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SUPPLEMENT TO
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM;
OR,
A SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY
OE BIRDS.
.yf by
T. c/eYTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.Z.S.,
And Corresponding Member of Institute of Philadelphia.
JjBRARlgg L,
TO BE HAD OF MR. PrSTCE, AT MR. GOULD'S, CHARLOTTE STREET,
BEDFORD SQUARE, LONDON.
PUBLISHED BY K. HOBSON, WELLINGTON, SALOP.
18 6 9.
PREFACE.
It having been represented to me that Illustrations of the Osteology of the Anatidee
are required, and having a few copies of those executed for my work on the Anatidae in band,
and also five others executed on stone by the same artist, viz., Mr. G. Scharf, I have published
them in the form of an Appendix to "Osteologia Avium." There are eighteen Plates in all, five
of which have not previously been published.
Eyton, THOS C EYTON.
Feb. 1, 1869.
hi
■
INDEX.
, o
PI. 1. Sterna of Alca torda.
Phalacrocorax cristatus.
Podiceps cristatus.
Clangula vulgaris.
Fuligula cristata.
Mergus albellus.
Rhynchaspis clypeata.
Carina Moschata .
Tadorna Bellonii.
Anser ferus.
Cygnus olor.
PL 2. Cereopsis Novse Hollandise.
PI. 3. Anser cygnoides.
PI 4. Cygnus ferus.
PI. 5. Chenalopex iEgyptiaca, and trachea,
PI. 6. Tadorna Bellonii.
PI. 7 Dendrocygna arcuata.
PI 8. Querquedula crecca, and trachea.
PI. 9. Anas boschas, and trachea.
PI 10. Nyroca leucopthalmus, and trachea.
PI. 11. Harelda glacialis, and trachea
PI. 12. Clangula Histrionica, and trachea of C vulgaris.
PL 13. Biziura lobata, mas.
PI. 14. , fem.
PL 15. Erismatura Australis, fem.
PL 16. Mergus serrator, and trachea,
PL 17. Trachea of Chloephaga Magellanica.
Tadorna Bellonii.
Carina Moschata.
Melanitta fusca.
PL 1 8. Aix sponsa.
Querquedula Formosa.
■ Cyanopterous circia.
Micropterous patachonichus.
, .. Bernicla Antarctica.
ADVERTISEMENT.
works published bit tsb s^miei author.
A HISTORY UF THE RARER BRITISH BIRDS:
Being a Supplement to Bewick. Price 10s. Cloth.
A MONOGRAPH ON THE ANATID/E:
Being Descriptions of the Species of Anafcidse, with many Plates, both Anatomical and of Species.
Price Four Guineas. Cloth, 4to. (A few copies only of the above are left.)
03TE0L0GIA AVIUM :
Being Sketches of the Osteology of Birds. Two Yols. 4to. Cloth. Price, £7 5s.
SUPPLEMENT TO 03TE0L0GIA AVIUM,
Containing ] 8 Plates of Skeletons, and Trachea of the Anatidse. SOs. Cloth.
To be had from K. ELobsqn, Printer and Publisher, Wellington ; or from the Author.
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CYGcPHUS JFEKITS
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM;
OR,
A SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY
OF BIRDS.
Supplement II.
BY
T. C. EYTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.L.S.,
And Corresponding Member of the Institute of Philadelplxi®.
PUBLISHED BY WILLIAMS ANL> NORGATE, HENRIETTA STREET,
CQVENT GARDEN, LONDON,
AN»
R. HOBSON, WELLINGTON, SALOP.
1875.
PREFACE.
I have now figured, I believe, all the principal forms of the Skeletons of Birds, and in
conclusion beg to thank those who have assisted me. I am much obliged to Mr. Gerrard, senior,
of the British Museum, and Mr. Flowers, of the College of Surgeons, who have always assisted me
in finding anything I wanted in the respective collections in their care ; to Mr. Bartlett, senior,
also, I am much obliged for information regarding the habits of some birds, among which I may
mention Chauna Chavaria, and Bhynochetus Jubatus ; and to Professor Owen I am much
obliged by his always giving me access to him, although so much employed, when I wished to
ask him a question ; to Dr. Gray also I am obliged for allowing me access to the collection under
his care.
I have added to this Supplement a list of plates of Skeletons of Birds for reference.
T. C. EYTON,
Ey tononthe Wealdmoors,
Wellington, Shropshire,
LIST OF PLATES AND INDEX.
Eurycerus prevostii. PL I, — details, pi. 1, A.
Opisthoeomus eristasus. PI. 2, — details, pi. 2, B.
Rhynochetus jubatus. PI. 3, — details, pi. 3, C.
Oentropus rufipenis. PL 4, — details, pi. 4, D. . . .
Scythrops No vse Holland iss. Details,, pi. 5, E.
Zanclostomus Javanicus. Details, pi. 6, F. ...
Zanclostomus Sumatranus. PL 6
Struthidea Cinerea. PL 7, — details, pi. 7, G ...
Ptilonorhynchus Smithii. PL 8, — details, pi 8, H ...
Dendrocitta Vagabunda. PL 9,— details, 9, I ...
Stercoral us Pomarinus. PL 10, — details, 10, J.
Ardea Herodias. PL 11, — details, pi. 1.1, K. ...
Numbering of Yertebrse
Momotus (Equinoctialis. PL 12, — details, pi. 12, A.
Rhynchotus perdicarius. PL 13, — details, pi. 13, A.
Crypturus megapodius PL 14< > — details, pi. 14, A.
Oeriornis Temminckii. PI. IS, — details, pi. 15, A.
Aramides Cayanea PL 16, — details, pi. 16, A
Qcydromus sylvestris. PL 17, — details, pi. 1 7, A.
Antigone torquata. PL 18, — details, pi. 18, A.
Ephippiorhynchus Senegalensis. PL ] 9, — details, pi. 10, A.
Atrichia clamosa, sternum. PL 20 fig 1 .
Tantalus Ibis, sternum. PL 20, fig. 2.
Aptenodytes Penan tii, sternum. PL 2.1. ...
Tallegalla.; Lathami, PL 22, — details, pi. 22, A.
Numbering of Vertebrae.
Didunculus strigirostris. PL 22, — details, 22, A
Palamedea cornuta. PL 24, — details, 24, A.
Cliauna chavaria. PI, 25, — details, 25, A.
Phaeton sethereus. PL 26,— details, 2.6, A.
Page
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40
ERRATA.
Page 22.— For Spisc read Spix ; for Eettl. read Kittl. Page 26. — For Rhynochotus read Rliynoclietus^
Buceridjl] EuRYCEROTIN^E.
OSTEOLOGIA AYIIT
SECOND SUPPLEMENT.
EURYCEROS PREVOSTII, LeSS.
This bird was described by Lesson in his "Centime Zoologique" in 1830. The
following is a part of his description: —
"I/oiseau type, du genre nouveau que nous representons clans la planche 74 est une des
singularites les plus neuves et les plus remarquables de I'ornithologie.
" C'est un passage transitoire entre les toucans, les calaos et les enrylaimes ; c'est un type
caracterise a placer comme lieu intermediaire entre l'erotta. — (Traite d'Ornithologie, p. 260) et les
buceros.
" Les enryceres appartiennent a nos passereaux heterodactyles et a notre famille des enrylaimes,
le genre sera ainsi caracterise/'
Bonaparte, in his " Conspectus Genera Avium," classes it near the Rhamphastidre
after Buceridce, which immediately precedes it. G. It. Gray classes it among the
Sternidce, to which it has no affinity whatever.
Cranium rounded, without any channel over the vertex to the bill. Occiput very
round, with a slight depression on each side above the foramen magnum ; orbital
septum, perforated with two foramina, orbits large; the superior margin slightly
reflexed. Bill, with the upper mandible, large ; very much raised above, composed of
cellular bone, deep ; lower mandible deep, with a foramen near its hinder extremity ;
both mandibles pointed.
Sternum of moderate length, with a deep and wide fissure on each hinder margin.
Pelvis broad, short.
Palatine bones prolonged on the exterior and hinder margin into an elongated
spine, from the base of which they slope gradually, UDtil they unite in the centre,
where they are slightly deflected, broad.
Furculum much arched anteriorly; the process at the junction of the rami, which
are rounded, arched, flattened, and the rami long.
SUPPLEMENT II. B 6
BUCERID^E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[EuRYCEROTINjE.
Coracoids long, broad at their junction with the sternum, rounded in the middle.
ScapulcB long, much deflected.
Ribs weak, expanded at their dorsal extremities.
Wing bones long.
Tarn long.
Toes long, the too outer anterior ones united; vertebra? short.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 11
Length of ulna 16
Length of radius • , 12 J
Length of metacarpus 9
Length of femur ,'.....11
Length of tibia 15
Length of metatarsus ....,11
Length of sternum . ..... 13
Tenths.
. 10
Breadth of posterior margin . .
