(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Osteologia avium, or, A sketch of the osteology of birds"



k^£/?A A *A^.2i 



^/WSfWte'* 



l*n< 






ww 



Smithsonian Institution 

nbraries 




YMrW 



^5nA aaJ A^AC^AA* 




-Aa .^«»c 



«»r«W 






^"Y^ /W - 



t&^mi 



.mmm 



Alexander Wetmore 

i C) 4 6 Sixth Secretary 1953 



\ . -ASS 






ot^ 



ftftwSwtffti^ 


















ria&a& 






frfW 



A W 




H0 


w 





rw 



»S& 



-" fV 



$S&sfc& 



i«A&& 1 " A -?.,. A ^SRi 



«rv^^ia 






M»l 



pa^W 












-■•-'. 



^■'^Y^i^^W 



iwW 



■^-■s^wa 



jk: 






IMwU 






i www 



wv A r\. 



frf 









* 



r 



RS c&u. 



SUPPLEMENT TO 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM; 



OR, 



A SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY 

OE BIRDS. 



.yf by 

T. c/eYTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.Z.S., 

And Corresponding Member of Institute of Philadelphia. 




JjBRARlgg L, 

TO BE HAD OF MR. PrSTCE, AT MR. GOULD'S, CHARLOTTE STREET, 
BEDFORD SQUARE, LONDON. 



PUBLISHED BY K. HOBSON, WELLINGTON, SALOP. 

18 6 9. 



PREFACE. 



It having been represented to me that Illustrations of the Osteology of the Anatidee 
are required, and having a few copies of those executed for my work on the Anatidae in band, 
and also five others executed on stone by the same artist, viz., Mr. G. Scharf, I have published 
them in the form of an Appendix to "Osteologia Avium." There are eighteen Plates in all, five 
of which have not previously been published. 

Eyton, THOS C EYTON. 

Feb. 1, 1869. 



hi 

■ 



INDEX. 

, o 

PI. 1. Sterna of Alca torda. 

Phalacrocorax cristatus. 

Podiceps cristatus. 

Clangula vulgaris. 

Fuligula cristata. 

Mergus albellus. 

Rhynchaspis clypeata. 

Carina Moschata . 

Tadorna Bellonii. 

Anser ferus. 

Cygnus olor. 

PL 2. Cereopsis Novse Hollandise. 

PI. 3. Anser cygnoides. 

PI 4. Cygnus ferus. 

PI. 5. Chenalopex iEgyptiaca, and trachea, 

PI. 6. Tadorna Bellonii. 

PI. 7- Dendrocygna arcuata. 

PI- 8. Querquedula crecca, and trachea. 

PI. 9. Anas boschas, and trachea. 

PI 10. Nyroca leucopthalmus, and trachea. 

PI. 11. Harelda glacialis, and trachea 

PI. 12. Clangula Histrionica, and trachea of C vulgaris. 

PL 13. Biziura lobata, mas. 

PI. 14. , fem. 

PL 15. Erismatura Australis, fem. 

PL 16. Mergus serrator, and trachea, 

PL 17. Trachea of Chloephaga Magellanica. 

Tadorna Bellonii. 

Carina Moschata. 

Melanitta fusca. 

PL 1 8. Aix sponsa. 

Querquedula Formosa. 

■ Cyanopterous circia. 

Micropterous patachonichus. 

, .. Bernicla Antarctica. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



works published bit tsb s^miei author. 



A HISTORY UF THE RARER BRITISH BIRDS: 

Being a Supplement to Bewick. Price 10s. Cloth. 



A MONOGRAPH ON THE ANATID/E: 

Being Descriptions of the Species of Anafcidse, with many Plates, both Anatomical and of Species. 
Price Four Guineas. Cloth, 4to. (A few copies only of the above are left.) 



03TE0L0GIA AVIUM : 

Being Sketches of the Osteology of Birds. Two Yols. 4to. Cloth. Price, £7 5s. 



SUPPLEMENT TO 03TE0L0GIA AVIUM, 

Containing ] 8 Plates of Skeletons, and Trachea of the Anatidse. SOs. Cloth. 



To be had from K. ELobsqn, Printer and Publisher, Wellington ; or from the Author. 



I 



imm 



It 




y-^-\.\ : . , v 



/*•• 






<? 



'„ 



/<? 




r l « 




1^ 



TUyttnv tfsZ: 



:< -^C-.S 



m 






I JosUrtor Ttocoymoftfw, Sternum, of'Alca, lorda, {>' Meryzzs aUdlut: 

sC T/udaorocoraa> GmdaZm 7 3fapVdk<<%8pw ck/j?eccda, 

-fbcfoceps cnsfcxJus. 6 Ca^trui^AfcjsoJixxyda, 

i ' 'Ifwupzlct, --mlgczrw 3. 7a<dorrc-a, S&ZZcWsU 

'- - .FwZlA/ula, &ri<9dm5atA /O sln<<> i;/eni,?. 

// - Qyq7WL& o6or. 




J.' .'. ... = i'i-y ,\ ;■-■ ■.' \ Tsyf 



^w.Va-. /■ .'..W 







' ; i = 




5 




j# - 



£ tS&fawf&ti, e& UiJujcj 



jyCrotsesoO by GJfizMmwwfeZr. 



AN S EM, C¥GI O i DES. 
Hcdf' the -JVeofr. Si/ie-. 




Gtfcbxxjf&eZefrlC&wg. 



TrwuUcO hu GJSvBmacnefafr 



CT(KN"T!JS JFEJRITSo 



it. 



.? 





g-JSh^afcUl t&WguXj. 



Frmfrjci- ly u/BdfovLa.-thrif^. 







G-.ScJuxyf cUZ it lu^u'j. 



J*nsO&& by OMUkTUvfvdlU-. 



TAD (Q> MBA 113. E JLILOHIOE . 







vC : 



>;.;,-[.! ty . ' ;-,;,.,.. i,.,;.; 







ff.S&taf 'dUi efrkhkoy. 



R^TUTEBIIILA CBECCA & TEACHEA. 
JVcob. Sl&&. 




— >wA -X, ly CJT&ZbiyicuntZeZ; 



BOSCH AS & fRACHEA. 




.:.'-.' Sc/u-xi ■/ :U: / (-■?■ h Ui , './ 



.^inrtd-hf ( : J7it.u.;,,f., ;<■■.:■:, 



HYROCAl ■I.EU'C'OFTIIAJLMITS .& TRACHEA. 










JPmUt&ty C-MUlnuauUZ: 



iJLBA &1ACIA1IS & TEiA 






f ' 




J&Sc&cupf citZ, e&&&faog . 



J'rmim fa < BidZmem&ei 



I.SKEILETOET OJF CJLAWGr-UILA. HISTMOWCA. 
»F VTmL&AJR-IS . 





1 

i 



I 






1 



I 



§ 
V 




&■. Sdfaccrf' foX, e<b liifaeq. 







.-.;.:. •■'.lii" rr Xiho.i. 



Scale, 3/4- Jhefo fro tTuvInxfo. 





A fi 



■»■. 



:J 






ME B, ©TITS 



: ¥h>o tkurdis tk& JVa£: Site,. 






■r 



<■ 






< i 1 tivowf TLaT/ e& itf/lvo a . 




Jrcock&oo of 
J. 6. Couruvua/ AfoscTwcfroo. 7. M/eToiu^a/Jhsoa/. 



SntvbzoU fy C&aCbmaMsoUl/. 








&Sch<vrfc&l e^fcths. 




-Pnrv£&60 by CScUZryuxy-vuiCel. 



Ji$: I Ala, 






-oorotooa/. 






fc 




$ 


N 


Ss 


O 


V 


B 


1 


© 




^ 


^ 





f 


N 


fe 


1 




Yv 






"~ £'.2? d,tZ. 



#/3 ,JVad:Si<Z<>: 



/ ^Esophagus jprovcwifinatfa fond' JfojvwocJu of '@zwrgm,dulco oreccco. Fern. ■ 
2. Cwca. ofD° 3. C<xai ofTadorna,£e/lo?vu,. Jkfaks. 





£ 







. •■^ 





&, t$&twjif aUl> efc Oocfaog 



SPrvnMd/ by G.SiiZbmXK»i^QZ'. 



MEM, GUTS SERBATOK, & TEACHEA, 




0-. 'Sc3ux*fde& tfcdftfaty. 



3-hrtMcl/ lu CSuMr^vocvvtteC-. 



CHE JSTAX. <D> F'JE SJE, A G-mP TIACA & TR AC HUE A <> 




■?rwvteeO&y UJS^Ilm^cuncUZc 



CT&ITUJS FKJMTSo 
'U tkeJVaA- Size,: 




' f 



z -6 3/ab- SxA-e,. 



/.^E<$opA<asCfus j?rovm£rocaZus ourul Sconvcccfo of Jtd&yyus Se>rra£or. J^/nv: 
2. C'otcw of D,? 





2. Cw>oa efMtta 



Fern..- 









M-rf dxd eZ> btibhocj . 




-Trach&oo of 




Wmk 



x riJcsj./ by &-JifaMm&MrileZ( 



J 



6. Ccwmo/ Afojchadou. 7 . J£damM>asfksoa/. 




WtSaKajf Ail, a&tfaog . 




.'■ruilea, by LMUtiniVfUiUZ: 



1.SEKL3ETOT OF CJLAST&UJLA HISTRIOJSTII 
&A OW VTJIh&A.IRILS, , 






< ^ 



4>. II 



Ml! I 



fyMtiJike,. 



2. Goeca. of D° 3. C(%cco of ' FvofogvUa, f&rvruxs. iMafo. &. Cczccoof ' ClaM^nZay^ 



yarrw. 




ir.J'cJi-ti-rf .{., ■' -:■. f / : ,,/v. 



TAD OKI1BE LI.OHII „ 




(rd'c&so&fdfl a, iiti-Wii . 






^^a; 0> ' 



JfrOrifrik try (■ J5>-UntccndG& 






4 



ffi 



m\. 





<9 



: "^?v;ff ■;;;,■ 



m 



■' 



^^m Jj| 



/<? 



// 



I-.'---'- 




%M 



w 



T2JifTmn.' aid/. 






; 



w 



l Jhsterwr margvro of frAes StermcM/ efAZoco Ihrdw 



'S. 



, .Poefaxps omdcokw, 3. Ca,-n,roa,,MMo7uoday. 

-Cfoatgizfan^arus. $. M^m^SMm^, 

-JMu/z^asorw&akts. 10 ^n^&rf&zue. 

™. GggrwA o6or 






jT 





eSefumfdel e£lMs. 




Jig: I A-vasJponsou. 4. Jl^orojyd&rcisJkdcwAo^vookcM- 




&Jt&K*fcU&9b> 



''wrtitd,- by GMulmiomaUZ: 







&£pfa#fdtf,t& tibkoj. 



'nvt-vUd-- in/ C 6«&\n<.tnJ<X 



WYFLOVJL iLECTCOPTHAJLMILrS .& TRACHEA, 




Pa 



(rSakjctf de£ 



-''•trbt&oOby Glfafibnutrndfid-. 



pjEFv^ITEllM'JXA CEECCA & TftACHKA, 



- 




CYGcPHUS JFEK-ITS 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM; 



OR, 



A SKETCH OF THE OSTEOLOGY 

OF BIRDS. 



Supplement II. 



BY 

T. C. EYTON, ESQ., F.G.S., F.L.S., 

And Corresponding Member of the Institute of Philadelplxi®. 



