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Full text of "Osteologia avium, or, A sketch of the osteology of birds"

k^£/?A A *A^.2i ^/WSfWte'* l*n< ww Smithsonian Institution nbraries YMrW ^5nA aaJ A^AC^AA* -Aa .^«»c «»r«W ^"Y^ /W - t&^mi .mmm Alexander Wetmore i C) 4 6 Sixth Secretary 1953 \ . -ASS ot^ ftftwSwtffti^ ria&a& frfW A W H0 w rw »S& -" fV $S&sfc& i«A&& 1 " A -?.,. A ^SRi «rv^^ia M»l pa^W -■•-'. ^■'^Y^i^^W iwW ■^-■s^wa jk: IMwU i www wv A r\. frf * r RS c&u. SUPPLEMENT TO OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM; OR, A SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY OE BIRDS. .yf by T. c/eYTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.Z.S., And Corresponding Member of Institute of Philadelphia. JjBRARlgg L, TO BE HAD OF MR. PrSTCE, AT MR. GOULD'S, CHARLOTTE STREET, BEDFORD SQUARE, LONDON. PUBLISHED BY K. HOBSON, WELLINGTON, SALOP. 18 6 9. PREFACE. It having been represented to me that Illustrations of the Osteology of the Anatidee are required, and having a few copies of those executed for my work on the Anatidae in band, and also five others executed on stone by the same artist, viz., Mr. G. Scharf, I have published them in the form of an Appendix to "Osteologia Avium." There are eighteen Plates in all, five of which have not previously been published. Eyton, THOS C EYTON. Feb. 1, 1869. hi ■ INDEX. , o PI. 1. Sterna of Alca torda. Phalacrocorax cristatus. Podiceps cristatus. Clangula vulgaris. Fuligula cristata. Mergus albellus. Rhynchaspis clypeata. Carina Moschata . Tadorna Bellonii. Anser ferus. Cygnus olor. PL 2. Cereopsis Novse Hollandise. PI. 3. Anser cygnoides. PI 4. Cygnus ferus. PI. 5. Chenalopex iEgyptiaca, and trachea, PI. 6. Tadorna Bellonii. PI. 7- Dendrocygna arcuata. PI- 8. Querquedula crecca, and trachea. PI. 9. Anas boschas, and trachea. PI 10. Nyroca leucopthalmus, and trachea. PI. 11. Harelda glacialis, and trachea PI. 12. Clangula Histrionica, and trachea of C vulgaris. PL 13. Biziura lobata, mas. PI. 14. , fem. PL 15. Erismatura Australis, fem. PL 16. Mergus serrator, and trachea, PL 17. Trachea of Chloephaga Magellanica. Tadorna Bellonii. Carina Moschata. Melanitta fusca. PL 1 8. Aix sponsa. Querquedula Formosa. ■ Cyanopterous circia. Micropterous patachonichus. , .. Bernicla Antarctica. ADVERTISEMENT. works published bit tsb s^miei author. A HISTORY UF THE RARER BRITISH BIRDS: Being a Supplement to Bewick. Price 10s. Cloth. A MONOGRAPH ON THE ANATID/E: Being Descriptions of the Species of Anafcidse, with many Plates, both Anatomical and of Species. Price Four Guineas. Cloth, 4to. (A few copies only of the above are left.) 03TE0L0GIA AVIUM : Being Sketches of the Osteology of Birds. Two Yols. 4to. Cloth. Price, £7 5s. SUPPLEMENT TO 03TE0L0GIA AVIUM, Containing ] 8 Plates of Skeletons, and Trachea of the Anatidse. SOs. Cloth. To be had from K. ELobsqn, Printer and Publisher, Wellington ; or from the Author. I imm It y-^-\.\ : . , v /*•• <? 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M^m^SMm^, -JMu/z^asorw&akts. 10 ^n^&rf&zue. ™. GggrwA o6or jT eSefumfdel e£lMs. Jig: I A-vasJponsou. 4. Jl^orojyd&rcisJkdcwAo^vookcM- &Jt&K*fcU&9b> ''wrtitd,- by GMulmiomaUZ: &£pfa#fdtf,t& tibkoj. 'nvt-vUd-- in/ C 6«&\n<.tnJ<X WYFLOVJL iLECTCOPTHAJLMILrS .& TRACHEA, Pa (rSakjctf de£ -''•trbt&oOby Glfafibnutrndfid-. pjEFv^ITEllM'JXA CEECCA & TftACHKA, - CYGcPHUS JFEK-ITS OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM; OR, A SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY OF BIRDS. Supplement II. BY T. C. EYTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.L.S., And Corresponding Member of the Institute of Philadelplxi®. PUBLISHED BY WILLIAMS ANL> NORGATE, HENRIETTA STREET, CQVENT GARDEN, LONDON, AN» R. HOBSON, WELLINGTON, SALOP. 1875. PREFACE. I have now figured, I believe, all the principal forms of the Skeletons of Birds, and in conclusion beg to thank those who have assisted me. I am much obliged to Mr. Gerrard, senior, of the British Museum, and Mr. Flowers, of the College of Surgeons, who have always assisted me in finding anything I wanted in the respective collections in their care ; to Mr. Bartlett, senior, also, I am much obliged for information regarding the habits of some birds, among which I may mention Chauna Chavaria, and Bhynochetus Jubatus ; and to Professor Owen I am much obliged by his always giving me access to him, although so much employed, when I wished to ask him a question ; to Dr. Gray also I am obliged for allowing me access to the collection under his care. I have added to this Supplement a list of plates of Skeletons of Birds for reference. T. C. EYTON, Ey ton-on-the- Wealdmoors, Wellington, Shropshire, LIST OF PLATES AND INDEX. Eurycerus prevostii. PL I, — details, pi. 1, A. Opisthoeomus eristasus. PI. 2, — details, pi. 2, B. Rhynochetus jubatus. PI. 3, — details, pi. 3, C. Oentropus rufipenis. PL 4, — details, pi. 4, D. . . . Scythrops No vse Holland iss. Details,, pi. 5, E. Zanclostomus Javanicus. Details, pi. 6, F. ... Zanclostomus Sumatranus. PL 6 Struthidea Cinerea. PL 7, — details, pi. 7, G ... Ptilonorhynchus Smithii. PL 8, — details, pi 8, H ... Dendrocitta Vagabunda. PL 9,— details, 9, I ... Stercoral us Pomarinus. PL 10, — details, 10, J. Ardea Herodias. PL 11, — details, pi. 1.1, K. ... Numbering of Yertebrse Momotus (Equinoctialis. PL 12, — details, pi. 12, A. Rhynchotus perdicarius. PL 13, — details, pi. 13, A. Crypturus megapodius PL 14< > — details, pi. 14, A. Oeriornis Temminckii. PI. IS, — details, pi. 15, A. Aramides Cayanea PL 16, — details, pi. 16, A Qcydromus sylvestris. PL 17, — details, pi. 1 7, A. Antigone torquata. PL 18, — details, pi. 18, A. Ephippiorhynchus Senegalensis. PL ] 9, — details, pi. 10, A. Atrichia clamosa, sternum. PL 20 fig 1 . Tantalus Ibis, sternum. PL 20, fig. 2. Aptenodytes Penan tii, sternum. PL 2.1. ... Tallegalla.; Lathami, PL 22, — details, pi. 22, A. Numbering of Vertebrae. Didunculus strigirostris. PL 22, — details, 22, A Palamedea cornuta. PL 24, — details, 24, A. Cliauna chavaria. PI, 25, — details, 25, A. Phaeton sethereus. PL 26,— details, 2.6, A. Page ... 6 ..i 8 ... 10 ... 11 ... 11 ... 12 ... 12 ..► 13 ... 14 ... 15 ... 16 ... 17 ... 18 ... 20 ... 22 ... 23 ... 24 ... 25 ... 26 ... 27 ... 28 ... 29 ... 30 31 32 33 34 38 ... 30 ... 40 ERRATA. Page 22.— For Spisc read Spix ; for Eettl. read Kittl. Page 26. — For Rhynochotus read Rliynoclietus^ Buceridjl] EuRYCEROTIN^E. OSTEOLOGIA AYIIT SECOND SUPPLEMENT. EURYCEROS PREVOSTII, LeSS. This bird was described by Lesson in his "Centime Zoologique" in 1830. The following is a part of his description: — "I/oiseau type, du genre nouveau que nous representons clans la planche 74 est une des singularites les plus neuves et les plus remarquables de I'ornithologie. " C'est un passage transitoire entre les toucans, les calaos et les enrylaimes ; c'est un type caracterise a placer comme lieu intermediaire entre l'erotta. — (Traite d'Ornithologie, p. 260) et les buceros. " Les enryceres appartiennent a nos passereaux heterodactyles et a notre famille des enrylaimes, le genre sera ainsi caracterise/' Bonaparte, in his " Conspectus Genera Avium," classes it near the Rhamphastidre after Buceridce, which immediately precedes it. G. It. Gray classes it among the Sternidce, to which it has no affinity whatever. Cranium rounded, without any channel over the vertex to the bill. Occiput very round, with a slight depression on each side above the foramen magnum ; orbital septum, perforated with two foramina, orbits large; the superior margin slightly reflexed. Bill, with the upper mandible, large ; very much raised above, composed of cellular bone, deep ; lower mandible deep, with a foramen near its hinder extremity ; both mandibles pointed. Sternum of moderate length, with a deep and wide fissure on each hinder margin. Pelvis broad, short. Palatine bones prolonged on the exterior and hinder margin into an elongated spine, from the base of which they slope gradually, UDtil they unite in the centre, where they are slightly deflected, broad. Furculum much arched anteriorly; the process at the junction of the rami, which are rounded, arched, flattened, and the rami long. SUPPLEMENT II. B 6 BUCERID^E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [EuRYCEROTINjE. Coracoids long, broad at their junction with the sternum, rounded in the middle. ScapulcB long, much deflected. Ribs weak, expanded at their dorsal extremities. Wing bones long. Tarn long. Toes long, the too outer anterior ones united; vertebra? short. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 11 Length of ulna 16 Length of radius • , 12 J Length of metacarpus 9 Length of femur ,'.....11 Length of tibia 15 Length of metatarsus ....,11 Length of sternum . ..... 13 Tenths. . 10 Breadth of posterior margin . . Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 6 Depth of keel 3 Length of head 24 Breadth of head 9 Length of pelvis 14 Breadth of pelvis 9 From the above description it will be perceived that this bird presents no affinity what- ever to Rhamphastidte or Sternidce. From the first family it differs in the shape of the sternum, and from the last in almost every part, particularly in the structure of the sternum and the palatine bones. In all these particulars it agrees with Buceros, and also in the form of the pelvis and furculum. Illustration. Sup. 2, pi. A. Details, pi. 1. CrACIDjE.] OSTELOGTA AVIUM. [OPISTHOCOMINiE. Opisthocomds. Cristatus. Cranium, a channel of moderate depth, has its origin at the base of the bill, and proceeds backwards on the top of the head to the occiput. Occipital ridge slight, and with a small occipital protuberance ; orbits of moderate size; the septum with one fora- men on its hinder and lower edge ; a transverse indentation at the base of the bill ; nostrils situated at about half its length, nearly round. Palatine bones much bent downwards ; broad for their posterior two-thirds, and united for that distance down their centres, then divaricating, and both edges turned downwards, forming a channel on their lower edges ; hinder end pointed backwards, and gradually narrowed to their junction with the interarticular bones, which are broad for their anterior half and narrowed backwards, the outer edges slightly deflected. Vomer thin. Foramen lacerum posterius very small. Lower maxillary bone curved downw ards ; broad, with a foramen near the hinder extremity of each branch. Sternum of moderate length ; posterior margin rounded, with one fissure on each side of the keel, and with a large triangular foramen on each side externally to it; hinder margin considerably broader than the anterior edge. Keel very short, extending from the hinder margin to little more than one-half of the length of the sternum ; hinder edge sloped off from the point to the hinder margin. The anterior edge sloped very much backwards to the point from the junction of the furculum ; the anterior portion being a mere rudimentary ridge. Furculum having the rami very short and straight, and uniting at an acute angle, flattened at their junction with the coracoids, and becoming more rounded towards the terminal process, which is very long and narrow ; triangular anchylosed to the rudimentary portion of the keel. Coracoids short and strong, broad at their junction with the sternum, and having a slightly raised rib down the front. Pelvis with the divisions of the vertebrae on the hinder half apparent when held up to the light ; ischiadic foramen of moderate size, oval ; obturator also of medium size, without any notch in front of the acetabulum ; ilium projecting much over the bones of the ischium ; a ridge proceeds from the junction of the caudal vertebra? up the centre of the pelvis, becoming more rounded and obscure on the anterior portion. Ribs broad and strong ; the styliform process attached for a considerable length to the hinder edge of the ribs, and not projecting so far as next rib. Scapula strong, slightly deflected, slightly expanded upwards at about half its length, rounded at its distal extremity. Wing bones strong, short; ulna and radius as long* as the humerus, anterior metacarpal bone straight, posterior one much bent, having a large space between it and the inner edge of the anterior one. Leg Bones rather slender; tibia long in proportion to the femur. Metatarsus 8 Cbacidjj.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Opisthocominje. triangular at its upper extremity, with a channel down the front, flattened towards its lower extremity ; os calcis projecting considerably, with a very slight ridge proceeding downwards from it. A supplemental metatarsal bone projecting much backwards, not twisted on its axis, tapering and flattened upwards ; tubercles for the articulation of the feet broad ; toes long. This curious bird appears to be nearly allied to the guans, but differs from in the form of the palatine bones, the hinder margin of the sternum, and furculum. There is no Gallinaceous bird that I am acquainted with that has the hinder margin of the sternum of a similar form, the nearest approach that I am aware of to the form of the furculum is among the cracidse in C. Globocera, the process at the junction of the rami is very much elongated, but is not nearly so much so as in the opisthocomus. The rami also are curved, while in the latter bird they are straight, and the furculum, instead of being anchylosed, or united by a ligament to the point of the keel of the sternum, is anychylosed to its medial portion. ements. Tenths Breadth of anterior . . . , . margin of ditto 11^ Depth of keel 6 Length of head 1 1 Breadth of head 91 Length of pelvis .16 Breadth of pelvis 12 Illustration. Snp. % pi. 2, B. Details, pi.. 2. Measm Tenths, Length of humerus . . . - • m Length of ulna . . . . . 19 Length of metacarpus . . , 12 Length of femur . . . . . . 16 Length of tibia . . . , 15 Length of metatarsus . . . 11 Length of sternum . . . . . 16 Breadth of posterior margii i . . 151 PSOPHIAD^E.] OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM, [RhINOCHETIN^E. Rhynochetus. Jubatus, Verr. Cranium much arched above, with an indentation from the base of the bill to vertex, a large and prominent occipital ridge, with two deep channels anterior to it Orbital septum with very large foramen. Palatine bones truncated behind, gradually tapering to point anteriorly ; posterior margin entire. Sternum narrow, long ; keel very narrow, with the edge nearly straight. Pelvis anteriorly much arched and gradually sloping backwards, with two deep hollows, one on each side of the sacral vertebrae. Ischiadic foramen long. Obturator foramen large and rounded anteriorly, short posteriorly. Pelvis very short. Ribs narrow and thin, styliform process turned much upwards. Furculum weak, without any process at the junction of the rami. Coracoids broad, at their sternal extremities light. ScapulcB very much arched, short. Wing bones short, ulna much bent. Measurements, Tenths, Breadth of anterior . : . . . margin of ditto ...... 10 Depth of keel . . 3 Length of head ....... 17 Breadth of head 13 Length of pelvis • 30 Breadth of pelvis ...... 13 Tenths. Length of humerus 26 Length of ulna ,28 Length of metacarpus 14 Length of femur ...... 26 Length of tibia 50 Length of metatarsus 45 Length of sternum ..... 19 Breadth of posterior margin ... 7 Mr. G. Gray, in his Hand-list, places this bird next Eurypyga, from which it differs in the shape of the sternum. In Eurypya the keel is very deep, and continued to the posterior margin. In Rhynochetus it is obliterated, the former bird has a deep foramen on each side, the latter none at all ; the pelvis in the former bird is quite straight on its dorsal aspect, the latter has it much arched ; in all of which respects it agrees with Psophia. Illustration. Sup. 2, pi. 3. Details, pi 3, G 10 Coculid-zb.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Centropin^;. Centropus, III. Rufipennis, Horsf. Cranium with a slight channel between the orbits. Occipital ridge large and prominent, the channel for the masseter muscle large. Orbital septum with a large central foramen and a smaller one above. Palatine bones similar to those of centropus phasianus, (pi. 13, fig. 1). Sternum with one foramen on each side of the keel placed near the margin, the plate of bone bordering it not being so wide as in centropus phasianus ; lateral margin more curved outwards. Keel with its edge more curved than in centropus phasianus ; remainder as in the foregoing, but not so strong. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 12 Length of ulna 18 Length of radius 17 Length of metacarpus .... 9 Length of femur 22 Length of tibia ....... 34 Tenths. Breadth of posterior margin . . 13 Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 10 Depth of keel 4 Length of head 28 Breadth of head 11 Length of pelvis 21 Breadth of pelvis 11 Length of metatarsus 23 Length of sternum 15 Illustration. Sup. % pi. 4. Details, pi. 4, D. Scythrops, Lath, Novae Hollandise, Lath. I have only been able to obtain a small portion of the skeleton of this curious bird, although it appears to be by no means rare in its native country ; namely, the sternum, furculum, coracoids, and scapulas. Sternum broad, short ; hinder margin with an indentation on each side of the keel ; anteriorly slightly convex. Keel deep, much arched on its inferior edge, and continued to the posterior margin ; anteriorly much hollowed out. Lateral margin curved, the hinder margin broader than the anterior one. Furculum arched ; process at the junction of the rami small, slightly flattened. Coracoids very broad at their articulation with the sternum Scapulae very broad near their extremities ; arched, pointed. Measurements. Tenths. Length of sternum . . . » . 23 Breadth of posterior margin of ditto 20 Illustration. Sup. 2, pi. 5, E. 11 Tenths. Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 14 Depth of keel . 