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JANUARY 19, 1993 

Student Astronomers Confirm "Dark Matter" 
in Small Group of Galaxies 

A huge concentration of mysteri- 
ous "dark matter" has been discov- 
ered by two College Park graduate 
students and their colleagues from 
NASA. The discovery appears to 
confirm previous theories of where 
most of the dark matter of the uni- 
verse is concentrated — in and around 
small groups of galaxies. 

The new discovery also adds con- 
siderable weight to the theory that 
most of the universe's mass consists 
of dark matter, the precise nature of 
which remains unknown. 

"It's pretty amazing that two peo- 
ple just starting out in their careers as 
astronomers could be involved in 
making a discovery that could help 
determine what will be the fate of the 
universe/' says David S. Davis, 33, of 
the NASA Goddard Space Flight 
Center in Greenbeit, Md. 

Both Davis and John S. Mulchaey, 
25, of the Space Telescope Science 
Institute in Baltimore, are doctoral 
students in astronomy. Along with 
Dr. Richard F. Mushotzky of the 
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center 
and Dr. David Burstein of Arizona 
State University, Tempe, they 
announced the discovery of the dark 
matter on January 4, 1993, at the 
meeting of the American Astronomi- 
cal Society in Phoenix, Arizona. 

Dark matter is matter of an 
unknown type that astronomers and 
cosmologists believe makes up most 

of the universe's mass. 
Its existence was 
deduced from the rela- 
tive amounts of light 
elements and isotopes 
produced during the 
"Big Bang" that most 
scientists believe gave 
birth to the universe. 

Other factors sup- 
porting the existence 
of dark matter include 
the properties of high- 
temperature gas locat- 
ed in clusters of 
galaxies and the high 
speeds at which gal- 
axies are moving in 

The discovery, 
which was reported by 
The hfew York Times, 
The Washington Post, 
Newsweek, CNN and 
the CBS morning and 
evening news, was 
made with X-ray pic- 
tures taken by the 
ROSAT (Roentgen 
Satellite) X-ray obser- 
vatory satellite. The 
pictures were taken of 
the NGC 2300 group, 
three galaxies located about 150 mil- 
lion light years from Enrth in the 
direction of the northern constellation 
Cepheus. These images show that 
the small group of galaxies is 

The mass of this hot gas cloud is about the same as the three galaxies inside it. Astronomers 
believe this means a substantial amount of "dark matter," about 20 times the mass of the 
cloud, envelops the system and contains the hot gas. 

immersed in a huge cloud of hot gas, 
about 1.3 million light years in diam- 
eter. The astronomers estimate that 

:ontinued on page 2 

Training in New Performance Management 
Process Begins for Non-Faculty Supervisors 

Classroom Climate ^ ° J ' 

Campus Senate Statement Z Starting in February, non-faculty 

supervisors will be attending training 
sessions run by the Mercer consul- 

Outlook Deadlines ^-v tants to become familiar with the new 

Tips & Dmes to Remember £* performance management process 

(PMP), which will be implemented in 

Chinese Art "PMP is an ongoing communiea- 

Profes.sor Says An History Often ^ tfeffl process between supervisors and 

[gnores Non-Western An jl employees which involves goal set- 
ting, feedback and coaching and per- 
formance review discussions," says 

In Memory Of Carl Bode / Dale Anderson, director of Personnel, 

Memorial Service Set 4 in 3 recent memo to a11 deans ' direc " 

tors and chairpersons. "New forms 

and procedures have also been devel- 
oped and will be implemented at Col- 
lege Park in mid-April 1993." 

According to Rythee Wilkes, assis- 
tant director of Personnel, special 
information sessions for key senior 
administrators will begin the week of 
February 8, followed by training ses- 
sions for all non-faculty supervisors 
beginning the week of February 15. 
Training sessions will conclude 
March 24. 

Information sessions for non- 
supervisory staff will also be offered 
beginning in February and March, 
though specific dates have yet to be 
determined. Staff from personnel 
services will be on hand to answer 
questions about PMP and guide par- 
ticipants through the new forms and 
procedures. For more information, 
call 405-5651. 