PUBLISHED BY WILLIAMS ANL> NORGATE, HENRIETTA STREET, 
CQVENT GARDEN, LONDON, 

AN» 

R. HOBSON, WELLINGTON, SALOP. 

1875. 






PREFACE. 

I have now figured, I believe, all the principal forms of the Skeletons of Birds, and in 
conclusion beg to thank those who have assisted me. I am much obliged to Mr. Gerrard, senior, 
of the British Museum, and Mr. Flowers, of the College of Surgeons, who have always assisted me 
in finding anything I wanted in the respective collections in their care ; to Mr. Bartlett, senior, 
also, I am much obliged for information regarding the habits of some birds, among which I may 
mention Chauna Chavaria, and Bhynochetus Jubatus ; and to Professor Owen I am much 
obliged by his always giving me access to him, although so much employed, when I wished to 
ask him a question ; to Dr. Gray also I am obliged for allowing me access to the collection under 
his care. 

I have added to this Supplement a list of plates of Skeletons of Birds for reference. 

T. C. EYTON, 

Ey ton-on-the- Wealdmoors, 

Wellington, Shropshire, 






LIST OF PLATES AND INDEX. 



Eurycerus prevostii. PL I, — details, pi. 1, A. 
Opisthoeomus eristasus. PI. 2, — details, pi. 2, B. 
Rhynochetus jubatus. PI. 3, — details, pi. 3, C. 
Oentropus rufipenis. PL 4, — details, pi. 4, D. . . . 
Scythrops No vse Holland iss. Details,, pi. 5, E. 
Zanclostomus Javanicus. Details, pi. 6, F. ... 
Zanclostomus Sumatranus. PL 6 
Struthidea Cinerea. PL 7, — details, pi. 7, G ... 
Ptilonorhynchus Smithii. PL 8, — details, pi 8, H ... 
Dendrocitta Vagabunda. PL 9,— details, 9, I ... 
Stercoral us Pomarinus. PL 10, — details, 10, J. 
Ardea Herodias. PL 11, — details, pi. 1.1, K. ... 
Numbering of Yertebrse 

Momotus (Equinoctialis. PL 12, — details, pi. 12, A. 
Rhynchotus perdicarius. PL 13, — details, pi. 13, A. 
Crypturus megapodius PL 14< > — details, pi. 14, A. 
Oeriornis Temminckii. PI. IS, — details, pi. 15, A. 
Aramides Cayanea PL 16, — details, pi. 16, A 
Qcydromus sylvestris. PL 17, — details, pi. 1 7, A. 
Antigone torquata. PL 18, — details, pi. 18, A. 
Ephippiorhynchus Senegalensis. PL ] 9, — details, pi. 10, A. 
Atrichia clamosa, sternum. PL 20 fig 1 . 
Tantalus Ibis, sternum. PL 20, fig. 2. 
Aptenodytes Penan tii, sternum. PL 2.1. ... 
Tallegalla.; Lathami, PL 22, — details, pi. 22, A. 
Numbering of Vertebrae. 

Didunculus strigirostris. PL 22, — details, 22, A 
Palamedea cornuta. PL 24, — details, 24, A. 
Cliauna chavaria. PI, 25, — details, 25, A. 
Phaeton sethereus. PL 26,— details, 2.6, A. 





Page 


... 


6 


..i 


8 


... 


10 


... 


11 


... 


11 


... 


12 


... 


12 


..► 


13 


... 


14 


... 


15 


... 


16 


... 


17 


... 


18 


... 


20 


... 


22 


... 


23 


... 


24 


... 


25 


... 


26 


... 


27 


... 


28 


... 


29 


... 


30 




31 




32 





33 




34 




38 


... 


30 


... 


40 



ERRATA. 

Page 22.— For Spisc read Spix ; for Eettl. read Kittl. Page 26. — For Rhynochotus read Rliynoclietus^ 



Buceridjl] EuRYCEROTIN^E. 



OSTEOLOGIA AYIIT 



SECOND SUPPLEMENT. 



EURYCEROS PREVOSTII, LeSS. 

This bird was described by Lesson in his "Centime Zoologique" in 1830. The 
following is a part of his description: — 

"I/oiseau type, du genre nouveau que nous representons clans la planche 74 est une des 
singularites les plus neuves et les plus remarquables de I'ornithologie. 

" C'est un passage transitoire entre les toucans, les calaos et les enrylaimes ; c'est un type 
caracterise a placer comme lieu intermediaire entre l'erotta. — (Traite d'Ornithologie, p. 260) et les 
buceros. 

" Les enryceres appartiennent a nos passereaux heterodactyles et a notre famille des enrylaimes, 
le genre sera ainsi caracterise/' 

Bonaparte, in his " Conspectus Genera Avium," classes it near the Rhamphastidre 
after Buceridce, which immediately precedes it. G. It. Gray classes it among the 
Sternidce, to which it has no affinity whatever. 

Cranium rounded, without any channel over the vertex to the bill. Occiput very 
round, with a slight depression on each side above the foramen magnum ; orbital 
septum, perforated with two foramina, orbits large; the superior margin slightly 
reflexed. Bill, with the upper mandible, large ; very much raised above, composed of 
cellular bone, deep ; lower mandible deep, with a foramen near its hinder extremity ; 
both mandibles pointed. 

Sternum of moderate length, with a deep and wide fissure on each hinder margin. 

Pelvis broad, short. 

Palatine bones prolonged on the exterior and hinder margin into an elongated 
spine, from the base of which they slope gradually, UDtil they unite in the centre, 
where they are slightly deflected, broad. 

Furculum much arched anteriorly; the process at the junction of the rami, which 
are rounded, arched, flattened, and the rami long. 

SUPPLEMENT II. B 6 



BUCERID^E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[EuRYCEROTINjE. 



Coracoids long, broad at their junction with the sternum, rounded in the middle. 

ScapulcB long, much deflected. 

Ribs weak, expanded at their dorsal extremities. 

Wing bones long. 

Tarn long. 

Toes long, the too outer anterior ones united; vertebra? short. 



Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 11 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of radius • , 12 J 

Length of metacarpus 9 

Length of femur ,'.....11 

Length of tibia 15 

Length of metatarsus ....,11 
Length of sternum . ..... 13 



Tenths. 
. 10 



Breadth of posterior margin . . 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 6 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 24 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 14 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



From the above description it will be perceived that this bird presents no affinity what- 
ever to Rhamphastidte or Sternidce. From the first family it differs in the shape of the 
sternum, and from the last in almost every part, particularly in the structure of the 
sternum and the palatine bones. In all these particulars it agrees with Buceros, and 
also in the form of the pelvis and furculum. 

Illustration. 
Sup. 2, pi. A. Details, pi. 1. 



CrACIDjE.] OSTELOGTA AVIUM. [OPISTHOCOMINiE. 

Opisthocomds. 

Cristatus. 

Cranium, a channel of moderate depth, has its origin at the base of the bill, and 
proceeds backwards on the top of the head to the occiput. Occipital ridge slight, and 
with a small occipital protuberance ; orbits of moderate size; the septum with one fora- 
men on its hinder and lower edge ; a transverse indentation at the base of the bill ; 
nostrils situated at about half its length, nearly round. Palatine bones much bent 
downwards ; broad for their posterior two-thirds, and united for that distance down 
their centres, then divaricating, and both edges turned downwards, forming a channel 
on their lower edges ; hinder end pointed backwards, and gradually narrowed to their 
junction with the interarticular bones, which are broad for their anterior half and 
narrowed backwards, the outer edges slightly deflected. Vomer thin. Foramen 
lacerum posterius very small. Lower maxillary bone curved downw ards ; broad, with 
a foramen near the hinder extremity of each branch. 

Sternum of moderate length ; posterior margin rounded, with one fissure on each side 
of the keel, and with a large triangular foramen on each side externally to it; hinder 
margin considerably broader than the anterior edge. Keel very short, extending from 
the hinder margin to little more than one-half of the length of the sternum ; hinder 
edge sloped off from the point to the hinder margin. The anterior edge sloped very 
much backwards to the point from the junction of the furculum ; the anterior portion 
being a mere rudimentary ridge. 

Furculum having the rami very short and straight, and uniting at an acute angle, 
flattened at their junction with the coracoids, and becoming more rounded towards 
the terminal process, which is very long and narrow ; triangular anchylosed to the 
rudimentary portion of the keel. 

Coracoids short and strong, broad at their junction with the sternum, and having a 
slightly raised rib down the front. 

Pelvis with the divisions of the vertebrae on the hinder half apparent when held up 
to the light ; ischiadic foramen of moderate size, oval ; obturator also of medium size, 
without any notch in front of the acetabulum ; ilium projecting much over the bones 
of the ischium ; a ridge proceeds from the junction of the caudal vertebra? up the 
centre of the pelvis, becoming more rounded and obscure on the anterior portion. 

Ribs broad and strong ; the styliform process attached for a considerable length to 
the hinder edge of the ribs, and not projecting so far as next rib. 

Scapula strong, slightly deflected, slightly expanded upwards at about half its length, 
rounded at its distal extremity. 

Wing bones strong, short; ulna and radius as long* as the humerus, anterior 
metacarpal bone straight, posterior one much bent, having a large space between 
it and the inner edge of the anterior one. 

Leg Bones rather slender; tibia long in proportion to the femur. Metatarsus 

8 



Cbacidjj.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Opisthocominje. 



triangular at its upper extremity, with a channel down the front, flattened towards its 
lower extremity ; os calcis projecting considerably, with a very slight ridge proceeding 
downwards from it. A supplemental metatarsal bone projecting much backwards, 
not twisted on its axis, tapering and flattened upwards ; tubercles for the articulation 
of the feet broad ; toes long. 

This curious bird appears to be nearly allied to the guans, but differs from in 
the form of the palatine bones, the hinder margin of the sternum, and furculum. 
There is no Gallinaceous bird that I am acquainted with that has the hinder margin 
of the sternum of a similar form, the nearest approach that I am aware of to the form 
of the furculum is among the cracidse in C. Globocera, the process at the junction of the 
rami is very much elongated, but is not nearly so much so as in the opisthocomus. 
The rami also are curved, while in the latter bird they are straight, and the furculum, 
instead of being anchylosed, or united by a ligament to the point of the keel of the 
sternum, is anychylosed to its medial portion. 

ements. 

Tenths 
Breadth of anterior . . . , . 

margin of ditto 11^ 

Depth of keel 6 

Length of head 1 1 

Breadth of head 91 

Length of pelvis .16 

Breadth of pelvis 12 

Illustration. 

Snp. % pi. 2, B. Details, pi.. 2. 





Measm 




Tenths, 


Length of humerus . . . 


- • m 


Length of ulna . . . 


. . 19 


Length of metacarpus . 


. , 12 


Length of femur . . . 


. . . 16 


Length of tibia . . 


. , 15 


Length of metatarsus 


. . . 11 


Length of sternum . . 


. . . 16 


Breadth of posterior margii 


i . . 151 



PSOPHIAD^E.] OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM, [RhINOCHETIN^E. 

Rhynochetus. 

Jubatus, Verr. 

Cranium much arched above, with an indentation from the base of the bill to vertex, 
a large and prominent occipital ridge, with two deep channels anterior to it 
Orbital septum with very large foramen. Palatine bones truncated behind, gradually 
tapering to point anteriorly ; posterior margin entire. 

Sternum narrow, long ; keel very narrow, with the edge nearly straight. 

