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OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM ;
OR,
SKETCH OF THE
OF
•V
: :
BY
T. C. EYTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.L.S.,
And Corresponding Member of Institute of Philadelphia.
TO BE HAD OF MR. PRINCE, AT MR. J. GOULD'S, CHARLOTTE STREET,
BEDFORD SQUARE, LONDON.
PUBLISHED BY R. HOBSON, WELLINGTON', SALOP.
18 6 7.
' * ^
0««* PREFACE
The Author of the following work does not by any means intend to present it to the public as
a perfect work on the Osteology of Birds, but as a mere sketch on which other works or
descriptions of birds may be founded. The information contained in it is much more extensive
than has been published in any work on the subject before ; and it is the Author's intention to
supply deficiencies, when he obtains any varieties to describe, and to figure any new species or
better specimens, in the form of an Appendix. Until a larger collection of the skeletons of birds
is got together, it is almost impossible to comprehend the characters of each Order, Family or
SubFamily, or genus. The characters derived from the head, sternum, pelvis, and legbones,
are most reliable. A character of great value may also be derived from the numbering of the
vertebras and ribs ; but although I have taken great pains to get the numbers as correct as
possible, I am convinced myself that some mistakes will be found, — chiefly in the sacral
vertebree, which cannot be counted accurately without a section of the pelvis. The anterior
short ribs are all counted as false; all those, whether they are articulated to the pelvis or no,
so that they are connected with the sternum, are called true. It has been stated that birds do
not differ so much in the skeletons as to make osteological characters of any use ; this, although
in many instances I agree with the arrangements made from external character, is certainly not
the case. Birds differ quite as much as mammalia or reptiles in their osteological characters ;
but those characters are much more difficult to detect, in consequence of such general similarity
of form.
Measurements also give valuable characters. In this work the breadth of the sternum
is taken at its widest part anterior to the ribs, and behind them ; the length of the pelvis
is taken from the anterior edge to the end of the os pubis, and the breadth at the widest
part.
The Plates illustrating this work have been executed in zincograph by Mr. Erxleben ;
and I beg here to thank him for the trouble he has taken over them. They have been printed
by Messrs. Day & Co. (now, I believe, made a limited company), and, except some mistakes in
the numbering, have been carefully executed.
As to making a natural system, or, I may say, a continuous system, in which one group
shall run, as it were, into another, even at the present day, and including the fossil animals and
birds, I believe to be impossible ; but that at some future time links may be discovered, either
fossil or recent, which may more nearly connect them than they are connected at present.
THOS. C. EYTON.
Eyton,
January, 1867.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.
The Dodo and its Kindred, by H. E. Strickland and A. G. Melville, M.D. : contains several Plates explanatory of the Anatomy
of the Dodo and its kindred. 1858.
The Principal Forms of the Skeleton and Teeth as a Basis for a System of Natural History and Comparative Anatomy ; by
Professor Owen. 1856.
Comparative Anatomy of Birds, in Tod^s Dictionary of Comparative Anatomy, Parts 3 and 4 ; by Professor Owen.
Memoire sur les Observations Communiques, par Mons. le Baron Cuvier, a l'Academie des Sciences. Seance du 2 Janvier,
1832, ah suget des Sternums des Oiseaux. P. M. Geoffroy, St. Hilaire. — Annates des Sciences Naturelles. 1832.
Osteografische Bertrage sur Naturgeschichte Bertrage, sur Naturgeschichte der vogel von Christian Ludwieg Nilzsch, Leipzig.
1811.
Bertrage sur Kenntniss der Naturgeschichte der vogel met Besonderer Beziehung auf Skeletbun und Vergleschende Zoologie,
von Dr. J. F. Brandt, St. Petersburg, 1839 ; with numerous Plates of Water Birds.
On the Anatomy of the Concave Hornbill, Bucero cavatus ; by Professor Owen.— Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 1.,
p. 117.
On the Anatomy of the Southern Apteryx Australis, by Professor Owen. — Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 2, p. 257.
Notice of a Fragment of a Femur of a gigantic Bird of New Zealand, by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 29.
On Dinornis, an extinct genus of Tridactyle Struthious Birds ; with Descriptions of portions of the Skeletons of Five Species ; by
Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 243.
On the Anatomy of Apteryx Australis, Sh., (Myology,) by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 227.
On Dinornis, Part 2, containing Descriptions of a portion of the Skull, the Sternum, and other parts of the Skeleton of the Species
previously determined ; with Osteological Characters of three additional Species, and a new genus — Palypteryx ; by
Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 307.
Observations on the Dodo (Didus ineptus, Linn.), and an Appendix to the foregoing Memoir on Dinornis, by Professor Owen. —
Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 331.
On the Osteology of the Dodo, by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 6, p. 49.
On Dinornis, Part 3, containing the Description of the Skull and Beak of that genus, and of the same characteristic parts cf
Palypteryx and two other genera of Birds (Notornis and Nestor), forming part of an extensive collection of ornithological
remains discovered by Mr. Walter Mantell, at Waingongoro, North Island of New Zealand ; by Professor Owen. —
Zoological Transactions, Vol. 3, p. 345.
On Dinornis, containing the Restoration of the Feet of that genus and of Palypteryx, and a Description of the Sternum in
Palypterix and Aptornis ; by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 4, p. 1.
On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Skull and Beak of a large Species of Dinornis, of the Cranium of an immature
Specimen of Dinornis giganteus, and of the Crania of Species of Palypteryx ; by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions,
Vol. 4, p. 59.
On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Bones of the Leg of Dinornis, Palypteryx Struthioides, and Dinornis Gracilis ; by
Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions, Vol. 4, p. 141.
On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Skeleton of Dinornis elephantopus ; by Professor Owen.— Zoological Transactions,
Vol. 4, p. 149.
On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Skeleton of Dinornis elephantopus ; by Professor Owen. — Zoological Transactions,
Vol. 4, p. 159.
VI BIBLIOGRAPHY.
On some additional Bones allied to the Dodo, in the Collection of the Zoological Society of London ; by H. E. Strickland, Esq. —
Zoological Transactions, Vol. 4, p. 187.
On the Osteology of Baloeniceps rex, Gould; by Mr. Kitchin Parker.— Zoological Transactions, Vol. 4, p. 269.
On the Osteology of the Gallinaceous Birds, and Tinamous ; by W. H. Parker.— Zoological Transactions, Vol. 5, p. 149.
Description of the Skeleton of the Great Auk, or Garfowl (Alca impennis, L.); by Professor Owen.— Zoological Transactions,
Vol. 5, p. 317.
On Dinornis, containing a Description of the Skull, Atlas, Scapula, and Coracoid Bone of Dinornis robustus ; by Professor Owen.—
Zoological Transactions, Vol. 5, p. 337.
Extract d'un Memoire sur les Progress de Ossification dans le Sternum des Oiseaux, par M. le Baron Cuvier.— Annales des Sciences
Naturelles. 1832.
Extract des Recherches sur l'Anatomie et la Physiologie de la Corneille, par M. Emile Jacquemin.— Annales des Sciences
Naturelles. 1831.
Recherches Anatomiques sur quelques genres d'Oiseaux rares ou oncore peu connus sous le Rapport de l'Organisation profond
sur le sasa Opisthocomus, Hoff. Sur les Kamichis, Palamedea, Linn. Sur les Turnix Hemipodius, Temm. Du rupicole,
Pipra rupicola. 1845.
On Dinornis, containing the Description of part of the Skeleton of a flightless Bird, Indication of a new Genus and Species
(Cnemiornis calcitrans, Owen) ; by Professor Owen.— Zoological Transactions, Vol. 5, p. 389.
Recherches sur Apareil, Sternal des Oiseaux ; par M. le Docteur E. J. Herminer. Paris : 1828. Contains numerous Drawings
of the Sternal Apparatus of Birds.
Sternum de Huitrier. Voy. de la Bonete, Dis. , PI. 9.
Animaux nouveaax ou rares l'Amerique du sud, par Francis de Castelnan : contains the Skeleton and other separate bones of
the Hoaxin, Opisthecomus cristatus, Tome 1, PI. 14 ; and that of the Kamichi, Palamedea cornuta, and the Sternum of
Palamedea Derbiana, PI. 15; also Cariama, Dicholophus cristatus, PI. 6. ; also Agami, Psophia crepitans, and the
Sternum of Saracou, Cymbops cancrophaga, PL 17.— Annates de Sciences Naturelles, Vol. 20, PI. 4.
Bertrage sur Kenntniss des Cuculus canorus, Linn. Von. D. E. M. Edouard, Opel, in Leipzig. — Journal fiir Ornithologie,
Vol. 6, p. 285.
Lecons d'Anatomie, comparee de G. Cuvier. First Edition.
Lecons d'Anatomie, comparee de Georges Cuvier. Second Edition. Paris : 1835.
OSTEOLOOIA AYIUM.
INTRODUCTION.
CHAPTER I.
Birds, or the class Aves, observes Professor Owen*, " form the best characterized, most
distinct and natural class in the whole animal kingdom — perhaps even in organic
nature. They present a constancy in their mode of generation and in their tegumentary
covering which is not met with in any other of the vertebrate classes. No species of
bird ever deviates like the cetacea among mammals, and the serpents among reptiles,
and the eels among fishes, from the tetrapodous type of formation which so peculiarly
characterizes the vertebrate division of animals."
This constancy to a type renders the distinctive differences between the members of
the class less dissimilar than those constituting the other classes of vertebrate animals ;
probably, also, it is from this cause that the osteology of birds has been so much
neglected. This apparent similarity, however, is not so great as might be supposed by
the casual observer of a collection of skeletons ; and the deeper the study of them is
proceeded with, the more distinct will appear the characters which distinguish the
different groups.
It is not my intention in the following pages to advocate any particular system of
arrangement, let it be binary, tertiary, quinary, or called by any other name with which
the fancy of its author may invest it. Not that I disbelieve that a system exists in
* Cyclopedia of Anatomy and Physiology, edited by Dr. Todd, p. 265.
11 OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
nature, and that a representative one to a certain extent, if not altogether — or, in other
words, that animals of one country have certain resemblances to those of another, and
take a similar situation in the animal ceconomy of their different habitats, but modified
to suit the peculiar circumstances under which they exist. I think, also, that a repre
sentative system may be carried still further than this — viz. that the groups of one class
will to a certain extent represent those of another.
Our present knowledge, however, is far too meagre for us to say with certainty this
or that is the arrangement that will suit the whole creation, or, in other words, is the
plan of the great Creator.
I do not intend, therefore, to interfere with theoretical arrangements — they have done
much good in tempting naturalists to search out affinities and analogies, — but merely to
group those birds together which have a similarity of osteological organization. Affinity
and analogy are two words which have had given to them very many extraordinary
interpretations; but it is not my object to disturb them: whenever either word is used
in this work, it will be under the definition given to them by Professor Owen in his
Address to the British Association at Leeds*.
It has long been a question whether animals found in a fossil state ought or ought
not to be admitted into an arrangement with existing ones. My own impression is,
that all animals are portions of one vast scheme of creation, and ought to be classed
together; for, as we can seldom say with absolute certainty where a group ends and
where it begins — let it be called class, family, subfamily, genus, or species, so nearly do
they in many particulars resemble each other, — so also with the connexion between
fossil and recent animals ; we cannot say precisely where those which have been con
temporary with the present existing animals end and where they begin, or, in other
words, where any break existed between the two. For that break to be distinctly
marked, there must have been a period in the world's history, since the creation, in
which no animal existed, and strata formed during it.
In order to render this work intelligible to persons not previously acquainted with the
subject, it will be necessary to point out the names given by anatomists to the different
bones constituting the skeleton of Birds; these names refer to the representatives of
those bones in Mammalia from which their names are taken. The following references
to Plates I., II. and III. will show their position and names.
The most difficult portion of the skeleton to understand is the head — the bones com
posing it becoming anchylosed together in a very early stage of the animal's existence ;
the remaining bones can be made out with comparative ease.
On account of this early anchylosis of the bones of the head, it is necessary, in order
to trace their boundaries, to employ that of a young bird ; the drawings relating to the
head, therefore, in Plates II. and III., are taken from that of a young Ostrich in my
possession : the head of the Ostrich has been before employed in most anatomical works
for the same purpose, on account of its size.
* Professor Owen's Address to the British Association at Leeds, p. 18.
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
ill
The numbers in Plate II, figs. 1, 2, 3, and in Plate III. figs. 1, 2, designate the same
bone in each. In Plate I., which is that of an old Osprey, Haliaetus leucocephalus, in
consequence of anchylosis having taken place, the separate bones cannot be distinguished
so distinctly as in the other Plates ; the numbers, therefore, are only placed upon those
bones which are pretty well defined and which are useful in description, with the
exception of the palatine and other bones forming the roof of the mouth, which are not
visible.
Plate IV. represents the head of the Emeu, the Peregrine Falcon, and a Podargus,
showing variations in the disposition of the cranial bones and the development of the
interarticular bones.
• Bones of the Head.
Plate II. figs. 1, 2, 3. Plate III. figs. 1, 2.
1. Frontal bones.
15. Sphenoid bone.
2. Parietal bones.
16. Eustachian tubes.
3. Nasal bones.
17. Vomer.
4. Temporal bones.
18. Omoid bones on pterygoid portion of the
5. Os quadratum.
sphenoid bone.
6. Intermaxillary bones.
19. Fig. 3. Plate I. Palatine bones.
7. Ethmoid bone.
20. Superior maxillary bones.
8. Fig. 1. Plate P. Palatine bones.
21. Opercular portion of the inferior maxillary
9. Malar or zygomatic bones.
bone.
10. Foramen magnum.
22. Condyloid portion of the inferior maxillary
11. Atlar tubercle.
bone.
12. Supraoccipital "]
13 Basilar I portions of the occipital
23. Rami of the maxillary bone.
14. Condyloid j b ° ne 
Bones of the Trunk and Extremities.
Plate I.
1. Humerus,
2. Ulna.
3. Radius.
4. Carpus.
5. Metacarpus.
6. 1st phalanx.
7. 2nd, or terminal phalanx,
8. Thumb.
9. Coracoid bones.
10. The two rami of the furculum.
11. Scapula.
12. Glenoid cavity.
13. Femur.
14. Tibiae
15. Fibuke.
16. Metatarsus.
12
IV
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
17. Phalanges of the anterior toes.
18. Trochlea of the three bones of which the
metatarsus is formed, to which the ante
rior phalanges are articulated.
19. Splint by which the hallux is articulated
with the metatarsus.
20. Phalanges of the hallux or hind toe.
21. Tarsal bones anchylosed to the proximal
extremity of the metatarsus.
22. Sternum.
23. Keel of the sternum.
24. True fibs with their posterior styliform
processes.
25. False ribs not joining the sternum.
26. Sternal ribs uniting the true ribs with the
sternum.
27. Ilium, "I
28. Ischium, I together forming the pelvis.
29. OspubisJ
30. Ischiadic foramen.
31. Obturator foramen.
32. Cervical vertebrae.
33. Dorsal ditto.
34. Sacral ditto.
35. Caudal ditto.
Bones of the Head.
Plate I.
1. Orbital septa.
2. Bony case of the brain, formed by the
parietal, frontal, and occipital bones an
chylosed together.
3. Os quadratum.
4. Lacrymal bones.
5. Malar or zygomatic bone.
6. Nasal bones.
7. Upper maxillary bones.
8. Lower maxillary bones.
In Plate IV. the numbers on the Crania show the same Bones in each.
1.1. Palatine bones.
2. 2. Ossa quadrata.
3. 3. Interarticular bones.
4. 4. Lateral portions of the palatine bones.
5. 5. Intermaxillary bones.
6. Sphenoid bone.
The head of Birds, as among Mammalia, forms the bony case for the brain, with an
anterior portion forming the face and jaws. The chief characters which can be derived
from the head are the shape of the vertex or top, whether it is convex or flattened, and
with or without a longitudinal depression in the centre : the shape of the maxillaries,
which give form to the bill : the portion of the ethmoid forming the septa between the
orbits, whether it is entire or not ; this character, however, varies with age, the form of
the lacrymal bones, and the direction in which their extremities point : the form of
the occiput, if with a large crest, a modified one, or none at all, and if indented with a
channel or not for the reception of the masseter muscles : the shape of the foramen
magnum : the shape of the palatine bones, and the interarticular uniting them with the
os quadratum, and whether any branch goes from them to the sphenoid, or what portion
of the roof of the mouth is cased with the intermaxillary bones.
In the bones of the trunk the greatest modifications occur, particularly in the sternum ;
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. v
some of these, however, are not to be absolutely relied upon, namely the characters
derivable from the fissures and foramina at the posterior margin. I have many skeletons
in which the two sides do not correspond. The order Kaptores seems particularly
liable to this variation ; and I have also an Alcedo which has a foramen on one side
and a fissure on the opposite one. The form of the keel, and whether it is produced
anteriorly or not, forms a valuable character.
The characters found in the bones of the pelvis are very well marked ; they depend
chiefly upon the proportion between the breadth and length, the size and shape of the
obturator and ischiadic foramina, the relative position of the ilium and ischium, and
whether the former is expanded anteriorly or not.
The ribs vary much in their form, breadth, and strength, and in the length of the
posterior styliform process.
The bones of the anterior extremity are composed of the scapula, coracoid, furculum,
and wing bones ; they vary much : the former is much flattened or rounded, straight
or much deflexed ; the coracoids are long or short, strong, weak, or are pierced with an
axillary foramen; the furculum is sometimes found much arched forwards, at others
nearly straight — sometimes reaching as far as the point of the keel and anchylosed to
it, in other birds not reaching it, and in some altogether wanting.
The wing bones are very remarkable in some of the water birds (Spheniscus), forming
a sort of fin, and furnish good characters in the proportionate length of one to the
other.
The bones of the posterior extremity vary very much in their strength, length, and
relative proportions one to the other. Very valuable characters are also derivable from
the metatarsus : whether the component parts of it, named by Professor Owen the
ectometatarsal, mesometatarsal, and entometatarsal, are perfectly anchylosed together,
or for what portion of their length they are so ; and also in the position of the trochlea
for the articulation of the phalanges forming the feet. In the phalanges themselves
no very distinct character is observable, except in the terminal ones, the character of
which can be equally well observed externally in their horny covering or claw.
The vertebral column, although substantially following the same type, is subject to
considerable variation, besides that which is derived from the numbers of the vertebrae
of the different regions ; and in one instance (Spheniscus) some of them have a ball and
socket articulation.
vi OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
CHAPTER II.
The following arrangement of Birds was proposed by me, with some modifications, at
the Leeds Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science; it is
founded almost entirely on osteological characters, which it is the object of this work
to illustrate, without any bias towards any preconceived theory ; and should I at any
time, in the acquisition of new materials, see reason for its alteration, I shall make the
necessary changes with the greatest pleasure. I have endeavoured to divide the Class
into Orders in such a manner that distinct osteological characters shall be observable
between them, which it would be useless to mention here, as they will be treated of in
detail hereafter ; it will be instructive, however, to examine how far the general habit
of each Order agrees with the following arrangement : —
CLASS II. AVES.
Order I. RAPTORES.
Earn. 1. VuLTURiDiE. Earn. 2. Falconid^e.
Earn. 3. Strigid^e.
Order II. VOLITORES.
Earn. 1. Trochilid^e. Earn. 2. Cypselid^e.
Order III. OMNIVORES.
Earn. 1. Caprimulgid,e. Earn. 3. Alcedinid^e.
Earn. 2. Trogonid^e. Earn. 4. BucERiDiE.
Order IV. PREHENSORES.
Fam. 1. PsiTTACiDiE. Earn. 2. Rhamphastid^e.
Order V. SCANSORES.
Earn. 1. PiciDiE.
Order VI. ERUCIVORES.
Fam. 1. CuculidjE. Fam. 2. Musophagid^e.
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. vii
Order VII. INSESSORES.
Fam. 1. Menurid^e. Fain. 9. AmpelidjE.
Fam. 2. CerthiadjE. Fam. 10. Laniid^e.
Fam. 3. Melliphagid^e. Fam. 11. Turdid^e.
Fam. 4. Parid^e. Fam. 12. OreolidjE.
Fam. 5. Alaudid^e. Fam. 13. Sternid/e,
Fam. 6. Motacillid^e. Fam. 14. Fringillid^e.
Fam. 7. Sylviad^e. Fam. 15. Tanagridjj.
Fam. 8. Muscicapid^e. Fam. 16. Corvid^e.
Order VIII. BIPOSITORES.
Fam. 1. Columbid^:. Fam. 2. Didid^e.
Order IX. RASORES.
Fam. 1. Tetraonid^e. Fam. 2. Phasianid^e.
Order X. CURSORES.
Fam. 1. Struthionid^e.
Order XL LITTORES.
Fam. 1. Otid^e. Fam. 3. Scolopacid^e.
Fam. 2. Charadriid^e. Fam. 4. Tringtd^e.
Order XII. GRALLATORES.
Fam. 1. Ardeidje. Fam. 2. Rallid^e.
Order XIII. NATATORES.
Fam. 1. Anatidje. Fam. 3. Alcid^e.
Fam. 2. CoLYMBiDiE. Fam. 4. Pelecanid^e.
Fam. 5. Larid^e.
The principal modes in which birds obtain their food are the following
By the power of flight in direct chase ;
By the power of approaching their food unobserved ;
By the power of climbing ;
By the power of scratching and running ;
By the power of wading ; and
By the power of swimming and diving.
viii OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
If divisions of birds are made strictly according to the above qualities, we shall find
many that do not come up to the greatest perfection of development of each particular
power, but are endowed with a modification of it, or with an admixture of two or
more of them, and some cases in which the divisions above mentioned are scarcely
recognizable in consequence of this admixture. It is in these cases that anatomy comes
to our assistance, and helps us to group and point out the orders and families that are
allied.
The first three orders belong eminently to the first group, or those which are endowed
with great power of flight, with a modification among the Owls and Goatsuckers, the
softness of the feathers enabling them to approach their prey unawares. The Owls also
and the whole of Omnivores have the sense of hearing highly developed in addition, as
it is the habit of many of them to sit perched upon some tree or stone until prey
approaches, when they give chase ; their acute sense of hearing, therefore, assists them
materially in detecting its approach.
The second order, Volitores, has quickness of flight in the greatest degree of deve
lopment known among birds, and consequently has a corresponding arrangement of
wing differing from other birds. The food of the Hummingbird is insects, obtained
in two ways — by the insertion of the tongue into flowers, and also by direct chase.
The orders Prehensores, Scansores, and Erucivores have their feet adapted chiefly for
climbing. The first, or Parrots, are an exceedingly curious group, and use the bill for
climbing equally with the feet ; the latter are also used for the purpose of holding their
food while in the act of devouring it.
The highest powers of true climbing, where the feet only are used, we find among
the Scansores or Woodpeckers, which are able to run along the perpendicular and
horizontal boughs of trees with the greatest facility.
Many of the Erucivores have the toes placed in pairs, two before and two behind ;
but, except in this structure, they do not agree in any particular with the other climbers.
One group among them, the Turacoes, are without this structure. Many of them feed
much on the ground, and have an elongated hind toe. The power of climbing is
doubtless useful to them in searching for their food, which consists principally of
caterpillars and insects.
The Insessores or Perchers appear to have been hitherto a sort of refuge for the
destitute, as almost all birds were placed in it for which no convenient place could be
found ; as constituted, however, in the present arrangement, the only deviation that I
am aware of from the general type of skeleton is in one family, the Menuridse, in
which case I have followed the example of my predecessors and placed it in Insessores,
because I do not know where else to put it. The next three families, Certhiadae,
MelliphagidEe, and Paridse, have a decided scansorial tendency, but very much modified,
the toes being placed three in front and one behind; but although their powers in this
particular are quite equal to that of the Woodpeckers, there is nothing in the skeleton
which differs from the Insessorial type.
OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM.
IX
All the other families of Insessores are more or less perching birds, which may be
defined as a power of climbing very slightly developed. Two groups, the Motacillidae
and Anthidae, have the lengthened hind claw common in many groups of groundfeeding
birds ; we find in them, therefore, a power of scratching and running joined to that of
climbing; and amongst the Hirundinidae or Swallows, a considerable power of flight
joined to that of perching.
The eighth order, Bipositores, are a group well defined, having a large crop, of which
all the families previously mentioned are destitute. In them we find a great power of
wing, a certain degree of migratory habit, and feet in general much better adapted for
perching than for scratching ; thus the farmer often says that he does not mind the
Pigeons on his newsown wheat, as they do not scratch, merely taking that which is on
the surface. There are, however, a few exceptions, as the Crowned Pigeons, which have
feet fitted for running and perching, the metatarsi being much lengthened. Dr. Melville
has discovered a peculiar structure in this part, which distinguishes the Pigeons from
other orders, and unites the extinct family of Dodos with them. Generally the Pigeons
only lay two eggs, whence the name I have given to them.
The Easores I have divided into two groups, the Tetraonidae and Phasianidae, although
there is no very distinct line of demarcation between them. The typical species present
a very great difference in external form, even if it is merely in the development of the
tail— for instance, between the Partridge and Peacock. Both are gifted with great
running and scratching powers, but without any great powers of flight ; consequently
none of them, that I am aware of, are migratory. The typical species of the former
roost on the ground, seldom perching in trees, while the latter almost invariably do so.
They both have a moderatesized crop; but it is not nearly so highly developed as
among the Pigeons.
The Cursores are adapted solely for terrestrial life, and have no power of flight ; con
sequently we find the greatest development in that of running, the rudimentary wings
being employed as a sort of oars to assist in their progression ; they may be considered
as the types of running structure among birds.
The eleventh order, Littores, have great power of running, but not nearly so much
as in Cursores, which might be expected when the power of flight is largely developed
also ; for, throughout the animal kingdom, one power is never found largely developed
except at the expense of another. Their legs also are fitted for wading in shallow
water, the tibiae not being feathered down to the metatarsus.
The twelfth order, Grallatores or Waders, have a very great length of leg, the tibiae
much denuded, and a formation of the joint between the tibia and metatarsus so
contrived that they can stand for hours together without muscular action (Ardeidae) ;
and in the following family (Eallidae) we find the fitness for wading diminished, and a
development of a power of swimming.
The powers of the next order are at once well defined by the name Natatores, or
swimming birds ; and the whole of the members of it have either webbed or lobated
e
x OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
feet ; some few birds, however, are found, in the first family, Anatidee, which feed upon
land, chiefly on the seeds of grasses, having the webs not extending much more than
half the length of the toes, or with the anterior edge much scolloped out.
The Colymbidse and Alcidae may be considered as possessing the greatest powers of
swimming and diving. In one genus (Spheniscus), the wings, instead of being useful for
flight, are converted into a sort of fin, the bones composing the wing being much
flattened ; the hinder extremities are very muscular ; and the legs are placed far back
wards. In some of the Pelecanidse and Laridse we find great power of wing developed
at the expense of the diving powers, which are limited and governed by that of the
wing. Their mode of taking prey is by soaring high into the air, closing the wings,
and making a hawklike swoop upon fish near the surface.
Order I. RAPTORES.
Fam. 1. FALCONIDiE.
Subfam. 1. Falconing.
Falco, Linn.
Peregrinus, Linn.
Type of Raptores, Falconidse, Falconinse.
Cranium of moderate size ; the bones composing it strong, depressed, and flattened
from the base of the nasal bones to the vertex, and with a slight longitudinal channel ;
occipital ridge well denned ; occipital protuberance very large ; a transverse, somewhat
arcuated depression extending across the base of the nasal bones. Lacrymals largely
developed, long, bounding nearly the whole of the upper edge of the orbits. Orbital
septa nearly perfect in old specimens. Foramen magnum large, nearly circular, and
placed almost horizontally; nasal orifices round, with their margin entire. Upper
maxillaries hooked at the point, and with a distinct notch, covering only a small portion
of the roof of the mouth. Palatine bones extending far backwards, anteriorly for
twothirds of their length consisting of a long, horizontally flattened strip of bone,
articulated together for their posterior third; a large, strongly deflected flap in the
centre arising near their middle in length, laterally much expanded, and rounded on
their posterior lateral termination. Interarticular bones flattened, and slightly twisted
on their axis. Atlar tubercle small, slightly transversely oval ; condyloid processes of
the occipital bone very slightly developed.
Sternum very convex, broadest posteriorly; ridges to which the small pectoral
muscles are attached strongly marked ; posterior margin perforated with two foramina.
Manubrial process well developed, turned upwards perpendicularly, flattened at the tip.
Keel extending to the posterior edge of the sternum ; its inferior edge slightly rounded ;
point prominent, produced as far as the manubrial process ; anterior edge only slightly
curved inwards.
Pelvis very strong ; the outline of the sacral vertebra? not traceable on its upper surface
except by some small foramina placed irregularly ; a very slight cavity on its dorsal
aspect between the two sides of the ilium ; more than double the width of its anterior
diameter posteriorly. Ilium extending far over the ischium and os pubis laterally;
the posterior points of the ischium diverging. Os pubis not extending forwards beyond
the centre of the cotyloid cavity. Ischiadic foramen very large ; obturator small.
Mbs narrow, thick ; styliform process long, the point directed very much upwards.
VOL. I. B
Falconid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Falconing.
Furculum very strong, much arched forwards, the rami flattened laterally and broad,
with only a very slight tubercle at its ligamentous junction with the sternum.
Coracoids of moderate length, very strong, much expanded at their articulation with
the sternum, much hollowed out on the inside below their junction with the scapula,
and with a strong osseous strap confining the pectoral tendons.
Scapula strong, very slightly deflected, rounded on its outward side for its anterior
half, becoming flattened and expanded towards the tip, which is sloped to a point from
each margin.
Wing strong ; posterior metacarpal bone flattened, broadest at its proximal extremity,
not arched, but with a large space between it and the anterior metacarpal.
Femur not much shorter than the tibia ; trochanters not very largely developed.
Tibia rounded, with a slight ridge on its internal surface, and becoming slightly
triangular at its upper extremity.
Metatarsus very strong and short, the division between the three bones forming it
marked by two intermediate foramina at their proximal extremity ; calcaneal process
highly developed, from which a strong keel is carried downwards on the back of the
mesometatarsal bone, gradually becoming obliterated at its distal extremity ; anterior
side much flattened and slightly excavated at its proximal end ; a wellmarked knob on
the inner side, where the sheath confining the extensor muscles of the toes has its origin ;
central trochlea very prominent, the lateral ones bent backwards.
Vertebral column very strong ; the lateral processes of the penultimate and next four
cervical vertebrae strongly developed ; the dorsal spine of the atlas long, and with a
transverse keel extending on each side from it to the lateral margins; the second
vertebra also with a slight dorsal spine ; from the third to the ninth without any dorsal
spine ; the tenth and eleventh with a flattened dorsal spine pointing forwards. Terminal
caudal vertebrae very large, and highly developed perpendicularly.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 28
Ulna .32
Metacarpus 19
Femur 24
Tibia 30
Metatarsus 20
Length of sternum ,25
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 5
Length of pelvis 27
Greatest breadth 13
Length of head 24
Greatest breadth 13
Illustrations.
Skeleton of Falco peregrinus, Plate III. A.
Metatarsus, Plate II. A. fig. 3.
Palatine bones, Plate VI. A. fig. 5.
Pelvis, Plate V. A. fig. 4.
2
Coracoids, scapula, and furculum, Plate VII. A.
fig. 2.
Base of the cranium, Plate IV. fig. 3.
Falcomile.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Falcontn^e.
Falco, Linn.
Gyrfalco, Linn.
I have only the sternum of this bird, which does not differ from that of Falco pere
grinus except in size, and in the keel being deeper in proportion to the breadth of the
sternum.
Since the above was written, I have obtained, from a skin, the head, wing, and leg
bones of this bird, and find them also not distinguishable from those of F. peregrinus
except in size and proportions.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 2
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17
Depth of keel 11
Tenths.
Length of humerus 44
Length of ulna 50
Length of metacarpus 28
Length of femur . 
Length of tibia 44
Length of metatarsus 26
Length of sternum 35
Length of head 30
Breadth of head 21
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Falco, Linn.
Aurantius, Lath.
The skeleton of this bird does not differ, except in measurements, from F. peregrinus ;
the sternum is somewhat longer in proportion to its width.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 16^
Length of ulna 19
Length of metacarpus 11
Length of femur . . . . . . 15
Length of tibia . 22
Length of metatarsus 14
Length of sternum ...... 14 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum
Depth of keel .
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
7
4
18
10
17
9
Herpetotheres, VieilL
Cachinnans, Linn.
The cranium agrees with Falco peregrinus in its great breadth in proportion to its
length, in the shape of the palatine bones, and in the septum being perforated by one
central foramen; the nasal orifices are also round and small, with the upper margin
slightly projecting; the lacrymal bones are similar, but rather broader. The tarsi
agree with Falco.
b2 . 3
FaLCONIDjE..]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Falconing.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 31
Length of ulna . 33
Length of radius ....... 32
Length of metacarpus 17
Length of femur . ... ...
Length of tibia 35
Length of metatarsus 23
Length of sternum
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum
Depth of keel
Length of head 26
Breadth of head 18
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Tinnunculus, Vieill
Alaudarius, Linn.
In every respect resembling Falco, except in measurements and proportions.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 21
Length of ulna 24
Length of radius 22
Length of metacarpus 23 J
Length of femur 19
Length of tibia 26
Length of metatarsus 16
Length of sternum 18^
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1
Depth of keel 5^
Length of head .20
Breadth of head 11^
Length of pelvis 20
Breadth of pelvis 10^
Tinnunculus, Vieill.
Sparverius, Linn.
The bones I have of this bird were obtained from a skin, and do not differ from those
of Tinnunculus alaudarius except in size.
Tinnunculus, Vieill
Chickera, Shaw.
Also typical.
Ieracidea, Gould.
Berigora, Vig. & Horsf.
Very similar to Tinnunculus, but larger and more powerful, the palatine bones covering
Falconid^e.]
OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM.
[Cikcin^e.
nearly the whole of the roof of the mouth, and the metatarsi longer in proportion to the
tibiae.
Sternum with a double foramen on the right side and a single one on the left.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 30
Length of ulna 32
Length of radius 30
Length of metacarpus 18
Length of femur 24
Length of tibia ....... 33
Length of metatarsus 25
Length of sternum 20
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 2
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 24
Breadth of head 16
Length of pelvis 24
Breadth of pelvis 11
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 3.
Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 9.
Ierax, Vig.
Bengalensis, Briss.
The only fragment of this bird that I have seen is one in the British Museum, sent
home by Mr. Hodgson. The sternum has, as represented in Plate III. fig. 9, two
fissures on each side of the keel, in that respect much resembling the sternum of some
Owls.
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate III. A. fig. 9.
Subfam. 2. Circin^e.
Accipiter, Briss.
Nisus, Linn.
The head of Acci'piter is very similar to that of Falco, but has the lacrymals pro
jecting more outwards from the skull, and the upper maxillaries without the notch on
their edge.
The sternum is narrower, with the foramina on the posterior margin not so large,
the manubrial process longer, and the horizontal plane more convex. The metatarsal
bones are longer in proportion to the tibiae, and are nearly without a calcaneal process,
and with a deep channel down them posteriorly ; anteriorly they do not differ much
from Faleo, but are not so strongly marked. The bones composing the pelvis are
longer and narrower than in Falco.
5
Falconid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[ClRCIN^.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 23
Length of ulna 28
Length of radius 25^
Length of metacarpus 13
Length of femur 21
Length of tibia 29
Length of metatarsus . ." . . . 24
Length of sternum 23
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis 21
Breadth of pelvis 11
Accipiter, Briss.
Badius, Gm. ,
Has been made into a genus under the name of Micronisus. The bones of the body
are in the British Museum.
It appears to be similar to Accipiter nisus, but with the sternum slightly longer in
proportion to its width.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius .
Length of metacarpus . . . . .
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum . . . ... 17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 5
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 18
Breadth of pelvis 9
Astue, Lacep.
Magnirostris, Gm.
The whole osteology very similar to Circus, but with the sternum not quite so convex.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . . 29
Length of ulna 31
Length of metacarpus 15
Length of femur 24
Length of tibia 34
Length of metatarsus 27
Length of sternum 17
6
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 26
Breadth of head 4^
Length of pelvis 21
Breadth of pelvis 10
Falconid^.] osteologia avium. [Milvim.
Circus, Lacep.
Cyaneus, Linn.
Type of Circinse.
Cranium similar to Falco peregrinus, but with the frontal bones not so broad between
the orbits. Lacrymals large, extending more outwards than in Falco, and further
lengthened by a small epilacrymal process articulated to their extremities. The orbital
septum perforated with a central foramen. Nasal orifices triangular. Palatine bones with
the hinder angles nearly square, and the dependent keel on their internal edges narrow.
Sternum small, very slightly convex, narrow anteriorly ; keel not so deep as in Falco ;
inferior edge arched, not produced to the posterior margin of the sternum, receding
anteriorly. Posterior margin of the sternum perforated by two small foramina.
Pelvis with the iliac bones much overhanging the bones of the ischium.
Metatarsus with the calcaneal process well developed, but with no ridge carried
downwards from it ; the ento and exometatarsal elements very much flattened, and
folding backwards, while the edge of the mesometatarsal projects forwards, forming an
anterior ridge.
The remainder of the skeleton is very similar to Falco.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14
Depth of keel , . . 5^
Length of head 30
Breadth of head 17
Length of pelvis 30
Breadth of pelvis 15
Tenths.
Length of humerus 41
Length of ulna 48
Length of radius 47
Length of metacarpus 24
Length of femur 28
Length of tibia 40
Length of metatarsus 30
Length of sternum 26
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 4.  Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 4.
Circus, Lacep.
iEruginosus, Linn.
I have the sternum only of this bird, which does not differ in form from that of Circus
cyaneus, except in being destitute of foramina on its posterior margin.
Subfam. 3. Milvin^e.
Milvus, Cuv.
Kegalis, Linn.
Type of Milvinee.
Cranium similar to that of Falco peregrinus, but not so strong, and longer in pro
7
Falconid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[MlLVIN^E.
portion to its width ; the space between the upper margins of the orbits much less.
Lacrymals wanting. One large orbital foramen in the centre of the septum, and two
smaller ones posterior to it.
Foramen magnum rounded above, but with the lower side nearly straight. Atlar
tubercle oval. Palatine bones of similar shape to those in Falco, but rather broader.
Nasal orifices triangular, with the angles rounded.
Sternum convex, with two small foramina on the posterior margin; small pectoral
muscle impression very distinct ; keel more arched on its inferior edge than in Falco,
receding anteriorly, and not prolonged to the posterior margin of the sternum.
Pelvis much broader anteriorly in proportion to its posterior diameter than in Falco.
Bibs similar to Falco, but not so strong.
Metatarsus with the calcaneal process well developed, but without any elevated rib
proceeding downwards from it. The entometatarsal flattened, broad, forming a keel on
its inner edge,
Remaining bones very similar in form to Falco, except in proportional measurements.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 48
Length of ulna 57
Length of radius 53
Length of metacarpus 27
Length of femur 27
Length of tibia 34
Length of metatarsus 20
Length of sternum 30
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16
Depth of keel . 5^
Length of head 31^
Breadth of head 17
Length of pelvis 35
Breadth of pelvis 16
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 7.
Elanus, Sav.
Melanopterus, Laud.
Some fragments obtained from a skin and a body in the British Museum are all I
have seen of the bones of this bird.
The cranium is similar in shape to Milvus, but with the palatine bones broader and
the exterior hinder angles more rounded. Metatarsus similar in shape. The sternum
short ; the keel not reaching to the posterior margin, which is perforated by two small
foramina, and slightly excavated in the centre ; the inferior edge of the keel but slightly
arched.
Furculum much arched for its anterior third, then nearly straight to the sternum.
Falconidjs.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[BUTEONIK^.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna
Length of radius . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . .
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Measurements.
Tenths.
16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 14
Length of pelvis 17
Breadth of pelvis 10
Subfam. 4. Buteoninje.
Buteo, Cuv.
Vulgaris, Bechst.
Type of Buteoninee.
Sternum as described in Archibuteo, except in size. Metatarsi very similar to Circus,
but with the calcaneal process and the keel proceeding downwards from it highly
developed, and the fibula extending downwards for twothirds the length of the tibia.
Palatine bones very similar to Cireaetos, but more rounded on their outer posterior
margins.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . . . 30
Length of ulna 34
Length of metacarpus 20
Length of femur 25
Length of tibia 33
Length of metatarsus . . . . . 18
Length of sternum 29
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12
Depth of keel 8
Length of head ....... 27
Length of pelvis 28
Breadth of pelvis ........ 14
Archibuteo, Brehm.
Aquilinus, Hodgs.
A body of this bird is in the British Museum, sent home by Mr. Hodgson. The
sternum is broad in proportion to its length, has two foramina on its posterior margin,
and is slightly hollowed out in the centre ; the keel is not continued to within an inch
of the posterior margin.
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius . .
Length of metacarpus
VOL. I.
Falconid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
[BUTEONIN.E.
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 35
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 18
Tenths.
Depth of keel 7
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 35
Breadth of pelvis 17
Archibuteo, Brehn.
Lagopus, Brunn.
I have only the sternum, coracoids, scapula, and furculum of this bird, which do not
differ in shape from those of A. aquilinus in the British Museum, but slightly in their
proportions, the sternum being shorter in proportion to its breadth, and the keel deeper.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 32
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16
Depth of keel 8
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Polioenis, Kawp.
Teesa, Frankl.
The body only of this bird is in the British Museum, sent there by Mr. Hodgson ; the
sternum has two foramina on its hinder margin, and all the bones are very similar to Buteo.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 20
10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11
Depth of keel 5
Length of head
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis 14
Breadth of pelvis 11
Falcootd^:.] osteologia avium. [Aquiline.
Perms, Cm.
Cristata, Guv.
The body of this bird is in the British Museum, sent there by Mr. Hodgson. Sternum
short, without any fissure or foramen on its hinder margin ; the inferior edge of the
keel rounded. Furculum very much arched. Pelvis of moderate length, and very much
expanded on its anterior extremity.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of radius . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . .
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Measurements.
Tenths.
28
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 16
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15
Depth of keel 8
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 30
Breadth of pelvis 15
Subfam. 5. Aquiline.
Aquila, Moehr.
Chrysaetos, Linn.
Type of Aquilinse.
Cranium more elongated in proportion to its width than in Falco ; orbits flattened
above, much rounded posteriorly; large orbital process of the frontal bone much
lengthened. Septum of the orbits with one anterior foramen. Foramen magnum of
moderate size, placed nearly horizontally. Upper surface of the skull depressed, with
a slight longitudinal impression on the vertex, and a strongly marked transverse one at
the junction of the nasal bones ; occipital ridge and protuberance slight. Nasal orifices
posteriorly narrow and gradually expanding forwards, somewhat triangular. Upper
maxillaries very much hooked at their extremities, the lateral line slightly waved.
Palatine bones similar in general character to Falco, but more truncate posteriorly and
broader anteriorly in proportion to their hinder expansion ; interarticular bones very .
similar to those of Falco, but more expanded; condyles of the occipital bones more
developed than in Falco.
Sternum more convex than in Falco ; keel not extending to the posterior margin ;
anterior edge receding considerably ; ridge for the attachment of small pectoral muscles
very small ; that of the great pectoral well defined ; posterior margin nearly straight ; no
foramen or fissure. Manubrial process strong, short, slightly compressed laterally.
Pelvis similar to Falco, but with the posterior lateral ridge of the ilium more deve
loped, and with a deeper impression above the cotyloid cavities.
c2 11
Falconid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Aquiline.
Ribs similar to Falco, but with the posterior end of the styliform process carried much
further downwards.
Coracoids and scapula very similar to Falco, but with the latter more expanded, and
the coracoids perforated with a large axillary foramen.
Furculum with a slight process at its junction with the sternum.
The metatarsal bones are without the mesometatarsal ridge extending from the calcaneal
process. The remainder of the skeleton is very similar to Falco, except in measurements.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 75
Length of ulna 86
Length of radius 82
Length of metacarpus 41
Length of femur 44
Length of tibia 65
Length of metatarsus 40
Length of sternum 50
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 24
Depth of keel 12
Length of head 48
Breadth of head 25
Length of pelvis 55
Breadth of pelvis 28
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 6.
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 1.
Aquila, Mcehr.
Nsevia, Gm.
Lacrimal bones very broad and long, extending halfway over the orbits, rounded at
their extremities. Palatine bones damaged.
Sternum with a small foramen on each side; in other respects similar to Aquila
chrysa'etos.
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 14.
Aquila, Mcehr.
Imperialis, Bechst.
The body of this bird is in the British Museum ; it does not appear to differ from
A. chrysa'etos.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of radius . .
Length of metacarpus
12
Tenths.
Length of femur .......
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 48
Falcontd^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
[Aquilin^e.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 24
Depth of keel 10
Length of head . . . . . . .
Tenths.
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 45
Breadth of pelvis 11
Aquila, Meehr.
Bonelli, Temm.
A fragment only of this bird is in the British Museum. The sternum has two foramina
on the posterior margin, which is slightly excavated in the centre ; the keel does not
reach the hinder margin of the sternum.
Aquila, Mcehr.
Audax, Lath.
The head and leg bones were obtained from a skin, and are precisely similar to those
of the Golden Eagle, but smaller, and not so powerful.
Pandion, Sav.
Haliaetus, Linn.
Cranium broader in proportion to its length than in Aquila. Lacrymal bones large
and broad, tapering towards their points, which are rounded. Palatine bones wanting.
Sternum similar to Aquila, except in dimensions and in having the keel receding
more, with the point somewhat bifid anteriorly.
The coracoids similar to Aquila, but with the axillary foramen very small. Furculum
without any process at the junction of the rami. Scapula similar, but not so much
expanded. The whole skeleton weaker.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 13
Length of ulna 75
Length of radius 74
Length of metacarpus 31
Length of femur 31
Length of tibia 46
Length of metatarsus 35^
Length of sternum 36
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 21^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21
Depth of keel 8
Length of head 42
Breadth of head . . . . . . . 25^
Length of pelvis 39
Breadth of pelvis 19
Illustrations.
Pelvis, Plate V. fig. 5.
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 9.
13
Falconid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Aquiline.
Haliaetus, Sav.
Albicilla, Linn.
Cranium scarcely distinguishable from that of Aquila; the whole head, however, is
larger and stronger, and the foramen magnum more square. The sternum is much
longer in proportion to its width than in Aquila, but in other respects similar. Pelvis
precisely similar, except in size, the present one being the largest.
In the remaining bones I cannot perceive any difference in structure between Haliaetus
albicilla and Pandion Haliaetus, except in the proportional measurements.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 85
Length of ulna ♦ . . 97
Length of metacarpus 43
Length of femur 49
Length of tibia 65
Length of metatarsus 40
Length of sternum 57
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 27
Depth of keel 8
Length of head 47
Breadth of head 25
Length of pelvis 52
Breadth of pelvis 22
Illustration.
Pelvis, Plate II. fig. 2.
Haliaetus, Sav.
Leucocephalus, Linn.
Not differing in structure from the last.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 83
Length of ulna 97
Length of radius 91
Length of metacarpus 41
Length of femur 45
Length of tibia 57
Length of metatarsus 34
niustrations.
Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 1. I
Tenths.
Length of sternum 62
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 29
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 28
Length of head 55
Breadth of head 27
Length of pelvis 60
Breadth of pelvis 24
Skeleton in Plate I.
Haliaetus, Sav.
Leucogaster, Gm.
The bones were obtained from a skin : the whole of the top of the head very much flat
tened, more so than in albicilla ; the other bones are precisely similar in form, but weaker.
14
Falcootle.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Aquiline.
Haliaetus, iSav.
Macei, Temm.
Similar to Haliaetus leucocephalus, but with a foramen on each side of the posterior
margin of the sternum. In the British Museum.
Haliastuk, Selby.
Indus, Bodd.
Similar to the other Sea Eagles, except in measurements, and in having two foramina
on the posterior margin of the sternum. In the British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 42
Length of ulna 49
Length of radius 48
Length of metacarpus 22
Length of femur 25
Length of tibia 32
Length of metatarsus 20
Length of sternum 22
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 13
Depth of keel ........ 6
Length of head 28
Breadth of head ....... 15
Length of pelvis 25
Breadth of pelvis 12
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 13.
Cuncuma, G. B. Gray.
Leucogaster, Gm.
Similar to Haliaetus, but without any foramina on the posterior margin of the
sternum. In the British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 73
Length of ulna 89
Length of metacarpus 40
Length of femur 42
Length of tibia ....... 59
Length of metatarsus 38
Length of sternum ...... 51
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 23
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 22£
Depth of keel . . . . . . . 11
Length of head 44
Breadth of head 21
Length of pelvis 47
Breadth of pelvis 22\
ICHTHYAETUS, Lafres.
Bicolor, G. B. Gray.
Similar to the other Fishing Eagles, but with the sternum very long and narrow ;
15
Falconid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Aquiline.
the posterior margin indented by two small foramina. The bones of the body are in the
British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus . . . . .
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 38
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 18
Depth of keel 8
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 40
Breadth of pelvis 18
Gekanoaetus, Kaup.
Melanoleucos, Vieill.
Similar to the other Fishing Eagles ; the sternum has a foramen on each side of the
posterior margin. The skeleton is in the British Museum, under the name of Halia'etus
aguia.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 60
Length of ulna . ' . . , . . . . 72
Length of metacarpus 34
Length of femur 42
Length of tibia 59
Length of metatarsus 42
Length of sternum 39
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21
Depth of keel 11
Length of head 44
Breadth of head 25
Length of pelvis 42
Breadth of pelvis 21
Helotaesus, Smith.
Ecaudatus, Baud.
Similar to Halia'etus, but with the sternum and pelvis longer ; a foramen on each side
of the posterior margin of the former. The specimen is in the British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 24
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 22
Tenths.
Length of humerus 60
Length of ulna 77
Length of metacarpus 30
Length of femur 33
Length of tibia 49
Length of metatarsus 29
Length of sternum 44
16
Depth of keel 10
Length of head 41
Breadth of head 23
Length of pelvis 46
Breadth of pelvis 18
Vulturidjg.] osteologia avium. [Vulturin^j.
