THE CITIES OF NORWAY POCKET GUIDE TO THE CITIES OF NORWAY WAR DEPARTMENT • WASHINGTON, D. C. For use of Military Perso/mel only. Not to be republished, in whole or in part, without the consent of the War Department. ARMY INFORMATION BRANCH INFORMATION AND EDUCATION DIVISION, A. S. F. UNITED STATES ARMY ATTENTION About the only thing in this booklet that con be guaranteed is the terrain. The rest of it is up to the fortunes or misfortunes of war Many of the towns and cities described here have been bombed and shelled by us as we approached, and shelled by the enemy as he retreated. And many of them will still show the marks of the destruction visited upon them when these lands were being conquered and occupied by the Germans. The short historical notes and city plans concerning most ot the towns are correct as of the outbreak of the war. But the changes of war were still happening in many places when this pocket guide went to press. ' . You may find that art treasures described and located in these pages have been looted or destroyed, and it may be years before those that can be restored are sights to see again. On the other hand, some of them, by a stroke of good fortune, may be left in- tact, and you will be able to enjoy them. And another thing: if some of these towns should be declared off limits, you'll bypass them, of course. ■ Perhaps, later, they may be open to you. Food and drink are discussed here, so that as times gradually return to normal, you may be guided in the tastes and customs of the country. But be sure that you are not encouraging a black market or bringing hardship to the native civilian population if you take advantage of what the town or region has to offer. You will receive direction from the proper authority in this matter. Anyhow, so far as your military duties permit, see as much as you can. You've got a great chance to do now, major expenses paid, what would cost you a lot of your own money after the war. Take advantage of it. CONTENTS Alesund 1 Bergen 3 Haugesund 19 KrisTiansand 23 Oslo 25 Stavanger 37 Tromso 45 Trondheim 49 ALESUND Although Alesund has a long history, it did not formally become a town until 1848. Today it has a population of 18,500. Like many other towns fin the west coast of Norway, it is prin- cipally a shipping and fishing center. Alesund was completely destroyed by fire in 1904, with the exception of the hospital; but the town was quickly rebuilt in brick, stone, and ferro-concrete. Alesund lies on two islands : Norvoy, which is the larger to the east, and Asfoy, on which the church is located. These islands are connected with each other and with the mainland by bridges. The Town Park on the east of the town contains a statue to Ganger Rolf or "Rollo the Walker," a famous Norwegian of the tenth century, whose castle was situated a little south of the town. He whs called "the Walker" because he was too big to ride a horse. Rollo was driven out of Norway by King Harald Fairhair and fled to France where he became the conqueror and Duke of Normandy. Normandy, by the way, got its name at this time from the Nor- wegian colonizers, since a Norwegian calls himself a "Nordmann" or ''Northman." Eventually the Norwegians in France became assimilated with the French. There is a steep path that leads up from the park, past the res- taurant, to the top of Alesunds-axla, 650 feet high. Here you can look down on the town and get a fine view of the surrounding country. The large round mountain you see beyond the town to the west is Sukkertopfen (which means "Sugar Top"), 1,060 feet high. BERGEN Bergen, with a population of about 100,000 people, is the second city of Norway and the principal metropolis and harbor on the West Coast. It was founded 900 years ago and was considered the capita] of the country from 1168 until the first half of the fourteenth century, when the seat of government was moved to Oslo. It is situated most beautifully amid waterways and mountains, with seven hills making a picturesque background for its new and its old buildings, of which it has quite a number. If you enter it from the water, your boat will move slowly through the winding fjord up to the w^ell-equipped harbor, ice free at all times, from which, in normal years, constant communi- cation is maintained between England — it is only 20 hours from Bergen to Newcastle — Iceland, and the Continent. If you enter it by train from Oslo, you will pass over a railway which is one of the greatest achievements of engineering in Eu- rope. It climbs ascents of over 4,000 feet, passes through 178 tun- nels, and winds around a bewildering series of grades and curves, and crosses many bridges. Even in midsummer there are places where there is sufficient snow for the passengers, who stop off at the station for luncheon, to get out and toss snowballs. This railroad was not completed until 1909, and until then the only communication between Oslo and Bergen was by boat. The train trip now takes only 11 hours. Since communication between the west coast and the east coast was so difficult, it was natural that Bergen should have developed its own customs, traditions, and manner of speech. It is still proud of these characteristics, and it also likes to emphasize the fact that for many centuries it was in closer touch than Oslo with England and the Continent and, therefore, absorbed more culture from -foreign lands. Although Bergen, like all wooden cities, was burned many times — the last big fire in 1916 destroyed nearly the whole central portion — it has managed to preserve enough old buildings to give it a quainter air than Oslo. The city is growing steadily and more houses and factories are being built every year along the water's edge and in the surround- ing suburbs. There are modern, municipally owned apartment houses, attractive and with low rents, and there are up-to-date hospitals, schools, factories, etc. But you will probably find your- self, a few minutes after your arrival, in the center of the old city, and you will want to look around and see what it is like. This section is small enough to walk through and it is full of interest. The Sixteenth century Towh Hall is a good place to start from. This simple, tall-gabled building, in the middle of an open square, has been rebuilt several times, the last time during the reign of Christian VII, whose gilded monogram adonis one of the gables. It is still the headquarters of the burgomaster, and he still stamps official papers with a seal from 1591 bearing the same castle as tiie city seal of 1200. Parts of St. Mart's Church and the Cathedral, which was once a Franciscan monastery, survive from the Middle Ages. The old city entrance gate, which is like a small house pierced through by an arched opening, straddles the trolley tracks. The road which leads to the city from the harbor runs along- side the old German Quay called Tyskebrtggen. During two centuries this was the headquarters for the Hanseatic League in the north. The crowded block of wooden buildings has been burned down four times, but it has always been rebuilt in the same way and with the same or similar emblems over the doors. Since it lias been continuously used by tradesmen, fishermen, etc., it is possible by stepping inside one of the alleys and walking around in the courtyards and looking into rooms and offices to see the actual man- ner in which people have lived, worked, and traded ever since 1070. The alleys are of medieval narrowness, cluttered with kegs and barrels, and darkened by crazy roofs, eaves at all angles, and