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Full text of "Pocket guide to the cities of Southern France"

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THE CITIES OF 
>UTHERN FRANCE 



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WAR DEPARrMENT . WASHINGTON, D. C 




POCKET GUIDE TO 



THE CITIES OF SOUTHERN 
FRANCE 



For use of Military Personnel only. Not to he 

Tepublis/icd, m whole or in part, without the 

consBTit of fhr War Department 



Prepared by 

ARMT IXFOKMATIOX BRANCH, 

IKFOBMATKJN' AND EUUCATICIX DIVISION, A. B. F., 

UNITED STATES ABMY 



ATTENTION 

About the only fliiiijr in tliiw liooklel tliiil cun be ftunriinteed is 
tbi- tcrniiu. Tlie rest of it is up lo tlie fortunes or iiiiwforlunes of 
wiir. Miiiiy of Ibe towns and cities described lu>rt' liave been 
bombed and shelled by us as we approached, and shelled by tbp 
enemy as he retreated. And many of tbeni will still show the 
nmrks of the deslniciioji vif^ited upon them when these lands were 
being conquered and occupied by the Germans. 

The slioi't historical luites and city plans concerning most of the 
towns are correct a.-^ of I lie outbreak of the war. Bui Ihe changes 
of war were si ill happening in many places when this pocke! guide 
went to pre.'is. 

Yon may find that art treasures described and located in these 
pages have been looted or destroyed, and it may be years before 
those that can he restored are sights (o see again. On Ihe other 
hand, some of them, by a stroke lA good fortune, may be left intact 
and you will be able to enjoy them. 



Ill 



And another thing; if some of these towns slionld be declared 
off limits, yun'fl bypass tlieni, of convse. Perhaps later, they may 
be open to you. 

Food and drink are discussed here, so that as times gLadiially 
return to normal, you may be guided in llie tastes and customs of 
ihe country. But be sure that yoii ;ire not encouraging a bhick 
liiorket 01- bringing liai'dsiiip to the native civilian population if 
you take advantage of wliat the town or I'egion has to offer. You 
will receive direction from the pi'oper authority in this matter. 

Anyhow, so far as your military duties permit, see as much as 
you can. You've got -i great uhance to do now, major expeuses 
paid, what would cosi you a lot of your own money after the war. 
Take advantage of it. 



CONTENTS 



I BtlRDEADX 1 

(.'ANNEa 11 

Caecasbonne 19 

I.tMOQES 25 

I..YON 31 

Marseille 39 



Monte Carlo 51 

Nice 55 

TfiuLON 59 

TOULODSK 69 

VicnT 81 



IV 



Areachon 



Cap Ferret 







Bergerac 



Angouleme.feris 



BORDEAUX 

The first time you ever lieai'd of BciiiDEArx was proliably when yon 
wcri' II kid and your dad was telling: aliuiit when he went t<i war. 
In AVorUl War I Hordeaus was one of eight American base ports 
in Fi'aiK'e. Tlie dofijb at Hassens near liordeaux were c"nstructPt4 
by the U. S. Ai-my Engineers. Bassens was also the port where 
Lafayette embarked fur America in 1777. 

'J'lie city of B(ir<lejiiix is iiol directly on the sea us yon might 
think when yon hjolc al a map. It is more like New Orleans on the 
MissisM|tpi, because the port i.s 60 miles soitflieaHt from the At- 
hintic up t!ie GiHONnr: Esitary and GAiioNNK Rivei:. By land, 
however, Bordeaux is only 30 miles east fn)m the Bay (if Biscay 
across the flat Jliuot: 1'k.n insula.. Its population before the war, 
263,(100. iuad(! it the fourth hirge.st city in France. 

Everybody knows what Bordeaux is famous fur — wine. 

The entrance lo the Giroiide Estuary is about 450 miles fi'oni 
Plymoiiih, (he iLcarest big Eiigli>,h port. Al Le Vpuidon on Pointe 
i»E GiiAVE, the southern portal of the estuary, is a luoiiuinent com- 



VI 



iiieniorntiiig the dppartiire of Liifnvftle lUii'iiiy the Revoliitioiiiu-y 
War and the laiuliitg of Anierit-ini soldiers 'm 1917. 

The dianiiel is narrinv and diflieuli for hii'ge whips. Good aii- 
duiriifre IB |)leiitifiil. From Le Verdoii where tlie esdiary is sis 
miles wide, it tapers iiikiul providing a port and f^paeious aiiehor- 
age at P.Ariij,.\c. 3l) tuiles upstream. A ehain of ishiuda extends 
for 15 mile^ iipsireani to the innemiosl i)oiiit of the estuary wliere 
the Giironne and the Dordocne rivers join, 

Bordeaux is 1-2 iiiile.s from that river jnnetion, and it is only 
three miles fnrtlier to liassens and its two miles of wharves. 

The eity of Bordeaux is bailt in a enrve alonir the west liank 
of the Giiro]nie. Quays and wavehon-^es line the shore iur fonr 
raUes. The- river here is about one-tliJrd of a mile wide. Aerosa 
the river is the suhurb of La Bastide whidi can be reuehod by 
bridge or ferry. 

The harbor i-an handle the largest seagoing ships, but smaller 
craft also carry the conHnerce of Bordeaux upstream on the Ga- 
ronne and over the Lateral and Midi Canals to the Mediterranean. 
Excnrsioji steamers also ply the river in suiiniier. 

Bordeaux has been a flourishing town since Eoman times. 
Then as Biirdigalait was a provincial capital. It endured ihej-oke 



and devastation of Vaiidiils, Visigoths, Franks, and Normans and 
its prosperity increased during tiie English occupation of Guyenne 
from 1154 to 14M. Liberties accorded to the town by the Eugiisli 
crown increased its eomnierce. and in 1451 when the French king. 
Cluirles Yll, cajjtui'ed Bordeaux and attempted to restrict civic 
liberties, the Bordelais welcomed the English with open anus when 
they returned in tbe battle of Caslilloii in 1453. 

Later Louis XI encouraged the citizens by organizing the par- 
liament of Guyenne and tiie UNivEKsrrr. Some of the monarch^ 
who came later were le.ss far sighted, As a result the Bordelais 
rebelled in 1548 against the "gabcUe." a f^irm of salt tax. During 
the 18th century, counuerce expanded greatly. Governors ap- 
pointed liy the crown spent a lot of money beautifying the city. 

In 1S70 the French government was tra"nsfprred to Bordeaux 
from Tours when the Germans were apjirtiacliing. Bordeaux 
again became the seat of French government when Paris was 
threatened by the Germans in August 1914. 

Around the Town 

The heart of modern Bordeaux is the Plage de la CoMiimE. 
Across from the Place is the Grand The-Itre built in 1753-80 and 



80i3iK8°— «- 



restored in If^8I. Ii is one of the Hiicst theaters in Frujivt^ witli u 
portico of 12 Coiiinliiiiii I'oluiiiiis. When llie yoveninioiit rctveated 
to Bordeaux in 18<(1. it was in this tlifiiter tJnil tlie Xationa] As- 
semhly conveiieil. 

The Pont de Bordkaux, also ciillfd the Pont de Pierre, for iiikiiiy 
centuries was looked n])on ns tlic Hnest hvu]gv in llie world. It 
was built of stone and brick in 1811)-21. It is .-.."iO yai'iU lon<r. 16 
yards wide and crosses tlio river in 17 bnpe arches. ' Y.m catrako 
cross Ihe Garonne ovei- (he raih'oad b)'id<>;e or on llio Pont Tr.\xs 
BoRDEDK far down>4lrca!n from the Pont dc Bordeaii.v. 
' Tlie limits of old Bordeaux are niai'kod by the Codhs Victor- 
I Hdgo. The old city did not extend in llie i.i'hcr dii-edion bcvoml 
Ihe Place dks Quinconcks. which was built on the site once oecii- 
pied by a castle. Tlic'Miuai'e is 42G yards long and 36U yards wide. 
The soiitliwcsf corner of ihc Place ile.s Qninconees opens into the 
Phice de la Conu'die. 
f The two main shopping sireet.s of Bordeaux aie the Comis dd 
CiiAPEAV-RtiuiiE and the Rue Sfk. Catherine, 

One of the liveliest scenes in Bortlcaux is the Alli^e.-; de Todrnt 
w-hich you can reach easily from the Pl,\ce des Quinconces. The 
Cours de Tourny leading out of the Allrea runs into the Plack 



(iAMBETTA. Here, during the Teri'of. there used to be a guillotine f 
which lopped oif Ihe beads of more than 300 victims. ' 

If you are of literary bent, yoit woit't want to miss the chief 
treasure of the library on the Rite Marly, next dooi' lo the Church 
OF NoTHE Dame, The library's big attraction is a copy of the ■ 
Essays of Montaigne, The author himself wrote in the footnotes i 
and marginal comments. The library also contains 200,000 books i 
and 3,940 unpublished manuscripts. 

The finest promenade in B(n'deaux is the Jardix Puulic laid out 
hy the Marquis de Toui-ney. The Jardin includes an EngHsh park 
and a well stocked b()tanical garden with large hothouses. The 
MosEUM OF Natural History here used to be the old Hotel de 
Lialefernie. 

From the Jardin PiiliUc you can leave by the southwest gate 
near the nuiseum and follow the Rueou Colisi^e to the Palais Gal- 
lien. The Palais is Ihe ruin of a 3rd centuiy Roman amphithea- 
ter. The structure was badly damaged during the Revolution, 
The Palais Gallien got its name from tbe P'lnperor Galliemis who 
died in 2(58, He was supposed to have founded the amphitheater, 

Thei-e are several churches and cathedrals in Bordeaux that 
ought tol)e worth your wbile. St. SEfniN, neai' the Palais (lallien. 



is a cJinrdi biiill on (lio r^ili' i.f an Cinlier rulliedral. Phii-ts of tlii' 
building tlutu from the 13tli lo l«i]i ceiitiirics. Across from ihe 
spacious square occupied by St. Scurin is ilie Hortx de Ville. It 
was built between 1771-81. but was dcslroyed by fire. H was re- 
stored ill 1866. Tlie bnildinfr .sci-vcd as the Imperial Palace in 
1808 ami tlie I'oyul residence in 1S16. 
( One of the Iw.'^l (iotliic churclics in soullicrn France is the Cathe- 
; URAL OF St. Andhe, You can reach it from the Pont de Bordeaux 
by the Coiirs Victor-Hugo. Another (Jothic edifice is the church 
of St. Michel. Il is near Ihe river a little above ihe Pont de 
Bordeaux. The hell tower of .'^l. Michel is 360 feet hish. the hijrh- 
est ill southern France. The i-pire was built in 1472-92. but a gale 
destroyed it in 1768. It was rebuilt in 18G1-9 and has been 
strengthened by six buttresses, so don't hesitate to make a trip up 
into the tower if yon get a chance. 

The cliurcb <if Ste. (.'roix is in the artisan quarter southeast of 
St. Michel and was once the chapel of a powerful Benedictine abltoy. 
Ste. Croix was founded in the 7th cenlm*y. rebuilt in Roman- 
esque style in the 10th ccniury. altered ^vcral tinuv. and re- 
stored to its i^resent condition in the l!)tli centnry. The Rue 



Sti^. Citoix takes you between the churches of St. Miehel and Ste. 
Crrii X. 