Spizaetus, Vieill
Cirrhatus, Kawp.
Cranium broader in proportion to its length than in Aquila. Lacrymals very long,
terminating in an epilacrymal process. Palatine bones similar in shape to Aquila, but
much narrower as they approach the hinder portion of the head ; orbital septum with
one large central foramen.
Sternum similar in shape to Aquila. My specimen, which is that of rather a young
bird, has two small foramina on the right side of the posterior margin of the sternum,
and only one on the other. In other respects the skeleton resembles Aquila ; but some
of the measurements approach Circus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 45
Length of ulna 52
Length of radius 51
Length of metacarpus 24
Length of femur 34
Length of tibia 49
Length of metatarsus 38
Length of sternum 31
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate III. fig. 12.
Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 5.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16
Depth of keel 6
Length of head 36
Breadth of head 20
Length of pelvis . 34
Breadth of pelvis 16
Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 8.
Tarn. 2. VULTTJRID^l.
Subfam. 1. Vulturin^e.
Sarcoramphus, Bum.
Gryphus, Linn.
Type of Vulturidse and Vulturinas.
The whole skeleton, as in Falconidce, very strong.
Cranium longer in proportion to its width than among the Falconidw. The process
of the frontal bones bounding the posterior portion of the upper part of the orbits
triangular and lengthened ; the orbital septum with a large anterior perforation occupying
nearly onehalf of the septal plate, and a smaller one posteriorly. Foramen magnum
large, rounded, placed nearly perpendicularly. Upper surface of the cranium slightly
flattened on the vertex ; no central longitudinal depression. Occipital ridge not very
much developed; occipital protuberance large. The whole of the bones forming the
anterior part of the head strongly anchylosed together; the nasal orifices are of an
vol. i. d 17
VULTURIDJE.] OSTEOLOQIA AYIIJM. [VULTURIN.E.
elongated oval shape ; a deep transverse impression at the junction of the nasal with
the frontal bones. Upper maxillaries hooked at the point, and with the margins slightly
waved. Palatine bones extending far backwards to their articulation with the inter
articular bone, broad for their whole length, but most dilated posteriorly; the outer
margin of the posterior portion bent downwards; the central plates placed nearly
perpendicularly, triangular, with the apex pointing backwards. Interarticular bones
with an expanded head at their articulation with the ossa quadrata, anterior to which
they are contracted into a small rounded neck, from which they become gradually more
expanded to their junction with the palatine bones. Condyloid portions of the occipital
bones very highly developed. Vertebra? very strong and powerful, very broad ; the four
next to the atlas with the dorsal process strongly developed.
Sternum convex ; inferior edge of the keel very much rounded, and deepest in the
centre ; anterior edge receding considerably behind the manubrial process, which con
sists of a strong, thick, quadrate tubercle; the pectoral muscular ridges prominent.
Posterior margin in a young bird with two indentations, which are nearly obliterated in
the old one.
Pehinal bones very strong ; the anchylosis between the sacral vertebra? and the ilium
marked with small punctures on the posterior portion of the pelvis ; the ilium does not
project far over the ischium, and the latter is placed nearly perpendicularly to the
former. Ischiadic foramen oval and large ; obturator foramen consisting of a narrow
slit extending from the extremity of the ischium to within an inch of the cotyloid
cavity, where it becomes suddenly enlarged and oval.
Furculum very strong ; the rami broad, and laterally compressed for their upper halves,
then becoming narrower and more rounded, with a slight pointed process extending
nearly to the anterior edge of the keel of the sternum.
Coracoids much expanded at both extremities and at their articulation with the
sternum, extending beyond its lateral margin.
Scapula of moderate strength, falciform, with a slight depression on its external
surface.
Humerus of great power, and very much expanded at its proxmal extremity ; muscular
ridges very distinct.
Ulna slightly triangular, at proximal extremity much enlarged.
Badius slightly flattened on its upper surface.
A large space between the metacarpal bones ; the hinder one flattened horizontally at
its distal, and perpendicularly at its proximal extremity.
Femur with the trochanter highly developed ; the distal extremity much enlarged.
Fibula anchylosed to the tibia for its whole length.
Metatarsus very much excavated in front at its proximal end, with two small foramina
marking the divisions between the metatarsal bones ; calcaneal process of moderate size,
with a slight ridge continued from it down the back of the metatarsal bone for about
onethird of its length.
18
VULTUEID^E.J
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[VULTUEIN^E.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 110
Length of ulna 130
Length of radius 125
Length of metacarpus 55
Length of femur . . . ... 60
Length of tibia 94
Length of metatarsus 50
Length of sternum 67
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 37
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 34
Depth of keel 16
Length of head 62
Breadth of head 22
Length of pelvis 73
Breadth of pelvis 38
Palatine bones, Plate VI. tig. 1.
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 4.
Skeleton, Plate I. A.
Saecoeamphus, Bum.
Papa, Linn.
Cranium similar to S. gryphus in shape, but with the foramina perforating the orbital
septum much smaller ; the occipital ridge very slightly developed in the centre, more so
than on the sides ; the protuberance also slight ; the external edges of the palatine plates
bent more downwards than in S. gryphus. Interarticular bones wanting.
Sternum similar, but with the posterior margin indented with two large open fissures.
Pelvis and the remainder of the skeleton also similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 66
Length of ulna 83
Length of metacarpus 35
Length of femur 36
Length of tibia 65
Length of metatarsus ..... 36
Length of sternum 42
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 24
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21
Depth of keel 10
Length of head
Breadth of head ,
Length of pelvis 55
Breadth of pelvis 22
Illustrations.
Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 6.
Pelvis, Plate V. fig. 1.
Scapula, coracoid, and furculum, Plate VII.
fig. 1.
Cathaetes, HI.
Aura, Linn.
Cranium very similar to Sarcoramphus gryphus, but with the anterior angles of the
frontal bones projecting further; the nasal orifices more open in proportion to their
length, and with the orbital septum nearly perfect.
Sternum in general shape similar to Sarcoramphus, but with two large fissures on the
d2 19
VULTUEID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[VULTUEIN^E.
posterior margin next the keel, and two fissures exterior to them; the remaining
portions of the skeleton are very similar except in the measurements.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 61
Length of ulna 69
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 8
Depth of keel
Length of head .
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis .
Breadth of pelvis
39
15
32
13*
Length of radius . . . . . . 68
Length of metacarpus . . . . . 34
Length of femur 29
Length of tibia 48
Length of metatarsus 25
Length of sternum 31
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 2.
Cathaetes, III.
Fastens, III.
The posterior margin of the sternum differs from that of aura in having only one
large foramen on each side of the keel ; the centre is slightly produced and pointed ;
the whole sternum is also more convex. The sternum is all I possess of this bird.
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 24
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 22
Depth of keel 9
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 40
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 8.
Neopheon, Sav.
Percnopterus, Linn.
The shape of the bones forming the cranium is very similar to those of the type of
the family, but the maxillaries are more slender. The palatine bones taper much more
anteriorly, are not so much deflexed on their interior edges, and have their hinder
extremities more angular ; the foramen magnum is not placed so perpendicularly.
Sternum also similar to that of the type, but with two small foramina on its posterior
margin, the right one of which, in my specimen, is the largest.
20
VULTURIDJE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[VULTURINJS.
Scapula broader near its extremity, but in general form the same.
The coracoids have a small axillary foramen near their junction with the scapula,
which is not present in Sarcoramphus, and in which this bird resembles the Eagles.
The fibular also are more lengthened than in the type.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 59
Length of ulna 66
Length of radius 65
Length of metacarpus 30
Length of femur 33
Length of tibia 45
Length of metatarsus 29
Length of sternum 39
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 3. 
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21
Depth of keel 8
Length of head 40
Breadth of head 17
Length of pelvis 46
Breadth of pelvis 20
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 3.
Neophron, Sav.
Monachus, Burch.
Sternum broad anteriorly, much narrowed posteriorly; the hinder margin much
scolloped out in the centre ; keel not extending to the hinder margin.
Pelvis short, very broad, much more so than in any Vultures I have examined.
Furculum very much arched.
The above fragments are in the British Museum, sent by Mr. Hodgson.
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 35
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 10
Length of head .......
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 75
Breadth of pelvis 30
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of radius . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . .
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum ,
70
Vultur, Linn.
Cinereus, Gm.
Sternum with a large foramen on each side; the hinder angles much expanded;
keel reaching to the posterior margin.
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 6.
.'.., 21
VlTLTURID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [VULTUEIJSLE.
Gyps, Sav.
Fulvus, Gm.
Sternum similar to Vultur cinereus, but smaller; keel not extending quite to the
posterior margin of the sternum. The divisions of the metatarsal bones are not so well
denned as in Sarcoramphus ; in other respects very similar. A skeleton is in the Museum
of the College of Surgeons.
Gtpaetos, Storr.
Barbatus, Linn.
Cranium much broader in proportion to its width than in Sarcoram/phus. Lacrymal
bones short and broad, placed very far forwards. Orbits large, and superiorly much
arched ; a very narrow space between their upper edges ; septum perfect, with the excep
tion of a small posterior foramen for the optic nerves ; foramen magnum large, oval,
slanting upwards. Atlar tubercle of moderate size, oval. Vertex much arched and very
broad, much flattened from the vertex to the insertion of the nasal bones, where there is
a deep indentation, from which a longitudinal depression extends to the vertex. Superior
axillaries hooked, and only very slightly waved on their edges. Palatine bones extending
far backwards, in shape similar to Sarcoram/phus, but with the dependent portion on their
internal edges not so highly developed, and gradually diminishing in breadth forwards.
Interarticular bones long, straight, slightly compressed, not articulated with the alse of
the sphenoid. Condyloid portions of the occipital bone moderately developed.
Sternum convex ; lower edge of the keel very much rounded, deepest in the centre ;
anterior edge receding very much from the manubrial process — much more so than in
Sarcoram/phus. Manubrial process triangular ; the lateral margins of the sternum nearly
parallel; the posterior margin produced in the centre, and gradually receding in a
curved line to two large and externally straight projections; each side of the keel per
forated by two large foramina.
Furculum, coracoids, and scapula similar in shape to Sarcoramphus.
The cranium above described was obtained from a skin; the remaining bones are
from a bird that died in confinement in this country, and was afterwards stuffed. A
perfect skeleton has just been placed in the British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 83
Length of ulna 94
Length of metacarpus 44
Length of femur 43
Length of tibia 60
Length of metatarsus 33
Length of sternum
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 10.
22
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 30
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 34
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 57
Breadth of head 30
Length of pelvis 61
Breadth of pelvis 27
VULTURID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PoLYBORINjE.
Subfam. 2. Polyborin^e.
Polyborus, Vieill.
Tharus, Mol.
Type of Polyborinse.
Cranium not so long or so much flattened in proportion to its width as in Vulturinoe ;
a central depression continued only to the vertex. Lacrymal bones triangular, and only
continued about halfway over the orbital process of the frontal bone, similar to those of
Sarcoramphus. Orbital septum with a large irregular posterior perforation. Occipital
ridge well marked; protuberance well denned. Foramen magnum round, not quite
horizontal. Atlar tubercle small, rounded. Nasal orifices oval, much inclined down
wards. Palatine bones very broad posteriorly and much narrowed anteriorly, with a
nearly central elevated and dependent ridge. Interarticular bones short, and similar in
form to Sarcoramphus.
Vertebrae somewhat lengthened ; processes short.
Sternum convex, very slightly narrowed anteriorly; lower edge of the keel much
rounded ; anterior part very slightly receding, the edge curved inwards considerably to
the manubrial process, which is long and flattened perpendicularly ; muscular ridge for
the attachment of the pectoralis minor well defined ; posterior margin of the sternum
with a slight indentation on each side of the keel not well defined.
Bones of the pelvis weak in comparison with those of Vulturinw ; the ilium projecting
far over the ischium ; the foramina as in Sarcoramphus.
Coracoids long ; axillary foramen and channel well marked.
Fureulum strong, flattened, indented at the junction of the rami instead of prolonged
into a process, as in Sarcoramphus.
Scapula and wingbones similar to those of Sarcoramphus, but of less power.
Femur with the trochanter slightly developed ; the distal extremity much enlarged.
Tibia similar to Sarcoramphus.
Fibula twothirds the length of the tibia, and anchylosed for its proximal third to the
tibia, and again so at its tip.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 43
Length of ulna 44^
Length of radius 43
Length of metacarpus 25
Length of femur .31
Length of tibia 46
Length of metatarsus 42
Length of sternum 33
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 9.
23
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16
Depth of keel 8
Length of head . . 32
Breadth of head 17
Length of pelvis 38
Breadth of pelvis I ...... 17 \
[SERPENTARI2LE.
VULTURID^I.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Circaetus, Vieill.
Gallicus, Gm.
Cranium as in Polyhorus, but rather broader in proportion to its length ; lacrymals
rounded at their extremities.
Sternum with the posterior margin scolloped out for its whole width, more convex
than in Polyhorus ; the keel not extending to within an inch of the posterior margin,
the anterior point receding slightly ; manubrial process small, but well marked.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 65
Length of ulna 76
Length of radius .75
Length of metacarpus 33
Length of femur 33
Length of tibia 54
Length of metatarsus 38
Length of sternum 35
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 39
Breadth of head 25
Length of pelvis 31
Breadth of pelvis 16
Spilornis, Gray.
Bacha, Baud.
I have the bones of the wings, legs, and head of this bird, taken from a skin ; they
are precisely similar in shape to those of Circaetus gallicus.
Subfam. 3. Serpentarin^e.
Serpentarius, Cuv.
Eeptilivorus, Baud.
Type of Serpentarinse.
Cranium broad in proportion to its length. Lacrymal bones broad, and not extending
far backwards over the orbits, which are very large. Orbital septum with a moderate
sized rounded anterior perforation; foramen magnum placed nearly perpendicularly,
with the sides nearly straight, giving it a square appearance. Atlar tubercle large,
kidneyshaped. Upper surface of the cranium with a deep hollow between the orbits,
and a slightlymarked channel over the vertex to the occiput. Occipital ridge well
marked, with a deep impression below it on each side; upper maxillaries hooked at
their points, the edges very slightly waved. Palatine bones very broad posteriorly,
suddenly narrowed anteriorly ; inner edge bending slightly downwards from the posterior
angles, from which also arises a ridge slightly divaricating from the line of the inner
edge, and continued to the point at which the bones become narrowed. Interarticular
24
VULTUEID.E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [SERPENTARISLE.
bones short, flattened, articulated in the centre, with the alse of the sphenoid vomer
wanting. Condyloid portions of the occipital bones not very strongly developed.
Vertebra? strong and broad, as among the Vultures generally.
Sternum very convex, inferior edge of the keel very much arched ; the anterior point
not receding; the edge much scolloped out; the sternum narrower posteriorly than
anteriorly ; the hinder margin produced into a point in the centre, from which it recedes
in a slight curve to the lateral edges. Manubrial process with the point triangular.
Felvinal bones similar to Sarcoramphus, but with the ischiadic foramina larger and
more oval.
Furculum with the rami slightly rounded ; the process at their junction well developed.
Coracoi&s very wide at their articulation with the sternum, and extending nearly to
its full width ; axillary foramen situated low down.
Scapula long and strong, without any central depression, transversely expanded at its
junction with the coracoid.
Humerus moderately expanded at its proximal extremity, with the ridge to which the
pectorals are attached much bent outwards. Ulna much flattened, slightly triangular.
Femur with the trochanters highly developed, very short in proportion to the tibia
and metatarsus.
Tibia very long, with the head very large.
Fibula extending for twothirds its length, and anchylosed to the tibia for its upper
third, and again at its inferior extremity.
Metatarsus similar in form to Sarcoramphus Papa, but much lengthened and more
slender.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 78
Length of ulna 75
Length of radius ...... 74
Length of metacarpus 36
Length of femur 45
Length of tibia 105
Length of metatarsus Ill
Length of sternum 51
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 25
Depth of keel 13
Length of head 46
Breadth of head 24
Length of pelvis 47
Breadth of pelvis 25
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate II. A.
Metatarsi, Plate II. fig. 9.
Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 2.
Sternum, Plate I. fig. 7.
VOL. I. E 25
Strigidjl] 0STE0L0G1A AVIUM. [Strigin,e.
Fam. 3. STBIGIDZE.
Subfam. 1. Striginje.
Nyctea, Steph.
Nivea, Thunb. type of Strigidse and Striginse.
Cranium very broad in proportion to its length. Lacrymals wanting ; upper surface
much flattened, with a central depression extending from the nasal bones to the occiput.
Occipital protuberance very slight ; muscular impressions also slight. Orbits very large,
septa without perforations ; the process of the frontal bones bounding the orbits poste
riorly much prolonged, and curved inwards at its extremity. Frontal bone at its
junction with the nasal gibbous, and with a deep transverse impression at the junction.
Upper maxillaries hooked, with the edges slightly waved ; foramen magnum horizontal,
rounded. Atlar tubercle rounded, broad. Palatine bones for their anterior third con
sisting merely of a narrow strip of bone, then expanded and bent outwards, and again
gradually contracted and bending inwards to their posterior extremities. Interarticulars
with a strong central process extending backwards, and meeting a similar process extend
ing forwards from the posterior or basal portion of the sphenoid. Nasal orifices oval,
wider anteriorly than posteriorly. Condyloid portions of the occipital bone strongly
developed. Vertebrae well developed and moderately strong.
Sternum not convex longitudinally; edge of the keel slightly rounded, the point
slightly receding, from which to the manubrial process the anterior edge is very slightly
curved; manubrial process very small, consisting merely of a slight projecting edge;
posterior edge of the sternum indented on each side of the keel with two fissures, the
external one the largest.
Pelvinal bones very strong, but with a few small foramina, showing the position of
the sacral vertebra?. Ilium projecting very much over the ischium, the latter placed
perpendicularly to the upper plane of the former ; ischiadic and obturator foramina very
similar to those of Sarcoramphus ; anterior part of the ilium very wide, nearly as broad
as the hinder portion ; the points of the os pubis curved much inwards.
Bibs narrow, very little broader at their junction with the vertebrae than for their
whole length ; styliform process very long.
Furculum weak in proportion to the size of the bird ; the rami flattened and becoming
much thinner and narrower as they approach the sternum, and without any process at
their junction.
Coracoids strong, central portion somewhat triangular; axillary foramen large, the
channel well marked.
Scapula long, of moderate strength, with a central depression for onethird of its
posterior length, expanded slightly near its extremity, and sloped off diagonally down
wards.
Humerus long, not very powerful, the superior ridge projecting much outwards.
26
Strigidje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Strigin^.
Ulna and radius also weak. Metacarpals widely divided ; the posterior or smaller one
broad at its proximal extremity, and much flattened for its whole length.
Femur with the trochanters moderately developed ; distal extremity much enlarged ;
shaft nearly round ; tibia triangular at its upper extremity, and rounded downwards.
Metatarsus much hollowed out posteriorly ; calcaneal process highly developed, blunt
at the extremity, and continued in the form of an edged keel a short distance down the
entometatarsal bone ; anteriorly very deeply hollowed out on the inside of its proximal
extremity between the ento and mesometatarsal bones, the former of which is provided
with a strong curved bony sheath, extending across the cavity through the extensor
tendons of the foot pass.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 61
Length of ulna 71
Length of radius 67
Length of metacarpus 33
Length of femur ....... 37
Length of tibia 48
Length of metatarsus ..... 22
Length of sternum 49
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 20
Depth of keel 10
Length of head . . 35
Breadth of head 26
Length of pelvis 43
Breadth of pelvis 20
Illustrations.
Metatarsi, Plate II. fig. 7.
Palatine bones, Plate VI. f
;. 10.
Coracoid, scapula, and furculum, Plate VII.
fig. 3.
Posterior margin of sternum, Plate IV. fig. 2.
Strix, Linn.
Flammea, Linn.
Cranium similar to Nyctea nivea ; interarticular bones bent backwards in the centre
where articulated with the sphenoid.
Sternum with a rounded indentation on each side of the keel, very short, slightly
convex ; keel very shallow. No manubrial process.
Metatarsi similar to Nyetea^ but longer in proportion to the tibia.
Hinder metacarpal bone not arched, except at its proximal extremity.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 32
Length of ulna 37
Length of radius 35^
Length of metacarpus 15
Tenths.
Length of femur 19
Length of tibia 35
Length of metatarsus . . . . . 25
Length of sternum . . . . . . 15
e2 27
STRIGID.E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [STRIGINJ3.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12
Depth of keel ....... 3
Length of head 17
Tenths.
Breadth of head . , 15
Length of pelvis 23
Breadth of pelvis 10^
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 10.
Strix, Linn.
Pratineola, Bon.
I have only the sternum, coracoids, and furculum of this bird ; the former is in shape
similar to S. flammea, but larger, and coracoids and furculum longer.
Strix, Linn.
Delicatulus, Gould.
Similar to S. flammea, except in size, but bears the same proportions.
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 1. Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 11.
Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 10.
Strix, Linn.
Capensis, A. Smith.
Similar to S. flammea, but the tarsus has not the annular process to confine the
tendons of the extensor muscles of the feet at its proximal extremity.
Syrnium, Sav.
Sinense, Lath.
All the bones I possess of this bird are the head and metatarsus taken from a skin ;
the cranium is of similar shape to that of Nyctea ; the metatarsus is without the annular
process, though in other respects similar.
Athene, Bote.
Marmorata, Gould.
The whole skeleton similar to Strix, but with the palatine bones terminating more
abruptly at their hinder extremities ; the sternum has a very small manubrial process ;
its posterior margin has two large fissures on each side, the outer one larger, the inte
rior one small ; the metatarsi are very short, the head similar to Nyctea.
28
Strigid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Strigin^e.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 31
Length of ulna 33
Length of radius 32
Length of metacarpus 16
Length of femur 22
Length of tibia 32
Length of metatarsus 15
Length of sternum ....... 16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 J
Depth of keel 3J
Length of head 23
Breadth of head 16
Length of pelvis 23
Breadth of pelvis 10
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 11.
Athene.
Hypudea, Bon.
Differs very slightly from A. marmorata, except in measurements. The central
channel over the vertex is not so well denned, and the back of cranium not so much
flattened ; the depressed posterior edge of the upper part of the orbits is not apparent ;
the channel for the masseter muscle is well marked ; the sternum is rather longer in
proportion to its width, and the bones of the pelvis rather broader in proportion to
their length.
The bird ought to form a different genus from Athene.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 20
Length of ulna 22
Length of metacarpus ..... 11
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia 22
Length of metatarsus 15
Length of sternum 12
Tenths.
Breadth of po sterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 20
Breadth of head . 12
Length of pelvis ........ 18
Breadth of pelvis 8
Ntctale, Brehm.
Tenymalmi, Gin.
Skeleton very similar to Athene, but with the sternum narrower in proportion to its
width ; the posterior fissures deeper, and the anterior edge of the keel more receding.
No manubrial process ; the coracoids proportionately longer.
29
STRIGIDiE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[BUBONINJS.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 19
Length of ulna . 21
Length of radius 20
Length of metacarpus 9^
Length of femur 14
Length of tibia 19
Length of metatarsus 9^
Length of sternum 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7^
Depth of keel 3
Length of head .
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis .
Breadth of pelvis
19
15
16
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 6.
Metatarsus, Plate II. fig. 8.
Subfam. 2. Bubonin^e.
Otus, Cuv.
Brachyotus, GW, type of Buboninw.
The skeleton much more powerful than among the Strigince ; sides of the cranium
much flattened ; the palatine bones broader at their hinder extremities. Interarticular
bones very small, and not articulated to the basal portion of the sphenoid. Nasal orifices
oval. Sternum with the manubrial process rudimentary. Posterior metacarpal bone
not arched, except very slightly at its proximal extremity, where it is also flattened.
Metatarsus without any annular process. Head of the tibia with the anterior processes
much developed.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 32
Length of ulna 35
Length of radius 34
Length of metacarpus 17
Length of femur 21
Length of tibia 33
Length of metatarsus 15
Length of sternum ...... 16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10^
Depth of keel 3^
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 16
Length of pelvis 22
Breadth of pelvis 10^
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, Plate VI. fig. 12.
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 7.
Otus, Cuv.
Maculosus, Vieill.
Very similar to Nijctea nivea ; the sides of the head above the orbits not flattened as
30
Stkigid^e.]
OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM.
[BUBONIC.
in Otus; brachyotus and the palatine bones rather more curved; interarticular bone
articulated with the sphenoid hinder metacarpal bone much arched.
Bubo, Sibb.
Maximus, Sibb.
Similar to Bubo Bengalensis, except in measurements. The skeleton is in the College
of Surgeons.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17
Tenths.
Length of humerus 59
Length of ulna ....... 66
Length of metacarpus 31
Length of femur . 44
Length of tibia . 55
Length of metatarsus 31
Length of sternum ...... 34
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 39
Breadth of head .29
Length of pelvis 41
Breadth of pelvis 20
Bubo, Sibb.
Bengalensis, Frank.
Nasal orifices slightly oval ; the remainder of the cranium much damaged.
Sternum with a large manubrial process pointing upwards ; the anterior edge of the
keel receding, not scolloped out.
Pelvis with the iliac bones as broad anteriorly as posteriorly.
Posterior metacarpal bone much arched, flattened at its proximal extremity, and
widely separated from the anterior one.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 45
Length of ulna . 52
Length of radius . 49
Length of metacarpus 22
Length of femur ....... 30
Length of tibia ....... 45
Length of metatarsus 25
Length of sternum . . . * . . . 27
Tenths,
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15^
Depth of keel ....... 5
Length of head . . .... 33^
Breadth of head 24
Length of pelvis 34
Breadth of pelvis 15
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate IV. fig, 9.
31
Strigidje.] osteologia avium. [Bubonic.
Bubo, Sibb.
Coromandus, Lath.
The bones of the body of this bird are in the British Museum ; they are similar to
those of Bubo bengalends.
Ketupa, Less.
Javensis, Less.
Cranium like that of Nyctea nivea ; orbital septa with a large perpendicular foramen.
Palatine bones with the hinder exterior angles produced to a point. Interarticular
bones with a central process, which does not quite reach the sphenoid.
Sternum narrower posteriorly than anteriorly, indented on each side of the keel, with
two fissures, the exterior one larger ; manubrial process well developed. The anterior
edge of the keel receding. Pelvis as broad anteriorly as posteriorly. Coracoids long ;
hinder metacarpal bone much arched and flattened for its whole length. Calcaneal
process large, narrow, a ridge continued from it down the whole length of the entometa
carpal bone.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 48
Length of ulna 52
Length of radius 50
Length of metacarpus 20
Length of femur 30
Length of tibia 49
Length of metatarsus 28
Length of sternum 27
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17£
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 34
Breadth of head . , 24
Length of pelvis 33
Breadth of pelvis 14
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate IV. fig. 3.  Skeleton, Plate IV. A.
Ephialtes, Keys & Bl.
Lempiji, Horsf.
All the bones I have of this bird were taken from a skin.
Crown of the head very much arched down to the nasal bones, and laterally flattened
immediately above them. Orbital septum entire ; interarticular bones long, articulated
in their centre by a projecting process to the sphenoid. Palatine bones produced into
a bony spine at their posterior angle. Metatarsi similar to those of Nyctea nivea.
Ephialtes, Keys & Bl.
Grammicus, Gosse.
I have only the sternum of this bird, which is very broad in proportion to its length,
Stbkhm:.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [BlTBONINiE.
indented with two fissures on each side of the keel ; the outer one largest, and the inner
one placed rather obliquely ; anterior edge of the keel receding very much ; manubrial
process rudimentary.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of sternum 15
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12
Number of Vertebras and Bibs in Raptoees.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Falconidse.
Accipiter nisus
Palco peregrinus
Milvus migrans
Ibycter ater
Aquila nsevia
Haliastur ponticerianus
Oymindis uncinatus
Ieracidea berigora
Pandion baliaetus
Circaetus brachydactylus
Accipiter torquatus ......
Palco sesalon
Palco subbuteo
Tmnunculus alaudarius
Haliaetus aguia
Helotarsus ecaudatus ...
Falco aurantius
Asturina magnirostris ...
Astur palumbarius
Buteo vulgaris
Vultnridse.
Sarcorampbus Grryphus
Sarcorampbus Papa
Cathartes aura
Serpentarius reptilivorus
Neophron percnopterus
Polyb orus tharus
Gryps fulvus
Gypaetos barbatus
Strigidse.
Ketupa javanensis
Nyctea nivea
Otus brachyotus
Bubo bengalensis
Athene m armor ata
Strix flammea
Nyctale Tengmalmi
Strix delicatulus
Athene hypudea
Bubo maximus
11
11
11
11
11
11
13
10
12
12
11
12
13
12
13
12
12
11
12
12
13
13
13
13
12
10
16
15
12
12
10
11
12
9
12
12
13
12
9
10
10
8
9
10
10
12
9
10
10
9
9
13
10
10
12
10
11
10
12
12
12
10
11
12
11
11
12
11
12
10
12
10
10
12
12
12
12
14
12
13
13
11
12
13
14
12
13
10
12
7
8
7
8
wanting
5
5
6
6
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
6
6
6
6
7
6
6
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
3
2
2
3
3
VOL. I.
33
Steigim:.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Bubonin^.
Remarks on the Oedee Raptoees.
The Order Eaptores is well distinguished from other Orders by its external structure,
being that adapted for preying on other animals ; as, however, it is my object in this
work merely to point out osteological characters, I shall not go into those which may
be made out by external examination, such as the bill and claws. The cranium of
Raptorial Birds is remarkable for its breadth in proportion to its length, and the hooked
form of the upper maxillaries ; the lacrymal bones are always long, and extend back
wards over the orbits ; the orbital septum is in old birds quite, or nearly, perfect ; there
is always an indentation more or less apparent at the base of the nasal bones; the
upper maxillaries cover a very small portion of the roof of the mouth ; the palatine
bones have invariably a downward fold on their interior edges, and do not approach to
one another except at their posterior internal angles ; they are always articulated to
interarticular bones intervening between them and the ossa quadrata ; there is always a
wellmarked muscular impression above the aural orifices, in many instances amounting
to a channel for the reception of the masseter muscles ; the nasal orifices are generally
small, particularly in the typical species of Falcons. The skeleton generally is very
strong and powerful ; the sternum is very slightly narrower on its anterior, than on its
posterior margin, and either approaches the form of a parallelogram, — the breadth of the
posterior margin being equal to twothirds the whole length, as among the Falcons, —
or that of a square, as among some of the Owls ; it is always more or less convex longi
tudinally and transversely ; the keel is deep, and its inferior edge is more or less arched.
The pelvis is large and broad, and the ilium from the cotyloid cavity backwards always
overhangs the edge of the ischium, which is placed nearly perpendicularly to the
superior plane of the former. The ischiadic foramen is large and rounded, the obturator
foramen is composed of a slight fissure between the os pubis and the ischium, ending
anteriorly in a rounded opening just behind the cotyloid cavity. The rami of the
furculum are either broad and laterally flattened for their whole length, as among the
Falcons; or else narrowed as they approach the sternum, as among the Owls and
Vultures. In the latter family, the furculum, instead of being united to the sternum
by a ligament near the point of keel, is united to that bone very near the manubrial
process. The coracoids are very strong and short, nearly triangular in the middle, and
very much expanded at their articulation with the sternum, which is always by means
of a shallow transverse groove in the latter bone ; the scapula is much expanded at its
distal extremity, and obliquely sloped on its upper edge to a point at the tip; the
proximal half is narrower than the distal, not so much expanded ; it is very slightly
bent downwards for its whole length ; there is a depression on the outer surface near
the tip extending for about onethird of its length. The humerus is very strong ; the
ridge for the attachment of the pectoral muscles very highly developed; the ulna is
somewhat triangular; the posterior metacarpal bones are nearly straight among the
Falcons, and more or less arched among the Owls and Vultures ; throughout the whole
34
Strigid^e.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Bubonin^e.
Order they are always transversely flattened. The proportional length of the humerus
to the ulna is, with very slight variation, as 13 to 15^ among the Falcons, and as 10
to 13^ among the Owls and Vultures. The femur is of moderate length ; it varies con
siderably in its proportion to the tibia in different families of Eaptorial Birds, among
the Falcons being about 12 to 15, among the Owls and most of the Vultures as 15^
to 23, and in Serpentarius as 10 to 25 ; the fibula is in no instance that I am aware of
united to the tibia for its whole length, but generally at its distal extremity, and at
about onethird of its length.
The metatarsus is always more or less excavated in front, and among some of the Owls
has a bony band near the upper extremity of the cavity, for the purpose of confining the
exterior longus communis digitorum muscle, a little below which is a small tubercle to
which the tibialis anticus is attached.
The hallux, or hind toe, has always an intervening split between it and the metatarsus.
The calcaneal process is well developed among the Falconidse and Vulturidse, and
among some of the Strigidse ; while in others it is rudimentary.
The vertebral column is strong throughout the Order, but most so among the Vultures,
many of which family, as Sarcoramphus, have the vertebrae nearly as broad as long ; the
three or four upper cervical vertebrae have the posterior processes more highly deve
loped than is the case with the remainder of them. The terminal caudal one is much
flattened laterally, and somewhat triangular.
p2 35
TEOCHILIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MELLISUGIN^.
Order II. VOLITORES.
Fam. 1. TROCHILIDE.
Subfam. 1. Mellisugin^e.
Patagona, G. R. Gray.
Gigas, Vieill.
Type of Volitores.
Cranium of moderate size ; a deep and broad depression between the orbits, which is
carried backwards to the occipital protuberance, where it divides and is carried down
wards on each side to the base of the skull. Orbits large, slightly oval ; the edges entire ;
the margins slightly rerlexed ; orbital septum entire. Palatine bones consisting merely
of two elongated and narrow plates, pointed posteriorly at their junction with the inter
articular bones, with the edges slightly bent downwards, united for their anterior half,
and then divaricating. Interarticular bone slightly bent backwards in the centre ;
occipital protuberance very large. Foramen magnum round, placed obliquely.
Sternum long, of moderate width posteriorly, very narrow anteriorly, very slightly
longitudinally convex ; a spinous process behind the junction of the coracoids. Keel
very deep ; inferior edge arched, and carried to the extremity of the sternum ; anterior
edge much excavated, not receding ; articulation with the coracoids effected by means
of a ball and socket joint, the ball of which is upon the sternum. Posterior margin
entire, rounded.
Pelvis very broad and short, but narrow; the ilium not overhanging the ischium,
which inclines outwards and downwards from the ilium to the os pubis ; obturator and
ischiadic foramina of moderate size ; ribs long, placed very obliquely, and carried far
backwards.
Humerus very short and strong; muscular processes very highly developed; ulna
short, nearly straight; radius slightly bent. Metacarpus very long; division between
the two bones composing it very slight ; the posterior one anchylosed to the anterior
for the anterior third of its length; first phalanx narrow at proximal extremity, and
expanded at its distal by reason of the divarication of the two bones composing it ; a
bony plate unites them together; terminal phalanx long; furculum very small, not
approaching the sternum, slightly flattened; coracoids straight, slightly flattened,
expanded at their lower extremity, and furnished with a socket, which corresponds with
the ball on the sternum. Scapula very long, flat, expanded and bent downwards at the
extremity. Leg bones weak ; femur very straight ; radius extending for about onethird
36
Teochilid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Trochilin^e.
the length of the tibia. Vertebral column of moderate strength ; the cervical vertebrae
rather flattened horizontally; terminal caudal vertebra triangular, with a slight crest
pointing backwards.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 4
Length of ulna 4
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia 8J
Length of metatarsus 3
Length of sternum 12
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2J
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 9
Breadth of pelvis 5^
Illustrations.
Skeleton of Patagona gigas, Plate I. bis, fig. 1.
Palatine bones, Plate I. bis, fig. 2.
Pelvis, Plate I. bis, fig. 3.
Metatarsus, Plate I. bis, fig. 4.
Sternal apparatus of Petasphora jolata,
Plate I. bis, fig. 5.
Subfam. 2. Trochilin^e.
Thaumastura, Bon.
Vesper, Less.
The whole family of Trochilidce differ so little, except in measurements, that the
description of one will serve for that of all. I have in my collection the following
skeletons : Cephalepis Lalandii, Gouldia Langsdorfii, Clytolwma rubinea, Florisuga ater,
Thaumatias cyaneus, Thalurania glaucojpis, Hylocharis Wiedii, Lophomis magnificus,
Aphantochroa cirrochloris, Glauds hirsutus, Thaumatias alMcollis, Thaumastura Linnm,
and Petasphora jolata.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 2\
Length of ulna 2 \
Length of metacarpus 2J
Length of femur 3
Length of tibia 6
Length of metatarsus ..... 2^
Length of sternum 7
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 10^
Breadth of head 3
Length of pelvis 4^
Breadth of pelvis . . 3
VOL. I.
G
37
Cypselid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Cypseunje
Pam. 2. CYPSELID53.
Subfam. Cypselin^e.
Cypselus, 111.
Apus, Linn.
Type of Cypselidse.
Cranium with a large occipital protuberance ; mouth wide ; a deep excavation be
tween the orbits, as among the Trochilidw, but it is not carried backwards farther than
the vertex ; the orbits large ; septum with a posterior foramen ; there is, however, every
indication that ossification was still going on. Palatine bones expanded anteriorly, then
contracted, and having a lateral spine on their external edges near their junction with
the interarticular bones, united for their whole length. Interarticular bones straight.
Foramen magnum large, rounded.
Sternum very similar to that of the Trochilidw, but with the hinder margin nearly
straight, instead of rounded ; the anterior furnished with grooves for the articulation
with the coracoids.
Pelvis as among the Trochilidw, but broader anteriorly. Ribs projecting far back
wards, but not placed so obliquely as among the Trochilidw.
Fureulum small, but much larger than among the Trochilidw, and united to the
anterior edge of the keel near the tip by a ligament ; coracoids of moderate size, not
much expanded at their junction with the sternum. Scapula long, slightly deflected near
the point. Wing bones similar to those of the Trochilidw. Leg bones also similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 5
Length of ulna 7
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur 7
Length of tibia 11
Length of metatarsus 4
Length of sternum 11J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3^
Depth of keel 5±
Length of head 12
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis Hi
Breadth of pelvis 9
Illustrations.
Skeleton, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsi, Plate I. bis.
Cypselus, III.
Melba, Linn.
Similar to C. ajpus, only larger. In the British Museum.
38
CYPSELIDiE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Measurements.
[CyPSELINJB.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 5
Length of ulna 8
Length of metacarpus ..... 9
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 10
Length of metatarsus 5J
Length of sternum 12
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 5£
Length of head 12^
Breadth of head 7J
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis * 7
Acanthylis, Boie.
Nudipes, Hodgs.
The body is in the British Museum : similar to Cypselus.
Tenths.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 6£
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 15
Breadth of pelvis 9
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Bibs of Volitoees.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Patagona gigas
Thaumast ura vesper
12
12
12
9
9
9
9
8
9
6
6
6
7
7
7
2
2
2
Cypselus apus
General Bemarlcs on Volitoees.
The whole structure of this Order is very remarkable. Throughout the Trochilidce a
remarkable similarity prevails in the skeletons, so as to render the description of more
than one unnecessary, the only differences being those of measurement. I had some
doubts at first whether or not to place the Cypselidw in this Order ; but this family
differs so much from the members of any other Order, and agrees in so many particulars
with the Trochilidce, that I have little doubt that they properly belong to this. The
structure of the wing, the great depth of the keel of the sternum and its being so very
much narrowed in front, the broad pelvis, and the position of the ischium and os pubis,
will at once distinguish the birds forming this Order from those of any other.
c2 39
CAPBIMULGID2E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [SteATORNINjE.
Order III. OMNIVORES.
Fam. 1. CAPRIMULGIDJE.
Subfam. 1. Steatornin^e.
Podargus, Cm.
Humeralis, Vig. & Horsf.
Type of Omnivores and Caprimulgidse.
Cranium large, much depressed, very broad in proportion to its length. Malar bones
arched outwards; a deep impression at the base of the nasal bones, from which pro
ceeds a central impression over the vertex nearly to the occipital ridge, which is promi
nent and well denned on each side, above which are two broad channels or deep
muscular impressions for the masseter muscles, arising on the occiput, where they are
shallowest, and proceeding to a little above the auricular cavity, where they are nar
rower and deeper ; between them, at their origin, is a slight ridge, which is carried
downwards to the foramen magnum. Orbits large ; the superior margins slightly re
flexed ; septum not quite filling up the whole of the space between the orbits anteriorly.
Lacrymals small, pointed ; an elevated ridge arises on the end of the central portion of
the bill, which is hooked, and is carried backwards over the nostrils to the base of the
nasal bones. Nostrils elongated, somewhat triangular, with the apex of the triangle
placed backwards ; superior maxillaries very broad, extending backwards to the palatine
bones, and covering the whole of the upper surface of the mouth to that point ; laterally
they are pointed, and anchylosed to the malar bones. Palatine bones broad, short, united
for their posterior half, and produced to a point at their articulation with the inter
articular bones, and with a strong lateral process pointing backwards on their exterior
margins. The transverse or basal portion of the sphenoid bone is wanting. Interarti
cular bones triangular, with a pointed process extending over and articulated with the
palatine bones ; at their articulation with the ossa quadrata flattened perpendicularly.
Foramen magnum nearly square, with the angles slightly rounded, slightly starting
upwards. Atlar tubercle rounded.
Sternum nearly as broad as long, the horizontal portion slightly longitudinally and
horizontally convex, with two fissures on each side of the keel generally*, the outer
one very large, the inner small. The lateral margins much constricted just behind the
junction of the ribs, and again expanding backwards ; keel deep, slightly arched on its
inferior edge, not receding on its anterior margin. No manubrial process.
* I have two specimens of the skeletons of Podargus humeralis, and have also seen another ; one of them
has two fissures on one side and one on the other.
40
Capeimulgid^:.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Steatornin^e.
Pelvis broad in proportion to its length ; ilium not expanded anteriorly, or projecting
beyond the edge of the ischium, which starts outwards to the os pubis ; the posterior
margin with a rounded spine just below the junction of the ilium and ischium. Obtu
rator foramen consisting of merely a slit, slightly enlarged anteriorly. Ischiadic fora
men large oval. A strong and lengthened spinous process projects posteriorly from the
ischium at the junction of its upper edge with the ilium *.
Mibs weak, with the styliform processes short, scarcely reaching to the adjoining rib.
Furculum with the rami widely divaricating, flattened, without any process at their
junction, which reaches as far as the point of their ligamentous junction with the keel
of the sternum.
Coracoids rather long, slightly flattened.
Scapula narrow, very slightly compressed at its proximal extremity, more so at its
distal, where it is cut off obliquely downwards to a point.
Wing bones of moderate strength, the muscular ridges distinct ; the posterior meta
carpal bone much arched.
Femur very slightly bent downwards at its distal extremity. Trochanters small.
Fibula extending for about half the length of the tibia, and anchylosed to it at both
extremities.
Metatarsus short, triangular, slightly excavated in front, at its proximal extremity ;
calcaneal process well developed ; a slight ridge extends from it to the articulation of
the hallux.
Vertebral column strong, broad ; the three penultimate cervical vertebra? with the
dorsal spine well developed.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 29
Length of ulna . . 35
Length of radius 31 J
Length of metacarpus lli
Length of femur 14
Length of tibia 25
Length of metatarsus Hi
Length of sternum 15
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10^
Depth of keel 4^
Length of head 30
Breadth of head 18
Length of pelvis 20
Breadth of pelvis 12
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate I. B.
Cranium, Plate IV.
Pelvis, metatarsus, furculum, coracoid,
and scapula, Plate IX. fig. 1.
Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 1.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 1.
* Prohably this spine is partly composed of portions of the ischium and ilium.
41
Caprimulgid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[CAPRIMULGINiE.
Subfam. 2. Caprimulgin^e.
^gotheles, Vig. & Horsf.
Cristatus, Lath.
Type of Caprimulginse.
Cranium not so much depressed as in Podargus ; space between the orbits on the
upper surface of the cranium very narrow. Maxillaries curved downwards. Palatine
bones similar in shape to Podargus ; intermaxillaries not expanded. Tarsi longer in
proportion to the tibia than in Podargus. Sternum much damaged, but with two
fissures on each side of the keel. Remaining bones as in Podargus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 14
Length of radius 13
Length of metacarpus 7
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 14
Length of metatarsus 10 J
Length of sternum 7
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 2
Length of head 14
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis • 8
Chordeiles, Sw.
Virginianus, Briss.
Cranium much depressed, and in shape similar to Podargus, but without the tem
poral impressions for the masseter muscles. Maxillaries not expanded over the roof of
the mouth, which is merely defended by a narrow strip of the palatine bones carried
forwards posteriorly ; the palatine bones are more expanded laterally than in Podargus,
and with the angles rounded ; interarticular bones long. Sternum with a single wide
and open fissure on each side of the keel. Coracoids, furculum, and scapula similar
to Podargus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 10
42
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6^
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 16
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Trogonid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Trogonin^e.
Nyctebius, Vieill.
Jamaicensis, Gm.
Sternum as in Chordeiles, with two broad shallow fissures on each side. Coracoids
long. Furculum also long, very much arched transversely. Scapula similar to Podargus.
I have only a fragment of this bird.
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 12
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel 5
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Caprimulgus, Linn.
Europseus, Linn.
Cranium and sternum similar to Chordeiles, but the latter narrower anteriorly.
Pelvis much broader than in Podargus in proportion to its length ; in other respects
similar ; a spine on the posterior margin.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 14^
Length of ulna 18
Length of radius 17
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia 12^
Length of metatarsus ..... 6^
Length of sternum 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6^
Depth of keel 5^
Length of head 14
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis 8J
Fam. 2. TROGONIDE.
Subfam. 1. Trogonin^e.
Harpactes, Sw.
Reinwardtii, Temm.
Type of Trogonidae and Trogoninee.
Cranium slightly depressed, but not nearly so much as in Podargus, and the malar
43
Teogonid^e.J osteologia avium. [Trogoninjl
bones not so much arched ; the space between the orbits above narrower ; upper edges
of the orbits much reflexed ; a depression from the base of the nasal bones over the
vertex well denned ; occipital ridge scarcely perceptible ; the masseter impression deep,
but not extending backwards to the occiput, as in Podargus. Orbital septum as in
Podargus. Upper maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth for onefourth of their
length. Palatine bones narrow anteriorly, slightly expanded at their junction with the
maxillaries, posteriorly with the interior edges much derlexed, not united, except at
their articulation with the interarticular bones, which have a process in the middle
uniting with the base of the sphenoid, which is extremely rudimentary, and does not
expand as far as the os quadratum. A deep, transverse, and horizontally arcuated de
pression at the base of the nasal bones ; nostrils very slightly oval, placed nearly hori
zontally, with a ridge between them. Lacrymal bones wanting.
Sternum with the posterior margin considerably broader than the anteritfr, indented
on each side with two deep fissures, the strip of bone bounding the external fissure on
each expanded at the tip, thus partially enclosing the fissure ; the lateral margins of the
sternum much constricted in the centre behind the ribs, convex longitudinally and trans
versely ; keel with its lower edge slightly arched ; the anterior edge much excavated,
not receding. Manubrial process laterally flattened, widest at its extremity.
Pelvis very wide and short ; a knob on the posterior margin where the ischium and
ilium unite ; the ilium does not overhang the ischium, which starts outward from the
plane of the former bone.
Coraeoids rather long, very broad at their articulation with the sternum.
Bami of the furculum long, slightly arched.
Bibs weak, expanded for their upper halves ; styliform process long, narrow.
Pelvis very broad and short, the ischium starting very much obliquely outwards to
the os pubis. Ischiadic foramen very large ; obturator small ; fibula extending down
wards only onefourth the length of the tibia, and anchylosed to it at both ends.
The remaining bones similar to those of Podargus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 13^
Length of ulna 14^
Length of radius 14
Length of metacarpus §\
Length of femur 9^
Length of tibia . 12
Length of metatarsus 6^
Length of sternum 12
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 2.  Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 2,
44
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 18
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 14
Breadth of pelvis H
Teogonid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Capitoninje.
Trogon, Moehr.
Melanocephalus, Gould.
In every respect with the bones of a similar shape to those of Harpactes Beinwardtii.
Lacrymal bones triangular, with the points not turned quite so much backwards as in
Podargus. I have also in my collection Trogon viridis and Trogon aurantius.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 14
Length of radius . 13
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 11^
Length of metatarsus 8
Length of sternum 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 16
Breadth of head .....
Length of pelvis 14
Breadth of pelvis 11
9i
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate IV. B.
Calurus, Sow.
Fulgidus, Gould.
Similar to Harpactes ; in the British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 16
Length of ulna 20
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur 12
Length of tibia 14
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 3
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 20
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis 11
Subfam. 2. Capitonin^e.
Megalaima, G. B. Gray.
Corvina, Temm.
Cranium more flattened than among the Picidce, with which it has been classed ; no
foramen in the orbital septum, except that through which the optic nerve passes ; channel
for the masseter muscles large, extending to the occiput ; occipital ridge well marked.
VOL. i. H 45
TROGONID.E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CAPITONINJ3.
Sternum broad ; fissures on the posterior margin very deep, extending for more than
half the length of the sternum ; the anterior edge, behind the junction of the coracoids,
very much prolonged ; lateral edges constricted behind the articulation of the ribs, which
is very far forwards ; keel very shallow ; inferior edge quite straight ; anterior edge also
straight, produced nearly to the end of the manubrial process. Pelvis with the ischium
slanting very much outwards, the line of demarcation along the junction of the ilium with
it nearly obliterated ; two spines are apparent on its posterior margin, one on its inner
edge, the other near the centre ; obturator foramen similar to the Picidce, but narrower ;
ischiadic foramen also smaller.
Bibs narrow ; styliform process very broad ; coracoids longer than among the Picidce ;
furculum weak, the rami merely united by a ligament. Wing and legbones similar to
the Picidce.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8^
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . . 14
Length of ulna 18
Length of metacarpus 7
Length of femur 13^
Length of tibia 22
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum 14
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 30
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 18
Breadth of pelvis 10
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 3.  Palatine bones of M. virens, Plate XII. fig. 3.
Megalaima, G. B. Gray.
