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Full text of "Picture Posters"

Gougle 




PICTURE POSTERS. 




YVETTE GUILBERT. FACSIMILE OF SKETCH BY TOULOUSE- 
LAUTREC FOR AN UNPUBLISHED POSTER. 



PICTURE POSTERS 



A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ILLUSTRATED PLA- 
CARD^ WITH MANY REPRODUCTIONS OF THE 
MOST ARTISTIC EXAMPLES IN ALL COUNTRIES 



Bv CHARLES HIATT 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL AND SONS 

NEW YORK : MACMILLAN AND CO. MDCCCXCVI 



-X* 



Second Edition 



CONTENTS. 
CHAPTER I. 

PAGE 

The Story of the Pictorial Poster ... i 

The Poster in Egypt and Rome — The Town 
Crier — Royal Proclamations — Publishers' Privi- 
leges — Coaching Bills — Ecclesiastical Advertise- 
ments. 

CHAPTER II. 

The Pictorial Poster in France during 

the Present Century u 

Lalance in 1 836 — Nanteuil — Gouch£ — Gavarni 
— Bertrand — Grandville — Tony Johannot — 
Fr&re — Manet. 

CHAPTER III. 
The Pictorial Poster in France (continued) 23 
Ch£ret — Grasset — Toulouse-Lautrec. 

CHAPTER IV. 
The Pictorial Poster in France (continued) 77 

Willette — Forain — Steinlen — Anquetin — 
Bonnard — Ibels — Valloton — DeFeure — M6tivet. 

CHAPTER V. 
The Pictorial Poster in France (continued) 135 

Guillaume — Paleologue — Choubrac — Boutet 
de Monvel — Aman-Jean — Schwaebe — Sinet — 
Gu£rard — Goissaud — J ossot — Cazoly — Gr iin — 
Gray — Bac — Lunel — The Music Hall and Cafe 
Chantant — Railway Companies. 



VI 11 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER VI. 

PAGE 

The Pictorial Poster in England .... 183 

Walter Crane — Godfroy Durand — Fred Walker 
— Professor Herkomer, R.A. — Sir John Millais, 
R. A.— H. Stacy Marks, R.A.— G. D. Leslie, R.A. 
— Burton Barber — Linley Sambourne — Harry 
Furniss — Edward Poynter, R.A. — Sir James 
Linton, P.R.I. — Charles Green, R. I. 

CHAPTER VII. 
The Pictorial Poster in England {continued) 205 

Dudley Hardy — Aubrey Beardsley — Mrs. 
Dearmer — Maurice Greiffenhagen. 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Other Contemporary English Designers . 231 

The Brothers Beggarstaff (Pryde and Simpson) 
— Walter Sickert — P. Wilson Steer — Mortimer 
Menpes — Lockhart Bogle — Frank Brangwyn — 
Frank Richards — Lewis Baumer — The Artistic 
Supply Co. — L. Raven-Hill — Edgar Wilson — 
Reginald Cleaver — Sydney Adamson — W. 
Wilson — Max Cowper — A. R. Millar — Kerr 
Lawson — F. H. Townsend — A. Roche — Phil 
May — Bernard Partridge — J. T. Manuel — 
Charles Ffoulkes — Leon Solon — Heywood Sum- 
ner — A. Morrow — R. Anning Bell — F. Barnard 
— F. Simpson — Robert Fowler — Sidney Ha- 
ward — M. Skipworth — Skinner — Starr Wood — 
A. G. Draper. 

CHAPTER IX. 

The Pictorial Poster in America .... 285 

Edward Penfield— Louis J. Rhead— Will. H. 
Bradley — Will. Carqueville — Kenyon Cox — 
Scotson Clark — George Wharton Edwards — C. 
G. Dana — Archie Gunn — T. B. Meteyard — 
Francis Day — Ethel Reed — Other prominent 
artists — E. A. Abbey. 



CONTENTS. X 

CHAPTER X. 

PAGE 

The Pictorial Poster in Other Countries 327 

In Spain — In Germany: Joseph Sattler — Ernest 
Klint — Franz Stuck — In Italy — In Holland — 
In Belgium : Duyck — Delville — Gaudy, etc. 

CHAPTER XL 
The Price of the Pictorial Poster ... 359 

Rare French Posters — Rare English Posters 
— Poster collecting — Conclusion. 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



DESIGN BY 

Abbey, E. A. 
Adamson, Sydney 
Anquetin . . . 
Bardenne, Leon 
Baumer, Lewis . 
Beardsley, Aubrey 



Beggarstaff, Brothers 



Bell, R. Anning 
Bertrand .. . 
Bonnard . . . 



BOUTET DE MONVEL 

Bradley, Will. H. 



SUBJECT. 

. The Quest of the Grail 

.♦Design 

. Le Rire 

. L'Imprimerie Bulens . 
.*R.A. Students' Burlesque 
. Avenue Theatre 

The Yellow Book 
. Becket . . 

The Hour . 
*Design . . 

Don Quixote 

Hamlet . . 

Harper's Magazine 
. Liverpool School of Art 
. Almanach Imperial (1846) 
. La Revue Blanche 

France — Champagne . 
. " Pate* Dentifrice " . . 

" La Petite Pougette " 
. Chap-Book(BlackandWhite) 



Cazoly . . 
Ch£ret, Jules 



Design 

When Hearts are Trumps 
The Masqueraders 

Design 

"Salon des 100" . . 

Saxol£ine 

La Juive 

Aux Buttes Chaumont 
Tour Eiffel .... 
(Panel) Comedy . . 

„ Pantomime . 

„ Music . . . 

„ Dancing . . 
Mus£e GreVin . . . 
Loie Fuller .... 



page 
3i5 
251 
ii5 
357 
247 
221 
222 
233 

2 35 
236 

237 
239 
241 
283 

13 
117 
119 
151 
153 
301 

3°3 
305 
3°7 
3°9 
311 
3*3 
J 59 

25 
26 

3i 
35 
37 
39 
41 
43 
45 
363 



XU INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Crespin, A. . 
Day, Francis 
Dearmer, Mabel 
De Beaumont, E. 
De Feure . . 



*Design 253 

Scribners Magazine . 319 



DESIGN BY SUBJECT PAGE 

Clark, Scotson . . . New York " Recorder " . . 321 
Cowper, Max . 
Cox, Kenyon 

Crane, Walter .... Paris Hippodrome .... 187 

Hau and Co.'s Champagne . 189 

. Paul Hankar 355 

. . "St. Nicholas" Christmas No. 323 

. . Dramatic Recital . . . . 223 

. . Les Nains Celebres ... 18 

. . Salon des Cent 125 

Le Diablotin 127 

Les Montmartroises . . . 129 

Duyck Cortege des Fleurs . . . 345 

Evenepoel Exposition Anvers .... 343 

Ffoulkes, Charles . . Charity 263 

N.S.P.C.C 265 

Forain, J. L Exposition des Arts de la 

Femme 91 

Salon du Cycle 93 

Fowler, Robert, R.I. . Walker Art Gallery . . . 281 

Fr^re, T. H La Touraine 19 

Gaudy, I. .... . Velodrome Bruxellois . . . 349 

Gausson Lessive Figaro . .... 172 

Grasset Jean d'Arc ...... 49 

Madrid Exhibition .... 51 

Salon des Cent .... 53 

L'Odeon 55 

Librarie Romantique ... 57 

L'Encre Marquet .... 59 

Capital Cities 60 

Grafton Gallery (1893) • • 6l 

Gray, H Nouveau Theatre .... 163 

Green, Charles, R.I. . Royal Institution, Mosley 

Street 201 

Greiffenhagen, Maurice Pall Mall Budget . . . . 227 

Grun . Le Carillon 161 

Guerard, H. . . . . Les Corbeaux 157 

Guillaume Armour's Extract of Beef . 137 

Delion's Hats 139 

Cycles Vincent fils . . . . 141 

Vind'Or 143 

Hardy, Dudley ... To-Day 207 

The Gaiety Girl 208 

Phit-Eesi (First Sketch) . . 211 

Saint Paul's 215 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. xiii 

DESIGN BY SUBJECT pAQE 

Hardy, Dudley . . . Saint Paul's (See-Saw) . 217 

Haward, Sidney . . .-An Artistic Home . . 270 
Hearn, J. (Weirdsly * 

Daubery) Pygmalion and Galatea . . 22 <: 

Herkomer, H., R.A. . . Magazine of Art .... 191 

A Sketch for Black and 
White 

Ibels, H. G Salon des Cent '. ". 1 .' [ 103 

MeVisto jo; 

L'Escarmouche 109 

Irene Henry m 

Johannot, Tony . . . Voyage ou il vous Plaira '. 16 

Don Quichotte 17 

La Libre Esthetique . Salon Annuel 347 

Lautrec, H. de Toulouse Sketch of Yvette Guilbert 

Frontispiece 

Jane Avril 63 

Le Matin 6q 

Aristide Bruant 67 

Caudieux 6o 

Divan Japonais jj 

Confettr .... 7 ^ 

Lawson, Kerr . . . .*Design ... 2 1q 

Lef^vre, L Electricine ....'' 17 c 

Linton, Sir James, P.R.I. Antony and Cleopatra . ' 200 

Manet, Edouard . . . Les Chats . 20 

Marks, H. S., R.A. . . Pears' Soap ...'*' IQ7 

McCarter, H. M. . . . Green Tree Library . ' Z* 

M^tivet, L Eugenie Buffet . . ' %l 

Millar, A. R. , . . .^Design ... 2 i 7 

Morrow, A The New Woman . . . ! 269 

Illustrated Bits . . 271 

Noury-Gaston .... Salon des Cent .... 169 

0°£ Papier-Ivette ... 167 

Orazi, M Trouville 183 

Paleologue, Jean de . . Lucille Wraim 147 

Euskal-Jai 140 

Partridge, Bernard . . # Design 261 

Penfield, Edward. . . Harper's Bazar .... . 286 

Harper's (June) 287 

Harper's (March) .... 289 

Poynter, Edward, R.A. The Guardian Assurance Co. 199 

Raven-Hill, L Pick-Me-Up 249 

_ . » >) >> 250 

Realier-Dumas . . . . Paris Mode 179 



XIV 



INDEX OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



DESIGN BY 

Realier-Dumas 
Rhead, Louis J. 



Sambourne, Linley 
Sattler, Joseph 
SCHWjEBE, Carloz . 
Solon, Leon . . . 
Spanish Posters : 



Steer, P. Wilson . 
Steinlen . . . . 
Stuck, Franz . . 

Sumner, Heywood 



Valloton, F. 
Verneuil . . 
Walker, Fred 
Willette, A. 



X. M. 



SUBJECT 


PAGE 


Incandescence .... 


181 


TheSun(N.Y.) . . . 


291 


Modern Cleanser . . . 


2 93 


Lundborg's Perfume . . 


295 


Poster Exhibition . . . 


297 


Cork-Tipped Cigarettes . 


203 


Pan 


337 


D'CEuvres Guillaume Lekeu 


*55 


The Frogs of Aristophanes 


267 


Fiestas de Abril en Sevilla 


3 2 9 


Plaza de Toros Cordoba . 


33 1 


„ „ „ Sevilla . 


333 


Gran Feria de Cordoba . 


335 


Exhibition 


245 


Nestles Swiss Milk . . 


97 


The Secessionists . . . 


34i 


Yvette Guilbert . . . 


99 


The Globe Theatre . . 


273 


>> >> j> • 


275 


Mr. Benson's Company . 


277 


Ah ! la p6 la pe . . . . 


121 


Dentifrices Pierres . . . 


171 


" Woman in White " . . 


185 


L'Infant Prodigue . . . 


79 


Exposition (1893) . . . 


81 


Nouveau Cirque . . . 


83 


Van Houten's Cocoa . . 


85 


99 » » • 


. 87 


La Fraternity .... 


353 



* These copyrighted designs are reproduced by kind per- 
mission of " The Artistic Supply Co.," Amberley House, W.C. 
The posters, with very few exceptions, are from photographs 
specially taken by Mr. » James Hyatt. 



PREFACE. 

In the present volume an attempt has been 
made briefly to trace (the history of the 
pi6lure poster from the earliest tunes ;) and 
to comment upon and reproduce some of 
the most noteworthy examples in various 
countries. The English and American 
placards have received special attention, 
while the best examples of the French school 
have not been overlooked. With very few 
exceptions, only posters signed, or acknow- 
ledged, by the artists producing them, are 
included among the illustrations. The whole 
subje6l is treated from the point of view 
rather of art than of commerce. While it 
is believed that this book is the first which 
deals in English with the Pictorial Poster, 
the author desires to recognize his indebted- 
ness to M. Maindrons work, and to the 
catalogues of M. Sagot and Mr. Bella. The 
last-named has rendered material aid by 
lending, for the purpose of reproduction, not 
a few examples contained in his collection. 

To name the artists and owners of valu- 
able copyrights who have laid the author 
under obligations would, however carefully 
compiled, almost certainly contain serious 



XVI PREFACE. 

omissions. It is hoped, therefore, that those 
whose names would figure in such a list 
will acquit him of intentional discourtesy or 
ingratitude. Special thanks are due to Mr. 
Gleeson White for his editorial work in con- 
nection with this volume ; indeed, whatever 
merits it may possess are due, in no small 
degree, to his care and assiduity . Although 
personally unknown to the writer, Mr. Spiel- 
mann has been so good as to assist 7naterially 
in the matter of illustration. To the kind- 
ness of M. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec is 
owing the frontispiece in the shape of a 
hitherto unpublished study for a poster ; 
while the reproduction of a sketch for the 
"Phit-Eesi" placard was courteously con- 
sented to by Mr. Dudley Hardy, and Messrs. 
IV at er low who printed the poster itself. The 
cover has been specially drawn by Mr. Charles 
Ffoulkes, to whom the writer desires to 
express his sincere thanks. The Artistic 
Supply Company {Limited) have been so 
good as to consent to the reprodu6lion of un- 
published copyright designs by Messrs. Ber- 
nard Partridge, Max Cowper, the Brothers 
Beggar staff, Sydney A damson, Kerr Law- 
son, A . R. Wilson, and Lewis Baumer. A 
design, representing Sir Henry Irving as 
"Don Quixote," is illustrated here owing 
to the kindness of Miss Ellen Terry, who 
owns the original. 

Charles Hiatt- 
October, 1895. 



PICTURE POSTERS. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE STORY OF THE PICTORIAL 
POSTER. 

It would be merely foolish to pretend that 
the pidtorial poster, looked at from the point 
of view of art, is of the same importance as 
a portrait by Velasquez or an etching by 
Rembrandt. Its aesthetic qualities have of 
necessity to be subordinated to its commer- 
cial qualities ; the artist is the servant of the 
tradesman. His first business is not to 
achieve a decoration, but to call the atten- 
tion of the man in the street to the merits of 
an article. He may be fantastic only in so 
far as his fantasy assists the advertisement ; 
he must ever keep before his eyes the narrow 
objed: of his effort. The closest limits are 
set to his invention ; it is not for him to do 
what he will, but rather to do what he 
must. Under such circumstances, it is, at 
the first blush, somewhat surprising that 
artists have condescended to the poster at 
all. The bounds of freedom in the cases of 
painting and of sculpture are, comparatively 

B 



2 PICTURE POSTERS. 

speaking, so wide that one is not unnaturally 
amazed that the artist of talent is willing 
to work within the stridt limitations imposed 
on him in the production of a pidtorial poster. 
And yet, after all, to the ingenious designer 
there is a certain fascination in the very 
stridtness of these limits ; the complexity of 
the problem allures him, and gives him the 
appetite for experiment. Moreover, if he 
believe that art is something more than a 
vague grace, a non-essential luxury, he is 
ever anxious to extend her domain, to make 
her empire universal. He believes it to be his 
mission to touch some ugly necessity, to 
inform it with art, and, in doing so, to adorn 
it. He is restless for new worlds to con- 
quer, for fresh fields to occupy. His ideal 
is art everywhere, art in all. He would fain 
give style and grace even to the parapher- 
nalia of commerce : the necessities of trade 
shall not be hideous if he can make them 
otherwise. And so it happens that he is 
willing, nay eager, to turn his attention to 
the poster, with the result that the hoarding 
becomes an interesting, even a charming, 
gallery of designs. What was one of the 
most hideous of human inventions is trans- 
formed into a delight to the eyes. Colour 
and interest are added to the street ; the gay 
and joyous take the place of the dull and 
ugly. 

It follows, supposing that I have stated 
the case fairly, that it is not derogatory to 



THE POSTER IN EGYPT. 3 

the dignity, even of a very great artist, to 
apply his talent to the poster. 

It is clear that the poster is one of the 
oldest and most obvious forms of advertise- 
ment. It is almost impossible to conceive 
a time in the history of man, once he had 
learned to express his thoughts in design or 
in writing, when the idea of the thing did 
not exist. It must have been an incident 
of the most crude and ancient of civiliza- 
tions ; even the cave-dweller in the dim 
and distant past must surely have possessed 
the essential idea of it. From the cave- 
dweller to the comparatively complex civili- 
zation of the ancient and greater Egypt 
is a far cry. That the mural inscription, 
which is obviously the germ of the poster, 
flourished exceedingly in the Land of the 
Pharaohs is matter of history. A papyrus 
is comprised in the collections of the 
Louvre, which may fairly be described as a 
poster. It is dated so early as 146 B.C., 
and deals at length with the escape of two 
slaves from the city of Alexandria, offering 
a reward to anybody who should discover 
their place of retreat. Still more interest- 
ing, though less ancient, is an inscription in 
Greek, discovered in the Temple at Jeru- 
salem, in 1872, by M. Clermont-Gannerau. 
It was issued during the reign of Herod the 
Great, and forbids the entry, by foreigners, 
to certain parts of the Temple on pain of 
death. 



4 PICTURE POSTERS. 

Of the poster in Greece we know very 
little. Legal inscriptions were undoubtedly 
written on whitened walls, or on axones, 
the latter being wooden tablets painted 
white, and made to revolve slowly on an 
upright axis. In passing from Greece to 
Rome, we pass from somewhat fragmentary 
to comparatively exadt information. The 
Roman notice-board was called an album, 
and it is a matter of dispute whether it was 
white with black letters, or of a dark colour 
with the text in white. Anybody who took 
away, destroyed, or mutilated an album 
was liable to an attio albi corrupti, and to 
heavy damages besides. It appears to have 
been invented in the first place, in order to 
give publicity to the annual edidt of the 
Praetor ; subsequently, however, the word 
album was used to signify any tablet on 
which a public announcement was inscribed. 
The ruins of Pompeii have furnished us 
with at least one interesting fragment of an 
album, on which are written notices of the 
most diverse kinds. Amongst them are the 
following : 

FAMILIA . GLADIATORIA 
VENATIO . ET . VELA . 

and: 

A. SVETTII . CERII . 

AEDILIS . FAMILIA. GLADIATORIA . PUGNAVIT . 

POMPEIS . PR . K. IVNIAS . VENATIO. ET . VELA. 

ERUNT . 



THE POSTER IN ROME. 5 

and again : 

DEDICATIONS 

THERMARUM . MUNERIS . 

ENAI . ALLEI . NIGIDII . 

MAII . VENALIO . ATHELA . 

SPARSIONES . VELA . 

ERUNT . MAIO . PRINCIPI . 

COLONIZE . FELICITER . 

1 As for the Roman bookseller, he was in 
the habit of placarding his shop with the 
titles of books just published, or about to be 
published. Take, for instance, the shop 
described by Martial in the lines : 

" Contra Caesaris est forum taberna, 
Scriptis postibus hinc et inde totis, 
Omnes ut cito perlegas poetas. 
Illinc me pete. 

The adtor has never been inclined to hide^ 
his light under a bushel. Advertisement 
has always been dear to him, and it is not 
surprising to find that the Roman adtor 
made the most of the opportunity of the 
publicity offered to him by the album. Not 
content with having his name inscribed in 
gigantic letters, he went a step further, and 
anticipated the illustrated affiche. Just as 
Sarah Bernhardt employs the decorative 
skill of Grasset to depidl her as Joan of 
Arc, so did the old Roman adtor employ 
Callades, an artist mentioned very favour- 
ably by Pliny, to portray him in his 
favourite parts. Callades would seem to 



6 PICTURE POSTERS. 

have been the Chdret of his age : he was the 
great artistic advertiser of ancient Rome, 
just as Chdret is the great artistic advertiser 
of modern Paris. 

It is obvious, then, that the idea of the 
illustrated poster existed among the Romans : 
the difference between Callades and Chdret 
is one of method rather than of vital prin- 
ciple. And even the difference in method 
is slight. 