Enicrlaimnent should be no problem in Bordeaux. There are 
many theaters' and music hails, and al the Areiies du Bouscat be- 
yond the Pare Bordelais you can see plays, bull fights and horse 
races. There is another race track at Valence on the road to 
Gradignau. 

Bordeaux Wine 

The UKJst beautiful sight for a thirsty soldier would be froiti the 
middle of (he Pont de Bordeaux. There you l(«>k out over the_5'^ 
miles of quays and know that there ai'e nioi'e wine cellars in that" 
river curve than anywiiere else in the world. 

Xext" to the wine cellars, Bordeaux's biggest [irodttction centers 
are the shipyards where boats are built and refilled. Tlie two in- 
dnslries go hand in hand l>eeause ships Jiave carried more and 
betler wine onl i»f liordeaux (han froiii any other port. 

All wine which comes from Bordeaux is not necessarily '"Boi'- 
deaux wine." For the last 7U0 years the mereliants of Bordeaux 
have been shelling mil a iol of cash to make that naiLLe mean .some- 
lliing. The lawyers of Bordeaux have shown a lot of ingenuity 



in trying to decid*! wliidi wines were and which were not entitled 
to the use nf that name. On Febniiiry 18. 1911, a natidnal law 
was passed whiuli said that the only wines which can he sold as 
■'Boi-deanx wine" are ihiwe made fi'om grapeh gathered within the 

GlHONDE DkFABTHENT. 

The Gironde Department is an area named after the Gironde 
Esliiary. Before the wai' llie Department was lui'ningont moir 
than 84,000,(1011 jfalluns nf wine a year — al! of it "Bordeanx wine." 

The best Bordeaux wines are made from the vineyarils of a par- 
tictihirly good estate, and they are always sold under the name of 
(heir native estate. If you want to order the finest of all Bordeaux 
wines, here are a few of them : Chateau Lafite, Chateau Marganx. 
Chalean Latour, Chateau Haut Brion, Chateau Ausone, and 
Chateau Yquem. 

Tile better ehiss of Bordeaux wine is hidden away in a cask fur 
three or more years before it is bottled. After that, the longer it 
is in the bottle, the better everyone will tell you it is. 

Bordeaux wines are bottled either "'at the ehateau" in the cellars 
of the estate where the wuie is made, or "at Bordeaux" by the Bor- 
deaux merchants, or in any part of the world by the dealers who 
import their wines in casks and bottle it themselves. 




A;(,- 



CANNES 

If yon should liuppen to draw smuo duty in, or maiiiige to visit, 
Cannes, you'll be kickiiifr around in one of tlie oldest luid most 
aristoci'iilic resorts alouff llie entire Riviera. For 110 years 
Cannes lias been a fashionable vacation spot foi' geTieralions of 
Europe's wealthiest people. The city is 85 miles east of Marseille 
and 17 miles southwest of Nice. 

The origins of Cannes go back to llie Greeks and the Eomans, 
but even as late as 1763 no one would have been able to predict 
(h-at it would one day be the fashionable gathering-place it has 
bK'oniejy'"Tn that yeai' the British novelist Tobias Suiollelt visited 
Canne.s and described it as "a little fishing town agreeably situated 
on the beach of the sea." Tiie I'eal "tli?^i-ovci'er" of Cannes was 
Lord Brougham, Lord Chaneclior of England in 1831, and it came 
about by chance. He was on liis way to Nii^e, tJien belonging to 
Sardinia, and he was refused pei'inission to cross the fi-ontier 
because of a small epidemic of cbolera. He decided to wait at 
Cimnes, fell for its iiatui-al beauty, and built himself a villa there. 
This bi-ought the village ijito notice. The people of Cannes know 



10 



eosjss'-^i- 



11 



whiit Lord Bruiifrliitm did for tlieir city. Tliey erected a statue 
to liis memory in tiie Allee ue la LiBEJiTE. 

The modern city is on a broiid sweepinjr curve of coast witli 
Cap de la Croisette to the cast, aiid a small jiill. Mont Chevalieh. 
to the west. The old milled towji, called Aeg/tna, is built on Mont 
Chevalier. On lop of the height which projects into the sea are 
a church nnd an old chateau. At the eastern base of the hill is 
the harbor. In peacetinie it was used mostly by pleasure yachts 
iind fishing craft. Vessels drawing more than 18 feet must, 
heave to aboxit 300 yards beyond the jetties which ring the inner 
harbor. 

The wide Proso^nade de u Csoisette, lined with palm frees and 
scores of hotels, borders tlie sea. Jlost of the principal hotels are 
closed all summer. 

Mountains along the coast here recede far enough from the 
shoi-e to leave room for a broad inland zone which has as many 
hotels and villas as the beach strip itself. These foothills of the 
Maritime Alps protect the Riviera resorts from cold north winds. 

Before the war Cannes was the European center for polo, 
horse-racing, yachting, tennis, and sea bathing. Tile city's 
Municipal Casino, where the Promenade de la Croisette begi'ns, 

12 



contains a theater', gaming rooms, ball room, and restaurant. 
Symphony concerts wei-e always a reguhir jiart of the casino's 
schedule. Horse races were held at the Pl.\ine de la Napule in 
January and February. Spring and summer were the seasons for 
yachting regattas. 

At the west end of the Allee. where the Lord Bi-ougham statue 
stands, is tlie Hotel de Ville wiiji the Mus]':i-: Kithsciiild upstairs. 
Steep sireets and a flight of stcjjs lead uji frfim the Hotel de Ville 
to the highest part of the Old Town and the church of Notre- 
Dame 1)k l'Espkrance. completed in 1648, Behind the church is 
the 70- foot TouHDTiMoxT-CriEVALiKii, built between H)70and 138,'), 

The jetty hounding and tlie hai'bor on the east is the .Tetke 
Albert Edouard, named in honor of the Prince of Wales who vpaa 
gi'andfather of the present Duke of Windsor. Motor launches 
will take yon from the Jeteeto the islands of Ste. Marguerite and 
St. Ho nor at. 

On Sle. Marguerite is the fort built by Richelieu where you can 
see the bare ceil in which the "Man in the Iron Mask" was im- 
prisoned by Louis XIV for 11 years. Nobody has ever been able 
to establish who the masked prisoner was, but there are plenty 
of theories. Some of them are that he was the twin brother of 



13 



Louis XrV. the illegitiiiiiite son of Lmiis XIV. ur ilie swi nf Oliver 
Cromwe]]. In any case, his mask was not iion at aU, but silk or 
velvet. 

You may fin.I the smaller islnml. St. Honor^t, even more inter- 

esliiig. The conveiit m rhis island was fi.unded in 410 by Saint 

Honoratiis, and legt-mj hits i( that one of his early iiioiiivs was Saint 

, Patrick, the same Saint Patrick who later drove the snakes ont of 

yj' Ireland. 

On the sonth coaf^t of St. Hmxn'iU is an old castle, built in 10S8, 
which was once fortified to protect ihe people who lived there from 
pirates, 

Anlibes Not Far Away 

^ Ahoul half way between Cannes and Nice is the smaller re-wrt 
city of Antihes. The prewar population of Cannes' year-roinul 
residents was about 50,000. while ihat of .\nfihes was about 14,000. 
The town was formerly fortified, but all the ramparts except old 
Fort Carre have been demolished. 

Antibes lies between two little bays on the Gulf of Xice and on 
the west side of Cap d* Antibes, a two-mile-long peninsula. Its re- 
sort areas were always considered less exjjensive than those of 

14 



Cannes and Xice, The name Antibes comes from the word Anti- 
'/loJ/'-i. nieaning "faciii;: the city"' (of Xice). The community was 
founded about 3411 B. C. 

Antibes liarboi' is jirolected by a mole 6-20 yards long. The cape 
is ci-ossed by the Avenue Ai.bert-Premiei{. On Ihe Boeilevabd 
Notre-Dame in La Cvbout'e. a ■240-f(iot hill witii an ancient chapel 
and lifrhtln)nse which is famous for its view. 

Not far from Cannes, a miU' inland in the oi>piisite direcliion 
froTU Antibes, is Fhljtjs. This town of about 9,1100 was the naval 
stronghold of the Caeaaj-s in Roman days. Although Arabs and 
Barbary corsaii-s raided the old Roman arsenal iind reduced it to 
ruins, there are still -.oine evidenrcs c,f the ancient c-am]>. Among 
them are coastal ramparts, an amphitheater, and an aqueduct. 

Two-miles east of Frejus is St. Raphael, the point of Xaptileoa's 
arrival on retui'n fronj Egvi't in 1799 and his point of departure 
for Elba in 1814. 

Orange groves grow neai' Cannes in sight of suo\v-Ciip|)ed peaks, 
and there are many acres of olive trees. The priueipal product 
of the area, however, is flowers for the production of perfume in 
the 30-odd perfume factories of Grasse, 12 miles from Cannes. 



15 



Where Perfume Is Big Business 

Slost ol- lliL' an.OOO p.j])iil;iUoii of Gi'iisse used to lie working in 
the perfimu' iliatillei-ics or e;iriiiy ftii' ilu' e'2.000 acres of violets, 
jonqiiila, roses, migiioiielte, iasmiiie. tuberoses, and ciiniatioii. 
The old section of Grasse is a tangle of wimling steep streets prac- 
tically uneliunfred from the IStli ceiiiury, bnt modern Gra^se hits 
ils casino with graining I'ooins. llicater, iind restaurant. Tlie main 
center is llie I'homknadi: no Couhs. 

Gi'asse is the birthplace of Jean Honort^ Fnigonard. 18th ceii- 
tnrv painter, and in (he 1)oitlev.\iid Fragoxakd is a mnseinn con- 
taining some of iiis original works. 

Historians don't agree on the origins of Grasse. Some say it 
was foinided by Cnissns in the 1st i-entnry B. C. and others eluini 
it was settled by a colony of Sardinian Jews in the 6th eentnry. 
In any case, it rose to commercial iinp'irlancc early, was sucked 
by llic Saracens in the 9th cenlnry. and hecame aii iTidependent 
comiiinnc in the 12th century. 

Although Gras.'-e is some miles inlaiHl. you get a good virw of 
the sea from the Promenade dii Cours.' The hospital in the 
Bimi.Ev.vrn Victor Hroo has three early works by Rubens. The 
busiest street in town is the Boui.kv.u(d' nu Jel--1)k-B.\luix wliich 
16 



begins at the casino and leads nortli to the Placi': de l^v Foux. 
Foux is a local term for a s]»riiig, and water useii by the perfume 
distilleries oonie.s from the "fou.\'' here. The city's drinking water 
comes for a long distance through a conduit fnmi a stream called 
the Fonlon. 

The flower fields produce an anmnil hai'vest of 3.3(10,000 pounds 
of roses, and 4.440,0111) pounds of orange blossoms. Visitors are 
jieriniMed in some of the perfuuLcries. and if yon locik in on one 
you'll find out it takes almost six tons of roses to make one pint of 
sweet-smelling essence. Two pounds of orange blossoms will 
squeeze out only one ounce of es.sence. 

