412 shi. 416 diBR. — ■ tjara [choose]. EO': 422 (sik) [usual word for 
unwell, not used for vomited, which is called (brju.t up)]. 430 rrin [when used, 
rarely]. 433 breast 435 ju. 436 to?. 437 triuth. EY- 431 da'i. 
EY: 439 trast. 

I- 440 wiik. 446 na'in. 449 git. I: 453 kwik. 456 ef. 457 ua'it. 
459 ra'it. 463 til. 465 sitj. 466 tja'il. 482 iz. 483 izsaa-f ^=1^8611], 
484 dis. 485 thistle. 487 jistBRdee. — gra'ist [grist]. 488 got [got, past 
tense]. 489 it. I'- 494 ta'im. 495 wa'in. I': — diik [ditch, dyke], 
500 lo'iklo'ikli [likely]. 506 mwen. 509 wa'il. 510 ma'in. 

O- 519 oovbr. 522 ap'n. — sn&BR [snore]. 524 wald. O: 525 AAf 
[off]. 531 daatBRinlaa. 532 koBl. 541 woont. — kwolt [colt]. 543 on, 
onset [onset, beginning], sen [for of as well as Ms]. 550 woRd. 551 stARin. 552 
kARn. — mARnin [morning]. 554 kraes. O'- 559 madBR. 562 muun. 

564 san. 566 BnadBR [another]. 567 t)adhBR. O': 571 g«d. — ruuf 

[roofl. 579 Bna'w. 584 stuBl. 586 duudisnt [don't]. 687 dan. 588 mmn. 
590 fliiBR. 592 swwbr. 597 sat. 

TJ- 604 samBR. 605 son. 606 duoa. U: 610 «1. 612 sam, safin 
[something]. — tamh'l [tumble]. 613 draqkin [drunking, acting the drunken 
man]. 616 grewn. 618 we»nd [n. and p.p.] zSwndz [God's wounds]. 625 toq. 
627 sandi. 629 sun. — antrnren [huntsman]. 631 thazdi. 634 thru. 636 
fondBR. V- 641 e», eajevBR [however]. 643 v&u. 650 be»t. U': 663 
hews. 666 azben. 667 eat. 

Y- 674 did [emphatic]. 675 dra'i. 681 bizinis [in three syllables]. 682 
lit'l. Y: 692 jaqgest. 694 waRkin [working]. 695 aRk. 701 feRst. 702 
din [within], deut [without]. Y- 706 wa'i. Y': 712 miis. 

n. English. 

A. 716 eed'l. 718 tresd. — tjaet [chat]. 737 miBt. 741 mane. — 
swai [sway]. 742 liBzi. E. 751 pe«Rt [recovered from sickness]. 
I. and Y. — wip [whip]. 758 gsel. — wist [whisht, quiet]. O. 761 

[ 1572 ] 



D 9, V ii, iii.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 141 

laud. — djob [job]. 767 ndaiz. 774 pwani. 776 gwdba'i. — spiluRt 
[sport]. — havBR [technical word in hopping, shaking up the measure to make 
it look larger]. 721 bo'i. TJ. 796 bto. 798 kwiBR. — 9R» [hurry]. 

— rwsht [to rush, like 105 (aast), the past tense made an infinitive]. 

m. Romance. 

A- 810 fees. — tress [trace, track]. 812 tu less [to lace, beat, drub]. 

— kstrt [catched, for caught]. — peul piBl [pail]. — pee [pay]. 824 tjenR. 

— feel [fail]. — ■ trim, tjeen [chain]. — eBR [air]. 833 peBR. 835 riiz'n. 

— peBl [pale]. 843 braeamti [not used]. — meendjBR. 849 str&mdjeR 
[common word]. 851 sesent. — montjBnt [merchant]. — m%Ri [marry]. 
857 kess [often used]. — paeses [pass]. 862 seaf. 

E-- 867 tii. — riil[real]. — kritBR [creature]. 870 bttutiiul. 874 riinz 

E reins]. — • skiim [scheme, very common]. — plsnti [plenty]. — • WEntBRSBm 
venturesome]. 885 wer* [not much used, supplanted by (toRb'l) terrible" 

— 9Rb [herb]. — klaRk [clerk]. — teRb'l [terrible]. — msesiful [merciful 

— kBnsaRn [concern]. — faRm [firm]. 888 saRtin. — • rEzslBt [courageous j 

— disBbel [dishabille, used commonly for any confusion or litter]. 890 biist. 
891 feast. I-. and Y- 910 dja'istiz [joists]. 

0-- 919 a'intmBnt. — dja'in [join]. 925 wo'is. — kewnt [account]. 
930 la'in. — stuBR [store]. 938 kAARnBR. 939 tloBS. — roBst [roast]. 
940 kwoBt. 941 fuul foUshJfoolisb]. — trab'l [trouble]. 942 batjBR. 947 
bsc'il. 950 sapBR. 955 de«t. U- 965 a'il. 969 shuBR. — hoflt 

[hurt]. 970 djest. 

Usages, cent bemt. (es) falls much into (1b), thou never used. 

Vae. iii. East Kent Foem. 

The Isle of Thanet has had its dialect nearly obliterated. Mr. 
Basil Hodges, of Vincent, Margate, to whom I was recommended 
as likely to know, said that d for th was unknown, though he had 
heard it from an old man who came from another part of the 
county. But (miis) mice shewed a remnant of dialect as well as 
weal, wiolet, He, bile, I adopt his spelling, for veal, violet, oil, boil. 
Miss Peckham, a student of Whitelands, who had been at a school 
at St. Nicholas, Margate, did not know d for th, or w for v, nor 
recognise (e), and found the h omitted only by old people and not 
so often wrongly inserted. Her r followed London use, even to its 
euphonic insertion. But she used (o'i) for long f, except in (His, 
miis) for lice, mice. XT' gave (6m), and O' had (iu) in (spiun, aattraiun, 
biuts) spoon, afternoon, boots, to which (tiu) two was assimilated, 
being confused with (too). Such words as I could get from her 
are in the e.Ke. cwl. Rev. R. Drake of Stourmouth Rectory, just 
w. of the river which bounds the Isle of Thanet, says he has never 
met with so little dialect. He admits w for v and finds it so general 
that " children taught to speak correctly are laughed at by their 
elders." Though he had been 38 years in the locality, the only 
dialectal words he could remember were (diik) for dyke, and (wseps) 
for wasp. He had not heard lore half a dozen times, and never / be. 
He notices atn£=isn't, and lease= glean, and the common use of 
terrible = very. Mr. Toomer sent me a lw. for e.Ke. and Thanet, 
which are inserted in the e.Ke. cwl. p. 144. We may pretty well 
omit ne.Ke. from dialectal regions, though there is still just enough 
left to shew that it once resembled the rest of Ke. 

[ 1573 ] 



142 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V iii. 

The next region of e.Ke. consists of the Highlands east of Canter- 
bury, of which the following dt. gives a good idea. The words are 
added to the e.Ke. cwl. p. 144. 

"WlNGHAM dt. 

6 e. Canterbury, representing the Highlands of e.Ke., Adisham (6 se.Canterbury), 
Nbnington (7 se.Cant.), Chittenden (8 se.C), Womenswold (7 se.-by-s.C), 
Sibertswold (9 se.C), Goodneston (7 e.-by-s.C.),and Kearsney (3 nw.Dover) 
by Rev. F. W. Ragg, who when it was written was vicar of Ratling with 
wingham, and became subsequently vicar of Marsworth, Tring, pal. by AJE. 
from indications and answers to questions. 

1. sdou bi saV, meBts, jew sii new d«t bi aaE Bo«it beut da3t b'd'l 
[U'lh] gsel kamm from dB sku«l randBE. 

2. shii)z goVwi dewn dB roBd dees, thru dra rEd geBt on de lEft 
send so«d bv dra wa*. 

3. shuss naf dB ga3l bz go'Bn stra»t ap tB da does bv da roq hews. 

4. wibe shi b1 bi 16«'k to forad daet dreaqkran dEf sr«VBld fals 
bv dB neBm bv :tomBS. 

5. wi aal u6ou «m wee* weI. 

6. woBnt dB oo\ tjaep siun lasn be not tew dew it Bgin, puBE tibiq! 

7. lwk)i «'z'n it triu ? 

Notes. 

1. I, "somewhat resembling (o'i) 6. to do, written ieoo deoo, which 

and differing from (ai)," this points to might have been meant for (tiu dm), as 

(6t) or (a'i). I have selected (6») I got tew from Denton (7 nw.Dover), 

because of the Faversham (o'i). — are, and hence within the district, from Rev. 

"the r is full, a good burr, and has its C.J. Hussey, who says, "In the hymns 

usual effect on the a," this pointe to the tew for to strikes my ear, I have 

the (e), lost in Thanet but retained in noticed it more in singing than in speak - 

these highlands. I are, rhyming to ing." But Mr. Ragg says, "Theeoo 

fire (bi'SR, forat), is the regular form, / is like a very short ou in you, about, 

am is sometimes used, I be very seldom howse," and that is explained to be the 

if ever. — "liddle almost li'l with a e and w in the Welsh Bettws, and hence 

rough breathing before the I," which I (e«) or (e'w). But I believe the sound 

interpret (lid'l, lilh), though the latter degenerates into some variety of (y, si), 

is very strange, still I have Hie till given see Faversham, and may have been 

mebyothers. — yonder, "Iamnotquite originally merely (<b'u), which is apt to 

sure of yende, whether the r is sounded generate all these sounds, 
at all, but the e has the modification 
which the r would give it as nearly as 
"»le." 



Folkestone. 

The Folkestone fishermen are credited with a dialect of their own. 
So far as pron. is concerned, that is not the case. Mr. E Stead, to 
whom I am otherwise much indebted, being master of the Folkestone 
Grammar School in 1880, I asked his assistance. The will of the 
founder of the school provides for the instruction of sons of poor 
fishermen, and there are generally six or eight boys there from the 
houses of genuine working fishermen ; and these boys are said to 
speak the dialect as well as their fathers. By observations on 
these boys Mr. Stead wrote me the following dt. in Glossic, and 

[ 1574 ] 



D 9, Yiii.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 143 

supplemented it by several observations. Mr. Fynmore says : 
" The fishermen of Folkestone, I understand, are persistent in tbe 
transposition of v for u>, and are called old Vills. Tbey talk quick 
about vat for what, veil, vant, valk, etc , etc." Mr. Stead says : 
" I can't hear that anybody knows the fishermen by the name of 
'old Vills.' I have to-day been listening to the pronunciation of 
two or three new fisherboys we have, and I can't hear anything 
but was, we, were, wat=what, etc." But in P.S. he adds, " I 
have just had communication with a man well acquainted with the 
town. He tells me that ' Folkestone fishermen are almost uni- 
versally credited with the use of v for w,' but he thinks they don't 
' do it so often as is made out.' Nevertheless, he says you will no 
doubt ' now and then hear siting (= whiting), Fellard (= Wellard, 
a local tobacconist), etc' Hence, while v for w may occasionally 
occur, it must be rare at least at present, and must be considered 
still to want satisfactory proof. On the other hand, w for v is the 
rule, or, as Mr. Stead says, " very largely if not universally used 
by the fisherfolk in Folkestone, as in vessel, November, TFesta (= 
Vesta, name of a fishing-boat), walue, etc." 

On the other band, d for th does not seem to be heard among 
them, but the reverted (b) was distinctly recognised, although it is not 
unfrequently omitted to his ears. Not having heard these speakers 
myself, I do not venture to write (b) initial or to assimilate (t d n) 
to (b) as (t b n). But I feel tolerably sure that all are used, 
especially as (l) is particularly recognised. Mr. Stead says he never 
heard the final reverted (l) so decidedly as among these speakers. 
" Thus, Bill is (brai,), or often (beei,), help = (erp), etc." He finds, 
also, the long 0' and its cognates have developed not merely into 
(iu), but (yy), or an approximation to it, and writes (jy, skyyl, 
thryy, shyyeB, ty, syyn, dyy, lyk, tryy), for you, school, through, 
sure, to, soon, do, look, true. Most probably the (yy) is not fully 
reached, and, as remarked under Faversham, the real sound may be 
(«'u). The long I' he finds most like (pi), as at "Wingham, and 
the long U' is (ew). 

Folkestone Fishermen dt. 
written in Glossic by R. Stead, Esq., pal. by AJE. 

1 . s6ou 6i sai, maH'ts, jy sii new dhet 6«)m ro*'t Bbeat dhet 1*Vl 
gjaRL, komih from dhu skyyx jandm. 

2. shii)z goou-in de«n dire rdowd dheiv thryy dbB red gaVt an 
dhe left end s6*d ov dire wa.i. 

3. shyy'wR eno - f dh« tjoMLD [tj«OLn] bz gAAn strait op ty dhB 
dooMBB ov dbB r«q [raq] ews. 

4. we«B shi wi'bl tjaans ty foind [shi'L preps kam ukraa's] dhet 
droqken def skm» tjep ov dire na^'m ov :tames [itanres]. 

5. wi aai ndou »m wea - * weBi. 

6. wooMnt dbB oold tjep syyn tiitj bb nat ty dyy it Bgain, puuB 
th*q! 

7. lyk! iz'nt*'ttryy? 

[ 1675 ] 



144 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V iii. 



Notes. 

2. there, as well as where, fair, pare, 4. she'll perhaps come across, is 

wear, have the triphthong (eiu), as probably the phrase that would be 
(dhetB, weiB, feiu, pere, weiB). used. 

The following cwl. collects tie e.Ke. words. The 8. dial, has 
here decayed as much as possible, and has received strictly E. 
elements, which entirely extinguish the S. as we proceed n. The 
ES. group is therefore a transition between S. and E., but different 
from D 7. 

East Kent cwl. 

F Folkestone fishermen's dialect, from Mr. Stead, p. 142. 

N St. Nicholas, Margate, from Miss Peckham, p. 141. 

T lw. sent by Mr. Toomer for in and about Isle of Thanet, known by him to have 
been used in e.Ke. Although a young man in 1871, he had noticed many 
changes in his time. Conj. pal. by AJE. from io. He apparently uses r as 
in London ar or ur = (aa aa oo), for he writes dorg [dAAg] for dog. 

"W "Wingham, the words from Rev.' F. "W. Eagg's e.Ke. Highlands, p. 142. 

Eec. spelling and italics denote rec. pron. 

I. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 4 N tee [very long, approaching (teeB)]. 12 N saab [with euphonic r 
before a vowel]. 20 N letsm. 21 W neran, F na'im. 23 N seism. 24 K 
shecm. 29 W aan. br. 33 N reedhu [occ.]. 36 N thaw [with inserted 
euphonic r]. A: 42 end. 43 "W send. 55 T ishez. A: or 0: 58 WF 
from. 64 "W roq, F raq raq. A'- 67 "W goo'in, N [rec. pr.], F goo«-«n. 

69 N no. 73 WF soou, N so. 74 N tiu. 76 N totsd. 84 N moen 
[more than]. 86 N outs. 92 F noou. 94 Whom. A': 101 N oak. 104 
roed, F roowd. 110 W not, F nat. 121 "W go'un, F gAAn. 

M- 140 N [140-147 rec. pron.]. 142 T snEg. 144 "W Bgi-n, Fsgai-n. 153 
N sEtsdi. — T pwti [pretty]. M: — T weeps wops fwasp]. 174 T ish. 
177 "W dBt [unemphatic], d*t [emphatic]. M'- 183 Ftiiti. 190 N keg. 
M: 218 T ship. 223 "W degK, F dheiB, N there. 224 W wIbr, T weiB. 

E- 231 "W dB [week]. 233 N speak. 235 N weave. 236 N fever. 251 
N meat. 252 N kit'l. E: 261 "WF ski. 262 "WF wai [in pause (was)]. 
265 "WF strait. 266 "W weI, F wcbl. 272 T Elsm. 278 N [never heard]. 

— T iinz [ends]. — T mEsh [marsh]. E'- 293 F wi. 297 "W fElB. 
E': 314 N iBBd. 

EA- 319 N gape. EA: 323 N fought. 324 N eight. 326 "W ool, N 
ood, F oold. 330 T 6ou\, N ood. 335 "W aal, F aal. 346 T gest, N gate, 
F ga'it. EA': 352 "WF rad. 355 "WF dEf. 364 "W tjeep, F tjep. 371 T 
straa. EI: 378 N weak. 

EO: 388 T nuslk: 394 "W jandBR [? final (r) absent], F jandBR. 402 "W 
aRn. EO'- 412 "WF shii. — T kloivB [cleaver]. 413 N div'l. EO': 428 
"WF sii. 435 "W leu, F jy. 436 "W triu, F tryy. EY- 438 N die. 

I- 442 N o'ivi. 446 N no'in. — T shiiBZ [shires, applied to the Midland 
counties]. I: 452 T 6i [see note to dt.], F 6i. 459 "WF r6it, N ro'it. 462 
N so' it. 465 K sitj. 466 F ti6iij> tj««LD. 469 wiw.. 477 "WF f6ind, N 
fo'ind. 479 N wo'in. 480 "WF thiq. I'- 490 N bo'i. 492 "WF s6id. 

1': — T diik da'ik [ditch]. 500 "W 16ik. 607 N timm [old people]. 

O- 522 N ap'n. O: 525 F »v. 541 "W wo'Bnt, F w6o«nt. 543 "W on. 

— T faak [fork]. — T as [horse]. 554 ekraa-s [across]. — T p«Bst po'Bstez 
[post posts]. O'- 556 ¥fc,r ty. 558 W lwk, F lyk. 560 "W skfol, 
F skyyx. 564 "W siun, F syyn. O': 579 "W naf, F Bnof. 586 "W dea, F 
dyy. 589 N spiun. 594 N Mute. 597 TN sat. 

[ 1576 ] 



D 9, 10.] THE EAST AND WEST SOUTHERN. 145 

TT- 603 "W karnin, F kormn. 606 W d6sR, F dooms.. V: 632 W ap, 
F op. 634 W thru, F thryy. V- 640 J5T keu. 643 "WF new. 650 WF 

bewt. XT': 658 WF de«n. 663 W hews, F e«s. 

Y- 682 W lid'l lflh, F lit'L. Y: 700 T was wasB [worser], N was. 

701 TN fast. Y': 711 5T His. 712 N miis. 

ii. English. 

A. 722 T driin. — preps [perhaps]. 737 T meets, F ma'its. E. 749 

WF left. I. and Y. 758 W gsel, F gioRi,. 760 W srivuld. O. 770 

W :tom«s, F :t«m«s .-tanves. U. 804 W drooqkBn, F droqkBn. 808 T pat. 

III. Komauce. 

A-- 841 Ftjaans. — T kaa [carry, or (ka«) ?]. 864 T koz. 866 W 
P&br, F puus, N poo*. E- 867 N tea. 885 TWFwet*. — T teob'l 
[terrible]. O- 916 T iqea. — T fodi [forge]. TJ-- 965 T o'it. 969 



W shueR, F shyy'BR, T siuBla'i- [surely]. — T haat [hurt]. 
T usages, he didn't (hadn't shouldn't) ought, Miss for Mrs. — N 



usage, I are. 



D 10, 11, 12 form the WS. or west Southern Group. 

Boundaries. The e. b. is the w. b. of MS. and the other boundaries 
are formed by the Bristol and English Channels. 

Area. The w. portion of 8m. , all but the extreme sw. of Dv. , all Co. 
and the Scilly Isles. This represents comparatively recent, and in 
■w.Co. very recent, overrunning of a Celtic language (Cornish or 
"West Welsh) by English. In D 12, w.Co. and Scilly, a true 
dialect has apparently never been formed. 

Character. Besides the general S. character with the (k) very 
strongly developed in the e. but gradually weakening on going w. 
(till in D 12 the received r is perhaps quite established), there is 
also the striking change of O' into (yyi), closely resembling Fr. (y), 
which sharply limits this group towards the e. 



D 10 = n.WS. = northern "West Southern. 

Boundary. Taken from Mr. Elworthy's information. The n. h. is the n. coast 
of Sm., w. of e.Quantockshead (14 nnw.Taunton) . The w. and s. b. begins at 
Comtisbury (14 ene.Ilfracombe Dv. and 2 e.Linton Dv.), and proceeds nearly s. 
along an affluent of the Lynn E-, to Exe Head Hill, Sm., where the affluent rises 
(14 ese.Ilfracombe). Then passing the head of the Barle R. proceeds to Span 
Head on the b. of Sm. (14 se.Ilfracombe), then se. to North Molton Eidge (14 
e. Barnstaple), and still se. over Molland Down, Anstey's Barrow and Anstey's 
Hill (all on the watershed at the b. of Sm.), and then turning s. along the high 

f round to just s. of Tiverton (where it crosses the Exe), of Collumpton (6 ese. 
iverton, and of Kentisbeare (7 ese. Tiverton), and then turning ne. to join the w. 
b. of D 4 about Otterford (7 s.Taunton), after which the e. b. is identical with 
the w. b. of D 4 from n. to the sea. 

Area. The w. of Sm. with a small portion of ne.Dv. 
Authorities. See County List under the following names, where * means w. 
per AJE., || systematic, ° in io. 

Sm. *Bishop's Hull, "Milverton, "Taunton, *Wellington. 
Dv. ||*Morebath. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1577 ] 101 



146 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 10. 

Characters. A- (6b). A: (», a 1 ). A'-, A': (£b, 6b). AEG. (a*). 
M' (ee) and various. EG (a*). E (e). EL (ml). I: often (a 1 ). 
I' (&H). 0' (yy 1( m). U (a, a). TJ' (e'«). 

Of these the most important are the diphthongs for I', TJ'. They 
are hoth quite different from those of D 4. Mr. Elworthy originally 
appeared to me to make two forms (aV, a'«) for I', but on the last 
examination I did not find the separation certain, and the question 
■was which of the two I should adopt. "With some hesitation 
I selected (a 1 *), which is transitional to (a*), the Dv. form. This 
was, however, kept distinct from (a»), in which the first element 
was decidedly longer and lower than in (a 1 *). The (e'w) form of 
U' was very marked, hut did not fall into (ae'w) as in Nf. It is 
quite distinct from the Dv. (ao'y,), so that it forms another mark of 
separation between D 10 and D 11. 

The vowels (a 1 , jy u 99,) sharply distinguish the dialect from D 4. 
They are very difficult even to appreciate. The (a 1 ) may be 
considered as (a) raised towards (i), or (i) degraded towards (e). 
Strangers may be content with considering it as (*'). Before (1) it 
seems to be absorbed by the murmur, so that (ma'lk, sa'lk) differ 
little from (m'lk, s'lk). Dr. Murray (Elworthy, Gram. "West Sm. 
p. 113) considers the last to be the exact sound. "When I so pro- 
nounced the words, Mr. E. said I was wrong. Neither was the 
word (malk). I had imagined that perhaps (m'i.k) might be right, 
but Mr. E. says he uses (J.) with the tip of the tongue thoroughly 
against the teeth. I must consider that the correct analysis of this 
vowel sound has not been reached. It is strangely affected by 
adjacent consonants. In listening in 1885 to the list of 30 words in 
Mr. Elworthy's Dialect of "West Sm., p. 58, which I had drawn up 
in 1875, I found the same separation into three parts, resembling 
(*', 9, u), in all of which Mr. Elworthy and natives reckon only one 
vowel, except in milk, silk, where they seem to recognise no vowel 
at all besides the vowel I. The sound occurs chiefly for EO, I. 

The vowels (yy! y n 99, 9,) are quite as difficult to utter, but 
easier to recognise. They are usually both called "Erench u," 
but they decidedly reminded me of (y, ») or Fr. pu, peu, from which, 
however, they were clearly distinct, and apparently ' lowered.' To 
say (tyy! bwjts) two boots, is a most diflicult problem to a stranger, 
and one he is not very likely to solve. 

Judging from JGG.'s experience at Chippenham, "WL, p. 51, I 
anticipated finding the whole series (t d n l b sh zh tj dj) in this 
region also. So far as Mr. Elworthy's pronunciation is concerned, 
this was not the case, as (b) was clear, even when initial, but the 
other sounds seem to occur only when adjacent to (r), as (aani) 
ridge. "When there was merely the separation of two words, as 
(bk da'd) she did, the (b) does not seem to affect the following 
letter. "When (d) comes before (it), the most natural thing is to say 
(db-) ; but Mr. E. says he feels the tip of the tongue slide along the 
palate from the (d) to the (b) position. On going through the 
points touched by the palate for (b t d n 1) in his pronunciation, 
(r) was fully reverted and the under part of the tip touched the 

[ 1578 ] 



D 10.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 147 

highest part of the palate, for (t, d) the contact lay between that 
and the gums, but nearer to the former, for (n) the contact was on 
the gums, and for (1) on the teeth. This makes the series (b, t d, 
^n, Ji), Now Mr. E.'s pronunciation seems to be perfect, and he is 
really a native, but it is difficult to believe that the peasant himself 
mates these elaborate distinctions. The sounds uttered by Mr. E. 
appeared to me to be the same as I produced by using reverted 
(s, r d, n, l). In particular with (J) I could not in the least 
produce his effects, but with (l) I seemed to reach them. I have 
thought it prudent, however, to retain (t d, n 1) with their usual 
coronal values, except when they were acknowledged to become 
(t d n i) on account of the adjacency of (it). It must be remembered 
that the distinction (t t, d d) is very slight, and the generation of 
the peculiar English (t, d) as distinct from the foreign ( t v d) was 
probably entirely due to converting reverted (e) into retracted (r,), 
a confusion even now going on. But the existence of alveolar ( t n) 
and purely dental (1) seems an entire anomaly in England. Yet 
it was not new at Mr. Elworthy's last interview with me on 4 Nov. 
1885, for I find the same thing noted from him on 22 Nov. 1880, 
thus in filth (fo^th) the (1) and (th) were noted as having precisely 
the same position. Another peculiarity of Mr. E.'s pronunciation 
was the word potatoes, which Mr. E. considered he pronounced 
(tmrBdiz), whereas Dr. Murray, Mr. Sweet, and myself heard an 
(r) in place of (d), to my ears the word was (teeriz). As to I, Dr. 
Murray (in Mr. E.'s Oram, of W. Sm., p. 112) says, "lis also often 
guttural, and this is the apparent peculiarity of " such words as 
bull, pull, full, school, wool, tool, stool, and written (b^l, p^l, 
wj, sh^l, » t l, foil, stod), etc. On asking Dr. M. in 1885 what 
he had meant by "guttural /," properly (T), he was unable to 
remember, and thought that possibly guttural should have been 
retracted, which is more likely. 

In 1875 I had drawn up the lists of vowels with examples in Mr. 
Elworthy's Dial, of W. Sm. from his dictation. Not to be swayed 
by these, I extracted a large number of them, and made them into 
the following cwl., and then Mr. E. was kind enough to pronounce 
every word to me afresh. My impressions were slightly different, 
but almost the same. This hist which follows gives the full 
characteristics of the dial, to the best of my powers of observation. 
The sounds (y! » v a 1 ) were distinctly recognised, as different from 
(y » a), although I failed in imitating and cannot analyse them. 
The (t d n 1) are left as in rs., because, as already stated, I cannot 
either adopt Mr. E.'s distinctions, or make them always reverted. 
This is followed by the cs. and some examples from the grammar, 
while the translation of the first chap, of Ruth will be given with the 
L. and Ch. versions in the Introduction to L., as it was especially 
written for this contrast. All of these were revised from diet, in Nov. 
1885. Mr. Elworthy's papers already cited have been supplemented 
by his elaborate Glossary, pp. 924, full of interesting matter. His 
power of imitating peasant speech is most remarkable. His kindness 
and patience in giving me information are gratefully acknowledged. 

[ 1579 ] 



148 THE WEST SOUTHERN, [D 10, 

West Someeset cs. 

pal. by AJE. from diet, of F. T. Elworthy, Esq., Foxdown, Wellington, Sm., 
revised from diet. 27 Oct. and 4 Not. 1885, with a slavishly literal inter- 
linear translation. 

0. e'm t)«#z in)s :djam aa)n ragAA'tffc noo dE'wtiaz la l «k. 
how it)is even)as John has)not got no doubtings like. 

1. wal, faanniBE :aETjet, aV tal)e aat t)««z. jyj! vox ii, buudh o)i, 
wel, farmer Kichard, I tell)thee what it)is. You and he, both of )ye, 

m«d laafl bE'wt dhrBzh)«B stdovE u ma'tn. jji da kiBB toe dha't ? 
may laugh-y about this)here story of mine, who does care for that ? 

t)Ed)'n no Adz nadhuR wail wee n«B t)adh«E. 
it)is)not no odds neither one way nor that)other. 

2. dhaE «'d)'n vasi mani m«<m. dhist d« da 1 *' vBskeVz dhe H ulaa'ft o, 
there is)not very many men that do die for-cause they be laughed of, 

wii dyi noo dha't doo)n) is ? wAAt a'z) be vaE te meBk)«m dyyi)i3t ? 
we do know that do)not us ? what is)there for to make)them do it ? 

t)Ed)'n vEEi MVk 8*z 8 J t ? 
it)is)not very like, is it ? 

3. E'wsamdeVBB dha 1 sli)jaT)z dhi? daps o)dhB kies, zoo dhii dps 
howsoever this)here)is the daps [turns] of )the case, so thee just 

sta'p dhii Eat'l, del Mint, nn baH'd stM gin &H)v ■efa'-ns'sh. 
stop thy rattle, old fellow, and abide still against I)have finished. 

n&u auk, •wa 1 l)i? 
Now hark, will)thee ? 

4. a 1 *' bi saaBtwi shteB a4 jaEi>) vm zee — zam v dhee dhaE voks 
I be certain sure I heard)them say — some of they there folks 

wAt w««nt Ee'et vobe dEyji it aa'bI vboti dhi vasi fas db.i3B)oon 
what went right fore through it all, from the very first their) own 

zalz, dha't a 1 *' cbsd, saaf ana'f, 
selves, that I did, safe enough. 

5. e'm dha't dhi jaqgis za'n a'zal, b gaBT buoi v)n&Hn jibe ool, 
how that the youngest son his-self, a great boy of )nine year old, 

nood dh« va'*'s B dh« faadhBB o)«n tease-Mi wb aa'bI t)wBZ sb 
knowed the voice of the father of )him directly, for all it)was so 

kttu'ttB -en sktciki Wik, vn a.H)i -WAAEisr -ii vsb fcu speok tayy, 
queer and squeaky like, and I)would warrant -he for to speak true 

a'ni dee «)dhu w*'k, iis, m -dhaH &H we'd, 
any day of)the week, yes, and that I would. 

[ 1580 ] 



D 10.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 149 

6. Bn db)ooljd)amBn eszal, as b1 tal a 1 ^ o)i dhaH bii Blaaf «n nE'w, 
and the)old)woman herself, her will tell any of)ye that be a-laughing now, 

iis, en tal)i ee'A en In, udhE'ut noo bodBEeBBshen, n)if i)'l ani 
yes, and telljye right on end, without no botheration, and)if ye)will only 

aks o)bb, oo ai, oo)n)«r ? dha 1 t)s aa'bI. 
ask of)her, oh, aye, wo)n't)her? that) is all. 

7. be tool mi o)rat e^ni^'w, hin a« akst)o)BB, tyj! be dmi td'tm-z 
her told me of )it any)how, when I asked)of )her, two or three times 

dvBB, be ctad, Bn *aB dEd)'n AAt tbe tB bi E'wt pan dp'tj b dh*q 
over, her did, and -her did)not ought for to be out upon such a thing 

bz dhiBzh).niB, WAAt)s 'dhii dh«qk o)Bt ? 
as this)here, what)dost thee think of Jit f 

8. wal, in)s a'i wbz Btalin o)i, as)d laet)i noo e'm Bn 
well, erenjas I was a-telling of)thee, her)would let)thee know how and 

wpbb Bn ween be VE'wn dh*ki dsaqkin tod wAAt be dj£ 
where and when her found that drunken toad what her do 

kAAl [kJAAl] be mean. 

call her man [husband]. 

9. be zweeED be zid)'n wee be oon a'*z Bla«d aa'bI BstEatjt E'wt 
her sweared her see'd)him with her own eyes laid all stretched out 

tyi bz T» t l lEqkth pen tap B)dhB grE'wnd wee)a l z g»»id zo'ndi 
to his full length upon top of)the ground with)his good Sunday 

k^wt on, dj9 1 s Ap Bg*n o)dhB dutis o)dhB e'uz, dE'wn dhaE 

coat on, just up against the door of)the house, down there 

te)dhe kAAndBE o dh*ki dheBE leran. 
to)the corner of that there lane. 

10. dhaE b waaz BwaVnin Bwee, be zes, dje 1 s dh.B vaai se«ni)zs 
there he was a-whining away, her says, just the very same) as 

tbiAf b wbz b tjiBl Bfejkt bae'ed, be b Kd'l maid azA'rat Ap 
though he was a child tooked bad, or a little maid set up 

in b jEt. 
in a heat. 

