Skip to main content

Full text of "Pocket guide to the cities of Denmark"

See other formats

U I 





T O 

CE c a. 

S - - 

P = 





Fot' me of MUitary Persoi^nel only. Not to he refuUished, in 
whole £»' ill part, witkmit the consent of the War DepaHment. 

Prepared hy 





About the only thing in this booklet that can be guaranteed is 
the terniin. The rest of it is up to the fortunes or misfortunes 
of war. Many of the towns and cities described bore have been 
bombed and shelled by us as we approached, and shelled by the 
enemy as he retreated. And many of them will still show the 
marks of the destruction visited upon them when these lands were 
being conquered and occupied by the Germans. 

The short historical notes and city plans concerning most of 
the towns are correct as of the outbreak of the war. But the 
changes of war were still happening in many places when this 
pocket guide wont to press. 

You may find that art treasures described and located in these 
pages have been looted or destroyed, and it may be years before 
those that can be restored are sights to see again. On the other 
hand, some of them, by a stroke of good fortune, may be left in- 
tact, and you will be able to enjoy them. 


And aiiother tiling: if some of these towns should be declared 
off limits, you'll bypass thorn, of course. Perhaps later, they may 
be open to you. 

Food and drink are discussed here, so that as times gradually 
return to normal, you may be guided in the tastes and customs of 
the country. But be .sure that you are not eneouraging a black 
market or bringing hardship to the native civilian population if 
you take advantage of what the town or region has to offer. You 
will receive direction from the proper authority in this matter. 

Anyhow, so far as your military duties perinit, see as much as 
you can. You've got a great chance to do now, uiajor expenses 
paid, what ^vould cost j'ou a lot of your own money after the war. 
Take advantage of it. 


Aalbokg 1 

Aakhuus 4 

Copenhagen "^ 


HeijSINGOR 29 

Odense i ■ 37 

Skagen 47 




Aausohq, "eel-town" in Danish, is the chief city of noilh Jutland. 
From Cojienhafren, it is an overnight trip. 

Sit uatcd soutli of the Limfjobd, Aalborg is a very attractive town 
with many inu'restinff places to visit. The Liiufjord is a neti-ai ni 
which joins the Kattegat to the North Sea. You can get a good 
starting view of the town and the fjord by crossing the railway 
bridge or the foot bridge. 

The railway bridge, 1,000 feet long, is a fine example of excellent 
civil engineering for which Denmark, a country of many bridges, 
is world-famous. 

As long ago as the 11th cenfnry. Aalborg was an important 
town. Walleiistein. the 16tb century (German, sacked the place in 
1627. The Swedes did the same in 1644, and again in 1657. But 
the Danes are hardy people; then, as now, they came through. 

Cement, liquors and tobacco products are the main industries of 
Aalborg and its environs. Leatlier and cotton goods are processed, 
and there is some manufacture oi soap; but tliese are secondary. 

As you may know, lime cliffs are Denmark's only minera! re- 

source. Aalboi'g makes good use of it. The production of Port- 
land cement in this iovm is the greatest in all Scandinavia, unless 
sabotage has reduced it during the German occupation. At any 
rate, before the war, 140,000 bugs of cement were l^eing produced 
every 24 lioui-s. 

The cement-nuikiiig region is located between Aalborg and the 
town of TuNDEK. Tiles and pipes, cement blocks for building, and 
many other finished products are made here too. In addition, 
Aalborg makes its own machinery for handling cement and proc- 
esses it in various ways. 

As part of this busy scene, you'l! notice in Aalborg tall smoke 
stacks, and revolving kilns. One of the smoke stacks is said to be 
the tallest in all northern Europe. 

A few miles soulh of Aalborg is Houro, center of the alcohol 
distilling industry. Most of the product goes into the making of 
denatured alcohol, paints, and varnisjies. But 10 per cent is nor- 
mally set aside for drinking purposes. This indicates the con- 
servative attitude of Danes toward liquor. Fifty per cent of the 
price on finished products goes to the government in taxes. 

The drink called akvav/f; nevertheless, is a commendable bev- 
erage if taken temperately. It is drunk straight in small glasses. 

Tobaccro, intei'estiiigly enough, provides a livelihood for a great 
number of Aalborgers. The toloacco. of cours-e, does not gr()w in 
Dennnirk, but is imported from Turkey, Greece, and Americii. 
The cigars produced are of fine quality, and must be so, for Danish 
ladies smoke them. 

Don't be shocked at these feminine smokei-s in Aalborg. It is a 
national custimi in Denmark. The cigai'S are small, choice, and 

As for public buildings, churches and otber landmarks in 
Aalborg, you will notice many interesting structures, some new, 
some old. The Jens Bang M.\N8ton, built in 1624, is perhaps the 
luost noteworthy. 

60857«'^ — J4- 


AARHtnis is the second largest and the second oldest city in Den- 
murk. It has a populatioii of 90,000, and is the capital of the part 
of the country called JtiTLAND, 

Jiithuid itself is dividt'd into two districts. Rankers mid Aar- 
huns, which in Demnark ure known as Amts. Aarhuus Anit 
should not be confused with the city of Aarhuus, 

The shallow harbor, protected by a breakwater^ was built up 
in 1890. From this haven, ships move directly into the ILvttegat 
bound for Copenhagen, or for Swedish ports. Rail connections 
to Aarluuis are via the Danish State Railway. 

Business in Aarhuus is largely concerned with grain and cattle 
tradiiig, but there are also big industrial astablishments. Iron- 
founding, cotton-spiiuiing, sliipbuildiiig and other manufacturing 
add to the city's econ()mic importance. 

Aarhuus is old. Since 948 A. D. it has been the headquarters 
of local bishops. For weathered stone and old architecture, the 
13th century Cathedral will satisfy your eye for ancient land- 

The outstanding attraction in Aarhuus, however, is the medieval 
Olii Town, which has been reconstructed almost exactly the way 
it looked centuries ago. It is, in fact, an outdoor museum. 

Here ytm can stroll among the charming, half-timbered Viuild- 
ings, and feel that you have stepped back in time to another «>ra. 
The mills, houses and shops are completely furnished inside with 
antique furnishings and equipment used in those bygone times. 

At the MiNDEPABKEN, you may be pleased to discover an outdoor 
circus. A rose-garden nearby is worth a visit. 

