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12                               POLITICAL SCIENCE,

great sensitiveness ; and as parties, within the si.itr leaning
towards democracy or oligarchy, were brought into close
contact within the same city-walls and subject t«* suspicion,
and irritations caused by single persons, it is not strange that
parties were bitter and cruel, Such bitterness ami cruelly
is well illustrated by the seditions in Corcyra «hniiitf the
Peloponnesian war, ending in the fri^hthtl ma^.uiv $4,7 \\.
C.) in which the oligarchy were nearly all cut off; and l*y ihe
temporary sway and reign of terror at Athens during the
ascendency of the thirty towards the close of UK* s,um< con-
test Still more strikingly is the bitterness of parties >lunvit
by what Aristotle records of oaths taken in sonic oligarchies
in his time to this effect : '* I will have a hostile iniiul toward*
the demus and will devise whatever evil I can against il."
(viii., or v, 7, § 19). Such horrible expressions of hairird
are not strange in a small community, where suspicion** of
internal violence and of intrigues with other slates are con-
tinually aroused, nor are they peculiar to the Greeks. The
Italian republics of the middle ages furnish parallel* in more
respects than one to the Greek city-states in which part to*
were about equally strong, and where an active democracy
•was contending for a share in the government without

After the expulsion of the Tarquins at Rome, an arfoto-
Rom* in it* farm statical rather  than  an oligarchical  form of
of wiatocracy,        pojjty wag gjvcn to ^ ^^ fay ^^ wJ|O ^^
in the possession of wealth and power, The great change
was the substitution of two annually elected magistrate*
instead of the ancient king elected for life- The new chief
magistrates had very great power, they were all but kings
for a year ; but the singular principle of collegiality, almost
peculiar to Rome, by which two or more persons had at the
same time the same power, left It free for them to divide
their functions or to oppose and interfere with one another,
So far it was a limitation, but we cannot say whether these