Calva, Lafr.
This bird has been made into a genus under the name of Gymnobuceo ; its structure,
as also that of Bucconodon formosus, is precisely similar to that of Megalaima.
Psilopogon, Milll.
Pyrolophus, Mull.
Similar to Megalaima corvina except in measurements ; the ulna much longer in pro
portion to the humerus than in that bird ; the anterior portion of the obturator foramen
nearly obliterated.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus 5
46
Tenths.
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia . , 21
Length of metatarsus 11
Trogonid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Capitonin^e.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Length of sternum 10
Breadth of po sterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 2^
Tenths.
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 17
Breadth of pelvis 10
Capito, Vieill.
Purpurata, Ver.
Similar to Megalaima, but with the obturator and ischiadic foramina larger and more
open, and the impression of the masseter muscles not so large.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 12^
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur 12
Length of tibia 18
Length of metatarsus 11
Length of sternum 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternn m 7
Depth of keel 1\
Length of head 18
Breadth of head . 9
Length of pelvis 14
Breadth of pelvis . 9^
Capito, Vieill.
Swainsonii, Bon.
Very similar to C. *purpuratus, but with the hinder angles of the palatine bones trun
cate, the sternum broader, the fissures more open, the pelvis broader in proportion to
its length, and the channel for the masseter muscles more strongly marked.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 14f
Length of metacarpus .... 6
Length of femur 8J
Length of tibia 13
Length of metatarsus .
6*
Length of sternum 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 \
Depth of keel 2J
Length of head 26
Breadth of head ........ 11
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis 10
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate VII. B.
H2
47
Trogonid^e.]
OSTEOLOQIA AVIUM.
[Capitoniile.
Monasa, Vieill.
Torquata, Hahn.
Very similar to Capito, but with the upper edge of the orbits approaching nearer to
one another, and with a slight channel between them. Sternum broader, and the
fissures more open.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . 11
Length of ulna 13
Length of metacarpus ..... 5
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia ....... 12
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum 9
Depth of keel 2
Length of head 20
Breadth of head 8£
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis 8
Chelonidera, Gould.
Tenebrosa, Pall.
Similar to Capito, but with the tarsi much shorter ; the inferior edge of the sternal
keel arched ; the anterior edge scolloped out, and not extending over the manubrial
process ; the upper edge of the orbits approaching nearer to each other, and with a
distinct channel between them.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 15
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur 7
Length of tibia 10£
Length of metatarsus 5
Length of sternum 9J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 2
Length of head 11
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 11
Breadth of pelvis  . 8
Illustrations.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 4.
Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 4.
48
Trogonid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[EURYLAIMJE.
Subfam. 3. Eurylaim^e.
Eurylaimus, Horsf.
Sumatranus, Raff.
Type of Eurylaimse.
Cranium similar to Trogon, but with a slight ridge in the centre of the depression
between the upper edges of the orbits, the depression extending to the vertex ; the mus
cular impression of the masseters very deep and broad, but not continued so far back
wards or so deep as in Podargus. Maxillary bones covering the roof of the mouth for
onethird of the length of the head. Palatine bones consisting for their anterior two
thirds of a narrow strip, at which point a rounded process projects from the external
edge, and another narrow strip is thrown off from the internal edge, uniting with a
dependent lamina, which is carried backwards and articulated with the interarticular
bone and the vomer. Interarticular bones straight, rounded, very slightly expanded at
their junction with the palatine. Sphenoid as in Podargus. Orbital septum with a
foramen on the upper edge. A very strong arcuated depression at the base of the nasal
bones, from which extends a strongly defined ridge over the culmen of the bill. Nasal
orifices large, somewhat triangular, with the base of the triangle placed backwards.
Orbits slightly reflexed.
Sternum longer in proportion to its breadth than in Trogon or Podargus, posteriorly
with a lateral foramen on each side, narrowest anteriorly, and constricted behind the
junction of the ribs ; keel of moderate depth, inferior edge very slightly arched, anterior
much excavated ; manubrial process very long and horizontally flattened. Ribs weak ;
styliform process long.
Pelvis with the bones of the ilium not so broad as in Trogon, but more resembling
Podargus. A spinous process extends far backwards on each side of the sacral vertebrae.
Ischiadic and obturator foramina very large. Furculum arched; a perpendicularly
flattened process at the junction of the rami. The remaining bones similar to Trogon.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 13
Length of ulna 18
Length of radius 17
Length of metacarpus 7
Length of femur 17
Length of tibia 18
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum 13
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 4
Length of head ....... 22
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis 10
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate VIII. B.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 5.
Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 5.
49
Trogonid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIIA AVIUM.
[EURYLAIM^E.
PSARISOMUS, Sw.
Dalhousiae, Jam.
Sternum very similar to Alcedo, with two foramina on each side ; the edge of the keel
nearly straight ; coracoid and furculum long. Some fragments are in the British
Museum.
Measurements.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Tenths.
Length of sternum
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 3
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis 8
Eurystomus, Vieill.
Orientalis, Linn.
Cranium very similar in shape to Trogon, but the space between the upper margins of
the orbits wider. Orbital septum entire. Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth
for nearly onehalf the length of the cranium, with the exception of a slight slit
between them. Palatine bones very broad, short at their junction with the maxillaries,
truncate on their hinder margin, with a narrow dependent flap on their internal margins.
Sphenoid as in Eurylaimus. A deep channel for the masseter muscles, as in Podargus ;
a deep depression at the base of the nasal bones, but not so deep as in Eurylaimus.
Sternum and pelvis similar to those of Trogon, but the latter has the posterior spine
strongly marked.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 20
Length of radius 25
Length of metacarpus 11
Length of femur 10g
Length of tibia 15
Length of metatarsus 8
Length of sternum 15
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 4
Length of head .
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
24
23
26*
11
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate III. B.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 6.
50
Alcedinid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Alcedin^e.
Fam. 3. ALCEDINIDiE.
Subfam. 1. ALCEDIN^E.
Alcedo, Linn.
Ispida, Linn.
Type of Alcedinidse and AlcedinEe.
Cranium much longer in proportion to the width than in Trogonidce or Caprimul
gidce, flattened on the vertex ; impression for the masseter muscles well denned, and
continued backwards to the occiput; orbits with the superior edges sharp and well
denned, but not reflected. A large foramen on the hinder part of the orbital septum.
Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth for nearly onehalf the length of the head.
Palatine bones similar to ffarpactes, but with a long thin spine pointing backwards on
the exterior angles. Interarticular bones very long, slightly bent inwards in their
centre. Sphenoid as in Trogon. Lacrymals small, broad ; a depression between the
orbits ; nasal orifices of an elongated oval shape ; occipital ridge well defined, the pro
tuberance small.
Sternum similar to Trogon, but not so broad in proportion to its width, and with the
inferior edge of the keel less arched.
Pelvis similar to Trogon, but with the posterior spine more strongly marked. Furcu
lum without any process at the junction of the rami, which are laterally flattened, and
much expanded at their articulation with the coracoids, which are similar to Trogon.
Scapula flattened, deflexed at the tip, not cut off so abruptly as in Trogon.
Ribs weak ; styliform process long.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 13
Length of metacarpus .... 5
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia 10
Length of metatarsus 4
Length of sternum 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel
3*
Length of head 22
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate V. B. fig. 2.  Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 7.
51
Alcedinidjs.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Alcedin^i.
Alcyone, Sw.
Azurea, Lath.
Similar to Alcedo ispida, but with the impression for the masseter muscles more
strongly marked, and with the anterior edge of the sternal keel more excavated.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 \
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 11^
Length of metacarpus . . , . . 5
Length of femur 7
Length of tibia 10
Length of metatarsus 4
Length of sternum 10
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 27
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis %\
Breadth of pelvis 8
Ceeyle, Bote.
Alcyon, Linn.
Similar to Alcedo ispida, but with the anterior edge of the keel sloping much for
wards towards the point, and not excavated, and having the scapulae not so much
deflected at the points.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of radius . . ...
Length of metacarpus ....
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 18
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Ceeyle, Boie.
Kudis, Linn.
Similar to Alcedo, but with the sternum rather longer in proportion to its width.
Some fragments are in the British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
52
Tenths.
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 15 \
ALCEDINIDiE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Halcyonin^:.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 3^
Length of head
Ceryle, Bote.
Americana, Gm.
Similar to Alcedo.
Tenths.
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 13
Breadth of pelvis 10
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . . 10
Length of ulna ,13
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur ...... 6
Length of tibia . 10
Length of metatarsus 4
Length of sternum 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 2
Length of head 26
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 9
Breadth of pelvis • . . . . . . . 7
Subfam. 2. Halcyonin^e.
Halcyon, Sw.
Capensis, Linn,
Type of Halcyoninse.
Cranium similar to Alcedo ; indentation for the reception of the masseter muscles
very deep, extending over the occiput ; occipital ridge very prominent. Lacrymal bones
longer than in Alcedo, and pointed ; nasal orifices oval. Interarticular bones with a
keel projecting on the middle of their upper side. Scapulae suddenly expanded near
their extremities and sloped off very abruptly at their tips.
Sternum with the edge of the keel nearly straight. In other respects the whole
skeleton resembles Alcedo.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 20
Length of ulna 25
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur 12
Length of tibia 18
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum . ..... 16
VOL. I.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 46
Breadth of head 17
Length of pelvis 16^
Breadth of pelvis ...... 14
53
Alcedinil\e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[HALCYONINiE.
Halcyon, Sw.
Senegalensis, Linn.
Very similar to H. capensis, but with the head more convex than in H. capensis, and
the points of the lacrymals rounded instead of being sharp ; the masseter channels over
the occiput do not quite meet.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna ........ 16
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia . 13
Length of metatarsus^ 6
Length of sternum 9
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 2J
Length of head 28
Breadth of head 8^
Length of pelvis 9j
Breadth of pelvis 9
Halcyon, Sw.
Macleayii, Jard. & Selby.
Precisely similar to H. capensis, but with the sternum shorter in proportion to its
width, and the metatarsus longer in proportion to the tibia.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 15 \
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 23
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis ...... 10
Breadth of pelvis 8
Dacelo, Leach.
Leachii, Lath.
Cranium similar to H. capensis, but more convex on its upper surface, rising more at
the base of the nasal bones, and with a much deeper impression between the upper edges
of the orbits ; the impressions for the masseter muscles with a slight ridge between them
posteriorly; inferior edge of the keel very slightly arched; the remainder of the skeleton
similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 24
Length of ulna 31
Length of metacarpus 11
54
Tenths.
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia 22
Length of metatarsus 10
Alcedinid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[MEROPINiE.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Length of sternum 18
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11
Depth of keel 5
Tenths.
Length of head 44
Breadth of head 17
Length of pelvis 19
Breadth of pelvis 13
Illustrations.
Pelvis, coracoids, furculum, and meta
tarsi, Plate IX. fig. 2.
Palatine bones of Dacelo gigantea,
Plate XII.
Galbula, Mcehr.
Subfam. 3. Galbulin^e.
I have only one skeleton of Galbula ; the feathers were all rubbed off when it arrived,
so that I am unable to make out the species.
The cranium very convex on the vertex; orbital septum entire. Palatine bones
broader than in Alcedo, without any spine projecting from their external posterior angles.
Sternum much shorter in proportion to its w£dth than in Alcedo, with two large
fissures on each side extending nearly to the articulation of the ribs. The metatarsi are
longer in proportion to the tibia than in Alcedo. The remaining bones are similar to
Alcedo.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5^
Tenths.
Length of humerus 9
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus 4
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia . 8
Length of metatarsus 5^
Length of sternum 7^
Depth of keel 2£
Length of head 30
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 8
Breadth of pelvis 6
Subfam. 4. Meropin^e.
Merops, Linn.
Ornatus, Lath.
Cranium more convex than among the Alcedinw, and maxillaries bent downwards, and
not extending for above onehalf of the length of the cranium over the roof of the
mouth. Palatine bones longer and narrower, and without the spine on their posterior
lateral angle ; a much deeper impression at the base of the nasal bones. Impression for
the masseter muscles much fainter, and not united at the occiput ; occipital protuberance
i 2 55
Alcediotd^b.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Meropim.
large. Sternum longer in proportion to its width ; anterior edge of the keel excavated,
inferior edge slightly arched ; tarsi longer in proportion to the tibia. Pelvis similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 12
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus 7
Length of femur ....... 7
Length of tibia ....... 10
Length of metatarsus 5
Length of sternum 13
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 11
Breadth of pelvis
Illustrations.
Sternum of Merops bicolor, Plate VIII.
Palatine bones of Merops bicolor, Plate XII.
fig. 7;
Merops, Linn.
Albicollis, Vieill.
Similar in every respect to M. ornatus, except in measurements.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia 8
Length of metatarsus 4
Length of sternum 9
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4^
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 17
Breadth of head 6^
Length of pelvis 8
Breadth of pelvis 6^
Nyctiornts, Sw.
Athertoni, Jard. & Selb.
Some fragments, consisting of a sternum and pelvis, are in the British Museum.
They are similar to Merops, but larger.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
56
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of radius
Length of metacarpus
Tenths.
Alcedinid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[CORACIN^E.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum 16
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Tenths.
Depth of keel 4£
Length of head .......
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 20
Breadth of pelvis 11
Subfam. 5. Todinje.
Todas, Linn.
Viridis, Linn.
Cranium similar in shape to Merops ; the maxillaries much flattened, covering the
roof of the mouth for nearly onehalf the length of the cranium ; impression for the
masseter muscles very slight ; a deep impression at the base of the nasal bones, from
which a ridge proceeds over the top of the bill. Palatine bones similar in shape to
Merops. Interarticular bones long, bent backwards in the middle.
Sternum, pelvis, and other bones also similar.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Skeleton, Plate V. B. fig. 1.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 9.
Measurements.
Tenths.
6
2*
4
7
6
5
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel If
Length of head .
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis .
Breadth of pelvis
14
5
5
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 8.
Subfam. 6. Coracin^e.
Coractas, Linn.
Garrula, Linn.
Cranium not quite so much depressed as in Trogon, more lengthened in proportion
to its breadth ; masseter channel very distinct, and continued nearly to the occiput.
57
Alcedinid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[CoRACIN^E.
Occipital ridge distinct ; the space between the orbits, which are reflected, is of moderate
width, with a depression between them ; an arcuated depression at the base of the nasal
bones. Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth for onethird the length of the
cranium. Palatine bones consisting for a little more than their anterior half of a narrow
strip, then suddenly widened and truncated posteriorly, with a slight central dependent
lamina. Interarticular bones straight, slightly twisted on their axis. Sphenoid similar
to that of Trogon. Orbital septum nearly entire. Nasal orifices oval.
Sternum of moderate length, broadest on its posterior margin, indented with two
fissures on each side ; lateral margins constricted in the middle ; keel slightly arched,
the anterior edge excavated. Sternum not convex longitudinally ; manubrial process
moderately developed. Coracoids and furculum as in Trogon. Pelvis precisely as in
Trogon, but not quite so broad in proportion to its length, and with the posterior spine
strongly marked.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 21
Length of ulna 26
Length of radius 25
Length of metacarpus 12
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia 18
Length of metatarsus ..... 10
Length of sternum 15
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 5
Length of head .
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis .
Breadth of pelvis
25
11
19
10
Illustrations.
Skeleton of Coracias indica, Plate II. B.
Sternum of Coracias indica, Plate VIII.
fig. 10.
Palatine bones of Coracias indica, Plate
XII. fig. 9.
Coracias, Vieill.
Afra, Lath.
This bird has been placed with Eurystomus ; but it is a true Coracias, although the bill
is rather shorter than in Garrula ; the whole skeleton is precisely similar to that bird,
with the exception of the measurements.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 18
Length of ulna 22
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur 11J
58
Tenths.
Length of tibia 13^
Length of metatarsus 7^
Length of sternum 14
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
BuCEEIDiB.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[MoMOTIN^B.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 20
Tenths.
11
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 16^
Breadth of pelvis 10^
Fam. BTJCERIDE.
Subfam. 1. Momotin^e.
Momotus, Briss.
Brasiliensis, Lath.
Head very similar to Coracias Garrula, but with the impression at the base of the
nasal bones straight ; the space between the orbits nearly flat. Palatine bones similar,
but rounded at their exterior posterior angles, and broader anteriorly, where they join
the maxillaries, which cover the roof of the mouth for rather more than onehalf of the
length of the cranium. Interarticular bones slender ; nasal orifices long, oval ; orbital
septum perfect ; impression for the masseters well defined, but not deep, and not ex
tending to the occiput. The bones I possess of this bird were taken from a skin.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 16
Length of ulna 17
Length of metacarpus ....'. 7
Length of femur
Length of tibia 18
Length of metatarsus . . . . . 12
Length of sternum
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum
Depth of keel
Length of head 28
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Illustration.
Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 12.
Subfam. 2. Upupisle.
Upupa, Linn.
Epops, Linn.
Cranium with the vertex convex, broad between the orbits, and with a deep indenta
tion continued to the vertex ; impression of the masseter muscles very slight ; nasal
orifices rounded. Orbits rather oval ; septum with a foramen on its upper posterior
edge. Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth to about half the length of the
59
BlTCEREME.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[BuCERINiB.
cranium. Palatine bones long, narrow, their posterior points turned inwards. Inter
articular bones flattened horizontally ; sphenoid as in Alcedo.
Sternum constricted just behind the junction of the ribs, with the posterior edge in
dented by one very wide fissure on each side of the keel, and with a slight indentation
on the margin of the central portion not occupied by the fissures ; keel very deep,
rounded on its inferior edge. Manubrial process large, broad, flattened perpendicularly,
the inferior edge sloping slightly upwards. Furculum very light and narrow ; the rami
flattened laterally for their upper twothirds, and in the opposite direction for their
lower third ; they meet each other with a very wide curve, giving a rounded appear
ance to the lower portion of the furculum. Coracoids of moderate size and length,
having a process on their internal edges, just above their junction with the sternum,
for the attachment of a ligament, the opposite extremity of which is attached to the
lower portion of the manubrial process. [The ligament is possessed by all birds, but I
am at present unable to find out any name for it ; its action is to hold the coracoid
bones in their places.]
Pelvis very similar to that of Alcedo, but with the obturator foramina very large.
Metatarsus with a deep channel down the centre anteriorly; the calcaneal process very
large ; the ulna very long in proportion to the humerus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 18
Length of metacarpus .... 8
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia 14
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
14
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 5
Length of head .25
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis 8
Illustration.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 11.
Suhfam. 3. Bucerin^c.
Buceros, Linn.
Plicatus, Lath.
Type of Buceridse and Bucerinse.
The anterior portions of the cranium as far as the nostrils among the Bucerinw take
a great variety of forms, which constitute some of the principal characters by which the
different species are distinguished. The curious excrescences on the bills are filled up
with cellular bony matter. The vertex of the cranium is on nearly the same plane with
60
BUCERIDJS.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [BUCERINJS.
the nasal bones, and has a transverse depression between, as among the Alcedinidw.
The impressions for the reception of the masseter muscles are deep and well marked,
but do not meet, having the strongly marked and very much arched occipital ridge
rising up between them. Orbits somewhat rounded ; septum between the orbits entirely
wanting. Palatine bones very broad anteriorly at their junction with the maxillaries
and pointed posteriorly, forming an elongated triangle, with the sides slightly bending
inwards. Sphenoid bone entirely wanting, except in so far as it is represented by the
interarticular, thus agreeing with the whole of the Order Omnivores, throughout which
it is never more than rudimentary. Interarticular bones strong, somewhat triangular.
Maxillaries covering the roof of the mouth for twothirds the length of the skull.
Foramen magnum large, somewhat square, with the angles rounded. Atlar tubercle
much flattened on the side next the foramen magnum.
Sternum very slightly convex longitudinally, more so transversely, of moderate length,
the lateral margins very much constricted at the junction of the ribs. Posterior margin
with a shallow but broad fissure on each side ; the inferior edge of the keel very slightly
rounded, and rather produced in front ; the anterior edge not excavated. Manubrial
process small.
Pelvis broad ; the bones of the ischium inclined obliquely outwards from the plane of the
ilium to the os pubis. Obturator and ischiadic foramina very large. No posterior spine.
Ribs of moderate strength.
Coracoids of moderate length and strength.
Furculum of precisely the same shape as in JTpupa, and no stronger in proportion to
the size of the bird. Scapula strong ; a depression near the point, which is slightly
deflected. Ulna long in proportion to the humerus ; metacarpus with the posterior
bone flattened horizontally, anchylosed for the proximal third of its length to the ante
rior one, which has a deep groove arising on the upper part of the anterior edge, and
terminating on the upper surface of its distal extremity.
Femur straight. Fibula onethird the length of the tibia, anchylosed to it at both
extremities. Metatarsus broad, strong, deeply channeled in front, the divisions between
the bones forming it well marked near its proximal extremity by two intermediate
foramina ; calcaneal process large, from which a keel proceeds down the mesometatarsal
bone for twothirds of its length.
Vertebral column very strong ; the vertebrae very broad ; the dorsal processes well
marked on all ; terminal caudal one very large, posterior, triangular.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 48
Length of ulna 70
Length of metacarpus 25
Length of femur 35
Tenths.
Length of tibia 45
Length of metatarsus 21
Length of sternum 37
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22
vol. i. K 61
BtTCEEID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
[BUCEEIK<E.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17
Depth of keel , 8
Length of head 80
Tenths.
Breadth of head 20
Length of pelvis 47
Breadth of pelvis 25
Buceeos, Linn.
Pica, Scop.
Precisely similar to B.plicatus, except in the form of the excrescence on the bill, and
in having the scapula straighter, and the dorsal processes on the cervical vertebrae not
so well marked.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 19
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15
Tenths.
Length of humerus 32
Length of ulna 50
Length of metacarpus . . . . . 18
Length of femur 28
Length of tibia 35
Length of metatarsus 21
Length of sternum 29
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 70
Breadth of head 18
Length of pelvis 30
Breadth of pelvis . ....... 18
Buceeos, Linn.
Fasciatus, Sh.
This species has been made into a new genus by the Prince Bonaparte, under the
name of Grammieus ; it is one of the smaller and weaker species of Hornbill, but pre
sents the same characters as the larger ones, from which it differs only in the following
respects : — the pelvis approaches nearer to the form of that of the Kingfishers, the ridge
at the junction between the ilium and ischium being nearly obliterated ; and in having
a spine projecting backwards on the posterior margin of the pelvis at the point of their
junction. Only the three penultimate of the cervical vertebrse have the dorsal spine
developed.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Tenths.
Length of humerus 24
Length of ulna 30
Length of metacarpus 12
Length of femur 16
Length of tibia ....... 23
Length of metatarsus 12^
Length of sternum 19
62
Depth of keel ^
Length of head 41
Breadth of head 12£
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis HJ
BUCERIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [BUCERINJS.
Bucbeos, Linn.
Panini, Bodd.
I have the head, wing, leg, and palatine bones of this bird ; they take precisely the
same form as the larger species.
Illustration.
Palatine bones, Plate XII. fig. 11.
Buceros, Linn.
Elatus, Temm.
This bird has been made into a new genus by the Prince Bonaparte, under the name
of Ceratogymna ; it is, however, of precisely the same form as the other large species.
Bucorvus, Less.
Abyssinicus, Gm.
General form of the skeleton very similar to Buceros plicatus and the larger species
of that genus, but has the keel of the sternum more arched, the metatarsi with only
a very slight channel in front, which does not extend for above half their length,
and the vertebrae of enormous size and strength ; — I believe nearly, if not quite, the
strongest among birds, particularly in the cervical region, some of them being more
than an inch and a half in diameter, and only threequarters long ; the dorsal processes
are not highly developed, except in the three upper ones.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 55
Length of ulna .76
Length of metacarpus 27
Length of femur 40
Length of tibia ....... 68
Length of metatarsus 50
Length of sternum . . . . . . 45
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 16
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 23
Depth of keel .11
Length of head 75
Breadth of head 25
Length of pelvis 48
Breadth of pelvis 25
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate VI. B.
Sternum, Plate VIII. fig. 12.
■
63
BuCERlDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Numbering of the Vertebras and Bibs in Omnivoees.
[BUCERIN^E.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Harpactes Reinwardtii.
Podargus humeralis ....
Coracias Garrula
Eurylaimus Cory don .
Trogon melanocephalus
JEgotheles cristatus ....
Caprimulgus europseus.
Halcyon capensis
Alcyone azurea
Merops ornatus
Buceros plicatus
Buceros Pica
Upupa Epops
Alcedo ispida
Buceros fasciatus
Bucorvus abyssinicus .
Merops bicolor
Merops Sonnini
Merops albicollis
Trogon anrantius
Trogon viridis
Ceryle americana
Chelonidera tenebrosa .
Monasa torquata
Capito Swainsonii
12
10
11
10
11
10
10
10
12
12
12
12
12
11
11
11
12
12
12
11
11
11
11
10
11
10
11
9
12
10
10
10
10
10
11
10
10
9
10
10
13
13
12
12
9
10
10
11
11
13
5
7
8
7
6
6
6
7
8
7
6
7
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
5
5
5
6
5
5
5
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
4
4
4
5
4
4
4
General BemarJcs on Omnivoees.
The following, from an examination of the skeletons described, appear to be the
distinctive marks of Omnivores : — The maxillary bones covering half or more of the roof
of the month. The sphenoid rudimentary, in some instances no part of it being
apparent except the interarticnlar portion. The sternum always constricted in the
middle, or nearly so, of its lateral edges. The keel very slightly arched. The ischium
always extending obliquely outwards and downwards from the plane of the ilium, and
there being no distinct ridge to mark their junction, but in general a spine, more or less
apparent, projecting backwards ; the ilium in no case projecting over it ; ischium as among
Raptores. The pelvis broad and short, and generally with two fissures on its pos
terior angles. The metatarsus with a furrow down the front, more or less deep for its
whole length. The rami of the furculum never meet at an acute angle.
The Trogonidm have the sternum very short and broad, with generally two fissures on
the posterior margin, except in one species of Eurylaimus, which has only one ; the
sternal fissures are both very broad, the central fissure pointing outwards ; the keel has
its anterior edge excavated. The pelvis is extremely short, and very broad. The furculum
has a slight process at the junction of its rami, and is, like the coracoids, rather long.
The Alcedinidw have the sternum rather longer than in Trogonidce, and the fissures
on each side pointing directly forwards ; the pelvis is similar to Trogonidce.
The Buceridw resemble the Kingfishers in the form of the pelvis, particularly among
64
BUCERIDJL] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [BUCERIK<E.
the weaker species, such as Buceros fasciatus, the skeleton of which bird would be
scarcely distinguishable from that of a Kingfisher if the head were removed, were it
not that it has only two broad but shallow fissures on the posterior margin of the
sternum. In the larger species considerable differences exist : Buceros jplicatus, for
instance, has the ridge well marked where the ischium joins the ilium, and no spine on
the posterior margin at that point ; Buceros ahyssinicus has a very slight ridge, and has
the metatarsus without the deep channel extending down the front, so distinctly marked
in the former species ; the keel of the sternum also is more arched.
65
PSITTACID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PSITTACIN.E.
Order IV. PREHENSORES.
Fam. 1. PSITTACmE.
Subfam. 1. Psittacin^e.
Psittacus, Linn,
Erythacus, Linn.
Type of Prehensores, Psittacidse and Psittacinse.
Cranium gradually arched from the base of the nasal bones to the occiput, without
any central longitudinal depression ; occipital ridge and protuberance slightly marked.
Orbits well defined ; the antorbital processes bounding them anteriorly with the points
curved backwards. Septum perfect, except where perforated by the optic nerves.
Nasal orifices of moderate size, rounded ; a moderate transverse depression at the base of
the bill. Palatine bones placed vertically, except at their anterior extremities, which
are horizontally flattened, and expanding gradually for their anterior half; the hinder
exterior angles projecting backwards, and armed near their extremities with a strong
spine, from which the posterior margin slopes gradually upwards and forwards to the
junction of the interarticular bones. Interior margins united by a ligament posteriorly,
anteriorly diverging and terminating with a blunt spine ; a blunt, but somewhat
lengthened spine, pointing backwards, arises on their inferior surface just below the
junction of the interarticular bones ; zygomatic bones very long, articulated with the
ossa quadrata and the maxillaries, which, with the nasal bones, are not anchylosed to the
frontal bone, but have an elastic ligament between them, thus allowing a considerable
upward motion to the upper jaw. Sphenoid without any transverse or basilar portion.
Foramen magnum large, its inferior margin straight, the lateral margins gradually arched
upwards, placed somewhat obliquely. Inferior maxillaries very broad and strong, broadest
at about onethird of their anterior length ; posteriorly with the superior edges rising
much above their articulations with the ossa quadrata ; posterior end sloped from the
articulation downwards and backwards to a point.
Sternum of nearly the same breadth posteriorly as anteriorly, the lateral edges con
stricted just behind the junction of the ribs ; posterior margin rounded, and having a
somewhat oval foramen on each side; keel very broad, continued to the posterior margin
of the sternum, the inferior edge very slightly arched, the anterior point very much
rounded ; the anterior edge slightly excavated below the manubrial process, which is
bifid at its extremity.
66
PSITTACID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PsiTTACIM.
Furculum small, short, not reaching to the sternum, flattened obliquely, with a slight
process at the junction of the rami.
Coracoids rather long, with a strong process projecting from the exterior edges just
above their junction with the sternum, and with a rounded knob projecting forwards at
their junction with the furculum.
Pelvis rather broad ; the ischium placed nearly perpendicularly to the upper plane of
the ilium, the anterior half of the latter scolloped out on the sides; ischiadic foramen
large, oval ; obturator very wide for its whole length ; at the junction of the os pubis
with the ischium a small blunt spine projects from the latter.
Bibs projecting far backwards, of moderate strength ; the styliform processes short and
broad.
Wingbones short and weak ; metacarpal bones anchylosed together at both extremities,
posterior one much arched; scapula bent downwards to a point and flattened at its
extremity.
Femur with the trochanters small ; tibiae above twice the length of the metatarsus ;
fibulee half the length of the tibiae, not anchylosed to the latter for the first half of their
length. Entometatarsal bone elevated into a ridge in front ; the two other bones form
ing the metatarsus projecting backwards behind it, and having a channel between them ;
calcaneal process extending over the whole width of the metatarsus, and slightly excavated
in the centre. Vertebral column of moderate strength ; the penultimate and three next
vertebrae with the dorsal spines well developed.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 21
Length of ulna 26
Length of metacarpus 15^
Length of femur 19
Length of tibia 25
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum 25
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12
Depth of keel 9
Length of head ....... 29
Breadth of head 12^
Length of pelvis ...... 26
Breadth of pelvis . . . ... 13
Illustrations.
Base and section of cranium, Plate XI.
fig. 1.
Sternum, coracoid, scapula, furculum, pelvis,
and metatarsus, Plate X. fig. 1.
Psittacus, Linn.
Melanocephalus, Linn.
Cranium with the antorbital process extended backwards, so as to meet the cranial
portion of the sphenoid, to which it is anchylosed, thus completing the bony ring round
the orbits ; in other respects the cranium is similar to that of P. erythacus.
67
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[PsiTTACUTtf!.
Sternum longer in proportion to its width than in P erythacus ; the remaining bones
similar except in measurements.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 13
Length of ulna . 16
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur 12^
Length of tibia 18
Length of metatarsus 6J
Length of sternum . . . . . . 20
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 \
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 11^
Length of pelvis . . j . . . 20
Breadth of pelvis 9
Psittacus, Linn.
Albifrons, Sparm.
Psittacus, Linn.
Leucocephalus, Linn.
I have the sterna, coracoids, furcula, and scapula? of the above two birds ; they
resemble in every respect those of the two lastmentioned species.
Psittacus, Linn.
Guildingii, Vig.
Foramina on the posterior margin of the sternum nearly obliterated ; in other respects
similar to P. erythacus, in the British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 16
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 27 J
Length of ulna ....... 31
Length of metacarpus 18
Length of femur 21
Length of tibia 38
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum 27
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 27^
Breadth of head .25
Length of pelvis .33
Breadth of pelvis 15
Chrysotis, Sw.
Ochrocephalus, Gm.
Very similar to Psittacus, but with the pelvis narrower ; the bony ring round the
orbits not quite perfect ; the sternum not so much rounded on its posterior margin, and
the lateral margins not so much constricted behind the junction of the ribs.
68
PSITTACTD^E.]
OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM.
[PSITTACTM:.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 19
Length of ulna ....... 23
Length of metacarpus 11^
Length of femur 16
Length of tibia 21
Length of metatarsus ..... 7^
Length of sternum 20
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 20
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 22
Breadth of pelvis 10
Cheysotis, Sw.
Amazonicus, Gm.
Similar to ochrocephalus, in the British Museum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 22
Length of ulna 28
Length of metacarpus 13
Length of femur 19
Length of tibia 26
Length of metatarsus 8
Length of sternum 25
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12
Depth of keel 8
Length of head 26
Breadth of head 15
Length of pelvis . . . . . . . 27
Breadth of pelvis . ....... 13
Cheysotis, Sw.
Brasiliensis, Linn.
Similar to ochrocephalus, but with the bony ring round the orbits complete.
Measurements,
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . ... 22
Length of ulna 27
Length of metacarpus 14
Length of femur 17
Length of tibia 24
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 24
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 25
Breadth of head 12^
Length of pelvis 24
Breadth of pelvis 14
VOL. I.
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate I. C.
L
69
PsiTTACID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Cacatuin^e.
Pal^eoknis, Vig.
Columboides, Vig.
Very similar to Psittaeus, but with the keel of the sternum deeper in proportion to
its width, which is the same posteriorly as anteriorly, and the pelvis narrower in pro
portion to its width ; the bony ring round the orbits not quite complete. Palceomis
ponticerianus is similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12^
Length of ulna 15
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia 19
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 6^
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 19^
Breadth of pelvis 7
Subfam. 2. Cacatuin^e.
Cacatua, Priss.
Galerita, Lath.
Type of Cacatuinas.
Cranium stronger than in Psittaeus ; the vertex very flat nearly to the base of the
nasal bones, where there is a deep transverse impression ; orbits round ; the anteorbital
process united to the cranial portion of the sphenoid; posterior ends of the inferior
maxillaries sloped downwards and backwards to a point.
Sternum entire, without any foramen or fissure on its posterior margin, similar in shape
to Psittaeus, but with the keel more arched and the manubrial process broader. Coracoids
strong, projecting far forwards beyond the glenoid cavity. Furculum similar to Psittaeus,
but much stronger. Scapula short, much more bent downwards at the extremity than in
Psittaeus. Pelvis similar to Psittaeus, but with the obturator foramen not above half the
width. The remaining portion of the skeleton also similar, but much stronger.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 35
Length of ulna 43
Length of metacarpus 23
Length of femur 25
Length of tibia 23
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum 31
70
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 4
Depth of keel 10
Length of head 30
Breadth of head 17
Length of pelvis 35
Breadth of pelvis 14
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Cacatuin^e.
PSITTACIDJE.]
Cacatua, Briss.
Moluccensis, Cm.
Sternum rather shorter in proportion than in galerita, and the manubrial process
rather longer ; anterior edge of the keel not extending to the end of it. Cacatua sul
phur ea and citrinocristata are similar to the above. All are in the British Museum.
, Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . ...... 13
Length of ulna 39
Length of metacarpus 20
Length of femur 24J
Length of tibia 34
Length of metatarsus 11
Length of sternum 17 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15
Breadth of anterior margin of sternu m 1 4
Depth of keel 8
Length of head 35
Breadth of head 19
Length of pelvis 35^
Breadth of pelvis 17
Cacatua, Briss.
Eos, Kuhl.
Similar to the preceding.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 19
Length of ulna 22
Length of metacarpus 13
Length of femur . 16
Length of tibia ....... 23
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 19
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel 6 J
Length of head 21
Breadth of head 11J
Length of pelvis 24
Breadth of pelvis 11^
Calyptoehynchus, Vig. & fforsf.
Baudinii, Temm.
Cranium of enormous size and strength ; the vertex not quite so flat as in Cacatua ;
the nasal bones much elevated above the frontal, forming a transverse ridge, highest in
the middle, the bill bending very abruptly downwards ; orbits entirely surrounded by
bone, as in Cacatua ; impression of the masseter muscles large ; hinder margin of
the inferior maxillaries truncate. Skeleton very strong. Remaining bones similar to
Cacatua.
l2 71
PSITTACID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Strigopsin^e.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur .
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Measurements.
Tenths.
30
37
22
21
31
10
27
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11^
Depth of keel . 10
Length of head 38
Breadth of head 19
Length of pelvis . 30
Breadth of pelvis 15
Illustrations.
Sternum, coracoid, scapula, furculum, pelvis, and metatarsus, Plate X. fig. 2.
Nestoe, Wagl.
Australis, Sh.
Very similar to Cacatua, but having two fissures on the posterior margin of the
sternum, the anterior edge slightly receding, and the tarsi rather longer.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 22
Length of ulna 25
Length of metacarpus 18
Length of femur 20
Length of tibia 31
Length of metatarsus 14J
Length of sternum 23
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternumll
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 30^
Breadth of head 15
Length of pelvis . 27
Breadth of pelvis 12
Subfam. 3. Strigopsin^e.
Strigops, G. B. Gray.
Habroptilus, G. B. Gray.
Cranium regularly arched from the occiput to the tip of the bill ; transverse impres
sion at the base of the nasal bones very slight ; nasal orifices large, slightly oval ; the
remaining bones of the head similar to the other Psittacidce.
Sternum broadest posteriorly, and gradually narrowed anteriorly ; the hinder margin
very much curved from the centre to the lateral margins ; the keel consists of a very
slight rib, which does not quite reach the posterior margin, which has a small foramen
on each side ; anterior edge of the sternum bifid, but without any manubrial process.
Coracoids short and strong. Furculum rudimentary, the rami not meeting.
Metatarsi with the divisions of the bones forming it distinct ; the entometatarsal one
the smallest ; the ectometatarsal trochlea much shorter than the mesometatarsal one.
72
PSITTACID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Abinje,
The skeleton from which the above description has been taken is in the British
Museum, and is very much diseased, having probably died in confinement of mollities
ossium.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 21
Length of ulna 25
Length of metacarpus 14
Length of femur 30
Length of tibia 38
Length of metatarsus 15
Length of sternum . . . . . . 25
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15
Depth of keel
Length of head 34
Breadth of head 19
Length of pelvis 38
Breadth of pelvis 21^
Subfam. 4. Arin^e.
Ara, Briss.
Macao, Linn.
Two specimens of this bird are in the British Museum : one has the foramina near the
posterior margin of the sternum perfect ; the other, evidently a younger bird, has them
open, forming fissures. The form of the bones is very similar to Cacatuinw ; but the
sternum is more constricted behind the junction of the ribs ; keel of the sternum carried
forwards to the end of the manubrial process, which is bifurcate and bent upwards.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . 35
Length of ulna 43
Length of metacarpus 28
Length of femur ...... 26^
Length of tibia 35
Length of metatarsus 14
Length of sternum 37
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 16
Depth of keel 1\\
Length of head 47
Breadth of head 22
Length of pelvis ...... 40^
Breadth of pelvis 19
Ara, Briss.
Hyacinthina, Lath.
Similar to the last, but with the manubrial process more bent downwards, and not so
deeply bifurcate.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 35
Length of ulna 47
Length of metacarpus 27
Tenths
Length of femur ....... 28
Length of tibia 38
Length of metatarsus 14
73
PSITTACID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Arin,e.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Length of sternum 42
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9
Depth of keel. . . ... . . 11
Tenths.
Length of head 50
Breadth of head 28
Length of pelvis 46^
Breadth of pelvis 20^
EnicogkaTHUS, G. R. Gray.
Leptorhynchus, King.
Very similar to Ara, but much smaller and weaker.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 18
Length of ulna 20
Length of metacarpus 14
Length of femur .......
Length of tibia 22
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 22
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 8
Length of head 13
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 24
Breadth of pelvis 12^
Conurus, Kulil.
Tiriacula, Bodd.
Similar to Ara, but with the bony circle round the orbits not complete ; the sternum
longer in proportion to its width, and the anterior edge of the keel carried forward to
the end of the manubrial process, the point not so much rounded ; furculum very small,
but perfect.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 14
Length of metatarsus 4
Length of sternum 15
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum
Depth of keel .
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Tenths.
7
5
5
15
15
74
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Pezoporhle.
PSITTACID^E.]
Conueus, Kuhl.
Virginianus % Mus. Brit.
A skeleton marked as above is in the British Museum, and is similar in form to Ara.
I have also the sternum of Conurus flavicollis, which is also similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus 10^
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 11
Length of metatarsus 5J
Length of sternum 17
Tenths
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 6
Length of head ....... 18
Breadth of head ......
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis ...... 8
H
Subfam. 5. Lorin^e.
Eclectus, Wagl.
Ceylonensis, JBodd.
Sternum with the anterior edge of the keel carried forward to the end of the manu
brial process, with a very slight excavation below it, and very little constricted behind the
junction of the ribs.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 23
Length of ulna 30
Length of metacarpus . . . . . 17^
Length of femur 18
Length of tibia 23
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum 23J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11^
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 24
Breadth of head 13
Length of pelvis . . . . . . 30
Breadth of pelvis 15
Subfam. 6. Pezoporin^e.
Trichoglossus, Vig. & Horsf.
Versicolor, Vig.
Type of Pezoporinse.
Cranium similar to Psittacus, but slightly more arched over the vertex, with a very
slight depression above the nasal bones; anteorbital process not uniting with the
sphenoid.
Sternum much attenuated anteriorly ; keel very deep in proportion to the breadth of
75
PsiTTACIDiE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Pezoporin^e.
the horizontal plane ; two large foramina on the posterior margin, which is much wider
than the anterior ; anterior edge of the keel carried forward as far as the extremity of the
manubrial process, which is very small and slight. Coracoids as in Psittacus. Furculum
represented by a narrow and thin strip of bone, and extending downwards on the inside
of the coracoids for about half their length.
Pelvis similar to Psittacus, but proportionately longer and narrower; obturator
foramen consisting merely of a narrow slit between the os pubis and the ischium.
Tarsi longer in proportion to the tibiae than in Psittacus ; remaining bones similar in
form.
Measurements.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Tenths.
14
16
10
13
18
17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 19
Breadth of head ....... 8
Length of pelvis 17
Breadth of pelvis 8
Trichoglossus, Vig. & Horsf.
Hsematodus, Linn.
In general form similar to the foregoing, but with only a very rudimentary furculum,
and the keel of the sternum not so deep ; the tarsi shorter in proportion to the tibiae.
Measurements.
7^
' 2
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus ....
Length of femur 11
Length of tibia 16
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 5
Length of head .
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
17
9
16
9
Platycercus, Vig.
Zonarius, Sh.
Cranium with the inferior maxillaries much stronger and broader than in Tricho
glossus versicolor ; manubrial process bifurcate ; no furculum ; the remaining portions
of the skeleton similar in form, but larger.
76
PSITTACID^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Pezoporin^e.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 15
Length of ulna .. 19
Length of metacarpus 11 J
Length of femur 14
Length of tibia 21
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum ....... 20 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 7
Length of head , 19
Breadth of head ....... lOf
Length of pelvis . . . . . . 20
Breadth of pelvis ...... 10
Platyceecus, Vig.
Icterotis, Temm.
Similar in form to Platycercus zonarius, as are also Platycercus Bamardii and Brownii ;
all agree in being destitute of clavicles. Platycercus erythrqpterus and scapulatus,
although in other respects agreeing, have weak, but perfect clavicles.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10^
Length of ulna 14
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur 10J
Length of tibia 16
Length of metatarsus 4
Length of sternum ...... 14
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 6
Length of head 14
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis ...... 14^
Breadth of pelvis ...... 6j
PsiTTACFLA, BHss.
Pileata, Scop.
Similar to Trichoglossus ; the bony ring round the orbits not complete. Furculum
perfect, but very small and weak.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 14
Length of ulna ....... 16
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia ....... 20
Length of metatarsus ...... 7
Length of sternum 18
VOL. 1.
M
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6^
Depth of keel 6
Length of head 17
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis . ...... 18
Breadth of pelvis 9
77
PsiTTACIDJB.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Pezoporin^e.
Psittacula, Briss.
Passerina, Linn.
Cranium with the anteorbital process joined to the sphenoid; without clavicles; the
keel of the sternum not quite so deep as in fJwphema, but in other respects similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 7
Length of ulna 9
Length of metacarpus 5^
Length of femur 7
Length of tibia 10^
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 11
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 10^
Breadth of pelvis 5
Psittacula, Briss.
Pullaria, Linn.
This bird has been placed in a different genus under the name of Agapornis, but does
not differ in its osteology from Psittacula passerina. Psittacula galgula and rubricollis
are also similar, except that the former has a very slight, but still a perfect furculum.
Euphema, Wagl.
Elegans, Gould.
Cranium broader in proportion to its length than in Trichoglossus, without a furculum ;
and in other respects similar to Trichoglossus versicolor, except in measurements.
Euphema chrysostoma is also similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 11
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur '* 9
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 5
Length of sternum 13
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel h\
Length of head 11
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis 6
78
PSITTACID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[PEZOPOEINiE.
Pezoporus, III.
Formosus, Lath.
Cranium similar to Psittacula. Sternum with the keel deeper. Metatarsus much
longer in proportion to the tibia ; the remaining bones similar ; ulna and humerus of
the same length.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 11
Length of ulna 11
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur 11
Length of tibia 16
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum 14
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 13^
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 13
Breadth of pelvis ...... 6
Illustrations.
Sternum, coracoid, scapula, pelvis, and metatarsus, Plate X. fig. 3.
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Bibs in Prehensores.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal. True ribs.
False ribs.
Psittacus Gruildingii
11
12
11
11
12
12
12
12
11
damaged.
11
11
11
10
11
10
11
11
11
11
11
11
14
9
8
8
9
9
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
9
9
9
12
11
10
11
12
12
13
12
12
11
11
10
11
10
12
10
10
10
11
12
11
11
13
wanting.
6
6
7
wanting.
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
6
5
6
7
6
6
6
7
6
5
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
3
3
4
4
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
2
Nestor novae zealandise
Conurus virginianus
Ara macao
Eclectis grandis
Cacatua sulphurea
citrmocristata
Psittacula pullaria
passerina
Pezoporus formosus
Psittacus erythacus
Calyptorhynchus Baudinii
Plyctolophus galeritus
Trichoglossus versicolor
Palaeornis columboides
Euphema chrysostoma
Platycercus Brownii
Eupliema elegans
Trichoglossus haematodes
Platycercus zonarius
icterotis
Barnardi
Strigops habroptilus
General Remarks on Prehensores.
The Order Prehensores is one of the bestmarked groups among Birds. They are
easily distinguished, independently of external characters, there being no group that
m2 79
PsiTTACIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Pez0P0R1NJ3.
resembles them in the form of the palatine bones, except one among Insessores, and from
that they are easily distinguished by the other parts of the skeleton. The great motion
of the upper mandible is peculiar. The form of the sternum, in general having great
depth of keel in proportion to the breadth of the horizontal portion of it, has nothing
like it, except among Volitores. The furculum is either, although perfectly formed,
very weak, rudimentary, or entirely wanting ; the ribs are continued very far backwards
over the sides of the abdomen. The branches of the os pubis are generally very much
turned inwards at their points, and the posterior margin of the ischium is gradually
rounded towards them, from its junction with the ilium. The wingbones are short, as
are also the metatarsal and other leg bones.
80
PlCIDJS.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [GECIKIILE.
Order V. SCANSORES.
Fam. 1. PICIDE.
Subfam. 1. Gecinin^e.
Gecinus, Bole.
Viridis, Linn.
Type of Picidse and Gecininee.
Cranium of moderate size ; vertex very convex ; occipital ridge moderately denned ;
orbits slightly reflexed, nearly round ; septum perforated with a single small foramen ;
anteorbital process bent much backwards, but not united with the sphenoid. Palatine
bones long, much attenuated posteriorly for about onefourth of their length, and united
at their articulation with the interarticular bones, carried forwards in the form of a
gradually narrowing strip to the maxillaries, which are perforated on their inner edge
at about half their length by an elongated oval foramen; the internal edge of the
posterior third slightly deflexed. Interarticular bones flattened, with their edges slightly
deflexed, broadest in their centres; channel for the masseter muscles small. Foramen
magnum large, placed nearly horizontally. Nasal orifices oval ; a deep indentation at
the base of the nasal bones, from which proceeds a ridge, very apparent in front, and
gradually losing itself in the vertex, on each side of which is a channel for the reception
of the hyoids.
Sternum transversely convex, much constricted behind the junctions of the ribs ;
anterior margin narrower than the posterior one ; manubrial process long, bifid at the
extremity ; posterior margin indented with two large fissures on each side of the keel,
the inner one largest ; the central portion of the sternum between the two inner
fissures not projecting so far backwards as the strip of bone separating the two foramina.
Keel shallow, with the inferior edge nearly straight ; anterior edge also straight, and
carried forwards as far as the end of the manubrial process, to which it is united.
Pelvis of moderate length and breadth; the ilium projecting angularly over the
cotyloid cavities, from which point backwards the edges are nearly parallel ; the two
sides of the ilium anteriorly divaricate, and are not united for onethird of their length ;
ischium inclined much outwards ; from the edge of the ilium a process projects back
wards at the junction of the ilium with the ischium. Obturator foramen divided, the
posterior portion large and oval, the anterior portion small and rounded ; ischiadic fora
men large, oval. Coracoids very long. Furculum weak, without any process at the
81
PlCID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Gecinik^e.
junction of the rami, arched transversely. Scapulse flattened, blunt, and much deflected
at their extremities.
Ribs projecting far backwards ; sternal ones long.
Wings short, the radius much flattened.
Legbones of moderate strength ; fibula half as long as the tibia, which has a keel
projecting on its internal upper half. Metatarsus with the divisions of the bones com
posing it not traceable ; a slight excavation anteriorly on the inner side, posteriorly
flattened.
Vertebral column with the penultimate and three next vertebras having dorsal spines ;
terminal caudal vertebra pointed and somewhat elongated.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 16
Length of ulna 20
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur 14
Length of tibia 17
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum 16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 27
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 22
Breadth of pelvis 12
Illustrations.