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 6
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 24
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 14
Breadth of pelvis 9
From the above description it will be perceived that this bird presents no affinity what
ever to Rhamphastidte or Sternidce. From the first family it differs in the shape of the
sternum, and from the last in almost every part, particularly in the structure of the
sternum and the palatine bones. In all these particulars it agrees with Buceros, and
also in the form of the pelvis and furculum.
Illustration.
Sup. 2, pi. A. Details, pi. 1.
CrACIDjE.] OSTELOGTA AVIUM. [OPISTHOCOMINiE.
Opisthocomds.
Cristatus.
Cranium, a channel of moderate depth, has its origin at the base of the bill, and
proceeds backwards on the top of the head to the occiput. Occipital ridge slight, and
with a small occipital protuberance ; orbits of moderate size; the septum with one fora
men on its hinder and lower edge ; a transverse indentation at the base of the bill ;
nostrils situated at about half its length, nearly round. Palatine bones much bent
downwards ; broad for their posterior twothirds, and united for that distance down
their centres, then divaricating, and both edges turned downwards, forming a channel
on their lower edges ; hinder end pointed backwards, and gradually narrowed to their
junction with the interarticular bones, which are broad for their anterior half and
narrowed backwards, the outer edges slightly deflected. Vomer thin. Foramen
lacerum posterius very small. Lower maxillary bone curved downw ards ; broad, with
a foramen near the hinder extremity of each branch.
Sternum of moderate length ; posterior margin rounded, with one fissure on each side
of the keel, and with a large triangular foramen on each side externally to it; hinder
margin considerably broader than the anterior edge. Keel very short, extending from
the hinder margin to little more than onehalf of the length of the sternum ; hinder
edge sloped off from the point to the hinder margin. The anterior edge sloped very
much backwards to the point from the junction of the furculum ; the anterior portion
being a mere rudimentary ridge.
Furculum having the rami very short and straight, and uniting at an acute angle,
flattened at their junction with the coracoids, and becoming more rounded towards
the terminal process, which is very long and narrow ; triangular anchylosed to the
rudimentary portion of the keel.
Coracoids short and strong, broad at their junction with the sternum, and having a
slightly raised rib down the front.
Pelvis with the divisions of the vertebrae on the hinder half apparent when held up
to the light ; ischiadic foramen of moderate size, oval ; obturator also of medium size,
without any notch in front of the acetabulum ; ilium projecting much over the bones
of the ischium ; a ridge proceeds from the junction of the caudal vertebra? up the
centre of the pelvis, becoming more rounded and obscure on the anterior portion.
Ribs broad and strong ; the styliform process attached for a considerable length to
the hinder edge of the ribs, and not projecting so far as next rib.
Scapula strong, slightly deflected, slightly expanded upwards at about half its length,
rounded at its distal extremity.
Wing bones strong, short; ulna and radius as long* as the humerus, anterior
metacarpal bone straight, posterior one much bent, having a large space between
it and the inner edge of the anterior one.
Leg Bones rather slender; tibia long in proportion to the femur. Metatarsus
8
Cbacidjj.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Opisthocominje.
triangular at its upper extremity, with a channel down the front, flattened towards its
lower extremity ; os calcis projecting considerably, with a very slight ridge proceeding
downwards from it. A supplemental metatarsal bone projecting much backwards,
not twisted on its axis, tapering and flattened upwards ; tubercles for the articulation
of the feet broad ; toes long.
This curious bird appears to be nearly allied to the guans, but differs from in
the form of the palatine bones, the hinder margin of the sternum, and furculum.
There is no Gallinaceous bird that I am acquainted with that has the hinder margin
of the sternum of a similar form, the nearest approach that I am aware of to the form
of the furculum is among the cracidse in C. Globocera, the process at the junction of the
rami is very much elongated, but is not nearly so much so as in the opisthocomus.
The rami also are curved, while in the latter bird they are straight, and the furculum,
instead of being anchylosed, or united by a ligament to the point of the keel of the
sternum, is anychylosed to its medial portion.
ements.
Tenths
Breadth of anterior . . . , .
margin of ditto 11^
Depth of keel 6
Length of head 1 1
Breadth of head 91
Length of pelvis .16
Breadth of pelvis 12
Illustration.
Snp. % pi. 2, B. Details, pi.. 2.
Measm
Tenths,
Length of humerus . . .
 • m
Length of ulna . . .
. . 19
Length of metacarpus .
. , 12
Length of femur . . .
. . . 16
Length of tibia . .
. , 15
Length of metatarsus
. . . 11
Length of sternum . .
. . . 16
Breadth of posterior margii
i . . 151
PSOPHIAD^E.] OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM, [RhINOCHETIN^E.
Rhynochetus.
Jubatus, Verr.
Cranium much arched above, with an indentation from the base of the bill to vertex,
a large and prominent occipital ridge, with two deep channels anterior to it
Orbital septum with very large foramen. Palatine bones truncated behind, gradually
tapering to point anteriorly ; posterior margin entire.
Sternum narrow, long ; keel very narrow, with the edge nearly straight.
Pelvis anteriorly much arched and gradually sloping backwards, with two deep
hollows, one on each side of the sacral vertebrae. Ischiadic foramen long. Obturator
foramen large and rounded anteriorly, short posteriorly. Pelvis very short.
Ribs narrow and thin, styliform process turned much upwards.
Furculum weak, without any process at the junction of the rami.
Coracoids broad, at their sternal extremities light.
ScapulcB very much arched, short.
Wing bones short, ulna much bent.
Measurements,
Tenths,
Breadth of anterior . : . . .
margin of ditto ...... 10
Depth of keel . . 3
Length of head ....... 17
Breadth of head 13
Length of pelvis • 30
Breadth of pelvis ...... 13
Tenths.
Length of humerus 26
Length of ulna ,28
Length of metacarpus 14
Length of femur ...... 26
Length of tibia 50
Length of metatarsus 45
Length of sternum ..... 19
Breadth of posterior margin ... 7
Mr. G. Gray, in his Handlist, places this bird next Eurypyga, from which it differs
in the shape of the sternum. In Eurypya the keel is very deep, and continued to the
posterior margin. In Rhynochetus it is obliterated, the former bird has a deep foramen
on each side, the latter none at all ; the pelvis in the former bird is quite straight on its
dorsal aspect, the latter has it much arched ; in all of which respects it agrees with
Psophia.
Illustration.
Sup. 2, pi. 3. Details, pi 3, G
10
Coculidzb.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Centropin^;.
Centropus, III.
Rufipennis, Horsf.
Cranium with a slight channel between the orbits. Occipital ridge large and
prominent, the channel for the masseter muscle large. Orbital septum with a large
central foramen and a smaller one above.
Palatine bones similar to those of centropus phasianus, (pi. 13, fig. 1).
Sternum with one foramen on each side of the keel placed near the margin, the plate
of bone bordering it not being so wide as in centropus phasianus ; lateral margin more
curved outwards. Keel with its edge more curved than in centropus phasianus ;
remainder as in the foregoing, but not so strong.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 12
Length of ulna 18
Length of radius 17
Length of metacarpus .... 9
Length of femur 22
Length of tibia ....... 34
Tenths.
Breadth of posterior margin . . 13
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 10
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 28
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis 21
Breadth of pelvis 11
Length of metatarsus 23
Length of sternum 15
Illustration.
Sup. % pi. 4. Details, pi. 4, D.
Scythrops, Lath,
Novae Hollandise, Lath.
I have only been able to obtain a small portion of the skeleton of this curious bird,
although it appears to be by no means rare in its native country ; namely, the sternum,
furculum, coracoids, and scapulas.
Sternum broad, short ; hinder margin with an indentation on each side of the keel ;
anteriorly slightly convex. Keel deep, much arched on its inferior edge, and continued
to the posterior margin ; anteriorly much hollowed out. Lateral margin curved, the
hinder margin broader than the anterior one.
Furculum arched ; process at the junction of the rami small, slightly flattened.
Coracoids very broad at their articulation with the sternum
Scapulae very broad near their extremities ; arched, pointed.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of sternum . . . » . 23
Breadth of posterior
margin of ditto 20
Illustration.
Sup. 2, pi. 5, E.
11
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 14
Depth of keel . 6
CUCULID^!.]
GSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[ZANCL0ST0MIN2G.
Zanclostqmus.
Javanicus, Horsf.
Cranium rounded, a slight channel over the vertex to the bill. Orbits large.
Septum with one large foramen, a depression at the base of the bill, channel for the
masseter muscles large, depression extending to the occiput.
Sternum with two fissures on the hinder margin, the inner one largest; hinder
margin much broader than the anterior one ; anterior edge receding.
Pelvis very broad, the sacral vertebrae forming a ridge for its whole length ;
ischiadic foramen large. Obturator foramen narrow, a large projection in front of the
acetabulum pointing forwards.
Furculum very long, branches not much arched, process at their junction small.
Scapula broad.
Wing bones strong, the ulna nearly as long as the humerus.
Measurements.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of radius . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . .
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Tenths.
10J
10
H
5
14
20
10
8
Tenths,
Breadth of posterior margin . . 8
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 6
Depth of keel . 2J
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis 10
Breadth of pelvis ...... 8
Illustration.
Sup. 2, pi. 6, F.
Zanclostomus.
Sumatranus.
Very similiar to the preceding
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 8
Length of ulna 11
Length of metacarpus .... 6
Length of femur 15
Length of tibia 20
Length of metatarsus . . .
Length of sternum .....
Breadth of posterior margin . . .
Illustration.
Sup. 2, pi. 6.
81
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 6
Depth of keel ....... 3
Length of head 21
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis ...... 12
Breadth of pelvis 7
12
CORVIDJE.] OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. [CaLL^ATINjE.
Struthidea, Gould.
Cinerea, Gould.
Cranium very round over the vertex. Occipital crest very small, with a slight
depression between the orbits, which are large, and with a large foramen through the
septum. Nostrils large. Palatine bones very broad, posteriorly with a blunt spine on
each side, the central edge deflected slightly for the posterior half, united at their
articulation, with the interarticular bones gradually narrowed towards their anterior
extremities.
Sternum long, indented, with two fissures on the posterior margin, much retiring
from the manubrial process, which is large and prominent ; bifcurcate at the end.
Keel of moderate depth, straight on its inferior edge.
Pelvis broad, divisions of the vertebra? apparent. Ischiadic foramen large ; obturator
foramen rounded, open, not a mere slit as in most birds.
Ribs of moderate size ; styliform process turned much upwards.
Furculum much expanded ; process at their junction of the rami small.
Coracoids long, of moderate size.
Scapuloe long, broad.
Wing bones of moderate size ; ulna longer than than the humerus.
Leg bones metatarsus, very long.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 14
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus .... 8
Length of femur 8
Length of tibia 23
Length of metatarsus 17
Length of sternum ..... 16
Breadth of posterior margin . . 9
Illustration.
Sup. 2, pi. 7. Details, pi. 7, F.
Struthidea presents a strong resemblance to kitta in the shape of the palatine bones
and sternum, but pelvis is narrower.
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 7
Depth of keel 4
Length of head 19
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis . . . . . . 16
Breadth of pelvis ...... 9J
13
Oroalid^:.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Ptilorhyncin^i.
Ptilorhynchus, Cuv.
Smithii, Vig $ Horsf.
Differs very slightly in form from Cassicus.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ....
12
Length of ulna . . . . . .
21
Length of metacarpus . . . .
10J
Length of femur .....
16
Length of tibia .....
20
Length of metatarsus .. . .
21
Length of sternum ....
17
Breadth of posterior margin .
11
Tenths,
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 9
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 25
Breadth of head . . . . . . .10
Length of pelvis ...... 22
Breadth of pelvis . . . , . . 12
Illustrations.
PL 1. Details, pi. 8, H.
CORVID^E.] OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. [CaLL^EATIN^.
Dendrocitta, Gould.
Vagabunda, Lath.
Cranium round on the vertex. Occipital ridge well denned, but not prominent.
Orbits large. Septum with the foramina partly filled up. Palatine bones broad on
their hinder margins, their lateral edges terminating with a blunt spine. Interanticular
bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, which, anteriorly, merely form
a narrow strip on each side to their junction, with the superior maxilliary bones.
Sternum rather long, with a deep fissure on each side inferior edge of the keel,
arched ; the front edge much scolloped out.
Pelvis broad. Obturator foramen long ; ischiadic large.
Ribs with the styliform process very long.
Furculum narrow.
Coracoids small.
Scapulum slightly arched, expanded near the extremity, and finally pointed.
Wing bones of moderate size ; the ulna much longer than the humerus.
Leg bones with the tibia and metatarsal bones nearly equal.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 9
Length of ulna 15
Length of metacarpus .... 8
Length of femur 13 J
Length of tibia 18
Length of metatarsus . . . . 15
Length of sternum . . . . . 13
Breadth of posterior margin . . 8
Illustrations.
Sup. 2, pi. 9. Details, pi. 9, I.
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 6
Depth of keel 3 J
Length of head 22
Breadth of head 10
Length of pelvis 16
Breadth of pelvis ... . . 7
15
Larid^e.] osteologia avium, [Stercorarin^e.
Stercorarius, Bi'iss.
Pomarinus, Temm,
Cranium rather flattened. Orbits large ; a moderatesized foramen in the centre,
and a smaller one above it ,• a deep depression over each orbit. Palatine bones narrow,
bending downward at the lateral edges; wider than in Chroicocephalus ridibundus.
Interanticular bones bending inwards at their hinder ends, flattened.
Sternum with a large and deep fissure on each side of the keel, which is very deep
and much curved on its inferior edge; much scolloped out on its anterior edge.
Manubrial process small, laterally compressed, pointed.
Pelvis long ; the pubis and ischium very much prolonged backwards. Obturator
foramen long, narrow. Ischiadic foramen small ; the division of the sacral vertebrae
apparent.
Ribs moderate ; styliform processes long, pointing upwards.
Furculum flattened, no projection at the junction of the rami.
Coracoids very strong, flattened on the upper side.
Scapula thick, of nearly the same width throughout, pointed at their extremities.
Wing bones very long, especially the metacarpal.
Leg hones light.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 46
Length of ulna ....... 47
Length of metacarpus .... 42
Length of femur 18
Length of tibia 26
Length of metatarsus ..... 22
Length of sternum 30
Breadth of posterior margin ... 13
Illustrations.
Sup. 2, pi. 10. Details, pi. 10, I.
The genus stercorarius differ from the genus larus, in having only one fiss ure on the
posterior margin of the sternum, in the more depressed form of the cranium.
Tenths,
Breadth of anterior .....
margin of ditto ...... 15
Depth of keel 8
Length of head ....... 36
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis ...... 33
Breadth of pelvis 19
16
Ardeid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Ardein^.
Ardea, Linn.
Herodias. Linn.
Cranium much the same as in A. cinerea, but with the muscular impressions more
distinct. The occipital crest more prominent, and orbital septum with a large foramen.
Palatine bones narrow.
Sternum longer and narrower, and more convex. Keel not so deep.
Pelvis also longer and narrower, and with the central channel more marked.
Ribs narrow.
Furculum, Coracoids, and Scapula smaller and longer.
Wing and Leg bones similar, but longer.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus ..... 80
Length of ulna 96
Length of metacarpus .... 40
Length of femur 46
Length of tibia . 105
Length of metatarsus 75
Length of sternum 44
Breadth of posterior margin . . 15
Illustrations.
Sup. 2, pi. 11. Details, pi. 11, J.
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior , . .
margin of ditto ....
. 24
Depth of keel .....
. 10
Length of head
. 96
Breadth of head . . : . .
. . 16
Length of pelvis ....
. . 50
Breadth of pelvis ....
. . 20
OSTEOLOGIA AYIUM.
Euryceros prevostii 
Opisthomus cristatus 
Rhynochetus jubatus 
Centropus rufipennis 
Scythrops, Novse hollandise non ridi   
Zanclostomus javanicus 
Zanclostomus sumatranus 
Struthidea cinerea 
Ptilorhynchus srnithii 
Dendrocitta vagabunda 
Stercorarius pomarinus 
Ardea herodias 
Cervical.
Dorsal.
Sacral.
Caudal.
10
7
8
7
10
10
5
14
7
10
7
12
6
10
5
10
6
12
5
10
7
9
6
12
8
10
7
12
8
10
7
12
8
9
6
11
8
10
8
16
8
12
7
NOTE.
Rhynochetus.
Jubatus.
Provisionally I have classed this bird with the Psophiadse, but there is another family with which
it agrees in many respects, but without knowing anything of the habits of the Kagu, not much
can be finally determined. The family alluded to is that of the Rallidse, in which Aramus
scoloposeceus is' placed by Mr. Gray; it has long feet, like Rhynochetus, and the same form of
sternum. The eggs of the Kagu, of which I have two, are white, spotted with brown ; while those
of Posphia, Mr. Bartlett informs me are white. Nuttall says the eggs of Aramus are two in
number ; Audubon that they rarely exceed five or six, but neither of these Naturalists say of what
colour they are, or shape ; they are not like any heron that I know of, or those of Eurypyga, but
more like those of a coot, or large rail.
18
Nat. size.
FromsNttfure oivTmc by JJEnzleien/
~Vuzc&it> Broohs I)ay&S(ms l Imjp.
EIRYCER(0)§ PJRETOSTII,
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DPISTHOCOMUS C1IS.TATFS,
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Nat. size
From, Nature, owTmo iyJErxLehens.
STOTIIBEA CWERE.
PL. 8.
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Mat. size.
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AftBEA IE10BIAS,
DETAILS PL.l.A.
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Nat. size.
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from. Nature oiv Tine by J. Eiuieiens.
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IFIYCEIOS IPBJEVOSTUX
DETAILS, PI, 2, B.
Nat size.
