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Teaching Couch Potatoes to Critically View Television, page 3
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The Shoulds and Oughts That Depress Us, page 8
O utloo k
The University off Maryland at College Park Faculty and Staff Weekly Newspaper • Volume 8 Number 15 • February 7, 1994
When Yesterday's Traditions Are Thankfully Past
A chronicle of UMCP' first two African American students
Former Congressman Parren Mitchell fought a difficult battle to become the first
African American graduate student at the University of Maryland at College Park in
African American history at the
University of Maryland at
College Park began quietly.
Long before the Black Student Union
confronted University President Wilson
H. Elkins on the steps of Marie Mount
Hall in 1968, four years before Brown
v. Board of Education, two African
Americans successfully sued for admit-
tance to College Park.
In honor of Black History Month,
Outlook has interviewed the first gradu-
ate student and the first undergradu-
ate — pioneers who opened College
Park to African Americans.
From the warm living room of his
home across from Baltimore's Lafayette
Square, former congressman Parren
Mitchell, 71, reminisced about a day —
August 15, 1950 — that became a turn-
ing point in African American history at
That day, in a two paragraph brief
that belied the significance of Mitchell's
action. The Baltimore Sun reported
Mitchell filed a petition in Baltimore
City Court to force UMCP to accept him
as a graduate student in sociology.
Mitchell's attorney, Robert Carter, and
counsel from the NAACP, Donald
Murray and Thurgood Marshall, were
using Mitchell's case to contest Mary-
land's biracial educational system.
"1 was admitted almost immediately,"
Mitchell says. ""The university offered to
set up a graduate program at Frederick
Douglass High School just for me. They
also offered to send me to an out-of-
state school." Rather than accept quali-
fied African American students to
College Park, Maryland's policy had
been to pay their tuition to schools else-
"Strangely enough." Mitchell says,
"some black people would get excel-
lent educations that way."
But not Mitchell. Although free
tuition would have been a great help to
someone earning a probation officer's
salary, Mitchell didn't want to leave
Baltimore. At 27, he had settled in the
city where he grew up with three
brothers and three sisters. "My family-
was not wealthy," Mitchell says. "In
fact, at times, we lived in dire economic
Though Mitchell's parents never
went to college, all except one of his
brothers and sisters did and as they
graduated they contributed money to
their younger siblings' educations. At
the time Mitchell applied to UMCP he
had a B.A. in sociology from Morgan
State University, then an all-black
Contending that the University of
Maryland had offered Mitchell "off-cam-
pus work" as a graduate student in
Baltimore, State Attorney General Hall
Hammond asked City Court to dismiss
Mitchell's case. University officials
argued that graduate students in the
city were being offered the "same sub-
jects taught by the same professors"
from College Park. Thus, Hammond
said. Mitchell would be attending an
"equal educational facility."
"They were absolutely unequal,"
Mitchell says. "In an interesting strate-
gy, the NAACP took to breaking down
that pattern of reasoning. First they
sued the law school, knowing the uni-
versity couldn't possibly build a sepa-
rate law school. Then they moved on to
the nursing school and the other profes-
sional schools in Baltimore."
In late September 1950, The Sun
reported that two professors testified
that Harry Byrd, president of UMCP,
instructed them to create a separate
graduate sociology course for Mitchell
in the city because "no colored students
would be admitted to College Park."
Ronald Bramford. acting dean of the
graduate school, testified that if
— continued on />age 6
Hiram Whittle, UMCP's first African
American undergraduate, today, and
below, in 1952, with housemates from
A Historical Look at the UMCP African American Experience
July 29, 1949— Hiram Whittle, 18, of Baltimore files a
suit with the NAACP in Baltimore City Court alleging
that, because of his race, officials refused to pass on
his undergraduate application to the College of
August 15, 1950— Parren Mitchell, 27, of Baltimore
files a petition to force the university to accept him as a
graduate student in sociology. Three attorneys, includ-
ing Thurgood Marshall, who was working with the
NAACP, ask the court to act on Mitchell's application
"without regard to creed or color."
October 1950 — Ruling that the University of Maryland
was abusing Mitchell's constitutional right to equal
opportunity, Baltimore City Court Judge John T.Tucker
directs the university to admit Parren Mitchell to gradu-
ate classes at College Park. Mitchell is the first African
American to be accepted to College Park.
January 29, 1951 — Hiram Whittle, 20, wins his court
battle against the state. In a special meeting, the uni-
versity's Board of Regents vote to accept Whittle — the
first African American undergraduate student at College
September 1951 — Whittle applies for a dormitory room.
State Attorney General Hall Hammond tells university
officials: "You must make dormitory space available to
Negro students under the same conditions and on the
same terms as those accommodations are made avail-
able to white students."
1954— Supreme Court ^\
decides Brown v.
Board of Education
and the UM Board
of Regents vote to
accept qualified in-
state students to all
regard to race.
1956 — The university admits out-of-state African
1967— The Black Student Union is established. The
organization helps black students make the transition
—continued on page 6
2 Outlook February 7, 1994
Letter from the
Dear Outlook Readers:
Everyone's a critic. Which is why I
expect to hear comments both good
and bad about the new Outlook.
When the staff of Outlook set about
redesigning the publication last
December, our aim was to bring you
not only a better looking (at least to our
eyes) newspaper, but also a more infor-
mative one. And. in an effort to be
more timely. Outlook is now published
on upgraded newsprint. The look and
feel is different, but production time is
shortened, our costs are significantly
reduced, and we're better able to pro-
vide breaking news.
Behind our good looks you'll notice
that we're providing more hard news
and features about the people and
events that make UMCP such an inter-
Each issue, we'll report on the latest
research, introduce you to some of our
unsung heroes, keep you up to date
about pertinent administrative news,
and provide you with information that
helps you get the most of what this
campus has to offer.
To bring you this first issue, Kerstin
Neteler, our designer, worked and
reworked the masthead to create just
the right look for the front page. Even
the newspaper's typeface was debated.
But working her Macintosh magic, she
was able to take editorial ideas and turn
them into a reader-friendly layout.
In the midst of our redesign, an assis-
tant editor, Rita Sutter (meet her on
page 7), was hired. Her extensive
research helped make her article and
timeline on UMCP's African American
history a comprehensive piece.
Donning cumbersome white gloves in
the Maryland Room of McKeldin
Library, she sifted through stacks of
dusty photographs and yellowing news-
paper clips from the 19"50s — all to get
the story right.
Our goal is to be both entertaining
and informative — a paper that gives
you "news you can use."
Achieving that goal, however,
depends on being attuned to our read-
ers. Over the next few months, I'll be
talking with many of you to learn what
news and information you'd like to see
in this publication. I'm also open to
suggestions for story ideas from all
If you like what you see. let me
know. If you don't, tell me why. This
ever-evolving publication is open to
change; it's all part of building a better
Kirwan Back From
President William E. Kirwan
returned to College Park last week after
a 1 2-day tour of China, Japan and
Kirwan was invited to China by the
Chinese State Education Commission to
award an honorary diploma to noted
academic and emissary Wan Li, who
played a role in opening China to the
West during the Nixon administration.