Grasse has another specialty — flowei-s and fruits crystallized in 



^7 




IB 



CARCASSONNE 

Take it from those v/ha kimw nljout wiirii tilings, you can ramble 
llu' li'ii^th and breadth of Eiii-ope and you'll never find another 
example of medieval fortification thai citii toucli (lie l.^tli-century- 
old CiTii DE C.\m.'AsS(.iNXE. It is almost perfectly preserved as a 
likeness of the fortified life of t!ie Middle Ages. 

There's ii town there, too. of aboin :j5,ri00 population, hut itV 
the massive old fortress on the hilt thai takes your eye. Sometime 
in the 5lh century the Vi.-^igotlis took over the old Roman settle- 
ment called Carcase and fortified its strategie height which com- 
mands a half dozen passes in the Pyrenee,';. They erected tiie Cite 
on the ruins of ramparts the Komaus themselves had thrown u|i. 
Inside, it was possible lu gai'risun 4.1)00 men within tlie duuhle set 
of encircling walls. When the fortifieations were completed over 
!i period of several hundred years, every enemy who took a look 
at the Cite decided it must be impregnable, so i( went for several 
hundred more years without even being besieged. 

In our time nut more tliat 1.000 people are living in the Cit^, 
and theii's is a life of poverty. You can expect to see peasants 



805438"— 44- 



19 



milking goats or wiisliiiig clolheK before the doors of hovels set in 
the rock battlements of old medieval towers. The streets of tiie 
old town are narrow and desolate, a contrast to those of the Ville 
Basse or Lower Town which grew up later and has handsome 
modern bnildings in its 13th century hines and streets. 

The Aude River tlows between tliese two very different towns 
ihat make up Carcafisonne. The Ville Basse s(retches along the 
low-lyiiig left hank. On the opposite bank rises the solitary hill 
brisliing with the towers of the Cite. As restored by Viollet-le- 
Dtie. the Cite is regarded as one of the architectural marvels of 
France, and it is a sm-e stopping place for archaeologists, artists, 
and tourists. 

The real begitming of the Lower Town was a popular uprising 
against French rule in l:i40. All the town ai'ound the Cite was 
burned to the ground and buihling was forbidden tin that side of 
the river again. Seven years later settlers were allowed to make 
a connnunity on the low ground on the left bank. 

Nowadays, Carcassonne still has a reputation for an old clotli 
industry which is ulnio^t extinct. The eity is an important wine 
jnarkct and the vineyards, almost solid for GO miles to the citv of 
Beziers, are the chief source of prosperity. The Canal dd JIiui 

20 



I 



passes Carcassonne anil gives transportation to its wine produce, 
tanning and leather dressing, manufactured farm tools, corlis, bar- 
rels, and preserved fruits. The Canal dti Midi connects at Tou- 
louse with the Lateral Canal of the Garonne, giving walerwny 
access from Bordeaux to the Mediten'aneaii. 

That faminis Freiicli delicacy, pdti' '}'• foi-i (/ra--'. tastily prepared 
goose liver, is plentiful in these parts, as are game pies of other 
waler-fowi. Ducks and geese like this section of the Aude. 

The main business street of Carcassonne is the Rue de Georres 
Clemenceau winch runs from the railroad stalion. past the 
church of Notke-Dame-des-Carmes to the Pi^ace Carxiit. the 
heart of the city's life. 

Near the inlersection of the Rue de Ciemenceau with the Rue 
du Quatre-Septembre is the 15th century church of St. Vixcent 
with au octaguuai tower where you can climb 248 steps and have 
a first class view of the Clle and the Aude Valley, There is a 
museum on the Bottlevaiu) dd Muske. Its long suit is painlings. 

You shotdd plan to visit the Cite'early in tlie morning, when the 
stained glass windows catch (he best light. It is possible that the 
hotel once opei'aled there is again nvailidile for meais uv an ovci- 
night stop. There has never been any restriction on cameras at 

21 



tbe Cite, so you'll Imve a chance to shnot esnmples of the develop- 
ment of niilittiry fortification from tlie 5tli to the 14tli ceiUury. 

The tloiiblc belt i>f walls is ilcfendecl by 52 round and square 
lowers. The iiirgest opening in almost a mile of outer wall is ihe 
NAiiBoxyE Gate. Once lines of kniiihts in armor and processions 
of royalty mai'ched fi'oni the Ville Basse across the eight arches of 
the ISth cenlury bridge and throti-rli the Narbonne Gate, The 
PoRi-E d'Atjde. iipi-iiing westward on the side of the river, is avail- 
able if you're walking only. The Narbonne Gate admits vehicles. 

The inner wall, 1,200 yards long, and the outer wall, l,(i40 yards, 
ftre separated by a zone ii.4Ually about S yards wide. I'his space be- 
tween was called /Ar* and was used by the knigiita for outdoor 
sports and Jousting matches. 

In the south part of the Cite is the former cathedral of 
St-NazAire, rebuilt from an older structure from the 11th to 14th 
centuries, (hen restored again after 1X40. Before you leave, you 
should also make an inspection inside the castle wi'lhin the walls. 
It was built abont 1125. Take a good look at it and consider the 
fact that it was used as a barracks by the French Ai-niy until 1!)20. 



I 



22 




24 



LIMOGES 

LiMCKJES received its iiiiine t'l'oiii ii Gnllic tribe who uyed to live one 
mile duwu the Vieiine. When ihe Kimians came, they built a town 
iistride tlie river wliere t!ie Pont St-Martiai. Htaiids today. 

When CierniiiM barbarians hit Limoges, they found the inhahi- 
taiits aJI walled ii]) in a fori which stood where Ihe ealiiudral 
St. EriKNNE is now hx-ated. 

Saint Martial bronghl Christianity to this phice. His name is 
venerated by the devout eiti/.ens. Tlie most pi-ominent dnirch in 
Limoges, ST-XficnEL-DE-LKONs, is eonseci-ated to him. Half the 
chilib'en of Limopes are named "'Martial'' aftei' him. The saint's 
iiead and otlier relies ui'e kept in the church. An abbey stood on 
Ihe same spot in tlie lOtb century, bnt the present chnrcli dates 
from tlie l.'dh century. 

There are many other Catholic churclies in Limofres; all of them 
with their distinctive Romiinesc|ne. Gothic and Renaissance arch- 
itectural features. Any "padre" can point these out lo you. If 
you don'l liave this informalion alrcaily, (lotliU- design means 
high, pointed arches, steep roofs, flying buttresses, windows large in 

as 



! 



|)roportioii to the wiill s|>;u'(', ainl liivish use of laceliko. oriitinifritiil 
cacviiijl. Ri>ni<'iie«i/ii6 ifl iiKler (Wfoi'e llie !2(li (■ciitury). In this 
hlyle, lurliPs ;iro riiund, iiirilead uf poinlod. Eoniiiiiesqui? clnii'tjlies 
iire more cmiipactly and mure plainly bnilt tliaii Cothic. Renais- 
sance is a Inter fashion Hiaii either Gothic or Romanesr[ne, but is 
more like tho latter, since it was ehai'acteristic of the Renaissance 
to gel bai^k to the simple, cunipai'atively unadornetl style of the 
(ireeks jtnd Romans, Better visit the Jesuit fathers at the Lycee 
Gat-Lttssac, near the Place .Tourdan in Linjojres : periiai)^ they can 
point out to yon these designs in one of the many clmrches round 
ahoiil. All over France, youll see churches. You might as well 
start to leani their fine pi)iiils while you ace in LioKjges. 

Wliih) yi>n are hitting in a side-walk cafe in the Place JouiiOAN. 
or its neighboi', the Place ue lv KKPDiiLimjE. -iipping a liglit wine, 
you may get the idea that you would like to remain there forever. 
This would not he uii uiuuitufal thought, for Limrjgea if^ likealile. 
Only 90,000 people; equally distant from Paris, Bimlcaus and 
Marseilles; in a climate cool and fre.'^h; among people with a good 
French accent and a quaint p'lti'iK all their own — here is a nice 
out-of-the-way place with a fair-somithiig name. 



36 



But if you'll get off yonr chair and meander through the narrow, 
winding streets-, yonr eye, if it is already curious, and your French, 
if it is courageous, will afford you more adventui-es. 

Home of That Porcelain 

Porcelain pottery, for example, is the whole show in tliis town — 
and always has been. There i^ a factory out beyond Gare des 
Hkxicdiltins; before the war it was guarded like a munitions 
plant, so valuable are the trade secrets in the arts of porcelain 
manufacture and its associated art, enameling. If you don't have 
any luck there, yon can try a hundred other places. 

Limoges has produced its own special enamel. Arti.^tic designs 
in white paint on a bhie-painted background (sounds simple 
enough, but it's tricvky) is the general meaning of "Limoges 
enamel." 

The most famous enamelers {emaiUeura) of Limoges lived as 
long ago as the 15th century. Leonard Limousin and his descend- 
ants were famous craftsmen; another family, tlie Penicauds, also 
won renown for themselves and for Limoges at this work. You 
can see samiiles in the Musee -Vdrien Dcbbouche. 



BOrnaa' — 14- 



27 



While you have the name Liuiousin in inind, you migUt like to 
knew what it means in relation to our word tnv a swank car. It 
seems there is a connection, but it's waywnvcl, like all words in 
any language. 

In olden times, the region aroinid Limoges v/as known as 
Liiiuiiwin. The word meant, originally, a long shepherd's clonk. 
Eventually, its meaning was extended to describe a closed auto- 
mobile. 

Another fine art whicli Frenchmen call orfevreri-e — ^tooling with 
gold, so to speiik, is an old lipecialty in Limoges. There's a story 
about the family MashaiTcaux, expert, jewelers : they had to report 
at the T'uMenes in Paris at the request of Henry IV. Those were 
the days when royalty scouted the landscape for artists and crafts- 
men. Rural towns like Limoges were usually the lowers. The 
best porcelain vases, tJie best enumel work, and the best gold en- 
gravings — all were whisked away to Paris. 

A final word, perliaps disappointing, is that Limoges is not a 
wine country. The ground nnderneath is granit.e, and this type 
of soil provides china-clay for poi-celain, rather tlmu good soil 
for grapes. 



2a 



But the people of Limoges are prospei-ous enough to import 
wine from nearby regions like Bordeaux, if necessary. As a 
matter of fact, there used to be 35 distillei'ies of fine liqueurs in 
Limoges. 

And before you leave, be sure to visit the Rue de la Boucheeie 
where every butcher is named Malinvaud, This is the stningest 
alley in Limoges. It is jammed with butcbei- sliops which have 
been thei'e since the 10th century. 



29 



ClermoiTl-rerrand Boanne Mrmlms VMfefranctij Macan Oi|afi 

"is^^ _LjF'^^ Ilyon 




Bourgoin , Chamberj. Grenoble Cremieu 



30 



LYON 

Lyon, with n population of over a half million, is the second city 
uf iiK.lu.'strial iiii]jori ancc in Fiaiiue. It way riiiiiided by ihe Gauls 
as Lugdujiwm and was an important place even when Caesar took 
it over and wrote hi? travel hook. In fact, a couple of the natives 
of the town were the Emperors Marcus Aui'elius and Claudius. 
Nero. Trajan, and Hadriau liked the city as a vacation f^pot. 
Lyon was sat'ked by the Huns and the Visjfroths who destroyed 
mueh of the Roman construction. In the 8tii centin^ it was cap- 
tured by the Saracens, but Charlemagne took over later and the 
city spent a fairly quiet .Middle Ages. The introduction of the 
silk industry from Italy, under Francis I, increased the wealth 
and industrial prestige. The Jncquard loom, which increa.sed pro- 
duction, was invented by a native, Joseph Jacquard. The great 
Louis Posteiu' entered the picture during the last century when 
the silkworms upon which the entire indnsti-y depends began to be 
ravaged by some strange disease. Pasteur wa.s called in and. ai- 
thoufrh he had never seen a silkworm before, within throe months 
had found a way to prevent I he disease. 