6 CUCULID^!.] GSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [ZANCL0ST0MIN2G. Zanclostqmus. Javanicus, Horsf. Cranium rounded, a slight channel over the vertex to the bill. Orbits large. Septum with one large foramen, a depression at the base of the bill, channel for the masseter muscles large, depression extending to the occiput. Sternum with two fissures on the hinder margin, the inner one largest; hinder margin much broader than the anterior one ; anterior edge receding. Pelvis very broad, the sacral vertebrae forming a ridge for its whole length ; ischiadic foramen large. Obturator foramen narrow, a large projection in front of the acetabulum pointing forwards. Furculum very long, branches not much arched, process at their junction small. Scapula broad. Wing bones strong, the ulna nearly as long as the humerus. Measurements. Length of humerus . Length of ulna . . Length of radius . . Length of metacarpus Length of femur . . Length of tibia . . Length of metatarsus Length of sternum . Tenths. 10J 10 H 5 14 20 10 8 Tenths, Breadth of posterior margin . . 8 Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 6 Depth of keel . 2J Length of head 22 Breadth of head 8 Length of pelvis 10 Breadth of pelvis ...... 8 Illustration. Sup. 2, pi. 6, F. Zanclostomus. Sumatranus. Very similiar to the preceding Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 8 Length of ulna 11| Length of metacarpus .... 6 Length of femur 15 Length of tibia 20 Length of metatarsus . . . Length of sternum ..... Breadth of posterior margin . . . Illustration. Sup. 2, pi. 6. 81 Tenths. Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 6 Depth of keel ....... 3 Length of head 21 Breadth of head 9 Length of pelvis ...... 12 Breadth of pelvis 7 12 CORVIDJE.] OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. [CaLL^ATINjE. Struthidea, Gould. Cinerea, Gould. Cranium very round over the vertex. Occipital crest very small, with a slight depression between the orbits, which are large, and with a large foramen through the septum. Nostrils large. Palatine bones very broad, posteriorly with a blunt spine on each side, the central edge deflected slightly for the posterior half, united at their articulation, with the interarticular bones gradually narrowed towards their anterior extremities. Sternum long, indented, with two fissures on the posterior margin, much retiring from the manubrial process, which is large and prominent ; bifcurcate at the end. Keel of moderate depth, straight on its inferior edge. Pelvis broad, divisions of the vertebra? apparent. Ischiadic foramen large ; obturator foramen rounded, open, not a mere slit as in most birds. Ribs of moderate size ; styliform process turned much upwards. Furculum much expanded ; process at their junction of the rami small. Coracoids long, of moderate size. Scapuloe long, broad. Wing bones of moderate size ; ulna longer than than the humerus. Leg bones metatarsus, very long. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 14 Length of ulna 16 Length of metacarpus .... 8 Length of femur 8 Length of tibia 23 Length of metatarsus 17 Length of sternum ..... 16 Breadth of posterior margin . . 9 Illustration. Sup. 2, pi. 7. Details, pi. 7, F. Struthidea presents a strong resemblance to kitta in the shape of the palatine bones and sternum, but pelvis is narrower. Tenths. Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 7| Depth of keel 4 Length of head 19 Breadth of head 9 Length of pelvis . . . . . . 16 Breadth of pelvis ...... 9J 13 Oroalid^:.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Ptilorhyncin^i. Ptilorhynchus, Cuv. Smithii, Vig $ Horsf. Differs very slightly in form from Cassicus. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus .... 12 Length of ulna . . . . . . 21 Length of metacarpus . . . . 10J Length of femur ..... 16 Length of tibia ..... 20 Length of metatarsus .. . . 21 Length of sternum .... 17 Breadth of posterior margin . 11 Tenths, Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 9 Depth of keel 5 Length of head 25 Breadth of head . . . . . . .10 Length of pelvis ...... 22 Breadth of pelvis . . . , . . 12 Illustrations. PL 1. Details, pi. 8, H. CORVID^E.] OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. [CaLL^EATIN^. Dendrocitta, Gould. Vagabunda, Lath. Cranium round on the vertex. Occipital ridge well denned, but not prominent. Orbits large. Septum with the foramina partly filled up. Palatine bones broad on their hinder margins, their lateral edges terminating with a blunt spine. Interanticular bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, which, anteriorly, merely form a narrow strip on each side to their junction, with the superior maxilliary bones. Sternum rather long, with a deep fissure on each side inferior edge of the keel, arched ; the front edge much scolloped out. Pelvis broad. Obturator foramen long ; ischiadic large. Ribs with the styliform process very long. Furculum narrow. Coracoids small. Scapulum slightly arched, expanded near the extremity, and finally pointed. Wing bones of moderate size ; the ulna much longer than the humerus. Leg bones with the tibia and metatarsal bones nearly equal. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 9 Length of ulna 15 Length of metacarpus .... 8 Length of femur 13 J Length of tibia 18 Length of metatarsus . . . . 15 Length of sternum . . . . . 13 Breadth of posterior margin . . 8 Illustrations. Sup. 2, pi. 9. Details, pi. 9, I. Tenths. Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 6| Depth of keel 3 J Length of head 22 Breadth of head 10 Length of pelvis 16 Breadth of pelvis ... . . 7 15 Larid^e.] osteologia avium, [Stercorarin^e. Stercorarius, Bi'iss. Pomarinus, Temm, Cranium rather flattened. Orbits large ; a moderate-sized foramen in the centre, and a smaller one above it ,• a deep depression over each orbit. Palatine bones narrow, bending downward at the lateral edges; wider than in Chroicocephalus ridibundus. Interanticular bones bending inwards at their hinder ends, flattened. Sternum with a large and deep fissure on each side of the keel, which is very deep and much curved on its inferior edge; much scolloped out on its anterior edge. Manubrial process small, laterally compressed, pointed. Pelvis long ; the pubis and ischium very much prolonged backwards. Obturator foramen long, narrow. Ischiadic foramen small ; the division of the sacral vertebrae apparent. Ribs moderate ; styliform processes long, pointing upwards. Furculum flattened, no projection at the junction of the rami. Coracoids very strong, flattened on the upper side. Scapula thick, of nearly the same width throughout, pointed at their extremities. Wing bones very long, especially the metacarpal. Leg hones light. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 46 Length of ulna ....... 47 Length of metacarpus .... 42 Length of femur 18 Length of tibia 26 Length of metatarsus ..... 22 Length of sternum 30 Breadth of posterior margin ... 13 Illustrations. Sup. 2, pi. 10. Details, pi. 10, I. The genus stercorarius differ from the genus larus, in having only one fiss ure on the posterior margin of the sternum, in the more depressed form of the cranium. Tenths, Breadth of anterior ..... margin of ditto ...... 15 Depth of keel 8 Length of head ....... 36 Breadth of head 8 Length of pelvis ...... 33 Breadth of pelvis 19 16 Ardeid^e.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Ardein^. Ardea, Linn. Herodias. Linn. Cranium much the same as in A. cinerea, but with the muscular impressions more distinct. The occipital crest more prominent, and orbital septum with a large foramen. Palatine bones narrow. Sternum longer and narrower, and more convex. Keel not so deep. Pelvis also longer and narrower, and with the central channel more marked. Ribs narrow. Furculum, Coracoids, and Scapula smaller and longer. Wing and Leg bones similar, but longer. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus ..... 80 Length of ulna 96 Length of metacarpus .... 40 Length of femur 46 Length of tibia . 105 Length of metatarsus 75 Length of sternum 44 Breadth of posterior margin . . 15 Illustrations. Sup. 2, pi. 11. Details, pi. 11, J. Tenths. Breadth of anterior , . . margin of ditto .... . 24 Depth of keel ..... . 10 Length of head . 96 Breadth of head . . : . . . . 16 Length of pelvis .... . . 50 Breadth of pelvis .... . . 20 OSTEOLOGIA AYIUM. Euryceros prevostii -------- Opisthomus cristatus ------- Rhynochetus jubatus ------- Centropus rufipennis ------- Scythrops, Novse hollandise non ridi - - - Zanclostomus javanicus ------- Zanclostomus sumatranus ------ Struthidea cinerea -------- Ptilorhynchus srnithii ------- Dendrocitta vagabunda ------- Stercorarius pomarinus ------- Ardea herodias --------- Cervical. Dorsal. Sacral. Caudal. 