The honorary degree of Doctor of
Public Service, given to Li for his
groundbreaking work in agricultural
resource management, was originally
supposed to be presented at UMCP in
1 989, but Li was unable to visit the
United States at that time. Leonard
Raley, assistant vice president for
Institutional Advancement, says Kirwan
recognized Li in the Great Hall of
People, the Chinese equivalent of par-
liament, and Li, so honored by the occa-
sion, wore the cap and gown home.
Part of the formal and flowery ceremo-
ny was nationally televised, Raley says.
Kirwan spent five days in China,
strengthening existing relationships
with Fudan and Peking Universities,
and visiting the Great Wall and the
Forbidden City in Beijing.
After leaving China, Kirwan travelled
to Tokyo where he met with officials
from the National Diet Library, the
Japan Foundation, and the Center for
Global Partnership to discuss UMCP's
stewardship of the Gordan W. Prange
Collection and the commitment to mak-
ing it accessible in Japan. The McKeldin
Library houses the collection of cen-
sored Japanese documents gathered
during allied occupation of that country
after World War II.
The Japanese have provided funding
to help preserve the collection, and the
National Diet Library is participating in
a joint effort with UMCP to microfilm
How far has the relationship between the institution and the African-
American population at the University of Maryland come, and how
can it be improved?
"I think it's come a long way since integration. We've made
tremendous strides with graduate rates, especially Ph.D.'s.
What we need to work on is creating a climate and a culture
that increases awareness of diversity."
— Javaune Adams-Gaston, Director
of Athletic Student Services
"I still think the relationship is very poor. It could be improved
if the university could make us feel that we are part of the uni-
versity. I feel that they misuse us. They will find a way to
upgrade things for the white employees, but when they get
around to us, they say that there's nothing they can do."
— Tony Coleman, Physical Plant
"At one time the University of Maryland was a segregated
institution. When I arrived in 1972, we all knew each other by
name because we were so small in population. Now, I know
only a small cadre of the black population. I don't know more
than a third or 50 percent of the black faculty and staff that I
see on campus or at functions. One of the great assets of our
mock trial team is that we are the most diverse team in the
nation. But it would be nice to have a black person in the position of a dean or a
— Noel Myricks, associate professor of Family Studies
and head coach of the Maryland Mock Trial Team
"I've been here for about 21 years. I see they've made some
changes, but African-American and classified employees are
still struggling. We still have a long way to go. We all should
learn more about an individual, learn more about cultural dif-
ferences. Instead of seeing color, seeing a person as an indi-
vidual. Diversity year has helped a lot."
— Angela Bass, Administrative Aide,
Human Relations Programs
In Taiwan, Kirwan had breakfast
with members of the Taiwan Alumni
Club. later, the president discussed the
extension program for the University of
Maryland in Taiwan.
At a dinner in Taipei, Kirwan con-
gratulated C.S. Shen, another
Taiwanese alumnus, on his appoint-
ment as President of Tsing Hua
President Kirwan also committed to
exchange agreements with Tsing Hua
University and National Taiwan
University, which Raley calls the
"Harvard of Taiwan."
Next Issue: The unsung
heroes of Deep Freeze
'94. Meet the campus
employees who did the
tough jobs during the
week-long ice storm.
Study Links Optimism to Good Health
Optimists are more likely than others
to pay attention to potential health
problems. Consequently, they may
enjoy better health.
"These findings are surprising," says
Lisa G. Aspinwall a University of
Maryland at College Park psychology
professor who recently announced her
conclusions after studying optimism for
"Both popular belief and psychologi-
cal theory hold that optimists, because
they deny threats, will be less attentive
to warnings about their health, and will
suffer for it," says Aspinwall. "But I
found no evidence that optimism func-
tions like denial."
Webster's dictionary defines an opti-
mist as "someone who anticipates the
best possible outcome." A study by
Neil Weinstein of Rutgers University
found that 70 percent of the general
population believe that they are at
lower risk than other people for experi-
encing negative events. The same per-
centage was found in the groups who
participated in Aspinwall's study.
Aspinwall studied the responses of
young adults when asked to read
health-related information on six illness-
es ranging in severity from a wart to a
brain tumor. "If optimists deny threats,
they should only want to read non-
Ihrcatening information," says
Aspinwall. Instead, her research found
that optimists spent more time reading
the severe risk information, and they
remembered more of it than did people
low in optimism.
And, given a choice of reading neu-
tral, positive or negative information
about the risks of their health behav-
iors, optimists paid more attention to
the negative information than other
"These findings are contrary to prior
research that assumed that people stay
optimists by tuning out negative infor-
mation," says Aspinwall. "Instead, opti-
mists actually pay more attention to
risk-relevant information, which may,
over time, translate into better health."
Conversely, explains Aspinwall, pes-
simists high levels of worry may
impede risk-reduction behavior.
UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND AT COLLEGE PARK
Outlook is the weekly faculty-staff newspaper
serving the College Park campus community.
Vice President for Institutional Advancement
Director of Public Information
Director of University Publications
Design & Layout
Editorial Intern Production Interns
Stephen Sobek Jennifer Grogan
Letters to the editor, story suggestions, cam-
pus information & calendar items are wel-
come. Please submit all material at least two
weeks before the Monday of publication.
Send material to Editor, Outlook. 2101 Turner
Building, through campus mail or to University
of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. Our
telephone number is (301) 405-4629.
Electronic mail address is jhawes@umdacc.
umd.edu. Fax number is (301)314-9344.
February 7, 1994 Outlook 3
Exploring African American Life and Culture
New Course Takes Advantage ofD.C.'s Wealth of Archival Materials
Marilyn Pettit, left, and Dean Ann Prentice, of the College of Library and Information
Services, believe that African American resources are underutilized.
The way Marilyn Pettit figured it, if
she was going to be teaching near
Washington, D.C., she might as well
make full use of all the area has to offer
her classes. Little did she realize that in
the months following her initial hiring
interview her idea would become reality.
An assistant professor of library and
information services who last fall joined
the faculty of the university after a stint
at New York University, Pettit had
remarked to Dean Ann Prentice that
she'd "like to teach a course that would
take advantage of the richness and
wealth of archival material in the city."
The papers of Duke Ellington and Mary
McLeod Bethune, among others, are
housed less than 20 minutes away.
Having long believed that African
American resources are "underappreci-
ated and underutilized," Prentice
perked up when she heard that, and
just three months later, with the help of
a matching grant from the Diversity at
UMCP: Moving Toward Community
Initiative, she has developed a course
called "Sources of Diversity: Materials in
Archives and Libraries for the Study of
African American Life and Culture." For
now, it will be offered only in the sum-
mer, beginning this year, though its
499-numbered designation makes it
available to both undergraduate and
While acknowledging the introduc-
tory course is a trial-run, Prentice makes
no secret about her ambitions.
For starters, she hopes to see "stu-
dents from a number of other disci-
plines take the course." Those interest-
ed in sociology, art history, music histo-
ry and anthropology, Prentice says,
would especially benefit from such a
She also has broadly conceived it as
a kind of recruiting tool. As she sees it.
the course could serve as bait in luring
"those students who haven't really set-
tled on an area of interest." And,
because the course is interdisciplinary.
Prentice believes the department may
be able to reach out to students who
might otherwise never have thought to
consider library and information ser-
vices as a major.
