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Full text of "Operator's Manual For M16, M16A1"



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TM 9-1005-249-10 



OPERATOR'S MANUAL 
FOR 

RIFLE, 5.56-MM, M16 

(1005-00-856-6885) 

RIFLE, 5.56-MM, M16A1 

(1005-00-073-9421) 



HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

FEBRUARY 1985 



TM 9-1005-249-10 
C2 

CHANGE HEADQUARTERS 

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
NO. 2 „ ,. 

Washington, DC 11 Mav 1990 

Operator's Manual 

for 

RIFLE, 5.56-MM, Ml 6 

(1005-00-856-6885) 

RIFLE, 5.56-MM, M16A1 

(1005-00-073-9421) 

TM 9-1005-249-10, 1 1 February 1985, is changed as follows: 

Page 2-24. Add the following WARNING before the previous WARNING. 

WARNING 

With the bolt carrier assembly ioclted to the rear or in its 
forward position, if the weapon is dropped or jarred with a 
loaded magazine in piace, it could chamber a round. 



By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 



CARL E. VUONO 

General, United States Army 

Chief of Staff 

Official: 

WILLIAM J. MEEHAN II 

Brigadier General, United States Army 

The Adjutant General 

Distribution: 

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-40, block 135, Operator 
Maintenance Requirements for Rifle, 5.56MM, M16, M16A1. 



TM 9-1005-249-10 
C1 



CHANGE HEADQUARTERS 

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
No'' Washington, D.C., 9 December 1987 

Operator's Manual 

for 

RIFLE, 5.56-MM, M16 

(1005-00-856-6885) 

RIFLE, 5.56-MM, M16A1 

(1005-00-073-9421) 



TM 9-1005-249-10, 11 February 1985, is changed as follows: 



Front cover. Add the following under TM 9-1005-249-10: AIR FORCE TO 11W3-5-5-1 
COAST GUARD COMDTINST M8370.8 

Add, above "FEBRUARY 1985.": "DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 

COMMANDANTS, COAST GUARD 

Page a. The telephone numbers for the AMCCOM Radiological Protection Officer 
(RPO) are superseded as follows: AUTOVON 793-2964/2965/2966; Commercial (309) 
782-2964/2965/2966 

Page i. 

Add the following to Reporting Errors Block: "Air Force users submit AFTO 
Form 22, Technical Order System Publications Improvement Report and reply to: 
WR-ALC/MMEDT, Robins AFB, GA 31098-5000. Coast Guard users submit Publica- 
tions Correction/Change Report Form to: Commandant, US Coast Guard (G-ODO), 
Washington, DC 20593-3001." 

Supersedure notice is changed as follows: 

"*This manual supersedes TM 9-1005-249-10, 1 April 1977, TM 9-1005-249-10-HR, 
February 1979, and AIR FORCE TO 11W3-5-5-1, 1 August 1966, including all 
changes." 



Page 1-2. Add to end of paragraph: "Air Force users submit Material Deficiency 
Report (IVIDR) to: DIP IVIAT MGT, Robins AFB, GA // IVIMIRFT // and Quality Defi- 
ciency Report to: DIR MAT MGT, Robins AFB, GA // QAY //." 

Page 1-3, paragraph 1-4. Add: d. Receiver is made of light-weight aluminum alloys, 
however, the safety, durability, and function of the rifles are in no way reduced and 
the portability and logistical values greatly increased, particularly when air 
transport is used. 

Page 1-4. Add: Paragraph 1-7. DESTRUCTION OF ARMY MATERIEL TO PREVENT 
ENEMY USE. Only your commanding officer can give the order and method to 
destroy materiel to prevent enemy use. Refer to TM 750-244-7. 

Page 1-5. 

Change step 5 to read: "Squeezing the trigger releases the hammer, which 
stril^es the firing pin, causing it to impact the primer of the round." 

Change step 9 to read: "When round reaches approximate end of barrel, expand- 
ing gases from burning propellant pass through gas port, gas tube, and into the 
bolt carrier assembly, forcing it to the rear. This causes the bolt to extract and 
eject the spent cartridge case." 



Add step 10: "The action spring and buffer assembly returns the bolt carrier 
assembly forward, stripping a round from the magazine and chambering it." 

Page 2-1. 
Item (7): Delete "... and provides storage for basic cleaning materials." 

Item (9): Add: "and provides storage for basic cleaning materials" to end of 
sentence. 

Page 2-6. 

Item 2: Under "Equipment is NOT READY/ AVAILABLE IF," Add: "There are obstruc- 
tions in the bore." 

Item 3: Under "Equipment is NOT READY/AVAILABLE IF," Add: "Hammer falls." 
Page 2-7. 

Change the fourth sentence from "Release the trigger." to "Slowly release the 
trigger." 

Add the following NOTE: For the purpose of this test, "SLOW" is defined as 1/4 
to 1/2 the normal rate of trigger release. 



"Equipment is NOT READY/AVAILABLE IF:" add "hammer fails to fall on the 
second trigger squeeze or if hammer falls on release of trigger." 

Page 2-8. Under "Equipment is NOT READY/AVAILABLE IF:" add "or hammer falls 
on the second trigger squeeze." 

Page 2-9, Item 4. Under "Equipment is NOT READY/AVAILABLE IF:" add "Sights 
are damaged, missing, or cannot be adjusted." 

Page 2-10, Item 5. Under "Equipment is NOT READY/AVAILABLE IF:" add 
"Magazine catch will not retain or release the magazine." 

Page 2-12, Item 8. Add to second paragrapli of the WARNING: "... or at the end 
of the day." 

Page 2-24. 

Change step (1) to read "Pull charging handle assembly (1) rearward, lock bolt, 
and return charging handle to full forward position. Place selector lever (2) on 
SAFE." 

Change step (2) to read: "Check to see that chamber is clear." 



Page 2-31. Paragraph 2-17 is changed as follows: 

1 If your rifle fails after performing IMMEDIATE ACTION, perform the following 
procedures. 

2 Clear your rifle (p 2-33), leaving the bolt carrier locked to the rear with the 
selector lever on SAFE. 

3 Check for jammed cartridge case. 

4 If a cartridge case is in the chamber, tap out with a cleaning rod. 

5 Insert LOADED cartridge magazine (p 2-14) and resume normal operation. 

6 If your rifle still fails to fire, clear your rifle (p 2-33) and refer to 
troubleshooting (p 3-0). 

Page 2-32. 

Change step 1 to read: "Clear rifle by placing selector lever on SAFE, remove 
magazine, lock bolt to rear, and check receiver and chamber to ensure that no am- 
munition is present (p 2-33 and 2-34). 



After step 1, add the following WARNING: "Ensure the rifle is clear and that no 
ammunition is present." 

Change step 2 to read: "Visually inspect from the muzzle end and/or insert a 
cleaning rod into bore to ensure there is not a projectile lodged in bore." 

Page 2-40. Add a NOTE before paragraph 2-21: "Protective cap is for field use only. 
DO NOT store weapon with the protective cap on the barrel. Storing the weapon 
with the protective cap in place may cause moisture to collect in the barrel." 

Page 2-43. 

Add a new step (6) to read: "When moving a cold rifle into a warm place, con- 
densation (nrioisture) will form in and on your weapon. If possible, leave your 
weapon in a protected, but cold, area outside. When the weapon is brought inside 
a warm place, it should be disassembled and wiped dry several times as it reaches 
room temperature." 

Renumber steps "(6)" and "(7)" to steps "(7)" and "(8)." 



Page 3-0. 

Add the following information to paragraph 3-1, a: "Wherever the term CLP or the 
words lube or lubricant are cited in this TM, it is to be interpreted to mean that 
CLP, LSA, or LAW can be utilized as applicable. The following constraints must be 
adhered to (1) Under ait but the coldest arctic conditions, LSA or CLP are the 
lubricants to use on your weapon. Either may be used at -lO'F or above. However, 
do not use both on the same weapon at the same time. (2) LAW Is the lubricant to 
use during cold arctic conditions, -t- ICF and below. (3) Any of the lubricants may 
be used from -lO'F to -i-ICF. (4) Do not mix lubricants on the same weapon. The 
weapon must be thoroughly cleaned during change from one lubricant to another. 
Dry cleaning solvent (SD) is recommended for cleaning during change from one 
lubricant to another." 

Add a.1 to read: "Rifle Bore Cleaner. RBC (Item 2.1, app D) may be used to 
remove carbon buildup In the bore and other parts of the weapon." 

Add a.2 to read: "Dry Clear)lng Solvent. SD (Item 3.1, app D) may be used to 
clean your weapon. Do not use SD on rubber, plastic, or sealed buffers. 

Page 3-14. Add a second paragraph to the WARNING: "DO NOT exchange or 
switch bolt assemblies from one M16/M16A1 to another. It could cause injury to 
you and damage the rifle." 

8 



Page 3-15. Add a CAUTION preceding step 1: "Do not use a screwdriver or any 
other tool when removing the hand guards, doing so may damage the hand guard 
and/or slip ring." 

Page 3-23. Add a NOTE preceding step 2: Before removing the buffer, assure that 
the hammer is cocked and the selector lever is NOT set on AUTO." 

Page 3-24. Add before the NOTE: "WARNING: Turn magazine away from face, 
spring is under tension." 

Page 3-29. Add the following NOTE after step 2: "Use chamber brush for chamber 
only." 

Page 3-35. Add to step 2: "Checl< for broken bolt rings." 

Page 3-41. Add the following NOTE to the top of the page. "Before installing the 
buffer assembly, assure that the hammer is cocked and the selector lever is NOT 
set on AUTO." 

Page 3-47. Add to the end of the first CAUTION: ", to prevent damage to automatic 
sear." 



Page 4-1. 

Add: "4-1." to AUTHORIZED AMMUNITION. 

Add a new paragraph 4-2. CARE, HANDLING, AND PRESERVATION. 
4-2. CARE, HANDLING, AND PRESERVATION 

a. Protect ammunition from mud, sand, and water. If the ammunition gets wet 
or dirty, wipe it off at once with a clean, dry cloth. Wipe off light corrosion as soon 
as It is discovered. Turn in heavily corroded cartridges. 

b. Do not expose ammunition to the direct rays of the sun. If the powder is 
hot, excessive pressure may develop when the rifle is fired. 

c. Do not oil or grease ammunition. Dust and other abrasives that collect on 
greasy ammunition miay cause damage to the operating parts of the rifle. Oiled car- 
tridges produce excessive chamber pressure. 

Page A-0. 

Add to paragraph A-4.: Procedures for Destruction of Equipment to Prevent 
Enemy Use . . . TM 750-244-7. 

10 



Add a new paragraph A-5: 

A-5. FORMS 

Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms DA FORM 2028 

Quality Deficiency Report SF 368 

Equipment Inspection and Maintenance Worksheet DA FORM 2404 

Technical Order System Publications Improvement Report 

and Reply AFTO FORM 22 

Page C-3. Delete item 3, CARTRIDGE CASE DEFLECTOR. 

Page C-4. Delete item 2, KIT, ADAPTER SLING. 