31 



Asiile from being the Ifuding aitk iiuiiiLifiictiirL' center in the 
world, Lyon is the heudqiiartei-ji for one of the lai-fiest banking 
chains in France. Lyon manufactures hats, boots, jewelry, and 
liqueurs. In addition, there are dyeworks, foundries, glass-works, 
potteries, tanneries, breweries, chemieal plants, and printing es- 
tablishments. Lying at the junction of the Rhone and the Saone 
rivers, both navigable, and on the highways and railways which 
connect Paris, Marseilles and Bordeaux with Switzerland and 
Italy, it handles or maiiufactuies tuaiiy of the products going 
betwe-eii these points, 

The central section, lying on the point of land between the 
rivers, contains the business district. On the east bank of the 
Rhone is the modeni industrial suburb of La Guillotiiilre. The 
ancient mediaeval town I'ises from tlie west bank of the Saone on 
the -Steep slopes of Fourvikre hill. 

The older section is made up of narrow, crooked streets which 
wind up the hill between crowded buildings. On this slope 
is tiie Cathedr^u, of St. John, a Gothic edifice of the 12th century. 
Farther up the hill is the Chttrch of Nothe Dame. This is a mod- 
ern building, bill it is built on the site of the Formn Vetus which 
was erected by Trajan. Beside it is a tower whieli is 680 feet above 

32 



the Saone, and from which you may be able to see Mont Blanc, 
100 miles away, if the weather is right. On the other side of 
Fourviere is the church of St. Irenaeus. It, too, is a modern 
structure, but it is bnilt over a crypt repnied to have beeu the scene 
of the massacre of 19,000 Christians in 202 A. D., by order of Sep- 
timius Severus. 

Lower down on the opposite bank of the Saone is the 6th century 
church of the Abiiet or Ainat. Beneath the sacristy, and extend- 
ing beneath the bod of the river, are the lightless and airless dun- 
geons in which early martyi-s used to wait their fate. 

The Htmx be Viixe is cout^idered one of the finest buildings of 
its kind in all France. It faces (he Plage ov. Terri:atjx. Its two 
central courts are divided by an arcade. The main facade fea- 
tures an equestrian statue of Henry IV. In the vestibule you 
will find a pair of scnl]itured gi'oups l^y the Costoii brothers. One 
group represents the Rhone and the other represents the Saone. 

Industrial ond Art Exhibits Are Famous 

The JIcsee Historiqdb des Tisscs is really something. Every 
type and kind of fabric or woven material from the tir.st known 
stuff is displayed there, together with the method, whether by 

33 



hand or by machine, of wtiiviiig used in fabrication. Tlie exhibit 
starts with ancient Egyptian clotli and cnmes on down through 
tlie centuries to show the earliest wilks and the later methods of 
weaving figures into the fabric. Tapestries are displayed, too. 
So are various iiinds of carpets. In short, neai"Iy anything that 
can be woven is shown to you there. The Mvsee occupies the sec- 
ond floor of the Pal.ai8 du Commekce et de Bourse in the Rhe de 
La Kkfuuuque, The Pahiis is an imposing building on whose 
steps President Carnot was assassinated in 1894. during the Lyon 
exhibition. 

Opposite tlie Hotel de Ville is the Palais des Arts, a hirge build- 
ying wjiicb was built in the 17th and 18t.h centuries as the Bene- 
' dictine convent of St, Pierre. This miLseuni contains, or contained, 
a I'eally hue (.■ohection of paintings and statues, and interesting 
ancient relies. In this last category yon will find antique coins and 
medals, and the C'la-udian. Tabhs which record the concession made 
by the Emperor Claudius in 48 A. D., adinitling Roman citizens 
of Gaul to senatorial rights. Also in the antique collection are 
metal and glass work, enamels, pottery, and goldsmiths' work. 

Among the paintings you will find examjiles of the work of two 
local ai'tists who established large reputations for themselves, 

34 



Ernest Meissonier (181o-!)l) and Pierre Pnvis de Cliavnnnes 
(1824-98). There ai-e also pictures by such masters as Prud'hon, 
Delati-ois. Courbet, Millet, Greuze, Pahna Vecchio. Rubens, Peni- 
gino. Tintoretto. Andrea del Sarlo. iin<l many niliers. 

The spacious Place BriiJxxjTm is a public square 310 metres long 
and 200 metres wide. It is supposed to he one of the finest squares 
in Europe. Planted with chestnut trees, part of it is laid out in 
gardens surronnding fountains. An equestrian statue of Louis 
XIV occupies the center. Tlie statue is the masterpiece of 
Frederic Lemot, a native of Lyons, and was erected in 1S25. The 
buildings at the west and east ends wei'e built by order of Napoleon 
to replace those destroyed during the Revolution. 

The town library is one of the largest ainl most interesting in 
Pi-ance. It conJains nearly half a million volumes which cover 14 
kilometres of shelves. Wiich is a lot of books. However, there 
are many ancient mamisevipts fi-om the Middle Ages. These rnan- 
nscripts are colorfully illuminated. The library also contains 
some of the most precious editions of the works of the Lyonese 
printers whose names liave been famous in the histoid of typog- 
i-aphy since 1743. 



mM4a8' — 14- 



35 



The Pabc de la Tetb D"Or is situated on the Blione river. The 

pi-incipiil entriitiL-e is through a fine wroughl iron gate. This bea.u- 
tifiil park contains zoohigical and botanical gardens as well as 
pleasant walks among the trees. At the norlheast end of the lake 
there is a chalet where refreshments may be obtained. 

The Grand Theatre was built in the 1820's on the Place de la 
CoMEDiE. It has recently Ijeen completely redecorated and u re- 
volving stage, designed by Girane, has been built in. lliis theatre 
is used mostly for operatic productions. Moi'ie theatres may be 
foimd alt over town. 

If billiards interest you, the Saub Rameatt features one of the 
finest billiard rooms in France. And there used to be a season 
of pretty good horse racing at the Ghand Chamts. But if you 
prefer golf, try the Lyon Golf Club at Montlodis. 



36 



LaPomrTie. Bnqnoles.fliee 



Aubagne, Toulon 




38 



MARSEILLE 

You probably Tiever lieiird of the "Battle Song of tho Rhine Army/' 
but if anytnie liums La Marskillaise, y'ni'll spark beciiuse it's one 
uf the best known pieces of music in the worlil. 

You won't have to be aromid Marseille loii^ to understand bow 
its name got tied onto the French national anthem and stuck, even 
though the song was written in the city of Strasbourg. 400 miles 
away, Rougot de Lisle, a French captain of engineers, scratched 
it off overnight in April 1792 and he called it the Battle Song of 
the Rhine Army. 

But the MarKeillais— the hot-lieaded. liberty-loving people of 
Marseille — started singing de Lisle's words and music, and when 
troops from the city headed for Paris during the French Revolu- 
tion they shouted the song with such enthusiasm and intensity that 
it has been known ever after as La Marseillaise. 

That episode is an example of Ihe enrnestnesB which has made 
Marseille not only one of the world's most persistent battlers for 
individual freedom but the greatest commercial port on the Med- 
iterranean and the second city of France. 

39 



Don't l]e rubbed the wrong way if the Miirseillais seem to be 
niort. hot-headed and tmichy than other Frenchmen. Tliey are a 
fiery lot, proud of their city, and they've been scrapping for it 
sine* 600 B. C. 

Before this war Mai-seiUe had a population of ahuost a milliou 
and a tradition of seagoing commeroe dating back to when the city 
was a Greek out|iost and the rival of Carlhjtge on the trade routes 
of the Mediterranean. Even the name, Marseille, comes from 
Ciie old Greek MuxsaUa, Wars knocked the city around for sev- 
eral hundred yeai-n and it was conquered once by Julius Caesar 
in 49 B. C. After the Roman Empire went on the skids all the 
nearby powers tried to grab otl' Marseille — the Goths, Burgun- 
ditms, and Franks. In 735 the .Saracens stormed in and destroyed 
all the ancient monuments which were still left, and about 200 
yeai-3 later it fell under domination of the Counts of that part of 
France known as Provence. The city was annexed to France 
proper in 1481 but still battled on for its ancient liberties, right 
on through the French Revolution and to this day. The plague 
swept Marseille sei-eral times. The worst, year was l72t>-21 when 
40,000 victims were carted olf to conunon burying grounds. Dur- 
ing W(U'ld War 1 part of the harbor was set aside for a British 



40 



base and Indian. Australian, and African troops passed through. 
After the armistice an American embarkation port was set up 
in Mai-seille. 

A city with a history like that is bound to have strong convic- 
tions on both politics and economics. Marseille's Chainhrc de 
G&mmei'ce. for instance, was organized in 1650, and the city cele- 
brated its 2500th birthday clear back in 189i). A lot of important 
things you'll see around Marseille are there because of the C'htmbre 
de Commerce: the Stock Exchange, 15 miles of docks, the 4^-mile 
KovE Tunnel, and the huge Marionane air base. 

Mai^seille began to make its mark in modern commerce after 
the expansion of France into colonies in North Afi'ica and the 
opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. From a 70-ncre inlet the 
port of Marseille ha« been constructed into a 500-acre deep-water 
anchorage where sliips of all nations of the woi'ld called before 
the war. A 3i^-mile jetty protects the harbor, containing 10 
separate basinsyif you're out for exercise and the MP's are agree- 
able, the jetty makes a spectacular iiike. It rises sonietimes 95 feet 
above the sea. 

The Rove is the biggest maritime tunnel in the world. Marseille 
is 25 miles from the Rhone, the most important French river 

41 



flowing into the Mediiernintini; hiit this tiimiel iimkes it pussible 
for boat* to tnivel all tlie way from Mai-seille over inliiiKl water- 
wtiys to Calais, on the Eiifrllsli Channel, a distance of 875 miles. 
Take u ghmce al the map and you'li see how many limes shorter 
that is than going iiroimd Spain and up the Atlanlic Coast. This 
Rove Tunnel wna blasted thrnnfrh the I'ock nioimtain of L'Estaque 
to make connec-iions with a ismall iidand sea called the Bn-re. Tlie 
tminel is 47 feet high anil 72 fi'et wide and the water nioning 
through it is 13 feet deep and 49 feet wide. That will handle a 
pretty good sized craft. It took from 1911 to 1027 to build the 
tunnel. 

From the Berre a 50^4 -mile canal connects wilh the Rhone River 
at the city of Ai-les. Before we moved in on Marseille many 
reports leaked oiil that the French undergmund had tried to 
sabotage the Rove Tunnel and the Rhone Canal to keep the Ger- 
mans from iising ihem. 