Try to see the stone wall built in Aarhuus to commemorate 4,000 
men of the town who died in W<iild War I. To the citizen.- of this 
town, it is a sacred memnrial. Chalkstone blocks were brought 
from the battlefields of France where those sons of Aarhuus vol- 
unteereit their lives in combat. 


CopENHAGEw, the capital of Demusuk mid the home of more than 
a (luarter of itK ]>opiih»tioii, was, bt-fnrp the war, one of tlie -layept 
and most sparkling cities in Europe. Despite their in«histn(.ut- 
ness ami their serious attention to trade and shipping and agricul- 
ture and to their systems of social security and their achievements 
in science, edHcation aud architecture, tiie Danes have always lieen 
a laughter-loving, pleasure-loving people. Their capital city had 
an amazing number of g«M>d hotels and superb restaurants, cafes, 
confectioners an<l fine bakeries, aud more amusement and recrea- 
tion places than other cities much larger. 

Since the Germans laid their heavy hand upon Denmark, many 
of the best of these places and some of the finest of the shops have 
suffered either t<jtal or partial destruction, and there has been 
neither time nor the money to repair tliem to their previous 

But even the Germans could not obliterate the charm of the city 
itself, with its canals and bridges, and its winding old streets and 
spacious newer ]ilazas. its twisted spires and copper-covered roofs 
and towers and multitudinous statues and small and large parks. 

WlierevLT you walk yoii will see splendid inicient buildings and 
new public ones us substantial and as liaiidsome as tlie old. 

A jrood place to begin a tour of Copenbajren is with the Tovrs 
Haix (The Radhus), for this is not only m the approximate center 
of t/Sie city, but it is a symbol of many of those virtues and attain- 
ments wliidi have made the Danes respected all over the world. 

The present Town Hall was completed in 19(15 after eleveis years 
of building, and it is the fifth Town Hall since the one founded 
by Bi.sliop Absoion 800 years ago. 

The plaza in front of it— the "scallop fihell" wiiicli can hold and 
has often held three or four thousand pe«>ple— is on a site which 
not so very hnig ago v^-as the Western Gate and boundary of the 
capital, which now extends in every direction far beyond it. In 
the galieried main hall, which is really a glass-covered central 
court, two thousand people can be seated to watch the civic 

The Radhiis is Danish in ai-chitecture, in materials, in purpose, 
and in decoration. It is logical that it should have some simi- 
larity to buildings, on the Continent, for Demnark has always 
been integrated with European geography and culture. It is also 
logical that its tliree towers should blend so well with the towers 

of ancient buiklings. such as the, which is the oldest in use 
in Europe and has reared its twisted dragon tails against the sky 
of Copenhagen since 1(1 10. 

The Radhns is less like a palace than a rich and hospitable 
bur<'her house. The national red and white coloi-s in its central 
half the decoration of native flora and fauna, the watchmen and 
polar bears on the merlons are all very Danish, which means excel- 
lent in taste and workmanship. The Town Hal! accommodates 
five Mayors an.l five aldermen and fifty-five members of the City 
Corporation, eight hundred people in its offices and eight hundred 
bicvcles in its basement. It has every pcpssible convenience of 
heating, lit^bting, elevat<.rs, etc.. and it furthernuire houses that 
invisible machinery f..r a system of social sec.n^ity which provides 
for the aged, the sick, the unemployed, the handicapped, so that 
it is possible to be born in Denmark, educated there, and taken 
adequate care of. through every possible exigency until death, 
when even dignified burial is assured. , , -, , . 

The Town Hall is worth a visit, not only for its l>eauty 
but also 10 understand something of what an enhghtened 
country Denmark is. 

The' next pkce to visit is the Christiaksbobg Palace, whose 

golden crown is no ccmspicuons from both land and sea. Yon may 
not realize that thi^ is built upon an island, becanse there are so 
many bridges everywhere in the city that the various canals seem 
almost like streets. The earliest eastle wiih built on tliis site in 
lies and was several times destroyed and rebuilt. Upon this site 
Bishop Absoloii built a in 11G7, bits of whicli may still be 
seen in the basement of the present palace. When Christian VI 
raised his castle upon this spot (17;«) it grew to such an extent 
that at last he refused to hear what it was costing, and every 
Saturday burned the bills tkat had been accumulating during 
the week. ^ 

There have been several fires and restorations, and tlie min-hty 
edifice you now see was completed only in 1928. Here sit both 
Houses of Parliament, the Supreme Court and the Ministry of 
Foreign Affairs. Twice a month the King holds his public audi- 
ences here. 

The King does not live here, but a short distance away in 


This is one of four large and lovelv rococo building's surround- 
ing a courtyard easily seen from the avenue of Amalien&Kde It 
IS typical of Denmark's democratic ideas that the King's Palace 



should be close to everyday houses, hotels and shops and also to 
the busy waterfr«>nt. It is also typical tliat for many years the 
King has left this royal residence on horseback at eight o'clock 
every morning and taken a canter through the streets of the city 
without any attendants or guards. 

Althoiigli the prescMit ruler is personally so unassuming, the tra- 
ditional position of Denmark's King is one of extreme dignity, and 
■when he dies he is given a majestic burial in liosiiiLCE Cathedral, 
seventeen miles away and the largest and finest ecclesiastical build- 
ing in the kingdom. From the 10th to I lie 15th centuries it was 
a royal residence, and until Copenhagen became tlie King's per- 
manent residence lloskikle was the important city in the 

Wliile the distances between the Radhus, Christ iansborg Castle, 
and the Amalienborg Palace are so short that they are easy to 
cover on foot, the city is, to a stranger, very complicated with its 
many winding streets, bridges, canals and plazas, so you will save 
time and shoe leather if you get a small city map and figure out 
where you want to go and how best to get there. 

On such a map you will find the way to the Lanoelinie, 

This is a most enjoyable and popular promenade overlooking 



the sea, and leading to tlie Royal Yacht Club, on which tlie Ger- 
mans wrealied tlieir wrath. 

At. one end of tlie Lan<!;elinie, near the English Church, is a 
fountain representing Gefioii. The legend is tliat slie received 
lieriiiission to take as nnich of the territory belonging to Sweden 
as she could plough around in a single day. She thereupon trans- 
formed her four sons into four bulls, and with them ploughed out 
the ishind of Zealand upon which Copenhagen stands. 