Page D-3 

Change as follows: 

Add a new Item 0.1: 

0.1 C 1005-00-242-5687 BOTTLE, ASSEMBLY EA 

CYLINDRICAL 
(19204) 8448444 



11 



Add a new Item 2.1: 

2.1 CLEANING COMPOUND, RIFLE 

BORE: small arms bore 
cleaning solution (RBC) 
6850-00-224-6656 2-oz (59.15-ml) bottle OZ 

O 6850-00-224-6657 8-oz (236.59-ml) can OZ 

O 6850-00-224-6663 1-gal. (3.79-1) can GL 

(81349) MIL-C-372 

Page D-4 

Change as follows: 

Add a new Item 3.1: 

3.1 O 6850-00-281-1985 DRY CLEANING SOLVENT GL 

(SD) 

1-gal. can 
(58536) A-A-711 



12 



Add new Items 3.2 and 3.3: 
3.2 



3.3 






9150-00-292-9689 


LUBRICATING OIL, WEAPONS: 

(LAW) 

1-qt (0.95-1) can 

(81349) MIL-L-14107 

LUBRICATING OIL, WEAPONS: 
(LSA), semifluid 


QT 


c 


9150-00-935-6597 


2-oz (59.1 5-ml) plastic bottle 


OZ 


c 


9150-00-889-3522 


4-oz(118.30-ml) bottle 


OZ 





9150-00-687-4241 


1-qt (0.95-1) can 


QT 





9150-00-753-4686 


1-gal. (3.79-1) can 


GL 



(81349) MIL-L-46000 



13 



By Order of the Secretar> of the Army: 

CARL E. >^ONO 

General United States Army 
ChiefofStaJf 

Official: 

R. L. DILWORTH 

Brigadier General United States Army 
The Adjutant General 

Distribution: 

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-40, Operator 
Maintenance requirements for Rifle, 5.56MM, M16, M16A1. 



WARNING 

All personnel that operate and/or maintain fire control equipment must be aware of ttie following special 
precautions. 

RADIATION HAZARD 
WARNING 



TRITIUM (H 3) 

Rules and Regulations 

Copies of the following rules and regulations are maintained at HQ, AMCCOM, Rock Island, IL 61299- 
6000. Copies may be requested or information obtained by contacting the AMCCOM Radiological 
Protection Officer (RPO), AUTOVON 793-3482, Commercial (309) 794-3483. 

10CFR Part 19 - Notices, Instructions and Reports to Workers; Inspections. 

10CFR Part 20 - Standards for Protection Against Radiation. 

NRC license, license conditions, and license application. 



WARNING (CONT) 

Safety Precautions 

The radioactive material used in these Instruments is tritium gas (H 3) sealed in pyrex tubes. It poses no 
significant hazard to the repairman when intact. These sources illuminate the instrumentation for night 
operations. Tampering with or removal of the sources in the field is prohibited by Federal law. In the event 
there Is no illumination, notify the local Radiological Protection Officer. Do not attempt to repair or replace 
the Instrument in the field! If skin contact Is made with any area contaminated with tritium, immediately 
wash with nonabraslve soap and water. 

Identification 

Radioactive self-luminous sources are Identified by means of radioactive warning labels (as above). 
These labels should not be defaced or removed, and should be replaced immediately when necessary. 
Refer to the local RPO or the AMCCOM RPO for instructions on handling, storage, or disposal. 

Storage and Shipping 

All radioacfively illuminated Instruments or modules which are defective will be evacuated to a depot 
maintenance activity. These Items must be placed in a plastic bag and packaged In the shipping container 
from which the replacement was taken before evacuation to a higher echelon Is made. Spare equipment 
must be stored in the shipping container as received until installed on the weapon. Storage of these items 
is recommended to be in an outdoor shed type storage or unoccupied building. 

FIRST AID 

For further information on first aid, see FM 21-11. 



WARNING (CONT) 

To avoid accidental firing, BE SURE WEAPON IS CLEAR. Failure to do so could result in serious injury or 
death. 

Be sure the cam pin is installed in the bolt group. If it isn't, your rifle can still fire and will explode causing 
injury or death. 

If you're using the blank firing attachment, don't use any other ammunition except the blank round, M200. 

DO NOT exchange or switch bolt assemblies from one Ml 6/l\/l1 6A1 to another. It could cause damage to 
both you and the rifle. 

DON'T OVERHEAT M16/M16A1 RIFLE BARRELS. Sustained firing of the M16/M16A1 Rifle will rapidly 
raise the temperature of the barrel to a critical point. 

Firing 140 rounds, rapidly and continuously, will raise the temperature of the barrel to the COOKOFF 
POINT. At this temperature, any live round remaining in the chamber for any reason may cook off 
(detonate) in as short a period as 10 seconds. 

If the cookoff point (or temperature) is felt possible, weapon should be immediately cleared and allowed to 
cool. 

Sustained rate of fire for the Ml 6/M1 6A1 Rifle is 1 2-1 5 rounds per minute. This is the actual rate of fire that 
a weapon can continue to deliver for an indefinite length of time without serious overheating. 

Sustained rate of fire should never be exceeded except under circumstances of extreme urgency. 

If your bolt fails to unlock and you try to free it by banging the buttstock on the ground, keep clear of the 
muzzle. 



WARNING (CONT) 

If there's water in the barrel, don't fire the rifle. It could explode. 

If you experience a noticeable difference in sound or recoil, STOP FIRING. Either condition could indicate 
an incomplete propellant bum and a bullet still in the bore. Retract bolt slowly and remove fired cartridge 
case. Clear weapon and check for unburned powder grains in the receiver or bore and for a bullet in the 
bore. Remove unburned propellant or bullet from bore before resuming firing or barrel could explode. If 
bullet is lodged in bore, turn in rifle to the unit armorer. 

If rifle stops firing with a live round in the chamber of a hot barrel, remove the round fast. However, during 
training, if you cannot remove it within 10 seconds, wait 15 minutes with the rifle pointing in a safe 
direction. This way you won't get hurt by a possible ammunition cookoff , which could happen 1 seconds 
after contact with a hot chamber. Clear rifle. 

Use only authorized ammunition that is manufactured to US specifications. 

Blank ammunition should not be fired toward personnel within 20 feet or less from the muzzle, because 
fragments of a ckjsure wad or particles of unburned propellant might inflict injury within that range. 

If you go by all the instructions in this book, and perform preventive maintenance (PM), your Ml 6/M1 6A1 
rifle will operate properly. If you've done your part and it fails to perform property, turn in your Ml 6/M1 6A1 
rifle to your unit armorer. 



TECHNICAL MANUAL' I HEADQUARTERS 

[ DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 

No. 9-1005-249-10 J Washington, DC 11 February 1985 

Operator's Manual 

for 

RIFLE, 5.56-MM, M16 

(1005-00-856-6885) 

RIFLE, 5.56-MM, M16A1 

(1005-00-073-9421) 



REPORTING ERRORS AND RECOMMENDING IMPROVEMENTS 

You can help improve this manual. If you find any mistakes or if you 
know of a way to improve the procedures, please let us know. Mail 
your letter or DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications 
and Blank Forms) direct to: Commander, US Army Armament, Muni- 
tions and Chemical Command, ATTN: AMSMC-MAS, Rock Island, IL 
61299-6000. A reply will be furnished to you. 



*Thls manual supersedes TM 9-1005-249-10, 1 April 1977, 
including all changes. 



CHAPTER 1. 

Section I. 
Section II. 
Section III. 
CHAPTER 2. 
Section I. 
Section II. 
Section III. 



Section IV. 
Section V. 
CHAPTER 3. 

Section I. 
Section II. 
Section III. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 
INTRODUCTION 

General Information 1-1 

Equipment Description 1-3 

Technical Principles of Operation 1-5 

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS 

Description and Use of Operator's Controls and Indicators 2-1 

Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS) 2-4 

Operation Under Usual Conditions 2-13 

Assembly and Preparation for Firing 2-14 

Initial Adjustments 2-16 

Operating Procedure 2-24 

Operation of Auxiliary Equipment 2-36 

Operation Under Unusual Conditions 2-40 

Nuclear, Bilogical, and Chemical (NBC) 2-43 

MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS 

Lubrication Instructions 3-0 

Troubleshooting Procedures 3-0 

Maintenance Procedures 3-14 

Field-Stripping M16/M16A1 Rifle 3-14 

Reassembly of M16/M16A1 Rifle 3-41 

Functional Check 3-49 



Page 

CHAPTER 4. AMMUNITION 4-1 

APPENDIX A. REFERENCES A-0 

APPENDIX B. COMPONENTS OF END ITEM AND BASIC ISSUE ITEMS LIST B-1 

APPENDIX C. ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST C-1 

APPENDIX D. EXPENDABLE/DURABLE SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS LIST D-1 

APPENDIX E. STOWAGE GUIDE E-1 

ALPHABETICAL INDEX Index 




M16A1 RIFLE 



1-0 



CHAPTER 1 
INTRODUCTION 



Section I. GENERAL INFORMATION 

1-1. SCOPE. 

a. Type of Manual: Operator's. 

b. Model Number and Equipment Name: M16/M16A1 5.56-mm Rifle. 

c. Purpose of Equipment: To provide personnel an offensive/defensive capability to engage 
targets in tine field. 

1-2. MAINTENANCE FORMS AND RECORDS. Department of the Army forms 
and procedures used for equipment maintenance will be those prescribed by DA PAM 738-750, 
The Army Maintenance Management System (TAMMS). 



1-1 



1-3. REPORTING EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS 
(EIR's). If your rifle needs improvement, let us know. Send us an EIR. You, the user, are the 
only one who can tell us what you don't like about your equipment. Let us know why you don't like 
the design or performance. Put it on an SF 368 (Quality Deficiency Report). Mail it to us at 
Commander, US Army Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command, ATTN: AMSMC-QAD, 
Rock Island, IL 61299-6000. We'll send you a reply. 



1-2 



Section II. EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION 

1-4. EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS, CAPABILITIES, AND FEATURES. 

a. The Ml 6/M1 6A1 rifle is liglitweight, air cooled, gas operated, magazine fed, and shoulder 
fired. 

b. The rifle may be fired with selector lever in the automatic or semiautomatic position. 

c. It also provides personnel an offensive/defensive capability to engage targets in the field. 

1-5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MODELS. The 5 56 mm Rifle M1 6 does not con 
tain the fonward assist assembly contained on the 5.56-mm Rifle M16A1 . Both models may be 
equipped with the low light level sight assembly. 



1-3 



1-6. EQUIPMENT DATA. 

Weight: 

Rifle M16, without cartridge magazine and sling 6.35 lb 

Rifle M16A1 , without cartridge magazine and sling 6.55 lb 

Overall length: 

Rifle w/flash suppressor 39 in. 

Rifle w/bayonet-knife 44.25 in. 

Maximum rate of fire: 

Semiautomatic 45/65 rounds/m 

Automatic 150/200 rounds/m 

Maximum effective range 460 meters 



1-4 



Section III. TECHNICAL PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION 

NOTE 

Magazine may be loaded with bolt 
assembly open or closed. 