10 7 8 7 10 10 5 14 7 10 7 12 6 10 5 10 6 12 5 10 7 9 6 12 8 10 7 12 8 10 7 12 8 9 6 11 8 10 8 16 8 12 7 NOTE. Rhynochetus. Jubatus. Provisionally I have classed this bird with the Psophiadse, but there is another family with which it agrees in many respects, but without knowing anything of the habits of the Kagu, not much can be finally determined. The family alluded to is that of the Rallidse, in which Aramus scoloposeceus is' placed by Mr. Gray; it has long feet, like Rhynochetus, and the same form of sternum. The eggs of the Kagu, of which I have two, are white, spotted with brown ; while those of Posphia, Mr. Bartlett informs me are white. Nuttall says the eggs of Aramus are two in number ; Audubon that they rarely exceed five or six, but neither of these Naturalists say of what colour they are, or shape ; they are not like any heron that I know of, or those of Eurypyga, but more like those of a coot, or large rail. 18 Nat. size. FromsNttfure oivTmc by -JJEnzleien/ ~Vuzc&it> Broohs I)ay&S(ms l Imjp. EIRYCER(0)§ PJRETOSTII, PL. 2. Frvm/Naiwv on/ Timo iy JSrsdeierv T&ieerU' .Brooks Day&Scrt', Imp. DPISTHOCOMUS C1IS.TATFS, £i^ m*> From Ratare mv Zoic byJ.Erxleben/ . % Nat size. ' lIHTOf CJBIJE TIT S JUJB ATU S PL .4. ^ " N V i; • -;■ ^k FrorruNattzn, on, Zinc hyJ.Ersdeb&P, ~Vutcenb-J3roohs Day &SoruImji- «-" , ^ — ^£0^ Nat. size. JramyUktaTe oru Ziw&by J.Erxieim/. Viticetib Brooks J)ay & Soji/,Jrtp . ZA^CJL( [US SUIATIAIUS, Na-t. size From, Nature, owTmo iyJErxLehens. STOTIIBEA CWERE. PL. 8. ^^ y#S ^ Mat. size. Fivm fla£are< aru Taw lyJ.Erxlehav. Vbicazt- Brooks Bay &Sarv.]mji. PTUKOTORHYKXHUTS SMITHIIe PL. 9. Frorw Naiare- an/ Zinc by J.ETsde&in.. Vincent Brooks Day &Scru,lmp. >EITO1R(Q)CITTA TAGABUIB-A ,*&*&**" 3 /4 Nat. size fivnv Nature* mv/jnc- iyJErodeier- Vincent Brooks Day '&> Son/. Imp. jTJERCOMARIUS pomahiu PL. 11. TronvUa£ur& an/Zirw by J.Erxlebms. Vincent Brooks Day £ Son/, Imp. AftBEA IE10BIAS, DETAILS PL.l.A. • Nat. size. : 4 '.£3m*£'- from. Nature oiv Tine- by J. Eiuieiens. ]foucenbJBro6ksl)ciy&San/,lmj>. IFIYCEIOS IPBJEVOSTUX DETAILS, PI, 2, B. Nat size. FwnvNcdure, on- Xaio ojJ.E-nxleben/ Viac/mx- Brooks J) ay-&SprvImp. OFISTHOC OMITS 'CM STATU! DETAILS, PL. 3. C. TronilTcUare. en Tuoc iy JUrxleben/ Nat. size. JRHYHOCHETUS JUTBATF^ DETAILS, PL.4.D. Nat. size. Fronp Nature, auT-uic irfJBvrkhery. WuenbJSroaksDcgr&SinifJmp. lEITlOFUS KUFIPEMS. DETAILS -PL.5.E. i:,- "' , Nat size. From/If a£ur& oru Ztno ~by JJZrxidb&ris. Vfrvcerub Brooks Day&$on.<, Jmp. TIIOPS ^©T^E lOLLAIDMo DETAILS, EL. 6. P. Nat size. From/ Nature- on/ Tine iy J^ErxIebeTi Vbic&O/BTixihDay&Sero, Imp. ^ANCLOSTOMUS JATAB I C 1LT 8 , DETAILS, PL. 7, G. Nat. size From/ Mtfvw orb ~Zaie ~by JJHrscLdben/ VurtcerU, Brooks Day &Sow / inp STSFTHIBEA €IM] DETAILS, EL. 8, H. FrorwNatare, oru &ric Try JMralehav. Nat', size. Vincent,Broo}ts3ay&Sm/,Jmp. FT1JL OE" OMYI CMJ S SMITHII. DETAILS, PL. 9. I. » \ £< * Nat size Frcmv Nature m,Ztru> tyXErxtihai. UncenZBroolcs X)ay&St>rL,Imp. )EHI3)R(D)CITTA YAGABU5BA, DETAILS, PL.10. , PrtmvNatare, on/ Tine ~by JErxleben ¥at. size. rooksDcqr&Smi, /%-. STERCORARIUS JP DETAILS, PL.ll.K. fc- ■■' ,f From, Nature, m&ic hy J.Erxlebei VahCentHrooks Day ^ Sort .Imp, BuCERIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MoMOTIN^). OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM, SECOND SUPPLEMENT, PART II. Momotds, by R. Gray. CEquinoctialis, Gould. When the first part of this work was published I had some fragments of the skeleton of Momotus (pi. 12, fig. 13) taken from a skin. I have since obtained a perfect skeleton of Momotus CEquinoctialis, which I now figure. Cranium rounded, with a rounded projection on side of the vertex. Orbital septum entire. Occipital ridge distinctly marked ; impression of the masseter muscles distinct; nostrils large, oval. Palatine bones broad, united posteriorly, the central edge turned downwards, the exterior edge slightly so. The two plates united for about one-third of their length, then narrowed and divaricating and carried forward as two strips of bone. Sternum broad, with two large fissures on each side of the posterior margin, the inner one smallest. Keel deep, arched on its inferior edge. Manubrial process broad at the base, of moderate length. Pelvis very broad in proportion to its length. The ischiadic foramen large, oval. The obturator of moderate size. Ribs broadest near their dorsal extremities, and gradually diminishing to their junction with the sternal ribs, which are flattened. Furculum arched in front, the rami flattened, without any process at their junction. Coracoids long. Scapulce very slightly bent, pointed at the extremities. Wing bones long ; the ulna longer than the humerus. Leg bones of moderate length. SUPPLEMENT II. B 20 Length of humerus Length of ulna .... Length of metacarpus . . Length of femur . . Length of tibia .... Length of metatarsus . ; Length of sternum . . . Breadth of posterior margin Measurements. Tenths. 18 21 5 11 20 13 13 11 Illustrations. Tenths. Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 8 Depth of keel 4 Length of head .29 Breadth of head 12 Length of pelvis 15 Breadth of pelvis 12 Suppt. 2, pi. 12. Details, pi, 12, A. 21 Tinamid^e.] OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM. flNAMINA Rhynchotus, Spisc. Perdicarius, Kettl. Very similar to Crypturus, but the tarsi are shorter, and without back toe. The palatine bones also differ, and the wings are longer in proportion. A process projects from the end of the ilium anterior to acetabulum. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 24 Length of ulna ...... 24J Length of metacarpus .... 13 Length of femur ..:... 20 Length of tibia ...... 30 Length of metatarsus .... 19 Length of sternum 38 Breadth of posterior margin . . 9 Tenths, Breadth of anterior ..... margin of ditto ... . . . 12 Depth of keel . 7 Length of head 25 Breadth of head 9 Length of pelvis ...... 25 Breadth of pelvis ...... 16 Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pi. 13. Details, pi. 13, A, 22 TlNAMrD^E,] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TlNAMIN-B. Crypturus, III. Megapodius, Bp. Does not differ much from Tinamus, except in size. My specimen of Tinamus was much damaged, therefore would not do to figure in the first part of this work. Cranium small, rounded. Occipital ridge small. The foramen in the orbital septum large. Palatine bones broad, narrowed behind to a point. Interarticular bones very long. Sternum very long ; the central and horizontal portion very narrrow ; a strip of bone forming each lateral edge makes between it and the central portion a large fissure on each side. Keel deep ; the lower edge arched. Pelvis broad; the vertebras apparent from the upper surface ; the os pubis curved. Obturator foramen large ; ischiadic large ; in fact both the above-named foramina are converted into fissures, not being closed at their hinder ends ; a process at the end of the ilium before the acetabulum. Ribs strong. JFurculum small, weak ; without any process at the junction of the rami. Coracoids strong. Scapulce strong, very slightly arched, blunt at the distal extremity. Wing bones short. Leg bones of moderate size. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 29 Length of ulna . . 32 Length of metacarpus 16 Length of femur 27 Length of tibia ........ 4.0 Length of metatarsus 27 Length of sternum 44 Breadth of posterior margin . . . 13 Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pi. 14. Details, pi. 14, A Tenths, Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 12 Depth of keel 9 Length of head 23 Breadth of head 9 Length of pelvis 37 Breadth of pelvis ...... . 1& Phasianid^.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Galling Ceriornis, Temminckii, Gray. Does not differ very much in shape from the skeleton of the common pheasant, but considerably in measurements, particularly in that of the sternum. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 33 Length of radius ...... 33 Length of metacarpus 16 Length of femur . . 40 Length of tibia 59 Length of metatarsus 34 Length of sternum ..... 40 Breadth of posterior margin . . . 20 Tenths- Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 15 Depth of keel 13J Length of head 29 Breadth of head 11 Length of pelvis .49 Breadth of pelvis . . . . . . 20 Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pi. 15. Details, pi. 15, A, HALLID.2E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Balling. Aeamides, Puch. Cayanea, Mull. Cranium similar in form to the other rallinae ; lacrymals long. Pelvis also similar. Leg bones of moderate length. Metatarsi not so short as in Ocydromus. Wings short. Sternum long, narrow ; keel with deep fissures at the hinder margin converted into foramina; a very narrow strip of bone across the hind margin. Sternum much constricted in the middle ; inferior edge of the keel arched. Measurements. Length of humerus . Length of ulna . . Length of metacarpus Length of femur . . Length of tibia . . Length of metatarsus Length of sternum . Breadth of posterior margin Tenths. 19 17 12J 22 31 21 H 54 Tenths. Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 8 Depth of keel 5 Length of head 28 Breadth of head 8 Length of pelvis ...... 