FwnvNcdure, on Xaio ojJ.Enxleben/
Viac/mx Brooks J) ay&SprvImp.
OFISTHOC OMITS 'CM STATU!
DETAILS, PL. 3. C.
TronilTcUare. en Tuoc iy JUrxleben/
Nat. size.
JRHYHOCHETUS JUTBATF^
DETAILS, PL.4.D.
Nat. size.
Fronp Nature, auTuic irfJBvrkhery.
WuenbJSroaksDcgr&SinifJmp.
lEITlOFUS KUFIPEMS.
DETAILS PL.5.E.
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Nat size.
From/If a£ur& oru Ztno ~by JJZrxidb&ris.
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TIIOPS ^©T^E lOLLAIDMo
DETAILS, EL. 6. P.
Nat size.
From/ Nature on/ Tine iy J^ErxIebeTi
Vbic&O/BTixihDay&Sero, Imp.
^ANCLOSTOMUS JATAB I C 1LT 8 ,
DETAILS, PL. 7, G.
Nat. size
From/ Mtfvw orb ~Zaie ~by JJHrscLdben/
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STSFTHIBEA €IM]
DETAILS, EL. 8, H.
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Nat', size.
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FT1JL OE" OMYI CMJ S SMITHII.
DETAILS, PL. 9. I.
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Nat size
Frcmv Nature m,Ztru> tyXErxtihai.
UncenZBroolcs X)ay&St>rL,Imp.
)EHI3)R(D)CITTA YAGABU5BA,
DETAILS, PL.10. ,
PrtmvNatare, on/ Tine ~by JErxleben
¥at. size.
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STERCORARIUS JP
DETAILS, PL.ll.K.
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BuCERIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MoMOTIN^).
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM,
SECOND SUPPLEMENT,
PART II.
Momotds, by R. Gray.
CEquinoctialis, Gould.
When the first part of this work was published I had some fragments of the skeleton
of Momotus (pi. 12, fig. 13) taken from a skin. I have since obtained a perfect
skeleton of Momotus CEquinoctialis, which I now figure.
Cranium rounded, with a rounded projection on side of the vertex. Orbital septum
entire. Occipital ridge distinctly marked ; impression of the masseter muscles
distinct; nostrils large, oval. Palatine bones broad, united posteriorly, the central
edge turned downwards, the exterior edge slightly so. The two plates united for about
onethird of their length, then narrowed and divaricating and carried forward as two
strips of bone.
Sternum broad, with two large fissures on each side of the posterior margin, the inner
one smallest. Keel deep, arched on its inferior edge. Manubrial process broad at
the base, of moderate length.
Pelvis very broad in proportion to its length. The ischiadic foramen large, oval.
The obturator of moderate size.
Ribs broadest near their dorsal extremities, and gradually diminishing to their
junction with the sternal ribs, which are flattened.
Furculum arched in front, the rami flattened, without any process at their junction.
Coracoids long.
Scapulce very slightly bent, pointed at the extremities.
Wing bones long ; the ulna longer than the humerus.
Leg bones of moderate length.
SUPPLEMENT II. B 20
Length of humerus
Length of ulna ....
Length of metacarpus . .
Length of femur . .
Length of tibia ....
Length of metatarsus . ;
Length of sternum . . .
Breadth of posterior margin
Measurements.
Tenths.
18
21
5
11
20
13
13
11
Illustrations.
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 8
Depth of keel 4
Length of head .29
Breadth of head 12
Length of pelvis 15
Breadth of pelvis 12
Suppt. 2, pi. 12. Details, pi, 12, A.
21
Tinamid^e.]
OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM.
flNAMINA
Rhynchotus, Spisc.
Perdicarius, Kettl.
Very similar to Crypturus, but the tarsi are shorter, and without back toe. The
palatine bones also differ, and the wings are longer in proportion. A process projects
from the end of the ilium anterior to acetabulum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 24
Length of ulna ...... 24J
Length of metacarpus .... 13
Length of femur ..:... 20
Length of tibia ...... 30
Length of metatarsus .... 19
Length of sternum 38
Breadth of posterior margin . . 9
Tenths,
Breadth of anterior .....
margin of ditto ... . . . 12
Depth of keel . 7
Length of head 25
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis ...... 25
Breadth of pelvis ...... 16
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pi. 13. Details, pi. 13, A,
22
TlNAMrD^E,] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TlNAMINB.
Crypturus, III.
Megapodius, Bp.
Does not differ much from Tinamus, except in size. My specimen of Tinamus was
much damaged, therefore would not do to figure in the first part of this work.
Cranium small, rounded. Occipital ridge small. The foramen in the orbital septum
large. Palatine bones broad, narrowed behind to a point. Interarticular bones
very long.
Sternum very long ; the central and horizontal portion very narrrow ; a strip of bone
forming each lateral edge makes between it and the central portion a large fissure on
each side. Keel deep ; the lower edge arched.
Pelvis broad; the vertebras apparent from the upper surface ; the os pubis curved.
Obturator foramen large ; ischiadic large ; in fact both the abovenamed foramina are
converted into fissures, not being closed at their hinder ends ; a process at the end of
the ilium before the acetabulum.
Ribs strong.
JFurculum small, weak ; without any process at the junction of the rami.
Coracoids strong.
Scapulce strong, very slightly arched, blunt at the distal extremity.
Wing bones short.
Leg bones of moderate size.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 29
Length of ulna . . 32
Length of metacarpus 16
Length of femur 27
Length of tibia ........ 4.0
Length of metatarsus 27
Length of sternum 44
Breadth of posterior margin . . . 13
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pi. 14. Details, pi. 14, A
Tenths,
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 12
Depth of keel 9
Length of head 23
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 37
Breadth of pelvis ...... . 1&
Phasianid^.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Galling
Ceriornis,
Temminckii, Gray.
Does not differ very much in shape from the skeleton of the common pheasant, but
considerably in measurements, particularly in that of the sternum.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 33
Length of radius ...... 33
Length of metacarpus 16
Length of femur . . 40
Length of tibia 59
Length of metatarsus 34
Length of sternum ..... 40
Breadth of posterior margin . . . 20
Tenths
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 15
Depth of keel 13J
Length of head 29
Breadth of head 11
Length of pelvis .49
Breadth of pelvis . . . . . . 20
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pi. 15. Details, pi. 15, A,
HALLID.2E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Balling.
Aeamides, Puch.
Cayanea, Mull.
Cranium similar in form to the other rallinae ; lacrymals long.
Pelvis also similar.
Leg bones of moderate length. Metatarsi not so short as in Ocydromus.
Wings short.
Sternum long, narrow ; keel with deep fissures at the hinder margin converted into
foramina; a very narrow strip of bone across the hind margin. Sternum much
constricted in the middle ; inferior edge of the keel arched.
Measurements.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . .
Length of tibia . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Breadth of posterior margin
Tenths.
19
17
12J
22
31
21
H
54
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 8
Depth of keel 5
Length of head 28
Breadth of head 8
Length of pelvis ...... 22
Breadth of pelvis 10
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pi. 16. Details, pi. 16, A.
25
RaLLID^I.J 0STE0LGIA AVIUM. [RALLINiE.
Ocydromus, Wag.
Sylvestris, Sclat.
Cranium of moderate length ; a transverse indention at the base of the bill.
Nostrils long, oval. Lacrymal bone elongated over the orbits. Orbital septum with a
large foramen. Occipital ridge prominent. Palatine bones rounded behind ; edges
curved downward, narrowed suddenly anteriorly to a mere strip of bone.
Sternum broadest anteriorly, narrowed in the middle again ; slightly expanded at
posterior margin, with a deep fissure on each side.
Pelvis anteriorly; deep and arched; posterior half, with a deep and broad channel
down the centre ; deep curved on each side of the caudal vertebrae ; divisions of the
sacral vertebrae apparent.
Hibs long, thin. Stylyform process very long, extending over two ribs.
Furculum without any process as the junction of the rami.
Coracoids of moderate size.
Scapula long, slightly arched, pointed at their ends.
Wing bones short.
Leg bones moderate ; metatarsus short.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 20
Length of ulna 16
Length of metacarpus .... 12
Length of femur , 24J
Length of tibia 34
Length of metatarsus . . . . 18J
Length of sternum 19
Breadth of posterior margin . . 5 \
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto . . . . . . 19
Depth of keel 3
Length of head 34
Breadth of head 9
Length of pelvis 22
Breadth of pelvis 9
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pL 17. Details, pi. 17, A.
When I described the skeleton of Rhynchotus I had not the skeleton of any large
rail ; since that I have obtained one, Ocydromus sylvestris, which I now figure. The
sternum is similar, except that of Ocydromus has two foramina on the posterior margin,
which Rhynchotus has not. The metatarsi of Ocydromus are much shorter than those
of Rhynchotus. The cranium and pelvis are similar. The palatine bones are more
truncate at hinder extremities in the latter than in the former.
26
AnDEIDjE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [GrUINjE.