Pelvis anteriorly much arched and gradually sloping backwards, with two deep 
hollows, one on each side of the sacral vertebrae. Ischiadic foramen long. Obturator 
foramen large and rounded anteriorly, short posteriorly. Pelvis very short. 

Ribs narrow and thin, styliform process turned much upwards. 

Furculum weak, without any process at the junction of the rami. 

Coracoids broad, at their sternal extremities light. 

ScapulcB very much arched, short. 

Wing bones short, ulna much bent. 

Measurements, 



Tenths, 
Breadth of anterior . : . . . 

margin of ditto ...... 10 

Depth of keel . . 3 

Length of head ....... 17 

Breadth of head 13 

Length of pelvis • 30 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 13 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 26 

Length of ulna ,28 

Length of metacarpus 14 

Length of femur ...... 26 

Length of tibia 50 

Length of metatarsus 45 

Length of sternum ..... 19 
Breadth of posterior margin ... 7 

Mr. G. Gray, in his Hand-list, places this bird next Eurypyga, from which it differs 
in the shape of the sternum. In Eurypya the keel is very deep, and continued to the 
posterior margin. In Rhynochetus it is obliterated, the former bird has a deep foramen 
on each side, the latter none at all ; the pelvis in the former bird is quite straight on its 
dorsal aspect, the latter has it much arched ; in all of which respects it agrees with 
Psophia. 

Illustration. 
Sup. 2, pi. 3. Details, pi 3, G 



10 



Coculid-zb.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Centropin^;. 



Centropus, III. 

Rufipennis, Horsf. 

Cranium with a slight channel between the orbits. Occipital ridge large and 
prominent, the channel for the masseter muscle large. Orbital septum with a large 
central foramen and a smaller one above. 

Palatine bones similar to those of centropus phasianus, (pi. 13, fig. 1). 

Sternum with one foramen on each side of the keel placed near the margin, the plate 
of bone bordering it not being so wide as in centropus phasianus ; lateral margin more 
curved outwards. Keel with its edge more curved than in centropus phasianus ; 
remainder as in the foregoing, but not so strong. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 

Length of humerus 12 

Length of ulna 18 

Length of radius 17 

Length of metacarpus .... 9 
Length of femur 22 



Length of tibia ....... 34 



Tenths. 

Breadth of posterior margin . . 13 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 10 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 28 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis 21 

Breadth of pelvis 11 



Length of metatarsus 23 

Length of sternum 15 

Illustration. 
Sup. % pi. 4. Details, pi. 4, D. 
Scythrops, Lath, 

Novae Hollandise, Lath. 

I have only been able to obtain a small portion of the skeleton of this curious bird, 
although it appears to be by no means rare in its native country ; namely, the sternum, 
furculum, coracoids, and scapulas. 

Sternum broad, short ; hinder margin with an indentation on each side of the keel ; 
anteriorly slightly convex. Keel deep, much arched on its inferior edge, and continued 
to the posterior margin ; anteriorly much hollowed out. Lateral margin curved, the 
hinder margin broader than the anterior one. 

Furculum arched ; process at the junction of the rami small, slightly flattened. 

Coracoids very broad at their articulation with the sternum 

Scapulae very broad near their extremities ; arched, pointed. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of sternum . . . » . 23 

Breadth of posterior 

margin of ditto 20 

Illustration. 
Sup. 2, pi. 5, E. 

11 



Tenths. 
Breadth of anterior margin of ditto 14 
Depth of keel . 6 



CUCULID^!.] 



GSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[ZANCL0ST0MIN2G. 



Zanclostqmus. 

Javanicus, Horsf. 

Cranium rounded, a slight channel over the vertex to the bill. Orbits large. 
Septum with one large foramen, a depression at the base of the bill, channel for the 
masseter muscles large, depression extending to the occiput. 

Sternum with two fissures on the hinder margin, the inner one largest; hinder 
margin much broader than the anterior one ; anterior edge receding. 

Pelvis very broad, the sacral vertebrae forming a ridge for its whole length ; 
ischiadic foramen large. Obturator foramen narrow, a large projection in front of the 
acetabulum pointing forwards. 

Furculum very long, branches not much arched, process at their junction small. 

Scapula broad. 

Wing bones strong, the ulna nearly as long as the humerus. 

Measurements. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of radius . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . . 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 



Tenths. 

10J 

10 

H 

5 
14 

20 
10 

8 



Tenths, 

Breadth of posterior margin . . 8 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 6 

Depth of keel . 2J 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis 10 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 8 



Illustration. 

Sup. 2, pi. 6, F. 



Zanclostomus. 

Sumatranus. 
Very similiar to the preceding 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus 8 

Length of ulna 11| 

Length of metacarpus .... 6 

Length of femur 15 

Length of tibia 20 

Length of metatarsus . . . 
Length of sternum ..... 
Breadth of posterior margin . . . 

Illustration. 

Sup. 2, pi. 6. 



81 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 6 

Depth of keel ....... 3 

Length of head 21 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis ...... 12 

Breadth of pelvis 7 



12 



CORVIDJE.] OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. [CaLL^ATINjE. 

Struthidea, Gould. 

Cinerea, Gould. 

Cranium very round over the vertex. Occipital crest very small, with a slight 
depression between the orbits, which are large, and with a large foramen through the 
septum. Nostrils large. Palatine bones very broad, posteriorly with a blunt spine on 
each side, the central edge deflected slightly for the posterior half, united at their 
articulation, with the interarticular bones gradually narrowed towards their anterior 
extremities. 

Sternum long, indented, with two fissures on the posterior margin, much retiring 
from the manubrial process, which is large and prominent ; bifcurcate at the end. 
Keel of moderate depth, straight on its inferior edge. 

Pelvis broad, divisions of the vertebra? apparent. Ischiadic foramen large ; obturator 
foramen rounded, open, not a mere slit as in most birds. 

Ribs of moderate size ; styliform process turned much upwards. 

Furculum much expanded ; process at their junction of the rami small. 

Coracoids long, of moderate size. 

Scapuloe long, broad. 

Wing bones of moderate size ; ulna longer than than the humerus. 

Leg bones metatarsus, very long. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 14 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus .... 8 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia 23 

Length of metatarsus 17 

Length of sternum ..... 16 
Breadth of posterior margin . . 9 

Illustration. 
Sup. 2, pi. 7. Details, pi. 7, F. 
Struthidea presents a strong resemblance to kitta in the shape of the palatine bones 
and sternum, but pelvis is narrower. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 7| 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head 19 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis . . . . . . 16 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 9J 



13 



Oroalid^:.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Ptilorhyncin^i. 



Ptilorhynchus, Cuv. 

Smithii, Vig $ Horsf. 

Differs very slightly in form from Cassicus. 

Measurements. 





Tenths. 


Length of humerus .... 


12 


Length of ulna . . . . . . 


21 


Length of metacarpus . . . . 


10J 


Length of femur ..... 


16 


Length of tibia ..... 


20 


Length of metatarsus .. . . 


21 


Length of sternum .... 


17 


Breadth of posterior margin . 


11 



Tenths, 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 9 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 25 

Breadth of head . . . . . . .10 

Length of pelvis ...... 22 

Breadth of pelvis . . . , . . 12 



Illustrations. 
PL 1. Details, pi. 8, H. 



CORVID^E.] OSTEOLOGTA AVIUM. [CaLL^EATIN^. 

Dendrocitta, Gould. 

Vagabunda, Lath. 

Cranium round on the vertex. Occipital ridge well denned, but not prominent. 
Orbits large. Septum with the foramina partly filled up. Palatine bones broad on 
their hinder margins, their lateral edges terminating with a blunt spine. Interanticular 
bones broad at their junction with the palatine bones, which, anteriorly, merely form 
a narrow strip on each side to their junction, with the superior maxilliary bones. 

Sternum rather long, with a deep fissure on each side inferior edge of the keel, 
arched ; the front edge much scolloped out. 

Pelvis broad. Obturator foramen long ; ischiadic large. 

Ribs with the styliform process very long. 

Furculum narrow. 

Coracoids small. 

Scapulum slightly arched, expanded near the extremity, and finally pointed. 

Wing bones of moderate size ; the ulna much longer than the humerus. 

Leg bones with the tibia and metatarsal bones nearly equal. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 9 

Length of ulna 15 

Length of metacarpus .... 8 

Length of femur 13 J 

Length of tibia 18 

Length of metatarsus . . . . 15 

Length of sternum . . . . . 13 

Breadth of posterior margin . . 8 

Illustrations. 

Sup. 2, pi. 9. Details, pi. 9, I. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 6| 

Depth of keel 3 J 

Length of head 22 

Breadth of head 10 

Length of pelvis 16 

Breadth of pelvis ... . . 7 



15 



Larid^e.] osteologia avium, [Stercorarin^e. 

Stercorarius, Bi'iss. 

Pomarinus, Temm, 

Cranium rather flattened. Orbits large ; a moderate-sized foramen in the centre, 
and a smaller one above it ,• a deep depression over each orbit. Palatine bones narrow, 
bending downward at the lateral edges; wider than in Chroicocephalus ridibundus. 
Interanticular bones bending inwards at their hinder ends, flattened. 

Sternum with a large and deep fissure on each side of the keel, which is very deep 
and much curved on its inferior edge; much scolloped out on its anterior edge. 
Manubrial process small, laterally compressed, pointed. 

Pelvis long ; the pubis and ischium very much prolonged backwards. Obturator 
foramen long, narrow. Ischiadic foramen small ; the division of the sacral vertebrae 
apparent. 

Ribs moderate ; styliform processes long, pointing upwards. 

Furculum flattened, no projection at the junction of the rami. 

Coracoids very strong, flattened on the upper side. 

Scapula thick, of nearly the same width throughout, pointed at their extremities. 

Wing bones very long, especially the metacarpal. 

Leg hones light. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 46 

Length of ulna ....... 47 

Length of metacarpus .... 42 

Length of femur 18 

Length of tibia 26 

Length of metatarsus ..... 22 

Length of sternum 30 

Breadth of posterior margin ... 13 

Illustrations. 
Sup. 2, pi. 10. Details, pi. 10, I. 

The genus stercorarius differ from the genus larus, in having only one fiss ure on the 
posterior margin of the sternum, in the more depressed form of the cranium. 



Tenths, 
Breadth of anterior ..... 

margin of ditto ...... 15 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of head ....... 36 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis ...... 33 

Breadth of pelvis 19 



16 



Ardeid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Ardein^. 



Ardea, Linn. 

Herodias. Linn. 

Cranium much the same as in A. cinerea, but with the muscular impressions more 
distinct. The occipital crest more prominent, and orbital septum with a large foramen. 
Palatine bones narrow. 

Sternum longer and narrower, and more convex. Keel not so deep. 

Pelvis also longer and narrower, and with the central channel more marked. 

Ribs narrow. 

Furculum, Coracoids, and Scapula smaller and longer. 

Wing and Leg bones similar, but longer. 

Measurements. 

Tenths. 



Length of humerus ..... 80 

Length of ulna 96 

Length of metacarpus .... 40 

Length of femur 46 

Length of tibia . 105 

Length of metatarsus 75 

Length of sternum 44 

Breadth of posterior margin . . 15 

Illustrations. 
Sup. 2, pi. 11. Details, pi. 11, J. 



Tenths. 



Breadth of anterior , . . 




margin of ditto .... 


. 24 


Depth of keel ..... 


. 10 


Length of head 


. 96 


Breadth of head . . : . . 


. . 16 


Length of pelvis .... 


. . 50 


Breadth of pelvis .... 


. . 20 



OSTEOLOGIA AYIUM. 