The other end of the prttnieiiade is iiiurketl by the more famous 
st-atue of the Littlk Mekmaid. This graceful bronze maiden is 
on a natural boulder so close to the edge of the water that it .shines 
from the spray of the waves. She is from one of Hans Christian 
Andersen's stories, which tells how a mermaid fell in love with a 
mortal man and was granted permission to follow liini only if 
she sacrificed her pretty fins for feet. She did this and went with 
him, although every step she took was torture. 

The Langelinie is a true Eun)i)ean promenade, along which 
soldiers and sailors, business men, mothers and children and la- 
bor-ers, saunter to enjoy the breezes and to look down on the 
animation of the port. 

The great port of Copenhagen is one of the best in the world. 


It has kniker coal and Imnker depots, statKmary, float mg and 
travelling cranes, elevators, basins, shipyards for designmg, build- 
ing, rep^unng and cleaning vessels of all types. It has salvage 
ste^ers, pilot boats, tow boats, railway lines-these belong to 
the State Kailwavs— ice breakers, salvage and stevcdornig hrms, 
dredges and dunlping barges and every modern harbor facility 

and accommodation. iiii.ii „„„»*■ 

The Free Port occupies the best equipped and also Uie deepest 
section of the harbor and may be considered not only su^ in er- 
national territory but as an unique township of its own. In addi- 
tion tu harbor equipment so excellent that it is the cheapest and 
(mickest poi-t. of call in North Europe, it possesses its own post 
office, teleVrai)h office, station, branch bank, restaurants, provision 
dealers, and electrical works. It even owns its ovvn railway 
system, which connects with the State Railways and ^vith the 
ferries to and from Sweden. Since it is not confined tu the han- 
dlint^ of goods which are to be reshipped to other countries, ils 
boundaries are guanled by customs officials, and the handsome 
building iiist outside the main entrance is the Customs House. 
Numbers of merchants and manufacturers have rented sites on 


the Free Port territory and built offices, wai-eliouses, and factories. 

Some idea of this prodigioa? activity can be glimpsed from 
the Langeliiiie. 

The Lanj^elinie is usually crowded, and so is all Copenhagen 
for that matter. And much of this ci-owd has, for many years, 
gone to TivoLi, whose twenty acres inside the city limits liave been 
one of the most delightful centers in the world. It used to attract 
as many as 2,000,000 people from Coi>enhagen, the Provinces and 
Europe, during its sunmier season. 

Here, again, the Germans have destroyed many of the prettiest 
buildings and pavilions, hut even umler. tents and improvised 
shelters Tivoli keejis up its old traditions. 

Before this tliere wei'e not only all sorts of wide sidewalks, 
secluded paths and arbors, but concert halls, dance halls, fashion- 
able, semi-fashiomible and not-at-al!-fashionable cafes. On the 
lake were boats and over the fountains played colored lights, and 
bands paraded, acrobats performed oti an open air stage, and 
twice a day a thousand people crowded in front of the Peacock 
Theatre. Those in front sat down and those behind hired peri- 
scopes to watch the performance, which was not slapstick comedy 
but witty classic mimicry. Behind the audience stood the bust 


of a clown with white ruff and cocked eyebrows and red painted 
mouth. This was not an imaginary person, but Niels Henrik 
Volkersen, who for many years was the beloved Pierrot of Tivoli. 

Although Tivoli had roller coasters, shooting galleries, etc., it 
has never been like Coney Island, or any other amusement park 
in the United States. It has been a home-like, well-behayed and 
orderly place, where college professors as well as working men, 
well-bred young girls as well as toui'ists in search of an evening's 
enjoyment, could all find diversion according to their tastes and 
in no way disturb each other. 

Just to wander aromid the streets of Copenhagen is to find plenty 
of diversion. , . 

KoNGENS Nttorv is the large central squai'c with the principal 
hotels, cafes, shops, the Royal Theatre, etc. Every one seems to 
pass through this square some time during the day or night, and 
the cafes are always crowded and so are the sidewalks and the 
buses and trolleys. Handsome wide new avenues come into Kon- 
gens Nytorv and old streets wind out of it. 

From it you can, by consulting yooi- map, find the way to 
Gammixtoev. the old market place filled with open air booths, and 
to AaiAGER'ioRv, where the peasants from the Islands of Amager 


may still be seen in their picturesque costumes, and where there is 
a liouse dating from 161G. 

In KongenH Kytorv you are also near several musenms, and even 
if you have never cared for musenni.s, you can hardly fail to enjoy 
two of these : Gi.yftotek and the National. 

The GLTP-roTEK has a sununer garden outside and a winter gar- 
den with a crystal dome inside, where it is very pleasant to sit or 
stroll. Besides many other thinj.^s, it has Ihe most splendid col- 
lection of antique p».j'l raits in mai'tile in the world, and the largest 
collection of Frencli sculpture outside of Fi-ance. It has a whole 
room devoted to Gauguin, who married a Dani.-sh wife before he 
went to the South Seas to paint his famous canvases of tropical 
scenes and people. 

The N.4TIONAD Museum is so well arranged that it is possible to 
find the exhibits which are of special interest to you, and not to 
get exhausted walking through others. 

You cannot fail to be fascinated by the ethnographical rooms 
Nowhere else in the world is there arranged such a complete pan- 
oramic liustory of the Northern tribes, many of which no longer 
exist. Since (Jreenland is a colony of Denmark, and sixty times 
larger than the motherland, the section called Little Greenland 


is especially ctmiplete. There are genuine summer tents of seal- 
skin and a genuine whiter rock house with its entrance lower than 
the floor to keep out the cold. In order to show the construction, 
with its cantilever arch, it is without the turf which is usually 
piled on the outside or the skins which usually cover the inside. 
There are cases of whale hunting costumes, topographical maps 
in wood, coats made of bird skins, etc. 

The Eskimo Collect ion is the most complete assembled any- 
where, and the North American Indian is represented more fully 
(hail nnywhei'e else in Europe. There is here even an Indian club 
better than any in the museums in the United States. 

