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times  smaller,   and  the  number  of cases  19.27  times
smaller than among the not inoculated."

Pawlowsky and others have found that the dog is sus-
ceptible to cholera, and have utilized the observation to
prepare an antitoxic serum in considerable quantities.
The dogs were first immunized with attenuated cultures,
then with more and more virulent cultures, until a serum
was obtained whose value was estimated at i : 130,000
upon experimental animals.

• Freymuth and others have endeavored to secure favor-
able results from the injection of blood-serum from con-
valescent patients into the diseased. One recovery out
of three cases treated is recorded—not a very glittering

In all these preliminaries the foreshadowing of a future
therapeusis must be evident, but as yet nothing really
satisfactory has been achieved.

The Finkler and Prior Spirillum.—Somewhat similar
to the spirillum of cholera, and in some respects closely
related to it, is the spirillum obtained from the feces of
a case of cholera nostras by Finkler and Prior in 1884.
It is a rather shorter, stouter organism, with a more pro-
nounced curve, than the cholera spirillum, and rarely
forms the long spirals which characterize the latter.
The central portion is also somewhat thinner than the
ends, which are a little pointed and give the organism
a less uniform appearance than that of cholera (Fig. 84).
Involution-forms are very common in cultures, and occur
as spheres, spindles, clubs, etc. Like the cholera spiril-
lum, each organism is provided with a single flagellum
situated at its end, and is actively motile. Although at
first thought to be a variety of the cholera germ, marked
differences of growth were soon observed, and showed
the organism to be a separate species.

The growth upon gelatin plates is quite rapid, and leads
to such extensive liquefaction that four or five dilutions