It was between the two world wai-s that Marseille became the 
biggest and busie.st port in the Mediterranean. In an average 
(lay. ."iO passenger liners and cargo ships from al! parts of the 
world would put in at Marseille. On the streeLs you would inn into 
people of every race, color and nationality. The harbor doesn't 



*2 



look the same now. Tlie Nazis dismantled and shipped away a lot 
of equi])nient, and built submarine pens. MurseiUe ».sed ti> be 
one of the Gennans' rende-zvous points for convoys to the Italian 
front. 

The most colorful part of Marseille was always the old section 
of town which rises np above the harbor. For hundreds of yeai-s 
these narrow, twisting streets and dingy buildings were the hide- 
away for criminals, and police were, almost never able to rout them 
out. Tourists who wandei-ed around there, however, never realized 
that for every outlaw the Old Town housed .'K) honest fishermen. 
NoDctheless. the advice always has been not to go sashaying around 
in that neighborhood by yourself at night. 

In January 1943 German troops surrounded the section and 
yelled for everyone living there to show himself. They rounded 
up 40,000 people and marched about half of them GO mil&s away 
to a mmcentratioii camp. They ransacked all the houses, pillaged 
all usable fixtures and melal.tiien laid a siring of dynamite charges. 
On February 1 they cracked it. H(imes, shops, churches, and 
ancient landmarks were blasted into rubble. 

Berlin explained it this way: "We had to clear tlie city of an 
ugly stain and build a clean district wliere once hung a false halo 



43 



of jipache niiiumtii'iHin," Whatever else the liyiiinniting sicoiiin- 
plislied. it gave the Genniins space for harbor det'eiisies ami knocked 
out a lot of good hiding places for the underground. 

After centuries of destvtiction by invaders, witii the handiwork 
of the Nazis as a climax, it is no wonder that Marseille, one of 
the oldest cilies of Western Europe, has few dassicaj or medieval 
remains of any importance. The funiout: Marseillais poet Mery 
almost bit it on the head when be said, "'There are only two monu- 
ments here, but they are magnificent : the sea and tbe sky," 

The oldest structure in the ciiy is the blackened sloiie .A.BBEr of 
St, Victor, just oil the Eoule\-ard de la CohderU':;. Fortified 
towers of tbe old church remain, dating back to the 13th cenliiry. 

One of the largest cburcbe.s built during the 1800's is the Roman- 
ByziintJne Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-jMajedre. Everybody calls 
it La Major iuv short. The cathedral is on a terrace northwest of 
Old Town. It was built between 1S.52 and 1893. The main sec- 
tion is \~i\) feet long with several domes, one of them 200 feet high. 
Inside you might still find a plaque commemorating the British 
killedin World Warl. 

'I'Jie jiiain intersection of town is at the Coubs St. Louis, where 
the Canebiere crosses the Cmirs Bel>iimce-Rue de Bams. The 



44 



^ 



Canebiere is the pride of the Mai-seillais. It is to their city what 
Fifth Avenue is to New Yoi'k and the Champs filysees is to 
Paris. They are so proud of their "main drag" that they'll tell 
you, "If Paris h.id a Canebiere. then it would he a little Marseille." 
The name of the boulevard comes from an old Greek word mean- 
ing '"lienip." It seems this fine-loolting thoroughfare used to be 
nothing more than a footpath thi'oiigh a hemp field, 
f If the Germans haven't destroyed or dismantled it for scrap iron,V 
, 'you'tt-wantto climb up into the towers of the Pont Tran.sbordedb. 
' This is a bridge spanning the Old Harbor, built in 1S105. The 
towei-K on either end are 282 feet high, aiul you used to be able 
to climb up a stairway to n height of 24.3)fee-t to take a look for 
one franc. The north tower had an elevator which would cost 
you 114 francs to ride up and a half-frane to ride down. There 
was a small eating place in the north tower also. 
' Tliis Transbordeur Bridge is not like any other bridge you ever 
saw. If it's still in operation you'll see passengers and vehicles 
borue across the harbor entrance only a few feet above the water 
on a platform suspended by long cables fi'om a powei'-cnrrier roll- 
ing on a track moi-e than SCHJ feet above you. It is 870 feet from 
shore to shore. 

45 



Aiiotlier good view of the liarbor is from flie Promenade Pieiuie- 
PuGET Gardens. Friim lliere you Jook uorthwfst across the Old 
Hiii'bor toward the long bre^ It water. If yoii want a still higliei- 
view, yoii can take a cable cav near the Bonlevard Notre-Dame 
up to within 275 yards of the most conspicuous- laiidmai'k in Mar- 
seille, the church of NfiTBE-DAME de la Garde. Iliis church and 
an old fort crown a 5:^5-foot limestone rock above the most aristo- 
cratic quarter of the city. Once upon a time, it Wiis the site of a 
medieval chapel and castle. The present church was built after 
1864. It has a belfry 1.^0 feet higli which can be seen from niileK 
out at sea. The path leading fi-om the end of the cable railway 
to the. church has two iong staircases. ■ Don't bother to count the 
steps: there are 140 to the terrace and 174 more from there to tlie 
church. They say it is really lUngeiwis to try to make it up there 
if there is any kind of wind blowing. 

The newest part of town lies nn the southeastern slope of thi? 
same ridge. There it is protected from the m/xtra!. Tins is a diy 
cold blast which sweeps down the Rhone Valley, The M;ii'seilliiis 
have it figured that the vuxfral comes most often iu the winter and 
spring and it will blow either three, six. or nine days without 
stopping. Sometimes it is impossible to stand up against its force. 

46 



If you're interested in old coins, you'll want to wander into the 
Pdulic LiflHAax on the Coun Jvlien not far from the Boulevard 
<taHb<d.di. Befoi-e the Gernuins came, one of the world's best col- 
lections of ancient coins was hei'e, and it nmy be uiit uncbcd. There 
is a good represenlalioii of modern sculptui'e and old and modern 
paintings on the catalogues of the Muske dbs Heatjx-Arts in Ihe 
Plai'e Benuix. Right next door is the Musedm of Natural His- 
TORr where you can nose arounil among fossils and stuffi'd animals. 
., Modern Marseille spreads far on either side of the Cdiirhirre and 
back from the ancient harbor. South of the Caiiebiere, centering 
on the litu- de Bmim. St. FetTeol, Pa:i-<uJ.h and adjoining streets, is 
the chief shopping district. At one time Marseille had traffic taws 
for this sectioii which said yon had to park on the odd-numbered 
side of the street, on odd days of the month and ou the even-niun- 
bered side on even days. 

Besides the CANEBiiinB, t\K two most famous streets are the 
Coxms St. Lotns (its name changes every couple of blocks; at the 
intei-section it is ('oum BelsiiM:e on one side of the Oanchih-e and 
Ruti d<' Rom^e on the other) and the scenic Cornicme Road. 

The Corniche Road follows the shore south from the Old Harbor. 
It is lined with fine hotels and homes. Off the Corniche coast, in 



47 



the bay of MarKciile, lie two small blauds. Ratonnead awiJ Pom- 
EGUES, joined by a 300-ynri] breiikwiiter to form what is L-nkd the 
Port dv Kmodi.. A third FTiniil islund nearby is tho bij-ttxic Isle 
d'Xp. There, in a 16th century chuleau, dungerous crimina ]•, polit- 
iL-iil prisoners, and spies have been held through hundreds *i yeai-s, 
and it ivas in a diiugeon of the Chateau d'If tln\t the Ount of 
Montf Ci'isto. Diuna.s" fictional hero, speni his youth in iKnprison- 
ment. Visitors to the chateau have been known to ifiiMre the 
dungeons where real life prisoners rotted, asking all the Thile to 
see the cell of Edmund Danti^s, the story-book count. 

Before the war Marseille was noted for several rare food qaeoial- 
ties. but under German occupation it was believed to he the worst- 
fed city in France. This was largely because sea foods havealways 
been the main item in Marseille's diet, and the Nazis would lot per- 
mit the city's fislicruien to take their boats beyond th( easily 
guarded port, 

1 Soon all those famous fish dishes which the goni'mets used to 
enjoy in the cafes of ihe Canebiere and Coriiiche Koad shnukt be 
returning. The most renowned of all Marseille delicacies is called 
ho'i'iJJiihrii.tw. I f your chef can ^erve it. you'll see hii¥i throw 
together 10 to 15 kinds of 6sh and crustaceans, then add tcniatoes, 

4B 



onions, garlic, leeks, celery, oil, laurel, fennel, thyme, salt, pepper 
and saffron. 

Some other favorite orders in the fanciest reslaurauts along the 
Canebiere are brimdadc, a cod-fish stew: soup de poMsoTM, a soup 
made of fish that has been ]niuudeil and pushed through a strainer; 
and aioU, a. mayonnaise with garlic. The best things to di'ink with 
mixtures like iliis are rfmi/t and j'icptiul. 

Shoi'tly, the waterfront huwkei's ought to be back at their old 
stands, just as at Fisherman's Wharf in Sun Francisco. They'll be 
behind their big signs reading Friiih </•■ Mer — Fruit of the Sea — 
wiLli all kinds uf shellfish, shrimps, and crabs which you can buy 
and eat like popcorn. 

Alter having Ix'en in Marseille for quite a spell, if yon find yon 
still can't make head or tail of what the citizens are saying to you, 
don't take it too hard. It's a special French dialect. 

The Marseillais are as indivitlualistic as ihcir language, and no- 
body has been able to Imock them loose from the belief that they are 
free men and their own masters. When a bullfight is held in Mar- 
seille — against the law — spectators once coughed \\\> enough money 
in excess of tlie price of adndssiou so that the promoters of the 
event were able to pay tiie fine. 

49 




MONTE CARLO 



so 



MONTE CARLO 

Them is very little diaiice that yon will see Hie real Monto Carlo 
during your stay in Soiitheni France, You will probably never 
get the chance to enter (he Casino. It probably won't be open. 

Nevertheless, there is much more to Monte Carlo than just the 
great gambling house. The PitiNciPAi.iTY of Moxaco, which com- 
prises three towns — IMonte Cabi^o. La Condasiike. and Monaco — 
Epreads over a hilly winlge of land eiglit miles .siiuari^. It is shel- 
tered from niirthern winds by a high wall of mountains, and bus 
a two-mile frontage on the blue Ligtjrian Sea, The climate there 
is said to be tlie ijest in the entire Mediterranean area — :i benign 
blend of bright sun and balmy air that sill's the good -to-be-alive 
feeling. 

Monaco has a fascinating history. From 068 to 1705 it was an in- 
dependent principality. Then when the French revobition dis- 
possessed the reigning Prince, it was added to France. The prin- 
ci|>ality was plaeeil umler the protection of the Kingdom of Sar- 
dinia in ISlo by the Treaty of Vienna. 

51 



In 1911 II coustitutiomil govern nieiit was estabJished providing 
for a National Coiinci] plected by a iiniversnl male vote. It W!Ik 
deemed that the Prince sfhoidd divide iinthority with a council of 
State and the National Conncil. The laws of Monaco were based 
on the French code, but Monacu had its own flag and issued its 
own postage stamps. 