Of the poster in the time which imme- 
diately succeeded the fall of the Roman 
Empire we have very little trustworthy in- 
formation. It is possible that the Romans 
introduced the album into Gaul and into 
Britain, and that the sight of it became as 
familiar to the inhabitants of Eboracum and 
Uriconium as it was to the natives of Rome 
and Pompeii. A French historian of dis- 
tinction has stated that the affiche was em- 
ployed by the earliest of the kings of France, 
but this statement can hardly be said to be 
borne out by fadts. It is at least certain 
that the signboard, which is a variation of the 
pidtorial poster, was employed in the early 
part of the Middle Ages. The poster, unless 
illustrated, would have been useless in a 
community in which the art of writing was 
held effeminate, in which the most illustrious 
knight openly boasted of his inability to 
sign his name. The principal means of ad- 
vertisement at that time was the public crier. 
As early as the twelfth century the criers of 



THE TOWN-CRIER. J 

France formed an organized body, " for," as 
Mr. Sampson tells us in his History of 
Advertising, " by a charter of Louis VII. 
granted in the year 1141 to the inhabitants 
of the province of Berry, the old custom of 
the country was confirmed, according to 
which there were to be only twelve criers, 
five of whom should go about the taverns 
crying with their usual cry, and carrying 
with them samples of the wine they cried in 
order that people might taste. For the first 
time they blew the horn they were entitled to 
a penny, and the same for every time after, 
according to custom. . . . These wine- 
criers are mentioned by John de Garlando, 
a Norman writer, who was probably con- 
temporary with William the Conqueror." 
The wine-crier is frequently mentioned in 
early French street-ballads. To instance 
one of them : 

" Si crie Ton en plusors leurs 
Si bon vui fort a trente deux 
A seize, a douze, a six, a huiet." 

In England also the crier was an early 
institution, for we find one Edmund le 
Criour mentioned in a document dated 1299. 
Even when the crier was the pre-eminent 
advertiser, the poster, or at least the hand- 
bill, had its place. At first the bills were 
written, but almost as soon as Caxton intro- 
duced the newly-discovered art of printing 
they were produced by that method. Per- 



8 PICTURE POSTERS. 

haps the earliest English poster is that by 
which Caxton, about the year 1480, an- 
nounced the " Pyes of Salisbury Use," at 
the Red Pole in the Almonry at West- 
minster. The size of this broadside is five 
inches by seven, and the text runs as 
follows : 

" If it please any man spirituel or tem- 
porel to bye our pyes of two or thre comemo- 
racio's of Salisburi use, emprunted after the 
form of this preset lettre, which ben wel 
and truly corredt, late hym come to West- 
monster, into the almonestrye at the reed 
pole ane he shall have them good and chepe. 
" Supplico stet cedula." 

The "pyes " in question, it may be noted, 
were a series of diocesan rules. 

It is in the sixteenth century that we 
meet with the poster properly so called. 
For example, we have a royal proclamation 
of Francois I relating to the police of the 
city of Paris, which runs : " Nous voulons 
que ces prdsentes ordonnances soient pub- 
ises tous les moys de Tan, par tous les 
quarrefours de cette ville de Paris et faux 
bourgs d'icelle, k son de trompe et cry 
public. Et ndantmoins qu'elles soient 
attachdes a un tableau, escriptes en parche- 
main et en grosse lettre, en tous les seize 
quartiers de ladite ville de Paris es esdidlz 
faux bourgs, et lieux les plus dminents et 
apparens d'iceulx, afin qu'elles soient cog- 



ROYAL PROCLAMATIONS. 9 

nues et entendues parfun chacun. Et ^qu'il 
ne soit loysible oster les diCtz tableaux, sur 
peine de punition corporelle, dont les diCtz 
commissaires auront la charge chacun en 
son quartier." 

The words "attachdes a un tableau, 
escriptes en parchemain et en grosse lettre " 
leave no doubt that the poster as we now 
know it was a usual method of advertisement 
in the reign of Francois I er . The affiche 
soon after received the attention of the 
French legislature, for the production and 
exhibition of posters of certain kinds in 
France, was expressly forbidden by "un 
arr£t du Parlement" dated the 7th of 
February, 1652. To publishers and book- 
sellers, however, the privilege of posting the 
titles of their new books was specially 
reserved. 

As printing became less expensive and 
methods for the mechanical reproduction of 
pictures and designs were discovered, it 
needed no great ingenuity to add emphasis 
to the poster by means of pictorial illustra- 
tion. Acrobats, the stall-keepers at fairs on 
the ice, and the like, were speedily induced 
to adorn their advertisements with rude 
drawings, while Royal proclamations were 
usually decorated heraldically. Early in the 
eighteenth century, the bills announcing the 
departure and arrival of coaches were headed 
by pictures, as for example the one which 
related to the Birmingham coach in 1731. 



IO PICTURE POSTERS. 

Even earlier in date, there are illustrated 
advertisements relating to the Roman 
Catholic church. One of these, produced 
in France, dated 1602, is very curious and 
elaborate in design. While, however, many 
posters such as this are profoundly interest- 
ing to the archaeologist, they can hardly be 
considered works of art. It is not until the 
middle of the present century is reached 
that we find important examples of pidlorial 
poster deliberately planned by an artist. The 
modern artistic poster movement, as we shall 
see in the next chapter, had its origin in 
Paris some fifty years ago. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE PICTORIAL POSTER IN 
FRANCE DURING THE PRE- 
SENT CENTURY. 

As we have seen, the idea of the poster, and 
even of the pidtorial poster, is an extremely 
ancient one, but it is only at the commence- 
ment of the present century that distin- 
guished designers deliberately attempted to 
make the pidtorial poster a work of art. 
The few posters, at once pidtorial and 
artistic, which are of earlier date than the 
time in question, are artistic by accident 
rather than by deliberate intention. So 
early, however, as the year 1836, we find a < 
really distinguished French artist, Lalance, > 
producing a poster. Lalance was, perhaps, 
the pioneer of pioneers, and his advertise- 
ment for the book, " Comment Meurent Les 
Femmes," if not of great artistic interest, 
cannot be overlooked in any book dealing 
with the history of art as applied to the 
poster. Only a few copies exist. Imme- 
diately succeeding him, we have Cdlestin 
Nanteuil engaged in producing an adver- 
tisement for an edition of " Robert Macaire," 



12 PICTURE POSTERS. 

dated 1837. The year following, Raffet 
brought out his " Napoldon de Norvins." 
This work is signed as well as dated. 
Raffet, in addition to the " Napoldon de 
Norvins," designed two more posters deal- 
ing with the career of the great emperor as 
well as the history of Algeria. Very soon 
after comes an important affiche, " Le 
Prado," by Eugene Gauchd, and from that 
time the artistic poster became an established 
institution. 

It may be fairly stated that the diredt 
cause of the artistic poster in France was the 
illustrated book. The illustrated book, 
issued in weekly or monthly numbers, has 
always appealed keenly to the French, and 
it is usual to give the first number for no- 
thing to all who care to ask for it. The 
illustrators of these books were very fre- 
quently induced by the publishers of them 
to do a poster advertising the edition of the 
works they had illustrated. Sometimes one 
of the illustrations in the book was merely 
enlarged and lithographed, but more gener- 
ally the artist made a special design. Per- 
haps, at the time, the most widely known 
among French producers of the affiche 
illustrd was Gavarni. The vogue for the 
works of this eminent illustrator and satirist 
is perhaps not so great as it was twenty 
years ago. At all events, the value of his 
works' is not nearly so great as it was then, 
and it has become usual to talk of him in a 



GAVARNI AND BERTRAND. 1 3 

manner which is patronizing rather than 
genuinely appreciative. It may be that his 



- 1846 

par E: MARCO it S: HILAIRE 

ILLUSTRi DU 

Bertram! UT ^ CENTIMES 




DESESSERTS, editeur 

PASSAGE DES PANORAMAS, 33 



DESIGN BY BERTRAND. 



savage and grotesque point of view dis- 
counts his merits as an artist. His power 
and originality, however, few will deny. 



14 



PICTURE POSTERS. 



Among the posters which he designed, one 
of the most characteristic is the " OEuvres 
Choisis." The original is extremely rare, 



&US 




v A PETtTES 




(V- 5o LLv:* £ 2>0 Cent. *>% 

^ 60USCfciv^ 



DESIGN BY GRANDVILLE. 



but a copy exists in a* folio volume in 
the British Museum, in which one or two 
other posters by Gavarni will be found. 
For the "Almanach Imperial, 1846," by 






.CEttSRCS 





DESIGN BY GRANDVILLE. 



i6 



PICTURE POSTERS. 



E. Marco de S. Hilaire, illustrated by Ber- 
trand, a poster (which was, perhaps, an en- 
largement of the cover) exists. It is a very 




DESIGN BY TONY JOHANNOT. 



jingo affair, representing the French emperor 
standing on the globe with the imperial 
eagle of France at his feet. Of a little later 



GRANDVILLE. 



17 



date are several interesting posters by 
Grandville. Amongst them are " Les Meta- 
morphoses du Jour" (of which a number 



oyiCHotre 



,»* f. aeaawj 



'«< 



-•'fij@y 



i;wt. 



v 



<fe° v 




9 * 



'%oH s S - m ©©eifflBI?^^' 



*U£ RlCHEAi€y G>0 



DESIGN BY TONY JOHANNOT. 



of pigs in different costumes is the main 
feature), " Des Animaux," " Ma Tante," 
" Petit Mis£re," and " St. Hel£ne." Of the 
two latter I need say nothing, since they are 

c 



i8 



PICTURE POSTERS. 



reproduced here, save that they are included 
in the collection of the British Museum. 
An illustrated poster very characteristic of 



LES NA1NS CELEBREX 

=— . .r\ iuutrus it 

' mo m& 




2& %/iWi 
1 /$ Cz- 



WSOUSftfP^ 



PUBL1E PK* 
%;HAVARB 



DESIGN BY EDOUARD DE BEAUMONT. 

its period, insomuch as it is intensely 
grotesque, is the " Voyage ou il vous plaira," 
by Tony Johannot. Its central figures are 



TONY JOHANNOT. 



19 



a monstrous dwarf holding a lantern, a 
crouching dragon, and an immense notice- 
board. An affiche which is, perhaps, of 



~ * f - 






fesSt 




i 


MM^II? 1 


; V 


•is 1 


p5^^ 


^ g»g 




IT* mf 



DESIGN BY T. H. FRERE. 



even more general interest, is one done for 
an illustrated edition of " Don Quichotte," 
in which the very perfect, gentle knight is 



20 PICTURE POSTERS. 

represented with a grotesqueness which 
would certainly have astonished Cervantes 
himself. Of a similar kind is the " Nains 
Cdl&bres," by E. de Beaumont. An illus- 
trated poster of a kind utterly different to 
the one last discussed is by T. H. Fr£re. 
It was designed for the advertisement of a 
work entitled " La Touraine," by Stanislas 
Bellanger de Tours. Under no circum- 
stances should one overlook an affiche of 
about the same period on account of the 
great personality of its designer. It is very 
generally admitted that the name of Edouard 
Manet is one of the greatest in the history 
of modern painting. It would indeed be 
difficult to over-estimate the extent of his 
influence on the pidtorial art of the day. The 
poster reproduced in these pages is not un- 
worthy his great talent. It is curious to 
notice that Manet and Fred. Walker, an 
English artist of about the same time, as to 
whose genius all are agreed, should have 
been at one in their endeavour to make the 
illustrated poster artistic as well as merely 
pidtorial. 

I have not attempted to deal with any 
save the most prominent of the great num- 
ber of French designers who took part in 
the poster movement during the fifties. 
Their names and the titles of some of their 
works will be found in the first catalogue of 
M. Ed. Sagot, and valuable criticism is con- 
tained in the pages of M. Maindron. 



CHAflPFLEURY - LES CHATS 




Un volume illustre , Prix 5 Francs 
En Vehte ici. 

DESIGN BY EDOUARD MANET. 



CHAPTER III. 

THE PICTORIAL POSTER IN 
FRANCE. THE WORK OF 
CHERET, GRASSET, AND 
TOULOUSE-LAUTREC 

So many contemporary French artists are 
designing posters, that a single chapter 
dealing with them all would be of an 
alarming length. I have therefore, in the first 
place, separated from their fellows three who 
seem to me curiously individual and worthy 
of careful consideration. Of the men whose 
names head this chapter, pre-eminence is due, 
for various reasons, to Jules Chdret, whose 
position, in the matter of poster-designing, 
is quite without parallel. 

It may be that men of rarer, of more 
fascinating, talent have now and again 
devoted themselves to the affiche ; but none 
of them can compare with Chdret in the 
magnitude and curiosity of his achievement. 
Many have produced charming wall pic- 
tures : nobody, save Chdret, has made an 
emphatic mark on the aspedt of a metropolis. 
Paris, without its Chdrets, would be Paris 
without one of its most pronounced charac- 



24 PICTURE POSTERS. 

teristics ; Paris, moreover, with its gaiety of 
aspedl materially diminished. The great 
masses of variegated colour formed by 
Chdret's posters greet one joyously as one 
passes every hoarding, smile at one from the 
walls of every cafe, arrest one before the 

/windows of every kiosque. The merits of 
the Saxoldine lamp, the gaieties of the 
Moulin Rouge, the charms of Loie Fuller, 
the value of a particular brand of cough- 
lozenges, are insisted upon with a good- 
humoured vehemence of which Jules 
Chdret alone appears to know the secret. 
Others, in isolated cases, have possibly 
achieved more compelling decorations, but 
none can pretend to a success so uniform 
and so unequivocal. Few men as richly 
endowed with the gift of decoration would 

I have been content to produce work which, 
were it not for the portfolio of the collector, 
would be of an entirely ephemeral character. 
It must be irritating to the artist to watch 
the gradual destruction of his chefs-d'oeuvre, 
condemned as they are to be torn by every 
wind, soaked by every shower, blistered by 
the sun, blurred by the fog. It is natural 
that he should turn his eyes longingly to the 
comparative permanence of canvas, marble, 
or bronze ; and it says much for Chdret's 
confidence in his artistic mission for his 
nice realization of his possibilities and limi- 
tations, that he has remained faithful to the 
affiote for over twenty years. Now and 




DESIGN BY CHERET. 




r»mm»mmi 




DESIGN BY CH£RET. 



ch£ret. 29 

again, it is true, he has turned aside to do 
work of more universally recognized and 
more pretentious a charadler, and the very 
fadl that he has touched scarcely anything 
which he has not adorned, emphasises his 
fidelity to a branch of art until quite recently 
despised and held of little moment. It is, 
indeed, mainly owing to this devotion, to 
this lavish expense of talent, that the poster 
is not even now considered beneath the 
dignity of the collector. The judicious, as 
soon as their eyes fell upon Chdret's vast 
lithographs, decided that he was no mere 
colour-printer's hack, but an artist whose 
work would have to be reckoned with. 
There was something positively alluring in 
the spedtacle of a man who calmly placed 
his gift at the disposal of the tradesman, 
who accepted without murmur the limita- 
tions which the tradesman imposed upon 
him. It is possible that, had it not been 
for the circumstances of his life, the streets 
of Paris would have remained undecorated, 
so far as Chdret was concerned, to this day. 
Commencing as the humblest of lithogra- 
phers, Chdret did not take up art of set 
intention, but passed irresistibly, though it 
may be unconsciously, into it. After long 
years of patient and tedious work as an 
ordinary lithographer, at the dawn of the 
year 1866, he commenced what was destined 
to be the most notable series of pidtorial 
posters in existence, a series containing over 



30 PICTURE POSTERS. 

a thousand items, and one which happily 
has yet to close. It is doubtless the con- 
ditions of his early life, the lessons learned 
while under the yoke of trade, that have 
enabled Chdret to appreciate to the full that 
the first business of an advertisement is to 
advertise. Avoiding, therefore, all subtle 
harmonies, he goes in for contrasts of colour, 
violent, it is true, but victorious in their 
very violence. Blazing reds, hard blues, 
glowing yellows, uncompromising greens, 
are flung together, apparently haphazard, 
but in reality after the nicest calculation, 
with the result that the great pictures, when 
on the hoardings, insist positively on 
recognition. One might as well attempt to 
ignore a fall of golden rain, as to avoid 
stopping to look at them ; they are so many 
riots of colour, triumphant in their certainty 
of fascinating and bewildering the passer- 
by. 

As may be imagined, Chdret's skill has 
fullest scope when dealing with the lightest 
and gayest subjedts : a cascade de clowns — 
to borrow a phrase of Huysman — an en- 
trance of ballet girls ; a joyous troupe of 
children, contented because toy-laden; these, 
and the like, are subjedts most congenial to 
him. His style is essentially the outcome 
of the day. It possesses no decorative fore- 
runners; it is not a thing derived ; its parents 
are the gaieties of modern Paris. It is in- 
tensely adtual, and in its adtuality lies, it 




DESIGN BY CH^RET. 



ch£ret. 33 

seems to me, its greatest claim to considera- 
tion. It is infused with a somewhat hedtic 
gaiety which holds a not unimportant place 
in the lives of us suffering from this " sick 
disease of modern life." Of the sick disease 
itself, Chdret gives no hint. He is un- 
flagging in his vivacity, unswerving in his 
insistence on the joie de vivre; instead of 
pondering over the inevitable sorrow of 
life, he busies himself depidting the naive 
grace of the child, the elegance of the 
mondaine. His gifts lead him inevitably 
to such subjedts. His merit as a draughts- 
man lies, in part, in vivacious rather than 
corredt line : gaiety, as we have seen, is the 
chief quality of his colour : his composition 
is remarkable on account of the piquancy 
and appropriateness of its detail. He chooses 
with unerring fidelity the subjedts suited 
to his temperament and his gifts. These 
subjedts are not of infinite variety, and it 
follows that if one sees a great quantity of 
Chdret's work together, one becomes aware 
of a certain feeling of monotony. One can 
be satiated even of Chdret's gaiety and joy- 
ousness. 

To attempt any account of Chdret's thou- 
sand and more posters, is obviously im- 
possible in any but an elaborate monograph 
devoted exclusively to him. I can do no 
more here than comment on a few of the 
most striking. It may be stated generally, 
that while the earlier ones are rarest because 

D 



34 PICTURE POSTERS. 

most difficult to procure, the more recent de- 
signs show the artist at his best. A mastery 
of chromo-lithography such as his, cannot 
be obtained without many essays, some of 
which are foredoomed to failure. In addi- 
tion, Chdret has gradually improved alike in 
the splendour of his colour, and the disposal 
of his pattern. Perhaps he has never been 
happier in his treatment of children than in 
one or two of the " Buttes-Chaumont" series. 
The joy of the little ones in the possession of 
their new playthings is contagious. Utterly 
different in kind, though not less conspicu- 
ously successful, is" Les Coulisses de l'Opdra 
au Musde Grevin,"a delightfully piquant re- 
presentation ofagvoupofflremidresdanseuses 
in the traditional costume. As a specimen 
of amazingly effective and strangely beau- 
tiful colour, it would be difficult to ex- 
ceed the "Loie Fuller" series; while, in the 
matter of pert gracefulness, Chdret has done 
nothing more delicious than the chic little 
lady in the yellow dress who smiles at you 
in the " Pantomimes Lumineuses." Anybody 
who could resist her fascinations would be a 
rival to St. Anthony. No collector of course, 
will overlook the great series of affiches 
which Chdret has contrived for the Folies 
Bergere, the Moulin Rouge, the Alcazar 
d'Etd, and similar places of amusement. 

In order to sum up his talent as a designer 
of posters, Chdret has produced four decora- 
tive panels, which, although without letter- 




DESIGN EY CHERET. 




DESIGN BY CHF.RET (TOUR EIFFEL). 




DECORATIVE PANEL, DESIGNED BY CH^RET (COMEDY). 



■MP 



v"S 




DECORATIVE PANEL, DESIGNED BY CHEKET (PANTOMIME). 




DECORATIVE PANEL, DESIGNED BY CHERET (MUSIC). 




DECORATIVE PANEL, DESIGNED BY CH^RET (DANCING). 



ch£ret. 47 

ing, are posters to all intents and purposes, 
and would take their places on a hoarding 
quite admirably. The subjects are most 
happily chosen ; who, better than Chdret, 
could symbolize, in manner light and fan- 
tastic, music, comedy, pantomime, and danc- 
ing? The designs gain immensely, inso- 
much as theyare not disfigured with a legend, 
for, in spite of the fad: that the disposal of 
the lettering is of the very essence of a poster, 
Chdret, for some reason known only to him- 
self, leaves that detail of his work to another 
designer, with results by no means uniformly 
fortunate. Before leaving Chdret, it is only 
just to him to point out that his work loses 
more than that of almost any other artist, in 
the process of reproduction in black and 
white. It is impossible to convey any idea 
of his amazing colour by means of a half- 
tone block, and therefore, fewer reproduc- 
tions of his designs are included in these 
pages than might be expedted. Needless to 
say, he suffers greatly from more or less un- 
skilful imitators. For this reason, combined 
with the fadt that he is engaged on a series 
of decorations for the Paris H6tel de Ville, 
his excursions into the art of the hoarding 
will be less frequent than has been the case 
hitherto. 