overhanging wooden galleries. Doors open into windowless cubby- holes where men are cleaning fish and baling papers, and stairs lead up to other cubbyholes. Some of the walls are supported by solid wooden ribs, like a ship, and graved into a stone in one of them is the date "1719." This jumbled and grimy huddle is not typical of modern Bergen which, like everything else in Norway, is extremely clean, but it is preserved as a historical curiosity. In order to show how the German merchants once lived, one of the 52 houses which faced Tyskebryggen has been cleaned up, its original furniture and equipment reassembled, and it is now the Hanseatic Museum. The main room, with its beamed ceiling and panelled walls and carved furniture, is dark and cold even in midsummer, but not without dignity. The merchant had his office, his dining room, and his sleeping alcove downstairs, and upstairs a private suite! The apprentices, who were also Germans, slept two in a bunk hi rooms the size of a closet. Behind these chambers were others for the second merchant and his apprentices. Apprentices were not allowed to marry for this reason: the Norwegians had to sell fish and buy grain, and Germany organized the trade and protected her monopoly from getting into Norwegian hands. Norwegian wives would have endangered German authority. Gradually, however, Ihe Norwegians ousted the Germans and, in 1754, took over all the German offices. The hospital of St. Georoe (St. Jorgen) is another old build- ing which has been rebuilt according to its original plan and dimensions. The buildings are grouped around a square court- yard with the church on the north side, like a monastery of the Middle Ages, which at one time it actually was. Two churches which escaped the fires were Maria Church and Nfav Church. The Catheoral and Cross Church both had to be repaired and were given new copper-covered steeples. : — y. tne most ; j m p 0rtant restoration is that of the Rosen- How 1 chants Tower. You will be struck by this massive building as soon as you come into the city, for it faces the German Quay and dominates the scene. The gate tower and the two large stone halls were erected by King Haakon in the thirteenth century. One of these halls forms the center of the Rosencrantz Tower and the other is in the three-storied, gabled and bat tl emeu ted building. It is called King Haakon's Hall, and in it the King's son, Magnus, celebrated his wedding to the Danish Princess Ingehorg in 1261, and was at the same time crowned King to reign jointly with his father. The hall fell into disrepair and for centuries was used as a granary. When it was decided to restore the building, the old walls were kept and so were the situation and form of the windows. The dimensions of the hall were also kept. As it measures a hundred feet by forty, with an oak vaulted ceiling, stained glass windows, brocades, wrought iron and gilding, a polished wooden floor and two throne chairs on a blue-carpeted dais, it is truly superb. One of the most famous of the Norwegian painters has decorated the walls in 12 frescoes which show the story of Princess Christina, who was the daughter of King Haakon, and her wedding journey to Valladolid, in Spain. This sumptuous hall is used for certain royal and festive occa- sions. It can be lighted only by candles and tapers, which adds to its medieval effect. These ancient buildings are interesting us part of Bergen's his- tory, but there are many excellent new buildings, such as the Telegraph Building, the Law Courts, the Commerce and Ship- ping Building, and the Stock Exchange. This last has a series of 10 large frescoed panels, illustrating the history of Bergen's shipping and trade. They were completed in 1923 and are full of vigor and color and extremely modern in their style. Recently other public buildings have been adorned with wall paintings, showing the increasing interest of the city in art and interior decoration. Bergen has a great number of museums. The oldest, which is called Bergen's Museum, was founded in 1825, and its various de- partments have grown so large that it is practically a scientific establishment. But for the visitor the rooms showing certain collections will be the most interesting. In one of its large new buildings is the collection of historic antiquities, divided into sections representing the Stone Age, the 10 Bronze Age and the Iron Age, and illustrative of the West Coast of Norway when it was only sparsely populated by nomadic tribes who lived by hunting and fishing. Then there is the collection covering the Middle Ages, with paintings and stone sculptures, altar pieces, pulpits, etc.— the most valuable collection of the sort in Norway. The section devoted to Folk Arts is especially attractive to strangers. Here are series of rooms furnished with the sturdy, hand-made, carved and painted chests and tables and chairs and beds and other utensils characteristic of the peasant home in different districts. . There is also a collection of the colorful national costumes, which are not seen much nowadays eKept in the rural districts. Wedding dresses and silver wedding crowns are included, for the pretty custom of the bride wearing a silver crown is still ob- served The crown may have been in the bride's family for yeais, or may belong to the local church and is lent to the bride who is married in it. Incidentally, the wedding ring is worn on the right hand. . . There are many other collections in this museum, including the Behobn Shippihg Mukum, which is steadily growing in ex- II hibits since Bergen has always been Norway's largest shipping The two best art collections are in the Behoen Picture Gallery and in the Rasmus Meyer Collection. There are also the Bum,,, J! ishbry Museum and the Beruen- Theatre Museum Tins last reminds us that Henrik Ibsen, the great dramatist, is associated with Bergen, for he first tried hi, hand lure a, a „,„„,: manager. Ihe plan, white wooden building-the Old Theitre- where he met with failure in this venture, is preserved, 1,„| there is a large and handsome modern National Theatre overlooking Govmmleu? ies ,1 '"" 1 1)oUl thc Municipality and thi No one wants to spend all his time indoors and in museums and Bergen is an attractive city to stroll about. The German Quat is always animated, with small boats from the rural districts coming i„ to unload hay and wood and cheese and milk and butter, and to load gasoline and merchandise to (alee b ck with then, Their decks are clean and their brass is shining, and there are always plenty of people coming down to greet their arrival or wave good-bye to them as they depart In the open space around the quay are stalls ind booths and tables displaying flowers and vegetables and small merchandise. But the most crowded place is a little farther on. This is the outdoor fish market and it is jammed with old women, with hand- kerchiefs over their heads, selling and cleaning fish, and with ladies or servant girls, with baskets over their arms, coming to do the day's marketing. There are small shops and large department stores in this sec- tion where you can buy whatever you want, including souvenirs of ivory from the far north and hand -embroidered mittens and hand-knitted scarfs and sweaters. Bergen is a good place to buy furs, particularly if you are not going farther north. But that's for the man with plenty of cash. Most of us will need our money for a lot more important things when we return home. There are sealskins, of course, from the polar regions, and bear- skins, etc. But Norway is