11. Bn dha't dhaB apt db.B vEsi seum taVm)z as bd be daaETBEiAA 
and that there happed the yery same time)as her and her daughter-in-law 

wbz ekAmin in dsyyi dbe bak koBBT [kiiraBT] aadBE db««)d 
was a-coming in through the back court after they)had 

ebm Bjseqin dhB wst kldez veE tra daE'wi, pan a wAAEshin dee. 
been a-hanging the wet clothes for to dry-y, upon a washing-day. 

[ 1581 ] 



150 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 10. 

12. seem ta'jm dim k^t'l wbz b buo»lin pan dim vsWbb ybb t##, 
same time the kettle was a boiling upon the fire for tea, 

■win faHh bssWt zamim aEDBBiWin on» b w»k BgAn kAm 
one fine bright summer afternoon only a week ago come 

nuks dhszdi. 
next Thursday. 

13. vn, da'z dhi noo ? &H no^BE laamr, wAn nUBs'l biit m6onz)x 
and, dost thee know ? I never learned one morsel bit more)than 

dbisb.);RiR kBnsa - Eiiiii dha't dheBB ba'zm's Wl o'z moBBsin, zoo 
this)here concerning that there business till this morning, so 

sMbb)z ma'i nenm)z :dja?n rsha'pBE, ■en wAt)s nr&BB, &H d<io)«n 
sure)as my name)is John Shepherd, and what's more, I do)not 

WAnt ty : nadbBB, dheBE ee'w! 
want to neither, there now ! 

14. be zoo a 1 * bii gueen dam vbb te se'B mi sapBB [*t)ae)mi)sapBB]. 
and so I be going home for to have my supper [to)have)my)supperJ. 

g»id na'*t)i, Bn doo)n)i bii zo kw&k, ma'ih, tee tv kBOo (Jvbb 
good night)to)thee, and do)not)thee be so quick, mind, for to crow over 

a'ni bAdi BgiBn, hAn Eni bAd« dB tAAki o dhiBZ bb dMki be 
any body again, when any body do talk-y of this or that or 

t)ardhi3B dhiq. 
that)other thing. 

15. ee mas bi b aawj. folBB vbb tra pEeeti BdhE 1 ** t vffim bb E««z'n. 
he must be a half-fool fellow for to prate-y without rhyme or reason. 

Bn dh*sh)jaT)z mo'« las waBD. g^d hM 1 *')^. 
and this)here)is my last word, good bye)to)thee. 



The three specimens which follow are borrowed from Mr. El- 
worthy's Grammar of the Dialect of West Somersetshire, 1877, pp. 
96 and 99, where they are presented in glossic. They have been 
pal. by AJE. and, as before stated, revised with Mr. E. In the 
translation letters and words in Italics are either supplementary or 
explanatory, and the translation itself as before is slavishly literal. 



[ 1582 ] 



D10.] 



THE WEST SOUTHERN. 



151 



Specimens. 



A genuine yarn taken down by Mr. Elworthy from a peasant's 

dictation. 



lli^BBD :pAApBm. 

1. dH sp&Bz Jyi)v vjkbj) bE'wd 
dhB gaitT ook'n tsii Ap tB :wa - litBn 
:pank i^d, wAt dh«« jyyiZ tb zee 
ila'bed :pAApBm wbz Bka-ndjBED 
iatyi ? 

2. weI, doo)Bn i zii, Ap dh&BB, 
jyj noo, zbb, dhBB)z b gaBT dip 
Wdum g9»iZ cte'wn zb dip)s 
dim tauBB, mam stiBB- laH'k 
in)s ma'd zee, seBm)z dhB 
za'*d gw^sn Ap dv's. iwah'tsn :i'bl, 
en dhiBzh)jaB ook'w tsii, ii waz 
b tas'ab'l gaBT Tirii shcWs nrf, i 
waz, Bn i gsoBD in dhB z&'td o bit, 
bn dWki pleas ez BkAAL :wa 1 lsk'Bm 
bAAdBm. 

3. jyi ma^in dhe puBB oo\ 
:tAm :aalw««, doo)Bn i, zbe ? 
dhat)s dhB oo\ :tAm :aalwe«z 
faa'dhBE, jb noo, zBr, alp DBOod)Bn, 
Bn ween, Shee DEood)cn, nrf i 
dEd)'n taEN Beet tap)'m t&ral — 
iis shA.BB, Bn dhB eed o bn 
wbz Beet dE'wn Bndsr, «n dheBE 
i ba'td. 

4. «n Sh.ee waz aaI o)'m BfiBED 
vbe tb g» x BniBs)'n, Bn dhee 
zEd e'm in)s b wbz Bkandj'Bd 
noo-bAcli k^d^n m'ybe dBag)Bn 
E'wt ; Bn dheBE i baVd. 

5. Bn tB laas, a 1 * weent Ap, 
kaz dhee ZF,d dhB A'sez)Bd shdoBE 
t» bi Bkisld, wee. teen AAks'n, 
bn a 1 *' itjt em Ap ty! Bn, Bn dhB 
baliks p? 1 ld)an E'wt, Bn Dna:g)Bn 
intB dhB aeqin kloz. 

6. Bn &H ns l vBE zid nooBBT 
Bn dhee wbz aaI o)bui • BWA'«tin 
Bn Bli^kin in)s aV sha'd Bba 1- n 
kiBld, Bn ktAlin o mi b &'ib1 vBr 
te g» 1( bBd a 1 * na'vBB zid nooBBT, 
nit-noobAdi t)AAl. 



Lord Popham. 

1. I swppose you've a-heard about 
the great oaken tree up to Wellington 
Park Wood, wAat they used to say 
Lord Popham was a-conjured 
into? 

2. Well, don'< ye see, up there, 
you know, sir, there's a great deep 
bottom = ravine goes down so deep) as 
the tower, main steer = steep Kke, 
even) as one may say, the same) as the 
side going up over Wellington .Hill, 
ana" this)Aere oaken tree, Ae was 
a terrible great tree sure enough, he 
was, and he growed in the side of him 
= the ravine, and this place is a-called 

Wilscombe bottom. 



3. Tou mind= remember the poor 
= deceased old Tom Alway, don'* ye, 
sir f that's the old Tom Alway's 
father, you know, sir, he helped 
to throw =fell him — the tree, and 
wAen they throwed-Aim, and-if he 
did'n* turn right top-on-tail=Ae«d 
over heels — yes sure, and the Aead of 
him was right down under, and there 
he bib\ed= remained. 

4. And they was all of-them a- 
feared for to go a-nighes«-Aim, and 
they said Aow e'en-as Ae was a- 
conjured nobody could'n< never drag- 
Aim out ; and there Ae bided. 

5. And U>=at Imt, I went up, 
fecause they said the Aorses)woM/a 
sure to be a-killed, with ten oxen, 
and I Aitehed them up to Aim = <Ae 
tree, and the bullocks pulled- Aim out, 
and dragged-Aim into the Aanging 
close. 

6. And I never seed = saw noughst, 
and they was all of-them a- waiting 
and a-looking even as I should a-been 
a-killed, and calling of me a fool for 
to go, but I never seed = saw noughut, 
nor-yet nobody-ot-all. 



[ 1883 ] 



152 



THE WEST SOUTHERN. 



[D 10, 



7. Bn jyj nrfoez :wstHt'n :pask 
e'mz, down i, zbb ? a 1 * ma't'n hAn 
a 1 * JJTiZ tB liv dhaB, Apem dhB 
gjaBBt, cOras wbz b pleBS dheBE 
dhoo laVk « oov'm laH'k. 

8. Bn &}i zid zBm b^ks w«« 
mdin in)Bm in Bn, Bn 3h.ee zEd 
dhat wbz :1a bed :pAA-pBmz b^ks 
■en dh.ee ZEd e'w « meBn w««nt 
Ap Bn zAAt ■BstEa'id pBn dhB '&»9 l i 
wee b MH'b'l, in)s -ii ma'd)'n 
kaaE)'n vwee-. 

9. iis ! Bn t)eez b TSB'Bb'l oo\ 
eVz)be, bsd 6.H ne'vBB dEd)n zii 
noobAdi dheBB noo we'sj'n mizal, 
in)s ma'd z««. 

10. E'wsBma'vBE aH^v Bja'BD 
Bm zee e'm dhB saa'sven tjap wbz 
gwsen vbe tb lset E'wt dhB ak'ni 
aadBE)z meBstBB)d Bkamd A v m 
TEBm maskBt, Bn dbBE wbz b meBn 
Bsts^d in dhe giBt wee, Bn i k?d)'n 
oop'm)Bn. 

11. Bn hAn dhee t»^k)wi tB 
dyy/in nseks mA'BEnin, vbe kAAZ 
i sed)Bn Bpat E'wt dhB Aas, 
doo)Bn i zii z'e ? b ZEd, s)ii, 
e'm b k«,d)Bn pat)Bn E'#t, kaz 
dhBE wbz b meBn Bste^d neet in dhB 
giBt wee, in)s i k^dyn oo - p'm)Bn, 
Bn dhee AA - vis jyyiz te zee e'm dh« 
AA - vis kBnso^BED dhat dheBB wbz 
:1a'bed :pAA - pBm. 



7. Ana* you knows Wellington Park 
Aouse, don't ye, sir? I nuno* token 
I used to five there, up) on the 
garret, there was a place there 
them like a oven like. 

8. Ana" I seed some books with 
reading in- Mem in Aim = the oven, and 
they said that was Lord Popham's 
books, and they said Aow a man went 
up and sat a-stride upon the roof 
with a bible, e'en-os he = the devil 
might' nt carry- Aim = the roof away. 

9. Yes ! and it-is a terrible old 
house-sir, but I never did'nt see 
nobody there no yrorse-thon myself, 
e'en-as one might say. 

10. Howsomever I've a-heard 
them say, Aow the servant chap was 
going for to let out the Aackney = 
hack = horse, after-Ais master-A«d a- 
comed Aome from market, and there 
was a man a-stood=stererfi»# in the 
gateway, and Ae could'nt open-Aim = 
the gate. 

11. Ana" when they took- Aim to 
doing = took him to task nexi-morning 
for cause Ae Aad'n* a-put out the Aoree, 
don't ye see, sir p Ae said, said-he, 
how he could'ni put-Aim=tte horse 
out, because there was a man a-stood 
—standing right in the gate way as 
Ae could' n£ open ?iim = the gate, 
and they always used to say Aow they 
always considered that there was 
Lord Popham. 



The following was taken down by Mr. Elworthy from the dictation 
of the carpenter himself. 

Dh)ool fares Bn dhB kAAfin. 
1. thai jyj noo dh)ool :naen :skot, 

ZBE ? mAAS o'vBBl bAAdi WBZ 

BfiBED o as, kBz dh« nood e'w 
wb kad dvBb^Bm nif be wo'd. 



2. wal, & l i meBd dhe kAAfin 
vae)be, Bn sb tRyyi)z a 1 * bi Jaa, 
t)wBz djo'st BkAm wi aed'n aaI o 
as Bba'n Bkfeld. 

3. t-wBZ sb fam b d««)z oVbb 
jyi zid, Bn dh« Z8'n)'d Bbo'n 



The old fellow = devil and the coffin. 

1. Did you know the old Nan 
Scott, sir? Almost every body was 
a-feard of her, fecause they knowed 
Aow Aer=«Ae could overlook them = 
cast an evil eye on them and-ii hex 
would. 

2. Well, I made the coffin for Aer, 
and so true-os I be Aere, it-was just 
a-come = itf had almost happened it 
was a mere chance we Aad'nt all of us 
a-been a-killed. 

3. Jt-was so fine a day) as ever you 
seed = saw, and the sun-A«d a-been 



I 1584 ] 



D 10.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 153 

Bshgenin sb bKa 1 «t)s g'n'idhtq, hAn a-shining so bright)as anything, when 

dio's in)s wi wbz gw««n in te dha j™' e'enW we was going in to the 

tenttl ddBE, dhBB kAmd B vlaBBsh ChU ^, d . 00r ' fl , th f e t COmed » flaR9h 

1/ • j? u i ^^ j, . of hghtmnsr fit to tear up the very 

b leet-nin fa't te teBB Ap dhB vaai stone s s> ^^^ ^ t £ e same th J e 

stdBnz, -sen w«e dhB seem dhB thunder hurst out like a cannon. 

thandBB bast E'wt laH'k b ksen - Bn. 

4. wal, hAN wi kAm tB pat 4. Well,whenwecome=«i!»8etoput 

be in dhB kiBv nif dh)ool mean Aerinthecave=»awW, «na*)if the-oW 

WAd'n BtaEKD E«#t EEM'n. aVnoo ">=*«■ *«•« % «« 

-i • i _ja> \- was nt a-turned right rouwa". I know 

b waz, vbb aH alp pat)'n)m. he was> for T help ^ put)Aim)in . 

5. 00 ! Wl nood WAt t)wAZ Bd 6 oh , we knowedwAatit)wasAad 
Bdy,d Bt. Wl nood vasi wal a-do«<!D it. "We knowed very wel 
dh)ool falaE)D Bbe'n dheBB Iaaij the old fellowR-Aad= the devil had 
wee Bn. tBVi)z Jyj bi staenin a-been there along with him. It's as 
dheBr ' true-as you be standing there ! 



The reason that a respectable washer-woman gave the " parson" 
for having married a disreputable husband. 

doo)n i zii, zbe, aV)d BgA't sb Don'* ye see, sir, I'd a-got so 

mati wa'bbsIun, Bn &H wbz bMbs mnch waRshing ana" I was a-fora** 

+« „„™ •,* .„, . •* 'i • „jm \' j to seno" it Aome, anaif I wad nt a-«ad 

te im Bt Am Bn if a 1 * ffid)'n B)eBd H T mus( ^ b ht a donfe 

•u, a'» mas b boost a daqk. 



West Somebset cwl. 

Made up from the lists in Mr. F. T. Elworthy's Dialect of "West Somerset, which 
had been made by him and AJE. jointly in 1876, revised so far as these 
especial words are concerned and pal. from diet, of Mr. Elworthy in 1885 
by AJE. 

I. "WESSEX JJfD JSOBSE. 

A- 3 beBk. 5 meek, mEk. 6 mend. 8 aav, se's [see Mr. E.'s W. Sm. 
Grammar, p. 57]. 12 zaa. 18 kink. 19 teal. 20 leBm. 22 teem. 23 sesm. 
24 shiem. 32 besdh [intrans.], baadh [trans.]. 35 tiaaI [an-awl, n from the 
art.] 36 dhAA [intrans.], AAndhAA [trans.]. 37 Uaa. A: 41 dhseqk. 

43 sen, e«n [emph.] 44 lam. 46 ksen'l. 49 seq, Bse - qd, Ba - qd [to hang, 
hanged, hung]. 56 wAARshi [intrans.]. 

A: or 0: 58 VKAm. 59 la'm. — ^m [womb]. 60 lAq. 61 mseq Bmaeqst. 
64 VRAq, VRa?q. 65 ZAq. 66 dhAq. A- 67 g» 1; gween [going]. 69 nAA 
noo. 74 tyyj 76 tuBd to'«d. 77 Ia'brd. — voo [foe]. 81 lean. — z«j>, 
zwrip [sweep]. 84 m«BR moBR. 85 z»br. 86 WEts wa I ts. 87 kl»BZ kloz. 
89 baBdh twjdh. 90 Waa. 92 noos [(snoo) dost know?]. 93 snooi, znoo. 95 
Aroo. — o'obbt [aught], ndoBRT [naught]. A': 102 a'ks. 104 Rhi/led. 

105 RhAd. 109 Iaa. Ill AAf [+t before vowels], AAt. 113 wel. 115 A'm. 
117 WAn wajn w^nuun [ace. to circumstances]. 118 bwBn. 120 BgA-n. 124 
stiiBn st«Bn stoo. 125 am [emph. (Anli) singular]. — RhuBp, Rhop [rope]. 126 
6br. 127 obz. 129 gMBS [+t before a vowel] gost. 130 b«Bt boat. 131 gout. 
132 A't. — Rhyy! [row of hay]. 136 ar [or]. 

M- 138 faadW. 140 haisl. 141 naiBl. 143 ttosl. 146 main [adv. = 
very]. 147 bEatn. 148 feBR. — jamst [emmet, ant]. 149 ble«z. • — s«et 
[a seat]. 153 zsedBRDi. M: 154 ba'k. 155 dha'tj. 168 aadBR aatBR 

[ 1585 ] 



154 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 10. 

[occ. (aEctea)]. 160 eeg. 161 dee. 166 maid. — alth [health]. 169 hAn 
[but (w««n) emph.]. 170 aBBs. 174 assh. — VReedh [to wreathe], TREth [a 
■wreath]. M'- — Reeti [to reach]. — leeti [leech]. 184 leed. 185 Rheed. 
187 Ibi lajf [both inf.], Blas-f [left]. 189 wa'i. 190 kee. 192 meen. 193 
kliwi [adj.], kleen [adv.]. 194 e'ni. 200 weet. — JBth [heath]. 202 jEt 
jit joH. 203 speetj. — mlsd [mead], mids [meadow]. 205 dRasd. 207 
niBl. 208 o'TBr. 210 klai. 213 adhBR. 214 nadhBr. 217 eeti. 218 ship. 
219 sleep zlinp. 223 dheBR. 225 vlaRsh. 226 diaas [(moss mass) almost]. 

— TrsesT [to wrestle]. 227 waH. 228 z««Et. 229 bsffith. 

E- 233 speek. 235 weev. 236 feevBR. 238 aedj. 239 ssUel. 241 BMin. 
243 plai. 244 wad. — wo'Ib [willow]. 248 mem. 250 z«j6bb. — eet 
[eat]. 251 meet. 252 koH'l. 253 no't'l. — veoIibr vajdhBB [feather]. 255 
waedhBB. — bsedBB [better]. E: 256 staa'ti. 257 sedi. — beed [bed]. 
262 wee. 264 sUbI. 265 stRait. 266 wal. — visl [field]. 269 zal. — 
twalv [twelve]. 271 tal. 272 alsm. 273 meen [but (meVn) man]. 278 
WAnti. — in [end]. 280 lseb'm. — een [hen]. — peen [a writing pen, 
(pa'in) a cattle pen]. — dRassh'l, cbueks'l [threshold]. 285 kRis [pi. (kBistez)]. 
286 aRB. — bses [best]. E'- 290 1 [emph. J — sik zik [seek]. 295 
baBD. 296 bleev. 297 fsdBR. 300 kip [colloquially (kip)]. 301 jsr. 
E': 305 a>i. 306 a'ith. 309 spid. 312 jaa. — giz [geese]. 316 meks. 

EA- — shiBp [to shape]. 319 gi«p gap gjap. EA: 324 ait. 333 kaav 
kjaav. 324 aav aaf [(af'm/af) half and half]. 335 asl a'bI. 336 vaal taaI. 
337 waal waaI. 338 kjal. — aavis [always]. — biBRD [beard]. — aRD 
[hard]. 343 waBm. 345 deBR. 346 giBt. EA'- 347 eed. 348 a*i. 

349 vyy,. EA': 350 deed. 351 la'd. 352 Rhe'd, 3rd, aRDiiis [redness]. 
353 breed baRD. 354 shif shir. 355 dlv. 366 liv. 357 thAAf, AAf. — kneem 
[cream]. 361 biBn. 363 tjip. — ip [a heap]. — jsb [year]. 366 gaRT. 
367 dRset. 368 daeth. 370 RhAA. 371 stRoo. EI- 376 bAtt. EI: 
378 week. EO- 383 zasb'm. 386 joo. 387 nyy!- EO: 388 nw'lk. 

— so'lk [silk]. 389 j«k. 390 sh^d [emph.] sha'd [unemph.]. 392 ja'n. 
393 bijo'h. 397 zbbrd. — faRmeR. 402 laRN. 403 vas. 405 JEth. 
406 83th. — za'stBR [sister]. — faRD'N vaBD'N. EO'- — lyy l [lee, 
shelter]. — dai. — vll [to fly]. 415 la'i. kEop [to creep]. — vidz [to 
freeze]. 419 jobr [emph.]. 420 v&ubr [(fauBR) emph.]. 421 faBTi. EO': 
422 zik. — Rhid [a reed]. 423 dha'i. 425 leet. 426 feet. 428 zl. 430 
fReen. — dip [deep]. 435 jyyj. ET- 438 da'i. ET: 439 tRa's. 

I- 440 wik. 441 ziv. — liv [to lire]. 443 VRa'idi. 446 neen. — iis 
ees [emph.], jses [fine but common]. 448 dhees. 449 go't. 450 tyVjzdi. 
I: — dhaRD [third]. 456 If nif. 458 neet. 460 WA'it. 462 seet [large 
number] zeet [vision]. 465 dja'tj dje's dje'sh. 466 tiiBl. 469 wo'l [will], 
wo't [wilt thou]. — shin [shin]. 472 sliRtqk zhBiqk. 473 bleen blaMn. 
475 win. 476 ba'in. 477 va'in. 479 wa'tn. 480 dhiq. — skin [skin]. 

— sha'p [ship]. — aan [to run]. 482 id'n o'd'n [is not, common], sd'n [is 
not, emph.] 483 o'z [(iz) emph.] — fish vish [fish]. 488 it. — vrit rit [a 
writ], za'nz [since]. — spa't [to spit]. I'- 490 ba'i. 493 dneev. 

— shin [to shine]. 496 a'iBR [subs.] a'iBRN [adj.] 498 vsa'it. 499 bit'L 
I': — ditj [ditch], dik [dyke]. 500 la'ik. 502 veev va'iv. 503 la'iv. 504 
neev naHv. — ste l f [stiff]. 505 wa'iv. 506 amen. 507 ws'min. — a» 
[hay]. 508 ma'iBld. 509 wa'iBl. — wit [white adj.], wa'it [pigment subs.]. 

O- — smook [smoke]. 523 hop. 524 waBD'L. O: — VRAg [a frog]. 
525 oof [off]. 526 kAAf. 527 host. 628 dhAA'trt. 629 baaat. 531 daRtra. 
532 keol IcaaI. 533 <1e1. 535 voks. 536 giM gool. 544 'n [than], dheen 
[emph. in that case], dhoo [at that time]. — sh6BR [ashore]. 546 var. 

— VARk [a fork]. 647 b&BRD. 548 vobrd. 649 wobrd [but in composition 
as ' to hoard apples,' that is, to store up, (wied)]. 550 waRD. — vaBth [forth]. 
■ — mARnin [morning]. — aas [horse]. 654 kRAAS. — pAAS [gate post]. 
■ — paust [letter post]. — mo'Bt [mote]. O'- 555 shyy^ 556 tyy[ [emph/ . 

557 tyv! [in addition], tB [even when emph. meaning to an excessive degree]. 

558 ]*,k. 560 sk^l. 661 bLw,m. 562 nw,?,n. 563 mandi. 564 z^n [but 
(zo^dBB, Z9,ndist) sooner, soonest]. O': 669 b»,k. 570 tojk r (Bt»,kt) taken]. 
675 stes^d. 576 weenzdi. — Bha« Rhyyf [roof]. — ba'«. 578 pbs'u [in com- 

[ 1586 ] 



D 10.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 155 

position as plough-horse (p1e'«)aas), but the common word for plough is (zttal)]. 

— ak [hough]. 683 fc>jl. 584 sted. 686 dyy,. 689 sp*>,n. — ga^z 
[goose]. — bazBm [bosom]. 593 mas. 595 va^t. 596 ra?it. 697 sat. 

U- 599 ?b«»i-. — »,d [wood]. 601 va'«Bl. 602 za'w. 603 kAm [emph.] 

— kRuum [crumb]. 607 badrat. U: 608 agli. — z»b1 [Vs. sulh, a 
plough, see 578]. 610 »,'l. — wd [to pull]. 611 balik. 612 SAfln [some- 
thing]. 614 E'wn. 615 pE'«ncT 616 gRE'wnd. 617 ZE'wn. 619 bve'k-u. 

— andess [hundred]. 627 zandi. 631 dhazdi. 632 Ap. 634 dayji. — 
thasti [thirsty]. 635 WRth [(wEthlis) worthless]. 636 vandBR. 639 da'wstya'az 
[dusthouse, chaffhouse, but only in this sense, dust is otherwise called (ps'hsm)]. 
XT'- 640 ks'«. 641 e'w [however is (wo'vbr)]. 647 e'ubI. 648 a»BR. 
649 dha'wzBN. 660 bE'«t [but (bE'ud) before a vowel]. 652 Ira^d. 653 bad 
[before a vowel]. TJ': 654 shuE'wd. 655 fa'asl. 656 Rhof^m. — dham 
[thumb]. 657 DRE'an. 668 dE'wn. 663 e'mz [(e'»z'1) household]. 665 ma'wz. 
666 azbun. 667 E'«t. 668 pRE'wd. 670 b*»,dh. 671 ma'Mdh. 672 ZE'wdh. 

Y- 674 dsd dy,d. 676 la'i. 681 ba'znis. 682 Ud'l [but (nit'l) is 
commonly said to children]. — eev'l [evil]. Y: 685 aRDi. 689 bitsl 
'(bolt) built]. — VAli [follow]. 690 ka'in [+d before a vowel]. 691 main 
+ d before a vowel]. 692 raqgis. 697 bani. 699 vra J it. — Annst [hornet]. 
.00 WEs [used also for worst before a consonant, +t before a vowel]. 701 fas 
[ + t before a vowel]. 703 pa't. Y- 706 wa'i. — dneem [to dream]. 

— deev [to dive], — kit [a kite, (vazkit) furze-kite or falcon]. Y': — 
fonth [fdth]. 709 va'i«R. — vliz [fleece]. 

II. Engush. 

A. 713 bend. 718 treisd. 738 pRest. — tesdi [potato, heard by AJE. 
and others as (tensi), p. 147]. E. — walth [wealth]. 750 ba'ig. I. 
andY. 754 peeg. 756 shBa'mp zhna'mp. — we'p w«p [whip]. 758 gaRD'L. 
O. — dAAg [dog]. 791 bw6i. V. — k«id [cud]. 796 blyy^ — 
Anty! [unto]. 805 KRidz [this form always used]. — K9rd'1 [curl]. 



III. Romance. 

A- 810 feus. 811 plena. — tRess [trace]. 812 less. 813 beek'n. 
820 gS». 822 m&i. — aid [aid v. and s.J — epai-d [paid]. 827 eegBR. 
— falsi [to fail]. 830 tT&in. — sSint [saint]. 833 pesR. 835 Reez'n. 
836 seez'n. 841 tia'ns. 845 amshBnt. 847 dsendjan. 848 tjaendj. 849 
stRsendreR. 850 da'ns. 852 apBRN. — kan [to care]. — kaf'mdBR 
[carpenter]. — saansi [saucy]. 862 saaf [adj.f seef [sb. a meat safe]. 
E-- 867 tee. — spaRtik'lz [spectacles]. — dha'tiez [vetches]. 874 BM«n. 
876 dainti. 878 sselBRi. — meen [amend, mend]. 881 seens. ■ — anb 
[herb] — msesi [mercy]. — feBR [a fair], 888 saRtin. — saR [to serve, 
deserve, earn]. — neet [neat]. 890 bi«s [pi. biBstsz)]. 891 fees fiBS [pi. 
(fisstsz)]. 893 flauBK [flour=meal is (vlawsr)]. 894 Reesee-v. 

I- and Y ■• — sa'idBR. 901 fa'in. — pa'int [a pint]. — va'ilBnt 
[violent]. 904 va'ilBnt [violet]. — zer [sir]. — spanit [spirit]. 910 dja'is 
[both in sing, and pi.] 

O •• 920 pwA'int. — djA'int [of a man], dja'tnt [of meat]. — stw«R 
sto'BR [story]. 924 tjA'is. 925 VA'is. 926 sptca'd. 929 kE'uksmsR. — re'oti 
[round]. — fa«s [force, and +t before a vowel forced]. — soBrt. 939 kloBS. 
947 Wa'jbI. 950 SApBR. — tawsr [tower]. — pa^sh [push]. — bAd'l 

fa bottle] — mav [move]. 959 ksvAV. U-- — ck^ [due]. — dy,k 
duke]. 960 kee. — fuu-Bnt [fluent, said of a river only]. — dja'dj [judge]. 
. — WA'it [wait]. — Ryj-in [ruin]. 965 A'isl. 969 sho't?R. — duuRBb'l 
[durable]. — muuzik [music]. 970 djas [ + t before a vowel]. — fa'wsti 
[fusty]. 



[ 1687 ] 



156 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 11. 



D 11 = s.WS. = southern West Southern. 

Boundary. On the n. the n. coast of Co. and Dv. to the h. of D 10, which 
forms the n. and e. b. till it joins the w. b. of D 4. The rest of the e. b. is 
the s. part of the w. b. of D 4=down to Axmouth. The s. b. is the s. coast of 
Dv. and Co. There was much difficulty in determining the w. b., concerning 
which I collected several opinions, and finally follow the information of Rev. W. 
H. Hodge, which I believe to be most accurate. Begin at the Black Bock in the 
middle of the entrance to Falmouth Harbour, and go through the centre of the 
water-way to Truro. Then proceed by land e. of Kenwyn (1 nnw.Truro) and 
w. of St. Erme (4 line. Truro), e. of St. Allen (4 n. Truro) and w. of Newlyn 
/8 n. Truro), and also west of Cubert (9 nnw.Truro), but e. of Perran Zabulo 
(8 nnw.Truro) to the sea in Ligger or Perran Bay. This border was determined 
by noting the change of speech. Mr. Rawlings, speaking only from general 
impressions, said the b. was probably a straight line from St. Anthony, on the 
e. norn of Falmouth Harbour to St. Agnes Head (9 nnw.Truro). This line, 
beginning practically at the same point as the other, and ending only 5 m. to the 
sw., must be considered as practically identical with it. Mr. Sowell, who wrote 
the Cornish-English version of the Song of Solomon for Prince L. -L. Bonaparte^ 
inclines to a line from St. Austell to Padstow. According to Mr. Hodge, Mr. 
Herman Merivale in his "Historical Studies " lays down the border between Celt 
and Saxon, no doubt at a much earlier date, from Down Derry (8 sse.Liskeard) 
to St. Germans (7 se.Liskeard), thence to St. Ive (4 ne.Iiskeard), South Hill 
{7 nne.Liskeard), North Hill (7 n.Liskeard), Altarnun (7 wsw.Launceston), Minster 
(13 wnw.Launceston), and to the sea by Forrabury (14 nnw.Launceston). This 
line is just a few miles w. of the e. b. of Co. itself. 

Area. Most of Dv. and e.Co. The w. b. of D 11 is properly the 
w. limit of dialect in England. 

Authorities. See County List under the following names, where * means vv. 
per AJE., f per TH., |[ systematic, ° in io. 

Co. *Camelford, ° Cardy'nham, "Landrake, "Lanivet, "Lanreath, *|| Millbrook, 
Padstow, °Poundstock, "St. Blazey, "St. Columb Major, °St. Goran's, "St. Ive, 
"St. Stephens, "Tintagel. 

Dv. *Barnstaple, |[Bigbury, ° Burrington, *Challacombe, "Coryton, *||Devon- 
port, °||Exeter, *Harberton, *Iddesleigh, "Instow, "Modbury, * North Molton, 
S NorthPetherwin, °Parracomb, ||Plymouth, "Stoke, "St.Marychurch, "Warkleigh, 
"Werrington, t General. 

Characters. The character of the pronunciation is essentially the 
same as that of D 10, with a few distinguishing particulars. 

JEQ, EG are rarely if ever (a'i). They become regularly (ee, 
ee), with more or less of an (i) following. 

I' is regularly (a*), that is, the (ao'«) of D 4 after passing through 
(a 1 *) mixed with (a'i) of D 10, now assumes the regular German 
(ai) sound. It was a matter of course, then, that the (i*.i, aa«) for 
JEG, EG should also be changed. XT', which was mainly (e'm) in 
D 10, becomes (so'yi 5 ) as we ^ as ■"■ cajl analyse it, see the note on 
doubt, p. 158 below. Prince L.-L. Bonaparte heard it as French mu 
in eoeur, followed by French u, that is (oa'y), which it certainly 
resembles. How far does this extend ? It is certainly in n.Dv. 
Mr. Baird (Nathan Hogg) acknowledges it in e.Dv., Mr. Shelley 
(Plymouth) in s.Dv. In Co. I have not been able to trace it, with 
certainty, further than Millbrook, just on the e. b. of Co., not even 
in the vv. specimen from Camelford. But I suspect that it really 

[ 1588 ] 



D 11, Yi.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 157 

pervades Co. as well as Dv. The diphthong is not unlike the 
Dutch ui in kuis, or the French cei in mil. 

I have thrown the whole of this large district together hecause 
my information is necessarily very deficient upon such delicate 
points as those last mentioned, and the great features seem to be 
the same. There is said to be considerable difference between 
n.Dv. and s.Dv., and between e.Dv. and w.Dv., but this difference 
probably concerns the vocabulary and grammar more than the 
pronunciation. Mr. Shelley's Dartmoor cs. shews, however, con- 
siderable difference from the Iddesleigh cs. Hence it will be 
convenient to consider as Var. i. n.Dv., and as Var. ii. s Dv. 
including Co., to Mr. Merivale's line, for both. Then Var. iii. will 
be e.Co., which may be associated with St. Columb Major, extending 
from Mr. Merivale's line to Mr. Hodge's by Truro, that forms the 
boundary of D 11. The w.Co. region D 12 is entirely different. 

