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For vw- of MUitwi-y Personnel only. Not to he 

republished, in whole or m part, mithowt the 

consent of the War Department. 

Prepared hi/ 




About the only thing in this booklet tiiat can be guaranteed is the 
terrain. The i-est of it is up to the fortunes or misfortunes of war. 
Many of the towns and cities described here have been bombed 
and shelled by us as we approached, and slielled by the enemy as 
he retreated. And many of them will still show the marks of the 
destruction visited upon them when these lands were being con- 
quered and occupied by the Germans. 

The shoi-t historical notes and city plans concerning most of the 
towns are correct as of the outbreak of the war. But the changes 
of war wei-e still happening in many places when this pocket guide 
went to press. 

You may find that art treasures described and located in these 
pages have been looted or destroyed, and it may be years before 
those that can be restored are sights to see again. On the other 
hand, some of them, by a stroke of good fortune, may be left in- 
tact, and you will be able to enjoy them. 

And another thing: if some of these towns should be declared 


off limits, you'i! bypasiS tliem, of course. Pei-Iiiips hiter, they may 
be open to you. 

Food and drink are discussed here, so that as times gradually I'e- 
turn to normal, you may be guided in the tastes and customs of tlie 
country. But be sin-e that you are not encouraging a black market 
or bringing hardship to the native civilian population if you take 
advantage of what the town or region has to offer. You will receive 
direction from the proper authority in this matter. 

Anyhow, so far as your military duties permit, see as much as 
you can. You've got a great chance to do now, major expenses 
paid, what would cost you a lot of your own money after tlie war. 
Take advantage of it. 




TmzsTB ..... 




Bolzano .... 
Florence . . . 







Naples .... 




. . — 

fa Via App(3 AnFica Albaro Anzio 


EoME is almost as old as tiie seven hills upon which the city was 
built. According to the archeolopists, people first began settling 
in the district some time aroimd the year 1000 B. C. They were 
i^hephei-ds and farmei-s, and according to the myth, the city was 
founded by Romulus, a son of Mars, who was the God of War, 
and his brother, Remus. Romulus and Remus, according to the 
legend, were put in a trough and thrown into the Tiber River by 
their great-uncle. They came aground in a marsh and were fed 
by a she-wolf and a woodpecker. The woodpecker gave them 
their solid foode. Then, when they grew up they organized all 
the shepherds in the territory and founded the city on the spot 
where they came agi'ound iu the Tiber. That's the story, but 
scholars say it's a phoney, because there are a lot of stories like 
that which were told by the earlier Romans. 

The seven hills upon which the city was first built are the 
Capitoline. Palatine. Atentine, QtrmiNAL, Viminal. Esquiline, 
and Caelius. The hills were never very high, and during the 
course of years the tops of the hills were cut down and valleys 


built up. Now the city stretches over nine or more hills. Vati- 
OAN Hni is one of the heights added to the city in its growth. 

For a number of reasons, Rome is one of the most important of 
the world's capitals. Willi the exception of Athens, it is the oldest 
city in Europe serving as a capital. It was the center of the old 
Roman Empire, which was the greatest power in the ancient world. 
And since, soon after the birth of Christianity, it has been the 
capital of Christendom. The city of Rome for thousands of years 
has influenced the thought, art, and culture of the world. There 
was, of coui-se, a little set-back in thinking, art, and culture under 
II Duce. 

There have been rumors recently that a great deal of Rome's art 
was carted off by Mussolini's gi-ee'dy ally, especially the nudes. 

The first sights generally visited by travellers to Rome are the 
CAPrroLiNE buildings, the Colosseum, the Pantheon, the Baths op 
Caracalia, the Forum, the walls and gates of the ancient city, and 
the Catacombs. 

On the Capitoline Hill was the Temple of Jupiter ami the tem- 
ples of other and lesser deities. There tlie seeresses made their pre- 
dictions about how important events would end, and foretold the 
future in times of crisis. 

The Colosseum, which was finished in the year 80 A. D., was an 
amphitheatre, of oval shape. It enclosed an open space, or arena, 
and was 3 stories high with an upper gallery. It seated from 
40,000 to 50,000 persons. Shows and circuses often lasting for 100 
days wei-e held there, and among the spectacles which the Romans 
saw there were the gladiatorial combats in wliieli trained slaves 
battled each other to the death. YonVe seen a lot of ruins in Italy ; 
the Colosseum, however, wasn't wrecked by Long Toms. It got 
that way through the passage of time. It's supposed to be best to 
see the Colosseum at night, by the light of the full moon. 

The Baths of Cabacalla are named after t!ie Roman Emperor 
wlio built tSiem. He's got a couple of other things to make him 
famous. He killed his brother so he could rule alone, and then, 
to make certain that none of his brother's friends harbored any 
ill feelings, he killed 20,000 nf them. 

The Roman Forum was the large open space between the Pala- 
tine and Capitoline Hills. It was there that large public meet- 
ings and games were held. There were galleries for spectators 
over the porticoes, and the Forum also had shops of various sorts. 
Temples and courts were scattered about the Forum, and tlie 
Senate building was there also. The famous triumphal proces- 

sions of the Roman Generals and Emperors who returned from 
Ilieir widespread conquests passed along a windin<r street called 
the Sacked Wat, whicli ran through the Forum. In the Forum 
tliere is a piece of masoiUT wliich is said to mark the center of 
Eoine. It is called tiie Umbilicus Romae, or the helly-buttou 
of Kome. and the base of the numument is still preserved. There 
ai-e remains of other ancient Roman slnidttires in theForuni 
Eight granite columns are all that are left of the Temple of Sat^ 
CRN, who was the god of the sowing of seed. The temple was 
also used as a treasury. AJso in the Forum are some of the re- 
mains of tile cohuniis and ornamentation of the Temple of Vesta 
the oldest m Rome, and of the house of the Vestal Virgins. Vesta 
was the goddess of the hearth and the home, and the Vestal Virgins 
wei-e consecrated to her worship. Part of the Rostra, from which 
siroke the famous Kouipii orators, including Cicero, is stiU in the 

There are hundreds of churches in Rome, many of tliera famous 
not only for their religious and historical siginficance. hut also 
for their architectural heautv and the art trousures which they 
contain. The two most famous churches are St. John Lateban 

or San Giovanni in Lateban, as the Italians know it, and St. 

The Church of St. John Laterau is the seat of the Bishop of 
Rome, who is the Pope. It is said to date from the year 324, but 
was twice rebuilt, once after an earthquake and again after a fire- 
It has been altered and modernized several times. 

St. Peter's is the largest- church in Rome. The building is 
about 500 feet high, and covei's about six acres, The uave is 648 
feet long, 93 feet wide, and 143 feet liigh. The transept is 449 
feet long. The magnificent dome is the work of Michaelangelo, 
and it is 448 feet above the street. St. Peter's is not actually in 
Rome, but in Vatican City, which is an independent city-state 
governed by the Pope. 

Vatican Citt is divided from Rome by its walls. It takes in 
109 acres. In its grounds are a Pontifical Palace of 1,000 rooms, 
an observatory, a post office, a railway station, a power plant and 
radio station, and printing pre^es for Vatican City's own news- 
papei-S'. The Vatican also coins its own money and prints its own 
postage stamps. There is a mosaic factory within the waUs of the 
city where old works of art are reproduced in colored glass-paste 
of wliich there are said to be more than 20,000 different shades. 

The Vatican has its own police force, and a body of men called the 
Swiss Guards, made up of citizens of Switzerland, who acts as the 
Pope's escort. The Swiss Guard was founded by Julius Second, 
and wear a uniform of blue, red, and yellow which was designed 
by Michael angelo. 

Many of the greatest art works in the world are in the Vatican 
Pahice. There are the Museum of Scidpture, large picture gal- 
leries, and 11 libraiy which contains priceless manuscripts and 
books in many languages, including 700,000 printed works in 
Latin. All through the Palace are seen Papal guards and cham- 
berlains in their colorful uniforms. The Sistine Chapel, which 
is the Pope's private chapel, was built in 1473. In it are paintings 
by such famous Italian paintei-s as Perngino, Botticelli and Ghir- 
landao. The greatest and m(»st famous Avork of art in the Sistine 
Chapel, however, is the great ceiling and the "Last Judgment " 
by Michaelangelo. 
The Catacombs of Rome were orginally burial places. Later, 
■ when the early Christians were persecuted, they literally went 
underground into the Catacombs, and lived and worshiped there. 
Pilgrims and visitors to R(.me generally visit San Callisto, the 
best -known of the Catacombs, where they are lighted through the 

underground chambers and corridore by candles. Sometime 
around the beginning of the seventh century, thousands of the relics 
of the Christian martyrs were taken out of the Catacombs and 
removed to the Pantheon. 

The Panthi;on was the building in whicli all the Koman gods 
were worshiped. The building is remarkable for its well-pre- 
served state, and because it has been used continuously as a church 
for more than 2,000 years. Besides the worship of the gods, it 
was also used to mark "the victory of Augustus over Mark Anthony, 
at Actium, in 31 B. C- It was closed as a temple of the gods about 
the year 390. Then, in the year 609, it was consecrated as a Chris- 
tian chui-ch. It is an outstanding example of Roman architecture 
and is also considered a symbol of the religious life of Rome, in its 
change from pagan worship to Christianity. 

All over the city of Rome are fountains, many of them the work 
of famous artists. The first fountains of the city were built at 
the order of Agi-ippa, the son-in-law and advisor to Emperor 
Augustus. He was also the commander in chief of the Roman 
Navy. Agrippa gave the city more than 200 fountains and built 
at his own expense 2 aqueducts and 130 reservoirs. Many of the 

foiintjiirts were destroyed by invaders, but tliey were restored in 
later years by the Popes of the Renaissunee. 

One of the most famous of the fountains in Rome is the Patjune 
rouNTAiN. It throws five powerful jets of wiiter from underneath 
nve arches. 

You probably won't have the 14 to 16 days which people who 
know Rome say is the miniimim period in which the sights of 
Rome can be seen hastily. What would jirobably be a good idea 
then, IS first to make a dash ai-ound tlie city to get a quick look at 
It and then later select the places which you would like to inspect 
more carefully and leisurely when and if yoii have the time 

In addition to the places we have described, here are some other 
places of interest in Rome. Tlie Ptxcio, wJiich used to belong to 
a famous Roman family after whom it was named, was the fii-st 
public park in the city. In the old days a lady l)v the name of 
Messalina, who was the ^-ife of Claudius, a Roman Emmror used 
to throw some pretty wUd parties tliere. The Palazzo Venezia is 
one place you've probably seen many times in the news reels back 
home. Ihats the place from whose balcony Mussolini made his 
boastnig speeches to the applause of his black-shirted Fascists and 
the laughter of the rest of tlie world. Mussolini appropriated it as 

his own private office, but it is now a niiiseuin apiin. Opposite the 
Palazzo Venezia is the national monument to Victor Emanuel II. 

The Villa Bobghese, next to the Pincio, is the favorite park of 
the Romans, and, since you are in Rome, it might not be a bad idea 
to do as the Romans do and spend some time there. One of the 
most important art galleries in the city is thcK, and it also has a 

There are civil and religious festivals in Rome all through the 
year. One of tlie most important festivals is celebrated on Ajji'il 
21. That's when Rome was supiiosed to have been founded, but 
you know — Rome wasn't built in a day. There used to be another 
big festival in October, to mark the day when Mussolini marehed 
into Rome with 'his hoodlums, but that date, thanks to you, isn't 
going to be celebrated any more. 