The section of antiquities surpasses any other in Northern Eu- 
rope, with flint implements from the Stone Age, several ornaments 
from the Bronze Age, and so on tlirough the Viking period. There 
are figures which have been lying in their coffins (each hewn out 
of half a mighty oak), with their treasures and jewels and personal 
possessions around thcni, since liefore the birth of Clirist. Eeli- 
gious processional carts in whicli they rode and boats of thin 
planks stitched together in which they sailed are nearby, 

A little way outside the city at Ltnoht is an Oi'en Am Museum, 
with buildings from various parts of Denmark and from various 


ems. The ehimneyless dweJlinjj from Jutland is from the second 
century; the seanum's cottage from Fiino has Dutch tiles in its 
walls. From Ainager is a room witli a wainscot of inlaid panels 
and with Chinese porcehiins br<mght home by some seafaring 
owner. There are folk costumes, too, fmliroideries andwood carv- 
ings, etc., and all the household furnishings to show precisely how 
the Danes lived long ago. If you wish to follow the household 
arts further, you can go to tfie Museum of Applied Arts, which is 
arranged to show the development of Danish art and handicraft 
fi'om the Middle Ages up to the pivsent day. 

But if you iii'e more interested in the present rather than the 
past, take time to walk through the Permanent Industrial Exhi- 
bition which, in the center of the city, is free at all times. 

He!-e the various ceramic factories and silversmiths display tlieir 
best examples. There are bronze and pewtei- and glass and en- 
graved cry.stal, amber jewelry and hand-woven textile, laces, 
leather ware, wooden dishes, etc. 

Denmark k famous for its silver and porcelain, and when the 
Germans did their worst to the Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Fac- 
tory, they damaged one of the finest in the world. 

Denmark's interest in art and in the progress of civilization 


is shown by the fact that the great brewery of Carlsberg, which 
caps many millions of bottles of beer a year, gives not a part but 
its entire profits to art and science. The Carlsberg Foundation has 
done more for Denmark than the gifts of any king. 

Visitors are allowed to visit this great brewery, where they 
may be given a glass of beer f.n' nothing, and you may be_ inter- 
ested to know that this enormous establishment which ships its 
products all over the world has for its director and stockholders 
members of the Royal Danish Academy of Science and Letters. 

Tnborg, another enormous brewery in Copeiihagen, capping 
2 000 0(K) bottles of beer and mineral water annually, has silso 
established a Foundation to "promote objects of benefit to society 
and especially to support Danish trade and industrial life . 

A country which contributes so generously to social and scien- 
tific betterment naturally shows the benefits everywhere. 

The Bisi-KHJEKO Hosi-iTAL in Copenhagen is an example. 

This tremendous insfituti<m has six pavilions connected above 
<rround by gardens and terraces, and underground by seven kilo- 
meters of tiled corridors. Its surgical and medical departments 
are so advanced that American doctors come here to study. 

And yet the maximum price a patient may pay is less than 

fiOsruO" — 44 — —4 


thirty-five cents a day, and every type of service and medical care 
is given to the poor without charge, at the cost of the niuiiioipality. 

The rich may come here as well as the poor, and many do be- 
cause of the skillful doctors and surgeons, superior nursing and 
therapeutics. Bn( (he rich men cannot pay more than the stipu- 
lated price or demand any otiier kind of accommodation than the 
doctor recommends. Those who want special privileges can go to 
private hospitals and pay more. 

Besides Bispebjei-g tlierc are eight other municipally owned 
hospitals in Copenhagen. Hospital physicians are high-salaried 

The housing of the people has been worked out equally well. 
You will see everywhere in the city proper and in the suburbs 
apartment houses of the newest and most attractive design. 

Ninety percent of the populalion live in flats, which are owned 
cooperatively, municipally or privately. The cheapest ones are 
far superior to tenements in America, and the expensive ones less 
elaborate than their counterparts in New York. But they aiB 
i-emarkably comfortable— built usually around a large central 
court, and with playgrounds for children, and on most of the 
newest ones balconies are so ingeniously arranged tlmt they pro- 


vide absolute privacy as well as giving a pleasing architectural 
feature to the facade. 

Denmark is not only interested in the new, convenient and inex- 
pensive housing, but is receptive to new architectural ideas, A 
striking example of this is the Grundtvig Chuech, which is con- 
spicuous from Copenhagen, since it is placed on the higher groumi 
of the outskirts— Binpebjerg Hill. (N. F. S. Grundtvig wasi the 
founder of the Folk High School System. There are about (>0 
of these functioning in Denmark today, attended annually by 
about 10,(KK) men and women, during their vacation periods. The 
majority of pupils are from the rural districts, between the ages 
of 18 and 2;"), although all classes and older ages are represented. 
These schools are credited with having fitted the Danish people 
for the understanding of the principles which have so improved 
their standard of living.) 

From a distance the Church, dedicated to the great educator, 
looks like a gigantic pipe organ, but if you go out to a closer view 
yon will see that this is just a colossal elaboration of the corbie 
stepped-gable which has been part of village churches for centuries. 

The steeple, walls, inside and out, the floors, arches, vaults and 
columns are all of the same yellow brick, not concealed or covered 


in any vviiy, creating an effect of unity and strength and giving 
(>l>])ortiini(y far a play of liglit. 

A cooiKn-iitive housing project l)y the same architect surrounds 
it in regular units. 

Although (lie Dnnes are so progi'essi ve in housing and in archi- 
tcclur:il experiments, they iire equally proud of the preservation 
of (heir old buildings. 

If you take the shoi-( trip past green fields, red cows, white 
cotlages and red-tiled chtUTlves to Kji'Ige, you will see one of many 
ancient towns which has heen so preserved. 

The cobbled st reets aiv lined with ( wo-story buildings with elabo- 
ra(ely carvpd oak beams, hard, heavy and black as iron. Over 
(he door of one such house is the date 1527 and (he CrroRfH of St. 
NicoLAJ (lutes fi-oni 1324. They have been lived in and kept in 
]-epair ever since and ai'c still charming and tight against the 
weather. Kjoge is not a show place, although 'it has a museum 
and an old Spinning Court. It is conceriuul with the manufac- 
ture of rubber goods and the pigment for paint. But it is a good 
phice to choose foi- n short excui'sion because it is so typical of the 
old ;tnd tlie new in Denmark. 

Although tlie farmer and the small-salaried man are so well- 


housed in Denmark, there are surprising numbers of great estates 
also. There are moated manor houses and tm-reted castles and 
aristocratic fimilies living in them with great elegance. 

Many of these large estates have been acquired by the Govern- 
ment for schools and homes for the aged, etc., and those which are 
still privately owned are practical working propositions, selling 
their milk to cooperative dairies, or their beets to cooperative 
sugar beet factories. 