Vae. i. Noeth Devon. 

I naturally rely on my viva voce from Mr. J. Abbot Jarman, a 
native of North Molton (11 e.-by-s.Barnstaple), which is close to the 
b. of D 10, and from Rev. J. P. Faunthorpe's servant from Iddesleigh 
(15 s.Barnstaple), which comes to nearly the s. b. of n.Dv. They 
were both taken some years ago, North Molton in Oct. 1877, and 
Mar. 1879, and Iddesleigh in Nov. 1877. I begin with the last, 
because having been taken from an uneducated native almost fresh 
from the place and studied closely, it is probably more correct. 

Iddesleigh cs. 

pal. by AJE. from dictation of a native, Mary Anstey, housemaid to Rev. J. P. 
Faunthorpe. For convenience (ao'yj 6 ) has the 5 omitted, see first note. 

0. wai :dja3k - i haeth we dao'y^ Bbao'yit it. 

1. wel :djAAEdi jyj me boodh laaf ut din's nyy,z ov main, *'f i wi x L, 
yy t keVBsth fim dbaet ? dha3t)s nadhwR JiieB nun dheBE. 

2. vyyj men da« kooz dhe)m laaft set, scs tiaa, ddent)9s ? ot shed 
meek)'m ? T)iiD)'N vers' latklt, «z)Bt ? 

3. ao'yiEvBE dh«'s «z dhe myy^h o)t, zo djES oold dhi ni'iz, 
:djA_AB.di, on bi \wai-et vor aiv dyjn)Bt. aask ! 

4. ai bi zasten ai jAbed em zee it — zam o dheez voks yi went 
DEyy! dh« ool o)t dhratztf-ivz — dhset a* d»'d seev Bnaf. 

5. dhet dhB jaq - ges z& l n izseL, a gam bo* b nam, nAAd)z faadhBEZ 
vA'is Bt waens, dhoo t)wa3z so kweea Bn skwee-bm, Bn ai)d TE9's)n 
v'e speek dhB TEyy^h sen - *' dEE'i, is, ai wed. 

6. isn dh-ool wwmBn bezel WBd tEL)i dhe zeeBm, sen* o i db.Bt bi 
laafm nso'y,, Bn tEL)i Bait of, tsoy/. - wi'dhao'y^ - aen - *' fas ebce'y^ 
Bt, ef Jyyi)L on-K seks be, oo'u, waant-BE ? 

7. sen-ijao'yiBEtool -mii, wen ai aekst be, tyji be DEii taimz ovbe, 
d*'d)n)be ? ensE AA't'n tB bi Eaq, on djEs b thwj bz Sheet, wat dy t 
i dh«'qk ? 

8. wel bz ai wbz zee-in -an wBd tEL)i, eo'yi be veo'yxnd Bn, wen 

[ 1589 ] 



158 



THE WEST SOUTHERN. 



[D 11, V i. 



be vao'y^d ran, ran w6eBE be vao'y^d ran,— dhu DBaqk'n pEg ran 
kaalth ran msen. 

9. be sweeBED be zid)ran wee be on aiz, laY'tn sTBEtjt ao'yit on dhB 
gsao'yin wee iz bsst kdt on, kloos tra dhra duras, dao'y^ in dhra 
kAAEND's o dhra leran. 

10. i woz meekm ap dja 1 s b iia'*z laik ra tgil kearm ran teedjos. 

11. ran dhaet aep'in) oz aB ran be daa'tBB lee kam DByy, dhB bsek 
kAraEnedf fRram aeqin ao'yit dhB wet TLOodhz on dho wsesh-m dee, 

12. wailst dho tee'HiL wbz bo«iin vbe tee, wan vaYn zsmraB 
aEtBBnyy 1 n - , on*l» ra w*k guu kom nEks dhazde. 

13. ran dyyi)i nAA ? ai ilev'e jkkd niABt mooraB rabeo'yit *'t bivoo's 
tradee', zhdoBBz ai bi kaald :djaek :zh«pBED, Bn ai doont wont taoy!'. - 
adh's, dhaE nao'yi ! 

14. Bn zoo ai bi gwee'm am tra aese ra hit ra sapras. gwd neeraitT ran 
d<5orant)i bi sra k»sk tra ksaa otbe serribod« rageran, wEn i speeks ra wsen 
dhBq rar dhra tadhraE. 

15. "styyjpjd fELBB tEiin ap this oold staf, as doorant want to 
jube)t." dhis iz dhe lsesest a'*' shrai zee rabao y^t it. g«d bai. 



Notes. 



0. doubt. The last element of the 
diphthong in this word is precisely the 
same as for (tyy^two. The lips are 
pouted, the upper lip is especially pro- 
jected, hut there was very little closure 
of the lips, not nearly as much as 
when I pronounce (tyy) = Fr. tue, in 
fact the corners of the mouth are 
hardly brought together at all, so that 
an acute angle is left, but the upper 
lip was very much pouted, giving (y t 5 ) . 
Both lips are projected, but the upper 
lip far the most. For the first element 
in (so'y^) the lips are wide open, and 
then they suddenly dart forward to 
form the (y^). This action is very 
curious to study on the native lip. 
The openness of the lips for the first 
element excludes (ce) for the first 
element, as Prince L.-L. Bonaparte 
appreciates saying (preface to H . Baird's 
St. Matthew), that "the sound is best 
defined as the French ' ceu ' in ' cceur,' 
(oe) followed by «, the Scottish ' oo ' in 
'moon,' that is, the French 'u' (y) 
with a slight tendency towards the 
'eu' in 'peu' (a) in the same language." 
The speaker rejected (ce'yj) when pro- 
nounced to her. What the precise 
vowel in the first element may be I 
was not able to determine, but it did 
not seem to be either (o) or (a), and I 
was not satisfied with (b). For the 
word too the sudden rise in pitch on 
the second element was most remark- 
able, (ta>-yi 8 '. - ), the stress also falling 
upon it, which quite distinguished the 



diphthongs, as in (.-djsek gid iz tyy! 
maanv'lz te tyyj b6iz, on :tom giv htz 
tyy„ to-y,', tetyy,, ta>-y,') 'Jack gave 
his two marbles to two boys [with 
distinct (o) and distinct (i), thus (b6iz) 
not (bA'jz)], and Tom gave his two, 
too, to two, too. This change of stress 
from (so'yf.) with if anything a falling 
pitch on the last element, to (ao-yi'. - ) 
with a rising pitch, and without per- 
ceptible glide of the first element on 
to the second, distinguished the two 
sounds so completely, that it was 
difficult to discover that they were 
made up of the same elements. I had 
them pronounced to me frequently 
during two visits, and the distinctions 
were steadily maintained, though the 
speaker was quite unaware of any 
peculiarity. 

1 . neighbour. This word is not used 
as a term of address. Mr. Faunthorpe 
(who had first written the version from 
his servant's dictation, in his own 
spelling, which I altered to palaeotype 
from dictation) had written 'Jarge,' 
meaning (idjaandj), and though the 
speaker insisted on (:djAARdi), the other 
seems more correct. — will. Mr. F. 
wrote 'wul,' I heard (wijL, wo'l). I 
carefully studied the sounds of milk and 
theirselves, and concluded that there 
was a true (l), and that the preceding 
vowel was greatly affected by it. But 
(mijLk) seemed best, and not (m'Lk) 
without a vowel, nor (ma'ik), but of 
course (i 1( 9 1 ) have considerable re- 



[ 1590 ] 



D 11, Vi.] 



THE WEST SOUTHERN. 



159 



semblances. — careth. The transition 
(nth) is easy, as the tongue when uncurl- 
ing slides down directly to the teeth, 
but (thn,-) or (dhu-) is difficult, because 
the tongue has to be curved back 
during the transition, unless we begin 
with the under part instead of the 
upper part, of the tip of the tongue 
against the teeth making (tIi, Dh). 
This leads at once to the substitution 
of (t, d) for (th, dh) as (truu DBy^). 
— for. I have constantly written (br) 
in these weak words, though I seemed 
to hear only (b), but this I attributed to 
the faintness and shortness of the sound. 

2. they am, for they are, contracted 
to (dhem), and the (e) used for (e) 
because the sound is weak. — what. 
(ot) or (wart). — it)is)not. I seemed to 
hear every consonant reverted, and the 
(i x ) position was consequently not 
properly formed, destroying its precise 
character. — very. Mr. F. wrote 'vurry,' 
but I seemed to hear (e) modified by 
(r). I did not hear (vEri) with the 
usual trilled (r). But in this case I 
consider the (r) to be trilled, and there 
is no difficulty in so speaking. 

4. safe enough, (onaff) not (anyy^ ; 
they make no distinction between (enaf , 
3n yyi)> an( ^ use * Qe nrs ' generally. 

6. trusfjhim. Mr. F. had written 
both trus and tris, and I at first appre- 
ciated (trbs) . This shews the difficulty 
of the vowel (a 1 ) to an outsider. — day. 
(dEE'i, snEE'il, tBE'il), almost (daese'i) 
etc., and clearly one of the transitional 
forms from (dfii) to (dee). Fair, a 
market, is (feeR) ; the fire is (vaiR). 
The long I' having become (ai) in place 
of (ao'i), it was to be expected that the 
EG, iEG, should pass from (ai) to (ee) 
or some intermediate form. These 
changes shew the original diversity of 
the sounds, which obliged both to be 
modified, if one was. — yes, I would. 
I did not feel certain of the vowel in 
(wed). Mr. F. wrote wed and wild? 
could it have been (wa'd) ? 

6. woman. Mr. F.'s cook, from 
Challacombe, said (am-un) . Mr. Baird 
always writes humman = (hanron). — 
tell ye. This is how the word sounded 
to me, Mr. Baird always writes tul, 
like Mr. Elworthy's (ted) in D 10 (p. 
148, par. 1). This reverted (l) produces 
strange effects. — too. See too in note 
on doubt, par. 0. 

7. did not her. — such, just is pro- 
nounced in the same way. Mr. F. 
wrote jiis, jis, jes. 



8. pig, for beast (beest) is too noble a 
word, cattle is always used in place of 
the plural of beast. — calleth. Similarly 
(br waaketh). A wife says (wbh mi 
maen kamth «) =when my husband 
comes home. — man. This word is 
regularly used for husband. 

9. The omitted word fo«^tt=(lEqkth) 
as usual. The plural of the omitted 
word house is (ao'y^ez) not (a>'y,z'n). — 
comer. Observe inserted (d). They say 
(tjtmblikAARNDBR) = chimney corner ; 
(kaRD'LZ aaI 8vbr br eed) = curls all 
over her head. 

10 child, applied to either sex, but 
(mEE'»d) is the regular word, see note 
on day, par. 5. The question, is it a 
boy or a girl, becomes (b6i br mEE'id) ; 
wench is not used. — tedious is used 
especially of fretful children that weary 
the mother by crying, when the (tril)z 
TeRib'l). To be sick is to be (bad), 
full (a) not (se). 

11. daughter-in-law. (daa - terlAA) 
is commoner, but son's wife (zo'nz 
waiv) is most common. — wet. Nearly 
(wsbt), very broad. — clothes. Clearly 
initial (tl-) is easier and more natural 
than initial (kL-). The (dh) is used 
at Iddesleigh, but not at Challacombe. 
— washing day. The speaker had 
never heard the phrase " Quarter 
Sessions" for washing day, as given 
by Mr. Bock from Barnstaple, and Mr. 
Pulman from Axminster. 

12. tea-kettle. The two last syllables 
pronounced very shortly indeed, with 
no secondary accent like in capital. — 
boiling. Without prefixed a-, they 
say (woz boi-iin, it D6riih). 

13. sure, shepperd. Having neglected 
to note the sounds of the words sure, 
shepherd, I follow the usages of Mr. 
Baird. 

1 4 . Good night, a parting good night, 
but when the night is spoken of it is 
called (nait). Observe that (r) was 
distinctlyheardin(nee8RT). — again, (es) 
is very short. 

15. Stupid fellow, telling up this old 
stuff; us don't want to hear-it. This 
was inserted by Mr. F. as a remark of 
one of the persons spoken to. He also 
proposed: (wat a ga»T fi/yj dhi aaRt). 
The sound of (fi/yil) is like the Norfolk 
(if), or the Lancashire («?'u), a mere lip 
glide, as I seemed to hear it. — this, the 
speaker recognised the distinction of 
Mr. Barnes's Dorset " shaped thicky " 
in (dhtki ao'yxs) and "shapeless that" 
in (dha?t waVr, dhaet gRao'yjnd). 



[ 1591 ] 



160 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 11, V i. 



North Molton (12 ese.Barnstaple) dt. 

pal. by AJE. from the diet, of J. Abbot Jarman, Esq., New College, Southsea, 
native. The ( a ) means " with projected lips." 

1. zoo ai zee, meets, jy! zii naoyi 5 ai bi Bait Bboo'y!^ dha't dhoB 
lit'l meeid kamin vBBm dha't divan skiyyd oovob dhas. 

2. 3b)z gween daoy^n dire Bood dhas, day! dive aED git [jet] on 
dh.B lift a'n zaid. 

3. zhw'B naf dhB tjil)z gon stra'*'t ap be dive dyyyBB b dire Ba'q 

o>'yi 6z - 

4. wees pra'ps shi)l va'ind dha't db.BE dhin dfiaqk'n tja'p itomas 
yyi)z aaBD b iivmn. 

5. wi a'l noo)n [nooz)Bn] veb* weI. 

6. wont dh« 6ovl tja'p zy^ laaBN as not tv dyyj it BgEn, pwws dhiq ! 

7. luk. I beent it trjji ? 

Notes. 

1. So would not be used; mates long I generally is rendered as (a 1 i), as 
would rather be lads, chaps. — I and in D 10, but it may be (ai). 



North Molton phrases, pal. by AJE. from the dictation of J. 
Abbot Jarman, Esq. 

The ( 6 ) means " with projected lips." 

1. (go en a'ks)Bn), go and ask him. 

2. (wi bi go - in), we are going. 

3. (dboo Bt in dhi a'shez dhas), throw it in the ashes there. 

4. (be za'q DBii be vao'yi s B zaqz), he (or she) sang three or four songs. 

5. (bai)z b a'n), lend-us a hand. 

6. (la'n)z pB«t"« gyid), land is pretty good. 

7. (i weo'y/n ran Bao'y^n «z a'n DBii be vao'y^s taimz), he wound 

him=it round his hand three or four times. 

8. (dhe DBaad dhB vil was dire wEts waz), they drawed the field 

where the oats was. 

9. (oni won b dhem '1 dyy a ), any one of them will do. 

10. (dhB baaEii meo'y 5 ), the barley mow. 

11. (ao'yj 5 oold iz be ?), how old is he ? 

12. (99 iZ dha't ? b skolBBn), who's that ? a scholar. 

13. (dhB boi ra'its b gy,d rao'y^nd a'nd), the boy writes a good 

round hand. 

14. (a'v)i got Eni nyyj bry;mz, mis-iz ? a'i)v got v ~vjiji, sbeo'yi't - 

DKii be vao'y^B), have you any new brooms, Mistress ? I've 
got a few, about three or four. 

15. (git dhi ap dhas in dhik dhBB adj, «n pik mi dhik dhBE stick, 

wilt ?), get thee up there in that there hedge, and pick me 
that there stick, wilt thou ? 

[ 1592 ] 



D 11, Vi.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 16l 

16. (kam in, tjil, dy^i, im Eaki dso'y^n ■en rat jwrzeI - ), come in, 

child, do ye, and sit down and heat= warm yourself. 

17. (al'oo, dhEn, yyi)z ii'?), Hulloh, then, who's he? 

18. (a4 bii, dhao'y! 5 ■esx is vyyj, ii)z, wii)m, jyy^m «n dhee)m 

goSh), I be, thou art a fool, he's, we're, you're and they're 
going. 

North Devon cwl. 

I words from the cs. from Iddesleigh. 

M words from Mr. Jarman's wl. from North Molton. 

i. "Wessex and Norse. 

A- 3 M beek. 4 M teek. 5 I meBk, M meek meekin. 7 M zeek. 8 be sese 
[to have]. 12 M zaa. 13 M naa. 14 M ditaa. 17 I lee, M laa. 20 M torn. 
21 M neem. 23 I zesm, M zeem. 24 sheem. 33 M reedhBR. A: 43 M 
a'n. 46 M ka'n'l. 48 M za'q. 42 I aeq. 54 I want. 55 M a : sh. 56 I 
wsesh. A: or 0: 60 M loq. 64 I itaq. 

A'- I gwee-in [going]. 72 I yy„ M ^[probably (yy,)]. 73 I zo. 74 I tyy I( 
M t»!. 75 M strAAk. 76 M tood. 79 I on, M AAn. 81 I lean. 82 I warns. 
84' I mo'oeR. 85 M zoor. 86 M WEts. 87 I TLOodhz, M tloez. 89 I boodh. 
92 I nAA. 94 I kRaa. 95 M draa. 97 M zaaI. A': 101 M ook. 102 I 
seks, M a'ks. 104 M EAAd. 105 M RAAd. 106 M bRAAd. 107 M loof. 108 
M dAA. 109 MIaa. 110 Iraart. Ill I AAt. 113 I ool. 115 16m, M 
am. 117 I wan. 118 M boon. 120 I gnu. 123 [(nAAt) used]. 125 I Anli, 
M oni. 130 M boot. 131 M goot. 133 M rot. 136 IM adhisR. 137 I 
nadhBR, nBR. 

-ZE- 138 I faadhBR, M vaadhra. 140 M Ml. 141 M neeil. 142 M zneeil. 
144 iBgeen, M Bgin. 152 M waateR. M: 154 I bffik. 155 M dha'ti. 158 
I aRten. 161 I dEE'i, M dm. 163 M le'ei. 164 M meet. 166 M me'eid. 169 
I weu. 170 aaitast. 172 M g'Rs. 181 M pa'th. M'- 182 N zee. 183 M 
teeti. 187Mleev. 190 M keei. 191 Med. 193 M kleen. 194 I sen*, M En*. 
195 M mEni. 197 M triz. 200 M west. 202 M jEt. M': 203 M speetj. 
205 M BREd. 207 M nid'l. 209 I nEVBR. 217 M eetj. 218 M shiip. 219 M 
sleep. 220 I zhjpBRD. 223 I dheBR. 225 M vlesh. 227 I WEt. 228 M zwEt. 
— M JEth [heath]. 229 M brEdh. 230 M va't. 

E- 232 M bReek. 233 I speek, M speek. 235 M weev. 236 M feevBR. 
237 M tjiblinz. 238 M a'di. 241 M reein. 243 M pleei. 247 M ween. 251 
M meet. 252 IM ktt'l, tee-Kt'l [tea-kettle]. 253 M nid'l. E: 256 I 
STReti. 257 M a'dj. 258 M za'dj. 259 M wa'dj. 261 I zee, M zee*. 262 
wee*. 265 M streeit. 271 I tal. 276 IM dhiqk. 281 M lEqkth. 284 M 
DRa'sh. 287 M bEzsm [generally (brsm)]. E'- 297 I fELBR. 298 M vil. 

299 M gRiin. 301 M ubr. 302 M mit. E: 306 M ait. 312 I jiiBR, M 
jaR. 314 I jHbrd, IM jsrd. 315 M vit. 316 I nEks. 

EA- 319 M gaa'p. 320 I keeBR. EA: 322 IM laaf. 323 M vAAt. 
324 M ait. 325 M waa'lk. 326 I ool, M oold. 327 M boold. 330 I oold. 332 
I tool, M toold. 333 M kjaa»f. 336 M vaa'l. 337 M waa'l. 338 I kaal. 343 
M waa ! Rm. 346 M git JEt [the last more frequent]. EA'- 347 M Ed. 348 1 
a*. 349 I vyy 1( M via'. EA': 350 M dEd. 352 M sird. 353 M brad. 

354 M sheef. 355 M dEf. 356 M leef. 357 IM dhoo. 360 M tiim. 361 M 
been. 363 M tieep. 366 I gaRT, M gReet. 367 M DREt. 370 M ree. 371 
M strAA. EI- 372 M ai a* [(is z1i«mr), never (ai) simply]. 373 M dheei. 
EI: 377 M steek. 378 M week. 

EO- M Ev'n. 386 M jaa. 387 I n™, M ni>'. EO: 388 M mBLk [so 
it sounded to me]. 389 M jook. 397 M soord. 398 M staRV. 402 M laRN. 
403 M vaaR. 404 M staaR. 405 M JEth. 406 M ERth. 407 M vaRd'n. 
EO'- 411IMdru. 414 M via*. 417 M tiAA. 420 M va'«R. 421 M vaRti. 
EO': 423 Mdhai. 425 M lait. 426 Mfait. 428 M zu. 430 M VREn. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1593 ] 102 



162 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 11, V i, ii. 

434 M beet. 435 I jv u M ml. 436 M tei»'. 437 I TByy^h, M TRi/th. 
EY- 438 IM dai. ET: 439 IM trs's. 

I- 440 IM wik. 441 M zeev. 442 M am. 446 IM nain. 448 IM dheez. 
449 M git. I: 458 M nait, I neeBRT [in the phrase, good-night, only]. 

459 IM Bait. 460 M weet. 466 IM tjil. 468 M tjtDBin. 475 M win. 477 
M vain. 478 M grain. 479 M wain. 480 I thtq dhEq. 481 M viqgBR. 
482 I tz)«t ? [is it], T)i!»)'N [it)is)not]. 485 M dRiz'l. 488 M jit. I'- 494 
IM taim. 499 M bid'l. I': 500 IM laik. 506 I w«m*n, M oo\ d«mBn. 

507 M wimiq. 509 I wailst. 510 I main. 

0- 519 I ovbb. 520 M bAA. 521 M vool. 522 M op'n. O: 525, ii. 
I of. 526 M kAAf. 631 I daatua. 533 M did. 534 M aaI. 535 I vok. 
536 M goold. 538 I wed. 539 M bao'y^l. 541 I waant [emph.]. 542 M 
boolt. 548 M TOBsd. 552 M kARN. 554 M kras. 0'- 555 M sha? shyy^ 
556 I taoyV 557 I taoyV 559 M modhBR. 562 M miy^n. 564 M zy^. 
O': 569 M b«k. 570 M twk. 571 I g«d. 572 M blad. 573 M ikd. 
574 M bry^. 575 M styid. 577 M bao'y!*. 578 M plaoy! 9 . 579 IM tmsrf. 
683 M ty^. 586 I dy a . 587 I dy^. 588 I nyyjn. 589 M spy^. 590 M 
vlima. 594 M byjt. 595 M vy^t. 596 M Ryjt. 597 M syjt. 

U- 601 M fao'yi'l. 602 M zao'yi 8 . 604 I zamBB. 605 I za'n, M zan. 
606 I duBB, M do'sB. V: 609 M v«l. 610 M w«l. 611Mbahsk. 612 M 
zam. 613 M DBaqk. 616 I gaao'y^. 619 I veo'yind. 625 M toq. 629 M 
zan. 631 I dhazde. 632 IM ap. 633 M kap. 634 I Dnyyu M db*. 625 M 
WEth. 639Mdist. U'- 641 IMao'y!. 643 IM nao'y,. 646 M bas'yi 6 . 
647 M aa'jfl. 650 I Bbao'yit. 651 I widhao'y,t. 652 M kwd. U': 658 
IM dao'y^. 659 M t&'yfr. 663 M so'y^s. 664 M lao'y^s. 667 IM ao'yit. 

Y- 680 M bizi. 682 M lit'l. Y: 684 M baRDj. 685 M Bidj. 688 
M szyti. 691 M ma»n[(miin) was given as n.Dv. by Mr. Shelly, see p. 165]. 
Y- 706 IM wai. Y': 711 M lce'y^zBz. 712 M mais [(miis) was given 
by Mr. Shelly, see sw.Dv. p. 165]. 

n. English. 

A. 732 I asp'nd. E. 744 M meez'lz. 750 M ba'g. I. and Y. 764 

IM pug. 758 M ga'l [little used, (tpl)]. O. 761 M lood. 767 IM nA'is. 
773 M daqk. 790 M gao'y^n. 791 I b6i. U. 797 I skweekin. 798 I 

kweer. 804 I DBaqk'n. 806 I fas, M vas. 807 M py^. 808 M pat. 

TTT. ROMANCE. 

A- — teedjas [tedious]. 824 M tjiiB. 830 M rseeia. 835 M Reez'n. 
836 M seez'n. 840 M tjEmsR. 862 I seBf. 864 I kooz. 865 M vaaW. 

E- 867 I tee, M tee. 878 M sa'hmi. 885 I VERi. 888 I zaRten, M 
zaRiin. 890 M bast [pi. (bees)]. 894 M deseev. 895 M Reseev. 

1- andY- — kBai[cry]. 901 IM vain. 904 M vo'ilet. O- 916 
M iqinz. 922 M bwshBl. 923* M mo'ist. 925 I va'js. 929 M kao'y^kBmBB. 
933 M frant. 938 I kAARNBBR. 939 I kloos. 940 I kot. 941 M vyj. 947 
Ib6il. 950 I sapBR. 955 I dao'yjt. V ■■ 963 k«iai-Bt. 965 M o'il. 969 
I zhooBR, M zhy^R. 870 I djBs, M diist. 971 M vly,t. 



Yam. ii. South Devon cs. 

Dartmoor, north of a line from Plymouth to Kingsbridge (17 ese.Plvmouth), 
pal. by AJE. from the glossio of Mr. John Shelly, 8, Woodside, Plymouth, 
a resident for thirty years, who has especially occupied himself with the glossary 
of the dialect, but is a native of Norfolk. Full explanatory notes have been 
given of every point of difficulty, and Mr. S.'s indications are strictly followed. 

0. wBd'i :djan hez noo doe'yts. 

1 . weI, boos, jy va ii me booth griz'l «t dhis)j« rw*z « maa'm. 
hg» maa'niz dhEt ? dhEt-s neeShs Ja n-e dhfisR. 

[ 1594 ] 



D 11, Vii.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 163 

2. fa$ vook da'» b*kyy*z dhEB)m laaft set, es nAA dhEt ; doont)es ? 
wast shid m.EE'k)n ? t)Ez)n zb laa»k - K, ez et ? 

3. wdhBmAABB dhEEZ-ju be dhB faeks B-dhB kEES, so dfia hool jb 
"baal, boos, Bn bi kteaa'rvt tel a'»-v B-d«h. lttk)j3B. 

4. a'« vm zhuBB [zhrfea] a'*' jaBd)n ze« — zam b cUiee vook Bt 
wEnt dhm dha hool dhEq vram dha vaoBst cUibzeI'vz — dhat ded 
a'», zkuuBnaf. 

5. «t dhB raq-gest z«'n h«zsalf*, e gaost bA'« bv na'm, niAd az 
vaa - db.BZ voo'*s tB wsens, dhof et - wez zb bwdeen bh skwee - km, Bn 
a'*')d test •bii tB speek dhB trwth sen - *' dee, ia -£ee, a'*' w»d. 

6. an dh)ool hiraran Bsalf - al tEl sen - * av jyy, at start griz'lm 
dhiiBE, Bn tEl)i straa«t jd tyy, adhoe'yt m«tj bodn-BB, ii jb)1 on - » 
8eks)B ty, aa, waant-BE ? 

7. eedliBmAABR hBE toold et *mii wsen a'i 8ekst)B, tyy b dhr#« 
toa'«mz, aa-vbe, hBE dsd, Bn "ham Aift not ta bii raeq on z»tj b 
db.Eq)z dbis, wset dyy)i zim ? 

8. weI, ez 'a'*' wez ■Bzee-in, 'haDE w«d tEl)* - hoe'y> wiiBB, Bn wseaen 
v foe'yn dhB drzk-n be'«st, b kaalth b mEE'Bsta. 

9. h« zwaabe b zAA)n w« be AAH aa'»z, laa'rm sprwd Bbraa'd 
on dhB eeth, in ez goad ztn-dt k(5oBt, hoom ta duu' a dba boe'yz, 
dce'yn ta dba kAAn - dBE b dhaek-4 kii. 

10. a wez kwez'ltn, hB z«ed, fBB aal dhB waafil laiw'kBtjiil dhet)s 
i, er a v«'n - ed gaoal. 

11. Bn dhat wez, ez hs \eern. thruu dha bse-klet w»dh b 
daa-tBE)n)laa, vrBm hEq - «a oe'yt dhB WEt klooz tB draaV on b 
WEslWn dee, 

12. wa'tl dhB kEt - 'l wez baa'«lm fs tee, wsen vaa'*h briiBt zn'nrBB 
aa-tBn»»n, on-« b wEEk Bgoo, kam nEks dhaDEZ'd*. 

13. Bn dyy)« nAA? a'*' n»'va laaEnd asn-* mAA)n dhj's b dhaek - *' 
bt'znts hoom tB dies maanm, zb zhuuB)z ma'*' neem)z :djaan :zhep - Bd 
Bn e'« doont wassent ty, nwdha — gwnoe'y- 

14. an zoo a'»')m gaam om tB zap-BB. :goeced niiat, Bn doont)i 
bii zb kwEk te krAA aa - vb mm agen, waen a tElth b dh*s Bn dhat 
Bn dh)adhBB. 

15. t)ez a toctlm vyyl, at tslth Bdhoe'yt mem-in. Bn dhEt)s 
ma'« laaBS wad. :goed ba'« toe)». 

Notes. 

0. why. Mr. S. has given various vowels Mr. S. takes as common; finally 
analyses of this diphthong (o'i, oo't, at, when fully pronounced he acknowledges 
aa«). I follow the one chosen in any (r), but the words are often much 
particular case. He found a variety in clipped, and then he hears the same 
actual use, hut is inclined most to (a'i). effect as in London, a simple (b), but 
See also the following Devonport and it is probably (b r ) or (b) with the 
Millbrook. — doubts. This diphthong is tongue turned up, the difference is very 
also variously indicated, but Mr. S. slight, and Mr. S.'s (b) is here left, 
generally gives (oe'y), following Prince 2. news. When final and emphatic 
L.-L. Bonaparte, and finds a rounding the sound seems to become (y) and is), 
of the lips in the first element. between which Mr. S. hesitates ; (yj 

1. soce. Rarely used in S. Dv., recalls both. Mr. S. being a Nf. man, 
supposed to be a N. Dv. word ; it is finds the sound less clear in Dv. than 
plural. — grizzle or grin; the r before in Nf., and thinks {») or something 

[ 1595 ] 



164 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [DU, V ii, 

between (u) and (y) more common. — master (husband) . Observe the use of 

because they am for they are. The form the form calleth in eth ; common in Dv. 

(bikyyz) seems rather to be by course, 9. lying spread abroad on the earth. 

for (bv kyys) is used for of course. — home= close or fully up to. — comer 

3. either-more, that is, however. — of thackey (that, yonder) lane. 

bawl or noise. — look. Mr. S. also 10. crewsling — complaining, the 

writes (loek). word is not in the glossaries. — bad= 

4. through. The (dr-) initial seems unwell, sick would mean vomiting. — 
almost lost here, but (dryy) occurs at vinnied, mouldy as applied to cheese ; 
times, also (dreks'l) threshold. cross or peevish, as applied to children. 

5. though, the (f) is common. — yes 13. good now (last word). Mr. S. 
faith I would. says that he never actually heard 

7. three. This is said to be the this phrase in the neighbourhood of 
ordinary form. Mr. S. has, however, Plymouth, but that it is common in 
heard (drii) once or twiee. — ought. N. and E. Devon. 

Compare though in par. 5. — what do 14. night, no (n.) in s.Dv., but see 

you seem = think, a common Dv. word. p. 159, note to par. 14. — to crow over 

8. drunken. Observe the northern any one (min) is a common word, 
form (drak-n). — her (she) calleth her 15. toiling, dottering. 



Soxjth-'West Devon cwl. 

written in Glossic by Mr, J. Shelly, and pal. from that and other indications 

by AJE. 

i. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 3 beak. 4 teek. 5 meek. 6 mead. 7 sesk. 19 teel. 20 leem. 21 
neem. 22 teem. 23 zeem. 24 zheem. 25 mem. 32 baath [as the rec. subst.], 
33 Todhira. 34 las. 

A: 41 dhseqk. 43 hsen. 44 laen. 46 kan'l. 51 msen. 54 waant. 55 
Eshez. 56 wEsh. A: or 0: 58 vrim vrom. 59 lEEm. 60 loq. 62 straq. 
64 raq. 65 zoq. 

A'- 69 nu. 72 03. 73 zoo [emph., (ze) unemph.]. 74 to tyy [emphatic]. 
76 twued. 78 aa. 79 AAn. 81 leen. 84 mueR mouB.. 87 klooz. 92 nAA. 
94 krAA. 95 dhrAA. 

A': 102 Eks, EBks. 104 ruud roed. 105 rAAd. 110 nat. Ill AAft. 115 
hom [h generally sounded]. 117 wah [e.Dv. wsen]. 121 gaan. 122 nAAn. 
123 nAthin. 124 ston. 125 o-ni. 127 hoos, hoos. 129 goo'wst. 130 boot. 
133 rAAt. — roov [a row or rank]. 