U N I V 

R S I T Y 

O F 


A T 



Senate Open Hearing on Student Conduct Set for January 26 

The Student Conduct Committee of the Campus Senate will hold an 
open hearing on Tuesday, January 26, from 3 to 5 p.m. in the Mary- 
land Room of Marie Mount Hall, to discuss the university's code of 
academic integrity. For more information, call Kathleen Smith at 

Statement on Classroom Climate 

(On May 8, 1989, the Campus Senate 
endorsed the following statement 
concerning classroom climate which 
had been developed by the Greer 
Committee on Undergraduate 
Women's Education. At that time, it 
was recommended that the statement 
be published periodically in OUTLOOK) 

The University of Maryland at 
College Park values the diversity of 
its student body and is committed to 
providing an equitable classroom 
atmosphere that encourages the par- 
ticipation of all students. Patterns of 
interaction in the classroom between 
the faculty member and students and 
among the students themselves may 
inadvertently communicate precon- 
ceptions about student abilities based 
on age, disability, ethnicity, gender, 
national origin, race, religion or sexu- 
al orientation. These patterns are due 
in part to the differences the students 
themselves bring to the classroom. 
Classroom instructors should be par- 
ticularly sensitive to being equitable 
in the opportunities they provide stu- 
dents to answer questions in class, to 
contribute their own ideas, and to 

participate fully in projects in and 
outside of the classroom. 

Of equal importance to equity in 
the classroom is the need to attend to 
potential devaluation of students that 
can occur by reference to demeaning 
stereotypes of any group and /or 
overlooking the contributions of a 
particular group to the topic under 
discussion. Joking at the expense of 
any group creates an inhospitable 
environment and is inappropriate. 
Moreover, in providing evaluations 
of students, it is essential that instruc- 
tors avoid distorting these evalua- 
tions with preconceived expectations 
about the intellectual capacities of 
any group. 

It is the responsibility of individual 
facultv members to review their 


classroom behaviors, and those of 
any teaching assistants they supervise, 
to ensure that students are treated 
equitably and not discouraged or 
devalued based on their differences. 
Resources for self-evaluation and 
training for faculty members on class- 
room climate and interaction patterns 
are available from the Office of 
Human Relations. 

Editor's Note 

Due to a restructuring in the Office 
of Public Information and staff open- 
ings that have not yet been filled, 
OUTLOOK will be understaffed this 
term. You can still expect a weekly 
issue, but here are a few tips on how 
you can help: 

Plan Ahead. OUTLOOK will be 
published every Monday (except 
March 22) through May 10. The 
deadline for news and calendar items 
is at least two weeks before publica- 
tion date, Monday (see the accompa- 
nying schedule). 

Issue Date 

Copy Deadline 


1/19 (Tues) 














No Issue 















Pick Up Your Pen. If you have an 
idea for a news story, feature or op- 
ed, and can write clear, economical 
prose (or know someone who can), 
we'd be more likely to run the fin- 
ished product, especially if you can 
supply it on a computer disk. 
Intrepid email users may even want 
to try an upload-download procedure. 

But OUTLOOK reserves the right 
to edit all submissions and extends 
no guarantee of publication. So 
before you fill your blank page or 
screen, give us a call or send an email 
message to propose the news value, 
length and format of your idea. FYI: 
the average OUTLOOK piece is less 
than 500 words. 

Be Patient. We'll do our best to 
ensure OUTLOOK provides informa- 
tive, interesting and timely reading 
for College Park faculty and staff. If 
your concern is not ours, tell us why 
it should be. But remember that time 
and space limitations, along with 
fewer bodies now, will inevitably 
lead to some stories being bumped to 
another issue or not covered at all. 

For questions or more information, 
contact: John Fritz, editor, OUTLOOK, 
2101 Turner Bldg., 405-4629, 

Dark Matter Exposed 
By Graduate Students 

continued from page 1 

the cloud has a mass equal to 500 bil- 
lion times that of the sun. 

"Most galaxies are in small groups 
like the NGC group," Mulchaey 
explains. "The universe is like the 
pre-industrial United States, in which 
the most conspicuous population 
concentrations were in a few big 
cities, but in which most people actu- 
ally lived in small towns and rural 
America. Now \ through the ROSAT 
pictures] we have found where most 
of the dark matter in space hangs 
out — in the little towns of the uni- 
verse, the small groups of galaxies, 
rather than in the rich clusters where 
we have mostly looked before." 