1 Place selector lever on SAFE. 

2 Insert loaded cartridge magazine in 
magazine well and chamber a round. 

3 Face the target, move the selector lever from 
SAFE to SEMI or AUTO, and place the rifle 
to your shoulder. 

4 Aline the front and rear sight with the target 
and squeeze the trigger. 

5 Squeezing the trigger releases the firing pin 
and allows if to impact the primer on the 
round. 

6 The primer ignites the propellant in the round. 

7 Gas from the burning propellant pushes the projectile along the barrel of the rifle. 

8 The rifling in the barrel causes the projectile to rotate which provides stability during flight to the 
target. 

9 When round reaches approximate end of barrel, expanding gases from burning propellant 
pass out through gas port and into gas tube. Gas goes into bolt carrier assembly, ejects old 
cartridge, and chambers a new round. 




1-5 




RIGHT SIDE 



2-0 



CHAPTER 2 
OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS 



Section I. DESCRIPTION AND USE OF OPERATOR'S 
CONTROLS AND INDICATORS 

2-1. M16/M16A1 MECHANICAL CONTROLS. 

REAR SIGHT (1) - zeros weapon and engages targets to 460 meters. 

HAND GUARD SLIP RING (2) - keeps hand guards in place, 

FLASH SUPPRESSOR (3) - reduces the amount of flash from muzzle when weapon is fired. 

EJECTION PORT COVER (4) - protects upper receiver from foreign matter when weapon is not in use Keep 
port cover closed when not used. 

CARTRIDGE MAGAZINE (5) - supplies 30 rounds of ammunition to the weapon. 
MAGAZINE CATCH BUTTON (6) - releases cartridge magazine (5) from weapon when pushed. 
LOWER RECEIVER AND EXTENSION ASSEMBLY (7) - provides firing control for the weapon and provides 
storage for basic cleaning materials. 

FORWARD ASSIST ASSEMBLY (M16A1 ONLY) (8) - ensures that bolt is fully forward 
and locked. 

SHOULDER GUN STOCK ASSEMBLY (9) - stabilizes rifle. 

CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY (10) - cocks weapon when preparing to fire or clearing weapon. 



2-1 



2-1. M16/M16A1 MECHANICAL CONTROLS (CONT). 

FRONT SIGHT POST (11) - adjustable for elevation. 

CARRYING HANDLE ASSEMBLY (12) - provides the means for hand-carrying the rifle. 

SELECTOR LEVER (13) - arms the rifle in SEMI or AUTO or safes the rifle. 

TRIGGER (14) - controls the firing of the weapon. 

SMALL ARMS SLING (15) - provides the means for shoulder-carrying the weapon. 

BOLT CATCH (16) - moves the key and bolt carrier assembly forward when depressed. 

BAYONET STUD (17) - holds bayonet in place. 

UPPER RECEIVER AND BARREL ASSEMBLY (18) - directs the projectile upon firing. 




LEFT SIDE 



2-2 



2-2. THROW AWAY THE WHITE GLOVES FOR RIFLE INSPECTIONS. 

a. CLP will leave a film, or layer, of Teflon that builds up over a period of time. This is one of the 
benefits of using CLP, especially in combat, where you might not have time to lube your rifle as 
often as you think it needs it. So, throw away your white gloves. But carry a rag with you to wipe 
your hands when you inspect rifles because your fingers are going to get a little slick if your troops 
have used the right amount of CLP on their rifles. * , 

b. Now, if you are going to inspect rifles the following day, give your troops a few minutes to wipe 
their rifles down again. Remember, CLP is a cleaner and it never stops working. So, overnight 
while the Teflon has been forming a film for lubrication, the cleaning solvents in the CLP have been 
at work in the nooks and crannies (actually in the pores of the metal) seeking out carbon and firing 
residue. 

2-3. ARMORY AND ORDNANCE INSPECTORS. You professionals who inspect 
weapons and armories should be the experts who are out there insisting that a light coat of CLP be 
kept on rifle metal parts at all times. Since it's always at work cleaning, expect "a little" carbon to be 
present. If there is doubt as to whether the rifle is or was cleaned properly or not, field-strip it. As the 
expert, you should be able to tell from plenty of other indicators, e.g., carbon under extractor, on 
firing pin or bolt, etc. whether or not the rifle was cleaned, lubed, and preserved properly. 



2-3 



Section II. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS 
AND SERVICES (PMCS) 

2-4. G ENER AL. Perform after (A) operations PMCS if: you are the assigned operator and 
the weapon has been stored in the arms room and not used for a period of 90 days, or you have 
been issued the weapon for the first time. 

NOTE 

An inactive weapon is a weapon, whether assigned or not assigned to an individual, 
that is stored in an arms room for a period of 90 days. Performance of normal cleaning 
(PMCS) of an inactive weapon will be performed every 90 days. 

a. Before You Operate. Always keep in mind the CAUTIONS and WARNINGS. Perform your 
before (B) PMCS. 

b. While You Operate. Always keep in mind the CAUTIONS and WARNINGS. Perform your 
during (D) PMCS. 

c. After You Operate. Be sure to perform your after (A) PMCS. 

d. If Your Equipment Fails to Operate. Troubleshoot with proper equipment. Report any 
deficiencies to organizational maintenance using the proper forms. See DA PAM 738-750. 



2-4 



2-5. PMCS PROCEDURES. The PMCS table lists those required checks and services 
to be performed to ensure accurate performance of the rifle. When recording results of PMCS, 
entries in the PMCS Item No. column shall be used for the TM Item No. column on DA Form 2404. 
The third column lists the item to be Inspected. The fourth column contains conditions that make 
the rifle not ready/available because of inability to perform its primary combat mission. If anything 
looks wrong, and you cannot correct it yourself, notify organizational maintenance. 

OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND 
SERVICES (PMCS) 

B - Before Operation D - During Operation A - After Operation 



Item 


Interval 


ITEM TO BE INSPECTED 
Procedure 


Equipment is NOT 


No. 


B 1 D 1 A 


READY/AVAILABLE IF: 




1 1 







WARNING 

Before starting an inspection, be sure to clear the rifle (p 2-33). Do not squeeze the trigger 
until the rifle has been cleared. Inspect the chamber to ensure that it is empty and no 
ammunition is in position to be chambered. Do not keep live ammunition near work area. 



ESSENTIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT. Check the authorized tools 
and equipment and auxiliary equipment for completeness and 
serviceability. (See appendix C, section II.) 



2-5 



OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND 
SERVICES (PMCS) (CONT) 

B - Before Operation D - During Operation A - After Operation 



Interval 



B D A 



ITEM TO BE INSPECTED 
Procedure 



Equipment is NOT 
READY/AVAILABLE IF: 



2-6 



MAINTENANCE READINESS. Clear and clean bore with dry swab 
(item 5, app D) (p 3-31). 

SELECTOR LEVER FUNCTIONING. 

a. Cock the rifle and place the selector lever in SAFE position. Squeeze 
the trigger; the hammer should not fall. 



Selector lever does not function. 




OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND 
SERVICES (PMCS) (CONT) 



B - Before Operation 



D - During Operation 



A - After Operation 



Item 
No 



Interval 



B D A 



ITEM TO BE INSPECTED 
Procedure 



Equipment is NOT 
READY/AVAILABLE IF: 



SELECTOR LEVER FUNCTIONING (CONT) 

b. SEMI Position. Squeeze trigger; hammer should fall. Hold trigger to 
the rear and recock rifle. Release the trigger. You should hear a click 
as you release the trigger. Again squeeze trigger; hammer should 
fall. 



Selector lever does not function. 




2-7 



OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND 
SERVICES (PMCS) (CONT) 



B - Before Operation 



D - During Operation 



A - After Operation 



Item 
No. 



Interval 



B D A 



ITEM TO BE INSPECTED 
Procedure 



Equipment is NOT 
READY/AVAILABLE IF: 



SELECTOR LEVER FUNCTIONING (CONT) 

c. AUTO Position. Cock the rifle. 
Squeeze the trigger; hammer 
should fall. Hold trigger to the rear 
and cock the rifle. Release the 
pressure on the trigger and 
squeeze it to the rear again. The 
hammer should not fall because it 
should have fallen when the bolt 
was allowed to move forward dur- 
ing the cocking sequence. 



Selector lever does not function. 




2-8 



OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND 
SERVICES (PMCS) (CONT) 



B - Before Operation 



D - During Operation 



A - Attar Operation 



Item 


Interval 


ITEM TO BE INSPECTED 
Procedure 


Equipment is NOT 


No. 


B 


D 


A 


READY/AVAII^BLE IF: 


4 


• 






RIFLE SIGHTS (ZERO ADJUSTMENT). Move front (1) and rear (2) 
sight to make sure they can be adjusted. Return sights to zero setting of 
your rifle (p 2-19). 



DUMMY 
ROUND 





OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND 
SERVICES (PMCS) (CONT) 



B - Before Operation 



D - During Operation 



A - After Operation 



Item 


Interval 


ITEM TO BE INSPECTED 
Procedure 


Equipment is NOT 


No. 


B 


D 


A 


READY/AVAILABLE IF: 


5 


• 






MAGAZINE CATCH (FUNCTION). Insert magazine (1 ) into the well. 
The magazine catch should hold the magazine in place. Pressing the 
magazine catch button (2) should release the magazine. To adjust the 
magazine catch, use cleaning rod to press in on the magazine catch 
button until the left side of the magazine catch (3) sticks out beyond the 
receiver. To tighten, turn the magazine catch clockwise; to loosen, turn it 
counterclockwise. 





2-10 



OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND 
SERVICES (PMCS) (CONT) 

B - Before Operation D - During Operation A - After Operation 



Item 
No. 



Interval 



B D A 



ITEM TO BE INSPECTED 
Procedure 



Equipment is NOT 
READY/AVAILABLE IF: 



VISUAL INSPECTION OF RIFLE. 
WARNING 

Be sure rifle is clear. Refer to pages 2-33 tfiru 2-35. 

Look the rifle over for missing or damaged parts. Report missing or 
damaged parts to unit armorer. 




2-11 



OPERATOR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE CHECKS AND 
SERVICES (PMCS) (CONT) 

B - Before Operation D - During Operation A - After Operation 



Item 


Interval 


ITEM TO BE INSPECTED 
Procedure 


Equipment is NOT 


No. 


B 


D 


A 


READY/AVAILABLE IF; 


7 
8 

9 




• 
• 


• 


PERIODIC INSPECTION OF RIFLE. Periodically check rifle to make 
sure it's clean and there is no foreign material in bore. If foreign material 
is in bore, clean bore (p 3-29). 

MAINTENANCE PERFORMED DURING FIRING OPERATIONS. 
WARNING 

Be sure rifle is clear. Refer to pages 2-33 thru 2-35. 

Clean and lubricate rifle after firing approximately 200 rounds of 
ammunition (p 3-28). 