Peasants are no longer exploited as they were before the whole 
system of land tenure was readjusted— a reform which began in 


Today Denmark has the most efficient small farmers m the 
world, and 92 percent of the agricultural holdings are cultivated 
by their owners. I 

These farmers suffered cruelly under the German oppression, 
sacrificing many of the cattle of which they were so proud. 

It is not likelv that even now food in Copenliagen is as bounti- 
ful or as rich as it was before the war. when meals used to be far 
heavier and more frequent than in tlie United States. But tlie 
Danes have always been extremely fond of good food, based on 
the superfine quality of meat and fish and vegetables and dairy 


products, and whcrevor fhere are Danes there will be good cooks 
to make the best of wliat there is. 

A good way to learn what to ordt'r in the restaurants is to go 
first to the automats. There are a number of these in Coi)enhagen 
and you can see through the small glass doors of the cubicles the 
dishes you want to samjile. Over the door are the price and t!ie 
name of each dish. So if you like what you have chosen you will 
be able to pick out the name again from a bill of fare in a restau- 
rant or cafe. 

There are enough historical buildings and museums in Copen- 
hagen to take a sight-seeing tour every day for months; or, there 
are enough recreation places in the city itself to relax and stroll 
about if you have only an !iour. 

But the couiitrysiik' comes directly up to tlie city and its suburbs, 
without any ring of slums to mar the transition. You will enjoy 
Copenhagen nioi'e suid understand it better if you take long or 
short excursiwjis outside into the environs, [which you can do by 
bus, train, car, bicycle, or on your own two leet. 



EsBJEEo is a new town. It had a population of thirteen in 1868, 
when it was selected as the site for a port to handle the growmg 
trade with Britain. Today it is the fifth largest town in Den- 
mark, with a population of over aO,0()(), In peacetime, butter, 
bacon and eggs are shipped thi'ough Esbjerg from thousands 
of Danish dairy farms to British breakfast tables, and iiormally 
there is a daily boat .service that carries most of the passenger 
traffic between" England and Denmark. As you arrive by boat 
from England, you'oidy have to walk a few steps from the gang- 
way to board the train that will take yon across Jutl^vno, the 
island of Ftn, the Geeat Belt and tlie island of S.i.\elland to 

COPE.N IIAGEN, 1 j: -n 

The main visitor's attraction in Esbjerg is the island oi is\NO 
which siiehers the harbor ui Esbjerg. FanJi is a p(»i)nlar Danish 
bathing resort and can be readied in a quarter of an hour by a 
ferry that runs between Esbjerg and Noruby. the chief village 
on JFano. Here you will find odd, irregular streets and low 
picturesque houses. The bathing resort is on the other side of the 



ishirid. a mile and ii huif to the southwest, atid is called Fano Vbs- 
TEnnAvs Bad. "Vesterhav", wliieh means "West Sea", is Daiiisii 
for the North Sea; so the name means Fatui North Sea Baths. 
Although Faiiii is a small Lshmd, it has a beiich ten miles k)ag 
and hard enough for motor cars to race on. There is also a pic- 
turesque little village called Sr)NDERHo ui the southern end of the 
island. The Chuhch at Sonderho was huilt in 1782 and has ship 
models, made by the local fishermen, hanging from the ceiling. 







H£ifliNGiJB, which is also spelled Elsinore, is only a few miles 
from Coiienhageii, ho that if you Imvf a day it is possible to visit 
tliis old town, Hamlet's Castle, and even to g(» on to Frederiks- 
BORG to see tJiat fiimous and splendid royal residence. 

Helsingor and Ki'onherg Castle are interesting, not only for 
their antiquity and literary associations (the latter is the scene 
of Shakespeare's Samlet), l)ut because they illustrate a remark- 
able change in Denmark's policy in regard to Baltic trade. 

Between Helsingor on the coast of Denmark and Halsingborg 
on the coast of Sweden, the Soiuid (Oresund) is only 2% miles 
wide. Until less than 500 years ago, Denmark followed the fash- 
ion of tlie times and collected revenue by merely taking it from 
every passing vessel. 

As every ship which entered or left the Baltic had to sail 
dii'ectly in front of Ki-onberg Castle, it was easy enough to levy 
and enforce an arbitrary tribute, which made Helsingor a very 
wealthy town. 


In 1857 a general concert «>f nations of Europe forced Den- 
mark to accept a capitulation grant of 18,(X)0,(X)0 pounds and 
reliiiquisli what she had come to consider her rijfhtful privilege. 

Thereupon she established a Free Port at Copenhagen which 
vessels of all nations could use, with only nominal pierage charges. 
Once inside the Port, they could discharge, store and transship 
tlieir goods for any country (exceirt Denmark) without Customs 
authorities examining, delaying or adding extra charges to the 
cost of transmission. 

Originally Helsingor was a fishing village, getting its modest 
living from herring. In 1425, when the Sound Toll was insti- 
tuted, its fortunes soared. Today it is a prosperous place, with 
industries and new residences and shops side by side with the 
quaint old buildings, some of them dating from the 16th century, 

St. Mart's Church forms the south wing of a Carmelite mon- 
astei'y whicli was erected between 14S() juid ir>)K) and is the most 
carefully preserved building of its kind iii Scandinavia. The 
chapter house has some murals worth seeing, and the music room 
and refectory in the northwest corner are delightful, as is the 
old garden of the monks surrounded by groined cloisters. 

Frederik II, wJio was fond of Helsingor, founded and endowed 


a Latin Seiiooi here, which Hans Chiistian Andei'son attended, 

Recently the International People's College, stressing nnitnal 
understanding through music and manual work. lias attracted 
students from various countries. This school has the ideal of 
founding a new philosophic basis for the study of our present 

On the high land ovei'Iooking and jutting out into the Sound 
at its narrowest point was built a fort, and Frederik II, having 
plenty of mouey fr'oni Ihe tolls derived from passing vessels, de- 
cided to build the finest castle in Europe upon the site. 

In 1585, when the scaffolding was removed, the new custle was 
rerealed with its five towei'S and four imposing copper-roofed 
wings. It was maguificeutly furnished and decoi-ated with tapes- 
tries, carvings and [yainted ceilings, hut 44 years hiter was almost 
completely destroyed by fire, with only the walls remaining. 

