10 POLITICAL SCIENCE. over, the choice was confined to a few powerful families, Oligarchies, Aristotle adds, arc exposed to revolutions both in war and in peace. " In war, tiwinj; to distruM uf the people, they are forced to employ fhircii) M»ldii'rs whose commander often becomes a tyrant, a* Timnplum** j brother of Timoleon] did at Corinth. Or if thure arc ,t tuuiilicr of commanders they acquire dynastic power fur But sometimes in apprehension of this they ( the give the people a share in the government, because they *«fc forced to make use of their assistance, Sonu*tinu>, ;i);aiiiv in peace, on account of mutual distrust, they put the |*tiard of the city into the hands of soldiers and a commander who belongs to neither party, who sometimes becomes ma»lcr of both, as happened at Lurissa under the ^tivcrnment of the Aleuadse, namely, of Simus and hi* parly,* and at Abydun in the times of the clubs, one of which was that f »f tphi.ulcs, " \ $ y, ) Factions and strife arise also when members of the jjuvern* ing class, in an oligarchy, work against one another and form counter factions on the score of marriages or suits at law, Such were the factions already spoken of relating to mar* riage ; and Diagoras of Kretria, owing to a wrong in this re- spect, overthrew the oligarchy of the horsemen in that city, From the verdict of a court the civil strife in Hcraclcn arose, and an accusation of adultery occasioned one at Thebes. The punishment was procured justly but in a factious way against Eurytion in Heraclea, and against Archias in Thebes. Their adversaries had such violent feelings toward them as to cause them to be fastened in the pillory in the agora, t <$ to.) Many oligarchies again have been overthrown by members of the ruling class itself who had been disaffected on account * The reading r&v wpl Xpor, instead of tw irtpl Sd^or, from which no sense can be elicited* is adopted in Didot's Aristotle, after Schneider, who makes it very probable in the addenda to the second volume of his edition of the Politics. t A punishment inflicted on slaves more especially. Corop. K. F Hermann, Gr, Amiq., ill, § 73, note 33.