MAINTENANCE OF RIFLE AND EQUIPMENT. Field-striprifle(p3-14). 
Clean and lubricate according to pages 3-28 thru 3-33. Disassemble 
magazine. Clean and lubricate according to pages 3-26 and 3-27. Clean 
and lubricate bayonet, scabbard, and bipod. Report all damaged or 
missing parts to unit armorer. 



2-12 



Section III. OPERATION UNDER USUAL CONDITIONS 

2-6. PREPARATION FOR STORAGE IN ARMS ROOMS. 

WARNING 

Be sure rifle is clear. Refer to pages 2-33 thru 2-35. 



S^l O 

^=^ /\ ^^^ 

SAFE( )AUTO 





1 Place selector lever (1) on SEMI 
and squeeze trigger (2) to uncock 
rifle. 



2 Close ejection cover (3) and 
place in rack. 



2-13 



2-7. ASSEMBLY AND PREPARATION FOR FIRING - CLEAN 
AND LUBRICATE. — ^ «^ - ^^ 

1 Clear your rifle (p 2-33). 

2 Look for fouling in bore and chamber. 




Rernove and disassemble (p 3-17) bolt carrier assembly and clean carbon and oil from firing 
pin (1 ) and all surfaces of bolt assembly (2) and bolt carrier assembly (3) with dry swabs (item 5 
app D). Clean firing pin hole (4) and bolt carrier key (5) with pipe cleaner (item 2, app D) Liqhtiv ' 
coat with CLP (item 1 , app D). Pay special attention to bolt cam pin area (6). Lightly lube bolt cam 
pin (7) and finng pin retaining pin (8). 



2-14 



CAUTION 

Don't bend or flex cleaning rod. 




4 "Swab out" (from cfiamber to muzzle). Make sure swab (item 5, app D) goes all the way through 
flash suppressor. 

5 Clean and lubricate lugs (p 3-29). 

6 Reassemble and install bolt carrier assembly (p 3-45). 



2-15 



2-8. INITIAL ADJUSTMENTS - STANDARD DAYLIGHT SIGHT SYSTEM. 

NOTE 

See page 2-20 for adjusting front and rear sights. 





5 NOTCHES 



UNMARKED APERTURE 

APERTURE MARKED L FRONT SIGHT 

REAR SIGHT 

1 REAR SIGHT - Has two apertures for range. 

• Use the unmarked aperture for targets from - 300 meter. 

• Use the aperture marked L for targets from 300 - 400 meters. 

2 FRONT SIGHT - Has five notches of elevation per revolution. 
2-16 



2-9. INITIAL ADJUSTMENTS - LOW LIGHT LEVEL SIGHT SYSTEM. 



NOTE 

See page 2-21 for adjusting the sights. 



7-MM APERTURE 




2-MM APERTURE 




REAR SIGHT 

1 Use the low light level sight system when visibility is limited. Not every rifle will have this sight 
system. 

2 REAR SIGHT - Has two apertures. 

• Use 7-mm rear sight aperture (unmarked aperture) for night firing and when visibility is 
limited. 

• Use 2-mm rear sight aperture (aperture marked L) to zero the weapon and to hit targets up to 
460 meters under normal conditions. 

2-17 



2-9. INITIAL ADJUSTMENTS - LOW LIGHT LEVEL SIGHT SYSTEM 
(CONT). 

WARNING 



SPLIT POST 




RADIATION HAZARD 

The front sight post contains a small glass vial of 
radioactive Tritium H 3. Take care not to bump, 
abuse, tamper or alter the post in any manner. 



4 NOTCHES 

FRONT SIGHT 
CAUTION 

Do not blacken or soot-up the front sight. 

FRONT SIGHT - Has only four notches of elevation per revolution. Split post holds vial of 
luminous material. Material can be seen from two sides only. If you cannot see the vial after 
zeroing, turn the sight one click down for use during periods of limited visibility. 



2-18 



2-10. INITIAL ADJUSTMENTS - BATTLESIGHT ZERO. 



NOTE 

To zero the rifle, adjust the front sigfit (elevation) and the rear sight (windage) so that 
you can hit aiming point at a given range. 



LONG RANGE SIGHT 




1 Battlesight zero is that setting on the M1 6's sights which will cause the point of aim and strike of 
the bullet to be the same at 250 meters. 

2 When using the L-marked aperture, the path of the bullet will cross the line of sight at 25 meters. 
Hence, zeroing is now conducted with point of aim and point of impact being the same. 

3 The 25 meter zero target (NSN 6920-01 -1 67-1 392) has complete zeroing instructions printed 
on its face. The target is printed on both sides: one side is printed for the standard sights and the 
other side is printed for use with the low light level sight system. The grid printed on each target is 
set up so that one click of elevation of windage is equal to one block change in elevation 

or windage. 2.19 



2-1 1 . INITIAL ADJUSTMENTS - SIGHT ADJUSTMENT (LOW LIGHT 
LEVEL AND STANDARD DAYLIGHT SYSTEMS). 

REAR SIGHT - To adjust windage, depress detent and rotate drum to direction you want: 

1 To move point of impact to right, turn drum 
clockwise In direction of arrow and letter R. 

2 To move left, move drum counterclockwise. 

3 Eacfi notcti moves the point of impact of bullet 
as indicated in chart. 

FRONT SIGHT - To adjust elevation, 
depress detent and rotate post: 

1 To raise strike of bullet, rotate post in the 
direction of arrow marked up. 

2 Reverse the direction of rotation to lower strike 
of bullet. 

3 Each notch moves the point of impact of bullet 
as indicated in chart. 




2-20 



IMPACT (1 CLICK) 


DISTANCE 


STANDARD SYSTEM 

0.7cm (17/64 in.) 
2.8cm (1-3/32 in.) 
5.6cm (2-13/64 in.) 


LOW LIGHT LEVEL SIGHT SYSTEM 
0.9cm (23/64 in.) 
3.5cm (1-3/4 in.) 
7.0cm (2-3/4 in.) 


AT 

25 meters 
1 00 meters 
200 meters 



2-12. INITIAL ADJUSTMENTS - USING LOW LIGHT LEVEL 
SIGHT SYSTEM. 

DAYLIGHT FIRING 



I 1 

_AIMING_ 

"impact" 

POINT 
\ 



250M 



AIMING POINT 




11 IN. 



IMPACT POINT 
350M 



'460M 



22 IN. 
16" 



< 




1 Use aperture marked L. 

2 Effective range is 250 meters (original battlesigfit zero); beyond that use hold-off (aiming above 
desired point of impact). 

3 Aim about 1 1 inches above top of target at 350 meters and about 22 inches above top of target at 
460 meters. 

4 To become and remain proficient, practice hold-off. 



2-21 



2-12. INITIAL ADJUSTMENTS - USING LOW LIGHT LEVEL 
SIGHT SYSTEM (CONT). 

NIGHT AND LIMITED VISIBILITY 

5 Use unmarked (7-mm) aperture. 

6 Use daylight hours procedure to obtain 
good sight picture. 

7 After detecting target, aline sight by center- 
ing top of luminous portion of front sight post 
within 7-mm aperture on target, and fire. 

8 Under certain light conditions, you can see front sight post, but you can't determine whether you 
are looking through, above, or to the side of rear sight aperture. 

9 Practice positioning stock against shoulder and looking through rear aperture. 




2-22 



2-13. INITIAL ADJUSTMENTS - CARE AND CLEANING OF FRONT SIGHT. 
HANDLING AND CARE CLEANING OF FRONT SIGHT POST 



WARNING 



H3 

STAMPED 

HERE 



GLASS 
VIAL 



RADIATION HAZARD 

The low light level front sight post has a small 
glass vial containing radioactive Tritium H 3. 
Take care not to bump, abuse, alter or tamper 
with the post in any manner. 

CAUTION 

Do not blacken or soot-up the front sight. 

NOTE 

Frequently check the sight post for damage. If 
damage is evident or suspected, have sight 
post checked by the unit armorer. 




ASSEMBLY DATE 
STAMPED HERE 

CAUTION 

DO NOT use a wire brush to clean the sight. 

Clean front sight post with: 

• Toothbrush 

• Swabs (item 5, app D) 

• Cleaner, Lubricant and Preservative 
(CLP) (item 1, app D). 



2-23 



2-14. OPERATING PROCEDURE - LOADING. 




WARNING 

Point muzzle in safe direction. 

1 Pull charging handle assembly (1) rear- 
ward, lock bolt, and release charging 
handle. Place selector lever (2) on SAFE. 




2 Pull charging handle assembly ( 1 ) rearward 
and check to see that chamber is clear. Re- 
lease charging handle assembly. 



2-24 




NOTE 

Magazine may be loaded with bolt assembly open or closed. 

3 Push upward on cartridge magazine (3) until magazine catch (4) engages and holds cartridge 
magazine. 

4 Tap upward to make sure cartridge magazine is seated correctly. 



2-25 



2-15. OPERATING PROCEDURE- CHAMBERING AND FIRING A ROUND. 
BOLT ASSEMBLY OPEN 





1 Depress upper portion of bolt catch (1) to 
release the bolt. 

y . y 




2 Tap forward assist assembly (2) to ensure 
bolt is fully fonvard and locked. 



^^ 




3 Move selector lever (3) to SEMI or AUTO. 4 Squeeze the trigger (4) and fire. 



2-26 



BOLT ASSEMBLY CLOSED 





1 Place the selector lever (1) on SEMI or 
AUTO. 



2 Pull charging handle assembly (2) all the 
way back. 




3 Release the charging handle assembly (2) 



4 Never "ride" the charging handle 
assembly (2). Let it go on Its own. 



2-27 



2-15. OPERATING PROCEDURE - CHAMBERING AND FIRING A 
ROUND (CONT). 

BOLT ASSEMBLY CLOSED (CONT) 




5 Tap forward assist assembly (3) to 
ensure bolt Is fully forward and 
locked (M16A1 only). 



2-28 



6 Squeeze the trigger (4) and fire. 



2-16. OPERATING PROCEDURE - IMMEDIATE ACTION. 





1 Slap upward on cartridge 
magazine (1) to mal<e sure it's 
properly seated. 



2 Pull charging handle assembly (2) all the way back. 
Observe ejection of case or cartridge. Inspect 
chamber (3) and check for obstruction. If chamber is 
not clear, apply remedial action (p 2-31). 



2-29 



2-16. OPERATING PROCEDURE - IMMEDIATE ACTION (CONT). 





3 Release charging handle assembly (2) to 
feed new round. (Don't ride the charging 
handle assembly (2).) 



4 Tap fonward assist assembly (4) (M16A1 
only). 




5 Now shoot. If It won't fire, look for the trouble 
and apply remedial action (p 2-31). 



2-30 



2-17. OPERATING PROCEDURE - REMEDIAL ACTION. 



WARNING 

If rifle stops firing with a live round in the channber of a hot barrel, remove the round 
fast. However, during training, if you cannot remove it within 10 seconds, wait 15 
minutes with the rifle pointing in a safe direction. This way you won't get hurt by a 
possible ammunition cook-off, which could happen 1 seconds after contact with a hot 
chamber. Clear the rifle. 