22 Breadth of pelvis 10 Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pi. 16. Details, pi. 16, A. 25 RaLLID^I.J 0STE0LGIA AVIUM. [RALLINiE. Ocydromus, Wag. Sylvestris, Sclat. Cranium of moderate length ; a transverse indention at the base of the bill. Nostrils long, oval. Lacrymal bone elongated over the orbits. Orbital septum with a large foramen. Occipital ridge prominent. Palatine bones rounded behind ; edges curved downward, narrowed suddenly anteriorly to a mere strip of bone. Sternum broadest anteriorly, narrowed in the middle again ; slightly expanded at posterior margin, with a deep fissure on each side. Pelvis anteriorly; deep and arched; posterior half, with a deep and broad channel down the centre ; deep curved on each side of the caudal vertebrae ; divisions of the sacral vertebrae apparent. Hibs long, thin. Stylyform process very long, extending over two ribs. Furculum without any process as the junction of the rami. Coracoids of moderate size. Scapula long, slightly arched, pointed at their ends. Wing bones short. Leg bones moderate ; metatarsus short. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 20 Length of ulna 16 Length of metacarpus .... 12 Length of femur , 24J Length of tibia 34 Length of metatarsus . . . . 18J Length of sternum 19 Breadth of posterior margin . . 5 \ Breadth of anterior margin of ditto . . . . . . 19 Depth of keel 3 Length of head 34 Breadth of head 9 Length of pelvis 22 Breadth of pelvis 9 Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pL 17. Details, pi. 17, A. When I described the skeleton of Rhynchotus I had not the skeleton of any large rail ; since that I have obtained one, Ocydromus sylvestris, which I now figure. The sternum is similar, except that of Ocydromus has two foramina on the posterior margin, which Rhynchotus has not. The metatarsi of Ocydromus are much shorter than those of Rhynchotus. The cranium and pelvis are similar. The palatine bones are more truncate at hinder extremities in the latter than in the former. 26 AnDEIDjE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [GrUINjE. Antigone, Reich, Bp. Torquata, Viell. Cranium with a very slight depression across the base of the bill ; no depression over the upper surface, except a very slight one near the occiput, much rounded above. Orbital septum strong, with two foramina, the central one large, the upper one small, elongated. Occipital ridge not very prominent ; a large ridge from the centre of it to the foramen magnum. Lacrymal bones large, projecting far backwards. Inter- articular bone very massive and strong. Palatine bones long, the lateral edges curved downwards, pointed posteriorly, flat and narrowed anteriorly ; bones formiug the bill strong ; the lower edge of the inferior maxillary projecting backwards. Sternum elongated. Narrow keel, very thick on its inferior edge and curved anteriorly ; hollow and perforated by the trachea, which makes a convolution in its interior extended to the posterior margin of the sternum, which projects much forward beyond the junction of the furculum. Posterior margin widened laterally, and rounded on the outer angles ; edge nearly entire. Pelvis similar to Ardea in shape ; foramina long. Ribs with the styliform process long. Furculum of moderate length. Rami flattened ; strongly anchylosed to the sternum, and much flattened transversely. Coracoids very broad at their junction with the sternum. Scapulce flattened, very long, pointed, slightly bending downward. Leg bones the callineal process slight, continued nearly to the hind toe. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus 106 Length of ulna 130 Length of metacarpus .... 50 Length of femur ..:... 80 Length of tibia 155 Length of metatarsus .... 135 Length of sternum 90 Breadth of posterior margin . . 24 Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pi. 18. Details, pi. 18, A Tenths. Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 23 Depth of keel 25 Length of head 101 Breadth of head 19J Length of pelvis 90 Breadth of pelvis 35 27 Andeid^e.] OSTEOLOGIA AVI DM. [GauiNJE. EpHIPPIORHtNCHS, Bp, Senegalensis, Shaw. Very similar, except in size, to Antigone torqnafa ; the tracheae penetrates the keel of the sternum in the same manner, namely, in one perpendicular loop. Measurements. Length of humerus ■ . . Length of radius . . . Length of metacarpus . Length of femur . . Length of tibia . . . Length of metatarsus Length of sternum . . Breadth of posterior margin Length of head Tenths. 95 125 45 53 150 120 75 16 Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pi 19. Details, pi. 19, X Tenth? Breadth of anterior margin of ditto ...... 25 Depth of keel .22 Breadth of head 18 Length of pelvis 68 Breadth of pelvis ...... 34 28 LuCINIDJE.] O'STEOLOGIA AVIUM. [WaLURINjE. Atrichia, Gould. Clamosa, Gould. I have only the sternum, coracoids, and scapulae of this bird. Sternum long, with a deep fissure on each side at the posterior, and much elongated on each side anteriorly. Keel shallow. Coracoids long, very broad at their junction with the sternum. Scapulw long, slightly expanding near the tip, pointed at the extremity. Measurements. Tenths. Length of sternum . . . . . 7 Breadth of posterior margin . " . .4 Breadth of anterior margin . . . 4| Tenths. Depth of keel .1 Length of coracoids 7 Length of scapulae ...... 6 Illustration. Suppt. 2, pi. 20, fig. 1. Tantalidd.J osteolog'Ia avium.. [Tawtalinje. Tantalus, Linn. Ibis, Linn. I have only the sternum an^ head of this bird, the 7 atter is figured in pi. 33, fig. 1. Sternum short, of moderate breadth, with a broad fissure on each side of the keel -on the posterior margin. Keel very deep, much arched on its inferior edge. Coracoids rather long. Furculum, with an appendage at the junction of the rami, broadest at their junction with the coracoids and arched. Scapula slightly bent, blunt at the end ; of nearly the same width throughout. Measurements. Tenths. Length of sternum ..... 43 Breadth of posterior margin . . 20 Breadth of anterior margin . . . 22 Tenths* Depth of keel ....... 20 Length of coracoids 26 Length of scapulae ...... 30 llbistration&. Suppt. 2, pi. 20, fig. % Spheriseidjs.] osteologia atidm. [Spherisein^b. Aptenodytes, Fosst. Penantii, G. It. Gray. I have only the sternum of this bird, with the coracoid, scapulae, and furculum attached. Sternum short, scolloped out from the lateral margin to the end of the keel, which is shallow and much produced in front towards the furculum, to which it is united by a ligament. Coracoids long, very strong. Furculum much arched, broadest next the coracoids, gradually narrowed towards the sternum ; a small process at the junction of the rami. Scapulce very broad posteriorly, narrowed at their junction with the coracoids. Measurements. Tenths. Length of sternum 47 Breadth of posterior margin ... 33 Breadth of anterior margin ... 36 Tenths. Depth of keel 8 Length of coracoids 50 Length of scapulas ...... 47 Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pJ. 21, 31 OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. Tallegalla, Less. Lathami, Jard. Cranium slightly flattened between the orbits, strong. Nostrils large, oval Orbital septum nearly entire, with only a small foramen on its posterior edge. Palatine bones expanded on their posterior third, pointed behind, slightly bent upwards at their junction ; fore part consisting of a narrow strip of bone expanded slightly forward 5 nearly resembling Crax Globiura (pi. 22, fig. 2). Sternum very like that of Crax, but rather shorter, with a short, but perpendicular broad keel, Pelvis broader than in Crax, but with the ischiadic and obturator foramina larger. Ribs broad, flattened as in Crax. Furculum with the rami long, a small process at their junction turning inwards slight. Coracoids of moderate size. Scapula broad, blunt at their tips. Wing hones short; metacarpus long. Leg hones tibiae, short; not very strong. Length of humerus . Length of ulna . N . Length of metacarpus Length of femur . . Length of metatarsus Length of sternum . Breadth of posterior margin 34 35| 18 32 36 17 Breadth of anterior margin of ditto . Depth of keel . » Length of head . . i of head of pelvis . f pelvis - Illustrations. Suppt. 2, pi. 22. Details, OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. NUMBERING OF VERTEBRAE. Cervical. Antigone torquata - - - - Ephippiorhynchus Senegalensis Aramides cayanea - - - - Ocydromus sylvestris - - - Satyra Temminckii - - - - Crypturus megapodius - - - Rhynchotus perdicarius - - Momotus (Equinoctialis - - Tallegalla Lathami - - - - 18 17 13 12 13 15 15 12 14 Dorsal. 6 6 10 10 Sacral. 18 14 13 14 15 19 14 13 13 Caudal. 6 7 5 S Since the former part of this work was published, I have obtained from America the skeletons of fuligula valisneria and querquedula discors, both agree with their representatives in this country ; the former with the fuligula ferina, and the latter with querquedula cruca, so as not to be distinguishable from them by the skeleton. END OF SUPPLEMENT II., PART 2. 