Coracoid, scapula, furculum, palatine bones, sternum, and pelvis, Plate XI. fig. 2.
Gecinus, JBoie.
Dimidiatus, Temm.
Similar to G. viridis, but with the hinder exterior angles of the palatine bones pro
duced into a blunt spine, and the keel of the sternum not so deep.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 14
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur 12
Length of tibia 18
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum ....... 1 3
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 26
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 17
Breadth of pelvis 10
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate I. D.
82
PlCIDJE.]
OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM.
[Melaneepw^e.
Hemilophus, Sw.
Validus, Reinw.
Cranium with the orbits more rounded than in Gecinus. Palatine bones similar in
shape to those of Gecinus dimidiatus, but narrower.
Sternum broader in proportion to its length, and much curved outwards posteriorly to
the junction of the ribs; fissures not so large, and differing very slightly in size. Infe
rior edge of the keel very slightly arched ; anterior one with the point produced, and
with a slight excavation between it and the manubrial process. In other respects the
skeleton is similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . . 15
Length of ulna 17
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia 17
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum ...... 17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 31
Breadth of head 10^
Length of pelvis 21
Breadth of pelvis 11
Campetheea, G. R. Gray.
Brachyrhynchus, Sw.
Cranium similar to Gecinus. Palatine bones with a slight notch on their posterior
external angles.
 Pelvis very large and broad. Eemainder of the skeleton very similar to Gecinus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 11^
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 6 J
Length of sternum 9
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel ....... 3
Length of head 13
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis . 14
Breadth of pelvis 9
Subfam. 2. Melanerpinje.
Chloeoneepes, Sw.
Aurulentus, Licht.
Type of MelanerpinEe.
Cranium with a distinct central channel between the upper margins of the orbits.
Palatine bones similar to Melanerpes, but narrower. Sternum very short.
83
Picid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Melanerpin^e.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 12
Length of ulna ....... 15
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia 13
Length of metatarsus . . . . , 8
Length of sternum ... . . , 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel . 3
Length of head 20
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 14
Breadth of pelvis , 9
Chloronerpes, Sw.
Chlorocephalus, Gm.
Similar to the preceding, but smaller.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus , . 9^
Lengthofulna .11
Length of metacarpus 4
Length of femur 7
Length of tibia 11
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 9
Tenths
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 17
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 10J
Breadth of pelvis 7
Melanerpes, Sw.
Flavifrons, Vieill.
Palatine bones with the external edges on their posterior portion much bent down
wards ; this flap is carried forwards down the inner margin of the central portion of
the bone, giving it the appearance of being twisted on its axis ; central portion with
the external angles square, without any spine. Occipital protuberance well defined.
The remainder of the skeleton similar to Gecinus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 14
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia 13
Length of metatarsus 8 \
Length of sternum ...... 11
84
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 20
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 13
Breadth of pelvis 10
PlCID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[PlClM.
Melanerpes, Sw.
Formicivorus, Sw.
I have only the head, wing, and leg bones, taken from a skin, which are similar to the
preceding.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum
Tenths.
Length of humerus 13
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur
Length of tibia 14
Length of metatarsus 8
Length of sternum
Depth of keel .......
Length of head 18
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis .......
Breadth of pelvis
Centurus, Sw.
Subelegans, Bon.
The bones also taken from a skin. The palatine bones not quite so angular as in
Gecinus on the external posterior angles. Head more flattened.
Centurus, Sw.
Radiolatus, Wagl.
I have the sternum only of this bird ; it is much broader in proportion to its length
than in Gecinus, and has the fissures deeper, narrower, and more oval.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of sternum 12
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Subfam. 3. Picin^:.
Picus, Linn.
Major, Linn.
My skeleton of this bird is much damaged. Sternum with the fissures next the keel
much larger than the outer ones ; the margins very much curved outwards behind the
ribs ; keel deeper in proportion to its length than in Gecinus.
vol. i. N 85
PlCID^B.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[PlCUMNIN^E.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia 14
Length of metatarsus 8
Length of sternum 13
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 4
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis 8
Subfam. 4. Picumnin^e.
Picumnus, Temm.
Temminckii, Lafr.
Differs from the preceding Subfamily in having the inner fissure on the posterior
margin of the sternum the largest, and in the anterior edge of the keel being square, and
not receding ; furculum very weak.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 6
Length of ulna ....... 7
Length of metacarpus 3
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia 8
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 7
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3
Depth of keel 2
Length of head 11
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 6
Breadth of pelvis 6
Picumnus, Temm.
Exilis, Licht.
Cranium with the hinder exterior angles of the palatine bones narrow, and pointed
posteriorly.
Sternum with two fissures on each side of the keel, the outer one much the larger ;
the anterior part of the keel receding. Kemaining bones similar to the other Picidce.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8
Length of ulna 9
Length of metacarpus 4
Length of femur 5£
Length of tibia  . . 9
Length of metatarsus 5
Length of sternum .6
86
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 2J
Length of head 11
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 9
Breadth of pelvis 6
PlCIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PlCUMNIN^E.
General Remarks on Scansores.
The only group of birds that this Order comes at all near are some of the members of
the Order Omnivores, namely the Capitonince. At first I placed this group in Scansores ;
but the great length of the fissures in the sternum, the exceeding shortness and square
ness of the sternum, and the form of the pelvinal bones agreeing precisely with Tro
gonidce, at once point them out as belonging to the same Order.
n2
CUCULID^.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CENTROPIN.E.
Order VI. ERUCIVORES.
Fam. 1. CTTCTJLIM!.
Subfam. 1. Centropin^e.
Centropus, III.
Phasianus, Lath.
Type of Cuculidee and Centropinae.
Cranium slightly hollowed out between the orbits, which are very large ; the septum
with a very large central foramen ; channel for the masseter muscles deep, and carried
backwards to the occiput, which has a wellmarked ridge. Palatine bones united at
their internal posterior angles, slightly sloped to their external angle, where they are
broadest, and from which point they gradually taper anteriorly, the central and lateral
edges turned downwards. Interarticular bones slightly flattened. Inferior maxillary
bones hollowed out on their external side for a little more than onehalf their length,
near the centre of which is a foramen of an elongated oval form, being an unossified space
left at the place of union of the symphysial with the angular, supraangular, and splenial
elements *. Nostrils large, oval. Lacrymals small, rounded.
Sternum with the lateral margins curving from the junction of the ribs gradually out
wards ; posterior margin with a moderatesized fissure on each side of the keel ; the central
portion between the fissures projecting further backwards than the lateral ones. Keel of
moderate size, very slightly arched on its inferior edge, and continued to the posterior
margin of the sternum ; the anterior edge scolloped out from the junction of the fur
culum to the manubrial process, which is small, consisting merely of a projecting blunt
spine ; above the coracoids a lengthened plate projects from their articulation, to which
the ribs are articulated. Coracoids of moderate length. Furculum with the rami
rounded, slightly arched anteriorly when viewed laterally, when from the front appearing
nearly straight to within a short distance of their junction, where they curve inwards, a
thin plate at their articulation with the sternum extending downwards and backwards.
Pelvis of moderate size, with an elevated central keel extending down the whole length
of the ilium ; the anterior edge of the ilium curved upwards, from which point to the
cotyloid cavity it is gradually curved inwards ; a transverse ridge a little behind the coty
loid cavity, extending about halfway over each division of the ilium. The upper plane
of the ilium projecting very far over the ischium, the edges rounded gradually inwards
* See Owen, Encyclopedia of Comparative Anatomy, Aves, p. 277.
CucULIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Centropim.
from the cotyloid cavity to the caudal vertebrae, where it projects on each side of the first,
and is slightly turned upwards ; ischium broad, consisting of a triangular plate on each
side; the posterior margin nearly straight, projecting slightly backwards at its inferior
angle. Os pubis posteriorly to the cotyloid cavity consisting of a narrow strip of bone
projecting very slightly beyond the posterior angle of the ischium, to which it is anchy
losed for nearly its whole length, the obturator foramen being represented merely J>y a
small oval foramen near its extremity, and a small rounded one behind the cotyloid
cavity. The anterior extremity of the os pubis is prolonged beyond the cotyloid cavity
In the form of a flattened blunt spine projecting forwards and downwards.
Bibs of moderate size, narrow at their sternal extremities, and gradually widened to
their junction with the vertebrae ; styliform appendage rather long.
Wingbones short ; the posterior metacarpal bone much arched and perpendicularly
flattened.
Legbones rather long ; the femur rounded, bent downwards, long in proportion to the
tibia; metatarsus and femur nearly equal in length. Metatarsus flattened in front, with
a shallow excavation at its distal extremity ; two indentations just above the trochlea
mark the divisions of the three bones composing it ; posteriorly rounded at its distal
extremity, flattened at its proximal, with a slight central keel extending downwards for
about half its length from the calcaneal process, which is rather prominent and blunt at
its extremity.
Vertebral column strong ; the penultimate vertebra and the two next with a dorsal
process.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 26
Length of ulna 22
Length of metacarpus . . . . . 12
Length of femur 24
Length of tibia .34
Length of metatarsus 22
Length of sternum 18
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11
Depth of keel ........ o£
Length of head 30
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis . 20
Breadth of pelvis 15
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate I. E. I Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta
tarsi, Plate XIII. fig. 1.
Crotophaga, Linn.
Ani, Linn.
Cranium similar to Centropus, but rather natter on the vertex.
Sternum rather shorter in proportion to its width. Remaining bones similar. The
anterior end of the os pubis slightly projecting.
89
CUCULID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[CoCCYZINiE.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 14
Length of ulna 11
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 12^
Length of tibia 20
Length of metatarsus 14
Length of sternum ...... 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5^
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 20
Breadth of head . . 8
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis ...... 6^
Subfam. 2. Coccyzin^e.
Piaya, Less.
Circe, Bp.
Type of Coccyzinse.
Cranium similar to Centropus, but not nearly so strongly marked, and the foramen in
the orbital septum smaller ; the lacrymals larger, rounded.
Sternum very short, with two fissures on the posterior margin ; inferior edge of the
keel straight.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 13
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 16
Length of tibia 22
Length of metatarsus 15
Length of sternum 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 1\
Length of head 21
Breadth of head 8^
Length of pelvis 13
Breadth of pelvis 9
Pi ata, Less.
Mehleri, Bp.
I possess the sternum, coracoids, scapula, and furculum of this bird ; they are precisely
similar in form to the foregoing.
Phcenicophaus, Vieill.
Curvirostris, Sh.
In every respect similar to Piaya Circe, but larger, and the bones stronger.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 14
Length of ulna 13
Length of metacarpus 6
90
Tenths.
Length of femur 17
Length of tibia 25
Length of metatarsus 15^
CUCULID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
["Cuculin^:.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Length of sternum 10
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 3
Tenths.
Length of head 26
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 15
Breadth of pelvis . 10
Subfam. 3. Saurotherin^e.
Geococctx, Wagl.
Mexicanus, Gm.
Type of Saurotherinse.
Cranium nearly similar to Centropus ; the massetermuscle impression not extending
to the occiput, and the occipital ridge not so prominent.
Sternum very small in proportion to the size of the bird ; the central portion of the
p osterior margin produced far backwards beyond the lateral ones, with the fissures on
each side the interior ones very large, the exterior ones small, the strip of bone dividing
the two fissures shorter than the exterior or bounding strip of the outer ones ; the
inferior edge of the keel slightly arched, the anterior one very much scolloped out.
Pelvis with the ilium projecting more over the ischium than in Centropus ; the posterior
margin of the former turned more upwards ; central keel not so prominent. Os pubis
as in Centropus.
Wings very short. Remaining bones similar to Centropus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 17^
Length of ulna 15
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur . . . . . . 21
Length of tibia . , 34
Length of metatarsus . . . . . . 25
Length of sternum ..... 15
Tenths
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel ....... 3
Length of head ....... 35
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 22
Breadth of pelvis 16
J 2
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate V. E.
Subfam. 4. Cuculin^e.
Cuculus, Linn.
Cinereus, Vieill.
Type of Cuculinse.
Cranium with the orbital septum nearly entire; in other respects similar to Centropus.
91
ClTCULID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM:
[ClJCULIKffi.
Sternum larger in proportion to the size of the bird than in Centropus ; the posterior
margin with two fissures on each side of the keel, the outer ones largest ; the keel
much deeper than in Saurotherince, and the anterior point produced far forwards. Pelvis
broader in proportion to its length than in Centronics, the ilium not projecting nearly so
far over the ischium, and the latter not placed so perpendicularly ; os pubis projecting
farther posteriorly, terminating in a small tubercle anteriorly.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . \ . . 14^
Length of ulna 14
Length of metacarpus 6 \
Length of femur 11
Length of tibia 15^
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum .,,,,. 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 4J
Length of head 19
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis , 14
Breadth of pelvis ,,.,,. 8
7i
' 2
OXYLOPHUS, Sw.
Glandarius, Linn.
Cranium with the orbital septum nearly entire.
Sternum with two fissures on each side of the keel on the posterior margin, the inner
one larger; anterior margin of the keel much scolloped out, and the point much pro
duced ; remaining bones similar to Cuculus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 18
Length of ulna . ... . . . 18
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia .22
Length of metatarsus 13
Length of sternum 14
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 23
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 18
Breadth of pelvis ...... L 9
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate IV. E.
Chalcites, Less.
JEneus, Vieill.
Similar to Cuculus.
92
KHAMPHASTIDiE.]
OSTEOLOQIA AVIUM.
[RHAMPHASTIM.
Fam. 2. EHAMPHASTIDJE.
Subfam. Rhamphastin^e.
Rhamphastos, Linn.
Erythrorhynchus, Gm.
Type of Rhamphastidse.
Cranium with the orbital septum entire ; impression of the masseter muscle not so
distinct, or carried so far backwards, as in Centropus ; inferior mandible not perforated by
a foramen ; nostrils very small. Palatine bones similar in shape, but with the posterior
portion more elongated.
Sternum rather small ; the posterior margin with two fissures on each side, the outer
one larger ; the inferior edge of the keel nearly straight ; anterior edge produced to the
end of the manubrial process, very slightly scolloped out ; lateral margins much produced
anteriorly. Furculum with the rami not united, consisting merely of a tapering strip of
bone. Coracoids long. Scapula rather broad, curved downwards.
Pelvis with the ilium not projecting over the ischium at their hinder extremities, but
projecting over it for the anterior half of the space between the cotyloid cavity and its
hinder margin, without any dorsal ridge. Ischiadic foramen large, oval; obturator
foramen more open than among the Cuculidce; the os pubis not being united to the
ischium except at its extremities, and projecting in front in the shape of a small knob.
Remaining bones similar to the Cuculidce.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 22
Length of ulna 34
Length of metacarpus 11^
Length of femur 22
Length of tibia 34
Length of metatarsus 20
Length of sternum 20
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12
Depth of keel 4
Length of head ....... 57
Breadth of head . ....... 16
Length of pelvis 29
Breadth of pelvis 13
Rhamphastos, Linn.
Tucanus, Linn.
In structure precisely similar to the foregoing.
Pteroglossus, III.
Bailloni, Vieill.
The only distinction between this genus and the foregoing appears to be in the
position of the nostrils, and in having the furculum perfect^ although small.
vol. i. o 93
MlJSOPHAGIDJE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Musophagin^e.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 14
Length of ulna . . ■ 19
Length of metacarpus 6 J
Length of femur 13^
Length of tibia 22
Length of metatarsus . . . . . 13
Length of sternum 12
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 3^
Length of head 38
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 17
Breadth of pelvis 11
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate III. E.
Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta
tarsus, Plate XIII. fig. 3.
Selenideea, Gould.
Maculirostris, Licht.
In form precisely similar to Bhamphastos erythrorhynchus, except that the fissures
next the keel of the sternum are larger than the outer ones, and tbat the furculum has
the rami longer, but not united.
Fam. 3. MUSOPHAGID^.
Subfam. Musophagin^e.
Turacus, Cuv.
Gigas, Steph.
Type of Musophagidse.
Cranium with the orbital septum nearly entire. Palatine bones consisting merely of a
strip of bone, broadest anteriorly, tapering gradually to their articulation with the inter
articular bones, and having their internal edges slightly bent downwards. Interarticular
bones flattened, slightly twisted on their axis, short ; lacrymal bones small, rounded at
their edges ; in other respects similar to Centropus.
Sternum very similar to the smaller Cuckoos ; the posterior margin with two fissures
on each side : keel shallow ; the inferior edge straight, the anterior straight, and pro
duced to the end of the manubrial process. Furculum with the rami merely united by
a ligament ; coracoids flattened, of moderate length.
Pelvis similar to Centropus, but with the central ridge not so prominent, and the ob
turator foramen larger.
Bibs similar to Centropus.
Wingbones short, strong.
Legbones similar to Centropus, but stronger. Fibula threefourths the length of the
tibia. Calcaneal process similar in form, but not so prominent as in Centropus.
94
MUSOPHAGID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[MUSOPHAGIN^E.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 30
Length of ulna • . 27
Length of metacarpus 12
Length of femur 31
Length of tibia 45
Length of metatarsus 21
Length of sternum 23
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 28
Breadth of head 13
Length of pelvis 40
Breadth of pelvis .20
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate II. E.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta
tarsus, Plate XIII. fig. 2.
COEYTHAIX, III.
Verreauxii, JBp.
Cranium with a moderatesized foramen in the orbital septum. Palatine bones
similar to Turacus^but bent outwards from one another from their anterior points to
their junction with the interarticular bones, leaving a space between them in the middle.
Furculum perfect. Remaining bones similar to Turacus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 15^
Length of ulna 15
Length of metacarpus 7
Length of femur 19
Length of tibia ....... 26
Length of metatarsus 15
Length of sternum . . . . . . 12
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 3
Length of head .
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
20
21
10
CORYTHAIX, III.
Persa, Limn.
Similar to the preceding.
95
MUSOPHAGIDJS.] OSTEOLOaiA AVIUM. [MUSOPHAGKHLE.
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Bibs in Eeucivores.
Ceryical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs
4
3
4
6
5
3
4
3
5
3
4
3
4
2
5
2
5
3
6
3
5
3
5
3
6
3
5
3
5
3
4
3
Cuculus cauorus
tenuiroatris
Centropus phasianus ....
Phoenicophaus tricolor
Crotophaga ani
Piaya Circe
Geococcyx mexicanus ...
Cuculus glandarius
Chalcites seneus
Rhamphastos tucanus . . .
erytkrorhynchus .
Selenidera maculirostris
Pteroglossus Bailloni ...
Turacus gigas
Corythaix Verreauxii . . .
Buffonii
12
12
10
9
9
10
12
10
10
12
12
12
10
12
12
12
7
11
7
12
8
12
7
12
8
12
7
12
6
10
7
12
8
10
9
13
8
11
8
10
9
11
8
13
8
13
7
13
General Remarks on Eeucivores.
The birds belonging to the Order Erucivores are easily distinguished from those of
most other Orders by the elongation of the os pubis, forming either a large spine, or else
merely a small tubercle or knob, by the length of the coracoids, the smallness or rudi
mentary state of the furculum, the shortness of the sternum, the shallowness of the keel,
and the shortness of the wings. I have not seen a skeleton of Opisthocomus, which is
supposed to belong to this Order.
96
MENURIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MjSNURINJE.
Order VII. INSESSORES.
Fam. 1. MENURIDffi.
Subfam. 1. Menurin^e.
Menura, Dav.
Superba, Dav.
Type
Cranium rather small in proportion to the size of the bird ; much rounded at the
occiput, and flattened between the orbits ; a slight transverse depression at the base of
the nasal bones ; occipital crest not very prominent. Nostrils oval. Lacrymal bones
wanting. Orbits very large, their edges recurved. Orbital septum perforated by a
large, somewhat oval, foramen. Malar bones nearly straight. Palatine bones long,
consisting of a strip of bone gradually widening externally to about twothirds of their
length, then suddenly narrowed, forming, as it were, two lateral projecting phalanges,
the posterior portions much narrowed, and united at their extremities to the inter
articular bones, which are also very small and straight.
Sternum elongated, much constricted near the centre ; the anterior part of the hori
zontal plane concave for a little more than its anterior half, the hinder portion
convex; a prominent ridge of bone, to the edge of which the pectoralis minor is
attached, extends along each side of the sternum from the base of the coracoids to the
anterior edge of the convex portion of the sternum ; posterior margin projecting, much
rounded, and having two large open and shallow fissures on each side. Manubrial
process very large, triangular, and expanded anteriorly; keel, with its lower edge
slightly arched, continued to the posterior margin of the sternum, anterior point
curved backwards ; the anterior processes behind coracoids much lengthened.
Pelvis of moderate size ; iliac bones anteriorly to the femora much curved outwards,
and not united along the dorsal line ; a ridge extends from this point, a strongly
marked ridge diverges outwards along the outer edge of the upper plane of the pelvis, forms
a strongly marked projection just behind the acetabula, and is continued backwards,
projecting over the ischium, and forming two elongated spinous projections on each side
of the caudal vertebrae. Ischium nearly perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the
ilium, which projects very far over it. Ischiadic foramen very large, slightly oval.
Os pubis gradually curved upwards towards the point, and forming with the ischium a
divided obturator foramen, the anterior portion rounded, the posterior oval.
vol. i. p 97
Menurid^e.J
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Menurin^:.
Ribs broad at their upper extremities, and gradually becoming smaller towards
their lower ; styliform process broad at its attachment to the ribs, narrowed to the
point which projects over the rib behind it.
Furculum arched anteriorly, slightly flattened, the rami widely divaricating without
any process at the j unction of the rami, united to point of the sternum by a ligament.
Coracoids of moderate length and size, somewhat triangular in the centre.
Scapula short, falciform, slightly expanding near their extremities, which point
downwards.
Wingbones short, strong, the humerus very slightly longer than the scapula;
metacarpus long in proportion to the humerus, radus, and ulna, the two bones forming
it only united at their extremities.
Femur very straight; trochanters small, not projecting much upwards. Tibia
slightly bent downwards in the centre, an elongated projection on the inside near the
upper extremity, from which a small angular ridge proceeds downwards for about two
thirds of the tibia. Metatarsus with the hinder part strongly edged on its external
and posterior margin, and also channelled posteriorly.
Vertebral column of moderate strength, the penultimate and two following cervical
vertebrae with dorsal processes; the terminal caudal vertebrae very large, triangular.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 1
Depth of keel 5 J
Tenths.
23
24
14
26
50
41
30
Length of head 32
Breadth of head 13
Length of pelvis 28
Breadth of pelvis IT
Skeleton, Plate III. I.
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and
metatarsi, Plate XIV. fig. 1.
Pteroptochos, Kittl.
Tarnii, King.
I have only portions of the skeletons of this and the following species.
Cranium very similar to that of Menura, but not so wide between the eyes ; occipital
ridge not so large ; occipital protuberance (which was broken in my skeleton of
Menura J large, from which, to the hollow at the base of the nasal bones, there is a
slight channel ; foramen magnum rounded. Palatine bones similar to Menura, as are
also the interarticular ones..
Menurid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Menurin^e.
Sternum anteriorly similar to Menura, but not so concave on its lower horizontal
plane ; posteriorly it differs very much, being not so convex, broader, and with two
very deep fissures on each side ; the central portion of the margin is also straight ;
keel similar.
The pelvinal bones were completely destroyed.
Bibs and metatarsi similar to Menura.
Furculum similar to Menura, but with a very slight notch at its junction with the
sternum.
Coracoids, scapula, wingbones, and legbones also similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 12
Length of ulna 12J
Length of metacarpus .... 6
Length of femur (damaged )
Length of tibia 25
Length of metatarsus 18
Tenths.
Length of sternum 12
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 2J
Length of head . 17
Breadth of head 8
Fteroptochos, Kittl.
Albicollis, Kittl.
All the bones I possess are similar to the last. I have, however, the pelvis of this
species, which is precisely that of Menura in miniature.
Length of sternum 8
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
Depth of keel ....... 1
Length of pelvis 11
Breadth of pelvis 5 J
Illustrations.
Pelvis, sternum, and metatarsi, Plate XIV. fig. 2.
Troglodytes, Vieill.
Europseus, Cuv.
Cranium much rounded ; occiput with a moderate ridge and protuberance ; space
between upper part of the orbits small ; margin not reflected ; orbital septa with two
large foramina ; nasal depression moderate ; nostrils oval. Palatine bones consisting
of two elongated strips expanding to about twothirds of their length, when they are
abruptly truncated, and have a spine on the external points of each truncation ; the
p 2 99
Menu rid je. ]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Menurin^:.
inner margin of each is continued back to the interarticular bones, which are very
slender, but rather elongated.
Sternum very slightly convex, broad posteriorly, the margin nearly straight, with
two fissures, one on each side ; the end of the external strips of bone expanded poste
riorly; the lateral margin slightly contracted at the sides at about onethird of its
length ; devoid of any manubrial process. Keel with the inferior margin slightly
curved, not reaching to the posterior margin of the sternum.
Pelvis broad in proportion to its length, the acetabula placed rather forward ; upper
plane slightly convex ; ilium overhanging the ischium slightly at the sides. Os pubis
and ischium elongated very much beyond the iliac bones. Obturator foramen of
moderate size ; ischiadic foramen very large.
Ribs weak, styliform process broader at its junction with them than at its tip, which
projects beyond the next rib.
Furculum with the rami very slight ; a very slight tubercle at its junction with the
sternum.
Coracoids long in proportion to the length of the sternum, and not much expanded.
Scapula long, narrow, longer than the humerus, reflected at their points.
Wingbones very short ; humerus not so long as the ulna ; metacarpal bones long,
united.
Femur slightly bent ; tibia without any process on their inner side ; fibula very short,
not extending for above onefourth of the length of the tibia.
Vertebral column of moderate size ; the penultimate and three following vertebra?
with dorsal processes; the terminal caudal one triangular.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 5
Length of ulna 5 j
Length of metacarpus .... 3
Length of femur 5 J
Length of tibia . . .  . . . • 10
Length of metatarsus .... 8J
Length of sternum 5
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3
Depth of keel . 1 J
Length of head 11 \
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 7
Breadth of pelvis 5
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, metatarsi, Plate XV. fig. 2.
100
Certhiad^:.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Dendrocolaptin^e.
Dendrocolaptes, Herm.
Platyrostris, Spix.
Cranium much rounded from the vertex to the occiput; occipital ridge very
apparent ; channel for the masseter muscles very distinct ; occipital protuberance also
well marked, from which a slight channel proceeds over the vertex to the transverse
channel between the nasal bones, which is deep. Space between the orbits moderate ;
orbits large, margin not reflected; septum entire. Palatine bones and interartieular
as in Troglodytes.
Sternum similar to Troglodytes with the exception of having a very welldefined
manubrial process, and the plane of the sternum nearly flat, and near its hinder margin
concave ; keel with the inferior margin nearly straight.
Pelvis similar to Troglodytes, but with the anterior portion of the iliac bones rather
more divided.
Rils similar to Troglodytes.
Furculum arched, the branches flattened laterally, a slight process turning back
wards at their junction with the sternum.
Coracoids similar to Troglodytes.
Scapula not so long in proportion to the humerus, they being of nearly equal length,
and curving so much downwards.
Wingbones of moderate strength, the bones forming the metacarpus not
united.
Femur nearly straight ; fibula more than half the length of the tibia.
Vertebral column of moderate strength, the penultimate and three next vertebra?
with dorsal processes, the terminal caudal one large, triangular.
Measurements.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . . ,
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Tenths.
11
14
7
10J
15
11
11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 61
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 25
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 15
Breadth of pelvis 10
Picolaptes, Less.
Tenuirostris, Licht.
Precisely similar to the preceding, except in measurements, and in having the
scapula rather longer in proportion to the humerus.
101
Certhiad^:.]
OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM.
[Sitting.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8
Length of ulna 10
, Length of metacarpus .... 5
' Length of femur 6 J
Length of tibia . . . . . . 10 J
Length of metatarsus .... 8 J
Length of sternum 7
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 1 J
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 9
Breadth of pelvis 6
XlPHORHYNCHUS, Sw.
Trochilirostris, Licht.
Distinguishable from the two former only by the elongated bill and measurements.
Illustration.
Plate I. F.
Anabates, Temm.
Leucopthalmus, Max.
There is no distinctive mark between the skeletons of Dendrocolaptes and Anabates
that I have been able to discover, except in the lateral processes of the palatine bones
being longer, the shape of the bill, in the nostrils of the former being oval, while in the
other they are rounded, and in the ulna being very slightly longer in proportion to the
humerus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8
Length of ulna 10
Length of metacarpus 4 J
Length of femur 7 J
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 8 J
Length of sternum 8
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 2
Length of head ....... IT
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis 1
Sitta, Linn.
Velata, Temm.
Cranium with the occipital portion much rounded ; channel for the masseter muscles
scarcely perceptible ; occipital ridge and protuberance distinct, from which proceed a
channel open from the occiput to the base of the nasal bones ; space between the orbits
102
Certhiadje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[FURNARIN.E.
of moderate size ; orbits with their upper edges reflected ; septum with one very small
foramen ; nostrils oval. Palatine and interarticular bones wanting.
Sternum of moderate size, indented posteriorly, with two wide fissures transversely
convex ; the lower edge of the keel slightly rounded, moderately deep, with a slight
manubrial process.
Pelvis similar to Dendrocolaptes, but with the obturator foramen much larger.
Ribs rather weak.
Furculum long, without any process where it is united to the sternum ; very little
rounded anteriorly.
Coracoids rather long, rounded in the middle.
Scapula long, the tip much deflexed ; nearly as long as the humerus.
Bones of the wing of moderate strength, the humerus bent, the ulna much shorter
than the humerus.
Femur straight.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel ....... 2
Length of head 13 J
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 8
Breadth of pelvis 6
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 7
Length of ulna 9
Length of metacarpus .... 4 \
Length of femur 6 J
Length of tibia 9
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 7
Sittella, Sw.
Chrysoptera, Lath.
In every respect similar to Sitta.
Furnarius, Vieill.
Cunicularius (?)
Very similar to the other Certhiadce, but with the keel of the sternum much deeper ;
the process at the junction of the furcular branches larger and the pelyis broader in
proportion to its length.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 9
Length of ulna 12J
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur ...... 7
Tenths.
Length of tibia ....... 1 1
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum .... e 10
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
103
Meliphagidje.] osteologia avium. [Meliphaginje.
Measurements (continued.)
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4f
Depth of keel 3
Length of head .... .16
Tenths.
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis 9
ug.,
AnthoChjera, Vig. $ Horsf.
Carunculata, Lath.
Cranium rounded above occiptal ridge; protuberance prominent; space between
the orbits moderate, much depressed in the middle ; orbits of moderate size, the upper
edges reflexed ; septum pierced by two foramina, which are merely divided by a narrow
strip of bone. Palatine bones broad, covering the roof of the mouth for twothirds of
their length, where they are truncated, and terminate in two narrow strips of bone
to the interarticular, both edges deflexed; interarticular bones short, a little bent,
rounded. Lacrymal bones pointing backwards.
Sternum of moderate size, constricted in middle, a little rounded on the posterior
margin, with a fissure on each side ; the strip of bone forming the outer edge of each
fissure much expanded at the end, so as nearly to convert the fissures into foramina ;
keel very broad, the lower edge rounded, the point receding ; manubrial process of
moderate size, and turned upwards ; bifid at its extremity.
Pelvis small, narrow ; anterior edges of the iliac bones not united, leaving a channel
between them as far as the acetabula, when the upper edges expand and leave a broad
open space to the first caudal vertebrae, being only anchylored to the lateral processes.
Ischium very slightly inclined outwards, and much overhung by the pubis, which is
carried backwards to a point opposite the third caudal vertebrse, the ischium being
united to it as far as that point. Ischiadic and obturator foramina large, the former
round, the latter oval ; points of the os pubis pointing inwards.
Ribs of moderate strength ; styliform process much turned upwards.
Furculum with upper points of the rami not much expanded, and running in an
almost parallel direction to near their junction, where they curve inwards to meet each
other ; process uniting them to the sternum very large, and turned upwards ; the rami
flattened, and slightly arched anteriorly.
Coracoids rather long, rounded in the middle.
Scapula nearly as long as the humerus, very slightly deflexed.
Wingbones of moderate length, the ulna longer than the humerus.
Femur very slightly bent ; fibula about onethird the length of the tibia. Metatarsus
with a very deep keel arising on the calear protuberance, and continued, gradually
narrowing to the lower extremity of the metatarsus.
Vertebral column of moderate strength, the penultimate and three next vertebrse with
blunt dorsal processes ; the terminal caudal vertebrse triangular and large.
104
Meliphagid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Meliphagin^:.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 15
Length of ulna 18
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia 25
Length of metatarsus 17
Length of sternum 16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 25
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 18
Breadth of pelvis 9
Anthoch^era, Vig. % Horsf.
Lunulata, Gould.
Precisely similar, except in measurements, to the preceding.
Anthoch^ra, Vig. S? Horsf.
Lewinii, Vig. # Horsf.
Similar to the preceding.
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate II. F.
Tropidorhynchus, Vig. $ Horsf.
Corniculatus, Lath.
Also similar to Arthochcena Carunculata, with the exception of the horn on the upper
mandible, and the sternum being slightly shorter, broader in proportion to its length,
and having the hinder part of the fissures closed becoming foramina.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 13
Length of ulna 17
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia 21
Length of metatarsus 13
Length of sternum 14
Tropidorhynchus, Vig. $ Horsf
Argenticeps, Gould.
Similar to the preceding.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel ....... 5
Length of head . 27
Breadth of head ...... 8
Length of pelvis . . . 8 . . 16
Breadth of pelvis 8j
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, Plate XV.
Q
105
Meliphagid^e.}
GSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Melithreptin^e.
Manorhia, Vieill.
Garrula, Lath.
This group is very similar in its osteology to the Meliphagince, but differs in the
greater breadth of the pelvis and sternum in proportion to their lengths, and in having
the ischium and pubis more laterally expanded ;, or, in other words, not being so perpen
dicular to the plane of the ilium..
Measurements.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . . ,
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . ,
Length of tibia . ,
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .. ,
Tenths.
6
14
6j
10
17
13
10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel ........ 3
Length of head .
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
IT
8
12
Sphecotheres, Vieill.
Viridis, Vig. # Horsf.
Very similar to the preceding. This bird has generally been placed among the
Oreolidce? but the only specimen I have dissected has a brush tongue. The metatarsi
are shorter in proportion to the tibia in this bird than in most of the Meliphagidce,
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . .. 13
Length of ulna .. .. 16 j
Length of metacarpus .... 8
Length of femur . . . . . . 11
Length of tibia . . . . . . . 17
Length of metatarsus 9J
Length of sternum ....... 13 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadthof anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel .,...._. 4J
Length of head ........ 23
Breadth of head ....... 8
Length of pelvis 15
Breadth of pelvis ......... 10
Fsophodes, Vig. 8$ Horsf.
Crepitans, Lath.
This bird may be easily distinguished from the other Melithreptince by the extreme
shortness of the ulna in proportion to the humerus, only just equalling it in length ; the
metacarpus is also short ; the obturator foramen is not so large in proportion to the size
of the bird, and the keel of the sternum very shallow.,
106
Meliphagid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
:[MYZOMELIN^.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . ,
Length of tibia  . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Measurements.
Tenths.
10
9
4
11
18
14
10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel ....... 2§
Length of head , . 18
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis ...... 14
Breadth of pelvis ....... 8
Myzomela, Vig. 8$ Horsf.
Nigra, Gould.
Similar to the Melithr optinte, but of smaller size, and having the ulna much longer
than the humerus, the scapula not so abruptly cut off at its posterior end. In this group
ought to be included Acan, Thornhychus, Gould ; Acanthisa, Gould ; and Hcematops,
Gould ; — all of which have brush tongues, and of all of which I have specimens.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . 5 J
Length of ulna 7
Length of metacarpus 2
Length of femur ...... 5
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 6
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2 J
Depth of keel 2
Length of head ........ 1 2
Breadth of head 3
Length of pelvis ...... 7
Breadth of pelvis 4
Meliphaga, Lewin.
Chrysotis, Lath.
Similar, only smaller, to Anihochcera carunculata, but the pelvis is slightly broader in
proportion to its length.
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
9
3
6
7
9
q2
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 2
Length of head ...... 14
Breadth of head ...... 5 ;
Length of pelvis .. , 6
Breadth of pelvis ...... 4j
107
4i
Meliphagidje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Nectarinin^e.
Nectarinia, III.
Javanica, Horsf.
The skeleton of this family is scarcely distinguishable from that of the other Meli
phagidce, were it not for the structure of the palatine and interarticular bones ; the
former of which, instead of being truncated previously to their being suddenly narrowed
before their articulation with the interarticular bones, have a long lateral spur pointing
backwards, and the exterior edge bent downwards. The interarticular bones, instead of
being straight, are bent. The depth of the keel also is slightly greater.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 6
Length of ulna *7J
Length of metacarpus .... 4
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia 9
Length of metatarsus .... 6
Length of sternum 6
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3
Depth of keel 2
Length of head .13
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 7
Breadth of pelvis 4
Illustration.
Plate XV. fig. 5.
Aracnothera, Temm.
Longirostris, Lath.
This genus may be distinguished from the foregoing by larger orbital foramen, the
greater depth of the keel, of the sternum, and the great length to which that bone is
prolonged at its anterior angles, the longer coracoids, and furculum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 7
Length of ulna 1°
Length of metacarpus .... 4J
Length of femur *
Length of tibia. . 10
Length of metatarsus .... 5 j
Length of sternum "? J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 9
Breadth of pelvis 5
108
Paridje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVfUM.
[Paring.
Parus, Linn.
Caeruleus, Linn.
Cranium very round; occipital impression and protuberance very small; space
between the orbits narrow, slightly hollowed out ; orbital septum nearly entire. Pala
tine bones truncate previously to the narrow portion going off for articulation with the
interarticular, the outer angles armed with a sharp spine, the outer edges bending
abruptly downwards.
Sternum of moderate length, much narrowed anteriorly, much constricted in the
middle, with two posterior fissures very much rounded at the upper part ; keel deep,
inferior edge rounded, anterior edge scolloped out ; manubrial process long.
Pelvis very short ; the anterior points of the ilium very far apart, approaching rather J
nearer at about half the length of the pelvis ; posterior edge of the ilium, at the junction
of the caudal vertebrae, with two spines on the outer edges, which are very straight,
and are united to the upper edge of the ischium, which, with the os pubis, points out
wards ; ischiadic and obturator foramina of moderate size.
Furculum slightly arched, the curve increasing towards the lower junction of the
rami, the branches nearly parallel to near their junction, where the inward curve is
abrupt; process at the junction large, flattened, and turned backwards.
Coracoids rather long.
Wingbones with the humerus not as long as the scapula ; ulna much longer than the
humerus.
Vertebral column having the penultimate and two next vertebrae with dorsal processes.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 5 J
Length of ulna 8
Length of metacarpus .... 4
Length of femur 5
Length of tibia 10
Length of metatarsus ..... 6
Length of sternum 8
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3
Depth of keel 3
Length of head .... .9
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis ...... 6
Breadth of pelvis 5
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsa, Plate XVII. fig. 4.
Alauda, Linn.
Arvensis, Linn.
Cranium narrow between the orbits, and deeply channelled, channel only extended
backwards as far as the vertex ; transverse groove at the base of the nasals very deep ;
109
Alaudidje.] osteologia avium. [Alaudinje.
arcuated nostrils wide, oval ; orbital septa, imperforate, but slightly broken into on its
posterior edge by the foramen admitting the optic nerves. Palatine bones, with their
outer edges only, bend downwards, truncate at twothirds of their length, or at that
point from which a narrow strip of bone from their internal edges proceeds to the inter
articular bones ; a double spine on the external edge of the outer angle, pointing
backwards. Interarticular bones slender, straight.
Foramen magnum transversely oval ; occipital ridge and protuberance very slightly
marked.
Sternum as broad anteriorly as posteriorly, very slightly constricted in the middle,
posterior to the junction with the ribs; anterior edge scolloped out, point retreating;
the hinder margin with a very large fissure on each side, which extends upwards to
nearly onehalf the length of the sternum ; a bony rib bounds them externally, abruptly
expanded at the end, and is carried on forwards to the junction of the coracoids ; the
internal edges are also thickened and expanded towards the mouth of the
fissures in the same form as the external one, inclining very much inwards, thus
causing the central part of the sternum to be very narrow. Keel very deep anteriorly,
straight ; manubrial process long, bifid, turned upwards, triangular.
Bibs weak ; styliform process long and narrow, extending over the rib behind it.
Furculum with the rami nearly parallel to a little above their junction, where they
curve suddenly inwards, rounded at their junction with the sternum ; a flattened pro
cess, pointed backwards, to the lower edge of which the ligament is attached which
unites the furculum and sternum.
Coracoids of moderate length, somewhat triangular in the centre.
Scapula very long, narrow, straight ; the tip deflected, and sloped off to a point from
above very obliquely.
Wingbones of moderate strength ; humerus not longer than the scapula ; ulna only
slightly longer than the humerus, very straight; metacarpal bones with very little
interval between them.
Femur very slightly bent ; metatarsus with a very large calcar process.
Pelvis broad between the acetabula, the points of the pubic bones projecting very
slightly beyond them; ischiadic foramen short, oval; obturator long; a swelling,
bulbous appearance on the lateral portions of the iliac bones posterior to the acetabula.
Vertebral column with the penultimate and four following vertebrae furnished with
dorsal processes ; terminal caudal vertebrae, triangular.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8
Length of ulna 11
Length of metacarpus .... 5
110
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 13
Length of metatarsus 9
Alaudid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Alaudin^e.
Measurements (continued.)
Tenths.
Length of sternum 9
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 2§
Tenths.
Length of head ...... 14
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 11
Breadth of pelvis 6
Alauda, Linn.
Arborea, Linn,
There is no distinctive osteological character that I can discover between this bird
and Arvensis, except measurement.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
H
12
6
n
13
10
10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anteriormargin of sternum 4J
Depth of keel ....... 3 J
Length of head 1 3 j
Breadth of head ...... 6
Length of pelvis 11
Breadth of pelvis ...... 7
Otocoris, Bon,
Alpestris, Linn.
In general similar to Alanda, but differs in the external edges of the fissures on the
posterior margin of the sternum being broader, and gradually tapering forwards, con
sequently making the fissures rather narrower; and in there being a distinct im
pression on the upper plane of the iliac bones over the sacral vertebras to the first
caudal one, with a ridge on each side ; and also in having the bulbous appearance on
each side of the ilium ; posterior to the acetabula more distinct, the obturator foramen
narrower, and the scapula more massive and more expanded towards its tip.
Measurements,
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel ....... 3
Length of head . . 13 J,
Breadth of head ...... 6
Length of pelvis . . . . . . 12 J
Breadth of pelvis ...... 8
Illustrations.
Jalatine bones, sternum,, pelvis, metatarsa, Plate XVII. fig. 1.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . .
. . 10
Length of ulna .....
. . 12J
Length of metacarpus , .
. . 7
Length of femur ....
. .. 9
Length of tibia
. .13
Length of metatarsus . .
• • 10*
Length of sternum . . .
. . 10
MOTACILLIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MoTACILLINJL.
Melanocorypha, Boie.
Tartarica, Pall.
Cranium with orbital septum entire.
Sternum similar to Otocoris, but with the manubrial process much longer ; the ante
rior lateral edge of the sternum to which the ribs are articulated, very much produced.
Remainder of the skeleton similar to Alauda.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 11
Length of ulna 15
Length of metacarpus .... 7
Length of femur 9J
Length of tibia 14 J
Length of metatarsus . „ . . 11
Length of sternum 12
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 J
Depth of keel 4
Length of head . 16J
Breadth of head 7 J
Length of pelvis ...... 13 J
Breadth of pelvis 8
Motacilla, Linn.
Alba, Linn.
Cranium rounded, a slight channel proceeding from the nasal channel to the vertex ;
occipital ridge and protuberance not very distinct ; orbits, and space between them, of
moderate size; septum with two fissures. Palatine bones truncate where they join the
sphenoid, to which they are anchylored, the outer edges slightly deflexed ; interarticular
bones slightly bent.
Sternum large, the central portion broad, with two posterior (not very deep) fissures,
the bony rib bounding them triangular at the tip ; keel very deep in proportion to the
length of the sternum, the point carried as far forward as the end of the manubrial pro
cess, scolloped out in front, rounded below ; manubrial process long, turned slightly
upwards.
Pelvis similar to Alauda, but much broader in proportion to the size of the bird ;
the anterior portion of the iliac bones in particular ; ischiadic foramen small ; obturator
of moderate size.
Ribs of moderate strength ; styliform process of nearly equal size throughout.
Furculum very much arched in front ; the upper extremities of the rami long, divari
cating more than in Alauda, the process at their junction flattened and large, turned
backwards.
Coracoids rather long, bent a little outwards at their upper extremities.
Scapula longer than the humerus, slightly widened at the point from which it is
sloped off to the tip.
112
MoTACILLID^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[MOTACILLIN^E.
Wingbones, Humerus short ; ulna longer than the humerus.
Vertebral column having the penultimate and two next vertebrae with dorsal pro
cesses.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 7
Length of ulna 10
Length of metacarpus .... 5
Length of femur 7
Length of tibia 13
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum ..... 9
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 31
Length of head .... .13
Breadth of head ...... 5 J
Length of pelvis 9 J
Breadth of pelvis ...... 7
Motacilla, Linn.
Flava, Linn.
Similar to Alba, but smaller.
Enictjrus, Temm.
Velatus, Temm.
There is no perceptible difference between this bird and Motacilla, with the exception
that the legbones are rather longer ; and the same may be said of Enicurus maculatus.
Grallina, Vieill.
Melanoleuca, Vieill
The cranium differs from Motacilla in having only one interorbital foramen, the
sternum in having very small, comparatively speaking, foramina on its posterior margin,
the manubrial process shorter, the humerus in being longer than the scapula, and
the pelvis in being narrower.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Measurements.
Tenths.
13
16
9
10
21
16
14
Tenths.
Breadth ofposterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J
Depth of keel ........ 4
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis . . . t . . 13
Breadth of pelvis 91
113
MoTACILLIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ANTHINiE
Anthus, Bechst.
Obscurus, Gm.
Similar to Motacilla, but with the metatarsi shorter in proportion to the tibiae.
Anthus Australia and Pratensis are also similar.
Sylvia, Lath
Hippolais, Linn.
The Syhiadce present very few tangible characters to distinguish them from the
Motacillidce, and one description, independent of measurements, will almost serve for
the whole of the family ; they may, however, be distinguished from the latter family by the
greater proportionable breadth of the pelvis and sternum, and the very small amount of
devarication between the branches of the furculum. Between the members of the family
the form of the skeletons run still nearer ; there are, however, a few that may be pointed
out. It would be useless to go through a series of measurements and take up a large
space, I shall, therefore, merely give a list of the species belonging to the family which
I possess, and mention where any characters occur differing from the bird above
named.
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate V. F.
Lucinia, Linn.
Philomela, Bon.
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsi, Plate XVII.
Salic aria, Selby.
Locustella, Penn.
Salicaria, Selb.
Phragmitis, Linn.
Ruticilla, Brehm.
Phcenicurus, Linn.
The pelvis is rather broader in proportion to the size of the bird.
Kuticilla, Brehm.
Tythys, Scop.
Eegulus, Linn.
Auricapillus, Linn.
114
Sylviadjs.] osteologia avium. [Sylvin^e.
Sylyia.
Trochilus.
Saxicola.
(Enanthe.
Parula, Bon.
Braziliana.
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate V. F.
Pelvis rather broader than the type.
Illustration.
Plate V. F. fig. 2.
Trichas, Sw.
Velatus, Vieill.
Both sternum and pelvis rather broader than the type.
Accentor, Temm.
Modularis, Linn.
The pelvis is much larger in proportion to the sternum than is usual in the family.
Malueus, Vieill.
Cyaneus, Gm.
The group in which the three following genera have been placed is rather an anomo
lous one. I have doubts whether they ought not to be classified with the Motacillidce,
judging from the greater proportionate width of the sternum and pelvis in comparison
with the true Bylmadae. One genus, which has been usually classed with it, (Megalurus,)
differs materially from both in having a narrow sternum, less depth of keel, and also a
much narrower pelvis. I have, however, classed it with Malurus, although confident that
it is not its true place. None of the three genera that I have before me — Malurus,
Stipiturus, and Megalurus — have that bulbous appearance on each side of the ilium,
posterior to the acetabulum, common to the Motacellidce and true Sylriadce.
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, metatarsi, Plate XVII.
Muscicapa, Linn.
Grisola, Linn.
Cranium rounded from the vertex to the occiput ; occipital ridge and protuberance
b2 115
MUSCICAPIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MtJSClCAPINiE.
distinct ; space between the orbits rather broad ; a channel proceeds from the nasal
depression, which is very deep, to the vertex. Palatine bones consisting anteriorly of a
narrow strip of bone on each, equidistant between the sphenoid and the maxillary, and
not united for their whole length ; a little before their posterior termination a styli
form process goes off from the inner side of this strip towards the sphenoid, when it is
expanded forwards and backwards, the latter portion being united with the inter
articular, and the former extending an equal distance with the latter along the side of
the sphenoid ; interarticular bones straight ; nasal orifices very large.
Sternum similar in general shape to the Sylviadce, but broader ; the manubrial process
very large, and with a very wide bifurcation at its extremity. Point of the sternum
receding ; two large fissures on the posterior margin ; lower edge of keel slightly
arched.
Ribs of moderate strength ; the styliform process long, and very narrow.
Pelvis very similar to the Sj/lviadce, but with two parallel depressions along its whole
length on each side of the sacral vertebrae, the lateral processes of which are distinctly
seen. Ischiadic foramen rather large; obturator of moderate size; ischium slanting
much outwards.
Furculum much and regularly arched anteriorly; upper extremities of the rami
divaricating to a moderate extent, not compressed towards one another in the middle.
Coracoids of moderate length and strength.
Scapula longer than the humerus, the point slightly deflexed, of nearly equal width
throughout.