The astronomers acknowledge 
that further research is needed to 
confirm a discovery of this apparent 
magnitude. If their findings hold up, 
however, scientists will need to 
reassess their understanding of the 
relative locations of dark matter and 
ordinary matter and what they mean 
to the expansion and ultimate status 
of the universe. 

"The discovery of this large 
amount of dark matter suggests that 
the universe may eventually halt its 
expansion," Davis says. 

— Gary Stephenson 


Outlook is the weekly faculty staff newspaper serving 
the College Par* campus community. 

Kathryn Costello 

Vice President for 

Institutional Advancement 

Roland King 

Director of Pub fie Information 

Judith B.-ilr 

Director of Creative Services 

John Fritz 


Farlss Samarral 

Contributing Writer 

Gary Stephenson 

Contributing Writer 

Beth Workman 

Contributing Writer 

Laurie Gaines 

Editorial Assistant 

John T. Consoll 

Formal Designer 

Kerstin A. Netaler 

Layout & Production 

a I Danegger 


Jennifer Gragan 

Production Interns 

Susan Heller 

Letters to the editor, story suggestions, campus infor- 
mation & calendar items are welcome. Please submit 
all material at least two weeks before the Monday of 
publication, Send it to Editor Outlook. 2101 Turner 
Building, through campus mail or to University of 
Maryland. College Park, MD 20742. Our telephone 
number is (301) 405-4621. Electronic mail address is Fax number is (301) 314-9344. 

— ^— — BM 


O O K 

JANUARY 19, 1993 

Seven Theatre Scholarships to be Awarded 

Seven theatre scholarships will be available to talented incoming 
undergraduates for the 1993-94 school year. Five full-tuition schol- 
arships will be sponsored by the College of Arts and Sciences, and 
two $1,000 scholarships by the Theatre Patrons Association. The 
awards are granted on the basis of applications, recommendations, 
academic reports and auditions held February 28. Requests for 
applications should be made to the Theatre Department's Scholar- 
ship Committee no later than February 10. 


College Park Advances Study of Chinese Art 

"One of the reasons for 
an undergraduate student 
to pursue a liberal arts 
education is to become a 
larger person, broader in 
intellectual and aesthetic 
experience, and deeper in 
empathy towards other 
peoples and cultures," 
says art history professor 
Jason Kuo. And one of the 
best ways to learn about 
other peoples and cul- 
tures, Kuo believes, is 
through the visual arts. 

He feels that learning about the 
richness of creative expression in the 
visual arts of foreign cultures helps 
students appreciate and respect other 
cultures, particularly in a world 
where differences in culture and eth- 
nicity often bring conflict. 

Unfortunately, one of the major 
civilizations in the world has been 
largely ignored in the area of art his- 
tory. But Kuo has taken a major step 
toward bringing that civilization 
into the mainstream of art history 

This summer, 25 faculty members 
from colleges and universities across 
the country will travel to College 
Park to attend the Summer Institute 
for College and University 
Faculty on the Art of Imperial China. 

According to Kuo, who will serve 
as the Institute's director, many col- 
leges and universities teach only 
Western art, and the others treat non- 
Western art as after-thoughts or 
appendices. "It is no wonder 
that non- Western art in general 
and Chinese art in particular are 
still either misunderstood or lit- 
tle understood by many experts 
on Western art, let alone our 
undergraduate students," says 

An understanding of Chinese 
art is important because it 
embodies some of the most 
important legacies of 

Chinese civilization for the modern 
world, says Kuo. Among these lega- 
cies are the strong importance placed 
on education and the educatability of 
all peoples, the profound respect for 
nature, the emphasis on human 
morality and historical memory, the 
strong ideals of political unity and 
social harmony, and the optimistic 
faith in the human potential for indi- 
vidual and collective good. 

Through the Summer Institute, 25 
professors who teach art history or 
world civilization will study major 
art forms of Imperial China with rec- 
ognized scholar-teachers and will be 
given creative and practical methods 
as well as necessary resources for 
incorporating what they learn in the 
institute into their curriculum. 