To turn from Ch^ret to Eugene Grasset, 
is to turn to an artist in whose art career the 
poster is merely an incident. Grasset is a 
paragon of versatility ; there are literally no ; 



48 PICTURE POSTERS. 

bounds to his comprehensiveness. Besides 
being a painter of distinction, he has de- 
signed everything, from stained glass to 
book-covers, from piano-cases to menus. 
Unlike Chdret, he has been profoundly im- 
pressed by the work of old decorative de- 
signers ; he has certainly not disdained to 
borrow ; his borrowings, however, have been 
at once legitimate and intelligent. The 
Japanese, the old Italians, and in a less 
degree, the ancient Greeks, have been laid 
under contribution, with results which, if 
not amazingly original, are at least delight- 
ful. It would be idle to pretend that, from 
the standpoint of the advertiser, Grasset is 
the equal of Chdret. His sense of beauty, 
his passion for decoration, make it impos- 
sible for him to achieve the daring and vic- 
torious colour which is so effective in the 
work of Chdret. A panel of his posters, 
side by side with a panel of those of Chdret, 
is as a beautiful and somewhat quiet-hued 
wall-paper to a cascade of flowers of every 
conceivable colour. While, however, this is 
an important matter from the advertisers 
point of view, it is of little moment to the 
collector, whose primary objedt is to fill his 
portfolios with things of beauty. At times, 
indeed, Grasset does achieve irresistible 
advertisement ; nobody, for instance, could 
overlook the superb representation of Sarah 
Bernhardt as " Jeanne d'Arc," standing with 
splendid disdain amidst a forest of spears 




DESIGN BY GRASSET. 

E 




EXP0S1CI0N 

INTERNiqCIONjqL 

MADRID 

1893 

Baj'o ELteQo PaTronaTo 
te sa M?wEsfcD m mm regenTe 

DIRECCIONGENERflD 

KllilCIOocLAlNDUSTRIflY 

de^arTes MADRID 




%m 



!iif Mli 



[in 



X) 






"if T* i 



DESIGN BY GRASSET. 



GRASSET. 53 

and a shower of arrows, and waving above 
her head a great silken banner embroidered 
with the fleur-de-lis. Again, one lingers 
before the " F£tes de Paris," attracted by its 




DESIGN BY GRASSET FOR THE SALON DES CENT. 

fine decorative qualities. Of an entirely 
different kind is the delicious little poster 
which the artist did for an exhibition of his 
own work at the Salon des Cent in 1894 ; 
in the naive simplicity of the thing, com- 



54 PICTURE POSTERS. 

bined with its fine decorative quality, there 
is a hint of Botticelli and the old Italians. 
The contrast between this poster, slightly 
archaic as it is, and the realistic "Oddon 
Thdatre" is complete. The latter represents 
a charmingly graceful girl, in a delicious 
modern gown, watching a play. She is 
accompanied by a highly-proper looking 
matron, whose self-importance is enhanced 
by the possession of a handsome dress and 
a wealth of jewels. Very pretty, again, is 
the "Librairie Romantique, ,, with the facade 
of N6tre Dame in the background. Less 
worthy of Grasset is the "Ala Place Clichy, ,, 
which, in spite of the majestic old oriental 
who descants on the merits of an elaborate 
carpet to a critical European, is somewhat 
commonplace. Among the other produc- 
tions of this artist, some of them excellent, 
but not calling for special description, are 
the "Histoirede France," "NapolCon," "Cho- 
colat Mexicain," and "L'Encre Marquet," 
as well as those done to advertise a work on 
the capital cities of the world, and the ex- 
hibition of the productions of French de- 
corative artists held in 1893 at the Grafton 
Gallery. A bill designed for the South of 
France Railway Company is curious, inso- 
much as it is unlike the other productions 
of its designer. It consists of a series of 
pleasant little landscapes wreathed in the 
characteristic fruits and flowers of the 
Riviera. The colour is striking and the 




DESIGN BY GRASSET. 




DESIGN BY GRASSET. 



GRASSET. 



59 



poster full of sunshine. It is oneo f the 
merits of Grasset that he is not, even in 
what is to him so small a matter as poster- 
designing, the slave of a single style, 




DESIGN BY GRASSET FOR " L'ENCRE MARQUET." 

although all his works are obviously from 
the same hand. Before leaving him, it 
should in fairness be stated that the letter- 
ing of his bills is ever appropriate and de- 



6o 



PICTURE POSTERS. 



corative. True artist that he is, he negledts 
no detail whatsoever ; in the smallest thing 




DESIGN BY GRASSET ("CAPITAL CITIES"). 

as in the greatest, he is not merely scru- 
pulous, but even fastidious. 



GRASSET. 



6l 



It is no dispraise of Chdret and Grasset 
to say that the work of Henri de Toulouse- 
Lautrec is more fascinating than theirs. 
The designs of the former two are alike in 




DESIGN BY GRASSET FOR THE EXHIBITION HELD BY FRENCH 
DECORATIVE ARTISTS AT THE GRAFTON GALLERY IN 1 893. 

that they are charming, though charming 
in manner entirely different; Lautrec's pro- 
ductions, alluring and powerful as they are, 
can by no stretch of the word be so de- 



62 PICTURE POSTERS. 

scribed. He does not seek to attradt you 
by joyousness of colour or grace of pattern, 
but rather to compel your attention by the 
force of his realism or the curiosity of his 
grotesqueness. For his posters are at once 
realistic and grotesque; they are delineations 
of life as seen by a man who, possessing the 
most acute powers of observation, is poig- 
nantly impressed by the incongruities of 
modern life, the physical peculiarities of 
modern men. He has some points of simi- 
larity with Hogarth, with Rowlandson, and 
the like, but his art is quite non-moral ; he 
has no mission to depidl vice as either 
hideous or ridiculous. His extraordinary 
" Reine de Joie," perhaps the most powerful, 
and certainly the least agreeable, of his 
posters, is a statement of fadt rather than a 
criticism. This great bill, owing to the ve- 
hemence of the expression on the faces of the 
three people it represents, to the wonderful 
vigour of its line, to its extraordinarily effec- 
tive, though simple, colour, is one of the 
most powerful designs of the kind ever ac- 
complished. It may be doubted whether 
any book has been advertised in so unfor- 
gettable a manner as La Reine de Joie. 

For the Paris cafd chantant artiste who 
possesses the charming name of Jane Avril, 
this designer has devised a grotesque de- 
coration, which could not fail imperiously to 
call attention to her talents as a dancer. 
Inspired it may be by her name, it may be 




DESIGN BY TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. 



LAUTREC. 65 

by a happy accident, Lautrec has employed a 
scheme of colour in which are found the pale 




DESIGN BY TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. 

sulphur hue of the primrose, the deeper 
yellow of the daffodil, the crimson of the 

F 



66 PICTURE POSTERS. 

tulip. Once having seen this work, the 
name, and indeed something of the per- 
sonality, of Jane Avril is impressed on ones 
mind. Moreover, one easily recalls this un- 
assuming poster vividly, when works of art, 
consecrated by the admiration of generations 
of critics, are quite forgotten, or only faintly 
remembered. No man of more passionate 
and curious talent than Aristide Bruant has 
ever devoted himself to the business of light 
amusement, and it was no doubt quite con- 
genial to Lautrec to advertise the perfor- 
mances which he gives in his cabaret. Again, 
the artist's pidture of another entertainer, 
Caudieux, represented in the adl of quitting 
the stage, is masterly for its indication of 
movement and its powerful characterization. 
Bad from the advertisers point of view, but 
most interesting from that of the collector, 
is the extremely rare " Le rendu," a produc- 
tion which for weird and intense tragedy 
compares to advantage with any of the 
artist's posters. Scarcely less rare, though 
by no means so important, is the affiche 
done to advertise the performances of La 
Goulue at the Moulin Rouge. A far more 
agreeable design is the " Divan Japonais," 
in which a fearful and wonderful girl, ac- 
companied by a man as fashionable as he 
seems to be imbecile, is represented under 
the spell of Yvette Guilbert, whose tall, 
thin figure is seen across the orchestra, her 
arms, in the famous black gloves, being 




DESIGN BY TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. 




DESIGN BY TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. 



J$ '#4£ Ot% MvpltpO 




DESIGN BY TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. 




tlftAr, Bt.Ua. kcti Matk&rU icnds-n & Pans 
DESIGN BY TOULOUSE-LAUTREC. 



LAUTREC. 75 

crossed in front of her with characteristic 
nonchalance. 

It is in no way astonishing that Mile. 
Guilbert has strongly attracted Lautrec, and 
that he has frequently made her the subjedl 
of his work. No music-hall performer has, 
so far, approached this brilliant woman in 
ability or in artistic prestige. Like Patti 
and Sarah Bernhardt, she is implored to 
testify to the merits of every brand of soap 
or every new perfume; like them her reputa- 
tion extends beyond the bounds of her native 
place, and she is the admired of several 
foreign capitals. If the flower of French 
art and literature assemble to honour Zola, 
the proceedings are incomplete without a 
song from her; if the fastidious De Goncourt 
is presented with the rosette of the Legion 
of Honour, what more fitting than that she 
should deliver a recitation ? In some degree 
she sees the life of modern Paris in the same 
light as Lautrec; her wonderful delinea- 
tions are realistic as are his, though their 
realism is touched with a suspicion of the 
grotesque. Amongst other things, she has 
inspired Lautrec to a series of illustrations 
remarkable alike in drawing and colour; and 
he has not disdained to design lithographs 
to adorn the covers of different items of her 
repertoire. Owing to his kindness, I am 
enabled to reproduce, as the frontispiece 
to this volume, a sketch for a poster which 
he designed for her, but which, unfor- 



76 PICTURE POSTERS. 

tunately, has never got beyond the experi- 
mental stage. It seems to me a specially 
interesting example of a remarkable talent 
applied to a very congenial subjedt. The 
posters of Lautrec are something more than 
works of art ; they are human documents 
strangely eloquent of their moment. For 
this reason, their value may be more per- 
manent than that of the productions either 
of Chdret or Grasset, delightfully fantastic as 
are the former, charmingly decorative as are 
the latter. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE POSTER IN FRANCE: THE 
WORK OFWILLETTE, FORAIN, 
STEINLEN, ANQUETIN, BON- 
NARD, IBELS, VALLOTON, DE 
FEURE, AND M^TIVET. 

It is not for a moment to be pretended that 
the artists with whom this chapter deals 
are in any sense members of a single school : 
they have, indeed, many more points of 
difference than of similarity. I deal with 
them together, because, speaking roughly, 
their designs are saturated with the spirit 
of the day : their decorations are realistic, 
rather than fantastic or picturesque. They 
lean towards Lautrec, rather than towards 
Chdret or Grasset, but they are in no sense 
his imitators ; some of them, indeed, are 
actually his predecessors. 

Willette is an artist of such astonishing 
facility and variety, that he has, compara- 
tively speaking, devoted little time to the 
affiche, and save in one or two conspicuous 
instances, he has failed to achieve compelling 
advertisements. And yet his artistic per- 
sonality is so curious and so powerful that 
his posters are nearly all interesting to the 



78 PICTURE POSTERS. 

collector, — more interesting to the collector, 
it may well be, than satisfactory to the 
advertiser. Willette is master of several 
manners. He can be realistic to the point 
of brutality, symbolical, graceful ; while now 
and then he is almost austerely classical. 
There are, happily, few posters so impreg- 
nated with race hatred as the anti-Semitic 
bill intended to forward the artist's can- 
didature at the Elections legislatives of the 
22nd of September, 1889. The design is 
ugly in the last degree, but it is, neverthe- 
less, strangely powerful. Very different and 
very much more pleasing is the lithograph 
in black — admirably composed and executed 
— which advertised the successful panto- 
mime, entitled L! Enfant Prodigue. The 
design is at once graceful and dramatic, 
and it is not surprising that a proof before 
letters is one of the gems of a collection of 
the posters of Willette. No more interesting 
souvenir of an experiment which fascinated 
both Paris and London can be conceived. 
Again, the bill advertising the International 
Exhibition of Commerce and Industry, held 
some time ago at the Champs de Mars (an 
unlettered proof of which commands no less 
than two pounds), is very desirable. The 
little bill in colours bearing the legend, 

" Ainsi qu'un papillon volage, 
A qui passe aujourd'hui, demain sera pass6. 
Laisse-toi cuellir au passage 
Papillon d'Ac^ualit^," 




°j»SS*^ife# 



EBiAffDOT Ed : |eur.22.PlacedelaMade:ein«.»yilS 



DESIGN BY WILLETTE. 



EXPOSITION Internal'.' 

PES PRODOITS dv.COIKRCEx oe ['INDUSTRIE 
PALAISteBEAUX-AmSsGaleriefepp 
CHAMPdeMARS 

Du 25 Avril au'd'Aout 1893 



ATTRACTIONS 

Orchestra WATIN, Concert 

THEA TRE du SA LON 

Ct&Spectacle/Tableaux Vivai 

- JDPIIMESIACRAVr-BieRr Fk-Uf list 

|k { dNmniK«Jcaii : 0(50 . 

f ^UMcieradi : 2! 00 




.. 



DESIGN BY WILLETTE. 







i 



2 5 1 RUE S T H N RE 2 51 







a2Heures Vfe 



DESIGN BY WILLETTE. 




prenezdu Cacao 

V&njfouten 



DESIGN BY WILLETTK. 




'fiem/x/cz c/iez w//v ep/c/er 

LE CACAO VAN HOUTEN 






DESIGN BY WILLETTE. 



WILLETTE. 89 

is pretty, alike in colour and pattern, and 
has already become rare. 

Entirely appropriate to its purpose is the 
" Nouveau Cirque" advertisement, in which 
clowns, bare-back riders, and performing 
animals of all kinds — from a frog to an 
elephant — disport themselves with the ut- 
most abandon. From this to the " Cacao 
Van Houten," is a far cry. From the point 
of view of the advertiser, Willette has done 
nothing better than his life-size study of a 
Dutch waitress in national costume. The 
thing is very decorative, and succeeds ad- 
mirably in attracting attention : another and 
more complicated design for the same firm 
is only a shade less successful. This is 
entitled "La loi ddfendent le cacao contre le 
chocolat." The other posters of this artist 
include the rare " Petite National," the 
"Evdnement Parisien" (which was, I believe, 
suppressed), the " Courrier Franchise," the 
" Exposition Charlet," and the " Elysde 
Montmartre." The posters of Willette are 
marked by variety and ingenuity of inven- 
tion, and there is little doubt that they will 
be of permanent value as revelations of a 
talent as individual as it is powerful. 

If the artistic poster is an unimportant 
incident in the career of Willette, it is still 
more so in that of Forain, whose essays in 
this direction have been few and far between. 
Forain is known to nearly every artist in 
Europe as a great master of black and white. 



90 PICTURE POSTERS. 

Few, if any, can approach him in technical 
dexterity, few can express so much in so few 
lines. Moreover, to his technical mastery 
is added a searching power of criticism 
which gives to his work a further, and a 
most important, interest. In his desire to 
depidt the truth, the whole truth, and nothing 
but the truth, he (no doubt unconsciously) 
becomes a moralist. He depidts life from 
no sentimental point of view ; he can be 
realistic without seeming to appreciate the 
tragedy which is of the very essence of 
realism, so that on seeing one of his illustra- 
tions of modern life, one receives, apart from 
technical delight, a distinctly literary impres- 
sion. Of his posters, perhaps the earliest 
is one unsigned and without lettering, re- 
presenting an illuminated garden, in which 
a woman is depidted in the midst of an 
explosion of fireworks. Subsequent to this 
comes a bill to advertise one of the 
novels of Dubut de Laforest, which bears 
the artist's signature. The design which 
announces Forain's political drawings for 
the " Figaro " is of slight importance, as it 
was not originally intended for a poster. In 
spite of this it is by no means easy to meet 
with. Of greater interest is the " Exposition 
des Arts de la Femme." It was, however, 
only when Forain received a commission to 
produce an illustrated advertisement for a 
cycle show that he achieved a really memor- 
able poster, a poster of real charm and rare 



AOUT NoVEMBRE 





Exposition 



DES 



Arts de la Fehhe 



La 




s 




DU 



SIECLE 

7 Dioramas par 

Poilpot 



DESIGN BY FORAIN. 



FORAIN. 95 

originality. The sport of bicycling seems 
to have fascinated the Partslenne completely , 
and Forain has made a charming design, in 
which she is depicted in complete enjoyment 
of the fashionable pastime. The colour 
scheme is restrained and delicate, and the 
production, which exists in two sizes, 
should certainly be found amongst the 
treasures of every amateur of the affiche. 

The somewhat risky pages of the Gil 
Bias Illustrd have for a considerable time 
been noticeable to artists, chiefly on account 
of a series of coloured illustrations by Stein- 
len. His relentless veracity in depidting the 
life of the lower classes of the Paris of to-day 
is almost without rival. No detail of squalor 
seems to escape him ; without a tinge of 
remorse he proceeds to inform us of the 
meanest incidents in the tragedy of the poor 
or vicious quarters of the great city. By 
reason of a certain emphasis of colour and 
crudeness of design the art of Steinlen is 
admirably adapted to the production of such 
human documents. But it cannot be main- 
tained that, whatever their technical merits, 
these studies of human misery are other than 
unpleasant — even painful. It is, therefore, 
altogether agreeable, when one turns to his 
essays in the art of the poster, to find his 
work graceful rather than tragic, urbane 
rather than mordant. Forsaking his mission 
of realistic illustration, he becomes gay, 
dainty, and fanciful as the best of his fel- 



96 PICTURE POSTERS. 

lows. Even in a higher degree than the 
majority of them, he makes his design appro- 
priate to the thing advertised. His decora- 
tions are spiced with a certain adtuality, and, 
in being so, insist more effectively on the 
particular article the merits of which it is 
their business to proclaim. No better ex- 
ample of this could, I think, be put forward 
than the " Lait pur de la Vingeannestdrilisd," 
a design which, in view of the material to 
be advertised, is conceived in the happiest 
vein. The pretty little girl drinking the 
milk, so much coveted of the cats which 
surround her, is less interesting than the 
animals themselves. The draughtsmanship 
of the latter is excellent, while there is a 
hint of that humanity of expression about 
thecreatures which has produced for the work 
of Landseer so immense a popularity. Not 
less admirable, and of still greater interest, 
is the poster designed to advertise the per- 
formances of Yvette Guilbert at the Am- 
bassadeurs. Amongst the numerous artists 
to whom the Sarah Bernhardt of the music- 
halls has given commissions none has been 
more successful than Steinlen. The poster 
represents the singer behind the footlights 
in an attitude pre-eminently characteristic. 
The thing does not amount to a caricature, 
as does the hitherto unpublished delineation 
of Toulouse-Lautrec, but is merely a slightly 
exaggerated portrait. It is remarkably sug- 
gestive of a most alluring and delightful 







DESIGN BY STEINLEN, USED IN FRANCE FOR A POSTER FOR THE 
" LAIT PUR DE LA VINGEANNE STF,RILIS£," AND IN ENGLAND 
FOR NESTLES SWISS MILK. 



H 




DESIGN BY STEINLEN. 



STEINLEN. 10 1 

personality. As an advertisement, it must 
be confessed, it is not all that could be 
desired. The colour scheme, while very 
dainty, is not one which insists on its pre- 
sence on the hoardings, so that the proximity 
of (for example) a Chdret renders it to some 
extent ineffective. At the same time, it is 
one of the most charming designs of the 
kind in existence, and no collector should 
fail to possess himself of a copy. It exists 
in three states : proofs before letters pulled 
in two tints only, ordinary proofs before 
letters, and prints after letters. In the 
former state it is rapidly increasing in value, 
but, insomuch as the lettering is of the es- 
sence of the design, the final state is the most 
desirable of all. To advertise an exhibition 
of his own work, Steinlen produced another 
study of cats, which is almost as agreeable as 
the " Lait pur." It is in two states : proofs 
before and after letters. The artist's design 
for the watering-place, Vernet-les-Bains, is 
not very important, but his early " Mothu 
et Doria," in three states, should not be 
overlooked. Earlier in date than any of the 
designs I have discussed is the " Trouville " 
and "Le R£ve." The latter is a pretty 
composition reproduced in chromotypo- 
gravure. While the posters of Steinlen are 
not so striking on the hoarding as those of 
some of his contemporaries, they are of the 
highest artistic interest, and will no doubt 
take a place second to none in th6 Affections 



102 PICTURE POSTERS. 

of many collectors. It is significant that 
already the rarest of them are by no means 
easy to procure. 