particularly proud of its fox furs, for it was one of the first countries to start systematic fur production and has long been the leading fox farming country in Europe. Sil- ver foxes, blue and red and white and cross-breed: nutria, fitch, martens, and mink are being raised. Fifteen years ago there were only about 3,000 foxes divided among less than 300 owners. Today there are half a million on 20,000 farms, where they are raised and tended like the other live stock. They are not permitted to go out of their wire en- closures and shelters, for they are extremely shy and alarmed by the sight of strangers. They must be well fed if their fur is to bring a good price, and tons of whale meal supplement the fish and goat meat and the occasional tidbit of chicken. It costs money to feed a fox for the 5 years which are necessary if the breeder's ambition for a pelt like the one from West Norway which sold for 11,000 kroner (about $2,750) is to be realized. There are numerous nicely kept parks dotted throughout the city, with benches and fountains and bandstands and statues of varying merit. One of these statues is of Ole Bull, the violinist who was so popular in America in the time of our grandparents. America loved him and he loved America, and he crossed the ocean many times for concert tours from coast to coast. He chose an American woman for his second wife, and even bought 125 000 acres of land m Pennsylvania and tried to found a colony there He was born in Bergen and after a triumphal career all over the world returned here to die. Another famous musician commemorated by a statue was Ed- vard Grieg. Troldhaugen, with its small studio where he com- posed his music, is only a few miles out of the city and is preserved as it was during his lifetime. It is often visited by Americans, and so is the cliff near it, in which a niche was hollowed out to hold his ashes. The most popular nearby excursion in Bergen is to Floien, a thousand feet above the city. To reach it you take a funicular which apparently crawls straight up the side of the mountain. Once up there, you will find a pleasant outdoor cafe and a glorious view of the city and the fjord far below. Bergen is an excellent starting point for long or short excur- sions, north or south or east by land or water, and even one such excursion will give you an idea of the scenery which has made Norway one of the most famous tourist countries in the world. The small boats which crowd into the Tyskkkrycgen are all bound to some enchanting and secluded town, village or hamlet, on the coast or up one of the deep fjords which reflect the walls of mountains and their waterfalls. You can easily find one which will suit the amount of time you have, whether it is a few hours or a few days. Every one in Norway has his favorite fjord and will tell you that it is the one you must see. But if you go to Hardancer you will certainly not be disappointed. By boat or car or railway— or by a combination of all- — you can pass from one stupendous scene to another, and each method has its advantages. The mountain roads whicb climb and descend in corkscrew and hairpin turns, one side faced by an overhanging cliff and the other dropping sheer to the water, may seem dangerous. But they are solidly built and the drivers know how to manage the ears which must often back before they can make a sharp turn, and in doing so, apparently hang over the edge of a precipice. If you take a coastwise boat, you will see some of the wildest, most glorious scenery on the globe. The shore line of Norway is so irregular that, although the country measures only 1,000 miles in a straight line from north to south, a line drawn in and out of the fjords and inlets and around the innumerable islands, would be half the circumference of the globed Over the steep cliffs dash hundreds of waterfalls, and the Norwegians are so skilled in using the power which they can generate from these and from the many rushing streams and rivers, that there is plenty of electricity even in remote places. On the tops of the cliffs walling a fjord, you will see tiny houses— sometimes only one. Here lives a farmer, and by terrac- ing he is able to raise enough hay for his cows and enough potatoes for his family on what looks like a perpendicular wall, but is actually fertile pasture. He may have to get his hay down by a cable, and his wife may have to tie ropes around the waists of the little children so they won't fall off into the water so far below. But this is where their fathers lived and where they prefer to live. The top of a cliff overlooking a fjord is a good place to raise goats, and herds of them can be seen stepping sure-footedly down the steep paths. From 125 goats the owner can sell 800 kroners' worth of cheese a month from April to October, and after that there is a market for goat meat. On the small islands, too, you may see a few houses, or even a single house. The only way the people who live here can get to the mainland to buy or sell, or to take the children to school, is by rowboat. But they wouldn't change their home for one in a fertile valley, or in a settlement along the coast. For the in- dependent-spirited Norwegians know how to get a living out of the sea and the soil, and they know how to make laws and obey them so that education, justice, and security from old age, poverty, sickness or unemployment, are obtainable by everyone. If you are to be in Bergen any length of time you will never regret going out into the country by bicycle, bus or boat or on foot. In any village, you will find a clean bed to sleep in and decent food to eat. And you will see the Norwegians at their rugged, hardworking and hospitable best, with their prosperous farms and well-tended animals and snug, neat homes, which they love above everything else in the world. IS HAUGESUND Haugesund was a small fishing village in 1830 with only about a dozen houses. Today it has a population of 18,400 and is an important fishing center, especially for herring. Besides the fish and herring-oil factories there are factories for woolen goods and margarine and a small shipbuilding industry. The town is greatly dependent on its port, since it is difficult of access by land and there is no railroad connection. Haugesund lies on a peninsula and the town includes several rocky islands, of which two are connected to the mainland by bridges. These are Risoy to the south and Hasseloy to the north. Beyond these islands you see the northern end of the 16-mile-long island of Karmoy, which protects the harbor from the open sea. The main local point of interest is the reputed burial mound of Harald Harfaiger at Hauoe, about 1*4 miles north of the town. An obelisk of red granite was erected here in 1872 on the one thousandth anniversary of Harald's naval victory in Hafsf jord, near Stavanger, whereby he won the sovereignty of Norway. The monument is 50 feet high and is surrounded by 20 stones, 608573" — 44 i " HAUGESUND each 9 feet high, denoting the old Norse tribes he united under his rule. The story goes that Harald was in love with the daughter of a Norwegian chieftain and that she refused to marry him until he became king of all Norway. Harald solemnly vowed that he would not cut his hair until this was accomplished. It took 10 years to subdue the country and by this time he had such a mane of light hair that he acquired the nickname of Harald Harfager, or Harald Fairhair. KRISTIANSAND'S KRISTIANSAND S Kristiansand is the most important town on the south coast of Norway and the capital of the province