Though she is not limiting herself
only to minority students, if the course
were to attract them "to doing archival
work," she'd be delighted. Prentice has
no statistics, but says the percentage of
minorities doing archival work in this
country is paltry at best. "And even
those who are doing it," she says, by
way of explaining the appeal of the
course, "may not know enough about
the resources available, particularly in
this part of the country."
Such is the breadth of Prentice's
thinking that, six months before any
syllabi have been handed out, she's
already made plans for the course to be
videotaped, in hopes that what Pettit
has to offer may reach a wider
Prentice also is planning to advertise
the course nationally — she's targeted
various archival journals and even The
Chronicle of Higher Education — to
"attract people from other parts of the
country." And if the first summer
course is successful, "we'll do other
ethnic groups." Already on the board: a
course in Hispanic archival material.
And maybe even one in Native
American archival material.
MO VI NO
of minorities doing
archival work in
this country is paltry
— Ann Prentice
Turn on, Tune In, and Take a Critical Look at the Boob Tube
While teaching at the University of
New Hampshire in the early 1970s,
John Splaine also directed its "Upward
Bound" program for low income young
Bui as he tried to prepare these stu-
dents for college, he realized that he
was having a problem communicating
with them. They had grown up watch-
ing television in much the same way
that be had grown up reading.
"We were coming from different
mediums, so it was like two ships pass-
ing in the night," Splaine says.
Since then, Splaine, an associate pro-
fessor of education policy, planning and
administration, has dedicated his
research to helping people watch tele-
"Young people are watching televi-
sion three to five hours a day and only
reading for 20 minutes," Splaine says.
"My job is to help teachers understand
the effects of TV and teach that to chil-
There are generally three things that
he wants people to get from his
approach: all of television is planned for
effect; editing can help achieve whatev-
er the effect is; and because televisions
are so small, shows and commercials
are manipulated to keep the viewer's
Splaine, who has taught at the uni-
versity since 1973, has studied camera
angles and techniques and found that
they can be compared to grammar.
"Anything other than a medium
close-up is a distortion," Splaine says. "A
zoom magnifies what someone is saying
like an exclamation point."
Splaine says that a camera angled up
towards someone suggests power and
control, while one angled down at a
person suggests submission. A camera
positioned from the side suggests that
the person is not telling the truth,
because their eyes are hidden from the
"Just like you edit in writing, you can
also edit visually," Splaine says. "Lots of
people think that because it's a picture,
it's real. Wrong! It could be real."
Editing can influence the way an
audience will receive something,
Splaine says. If someone is giving a
speech and the screen moves to people
in the audience, whether they are boo-
ing or cheering will have an effect on
how the speech is perceived.
And the images move constantly:
every two seconds on MTV, every four
seconds on the average drama show,
and 20 times in the average 30 second
"In order to keep us attentive [televi-
sion producers] are very creative,"
Splaine says. "They know that they have
to paint on a small screen."
Television also relies on repetition,
During one basketball game, there
were 104 commercials. Thirty-two were
for cars and car-related products and 16
were for alcoholic beverages. There
was one commercial at half-time that
told people not to drink and drive, but
the message that got across to the view-
er was one of cars and beer side by
side, Splaine says.
"I just want people to get off the
couch and start thinking for them-
selves." Splaine says.
Although he finds it hard to weave
his research into his teaching curricu-
lum, he does set aside time in his class-
es to talk about watching TV critically.
But Splaine has also found a real world
outlet to test his theories.
He made a presentation at a seminar
for professors that was held by the C-
SPAN cable network in 1987, and that
grew into part-time work as a consul-
tant for the public affairs network.
"They wanted their employees to
learn about what I was studying,"
Splaine says. He works with them, help-
ing them ask good, open-ended ques-
tions. "C-SPAN attempts to be as objec-
tive as possible," says Splaine, "and my
job is to help them meet that goal."
Splaine has authored two books,
Critical Viewing: Stimulant to Critical
Thinking, and Educating the Con-
sumer of Television: An Interactive
Approach, both directed at junior high
and high school students, as well as
many articles on the subject.
4 Outlook February 7, 1994
Calendar Feb. 7- Feb. 16
No Mommy Me #1, by artist Joyce Scott.
The Works of African-
Beginning Feb. 2 and continuing
through April 11 is the Art Gallery's
newest exhibition, Sources: Multicultural
Influences on Contemporary African-
American Sculptors. Guest curator
Stephanie Pogue, professor and chair.
Department of Art, has selected five cel-
ebrated artists: Melvin Edwards (New
York City); Martha Jackson-Jarvis
(Washington, D.C.): John Scott (New
Orleans): Joyce Scott (Baltimore); and
Denise Ward-Brown (St. Louis), who
work from the junctures of many com-
munities and cultures.
The artists' sources include Native
American myths, jazz music, western
abstraction and South American textiles.
Edwards' assemblages of welded
steel twist and project in a demeanor of
contained aggression. The artist uses
materials such as locks, chain links and
railroad spikes to create wall-based
sculpture that suggest masks, body
parts or devices of torture.
Bits of glass, ceramics, stones and
tile cascade and flow over the floor and
walls of the Art Gallery in Jackson-
Jarvis 's exhibit. Amidst the streams of
particles stand seven ornately decorat-
John Scott creates abstract struc-
tures which allude to traditional African
objects such as musical instruments
and spears. Some of these architectural
configurations are floor-based, others
are wall-based and some connect the
Using beads, cloth and leather, Joyce
Scott creates small figurative sculptures
which act out sometimes startling narra-
tives. Her figures are frequently used to
confront stereotypes, especially racial
ones, in a manner both humorous and
Ward-Brown uses doors, tables,
frames and windows which she assem-
bles into sculptures often suggesting
new functions and meaning.
On Thursday. Feb. 3, at 7 p.m., there
will be a panel discussion with the
artists and guest curator entitled
"Balance and Identity" in room 2309 of
the Art-Sociology Building. The event is
free and open to the public.
The Art Gallery is located in the Art-
Sociology building. Exhibition hours are
Monday — Friday, noon to 4 p.m.;
Wednesday evenings until 9 p.m.; and
Saturday and Sunday, 1 to 5 p.m.
Open Rehearsal: Thu., Feb. 10.
Guarneri String Quartet, 7 p.m., Tawes
Recital Hall. Call 5-5548 for info.
Concert Society at Maryland Olde
Musicke Series: In., Feb. u, Tallis
Scholars, 8 p.m., Washington National
Cathedral, tickets are $18-25, (Students
$8). Free pre-concert symposium at 6
p.m. Call 403-4240 for info.*
Creative Dance Lab: Sat., Feb. 12,
Creative Dance for 4- to 6-year-olds, 10-
10:45 a.m., Studio 36, Dance Building.
$65, checks made payable to UMCP.
Creative Dance Lab: Sat., Feb. 12,
Basics in Modern Dance for 7- to 9-year-
olds, 10:45 a.m.- 12 noon, Studio 36,
Dance Building. $80, checks made
payable to UMCP. Call 5-7039 for info.*
Creative Dance Lab: Sat., Feb. 12,
Modern Dance/Choreography for 10-to
18-year-olds, 12 noon- 1:30 p.m., Studio
36. Dance Building. $90. Checks made
payable to UMCP. Call 5-7039 for info.*
Public Affairs Discussion: Mon.,
Feb. 7. "The Influence of the Media On
Public Policy," Jodie Allen, editor of the
Washington Post's "Outlook" section.