83 PL. 12. JF-rom, Jiat. on- stozte- My JSrsdeheJ-i. MOMO TITS <GE QUINOC HALIS « JtfdJ/.Jiaiihart imp. DETAILS, PL. 12. A li-am- Mat. 021 stone. jbyJJ&debea. M<L2f.Kaj:iAuet 1 M OMOTUS OEQUILTOCTIALIS , PL.13. Eram nat. on stozu jby J.Ei-jrleien.. M&.N.ffaahaz-t imp. DET.AILS,PL.13.A. e fy/./frjtrleie* RHYH"CHOTU8 PERMCARBTS . MSKIfa-iiliMtt imp. PL .14 . Frcmiiat. on steae-if-JHrxkim, CRYPT"UB¥S MEGAPOMFS, M&MHazilutzt DETAILS, PL. 14. A. H'omnat. oil stone. JyXErzlehea,. McLMHaziKoxt i PL .15. Vz Ned,, size From, nab. on stazie by 'Jsixdei >ea . CEWLomms temimceii M&NJIajxhctrt iznp. DETAILS, PL .15. A. J ':,- ;>V *m. JFbazaruit. on, storm i>V J.ErMei en, . CERIOKN1B TEMMIKCKH. M&NJIaziiiart ia PL .16. /^ ■ Wt Ifat. -From- not. on sic2ie. J>y Jj&xlebei DETAILS, PL. 16. A. From, not. an- stone hy S.Erirleituv. MdN.Haziiia.ct img. PL. 17. Jrom- Meet an, staize. Jfy- JSjarlebav. '■-NJIcuxiiait. DETAILS, PL. 17. A. Jfhsn, not. en sz£ue- hy J.Errleba )MUS SYLYES Md. j\ r J£aji}iart \ PL. 18. \S v . X From, r^ti.im statie hyJErxlebeth. Af&NHankazi. imp. DETAILS, PL. 18. A 1 zhom 2tat. 021 stone JtyJ.JUzzle&ezis. Af&J^Jfizzihart iznp. - - ^ sa^ 1* PL. 19. From, not. on stox&iy JJErxUben,. ^5 Nat. size. EPMPPIOMHYN'CHU'S SEWIEGALE^SK - . ...is M&I?.£[owlLCLrt unp. DETAILS, PL. 19, A. * From, not. on. stone, iy J.Erxlei & PPIOBHYN"CHIJS SE^JEGALE^SM PL. SO. J&am. not. on, stone- by JlLzzi&b a L ATMICMIA C'JLAMOSA STERffUMo 2.TAETXAMTS IBIS Md Jv'JfcLnJzcu-t i PL 21. . From.- luce, on stone JbrJ.Frzieben.. -APTEAIGETTES PENANTII SXEIOTIlLMc -■■Ixy^anhart i PL.S2. Fi-.m-i jiat : an, stane hy-J.Badeiezi TALLEGAJLI.A LATM&I J&T&, Jf.J&zzi/iaz , 6 unp DETAILS,PL.2S.A. From nat. on stone by J.Erxleha M£Kffani>-az<z XALLEGALLA. LAT1MMI, DlDUNCULIDJS.] [DlDULINA OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM SECOND SUPPLEMENT. PART III. DrDUNCULUs, Peale. Strigirostris, Jardine. Cranium much indented at the base of the bill. Nostrils lengthened. Ovate cranium, flattened on the vertex ; rounded behind ; foramen-magnum large. Bill much arched. Inferior maxillary bone much elongated backwards beyond its articulation with the os quadratum. lnler obital foramen large. Sternum indented with a very large fissure, which extends more than half the length of the sternum, and is bounded by a narrow strip of bone, expanded at its ex- tremity, and terminating at about half the length of the fissure; the posterior margin rounded, and narrower than the anterior. In the young bird I suspect it is penetrated with a smaller foramen on each side,, as my specimen has traces of them. Keel very deep anteriorly ; the lower edge rounded, the front edges curved. Pelvis very broad, much like the ground pigeon's. Ribs broad, flattened styliform process, much turned upwards. Furculum rounded, but slightly flattened at its articulation with the coracoids. Coracoids strong. Scapula arched, expanded near the extremities and pointed at the extremities. Wingbones of moderate length ; the ulna much longer than the humerus. Legbones with the metatarsi very short Vertebral column strong Remarks. — This curious bird strongly resembles the ground pigeons in the form of the head, sternum, and pelvis. It is figured in Owen's Memoir on the Dodo. SUPPLEMENT II. F 34 Length of humerus . Length of ulna . . Length of metacarpus Length of femur . . Length of tibia . , Length of metatarsas Length of sternum . Breadth of posterior . Measurements. Tenths 17 22 12J 12J 24 15 22 Margin of posterior Breath of anterior margin of ditto Depth of keel . . Length of head . Breadth of head . Length of pelvis . Breadth of pelvis . Tenths. . 7 9 19 8 26 15 NUMBER OF VERTEBR2E. Cer. Dor. Sac. Cand. 4 7 13 7 PaLAMIDEIDjE.] OSTEOLOGIA AYTUM. [PaLAMEDEINtE. The birds belonging to the genera that constitute this family are very curious, so much so that it is difficult to say where they ought to be classed. In many respects they resemble the vultures, as in the structure of the furculum, cranium, and palatine bones and pelvis, more particularly Neophron, while in the feet they resemble the Rallidse, and in the form of the posterior margin of sternum are not like either, but the keel resembles the Vulturidae. It is no wonder therefore that they have been classed differently by authors, a few of whose opinions I shall proceed to quote. Mr. G. Gray classes the genera Palamedea and Chauna, forming his family Palamedeidse, next to the Parridse. He says they inhabit marshy places and inundated grounds, in the northern parts of America, especially those that are situated near the sea. It is generally found in pairs, and is very shy and timorous, hut soon betrays itself by its loud calls. The seeds and leaves of aquatic plants constitute its principal food. These birds are peculiar to the northern parts of South and Central America. They are observed in the marshes and occasionally on the borders of lakes and rivers, in pairs, or in troops of many individuals. Their manners are shy, but when not scared their gait is slow and stately. Their flight is easy and swift, and they are unable to run, except with the assistance of their wings. They resort to rest on the tops of high trees. The Brazilian species is kept by the natives amongst their poultry. It goes with them to feed during the day, and during this time proves very useful in defending the poultry against the attacks of the numerous birds of prey, by means of the spurs on the bend of its wings. If the wing of the bird is handled a crackling is felt, which is caused by the quantity of air which is lodged between the skin and muscles. Marsh}- and inundated places are preferred by these birds, as their food consists solely of the leaves of aquatic plants, grapes, and seeds. Their nest is spacious, and made of small branches of trees, and usually placed in a bush surrounded with water, but sometimes it is formed among reeds and rushes. The female lays two eggs. Castelnau, in his "Animaux ou Pares de 1' Amerique du sud," gives a plate (15) of Palamedae Cornuta and the sternum of Palamedse Derbyana, and (page 73) a description and account of the two birds, in which he says they are very different from the moor-hen, rails, or coots ; and Illiger unites the genera Glarieola, Cereopsis, Chauna, Palamedea, and Psophia, under the name of Alectorides, from which they are very different. He also says, in speaking of the sternum, that it presents an analogy to the Vulturidas. c; Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien von Maximilian Prinzen zu Weid" ; from which the following is a translation : — " I he Aniuma, from its great size and beauty, forms an ornament to the Brazilian forests. It is dispersed over a large portion of South America, for it has been seen in Guiana, where Somnini 36 Falamibeidje.] osteologia avium. [Palamedeinje. found it ; it does not however appear to be found at Paraguay, as Azara makes no mention of it- I myself never met with the bird in Brazil, until travelling from South to North I had reached the island Caxoeirinka (Kaschoerinnia) in the river Belmonte, that is to say the sixteenth degree of south latitude. I was told there that it had never been seen higher up the stream towards Minas. In the neighbourhood of the above-named island in the Belmonte it is very numerous. It only frequents lonely spots far removed from the habitations of man. I never met with it, as Sonnini describes, in open places, only in the depths of the primeval forest on the bor lers of the river, after I had made some days' journey up the stream of the Belmonte. There we frequently heard the loud, uncommon cry of this bird, which in its modulation has some resemblance to our own wood- pigeon, but it is much louder and more shrill and the throat note is pitched in another key. " Sometimes we saw the Aniumas as they strutted on the sandbanks and in and out of the river. If we approached them, they took fright, and then, both in the size and broad expanse of their wings, and in their colour and manner of flapping them, they resembled the Urubus (Cathartes Aura et Urubu). They always perched in the summit of some thickly -leaved forest tree, where we constantly heard their voices, though we could seldom see the birds themselves. In the breeding season the Aniuma pairs, at other times four, five or six are seen together ; they go to feed on the sandbanks or in the thickly wooded marshes, which are so frequent in these forests. The food of these birds appears to be entirely vegetable, at least in the five or six, whose stomachs I have examined. I found nothing but leaves of a kind of grass plant and of another broad-leaved grass plant. " The nest of this bird is found on the ground in the wooded marshes near the river. The Botocudians state that it contains two large white eggs, and consists of only one layer. The young birds run at once on leaving the shell. " The flesh of the Aniuma is not good eating ; the Botocundians devour it all the more greedily, as the Portuguese do not eat it at all. The fine long pinion feathers are used for writing, the tail feathers are much valued by the savages for their arrows. There is a popular superstition that this bird always dips his frontal horn into the water when he wishes to drink." Marcgrave calls the Aniuma a bird of prey, in other respects he describes him very correctly, and represents his voice tolerably correct by the word " Vihu, Vihu." He mentions the great attachment subsisting between the male and female when paired, but of this the Brazilian sportsmen made no mention to me. That the two sexes differ greatly in size, as Marcgrave represents, is incorrect. 