of West Agder. It has a population of 18,700. The "S," which stands for "south," is Usually written after the name of the town so it won't be confused with Kristiansund, a town farther north, which is written Kristian- sund N. Kristiansand S. was built at the mouth of the Tohridal River in 1641 by King Christian IV of Denmark, for whom it was named. At that time Norway was under Danish rule. The town was repeatedly devastated by fire, and after the last one in 1892 it was largely rebuilt in brick and stone. The most important sights in Kristiansand are the old Fortress of Kristiansholm in the Eastern Harbor and the Gothic Cathe- dral, which has an altarpiece representing "Christ at Emmuus" by the Norwegian painter Eilif Petersen. Interesting walks can be made on the island of Oddeijuy. which lies south of the town, and from the railroad station out on Vestreveien to Dueknipen, a hill 280 feet high overlooking the harbor. A steamer runs out to the island of Flekkerot, a favorite pleasure resort. OSLO Oslo, which is the capital of Norway and a city of 300,000 people, is situated by a fjord of extraordinary beauty and complexity. At first glance it may not strike the stranger as either magnifi- cent or ancient, but as substantial, adequate and rather modem. Yet this is the site of a city which was founded in 1047 and has had a continuous existence since them. The first town was of wood, and it burned. The other towns which followed it were also of wood, and they also burned. In the last half of the nineteenth century, brick and stone superseded wood, and it is now forbidden for wooden structures to be raised within the city limits. The present city was incorporated in 1624 by King Christian, and named after him — Christiania. For 300 years it bore this name, which is the familiar one in histories, plays and novels. Now it is Oslo, the well-run, highly civilized, progressive capital of a highly civilized and progressive country. If you enter Oslo by the Oslofjord, you will see on Ekeberg Hill a large and handsome granite building, flat-roofed, with a square tower at each corner, and with an arcaded facade. This is the Navigation College, where future officers, having already had three years at sea, are receiving further training". The standards and discipline here are among" the highest in the world. It is not only an impressive building as seen from the outside, but inside it is decorated with frescoes by Per Krohg, one of Norway's finest artists. It is appropriate that this building should be placed in such a conspicuous place and decorated by the most distinguished artist, because since the days of the Vikings, the Norwegians have been expert seamen. Before the First World War they possessed the fourth largest merchant fleet in the world (surpassed only by Great Britain, the United States, and Japan). During that war the fleet suffered a higher percentage of loss than that of any other nation, neutral or belligerent. Through her own enterprise, Norway regained her pre-war maritime position, and before World War No. 2, had acquired not only the fourth largest but the newest merchant marine in the world. Therefore, when you come into Oslo, you are coming into the capital of a truly maritime country, where every fourth or fifth man gets at least part of his livelihood from the sea. I After the boat has passed Ekeberg Hill, it comes into Oslo Harbour, which is one of the largest in Europe and fully equipped with docks, wharves, cranes, and storehouses, with the new City Hall nearby. Oslo is not large, and the best way to see it is to begin by walk- ing down Karl Johan's Gate. On either side of this handsome promenade are the principal hotels and shops. In the wide space in the center are the Houses of Parliament (the Stohting) ami the Royal Tiieathe. The Houses of Parliament represent a form of government which, although it is a limited and hereditary monarchy, is thor- oughly liberal and democratic in every sense. All Norwegian men and women over 23 have the right to vote, and they exercise this right. The Labour Party and the Social Democrats collabo- rate alternately with the Farmer and Liberal Parties, and have worked out a system of social security which takes care of unem- ployment, sickness; accidents, old age, the blind, the crippled and otherwise handicapped— every single person from the cradle to the grave. Facing the Storting is the Royal Theatre. Since this is sub- sidized by the State, the price of a ticket to see the best plays and hear the best operas is so small that it is within the range of prac- tically every purse. Behind the theater on a hill overlooking Karl Johan's Gate is the simple white Royal Palace, with its grounds open to strollers. Between the palace and the Storting is the University. There is only one University in Norway, and it has grown so large — normally with over 2,000 students — that the library and certain of the colleges have been forced farther out. Just as the Navigation College is a symbol of Norway's pre- eminent record on the sea, and just as the Storting and the Palace represent her stable and enlightened government, so the Univer- sity symbolizes her system of education. That system is so widespread and thorough that there is not one single child in the entire country that does not get seven years of rigorous elementary training. When you realize that many of those children live on islands a mile or more away from the main- land, or on isolated farms in valleys or on mountain tops, the fact that illiteracy is less than one percent is remarkable. There are plenty of book stores along Karl Johan's Gate, for the Norwegians are tremendous readers, buying not only newspapers and magazines and books, but also patronizing the 1,300 public libraries and the 47,000 school libraries scattered throughout the country. The National Art Gallery is only a step from the university, and it is a most enjoyable place. Norwegian painters like best to paint the scenes of their own country, and the faces of their own countrymen. A morning spent in the National Gallery is like a trip from the north to the south, from the east to the west, in summer and winter, from the past to the present. It may interest Americans to study a huge painting by Christian Krohg, representing Leif Erieson. With his yellow blouse and golden belt and sheath knife, surrounded by his long-haired com- panions, this is how the young man must have looked when he set out in the year 1000 or 1002 to find the land which had been glimpsed 15 years before by Bjarni Herjolfsson— also a Norwegian. Leif Erieson was the first white man ever to set foot on North American soil. His brother Thorvald was the first white man to be buried there, and the child of his friend, Thorfinn Karlsefini, was the first white child to be born there. The National Historical Museum, which belongs to the Uni- versity, is also nearby. There is one building devoted to the zoological, another to the mineralogical and paleontological, and a third to the botanical collection. Of special interest are those collections brought from the Arctic regions by Nansen, Amundsen, and others. Here, too, is a fascinating display of boats, weapons, carts, sleighs and sleds, jewelry, and grave goods, dating from the Viking Age more than a thousand years ago. If you are interested in the Vikings, there is another Museum which is well worth visiting. Here, near the water front, in per- manent drydock, are placed three of the original Viking ships which were excavated from mounds where they had been