12:15-1:45 p.m., 1412 Van Munching.
Call 5-6330 for info.
Horticulture Colloquium: Mon.,
Feb. 7, "The Maryland Forest
Conservation Act," Elmina Hilsenrath, 4
p.m., 0128 Holzapfel. Call 5-4355 for
Africa and Africa in the Americas
Brown Bag Presentation: Wed.,
Feb. 9. "Trailing Chester Himes."
Norlisha Crawford, 12 noon. Dean's
Conference Room. Francis Scott Key.
Call 5-21 18.
Celebrate Learning (A Series of
the Division of Letters and
Sciences): Wed.. Feb. 9. Sharon
Harley. "Locating Self: Historical and
Personal Notes on the Study of
Women's Work.' 7 p.m. 1250
Zoology/Psychology, Opening remarks
by Daniel Fallon, reception to follow.
Call 4-8418 for info
Colloquium Series: Fri., Feb. 1 1.
Nancy Struever, Johns Hopkins
University, "The Rhetoric of
Familiarity," noon. 0104 Skinner. Call 5-
6526 for info.
University Honors Program
Spring Lecture Series: Fri., Feb. 1 1 .
"Gender and Structural Economic
Change," Rhonda Williams, Department
of Afro-American Studies, 1 p.m.,
Basement Lounge, Anne Arundel. Call 5-
6711 for info.
Horticulture Colloquium: Mon.,
Feb. 14, "Role of Sorbitol in Apple Fruit
Growth and Development," 4 p.m.,
0128 Holzapfel. Call 5-4355 for info.
Lecture: Tue., Feb. 15, "Leadership in
the African American Community,"
Yolanda King, the daughter of Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr., 7 p.m., Hoff
Theatre. Sponsored by SEE Productions,
the Student Union Program Council and
the Committee on Undergraduate
Women's Leadership. Tickets are $3 for
students. $7 for non-students and will
be available in both the ticket booth at
Stamp Student Union and through
l'icketmaster. Call 4-8495 for info.*
Women in International Security
Conference: Mon.. Feb. 7.
"Proliferation and International Stability
in the 1990s," 1-9 p.m., Washington
Hotel. Call 5-7612 for info.
Counseling Center Research and
Development Meeting: Wed.. Feb.
9. Donald Tuitt. President, Black
Student Union. 12 noon-1 p.m.. Testing
Room, Shoemaker. Call 4-7690 for info.
College Park Senate Meeting:
Thu.. Feb. 10, 3:306:30 p.m., 0200
Skinner. Call 5-5805 for info.
University of Maryland System
Board of Regents Meeting: Fri.,
Feb. 1 1 , 10:30 a.m., Stamp Student
Union. Call (301)445-2739 for info.
Counseling Center Research and
Development Meeting: Wed., Feb.
16, Verna Wilson. 12 noon-1 p.m..
Testing Room, Shoemaker Building. Call
4-7690 for info.
Women's Studies Sixth Annual
Polyseminar: Tue., Feb 8. Buchi
Emecheta. Nigerian sociologist and
renowned novelist. 8 p.m., 2203 Art-
Sociology Call 5-6877 tor info.
Molecular and Cell Biology
Graduate Program Seminar: Wed.,
Feb. 9, "The Role of Abl Tyrosine
Kinase in Cell Cycle Regulation, "Jean
Wang, University of California at San
Diego, 12:05 p.m., 1208 Zoology-
Psychology. Call 5-6991 for info.
Meteorology Seminar: Thu., Feb.
10, "How Clouds Foil a Run-Away
(ireenhouse Effect in the Western
Tropical Pacific," Albert Arking, 3:30
p.m., 2324 Computer and Space
Sciences. Call 5-5392 for info.
Geology Seminar: Fri.. Feb. 11,
Student Day III, N. Katyl, K. Ratajeski
and B. Shane, 1 1 a.m., 0103 Hornbake.
Call 5-4089 for info.
Molecular and Cell Biology
Graduate Program Seminar: Wed.,
Feb. 16, "Growth Factors: Identification
and Function in the Uterus and Early
Embryo," Louis Guillette, University of
Florida, 12:05 p.m., 1208 Zoology-
Psychology. Call 5-6991 for info.
Take Another Look Fair: Wed.,
Feb. 9, Grand Ballroom, Stamp Student
Union. Call 4-7174.
Black History Month Cultural
Dinner: Wed.. Feb. 9. 5:30-7 p.m..
Denton. Ellicott. and South Campus
Dining Halls. Call 4-7758 for info
See and Taste a Culture: Mon..
Feb. 7. through Fri., Feb 1 1. Parking
Garage 2. travelling display on diversity
in the workplace. Food sampling Thu..
Feb 10. at noon. Call 5-3214 for info.
Calendar phone numbers listed as 4-
xxxx or 5-xxxx stand for the prefix
314- or 405- respectively. Events are
free and open to the public unless
noted by an asterisk (*). For more
information, call 405-4628.
Listings highlighted in color have
been designated as Diversity Year
events by the Diversity Initiative
England's acclaimed Tallis Scholars will perform a program in honor of the 400th
anniversary of the death of Renaissance composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina at
the Washington National Cathedral on Feb. 11.
February 7. 1994 Outlook 5
Office of Institutional Advancement Increases Its Ranks
Several new — and some familiar —
employees recently joined the Office of
Institutional Advancement working in
the areas of alumni programs, devel-
opment and public information. On
this page. Outlook introduces you to
these friendly faces on campus and
tells you something about the role they
play in helping to advance the
Jack Fracasso, the new associate
executive director in the Office of
Alumni Programs, is not so new to
UMCP. Since 1989, he has served as
associate director of the Office of
Undergraduate Admissions. In his new
position, Fracasso is responsible for the
administrative functions of the alumni
office as well as staffing the alumni
Fracasso has extensive experience in
communications, strategic planning,
management, and public relations. He
received his B.A. degree in English from
Brown University, his M.A. in communi-
cations from the University of California
at Davis, and is working on a Ph.D. in
policy sciences at the University of
former director of
student and spe-
cial alumni pro-
grams, is now the
director of alumni
clubs. King, who
has been with the
iation since 1992,
has worked with
volunteers both at
College Park and
at the University
of Missouri at St.
to Maryland, King
relations at the
University of Missouri at St. Louis,
where she worked with the Parents
Council and the African American chap-
ter of that school's alumni association.
King received a cum laude B.A. in print
journalism from Southern University in
Baton Rouge, La., and an M.A. in jour-
nalism from Northern Illinois
Rita Sutter recently joined the staff of
Outlook as assistant editor. Sutter is a
journalist who spent three years as a
stringer with the Philadelphia Inquirer's
New Jersey Bureau and two years as a
freelance writer in New York City.
Sutter earned her B.A. in journalism
from Temple University. In addition to
contributing feature articles and pro-
files, she is responsible for coordinating
the news pages of Outlook.
Cassandra Robinson, the new senior
media relations specialist in the Office
of Public Information, comes to College
Park from Virginia State University in
Petersburg, Va., where she was director
of the Office
Gretchen King and Jack Fracasso of Alumni
of university relations.