Participants, who will be chosen 
through a national competition, are 
required to commit to the incorpora- 
tion of Chinese art into their curricu- 

lum through personal 
statements and letters of 
support from their deans 
or presidents. 

"Although the immedi- 
ate beneficiaries of the 
institute will be the 25 
college teachers, the 
intended beneficiaries are 
thousands of college stu- 
dents of these teachers 
over the next few years," 
says Kuo. 

Funded by a $165,000 
grant from the National 
Endowment for the Humanities and 
sponsored by the Department of Art 
History and Archaeology, the insti- 
tute is the first of its kind to focus on 
Chinese art. It also is noteworthy for 
the prestigious organizations it is 
bringing together. The institute's fac- 
ulty will consist of scholar-teachers 
from such leading universities as 
Columbia, Harvard, Princeton, Stan- 
ford and Yale. All have extensive 
experience in teaching and research 
in Chinese art, literature and history, 
and many of them have recently pub- 
lished major studies or organized 
major exhibitions. Five of them have 
served as chairpersons of art history 
departments. Curators from the 
Smithsonian Institution also will 
serve as faculty. 

"The College Park area is an ideal 
location for the institute," says Kuo, 
"because it has one of the best collec- 
tions of Chinese art outside China." 

Participants will have access to 
the Smithsonian Institution's 
Freer Gallery and Sackler 
Gallery, the Hackerman House, 
Walters Art Gallery Museum of 
Asian Art, the Baltimore Muse- 
um of Art and an extensive col- 
lection of materials at the 
Library of Congress. 

— Beth Workman 

National Prtee for Literature Awarded to College Park Professor 

Jose Emilio Pacheco, professor in 
the Department of Spanish and Por- 
tuguese, has been awarded Mexico's 
National Prize for Literature, given 
for overall lifetime achievement in 
the field of literature. Pacheco accept- 
ed the award Friday, December 18, 
from Carlos Salinas de Gortari, presi- 
dent of Mexico, during a presentation 
at Los Pinos, Gortari's official residence. 

Pacheco, world renowned poet, 
novelist and critic, is the author of 
more than 15 books of poems, includ- 
ing Reposo del fit ego and Miro la licrra; 

several novels, including Moriras tejos 
and Las bat alias en el desierto; and sev- 
eral anthologies and short stories. 

In 1980 he was awarded Mexico's 
National Prize for Journalism and in 
1986 was appointed to El Colegio 
Nacional de Mexico, a select, distin- 
guished group which represents the 
elite of intellectual life in Mexico. 
Most recently, Pacheco was recog- 
nized for 25 years of literary journal- 
ism. He now writes for Proceso. 

The National Prize for Literature is 
Mexico's most prestigious award and 

one of the most prestigious awards in 
literature throughout the world. For- 
mer winners include Nobel Prize 
winner Octavio Paz, Juan Rulfo, Car- 
los Fuentes and Fernando del Taso, In 
addition to National Prizes for Litera- 
ture and Journalism, Prizes for Art 
and Science also are awarded. 

The award consists of one hun- 
dred million pesos (more than 
$30,000 U.S. dollars), a gold medal 
and a diploma. 

The Halt of Great 
Harmony in the 
Forbidden City 
(Imperial Palace), 
Beijing, China, 1420. 
Photo by Jason Kuo. 

The Mine-Dragon Wall 
in the Forbidden City 
(Imperial Palace), 
Beijing, China, 1420. 
Photo by Jason Kuo, 


19 9 3 




Look for the Quilt, Familiar Faces in the Parade 

Having recently performed for the American College Theatre East 
Regional Festival in Uhaca, New York, members of the cast and crew of 
University Theatre's Quilt — A Musical Celebration have been invited by 
the NAMES Project to join other friends, volunteers and panel makers 
to march in the Inaugural Parade on January 20, 1993. The group, 
which consists of several professional actors from the Washington D.C. 
area, theatre faculty and student actors, will carry 100 new Quilt panels 
during the walk from the Capitol to the White House. 