pre- served, for many hundreds of years, by the blue clay. They have been restored and, with their burial chambers holding the skele- tons and treasures of a King and a Queen, they show precisely how the Vikings lived, sailed, fought, voyaged, conquered, and died. The seaworthiness of these vessels so excited the imagination of a young Norwegian named Magnus Anderson that he built a ship of precisely the same dimensions, decoration, and equipment of the one called the Oseberg Ship. In this, with a crew of 12, he sailed from Bergen in June 1893 across the Atlantic to New London. He named his ship the Viking, and it was taken to Chicago, where it now stands in Lincoln Park. The name of Lincoln is well known in Oslo, for in Frogner Park stands a bust of the Great Emancipator, given bv the people of North Dakota on July 4th. 1914. There are several other museums within walking distance. At Btodot is a collection of buildings—single buildings, farm- houses, town houses— all furnished and equipped with their orig- inal chairs, tables, cooking utensils, etc. Some of these are three hundred years old and have been brought from various sections of the country. Here, too, is an 800-year-old Stave Church, with its pagoda I ike wooden shingled roof. Fridtjof Nansen's famous ship, the Fram, in which he reached to within 272 miles of the North Pole (1893-96), has a house of its own m Bygdoy, with its original equipment and the clothing worn by the men. Before setting out with the Fram, Nansen had crossed Green- land on skis and sledges (1861) and so knew a lot about Polar eoiuhtions. He took 3 years to prepare for the expedition from the f ram and made three separate Polar trips in her. During the first one (1893-90), on a sledge journey toward the North Pole, lasting 15 months, he and his companion, Johansen, reached 86°56'. a latitude which has not again been reached by any other ship Another unique museum is the one devoted to whaling. Norway has long led the world in whaling, and whaling ships from other nations come here to buy equipment and hire seamen. In the museum is shown the evolution of this industry. A modern whaler is very different from the old-fashioned one when men leaped from the mother ship into little row boats, got as near the whale as they could, and then threw harpoons into it. Today the great whaling ships, which steam from the Antarctic to the Oslofjord in the spring and set out again in the autumn with provisions, are motor driven. The small boats are also motor driven, and the whale is killed by a grenade shot from a gun and the carcass drawn, by machinery, through a huge hatchway in the stem. In the old days, only the blubber was saved, but- today every particle of bones, flesh and oil is processed right on the ship, which is as clean and scientifically arranged as a laboratory. _ The oil can be refined to make soap and margarine. The meat is re- frigerated and sold as food for domestic animals. Certain explo- sives require whale oil, and certain delicate machinery sperm oil. The blubber is boiled down and hardened into a solid fat which has no taste or odor and is easy to handle. The crew on a modern whaler may number 300 or more, and these men have comfortable quarters, moving pictures and a ship's newspaper— all of which things are set forth graphically in the AV haling Museum. If you have only an hour, you can easily go to a museum nearer the center of town. This is the Akerhus, an ancient fortress. Until 1719, it was a royal palace, and it is now open to visitors. By taking a bicycle or bus or trolley, or even by walking, you can soon get to the hills of Holmenkollen and Ekeberg Here overlooking the city and the fjord, are pleasant, moderately priced inns, with tables outside if weather permits. On Holmenkollen Hill the annual ski exhibitions have been held every year since 1878. Two or three hundred jumpers take part in this event, and as many as 70,000 spectators gather to watch them. Norwegians have used skis for many hundreds of years, and it was they who introduced skiing as a sport into Germany and then into Switzerland. A Norwegian is also credited with having in- troduced it into the United States, for in 1856, when John A. Thompson, on skis, began to carry the mail over the 90 miles be- tween Placerville and Uratm City, Calif., this was the only means of communication between the two points. Another Norwegian at the first ski competition held in Red Wing, Minn. (February 1887) , introduced ski jumping to Americans. With these things in mind, it may interest you to visit the Ski Museum near Hoimenkollen. It is devoted entirely to skis and the various paraphernalia connected with this sport. There are skis of every pattern and age. The oldest one is represented by a wooden fragment from Telemabk, with the tag "Circa 2500 B. C". This would make it more than 4,000 years old, so it is no wonder that, the Norwegians are masters of this sport. Their record on the ice is equally famous ever since Son] a Henie won consecutively 10 world and 3 Olympic championships. At the Olympic Winter sports of 1936 Norway won 7 gold medals and all the world records. If you are in Oslo in summer, you will find opportunity for boating and swimming. Football is almost as popular as skiing. There are tennis courts and golf links, road walking competi- tions, road relay races, and map reading cross country races. There are plenty of streams and river ponds and lakes accessible to Oslo, so that the man who likes to fish can spend a pleasant afternoon angling. If he has a furlough of several days, he can find out at any shop where they sell equipment where the best fishing— deep sea or fresh water— is to be had at any particular season. Fresh water trout often weigh 4 pounds, and sea trout as much as 30. Salmon is plentiful and tunny of great size are found not only along the coast but even up the fjords. It is not difficult for those who like to hunt to obtain shooting rights, and information as to the place and the season to find large and small animals, wild fowl, etc. As you walk around Oslo, you will see modernistic private villas and apartment houses and flats and garden city houses. They have many windows, and sometimes whole walls of glass brick. A reinforced translucent glass is incorporated in the balustrades, screens and roofs of the balconies — a most acceptable material in a land of long, dark winters. The inside arrangements are compact, convenient and pleasing, and the rents astonishingly low. This is partly because real estate taxes are low and partly because the rents charged in those apartment houses which are owned by the municipality— about 50,000,000 kroner has been so invested— are very little. Private landlords are, therefore, more or less forced to 'follow a similar rate. There are also cooperatively owned apartment houses, in admirable taste. Besides building and owning apartment houses, the munici- pality in 1920 built the "garden city" of Ulleval Havebt. _ This is an example of the way Oslo provides housing for those in the lower wage brackets, so they can live not only decently, but with privacy, comfort, and convenience. The small gardens- you see just outside the city are called allot- ment gardens. For 10 kroner a year, a laborer can have his cabin and patch for growing vegetables and flowers for three months. There are also publicly and privately supported vacation homes for children from poorer families. In all sections are excellent small restaurants and cafes, scrupu- lously clean and brightened by flowers and potted