M- 138 vaadheR. 140 heel. 144 egE-n. 150 leest. 152 waHeR. M: 
160 eeg. 165 zed. 166 meed. 169 wen wsen. 173 wez. 175 fas faz. 179 
wa't. Ml- 182 zee. 183 teeti. 184 leed. 185 reed. 190 kee. 192 

meen. 193 kleen. 194 em. 195 men*. 199 Meet. 200 weet. 202 jet. 
Ml: 203 speeti. 213 eedhen. [only in eithermore= however]. 215 teat. 216 
deel. 217 eetj. 218 zhip, zhep. 219 zleep. 223 dhieR. 224 w'ibr. 226 
mAAst. 

E- 232 briik. 233 speek. 238 eedj. 241 reen. — brim'l [bramble]. 
248 miieR. — eet [eat]. 251 meet. E: 257 sedj. 261 zee. — beed 

[a bed]. — twelv [twelve]. 272 el'm. 280 leb'n. 281 leeqkth. 284 
drEsh. E'- 290 hii [emph., gen. (b) unemph.]. 292 mii. 293 we [emph. 
£as)]. 300 keep. 301 Jan. 302 meet. 303 zweet. E: 305 di. 306 eet, 
est. 311 tEn [usually half a score]. 312 jam. 314 rand. 316 niiest. 

EA: 322 Wi. 324 ait E'it. 325 wa«k. 328 k««ld. 335 aa\. 336 v«al. 
337 waffll. 343 w«Rm. 346 giBt. EA': 347 heed. 348 a* e'j. 349 vaa. 
EA': 350 deed. 352 9Rd. 355 diif diiv. — ta'i [verb], tai [subs, in bed-tie, 
the local name for feather-bed]. 361 been. 363 tjeep. 371 strEE straa. 

EI- 373 dhee. EI: 378 week. EO- 383 za;b'n zeb'n. 385 bineeth, 
bineedh. 387 ns». EO: 338 milk. 390 shid. 402 lann. 406 eeeth. 

407 vaad'n. EO'- 411 dhree. 412 shii [emph. obj. (br teld - shii te du et)], 

[ 1596 ] 



D 11, Vii.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 165 

414 vlai, vIe'j. 417 tja'w. 420 vaabb. EO': 425 la'it [rarely (l'mit)]. 

430 vrind. 434 beet. 435 j« [gen., unemph. (i) meaning ye?]. BY- 438 
Adai [very much drawled]. EY: 439 trist. 

I- 440 -week. 446 no'in [drawled]. — peez peez'n [pea peas]. 449 git. 
I: 452 a'i, ai. 455 lai ln'i. 458 nsit [rarely (niiet) as in e.Dv.J. 459 ra'it 
[correct, but (ant) straight]. 460 wee'jt. 462 za'it. 465 sitj zitj. 466 trial. 
— gild [a guild]. 473 Win blaind. 475 wind. 476 bwaind, [occ] bdind. 
477 va'in. 479 "waind. 485 daesh'l. 488 Jit. — zeks [occ. ziks]. — bet 
[hit]. I'- 490 bai bs'i. 491 sa'if. 493 dreev. 499 bit'l. I': 500 
la'ik [rarely (lek)]. 502 vaiv. 603 le'iv. 506 wa'iv [rarely used]. 506 
hwmBn. 

O- 522 AAp'n. 523 hAAp. — bann [born]. 524 wasd'l. 0: 528 
theft [subst.] thoft [vb.]. 531 daatBB [rarely (dafteB)]. 534 hAAl. 538 wid, 
id. 552 kann. 554 kraas. O'- 555 sh«w. 560 sk?»l. 562 m,wn [perhaps 
more gen. (myyn)]. 564 zyn [very short, or (zin)]. 565 iiaaz. 0': 569 
b»k. 570 t»k. 671 g*d. 572 bM. 575 stod. 576 wEnzdi. 582 k»l. 
584 start. 585 brym bream [more gen. (yy)]. 586 dyy, da». 587 din. 588 
na»n. 589 spam. 590 [(plaenshin) that is, planking, is used for floor]. — baz«m 
[bosom]. 594 bst. 595 vat. 

U- 599 ubyy. 606 do'ffBK. XJ: 608 ugli. 615 pce'yn. 618 woe'ynd. 
619 voe'yn. 620 groe'yn. 629 zin. 636 radium. TJ'- 640 kce'y. 641 ce'y. 
643 noe'y. — plim [plum]. 652 kid, kyd. 653 bit. TJ': 656 rami. 

659 toe'yn. 663 has'ys. 

Y- 674 dad. 677 droi. Y: 684 bandi. 685 audi. 686 bai. 689 
bild. — kiinli [kindly]. 691 main [(miind) in e. and n.Dv.]. Y'- 706 
waa'i [occ. (wee)]. 712 [(miis) at Totness and in n.Dv.]. 

n. English. 

A. 718 treed tresd. 737 rneut. I and Y. 754 peg. TJ. — pwd'n 
[pudding]. — bish [bush]. 

in. Romance. 

A- 815 faks. 842 plaensh. 852 eepun. — maHtjsnt [merchant]. 854 
baael. 864 bikaa-z. E- 867 tee. — zauv [serve]. I-andY- 910 
djaa'ist. 0-- — rab [rob]. 916 i-qitsn. — dja'in [join]. 922 bish'l. 
938 kAAnd^H. — zaRt [sort]. 941 vyyl. 952, i. kyy-s, ii. kara [hence probably 
(bifcw-s) by course, in or of course, used for because, see 864]. 956 kivrcR. 
IJ.. 960 kee. — djidj [judge]. — papit [pulpit]. 969 zIwbb. 970 
djist djes. 

Consonants. 

B is not omitted after m, except in (brim'l) bramble, and when final. 

Ch remains except occasionally in (kist) chest. 

D remains after », but is omitted after ol in (<x>l kool) old cold, it is inserted 
in (kAAndBB) corner, dd does not become (dh) when medial as in ladder. 

F initial is often (v). 

H is seldom dropped, according to Mr. Shelly, but sometimes prefixed in emphatic 
words, and replaced by (j) in (jet, JsefBB, j»fel, joe'yl) heat, heifer, handful, 
howl. 

L is never dropped, and -Im final becomes often two syllables as (erem f ilam) 
elm film especially in e.Dv. 

N becomes I in (irvlin jii-vlin) evening. 

E is (r) only when dwelled upon, Mr. Shelly not feeling sure that it is really 
pronounced, he says he heard 200 children singing " send her victorious, 
happy and glorious " and could detect no r at all. If seems probable that he 
had not separated (a, a, e) simply, from these sounds as modified by turning 
up the tongue, which alters their character. I have consequently, as the 
result of much correspondence, introduced (r) frequently in the preceding list 
and cs. although in his first writing he omitted it. As I was a considerable 

[ 1597 ] 



166 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 11, V U. 

time myself before I could recognise this very peculiar modification, I can 
well appreciate his difficulty. My own impression is that it is always reverted 
or retracted, even before vowels, and when preceding t, d, », I reverts or retracts 
these also. But these cases I have left unmarked. The following cases, 
where Mr. S. marks the absence of r, may therefore be marked, as in other 
S. cases, as having a transposed r, (kaitzmBS gaRt gaitts c«pBBn aitti band 
baRtren) Christmas great groats apron rich bread breeches. 
S of the plural becomes (-un) in (hce'yzrcn bat'l'n peezBn) houses bottles peas. 
T is lost in (wis'l, kaas'l, daesh'l, wes'l, AAf'n ; aek fsek) whistle, castle, thistle, 

wrestle, often; act, fact. 
Th, there is " a general tendency to substitute (dh) for (th), as (dhtq) for (thiq)." 
V is lost in (gii) give, and becomes (b) in (zeb'n) seven, it never becomes (w). 
W is omitted before r and in (hwd, hwnren) wood woman ; would is (wid) ; wh is 
always (w). 
My especial thanks are due to Mr. Shelly for the great assistance which he has 
given me and the work he has done for me in sw.Dv., from 1868 to 1886, con- 
tinually attending to every point of difficulty which arose. It will be perceived 
that he is mainly corroborated from Devonport and Millbrook, the differences 
being simply those of appreciation, and that the real differences in n. and s., e. and 
w.Dv. and e.Co. are not sufficient to form districts for, but are mere varieties of 
substantially the same dialect. 



Devontobt bt Plymouth dt. 

Town pron., pal. by AJE. from the diet, of Mr. John Tenney, Chancery Audit 
Office, native, compared with that of Mr. J. B. Bundell, native, see Millbrook. 

1. soo' ae'i see»", mEEts, jiff eii nso'yi 6 , dh«t es'i bi r,a'it cbao'y/t 
dha J t ltt'l mee«d kamtn ff ( Bm dhB skural [skyj! 6 !] ovbb dheBB. 

2. shii)z [_ar,)z] gueen dao'yi 5 n dhB r/)o I5 d [r/fBd] dh^Br, thrjyi* 
dhB r/d gEEt on. dim Hit a J nd sseH'd bv dhB weei. 

3. shoo 1 ^sr, naf dhB tjll)z gAAn str,9'*t op tyi 5 dhB doo^Br, By dhB 

r /°q ce'yi* 8 - 

4. -w&er, p^a'ps shii)l [ar,)!,] fse'md dha x t dr^qkj'n diif drse'ed 
op Mb killd :tomas. 

5. wi [as] nbz)'n vet/ we 1 '!. 

6. vro)nt dhi 6o 16 l tja'p sy^n teetj^r, not tyi 6 dyy x 5 it BgEEn, 
pooler, th«q. 

7. lyyi 6 k ! EE)nt Bt ti^yy! 6 ? 

Notes. 

Observe that (o 16 , yfl mean (o 1 , yj character in Mr. B.'s. — now. This 
with projected lips. The letters o, p, a diphthong was precisely the same as at 



are called (oo xi , pii, kyyi 5 ), but coal is Iddesleigh, both for Mr. T. and Mr. 

called (kAl). Mr. T. himself noted B., though perhaps less forcible in the 

that in so you it was necessary to s. than in the n. — right. The r in 

project the lips considerably to bring Mr. T.'s pron. was treated very much 

out the sound. * like the London r as I at first appre- 

1 . I. The analysis of long « is not ciated. But after attentively examin- 

perfect. I write as I seemed to ing Mr. B.'s, I concluded that his was 

observe. Mr. T.'s varied between (ae'i) retracted (r,) and not reverted (n), and 

and (a'i). Mr. Bundell seemed gener- this agreed with Mr. B.'s own appre- 

ally to use the latter. Perhaps both ciation, see Millbrook. As both Messrs. 

meant (a 1 *) at all times. — you. This T. and B. were natives of Devonport, 

seemed to be diphthongal in Mr. I concluded that Mr. T.'s had been 

T.'s speech. I did not observe this more reduced to the London level. — 

[ 1598 ] 



d 11, v a.] 



THE WEST SOUTHERN. 



167 



school. I appreciated (sku^l), and Mr. 
T. wrote skootil. But Mr. B. decidedly 
had (skyy,!), which would be the 
regular form. 

2. she is and her is are quite inter- 
changeable. Mr. T. wrote shee-z, and 
Mr. B. ur-z. — through. Both Mr. T. 
and Mr. E. gave (thr-) and not (dr,-) 
in this word. Eev. H. S. "Wilcocks of 
Stoke, which adjoins Deyonport, gave 
dr-, which is certainly the purer form, 
though Mr. T. said he had heard 
(thr-) five miles away in the country. 

3. enough. Mr. T. had never heard 



enow. — child. Mr. T. says (tjiil) is 
used for either sex. 

4. dried up, because shrivelled is not 
used, but (shr,) is used, as (shrimps, 
shr,ab). — called. This word would be 
used, name = (nEEm). 

6. chap is not often used, (rna'n) is 
more common ; a woman will speak of 
her husband as (mse'i tja'p) ; the man 
generally speaks of his wife as (mse'i 
misBs), but (oo l *l|d)anven) may also be 
heard. — thing, with (th-) in town and 
(dh-) in country. 



Peom Millbbook Co. 

2 sw. Plymouth, on the other side of the Hamoaze. Specimen written in 
glossic by Mr. J. B. Eundell, of the Science and Art Department, South 
Kensington, who lived there as a boy from 4 to 10, and has had frequent 
opportunities of refreshing his memory. Pal. by AJE. from w. instruction in 
1885. The specimen is supposed to be a dialogue between two persons A and B, 
and is constructed so as to bring in the principal peculiarities. The pron. is 
thorough s.Dv., and Mr. Eundell states that having had occasion to visit 
Padstow in Co., he was surprised to find the speech practically the same. 

1 A. gy-jd marten ty,)i, neetrer,. jyi)m op brev/Bn)ar,I* dhis 
mar,nm. weBr, bii Bgween tyi zo zy^n ? 

2 B. aa ! gyjd mai^mi tji 'Jyyi, mo'» diBr, ! wo'*, Jj! zii var^mer, 
:obzez tjiil)z ety,k baed widh <Sxb meez'lz, Bn 9'*)m gween dap'yin 
tao'yin tyi dokt8r,z ao'y,s ty! TOtjyn var,)'n. 

3 A. aa ! ar,)z Bgot dbo meez'lz Evjer, ? [seth Br,). ar,)z lyikt 
kryj w«sb.t var, dh«s vai^tna'tt passt. Br, modliBr, to'wl mi Br, ky,d'n 
g*'t Br, tji eet notbin Bn Br, waz bz -week)s)B webm. 

4 B. is, a'i zid var,mBr, :obz h«'zsElf «stBRde, sez o'« wez in dhB 
viil dr ; ee**n tar/aBts, Bn)i)zEd i thoffc i mos kael *n dhB doktsr,. oz 
o'i wbz Bkoimh op dh.B leen dps nao'yi o'» mEt)'n BgE-n, Bn i sekst 
mi ty! go vAr,)'n ty! wonst. 

5 A. Jyi)d bBter, roEk eest dh'n. sb.il o'i zii)i bo'»)m)bo'« in db.B 
eevntn aet dhB trdb'wrqk? Bn wii)l bv b po'mt bv swa'eps tBgt'dhBr,. 



Notes. 



1 . good. The sound was decidedly a 
deeper (y), approaching (»), in some 
cases almost (a). — morning, the (r) was 
decidedly retracted and not reverted, it 
was very faintly marked, not nearly 
so strong as at Iddesleigh. — neighbour, 
the (ee) did not seem to approach («), 
and there was no suspicion of a following 
(']), — you)m, you am, the regular con- 
versational form. — up, this form (op, 
Ap, AAp) seems to run through this 
group, D 10 and 11, and indeed occurs 
also in I) 4. 



2. my, this (a'i) was the nearest 
approach I could make to this diphthong, 
which was certainly not (a»), and not 
even (a'i), before mutes, but became so 
before sonants, as white, wide (wo 'it, 
waid) . — down town house, at first hearing 
this diphthong sounded to me as (a'w) and 
it was not till after close examination 
and continual repetition that I was con- 
vinced the sound was (ce'yi 6 ). See the 
remarks on Iddesleigh (p. 158) ; the 
action of the mouth was .identical with 
that there described, wide open for the 



[ 1599 ] 



168 



THE WEST SOUTHERN. 



[D 11, Vu, iii. 



first element, with the lips closed nearly 
and projected for the second. — house 
with final (s) not (z), to doctor's house 
to fetch him for him. 

3. her, used either for he or she. Mr. 
E. did not know of the distinction («, 
vs.). he, she. — wisht, whished, poorly, 
haggard. — told, here I think the diph- 



thong was (a'u) or (6u), it was certainly 
not (ao'yi). — robin, the hird. 

4. rfnaw»B^,i.e.pullingup,tfwr»t^*. — 
thought, the form (thoft) with (f ) is very 
common. — at once, the sound seemed 
more like (wonst) than anything else. 

5. by and bye,tidliwink small public- 
house or beershop. 



Vae. iii. e.Co. 

Camelfoed (14 w.Lattnceston) dt. 

pal. by AJE. from dictation of Miss Ada Hill, native, student at 
Whitelands, June, .1881. 

1. zoo ai zee, meVts, ra zii na'w cUrst a« bi ra*t Bba'wt dhat l*t'l 
gaEL kamm from dhek» sku y l. 

2. aa)z b gu - m de'wn dhB roBd dhas thruu dhB rEd geBt on dhB 
lEft han said b dhB -wee. 

3. shoos Bnoo« dhB tpild)z gbn street ap te dire doBB. b dhB roq 
a'wz. 

4. waKan)l bi laik t« faind dhek» draqk'n diit wtz'nd Mb b dhB 
neBm b :tomos. 

5. as aai noo)Bn vm weI. 

6. -want dhB oo\ tfap zun teetj [lamr] aR not ts du)*t Bg»'n [Bg«n], 
puua dh«q ! 

7. lttk ez)'nt [«'d)'nt] it truu ? 



Notes. 



1. mates, (sant), not (ztnt), is com- 
monly used in place of ' mate,' even to 
old people. — now, I wrote (a'u) from 
dictation, but do not feel at all certain, 
because of my initial mistake for Mill- 
brook (p. 167 note on down), that it 
was not (a>'yi 5 )> here and at St. Oolomb 
Major notwithstanding the different 
analysis. — I be, so generally, Miss H. 
never heard I's (see Cardynham) nor 
J are, but she knew we'm you'm for 
we are, you are. — girl, Miss H. had 
heard (gamr/l), (meed) maid, is common 
enough for a young girl under twelve, 
(trUld) is only used for children before 
they can sneak properly, and she did not 
know of its exclusive confinement to 
girls. She, however, uses it generally 



in par. 3. — that, (dhekt) a very common 
word. — school, not (skyy,!), there was 
a tendency towards (u) shewn by (w). 
I got schule sheur from Padstow. 
2. through, Miss H. was confident 



that it did not become (druu r>Ryi), 
although (radi) takes the place of (thru), 
see also Millbrook. I got drew from 
Padstow. 

3. enough, " (una'i) is also heard, 
not (eni-f)." 

4. wizened, shrivelled not known, 
but (shr-) initial is used. 

6. chap is properly a young fellow 
who works in the quarries, called also a 
" quarry nipper." — thing, think, both 
have initial (dh). 



The two following dt. are given with much hesitation, but they 
are the best I could obtain, and the writers had taken so much 
trouble that I thought it best to insert them. 



[ 1600 ] 



DI1, Viii.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 169 

CABDyNHAM (3 \ ene.Bodmin). 

dt. from a very careful translation in io. with long aq. by Mr. Thos. H. Cross, 
national schoolmaster, not a native, but much of my interpretation remains 
conjectural. The pronunciation was obtained by Mr. Cross from an old 
labourer whose family had been 150 years in the parish. 

1. zoo a!i zee, boiz, jfyi zii iie'w, vt a'«)m rait \>M dhik» let'l 
meed kamBn frBm dhe skuul jindvn. 

2. an)z Bgara cLe'uh dhik« road dhiBB thru dhe rad giBt ■en dhe 
Kft haen sa»d bv dhe wee. 

3. show Bnrf dke tjil bz gA'en str««t op tv doBr bv dhe raq e'us. 

4. wibb ea wil tjaens tB vend dhik« droqken dif wizend felBE bv 
dhe neBra bv :tam8s. 

5. as ool nooz bh wsri wel. 

6. -w««nt dh*k» owld saw setm teetj shi nat tn de'y^et gen, puuB 
thtq! 

7. lak s»! Ed)'n)*t truu? 

Nates. 
1. so, *«y. The initial (z) was 3. " <?te? is the term for girl." 

written in these two words only, not i. find, the form vend was unex- 

in soon and side. This may have been pected. — drunken written dro-un-ken 

an oversight. — boys, written bo-oys, and said to be so pronounced, which 

which, judging from other spellings, is so unlikely that I have not ventured 

may mean (boiz), but (boiz) seemed to give it. Mr. C. may have meant 

the more probable sound. — you written that o was substituted for «, as in 

ya-ew and explained " a as in hater, u the next note, Bee also (op) written 

as French u, ya-u quickly." — now, ex- op for up. 

plained "same sound a, ow as in cow, 5. all, " there is a remarkable 

pronounced quickly, the a very distinct." presence of the letter o which gives 

— that, the abridged form («t), said to be the word the sound of (h)ole," but he 

" very common." — I am written oi urn writes o-all, so his dro-un-ken may 

with the variant I's, which is also stated indicate a substitution. — very, Mr. C. 

to be "very common, more so than oi has never heard (w) for (v) in any 

um." In 1865 TH. heard (di)z)a'd) I other word, "and in this case it is 

have had, from a miner from Gwennap only in slight use," it is probably 

(3 se.Redruth), but that is in D 12. I an error. 

conjecture that oi, which was used in 6. so»»y, commonly used as an address, 

right side, meant (aft). — school written but said to have been obtained from a 

skole, altogether doubtful. — yonder, Mr. labourer in this phrase. 
C. says he never heard yinder till he The r I have left unmarked before a 

came here, but has often noticed it. vowel, from pure uncertainty. 



St. Colt/mb Majok (11 wsw.Bodmin) 

and about ten miles round ; dt. written by Mr. T. Eogers of the St. Wenn 
National School, Bodmin, with the help of the members of the Beading 
Boom, in which each portion of the dt. was discussed. The original io. 
was difficult to understand, and although Mr. R. kindly furnished very full 
explanations, I cannot be quite sure that I have always interpreted them 
rightly in the following pal. translation. 

1. s|_zoo ai &[zee, konuwdz, d)i s|_zii no(5o dhst ai)m ra*t hoo'ot 
dhu'ki lit'l m«#d kamra frBm dire should. JAAndBr. 

2. shii)z g««n dodon dho rood dhiiBB druu dhB rsd g«#t on dh« 
lift hsen s|_zaid ov dh« wee. 

I 1601 ] 



170 



THE WEST SOUTHERN. 



[D 11, V Hi. 



3. s|_ziua naf dire tjiild)z gon strae't ap te dba duns ov dire rseq 
hooos, 

4. -wires sh)«l tjeens te vaYn dh»k« dsaqkin diief skruuod Mb ov 
dhB neeem ov :tom«s. 

5. wi aal nA Bn WEl)B)faYn. 

6. wsent dh)ool tjaep s[_zuun teetj be nEt te duu)ot BgEn, puuBB 

7. lwk ! Ed)'nt)et triu ! 



Notes. 



1. so say see. These were said to 
begin with (s) followed by a faint 
sound of (z), in that case they would 
form the transitional sound from (z) to 
(s). — I right. The phonographic sign 
for (ai) was given, but the actual 
analysis of the diphthong is conjectural. 
— comrades, with the accent on the 
second syllable, the usual word for 
'mates.' — now about, etc. The diph- 
thong, written noow, was explained as 
"o in not or innovate, but rather 
short, ow as sparrow." This gives the 
transcription (nooo). For bout, down, 
house, Mr. E. used these spellings, and 
said of house " ou as in sparrow, with 
the o prolonged slightly." It seems 
to me that the analysis is certainly 
wrong, and that (o'w), heard from 
Camelford, is more correct. But the 
explanation was so explicit I felt bound 
to adopt it. — I'm "is used in such 
sentences as 'I'm gain ta town,' I be 
in answering questions, as: 'are you 
one ? ees I be, not ' I am.' " — right. 
" The r is trilled in many cases, droo 
for instance. A big boy in school once 
said to me, ' how many dree hapences 
in dreppens,' with a trill on each r, 
the point of the tongue touching the 
gums of the front teeth of the upper 
jaw and then vibrating. But when r 
occurs at the end of a word, it is not 
trilled, as far as I am aware, but the 



tongue is withdrawn back to the throat 
in pronouncing it. In droo there is a 
trill, in drunken not, the tip of the 
tongue touching the teeth [for d f ] and 
then withdrawing. In strife and trew 
there is a slight trill in the first word, 
and a strong one in the second. — strife. 
The front part of the tongue touches 
the roof of the mouth in front ; the tip, 
the top of the gums in the lower jaw, 
and the tongue is drawn backwards, 
and the tip lifted upwards at the same 
time. 

2. trew. The tongue (tip) touches 
the gums in front in the upper jaw, 
and is then quickly withdrawn back to 
the throat past its normal position in 
the mouth. This would generally 
indicate (r„ b) with occasional (r, ,r). 
Under these circumstances I have re- 
tained (r) before a vowel, but used (r) 
trial.— from or (vrem, f LVTEm) .— school. 
This was written shool, and explained 
to be o, as in not, but very short, 
followed by o, as in hoot.' This I have 
endeavoured to render by (sk^nnl), 
but I think that this is probably wrong. 
Perhaps he meant (skos'uul), a gene- 
rating sound of (skyy^), but everything 
is uncertain. I generally got schule, 
shewl in io. from Co. 

3. enough, 'the /strongly accented.' 
6. her, 'she is but rarely used for 

her.' 



Although, these examples of e.Co. leave much to be desired, they 
evidently shew a dying out of Dv. forms, and the characteristic (b, 
yi) are more or less implied. 



[ ,1602 ) 



D 12.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 171 

D 12 = w.WS. = western West Southern. 

Boundary. On the e. the w. b. of D 1 1 from Falmouth Harbour 
to Pirran Bay (p. 156) b. are made up of the sw. coast of Go. 

Area. The w. of Co., to the w. of Truro, together with the 
Scilly Islands (24 wsw. Land's End). 

Authorities. See County List under the following names, where * means vr. 
per AJE., t per TH., ° in io. 

Co. "fGwennap, *Marazion, *Penzance, °St. Just, °St. Stithians. 

Character. None can be given. The mode of speech is said to 
vary much from place to place, not more than ten or twelve miles 
apart, and most of the WS. characters seem to have disappeared. 
Down to 200 years ago some Cornish was still spoken in these 
regions. How the change to English came about, I do not know, 
but it was clearly not imported from the e., because we find 
scarcely a vestige of Dv. phraseology or pronunciation. The 
miners, who abound, are a mixed race. Many words of Cornish 
origin remain. The phrases used are picturesque, and the spelling 
which the dialect-writers of west Cornish have adopted is also 
rather picturesque than phonetic. It would be necessary to study 
the pronunciation of each neighbourhood on the spot from the 
mouths of natives, and for such a haphazard speech as appears to 
prevail, this would, be hardly worth while. At the same time, any 
tolerably complete view would demand too much space. 

Tregellas, as quoted by Mr. T. Q. Couch ("East Cornish "Words"), 
remarks on the peculiar sing-song of the West Cornwall speakers, 
and its lessening and alteration in character on proceeding east- 
ward, through Trevednack (? Towednack, 2 sw. St. Ives), St. Ives (7 
ssw.Penzance), Hayle (4 se.St. Ives), and Camborne (4 wsw. Red- 
ruth), and says that, " e. of Camborne, even at Redruth, the 
natural accent has died away, nor is it again heard from the more 
guttural speakers of Redruth, Gwennap (3 se. R.), and St. Agnes 
(6 n-by-e.R.). But . . . the miner of Perranzabuloe (7 nnw. Truro) 
expresses himself uniformly in a full note higher than his adjoining 
parish of St. Agnes, and no sooner have you passed. Cranstock (8 
wsw.St. Columb Major) and Cubert (2 s.Cr.), and entered into St. 
Colomb's," than you begin to hear (z-) for (s-), in first to a small 
and then to a large extent. This agrees precisely with Mr. 
Hodge's b. of e. and w.Cornwall passing between Cranstock and 
Cubert, and here adopted (p. 156). 

Mr. William Noye kindly wrote me a version of the cs. for 
Penzance, and I took it down from his dictation in 1873. In 1876 
I went over it with Mr. Rawlings, of Hayle, who was exceedingly 
well acquainted with the speech of his neighbourhood. He differed 
from Mr. Noye in a great number of particulars, and found the cs. 
so ill adapted for exhibiting the west Cornish peculiarities, that he 
re-wrote a portion of it, which I pal. from his diet, in Feb. 1876. 
It seems, therefore, advisable to limit any examples to this par- 
ticular specimen, which, as will be seen, is founded on the cs. He 
locates his yarn in Marazion (3 e.Penzance), and entitles it 

[1603 ] 



172 



THE WEST SOUTHERN. 



[D 12. 



Jackt Tbesise, a Marazion Specimen. 



1. idjaek-i :trazaiz sEd: oo ! -hii 
laeaef ! hi cU'd - 'nt laeaef wen ra rand 
rawee* larast krez'mos frBm th« 
giiz-deransraz, ran sEd tu an :maeH 
tpwlgree'n, dhrat hii)d siid ra pt's'kt. 
•hii Ed'nt wath ra snaf ! 

2. sid)'n, did-shi ? draqk a* 
spooz? kraWntu? zaek - li laik'n ! ! 
nau, aijl tri/i idjeramz, ai nsrs 
laik)'n — AA-lez kraid *n dhra 
roq plees ! 

3. ai wraz daun tu :midhiran 
mtt*'n lerast san-d«, ran aqk'l :tom 
:vEs'nt priitjt ebaut dhra p&MB 
•.sramaeritran — wi haed ra klab fiist 
dhra dee Bfoo', ran •sam)Bv)raz iit 
ranaf • fe djEn't'lmen — ran dh« 
woz'nt a drai ai en dhra ma't'n, 
SEpt •hiiz. 

4. soo ai sEd tu* ran : "hauaer^i 
soo ankransaa'nd?" 

5. ran sez hii: ":djsek-i, ra do'nt 
kransaa-n "mii, kiAZ &i do'nt U'v tn 
jo' paer - *sh. ai oo - nli steed aftra 
dhra klab fiist, kAAz ai wbz a l*t - l 
fwd - 'ld w« biiv." 

6. asz tra sirran ob)'m, hi wu&'n 
kam irrto 'mai haus ran not bi 
siid ! au' :mee*rt tauld mi oo - nl« 
:man - de iib - m»n,hii'-r*n rabaut dhra 
taen'tremz ra k*'kt Ep daun tra 
:tjaatj :taiin ; 

7. " ez-'nt haeaef ra maen," sez 
shii, "hii-1 gaz'l All dhra l«kra hi 
kran Wti ran skreep, ran ra dra pee 
noo'bradt. sam dra see hi Ed'nt 
paat»k-lra rabaut t«« - k«n whot Ed'nt 
ez oon. dhra klooz ra heed on ra 
nEvo peed dha psekmasn fA. ran ai 
WMd'nt," sez shii, " tras'n *n 
a«r eel tjeenrbra b&i raseH . 

8. " ai bliiv il hii-d noth'tn 
iit'tn a drt'qk'th, hii-d teek ra lamp 
ra shwg-B aut 9 dho nirar»z keedj. 
ai nevo siid o fsl'e laik)'n fra[_r 
iit-«n, SEpt driqk'tin, ai bliiv hii-z 
laik ra kloonrEn kaet, hii-z hol'B 
daun tra h»z tooz." 



1. John Tresise said: Oh! he 
laugh ! he didn't laugh when he ran 
away last Christmas from the guise- 
dancers, and said to aunt Molly 
Polgrain, that he'd seen a piskey. 
Se isn't worth a snuff ! 

2. Saw-him, did-she? drunk, I 
suppose? Crying too? Exactly like - 
him ! Now, I'll tell)you, James, I 
never liked)him — always cried in the 
wrong place ! 

3. I was down at Mithian meet- 
ing, last Sunday, and uncle Tom 
Vincent preached about the poor 
Samaritan — we had a club feast 
the day before, and some of us ate 
enough for gentlemen— and there 
wasn't a dry eye in the meeting, 
except he's. 

4. So I said to-bim : " How are- 
you so unconcerned ?" 

5. And says he: "Jacky, he doesn't 
concern me, because I don't live in 
your parish. I only stayed after 
the club-feast, because I was a little 
fuddled with beer." 

6. As to seeing of) him, he wouldn't 
come into my house and not be 
seen ! Our Mary told me only 
Monday evening, bearing about the 
tantrums he kicked up down to 
Church Town ; 

7. "Isn't half a man," says 
she, "he'll guzzle all the liquor he 
can hitch and scrape, and he do pay 
nobody. Some do say he isn't 
particular about taking what isn't 
his own. The clothes he bad on he 
never paid the packman for. And I 
wouldn't," says she, "trust-him in 
our hall chamber by himself. 



8. "I believe if he'd nothing 
eating or drinking, he'd take a lump 
of sugar out of the canary's cage. 
I never saw a fellow like-him for 
eating, except drinking, I believe he's 
like an earthenware cat, he's hollow 
down to his toes." 



[ 1604] 



D 12.] THE WEST SOUTHERN. 173 



Notes. 

