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THE CITIES OF
POCKET GUIDE TO
THE CITIES OF
WAR DEPARTMENT • WASHINGTON, D. C.
For use of Military Perso/mel only. Not to be republished, in
whole or in part, without the consent of the War Department.
ARMY INFORMATION BRANCH
INFORMATION AND EDUCATION DIVISION, A. S. F.
UNITED STATES ARMY
About the only thing in this booklet that con be guaranteed is
the terrain. The rest of it is up to the fortunes or misfortunes of
war Many of the towns and cities described here have been
bombed and shelled by us as we approached, and shelled by the
enemy as he retreated. And many of them will still show the
marks of the destruction visited upon them when these lands were
being conquered and occupied by the Germans.
The short historical notes and city plans concerning most ot the
towns are correct as of the outbreak of the war. But the changes
of war were still happening in many places when this pocket guide
went to press. ' .
You may find that art treasures described and located in these
pages have been looted or destroyed, and it may be years before
those that can be restored are sights to see again. On the other
hand, some of them, by a stroke of good fortune, may be left in-
tact, and you will be able to enjoy them.
And another thing: if some of these towns should be declared
off limits, you'll bypass them, of course. ■ Perhaps, later, they may
be open to you.
Food and drink are discussed here, so that as times gradually
return to normal, you may be guided in the tastes and customs of
the country. But be sure that you are not encouraging a black
market or bringing hardship to the native civilian population
if you take advantage of what the town or region has to offer.
You will receive direction from the proper authority in this
Anyhow, so far as your military duties permit, see as much as
you can. You've got a great chance to do now, major expenses
paid, what would cost you a lot of your own money after the war.
Take advantage of it.
Although Alesund has a long history, it did not formally
become a town until 1848. Today it has a population of 18,500.
Like many other towns fin the west coast of Norway, it is prin-
cipally a shipping and fishing center. Alesund was completely
destroyed by fire in 1904, with the exception of the hospital; but
the town was quickly rebuilt in brick, stone, and ferro-concrete.
Alesund lies on two islands : Norvoy, which is the larger to the
east, and Asfoy, on which the church is located. These islands
are connected with each other and with the mainland by bridges.
The Town Park on the east of the town contains a statue to
Ganger Rolf or "Rollo the Walker," a famous Norwegian of the
tenth century, whose castle was situated a little south of the town.
He whs called "the Walker" because he was too big to ride a horse.
Rollo was driven out of Norway by King Harald Fairhair and fled
to France where he became the conqueror and Duke of Normandy.
Normandy, by the way, got its name at this time from the Nor-
wegian colonizers, since a Norwegian calls himself a "Nordmann"
or ''Northman." Eventually the Norwegians in France became
assimilated with the French.
There is a steep path that leads up from the park, past the res-
taurant, to the top of Alesunds-axla, 650 feet high. Here you
can look down on the town and get a fine view of the surrounding
country. The large round mountain you see beyond the town
to the west is Sukkertopfen (which means "Sugar Top"), 1,060
Bergen, with a population of about 100,000 people, is the second
city of Norway and the principal metropolis and harbor on the
West Coast. It was founded 900 years ago and was considered
the capita] of the country from 1168 until the first half of the
fourteenth century, when the seat of government was moved to
It is situated most beautifully amid waterways and mountains,
with seven hills making a picturesque background for its new
and its old buildings, of which it has quite a number.
If you enter it from the water, your boat will move slowly
through the winding fjord up to the w^ell-equipped harbor, ice
free at all times, from which, in normal years, constant communi-
cation is maintained between England — it is only 20 hours from
Bergen to Newcastle — Iceland, and the Continent.
If you enter it by train from Oslo, you will pass over a railway
which is one of the greatest achievements of engineering in Eu-
rope. It climbs ascents of over 4,000 feet, passes through 178 tun-
nels, and winds around a bewildering series of grades and curves,
and crosses many bridges. Even in midsummer there are places
where there is sufficient snow for the passengers, who stop off at
the station for luncheon, to get out and toss snowballs.
This railroad was not completed until 1909, and until then the
only communication between Oslo and Bergen was by boat. The
train trip now takes only 11 hours.
Since communication between the west coast and the east coast
was so difficult, it was natural that Bergen should have developed
its own customs, traditions, and manner of speech. It is still proud
of these characteristics, and it also likes to emphasize the fact
that for many centuries it was in closer touch than Oslo with
England and the Continent and, therefore, absorbed more culture
from -foreign lands.
Although Bergen, like all wooden cities, was burned many
times — the last big fire in 1916 destroyed nearly the whole central
portion — it has managed to preserve enough old buildings to give
it a quainter air than Oslo.
The city is growing steadily and more houses and factories are
being built every year along the water's edge and in the surround-
ing suburbs. There are modern, municipally owned apartment
houses, attractive and with low rents, and there are up-to-date
hospitals, schools, factories, etc. But you will probably find your-
self, a few minutes after your arrival, in the center of the old city,
and you will want to look around and see what it is like. This
section is small enough to walk through and it is full of interest.
The Sixteenth century Towh Hall is a good place to start from.
This simple, tall-gabled building, in the middle of an open square,
has been rebuilt several times, the last time during the reign of
Christian VII, whose gilded monogram adonis one of the gables.
It is still the headquarters of the burgomaster, and he still stamps
official papers with a seal from 1591 bearing the same castle as
tiie city seal of 1200.
Parts of St. Mart's Church and the Cathedral, which was once
a Franciscan monastery, survive from the Middle Ages. The old
city entrance gate, which is like a small house pierced through by
an arched opening, straddles the trolley tracks.
The road which leads to the city from the harbor runs along-
side the old German Quay called Tyskebrtggen. During two
centuries this was the headquarters for the Hanseatic League in
The crowded block of wooden buildings has been burned down
four times, but it has always been rebuilt in the same way and
with the same or similar emblems over the doors. Since it lias
been continuously used by tradesmen, fishermen, etc., it is possible
by stepping inside one of the alleys and walking around in the
courtyards and looking into rooms and offices to see the actual man-
ner in which people have lived, worked, and traded ever since
The alleys are of medieval narrowness, cluttered with kegs
and barrels, and darkened by crazy roofs, eaves at all angles, and
overhanging wooden galleries. Doors open into windowless cubby-
holes where men are cleaning fish and baling papers, and stairs
lead up to other cubbyholes. Some of the walls are supported by
solid wooden ribs, like a ship, and graved into a stone in one of
them is the date "1719."