Except in the measurements there is nothing remarkable about the wing and leg
bones.
Vertebral column. The penultimate and three next vertebrae with dorsal spines.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 5
Length of ulna . 9
Length of metacarpus .... 3 \
Length of femur 5 J
Length of tibia 8
Length of metatarsus .... 6
Length of sternum 7
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin ofsternum 5 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 2\
Length of head 13
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 8
Breadth of pelvis 7
Rhiphidura, Vig. $ Horsf.
Flabelifera, Gm.
Cranium similar to Muscicapa, but more rounded on the vertex.
116
MuSCICAPID^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[MUSCICAPINJE.
Sternum longer, and with the fissures deeper and narrower than in Muscicapa ; lower
edges of the keel much rounded.
Furculum with the rami compressed towards one another near their centre. Re
mainder of the skeleton as in Muscicapa.
Metatarsi nearly as long as the tibise.
Motaciloides is similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 6
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
H
3
5
Length of tibia 8
Length of metatarsus .... 7
Length of sternum 7
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3
Depth of keel ....... 2J
Length of head . 7
Breadth of head ...... 4J
Length of pelvis 7
Breadth of pelvis ...... 5
Platyrhynchus, Desm.
Cancromus, Temm.
Cranium very much flattened on the vertex.
Furculum very slightly arched in front.
Sternum broad ; posterior margin slightly indented in the centre ; fissures very small ;
lower edge of keel very much arched.
Metatarsi nearly as long as the tibiae.
Pelvis with the upper side of the ilium very much rounded transversely ; ischiadic
and obturator foramina very large. Ischium and pubis placed nearly perpendicularly
to the plane of the ilium.
Vertebral column with the penultimate and two next cervical vertebree with dorsal
spines.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 5J
Length of ulna 7
Length of metacarpus 3
Length of femur 5
Length of tibia 9
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 6
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3
Depth of keel ....... 2
Length of head H
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 5
Breadth of pelvis ...... 4
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate VIII. F.
117
MtJSCICAPIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TYRANNIN2E.
Monarchy, Vig. &$ Horsf.
Carinata, Sw.
Similar to Muscicapa, but with the tarsi longer and the orbital foramina very small.
Tchctrea, Less.
Melanopyga, Ver.
Similar to Muscicapa, but with the ischium placed more perpendicularly to the plane
of the ilium, the latter of which is broader in proportion to its length.
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsi, Plate XVI.
Myiagra, Vig. fy Horsf.
From W. Australia.
Similar to Muscicapa, but with the humerus rather longer in proportion to the
scapula,
Tyrannus, Cuv.
Melancholicus, Vieill.
Differs very slightly from Muscicapa, except in size. The sternal fissures, however,
are not quite so wide in proportion, the manubrial process not so long, and the ischium
is placed more perpendicularly to the plane of the ilium, and the humerus is longer
than the scapula, which is expanded slightly near the tip.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 15
Length of metacarpus 12
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis .... 7 J
Tyrannus, Cuv.
Verticalis, Say.
Similar to the preceding ; as is also Candifasciatus, D'Orb.
Myiobius, G. B. Gray.
Superciliosa, Bon.
Similar to the foregoing.
118
MUSCICAPIDJ3.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[TlTYRINJE.
Hirundo, Linn.
Riparia, Linn.
Cranium shorter and more rounded than in Muscicapa ; palatine bones of nearly the
same form, but sloped more on the inner sides towards the interarticular ones, which
are very short.
Sternum similar to Muscicapa, but rather longer in proportion to its width.
Pelvis similar.
Scapula very long and thin, very slightly expanded towards the tip, not much
deflexed.
Wingbones with the humerus much shorter than the scapula, not being above three
fourths of its length ; ulna nearly twice as long as the humerus.
I have also portions of the skeletons Progne purpurea, Hirundo pceciloma, and Domestica,
all of which agree in form with the foregoing.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 4 J
Length of ulna 8
Length of metacarpus .... 4
Length of femur 5
Length of tibia ....... 7
Length of metatarsus .... 3 J
Length of sternum 7
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3 J
Depth of keel 2j
Length of head 9
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 8
Breadth of pelvis 7
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate VIII. F.
Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and
metatarsus, Plate XV.
Tityra, Vieill
Cayana, Linn.
Cranium with the palatine bones similar to Muscicapince, but more massive, and with
their inner edges slightly deflected; intertarcular bones expanding slightly at their
distal extremity ; masseter impression strongly marked.
Sternum with the marginal fissures small, nearly closed; manubrial process of
moderate length, with the distal extremity widely branched.
Pelvis similar to Tyrannus.
Furculum much arched anteriorly ; rami divaricating considerably from their junction,
afterwards nearly parallel.
Scapula as long as humerus, expanded towards the tip, gradually deflexed.
Vertebral column with the penultimate and three next vertebrae with dorsal processes.
119
Muscicapid^;.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[TlTYRIN^E.
I have also a specimen of Tityra inquisitor, which does not differ in form from the
foregoing.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 12
Length of ulna 17
Length of femur ...... 10
Length of tibia 16 J
Length of metatarsus .... 12
Length of sternum ...... 12
Breadth of posteriormargin of sternum 9
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 21
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 13
Breadth of pelvis 9
Ampelis, Linn.
Cedorum, Vieill
Type.
Cranium very broad in proportion to its length, much more so than among the
Muscicapidce, which in many respects it resembles ; interarticular bones of moderate
length. Palatine bones consisting of a narrow strip on their outer edges ; at about
half their length there is a strong, flattened, and blunt styliform process, pointing
inwards and backwards, from about twothirds of their length the points are bent
suddenly inwards towards the interarticular bones, and are expanded at their junction
with them.
Sternum and Pelvis similar to the Muscicapidce .
Coracoids shorter than in Muscicapa.
Furculum at the junction of the rami with a long, somewhat triangular, process,
pointing backward.
Winghones short ; ulna longer than the humerus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8£
Length of ulna 1 1
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia 13
Length of metatarsus .... * 8
Length of sternum ...... 12
Tenths.
Breadth ofposteriormargin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel ....:.. 4
Length of head 14
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis ..;... 9
120
AMPELID2E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Ampelinje.
Carpornis, G. P. Gray.
Rubrocristata, UOrb. $$ Lafr.
Cranium similar to the last, but with the nostrils smaller, and the bones composing
the skeleton more massive ; the edges of the orbits much recurved.
Sternum broader in proportion to its length, and the posterior fissures not so large ;
the keel not so deep.
Pelvis broader and stronger, particularly the anterior portion of it. In other respects
very similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 11
Length of ulna 1 3 J
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur ...... 10 J
Length of tibia 15
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum . . : . . . 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 15
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis : 7 J
Carpornis, G. P. Gray.
Melanocephala, Pr. Max.
Does not differ in form from Pubrocristata, except that the pelvis is smaller in pro
portion to the size of the bird.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 10 J
Length of ulna 15
Length of metacarpus .... 7
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 15
Length of metatarsus .... 8 J
Length of sternum 12
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 7 J
Breadth of head ...;.. 18
Length of pelvis 15
Breadth of pelvis 6
Tersa, Vieill.
Ventralis, III.
Cranium much broader in proportion to its length than in the foregoing ; in other
respects very similar. Palatine bones with the lateral shafts much bowed outward in
s 121
Ampelidje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Ampelin^e.
their centres, and having a triangular spine projecting inwards at their anterior
extremities ; space between the orbits much broader.
Sternum much narrower in proportion to its width.
Pelvis similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 9
Length of ulna 10 J
Length of metacarpus 4
Length of femur 7 J
Length of tibia ....... 10
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 7 J
Breadth of head 5 J
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis 7 J
Lipangus, Bote.
Plumbeus, Licht.
Similar to the foregoing, but with the ulna rather longer in proportion to the
humerus.
Phibalura, Vieill.
Flavirostris, Vieill.
Cranium similar to Ampelis, but with the hinder extremity of the palatine bones very
much expanded.
Sternum very broad in proportion to its width.
Pelvis narrower in proportion than in Ampelis ; ischiadic and obturator foramina
very large.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna . 12
Length of metacarpus .... 8J
Length of femur ...... 8 J
Length of tibia 8
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J
Depth of keel ........ 4
Length of head 13
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis ....:. 10
Breadth of pelvis 8
Irena, Horsf.
Puella, Lath.
Cranium long ; interorbital foramen much smaller in proportion than in Ampelis.
Palatine bones very much elongated on their lateral posterior margin.
122
A MPELID.E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Dicrurin^;.
Sternum broad in proportion to its length ; lateral fissures nearly closed ; keel deep.
Pelvis very broad in proportion to its length.
In other respects, as in Ampelis.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 11
Length of ulna 13
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur 9 J
Length of tibia 12 J
Length of metatarsus 6
Length of sternum 12
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 18
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis 12
Artamus, Vieill.
Leucogaster, Valenc.
Cranium much more convex than in Ampelis and Irena ; orbital foramina very large.
Palatine bones damaged.
Sternum not nearly so strong as in Irena, but with the posterior fissures nearly
closed ; keel deep.
Pelvis of moderate depth, the obturator foramen very large ; humerus short.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus 6J
Length of femur 6J
Length of tibia 11
Length of metatarsus 7 \
Length of sternum 9
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 3±
Length of head 16
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 9 \
Breadth of pelvis ; 9 J
Dicrurus, Vieill.
Densus, Temm.
There is scarcely any distinction between this genus and Artamus ; the above species,
however, differs in having two foramina on the posterior portion of the sternum, instead
of fissures. The other that T possess (Coracinus VerrJ has fissures on the margin, as
in Artamus ; the hinder margin of the sternum is also much wider than in Artamus, in
proportion to the breadth of anterior edge; the pelvis is also as long as wide.
D. Ballicarnassius is similar to Densus.
123
Ampelid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Measurements.
[PlPRINiE.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 14J
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 16J
Length of metatarsus ...... 9
Length of sternum 1 2 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 23
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 13
Breadth of pelvis 9
FaCHYCEPHALA, Sw.
Gutturalis, Linn.
Cranium slightly flattened from the vertex to the nostrils; orbital septum nearly
obliterated. Palatine bones with a spine on the outward edge, near their posterior
extremities, projecting backwards.
Sternum very broad ; fissures on the posterior margin very large.
Pelvis broader than long ; foramina of moderate size ; ulna longer than humerus.
Metatarsi long, with a keel on their posterior edge.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8
Length of ulna 10
Length of metacarpus 4 J
Length of femur 7
Length of tibia 1 2J
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum 8
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 2J
Length of head 13J
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 7
Breadth of pelvis 7 J
Copurus, Strich.
Filicauda, Spioc.
Cranium convex ; palatine bones very short, with a spine projecting backwards on
their outer posterior edges ; orbital septum with a moderatesized foramen.
Sternum of moderate size, not so broad as in Packycephala.
Pelvis very broad ; both obturator and ischiadic foramina very large ; vertebrae dis
tinguishable on the upper surface. In other respects similar to PachycephaXa.
Metacarpus long.
124
Ampelid^;.]
OSTEOLOGrA AVIUM.
[PlPRINJS.
Tenths.
7
Length of humerus ....
Length of ulna :...... 10
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia 10
Length of metatarsus 6J
Length of sternum 6 J
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel ........ 2
Length of head 10
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 7
Breadth of pelvis 6J
Pipra, Linn.
Caudata, Shaw.
Similar to the foregoing, but with pelvis broader, and the sternum with a deeper keel.
P. Manacus is also similar.
Rupicola, Briss.
Crocea, Bon.
Cranium flattened from the vertex to the nostrils, where there is a strong transverse
groove; orbital septum with a small foramen. Palatine bones very broad for their
whole length, their lateral posterior edge with a blunt process slightly pointing
outwards.
Sternum of moderate size, the process to which the ribs are attached very broad.
Pelvis of moderate size, longer than broad ; obturator foramen large ; the ischiadic
narrow.
Ulna much larger than humerus ; metacarpus long.
Metatarsi and legs generally rather short, the former with a very slight keel on the
hinder edge.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 19
Length of ulna 24
Length of metacarpus 11
Length of femur 14
Length of tibia 21
Length of metatarsus 14 J
Length of sternum 16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9±
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 21
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 21
Breadth of pelvis 11
Illustrations.
Sternum, metatarsi, and pelvis, Plate XVI. fig. 2.
125
OSTEOLOGIA AVfUM.
[Laniin^e.
Laniidjs.]
Lanius, Linn.
Collurio, Linn.
Cranium with a very slight depression across the nasal bones, and sloping very
gradually from the vertex to the nostrils; central channel small; orbital septa with a
small foramen. Palatine bones not divaricated at their hinder extremities, but merely
spatulate and rounded.
Sternum nearly as wide anteriorly as posteriorly; the posterior marginal fissures of
moderate size, and the edge of the sternum nearly straight.
Os furcatum very much curved in front and bent much inwards at its junction with
the sternum.
Pelvis longer than broad ; ischiadic foramen large and oval, about half as wide as
long in some ; obturator foramen of moderate size ; genera much narrower in propor
tion to its length than in others.
Metatarsi rather long, with a projecting rib down the hinder margin.
Ulna short in proportion to the humerus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 5J
Length of ulna 7
Length of metacarpus . . . . . 5
Length of femur 7
Length of tibia ....... 1 1
Length of metatarsus 9 J
Length of sternum 8J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J
Depth of keel 2J
Length of head 14j
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis 7
5
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate XI. F.
Cyclorhis, Sw.
Guianensis, Gm.
Cranium concave on its vertex; orbital septum with a large foramen. Palatine
bones broader at their hinder extremity.
Sternum broader in proportion to its length than in the last.
Pelvis similar.
Metatarsi longer in proportion to the tibia.
126
Laniid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Laniin^e,
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8J
Length of ulna 9±
Length of metacarpus 4
Length of femur
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum 8
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J
Depth of keel If
Length of head 15
Breadth of head ...... 7
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis 8
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, and tarsi, Plate XY1II. fig. 2
Pycnonotus, Kuhl.
Ashanteus, Stric.
Cranium very convex ; orbital septum with a moderatesized foramen ; humerus as
long as ulna.
Remainder of the skeleton similar to Lanius.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 10
Length of metacarpus .... 4 J
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum . . ... . 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 3
Length of head ...... 15
Breadth of head ...... 6
Length of pelvis ...... 11
Breadth of pelvis 7
Criniger, Temm.
Nivosus, Temm.
Similar to Lanius, but with the ulna rather longer in proportion to the humerus.
Thamnophilus, Vieill.
Undulatus, Mih.
Cranium similar to Lanius, but with orbital septum nearly obliterated ; indentation
for the massiter muscle very deep ; vertex convex.
Pelvis much narrower, especially anteriorly, than in Lanius, and much longer in pro
portion to its greatest width; the two sides of the ischium not united, so that the
127
Laniidje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Thamnophilin^e.
whole of the vertebrae to which they are anchylored can be seen from the upper sur
face ; ischiadic foramen very large, oval.
Sternum nearly as broad anteriorly as posteriorly ; posterior fissures larger than in
Lanius, and the keel not so deep.
Metatarsi long.
Ulna shorter than the humerus. Metacarpus more than half the length of the ulna.
The upper five vertebras next to the Atlas with the dorsal spines apparent.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
13 Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 J
12J Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
71 Depth of keel 3
16 J Length of head 27
26 Breadth of head 10
19 Length of pelvis 17
12J Breadth of pelvis 9
Thamnophilus, Vieill.
Severus, Licht.
I have a specimen of the above, and also Meleagris and Doliatus, Licht, neither of
which differ, except in size, from Undulatus.
Vang a, Vieill.
Nigrogularis, Gould.
Cranium rather flattened on the vertex; palatine bones bifurcate at their hinder
extremities; impression for the massiter muscle not so large as in Thamnophilus;
orbital septum perforated with a large foramen, but not so rudimental as in Tham
nophilus.
Sternum broader posteriorly than anteriorly; keel shallow; posterior fissures of
moderate size.
Pelvis nearly as broad as long ; vertebras scarcely traceable on the upper surface ;
obturator foramen very large ; ischiadic foramen oval, very wide.
Ulna much longer than humerus ; metacarpus long.
Metatarsus not so long in proportion as in Thamnophilus.
128
TuRDIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TuRDIN^E,
Vanga, Vieill.
Torquatus, Lath.
Similar to the foregoing, but smaller,
Lanarius, Vieill.
Peli, Bp.
Cranium with the vertex very convex ; orbital septum very nearly obliterated, con
sisting merely of a slight strip of bone. Palatine bones with their external edges bent
much downwards, and having a spine near their hinder extremities, pointing back
wards ; masseter impression small.
Sternum much narrowed behind the coracoids ; process for the attachment of the
ribs very long.
Pelvis as broad as long ; vertebra on the anterior half visible ; obturator and ischi
adic foramina both very large.
Vina slightly longer than the humerus ; metacarpus short.
Metatarsi long.
Os furcatum and coracoids long, the former much laterally compressed ; process at
its junction with the sternum very large, flattened, and pointing backwards.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . 10
Length of ulna ..11
Length of metacarpus .... 4J
Length of femur 10 J
Length of tibia 15J
Length of metatarsus 11
Length of sternum 10 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 16J
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 9J
Breadth of pelvis 9 J
Laniarius, Vieill.
Leucorhynchus, Rartl.
Similar to the foregoing.
Turdus, Linn.
Musicus, Linn.
Type.
Cranium very convex, with a slight channel running from the base of the bill, where
there is a deep transverse channel to the occiput ; orbital septum with a moderatesized
t 129
TuRDID.35.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Turdin_;e.
foramen ; masseter impression very slight. The palatine bones consist of a slight strip
of bone expanded near their hinder extremities, and slightly bent downwards.
Pelvis very broad ; obturator and ischiadic foramina large.
Sternum with the posterior margin very much rounded, with two large fissures, one
on each side ; the strips of bone bounding the outer edges of the fissures do not project
so far back as the edge of the central portion of the sternum.
Wingbones very short; the ulna longer than the radius.
Metatarsi of moderate length, with a slight keel down their posterior edge. Altogether
the skeleton of Turdus very much resembles that of Lanius.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 9J
Length of ulna 1 1 J
Length of metacarpus 6 J
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 17
Length of metatarsus 13
Length of sternum 14
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 17 J
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis ..'.... 14
Breadth of pelvis 8J
Illustrations.
Turdus, Chochi, Plate VII. F.
T0rdus, Linn.
Torquatus, Linn.
Turdus, Chochi, Pilaris, and Carbonarius are all similar to the foregoing, except in
measurements.
CoLLURIOCINCLA, Vlff. fy Horsf.
Selbii, Gould.
Cranium slightly more flattened from the vertex to the bill than in Turdus. In other
respects similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 11
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 11
Length of tibia ....... 18
Length of metatarsus ..... 13
Length of sternum 11 J
130
Tenths
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 8 J
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis 10 \
TURDIDJE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[TlMALINiE a
DoNACOBIUS, Sw,
Atracapillus, Linn,
Cranium with a large foramen in the orbital septa.
Pelvis and sternum smaller ; metatarsus longer.
Wings very short ; humerus as long as ulna. In other respects similar to Turdus,
Measurements.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Tenths.
9
9
H
H
16
121
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J
2
20
7
10
6
Depth of keel .
Length of head
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Hydrobata, Vieill.
Cinclus, Linn,
This bird does not differ from Turdus, except in having the posterior margin of the
sternum nearly straight, and in the fissures being smaller.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 9
Length of ulna ....... 10
Length of metacarpus 6 J
Length of femur 8J
Length of tibia 15
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum ...... 10
Tenths
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum, 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel ....... 3
Length of head ....... 16
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis . 14
Breadth of pelvis 8
Garrulax, Less.
Rufifrons, Less.
Cranium "with a very large foramen in the orbital septum. Palatine bones very
similar to Turdus, but not extending so far backwards. Masseter impression very
slight.
Sternum with a very narrow keel, and with the fissures on the posterior margin very
slight ; as wide anteriorly as posteriorly.
Pelvis broad ; ischiadic and obturator foramina very large. In other respects similar
to Turdus.
Vina longer than humerus.
131
TtJR»lDJ3.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[FoRMICARINjE.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus , . , . . 12
Length of ulna 14
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia ....... 18
Length of metatarsus 13
Length of sternum ..... 1 1
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 2
Length of head 20
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 13
Breadth of pelvis 9 J
Myophonus, Temvn.
Cyaneus, Horsf.
Cranium with the vertex moderately convex; orbital septum nearly obliterated.
Palatine bones similar to Tardus ; upper edges of the orbits recurved.
Pelvis rather narrow, much more so in proportion than in Turdus; obturator
foramen large ; ischiadic foramen almost obliterated.
Sternum with the hinder margin nearly straight ; a large fissure on each side on the
posterior margin ; keel shallow.
Ulna much longer than the humerus.
Metatarsi long.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia > .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum *
Measurements.
Tenths.
H
Uh
6
11
20
18
11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel . 2
Length of head . . 21
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis ...... 15
Breadth of pelvis 10
G&AkLlSrA, Vieill.
Imperator, Natt
Very similar to Myophonus, but differs in having very large fissures on the posterior
margin of sternum, which is very slightly rounded ; the process at the junction of the
branches of the furculum is broad, flattened, and points downwards* while in Turdus it
points backwards. The legbones are very long, the wings short* the ulna only being
slightly longer than the humerus,
is*
TtJRDID^,]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[FoRMICARINjE.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna ; .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
13*
16
7
13
26
21
12J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel . 4
Length of head 22
Breadth of head ...... 9
Length of pelvis 13J
Breadth of pelvis ...... 10
Grallaria, VieilL
Marginata, Pr. Max.
The only difference in form between this bird and the foregoing is that the pelvis is
broader; it still, however, has the same linear form of ischiadic foramen, and the pro
cess at the junction of the rami of the os furcatum points backwards.
ClNCLORAMPHCJS, Gould.
Cruralis, Vig. $ Horsf.
This bird has been classed with Malurus, but the skeleton is precisely that of
Grallaria, with the exception of the ischiadic foramen being rather more open.
Measurements,
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Tenths.
"J
131
6
11
20
16
12
Breadth of anterior margin
of sternum
6
Depth of keel . ,
Length of head .
Breadth of head .
2*
16
7
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
13
6*
FoRMICIVORA, SlV,
Grisea, Stride
Cranium with the vertex very convex, orbital septum nearly obliterated. Palatine
bones with the lateral spines pointing backwards, and very long,
Sternum very broad in proportion to its length.
Pelvis broad, the ischiadic foramen very large.
Humerus as long as ulna.
Legbones long.
1 have great doubts as to whether or not this is the right family for this bird.
133
Oriolidje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVfUM.
[Oriolin^e.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel 1
Length of head 12
Breadth of head ....... 5
Length of pelvis 6
Breadth of pelvis 5
Length of humerus 5J
Length of ulna 5J
Length of metacarpus ..... 3
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia 10
Length of metatarsus ..... 8
Length of sternum 5
Illustration.
Drymophila (Formicivora) loricata, Plate XI. F.
Oriolus, Linn.
Inter medius, Temm.
Type.
Cranium much depressed anteriorly to the vertex, and slightly hollowed out between
the orbits ; edges of the orbits not reflected ; septa with a moderatesized foramen.
Palatine bones rather strong, expanding at their posterior extremities abruptly ; the
outer margins elongated backwards in the form of a blunt spine ; interarticular bones
rather short ; nostrils rounded.
Sternum broad on its posterior margin, which is nearly straight; anterior margin
twothirds the width of the posterior ; the fissures on the posterior margin of moderate
size, and much contracted posteriorly; keel of moderate depth, slightly arched.
Pelvis of moderate size, nearly as broad as long ; channel very deep between the
ischium and the anterior sacral vertebrse, leaving their dorsal spine apparent ; ischiadic
foramen broad, oval, divided into two portions by a small strip of bone, the anterior
portion very small ; obturator foramen large.
Furculum with the rami much compressed laterally at their junction ; furnished with
a flattened process pointing backwards.
Coracoids rather long.
Metatarsi slightly channeled down the front, without any posterior keel.
Wingbones with the ulna longer than the humerus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . 11
Length of ulna 13
Length of metacarpus 7§
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 14
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
134
9
10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 2J
Length of head 18
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 11 J
Breadth of pelvis 9
Oriolidje.] osteologia avium. [Sterninje.
Oriolus, Linn.
Nigripennis, Verr.
Similar to the foregoing in all respects but in being rather smaller.
Stern us, Linn.
Vulgaris, Linn.
Type.
Very similar to Oriolus, but differs in having the sternum longer in proportion to its
width, and the keel deeper, the ischium more perpendicular to the plane of the ilium,
and in the tibia being longer in proportion to the femur.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10J
Length of ulna . . . . . . . 12
Length of metacarpus .... 7
Length of femur 10 J
Length of tibia 16 J
Length of metatarsus 1 1 J
Length of sternum . 12
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 18
Breadth of head 6 \
Length of pelvis ...... 13
Breadth of pelvis 7 \
Lamprotornis, Temm.
Cantor, Gm.
Similar to Sturnus, but has the palatine bones broader, and the manubrial process of
the sternum shorter.
Lamprocolids, Lund.
Purpuriceps, Verr.
Similar to the foregoing, but with the sternum rather longer in proportion to its
width, and the pelvis broader.
Pastor, Temm.
W. Australia.
Very similar to Sternus, but has the manubrial process much shorter, the inferior
edge of the keel more arched, and in the ischium not being placed quite so perpen
dicularly to plane of the pubis.
135
OltlOLIDiE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Sternin^e.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 14
Length of ulna : 18
Length of metacarpus .... 10
Length of femur 12
Length of tibia 20
Length of metatarsus 11 J
Length of sternum 15
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel ....... 4J
Length of head * 21
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis ...... 16
Breadth of pelvis 9
Sternopastor, Hodgs.
Jalla, Horsf.
The bird may at once be distinguished from the preceding by the shortness of the
sternum in proportion to its width.
Sternella, Vieill.
Ludoviciana, Linn.
Distinguished from all the other Sternina by the enormous fissures on the posterior
margin of the sternum, the greater proportionate depth of the keel, and the great
breadth of pelvis in proportion to its width.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 11
Length of ulna 14
Length of metacarpus ....... 8
Length of femur 14
Length of tibia 22
Length of metatarsus IT
Length of sternum .14
Breadth of posterior m argin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 14
Breadth of pelvis 11
Cassicus, Cuv.
Bifasciatus, Spix.
Cranium with the vertex very flat, with a protuberance behind the nostrils; occiput
with a very distinct occipital ridge ; upper edge of the orbits slightly recurved; orbital
septa with a large foramen.
Pelvis similar to Sternus.
Sternum with the posterior foramen rather small ; manubrial process much shorter
than in Sternus, but shallow.
136
.Oeiolidje.] osteologia avium. [Icterinjs.
Coracoids rather long.
Femur longer in proportion to the tibia than in Sturnus. Metatarsus with a
slight keel.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 18
Length of ulna 25
Length of metacarpus 11
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 4
Length of femur 16
Length of tibia 28
Length of metatarsus . . . . . 17
Length of sternum ...... 17
Length of head .
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
35
11
18J
Hi
Illustration.
Plate X. F.
Cassicus, Cuv.
Cristatus, Gm.
The only difference I can detect between this bird and the foregoing is that the
fissures on the posterior margin of the sternum are smaller, and the pelvis rather
shorter.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . .... 11
Length of ulna .13
Length of metacarpus 7
Length of femur ...... 10
Length of tibia . 15
Length of metatarsus 13
Length of sternum ...... 13
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 J
Depth of keel . 4
Length of head ....... 18
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis ...... 7 J
Icterus, Briss.
Melanocephalus, Wagl.
Very similar to Cassicus, but with the posterior marginal fissures of the sternum
smaller and nearly closed, the sternum of the same width both before and behind, and
having the ulna and humerus very nearly the same length.
u 137
Oriolid^;.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[IcTERINJS.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 10
Length of ulna 11
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur 9
Length of tibia ........ 15
Length of metatarsus 10J
Length of sternum 10J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Br eadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 17
Breadth of head • 7 J
Length of pelvis ...... 10 J
Breadth of pelvis 7
Quiscalus, Vieill.
Major,. Vieill.
The form of the skeleton of both the above bird and Quiscalus crassirostris are not
distinguishable except in size from Cassicus.
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, and metatarsus, Plate XVIII.
Agelaius, Vieill.
Chopi, Bp.
Very similar to Icterus, but has the posterior sternal fissures more open, the manu
brial process longer, and the keel deeper ; the hinder part of the sternum also wider
than the anterior, and the metatarsi longer in proportion to the tibia.
Ploceus, Cuv.
Erythrops, HarL
Cranium rounded, with a depression at the base of the lower mandible ; deep nasal
septa, with two small foramina. Palatine bones similar in form to the Sternid<e, but
shorter, and with the lateral processes more developed. Occipital ridge well marked.
Sternum similar in form to the Stumida, but with the apex of the keel receding, and
the plain of it being broader in proportion to the length.
Bibs similar to Sternidce.
Furculum similar to the Sternidte, but with the process at the junction of the rami
turned more abruptly upwards, not touching the sternum.
Coracoids long, nearly as long as the sternum.
Scapula longer than the humerus, slightly expanded towards the tip.
Wingbones with the ulna longer than the humerus.
Vertebral column well developed.
Pelvis of moderate size, with the ischiadic and obturator foramina rather large.
Legbones not differing in form from other insessorial birds.
138
Feingillid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA. AVIUM.
[PLOCINJO!
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 5 J
... i
... 31
Length of ulna . . .
Length of metacarpus .
Length of femur . .
6J
Length of tibia 11
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum .
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel . 2
Length of head 11
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 6 J
Breadth of pelvis ...... 6
COCCOTHRAUSTES, BHsS.
Cayanensis, Briss.
Cranium orbital septa with only one small perforation; upper edge of the orbits
recurved ; occipital ridge well marked ; indentation at the posterior margin of the
upper mandible well marked.
Sternum with the foramina on the posterior margin not so large as in Ploceus. The
whole skeleton in other respects similar to Ploceus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 9
Length of ulna . 12
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur ...... 9
Length of tibia . , 12J
Length of metatarsus
91
Length of sternum ..... 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 15
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis ...... 8
Fbjngilla, Linn.
Coelebs, Linn.
Cranium rounded, a slight channel extending from the slight depression at base of the
bill to the occiput ; orbital septum with the foramina. Palatine bones with the exterior
edges slightly deflexed ; occipital not well marked. :
Sternum and other bones similar to Coccothraustin(S
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . . .
Length of metacarpus .
Measurements,
Tenths. Tenths.
Length of femur ....*. 6
Length of tibia 11
Length of metatarsus ..... 7
139
Fringillid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Fringillin^:.
Measurements (continued.)
Tenths.
Length of sternum 8
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3
Depth of keel . , 3
Tenths.
Length of head 11J
Breadth of head 5 J
Length of pelvis 9
Breadth of pelvis 5
Fringilla, Linn.
Montifringilla, Linn.
Cranium with the occipital crest, not much more marked than in Coelebs ; one
fissure in the orbital septa, a very slight channel only proceeding backwards from the
base of the upper mandible.
Sternum longer in proportion than in the foregoing, and not so wide ; in other
respects similar, except in measurements
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 6 J
Length of ulna 8 J
Length of metacarpus .... 5
Length of femur 6 J
Length of tibia 10
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 9
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel ........ 3
Length of head 10
Breadth of head 5
Length of pelvis 8
Breadth of pelvis 6
Linaria, Selby.
Borealis, Vieill.
Does not appear to differ from Fringilla in any respect except in size,
Carduelis, Briss.
Elegans, Steph.
Similar to the last.
Chrysomitris, Boie.
Magellanica, Vieill.
There is a very slight difference in form between this genus and Carductis ; the
intermaxillary bones are smaller in the former than in the latter. The os furcatum is
longer in Fringilla, in proportion to size, than in Chrysomitris.
140
Fringillidje.] osteologia. avium. [Emberezinje.
Emberiza, Linn.
Citrinella, Linn.
The same general form exists in this family as in the last. I have also a skeleton
of Plectrophanes nivalis.
Pyrrhula, Mahr.
Vulgaris, Temm.
Cranium robust, with a deep impression, broader in proportion to its length behind
the nostrils than in Fringilla ; occiput with a small protuberance and a deep impres
sion on each side upper margin of the orbits, slightly recurved ; orbital septum with
only one foramen; channel for masseter muscles moderately developed. Palatine
bones broad at their hinder margins, and strong.
Sternum with the foramina on the posterior margin wider than in Fringilla, and the
sternum broader in proportion to its length.
Ribs stronger than in Fringilla.
Pelvis similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 7
Length of ulna ....... 8
Length of metacarpus ..... 4
Length of femur ...... 7
Length of tibia lin.
Length of metatarsus 8
Length of sternum ...... 8 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel ....... 3
Length of head . ...... 11
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 9 J
Breadth of pelvis ....... 6
Loxia, Linn.
Curvirostra, Linn.
' I have two specimens of this bird in my collection ; one I shot myself in Shropshire,
the other was killed in Yorkshire. The form of the skeleton of each is the same,
therefore the description of one will be sufficient; but I shall call them " 1," alluding
to the Shropshire specimen, and "2" to the Yorkshire one. The differences in size
may probably be sexual, but I have no means of determining that point at present.
Cranium robust, very powerful, agreeing with Pyrrhula in the formation of the
occiput, and in having the depression behind the nares ; the impression for the masse
ter muscles very highly developed, much more so than in any Insessorial bird with
which I am acquainted. Palatine bones strong, broad, depressed at their lateral
y 141
FltlNGILLlDiE.]
OSTEOLOGXA AVIUM.
[Loxian^:.
edges, and with a long deflexed process, blunt at the tip, arising from the anterior
portion of them. Inter maxillaries also strong.
Sternum more massive than in Fringilla ; the lateral foramina not so deep in propor
tion to its size as those found in the last mentioned genus.
Pelvis similar to Loxia.
Furculum with a very large flattened process extending backwards and upwards at
the junction of the rami.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ...... 7
of ulna 10
of metacarpus ..... 5
of femur ...... 6 J
of tibia 12
of metatarsus 6
Length
Length
Length
Length
Length
Length
of sternum ...... 10 J
Measurements. — (Specimen 1.)
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 9
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis 6 j
Measurements. — (Specimen 2.)
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 6
Length of ulna 8
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur ...... 6J
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 8J
Length of sternum 9
Tenths,
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J
Depth of keel 2
Length of head 14
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 9
Breadth of pelvis
From the above measurements there is but one conclusion to be come to — that
No. 2 specimen is made up: the head and body belong to Loxia curirostra ; the legs
are those of the common chaffinch.
Strobilophaga, Vieill.
Enucleator, Linn.
Except in the external character of the bill, very similar to the preceding.
Cranium broad and strong ; nostrils very large ; orbits larger than in the preceding.
Sternum similar in form.
Pelvis with the foramina large.
Ribs, furculum, coracoids, scapula, wing and leg bones similar.
142
TANAGRIDiE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Tanagrin^:.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 9 J
Length of ulna 11
Length of metacarpus .... 6
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 14
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum . . . . . 11
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel ....... 3f
Length of head 13J
Breadth of head ...... 7
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis ...... 10
Tachyphones, Vieill.
Quadricolor, Vieill.
Cranium with a slight channel from behind the nostrils to the occiput ; nostrils
large, oblong; orbital septum with a large foramen below, and a very much smaller
one above it ; occipital protuberance well marked. Palatine bones consisting of a
single thin strip of bone on each side, elongated into a sharp spine at about onefourth
their length from the hinder extremity of the lateral strips ; a styliform process extends
from them to the spheroid bone twice as broad at its junction with that bone as at the
opposite extremity.
Sternum similar to the Fringillidce.
Pelvis with three distinct foramina : the ischiadic, which is slightly oval ; the
obturator, which is also an elongated oval, anterior to which there is a small rounded
foramen immediately under the head of the femur, and divided from the obturator
foramen by a small strip of bone.
Ribs slender styliform process, pointed.
Furculum and coracoids similar to that of the Fringillidce.
Scapula with the hinder extremity turning more downwards than among the
Fringillidce.
Remaining bones similar.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Measurements.
Tenths.
9
4
7
12
81
11
Tenths.,
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel ....... 3
Length of head ....... 14
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 8 J
Breadth of pelvis ...... 8
143
Tanagridje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[TaNAGRINjE.
Tachyphonus, Vieill.
Coryphsens, Licht.
This species has been divided from Tachyphonus by Bonaparte, in his Conspectus,
under the name of Pyrrhota, but the osteology is not distinguishable.
Tanagra, Linn.
Ornata, Sparr.
Cranium with the upper foramen in the orbital septum largest.
Sternum with the fissures on the posterior margin deeper than in the preceding.
In other respects similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 9
Length of ulna 8
Length of metacarpus 5 J
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 12
Length of metatarsus 8
Length of sternum 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel . 3
Length of head 14 J
Breadth of head 5J
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis 7
Lampbotes, 8w.
Viridis, Spix.
Differs slightly from Tachyphonus in having the branches of the furculum more com
pressed, and the process at their juncture not so long.
Nemosia, Vieill.
Flavicollis, Vieill.
Differs from the other Tanagrince by the greater proportionate length of the
metatarsi, and in the orbital septa being divided by a very narrow strip of bone.
Nemosia ruficapillus, Vieill, is similar to the above, but rather smaller.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
144
6
7
H
6
11
9
H
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J
Depth of keel 2
Length of head 11
Breadth of head 5J
Length of pelvis 7
Breadth of pelvis 6
Tanagmdjs.] osteology avium. [Tanagrm.
Calliste, Boie.
Tricolor, Gm.
Besides the above, I possess two other species of this genus, — namely, Festiva, Sh.,
and Thoracica, Temm., none of which differ in any respect that I can discover from
Nemosia.
Euphonia, Desm.
Pectoralis, Lath.
I have also a specimen of Aureata. Vieill ; neither of them differ from Calliste, except
in not having the spine on the hinder portion of the palatine bones so much
elongated.
Saltator, Vieill.
Magnus, Gm.
The Saltatorin<z do not appear to differ from the Tanagrince in the form of the skele
ton, but may be distinguished by their large and robust bills. I have the following
species besides that named above : — Cyanopterus, Vieill; Cc&rulescens, Vieill; Pytylus
Gnaiho ; Pytylus torridus ; Pytylus, from Honduras; Arremon semitorquatus ; and
Diucopis capistratus, Bp.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 11
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus 5
Length of femur 9J
Length of tibia 15
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum . ..'... 10
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 16
 J b L
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 12
Breadth of pelvis ...... 8
Illustrations.
Skeleton PL 12 F, fig. 1.  Details PL 19, fig. 1.
Cor v us, Linn.
Corax, Linn.
Cranium and whole skeleton very strong and powerful, two small foramina perforat
ing the orbital septum ; occipital ridge well marked. Palatine bones very strong, the
lateral splints rounded and blunt at their hinder extremities, not extending far back
w 145
CoRVIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CoRVINiE.
wards, processes uniting them with the sphenoid very broad, broadest at their junction
with the lateral splints ; orbits large, upper edges slightly recurved ; deep transverse
indentation behind the nostrils.
Sternum rather short in proportion to its length, and altogether very much resembling
that of a Kaptorial bird, slightly rounded on its posterior margin, broader posteriorly
than anteriorly ; hinder margin indented with a shallow fissure on each side, rounded
anteriorly, and only very slightly contracted posteriorly ; keel deep in proportion to the
breadth of the sternum. Manubrial process much shorter and more robust than
among Insessores generally.
Pelvis, as in many other of the Insessores, with three foramina, — the ischiadic,
the obturator, and one situated below the femoral joint, and which is divided from
the obturator foramen by a much proportionately stronger septum than in the other
families of Insessores.
Eibs with the styliform processes pointed rather abruptly upwards, bluntly rounded
at their extremities, very clearly expanded between the styliform process and their
upper extremity.
Furculum much rounded at the junction of the rami, the process extending back
wards from their junction towards the sternum very slight.
Coracoids strong, deeply articulated into the sternum.
Scapula only slightly recurved at their hinder extremities.
Wingbones strong ; metacarpus long in proportion to the ulna, and the latter long
in proportion to the humerus.
Vertebral column, the first four or vertebrae next the atlas with strong and somewhat
lengthened dorsal processes, the fifth with a much slighter one, the sixth rudimental.
Legbones, tibia long in proportion to the femur, the fibula continued for its whole
length.
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
Length of humerus 33
Length of ulna 46
Length of metacarpus .... 23
Length of femur 28
Length of tibia 43
Length of metatarsus 25
J 6 l
Lensrth of sternum 32
~,5
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 13
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 50
Breadth of head 19
Length of pelvis 40
Breadth of pelvis 19
Corvus, Linn.
Cor one, Linn,
In every respect similar to the foregoing.
146
CoRVIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CoRVINiE.
Corvus, Linn.
Frugilegus, Linn.
Very similar to Corone, but has the dorsal processes of the vertebrae less marked ;
only one foramen in the orbital septum, and the foramina on the posterior margin of
the sternum nearly closed at their hinder extremities by the expansion of the lateral
splints.
Corvus, Linn.
Monedula, Linn.
Skeleton altogether much slighter than in the other species of the genus Corvus
mentioned.
Cranium. The orbital septum with two foramina.
Sternum with the posterior foramina very open, the lateral splints not reaching the
posterior margin.
Pica, Briss.
Candata, Ray.
Very similar to Corvus, but with the four vertebra? next the atlas only having dorsal
spines ; lateral splints on the posterior margin of the sternum expanded at their
extremities, partly closing the fissures, which are deeper than in Corvus, and not so
rounded at their anterior end.
Pelvis without the third foramen anterior to the obturator, which, as well as the
obturator, is large. Manubrial process very small ; scapula more recurved than in
Corvus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 1 9
Length of ulna . . . . . . .18
Length of metacarpus 11
Length of femur 16
Length of tibia 29
Length of metatarsus ..... 21
Length of sternum ...... 17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 5
Length of head ........ 27
Breadth of head. 12
Length of pelvis ...... 18
Breadth of pelvis 13
Nucifraga, Briss.
Caryocatactes, Linn.
Cranium with the mandibles rather straighter than in Corvus, the upper one extend
ing forwards in a nearly straight line beyond the lower, and only very slightly bent
downwards at the tip ; orbital septum with two small foramina.
147
CoRVIDJE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Gaerulin^;.
Sternum more elongated than in Corvus ; the fissures on the posterior margin
narrowed anteriorly to a point, the splints bounding them exteriorly, slightly expanded
at the tips ; manubrial process widely bifurcate at the extremity ; remaining bones
similar to Corvus ', but not so powerful.
Measurements,
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . 15
Length of ulna 18
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia 23
Length of metatarsus 16
Length of sternum 14
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel . .... 4
Length of head 32
Breadth of head 13
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis 11
Tenths.
Cephalopterus, Geoff.
Penduliger, Selater.
I have only fragments of this bird, taken from a skin sent home by Mr. Fraser.
Sternum very wide on its hinder margin ; foramina small, rounded lateral splints
very broad, very slightly expanded at their tips ; keel deep ; manubrial process short,
widely bifurcate, hinder margin indented in the centre.
Pelvis with the ischiadic foramen very large; obturator foramen very small;
os pubis very much elongated backwards.
Ribs with the styliform processes long, rounded at their extremities.
Furculum in shape similar to Corvus, and with the coracoids very long.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of femur 22
Length of sternum 22
Breadth of posterior margiu of sternum 1 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14
Illustrations.
Sternum and pelvis, Plate XVIII., fig, 3.
Cissa, Bote.
Sinensis, Bodd.
Very similar to Corvus, but with the whole of the skeleton much lighter, and not so
strongly formed ; the sternum has the sprints bounding the outer margin of the poste
rior foramina slightly curved inwards ; the obturator foramen large ; os pubis not
much elongated.
148
Depth of keel 7
Length of pelvis 25
Breadth of pelvis 16
CoRVIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [GARRULINiE.
Cissa, Bote.
Thalassina, Temm.
Does not differ from the preceding except in size.
Lophocitta, G. R. Gray.
Galariculata, Cuv.
Differs very slightly from Garrulus, but has the foramina at the hinder extremity of
the sternum much more contracted, and the outer strip expanded at the point.
Garrulus, Briss.
Rufulus.
Very similar to Cissa.
Coracias, Briss.
Garrula, Linn.
Very similar to the other Corvidce.
Sternum very slightly indented on the posterior margin opposite the end of the keel ;
foramina contracted at their hinder margin ; manubrial process very wide, bifurcate,
with the branches pointing upwards. Pelvis with a small foramen anterior to the
obturator, and divided from it by a strong strip of bone ; obturator wide. Palatine
bones nearly truncate at their hinder ends ; a blunt, broad, but very short spine, only
projecting at their outward edge.
Paradises, Linn.
Kubra, Vieill.
I have only the sternum, furculum, and coracoids of this species, brought home by
Mr. Wallace. The sternum is much longer, in proportion to its width, than among
the Corvidce generally; the lateral splints exterior to the foramina on the posterior
margin are very much expanded at their extremities ; manubrial process of moderate
length, and widely bifurcate.
Gymnorhina, G. JR. Gray.
Tibicen, Lath.
Cranium, orbital septum with two foramina, the anterior one much the largest. The
process uniting the palatine bones with the interarticular not so strong as in Corvus,
Sternum with the posterior foramina rather deep.
x 149
CoRVID^.]
OSTEOLOGIA. AVIUM.
[Gymnorhin^.
. Pelvis with three foramina, the one immediately below the acetabulum only divided
from the obturator foramen by a very narrow strip of bone ; ischiadic foramen very
large, slightly oblong.
Bibs having the styliform processes much the widest at their junction with the ribs,
and gradually tapering towards their extremity, which is rounded.
Neomorpha, Gould.
Gouldii, Gray.
Cranium, orbital septum with two foramina, the hinder one much the smallest ;
nostrils very large ; occipital ridge well denned, protuberance large, hollowed out in
the centre.
Sternum with the posterior foramina closed ; keel very shallow.
Pelvis rather short; foramina as in the Corvidae generally; ilium with two foramina,
one above the other, on the hinder margin, the lower one largest.
Furculum with the rami very wide apart ; process at their junction very small.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus .
Length of femur .
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Measurements.
Tenths.
Tenths
18
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
19*
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
H
Depth of keel 3
. .... 20
Length of head 34
39
Breadth of head 12
31
Length of pelvis 19
16
Breadth of pelvis 15
Illustration.
Skeleton,
PL IX. F.
150
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Numbering of the Vertebra and Ribs in
Insessores.
Cervical.
Dorsal. Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Chlorophanes atricapilla
10
6
8
6
6
6
Oxyramphus flamiceps .
12
7
8
7
6
1
Sitta velata ....
10
7
■ — '
—
—
"~~
Dendrocops platyrostris .
11
6
9
9
6
Picolaptes longirostris
11
6
10
6
6
Xiphorhynchus trochilirostris •
11
6
9
6
6
Furnarius rufus
11
6
9
6
6
Anabates leucopthalmus .
12
6
8
6
6
Troglodytes europseus
11
6
—
—
—
—i_
Tropidorhynchus argenticeps ■
12
7
9
6
6
Tropidorhynchus corniculatus •
12
7
9
6
6
Anthochaera carunculata .
13
6
10
6
6
Anthochsera lunulata
12
6
9
6
6
Anthochsera Lewinii
12
6
10
6
6
Aracnothera longirostris .
12
6
10
6
6
Dacnis cyanocephala
12
6
11
6
—
—
Myzomela nigra
11
6
—
6
6
Ptilotis chrysotis .
11
6
■ —
6
6
Acanthorhynchus superciliorus
12
7
—
—
6
Acanthiza diemensis
11
6
—
—
6
Hsematops atricilla
11
7
—
6
6
Myzantha garrula .
11
7
—
6
6
Nectarinia javanica
11
—
—
—
6
Menura lyra ....
13
7
12
8
6
Alauda arvensis
11
7
17
6
6
Melanocorypha tartaric a .
12
6
11
6
6
Alauda arborea
11
6
9
6
6
Motacilla flaveola .
11
6
10
6
6
Motacilla alba
13
6
8
5
5
Enicurus velatus
13
6
10
6
5
Grallina melanoleuca
14
6
—
6
6
Phsenicura tithys .
12
7
10
6
6
Sylvia Hippolais
11
6
10
6
6
Philomela lucinia .
12
6
12
6
6
Salicaria locustella .
11
8
—
6
6
Parula Braziliana .
11
7
13
6
6
Megalurus palustris
12
5
12
6
6
Regulus atricapillus
11
7
12
7
6
6
Saxicola oenanthe .
11
7
—
6
Muscicapa grisola .
12
7
10
5
6
6
Rhiphadura flabilifera
11
7
—
—
—
Myiagra W. Aust. .
12
7
—
6
6
Tchitrea melanopyga
12
7
10
6
6
6
Conopophaga lineata
11
7
10
5
Platyrhynchus cancromus
12
6
—
6
6
Tyrannus melancholicus .
11
6
10
8
6
Tyrannula supereiliosa .
12
7
—
7
6
6
6
Tytyra inquisitor .
11
7
10
6
Hirundo riparia
11
6
—
6
Ampelis cedorum .
9
8
12
6
6
Ampelis rubrocristatus .
11
7
—
6
6
Carpornis melanocephalus
12
7
10
7
6
6
Procnias ventralis .
13
7
10
6
Phibulura flavirostris
13
7
11
6
6
Lipangus plumbeus
13
8
11
7
6
Campephaga griseus
13
7
"
6
8
151
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Campephaga larvatus
Dicrurus Hallicassius
lrena puella .
Artamus leucogaster
Pachycephala gutturalis
Ptilochloris virescens
Copurus filicaudus .
Manacus guttatus .
Rupicola aurantia .
Parus cEeruIeus
Lanius collurio
Thamnophilus undulatus .
Thamnophilus meleagris .
Vanga destructor .
Vanga nigrogularis
Laniarius peli
Laniarius leucorhynchus ,
Pycnonotus ashanteus
Pycnonotus nivosus
Turdus choki .
Turdus musicus
Turdus torquatus .
Cinclus aquaticus .
Grallaria imperator .
