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8                                POLITICAL SCIENCE.
and the means of averting them, (Pol, viii. or v,, 5,} The
causes of revolutions in oligarchies—so far as th««y .in* pecii
liar—may be reduced, he thinks, to two, the first »»f which is
oppression of the inferior classes, who will lake .my hauler
that offers. It more frequently happens, however, the
authors of the movements belong to the members of the
oligarchy itself, ** Such was Lytftkuui* in Naxus, u-hu after-
wards became a tyrant over the people of the Warn!," Th«Tr
are differences in the revolutions that arise frum s<*w«* *lis«>ut-
tent within the oligarchical body. "Somclinu"* thry uri>e
from the fact that numbers in the wealthy class arc imt ad-
mitted to a share in the offices, which arc kept in the h»tmU
of a few. Such was the case in Marseilles, in Istrtn i«r
olis), in Heraclca (of Pontus ?), where those who did tit*t n
in office agitated until they got a share for fathers ami older
brothers, first, and then for younger. It was, indeed, against
the law in some states for children to hold office at the *;imc
time with their fathers, and for brothers at the same lime
with brothers/1 * At Marseilles the oligarchy became [through
the change] more republican [more like the /<»///***** or com-
monwealth] ; in Istrus it ended in a democracy ; in llcraclca,
from consisting of a few, it came into the hands of six hun-
dred. In Cnidus again, where the twlaklts quarrelled among
themselves, because, as in the case just mentioned, more
than one in a family could not hold office at once, the people,
seizing the opportunity while they were in their strife, with
the aid of a leader from among the wte/Uta, attacked and
overcame them. Again in Erythrae, during the oligarchy
of the Basilidas In the old times, although those who were
holding the government administered affairs well, the people,
indignant at being governed by a few, changed the form of
polity. Oligarchies, again, are shaken through the rivalry
of demagogues arising within the number of the holders of
power themselves. There are two kinds of demagogy; one,
the sphere of which is within the oligarchy, for a demagogue
*Comp, the Jivitto in Florence, infra, § 186.