This jumbled and grimy huddle is not typical of modern Bergen
which, like everything else in Norway, is extremely clean, but it
is preserved as a historical curiosity.
In order to show how the German merchants once lived, one of
the 52 houses which faced Tyskebryggen has been cleaned up, its
original furniture and equipment reassembled, and it is now the
The main room, with its beamed ceiling and panelled walls and
carved furniture, is dark and cold even in midsummer, but not
without dignity. The merchant had his office, his dining room,
and his sleeping alcove downstairs, and upstairs a private suite!
The apprentices, who were also Germans, slept two in a bunk hi
rooms the size of a closet. Behind these chambers were others for
the second merchant and his apprentices. Apprentices were not
allowed to marry for this reason: the Norwegians had to sell fish
and buy grain, and Germany organized the trade and protected her
monopoly from getting into Norwegian hands. Norwegian wives
would have endangered German authority.
Gradually, however, Ihe Norwegians ousted the Germans and,
in 1754, took over all the German offices.
The hospital of St. Georoe (St. Jorgen) is another old build-
ing which has been rebuilt according to its original plan and
dimensions. The buildings are grouped around a square court-
yard with the church on the north side, like a monastery of the
Middle Ages, which at one time it actually was.
Two churches which escaped the fires were Maria Church and
Nfav Church. The Catheoral and Cross Church both had to be
repaired and were given new copper-covered steeples.
: — y. tne most ; j m p 0rtant restoration is that of the Rosen-
chants Tower. You will be struck by this massive building as
soon as you come into the city, for it faces the German Quay and
dominates the scene. The gate tower and the two large stone
halls were erected by King Haakon in the thirteenth century. One
of these halls forms the center of the Rosencrantz Tower and the
other is in the three-storied, gabled and bat tl emeu ted building.
It is called King Haakon's Hall, and in it the King's son, Magnus,
celebrated his wedding to the Danish Princess Ingehorg in 1261,
and was at the same time crowned King to reign jointly with his
father. The hall fell into disrepair and for centuries was used
as a granary.
When it was decided to restore the building, the old walls were
kept and so were the situation and form of the windows. The
dimensions of the hall were also kept. As it measures a hundred
feet by forty, with an oak vaulted ceiling, stained glass windows,
brocades, wrought iron and gilding, a polished wooden floor and
two throne chairs on a blue-carpeted dais, it is truly superb.
One of the most famous of the Norwegian painters has decorated
the walls in 12 frescoes which show the story of Princess Christina,
who was the daughter of King Haakon, and her wedding journey
to Valladolid, in Spain.
This sumptuous hall is used for certain royal and festive occa-
sions. It can be lighted only by candles and tapers, which adds
to its medieval effect.
These ancient buildings are interesting us part of Bergen's his-
tory, but there are many excellent new buildings, such as the
Telegraph Building, the Law Courts, the Commerce and Ship-
ping Building, and the Stock Exchange.
This last has a series of 10 large frescoed panels, illustrating
the history of Bergen's shipping and trade. They were completed
in 1923 and are full of vigor and color and extremely modern in
Recently other public buildings have been adorned with wall
paintings, showing the increasing interest of the city in art and
Bergen has a great number of museums. The oldest, which is
called Bergen's Museum, was founded in 1825, and its various de-
partments have grown so large that it is practically a scientific
establishment. But for the visitor the rooms showing certain
collections will be the most interesting.
In one of its large new buildings is the collection of historic
antiquities, divided into sections representing the Stone Age, the
Bronze Age and the Iron Age, and illustrative of the West Coast
of Norway when it was only sparsely populated by nomadic
tribes who lived by hunting and fishing.
Then there is the collection covering the Middle Ages, with
paintings and stone sculptures, altar pieces, pulpits, etc.— the most
valuable collection of the sort in Norway.
The section devoted to Folk Arts is especially attractive to
strangers. Here are series of rooms furnished with the sturdy,
hand-made, carved and painted chests and tables and chairs and
beds and other utensils characteristic of the peasant home in
different districts. .
There is also a collection of the colorful national costumes,
which are not seen much nowadays eKept in the rural districts.
Wedding dresses and silver wedding crowns are included, for the
pretty custom of the bride wearing a silver crown is still ob-
served The crown may have been in the bride's family for yeais,
or may belong to the local church and is lent to the bride who is
married in it. Incidentally, the wedding ring is worn on the
right hand. . .
There are many other collections in this museum, including
the Behobn Shippihg Mukum, which is steadily growing in ex-
hibits since Bergen has always been Norway's largest shipping
The two best art collections are in the Behoen Picture Gallery
and in the Rasmus Meyer Collection. There are also the Bum,,,
J! ishbry Museum and the Beruen- Theatre Museum
Tins last reminds us that Henrik Ibsen, the great dramatist, is
associated with Bergen, for he first tried hi, hand lure a, a „,„„,:
manager. Ihe plan, white wooden building-the Old Theitre-
where he met with failure in this venture, is preserved, 1,„| there
is a large and handsome modern National Theatre overlooking
Govmmleu? ies ,1 '"" 1 1)oUl thc Municipality and thi
No one wants to spend all his time indoors and in museums and
Bergen is an attractive city to stroll about.
The German Quat is always animated, with small boats from
the rural districts coming i„ to unload hay and wood and cheese
and milk and butter, and to load gasoline and merchandise to (alee
b ck with then, Their decks are clean and their brass is shining,
and there are always plenty of people coming down to greet their
arrival or wave good-bye to them as they depart
In the open space around the quay are stalls ind booths and
tables displaying flowers and vegetables and small merchandise.
But the most crowded place is a little farther on. This is the
outdoor fish market and it is jammed with old women, with hand-
kerchiefs over their heads, selling and cleaning fish, and with
ladies or servant girls, with baskets over their arms, coming to do
the day's marketing.
There are small shops and large department stores in this sec-
tion where you can buy whatever you want, including souvenirs
of ivory from the far north and hand -embroidered mittens and
hand-knitted scarfs and sweaters. Bergen is a good place to buy
furs, particularly if you are not going farther north. But that's
for the man with plenty of cash. Most of us will need our money
for a lot more important things when we return home.
There are sealskins, of course, from the polar regions, and bear-
skins, etc. But Norway is particularly proud of its fox furs, for
it was one of the first countries to start systematic fur production
and has long been the leading fox farming country in Europe. Sil-
ver foxes, blue and red and white and cross-breed: nutria, fitch,
martens, and mink are being raised.