Chamseza marginata
Garrulax rufifrons .
Myophonus glaucinus
Donacobius atricapillus
Drymophila loricata
Formicivora grisea .
Sternus vulgaris
Larnpostornis cantor
Sternella Ludoviciana
Pastor — Australia
Sternopastor jalla .
Agelaius chopi
Oriolus intermedius
Cassicus bifasciatus
Cassicus cristatus .
Icterus melanocephalus
Molothrus sericeus .
Hyphantornis brachypterus
Ploceus erythrops .
Textor melanocephala
Fringilla montifringilla
Fringilla spinus
Peospisa thoracica .
Plectrophanes nivalis
Zonotrichia matutina
Amadina nitens
Chrysomitris magellanicus
Spermestes poensis .
Caryothraustes cayanens
Strobilophaga enucleator
Cocothraustes hasmatina ,
Emberiza milaria .
Emberiza citrinella
Loxia curvirostris .
152
Cervical.
11
14
12
11
11
11
12
11
11
10
11
12
13
11
12
12
12
12
12
12
11
12
10
12
12
12
12
12
12
11
12
11
12
12
10
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
13
11
12
12
11
12
12
12
11
11
12
10
10
11
11
Dorsal.
6
6
7
7
7
6
7
7
7
7
6
7
7
6
6
6
7
7
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
7
6
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
10
12
10
10
7
9
9
12
10
10
12
11
10
10
10
10
9
9
11
12
11
12
11
13
11
12
6
8
10
9
11
11
9
1
11
11
11
10
9
9
10
9
8
10
9
10
11
11
11
9
9
9
6
6
6
1
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
6
6
6
9
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
5
6
7
6
6
6
6
6
6
4
4
6
4
4
4
5
6
4
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Aremtnon semitorquatus .
11
7
9
6
6
Pytylus gnatho
12
6
9
6
6
Saltator caerulescens
11
6
9
6
6
1
Stephanophorus caeruleus
11
6
9
—
6
Diucopis capistratus
12
6
10
6
6
Lamprotes viridis .
12
7
10
6
6
Tanagra ornata
11
6
9
6
6
Tachyphonus quadricolor
12
6
9
6
6
Nemosia flavicollis .
11
6
9
6
6
Calliste tricolor
11
6
9
6
6
Euphonia aureata .
12
6
9
6
6
Corvus corax
12
7
10
8
6
Corvus corone
12
6
9
8
6
Corvus frugilegus .
11
6
9
7
6
Corvus monedula .
12
6
10
7
6
Pica caudata .
12
6
7
6
6
Coracias gracula
12
6
10
6
6
Nucifraga caryocatactes .
11
7
9
6
6
Cissa thalasina
12
6
9
6
6
Crypsirina Jeucoptera
12
7
10
8
6
Lophocitta galericulata .
12
7
11
—
6
Gymnorhina tibicen
12
6
9
7
6
Neomorpha Gouldii
13
6
11
7
6
Remarks on the Order Insessores.
There is less difference between the skeletons of the different families constituting
this order than in any other ; so much so, that it is almost impossible to point out any
well marked characteristics of each, except measurements.
The Menuridce are distinguished more distinctly perhaps than any others by the
claws, the sternum, and the arrangement of the pelvinal bones.
The genus Pteroplochos has the same form of claw as Menura, but has two foramina
on each side of the sternum.
The Certhiadce may be distinguished from the Menuridce by the form of the sternum,
the palatine bones, and the pelvis, and in not having the edge of the orbits
recurved.
The Dendrocolaptinm have the orbital septum nearly entire.
The Sitiince differ from the Certhince in having the sternal keel deeper, and the
Furnarince from all the foregoing by the greater breadth of the pelvis in conjunction
with the greater depth of keel.
The MeliphagidcB may be distinguished from the Certhiadce by the narrowness of the
pelvis, the deep indentation down the centre, and the manner in which the ilium over
hangs the ischium, the rami of the furculum being much compressed towards one
another, and for a great portion of their length being nearly parallel one to the other ;
the manubrial process turned upwards, and the palatine bones with the edges turned
downwards.
y 153
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
The Paridcs may be distinguished by the form, of the head of the furculum, by the
very short pelvis, and by the humerus being shorter than the scapula.
Alaudida have two foramina in the orbital septum.
The Motacillidce may be distinguished from the Sylviadce by the larger sternum, and
pelvis, the more arched furculum, and longer manubrial process.
The Sylviadce are so closely allied in form to the Motacillidce as scarcely to be dis
tinguishable from them, except by the structure of the hind toe.
The Muscicapidce have a very large and strongly bifurcate manubrial process, a very
great depression at the base of the nasal bones, very short leg bones, and the occipital
ridge and protuberance very distinct.
The cranium in the Ampelidce differs from the Muscicapidce in having the branches
of the palatine bones further from one another, and being armed with a blunt spine
on their hinder extremities.
The form of the palatine bones in most of the species at once distinguishes the
Laniidce from the typical Ampelidce ; the sternum also is smaller, and not so broad on
the posterior margin in proportion to the anterior ; and the ischiadic foramen instead
of being a mere slit, as among the Ampelidce, is oval.
The Oriolidce have the sternum in the typical species with the edge of the posterior
margin very slightly rounded ; the palatine bones also differ in form from any of the
preceding ; the ischiadic foramen is divided by a long splint, forming a third small
foramen in the pelvis, near the acetabulum.
The Fringillidce have the sternum longer in proportion to its width than it generally
is among the Oreolidce and Sternidce ; the cranium is shorter in proportion to its width ;
the nares are larger, and the coracoids shorter.
The Tanagridce are very closely allied to the finches ; but the form of the palatine
bones appears to form a distinctive mark, and to draw a distinction between the two
families.
The Corvidce differ considerably among themselves, and also from the other Insessores.
Taking the typical species Corvus corax, or our English raven, the carnivorous crows
approach towards the Kaptores; but another division, which feed chiefly on fruits,
and also molusca on the sea shore, have a weaker skeleton, and generally a quicker
flight. In no instance that I am aware has any member of this family more than one
foramen on each side of the posterior margin of the sternum ; the cranium has
invariably an indentation posterior to the nares. The palatine bones are always strong,
but vary slightly in form, and the posterior spine is always blunt.
154
CoLUMBIM.] OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. [GoURIN,E„
Order VIII. BIPOSITORES.
FAM. 1. COLUMBIDJE.
Subfam. GouRiNiE.
Goura, Flem.
Coronata, Lath.
Cranium with the vertex very convex ; occiput from the vertex flattened ; occipital
ridge and protuberance well marked, but rounded, the outline not being sharp ; orbits
large ; septum with one rounded foramen. Palatine bones consisting of a narrow strip
of bone expanded at the hinder part into two broad and oval plates, the margins bent
downwards, the inner edge terminated anteriorly by a strong spine. Intermaxillary
bones divided, except at their anterior extremities, not anchylosed to the zygomatic
bones, but having a large elongated slit between them. Zygomatic bone bifurcate near
its middle, throwing off a branch backwards, which is anchylosed to the anterior end of
the frontal bones, thus much strengthening the upper mandible. Lower mandible
curved downwards, with a wellmarked groove extending backward from the tip for
about half its length, and much elongated behind the capsule, articulating it with the
os quadratum.
Sternum with the keel very deep, the lower edge much rounded from the front
backwards. Central portion much narrowed towards the hinder extremity, near which
there are two small fissures ; the external strips of bone forming them are weak and
narrow, do not extend quite even with the posterior margin, and are expanded at their
extremities ; anterior to these two posterior fissures are two other very large and
patent ones, formed by projecting strips of bone arising from the body of the sternum
at twothirds of its length from the hinder extremity, their outer extremities much
expanded, the anterior extending forwards as far as the second rib, and the posterior
point elongated to opposite onethird the length of the sternum from its hinder
extremity ; manubrial process very small, consisting merely of a small knob ; anterior
edge of the keel excavated,
Pelvis large and broad, very broad anteriorly in proportion to the portion behind the
acetabulum. Ischiadic foramen oval ; large obturator consisting of a long slit. Os
pubis of equal breadth throughout, projecting only very slightly beyond the ilium,
which has a broad open fissure on its hinder extremity.
Ribs very strong, five furnished with a strong and broad styliform process, blunt,
and rounded at the extremities,
155
CoLUMBIDJJ.]
OSTEOLOGIA. AVIUM..
[GoURIN^.
Furculum weak, without any process at the junction of the rami, not united to or
touching the sternum, flattened transversely for its lower half, and triangular near its
junction with the coracoids.
Coracoids strong, with a slight keel running down the middle of their lower half; a
strong spine projects from their outer edge just above their articulation with the
sternum.
Scapula much expanded towards the hinder extremity, which is rounded and slightly
deflexed.
Wingbones short and strong. Proximal extremity of the humerus with a large
process projecting outwards and horizontally at its upper and outer angle.
Legbones of moderate length ; femur rather short, with the condyles at the distal
extremity very distinctly developed. Fibula extending for half the length of the
tibia.
Metatarsus is of moderate length, slightly flattened, and for twothirds of its length
in front indented by a channel, deepest at the upper extremity, slightly twisted inwards
as it proceeds downwards, and becomes gradually obliterated ; calcineal ridge well
marked at its upper extremity, but gradually becoming obliterated as it proceeds down
Ward ; adjoining it, on the inner side, is a channel, down which the flexor muscles of the
toes pass to the accessory metatarsal bone by the side, which they pass down a channel
formed by that bone being twisted on its axis so as partly to enclose them.
Vertebral column, the four penultimate vertebrae with dorsal spines.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 39
Length of ulna 47
Length of metacarpus 24
Length of femur 31
Length of tibia ....... 50
Length of metatarsus 35
Length of sternum 49
Breadth of posterior margin of)
sternum, including lateral strips)
9
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17
Depth of keel 19
Length of head 39
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 50
Breadth of pelvis posteriorly . . 27
Breadth of pelvis anteriorly
16
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate I. G.
Sternum, pelvis, and palatine bones,
Plate XX. fig. 1.
Peristera, Sw.
Jamaicensis, Linn.
Cranium similar in shape to that of Goura. Orbital septum perforated in the centre
by one large round foramen, and above and posterior to it another one somewhat
156
COLUMBID^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM,
[Peristerin^.
elongated, so as nearly to obliterate the septum, a small bony ring and a small
strip of bone dividing the foramina only being left. Palatine bones similar to
Goura coronata. Near the centre of the inner edge of the interarticular bone a rounded
protuberance projects, and is articulated with a similar protuberance projecting from
the sphenoid. In Goura the interarticular bones are somewhat expanded for their
anterior half, but have no similar projection, Kemaining bones of the head similar to
Goura.
Sternum with the strips bounding the posterior fissure expanded at their tips ; the
strips bounding the large anterior fissure, instead of being expanded at their tips, as in
Goura, are more elongated and pointed, with the terminal portion bent inwards.
Manubrial process small, but longer than in Goura.
Pelvis short, very broad in proportion to its length, particularly in that portion
before the acetabulum ; in shape similar to Goura, as is also the remaining part of the
skeleton.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 15
Length of ulna 17J
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur .15
Length of tibia ....... 22
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum 25
Breadth of posterior margin of]
sternum, including lateral strips J
15
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 22
Breadth of pelvis anteriorly . . . 10
Breadth of pelvis posteriorly . . 11 J
Champelia, Sw.
Passerina, Linn.
Does not differ in structure in any respect from the preceding genus, but is much
smaller in size.
Columba, Linn.
Palumbus, Linn.
Cranium similar in shape to Goura, but with a slightly more protruding occiput
Orbital septum with three foramina, — one rounded, situated at lower part, one at the
top over it, and another smaller one anterior to both ; occipital protuberance and ridge
both more prominent than in Goura. Interarticular bones with a process on their
internal edges, but not reaching quite to the sphenoid bone.
z 157
CoLTJMBIDJE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Columbine
Sternum with the hinder splints bounding the fissures expanded at their tips ;
anterior splints also expanded at their tips posteriorly.
Pelvis with the obturator foramen very narrow. Ischiadic foramen oval, much
smaller than in Peristera and Goura, but quite as broad.
Bibs with the styliform process broad, the former broadest where the process joins
them, the latter rounded at their extremities.
Furculum and remainder of the skeleton as in Goura.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . , 18
Length of ulna ....... 23
Length of metacarpus 12
Length of femur 18
Length of tibia ....... 22J
Length of metatarsus 13
Length of sternum 26
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Tenths
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel . .
Length of head ....
Breadth of head . . .
Length of pelvis . . .
Breadth of pelvis anteriorly
Breadth of pelvis posteriorly
10
26
9
26
12
16
Columba, Linn,
Magnifica, Selby.
Cranium similar to that of Palumbus, but with the anterior foramen through the
orbital septum as large as the one posterior to it ; the intermaxillaries articulated to
the sphenoid ; lower mandible curved downwards.
Sternum with the keel not so deep as in Palumbus, but of similar form.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 j
Depth of keel 7 J
Length of head 26
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 33
Length of humerus
Tenths.
, 25
Length of ulna .29
Length of metacarpus . . . . 15
Length of femur ...... 21
Length of tibia . 21
Length of metatarsus 14
Length of sternum . . . . . 25
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 J
Illustrations,
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, Plate XX. fig. %
Besides those already mentioned, I have specimens of C. LivicB, C Capistrata, and
C. Alba, none of which differ materially in form from the preceding.
Breadth of pelvis anteriorly .
Breadth of pelvis posteriorly
13
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Theronin^.
CoLUMBIDiE.]
Turtur, Selby.
Auritus, Ray.
I have the following species of this genus, all of which are similar to Columba,
except in size: — T. Erythrophrys and Tamboinensis.
TreroNj Vieill.
Aromatica, Gm.
Cranium similar in shape to the foregoing pigeons ; the orhital septum perforated by
three small foramina ,• interarticular very small and weak, with a process on their
internal edge, which does not reach as far as the sphenoid bone.
Sternum either with foramina on its hinder edge, or with the fissures nearly closed
by the expansion at the tip of the strips on their hinder ends ; anterior strip bounding
the large lateral foramen much expanded at its tip, most so in a downward and back
ward direction.
Remainder of the skeleton similar to Columba.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 13
Length of ulna 17
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia 19
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum 19 j
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8 J
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 18
Breadth of head . ....'.: 7
Length of pelvis ...... 21
Breadth of pelvis anteriorly ... 10
Breadth of pelvis posteriorly . . 11
Ptilonopus, Sw.
Cinctus, Temm.
Does not differ from Treron, except that the keel is slightly narrower. Ptilonopus
melanocephalus is also similar.
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, metatarsus, pelvis, and sternum, Plate XXI. fig. %
Phalacrotreron, Bp.
Nudirostris, Sw.
Not differing in any way from Treron.
Illustrations:
Palatine bones, sternum, metatarsi, and pelvis, Plate XXI, fig. 1.
159
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Numbering of the Vertebra* and Ribs in
BlPOSITORES.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Goura coronata
Champelia passerina
Columba palumbus .
magnifica .
capistrata .
Ptilonopus melanocephala
Treron aromatica
13
12
13
12
12
12
11
6
6
6
6
6
6
5
13
12
13
12
12
12
6
7
6
6
6
4
4
o
4
4
4
5
2
2
1
3
3
2
1
Remarks on Bipositores.
The great breadth of the pelvis, the depth of the sternal keel, the process on the
interarticular bone, and the absence of any process at the junction of the rami of the
furculum, will at once distinguish this order from others. The Francolince perhaps
approach nearest to it. Not having any bones of the Dodo, I am unable to say how
nearly they coincide in structure with the pigeons ; but the form of the accessory
metatarsal, although general among pigeons, is not by any means peculiar to them.
160
TETRAONIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM, [P T EROCLINiE.
Order IX. BASQUES.
FAM. 1. TETEAOIIBJE.
Subfam. Pteroclin^e.
Pterocles, Temm.
Arenarius, Pall.
Cranium. Vertex, and occiput rounded regularly, and not projecting, as in the
pigeons; occipital ridge and protuberance not large, but distinct. Palatine bones
consisting of a narrow strip forwards, and slightly expanded posteriorly near their
junction with the interarticular bones; interarticular bones joining the sphenoid, as in
the pigeons.
Sternum large in young birds, with two large fissures on the hinder margin, which
are obliterated in old birds. I have an old specimen with only a very small foramen
on one side ; keel very deep, anterior edge much scolloped out, and channelled for
the upper half; the strip of bone bounding the anterior fissure expanded at its tip
in a downward direction.
Pelvis broad behind the acetabulum ; the divisions of the vertebrae well marked on
the upper surface, a large foramen on each side caused by the transverse vertebral
processes not being prolonged so as to anchylose with the ilium; this foramen is in both
young and old specimens, and is also to be seen in P. alchata. Ischium with a pro
jection near the posterior edge, and above the ischiadic foramen.
Ribs of moderate strength, the styliform process very broad for its proximal half,
turning upwards and pointed at its extremity.
Furculum very small and very short, not reaching to above onethird of the distance
from the coracoids to the point of the sternum, with a very slight process at the
junction of the rami transversely flattened for its lower half, then twisted on its axis
and flattened longitudinally, and slightly expanded at its junction with the coracoids.
Coracoids very short, extending slightly beyond the edge of the sternum, with a
slight spinous process on the inner edge a little above their articulation with the
sternum.
Scapula regularly and much arched for twothirds of its distal extremity, and
rounded at the tip.
Wingbones short ; humerus much shorter than the ulna, with a process similar to
that in the Columbidce on its upper proximal margin.
2 a 161
TETRAONIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TETRAONINiE.
Legbones. The tibia very long ; metatarsus very short ; calcineal ridge very deep at
the upper end, and gradually tapering off to a short spur at the junction of the
accessory metatarsal bone, which is not twisted over the flexor tendons as among the
pigeons.
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
Length of humerus 20J
Length of ulna ....... 24
Length of metacarpus 12
Length of femur ...... 13
Length of tibia 23
Length of metatarsus 9 J
Length of sternum 31
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel . 12*
Length of head 20
Breadth of head 9±
Length of pelvis 30
Breadth of pelvis 15
Pterocles, Temm.
Quadricinctus, Temm.
My specimen of this bird is a young one, but is without the foramina in the pelvis
between the ilium and sacral vertebrae ; has the spur on the metatarsus articulated to a
calcineal bone, situated about the same height up the metatarsus as the spur is in
P. arenarius ; and the posterior margin of the sternum is without foramina.
Pterocles, Temm.
Alchata, Linn.
Similar to the foregoing, but with the foramina on the upper surface of the pelvis,
as in P. arenarius. Metatarsal spur articulated to a very small flat calcineal bone.
Sternum with two foramina on its hinder margin.
Syrrhaptes, III.
Paradoxus, III.
Similar to the foregoing, but without the metatarsal spur.
Tetrao, Linn.
Urogallus, Linn.
Cranium. My specimen is that of a female. Cranium much elongated behind the
orbits; occipital crest and protuberance well marked, the latter with a deep inden
tation on each side ; a deep indentation extending over the vertex. Palatine bones
consist of narrow strips of bone flattened perpendicularly, and very slightly wider
towards their hinder ends. Orbital septum with two small foramina, the upper one
somewhat elongated, the lower one rounded; the ethmoid bone appears in the shape of
162
TETRAONIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM [TeTRAONINjE,
an elongated strip between the nasal ones. Lower rnaxillaries with a very large
foramen, and much elongated by a spine projecting from the lower part of its hinder
edge.
Sternum. The body or central part very narrow, with two very large foramina on each
side, the first or innermost bounded by a long strip of bone extending almost as far back
wards as the hinder margin of the sternum, expanded at the tips both upwards and
downwards, and continued forward nearly to the junction of the ribs, until it joins
another strip of bones forming the boundary of the outer foramen, which is also
expanded at the tips, and pointed upwards. Manubrial process very large and broad,
not bifurcate, truncated at the anterior extremity ; keel very deep, slightly rounded on
its lower edge, and curved inwards on its anterior edge, which for onehalf of its length
has a channel proceeding from the manubrial process.
Pelvis broad ; obturator foramina very narrow, with another small rounded one at
its terminus under the cotyloid cavity, and divided from it by a slight strip of bone ;
the ilium projects considerably over the ischium, particularly behind the acetabulum ;
there is a very deep indentation on the upper surface at about one third of its length
between the ilium and the sacral vertebra?, in the same situation that a foramen exists
in some species of PterocUs.
Ribs of moderate strength ; styliform process rounded at the extremity.
Furculum of moderate strength, with a very large triangular process at the junction
of the rami, truncate at the lower extremity, and with the sides compressed.
Coracoids of moderate length, with a rounded process on the outside at their
proximal extremities, beyond the articulation with the sternum.
Scapula strong, slightly arched ; expanded at the hinder extremity, which is blunt,
and slightly rounded.
Legbones of moderate size.
Metatarsus with a large calcineal bone extending to the accessory metatarsal bone,
which is slightly twisted on its axis, but not so much as among the pigeons. Tetrao
saliceti, T. sioticus, T. tetrix, T. cupido, and Islandorum are all very similar in structure.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 38
Length of ulna . . 37
Length of metacarpus 18
Length of femur "32
Length of tibia 40
Length of metatarsus 22
Length of sternum ...... 49
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 22
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 8
Depth of keel 16
Length of head . 32
Breadth of head 14
Length of pelvis 51
Breadth of pelvis 27
Illustration.
Plate I. H. Skeleton.
163
Tetraonidje.] osteologia avium. [Odontophorinje.
Bonasa, Steph.
Sylvestris, Brehm.
Cranium similar to Tetrao in general shape, but having the palatine bones more
arched outwards.
Legbones. Accessory metatarsal extending upwards, but very slightly twisted;
calcineal ridge very small.
Odontophorus, Vieill.
Nigricollis, Gould.
I have only the sternum and pelvis of this bird, both of which agree in shape with
the other Tetraonidce, except that the two fissures next the body of the sternum are very
large and deep ; and there is scarcely a trace of the outer fissures, the splint bounding
them being very short.
Perdix, Briss.
Cinerea, Linn.
Cranium rounded; occipital ridge very large. Palatine bones flattened perpendicu
larly, expanded at their junction with the interarticular bones, and almost touching one
another. Orbital septum with three foramina ; nostrils large, rounded.
Pelvis much narrower in proportion to its length than in Tetrao ; the central
depression at the junction of the ilium, with the vertebrae very deep. Ischiadic
foramen rounded ; no obturator foramen is apparent.
Sternum with the internal fissures very large, and a slight notch near their anterior
extremities ; the central portion of the sternum very narrow ; splints bounding the
outer cavity short, and expanded at their extremities ; anterior edge of the keel very
much excavated. The remainder of the bones similar to Tetrao.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 20
Length of ulna 19
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur 22
Length of tibia 32
Length of metatarsus ..... 21
Length of sternum ...... 3
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel . 6J
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 24
Breadth of pelvis 10
Francolinus, Steph.
Capensis, Gm.
Cranium similar to Perdix, but with the nostrils more oval. Palatine bones similar*
but much flattened laterally,
164
Perdicin^;.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Odontophorin^.
Sternum similar, but with the splints enclosing the outer fissure on each side longer,
and much more expanded at their tips.
Pelvis with the central channel at junction of the ilium with the vertebrae not
nearly so deep as in Perdicc.
Metatarsi with the calcineal ridge very prominent, armed with a spur; the
supplementary metatarsal bone similar to the Columbidce.
Kemaining bones as in Perdix.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . .... 26
Length of ulna 24
Length of metacarpus 12
Length of femur ...... 29
Length of tibia 39
Length of metatarsus 25
Length of sternum ...... 30
Tenths,
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 16
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis 37
Breadth of pelvis 15
Francolinus, Steph.
Ponticerianus, Gm.
The bones are precisely similar to the foregoing, but smaller.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 16
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus .... 9
Length of femur 15 J
Length of tibia 27
Length of metatarsus 17
Length of sternum 24
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 8
Length of head , . 19
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 24
Breadth of pelvis . . . . . . 10
Callipepla, Wagl.
Californica, Lath.
Pelvis similar to Francolinus ; in other respects it does not differ from Perdix^
except measurements,
2 b 165
PHASIANIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PAVONINiE.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus ...... 5
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia ....... 22
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum 20
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 6 J
Length of head 14
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 18
Breadth of pelvis 8
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, sternum, and pelvis, Plate XXII. fig. 1 .
Pavo, Linn.
Muticus, Linn.
Cranium small in proportion to the size of the rest of the skeleton. Palatine bones
laterally flattened ; interarticular bones small in the middle, and expanded at the two
extremities. Orbital septum with one foramen ; nostrils oval.
Sternum with a very deep keel, much excavated in front ; manubrial process very
large, and perpendicularly flattened ; sternal posterior fissures of about a proportional
size in comparison with other gallinaceous birds ; the extremities of the splints border
ing the fissures very much expanded.
Pelvis precisely similar to Perdicc ; ischiadic foramen very large and oval ; obturator
anteriorly oval, with a slight slit proceeding backwards, between the ischium and
os pubis. Pelvis much shorter, in proportion to its width, than in Perdix\ the
divisions on the vertebrae on the upper surface very distinct ; a strong spine projects
from the end of the ilium forwards before the acetabulum.
Bibs very strong ; styliform process broader in the two anterior true ribs than in the
others.
Furculum very short, flattened for twothirds of its length, and gradually becoming
more rounded to the junction of the branches ; process at the junction triangular, the
broadest end pointing towards the keel and turned backwards, as among the Perdicince.
Coracoids very strong, somewhat triangular
Leg bones. Metatarsus with a strong calcineal process, armed with a spur and
anchylosed to it to nearly its junction with the tibia, where there is an elongated
fissure between the two bones ; supplemental metatarsus twisted on its axis, like
that of many other gallinaceous birds.
166
Phasianid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Phasianin^:.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 56 J
Length of ulna 53
Length of metacarpus 22
Length of femur 48
Length of tibia 85
Length of metatarsus 66
Length of sternum 73
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9
Depth of keel 25
Length of head .
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
33
15
64
32
Phasianos, Linn.
Colchicus, Linn.
Cranium. Orbital septum with two foramina — one situated at the top of septum,
the other below it and on the hinder portion. Palatine bones flattened, with the
upper edges not placed so perpendicularly as in Perdix, but inclining inwards ; nostrils
large, oval. The foramen lacerum posterius very large.
Sternum similar to most of the foregoing gallinaceous birds.
Pelvis similar to Pavo, but having the process projecting before the acetabulum
much longer.
Scapula expanded in the centre, and blunt at the ends.
Ribs of moderate strength, the styliform processes turned much upward, and having
a projection on their lower edges.
Os furcatum with the rami rounded at their junction, a large triangular process
turned slightly towards the sternum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 28
Length of ulna ....... 25
Length of metacarpus 6
Length of femur . . . . . . 33
Length of tibia 42
Length of metatarsus ..... 25
Length of sternum 46
Phasianus, Linn.
Nycthemerus, Linn.
Similar to the foregoing.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel ....... 14
Length of head .26
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 40
Breadth of pelvis 15
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate III. H.
167
Phasianidje.] osteologia avium. [Phasianinje.
Thaumelia, Wagl.
Picta, Linn.
Also similar to Colchicus, except in size.
Argus, Temm.
Giganteus, Temm.
Cranium with the occipital ridge well marked; orbital septum with the foramina
very small. Palatine bones similar in shape to Phasianus.
Sternum with a very deep keel, the end of splint bounding the outer fissure very
broad, the inner one with the tip turned inwards.
Pelvis similar to Phasianus, but with the notch anterior to the acetabulum very
strong.
Furculum with the process at the junction of the rami triangular, but not so large in
proportion as in Phasianus ; the other parts of the skeleton also similar to Phasianus.
Metatarsus without a spur.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 39
Length of ulna 41
Length of metacarpus 14
Length of femur .....'. 42
Length of tibia 68
Length of metatarsus 42
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15
Depth of keel 15
Length of head 33
Breadth of head 13
Length of pelvis 41
Breadth of pelvis 26
Length of sternum 52
Argus, Temm.
Pavoninus, Vieill.
Similar to the foregoing, but with process at the junction of the rami of the furculum
turned much more inwards ; the depression on the centre of the pelvis deeper. Meta
tarsus armed with a double spur.
Gallus, Linn.
Bankiva, Temm
So exactly like Phasianus in character I am unable to distinguish the jungle fowls
from it. I have also specimens of Gallus furiatus, Gallus sonneratii, and Gallus furcatus.
Numida, Linn.
Gallopavo, Linn.
Similar to the other Phasianidce, but is devoid of spurs.
Cracid^;.]
Megapodius, Quoy $ Gaim.
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Cracin^e.
Differs from the Thasianidce in having a much shorter sternum, and the fissures not
nearly so deep ; the outer splint of the sternum is very much expanded, and the keel
very deep and not so much excavated, and receding in front ; it is also destitute of spurs ;
the manubrial process is small ; the pelvis has a very large ischiadic foramen ; the
rami of the os furcatum are flattened, and the process at their junction is small in pro
portion to other gallinaceous birds.
Measurements,
Tenths.
Length of humerus 36
Length of ulna . . . . . . . 35
Length of metacarpus . . . . . 17
Length of femur . . .... 80
Length of tibia 43
Length of metatarsus 35
Length of sternum . ..... 30
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 3
Depth of keel ....... 13
Length of head 24
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 38
Breadth of pelvis . . . . . . 19
Leipoa, Gould.
Ocellata, Gould.
I have only a portion of the sternum of this bird, given to me by Mr. Gould ; it
seems to take the same form as Megapodius.
Ortalida, Merr.
Montagui, Bp,
Cranium. The occiptal ridge prominent, the upper surface of the skull with two
rounded protuberances over each orbit. Orbits large; septum with a very large
elongated foramen at the top, and two smaller ones below. Palatine bones very broad
at about onethird their length, and gradually tapering backwards to the interarticular,
and tapering more gradually forwards ; interarticular bones thin in the middle, but
gradually thickening at their ends. The foramen lacerum posterius very well marked.
Sternum formed much like other gallinaceous birds, but with the exterior splints
very broad, and expanded at their extremities.
Pelvis with the divisions of the vertebras very apparent on its upper surface ; ischiadic
foramen of moderate size, oval ;. obturator narrow, but slightly expanded posteriorly ;
notch in front of the acetabulum small, but well marked.
Legbones. Metatarsus without any spur; calcineal process very small Supple
mentary metatarsus as in the pigeons.
Ribs of moderate strength ;. styliform process small
2&
CRACIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CRACINiE,
Furculum slightly rounded ; process at the junction of the rami very small, and
triangular.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 24
Length of ulna 26
Length of metacarpus 11
Length of femur 20 J
Length of tibia 43
Length of metatarsus 23
Length of sternum 30
Tenths
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11
Depth of keel ....... 8
Length of head 30J
Breadth of head . . • . . . . 10J
Length of pelvis 38
Breadth of pelvis 19
Ortalida, Merr,
Poliocephala, Wagl,
Similar to the foregoing, but smaller, I have also the skeleton of Ortalida hatraca,
which is also similar.
Oreophasis, G, R. Gray.
Derbyanus, G, R, Gray.
I have only the sternum. In general form, it comes intermediate between Crax and
Ortalida, but is much more powerful than the latter, and has the fissures on the posterior
margin of the sternum of the same shape as both. It agrees again with Ortalida in
having the manubrial process short and thick, and the same foramen through it, as
in Crax and Ortalida, only much smaller. The furculum is strong, slightly flattened ;
the process at the junction of the rami of the same shape as in Ortalida, but more
elongated, and narrower ; the scapula is very broad at its distal extremity, and bluntly
pointed at the end.
Illustrations,
Plate IV. H. (Taken from a specimen brought home by Mr. Salvin.)
Crax, Linn.
Globicera, Linn.
Cranium rounded ; occipital ridge marked ; a lump at base of the bill caused by
the intermaxillary bones being much arched. Palatine bones very much expanded
towards their hinder extremities, and rather abruptly diminishing at their junction with
the interarticulars, which are also much expanded at the two ends.
Sternum large ; keel deep, the lower edge nearly straight ; fissures of moderate size,
the splint bordering the outer one expanded at the extremity, the inner bifid throwing
a small branch off at about onethird of its length from the hinder extremity;
170
MELAGRIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MeLAGRINJE,
manubrial process thin, much flattened, perforated at its base horizontally, with a
foramen, which is also continued downwards.
Pelvis with the process before the acetabulum small ; the os pubis expanded at
about half its length, forming a perpendicularly flattened notch ; obturator foramen
large, oval ; ischiadic consisting of a small oval foramen under the acetabulum, and
small slit between the os pubis and ischium ; the vertebrae on the hinder half of the
pelvis well defined.
Bibs strong, the styliform process short, and turned upwards,
Furculum strong, with an elongated process at the junction of the rami, the sides of
which are parallel, blunt, and rather rounded at the extremity. Scapula much
expanded for its posterior half, blunt at end, but narrowed from the centre.
Legbones. Metatarsus with wellmarked calcineal process, which diminishes as it
descends, destitute of a spur ; supplementary metatarsal much elongated, and twisted
on its axis,
Measurements,
Tenths.
Length of humerus 43
Length of ulna 45
Length of metacarpus 22
Length of femur .45
Length of tibia 65
Length of metatarsus 40
Length of sternum 53
Tenths.
"Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 7
Depth of keel 17
Length of head 38
Breadth of head }5
Length of pelvis 49
Breadth of pelvis ...... 29
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate II. H. f Sternum and pelvis, Plate XXVIII.
Pauxi, Temm.
Mitu, Linn.
I have only the sternal portion of this bird. The sternum is similar to the last, but
without the bifid extremities to the inner splints ; the ribs are without any styliform
process. The scapula and furculum are also similar.
Melagms, Linn,
Gallopavo, Linn.
Cranium with the nostrils large, oval ; orbital septum with two foramina, one— an
elongated one — situated at the top, and the other posteriorly. Palatine bones similar
to Crax, but not widened so much ; occipital ridge strongly marked.
Sternum similar to Crax, but without the foramen in the manubrial process, which
is much stronger than in Crax, and much broader at the base.
171
Melagridje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Melagrin^e,
Furculum lying almost flat against the coracoids ; very thin and light process at the
junction of the rami transverse, and closely attached to the sternum.
Pelvis with a large oval ischiadic foramen ; obturator foramen very well defined,
with a small rounded one anterior to it. Vertebrae of the hinder portion of the pelvis
not so distinctly marked on the upper surface as in Craos ;. process before the acetabulum
well developed.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a strong calcineal process, armed with a spur ; supple
mental metatarsus not nearly so much twisted on its axis as among other gallinaceous
birds.
Ribs flattened ; styliform process broad. Scapula very broad for its whole length,
and blunt at the hinder extremity.
The above observations were taken from a domesticated specimen, so that probably
no measurements would be correct for a wild one.
Numbering of the Vertebrce and Ribs in Rasores.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs*
Pterocles arenarius .
13
6
12
6
5
1
Pterocles qiiiadricinctus .
13
7
13
6
6
2
Tetrao urogallus
14
7
18
6
6
2
Tetrao scoticus.
14
6
13
6
6
2
saliceti .
14
6
13
6
5
2
tetrix
13
6
16
6
5
2
islandorum
12
6
15
6
6
2
Bonasa sylvestris
14
6
14
6
5
2
Perdix cinereus
12
6
13
6
5
2
Francolinus capensis
15
7
14
6
5
2
Callipepla Californica
12
6
13
6
6
2
Pavo muticus .
13
6
13
5
5
3
Phasianus colchicus .
12
6
13
6
6
i 1
Phasianus Nycthemerus
14
5
13
5
5
3
Thaumelia picta
13
7
15
5
5
3
Megapodius
13
8
14
5
6
2
Ortalida Montagui .
14
7
14
6
4
2
Argus giganteus
12
8
12
5
5
2
Crax globicera .
15
7
17
5
5
2
Remarks.
The Phasianidce, and, indeed, most of the order, have a process projecting from the
ilium in front of the acetabulum, which I am not aware to have been previously
observed; many of the cuckoos have a similar process. The Perdicince have this
process very small ;, and in very young birds I suspect it is not anchylosed to the
ilium. The Tetraonidm may be distinguished from the Phasianidce by having a much
broader pelvis ; the Phasianidce have the fissures at the hinder margin of the
sternum much deeper than among the Cracida ; and the latter may be distinguished
from the Melagridw by the position of the furculum.
172
Struthonid^:.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Steuthionin^.
Order X. CUESOEES.
The birds constituting this order have been so amply treated of in the first four
volumes of the transactions of the Zoological Society that there is nothing more to be
recorded.
Measurements.
Inch.
Length
Length
Length
Length
Length
Length
Length
Struthio
s*
Inch.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel None
Length of head 6f
Breadth of head 2
Length of pelvis 23 J
Breadth of pelvis . 8
Illustrations.
camelus, Plate II. Details, Plate XXIII.  Casuarius Emu. Details, Plate XXIV.
of humerus 13
of ulna
of metacarpus 23
of femur 11
of tibia 10
of metatarsus 17J
of sternum 8 J
Apteryx, Shaw.
Australis, Shaw.
Also fully treated of in the first four volumes of the Zoological transactions.
Illustrations.
Details, Plate XXV.
Numbering of the Vertebra and Ribs in Cursores.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Struthio camelus
Dromarias Emu
Casuarius Emu
Apteryx Australis .
16
20
15
18
7
8
9
6
18
15
15
6
6
6
7
5
6
6
6
3
5 •
3
3
Remarks.
The cursorial birds maybe at once distinguished from the other orders by the absence
of any keel to the sternum, the shortness of the wings, and the peculiar form of the
pelvis.
2d
173
Otidje.] osteologia avium. [Otinjs.
Order XI. LITTOEES.
Pam. 1. OTIDJE.
Subfam. Otin^e.
Otis, Linn.
Houbara, Gm.
Cranium with a depression down the centre to the occiput ; occipital ridge prominent ;
foramen magnum very large. Palatine bones, for their anterior twothirds, consisting of
merely a somewhat flattened strip of bone, the remaining third very much expanded,
divided longitudinally by a sharp ridge, which extends from the junction with the inter
articular bones to the outer margin of the expanded portion ; interarticular bones flattened
and twisted on their axis near the centre, the inner half being horizontally flattened,
and outer perpendicularly. Orbits very large ; septum with one foramen on its hinder
portion. The lateral processes of the parietal bones very long.
Sternum broad, with two shallow but wide fissures on the posterior margin, the
outer splint much wider than the inner one ; keel very deep, scolloped out on its anterior
edge and on its lower edge. No vestige of a manubrial process.
Pelvis broad, the lateral processes of the sacral vertebra? easily traced when held up
to the light ; very long, as also are the caudal ones ; ischiadic foramen large, oval ;
obturator an elongated slit, slightly widened in the middle ; os pubis extending far
beyond the posterior edge of the ischium.
Ribs strong, narrowed towards their distal extremities, but blunt.
Furculum with the rami much laterally flattened; no process at their junction,
which is very near the sternum, although not quite touching it. Scapula long, not
much arched, gradually widening towards the tip, which is somewhat rounded, and
blunt.
Winghones long; ulna much longer than the humerus.
Legbones long, the calcineal process only extending about half the length of the meta
tarsus from its articulation with the tibia. I have also the body portion of O. tetrax,
which is precisely similar, except in size, to the foregoing.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 47
Length of ulna 54
Length of metacarpus .... 26
174
Tenths.
Length of femur 28
Length of tibia 53
Length of metatarsus ..... 38
Otidje.] osteologia avium. [Tinaminjl
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Length of sternum 39
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 23
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 20
Depth of keel 10±
Tenths.
Length of head 39
Breadth of head 15
Length of pelvis 50
Breadth of pelvis 30
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate I. J. Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsus,
Plate XXVI. fig. 1.
Tinamus, Lath.
Major, Linn.
Differs very much in the form of the skeleton from Otis. I have not, however, all
the bones.
Cranium with the parietal bones somewhat abruptly elevated above the occipital.
Palatine bones similar to those of Otis, but with anterior portion broader in proportion.
Interarticular bones long, flattened perpendicularly. Orbital septum with two
foramina — one large one at base, another elongated one at the upper part.
Sternum very long ; two very large foramina extend almost for the whole length
of the sternum, bounded exteriorly by two long, narrow splints, which are much curved
inwards to their tips, and nearly meet ; central portion of the sternum very narrow ;
keel not scolloped out on its anterior edge. Manubrial process triangular, broadest at
its junction with the sternum, pointed at its extremity, a slight ridge along the upper
surface ; lower edge of the keel slightly arched, rather shallow.
Pelvis broad, of a very peculiar form, the divisions of the vertebrae distinct when
held up to the light ; upper surface rounded, broad. Ischium divided from the ilium,
by a broad and deep fissure extending almost to the acetabulum ; ischiadic foramen
bounded below by the ischium, which is represented by a narrow strip of bone, gradually
expanding towards the tip ; os pubis consisting of a long thin strip, broader at anterior
part than at its posterior, and extends beyond the ischium ; a large blunt spine anterior
to the acetabulum.
Ribs. The few I possess have the styliform process broad and short, and are rather
weak.
Furculum flattened perpendicularly at upper extremities, and gradually rounded to
the junction of the rami; they approach one another with a very wide semicircular
sweep ; there is no vestige of a process at their junction.
Scapula long, arched slightly, expanded in the centre, and blunt at the extremity.
Wingbones short; ulna much bent, which gives a large space between it and the
radius,
175
CHI0NID2E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ChIONINJE,
Legbones. Femur rather long in proportion to the tibia ; metatarsus with a very
rudimentary hind toe.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 1 9
Length of ulna 22
Length of metacarpus 12
Length of femur ...... 20
Length of tibia 31
Length of metatarsus 21
Length of sternum . ..... 40
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10 J
Depth of keel ....... 7j
Length of head 25
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 31
Breadth of pelvis 17
Illustrations.
Palatine bones, sternum, and pelvis, Plate XXVI. fig. 2.
Chionis, Forst.
Alba, Forst.
Cranium with a very small cavity for the brain ; occipital ridge very prominent ; at
the base of the bill two tuberosities, with large foramina behind them, communicating
with the orbits ; a sharp ridge between these foramina. The proper name of these
foramina, or their use, I do not know; I have never seen a recent specimen. Palatine
bones very broad for their hinder halves, turned somewhat downwards on their inner
edges; hinder edges rounded on the exterior margin; ridges for the attachment
of the masseter muscles stronglymarked ; nostrils large, oval ; orbital septum with one
large nearly central foramen.
Sternum rather long ; posterior fissures small, the outer one largest ; keel very deep,
scolloped out in front, arched on its interior edge. Manubrial process small, and short,
bifurcate at its upper extremity.
Pelvis with the processes of the central vertebra? not covered by the ilium, rather
narrow ; ischiadic foramen very large, oval. Obturator large in the centre, diminishing
into a mere slit behind; a slight indentation on the posterior margin of the ischium.
Os pubis extending beyond the ischium.
Bibs slender ; styliform processes long.
Furculum very similar to that of Tinamus, but quite circular at the junction of the
rami, without any process, and not approaching very near the sternum, and rather
more flattened.
Coracoids very short.
Scapula of moderate length, very slightly expanded near the centre, the tips rounded.
Wingbones of moderate length ; the ulna slightly longer than the humerus; meta
carpal bones long.
Jjegbones. Metatarsus with a small hind toe ; calcineal process quite rudimentary.
176
Chionid^s.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[TlNOCHORIN^E.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 31
Length of ulna ....... 35
Length of metacarpus ..... 21
Length of femur ...... 24
Length of tibia 23
Length of metatarsus 19
Length of sternum 27
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 26
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 24
Breadth of pelvis 15
Attagis, Less.
Gayii, Less.
Cranium rounded, a slight channel between the orbits ; nostrils oval ; occipital crest
and protuberance very well marked. Palatine bones not expanded for so long a dis
tance as in Chionis, but only for a short distance beyond their junction with the inter
articular bones. Orbital septum with two foramina, a large one below, rounded, and
narrow one immediately above it.
Sternum broad, with a single, rather broad but not deep, fissure on each side of the
keel ; strip of bone bounding them slightly expanded at the tip ; keel deep, scolloped
out, particularly near the point, lower edge rounded ; manubrial process similar to that
in Chionis.
Pelvis also similar to Chionis, but much broader.
Ribs weak, with styliform or pleural processes pointing upwards.
Furculum similar to Chionis, but with a very slight process at the junction of the
rami.
Coracoids very short.
Scapula slightly expanded towards the tip, which is rounded, and blunt.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a hind toe; calcineal ridge scarcely perceptible.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 1
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 21
Length of ulna 24
Length of metacarpus 13
Length of femur 12
Length of tibia 22
Length of metatarsus 11
?th of sternum ...... 26
Depth of keel . 8
Length of head ....... 19
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis 21
Breadth of pelvis 16
H
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, Plate XXI. fig. 3.
2b
177
ChARADRIIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CEdICNEMINJS.
TlNOCHORUS, Escll.
Escholtzii, Less.
The anatomy of this bird was formerly described by me in the voyage of the Beagle.
The bones of the specimen are much damaged.
Cranium similar to Attagis. The palatine bones destroyed.
Sternum, which is perfect, also similar to Attagis in all particulars, except size.
Furculum similar to Attagis ; as are also all the other bones.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna . 14
Length of metacarpus ..... 8
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 13
Length of metatarsus 7
Length of sternum 17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 12
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis 11
Breadth of pelvis 8
(Edicnemus, Vieill.
Longirostris, Vieill.
Cranium rounded ; a deep channel arising at the vertex is carried forward between
the orbits to the base of the nasal bones ; occiput narrow, ridge and muscular impres
sions very distinct ; channel for the reception of the masseter muscles deep. Orbital
septum with three foramina. Palatine bones very broad, for twothirds of their length
placed at an angle to the plane of the skull, the outer edges being lowest, the hinder
margin rounded; interarticular bones slightly twisted on their axis.
Sternum of moderate size, with two small fissures on each side of the keel, on the
posterior margin ; keel deep, scolloped out on the anterior edge. Manubrial process
perpendicularly triangular at the base, tapering to an edge in front.
Pelvis of moderate size, not differing from Chionis in form.
Bibs of moderate size, styliform processes broad.
Furculum with the rami flattened, much arched, and with very rudimentary process
at their junction.
Coracoids short.
Scapula of moderate breadth, pointed at its extremity.
Wingbones with the ulna much longer than the humerus.
Legbones. Femur very short ; tibiae and metatarsi very long ; calyx rudimentary,
without any hind toe or spur.
178
Charadriid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[HEMATOP0DIN.E.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 25
Length of ulna 41
Length of metacarpus 16
Length of femur 22
Length of tibia 50
Length of metatarsus 52
Length of sternum ...... 31
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 11
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 2
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 41
Breadth of head 13
Length of pelvis 36
Breadth of pelvis 14
Illustration:
Skeleton, Plate XV. K.
Hjematopus, Linn
Ostralegus, Linn.
Cranium rounded, a depression on each side over the orbits, and a ridge between
them; interarticular bones expanded at their hinder extremities, and, as in
CEdicnemus, sloped downwards, but not extending so far forwards; occipital ridge
prominent.
Sternum, pelvis, furculum, and scapula similar to (Edicnemus, but stronger.
Wingbones with the ulna not so long in proportion to the humerus.
Legbones. Metatarsus with the calyx rudimentary, without any hind toe.
Ribs with a long, thin styliform process.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ....
29
Length of ulna
34
Length of metacarpus ....
15
Length of femur .....
19
Length of tibia ......
32
Length of metatarsus . . .' .
22
Length of sternum ....
17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 13
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 1
Depth of keel 9
Length of head . . , . . . . 43
Breadth of head .... . . 10
Length of pelvis 32
Breadth of pelvis ,17
Hjsmatopus, Linn.
Capensis, Licht.
Similar to the foregoing in form.
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate XI. H.
179
Charadriidje.] osteologia avium. [Cursorinje.
Cursorius, Lath.
Gallicus, Gmel.
I have only fragments of this bird.
Cranium rounded ; occipital ridge prominent. Palatine bones broad and truncated
at the hinder extremity, and gradually tapering forwards. Orbital septum with one
large foramen.
Sternum of moderate size, with two foramina on its hinder edge ; on each side of the
keel the strip of bone bounding the outer ones not extending so far back as those bound
ing the inner ones ; keel very deep, scolloped out in front, but not regularly curved,
the lower portion being projected beyond the upper, which is nearly straight, but
receding, the lower edge much curved. Manubrial process small, bifid.
Pelvis similar to other Charadridce.
Glarcola, Briss.
Pratincola, Linn.
Cranium. Occipital ridge well marked. Orbital septum with three foramina.
Palatine bones similar to Cursorius.
Legbones. Metatarsal bone with a hind toe ; calyx rudimentary.
Wingbones. Ulna long in proportion to the humerus. Other bones similar to
Cursorius.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 17
Length of ulna 20;
Length of metacarpus . .... 10
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 17
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum ...... 15
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5 J
Depth of keel 5 J
Length of head 17
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 15
Breadth of pelvis 8
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate XIII. K. Sternum, palatine bones, pelvis, and meta
I tarsi, Plate XXXV. ng. 2.
Vanellus, Linn.
Cristatus, Meyer.
Cranium. A deep channel between the upper edges of the orbits. Orbital septum
merely consisting of a narrow strip of bone, dividing it into two foramina. Palatine
bones as in the foregoing.
Sternum and^ete similar to those in Cursorius.
Metatarsi with a small hind toe.
180
TltlNGIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TRINGINJ5.
Charadrius, Linn.
Pluralis, Linn.
Similar to the foregoing, but devoid of the hind toe. I have also specimens of
Charadrius praticula, Vociferus, Melodus, and Rufipes, all of which are also similar.
Squatarola, Cuv.
Helvetica, Linn.
Generally similar to Vanellus, but with the furculum not so much arched at the
junction of the rami, and the palatine bones not nearly so wide.
Hoplopterus, Bon.
Spinosus, Linn.
Similar to Charadrius, but having longer legs, and a large spur on point of the wing.
Cinclus, Moehr.
Interpres, Linn.
Cranium. Occipital ridges well marked. Orbital septum with one large foramen.
Palatine bones damaged, but apparently similar to Charadrius ; no channel between
the orbits.