1 . guise dancers. Christmas mum- and the trill of r, and her is used for 
mers, dancers in fancy guise. — aunt. he, a southern importation. Of course 
This "aunt" is said to hare been the the joke is a very ancient one, Cornwall- 
usual mark of respect for the Virgin ised for the occasion. 
Mary. It reminds one of the American 6. Church Toion, the name always 
negro Uncle and Aunt. — piskey, meta- given to the place where the church is. 
thesis for (pik-si) pixy or fairy, as 7. packman, the pedlar who carries 
(waeps) for wasp, etc. — snuff, namely, round a pack of cloth for sale. — hall- 
a candle-snuff, the most worthless chamber, the chief room of the house is 
thing he could think of. so called, however small it may he. — 

3. Mithian is a small curacy 6 nnw. himself, but written "Aerself. See 
Truro. — meeting, that is, a Non- her for he in par. 5. 
conformist chapel or preaching house. 8. if he'd nothing, etc., that is, if he 
— uncle, a title of respect, see aunt, was not engaged in eating or drinking 
par. 1. — poor, a little confusion be- something.— earthenware, (kloom) is 
tween the "good" Samaritan and the a common Cornish word for earthen- 
unfortunate man he relieved. — he's ware. A common red earthen pitcher 
apparently for his, but it may have with two handles is called (b kloom 
been only (hiz) for (hiz) ; the common bas-e), where the («) is peculiar, per- 
hissen is not used here. haps a (w ), and I occasionally heard 

5. He, the (b) is her, less the aspirate it like an (a). 

As this -was a w. specimen of pronunciation, I have extracted 
some of the principal words, and I have also taken those given by 
Miss Courtney in the introduction to her "West Cornwall Glossary." 
But I am quite unable from both, and also from looking over many 
books of West Cornish tales and rhymes, to make out any satis- 
factory characteristics. There appear, however, to be some traces 
of D 11 from e.Co. and Dv., as 1) the metathesis of s and consonant 
in (p«'sk«, klaeps, haeps) pixy, clasp, hasp ; 2) the use of ('n) for 
ace. him, it ; 3) (tjil) for a girl ; 4) the neutral infinitive in (-i) as 
(digi, haeki, peenti, wAAki) to dig, hack, paint, walk. Miss 
Courtney also adduces the use of (bii, beent, ai bi, bii-i ?) for am, 
is-not, I am, are you ? ; but they do not seem to occur in the 
literature, and the disuse of be was one of the marks by which Mr. 
Hodge was enabled to draw the line between e. and w.Co. 



West Coenish cwl. 

Unmarked generally or marked R, words from Mr. Rawlings's example. 
C words for the Land's End and adjacent districts from introduction to Miss 
Courtney's Glossary, conjecturally palaeotyped. 

i. Wessex and Norse. 

A- 8 C hseajv. 30 C Mb. 34 least. A: or 0: 61 C rano-q. 64 raq. 
A- 92 C nAA. A': 123 nothin. M- 141 C neBl. 143 C teA. 
M: — C hams [hasp]. M'- 182 C see. 193 C kken. M: — 
iibmin [evening]. 249 C wiB [according to Westlake]. — iit [eat]. 251 C 
me«t. E: 263 Bwee. E'- 290 bii [strong], b [weak]. 296 C bleev. 

302 C mit, R mi-t'n [meeting]. E': 314 hiBd. EA: 322 lsesef. 334 

hsea;f & C. 338 C kseael. EA'- 348 C ai. — jib [ear]. EA': 366 C 
geet. EO: — jsels [yellow]. 406 Craath [Westlake, also (iBrth)]. EY: 439 
tras)'n [trust him]. I: 466 C tpl. 482 Ed)'nt [is'nt]. — trips [crisp]. 

[ 1605 ] 



174 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 12. 

I': 500 laik. 0: 525 ob)'m [of him]. 533 C d«l. 541 C weeat. 546 

fA. 0'- — C grAA [grow]. 0': — C hunk [hook]. — C huud [hood]. 

V- 603 C kuum. U: 635 wath. V- 641 hau. TJ': 658 dawn. 

T-' — kiit [a kite]. 

u. English. 

A. — nisri [canary]. — C klaeps [clasp], E. — C biit [peat]. — C 
slain [skein]. I. and Y. — piski [pixy]. — suevs [shiver]. IT. — 
fwd'ld [fuddled]. 804 draqk. — pwz'l [to puzzle]. 

m. Romance. 

A" 811 pless. — ■pee [pay]. — C mseaestu [master]. — C senjel [angel, 
possibly (eenjul)]. 849 C straenra [possibly (streenra)]. 850 de«ns. 851 an. 

— Bkw'm [square]. 866 paws. E-- 867 C tee. — C seekret [secret]. — 

— siin [a seine, net]. — rsleev [relieve]. — bre«m [bream, fish]. — 
ank«nsaa - nd [unconcerned]. 891 flist. 895 C risee - v. I- andY- — rEvu 
[river]. 0" — Ckalsm [column]. 933 C front. TJ- — shwgur 
[sugar], — giiz [guise]. 

The Scilly Isles. 

Miss Courtney in her "West Cornish Glossary mates the 
Scilkmian dialect different from that of Co., instancing tread tree 
for 'thread, three,' (o'«) for (a'i) in (po'int o'«lz) pint, isles, and 
conversely (pa»nt ba«l) for point, boil. She also draws a distinction 
between the speech of St. Mary's island containing the capital 
Hugh Town and the speech of the " Off-oislanders," as she 
writes them, who inhabit the smaller isles. This was in 1880. 
Eev. W. S. Lach-Szynna, vicar of Eewlyn St. Peter, Penzance, 
kindly wrote to Mr. Dorrien Smith (proprietor, and familiarly 
known as "the King of Scilly"), who, in reply, dated Tresco Abbey, 
Isles of Scilly, 7 Aug. 1883, says, "I know of no place in the 
British Isles where the Queen's English is less massacred by the 
lower classes than it is in these islands. There is no dialect or any 
peculiarities of speech worth mentioning, and I can find no record 
of any having been spoken." Mr. Lach-Szyrma says compulsory 
education has prevailed for forty years and stamped out dialect, 
and that the people are mostly Cornish, some are said to be 
descended from the Cavaliers of Charles II. who settled there, and 
others from sailors from all parts (Scillonia once was a pirate 
station). The population is quite hybrid in all points, in appear- 
ance, physique, ideas, and language ; a sort of gathering from 
the coast population generally, but with a strong Cornu-British 
element. Under these circumstances no dialectal value can be 
attached to any pronunciations there heard. I am indebted to Miss 
Toulmin Smith for the means of obtaining the above information. 



[ 1606 ] 



D 13.] THE SOUTH WESTERN. 175 



II. 

WESTERN DIVISION OF ENGLISH DIALECT 
DISTRICTS. 

Boundaries. The w. b. is the CB (p. 9) from the Bristol 
Channel to the point where the n. sum line 1 breaks from it. The 
n. and part of the e. b. are the n. sum line 1 (p. 15), from the 
point of its deflection from the CB to the point where the reverted 
ur line 3 (p. 17) joins the n. sum line 1 on the w. The rest of 
the e. b. is formed by the reverted ur line 3, from its w. junction 
with the n. sum line 1 to the Bristol Channel. The s. b. is the 
Bristol Channel between the CB and the reverted ur line 1 . 

Area. Portions of Mo., He., Sh. in England, and of Br., BxL, 
Mg. in Wales. This district represents on the e. comparatively 
late, and on the w. very modern invasions of the English language 
on the "Welsh. 

D 13 = SW. = South Western. 

Boundaries. On account of the absence of detailed information, 
the n. b. is rather arbitrarily assumed to be first the b. of Ed. and 
Mg., and then of Mg. and Sh. as far as a little w. of Bishop's 
Castle (8 se.Montgomery) ; next, turning to the s. between Clun 
(13 w.-by-n.Ludlow) and Craven Arms (7 nw.Ludlow), nearly in 
an e. direction to just n. of Bewdley (3 wsw.Kidderminster, "Wo.). 
This is merely meant to imply that at least a few miles n. and s. 
of this line the speech is sensibly different. The other b. are the 
w. e. and s. parts of those of the "W. div. 

Area. The e. part of Mo., almost all He., the greater part of 
Ed., the e. of Br., and a narrow slip to the s. of Sh. 

Authorities. See the County List under the following names, where * means 
tv. per AJE., t per TH., || systematic, ° in io. 

Se. ° Almerley, t Dinmore, || Docklow, || Hereford, t Leintwardine, f Leo- 
minster, ||t Lower Bach Farm, ° Lucton, t Stockton, t "Wacton, ° "Weobley. 

Sh. t Clun, t Ludlow. 

Mo. ° Caerleon, ° Chepstow, * Llanover, ° Pontypool. 

"Wales.— -Br. ° Brecon, * e.Br., ° Builth, c Crickhowel. 

Ed. ° Boughrood, ° Llanddewi Ystradenny, ° New Eadnor. 

Character. S. English spoken by "Welshmen or their descendants, 
the e. side being more English and the w. side more Welsh, in fact, 
on the w. the speech is most like book Eng. spoken by foreigners, 
with occ. dialectal influence. The whole is very imperfect dialect, 
even in m. and e. He. marks of "Welsh influence abound. In D 13 
the groundwork is S. English, which has been altered by Celts in 

[ 1607 ] 



17ft THE SOUTH WESTERN. [D 13. 

a different -way from D 10, 11. The initial (z, v) for (s, f) is 
almost extinct, and the initial employment of (dr) for (thr) is lost. 
The reverted (r) exists, but is generally inconspicuous and often 
uncertain, so that it would not be possible to correct line 3. The 
use of (at) for AG-, EG- is uncertain. Some of the fractures A- 
(&e), A! (foe) remain. The fine (b) rather than (a) has developed 
itself for 0' as well as TJ. The form (oth) for with is striking. 
The diphthongs for I', XT', are mildly (a'«, q'u). 

For examples I am mainly indebted to specimens obtained by 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, which he passed over to me, from Docklow, 
Hereford, Lower Bach Farm and "Weobley in He., and Llanover in 
Mo TH. also went over most of the ground, and brought me 
valuable information ; he visited the sons of Mrs. Burgiss, of Lower 
Bach Farm, who were very polite in communicating their know- 
ledge, which enabled me to understand better the information of 
Mr. Woodhouse, of Docklow. As these give the best idea of the 
dialect, I place them first, and then give a mixed cwl., which shews 
the n.He. habits of speech. Mr. Woodhouse's examples are full of 
local colouring. For Hereford itself, the speech had become too 
much like ' received ' for me to cite two cs. obtained for me by the 
Prince; and that from "Weobley could only be conjecturally inter- 
preted. It must be remembered that all se.He. belongs to D 4, in 
which it is treated (pp. 68-75). The w. of He. becomes more 
like "Welsh English, and is treated afterwards. Of Bd. I know 
too little, but it is probably very like Mo., which will be noticed 
further on. 



Illustrations for n.He. and s.Sh. 

Lower Bache (:b««tj) Farm (3£ ene.Leominster) dt. 

pal. by TH. from diet, of sons of Mrs. Burgiss. 

1. na'u e'i)sa«, meets, jti si no'w e'« bl ra'*t ■Bbo'jrt dhat ltt'l wensh 
kanwn f rem dhra skuul jander. 

2. 3r)z ■egtca.tn da'un dh« rood dMer thre'w dire rad gtet o)dh«)l«:ft 
ond saVd o)dlr8)wai (waV). 

3. bo'« gom ! [shuur «naf J sr)z gAn strek't tu dire roq a'ws. 

4. wear, la'«k ■east sr)1 fa'rad dhat droqk'n dam dwld :tam. 

5. wi aaI noM ha. wnl wasi. 

6. o'«')l bak 1)1 laRN aR bEter)'n du)*t Bg]Vn puer wEntj ! 

7. luk! rant)»ttruu? 

Notes. 
1. mates (ladz, tjaps), if one person (sa - B») sirrah. 4. (dans) deaf. 



[ 1608 ] 



D13.] 



THE SOUTH WESTERN. 



177 



Docklow (5 ese.Leominster). 

Examples written ' ' as near as possible how one of his farm-labourers would speak ' ' 
by Mr. R. Woodhouse, Newhampton, Leominster, Hereford, acquainted 
with the dialect 30 years in 1875 ; pal. by AJE. from his indications, and 
the information obtained at Lower Bache farm, about 2 miles off, by TH. 



Obiginai,. 

1 . pliiz, Dims, dim miBstBR teld 
mi te a'ks ju te send :tam.BS Bn 
:djiBmz da'wn tB im in dhe aa* f »ld, 
bz suun bz dha* bv dan ma'gt'tMi 
dhB sh«p, tB elp im. tB taRn dim 
aa«, Bn sm sed bz dhaY wbz tB bw'q 
SBm pe'iks ath em, bz sambBde 
bv «d tuu bz wbz left dheea 
last na'«t fa ga'lBsnes, Br stool em. 

2. Bn :bil iz tB teek. b okshet 
bv weVstBr, intB dhe s*dz far dhe 
kAAvz, Bn HI dhBr trAA far «m, 
Bn dhen bwq dhB wa'gj'n tB dbB 
aai f*'ld. ii mast p«t dbB filer 
as, bz :diArb« Bd bii tuu restt'v 
fa dhB bwaa« tB dra'»v ap dire 
AAstp't, bz pra'ps i vA ran 
8waa» Bn spwa'il i'zself, Br samBt. 
Bn ii jb wa'nts en« teetvsz fer 
dmer, miester teld mi tB d«'q sam. 
ii sed bz sam on jb «d paVnt 
a'ut dhB framest tB mii, Bn tel mi 
e'u men* ja'u)d wa'nt. 

3. jb mast pliiz tB a'v dhB p»gz 
pend ap, fBr dha* wbz in dhB 
wilt f ild bz a'*' kam ap, Bn dhai 
bv wa'z'ld it da'wn ver« ba'd, 
djest thra'u, dhB giet, Bn fa'*h 
WBEk a'i a'd tB get em a'wt ega'n-, 
spesel« dhB n«sgal, i ra'n mi aaI 
ovbe dhB f»'ld BfdoBK a'i k«d get 
«n a'wt. 

4. ma'« AAld um«n teld mi tB tel 
jb bz a» iz gwaara tB :lemstBr 
temorB, ii jb wa'nts tB send, be 
b got sam fa'wlz tB s*'t. ar Bd 
intended em fa spa'rsgras tj*k«nz, 
bat dhaai waaitnt fram enaf, 
soo as b a'd te "kin Bm t»'l na'w. 
miBster iz gwaam te send in dhe 
bienz i tild last w«k, en be th»qks 
e getin e ra'«d ba'k in dhe wa'gm, 



Translation. 

1 . Please, Mistress, the Master told 
me to ask you to send Thomas and 
James down to him in the hay field, 
as soon as they have done maggotting 
the sheep, to help him to turn the 
hay, and he said that they were to 
bring some pitchforks with them, as 
somebody has hid two that were left 
there last night for mischief, or stolen 
them. 

2. And Bill is to take a hogshead 
of water, into the seeds = clover for the 
calves, and fill their trough for them, 
and then bring the waggon to the 
hay field. He must put the thiller 
(shaft) horse, as Darby would be too 
restive for the boy to drive up the 
orchard, as perhaps he would run 
away and spoil himself, or something. 
And if you want any potatoes for 
dinner, master told me to dig some. 
He said that some of you would point 
out the ripest to me, and tell me 
how many you)d want. 



3 . You must please to have the pigs 
penned up, for they were in the 
wheat field as I came up, and they 
have wasselled it down very badly, 
just through the gate, and fine 
work I had to get them out again, 
specially the youngest, he ran me all 
over the field before I could get 
him out. 



4. My old woman told me to tell 
you that she is going to Leominster 
to-morrow, if you want to send, or 
have got some fowls to sit. She had 
intended them for asparagus chickens, 
but they were not forward enough, 
so she has had to keep them till now. 
Master is going to send in the beans 
he tilled last week, and she thinks 
of getting a ride back in the waggon, 



E.E. Pron. Fart V. 



[ 1609 ] 



103 



178 THE SOUTH WESTERN. 



[D 13. 



Bn if be fo'wlz s«lz wel, be miinz and if her fowls sell well, she means 

br**qm b bit B b*f , bz wii bi gwaam bringing a hit of beef, as we be going 

te a'v dhB jaqW knVnd b to have the yonng) one christened on 

» » uu» "."U° u n-Ltonvi o Sunday, and granny and grandsrre be 

sand«, Bn gra'nj Bn gra'ndshBr bi comim J to aiSner ^ith ,£. t mean 

kamm te d«nor Bth wii. a'* miinz to beg a bottle of cyder of master, 

tB beg B bot'l B so'wrer b mrestBr, and have a bit of tobacco for the old 

bel aV b bit b ba'kB fBr dh« aaM ? ha P> as ] I Bh ^ ]* e to make them 

tja'p, bz 9'i shBd la'ek tB meek Bm J ^ • ad comfortable - 
dpi* Bn kamfertBb'l. 

Note, par. 2. (fram) is much used for early and ripe in He. Note, par. 3. 
(nisgol), called (nizgal) in Miss Jackson's glossary, is the youngest of a brood of 
fowls or litter of pigs. Mr. Woodhouse thinks it comes from nest gosling (nist 
gol) in He. 

w.He. and e.Br. Mr. Stead (p. 142), who lived for 6 or 7 years 
at Christ's College, Brecon, has kindly furnished me w. with some 
of the principal peculiarities of the pronunciation of the e.Br. and 
w.He., which chiefly affect the following classes of words. 

1. (ere) verging on (« : b, te), but with both the vowels extremely short and 
difficult to catch, evidently the fracture which appears as (ee ee, ib re) in D 4, 
but peculiar from the great shortness of the first element ; found in A- bake 
take make sake cake tale lame name tame same shame mane late bathe, A'- lane, 
JE- dray hail nail snail tail again slain brain, where in He. generally (aai, at) is 
heard, and in blaze, .35: egg day, he lay, may dale, 2E': clay, EG- sail rain play, 
EG: to lay say way, where the S. practice wavers between (ee, ai), E': high 
nigh, EA- gape, EA: gate, EA'- eye, EA': slay great, EI- they nay, EI- their; 
English A. trade drain sale frame mate wave, E. scream cheat ; French A •• face 
place lace mason fade age rage gain train danger change stranger dance case 
brace chase paste taste, E •• faint. All of these words (except dance) have (ee, 
ee'j) or (ee) in received speech, shewing the extremely modern form of the usage. 

2. (itjie, 6hB, u b, o u b), the extreme shortness of the first element rendering 
appreciation very difficult ; the first element sometimes sounded as («) and some- 
times as o u ), but (« ) seemed to be the nearest ; found in the words A: comb, 
A'- go no toe so toad more clothes clothe road rode loaf whole bone stone 
those ghost boat goat, M: most, 0: coal; 0'- nose; English 0. load; French 
•• coach rogue coat. All of these words have (oo, oo'w) in received speech; 
another mark of modern development, though the fracture itself represents the 
S. (ub, ub) common in D 4. 

3. (so'i, o'i) it seemed to me that (so'i) was the nearest sound as in the Forest 
of Dean (p. 60), and it seemed to have been developed from Welsh yi — found in 
the words EO'- a fly, EO': light fight, EY- to die, I- ivy Friday stile nine, 
I: I, to lie down, night right sight child wild blind, the wind bind find grind to 
wind, I'- by sigh drive time iron arise write, I': like wide five life knife wife 
mile while mine wine ice wise, T: to buy, a kind, mind, Y- sky why hire, 
Y': fire lice mice; French I ■• andY- nice fine dine violet advice, U- quiet. 
Here every word, except the wind, and even that practically, has (a'i) in rs., 
another proof of a very modern form, even the existent He. and Sn. (iyi) ivy 
not being used. 

4. (ao'w, o'w) evidently the same first element as in the last case, similar to that 
in D 4, Forest of Dean, and, as in the last case, probably derived from Welsh 
yinytv; found in the words IT: pound sound (= healthy) found, XT'- cow now 
our thousand, U': brown down town shower house louse mouse out proud mouth 
south ; English 0. bounce ; French EU •• flower, OIT .. allow doubt, that is, 
precisely those words which have (a'u) in rs. 

Although, then, these fractures are highly dialectal in character, 

[ 1610 ] 



D 13.] THE SOUTH WESTERN. 179 

they are merely the representatives of the received (ee, oo, a'i, a'u), 
and hence shew that the pronunciation is merely book-English 
with a slight dialectal tendency. In Br. the people speak English 
with each other, especially towards the east, and as the He. border 
is reached the English is more and more dialectal. Going farther 
w. the English is more and more bookish, clearly a foreign lan- 
guage. From Carmarthen Mr. Spurrell has sent me very interest- 
ing specimens of this English, which is of an old-fashioned type, 
and probably sounds very pleasant when spoken with a "Welsh lilt, 
but is certainly not an English dialect, and hence has no place here. 

Rd. From Rd. I have no specimens, but the Eev. Henry de 
"Winton, vicar of Boughrood (19 sw.Presteign), says, "The English 
spoken being an acquired language is more free from provincialisms 
and purer than that of the neighbouring English counties." It is 
therefore a foreigner's English, and embraces nearly the whole 
county. 

Mo., though long a part of England by law, is essentially "Welsh in 
feeling. By Chepstow, on the borders of GL, the pronunciation, to 
judge from the wl. sent me by Dr. J. Yeats, approaches very near 
to that of adjoining GL, D 4. The use of auxiliary do and did is 
the rule, as it seems to be among "Welsh speakers. The main 
characteristic is the intonation, which, as described by Dr. Teats's 
correspondent, is strongly "Welsh in character. The same was very 
marked in the cs. which, at the request of Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, 
Lady Llanover, of Llanover (12 w.-by-s.Monmouth), wrote for and 
dictated to me, representing the "Welsh English of Mo. and Gm. 

Lady Llanover spoke with much emphasis and apparently exaggerated distinct- 
ness in order to assist me. I noticed that the utterance was rapid and jerked, 
with frequently a compound pitch accent ; that is, in (16ik-li) for the first syllable 
the voice fell in a glide, and then rose suddenly on the second syllable, as in 
Norwegian. The pure (i) was occasionally used finally as in this word, but when 
dwelled on the long final (ii) often fell into (j, jh) as (siijjh) see. The (ee) was 
medial, without any vanish, but (e) became occasionally (e) . The a was usually 
(a 1 ), but at times reached (a?). The h and wh were distinct. The r before 
a vowel was trilled, but otherwise fell into (b), which may have been an English 
habit on Lady Ll.'s part, as she also used (o, oo) , whereas in Welsh (o, ooj are 
employed. She used (s) not (z) in (bisnts), but kept (z) in (bizi). She used (w) 
in (w»d), hut said («mim). Generally her pronunciation was simply a foreigner's 
English and not a dialect. A few S. sounds occurred as (tee, maid) tea, maid, 
and (kA'ran-el) comer. On the other hand a Welsh word heol (hee-ol), a road, 
occurred, as also a nondescript word written differ, and pronounced to me as 
(kli-be) or (kli-ps) meaning 'noise, row,' for which she said (pwtakh), another 
unknown word, was often used. According to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte he was 
informed by Mr. Meredith that other S. constructions and pronunciations were 
used, such as him, us for he, we, un for one, be for is, and the pronunciations 
(dhai, daai, saat, waai) they, day, say, way, in place of Lady Ll.'s (dhee, dee, 
see, wee). The use of the periphrastic forms, as 'did tell' for 'told,' was regular. 
All these were probably the ' vulgarisms ' which Lady LI. purposely omitted. 

The whole of Mo., like e.Br. and all Ed., belongs, therefore, to a 
predominating "Welsh form of English, with very little of true 
dialectal English left in it, and in this respect they are totally 
unlike D 2, 3, which are merely worn-out English forms without 
any "Welsh influence. 

[ 1611 ] 



180 THE SOUTH WESTERN. [D 13. 

NOETH HeBEFOKDSHTRE Cwl. 
B words obtained by TH. from the Burgiss family, and Bt words from lists 

furnished by Mr. G. Burgiss, of Lower Bache Farm (3 ene. Leominster). 
D words from Mr. K. 'Woodhouse, of Docklow (5 ese.Leominster). 
II words from Hereford, collected by TH. 
L words from Leominster, collected by TH. 
Lu words from Ludlow, collected by TH. 

Several of these letters before the same word show that it was found in all 

the places. In such groups medial are not distinguished from short vowels. 

i. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 3 B betjk. 4 DL te«k. 18 B kitsk. 21 B ngwn, L nam. A: 43 B 
ond. — B gonder [gander]. 34 D wa'nt. 56 DL WEsh. A: or 0: 58 Lu 
thram. 60 B loq, tlaq. 64 D raq, BLu roq. 65 D saq. 66 D thaq. A'- 
67 B gwain, B guts. 82Dwanst. 86 Bouts, twats. 92 BLun&u. 95 Bthr<«u. 
A': 104 Brood. 110 Bnu[in], kan», mane, urns, shan«, dane, [but] brent [can't, 
mustn't, won't, shan't, don't, be not]. 114 D pAAL [pole]. 115 B worn, L wa'm. 
117 Lu won. 

M- 138 B feedher. — B siit [seat]. 152 BLu welter, D w««Btur. JE: 
154Bbak. — D Edur [adder]. 161 B ds'i, H dee, LLu. dai. l64Hmai. — 
Bop'l. JE!- 183 Btiitj. 190 B ks'«. 192 D miin. 193 Lu kliin. 200 
B wit, Bf Wret. M!: — D aid [seed]. 216 Bt dEl, B did, Lu dil. 218 
DLu ship. 222 Bf JeeR. 223 B dhesR, H dhoR, L dhE"eR, Lu dhitsR. 224 
B w6br. 

E- 233 Bspiik. 241 Lu r^in. 251 B miit. E: — B a;an-st, BD ena-nt 
[anent, opposite to]. 262 B wSi, L wS 1 *, L wE n i. 263 D «waai. 265 B strait, 
DH stns'it. — BLLu f ild [field]. E- 300 D kip, H kiip. E': 312 
Lu Ibr. 314 B isrd. 315 B fit. 

EA- 320 B kiBR. EA: 323 Bf fa'»t. 326 B «*«ld, D AAld. 332 L 
ta'«ld [Ptowld]. 333 BD kAAV. 338 Lu kAAl. 346 BD giet. EA- 347 
B ja'd. EA: 350 B djad, Lu dE'd. 352 B rad. 354 D skof. 361 BtD 
bfajn. — Bt rep [heap]. 366 L greet, Lu griit. — Bt djAA [dew]. EI- 
373 D dhai. EO- 386 re'u. EO: 393 D biwnd. 394 D jamdw. 

402 B lann. 405 Bt JORth. EO': 431 L bieR. 436 B truu. 

I- 440 D wik. 442 B m. 446 H na'in. I: 452 LLu di, Lu a'i. 

458 D na'it. 459 BH ra'it. 466 B tia'ild. — D fiLis [thill or shaft horse]. 
469 Bt ut, wut [wilt]. — Lu windts [window]. 477 B fa'ind. 482 Bt rent 
taut brant [is not, Mr. G. B said these were the most difficult words to utter]. 
I'- 492 B sa'id. I': — B da'iti [dyke]. 500 B la'ik. 506 BLu unvsn. 
— D aai, L Si [hay]. 

O: — DtrAA [trough]. 541 BD wont, D ont. — BtD ka'ut [colt]. 550 Lu 
waRd. — D tharn [thorn]. — D as [horse]. O'- 558 B luk, Lu [between 
(luk) and (l»k)]. O': — Bt brak [brook]. — BtD ak [hook]. 579 B 
tmef . 587 B da'n. 595 B fat. — tath [pi. (tith) tooth, teeth]. 

IT. _ B wad [wood], BLu ud. 603 Lu kam. 606 B do^R. IT: 612 
DH sam. 616 L gr6«nd [or between that and [groWd)]. 632 DLu ap. 634 
BD thra'a. XT'- 643 DLu na'«, H na'u-. U': 658 BDHLu da'«n. 663 
L a'«s, [pi.] a'wz'n. 665 H mate. 667 D a'«t. 671 L ma'wth. Y: 691 
B ma'ind. 702 D ath. T': — flis [fleece]. 

n. English. 

A. 737 B meet. E. 749 B lift. 751 D piert. O. — D pa'»BR [to 
pour]. 791 D bwaai. U. — Bt o'wdji [huge]. 804 B draqk'n. 

m. Romance. 

A-- — B klEto [clear]. — D pliiz [please]. — Bt miBster [master]. 
850 B dens. — B pleut [plate]. 866 B pu«r. E- — B thatjiz, D faHiiz 
[vetches]. — B pniti [preach]. 890 B bjast. 895 D riseet. O- — D 

bif [beef]. — djo'in [join]. 920 D paint. 926 D spwa'il. — Lu aqk'l 
[uncle]. 930 Btloqk. 941 D fel. — H push [push], 

[ 1612 ] 



D 14.] THE NORTH WESTERN. 181 



D 14 = NW. = North Western. 

Boundaries. The s. b. is the same as the n. b. of D 13, p. 175, and 
the other b. are the ne. and nw. parts of those of the W. div. 
Area. The greater part of Sh. and a small part of Mg. 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List under the following names, where 
* means vv. per AJE., t per TH., || in so., ° in io. 

Sh. tBaschurch, t Bridgnorth, ||Church Pulverbach, fClee Hills, tOorre 
Dale, fCraven Arms, ||Ford, tHadnall, °Llanymynech, tLongville, tMuch 
Wenlock, t Oswestry, f Shrewsbury, "Whittington. 

Mg. c Berriew, "Buttington, 6 Fordon, "Guilsfield, "Kerry, "Llandrinio, 
"Montgomery, °Snead, "Welshpool. 

Character. Observe that Sh. is much cut up by different b. 
D 14 contains m.Sh. The n. belongs to two separate districts, 
the nw. to D 28, and the ne. to D 29, and these are bounded on 
the s. and w. by the n. sum line 1. On the w. there is the CB, 
with a small part of Mg., which speaks English, but more book- 
English than Sh., because it has been much more recently over- 
come. On the e., beyond the n. sum line 1, lies D 29, from which 
in Sh. the information obtained is insufficient. On the s., in 
Bishop's Castle, Clun Forest, Ludlow, and Cleobury Mortimer, the 
dialect assumes the He. character, the verbal pi. in en being almost 
or quite lost, but the line of demarcation cannot be exactly traced. 
In this restricted area Miss Jackson, assisted phonetically by TH., 
has produced her admirable Glossary, about the best that we 
possess of any dialect. To this work, to personal communication 
and much correspondence with her, to TH.'s personal work with 
her, and travels over much of the region, I am mainly indebted for 
the view here taken, which, however, had not been formed or laid 
down by them, but has been merely deduced from their collections. 
In the introduction to the Glossary, pp. xxiii to xlii, is TH.'s 
minute account of the pronunciation drawn up in Glossic with the 
greatest care, for both Vowels and Consonants, under the personal 
supervision of Miss Jackson, and from her indications. It is 
perhaps the most searching investigation of the sounds of a dialect 
that has been made. But as it is arranged in reference to the 
ordinary spelling, and as the whole of the county was considered, 
much work was required to reduce it to a shape that could here be 
used. Miss Jackson divided the county into 14 districts and 4 sub- 
districts for the purpose of examination, and not with an intention 
of distinguishing 14 phases of dialect. On the next page is their 
distribution among the four districts here used, D 13, 14, 28, 29. 
I give the names of the principal places only in each district, to 
which she constantly refers, to shew that the word so pronounced 
was heard in that district, without implying that it exists only 
there. The letters n, s, e, w, refer to the extreme places in those 
districts. "Would that other glossarists had hit upon such an 
admirable arrangement ! When Miss Jackson knows the word and 
its pron. to be generaUy distributed, she puts " common" after it, 
with a "Qy." prefixed, if she merely suspects it to be so. 

[ 1613 I 



182 THE NOKTH WESTERN. [D 14. 

D 13. Bishop's Castle and Clun, Ludlow, placed in D 13 with some hesitation. 

D 14. Shrewsbury, Pulverbach (ipa'wdsrbaeti, :pa'«db.OTbaeti) or (-biti) [Miss 
Jackson's native place], Worthen, Craven Arms, Church Stretton (subdistrict), 
Corve Dale and Clee Hills, Bridgnorth s. and w. (on the line of separation of 
D 14 and D 29, the n. and e. belong to D 29), Much Wenlock, Oswestry s. 

D 28. Wem n. and w., Whitchurch (subdistrict), Ellesmere, Oswestry n. and e. 

T> 29. Wellington, Colliery regions, Newport n. and w., Wem s. and e., 
Bridgnorth n. and e., Newport s. (Shiffhal). In this place only D 14 will be 
attended to, other places are noticed in the proper order. 

The -whole of D 14 presents a remarkable mixture of S. and M. 
The S. forms are much used. U=( 9 ) is carried considerably further 
than in received speech, as in (fal, faler, pand, band, baluk), full, 
a fuller, a pound, was bound, a bullock. Also more frequent 0'= 
(a), as (brak, stad, raf, tath, fat, sat), brook, stood, roof, tooth, 
foot, soot, but of course neither forms are carried out consistently. 