plants. Before the war, food was abundant, savory and inexpensive, inclining toward a meat, fish, and potato menu, rather than toward fancy or made up dishes. The shops, too, used to display most attractive wood carvings and hand-woven goods, native pottery and glass and china at prices whieh were reasonable. STAVANGER A large number of Stavanoer's 45,000 people are fishing folk, or work in the fish-canning industry. Many earn their living by working part-time at both occupations, with farming as an addi- tional enterprise. These different jobs help to make the typical citizen of Stavanger an all-around person of many skills. Wander through the streets of the old town on the little penin- sula known as Holmes: Walk along the street called Pedergadsuj to the wharves in the Spilderviken section. Or at the opposite end of the Pedergaden, stroll around the Torvet, the old market place by the main harbor. In all these places, you'll see the handsome, rugged people who are descended from the seafaring Vikings of 1,000 years ago. Even then, Stavanger sailors were setting forth from the protected harbor, heading into the main bay, north of Stavanger. This is the beautiful island-studded Bokxefjoro. Or you can imagine them sailing up one of the many steep-walled secondary fjords which gash the Ryfylke mainland overlooking the main bay. In those days, too, men-of Stavanger travelled as far as Iceland, or out across the North Sea to Scotland. The rugged fisherman, as lie warps his vessel into one of the many slips, or inlets (viken), may have a big catch of brhliurt (sardines) for one of the canneries. He may have a load of her- ring, cod, or mackerel. This chap may look as if he's an old salt through and through, but remember that he may also own a farm outside of town. He is probably an expert skier, as well as a mariner. He can probably skate like a champ, and certainly knows how to swim. Before leaving the waterfront, you would probably like to browse about some of the hotels in Stavanger's old section between the two harbors. While you're there in the flavorsome atmosphere, you might fortify yourself with mackerel or cod or herring, freshly prepared by people who have been doing that sort of cooking for a long time. Now you're fixed for a long walk, or a leisurely boat ride around the neighboring fjords of Stavanger. Stavangerites are proud of their clean, orderly, and modern city. Ask one of them about Stavanger's history. You'll be inter- ested to hear the sagas of Sigurd, one of Norway's ancient pagan heroes. You'll not see many spectacular or historical landmarks, but there are a few. As you walk down the Kirkegaden and arrive in the neighbor- hood of the park near the lovely lake called Brendevandet (Broad- water), you will observe a Cathedral. This is one of Stavanger's oldest buildings. It's original, foundation dates from the 11th century. After the cathedral at Trondheim, it is supposed to be the best, in Norway. This church was established by the monk Reinald, who came from Winchester, England. He dedicated the Stavanger cathe- dral to St. Swithin. Inside the church you'll notice massive pillars and the severe, compact designs characteristic of Romanesque art. Notice the pulpit, famous for its Renaissance woodwork. For Gothic char- acteristics, observe the choir, which was added after the old struc- ture was destroyed by one of the many fires which used to sweep this, as they did other towns of Norway. Close by the cathedral are the bishop's palace and his private chapel, taken over by the royal government of Norway after the Reformation (16th century). Today the bishop's residence is called the Kongsgaaro, and is used as a grammar school. The cathedral, as well as St. Peter's church in the section of town called Nttorvet (New Market) are relics of the days when the Catholic religion flourished m this part of Southern Norway Today, of course, Stavanger, like the rest of Scandinavia adheres to the Protestant manifestations of Christianity. The ancient kings of Norway frequently stayed in this part of the. country. King Magnus Lawmender founded a monastery on the island of Utstein, and a hospital in Stavanger for the poor and sick, which remained for many centuries, but has now dis- appeared. You'll find the modern hospital by walking around the Brede- vanet, down a street called Jeiusaneveinan. to the railroad sta- tion, where the Museum and the Theater are also located. The Museum is a conspicuous building on a hill. It contains exhibits devoted to natural history, maritime history, and local relics of Stavanger. For a look backward into history, the mu- seum is a good place to spend a few minutes. The Jernebane Station is not a place where you can board a train for every other place in Norway. You can go south, that's all. If you boarded a train there you could get to Egersund and Flekkefjord to the south across the bleak and marshy Jaeren district, but it is doubtful that you could make connections for Oslo. Stavanger in fact is rather isolated. To go anywhere, the best way is to take a coastal ship, a fjord-steamer, maybe a sail- boat; or drive down to the Sola airport for a plane ride. The airport at Sola, 10 miles south of Stavanger, was being promoted as the best and most conveniently located stopping place for flights between Scotland and Norway before the war. By fast bomber the trip takes about one hour from Aberdeen. For an over-all glimpse of Stavanger, and the fjord with its islands, walk south on the Peder Klowsgade. In twenty minutes you'll reach the Vaalandshaug (328 feet), a hill with waterworks and a reinforced tower. Beyond the Vaalandshaug, a half hour's walk will bring you to the Ullenhadg (460 feet), a massive rock rising from a marshy plain. The inscription on the tower here refers to Harold Harfager's victory in 872 A. D. While you are up on tjllenhaug looking west toward the North Sea, you'll see Hafbsfjord, famous in the history of Norway, where KingHarald (Harald Fairhair) gained a decisive victory in a naval battle, and united the whole of Norway under his rule. Another feature of interest in Stavanger is the country house known as Ledaal, now a museum, in Alexander Kiellanusgaden. Alexander Kielhmd was a writer of witty novels dealing with social reform. He is Stavanger's best known man of letters. As for the canning industry, this is Stavanger's number one'busi- ness. Don't miss an investigation of one of the canning houses. Go back to the Torvet, the market place near the harbor/and fol- low a truckload of sardines to one of the factories. There you will see sardines packed for shipment all over the world. It is from 1873, when modern methods of fish-canning were first introduced in Stavanger, that the town enjoyed a prosperous growth. Today, there are 100 canneries. If you are out for scenery, hop a boat ride for the Ltsefjgrd This steep-walled gorge, 25 miles long, with an average width of one-half mile is a mysteriously beautiful tour, one of "the best in Norway. The Boknefjord is the main basin adjoining the North Sea. but there are many others which it mothers. Of these, the Lysefjord is your best bet. A nature-lover could spend a week there, but the least you can count on is a 1-day round-trip Remember this: Stavanger is the fourth largest town in Nor- way, and very old. To you it will seem modern; but remember that the newness conceals an age-old history, filled with the works of many generations of hard-working people. TROMSO TbomsO is in the land of the midnight sun. From the'lWh of May until the 23d