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ARISTOCRACV.                                       37

at their origin. They were, however, naturally forced by
the competitions of trade to come into collision with others
who wished to break up their monopoly. This led to the
wars, on the sea and on the land, of a state which was
founded upon the industries of peace ; a wider stretch of
coast needed greater defences ; to Sardinia and ports of
Sicily Spain was added, as a province to be defended and
monopolized ; the commercial state was by this policy finally
brought into conflict with a military state, and was con-

It is probable that the Phoenician colonies in Africa were
never thoroughly incorporated in the Carthaginian empire;
the relation which it held towards the more important of
them seems to have been that of a hegemony, in which they
had self-government with a certain .subjection, the relation
which, fur instance, the Boeotian states in Greece sustained
towards Thebes.

The oldest account of the constitution of Carthage is to
Aristotle <m the be found in Aristotle's Politics. We find here

constitution of Cur-

(as early as 3221?, c., when Aristotle died) the
outlines of the same political forms to which the Roman and
other writers allude, but whether any changes may have
taken place between that date and the second Punic war
(218 20 1 n. c.) it is impossible to determine.
Aristotle (Pol ii.f 8,  1-9) regarded the polity of Car-
thage as a good one, superior in many points to that of other
states and as in some respects bearing quite a resemblance to
the polity of Sparta. It belonged, as he thought, to the
class which included the Cretan institutions and those of
Lacedaimon, A sign of its excellence was that, though it
contained a democratic element, it remained true to its es-
\ tablished forms, without factions and without a tyrant In
another place (viiiM or VM 10, < 3} he refers to it as an exam-
ple of a government passing from a tyranny into an aristoc-
racy. Here (unless the reading ought to be Chalcedon in-
stead of Carchedon), we can only guess that he has in mind
the institution of the hundred judges to check the formidable