1 hat the nest has the shape of an oven, must, if the state- ments of the Botocundians is to be believed, be a fable. The following note was sent to me in reply to one of mine, by Mr. Bartlett, of the Zoological Gardens of London: — " In reply to your note, I find the Chauna and Palamideidse feed upon green food principally ; they will also eat boiled rice, bread, and boiled Indian corn, but no flesh of any kind." — " Yours faithfully, A. Bartlett." 3T PALAMIDEID.E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [Palamedetn^e. Pala medea, Lin. Cornuta, Lin. Cranium with a deep hollow at the base of the bill, anterior to the orbits ; upper edge of the orbits projecting much over the orbit. Palatine bones broad at their pos- terior ends, laterally projecting downwards, tapering forwards to a thin strip of bone. Sternum with the posterior and anterior edges nearly equal in breadth. Keel with the inferior edges arched and continued nearly to the posterior margin, which is indented with a broad fissure extending nearly the whole breadth of the sternum, and bounded on each side with a broad strip of bone, in which there is a smaller rounded fissure in the direction of the lateral margin. Pelvis very broad posteriorly ; ischiadic and obturator foramina large, splints bounding the former long. End of the metacarpi furnished with long, sharp spines, pointing forwards. Furculum very strong at the coracoid extremity ; much flattened laterally ; at the opposite one more rounded. Coracoids very strong. Scapula slightly arched, flattened and pointed at the extremities. Measurements. Length of humerus . . Length of ulna . . . Length of metacarpus Length of femur . . . Length of tibia . . . Length of metatarsus. .. Length of sternum . . Breadth of posterior . . Tenths. Margin of posterior Breadth of anterior margin of ditto Depth of keel . . Length of head Breadth of head . Length of pelvis . Breadth of pelvis . Tenths. VERTEBRA. Cer. Dor. Sac. Caad. 15 9 11 7 38 PALAMIDEID.E.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [PaUAMEDEINjE. Chauna, Chavaria, Lin. Cranium similar to Palamidea. Sternum also similar, but not so much scolloped out behind, but without the small lateral fissures. Pelvis similar to Palamidea ; terminal joint of the caudal vertebras very long and pointed. Ribs of moderate strength, without any styliform process. Furculum very strong and broad, shorter than in Palamidea. Coracoids shorter and stronger than in Palamidea. Scapula similar. Wingbones long; the ulna much longer than the humerus ; the metacarpus armed with a strong spine, pointing forwards at each extremity. Legbones of moderate length and strength ; toes very long. Vertebrce of moderate strength ; short. Measurements. Tenths Length of humerus 68 Length of ulna 76 Length of metacarpus .... 38 Length of femur 37 Length of tibia 69 Length of metatarsus .... 48 Length of sternum 59 JSyeadth of posterior Tenths. Margin of posterior 26 Breadth of anterior > margin of ditto / ' ' * ' Depth of keel 14 Length of head . .... 32 Breadth of head 15 Length of pelvis 50 Breadth of pelvis ,,.... 25 NUMBER OF VERTEBBJB. Cer. 16 Dor. Sac. 8 12 Cand. 9 39 P HACTONID JE,] OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM, [PllACTONYN^E. Phaeton, Lin. iEthereus, Lin. Cranium long and hollow between the edges of the orbits ; orbital septum perforated with a large foramen ; a deep tranverse indentation at base of the bill. Occiput per- pendicular ; occipital ridge well marked. Sternum rather short in its horizontal position, with a moderate-sized fissure on each side of the keel, which is much elongated anteriorly, and deep. Pelvis broad ; the os pubis much elongated ; ischiatic foramen large. Ribs thin and light, styliform processes short. Furculum flattened ; broader at its junction with the keel, which is a little below the point. Coracoids light ; much expanded at their junction with the sternum. Scapula very light ; very slightly expanded near its hinder extremity ; blunt at the end. Wingbones long. Legbones short, very weak ; metatarsi with a deep groove down the front, Vertebrce strong, broad. The birds of this genus very much resemble the Sternidse in the form of the sternum and pelvis. Measurements. Tenths. Length of humerus . , . , , 30 Length of ulna 33 Length of metacarpus . , . . 15 Length of femur 10 Length of tibia 15 Length of metatarsus .... 8 Length of sternum , . . . . 22 Breadth of posterior . ; . . . Tenths. Margin of ditto ...... 1 1 Breadth of anterior ..... Margin of ditto 14 Depth of keel ,.,... 8 Length of head 33 Breadth of head 14 Length of pelvis 19 Breadth of pelvis .,..., 12 NUMBERING OF VERTEBRA. Cer. Dor. Sac. Cand, 13 8 9 8 40 ALCID^E • OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. AlCIN.SE Alca, Lin. Impennis, Lin. I have received a skeleton of this bird, which differs so much from the figure in the " Zoological Transactions," that I should almost think there must be two species of Great Auk. Mr. Ed. Gerrard, from whom I received my skeleton, gives this account of it: " You may perhaps like to know how I got these bones. They were got from a guano island off the North of Newfoundland. A vessel was sent there to see if the guano was worth anything for manure. It was found to be useless, owing to the island being so washed by the sea that all the nature was washed out of the guano. While digging about, one of the gentlemen came across a quantity of bones, which he took to Mr. Woodward, of the British Museum, and they turned out to be the bones of the Great Auk. I bought the whole, and after spending a great deal of time in sorting them over, I have been able to make out three tolerably perfect skeletons, the best of which I have given you the refusal of." PI. 27 ; details 27a. 42 LIST OF PLATES OP SKELETONS OF BIRDS, THAT HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED. Castelnau : Animaux, noveaux ou rares L'Amerique, du sud, Anatomie Oiseaux. PI. 14 : Opisthocomus Cristatus. PL 15, fig. 1-5 : Palamedea Cornuta. PI. 15, fig. 6 : Palamedea Derbyana. PL 16, fig. 1-5 : Dicholophus Cristatus. PL 17, fig. (1-5) : Psophia Crepitans. Do. (6-7) : Cyrabops Cancrophaga. Ibis, 1873, pi. 5— Murie. Fragments of Upupa Epops. Ditto " " Minor. Ditto Irrisor „ Erytbrorbyncha. „ „ S enegalensis. 1862, pi. 10 : Do. ,, Colius Lettcotis. Contributions to Ornithology, by Sir. W. Jardine, Bart., 1850. PL 53 ; Rampbastos Erytbrorbyncbus. PL 54 : Psilopogon Pyrolopbus. Reserches sur L'apparel sternal des Oiseaux, par Docteur F. J. Herminier, second Edit., 1828, witb 3 plates of tbe sterna of 37 genera. Transactions of tbe Zoological Society, Vol 6. PL 91 Skeleton and details of Rbinocbetus jubatus. Do. Vol. 5 : Osteology of Gallinaceous birds and Tinamous, PL 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42. Description of tbe Skeleton of the great Auk, Alca impennis, PL 51, 52. Do. Vol. 4 : on tbe Osteology of a Balamiceps Rex Gould, by W. K. Parker. PL 65, 66, 67. Vol. 2 : tbe Anatomy of tbe southern Apteryx, by R. Owen, Esq., pi. 47— 55. Reserches Anatomiques et Pal;eontolgiques pour servir a l'Histoire des Oiseaux Fossiles de la France, par Mons. Alphonse Milne Edwards, 1867, 1868. PL 11 : Biziura Lobata, Skeleton of. PL 12 : Fragments of Cygnus Olor Chloephaga Magellanica, Anser Albifrous, Cereopsis Nova Hollandise. PL 13 : Fragments of Anas Boscbas, Poecilonitta Babamensis, Oidemia Nigra, Melanitta Fusca, Erismatura Rubida, Somateria Mollissima, Mergus Merganser, Anser Albifrous. PL 14 : Fragments of Fuligula Fusca, F. Nigra, F. Ferina, Cygnus Olor. PL 15 : Fragments of Fuligula Fusca, Anas Boschas, Tadorna Belloni, Fuligula Ferina, Mergus Merganser. PL 16: Fragments of Anas Boschas, Cygnus Olor, Cygnus Atratus, Fuligula Fusca, Anas Bo sheas. PL 17 : Fragments of Anas Boschas, Cygnus Furus, Cereopsis Novse Hollandise, Fuligula Fusca. PL 18 : Fragments of Anser Albifrons, Bernicla Leucopis, Chenalopex iEgyptiaca, Anas Reserches Anatomiques, &c. Boschas, Anas Clypeata. PL 19 : Fragments of Anas Crecca. Fuligula Fusca, Plectropterus Gambensis, Cygnus Olor, Fuligula Nigra. PL 20 : Fragments of Fuligula Nigra, F. Fusca, Anas Boschas, Plectropterus Gambensis Fuligula Ferina. PL 30 : Skeleton of Plotus Melanogaster. PL 31 : Fragments of Pelecanus Pbilippensis, Graculus Carbo, G. Africanus, Plotus Melanogaster, Tachypetes Aquila. PL 32 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Phteton Phsenicurus, Podoa Senegalensis, Heliornis Surinamensis, Pelicanus Philippensis, Graculus Carbo, Plotus Melanogaster. PL 33: Fragments of Sula Bassana, Phceton Phsenicurus, Graculus Carbo Plotus Melano- gaster. PL 34 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Graculus Carbo. PL 35 : Fragments of Pelecanus Pbilippensis, Tachypetes Aquila, Graculus Carbo, Sula PL 36 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Tachypetes Aquila, Graculus Carbo. PL 34 : Fragments of Plotus Melanogaster, Graculus Carbo, Sula Bassana, Tachypetes Aquila. PL 46 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis, Podiceps Cristatus, Alca Torda. PL 47 : Fragments of Podiceps Minor, P. Cris- tatus, Colymbus