Euryceros prevostii -------- 

Opisthomus cristatus ------- 

Rhynochetus jubatus ------- 

Centropus rufipennis ------- 

Scythrops, Novse hollandise non ridi - - - 
Zanclostomus javanicus ------- 

Zanclostomus sumatranus ------ 

Struthidea cinerea -------- 

Ptilorhynchus srnithii ------- 

Dendrocitta vagabunda ------- 

Stercorarius pomarinus ------- 

Ardea herodias --------- 



Cervical. 


Dorsal. 


Sacral. 


Caudal. 


10 


7 


8 


7 


10 





10 


5 


14 


7 


10 


7 


12 


6 


10 


5 


10 


6 


12 


5 


10 


7 


9 


6 


12 


8 


10 


7 


12 


8 


10 


7 


12 


8 


9 


6 


11 


8 


10 


8 


16 


8 


12 


7 



NOTE. 
Rhynochetus. 

Jubatus. 

Provisionally I have classed this bird with the Psophiadse, but there is another family with which 

it agrees in many respects, but without knowing anything of the habits of the Kagu, not much 

can be finally determined. The family alluded to is that of the Rallidse, in which Aramus 

scoloposeceus is' placed by Mr. Gray; it has long feet, like Rhynochetus, and the same form of 

sternum. The eggs of the Kagu, of which I have two, are white, spotted with brown ; while those 

of Posphia, Mr. Bartlett informs me are white. Nuttall says the eggs of Aramus are two in 

number ; Audubon that they rarely exceed five or six, but neither of these Naturalists say of what 

colour they are, or shape ; they are not like any heron that I know of, or those of Eurypyga, but 

more like those of a coot, or large rail. 



18 









Nat. size. 



FromsNttfure oivTmc by -JJEnzleien/ 



~Vuzc&it> Broohs I)ay&S(ms l Imjp. 



EIRYCER(0)§ PJRETOSTII, 



PL. 2. 




Frvm/Naiwv on/ Timo iy JSrsdeierv 



T&ieerU' .Brooks Day&Scrt', Imp. 



DPISTHOCOMUS C1IS.TATFS, 




£i^ 



m*> 




From Ratare mv Zoic byJ.Erxleben/ 



. % Nat size. ' 



lIHTOf CJBIJE TIT S JUJB ATU S 






PL .4. 



^ " 





N 






V 



i; • -;■ 




^k 



FrorruNattzn, on, Zinc hyJ.Ersdeb&P, 







~Vutcenb-J3roohs Day &SoruImji- 







«-" 



, 



^ — ^£0^ 






Nat. size. 



JramyUktaTe oru Ziw&by J.Erxieim/. 



Viticetib Brooks J)ay & Soji/,Jrtp . 



ZA^CJL( 



[US SUIATIAIUS, 





Na-t. size 



From, Nature, owTmo iyJErxLehens. 



STOTIIBEA CWERE. 




PL. 8. 



^^ y#S 



^ 



Mat. size. 



Fivm fla£are< aru Taw lyJ.Erxlehav. 



Vbicazt- Brooks Bay &Sarv.]mji. 



PTUKOTORHYKXHUTS SMITHIIe 







PL. 9. 



Frorw Naiare- an/ Zinc by J.ETsde&in.. 



Vincent Brooks Day &Scru,lmp. 



>EITO1R(Q)CITTA TAGABUIB-A 




,*&*&**" 



3 /4 Nat. size 



fivnv Nature* mv/jnc- iyJErodeier- 



Vincent Brooks Day '&> Son/. Imp. 



jTJERCOMARIUS pomahiu 




PL. 11. 







TronvUa£ur& an/Zirw by J.Erxlebms. 



Vincent Brooks Day £ Son/, Imp. 



AftBEA IE10BIAS, 



DETAILS PL.l.A. 




• 



Nat. size. 



: 4 '.£3m*£'- 



from. Nature oiv Tine- by J. Eiuieiens. 



]foucenbJBro6ksl)ciy&San/,lmj>. 



IFIYCEIOS IPBJEVOSTUX 



DETAILS, PI, 2, B. 











Nat size. 



FwnvNcdure, on- Xaio ojJ.E-nxleben/ 



Viac/mx- Brooks J) ay-&SprvImp. 



OFISTHOC OMITS 'CM STATU! 



DETAILS, PL. 3. C. 









TronilTcUare. en Tuoc iy JUrxleben/ 



Nat. size. 



JRHYHOCHETUS JUTBATF^ 



DETAILS, PL.4.D. 





Nat. size. 



Fronp Nature, auT-uic irfJBvrkhery. 



WuenbJSroaksDcgr&SinifJmp. 



lEITlOFUS KUFIPEMS. 



DETAILS -PL.5.E. 






i:,- 




"' , 



Nat size. 






From/If a£ur& oru Ztno ~by JJZrxidb&ris. 



Vfrvcerub Brooks Day&$on.<, Jmp. 



TIIOPS ^©T^E lOLLAIDMo 



DETAILS, EL. 6. P. 






Nat size. 



From/ Nature- on/ Tine iy J^ErxIebeTi 



Vbic&O/BTixihDay&Sero, Imp. 



^ANCLOSTOMUS JATAB I C 1LT 8 , 



DETAILS, PL. 7, G. 






Nat. size 



From/ Mtfvw orb ~Zaie ~by JJHrscLdben/ 



VurtcerU, Brooks Day &Sow / inp 



STSFTHIBEA €IM] 



DETAILS, EL. 8, H. 






FrorwNatare, oru &ric Try JMralehav. 



Nat', size. 



Vincent,Broo}ts3ay&Sm/,Jmp. 



FT1JL OE" OMYI CMJ S SMITHII. 



DETAILS, PL. 9. I. 





» \ 



£< * 



Nat size 



Frcmv Nature m,Ztru> tyXErxtihai. 



UncenZBroolcs X)ay&St>rL,Imp. 



)EHI3)R(D)CITTA YAGABU5BA, 



DETAILS, PL.10. , 







PrtmvNatare, on/ Tine ~by JErxleben 



¥at. size. 



rooksDcqr&Smi, /%-. 



STERCORARIUS JP 



DETAILS, PL.ll.K. 



fc- ■■' 











,f 



From, Nature, m&ic hy J.Erxlebei 



VahCentHrooks Day ^ Sort .Imp, 



BuCERIDiE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [MoMOTIN^). 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM, 



SECOND SUPPLEMENT, 

PART II. 



Momotds, by R. Gray. 

CEquinoctialis, Gould. 

When the first part of this work was published I had some fragments of the skeleton 
of Momotus (pi. 12, fig. 13) taken from a skin. I have since obtained a perfect 
skeleton of Momotus CEquinoctialis, which I now figure. 

Cranium rounded, with a rounded projection on side of the vertex. Orbital septum 
entire. Occipital ridge distinctly marked ; impression of the masseter muscles 
distinct; nostrils large, oval. Palatine bones broad, united posteriorly, the central 
edge turned downwards, the exterior edge slightly so. The two plates united for about 
one-third of their length, then narrowed and divaricating and carried forward as two 
strips of bone. 

Sternum broad, with two large fissures on each side of the posterior margin, the inner 
one smallest. Keel deep, arched on its inferior edge. Manubrial process broad at 
the base, of moderate length. 

Pelvis very broad in proportion to its length. The ischiadic foramen large, oval. 
The obturator of moderate size. 

Ribs broadest near their dorsal extremities, and gradually diminishing to their 
junction with the sternal ribs, which are flattened. 

Furculum arched in front, the rami flattened, without any process at their junction. 

Coracoids long. 

Scapulce very slightly bent, pointed at the extremities. 

Wing bones long ; the ulna longer than the humerus. 

Leg bones of moderate length. 

SUPPLEMENT II. B 20 



Length of humerus 



Length of ulna .... 
Length of metacarpus . . 
Length of femur . . 
Length of tibia .... 
Length of metatarsus . ; 
Length of sternum . . . 
Breadth of posterior margin 



Measurements. 
Tenths. 
18 
21 

5 
11 
20 
13 
13 
11 

Illustrations. 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 8 

Depth of keel 4 

Length of head .29 

Breadth of head 12 

Length of pelvis 15 

Breadth of pelvis 12 



Suppt. 2, pi. 12. Details, pi, 12, A. 



21 



Tinamid^e.] 



OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM. 



flNAMINA 



Rhynchotus, Spisc. 

Perdicarius, Kettl. 

Very similar to Crypturus, but the tarsi are shorter, and without back toe. The 
palatine bones also differ, and the wings are longer in proportion. A process projects 
from the end of the ilium anterior to acetabulum. 



Measurements. 
Tenths. 

Length of humerus 24 

Length of ulna ...... 24J 

Length of metacarpus .... 13 

Length of femur ..:... 20 
Length of tibia ...... 30 

Length of metatarsus .... 19 

Length of sternum 38 

Breadth of posterior margin . . 9 



Tenths, 



Breadth of anterior ..... 

margin of ditto ... . . . 12 

Depth of keel . 7 

Length of head 25 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis ...... 25 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 16 



Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pi. 13. Details, pi. 13, A, 



22 



TlNAMrD^E,] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [TlNAMIN-B. 

Crypturus, III. 

Megapodius, Bp. 

Does not differ much from Tinamus, except in size. My specimen of Tinamus was 
much damaged, therefore would not do to figure in the first part of this work. 

Cranium small, rounded. Occipital ridge small. The foramen in the orbital septum 
large. Palatine bones broad, narrowed behind to a point. Interarticular bones 
very long. 

Sternum very long ; the central and horizontal portion very narrrow ; a strip of bone 
forming each lateral edge makes between it and the central portion a large fissure on 
each side. Keel deep ; the lower edge arched. 

Pelvis broad; the vertebras apparent from the upper surface ; the os pubis curved. 
Obturator foramen large ; ischiadic large ; in fact both the above-named foramina are 
converted into fissures, not being closed at their hinder ends ; a process at the end of 
the ilium before the acetabulum. 

Ribs strong. 

JFurculum small, weak ; without any process at the junction of the rami. 

Coracoids strong. 

Scapulce strong, very slightly arched, blunt at the distal extremity. 

Wing bones short. 

Leg bones of moderate size. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 
Length of humerus 29 



Length of ulna . . 32 

Length of metacarpus 16 

Length of femur 27 

Length of tibia ........ 4.0 

Length of metatarsus 27 

Length of sternum 44 

Breadth of posterior margin . . . 13 

Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pi. 14. Details, pi. 14, A 



Tenths, 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 12 

Depth of keel 9 

Length of head 23 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 37 

Breadth of pelvis ...... . 1& 



Phasianid^.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Galling 



Ceriornis, 

Temminckii, Gray. 
Does not differ very much in shape from the skeleton of the common pheasant, but 
considerably in measurements, particularly in that of the sternum. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 33 

Length of radius ...... 33 

Length of metacarpus 16 

Length of femur . . 40 

Length of tibia 59 

Length of metatarsus 34 

Length of sternum ..... 40 

Breadth of posterior margin . . . 20 



Tenths- 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 15 

Depth of keel 13J 

Length of head 29 

Breadth of head 11 

Length of pelvis .49 

Breadth of pelvis . . . . . . 20 



Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pi. 15. Details, pi. 15, A, 



HALLID.2E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Balling. 



Aeamides, Puch. 

Cayanea, Mull. 

Cranium similar in form to the other rallinae ; lacrymals long. 

Pelvis also similar. 

Leg bones of moderate length. Metatarsi not so short as in Ocydromus. 

