292 PATHOGENIC BACTERIA. by Blasi and Russo-Travali it was found that in 26 cases of pseudoineiiibranous angina due to streptococci, staphy- lococci, colon bacilli, and pneumococci, 2 patients died, the mortality being 3.84 per cent. In 102 cases of pure diphtheria 28 died, a mortality of 27.45 Per cent. Seventy- six cases showed diphtheria bacilli and staphylococci; of these, 25, or 32.89 per cent, died. Twenty cases showed the diphtheria bacilli and Streptococcus pyogenes, with 6 deaths—30 per cent. In 7 cases, of which 3, or 43 per cent, were fatal, the diphtheria bacillus was in com- bination with streptococci and pneumococci. The most dangerous forms met were 3 cases, all fatal, in which the diphtheria bacillus was found in combination with the Bacillus coli. It may be well to remark that all pseudomembranotis diseases of the throat are not diphtheria, but that some of them, exactly similar in clinical picture, result from the activity of the pyogenic organisms alone, and are neither diphtheria nor contagious. Diphtheritic inflammations of the throat are not always accompanied by the formation of the usual pseudomem- brane, it rarely but occasionally happening that in the larynx a rapid inflammatory edema without a fibrinous surface-coating causes a fatal suffocation. Only a bac- teriological examination will reveal the nature of the disease in such cases. Herman Biggs,1 in an interesting discussion of the occurrence of the diphtheria bacillus and its relation to diphtheria, comes to the following conclusions: 1. " When the diphtheria bacillus is found in healthy throats investigation almost always shows that the indi- viduals have been in contact with cases of diphtheria. The presence of the bacillus in the throat, without any lesion, does not, of course, indicate the existence of the disease. 2. "The simple anginas in which virulent diphtheria bacilli are found are to be regarded from a sanitary stand- 1 Amer. Jour, of the Med. Sciences, Oct., 1896, vol. xxii., No. 4, p. 411.