1 Check for jammed cartridge case. 



2 If a cartridge case is in the chamber, tap 
out with a cleaning rod. 

NOTE 

If your rifle still falls to fire, check 
troubleshooting. 



2-31 



2-18. PROJECTILE LODGED IN BORE. 

WARNING 

If an audible "pop" or reduced recoil is experi- 
enced during firing, immediately cease fire. Do 
not apply immediate action. 

WARNING 

Be sure bolt carrier assembly is closed (forward). 
If barrel is hot, wait 15 minutes for barrel and 
extension assembly to cool so you won't be fiurt 
by an ammunition cook-off. 

1 Remove cartridge magazine, lock bolt, and return charging 
handle (p 2-33). 

CAUTION 

If projectile is lodged in bore, do not attempt to 
remove it. Turn weapon in to organizational 
maintenance. 

2 Visually inspect and/or insert a cleaning rod into bore to ensure there is not a projectile lodged in 
bore. 




2-32 



2-19. OPERATING PROCEDURES - CLEARING YOUR RIFLE. 



WARNING 

To avoid accidental firing, always look into chamber after 
clearing weapon to make sure it does not contain a round. 

1 Place selector lever (1) on SAFE. 

NOTE 

If weapon is not cocked, lever cannot be pointed toward SAFE 



2 Remove cartridge magazine (2) by depres- 
sing magazine catch button (3) and pulling 
cartridge magazine (2) down. 




2-33 



2-19. OPERATING PROCEDURES - CLEARING YOUR RIFLE (CONT). 



3 To l(3ck bolt open, pull charging handle 
assembly (4) reanvard, press bottom of bolt 
catch (5), and allow bolt to move fonward 
until it engages bolt catch. Return charging 
handle assembly (4) fonward. ^->. ■ 

C5> 



NOTE 

Ensure that selector lever (1) is on 
SAFE. 

4 Check receiver and chamber (6) to ensure 
these areas contain no ammunition. 

2-34 




5 With selector lever (1) pointing toward 
SAFE, allow bolt to go fonward by pressing 
upper portion of bolt catch (5). 

NOTE 

If weapon is to be stored, it should be dry 
fired to release tension on hammer 
spring. 




6 Place lelector lever (1) on SEMI and 
squeeze trigger to release tension on 
hammer spring. 




2-35 



2-20. OPERATION OF AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT. 
CARTRIDGE DEFLECTOR - FOR "LEFTYS" 



There is a cartridge deflector for left-hand shooters available from your Training Aids Service 
Office (TASO). 



M15A2 BLANK FIRING ATTACHMENT (BFA) 

WARNING 

Use only blank M200 with the BFA and do not fire directly at anyone less than 20 feet 
away. 

CAUTION 

Do not use tools to tighten attachment, HANDS ONLY. 



2-36 



NOTE 

After 50 rounds, check to see if BFA is still tigfit. Make sure to clean carbon buildup after each 
training exercise. 




1 Unscrew and slide all the 2 Hook behind first groove of 3 Slide into flash suppressor 
way back. flash suppressor. and hand tighten. 



2-37 



2-20. OPERATION OF AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT (CONT). 
TOP SLING ADAPTER 

1 Remove rifle sling from rifle. 




THROUGH 
LOOP 



THROUGH 
SWIVEL 



2 Work adapter sling through swivel 
and through loop. 




THROUGH 0, PULL TIGHT 

UNDER 




3 Work buckle under and then through loop. 



2-38 




TURN 
AROUND 




4 Attach clamp as shown. 





5 Attach rifle sling to top sling adapter as shown. 



2-39 



Section IV. OPERATION UNDER UNUSUAL 
CONDITIONS 

NOTE 

Unusual conditions are defined as any climatic condition requiring special mainte- 
nance of the weapon. 

Perform the maintenance outlined for the climate that most applies to your operational 
area. 

2-21. HOT, DRY CLIMATES. 

NOTE 

Hot, dry climates are usually dusty and sandy areas. They are hot during daylight 
hours and cool during the night hours. 

a. Dust and sand will get into the rifle and will cause malfunctions and excessive wear on 
component working surfaces through abrasive action during the firing operations. 

b. Corrosion is less likely to form on metal parts in a dry climate; therefore, lubricate internal 
working surfaces only with a small amount of cleaner, lubricant and preservative (CLP) (item 1 , 
app D) (always shake CLP prior to use). Do not lubricate external parts of the rifle. Doing so will 
only collect dust and sand, making the rifle difficult to keep clean. Do not lubricate internal 
components of the magazines. 



2-40 



c. Using Additional Authorization List (AAL) equipment, i.e., protective cap and spare magazine 
protective bags and overall rifle protective cover (item 3, app D) will help keep dust and sand from 
getting into the rifle. Use these items as the tactical situation allows. As a minimum effort to keep 
dust and sand out of the rifle, keep the ejection port cover closed, a cartridge magazine installed in 
the rifle, and a muzzle cap on the muzzle. 

NOTE 
Before firing, remove the protective cap and keep for later use. However, it is not 
dangerous to fire the rifle with the protective cap. The cap will blow off when the first 
round is fired and may be lost. 

2-22. HEAVY RAIN AND FORDING. Perform maintenance according to the appro- 
priate climatic condition. Use AAL equipment and expendable items to protect the rifle. Always 
keep the rifle dry. Using the protective cap will help keep water out of the barrel. Always drain any 
water from the barrel before firing. Dry the bore with a swab (item 5, app D) and cleaning rod, if 
necessary. 



2-41 



2-23. EXTREMELY COLD CLIMATES. 

a. To operate the rifle in extremely cold climates, depress the trigger guard plunger and open 
the trigger guard. This makes It easier to operate the trigger when you are wearing arctic mittens. 




b. Clean and lubricate the rifle inside a warm room. The rifle should be at room temperature, if 
possible. 

(1) Apply a light coat of CLP (item 1, app D) to all functional parts. 

NOTE 

Always shake CLP to obtain a good mixture before applying. 

(2) To prevent freezing, keep the weapon covered when moving from a warm to a cold area to 
allow gradual cooling. 

(3) Always keep the weapon dry. 

(4) Hand function the weapon approximately every 30 minutes to help prevent freezing of 
components. 

(5) Do not lay a hot weapon In. snow or ice. 
2-42 



(6) Keep the ammunition dry. Moisture will cause malfunctions. Do not lubricate the 
ammunition. 

(7) Using AAL equipment, I.e., protective cap and protective bag and protective cover (item 3, 
app D) will help protect your rifle. Use them whenever the tactical condition is suitable. Always 
keep snow out of the barrel bore. Clean barrel bore with swab (item 5, app D) and cleaning rod, if 
necessary, before firing. 

2-24. HOT, WET CLIMATES. 

a. Perform normal maintenance as outlined in the PMCS table (see page 2-4). 

b. Perform maintenance more frequently. Inspect hidden surfaces of the bolt carrier assembly, 
upper receiver and barrel assembly, and lower receiver and extension assembly for corrosion. If 
corrosion is found, clean and lubricate. 

c. To help prevent corrosion, remove handprints with a wiping rag (item 4, app D). Dry and 
lubricate lightly with CLP (Item 1, app D). 

d. Check ammunition and cartridge magazines frequently for corrosion. Clean using CLP 
(item 1, app D) and wipe dry with wiping rag (item 4, app D). 

e. Use appropriate AAL equipment and expendable items for protection when the tactical 
conditions allow. 

Section V. NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL 
(NBC). 

General procedures can be found in FM 3-87, FM 21-40, and TM 3-220. Refer to page 3-13. 

2-43 



CHAPTER 3 
MAINTENANCE INSTRUCTIONS 



Section I. LUBRICATION INSTRUCTIONS 

3-1. LUBRICATION GUIDE. 

a. Cleaner, Lubricant and, Preservative. CLP (item 1, app D) is the lubricant to use on the 
weapon at all temperatures. 

b. Ughtly Lubricate. A film of oil barely visible to the eye. 

c. Generously Lubricate. Heavy enough so that it can be spread with the finger. 

NOTE 

These lubrication instructions are mandatory. 

Section II. TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURES 

3-2. INTRODUCTION. 

a. The table lists the common malfunctions which you may find during the operation or 
maintenance of the rifle. You should perform the tests/inspections and corrective actions in the 
order listed. 



3-0 



b. This manual cannot list all malfunctions that may occur, nor all tests or inspections and 
corrective actions. If a malfunction is not listed or is not corrected by listed corrective actions, notify 
organizational maintenance. 

TROUBLESHOOTING 

MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 
CORRECTIVE ACTION 

1. WEAPON WILL NOT FIRE. 

Step 1. Check to see if selector lever (1) is in SAFE 
position. 

Place in SEMI or AUTO position. 

Step 2. Check for improper assembly of firing pin. 
Assemble correctly (p 3-43). 




3-1 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 

MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 
CORRECTIVE ACTION 

1 . WEAPON WILL NOT FIRE (CONT). 

Step 3. Check for too much oil in firing pin recess (2). 
Wipe off. 

Step 4. Check for defective ammunition. 
Remove and discard (p 4-1). 

Step 5. Check for too much cartxjn on firing pin. 
Clean (p 3-34). 




TROUBLESHOOrrNG (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



2. BOLT WILL NOT UNLOCK. 

Step 1. Check for dirty bolt (1). 
Clean (p 3-34). 

Step 2. Check for burred bolt (1). 

Notify organizational maintenance 




3-3 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



3. WEAPON WILL NOT EXTRACT. 

Step 1. Check for stuck cartridge or cartridge case in chamber. 
Remove stuck cartridge or cartridge case (p 2-31). 

Step 2. Check for broken cartridge extractor (1) or extractor spring assembly (2). 
Replace bolt assembly and notify organizational maintenance. 



3-4 




TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



3. WEAPON WILL NOT EXTRACT (CONT). 

Step 3. Check for dirty or corroded ammunition. 

a. Clean dirty ammunition witli dry cloth. 

b. Corroded ammunition must be returned to unit supply or ammunition 
personnel. 

Step 4. Check for carbon in chamber. 
Clean (p3-31). 

Step 5. Check for carbon in cartridge extractor 

opening (3) on bolt assembly or cartridge 
extractor lip (4). 

Clean (p 3-35). 




3-5 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



4. WEAPON WILL NOT EJECT CARTRIDGE CASE. 

Step 1. Check for broken ejector spring. 

Report to unit armorer for repair. 

Step 2. Bolt assembly is installed upside down. 

The bolt cam pin is worn or the bolt cam pin hole is defective and allows for 
improper assembly. Disassemble and assemble correctly. Report the defi- 
ciency to unit armorer. 

5. WEAPON WILL NOT FEED. 

Step 1. Check for dirty or corroded ammunition. 

a. Clean dirty ammunition with dry cloth. 

b. Corroded ammunition must be returned to unit supply or ammunition 
personnel. 

Step 2. Check for dirty cartridge magazine. 
Clean (p 3-26). 