Fifteen years ago there were only about 3,000 foxes divided
among less than 300 owners. Today there are half a million on
20,000 farms, where they are raised and tended like the other
live stock. They are not permitted to go out of their wire en-
closures and shelters, for they are extremely shy and alarmed by
the sight of strangers. They must be well fed if their fur is to
bring a good price, and tons of whale meal supplement the fish
and goat meat and the occasional tidbit of chicken. It costs money
to feed a fox for the 5 years which are necessary if the breeder's
ambition for a pelt like the one from West Norway which sold
for 11,000 kroner (about $2,750) is to be realized.
There are numerous nicely kept parks dotted throughout the
city, with benches and fountains and bandstands and statues of
One of these statues is of Ole Bull, the violinist who was so
popular in America in the time of our grandparents.
America loved him and he loved America, and he crossed the
ocean many times for concert tours from coast to coast. He chose
an American woman for his second wife, and even bought 125 000
acres of land m Pennsylvania and tried to found a colony there
He was born in Bergen and after a triumphal career all over the
world returned here to die.
Another famous musician commemorated by a statue was Ed-
vard Grieg. Troldhaugen, with its small studio where he com-
posed his music, is only a few miles out of the city and is preserved
as it was during his lifetime. It is often visited by Americans,
and so is the cliff near it, in which a niche was hollowed out to hold
The most popular nearby excursion in Bergen is to Floien, a
thousand feet above the city. To reach it you take a funicular
which apparently crawls straight up the side of the mountain.
Once up there, you will find a pleasant outdoor cafe and a glorious
view of the city and the fjord far below.
Bergen is an excellent starting point for long or short excur-
sions, north or south or east by land or water, and even one such
excursion will give you an idea of the scenery which has made
Norway one of the most famous tourist countries in the world.
The small boats which crowd into the Tyskkkrycgen are all
bound to some enchanting and secluded town, village or hamlet,
on the coast or up one of the deep fjords which reflect the walls
of mountains and their waterfalls. You can easily find one which
will suit the amount of time you have, whether it is a few hours
or a few days. Every one in Norway has his favorite fjord and
will tell you that it is the one you must see. But if you go to
Hardancer you will certainly not be disappointed. By boat or
car or railway— or by a combination of all- — you can pass from one
stupendous scene to another, and each method has its advantages.
The mountain roads whicb climb and descend in corkscrew and
hairpin turns, one side faced by an overhanging cliff and the other
dropping sheer to the water, may seem dangerous. But they are
solidly built and the drivers know how to manage the ears which
must often back before they can make a sharp turn, and in doing
so, apparently hang over the edge of a precipice.
If you take a coastwise boat, you will see some of the wildest,
most glorious scenery on the globe. The shore line of Norway
is so irregular that, although the country measures only 1,000
miles in a straight line from north to south, a line drawn in and
out of the fjords and inlets and around the innumerable islands,
would be half the circumference of the globed Over the steep
cliffs dash hundreds of waterfalls, and the Norwegians are so
skilled in using the power which they can generate from these
and from the many rushing streams and rivers, that there is
plenty of electricity even in remote places.
On the tops of the cliffs walling a fjord, you will see tiny
houses— sometimes only one. Here lives a farmer, and by terrac-
ing he is able to raise enough hay for his cows and enough potatoes
for his family on what looks like a perpendicular wall, but is
actually fertile pasture. He may have to get his hay down by a
cable, and his wife may have to tie ropes around the waists of the
little children so they won't fall off into the water so far below.
But this is where their fathers lived and where they prefer to live.
The top of a cliff overlooking a fjord is a good place to raise
goats, and herds of them can be seen stepping sure-footedly down
the steep paths. From 125 goats the owner can sell 800 kroners'
worth of cheese a month from April to October, and after that
there is a market for goat meat.
On the small islands, too, you may see a few houses, or even
a single house. The only way the people who live here can get
to the mainland to buy or sell, or to take the children to school,
is by rowboat. But they wouldn't change their home for one in
a fertile valley, or in a settlement along the coast. For the in-
dependent-spirited Norwegians know how to get a living out of
the sea and the soil, and they know how to make laws and obey
them so that education, justice, and security from old age, poverty,
sickness or unemployment, are obtainable by everyone.
If you are to be in Bergen any length of time you will never
regret going out into the country by bicycle, bus or boat or on
foot. In any village, you will find a clean bed to sleep in and
decent food to eat. And you will see the Norwegians at their
rugged, hardworking and hospitable best, with their prosperous
farms and well-tended animals and snug, neat homes, which they
love above everything else in the world.
Haugesund was a small fishing village in 1830 with only about
a dozen houses. Today it has a population of 18,400 and is an
important fishing center, especially for herring. Besides the fish
and herring-oil factories there are factories for woolen goods and
margarine and a small shipbuilding industry. The town is
greatly dependent on its port, since it is difficult of access by land
and there is no railroad connection.
Haugesund lies on a peninsula and the town includes several
rocky islands, of which two are connected to the mainland by
bridges. These are Risoy to the south and Hasseloy to the north.
Beyond these islands you see the northern end of the 16-mile-long
island of Karmoy, which protects the harbor from the open sea.
The main local point of interest is the reputed burial mound
of Harald Harfaiger at Hauoe, about 1*4 miles north of the town.
An obelisk of red granite was erected here in 1872 on the one
thousandth anniversary of Harald's naval victory in Hafsf jord,
near Stavanger, whereby he won the sovereignty of Norway.
The monument is 50 feet high and is surrounded by 20 stones,
608573" — 44 i "
each 9 feet high, denoting the old Norse tribes he united under his
rule. The story goes that Harald was in love with the daughter of
a Norwegian chieftain and that she refused to marry him until he
became king of all Norway. Harald solemnly vowed that he
would not cut his hair until this was accomplished. It took 10
years to subdue the country and by this time he had such a mane
of light hair that he acquired the nickname of Harald Harfager,
or Harald Fairhair.
Kristiansand is the most important town on the south coast of
Norway and the capital of the province of West Agder. It has
a population of 18,700. The "S," which stands for "south," is
Usually written after the name of the town so it won't be confused
with Kristiansund, a town farther north, which is written Kristian-
sund N. Kristiansand S. was built at the mouth of the Tohridal
River in 1641 by King Christian IV of Denmark, for whom it was
named. At that time Norway was under Danish rule. The town
was repeatedly devastated by fire, and after the last one in 1892 it
was largely rebuilt in brick and stone.