Antigone, Reich, Bp.
Torquata, Viell.
Cranium with a very slight depression across the base of the bill ; no depression over
the upper surface, except a very slight one near the occiput, much rounded above.
Orbital septum strong, with two foramina, the central one large, the upper one small,
elongated. Occipital ridge not very prominent ; a large ridge from the centre of it to
the foramen magnum. Lacrymal bones large, projecting far backwards. Inter
articular bone very massive and strong. Palatine bones long, the lateral edges
curved downwards, pointed posteriorly, flat and narrowed anteriorly ; bones formiug
the bill strong ; the lower edge of the inferior maxillary projecting backwards.
Sternum elongated. Narrow keel, very thick on its inferior edge and curved
anteriorly ; hollow and perforated by the trachea, which makes a convolution in its
interior extended to the posterior margin of the sternum, which projects much forward
beyond the junction of the furculum. Posterior margin widened laterally, and rounded
on the outer angles ; edge nearly entire.
Pelvis similar to Ardea in shape ; foramina long.
Ribs with the styliform process long.
Furculum of moderate length. Rami flattened ; strongly anchylosed to the sternum,
and much flattened transversely.
Coracoids very broad at their junction with the sternum.
Scapulce flattened, very long, pointed, slightly bending downward.
Leg bones the callineal process slight, continued nearly to the hind toe.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus 106
Length of ulna 130
Length of metacarpus .... 50
Length of femur ..:... 80
Length of tibia 155
Length of metatarsus .... 135
Length of sternum 90
Breadth of posterior margin . . 24
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pi. 18. Details, pi. 18, A
Tenths.
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto 23
Depth of keel 25
Length of head 101
Breadth of head 19J
Length of pelvis 90
Breadth of pelvis 35
27
Andeid^e.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVI DM.
[GauiNJE.
EpHIPPIORHtNCHS, Bp,
Senegalensis, Shaw.
Very similar, except in size, to Antigone torqnafa ; the tracheae penetrates the keel
of the sternum in the same manner, namely, in one perpendicular loop.
Measurements.
Length of humerus ■ . .
Length of radius . . .
Length of metacarpus .
Length of femur . .
Length of tibia . . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum . .
Breadth of posterior margin
Length of head
Tenths.
95
125
45
53
150
120
75
16
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pi 19. Details, pi. 19, X
Tenth?
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto ...... 25
Depth of keel .22
Breadth of head 18
Length of pelvis 68
Breadth of pelvis ...... 34
28
LuCINIDJE.] O'STEOLOGIA AVIUM. [WaLURINjE.
Atrichia, Gould.
Clamosa, Gould.
I have only the sternum, coracoids, and scapulae of this bird.
Sternum long, with a deep fissure on each side at the posterior, and much elongated
on each side anteriorly. Keel shallow.
Coracoids long, very broad at their junction with the sternum.
Scapulw long, slightly expanding near the tip, pointed at the extremity.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of sternum . . . . . 7
Breadth of posterior margin . " . .4
Breadth of anterior margin . . . 4
Tenths.
Depth of keel .1
Length of coracoids 7
Length of scapulae ...... 6
Illustration.
Suppt. 2, pi. 20, fig. 1.
Tantalidd.J osteolog'Ia avium.. [Tawtalinje.
Tantalus, Linn.
Ibis, Linn.
I have only the sternum an^ head of this bird, the 7 atter is figured in pi. 33, fig. 1.
Sternum short, of moderate breadth, with a broad fissure on each side of the keel on
the posterior margin. Keel very deep, much arched on its inferior edge.
Coracoids rather long.
Furculum, with an appendage at the junction of the rami, broadest at their junction
with the coracoids and arched.
Scapula slightly bent, blunt at the end ; of nearly the same width throughout.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of sternum ..... 43
Breadth of posterior margin . . 20
Breadth of anterior margin . . . 22
Tenths*
Depth of keel ....... 20
Length of coracoids 26
Length of scapulae ...... 30
llbistration&.
Suppt. 2, pi. 20, fig. %
Spheriseidjs.] osteologia atidm. [Spherisein^b.
Aptenodytes, Fosst.
Penantii, G. It. Gray.
I have only the sternum of this bird, with the coracoid, scapulae, and furculum
attached.
Sternum short, scolloped out from the lateral margin to the end of the keel, which is
shallow and much produced in front towards the furculum, to which it is united by a
ligament.
Coracoids long, very strong.
Furculum much arched, broadest next the coracoids, gradually narrowed towards the
sternum ; a small process at the junction of the rami.
Scapulce very broad posteriorly, narrowed at their junction with the coracoids.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of sternum 47
Breadth of posterior margin ... 33
Breadth of anterior margin ... 36
Tenths.
Depth of keel 8
Length of coracoids 50
Length of scapulas ...... 47
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pJ. 21,
31
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
Tallegalla, Less.
Lathami, Jard.
Cranium slightly flattened between the orbits, strong. Nostrils large, oval Orbital
septum nearly entire, with only a small foramen on its posterior edge. Palatine bones
expanded on their posterior third, pointed behind, slightly bent upwards at their
junction ; fore part consisting of a narrow strip of bone expanded slightly forward 5
nearly resembling Crax Globiura (pi. 22, fig. 2).
Sternum very like that of Crax, but rather shorter, with a short, but perpendicular
broad keel,
Pelvis broader than in Crax, but with the ischiadic and obturator foramina larger.
Ribs broad, flattened as in Crax.
Furculum with the rami long, a small process at their junction turning inwards slight.
Coracoids of moderate size.
Scapula broad, blunt at their tips.
Wing hones short; metacarpus long.
Leg hones tibiae, short; not very strong.
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . N .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . .
Length of metatarsus
Length of sternum .
Breadth of posterior margin
34
35
18
32
36
17
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto .
Depth of keel . »
Length of head . .
i of head
of pelvis .
f pelvis 
Illustrations.
Suppt. 2, pi. 22. Details,
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
NUMBERING OF VERTEBRAE.
Cervical.
Antigone torquata    
Ephippiorhynchus Senegalensis
Aramides cayanea    
Ocydromus sylvestris   
Satyra Temminckii    
Crypturus megapodius   
Rhynchotus perdicarius  
Momotus (Equinoctialis  
Tallegalla Lathami    
18
17
13
12
13
15
15
12
14
Dorsal.
6
6
10
10
Sacral.
18
14
13
14
15
19
14
13
13
Caudal.
6
7
5
S
Since the former part of this work was published, I have obtained from America the
skeletons of fuligula valisneria and querquedula discors, both agree with their
representatives in this country ; the former with the fuligula ferina, and the latter with
querquedula cruca, so as not to be distinguishable from them by the skeleton.
END OF SUPPLEMENT II., PART 2.
83
PL. 12.
JFrom, Jiat. on stozte My JSrsdeheJi.
MOMO TITS <GE QUINOC HALIS «
JtfdJ/.Jiaiihart imp.
DETAILS, PL. 12. A
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PL.13.
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DET.AILS,PL.13.A.
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PL. SO.
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DETAILS,PL.2S.A.
From nat. on stone by J.Erxleha
M£Kffani>az<z
XALLEGALLA. LAT1MMI,
DlDUNCULIDJS.] [DlDULINA
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM
SECOND SUPPLEMENT.
PART III.
DrDUNCULUs, Peale.
Strigirostris, Jardine.
Cranium much indented at the base of the bill. Nostrils lengthened. Ovate
cranium, flattened on the vertex ; rounded behind ; foramenmagnum large.
Bill much arched. Inferior maxillary bone much elongated backwards beyond its
articulation with the os quadratum. lnler obital foramen large.
Sternum indented with a very large fissure, which extends more than half the
length of the sternum, and is bounded by a narrow strip of bone, expanded at its ex
tremity, and terminating at about half the length of the fissure; the posterior margin
rounded, and narrower than the anterior. In the young bird I suspect it is penetrated
with a smaller foramen on each side,, as my specimen has traces of them.
Keel very deep anteriorly ; the lower edge rounded, the front edges curved.
Pelvis very broad, much like the ground pigeon's.
Ribs broad, flattened styliform process, much turned upwards.
Furculum rounded, but slightly flattened at its articulation with the coracoids.
Coracoids strong.
Scapula arched, expanded near the extremities and pointed at the extremities.
Wingbones of moderate length ; the ulna much longer than the humerus.
Legbones with the metatarsi very short
Vertebral column strong
Remarks. — This curious bird strongly resembles the ground pigeons in the form of the head,
sternum, and pelvis. It is figured in Owen's Memoir on the Dodo.
SUPPLEMENT II. F 34
Length of humerus .
Length of ulna . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . .
Length of tibia . ,
Length of metatarsas
Length of sternum .
Breadth of posterior .
Measurements.
Tenths
17
22
12J
12J
24
15
22
Margin of posterior
Breath of anterior
margin of ditto
Depth of keel . .
Length of head .
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis .
Breadth of pelvis .
Tenths.