For entertainment in the evening, there are theaters, movie 
houses, and concert, lialls. Among the theaters are the Royal 
Opera House, on the Via Viminale; the Argentina, on the Via di 
Torre Argentina; the Valle, on the Via del Teatro VaUe; and 
others. The movies are all around town. Here are some of the 
concert halls: the Augusteo, on Via dei Pontefici; Salla Bach, 
Via Gregoriana : and the Sala dementi, on Via dell'Ohnata. 

Every district in Italy has its local wine, and it wonld be 
sensible to drink that wine because it is generally the most abmid- 
ant and tbe cheapest. Any recommendation for a particular type 
of wine or a vintage year would be arbitrary, because it is better- 
to suit your own taste. And if you [ike to drink a sweet wine 
with meat, don't let it bother you. 

On some of tbe streets in tlte center of Rome, pedestrians are 
supposed to keep to tbe left. There are busses and streetcars all 
over town or, anyway, there used to be. In the center of town, 
which, oddly, is called tlie "circolai-e interna," which means "the 
inside circle, or center of town," is served only by busses, except 
for a few sti-eets near the Central Station. Fares are generally 
priced according to the length of tbe trip. Busses and streetcai-s 
which run in the city have numbers over 1(10. or two Iettei¥i of the 
alphabet; busses that run into tlie suburbs have numbers over 200. 
There are bus lines running into the outlying districts of Roniei 
or the provinces. Some of these bus lines used to run all year 
'round, but the others ran only according to various seasons. " 


Tbe districts around Runie are full of places of historical in- 

terest and beauty. There are beaches which are bordered by pnie 
woods small towns and villages where it should be possible to see 
how Italians live. There are medieval towns with historic palaces, 
castles, and churches, mineral springs and health resorts which 
for thousands of years have been healing the sick in their waters, 
and there are excavations of ancient Roman cities and mmunerable 
monuments which were erected to mark the triumphs of the 
ancients. „ „ _, 

Here are some of the shore resorts near Rome. Civitavecchia 
is a port of comninnication with Sardinia. It has good hotels 
and bath bouses, and, although it is a little more than 40 miles 
from Rome, it attracts large numbers of people from the city 
because there is— or was— an excellent highway running to Civit- 
avecchia and there is— or wafr-good railway service because it 
is a station on tbe Rome-Pisa-Genoa-Tiirin line. 

South of Civitavecchia are two small towns named Santa 
JIarineij-a and Laotspou. which ai-e seaside resorts and crowded 
with people from Rome during the sunmier season. 

Not far from Ladispoli is Fregene. which is said to be one of 
the most beautiful beaches of the Latium, which is the ancient 
name for this portion of central Italy. And to the south of 

Fregeric ure FrtiMicmo iiikI Liro di Roma, which is about. 18 miles 
from Rome. Lido di Roma iias n jjood sandy beacli, and there 
IS a park and a pine forest tliere. There is train and bus service 
to thTs resoi-t. At the mouth of the Tiber River is the l8or„\ 
Sacra and nearby are the ruins of Ostia Antica, which was a 
thriving Roman town. Anzio, which you may have known as a 
helMioIe, was a resort town am! an important port before the war. 
It's about 30 miles from Rome and is reached by road or train 
wlilch takes about an honr. Anzio has the ruin's of a villa, or 
country home which is supposed to have been built by Nero, and 
a pine wood. Nettuno, another peace-time resoil whitli yon may 
have paaf^ed thi-onjrii on your way into Italy, is not far from 
Anzio. One of the sights of that place is a castle which was built 
for Alexander VI. 

On another route out of Ronie. by the Via Appia. which is the 
oldest of the ancient Roman highways, and Irhen the road which 
runs fi-oin Cistebna to Littoma, there is the seashore resort of 
Tebracina, and then Gaeta and Fobmia. The ruins of the 
aucieut city of TuscrLrm is a comparatively short walk from the 
town of Frasoati, whicli used to have good hotels and restaurants. 
Frascati is famous for its wines, and it has a number of beautiful 

villas. On the way to Frascati from Rome, by way of the Via 
Appia Nuovo and the Via Tnscaloua the rejiiams of the Ancient 

From Frascati to Rhcca di Papa there is a road which leads to a 
rout* to the top of Moni^ Cavo. which is 3.1i:i feet above sea-level 
ft-om which the whole of the beautiful Roman Campagna can be 
^n. Then, from Rocca di Papa there i. a route to Albano and 
Casteloandolfo. which is a little town on the lake of Albano 
where the Pope has his summer residence. The Via dei 1.aqhi to the Lake .if Nemi, where Roman galleys were sa vaged 
and which can Ije seen there. To the south is Velletri. wliich is 
an important wine-producing center, and which has a number of 
works of art. On the way back to Rome, there are the towns of 
Mahino and Gnfm-AFEBRATA. At the latter place is a moiiaste 7 
called the-ABBAZiA.-' of the Bflsilian monks of the Gi-«k-Cathohc 
Church. The monastery was founded in the year 1002 by &t. 
Nilus, who was from the island of Calabria. The monastery was 
built over the ruins of a Roman villa which is said to have be- 
lonee<l to the orator Cicero. , -rr- * 

In the direction ..f Gekzano and Cisterna on the Via Appia is 
the area which was reclaimed from (he Pontine Marshes. 

Frosinune, wliicli is an inipni-tanl center, on (lie (op of a hill 
from wliidi a view of the suiTounding plain and the hills and 
mountiiins of the areii can be seen, can be reached by raih-oad or 
by way of the Vr* Phenbstina or the Via Casilina. The Via 
Pmiestina goes through the towns of Paijihtrina, Genazkano. 
Fmooi. and Alatbi. The Via Casilina goes through Colokna. 
Valmontonb, Feiientino, and the towns of Abtena and Anagni 
ai-e a little way off the main road. 

FiDoGi, which is a.OOti feet above sea level, is important becnnse 
its watei-s are snpposed to be good for such varied ailments as 
kidney trouble and neuralgia and neurasthenia. There are a 
number of hotels and boai'ding houses at Fiuggi. The town of 
Ferentino has remains of pre-Romiin and Roman buildings, and 
medieval houses and churohes. There are a number of art works 
in Valmontone, and at Anaqni (here are old Roman buildings, 
among which is the Cathedral, and there are also some 
medieval buildings. And at Palestriiia and Genazzano are Roman 

The town of Trvou is one of tlie places tourists to Rome are 
told to visit. The town is in the Aniene Valley, and there are the 
Aniene River waterfalls, the Temple of Vesta, and the Villa 

d'Este. which is famous for its beauty. There is a very good view 
of the R(miaii t-ampagna from Tivoli. On the way to the. town, by 
the Via Tiburtina, there are Acqtje Albdi.e. which has -.wimming 
pools as well as sulphur bath:?, and the Tomb of the Plauti. which 
is a tower dating from the time of Augustus. Two miles from 
that place is Hadrian's Villa, which was the largest aJid most 
Juxurious villa in the Roman Empire. 

All the regional forms of Italiaji c<K)kery are available in Rome. 
Here are some of the typical Italian dishes which it may be possible 
to find in the city's restaurants, wine shops, and other eating places. 
MiNEsntoNE is a favorite sonp with the Italians. It is a thick 
vegetable soup. There are vaiious forms of minestrone, one of 
them called minestha AScroriA, which has macaroni added to it, 
and another has rice and other ingredients. In many cases, what 
goes into the soup depends on the whim of the cook, but the resiilt 
fs usually very satisfying. In fact, some of the Italian soups 
are so filling and nourishing because of the many ingi'cdients in 
them, that Italians often make a complete meal of a plate of 
soup and bread. 


-In „ u-ide open valley, prnteeled tv.m the ^-ii.,1 a.ul dommaled 
bv the leaeiKlary Catiiiaccio, woiKlerfuUy Bitunted, suiTOimdeil by 
fruitful vireTaitla ami orchards, lies BoLziso reno™! centre 
(or a prolonged aojoum." That's ivhat the travel toldcr 
Says-and nnlesB there's a lot of destnictive fighting there, which 
cannot be predicted as this booklet goes to press, Bolzano is all of 
that. It is a pictmeaquely situated town m the Itboi.— rich m 
bistorv— colorful and full of old art. 

Bolzano is the Italian gateway to the BmNKH P»ss. on the most 
direct road between Rome and Berlin, and was a freciuent meet- 
ing place of the former European A.iis partners. 

The city was Austrian until the close of the Brst World War 
when the Italian frontier was moved about 100 miles north, giving 
Italy the large Teutonic population of South Tyrol. Bolzanos 
.\llBtrian name was Base,,. The majority of its inhabitants still 
speak German and most of the city retains a Geimanie architec- 
tural appearance. . . 

The story of Bolzano goes way back. It was fii-st mentioned 

Ill 379 A. D. by llie Roni.iii Emperor Gi'iiLiiui w!io called it 
"Bauxare."' Tliree hundred yeai-s latei' it was mentioned again by 
an ancient historian who called it "Baiizannm." Still later it was 
mentioned as "Potzen," and then "Botzen." The inhabitants pro- 
notince it "Pozen" but it's "Bolzano" to you. 

If all this seems confusing it is less so than Bolzano's history. 
The dty, located as it is in tlie Brenner Pass, got mixed up in so 
many battles and campaigns, and resounded to the hoof beats of 
so many ancient and medieval warriore that it is a wise native 
who knows his own ancestoi's. 

Bloody battles mark its history. One story has it that when 
the Roman Augustus' stepson fought it out at Bolzano with the 
local warriors, the women of the region pitched in too and when 
they ran out of ammunition threw their children in the faces of 
(he Roman soldiers. 

One of Bolzano's nuiin features are the Dolomitks. We have 
something Uke them in our own West. These colossal pinnacles 
of serrated rock formed by the erosive action of centuries have 
been given the collective name of "The Rose Garden." At dawn 
and dusk thoy take on red and purple hues like those seen, in 
our desert country. 

If vou like mountain climbing you might take a whirl at these 
pinnacles, but don't try it unless yon know your stuff. 

Also don't visit Bolzano in the summer if you can do it some 
other time. It's hot as the hinges of Hades. At that time of year, 
Bolzanians who can get away go to the Rittes a h.fty plateau 
3.000 feet above the bi'oiling town. You used to be able to reach 
this ^pot by a little electric railway. , , . „ 

There are a number of interesting castles and dimches, mostly 
in ruins in and around Bolzano. Schloss Runkei^tein, with its 
14th century frescoes, is probably the one that should least be 

""you'11 see a lot of these old castles if you take the trip ft'om 
Bolzano to Mehan. Nearly every crag and peak is topped with one. 

If you land in Bolzano in the winter and like skiing and to- 
bogganing you're in luck. In the immediate neighborhood of 
Bolzano there are plenty of heights and excellent ski-sport. 

Also handy were tennis conrtf. riding schools, a golf course and 
pigeon and trap shooting facilities. 


Floren-ce liet along both banks of tb»? Akno 42 miles east of 
Pisa and 140 miles nortii-tvest of Home, as the crow flies. If all the 
Signs say "Firenze," don't give n]!— that's Italian for Florence. 
With a pre-war population of 325,000, Florence was the seventh 
ijity of Italy in size, but as a center of historical and artistic in- 
terest it is "second only to Rome. Almost every building in the 
"Id part of the city has some elaun to recognition as a Renaissance 
shrine. Its impressive collection of churches, jialaces, museiims. 
art galleries, gardens, bridges, fountains, and stpiares can keej) 
even the most tireless sightseer busy for many days. 