of July you can thrill to the sight of a sun that never sets. Yet for a town situated 225 miles north of the Arctic Circle it has a remarkably decent temperature range Its coldest month is February with a mean temperature of 25" F and Its warmest month is August with a mean of 51.8° F. The tem- perature very rarely goes as low as 0" and very rarely as high as 76° Another feature remarkable to so northern a climate is Tromso's luxuriant vegetation. Silver birch, mountain ash, and even wild cherry nourish here and in the windows of many houses you'll hnd colorful decorations of geraniums, cacti, roses, and myrtle Before the schoolhouse, masses of snapdragons, violets, and mari- golds grow And if you arrive during the short summer season you 11 even be able to sample huge native strawberries. It is hard to believe, too, that here in 09°38' North latitude you can hnd active bathing resorts. Tromso is very beautifully situated. It occupies a portion of a small island by the same name, which is hidden from the sea by larger islands. The view of snow-clad mountains all around it is striking. It is the busiest Norwegian town in the Arctic Circle, being a fishing, whaling, and sealing center. A treat it is hoped you may enjoy is to sit some evening in the warm hotel living room and* listen to the tales spun by the fishing and hunting crews — stories of white whales in the Barents Sea, of great reindeer herds on the snowfields far inland and of the haunts of the north- ern fox. Troinso is a town of adventurers. Every year it bids farewell to boats bound for the wild northern fishing and hunting grounds, boats which later return loaded with whale oil, pelts of polar bears, walruses, seals, reindeers, blue foxes and white foxes. And from this town many polar expeditions have had their parting view of civilization. From here the intrepid Arctic explorer Eoald Amundsen set out in 1928 on his fatal flight to rescue Gen- eral Nobile, the Italian flyer, who was forced down in the ice fields northeast of Spitsbergen. Amundsen was never heard of again. There is a fine statue dedicated to his memory in Tromso. Tou won't find many of the interesting things connected with ancient days in Tromso for it dates back only to 1794. But there is a very interesting Museum to the south of the town which con- tains ecclesiastical antiquities and Lapp articles of clothing and equipment. There is a Lapp Encampment across the Tromsosuno in the Iromsdal that will provide an interesting and pleasant 3- to 4- hour excursion. It contains a settlement of Lapp families whose dwellings. "Darfe Goattek" or "Gammer," are round cla v or stone huts with openings at the top to let out smoke. If you are in the market for fur boots called Skal-Komaqer or Skail&r, spoons of reindeer-horn or other Arctic souvenirs they will gladly sell you some But watch your money— you'll be needing it when you get back home for things a lot more important than reindeer horns An interesting sight here are the reindeer herds owned by the Lapp families. The animals graze on the adjoining hills and are primarily utilized for milk. The Lapps are quite skillful with a sort of lasso «-ith winch they rope these reindeer twice a week in order to milk them. The milk, rich and rather strong, is diluted with water and comprises the main diet of the Lapp. Maybe you can get a swig of it if for no other reason than to saV you once drank reindeer milk. On the way hack from the Lapp encampment, if you have about 3 hours to spare, climb the Fi/iRFjELo, a 2,600-foot mountain on the south side of the Tromsdal from which you can get a beautiful view of the surrounding country. A more ambitious climb is up the Tromsdalstind, rising 4,065 feet above the Lapp encampment. Count on a 4-hour jaunt for this climb. The first part of it is tougher than the last which is just a gentle slope of snow. When you reach the crest, the sight will repay you for any aching muscles. To the east the mountain falls sheer to the valley extending from the Ulsfjord to the Bals- fjord. To the west stretch the vast reaches of the Arctic ocean. And the view of the Ulsfjord scenery and glacier chain of the Lyngexfjord is superb. From Tromso local steamers travel the various fjords in the vicinity. If you can afford 3 to 4 days for a jaunt like this don't miss a trip to Lyngenfjord which is in many ways the finest in Norway. It is unequalled for its glacial and mountain scenery. TRONDHEIM Trondheim is the third largest city in Norway, 8 hours north of Oslo by Diesel train, 30 hours from Bergen by fast mail boat, and 2 hours from Bergen by plane. It was founded by Olav Tryggvesson in 997, and in its Cathe- dral, which is the most splendid in Norway, are held the royal coronations. If you enter Trondhehn by boat, the approach is through the Trondheimfjord, which twists for 82 miles between sides lower and less spectacular than those of the southern fjords. The vegetation is not so lush as further south; there are fewer evergreens and more birdies, but nevertheless the farmers manage to raise hay for their animals and potatoes for their families. Lying in the fjord near to the entrance to the city is the Island of Monkholmkn. Long ago this was used as a place for execu- tion of criminals. Then a Benedictine monastery was built here, called the Monastery of Nidarholm, for at that time the name of the present city was Niclaros. Upon the ruins of this a fortress was built in 1508, and after that a lighthouse. It was appropriate that a monastery should be the first thing one saw on entering the harbor, for this was the ecclesiastical center of the country and it remained so for centuries. Nidaros had its cathedral, nine churches, and five monasteries, and behind the cathedral the Grand Palace of the Archbishops. This is now the AiJMour. At this time Catholicism was the religion of the country. After the Reformation the majority of the people became Protestants. Today the established church of Norway is the Evangelical Lu- theran and it claims 96.8 of the population. People professing this faith are required to bring their children up in this church, but all religions are freely tolerated. Roman Catholics, Methodists, Quakers, Mormons, Jews, Seventh Day Adventists, Christian Scientists hold their meetings as and where they please. During the five centuries when Catholicism was the accepted religion, many pilgrims travelled to Rome on foot. It was during this time that Nicholas Breakspeare came from England and spent •2 years supervising church affairs in Scandinavia ( 1152-54) , and in organizing the new archbishopric of Trondheim. It is interesting to recall that Nicholas Breakspeare afterward became the only English pope in ecclesiastical history — Adrian IV. It is logical to mention these things as an introduction to Trond- heim because the fame of the city in history and literature and as a tourist stop is chiefly due to the Cathedral. The broad principal avenue of the city, shaded with birches and chestnuts, and framed by important hotels, shops and residences, leads directly to the Cathedral. Up this avenue all strangers go immediately. After having heard that this is the finest cathedral in Northern Europe, people who have seen some of the other great cathedrals in England and on the Continent may be momentarily disap- pointed. To be sure, it is a large and handsome Gothic structure, but on a smaller and more modest scale than other world-famous ones. It has, however, an interesting history. Saint Olav died fighting for Christianity in 1030 and his body was taken