A memorial service for Carl 
Bode will be held Friday, 
February 5, at 3 p.m. in 
Memorial Chapel. 

January 19-27 



W-E11NK5DAY. JANUARY 6. 1993 ■ VOLUME 312, NUMBER 44 


Carl Bode, teacher and noted historian 

By Mike Bowler 

Stair Writer 

Cart Bode, educator, biogra- 
pher of H. L. Mencken and histo- 
rian of Maryland, died of a stroke 
yesterday at his home in Chester- 
town. He was 81. 

A prolific writer with bound- 
less energy. Dr. Bode produced a 
steady stream of poems, books 
and essays untrl III health inter- 
vened about a year ago. 

He was the first biographer of 
Mencken and founded the Men- 
cken Society In Baltimore, a fo- 
rum for Mencken scholarship and 
fellowship. In 1978 he wrote 
'Maryland; A Bicentennial Histo- 
ry.' and he authored dozens of 
columns, most of them in a light 
vein, for The Euenlng Sun edito- 
rial pages from the early 1970s 
into the 1 990s. 

A native of Milwaukee, Carl 
Bode came to the University of 
Maryland College Park in 1947 as 
a young professor of American lit- 
erature. His specialty — Henry 
Thortau — naturally led to an 
interesl In Mencken. 

"He was the last [Mencken bi- 
ographer! to rneei and listen to a 
good many of those who actually 
knew Mencken,' said James H, 
Bready. who writes a column for 
the Sunday Sun on Maryland au- 
thors, "so he became a valuable 

Meanwhile. Dr. Bode taught 

undergraduates for 35 years a( 
College Park, expanding from 
American literature to "American 
studies,' a kind of modem sociolo- 
gy that allowed him to examine 
the often-quirky behavior of fel- 
low citizens. He retired to "emer- 
itus" status In 1982, and he and 
his second wife, the former Char- 
lolte Smith, whom he married In 
1972, moved to the Eastern Shore 
about a year and a half ago. 

Through most of his last dec- 
ade of teaching and first decade of 
retirement. Dr. Bode wrote occa- 
sional columns for The Euenfng 
Sun. They were usually framed In 
the first person and often poked 
fun at humankind's foibles. The 
columns covered life on the uni- 
versity campus. But Dr. Bode also 
discussed "perceptive witches I've 
known." basketball coach Lefty 
Drlesell as "Christian educator." 
and the "porkettcs" — wives of 
pork producers In the Midwest. 

"Carl brought the editorial 
pages a sparkle and a wit and a 
class that the rest of us found it 
very hard to five up to," said Brad- 
ford Jacobs, the retired Evening 
Sun editor who engaged Dr. Bode 
as a columnist. An admiring letter 
writer called the columnist "a 
combination of Mark Twain, Ring 
Lardner. Art Buchwald and Rus- 
sell Baker." 

His eldest daughter. Barbara 
Bode, said Dr. Bodes "proudest 
moment was being named a fel- 
low of the Royal Society of Litera- 
ture." That occurred in the late 
1950s, when Dr. Bode took leave 
from College Park to be a cultural 
attache for two years at the 
American Embassy In London. 

Or. Bode received academic de- 
grees from the University of Chi- 
cago and Northwestern Universi- 
ty, as well as honorary degrees 
from three Maryland colleges — 
the University of Baltimore, Salis- 
bury State University and West- 
ern Maryland College. 

He was the founder and first 
president of the American Studies 
Association and a member and 
former president of the Thoreau 

The family said services and 
burial will be private, but a me- 
morial service Is being planned at 
the University of Maryland In Col- 
lege Park. 

Dr. Bode's first wife, the for- 
mer Margaret Lutze. died In 1970. 

Surviving. In addition to his 
wife. Charlotte, and daughter. 
Barbara, of Washington, are two 
other daughters, Janet Bode of 
New York City and Carolvn Bode 
of Santa Monica, Calif. 

First day of spring semester classes 

Univetsrty College Arts Program 
Photography Exhibit: "lm press ions- 
East and West," 8 a,m.-8 p.m. daily, 
Umversrty College Center of Adult 
Education Gallery, through March 28, 
Call 985-7154 for info. 