Wings short. 

Sternum long, narrow ; keel with deep fissures at the hinder margin converted into 
foramina; a very narrow strip of bone across the hind margin. Sternum much 
constricted in the middle ; inferior edge of the keel arched. 

Measurements. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . . 
Length of tibia . . 
Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 
Breadth of posterior margin 



Tenths. 
19 
17 
12J 
22 
31 
21 

H 

54 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 8 

Depth of keel 5 

Length of head 28 

Breadth of head 8 

Length of pelvis ...... 22 

Breadth of pelvis 10 



Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pi. 16. Details, pi. 16, A. 



25 



RaLLID^I.J 0STE0LGIA AVIUM. [RALLINiE. 

Ocydromus, Wag. 

Sylvestris, Sclat. 

Cranium of moderate length ; a transverse indention at the base of the bill. 
Nostrils long, oval. Lacrymal bone elongated over the orbits. Orbital septum with a 
large foramen. Occipital ridge prominent. Palatine bones rounded behind ; edges 
curved downward, narrowed suddenly anteriorly to a mere strip of bone. 

Sternum broadest anteriorly, narrowed in the middle again ; slightly expanded at 
posterior margin, with a deep fissure on each side. 

Pelvis anteriorly; deep and arched; posterior half, with a deep and broad channel 
down the centre ; deep curved on each side of the caudal vertebrae ; divisions of the 
sacral vertebrae apparent. 

Hibs long, thin. Stylyform process very long, extending over two ribs. 

Furculum without any process as the junction of the rami. 

Coracoids of moderate size. 

Scapula long, slightly arched, pointed at their ends. 

Wing bones short. 

Leg bones moderate ; metatarsus short. 

Measurements. 
Tenths. 

Length of humerus 20 

Length of ulna 16 

Length of metacarpus .... 12 
Length of femur , 24J 



Length of tibia 34 

Length of metatarsus . . . . 18J 

Length of sternum 19 

Breadth of posterior margin . . 5 \ 



Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto . . . . . . 19 

Depth of keel 3 

Length of head 34 

Breadth of head 9 

Length of pelvis 22 

Breadth of pelvis 9 



Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pL 17. Details, pi. 17, A. 

When I described the skeleton of Rhynchotus I had not the skeleton of any large 
rail ; since that I have obtained one, Ocydromus sylvestris, which I now figure. The 
sternum is similar, except that of Ocydromus has two foramina on the posterior margin, 
which Rhynchotus has not. The metatarsi of Ocydromus are much shorter than those 
of Rhynchotus. The cranium and pelvis are similar. The palatine bones are more 
truncate at hinder extremities in the latter than in the former. 



26 



AnDEIDjE.] OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. [GrUINjE. 

Antigone, Reich, Bp. 

Torquata, Viell. 

Cranium with a very slight depression across the base of the bill ; no depression over 
the upper surface, except a very slight one near the occiput, much rounded above. 
Orbital septum strong, with two foramina, the central one large, the upper one small, 
elongated. Occipital ridge not very prominent ; a large ridge from the centre of it to 
the foramen magnum. Lacrymal bones large, projecting far backwards. Inter- 
articular bone very massive and strong. Palatine bones long, the lateral edges 
curved downwards, pointed posteriorly, flat and narrowed anteriorly ; bones formiug 
the bill strong ; the lower edge of the inferior maxillary projecting backwards. 

Sternum elongated. Narrow keel, very thick on its inferior edge and curved 
anteriorly ; hollow and perforated by the trachea, which makes a convolution in its 
interior extended to the posterior margin of the sternum, which projects much forward 
beyond the junction of the furculum. Posterior margin widened laterally, and rounded 
on the outer angles ; edge nearly entire. 

Pelvis similar to Ardea in shape ; foramina long. 

Ribs with the styliform process long. 

Furculum of moderate length. Rami flattened ; strongly anchylosed to the sternum, 
and much flattened transversely. 

Coracoids very broad at their junction with the sternum. 

Scapulce flattened, very long, pointed, slightly bending downward. 

Leg bones the callineal process slight, continued nearly to the hind toe. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of humerus 106 

Length of ulna 130 

Length of metacarpus .... 50 

Length of femur ..:... 80 

Length of tibia 155 

Length of metatarsus .... 135 

Length of sternum 90 

Breadth of posterior margin . . 24 

Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pi. 18. Details, pi. 18, A 



Tenths. 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto 23 

Depth of keel 25 

Length of head 101 

Breadth of head 19J 

Length of pelvis 90 

Breadth of pelvis 35 



27 



Andeid^e.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVI DM. 



[GauiNJE. 



EpHIPPIORHtNCHS, Bp, 

Senegalensis, Shaw. 
Very similar, except in size, to Antigone torqnafa ; the tracheae penetrates the keel 
of the sternum in the same manner, namely, in one perpendicular loop. 

Measurements. 



Length of humerus ■ . . 

Length of radius . . . 

Length of metacarpus . 
Length of femur . . 

Length of tibia . . . 
Length of metatarsus 

Length of sternum . . 
Breadth of posterior margin 



Length of head 



Tenths. 
95 
125 
45 
53 
150 
120 
75 
16 

Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pi 19. Details, pi. 19, X 



Tenth? 

Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto ...... 25 

Depth of keel .22 



Breadth of head 18 

Length of pelvis 68 

Breadth of pelvis ...... 34 



28 



LuCINIDJE.] O'STEOLOGIA AVIUM. [WaLURINjE. 

Atrichia, Gould. 

Clamosa, Gould. 
I have only the sternum, coracoids, and scapulae of this bird. 
Sternum long, with a deep fissure on each side at the posterior, and much elongated 
on each side anteriorly. Keel shallow. 

Coracoids long, very broad at their junction with the sternum. 
Scapulw long, slightly expanding near the tip, pointed at the extremity. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 
Length of sternum . . . . . 7 
Breadth of posterior margin . " . .4 
Breadth of anterior margin . . . 4| 



Tenths. 

Depth of keel .1 

Length of coracoids 7 

Length of scapulae ...... 6 



Illustration. 
Suppt. 2, pi. 20, fig. 1. 



Tantalidd.J osteolog'Ia avium.. [Tawtalinje. 

Tantalus, Linn. 

Ibis, Linn. 

I have only the sternum an^ head of this bird, the 7 atter is figured in pi. 33, fig. 1. 

Sternum short, of moderate breadth, with a broad fissure on each side of the keel -on 
the posterior margin. Keel very deep, much arched on its inferior edge. 

Coracoids rather long. 

Furculum, with an appendage at the junction of the rami, broadest at their junction 
with the coracoids and arched. 

Scapula slightly bent, blunt at the end ; of nearly the same width throughout. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 
Length of sternum ..... 43 
Breadth of posterior margin . . 20 
Breadth of anterior margin . . . 22 



Tenths* 

Depth of keel ....... 20 

Length of coracoids 26 

Length of scapulae ...... 30 

llbistration&. 

Suppt. 2, pi. 20, fig. % 



Spheriseidjs.] osteologia atidm. [Spherisein^b. 

Aptenodytes, Fosst. 

Penantii, G. It. Gray. 

I have only the sternum of this bird, with the coracoid, scapulae, and furculum 
attached. 

Sternum short, scolloped out from the lateral margin to the end of the keel, which is 
shallow and much produced in front towards the furculum, to which it is united by a 
ligament. 

Coracoids long, very strong. 

Furculum much arched, broadest next the coracoids, gradually narrowed towards the 
sternum ; a small process at the junction of the rami. 

Scapulce very broad posteriorly, narrowed at their junction with the coracoids. 

Measurements. 



Tenths. 

Length of sternum 47 

Breadth of posterior margin ... 33 
Breadth of anterior margin ... 36 



Tenths. 

Depth of keel 8 

Length of coracoids 50 

Length of scapulas ...... 47 



Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pJ. 21, 



31 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

Tallegalla, Less. 

Lathami, Jard. 

Cranium slightly flattened between the orbits, strong. Nostrils large, oval Orbital 
septum nearly entire, with only a small foramen on its posterior edge. Palatine bones 
expanded on their posterior third, pointed behind, slightly bent upwards at their 
junction ; fore part consisting of a narrow strip of bone expanded slightly forward 5 
nearly resembling Crax Globiura (pi. 22, fig. 2). 

Sternum very like that of Crax, but rather shorter, with a short, but perpendicular 
broad keel, 

Pelvis broader than in Crax, but with the ischiadic and obturator foramina larger. 

Ribs broad, flattened as in Crax. 

Furculum with the rami long, a small process at their junction turning inwards slight. 

Coracoids of moderate size. 

Scapula broad, blunt at their tips. 

Wing hones short; metacarpus long. 

Leg hones tibiae, short; not very strong. 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . N . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . . 



Length of metatarsus 
Length of sternum . 
Breadth of posterior margin 



34 
35| 

18 



32 
36 
17 



Breadth of anterior 

margin of ditto . 

Depth of keel . » 

Length of head . . 

i of head 

of pelvis . 

f pelvis - 



Illustrations. 
Suppt. 2, pi. 22. Details, 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 

NUMBERING OF VERTEBRAE. 



Cervical. 



Antigone torquata - - - - 
Ephippiorhynchus Senegalensis 

Aramides cayanea - - - - 

Ocydromus sylvestris - - - 

Satyra Temminckii - - - - 

Crypturus megapodius - - - 

Rhynchotus perdicarius - - 

Momotus (Equinoctialis - - 

Tallegalla Lathami - - - - 



18 
17 
13 
12 
13 
15 
15 
12 
14 



Dorsal. 



6 

6 

10 

10 



Sacral. 



18 
14 
13 
14 
15 
19 
14 
13 
13 



Caudal. 



6 

7 
5 
S 




Since the former part of this work was published, I have obtained from America the 
skeletons of fuligula valisneria and querquedula discors, both agree with their 
representatives in this country ; the former with the fuligula ferina, and the latter with 
querquedula cruca, so as not to be distinguishable from them by the skeleton. 



END OF SUPPLEMENT II., PART 2. 



83 



PL. 12. 




JF-rom, Jiat. on- stozte- My JSrsdeheJ-i. 



MOMO TITS <GE QUINOC HALIS « 



JtfdJ/.Jiaiihart imp. 



DETAILS, PL. 12. A 







li-am- Mat. 021 stone. jbyJJ&debea. 



M<L2f.Kaj:iAuet 1 



M OMOTUS OEQUILTOCTIALIS , 




PL.13. 



Eram nat. on stozu jby J.Ei-jrleien.. 




M&.N.ffaahaz-t imp. 



DET.AILS,PL.13.A. 






e fy/./frjtrleie* 



RHYH"CHOTU8 PERMCARBTS . 



MSKIfa-iiliMtt imp. 




PL .14 . 



Frcmiiat. on steae-if-JHrxkim, 



CRYPT"UB¥S MEGAPOMFS, 



M&MHazilutzt 



DETAILS, PL. 14. A. 









H'omnat. oil stone. JyXErzlehea,. 



McLMHaziKoxt i 




PL .15. 



Vz Ned,, size 



From, nab. on stazie by 'Jsixdei >ea . 



CEWLomms temimceii 



M&NJIajxhctrt iznp. 



DETAILS, PL .15. A. 








J ':,- 




;>V 



*m. 



JFbazaruit. on, storm i>V J.ErMei en, . 



CERIOKN1B TEMMIKCKH. 



M&NJIaziiiart ia 



PL .16. 




/^ 



■ 



Wt Ifat. 