At one lime you cniikl have enjoyed charming bathing beaches, 
a nioniitainous golf course and tennis courts. You may still pel; 
to enjoy these. There used to be plays and ballets nightly and, 
although much of the theater life has disappeared, you may still 
be able (o take in a matinee at one of the places still open. You 
may al?o be intere-sted in the marine nnisfuju, aquarium and labo- 
ratory established Vjy Ihe principality-.s famed oceanographer. 
Prince Albert. 

As you enter Monte Carlo, your eye will range over the white 
terraces sliimmering in the sun, the palatial hotels dotting the 
slopes of Mount Beausolejl. the railway elimbing the hill to La 
Tttrbie, and the snowy summits of the Maritime Alps, Rainbow 
chasing becomes a fine art in this phish and gold selling. 

Of the three towns in the small country ui Monaco, Monte Carlo 
was always gayest of them all. From the sea it made a memorable 

52 



Ijicture of gaily tinted buildings set in green gardens. Gleaming 
yachts rode laz'ily at auchor in the PoRTopHi:RfctLES. Big tourist 
steamei-s used to wait outside the harbor for the passengers who 
marvelled at the sights ashore. 

Monte Carlo was always beautiful, clean aud quiet. You will 
probably find i( that way even now. Once, its streets were silent 
by nine o'clock. After the crowds entered the portals of the com- 
bination theater and casino, the town was still until the tinrry of 
traffic at tlie end of the perfoi'inance. 

The Casino, about which you have heard so much and seen so 
often in the movfes. stands on a projecting rock facing the town. 
It was built from the plans of Charles Gurnier. famous French 
architect, in 187S, and the seaward front was remodelled in 1903 
and again in 1910, As you pass through the vestibule you reach 
the Atrium- with its large loiuige and landscapes by Jiindt. Then, 
walking straight through, is the theater, whei'c you will find ])iiiiit- 
ings by Gnstave, Ciairiu, Lix and luany other Eureopean painters. 
To the left of the theatei' entrance are tlie gaming ro<tms. 

For a beautiful view, go to the terrace on the seaward side of 
the Casino. See the concert piivilli«m and the marble busts of the 
coinposei'a — Jules Massenet and Hector Berlioz. 



53 



^ Admksion to the gaming I'ooins Csiaino used to cost 10 francs a 

^ day, but you could buy a season admission ticket for 250 francs. 

Of conrse, you could probably never convince your CO to give 

you permis^sjon to spend an entire sejison at the Ciisino, so you'd 

probably want only a one-day ticket — if (he place is open. 

There used to be admission fees to other places in the Ciismn, 
too. For instance, it costs five francs to enter the Atrium and 
rending room ; fron] 10 to 130 fi'ancs to the coiicei't room; and be- 
tween 30 to 40 francs for the theater. Then there was a charge 
_of one fi'ant for checking your cap. 

You will find a Sporting Club (marked -'S. C") west of the 
Casino, opposite the post office. It is a new building, facing gar- 
dens of remarkable beauty with many palm trees in full view. 
The La Festa sports grounds of the Monte Carlo Country Club is 
close by and it lias 20 tenuis courts, two squash-racket courts, swim- 
ming baths, restaurant and a clubhouse. 

At one time chance was king at the Casino. But if you plan to 
visit Monte Carlo for games of chance now, you may be disap- 
pointed. Nevertheless, it will be interesting to see the place and 
gain a first-hand knowledge of the surroundings there. The people 
may have many stories to tell you. 

54 



NICE 

For many years past, the whole idea and purjiose of Nice liaa 
been the amusement of vacationists, tourists and wealthy playboys. 
The whole set-up was made for it : Many hotels, wstaiirants, bars. 
cabarets, pigeon-shooting arrangements, and a handsome casino 
on the pier. The principal manufactures incliuled perfume, 
distilled spirits, silk, soap, confectionery, straw hats, wheel chairs, 
pianolas and tobacco. The climate is considered favorable for 
chest complaints, gout, asthma, and catarrh. Operas. b:dlefs. 
fencing, flying; horse, bicycle, and auto racing; swimming, danc- 
ing — all wei-e available. 

the famous carnival, held during the 12 days preceding Lent 
each year, involved masked balls, battles of flowers, c-oufetti-tbrow- 
ing, fireworks, showgirls from Paris, and plenty of noise. 

A PAST GLIMPSE 

It is doubtful if you will find Nice quite so gay these days, nor 
has it always been so. Founded about 2,000 years ago by Grcelts 
from Mai-seiUe, it became a busy trading station. By the 14tli 

55 



Sospei Qunec Tofino 




MonlE Carlo 



56 



century the maritime strength of Nice had reached sufficient pro- 
portions to give the Barbary Pirates pause in their general depre- 
dations on all Mediterranean shipping. Tlie ICth century was a 
rugged hundred yeai's for the citizens of Nice. Pestilence and 
famine raged, and the fortified city was attacked and pillaged by 
Francis I and Barbaro.ssa, 

In 1626 the port was declared open to all nations. Nearly a 
hundred years later, the French besieged the citadel and demol- 
isiied the ramparts. In 1713, the Treaiy of Utrecht relurned the 
city to the Counts of Sav(i_y and New Town was built. From 
1T44 to 1748 the Frencli and Spanish were again in pos.session. 
From tlien on, it was tossed back and forth several times, at last 
remaining with France after a treaty in 18G0. 

In 1940 Nice was about as far away as people could get from 
the Nazis and still stay in France. Refugees flooded the city, 
only to find that Italy liad declared wai', and under the terms of 
the Axis armistice, the city found itself in the Italian zone of 
occupation. By 1941, Nice had revived sonte of its tost gaiety. 
but in 1942, after the Allied occupation of Nortli Africa, the war 
was once more Immght cli)Se. The Germans emphasized the mili- 
tary status of the city and greatly strcngtJiened its defenses. Like 

S7 



most Riviera towns, Nice began to run short of staple foods, 
because only vegetables and fruits were locally gi-own. 

AROUND THE TOWN 

Pi'ewar Nice reported a population of nearlv 250.000. sweUed 
by many t!.o„..an<h of visuor.s during the winfer tonrist season. 

S R^i r"' "i^-^t m'*^7^fi"g P^'H of the city, lies bet^-een 
the Rn-zR P_,v„^N, the old 5th century .astle, and the sea. The 
narrow streets appear more Italian 1hun French 

.JS^r!rlVj'''^Z ""''^T ^r" ^''' 'l'^"-''""^ promenades on the 
sea from, the most popular bemg the 150 foot wide Promenade 

I'Es Angi^is, and handsome, pahn-lined streets with attractive 

va e vdias and more hotels. The Ave^-ue de i... Vio^ire leads 

ast the .m]io.mg modern Gotliic CnvitcH of xXoibe Dame through 

the busiest part of town to the Casino. '"lougji 



SB 



TOULON 

ToTJiCN will be best remembered from this war as the ptnt where 
theFi'encIi scuttled their fleet when the (iermans overran Saul hern 
France in November 1942, but the city has a long history as 
France's most powerful naval base and as headquarters of the 
lleet. 

Before the war Toulon, with its population of 150,000, was a 
ti'omendous arsenal, shipbuilding center, and repair depi>t. The 
value of Toulon harbor for sti'ategic rather than commercial 
reasons had been recognized for centuries. It was fortified from 
the early 150O's and under Louis XIV the great military engineer 
Vauban practically rel)uill the port. He gave most of the credit 
to nature for making his job easy. 

Tlie coast here is rugged under a protective rim of high hills in- 
cluding 2,n00-foot Mont Faijon. Rocky promontories west and 
southwesi of the bay and peninsula pushing into the sea foi'm 
an outer and a land-locked inner hiirhor seiianiled by a narr()W 
passageway. These natural ramparts provide formidable posi- 
tions for forts, shore batterie;-, and other instalialions. The iinier 

59 







t. E. e « B -' ^F-- B '^ 



3 






Eg|; 



n *^ !>■ D ^ 



5 e 

ESS 



Wlial^qE JS ra -• a Kit-— cS b 
Br4E.a I. ■j|r4«j'a>E 



'-'(J"Tli»0t-4l 



'] '^-n^W 1^ 



60 



basin is failed iIil' I'sthte Hade, iiiid tin- uiiter harbor is the 
Gk-Mviie Rahb. B<niiii-i)roof nioles 1370 y;ir(ls long form a breiik- 
wa(er between thi- ^iiiitller imrl nml the roatlsleml. Even in peace- 
time yon couklii'l carry a camera in the survonntliiig hills. 

Tdulon was called Teloiiitm by the ancient Greeks and TeTo 
Mai'fh/.t by ihe Romans. Durinp the middle ages it was of no 
im])ortance beciinse it was too remote from the established trade 
pontes. Its modern growth is due entirely to its naval importance. 

The Saracens sacked the city in 889 and it was captured twice 
by Charles V before Henry IV ordered fortifications erected at the 
end of the 16lh century. The defenses were then strengthened 
by Louis XIV and in 1707 a c<jmbined attack by an Austrian and 
Sardinian army iind the English and Dutch fleets was successfully 
beaten <iff. 

During the French Kevolution, Tonlon citizens who were loyal 
lo the crown Inrned the port over (o the English fleet under Vis- 
connl Hood. For 16 weeks after that Hood battled to hold oil a 
siege by the Revolutionary Army and finally had t(3 withdraw his 
fleet. This was the battle in which a 23-year-old artillery officer 
led the capture of the major forts commanding the roadstead com- 



61 



pelfing the British retreat. The y.>ini|r (.fficcr «-i..s nnmwtej to 
bnsadier-s:eiienil. His luime was \iii).,k-(,ii B.>ii;i])Hrte 

After tiie Allit'd Jari.liuffs in North Africa in NcnTiiiher 1942 
louJoii jHissed from (l,e Vic-liy achiiiiiistrMfion of "UiK-^icupied 
Fnnice to acl,,,.! Nazi control. Since then the harbor has se'-ved 
na a Oerinan U-l.o;il neht. 

ToiEh.n-s ar^'Hiils normi.Uy gave employment to a larpe per- 
centage of the cily's p,.puh.ho„. II was a cmmopolihui gunicriuir 
place espeuially poixilar with RuH.sians. Before the war thert 
were mnd concerts and an air of gaiety. The Quai dk Cronst-vm 
was thr.mged ,n tlie evenings, but lliere were no fashion pa.'ades 
and no nirnival festivities as at Nice and Cannes, and few wlio 
came to Tonlon were there for pleasure ah.ne 

The city ha.I ils Parisian shoj.s, liowover, and sidewallv cafes and 
'".tion pielure houses The Coniedie Franeaise often phived in 

the stage. Tonlon also had ,ts own Little Theater. kn.,w,i as "The 
Lhn.jnoy, and (h.mgh the alm.,si.here was lai^gely in keeping with 
naval discipline. ,he fashionable resUu.ranl^, casino, art galleries 
and library were full. ^ ' 



«3 



In spite of the changes that the Gennan occupalion and Allied 
lionibiiigs have brought about in the city, you'll still enjoy climbing 
lip into the Old Tmni with its narrow 18th reiilury streets grouped 
about the harbor. The RvE d'Ai.oeij leading to the harbor is the 
busiest street in the Old Town. Between the Rue d'Alger and the 
CouKs Lafatette is Ste-Mabie-Majeure, the i-eniains of a cathe- 
dral built in the lllh and 121]i centuries. The Aksexal MARmMB, 
wliichyim'll walk into if you go west on theQuai deCronstadi, will 
probably be off limits. In peacetime it was never open to 
foreigners. 