Sternum rather large for the size of the bird, with two fissures on each side of the
keel, on the posterior margin, the outer one largest, the inner one very small, almost
rudimentary, the strip of bone bounding the outer fissure extending nearly as far as
the hinder margin of the sternum ; keel deep, anterior edge scolloped out. Manubrial
process small, bifid.
Pelvis similar to Charadrius.
Furculum similar to Charadrius, but the rami not so much expanded at their
junction.
Coracoids short.
Scapula not much arched, sharply pointed at its extremity.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a hind toe ; calx rudimentary.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 15
Length of ulna 17
Length of metacarpus .... 5
Length of femur 12
Length of tibia 19
Length of metatarsus ..... 10
Length of sternum 16
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 7
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 6j
Length of pelvis 17
Breadth of pelvis ...... 10
2p 181
Tringid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Tringin^:.
Tringa, Linn.
Canutus, Linn.
Cranium. A slight channel between the orbits. Orbital septum with two foramina ;
occipital ridges well marked. Palatine bones similar to those of the Charadriidee.
Sternum similar in form to Strepsilas, but with the posterior fissures deeper.
Pelvis similar to Strepsilas.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a hind claw.
I have also specimens of Tringa cinclus, and Alpina, which are similar.
Philomachus, Moehr.
Pugnax, Linn.
Cranium. A slight channel between the orbits. Palatine bones as in T. canutus ;
interorbital septum with two foramina ; occipital ridge not very distinctly marked.
Sternum with only one fissure on each side of the keel, which is larger than in
Tringa.
Pelvis with the hinder portion to the junction of the caudal vertebrae excavated
longitudinally, and with the hinder half bent downwards. Other bones similar to
Tringa.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 19
Length of ulna 24
Length of metacarpus 13
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia ... . . . . . 29
Length of metatarsus 20
Length of sternum ...... 20
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 9 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 29
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis IS
Breadth of pelvis 8
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in
LlTTORES
•
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
J
Otis houbara ....
12
8
13
6
5
3
Tinamus major
—
—
14
—
—
—
Chionis alba
12
7
15
6
6
Attagis Gayii .
13
7
13
6
6
Tinochorus Escholtzii
12
—
13
6
—
—
Hasmapodius ostralegus
13
6
18
7
7
CEdicnemus longirostris
13
6
12
6
6
—
Glarcola pratincola .
12
6
11
8
6
Vanellus cristatus
11
8
12
6
7
Squatarola cinerea .
12
7
13
8
6
Hoplopterus spinosus
14
6
12
6
6
Charadrius puvialis .
14
6
13
8
6
Cinclus interpres
10
6
12
7
6
1
Tringa canutus
13
6
12
7
6
Philomachus pugnax
•
14
8
12
8
7
2
182
TRINGID2E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TrINGINJE.
Remarks.
The Order Littores is rather an heterogeneous one, and it is difficult to say where to
place the different families and subfamilies. It may be objected to the present
arrangement that the Otidce are placed in it, not having a hind toe, but in the
TinamincB we find the rudiments of one ; thus, as far as this character is concerned,
they constitute a transition group from Cursores to Littores. The Chionidce — particu
larly Chionis — is peculiar in the formation of the cranium ; the sternum is not much
dissimilar to 0. tetraoc, but the pelvis of O. tetrax comes nearer to that oiAttagis, while
the pelvinal form approaches that of the Charadriidce. Tinochorus is closely
related to Attagis, In all the Charadriidte there is a great similarity of structure ;
the sternum is always furnished with two foramina ; the manubrial process
is small and bifid ; the splint bounding the outer foramen does not extend so
far backwards as the inner one ; the furculum is always much arched at the junction
of the rami, and has generally a rudimentary process at that point.
183
SCOLOTACIDJS.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ToTONIN^.
Order XII. GRALLATORES.
Pam. SCOLOPACIDJE.
Subfam. Scolopacin^:.
Totanus, Bechst.
Glottis, Linn.
Cranium with a slight depression proceeding from the occiput between the orbits ;
occipital ridge slightly marked. Orbital septum with one small foramen. Palatine
bones thin and narrow, accuminated at the hinder extremity; inferior mandible
much prolonged behind the condyles, forming a blunt process extending downwards
and backwards.
Pelvis very similar to the Tringidce.
Bibs slight, with very long styliform processes.
Fkirculum not much arched at the junction of the rami, and with a slight process.
Coracoids short.
Scapula slightly arched, pointed at the extremity.
Sternum with two fissures on its hinder margin on each side of the keel, the outer
ones largest ; keel deep, scolloped out on its anterior edge. Manubrial process small
and thin.
Legbones. Calx rudimental ; metatarsus with a hind toe.
Besides the above, I have the sterna of T. flavipes and Hypoleucus ; the latter has
only one fissure on each side, the former two.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . .... 16
Length of ulna 20
Length of metacarpus ..... 9
Length of femur ...... 12
Length of tibia 25
Length of metatarsus 18
Length of sternum ..... 20
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6 J
Depth of keel 6
Length of head 43
Breadth of head 8 J
Length of pelvis 20
Breadth of pelvis 9
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate 8. K. I Sternum, metatarsus, and pelvis, Plate XXXIV.
I fig 1.
184
ScOLOPACID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PhALAROPIN^E.
Phalaropus, Briss.
Fulicarius, Linn.
Cranium similar to Tringa. Palatine bones much narrower than in Tringa, but of a
similar shape.
Sternum with only one fissure on each side, the strip bounding the fissure not reach
ing as far as the hinder margin of the sternum ; keel very deep, scolloped out in front.
Manubrial process compressed perpendicularly, not bifid.
Pelvis similar to Tringa.
Bibs small, and light ; styliform process just reaching as far as the next rib.
Furculum. Kami meeting rather acutely ; process at their junction very small.
Scapula pointed at the extremities.
Wingbones. The ulna only very slightly longer than the humerus.
Legbones. Calx rudimentary ; metatarsus with a hind toe.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 13
Length of ulna 14
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia . 16
Length of metatarsus 9
Length of sternum 13 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 6
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 18
Breadth of head 4
Length of pelvis . 12
Breadth of pelvis 6
Limosa, Briss.
Eufa, Bechst.
Cranium. A rather deep channel between the orbits ; occipital ridge only slightly
marked ; orbital septum with one large foramen. Palatine bones narrow, with both
the inner and outer edges turned downwards, pointed at their hinder extremities;
inferior maxillary with a process pointing downwards and slightly backwards from
below the condyles.
Sternum of moderate size ; keel deep ; posterior margin with a large fissure on each
side, interior to which there are two very small ones nearly closed on the margin ;
anterior edge scolloped out. Manubrial process triangular at the base, compressed
forwards, and ending above in a bifid process.
Pelvis similar to Totanus.
Furculum much arched longitudinally for its whole length ; at the junction of the
rami not much arched transversely ; furnished with a small process.
Legbones. Calx rudimental ; metatarsi furnished with a hind toe.
2g 185
Scolopacid^;.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[SCOLOPACIN^E.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Skeleton, Plate X. K.
Measurements.
Tenths. Tenths.
16 Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
30 Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 11 J
14 Depth of keel 9
17 Length of head 29
41 Breadth of head 6
32 Length of pelvis 26
25 Breadth of pelvis 12
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta
tarsi, Plate XXXV. bis. fig. 1.
Scolopax, Linn.
Rusticola, Linn.
Cranium rounded, a depression between the orbits ; occipital ridge slightly marked ;
orbital septum with one foramen. Palatine bones similar to Limosa ; processes behind
the condyloid part of the lower mandible very long.
Sternum large, with the keel very deep; anterior edge scolloped out; hinder margin
rounded, with one fissure on each side, the splint bounding it not extending so far as
the hinder margin of the sternum. Manubrial process very small.
Pelvis rather narrow, but similar in shape to Limosa.
Furculum much arched in front, with a small tubercle at the junction of the rami.
Scapula not much arched, pointed at the hinder extremities.
Winghones. The ulna only slightly longer than the humerus.
Legbones. Metatarsus very short, furnished with a hind toe ; calx rudimentary.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 20
Length of ulna 24
Length of metacarpus 14
Length of femur IT
Length of tibia 23
Length of metatarsus .
121
Length of sternum 25
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 10
Length of head 43
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 26
Breadth of pelvis 12
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate IX. K.
186
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi,
Plate XXXV. fig. 1.
ScOLOPACIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TANTALIN2E.
Scolopax, Linn.
Gallinago, Linn.
Similar to the foregoing, except in size.
Rhyncioea, Cuv.
Semicollaris, Vieill.
I have not a perfect skeleton of this bird. It is similar to Scolopax, but/ has the
sternum narrower, and a larger process at the junction of the rami of the furculum ;
the palatine bones have been destroyed.
Numenius, Linn.
Arquatus, Linn.
Cranium. A raised ridge on the upper part between the orbits ; orbital septum
with two foramina. Palatine bones broad at the hinder extremity, and with the edges
bent downwards, tapering towards the interarticular bones ; the expanded portion
does not extend for more than fivetenths, after which they become a mere strip of
flattened bone. Occipital ridge well marked, but not very prominent.
Sternum with two fissures on each side of the keel, on the posterior margin, the strip
of bone bounding the outer ones not extending so far backwards as the inner one, and
neither extending as far as the hindermost edge of the sternum ; keel very deep, scol
loped out on its anterior edge, and much arched on its lower edge. Manubrial process
rather large, laterally compressed, thin, truncate at its upper and lower extremities,
and slightly arched in front.
Pelvis rather narrow for its length ; obturator and ischiadic foramina very large, the
hinder margin of the iliac bones curved from the sacral vertebra outwards, and pro
jecting backwards as far as the third caudal vertebra; ilium very small and narrow,
the lower edge projecting in the form of a tapering spine nearly as far as the end of
the os pubis, which is prolonged to opposite the last caudal vertebra ; a projecting
ridge down the upper surface of the pelvis.
Ribs with very long styliform processes projecting much beyond the following rib.
Furculum laterally flattened; process at the junction of the rami small, triangular.
Scapula slightly expanded near the tip, and tapering slightly towards the end, which
is blunt.
Legbones. Calcineal process rudimentary ; metatarsus furnished with a hind toe.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 32
Length of ulna 43
Length of metacarpus 21
Tenths.
Length of femur 21
Length of tibia 41
Length of metatarsus ..... 30
187
ScOLOPACLD^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Tantalin^:.
Tenths.
Length of sternum ...... 35
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 13
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 13
Depth of keel 13
Tenths.
Length of head 51
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 36
Breadth of pelvis 16
Ibis, Moshr.
Falcinellus, Linn.
Very similar to Numenius, but may be distinguished from that genus by the very
small size of foramina in the orbital septum, there being no depression or ridge down
the centre of the forehead between the orbits ; the manubrial process on the sternum
and the fissures on the posterior margin being much smaller, the ischiadic foramen
amounting to a mere slit, the obturator much smaller, and the furculum stronger
in proportion to the size of the bird.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 2
Tenths.
Length of humerus 33
Length of ulna 39
Length of metacarpus 19
Length of femur 20
Length of tibia 46
Length of metatarsus 33
Length of sternum . . , , . 25
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 55
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 32
Breadth of pelvis 13
Harpiprion, Wagl.
Hagedash, Sparm.
Cranium with occipital crest well marked, but the space of the occipital bone
narrow. Orbital septum with one large foramen ; a slight depression on the upper
surface of the cranium between the orbits. Palatine bones of moderate breadth, the
edges of the hinder portion bent downwards, and gradually sloped to their junction
with the interarticular bones, gradually narrowed anteriorly to a thin strip of bone.
Interarticular bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, and much flattened
horizontally, gradually narrowed backwards ; hinder portion of the inferior maxillary
bone prolonged far backwards beyond the condyle, blunt and rounded at the end ; a
deep cavity at the end on the inside of this, into which the processes projecting on
each side at the lower part of the occipital ridge fit when the jaws are open, and from
which a small muscle extends to the inner edge of the cavity in the lower maxillary
bone.
188
SCOLOPACIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TANTALINJE.
Sternum similar to that of Ibis.
Pelvis with the foramina very large, and also in shape similar to Numenius.
Legbones. Supplementary metatarsal bone twisted on its axis ; calcineal process
very short.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 45
Length of ulna 50
Length of metacarpus 25
Length of femur 21
Length of tibia 45
Length of metatarsus 29
Length of sternum 32
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 16
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 25
Depth of keel 12
Length of head . . . . . .■•. 66
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 43
Breadth of pelvis 19
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate VII. K.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta
tarsi, Plate XXXIV. fig. 2.
Threskiornis, G. JR. Gray.
Melanocephalus, Lath.
Cranium similar to Harpiprion Hagedash, but with the inferior maxillary not so much
prolonged backwards ; in other respects similar. Rami of the furculum much arched,
and uniting at a very blunt curve, with no vestige of a process at their junction.
Pelvis similar to Hagedash, but with the foramina not so large.
Tantalus, Linn.
Ibis, Linn.
I have only the cranium of this bird. The occipital ridge is very prominent, the
impression for the masseter muscles very deep. Palatine bones with the lateral edges
very much turned downward, very strong, only widened for about an inch of their
length from the interarticular bones, afterwards becoming a straight, flattened strip of
bone. Interarticular bones slightly twisted on their axis ; nostrils very small. Inferior
maxillary bone truncate, and triangular on its proximal end, not prolonged beyond
the condyle ; processes on each side of the foramen magnum similar to those in
Hagedash.
Psophia, Linn.
Viridis, Spix.
Cranium. Occipital ridge small, but well defined; orbital septum with two
2h 189
Ardeidje.] osteologia avium. [Psophinje.
foramina. Palatine bones broad, the outer edges turned downward at an angle, the
inner edges slightly turned down ; hinder margin rounded from the outer margin to
the interarticular bones, gradually diminishing in width forwards ; hinder margin of
the inferior mandible, and process at the termination of the occipital crest, as in
Tantalus.
Sternum very long in proportion to its width, much narrower behind than anteriorly ;
hinder margin rounded, lateral edges much compressed laterally behind the junction
of the ribs; keel shallow, much scolloped out in front, lower edge very slightly
rounded. Manubrial process rudimentary.
Pelvis similar to the Tantalince, but the os pubis is not so much elongated beyond
the ischium.
Wingbones rather short ; humerus longer than the ulna.
Legbones. Calx rudimentary ; metatarsus with a hind toe.
Coracoids of moderate length, longer than among the Scolopacidce.
Scapula much arched, particularly towards the top, which is pointed.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 30
Length of ulna 29
Length of metacarpus 15
Length of femur 30
Length of tibia 55
Length of metatarsus 45
Length of sternum 40
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate V. K.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 10
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 3
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 30
Breadth of head 13
Length of pelvis 32 J
Breadth of pelvis 16
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi,
Plate XXXIX. fig. 1, on the lefthand
side of the plate.
Cariama, Briss, Linn.
Cristata, Linn.
Cranium. A slight depression between the orbits ; orbital septum with two foramina.
Palatine bones and interarticular bones similar to Psophia, but broader and stronger.
Sternum short; posterior margin very narrow, rounded at its end, expanding gradu
ally forwards for about an inch and a half to two short splints about half an inch long,
which bound a shallow fissure. Manubrial process small, but distinctly marked ; keel
deep, anterior edge scolloped out, arched on its lower edge.
Pelvis broad ; very similar to Prophia, but with the points of the os pubis, which is
much longer than in Prophia, turned much inwards.
190
ArdeiDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CARIAMINiE.
Ribs similar to the last.
Furculum thin and light ; the rami nearly straight, very slightly arched at their
junction, without any process.
Coracoids as in Psophia.
Scapula very strong, regularly bent, blunt, and rounded at the point.
Wingbones. Humerus rather longer than the ulna.
Legbones. Metatarsus nearly as long as the tibia ; calx rudimental, a groove run
ning for nearly the whole length of the metatarsus, both in front and behind.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 40
Length of ulna 35
Length of metacarpus 17
Length of femur 32
Length of tibia 80
Length of metatarsus 75
Length of sternum 40
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum
(including splints) . . , . . 13
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 42
Breadth of head 17
Length of pelvis ...... 43
Breadth of pelvis 19
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate III. K. [ Sternum, palatine hones, pelvis, and meta
I tarsi, Plate XXVIII. bis. fig. 1.
Scops, Mcehr.
Virgo, Linn.
Cranium. Occipital ridge not sharp, but well marked ; protuberance very large ;
orbital septum with three foramina. Palatine bones with hinder portion for one and
a half inches widened, with both edges turned downwards for the distance of half an
inch, then horizontally flattened and becoming a thin strip at their anterior ends;
hinder ends with the central portion truncate, the outer portion gradually sloped to
join the interarticular bones ; hinder extremity of the lower maxillary bone truncate,
with a slight projection at its lower side, pointing downwards and slightly backwards.
Sternum long and narrow, much compressed behind the last rib ; the hinder margin
nearly square, with outer portions rounded; keel very deep, penetrated by the trachea
to the depth of seven inches, the anterior edge of the sternum filling up the whole of
the space to the furculum, lower edge slightly arched.
Pelvis long ; os pubis prolonged in a curve beyond the ischium ; ischiadic foramen
of moderate size, opening into the foramen beneath the acetabulum ; obturator open
behind.
Kemaining portion similar to the other Ardeidce.
191
Ardeid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Gruin^;.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 90
Length of ulna 96
Length of metacarpus 47
Length of femur 45
Length of tibia 115
Length of metatarsus . . . . .100
Length of sternum 75
Skeleton, Plate II. K.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 17
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 26
Depth of keel 21
Length of head 54
Breadth of head 15
Length of pelvis 73
Breadth of pelvis 28
Illustrations.
Pelvis, sternum, palatine bones, and metatarsi,
Plate XXXI. fig. 1.
Balearic a, Briss.
Pavonina, Linn.
Cranium similar to Scops, but with a large protuberance on the forehead.
Sternum narrow ; keel very deep, lower edge arched, anterior edge slightly scolloped
out. Manubrial process small, bifid ; the lateral edges of the sternum not contracted
behind the ribs ; posterior margin without fissures, and nearly square, with the hinder
edges on each side rounded.
Pelvis large, wider in proportion to its length than in Scops ; ischiadic foramina
large ; obturator a mere slit, opened at its hinder terminus, divided from the foramina
below the acetabulum by a narrow strip of bone ; the os pubis continued backwards
beyond the ischium.
Bibs of moderate strength ; styliform process broad.
Furculum very strong, broad horizontally at the junction of the rami, and the inner
edges twisted inwards at their junction with the sternum.
Scapula very strong, gradually tapering to its hinder extremity.
Legbones. Calx rudimentary, the articular eminence for the inner toe placed very
far backwards, consequently causing the front of the lower end of the metatarsus to be
very convex in front ; a strong keel down the front of the metatarsus.
Wingbones. Ulna slightly longer than the humerus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 83
Length of ulna 89
Length of metacarpus 38
Length of femur ...... 43
Length of tibia 107
Length of metatarsus 79
Length of sternum 50
192
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 8
Depth of keel 14
Length of head 48
Breadth of head 19
Length of pelvis 50
Breadth of pelvis 30
ArDEIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ClCONINvE,
Illustrations,
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and metatarsi, Plate XXIX. fig. 2.
Ciconia, Linn.
Alba, Briss.
Cranium. Occipital ridge sharp and prominent; impression for the reception of the
masseter muscles very well marked ; orbital septum with one foramen. Palatine bones
broad, posterior part for the length of one inch with both edges turned downwards ;
posterior edges curved abruptly to the interarticular bones, the anterior portion flat
tened horizontally, and gradually tapering ; the ethmoid bones plainly visible through
the orbits; nostrils small; inferior maxillary bone truncate, and triangular at the
hinder extremity, and not prolonged beyond the condyle.
Sternum much broader and shorter than among the Gruince, with a large, open,
shallow fissure on the posterior margin ; keel deep, arched below, the anterior point
projecting very much forward to the junction with the furculum; anterior edge
slightly scolloped out. Manubrial process wanting.
Pelvis similar to that of Balearica, but with the anterior portion much broader ;
obturator and ischiadic foramina large, without the rounded foramen below the
acetabulum ; os pubis continued beyond the ischium.
Bibs of moderate strength ; styliform processes nearly horizontal, blunt at the ends.
Furculum strong, very much arched ; a process at the junction of the rami, which
appears to be anchylosed to the sternum, flattened perpendicularly.
Scapula slightly arched, tapering towards the hinder extremity, which is blunt.
Winghones long, the ulna much longer than the humerus ; metacarpus also very
long.
Legbones similar to those of Balearica.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus , . . . , 79
Length of ulna 97
Length of metacarpus 43
Length of femur 37
Length of tibia 96
Length of metatarsus 90
Length of sternum 47
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 21
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 22
Depth of keel 19
Length of head ....... 105
Breadth of head 17J
Length of pelvis 52
Breadth of pelvis 29
Illustrations.
Metatarsi, palatine bones, sternum, and pelvis, Plate XXXI. fig. 2, 3,
Leptophilus, Less.
Argala, Lath,
2 i 193
ARDEIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Ardeinje,
Cranium similar to Ciconia in every respect except the much larger sternum.
Pelvis and other bones also similar.
I have also the head of Leptophilus nudifrous, which is similar to the above.
Measurements.
Inch.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna ........ 17
Length of metacarpus 6 J
Length of femur ...... 5J
Length of tibia 1 5
Length of metatarsus . . . . . llf
Length of sternum . . . . . 5f
Inch.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4 J
Depth of keel 1J
Length of head 16
Breadth of head 3 j
Length of pelvis 6f
Breadth of pelvis 3 J
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate I. K. J Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta
I tarsi, Plate XXX." 'fig. 1.
MvcTERii, Linn.
Senegalensis, Shaw.
I have only the cranium of this bird, which has the indentation at the base of the
nasal bones much shallower than in the foregoing,
Eurypyga, Bliger.
Helias, Pall.
Cranium with a slight depression above, between the orbits, rather elongated, inde
pendent of the bill ; orbital septum nearly obliterated. Palatine bones truncate at the
hinder extremities, broad, a very small portion of the inner edge turned downwards,
and the whole of the outer expanded part rather long, ending in a narrow strip of
bone ; occipital crest and protuberance well defined ; the impression of the masseter
also well marked ; inferior maxillary bone truncate at the hinder extremity, the end
of the ethmoid bone just visible through the orbits.
Sternum long, slightly narrowed just behind the ribs ; a deep fissure on each side of
the keel, and another very small one inside of it, nearer the keel, the splint bounding
the external one reaching as far as the posterior margin of the sternum, which is
nearly square. Manubrial process small, and pointed ; keel not deep, slightly arched
below, and scolloped out on the anterior edge.
Pelvis similar to JRhi/ncheea.
Leabones. Metatarsus with a rudimentary calx, and furnished with a hind toe,
194
AfiDEIDiE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Ardein^
Bibs with a long, thin styliform process.
Scapula slightly expanded at about twothirds its length from the tip, then tapering
to a point.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 20
Length of ulna 22
Length of metacarpus 11
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia 30J
Length of metatarsus 19
Length of sternum 17 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 8
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 37
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 20
Breadth of pelvis 10
Skeleton, Plate XII. K.
Illustrations.
[ Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and metatarsal
I
bones, Plate XXXV. bis. fig. 2.
Ardea, Linn.
Cinerea, Linn.
Cranium with a depression between the orbits ; orbital septum nearly obliterated ;
occipital crest large, protuberance scarcely marked ; masseter impressions very large ;
ethmoid bones just visible. Palatine bones truncate at their hinder extremities, with
both edges turned downwards, and gradually narrowed from the hinder extremity
forwards ; inferior maxillary bone projecting backwards beyond the condyle, flattened
on the hinder edge perpendicularly, and bent slightly inwards.
Sternum rather small, of moderate breadth, with two rather broad shallow fissures, one
on each side of the keel, on the posterior margin, the splints bounding the outer sides
of the fissures carried as far backwards as the point of the sternum ; keel deep, the
lower edge much arched, anterior deeply scolloped out. Manubrial process of
moderate size, rounded on the anterior edge, and flattened perpendicularly.
Pelvis similar in shape to most of the larger waders; obturator and ischiadic
foramina large ; os pubis continued beyond the ischium.
' Ribs thin, styliform process of moderate length.
Furculum long, the rami flattened, anchylosed to the sternum, a transversely
flattened process turned inwards between them.
Scapula long, thin, sloped off at the hinder end to a blunt point.
Legbones with the calcineal process well marked, but not continued down the meta
tarsus ; furnished with a hind toe.
195
ARBEIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PlATALINJE,
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 70
Length of ulna 82
Length of metacarpus 35
Length of femur 38
Length of tibia 80
Length of metatarsus ..... 61
Length of sternum 35
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 7
Depth of keel 10
Length of head 70
Breadth of head 13 J
Length of pelvis 46
Breadth of pelvis 16
Ardea.
Exilis.
Besides the above I have specimens of A. visrescens, Nivea, Candidissima, Ccerulea,
RubicolliS) and Purpurea, all of which are similar.
Botaurus, 8teph.
§tellaris, Linn.
The principal distinction between this genus and Ardea is the comparative lengths
of the metatarsus and tibia
Nyctyceorax, Stepk.
Griseus, Linn.
Also similar to Ardea.
Cancroma, Linn.
Cochlearia, Linn.
I have only an imperfect cranium of this bird : it has a channel on the vertex, and
an elevated ridge over the top of the bill; nostrils small ; orbits large, and elongated.
Palatine bones broad, placed horizontally, the hinder portion missing; inferior
maxillary very slightly elongated beyond the condyles, the edge curved much down
wards.
Platal^a, Linn,
Leucorodia, Linn.
Cranium with a very slightly marked depression between the orbits, without any
depression at the base of the nasal bones ; occipital ridge slightly marked ; orbital
septum with two small foramina. Palatine bones with their edges for the first half
196
ARDEIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PhJENICOPTERINJE.
inch slightly deflexed, broad, and flattened forward ; interarticular bones broad at
their junction with the palatine bones, gradually narrowed backwards; posterior
portion of the inferior" maxillary bone much bent downwards, truncate, but with a
slight hollow in the middle behind the condyles ; anterior portion flattened.
Sternum similar in shape to Ardea, but with two shallow fissures on each side of the
keel, the inner ones largest; manubrial process wanting; anterior edge of the keel
slightly scolloped out, inferior edge much arched.
Furculum widely expanded, the rami meeting in a wide curve, and having no pro
cess at their junction.
Scapula slightly arched, sloped off towards the hinder end.
Wingbones long, ulna much longer than the humerus.
Legbones with metatarsus long ; calx small.
Pelvis similar to Ardea.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . . 58
Length of ulna 68
Length of metacarpus . .' . . 30
Length of femur ...... 32
Length of tibia 75
Length of metatarsus o5
Length of sternum 35
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 18
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 20
Depth of keel 12
Length of head ....... 96
Breadth of head ...... 13
Length of pelvis ...... 52
Breadth of pelvis 21
Illustrations.
Pelvis, palatine bones, sternum, and metatarsus, Plate XXX. fig. 2.
Ph^enicopterus, Linn.
Euber, Linn.
Cranium. Occipital ridge slightly marked, protuberance very large; foramen
magnum very large ; space above, between the orbits, very narrow, a ridge down the
centre, which is bifurcate at the base of the nasal bones ; ethmoid bones visible through
the orbits ; orbital septum with a large anterior foramen, and two small ones behind ;
nostrils large ; upper maxillaries thin, much curved downwards ; a ridge extends along
the roof of the mouth from the palatine bones to the tip of the bill. Palatine bones
with the edges deflexed, a small spine on the point of the outer angles, the inner
deflexed edge carried backwards to the interarticular bones, and truncate at the ends ;
interarticular bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, and narrowed
backwards ; inferior maxillary bone much prolonged backward beyond the condyles,
curved upwards, very broad, and turned downwards towards the anterior end, the
upper edges turned much inwards, very vascular.
2 k 197
RALLIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. {TaRRINJE.
Pelvis similar to the Ardeince.
Furculum similar to PlatglcBa, but with a small notch at the junction of the rami.
Sternum with one rather large fissure on the posterior margin on each side of the
keel, in shape similar to the herons ; keel of moderate depth, slightly bifid, strong ; a
small manubrial process.
Scapula arched, tapering gradually to the hinder extremity.
Wingbones having the ulna longer than the humerus.
Leg^bones with a groove extending for the whole length both in front and behind ;
calx small ; hind toe very small.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 72
Length of ulna 77
Length of metacarpus 32
Length of femur 32
Length of tibia 125
Length of metatarsus 115
Length of sternum ...... 47
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate IV, K.
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 26
Depth of keel 12
Length of head ....... 71
Breadth of head . ...... 14
Length of pelvis 65
Breadth of pelvis 28
Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta
tarsus, Plate XXVIII. bis. fig. 2.
Parra, Linn.
Cordifera, Less.
Cranium. A slight channel above, between the orbits, and a transverse one imme
diately behind them ; orbital ridge well marked, the protuberance slightly so; orbital
septum represented by a slight strip of bone intersecting it horizontally. Palatine
bones of moderate width, the margins deflected, rounded at their junction with the
interarticulars, and gradually narrowed forwards.
Sternum rather long, narrow for about half its length, then suddenly expanded to
the hinder margin, which has two fissures, one on each side of the keel, the end of the
splint bounding the fissures expanded ; keel deep, slightly scolloped out on the anterior
edge, with a small manubrial process.
Pelvis small, narrow ; ischiadic and obturator foramina large, os pubis projecting
only very slightly beyond the ischium.
Furculum having the rami, which are flattened, compressed towards one another,
with a very small process at their junction.
Scapula slightly expanded near the distal end, and then sloped off to a point.
198
Ballidje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Rallinje.
Wingbones. Humerus nearly as long as the ulna.
Leg bones. Tibia very long ; calx small; a channel down the upper half of the
hind part of the leg ; supplementary metatarsal slightly twisted on its axis.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 17
Length of ulna . 19
Length of metacarpus 10
Length of femur ....... 13
Length of tibia 32
Length of metatarsus 21
Length of sternum ..... 17
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel . 6
Length of head . . . . . . . 22
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis ...... 8
Parr a, Linn.
Melanoehloris, Vieill.
I have only some fragments of this bird taken from a skin, but they appear to be
similar to the foregoing.
Rallus, Linn,
Aquatieus, Linn.
Cranium with the occipital crest very slightly marked ; a triangular indentation at
the base of the nasal bones ; orbital septum very slight ; inferior maxillary bone with
a process pointing downwards below the condyles.
Sternum long and narrow, with a narrow and deep fissure on each side of the keel,
the strip of bone bounding it projecting beyond the end of the keel.
Pelvis similar to Parra.
Furculum rather long, but very small and weak.
Scapula narrow, pointed at the hinder extremity.
Wingbones. Ulna not so long as the humerus.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a channel down the front ; calx small.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 16
Length of ulna 12
Length of metacarpus 8
Length of femur ...... 16
Length of tibia 27
Length of metatarsus 18
Length of sternum 19
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 5
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4
Depth of keel ....... 5
Length of head 28
Breadth of head 6
Length of pelvis ...... 16
Breadth of pelvis 6
199
RALLIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [AkAMINjE.
Rallus, Linn.
Longirostris, Bodd.
Very similar to the foregoing, but has the clavicle and coracoids much longer.
I have also the sternum of R. concolor, which is also similar.
Ostygometea, Linn.
Lateralis, Lickt.
So like Rallus as not to be distinguishable.
I have also specimens of 0. crex and Pulchra, which are also similar.
Aramus, Vieill.
Scolopaccus, Gm.
Cranium with occipital crest very indistinct ; a depression at the base of the nasal
bones ; orbital septum with one large foramen ; condyloid portion of the inferior max
illary bent downwards, truncate at the end, and with a process pointing downwards
immediately below the condyle. Palatine bones consist of a flattened strip, broader at
the hind portion, where both edges are turned downwards, and sloped off to the inter
articular bones.
Sternum long, narrow, without any fissures on the hinder margin, which is slightly
indented opposite the end of the keel, which is arched on the lower edge, and also
scolloped out in front. Manubrial process very small.
Pelvis similar to the rails.
Furculum of moderate strength, without any process at the junction of the rami,
which are widened on their inner edge at their lower extremities, thus filling a small
portion of the space left between the lower part of the furculum. ,
Scapula of moderate size, pointed at the end.
Wingbones with the ulna longer than the humerus.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a groove down the front, and a slight one at the back ;
calxcontinued for a short distance down it.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 42 J
Length of ulna 45
Length of metacarpus . . . . . 1&
Length of femur 31
Length of tibia 53
Length of metatarsus 50
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14
Depth of keel ....... 9
Length of head 68
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 39
Breadth of pelvis 14
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate XIY. K. j Palatine bones, Plate XXVII. 3.
200
Length of sternum 33
Rallidje.] osteologia avium. [Gallinulinje.
Gallinula, Briss.
Chloropus, Linn.
Cranium. Occipital crest and protuberance well marked; orbital septum with one
large foramen. Palatine bones broadest at their hinder extremities, and gradually
sloped to their junction with the interarticular, gradually narrowed forward, both
edges bent downward for more than half their length ; interarticular bones broadest at
their junction with the palatine, and narrowed backward ; lower maxillary bone trun
cate at the hinder end, with a slight tubercle below the condyles.
Sternum narrow, with a very deep fissure extending nearly to the ribs on each side
of the keel, slightly constricted opposite to the last rib ; keel arched below, rather
shallow, scolloped out in front, with a small manubrial process.
Furcuhwi weak, a small process on the inside, opposite the junction of the rami.
Scapula long, narrow, pointed at the hinder extremity.
Pelvis similar to Rallus.
Wingbones with the humerus longer than the ulna.
Legbones. Metatarsus without any groove down the front or back; calx small.
Bibs with a very long styliform process.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 20
Length of ulna 18
Length of metacarpus 4
Length of femur 20
Length of tibia 32
Length of metatarsus 19
Length of sternum 21
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 8
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel . . 6
Length of head . 22
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 22 J
Breadth of pelvis 8 J
Porphyrio, Briss.
Veterum, Gmel.
The whole skeleton very similar to Gallinula, but larger, the fissures at hinder edge
of the sternum not so deep, the point of the keel receding very much, the manubrial
process longer.
Ribs like Gallinula, with the styliform processes very long.
I have also the skeleton of P. Madagascariensis, which is similar.
Fulic^, Linn.
Atra, Linn,
Very similar to Porphyrio, but the fissures on the sternum are much deeper ; in that
respect resembling Gallinula.
2 l 201
Rallidje.] osteologia avium. [Gallinulinje.
Numbering of the Vertebra among Grallatores.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Limosa rufa .
12
7
15
6
7
1
Totanus glottis .
14
8
13
7
7
1
Scolopax rusticola . . .
44
6
13
6
7
1
Numenius arquatus .
14
6
14
6
7
1
Ibis falcinellus .
15
6
15
6
6
1
Harpiprion Hagedash
15
6
15
6
6
1
Threskiornis melanocephalns
16
7
15
6
6
1
Psophia viridis.
16
8
14
6
7
2
Cariama cristata
13
6
15
6
6
2
Ciconia alba .
17
6
13
7
8
1
Leptophilus argala .
15
6
14
6
5
1
Platalsea Leucorodia
16
6
14
6
6
1
Phsenieopteras ruber
16
6
13
7
6
1
Parra cordifera
15
7
12
7
6
1
Rallus aquaticus
15
8
—
6
7
1
Aramus scolopaccus.
15
7
—
7
7
1
Gallinula cbloropus .
14
9
14
7
8
1
Fulica atra .
14
8
15
6
7
1
Remarks.
The Totanince are nearly allied to the Tringince, but have longer legbones, thus
being able to wade in deeper water; the process on the under side, at condyloid end, of
the lower mandible is also more developed, but most so in the Scolopacince. The Limosince
is distinguished from Totanince by the small size of the inner fissure of the sternum.
The Phalaropince are very similar to the Totanince. The ScolopacinoB have only one
fissure on each side of keel of the sternum. The Tantalince have, besides the develop
ment of the bill to distinguish them, no process at the condyloid end of the inferior
maxillary bone bent downwards, but in many instances it is prolonged backwards in the
same line as the rest of the bone, although not in all. The Psophinm have the hinder
end of lower maxillary terminated abruptly, as it is in Threskiornis ; the expanded
portion of the palatine bones is very long ; the humerus as long, or longer, than the
ulna ; the hinder margin of the sternum entire. The Cariarmince may at once be dis
tinguished from Psophince by the shape of the sternum. The Gruinai have the toes
much shorter than in Ardea, the sternum without fissures on its posterior margin, and
the sternum very long in proportion to its width; on the contrary, Ardeince have
invariably, as far as my specimens go, not less than two fissures on the sternum, and
sometimes four ; the sternum is also much shorter in proportion to its width. The
Ciconina have the keel of the sternum much deeper than in Ardea, and the palatine
bones much broader and more highly developed. I had some hesitation in placing
the Phamicopterince among the herons, but it presents many similarities to them. The
PlatalceincG are a wellmarked group, as are also the Phmnicopterhm. The sternums
in the Eallidce, with the exception of Aramus, have all a very deep fissure on each side
the keeL
.202
ANATIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PlECTROPTERINJE.
Order XIII. NATATORES.
Fam. 1. ANATIDJE.
Subfam. Plectropterin^:.
Plectropterus, Leach.
Gambensis, Linn.*
Cranium large, an oval knob on the forehead ; occipital crest and protuberance very
prominent. Palatine bones rather small for the size of the head, the outer edge much
inclined downwards, bifid at the hinder and lower extremity, narrowed and twisted
on their axis near the centre in an horizontal direction, expanded at their anterior
ends ; nostrils large ; inferior maxillaries much prolonged backwards ; behind the con^
dyles a large flat process, with a spine at its base, which arises anterior to them, and to
which the maxillary muscles are attached.
Sternum long, much broader at the anterior extremity ; keel of moderate depth ;
posterior margin with two large fissures nearly closed at their hinder extremity, the
hinder edge of central portion curved inwardly at the centre, lateral strips of bone
bounding the fissures not projecting beyond the central portion of the sternum ;
anterior edge of the keel straight, the point rather advanced, lower edge slightly
arched. Manubrial process wanting.
Pelvis long, depressed in the centre for the posterior half; ischiadic foramen very
large ; obturator widest posteriorly, and gradually tapering forwards ; os pubis pro
jecting beyond the ischium, and much curved inwards at the points.
Ribs of moderate strength ; styliform processes long, and blunt at the extremities.
Furculum flattened, the rami meeting • each other in a wide arch, a very slight
tubercle at their junction.
Scapula strongj narrowed at the end to a blunt point.
Wingbones long ; humerus longer than ulna, armed with a long spur.
Legbones very strong.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus
Tenths.
Length of femur ...... 38
Length of tibia 67
Length of metatarsus ..... 35
Length of ulna ....... 60
Length of metacarpus ..... 34
* Having figured many of the skeletons of the Anatides before in my work on the Anatidce f I have not thought it
necessary to refigure them in this work,
203
Anatid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Anserine.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Tenths.
Length of head 55
Breadth of head 17J
Length of pelvis 65
Breadth of pelvis 27
Length of sternum 56
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 23
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 29
Depth of keel . 11
Chenalopex, Steph.
iEgyptiacus, Linn,
Similar to Plectropterus.
Cereopsis, Lath.
Novae Hollandiae, Lath.
Cranium. Nostrils very large ; a deep impression on the edge of each orbit, and a ridge
between them ; orbital septum with three foramina. Palatine bones very broad near their
posterior extremity, bind on their hinder edge, suddenly narrowed at about half of
their length, and again expanded anteriorly ; a ridge extends down the centre of the
hinder part of each. Inferior maxillary bone prolonged much backwards behind the
condyle, the hinder points turned upwards ; a flat process, as in Plectropterus , anterior
to the condyles.
Sternum with the anterior point of the keel projecting more forwards than in
Plectropterus, the anterior edge scolloped out, and the lower edge more arched ; but,
as in Plectropterus, devoid of a manubrial process.
Pelvis similar to the foregoing.
Furculum and remaining bones also similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 70
Length of ulna 73
Length of metacarpus 40
Length of femur 36
Length of tibia 64
Length of metatarsus 42
Length of sternum 55
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 26
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 27
Depth of keel 15
Length of head 41
Breadth of head 14
Length of pelvis 68
Breadth of pelvis 26
Bernicla, Steph.
Brenta, Poll.
Cranium similar to Plectropterus gambensis, but smaller ; interarticular bones very
204
ANATIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [CYGNIN2E ?
broad at their junction with the palatines. Lower mandible and other bones also
similar.
Sternum with a manubrial process.
Bernicla, Steph.
Magellanica, Gmel.
Similar to Brenta, but with the fissures at the posterior margin of the sternum
generally closed by a thin strip of bone, thus converting them into foramina ; anterior
edge without a manubrial process.
Anser, Barm,
Cygnoides, Linn,
Similar to the foregoing except in size, and having a knob at the base of the bill ;
the sternum with a distinct manubrial process.
I have also a specimen of A. segetum, which is similar to Cygnoides, but without the
knob at the base of the bill.
Cygnus, Linn,
Coscoroba, Moll,
Cranium with a deep depression at the base of the nasal bones ; orbital septum with
two foramina ; occipital crest and protuberance well marked ; foramen magnum very
large. Palatine bones similar to Plectropterus, but much broader and stronger;
inferior maxillary much prolonged beyond the condyles ; a slight channel from the
vertex to the nasal depression.
Sternum large, broad, similar in shape to Plectropterus, but the lower edge of the
keel very slightly arched, with a short, thick manubrial process, pierced perpendicularly
with a foramen.
Pelvis not differing from the geese.
Furculum also similar to the Anserince, but much stronger.
Scapula very long.
Wingbones with the ulna shorter than the humerus. Terminal joint of the caudal
vertebrae very long.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 80
Length of ulna 70
Length of metacarpus 38
Tenths.
Length of femur ...... 32
Length of tibia 64
Length of metatarsus 36
2 m 205
Anatidje.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Anatinje.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Length of sternum 66
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 29
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 35
Depth of keel 10
Tenths.
Length of head 51
Breadth of head 16
Length of pelvis 82
Breadth of pelvis 33
Cygnus, Lath.
Atratus, Lath,
Similar to the foregoing ; as are also Minor, Pall, and Ferns, Hay, except that the
two latter have the sternum perforated by the trachea.
Tadorna, Leach.
Vulpanser, Flenn.
Cranium similar to Anserince ; orbital septum with two foramina ; lower maxillary
only slightly expanded for the attachment of the masseter muscles, and with a slight
spine or protuberance between it and the condyle ; hinder end, beyond the condyles,
turned inward, and broader than in Plectropterus and other geese.
Sternum similar to the Anserince, with a slight manubrial process.
Pelvis similar in form to Anserince, but not so long in proportion to the size of
the bird.
Winghones with a knob in place of a spur on the point of the carpal joint.
Legbones. Metacarpus with a groove in front.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 42
Length of ulna 41
Length of metacarpus .... 25
Length of femur 21
Length of tibia 38
Length of metatarsus 28
Length of sternum
43
Tenths,
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 21
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 20
Depth of keel 8
Length of head . . , . . . . 38
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis 44
Breadth of pelvis 21
Casarka, Bon,
Rutila, Pall,
Very similar to Tadorna, but with the fissures on the hinder margin of the sternum
larger. C. Radjah is also similar.
206
Anitid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Anatinjs.
Dendrocygna, Sw.
Arcuata, Cuv.
Cranium. The space between the upper edges of the orbits much wider than in
Tadorna ; orbits very small.
Pelvis. Ischiadic foramen small ; obturator very large, oval.
Sternum similar in shape to Tadorna, but narrower in proportion to its length.
Wingbones much longer in proportion to the size of the bird.
Furculum very broad and strong.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 38
Length of ulna 41
Length of metacarpus 18
Length of femur 23
Length of tibia 35
Length of metatarsus 22
Length of sternum ...... 33
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14
Depth of keel 6
Length of head 34
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 33
Breadth of pelvis 1 2 \
Dendrocygna, Sw.
Autumnalis, Linn.
Very similar to the foregoing ; the palatine bones are, however, much narrower, the
sternum much broader on the posterior margin than on the anterior one, and the
obturator foramen is also much narrower.
I have also the sternum of D. arborea, which is similar to the above.
An as, Linn.
Boschas, Linn.
Cranium. The space between the upper edge of the orbits of moderate breadth;
orbits with two foramina, one placed over the other, at the hinder margin. Palatine
bones widened anteriorly ; interarticular bones very broad at their junction with the
palatine, and gradually tapering backwards.
Sternum broader on its posterior margin than on the anterior; marginal fissures;
large manubrial process ; small triangular keel, deeper in proportion to the length of
the sternum than in Tadorna, the anterior point projecting far forwards, the anterior
edge slightly scolloped out.
Pelvis similar in shape to Tadorna ; foramina of moderate size.
207
ANATIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ANATINiE.
Furculum of moderate strength, with, a very slight process at the junction of the
rami.
Coracoids long.
Wingbones of moderate length, but not nearly so long in proportion to the size of
the bird as in Dendrocygna.
Legbones, Metatarsus with the calcineal ridge not carried down the back.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . . . . , 38
Length of ulna 34
Length of metacarpus 21
Length of femur 20 J
Length of tibia 32
Length of metatarsus 17
Length of sternum 41 J
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 20
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9
Depth of keel 9
Length of head . . . . : . . 45
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 42
Breadth of pelvis ..,.,. 18
Dafilla, Leach.
Acuta, Linn,
Similar in every respect, except in size, to Anas,
Malacorhynchus, Sw.
Membrinaccus, Lath.
I have only some fragments of this genus taken from a skin. The bones of the
cranium are very light and thin, in comparison with Anas ; in shape, however, they
are very similar.
I have also fragments of Querquedula, Creeca, and Erythorhyncha, all of which are
similar in form to Anas.
Aix, Bote.
Galericulata.
Cranium broad between the upper edges of the orbits ; orbital septum perforated by
three foramina. Palatine bones broad posteriorly, and inclining outwards and down
wards on their exterior margins ; a short central ridge united with the interarticular
bones, the anterior portion abruptly pointed on the inner edge ; foramen lacerum pos
terius very large.
Sternum with the anterior edge of the keel projecting much forwards, straight, and
not scolloped out. In other respects, except in size, similar to Anas,
208
Anatidje.] osteologia avium. [Fuligulin^.
Chaulelasmus, G. R. Gray.
Strepera, Linn.
Cranium narrow between the upper edges of the orbits ; orbital septum with two
foramina. Falatine bones similar in form and position to the last, but contracted in
the middle.
Sternum as in the last.
Pelvis with the ischiadic foramen very large, oval ; immediately behind it another
foramen, divided from it by a strip of bone, rounded; obturator foramen large,
broadest at the hinder extremity ; hind toe very long.
Other bones similar to Anas,
Spatula, Boie.
Clypeata, Linn.
Sternum very short, but in form similar to the preceding.
Pelvis similar, and has the same three foramina.
Petrocyanea, Bon.
Cserulata, Licht.
I have only the sternum of this bird, which is not so broad as in Spatula in propor
tion to its length, and has a long triangular manubrial process, blunt at the extremity
In other respects similar.
Oidemia, Flem.
Nigra, Linn.
Cranium. Space between upper edges of the orbits; narrow orbital septum with
one foramen. Palatine bones narrow for the hinder half, then becoming gradually
broader, and bent outwards ; interarticular bones broadest at their junction with the
palatines, and gradually narrowed backward.
Sternum broad and long, with a xiphisternal piece projecting between the two
fissures, which are broad, but not very deep, the strip of bone bounding them
externally bent inwards at the tips, and edge very slightly scolloped out; lower edge
of the keel arched anteriorly.
Pelvis long ; ischiadic foramen large, oval ; obturator of moderate size ; os pubis
long, expanded at the tips, and bent much inwards.
Wingbones. Humerus longer than the ulna.
Legbones. Fibula extending for nearly the whole length of the tibia ; calcineal
process small ; toes long ; metatarsi short.
2 n 209
Anatid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[FlJLIGULIN^.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 34
Length of ulna 32§
Length of metacarpus 22
Length of femur ...... 20
Length of tibia .33
Length of metatarsus 16
Length of sternum ...... 35
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 2
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 8
Depth of keel 6
Length of head 36
Breadth of head 11 J
Length of pelvis 40
Breadth of pelvis 17
Fuligula, Steph.
Marilla, Linn.
Similar in form to the foregoing, but with the sternum broader on its posterior
margin in proportion to the anterior, and without any xiphisternal process.
Nyroca, Flem.
Leucopthalmus, Bechst.
Also similar to Oidemia, but with the pelvis broader in proportion to its
length, and both the ischiadic and obturator foramina larger ; hinder margin of the
sternum without any xiphisternal process.
Clangula, Flem.
Glaucion, Linn.
Cranium very deep in proportion to its length; orbital septum with one foramen.
Palatine bones placed horizontally, broadest at the extremities.
Sternum of moderate size; instead of fissures on the posterior edge, it has two large
foramina; xiphisternal process large, point of the keel projecting very much forwards;
without any manubrial process.
Pelvis of moderate size ; ischiadic foramen large ; obturator narrow.
Metatarsus with the calcineal process very small.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 31
Length of ulna 26
Length of metacarpus 18
Length of femur 19
Length of tibia 27
Length of metatarsus 13
Length of sternum 40
210
Tenth?.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 25
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 17
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 25
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 27
Breadth of pelvis 19
Anatid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[FuLIGULIN^I.
Somateria, Leach.
Mollissima, Linn.
Cranium very strong. Palatine bones very similar to Nyroca, the hinder and outer
angle bent downwards, placed far apart, and slightly bent inwards in the centre.
Nasal bones are terminated by a sharp spine projecting upwards and backwards, and
another projecting downwards in the place where the lacrymal bones usually are ; but
I can trace no vestige of anchylosis between this process and the nasal bones. The
skeleton I have, however, is that of a very old bird.
Pelvis broad, similar to Clangula.
Sternum very large and strong ; anterior edge of the keel scolloped out, the point
not projecting far forwards before the rest of the sternum, the strips of bone bounding
the foramina on the outer sides very broad.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 40
Length of ulna 36
Length of metacarpus 23
Length of femur 25
Length of tibia 38
Length of metatarsus 21 \
Length of sternum 43
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 30
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 25
Depth of keel 8
Length of head ....... 4T
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 50
Breadth of pelvis 24
Erismatura, Bon.