3-6 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



WEAPON WILL NOT FEED (CONT). 
Step 3. Check for defective cartridge magazine (1). 
Replace (app C). 

Step 4. Check for too many rounds in cartridge 
magazine (1). 

Remove excess rounds. 

Step 5. Check for restricted buffer assembly action. 
Remove (p 3-23) and clean (p 3-39). 

Step 6. Cartridge magazine not fully seated. 
Adjust magazine catch (p 2-10). 




3-7 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



6. ROUND WILL NOT CHAMBER. 

Step 1. Check for dirty or corroded ammunition. 

a. Clean dirty ammunition with dry cloth. 

b. Corroded ammunition must be returned to unit supply or ammunition 
personnel. 



Step 2. Check for damaged ammunition. 
Replace (p 4-1). 

Step 3. Check for carbon in chamber (1). 
Clean (p 2-14). 




3-8 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 




BOLT WILL NOT LOCK. 
Step 1. Check for dirt, corrosion, or carbon buildup in 
barrel locking lugs. 
Clean (p 3-35). 

Step 2. Check for frozen cartridge extractor (1). 

Remove (p 3-21) and clean (p 3-34). 

Step 3. Check for restricted buffer assembly action. 
Remove (p 3-23) and clean (p 3-39). 

Step 4. Restricted movement of bolt carrier assembly. 

Remove (p 3-17), clean (p 3-34), and lubricate. 

NOTE 

When putting bolt back in, make sure gas tube fits into bolt carrier assembly and 
moves freely. 



3-9 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



8. WEAPON HAS SHORT RECOIL. 

Step 1. Gaps in bolt rings (not staggered). 
Stagger ring gaps (p 3-42). 

Step 2. Carbon or dirt in key and carrier assembly or on outside of gas tube. 
Clean (p 3-34 and 3-30). 

9. BOLT FAILS TO LOCK AFTER LAST ROUND. 

Step 7. Check for dirty or corroded bolt catch. 
Clean (p 3-38). 



Step 2. Check for faulty cartridge magazine. 
Replace (app B). 

10. SELECTOR LEVER BINDS. 

Check for not enough lubrication on selector lever (1). 
Lubricate with CLP (item 1, app D). 




3-10 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



11. BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY "HUNG UP." 
Check for round jammed between bolt and 
charging handle. 

WARNING 

Keep clear of muzzle. 

a. Remove cartridge magazine. 

CAUTION 

After round is removed, bolt is under tension. 

b. Hold charging handle assembly (1) back 
and bang rifle buttstock (2) on ground. 




3-11 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 



MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 



11. BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY "HUNG UP" (CONT). 

c. While bolt is held to rear, push charging handle assembly (1 ) forward. Round should 
fall through magazine well (3). 




3-12 



TROUBLESHOOTING (CONT) 

MALFUNCTION 

TEST OR INSPECTION 
CORRECTIVE ACTION 

12. CANT SEE TRITIUM SIGHT POST. 

WARNING 




RADIATION HAZARD 

In the event there Is no Illumination, notify the local Radiological 
Protection Officer. Do not attempt to repair or replace the sight in 
the field! If skin contact is made with any area contaminated with 
tritium, immediately wash with nonabrasive soap and water. 
Step 1. Luminous element broken or missing. 

Turn in to unit armorer. Sights must be turned in as radioactive waste. 
Step 2. Check for alinement of luminous elements. 

Rotate front sight post up or down one click. 
Step 3. Luminous element dirty. 

Clean using swab and CLP (item 1, app D). 



3-13 



Section III. MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES 

3-3. FIELD-STRIPPING M16/M16A1 RIFLE. 
CLEARING RIFLE 

WARNING 

To avoid accidental firing, be sure rifle is 
clear (p 2-33). 

Pull back charging fiandle (1) and check 
chamber (2). Place selector lever on SAFE 



SLING 

Remove sling (1). 




3-14 



HAND GUARDS - THE "BUDDY SYSTEM" 

1 Remove and clean hand guards only If dirt and con-oslon 
can be seen through hand guard vent holes. 

2 Place the weapon on the buttstock (1) with one hand 
gripping the stock and the other gripping the lower end of 
the hand guard (2). 

3 While your buddy presses down on the slip ring (3) (tell him 
to use two hands - it's easier) , pull the hand guard (2) free. 

4 Repeat procedure to remove other hand guard. 




3-15 



3-3. FIELD-STRIPPING M16/M16A1 RIFLE (CONT). 
UPPER AND LOWER RECEIVERS 

T 




2 Pivot upper receiver (2) from lower 
1 Push takedown pin (1) as far as it goes. receiver (3). 

3 Push receiver pivot pin (4). 



4 Separate upper (2) and lower (3) receivers. 




3-16 



CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY AND BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY 

T 




1 Pull back charging handle assembly (1) and bolt carrier assembly (2). 




2 Remove bolt carrier assembly (2). 



3-17 



3-3. FIELD-STRIPPING M16/M16A1 RIFLE (CONT). 
CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY AND BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY (CONT) 




3 Pull charging handle assembly (1) back 
and down and remove it. 



4 Move bolt assembly (3) fonward to 
unlocked position and remove firing pin 
retaining pin (4). Do not open or close split 
end of firing pin retaining pin (4). 



3-18 




5 Push in on bolt assembly (3) to put in 
locked position. 



6 Catch firing pin (5) as it drops out of rear of 
bolt carrier assembly (2). 



3-19 



3-3. FIELD-STRIPPING M16/M16A1 RIFLE (CONT). 
CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY AND BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY (CONT) 




7 Give bolt cam pin (6) a 1/4 turn and lift out. 



8 Remove bolt assembly (3) from bolt carrier 
assembly (2). 



3-20 



NOTE 

Disassemble extractor and spring assem- 
bly only when dirty or damaged. 

9 Press top of extractor (7) to check that spring 
works. 



10 Use round (5) to remove extractor pin (8) 




3-21 



3-3. FIELD-STRIPPING M16/M16A1 RIFLE (CONT). 



CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY AND BOLT CARRIER 
ASSEMBLY (CONT) 

CAUTION 

Do not separate insert from spring assembly (9). 



1 1 Remove extractor (7) and spring assembly (9). Do not remove 
spring assembly (9) from extractor (7). 



LOWER RECEIVER AND EXTENSION ASSEMBLY 




1 Press in buffer (1) and depress 
retainer (2) to release buffer. 




DUMMY 
ROUND 



3-22 




2 Remove buffer (1) and spring (3). 



CAUTION 

No further disassembly is allowed. 



3-23 



3-4. FIELD-STRIPPING CARTRIDGE MAGAZINE. 

NOTE 

Disassemble only if cartridge magazine is dirty. 




Inspect feeder lips (1) for 
wear or damage. If worn or 
damaged, replace 
magazine. 



3-24 



Use cleaning rod section to 
pry up, push out, and 
release base catch (2). 



Slide base (3) from car- 
tridge magazine. 




NOTE 

Do not remove follower from spring. If 
the spring cx»mes loose from the fol- 
lower, don't try to fix it yourself. Turn 
the cartridge magazine in to organi- 
zational maintenance. 



4 Jiggle spring (4) and follower to remove. 



3-25 



3-5. MAINTENANCE OF CARTRIDGE MAGAZINE. 
CLEANING, INSPECTION, AND REASSEMBLY 




Clean and lubricate. Use swab (Item 5, 
app D) to wipe dirt from tube (1 ), spring (2), 
and follower (3). Lightly lubricate spring (2) 
and follower (3) with CLP (item 1, app D). 



3-26 



Inspect spring (2) and follower (3) for dam- 
age. If parts are damaged, replace car- 
tridge magazine. 



,® 




3 Jiggle spring (2) and follower (3) to install. 



NOTE 

If spring comes loose from follower, 
turn in the pieces. Don't try to fix it 
yourself. 

4 Make sure printing is on the outside of the 
base. Slide base (4) under all four tabs. 



3-27 



3-6. MAINTENANCE OF UPPER RECEIVER AND BARREL ASSEMBLY. 
CLEANING 

NOTE 

Don't reverse direction of bore brusli while it's in bore. 





Use CLP (item 1 , app D) on ttie following areas: 

a. All areas of powder fouling, corrosion, dirt and rust. 

b. Bore and chamber. 

c. Upper receiver and barrel assembly locking lugs. 

d. Gas tube. 



3-28 



1 Use cleaning rod, bore brush, and CLP (item 1 , app D). Run rod (1) tfirough chamber (2) and 
flash suppressor (3). 




2 Install chamber brush on cleaning rod (1 ), dip in CLP (item 1 , app D), and insert in chamber (2) 
and locking lugs (4). Clean by pushing and twisting cleaning rod. 



3-29 



3-6. MAINTENANCE OF UPPER RECEIVER AND BARREL 
ASSEMBLY (CONT). 

CLEANING (CONT) 

5 




NOTE 

Gas tubes will discolor from heat. Do not attempt to remove discoloration. 

Use a wornout bore brush to perform the following step. This procedure ruins the 
bore brush. 



3 Use a bore brush to clean outside surface of protruding gas tube (5) (get sides and bottom from 
bottom of upper receiver). 

3-30 




Take off bore brush and install swab fiolder and a swab (item 5, app D). Apply CLP (item 1 , 
app D) to the swab. Run rod (1) through chamber (2) and flash suppressor (3) and back. 
To remove carbon, let CLP (item 1 , app D) set. Then wipe off clean. A bore brush may be used 
with care to loosen heavy buildup of carbon. 

Wipe dry by running rod (1) with swab holder with clean swabs (item 5, app D) through 
chamber (2) and flash suppressor (3). 



3-31 



3-6. MAINTENANCE OF UPPER RECEIVER AND BARREL 
ASSEMBLY (CONT). 



INSPECTION 




Inspect barrel (1 ), gas tube (2), and hand guards (3) for cracks, bends, or breaks. If you think a part 
is bad, notify organizational maintenance. 



3-32 



LUBRICATION 




1 Lightly lubricate bore and chamber, outer surface of barrel and front sight, and surfaces under 
hand guards. 

2 Start at receiver (1) and go right through the flash suppressor (2). Don't reverse directions 
in bore. 




3 Lubricate locking lugs (3). 



4 Depress front sight detent (4) several times 
to work CLP (item 1 , app D) into the spring 
using a round (5). 



3-33 



3-7. MAINTENANCE OF CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY AND BOLT 
CARRIER ASSEMBLY. 



CLEANING 



CAUTION 

Do not use firing pin to clean inner surfaces of bolt or bolt carrier assembly. 




Clean all parts and outer surfaces of the 
bolt carrier assembly (1) with a swab 
(item 5, app D) saturated with CLP (item 1 , 
app D). 



3-34 



Clean the bolt carrier key (2) with a worn 
bore brush dipped in CLP (item 1, app D). 
Dry with a pipe cleaner (item 2, app D) and 
swab (item 5, app D). Use a pipe cleaner 
(item 2, app D) to apply a light coating of 
CLP (item 1 , app D) to carrier l<ey (2). 



