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GLANDERS.                           253

been largely superseded by the use of Kiihne's carbol-
methylene blue:

Methylene blue,                                          i. 5

Alcohol,                                                    10.

5 per cent, aqueous phenol solution,        100.

Kiihne's method of staining is to place the section in the
stain for about half an hour, wash in water, decolorize
carefully in hydrochloric acid (10 drops to 500 of
water), immerse at once in a solution of lithium carbonate
(8 drops of a saturated solution of lithium carbonate in 10 water), place in a bath of distilled water for a few
minutes, dip into absolute alcohol colored with a little
methylene blue, dehydrate in anilin oil containing a
little methylene blue in solution, wash in pure anilin
oil, not colored, then in a light ethereal oil, clear in
xylol, and mount in balsam.

When stained in sections of tissue the bacilli are
found to occupy the interior of small inflammatory zones
not unlike tubercles in appearance. These nodules can
be seen with the naked eye scattered through the livers,
kidneys, and spleens of animals dead of experimental
glanders. The nodules consist principally of leucocytes,
but also contain numerous epithelioid cells. As is the case
with tubercles, the centres of the nodules are prone to
degenerate, soften, and also to suppurate. The retro-
gressive processes upon exposed surfaces, where the break-
ing down of the nodules allows their contents to escape,
are the sources of the typical ulcerations. At times the
process is progressive, and some of the lesions heal by
the formation of a stellate scar.

Baumgarten regarded the origin and course of the his-
tological lesions of glanders to be much like those of the
tubercle. In his studies epithelioid cells first accumulated,
and were followed by leucocytes. Tedeschi was not able
to confirm the results of Baumgarten7 s work, but found the
primary change to be due to a necrosis of the affected
tissue followed by an invasion of leucocytes. The recent