S forms are (ai) in (dai, \ai, lain, rain, pl«i) day lay has lain, rain, to play, 
the use of 'thee bist' (dhii bist) for 'thou art,' and be in the pi. But here 
comes in the strongly M. forms or I am, he is, we you they bin, where bin (bin) 
represents be with the verbal plural in -en. This v. pi. in -en is used throughout 
D 14 with all verbs, as (wi wan) we were«, (we shaen) we shall-en, (wi dan) we 
do-e», (wiin) we have-», (wi hasd'n) we haddsw. The S. forms (joojm wiijm) 
you am, we am, may also be heard, as well as 'er (ar) for 'she.' But the S. 
(b) is quite absent, the regular trilled Welsh r (r) prevailing over the whole 
district, even when final or hef ore consonants, and the trill in that case is always 
more distinct than in the adjacent M. regions. This peculiar Welsh (r) with 
the sharp, crisp, highpitched, rising Welsh intonation which prevails, marks the 
region still as having been carved out of the Celtic settlements with a joint and 
alternate action of the S. [Wessex] and the M. [Mercian] folk. According to 
Green's Maps in his Making of England, while He. was under the Mercian rule 
of Penda in 634, Sh. remained Welsh till included under the Mercian supremacy 
of Offa in 792, and in 828 Egbert the West Saxon conquered Mercia. It must 
have been in this early period that the M. peculiarities were introduced with 
M. English, but they never eradicated the Welsh (r) . The West Saxon (n) did 
not reach beyond He., and is now not very strong or marked even there. TH. 
believes his Midland r, used in Db;, Ch. and St., to be "the common English 
r" (on which see Introduction to the M. Div.), then he hears the Welsh r "with 
stronger vibration and retracted " in n.Sh., " verging in m. and s.Sh. with still 
stronger vibration to reverted r," which it reaches at Bewdley. The (a) for tJ, 
0', is of course modern, but the fine (a 1 ), "still very general but gradually 
passing away," and becoming quite (ee) in Miss Jackson s speech, may have been 
either Welsh or Ws. 

TH. in his elaborate investigation has often distinguished (a, a') and (e, e), 
and also (a, a), and sometimes in accented syllables (y, i), where I write (i„ i), 
writing (i) always in unaccented syllables. He also gives three sounds of J, 
(ahi), which I now write (a'i) by preference, in m.Sh., (ai) in s.Sh., and (ai) in 
ne. and e.Sh. In my notes of Miss Jackson's pronunciation I used (ai), though 
I remarked that it varied with (ae'i, e'»), and I now prefer to use the unanalysed 
form (a'i). TH., who has been over much of the ground and heard native 
speakers, considers (ahi=a'i) the true fine Sh. », but as he heard IT' as (a'«) in 
(to'w, ha'ws) cow, house, it would seem that (a'i) would be the correct older 
form of I', whence the other forms easily flow. In fact, the difference between 
(a'i, a'i) is often difficult to seize. These forms (a'i, a'w) would then be strictly S. 

The formation of the negatives (amnra, buve, warns, a'nu) am-not, be-e«-not, 
were»-not, have»-not, is remarkable, but the real forms have a (d) final, the (ms) 
being a contraction for (nrad) when final or before consonants, as shewn by the 
reappearance of the (d) before vowels, as (semnisd a'i ? wenrad-B f lured-rc bi ?) am 
not I ? were-n not-they f will-not-they be ? and the fact that ' not, what,' when 
emphatic, are called (nad, wad). 

[ 1614 ] 



D H.] THE NORTH WESTERN. 183 

The consonants otherwise as a rule present nothing peculiar except in using 
(dj) for d in deal dead death darn dew (3ie1 djEd djsth djaarn dji»'«) which must 
have arisen from inserted (j), as in (jEd rap jaar jo'«1) head heap hair howl, 
with a similar change in (tjem truun tjuuzdt) team tune tuesday, and (shuut 
shuuit kunshuu-m) suit suet consume, with the obsolete forms (sham sliEin) for 
seam. But (sh) presents a difficulty before (r) as (sriqk srob) shrink shrub, 
while the county-town Shrewsbury is (.-shroozbri) only "in classical and educated," 
(.-sraozbrj) "in semi-refined," but (.-soozbri) in the common pronunciation of 
"country-folk," for which (:suuzbri) is a "vulgarism." 

Names of places always fare ill. Here are a few given by Miss Jackson, 
pp. 515-519, the usual spelling being added in italics (:«e-bBrt'n Albrighton, 
ikswrdek Caradoe, :kendttr Condover, rdi'dlik Biddlewick, : jar on Eardington, 
:aarkul Ercall, :cemsn Haughmond, :momf«rt Montford, rwak'njEts Oaken-gates, 
:eqket Offoxey j itrosbun :trasp«n Osbaston, :o - zestrs :o-djestr» Oswestry, :shrml'n 
Shrawardine, :stodhBrt'n Stottesden, u - ses'n Woohtaston, :viuu :Edi Yew Edge). 

Illustrations. I select two of the examples written analytically 
by Mr. Hallam in Miss Jackson's Glossary, and one which I wrote 
from her dictation myself in 1873. To these I have added a cwl, 
containing almost all the words in D 14 cited in Mr. Hallam' s 
treatise on Shropshire pronunciation in Miss Jackson's Glossary, all 
made under her own superintendence, and also most from a long 
list of words which she read to me on 11 July, 1873, and of which 
she subsequently revised the Glossic writing. These will, I think, 
sufficiently illustrate the character of this very interesting dialect. 
Illustrations in Miss Jackson's orthography abound in her Glossary, 
which also contains the pronunciation of each single word in 
Glossic. 

Of the strictly "Welsh parts of D 14, comprehending a slip of 
Mg., I am not able to give any specimen, but it may be regarded 
as book English with Sh. tendencies and a "Welsh intonation, just 
as in Mo. we have book English with "Welsh intonation and He. or 
Gl. tendencies. 



Examples, Ptjxvekbach (7 sw. Shrewsbury). 

I. Betty Andrews relates how her little boy fell into a brook, 1873. The words 
are run all together, no stops, no pause, "but," says Miss Jackson, "no 
written characters of any kind — no ' want of stops ' — can convey an idea of 
the story as poured forth by Betty's voluble tongue — it took away one's 
breath to listen to it." From Mr. Hallam' s 'analytical' Glossic in Miss 
Jackson's Sh. Wordbook, I. xcv. 

a 1 * terd ra skra'ik mum ran a'» I heard a shriek, ma'am, and I 
ran ran dhirar a 1 *' s*,d :fra'qk rad "»> *?? * be ™ I saw Frank had 

™>ld- i dhra brak ran Aa'ukt andrar P»t«nedmfte brook and ducked under, 
peKt * anra DraK ran aau&z anarar Md waa drowning( and i j,^ 

ran wraz dra Mnd«n ran a 1 * djampt a fter him and got hold of him, and 

a'ftrar «m ran got a'ttt o'n «'m ran lugged him on to the bank all sludge, 

lagd «m on tra dhra bo'qk a! sIecIi and I got him home afore our Sam 

ranaVgotOTwcemrafdraraWisa'ni ° ame "J- a &?od job « was for 

, ° . , -, , , ., j, Sam as he wasn t there, and as Frank 

kamran m— ra gud djob *t waz frar wasn >t drowned. For if he -had been, 

isahnraziiwanBdhSrarranrazifra'qk I should have torn our Sam ail to 
wanra dro l un&i& for *f i a*d bra, 
a'« shrad ra tdrar a'wrar isa'm a'1 tra 

[ 16i5 ] 



184 



THE NORTH WESTERN* 



[D 14. 



Winder ra'gz, Bn dhen l)d b b»n 
djEM Bn :fra l qk dra'Mndid, Bn d. 1 *' 
sbed b bm a*qd. a 1 * ta'wd rsa'm 
wen i tuk dhB a'ws bz &H' d»dr±B 
laH'k it. ' ties dhB wensh,' i sed, 
' wo)dn)i want? — dhlBrz b taVdi 
a'ws Bn b gud gardi'n Bn b ran 
rer dhB p«g.' ' a 1 *,' a 1 *' sed, ' Bn b 
gud brak for dhB tjildBm tB pek 
in.' sd ii tfra'qk a'd bm dra'wndid 
&H shed b b*n dhB dpfth b a'wer 
:sa'ni. a'i wbz -dha't frit'nd m«m 
dbBt a 1 * didnB sp««k for b na'wrar 
a'ftBr a 1 * got woem Bn isa'm sed bz 
i a 1 dnB sijd m« kwa'iBt sd laLq 
sens wi wan ma'rid Bn dha't wbz 
•aVt-tiin Ibt. 



window-rags, and then he)d hare been 
dead and Frank drowned, and I 
should hare been hanged. I told Sam 
when he took the house as I did not 
like it. ' Bless the wench,' he said, 
'what)do)ye want? — there's a tidy 
house, and a good garden and a run 
for the pig.' 'Aye,' I said, 'and a 
good brook for the children to pitch 
in.' So if Frank had been drowned, 
I should have been the death of our 
Sam. I was that [so much] frightened, 
ma'am, I did not speak for an hour 
after I got home, and Samsaidas[that] 
he had not seen me quiet so long, 
since we were [were-en] married, and 
that was eighteen year. 



II. Betty Andrews, talking fast as usual in a railway train, was thus addressed 
by a passenger and made the following reply. 



' wi mi'si's, SH sbBd thi'qk bz 
jd man b a'd jdvi taqg a'ild 
dhi's mArm'n «f<ter jd started.' 

' nd i'ndiid ser,' sed Bet*, ' a'i 
a'nB, fsr ii it -a'd b bin a'ild, it 
ud nEVBr b stopt. nd •da'i'ndrer ! ' 



'Why, missis, I should think as 
you)must have had your tongue oiled 
this morning afore you started.' 

'No indeed, sir,' said Betty, 'I 
haven't ; for if it had have been oiled, 
it would never have stopped. No 
danger! ' 



III. ' Adam's Apple, ' or Larynx, here called ' Eve's Core.' See Eve's Scork in the 
Glossary. This example was pal. by AJE. from Miss Jackson's dictation. 



' dsedi, wod)z dhi's lamp i jat 
nEk?' 

' we, it)s :iivz skAArk, tjse'ild, 
awd madber :iiv iit dhB aep'lBrsEl, 
bat Br g«J dhB skAArk tB feedhBr 
.•sedem, sen it stak i'n i'z thr^et, 
sen aal msn)z sed'n dhi's lamp 
avBr sens.' 



' Daddy, what)s this lump in your 
neck?' 

'Why, it)s Eve's core, child. 
Old mother Eve ate the apple herself, 
but she gave the core to father 
Adam, and it stuck in his throat, 
and all men)have had this lump 
ever since.' 



Mid Shropshire cwl. 

Unmarked, rearranged from Mr. T. Hallam's Glossic in Miss Jackson's Glossary, 

Vowels, pp. xxiii to xxxv. 
Marked *, rearranged from a list of words dictated to AJE. by Miss Jackson, 

11 July, 1873, the pronunciation having been subsequently revised by her. 

In these words the unanalysed form (a'i) of the diphthong has been used 

throughout, see p. 182, 1. 14 from bottom. 

I. "WeSSEX AM) NOKSE. 

A- 3 bek. 4 ta'k. 5 ma'k. — *kr««d'l [cradle]. 13 nA\ 19 td. 21 
nem. 25 *m««n. 34 *la>s. 37 Haa, kkez [claws]. A: 43 *and. 44 *lsend. 
45 unt, *wnt. ■ — kon [can]. 51 *mon. 54 want. 55 es. 56 WEsh [common], 

[ 1616 ] 



D 14.] THE NORTH WESTERN. 185 

wash [Clee Hills]. — kset [cat]. A: or 0: 60 laiq. 62 straiq. 63 *thraq. 
64 ral q, rse^q. 65 sa^q. 66 *thaq [Mr. Hallam finds the (q) very weak in this 
group]. 

A'- 67 *gUB, gwo3n [gone], gwi, - in [going]. — *slo, [pi.] *slon [sloe, sloes]. 
69 no, *nAA. 70 *lo<m. 79 *» [(uuz n) whose]. 73 so, *sm. 74 *tuu. 76 
tmi. 82 wonst. 84 muurar, *mooBr. 86 itsts, wats. 91 moo. 92 *n«». 93 
*snoo. 95 *throo. A': 101 wok. 102 *seks, *£est [both for present and past]. 
104 rod *r«ed. 105 *rid. 106 *brAAd. 107 lof. — *drov [drove], drooviBr 
[drover]. 108 *doo. 109 *loo. 110 not, nod. Ill *AAt. 115 woem warn 
*woom. 117 *wan. 118 bwoen, *b»an. 122 *nan. 124 sttcoen [common], 
? stoan ston [a weight]. — rap [a rope]. — wa'r [hoar, white]. 134 woth, 
*flUBth. 135 *klooth. 

M- — *«eti [an ache]. 138 feedhBr [com.], fadhw [Clee Hills]. — ladhur 
[ladder]. 139 dra'i [dray, a squirrel's nest]. 148 faar. — *staarz [stairs, in 
Sh. people go up the stars to see the stairs, see No. 404]. — *amt [am not]. 
149 *bleez. 150 *leest. — lezB [leasow, pasture]. — set [a seat]. — ra:k'l 
[rattle]. 152 weetsr. 

M: 154 bsek. 155 thEtj. — sed [had]. — gJEdhsr [gather], 160 *Eg. 
161 d&'i, *da'i [common], dai [Craven Arms]. 163 la'i. 165 sed. 169 *wen. 

— *wiq [wing]. 170 *8erest. 171 *baarli. 172 *grses. 173 waz, wane. — 
*glues [glass]. — *heez'l [hazle]. — *1es [less]. — *kaart [cart]. — sep'l 
[apple, common], op'l [at Craven Arms]. 177 dhset. 178 nset. 179 wad. 

M'- 184 *leed. 185 *riid, *red [past tense]. — spreed [spread], *sprEd 
[past]. 187 *leev. 189 *weei. 190 kee. 192 *meen. 200 wist [common], 
weet focc.]. 201 *«edh'n. — j/Bt [to heat], set [heated]. M': — mias 
[meadow]. — *spre«d [to spread]. — *iivnin [evening]. 213 a'idhBr. 214 
na'idhsr. 216 dpi. — *meel [repast]. 218 ship. 222 Jaar. 223 dhier. 
224 wisr. 227 *WEt. — Ji>th [heath]. 229 brEth. 

E- 232 *breek. 233 *speek. 234 *need, *nAd [kneaded]. — *treed 
[tread]. — *WEdhur [weather]. 235 *weev. 236 feevBr. — ev« [heavy]. 
240 lain [Shrewsbury], lain [Craven Arms]. 241 rain [Shrewsbury], rain 
[Craven Arms]. 245 *meel. 247 *ween. — *baar [to bear]. — *tear [to 
tear], *tto [a tear, rent]. 248 maar. — *bEri [berry]. — *iit [to eat], JEt 
[atel. — 'fidlrer [a feather]. 254 lEdhur. 255 *WEdhBr. — *wEb [web]. 

— *eev [heave]. — fsetj [fetch]. — *neti [wretch]. 

E: 259 *wadj. 261 *sa'i. — *bsd [bed]. — wEd [to wed]. 266 *wiil. 

— fi t ld [field]. 267 ild. — sildem [seldom]. — *twElv [twelve]. 270, ii, 
baeli. — seI [to sell]. 276 thsqk. 278 wensh, *wEnti. — sEnd [to send]. 

— *pin [a penj. 284 thrash. — *nist, *niist [nest], niiz'n [nests]. 

E'- 290 i. 292 mi. 293 wi. 296 bi,li,f [belief]. 301 *ler. E': *a'i. 
306 ait. — *bra'i«r [briar]. — bles [bless]. 

EA- — * AAk [hawk]. — *el [ale], jeI, .ml. — *shoo [to shew]. 

EA: 322 laf, *la?f. 324 a'ittiin [eighteen], Hit. 326 tfud. 327 *ba'«d. 
328 ko'oeld, ka'wd. 329 fa'wd, fa'wd. 330 a'wt. 331 sa'«d. 332 Ha'ui. 333 
*kAAf. 335 VI. 336 fA'l. 337 *waa1. 338 kA'l. — *nUAt [malt]. — 
*sAAt [salt], — shaar [share]. — *bjaard [beard]. 340 *Jord [court], 
jaard mizur [measure]. 342 *aarm. — *aarm Qiarm]. 343 warm. — 
*shaarp [sharp]. — *fjaarn [fern]. — *jAArn ][yarn]. 345 *daar. 

EA'- 347 *JEd. 348 *a'i, *a'in [eyes]. — *da'i [to dye]. — lur [ear]. 

— bet [beat]. 349 fja"«, *fiu. EA: 350 djE'd. 351 lEd. 352 red. 
355 *drEf. 356 liisf, lEf [Shrewsbury]. 359 naibsr. — bt'ijBm [beam]. — 
kreem [cream]. 360 tjem. 361 ben [Pulverbach], biiun [com.]. 363 tjEp. 

— *jEp, lEp [heap]. — irer [year]. — tjoz [chose], 366 greet. 368 djE'th. 

— dre'w [dew], Jia"« [obsolete]. 371 strA 1 , streehriz [strawberries, obsolete]. 
EI- 372 aei, *ai. 373 dhee. 376 bet. EI: 378 WEk, *week. 382 

*dheer. EO- — *wik [a wick]. 386 la'u. 387 *niu. 

EO: 389 *jook. — *Bm [unemph. 'em, hem=them]. 394 jant«r. 395 
*jaq. — *daark [dark]. — *kaarv [carve]. 398 *staarv. — *faarm [farm]. 
402 laarn. 403 *feer. 404 *steer. — * shirt [short]. 406 *Jaarth. EO'- 
409 *bii. — *nii [knee]. — *trii, *triin [wooden]. — *kra'«d [to crowd]. 
416 *diBr. 418 bruu. EO': 422 *sik. — thiif [thief], 423 *tha'i. 424 

[ 1617 ] 



186 THE NORTH WESTERN. [D 14. 

*raf. 426 *fa'it. — wll [wheel]. 427 bin [pi.]. 428 sin [seen], *sii. 430 
*frEnd. 433 *brEst [breast]. 435 *joo. 436 trau. 

I- 440 wi t k. 441 siv. 442 i^. — sence [sinew]. — i x s [generally], 
jes [Newport], jaas, ais [Church Stretton, yes]. — *peez [pease]. 449 get. 
450 tuuzdi tjuuzdi. 451 *aoo. I: — thard [third]. 457 *ma'it. 458 *na'it. 
460 wait, *weit. 463 tEl. 469 ul [will]. 473 *bla'ind. — winds, *windsr 
[(r) distinctly trilled]. 476 *ba'ind. 478 *gra'ind. — *tjarn [a churn]. — 
•ran [run]. — *rash [a rush, plant]. 485 *this'l *fis'l. 488 *it. —Mart 

Edirt]. — *wit[wit]. — sens [since]. I'- 491 *sa'ik. — *gi *gid *gid'n 
give, gave, given]. — *pa'ip [pipe]. 498 *ra'it. I': — *da'itj [a dyke]. 
500 la'-ik. 502 *fa'iv. 503 *la'if. 505 *wa'if . 506 um«n, *«m8n. 508 •ma'fl. 
611 *wa'ind [with (d) added]. 

0- 520 ba'w. 523 *oop. — *smadhBr. 524 *warld. — *thrunt [throat]. 
0: — traf [trough], trof [occ.], troo [for kneading]. 527 bAt. 528 thAt. 
531 dVter. 532 *kool. 533 *dal. 536 guuld [obsolete], *ga'«d. 538 ud. 539 
bool, ba'ul [for bowling, a hoop, to trundle]. — *ka'wt [a colt]. 544 *dhEn. 
546 far. 547 baurd, bra'rd. 549 urd. 550 ward. — tharn [thorn]. — 
nurnin [morning]. — *broodh [broth]. 

O'- 555 sh«». 656 *t«. — *uu [to woo]. 562 mun, *muun. 564 *swn. 

— *groo [to-grow]. 566 adher. 568 *bradhi3r. O': 569 *b«k. — brak 
[brook]. — shok [shook]. 570 tuk, *t»k. 571 gud *g«d. 573 *flad. 575 
•sted. — raf [roof]. 577 *ba'«. 578 *ph'u, *d1aa [to plough]. 580 taf, 
*taf. 584 *stuul. 589 spun. 590 flar. — boozism [bosom]. — tatb. 
595 fat. 697 sat. 

TJ- — ud [wood]. 600 Ia'v *lov. 602 *sa'«. — *hal [hull or shell]. 603 
*kam. — *p«n [to pound, thrash]. 605 *s»n. 606 dar, *deor. V: — 
shuwdhur [shoulder] smradra: [Church Stretton], shoodBr, sha'wdrcr [Shrewsbury], 
sha'«dsr [occ.]. 609 fol. 610 ul. — puul Qralll. — *falsr [a fuller]. 612 
*sam. — on- [un-]. 615 pand. 617 *sa'«nd. — *band [was bound]. 
619 fand. 620 grand. 621 *wond. 625 taq. — tarf [turf]. — far [a 
fir]. 634 thra"w, *thruu. — dhas. 

XT'- 640 ka'«. 643 na'«. — *sak [to suck]. — *ma'u [a mow]. 646 
*ba'«. 648 a'wer. 650 *tsba'ut. 652 *k«d. 653 bat. TJ': 656 rum, 
*r«m. — *sa'«Br [sour]. 663 a'm, *a'wz'n [houses]. 665 ma'«s. 667 a'wt. 
668 pra'wd. 

T- 673 *matj. 677 *dra'i. 679 tjartj. T: 686 ba'i. 689 bidd. 

— gidti [guilty]. — shilf [shelf]. 694 *wartj [work=throb]. 697 burin 
[a burying]. — frit'nd [frightened]. 701 *farst. — shEt [shut]. 702 «th. 
Y- 705 *ska'i. "' "" ~ "" * " ' " 



T': 712 ma'is. — *wish [to wish]. 



n. English. 



A. 726 tA'k. — boqk [bank]. 733 *skaar. 734 diaarn *daarn. E. 

— *p««t [peat]. ■ — maar [mere, accented ; unacc. (nusr)j. 751 *pi«rt. — 
kliver [clever]. — srood [shrewd]. I.andY. — *skra'ik [a shriek]. 754 
pig. — *wip [whip]. 758 gErld. — SErsp [syrup]. — pek [to pitch or 
fall]. O. 761 *16b(T. 769 *ma'««diwaarp. 773 doqki. — u-st^d [worsted]. 

— loz [to lose]. — dra'wnd [to drown]. 791 bwA'i [obs.]. TJ. — *p«din 
[pudding, called (padin) in Glossary]. — dak [a duck, bird], da'ak [to duck]. 

— Vwdre [huge, compare after 791 p. 180]. 796 bluu. — bal [bull]. — 
baldj [to bulge]. — truun [a tune]. — tap [a ram, tup]. — *karl "[curl], 
807 *pws. 808 pat. 

m. Romance. 

A- 810 ieez [gen.]. — *kEti [catch], *kEtjt [caught]. 813 *b«k'n. 814 
m<!s'n. 822 ma'i, *mee. — *pa 1 i, p«« [pay]. 824 tjiiur. — klaVi-er [clear]. 
• — *aar [air]. 833 paar. — *pl««z [please]. 835 rcez'n. 836 seeza. — 
meesbsr [master, com.]. — feetysr [feature]. 847 da'indrer. 850 da'ns. 851 
*«nt, n««nt. ■ — *dsent [daunt]. — raar [rare]. 855 gaerit. — skss, skaars 
[scarce]. 856 *part. — *kaard [card]. — *saas [sauce, Corve Dale]. 862 
W. 865 *fAAt. — *stee [to stay]. 

[ 1618 ] 



D 14.] THE NORTH WESTERN. 187 

E-- 867 tee. — kreeter [creature]. — *reevl [real]. 869 reel. — seekrit 
[secret]. — bensee-t [conceit]. — skmn [scheme]. — »jaarb [herb]. — 
•klaark [clerk]. — *saartj [search]. — *f aar [a f air] . — 'kensaarn [concern]. 

— saarpint [serpent]. 888 saartin. — *saarv [serve]. — kemplcet [complete]. 

— mizhra:, *mizOT [measure]. 890 brest. 891 *fest. 894 *disee-v, dises-t 
[deceit]. 895 *ris«rv, risert [receipt]. I- and Y •• — *kra'i [cry]. — 
sinsb'l [syllable]. ■ — *ma'iz«rd [miser, with added (d)]. 

0-- — bijf[beef]. — *di'9g [drug]. 916 aHnisn. • — naMnt [anoint]. 

— dia'ra [join]. 926 spa'il. — plimTplumb]. 928 *8'«ns. 929 ka'akimver 

f Shrewsbury], ka'wkumbOT [com.]. 930 K'in. 933 *frant. — kwurd, kward 
cord]. — farin [foreign]. — *i«rast [forced]. 940 *koBt. 942 botjtsr. 
943 *tatr. 946 *ma'il. 951 *kap'l. — suup'l [supple, to make supple]. 953 
*kaz'n. — *pash [push]. 

IJ.. — tjub[tube]. — *wa'it [to wait]. 965 a 1 »1. 966 frut. — pslpit 
[pulpit]. — *p9'wt»s~ [poultice], — ra'«l [howl]. — n«etBr [nature]. — 
fciuu-riyz [curious]. 970 djEst. 



I 1619 ] 



i88 THE EASTERN. [E. div. 

III. 

EASTERN DIVISION OF ENGLISH DIALECT 
DISTRICTS. 



Begin on the e. coast, where s. h. of Li. falls into 
the sea about 3 e.Sutton Bridge. Go w. along the Li. b. to Bt. — 
the peninsula containing Stamford Li. must be practically con- 
sidered as part of Butland. Pass by the b. round Bt. to Rocking- 
ham, and continue on the b. of Np. to the b. of Wa., and then 
continue along b. of Np. to opposite Crick Np. (4 se. Rugby, Wa.). 
Then pass through Np. e. of Watford, through Long Buckby, 
where turn s. and pass e. of Daventry and Weedon, turning more 
se. near Pattishall. Then pass s. of Blisworth and e. of Towcester, 
and continue to the b. of Np. near Hartwell, Np. Then go by the 
w. b. of Bu. to the Thames. Go down the Thames to the coast and 
round Es., Sf. and Nf. to the starting-point. 

The w. b. of Bu. is, perhaps, not the absolute b. of the District, 
but it is the best that' could be determined. 

Area. The whole or greater part of the eleven counties, Bd. 
Bu. Cb. Es. Ht. Hu. Mi. Nf. Np. Rt. Sf. 

Character. A closer resemblance to received speech than in any 
other div. It is the region from which rec. sp. was taken, and 
contains the greater part of London. The pron. is, however, not 
quite uniform, but the differences are so slight that it has been 
found extremely difficult to obtain satisfactory information, and 
many years elapsed before materials could be collected for even the 
approximative account here subjoined, which, drawn up from actual 
observation by my informants and founded only on existing usages, 
differs materially from what has been hitherto given. The northern 
part of this district, as already mentioned, is intersected by the n. 
sum line 1, which passes through the length of Np. and n. of Hu. 
and Cb., while the s. sdfim line 2 lies to the s. of all the s. part of Np., 
the n. part of Hu. and Cb. and the nw. part of Nf., so that a 
considerable part of the E. div. is in the mixed sum s66m or som 
region, and a smaller part in Np. and Rt. is in the pure sddm region. 
This materially modifies the pron. in respect of IJ in those places, 
as will be seen. But the change, as already observed in Wl. and 
Gl., seems to be without influence on the remainder of the dialect, 
and in respect to the rest of the pron. it was found impossible to 
relegate n.Np. and Rt. to the M. div. In fact, as has been already 
said (p. 16), the (u, u) sound of IT was the elder. It is the 
(a, a) sound which is aggressive, and the mixed regions merely 
shew the process of change which has gone on independently of 
the other changes and almost unnoticed, even by dialect speakers 
themselves. 



I 1620 ] 



D 15.] THE WEST EASTERN. 189 



D 15 = WE. = West Eastern. 

Boundaries. Begin where the Chiltern Hills cut the w. b. of Bu., 
about Badnage (10 ssw. Aylesbury). Go w. across Bu. s. of Prince's 
Bisborough and n. of Chesham to "Whelpley Hill (12 se.Aylesbury). 
Cross the w. horn of Ht. to Great Gaddesden, Ht., and then by the 
b of Bu. all round the n. and s. to the starting-point. 

Area. The little projection of Ht. into Bu. by Tring and all of 
Bu., except the extreme s. part, which belongs to D 17, and has no 
dialect proper. 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List under the following names, where 
*means vv. per AJE., tper TH., {[so., °io. 

Bu. *Mr. Wyatt, *t Aylesbury, tBuckingham, "Cheddington, tChackmore, 
"Edlesborough, "Great Kimble, *Hanslope, "Marsh Gibbon, "Marsworth, 
fStowe, "Swanbourne, "Tyringham with Filgrore, *tWendover, tWinslow. 

Ht. °Berkhamstead, "little Gaddesden, "Long Marston, °Tring. 

Character. The main point which distinguishes Bu. from Ox. or 
D 15 from D 6, 7, is the entire absence of reverted (e) or retracted 
(r ). In the whole E div. the r when not preceding a vowel is 
purely vocalised. After (aa, aa) it disappears. A native who can 
read thinks that he " pronounces r" in part short, because it is to 
him a symbol that the vowels become (aa aa) as in (paat shAAt), 
and if he wrote pat shot without the r, he would say (pa't shot) 
with quite different vowels. To hear (part short) with real short 
vowels and a truly trilled r would be shocking to him. He may 
occasionally ' drawl ' the words (as local authorities term the 
change) into (paot sho'et), but that is not usual. After (9, a) the 
r is merely a symbol of lengthening; culled, curled, are really (kald, 
koald), or (kald, kaald), and the speaker again thinks he 'pronounces 
r ' in the second word because it causes him to differentiate it from 
the first. After other vowels, or finally, he uses (v), as ('re, hev, 
bote), here, care, butter. But before a vowel the case is different. 
Then he may trill r slightly, but the general practice seems to be 
to use the imperfect (r ), that is, the point of the tongue rises as if 
to trill it, but it does not effect its purpose, and merely produces a 
maimed effect. Both (v, r ) in this connection arise from ('e), of 
which they are simple degenerations. They are not imperfect 
trills. But a gentle trill may always be used, and hence I have 
introduced (j) as a ' permissive trill ' in writing received speech. 
Here I generally abandon it, and write (r) for (r ) as a matter of 
convenience before vowels, writing (r ) or using (b) in other cases. 
Throughout the whole E. div. this treatment of the r is general, 
not merely among peasants (where there are any), but among the 
most educated and refined townsmen. As (e) is the mark of the 
8. div., this (r OJ 13) is the mark of the E. div. When final r has 
been lost after (aa, aa, aa, u), or degraded to («), and a word com- 
mencing with a vowel follows, the r reappears as (r ), to avoid the 
hiatus. This is ' euphonic r,' just as we have ' euphonic v ' in 
Greek, and just as in French a lost final consonant reappears under 

[ 1621 ] 



190 THE WEST EASTERN. [D 15. 

similar circumstances, as ' il fai(t) froid, fai^-il froid ? il a(), a-tf-il ? ' 
(il ie fru«, fEt-«l frua? il)a, at)il?). But peasants, and even 
educated people, are apt to introduce this ' euphonic r ' after final 
(aa, aa, an, «), even when no r had originally existed, as (dhe 
LiA+r is)dlrB land, dhi a'«dii"B+r ov it, b :tja'inB+r oraidj), the 
law of the land, the idea of it, a China orange. This is a truer case 
of euphonic (r ) than before, and quite organic, but is much resented 
by those who have painfully learned not to use (+r ) under such 
circumstances. 

In giving the pron. noted by TH., who used final (r), but states 
that he considers it a "weak r" ([r), I retain his writing, but do 
not agree with his appreciation, for so far as I can hear there is no 
semblance of a trilled (r). See introduction to the M. div. 

A- remains (6b), as in most of the S., as (leam, serai), lame, same, and A'- 
remains (uis), as (tund), toad, with the usual variants. 

JEG may also be (§b), or be recognised as (ee'»), as (sneel snBB'il), snail. 

I' seems to have abandoned the (a't) and rarely even reaches the (a'i) form, it is 
usually (as, di), the last of which differs but slightly from (a't) on the one hand, 
and (o'i, a'») on the other. My informants usually select (a't, A'i), that is, as 
they write it, oy, to express this sound. But my observations on Bu. peasants, as 
well as TH.'s, are against this change, though it may possibly occur in D 16, 
where A- degenerates to (et, e'», a*), so that a distinction is required. 

U. Although this was avowedly (a, a) at Aylesbury, the following exceptions 
occurred, which I conceive as (u), because of the local separation from the M. (« ) : 
(lav, k«m, hubs ; wglt, dri«jk, wndra, toq, oqgs, «p, thwi-B ; d«v, rcbwv ; muti), 
love, come, butter ; ugly, drunk, under, tongue, hunger, up, thorough [but (ap 
thara) also occurred] ; dove, above [which had U'] and m«ti [which had Y]. 
At Wendover (5 sse. Aylesbury) I did not find these. From Buckingham n. -wards, 
(« n ) was the rule, or some mixture of (w OJ a), or of (o, «), and past the n. swm 
line 1, as at Watford and Weedon only (»„) . 

U' is rather uncertain from want of sufficient instances, but (e'm) seems the rule, 
although (a'u, a'u) also occur. This diphthong is specially variable in D 18. Of 
course (a'u) is a survival of S. 

The consonants are treated generally as in received speech. The initial (z, v) 
have been replaced by (s, f), the aspirate is very uncertain, and (wh) always 
becomes (w), as in polite London conversation. 