-From- not. on sic2ie. J>y Jj&xlebei 



DETAILS, PL. 16. A. 






From, not. an- stone hy S.Erirleituv. 



MdN.Haziiia.ct 



img. 




PL. 17. 



Jrom- Meet an, staize. Jfy- JSjarlebav. 



'■-NJIcuxiiait. 



DETAILS, PL. 17. A. 





Jfhsn, not. en sz£ue- hy J.Errleba 



)MUS SYLYES 



Md. j\ r J£aji}iart \ 




PL. 18. 






\S 






v 




. X 






From, r^ti.im statie hyJErxlebeth. 




Af&NHankazi. imp. 



DETAILS, PL. 18. A 



1 






zhom 2tat. 021 stone JtyJ.JUzzle&ezis. 



Af&J^Jfizzihart iznp. 




- - ^ sa^ 






1* 



PL. 19. 



From, not. on stox&iy JJErxUben,. 



^5 Nat. size. 



EPMPPIOMHYN'CHU'S SEWIEGALE^SK 



- . ...is 



M&I?.£[owlLCLrt unp. 






DETAILS, PL. 19, A. 






* 






From, not. on. stone, iy J.Erxlei & 



PPIOBHYN"CHIJS SE^JEGALE^SM 



PL. SO. 










J&am. not. on, stone- by JlLzzi&b a 



L ATMICMIA C'JLAMOSA STERffUMo 2.TAETXAMTS IBIS 



Md Jv'JfcLnJzcu-t i 



PL 21. 



. 






From.- luce, on stone JbrJ.Frzieben.. 



-APTEAIGETTES PENANTII SXEIOTIlLMc 



-■■Ixy^anhart i 



PL.S2. 







Fi-.m-i jiat : an, stane hy-J.Badeiezi 



TALLEGAJLI.A LATM&I 



J&T&, Jf.J&zzi/iaz , 6 unp 



DETAILS,PL.2S.A. 








From nat. on stone by J.Erxleha 



M£Kffani>-az<z 



XALLEGALLA. LAT1MMI, 



DlDUNCULIDJS.] [DlDULINA 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM 



SECOND SUPPLEMENT. 

PART III. 



DrDUNCULUs, Peale. 

Strigirostris, Jardine. 

Cranium much indented at the base of the bill. Nostrils lengthened. Ovate 
cranium, flattened on the vertex ; rounded behind ; foramen-magnum large. 
Bill much arched. Inferior maxillary bone much elongated backwards beyond its 
articulation with the os quadratum. lnler obital foramen large. 

Sternum indented with a very large fissure, which extends more than half the 
length of the sternum, and is bounded by a narrow strip of bone, expanded at its ex- 
tremity, and terminating at about half the length of the fissure; the posterior margin 
rounded, and narrower than the anterior. In the young bird I suspect it is penetrated 
with a smaller foramen on each side,, as my specimen has traces of them. 

Keel very deep anteriorly ; the lower edge rounded, the front edges curved. 

Pelvis very broad, much like the ground pigeon's. 

Ribs broad, flattened styliform process, much turned upwards. 

Furculum rounded, but slightly flattened at its articulation with the coracoids. 

Coracoids strong. 

Scapula arched, expanded near the extremities and pointed at the extremities. 

Wingbones of moderate length ; the ulna much longer than the humerus. 

Legbones with the metatarsi very short 

Vertebral column strong 

Remarks. — This curious bird strongly resembles the ground pigeons in the form of the head, 
sternum, and pelvis. It is figured in Owen's Memoir on the Dodo. 

SUPPLEMENT II. F 34 



Length of humerus . 
Length of ulna . . 
Length of metacarpus 
Length of femur . . 
Length of tibia . , 
Length of metatarsas 
Length of sternum . 
Breadth of posterior . 



Measurements. 

Tenths 



17 
22 
12J 

12J 
24 
15 
22 



Margin of posterior 
Breath of anterior 
margin of ditto 
Depth of keel . . 
Length of head . 
Breadth of head . 
Length of pelvis . 
Breadth of pelvis . 



Tenths. 

. 7 



9 
19 

8 
26 
15 



NUMBER OF VERTEBR2E. 
Cer. Dor. Sac. Cand. 

4 7 13 7 



PaLAMIDEIDjE.] OSTEOLOGIA AYTUM. [PaLAMEDEINtE. 

The birds belonging to the genera that constitute this family are very curious, so 
much so that it is difficult to say where they ought to be classed. In many respects 
they resemble the vultures, as in the structure of the furculum, cranium, and palatine 
bones and pelvis, more particularly Neophron, while in the feet they resemble the 
Rallidse, and in the form of the posterior margin of sternum are not like 
either, but the keel resembles the Vulturidae. It is no wonder therefore that they have 
been classed differently by authors, a few of whose opinions I shall proceed to quote. 

Mr. G. Gray classes the genera Palamedea and Chauna, forming his family Palamedeidse, 
next to the Parridse. He says they inhabit marshy places and inundated grounds, in the 
northern parts of America, especially those that are situated near the sea. It is generally found 
in pairs, and is very shy and timorous, hut soon betrays itself by its loud calls. The seeds and 
leaves of aquatic plants constitute its principal food. 

These birds are peculiar to the northern parts of South and Central America. They are 
observed in the marshes and occasionally on the borders of lakes and rivers, in pairs, or in troops 
of many individuals. Their manners are shy, but when not scared their gait is slow and stately. 
Their flight is easy and swift, and they are unable to run, except with the assistance of their 
wings. They resort to rest on the tops of high trees. The Brazilian species is kept by the natives 
amongst their poultry. It goes with them to feed during the day, and during this time proves 
very useful in defending the poultry against the attacks of the numerous birds of prey, by means 
of the spurs on the bend of its wings. If the wing of the bird is handled a crackling is felt, 
which is caused by the quantity of air which is lodged between the skin and muscles. Marsh}- 
and inundated places are preferred by these birds, as their food consists solely of the leaves of 
aquatic plants, grapes, and seeds. Their nest is spacious, and made of small branches of trees, and 
usually placed in a bush surrounded with water, but sometimes it is formed among reeds and 
rushes. The female lays two eggs. 

Castelnau, in his "Animaux ou Pares de 1' Amerique du sud," gives a plate (15) of 
Palamedae Cornuta and the sternum of Palamedse Derbyana, and (page 73) a description and 
account of the two birds, in which he says they are very different from the moor-hen, rails, or 
coots ; and Illiger unites the genera Glarieola, Cereopsis, Chauna, Palamedea, and 
Psophia, under the name of Alectorides, from which they are very different. He also says, in 
speaking of the sternum, that it presents an analogy to the Vulturidas. 

c; Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte von Brasilien von Maximilian Prinzen zu Weid" ; 
from which the following is a translation : — 

" I he Aniuma, from its great size and beauty, forms an ornament to the Brazilian forests. It 
is dispersed over a large portion of South America, for it has been seen in Guiana, where Somnini 

36 



Falamibeidje.] osteologia avium. [Palamedeinje. 

found it ; it does not however appear to be found at Paraguay, as Azara makes no mention of it- 
I myself never met with the bird in Brazil, until travelling from South to North I had reached the 
island Caxoeirinka (Kaschoerinnia) in the river Belmonte, that is to say the sixteenth degree of 
south latitude. I was told there that it had never been seen higher up the stream towards Minas. 
In the neighbourhood of the above-named island in the Belmonte it is very numerous. It only 
frequents lonely spots far removed from the habitations of man. I never met with it, as Sonnini 
describes, in open places, only in the depths of the primeval forest on the bor lers of the river, after 
I had made some days' journey up the stream of the Belmonte. There we frequently heard the 
loud, uncommon cry of this bird, which in its modulation has some resemblance to our own wood- 
pigeon, but it is much louder and more shrill and the throat note is pitched in another key. 

" Sometimes we saw the Aniumas as they strutted on the sandbanks and in and out of the 
river. If we approached them, they took fright, and then, both in the size and broad expanse of 
their wings, and in their colour and manner of flapping them, they resembled the Urubus 
(Cathartes Aura et Urubu). They always perched in the summit of some thickly -leaved forest 
tree, where we constantly heard their voices, though we could seldom see the birds themselves. 
In the breeding season the Aniuma pairs, at other times four, five or six are seen together ; they 
go to feed on the sandbanks or in the thickly wooded marshes, which are so frequent in these 
forests. The food of these birds appears to be entirely vegetable, at least in the five or six, 
whose stomachs I have examined. I found nothing but leaves of a kind of grass plant and of 
another broad-leaved grass plant. 

" The nest of this bird is found on the ground in the wooded marshes near the river. The 
Botocudians state that it contains two large white eggs, and consists of only one layer. The 
young birds run at once on leaving the shell. 

" The flesh of the Aniuma is not good eating ; the Botocundians devour it all the more 
greedily, as the Portuguese do not eat it at all. The fine long pinion feathers are used for writing, 
the tail feathers are much valued by the savages for their arrows. There is a popular superstition 
that this bird always dips his frontal horn into the water when he wishes to drink." 

Marcgrave calls the Aniuma a bird of prey, in other respects he describes him very 
correctly, and represents his voice tolerably correct by the word " Vihu, Vihu." He mentions 
the great attachment subsisting between the male and female when paired, but of this the 
Brazilian sportsmen made no mention to me. That the two sexes differ greatly in size, as 
Marcgrave represents, is incorrect. 1 hat the nest has the shape of an oven, must, if the state- 

ments of the Botocundians is to be believed, be a fable. 

The following note was sent to me in reply to one of mine, by Mr. Bartlett, of the 
Zoological Gardens of London: — 

" In reply to your note, I find the Chauna and Palamideidse feed upon green food principally ; 
they will also eat boiled rice, bread, and boiled Indian corn, but no flesh of any kind." — 

" Yours faithfully, A. Bartlett." 

3T 



PALAMIDEID.E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[Palamedetn^e. 



Pala medea, Lin. 

Cornuta, Lin. 
Cranium with a deep hollow at the base of the bill, anterior to the orbits ; upper 
edge of the orbits projecting much over the orbit. Palatine bones broad at their pos- 
terior ends, laterally projecting downwards, tapering forwards to a thin strip of bone. 

Sternum with the posterior and anterior edges nearly equal in breadth. 

Keel with the inferior edges arched and continued nearly to the posterior margin, 
which is indented with a broad fissure extending nearly the whole breadth of the 
sternum, and bounded on each side with a broad strip of bone, in which there is a 
smaller rounded fissure in the direction of the lateral margin. 

Pelvis very broad posteriorly ; ischiadic and obturator foramina large, splints 
bounding the former long. End of the metacarpi furnished with long, sharp spines, 
pointing forwards. 

Furculum very strong at the coracoid extremity ; much flattened laterally ; at the 
opposite one more rounded. 
Coracoids very strong. 
Scapula slightly arched, flattened and pointed at the extremities. 



Measurements. 



Length of humerus . . 

Length of ulna . . . 
Length of metacarpus 

Length of femur . . . 

Length of tibia . . . 

Length of metatarsus. .. 

Length of sternum . . 

Breadth of posterior . . 



Tenths. 



Margin of posterior 
Breadth of anterior 
margin of ditto 
Depth of keel . . 
Length of head 
Breadth of head . 
Length of pelvis . 
Breadth of pelvis . 



Tenths. 



VERTEBRA. 
Cer. Dor. Sac. Caad. 

15 9 11 7 



38 



PALAMIDEID.E.] 



OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. 



[PaUAMEDEINjE. 



Chauna, 

Chavaria, Lin. 