Leucocephala, Scop.
Cranium strong. Palatine bones broad at their anterior extremities, and gradually
narrowed to their junction with the interarticular bones, where they nearly touch ;
interarticular bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, and narrowed
rather suddenly backwards.
Sternum with the keel very narrow ; hinder margin with two foramina, rather small ;
posterior margin much broader than the anterior ; anterior edge of keel scolloped out.
Pelvis with the ischiadic and obturator foramina very large, the os pubis not turned
inwards.
Legbones. Metatarsal bones flattened, a rather deep groove in front.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 25
Length of ulna 23
Length of metacarpus 12 J
Tenths.
Length of femur ...... 15
Length of tibia 25
Length of metatarsus 13
211
Anatidjs.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Fuligulin^;.
Measurements (continued).
Tenths.
Length of sternum 22
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 3
Depth of keel 3
Tenths.
Length of head 31
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 29
Breadth of pelvis ,18
Biziura, Leach.
Lobata, Sh.
Cranium very strong. Palatine bones broadest anteriorly, contracted in the middle,
and again widened at their junction with the interarticular, which are widest at their
junction with the palatine bones.
Sternum similar to JErismatura, but with two wide, open fissures on the posterior
margin.
Pelvis with the foramina very large.
Remaining bones as in Erismatura.
Mergus, Linn.
Albelltjs, Linn.
Cranium of moderate strength. Palatine bones slightly pointed at their anterior
extremities, very short ; interarticular bones very long, curved inwards.
Sternum with the keel narrow, the point projecting very much forwards ; posterior
margin with two foramina, and a wellmarked xiphisternal piece between them.
Pelvis. Obturator and ischiadic foramina large, rather narrow.
Coracoids rather long ; metatarsi rounded.
I have also fragments of M. castor, which are similar.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 31 J
Length of ulna 26
Length of metacarpus 19
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia 30
Length of metatarsus 14
Length of sternum 36
212
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 19
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 15
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 38
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 38
Breadth of pelvis 15
CoLYMBIDiE.]
03TEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[CoLYMBINiE.
Colymbus, Linn.
Glacialis, Linn.
I have only the sternum and pelvis of this bird.
Sternum large ; keel slightly arched on its lower edge, point projecting slightly
beyond the anterior edge of the sternum; hinder margin with two large fissures ;
xiphisternal portion very large, and projecting far backwards ; hinder margin wider
than the anterior margin.
Furculum very broad at its junction with the coracoids, and gradually narrowed to its
junction with the point of the keel.
Coracoids short, very strong.
Pelvis narrow ; ilium and ischium much bent downwards, and with a long spine
proceeding from the former on each side of the ischiadic and caudal vertebrae ; os pubis
very broad at its extremity ; obturator foramina very large.
Colymbus, Linn.
Septentrionalis, Linn.
Cranium. Palatine bones broadest a little anterior to the interarticulars, both turned
downwards, gradually sloping off forwards ; interorbital septum with two foramina ;
impressions of the masseter muscles very strong. Inferior maxillary bones slightly
prolonged beyond the condyles, cup shaped, a deep groove on each side over the
orbits.
Sternum, pelvis, and furculum as in Colymbus glacialis.
JRibs with very long styliform processes.
Wingbones. Humerus much longer than the ulna.
Legbones. Tibia very much prolonged at its proximal extremity ; femur very short,
calcineal bones projecting far backwards at the upper part of the metatarsi, a foramen
through them for the passage of the contractor muscles, and a channel both down the
front and back of the metatarsus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 54
Length of ulna 44
Length of metacarpus .... 23
Length of femur 13
Length of tibia 60
Length of metatarsus . . . . . 27
Length of sternum 55
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 23 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 21
Depth of keel ....... 5J
Length of head ....... 43
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis . . . . . . 53
Breadth of pelvis ■ . . . . . . 16
o 213
CoLYMBIDJS.]
Skeleton, Plate I. L.
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
PoDTCEPSINJE.
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta
tarsus, Plate XL. fig. 2.
Podiceps, Lath,
Minor, Linn.
Cranium. Palatine bones broad at hinder ends, and bent downwards at their edges,
gradually tapering forwards ; interarticular bones slightly bent outwards.
Sternum very broad behind, with two very large and open fissures ; keel narrow, not
carried forward beyond the anterior edge of the horizontal portion of the sternum ;
without any manubrial process.
Pelvis similar to that of Colymbus, but with the ends of the os pubis not widened.
Legbones. Tibia long, anterior process elongated forwards and inwards to a point ;
calcineal bones short.
Furculum slight, without any process at the junction of the rami.
Coracoids short.
I have also the skeleton of Podiceps cristatus, which is similar to the foregoing.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 20
Length of ulna 19
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 28
Length of metatarsus 14
Length of sternum ...... 15
Tenths,
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 10
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 23
Breadth of pelvis 7
Podiceps, Lath.
Cristatus, Linn.
Similar to the foregoing, except in size, and distinguished as in Cotymbus by a long
spine on each side of the caudal vertebras.
Illustrations.
Skeleton Plate XXIV.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and
metatarsi, Plate XL.
214
Skeleton, Plate XXI.
Sternum, palatine bones, metatarsi, and
pelvis, Plate XL. fig. 1.
AlcIDJS,] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ALCINJE.
Alca, Linn.
Impensis, Linn.
The skeleton of this bird has been lately fully described in the transactions of the
Zoological Society. The paper was read June 14th, 1864, by Professor Owen,
Alca, Linn.
Torda, Linn.
Cranium very similar in shape to that of the foregoing.
Sternum also similar, but furnished on each side with lateral fissures ; post orbital
process pointing downwards.
Pelvis also similar.
Wingbones slightly flattened, but not so much so as in .4. impensis. Metatarsal
bones anchylosed together.
Remaining bones very similar.
Fratercula, Briss.
Arctica, Linn.
Cranium in some respects similar to the genus Alca. The space between the upper
part of the orbits very narrow, the orbital septum almost entirely wanting; orbits very
large, thus allowing a very small cavity for the brain ; the post orbital process very
long, and pointing upwards.
Sternum with a slight foramen on each side of the keel, near the hinder margin, the
xiphisternal portion extending far backwards ; keel deep, much excavated in front, and
arched on its lower edge.
Pelvis very similar to Alca torda.
, Wingbones slightly flattened.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a slight groove down the front.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 22
Length of ulna 20
Length of metacarpus 15
Length of femur 12
Length of tibia 23
Length of metatarsus 10
Length of sternum 31
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 14
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 9
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 29
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis 30
Breadth of pelvis 11
215
Alcid^;.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Sphenicin^e.
Spheniscus, Briss.
Minor, Forst.
Cranium large, strong, with the upper edges of the orbits much depressed, and
roughened space between the orbits rather narrow ; orbital septum with one large
foramen, the post orbital processes pointing downwards, blunt at the extremities ;
occipital bone with the ridges prolonged into a projecting keel; occipital protuberance very
large. Palatine bones very broad, sloped at their posterior outer edges towards the
interarticular bones, and gradually narrowed anteriorly; interarticular bones battle
dore shaped, with the broad end placed towards the palatine bones.
Sternum long, without any xiphisternal process, with a large elongated fissure on
the posterior margin on each side of the keel, the strip of bone bounding them on their
outward edges widened and turned inwards posteriorly, the central portion of the
sternum between the fissures not so long as the strip; keel with the lower edge nearly
straight, anterior edge slightly curved, the point projecting beyond the anterior edge of
the horizontal portion of the sternum ; manubrial process well marked.
Pelvis very similar in shape to Alca torda, but with os pubis not so much prolonged,
and the spines projecting on each side of the ilium not so long.
Ribs with the styliform process long, broader at their hinder extremities than at
their junction with the ribs.
Furculum broadest near its junction with the coracoids, and gradually narrowed to
the junction of the rami, where there is a slight process projecting backwards.
Coracoids of moderate strength.
Scapula shaped very much like a shoulder of mutton, with the small end towards
the coracoids, which is not above onefourth the width of the hinder end, the edges
much curved, the hinder edge truncate.
Winghones much flattened ; very similar to Alca impensis.
Legbones with the metatarsus very short ; fibula strong, extending down the side of
the tibia for threefourths of its length, the proximal end of the tibia not elongated, as
among the Colymbidce ; metatarsal bones much flattened.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 18
Length of ulna 13
Length of metacarpus 11
Length of femur 18
Length of tibia 29
Length of metatarsus 12
Length of sternum 31
216
Tenths,
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 15
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 6
Depth of keel 8
Length of head 39
Breadth of head 16
Length of pelvis 35
Breadth of pelvis 14
Alcidje.] osteologia avium. [Urinje.
Eudyptes, Vieill.
From Vandieman's Land.
Precisely similar in every respect to the foregoing, except in measurements.
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate IV. L.
Palatine bones, sternum, pelvis, and meta
tarsi, Plate XXXVIII. fig. 1.
Uria, Moshr.
Grylle, Linn.
Cranium. Orbital septum nearly obliterated, the space between the upper edges of the
orbits narrow, with a wellmarked ridge down the centre. Palatine bones very similar
to Alca torda, but not so strong ; occipital ridge well marked and edged ; masseter
impression of moderate size; occipital protuberance large.
Sternum narrow, and very long, without any xiphisternal continuation, the outer
edges thickened for the whole length ; the posterior margin furnished with a narrow
fissure on each side, central portion projecting beyond the strips of bone bounding the
fissures slightly indented in the centre, opposite the end of the keel, which is deep in
proportion to the width of the sternum, slightly arched below, and much scolloped out
in front, point projecting beyond the plain of the sternum ; manubrial process perpen
dicularly compressed, edged anteriorly.
Pelvis similar to A. torda.
Ribs light, with very long styliform processes.
Furculum very much arched, flattened laterally; a small process at the junction of
the rami.
Scapula thin, narrow, pointed at the end.
Wingbones much flattened ; humerus much longer than the ulna.
Legbones. Metatarsus slightly flattened transversely ; calx small.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 32
Length of ulna 24
Length of metacarpus 14
Length of femur 18
Length of tibia 32
Length of metatarsus 13
Length of sternum 48
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 14
Depth of keel . . 10
Length of head 36
Breadth of head 1{I
Length of pelvis 38
Breadth of pelvis ...... 9
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate III. L
Sternum, pelvis, metatarsi, and palatine
bones, Plate XXXIX. fig. 2.
2p 217
PELICANlDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PLOTINiE.
Plotus, Linn.
Novae Hollandiae, Gould.
Cranium lengthened, without any orbital septum ; space between the upper edges
of the orbits rather narrow ; post orbital processes small ; occipital bone with a slight
ridge, projecting most at the centre of the upper edge, and terminating below on each
edge, with two strong but blunt spines projecting backwards ; the foramen magnum
very large; a large, but not very well denned, depression for the masseter muscles.
Palatine bones truncate on their hinder angles, with a slight spine in the centre, and
gradually tapering forwards ; interarticular bones thin, and rounded.
Sternum short, broad, with a wide fissure on each side, on the posterior edge ; keel
not extending for above twothirds of its length, anterior edge slightly scolloped out,
the point projecting far forwards, lower edge very slightly arched ; a very slight
manubrial process ; the lateral edges of the sternum much constricted in the middle.
Pelvis with the ilium very much expanded for its anterior half before the acetabulum,
then much narrowed, the upper surface of the hinder portion having a central rib, and
projecting as a ridge over the ischium, and terminated by a spine on each side, the
boundaries of the vertebrae plainly visible; ischiadic foramen very large; ischium
expanded outwards on its lower edge ; os pubis with the ends projecting downwards.
Furculum broad, and very much arched backwards, and broad at its upper extremities,
afterwards nearly straight, and anchylosed to the point of the sternum.
Coracoids very long.
Scapula long, of moderate width, blunt at the ends.
Wingbones long ; ulna and metacarpal bones nearly triangular.
Vertebral column having the upper cervical vertebrae very much elongated.
Metatarsus short, flattened.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 54
Length of ulna 50
Length of metacarpus 27
Length of femur 23
Length of tibia 37
Length of metatarsus 20
Length of sternum 25
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2 1
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 9
Depth of keel . 9
Length of head 46
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 40
Breadth of pelvis 15
Graculus, Linn.
Cristatus, Fab.
Cranium similar in shape to Plotus, but with the end of the maxillary bones bent
downwards; the tubercle on the upper edge of the occipital bone has a pointed,
218
Pelicanidje.] osteologia avium. [Pelicaninje.
movable, triangular process attached to it, which, I suspect, has also been the case with
my specimen of Plotus, but has been lost.
Sternum similar to Plotus, but with the posterior fissures not so deep, but wider.
Pelvis also similar, but with the foramina larger.
Kemainder of the skeleton also similar.
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate V. L.
Phaeton, Linn.
Eubricauda, Bodd.
I have only some fragments of this bird obtained from a skin.
Cranium. The occipital bone is without the processes on each side and at the top
so prominent as Ploius and Graculus, but the post orbital processes are longer : the
whole is much broader, the lachrymal bones point outwards and downwards, and are
much more highly developed than in the abovementioned genera. Only the anterior
portion of the palatine bones remains, which is of the same shape as among the
cormorants. The masseter impression is large, and the upper surface of the cranium
between the orbits broad.
Wingbones. The humerus is nearly as long as the ulna.
Legbones with the divisions into three bones distinctly visible anteriorly and
posteriorly, all anchylosed together with a slight groove at the lower part.
Pelican us, Linn.
New Holland.
Cranium. Orbital septum without any foramen ; occipital bone similar to Phaeton.
Palatine bones anchylosed together for their whole length, the hinder portions with a
strong central keel between them for one inch and a quarter of their length, arcuated
on its lower edge, and a quarter of an inch deep, lateral portions bending downwards,
broad anteriorly, and gradually narrowed towards the interarticular bones, which are
very strong, and broadest at their junction with the palatine bones.
Sternum similar to Graculus.
Pelvis very long ; ilium continued forwards, and anchylosed to the third rib and
all the ribs posterior to it ; a deep fissure on each side of the dorsal process of the two
anterior sacral vertebrae ; hinder margin very similar to the cormorants, but with a
blunt and broad projection instead of a spine on each side of the caudal vertebrae ;
foramina very large.
Furculum similar to the cormorants, anchylosed to the sternum.
Scapula straight, bluntly pointed at the end.
219
Pelicanidjs.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Sulin,e.
Wingbones. Ulna much longer than the humerus.
Legbones. Metatarsus in the centre, nearly triangular ; calx large, but not extend
ing far down.
Measurements.
Inches.
Length of humerus 11 J
Length of ulna . . 13
Length of metacarpus 5 J
Length of femur 3f
Length of tibia 6J
Length of metatarsus
41
*2
Length of sternum 5J
Inches.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 4^
Depth of keel 1^
Length of head 17
Breadth of head 2^
Length of pelvis 9J
Breadth of pelvis 3 a 8
Illustrations.
Skeleton Plate VII. L.
Pelvis, sternum, metatarsi, and palatine
bones, Plate XXXVIII. fig. 2.
Pelicanus, Linn.
Fuscus, Linn.
I have the sternum, coracoids, scapula, and furculum of this bird, which, except in
size, are precisely similar to the foregoing.
Sula, Briss.
Bassana, Linn.
Cranium very strong ; occipital bone with a strong ridge on its anterior edge,
inclining forwards ; occipital prominence very large, the hinder and lower edge termi
nating in a truncate projection; masseter impression strong; post orbital process bifid,
pointing outwards and slightly downwards; orbital septum with one large foramen.
Palatine bones broad, slightly recurved at their outer edges, anchylosed together, and
with a slight ridge down the centre; hinder edge at their junction with the inter
articular bones, somewhat truncate, with a slight spine on their external edges. Inter
articular bones flattened, united to the ridge between the palatines.
Sternum much longer in proportion to its breadth than in Pelicanus, the keel
extending only to onehalf the length of the sternum, the point extending far forwards ;
manubrial process large ; posterior edge of sternum with two shallow, broad, and open
fissures, the outer edges extending beyond the central portion of the sternum.
Pelvis extending to the three hinder ribs, similar to Pelicanus, but not so broad,
and with the obturator foramen much narrower.
220
Pelicanidje.] osteologia avium. [Peocellarin^:.
Ribs with the styliform processes longer than in Pelicanus.
Furculum anchylosed to the point of the sternum on its anterior aspect, much arched,
laterally flattened, the hinder portion widened.
Scapula strong, widened near the hinder extremity, and sloped to a point.
Wingbones. Ulna much shorter than humerus; thumb half the length of the
metacarpus.
Legbones. Metatarsus flattened ; a deep groove at the back.
Measurements.
Inches.
Length of humerus ..... 8 J
Length of ulna 7 J
Length of metacarpus 3/
Length of femur 3
Length of tibia 3^
Length of metatarsus 2^
Length of sternum 5f
Inches.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2^
Depth of keel 1^
Length of head 7 X 6
Breadth of head 2 X 2
Length of pelvis • . 6
Breadth of pelvis l x 9
Illustration.
Skeleton, Plate VI. L.
Procellaria, Linn.
Gigantea, Gm.
Cranium very strong, two deep indentations extending over each orbit ; masseter
impression also strong; orbital septum with one rounded foramen ; post orbital pro
cesses of moderate size. Palatine bones broadest about a quarter of an inch from the
interarticular, to which bones they are gradually sloped off on their outer edges, the
interior edge of each palatine bone much bent perpendicularly downwards, and
narrowed gradually forwards.
Sternum similar in general form to Pelicanus, but differs in having the anterior edge
of the keel scolloped out, and point not much advanced beyond the horizontal portion
of the sternum, which is also more convex ; on the anterior edge of the keel is a
flattened but large and triangular manubrial process.
Pelvis truncated on anterior extremity, and not extending beyond last rib.
Wingbones with the ulna not so long as the humerus ; thumb threeparts as long as
the metacarpus.
Legbones. Extension of the tibial crests reaching even with the femur, and very
broad ; the metatarsus rather long for a water bird, in proportion to the tibia ; a spur
on the hinder edge ; calx very small, a channel both before and behind.
Ribs with very long styliform processes.
2q 221
Pelicanid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Pro CELLARING.
Measurements.
Inches.
Length of humerus 97
Length of ulna . ...... 9^
Length of metacarpus 3^
Length of femur
Q3
fi 7
Length of tibia . . ... . .
Length of metatarsus 4^
Length of sternum 5
Inches.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 3^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 3^
Depth of keel l^
Length of head 6^
Breadth of head 2*
Length of pelvis ...... 6^
Breadth of pelvis 2 X 6
Skeleton, Plate VIII. L.
Illustrations.
Sternum, palatine bones, pelvis, and
metatarsi, Plate XXXVII. fig. 2.
Puffinus, Briss.
Vandieman's Land.
Cranium very similar to the foregoing. When the horny covering of the bill is cleared
away (which it is in this specimen), the nares are found to penetrate under the tube
directly backwards, with a distinct septum between them, the upper part bony, and
the rest cartilage. The nares are terminated by an orifice, turned upward, which is of
soft cartilage, and which, I suspect, the bird has the power of expanding or contract
ing, and the whole is covered by a hollow horny tube. The palatine bones are similar
in shape, but with the outer edge of the hinder portion turned more downwards ; the
post orbital processes are very broad at their extremities, whereas they are pointed
in the foregoing.
Sternum short, broad, with broad and shallow fissures on each side of the keel
externally, to which are two small oval foramina. Eemainder of the sternum similar
to the foregoing.
Pelvis with a keel between the anterior half of the ilium, and not anchylosed to it.
Remainder similar to the foregoing.
Wingbones. Ulna longer than the humerus ; thumb very long, reaching to more
than half the length of the metacarpus.
Legbones. The extension of the proximal end of the tibial crests reaching beyond
the end of the femur, and very broad.
Remaining bones as in the preceding.
Measurements.
Inches.
Length of humerus 5
Length of ulna 5io
Length of metacarpus 2*
222
Inches.
Length of femur
Length of tibia 4
Length of metatarsus 2^
l 8
1 10
2
10
Pelicanid^:.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Procellarin^;.
Measurements (continued).
Inches.
Length of sternum 2}
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 2^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 2
Depth of keel
ii
Inches.
Length of head 4^
Breadth of head . ...... 1
Length of pelvis 3^
Breadth of pelvis
1 3
Jio
Puffin us, Briss.
Major, Fab.
Cranium similar to the foregoing.
Sternum also similar, with the exception of having two broad shallow fissures on
each side of the keel, on the posterior margin.
Scapula expanded at the tips.
I have also a specimen of P. capensis, P. griseics, and two other unnamed species
from the South Seas, all of which are similar.
Thalassidroma, Vig.
Oceanica, Kuhl.
Cranium very much the same in shape as in Procellaria. Palatine bones also
similar, but the edges not deflected. Post orbital processes small, projecting slightly
upwards.
Sternum with the posterior margin entire, projecting slightly at the terminus of the
keel, in the centre, lateral margins bending much outwards ; a slight manubrial
process.
Pelvis and other bones similar to Procellaria.
Furculum not anchylosed with the sternum ; tibia very long ; humerus as long as
ulna; os pubis turned much outwards.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 9
Length of ulna 9
Length of metacarpus .... 7
Length of femur 6
Length of tibia 19
Length of metatarsus 15
Length of sternum
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6
Depth of keel 3 J
Length of head ....... 12
Skeleton, Plate X. L.
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones,
metatarsi, Plate XXXIX. fig. J.
223
and
PELICANIDJE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [DlOMEDINiE,
Diomedia, Linn.
Exulans, Linn.
Cranium with two very deep channels above the orbits, but not continued to the outer
edge, as in Procellaria, terminating with two large foramina behind the lacrymal
bones ; masseter impression strong ; post orbital processes turned slightly downwards,
and broad in front. Palatine bones similar to Procellaria gigantea ; lacrymal bones
curved backwards, thus forming one side of the foramen terminating the muscular
impression above the orbits ; nares placed on each side not having a joint sheath as in
Procellaria, but each having a separate one.
Sternum very broad and short ; keel rudimentary as it approaches the central portion
of the posterior margin ; lateral portions projecting furthest on the posterior margin,
and sloped gradually towards the indentation in the centre, perforated by a small
foramen in the centre ; manubrial process very small ; keel arched below, and not
anchylosed to the sternum.
Pelvis similar to that of Procellaria gigantea.
Furculum of moderate strength, regularly arched on its anterior aspect from its
junction with the coracoids, slightly flattened at junction of the rami.
Coracoids very broad at their articulation with the sternum, very short, and
strong.
Scapula long, of nearly equal breadth until near the extremity, when they are
gradually widened, rounded at their points.
Wingbones very long ; ulna longer than humerus ; thumb reaching for twothirds
the length of the metacarpus.
Legbones. Fibula reaching for twothirds the length of the tibia, end of which is
prolonged beyond its junction with the femur, and forming a broad horizontal plate
downwards.
Metatarsus with a channel extending for its whole length down the front, and for
about half its length down the back from the calx, which is very smalL
Measurements.
Inches.
Length of humerus . . . . . 16
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus 5?
Length of femur 3?
Length of tibia 8^
Length of metatarsus 4 1 6
Length of sternum 7
Inches.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 4^
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 5
Depth of keel lf
Length of head 10 x 5
Breadth of head 3fo
Length of pelvis 7
Breadth of pelvis 3^
Illustrations.
Skeleton, Plate IX. L. I Pelvis, sternum, palatine bones, and metatarsi,
Plate XXXVII. fig. 1.
224
Laridje.] osteologia avium. [Larinje.
Diomedia, Linn.
Fuliginosa, Gm.
I have a sternum of this bird, sternal apparatus, and pelvis. The distinction is in
the form of the posterior margin of the sternum, which is scolloped out for its whole
width. I have also the skeleton of D. melanophrys, which is similar.
Larus, Linn.
Ridibundus, Linn.
Cranium with a deep indentation upon each orbit, and a narrow ridge between them ;
masseter impression very distinct ; occipital bone slightly projecting on each side in the
form of a blunt spine, pointing forwards ; post orbital processes narrow, pointing
downwards and backwards. Palatine bones narrow, the outer edges recurved for
about half of their length, sloped backwards from the broadest part to the inter
articular bones, which are rounded, and have a slight keel on their upper edge,
broadest anteriorly ; orbital septum with one foramen.
Sternum of moderate length and breadth, with two fissures on each side of the keel,
the inner one largest; keel rather broad, arched on its inferior edge, anterior edge
scolloped out, with the point projecting. Manubrial process flattened perpendicularly,
upper portion thicker than the lower.
Pelvis similar to the Procellarince, but with the os pubis projecting further backward.
Ribs slender, with very long styliform or pleural processes.
Furculum much arched on its anterior aspect, transversely flattened ; a small
flattened process, pointing backwards, at the junction of the rami.
Coracoids of moderate size and length.
Scapula light, and of the same breadth until very near the hinder extremity, where
it is slightly widened, and afterwards sloped off to a blunt point.
Wingbones with the ulna longer than the humerus ; thumb onethird the length of
the metatarsus.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a groove down the front ; calx small, a slight splint
proceeds from it a short distance down the back of the metatarsus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 36
Length of ulna 41
Length of metacarpus 22
Length of femur 17
Length of tibia 33
Length of metatarsus 19
Length of sternum 24
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 12
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 12
Depth of keel 7
Length of head 35
Breadth of head 14
Length of pelvis 28
Breadth of pelvis 14
2r 225
Larid^;.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Illustrations.
[Sterninje.
Skeleton, Plate XI. L.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones, and meta
tarsi, Plate XXXVI. fig. 2.
Larus, Linn.
Marinus, Linn.
Precisely similar to the preceding, but there is a variety in the outer fissure on the
right side being closed and converted into a foramen, and not on both sides.
I have also specimens of Larus cinerea and Argentatus, which are also similar.
Sterna, Linn.
Macroura, Naum.
Cranium similar to Larus. Palatine bones not so much sloped on their hinder
margins towards the interarticulars.
Sternum similar to Larus, but shorter in proportion to its length, and the keel
deeper.
Pelvis similar, but broader in proportion to its length.
Furculum and Coracoids similar to Larus.
Wingbones. Ulna much longer than the humerus ; thumb reaching for about one
third the length of the metacarpus.
Legbones. Tibia not elongated beyond the femur, but flattened and bent down
wards.
Length of humerus
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur .
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum
Measurements.
Tenths.
18
22
11
8
13
6
14
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 7 \
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 6J
Depth of keel 5J
Length of head 24
Breadth of head 7
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis 9
Sterna, Linn.
Melanocephala.
This bird does not differ from the preceding. I have also a specimen from Australia,
which I believe to be Anous stolida, which differs from the other Terns in having
on each side of the hinder margin of the sternum one outer moderatesized fissure, and
a very small foramen between it and the keel.
226
Larid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Rhyncopsinje.
Rhyncops, Linn.
Nigra, Linn.
Cranium. A slight groove above the orbits, and a slight channel over the centre of
the head to the vertex, and very deep transverse channel at the base of the nasal
bones ; occipital ridge prominent, and terminated by a spine on each side pointing
downwards and forwards; post orbital processes perpendicularly flattened, pointing
outwards, and slightly bent downwards at the points ; masseter impression large, down
the centre of it a slight ridge ; orbital septum with one small foramen. Palatine
bones very broad, and sloping gradually downwards, the hinder edge sloped gradually
to the interarticular bones, anterior portion gradually diminishing in breadth ; lacrymal
bones anchylosed to the frontal, with a foramen through them ; inferior maxillary at
the attachment of the masseter muscles much widened.
Sternum similar to the Sternince.
Pelvis also similar, but longer in proportion to the size of the bird.
Wingbones very long ; ulna much longer than the humerus ; thumb onethird the
length of the metacarpus.
Legbones. Metatarsus with a groove down the front ; tibia not prolonged, but
having a slight projection in front.
Measurements,
Tenths.
Length of humerus 35
Length of ulna 44
Length of metacarpus . . . . 21 1
Length of femur ...... 15
Length of tibia 25
Length of metatarsus 14 J
Length of sternum ..... 21
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin of sternum 1 1 J
Breadth of anterior margin of sternum 1 2
Depth of keel
Length of head .
Breadth of head
Length of pelvis
Breadth of pelvis
Skeleton, Plate XII. L.
Illustrations.
Sternum, pelvis, palatine bones,
metatarsi, Plate XXXVI. fig. 1.
53
14
29
n±
and
227
LARIDiE.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [STERNIN2E.
Numbering of the Vertebrce and Ribs in Natatores.
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
True ribs.
False ribs.
Plectropterus Gambensis .
15
7
16
6
7
2
Cereopsis Novas Hollandiae
17
8
17
6
5
1
Bernicla Brenta
17
7
18
6
9
2
Anser cygnoides ,
17
6
19
6
9
2
Cygnus coscoroba
20
7
19
8
9
2
atratus
21
8
19
8
9
2
ferus .
23
6
21
7
8
2
Tadorna vulpanser
16
6
15
7
8
2
Casarka rutila .
16
6
17
7
7
2
Dafilla caudacuta
16
7
16
6
8
2
Anas boscbas .
15
6
16
6
7
2
Dendrocygna arcuata
15
6
18
6
7
2
Chaulelasmus strepera
14
7
16
6
7
2
Oidemia nigra .
14
6
16
6
8
Fuligula marilla
15
6
16
6
8
Clangula Glaucion .
15
6
16
6
8
Erismatura Leucocephala .
13
6
13
7
6
2
Biziura lobata .
14
6
15
6
9
Mergus albellus
15
6
15
6
7
2
Colymbus septentrionalis .
11
7
16
6
8
Podiceps minor
16
5
13
6
6
Podiceps cristatus
19
7
17
6
7
Alca torda .
13
7
17
7
8
Fratercula arctica
14
7
12
7
7
Spheniscus minor
13
7
14
7
7
Eudyptes Van Diemen's Land .
12
7
15
6
7
Uria troile .
13
6
12
7
8
Plotus Novas Hollandiae .
17
5
10
—
Pelicanus N. H.
19
5
14
7
5
Procellaria gigantea .
12
8
14
7
7
Puffinus fuligenosus
12
7
12
6
7
Tbalassidroma Wilsonii .
11
6
12
6
6
Diomedia exulans
13
8
13
7
7
Larus ridibundus
14
7
12
7
7
Sterna arctica .
13
6
12
6
7
Rhyncops nigra
13
6
12
8
7
Remarks.
There is a great similarity among all the Anserine in their osteological characters.
They may be distinguished, however, from the Cygnince by the much greater propor
tionate length of the pelvis in the latter. The Colymbidce have the lengthened meta
tarsus, and the xiphisternal process, besides the very much lengthened sternum and
narrow pelvis, to distinguish them from the AnatidcB. The Alcidce have the ribs pro
jecting very far backwards, the keel of the sternum broad, and the hinder margin much
rounded and with very small fissures ; the pelvis is narrow for its posterior half, and
the palatine bones broad, and a strong spine projecting from the ilium on each side of
the caudal vertebrae. The Pelicanidce have generally the sternum very short, and in
many instances the furculum is anchylosed to it ; the keel also is seldom continued to
228
Laridjl.] osteologia avium. [Sterninje.
the posterior margin, the pelvis is generally long, and the os pubis is not continued
far backwards beyond the ischium. The Laridm has the sternum long, the keel deep,
and the hinder margin indented by two fissures ; the pelvis is short, but the os pubis
is much elongated, as well as the hinder end of the ischium.
FINIS.
229
INDEX.
Pbeface ....
Bibliography 
Introduction    
EAPTORES.
FALCONID^E.
FALCONING.
Falco peregrinus 
Falco Gyrfalco   
Falco aurantius 
Herpetotheres cachinnans
Tinnunculus alaudarius 
 sparvenus
 chickera
Ieracidea Berigora
Ierax Bengalensis 
Accipiter nisus
Badius 
Astur magnirostris
Circus cyaneus
aaruginosus
CIRCIN^E.
MII.VINJE.
Milvus regalis
Elanus melanopterus
BtJTEONIN^J.
Buteo vulgaris
Archibuteo aquilinus
lagopus
Poliornis teesa
Pernis cristata
AQUILINE.
Aquila chrysaetos
Naevia
imperialis
Bonelli
audax 
Pandion Haliaetus
Haliaetus albicilla
leucocephalus 
leucogaster
Macci 
Haliastur Indus
6i
9
9
10
10
11
11
12
12
13
13
13
14
14
14
15
15
Cuncuma leucogaster
Ichthyaetus bicolor 
Geranoaetus melanoleucos
Helotarsus ecaudatus
Spizaetus cirrhatus  
VULTUEIDil.
VULTUEIN^E.
Sarcoramplius gryphus
— : papa
Cathartes aura
foetens ....
Neophron percnopterus
monachus
Vultur cinereus . 
Gyps fulvus ....
Gypaetos barbatus
Polyborus tbarus ....
Circaetus gallicus
Spilornis Bacha  ,  
SEKPENTARIKLE.
Serpentarius reptilivorus
STRIGIDi] .
STRIGIKLE.
Nyctea nivea
Strix flammea    
pratincola ....
delicatulus
Capensis
Syrnium sinense
Athene marmorata
— hypudea
Nyctale Tengmalmi
BUBONIN.E.
Otus brachyotus
maculosus ....
Bubo maximus ...
Bengalensis 
Coromandus
Ketupa javensis ... J
Ephialtes lempiji ...
grammicus
Numbering of the Vertebras and Bibs
Remarks on the Order Eaptores 
PAGE
15
15
16
16
17
17
19
19
20
20
21
21
22
22
23
24
24
24
26
27
28
28
28
28
28
29
29
30
30
31
31
32
32
32
32
33
34
INDEX.
VOLITORES.
TROCHILID^E.
MELLISUGIN^].
Patagona gigas ....
TEOCHILIN.E.
Thaumastura vesper
CYPSELIDiE.
CYPSELIN.E.
Cypselus apus    
Melba   . .
Acanthylis nudipes ....
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs 
Eemarks .....
OMNIVORES.
C A P R I M U L G I D M .
STEATOENIN^.
Podargus humeralis
CAPEIMULGIN.E.
^gotheles cristatus    
Chordelles virginianus
Nyctibius Jamaicensis
Caprimulgus Europaeus   
TRORONID^.
TEOGONIN&.
Harpactes Peinwardtii
Trogon melanocephalus
Calurus fulgidus .•.
CAPITONINJE.
corvina
calva
PsUopogon pyrolophus   
Capito purpurata
■ — Swainsonii  ■ . 
Monasa torquata
Chelonidera tenebrosa
EUEYLAIM.E.
Eurylaimus sumatranus
Psarisomus Dalhousise
Eurystomus orientalis .
ALCEDINIDJE.
ALCEDIN.E.
Alcedo ispida ....
Alcyone azurea
Ceryle alcyon ....
rudis ....
Americana
36
37
38
38
39
39
39
40
42
42
43
43
43
45
45
45
46
46
47
47
50
50
51
52
52
52
53
HALCYONIN^.
Halcyon capensis
Senegalensis
Macleayii
Dacelo Leachii
GALBULIN^.
Galbula 
MEEOPIN.E.
Merops ornatus
albicollis
Nyctiornis Athertoni
Todus viridis 
TODIN^.
COEACIN^.
Coracias garrula    
Af ra 
BUCERID^.
MOMOTIN.E.
Momotus Braziliensis
Upupa epops
upupin^:.
BUCEEIN#L
Buceros plicatus ....
pica  
fasciatus ... 
Panini
elatus 
Bucorvus Abyssinicus
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Eibs 
General Eemarks
PREHENSORES.
PSITTACID^E.
PSITTACIN^.
Psittacus erythacus
melanocephalus  i 
albifrons ...
leucocephalus
Psittacus Guildingii
Chrysotis ochrocephalus
Amazonicus
■ Braziliensis 
Paleeornis columboides
CACATUIN^.
Cacatua galerita
Moluccensis
Eos 
Calyptorhynchus Baudinii
Nestor Australia
53
54
54
54
55
55
56
56
57
57
59
59
60
62
62
63
63
63
64
64
67
68
68
69
69
70
70
71
71
71
72
INDEX.
STRIGOPSIN^.
Strigops habroptilus
ARINM.
Ara Macao ....
Hyacinthina 
Enicognathus leptorhynchus 
Conurus tiriacula 
virginianus ? 
LORIN^.
Eclectus Ceylonensis
PEZOPORINJ3.
Trichoglossus versicolor 
 hasmatodus
Platycercus zonarius
icterotis   
Psittacula pileata 
passerina ...
pullaria
Euphema elegans
Pezoporus formosus
Numbering of the Vertebras and Ribs
General Remarks 
SCANSORES.
PICID^E.
GECININ^].
Gecinus viridis ...
dimidiatns
Hemilophus validus 
Campethera brachyryhnchu8
MELANERPIN.E.
Chloronerpes aurulentus
chlorocephalus
Melanerpes flavifrons 
formicivorus 
Centurus subelegans 
radiolatus
PICIN^E.
Picus major
PICUMNIN^E.
Picumnus Temminckii
General Remarks of Scansores 
ERUCIVORES.
CDCULIDJl.
CENTROPIN^.
Centropus phasianus ■,
Crotophaga ani
PAGE
72
73
73
74
74
75
75
75
76
76
77
77
78
78
78
79
79
79
81
82
83
83
83
84
84
85
85
85
85
87
COCCYZIN^I.
Piaya Circe .....
Menleri ....
Phcenicophaus curvirostris 
SAUROTHERIN.E.
Geococcyx Mexicanus
CUCULIN^.
Cuculus cinereus 
Oxylophus glandarius
Chalcites seneus 
EHAMPHASTIDiE.
RHAMPHASTIN^E.
Rhamphastos erythrorhynchus 
■ tucanus
Pteroglossus Baillonii ....
Selenidera maculirostris
MUSOPHAGIDj;.
MUSOPHAGIN^E.
Turacus gigas 
Corythaix Verreauxii 
Persa 
Numbering of Vertebras and Ribs in Erucivores
General Remarks 
INSESSORES.
MENURID^.
MENURIN^E.
Menura superba 
Pteroptocbos Tarnii ....
albicollis
Troglodytes Europasus  •   
Dendrocolaptes platyrostris 
Picolaptes tenuirostris ....
Xiphorhynchus trochilirostris
Anabates leucopthalmus    
Sitta velata     
Sittella chrysoptera 
Furnarius cunicularius ?..<
MELIPHAGID^E.
MELIPHAGINiE.
Anthochsera carunculata .   
lunulata 
Lewinii 
Tropidorhynchus corniculatus
argenticeps
Manorhina garrula 
Sphecotheres viridis ....
Psopbodes crepitans   
MYZOMELIN^E.
Myzomela nigra 
Meliphaga cbrysotis .".
90
90
90
91
91
92
92
93
93
93
94
94
95
95
96
96
97
99
101
101
102
102
102
103
103
104
105
105
105
105
106
106
106
107
107
INDEX.
NECTAEININ.E.
Nectarinia javanica
Aracnothera longirostris
PARID M.
PAEIN^E.
ALAUDINiB.
Parus cseruleus
Alauda arvensia
arborea
Otocoris alpestris
MOTACILLIN^E.
Melanocorypha Tartarica 
Motacilla alba 
flava
Enicurus velatus
Grallina melanoleuca
ANTHIN^E.
Anthus obscurus
BYLVIADyE.
SYLVINvE.
Sylvia hippolais
Lucinia Philomela
Salicaria locustella
Euticilla phcenicurus
Tythys
Eegulus auricapillus
Sylvia trochilus
Saxicola cenanthe 
Parula Braziliana
Trichas velatus
Accentor rnodularis •
Malurus cyaneus 
MUSCICAPIDJS.
MUSCICAPIELE.
Muscicapa grisola 
Ehiphidura flabelifera
Platyrhynchus cancromus
Monarcha carinata
Tchctrea melanopyga 
Myiagra W. Australia
TYEANNINiE.
Tyrannus melancholicus
verticalis
Myiobius superciliosa
HIEUNDINID^.
Hirundo riparia
Tityra cayana 
TITYEIN,E.
108
108
109
109
111
111
112
112
113
113
113
114
114
114
114
114
114
114
114
115
115
115
115
115
115
115
116
117
118
118
118
118
118
118
119
119
AMPELIDiE.
AMPELINvE.
Ampelis cedorum    
Carpornis rubrocristata
melanocephala 
Tersa ventralis
Lipangus plumbeus
Phibalura flavirostris 
Irena puella ....
DICEUEIN.E.
Artamus leucogaster 
Dicrurus densus ....
pipein^e.
Pachycephala gutturalis
Copurus filicauda ....
Pipra caudata ....
Eupicola crocea 
Lanius collurio
Cyclorhis Guianensis
Pycnonotus Ashanteus
Criniger nivosus ....
THAMNOPHILIN.E.
Thamnophilus undulatus
Severus 
Vanga nigrogularis 
torquatus    
Lanarius peli 
leucorhynchus 
TUBniNJ.
TUEDIN.E.
Turdus musicus
torquatus    
Colluriocincla Selbii 
TIMALINiE.
Donacobius atracapillus 
Hydrobata cinclus
Garrulax rufifrons    
Myophonus cyaneus 
FOEMICAEIN.E.
Grallina imperator
Grallaria marginata 
Cincloramphus cruralis 
Formicivora grisea
OEIOLIN^.
Oriolus intermedins
nigripennis
STEENTN.E.
Sternus vulgaris 
Lamprotornis cantor 
Lamprocolius purpuriceps
120
121
121
121
122
122
122
123
123
124
124
125
125
126
126
127
127
127
128
128
129
129
129
129
130
130
131
131
131
132
132
133
133
134
134
135
135
135
135
INDEX.
Pastor W. Australia 
Sternopastor jalla 
Sternella Ludoviciana
ICTERIN.E.
Cassicus bifasciatus
cristatus
Icterus melanocephalus
Quiscalus major
Agelaius chopi
PLOCTN.E.
Ploceus Erythrops
ERINGILLIN^E.
Coccothraustes Cayanensis
Fringilla ccelebs
montifringilla 
Linaria borealis
Carduelis elegans   
Chrysomitris magellanica
EMBERIZIN.E.
Emberiza citrinella
Pyrrhula vulgaris
LOXIN.E.
Loxia curvirostra   
Strobilophaga enucleator
TANAGEI D^E.
TANAGRIN.E.
Tachyphonus quadricolor 
■ Coryphsens
Tanagra ornata —
Lamprotes viridis
Nemosia flavicollis
Calliste tricolor
Euphonia pectoralis • 
Saltator magnus  
COR VID^E.
CORVINE.
Corvus corax
frugilegus 
monedula
Pica caudata
Nucifraga caryocatactes
Cephalopterus penduliger
GARRULIN^].
Cissa sinensis ....
Thalassina 
Lophocitta galariculata
Garrulus rufulus 
PARADISEINJ3.
Paradisea rubra
b
PAGE
135
136
136
136
137
137
138
138
138
139
139
140
140
140
140
141
141
141
142
143
144
144
144
144
145
145
145
145
146
147
147
147
147
148
149
149
149
149
GYMNORHINJ3.
Gymnorhina tibicen ....
Neomorpha Gouldii 
Numbering of tbe Vertebrae and Ribs in Insessores
General Remarks 
BIPOSITORES.
COLUMBIDiE.
GOURINiB.
Goura coronata 
PERISTERIN^E.
Peristera Jamaicensis ....
Champelia passerina ....
COLUMBIDIE.
COLUMBINES.
Columba palumbus .    
— . magnifica .   
Turtur auritus .....
TRERONINiE.
Trerbn aromatica 
Ptilonopus cinctus 
Phalacrotreron nudirostris
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Bipositores
General Remarks 
KASORES.
TETRAONID^E.
PTEROCLIN^E.
Pterocles arenarius 
quadricinctus  
Alchata 
Syrrhaptes paradoxus ....
TETRAONIN^!.
Tetrao urogallus
Bonasa Sylvestris 
ODONTOPHORIN^].
. Odontopborus nigricollis
PERDICIN^E.
Perdix cinerea ....
Francolinus Capensis 
: Ponticerianus
Callipepla Californica
PAVONINE.
Pavo muticus
PHASIANIN^E.
Phasianus colchicus 
nycthemerus 
Thaumelia picta
Argus giganteus   
PAGE
149
150
151
153
155
156
157
157
158
159
159
159
159
160
160
161
162
162
162
162
164
164
164
164
165
165
166
167
167
168
168
INDEX.
Argus pavoninus
Gallus Bankiva
Numida gallopavo
CRACIDil.
CRACIN^E.
Megapodius ■
Leipoa ocellata 
Ortalida Montagui ....
poliocephala
Oreophasis Derbyanus    
Crax globicera  ....
Pauxi mitu .....
MELAGRIN^E.
Melagris gallopavo ....
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Rasores
CURSORES.
STRUTHIONID^E.
STRUTHIONIN^E.
Struthio oamelus ....
Apteryx Australis .....
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Cursores
General Remarks .....
LITTORES.
OTI D^E.
otinm.
Otis Houbara ......
Tinamus major
Chionis alba
TINAMIN^E.
CHIONID^E.
CHIONIN^E.
TINOCHORIN^E.
Attagis Gayii ....
Tinochorus Escholtzii
CHARADRIDiE,
(EDICNEMIN^E.
(Edicnemus longirostris 
H^MATOPODIN^E.
Hoematopus ostralegus
Capensis
CTIRSORIJNLE.
Oursorius Gallicus
Glarcola pratincola
Vanellus cristatus
Charadrius pluralis
Squatarola Helvetica 
Hoplopterus spinosus
PAGE
168
168
168
169
169
169
170
170
170
171
171
172
173
173
173
173
174
175
176
177
178
178
179
179
180
180
180
181
181
181
TRINGIN^].
Cinclus interpres ....
Tringa canutus .....
Philomachus pugnax ....
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Littores
Remarks .....
GRALLATORES.
SCOLOPACIDjE.
TOTANIN^E.
Totanus glottis .....
PHALAROPIN^].
Phalaropus fulicarius    
Limosa rufa .....
SCOLOPACINiE.
Scolopax rusticola ....
Gallinago ....
Rhyncheea semicollaris
TANTALIN.E.
Numenius arquatus ....
Ibis falcinellus ....
Harpiprion Hagedash  . . 
Threskiornis melanocephalus
Tantalus ibis .....
PSOPHIN^E.
Psophia viridis
CARIAMIN^E.
Cariama cristata 
GRUINiE.
Scops virgo
Balearica pavonina
Ciconia alba 
Leptophilus argala
Mycteria senegalensis
CICONIN^E.
ARDEIN.^.
Eurypyga HeUas 
Ardea cinerea 
exilis
Botaurus stellaris
Nyctyceorax griseus
Cancroma cochlearia 
PLATALIN^E.
Platalaea leucorodia
PH.ENICOPTERIN.E.
Phaenicopterus ruber ....
PARRIN^E.
Parra cordifera
melanochloris
181
182
182
182
183
184
185
185
186
187
187
187
189
189
189
190
191
192
193
193
194
194
195
196
196
196
196
196
197
198
199
INDEX.
EALLID^.
RALLINiE.
Kallus aquaticus    
Rallus longirostris 
Ostygometra lateralis
ARAMIN^.
Aramus scolopaccus 
GALLINTTLIN^E.
Gallinula chloropus ...
Porphyrio veterum 
Fulica atra     
Numbering of the Vertebrae in Grallatores 
Remarks 
NATATOKES.
ANATID^E.
PLECTROPTERIN.^.
Plectropterus gambensis
ANSERINE.
Chenalopex iEgyptiacus 
Cereopsis Novse Hollandise 
Bernicla Brenta
Magellanica    
Anser cygnoides
Cygnus coscoroba
atratus
CYGNIN^.
ANATIN.E.
Tadorna vulpanser
Casarka rutila   
Dendrocygna arcuata 
autumnalis  •
Anas Boschas    
Dafilla acuta
Malacorhynchus membrinaceus
Aix galericulata 
Chaulelasmus strepera
Spatula clypeata 
Petrocyanea ceerulata
FULIGITLIK^.
Oidemia nigra
Fuligula marilla
Nyroca leucopthalmus
Glangula glaucion
Somateria mollissima
Erismatura leucocephala
Biziura lobata
MERGING.
Mergus albellus
199
200
200
200
201
201
201
202
202
203
204
204
204
205
205
205
206
206
206
207
207
207
208
208
208
209
209
209
209
210
210
210
211
211
212
212
COLYMBIDiE.
COLYMBINiE.
Colymbus glacialis
septentrionalis
Podiceps minor 
cristatus    .
ALCIN.^.
Alcaimpennis ... 
torda >
Fratercula Arctica
SPHENISCIN.E.
Spheniscus minor 
Eudyptes Van Diemen's Land 
URINtfL
Uria grylle
PELIC ANIDjE.
PLOTIN.E.
Plotus Novse Hollandias 
Graculus cristatus
Phaeton rubricauda
PELICANIN^.
Pelicanus New Holland
fuscus    
STTLIN^.
. Sula Bassana 
PROCELLARIN^].
Procellaria gigantea
Puffinus Van Diemen's Land
major 
Thalassidroma oceanica
DIOMEDIN^.
Diomedia exulans    
fuliginosa 
DARING.
Larus ridibundus 
marinus
STERNIN^E.
Sterna macroura 
melanocephala 
RHYNCOPSIN^l.
Rhyncops nigra 
Numbering of the Vertebrae and Ribs in Natatores 
General Remarks 
213
213
214
214
215
215
215
216
217
217
218.
218
219
219
220
220
221
222
223
223
224
225
225
226
226
226
227
228
228
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300 EYTON (Thomas Campbell, f.l.s.) Osteologia Avium ; or a Sketch of the Osteology of Birds,
complete with the SUPPLEMENTS, with 200 fine plates by Erxleben and Scharf, containing num
erous figures of the parts at large, 3 vols. 4to. calf extra (one or two plates slightly foxed, otherwise
A fine copy)'; very scaece complete as above, £3. Wellington, Salop, 186775
A comprehensive work on the skeletons of turds, and very rare when complete with all the supplements as above.
8 %.
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES
3 9088 00804 1626

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