The sou of Frederik II— King Christian IV— restored it, how- 
ever, and this is the castle we see today, with its highest tower 
serving as a lighthouse. 

There is a charming tree-,shadeil road leading to it from 
Helsingor and .skirting a moat, which reflects white swans floating 
and also the walls of the castle itself. 


Along the front of the (.•a!:itle runs a fint.' {jrass-grown terrace, 
on which tire intjunted some of the old guns w]iich nsed to threaten 
foreign vessels. It is <jn tliis terrace that Hamlet is supposed to 
have seen his father's ghost. 

Kronberg was used as a royal residence and later as a barracks. 
After the Koldiers left, repaii'.s were necessary, and now there are 
certain rooms open to the public, the KNKiHTs' Haix being the 
hiuidsoMiefJt. Tlie valuable (johelin tapestries are back on the 
walls, the gleaming floor is polished and the leaded windows are 
ill place. 

Visitors are shown the Romaxesqtte Ciiapkl, with its finely 
carved pews and impressive lighting, and Ihey are sometimes 
permitted to see some of the dark easements and dungeons far 
below the level of the groutid, where prisoners were kept. 

In the north wing is the Commercial and Maritime Museum. 

Although Kronberg is often called Hamlet's Castle, there is 
no actual proof that there was ever a Danish prince of that name, 
or that Shakespeare ever saw this spot. Scholars do not accept 
as literal fact a Danish novel about an Englishman named Will, 
who came to Denmark and stayed a while in the Carmelite Mojias- 
tery at Helsingor and afterward wrote a play about it. 


They regard this as they do the legend that Olger Danske, or 
Holger the Dane, is still sleeping in one of the deep vaults in 
Kronberg Castle and will awake and come to his country's assist- 
ance if there is a dire emergency. 

But the Hamlet legend is so firmly established that it extends 
even beyond Helsingor to Marienltst, nearby. 

On the grounds of the popular hotel in this resort is a bronze 
statue of Hamlet, and on its terrace is a circle of trees aromid a 
fragment of a column called Hamlet's Grave. North of the gar- 
den, near a path at the foot of the high coast parallel with the 
shore, is a streain which is called Ophelia's Brook, 

There is a Kotal Palace in Marienlyst, built in 1760 and added 
to in 1857, situated on sloping ground and surrounded by a park 
laid out in the English style. And in a wood close to it is a natural 
spring known as Ophelia's Well. 

In any case, history, legend and architecture make Kronberg 
Castle and Helsingor worth a visit. 

Another story will appear in future accounts of this place. 
During this last war, on Christmas Eve, the people of Halsingborg 
on the Swedish coast gathered and built a bonfire and sang Christ- 
mas carols to tiie Danes gathered opposite across the narrow strip 


of water. The Mayor of Hnlsiiijjborg. through a loud speaker, 
sent messages of friendship and hope. 

The Danes sung with the Swedes and lighted jinHwering fires. 
Even after the Germans made them extinguisih these, the Danes 
stood in the dark and continued to sing through the Christmas 

W])ile Kronberg is the mast famous castle in Denmark, there 
is aiiotlier not far from Helsingtir and only an honr by bus or 
motor from Copenhugfii which .some people think surpasses it. 

This is the Castle of Fredekikboro, .situated on three small 
i.^liinds in a lake, surrountled by towers and turrets, sumptuous in 
color und ornate in design. 

The interior iw parked with the portraits and riches of many 
kings, the Knights' Hall is completely lined with a hundred 
Gobelin tapestries and resplendent with a gorgeous and intricate 

It was started in 1602 and finished about twenty years later. 
After this it was sacked by the Swedes in 1659 and several times 
partially destroyed by fire. But its restoration in 1875 is so splen- 
did fhat it .sheds a glory over this whole section of Xorth Zealand. 

If you have a day, or even half a day, and do not wajit to .see 


ca.stles but be out of doors, you can go to fhe great Deer Park 
(Dyrehaven) a few miles north of Copenhagen. Ft»ur or five 
nules of what were once the Kttyal Hunting Grounds have been 
made into a public |)ark, where people .stroll, picnic, and pet the 
deer. lu the winter they toboggan, and in tlie autunni they have 
paper chases. A hundred thousand people often enjoy this park 
on a fine summer Sunday afternoon, and tliey are so well behaved 
that there are no signs warning or threatening them, or a single 

Besides its woods and streams and walks, there are various 
annisement centers, and cafes and restaurants and refreshment 

If you want to go to the HErsMiTAGE. which was once the Eoyal 
Hunting Lodge on the edge of the Park, yon will either have to 
hire a hoi'se and carriage or walk, for' no motor car.s are permitted. 

In the Deer Park is an outdocn' theatre where both classic and 
pnpidar plays are given, with some of the actors from the 
Royal Tlieatre in Copenhagen. 

The beech forests, which long ago crowded out the origimil for- 
ests of oak, are especially fine in tlie Deer Park, their clean, smooth, 
straight trunks forming long aisles. 


Afljoiiiiiifi Hii' Dwr Pork is tln> scjisiile I'csort of Klampenborg, 
\vi(h r^niiti't hotels, thenlRrs iini] u I'idiisg school. 

ThfiiisandR of bicyclisls fome out from Copptihiigen by the 
Strandvej to thp public beaches, and put up little bathing teuts. 

The Dauisli peo])le are ko woU beliaved that no iiiatter how big 
the. ui'owdp, there is no rouphnof^s or desti'iu-tion of property, and 
rich and poor, fashionable and unfashioiuible, mingle together 
without distinction. 



Odense is the capital city on the Island of Funen — one of the 
largest of those many hundreds of islands which make up the 
Kingdom of Denmark. 

This island is comieeted with the mainland of Jutland by the 
Little Belt BumoE (Lillebaelt.sbko), which engineers from other 
countries have studied with because of its success in meet- 
ing the problem of ati exceptionally strong current and exception- 
ally deep water. 

If you are coming from Eshjerg. this bridge will save four hours' 
time oil the trip between London and Coi^etihageu. 

Ever since the State College of Engineering was founded in 
Denmark in 1829, it has turned out engineers of such ability that 
they huve been in demand throughout Europe. They have 
built railways in Persia and Turkey, and railways and street 
bi'idges in Lithuania, and cement works in .Siam, Egypt, England, 
Canada, India, China and Japan. They have constructed im- 
portant harbor works in Funchal, Madeira, Spain, and Poland. 


