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ARISTOCRACY.                                        13
praetors or consuls were by original creation two in number
in order that they might check one another, which is imput-
ing perhaps too much sagacity to those who planned the
office, or whether there were two rather than one, in order
that one might be in service abroad if necessary, while the
other was a magistrate at home, like the king and the prefect
of the city ; or whether some ancient peculiarity of the city-
state gave form to the institution.
The free inhabitants at the expulsion of the kings, consti-
tuted, besides protected strangers, two classes, one with
rights of suffrage and of holding office and from which alone
the active or debating members of the senate were taken,
and another of citizens without jus suffragii, or, at least,
\vithoutjus honorum, z. c,, the plebeian order. These latter
had been united with the first in what is called the Servian
constitution, which, in its system of centuries and classes, had
reference at first simply to service in war, A rule excluding
persons over sixty years of age from the centuries would have
been absurd, as Mommsen observes, had it affected political
rights.* Many of the first citizens of the state and the
members of the senate must have outlived that number of
years. But on lists of men liable to be called into the field,
and to appear according in the estimate of their estates, in
different armor and different kinds of military service, such
men would naturally have no place* Even such citizens as
had reached the age of forty-six were excused from service in
the field, and only guarded the walls. But this constitution,
although it aimed simply at systematizing military affairs,
brought important political consequences with it, It brought
the wealthy plebeian and the patrician into the field side by
side, or put some plebeians, it might be, into the rank of
heavy armed troops, while some patricians were in a class
below him. The centuries sanctioned the testaments of sol-
diers made before battle, and the king asked sanction of them
in aggressive wars, (Momms., i,, I38-I39> transl) And as
* Mommscn, Hist, i,, 138, Amer* edL of transL