The most important sights in Kristiansand are the old Fortress
of Kristiansholm in the Eastern Harbor and the Gothic Cathe-
dral, which has an altarpiece representing "Christ at Emmuus"
by the Norwegian painter Eilif Petersen. Interesting walks
can be made on the island of Oddeijuy. which lies south of the town,
and from the railroad station out on Vestreveien to Dueknipen,
a hill 280 feet high overlooking the harbor. A steamer runs out
to the island of Flekkerot, a favorite pleasure resort.
Oslo, which is the capital of Norway and a city of 300,000 people,
is situated by a fjord of extraordinary beauty and complexity.
At first glance it may not strike the stranger as either magnifi-
cent or ancient, but as substantial, adequate and rather modem.
Yet this is the site of a city which was founded in 1047 and has
had a continuous existence since them. The first town was of
wood, and it burned. The other towns which followed it were also
of wood, and they also burned. In the last half of the nineteenth
century, brick and stone superseded wood, and it is now forbidden
for wooden structures to be raised within the city limits.
The present city was incorporated in 1624 by King Christian,
and named after him — Christiania. For 300 years it bore this
name, which is the familiar one in histories, plays and novels.
Now it is Oslo, the well-run, highly civilized, progressive capital
of a highly civilized and progressive country.
If you enter Oslo by the Oslofjord, you will see on Ekeberg Hill
a large and handsome granite building, flat-roofed, with a square
tower at each corner, and with an arcaded facade.
This is the Navigation College, where future officers, having
already had three years at sea, are receiving further training".
The standards and discipline here are among" the highest in the
world. It is not only an impressive building as seen from the
outside, but inside it is decorated with frescoes by Per Krohg, one
of Norway's finest artists.
It is appropriate that this building should be placed in such a
conspicuous place and decorated by the most distinguished artist,
because since the days of the Vikings, the Norwegians have been
expert seamen. Before the First World War they possessed the
fourth largest merchant fleet in the world (surpassed only by
Great Britain, the United States, and Japan). During that war
the fleet suffered a higher percentage of loss than that of any
other nation, neutral or belligerent.
Through her own enterprise, Norway regained her pre-war
maritime position, and before World War No. 2, had acquired not
only the fourth largest but the newest merchant marine in the
Therefore, when you come into Oslo, you are coming into the
capital of a truly maritime country, where every fourth or fifth
man gets at least part of his livelihood from the sea.
After the boat has passed Ekeberg Hill, it comes into Oslo
Harbour, which is one of the largest in Europe and fully equipped
with docks, wharves, cranes, and storehouses, with the new City
Oslo is not large, and the best way to see it is to begin by walk-
ing down Karl Johan's Gate.
On either side of this handsome promenade are the principal
hotels and shops. In the wide space in the center are the Houses
of Parliament (the Stohting) ami the Royal Tiieathe.
The Houses of Parliament represent a form of government
which, although it is a limited and hereditary monarchy, is thor-
oughly liberal and democratic in every sense. All Norwegian
men and women over 23 have the right to vote, and they exercise
this right. The Labour Party and the Social Democrats collabo-
rate alternately with the Farmer and Liberal Parties, and have
worked out a system of social security which takes care of unem-
ployment, sickness; accidents, old age, the blind, the crippled and
otherwise handicapped— every single person from the cradle to
Facing the Storting is the Royal Theatre. Since this is sub-
sidized by the State, the price of a ticket to see the best plays and
hear the best operas is so small that it is within the range of prac-
tically every purse.
Behind the theater on a hill overlooking Karl Johan's Gate is
the simple white Royal Palace, with its grounds open to strollers.
Between the palace and the Storting is the University.
There is only one University in Norway, and it has grown so
large — normally with over 2,000 students — that the library and
certain of the colleges have been forced farther out.
Just as the Navigation College is a symbol of Norway's pre-
eminent record on the sea, and just as the Storting and the Palace
represent her stable and enlightened government, so the Univer-
sity symbolizes her system of education.
That system is so widespread and thorough that there is not
one single child in the entire country that does not get seven years
of rigorous elementary training. When you realize that many of
those children live on islands a mile or more away from the main-
land, or on isolated farms in valleys or on mountain tops, the fact
that illiteracy is less than one percent is remarkable.
There are plenty of book stores along Karl Johan's Gate, for the
Norwegians are tremendous readers, buying not only newspapers
and magazines and books, but also patronizing the 1,300 public
libraries and the 47,000 school libraries scattered throughout the
The National Art Gallery is only a step from the university,
and it is a most enjoyable place. Norwegian painters like best to
paint the scenes of their own country, and the faces of their own
countrymen. A morning spent in the National Gallery is like a
trip from the north to the south, from the east to the west, in
summer and winter, from the past to the present.
It may interest Americans to study a huge painting by Christian
Krohg, representing Leif Erieson. With his yellow blouse and
golden belt and sheath knife, surrounded by his long-haired com-
panions, this is how the young man must have looked when he
set out in the year 1000 or 1002 to find the land which had been
glimpsed 15 years before by Bjarni Herjolfsson— also a Norwegian.
Leif Erieson was the first white man ever to set foot on North
American soil. His brother Thorvald was the first white man to
be buried there, and the child of his friend, Thorfinn Karlsefini,
was the first white child to be born there.
The National Historical Museum, which belongs to the Uni-
versity, is also nearby. There is one building devoted to the
zoological, another to the mineralogical and paleontological, and a
third to the botanical collection. Of special interest are those
collections brought from the Arctic regions by Nansen, Amundsen,
and others. Here, too, is a fascinating display of boats, weapons,
carts, sleighs and sleds, jewelry, and grave goods, dating from the
Viking Age more than a thousand years ago.
If you are interested in the Vikings, there is another Museum
which is well worth visiting. Here, near the water front, in per-
manent drydock, are placed three of the original Viking ships
which were excavated from mounds where they had been pre-
served, for many hundreds of years, by the blue clay. They have
been restored and, with their burial chambers holding the skele-
tons and treasures of a King and a Queen, they show precisely
how the Vikings lived, sailed, fought, voyaged, conquered, and
The seaworthiness of these vessels so excited the imagination of
a young Norwegian named Magnus Anderson that he built a ship
of precisely the same dimensions, decoration, and equipment of the
one called the Oseberg Ship. In this, with a crew of 12, he sailed
from Bergen in June 1893 across the Atlantic to New London. He
named his ship the Viking, and it was taken to Chicago, where it
now stands in Lincoln Park.