Tlie foimder of t!ie Stale College of Engineering was H. C. 
Oersted, tfie d iscovei-er of electro-magnetism. The institutiou 
started with 22 pupils and before the last war it hud over 1,000 
and was gnidiiatitig 120 yearly. 

AUhoogh aliont ten per cent of tliese were employed in foreign 
hinds, Denmark had need (»f fhe, for besides its bridge build- 
ing, it stood fourth among the ship building countries of the world, 
preceded only by Great Britain, (iennany and Japan. 

Since so many of these .shi])S are hnilt in Odense, it wouhl be 
worth wliile (o visit that city for the shipyards alone. But, as a 
tnatter of fact, it is a most pleasing and substantial city of 75,000 
inhabitants, and the Island of Funen, undulating and fertile, 
witli (he fourth largest harbor in the Kingdom, is especially 

The sliipyards of Odense, like those throughout the Kingdom, 
used to turn out vessels in about half the time required in other 

The Dunisli-built ships were used by Danish companies for 
carrying freight and passengers from one Danish port to another, 
and so great was tliis traffic by water between the islands that 2,000,- 
000 tons of goods were ti'ansported amuially. 


The United SlPtinisliip Company aloiip conid, in its colonial 
Kp,rvi(;e, book 3,000 passenjjers in a day, and if it should have 
fitoppfd for 24 honrs. Denmark would liave !ok1 3,()0().0()0 kroner. 

BcKides this inter-Danish port traffif ihe greater part of the 
froods shipped from Denmark to foreign eonntries was carried 
in Danish-bnilt bottoms, and the Danish flag was familiar in the 
harbors of Asia, Africa, Anstralia, and in North and South 

Finally the Danish Mercantile Marine, %vith its tramps and 
(aidv'ors and legnlar liners, held an extremely important place in 
(he in(ernati<»iial can-yinjj trade that does not touch at Denmark. 
There are old-iashioned freighters,. comfortai)Ie passenger steam- 
ers and new Diesel-motored ships, with strong room.s, refrigerated 
holds and tanks especially constructed for transporting delicate 

In fact, so immense was the traffic in the international carrying 
trafle that two-thirds of the itioney earned liy the Danish Mer- 
cantile Maiine came from the trade between foreign ports, and 
one-third from that between fcn-eign and Danish ports. 

A visit to tlie Odense Steel Shipbuilding Co. is an ilhistration 
of a country which knows how to build ships, how to man them, and 


how to run them economically, efficiently, on schedule and without 
Govennnent subsidy. Furthermore, officers and crews received 
higher wages than in any other country except the United States. 

Odense is so prosperous and the men employed in the Kliii>yards 
maintain such a conifoi-tablc standard of living in houses" they 
have piirchaised from the Company, and which would be suitable 
in a first class American suburb, that the local income tax is only 
5 or 6 percent in contrast to tlie 20 percent in some other Danish 

_ Despite this progressive modernity, Odense is an extremely old 
city as its name, which means Odin's City, testifies. 

In the Chdkch of St. Canute is the tomb of the national saint 
of Denmark. He was a grand-nephew of Canute the Great, and 
at one time colled ed a large fleet and an army to dispute with 
William of N"orniamIy the Conquest of England. He was killed 
in 1086 by an insurrection Iwfore he accomplished this, was canon- 
ized as the first Danish Martyr and buried the next year in the 
church which he had IwguTi to build and which was finished after 
his death and named for him. 

The present brick church, Gothic architecture, was not built 
until two centuries later and the tower is from the 10th century. 


OtJB Lady's Ciiur<h (Von Frueskikke) has a carved triptych 
altnr piece, dal iiiji from i Jn' 15th eciitury, wi(]i more than 30<) carved 
fi;xiires and, wlieii opened, cuverinrt more than 300 square feet. 

In the 1'alace, which has served as a royal residence, is a good 
collection of northern antiquities, particularly rich in specimens 
from the Stone Ajre. 

In an open space near the Cathedral is a bronze Statdk of Kino 
Fkederik VII, I'epresent infj him {living the Charter of 1848, which 
is still the Constitution of Denmark. 

Naval architects and engineers come lo Odense to study the 
shipyards. But the greatest lunnlier of tonrists — there used to be 
40.tM)0 every year — come for (juite a different reason. 

They come to see tlie Birthplace of Hans Christian ANDiiRSEN, 
whose fairy stories have been translated iaito 3.t languages, and 
whose sales arc said to be superseded by only one other book in 
the woi-ld — the Bible. 

The house in which he was born on April 2, 1805, is in the section 
calle*! Vesterbro, and is marked by a plaque beside tJie carved 
front door. Originally it lioused six families and would have 
been too siiiall^according to present stan<lards — tVtr one family. 
To it have been adjoined several other buildings to accommodate a 


nuiseum, a library, an enclosed garden and a replica of the writer's 
last chambers. 

Here is collected an immense assortment of personal possessions, 
testimonials, copies of Ids books in many languages, including 
Arabic and Chinese, and statues and pictures of this famous Dane. 

His travelling luggage, his top hat, newspaper clippings, pressed 
flowers, letter.s — hundreds of small treasures which were dear to 
him — are arranged in the rooms, and so beloved is his name that 
there is always a crowd of people examining them. Rajahs from 
India, boys and girls from America, old ladies from England have 
been tliere. Once a grouj) of cattle farmers from Lithuania, com- 
ing to the fair at Odense. refused to go to the fair grounds until 
they had seen Hans Christian Andersen's house. 

There are several pretty walks along the river in this neighbor- 
hood. One called "Fruens Boge" is through a beech plantation. 
At Naesbtiioved, on the roatl to Bogense, there is a tumulus dedi- 
cated to Odin, the ruins of a castle and a pleasing view. 

On the fair grounds outside the city of Odense have been held 
for many years exhibitions of the magiiificetit cattle from which 
Denmark's prosperity has been largely derived. 

Near the fair grounds there is an observation tower which is, 


after the Eiffel, the Jii^liest in Europe. There arc elevators to the 
restaurant near the top, and a look-out from which one sees the 
elianning, tree-shaded roads rolling away in every direction. Be- 
fore the war there used to he many motor oars on the roads, for Den- 
mark held first place among the eountries of the Continent in the 
ninnber of. motor cars per capita. Besitles natlYe cars, many 
tonrists from other countries brought their own. 