Particulars are furnished in the following word lists, where, as 
shewn, large portions were heard by me or TH. from natives, and 
in the two annexed short examples, which indicate at least two if 
not three varieties of existing pronunciation. 

A.YLESEUEY EXAMPLE. 

pal. by AJE. from dictation of Mr. E. B. Fowler in 1881. 

1. a'* bi [aV Br] B)gu-*n te sii 1. I be [I are] a)going to see 

*m sum, a'* tBi)i [tEi)jB]. k™ soon > l teI1 )y e [y° u J- 

2. bttt, a'*' see, faedhBr [ffedher] 2. But, I say, father and mother 
■end madhor v Uvth ren em tsmsb'l JF 6 \ oth <»<&«» terrible lame with 
,, .,,, ,. , j the rheumatism to-day. 

leVem w*)dhB rmrmBtiz vao.ee. J 

3. A'»'b*(A'« , sr)olmoost[olmuue"st 3. I be (I are) almost afeared they 
Bmmrst] Bf fred dhe want bi rs)getin J"" 1 '* be a)getting about at)all for a 
BbE'u-tTrt)olfer)*loqwA'*lsttak5rm. lon S wMe to come. 

[ 1622 ] 



D 1.5.] THE WEST EASTERN. 191 



4. en duent jb two ? dihee)ul bi i- And don't you know ? they)'ill 

AAf egrn vim Winter, en leev be off ag 8 " 1 before winter, and leave 

mi elooen i)dU oo\ e'us. me alone " the old honse - 

5. wier bI dhe guu te ? 5- Where will they go to ? 

6. A'»dd0Bnthegzae - kl«[tBzae'kli] 6 - I d ° n 't exactly know; some 
noo ; sam weeBZ dE'wn » )dhe SE'wt, wa y s down in ) the south ' I b^eve. 
a'« bl««v. 

7. dhe<?)'l bi heve se loq eweW. 7. They'll be ever so long away. 

8. as iied B dhaet ji'stBdee. 8. TJs [we] heard of that yesterday. 

9. d*d)je nE'w ? u ta'wld jb? 9. Did you now ? who told you? 

10. mwtj gwd m« rt duu)em. 10. Much good may it do)them. 

11. JB shBl ire drEkl* as noo 11. You shall hear directly us know 
3h.ee bi B)kamm oo'm [warn] Bg*'-n. the y he a)coming home again. 

12. mo gttd ni'i't. 12. So good night. 

Notes. 

1. I. Mr. EBF. said distinctly (a'»), The negative (no) is quite short, house 
but I generally heard (ai, di) from the (e'ms) was inclined to (aws). 
labourers. I are is more frequent than 6. exactly, (hegzavklt) is emphatic, 
/ be. The (r) is euphonic before a (tezavkK) is the common form, 
following vowel, here and elsewhere. 7. ever, the (h) is prefixed for em- 

2. father, though Mr. ERF. used phasis only. 

(se), Iheardrather (a) from the labourers. 9. told. This (a'«) diphthong is kept 

i. know was distinct (oo), not (noou). quite distinct from (b'u) . 



Chackmoee (1J wn-w.Buckingh.am) dt. 
pal. 1881 by TH. from diet, of 6. Cave, 71, gatekeeper to Stowe Park, native. 

1. a'» se*°, me*ts, ju si na'w, a'»)m ra'»'t eba'ttt dhat to't'l gjal kanun 
frem dhe skuul jonder. 

2. shi)z gu'*n da'wn dhe roBd dhier thruu dhe rEd geet on dhe 
lEft and sa'*d e)dhB roed. 

3. luk jonder ! dhe tja'»ld)z gAn strait w 3 p te)dhB roq a'ws [roq 
duer], 

4. wier shi)l vEri lo'tklt fa'rad dhat draqk'n dEf 6«ld ijap bv dhe 
net'm b :tom. 

5. aaI ov)bz now hn vew weI. 

6. want dhe owld tjap sun titj er not te kam dhier egjVn, puer 
th*q! 

7. luk ! d»d'nt aV tEl jb sou. 

Phrases, (ju faA e)gu tn :darel), you are-not a-going [to, omitted 
dialectally] Dayrell (3 n.Buekingnam). This omission of ' to ' 
is gen. in the E. division as well as in Ch. 

Mem. " r half reverted," possibly (r ). 



[ 1623 ] 



192 THE WEST EASTERN. [D 15. 



s.Br/., Aylesbtjby and Wendotee cwl. 

Unmarked, word list written io. by Mr. John Kerseley Fowler, Prebendal Farm, 
Aylesbury, and his son, corrected from diet, and pal. by AJE. with additions 
marked E, heard by AJE. from farm labourers at Aylesbury, and a few words 
marked H noted by TH. 

W words from Wendover (5 sse. Aylesbury) pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Beeby. 

" &W " means that the last given pron. was heard at Wendover. 

WH Wendover from Mr. Hallam's observations chiefly from Varney 82, and 
Higgs 63, who generally corroborated Varney, and from some others, (b) was 
once heard from a woman. 

(+r) means that euphonic (r ) was specially stated to be inserted before a 
following vowel. 

i. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 3 beek. 4 t£sk trek, W teak [both (en) and (1b) are used in these doubly 
written words, as they are in D 4]. 5 meek mtak, W m6ek. 6 meed mivd, WH 
[old] m^Bd, [now] meid. 7 seuk stBk. 8 W eev. 9 bihEE'iv. 12 saa, Wsaa+t. 
13 naa. 14 draa. 16 daan. 17 laa, W 1aa + t. 18Wke«k. 19 te«l tftsl, W 
to'il [?]. 20 leBm lima, W lesm &WH. 21 neem, WH n«m n'ram. 22 teBm 
tiran. 23 seem stem, W seem &WH. 24 sheBm shrem, W shesm. 25 mean 
miBn. 28 em\ 32 baadh. 38 reedhB. 34 last. 36 W thAA. 37 klaa. 
A: 41 theqk. 51 maan, W mon. 54 wAAnt, W wasnt. 57 as. A: or 0: 58 
W frem. 59 lam. 61 smoq &W. 63 thrseq. 64 W roq. 

A- 67 gu-in, W guu &WH. 70 W too. 72 W uu. 73 W soo. 74 E tiu, 
W tuu. 76 tied. 81 lesn, W leBn. 84 muuB &W [E (muB ub dhat) more nor 
that]. 86 wats, W o'Bts ats, WH w« c ts, WH wots. 87 W tlooz. 89 W bo'emth, 
WHbuBth. A: 101 W OBk. 102 ast, a;ks. 104 ritBd &WH. 106 W 
brAAd. 108 daf doo. Ill W AAt. 113 W mil, W wwl, WH wuJl. 115 woBm, 
H 6«m, WH oom. 121 H gAAn. 122 W nan. 123 natlren, W nothjqk. 
124 E stusn &W, WH stmm. 125 oni &W. 129 g6oBst. 

M- 138 fasdhB f iBdhB, W feedhBr. 140 HI. 141 n<hsl. 142 snM &WH, 
W snEE'il &WH [Varney gave (sneel) and Higgs (snE"il)]. 143 teal, W tEE'il. 
147 bresn, W brEE'in &WH. 149 W bleez. 150 liBst. 152 waats &W. 
M: 155 theti &W. 151 aatB. 160 W eeg. 161 dee [see 438], W dEE'i. 
163 lee. 164 mee. 166 mead, W mEE'id. 167 deBl. 169 wen. 170 W 
serist. 172 graas, W grasses. 174 W ««sh. 175 faast. 179 wot &W. 180 
baath. JE'- 182 see. 182 teetj [common], &W. 184 leed. 185 reed. 
186 bret. 187 leev. 190 kee &W. 191 iil. 193 kliiBn, W tleen. 194 W 
eeni. 197 "W tjeez. 199 Meet &W. 200 weest. 201 eedh'n. 202 eet. 
2&': 203 speetj. 205 tred [occ], W thred. 207 W niid'l. 213 eidhB, W 
iidhB. 216 deel &W [but meaning wood (diil)]. 217 iitj. 218 ship &W. 
219 W sliip &WH. 223 W dheB. 224 w'ib &W. 226 [(smoBst) almost]. 
228 swet swEE'it. 230 fot. 

E- 232 breeBk &W. 233 E speek &W &WH. 235 W wiiv, WH weBV. 
236 W fiivB. 241 reeBn, W rEE'in, WH reein. 247 ween, W wiin. 251 meet 
&W, WH mE"it. 252 kit'l &W. 253 W net'l. 255 wedhB, wedB. E: 262 
E wes [frequent, sometimes (wees)], W WEE'i &WH. 268 jeldest. 272 elem 
&W. 281 leqkt, W lEqkth. 282 streqkt, W strEqkth. 284 throsh, E thresh. 
287 bezBm biissm &W. E'- 294 fiisd, W feed. 299 W green. E': 305 
ho'i. 306 hekth [very common], E hekt. 307 na't no'i. 308 W need. 314 
rasd. 315 W feeit. 316 W neks. 

EA- 319 gaap &W. 320 kes. EA: 322 laaf &W. 323 W ia'ut. 324 
eet, W EE'it. 325 weak. 326 ool [but (ool;d)«mm)], W ool. 327 ba'«ld. 328 
koold. 329 foold. 330 oold, W oolt. 332 ta'uld. 333 kaaf &W. 334 aaf 
&W. 335 aaI. 336 fAAl. 337 waaI. 343 W waam. 345 deB. 346 geBt 
&W. EA- 347 ed &W. 348 W o'i. 349 W flu. EA: 350 W disd. 
353 H bred, W brEd. 355 W dEf. 359 neebB. 360 tiism, W tiim. 361 
heeen, Ebeenz. 363 tjeep. 366 gret. 368 W dEth. 370Wraa'. 371 straa. 
W straa 1 . EI- 376 beest. EI: 377 stEE'sk. 378 W wiik. 

[ 1624 ] 



D 15.] THE WEST EASTERN. 193 

EO- 386 soo &W. 387 W neu. EO: 393 bijasnt, bige-n [the latter rare, 
the (se) should probably be (a)], W bijend. 394 jinds rends [I heard the last] hinds 
[all used], W ends, WH Endsr [occ. jEndsr]. 396 waak, W wak. 397 suusd. 
400aanest&W. 402 E laan. 407 faad'n. EO'- 411Wthrii. 413 W 

divtsl. 417 tiAA. EO': 425 W la'it. 426 W fa'it. — E helt [held]. 
428 H S(i, W sii. 430 W frEnd. 436 W triu. 437 W triuth. EY- 438 
dA'i &W [(dhist pig)'l di'i te deei) said Mr. F., but (dhat pig wl Aai te d£e«) agrees 
better with what I heard from the labourers]. 

I- 440 W wiik. 443 W fra'idi [see 512]. 444 W sto'tl. 446 W na'in. — 
peez'n [pease, occ], E pe«z. 449 W git. 450 W tuuzdi. I: 452 E a'i ai 
[once only heard], A'i &W, WH a'i. 458 no'it &W. 459 ro'it &W. 462 sa'it 
&W. 465 W sitj. 466 W tp'ild. 468 W tjilds. 472 W sriqk. 480 
enithiqk sathiqk nathiqk [anything something nothing, the two last are also] 
sathin nathtm. 485 W this'l. 487 jiistedi. 488 W Jit. I'- [I heard 
(oi) not (a'i) from the people]. 491 sa'i. 494 to'im &W. 499 biit'l. I': 500 
W lo'ik. 506 W oomim. 507 W wimin. 508 ma'il. 514 W A'is o'is rfis [the 
diphthong apparently varies as at Aylesbury]. 

O- 521 fool. 524 W wa'tsl. 0: 526 kAAf &W. 527 bAAt. 529 brAAt. 
531 daatu &W. 532 W kool [no vanish]. 533 dal d*»,l. 536 guuld [but] 
goold'n. 539 bol. 541 H wont. 543 E samthiqk an bid [the (se) of Mr. F. 
was rather (a) in the labourer's mouth]. 547 buuisd. 550 waad. 551 W stAAm. 
552 kAAn &W. 553 aad. 0'- 559 madhu, W m«dhB. 564 sfisn, E aim. 
0': 569 bwk. 570 t«k. 573 flad. 579 biie'u- [never (tmaf )] &W. 595 f«t, 
E fat fuut, W fat. 596 rust. 597 sat. 

U- 599Bb«v. 600 l«<v, W lav. 602 se'«. 603 kam k«m [both are used; the 
driver stands on the near side of the horse and says (kwm i-dhB) for go to the left, 
and (djii Aif ) for to the right ; the ploughboy will be directed to (p»l)im b lit'l mus 
tusd) pull him a little more towards, i.e. to the left]. 606 daus &W, WH dusr. 
607 bwtu. TJ: 608 «gli. 609 f«l. 610 w«l &W. 611bwh?k&W. 612 
sam. 613 druqk, W draqk. 614 E'wnd [apt to be nasalised, as (E' ( «nd) and so of 
the rest] &W. 615 pB'wnd. 616 E grE'«nd, W grE'wn. 617 SE'wnd. 620 
grE'und. 621 WE'«nd. 622 wnds. 625 toq. 626 aqgn. 630 wan. 632 wp, 
ap [(ap) is the rule, I heard the groom say (k«p, kwp) i.e. come up, to the horse]. 
634 th«re thars [(tharst) throughout], W thruu. 635 wath. 636 faadn. 637 
tash. 639 dast. 

TJ'- 640 kE'u kjs'u kea'« [uncertain]. 641 e'« [verging to »'«]. 642 [not 
used]. 645 d«v [(duu) on the ChilternsJ. 650 E ebE V ut. 653 bwt.W b«t [occ.]. 
XT': 658 E dE'«n, WH da'wn. 659 WH ta'wn. 663 e'«s. 666 wzbsnd, W 
azlren. 672 ss'ut [not (th)]. 

Y- 673 m«ti &W. 674 E ded. 676 W la'i. 679 W tjati. 682 liit'l 
[occ.]. Y: 685 ridj. 690 W ka'ind. 691 W ma'ind. 696 W bath. 700 
was. 701 fast &W. 704 wiks'n. Y- 705 W sko'i. 706 W wo'i. 
Y': 709 W fa'is. 712 ma'azBZ [used]. 

rr. English. 
with (d) not (dh)]. 748 [(kaeh?) callow, unfledged, applied to birds" only]. 



A. 722 dreBn &W. 737 meat. E. 744 W meez'lz. 746 briid [alway 
th (d) not (dh)]. 748 [(kaele) callow, unfledged, applied to birds only] 
I. ondY. 756 W srimp. 758 W gael. 760 shrivUd'iBd baali [shrivelled eared 



barley was used for chevalier barley]. O. 761 load, W loud. TJ. 808 

pat &W. 

in. Romance. 

A- 810 Wfess. 811 pliBspleus &W. 813 bisk'n, W bfck'n. 816 W 
feed. — E fre«l [flail]. 824 tiiie. 827 eegB. 828 W eegu. 830 treesn. 
834 shee'j [&W for a perambulator]. 835 xeern. 836 se«z'n. — WH wes'1 
[vessel]. 847 W detmdjB. 852 cepsn [by old people]. E- 867 tee 1 ]. 
— thetjez [vetches]. 874 rerai. 885 WH wsri. — fi«[afair]. — tereb'l 
[a common intensitive, occasionally (terii-b 'l) to increase the effect]. 888 
saatin. — WH sarvsnt [servant]. 890 W beest biist. 891 ieest. 894 
dissc-v &W. 896 beeVB. I-andY- 898 W no'ts. — wilij [village]. 

E.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1625 ] 104 



19i THE WEST EASTERN. [D 15. 

— wtnsger [vinegar]. 901 waiBlit, "W va'ilit [not (»'») not (w)]. — WH 
wit'lz [victuals]. 

0- 913Wk6Bti. 914 TV br6Bti. 916 dimrn, W a'injun. 918 "W feeb'l. 
920 paint [and 'pint' is (pa'int)]. 929 W ka'ukBmbB. 940 W koBt [an under- 
petticoat]. 947 bc'il, "W W'il. 948 ba'al. 959 "W ksnwee-Bns. U •• 965 
oil, W ail. — H art [hurt, TH. found the (r) was " stronger than at 
Bunstable, on the way to reverted, something like n.Sh." I failed to hear it, 
and should have written (oat)]. 

E Note, a approach (a) rather than (se) ; (e, e) were used uncertainly ; (o, o) 
I could not feel sure of, nor of (a, a) ; the t approach (*,). I think rather (») 
than (» ), (h) occ, wh = (w). I did not hear (w) for v ; (ee, ee) uncertain, did 
not hear (ee'j), and heard (oo) not (oo'w) ; (e'«) had no prominent (e), but it was 
not (a'w). 

n.Bir. cwl. 

B Buckingham and Clackmore (1£ nw.B.), wn. in 1881 by TH. («„") 
is a sound intermediate to (m o; a) and most like («J. TH. hears a very 
faint (r), which he calls " common English r" ; sometimes he hears a faint 
reverted r ([S.) ; and he heard reverted or retracted (l) in ale, bell, Bill, 
children, girl, he'll, milk, silk, tail, possibly an individuality. Usages, I 
are ( = am), you be, they be. The I' if are very refined, as (at a'«) in place 
of (a'i e'«). 

H Hanslope (10 ne. Buckingham), pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Cox, native. 

T Tyrinham (13 ne.Buekingham), from Bev. J. Tarver's wl. io. 

I. Wbssbx am> Nobse. 

A- 21 T nam, H nemn, B n6imz nismz. 24 T sham, H sheem. 31 lest. 
33 HT leeih-e. A: 43 T hond, H send, B and. 44 T lond. 60 T taqz. 61 
HT man, B man. 54 H waunt. A: or O: 61 T Bmoq, H Bmaq. 64 
B roq'. A'- 67 B gu g6w. 76 T tSud, H tutsd. 86 T 6tsts, H outs ats. 
89 H buBth. 92 B n6«. 95 B throw. A': 102 T aast. 104 T rStsd, 
H rued, B r6s«d. 110 B a'i shant [I sha'nt]. 113 H wwl. 115 T ham, H 
6um, B 6m. 117 B won. 121 B gAAn. 122 B n6u. 124 T stan, HB stunn. 
125 H ooni. 130 T b6«t. 131 T g6et. 

JE- 138 T feedh«, H faadhBr. 143 B teiBL. — B st&s L itz [stairs]. 152 
HTwaate. M: 155 HT thek. 158 T aate. 160 H eeg. 161 Bdei. 
163 T lo'i. 166 T mesd, H mEE'id. 170 T heetmst. 171 HT berii. M'- 
183 B teiti tiiti. 190 B kei, HT kee. 194 HT oni. 195 HT meeni. 200 B 
weit witit [occj. A': 213 HT eedhts. 218 HT ship. 223 H dhire, B 
dhiBl_B. 224 HT w'ub, B w'rer. 230 T fat. 

E- 233 HT sjxtfk, B speik. 236 T ferns, H fiivu. 241 H rein. 243 B 
pl6i. 252 H kit'l. E: 260 B lei. 261 B sei. 262 HB wei. 263 B 
Bwei. 265 H strest. 272 T helum [f h]. 280 B hib'm. 281 H lEqkth. 
282 H strEqkth. — H niBstiz [nests]. E'- 299 B griin. 300 T kep 
[? kept]. E': 306 T heet. 312 B ivt. 314 B ira-d. 315 HB fit. 

EA- — B eiBl [ale]. 319 HT gaap. EA: 323 HT fa'«t. 324 B eit. 
326 T a'wld, H oo\, B 6«ld. 328 T ka'uld. 330 HT oolt. 332 T ta'wd. 333 
T keBf, H kaaf. 334 T h&sf, H haaf. 343 T waam, H wAAm. 346 HT 
gest, B gtet, [middle class, usual] geit. EA'- 347 T iiBd, B E'd, H Ed. EA': 
355 B dEf . 361 B biBnz. 366 B grEt. 370 H rAA+r. 371 T straa, H 
strAA+r. 

EI- 373 T dho'i, B dhei. 374 T naa. EI: 377 T st&jk. 378 HT 
week. EO- 383 B sEb'm. 386 HT joo. 387 T nuu. 

EO: 388 B ma 1 Lk [reverted (l), and the Sm. intermediate between (a, i)p. 
146]. — Bsa l Lk [silk, see 388]. 398TsteBv. 400 T esnest, H aanest. 402 HT 
laan, B lam. 406 T aath, H ath. 407 T f&sdhin faad'n. EO'- 411 B frii 
[very often]. 420 T fa'uB, H f&s, B f6«Br. EO': 425 HT la'it. 427 B 
M. 436 H triu. 437 H triuth, B tras'uth. ET- 438 HT do'i [? (da'«)]. 

1- 443 HT fra'idi. 444 T sta'il. 449 HT git. 450 HT tuuzdi. I: 

[ 1626 ] 



D 15, 16.] THE WEST AND MID EASTERN. 195 

452 HT o't, B e'i di. 458 HT no'it, B na'it. 459 HT ra'it. 465 HT stta. 
466 T tja'ild. 468 B truLeh-Bn [(u) verging to (« ) and (l) reverted]. — B 
r« n ran [run, some vowel intermediate to (« , a) J. 482 B Ent etnt [ain't, is it 
not ?] 1'- 490 T ba'i. 494 T to'im, B ta'im. 496 T a'i-Bn. 498 T ro'it. 
I': 500 HT la'ik. 502 T fa'iv, B fa'iv. 503 HT lo'if. 504 T na'if. 505 
T waif. 506 HT wmsn. 

O- 519 B okvot. O: 525 B aai [off]. 531 T daatts, H daate AiAtB 
[but my (gael) is more usual]. 541 B a'i want [(a) approaching («„)]. 543 B 
an An. O'- 555 B shuu shas'u. 559 T midhB [rj, H mam mw dhB. 564 

B swji. O': 579 T eniu, H Bnaf [was the only form known]. 587 B du n. 
592 HT s<Sb. 

TJ- — B ud [wood]. 603 B kam. 605 T son, B s» n [when used]. 606 B 
duB L n. TJ: 610 T «1. 612 B sujm. 614 T and [?]. 615 T pan. 616 
T grand. 622 T ands. 629Bso*n\ 632 B ujp. 633 B ku/p. U': 658 
H dE'wn [and so on for the rest, but the diphthong is rather uncertain, and may 
be (a'u). Miss Cox used (e'«) herself, and was unable to decide]. 663 B a'us. 
667 B a'wt. 

Y: 700 T was. 701 HT fast. T- 705 HT ska'i. 

n. Engijsh. 

A. 737 B mgit mist. E. 749 B Isft. O. 761 HT losd. 767 T 
ne'iz. 790 T gfi'wnd. U. 803 B djw.mp. — B f6n [fun]. 808 T pat. 

in. Eomance. 

A- 810 H fgss. 811 H plSss [pi. pl&ss'n]. 813 T biBk'n, H beak'n. 
824 T tjihs, H tjte. 827 H eege. 828 H eege. 840 T tjaambB [not a bed- 
room, but any other room]. 852 T eepsn. 862 H sesf. 866 H pOB. 

E •• 867 H tee, B tU. 878 H sasreri. 879 HT fee-meel. 888 H saatin, 
890 H biBst [pi. (biBstiz, bias)]. 896 T biivs [in common use]. I and Y. 
898 B na'is. 904 T vo'ilet. 

O •• 913 T koti. 914 bruati. 920 H pa'int. 923* H mo'is. 926 H 
spa'il. — B U <Wl t« n'l [tunnel]. 939 H kl&ss. 940 T koBt, H kuBt [under 
petticoat, the outer is skirt]. 942 T batjB. 947 H ba'il. 954 T kash'n. 
IT- 963Tkwa'it. 965 H a'il. 

T (watjed) wet-shod, (ankid) wretched, a few broth. B (di ar) I are. TH. 
hears a faint (r), but to me it was quite inaudible. 



D 16 = ME. = Mid Eastern. 

Boundaries. Begin at Harwich at ne. corner of Es. Go along n. b. 
of Es. till you reach Cb. Go along first the s. and then the w. b. 
of Cb. to Peterborough, Kp. Go w. along n. b. of Hu. to its nw. 
corner about "Wansford, Np. (In the map the line accidentally falls 
a little s. of this border, and does not quite pass through Peter- 
borough.) Go wsw. across Np. to Rockingham, Np., at &w. angle 
of Et., passing s. of King's Cliffe, Np. Go sw. along the n. b. of 
Np. to Watling St., near Crick. Then go se. across Np., by the b. 
of D 6, passing e. of "Watford, through Long Buckby, where turn 
s. and pass e. of Daventry and Weedon, where turn more se. near 
Pattishall, and proceed s. of Blisworth and w. of Towcester, and 
continue to b. of Np. and Bu. at about Hartwell, Np. Pursue first 
the n. and then e. b. of Bu. to Gt. Gaddesden, Ht., and then pass 
s. across the w. horn of Ht. to strike the b. of Bu. again just about 

[ 1627 ] 



196 THE MID EASTERN. [D 16. 

"Whelpley Hill (4 ssw. Gt. Gaddesden). Go e., passing s. of Hemel 
Hempstead, Hatfield, and Hoddesdon, Ht., n. of Waltham Abbey, 
Es., ne. of Epping, and w. of Brentwood to tbe Thames at Tilbury. 
Then go down the Thames, and round the e. coast of Es. to tbe 
starting-point, Harwich. It will be observed that borders of 
counties are much followed, betraying imperfect information. Tbe 
line which forms the s. b. is quite uncertain, see D 17. The two 
lines through Np. are fairly correct, being founded on TH.'s 
numerous observations. The line across the w. horn of Ht. is 
rather conjectural, but I have been informed that that horn does 
not differ from Bu. 

Area. Most of Es. and Ht., all Hu. and BcL, and the middle 
of Fp. 

Authorities. See Alphabetical County List under the following names, where 

* means w. per AJE., t per TH., || in so., c in io. 

B<1. °Ampthill, *||Bedford, tDunstable, "Edworth, "Flitwiek, tGirtford, 
"Harrold, "Hatley Cockaine, "Melchbourne, *Eidgmont, tSandy, fSharnbrook, 
"Thurleigh, fTUbrook, "Toddington, tUpper Dean. 

Es. "Black Notley, "Bradfield, tBraintree, "Brentwood, "Brightiingsea, 
t Chelmsford, "Elsenham, t Great Chesterford, "Great Chishall, "Great Clacton, 

* + Great Dunmow, "Great Easton, "Great Baling, °t Great Shalford, tHenham, 
|| Ingatestone, *Maldon, t Newport, "Paglesham, "fPanfield, "Eayne, "Southend, 
"Stanway, fStebbing (Bran End}, *Thaxted, ""Witham. 

Ht. "Anstey, "tArdeley, tBishop's Stortford, "Boxmoor, fBraughin, 
tBuntingford, "Furneaux Pelham, °Gilaton, "Great Gaddesden, "Great Hormead, 
tHadham, "Harpenden, t Hatfield, "Hemel Hempstead, t Hertford, t Hertford 
Heath, "Hitchin, "St. Albans, "Sandridge, "tSawbridgeworth, "fStapleford, 
*tWare, *°"Welwyn, ""Weston. 

Hu. "Alconbury, t Godmanchester, "Great Catworth, t Great Gidding, "Great 
Paxton, °t Great Stukeley, "Hamerton, "Hilton, "fHolme, "Houghton, tHun- 
tingdon, "Keystone, tKimbolton, t Little Stukeley, fOld Fletton, "Pidley, tSt. 
Ives, "tSawtry, "Somersham, tStaneley, °t Stilton. 

Np. tBlisworth, tBrixworth, tClayCoton, tDenton, "Duston, *EastHaddon, 
tGreat Houghton, fHackleton, "Hannington, tHardingstone, "Hargrave, "Har- 
rington, tlrchester, tlslip, °t Lower Benefield, tLowick, t Nether Heyford, 
*t Northampton, "fOundle, fSibbertoft, tStanion, fSudborough, fThrapston, 
tWelford, t Wellingborough, "West Haddon, tYelvertoft. 

Character. This is a long straggling district, and between the n. 
in Np. and the s. in Es. there can be little or no connection. But 
I have found it impossible to divide the district by any definite 
lines, and have felt it best to consider the different counties in- 
volved as forming 'varieties,' and very slight such varieties are. 
The general character is 

A- remains (&j) only among very old people ; but becomes (ai, n'i, a'i) in different 
parts among the younger people. Thus, a Mrs. Clarke, about 73, at Ardeley 
called apron (E'iprun), but said her grandmother called it (Aepmi). Sometimes the 
women have made the change only, thus at the last-named place both Calvert 77 
and Clarke 73 said (meet) mate, in which the (b) is merely omitted ; but their wives 
said (mE'it meit) respectively. It is certain then that this (6», b'»), which is now 
so characteristic of D 16, is of recent growth, and has arisen from fee), which 
with (1b) is prevalent all over the S. div., just as (ai) in the M. has grown out of 
(arc), an alteration of (a«). Alphabetically, the letter a is called (a'i). 

A' is still occ. (ub) as an old form, but falls into (6b), and thence into (6«, 8«). 

I' becomes quite (a'»), and the letter i is so called alphabetically ; it is thus 
practically distinguished from a (e'»). 

[ 1628 ] 



D 16, Vi.] THE MID EASTERN. 197 

V has similarly to be distinguished from (6u), and hence (a'«, ait) were ousted 
by (e'w, £w), which is the general form. 

These characters appear pretty generally in all the varieties, 
which I propose to pursue and exemplify in the order Var. i., Ht. ; 
Var. ii., Bd. ; Var. iii., Hu. ; Var. iv., Np. ; and then, starting 
from Ht. again, proceed to Var. v., Es., -which leads directly to the 
e.London variety of D 17. 

Vae. i., Hebtfobdshtre. 

There were three principal centres' of information. 1. "Ware, 
where I had a w. cs. from a native, checked by TH.'s observations; 

2. Ardeley, where I had first much information from Rev. C. Malet, 
and then had it checked by TH. in a journey made on purpose; and 

3. "Welwyn with Hitchin. 

1. The "Ware speech is well exemplified by the following cs., 
with the cwl., which includes the words observed by TH. 

2. Ardeley was recommended to me by the gentleman who gave 
me the cs. of "Ware, and with much difficulty, owing to want of 
phonetic knowledge on the curate's part, I obtained a sufficiently 
intelligible version, but this was excellently supplemented by TH.'s 
visit, when he had the good fortune to be assisted by very old 
peasants, whose information is embodied in the cwl. 

3. "Welwyn I had hoped to have settled by a w. from a native 
student at "Whitelands Training College, but it was spoiled by the 
peculiarity of her education, and I am indebted to an old college 
friend, Mr. C. W. "Wilshere, who lives at "Welwyn, for a dt. for 
that place and also from Hitchin; but as they were written in 
unsystematic orthography, there is much that is conjectural in my 
pal., the interpretation being often derived from the either sources. 

Finally, I add a few words from Harpenden and Hatfield, to 
shew the nature of the dialect at the borders of D 17. 

There are very few points to be noticed. One is the partial use 
of (w) for (v) more developed in Es. and D 19, which we also met 
with in D 9, p. 132. The use of 'together' in addressing several 
people, and 'it do ' for ' it does,' are more developed in Cb. and D 
19. The use of the aspirate varies, but it is generally omitted. 

"Wabe cs. 

pal. by AJE. in 1876, from the dictation of Mr. J. W. Roderick, a native 
of Amwell (1 se.Ware), who considers that the specimen he gave applied to 
a district from Great Munden (6 n.Ware) to Broxbourne (4 s.Ware), and from 
Watton (6 nw.Ware) to "Widford (4 ene.Ware). Drawing lines e. and w., 
n. and s. through these extremes, we get a large district including Hertford and 
Stapleford, but excluding Welwyn and Ardeley. TH. endeavoured to verify the 
indications here given. At the end I collect the principal words of this cs. in 
a cwl., adding the words obtained by TH. at "Ware, Hertford, Hertford Heath, 
and Stapleford. The introductory (i) was found at Ware by TH., but the 
nasalisation was not observed at Ware, and neither were observed elsewhere. 
TH.'s chief time had been devoted to Ardeley, and he was unable to do much in 
the other places. 

[ 1629 ]. 



198 THE MID EASTERN. [D 16, V i. 

0. 'ww :djfoo,n ez n<kre dewts. 

1. we'bI, nfabB, jfu Bn ii me hiiueth. lg&af Bt dh«s nfuz b mom. 
fu kiwrz ? dhaat)s nadhBr fis nB dhfiB. 

2. fi'u msn doi kBZ dhee)B leaaft Bt, wii miwez, d«Bnt)Bs ? wAAt 
shwd mfuk em ? t)ii)nt wer* lotkli *s)t ? 

3. ewsBiiiE-vB dhres {w)z dhB triuth b dbs kfBS, soo dp'st 6«<d jb 
rew, meet, Bn bi k*po*Bt til 6*')b dan. l*'s'n. 

4. 6«)m sat'n 6* fied «m slee,*, — sam b dhee piip'l fu we ( nt thrfu 
dhB uml tihiq fram dhB fast dhBSElfs — dhaat bi d«Yd, siBf eriiaaf. 