Remove carbon deposits and dirt from 
locking lugs (3) with bore brush dipped in 
CLP (item 1, app D). 

Clean areas behind bolt rings (4) and under 
lip of extractor (5). 



INSPECTION 




Inspect charging handle 
assembly (1) for cracks, 
bends, or breaks. 



WARNING 

DO NOT Interchange bolt 
assemblies between rifles. 

Inspect bolt assembly (2) for 
cracks or fractures, especially 
in the cam pin hole area. 



Inspect firing pin 
retaining pin (3) for 
bends, breaks, or 
dents. 



3-35 



3-7. MAINTENANCE OF CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY AND BOLT 
CARRIER ASSEMBLY (CONT). 

INSPECTION (CONT) 

4 Inspect bolt cam pin (4) for cracks or chips. 

5 Inspect firing pin (5) for trends, cracks, or blunted tip 



LUBRICATION 

1 Lightly lubricate firing pin (1 ) and firing pin 
recess (2) in bolt assembly. 

2 Generously lubricate outside of bolt cam 
pin (3) and firing pin retaining pin (4) with 
CLP (item 1 , app D). Make certain to lubri- 
cate bolt assembly cam pin hole (5), bolt 
rings (6), and outside of the bolt 
assembly (7). 




3-36 





Dry inside key of bolt carrier assembly (8). 
Place one drop of CLP (item 1 , app D) 
inside key. 



Lightly lubricate with CLP (item 1 , app D) 
inner and outer surfaces of tx)lt carrier 
assembly (8). Generously lubricate 
slide (9) and cam pin area (10) of bolt car- 
rier assembly (8). 




Lightly lubricate charging handle 
assembly (11). 



3-37 



3-8. MAINTENANCE OF LOWER RECEIVER AND EXTENSION 
ASSEMBLY. 

CLEANING 



CAUTION 

Do not use steel/wire brush or any type of abrasive material to clean aluminum 
surfaces. 




Wipe dirt from trigger (1) with a swab (item 5, app D). 
Use a swab (item 5, app D) dipped in CLP (item 1 , app D) 
and cleaning brush to clean powder fouling, corrosion, and 
dirt from outside parts of lower receiver and extension 
assembly (2). 




Use pipe cleaner (item 2, 
app D) to clean buttstock 
screw drain hole (3). 



Clean buffer assembly (4), spring (5), and 
inside lower receiver and extension 
assembly (2) with swab (Item 5, app D) 
dipped in CLP (Item 1 , app D). Wipe dry 



©■ 




INSPECTION 

1 Examine lower receiver and extension as- 
sembly (1) for broken or bent trigger (2), 
buttstock (3), corroded or deformed lower 
receiver (1 ), cracked or damaged rifle grip 
(4), and bent or damaged selector lever (5). 
Look at inside parts of lower receiver and 
extension assembly (1) for cracks, dents, 
or breaks. 

2 If you think the parts are bad , notify organi- 
zational maintenance. 




3-39 



3-8. MAINTENANCE OF LOWER RECEIVER AND EXTENSION 
ASSEMBLY (CONT). 

LUBRICATION 

1 Lightly lubricate inside of lower 
receiver and extension 
assembly (1), spring (2), and 
buffer assembly (3) with CLP 
(item 1 , app D). 



Generously lubricate 
takedown (4) and pivot pins (5) 
and inside parts of lower receiver 
and extension assembly (1) with 
CLP (item 1, app D). 




3-40 



3-9. REASSEMBLY OF M16/M16A1 RIFLE 
LOWER RECEIVER AND EXTENSION ASSEMBLY 

Insert spring (1) and buffer (2). 



BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY AND 
CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY 

NOTE 

New extractor has silicone insert with 
spring. Be sure not to lose it. 

1 If the spring comes loose, seat the 
large end of spring in the extractor. 

2 Insert extractor (1) and spring 
assembly (2) into bolt. 

3 Push extractor (1) and spring 
assembly (2) down. Aline hole (3) 
with hole in bolt and insert extractor 
pin (4). 




3-41 



3-9. REASSEMBLY OF M16/M16A1 RIFLE (CONT). 

BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY AND CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY (CONT) 




4 Stagger gaps in bolt rings (5) to stop gas 
loss. 

WARNING 

Don't switch bolt assemblies between 
rifles. 





5 Slide bolt assembly (6) into bolt carrier 
assembly (7). 
3-42 



6 Insert bolt cam pin (8) and give It a 1/4 turn. 




7 Drop firing pin (9) in 
opening and seat. 



8 Pull bolt assembly (6) back and replace firing pin retaining 
pin (10). 



NOTE 

Firing pin should not fall out when bolt carrier assem- 
bly is turned upside down. 



3-43 



3-9. REASSEMBLY OF M16/M16A1 RIFLE (CONT). 
BOLT CARRIER ASSEMBLY AND CHARGING HANDLE ASSEMBLY (CONT) 

T 




9 Turn bolt carrier assembly (7) 
over and try to shake out 
firing pin. 




10 Engage, then push, charging handle 

assembly (11) part way into upper receiver. 



3-44 



NOTE 

Be sure bolt assembly Is extended from bolt carrier. 




1 1 Slide bolt carrier assembly (7) Into upper receiver. 




12 Push charging handle assembly (11) and bolt carrier assembly (7) together into upper 
receiver (12). 3.45 



3-9. REASSEMBLY OF M16/M16A1 RIFLE (CONT). 
JOINING UPPER AND LOWER RECEIVERS 




1 Join upper receiver (1) and lower 
receiver (2). 



3-46 



2 Aline the pivot pin holes and push 
pivot pin (3) in. 



CAUTION 

Selector lever must be on SAFE or SEMI before 
closing upper receiver. 



Place selector lever (4) on SAFE or SEMI 
before closing upper receiver. 



CAUTION 

Ejection port cover must be 
closed before closing upper 
and lower receiver to prevent 
damage to cover. 

4 Close ejection port cover (5). 

5 Close upper receiver (1) and lower 
receiver (2). Push in takedown 

pin (6). 




3-47 



3-9. REASSEMBLY OF M16/M16A1 RIFLE (CONT) 
HAND GUARDS - THE "BUDDY SYSTEM" 



1 Place the weapon on the buttstock (1 ) with one hand 
gripping the stock and the other gripping the lower end of 
the barrel. Insert hand guard into hand guard cap (2). 

2 Have your buddy press down on slip ring (3). 

3 Install hand guard (4). 

4 Repeat these steps to install other hand guard. 



SUNG 




Attach sling (1) 




3-48 



3-10. FUNCTIONAL CHECK. 



WARNING 

To avoid accidental firing, be sure cartridge 
magazine is removed and chamber is clear 
(P 2-34). 



1 Pull charging handle assembly (1 ) to 
rear and release. Place selector 
lever (2) on SAFE. Squeeze trigger 
(3). Hammer should not fall. 




3-49 



3-10. FUNCTIONAL CHECK (CONT). 




Place selector lever (2) on SEMI. Squeeze 
trigger (3) ; hammer should fall. Hold trigger 
to the rear. Pull charging handle 
assembly (1 ) to rear and release. Release 
trigger (3). You should hear a click as you 
release the trigger. Squeeze again; ham- 
mer should fall. 




3-50 



Place selector lever (2) on AUTO. Pull 
charging handle assembly (1) to rear and 
release. Squeeze the trigger; hammer 
should fall. Hold trigger to the rear and cock 
the rifle. Release the pressure on the trig- 
ger and squeeze it to the rear again. The 
hammer should not fall because it should 
have fallen when the bolt was allowed to 
move forward during the cocking 
sequence. 



CHAPTER 4 
AMMUNITION 



AUTHORIZED AMMUNITION. 

WARNING 

To avoid possible explosion, do not fire: 

• Seriously corroded ammunition 

• Dented cartridges 

• Cartridges with loose bullets 

• Cartridges exposed to extreme heat 135°F 
(57°C) until they have cooled 

• Blank ammunition toward personnel within 20 
feet or less from the muzzle, because frag- 
ments of a closure wad or particles of unburnt 
propellant might inflict injury within that range. 

a. Use only authorized ammunition that is 
manufactured to US specs. 

b. Keep dry and clean. Your life depends 
on it! 



RED 
TIP 



^ 



VIOLET 
TIP 



s 



BALL, 
M193 



TRACER, 
Ml 96 



DUMMY, 
M199 



BLANK, 
M200 



4-1 



APPENDIX B 
COMPONENTS OF END ITEM AND BASIC ISSUE 

ITEMS LISTS 

Section I. INTRODUCTION 

B-1 . SCOPE. This appendix lists components of end item and basic issue items for the rifle 
to help you inventory items required for safe and efficient operation. 

B-2. GENERAL. The Components of End Item and Basic Issue Items Lists are divided 
into the following sections: 

a. Section II. Components of End Item. This listing is for informational purposes only, and Is 
not authority to requisition replacements. These items are part of the end item, but are removed 
and separately packaged for transportation or shipment. As part of the end item, these items must 
be with the end item whenever it is issued or transferred between property accounts. Illustrations 
are furnished to assist you in Identifying the items. 

b. Section III. Basic Issue Items. These are the minimum essential items required to place the 
rifle in operation, to operate it, and to perform emergency repairs. Although shipped separately 
packaged, Bll must be with the rifle during operation and whenever it is transferred between 
property accounts. The illustrations will assist you with hard-to-identify items. This manual is your 
authority to request/requisition replacement Bll, based on TOE/MTOE authorization of the end 
item. 

B-1 



B-3. EXPLANATION OF COLUMNS. The following provides an explanation of col- 
umns found in the tabular listings: 

a. Column (1) - Illustration Number (lllus Number). This column indicates the number of the 
illustration in which the item Is shown. 

b. Column (2) - National Stock Number. Indicates the National stock number assigned to the 
item and will be used for requisitioning purposes. 

c. Column (3) - Description. Indicates the Federal item name and, if required, a minimum 
description to identify and locate the item. The last line for each item indicates the FSCM (in 
parentheses) followed by the part number. 

d. Column (4) - Unit of Measure (UIM). Indicates the measure used in performing the actual 
operational/maintenance function. This measure is expressed by a two-character alphabetical 
abbreviation (e.g., ea, in., pr). 

e. Column (5) - Quantity required (Qty rqr). Indicates the quantity of the item authorized to be 
used with/on the equipment. 



B-2 



Section II. COMPONENTS OF END ITEM 




(1) 

lllus 
Number 


(2) 

National Stock 

Number 


(3) 
Description Usable 
FSCM and Part Number On Code 


(4) 
U/M 


(5) 
Qty 
rqr 


1 
2 


1005-00-921-5004 
1005-00-167-4336 


MAGAZINE, CARTRIDGE: 
30 round 
(19204)8448670 

SLING, SMALL ARMS 
(19204)8448770 


EA 
EA 


1 
1 



B-3 



Section III. BASIC ISSUE ITEMS 




(1) 

lllus 
Number 


(2) 

National Stock 

Number 


(3) 
Description 
FSCM and Part Number 


Usable 
On Code 


(4) 
U/M 


(5) 
Qty 
rqr 


1 




TM 9-1005-249-10 


EA 


1 


B-4 





APPENDIX C 
ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST (AAL) 



Section I. INTRODUCTION 

C-1 . SCOPE. This appendix lists additional items you are authorized for the support of the 
rifle. 