Cranium similar to Palamidea. 

Sternum also similar, but not so much scolloped out behind, but without the small 

lateral fissures. 

Pelvis similar to Palamidea ; terminal joint of the caudal vertebras very long and 
pointed. 

Ribs of moderate strength, without any styliform process. 

Furculum very strong and broad, shorter than in Palamidea. 

Coracoids shorter and stronger than in Palamidea. 

Scapula similar. 

Wingbones long; the ulna much longer than the humerus ; the metacarpus armed 
with a strong spine, pointing forwards at each extremity. 

Legbones of moderate length and strength ; toes very long. 
Vertebrce of moderate strength ; short. 

Measurements. 



Tenths 

Length of humerus 68 

Length of ulna 76 

Length of metacarpus .... 38 

Length of femur 37 

Length of tibia 69 

Length of metatarsus .... 48 

Length of sternum 59 

JSyeadth of posterior 



Tenths. 

Margin of posterior 26 

Breadth of anterior > 

margin of ditto / ' ' * ' 

Depth of keel 14 

Length of head . .... 32 

Breadth of head 15 

Length of pelvis 50 

Breadth of pelvis ,,.... 25 





NUMBER OF VERTEBBJB. 




Cer. 

16 


Dor. Sac. 

8 12 


Cand. 

9 



39 



P HACTONID JE,] OSTE0L0GIA AVIUM, [PllACTONYN^E. 

Phaeton, Lin. 
iEthereus, Lin. 

Cranium long and hollow between the edges of the orbits ; orbital septum perforated 
with a large foramen ; a deep tranverse indentation at base of the bill. Occiput per- 
pendicular ; occipital ridge well marked. 

Sternum rather short in its horizontal position, with a moderate-sized fissure on each 
side of the keel, which is much elongated anteriorly, and deep. 

Pelvis broad ; the os pubis much elongated ; ischiatic foramen large. 

Ribs thin and light, styliform processes short. 

Furculum flattened ; broader at its junction with the keel, which is a little below 
the point. 

Coracoids light ; much expanded at their junction with the sternum. 

Scapula very light ; very slightly expanded near its hinder extremity ; blunt at the 
end. 

Wingbones long. 

Legbones short, very weak ; metatarsi with a deep groove down the front, 

Vertebrce strong, broad. 

The birds of this genus very much resemble the Sternidse in the form of the 
sternum and pelvis. 



Measurements. 

Tenths. 
Length of humerus . , . , , 30 

Length of ulna 33 

Length of metacarpus . , . . 15 

Length of femur 10 

Length of tibia 15 

Length of metatarsus .... 8 

Length of sternum , . . . . 22 
Breadth of posterior . ; . . . 



Tenths. 

Margin of ditto ...... 1 1 

Breadth of anterior ..... 

Margin of ditto 14 

Depth of keel ,.,... 8 

Length of head 33 

Breadth of head 14 

Length of pelvis 19 

Breadth of pelvis .,..., 12 



NUMBERING OF VERTEBRA. 
Cer. Dor. Sac. Cand, 

13 8 9 8 



40 



ALCID^E • OSTEOLOGIA AVIUM. AlCIN.SE 

Alca, Lin. 
Impennis, Lin. 

I have received a skeleton of this bird, which differs so much from the figure in the 
" Zoological Transactions," that I should almost think there must be two species of 
Great Auk. Mr. Ed. Gerrard, from whom I received my skeleton, gives this account 
of it: 

" You may perhaps like to know how I got these bones. They were got from a guano island 
off the North of Newfoundland. A vessel was sent there to see if the guano was worth anything 
for manure. It was found to be useless, owing to the island being so washed by the sea that all 
the nature was washed out of the guano. While digging about, one of the gentlemen came across 
a quantity of bones, which he took to Mr. Woodward, of the British Museum, and they turned 
out to be the bones of the Great Auk. I bought the whole, and after spending a great deal of 
time in sorting them over, I have been able to make out three tolerably perfect skeletons, the 
best of which I have given you the refusal of." 

PI. 27 ; details 27a. 



42 



LIST OF PLATES OP SKELETONS OF BIRDS, 

THAT HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED. 



Castelnau : Animaux, noveaux ou rares L'Amerique, du sud, 
Anatomie Oiseaux. 
PI. 14 : Opisthocomus Cristatus. 
PL 15, fig. 1-5 : Palamedea Cornuta. 
PI. 15, fig. 6 : Palamedea Derbyana. 
PL 16, fig. 1-5 : Dicholophus Cristatus. 
PL 17, fig. (1-5) : Psophia Crepitans. 
Do. (6-7) : Cyrabops Cancrophaga. 

Ibis, 1873, pi. 5— Murie. 

Fragments of Upupa Epops. 
Ditto " " Minor. 
Ditto Irrisor „ Erytbrorbyncha. 
„ „ S enegalensis. 

1862, pi. 10 : 

Do. ,, Colius Lettcotis. 
Contributions to Ornithology, by Sir. W. Jardine, Bart., 
1850. 

PL 53 ; Rampbastos Erytbrorbyncbus. 
PL 54 : Psilopogon Pyrolopbus. 
Reserches sur L'apparel sternal des Oiseaux, par Docteur 
F. J. Herminier, second Edit., 1828, witb 3 plates of tbe 
sterna of 37 genera. 

Transactions of tbe Zoological Society, Vol 6. 

PL 91 Skeleton and details of Rbinocbetus 
jubatus. 
Do. Vol. 5 : Osteology of Gallinaceous birds and Tinamous, 
PL 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42. 
Description of tbe Skeleton of the great Auk, 
Alca impennis, PL 51, 52. 
Do. Vol. 4 : on tbe Osteology of a Balamiceps Rex Gould, by 
W. K. Parker. 

PL 65, 66, 67. 
Vol. 2 : tbe Anatomy of tbe southern Apteryx, by R. Owen, 
Esq., pi. 47— 55. 

Reserches Anatomiques et Pal;eontolgiques pour servir 
a l'Histoire des Oiseaux Fossiles de la France, par Mons. 
Alphonse Milne Edwards, 1867, 1868. 

PL 11 : Biziura Lobata, Skeleton of. 

PL 12 : Fragments of Cygnus Olor Chloephaga 

Magellanica, Anser Albifrous, Cereopsis Nova 

Hollandise. 
PL 13 : Fragments of Anas Boscbas, Poecilonitta 

Babamensis, Oidemia Nigra, Melanitta Fusca, 

Erismatura Rubida, Somateria Mollissima, 

Mergus Merganser, Anser Albifrous. 
PL 14 : Fragments of Fuligula Fusca, F. Nigra, 

F. Ferina, Cygnus Olor. 
PL 15 : Fragments of Fuligula Fusca, Anas 

Boschas, Tadorna Belloni, Fuligula Ferina, 

Mergus Merganser. 
PL 16: Fragments of Anas Boschas, Cygnus 

Olor, Cygnus Atratus, Fuligula Fusca, Anas 

Bo sheas. 
PL 17 : Fragments of Anas Boschas, Cygnus 

Furus, Cereopsis Novse Hollandise, Fuligula 

Fusca. 
PL 18 : Fragments of Anser Albifrons, Bernicla 

Leucopis, Chenalopex iEgyptiaca, Anas 



Reserches Anatomiques, &c. 



Boschas, Anas Clypeata. 
PL 19 : Fragments of Anas Crecca. Fuligula 

Fusca, Plectropterus Gambensis, Cygnus 

Olor, Fuligula Nigra. 
PL 20 : Fragments of Fuligula Nigra, F. Fusca, 

Anas Boschas, Plectropterus Gambensis 

Fuligula Ferina. 
PL 30 : Skeleton of Plotus Melanogaster. 
PL 31 : Fragments of Pelecanus Pbilippensis, 

Graculus Carbo, G. Africanus, Plotus 

Melanogaster, Tachypetes Aquila. 
PL 32 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Phteton 

Phsenicurus, Podoa Senegalensis, Heliornis 

Surinamensis, Pelicanus Philippensis, Graculus 

Carbo, Plotus Melanogaster. 
PL 33: Fragments of Sula Bassana, Phceton 

Phsenicurus, Graculus Carbo Plotus Melano- 
gaster. 
PL 34 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Graculus 

Carbo. 
PL 35 : Fragments of Pelecanus Pbilippensis, 

Tachypetes Aquila, Graculus Carbo, Sula 



PL 36 : Fragments of Sula Bassana, Tachypetes 

Aquila, Graculus Carbo. 
PL 34 : Fragments of Plotus Melanogaster, 

Graculus Carbo, Sula Bassana, Tachypetes 

Aquila. 
PL 46 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis, 

Podiceps Cristatus, Alca Torda. 
PL 47 : Fragments of Podiceps Minor, P. Cris- 
tatus, Colymbus Septentrionalis, Alca Torda. 
PL 48 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis, 

Podiceps Cornutus, Cephus Minor, Podiceps 

Cristatus, Alca Torda. 
PL 49 : Fragments of Colymbus Septentrionalis, 

Podiceps Cristatus, Puffinus Cinereus. 
PL 50 : Skeletons of Prion Vittatus, Larus 

Hautlaubii. 
PL 51 : Fragments of Larus Argentatus, Puffinus 

Cinereus. 
PL 52 : Do. „ of Larus Canus, Puffinus 

Cinereus, Larus Argentatus. 
PL 53 : Do. ,, Larus Canus, Puffinus 

Cinereus, Larus Argentatus. 
PL 59 : Skeleton of Lobivonellus Lobatus. 
PI. 60 : Fragments of Numenuis Arquatus, 

Limosa Melanurus, Hsematopus Ostralegus, 

Scolopax Rusticola, Totanus Glottis. 
PL 61 : Do. Numenius Arquatus, Totanus 

Glottix, Tringa Subarquata. 
PL 62 : Do. Hsematopus Ostralegus, Dromas 

Ardeola, Machetes Pugnax, Charadrius 

Pluvialis, Numenius Phseopus, Ranellus 

Cayanensis. 
PL 65 : Skeleton of Scopus Umbretta. 
PL 66 : Fragments of Anastomus Lamelligerus, 

Ibis Rubra, Ciconiaf Alba, Platalea Leucorodia 



Reserches Anatomiques, &c. 

Scopus Umbretta. 
PI. 67 : Do. Ibis Rubra. 
PI. 68 : Do. Anastomus Lamelligerus, Ibis 

Rubra. 
PL 73 : Do. Grus Australasianus. 
PI. 74 : Do. Grus Antigone, Grus Australa- 
sianus, Balearica Pavonina. 
PI. 77 : Do. Phoenieopterus Roseus. 
PI. 78 : Do. Do. 

PI. 79 : Do. Do. 

PI. 91 : Skeleton of Cancroma Cochlearia. 
PI. 92 : Fragments of Ardea Purpurea, Ardea 

Nycticorax, Cancroma Cochlearia. 
PI. 93 : Do. Ardea Nycticorax, Cancroma 

Cochlearia, Ardea Purpurea. 
PI. 94 : Do. Ardea Purpurea, Cancroma 

Cochlearia. 
PI. 95 : Do. Ardea Purpurea, Caneroma 

Cochlearia, Arden Candidissima. 
PL 97 : Skeleton of Tribonyx Mortieri. 
PL 98 : Fragments of Porphyrio Madagascari- 

ensis, Gallinula Chloropus, Rallus Crex, 

Metopidius Africanus. 
PL 99 : Do. Fulica Atra, F. Cristata, F. 