Besides Ste-Marle-Majeure, other chief buildings to look for in 
the cily are the Chtjhch of St-Loths. the Naval and Militaht 
HosPiTAi,. the Naval School of Medicine, and the Schchil of 
Htdrij(;r.\phy. 

The Boulevard de STBASBtimto crosses the entire breadth of Tou- 
lon east to west, passing the Casino and the Grand Theatre. A 
museum is also on the Boulevard de Stra.sbonrg which contains an 
exhibit of ship models and collection of coijis. 

In the old days, a daily market stretched for a half mile along the 
CouHs Lafayftte. The street was closed to all vehicular traffic 
until noon. There housewives came to bargain for fruit and flow- 

63 



ers, fell iiiHl fowl, menu ;in,I vetrHabk-s. Yoii will still sec sailor^ 
waiKlenng around m this section siiiUfhiiig off a breakfast ut fresii 
fruit topped with sfroug coflee fn.in n nearby bi.sti'o. 
_ In 1707 during a siege of Tonlon, a ship's ntnnon tlii'ew a ball 
into the wall of No. 87 Coni-.s Lafayette. That caimonball always 
di-ew (locks of tourists Wfore the war. If (he Gennaii.s haveu't 
pried the bull out and shipped it home for a souvenir, you'll pi-ob- 
ahly see flocks of your buddies arouinl No. 87 now. 

Froni the Cours Lafayette you c:.u reach tlie old cathedr'al Ste- 
Marfe-Majeuke by way of the Hue Emile-Zolx The ancient 
stj'ucture was enlarged and strengthened by a heavy fa<;ade In the 
KUi century and the tower was added in the 18th centui^y 

The principal eating places in T..ulon were along tiie Boulevard 
de blrasbourg and the Qua! de Crousladt. During some season, 
you could visit the racetrack at LAOotmRAN, two miles east of 
the city. 

Although the naval installations have squeezed T.nilou's eom- 
uiercial facilities into one small part, of the east end of the harbor 
the port carries on a fair traffic in normal times. Toulon shins 
wme, coal, timber, salt, figs, raisins, almonds, oranges, cloth, cork. 
soap and ods. Also, out of tins port the U. S. used to receive 

«4 



bauxite ore, taken from the hills north of the city. Toulon imports 
corn, Avood, coal, hemp and salt ]irovisioi]s. Nest to the naval base 
operations, however, the city's biggest industries are sliip build- 
ing, fishing and wine growing. Toulon is still noted for purple 
dyes attained from murex, which is plentifid in the iieighhoring 
seas. 

Soon you should be able to take a pleasure boat ride from the 
Quai de Crnnstadt to several nearby points of interest. Among the 
suburban bathing beaches which can l>e readied by boat is Tawahis. 
It was there that George Sand turned onl most of ber well knowm 
writings, and it was the home of one of tlie world's foremost 
woman composers, Cecile Chaminade. The scene of some of 
Joseph Conrad's last works was laid in the vicinity of Toulon. 

interesting Spots in the Surrounding Country 

About 10 miles west of Toulon are the remains of a preliisloric 
settlement called (Joroes d'Ollioules. Above the gorge you come 
to the village of Evenos. There on a 1,312-foot volcanic monnd 
are an old castle and a modern fort. A spectacular serrated sand- 



«5 



stone rock to the right of the gorge is known as the Ghes de 

Ste-Anne. 

_ Not far fi-oni the Gorges d'Ollionles you o.ii niiiko »ii interesting 
Mde trip to the H-.tellekie de la Sainte-Baume. The Holcllerie 
Itself is situated on Ihe alnmst treeless west .side of a slonv |ilale-iu 
TJie other sid.. of the same hill U covered i)V a state forest of oaks' 
beeches, maples, limes, yews and hollies. There are many foot- 
paths with sign posts iilJ through the forest so you can't get lost 
Every now and then in a smiill eleariiijj in the trees, you will come 
to a httle irth century wayside chapel. At the east end of the 
foi-cHt .TOu climb a limestone ridge to reach the Saixte-Baume or 
'Holy Cave." The cave is set into the perpendicnhir walls of a 
clilf. It IS called "Holy Cave" because of an old story relating 
that the cave was once the dwelling of St. Mary Ma^'dalene The 
cave IS ao ancient place of pilgrimage, and vmi probably won't be 
alone if you climb the rock staircase to the mouth of the cavern 
Inside the cave is a cold spring. Over (he centuries the care has 
been converted into a richly decorated chapel. 

If yon have a day to spare, there is a steamer or tram 1 rip to Cap 
hic'iE winch wdl give yon a .short cour.^e in the geogmphv of this 
section ot the Mediterranean coast. You wiU 'climb th'rough a 

66 



I 



sparse woods to a ridge ri:;ing to the summit of Cap Sicie. There 
at 1181 feet is the pilgrimage chapel of Notke-D a me-de- Bonne- 
Garde, and beyond the chapel is a ruined tower. From this point 
Oil a clear day you should be able to see all the way from the Toulon 
roadstead along rhe coast to the lies d'Hyeres on the east and the 
neighborhood of Marseille on the west. 

The city of Hteres, a community of about 20,000, is the oldest 
winter resort on the Mediterranean. Before the war, it was al- 
ways filled with British visitors from .November to February. 
The climate is slightly milder here than at Toulon, but the town 
is insufliciently protected against the mistral. If yon ciin arrange 
to drop in at Hyi>res in early summer, you'll be able to bite into 
some of the finest strawberries iu the world. 



67 




6S 



TOULOUSE 

The city of Toulouse is nm of rlie chief centers of trade, litera- 
ture iuul iirt in southern Fi'iiiife. If youi' arrivtil in lliia swtion 
of tlie country is from BoitDi':-iUX or from wiinewhere in norlliern 
Fi'aiice, the iirst thing you will notice is the strange sounding 
Roman ilialect of the people here. This is the corner of France 
which long ago became known as Lancuewxi. 

That word Langiiedoc was ust-d for the first time about liltO. It 
comes from ihe fact thai in those days the word for "ye^'' iu this 
section was "oc". Langne d'oc meant "tongue or language of oc." 
The rest of Fi'ance, therefore, would be "hiuguc d'oil" because 
•'oil" was then the general term for '"yes". "Oil" has changed 
through the t-entnries fo the modern French word "oni". 

The city of Toulouse is on the right bank of the GrAaoNME River 
about 160 miles southeast of Bordeaux. The nuiiu section curves 
aromid tlie river in the fonn of a crescent. On the left bank is 
the low lying subui'b of St, Cyi'iuen. You can reiicb St, Cyprien 
by three bridges: St. Tierre to tlie north. Pont Nkuf in the cen- 
ter, and St, Mk-hel to the south. East and north of the city rnns 

69 



! 



the Canal do Midi which joins tlie Lateral Canal of the Ghironiie 
here, 

Tlie Canal dii Midi, originally called the Canal dii Langaedoc, 
was bLiilt by a [iri\-;ite citizt-Ti between ItiGtJ and lUal. l*aul Riqnel 
iif Beziers paid 17,U(m.0(.ICI fnuics out of his own pocket for the 
waterway which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Mediter- 
raiiean Sea with the aid of the Garonne. The canal begins at the 
I'oHT m: i/EjiitoTJi.'iiri{E here ni TouIoLit^e and runw 150 miles to the 
Etang de Thau, a small inland sea by the town of Agde on the 
Mediterranean. 

The canal is 35 feet wide at the bottom and 65 feet at the surface. 
It is 61/2 fpct deep. At one point the canal climbs a hill by mean,- 
nf locks. You pass tlirough 17 locks to climb 205 feet, then to go 
back dowji on the other side, a drop of G^O feet, you pass throiigii 
48 more locks. 

The double row of trees which lines the canal makes nice scen- 
ery, hut that isn't why they were planted there. The trees act as 
a protective windlnvak ajraiii-st the seas()nal mistral which might 
easily blow all the watei- <)Ut of the canal. These oak. ]>ine. cy- 
press, and plane trees nuike the canal one of ihe most beautiful 
waterways in France, 

70 



The early fame of Toulouse was derived from a sacred pool into 
which coins and oilier offerings were thrown by pilgrims. Tliere 
isnouse wiring foi' your divinji suit because clear back in 1(1(5 B.C. 
ii Toulouse city olHrial got Ihe same idea. He drained the pool 
and approprial'ed the money, Later when he was defeated in bat- 
tle by Gallic tribes, everyone said he got just what he deserved. 

Undei- eai'ly centuries of Roman rule, Touhnise was known as 
T11/0.SU. At that lime it was a very unimportant place. Six or 
seven miles ea.st of Ihe main pari of the city, up on the heights. 
people are still finding fragments of an old earthen wall marking 
Ihe site of the old Roman settlement. Coina found at the same 
s|)ol date back lo the '2il century B. C. 

The city's modern history began about TSO when Charlemagne 
decided his son ought to be a king and set him np as Ihe ruler of 
A(fmtame, with Toniouse as his chief city. From ihe lllh cen- 
tury the greate.st loi'ds in southern France were the Connts of 
Toulouse. After the middle of the 12th century, the people of 
Toniouse began tiding to free themselves from oppression by 
feudal overlords. It took twci hundred years, but in 1443 the 
parliament of Toulouse was established. It was for Lanqiiedoc 
what the parliament of Paris was for northern France. 

71 



Toulouse wiis t'vuuyeliKcd in llic 3rd t-ciitui-y Ijy St. SaturniTuis, 
sometiiuw va\k-a St. Scniiii. In 257 St. Siituruiims refused to sac- 
rificc a bull on lliu altiir of Jiipitor. He was mui-lyrpd I>y h^iw 
lied to tlif tail of liit> bull atxl drajr^'f*! tlii-ou<zii the streets. "^ 

It was in Toulouse fliat Adam Smith in 17C4 began to write a 
book '-in-order lo pass away tbe tiuif." Tbe book \vas "Arcaltb uf 
Naliout..'" a handbook of polilical cronomy that beciiiue a cia.-j-sic. 

The old seetion of Toulou.'ie is built almost entirely of red bi'ick. 
Pn-war tourists almost always^ placed Toulouse fhii'd only to Paris 
and Kouen as one of tiiemost inlcivstinc cities in Franve. 
^The social and muuidpal cenier of Touh.nse is tlm Place m 
Caithile on (be Rce Laf.wette. The Capitole. oi- Hotel ile Ville 
was named after tbe "capiloulN." That was what magi.strates were 
c.illoil in the 18th eentury. Mural painting's within the Capilole 
are the works of Toulouse artists. Tbe south wing of tlie Capitcile 
contains tbe Mnniciiial Theater. 

If you walk north from the Place du Capitole on the Rue nrr 
Taub. you pass the 14tb century church of NoTnE-DAME-Du-'l'AuH. 
ThiN is the spot where St. Saturninns is siipposeil to have been 
tied to the bull. The Rue de Taur ends al the Plaok St-Skh5;in, 
where the most famous sight in Toulouse is located. 