. 7
9
19
8
26
15
NUMBER OF VERTEBR2E.
Cer. Dor. Sac. Cand.
4 7 13 7
PaLAMIDEIDjE.] OSTEOLOGIA AYTUM. [PaLAMEDEINtE.
The birds belonging to the genera that constitute this family are very curious, so
much so that it is difficult to say where they ought to be classed. In many respects
they resemble the vultures, as in the structure of the furculum, cranium, and palatine
bones and pelvis, more particularly Neophron, while in the feet they resemble the
Rallidse, and in the form of the posterior margin of sternum are not like
either, but the keel resembles the Vulturidae. It is no wonder therefore that they have
been classed differently by authors, a few of whose opinions I shall proceed to quote.
Mr. G. Gray classes the genera Palamedea and Chauna, forming his family Palamedeidse,
next to the Parridse. He says they inhabit marshy places and inundated grounds, in the
northern parts of America, especially those that are situated near the sea. It is generally found
in pairs, and is very shy and timorous, hut soon betrays itself by its loud calls. The seeds and
leaves of aquatic plants constitute its principal food.
These birds are peculiar to the northern parts of South and Central America. They are
observed in the marshes and occasionally on the borders of lakes and rivers, in pairs, or in troops
of many individuals. Their manners are shy, but when not scared their gait is slow and stately.
Their flight is easy and swift, and they are unable to run, except with the assistance of their
wings. They resort to rest on the tops of high trees. The Brazilian species is kept by the natives
amongst their poultry. It goes with them to feed during the day, and during this time proves
very useful in defending the poultry against the attacks of the numerous birds of prey, by means
of the spurs on the bend of its wings. If the wing of the bird is handled a crackling is felt,
which is caused by the quantity of air which is lodged between the skin and muscles. Marsh}
and inundated places are preferred by these birds, as their food consists solely of the leaves of
aquatic plants, grapes, and seeds. Their nest is spacious, and made of small branches of trees, and
usually placed in a bush surrounded with water, but sometimes it is formed among reeds and
rushes. The female lays two eggs.
Castelnau, in his "Animaux ou Pares de 1' Amerique du sud," gives a plate (15) of
Palamedae Cornuta and the sternum of Palamedse Derbyana, and (page 73) a description and
account of the two birds, in which he says they are very different from the moorhen, rails, or
coots ; and Illiger unites the genera Glarieola, Cereopsis, Chauna, Palamedea, and
Psophia, under the name of Alectorides, from which they are very different. He also says, in
speaking of the sternum, that it presents an analogy to the Vulturidas.
c; Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien von Maximilian Prinzen zu Weid" ;
from which the following is a translation : —
" I he Aniuma, from its great size and beauty, forms an ornament to the Brazilian forests. It
is dispersed over a large portion of South America, for it has been seen in Guiana, where Somnini
36
Falamibeidje.] osteologia avium. [Palamedeinje.
found it ; it does not however appear to be found at Paraguay, as Azara makes no mention of it
I myself never met with the bird in Brazil, until travelling from South to North I had reached the
island Caxoeirinka (Kaschoerinnia) in the river Belmonte, that is to say the sixteenth degree of
south latitude. I was told there that it had never been seen higher up the stream towards Minas.
In the neighbourhood of the abovenamed island in the Belmonte it is very numerous. It only
frequents lonely spots far removed from the habitations of man. I never met with it, as Sonnini
describes, in open places, only in the depths of the primeval forest on the bor lers of the river, after
I had made some days' journey up the stream of the Belmonte. There we frequently heard the
loud, uncommon cry of this bird, which in its modulation has some resemblance to our own wood
pigeon, but it is much louder and more shrill and the throat note is pitched in another key.
" Sometimes we saw the Aniumas as they strutted on the sandbanks and in and out of the
river. If we approached them, they took fright, and then, both in the size and broad expanse of
their wings, and in their colour and manner of flapping them, they resembled the Urubus
(Cathartes Aura et Urubu). They always perched in the summit of some thickly leaved forest
tree, where we constantly heard their voices, though we could seldom see the birds themselves.
In the breeding season the Aniuma pairs, at other times four, five or six are seen together ; they
go to feed on the sandbanks or in the thickly wooded marshes, which are so frequent in these
forests. The food of these birds appears to be entirely vegetable, at least in the five or six,
whose stomachs I have examined. I found nothing but leaves of a kind of grass plant and of
another broadleaved grass plant.
" The nest of this bird is found on the ground in the wooded marshes near the river. The
Botocudians state that it contains two large white eggs, and consists of only one layer. The
young birds run at once on leaving the shell.
" The flesh of the Aniuma is not good eating ; the Botocundians devour it all the more
greedily, as the Portuguese do not eat it at all. The fine long pinion feathers are used for writing,
the tail feathers are much valued by the savages for their arrows. There is a popular superstition
that this bird always dips his frontal horn into the water when he wishes to drink."
Marcgrave calls the Aniuma a bird of prey, in other respects he describes him very
correctly, and represents his voice tolerably correct by the word " Vihu, Vihu." He mentions
the great attachment subsisting between the male and female when paired, but of this the
Brazilian sportsmen made no mention to me. That the two sexes differ greatly in size, as
Marcgrave represents, is incorrect. 1 hat the nest has the shape of an oven, must, if the state
ments of the Botocundians is to be believed, be a fable.
The following note was sent to me in reply to one of mine, by Mr. Bartlett, of the
Zoological Gardens of London: —
" In reply to your note, I find the Chauna and Palamideidse feed upon green food principally ;
they will also eat boiled rice, bread, and boiled Indian corn, but no flesh of any kind." —
" Yours faithfully, A. Bartlett."
3T
PALAMIDEID.E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[Palamedetn^e.
Pala medea, Lin.
Cornuta, Lin.
Cranium with a deep hollow at the base of the bill, anterior to the orbits ; upper
edge of the orbits projecting much over the orbit. Palatine bones broad at their pos
terior ends, laterally projecting downwards, tapering forwards to a thin strip of bone.
Sternum with the posterior and anterior edges nearly equal in breadth.
Keel with the inferior edges arched and continued nearly to the posterior margin,
which is indented with a broad fissure extending nearly the whole breadth of the
sternum, and bounded on each side with a broad strip of bone, in which there is a
smaller rounded fissure in the direction of the lateral margin.
Pelvis very broad posteriorly ; ischiadic and obturator foramina large, splints
bounding the former long. End of the metacarpi furnished with long, sharp spines,
pointing forwards.
Furculum very strong at the coracoid extremity ; much flattened laterally ; at the
opposite one more rounded.
Coracoids very strong.
Scapula slightly arched, flattened and pointed at the extremities.
Measurements.
Length of humerus . .
Length of ulna . . .
Length of metacarpus
Length of femur . . .
Length of tibia . . .
Length of metatarsus. ..
Length of sternum . .
Breadth of posterior . .
Tenths.
Margin of posterior
Breadth of anterior
margin of ditto
Depth of keel . .
Length of head
Breadth of head .
Length of pelvis .
Breadth of pelvis .
Tenths.
VERTEBRA.
Cer. Dor. Sac. Caad.
15 9 11 7
38
PALAMIDEID.E.]
OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM.
[PaUAMEDEINjE.
Chauna,
Chavaria, Lin.
Cranium similar to Palamidea.
Sternum also similar, but not so much scolloped out behind, but without the small
lateral fissures.
Pelvis similar to Palamidea ; terminal joint of the caudal vertebras very long and
pointed.
Ribs of moderate strength, without any styliform process.
Furculum very strong and broad, shorter than in Palamidea.
Coracoids shorter and stronger than in Palamidea.
Scapula similar.
Wingbones long; the ulna much longer than the humerus ; the metacarpus armed
with a strong spine, pointing forwards at each extremity.
Legbones of moderate length and strength ; toes very long.
Vertebrce of moderate strength ; short.
Measurements.
Tenths
Length of humerus 68
Length of ulna 76
Length of metacarpus .... 38
Length of femur 37
Length of tibia 69
Length of metatarsus .... 48
Length of sternum 59
JSyeadth of posterior
Tenths.
Margin of posterior 26
Breadth of anterior >
margin of ditto / ' ' * '
Depth of keel 14
Length of head . .... 32
Breadth of head 15
Length of pelvis 50
Breadth of pelvis ,,.... 25
NUMBER OF VERTEBBJB.
Cer.
16
Dor. Sac.
8 12
Cand.
9
39
P HACTONID JE,] OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM, [PllACTONYN^E.
Phaeton, Lin.
iEthereus, Lin.
Cranium long and hollow between the edges of the orbits ; orbital septum perforated
with a large foramen ; a deep tranverse indentation at base of the bill. Occiput per
pendicular ; occipital ridge well marked.
Sternum rather short in its horizontal position, with a moderatesized fissure on each
side of the keel, which is much elongated anteriorly, and deep.
Pelvis broad ; the os pubis much elongated ; ischiatic foramen large.
Ribs thin and light, styliform processes short.