The art of Ibels is as little comprised in 
the poster as that of Steinlen. It is happily 
characteristic of young artists of the present 
day, both here and in France, that painting 
is not the only god of their aesthetic adora- 

v tion : they experiment in many mediums, 
and it is really remarkable in how great a 

^ number of such experiments they succeed. 
What is generally true, is especially so of 
H. G. Ibels. Like Grasset, he has held an 
exhibition of his pidtures at the Salon des 
Cent ; he has made his mark in the galleries 
of the Champs de Mars; he has designed 
the covers of several pieces of music, and 
of a volume of poems by his brother, entitled 
" Chansons Colorees" ; in addition, he is well- 
known as a book illustrator. His point of 
view is somewhat akin to that of Toulouse- 
Lautrec : he is passionately interested in his 
own moment, and depidls modern life with 
similar insistence on its ugly and grotesque 
aspects. And yet Ibels rarely fails to be 
decorative, and his style is the outcome of 
his own artistic personality, rather than the 
result of study of the work of other men. 
In his posters he has been conspicuously 
successful ; so much so, that it is difficult 
to point to a single failure, though, it must 
b t e remembered, that as yet his productions 
h^Ve «{)J b£en very numerous. It is possible 





<_£jcpq5itior)<i per$ap?ptfS \ 



EmilMEMis^jms^kMm fig&3 



DESIGN BY IBELS. 




DESIGN BY IBELS. 



IBELS. IO7 

that with some the "Mdvisto a rHorloge" 
will be deemed his best design, but it can 
in no sense be considered his most original. 
It represents the adtor as Pierrot, and is 
graceful and pleasing rather than charac- 
teristic ; indeed, one would almost think 
that in designing it the artist had been at 
pains to conceal his personality. Nor is 
the "Salon des Cent" — a charming and 
delicate little lithograph — in spite of the 
ingenuity and fantasy of its grouping of 
Pierrot, Harlequin and Columbine, the most 
noteworthy of Ibels' posters. We see him 
at his most original, in an advertisement 
for the illustrated paper entitled " l'Escar- 
mouche," to which he, together with Lautrec, 
Vuillard, Willette, and Anquetin, contributed 
drawings. It represents a cafe of the lower 
class, such as abounds in the workmen's 
quarter of Paris. The enormously idXpatron 
enthroned behind the metal-topped bar, the 
waitress, cloth in hand, clad in her slovenly 
dress, the ouvriers in typical blue blouses, 
are studies in which accurate portraiture 
has been but slightly sacrificed to grotesque- 
ness. The whole scene is admirably con- 
ceived, and the colour scheme, though very 
restrained, is certainly telling. Those who 
can do so should secure a proof before 
letters of this work, for the lettering is, I 
believe, not by the artist himself, and mars 
the effedt of the design, although not in a 
very marked degree. Another interesting 



108 PICTURE POSTERS. 

bill is that done for Mdvisto's performances 
at the Scala music-hall ; this is of great 
size and striking originality. But if gro- 
tesque force, and the power of reducing 
scenes of modern lower-class life into 
decoration, are Ibels' most pronounced 
characteristics, he can produce posters of 
the suavest charm. Amongst all the affiches 
Iknow, none seems to me more delightful 
than this artist's " Ir£ne Henry." The 
cafe chant ant singer whom it represents is 
justly a popular favourite with the Parisian 
public from the fadt that she infuses into 
her performances no small amount of per- 
sonality ; moreover, her art is marked by 
grace and finish. Those who would see 
her as she appears to audiences at the 
Horloge, without going there, have only to 
look at Ibels' poster. With the rarest 
felicity, he has caught her physical indi- 
viduality. vShe is represented in the adt of 
singing in the open air to a crowd in the 
cafe, lighted by the familiar circle of white 
lamps. The line of the figure is most ex- 
pressive : violet is the predominating colour. 
This poster is worthy a place in the French 
music hall series, which includes those 
designed by Lautrec for Jane Avril, by 
Steinlen for Yvette Guilbert, and by an 
artist whom I am about to consider, Anque- 
tin, for Marguerite Dufay. 

So far as I know, Anquetin has only pro- 
duced two affiches of importance, but each 



— r 







Gitts DARIEN 

_Aji0UETIJt.H.6'.let'ELS. 

e Toulouse-Lautrec, 

VuiLLARD.WlLLETTE. 



DESIGN BY IBELS. 




DESIGN BY IBELS. 



ANQUETIN. 113 

of them is worthy of the closest attention. 
The design for Marguerite Dufay is a piece 
of triumphant vulgarity. The subjedt is a 
very simple one ; it is merely a woman of 
almost impossible fatness who performs 
at various Parisian music-halls on the trom- 
bone. Having stated this, one has, however, 
given no idea of the extraordinary qualities 
of this bill. It is safe to say that, once seen, 
it will never be forgotten ; it should have 
made the fortune of the performer whom it 
advertises. The mirth of the thing is vic- 
torious and infectious ; one seems almost to 
hear the coarse laugh ; the ample body in 
the green dress seems to move as one stares 
at it. In line, in movement, this poster is, 
from a certain point of view, a veritable 
masterpiece. An advertisement which is, it 
seems to me, altogether more worthy of 
Anquetin's great talent is one designed for 
" Le Rire," a recently issued journal. It is 
an extremely fine lithograph in a single print- 
ing, and, as at present it can be procured for 
a few shillings, it should be in the posses- 
sion, not only of those who care for posters as 
such, but also of all who are amateurs of 
the beautiful art of lithography. In the fore- 
ground is the figure of a huge man in 
mediaeval costume, which, while touched 
with the grotesque, is splendidly flamboyant. 
At his side he carries a large portfolio, 
adorned with a grinning mask, while his 
hands, which are admirably drawn, point 

1 



114 PICTURE POSTERS. 

towards a crowd of grinning pigmies beneath 
him. Every one of the crowd is extremely 
expressive, and the effedt of the whole pro- 
duction is enhanced by very excellent letter- 
ing. It would be difficult to meet with 
two affiches more interesting than the 
" Marguerite Dufay " and " Le Rire," and 
they place Anquetin amongst the masters 
of the art of the poster. 

If Anquetin is an artist of marked origin- 
ality, so, in a manner totally different, is 
Pierre Bonnard. Save in the small number 
of his posters, he resembles Anquetin in 
hardly anything; on the other hand, his 
work has points of similarity with the later 
work of Lautrec. The posters of both these 
artists are decorative in a curious and some- 
what similar sort of way, decorative in spite 
of their marked grotesqueness. Between 
the " Confetti " of Lautrec and the " Revue 
Blanche" of Bonnard there is a distindt 
decorative affinity. As both of them are 
dated the same year, 1894, it is needless to 
suggest that either of these intensely per- 
sonal artists has derived anything from the 
other ; there is, indeed, no evidence whatso- 
ever of imitation, or even influence. Of the two 
best-known posters of Bonnard, the " France 
Champagne " is the earlier in point of time, 
having been published in 1891. It is a 
lithograph in three colours, and represents 
an extraordinarily fantastic, and extremely 
ddcolletde girl, who holds in one hand a 




DESIGN BY ANQUETIN. 




DESIGN BY BONNARD. 




E.OEBRAY 



^>, ^" 



BETTE-TINPUEUX 1 LEZ-REIMS 

\r ' ' - ■■:-■ - 

' BUREAU OE REPRESENTATIONS 

8, rue del' I sly Paris 



DESIGN BY BONNARD. 




DESIGN BY VALLOTON. 



BONNARD. 1 23 

closed fan, and in the other an overflowing 
glass of champagne, which tumbles about her 
in a great cascade of foam. The background 
is yellow and the girl's dress red, while 
the upper part of the design is occupied 
by the arms of Paris and the text in large 
letters. The draughtsmanship is curious and 
vivacious, and the colouring conspicuously 
successful. This poster is not large, mea- 
suring as it does, only thirty-two by twenty- 
nine inches. The " Revue Blanche," though 
of nearly the same size, is much more com- 
plicated. In the foreground is a woman in 
huge hat and cape, which partly conceal her 
face, at whom an extraordinarily grotesque 
street urchin points his finger. The back- 
ground is composed of innumerable adver- 
tisements of the revue, which a man in a 
great coat and silk hat, with his back to the 
spectator, is reading attentively. All the 
figures are in a sort of slate colour. The 
legend is admirably introduced into the fore- 
ground by means of huge white letters. 
Owing to the curiosity of its decoration, 
this specimen of Bonnard s work is a most 
desirable possession for the collector. 

It has been the good fortune of Valloton 
to produce at least one poster which is ex- 
cellent from every point of view. Nothing 
more appropriate to the advertisement of a 
frivolous burlesque than his " Ah ! la Pd . 
la P6, la pdpini&rd " could well be imagined. 
It represents a characteristic audience at a 



124 PICTURE POSTERS. 

theatre convulsed with laughter at what is 
taking place on the stage. The variety of 
expression on the faces of the spectators is 
infinite, and the effeCt of the whole thing is 
as mirthful as may be. From the adver- 
tiser's point of view, I can conceive nothing 
more completely satisfactory. It exists in 
colours and in black, and the latter is the 
rarer. The same artist's " Carte de Paris " 
would seem already to have become scarce. 
It is a large lithograph in one colour; an 
example was shown at the Poster Exhibi- 
tion at the Royal Aquarium. There is 
also a large address card designed by Val- 
loton for M. Sagot. While this is not 
actually a poster it almost amounts to one, 
and were it to be executed on a large scale, it 
would doubtless be most successful. It is 
to be hoped that Valloton, encouraged by 
his universally recognized success in the art 
of the poster, will not altogether give up its 
practice in favour of those other branches of 
art in which he is distinguished. 

The style of De Feure, if not so well 
adapted to poster work as that of some of 
his contemporaries, is nevertheless very in- 
teresting. His most characteristic effort is, 
perhaps, the " Salon des Cent, 5 e Ex- 
position." This design is very modern and 
very fantastic. It exists in three states — 
proofs before letters on vellum, proofs on 
Japanese paper, and ordinary' prints. The 
proofs before letters command very good 




SALON DES CENT 31 IV Bonaparte. 



DESIGN BY DE FEURE. 







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DESIGN BY M&TIVET. 



m£tivet. 133 

prices. Amongst the other posters of De 
Feure is that done for the performance of 
the singer, Edmde Lescaut, at the Casino 
de Paris ; for the newspaper " Le Dia- 
blotin " ; and for the " Paris Almanach. ,, 
In addition, we must not overlook the 
pleasant little design for the contents bill of 
a special issue of "To- Day." 

The posters of Lucien Mdtivet are of very / 
unequal merit. On the one hand the de- 
signs done by him for Eugdnie Buffet, in 
her realistic rdpertoire of songs, are ex- 
tremely distinguished. While, on the other, 

I could point to examples by this artist 
which are utterly unworthy his talent. 
Amongst Mdtivet's earlier works are " La 
Famille, journal hebdomadaire illustrd," and 

II L'Hygi£ne." A more recent bill advertises 
" Les Joyeuses comm&res de Paris," but 
Mdtivets talent is seen at its best in the 
Eugdnie Buffet advertisements, two studies 
worthy a place amongst the best posters 
which have come from the hands of con- 
temporary French artists. 



CHAPTER V. 

THE PICTORIAL POSTER IN 
FRANCE : THE WORK OF GUIL- 
LAUME, PALEOLOGUE, CHOU- 
BRAC, BOUTET DE MONVEL, 
A MAN- JEAN, SCHWAB E, 
SINET, JOSSOT, MAYET, AND 
OTHER ARTISTS. 

Prominent among the French designers of 
posters with whom I have not previously 
dealt is Guillaume, an artist widely known 
in England by reason of the admirable 
illustrations which, from time to time, ap- 
pear in our periodicals. Save Chdret and 
Choubrac, few artists have done so much 
poster work as Guillaume, and not many 
have maintained so high a level of accom- 
plishment. Vigour, vivacity, and high spirits, 
rather than beautiful design and fine colour, 
are the characteristic qualities of posters by 
Guillaume. He is, it seems to me, seen at 
his best in the admirable " Extrait de Viande 
Armour/' which is reproduced here. In its 
way, and looking to the thing to be adver- 
tised, nothing better has been 'done. The 



I36 PICTURE POSTERS. 

gigantic " strong man," with his huge torso, 
colossal arms and legs, holding a tiny tea- 
cup in his immense hands, is not easily for- 
gotten. The expression on the man's face 
is inimitable, and the accessories, such as 
cannons and dumbbells, are most appro- 
priately chosen. The " Chapeaux 1 elion " 
is a more complicated design, representing 
a crowd of men wearing hats of every con- 
ceivable shape. The colour of this design 
is very good, but its chief merit lies in the 
facial expression of the different members 
of the crowd. It would be impossible to 
conceive any single person in a hat other 
than the one he is wearing. In another 
excellent poster we are presented with a 
very fin-de-sibcle young lady riding astride 
a stork which bears her rapidly through 
space. It would be hopeless to attempt 
anything like a complete list of Guillaume's 
posters, but among the most recent are the 
following, all of which deserve the attention 
of the collector : " Dentifrices du Dr. Bonn," 
"Gigolette," " Old England," " Le P61e 
Nord," " Cycles Vincent fils," " Le Vin d'Or" 
(in two sizes, unsigned), " Parfumerie Dia- 
phane ; le Diaphane Sarah Bernhardt," 
11 L'oeuvre de Rabelais par J. Gamier," and 
" Ducreux et Giralduc (Ambassadeurs) ". 

Although a Frenchman, the work of Jean 
de Paleologue, or " Pal," as he is more fre- 
quently called, is perhaps better known to 
the Londoner than to the Parisian. His 




AGENCE POUR LA FRANCE .37. RUE LAFAYETTE m§ 



DESIGN BY GUILLAUME. 







> 
a 

Z 
o 

W 
Q 




L 



10': Avenue de la Grande Armce 
PARIS 



DESIGN BY GUILLAUME. 




DESIGN BY GUILLAUME. 



PALEOLOGUE. 1 45 

bright and flippant posters can be seen any 
day on the London hoardings, and I have, 
therefore, purposely selected for reproduc- 
tion two examples in his less usual manner. 
The " Lucile Wrai'm " is of an elegance to 
which Paleologue does not often attain, and 
would be distinguished in almost any 
collection of posters. " The Euskal Jai 
Parisien," besides being a good advertise- 
ment, is curious on account of its subjedt. 
Collectors who would possess a more typical 
example of Paleologue's work would be well 
advised to secure one or more of his music- 
hall series or his " Cabourg," an advertise- 
ment for the watering-place of that name. 
It is a large lithograph in five colours, and 
represents a very charming lady who, while 
bathing, is bent upon displaying her charms 
to the utmost. While Paleologue can in 
no sense be compared to Chdret in his gift 
of diffusing joyousness and gaiety, his 
work is undoubtedly " chic," and rarely 
fails in its first business of advertisement. 
Some of his posters have become difficult to 
procure, notably one designed for a Drury 
Lane pantomime some few years since. 

No artist, save Jules Chdret, has been 
more indefatigable in the making of posters 
than Choubrac. The list given in M. 
Maindron's book is a long one ; that given 
in the catalogues of M. Sagot is still longer. 
The posters of Choubrac do not seem to 
have received so much attention at the hands 



146 PICTURE POSTERS. 

of collectors as those of some of his better- 
known contemporaries. At the same time, 
not a few of them are interesting and rare. 
The bill done for the " Fin de Steele" was 
suppressed, and, as a consequence, is in 
great demand. It exists in four states, 
three of which, in good condition, command 
no less than fifty francs. Merely to give 
the names of the music-halls and theatres 
for which Choubrac has worked would take 
up the better part of a page, while a list of 
the artistes whom he has advertised would 
be still longer. Amongst the most notice- 
able of his recent bills are the following : 
" Eldorado. Y'a pas derreur," " Folies 
Berg£re. Armand Ary," " Folies Berg£re. 
Programme," " Folies Dramatiques. Miss 
Robinson," " Moulin Rouge. Au Joyeux," 
" Neuilly-sur-Seine. F£te des fleurs," and 
" Gaietd. Rosa et Josepha " (in two states). 
An artist more unlike Choubrac than 
Maurice Boutet de Monvel it would be 
assuredly impossible to find, and the fadl 
that these names are in juxtaposition must 
be taken as proof that no systematic arrange- 
ment has been attempted in this chapter. 
Boutet de Monvel is a painter of European 
reputation. His fame as an illustrator for, 
and a delineator of, children stands very high. 
His studies of child-life are unlike those of 
any other artist. They display the keenest 
observation and, as Mr. Pennell has rightly 
observed, one finds in them not a line with- 




DESIGN BY PALEOLOGUE. 




DESIGN BY PALEOLOGUE. 



BOUTET DE MONVEL. 



151 



out meaning. Boutet de Monvel has, I 
believe, produced only three posters. Two 
of them are among the most charming 
things seen on the Paris hoardings for 




DESIGN BY BOUTET DE MONVEL. 

many a long day. Both of these are com- 
paratively small. That which is earlier in 
date, " Petite Poucette," was originally 
designed as a cover for a piece of music, 



152 PICTURE POSTERS. 

but, when reproduced on a larger scale, was 
found to be thoroughly effective as a poster. 
More dainty, if not more characteristic of 
the art of Boutet de Monvel, is the " Pate 
Dentifrice du Dr. Pierre." In this design, 
one of the prettiest and most delightful 
little ladies in the whole Monvel gallery of 
pretty little ladies insists on the merit of 
the tooth-paste which, if it be half as good 
as she is charming, must be excellent in- 
deed. Every artist knows his own business 
best, but one can only hope that, in what 
leisure he can snatch from his work in paint 
and illustration, Boutet de Monvel will 
place the collector of posters under new 
obligations to him. His note as a decorator 
of the hoardings is as distind: as it is agree- 
able. 

A very interesting figure in modern 
design is undoubtedly Carloz Schwaebe. 
One of the leading lights of that curious 
institution the " Salon Rose + Croix," 
it would indeed be curious if Schwaebe did 
anything commonplace. His posters are 
as remarkable as those other productions 
with which he has delighted some and 
puzzled not a few. Mystic, slightly archaic, 
they are the work of a man of poetical tem- 
perament who has chosen the graphic arts 
instead of literature as his means of expres- 
sion. The two posters from his hand are 
very decorative in their strange way, and 
contain passages of great beauty. In the 




Maurice ORDONNEAU 
Maurice HENNEQUIN 

MUSIOUE 




Parts, ML BtARDOT, EdiUur, 88, Pl*c« d* 1* Mad«leu.e 



DESIGN BY BOUTET DE MONVEL. 



SCHW^EBE. 



155 



" Audition d , CEuvres de Guillaume Lekeu, 
Salle d'Harcourt," the face of the fantastic 




DESIGN BY CARLOZ SCHWjEBE. 



kneeling woman is remarkably impressive, 
while the irises amidst which she kneels are 



156 PICTURE POSTERS. 

beautifully drawn. The lettering of this 
poster is most original, and the designer 
has evidently taken great pains with it. It 
is a lithograph in two colours, and measures 
forty-two and a half by thirty-one and a 
half inches. Schwaebe's larger poster, the 
" Salon Rose + Croix," is in one colour 
only, and is a good example of his work. 
So far this curiously-gifted artist has con- 
fined himself to advertising a concert and 
a picture show ; it is not to be expedted 
that he will ever condescend to soap or 
extrad: of beef. Another of the Rose + 
Croix men, Aman-Jean, has done a poster 
for the Salon which rivals in curiosity the 
productions of Schwaebe himself. 

A little advertisement which had, it may 
well be, some influence on the poster move- 
ment in England, was that by which Andrd 
Sinet advertised an exhibition of his own 
works held at the Goupil Gallery in 1893. 
This was an attractive little bit of design of 
which the colour was very agreeable. In 
addition to it, Sinet has done the inevit- 
able poster for Yvette Guilbert. Another 
painter of talent who has made an advertise- 
ment for an exhibition of his own work is 
H. Gudrard. It represents a group of 
ravens and is in poker work. It would 
appear to be rare, as it is quoted in none of 
the catalogues. A copy, exhibited at the 
Aquarium in 1894, is in the collection of 
Mr. Ernest Hart. Still another artist who 




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has, I believe, done only one poster, is 
Goissaud. His design was to advertise the 
" Socidtd des miniaturistes et enlumineurs 
de France," and is a lithograph in one 
colour. Among the Salon des Cent series 
we have, besides the admirable posters of 
Grasset and Ibels already alluded to, a very 
grotesque and effective little design by 
Jossot. It represents an amazing old gentle- 
man of weird aspedt, in cocked hat, pay- 
ing his franc for admission to the exhibi- 
tion. Of its kind it is effective enough. 
Another, by Cazoly, with a curious portrait 
of Paul Verlaine is reproduced here. 