This is the cluircb of St. 3i!tuvninu.s. It is tbe largest and mast 
perfect Romanesque building in France, measuring 375 feet by 211) 
feet in its largest dimensions. Inside the church is the tomb of 
St. Satnrnimis. It rests, naturally, on bronze bulls. 

Across the street from the church is tbe Mdske St-K.vtmond. 
It is part of on old college of the same name. Besides a good col- 
lection of arcliaeological and ethnographical exhibits, there are 
rooms containing Chinese, Japanese, and African curiosities and 
a collection of 5,000 rare coins. 

Toubmse has many rich mansions of the IGfh and 17th cen- 
turies. The best of these arc ibo Hotel Bekxuy and the Hotel 
d'Assezat. Jean de Bernuys was a Spanish merchant who guar- 
anteed a 2.000.000 franc ransom for the return of Francis I after 
the battle of Pavia in 1525. He built his mansion between 1509 
and 1534. It is now part of tbe Lycee, orpreparatory school, and 
contains tbe Toulouse town library. 

The Hotel d'Assezat et lie Clemence-Isaube was presented to 
Toidonse in 1895 for the use of the learneil societies of the city. 
It was designed about 1555 for Pierre d'Assezat, a merchant and 
magistrate of Timlouse, It is now the seat of the Academie des 
Sciences, Inscriptions et BELLEs-LEmiEs and the Academie db 



73 



LKiiisLATiiiN, aswL'lI ss tlie Acadkmie »f:s Jkux-Fixhiaux, jiroluililv 
tfif okk'&t literury society in Europe. Actordiiiff to tnidiliuii, 
Clemence lauure, ii noble dame of Toulouse, lefl ii legacy to the 
Acadcniie dos Jcux-Floraux which fiiubled the collejic lo iucivase 
the uunibei- of gold and silver flowers il gave away each year as 
awards to writers. Histoi'iiuis unw claim thai Cierueiiee Isuui-e 
tt'as a purely legendary figure. Eveu so, if you look in tlie arcade 
of the court at the Hotel d'Assezat, you will see a statue of Clem- 
ence Isaure. 

Y<iu will find the Hotpl d'Assezat uear the intersection of Rue 
nEL'EniAitPE and the Rite de Metz. The Hotel Bernuy is on the 
Rue GAMitE-n'A not far from tiic Pout de la Datibade. 

La Daurade. a church rebuilt in the IStli centuiy, is on the site 
of a Gallo-Rouian building which was covered witli mosaics on a 
background of gold. Our friend. Clemence Isaure, wlio wa.s 
never suppo.sed lo have lived in the first i>laee, is buried under the 
altar, according to local tradition, 

Toulouse is so close to the Pyrenees that the Garonne is still a 
rapid stream as it passes the city. In the history of the town, 
many bridges have been s\vcpt away. The three bridges which 
now span the river, however, have stood for ahnosL 1(K) years. The 

74 



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last times the bridges of Si. Michel and St. Pierre, one above and 
one below Pont Neuf. were washed out was in June 1875. Pont 
Neuf is a -stone bridge of seven arches built between 1543 and 1614, 
The raging river has never been able to buckle it. 

The city's main museum of fine arts is on old Augustinian con- 
vent on the HnEi)"ALSACK-LoitRAiN?:. It was built between 130i>-4l, 
but was modified in the 16tli and l7th centuries. It has some of tlie 
best galleries of painting and sculpture in southern France, 

Although Toulouse is heavy on the art side, it is also the prin- 
cipal connnercial and industrial center of Languedoc. There you 
can see important markets for horses, wine, grain, flowers, leather. 
oil and fann produce. Below the St. Michel bridge is one of 
France's several national tobacco factories. Before the war this 
factory employed between 1,500 ami 2,000 peoj)Ie, 

Tliere are numerous theaters in Toulouse, and in May there are 
usually running days for the horses at La CEPii=HE. If you are 
there iji ibe fail, don't be startled at the sight of little kids play- 
ing rugby football in the vacant lots. Rugby, for some reason or 
other, has become very popular in Toulouse although it is played 
very little anywhere else in France. In season, there are big 
matches at the StAde Toulousian, 

7S 



Ill the line of fund, TdulouBp lius one or two spi-ciiiltiL'w. Pafe^ 
Triiffcs lire the Jooai variation of the pates dc foie gras that you 
must have ealen already no matter where you htive been in Fnin<'e. 
Cmsmih't Toultnisian is another favorite ileni on the menu. It is 
a full meal of soup made with [lotaloes and lima beans, pods and 
all. If you ivanl (o make a Iiit with some little Toulouaieune, 
buy her a fi^lful of violets. 

Lourdes Is Within Easy Reach 

Anyone who is as close as Toiilonse should make an effort to get 
over to LouKDES, the most renowned pilfrrim i-esorl in the Catholic 
world. It was at Lourdes that Borniidellc .Souhii-ous. a 14-year- 
old peasant shepherdess, det-lared ibat the Virf,nu Mary appeared 
to her several times in the Grotio de MAssMiiELU; ou the liauk ol' 
the Gave. Thai was oti February 11, 1858. For several yeai'f- 
Beruadctte was soitfed at by her townspeople and many repre- 
seJitatives of Ihe chureh, but fitially her visions wej-e autiieniicaled 
and the Pope aulhouized ihe cull of Our Lady of Lourdes. A 
saiK-fiiaiy was erected at the Grotto. Pilgrim's flocked in, first 
from nearby couununilies, (hen from all paitf^ of France, and now 
from all over the world. Everyone has heai-d reports of miracu- 

76 



Ions cures brought about by ii spring in the Grotto. For years 
special trains have run from all parts of France bringing passen- 
gers to Lourdes. 

The big (jrgauized pilgrimages usually lake plaee between tlie 
end of April ami middle of October. Within (he fom' weeks 
between the middle of AugU-iit and the middle of SepI ember, about 
1:^0,00() visitors had been coming every year until the time of the 
war. Tiie average year brought about 600.000 visitors to a city 
whose home po])ulatiou is about 10,000. 

You are probably acciuainted with details of the story of Lourdes 
either from the moving picture "Scug of Bernadette" or Franz 
AVerfel's novel from which the picture was made. 

Historically, Lourdes was important long before Bernadette's 
religious fexjjei-ieuce.«. Although the earliest origins are uncertain, 
the city was ali'ea<ly famous as a Hu'tress in the Uth century. In 
13tjO the English got Lourdes from the French by treaty, then lost 
it back to the French in a war in 1406. From the reign of Louis 
XIV to the beginning of the 19th century, the castle of Lourdes 
was used as a state prison. 

Lomdes is divided into an old and new town by the river. Gave 
DU Pau. Two bridges connect the old quarter and the newer 



77 



section. From both bridges therf iire roiuls leading to (he Gi'otto. 
The oh] quarter on tlio fight bank surronnds a scarped rock on 
wbicli stands the old fortress and castle, reiira oi' the l^lli century. 

From Pont Neuf a broad esplaiuKle leads past the Breton Cal- 
vary. This is a crucifix 40 feet high chiseled from Brittany 
granite. T!ie Esplanade nt^sPnocEwsioNs ends at IheGrotlo. All 
along the roads bawkerH have little stalls where they ■will try to 
sell you "objects of piety." 

The Grotto itself iw a recess 16 feet deep and 16 feet wide closed 
ill with a railing. On a rock high altove is a statue of the Vii'gin 
as Bei'uadette dcs*.'riiied her. wearing a white robe with a blue 
scjirf. The walls of (he Grotio are black from the smoke of 
candles. You will see cr'utclies hanging from the walls. Adjoin- 
ing the Grotto is the Miraculous Spring wliose waters lire drimk 
and bathed in by the pilgrims. The Spring is now shut in by a 
wall with taps. 

If you are going to the Grotto with a hirge grou]) of strangers 
and (he citizens of Lonrdes have not already warned yoii, then 
remember this: look out fin- pickpockets. 

Over ill the old town if you ask Jiiound, mo.st anyone can show- 
yon where Bernadettii Soubirous used to live. 

78 



For an excellent view of the entire town ami area of pilgrimage, 
you can take a cable car to the Pic de Jer. located about 1% miles 
from the Lourdes station. After you get out of the car. you climb 
another eight or HI minutes to the (op of the [leak, ;ni.5 feet high. 

In other caves around Lourdes. people are still finding pre- 
historic remains. The Gbottes des Sp^luglies and the Gkotie dd 
LoTTp are now part of a regular side trip. In the Grotte dn Ijoup, 
modern times have added a spectaeuhir asjiect to antiquity — the 
stalagmites rising out of the floors of the chambers are all lighted 
by electricity. 

Building materials used for many miles around have been taken 
fi-om marble and slate qiuirries of Lourdes for centuries. 

Astonishing cures have been reported from Lourdes throiighnut 
tlie last lilO vears, but business men have taken a realistic view 
of the miracles of the Grotto. Not far from where Beniadette 
experienced her visions are a large <ihri, or shelter, several convents, 
an asylum for the aged, an orphanage, the great Hospice St-Fhai, 
and a new hospital with all modern medical contrivances. 

In fact, Lourdes today is as well known throughout France as 
a medical center as it is for its miraculous cures. 



79 




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VICHY 

Lone before Vicny became the grim capital nf occupied France in 
194d"tlie old Rimiiiiis were flnckiiifi; ibere to bathe in iind drink the 
water from IJU' 40 spring^ whicli give out with hot or cool watei's 
with varying alkaline contents. The waters were tlionphl to be 
so Ireueficiiil in the treatment of several afflictions and disorders 
that as much as 2,500.(100 jralhinw were bottled and exported an- 
nuallv. Some of the sallH in the waters were even evaporated out 
and inade into tablets. But apparently most of the heahh-givinj: 
qualities depended upon ibe fact that the chief constituent of tlie 
beneficial waters is bicarbonate of soda. 

The town, of some 19.(100 inhabitants, was chiefly a spa, or water- 
iiijr place. The balJiinfi cstablishmenl was funiided in 1820, but 
if you only want to drink tbc waters you can go to the spring palace. 
There is also a Casino, and a theater. Old PARK,by the Casino, is 
a pleasant place, too, but if you really want a. fine walk, try the 
promenade ahmg the banks of the AUier. Tlii.s promenade follows 
the river border of the New Pahk. 



«i 



It is qiiile possible that the fiLshimiable collaborationists, with 
the Pt'taiii-Laval government, have kept Vichy in good repair. 
The covered walk in tlie Old Park loads to the Casino behind 
which is the little Parc de l"Hi">p[t.\l, whose arcades sheltered 
the better shops. At the-norlJi eiid of the paik is the Haix des 
Sources where (he waters of four of the chief springs may be drunk. 

The Etablissement Thermal has buildings on both sides of the 
Rue Luca.s, These buildings house the batlis of various sorts and 
temperatures. 

Between the New Park and llie Rue du Marechal-Foch is the 
old part of Vichy. Here you will find the 15th century Chuiich of 
St. Bl.\ise and several inlercsting l.itb and IClh century houses. 
To the west of the church is the loth century clock tower. 



i^NDREN LIBRARY 

SeBthern Methodist UnlvBrtlty 
WALLAS. TEXAS 

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