8 POLITICAL SCIENCE. and the means of averting them, (Pol, viii. or v,, 5,} The causes of revolutions in oligarchies—so far as th««y .in* pecii liar—may be reduced, he thinks, to two, the first »»f which is oppression of the inferior classes, who will lake .my hauler that offers. It more frequently happens, however, th.it the authors of the movements belong to the members of the oligarchy itself, ** Such was Lytftkuui* in Naxus, u-hu after- wards became a tyrant over the people of the Warn!," Th«Tr are differences in the revolutions that arise frum s<*w«* *lis«>ut- tent within the oligarchical body. "Somclinu"* thry uri>e from the fact that numbers in the wealthy class arc imt ad- mitted to a share in the offices, which arc kept in the h»tmU of a few. Such was the case in Marseilles, in Istrtn i«r olis), in Heraclca (of Pontus ?), where those who did tit*t n in office agitated until they got a share for fathers ami older brothers, first, and then for younger. It was, indeed, against the law in some states for children to hold office at the *;imc time with their fathers, and for brothers at the same lime with brothers/1 * At Marseilles the oligarchy became [through the change] more republican [more like the /<»///***** or com- monwealth] ; in Istrus it ended in a democracy ; in llcraclca, from consisting of a few, it came into the hands of six hun- dred. In Cnidus again, where the twlaklts quarrelled among themselves, because, as in the case just mentioned, more than one in a family could not hold office at once, the people, seizing the opportunity while they were in their strife, with the aid of a leader from among the wte/Uta, attacked and overcame them. Again in Erythrae, during the oligarchy of the Basilidas In the old times, although those who were holding the government administered affairs well, the people, indignant at being governed by a few, changed the form of polity. Oligarchies, again, are shaken through the rivalry of demagogues arising within the number of the holders of power themselves. There are two kinds of demagogy; one, the sphere of which is within the oligarchy, for a demagogue *Comp, the Jivitto in Florence, infra, § 186.