During her five years at
VSU, Robinson was
responsible for the univer-
sity's entire public rela-
tions program, including
media relations, communi-
ty relations and publica-
tions. At UMCP, she coor-
dinates media relations
activities for the campus
units dealing with aspects
of government and poli-
tics. She also covers the
College of Education, edu-
cation reform and UMCP
Robinson earned her
B.A. in journalism from
Southern University and
A&M College in Baton
Rouge, La. She then com-
pleted her M.A. in journalism at the
University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.
Leslie Copeland, Julie Liffrig and Lee
Poston are the new media relations spe-
cialists in the Office of Public
Copeland, former public affairs man-
ager at the American Counseling
Association in Alexandria, Va., is
ments as well as
UMCP. She will
for the psycholo-
| libraries, gradu-
° ate studies and
research and the
While at ACA,
she coordinated all public affairs activi-
ties, including assessing public and
media relations needs, and creating
policies, programs, projects and goals.
Copeland received her B.S. degree
from Syracuse University's S.I.
Newhouse School of Public
Liffrig joins UMCP after serving as a
public information director for the
University of North Dakota Alumni
Association and the University of North
Dakota Foundation in Grand Forks,
N.D. She coordinated all internal and
external communications and edited
the alumni newspaper, annual report
and all other printed materials. At
UMCP, she coordinates media relations
for arts and humanities and performing
arts, as well as women's and environ-
Liffrig earned her cum laude B.A. in
journalism from the University of North
Poston comes to the University of
Maryland from Vanderbilt University
Medical Center where he was an infor-
mation officer. He pitched stories to
, Brenda Schuster, Ronald Morse and Stephen McDaniel
local and national media, served as a
hospital spokesman and edited and
designed VUMC Reporter, a weekly
medical journal. At UMCP, Poston is
putting his medical/scientific know-
how to work covering engineering,
agriculture, life sciences and health and
human performance, as well as health
care and telecommunications issues.
A graduate of University of
Tennessee at Knoxville, Poston earned
his B.S. in communications. While at
UT, he majored in journalism and con-
centrated his studies in governmental
James Dunn has joined the corpo-
rate/foundation relations staff, having
primary responsibility for enhancing
the university's funding from founda-
tions. Dunn received his B.S. in market-
ing from UMCP ('88) and has worked
since graduation at the Kennedy
Center. He worked on the center's
annual fund campaign and on the writ-
ing and editing of development division
literature. Dunn is also an accomplished
Stephen McDaniel was inspired to
leave the sunny Virgin Islands to
become a senior development officer
here, with primary responsibility for the
Colleges of Education and Life Sciences.
Prior to taking his position at the
University of the Virgin
Islands, McDaniel worked
for 12 years in develop-
ment for the United Negro
College Fund. He holds a
bachelor's degree in
African American Studies
from the University of
Ronald Morse has
come to College Park as
development's director of
Morse earned two degrees
§ from the University of
| California at Berkley and his
" Ph.D. in Japanese Studies
from Princeton. He worked
for the Departments of
Defense, State, and Energy
from 1974 to 1981, then
established and directed the Asia
Program at the Woodrow Wilson
International Center located in the
Smithsonian Institution until 1988. He
worked subsequently for the Library of
Congress and has his own firm,
Annapolis International. He has been a
Visiting Fellow at the Institute of Posts
and Telecommunications Policy of the
Japanese Ministry in Tokyo, Visiting
Lecturer at the Naval Academy, and an
adjunct faculty member at the Fletcher
School of Law and Diplomacy. Morse
will be raising support for international
programs, with principal focus on
Brenda Schuster is the new director
of the Colonnade Society, coming to
this position from the Thayer School of
Engineering at Dartmouth College. She
was director of annual giving and alum-
ni affairs at Thayer, where she was
responsible for increasing annual sup-
port and participation and establishing
leadership gift clubs. Prior to assuming
those duties, Schuster was a develop-
ment research analyst and an admission
counselor for Dartmouth. She holds a
B.A. in English from Plymouth State
College in New Hampshire. Schuster's
principal charge is to help development
greatly increase support for the univer-
sity at the Colonnade level.
Rita Sutter, Lee Poston, Julie Liffrig, Leslie Copeland and Cassandra Robinson
recently joined the Office of Public Information.
6 Outlook February 7, 1994
continued from page 1
Mitchell had been a white man he
would have been assigned as a student
By October 3, Judge John T. Tucker
had heard enough. Mitchell remembers
Tucker as a "crusty conservative" who
he thought would certainly rule against
him. But Tucker ordered the university
to admit Mitchell to College Park.
Because Mitchell would be unable to
exchange views with other students
and take part in campus activities.
Tucker said, he would not be getting an
equal education in Baltimore.
Soon afterward, the graduate student
realized that his lawsuit was the easiest
part of his education at UMCP.
Each day began with a long com-
mute to reach a school where mal-
administrators and students were open-
ly hostile to African Americans.
"I didn't have an automobile,"
Mitchell says. "I took the bus to College
Park and walked up that long, long hill.
No one smiled at me. No one talked to
"One time, I went to the cafeteria, a
big cavernous room, and as I walked
past each table, the students got quiet.
It was uncomfortable."
Another painful experience Mitchell
has not forgotten was when one of his
professors used the adjective "niggard-
ly" in a lecture and some of his class-
Mitchell says although most faculty
members ignored him, he was befriend-
ed by one anthropology professor who
invited him for a family dinner.
Mitchell does not harbor wistful,
pleasant memories of his time at UMCP.
Looking back, he remembers University
of Maryland President Harry C. Byrd as
a "notorious segregationist" who was
"worse than the most rabid segregation-
ist in the deep south."
In 1952, Mitchell graduated with a
master's degree in sociology and began
teaching introductory sociology courses
at Morgan State University. In the
1 960s. with the initiation of President
Lyndon B. Johnson's War On Poverty
Program, Mitchell was appointed direc-
tor of the Baltimore City Community
Action Agency. Mitchell met with peo-
ple in church basements and meeting
halls all over the city to learn how he
could help them. "They told me to run
for congress. I said no. I had no real
interest in political life. I was much
more interested in civil rights."
Nonetheless, Mitchell was finally per-
suaded to run in 1 967, six weeks before
the election. He lost by a "couple of
thousand votes", which convinced his
supporters that he could win if they'd
had more time to campaign. In 1970,
Mitchell ran again and won, serving 16
years in the House of Representatives.
Today Mitchell, who never married,
directs the Washington-based Minority
Business Enterprise, Legal Defense and
Education Fund which he established in
1984. The elder statesman of civil rights
works with lawyers, filing suits wherev-
er a "pattern of discrimination against
minority businesses can be estab-
If Parren Mitchell remembers the
reality of desegregating UMCP as a
painful battle against official prejudice,
Hiram Whitde— the first African
American undergraduate — regards his
year here much more benignly. In the
snug, book-lined library of his home in
the Forest Park section of northwest
Baltimore. Whitde, 63, recounted his
Whittle was a 19-year-old student at
the segregated Morgan State when the
Baltimore office of the NAACP asked
him if he'd consider being a test case.
Whittle, who wanted to be an electrical
engineer, agreed. At that time, he was
living in East Baltimore with his six
brothers and two sisters. Whittle was
the fifth child in a family of strict
Jehovah's Witnesses, and the first to go
"The NAACP was filing suits against a
number of schools and I was asked to
be a part of their program to open up
the University of Maryland College of
Engineering," Whittle says. "Donald
Murray was the lead counsel, but
behind him was the whole NAACP staff,
including Thurgood Marshall." Also an
African American, Donald Murray sued
to enter the University of Maryland
School of Law in 1934.
On January 31, 1 95 1 , before
Whittle's case could go to trial, the
University of Maryland Board of Regents
held a special meeting and, acting on
the advice of the State Attorney
General, voted to admit Whittle to
College Park "immediately."
There was "no other action to take,"
an unidentified board member said to a
Baltimore Sun reporter.
In addition, the board announced
that the state's biracial education sys-
tem "must be abandoned unless actual
equality is provided in facilities for
negroes." Board members also decided
African American students should be
admitted to UMCP unless taxpayers and
lawmakers wanted to slate funds specif-
ically for improvements to segregated
schools. Stressing that future policy was
for the legislature to decide, the board
emphasized its opposition to past
"makeshift policies" regarding African
American students because "they have
neither given Negro students equal
facilities nor prevented their entering
The university's objections to the
biracial education policies were not
humanitarian. Officials were concerned
only because none of the state's poli-
cies had held up when challenged in
In Whittle's suit, the regents fell thai
there were no legal grounds to deny
him entry to the university. So, in
February 1951. Whittle transferred from
Morgan State, where he'd gone for two
and a half years.
"For my first semester, the NAACP
arranged for me to live with a lady in
Lakeland. It was a small community of
colored people who lived right outside
of the campus," Whittle says.
Whittle says going to school at
UMCP was "no different from going to
"I didn't know the difference," he
says. "I was that busy.
"The same college atmosphere that
existed at Morgan State existed at the
University of Maryland."
Professors treated him the same as
any other student. Whittle says, and he
doesn't recall encountering the overt
prejudice that Mitchell struggled with.
"Many of the students were from
'Baltimore and in those days we really
didn't have a racial problem here in the
Marjory Brooks, dean of the College of Home Economics, speaks at a student rally on
the steps of Marie Mount Hall in October 1968.
city," he says. "Oh yeah, we
had segregation, but among
the kids we didn't really have
a racial problem."
The following year Whittle
applied for a dormitory room
and the university, legally
bound, honored his applica-
Whittle was given his own
room in a dormitory originally
built to house World War II
veterans who were going to
school on the GI Bill. Whittle
recalls his transition into dorm
life as uneventful.
"No problems," he says. "It
wasn't anything new to me.
Just the general social environ-
ment you'd find on any col-
"Also, I have pretty much
always operated in an interra-
cial environment," Whittle
says of his lifelong participa-
tion in the Jehovah's
Although his dormitory
arrangements were satisfacto-
ry. Whittle found the educa-
tional requirements of the
College of Engineering to be
too rigorous. After one year he
left College Park and. shortly
after, moved to New York
City. Since 1963, Whittle has
worked for Baltimore City
In the past 43 years the uni-
versity has not succeeded in
eradicating the effects of its
discriminatory history, but the
climate for African Americans
has improved markedly. Since
the mid-1950s the university
has executed a number of pro-
grams to help recruit and
retain minority students. And
a 1 992 study by the magazine
Black Issues in Higher
Education ranked UMCP as
number one nationally among
non-historically black schools
in the number of baccalaure-
ate and doctoral degrees
awarded to black students.
"It's true that the University
of Maryland has made much
progress, but that doesn't
mean that racism doesn't exist
there," Mitchell says. "I think
black students must be vigi-
lant against any forms of
African American Experience
continued from page I
to college life and succeed in their academic pur-
1967 — The Black Explosion newspaper is pub-
lished by the Black Student Union.
1971 — Nyumburu Cultural Center opens as part
of the Intensive Educational Development
Program's efforts to support African American stu-
dents. Director J. Otis Williams says that the cen-
ter plays a major role in the cultural, social and
academic life of College Park students. "We seek
to bridge the gap between the diverse groups of
students at College Park by focusing on African
American culture and history, and by sponsoring
academic courses and lectures."
1970—3.4 percent of full time students are
1971 — Black Faculty and Staff Association is
formed. Today UMCP employs almost 1,000
African Americans as staff and faculty.
1978 — The university implements the Benjamin
Banneker Scholarship Program. Originally, the
program offered two-year scholarships with
stipends of $1,000 per year to all minority stu-
dents. But the university found that the funding
was not significant enough to attract
high-achieving African American students to
UMCP. In 1988, UMCP increased the value of
the scholarship and limited it to African
Banneker scholarships are merit based and
currently provide full financial support for four
years of study at UMCP. Overall, the cost of the
Banneker Program accounts for approximately
one percent of UMCP's total financial aid budget
1980 — 7.5 percent of full time students are
African American. Headline in the Ebony Spotlight,
published by the Black Student Union, proclaims
"All White School Integrates."
September 1985 — Several Black Explosion staff
members change the name of the historical publi-
cation to Eclipse. With the cooperation of the
Black Student Union, the campus NAACP chapter
and the Nyumburu Cultural Center, Black
Explosion continues to be published through the
1990 — 11.2 percent of full time students are
1993-94 — Fifteen percent of the freshman class
is African American. Also, African Americans
make up 7 percent of College Park's graduate
February 7, 1994 Outlook 7
Coastal Research Lab
Awarded $720,000 Grant
A $720,000 grant from the Andrew
W. Mellon Foundation will allow a
UMCP research team to study coastal
erosion through field and laboratory
Five researchers and a host of gradu-
ate students from the university's
laboratory for Coastal Research will
spend three years performing field
investigations of coastal processes and
beach erosion from Stuart, Fla., to
Nantucket, Mass. The grant also will
fund a computer mapping analysis of
shoreline changes to assist with predict-
ing erosion trends.
"Over 70 percent of the U.S. beaches
are currently eroding, and $8 billion has
been spent on beach nourishment in
the last decade," says Stephen
Leatherman, director of the laboratory,
who will oversee both projects. "With
hundreds of cities on the beach,' we
have literally drawn a trillion dollar line
in the sand across which the sea must
not pass or enormous damage results."
Leatherman is an internationally
known expert on coastal processes. He
and his colleagues would like to study
the cyclical patterns of coastline
change, which he calls "templates of
change." Leatherman says that many
beaches and inlets go through cycles,
during which the beaches may actually
increase in size before eroding.
MBA Program is the Tops
The College of Business and
Management's MBA program got top
marks in the Princeton Review's 1994
Guide to the Best Business Schools,
ranking among the top ten in several
The Review gives brief descriptions
of the top 70 business schools in the
country, then ranks the schools accord-
ing to student surveys conducted last
spring. Maryland ranked number one in
the categories of helping students
develop strong accounting and market-
ing skills and in having a very effective
job placement office. The business
school ranked number six in helping
students develop strong operations
skills. And in the categories of best
overall skills and helping students
develop strong quantitative skills,
Maryland ranked eighth.
Other areas in which the business
school hit the top ten were student
diversity, quality of library facilities and
alumni networking. In addition,
Maryland enjoys top ten status in terms
of its social life and student cama-
Steinway Makes a Grand
Donation to Archives
Several documents and other corre-
spondence involving the late concert
pianist Josef Hofmann and the firm of
Steinway and Sons will soon be accessi-
ble to the public at the International
Piano Archives at Maryland (IPAM)
located in the Music Library. The docu-
ments were donated to the IPAM by
Henry Z. Steinway, a descendant of the
famous piano-crafting family.
Hofmann, who died in 1957 and
whose papers belong to IPAM, was con-
sidered one of the world's greatest
pianists during the period between the
two World Wars and rated on a par pro-
fessionally with the likes of
Rachmaninoff and Paderewski. He was
a Steinway artist throughout his career.
The pianist's correspondence with the
Steinways related primarily to business
matters, progress reports on his career,
reflections on his concert performances
and some mechanical inventions for the
improvement of the piano that he
advanced to the Steinways.
A number of photographs are also
part of this collection.
Birnbaum to Help Redefine
Higher Education in Japan
Robert Birnbaum, an education pro-
fessor who studies higher education,
has assumed the position of vice presi-
dent and dean of faculty at Miyazaki
International College, a new education
venture that may redefine higher educa-
tion in Japan. The two-year position
began in January and the college will
open in April 1994.
Located on the Japanese island of
Kyushu, Miyazaki International College
is a new four-year institution that is a
cooperative effort by Japanese and
American educators to prepare
Japanese students to function as effec-
tively in other cultures as they do in
"Japan and the United States are
both world powers who often find it
difficult to understand each other, even
as their political, social and economic
interests are becoming more intercon-
nected," notes Birnbaum. To improve
international understanding, the college
will focus on comparative culture, help-
ing students to bridge cultural and
national boundaries by offering courses
in the social sciences and humanities,
supported by English language courses.
Literacy Tutors Post 93
Percent Success Rate
Students at Northwestern High
School are passing the Maryland
Functional Reading Test and Writing
Test in record numbers, thanks to
UMCP students who are serving as liter-
Ninety of the 96 students tutored in
preparation for the Reading Test admin-
istered in October passed it, according
to Linda Conley, Northwestern High
School Reading Specialist. Conley, who
describes Northwestern as a melting
pot that presents a unique literacy chal-
lenge, says "The positive influence
College Park students have on our stu-
dents is immeasurable. They made a sig-
nificant difference in the success of the
According to Conley, there are 40
languages spoken at Northwestern.
Nineteen of the students tutored were
learning English as a second language.
All were identified by the English teach-
ers as "students at serious risk."
Some of the College Park tutors also
had been at-risk students. Theresa
DiPaolo, who initiated the program
eight years ago, says, "Students who
may have had some problems them-
selves know what it's like to stumble
and can share their experiences."
Ralph Schlenker, Executive
Director of ISR, Dies
Ralph Schlenker, Executive Director
of the Institute for Systems Research
(ISR) in the College of Engineering,
died Jan. 24 in Gettysburg, Pa., after a
Lesbian and Gay Luncheon— The Lesbian and Gay Staff and Faculty Association is
holding a brown bag lunch on Tues., Feb. 15. from noon to 1:30 p.m.. in the
Maryland Room. Katie King, from the Women's Studies Program, will discuss a
new UMCP course on lesbian and gay issues. The Domestic Partnership Benefits
Task Force also will make a report. New members are welcome. To be included on
the mailing list, call Lee Badgett at 405-6384 or e-mail her at 359120@umdd.
Rapturous Retirement— Employees enrolled in the TIAA/CREF Retirement Plan
who retire after Oct. 1, 1993, with 25 years of creditable service will receive the
state health insurance subsidy for their covered dependents. Any questions on this
matter should be directed to the benefits office at 405-5654.
Senate Scoop— The College Park Senate calendar for Spring 1994 is as follows:
Thursday, Feb. 10; Monday, Mar. 7; Thursday. Mar. 31; Monday. April 18; and
Thursday, May 5. All Senate meetings convene at 3:30 p.m. in Room 0200
Super Student Employees — The Job Referral Service invites faculty, staff and com-
munity employers to nominate student employees who have exemplified initiative,
reliability and other fine work qualities. Students who work part-time, full-time or as
volunteers are all eligible but must have been employed for at least six months.
Each department/organization may nominate more than one student employee.
Scholarships ranging from $650 to $2,500 will be awarded to the top five finalists.
Nomination deadline is Feb. 22. For more information, contact Jacqueline James-
Hughes at 314-8324. Forms are available at 0119 Hornbake Bldg., South Wing.
Outstanding Service Awards — The Office of the President requests nominations
for the 1994 Outstanding Service to the Schools Award to be given to a select
number of university faculty and program staff in recognition of their exemplary ser-
vice to the schools. The award honors members of the campus community for their
work with school-aged students and their teachers in Maryland. Nomination pack-
ets may be picked up from deans and director offices. Two letters of endorsement,
including one from school system personnel, must be submitted along with the
nominee's vita to: Dr. Thomas D. Weible, Acting Director, School/University
Cooperative Programs, 3119 Benjamin Building, by March 7 to receive full consid-
Go International — The deadline for applications to the International Travel Fund is
Feb. 15, 1994. Funds, which cover air fare only, are available for UMCP faculty
members planning to conduct research abroad. Please note that travel to confer-
ences, conventions or other international meetings will not be supported. To obtain
further information or application forms, contact Valerie Williams in the Office of
International Affairs, 405-4772.
Deadline for MARC Awards — The Maryland Assessment Resource Center (MARC)
is seeking nominations for its annual award bestowed on the higher education
institution which has conducted the best assessment project. Each Maryland pub-
lic institution of higher education may select one project, completed within the
past five years, for submission. Included among the judging criteria are extent of
faculty involvement, importance of the topic and significance of the activity with
respect to the campus mission, evidence of dissemination and cost effectiveness.
Materials to be submitted include copies of the original project report, a project
summary, a letter of endorsement from the unit head and a letter of endorsement
from the Chief Academic Officer, Vice President or President. Submissions are due
by Monday, Feb. 21. For more information, call MARC at 405-7871.
Schlenker joined the ISR in Sept.
1989. As executive director, he played
a major role in the evolution of the
institute's education and industrial col-
laboration programs. He developed a
variety of industrially supported
research initiatives and was instrumen-
tal in developing outreach programs for
high school math and science students
He earned his B.S. in civil engineer-
ing from Worcester Polytechnic
Institute and his M.S. in civil engineer-
ing from Purdue University.
In lieu of flowers, donations in his
memory can be made to the American
Heart Association New Jersey Affiliate
Memorial Program, 2550 Route 1,
North Brunswick, N.J. 08902-4301.
Planning the Future
"Collaborations and Partnerships:
The Next Twenty Years" is the theme
of the 20th Annual Student Affairs
Conference to be held on Friday, Feb.
18, at the Stamp Student Union. Topics
for this year's national conference
include future directions for national
associations, administrative and leader-
ship issues, gender bias in student com-
munication, and issues related to
accommodations for students with dis-
Arthur Levine and Lee Knefelkamp,
renowned in the field of higher educa-
tion, are keynote speakers. Levine is a
senior faculty member at the Harvard
Graduate School of Education and
Knefelkamp, a recipient of the UMCP
Distinguished Scholar-Teacher Award,
is professor of higher education at
Teachers College, Columbia Llniversity.
She is widely respected for her work in
student development theory and for her
accomplishments in multicultural
In addition to keynote addresses,
there will be other prominent speakers
and round table discussions. For more
information, contact Pat Schaecher at
8 Outlook February 7. 1994
An economics professor tells how to pull yourself out
Julian Simon tortured himself into
depression and has lived to write a cog-
nitive therapy book about it.
From 1962 until 1975, in a daily ritu-
al of self-excoriation, the economist
reviewed his faults and failures and ago
nized over his perceived worthlessness.
"1 was a prisoner of my mental habits,
as we all are, but 1 was imprisoned in a
particularly painful way," Simon says.
In the introduction to Good Mood:
The New Psychology of Overcoming
Depression, Simon writes that for 13
years he refused to allow himself to do
many of life's pleasurable things
because he thought he should suffer.
And for a long time. Simon says, he felt
powerless to understand why.
Initially, he consulted psychiatrists
and psychologists, but they were
unable to do anything substantive for
him. Outside of moments when he was
absorbed in work, participating in
sports or making love, Simon was over-
whelmed by a grim sense of hopeless-
ness and helplessness.
Only once did Simon experience a
momentary release from despair.
He and his wife were visiting friends
in the country. It was the first time they
had been away from home since Simon
became depressed six months earlier.
They slept out-of-doors and when
Simon woke in the morning he heard a
bird trill and was overcome by a "radi-
ant, delicious inner peace." After a few
hours, though, he was depressed again.
But the temporary lightening of his spir-
it gave Simon hope for redemption.
In the early 1970s, an Orthodox
Jewish friend suggested Simon follow a
precept of the Sahbath and be deliber-
ately cheerful and happy at least this
one day of each week. Simon thought
this was a wonderful philosophy.
Summoning all of his willpower, the
professor made a rule that he would not
work, or think about work, or let him-
self be angry with anyone from sunset
Friday night until after sundown on
Saturday. In this way he was able to
sustain a feeling of contentment
throughout the Sabbath.
In 1975, Simon cleared a backlog of
work from his desk and in a rare
unrushed period decided to focus on
himself. "I said, 'you ought to think
about this seriously. Start first thing in
the morning when the mind is fresh
Simon went to the library, brought
home a bag of books on depression,
and taught himself about cognitive ther-
apy by reading the seminal works of its
chief proponents, Aaron Beck and
Albert Ellis. "The key element in Beck
was that you can change your own
head," Simon says. "That's the radical
element so different from Freudian psy-
chology which holds that you are a vic-
tim of your childhood."
The idea that he could control his
feelings was an epiphany for Simon.
Equipped with this new knowledge, he
cured his depression in a month. "I
knew that that was it." he says of the
experience. "But I waited a week to tell
Coming from anyone else this pro-
nouncement might seem incredible, but
Simon's life has been full of provocative
headlines since then.
In the Dec. 3, 1993. issue of the
Washingtonian, Simon was described
as "an iconoclastic professor of business
administraUon" who "has led the way in
arguing that doomsayers frightened by
overpopulation and global shortage of
are dead wrong. "
about in the Wall
The New York
Times, and the
New York Times
him the scourge
of the environ-
Of the blues, mental movement.
The Aug. 18,
1985, issue of Washington Post
Magazine featured him on the cover,
and asked. "What Population
Explosion?" Simon accused environ-
mentalists of being prophets of doom.
The Population Crisis Committee called
his work supply-side demographics.
Inspired by his success with self-ther-
apy, Simon expanded Beck and Ellis's
theories. He developed the concept
that depression arises from making neg-
ative self-comparisons. "It is the combi-
nation of this negative self-comparison
plus helplessness that is theoretically
new," he says.
Simons book combines past cogni-
tive therapy methods with a detailed
examination he calls self-comparisons
analysis which "sharpens the concept
of negative thinking to a precise formu-
lation of a mood ratio with two parts.
The numerator' is the situation that
person believes to be true. The 'denom-
inator is the state the person uses as a
benchmark. A mood ratio widi the
numerator being less positive than the
denominator, together with a sense of
helplessness, causes sadness, loss of
self-worth, and eventually depression."
Although Simon's explanation of
"self-comparisons analysis" may sound
as if he's targeting an audience of
depressed social scientists, his logic is
simple. "Whenever you think about
yourself in a judgmental fashion," he
writes, "your thought takes the form of
a comparison between the state you
think you are in and some other hypo-
thetical benchmark' state of affairs."
That benchmark with its "oughts"
and "shoulds" is what causes trouble.
Simon says harsh self-comparisons com-
bined with a feeling of poweriessness
to change is what causes chronic
Report from the Staff Caucus of the College Park Senate
This is a request to all of our classi-
fied co-workers on campus from the
members of the Staff Caucus of the
College Park Senate. Although we are
only a small portion of the senate, we
want to effectively represent our hun-
dreds of co-workers at UMCP. This
means we need your input in order to
advocate for solutions to problems and
issues that are important to you. So far.
we are aware of three problem areas
important to us and our co-workers.
The first problem is the general lack
of consideration and respect for the
campus staff. The jobs we do keep this
institution operating and operating
well. However, too many decisions that
affect our work lives are made without
adequate consideration of the impact
these decisions have on staff. Awards
and individual recognition are fine, but
daily respect and consideration is para-
Another problem area is pay. We
have been forgotten and ignored too
long. The Staff Senators have written
President Kirwan seeking his active
support for a more fair distribution of
the proposed state pay raise. We sup-
port all UMCP workers getting the same
dollar amount of the raise as opposed
to getting the same percentage amount.
This distribution is much more equi-
table for the lower- and mid-level classi-
fied pay grades and Series 4() workers.
The third issue we are very con-
cerned about is our health insurance.
We cannot tolerate another year like
1 993 when our insurance costs rose to
criminal levels. On top of this, the open
enrollment period was too short and
complicated by many staff never receiv-
ing the necessary literature to make an
Additionally, there are two staff
vacancies in the senate. One is in the
category of Service and Maintenance
and the other is in the Overtime
Exempt Classified category. If you are
interested please call your Staff Senator.
Following is a list of Staff Senators
depression. Good Mood comes with an
IBM compatible disc to help users ana-
lyze their thoughts and help them-
selves. Psychiatrist Kenneth Mark Colby
developed the psychotherapy program
for depression based on the theory in
Simon stresses that as much as he
strongly believes that people must take
responsibility for curing their own
depression, he is not anti-drug. "1 am
not trying to deny their role, or say that
all depressed people should handle
their depression by talking to others or
handling it themselves." What he is say-
ing is that it is "unwarranted" to think
diat all depression is "biochemically
Simon offers encouragement for
those suffering from depression. "Keep
in mind that most people's depressions
end, and end very quickly," he says.
"Remember you are not simply a
patient that has to be patient. Many of
us can take a huge role in helping our-
selves. Take the active mode instead of
the passive mode. You are not simply a
ball that the world is bouncing."
As for Simon, he's sustained his
healthy outlook. "Depression has
caused me to accentuate the positive,"
he says. "I've thrown away a lot of my
ties. I'll never wear a dark tie again. And
if I had a personalized license plate it
would say laughs'."
and their phone numbers. It is very
important that you contact us to talk
about the issues and problems that are
important to you.
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