Septentrionalis, Alca Torda. PL 48 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis, Podiceps Cornutus, Cephus Minor, Podiceps Cristatus, Alca Torda. PL 49 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis, Podiceps Cristatus, Puffinus Cinereus. PL 50 : Skeletons of Prion Vittatus, Larus Hautlaubii. PL 51 : Fragments of Larus Argentatus, Puffinus Cinereus. PL 52 : Do. „ of Larus Canus, Puffinus Cinereus, Larus Argentatus. PL 53 : Do. ,, Larus Canus, Puffinus Cinereus, Larus Argentatus. PL 59 : Skeleton of Lobivonellus Lobatus. PI. 60 : Fragments of Numenuis Arquatus, Limosa Melanurus, Hsematopus Ostralegus, Scolopax Rusticola, Totanus Glottis. PL 61 : Do. Numenius Arquatus, Totanus Glottix, Tringa Subarquata. PL 62 : Do. Hsematopus Ostralegus, Dromas Ardeola, Machetes Pugnax, Charadrius Pluvialis, Numenius Phseopus, Ranellus Cayanensis. PL 65 : Skeleton of Scopus Umbretta. PL 66 : Fragments of Anastomus Lamelligerus, Ibis Rubra, Ciconiaf Alba, Platalea Leucorodia Reserches Anatomiques, &c. Scopus Umbretta. PI. 67 : Do. Ibis Rubra. PI. 68 : Do. Anastomus Lamelligerus, Ibis Rubra. PL 73 : Do. Grus Australasianus. PI. 74 : Do. Grus Antigone, Grus Australa- sianus, Balearica Pavonina. PI. 77 : Do. Phoenieopterus Roseus. PI. 78 : Do. Do. PI. 79 : Do. Do. PI. 91 : Skeleton of Cancroma Cochlearia. PI. 92 : Fragments of Ardea Purpurea, Ardea Nycticorax, Cancroma Cochlearia. PI. 93 : Do. Ardea Nycticorax, Cancroma Cochlearia, Ardea Purpurea. PI. 94 : Do. Ardea Purpurea, Cancroma Cochlearia. PI. 95 : Do. Ardea Purpurea, Caneroma Cochlearia, Arden Candidissima. PL 97 : Skeleton of Tribonyx Mortieri. PL 98 : Fragments of Porphyrio Madagascari- ensis, Gallinula Chloropus, Rallus Crex, Metopidius Africanus. PL 99 : Do. Fulica Atra, F. Cristata, F. Chilensis. PL 100 : Do. Ocydromus Australis, Porphyrio Madagascariensis, Fulica Cristata, F. Atra, Gallinula Chloropus, Rallus Crex. PL 101 : Do. Porphyrio Madagascariensis, Fulica Atra, Ocydromus Australis. PL 102 : Fragments of Fulica, Atra Porphyrio Madagascariensis, Ocydromus Australis, Rallus Cayanensis. PL 111 : Skeleton of Catheturus Novse HollandiEe. PL 112 : Do. Ortalis Vetula. PL 113 : Do Pavo Spicivorus, Prselatus Phasianus, Gallus Sonneratii, Satyra Temminkii, Lophophorus Impeyanus. PL 114 : Fragments of Polyplectron Germani, Francolinus Asise, Argus Giganteus Tetraogallus Himalayensis, Tetrao Urogallus. PL 115 : Do, Meleagris Gallopavo, Numida Ptilorhyncha, Perdix Grasca, P. Petrosa, Cryptonyx Cristatus, Ortyx Californica, Coturnix Communis, Crax Globicera, Penelope Marail, Ortalida mot mot. PL 116: Do. Francolinus Asia?, Gallus Sonneratii, Perdix Grseca, Tetraogallus Himalayensis, Tetrao Urogallus, Penelope Marail. PL 117 : Fragments of Tetrao Saliceti, Gallus Sonneratii, Phasianus Prselatus. PL 118 : Do. Francolinus Asise, Penelope Obscura. PL 119 : Do. Gallus Sonneratii, Tetrao Scoticus, Meleagris Gallopavo, Penelope Obscura, Cryptonyx Cristatus, Satyra Temmincldi. PI 120 : Do. Perdix Cinerea, Ortyx Californicus, Penelope Obscura, Pavo Spicivorus, Tetrao Scotius, Gallus Sonneratii. PL 121 : Do. Gallus Sonneratii, Tetrao Scoticus, Phasianus Prselatus, Cryptonyx Cristatus, Perdix Graeca, P. Petrosa, Ortyx Reserches Anatomiques, &c. Californica, Penelope Marail. PL 122 : Do. Pavo Spicivorus, Lopohorus Impeyanus, Penelope Marail, Tetrao Scoticus. PL 123 : Do. Crax Globicera, Pavo Spiciferus. PL 135 : Skeleton of Carpophaga iEnea. PL 136 : Skeleton of Pterocles Arenarius. PL 137 : Fragments of Goura Coronata, Galeatus, Columba Nicobarica, Pterocles Bicinctus, Syrrhaptes Paradoxus. PL 138 : Fragments of Pterocles Bicinctus, Carpophaga iEnea, Goura Coronata, Syrrhaptes Paradoxus. PL 139 : Do. Phoenorhina Goliath, Syrrhaptes Paradoxus, Carpophaga iEnea, Calasnas Nicbarica, Pterocles Arenarius. PI, 140 : Do. Goura Coronata, Carpophaga iEnea, Serresius Galeatus, Carpophaga Jilnea, Calasnas Nicobarica, Syrrhaptes Paradoxus. PL 142 : Skeleton of Corvus Jamaicensis. PI 143: Skeleton of Dendrornis Eburneiro strum, Ramphocoris Clotbey. Pi 144 : Fragments of Lanius Rufus, Picolaptcs Tenurostris, Xiphorhynchus Procurvus. Tardus Viscivorus, Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorai Alpinus, Rupicola Peruviana, Loxia Coccothraustes, Sylvia Bicinca. PI. 145 : Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, Turdus Gigas, Rupicola Peruviana, Loxia Coccothraustes, Alauda Cristata, Sylvia Luscinia, Cristatus, Parus Major. PL 146 : Fragments of Corvus Corax, Loxia Coccothraustes, Turdus Viscivorous, Hirundo Rupestris, Sylvia Luscinia. PL 147 : Do. Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, Loxia Coccothraustes, Alauda Cristata, Hirundo Pupestris, Motacilla Flava. PL 148 : Do. Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, Corvus Glandarius, Corvus Carnivorus, Loxia Coccothraustes, Alauda Cristata, Turdus Viscivorus. PL 149 : Do. Loxia Coccothraustes, Hirundo Urbica, Regulus Cristatus, Cinclus Aquaticus, Lanius Rufus, Turdus Cyaneus. Corvus Carnivorus. PL 150 : Do. Corvus Carnivorus, Loxia Cocco- thraustes, Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, Cassicus Persi- cns, Alauda Calandra. PL 163 : Skeleton of Picus Martius. PL 164 : Do. Dacelo Gigantea. PI. 165 : PL 166 : Skeleton of Turacus Persa. PL 167 : Skeleton of Trogon Atricollis and Cypselus Longipennis. PL 168 : Do. Centropus Phillippensis. PL 169 : Fragments of Upupa Epops, Cypselus Apus, Merops Egyptius, Dacelo Gigantea, Caprimulgus Europaeus, Tockus Erythrorhyn- chus, Trogon Curucui, Turacus Persa, Eham- phastos Cuvierii, Picus Viridis, Cuculus Canorus. PL 170 : Do Turacus Persa, Tochus Erythror- hvnchus, Dacelo Gigantea, Picus Viridis, Cuculus Canorus, Cypselus Apus. Beseeches Anatomiques, &c. PI. 171 : Do. Cypselus Apus, Picus Viridis, Eudynamys Orientalis, Dacelo Gigantea, Turacus Persa, Caprimulgus Europseus, Trogon Vividis. PL 172 : Do. Cypselus Apus, Picus Viridis, Megalaima Armillaris, Caprimulgus Europseus, Upupa Epops, Turacus Persa, Dacelo Gigantea, Tochus Eryfchrorhynchus, Cuculus Canorus, Trogon Vividis. PI. 173 : Do. Tochus Erythrorhynchus, Dacelo Gigantea, Picus Viridis, Turacus Persa, Cuculus Canorus, Cypselus Apus, Upupa Epops, Trogon Vividis. PI. 174 : Do. Tochus Erythrorhynchus, Picus Viridis, Dacelo Gigantea, Alcedo Ispida, Trogon Vividis. PI. 179 : Do. Gypaetos Barbatus, Pandion Haliaetus, Falco Peregrinus, Pernis Apivorus, Sarcoramphus Papa, Serpentarius Reptilivorus. PL 180 : Do. Sarcoramphus Papa, Falco Pere- grinus. PL 181 : grinus. PL 182 : PL 189 : Do. Sarcoramphus Papa, Falco Pere- Do. Ditto. Do. Bubo Atheniensis, Nyctea Nivea, Athene Noctua, Brachyotus Palustris, Surnai Borealis ; Strix Flammea. PL 196 : Do. Bubo Atheniensis. PL 191 : Do. Ditto. PL 193 : Skeleton Strix, Nyctea Fossil. PL 195 : Skeleton Macrocercus Ararauna. PL 196 : Fragments of Cacatua Moluccensis, Macroeercus Ararauna, Coracopsis Kara, Psittacus Erythacus, Nymphicus Nova Hollandia. Beseeches Anatomiques, &o. PL 197 : Fragments of Macroeercus Ararauna, Cacatua Moluccensis. PI. 198 : Do. Cacatua Moluccensis, Macrocercus Ararauna, Psittacus Erythacus. PL 199 : Do. Cacatua Moluccensis, Macrocercus Ararauna. Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1872. PL 4, 5, Murie on the Skeleton of Todus. Memoir on the Dodo, by Richard Owen, Esq". Outline of Didunculus, pi. 3. Cyclopaedia of Anatomy, Vol. 1, fig. 125, Trochilus Pella, by R. Owen, Esq. Anatomy of the Southern Apteryx, by Prof. Owen ; Transac- tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 2, page 257. On the Osteology of Balaeniceps, by W. R. Parker ; Transac- tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 4, page 269. On the Osteology of Gallinaceous Birds and Tinamous, by W. R. Parker : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 5, page 149. Description of the Skeleton of the Great Auk, by Prof. Owen : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 5, page 317. On the Osteology of the Dodo, by Prof. Owen : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 6, page 49. On the Osteology of the Kagu, by W. R. Parker: Transac- tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 5, page 501. On some points in the Anatomy of Micropterus, by R. 0. Cunningham : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 7, page 493. Notes on the Articulated Skeleton of the Dodo, by Prof. Owen : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 7, page 513. PL. 22. .Prom, jiac. on stoMi^JHrjdehea. M&NHcmhart unf. PL.22.A. Nat. size. J^'OHl' IUZt. OIL St0Zl£- M&NIfanhajrt wzzp. )IWCBLUS STMGIR0STRI5 PL. 24. r From, zuzc.on stone iyJErdebm. PL. 24, A. %mt.-, ■ :,^;,:. 1k£i : '- From not. on stonsiy J.Ecdehe M^NJlanlwrt imp, PL. 25. ^■' R'ozrvzwt. on, stone- hjr JErzlehm . MAHHcaihart i PL. 25, A. '6 Nat. size. Frozzt, not. on. stone iylErxleb en . M&Mffcuthart zntp PL. 26. From liat. on stori^i/JJirdeieti, . ^E THEREIN ■ imp. PL.26.A. 3 Jrom not. cat- stone-iy ■ J.Ezz.Uiei MA.Mffanhcurt P.41PL.27. Vs Nat. size. -F>*am-nat. aastane-ly JUrxLeisi ■M&NBwhart PL. 27. A. w Frcm.itat. or stone Jy JErjcleben.. 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