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ARISTOCRACY,                                       35

The old story repeated itself of an aristocracy overturned by
its own disaffected members,

The history of Rome down to the empire is the most in-
teresting chapter of politics that the world affords, with the
exception, perhaps, of that of England The steady growth
of the plebeian party, the struggles carried on without civi!
war until Sulla's time, the growth of law while the polity was
slowly changing, all rest on the good habits of the old popuius,
on the patria potestas, the punctilious religiousness, the
morality, the dislike of change until it was inevitable, until
wealth and conquest, want of faith, and a low populace, de-
stroyed the Roman character. Nowhere do we see a more
evident connection between politics and the character of a
community. Nowhere was the fall of a community so com-
plete and so hopeless.

Rome was a political state,    Two remarkable states, one
nriwrmiicnt  "f its riva* Carthage, the other Venice, were com-
<:;urib.iKe.             merciul states ; they were founded and grew up
to promote industry. They both were aristocratic, and spe*
cimens of that form of government deserving of study. We
shall consider them next in order.
The early history of Carthage is but imperfectly known,
The foundation of the city is referred by Joscphus to about
the year 870 n. c, , and by Apion to the seventh Olympiad
(c. Apion, i, , 17, ii, , 2), and is said to have been 287 years later
than that of Utica. Carthage was a colony of Tyre, and at
first a dependency, it is possible, of Utica, Its growth may
have been accelerated by migrations from Phoenicia in cent
viii. B. C,, and afterwards,* In the time of Cambyses (525
* " The flourishing of Carthage was accompanied by a parallel
decline in the great cities of the Phtunidan mother country, in Skbn
and especially in Tyre, the prosperity of which wa destroyed parti
by internal commotion* partly by the pressure of external cilam
ties, particularly of its sieges by Salmanassar in the ftril, Nebucha^
onosor in the aecond, and Alexander in the fifth, century of Rome,