to Troiulheim and a wooden church was built over his grave. Later, King Olav Kyrre ordered a stone church to be built on the site of the first wooden one. It was begun in Roman style in the eleventh century and finished in Gothic style in the fourteenth, and the material was greenish-grey soapstone. Five fires, a Swedish capture, a storm which blew down the great tower and successive restorations have changed it consid- erably, judging from the early pictures which have been pre- served. I he nave is now heated by electricity and the rest bv steam. J Every visitor to Trondheim goes to see the cathedral, and if you happen to be in the city on Midsummer Eve, Christmas Easter, Pentecost, or King Olav's Day on June 29th, you may be surrounded by as many as 4,000 people gathered together. _ On such an occasion every pew and chair is filled, the aisles are jammed and the doorways crowded. While the organ peals, two deans ra rich vestments, and ten other deans in black gowns and narrow white wristbands, officiate. Even if you are not there on any of these great days, you.may see a wedding or a christening The cathedral was the first stone building in Norway, but irondheim remains the last large wooden city. Wood was not only the cheapest and most easily handled building material hut it was supposed to be warmer than stone and to make possible a more even temperature in this cold climate. There were so many fires, however, and they did so much damage, that about TO years ago a law was passed against any more building in wood within the city limits, and some of the oldest specimens were moved to the outdoor museum a few miles away. But there still survive wooden buildings from the fifteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, most, of them with carving arid other ornamentations around the doors and windows, and most of them painted white. You will recognize Trondheim's main intersection by four im- mense white houses, one on each corner. The largest of these was built by a widow who had the ambi- tion to own the biggest house in Norway. Her husband did not share her ambition, but after his death she proceeded to gratify it. The enormous house she erected has, since 1704, when Mar- shal Bernadotte came to occupy it, belonged to the King, and is called the King's Pa:lace. The royal family come here oc- casionally, and visitors are permitted to go through it. Although it is vast, it is very simple compared to royal resi- dences in other places. The wooden floors are painted and pol- ished, and the stairways and corridors and most of the rooms are painted white. The few carpets are a bit worn, there is no modern plumbing, and in the plain kitchen are two old-fashioned ranges. The audience chamber is simple and, according to the democratic custom of the country, any one who wishes to consult with the King can come in anil speak as one man to another. There are various rooms open to the public. In one hangs a portrait of the first King of Norway and Sweden, the Field Mar- shal Bernadotte, who had served under Napoleon. There is Dan- ish furniture and porcelain in the King's apartment, since he is of Danish origin. Since the late Queen was an Englishwoman, there is a fireplace in her white and gold tea room (the only fire- place in the house), and English murals brighten the walls. Another conspicuous feature of the city is a column in a central square with the Statue of Olaf Tryggvesson upon its top. Since he was a champion of the Cross, he is shown offering the fire of Christianity in one hand, but grasping a sword in the other. For liis method of converting his pagan countrymen was drastic. The old chronicles tell us that when he ascended the throne, he "made all men take up Christianity, and those who spoke against it he dealt with hard ; some he slew, some he maimed, and some he drove from the land." Olav Tryggvesson had been born into the royal family, and as an infant refugee smuggled across the water to Orkney. He was at various times a slave in Estonia, a ward of the Russian Court, a campaigner in Pomerania, and then the free-lance commander of There are several exceptionally interesting museums in.Trond- heim. In the Scientific Institute are very ancient dishes and platters and bowls and all kinds of vessels made out of wood. There are even pitchers made out of wood and bound with wood, and so well made that they are water-tight. So skilled were those old workmen that they made intricate wooden keys and locks, which worked satisfactorily, and ingeniously contrived wooden in- struments of torture and execution to be used on the criminal put to death on the Island of Monkshohnen centuries ago. The universal use of this material in the early days is further shown by a wooden pavement which was excavated from under Oun Lady's Church, and by wooden water pipes, from the 14th century. In the Marine Museum, in the same building, are wooden mod- els of wooden ships, as well as fragments of old wooden masts and rudders and wheels. The Royal Norwegian Scientific Society, which is the oldest one in the country, and dates from 1767, has its headquarters in Trondheim. There is also a Technical College, established in 1910. This has a mineralogical collection representing the Trond- heim area. A society named "Det Kongelige norske Videnskabers Selskab" has a fine Natural HrsTORr Museum, which is open to the public. It includes a zoological collection from the Trondheimfjord and the surrounding country. There is also a well-arranged mineral and botanical collection. The North- Norway Museum of Applied Arts has exceptionally attractive and varied collections of both national and foreign handicrafts. These are relics of the past, but present-day Trondheim does not live in the past. It is a progressive and prosperous city, with first- class hospitals, schools, shops, hotels, and business offices. In the suburbs are well-kept parks where people behave, in the quiet and orderly good manner which is characteristic of Nor- wegians, enjoying the grass and the shade, but careful not to mutilate or destroy anything, or to make any disturbance which might annoy others. The apartment houses, shops, and hotels are modern and, before the war, were kept in spick and span con- dition. These suburbs bring the city's population of 60,000 up to 80,000. Beyond the suburbs are intelligently managed farms and com- fortable farm-houses, with carefully tended livestock. AtLEiUFOos is abig electric power station which furnishes heat, light, and power to the whole countryside. Trondlieim is a pleasant city to stroll about in. The harbor, which is ice-free, and the water front which bor- ders it, are always busy, for in normal times ships from all over the world are coming and going. Another section which is cheerfully animated is farther back and extends on both sides of the canal. Here are ancient ware- houses, built on piles above the water. Over the bridge there is a constant stream of people walking or driving, in carts or, occas- ionally, in automobiles. Here are the sailmukers' and ship chandlers' shops, and sheds where boats are being refitted. There are coal and coke yards, fish canneries, and mills making wood pulp. There are other fac- tories making shoes from hides brought in from the country, and also cigar and cigarette factories. Even before the war, these last were small, but they supplied a fair proportion of Norwegian smokers. Trondlieim is small compared to Oslo and Bergen, but it is a busy, attractive, and important center for the whole county of Trondelag.