The name of Lincoln is well known in Oslo, for in Frogner Park
stands a bust of the Great Emancipator, given bv the people of
North Dakota on July 4th. 1914.
There are several other museums within walking distance.
At Btodot is a collection of buildings—single buildings, farm-
houses, town houses— all furnished and equipped with their orig-
inal chairs, tables, cooking utensils, etc. Some of these are three
hundred years old and have been brought from various sections
of the country. Here, too, is an 800-year-old Stave Church, with
its pagoda I ike wooden shingled roof.
Fridtjof Nansen's famous ship, the Fram, in which he reached
to within 272 miles of the North Pole (1893-96), has a house of its
own m Bygdoy, with its original equipment and the clothing worn
by the men.
Before setting out with the Fram, Nansen had crossed Green-
land on skis and sledges (1861) and so knew a lot about Polar
eoiuhtions. He took 3 years to prepare for the expedition from the
f ram and made three separate Polar trips in her. During the first
one (1893-90), on a sledge journey toward the North Pole, lasting
15 months, he and his companion, Johansen, reached 86°56'. a
latitude which has not again been reached by any other ship
Another unique museum is the one devoted to whaling.
Norway has long led the world in whaling, and whaling ships
from other nations come here to buy equipment and hire seamen.
In the museum is shown the evolution of this industry.
A modern whaler is very different from the old-fashioned one
when men leaped from the mother ship into little row boats, got
as near the whale as they could, and then threw harpoons into it.
Today the great whaling ships, which steam from the Antarctic
to the Oslofjord in the spring and set out again in the autumn
with provisions, are motor driven. The small boats are also motor
driven, and the whale is killed by a grenade shot from a gun and
the carcass drawn, by machinery, through a huge hatchway in
In the old days, only the blubber was saved, but- today every
particle of bones, flesh and oil is processed right on the ship,
which is as clean and scientifically arranged as a laboratory. _ The
oil can be refined to make soap and margarine. The meat is re-
frigerated and sold as food for domestic animals. Certain explo-
sives require whale oil, and certain delicate machinery sperm oil.
The blubber is boiled down and hardened into a solid fat which has
no taste or odor and is easy to handle.
The crew on a modern whaler may number 300 or more, and
these men have comfortable quarters, moving pictures and a ship's
newspaper— all of which things are set forth graphically in the
AV haling Museum.
If you have only an hour, you can easily go to a museum nearer
the center of town. This is the Akerhus, an ancient fortress.
Until 1719, it was a royal palace, and it is now open to visitors.
By taking a bicycle or bus or trolley, or even by walking, you
can soon get to the hills of Holmenkollen and Ekeberg Here
overlooking the city and the fjord, are pleasant, moderately priced
inns, with tables outside if weather permits.
On Holmenkollen Hill the annual ski exhibitions have been
held every year since 1878. Two or three hundred jumpers take
part in this event, and as many as 70,000 spectators gather to
Norwegians have used skis for many hundreds of years, and it
was they who introduced skiing as a sport into Germany and then
into Switzerland. A Norwegian is also credited with having in-
troduced it into the United States, for in 1856, when John A.
Thompson, on skis, began to carry the mail over the 90 miles be-
tween Placerville and Uratm City, Calif., this was the only means
of communication between the two points. Another Norwegian
at the first ski competition held in Red Wing, Minn. (February
1887) , introduced ski jumping to Americans.
With these things in mind, it may interest you to visit the Ski
Museum near Hoimenkollen. It is devoted entirely to skis and
the various paraphernalia connected with this sport. There are
skis of every pattern and age. The oldest one is represented by
a wooden fragment from Telemabk, with the tag "Circa 2500
B. C". This would make it more than 4,000 years old, so it is no
wonder that, the Norwegians are masters of this sport.
Their record on the ice is equally famous ever since Son] a
Henie won consecutively 10 world and 3 Olympic championships.
At the Olympic Winter sports of 1936 Norway won 7 gold medals
and all the world records.
If you are in Oslo in summer, you will find opportunity for
boating and swimming. Football is almost as popular as skiing.
There are tennis courts and golf links, road walking competi-
tions, road relay races, and map reading cross country races.
There are plenty of streams and river ponds and lakes accessible
to Oslo, so that the man who likes to fish can spend a pleasant
afternoon angling. If he has a furlough of several days, he can
find out at any shop where they sell equipment where the best
fishing— deep sea or fresh water— is to be had at any particular
Fresh water trout often weigh 4 pounds, and sea trout as much
as 30. Salmon is plentiful and tunny of great size are found not
only along the coast but even up the fjords.
It is not difficult for those who like to hunt to obtain shooting
rights, and information as to the place and the season to find large
and small animals, wild fowl, etc.
As you walk around Oslo, you will see modernistic private villas
and apartment houses and flats and garden city houses. They
have many windows, and sometimes whole walls of glass brick.
A reinforced translucent glass is incorporated in the balustrades,
screens and roofs of the balconies — a most acceptable material in a
land of long, dark winters. The inside arrangements are compact,
convenient and pleasing, and the rents astonishingly low. This
is partly because real estate taxes are low and partly because the
rents charged in those apartment houses which are owned by the
municipality— about 50,000,000 kroner has been so invested— are
very little. Private landlords are, therefore, more or less forced
to 'follow a similar rate. There are also cooperatively owned
apartment houses, in admirable taste.
Besides building and owning apartment houses, the munici-
pality in 1920 built the "garden city" of Ulleval Havebt. _ This
is an example of the way Oslo provides housing for those in the
lower wage brackets, so they can live not only decently, but with
privacy, comfort, and convenience.
The small gardens- you see just outside the city are called allot-
ment gardens. For 10 kroner a year, a laborer can have his cabin
and patch for growing vegetables and flowers for three months.
There are also publicly and privately supported vacation homes
for children from poorer families.
In all sections are excellent small restaurants and cafes, scrupu-
lously clean and brightened by flowers and potted plants. Before
the war, food was abundant, savory and inexpensive, inclining
toward a meat, fish, and potato menu, rather than toward fancy or
made up dishes.
The shops, too, used to display most attractive wood carvings
and hand-woven goods, native pottery and glass and china at
prices whieh were reasonable.
A large number of Stavanoer's 45,000 people are fishing folk,
or work in the fish-canning industry. Many earn their living by
working part-time at both occupations, with farming as an addi-
tional enterprise. These different jobs help to make the typical
citizen of Stavanger an all-around person of many skills.