C-2. GENERAL. This list identifies items that do not have to accompany the rifle and that do 
not have to be tumed in with it. These items are all authorized to you by CTA, MTOE, TDA, or JTA. 

C-3. EXPLANATION OF LISTING. National stock numbers, descriptions, and quan- 
tities are provided to help you identify and request the additional items you require to support this 
equipment. The Items are listed in alphabetical sequence by item name under the type document 
(i.e., CTA, MTOE, TDA, or JTA) which authorizes the item(s) to you. 



C-1 



Section II. ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST (AAL) 



(1) 

NATIONAL 

STOCK 

NUMBER 


(2) 
DESCRIPTION 

USABLE 
FSCM AND PART NUMBER ON CODE 


(3) 
U/M 


(4) 

QTY 
AUTH 




CTA AUTHORIZED ITEMS 






1005-00-193-8306 


BAG, PROTECTIVE: for 30 
round magazine (500 per bx) 
required 1 per magazine 
(19204) 8448464 


EA 


1 


1005-00-118-6192 


BLANK FIRING ATTACHMENT, M15A2: 
(For training only) 
(19204) 12002900 


EA 


1 


1005-00-903-1296 


BRUSH, CLEANING, SMALL ARMS: bore 
(19204) 11686340 


EA 


1 


1005-00-999-1435 


BRUSH, CLEANING, SMALL ARMS: chamber 
(19204) 8432358 


EA 


1 



Section II. ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST 

(AAL) (CONT) 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


NATIONAL 


DESCRIPTION 






STOCK 


USABLE 




QTY 


NUMBER 


FSCM AND PART NUMBER ON CODE 


U/M 


AUTH 


1005-00-494-6602 


BRUSH, CLEANING, SMALL ARMS: tooth 
(19204)8448462 


EA 


1 


5340-00-880-7666 


CAP, PROTECTIVE, DUST 
(19204) 8445067 


EA 


1 


1005-01-171-4778 


CARTRIDGE CASE DEFLECTOR 

ASSEMBLY 

(19200)9378328 


EA 


1 


8465-00-781-9564 


CASE, MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT: for 
rifles without buttstock stowage 
(81349) MIL-C-43737 


EA 


1 


1005-00-403-5804 


CASE, SMALL ARMS: for rifles 
with buttstock stowage 


EA 


1 




(19204) 8448751 




C-3 



Section II. ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST 
(AAL) (CONT) 



(1) 


(2) 




(3) 


(4) 


NATIONAL 


DESCRIPTION 








STOCK 




USABLE 




QTY 


NUMBER 


FSCM AND PART NUMBER 


ON CODE 


U/M 


AUTH 


1005-01-113-0321 


HANDLE SECTION, CLEANING ROD, 

ARMS 

(19204)8436776 


SMALL 


EA 


1 


1005-00-406-1570 


KIT, ADAPTER SLING 
(19204) 8448471 




EA 


1 


1005-00-921-5004 


MAGAZINE, CARTRIDGE: 30 round 
(19204)8448670 




EA 


6 



C-4 



Section II. 



(1) 

NATIONAL 

STOCK 

NUMBER 



1005-00-233-9031 

1005-00-050-6357 
1005-00-937-2250 



ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST 
(AAL) (CONT) 



(2) 
DESCRIPTION 



FSCM AND PART NUMBER 



USABLE 
ON CODE 



PLATE, LOCKING: for riot control use, 
prevents selector from automatic fire 
(refer to organizational maintenance 
for installation and instructions on use) 
(19204) 8448676 

ROD SECTION, CLEANING ROD, SMALL ARMS 
(19204) 8436775 

SWAB HOLDER SECTION, CLEANING ROD, 
SMALL ARMS 
(19204) 11686327 



(3) 



U/M 



EA 



EA 
EA 



(4) 

QTY 
AUTH 



C-S 



Section II. ADDITIONAL AUTHORIZATION LIST 
(AAL) (CONT) 



(1) 

NATIONAL 

STOCK 

NUMBER 



1005-00-017-9701 
1005-00-890-2609 
1005-00-406-1570 



(2) 
DESCRIPTION 



FSCM AND PART NUMBER 



USABLE 
ON CODE 



MTOE AUTHORIZED ITEMS 

BAYONET - KNIFE M7 W/SCABBARD 
(19204)8427025 

BIPOD, RIFLE M3 W/CARRYING CASE 
(19204) 8445081 

TOP SLING ADAPTER KIT 
(19204) 8448471 



(3) 



U/M 



EA 
EA 
EA 



(4) 

QTY 
AUTH 



C-6 



APPENDIX D 

EXPENDABLE/DURABLE SUPPLIES AND 

MATERIALS LIST (EDSML) 

Section I. INTRODUCTION 

D-1 . SCOPE. This appendix lists expendable supplies and materials you will need to 
operate and maintain the M1 6/M1 6A1 rifle. This listing is for informational purposes only and is not 
authority to requisition the listed items. These items are authorized to you by CTA 50-970, 
Expendable/Durable Items (Except Medical, Class V, Repair Parts, and Heraldic Items), or CTA 
8-100, Army Medical Department Expendable/Durable Items. 

D-2. EXPLANATION OF COLUMNS. 

a. Column (1) - Item Number. This number is assigned to the entry in the listing and is 
referenced in the narrative instructions to identify the material (e.g., "Use protective cover (item 3, 
app D)"). 



D-1 



D-2. EXPLANATION OF COLUMNS (CONT). 

b. Column (2) - Level. This column identifies the lowest level of maintenance that requires the 
listed item. 

C - Operator/Crew 

c. Column (3) - National Stock Number. This is the National stock number assigned to the 
item; use it to request or requisition the Item. 

d. Column (4) - Description. Indicates the Federal item name and, if required, a description to 
identify the item. The last line for each item indicates the Federal Supply Code for Manufacturer 
(FSCM) in parentheses followed by the part number. 

e. Column (5) - Unit of Measure (UIM). Indicates the measure used in performing the actual 
maintenance function. This measure is expressed by a two-character alphabetical abbreviation 
(e.g., ea, in., pr). If the unit of measure differs from the unit of issue, requisition the lowest unit of 
issue that will satisfy your requirements. 



D-2 



Section II. EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES AND 
MATERIALS LIST (ESML) 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 
NATIONAL 


(4) 


(5) 


ITEM 




STOCK 






NO. 


LEVEL 


NUMBER 


DESCRIPTION 


U/M 


1 


C 


9150-01-102-1473 


CLEANER, LUBRICANT AND 
PRESERVATIVE: 1/2-oz bottle 
(81349) MIL-L-63460 


OZ 


2 


C 


9920-00-292-9946 


CLEANER, TOBACCO PIPE: 
cotton tuft, wire core (32 
per pk) 
(89855) DILLSPIPECLEANER 


EA 



D-3 



EXPENDABLE SUPPLIES AND MATERIALS LIST (ESML) (CONT) 



(1) 


(2) 


(3) 
NATIONAL 


(4) 


(5) 


ITEM 




STOCK 






NO. 


LEVEL 


NUMBER 


DESCRIPTION 


U/M 


3 


C 


1005-00-809-2190 


COVER, PROTECTIVE 
(19204)8448213 


EA 


4 


C 


7920-00-205-1711 


RAG, WIPING: 50 lb bdl 
(58536) A-A-531 


LB 


5 


C 


1005-00-912-4248 


SWAB, SMALL ARMS CLEANING: 
cotton 1 pkg (1000 per package) 
(19204) 11686408 


EA 



APPENDIX E 
STOWAGE GUIDE 



Section I. INTRODUCTION 

E-1 . SCOPE. This appendix shall be included only when specified by the procuring activity. 

E-2. GENERAL. This guide shall detail the physical installation/stowage location of all 
applicable AAL and expendable supply items required to be carried with the equipment. 

Section II. GUIDE FOR STOWING ACCESSORIES IN 
SMALL ARMS ACCESSORIES CASE OR IN BUTTSTOCK 

NOTE 

The diagram is just a guide. It \snot mandatory to assemble the contents according to 
the diagram. 



E-1 



MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT CASE: SMALL ARMS ACCESSORIES, PACKED WITH 
CLEANING EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES 



SWABS 



CLP 1/2-OZ 
BOTTLE 



PIPE 

CLEANERS 

BORE 

BRUSH 



CHAMBER 
BRUSH 



SWAB HOLDER 



TOOTH 
BRUSH 




ROD SECTION 

ROD SECTION 

ROD SECTION 
HANDLE SECTION 



E-2 



NOTE 



See illustration below on how to open buttstock on rifles with buttstock storage. 




E-3 



ALPHABETICAL INDEX 

Page 

A 

Additional Authorization List C-1 

Ammunition 4-1 

Assembly and Preparation for Firing - Clean and Lube 2-14 

Authorized Ammunition 4-1 

C 
Components of End Item and Basic Issue Items List B-1 

D 
Differences Between Models 1-3 

E 

Equipment Characteristics, Capabilities, and Features 1-3 

Equipment Data 1-4 

Equipment Description 1-3 

Expendable/Durable Supplies and Materials List D-1 

F 

Field Stripping 3-14 

Functional Check 3-49 

Index 



Page 

G 

General Information 1-1 

I 
Initial Adjustments 2-16 

L 

Lubrication Guide 3-0 

Lubrication Instructions 3-0 

M 

Maintenance Forms and Records 1-1 

Maintenance of Cartridge Magazine 3-26 

Maintenance of Charging Handle Assembly and Bolt Carrier Assembly 3-34 

Maintenance of Lower Receiver and Extension Assembly 3-38 

Maintenance of Upper Receiver and Barrel Assembly 3-28 

Maintenance Procedures 3-14 



Index 1 



o 

Operating Procedure 2-24 

Operation of Auxiliary Equipment 2-36 

Operation Under Unusual Conditions 2-40 

Operation Under Usual Conditions 2-13 

Operator Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services 2-5 

Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services (PMCS) 2-4 

R 

Reassembly of M16/M16A1 Rifle 3-41 

References A-0 

Reporting Equipment Improvement Recommendations (EIR's) 1-2 

S 

Scope 1-1 

Stowage Guide E-1 

T 

Technical Principles of Operation 1-5 

Troubleshooting 3-1 



Index 2 



By Order of the Secretary of the Army: 

JOHN A.WICKHAM,JR. 
Q££j . , General, United States Army 

^^^ ' Chief of Staff 

DONALD J. DELANDRO 

Brigadier General, United States Army 
The Adjutant General 

Distribution: 

To be distributed in accordance with DA Form 12-40, 
Operator and Crew Maintenance requirements for Rifle 
5.56MM, M16, M16A1, 



■tl U.S. G.P.O.: 1994 300-421/00085