Chilensis. 
PL 100 : Do. Ocydromus Australis, Porphyrio 

Madagascariensis, Fulica Cristata, F. Atra, 

Gallinula Chloropus, Rallus Crex. 
PL 101 : Do. Porphyrio Madagascariensis, Fulica 

Atra, Ocydromus Australis. 
PL 102 : Fragments of Fulica, Atra Porphyrio 

Madagascariensis, Ocydromus Australis, 

Rallus Cayanensis. 
PL 111 : Skeleton of Catheturus Novse 

HollandiEe. 
PL 112 : Do. Ortalis Vetula. 
PL 113 : Do Pavo Spicivorus, Prselatus 

Phasianus, Gallus Sonneratii, Satyra 

Temminkii, Lophophorus Impeyanus. 
PL 114 : Fragments of Polyplectron Germani, 

Francolinus Asise, Argus Giganteus 

Tetraogallus Himalayensis, Tetrao Urogallus. 
PL 115 : Do, Meleagris Gallopavo, Numida 

Ptilorhyncha, Perdix Grasca, P. Petrosa, 

Cryptonyx Cristatus, Ortyx Californica, 

Coturnix Communis, Crax Globicera, 

Penelope Marail, Ortalida mot mot. 
PL 116: Do. Francolinus Asia?, Gallus 

Sonneratii, Perdix Grseca, Tetraogallus 

Himalayensis, Tetrao Urogallus, Penelope 

Marail. 
PL 117 : Fragments of Tetrao Saliceti, Gallus 

Sonneratii, Phasianus Prselatus. 
PL 118 : Do. Francolinus Asise, Penelope 

Obscura. 
PL 119 : Do. Gallus Sonneratii, Tetrao Scoticus, 

Meleagris Gallopavo, Penelope Obscura, 

Cryptonyx Cristatus, Satyra Temmincldi. 
PI 120 : Do. Perdix Cinerea, Ortyx Californicus, 

Penelope Obscura, Pavo Spicivorus, Tetrao 

Scotius, Gallus Sonneratii. 
PL 121 : Do. Gallus Sonneratii, Tetrao 

Scoticus, Phasianus Prselatus, Cryptonyx 

Cristatus, Perdix Graeca, P. Petrosa, Ortyx 



Reserches Anatomiques, &c. 

Californica, Penelope Marail. 

PL 122 : Do. Pavo Spicivorus, Lopohorus 
Impeyanus, Penelope Marail, Tetrao Scoticus. 

PL 123 : Do. Crax Globicera, Pavo Spiciferus. 

PL 135 : Skeleton of Carpophaga iEnea. 

PL 136 : Skeleton of Pterocles Arenarius. 

PL 137 : Fragments of Goura Coronata, 
Galeatus, Columba Nicobarica, Pterocles 
Bicinctus, Syrrhaptes Paradoxus. 

PL 138 : Fragments of Pterocles Bicinctus, 
Carpophaga iEnea, Goura Coronata, Syrrhaptes 
Paradoxus. 

PL 139 : Do. Phoenorhina Goliath, Syrrhaptes 
Paradoxus, Carpophaga iEnea, Calasnas 
Nicbarica, Pterocles Arenarius. 

PI, 140 : Do. Goura Coronata, Carpophaga 
iEnea, Serresius Galeatus, Carpophaga Jilnea, 
Calasnas Nicobarica, Syrrhaptes Paradoxus. 
PL 142 : Skeleton of Corvus Jamaicensis. 

PI 143: Skeleton of Dendrornis Eburneiro strum, 
Ramphocoris Clotbey. 

Pi 144 : Fragments of Lanius Rufus, Picolaptcs 
Tenurostris, Xiphorhynchus Procurvus. 
Tardus Viscivorus, Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorai 
Alpinus, Rupicola Peruviana, Loxia 
Coccothraustes, Sylvia Bicinca. 

PI. 145 : Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, 
Turdus Gigas, Rupicola Peruviana, Loxia 
Coccothraustes, Alauda Cristata, Sylvia 
Luscinia, Cristatus, Parus Major. 

PL 146 : Fragments of Corvus Corax, Loxia 
Coccothraustes, Turdus Viscivorous, Hirundo 
Rupestris, Sylvia Luscinia. 

PL 147 : Do. Corvus Corax, Pyrrhocorax 
Alpinus, Loxia Coccothraustes, Alauda 
Cristata, Hirundo Pupestris, Motacilla 
Flava. 

PL 148 : Do. Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, Corvus 
Glandarius, Corvus Carnivorus, Loxia 
Coccothraustes, Alauda Cristata, Turdus 
Viscivorus. 

PL 149 : Do. Loxia Coccothraustes, Hirundo 
Urbica, Regulus Cristatus, Cinclus Aquaticus, 
Lanius Rufus, Turdus Cyaneus. Corvus 
Carnivorus. 

PL 150 : Do. Corvus Carnivorus, Loxia Cocco- 
thraustes, Pyrrhocorax Alpinus, Cassicus Persi- 
cns, Alauda Calandra. 

PL 163 : Skeleton of Picus Martius. 

PL 164 : Do. Dacelo Gigantea. 

PI. 165 : 

PL 166 : Skeleton of Turacus Persa. 

PL 167 : Skeleton of Trogon Atricollis and 
Cypselus Longipennis. 

PL 168 : Do. Centropus Phillippensis. 

PL 169 : Fragments of Upupa Epops, Cypselus 
Apus, Merops Egyptius, Dacelo Gigantea, 
Caprimulgus Europaeus, Tockus Erythrorhyn- 
chus, Trogon Curucui, Turacus Persa, Eham- 
phastos Cuvierii, Picus Viridis, Cuculus 
Canorus. 

PL 170 : Do Turacus Persa, Tochus Erythror- 
hvnchus, Dacelo Gigantea, Picus Viridis, 
Cuculus Canorus, Cypselus Apus. 



Beseeches Anatomiques, &c. 

PI. 171 : Do. Cypselus Apus, Picus Viridis, 
Eudynamys Orientalis, Dacelo Gigantea, 
Turacus Persa, Caprimulgus Europseus, 
Trogon Vividis. 

PL 172 : Do. Cypselus Apus, Picus Viridis, 
Megalaima Armillaris, Caprimulgus Europseus, 
Upupa Epops, Turacus Persa, Dacelo Gigantea, 
Tochus Eryfchrorhynchus, Cuculus Canorus, 
Trogon Vividis. 

PI. 173 : Do. Tochus Erythrorhynchus, Dacelo 
Gigantea, Picus Viridis, Turacus Persa, 
Cuculus Canorus, Cypselus Apus, Upupa 
Epops, Trogon Vividis. 

PI. 174 : Do. Tochus Erythrorhynchus, Picus 
Viridis, Dacelo Gigantea, Alcedo Ispida, 
Trogon Vividis. 

PI. 179 : Do. Gypaetos Barbatus, Pandion 
Haliaetus, Falco Peregrinus, Pernis Apivorus, 
Sarcoramphus Papa, Serpentarius Reptilivorus. 

PL 180 : Do. Sarcoramphus Papa, Falco Pere- 



grinus. 
PL 181 : 

grinus. 
PL 182 : 
PL 189 : 



Do. Sarcoramphus Papa, Falco Pere- 



Do. Ditto. 

Do. Bubo Atheniensis, Nyctea Nivea, 

Athene Noctua, Brachyotus Palustris, Surnai 

Borealis ; Strix Flammea. 
PL 196 : Do. Bubo Atheniensis. 
PL 191 : Do. Ditto. 

PL 193 : Skeleton Strix, Nyctea Fossil. 
PL 195 : Skeleton Macrocercus Ararauna. 
PL 196 : Fragments of Cacatua Moluccensis, 

Macroeercus Ararauna, Coracopsis Kara, 

Psittacus Erythacus, Nymphicus Nova 

Hollandia. 



Beseeches Anatomiques, &o. 

PL 197 : Fragments of Macroeercus Ararauna, 

Cacatua Moluccensis. 
PI. 198 : Do. Cacatua Moluccensis, Macrocercus 

Ararauna, Psittacus Erythacus. 
PL 199 : Do. Cacatua Moluccensis, Macrocercus 
Ararauna. 
Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 1872. 
PL 4, 5, Murie on the Skeleton of Todus. 
Memoir on the Dodo, by Richard Owen, Esq". Outline of 
Didunculus, pi. 3. 

Cyclopaedia of Anatomy, Vol. 1, fig. 125, Trochilus Pella, by 
R. Owen, Esq. 

Anatomy of the Southern Apteryx, by Prof. Owen ; Transac- 
tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 2, page 257. 

On the Osteology of Balaeniceps, by W. R. Parker ; Transac- 
tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 4, page 269. 

On the Osteology of Gallinaceous Birds and Tinamous, by 
W. R. Parker : Transactions of the Zoological Society, 
Vol. 5, page 149. 

Description of the Skeleton of the Great Auk, by Prof. Owen : 
Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 5, page 317. 

On the Osteology of the Dodo, by Prof. Owen : Transactions 
of the Zoological Society, Vol. 6, page 49. 

On the Osteology of the Kagu, by W. R. Parker: Transac- 
tions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 5, page 501. 

On some points in the Anatomy of Micropterus, by R. 0. 
Cunningham : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 
7, page 493. 

Notes on the Articulated Skeleton of the Dodo, by Prof. 
Owen : Transactions of the Zoological Society, Vol. 7, 
page 513. 



PL. 22. 




.Prom, jiac. on stoMi^JHrjdehea. 



M&NHcmhart 



unf. 



PL.22.A. 






Nat. size. 



J^'OHl' IUZt. OIL St0Zl£- 



M&NIfanhajrt wzzp. 



)IWCBLUS STMGIR0STRI5 




PL. 24. 



r 






From, zuzc.on stone iyJErdebm. 



PL. 24, A. 






%mt.-, 



■ :,^;,:. 




1k£i : '- 




From not. on stonsiy J.Ecdehe 



M^NJlanlwrt imp, 



PL. 25. 




^■' 



R'ozrvzwt. on, stone- hjr JErzlehm . 



MAHHcaihart i 



PL. 25, A. 




'6 Nat. size. 



Frozzt, not. on. stone iylErxleb en . 



M&Mffcuthart 



zntp 



PL. 26. 




From liat. on stori^i/JJirdeieti, . 



^E THEREIN 



■ imp. 



PL.26.A. 





3 




Jrom not. cat- stone-iy ■ J.Ezz.Uiei 



MA.Mffanhcurt 




P.41PL.27. 




Vs Nat. size. 



-F>*am-nat. aastane-ly JUrxLeisi 



■M&NBwhart 



PL. 27. A. 






w 










Frcm.itat. or stone Jy JErjcleben.. 



AIL CIA 



M&Mffa/ihart imp- 






W^aSS^fe* 









^^^.n^^^^p^lp 


















3 an^Al^ 






Ifl^JSf^ 



^I^W^ 



-$PP 



, '*" : Vw 5^7 









A*AftA^,v n « 






,.•,„ ' *, Mi- 


















mm 






fiSPft&f 






$s£RK3 






-•WMfwr 



;gw>f^*u^$ 



"V^.O* 



:a^ 






H^mrig 












;.n,§^^si^8ii 



;!: »m 









n, -nMtflr- ™ 



i^»^ 









SlW^^^il^ 



Avihci 



*fi&& 






^l r fW^f0^j$^' 



^^V;^ 









iB^^^mm^ 



si 


!$3* 


,-' 


miW^3 










Ma:aat - ' y 



A^^^iS^fti 



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 



3 9088 00804 1329