Blood and Thunder 

UTilike such m-if-dibonnfi Tuscan tpwns as Volterra, Arezzo. and 
Cortona, Florence had its heyda.y iu the Middle Ages rather than 
in ancient times. At the crossroiids of important trade routes 
from Rome to Milan and across the Alps to the rest of Eiiroiie. 
and from Pisa to Bologna and Venice, Florence became the com- 
mercial center of Italy in medieval times. Wool, silk, wood, and 

agi-icultm-e were the bases of industries that created one of the 
richest communities in Europe. The gold florin of Florence be- 
came Europe's coinage standard. Carrying off Florentine citizens 
by force was a fiourisliing business at one time, because the kid- 
napers demanded and cdllected bigfrer ransoms for their victims 
than tliey were ever able to extract from tlie good people of other, 
less wealtliy cities. 

Thefree City-State was ruled by its most affluent merchants. 
Hand in hand witii tlie commercial prosperity of the twelfth to 
the fifteenth centuries went political ructions and fantastic family 
feuds. Dark deeds were done; heads rolled. Poisonings, burn- 
ings at the stake, duels, even mortal stabbiugs at high mass in the 
cathedral were not uncommon. 

Violent as it was, this combination of oi)ulence and intrigue was 
the atmosphere in Florence that pi-oduced not only the wealthy 
Medici (from whose family, coat of arms the three-ball pawn- 
brokers' emblem was adopted), but also the genius of a hmg, 
brilliant list of artists, poets, and philosophers. 

Another word about the Medici: This family of bankers who 
controlled financial matters all over Europe fii-st became estab- 
lished early in the fourteenth century. Bv the middle of the 

fifteenth century ihey were extremely powerful. Lorenzo de' 
Medici ruled from 1470 to 1492. Although an absolute tyrant. 
Lorenzo the Magnificent, as he was called, gioupecl around IiimseJf 
the greatest artists and scholars of the age. Without his patron- 
age they would never have had the freedom or the means to produce 
. their immortal works. 


One way to see Florence would be to start anywhere and keep 
going in any direction, looking at everything. There is so much 
to see. and so much to know about each building and its meaning 
in history, that any attempt at complete coverage would run into 
many volumes. 

As good a place as any to start from is the Piazza della SiGSOBLi 
{Senate Square). In the days of the Florentine Republic, this 
square was the center of the political and social life of Florence. 

The dominating feature of tlie Piazza della Signoi-ia" is the 
stern tower of tlie Palazzo Vecchio, which can be seen from almost 
everywhere in Florence. The Palazzo Vecchio was begun in the 
year 1298 and was built for the double purpose of a residence for 
the ruler and a town hall. Its fortresslike appearance, made neces- 

.siiry by the dangerous times (Uirinjr wliich it wa.s built, gives no 
uulitatioii of the inagiiiticence of its interior. The Great Hall. 
or Sala DEI CiNQDECENTo, coutaiiis huge frescoes by Grig(.rio 
Vasari and his pupils sliowing incidents of the wars waged bv the 
Florentines against the Pisans and the people of Leghorn" and 
Siena. Many of the smaller apartments are even more elaborate 
and wei-e actually lived in by nlenlbelf^ of ihe Medici faiuily. In 
the tower of the Palace Savonarola, the famous Dominican "Prior 
of the Monastery of San Marco, was c-oufijied for 6 weeks before 
Ins execution in 1498. The year before. Savoiiai-ola. in protest 
agiunst the immorality and wickedness of the city, had lighted 
a huge bonfiie of masquerade cosUimes, cosmetics, nmsical instru- 
ments, dice boxes, boolts and paintings of nude females right in 
the middle of the Piazza della Signoria. For this, he met his 
death in the inimitable manner of the period. Already broken on 
the rack, he was hauled out into the same Piazza, hanged, ajid 
then burned by a large bonfire which was lighted under his gibbet 
The whole Piazza is in effect an outdoor museum. Bartolomeo 
Aimnaunati's Fountain of Neptone. just outside the Palazzo Vec- 
chio, was erected in 1575. Micheliingelo's Da™ and Donatello's 

Judith asd Houif>:knk8 Hank the main enlrance to the Palazzo 
Vecchio. . „ , ., 

Tlie Loggia dei Lamzi (Porch of the Lancers), originally bmic 
(in 1376-83) as a place of assembly for the discussitm of political 
or commercial matters in rainy weather, is directly opposite the 
main entrance to the Palazzo Vecchio. It contains many wonder- 
ful groups of statuary, including The Rape of the Sahihes and 
Hercui Jis Slating the Centauk Xessus, by Giambologna ; Mene- 
LAUs WITH THE BODT OF pATEocLES. dating back to ancient Borne ; 
the lironze Pebseds with the Head op Medusa, tt\st in 1553 by the 
famous Benveiiuto Cellini. 

If you go toward the Arno down tlie street which entei's the 
Piazza della Signoria between the Palazzo Vecchio and the Loggia 
doi Lanzi. you will find yourself in the court of the Palazzo degli 
Uffizi (Palace of the Offices). This palace was erected by order 
of the Grand Duke Cosinio I to house the government offices. The 
building was begun in 1560, completed in 1574. It now contains 
the National Library, the Stale Archives, and on the upper floor, 
one of the world's most famous art galleries. This gallery origi- 
nated with the Medici collections, to which numerous additions 
have been made down to the most recent times. 


Beginning with a collection of early Florenfinc and Sienese 
altar pieces, it gradually leads on to the early fifteenth century: 
Fra Filippo Lippi, Venwchio. Pollaiuolo. Lorenzo di Credi, and 
Ghirlaiidaio, culminating with the groups of Florentine mastei's — 
Botticelli, Filippino Lippi, and Andrea del Sarto. The Umbrian 
and Venetian paintei-s as well as the best of non-Italian masters 
are also well represented. The gallery also contains valuable 
tapestries and a large collection of antique marble sculptui-es. 

From the Uffizi to the Palazzo Pitti, which contains another 
of the world's most priceless collections of ait, there is a corridor 
which crosses the Arno by means of the Pontf. Vecchio — one of 
the most frequently photographed, sketched, and etched bridges 
in existence. This old bridge is no mere structure for getting 
from one side of the river to the other, but a marketplace and a 
cluster of workshops as well. Open to the sky along the middle 
of its passageway, the bridge is lined on both sides by a clutter o£ 
houses which have beeii for hundreds of yeai-s the homes of gold- 
smiths and jewelers. 

Part of the bridge's foundation has existed since the days of the 
Roman Empire, but most of the main structure was built in the 
fourteenth century. The corridor passe.s over the tops of the 

bridge-supported houses on the upstream Mde. On its walls hang 
pictures, us they do in the galleries it connects. 

The Pilli Piihu'c was begun in 1440 by Luca Pitti, a wealthy 
citizen of Florence, who at that date was one of the chief rivals 
of the Medici. After the failure of the conspiracy against Piero 
de Medici iu 1466, Luca lost his power and influence, and the 
building remain unfinished until it was sold to the Medici Grand 
Dukes who gradually completed it and made it tbeir residence. 
The palace was occupied by the King of Italy when Florence was 
the capital of the kingdom (1865-71). 

The Pitti Gallery, located in the left wing of the palace, con- 
tains about 500 paintings, most of which are masterpieces by the 
greatest names in the history of art. This priceless collection 
was formerly tlie property of the Medici, who for hundreds of 
years devoted much time and money to it. 

The Boiww Gardens, extending up the hillside behind the pal- 
ace, were planned in the sixteenth century. Cypresses, lawels, 
oleanders, flowera, marble fountains, and artificial lakes are com- 
bined and arranged to make one of the most perfect examples of 
formal landscaping ever devised. 

Possibly the best general view of Flm cnce is to be hud from the 

PiAzz.u,E MicHicLANGELo. OH (lie souMi U,ik of the Arno. just, east 
of tJie Boboli Gardens. The piazzale itself isn't much, but is well 
worth the trip up fur the view, xvhicli will help yon orient your- 
self. From this elevated spot, nearly all of the promment build- 
ings and churches of Florence are visible. 

Starting again from the Piazza dell,. Signoria, and going awav 
from the river (north) along the Via dei C.VLZAioLr (Street of the 
btocking-makers), one of the busiest thoi'..nghfares in Florence 
you will find much of intereF^t. To ( ]w left stands Or San Michble' 
i.iTfil! **""*'^-ft'*'''^<^ '■"''t'i"S '""''t i" 12S*-91. and i-ebuilt in 
1^37-1404. On the ground floor there is a small chapel, the nnper 
story serving as a gi-anary until 1669 and afterward as a place 
where official i-eeords were filed until 1886. The statuary and carv- 
ings are of various periods, all of considerable significance in the 
history of art. 

Bet«-een Or San Michele and the Via Caumaha and connected 
to tJie former by an archway with steps is the Tokre dell'Aete 
DELLA Lana, the towerlike guild hall of the wool weavers The 
building was ei-ected in 13(J8. Since then it has been rebuilt and 
reatoi-ed several tnnes. It now contains the lecture hall of the 
Ltiinte society. 

The Via dei Calzaioli ends at the Piazza del Duomo (Cathedral 
Square), which contains several interesting buildings. Immedi- 
ately to the right, at the corner, stands the chapel o£ the Mi- 
SEKicoitDiA, belonging to the charitable fraternity fonnded in the 
thirteenth century. The members of this society are pledged at 
a moment's notice, no matter what they liappen to be doing, to 
assist in any charitable work of necessity. For the most part, tliey 
dispatch ambulances to the scenes of accidents and perform the 
lai^l offices for the dead in poorer districts. You may see some of 
llic bi-i)tiiers in their black robes and hoods. Their rather gro- 
Icwque cost limes were designed to protect them from infection dur- 
ing the great plague iu the latter part of the fifteenth centuiy, 
when they were the only organized gi'oup who did anything 
about removing tlie giuesome heaps of disease-ridden corpses from 
the streets of Floi-eiice. 

Opposite tile oratoi-y of the Misericordia is the Bigallo, biijlt 
in 1352-58. Here on tliis small Gothic porch, another charitable 
society exhibited foundlings to the public in hopes that they would 
be adopted by sympathetic passers-by. 

In the middle of the Piazza del Duomo stands the Baptistrt 
or San Giovanni Batiista. It is an eight-sided structure built 

on the reiiiiiins of an tiiicieiit Roman biiildiiif,'. Its pi-e.seiit form 
dates from a rebuilding in the lltli century. The choii- is a. 
conversion of the ancient round apse, Tlie pillars on the exterior 
angles were added in 1293. The three world famous bronze dooi-s 
were inserted in the 14th and 15th centuries. The south door is 
by Andrea Pisano (133(V-36) and portrays the life of John the 
Baptist and the eiglit cardinal virtues. The north door was made 
in 1403-24 by Loi-enzo Ghiberti, wlu) won a contest for the privi. 
jege. The reliefs represent in 28 sections the history of Christ. 
The east door, faciiifr the cathedral, also by Lorenzo Ghiiwrti 
(1435-1452), was considered by Michelangelo to be worthy of 
forming the entrance to Paradise. It represents 10 scenes froju 
the Old Testament. The interior of the Baptistry is a beautiful 
combinalion of jiranite, marble, nuisiiic, and sculpture, evei-y inch 
of which has its fasciuatinir history. 