Furculum flattened ; broader at its junction with the keel, which is a little below
the point.
Coracoids light ; much expanded at their junction with the sternum.
Scapula very light ; very slightly expanded near its hinder extremity ; blunt at the
end.
Wingbones long.
Legbones short, very weak ; metatarsi with a deep groove down the front,
Vertebrce strong, broad.
The birds of this genus very much resemble the Sternidse in the form of the
sternum and pelvis.
Measurements.
Tenths.
Length of humerus . , . , , 30
Length of ulna 33
Length of metacarpus . , . . 15
Length of femur 10
Length of tibia 15
Length of metatarsus .... 8
Length of sternum , . . . . 22
Breadth of posterior . ; . . .
Tenths.
Margin of ditto ...... 1 1
Breadth of anterior .....
Margin of ditto 14
Depth of keel ,.,... 8
Length of head 33
Breadth of head 14
Length of pelvis 19
Breadth of pelvis .,..., 12
NUMBERING OF VERTEBRA.
Cer. Dor. Sac. Cand,
13 8 9 8
40
ALCID^E • OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. AlCIN.SE
Alca, Lin.
Impennis, Lin.
I have received a skeleton of this bird, which differs so much from the figure in the
" Zoological Transactions," that I should almost think there must be two species of
Great Auk. Mr. Ed. Gerrard, from whom I received my skeleton, gives this account
of it:
" You may perhaps like to know how I got these bones. They were got from a guano island
off the North of Newfoundland. A vessel was sent there to see if the guano was worth anything
for manure. It was found to be useless, owing to the island being so washed by the sea that all
the nature was washed out of the guano. While digging about, one of the gentlemen came across
a quantity of bones, which he took to Mr. Woodward, of the British Museum, and they turned
out to be the bones of the Great Auk. I bought the whole, and after spending a great deal of
time in sorting them over, I have been able to make out three tolerably perfect skeletons, the
best of which I have given you the refusal of."
PI. 27 ; details 27a.
42
LIST OF PLATES OP SKELETONS OF BIRDS,
THAT HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED.
Castelnau : Animaux, noveaux ou rares L'Amerique, du sud,
Anatomie Oiseaux.
PI. 14 : Opisthocomus Cristatus.
PL 15, fig. 15 : Palamedea Cornuta.
PI. 15, fig. 6 : Palamedea Derbyana.
PL 16, fig. 15 : Dicholophus Cristatus.
PL 17, fig. (15) : Psophia Crepitans.
Do. (67) : Cyrabops Cancrophaga.
Ibis, 1873, pi. 5— Murie.
Fragments of Upupa Epops.
Ditto " " Minor.
Ditto Irrisor „ Erytbrorbyncha.
„ „ S enegalensis.
1862, pi. 10 :
Do. ,, Colius Lettcotis.
Contributions to Ornithology, by Sir. W. Jardine, Bart.,
1850.
PL 53 ; Rampbastos Erytbrorbyncbus.
PL 54 : Psilopogon Pyrolopbus.
Reserches sur L'apparel sternal des Oiseaux, par Docteur
F. J. Herminier, second Edit., 1828, witb 3 plates of tbe
sterna of 37 genera.
Transactions of tbe Zoological Society, Vol 6.
PL 91 Skeleton and details of Rbinocbetus
jubatus.
Do. Vol. 5 : Osteology of Gallinaceous birds and Tinamous,
PL 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42.
Description of tbe Skeleton of the great Auk,
Alca impennis, PL 51, 52.
Do. Vol. 4 : on tbe Osteology of a Balamiceps Rex Gould, by
W. K. Parker.
PL 65, 66, 67.
Vol. 2 : tbe Anatomy of tbe southern Apteryx, by R. Owen,
Esq., pi. 47— 55.
Reserches Anatomiques et Pal;eontolgiques pour servir
a l'Histoire des Oiseaux Fossiles de la France, par Mons.
Alphonse Milne Edwards, 1867, 1868.
PL 11 : Biziura Lobata, Skeleton of.
PL 12 : Fragments of Cygnus Olor Chloephaga
Magellanica, Anser Albifrous, Cereopsis Nova
Hollandise.
PL 13 : Fragments of Anas Boscbas, Poecilonitta
Babamensis, Oidemia Nigra, Melanitta Fusca,
Erismatura Rubida, Somateria Mollissima,
Mergus Merganser, Anser Albifrous.
PL 14 : Fragments of Fuligula Fusca, F. Nigra,
F. Ferina, Cygnus Olor.
PL 15 : Fragments of Fuligula Fusca, Anas
Boschas, Tadorna Belloni, Fuligula Ferina,
Mergus Merganser.
PL 16: Fragments of Anas Boschas, Cygnus
Olor, Cygnus Atratus, Fuligula Fusca, Anas
Bo sheas.
PL 17 : Fragments of Anas Boschas, Cygnus
Furus, Cereopsis Novse Hollandise, Fuligula
Fusca.
PL 18 : Fragments of Anser Albifrons, Bernicla
Leucopis, Chenalopex iEgyptiaca, Anas
Reserches Anatomiques, &c.
Boschas, Anas Clypeata.
PL 19 : Fragments of Anas Crecca. Fuligula
Fusca, Plectropterus Gambensis, Cygnus
Olor, Fuligula Nigra.
PL 20 : Fragments of Fuligula Nigra, F. Fusca,
Anas Boschas, Plectropterus Gambensis
Fuligula Ferina.
PL 30 : Skeleton of Plotus Melanogaster.
PL 31 : Fragments of Pelecanus Pbilippensis,
Graculus Carbo, G. Africanus, Plotus
Melanogaster, Tachypetes Aquila.
PL 32 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Phteton
Phsenicurus, Podoa Senegalensis, Heliornis
Surinamensis, Pelicanus Philippensis, Graculus
Carbo, Plotus Melanogaster.
PL 33: Fragments of Sula Bassana, Phceton
Phsenicurus, Graculus Carbo Plotus Melano
gaster.
PL 34 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Graculus
Carbo.
PL 35 : Fragments of Pelecanus Pbilippensis,
Tachypetes Aquila, Graculus Carbo, Sula
PL 36 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Tachypetes
Aquila, Graculus Carbo.
PL 34 : Fragments of Plotus Melanogaster,
Graculus Carbo, Sula Bassana, Tachypetes
Aquila.
PL 46 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis,
Podiceps Cristatus, Alca Torda.
PL 47 : Fragments of Podiceps Minor, P. Cris
tatus, Colymbus Septentrionalis, Alca Torda.
PL 48 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis,
Podiceps Cornutus, Cephus Minor, Podiceps
Cristatus, Alca Torda.
PL 49 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis,
Podiceps Cristatus, Puffinus Cinereus.
PL 50 : Skeletons of Prion Vittatus, Larus
Hautlaubii.
PL 51 : Fragments of Larus Argentatus, Puffinus
Cinereus.
PL 52 : Do. „ of Larus Canus, Puffinus
Cinereus, Larus Argentatus.
PL 53 : Do. ,, Larus Canus, Puffinus
Cinereus, Larus Argentatus.
PL 59 : Skeleton of Lobivonellus Lobatus.
PI. 60 : Fragments of Numenuis Arquatus,
Limosa Melanurus, Hsematopus Ostralegus,
Scolopax Rusticola, Totanus Glottis.
PL 61 : Do. Numenius Arquatus, Totanus
Glottix, Tringa Subarquata.
PL 62 : Do. Hsematopus Ostralegus, Dromas
Ardeola, Machetes Pugnax, Charadrius
Pluvialis, Numenius Phseopus, Ranellus
Cayanensis.
PL 65 : Skeleton of Scopus Umbretta.
PL 66 : Fragments of Anastomus Lamelligerus,
Ibis Rubra, Ciconiaf Alba, Platalea Leucorodia
Reserches Anatomiques, &c.
Scopus Umbretta.
PI. 67 : Do. Ibis Rubra.
PI. 68 : Do. Anastomus Lamelligerus, Ibis
Rubra.
PL 73 : Do. Grus Australasianus.
PI. 74 : Do. Grus Antigone, Grus Australa
sianus, Balearica Pavonina.
PI. 77 : Do. Phoenieopterus Roseus.
PI. 78 : Do. Do.
PI. 79 : Do. Do.
PI. 91 : Skeleton of Cancroma Cochlearia.
PI. 92 : Fragments of Ardea Purpurea, Ardea
Nycticorax, Cancroma Cochlearia.
PI. 93 : Do. Ardea Nycticorax, Cancroma
Cochlearia, Ardea Purpurea.
PI. 94 : Do. Ardea Purpurea, Cancroma
Cochlearia.
PI. 95 : Do. Ardea Purpurea, Caneroma
Cochlearia, Arden Candidissima.
PL 97 : Skeleton of Tribonyx Mortieri.
PL 98 : Fragments of Porphyrio Madagascari
ensis, Gallinula Chloropus, Rallus Crex,
Metopidius Africanus.