Wander through the streets of the old town on the little penin-
sula known as Holmes: Walk along the street called Pedergadsuj
to the wharves in the Spilderviken section. Or at the opposite
end of the Pedergaden, stroll around the Torvet, the old market
place by the main harbor.
In all these places, you'll see the handsome, rugged people who
are descended from the seafaring Vikings of 1,000 years ago.
Even then, Stavanger sailors were setting forth from the protected
harbor, heading into the main bay, north of Stavanger. This is
the beautiful island-studded Bokxefjoro. Or you can imagine
them sailing up one of the many steep-walled secondary fjords
which gash the Ryfylke mainland overlooking the main bay. In
those days, too, men-of Stavanger travelled as far as Iceland, or out
across the North Sea to Scotland.
The rugged fisherman, as lie warps his vessel into one of the
many slips, or inlets (viken), may have a big catch of brhliurt
(sardines) for one of the canneries. He may have a load of her-
ring, cod, or mackerel.
This chap may look as if he's an old salt through and through,
but remember that he may also own a farm outside of town. He
is probably an expert skier, as well as a mariner. He can probably
skate like a champ, and certainly knows how to swim.
Before leaving the waterfront, you would probably like to
browse about some of the hotels in Stavanger's old section between
the two harbors. While you're there in the flavorsome atmosphere,
you might fortify yourself with mackerel or cod or herring, freshly
prepared by people who have been doing that sort of cooking for a
Now you're fixed for a long walk, or a leisurely boat ride around
the neighboring fjords of Stavanger. Stavangerites are proud of
their clean, orderly, and modern city.
Ask one of them about Stavanger's history. You'll be inter-
ested to hear the sagas of Sigurd, one of Norway's ancient pagan
heroes. You'll not see many spectacular or historical landmarks,
but there are a few.
As you walk down the Kirkegaden and arrive in the neighbor-
hood of the park near the lovely lake called Brendevandet (Broad-
water), you will observe a Cathedral. This is one of Stavanger's
oldest buildings. It's original, foundation dates from the 11th
century. After the cathedral at Trondheim, it is supposed to be
the best, in Norway.
This church was established by the monk Reinald, who came
from Winchester, England. He dedicated the Stavanger cathe-
dral to St. Swithin.
Inside the church you'll notice massive pillars and the severe,
compact designs characteristic of Romanesque art. Notice the
pulpit, famous for its Renaissance woodwork. For Gothic char-
acteristics, observe the choir, which was added after the old struc-
ture was destroyed by one of the many fires which used to sweep
this, as they did other towns of Norway.
Close by the cathedral are the bishop's palace and his private
chapel, taken over by the royal government of Norway after the
Reformation (16th century). Today the bishop's residence is
called the Kongsgaaro, and is used as a grammar school.
The cathedral, as well as St. Peter's church in the section of
town called Nttorvet (New Market) are relics of the days when
the Catholic religion flourished m this part of Southern Norway
Today, of course, Stavanger, like the rest of Scandinavia adheres
to the Protestant manifestations of Christianity.
The ancient kings of Norway frequently stayed in this part of
the. country. King Magnus Lawmender founded a monastery on
the island of Utstein, and a hospital in Stavanger for the poor
and sick, which remained for many centuries, but has now dis-
You'll find the modern hospital by walking around the Brede-
vanet, down a street called Jeiusaneveinan. to the railroad sta-
tion, where the Museum and the Theater are also located.
The Museum is a conspicuous building on a hill. It contains
exhibits devoted to natural history, maritime history, and local
relics of Stavanger. For a look backward into history, the mu-
seum is a good place to spend a few minutes.
The Jernebane Station is not a place where you can board a
train for every other place in Norway. You can go south, that's
all. If you boarded a train there you could get to Egersund and
Flekkefjord to the south across the bleak and marshy Jaeren
district, but it is doubtful that you could make connections for
Oslo. Stavanger in fact is rather isolated. To go anywhere, the
best way is to take a coastal ship, a fjord-steamer, maybe a sail-
boat; or drive down to the Sola airport for a plane ride.
The airport at Sola, 10 miles south of Stavanger, was being
promoted as the best and most conveniently located stopping place
for flights between Scotland and Norway before the war. By
fast bomber the trip takes about one hour from Aberdeen.
For an over-all glimpse of Stavanger, and the fjord with its
islands, walk south on the Peder Klowsgade. In twenty minutes
you'll reach the Vaalandshaug (328 feet), a hill with waterworks
and a reinforced tower. Beyond the Vaalandshaug, a half hour's
walk will bring you to the Ullenhadg (460 feet), a massive rock
rising from a marshy plain. The inscription on the tower here
refers to Harold Harfager's victory in 872 A. D.
While you are up on tjllenhaug looking west toward the North
Sea, you'll see Hafbsfjord, famous in the history of Norway,
where KingHarald (Harald Fairhair) gained a decisive victory in
a naval battle, and united the whole of Norway under his rule.
Another feature of interest in Stavanger is the country house
known as Ledaal, now a museum, in Alexander Kiellanusgaden.
Alexander Kielhmd was a writer of witty novels dealing with
social reform. He is Stavanger's best known man of letters.
As for the canning industry, this is Stavanger's number one'busi-
ness. Don't miss an investigation of one of the canning houses.
Go back to the Torvet, the market place near the harbor/and fol-
low a truckload of sardines to one of the factories. There you will
see sardines packed for shipment all over the world.
It is from 1873, when modern methods of fish-canning were first
introduced in Stavanger, that the town enjoyed a prosperous
growth. Today, there are 100 canneries.
If you are out for scenery, hop a boat ride for the Ltsefjgrd
This steep-walled gorge, 25 miles long, with an average width of
one-half mile is a mysteriously beautiful tour, one of "the best in
Norway. The Boknefjord is the main basin adjoining the North
Sea. but there are many others which it mothers. Of these, the
Lysefjord is your best bet. A nature-lover could spend a week
there, but the least you can count on is a 1-day round-trip
Remember this: Stavanger is the fourth largest town in Nor-
way, and very old. To you it will seem modern; but remember
that the newness conceals an age-old history, filled with the works
of many generations of hard-working people.