It is certainly with no view to hurt the 
feelings of those artists whose names do not 
head this chapter that they are represented by 
a mere et cetera. It must be understood that 
one of the least polite of contractions, in this 
case, involves no discourtesy whatsoever. 

For example, I may instance such able 
work as Griin's "Le Carillon : cabaret artis- 
tique." Few posters are more vivid or more 
adlual than this. The price of it is a matter 
of pence, and it should certainly not be 
negledted by those whom it amuses to col- 
lect the affiche illustrd. Grlin, in addition 
to " Le Carillon, " has produced " Poldon- 
Revue : Decadent's Concert," and in addi- 
tion a design for an insurance company. 
One of the most charming of the more recent 
French posters is one by H. Gray, dealing 
with " La Prdtentaine," a play produced 



1 66 PICTURE POSTERS. 

some time ago at the Nouveau Thditre. 
In addition he has advertised " La Bonita " 
at the Cirque d'Et£, " Les Mousquetaires," 
at the same place, " Les Saltimbanques " at 
the Cirque d'Hiver, and the bal masqud aX 
the Th&itre de l'Opdra. The last is perhaps 
the best known of his affiches. Among 
others, Bac has done a poster for Yvette 
Guilbert at the Horloge, which is signed 
and dated 1892. The bicycling craze has 
called into existence a perfedl torrent of 
posters, and Bac, together with Gray, Guil- 
laume, Lunel, and Paleologue, have pro- 
duced posters of more or less interest. A 
gentleman who is sufficiently modest not 
to state his name, did a design which called 
forth the wrath of the authorities. Where- 
upon an artist called Lepur designed an 
affiche bearing the significant legend, of 
which this is a translation : " Grand choice 
of vine-leaves (fig-leaves) of all sizes for 
posters, as demanded by the virtuous jour- 
nals, the ' T(emps '), the ' G(aulois '), and the 
1 D(dbats y 

The following is a list, with the names of 
typical examples of their work, of some 
other French artists of distinction who have 
designed posters : Barbizet (" La branche 
cassde "), Bouisset (F.) (" Bazar de 1' H6tel- 
de-Ville, ,, " Exposition de jouets," " Choco- 
lat Menier"), Desicy (H.) (" Un heritage, 
roman "), Dutriac (" Ambassadeurs : Dan- 
seuses Espagnols "), Faria ( u Ba-ta-clan: 



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DESIGN BY OGE. 



1 68 PICTURE POSTERS. 

Paulus"), Dufay (" Portrait, ,, ) ("Les Rey 
Nol's)," Galice (G.) (" Concert parisien: 
Esther Lekain," " FSte des Fleurs," " Paulan 
Brdbion," " Scala : Jeanne Bloch"), Guydo 
(" Eldorado : Aimde Eymard"), Honer 
{" Concert parisien : Bonnaire "), Hope 
(" Gaietd : Tour de Nesle"), Huvey ("Gras- 
side"), Lamy (L.) (" Le capitaine Henriot, 
opdra comique," " Theatre national ly- 
rique"), Lebdgue (L.) (" Bals travestes et 
tableaux vivants"), Lefevre (L.) ("Cacao 
ladte," " Electricine," " L'hiver a Nice "), 
Levy (E.) ("Chitelet Michel Strogoff," " Cir- 
que d'Hiver : Caravane dans le ddsert," "Fo- 
lies Berg£re : Vue de la salle," " Petit na- 
tional : Le prince Mouffetard"), Meunier (G.) 
(" Papier a cigarettes Job," " Parfumerie 
Edda," " Le Sahara k Paris : Champ de 
Mars"), Truchet (A.) ("Cabaret des Quat'z' 
Arts," " Eldorado : Alice Berthier. ,, ) 

It will have been noticed already how great 
a part the music-hall and the cafe ' chant ant 
play in the history of the pidtorial poster. 
Yvette Guilbert has been the cause of a 
bakers dozen of affiches; AnnaThibaud(that 
charming singer of the songs of Bdranger) ; 
Anna Held, with her curious manner, and 
still more curious appearance ; Irene Henri, 
of intense personality ; Jane Avril, and May 
Belfort ; to say nothing of Aristide Bruant, 
of Caudieux, of Paulus, and the rest of the 
school who have made the music-hall stage 
of France a matter of no small importance 



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DESIGN BY GASTON NOURY. 



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THE CAF6 CHANTANT. 



171 



in her social life, have been favourite sub- 
jects of the designers of posters. It has 
always been held that the career of an adtor, 
in consideration of its evanescence, is not 



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without a certain pathos. It is true that 
we remember, through the gossip of their 
friends, Garrick and Mrs. Siddons, Talma 
and Rachel, but even these are uncertain 



172 PICTURE POSTERS. 

phantoms lingering in the haze of memory. 
Only yesterday they were intensely adtual, 
to-day they are not more real than Bur- 
bage and Betterton. After all, the history 
of the adtor's art is not without its im- 
mortals. Macau lay's schoolboy could doubt- 
less have related the compliment of Dr. 
Johnson to Mrs. Siddons : the latest esca- 
pade of the great Sarah is the joy of the 
paragrapher. The music-hall, however, has 
still no artist in any country (save, perhaps, 
the unforgettable Yvette) who has much 
chance of permanent remembrance. But 
when the toil and moil of existence is ended, 
when the singer has sung his last song, it 
may chance that he will be remembered 
because some collector of such unconsidered 
trifles as pidhire posters has placed in his 
portfolio a work of Chdret or of Lautrec. 

To turn from the music-halls to the great 
railway companies is an emphatic transi- 
tion, and yet the former, no less than the 
latter have done much to encourage the 
artist to apply his talent to the affiche. The 
Great Western Railway Company have 
illustrated at their stations and in their 
carriages, by means of photography, all that 
is romantic and interesting in the country 
through which their line runs. And, again, 
the great lines of the United States have 
brought into vogue vast systems of pidlorial 
advertisement. Their opportunity was un- 
doubtedly a magnificent one. For subjed; 




DESIGN BY GAUSSON. 




■ 




Eclaira^e de Luxe 



135 



DESIGN BY L. LEF^VRE. 



THE RAILWAY AFFICHE. 1 77 

matter they had some of those vast natural 
developments which appeal to mere man as 
absolutely terrific. The waterfall, splashing 
itself into luminous dust, the immense and 
silent mountains, the lakes which are seas, 
the vasty canons which occur in different 
parts of the States, inevitably appeal to 
the imagination. It is therefore not won- 
derful that the great lines of America have 
preferred literal and exadl illustration to fan- 
tastic delineation. The railways of France, 
on the other hand, have employed to no in- 
considerable extent the artist to figure the 
beauties of the places at which they have 
stations. Amongst the most important 
French designers who have worked at the 
railway affiche are : — Fraipont (G.) : (" Che- 
min de fer de l'Etat : Bains de mer de 
Royan " : " Royan sur l'Ocdan," " Chemin 
de fer d'Orldans : Excursions en Tou- 
raine " : " Excursions en Touraine et aux 
chateaux des bords de la Loire," " Chemin 
de fer de l'Ouest : Argenteuil a Mantes," 
" Cie de TOuest et de Brighton : Fleurs, 
fruits, primeurs k destination de Lon- 
dres," " Paris k Londres (L'Angleterre et 
TEcosse) " " Chemin de fer du Nord : 
Excursions k la mer," " Chemin de fer de 
l'Est : Royat," " Chemin de fer de l'Ouest : 
Bretagne, Normandie," " Normandie et 
Bretagne," "Chemin de fer de l'Ouest k 
Brighton : Paris k Londres," " Chemin de 
fer du Nord : Anvers, Exposition univer- 

N 



178 PICTURE POSTERS. 

selle.") Ochoa : (" Club Train/ 1 " Mediter- 
rande," " Express (Cie Int. des wagons-lits)," 
" Orient- Express," " Peninsular-Express"). 
Hugo d'Aldsi {affiches simili-aquarelles) : 
" Paris, Lyons - Marseilles, Algdrie," 
'• l Genfcve/-"L'hiver a Nice," (two subjects), 
" Lac de Thoune," " Mont Revard," " Le 
Mont Rose," " Le Puy," " Tunisie," " La 
Turbie," " Uriage-les-Bains," "Chemin de 
fer du Midi : Pyr£n£es," " Chemin de fer 
d'Orldans: Excursions en Auvergne" (1894), 
" La Creuse et l'lndre," " Chemin de fer de 
TOuest : Dieppe," " L'Auvergne (Orleans)." 
Lefevre (L.): " Nord. Etd a Cobourg," 
"Orleans Excursions aux Pyrdndes," " Bains 
de mer du Golfe de Gascogne," "Ouest 
Excursions s.ur les cdtes de Normandie, en 
Bretagne, et a l'tle de Jersey." Among other 
designers for French railway companies and 
watering-places may be named Orazi, whose 
"Trouville " poster is reproduced on -p. 181, 
Balzer, Baylac, Japhet, and Og6. 





DESIGNS BY R^ALIER-DUMAS. 




DESIGN BY ORAZI. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE ARTISTIC POSTER IN ENG- 
LAND : FROM FRED WALKER 
TO DUDLEY HARDY. 

While the pidtorial poster undoubtedly 
existed in England previous to the produc- 
tion of Fred Walker's "Woman in White/' 
its artistic qualities were conspicuous by 
their absence. No body of artists who de- 
signed posters, such as that of which Ga- 
varni was one in France, is to be met 
with in the history of English art until the 
present day. While, as Mr. Spielmann re- 
minds us in a recent magazine article, Mr. 
Godfroy Durand and Mr. Walter Crane had 
both attempted the artistic affiche previous 
to Walker, the efforts of neither made a pro- 
nounced impression, nor were they productive 
of permanent results. The work of the first 
of these three artists announced the appear- 
ance of the then newly-founded " Graphic/' 
and that of Mr. Walter Crane proclaimed the 
merits of a brand of lead pencils. It is in- 
teresting, as an example of Mr. Crane's im- 
mense versatility in decorative design, that 
he should be among the pioneers of the 



184 PICTURE POSTERS. 

poster movement in this country. That his 
early effort was overshadowed by Walker's 
very imposing work is not a matter of sur- 
prise. From the first, Walker appears to 
have been deeply impressed by the possi- 
bilities of the hoardings as a free art gallery. 
To use his own words, as quoted by Mr. 
Spielmann : " I am impressed on doing all 
I can with a first attempt at what I consider 
might develop into a most important branch 
of art." How Walker's view has been 
realized the mere existence of this book is 
sufficient to prove. This design, which was 
done to advertise Wilkie Collins's novel, 
" The Woman in White," represents a mag- 
nificently-draped female figure stepping 
through a door out into the night. With 
one hand she opens the door, with the other 
she imposes silence on some person unseen. 
This was cut on wood by W. H. Hooper, 
who also engraved the small block we are per- 
mitted to reproduce here from "The Maga- 
zine of Art." The design is in black and 
white, and has the limitations from the 
advertising point of view of black and white 
work ; but, apart from this, it is in every 
way a work which could not fail to impress 
the passer-by. " The Woman in White " is, 
unfortunately, Walker's sole essay in the art 
of the poster; on the other hand, Mr. 
Walter Crane has produced a series which, 
we may hope, has yet to close. It would 
seem that over ten years elapsed between 



WALTER CRANE. 1 85 

his first and second attempts in the art of 
the poster. We meet with him for the 
second time in a design in blue and yellow 




DESIGN BY FRED WALKER FOR "THE WOMAN IN WHITE. 



which advertised the Covent Garden Pro- 
menade Concerts given in 1880. This has 
become extremely rare, and the artist him- 



1 86 PICTURE POSTERS. 

self does not, I believe, possess a copy. 
Following the Covent Garden bill was one 
announcing the performances in London of 
the Paris Hippodrome Troupe. This is 
merely an enlargement on a vast scale of a 
classical drawing intended to adorn a book 
describing the show, but it is distinctly in- 
teresting, more so, it seems to me, than the 
pretty little coloured thing — a window-bill, 
rather than a poster — which advertises 
Hau's champagnes. Other posters by Mr. 
Crane deal with an exhibition of his own 
works, with various insurance companies, 
with the " English Illustrated Magazine " 
(an enlarged version of the cover), and 
the exhibitions of the Arts and Crafts 
Society. It will be seen that Mr. Crane's 
contribution to the art of the poster is a 
very substantial one, and if his designs do 
not always fulfil the sweet uses of advertise- 
ment, they are generally marked by fine 
taste. It is a matter of common knowledge 
that Professor Herkomer has left hardly 
any art or craft untouched, and it therefore 
goes without saying that he has left some 
of them unadorned. To succeed as painter, 
etcher, carver, musician, poet and play- 
wright, lecturer, and adtor is not given to 
mere man. Professor Herkomer's posters 
cannot, I think, be considered among his 
more fortunate performances. That done 
for " The Magazine of Art " does not lack a 
certain feeling for composition : the weird 




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BY PROFESSOR HERKOMER, R.A., FROM THE FIRST SKETCH FOR 
THE POSTER FOR "BLACK AND WHITE." 



SIR JOHN MILLAIS. 1 95 

creature who told us that " Black and White " 
was coming seemed to me to lack both 
dignity and grace, and, moreover, to possess 
very few compensating qualities. Amongst 
other posters by Professor Herkomer is 
one for his own exhibition, and one for 
an exhibition of pictures recently held at 
Oxford. 

It should be noted that while most of the 
mural decorations of Mr. Crane and Pro- 
fessor Herkomer are, stridtly speaking, 
posters, in that they were designed for the 
hoardings and for the hoardings alone, a 
great many designs and pictures by eminent 
artists have been reproduced and posted 
contrary to the original intention of their 
designers. The most prominent of these 
is, of course, Sir John Millais' famous 
" Bubbles," on the reproduction of which 
enormous sums have been spent. The thing 
ispretty enough, but cannot compete as an 
advertisement with a really good poster 
properly so called. Of course the name 
of Sir John Millais was one to conjure with, 
and the success of the thing has been, 
doubtless, great. But it is not an experi- 
ment one cares to see frequently repeated. 
Messrs. Pears were more happily inspired 
in the commission which they gave to Mr. 
Stacy Marks to produce a bond fide poster. 
His " Monks Shaving," seems to be most 
excellently conceived, and, indeed, to be 
the most interesting of Messrs. Pears* 



I96 PICTURE POSTERS. 

gallery of illustrated advertisements. Art 
has certainly played a very prominent part 
in the battle of the soaps. Mr. G. D. Leslie 
used his gifts to insist on the merits of the 
Sunlight brand, while Mr. Burton Barber 
pleaded pidtorially for the Lifebuoy brand. 
A curious bit of poster-making was the re- 
production of a random sketch of a girl sit- 
ting on a champagne cork, by Mr. Linley 
Sambourne, which seems to meet us at 
every turning. Again, Mr. Harry Furniss's 
man who had used Pears' soap years back, 
" and since then had used no other," is an 
enlarged reproduction used for advertising 
purposes of a drawing in " Punch." On the 
other hand, the " Minerva," which Mr. 
Poynter designed for the Guardian Assur- 
ance Company, was actually devised for the 
purpose of a mural advertisement. It can- 
not be stridtly called a poster, insomuch as 
it is never seen in the open air unless glazed. 
It is a classical design in several colours, 
and is of a very elaborate character. For the 
purpose of exhibition indoors, it is glazed 
and mounted on linen with rollers. Another 
contemporary English painter who has re- 
ceived very high official recognition and has 
done a poster is Sir James Linton, P.R.I. 
His subjedt was assuredly an attractive one, 
" Antony and Cleopatra," but it can hardly 
be maintained that, for an artist of so great 
repute, he has produced an especially me- 
morable design. It is a lithograph in one 




DESIGN BY H. STACY MARKS, R.A. 




DESIGN BY EDWARD J. POYNTER, R.A. 



200 



PICTURE POSTERS. 



colour, and measures fifty by fifty-two inches. 
Its date is 1874, so it is clear that Sir James 
Linton is among the little band who tried 
to do something for the pidtorial poster in 




DESIGN BY SIR JAMES LINTON, P.R.I. 

England when it was held of no account. 
Mr. Charles Green, a member of the institu- 
tion of which Sir James is president, pro- 
duced a rather ingenious advertisement of 
an exhibition of works in black and white 
held some time ago in Mosley Street. It 




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204 PICTURE POSTERS. 

is not very large, and is a lithograph in one 
colour. 

It will be observed that the artistic poster 
was in the air in England not very long 
after it began to develop in France. It 
does not, however, seem to have taken so 
great a hold on English artists or on the 
English public as on the artists and public 
of France. In England the artistic poster 
appears to have been received coldly or with 
indifference, and doubtless many designers 
who would have been glad to turn their at- 
tention to the poster were deterred therefrom 
by lack of public sympathy. But all this has 
happily been changed, and if the number of 
poster designers is to continue increasing at 
the present rate, the difficulty will be, not 
to find the artistic advertiser, but to find the 
thing to be advertised. A crowd of clever 
young men, actuated by the success which 
met the efforts of the designers dealt with 
in the next chapter, have rushed to the poster 
with results altogether important. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE PICTORIAL POSTER IN 
ENGLAND : THE WORK OF 
DUDLEY HARDY, AUBREY 
BEARDSLEY, AND MAURICE 
GREIFFENHAGEN. 

The English artists of established reputa- 
tion with whom I dealt in the last chapter, 
were, as we saw, so anxious to inform their 
posters with aesthetic qualities, that for the 
most part, they overlooked the obvious fadt 
that their work was vain unless it really ful- 
filled its primary purpose of advertising. 
It was left for the three men (all of com- 
paratively recent reputation) whose names 
head this chapter, to give the right direction ; 
to insist that not art, but advertisement, 
was the first essential. It is not for an 
instant to be pretended that their achieve- 
ment equals in importance that of the three 
designers discussed in a corresponding 
chapter in the sedtion of this book devoted 
to France. Quantity of production, it is 
true, is a small matter in art ; and yet, in 
so far as quantity of production entails ex- 
perience, one is forced to take it into con- 



206 PICTURE POSTERS. 

sideration. The success of a man who has 
produced a hundred posters, or more, is 
scarcely to be expedled of a designer, how- 
ever ingenious, who is only making his first 
attempt. Moreover, to an artist accustomed 
to work on a small scale, it is a matter of 
extreme difficulty to appreciate, and when 
in the throes of production to keep in mind, 
the essentials of a design intended to be 
seen at a considerable distance, in the open 
air. He is apt to be tempted into pretty 
detail or subtle and harmonious colour, and 
therefore to forget that he should be simple 
almost to the point of crudeness. Under 
these circumstances, it is not less remark- 
able than it is encouraging, that Mr. Hardy, 
Mr. Beardsley, and Mr. Greiffenhagen in 
their earliest essays apprehended the situa- 
tion at once, and produced posters which 
inevitably caught the eye of the beholder 
and created an impression which remained 
with him for a considerable time. Differing 
in all else, the first designs of these three 
artists were alike, in that they were admir- 
able advertisements. From every hoarding 
in London, from the walls of every station 
on the Underground Railway, one was 
vehemently called upon to purchase a new 
weekly, or a new series of an old one, or to 
visit the Avenue Theatre. If the call was 
resisted, it was assuredly no fault of these 
artist-advertisers. To suggest that what 
they have done would have been impossible, 




DESIGN BY DUDLEY HARDY (FOR " TO-DAY "). 







DESIGN BY DUDLEY HARDY (FOR " A GAIETY GIRL "). 



DUDLEY HARDY. 209 

or at least improbable, if France had not 
paved the way, is scarcely to discount their 
immediate and unequivocal success: even 
the greatest artist is* unwise if he does not 
condescend to make use of the work of the 
past. 