5. dhaat dhB jaqgest san *'msBlf, b grfat brf* b notn, nfu iz 
f£aa,dhBz vo*bs Bt waans, dhoo t)wAAz sb kwfiBr Bn skwiikBn, bh 
bi Bd)trast)Bm)t spiiBk dhB triuth an* df£e», aa, bi 'wwd. 

6. Bn dh)6«d wwrnsn bseM, '1 tEl En* ov jb dhat liaaf n¥e ( w, Bn 
tEl jb striBt AAf tfu, Brewt nB boodhB, ef jfu)l oom ffiks)B, uub wttBnt 
sbi? 

7. lfastwfBz sh* tuuld Bt '0111 wen bi sekst)B, tfu)B thrfiB to*inz 
ubvb, sh)d**d, Bn •shii ■d.teet noot tfu bi roq on s»tj b paint eez dh£*BS 
— waat dfu -jfu thiwqk f 

8. weI, bz bi wbz B)see*Bn shii)d tEl)jB ew, wfiBr, Bn wm shi 
f ie*mt dhB draqkBn bfiBst shB kiAlz Br azbBn [bud man]. 

9. shi sAmb sh)s*d)Bm ws Br ooBn biz BlorBn striBtjt at fuul 
lfBqkth oon dhB grfewnd, in iz gfoed sandB \&mb, kliiwBs bo* dhB 
[be dhB] diiwBr B)dhB ie'ws die«n Bt th)k£«BnBr B)dliB Men *hdB. 

10. ii wbz b woman [1e«lBn] BweeB, sez shii, far aaI dhB wald 
16*k b sfiak tjio*'ld [tjia*ld] Br b l*t'l gJEl b freBten. 

11. Bn dhaat aapBnd bz shii Bn Br d&WBtBr)*h)laa kfiBm thrfu 
dhB Msek jfaa ( d fre seqsn ieut dhB wivt il&mz tfu dro* on b woshan 
dee*, 

12. wbil dhs k*'t'l wbz b ba*'lBn fe tii, wan fo*n bro*'t samBr 
aatsnuun, {utmli b wfBk Bguir kam neks thazd*. 

13. Bn d)jB n^t«B ? bi ilevb laant Eni m^i«B dhBn dhk'Bs, b dhaat 
b»zn*s ap tfu tB dee*, bz shfuB)z mo* niBm)z :djaak :sh«pBt, Bn b 
dttMBnt woont tfu nadhB, dhfiB nibu. 

14. Bn soo 6*)m ghwen A«Bm tfu sa"pB. gu)no*Bt, Bn d^MBnt bi 
sb kwfek tfu kri**B &*revBr b fElBr Bg*' - n, wen i tooeks b dhi*Bs dhaat 
B t)adhB. 

15. ii)z b w*«Bk fuml, dhat djii'sz Bri6«t Haa'z ts. Bn dhaat)s 
mo* liaast wad. faB jb weI. 

Notes to Wore es. 

1. neighbour, the final r is entirely emphatic assertion, and (ii)u) he are 
absorbed in the vowel, here and else- are common, so also thou, we, you am, 
where. (dhe«)m wii)m jiu)m) ; they be some- 

2. it is not, distinct (tiint) not times, bnt in answer to a question 
(tiimit). — very, v is constantly pro- they're, them and it's me (dhee)BdhEm, 
nounced as w, but not conversely. tt)s mii) are used. 

3. tkis here's; very short fracture in 4. I am with an adjective predicate, 
(dhres). — hold, doubtful whether (a'ud) not I are. — certain, not (sat'n). — say, 
or (6wd) and may be (o«d) . — row, noise. the nasality occurs only when the word 
— I are done, I are for I am and that is very prolonged. — people, folk is not 
for I have, as usual. (6i *aas) I are, an usual. — enough, this was thebestimita- 

[ 1630 ] 



D 16, T i.] THE MID EASTERN. 199 

tion I could give, the (i) very short, the nrent) joint, oil, ointment, (iter ail) 

(aa) long, but I was not satisfied with hair oil, and similarly (riiim, driren, 

the last vowel. riielweei triiBn) rain, drain, railway 

5. great (gaat) is never used. — knew, train. 

(niu) distinctly, not (niu). — voice, 9. ponder is very commonly called 

though this is a common word, (w) is (indu). We have the various forms 

not used. — day, the (ee) is not nasal, (JondBR jandim jinden) in S. dialects 

(diiB) occ, the prefixed (!) was not and (jendB, jindB, indn) in E. dialects, 

heard in par. 11 and 13. — aye, also but whether (indrc) represents yonder or 

(jins) yes. hinder is not clear. 

6. ask, distinctly (aeks), not (aks). 14. goodnight, almost (gu)n&i-t). 

At Albury (8 nne.Ware) (jia3 ( ks) is 15. fare ye well, good-bye would not 

heard. he used except for a long absence, 

7. point, distinctly (paint) while pint (tataa*) may be heard, but it is not 
is (p6int) similarly (djaint, ail, aint- very common. 

se. Ht., "Wake, etc. 

Unmarked words from Mr. Roderick's cs. for "Ware, with others given by him. 
V wn. by TH. at Ware from Goldstone 29, and W 2 Saunders 1 2, natives. 
H wn. by TH. at Hertford from Seymour 71, and HH. Hertford Heath 

(2se.Hertford). 
S wn. by TH. at Stapleford (3 n.-by-e.Hertford). All in 1884. 

I. Wessex and Nobse. 

A- W 2 [letter A = (as)]. 6 mi«k, W mB'ik. 8 W sev, W 2 ev, H. «nt 
[have not]. 17 laa, W Iaa. 19 HH tE"iisl. 21 nism, W 2 nE"im. — faas 
[fare]. 34 liaast. A: 39 kiism. 49 aeq. 53 W 2 kse'n. 54 woont. 66 

wosh. A: or 0: 60 bq. 64 roq, HH roq. 

A'- 67 gtimn, W [between] Bgowin, Bgowin, W 2 g6win. 69 W n6«. 
72 iu, W 2 uu, W uu «u. 74 tiu, H t»'u. 79 omn. 81 liBn. 82 waans. 
84 mtius, H m#B. 87 kl««Bz. 89 bwwBth, W bowth, W 2 bowth. 92 ntiim. 
94 krwwB. A': 102 aeks [at Albury (jlas'ks)], W ask. 105 H ruttd. 106 
H brAAd. 110 noot. Ill »wet. 113 wkbI, W 00,1. 115 umm, W turn, H 
00m dm. 117 wan, HH uloon [alone], 120 Bguu - . 122 mwB. 125 oonli 
«««nl«. 137 nadhs, W nEdhs. 

M- 138 feaa.dhB, WW 2 H faadhB. 144 Bgin. 150 Itest. M: 154 
blaek. 155 HH thEti. — tBgJE'dhu [together, addressing several persons]. 
— W ad [had], W 2 Ed. 151 aate. 161 dieei, deei, diB, W dE"i, W 2 dai, 
Hd«. 169 wsn. 173 waaz. — kaatTcart]. 177 dhaat [?(dhat)]. 179 wAAt. 
2E!- 194 En*. 200 HH wit. M': 209 nEVB. 220 shipst. 222 iiB. 

223 dhiiB, W dbis. 224 wub. 227 wiBt. 

E- 233 spiisk. 241 riiBn, W rE"in, W 2 rain. 244 we'bI. 252 kit'l. 
E: 256 striati. 261 slee.i, Bsee'Bn [a-saying], W se"«. 263 BweeB, W 
BWE"i. 265 striBt,' W strE'it. 276 thiiBqk. 279 we.nt. 280 W -lEv'n. 
281 liBqkth. E'- 297 fElB. E': 307 HH n<8i. 312 lis. 316 neks. 

EA- 320 kiiar. EA: 322 lgaaf llaaf, WW 2 HH laaf. 326 6ud, W 
6mi Id, W 2 6wld, H {between] 6u\ 6wl. 330 6«d, W (m\\A. 332 tuuld. 335 
AAl & H. 338 kAAl. 340 jtaa,d. EA'- 348 in. 349 fiu. EA: 357 
dhoo. 359 neeba. 366 gritst, W grE'it. EI- 372 aa. 373 dhee; EI: 
378 wttBk. 

EO- 383 W SEv'n. 387 niu, W niu & W 2 . EO: 392 rare [yellow]. 
394 indB, W jandB [mostly, occ] jindB, W 2 jands [old (jinds)], HH jindB. 
399 br6it. 402 laant. 408 niu. 411 thriiB. 412 shi sh-. EO': 422 
siiak. 435 Jiu, HHW ra. 437 triuth. ET- 438 doi, W <1a"», H 
[between] d4id dA"id. ET: 439 trust. 

I- W* [letter I = (aa'»)] 440 wiBk. 446 n6in. I: 452 oi, W di. 

453 ktefttk. 458 gu)n6iBt [good-night]. 465 sitj. 466 tji6ild, tiTaild, W 2 
trAA'ild. 469 w#l. — winds [window]. 480 thiq. 482 tiint [it is not], 
W E"int iz'nt, W» s'int. 484 dhtBs dhiiBs. I'- 492 W 2 SAA'id. 494 

[ 1631 ] 



200 THE MID EASTERN. [D 16, V i. 

t6im, H [between] U"»m tdim, HH tA n im. 495 w6»n. I': 600 16ik, W 
l«ik & H. 596 wwmBn. — "W, [between] at, a'i [hay]. 508 HH [between] 
mA'ild, mdild. 509 w&il. 510 moin, W mA"in, Wj mAA'in. 

0- 519 ubvb bmbvb. 524 wald, W wa'ld waald. 0: 525, ii. Atf. 531 
itiuvtv, "W dAAte, HH (IaaHb. 538 wwd. 541 witent, W 2 wSant [sometimes 
(want)]. 550 wad, H wod. 0'- 555 sbiu. 556 tiu. 657 tiu, H [between] 
tfti, Uu. 567 t)adhB. 0': 571 gwsd. 579 tmioof, W Bnaf, W 8 [between] 
Bnaf, Bnof. 586 diu d«Bnt [don't], "W din, H din. 587 dan. 688 nuun. 
592 suite. 

TJ- 603 kam & "W. 604 same. 605 san, HH so'n. 606 dawn. XT: 
609 find. 612 som. 616 gr$e«nd, W gr»a'«n. 623 fiewnt, W fto'wnd. 627 
sands. 629 HH so'n. 631 thazdi. 632 op, "W 2 op, H ap. 633 H [between] 
kop kap. 634 thrin, HH thrwu. U'- 641 e«. 643 nie.w, "W nWu, "Wi 



2 

HH [between] e"«s o"«s.' 666 azben. 667 leut, "W E"«t, H o'wt. 

Y- 673 H mati. 674 diid. 677 d roi. 681 biznis. 682 lit'l. Y: 
692 jraqgest. 694 H wak. 701 feist, W 8 faast. Y'- 706 w6», W 

WA"i. 

n. En(J1jsh. 

A. 722 driiBn. 726 t6oBk, H tAAk. 732 aapra. 737 meet, W mB'it. 

— djiABZ [jaws]. E. 652 freBt. I. and Y. 758 gJEl, W ga'l, H gjal, 
"W, gja>l. 0. 767 W n6iz. — H wfo [worn]. 781 boodhs. 789 re«, 
W ria'w. 791 b6», HH bfa. IT. 797 skioiikBn. 798 k«?liB. 803 djomp. 
804 draqk'n. 

in. Eomance. 

A- 811 H pl«°s. 830 tr&m, W Win. 841 H tjaans. 857 Mbs. 862 
sIbi. 864 Kaa'z [cause]. — sisese'vidj [savage] . E-- 867 tit & H. 885 
wsri, W vixi [no w used for »], W 2 vEri, H [no te used for »], HH & S [to 
used for «]. — piaese'trtdj [partridge]. 888 sot'n. 890 biiBst. I- a»rf 
Y- 901 f6»n, w 2 fA"*n. — "W vi -nigs [vinegar] & W 2 [with v only]. 

— p6int [pint], W [between] p6int paint, w, po'int. — vit'lz [victuals], 
& W 2 [adduig, some say (wit'lz)], HH & S wit'lz. 

0" 919 aintmBnt. 920 paint, "W 2 pS'int. — djaint [a joint] . 925 v6tBs, 
W v6 1 is. 938 k&tflnra. 939 kl»«BS. 940 k««Bt. 941 fwwBl. 947 bail. 
950 sa'pB. 955 dewt, W dta'at. IT •• 963 kw6»Bt, "W kwA"iBt. 965 ail. 

— ie«l [howl]. 969 shius. 970 djist. 

Abdeley ok Yabd:ley (8 e.-by-s.Hitchin) dt. 

written by Eev. C. Malet, son of the Vicar, and palaeotyped by AJE. 
from indications given by him. Mr. Eoderick of "Ware, Ht., said that 
(:jaa - dli :wwd :iind) or Yardley Wood End was a famous outlandish place for 
the dialect. From TH.'s observations it appears that long vowels are too 
freely used in this translation. 

1. boo o'i sieiz, meerats, jiu sii neew, dhaat o'« bii ro'*t, tBg«sdh"Br, 
obeewt dhaat eei? liit'l gaal ■B-kanvra from dive skfiul jaarrdi3. 

2. shii)z vgoo-in deewn dire rrfoed dhees thriu db.B reeed glint on 
dhe Irft aand so'id v dhre wee» lo'ik. 

3. shiut! aaf dire tp'ild b gAAn stro'*t ap tiu dire duuer v dhu roq 
&eus. 

4. weeae stii vl moost)Bn)iin fo« - nd dhaat draqk'n deewf s*«d 
tjaap n^em v :tAA - mas. 

[.1632 ], 



D 16, V i.] THE MID EASTERN. 201 

5. wi aal noVez mi vEr* weI. 

6. want dh)AAl tjaap sli-un laan e not tB dfu vt agiicn no'tdke, 
■p&m th«q ! 

7. liuk ! ee«nt «t tru'u. 

Notes. 
Very drawled. 4. most on end, sure that (an) for («m) or (im) was 
generally, surely, seared, shrivelled. used. No other authorities admit this 
5. we all knows him. Mr. M. was strictly MS. form. 

Aedelex "Wood End (:jaadl* :wu& riind, :j&rli :w«d :iin), 
(li se.Ardeley), cwl. 

TH.'s observations on Darby and wife 48, Brown 86, Calvert and wife 77, Clarke 
73 and wife 62, these are not here generally distinguished, as that would be 
descending to personal differences, when there was substantial agreement, but 
it was observed that the men inclined to older and the women to recent forms. 
Darby used ' together ' as an address to several, as (wi«[r Jb gu-in, tBgJEdhs?) 
where are you going, you people ? Common in D 18 and 19. 

B a few wn. by TH. at Buntingford (:ba - nifst) about 4 ne.Ardeley, chiefly from 
F. Kimpton, labourer, 72. Mrs. K. said (it du) for it does. All wn. in 1884. 

i. "Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 5 meek. 21 ni«m neW nE n im, B [between], nee^sm nee|_«m. A: 43 
and. A: or 0: 64 [between] roq roq [or something between (roq, roq)]. 

A'- 67 guu go-in. 73 B s6u. 74 tt'u. 81 leesn, Wn, lB"in [Mrs. Clarke, 
whose mother said (leeen)], B le^in. 86 6«ts. 92 n6«. A': 104 [formerly] 
rued, [now] r6wd, [Brown and Mrs. Calvert], rood [Calvert]. 115 oom. 117 
wwn. 

M- 138 faadhu. M: B thetj. 161 dSi, dee [Calvert], oe"« [Mrs. 
Clarke], deeL» [Clarke]. — steisl [stale = handle]. — WAps-iz [wasp-sl. 170 
a[_rvist-iz. — glaas [glass]. — kj'aat [cart]. M'- 125 oni. M': 226 
mos Bn iin [most on end, generally]. 
• E- 241 reen [Calvert] re" in [Mrs. C.]. E: 263 Bwee. 265 strs'it streit 
stret, B street. — f ild filz [field fields]. E'- 299 griin. E': 314 ted 
&B. 315 fit. 

EA: 326 6«ld, B 6wl, 6«l L d. 328 B ko»ld. — jalrn [earn]. 346 gM. 
EA'- 347 E"id. EA': 355 dzf. 371 straa [Mrs. Clarke's grandmother]. 
EO- 383 sEv'm. EO: 394 jinds [Darby], lands [Brown], [both at B.J. 
396 [between] wak wok. 402 laan, [between] lEEn loon [Mrs. Clarke]. 

I: 452 di. — bad [bird]. 459 rait ra'it ra'it. 466 tjaild trs"il. 
469 w»l. 477 fa'ind fA'ind. 482 ent [aint, is not]. I'- 492 sa"id SA'id 
[nearly], said, B SA"id [and all long » at B = (a"»)], B sfi'id. 494 tA'im & B. 
T: 503 BlA"iv [alive]. 510 mA".in. 

O- — b6,Bn [born]. O: 531 dAAts. 541 w«nt wont wont. — fAAk 
[fork]. 550 wad. — a"bs [horse]. 0'- 556 t»u. 560 skuul & B. 562 
muun. 564 stun suun sos'un. : 586 diu. 588 nuun. 

XJ- 603 kam. 605 s« n. 606 diuB duB dvlB das'us [between (duB, d<Se)]. 
D: 613 dr« qk, draqk. — wwnds [wonder]. 632 ap op. 634 thriu. U'- 
643 [betweenj no'u, ue'u, [Darby and Calvert], no"« [Brown], ns'V [Mrs. Clarke], 
648 a'uvn [our'n, ours]. 650 vba'ut. tl': 658 do"«n [between that and 

(dE'un) Mrs. Calvert ana B ; between the two, Mrs. Clarke], B diis n un. 659 B 
tL»E"«n, B tE"«n. 663 o'us [between that and (e'us) Mrs. Calvert, B e'ms]. 

n. English. 

A. 737 meet [Clarke, Calvert], mE"»t [Mrs. Calvert], meit [Mrs. Clarke]. 
E. 749 lEft. I. 758 gjal gjal. O. — gro"ul Lgrowl]. TJ. 803 
B [between] djomp, djamp. — tansps [turnips]. 

[ 1633 ] 



202 



THE MID EASTERN. 



[D 16, V i. 



m. Romance. 

A- 810 f&ss. — deeBm [dame]. 852 [Mrs. Clarke's grandmother said 
^Bp«n, but the present pronunciation is E'ipren]. I •• andY •• 898 nms. 901 
idiu. ()•• — bif[beef]. — B pamp [pump]. — fust [forced]. — tan 
[turn]. 955 [between] dV'ut da"ut [Calvert]. 

Note. B no (w) for (t). 



"Welwyn (8 s.-by-e.Hitchin) dt. 

pal. by AJE. from notes and indications by C. W. "Wilshere, Esq., of the 
Frythe, "Welwyn. 

1. soo di sez, m«ets, sez di, Jiu sii ne« vz ew di)m rait obeub dhat 
lit'l gael «kamin from dire skiml jandn. 

2. shii)z vgoo-in dewn dire rdmd dheeB thruu She red gdit on dbs 
fadh-B [dh«s] sdii vr dhw wdi. 

3. shiur ■enaf dhe tjdj'ld »z gAATi strdit Ep to dhB duuBr av db.B 
roq dws. 

4. -wee shii)l tjaans idmd dhat draqk'n drf wiz'nd Msr ov dh« 
ndiva b :tom.9s. 

5. wii aaI nooz im vet* wel. 

6. wont dire ool tjasp suun la3n)ij not te duu *t Bgen. 

7. lMk'» dheeB, eent it djEst bz d» SEd ? 



Miscellaneous Welwyn Notes from Mr. Wilshere. 



r not sounded except before a Towel. 

A initial almost unknown except 
in him hern. 

Ibe was constantly in use about 1850, 
and beant is universal now among old 
people. 

unked (aqkid), uncomfortable, dreary, 
— common. 

like (lo'ik), a common qualifying 
addition to adverbs. She looked at 
me quite strange-like ; I thought she 
knew him, they seemed quite friends- 
like P 

do (d/u), (o'i aaIbz d«u »t, s6« o'i 
dt'u), I always do it, so I do. (i taanz 
in dhera p«ti rEglsr B)no'its, i din) he 
turns in there pretty regular at nights, 
he do. 

game. In "Welwyn (g*v), in Hitchin 
(gav). 

audacious (eadeei-shus), impudent, — 
common. 

who (iu). " I be-ant a-goin ther 
ter-day. "They people over at Har- 



ford aint [anciently beant] like we" 
" Lookee, there, if that aint [or beant] 
our Jim, dooant e jist look spry [(sprai ) 
not (spro'i)] since ee's biin keepin 
company with Jane," universally used 
for courting. 

-en, in year« his» her» theira ouse» 
rosem [at Welwyn] . 

town, up town, down town, always 
without the article. 

done, " it was im as done it, she done 
it, its er as done it, it's them as done it." 

favour, "e (the os) favours is oft 
leg wus than yesterday," does not rest 
on it being lame; " bless me ow she 
dew favour her mother sure-lie," how 
like she is to. 

shut (shEt), shrink (sriqk), put (pwt), 
foot (fat). 

donkey female ass, the male being a 
jackass, clock is feminine. 

The indications were not sufficient for 
me to give the pronunciation fully in 
these notes. 



[ 1634 ] 



D 16, V i.] THE MID EASTERN. 203 



HlTCHIN dt. 

pal. by AJE. from notes obtained by C. "W. Wilshere, Esq., 
of the Frythe, Welwyn. 

1. SCO oV sez, m««ts, sez o'i, ju sii va en o'«')m ro«°t obe'wt Sheet 
l«tl «n [dhset raq gael] raz iz , B)kam - in ewt)i3 skuuld jaen-da. 

2. shii-z Bgoo-m deim [dae'wn] dhaet &e ruuud dheis, thruu dhu 
red gfet B)tEdhi3 [o)dbis] said e dire wee. 

3. shiur enirf - it shi ««nt i3)gAAn ro'it ap tra cUra duuur «)dhi3 roq 
e«s. 

4. bhist ii sH woont [bEt « piar» shii)l] fo'ihd dheet draqkn oo\ 
tjsep dhee, w»z-'nd oo\ :tom. 

5. wi aaI nooz »m pwt - * weI. 

6. wont dhu ool tjsep suun li3rn)B t« te«k keerar ew ski dacz it 
BgEn, puuB thing ! 

7. lwk-« dhera ! foiweld re boo. 

Notes. 
I is distinctly broad (o't). (raiew) is said when it refers to the plural. 



Habpenden (4 n.St. Albans) cwl. 
words from Mr. T. Wilson's dt. 

I. Wessex and Nobse. 

A- 21 n«m. A: 43 send. A: or 0: 58 fan [?]. 64 roq. A'- 67 
gu-in. 92 now. A': 104 ruwl. 121 gAAn. M- 144 tsgi-n. JE: 177 
Shot. M- 183 tetj. M': 223 dhis. 224 wi«. E: 261 sa'». 
262 wa't. 265 street. 266 wsel. E'- 293 wee. 297 fsek Mv. EA: 
326 6»1. 346 glut gest gaet. EA': 355 dEth. EO: 394 jEndti. 
EO'- 412 shee [?]. EO': 428 see [?]. 435 je'«. 436 triu. I: 452 
di [probably, uncertain]. 459 rA'it. 466 tjo'ild. 469 w«l [will]. 477 fa'ind. 
480 fiqk fiq thiqk. 482 ««nt [is not]. I'- 492 sa'id. 0: 541 w«nt 
want. 0'- 560 skuuld. 564 siun. 0': 579 Bns'w. 586 diu. XJ- 606 
duuB. U: 634 throo. U'- 643 ns'tt. XJ': 658 diE'wn. 663 e'«s. 

n. English. 

I. and Y. 758 gael. U. 804 draqk'n. 

m. Romance. 

A- 841 tjAAns. E- 885 wEri. U- 969 shiuu. 

Hatfield (6 ■ws-w.Hertford) cwl. 
wn. in 1884 by TH., chiefly from J. Hart 62, and his wife. 

i. "Wessex and Norse. 

A- 4 te»k. 5 meik. 8 ent [hasn't]. A'- 74 Wn. 82 wans. A': 104 
r6 l «d [old form (ru«d)]. 121 gAAn. 128 dh6'«z. JE- 144 sgje-n. EA: 
326 6«1. 346 gjeit. EO: 394 jsndti. 402 laan [old form]. EO'- 411 

[ 1635 ] 



204 THE MID EASTERN. [D 16, V i, ii, 

thrii. I: 466 tjotl. 480 unithiqk [anything]. — iten [hitting]. I'- 492 
said. 0: 641 wownt wwnt. 0': 586 aVu. 587 [between] do'n, da'n. 
U- 606 dfa. XT'- 650 tsba'wt. XJ': 663 [between] a'«s, e'ks. 

n. EsmisH. 

A. 714 lad [used more than boy]. I. and Y. 758 gjal [old form, Mrs. 

H. said between] gjal gjae'l. 0. — lAAst [lost]. 791 boi [more often lad]. 

m. Romance. 

A- — gaad'nin [gardening]. 0- — pamp [pump]. 



Vae. ii. Bedfobdshtre. 

The Bd. var. is scarcely distinguishable from the Ht. "We have 
Batchelor's account written 80 years ago, and it scarcely differs 
from the present pron., as shewn by the following dt. from Bidgmont 
and the cs. from Bedford. It is sufficient to leave these to tell 
their own story. 

T. Batchelor in 1809 wrote an " Orthoepical Analysis of the 
English Language — to which is added a minute and copious analysis 
of the dialect of Bedfordshire," 8vo. pp. viii. 164. This differs 
from ordinary writing about dialects by being written in a systematic 
character, and therefore I deviate from my usual habit of disregard- 
ing printed books. All is here given in the best pal. interpretation 
I could assign. But of course difficulties and uncertainties abound. 
Thus, (e, e) are quite uncertain, and hence (ew, e'w). Similarly, 
(o, sr), and hence (e'«, a/«), are also uncertain. The simple (e, 9) 
are therefore alone used. B. has no other way of expressing (ii, 
uu) but by the equivalents of («j, mw), which might mean (li, Au), 
but I interpret them as (ii, uu) for simplicity. B.'s r is said to be 
always " smooth," and that means most probably, as generally in 
E. div., before a vowel (r) or (r ), and when not before a vowel 
simply (b) ; but to indicate his usage, ' permissive r ' or (j) is 
here employed. For the simple (e) see the following cs. and 
dt. B. gives a very long list of principally "accidental-" errors 
of pronunciation, and a large number of " colloquial phrases or 
low vulgarisms." The first I give to a small extent in a cwl. 
and a few of the latter are also added. But to go into the whole 
would be to give undue prominence to the district. His rules for 
pronouncing the dialect in 1809 amount to the following, the 
examples and pronunciation are his own. 

1. ow generally = (eu), this refers to the words with V (new ke« dheu fewl 
eul), now cow thou foul owl, and O' (pleu) plough, and with the French OU •• (veu, 
dew) vow, allow. He takes the received diphthong as (6u) . 

2. Long u is generally (iu), as (trt'«, trt'ws) true, truce, and in French words 
(mt'wz, r»Vin, nt'wzens, krcVil, slj«s) muse, ruin, nuisance, cruel, sluice. 

3. ai ay = {eei) in (deet wee* sees neeil reeil) day way say nail rail and French 
(peet peeil), but a followed by a consonant and final e is (es, 6b, eera), for which I 
usually write (eis), as (seed seeil) sale sail, (tee«l teetl) tale tail, (meeBl meeil) 
male mail, (peed peeil) pale pail. This corresponds to the treatment of A-, 
iEG-, EG, to which other Saxon and French words are levelled up, thus he; 

I 1636 ] 



D 16, V ii.] THE MID EASTERN. 205 

gives also (weew teeex geeBt) wear tear gate, and (greets pleess speeBs peeia) 
grace place space, pear & pair. And he says (neeBshBn steeushim) nation station 
occur in n.Bd. 

i, ea and long e before r = («»«), for which I usually write (1b), these words are 
from various sources (hist miBt swiBt biBt fiBi :djiBmz pi»i Mbi) heat meat sweat 
beat fear James peer beer. 

5. oa and o before a consonant followed by e = (ub), as (muBn grCusn thruBt bust 
tfisn sBpuBz, befusr mUBj &(veij moan groan throat bought tone suppose before 
more floor ; here whatever has (oo, oo'to) in received speech is levelled up. But 
B. adds not in " hope home rope spoke oak told mould sold soul roll," and not in 
(n6o» dhoow doow kroow) no though doe crow, so that each word would have as 
usual to be separately acquired. 

6. o short before (k, g, q) is (o), as (brok strek spok fek) broke stroke spoke 
folk, (dog hog rog) dog hog rogue, (soq loq roq) song long wrong. This rule is 
difficult, the o being (now at least) often long in rs. 

7. (oq, oqk) of rs. become («q, wqk), as (suq dwq h«q dr«qk muqk trwqk saqk 
bwq m«qgril Bm«q) sung dung hung drunk monk trunk sunk bung mongrel among. 

8. oi, oy become (a'i) in (bre'il spo'il fo'il be'il so'tl o'il a'intment na'iz taimo'il 
ro'ial) broil spoil foil boil soil oil ointment noise turmoil royal; but is (o'i) in 
enjoy noise [as well as (no'iz) ?] voice choice toys boys = (bo'iz). 

9. r is not pronounced before * followed by e or by a consonant, as (fost dost 
wast kuBS f 6bs aas hiAdBi both woth wasted) first durst worst course force horse 
border birth worth worsted. Here we have not always simple omission. 

10. -ow final is often (bj), or more probably (-b) except when a vowel follows, 
(elbB mere nserB winds) elbow mellow narrow window, also (oidiis psteeitB :8e - frikB 
:tiemi) idea potato Africa Chinaware. 

11. -nge final = (nzh) not (ndj) as (streeinzh reeinzh meeinzh sprinzh twinzh 
sinzh swinzh) strange range mange springe twinge singe swinge. 

12. -ing of participles is (in), as (siqin) singing, (gu'in) going. 

13. wh initial is simple (w), as (wot) what. 

14. h initial generally omitted, as (i iz im) he his him, but sometimes inserted 
in the wrongplace, as (IiaaI heal hAAdej haeksharndo'i-Bn) awl owl order axe andiron. 

15. -aw final generally = (-aa), but the custom is disappearing, (laa saa klaa) 
law saw claw. 

16. er, ir followed by a consonant is (aj), meaning really (eo, aa) , and unaccented 
seems to be (bi) or simply (s) ; (pwhaps pBJswesd port mosifwl poos' n) perhaps 
persuade pert merciful person. 

17. unaccented (b) takes the place of long o and even a in initial, middle and final 
unaccented syllables, as (i'nBSBns gkoi- Bfend slum skewnt) innocence occur offend 
alone account. 

I are for I am is common, he'm she'm we'm you'm they'm, are used by a few. 
On b. of Bu. I be, ye be, are heard. 



Batchelor's Bd. Sentences. Only a few are given. 

1. (wot v vaas sa'tt vr fok), what a vast sight of folk. 

2. (a'*'l bi wu)jv nekst we»'z), I'll be with)you next ways, i.e. I'll 

come soon. 

3. (hii)z loq « dire bak an im), he's long of the back on him, i.e. 

he has a long back. 

4. (dhiez ui gwd wfets, baailtz), these are good wheats, barleys, 

etc., i.e. good kinds of wheats, etc. 

5. (o'» kaant meek notlwn uv it, nedhei hed n-ex tet'l an)t), I can't 

make nothing of it, neither head nor tail of it.. 

6. (g»V mii b iiu brAAth, por«dj), give me some broth, porridge. 

7. (lieu mem brAAth ? «z dheer Bnfu), how many [much] broth ? 

is there enew. [Broth is always in the plural.] 

[ 1637 ] 



206 THE MID EASTERN. [D 16, V ii. 

8. (rnu'stres :m. iz ne*'shBn, mAAjtol, dewsi'd r*tj, pum, i\, gwd, bad, 

hansem, ogb', etc.), Mrs. M. is 'nation, mortal, deucid rich, 
poor, ill, good, bad, handsome, ugly. 

9. (dheBi wez e do - ni3 he-men*), there was I don't)know how)many. 

10. (aaIbs gu'«h tv i&viz en si'tj), always going to fairs and such like. 

11. (evert neu en tan), every now and then, (dhen) with (dh) 

assimilated to the preceding (n). 

12. (dh» wedhei)z -pimi homiexbebl ooybi it wor), the weather)is 

pure comfortable over it was. 

13. (a't he)n« wots tejfer), I have)no oats to-year [this year]. 

14. («'t)s purta' gwdesh, bobtah, lo'ik), it's pretty goodish, bobbish, 

like ; the ' like ' qualifies the meaning similarly to the usual 
as it were, it is about pretty good. 

15. (»'t stanz te sens, hii wont bi sed), it stands to sense [it is 

clear] he won't be said [stopped by words]. 



KrDGMOira (9 ssw.Bedford) dt. 

pal. by AJE. from the dictation of Miss Susan "Wheck, native, student at 
Whitelands, June, 1881. 

1. soo a'* see», meWts, juu sii ns'u a