TbomsO is in the land of the midnight sun. From the'lWh of
May until the 23d of July you can thrill to the sight of a sun
that never sets. Yet for a town situated 225 miles north of the
Arctic Circle it has a remarkably decent temperature range Its
coldest month is February with a mean temperature of 25" F and
Its warmest month is August with a mean of 51.8° F. The tem-
perature very rarely goes as low as 0" and very rarely as high as 76°
Another feature remarkable to so northern a climate is Tromso's
luxuriant vegetation. Silver birch, mountain ash, and even wild
cherry nourish here and in the windows of many houses you'll
hnd colorful decorations of geraniums, cacti, roses, and myrtle
Before the schoolhouse, masses of snapdragons, violets, and mari-
golds grow And if you arrive during the short summer season
you 11 even be able to sample huge native strawberries.
It is hard to believe, too, that here in 09°38' North latitude you
can hnd active bathing resorts.
Tromso is very beautifully situated. It occupies a portion of
a small island by the same name, which is hidden from the sea
by larger islands. The view of snow-clad mountains all around it
is striking. It is the busiest Norwegian town in the Arctic Circle,
being a fishing, whaling, and sealing center. A treat it is hoped
you may enjoy is to sit some evening in the warm hotel living
room and* listen to the tales spun by the fishing and hunting
crews — stories of white whales in the Barents Sea, of great reindeer
herds on the snowfields far inland and of the haunts of the north-
Troinso is a town of adventurers. Every year it bids farewell
to boats bound for the wild northern fishing and hunting grounds,
boats which later return loaded with whale oil, pelts of polar
bears, walruses, seals, reindeers, blue foxes and white foxes. And
from this town many polar expeditions have had their parting
view of civilization. From here the intrepid Arctic explorer
Eoald Amundsen set out in 1928 on his fatal flight to rescue Gen-
eral Nobile, the Italian flyer, who was forced down in the ice fields
northeast of Spitsbergen. Amundsen was never heard of again.
There is a fine statue dedicated to his memory in Tromso.
Tou won't find many of the interesting things connected with
ancient days in Tromso for it dates back only to 1794. But there
is a very interesting Museum to the south of the town which con-
tains ecclesiastical antiquities and Lapp articles of clothing and
There is a Lapp Encampment across the Tromsosuno in the
Iromsdal that will provide an interesting and pleasant 3- to 4-
hour excursion. It contains a settlement of Lapp families whose
dwellings. "Darfe Goattek" or "Gammer," are round cla v or stone
huts with openings at the top to let out smoke. If you are in the
market for fur boots called Skal-Komaqer or Skail&r, spoons of
reindeer-horn or other Arctic souvenirs they will gladly sell you
some But watch your money— you'll be needing it when you get
back home for things a lot more important than reindeer horns
An interesting sight here are the reindeer herds owned by the
Lapp families. The animals graze on the adjoining hills and are
primarily utilized for milk. The Lapps are quite skillful with a
sort of lasso «-ith winch they rope these reindeer twice a week in
order to milk them. The milk, rich and rather strong, is diluted
with water and comprises the main diet of the Lapp. Maybe you
can get a swig of it if for no other reason than to saV you once
drank reindeer milk.
On the way hack from the Lapp encampment, if you have about
3 hours to spare, climb the Fi/iRFjELo, a 2,600-foot mountain on
the south side of the Tromsdal from which you can get a beautiful
view of the surrounding country.
A more ambitious climb is up the Tromsdalstind, rising 4,065
feet above the Lapp encampment. Count on a 4-hour jaunt for
this climb. The first part of it is tougher than the last which is
just a gentle slope of snow. When you reach the crest, the sight
will repay you for any aching muscles. To the east the mountain
falls sheer to the valley extending from the Ulsfjord to the Bals-
fjord. To the west stretch the vast reaches of the Arctic ocean.
And the view of the Ulsfjord scenery and glacier chain of the
Lyngexfjord is superb.
From Tromso local steamers travel the various fjords in the
vicinity. If you can afford 3 to 4 days for a jaunt like this don't
miss a trip to Lyngenfjord which is in many ways the finest in
Norway. It is unequalled for its glacial and mountain scenery.
Trondheim is the third largest city in Norway, 8 hours north of
Oslo by Diesel train, 30 hours from Bergen by fast mail boat, and
2 hours from Bergen by plane.
It was founded by Olav Tryggvesson in 997, and in its Cathe-
dral, which is the most splendid in Norway, are held the royal
If you enter Trondhehn by boat, the approach is through the
Trondheimfjord, which twists for 82 miles between sides lower
and less spectacular than those of the southern fjords.
The vegetation is not so lush as further south; there are fewer
evergreens and more birdies, but nevertheless the farmers manage
to raise hay for their animals and potatoes for their families.
Lying in the fjord near to the entrance to the city is the Island
of Monkholmkn. Long ago this was used as a place for execu-
tion of criminals. Then a Benedictine monastery was built here,
called the Monastery of Nidarholm, for at that time the name of
the present city was Niclaros. Upon the ruins of this a fortress
was built in 1508, and after that a lighthouse.
It was appropriate that a monastery should be the first thing one
saw on entering the harbor, for this was the ecclesiastical center
of the country and it remained so for centuries. Nidaros had its
cathedral, nine churches, and five monasteries, and behind the
cathedral the Grand Palace of the Archbishops. This is now the
At this time Catholicism was the religion of the country. After
the Reformation the majority of the people became Protestants.
Today the established church of Norway is the Evangelical Lu-
theran and it claims 96.8 of the population. People professing
this faith are required to bring their children up in this church, but
all religions are freely tolerated. Roman Catholics, Methodists,
Quakers, Mormons, Jews, Seventh Day Adventists, Christian
Scientists hold their meetings as and where they please.
During the five centuries when Catholicism was the accepted
religion, many pilgrims travelled to Rome on foot. It was during
this time that Nicholas Breakspeare came from England and spent
•2 years supervising church affairs in Scandinavia ( 1152-54) , and in
organizing the new archbishopric of Trondheim. It is interesting
to recall that Nicholas Breakspeare afterward became the only
English pope in ecclesiastical history — Adrian IV.
It is logical to mention these things as an introduction to Trond-
heim because the fame of the city in history and literature and as
a tourist stop is chiefly due to the Cathedral.
The broad principal avenue of the city, shaded with birches and
chestnuts, and framed by important hotels, shops and residences,
leads directly to the Cathedral. Up this avenue all strangers go
After having heard that this is the finest cathedral in Northern
Europe, people who have seen some of the other great cathedrals
in England and on the Continent may be momentarily disap-
pointed. To be sure, it is a large and handsome Gothic structure,
but on a smaller and more modest scale than other world-famous
It has, however, an interesting history.