It is, I think, Mr. Dudley Hardy who, 
of the three artists named, owes most to 
France. He has made a variation, a very 
personal and alluring variation, be it said, 
of a theme essentially Gallic in its unre- 
strained gaiety, its reckless joyousness. 
There is something of Chdret, and there is 
even more of Jan Van Beers, in the end-of- 
the-century girl, elegant as she is impu- 
dent, whom Mr. Hardy depidts with such 
amazing verve and abandon. She is too 
light-hearted, too irresponsible, to be a 
daughter of this land of grey and rainy 
skies ; she takes nothing seriously, save ' 
perchance a detail of her costume. And 
yet she is stamped with Mr. Hardy's per- 
sonality as thoroughly as are the charming 
parisiennes of Chdret with the individuality 
of their inventor. Mr. Hardy began, and 
began wisely, by trusting for his effedt to a 
single bold figure. Elaborate composition 
implies detail, and detail is one of the pit- 
falls of the designer of posters. Take, for 
example, the vast sheets which were em- 
ployed to advertise one of the spectacles 
at Olympia. The overcrowding of small 
figures and closely-realized views either 

p 



2IO PICTURE POSTERS. 

produced no impression whatsoever on the 
spectator, or at the most an impression due 
entirely to the immensity of the sheets. 
Mr. Hardy's series of posters commenced 
most auspiciously with that audacious young 
lady in a yellow dress, saucy hat, and flying 
black boa, who, not. deigning to entreat, 
compelled the passer-by to rush to the 
nearest bookstall for a copy of Mr. Jerome's 
weekly " To-Day." Later, in similar vein, 
came the dashing girl in red, used by the 
manager of the Prince of Wales's Theatre 
to insist on the merits of " A Gaiety Girl." 
It may be doubted whether any more effec- 
tive mural advertisement has ever been seen 
in London than that formed by half-a-dozen 
copies of this poster, arranged in the manner 
of a frieze in front of the theatre during 
the run of the piece. If the idea was that 
of the bill-sticker, the man was a genius of 
his kind : I cannot help suspedling, how- 
ever, that the striking arrangement was due 
to Mr. Hardy himself. Or perhaps it was 
the happy thought of an outsider. In ad- 
dition to the large " Gaiety Girl " poster, the 
two smaller bills which this artist designed 
to advertise the same play, full as they 
were of dash and go, must not be over- 
looked. To the collector they have a merit 
which he will not fail to appreciate. They are 
of manageable size, and this is more than can 
be said of most of Mr. Hardy's productions. 
It must not be thought, however, that 



/!SB®¥fS 



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3«crt£ /,M ^s*» B, 



DESIGN BY DUDLEY HARDY (FROM SKETCH). 



DUDLEY HARDY. 213 

Mr. Hardy can do no more than repeat with 
slight variety of detail the chic girl to whom 
he first introduced us ; already, notwith- 
standing the comparatively small number 
of his designs, he has shown a very com- 
mendable versatility. The proprietors of 
" St. Pauls," in the days when that journal 
regaled its readers on the portraits, not of 
dancing girls, but of right reverend prelates, 
commissioned Mr. Hardy for a large design 
appropriate to the semi-ecclesiastical charac- 
ter of their journal. The choice, in view of 
the "Yellow Girl," was a somewhat curious 
one; but the experiment justified itself. 
The artist rose to the occasion ; on the hoard- 
ings of London there appeared a woman of 
austere, even saintly, demeanour, clad in 
sombre robes, and armed with a spike of 
the Madonna lily. In spite of the low 
scheme of colour, the design was very telling 
as an advertisement. It has become very 
rare ; indeed, notwithstanding the fad; that 
the dealers quote it at various prices in their 
catalogues, it may be questioned whether it 
is to be procured at all. When the policy 
of "St. Paul's " was changed — when it 
stepped down from its shrine to join the 
multitude and be of the world, worldly — 
the art of Mr. Hardy was once more called 
in to introduce the paper in its new guise. 
For the first time, so far as I know, he at- 
tempted composition. His idea was a happy 
one. The poster represented a young lady, 



214 PICTURE POSTERS. 

evidently light-hearted and of unquestionably 
fantastic costume, see-sawing on a quarter of 
the moon with a gentleman of slight intellect, 
but exceedingly smart clothes. Seen under 
certain conditions the composition is dis- 
tinctly effective, but from a long distance it 
fails to assert itself as do Mr. Hardy's 
simpler designs. In his most recent effort 
he has returned to the single figure, and he 
has done nothing more striking than his bill 
for "The Chieftain," at the Savoy Theatre, 
which represents a man in picturesque cos- 
tume on a red ground. The lettering of 
nearly all Mr. Hardy's posters is admirable. 
It is invented by the artist himself, and forms 
an essential part of the design. For the rest, 
it should be remembered that the poster is 
a mere incident in Mr. Hardy's art career. 
As an illustrator he is with us everywhere ; 
as a painter he is held in deserved esteem. 
It is to be hoped, for the sake of the artistic 
poster in England, that he will continue to 
devote some of his time to a branch of art 
in which, in comparatively a short time, he 
has so greatly succeeded. 

The art of Mr. Aubrey Beardsley has 
been so enthusiastically received, on the 
one hand, as a new revelation, and so pas- 
sionately condemned, on the other, as the 
mere glorification of a hideous and putres- 
cent aspedt of modern life, that it is difficult 
to consider his work with calmness. One 
thing, however, is certain : an impression 




>e new 



L_ 



illustrated 

PaPer. 



DESIGN BY DUDLEY HARDY. 




DESIGN BY DUDLEY HARDY. 



AUBREY BEARDSLEY. 219 

of some kind, whether agreeable or the re- 
verse, it has undoubtedly left upon all who 
have seen it. It cannot be dismissed by 
stating that it is derivative rather than 
original ; that to a large extent it is the out- 
come of Japan, and in a less degree of the 
old English school of caricaturists. Whether 
it be good or bad, the extraordinary impres- 
sion it has made cannot be gainsaid. It is 
probable that the work of no young designer 
of recent times has called forth so much 
homage of imitation, so great an amount of 
that kind of caricature which is among the 
sincerest forms of flattery. Mr. Beardsley's 
eccentricities are so pronounced, that to 
parody his work was simply to do the 
obvious. From " Punch," august by rea- 
son of its fifty years of tradition, to the 
poorest comic rag produced to catch the 
errand-boy's spare halfpenny, is a far cry; 
and yet the former, no less than the latter, 
has treated its readers to a series of pictorial 
Beardsleyisms. It would have been won- 
derful, indeed, if Mr. Beardsley, who is 
nothing if not modern, had not attempted 
the artistic poster. His opportunity came 
when the Avenue Theatre was taken by an 
enthusiastic and courageous young adlress 
for the production of plays by living English 
writers, which, whatever their fate from the 
commercial point of view, were at least to 
possess definite merits as pieces of litera- 
ture. In order to advertise Dr. Todhunter's 



220 PICTURE POSTERS. 

"Comedy of Sighs," and Mr. G. Bernard 
Shaw's " Arms and the Man;" Mr. Beards- 
ley excelled himself, and designed perhaps 
the most remarkable poster ever seen, up to 
that time, in London. 

Nothing so compelling, so irresistible, 
had ever been posted on the hoardings of 
the metropolis before. Some gazed at it 
with awe, as if it were the final achievement 
of modern art ; others jeered at it as a pal- 
pable piece of buffoonery : everybody, how- 
ever, from the labourer hurrying in the 
dim light of the morning to his work, to 
the prosperous stockbroker on his way to 
the " House," was forced to stop and look 
at it. Hence, it fulfilled its primary pur- 
pose to admiration ; it was a most excellent 
advertisement. The old theatrical poster 
represented, in glaring colours, the hero in 
a supreme moment of exaltation, or the 
heroine in the depths of despair. Mr. 
Beardsley did not condescend to illustrate, 
but produced a design, irrelevant and tan- 
talizing to the average man, though doubt- 
less full of significance to himself. In 
many respedts the Avenue bill must be 
considered the best poster which so far has 
come from this artist's hands. The very 
graceful figure on a small poster for "The 
Yellow Book " speaks for itself. It is more 
vivid, more curious, than either of the two 
done for a London publisher. Most collec- 
tors, however, will treasure even more highly 




DESIGN BY AUBREY BEARDSLEY (FOR THE AVENUE THEATRE). 




DESIGN BY AUBREY BEARDSLEY (FOR " THE YELLOW BOOK "). 




AUBREY BEARDSLEY. 



223 



the charming design done by Mr. Beardsley 
to advertise the Pseudonym series of short 
stories. In it we meet with the artist in 
his less mordant mood. The sketch of the 





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wLJ 


■ 1 BRAND 

Wm ^ 1 SCHOOL FOR 




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T*& 


^1 QUARREL SCENE, &C, 




\ 1 1 DRAMATICALLY 


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DESIGN BY MABEL DEARMER. 



old bookshop in the background is quite 
delightful, and the whole design is less gro- 
tesque than most of Mr. Beardsley V pro- 
ductions. The arrangement in purple and 



* 



224 PICTURE POSTERS. 

white, which he did for the same firm, 
is a very striking performance in his later 
manner. Its importance as a poster is, 
however, seriously discounted by the fadt 
that the design has nothing whatsoever to 
do with the text, which has been added in 
a manner almost inconceivably clumsy. 

The success of Mr. Beardsley in the pro- 
duction of artistic posters has encouraged a 
host of imitators, so that it is quite within 
the bounds of possibility that he will found 
something in the nature of a school. Al- 
ready, on the other side of the Atlantic, 
more than one artist has been inspired by 
him. The posters of Mr. Bradley, for ex- 
ample, with which I shall deal later, are 
unquestionably adaptations, at once skilful 
and intelligent, of Mr. Beardsley's decora- 
tive manner. Again, to return to England, 
the pleasant arrangement in red and white, 
designed .by Mrs. Dearmer to advertise a 
recital recently given by her in London, 
proves that she has been affedted by the 
simplicity and directness which are so con- 
spicuous among the merits of Mr. Beardsley 
in his essays in the art of the hoarding. 
Of his many parodists only one, I think, 
has actually attempted the poster. The 
essay in question was made by Mr. J. Hearn, 
under the signature of "WeirdslyDaubery," 
and the result was very fantastic and amus- 
ing. The design was done for spme amateur 
theatricals at Oxford, and it was curious to 



By pwml -i— «Mfc> tw. tW T1—-Q— o* Uoc urf U* MfM WmMpAd tfe* lUyw 

NEW THEATRE OXFORD 




TUk«U ra*y t* obtained by letur or uliptm of Mr. Dor/ill, at Uio Box Offlci. oa and after Monday June 4th 

DESIGN BY J. HEARN (WEIRDSLY DAUBERY). 



IS 




DESIGN BY MAURICE GRIEFFENHAGEN. 



MAURICE GRIEFFENHAGEN. 229 

meet this atom of the so-called decadence 
flaunting itself, with strange incongruity, in 
every nook and corner of " the sweet city of 
the dreaming spires." 

The case of Mr. Maurice Grieffenhagen 
is similar to that of Mr. Dudley Hardy, in- 
somuch as both have been well known for 
some time to the public as painters and as 
the producers of very accomplished work in 
black and white. At present Mr. Grieffen- 
hagen, as a designer of posters, can only 
be judged by a single production. It may 
be said at once that nothing more distin- 
guished, nothing which is less imitative or 
derivative, has come from English hands 
than Mr. Grieffenhagen's advertisement for 
the " Pall Mall Budget." Admirable alike 
in colour and in pattern, the poster is en- 
tirely appropriate to its purpose of keeping 
before the eyes of the public a publication 
which escaped frivolity on the one hand and 
dulness on the other. All who watch the 
development of the artistic poster in Eng- 
land with interest, cannot but hope that 
the " Pall Mall Budget" poster will be the 
first of a series by the same artist equally 
delightful and original. 

It is interesting to note that while we are 
still a long way behind the French in the 
matter of the artistic poster, the productions 
of the three artists with whom I have just 
dealt have received a cordial welcome at the 
hands of Parisian collectors. In the dealers' 



23O PICTURE POSTERS. 

shops you may see Mr. Hardy's " Gaiety 
Girl " side by side with Lautrecs " Reine 
de Joie," while Mr. Grieffenhagen's young 
lady in red looks with demure surprise at 
the antics of her more frivolous sisters, as 
depidted by Jules Ch^ret. There is, again, 
a steady demand for anything by Mr. Beards- 
ley, who, it would seem, has already become 
an established favourite with French con- 
noisseurs. As we shall see in another chapter, 
the prices put in Paris upon English posters 
compare very favourably with those at which 
the works of the ablest French designers 
are valued. In matters of art, few cities are 
more insular and intolerant than the French 
metropolis ; and those English artists who 
are devoting themselves to the poster, should 
be encouraged by enthusiastic recognition 
where enthusiasm was least to be expected. 



CHAPTER VIIL 

THE WORK OF OTHER CONTEM- 
PORARY ENGLISH DESIGNERS. 

Since this book was commenced as the com- 
panion, rather than the rival, of that of M. 
Maindron, English designers of the poster 
have multiplied in a degree altogether phe- 
nomenal. 

Up to the time in question, as we have 
already seen, the English artist who at- 
tempted the poster was exceptional. The 
famine, which was prevalent only a year or 
two ago, has become the abundance of to- 
day, so that where one expected a dearth of 
subjedl matter, one has in fad: an excess. 
It seems to me that, apart from the English 
pioneers, whom we have already considered, 
the brothers Beggarstaff, in reality Messrs. 
Pryde and Simpson, two young artists, are 
entitled to the first place among the makers 
of the English artistic poster. They have 
best appreciated the essence of their busi- 
ness : less than almost any native designers, 
they are innocent of any homage of imita- 
tion. They have imitated neither Ch^ret 
nor Lautrec : it may well be that they have 



232 PICTURE POSTERS. 

had the wisdom to take a hint here and 
there from both of these masters of the art 
of the affiche. As yet the hoardings of 
London are screaming with the vulgar 
designs of the advertiser's hack. The ad- 
mirable art of the Beggarstaffs is, up to 
now, infrequently met with. Their curious 
advertisement for Sir Henry Irving's pro- 
duction of " Becket," was eclipsed by 
that done for the same manager's " Don 
Quixote," while the latter has to give place 
to one intended to announce a special issue 
of " Harper's Magazine." All of these 
force themselves on the collector's attention. 
They are at once striking and artistic ; they 
cry their wares well, and they are a delight 
to the eyes. The lettering in the Harper 
poster is beyond all praise. Of its kind, 
it is the mostbeautiful English lettering 
of which I know. At the Aquarium Exhibi- 
tion the Beggarstaffs showed four posters 
which advertised Nobody's Blue, Nobody's 
Candles, Nobody's Niggers, and Nobody's 
Pianos. If each " Nobody" is not rapidly 
converted into " Somebody," the various 
manufacturers and proprietors of the articles 
mentioned above must be very stupid people. 
All were excellent ; that which advertised 
Nobody's Pianos was a most curious and 
a most original performance. It seems to 
me that the Beggarstaffs have few serious 
rivals in England, and not very many in 
France. Their works should help very 




DESIGN BY THE BROTHERS BEGGARSTAFF. 



WALTER SICKERT. 



235 



considerably in the task of revolutioniz- 
ing the English pictorial poster. The 



THE 



HOUR 

ILLUSTRATED 



impression created by 
their designs on French- 
men, who are past mas- 
ters in the art of the 
hoarding, is most favour- 
able. 

It will be remembered 
that when Mr. Sickert 
took it into his head to 
depidt the Sisters Lloyd 
in their music-hall 
habit, the critics fell out 
greatly. Even the young 
ladies in question had, 
it is. said, scant affedtion 
for a design in which 
everything was sugges- 
tedand nothing declared. 
They had, it is true, the 
recompense of advertise- 
ment, and that, to a music-hall singer, is a 
very sweet recompense. It was characteristic 



DESIGN BY THE BROTHERS 
BEGGARSTAFF. 



236 PICTURE POSTERS. 

of Mr. Sickert that he should go to the music- 
halls for a subjedt. The " New English 
Art Club " is devoted to things which are 




DESIGN BY THE BROTHERS BEGGARSTAFF. 

new and strange, the artistic poster amongst 
them. Mr. Sickert is not the only one of 
the members of this club who have made an 
essay in the latest form of applied art. Mr. 
Beardsley, Mr. R. Anning Bell, and Mr. 



LFCEUMj 

DON 
IIIXOTE 




DESIGN BY THE BROTHERS BEGGARSTAFF. 




DESIGN BY THE BROTHERS BEGGARSTAFF. 




O ymoU^ y 



HARPER'S 

is the largest' 
and most popular 

MAGAZINE 

yet owing to its 
enormous sale 
and in spite of 
the great expense 
of production 
the price is 

STILL 

ONE SHILLING 

Tnc Artistic SupfdyCoi-td 
/ynberley' House W.C. 



DESIGN BY THE BROTHERS BEGGARSTAFF. 



R 



WILSON STEER. 243 

Wilson Steer are amongst those of his col- 
leagues who have done the same thing. Mr. 
Sickert's poster, which is, I believe, as yet 
unpublished, is in four colours. It is calcu- 
lated to make a good advertisement, and 
one can only hope soon to meet with it on 
the hoardings. As an impressionist painter 
of talent, Mr. Wilson Steer is as well known 
as Mr. Sickert. A " New English Art Club " 
Exhibition without his work would be one 
which lacked a most characteristic feature. 
Mr. Steer gave us an opportunity of appre- 
ciating his talent as a painter by organiz- 
ing a show of his own work. To advertise 
this he did a poster, which was excellent of 
its kind, and is in consequence very rare. 
It is a comparatively small lithograph in 
four colours, and is quite unlike this artist's 
other work. It leans, it seems to me, 
towards Pre-Raphaelitism rather than to- 
wards Impressionism. An artist who has 
certainly sat at the feet of Mr. Whistler is 
Mr. Mortimer Menpes. To advertise several 
exhibitions of his paintings, he has invented 
at least three posters, which certainly do not 
lack the merit of originality. He has ab- 
stained from the frivolous girl and grotesque 
man. The " France," the " Venice," and the 
" India " are in their way considerable 
achievements in dainty design and quiet 
and harmonious colour. Mr. Menpes, by 
being intentionally simple, has arrived at 
notable conspicuity. AH this artist's de- 



244 PICTURE POSTERS. 

signs are of small size, and are appropriate 
rather to the notice board than to the 
hoarding. Nothing more opposite to the 
fastidious productions of Mr. Menpes could 
be conceived than the vigorous poster by 
Mr. Lockhart Bogle advertising a Scottish 
Athletic Gathering, held in 1892. This 
is a large lithograph, consisting of a single 
figure of a Highlander, which, if not re- 
markably beautiful, is drawn with vigour 
and with no small accuracy. Mr. Brangwyn 
is one of those English painters of whom 
we are entitled to be proud. His direct- 
ness, the audacity of his impressionism, the 
splendour (if sometimes ill-considered) of 
his colour schemes, cannot be passed over 
even by those who have slight sympathy 
with his method. That, if so inclined, he 
would produce a poster at once startling and 
artistic is not to be denied. The one which 
he has already designed to advertise an ex- 
hibition of South African pictures by him- 
self and Mr. William Hunt, held at the 
Japanese Gallery, is certainly by no means 
worthy his remarkable talent, and one trusts 
that he will cease for a moment from paint- 
ing pictures and produce a poster which 
shall be memorable in the history of the 
affiche iii England. 

Mr. Frank Richards is nothing if not 
versatile ; his exhibition, held recently at 
the Dowdeswells* Galleries, came as a sur- 
prise to all who were unacquainted with his 



THECOUPIL GALLERY ' 
5 REGENT 
STREET PALL 
MALL. 

EXHIBITION OE 
PAINTINGS 
BY P.WILSON 
STEER. 
ADMISSIO 
I SHILLM 
10 TO 



) 




DESIGN BY P. WILSON STEER. 




DESIGN BY LEWIS BAUMER. 




DESIGN BY L. RAVEN-HILL. 



248 PICTURE POSTERS. 

clever painting. In this exhibition his 
pictures ranged from a large study of Mr. 
Clive as " Hamlet " to slight but beautiful 
studies of Venice under various atmospheric 
conditions. In his poster work, of which at 
present little has been seen, Mr. Richards 
shows that, to some extent, he is under the in- 
fluence of Mr. Dudley Hardy. Mr. Richards, 
no less than Mr. Hardy, is undeniably up 
to date, and his worjc is really effective. 
Among the most recent additions to the 
ranks of our popular illustrators is Mr. Lewis 
Baumer. One meets with his work every- 
where ; in "To-Day" and in the short- 
lived " Unicorn. " His bills to advertise 
the Academy students' annual burlesque 
are pretty, if they are nothing else. Mr. 
Baumer has certainly still to make his mark 
as a poster designer. The Artistic Supply 
Company, who are paying special attention 
to the pidlorial poster, have already produced 
a dainty little affiche by him. It may be 
noted here that the company in question 
have arranged with some of the most emi- 
nent English designers for the reproduction 
of artistic posters, and that several, which 
illustrate these pages, do so only on account 
of their permission most generously given. 
Among other services which the comic 
journal " Pick-Me-Up " has rendered to the 
artistic public is the extremely important 
one of emphasizing, and giving a congenial 
outlet to, the remarkable talent of Mr. 