PL 99 : Do. Fulica Atra, F. Cristata, F.
Chilensis.
PL 100 : Do. Ocydromus Australis, Porphyrio
Madagascariensis, Fulica Cristata, F. Atra,
Gallinula Chloropus, Rallus Crex.
PL 101 : Do. Porphyrio Madagascariensis, Fulica
Atra, Ocydromus Australis.
PL 102 : Fragments of Fulica, Atra Porphyrio
Madagascariensis, Ocydromus Australis,
Rallus Cayanensis.
PL 111 : Skeleton of Catheturus Novse
HollandiEe.
PL 112 : Do. Ortalis Vetula.
PL 113 : Do Pavo Spicivorus, Prselatus
Phasianus, Gallus Sonneratii, Satyra
Temminkii, Lophophorus Impeyanus.
PL 114 : Fragments of Polyplectron Germani,
Francolinus Asise, Argus Giganteus
Tetraogallus Himalayensis, Tetrao Urogallus.
PL 115 : Do, Meleagris Gallopavo, Numida
Ptilorhyncha, Perdix Grasca, P. Petrosa,
Cryptonyx Cristatus, Ortyx Californica,
Coturnix Communis, Crax Globicera,
Penelope Marail, Ortalida mot mot.
PL 116: Do. Francolinus Asia?, Gallus
Sonneratii, Perdix Grseca, Tetraogallus
Himalayensis, Tetrao Urogallus, Penelope
Marail.
PL 117 : Fragments of Tetrao Saliceti, Gallus
Sonneratii, Phasianus Prselatus.
PL 118 : Do. Francolinus Asise, Penelope
Obscura.
PL 119 : Do. Gallus Sonneratii, Tetrao Scoticus,
Meleagris Gallopavo, Penelope Obscura,
Cryptonyx Cristatus, Satyra Temmincldi.
PI 120 : Do. Perdix Cinerea, Ortyx Californicus,
Penelope Obscura, Pavo Spicivorus, Tetrao
Scotius, Gallus Sonneratii.
PL 121 : Do. Gallus Sonneratii, Tetrao
Scoticus, Phasianus Prselatus, Cryptonyx
Cristatus, Perdix Graeca, P. Petrosa, Ortyx
Reserches Anatomiques, &c.
Californica, Penelope Marail.
PL 122 : Do. Pavo Spicivorus, Lopohorus
Impeyanus, Penelope Marail, Tetrao Scoticus.
PL 123 : Do. Crax Globicera, Pavo Spiciferus.
PL 135 : Skeleton of Carpophaga iEnea.
PL 136 : Skeleton of Pterocles Arenarius.
PL 137 : Fragments of Goura Coronata,
Galeatus, Columba Nicobarica, Pterocles
Bicinctus, Syrrhaptes Paradoxus.
PL 138 : Fragments of Pterocles Bicinctus,
Carpophaga iEnea, Goura Coronata, Syrrhaptes
Paradoxus.
PL 139 : Do. Phoenorhina Goliath, Syrrhaptes
Paradoxus, Carpophaga iEnea, Calasnas
Nicbarica, Pterocles Arenarius.
PI, 140 : Do. Goura Coronata, Carpophaga
iEnea, Serresius Galeatus, Carpophaga Jilnea,
Calasnas Nicobarica, Syrrhaptes Paradoxus.
PL 142 : Skeleton of Corvus Jamaicensis.
PI 143: Skeleton of Dendrornis Eburneiro strum,
Ramphocoris Clotbey.
Pi 144 : Fragments of Lanius Rufus, Picolaptcs
Tenurostris, Xiphorhynchus Procurvus.
Tardus Viscivorus, Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorai
Alpinus, Rupicola Peruviana, Loxia
Coccothraustes, Sylvia Bicinca.
PI. 145 : Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorax Alpinus,
Turdus Gigas, Rupicola Peruviana, Loxia
Coccothraustes, Alauda Cristata, Sylvia
Luscinia, Cristatus, Parus Major.
PL 146 : Fragments of Corvus Corax, Loxia
Coccothraustes, Turdus Viscivorous, Hirundo
Rupestris, Sylvia Luscinia.
PL 147 : Do. Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorax
Alpinus, Loxia Coccothraustes, Alauda
Cristata, Hirundo Pupestris, Motacilla
Flava.
PL 148 : Do. Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, Corvus
Glandarius, Corvus Carnivorus, Loxia
Coccothraustes, Alauda Cristata, Turdus
Viscivorus.
PL 149 : Do. Loxia Coccothraustes, Hirundo
Urbica, Regulus Cristatus, Cinclus Aquaticus,
Lanius Rufus, Turdus Cyaneus. Corvus
Carnivorus.
PL 150 : Do. Corvus Carnivorus, Loxia Cocco
thraustes, Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, Cassicus Persi
cns, Alauda Calandra.
PL 163 : Skeleton of Picus Martius.
PL 164 : Do. Dacelo Gigantea.
PI. 165 :
PL 166 : Skeleton of Turacus Persa.
PL 167 : Skeleton of Trogon Atricollis and
Cypselus Longipennis.
PL 168 : Do. Centropus Phillippensis.
PL 169 : Fragments of Upupa Epops, Cypselus
Apus, Merops Egyptius, Dacelo Gigantea,
Caprimulgus Europaeus, Tockus Erythrorhyn
chus, Trogon Curucui, Turacus Persa, Eham
phastos Cuvierii, Picus Viridis, Cuculus
Canorus.
PL 170 : Do Turacus Persa, Tochus Erythror
hvnchus, Dacelo Gigantea, Picus Viridis,
Cuculus Canorus, Cypselus Apus.
Beseeches Anatomiques, &c.
PI. 171 : Do. Cypselus Apus, Picus Viridis,
Eudynamys Orientalis, Dacelo Gigantea,
Turacus Persa, Caprimulgus Europseus,
Trogon Vividis.
PL 172 : Do. Cypselus Apus, Picus Viridis,
Megalaima Armillaris, Caprimulgus Europseus,
Upupa Epops, Turacus Persa, Dacelo Gigantea,
Tochus Eryfchrorhynchus, Cuculus Canorus,
Trogon Vividis.
PI. 173 : Do. Tochus Erythrorhynchus, Dacelo
Gigantea, Picus Viridis, Turacus Persa,
Cuculus Canorus, Cypselus Apus, Upupa
Epops, Trogon Vividis.
PI. 174 : Do. Tochus Erythrorhynchus, Picus
Viridis, Dacelo Gigantea, Alcedo Ispida,
Trogon Vividis.
PI. 179 : Do. Gypaetos Barbatus, Pandion
Haliaetus, Falco Peregrinus, Pernis Apivorus,
Sarcoramphus Papa, Serpentarius Reptilivorus.
PL 180 : Do. Sarcoramphus Papa, Falco Pere
grinus.
PL 181 :
grinus.
PL 182 :
PL 189 :
Do. Sarcoramphus Papa, Falco Pere
Do. Ditto.
Do. Bubo Atheniensis, Nyctea Nivea,
Athene Noctua, Brachyotus Palustris, Surnai
Borealis ; Strix Flammea.
PL 196 : Do. Bubo Atheniensis.
PL 191 : Do. Ditto.
PL 193 : Skeleton Strix, Nyctea Fossil.
PL 195 : Skeleton Macrocercus Ararauna.
PL 196 : Fragments of Cacatua Moluccensis,
Macroeercus Ararauna, Coracopsis Kara,
Psittacus Erythacus, Nymphicus Nova
Hollandia.
Beseeches Anatomiques, &o.
PL 197 : Fragments of Macroeercus Ararauna,
Cacatua Moluccensis.
PI. 198 : Do. Cacatua Moluccensis, Macrocercus
Ararauna, Psittacus Erythacus.
PL 199 : Do. Cacatua Moluccensis, Macrocercus
Ararauna.
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1872.
PL 4, 5, Murie on the Skeleton of Todus.
Memoir on the Dodo, by Richard Owen, Esq". Outline of
Didunculus, pi. 3.
Cyclopaedia of Anatomy, Vol. 1, fig. 125, Trochilus Pella, by
R. Owen, Esq.
Anatomy of the Southern Apteryx, by Prof. Owen ; Transac
tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 2, page 257.
On the Osteology of Balaeniceps, by W. R. Parker ; Transac
tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 4, page 269.
On the Osteology of Gallinaceous Birds and Tinamous, by
W. R. Parker : Transactions of the Zoological Society,
Vol. 5, page 149.
Description of the Skeleton of the Great Auk, by Prof. Owen :
Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 5, page 317.
On the Osteology of the Dodo, by Prof. Owen : Transactions
of the Zoological Society, Vol. 6, page 49.
On the Osteology of the Kagu, by W. R. Parker: Transac
tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 5, page 501.
On some points in the Anatomy of Micropterus, by R. 0.
Cunningham : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol.
7, page 493.
Notes on the Articulated Skeleton of the Dodo, by Prof.
Owen : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 7,
page 513.
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