Saint Olav died fighting for Christianity in 1030 and his body
was taken to Troiulheim and a wooden church was built over his
grave. Later, King Olav Kyrre ordered a stone church to be
built on the site of the first wooden one. It was begun in Roman
style in the eleventh century and finished in Gothic style in the
fourteenth, and the material was greenish-grey soapstone.
Five fires, a Swedish capture, a storm which blew down the
great tower and successive restorations have changed it consid-
erably, judging from the early pictures which have been pre-
served. I he nave is now heated by electricity and the rest bv
Every visitor to Trondheim goes to see the cathedral, and if
you happen to be in the city on Midsummer Eve, Christmas
Easter, Pentecost, or King Olav's Day on June 29th, you may be
surrounded by as many as 4,000 people gathered together.
_ On such an occasion every pew and chair is filled, the aisles are
jammed and the doorways crowded. While the organ peals, two
deans ra rich vestments, and ten other deans in black gowns and
narrow white wristbands, officiate. Even if you are not there on
any of these great days, you.may see a wedding or a christening
The cathedral was the first stone building in Norway, but
irondheim remains the last large wooden city. Wood was not
only the cheapest and most easily handled building material hut
it was supposed to be warmer than stone and to make possible a
more even temperature in this cold climate. There were so many
fires, however, and they did so much damage, that about TO years
ago a law was passed against any more building in wood within
the city limits, and some of the oldest specimens were moved to
the outdoor museum a few miles away. But there still survive
wooden buildings from the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth
centuries, most, of them with carving arid other ornamentations
around the doors and windows, and most of them painted white.
You will recognize Trondheim's main intersection by four im-
mense white houses, one on each corner.
The largest of these was built by a widow who had the ambi-
tion to own the biggest house in Norway. Her husband did not
share her ambition, but after his death she proceeded to gratify
it. The enormous house she erected has, since 1704, when Mar-
shal Bernadotte came to occupy it, belonged to the King, and
is called the King's Pa:lace. The royal family come here oc-
casionally, and visitors are permitted to go through it.
Although it is vast, it is very simple compared to royal resi-
dences in other places. The wooden floors are painted and pol-
ished, and the stairways and corridors and most of the rooms
are painted white. The few carpets are a bit worn, there is no
modern plumbing, and in the plain kitchen are two old-fashioned
ranges. The audience chamber is simple and, according to the
democratic custom of the country, any one who wishes to consult
with the King can come in anil speak as one man to another.
There are various rooms open to the public. In one hangs a
portrait of the first King of Norway and Sweden, the Field Mar-
shal Bernadotte, who had served under Napoleon. There is Dan-
ish furniture and porcelain in the King's apartment, since he is
of Danish origin. Since the late Queen was an Englishwoman,
there is a fireplace in her white and gold tea room (the only fire-
place in the house), and English murals brighten the walls.
Another conspicuous feature of the city is a column in a central
square with the Statue of Olaf Tryggvesson upon its top. Since
he was a champion of the Cross, he is shown offering the fire of
Christianity in one hand, but grasping a sword in the other. For
liis method of converting his pagan countrymen was drastic. The
old chronicles tell us that when he ascended the throne, he "made
all men take up Christianity, and those who spoke against it he
dealt with hard ; some he slew, some he maimed, and some he drove
from the land."
Olav Tryggvesson had been born into the royal family, and as
an infant refugee smuggled across the water to Orkney. He was
at various times a slave in Estonia, a ward of the Russian Court,
a campaigner in Pomerania, and then the free-lance commander of
There are several exceptionally interesting museums in.Trond-
heim. In the Scientific Institute are very ancient dishes and
platters and bowls and all kinds of vessels made out of wood.
There are even pitchers made out of wood and bound with wood,
and so well made that they are water-tight. So skilled were those
old workmen that they made intricate wooden keys and locks,
which worked satisfactorily, and ingeniously contrived wooden in-
struments of torture and execution to be used on the criminal put to
death on the Island of Monkshohnen centuries ago.
The universal use of this material in the early days is further
shown by a wooden pavement which was excavated from under
Oun Lady's Church, and by wooden water pipes, from the 14th
In the Marine Museum, in the same building, are wooden mod-
els of wooden ships, as well as fragments of old wooden masts
and rudders and wheels.
The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society, which is the oldest
one in the country, and dates from 1767, has its headquarters in
Trondheim. There is also a Technical College, established in
1910. This has a mineralogical collection representing the Trond-
A society named "Det Kongelige norske Videnskabers Selskab"
has a fine Natural HrsTORr Museum, which is open to the public.
It includes a zoological collection from the Trondheimfjord and
the surrounding country. There is also a well-arranged mineral
and botanical collection.
The North- Norway Museum of Applied Arts has exceptionally
attractive and varied collections of both national and foreign
These are relics of the past, but present-day Trondheim does not
live in the past. It is a progressive and prosperous city, with first-
class hospitals, schools, shops, hotels, and business offices.
In the suburbs are well-kept parks where people behave, in the
quiet and orderly good manner which is characteristic of Nor-
wegians, enjoying the grass and the shade, but careful not to
mutilate or destroy anything, or to make any disturbance which
might annoy others. The apartment houses, shops, and hotels
are modern and, before the war, were kept in spick and span con-
dition. These suburbs bring the city's population of 60,000 up to
Beyond the suburbs are intelligently managed farms and com-
fortable farm-houses, with carefully tended livestock.
AtLEiUFOos is abig electric power station which furnishes heat,
light, and power to the whole countryside.
Trondlieim is a pleasant city to stroll about in.
The harbor, which is ice-free, and the water front which bor-
ders it, are always busy, for in normal times ships from all over
the world are coming and going.
Another section which is cheerfully animated is farther back
and extends on both sides of the canal. Here are ancient ware-
houses, built on piles above the water. Over the bridge there is a
constant stream of people walking or driving, in carts or, occas-
ionally, in automobiles.
Here are the sailmukers' and ship chandlers' shops, and sheds
where boats are being refitted. There are coal and coke yards,
fish canneries, and mills making wood pulp. There are other fac-
tories making shoes from hides brought in from the country, and
also cigar and cigarette factories. Even before the war, these last
were small, but they supplied a fair proportion of Norwegian
Trondlieim is small compared to Oslo and Bergen, but it is a
busy, attractive, and important center for the whole county of