DESIGN BY L. RAVEN-HILL. 




o 

CO 

< 

e 

CO 

o 



L. RAVEN-HILL. 253 

Raven-Hill. From almost the first, his 
connection with the journal in question has 
been a very intimate one. Hardly a number 
is without a specimen of his powerful draw- 
ing and his gift of comic invention. While 
suggesting, in the best sense, the style of 
the incomparable Charles Keene, Mr. Raven- 
Hill's work in black and white is the out- 
come of his own personality. It would have 
been strange if this very modern artist had 
not produced pictorial posters : his talent 
was perfectly adapted to his doing so with 
success. His small bills for " Pick-Me-Up " 
are vigorous in drawing, bold in colour, and 
of a pleasant fantasy. They only measure 
twenty by thirty inches, but they are very 
telling. A complete set of them is a most 
desirable addition to the collector's portfolio. 
Another accomplished member of the staff 
of "Pick-Me-Up," Mr.Edgar Wilson, has de- 
signed a bill for the recently defundt journal, 
"The Unicorn." It is effective, but to me 
personally, the colour scheme is even more 
crude than the exigencies of a poster 
demand. Mr. Reginald Cleaver, whose 
sketches of scenes in the House of Com- 
mons created so favourable an impression 
in "The Daily Graphic," has not yet, I 
believe, deliberately produced a pidtorial 
poster ; but one of his drawings, reproduced 
on a large scale, lends itself well enough 
to the purposes of mural advertisement. 
Mr. Sydney Adamson, the art editor of 



254 PICTURE POSTERS. 

" To-day " and "The Idler," has done a 
bill which, when it is seen, will be k held, I 
have small doubt, a very striking perfor- 
mance. It is happily conceived and boldly 
executed, and should make a striking patch 
of colour on the hoardings. 

Merely to chronicle the names of the innu- 
merable Wilsons who are producing pictures 
would take quite a considerable space. It 
may be noted in passing that, like Edgar of 
that name, Mr. W. Wilson has also attempted 
an affiche. 

Among others who have designed posters 
which have yet to be seen 6n the hoardings 
are Mr. Max Cowper, Mr. A. R. Miller, Mr. 
Kerr Lawson, Mr. F. H. Townsend, whose 
black and white work one meets everywhere, 
Mr. Roche, a prominent member of the 
Glasgow School, and one of the greatest 
living English artists, Mr. Phil May. 

Mr. Phil May is not the only " Punch " 
man who has been seized with the prevail- 
ing mania for the production of posters, 
His colleague, Mr. Bernard Partridge, has 
already designed one which is reproduced 
in these pages. One associates Mr. Part- 
ridge with dainty and idyllic work rather than 
with work which is vigorous, but his first 
essay in the poster seems to me to be very 
promising. Mr. J. T. ^Manuel's work is as 
unlike that of Mr. Bernard Partridge as 
possible. His pictures might be by a clever 
member of the young French School who 




DESIGN BY MAX COWPER. 




DESIGN BY A. R. MILLAR. 




DESIGN BY BERNARD PARTRIDGE. 




DESIGN BY CHARLES FFOULKES. 




DESIGN BY CHARLES FFOULKES. 




DESIGN BY l£0N SOLON. 




DESIGN BY A. MORROW. 




DESIGN BY A. MORROW. 




M?B 


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DESIGN BY HEYWOOD SUMNER. 




GLOBE THEATRE 



Sole Lessee 



F. R. BENSON. 



F. R. BENSON'S 

Shakesperian Company in 

A MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S 

DREAM * on THURSDAY, 
Dec. IQ, and 'every ensuing 
evening until further notice 



DESIGN BY HEYWOOD SUMNER. 



276 PICTURE POSTERS. 

have taken more than a hint from Forain. 
The designs for posters which Mr. Manuel 
exhibited at the Westminster Aquarium, if 
not so distinctive of his talent as his contri- 
butions in black and white to " Pick-Me- 
Up," were not without definite merit. Of 
the three, that catalogued as " A Music-hall 
Singer " struck me as the best. It should 
be purchased by Miss Minnie Cunningham, 
for the likeness between her, and the young 
lady it represents, if accidental, is marvel- 
lous. Among young decorative painters of 
the day who are not mere imitators of such 
masters as Sir Edward Burne-Jones or 
Puvis de Chavannes, but have invented a 
style for themselves, must be included Mr. 
Charles Ffoulkes. The two examples of 
his poster-work here reproduced are as 
beautiful in colour as they are refined in 
pattern. Moreover, they proclaim them- 
selves in loud tones. Their tones, however, 
are those of a silver trumpet rather than 
those of cymbal or of gong. At times Mr. 
Ffoulkes forsakes his lofty imaginings and 
depidts chic young ladies quite in the best 
French manner. Mr. L. Solon's poster, 
reproduced here, is a very characteristic 
example of his decorative style. In invent- 
ing it, the artist has clearly kept before him 
the fadt that a poster cannot live by beauty 
alone ; if, happily, there be beauty, there 
must of necessity be advertisement, else is 
failure inevitable. 




DESIGN BY HEYWOOD SUMNER. 



R. ANNING BELL. 



279 



Very unlike Mr. Solon's poster are the 
affiches of Mr. Heywood Sumner; those 
which I reproduce here seem to me to be 
very characteristic of his graceful gift of de- 
sign. Mr. Morrow is already an established 
favourite on the hoardings of London, and 
justly so in that his performances are of 
exceptional merit. His " Illustrated Bits" 




HAWARD&SON ■ DARLINGTON 



DESIGN BY SIDNEY HAWARD. 



is a radiant affair, and his " New Woman " 
makes quite a pretty pidture. His works 
should certainly be collected. 

Of Mr. R. Anning Bell it is not too 
much to say that for versatility only Mr. 
Walter Crane among English artists can be 
said to rival him, and, what is far more im- 
portant, his success in a medley of mediums 



28o PICTURE POSTERS. 

is not to be gainsaid. His poster for the 
Liverpool School of Art, over which he pre- 
sides, is a magnificent piece of decoration, 
and nothing so fine, in its way, has ever 
been, seen on English hoardings. It takes 
one up to the Elgin marbles ; it is an oasis 
of the classical in a desert of the new. I 
can only mention the following native 
artists, not previously considered, who have 
produced pidlorial posters of interest : Mr. 
F. Barnard (" Everybody should read in 
the European School"), Mr. F. Simpson 
(" Land of the Midnight Sun," "To Norway 
Fjords "), Mr. Robert Fowler, R.I., whose 
poster for the Walker Art Gallery is here 
illustrated, Mr. Sidney Haward (p. 279), 
Mr. Skipworth (" An Artist's Model "), Mr. 
Skinner (" Pall Mall Magazine"), Mr. Starr 
Wood and Mr. A. G. Draper. 

I have already remarked that the poster 
movement in this country amounts to a 
positive revolution. No young artist is 
satisfied unless he has a hand in the decora- 
tion of the hoardings ; the gold frame is for 
the time forgotten, and all have their eyes 
on the lithographers stone. France has 
undoubtedly had a long start of us, but if 
she is to retain her supremacy she must look 
to her laurels. Our young men are beating at 
her doors, though beating only in a spirit of 
friendly rivalry. Happily, between England 
and France there is, at this moment, only 
one war — the war of the pidtorial poster. 



WALKER ART GALLERY. 



., 




DESIGN BV ROBERT FOWLER, R.I. 



'^mamfm 



CITY$OFI 
LIVERPOOL) 
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DESIGN BY R. ANNING BELL. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE PICTORIAL POSTER IN 
AMERICA. 

In the sweet uses of advertisement the 
American is surely an expert, and it would 
have been curious indeed, if he had over- 
looked so obvious and so effective a 
method of advertising as the pidtorial 
poster. Finding, in the notorious phrase 
of Mr. Whistler, that "Art was on the 
town," the American advertiser was one of 
the most eager of those passing gallants 
who chucked her under the chin. Who it 
was originated the artistic poster movement 
in the States, it were hard to say with 
certainty: it may have been Mr. Matt. 
Morgan. Among recent American poster 
producers, three, however, are most con- 
spicuous, Mr. Edward Penfield, Mr. Louis 
J. Rhead, and Mr. Will. H. Bradley. It is 
probable that the first-named was the inno- 
vator : at least, one would be tempted to 
judge so from the quantity of his designs. 

Mr. Penfield is still young, having been 
born at Brooklyn in the year 1866, so that 
if he was the first American artist to deal 
with the poster, the movement in that con- 



286 



PICTURE POSTERS. 



tinent is obviously a recent one. Most of 
his posters are on a small scale, and partake 
of the nature of window-bills rather than of 
placards especially destined to the hoarding. 
At the same time, Mr. Penfield has been by 
no means slow to appreciate that it is the first 




DESIGN BY EDWARD PENFIELD. 

business of an advertisement to advertise, 
and his appreciation of this fad;, coupled 
with a very dainty fancy and no small 
technical skill, has led to results which are 
of unquestionable importance. With his 
earliest efforts I cannot pretend to be well 
acquainted. In 1893 he produced for a 



EDWARD PENFIELD. 287 

firm at Salem a large bill which measures 
eighty-one by forty-two inches. The sub- 
ject is a girl in a black dress and yellow 
jacket who is laden with packages. For 




DESIGN BY EDWARD PENFIELD. 



the publications of the firm of Harpers, 
Mr. Penfield has done quite a quantity 
of excellent and artistic advertisements. 
Amongst the most effective is one pro- 
duced for a special midsummer number of 



288 PICTURE POSTERS. 

11 Harper's Bazar," representing a girl play- 
ing a banjo, divided by a crimson sun from 
an attentive listener of the opposite sex. 
Again, for the issue of July, 1894, the artist 
gives us a girl in white lighting red crackers 
arranged to spell the name of the month. 
For the February number of the following 
year, we are presented, most appropriately, 
with a gentleman posting a valentine in an 
orange coloured letter-box. In April of 
the same year, Mr. Penfield gives us Joan 
of Arc in yellow, wielding sword and staff. 
Amongst the numerous books which Mr. 
Penfield has advertised may be mentioned 
"The Cloister and the Hearth," " Pastime 
Stories," " Our English Cousins," and 
" PerlycrdSs." This artist's work is al- 
ways ingeniously conceived, and the colour 
schemes are not seldom pleasantly auda- 
cious. Mr. Penfield gives us very agree- 
able versions of the American girl in 
general, and of the " summer girl " in par- 
ticular. His maidens are adorably con- 
scious of their power to charm, and are 
fully alive to the fad; that their gowns are 
of the smartest. 

To turn from Mr. Penfield to Mr. Louis 
J. Rhead is to turn to an artist settled in 
the United States, but English by birth and 
education. Mr. Rhead was born at Etruria, 
that unclassical place with the classical 
name, and comes of a family of artists. He 
was, I believe, a student at South Ken- 




DESfGN BY EDWARD PENFIELD. 



u 



^ 




DESIGN BY LOUIS J. RHEAD (FOR THE NEW YORK " SUN "). 



LOUIS J. RHEAD. 



293 



sington for several years, and only reached 
America in 1883. He has exhibited at the 




DESIGN BY LOUIS J. RHEAD. 



Salon and the Academy and other im- 
portant pidture shows. 

Mr. Rhead seems to have taken to the 



294 PICTURE POSTERS. 

poster with the greatest enthusiasm, and he 
has undoubtedly produced a series of curious 
and striking designs. By far the most im- 
portant of his efforts, though not the largest, 
are the designs which he has done for the 
New York "Sun." In one of these very 
daring productions, a crimson sun glows in 
a golden sky. The ground is green, the 
footpath and the trees are blue, while the 
girl's costume is garnet and red. It must 
be confessed that this colour scheme sounds 
somewhat formidable, but Mr. Rhead has 
invented an arrangement at once artistic 
and compelling. The lettering, it must be 
noted with regret, is not from his own 
hand. One of the largest of Mr. Rhead's 
posters is the " Pearline," in which a girl in 
a green and red dress is represented in the 
a6t of pinning a sheet on to a line. This 
design measures forty-one by twenty-eight 
inches. Of considerable size, and of no 
small merit, is the poster executed for the 
" Century," Christmas, 1894, the chief 
feature of which is a girl with a peacock. 
Among other effective designs which stand 
to the credit of Mr. Rhead may be men- 
tioned those advertising " Harper's Bazar," 
Christmas, 1890, Thanksgiving, 1894, and 
Christmas of the same year. For the 
4i Century," besides that already noticed, he 
has done several interesting posters, and he 
helped to advertise various numbers of " St. 
Nicholas " last year. It is to be noted that 




CRFUTDeS 



1 



. ; 







DESIGN BY LOUIS J. RHEAD. 



LOUIS J. RHEAD. 297 

Mr. Louis Rhead has held an exhibition of 
his posters, the catalogue of which, by 
reason of its very characteristic and per- 



EN EXHIBITION 
OFORIGINai 
DESIGNS 
POSTERS 

LOVKJ 
RHEAD 




DESIGN BY LOUIS J. RHEAD. 



sonal decorations, is highly esteemed by 
collectors of those unconsidered trifles which 
end in becoming especially dear to the 
connoisseur. 



298 PICTURE POSTERS. 

Among the magazines of the world, the 
" Chap Book," which emanates from Chicago, 
is by no means the least interesting. Fas- 
cinating as is the title, the contents of this 
little periodical are still more so ; its editors 
seem to have eschewed banality, and to have 
gone in for novelty, even when the new did 
not possess an extraordinary degree of 
merit. It were meet that so original a pub- 
lication should have an advertiser of cor- 
responding eccentricity. In Mr. Will. H. 
Bradley, the proprietors of the "Chap Book" 
undoubtedly possess such an one. Born 
at Springfield, Massachusetts, Mr. Bradley 
lives in Chicago, and to that town and its 
publications he has mainly devoted his 
energies as an artist advertiser. It will 
hardly be disputed that he has seen and 
assimilated, in no small degree, the manner 
of Mr. Aubrey Beardsley. He is, however, 
a great deal more than a mere imitator; 
what he has borrowed, he has borrowed 
with conspicuous intelligence, and nobody 
could for a moment accuse him of anything 
approaching petty larceny. Among his 
most important posters is a colossal one 
which, in the manner of Mr. Beajrdsley, 
proclaims the attractions of the drama by 
Mr. Henry Arthur Jones, entitled "The 
Masqueraders." In 1894 Mr. Bradley ad- 
vertised the " Chap Book " by means of 
two dancers in red and brown costumes ; 
the following year he insisted on the same 



WILL. H. BRADLEY. 299 

publication by means of a girl in white and 
a man in black ; and yet again, through the 
medium of a young lady in blue, mixed up 
with trees in intense purple, outlined with 
red and white; and several other equally 
effective compositions. 

Mr. Bradley is, however, not the only 
artist intimately connected with Chicago 
who has distinguished himself in the pro- 
duction of posters. A native of that city, 
Mr. Will. Carqueville, has done very inter- 
esting work for the firm of Lippincott's. 
In the year 1894, at least one design by him 
was commissioned, and in the succeeding 
year he produced four or more. That he 
is not afraid of colour is proved by the fact 
that in the poster done for Lippincott's, 
March, 1895, he combines dark purple, 
yellow, blue, and bronze. In another design 
we meet with red, purple, yellow, and blue. 
Mr. Kenyon Cox is an American artist 
whose fame is by no means confined to the 
United States. A pupil of Ger6me and 
Carolus Duran, he has, so far as I know, 
made only one essay in the art of the 
poster. This measures eighty-one by forty 
inches, and is in black and white. It repre- 
sents a male figure carrying a torch, and is 
an advertisement for " Scribner's Magazine." 
Mr. Scotson Clark was a schoolfellow of 
Mr. Aubrey Beardsley. He has, among 
other posters, done two to which the pic- 
turesque labels of" Our Lady of the Peacock 



300 PICTURE POSTERS. 

Feather, "and "Lady of the Iris," are attached. 
In addition, for the March issue of the 
" Bookman," 1895, Mr. Scotson Clark drew 
a monk, with book in hand. Mr. George 
Wharton Edwards, the well-known painter 
in water-colours, must be credited with three 
designs for the " Century," in the months 
of February, March, and April, 1895. More- 
over, by means of a drawing of a girl and a 
peacock, he proclaimed the twenty-eighth 
annual exhibition of the American Water- 
Colour Society, in addition to designing a 
bill for a book entitled " The Man Who 
Married the Moon." The advertising enter- 
prise of the firm of Scribner has made 
poster-colledlors the richer by one or two 
productions by Mr. Charles Gibson Dana. 
He it was who announced, with no incon- 
siderable skill, the issues of " Scribner's 
Magazine " for the months of January and 
February, 1895. Mr. Archie Gunn is the 
son of a well-known drawing master in one 
of the large towns of the Midlands. Leaving 
England for America, he found an outlet 
for his talent as a draughtsman on the New 
York journal " Truth." His work is nearly 
always vivacious, even where it is not par- 
ticularly original. His posters were done 
for the " Illustrated American," and are by 
no means bad examples of his craftsman- 
ship. Like most prominent American artists, 
Mr. Thomas Burford Meteyard studied in 
Paris. His poster to advertise a book called 



cnaDBooi 






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Being AM15CEL1ANY of Curious and Interesting i„, 
Ballads. Talcs. Histories, &c, adorned withavariet 
of pictures and very delightful to read: neuih 

which arc annex'd atSJROECOLLECTIONof Noi 
Uces of BOOKS J* - V -* -V-v j* -v -v JCJs.je M 



DESIGN BY WILL H. BRADLEY. 




DESIGN BY WILL. H. BRADLEY. 



The 



CtiapBooK 




DESIGN BY WILL. H. BRADLEY. 



X 




A FRAGMENT OF A DESIGN BY WILL, H. BRADLEY. 







HEARTS 
TRVMPS* 

TOM HALL] 



DESIGN BY WILL. H. BRADLEY. 




A FRAGMENT OF A POSTER FOR "THE MASQUERADERS," BY 
WILL. H. BRADLEY. 




DESIGN BY WILL. H. BRADLEY. 




mm 



ou^rier 

noi/y 

A* 

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P0BLISH6D 

By 




£S0R 

IIWWHORR 




DESIGN BY E. A. ABBEY (FOR A BOOK PUBLISHED IN NEW YORK BY 
MESSRS. R. H. RUSSELL, AND IN ENGLAND BY THE FINE ART SOCIETY). 



FRANCIS DAY. 317 

" Songs from Vagabondia " is in black and 
white, and consists of portraits of the artist 
himself and the authors of the book, Mr. 
Bliss Carman and Mr. Richard Hovey. A 
limited number of copies were printed 
" sur Japon," and these, I believe, are rare. 
As in the case of so many other American 
artists, Mr. Francis Day's poster work was 
done for the most part for the great illus- 
trated magazines which do such credit to the 
United States, as an art-producing nation. 
Mr. Days design for " St. Nicholas," 
Christmas, 1894, seems to me altogether 
agreeable, while in the series designed for 
"Scribner's Magazine," more than one in- 
teresting thing will be found. 

In dealing with the poster in England, 
we have noticed the fact that one woman, 
Mrs. Dearmer, has succeeded in producing 
a bill at once artistic and effective. Miss 
Ethel Reed would seem to be the most 
conspicuous lady-artist who has taken up 
the designing of artistic posters in the 
States. Her efforts date only from last 
February, when she did an advertisement 
for the " Boston Sunday Herald." Since 
then she has produced several designs which 
are held in considerable esteem by American 
collectors. Amongst other artists who have 
taken part in the poster movement on the 
other side of the Atlantic are the following : 
Messrs. Alder (" New York World," 
March 17th, 1895), Allen, Palmer Cox 



318 PICTURE POSTERS. 

(" New Brownie Book "), C. Miles Gardner 
(" Boston Sunday Herald," February ioth, 
1895, and March ioth, 1895), Oliver Her- 
ford, Charles M. Howard (" Boston Sunday 
Herald," April 21st, 1895), Frank King 
(" New York World," April 7th, 1895), H. 
McCarter (the Green Tree Library), Moores 
(" St. Nicholas," November, 1894), Julius 
A. Schweinfurth (Boston Festival Orchestra, 
1895), W. Granville Smith ("Scribner's 
Magazine," Christmas, 1894), W. L. Taylor, 
Abby E. Underwood, R. Wills Irving, C. 
H. Woodbury, Charles Hubbard Wright, 
and William M. Paxton. The last named 
has been chiefly associated with the " Boston 
Sunday Herald," and for that journal he 
has produced several posters of distinction. 
My review of the artistic poster move- 
ment in America has been of necessity brief, 
and cannot, therefore, be free from sins of 
omission. In writing it, I have, where my 
own knowledge has seemed to me insuffi- 
cient, made use of the descriptive catalogue 
of the collection of American posters pub- 
lished last May by Mr. Charles Knowles 
Bolton, of Brookline, Massachusetts. From 
the useful bibliography printed at the end 
of this pamphlet, it would seem that the 
movement has been watched from the first by 
the American press with keen interest. So 
far back as the year 1892, we find Mr. 
Brander Matthews discussing the pidtorial 
poster in the " Century" magazine. In the 




THE LAST QUARTER 
A CENTURY1N AMERICA l 



DESIGN BY KENYON COX. 