However, a bicycle will do almost as well as a ear since there 
are practically no hills (the highest hill in Denmark. Himmel- 
bjerget, in Jutland, is t«ily 500 feet). And (he tri[} fiom Odense 
to Nyborg is one of the prettiest, along winding country roads, 
and passing white cottages with their flower gardens. 

Ntbobg is a popular seaside resort with beech woods nearby, 
and with a grey fortress, claimed to be the oldest in Hcatidinavia. 
The massive buildings were used as a fortress until 1869. Now 
the ramparts arc a promenade and the Knights' Hall where, 700 
years ago, warriors used to feast, is a nmseum. 

K™teminde is another interesting nearby place to visit. Fish 
nets are drying along the beach; there are castles and manor 
houses set liack behind their lawns and pastures, and to the 
north ai'e ancient burial mounds. 


There are many such mounds in Denmark, and people have been 
educated to bring to their local museum any ancient fragments 
which they find either in or near such mounds. 

The museum at Faaborg, another charming seaside place not 
far from Odense, illustrates thi.s. A fisherman happened to see 
the trunk of an oak, hollowed out and roughly shaped. He sal- 
vaged it and carried it to the Museum, where it was recognized 
as a Viking coffin which had been drifting about for hundreds 
of years. 

If you are in Faaboug, with its city gate and bell tower, you 
can drop in at the 15th century churcli and see the finely carved 
stalls and altar. Tliree miles from Faaborg is the manor house of 
HvEDHOLM, built in 1,590, and in the nearby village of HouNk an 
unusual church, which was originally circular, but has been en- 
larged by the addition of a chancel and a Gothic tower. 

Here, too, in the Muskum is a fine collection of modern Danish 

All along the coast of the Island of Funen are many delightful 
villages and resorts, fashionable or simple. There are a great 
number of castles and manor houses, with fine grounds around 
them and valuable portraits and furnishings inside. The farm- 


liouws iiiid cottiiges urc equally attractive in their own way, with 
whitewiiahed wtillH and red-tiled roi)fs and flower gardens and 

The soil on the Island of Fiinen is remarkahly I'ich, and for a 
thousand years it has been so wisely ciiltivated that it atmually 
brings forth larger crops, substantiating the statement that the 
Danish small fanner is the most eiEuieiit in the world. 



Skacen is located at the northernmost tip of Jutland. If you 
look at your map yon will sec liow Jutland narrows tuwai'd ihe 
end, makes a last curve eastward toward Sweden aud disappears 
between the waters of t!ie Skagerbak and the Kattegat. Skagen 
is at the very eud of this peninsula. 

Although it is the largest Kshiiig town in Denmark it has only 
some 3500 permanent residents most of whom are, in one way or 
anotlier, associated with its fishing industry. Before the war it 
was the fashionable of Danish sea-side resorts. The reason 
f()r this is easy to explain. No (tther place in Denmark has the 
scenery (hat Skagen — wild and fantastically shaped 
dunes row upon row across this narrow tongue (tf land where you 
can see the sea at both sides and beyond point the waters 
of the two seas meet each other in a high wall of spray and foam. 
This is a truly magnificeJit sight, one which 3'ou are not likely to 
forget. The King had his sunnner house, Klitgaauden, at Skagen 
and thereby raised the place in rank above all other seaside resorts. 

The people of Skagen are a hardy race and through the years 



have been called upon many times to risk their own lives against 
the sea in order to siive those of others. They liave never been 
known to fail to respond to calls for help and many a stirring tale 
of rescue 1ms been told about thene heroes, some of whom gave their 
lives in tlie attempt to save others. Yon can be sure that people 
such as these did not take kindly to their German '"protectors" and 
did all they could to make life miserable and unpleasant for them. 
You will be hailed as liberators and, as such, will be welcome wher- 
ever you go. Don't abuse the privile<ie. Boasting and bad man- 
ners will not go over very big with peoi>k% for whom the risking 
of one's life is merely part of a daily routine. 

Out in the dunes to the north of the town is the grave o:f'one 
of Denmark's most popular and famous poets, Holger Drachmann. 
He was a great friend of the Skagen fishermen and together with 
other artists he created the fame that now belongs to Skagen. 

Many of the homes of the famous men wlio once lived there have 
been preserved and converted into museums. This has happened 
in the case of Holger Drachmann whose home the "Villa Pax" is 
on the road to Frederik.>jhavu. The same applies to the house of 
the famous painter, P. S. Kroyer, the studio of which contains a 
number of his best works. 


Also Wfu-tli visiting is the Ska(!en Museum which is psirticiihirly 
interest iii<r because it I'ontiuiis a number of esrellent \Y<jrks by the 
Ijuinters wlio made Skagen fannnis — eqaecially Kroyer, Michael 
and Anna Ancliei'. 

The strangest biiikling in Skagen is the church with its odd 
architoctnral design. It is u miiiialnre copy of Vor Fnie Kirke 
in Cojienhageii. On Sniulay it is filled to ovcrHowing with the 
fishermen and tlieir families. 

The older cluii'ch was built on high ground just to the south of 
the town and in the 18th ceutuiy was buried in a fierce sandstorm. 
Oidy the rcd-roufed tower remains above ground. Hans (Chris- 
tian Andereeii, the world famous Danish writer of tales for chil- 
di'en, spoke of it as tlie '"Poniiieii of the North". 

In the eimi'cliyard of the new church are buried the remains of 
many an heroic fisherman who died in an attempt to save passen- 
gers of ships blown upon the dangei-ous Skagen coast. Alio buried 
here are the bodies of some of the British Marines and German 
sailors who died in the famous Battle of Jutland in World 
War I— the engagement that broke the back of the German Navy 
and removed it as a potential thrcatto the Allied cause in that 



About 25 miles, south of Skagen on the east coast of Jutland 
is the town of FREDEriKSHAvx. It has a population of about 8,000, 
most of which works in its factories and shipyards. 

Fi-ederikshavn has a fine harbor which before the war was used 
exteusiv'ely by ships on their way around the point of Juthuid to 
Copenhagen. Many a stiip that was beaten back by the frequent 
stormy seas off Skagen found shelter in its friendly harbor. 


gputhsm Mf-thodist Unfverittjf