West Gallery Art Exhibit: 'The ideal 
Copy," 8:30 a.m,-4:30 p.m. weekdays 
through Jan. 29. 1309 Art/Soc. Call 
5-1442 (or info. 

Men's Basketball vs. Oklahoma. 8 p.m.. 

Baltimore Arena. Call 4-7070 for info.* 


Women's Basketball vs. University of 
Virginia. 7:30 p.m.. Cole Field House. 
Tickets are S5 for adults. S3 for children 
and seniors. Call 4-7070 for info,* 

UM Observatory Open House: Multiple 
Stars," Michael A'Hearn. 8 p.m., 
Observatory. Metzerott Road. Weather 
permitting, telescope observation will fol- 
low. Call 5-3001 for info. 

Committee on History and Philosophy 
of Science Lecture: "The Interpretation 
of Data.' Frederick Suppe, 4:15-6 p.m.. 
1407 Chemistry, Call 5-5691 tor info. 

p.m.. 1113 Computer and Space 

Science. Call 5-4855 for info. 



Choral Reading Session, led by Paul 
Traver, Berlioz's Requiem, 2-5:30 p.m.. 
Tawes Recital Hall. Can 5-5571 for info. 

Concert Society at Maryland: 
Parnassus, Anthony Korf. conductor, and 
Susan Marucki, soprano S p.m.. 
Conference Center Auditorium; Precon- 
cert discussion, 6:30 p.m. Tickets are 
S17 regular admission. £15,30 faculty 
and staff. $14.50 seniors, and J7 stu- 
dents. Call 403-4240 for tickets and 


CIDCM Brown Bag Lunch Seminar: "The 
Relevance of the International Protection 
of Human Rights to Democratization and 
Peace." Edy Kaufman, 12:30-1:30 p.m.. 
2136 Mill. Call 4-7703 for info. 

Committee on History and Philosophy 
of Science Lecture: "Monte Carlo 
Methods and Simulation Modeling: An 
Introduction." Paul Smith. 4:15-6 p.m.. 

1407 Chemistry.Cal! 5-5591 for info. 

Olngman Center for Entrepreneurs hip 
Seminar: 'Founders and Investors- 
Partners or Adversaries?" 6-9 p.m.. 
Stouffer Harborpiace Hotel, Baltimore. 
Fee is 120 for UMCP faculty, staff and 
students. Call 5-2151 for Info. * 

Choral Reading Session, led by Paul 

Traver, Orff's Carmtrta Buram 2-5 p.m.. 
Tawes Recital Hall. Call 5-5571 for info. 




Meteorology Seminar: "Statistics and 
Sensitivity of a Double Gyre Ocean 
Model," John McCalpin. U. of Delaware, 
3:30 p.m.. 2114 Computer and Space 
Science. Call 5-5392 for info. 

Graduate Student Government Meeting. 
3-5 p.m.. 1143 Stamp Student Union. 
Call 4-8630 for mfp. 

Horticulture Social, for faculty, graduate 
students, and staff, 4 p.m., 1102 
Holzapfel. Call 5-4336 for info 

Space Science Seminar: "The Steady- 
State and Dynamical Structure of a 
Cosmic-Ray-Modified Termination 
Shock," GaryZank, U. of Delaware, 4:30 

Meteorology Seminar: 'A Challenge of a 
NASA Earth Probe Mission: How to 
Measure Rainfall From Satellites When 
You Can't," Benjamin Kedem, 3:30 
p.m.. 2114 Computer and Space 
Science. Call 5-5392 for info. 

•Admission charged for this event. All 
others are free. 

Note: when calling from off-campus 
phones, use the prefix 314- or 405- 
respectively for numbers listed as 
4-XXXX or 5-XXXX, 

Anthony Korf conducts Parnassus, an acclaimed chamber music 
ensemble, January 23 at 8 p.m. at the Conference Center 
Auditorium. There is a pre-concert discussion with Pulitzer Prize- 
winning composer Mario Dadlvosky at 6:30 p.m. Tickets are $17 
regular admission, $15.30 faculty and staff, $14.50 seniors, and 
$7 students. Call 403-4240 for tickets and info. 




A N U A R Y 19 

19 9 3