SCOTSON CLARK. 



321 



present year the subjedt has been dealt with 
by writers in such important newspapers as 




DESIGN BY SCOTSON CLARK. 



the " New York Tribune " and the " Boston 
Herald," to say nothing of such journals as 

Y 



322 PICTURE POSTERS. 

" Scribner's Magazine/' the " Critic," the 
"Art Interchange, ,, and the " Art Amateur/' 
Quite recently the English public have had 
opportunities of seeing the best work by 
French and native artists. It is to be hoped 
that at the next poster exhibition they will 
be afforded a chance of seeing what excellent 
work American designers are doing in this 
very practical branch of applied art. 

A poster by Mr. E. A. Abbey, illustrated 
on page 315, arrived too late for considera- 
tion in its proper place. It is entirely 
worthy the great reputation of the artist 
who has so kindly permitted us to reproduce 
it here. The figure is in red scale armour, 
bearing a shield with a red cross. 



(^ristnias Number. 



Mt*> 







ST. NICHOLAS. 



DESIGN BY FRANCIS DAY. 







THB 
GREEN 

TREE 
LIBRARY 

F 
O 
R 

S 
A 
L 

E 

H 

E 
R 

E 



Published By 
Stone & Kimball 



DESIGN BY H. McCARTER. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE PICTORIAL POSTER IN 
COUNTRIES NOT ALREADY 
DISCUSSED. 

That the pidture poster was an incident of 
the ancient civilizations of China and Japan 
goes without saying. The scope, however, of 
this book does not embrace the Far East ; the 
illustrated placard in the Orient would, in- 
deed, be a subjedt in itself. In the matter of 
applied art it is difficult to conceive anything 
which the Chinese and the Japanese have 
not attempted. They seem, from the earliest 
days, to have been consumed with a passion 
for decoration ; nothing which by any 
chance admitted of ornament was left un- 
derrated. It behoves the societies which 
are formed for the purpose of illustrating the 
artistic antiquities of these wonderful coun- 
tries to concern themselves with the dawn 
and history of the pictorial poster in the 
East. Certain it is that the illustrated 
advertisement abounded, as it abounds to- 
day, in the cities of both the nations now 
being discussed. It is, indeed, found in the 
less advanced civilization of Burma, and of 



328 PICTURE POSTERS. 

the various principalities which form our 
Indian Empire. To pass from Asia to Spain 
is to travel a long way. In Spain, at the 
present moment, the illustrated placard is 
receiving no small attention at the hands 
of artists who, however discouraged and 
ill-paid, are determined to do all that in 
them lies to raise the country which produced 
Murillo to the position she once held among 
art-producing nations. A recent writer in 
the " Sketch " grows enthusiastic over the 
Spanish affiche. " Spanish posters," he tells 
us, "are a delight. Well drawn, vividly but 
truly coloured, and perfectly printed, they 
shine down from walls and hoardings, attract- 
ing all passers-by. They depidt the glories of 
coming fairs and bull-fights, and are couched 
in terms calculated to draw money from a 
stone. The announcement that a famous 
matador will kill, or assist to kill, Sets 
Escogidos Toros, throws the Spanish reader 
into a state of frenzy. Not infrequently 
some incident is depidted with frank realism. 
A bull standing over a dead horse gives an 
opportunity to the artist to draw the unfor- 
tunate horse disembowelled and lying on 
blood-stained sand, while the bull's hide 
shows the marks of the lance-thrusts, and 
his horns are likewise stained with blood. 
Colour-printing is so good in these regions of 
perpetual sunlight that nearly every detail 
of a matador's costume can be given. The 
poster artists are splendid when they depid: 




POSTER DESIGNED TO ADVERTISE AN ENTERTAINMENT AT 
SEVILLE. 




f'-fc^cS- 



SPANISH POSTER FOR A FAIR. 




DESIGN BY JOSEPH SATTLER. 



SPANISH POSTERS. 339 

movement ; they are satisfactory in their 
purely decorative work, but figures in repose 
are apt to become ' woodeny.' In point of 
colour, Spain beats France ; and as France 
is so much in advance of England, it 
scarcely needs a Euclid to demonstrate that 
English posters cannot be compared to those 
of Spain. The latter exhibit at times an 
admirable sense of distance and proportion, 
which serves to show that their designers 
learnt to draw before they began to paint." 
The four examples reproduced here will 
serve to indicate the type of Spanish poster 
most frequently met with. Whether Spain, 
in the matter of the pidtorial placard, is in 
advance of France or not, is a question of 
taste. However brilliant the colour of the 
Spanish affiche, the design seems to me to 
lack boldness. Take, for example, the 
"Gran Feria de Cordoba, 1895;" in this 
case the whole thing appears to be a series of 
elaborate details rather than a bold and 
impressive design. The poster in Spain, 
however, is rapidly becoming of interest, 
dealing as it does with fascinating and 
essentially pidturesque subjects. It is diffi- 
cult to obtain exadl information concerning 
the artists who design posters in Spain ; the 
examples which I reproduce here, I cannot 
attribute to anybody with any degree of 
certainty. 

The Teutonic temperament is in no sense 
akin to the Spanish, and the pidlorial posters 



34° PICTURE POSTERS. 

of Germany are utterly unlike those of Spain. 
For the most part the Germans have, in the 
past, been addidted to elaborate and often 
admirably-executed lithographs, such, for 
instance, as that done by Ernest Klint for the 
Musical and Theatrical Exhibition held at 
Vienna in 1892. A new movement is, it 
appears, making itself conspicuous just now. 
The younger generation of German designers 
seem to be as anxious to experiment in the 
making of posters as those of France and 
England. Joseph Sattler, a designer of 
considerable originality and great dexterity, 
who has studied Albrecht Dtirer with great 
advantage to his own work, has designed a 
very curious little window bill to advertise 
" Pan." It is reproduced here, and its strange 
individuality, its ingenuity, will not fail to 
make an impression upon those who look at 
it closely. The lettering is devised in an 
extraordinary way, and Sattler may be 
congratulated on the results of an interesting 
experiment. Very different to the work of 
Sattler is that of Franz Stuck. This repre- 
sents a classical head in mosaic, and 
advertises an exhibition of the Munich 
Secessionists, a body of experimental 
painters and designers of rapidly-growing 
importance. The tendency of the illustrated 
poster in Austria is much the same as it is in 
Germany. Some admirable bills have been 
designed in Italy. Of its particular kind, I 
have seen few things better than a large and 




DESIGN BY FRANZ STUCK. 




DESIGN BY EVENEPOEL. 




vX LA VrOLCTTE 

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LE MYOSOT 15 
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LA PIVOIN C -# 
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ORGANISE PARtECOMtTE DEU7>RE5SE AV£C LE<*OKCO0R5 BE 
[■ADMINISTRATION COMMUHALE £1* BEBRUXElUS EXPOStTlQK 



DESIGN BY DUYCK. 




~^S^5^j?\jr£ 



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Sr. 



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Pfix d entree 1 prAnc, le dinjAnclic ib cam. 

lejourdc You)ferhrz5fr,cArfo permXncnfaiofr. 



DESIGN FOR THE " LIBRE ESTHETIQUE. 



BRlimiOlS 
DIMANCHE .20 JEPTEMBRE 

GI1AIVD MATCH 

IOIIBEN»S.Sti«t-G«»» 

EM WWX «A«C1BES 

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DESIGN BY GAUDY. 



BELGIAN POSTERS. 35 1 

sombre poster to advertise Verdi's " Otello." 
At the same time, the Italian posters are not 
of a very distinctive type, nor does Italian 
taste concerning them appear to be very 
fastidious. The crude, enormous, and vulgar 
advertisements for Buffalo Bill's exhibition 
created quite a sensation in Rome when that 
redoubtable personage deigned to visit the 
most august of European capitals. The 
modern Romans forgot their Michael Angelo 
in the ecstasy induced by the latest enormity 
of the American colour printer. It may be 
noted that some of the posters done for the 
Italian railway companies are bright and gay 
as an Italian summer itself. The pidtorial 
poster would not seem to have taken a great 
hold on Russia, nor, judging from a compara- 
tively recent visit, has it made much headway 
in Scandinavia. In Holland, the present 
artistic vitality and enterprise of which are at 
once so astonishing and gratifying, one meets 
with very few posters of conspicuous merit. 
In Belgium, on the other hand, there are signs 
that the poster movement has affedted not a 
few artists of distinction. The placard by 
Evenepoel, designed to advertise a publica- 
tion in connection with the Antwerp 
Exhibition, is excellent in colour and pattern 
and most decidedly original, owing very little 
to any foreign examples. Duyck's " Cortege 
des Fleurs (Ville de Bruxelles)" is decorative 
and pleasing. This artist has also designed 
another placard to advertise Spa (Ferme de 



352 PICTURE POSTERS: 

Frahinfaz). To Delville we owe a curious 
little placard, in the Symbolist manner, 
which advertised " Pour Tart, I cr exposition 
k Bruxelles ; " the advertisement for the second 
exhibition was the work of Ottevaere. A 
fantastic and rather picturesque poster was 
done to announce one of the annual exhibi- 
tions of " La Libre Esthetique." It represents 
a strange-looking human being standing 
among flowers, under a lurid sky, and hold- 
ing in his hands a decorative scroll, upon 
which the legend is inscribed. Amongst 
other interesting Belgian placards are the 
" Velodrome Bruxellois" by G. Gaudy, the 
"Paul Hankar" by A. Crespin, and a poster 
in monochrome in imitation of a bas-relief 
bearing the legend "La plus noble force 
sociale est le Droit." All of these are re- 
produced here. It may be noted in con- 
clusion that most of the Belgian posters 
show strong signs of French influence. 




DESIGN BY X. M. 



AA 




DESIGN BY A. CRESPIN. 



/»«§ OMSM 



s 

t: I M MM ERIE 

fcULfcNS 

aujlpuolic (jti'a parti t de 
ceijour ^£ M 




BAMIMNE. 

lai prctora soq coi/couCS 

pra/dre la^pecklili 
fiitdarteWtobwrne/i? Sc/iv/////fi 



ii 



DESIGN BY LEON BARDENNE. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE PRICE OF THE PICTORIAL 
POSTER; AND CONCLUDING 
NOTE. 

It is obviously impossible to state accurately 
the price of the artistic poster, insomuch as 
fluctuations take place almost daily, and, 
moreover, the numerous dealers vary in 
their quotations in an extraordinary degree. 
Under these circumstances, the present 
chapter is written as a matter of current 
record, rather than with the idea that it will 
be of any permanent value foi* purposes of 
reference. It may be stated at the outset, 
that in dealing with the value of the poster, 
rarity has in the first place to be taken 
into consideration ; and thus it happens 
that, while delightfully artistic designs are 
comparatively inexpensive, posters which 
are quite unattractive from the point of 
view of art are often very costly. The 
prices which follow are for the most part 
taken from the catalogues of M. Edmond 
Sagot of Paris, and Mr. Bella of London, 
the latter of whom, by the organization of 
exhibitions and in other ways, has rendered 



360 . PICTURE POSTERS. 

material assistance to English collectors. 
In fad;, to some extent, he has called the 
English collector into existence. 

As an example of the price of the poster 
of which the interest is archaeological rather 
than artistic, one may instance a placard, 
dated the 20th of February, 1649, which deals 
with the opening and closing of the gates of 
Paris. Its only claim to be considered pic- 
torial consists in the fad; that it is orna- 
mented with a woodcut representing the 
arms of the city. Many similar productions 
were executed in relation to London and to 
other English towns. The price asked for it 
three or four years ago was thirty francs. 
Interesting from another point of view are 
the illustrated posters which have heralded 
new books, or new editions of books, by great 
writers. Three of these, relating to the 
works of Balzac, and including one with 
woodcuts by Meissonier and Tonyjohannot, 
are valued at twelve francs. 

It is time, however, to pass from pidorial 
posters, which are interesting on account of 
age or literary association, to those which 
derive their value from their qualities as 
works of art. In this class some of the 
highest prices are obtained by the French 
artists who, for the most part, were the 
contemporaries, or immediate successors, 
of Gavarni. The best posters of this master 
are extremely difficult to procure, and ex- 
amples in a fine state realize large sums. 



THE PRICE OF THE POSTER. 36 1 

For the " OEuvres Choisis " bill, together 
with that designed to advertise an illus- 
trated edition of Balzac's " Philosophie de 
la Vie Conjugate," something over a 
hundred francs is asked, while less im- 
portant works can be obtained for five- 
and-twenty or thirty francs. It goes 
without saying that the smallest tear or 
other injury, however neatly and skilfully 
repaired, heavily discounts the value of 
works by Gavarni and the men of his time ; 
but even slightly damaged examples are 
eagerly sought for, as it is almost impos- 
sible to obtain perfect ones. Of the pro- 
ductions of Edouard de Beaumont, two of 
the rarest are the " Nains Cdl£bres," already 
mentioned, and the " Diable Amoureux." 
For an exceptionally fine proof of the former, 
as much as a hundred francs has been 
asked, while the latter, which is very rare, 
commands about sixty francs. Sums 
scarcely less formidable are given for the 
better posters of Grandville, and fifty francs 
for a good Tony Johannot is not by any 
means an exceptional price, although un- 
important specimens of his work may be 
picked up in Paris for a few sous. The 
excursions of Gustave Dord into the art 
of the poster were very few. His most 
important work was perhaps the " Ldgende 
du Juif Errant," a fine proof of which 
realizes sixty francs or more. Posters by 
Vivant Beaucd, Castelli, Cham, Vidtor 



362 PICTURE POSTERS. 

Coindre, Charles Devrits, H. Emy, A. 
Farcy, and others of the same period, for 
the most part command sums compara- 
tively small ; the best productions of Bertall, 
Calame, Monnier, and C. Nanteuil, on the 
other hand, are only a little less expensive 
than those of Gavarni and the more distin- 
guished designers of his time. 

Of posters by designers still living, those 
of Chdret have been most assiduously col- 
lected. It is probable that a complete 
set of his works does not exist ; even one 
which is fairly representative, and includes 
some of his earlier and rarer affiches, is ex- 
tremely valuable. In the Sagot catalogue 
of 1891, over five hundred and fifty posters 
by Ch^ret are described, and of these no 
less than eighty are priced at twenty francs 
or more. Since the publication of the cata- 
logue, their value has steadily increased, 
and it is. uncertain if many of them can 
now be procured at all. The collector of 
modest means need not, however, regret 
that the older and rarer examples of Chdret 
are beyond his reach, for the artist's more 
recent posters are the best that he has 
accomplished. For a comparatively small 
outlay, one may secure the flower of Chdret's 
work. Amongst the most valuable of his 
posters are two, of very large size, designed 
to advertise some Arabs who appeared 
with the Paris Hippodrome when it visited 
London in 1887. The price asked for 



THE PRICE OF THE POSTER. 363 

them is over two pounds. They seem 
to have escaped the attention of French 
collectors from the fad; that they were posted 
exclusively in London. The set of four 




DESIGN BY CH^RET. 



Loie Fuller bills, in all of which the design 
is the same but the colouring different, is 
worth between thirty and forty shillings. 
These designs are among the most daring 



364 PICTURE POSTERS. 

and characteristic specimens of Chdret's 
amazing colour, and as they only measure 
forty-nine by thirty-three inches, they are of 
manageable size, and should find their way 
into the portfolio of every collector. The set 
of unlettered decorative panels which were 
described in an earlier part of the book, is at 
present sold by all dealers for five pounds. 
It goes without saying that proofs before 
letters, or prints on special paper, of the 
posters of Chdret, or of nearly any other 
artist, are much more valuable than ordinary 
copies. 

Most of t the posters of other living French 
artists may still be procured for a few 
shillings, but it is extremely improbable 
that such a state of things will long con- 
tinue to be the case. Already examples 
by men of the modern school, such as 
Toulouse - Lautrec, Anquetin, Bonnard, 
Steinlen, and Ibels, are in great demand, 
and collectors should use the present op- 
portunity to procure a series of these 
curiously interesting designs before the 
prices rise. Even now, Lautrec's first 
attempt, "Le Pendu,"has become rarissime, 
and is valued at something over a sovereign. 
What has happened in this case will doubt- 
less happen in the case of " La Reine de 
Joie," "Jane Avril," and Lautrec's other 
posters. The designs of Grasset are rapidly 
taking their place by the side of those of 
Chdret in the estimation of collectors, with 



THE PRICE OF THE POSTER. 365 

the result that several of them command 
large prices. Thus the " Librairie Ro- 
mantique," which was offered in 1891 for 
three francs, was priced by the same dealer 
in November, 1894, at twenty. What is 
going on in the case of Chdret, Grasset, and 
Lautrec, is going on, though it may be some- 
what less rapidly, in the case of those other 
artists who have assisted to make the French 
affiche the charming and artistic thing it is. 
The posters of those artists who were the 
pioneers of the artistic poster movement in 
England are extremely rare. They worked 
in the days before the English collector 
existed, and any copies of their designs not 
actually posted, probably fell into the hands 
of the waste-paper dealer. I have been 
unable to trace any copies of the advertise- 
ment done by Fred Walker for " The 
Woman in White," but the original design 
has been recently exhibited in London, and 
the price put upon it by its owners is seventy 
guineas. Copies of Mr. Walter Crane's 
" Hippodrome" bill are extremely rare, as 
are those designed by Professor Herkomer 
for the "Magazine of Art," " Black and 
White," and the exhibition of his own 
works. Turning to the younger men, it is 
interesting to note that Mr. Dudley Hardy's 
41 Yellow Girl " sells in Paris for twenty 
francs, the large " Gaiety Girl " for half as 
much, and the smaller bills for the same 
play for five francs. The first poster which 



366 PICTURE POSTERS. 

this artist did for " St. Paul's " is very 
difficult to meet with ; it will doubtless be 
among the most valuable of Mr. Hardy's 
designs. Mr. Beardsley's " Avenue " poster 
is quoted neither by Mr. Bella nor M. Sagot, 
and it may therefore be concluded that it is 
almost impossible to obtain it. The other 
posters of this designer are steadily increas- 
ing in value, and are eagerly sought for by 
collectors on both sides of the Channel. 
Mr. Greiffenhagens " Pall Mall " poster, 
which has met with much success abroad, is 
worth about half a sovereign. The dainty 
little bill which Mr. Wilson Steer did for the 
exhibition of his paintings at the Goupil 
Gallery fetches about the same amount, and 
is rapidly becoming scarce. It is pleasant 
to think that the early efforts of English 
artists are welcomed by French collectors 
as enthusiastically as the masterpieces of 
French artists by collectors in England. 

The poster is obviously difficult to colledt, 
because of its size. Not all of us are pro- 
prietors of such an immensity as the Chicago 
Exhibition. Most of us, on the other hand, 
could paper a room with posters of Lautrec 
alone. Everybody, however, can put the 
smaller bills into a portfolio, while the 
larger ones may be mounted as ordinary 
school maps. The collecting of pidtorial 
posters needs nothing more than a little 
heroism. 



THE PRICE OF THE POSTER. 367 

In the foregoing chapters, I have attempted 
to outline the history of art as applied to the 
poster, and to give an account of the pidtorial 
placard in the present state of its develop- 
ment. The number of names, eminent in the 
history of various modern arts and crafts, 
who have applied themselves to the produc- 
tion of the pidtorial poster seems to me to 
justify the publication of this book. The fadl 
that men so highly endowed as Chdret and 
Lautrec deliberately choose to appeal to the 
public chiefly by means of the affiche, well 
knowing that their gallery is the common 
hoarding, places the illustrated poster out- 
side the bounds of ridicule. A modern 
art critic of high repute and of enormous 
energy has assured us that, in these days, 
to negledl the poster is mere folly on the 
part of those who care for the application 
of taste and skill to the objedts of every- 
day life. We are apt to talk of artistic 
periods ; periods when the most ordinary 
objedts had an aesthetic character of their 
own. It seems to me to be full of promise 
for the future that the hoarding should 
be among the first necessities of modern 
civilization to be rendered charming by 
the skill and imagination of the artist. 
Art is generally supposed to be inimical to 
commerce, and commerce inimical to art, yet 
here we have the two combining to the 
advantage of both, and succeeding in making 
the beautiful an incident of the necessary. 




CHISWICK PRESS :— CHARLES WHITTINGH AM AND CO. 
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON.