62 PA THOGENIC BACTERIA. were forced. My own investigations have shown viru- lent staphylococci of suppuration upon the conjunctive in health. " It is very improbable that the bacteria habit- ually present upon the skin, and ready to enter the least abrasion, can penetrate the outer coverings of the body, except when disease or accident -has rendered them abnormally thin or macerated. Turro seems to have shown that the gonococcus can enter the tissues without any pre-existing lesion, for he asserts that if a virulent culture simply be touched to the meattis urinarius, the disease will be established. (d) Wounds.—The results of the entrance of bacteria into unprotected wounds are now so familiar that no one deserving of the name of surgeon dares to allow a wound to go undressed. (e) The Placenta.—Very frequently the occurrence of specific diseases during pregnancy causes abortion of the 'product of conception. In certain cases the specific contagion passes through the placenta and infects the fetus. This has been pretty clearly demonstrated for variola, malaria, syphilis, measles, anthrax, symptomatic anthrax, glanders, relapsing fever, typhoid, and in rare cases for tuberculosis. Anche found streptococci and staphylococci in the tis- sues of aborted fceti in cases of variola.1 Except in the case of wounds, it must be observed that, although the bacteria are in the body—i. e., respiratory, digestive, or sexual apparatus, etc.—they are still not in the blood, and really not in, but only upon the surfaces of the tissues. For their actual entrance into the circulation, Kruse2 gives the following possible modes: 1. Passive entrance of the bacteria through the sto- tnata of the vessels where the pressure of the inflammatory exudate is greater than the intravascular pressure. 2. Entrance of the bacteria into the vessel in the body of leucocytes that have incorporated them. 1 La Semaine Med., 1892, No. 61. 2 Fliigge's Mikroorganismen.