The Cathedral, II Duomo, or Santa Mahia del Fiore, so called 
(after 1412) from the lily which appeai-s on the eoat-of-arnis of 
Florence, was begun in 129(1 on the -site of the earlier cluii-ch of 
St. Reparata. Its architect, Arnolfo di Cambio, was ordered "to 
raise the loftiest, most sumi>tnoui5, and most magnificent edifice 
that human invention could devise, or human labor execute." 

vVfter Arnolfo's death in 1301 the operations were successively 
directed by Giotto (1334-37), Andrea Pisano (I33T-49), Fran- 
cesco Talenti (1351-69), and other architects. In 1417, a com- 
mittee of architects and engineers was called in to advise how 
best to construct a dome. A competition took place, resulting in 
the appointment of Filippo Eninellesehi. The construction of 
the gigantic dome toolc fourteen years. The church was finally 
consecrated in 1436. This building, larger than all previons 
churches built in Italy, covers an area of 84,000 sijiare feet. The 
height of the dome is 350 feet. 

The interior of the Cathedral is most impressive, both to the eye 
and to the imagination. Here the famous Savonarola held forth 
against the lust and wickedness of the Florentines. Here took 
place the attempt against the life of Loienzo tlie Magnificent, on 
Sunday morning of tlie 26th of April 1478. With the connivance 
of Pope Sistus IV and a crowd of vicious rivals of tlie Medici, a 
group of hired assassins fell on Giuliano de' Medici with their 
knives at tlie very moment of the elevation of the Host. Simul- 
taneously. Liirenxo was attacked by two priests. While his brother 
sank dying to the mosaic floor, bleeding from 19 stab wounds. 

Lorenzo with great coolness escaped tlirniipli Mu! crowd to the old 
sacristy, slamming the lieavy Ijvonze doors behind him. 

The Campanile (bell tower) adjoins the Cathedral ou the south 
side. The tower was designed by Giotto. The foundation stone 
was laid with great ceremony in 1334. The Campanile is 276 feet 
high aiid entirely covei-ed with colored marble, delicate carving, 
a series of statues and reliefs. It is considered one of the most 
beautiful Gothic belfries in Italy. 

^ Opposite the choir of the Cathedral is the Mdseo dell' Opera di 
Santa Maiua del Fioke (Cathedral Museum) which contains 
chiefly works of art from the Cathedral and the Ba|)tistry. 

Santa Croce 

Starting out once more from the Piazza della Sigiioria, and fol- 
lowing the Via dei Gondi to the east, you will come to another 
street called the Bohoo dei GnEci. which proceeds in the same gen- 
eral direction to the Piazza Santa Cbokb (Holy Cross). The 
dominating feature here is the Church of Santa Chocb which you 
will see at the far end of the piazza as you enter. This is the oldest 
and finest of all the cliurchea belonging to the Mendicant Orders. 
Santa Croce is the Westminster Abbey of Floi'ence. Here lie buried 

some of the greatest Italians— Michelangelo. Machiavelli, Galileo, 
Ghiberti, among many other illustrious Italians. 

The building was begim in 1294 by Arnolfo di Cambio, for the 
Franciscans. It was completed in 1442 with the exception of the 
front face which is modern. The inlerior is very magnificent, con- 
taining important frescoes by Giotto, huge baroque ukars. and the 
sculptured tombs of great Italians. 

Adjoining tlie churcli to the south is the Cappell-\ dei Pazzi, one 
of the hnest creations of Renaissance architecture. This was the 
private chapel of the Pazzi family, one of the more serious rivals 
of the Medici. Brunelleschi. Donatello. and Lnea della Kobbia all 
lent their talents to the creation of this masterpiece. 

If you have time, the Museo DriA-'OrEttA m Santa Croce is also 
worth a visit. It's just, next to the chuicli and contains several 
interesting works of art. 


When once started ou the subject of what's worth seeing in 
Florence, it's hard to stop, but there are quite a few places not yet 
mentioned tliat are very much woitli yoiu- time. Their names and 
brief descriptions follow : 

Spedalid deoli Inn.k'exti (FoiiiKlling Hospital). On tlio south- 
east side (if the Piazzii dell" Annunziata. Readied from the 
Piazza del Diumio by going northeast on tlie Via de' Sehvi. Front 
oniaineiited by the famous medallions of infants in swaddling 
clothes— the hlrie and white glazed teria cotta bambini of Andrea 
dellii Kobbia. You'll i-ecognize them at once, because they liave 
been more widely repi-odiiced in the states than any other example 
of Fh^reiitine art of the Renaissance. 

BARQCLrfl, or Palazzo dkl Pooesta. On tlie Via del Procon- 
sou). Reached fnim the Piazza della Signoria by way of tlie Via 
DEI GoNDi. Turn left at the fii-st corner; the building is on the 
righl-liand side of the street just past the Piazza San Firenzb. 
Begun in 1255 and fn.m 12G1 the residence of the Chief Magistrate 
of Florence. After 1574, served as prison aiid office of the Cliief 
of Police (called the . Baroello). Now houses the Museo 
Kazionale, illustrative of the ipedieval and modern histoiy of 
Italian culture and art. and containing the most important collec- 
tion of Florentine Renaissance sculplure. weapons of the Medici, 
and many fine [■xiimples of tapestry and fabrics. 

Palazzo iMEuici— Kkcardi. Ou the Vl4 Cavode. Reached 

from the Piazza del Duomo by going northeast on the Via dei 
Martelij from the Baptistry. Built in 1444^52. Lorenzo the 
Magnificent lived here and here his sons were born. Now houses 
the Medici Museum, containing a number of souvenirs of the 
Medici family. Most interesting are the fi'escoes by Benozzo Goz- 
zoli, painted about 1459-G3, representing the journey of the Wise 
Men to Bethlehem, but flatteringly including porti-aits of the 

Mdseo di San Marco. Two blocks up the Y'^ Cavour from the 
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi. Formerly a convent ; transferred under 
Cosimo the Elder in 1436 to the Dominican Friars^ Famous for 
the vivid but pious frescoes of Fra Angelico da Fiesole. There 
has never been anything else quite like these. Don't miss them. 
Savonarola lived here before he aroused the ire of the Medici. 

Capi'ella DEI Principi (Chapel of the Princes). In the Piazza 
Madosna degu Aldobr.\ndini. Reached fiom the Piazza del 
Duomo by going west on the Via de' Cekretani to the Via Zan- 
NET-n, which runs into the Via de' Conti. The next open space is 
the piazza. The chapel is a huge octagonal structure elaborately 
decorated with more kinds of marble than you would have thought 
existed. Burial Chapel of the Medici Grand Dukes. 

From the Cliiipel, a winding passage lends to the Saorestia 
NoovA (New Sacristy), designed by Michel angelu. hut unfinished. 
Contains the tombs of Giniiaiio and Lorenzo de' Medici, descend- 
ents of the brotheis w!io fignied in the bloody doings in the Cathe- 
dral ill 1487. These tombs are ahntist as familial' to Americans 
as della Robbia's bambini. 

Keep At ft. 

All the foregoing is a mere scratch on the surface of the wealth 
of beauty and craftsmanship that is Florence. If you have the 
time and the patience to visit the many churches, museums, and 
art galleries uot even mentioned here, yon will not be wasting any- 
thing. To liave seen what man is capable of doing with his hands 
after creating it in his mind, is to make one prond of tlie human 
race no matter to what deptlis it sinks from time to time. You 
who ai'e fortunate enough to see Florence will never forget it. 
Even though you may be disgusted to see that many of the priceless 
sculptures in the Piazza della Signoria are covered with the 
scrawled inscriptions of those who have no respect for the dignity 
of men, I'eniember that the statues will endure long after rain and 
wind have erased these desecrations. 


Up to Now. 

Nohudy knows jilBl when Gesoa was fouiulea. Aiiywny. it was 
■1 very long time before the birth ot Christ. Tradition has It that 
llie Ligiirians, an ancient tribe ot sliepherds and farmers occupy- 
in- tlie footliiUs of northwestern Italy, decided to giye up the pas- 
toral life and come down to the sea. They scattered all along the 
coast of what is now called the Gulf of Genoa, but a small knot 
of them remained on the site of the best harbor in the area. 
Through contact with the Greeks and Phoenicians, Etruscans, and 
Carthirginians, these early Genoese got wise to the ways of the 
world limited as if was in those days. Their commercial and 
naval power increased, in step with their knowledge of other lands 
and other ways of doing things. 

Just as Genoa was beginning to amount to something, the Car- _ 
thaginians suddenly appeared in the harbor with a sizeable fleet 
1111(1 de.-lrovcd tlie town. The Carthaginian triumph was short- 
lived, however, and Roman interests soon rebuilt Genoa, connect- 
ing it with the metropolis by the famous Via Atjbelja. 

Genoa was not spared when the B«rburinii Goths anil Lombards 
overran the Italian peninsnia. Several centuries later, the fero- 
cious Saracens also managed to subjugate the city, and then the 
Franks got control. 

During the Middle Ages, the Genoese managed to shake off all 
outside domination and were able to establish the Genoese Be- 

By this time, the city had acquired considerable military and 
commercial fame. Adventm-ous Genoese participated in the Cru- 
sades as members of the numerous armies sent out against the 
Moslems. The Genoese made a substantial name for themselvea 
as a result of their victories in the Holy Wars, and the Republic 
of Genoa .soon became a colonial power and leader among Euro- 
pean sea towns. Her rivali-y with Pisa and Venice provoked fierce 
and bloody wars. 

After a lot of internal trouble and several periods of unwelcome 
foi-eign domination, Genoa reached the high point of her power 
and trlory in the fifteenth centuiy. However, this happy state 
jf iilfairs didn't last long. Domestic squabbles, Frencli inter- 

vejition, Tm-kish cuiiqiiest. of her colmiies, Au-strian doiui nation, 
Napoleonic aggression, revolution— all made for a turbulent po- 
litical existence. 

In spite of political unrest, commercial enterprise expanded. 
Wlieu Genoa became a part of the Italian Kinjidom, she had much 
to oifer in the way of pre.stige as ;iu iniiimtant poit and trading 
center for world commerce. 

Looking Around. 

There is plenty to see in Genoa, even though considerable dam- 
age has been done through military necessity. You may as well 
start ill the Piazza de Febeari, which is in the heart of the city. 

On the northwest side of the piazza stands the P^vlAzzo de 
Ferrari, a handsome eighteenth century palace. Leaving the 
piazza by the Via Sellai at its western corner you enter the Piazza 
Umberto Phimo. on the left .side of which rises Sant' Ambrooio, a 
Jesuit Church built in 1589. The interior is lavislilv decorated 
and contains paintings by Guidr. Reni and Rubens." Tlie north 
side of the piazxa is dominated by llie Palazzo Dttcalb, built in 

the thirteenth century and remodeled in tlie sisleeiith. The stair- 
cases inside are exceptionally fine. 

Back to back with the Piazza Umberto Primo is the Cathedral 
OF San Lobenzo, reached by the Via San Lorenzo. The original 
building was consecrated in 1118. It was rebuilt in the Gothic 
style in 1307-12, and the Renaissance dome was added in 1567. 

Palazzo di San Giorgio. Located on the water front in the 
Piazza Raibeita. Built in 1260. Occupied by the Banco m San 
Giorgio from 1408 to 1797. This bank had a very powerful position 
in European monetary affairs during the Renaissance. 

San Matteo. Gothic church restored in 1278. Contains many 
memorials of the Doria family, once the most powerful family of 
the Genoese Republic. The small piazza in front of the church is 
surrounded with the Doria Palaces, in which various membei's of 
the family once lived. 

Santa Maria di Casteixo. Very old church built on the site of 
an ancient Roman castle. Contains ancient columns and altars. 

Palazzo Municipale, Built in 1564. Contains facsimilies of 
letters by Columbus. Also the violin of the famous virtuoso 
Niccolo Paganini. 


Milan has the second hirgest in.puhition of tht- It:iliiiii cities. Ite 
jrreatest jraiwHi lias Iwen in tlie last T5 yearri. wlieii it increased 
fi-oni a po|)idation of alnnii 30(l,()(K» to more than a nitUion. Ital- 
ians iiHHiijirated here from otiier sections of the cmuitry to a 
greater extent than any oMier city in Italy. 

It has been called "The Cupital of Italian Profiress." but for 
most people it does not have the appeal of most of tlie other cities 
on tlie Peninsula. Itw greatest interest since modern days has 
been commerce and maniifacturinjr, but there are still many 
historical and artistic sights in the to^vn. 

Leonurdo da Vinci, the Italian genius who was equally great 
as a painter, sculptor, architect, nuisician. mechanician, engineer, 
and philosopher, worked for 16 years at Milan. He came to tlie 
city at the invitation of Ludovico Sforza. who was the boss of 
Milan at the time. It was for Sforza that Leonardo invented 
his fire bomb. This bomb, which was thrown by a catapult, had 
a center of copper, and it was armed with rockets stuck in pitch 
and certain chemicals which threw off a poison gas. Lc<inardo 

iiiveiiied other weapons ui war l'i>r iSlorzii, wlm was Imving his 
ti'ouliles witli the other nilers i]i Italy, which was then split up 
into at least foiir separate states. Among (he inventions wei-e 
hand grenades, shraimel. the parachute, demountable bridges, a 
flanu' ihrowor. and an armored vehide. Leonardo also designed 
an airplaiii'. His ideas were laujrhed at by many people, includ- 
ini; Ills |)alnin. Sforza. who might have succeeded in his war with 
the Freiicii if he hacl gone into battle with the tanks, hand gre- 
nades, and poison jr;i^ wliich Leonardo invented. And all this 
was back in the fii'lefiitli conlury. 

At the same time that Leonardo invented the real M. 1 models 
of the weapons which you brought to Italy with you, he was 
painting his famous "'The Last Supper," on the wall of the 
Dominican Convent of Ste. Marie dei.le Gracte, and the equally 
famous "Mona Lisa," or "La Gioconda." You can see the famous 
"Last Supper." although it has faded considei'ably through long 

In 313 A. D., the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great issued 
Ills edict at Milan allowing the free practice uf Cliristianity for 
the fii-st time. The city's gi-eatest period came iliiring the years 
.■i74 to :il>7. when St. Ambrose was the Archbi^liop of Milan. The 

mast highly regarded medieval building in Louibardy is the 
Chdhch of Sant" Ambrozio, which has mosaics, frescoes, and 
sculptural works of great historic and artistic value. The bodies 
of St, Ambrozio, St. Gervasio. and St. Protasio are buried under- 
neath a golden altar in the church. 

The oldest part of Milan is the Piazza del Duomo, and it is 
supposed to dat« from the time that the Etruscans occupied the 
territory from the sixth century B. C. until about 400 B. C. That 
is where most of the principal streets meet, and it is easiest to 
learn the city by starting to see it from that point. The Piazza 
takes its name from tlie Cathedral, which is on its east side. It 
is built of a stone i-esembling granite eucased tliroughout with 
marble which has lost its whiteness; it has 135 small spires, each 
of them topped by a stjitue. AlU^ther, there are 2,300 statues 
on the outside of the Cathedral, and almost 4,000 inside. In the 
Cathedral is a monument of two of the brothers of Pope Pius 
rV, done by Aretino, after designs by Michaelangelo. You 
can get a fine view of the Lombardy iilain from the top of the 
Cathedral, which is reached by a stairway or an elevator. 

The Gaj-leria Vmrttnio Emanuele II is supposed to be one of 
the greatest arcades in all of Europe. Opposite the Galleria, on 

IliL' south side of the Duomd, is tlie Koyal Pal.ace. which has twu 
wings. The original bnilding wns tlie official i-esi<lence of the 
town Consuls from the tenth to the fourteenth centuries. There 
are many works of art in the palace. The Chitkch of San 
GoTTABDO was once part of the palace, but it is now separated. It 
has some frescoes by Giotto and liis pupils. The Via Mercanti, 
opposite the fat;ade of the Cathedral, is one of the busiest and 
oldest parts of the town. 

The AMBitOHiAN LiiiRAKT, which was founded at the beginning 
of the seventeenth centiii-y, is a world-famous institution. It has 
nearly half a million printed books, about 3,000 early works of 
art, and about 20,000 manu.scripts. One of these manuscripts is 
Petiin-ch's annotated Virgil. The Breea Palace, which was 
erected in 1651, has a library containing about 350,000 voliunes. 

For a long period until just before the war, Milan was one of 
the greatest musical centers of the world. Voice and piano stu- 
dents came to the city from many countries to receive instruction 
from teachers who wei'e known all over the world. The once- 
great La Scala Opera House, where many of the Italian openis 
were given their pi-einiere performances, is in Milan. 

The city lias five railroad stations, one of them tlie terminal for 

22 main lines. More foreigners came to Milan than to any other 
Italian city, because it is the center of conmmnications between 
Central Europe and the Mediterranean Sea. The 50 streetcar 
lines in the city go to the town limits. Most of tlie lines start 
from three centers which ai-e not far from the Piazza del Duomo. 
They ai-e the Via Orkfici, the Via Capi-ellari, and the Via 
ToMMAso Grossi. There are also 6 bus lines, and taxicabs used 
to be plentiful. 

Milan in peiicetiine had a number of movie houses and 10 
tlieati-es for opera, vaudeville, and plays, in addition to the Scala. 
There were 2 race tracks at San Siro, one of them for trotting 
races. Another race track was the Mirabello, and auto races were 
held at the Monza track. S])()rts events were held in the Arena, 
the Sports Palace, and the Ice Palace. 

Before the war, there were 200 first- and second-class 
hotels in the city, as well as a number of smaller hotels and board- 
ing houses which were considerably cheaper. There are many 
restauiants and other eating places in Milan. The main shopping 
districts are tlie Piazza del Ddomo, the Cokso VrrroRin Emak- 
DELE, the Via Manzoni and the Via Dakte. 

A number of small towns surrounding Milan have places of 

historical and artistic interest. About half a mile from the gates 
of the town is the Certosa di Garegnano, which was built in the 
14th centuiy as a convent. The church, which remained when the 
convent was destroyed in the 18th century, contains paintings by 
artists of the l7th and 18th centuries. Tlie town of Monza is about 
714 miles from the city. There are a number of monuments at 
Monza, one of them is the Basilica of San Giovani. where they 
keep the "Iron Crown," with which the kings of Italy were always 

The Lake Country. 

Lake Como, one of I lie great beauty spots of the world is only 
2 hours away from Milan, and no one who has the opportunity to 
make a trip there should miss it. The town of Como which is at 
the Southern end of the lake has great charm, and it has a good 
cathedral. The scenery iit any pait of the lake is something you 
will never forget. The nearby lakes of Maooiore and Lcoano are 
equally beautiful. There are other lakes in the district which are 
smaller but not Ie.=;s beautiful. It is the lake countiy in the district 
which drew .so many jwople to Milan from all parts of the world. 



Naples with its old world history, majestic- Vesuvius, Pompbh, 
the Castle of St, Elmo, famous churches — ^these and many other 
historic sights are important to the soldier. 

The Naples of pre-war days is gone. It will be impo3,sible for 
you to visit that Naples — it may never exist again — but some of 
the old city still remains, having escaped the ravages of war, and 
while you can, you should see as much as possible in order to visual- 
ize the days tliat were, and realize better the vandalism of the 
sacking, destroying Germans, The Rotal Palace is in ruins, 
famous collections have been removed from the museums, many 
buildings have been walled in or sandbagged for protection, but 
despite the damaged areas you will see much of pre-war dtiys that 
will interest you, much to add to your general knowledge of the 
world, much you will want to remember. 

Some things are beyond the power of the Germans to destroy. 
Of all the cities in Europe only Istanbul can claim as beautifid a 
site as Naples, and gutted and sacked though the city may be. 

Hie site retains its beauty and hnlds hope for the new Naples 
tliat will rise. The water in the bay retains its remarkable blue- 
ness, and the beauty of Mt. Vesuvius, sti-etching 4,000 feet into the 
sky and constantly overhung by soft, pink clouds, continues, both 
day and night, to dominate the ciiy and tlie countryside. Here 
lie (he fabulous buried cities of Bompeii and HERctTLANEUM which 
were completely destroyed when the Mount eiupted in 70 A, D., 
but which have now been partially excavated. 

It is generally agreed that Naples was originally settled by the 
Greeks, subsequently liaving been conquered by the expanding 
Roman Kingdom in the fourth century B. C. In more recent times, 
but while Italy was still a geographical ai-ea consisting of a number 
of independent states, the city was the capital of the Kingdom of 
Naples, or of the Two Sicilies (at times the kingdoms were com- 
bined, at other times separated ) . In I860, during the movement for 
the unification of Italy, the- Neapolitan army collapsed before the 
advance of Garibaldi who entered Naples after the flight of the 
king and queen. A plebiscite approved the absorption into the 
united Italian kingdom and in 1861 the first Italian parliament met 
at Turin aud proclaimed Victor Emanuel King of Italy. 


Naples is situated on the northern shore of the Bay of Naples, 
Tlie city is built at the base and on the slopes of a range of volcanic 
hills and rises from the shore like an amphitheater. From the 
simimit occupied by the Castle of St. Elmo a ridge runs south to 
form the promontory of Pizzof aicone and divides the city into two 
natural ei-escents. The western crescent, known as the Chiaia 
WARD, is a long narrow strip between the sea and Ojuero Hill and 
was the fashionable quarter most frequented by foreign residents 
■and visitors. A fine broad street, the Riveilv di Chiaia, was begun 
at the close of the 16fh century and runs for a mile and a half from 
east to west, ending at the foot of the Hill of Posiufo. In front lie 
the public gardens of the Villa Naziosale. the chief promenade 
of the city, which were firet laid out in 1780. The whole edge of 
the bay from the Castel dell' Ovo to Mergellina is lined by a 
massive embankment and carriage-way, the Vla Caracciolo, 
constructed in 1875-81. 

The eastern crescent, includes by far the largest, as well as the 
oldest, portion of Naples. Tlie best known thoroughfare is the 
historic Toledo, or Via Rou a. It runs almost due north from the 

Piazza del Pi.ehiscito in front of the PalAzko Keale till, as Via 
Ndova di Capodimonte, il crosses the Ponte della Sanita and 
reaches the gates of the Capodimonte Palace, thus dividing the 
city into two parts. Another leading street,, the Corso Vitt<:»kio 
Emancele. winds along the slopes behind the city from the Mer- 
gollina railway .'station till it reaches the Museum by the Via 
Salvator Rosa. 

Tiie two crescents have been united by the construction of a 
connecting thorouglifare on the seaward side of tlie Castel Nuovo, 
the RoTAL Palace, and the hill of Pizzofalcone. while a tunnel 
(the Gallefia Dell.\ Vittoria) has been cut under the hill. A 
metropolitan uudergi'otiiid railway between the central station 
at Naples and Pozzuoli also unites the east and west halves of the 

In tlie Bay lies the Isle of Capri where Augustus Caesar, first 
of the Roman emperor.s, resided for many years, as did his suc- 
cessor, Tiberius, wlio built at least 12 villas on the Isle. Here, 
too, is located the famous Blue Grotto, the most celebrated of 
many sea caves known in Roman times, and which was rediscovered 
in 1826. 

On tlie noi'dieast shoi-e east of Naples is an extensive flat watered 

by the Sarno, wliicli, in classical times, formed tlie port of Pom- 
peii. From this fiat rises Mt, Vesuvius, at the base of whiclij on 
or near tlie seashore, are populous villages as well as the classical 
sites of HerculiiDcum aiu! Pompeii. The northwest shore, to the 
west of Naples, is more broken and irregular. The promontory 
of Posilipo divides this part of the bay into two smaller hays 
whicli are connected by a timnel through the promontory, 2,244 
feet long, 21 feet broad and in some places as much as 70 feet high. 
This tunnel was quite possibly constructed by Marcus Agrippa in 
ii7 B. C. anil forms the so-called (irotto of Posilipo ; at the Naples 
end stands the reputed Tomb of VnuiiL. 

In m()deni limes Naples has increased in size at an enormous 
rate. In lOSl the population was 631,420 and that of the Com- 
mune 839,300. On tlie large areas reclaimed from the sea, hotels 
and mansions were erected. The gardens at the west end of the 
town have all been built over, 

Worth Seeing. 

The Casti-e of St. Ei,mo. which dominates the whole city, had 
its origin in h foi't {Bclforte) erected by King Robert tlie Wise in 
132y. The present building, with its rock-hewn fossos and mas- 

sive i'anipai-l>. was constructed by Don Pedro de Toledo in l.i37^G. 

The C.iSTEL dell'Ovo, which was restored in the IGtli century, 
stands on a sinnll ifiland now joined to the shore at the foot 
of the Pizzofalcone by an arch-su|)ported causeway. Castel Ndovo 
was ctinstructed near the harbor in 127S>-82 by Charles I of Aiijou 
and contains a triumphal arch erected in 145D-5S to Alfonso I. 
The whole building wsis restored not long ago. 

Thanksi to ihe Gei'mans, tlie Koyal Palace, (mce the residence 
of the ruling fiiinlly of ilie Kliiirdinn of Naples, is today in rnins. 

The National Mu.-.f;uM (ftlu>c(i Niinlnniile) was, before the pres- 
ent war, the most importani liuildiiig in the city for the lourist, 
hut today lie must content himself with seeing only the outside of 
the building. It contained a vast exhibition, including aucient 
mural paintings from Herciilanenm, Pompeii, etc.. the finest col- 
lection of ancient bronzes; iu the world, many renowned master- 
pieces of ancient marl)le sculptures, Egyptian and medieval an- 
tiquities, papyri, engravings, coins, vases, paintings, and an 
excellent library. 

Liasmnch as Naples has nearly 3')0 churchea and chapels, it is 
not possible to see them all. But among the many cliui'ches which 
are notable for rich internal decoration nud architectural beauty 

are the Cathedral of St, Janitariuh which wuh orccU'd in 1294- 
1323. rebuiJt after being biirnett in the 15th eeaitury, iuhI restored 
ill 1837. 

Adjoining the Cathedi-al is the Chobch op SaNta Kostitdta. a 
basilica of tlie fourth century. Its baptistry contiiins important 
mosaics of that period. Santa Chiara dates from tlie 14th cen- 
tury and is iuteiesting for a fresco ascribed to Giotto and monu- 
ments to Robert the Wise. ]iis son's wife. Mary of Valois, and his 
daughter Mary, empiess of Constantinople. 

San Domenico Macgiobe. founded by Charles II in 1289 but 
completely restored later, has an effective interior partieniarly 
rich in Renaissance sculpture. In the neighboring nioiiastery is 
the cell of St. Thomas Aquinas. 

Then there are the Sant' Angelo a Nilo, which contains the 
tomb of Cardinal Braiicaccio, the joint work nf Donatello and 
Michelozzo (1426-28) : San Gkivanni a Carbonara, built in 134^ 
and enhirged by King Ladislans in 1400. which contains the tomb 
of the king, the masterpiece of Andrea da Firenze (1428) . and that 
of Gianni Caracciolo, the favorite of Joanna II. wlio was mur- 
dered in 1432; San Lorenzo {13th century), tlie Royal Clnirch of 
the House of Aujou; and Santa Maria Donna Ricgina, with its 

frescoes by Pietro Cavallini. The Catacombs of St. Gennaro (2d 
century) are in many respects equal to those at Rome. 

The Universitt of Naples was founded by Fiederiek 11 in 1224, 
and was well equipped with zoological, mineralogical, and geolog- 
ical museums, a physiological institute, a cabinet of anthropology, 
and botanical gardens. The buildings were originally erected in 
l.i->T for the use of the Jesuits. The famous 2Ioolooical Station 
at Naples, whose Aquarium is the principal building in the Villa 
Nazioxalk and which was one of the most faijioiis in the world, 
was founded in 1872. The astronomical observatory is situated 
on the hill of Capodimonto. 

The San Carlo Opera House, with its area of 5,157 square yards 
and stalls capable of seating 1,000 spectators, is one of the largest 
in Europe. It was originally built in 1737 but was destroyed by 
fire in 1816 and completely rebuilt. 

A trip to Mt. Vesuvius is a "must" for all those who can possibly 
obtain ti-aiisportation. The eruption of this famous volcano in 
79 A. D.— its first, in recorded history — completely destroyed the 
two cities of Herculaneiim and Pompeii.- Today the buried city 
of Hergulaneum lies under the modern Rosiua, 5 miles southeast 

of Naples. The exfavutions are in part subterranean, and in part 
imder the sky, as at Pompeii. 

The site of Pompeii (I61/2 miles from Naples) was long lost tu 
the world but was rediscovered in 1748 wlien tlie Amphitheater 
and a few other buildings were exhumed. Systematic excavations 
have been condncted since 1860, and to date about one-half of the 
ancient city has been uncovered. 

Finding Your Way. 

You may very well hesi'i yoiir tour of western Naples at the pub- 
lic gardens of the Villa Nazionali;, located between the Via Carra- 
ciola (a street extending along the bay from the C'astel dell'Ovo 
to Morgellina) and the Rivera di Chiaia. In this same vicinity is 
(he Aqttariiim, which, before the war, was one of the most famou;^ 
in the world. 

From the Aquarium and the Gardens yon cross the Rivera di 
Chiuia and continue north. Between the Via Cavallerizza and the 
Via Amedeo you will find the Chtjhch of St. Maria, one of the 
most interesting in this part of the city. Walking northeast on 
.the winding up-hill Via Aniedeo yon enter the Coi-so Vittorio 
Emanuelo. Contiiuiing on this street for about 300 yards after 


it turns north you come to the CinntCH of San Martino, You will 
now be very close to the summit occupied by the Castle of St. 
Elmo and to the MnsEo Nazionale of San Maktino. After you 
have visited these buildings you will liave seen the most interesting 
sights in this part of the city. 

You can begin a tour of eastern Niiples by first seeing the Castm, 
dell' Ovo. Afler that, continue akmg the bay following the Via 
Partenope and the Via Nazario Sauro until it turns into the Via 
Cesario Console. Following this street you come to the Piazza 
DEL Plebiscito. Left of the Piazza is a church, on the right js the 
Palazzo Reale (Rftyal Palace). Continuing along the 
Via Vittorio Emanuele II you come to the Castel Nuovo. This 
eti-eet runs into the Piazza Municipio, on which thoroughfare, 
between the Via Medina and the Via Agostino Depretis, is the 
building which served as the Gennan Headqiiartei-s, Turning 
left on the Piazza Municipio you enter the Via Roma, or the Toledo, 
Ijerhaps the most historic street in the entii-e city. At the inter- 
section of these two streets is the Town Haix. About 200 yards 
north, turn east off of the Via Roma and onto the Via G. San 
Felice. Following this sti-eet into the Piazza Nia. Amore and 
the Coi-so IJmberto I, to the intersection of the last-named thor- 

oii^hfiire with the Visi Mozzocannone, you find the ianious 
University of Naples. 

If yim naiit to visit the Cathedral of lSt. Januarius (the 
most importniit L'hurch in the city), yoii should, after leaving 
the Uuiversitv, continue along_the Corso Umberto I^to the Via 
del Diiomo and follow this street for about 500 yards to its 
intersection with the Via del Tiibunal where the Cathedra! is 
located. After finisliing at the Cathedral, go along the Via del 
Diiomo till you come to the street which, to the right, is known as 
the Via Floria, and to the left as the Piazza Cavour. Turning 
left, proceed along the Piazza Cavour till it intersects the Via S. 
Teresa Degli Scalzi (south of the Piazza Cavour the last-named 
street is known as the Via Enrico Pessina). You will now be 
at a famoiis Museum. 

If you want to continue your tour beyond the Museum, you will 
find the Capodimonte Palace located about a mile north of the 
Museum on the Via S. Teresa Degli Scalzi (which will change 
its name to the Via Nuova di Capodimonte. after its intersection 
with the Via della Sanita). The Astronomical Ousebvatiirt is a 
short distance southeast of the Castle Grtjuiids. You may want 
to see it while you are near. 



Padi-a, which is the scene of Shakespeare's "Taming of the Shrew," 
is 25 miles inland from Venice. Ever since early Roman tinier, 
tile city has been important industrially. It has chemical fac- 
tories, distilleries and breweries, candle and ink works, foundries, 
sawmills, automobile plants, and factories where agricultural 
machinery is made. 

It was important to the early Gomans because the town was on 
the trade routes from Italy to Illyi-ia, the region on the east side 
of the Adriatic Sea, and to the Eastern provinces. The town was 
left in ruins by the Hiiiis when tliey passed tiirough it on their 
way to Rome in 452. In the late Middle Ages it became impor- 
(aiit again as a crossroads of hnportant trade routes. Its famous 
Univkhsitv was founded in the year 1222, and about a century 
after tliat it started to become the greatest center of Italian learn- 
ing. Padua held that position for a long time and. in the long 
list of men who tauglit, .studied, and painted and wrote at tlie 
University are such ilhistrious names as Danto. Petrarch, Galileo. 
William Harvey, Fallopius, Jacopo Bellini, Titian, Fra Filippo 


Lippi, and Tusso. GioKo iiiul Donalello, two of Italy's foremost 
artists, also worked in Padua. 

Citizens of Padua and students call the University "II Bo," by 
which name it lias been known for such a long time that its origiii 
aeems to be disputed. In the seventeenth century a traveler wrote 
that he believed the nickntime was given to the University because 
the first students may have come tliei-e from Oxford '("H Bo" 
means "The Ox") . Most authorities, however, agree tliat ihe Uni- 
versity got its name l)ecause it is built on the site of an old inn 
whidi w;is called "II Bo." 

Most of the men who brought fame and glory to Padua came 
from other cities and countries, however, '^vy, the Roman his- 
torian, and Mantegna, the greatest figure in the so-called Paduan 
School of Painting, were the two nnti\'es of the town who were 
really great. 

In the year 1406 the city of Venice, v/hich was then at the 
height of its power, took Padua over after a number of wenlthy 
families had fought to gain confrol over it. Padua became more 
piosperous under the rule of the Venetians, and the art and un- 
versity movements of the city flourished. 

The city had a pre-war po|>iilation of about 138.000 [lersoiis. 

It is a fairly iiiodern town, althoiifrli it looks motlieval. It is sur- 
nuiiKled by a high wall, flanked with biistions. It .has 7 gates. 
Canals connect it with the Adige River and the lagoons of the 
Adriatic. Colonnades line the stieets and squares, and it lias sev- 
pial fine piazzas, or sqnares. The best of these is the Piazza Vrr- 
TOBio Emanotle, wliieh used to be called the Pkato Dell.\ Vaixo. 
Tliere are trees in the square, and a running stream surrounds it. 
in the Piazza there ai-e a number of statues of famous citizens 
of Padua and of men wlio brought fame to the town. The Pa- 
lazzo della Kaoione. 01' town house, is one of the most important 
buildings in the city. It was built during 1172 and 1219 and then 
reuiiideled in 1420. In it is a targe hall which ha.s about 400 paint- 
ings on its walls. 

Padua's Cathehral was built in the sixteenth centnry. It has a 
famous library full of priceless manitaeripts and rare books. 
Petrarch, who was canon of the Cathedral, is said to have founded 
this library. The University has a botanical garden which is 
said to be the oldest in all of Europe, an observatoiy, and a library 
which is said to contain more than 20(),0l)0 printed works. 


Trieste, unlike most of the cities of Ilaly, is long on commerce 
and industry but short on art and tradition. Although founded 
in ancient Roman times, it has remained always a commercial 
city rather than a cultural center. It has teen more fi-equentty 
modernized than other Italian cities, and it.s appearance is quite 
diiferent for that reason. 

Trieste belonged to Austria from 1382 to 1919, and altliough re- 
turned to Italy after the last war, the city and its jjeople bear 
tlie unmistakable signs of this long occupation, in architecture 
and speeeli. Tliis is not to say that the Tii'estifioit liked Austrian 
rule. As a matter of fact, the city was a hotbed of Italian 

The center of activity in Trieste is the Piazza dell'Unita. On 
the water front near tlie center of the harbor, it is lined with hand- 
some modern buildings. Dominating the sky line is the high, 
castle-crowned bill, to the slopes of which clings the old town. 
You uiaj as well take a crack at this, because there is veiy little 
else to see in Trieste. There are several ways to get up. but one 


of the most spectacular is by way of the Via della CattedrAle, 
which is very steei). You'll notice a lot of well-worn liandrails 
on the way up. It seems that tliese are there to keep the citizens 
from being blown away by the Bora, a particularly fierce Adriatic 
wind. Seems that in the days when ladies wore long, full skirts 
they were always having to be fished out of the harbor, where 
they liad been deposited, kicking and shouting, by the Bora. 

About halfway up, at the Via del Trionfo, you'll be ready for 
a breather. A few steps away is the Abco di Eiccardo, an ancient 
Eoiiian arch which has been added to in recent times. The legend 
goes that Richard Coeur de Lion was imprisoned here on his re- 
turn from Crusades, which explains the name. 

Continuing your climb, you'll come to a strange little cathedral, 
the Basilica of San Giusto, which is made up of bits and pieces 
of buildings dating from the fifth century. Set on the founda- 
tions of a Roman temple, it is actually the sum of two churches 
and a baptistry, thrown together to make a single nave of five 
aisles. Weirdly proportioned though it is, it has a definite 

On your way back down, you might stop at the Museo Civico de 
Storia e d'Arte. The collection consists of a large assortment 

of iiiicieiit vuseH, uteji&ils. fragments of sculpture, and tlie like. 
Tliere are also a few paintings. In back of the innseiini is 
the Gl\rdino Lapidario, containing an assemblage of antique 
rocks and fragments dug up by archaeologists. There is also a 
monument to Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the first historian 
of antique art. Winckelmann's recognition was his downfall. 
He was done in by a connnon thief who thought Winckelmann was 
rich, because of the medals presented to him by the Empress of 

If you like caves, there is the Ghoita Gigahte, 787 feet long and 
453 feet high, complete with stalactites. It is located to the north, 
about an hour out of town. 

Five miles northwest oi the city is the Castle of MiramAre, 
formerly the property of the unfortunate Archduke Masimilian, 
who fell afoid of a fatal revolution while he was Emperor of 
Mexico. In the Castle, his demented Empress, CarJotta, waited 
vainly until her death at a ripe old age. for the return of her be- 
loved husband. 

Down on the water front, between the Mold Pesoatori and the 
Mom Venezia is a fine aquarium for those who want to see fish. 


TuKiN, with a peacetime [)opu]iitioii of about 600,000. and the 
second giuatest industrial city of Italy, is at the foot of the Alps 
near the French border. It has been called the Detroit of Italy 
because of its automobile factories. The Fiat plants, which were 
among the largest in Europe, made pleasure cars as well as trucks. 
There were great aircraft plants in Turin before the war, and other 
important pre-war products were chemicals, high explosives, rail- 
way cars, shoes, and uniforms. For 5 years after 1860, Turin was 
the capital of Italy. And tmtil then it was the center of govern- 
ment for the Kingdom of Sardinia, whicii preceded the modern 
Italian kingdom. Long before it became an industrial city the 
town was famous as a center for art and learning, and esiwrt-s still 
rank its art galleries, museums, and Ubraries with the best in the 

Compared to other Italian cities, Tmin looks modern. No other 
city in the counti-y has such a regidar and geometric sti'eet plan. 
Its streets are long and straight, and they often have arcades. In 

the s(iiiai-es are well-careil-fi.r gardeua. Momiiiieiits are every- 
wliere. The phtii is due to the fact that the city grew over tlie ruiiia 
of an an{-ierit R*iiiian town known as Auc/uxfa Taminorum. The 
Rnnian to« n iriade a rectangle 2,210 feet long and 1,370 feet broad. 
It can be traced from the Piazza Castello on tlie east, the Via 
DEr,r^ CoNsoLATA and tlie Corso Sktardi on the west, the Via 
GiDLio on the north, and the Via Santa Tkresa on the south. 
Wha( Is now the Via Garibaij)! was the Via Deoumana. The Via 
PoirrA Palatina and the Via San Tommaso run over the gronnd, 
followed by the old Roman Via. Principalis. Tlie Roman amplii- 
theatre and other ruins of thai period were destroyed in 1536 by 
Francis I when he built fortifications on their sites. The Frencii 
occupied the city foi' a time, and then, in 1T06, besieged it once 
more. One of the heroes of Turin, who is still remembered aftei' 
more than two centuries, is Pietro Micca. a sapper in the forces ef 
Turin, who lost his life .saving his city. Micea exploded a mine, 
thereby saving the citadel and throwing bade the French besiegers. 
Turin is another one of the many Italian cities which has a 
street named after Victor Emanuele. This one is the Corso Victoh 
Emamdele, and it is a wide thoroughfare leading from the I'orta 

Xdova Station. And direttly in-ro&s the way from the station is 
the Piazza Carlo Ffake. The Via Koma leads from that square 
to tile Piazza San Carlo and the Piazza Castelix>, which is the 
Inib of the city. Most of the main streets shoot out of the Castello 
«liiare. The Palazzo Madama, which was built in the thirteenth 
century, is in the center of the square and is one of the architectural 
and historical sights of the city. The building was used by the 
Senate when Turin was the Sardinian capital, and for several 
years after the formation of the Italian kingdom it was also the 
meeting place of the nation's Senate. Roman and medieval re- 
mains may be seen in some of the bnildiuff's rooms. Other points 
of interest in the town are the Pobta Palatika, a gateway of 
Boman days which was restored in lOllI, and the Castello del 
Valentino, which was built aftei' the French manner, to please tlie 
wife of Vittorio Amedeo I. 

In the RoTAL Palace, in which is the King's private library. 
is a valuable collection of books, manuscripts, and drawings and 
an extensive collection of armor and weapons with historical and 
artistic interest. Among these arc a >wi'i'i! worn by Napoleon at 
Marengo, one sword made by t!u' inii^i DoiiatcUo, and another 


which is attributed to Cellini. In the old days in Italy, when au 
Italian lady got annoyed with iier boy friend or her husband, he 
got the point quick. Some of the ladies carried around three- 
edged stilettos, and they were good at the thrust and recover 
routine. And in the Royal Library, among the collection of min- 
iatures and drawings, is a self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci. 

Here are some of the other buildings, including churches, gal- 
leries, and museums which are historical or religious shrines and 
which hold many world-famous art works. The Cathedral of 
San Giovanni Battista, which was begun in 1498 on the site of 
three earlier churches, has an nm which contains the relic of the 
Sa-ntissimo Sudaiio. or Holy Shroud, said to be a part of t)ie 
shroud used to cover the body of Christ; the Chukch of San 
DoMENico, where there is a picture of the Mt/dormn with- Si. Dom- 
inic, by Guerciuo; the Chubch of La Consolata; the Palazzo 
Carionano, where Victor Enunanuel II. after whoni so many 
Italian streets were named, was born. This last palace houses a 
picture gallery with paintings (lysuch iiiastei-s as Van Eyck, Vero- 
nese, Rembrandt, Raphael, Botticelli, and Van Dyck. 

There are ;i miiiiber of cafes, confectiniiei'S. aiiel wine and beer ^^ 

shops in Tnrin where food is served. Beer is a favorite drink J . VENICE 

of the people of Turin. The town is also famous for its vennonth. Briefinn 

Short trips can be made from Turin iiito tlie surrounding Ai-f" ■ ^' 


Attila tlie Hun, tlie Scourge of God, drove before liiin the 
people of Altino, Aquileia, and Padua, on the mainland, riglit 
out into the Adriatic, where they souglit i-efuge on a few dismal 
sand bars and soggy islands. In this ignominious manner, Venice 
was born in 425 A. D. Less than a*iiundred years later the Vene- 
tians were already getting rich from the neighboring salt flats 
and from their adventurous mercliant fleet. This handful of 
refugees from the Barbarians grew, through iiai-d work and fore- 
sight, into a powerful republic, and made Venice the most bril- 
liant trading city in tlie world. Since then, its glory as a center 
of commerce has faded, but the beauty of the city i-eniains. 

Its 15,000 houses and palaces are all built on piles to keep them 
from sinking into the ooze of the 117 small islands over which the 
city stands. Venice is thoroughly di^^ded, like a-]'ig-saw puzzle, 
by some 150 canals; linked up again by 378 bridges. In many 
places there are no sidewalks along the canals— the front steps 
of the houses descending right into tlie floating orange rinds. 

Tliere are no streets wiile enough or long enough to merit the 
name, but there is an unbelievable tangle of narrow passages which 
frequently end abruptly in blank walls or at the edge of some 
canal. You'll just have to bacJc up and try again. There ai-e 
many little open squares which are called cimtfi. (fields) or cam- 
jiielli (little fields), there being only one piassa — the world- 
famous Piazza di San Marco, or St. Mark's Square, 

Don't look for streetcars, busses, donkey-carts or carriages such 
as you find anywhere else in Italy. Getting around Venice means 
walking, or going hy boat. Here you Iwive a choice: a gondola, 
complete with cushions and high prices; or you can ride the 
vaporetti, which are small, chugging steam launches running on 
ap]>roximate schedules between fixed points . along tlie main 
canals — and much cheaper. The three big canals are the GiwifD 
Canal, the main drag of A-'enice; the Canalb di San Marco, an- 
chorage for ocean-going passenger ships in peacetime; and tlie 
Canale della GitTDEccA, used for the loading and unloading of 
cargo ships. 

Picture Postcards. 

There are verv few buildings in Venice that you won't have 

seen somewhere — in tlie movies, on the plumber's New Year calen- 
dar, adorning the walls of that hotel bedroom in Atinntic City, 
or in your fifth-grade geography book. More first-, second-, and 
third-class artists have come to Venice (and have come away with 
something to show for their pains) than to almost any other 
European city. Because Venice is a natural : practically any view 
of anything in the city is picturesque. Fortunately, all the had 
art it has inspired through the centuries hasn't dimmed its luster 
or its romantic appeal. 

The hub of Venetian life has always been the Piazza di San 
Mabco. This superb square- paved with trachyte and marble, 
always full of activity and pigeons, is striking evidence of the 
ancient glory of Venice. On three sides it is enclosed by sym- 
metrical colonnades which take on an informal air from the cafe 
tables which extend from under the arcades out into the piazza. 
On the fourth side is the fabulous San Marco, with its 325-foot 
Cami'Anile. This incredible building has been the subject of 
countless rhapsodies in print and in paint. Dedicated to St. Mark, 
the patron saint of the city, it was hegun in 830 on the site of a 
church of St. Theodore and was rebuilt after a fire in 976. The 
roof is a great cluster of golden domes of different sizes. Inside 


and out, the church is adorned with five hundred columns of rare 
oriental marbles with capitals in a wide variety of styles. The 
upper parls of the walls, the interior ceilings, and great semicircle-s 
on the face of the building are covered with mosaics of colored 
and gilded glass and semiprecious stones, the earliest of-which date. 
. from the 11th century. The entire floor of the church, whicli 
somewhat resembles u series of low ground swells, is entirely paved 
with marble mosaic. The pulpits, altars, lanterns, and other in- 
terior fittings are richly carved and ornamented. If anyone 
should ever ask you what Byzantine art and ai-chitecture are like 
just tell what you saw in San Mabco. A more thoroughgoing 
example would be hard to find outside of Istanbul (ex-Constanti- 
nople, ex-Byzantium) itself. 

On your left as you leave the church is the 14th century 
Campanile. Above the brick shaft, 162 feet high, is a limestone 
bell chamber, from which you get a handsome view of the city. 
The bell chamber is surmounted by a spire in reinforced concrete 
covered with plates of copper and supporting the old gilded figure 
of an angel (now used as a weather vane). If (he reinforced con- 
crete seems like a modern touch, it's because the whole shebang 

collapsed with a dusty and terrifying crash in 1902, and had to 
be rebuilt completely. 

Directly across the piazza from the Campanile, ovev an archway 
leading into the maze of the city, is the Torbe dell' Orlogio, the 
principal feature of which is a trick clock. Two bronze giants 
called the Mori or Moors, each armed with a sledge-hammer, strike 
the hours on a large bell. This they have been doing ever since 

The two tliree-storied palaces on the north and south ddea of 
the Piazza di San Marco were once the residence of the nine 
"procurators." the highest officials of the Republic, whence theii' 
name Procukatie. The north wing was built in 1480-1517 and 
the south wing was begim in 1584. The connecting building on the 
west, called the Nhova Fabbrica was built in 1810 when Venice 
was a part of Napoleon's Empire. Here is housed the Cinco 
MusEO CoBHEH which is worthwhile because it's not so large that 
just walking in makes you tired, and because the collection is very 
representative of Venetian culture and will give you the flavor 
of the place without a lot of tlie distracting iiifluejices common to 
the average museum full of unrelated exhibits. 

You are probably ready for a beer by this time. If there is any, 

there are several famous cafes in the arcades of the Proeuratie 
where you can get it. 

JiLst around the corner, beginning in the space between the 
Campanile and San Marco, is the Piazzetta di San Marco, known 
simply as the Piazzetta, At its opposite end is the Molo which is 
where the gondoliers, each with his little squad of hat-raisers, boat- 
hook operators, handers-down, and helpers-in, foregather to wait 
for fares. They are all tip-demanders, but very good natured 
about it. Also on the Molo are two granite columns, brought from 
the Near East and put up in 1180. One of them bears the winged 
lion of St. Mark; the other, St. Theodore, patron of the ancient 
republic, on a crocodile. 

The building on the west side of the Piazzetta is the Libberia 
Vecchia (old library) , built in 1536-53, housing the Library of St. 
Mark which is made up of 320,000 printed volumes and 12,000 
manuscripts, many of which are priceless. The interior is en- 
riched by paintings by the Venetian Masters, Titian, Tintoretto, 
and Veronese. 

Across the Piazzetta from the Library is the Palazzo Duoale 
(Palace of the Doges). This handsome building has seen as much 
magnificence, cruelty, lavish generosity, low intrigue, catastroplie, 

and prosperity as perhaps any other building this side of Inferno. 
It is said to have been founded about 814 for the first Doge {Ruling 
Duke) of Venice. Hardly a trace of the original building remains, 
liowever, the present structure hiiving been put up in three sec- 
tions— 1309-40, 1494-38, and 1484-1511. Finishing touches were 
added in 1545-49. In 1574 and in 1577 there were serious fires 
which completely gutted the Palace. Restorations were made 
by several architects, among them the famous Palladio. As you 
can see from the high-water mark, it has been flooded a couple of 
times, too. 

Practically every stone, in its walls, every staircase, statue, 
painting, tapestiy, every stick of furniture in the Palace has its 
own fascinating history. You'll enjoy the place a lot more if 
you go through it with a detailed catalogue in hand. Casanova, 
the great and inexhaustible lover, was once locked up in a i-oom 
here, according to his memoirs, but while imprisoned he managed 
to continue his lusty career uninteri-upted, finally escaping 
through a neat little hole in the roof. 

Connecting the Palazzo with the Carceri (prison) across the 
Rio del Palasso, is the Ponte bei Sospiri (Bridge of Sighs) over 



which oommoii criminals imssed from the com-ta in the Palazzo 
to the dungeons to which tliey had been sentenced. 

The Grand Canal. 

This is pubber-necks' paradise. Pile into a gondola at the Molo 
and reins. There are 2 miles of palaces and churches lining the 
canal, and join- gondolier will no doubt reel off their names as you 
come to them. If he says anything about seeing the glass works 
pay no attention. There are better ways of getting there wllich we 
will come to later. Some of the more important buildings along 
the Grand Canal are listed here : 

DooANA Di Mabe, on your left. This is the principal custom- 
house, built in 1676-82. Gold ball and statue of Fortuna on the 

Santa Maiua nmiA Baxrm. (Left) The dome of this 17lli 
century church is one of the most conspicuous features of Venice 
Church built as an ezpression of thanks for the end of the plague 
of 1630. 

AcoAUEMiA DI Belle Aim (Academy of Fine Arts) at the left 
end of the first bridge you come to. Art gallery containing over 

8U0 pictures, chiefly by Venetian masters, Bellini, Carpaccio, Ti- 
tian, Tintoretto, Veronese. Worth a separate visit. 

Pal,\zzo Kezzonico. Just past the third side Ciiiial on your left 
from tile bridge. Here Robert Browning died in 1889. 

Palazzo Sebnagiotio. Two palaces up, on the left. Sicbard 
Wagner composed the second act of '"Tristan and Isolde'' here 
ill 1858-59. 

Palazzi Mocenigo, Between the sharp bend, to the east in the 
cnnal, and the first side canal on your right. In one of these Lord 
Byrim began bis epic poem Don Jitan in 1818. 

Palazzo Corser-Spinelli. On your side of the next canal to 
the right. Byron lived here often when in Venice. 

PoNTE Di RiALTo. Famous marble bridge lined with sliops, built 
in 1588-92. Until 1854 the only bridge across the Grand Canal. 

Ca d'Oro (the Golden House). On the right just before you 
get to the Bio di San Felice. The most typically Venetian and the 
most elegant Gothic palace in the city. Built in 1421-36. 

Palazzo Vendhamin-Calergi. On the right. One of the finest 
palaces in Venice, begun in 1481. Wagner died here in 1883. 

This is just a once-over -lightly. All the buildings and palaces 
are several centuries old and most have interesting legends con- 


nected with them. All of the following Venetian cluirches are 
of interest: San Giobbe, San Giin.iANo, San Salvatore, San 
Giovanni CRisttsTOMO, Sakti Afostoli, Madonna Dell'Orto, 
Santa Caterina, Santa Marea db Ge-suiti (particularly magnifi- 
cent interior), San Zaccarl\, Santi Giovanni e Paolo' (funerals 
and burials of many of the Doges took place here. Crowded with 
works of art.) San Pietro di Castello. There are dozens more. 

Spreading Out. 

1 (10 can spend years prowling around Venice and still not take 
everyihing in, so don't be too easily discouraged. One of these 
days, though, you are going to feel like a swim or something else 
to take your mind off the great works of art and architecture and 
to take the weight off your feet. Just the place to ease those, 
bunions is the Lmo. Before the war it was one of the most fash- 
ionable beach resorts in Europe. You can get there by vaporetto 
from the Molo in 15 miiuites. Then it's just a stei) from the dock 
to the east side of the island where the beach is. There are nu- 
merous restaurants, hotels, and boardwalk honky-tonks, and a fine, 
sandy beach. 


You probably know the city of Vebona from reading Shake- 
speare's Two Gentlemen of Verova and his Romeo and Juliet. It 
was ill Verona that the "star-crossed" lovers lived mid died. The 
Montagues and the Capulets were real people of Verona, althougli 
!hey went under the names of Mont^cchi and Capuletti. The en- 
mity of their families arose because they were on opposite sides in 
the struggle for power then going on between the Emperor and 
the Pope. 

Verona has always been nn important city becau,g6 it guards the 
southern gate to the Brenner Puss, that strategic passageway 
through the Alps. The main rail line ijet\veen Italy and Germany 
runs north through the Brenner Pass, and there is an east-west 
rout« tlu-ough the town which links the industrial centers of Pied- 
mont iind Lonibardy with Venice, which is 70 miles to the East, and 
with Trieste. 

Vei-ona has lieen fortified since the days of the Romans. The 
city 18 situated on botli banks of an S-sliaped loop of the Adioh 
RivEH. Great dikes and walls hold back the waters of the Adige, 

wiiich, in earlier days, used to flood the lower parts of the town. 
According to a legend, the waters of the Adige rose to the level 
of the windows of the Chubch of San Zeno in tlie year 589. But, 
through a miracle, the waters "restraijied themselves" and did not 
go into tile church, altliough its dooi-s were wide open. 

Early in the fifth century, Verona was threatened by the hordes 
of barbarians who were sweeping over Europe. That invasion 
was averted, but in 45-2, Attilti. the Hun, overran every city of 
Venetia, and Verona became a barbarian fortress. 

Verona is second only to Venice in the interest and beauty of 
its medieval and Kenai.ssaiice monuments. Its Roman remains 
are better than those of any other town or city in northern Italy. 
Among the best-preserved of these Roman relics is the amphi- 
theatre, which is known as the Are^^a. It was built in the year 290, 
under Diocletian. It held 25.000 spectators who saw the battles 
of the gladiators and the fights between wild animals, and between 
slaves and animals, such as were also held in the Colossenm in 
Rome. As recently as last year an annual week of outdoor opera 
was given in the Arena. According to a story told in Verona, the 
Italian poet Dante got his idea of the shape of the Inferno when 

T circles of .'ieats, 

Dante stayed at Verona during the reign of the Scaliger family, 
which ran from 1260 to the year 1387. Dante was at that time 
a refugee from Florence, from which city he had been banished. 

|{ He was only one of the many refugees whom the Scaligers har- 

' bored. They welcomed poets, artists, scholars, preachers, and 

soldiers from among the many persous who, for varying reasons, 
had been exiled from their native cities. It was under the Scali- 
gers that Verona reached its peak of magnificence. The chm-ches,' 
palaces, and other buildings of the city are literally covered with 

1 the works of such artists as Paole Cagliari, who was known as II 

(Veronese, Badile, de Zevio, and many othera. 
In addition to the splendid paintings and architecture to be 
seen in Verona, there are other famous sights which have drawn 
tourists to the town for many years. One of the most important 
centers of Veronese life is the Piazza Erbe, which is the market 
square. It's a colorful place on the site of a Roman Forum. 
' Peddlers used to stand in the market jilace under huge umbrellas, 

and the square was always crowded with Italian women carrying 
their market baskets. In the square is a fountain with an antique